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Full text of "The history of Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire, from 1752-1887"

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THE FITZWILLIAM ARMS. 



(see page 808.) 



S,/^. A£^fc:.^^ 



THE 



HISTORY OF FITZfflLLIAM. 



XEAV HAMPSHIEE, 



FROM 



1752 TO 1887. 



BY 

Rev. JOHN F. NORTON, A.M. 



WITH A 

GENEALOGICAL RECORD 

OP MANY 

FITZWILLIAM FAMILIES 

BY 

JOEL WHITTEMORE. 



" Gather up the fragments that remain that nothing be lost.' 



NEW YORK: 

BURR PRTXTING HOUSE, 

18 Jacob Street. 

1888. 



Copyright, 1888, 
By JOEL WHITTEMORE. 



-n- 
36 



'-> 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION xiii 

CHAPTER I. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS RESPECTING THE TOWN. 

Location of the Town — Boundaries — Changes in these — Size — Face of the 
Country — Its Rocks and Ledges — The Underlying Rock — Geological 
Structure— Elevation— Soil— Wood and Timber— Climate— Frosts 
—Healthiness— Productions of the Soil— Wild Small Fruits— The 
Rhododendron — Forests — Common Fruits — Birds and Wild Animals 
— Ponds — Streams — Drainage of the Town — Its Water-shed... 17-26 

CHAPTER II. 

THE INDIANS OF SOUTHERN NEU" HAMPSHIRE. 

List of Authorities — Orthography of Indian Names — The Five Great 
Tribes of New England — The Pantuckets — The Pennacook Division 
— Tribes Subordinate to these — Mohawks — Grand Chief of the Pen- 
nacooks, Passaconaway — Wonolanset — Numbers of New Hamp- 
shire Indians — Character and Habits — Provocations to Cruelty — 
Food — Implements — Domestic Life — Claims to the Land— Sales of 
Land — Removal from Southern New Hampshire — Indian Remains — 
Confirmatory Statements — Court-Martial at Groton, Mass., 1706 — 
Letter of Gov. Saltenstall, of Conn.— Capt. John Lovewell. . .27-40 

CHAPTER III. 

THE MONADNOCK REGION IN 1710 — THE OLD MILITARY ROAD. 

The " Grand Monadnock" — Covered anciently by a Forest — " The Bald 
Peaks " — Early Explorers Deceived — The Country around appar- 
ently a great Plain — Views of Monadnock from Fitzwilliam. 

THE OLD MILITARY ROAD. 

Forts on the Connecticut River — The Road from these to Lake Cham- 
plain — The Connecting Link with this from Eastern ^Massachusetts — 



5^ 



VI CONTENTS. 

The Two Branches of the Latter — The Course of the More Important 
Branch — How Used Anciently 41-46 



CHAPTER lY. 

GRANTS OF THE LANDS IN SOUTHERN NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Deficiency of Records— Eai-ly Explorers — Gold Fever — Ascent of the 
White Mountains — Royal Claims — Grant of Plymouth (Eng.) Com- 
pany — Ferdinando Gorges — Capt. John Mason — Their Grant — Di- 
vision of it — Mason's Death and Estate — Robert Tufton Mason — The 
Mason Family — Sale of Grant to the Masonian Proprietors — Their 
Reservations — Monadnock Townships — First Grant of Monadnock 
No. 4 — Forfeiture of the Same — Second Grant to Sampson Stoddard 
and Others — Division of This — Ranges, Lots, etc. — Plan of Town- 
ship — Drawing and Choice of Lots 47-69 

CHAPTER Y. 

ACTS OF THE PROPRIETORS, 1Y65-1815. 

Call for the First Meeting — Officers Chosen— Other Meetings — "The 
Fifty Settlements " — Funds Raised — Provision for Roads — Provision 
for Locating Meeting-House and Cemetery — Committees for this — 
Difficulties Encountered — Meeting-House Raised — Mr. Benjamin 
Brigham's Candidacy and Settlement — Sale of Pew Ground— Move- 
ment for Incorporation — Support of the Pastor — Roads and Bridges 
— Later and Last Acts of the Proprietors — Settlement with the 
Treasurer 70-89 

CHAPTER YI. 

EARLY ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. 1768-lSUO. 

Provision for Religious Privileges — The Proprietors not settlers — Mr. 
Nehemiah Parker's Ministry — Meeting-House Built — Its Apjiearance 
— Interior Arrangements — Mr. Benjamin Brigham's Candidacy — His 
call — His Acceptance — Council for His Ordination — ^Church Orgau- 
ize(j — The Covenant — Sketch of the Signers — Early Members — 
" Half- Way Covenant "—The Church in Councils— Expenses of it 
met — Sabbath Congregations — Their habits — Church Music — Offi- 
cers of the Church — Harmony in it — The First Pastor's Sickness, 
Death and Character — His Sermons 90-105 



CONTENTS. VU 

CHAPTER YII. 

SETTLERS FROM 1762-1800. 

General Ohservations. 

Detached Families mostly — From Whence — Their Expectations — General 
Character — Age — Intelligence— Families — Property — Dwellings — 
Domestic Habits — Style of Living — Dress — Means of Communica- 
tion — Social Qualities — Visiting — Amusements — Regard for Re- 
ligious Ordinances — Church-Going — Use of Intoxicating Drinks — 
Farming — Manufactures. 

Pe?'Sonal. 

Sources of Information — Many Family Names now Extinct in the Town 
— Benjamin Bigelow — James Reed — Jason Stone — The Mellen Fam- 
ily and others, 204 names in all 106- 145 

CHAPTER YIII. 

EARLY TOWN HISTORY. 1773-1800. 

Movement for Incorporation — Opposition to this — Committee to ask: it 
of the Governor and Council — Charter Granted — The Charter — The 
Name Fitzwilliam — First Town Meeting — Injury of the Book of 
Records — The first Town Officers — Record of the Annual Meeting, 
1774— Petition for Pew Ground in the Meeting-House — Records of 
Pew Associations — "Warning out of Town — Reasons for this — List of 
persons warned out, 1775-1789 — Appropriations and Arrangements 
for Schools — Call for Beef for Continental Army — Instructing Rep' 
resentatives — Paupers — Conventions — Petition to raise funds to 
support ''The Great Road" — Licenses — Tabular List of the Owners 
of the Lands in Town, 1798, and Valuation of the Houses. ,146-187 

CHAPTER IX. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY FROM 1800 ONWARD. 

Rev. Stephen Williams's Pastorate — Unusual Conditions of the Call given 
to him — His Character and Dismission — Rev. John Sabiu called — 
Councils for his Ordination— Location of a new Meeting-House — 
This Built and Consumed — Another Meetiug-IIouse erected — Cost 
of it — Religious Differences among the People — The Division — Re- 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

organization of the 1st Congregational or Unitarian Society — Its 
Ministers and History — The Unitarian Ladies' Benevolent Society— 
The Orthodox Society formed — Its Church Edifice built — Settle- 
ment of Kev. Horace Herrick as Colleague Pastor — Death of Rev. 
John Sabin— The Ministry of Revs. Abraham Jenkins, John Woods, 
William L. Gaylord, John F. Norton, and John Colby — Families of 
these Pastors — Deacons — Church Membership — Parsonages — The 
Sabin Home — Church Centennial — Female Benevolent Society — The 
Baptist Church and Society — Its Acting Pastors and Pastors — Meet- 
ing-House Erected and Repaired— Membership — Benevolent Society 
— Methodist Episcopal Society — Its Houses of Worship— Its Minis- 
ters—Sabbath-School—Benevolent Work 188-215 



CHAPTER X. 

FITZWILLIAM IN THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 

Opening of the Struggle — Congress at Philadelphia — Committee of In- 
spection — Their Complaint against Breed Bachelor — Condition of 
the Town, 1775— Excitement— The Lexington Fight— Military Com- 
pany Organized — Minute Men— Training Band — Citizens Inspected 
—Census, 1773 and 1775— Col. James Reed— His Regiment at Bun- 
ker Hill— New Hampshire Troops in that Battle— Needham Maynard's 
Statement— The Declaration of Loyalty— Appropriations to pay 
Soldiers' Wages and Furnish Provisions — Fitzwilliam Soldiers in 
the Continental Service — Difficulty in locating them — Where and 
under AVhom they served — Arnold's Expedition — Lists of Pension- 
ers— Abigal Clay's Petition— The War of 1813-1814 216-250 



CHAPTER XI. 

TOWN OFFICERS, 1773-1886. FINANCIAL MATTERS. 

Constables— Town Treasurers — Moderators— Town Clerks— Representa- 
tives — Selectmen — Auditors— Collectors— Candidates' Names and 
Votes for the Chief Executive of New Hampshire, 1784-1886— Ap- 
propriations— Depreciation of the Currency — Authorized Scale of 
this— Allowance for labor on Roads— Highest taxpayers in 1793, 
1803, 1813, 1823, 1833— Taxes usually paid with promptness— Ex- 
traordinary Expenses, 1861-1869— High Credit of the Town— Fund- 
ing of the Town Debt— Rate of Taxation, 1869-1880— List of the 
Legal Voters, February 21st, 1820— Names on Check-Lists, 1830, 
1840, 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1884, andNumber of Votes cast.. 251-273 



CONTENTS. IX 



CHAPTER XII. 

FITZWILLIAM IN THE REBELLION. 

Antagonism between Freedom and Slavery — The Missouri Compromise 
— Attempt to set it aside — Action of the Town concerning it — 
Election of Abraham Lincoln — xlttack upon Fort Sumter — Blood 
shed in Baltimore — Excitement in Fitzwilliam — Action of the 
Town, May, 1861 — Call for Soldiers — First enlistments — Aid for 
Soldiers' Families — Bounties offered — The Selectmen authorized to 
Hire men to fill Quotas— New offers of Bounties — Reports con- 
cerning amounts paid out — The resident Clergymen appointed a 
Committee to keep a record of Fitzwilliam in Suppressing the 
Rebellion — They declining the Service, a new Committee appointed 
— Incorporation of their Report in this History — Fitzwilliam men in 
the several IS". Hampshire Regiments — Tabular record of them — 
The Men in the United States Regular Service — Those enlisted in 
other States — Summary of numbers — Genei'al record of these Sol- 
diers — Summary of Bounties paid — Deaths in the Service — Incidents 
— Experience of "William Dunton and others — Miss Hannah A. 
Adams's (Mrs. Morris Collins) "Work at the "W^est— The Soldiers' 
Monument — Its Dedication 274-312 



CHAPTEB XIII. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

School Lands — Their Location — Lease of the same— Rent — Early Ap- 
propriations for a School — Committees to provide Schools, and man- 
age the same — Districts organized — Their number and location — 
Redistricting the Town — The first School Houses — Early School 
Teachers — Early School Discipline — Branches taught in the early 
Schools — Supervision of the same— The earliest Superintending 
School Committees — Rev. Mr. Sabin's criticism upon the prevailing 
system — List of Superintending Committees, 1842-1887 — The 
Printed School Reports — Tabular Statements respecting Attend- 
ance, 1843-1887 — High School — Literary Fund — ^Common School 
Association — Its Meetings and Work — The Fitzwilliam Lyceum — 
Farmers' and Mechanics' Club — Musical Talent and Culture — Tem- 
perance Societies — Libraries — Volumes in the_,Town Library — Library 
of District No. 1 313-349 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

MISCELLANEOUS. ' 

Military Companies — The earliest — The Infantry Company — Its Captains 
— Cavalry Company — Artillery Company — Its Captains — Town Hall 
— The Edifice Itself — Changes in it — The Town in possession — 
Rooms for Town Officers and Library — The Bell and Clock — Im- 
provements about and upon the Common — Fire Department — De- 
structive Fires — Savings Bank — Post Offices and Postmasters — Pop- 
ulation — Census at Different times — Cemetery and Burials — Tabular 
list of Deaths and Interments — Deaths of Professional Men — Deaths 
of persons of Eighty years and upward — from Accidents — by sui- 
cide — List of persons of over Eighty Years, living, January 1st, 
1887 — Pauperism — Connection with the "World — Cheshire Rciilroad — 
Merchants and Traders — Their Names and Places of Business — Inns 
and Hotels — Free Masons — Odd Fellows' Lodge — Wild Animals — 
Destruction by and encounters with them — Hunting of them. . 350-411 

CHAPTER XV. 

FITZWILLIAM INDUSTRIES. 

Agricultural Matters — Productions of the Soil — Mechanical Trades — 
Domestic Manufactures — Tanneries — Sawmills — The Scott Mill — 
Grist Mills — Taxation of Mill Property — Wooden Ware — Manufac- 
ture and Peddlers of the Same — Other Manufactures — The Granite 
Industry — The value of the Stone — The Beginning of this business 
— The Individuals and Firms now engaged in it — Amount 
shipped 412-433 



CHAPTER XVI. 

PROFESSIONAL. 

Classes of these — Sketches of the Civilians, Lawyers, Physicians, Clergy- 
men and Distinguished Educators who were born, or have resided, 
in the Town, 57 in number — List of College Graduates from Fitz- 
william 433-447 



Genealogical Register .... 448-803 

Appendi.x— The name of the Town 805-810 

Index of Families that are arranged under other names in the 

Genealogical Register 811-814 

Historical Index 815-839 



ILLUSTRiVriOXS. 



POETRAITS. 

Jonathan Sabin Adams, 

John Jjirvis Allen, .... 

Reuben Angier, .... 

Stephen Batcheller. .... 

Ilyman and Levinuh Johnson Bent, 

Charles Bigelow, .... 

Amos Jevvett Blake, Esq.. 

Joseph Blodgett, .... 

Eev. John Stillman Brown, . 

Josiah Everett Carter, 

Kev. John Colby, .... 

Silas Cummings, M.D., . 

Jonas Damon, .... 

Joseph Wright Fassett, 

Jesse Forristall, .... 

Rev. William Luther Gaylord, . 

Aaron Rysi ng Gleason, ]M.D.. 

Rev. Horace Herrick, 

Rev. Abraham Jenkins, Jr., . 

Samuel Kendall, .... 

John Kimball, .... 

Rev. John Foote Xorton, 

Amos Andrew Parker, Esq., . 

John Mc Clary Parker, 

William Fisher Perry, . 

David Perrv, ..... 

Charles Perry, .... 

Calvin Brigham Perrv. 

Charles William Perry, 

Phinehas Reed, .... 



facfis page 453 


. 4oG 


. 


461 


, 


464 


« , 


468 


. 


473 


. 


477 


, 


. 480 


. 


800 


. 


. 506 


. , 


204: 


, 


. 526 


« . 


802 


. 


560 


• . 


573 


, 


. 304 


• • 


583 


. 


. 304 


, , 


304 




. 630 


. 


633 


. 


304 


, . 


653 


. 


399 


* • 


663 


. 


663 


. 


665 


. 


403 


. 


664 


, 


691 



XU ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Hon. Edward Cambridge liced, . , . faces page 440 

Rev. John Subin, ........ 209 

Mrs. Mary Sabin, 308 

Daniel Spaulding, 731 

Wliittemores. J^1ve Generations, 779 

Charles Whittemore, 777 

Joel Wliittemore, . 400 

Rev. Joim Woods, 795 



VIEWS. 

Park and Soldiers' Monument, 304 

The Town Hall, 35(3 

I. Village from the Pinnacle, ) 

II. Village from the Jaffrey road, ) 

I. Congregational Church and Sabin Parsonage 

II. Village from the West, 
Whittemore Homestead, ...... 773 



337 

700 



MAPS AND PLANS. 

Plan of the Town as originally allotted, ... 66 

Map of the Town in 1807 ; original by Samuel Hemenway, 133 

Map of the Town in 1887 ; drawn expressly for this work, 186 

Three Villages, 360 

Leaf from the burned Record Book — reduced facsimile, . 154 



Fitzwilliam Family Portraits, 807 

W^entworth-Woodhouse, Yorkshire, England, . . 809 

The Fitzwilliam Coat-of-Arms, . . . Frontispiece. 



Il^TRODUOTIOK 



EVEKY community has its history, of more or less impor- 
tance, and no people that is wise will leave this to be for- 
gotten or rendered of little value by the uncertainties of 
tradition. 

From time to time, during a period of more than thirty 
years, the attention of the inhabitants of Fitzwilliam has been 
called to this subject, for at the close of one of his Historical 
Lectures which the late Dr. Silas Cammings gave to the 
people of this place before 1860, he said : " My impression is 
that we should resolve ourselves into a Committee of the 
Whole on the matter of a Town History, each report the his- 
tory of his own family, and choose a Committee to embody the 
facts, and read them at meetings called expressly for this pur- 
pose. This matter of a Town History is important ; ten 
years ago we had many more materials than we have now, and 
in ten years more all will be lost." 

This project not being deemed feasible, the subject was 
discussed at various times, both publicly and privately, by 
persons interested in the work, till in March, 1871, it was 
brought formally before the Town, when a Committee, con- 
sisting of Dr. Silas Cummings and Messrs. Charles Bigelovv 
and Samuel Kendall, was appointed to collect materials for a 
History. These were all busy men in their several spheres of 
life, and it could hardly have been expected that they would 
be able to pursue the matter systematically and reach definite 
results. 

Under such a vote, however encouraging it might be as a 
beginning, it soon appeared that no substantial jjrogress could 
be made without a more definite plan and securing more re- 
sponsibility for the work. Accordingly, at the Town Meeting 
March, 1882, the Selectmen were instructed to appoint a 



XIV INTEODUCTION. 

Committee of three to prepare a manuscript History of the 
Town, similar in details to the Histories of Rindge, Peter- 
borough, and Marlborough, and Five Hundred Dollars were 
appropriated to pay this Committee for their services. Un- 
avoidable difficulties prevented the choice and qualification of 
such a Committee, and nothing was done till March, 1SS4, 
when the subject was again brought before the Town. At 
this meeting the Town voted to appoint a Committee of three 
to carry into effect the former vote, and chose Joel Whitte- 
more, of New York, as a member of said Committee, and 
instructed the Selectmen to complete the number, which was 
done by the appointment of John M. Parker and Calvin P. 
Perry. The Committee thus constituted opened negotiations 
with Rev, John F. Norton, of Natick, Mass., whom they had 
known while a Pastor in Fitzwilliam from 1868 to 1873, as 
familiar, to some extent, with historical work, and engaged 
him to write the History. Later Mr. Whittemore, one of the 
Committee, assumed the responsibility of collecting and 
arranging the Genealogical part of the work. 

The result of these arrangements is now offered to the in- 
habitants of Fitzwilliam and such others as from birth, resi- 
dence, acquaintance, or for any other reason may be inter- 
ested in the character, condition, or progress of this Town 
since it began to be settled in 1752. 

As to the sources of information open to the historian in 
this case, what follows should be noted. 

Rev. John Sabin, Pastor in Fitzwilliam for more than forty 
years, gave to the people of this place four Historical Lec- 
tures, the lirst in 1836 and the remaining three in 1812, and 
these were devoted exclusively to the interests, condition, and 
progress of this Tow^n, civilly, socially, intellectually, morally, 
and religiously, during the eighty years that had elapsed since 
its settlement. These Lectures (in manuscript) have been 
freely consulted in the progress of this work. 

Dr. Silas Cummings left three Historical Lectures of the 
same general character, two of which he appears to have 
given to the Fitzwilliam people in 1859 and one in 1873. 
Some portions of these were made up from extracts from the 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

ancient records of the Proprietors, of the Town, and of the 
Churcli, but in general they were filled with interesting facts 
concerning the early settlers of the town, their privations, 
their hardships, character, and progress. Besides these Dr. 
Ciinimings collected and noted ui^on slips of paper or in blank 
books, in the hurry of his professional life, many anecdotes 
concerning the first settlers, and detached accounts of many of 
their families, all of which he doubtless hoped to arrange at 
his leisure, so that they would aid in the preparation of a Town 
History. These have been of much use, though the connecting 
links which kept them together in Dr. Cummings's mind, and 
would have rendered them of greater service to him, have 
been entirely lost. 

Mr. Charles Bigelow collected a multitude of facts relating 
to the location of the early settlers, mainly in the southern 
and western portions of the Town, adding Genealogical records, 
more or less complete, of the families located. 

The Town owes not a little of the value of this History to 
the industry, zeal, and public spirit of these men, but tliey 
had not even commenced the preparation of anything for the 
press. All the facts collected by them it has been necessary 
to restate, rearrange, and complete from other sources, to pre- 
serve the continuity and harmony of the History. Whenever 
extracts have been made from the Lectures of Rev. Mr. Sabin 
and Dr. Cummings, due credit has been given. 

The early Pastors of the Church, Rev. Benjamin Brigham 
and Rev. John Sabin, in addition to a careful entry upon 
the Church Records of admissions and dismissions, baptisms 
administered and marriages solemnized, appear to have made 
a record of deaths not only in cases where they ofliciated at 
funerals, but also of all others coming to their knowledge. 

Belknap's History of New Hampshire, the great store-house 
of facts respecting the early history of this State, and San- 
born's, Whiton's, and Barstow's Histories of New Hampshire 
have rendered not a little aid in this work. To make the 
Chapter " Fitzwilliam in the Revolutionary War" as complete 
as possible, much information has been obtained from the 
ancient Military Rolls and other papers in the office of the 



XVI INTRODUCTIOlSr. 

Secretary of State at Concord. Special aid has been received 
from Volumes 14 and 15 of the New Hampshire Records, re- 
cently printed by the State and sent to the several towns and 
cities. 

The old and later Records of the Proprietors, of the Town, 
and of the Churches have yielded a great amount of informa- 
tion, and the same is true of the Reports of the Selectmen, of 
the Town Treasurers, the School Committees, and Library 
Supervisors. The Records of the Mihtary Companies, of the 
Common Scliool Association, of the Farmers' and Mechanics' 
Club, of tlie Temperance Associations, of the Savings Bank, 
and other organizations have been freely consulted, while the 
valuable Report of the Committee for preparing Rolls of the 
Fitzwilliam Soldiers in the Rebellion has been mainly trans- 
ferred to these pages. 

Much has also been obtained from the Massachusetts State 
Library, the Library of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
the Boston Public Library, and the Natick (Mass.) Town Li- 
brary, while a number of the people of Fitzwilliam have given 
time and thought to the collection of important facts that have 
been preserved only in the memories of the aged. 

Something has also been gathered from the published His- 
tories of the neighboring towns. 

Among those whose aid has been of special service in the 
preparation of this volume are : The Hon. Secretary of State, 
Mr. Thompson, at Concord, and Hon. Isaac W. Hammond, 
who for a number of years has been the Editor of the New 
Hampshire Records, volumes that reflect much honor upon 
the State. 

We have also been materially assisted by the Gentlemen in 
charge of the Libraries named above, as well as by Rev. J. H. 
Temple, Historian of Northfield and Framingham, Mass.; 
Amos A. Parker, Esq., Capt. Jonathan S. Adams, Milton 
Chaplin, Esq., Messrs. J. E. and C. C. Carter, Mrs. Selina 
P. Damon, and Mrs. John Kimball. 

Others who have assisted materially will find due credit 
iriven them for their aid in connection with the several items 
they have furnished. 



FITZWILLIAM, 

XEW HAMPSHIRE. 



CHAPTER I. 

GENEKAL DESCRIPTION, PRODUCTIONS, ETC. 

Location— Boundaries— Size — Face of the Country— Ledges— Underlying 
Rocks— Geological Structure— Elevation— Soil — Climate— Agricultural 
Productions — Fruits— Rliododendrons— Forests — Birds and Wild Ani- 
mals—Lakes and Ponds— Streams. 

OF the five towns in Cheshire County, N. H., that border 
on Massachusetts, Fitzwilliam is the most eastern but 
cue, and is bounded on the north by Jaffrey and Troy, 
on the east by Rindge and Jaffrey, on the south by Roy- 
alston and Winchendon, in Worcester County, Mass., and on 
the west by Richmond and Troy, chiefly by the former. On 
the line that separates Massachusetts and Xew Hampshire 
Fitzwilliam borders upon Royalston and Winchendon in the 
projDortiun of about three to the former and one to the latter. 
The northern boundary of Fitzwilliam is not a continuous, di- 
rect line, and never has been, the north-east corner of the 
rhomboid which would naturally have constituted this town 
having, from the first, been a part of JafErey. As originally 
laid out, about one fifteenth part of what otherwise would 
have been Fitzwilliam belonged to her neighbor. 

The remaining part of the northern boundary, or about three 
fourths of the whole, was originally a straight line, separating 
Fitzwilliam from Marlborough ; but when, in 1S15, the new 
town of Troy was incorporated, taking portions of its territory 
from Marlborough, Fitzwilliam, Swanzey, and Richmond, but 
largely from the two first mentioned, this line became like a 
2 



18 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

series of steps gradually ascending from the north-west corner 
toward the north-east. 

As originally surveyed and granted, the territory may be 
considered as designed to constitute a town of six miles square, 
or thirty-six square miles, with some allowance for ponds and 
w^aste lands. The measurements as given in the grant would 
make the actual size of the town about forty square miles. 
The early surveys often made generous allowances for ponds 
and bad lands. In the original survey of Rowley Canada 
(Rindge), the surveyor made an allowance of ten thousand 
acres, which was reduced to five thousand acres by the Exec- 
utive Council ; but even this would make the allowance nearly 
eight square miles. The shape and boundaries of the township 
as originally laid out, as well as at present constituted, will be 
best understood by referring to the maps of the to^\'n else- 
where in this volume. 

Though lying near mountains of considerable height and 
commanding a view of grand mountain scenery, Fitzwilliam 
is not mountainous. But it is very hilly ; indeed, almost its 
entire surface may be said to be made up of ranges of hills or 
-single elevations, with comparatively narrow intervals between 
them. The sides of these hills have furnished for four gen- 
erations good pasturage, while upon the tops of these ranges 
some good farms may be found with a fair proportion of land 
suitable for mowing and tillage. 

The town is noted for the superabundance of its stones, 
rocks, bowlders, and ledges. Respecting this feature of the 
town, Rev. John Sabin gives this testimony in the historical 
lectures delivered by him in 1836 and 1812, the three lectures 
of 1812 having been rewritten and enlarged from the single 
lecture of 1836 : 

Besides what appenrs to be so near a solid rock below, the rock and 
stone abound at the surface ; there is a heavy toji-dressing of them. 
Few travellers for the first time passing the town but will notice and 
speak of this as the roughest place they have ever seen, and will almost 
wonder where our stone walls came from, because it must be all are now 
on the ground that ever could be made there. These are rather fright- 
ful to the stranger, but peaceable things let alone. And the fact is, as 



EOCKS, LEDGES, ETC. 19 

we become acquainted with them they lose much of the frifjhtful. It 
is seldom you hear a piece of land spoken against here because it is 
rocky. And really the land does not produce fewer or smaller trees- or 
less grass for the rocks. Much use is made of them, and not every man 
will allow you to go on his farm and take them away, especially the best 
of them. And young men who go out from this to look them a situa- 
tion are very apt to name the want of stone as an objection. 

There are many towns in New England that are popularly 
regarded as having a great superabundance of rocks and stones, 
and as chiefly remarkable for these, and Fitzwilliam is doubt- 
less one of them ; but the present generation has learned to re- 
gard its bowlders and ledges as anything but a nuisance, as 
will be seen when the industries of the town shall be consid- 
ered. There is a mine of wealth in these. 

Over a large part of Fitzwilliam there is found, at no great 
depth in digging wells, an almost solid rock. This is generally 
of a somewhat finer grain, though of a similar character to the 
rocks and bowlders on the surface of the ground. Nearlv all 
these rocks are granitic. Many of them are unfit for monu- 
mental or ornamental work, while nearly all over the town 
numerous ledges and bowlders are found which afford the best 
material for such purposes. Generally the underlying rock is 
reached at a greater depth in the valleys than on the tops and 
sides of the hills, but it seems to extend under nearly the 
whole territory and to present on its upper surface something 
like the variations of hill and valley now visible. The water 
obtained from wells sunk into this rock is generally hard rather 
than soft, but is sweet and healthful for drink and all domestic 
uses. 

These statements will show the reason why the attempt to 
obtain water by what are called "driven wells" (that have 
been found so serviceable in many parts of the country) has 
been unsuccessful in Fitzwilliam. Upon the sides of the hills 
springs of the purest water are found in considerable number, 
and this is conveyed to many of the dweUings, to the great 
comfort and convenience of the people. 

The geological structure of this entire region has been so 
often described and is so well understood that it need not be 



20 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

enlarged upon in this connection. Rev. Mr. Sabin says of 
Fitzwilliani that 

it appears to be a spur of Monadnock, lower, but much of it of like 
material. It looks as though at some time, either at that of the Flood 
or by some volcanic eruption, there has been hereabout an awful convul- 
sion and struggle of nature. Of this the mountain itself stands as the 
more prominent witness. 

This town is elevated above most of the adjoining territory, 
as will be seen from the statistics that follow. The figures 
give, in feet, the altitude above the level of the sea at mean 
tide-water : 

Fitzwilliam, at hotels (barometric) 1150. 

Jaif rey Centre " 1057. 

Eichmond " 1080. 

Winchester " 400. 

AVinchendon, Mass., measurement by levelling. .. 992. 
EastJaffrey " " " ..1032. 

Troy " " " ..1002. 

Marlborough " " " .. 789. 

Keene " " '' . . 479. 

Altitude at points on the Cheshire Railroad, 

State Line Station 898. 

Collins Pond, water, 1062 ; track 1067. 

Fitzwilliam Station 1063. 

" Summit 1151. 

Rockwood Pond (water) 1112. 

The highest elevation in Fitzwnlliam is West Hill, some- 
times called Little Monadnock, about sixteen hundred feet. 
Then follows the Pinnacle, fourteen hundred feet. Gap 
Mountain is about sixteen hundred feet in height, but both 
summits are in Troy. 



SOIL. 



This cannot be said to be naturally rich, like the soil in large 
portions of the valley of the Connecticut River, and yet it is 
strong, as the heavy forests which covered this territory one 
hundred and fifty years ago gave ample testimony. When 



SOIL AND CLIMATE. 21 

the stones and rocks have been so far removed that the soil is 
fairly open to cultivation, very good crops of grass, corn, and 
potatoes are raised. Still, owing to the great labor and ex- 
pense involved in clearing the land, agriculture is not carried 
on as extensively or profitably as in some of the other towns 
in the southern part of Cheshire County ; while it is very plain 
that in considerable portions of the town the land is more 
valuable for the growth of wood and timber than for any 
other purpose. Trees here increase in size rapidly, and what 
may be called the w^aste lands of the town will doubtless soon 
have a value attached to them that the present generation can 
hardly appreciate. 

CLIMATE. 

A town as elevated as Fitzwilliam and in as high a latitude 
(this being about 42° 50' north) must have a climate of con- 
siderable severity in the winter season. Throughout the en- 
tire region about Mount Monadnock the snow usually falls to 
a great depth, and is often driven into deep drifts by the 
heavy winds that prevail. Fitzwilliam is like the adjoining- 
towns in this respect, as the large bills for breaking out the 
roads after severe snow-stonns attest. But though the winters 
are far from mild, and often tax the patience and strength of 
the aged and feeble, there is much that is commonly called 
*' steady cold weather," and this is not in any way detrimental 
to health. The mercury often sinks low, but not as low as it 
frequently does in the vicinity of Boston. Yery cold days some- 
times occur, but this is true all over Kew England, and more 
notably still in the North-west States and Territories. The 
compiler of these pages well remembers the cold day of the 
winter of 1871-72. It was March 13th ; the sky was over- 
cast, the wind from the north-west blew a hurricane, and 
at the warmest hour of the day the glass indicated from 12° to 
16° below zero. In Keene the high school dispensed with its 
afternoon session, so dangerous was exposure to the blast. 
But in nature, as in much else, disadvantages are not without 
their compensations. Late frosts in the spring may occasion- 
ally hinder planting and injure the springing crops in Fitz- 



22 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIA3r. 

william, but early frosts in the autumn, which are so destruc- 
tive often in what are deemed the best locahties in New 
England, rarely check the growth of vegetation in tliis town. 
Sometimes a heavy frost that will occasion much damage in 
the lower towns, even as far south as the central portions of 
Connecticut, will not injure the growing crops in Fitzwilliam. 
In summer the climate is thoroughly enjoyable, for though 
the heat at noon may be called oppressive, there is a cleanness 
and clearness in the air that make breathing a luxury, while 
the breezes of the morning and evening greatly refresh the 
physical system. 

That the climate of this town has been healthy from the 
"first settlement of it the bills of mortality, which will be 
noticed hereafter, give the most conclusive testimony. 

PRODUCTIOlSrS. 

Formerly, as was true in the adjoining towns, flax was 
raised in considerable quantities, all of which was used in the 
manufacture of clothing. Corn, rye, oats, barley, and pota- 
toes are the crops chiefly raised at the present time, but these 
are not produced as extensively as they were fifty years ago, 
owing chiefly to the more pressing demand for labor in other 
and more remunerative industries. 

That the fertility of the soil has been largely exhausted 
(which is a complaint that comes up to us from some of the 
adjoining towns) would hardly be a truthful statement, for the 
decrease in the agricultural products of Fitzwilliam is easily 
accounted for by the increased demand for manual labor in 
other and more inviting occupations. A Fitzwilliam farmer 
once told the writer that every bushel of corn which he raised 
cost him one dollar and a half at ordinary w^ages, when he 
could purchase the same quantity for one half of the money ; 
but he plainly omitted some important elements in his calcula- 
tions, such as the improvement of his field for a crop of grass, 
the fodder for his cattle from the stalks of the corn, and the 
loads of turnips and pumpkins that the corn land yielded. 
Fitzwilliam, in common with the neighboring towns, has good 



PRODUCTIONS— THE RHODODENDRON. 23 

pastures, in which cattle from Central Massachusetts fatten 
during the summer and aatunin. 

The wild small frnits, such iis the strawberry, the blueberry, 
the blackberry, and the raspberry are nowhere more abundant, 
and seldom elsewhere have as rich a flavor. 

THE KHODODENDRON. {The Rosc-tree.) 

This remarkable flowering shrub (which sometimes attains to 
the height and size of a small tree) is cultivated very largely in 
the vicinity of Boston, notably by Mr. H. H. Hunnewell in his 
1 eautiful gardens in Wellesley, that are so conspicuous across 
Waban Lake from Wellesley College. By careful cultivation 
the rhododendron is there brought to wonderful perfection ; 
and its blossoms, which are very large, rival the famous azaleas 
of the same locality in the variety and exquisite delicacy of 
their color. 

About two miles north-west from the centre of Fitzwilliam, 
on the old Patch Place, is a' locality where the rhododendron 
is found in its natural state. Once this tract must have em- 
braced some acres, and even now, after not a little of the land 
has been partially cleared up, the shrub is very abundant. As 
it grow? in the edge of the thick forest, its clusters of leaves 
and beautiful blossoms may be seen among the branches of the 
trees twenty or even thirty feet from the ground, suggesting 
a vine rather than a shrub. 

The Ijlossoms, which are very large, are, in color, of a pearly 
white, Avhile the long leaves of the shrub are noted for their 
wonderful gloss. This locality is visited annually by many 
tourists and summer residents that pass two or three months 
of the year in Fitzwilliam and the towns adjoining. So far as 
is known, the wild rhododendron is found at no other place 
in New Hampshire, and in but two or three localities in New 
England. 

The mountain laurel attains great perfection in Fitzwilliam, 
especially in the southern part of the town. "When this shrub 
is in full bloom, the scene is a gorgeous one in the vicinity of 
the South Pond. 



24 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

FOKESTS. 

These were very heav}'' when tlie town was opened for set- 
tlement, and the work of clearing the land for tillage was ex- 
tremely exhausting. A hill in the township over which a fire 
had spread twenty or thirty years before the first settlers 
came, was seized upon by them for their earliest farming oper- 
ations, because the trees on it were young and comparatively 
small. The white pine was a noble tree in all this region one 
hundred and fifty years ago, and all of sufficient size were ex- 
pressly reserved " for His Majesty's navy," in the charter 
stipulations of this town. Oaks, beeches, birches, ashes, and 
especially maples, both the rock and the white, abound. Less 
maple sugar is made than formerly, as the ancient maple 
orchards have been largely removed for timber and fire-wood. 

Of the common fruit trees, the apple is almost the only one 
that secures general confidence for a long term of years. The 
pear does tolerably well in some localities ; the peach is disap- 
pointing. The earlier (ajid these are often the choicest) kinds 
of grapes can doubtless be cultivated with success in Fitzwil- 
liain. The season is too short for the Isabella and other late 
varieties, but the Hartford prolific, and, better still, a number 
of Rogers seedlings will doubtless ripen here nearly as well 
as in the other lower towns of New Hampshire. 

UIEDS AND WILD ANIMALS. 

Throughout the entire Monadnock region the same varieties 
of these are found, and, with the exception of some of the lat- 
ter, the kinds liave not changed during the last one hundred 
and fifty years. Originally the deer, the bear, the wolf, and 
the catamount were found here in considerable numbers. The 
three last mentioned were a source of constant terror and of 
considerable loss to the early settlers, as will be seen in the 
sequel. These ferocious beasts found a safe retreat, for a long 
time, among the rocks and clifts of Monadnock ; but as the 
population increased and the forests were removed about the 
base and upon the sides of the mountain, their retreats were 
no longer secure, and they gradually disappeared. Probably 
none now exist in this region. 



LAKES AND PONDS. 25 



LAKES AND STREAMS. 



Fitzwilliam has, according to Farmer's New Ilanipshh^e 
Gazetteer, four natural ponds : 

South Pond, which, as its name indicates, lies in the south- 
ern part of the town, is a large and handsome sheet of water 
nearly a mile in lengtli and al)out one third of a mile in its 
greatest breadth. Forests nearly encircle it, and it furnishes 
at the outlet good v/ater- power for the mills at Howeville. 
The view of the pond and its surroundings, taken from the 
bridge at its outlet, showing the picturesque sheet of water 
embowered among the hills, with the grand old Monadnock 
towering over all in the distance, is one of surpassing beauty. 

Farther east, and near the sonth-east corner of the town, lies 
another large and attractive sheet of water called S'q) Pond, 
a name given it early in the history of the town, from Scipio 
Jawhaw. Sip was a negro who lived near the pond, and was 
possibly a runaway or freed slave. His wife is said to have 
been an Indian, and from her this sheet of water was sometimes 
called Squaw Pond. This pond was famous early for its un- 
conmion supply of large and fat pickerel. 

Rockwood Pond, called at first Foster Pond, lies in the 
north-west part of the town, and its outlet furnishes the valu- 
able water-power in the village of Troy. Various kinds of 
fish abound in it, particularly the horned pout, which when 
skinned and fried furnishes a wholesome and welcome dish 
for the table. 

Collins Pond is the fourth of the natural ponds, and is 
smaller than either of those already mentioned. To these may 
be added as a natural pond the one in Troy village, which was 
within the original limits of Fitzwilliam. 

There are several artificial ponds or mill reservoirs of con- 
siderable size, among which may be mentioned Bowker Pond, 
Meadow Pond, and the Scott Reservoir. 

It will be observed that Fitzwilliam has not as many lakes 
or large ponds as some of the adjoining towns, notably Pindge 
and Jaifrey, for Rindge has thirteen and Jaffrey more than 
half as many. 



26 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

As the streams of Fitzwilliam generally rise in tlie town and 
run out of it, it cannot be expected that any of them will be 
large. As a matter of fact, all are small. The larger ones are 
Scott or Priest Brook, in the eastern part of the town, and 
Camp or Chaplin Brook, in the south-west part. The larger 
ponds mentioned discharge a body of water of considerable 
size, but in each case the course of these streams in Fitzwilliam 
is short, and they soon reach the adjoining towns. 

Nearly or quite all the brooks were originally well stocked 
with fish, but these have largely disappeared, as the streams 
have been improved for manufacturing purposes. 

The drainage of the town is all into the Connecticut Itiver. 
The three streams that flow into Massachusetts continue south- 
M^ard and make three branches of Miller's River, entering the 
Connecticut at Montague. These streams receive the water 
of all the south and east parts of the town, comprising about 
three fourths of the entire area of the original township. The 
streams from the north and north-west parts of the town unite 
with the south branch af the Ashuelot, and enter the Connecti- 
cut in Hinsdale. 

A semicircle drawn from West Hill through the Pinnacle 
to Gap Mountain defines the water-shed of the town with 
sufficient accuracy. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE INDIANS OF SOUTHERN NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Indian Names— The Five Great Tribes of New England — Numbers — Char- 
acter and Habits — Sales of Laud — Removal — Remains — Confirmatory 
Statements. 

rriHE authorities cliieflj consulted in preparing this chapter 
-•- are : 

1. Penhallow (Samuel), The History of the Wars with the 
Eastern Indians. Boston : Printed by T. Fleet for S. Ger- 
rish, at the lower end of Cornhill, and D. Henchman, over 
against the Brick Meeting-House in Cornhill, 1726. The in- 
valuable diary of this author was destroyed by the great fire 
at Portsmouth, N. H., December, 1805. Mr. Penliallow was 
born in England, but came to America in 1686. The " Soci- 
ety for Propagating the Gospel among the Indians" offered 
him twenty pounds sterling a year, for three years, if he 
would acquire a knowledge of the Indian language, and sixty 
pounds annually during life if he would become a preacher to 
the Indians. The latter offer he declined, as he became a suc- 
cessful Portsmouth merchant and official of New Hampshire, 
dying December, 1726. His history is very rare in its orig- 
inal form, but has been wisely reprinted by private enterprise, 
and also in its collections by the New Hampshire Historical 
Society. 

2. Belknap's History of New Hampshire, two volumes, 
178-4 and 1791. The great storehouse of knowledge upon the 
early history of this State. The edition of Farmer, Secretary 
of the New Hampshire Historical Society, has very valuable 
notes. 

3. New Hampshire Historical Collections, edited by Rev. 
Dr. N. Bouton. 

4. New Hampshire Provincial Papers. 



28 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAJI. 

5. Histories of New Haini3sliire, by Barstow, Sanborn, 
and Wliiton. 

6. History of Northfield, Mass., by Rev. J. H. Temple 
and Mr. George Sheldon, 1875. A work of great merit, and al- 
most the only recent town history that throws light upon the 
Indians of Southern New Hampshire. 

Y. Groton (Mass.) During the Indian AYars, by Samuel 
A. Green, M.D., Librarian of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society. 

8. Massachusetts Records. 

9. Old Indian Chronicles, published after the war with 
King Philip. 

10. Plymouth (Mass.) Records. 

11. Drake's American Biography. 

ORTHOGRAPHY OF INDIAN NAMES. 

This seems to be mostly mechanical, and no uniformity has 
been observed by different writers. Professor Sanborn says 
that there are more than forty different modes of spelling the 
name of the lake Winnepesaukee, which means " the beauti- 
ful water in the high place." Hardly any two persons would 
use the same letters in spelling a \vord pronounced by an 
Indian. 

Hawaii, the name of the largest of the Sandwich Islands, 
was spelled Owyhee fifty years ago. On an ancient survey 
(1774) of the Nipmuch or Nepent Indian country, Monadnock 
is spelled Menadnock. See " Old Indian Chronicles." 

To furnish a brief sketch of the Indians that roamed over 
rather than inhabited the region about Mount Monadnock 
from one hundred and fifty to two hundred years ago is all 
that will be here attempted. 

Rev. J. H. Temple, of Framingham, Mass., who has studied 
the Indian history most carefully, says, in a private letter to 
the writer, that "in all the published works relative to the 
history of the Indians of New England, you will find a gener- 
ality and indefiniteness that is perplexing. The contemporary 
writers say so much that yon know they could have said much 



INDIAN TRIBES. 29 

more, and this mncli more is just what you want to find out." 
This is the experience of all who undertake to investigate this 
matter. 

"When the first white settlers arrived in New England it 
was inhabited by five great tribes or divisions of Indians. 

1. The Pequots, who dwelt in Connecticut. 

2. TheNarragansetts, that had their abode inRliode Island. 

3. The Pawnannankitts, of Nantucket and the adjacent 
islands. 

•Jr. The Massachusetts, that inhabited the State named for 
them ; and 

5. The Pantucketts, of New Hampshire and Maine. 

"We are chiefiy concerned in this history with the division last 
mentioned. This was divided into various tribes, the most im- 
portant of which was the Pennacooks, who had their home on 
the Merrimac, in the vicinity of Concord. The Pennacook 
Lake perpetuates their name. Many of the smaller tribes of this 
region were subordinate to the Pennacooks, and among them, 
according to Farmer, were the four tribes in the valley of the 
Connecticut River, located north of Springfield, Mass., and 
these were the tribes that appear to have been more or less 
concerned in the destructive attacks upon the settlements in the 
western part of Cheshire County. 

Among the other subordinate tribes inhabiting Eastern New 
Hampshire and South-western Maine were the Amoskeaks, 
who, as tradition informs us, had their permanent quarters 
where the village of Amoskeag now stands, just north of 
Manchester above the Amoskeag Fall§. These falls were the 
favorite resort of the Indians of all the region, because the 
salmon-fishery there was regarded as the best in the territory 
of New Hampshire. 

NOTE ON THE MOHAWKS. 

This powerful tribe dwelt on the Mohawk River and upper Hudson in 
New York, but was a terror to the Indians in the Connecticut Valley, 
and even as far east as the Merrimac. The name of these Indians, 
Mohogs, which signifies men-eaters, from moho, to eat, became at length 
Mohawks. (Eliot's Key.) The following petition tells its own story. 
Hogkins was one of the sachems of the Pennacooks. 



30 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

Honor Governor my friend. May 15, 1685. 

You my friend I desire your worship and your power, because I hope 
you can do som great mutters this one. I am poor and naked and I have 
no men at my place because I afraid allvvayes Mohogs he will kill me 
every day and night. If your worship when please pray help me you 
no let Mohogs kill me at my place in Malamake river called Panukkog 
and Nattukkog, I will submit your worship and your power. A.nd now 
I want powder and such alminishon, shott and guns, because I have 
forth at my horn and plant there. 

This is all Indian hand, but pray do not consider your humble servant 

John Hogkins. 

Witnessed by fourteen Indians, all but one of whom signed by marks. 

The great chief of the Pennacooks was Passacouaway. 
Belknap gives this account of him : 

He excelled the other sachems in sagacity, duplicity, and moderation ; 
but his principal qualification was his skill in some of the secret opera- 
tions of nature, which gave him the reputation of a sorcerer and extended 
his fame and influence among all the neighboring tribes. They believed 
that it was in his power to make water burn and trees dance, and to 
metamorphose himself into flame ; that in winter he could raise a green 
leaf from the ashes of a dry one, and a living serpent from the skin of 
one that was dead. 

Passaconaway was more friendly to the settlers than his 
snbordinate sachems generally ; and it is added that at a great 
dance and feast, being an old man, he made 

his farewell speech to his children and people ; in wdiich, as a dying 
man, he warned them to take heed how they quarrelled with their Eng- 
lish neighbors ; for though they might do them some damage, yet it 
would prove the means of their own destruction. He told them that he 
had been a bitter enemy of the English, and by the arts of sorcery had 
tried his utmost to hinder their settlements and increase, but could by 
no means succeed. 

His son and suc3essor, Wonolanset, seems to have inherited 
Iiis father's caution and sagacity, for later, when a general Ind- 
ian war broke out, he led his people into a region quite re- 
mote from the scene of action that they might not be involved 
in the conflict. At a later period still Wonolanset is said to 
liave heard Eliot preach to the Indians, and to have professed 
conversion to Christianity. 



NUMBERS, CHARACTER AND HABITS. 31 

In F. G. Dn^ke's " Biography of DistiugTiislied AiDericans," 
it is asserted that Passaeonaway invited Eliot to take up his 
abode near the Pennacooks, that he and his people " rnight l>e 
taught the Christian religion," as he had avowed his belief in 
God. 

Such was the great chief that for a long time held sway 
about Monadnock.* 

NUMBERS OF THE NEW HAMPSHIRE INDIANS. 

It is impossible to arrive at any definite conclusions upon 
this matter. They doubtless seemed to the whites vastly more 
numerous than they actually were. In their attacks upon the 
settlements they never appeared upon the open field in a body, 
but would shoot down their victims from behind trees and 
rocks ; and as the firing came from many quarters at the same 
moment, a few dozen warriors would be magnified into thou- 
sands in popular estimation. The four tribes in the Connecti- 
cut Valley alluded to above did not probably exceed twelve 
hundred all told, with two hundred braves, while the early 
settlers were establishing themselves in Keene, Walpole, 
Winchester, and Hinsdale. And it is nearly certain that the 
entire Indian population of Central and Southern I^ew Hamp- 
shire in the year IToOdid not exceed four thousand, of whom 
possibly six hundred were warriors. 

CHARACTER AND HABITS OF THE NEW HAMPSHIRE INDIANS. 

With regard to the Indian character in general, this must 
be said : while the apostles to the Indians, Eliot and the May- 
hews, found those with whom they dealt often tractable and, 
to a considerable extent, kind, generous, and faithful, the gen- 
eral verdict of the settlers was that they were naturally deceit- 
ful, treacherous, and cruel to the last degree. Penhallow, 
in his introduction to " The History of the Indian AVars," 
speaks of the Indians " as implacable in their revenge as they 
are terrible in the execution of it ; and will convey it down to 
the third and fourth generation. No courtesy M'ill ever oblige 

• The Concord Railroad Company perpetuates the memory of these ancient Indian 
chiefs by giving their names to some of their engines. 



32 HISTORY OF FITZWlLLIAil. 

them to gratitude ; for their greatest benefactors have fre- 
quently fallen victims to their fury." 

And almost every one of tlie one. hundred and forty broad 
pages of this old history is simply a harrowing record of Indian 
atrocities. Of their treacherj', the same author assures us that at 
the conclusion of a treaty with them in 1703, when volleys 
were to be fired on both sides to ratify it, and the English 
were asked (as they supposed by way of compliment) to fire 
first, which they readily did, it was soon learned that the guns 
of the Indians were charged with bullets as well as powder. 

When, in 1759, the colonists suddenly attacked the Arosa- 
guntacook or St. Francis Indians in Canada and defeated 
them, among other things found in the settlement were six 
or seven hundred English scalps suspended on poles, the 
trophies of their barbarous warfare. And for forty years after 
1703, wherever settlements were made in ISew Hampshire 
the Indians, incited by the French, were ready to fall upon 
them at the most unexpected moment, as when the people 
were at church or attending a wedding. Penhallow's sicken- 
ing record gives the names and particulars of the capture, 
torture, and murder in cold blood of hundreds during this 
period, as well as of the fearful sufferings that the prisoners 
of both sexes experienced while wading through the deep 
snows to Canada and during their captivity, before redemption 
or death put an end to their miseries. War could be no sooner 
proclaimed between France and England than the Indians 
seemed to become acquainted with the fact, as it were, in- 
stinctively, when the signal would be at once given to renew 
the work of pillage, burning, and butchery. 

But were the Indians never provoked by double-dealing, 
perfidy, and cruelty on the part of the whites ? In 1703 we 
find the Colonial Government offering a bounty of forty 
pounds sterling for every Indian scalp that might be brought 
in ; and Penhallow tells us that a Captain Tyng was the first 
to avail himself of the privilege by securing two hundred 
pounds for five scalps, which he easily obtained by a quiet at- 
tack upon his victims in the depth of winter. From the " ISTew 
Hampshire Provincial Papers" we learn that September 6th, 



CHARACTER AND HABITS. 38 

1676, there was a sham light with two hundred refugee Indians 
at Dover, when the Indians were suddenly seized. Some of 
them were soon set at liberty, but many of them were sent to 
Boston, where five or six were hung for crimes which they had 
previously committed, while others were sold as slaves. The 
spirit of kindness and conciliation is not apparent in such 
transactions. 

From the " Massachusetts Records" of 1676-77 we learn that 
a day was set apart for public thanksgiving because, among 
other things of moment, " there now scarce remains a name or 
family of them (the Indians) but are either slayne, captivated, 
or fled." Doubtless the wrong involved in the fearful con- 
flicts and losses of those days is not to be wholly charged to 
the Indians. 

THEIR HABITS. 

When not engaged in war they cultivated to some extent 
the soil, especially the rich lands u23on the banks of the streams 
and rivers, though it must be said that the squaws seem to 
have done this work generally. Sometimes ten or fifteen acres 
of maize could be found in one piece upon the banks of the 
Connecticut. To keep the surplus for winter use or for a time 
of famine they built granaries or underground storehouses 
from five to fifteen feet in diameter, and these they some- 
times lined with clay. "White visitors occasionally applied the 
term " wigwams" to these granaries, but usually this was the 
name of their dwellings. These were huts, the best of which 
contained few if any of the conveniences and comforts of civ- 
ilized life. After the coming of the white men they raised also 
large quantities of beans and squashes, but always depended 
largely for food upon hunting and fishing. Nuts also of vari- 
ous kinds were collected by them and stored for food. Ket- 
tles for boiling they made from soapstone. Except in ex- 
treme cases they seem to have had a good supply of food. In 
their domestic life they were like the wild Indians of the 
North-west at the present time. The squaws were the slaves 
of the braves, and all the degradation and hardships of savage 
life were their portion. In war the bow and arrow, the club, 



O 



34 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

the spear pointed with a sharp stone, and a hatchet or toma- 
hawk made from the same material furnished their offensive 
and defensive weapons, but early they manifested a purpose 
to acquire fire arms if possible. Before 1688 Baron Castine, a 
French nobleman, had gone among the Indians east of the 
Penobscot and made a home with them, filling his house with 
Indian women. This infamous man furnished muskets to the 
Indians, and from that time forth they became doubly formid- 
able in warfare. One or two other renegade whites were 
proved guilty of the same crime against law and humanity, and 
severely punished. As early as 1626 the settlers at Dover 
found that the Indians had muskets, and upon investigation 
it appeared that one Thomas Morton, the ringleader of a com- 
pany of outlaws whose headquarters were at Braiutree, Mass., 
had sold guns and ammunition to the neighboring Indians. 
He was at once seized and sent a prisoner to England. In 1631 
the General Court ordered " Richard Hopkins to be severely 
whipped and branded with a hot iron upon one of his cheeks 
for selling guns, powder, and shot to the Indians." 

THE INDIAN CLAIMS TO THE LAND OF THE NEW WOELD. 

If a long and undisputed occupancy can give a valid title to 
land, they certainly owned this territory. A foreign king, 
three thousand miles aw^ay, who had never set foot upon these 
lands had no just claim to them ; but he gave them away or 
permitted the Council of Plymouth in England to dispose of 
them just as if they had been inherited or obtained by fair 
purchase. 

It is to the credit of the settlers generally that they were not 
satisfied with the principles and acts of their kings and coun- 
cils in this respect. The Old Indian Chronicle asserts that 
" any one will find, by an examination of all the public records 
of New England, that in no instance was the land taken from 
the Indians without their consent and without what was then 
considered a fair compensation." " However small the com- 
pensation, it was as a general thing all the land was worth." 
And Professor Sanborn, in his " History of New Hamp- 
shire," says, " The New England colonists did generally pur- 



INDIAN OLAniS. 3.") 

chase tlieir lands from the Indians. Tliey paid l)ut small sums, 
and in articles of but little value to themselves, yet the Indians 
prized them highly ; and they alone had aright to judge of the 
worth of their territory and of the price of tlic goods given in 
exchange for it. They sold willingly, and received their pay 
with joy." But the same author adds that " the settlers of 
New Hampshire were perhaps less careful than others to ex- 
tinguish the Indian claim, because chartered companies and 
royal proprietors assumed the ownership of the soil." In 
the same line of testimony, the Hon. Charles Bell said before 
the New Hampshire Historical Society, a few years ago, 
" There is abundant evidence still surviving to show that every 
rood of land occupied by the white men for a century after 
they sat down at Piscataqack was fairly purchased from the 
Indian proprietors, and honestly paid for." 

And in support of these and similar assertions, we have in 
the appendix of Belknap, Yol. I., the copy of a deed given 
in 1629 to John Wheelwright and others of Massachusetts 
Bay, "to them, their heirs and assigns forever," of nearly 
all the south-eastern part of New Hampshire, ' ' twenty Eng- 
lish miles into the woods," with various conditions and 
provisos ; and "for a competent valuation in goods already 
received, in coats, shirts, and kettles ;" the chief Sagamore 
and his successors forever to receive, if lawfully demanded, 
" one coat of trucking cloth a year" for each township laid 
ont within said tract of land, while the said Wheelwright is to 
have from the grantors " two bushels of Indian corn each 
year," etc. 

"In witness whereof," etc. Signed by Passaconaway, 
Eunaawitt, Wahangnonawitt, and Bowls, each with his marlv 
and seal, in the presence of two Indians and two whites. 

We are obviously unable to determine the real value of the 
" shirts, coats, and kettles" " already received," but this con- 
tract has the features of honest business rather than of robbery. 

And yet it is very plain that Sir Ferdinando Gorges and 
Captain John Mason (to whose gi-eat ambition and most j^er- 
sistent efforts for securing wealth and renown out of the lands 
in Southern New Hampshire, attention will be directed in 



36 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIA^r. 

Chapter IV.) did not make the least effort to satisfy the claims 
of the Indians to the large territory which they professed to 
own. And the probability is that the Indian title to the lands 
about Monadnock was never extinguished in any way by those 
who purchased and settled this territory between 1740 and 
1775 ; for before this period the great chiefs of the Penna- 
cooks had died, and the tribes subordinate to them had been 
largely broken up and dispersed. 

THE EEMOVAL OF THE INDIANS FEOM THIS TEREITOEY. 

Their numbers and power as tribes seem to have waned 
rapidly after the close of the sixteenth century. Contact with 
the whites had not generally improved their physical or moral 
condition. Fewer children were born to them, and they lost, 
in a great measure, their ambition. Many of their braves had 
perished in the wars, and those that survived were discour- 
aged. Gradually the young men and then whole families and 
tribes withdrew from all contact with civilization. Some went 
to the East and North-east, and cast in their lot with their old 
enemies, the Tarrateens ; but the larger part appear to have 
gone iNorth and joined the Indians on the St. Francis in 
Canada. But wherever they went they soon lost all tribal 
distinctions, and practically disappeared from the face of the 
earth. A few came annually, for a number of years, to hunt 
about the old mountain and fish in our lakes and streams, but 
soon returned to Canada or Eastern Maine. 

How late the Indians were found roaming over Fitzwilliam 
it is impossible to say. In 1754, or nearly three years after 
Monadnock No. 4 was sold to Koland Cotton and others, it 
was considered hazardous to commence building a meeting- 
house in Monadnock No. 1 or Kindge, because Indian attacks 
were feared (see "History of Kindge," p. 63) ; while later 
than that murders were committed by the Indians in Walpole, 
Keene, and Hinsdale. 

INDIAN EEMAINS. 

There is no evidence that what is now Fitzwilliam was ever 
a favorite resort for the Indians, like Hinsdale and Keene, but 



INDIAN EEMAINS. 37 

we are assured tliat for a considerable time after its settlement 
and incorporation as a town the remains of Indian wigwams 
were found in the southern part of it, not far from the line 
that separates New Hampshire from Massachusetts. 

Rev. John Sal)in is our authority for the following state- 
ment, which is taken from one of his lectures : 

"When Mr. Wait dug his cellar, in the south part of the town, a few 
years ago, he found it thickly laid over, at not more than a suitable dis- 
tance from each other, with what he supposed once graves, bodies de- 
posited there. He was satisfied from the lightness of the earth, the 
color, the smell, and I should think he found something like hair, that 
human bodies had, at some remote period, been laid there and laid in an 
orderly manner. It may be as hard to account for them, perhaps, as for 
the mounds at the west. It may more seem than in any other way of 
which we know, that the Aborigines, at some period, had their burying- 
place there, and that makes it more probable that they inhabited not 
very far distant. 

Upon the banks of Camp Brook, near the house where John 
Camp lived eighty or ninety years ago, the remains of at least 
two Indian wigwams were found and some Indian utensils. 
And the same was true of the Lot 1 of the tenth range, in 
School District Ko. 11, where Joshua Twitchell built a log- 
house and lived for a number of years. 

A manuscript history of School District jSTo. 11, written 
many years since, and carefully preserved by Mr. D. Francis 
White, of that district, infonns us that the Indians who 
visited that part of the town before its settlement were few in 
number, and that these took up their abode near the large 
brook which runs through the district, drawn hither plainly 
by the good fishing which the brook afforded. " My grand- 
father," says the writer, " told me that the remains of two of 
their Imts or wigwams were to be seen long after his remem- 
brance, one on the side of the hill near where Benjamin Hay- 
wood's house now stands, the other on the east side of the 
brook, on land owned by Benjamin Fisk. The cellar that was 
dug into the hillside many years ago by the Indians is now 
plain to be seen." 

In confirmation of the opinion expressed in this chapter that 



38 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

the region about Mount Monadnock was a favorite resort of 
roving Indians and Indian families during a part of each sea- 
son, the testimony is abundant. Of this two items only have 
been selected, and the details of both are set forth in the vol- 
ume, " Groton (Mass.) in the Indian "Wars," by Samuel 
A. Green, M.D. This book is a very valuable contribution to 
our Indian history. Groton was one of the frontier towns of 
Massachusetts for a considerable ])eriod near the close of the 
seventeenth century, and every precaution against the sudden 
and repeated incursions of the Indians was not only required 
by law, but was found by the inhabitants to be an imperious 
necessity. 

February ICth, 1706, a court-martial w\as held in that 
town, by the order of Governor Dudley, for the trial of 
Lieutenant Seth Wyman, who was charged with the crime 
of bringing a false report of " the discovery of the Indian 
Enemy near Monadnock on the 6tli instant, and for their re- 
turn home in a mutinous, disorderly manner without endeavors 
after a sufficient discovery." The proceedings of this court- 
martial would occupy too much space for insertion here, but 
the facts in the case seem to have been as follows : Lieutenant 
Wyman commanded a small company of men, who were sent 
out to watch the Indians about the base of Monadnock, that, 
in case of danger, they might give the alarm to the exposed 
inhabitants of the frontier towns of Massachusetts ; and hav- 
ing, as he supposed, if his scouts were truthful, discovered the 
presence of a large body of advancing savages, he ordered a 
retreat toward their homes, which retreat, through fright, was 
conducted in a disorderly manner. 

The testimony of the accused officer was as follows : 

Oq the 6th instant on our incamping on Son about an hour high wee 
sent out Two Scouts, of four men each ; one to march on the left wing ; 
the other on the Riglit ; to march about a mile and a half right out upon 
discovery from the Noyse of our Hatchetts. 

He farther saith that after they had bin upon the scout about an hour, 
that he Saw both Scouts returning together, running toward our Camp 
as men affrightened, and called to me at a distance to put out our fires for 
they had discover'd a Body of the Enemy. Then Corp' Tarbol coming 
up to me told me that he had discover'd the Enemy ; the first of their 



HUNTING FOR INDIAN SCALPS. 39 

Camps that he discover' d, He said the Noyse of their Hatchetts, were 
as bigg as our Companj', and so reached halfe a mile. 

The other part of our Scout told me they had discover'd the Track of 
Doggs which they Judg'd to be Twenty or Thirty. 

Corporal Tarbol, who commanded one company of the scouts, 
testified that they "saw a snioak," and upon approaching it 
" heard a great discourse of men which I took to be Indians 
and French,' ' and upon retreating he said he met the other 
scout, who reported having seen " a Track of twenty or Thirty 
Doggs, which they Judg'd to be the Enemyes Doggs," etc. 
The scouts seem to have been divided in opinion about the 
presence of the dogs, some supposing the tracks were made by 
a female wolf with her wheljis ; but when they had compared 
notes the fright became general, and nothing Wyman could do 
could keep the men together. 

This officer seems to have been brave enough, but he was in 
a region Avhere Indian surprises were to be expected, and his 
men failed him.* 

The second item alluded to is as follows : " Governor Sal- 
tonstall, of Connecticut, writes from Kew London, under date 
of July 23d, 1724, that the friendly Indians of that neighbor- 
hood seem inclined to hunt for scalps around Monadnock, and 
the farther side of Dunstable and Groton." (Massachusetts 
Archives. ) 

"This was owing," says Dr. Green, "to an offer made 
about this time (already alluded to in this chapter) by the 
governments of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, of a 
bounty of forty pounds for every Indian's scalp that should be 
taken and shown to the proper authorities. This expedient 
stimulated volunteers to scour the wilderness for the purpose 
of hunting Indians ; and Captain John Lovewell, of Dunstable, 
organized a company, which soon became famous." 

This Captain Lovewell seems to have led at least two expedi- 
tions against the Indians before he started out upon the one 
which proved so disastrous to himself and nearly all his com- 
mand on the borders of Lovewell's Pond, near Fryeburg, Me. 

* According to the best information relative to this matter, the scene of this fright 
^vas in the south-east part of Fitzwilliam, or in the neighboring town of Rindge. 



40 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

After one of these forays lie entered Dover, N. H., in 
triumph, bearing stretched on lioops ten Indian scalps. These 
he took to Boston, and obtained the large bounties offered 
by the Massachusetts government. 

The region about Monadnock was plainly regarded as very 
favorable for such expeditions because no large company of Ind- 
ian warriors would there be encountered. A roaming sav- 
age with his squaw could be shot down without great personal 
peril. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE MOXADXOCK EEGIOX IX 1740 — THE OLD MILITAKY EOAD. 

Appearance of the Country — Old Road. 

'T^HE towns that cluster aroiuid the base of this Dionntain, 
-^ of which Fitzwilliam is one, have in some respects a pe- 
ouHar history. The size and isolation of the mountain and its 
distance from any other lofty elevations with which to com- 
pare it make this entire region unlike any other in Kew Eng- 
land, while, as we shall see in the next chapter of this history, 
the early negotiations for the sale, purchase, and settlement of 
these towns had many singular features. 

As a matter of course, that which gives character to this en- 
tire region of country is the grand old mountain itself. The 
height of this is not so remarkable, as its loftiest peak is only 
three thousand one hundred and eighty-six feet above the 
level of the sea, and many of the peaks in Northern New 
Hampshire have a greater altitude. But it stands out alone, 
the one great mountain of Southern New Hampshire and of 
the north-eastern and northern central parts of Massachusetts, 
wliile the beauty and grandeur of its outlines never fail to 
nvet the attention and move the sensibilities of the beholder. 
From an early period it was styled " the Grand Monadnock," 
and this distinctive name is plainly of Indian origin. 

When this part of New Hampshire \vas opened for settle- 
ment the entire mountain, with the exception of one com- 
paratively unimportant peak, is said to have been covered 
with trees similar to those that now cover the lower portions 
of it, though, of course, much smaller, and stunted to a much 
greater degree as the top was approached. This forest seems 
to have been largely prostrated by a heavy gale near the be- 
ginning of the present centur\', and at a later period wholly 



42 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

consumed by fire. Then the rains and melting snows carried 
forward the process of denudation rapidly, while the winds 
aided in the work, till from the upper portions of the moun- 
tain nearly all the soil that had been accumulating for cen- 
turies disappeared, leaving the great mass of coarse rock bare 
as we see it to-day. 

These statements come to us by tradition mostly, but there 
is no reason to question their substantial truth. 

The " Bald Peaks" on the mountain (as the naked spot 
before alluded to is said to have been called) doubtless presented 
to the early explorers tlie only place from which an uninter- 
rupted view could have been obtained, and seen from this, the 
entire region, with the exception of some small natural mead- 
ows and the ponds, was one immense forest. From that ele- 
vation the sharp and long hills, which are so prominent a fea- 
ture in all these towns, disappeared and the beholder looked 
out upon what seemed to be a level country, a plain extend- 
ing as far as the eye could reach. The explorers and settlers 
of some of the towns of Northern Massachusetts, thirty or 
forty miles south of us, were similarly deceived as they sur- 
veyed the region from the summit of Wachusett, and fondly 
supposed they were locating their farms and building their 
log houses upon a great plain, with a soil as deep, rich, and 
easily worked as is that which attracted the pioneers in the 
valley of the Connecticut River. 

Such was the appearance of these rugged towns about 
Monadnock in 1740. The country seemed to be one great and 
fertile plain, interspersed with the many shining lakes that are 
now so prominent a feature of the landscape, with the little 
threads of brooks and larger streams running in various direc- 
tions. Then as now in all the surrounding country the grand 
feature of the whole w^as the massive and majestic mountain. 
This, though legally belonging to our neighbors, Dublin and 
Jaffrey, is in a large sense common property ; and these 
neighbors are not jealous of their rights in this valuable in- 
heritance. We are always welcome to feast our eyes upon the 
inspiring scenery which makes the whole region glad, and to 
drink in the pure air which is so delicious and healthful a draft 



ilONADXOCK — OLD MILITARY ROAD. 43 

to multitudes of the weaiy workers that come up, year by year, 
from our crowded cities, Ko views of the mountain are bet- 
ter than many from the homes of Fitzwilliam, while a good 
carriacre-road of live miles' length from the centre of our town 
brings us to the base of the mountain. 

The following extracts from the historical lecture of Rev. 
John Sabin, in 1842, may be of interest to such as are disposed 
to complain of the roughness, the stones and rocks of this 
region : 

Some almost wonder that this town was ever built on, and that a com- 
munity sliould settle here. But in early days it was a land of high 
credit, and I am told by the old minister of .Taffrey, Mr. Ainsworth, that 
the Monaduock region since his remembrance has been as much extolled 
as now is any part of the West. Within two days I am told by a son of 
an early settler in this part of Jaffrey that the fear at first was there would 
not be stone for fencing. We can have no question but in its natural 
state this town had its beauties, nor did its rocks appear as they have 
since. 

THE OLD MILITARY EOAD. 

Durino- the almost constant wars with the French and Ind- 
ians from 1735 to 1760, it was a matter of the first impor- 
tance to keep open some way of direct communication between 
Eastern Massachusetts and the frontier toward Canada. In 
tlie early part of this period Massachusetts claimed as a part 
of her territory all that now constitutes the States of Maine, 
Kew Hampshire, and Vermont, and for some time manned 
and supported the forts on the Connecticut River at Great 
Meadow (Westmoreland), at Upper Ashuelot (Keene), at Xo. 
4 (Charlestown),* and Fort Dummer at Brattleborough, Vt. 
But in order to transport tlie munitions of war with the 

* In 1733 the government of Massachusetts granted to Josiah Willard and others a 
township named Arlington, which embraced the main portion of the teiTitory now 
constituting the towns of Hinsdale and Winchester. At a little later date four town- 
ships were granted extending northward along the east bank of the Connecticut River, 
which were named Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4, and which were nearly Identical with the present 
towns of Chesterfield, Westmoreland, Walpole, and Charlestown. The settlement of 
the boundary-line between Massachusetts and New Hampshire in 1740 brought all 
these towns within the limits of New Hampshire, of coarse invalidating all the Mas- 
sachusetts grants ; but the designation of Charlestown as No. 4 being found convenient 
to distinguish it from Charlestown, ^lass., it was retained for a long time, and is some- 
times heard even at the present day. 



44 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

troops through the wilderness to the frontier forts, roads for 
wlieel vehicles became a necessity, and accordingly were con- 
structed. The records of the times inform us that during 
those wars such a road was made between Ko. 4 (Charlestown) 
and Crown Point on Lake Champlain, and, without doubt, it 
was built by the province of Massachusetts. To hold posses- 
sion of the place last mentioned was a matter of the first im- 
portance, as Crown Point, in a good measure, commanded Lake 
Champlain, and the route tlirough it was the one generally 
taken by the French and Indians in their incursions upon the 
British possessions and settlements. The military road just 
named was, therefore, an important link in tlie route between 
Eastern Massachusetts and Canada, especially since the passage 
through the wilderness from Portland, Me., to the St. Law- 
rence was attended by the greatest hardships and perils. 
The Indians had trails through Northern Massachusetts and 
Southern New Hampshire over which they passed with their 
captives and booty, but these were of no value for the trans- 
portation of provisions, guns, and ammunition for the forts 
and offensive operations beyond. 

It will be seen at a glance that another road of the same 
kind (of which the one just mentioned should be an extension 
or western division) was equally necessary in order to reach the 
Connecticut Piver. That such a road was built about 1735 
or perhaps a little later there can be no question, but its exact 
location through tlie northern part of Worcester County, 
Mass., and some of the New Hampshire towns is a matter 
of uncertainty, for the reason that, in succeeding years, wher- 
ever it did not meet the wants of the people as a public high- 
way it soon went out of use, and wherever it did it was main- 
tained like the town roads in general, and as time went on its 
particular history was lost. But while its exact location in 
many places cannot be given, its general direction can be stated 
without any doubt. It started in the vicinity of Fitchburg, 
Mass., and j)assed through a part of Ashburnham into Win- 
chendon, in the same State. In the latter town a branch is 
believed to have left the main line, and proceeding in a M'est- 
erly direction passed through the south-western corner of 



THE OLD MILITARY ROAD. 45 

Fitz William into Richmond, and was continued to the Con- 
necticut River to furnish supplies to Fort Dummer, now Brat- 
tleborongh, Vt. The other or more important branch (and 
with this we are specially concerned), taking a nortli-westerly 
direction from the point of junction in Winchendon, passed 
through the entire length of Fitzwilliam, and proceeded on- 
ward to Charlestown Xo. 4. 

In 1871 the writer traced this road easily, for a considerable 
distance, through the section of the town north-west of the 
central village. The road was located a short distance west of 
the dw^elling-house of Gilbert C. Bemis, recently burned, and 
proceeding northerly passed east of the Rockwood Pond, but 
west of the present travelled road. The track was grown up 
with trees, some of them of very large size, bat the sluices 
made across the water-courses were standing as they w^ere built 
one hundred and forty or one hundred and fifty years ago, and 
other marks remained showing the position of the road. The 
first house erected by General James Reed was not far from 
the site of Mr. Bemis's dwelling, and the cellar of the old 
house is a notable object in that part of the town. This house 
was kept as an inn for many years, first bj General Reed and 
later by his son. Colonel Sylvanus Reed. Near by, but on the 
other side of the old road, is seen the cellar of the house built 
by Daniel Mellen, Sr. A little farther south, on the Fay 
Hill, as more recently called, Benjamin Bigelow, the first set- 
tler in town, located. 

Whether this military road can be very definitely traced 
through the towns north-west of Fitzwnlliam is not known ; 
nor can it be very certainly located through the south part of 
Fitzwilliam. Even among the persons best informed in the 
case there is a difference of opinion. One supposition is that 
the road entered the town near the south-east corner thereof, 
and passing west of Sip Pond, ran near No. 4 school-house, 
thence east of the Collins Pond, and then, passing near the spot 
where the first meeting-house was afterward erected, proceeded 
to the Fay Hill, and so on as before described. If this is cor- 
rect, it seems very probable that the road leading from No. 4 
school-house southerly to Amos McGee's is a part of the orig- 



46 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

inal road, and the only part now in use within the hmits of 
Fitzwilliain, Another opinion is that the road entered Fitz- 
william farther west, coming in from Royalston, and proceed- 
ing as nearly as practicable in a direct conrse, struck the pre- 
viously described route perhaps near the locality of the old 
meeting-house. 

But it is not necessary to go back far in the last century to 
find the beginning of both these roads. In 1795 a road was 
laid out over the first described route as far as from the south- 
east corner of the town to the McGee place, then occupied by 
Richard Gleason, Sr. And in 1796 a road was laid out 
substantially covering the second or west route. Though the 
definite location of a great part of this road thus appears to be 
entirely lost, the real existence of such a road is beyond a 
doubt, and it is equally certain that by it the early settlers 
came to their new homes in the town of Fitzwilliam. It is 
also highly probable that the continuation of this road through 
Vermont was used in the Revolutionary War for the passage 
of troops and the transportation of supplies from New Hamp- 
shire, for the military operations in the country about Lake 
Champlain. 



CHAPTER lY. 

GRANTS OF THE LANDS IIST SOUTHERN NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Deficiency of Records — Early Explorers — Royal Claims — Plymouth Company 
— Ferdinando Grorores — Captain John Mason — His Heirs — Masonian 
Proprietors — Monadnock Townships — First Grant of Monadnock No. 4 — 
Division of Second Grant — Ranges, Lots, etc. 

^T^PIE early settlers of Fitzwilliara, as is true of pioneers gener- 
-*- allj, did not deem it necessary to keep carefully prepared 
records of their movements and business transactions. This 
common fault of the age can hardly surprise us when we re- 
member that the necessity was laid upon them to loork, to give 
all their time, thoughts, and strength to the founding of homes 
for themselves and their families in the wilderness. As the 
result of this, much of the early history of this town and of 
each of the adjoining towns has been lost and can never be re- 
covered, so meagre and unsatisfactory are the ancient records. 
Still not a few of the motives and movements of the men who 
took part in opening this section of jSTew Hampshire for settle- 
ment are traced without difficulty. 

The tirst white men who explored this region were not in 
quest of fame, good farms, or valuable sites for manufacturing 
establishments ; for since the precious metals had usually 
been found in mountainous regions like Mexico and Peru, the 
opinion was early entertained that they must be found about 
the base arid upon the sides of Monadnock. 

Accordingly, the first individuals and companies that ob- 
tained o-rants of these lands from the British crown sent out 
bands of men charged to explore the region carefully for gold 
and silver. The gold fever then raged, as it has in later 
times, and the men infected with it, both in Europe and in 
this country, had great expectations, which, perhaps fortu- 
nately for them and for us, were doomed to disappointment. 



48 HISTOEY or FITZWILLIAM. 

That these explorers met with no success we all know, but 
their failure has not deterred some of the present generation 
from repeating, upon a limited scale, the same fruitless ex- 
periment. Probably no mines of either of the precious metals 
will ever be discovered in Monadnock. And so far as can be 
known certainly by the existing generation, the same is true 
of the White Mountains. 

Professor Sanborn, of Dartmouth College, in his " History 
of New Hampshire," makes the following statement, doubt- 
less on good authority, as it has been given substantially by 
other writers : 

In June, 1642, Darby Field, with two Indian guides, first ascended 
the White Mountains. In August of the same year another party, led by 
Thomas Gorges and Richard Vines from Maine, set out, on foot, to ex- 
plore the " delectable mountains." They penetrated the desert wilder- 
ness, and climbed the rugged sides of the " White Hills" from the east. 
They gave a very extravagant and incoherent description of what they 
saw. Their imagination ran riot in marvellous inventions. They de- 
scribed them (the mountains) as " extending a hundred leagues, on 
which snow lieth all the year." On one of these mountains they found 
a plain of a day's journey (it must have been a Sabbath-day's journey) 
whereon nothing grew but moss ; and " at the farther end of this plain, 
a rude heap of mossy stones, piled up on one another, a mile high, on 
which one might ascend from stone to stone, like a pair of winding 
stairs, to the top, where was another level of about an acre, with a pond 
of clear water. 

The country beyond was said to be "daunting terrible." They 
named these mountains "the Crystal Hills." Their provisions failed 
them before the beautiful lake was reached ; and though they were 
within one day's journey of it, they were obliged to' return home. So 
the men of that age died without the sight. 

Plainly those who sent out such exploring ex23editions were 
obliged to take their -pa.j in romance ; the more improbable 
the story the better. 

Of the eight Monadnock towns, Rindge has a peculiar his- 
tory, which is lucidly set forth by her historian, Ezra S. Stearns, 
Esq. 

In 1690 Sir William Pliipps, who had been a sailor, led an 
expedition against the French into Canada. This was a mis- 



THE "CANADA" TOWNS. 49 

erable failure, and tlie troops that survived the fearful hard- 
ships of the campaign could get no pay for their service. Some 
of these were from Dorchester, Mass. ; others were from Row- 
ley, Ipswich, and other towns in the eastern part of that State. 
Forty years later these soldiers or their heirs obtained from the 
General Court of Massachusetts, in the way of remuneration, 
grants of wild lands, some of which are now in New Hamp- 
shire, but were then claimed by Massachusetts ; and this claim 
was generally allowed. The men from Dorchester thus ol)- 
tained what was deemed a title to the town of Ashburnham, 
which was then called Dorcbester Canada. Winchendon be- 
came in the same way Ipswich Canada, and Rindge, Rowley 
Canada. The boundary-line between Massachusetts and New 
Hamj^shire, which was for a long time in dispute, was finally 
settled by George the Second in 1740 ; and this left our neigh- 
bor Rindge to share the fortunes of the other towns in South- 
ern New Hampshire.* The whole difficulty respecting the 
Massachusetts claims to this region arose from the mistake 
(very early made) of supposing that the Merrimac River, in 
the greater part of its course, runs east instead of south. 

It does not appear that the heirs of the soldiers to whom 

* The entire lustory of the establis^hment of this line is interesting, especially as the 
old question is, in a certain sense, reopened at the piesent time, after the lapse of one 
hundred and forty-six years. 

The king determined that the northern boundary of the pi'ovince of Massachusetts 
be a similar curve-line, pursuing the course of the Merrimac River at three miles' dis- 
tance on the north side thereof, beginning at the Atlantic Ocean and ending at a point 
due north of Patuoket Palls, and a straight line drawn from thence due west till it 
meets with His Majesty's other governments. 

This deci.'iion was a surprise to both parties, for it gave to New Hampshire a strip of 
territory nearly sixty miles long and fourteen broad above all that this province had 
ever claimed, while it deprived Massachusetts of twenty-eight new towns between the 
Merrimac and Connecticut rivers, and parts of six old towns on the north side of the 
Merrimac toward its mouth, as well as a vast tract of land west of the Connecticut 
River, for " His Majesty's other governments" In that direction were generally sup- 
posed to be bounded on the east by a line twenty miles east of the Hudson River. 

When orders were given to run out and mark these lines, the Assembly of Massachu- 
setts virtually refused to appoint surveyors, and New Hampshire was authorized to 
proceed with the work. The surveyors were to allow 10° for the westerly variation of 
the needle, and the chief mistakes claimed to have been made in running the lines 
seem to have had reference to this matter of the needle's variation. If these claims of 
New Hampshire shall be allowed, it will give to this State a triangular strip of territory 
coming to a point in Dracut, Mass., but of considerable width on the banks of the Con- 
necticut River. The New Hampshire Commission for the settlement of this matter 
consists of John J. Bell, of Exeter ; Charles 11. Roberts, of Concord, and N. H. Clarke, 
of Plaistow. 
4 



OO HISTOEY OF FITZVVILLIA:\r, 

Rowley Canada was granted ever obtained any benefit from 
what was supposed to be a valuable property, for Rindge be- 
ing declared to be in New Hampshire in 17-iO, its fortunes 
ever after differed not materially from those of tlie Monad- 
nock towns generally. 

It appears from the ancient records that a large part of the 
territory embraced in Southern Kew Hampshire was repeatedly 
given away and sold and resold by those who had no just title 
to a foot of land in this region. 

The following statement, wdiich is condensed as far as it can 
be if the continuity of the narrative shall be preserved, is be- 
lieved to be truthful, for it is made on the authority of the 
Colonial Records and of the best early historians of New 
Hampshire, particularly Belknap, who published his history 
in 1785 and 1791. 

Claiming it by right of discovery, James the ¥irst, in 1606, 
set apart for colonization all the territory in North America 
between the forty-first and forty-fifth degrees of north lati- 
tude, and (for anything that appears to the contrary) from 
ocean to ocean. This was named North Virginia. The grant 
in question was made to a company of " Knights, Gentlemen, 
and Merchants," residing chiefly in the south-west part of 
England, and was named, from the chief city of that section 
of England, " The Plymouth Company."' One fifth part of 
the precious metals and one fifteenth part of the co])per that 
might be found in the country thus obtained the king re- 
served for his treasury. 

Fourteen years later, or about the year that became memo- 
rable by the arrival of the Pilgrims on the coast of Massa- 
chusetts, this " Council of Plymouth," as it was afterward 
called, obtained a new charter that enlarged its possessions ; 
for it granted to that comjjany all the lands between the for- 
tieth and forty-eighth degrees of north latitude, " from sea to 
sea," which expression, if it meant anything, meant from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, or a territory about five hundred and 
fifty miles wide and two thousand five hundred miles long. 
This grant was called " New England in America." 

Two of the most active and ambitious members of this 



GORGES AND MASON. 51 

" Council of Plymouth" tliat obtained the grant of this im- 
mense territory were Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain 
John Mason. The former, Gorges, who had been the com- 
mander of the fort and Governor of Plymouth, England, was 
a bold, restless, impulsive man, who, in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, appears to have been associated with Sir AValter 
Paleigh in attempts to found colonies in Virginia. He is said 
to have been a scholar and statesman like his associate, llaleigh, 
and it was his claim that his enterprises were undertaken 
largely to advance religion and the cause of humanity in gen- 
eral. Historians cpiote hira as saying that 

the planting of colonies in America was undertaken for the advancement 
of religion, the enlargement of the bounds of our nation, and the employ- 
ment of many thousands of all sorts of people. 

Many of his schemes having miscarried, he deemed himself 
fortunate when he fell in with Captain John Mason, who was 
a man of the same spirit. Formerly he had been a merchant 
in London, but at a later period he had been Governor of 
Newfoundland, where he had succeeded in restoring to their 
tribes some captive Indians. Being a man of ability. Mason 
was appointed Secretary of the Plymouth Company, and soon 
obtained from his associates a grant of 

all the land from the river Naumkeag (Salem) round Cape Ann to 
the river Merrimac and up each of these rivers to the farthest head 
thereof ; then to cross over from the head of the one to the head of the 
other, with all the islands lying within three miles of the coast. 

This district was called " Mariana," doubtless from its hav- 
ing the ocean for its eastern boundary. So little was known 
of the length of the Xaumkeag (which was supposed to be a 
great river rising far to the west), and also respecting the gen- 
eral course of the Merrimac E-iver, that this was deemed to be 
a very valuable grant, whereas it actually embraced but a com- 
paratively small territory — viz., the triangular section of Massa- 
chusetts included in lines drawn from Lowell to Xewburyport 
and Salem, with the sea-shore as its eastern boundary. Not a 
foot of this grant lay in New Hampshire. Probably becoming 
convinced that a mistake had been made, Gorges and Mason 



52 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

soon obtained another grant " of all the lands between the 
rivers Merrimac and Sagadahock (the Kennebec), extending 
back to the great lakes and river of Canada." This they held 
jointly and called it Laconia, because of the great number of 
lakes that it contained. Both of these men seem to have had 
visions of great wealth and of nobility also through their 
American possessions, and both were sorely disappointed. In 
1621> Mason obtained from the riymouth Council a new patent, 
but covering no new territory, for the whole of it had been 
granted seven years before to him and Gorges jointly. This 
embraced the land 

from the middle of Piscataqua Kiver and up the same to the farthest 
head thereof, and from thence north-westward until sixty miles from the 
mouth of the harbor were finished ; also through Merrimac River to the 
farthest head thereof, and so forward up into the land w^estward until 
sixty miles were finished ; and from thence to cross overland to the end 
of sixty miles accounted from Piscataqua River ; together with all the 
islands within five leagues from the shore. 

This territory Mason and Gorges named New Hampshire, 
the former having been for 'a time Governc»r of Portsmouth, 
in Hampshire Count}', England. 

Not long after the two partners divided their American pos- 
sessions. Gorges taking the eastern division, which became the 
province of Maine, and Mason holding as his share what is 
now New Hampshire. 

From 1625 to 1648 Charles tlie First was King of England, 
and it was a time of great lawlessness in the New England 
colonies generally. The Plymouth Council was obliged to 
surrender its charter to the crown, while Gorges and Mason 
established no civil governments in the territories w^fiich they 
claimed to own. In 1635 Captain Mason died suddenly, 
leaving what had been regarded as his princely estate greatly 
reduced by large outlays for supplies and wages paid to his 
colonists. His widow, who was his executrix, sent over from 
England one Captain Francis Norton to care for and manage 
the property here ; but he and those whom he employed 
managed to divide nearly all the goods and cattle among them- 
selves. 



THE MASON ESTATE. 58 

One hundred of great cattle, valued at twenty-five pounds each, very 
liirge beasts of a yellow color, and said to have been brought by Cap- 
tain Mason from Denmark, 

are reported to have been driven to Boston and sold as a part 
of the booty. 

Captain Mason left a will, made a few days before his death, 
by M-hich he left to his a^randson, Robert Tufton, " his manor 
of Mason Hall," near Portsmouth, and to his grandson, John 
Tufton, the remainder of his estate in New Hampshire, on 
condition that each should take the surname of Mason. John 
Tufton Mason died when young, and liis share became the 
property of his younger brother, Robert Tufton Mason. This 
young man became of age in 1650. Litigation concerning the 
title to the New Hampshire property succeeding, Massachu- 
setts now had a survey made of what she deemed her territory, 
and fixed her northern boundary as far north as the head-waters 
of the Merrimac River. The Mason estate seemed now com- 
pletely swallowed up, and during the Protectorate of Crom- 
well no help could be hoped for from the British Government, 
as the Masons were royalists. But after the restoration of 
Charles the Second, in 1660, Robert Tufton Mason appealed 
to the king for redress. The decision was that New Hamp- 
shire belonged to the heir of Captain John Mason. 

These grants did not remove the granted territory from 
under the British Government. When the settlements in- 
creased so as to require them, the usual colonial officers were 
generally appointed by the King and Council ; but at this time 
there being no recognized royal governor in the territory north 
of Massachusetts, the government of that province claimed 
the right to control the entire region, and this claim was ac- 
quiesced in for nearly forty years, or until 1680. 

Robert Tufton Mason died in 1688, while he was doing 
everything possible to enforce his claim to New Hampsliire. 
Soon after his sons and heirs sold to Samuel Allen, of London, 
their entire claim to the province for seven hundred and fifty 
pounds. Allen was made Governor of New Hampshire, but 
his claims were disregarded. A serious informality was found 
in the deed to Allen, and his heirs practically relinquished 



54 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

their claim to the property, which reverted, as a matter of 
course, to the heirs of Mason.* 

In 1744 John Tufton Mason (who was a great-great-grand- 
son of Captain John Mason, and the third of that name) 
offered to release his interest in the territory to the province 
of New Hampshire for one thousand pounds New England 
currency. 

So much of the genealogy of the Mason family as is needed 
is here given : 

1. Captain John Mason. Died 1635. 

2. Anne Mason Tufton, his daughter. 

3. John and Kobert Tufton Mason. John died when a 
child ; Robert (succeeding to the estate) died in 16S8, leaving 
two sons, John and Robert. John had no children, but 

4. Robert, who died in 1718, left two sons, John and 
Thomas. This 

5. John Tufton Mason represented the Mason claim and 
sold it, as will be seen below. 

Benning Went worth was now Governor of New Hampshire, 
a man of energj'- and no mean capacity for business, but he 
was busy with his schemes for including what is now Y ermont 
within the limits of New Hampshire, and granting charters 
for and giving names to towns west of the Connecticut River. 
The noted expedition for the capture of Louisburg, which 
Mason joined, was also engrossing jDublic attention to the ex- 
clusion of almost everything else. 

Two years passed, when the New Hampshire Assembly took 
measures to complete the bargain with Mason ; but on the same 
day when this was to have been done. Mason sold all his in- 
terest in New Hampshire to a company of twelve men, whose 
names follow : 

Theodore Atkinson, Mark H unking "Wentwortli, Richard 
Wibird, John Wentwortli, Jr., John Moffat, Samuel Moore, 
Jotham Odiorne, Jr., George Jaffrey, Jr., Joshua Pierce, and 
Nathaniel Meserve, all of Portsmouth ; Thomas Wallingford, 



* In the conveyance to Allen the lands are described as being "In New Hampshire, 
Main, Masonia, Laconla, Masnn-hall and Mariana, in America, in the parish of Green- 
wich." 



THE MASONIAN PROPRIETORS. 55 

of Somerevvorth, and Thomas Packer, of Greenland. The first 
of the twelve seems to hav^e had three shares, tlie second two 
shares, and the others one share each. 

At a later date there were added to these nine new pro- 
prietors — viz., John Rindo-e, Joseph Blauchard, Daniel Pierce, 
John Tufton Mason, John Thonilinson, Matliew Livermore, 
William Packer, Samuel SoUey, and Clement March, making 
the whole number twenty-one. These gentlemen it has been 
customary to denominate, for the sake of convenience, " the 
]\[asonian Proprietors."* 

The character of Mason, in making this sale of his claims, 
appears to have been above suspicion, for he had seasonably 
notified the Assembly of the consequences that would follow 
in case of delay. The price actually paid to Mason by the 
new proprietors was fifteen hundred pounds. The settlers 
generally seem to have been indignant at first, while the gov- 
ernment of the province blustered ; but the proprietors re- 
mained unmoved. To conciliate all parties, they granted cliar- 
ters for new townships upon very liberal terms, demanding no 
pay from actual settlers ujion their lands. 

In every township granted by them, one right was set apart 
for a settled minister of the gospel, one for a parsonage, one 
for a school, and fifteen must be reserved for themselves, and, 
in some cases at least, two for their attorneys. In general also 
they stipulated that the purchasers or grantees of the new 
townships should, within a limited time, build meeting-houses, 
clear and make suitable roads, erect mills, and settle ministers. 
Of course they did not anticipate anything like rival religious 
churches and societies while imposing these conditions upon 
those who purchased their lands. 

The liberality of the Masonian proprietors soon won popular 
favor, and the settlements increased notwithstanding the great 
draft of men and money occasioned by almost constant war 

* These men were amouj? the most respected and influential in the province, and 
nine of the twenty-one held the office of councillor under the royal irovernment— viz. : 
Jotham Odiorne, appointed in 17-34 ; Theodore Atliinson, Secretary. 17:^4 and 17C3 ; 
Richard Wibird, appointed 1739 ; John Rindge, appointed 1740 ; Joseph Blanehard, ap- 
pointed 1740 ; Samuel S )lley, appointed 1753 ; M. H. Wentwortb, appointed 1759 ; Daniel 
Pierce, appointed 17G6 ; George Jafifrey, appointed 1766. 



56 IIISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

witli the French and Indians, Perplexing and expensive law- 
suits over conflicting claims were not uncommon, but the 
Revolution soon came, which effectually di posed of all such 
disputes. 

Before this, and shortly after the Masonian proprietors had 
completed their purchase, they caused townsliips to be sur- 
veyed and held in readiness to meet any satisfactory appli- 
cation for a grant. The region about the Monadnock was 
included in these surveys, and the townships were called Monad- 
nock townships and distinguished by numbers, some of them 
also by local names, which they bore until they were severally 
chartered and named by the provincial government. 

These names were as follows : ]\Jonadnock No. 1, or South 
Monadnock, included the greater part of the Massachusetts 
grant called Rowley Canada, and is now the town of Rindge ; 
Monadnock No. 2, or Middle Monadnock, is now Jaffrey ; 
Monadnock No. 3, or North Monadnock, was incorporated as 
Dublin, and included the present town of Dublin and more 
than half the town of Harrisville ; Monadnock No. 4, or 
Stoddardtown, was named Fitzwilliam at its incorporation, 
and included the present town of Fitzwilliam and fully half 
the town of Troy ; Monadnock No. 5 was called New Marl- 
borough and incorporated as Marlborough, and included the 
present town of Marlborough, a part of Roxbury, and some less 
than half of Troy ; Monadnock No. G was named Packersfield 
at its incorporation, and changed to Nelson in 1814. It in- 
cluded the present town of Nelson and a part of Harrisville. 
Monadnock No. 7 was called Limerick till its incorporation, 
when it was named Stoddard ; Monadnock No. 8 was called 
Camden till December 13th, 1776, when it was incorporated 
and named Washington. This was certainly one of the first 
places named for " the Father of his Country," perhaps the 
very first. Minor changes have been made in some of these 
towns that are not referred to in the foregoing description. 
The names Camden, Limerick, and New Marlborough were 
so generally accepted as to be used in deeds and other formal 
and legal documents. 

It should be here observed that the north-M'esteru boundary 



BOUNDARY DISPUTE SETTLED. 57 

of the Masonian grant was for some time in disi)ute. The 
last grant to Mason, whicli gave the boundaries of the territory 
ceded to liim more definitely than those of an earlier date, de- 
scribed the southern boundary as connnencingat the sea, three 
miles north of the mouth of the Merrinuic, and running west 
sixty miles. But on an appeal to the King and Council it was 
decided, as wo have already seen, that the eastern part of this 
line should follow the general course of the Merrimac, three 
miles north of it, to a point due north of Patucket Falls, 
and that from thence the course should be due west. The 
north-west line, connecting the west end of the south line with 
the north end of the east line, the colonial authorities claimed 
was a straight line, while the Masonian Proprietors contended 
that it must be a curved line, as such a line only would give 
them the sixty miles from the sea. The establishment of the 
proprietors' claim it was supposed would bring all the Monad- 
nock towns within the limits of their purchase, and so, assum- 
ing that the sixty miles from the sea reached to the south- 
west corner of Monadnock No. 4, they had issued grants 
accordingly. Thus the matter stood at the opening of the 
American Revolution. 

In 1787 the State of New Hampshire settled this question 
by measuring sixty miles west from the shore, on the Massa- 
chusetts line, and making the north-west line of the Mason 
grant straight, with no reference to the curves and indentations 
of the shore. This survey left a part of Monadnock No. 1, 
most of No. 2, and all of the other Monadnock towns outside 
of the Mason grant. The proprietors, however, came for- 
ward at once and purchased of the State of New Hampshire 
all the disputed territory they had claimed, paying for the 
same forty thousand dollars in public securities and eight hun- 
dred dollars in cash. Thus the conveyances of the Masonian 
Proprietors were rendered valid. 

The John Rindge whose name appears above at the head 
of the list of gentlemen added to the Masonian Proprietors 
after their purchase was plainly a man of established character 
and great ability ; for besides giving its name to our neigh- 
bor on the east, he was employed in 1731 by the province of 



58 IIISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

New Hainpsliire as its agent, and sent to London to petition 

the kino; to decide between the eonflictino- claims of Massa- 

chusetts and New Hampshire. Great interests were pending, 

and Rindge and Thomlinson, who succeeded liim in the agency, 

did not a little to secure a decision in favor of our province. 

The twenty-one Masonian Proprietors, through their agent, 

Joseph Blanchard, on Jn'i-"v" I5th, 17^'^ -'^ t'^*^ Term Lim- 

Cotton and forty-one ot the ' j ^^"g^'' ^^"^^ ^^''^^ '^^<^" ''^- 

-., T , -KT 4 , :)ii the Grantors have "P-- 

JMonadnock JNo. 4, now licz,^ m. ..f ,. . , oix oi 

Roland Cotton's associates in this '.^^ ,. >i'e as follows : 

.Tosiali Cotton, Matthew Thornton, Samj)son Stoddard, Thomas 

Read, ^Yilliam Lawrence, and John Stevens. 

The exact conditions of this grant cannot here be given in 
full, but it is known that they required of each of the grantees 
the clearing of a certain number of acres upon one or more of 
the lots drawn by him within a specified time, the building of 
a house upon the same, with a family actually residing in it, 
the opening of roads, the establishment of a school, and the 
building of a meeting-house. 

This ffrant of lYo2 became void because its conditions were 
not fulfilled. The reasons of this failure we can easily con- 
jecture. All kinds of business had been disturbed by the war 
between England and France, which ended in 1718. A new 
struggle between the same nations was in the air, and this, 
which proved to be " the Seven Years' War," or " the French 
and Indian AYai*," as it was variously called, promised to be 
the most costly and destructive for the American provinces. 
It M^as no time for the settlement and improvement of a new 
township like Monadnock No. 4. But though they failed to 
comply with the conditions of their contract, Roland Cotton 
and his associates seem not to have lost all their interest in the 
township, for at a later date an amicable settlement was made. 
As will be seen, a new grant was made in 176.5, and many of 
the grantees in \ 752 became grantees under the new contract, 
for in this their hardships are alluded to, and are treated with 
due consideration. Sampson Stoddard, Mattliew Thornton, 
and John Stevens were grantees in both cases, and the second 
list of grantees doubtless included all of the first who luid done 



GRANT OF MONADNOCK NO. 4. 59 

anytliino^ in the way of improvement, and wislicd to be in- 
cluded in the new company. 

We have now readied a point in this history when tlie 
records of all the parties concerned are comparatively full and 
explicit. 

"What immediately follows is an exact copy of the oldest 

Fourthly that' . :^^ ^f ^he ^-wo. It readilv explains it- 
ment) Build fifty house. > ^.^^^^^ .^ ^^^^ grant of the town- 

• ^'^ on One of the Lotl'-, ^^r'.;" •. • n ,i t • ^ i 

ship, \yj... ■ .,, i»v,„ia'i wni' ""itli'ail the conditions attached 

to it in plain lUxij, ^ .^^ -a 'penmanship in which this record 

appears in the ancient book is a model of plainness and beanty. 

The orthography of business men one hundred and twenty 

years ago has been carefully preserved, and it will be seen to 

vary but little from what the best usage now requires. 

The free use of capital letters will be noted. A few words 

evidently omitted by mistake in the original are inserted in 

brackets. 

At a meeting of the Prop" of the Lands Purchased of 
Province of (_ John Tufton Mason Esqr in New Hamp'^ held at Portsm"^ 
New Hamp*^ { in said Province on Wednesday the first Day of May 

Anno Domini 1765, by adjournment. 

WHEREAS the said Prop" on the 6'>' day of December 1751 author- 
ized and Impowered Joseph Blanchard, late of Dunstable in said Prov- 
ince, Esqr. to Grant their Right, Title and Interest in and to the Lands 
within their Claim, to such persons as would Engage to Settle and Im- 
prove the same, under such Limitations and Conditions as Were Just 
and Reasonable. Pursuant to Which Power, he, on the 15"> Day of Jan- 
uary, Anno Domini 1752, granted to Roland Cotton, .losiah Cotton, Mat- 
thew Thornton, Sampson Stoddard, Thomas Read, William Lawrence, 
John Stevens & thirty five others, all the Right, Title, Interest, claim. 
Property and Demand of said Proprietors of, in and unto that Tract of 
Land Called Monadnock No. 4, bounded as follows, " Beginning at the 
West Line of Masons' Patent so called where that crosses the Dividing 
Line Between the Province of Massachusetts Bay and the Province of 
New Hamp" and runs from thence South Eighty degrees East by said 
Line, Six Miles to the South West Corner of the South Monadnock 
Township, from thence North by the Needle by said Townshij) Five Miles 
to the North West corner of South Monadnock aforesaid, from thence 
North Eighty Degrees West by Middle Monadnock Township, one mile and 
a Quarter to the South West Corner thereof, thence North by the Needle 
two miles and forty rods and from thence North Eighty Degrees [West] 



60 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

till [it] comes to the Patent West Line as Lately Marked and fromtlience 
Southerly by that Line to the first Bounds mentioned." To have and 
to hold, to them their heirs and assigns, on the Terms and Conditions in 
Said Grant expressed with a Right of the Entry Reserved on the failure 
or Default of Performing and fully complying with the Same as may 
more fully appear by Reference to Said Grant, 

And whereas the Said Grantees have Incured the forfeiture of 
Said Grant by not fulfilling the Said Conditions withlr die Term Liin- 
ited, and tho' by Sufferance and forbearance a longer time has been al- 
lowed, which yet has not availed, Whereupra the Grantors hava "'20!- 
entered and Resumed the Possession of Said Tl'Vact i/i Xan'd, and the 
Said Grantees acknowledging their Neglect and Default herein, and the 
Right of Resumption, have peaceably surrendered the same, and have 
petitioned the Said Proprietors to make a new grant thereof to the Pe- 
titioners (principally the former Grantees) all which having been Duly 
Considered, and also that many of them have Done Something in order 
to Improvement and that it would be more Equitable they should have 
the advantage thereof than strangers. Therefore 

VOTED, That all the Right, Title, Interest, Property, Claim & Demand 
of the Said Proprietors be and hereby is Granted to Col 
Sampson Stoddard Esqr. Edmund Grouard, Jacob Treadwell Jr. Jonathan 
Lovewell and Nineteen others whose Names are mentioned in the 
Schedule or List hereunto annexed Making twenty three in the Whole, in 
and to said Tract of Land above Described on the Terms Conditions and 
Limitations hereafter Expressed, 

To HAVE AND To HOLD to them and to their Several and Respective 

heirs and assigns in Severalty as the same has 
been Divided into Seperate lots and as the said Lots are Numbered and 
Set to the Respective Names in Said Schedule on the following Terms 
Conditions & Limitations — 

First that twenty of the Shares as the same are Sever'd allotted and 
Divided Numbered and fixed to the Several Names in Said 
Schedule be and hereby is Reserved to the use of the Grantors their heirs 
and assigns free and Exempted of and from all charges of settlement and 
all Other charges untill Improved by them their heirs or assigns — and 
also that two hundred acres Lay'd out for the Grantors at the North 
Easterly part of Said Tract of land as appears by Said Schedule and a 
plan thereof be in like manner Reserved to them their heirs & assigns. 

Secondly that those of the Aforesaid Shares be and hereby are ap- 
propriated one for the first Settled minister one for the use 
of the Ministry and one for tho use of a School on Said Tract of Land 
when settled. 

Thirdly that the Remaining Shares be and hereby are Granted and 
appropriated to the Several Persons and Sever'd to them 



GRANT OF MONADJSlOCK NO. 4. 61 

Respectively as is mentioned and Number'd in Said Schedule ; And Each 
lot of Land in Said Tract shall be Subject to have Necessary high Ways 
Lay'd out thro' them as there shall be Occasion hereafter free from the 
charge of purchasing the Land that is tlie Owners of Said Lots shalLnot 
be paid for that part thereof which shall be so Necessarily Lay'd out in 
high ^Yays untill an Incorporation and then to come under the Rules of 
Law in that Regard. 

FoiTRTHLT that the Grantees aforesaid, (subject to the Duty of Settle- 
ment) Build fifty houses on Said Tract of Land Such Shares to have one 
house on One of the Lots belonging to it Respectively as the Grantees 
shall determine by regular Votes according to their Interests within three 
Years from the Date hereof Each House to be Built so as to have one 
Room Sixteen feet Square or Equal thereto and also to have Twelve acres 
Land cleared and fitted for Tillage Pasture and Mowing within the term 
of three Years and to add an acre more annually till the Inhabitants there 
shall ba Incorporated, (on each Share), the said houses to be Well fitted 
and made Comfortable habitations and the Said Laud to be cleared in a 
good Husbandman like manner and every Particular Grantee aforesaid 
shall pay his Due Proportion of all Taxes and Charges necessary to the 
Making Said Settlement in the articles aforesaid and in what follows 
on Pain of forfeiting his Right in Said Land or so much thereof as shall 
answer his proportion of such Taxes and Charges to be disposed of by a 
Committee chosen by a major part of the Grantees (appointed for that 
purpose). 

Fifthly the said Grantees shall build a Convenient Meeting House for 
Public Worship within five years from the Date hereof and 
shall Maintain Constant preaching there from after the Term of six 
Years from the Date hereof. 

Sixthly all white pine Trees Growing on any part«of said Land tho' 
severd into Lots, are hereby Reserved, that are fit for his 
Majesty's Use for that purpose to him his heirs and successors. 

Seventhly if the Grantees shall fail and make default of Completing 
the Settlement according to the Terms and Limitations 
aforesaid it shall be lawful to and for the said Proprietors and their suc- 
cessors to Re-enter into and upon the Said Tract of Land to Resume the 
same and to become Re-seized thereof as in their former Estate and as 
if this grant had not been made. 

Copy of Record 

Attest ; Geo. Jaffrey Prop. Cler. 

Received and Recorded this 22' Day of May 1765. 
Exam. 

Sampson Stoddard Jr. 

Pros. Clerk. 






62 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



Names op the Geanteks in Monadnock No. 4. 



Col. Sampson Stoddard 

Edmund Grouard 

Jacob Treadwell Jun 

Jonathan Lovewell 

Col. Stoddard 

Benjamin Bellows 

Col. Stoddard 

Matthew Thornton 

Nath'. Brooks 

Thomas Spaulding 

Matthew Tliornton 

M. Thornton 

Grantor Meserve and others.. . 

John Honey 

Col. Stoddard 

Kath' . Treadwell 

Abel Lawrence Esqr 

Col. Stoddard 

Paul March 

James Reed 

Col. Stoddard 

Grantor John Wentworth .... 

Grantor John Rijidffe 

Edmund Grouard 

Matthew Thornton , 

Grantor Solly & March 

Grantor Col. Wallingford. . . . 
Grantor M. H. J. VVentworth, 
Thomas Spaulding, 
The Heirs or 
jSIathaniel Brooks 

Col. Stoddard 

Matthew Thornton . 

James Reed 

James Reed 

Charles Treadwell . . . 

Col. Stoddard 

Grantor Geo: Jaffrey 
Grantor Joslr' Pierce. 
Abel Lawrence 



Assigns of Geo. 



Libbey , 





d 


a 


1 


6 


12 


2 


1 


12 


3 


3 


12 


4 


4 


12 


5 


5 


12 


G 


7 


12 


7 


8 


12 


8 


9 


12 


9 


10 


12 


10 


11 


12 


11 


12 


12 


12 


13 


12 


13 


1 


1 


14 


15 


12 


15 


16 


12 


16 


17 


12 


17 


18 


12 


18 


19 


12 


19 


20 


12 


20 


21 


12 


21 


1 


11 


22 


12 


8 


23 


2 


9 


24 


4 


11 


2.5 


5 


11 


26 


3 


11 


27 


4 


9 


28 


5 


6 


29 


9 


11 


30 


10 


11 


31 


11 


11 


32 


12 


11 


33 


13 


11 


34 


14 


11 


35 


15 


11 


36 


16 


11 


37 


17 


11 


38 


6 


8 


39 


7 


9 


40 


20 


11 



3 



15 

9 

13 

11 

14 

13 

12 

16 

17 

6 

16 

17 

1 

16 

17 

10 

11 

10 

9 

12 

6 

12 

2 

10 

11 

4 

5 

6 

9 



9 
12 
8 
8 
9 
9 
7 
9 
7 
2 
5 
5 
2 
4 
4 
6 
6 
7 
9 
6 
9 
9 
11 
9 
9 
2 
5 
6 
7 

10 10 
1110 
13 10 
15 10 
16, 8 
13! 6 



13 

17 
6 

7 



7 

8 

11 

11 



4! 4 



DIVISION OF TOWNSHIP. 



63 



Names of tub Grantees in Monadnock No. 4. 



Col. Stoddard 

John Stevens 

Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

Grantor Nath' Pierce 

Col. Stoddard 

Grantor Tlio'. Packer 

Grantor Jon. Blanchard 

Grantor W'" Packer 

Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

John Stevens 

W"' Earl Tread well 

Col. Stoddard 

J ames Keed 

Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

Daniel Millen 

Matthew Thornton 

Grantor Col. Atkinson 

James Reed 

Grantor M. Livermore 

Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

Grantor Noah Emory of Kittery 

Sampson Stoddard Jiin 

Jonathan Lovewell 

Col. Stoddard 

Jon" VVillson 

Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

John Woods 

Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 



a 

ft 



41 
42 
43 
44 

45 
46 
47 

48 
49 
50 
51 



21 
1 
3 
4 

5 
8 
12 
8 
10 
15 
20 



52'22 
53|22 
54121 
55 1 22 
50 23 
57 1 
3 



59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 

67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
SO 



17 
19 
20 
21 
22 

1 
15 

5 
14 

8 
10 
18 
18 

8 
20 
21 

6 

7 

8 

18 

20 



11 

10 
10 

lo' 

10 

I 

10 

11 

5! 

2 
10 
12 
11' 
10 
10 
10 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
9 
8 
4 
8 
12 
8: 
8, 
5 
8 

i 

8] 
8 
7 



6 
10 
10 
10 
10 
9 
9 



9 


5 


15 


1 


15 


3 


4 


8 


4 


6 


5 


2 


13 


5 


3 


6 


8 


6 


18 


9 


3 


8 


13 


3 


10 


4 


4 


7 


9 


4 


23 


9 


1 


7 


14 


10 


12 


4 


16 


10 


9 


8 


6 


4 


17 


10 


10 


3 


9 


2 


23 


8 


11 


2 


5 


7 


i 


1 


19 


7 


23 


7 


23 


6 


22 


7 



64 



HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



Names of the Ghaktees in Monadnock No. 4. 



84: 

85 
86 



91 

92 
93 
94 
95 
96 



Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

Grantor Thomliiison & Mason 

Col. Stoddard 

James Reed 

Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

Grantor Jothani Odiorne 

Col. Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

James Reed 

Jonathan Blancliard 

James Reed 

Col. Stoddard 

Sampson Stoddard Jun 

Col. Stoddard 

Matthew Thornton 

Col. Stoddard 

Jonathan Lovewell 100 

Col. Stoddard 'lOl 

Capt. Benj" Edwards 102 

Capt. Benf Edwards 103 

Heirs or Assigns of Jere: Libbey . 104 

Abel Lawrence, Esqr 105 

M. Tliornton 106 

Jon" Willson 1107 

Grantor Richard Wibird, Esqr. . 108 

Col. Stoddard '109 

Col. Stoddard 

Benjamin Bellows 

Col. Stoddard 

James Reed 

Grantor John Moffatt 

Col. Stoddard , 

Col. Stoddard 

Grantor Fierce and Moor 

Col. Stoddard 

Daniel Millen 

Col. Stoddard 



8121 

82 
83 



18 

9 

17 

8718 
8819 
8919 
9021 



97|19 

98,20 

99 21 

2 

1 

2 

3 

5 

7 

11 

14 

19 

1 

2 

4 

6, 
9: 
9 



110 
111 
112 
113 
114 

115 16 

116 2 

117 23 
11812 
119|15 
120; 4 





to 
a 



7 
6 
6 

10 
6 
6 
6 
6 
8 
6 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
8 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4i 
4' 

11' 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

10 
3 
2 

11 
2 
8 
1 






tu 

c 



14 3 
131 4 

12 3 
1811 



10 

13 

14 

11 

19 

22 

3 

3 

11 

12 

13 

14 

18 

23 

7 

2 

8 

20 

6 

21 

23 

22 

19 

20 

14 

15 

5 

7 

10 

22 

16 

3 



1 

2 
2 
3 
10 
6 
3 
5 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
5 
2 
7 
4 
4 
1 
4 
4 
4 
4 
6 
5 
5* 
3 
3 
2 
5 
2 
2 



2312 

2i 1 
8 1 
5' 1 



DTVISIOi!^ OF TOWlSrSIIIP. 



65 



Names of the Grantees in Monadnock No. 4. 



For the Ministry 

For the first settled Minister 

For a School 

Two hundred acres Lay'd out for the Grantors 
at the Korth Easterly part of the town, as 
per plan Exhibited herewith. 

Col, Stoddard 

Col. Stoddard 

the Same 

the Same 

the Same 

the Same 



at 



121 
122 

123 



6 ' ^ 



12 
11 
11 



o 







16 
7 
3 



22 8 14 



e 

s 



1 

8 
1 



14 


6, 


14 


15 


6 


15 


16 


6 


'16 


17 


1 


|17 


17 


3 


9 



8 
7 
7 
7 
2 
1 



May 1, 1765. This Schedule Exhibited 

By Sampson Stoddard. 

Jon" Blanchard. 

Copy Exam'' per Geo: Jaifrey Prop' Cler. 
Keceived and Recorded this 22'' day of May 1765. 

Exam'' per Sampson Stoddard Jun. Prop^ Clerk.* 

A copy of the original plan of the town, but much reduced 
in size, is here given. In the original plan the names of the 
owners are inserted in the lots, but in this plan they are 
designated by figures, referring to the accompanying index. 
The number of lots owned by each person is also given, it 
being miderstood that two lots constituted a share. This gave 
about fonr fifths of the land to the settlers. The same was 



* How the name of Noah Emory of Kittery, draft 70, appears amonp the grantors 
in the foregoing table of drawings is not linown, as his name is not found in the list of 
Masonian Proprietors. It will be noticed that Messrs. Solley and March, ThomlinsoD 
and Mason, and Pierce and Moore, grantors, were coupled together in the drawing, 
which may indicate that changes had taken place among the proprietors between 
1746 and 17G5, and this certainly is not improbable. The grantors had twenty shares. 



66 



HISTOEY OF FITZ WILLIAM. 



true in the division of Marlborough, but in that of Dubhn and 
Rindge, settled earlier, three lots constituted a share. Three 
lots to a share retained three hundred acres to each Masonian 
projjrietor instead of two hundred acres, a^ in Fitzwilliam and 
Marlborough. 




The heavy zigzag line across the north part of the town 
SHOWS the lots that were set off as a part op the town of 
Troy. 



LOTS OF GRANTEES AND GRANTORS. 



67 



Grantees, the Town 
Proprietors. 



Number 
of Lots 
Owned. 



Num- 
bered' 
on ihe 
Plan. 

1 . . . Sampson Stoddard 110 

2 . . . James Reed 18 

3. . .Matthew Thornton 16 

4 . . . Abel Lawrence 6 

5 . . . Jona. Lovewell 6 

6 . . . Benjamin Bellows 4 

7 . . . Nathaniel Brooks 4 

8. . .Capt. Benj. Edwards 4 

9 . . . Edmvind Grouard 4 

10 . . . Daniel Mellen 4 

11... John Stevens 4 

12. . .Thomas Spaulding 4 

18.. S. Stoddard, Jr 4 

14... Jona. Willson 4 

15 . . . Jona. Blanchard 3 

IG. ..John Honey 2 

17. . .Heirs of George Libbey. . 2 

18.. . " " Jere. Libbey 2 

19... Paul March 2 

20 . . . Chas. Treadwell 2 

21 . . .Jacob Treadwell, Jr 2 

22...Nath'l Treadwell 2 

23. . . Wm. E. Treadwell 2 

24. ..John "Woods 2 



Num- 
bered Grantors, the Masonian 
on the Proprietors. 

Plan. 

. John Wentworth 2 



Number 
of Lots 
Owned. 



25.. 

26.. .John Rindge 2 

27 . . . George Jaffrey 2 

28 . . . Nathaniel Pierce 2 

29 . . . M. Livermore 2 

30 . . . Joshua Pierce 2 

31... Richard Wibird 2 

32... William Parker 2 

33 ... M. H. J. Wentworth 2 

34 . . . Col. Wallingford 2 

35 . . . Noah Emery 2 

36... Thomas Packer 2 

37. . .Col. Atkinson 2 

38 . . . Jotham Odiorne 2 

39...JohnMoffatt 2 

40. . .Joseph Blanchard 2 

41 . , . Thomlinson »fc Mason .... 2 

42... Solly & March 2 

43 . . .Pierce & Moore 2 

44. . .Meserve & others 2 

M . . . For the Ministry 2 

FM. .For first Minister 2 

S... For Schools 2 



Total number of Lots 258 



The lots were theoretically one hundred and sixty rods in 
length from east to west and one hundred rods in width from 
north to south, and each was supposed to contain one hundred 
acres. But in reality there was considerable variation in their 
size, and they exceeded one hundred acres on an average. 

From some cause which it is now impossible to explain, the 
twelfth tier of lots was much narrower than the average, hav- 
ing been but seventy-five rods wide on the Kichmond line and 
not far from fifty rods wide on the border of Rindge. From 
certain sul)sequent references to " the narrow tier," it would 
seem that this defect was not known when the allotment was 
made. 

It was also ascertained, after the settlement of the town was 



68 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



commenced, tliat the town of Jaft'rej extended farther west 
than was supposed at the time of the allotment, and that not 
only the six half lots in the third range but also a portion of 
the adjoining lots in the fourth range were included in the 
limits of that town. Four of these half lots, or two hundred 
acres, were assigned originally to the grantors, the Masonian 
Proprietors, and the other two were drawn by Colonel Samp- 
son Stoddard when the division was made. 

In regard to the manner in which the drawing was conducted 
we have no information, but from the irregularity in coupling 
the two parts that constituted the same share, as well as in the 
allotment generally, it seems probable that the arrangement 
was made by lot. It will be noticed that in the boundaries of 
I the township, as given in the grant, the length of the north 
line and the length and course of the west line are not stated. 
If the west line of the Mason grant was a curved line, as the 
owners claimed it should have been, Monadnock j^o. 4 should 
have been somewhat wider on the nortliern than on the south- 
ern boundary, but such does not appear to have been the case. 

Below is given, in rods, the length of the boundary-lines 
(1) as stated in the grant, calling the lines on the north and 
west the same as on the south and east ; (2) from a sur- 
vey made by S. Hemingway in 1807, and (3) from peram- 
•bnlations of the lines in 1847. 





West line on 
Richmond 

and 
Swauzey. 


North line 

on 
Marlbor- 
ough. 


East line 

on 
Jaffrey. 


North line 

on 

Jaffrey. 


East line 

on 
Eindge. 


South line 

on 

Mass. 


1 

2 
3 


2280 
2312 


1520 
1390 


680 

665 


4C0 
586 
603 


1600 
1654 
1732 


1920 

2005 



The territory ceded by the Masonian Proprietors was designed 
to constitute a township six miles square ; but as the early sur- 
veys were far from being exact, it was in reality somewhat 
larger. According to the plan of the township there were 
two hundred and fifty-eight lots to dispose of. As will be 
seen. Colonel Sampson Stoddard was by far the largest share- 
holder. 



JOIIX TUFTON MASON. 69 

According to the terms of the grant by tlie Masonian Pro- 
prietors, each of them, twenty-one in number, had one share 
or two lots, though some of these men appear witli partners at 
tlie drawing and selection. Thus " Grantor Moserve and 
others" are found upon the list as owners ; also " Grantor 
Thomlinson and Mason." This Mason was, without doubt, 
the John Tufton Mason who sold the entire Mason claim to 
the twelve men of Portsmouth and vicinity, January 30th, 
1746 ; and it is an interesting fact that the name of Captain 
John Mason now reappears in the history of one of the Mo- 
nadnock towns, in the person of his great-great-grandson, one 
hundred and thirty years after the death of his distinguished 
ancestor. 



CHAPTER Y. 

ACTS OF THE PEOPEIETOES, 1765-1S15, 

Meetings— Officers— " The Fifty Settlements" — Provision for a Meeting- 
House — Preacliing — Meeting-House Raised — Mr. Benjamin Brigbam — 
His Ordination — Pews— Pastor's Salary — Roads and Bridges — Move- 
ment for Incorporation — Minister's Support Assumed by Town. 

WITHIN twenty days after t]ie Masoii Proprietors had 
transferred their rights in Monadnock No, 4 to the 
new owners, the latter took measures to perfect their organiza- 
tion in a legal manner as a new company, and to open the way 
for the settlement of the township. For this purpose the fol- 
lowing notice was issued, signed by sixteen of the grantees, 
who now took the name of proprietors : 

Whereas the Proprietors of the Lands granted by John Tuftoa Mason 
Esqr. commonly called Mason's Patent, have lately granted to us (with 
some few others) a Tract of Land about six Miles Square as may appear 
by the Grant, with conditions of settlement and in order to the Carrying 
on the same with Effect it is Necessary some meathod should be pursued 
by General Consent by the Grantees for which end it is proposed that 
they shall meet at the Dwelling house of Thomas Harwood in Dunstable 
on Monday the 20th Day of May Instant at Twelve O'clock at noon then 
and there when met to Chuse a Clerk for the Grantees and to act on any 
other matter or thing that shall then be projected being necessary for 
Carrying forward and Compleating the Settlement aforesaid. 

William Earl Treadwell, Benj" Edwards, Paul March, Jacob Tread- 
well Jun, Charles Treadwell, Sampson Stoddard, Matthew Thornton, 
Jacob Treadwell Jun. for Edmund Grouard, Nath' Treadwell, Jonathan 
Blanchard, Thomas Spaulding, Sampson Stoddard Jun. Nath' Brooks, 
Abel Lawren'.-e, Daniel Millen, James Reed. 

A True Copy of the Original. 

Exam' per Sampson Stoddard Jun. 

What follows will explain itself : 

At a meeting of the Prop" the Grantees of that Tract of Land called 
Monadnock No 4 in the Province of New Hampshire Granted by the 



MEETINGS OF PROPRIETORS. 71 

Purchasers of Mason's right so called held at the house of Thomas Har- 
wood in Dunstable on Monday the 20th day of May 1765 — 
1st. Col. Sampson Stoddard unanimously chosen Moderator. 

2. Chose Sampson Stoddard Jun. Clerk for the Grantees. 

3. then the following meathodfor Calling meetings for the future was 
agreed upon and Voted that upon application of the Owners of Ten 
Original Shares made in writing to the Clerk (for the Time Being) In- 
serting therein the Several matters and things Desired to be acted upon 
he shall and is hereby authorized and Impowered to Call such a Meet- 
ing or meetings Posting proper Notifications at some place in Dunstable 
in New Hamp"^* and at some public place in Chelmsford at least fourteen 
Days Before hand and all meetings so posted and held accordingly shall be 
good and Valid. Then this meeting was dismiss''. 

May 20. 1765. Attest Sampson Stoddard 

Mod^ 
A true Copy of the Original Exam** per Sampson Stoddard Jun. 

Prop' Clerk. 

The next meeting of the proprietors was called by Sampson 
Stoddard, junior, clerk, for Monday, August 19th, 1765, at one 
o'clock in the afternoon, at the lionse of Captain Oliver Bar- 
ron, innholder in Chelmsford, 

then and there when met to act on the following articles as they shall 
judge proper — 

1st. To see who of the Grantees shall make the fifty Settlements en- 
joined by grant and to act thereon as shall Be agreed on. 

2d. To raise Money by a tax for any use for carrying forward and 
compleating the settlement of said Township. 

3dly. To see if the Grantees will give any Encouragement Towards 
Building Mills in said Township and to Do and act as they shall deem 
proper. 

4th. To Chuse a Committee to Receive Examine and Allow all ac- 
counts of any Person or Persons who have done Service for the Prop'* or 
paid money for Cutting or Clearing Rodes and to do and act in that re- 
gard as they shall think proper. 

5th. To Chuse a Treasurer and Collector. 

6th. To Chuse a Committee to Lay out Rodes &c. 

Dated at Chelmsford the 27th day of July 1765. 

A true Copy of the Original Notification made Out by me in Conse- 
quence of an application for that Purpose on file, and posted the time 
Required. 

Exam' per Sampson Stoddard Jun 

Prop' Clerk. 



72 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

The record of the important meeting thus called is as fol- 
lows : 

At a meeting of the Grantees of the Tract of Land Lying in the Prov- 
ince of New Hamp"* called Monadnock No. four holden at the house of 
Capt. Oliver Barron Innholder in Chelmsford on Monday the 19th day 
of August 17b"5 

Chose Col. Stoddard Mod^ 

Whereas the Grantees are Injoyned by grant of said Township to build 
fifty houses and make them comfortable habitations on said Tract of 
Land such shares to build as the Grantees shall determine and also to 
have twelve acres of Land Cleared and fitted for Ti!la"-e* Pasturing and 
Mowing and to add an acre more annually (till an Incorporation) on each 
subject to the Duty of Settlement, 

Therefore Voted that the said settlements be done and performed by 
the following Grnntees and in the proportion hereinafter declared. 
Namely Col. Stoddard eighteen, Edmund Grouard two, Jacob Tread- 
well junior one, Jonathan Lovewell one, Benjamin Bellows two, Matthew 
Thornton three, Nath' Brooks one, Thomas Spaulding one, John Honey 
one, Natb^ Treadwell one, Abel Lawrence three, Paul March one, James 
Reed four, heirs of George Libbey one, Charles Treadwell one, John 
Stevens one, Daniel Milieu one, Jonathan Blanchard one, Jonathan Will- 
son two, John Woods one, Sampson Stoddard Jun. one, Benjamin Ed- 
wards one and the heirs of Jere'' Libbey one, by building and Clearing 
in such way and manner as to fulfill the Grant. 

2dly. Voted that the sum of five Dollars on each share, two lots to a 
share, be assessed and Immediately Collected by the Treasurer of this 
Propriety to answer and Pay the Necessary Charges and Expenses al- 
ready arisen and arising in Bringing forward the settlement of said 
Township. 

3dly. And whereas the speedy settlement of said Township Depends 
much upon having a Good saw Mill Built there as soon as may be, 

Voted that in consideration of Col. Stoddard's conveying to Mr. Daniel 
Milieu two lots of Land then having a Mill plase on em for encourage- 
ment of his undertaking the arduous Task of Building and Keeping a 
.saw Mill in repair to be fit to go, within fourteen months that said Stod- 
dard be Intitled to Draw out of the Treasury Twenty pounds Lawful 
money and that sum to be in full for the said two lots of Land. 

4thly. Voted that Col. Stoddard and Mr. Sampson Stoddard Jr. be a 
Committee to Receive, Examine and allow all accounts of any person or 
Persons who have done service for the Prop^ and that upon their order 
to the Treasurer he is Directed to pay the Same accordingly. 

5thly. Voted that Jonathan Blanchard be Treasurer to this Propriety 
and Collector of the several Rates and Taxes that is or shall be raised 
untill the Prop'> order the contrary. 



THE FATIIEMS OF THE TOWN. 73 

6. Votefl that Mess" Daniel MiUen, JainesReed and Benjamin Bigelow 
be a Committee, or tlie Major Part of them to Mark, Lay out and clere 
all necessary Rodes iu said Township rendering their accounts to accept- 
ance untill the Prop' order the contrary. Then the Meeting was Dismiss'. 

Attest Sampson Stoddard 
A true copy Exam'' Mod : 

per Sampson Stoddard Jun. 

P. C. 

^ It will be noticed that in the last vote of the proprietors at 
their meeting, August 19tli, 1765, the name of Benjamin 
Bigelow appears for the first time upon the records of Monad- 
nock No. 4, associated with the names of Daniel Millen and 
James Reed, From this time "forward these three men are to 
bs regarded as " the fathers of the town," for no others prob- 
ably were equally efficient in labor and sacrihce for promoting 
its prosperity. 

Daniel Millen (or Mellen, as the name was soon spelled) and 
James Reed were owners of lots under the original allotment, 
but Benjamin Bigelow doubtless purchased his property of 
some one of the grantees. It is believed that he removed to 
Monadnock No. 4 as early as 1761 or 1762, as he was the 
father of the first wdiite child born in tlie township. This 
child, Beulah Bigelow, was born May 10th, 1762. The prob- 
ability is that Benjamin Bigelow negotiated for land here with 
some one of the first company of grantees, and that when the 
tow^nship passed into the hands of the second company and 
was divided into lots, with separate owners, his rightful claims 
for improvements were duly regarded. 

Nearly two years elapsed after the meeting of the propri- 
etors, August 19th, 1765, before they were called together 
again for business. Important matters now required atten- 
tion, as we learn from the notification of the clerk, which 
called the proprietors to " assemble and meet at the house of 
Captain Oliver Barron, innkeeper in Chelmsford, on Wednes- 
day, the first day of July next, 1767," and as we learn from 
the records of the meeting (but not from the notification 
of the clerk) "at 10 o'clock before noon," to act upon a 



74 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

long list of articles, the most important of which were the fol- 
lowing : 

To see if the Proprietors will elect a new Clerk, Treasurer & Collector. 

To choose a Committee to fix a proper and convenient place for set- 
ting a meeting house on and to lay out land for a Burying Yard. 

To choose a Committee or Committees for Rodes and Bridges that 
may then be thought proper. 

To choose a Committee to sell the Delinquent Prop^ Lands for Taxes 
due already or that may be raised. 

To see what encouragement the Proprietors will give to any Person 
who will undertake to build a good Corn Mill in said town. 

, The meeting called by the notification above, a part of 
which is copied, was held at the lionse of Oliver Barron, inn- 
holder in Chelmsford, Jnly 1st, 1767. As usual, Colonel 
Stoddard was chosen moderator, when it was 

Voted that Jonathan Blanchard be Proprietor's Clerk. 

Voted that Messrs Daniel Millen, James Reed and Benjamin Bigelow be 
a Committee to fix a proper place for setting a Meeting house for Public 
Worshiji and to lay out Land for a Burying Yard. 

Voted, that Messrs Daniel Millen, James Reed and Benjamin Bigelow 
be a Committee to sell the Delinquent Proprietor's Lands for nou-Pay- 
ment of Taxes. 

The other articles pass'^ over. 

The committee above named to fix upon a site for a 
meeting-house and to lay out a cemetery seem to have failed, 
for some reason, to do the business assigned them, and so these 
matters came up for action at the next meeting of the propri- 
etors, which was holden more than a year later. 

This meeting was legally called and held " at the house of 
Captain Thomas Cow^din, innholder in Fitchburg, in the 
county of Worcester, and in the province of Massachusetts 
Bay," October 11th, 1768. 

Colonel Stoddard was chosen moderator, James Reed, Esq., 
was chosen treasurer, and Mr. Daniel Millen, collector. 

Voted that Messrs Daniel Millen, John Farrer, James Reed, Benjamin 
Bigelow and Silas Wetherbee or the Majority of them, be a Committee 
to fix a proper place for setting a Meeting house and to lay out Land for 
a Burying yard. 



SITE FOR THE MEETING-HOUSE. 75 

Voted th^t Messrs Aaron Gearfield, John Millen, Benjamin Davidson, 
Isaac Applin and James Reed be a Committee, or the I\Iaj' part of them, 
to mark, lay out and Clear and Bridge any Rodes wanted in said town. 

Voted that five Dollars be Raised on each share of the Grantees, two 
Lots to a share, and be immediately paid to the Collector. 

Voted the sum of fourteen pounds L" M" {lawful money) out of the 
said sum be appropriated to Pay for Preaching, and that the four Sab- 
baths already preached by Mr. Parker be paid out of the said fourteen 
pounds, and that Mr. Benj" Bigelow be a Committee man to provide a 
suitable Gentleman to Preach so long as the said siuii holds out. 

Voted the sum of £20.0 L" M" be paid to Col. Stoddard In Considera- 
tion of his Conveying to Mr. Tiffany two Lots of Land to Build a grist 
Mill on, and that sum to be in full for the same. 

Voted, that the Wages that shall be allowed to Each man for doing 
Labor on the high Ways do not exceed three shillings per day. 

Voted that the Rev. John Millen be earnestly desired at the cost and 
Charge of this Proprietary, to repair to Portsmouth as soon as his pleas- 
ure suits and make application to the General Court of New Hampshire 
for a confirmation of the meetings of the Proprietors of this town, and 
for a full power to be given to the Proprietors to sell Delinquents' Land 
for the non Payment of Taxes. 

Other matters of no general importance received attention at 
this meetinof. 

From the fact tliat the committee appointed more than a 
year before to select a site for a meeting-house and lay out a 
burying-yard was reappointed and enlarged at the meeting 
October 11th, 1768, we are to infer that there were obstacles 
in the way of accomplishing these objects which it took time 
and careful management to remove. No central village had 
as yet sprung up to influence decisively the matter of location. 
The settlers, still few in number, were spread over a large 
territory, and for a considerable period it was doubtful where 
they could best be accommodated in their public gatherings. 
Rarely can a churcli be located even now without much 
thought, long debates, and a compromise between conflicting 
interests ; and we cannot tax the committee first appointed 
\vith inefficiency if, after the lapse of fifteen months, they 
found themselves unable to report substantial progress. 

From the record of the meeting of the proprietors, October 
11th, 1768, just given, it also appears that the delinquent tax- 



76 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

payers in Monadnock No. 4 resisted the sale of tlieir lands to 
make good the claims of the c-ollector. This they doubtless 
did because they had discovered an illegality of some kind in 
the action of the proprietors regarding this matter, and so an 
agent was appointed and despatched to the General Court to 
ask for a conlirmation of the proceedings of the proprietors, 
and such action as should leave no ground for dispute in the 
future. This agent, the Rev. John Mellen, was a younger 
brother of the Daniel Mellen who was so prominent in the 
settlement of Fitzwilliam, and was at this time pastor of the 
church in Sterling, Mass. The records give us no information 
in regard to the result of his mission, but we may conclude 
that it was successful, as we hear of no further trouble in 
regard to selling delincpient lands. It appears, moreover, 
from the record of the same meeting of the proprietors, that 
public worship was maintained in Monadnock No. 4 certainly 
as early as 1768, for Mr. Nehemiah Parker, a graduate of 
Harvard College in 1763, served the people here in the min- 
istry during the autumn of 1768, and a part at least of the 
winter following. Mr. Parker was ordained as pastor at Hub- 
bardston, Mass., June 13th, 1770. 

The next meeting of the proprietors was regularly called by 
Jonathan Blanchard, clerk, and was holden at the house of 
James Peed, Esq., in Monadnock No. 4, November 14th, 
1769. This was their first business meeting held within the 
township, and it is plain from the proceedings that, from this 
time forth, all parties expected the actual settlers to come to 
the front and take largely the responsibility of conducting 
public affairs. James Peed, Esq., was the moderator of the 
meeting, and was chosen proprietors' clerk. 

John Mellen was chosen treasurer, Daniel Mellen, collector, 
and James Peed, John Fassett, and Isaac Applin, assessors. 

Tlie committee appointed to examine and allow accounts 
against tlie proprietors consisted of James Peed, Edward 
Kindal (Kendall), and Isaac Applin, while Aaron Garfield, 
Daniel Mellen, and John Mellen were directed to look up 
"the bounds at the north-east corner of the township and 
make report at the next meeting," 



CENSUS OF NEW IIAMPSIIIRE, 1767. 77 

James Reed, John Mellen, and John Fassett were cliosen a 
" counnittee to layout all necessary roads in said Monadnock." 

Voted that two Dollars be raised on each lot of the Grantees and to 
be immediately jiaid to the Collector, to pay the charges already arisen 
and towards Building a meeting House in said township and to pay for 
preaching Next Burner. 

Voted and chose James Reed, John Millen and Edward Kindal a 
Committee to provide stuf and Build a Meeting House in said Township 
so far as to inclose the outside and Lay the Lour floor. 

Voted to Cupt. Silas Wethefby £13.0.8 L. M. for his encorrigment for 
building a saw mill in said Township. 

After attending to other matters of less interest the meeting 
" was dismissed.'' 

At the same meeting, as appears by an additional record, 

Joseph Swift, Thomas Tolman, John Gouldsberry, Edward 

Kendal], and Caleb "Winch were chosen" Highway Sorvairs," 

' and sworn, taking the Rules in law for their direction." 

Thoy took the oath December ith, 1709. 

It will be noticed that new names frequently appear, from 
this tiine forth, in the records of the proprietors' meetings, 
which proves that the population was gradually increasing, 
though as late as 1770 it was far from being large. In 1767 
the Legislature of the province made provision for taking a 
census of the inhabitants and an inventory of the property 
liable to taxation in each town in Kew Hampshire, and fixed 
the time for the same in December of that year. JSTeither the 
value of the ratable estates nor the number of polls in Monad- 
nock No. 4 seems to have been preserved, if it was ever ob- 
tained ; but ninety-three is given as the sum total of the popu' 
lation, while Rindge had at that time two hundred and ninety- 
eight inhabitants and Richmond three hundred and thirty-eight. 
It is not deemed necessary to give hereafter the legal notiti- 
cation for the several meetings of the proprietors, as the 
measures adopted will indicate the nature of all the important 
business considered. 

The proprietors met at the house of James Reed, Esq., on 
Wednesday, April ISth, 1770, at one o'clock p.m., when 
Major John Farrer was chosen moderator. 



78 ' IIISTOKY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

As the report of the committee concerning the site for the 
meeting-house and the location of a cemetery was to come be- 
fore the ineeting, it was adjourned for one hour and a half, 
doubtless to give an opportunity for all to view the place or 
places selected. After the adjournment the committee re- 
ported as follows : 

We the subscribers being a Committee chosen by the Proprietors of 
Monadnock No. 4 in the Province of New Hampshire to fix a proper 
place for setting a meeting house and to lay out a burying yard, have 
unanimously agreed that the meeting houSe be sett on the Easterly part 
of Lott No 13 in the 7 Rang of Lotts as they are marked and numbered 
on the Plan of said Township, and Like Wise that there be five acres of 
Land laid out for Public use where Mr. Jason Stone's child is buiied. 

Monadnock No. 4, 18th of April 1770. 

John Farrar, James Reed, Benjamin Bigelow, Silas Witherby Com- 
mittee. 

It will be noticed that the chairman of this cominittee, Mr. 
Daniel Mellen, did not sign this report ; and the reason of 
this is doubtless to be found in the fact that he did not reside 
in this township, though he had erected a dwelling-house here, 
and aided liberally every public enterprise. 

After considering the report given above the proprietors 

Voted that the meeting house be sett on the Lott number 13 agreeable 
to the report of the Committee, and James Reed Esqr gave five acres of 
Land to the Propriety to set the Meeting house on and for other public 
uses. Also 

Voted and chose James Reed, Edward Kendall and John Milieu a 
Committee to provide for the Rasing of the Meeting house. 

Voted that fifty dollars be laid out to pay for preaching to the inhab" 
itants this jiresent year out of the money already assessed. 

Voted that Daniel Mellen and Major John Farrer be a Committee to 
provide a preacher and to see him provided for. 

Voted that Daniel Mellen, Aaron Garfield and .John Mellen be a Com- 
mittee to Preambulate and Renew the Bounds of the Town. 

Voted a tax of twelve shillings on each Lott in said Township Liable 
to Taxis and the same to be Assessed accordingly. 

Voted that there be a Lowed four shillings to each man for each day's 
work Don on the Roads in said Township, from the 1. Day of May to 
the last day of September next, and two shillings pr. day for each pair 
of Oxen, and that no man work without the knowlidge^of the Sorvair 



LOCATION or THE MEETING-HOUSE. 79 

and take his Reca*^e for each day's work, cutting windfalls acrost the 
Road only excepted, which is to be done without Notis from a Sorvair. 

This meeting of the proprietors certainly indicates progress 
in the most important matters appertaining to the welfare of 
the town. Bj reference to the plan of the townsliip and the 
table showing the drawing and assignment of the lots, it 
will be seen that Lot 13, Kange 7 belonged to Charles 
Treadwell ; but it seems quite certain that before the date of 
this meeting ]\Jr. Reed had bonght both of Mr. Treadwell's lots. 
A few months later (in November, 1770) Mr. Eeed deeded 
the west end of Lot 13, Range 7 — probably half the lot — 
to Benjamin Bigelow, and in August, 1771, he deeded to Rev. 
Benjamin Brigham a part of the east end of the lot, on which 
Mr. BnVham erected a dwellino^-house within a few years. 
This house was located a short distance east of the burying- 
ground, the present house of Henry Handy occupying about 
the same site. Mr. Reed did not make a formal transfer of 
the five acres which he gave the town till some years later, 
his deed of gift being dated May 23d, 1780. It is understood 
that the north-east corner of the meeting-house that was at 
length erected on this lot was about where the old hearse- 
house stood for so many years. 

It will be remembered that by the conditions of their grant, 
which was made May 1st, 1765, the grantees were required to 
build a meeting-house within five years, and after six years 
maintain constant preaching. That they made laudable efforts 
to carry out theu* part of the contract to the letter is certain. 
There was not a little delay about completing the house of 
worship, which, under the circumstances, was doubtless un- 
avoidable ; but before the six years had expired they had set- 
tled a minister, as we shall presently see. Then, as often 
since, it was found easier to obtain a pastor than to build a 
church edifice and make it comfortable and convenient in the 
\vilderness. 

The location of the meeting-house having been thus defi- 
nitely fixed upon April ISth, 1770, it is evident that the build- 
ing committee appointed about five months before proceeded 
at once with their work. It is understood that the frame was 



80 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

raised in Maj, and consequently considerable preparation must 
have been made before the exact location was determined. 
From the general tenor of the records, it would seem that 
while the house was brought into a condition to be used within 
a reasonable time, after that the work proceeded very slowly, 
for which perhaps the smalhiess of the appropriations may 
partly account. 

The next meeting of the proprietors was held at the house 
of James Reed, innholder, on September 26th, 1770, with 
John Farrar moderator, and after an adjournment of an 
hour and a half (probably to see wdiat progress had l)een 
made upon the meeting-house) proceeded to business. A re- 
port of the committee upon the boundary-lines of the town- 
ship was presented, and this was the result : they had " meas- 
ured from the south-east corner of Middle Monadnock ( Jaff- 
rey) and run west the whole length of that line, and they lind 
that it runs in upon Monadnock No. 4 the length of one 
ransre of lots or thereabout" — in other words, that with the 
dimensions claimed for it, our neighbor on the north-east 
overlapped the territory supposed to belong to Monadnock 
No. 4 about one hundred and sixty rods, taking f j-om the latter 
township not only the half lots in the third range, but a por- 
tion of the adjacent lots in the fourth range. As Jaffrey was 
the older town, it could rightfully claim its full size, and the 
matter does not seem to have been called up again. 

To resume the record of the meeting, September 26th, 1770 : 

Voted that one dollar be raised on each lot of the Grantees in order 
to be laid out in boarding and shingling the meeting house, and one 
dollar more to be worked out on the roads, at three shillings per day for 
each man after the first day of October next. 

On the 4th article that the Proprietors defer (prefer) to hear Mr. Ben- 
jamin Brigham four Sabbaths more on probation, past in the affirmative. 

At the next meeting of the proprietors, wdiich was held at 
the house of James lieed, Esq., on Wednesday, November 
7th, 1770, it was 

Voted to give Mr. Benjamin Brigham a call to settle in the work of 
the Ministry in said Monadnock No 4. 

Voted to give the said Brigiiam, for a settlement, in case he accept of 



MR. brigiiam's call. 81 

our Invitation and is actually settled in the work of tlie Ministry and 
ordained a Pastor of a church and people in said Monadnock No 4, be- 
sides the two lots of land granted for the first settled minister. Eighty 
pounds Lawful Money, to be raised by a tax on each lot of land liable to 
Taxis in said Monadnock No. 4, the one half of the said Eighty pounds 
to be paid in one year from this day and the other half in two years from 
this day. 

"Voted to pay to said Brigham in case he settle as aforesaid, a yearly 
Salary by a Tax on each lot as is above mentioned, as follows, viz. from 
the time he shall give his answer of acceptance, after the rate of fifty- 
three pounds six shillings and eight pence per annum, to be paid in one 
year from the time of the said answer of acceptance and so on yearly for 
three years, then to ad forty shillings per year untill it comes to sixty 
six pounds thirteen shillings and four pence, to be paid yearly so long as 
Mr. Brigham shall continue [to fulfill the work of] a Gospel 3Iinister and 
in relation of a Pastor to a church and people in said No. 4. 

The words in brackets, " to fulfill the work of," it was voted 
to erase at a subsequent meeting, and this the clerk did as he 
was directed to do. 

Voted that the sum of eight shillings and six pence Lawful Money, on 
each lot be assessed and collected to pay for one half of the settlement 
and first year's salary in case the said Mr. Brigham shall accept as above- 
said. 

Voted that the sum of two shillings and six pence on each lot be as- 
sessed and collected to pay for preaching for the time past and for what 
time Mr. Brigham hath already ingaged. 

Voted and chose Mr. Daniel Mellen, Joseph Hemingway, James Reed, 
Jonathan Lock and Edward Kendall a Committee to Wate upon Mr. 
Benjamin Brigham with the votes of the Propriety in regard of the 
unameous (unanimous) vote in giving him a call to settle in the work of 
the ministry in said Monadnock No. 4. 

The next meeting was held January 29th, 1771, and Mr. 
Brigiiam's letter of acceptance having been read, the propri- 
etors voted 

their universal acceptance of the answer and their thanks to Mr. Brig- 
ham and likewise voted fifteen rods of the south end of the conunon 
land by the meeting house for Mr. Brigham's use. 

Mr. Brigham's letter of acceptance, the confession of faith 
adopted at the organization of the church, and the account of 
the ordination are all found in the proprietors' records ; but in 
6 



.»^- 



82 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

this work they will more properly be inserted in the chapter 
on early ecclesiastical history. 

On Wednesday, February 20th, 1771, the proprietors com- 
pleted their arrangements for the ordination of Mr. Brigham 
by voting that " the day for the ordination shall be Wednes- 
day, the 27th day of March next." 

Also they " agreed with Mr. Brigham and Voted that the 
Proprietors and Mr. Brigham send to the following churches 
to assist in the Council at the ordination, viz., Marlborough, 
Westborough, Shrewsbury, Lancaster, Southborough, l^ew 
Ipswich, Swanzey, Royalston, Keene, and Winchendon." 

Jonathan Lock, Benjamin Bigelow, and James Reed were 
chosen as a committee to assist in sending out the letters mis- 
sive, while Mr. John Mellen agreed to " provide for the 
Council and other Gentlemen that shall attend the Ordination, 
for twenty-five dollars." A committee was raised, composed 
of Benjamin Bigelow, Joseph Hemingway, Jonathan Lock, 
Edward Kendall, and James Reed, " to attend the Ordination 
in behalf of the Proprietors." 

It is to be remembered that up to this time no church or 
religious society had been organized in Monadnock No. 4. 

Monaduock No 4 March 37. 1771. 

This day Mr. Benjamin Brigham was ordained to the work of the min- 
istry in this place, at the request of the Church and Proprietors, by the 
assistance of the churches in Marlborough, Westborough, Royalston, 
Winchendon, Keene and Swanzey. 

The proprietors held what seems to have been their annual 
meeting, June 19th, 1771, and in addition to appointing the 
usual officers, accepting roads, etc.. 

Voted that one dollar on each lot liable to Taxes in Monadnock No. 4 
be assessed and collected immediately to help pay outstanding debts and 
towards getting stuf and working on the Meeting house. 

March 4th, 1772, the Proprietors 

Voted the sum of one pound four shillings and tenpence to be assessed 
on each lot in said Monadnock No. 4 to be collected immediately, 
£0. 9. 10. to pay Mr. Brigham the 2' half of his settlement and two 
years' salary, and one dollar to be worked out on the Roads and one 



SALE OF PEWS IN THE MEETING-HOUSE. 83 

Dollar be paid towards finishing the Meeting house and three shillings 
to pay outstanding debts. 

Also 

Voted to not Except (accept) of the Grist Mill built by Doctor Gideon 
Tiffany in Monadnock No. 4. 

Also 
"to put in execution a Bond given by Gideon Tiffany, to Build and 
Keep in good Repair a water Grist Mill in Monadnock Xo. 4," on one 
of certain lots named, " or come to some proper settlement with the 
said Tiffany in regard of said mill, as it is not Excepted (accepted) by 
the Proprietors." 

October 7th, 1772, the Proprietors 

Voted and chose Mr. Joseph Hemingway, Edward Kendall and Samuel 
Kendall a Committee to lay out the Pew ground in the meeting house 
in Monadnock No 4. 

Voted to sell the Pew ground in the meeting house at public vendue 
amongst the Proprietors of Monadnock No 4, and likewise put it to vote 
to see if those that bought the Pews should take it for their seats, and 
Past in the Negative. Likewise Voted that the two hind seats in the 
Body of seats should be made into pews. 

Voted to paint the meeting house in Monadnock No. 4. 

Voted that the Pulpit and Body of seats and Ministers Pue and Dea- 
cons' seat be built as quick as may be, 

and raised a committee " to see the work done," consisting of 
Joseph Hemingway, Samuel Kendall, and Elijah Clays. 
" Voted that the money raised by the sale of the Pews be laid 
out towards finishing the meetinghouse," the committee on 
the sale to " collect the money that the same shall fetch" and 
apply it accordingly. 

At an adjourned meeting thirteen days later — viz., October 
20tli, 1772, the committee to sell the pew ground was directed 
to " give a list of the Pews sold by them, the number of the 
Pew, to whom sold, the price given for each pew, to the 
Clerk," and. his entry of the same in the proprietors' book 
" shall be a sufficient title to the purchasers and their heirs." 

The pew on the east side of the pulpit marked No. 2 was 
set apart for the use of the minister. 

Voted that the sides and ends of the Meeting House on the inside 
shall be sealed up to the bottom of the windows and the windows cased 
at the Proprietors' cost. 



84 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



The committee to see tin's work of sealing and casing done 
consisted of Joseph Hemingway, Samnel Kendall, and Elijah 
Clays. They were to attend also to the painting of the meet- 
ing-honse. 

The committee appointed to sell the pews made their report 
to the clerk as directed. The result of the sale was as follows : 



No. 

1 
10 


James Reed and his 
James Reed ' 
James Reed ' 
Henry Willard ' 
Edward Kendall ' 
John Mayhew ' 
Elijah Clays 
Samuel Kendall ' 
Nathan Platts 
Nathan Mixer ' 
Thomas Wetherby ' 
John Mellen ' 
Levi Brigham ' 
Joseph Hemingway ' 
John Lock ' 
James Reed Jun ' 
Daniel Mellen ' 


beirs at 10. 

' 6. 


18 


' 4,75 


15 


* 6. 


5 


' 10.25 


18 


' 6.25 


4 


' 7. 


fi 


' 8. 


14 


' 6.50 


16 


' 6. 


11 


' 5.25 


12 


' 4.50 


8 


' 6. 


i 


' 5.50 


17 
9 


4.00 

' 5. 


3 


6.75 



Dolls. 



Tlie number of pews was eighteen, and they brought at the 
auction sale one hundred and seven dollars and seventy-five 
cents. This list furnishes, without doubt, the names of the 
most active business men in the township at the close of the 
year 1772. Of the meeting-house itself some account will be 
given hereafter. That it was far from being completed at the 
date just given is plain, for at the meeting of the proprietors, 
March 31st, 1773, a tax was laid " to finish the Meeting 
House." 

At this meeting also the first legal action was taken regard- 
ing the incorporation of Monadnock No. 4 as a town of New 
Hampshire, for James Reed, John Mellen, and Joseph Hem- 
ingway were appointed a committee 

to Repair to the Govner and Council of this Province to have this Town- 
ship incorporated into a Town and to have Town privledgs, as soon as 
may be. 



DELAY IN COMPLETING THE MEETING-HOUSE. 85 

The circumstances attending the incorporation of the town 
will be considered in the chapter on early town history. It is 
not easy now to define in exact terms the relations existing 
between the proprietors and the town after the incorporation. 
Both organizations had rights and privileges which it is easy 
to see might sometimes have seemed to clash, but as the parties 
interested were so nearly identical, the general action of each 
appears to have been in harmony with that of the other. The 
proprietors continued to lay taxes to "finish the meeting- 
house" and pay the salary of tlie minister, but about all the 
other business appears to have been done by the town organi- 
zation. 

In February, 1776, the proprietors appointed a committee 
consisting of Major Brigham, Deacon Lock, and Major Farrar 

to enquire of the undertakers that was to finish the meeting house, and 
why it is not done, and cause them to do it forthwith. 

Again May 11th, 1777, a new committee consisting of Major 
Asa Brigham, Stephen Harris, and Samuel Patrick was raised 

to see that the work on the meeting house was finished, and to commence 
an action against the undertakers in case the work is neglected. 

And in June 28th, 1780, 

Voted and Chose Mr. Nathaniel Muzzy, Abner Stone, and John Whit- 
ney a Committee to see that the undertakers finish the meeting house or 
to sue them for the fuUfiUment of the same. 

As this is the last vote that is passed of this character, it is 
evident that the " undertakers" proceeded to complete the job 
in a satisfactory manner. A year earlier the " undertakers" 
considered that they had fulfilled their contract. In the war- 
rant for a meeting to be held June 9th, 1779, the following 
article appears : 

Sly. To see if the Proprietors will except (accept) of the Meeting House 
and Discharge the undertakers and act thereon as they shall think proper. 

As the article vi^as passed over, it is plain that the propri- 
etors did not consider that the job was properly completed, 



86 IIISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

but it required the action of a year later to bring the " under- 
takers" or contractors to do their duty. It does not state who 
the contractors were anywhere in the records, but as the 
meeting-house had been ten years in process of erection, it is 
plain that they belonged to the town. 

This meeting, June 9th, 1779, was the first proprietors' 
meeting that was held in the meeting-house. 

i\.t the proprietors' meeting, December 8th, 1779, the arti- 
cles of charter respecting their obligation to maintain constant 
preaching, and also their original contract with Hev. Mr. 
Brigham, were considered, and a vote was taken to fulfil the 
latter. No definite action concerning the matter first men- 
tioned appears to have been taken, as they probably thought 
it wise to await the developments of time ; but the following 
votes were passed : 

Voted Mr. Anger and others to the number of fifteen, the vacant room 
inside galleries of the meeting house Back of the hind seats, to Build 
pews they building them upon their own cost and taking them for their 
seats and maintaining the windows. 

Voted that Mr. Samuel Osborn and others to the No. of fi%'e (have) 
the vacant Room over the stairs in the meeting house, to build pews, 
they building them upon their own cost and taking them for their 
seats. 

All this shows a curious contrast v>nth the methods prevail- 
ing a century later. The action just given respecting the 
grant of pew ground to Mr. Anger and others to the number 
of fifteen was in consequence of a petition for the same signed 
by John Whitney, Matthew Osborn, Joseph Stone, Benjamin 
Byam, Joseph Foristall, Samuel Stone, Daniel Gould, Solo- 
mon Badcock, David Emery Boynton, Ebenezer Boutwell, 
Ebenezer Potter, Benjamin Harris, Asa Brigham, Joseph 
Scott, and Benjamin Anger. Most of these were representa- 
tives of families intimately associated with the history of Fitz- 
william. 

June 29th, 1780, Rev. Mr. Brigham proposed to the pro- 
prietors " to sink one fifth part of his salary for the present 
year" if they would pay all arrears, a proposition which was 
at once accepted. 



HEV. MR. BRIPITAM'S SALARY. 87 

At the same meeting the proprietors 

Voted and chose Deacon John Lock, Samuel Patrick and Ensing 
Samuel Kendall a Committee to state the ReviMr. Brighams Sallery by 
the articles of Life 

Voted the Above Committee have full power to state the articles of 
Life above mentioned. 

And this committee reported as follows : 

To Lieut Ephraim Boyington (Boynton) Cleark & Treasurer for the 
proprietors of Fitzwilliam We the subscribers a committee appointed 
by the proprietors to state the Rev'd Mr. Brighams Salary for the preas- 
ant year have stated it at one hundred and thirty double and have di- 
rected y* assessors to make their assessment accordingly You are de- 
sired to make a record of this 

Samuel Patrick 1 

John Locke } Committee, 

Samuel Kendall J 

Fitzwilliam 5th of December 1780. 

A few words are omitted by mistake. Mr. Biighara's 
salary at this time was ahout sixty-five pounds, and the com- 
mittee doubled it. This was on account of the depreciation 
of the currency ; the next year the proprietors to " pay him 
only the nominal sum of his stated salary, and pay it in hard 
money." 

Sejytemher ^ik, 17S1, the proprietors heard the report of a 
committee previously appointed to confer with Rev. Mr. 
Brigham respecting the depreciation in the value of his salary, 
as it had been collected and paid in continental bills, and it 
was voted to pay him only the nominal salary, but to pay it in 
hard money. 

Aj^ril 2d, 1782, the proprietors considered a difficulty with 
Mr. Jonas Knight relative to his not serving as collector, as he 
had engaged to do ; but the whole matter was settled by his 
promise to pay Rev. Mr. Brigham *' twelve bushels of Rie in 
six weeks." * 

* Doubtless there were office-seekers in those days, but Jonas Knight did not relish 
the coliectorship ; and it bordered on the ludicrous to compel such a modest man to 
pay for his temerity in declining office by measuring out six bushels of his rye as a gift 
to his minister. 



88 IIISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM, 

August 23c?, 1786, the proprietors ordered some changes 
to be made "in the two hind seats in the side galleries" of 
the meeting-house for the convenience of those occupying the 
adja(;ent seats and pews, but that it should be done " at the 
cost of the owners of said pews, and that fifteen j>ersons to 
each pew be added to sit in said pews and to take them for 
their seats so long as they hold the right in them." 

In September, 1791, the proprietors " Voted to put in the 
two upper end windowes and the glass over the Pulpit in the 
meeting house and to paint and putty them in well," and to 
give the work to the lowest bidder. 

So far as the proprietors* records show, the care of the road* 
and bridges in the township passed from the proprietors to the 
town itself soon after the act of incorporation ; but the support 
of the minister, repairs and changes in the meeting-house, and 
the care of the ministerial and school lands belonged to the 
proprietors up to 1798. 

Daring the year before — viz., ISTovember 17th, 1797, the 
proprietor appointed " Deac. John Fassitt, Deac. John 
Locke and Capt. John Bowker a Committee to pro]X)se to 
Kev. Benjamin Brigham to dissolve the contract with regard 
to paying him his salary in case the Town will contract with 
him for that purpose." 

After an hour's adjournment (evidently for consultation) 
they 

Voted that the Proprietors will relinquish all their right to the Meet- 
ing House in said Town, if the Town will pay what salary is now due to 
Rev. Benjamin Brigham from the Proprietors and contract to pay him 
in future, 

and then appointed a committee to present this oSer to the 
town. Also 

Voted to discharge the Rev. Benjamin Brigham from the contract he 
made with the Proprietors on his discharging said Proprietors from the 
contract they made with him to pay him his salary and the Town will 
contract with him to pay his salary in future. 

The committee to present this matter to the town accom- 



LAST ACTS OF PROPRIETORS. 89 

plished the object for which it was raised ; and January 29th, 
1798, the proprietors 

Voted to accept the release from Mr Benja.min Brigham as reported 
by the Committee. 

LATER AND LAST ACTS OF THE PEOPKIETORS. 

October llth, 1792, the proprietors chose as their clerk and 
treasurer Mr. Kahuni Parker, who a few years before had 
removed from Shrewsbury, Mass., to Fitzwilliam. 

Being a man of good business education and habits, all the 
records and accounts of the proprietors from this date are 
very full and easy of comprehension, Mr, Parker served the 
proprietors as their clerk and treasurer for twenty- three years, 
or until the winding up of the affairs of the proprietorship, 
which took place in 1815. From 1798 the town had paid the 
salary of the pastor and attended to all the repairs made upon 
the meeting-house ; but the care of the ministerial and school 
lots and the collection of the interest upon the leases of the same 
still devolved upon the proprietors through their treasurer. 

These rents were duly collected by Mr, Parker, and after 
being scrupulously accounted for upon his records, were paid 
over to the selectmen of the town, to be applied to the pay- 
ment of the salary of the minister and the support of the 
schools respectively. 

Before the closing up of the business of the proprietors they 
directed that the rents above mentioned should be paid di- 
rectly to the selectmen of the town rather than to a treasurer 
of their appointment. 

December ISth, 1815, Joseph Brigham and Charles Bowker, 
being a committee of the proprietors appointed for that pur- 
pose, examined the accounts and vouchers of the treasurer, 
and finding all correct, made a full and final settlement with 
him. At that time the sum of four dollars and sixty-eight 
cents remained in the hands of Mr, Parker, which was doubt- 
less disposed of in accordance with some unrecoi'ded provision 
of the proprietors. 

In 1797 federal money was first used, in keeping his ac- 
counts, by Treasurer Parker. 



CHAPTER YI. 

EARLY ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY, 176S-1800,* 

Reliofious Privileges^Meeting-House — Its Appearance and Arrangement — 
Mr. Neliemiah Parker's Ministry — Mr. Benjamin Brigbam's Candidacy 
and Settlement — Council — Church Organized — Its Members — Half- Way 
Covenant — Habits of Congregation — Parsonage— Mr. Brigbam's Sick- 
ness and Death. 

^ I ^HE records of the past are very instrnctiv^e ; and this is as 
-*- true of the history of our churches as it possibly can be 
of the history of our towns, State and nation. 

In tracing the events that led to the settlement of this town, 
we have seen that the proprietors of it, whether they were 
willing or unwilling, were under the necessity of furnishing 
religious privileges as one of the conditions under which the}'" 
received their grant. It was not a matter discretionary with 
the individual owners of this territory whether or not they 
should have a house for public worship and a gospel minister, 
as one after another they contracted for their lots, cleared their 
land, built their log-houses, and established their homes in this 
wilderness, for the men of whom they purchased were obliged, 
by the fundamental conditions of their charter, to make pro- 
vision for all this from the beginning. Two of the two hun- 
dred and fifty-eight lots, or one share of the one hundred and 
twenty-nine shares, must be reserved, as we have seen, for a 
gift to the first settled minister, and of another share he was to 
have the use, while within five years they must erect a house 
for public worship and, after one year more, maintain con- 
stant preaching. 

The proprietors upon whom were imposed these conditions, 
we are to remember, never became settlers on this territory 

* In the preparation of this chapter it has been necessary to allude to a few of the 
facts already set forth in bringing together the mosst interesting and important of the 
acts of the proprietors. 



MEETING-IIOUSE RAISED. 91 

with one exception, but resided in various towns in Eastern 
Massachusetts and South-eastern New Hampshire ; and when 
we reflect upon all the circumstances of the case, upon the fact 
that their interests were mainly elsewhere, and the almost in- 
surmountable difficulties encountered here by the actual set- 
tlers, we are surprised that they ever erected a meeting-house 
at all, rather than that so many years elapsed before it was 
linished. This house, as already noticed, stood upon the hill 
near the school-house in District 'No. 8, the north-east corner 
of the building being very near or upon the spot w^here " the 
old hearse-house'' stood. 

November llth, 1769, the proprietors chose 

James Reed, John Mellen and Edward Kendall a Committee to pro- 
vide stuf and build a meeting house in said township so far as to inclose 
the outside and Lay the Lour tloor. 

This was before the s-ite for the house was fixed upon 
through the recommendation of another committee, which was 
done April 18th, 1770. At this last-mentioned meeting the 
same men were appointed " a committee to provide for the 
raising of the meeting-house." 

It appears that the house was raised in the month of May, 
1770. The tradition is that every man in town w^as present 
and aided in the w^ork. The timbers were of oak just taken 
from the forest, and very heavy ; and when the men had 
raised the first tier of the frame breast high, they found them- 
selves unable to raise it any higher. At the same time they 
dared not let it down, for some of them would doubtless have 
been crushed by it, and either killed or maimed for life. In 
tliis emergency two men arrived from Rindge, by whose timely 
aid the danger was averted, and the frame went up. Dr. 
Cummings has preserved the following, though he by no means 
w^ould have vouched for its truth — viz., that Rev, Mr. Brie:- 
ham afterward said that he never knew swearing do any good 
but once, and that waswdiile raising this first part of the meet- 
ing-house. This reported saying of Mr. Brigham is of very 
doubtful authenticity, for 

1. It was not like him to say anything of the kind ; and 



92 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

2, He does not appear to have come to Monadnock No. 4 
till after the meeting-house was raised, since more than four 
months after the raising the proprietors voted that they would 
prefer to hear him four Sabbaths more as a candidate for set- 
tlement. There may have been profanity at the raising, for 
it was a common vice in that day, and probably strong drink 
was indulged in, according to the universal custom of the 
times. 

The meeting-house, though a number of years passed by be- 
fore it was completed, was a substantial though plain building, 
and for that day and region somewhat spacious and con- 
venient. It fronted the south, though it had doors upon the 
east and west sides also. The pulpit was upon the north end 
or side toward the cemetery opposite the south door, and over 
it was the sounding-board, a huge structure then universal in 
all meeting-houses of any pretension, and ignorantly supposed 
to aid the acoustic properties of the house. Just below the 
pulpit, in front of it, was the deacons' seat, a place of honor, 
where the two godly " fathers of the church" sat on ordinary 
as well as extraordinary occasions. 

The house was furnished in the central or what we should 
call the body part with long slips or seats, which seem to have 
been free, while square pews were arranged next to the walls 
both below and in the galleries. These pews were private 
property, and some of them appear to have been built at 
different times by their respective owners, and, for anything 
we know to the contrary, according to their individual tastes 
and with various kinds of lumber. It does not appear that 
the house was ever painted within except about the pulpit and 
the window-casings, and some time elapsed before a coat of 
paint was put upon the outside. The luxury of window-blinds 
upon a church or the best private houses was then unknown 
in this region. For a number of years the interior of the edi- 
fice must have presented a singular appearance, with its vacant 
places for pews, long seats, and various styles of workmanship. 

On the front or south side of the meeting-house was an open 
common, which was used especially for military drill. West 
of the house, and at a suitable distance, was along row of sheds 



PREACHING IN MONADNOCK NO. 4. 93 

for the protection of the liorses and sometimes of the oxen 
that drew through the snow loads of worshippers. 

The entire estabhshment would not be deemed as orna- 
mental and reflecting credit upon the taste of the builders and 
owners at the present day, but it was measurably convenient, 
and for a part of the year at least comfortable, as this word 
was then understood. Of course there was no heating appa- 
ratus in it, but the pastor's house was near, with its great fires 
for warming during the intermission, and at a little later date 
foot-stoves were a part of the common household furniture. 
This, with some occasional repairs and imj^rovements, was the 
religious home of the entire population of Fitzwilliam for 
more than forty years, though we have no exact data respect- 
ing the year when it was first occupied forjjublic worship, and 
no account of its dedication, if it was ever dedicated. For 
some years before occupying the meeting-house the people 
held their Sabbath services in private houses or at the inn of 
Mr. Keed, as circumstances or necessity required. Religious 
meetings during the M'eek were then very uncommon. 

As early as 1768 preaching was maintained in Monadnock 
Xo. 4 certainly for a part of each year. During the autumn 
of that year and a considerable part of the winter following 
the preacher was Mr. Xehemiah Parker, who had graduated at 
Harvard College in 1763, Soon after leaving this place he 
became pastor of the Congregational Church in Hubbardston, 
Mass. , having been ordained under a great oak upon the com- 
mon in that town before a church edifice had been erected. 

Whether there was constant preaching in Monadnock Xo. 4 
after Mr, Parker left and before the arrival of Mr. Benjamin 
Brigham, about the middle of the year 1770, is uncertain. 
Mr. Brigham was a native of Marlborough, Mass., and had 
graduated at Harvard College in 1764. No church or eccle- 
siastical society had then been formed here, but the propri- 
etors, as already noticed, after a candidacy of a number of 
months, made out a formal call to Mr. Brigham to settle with 
the people here in the gospel ministry. The call was unani- 
mous. An affirmative answer was returned to this in the 
January following. In the call ample provision seems to have 



94 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

been made for Mr. Bri^liam's pecuniary support, as we have 
seen in the preceding chapter ; for according to the funda- 
mental conditions imposed by the Masonian proprietors, two 
lots of land of one hundred acres each had been reserved, 
which were to be given outright to the first settled minister ; 
also two lots more had been reserved for the " use of the min- 
istry," of which he would have the proper benefit,* 

Moreover, a settlement w^as offered him of eighty pounds, 
lawful money. This was no part of his salary, but gifts like 
this were the rule rather than the exception a century ago, 
when our churches and religious societies invited the men of 
their choice to become their jjastors. The settlement was of 
the nature of an indncement to accept the call. In this case 
the eighty ponnds were estimated at a later period to have 
been worth two hundred and sixty-six dollars and sixty- 
seven cents. An annual salary was offered amounting to fifty- 
three pounds, six shillings, and eight pence sterling, which 
after three years was to be increased by two pounds annually 
till it should amount to sixty-six pounds, thirteen shillings, 
and four pence sterling, or something more than three hun- 
dred and fifty dollars. With a farm of more tlian two hun- 
dred acres, the settlement and the annual payment, this was 
certainly a generous support, especially as the purchasing 
power of money at that time was much greater than it is at 
the present day. The land was to be cleared indeed before it 
could be made to aid in the support of a family, but progress 
could be made in this work gradually. The proposals were 
certainly suflicient to place a pastor above want with common 
industry and economy. 

All of the lands and improvements in the township, with 
the exception, for a time, of the twenty shares (forty lots) re- 
served by the Masonian Proprietors for their own benefit were 
taxable to raise the amount for the settlement and the annual 
salary, while all that purchased land understood the conditions 
of the bargain in this respect, so there could have been no oc- 
casion for hard feelings or disputes. 

* The disposition made of the lots "for the use of the ministry" and the " school 
lots" is explained In Chapter XLU. 



CHURCH COVENANT. 95 

In January, 1771, Mr. Brigbam accepted the call that had 
been extended to him, and preparations were soon made for 
that notable event, the ordination of the first pastor. 

The inn of James Reed was upon the old military road 
north-west of the village, and in sight of the house formerly 
occupied by Gilbert C. Bemis, and recently destroyed by fire. 
As the meeting-house was not in a condition to be used, the 
ordination of Mr. Brigbam took place at the inn. Mr. John 
Mellen provided for the council and other clergymen that 
might be in attendance for twenty-five dollars, this sum being 
paid by the proprietors. 

It seemed needful that a church should be regularly or- 
ganized before the ordination of a pastor, and this was done 
by the council before Mr. Brigbam was set apart as the pastor 
of Monadnock Js"o. 4. 

He had previously drawn up a covenant, to be accepted and 
signed by himself and others, for this purpose ; and as this 
ancient document reveals not a little of the inner and outer 
life of the Christian people that settled this town, it is here 
given entire : 

COVENANT. 

*' A. D. 1771, ) Monadnock No. 4, in y^ Province of New Hampshire. 

March 27. ( W*^ whose names are hereunto subscribed being inhabit- 
ants of No. 4 aforesaid, knowing that we are very prone to olJend and 
provoke God y' Most high, in Heart and life, thro' y® prevailing of sin 
that Dwelleth within Us ; and y* manifold temptations from without 
Us ; and for which we have great reason to be unfeignedly humbled be- 
fore him from Day to Day, Do in y'' name of our Lord Jesus Christ, with 
dependence upon his gracious assistance and influence of the holy ghost, 
solemnly enter into Covenant with God, according to God as foUoweth : — 

" (1.) That having Chosen and taken y'' Lord Jehovah to be our God, 
we will fear him and cleave to him in Love, and serve him in Truth with 
all our hearts ; giving up ourselves to be his people ; in all things at his 
Disposal and Sovereign Direction, That we may have, and hold Com- 
munion with him as Members of Christ's Mystical Body according to his 
revealed will, to our Lives End. 

" (2.) We further Promise to keep Close to y* Truth of Christ, Endeav- 
oring with lively affections towards it in our Hearts to Defend it against 
all opposers thereof, as God shall at any time call us thereunto— which 
that we may Do, we Resolve to Use y" holy Scriptures as our Platform, 
whereby we may discern y" Mind of Christ, and not y* new found in- 
ventions of men. 

" (3. J We also Bind ourselves to Bring up our Children and Servants 



96 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

in y'' knowledge and fear of God, by holy instruction from y« sacred 
Scriptures, — (a Summary of which we have in y"^ Catechisms of }"' Ven- 
erable assembly at Westminster,) that true Religion may Be maintained 
in our Families while we live, and among such as live when we are 
Dead and gone. 

" (4.) We also Engage to have a Careful inspection over our own hearts, 
so as to Endeavor by Virtue of y'' Death of Christ, y mortification of all 
our sinful worldly frames and Disorderly affections, whereby we may be 
with Drawn from y*' Living God. 

" (5.) Moreover we Oblige our Selves to y* faithful improvement of 
our abilities and opportunities to worship God, according to all y" par- 
ticular institutions of Christ for his Church, under Gospel administra- 
tion ; as, to give Reverent attention to y- word of God, to pray unto him, 
to sing his praises, and to hold Communion with Bach other in y use of 
Both y*' seals, viz : Baptism and y* Lord's Supper. 

" (6.) We likewise promise that we will peaceably submit to y« holy 
Discipline appointed by Christ in his Chh. for offenders, obeying them 
that rule over us in the Lord. 

^' (7.) We Bind also ourselves to walk in Love toward one another, En- 
deavoring our mutual Edification ; Visiting, Exhorting, Comforting as 
occasion serveth ; Warning any Brother or Sister that offends ; not Di- 
vulging any Private offences unnecessarily ; But heedfuUy following the 
several precepts of Christ laid down for Chh. Dealing, Matt. XVIII : 15, 
16, 17, willingly forgiving all that manifest to y* Judgment of Charity 
that they truly Repent of all their miscarriages. 

" Now y God of Peace, that Brought again from y" Dead, y' Lord 
Jesus Christ, y* great Shepherd of y« Sheep, through y** Blood of y*" ever- 
lasting Covenant, make us all perfect in every good work to Do his will, 
working in us that which is well pleasing in his sight, thro' Jesus Christ, 
to whom be glory for ever and ever, Amen. 

•' BENJAMIN BRIGHAM, Pastor elect. 

" BENJAMIN BIGELOW, 

"JOHN FASSETT, 

" NATHANIEL WILDER, 

" CALEB WINCH, 

" JAMES REED. 

*' N.B. As to Discipline, this Chh. is founded upon y* Cambridge 
Platform, as it is commonly Received and Practised upon in y* New 
England Churches." 



o 



This covenant, it will be observed, was signed by the pastor 
elect and five other men. Of the proceedings at the organi- 
zation of the church no other particulars have been preserved. 

Of the five lay members who, with their pastor, constituted 
the church thus organized March 27th, 1771, this brief notice 
may here be given : 

Benjamin Bigelow was the first white settler of the town, 
and came from Lunenburg, Mass. He was not the ancestor 
of those recently and now bearing his name in Fitzwilliam, 
but belonged to the same family. Thirty-seven days after the 



MR. BRTGIIAM'S acceptance OF HIS CALL. 97 

organization of the church he was drowned in the Ashiielot 
River at Winchester, 

The next signer was John Fassett, from Boylston, Mass., 
who lived quite a distance west of the village, on the spot 
where the house long occupied by the late Dana Davis now 
stands. Mr. Fassett was chosen the first deacon of the church, 
April 18th, 1771, and died January 12th, 1834. 

The next signature is that of Nathaniel Wilder, from Lan- 
caster, Mass. 

Caleb Winch came from Framingham, Mass., and lived in 
the northern part of Monadnock Xo. 4. That section of the 
township is now a part of Troy. 

The last signer was James Reed, from Lunenburg (now 
Fitchburg), Mass., who was a noted man in his day, and kept 
the inn where the council assembled for the ordination. 

The churches invited to compose, with their pastors, the 
council were those in Marlborough, Westborough, Shrews- 
bury, Lancaster, Southborough, Royalston, and Wincliendon, 
Mass., and Xew Ipswich, Keene, and Swanzey, 'N. H. ; but 
of these only Marlborough, Westborough, Royalston, Wincli- 
endon, Keene, and Swanzey appear to have been represented. 
Of the organization of the council we have no record. 

Mr. Brigham's answer to the call he had received (which 
was deemed of sufficient importance to find a place in the 
proprietors' records) is here given in full, as an essential part 
of the proceedings and also as giving us some view of Mr. 
Brigham. 

Monadnock No. 4, January 29, 1771. 

To the Proprietors and Congregating Society of Monadnock No. 4, in 
the Province of New Hampshire. 

Grace, ]\Iercy, and Peace be multiplied from God our Father and the 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

Brethren and Friends. 

The great God who is Sovereign of universal nature and orders all 
things according to the Counsels of his own will, for his own honor and 
glory and the best interests of all who love and fear and obey him, has, 
in his all wise providence, brought me among you to preach the Gospel 
of his Son Christ Jesus, and also inclined you to make choice of me, 
who am very unworthy of the honor, to settle among you in the work of 
the Gospel Ministry. You have laid before me your proposals, bearing 
date Nov. the 7th 1770 and January the 29th 1771, which oilers I 
view as generous considering the infancy of the town and circumstances 

7 



98 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

of this people ; and cannot forbear returning you my sincere and hearty 
thanks for the great respect you have shown me thereby. 

I have taken your invitation into serious and prayerful consideration, 
and when I reflect how great and arduous the work of a Gospel Minister 
is, how much grace and wisdom is necessary and how very unequal I 
am to such an undertaking, it makes me to tremble and to say with the 
blessed Apostle, " Who is sufficient for these things !" 

Nevertheless when I consider the sufficiency of God's grace he affords 
to all them that sincerely ask it of him and the promise of Christ that 
he will be with his Ministers always to the end of this world, and the 
uncommon unanimity of the people in the choice of me for your Pastor, 
it supports me and I take courage. 

I do therefore, viewing it my duty, and having taken the advice of 
my fathers and brethren in the Ministry, with dependence, upon grace 
and strength derived from Christ, the Head of all influences, accept of 
your invitation and offers, with this reserve that I have two Sabbaths 
annually allowed me during the time of my ministry, that I may have 
opportunity to visit my parents and friends. 

I further entreat that you would remember me daily in your prayers 
to God, though an unworthy, yet that I may be a faithful Servant and 
watchman upon this part of Jerusalem's walls, instrumental of advanc- 
ing the Redeemer's Kingdom in the world and of promoting religion, 
piety, and true Godliness among you, that finally I, who sow and you 
who reap, may rejoice together in the kingdom of glory forever and 
ever. 

Benjamin Brigham. 

As it is uncertain whether the clerk of the proprietors, in 
recording this document, followed the original paper with re- 
gard to spelling, punctuation, and the use of capital letters, it 
is deemed advisable, without changing a word, to give the 
whole a modern form. 

That Mr. Brigham was from Massachusetts and was prob- 
ably but little acquainted with the pastors in Cheshire County 
will doubtless account for the fact that our neighboring com- 
monwealth famished so large a proportion of the ordaining 
council. 

Mr. Brigham was then twenty-nine years of age, and being 
a man of industry, energy, and acknovvledged capacity and 
worth, he entered zealously upon his work as the religious 
teacher and guide of this people. Two months after the or- 
ganization of the church Stephen Harris and Mary, his wife, 
joined it by letter from Framingham, Mass. These were the 
grandparents of the late Deacon Joseph Harris and Mr. 
Ebenezer Potter. The September following the wives of all 
the men who signed the covenant with the pastor also joined 



THE HALF-WAY COVENANT. 99 

the clnircli by letter, with Henry Willard aiul Phebe, his 
wife. Ill 1772 five others became members, so tliat at the 
time of the incorporation of the town of Fitzwilliam there 
were not far from twenty members in full communion. Three 
weeks after the church was organized Mr. John Fassett was 
chosen deacon, and long and faithfully he served the church 
in this office. For many years he was almost always chosen 
one of its delegates, when the church was called in council to 
install or dismiss pastors or to settle difficulties, Yery early 
in its history the church determined the time for observing 
the sacrament of the Lord's Sapper, as it has stood through 
these many years — viz., on the second Sabbath of every other 
month, beginning with January. Why this time M'as selected, 
in deviation from the connnon custom of the churches, it is 
difficult to imagine, as it virtually prevents the minister from 
exchanging pulpits with the neighboring j^astors nearly one 
fourth of the time. 

July 9th, 1771, the church passed the following vote : 

Persons shall have the privilege of taking the Covenant upon them and 
having their children baptized, though they cannot see their way clear 
to attend upon the Sacrament of the Supper. 

The '• half-way covenant," as it was called, to which allu- 
sion is made in this vote, had a measure of favor with most of 
the Cono-reo-ational churches at that time : but it was the source 
of almost innumerable trials and evils, and the action of the 
church given above was reconsidered and unanimously set aside 
October 3d, 1800. During the twenty-nine years succeeding 
the organization of the church, it appears that eighty-six in- 
dividuals became members of it in this partial manner under 
the vote of the church allowing them to do so, and many, 
probably most of these who had young children had them 
baptized, having taken the covenant chiefly for this purpose. 
Like those admitted to full communion, such as came in under 
the " half-way covenant" were propounded at least fourteen 
days before their admission ; and from time to time quite a 
number of these became regular members of the church. At 
the time when this inconvenient and troublesome practice was 



100 HISTORY OF FITZ^YILLIA:^r. 

discontinued, tlie chnrcli by vote invited all who stood in this 
relation to it to become members in full ; but it does not appear 
that this invitation was accepted to any great extent. 

July 8th, 1773, or a little after the town was incorporated, 
Mr. John Locke was chosen the second deacon. He was a 
man of discretion and well-earned influence. 

The calls upon this church to sit in council for the ordina- 
tion, installation, or dismission of pastors, but more especially 
for the settlement of difficulties in churches of New Hamp- 
shire and Massachusetts, have been, from the first, very nu- 
merous, a fact which proves that it and its pastors have enjoyed 
in an eminent degree the public confidence. For many years 
it was customary for the church to send, on such occasions, its 
pastor and two delegates. 

September 7th, 1775, the church voted to take up a collec- 
tion at each communion for one year, in order to provide the 
elements for the communion-table. This plan, which is so 
easily carried into execution and saves much trouble, was soon 
exchanged for occasional collections ; and this last-mentioned 
custom prevailed till within a comparatively recent period. 
In 1779 the church voted to purchase one table-cloth, two 
pewter platters, and four pewter cups for the communion- 
table, and that in making the contribution for the elements 
for the table during the succeeding six months, each mendier 
should write his or her name upon the paper containing the 
money. This requirement was made doubtless because the 
amount called for and expected from each member had not 
been contributed, and it was desirable to know who were de- 
linquent. A similar vote was passed at a later date for the 
same purpose, the members being called upon to contribute 
one shilling each, and the contribution to be in each case 
" subscribed'' — i.e., enclosed in paper with the name of the 
contributor. Probably some in those days were unwilling to 
pay their proportion of the expense involved in the support 
of civil and religious institutions, though we are to bear in 
mind that the people in general had but very little money. 

During the entire ministry of Rev. Mr. Brigham hardly any 
other single matter occupied the attention of the church in its 



ATTENDANCE UPON RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. 101 

business meetings so often as the suppl}^ of wine for tiie com- 
mnnion-table. The hick of system in providing this will ac- 
count in part for the numerous votes upon this subject ; but 
another, and this the chief reason, may be found in the habits 
of the times. It was customary then to more than taste of 
the consecrated element, for many communicants all over the 
country were in the habit of takine- a considerable draft. 
The carrying back of the cups to be refilled and the refilling 
of the tankards during the solemnity are within the memory 
of not a few now living ; and the existing generation may 
certainly congratulate itself upon the extent and happy influ- 
ence of the temperance reform in this particular. 

It should be added also that the cost of wine in this coun- 
try a century ago was very great, as all of it was imported, 
and the policy of our government iias favored heavy duties 
upon it from an early day. 

In those days the entire population of the town was inter- 
ested in the support of the services at the single meeting-house, 
and all seem to have regarded the industrious, discreet, and 
faithful pastor in the light of a personal friend and temporal 
as well as spiritual guide. All then who were able attended 
public worship, and the long row of sheds west and south-west 
of the meeting-house upon the liill was filled from Sabbath to 
Sabbath with the horses or oxen of the worshippers. As al- 
ready noticed, large loads of men, women, and children came 
iir the winter upon ox-sleds from the most distant neighbor- 
hoods of the town, and as the morning and afternoon services 
were very long and the days short, many of these could not 
have reached their homes till nearly dark. 

In the summer the younger portion of the audience came 
with bare feet, and not a few of their fathers and mothers, who 
walked from two to five miles, brought their shoes and stock- 
ings in their hands till they approached the meeting-house, 
when they would stop at some stream or spring and wash their 
feet and make ready for God's worship. Upon returning 
home after the services this process was reversed, and so the 
carefully preserved shoes and hose would be good for such 
service a number of years. Upon a discontinued road south- 



102 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM, 

west of the spot where the old churcli stood there is a spring 
or little stream where these changes often took place, and the 
remains of the old overturned pine-tree upon which the peo- 
ple sat for this purpose and for rest were plainly to be seen 
in 1871. 

Though there was no way of warming the cluirch, and not 
more than two houses near, and the services very long (usually 
two hours or more each), the congregations were large and 
patient. The meeting-house was in that day the chief place 
of resort to obtain information upon all subjects. The news 
of the respective neighborhoods, of the town generally, and of 
the country was freely canvassed by the people at those Sab- 
bath gatherings, while many went to church doubtless to visit, 
and some possibly to do business. 

There were very few books in the families, and newspapers 
were almost wholly unknown, so that the size of the congre- 
gations in those days was hardly a true index of the real inter- 
est in religious matters. Besides the property of all paid for the 
preaching, for the pastor's salary was raised by general taxation. 

These things should be borne in mind when the past and 
the present are compared touching the attendance of the peo- 
ple upon public worship. 

In those days the tithing-men preserved order in the sanc- 
tuary, and, if necessary, waked up the sleepers. The boys 
certainly stood in awe of these officers.'^ 

No musical instruments were used to aid in the service of 
song, and the chorister was appointed by the town and not by 
the singers ; and tradition is in fault if the music did not 
sometimes lack sweetness and harmony. That the Psalms and 
hymns were heartily rendered and with strong voices, we can 
well understand. 

At the close of each service the entire congregation rose and 
stood reverently with their eyes upon their pastor till he had 
passed down the central aisle, and this custom, it is under- 
stood, continued for many years during the ministry of Rev. 

* It would seem that the town continued to elect tithinsr men annually till about 
1842 ihoufjh for a considerable period before the offlce had ceased to be of any prac- 
tical importance. In 1843 the town voted not to choose tithiog-men. 



EEV. :\rR. brigiiam's home. 108 

John Sabin, or until the old church on the hill was abandoned 
for the new one on the common. 

The salary of Rev. Mr. Brigham was paid by the propri- 
etors according to contract for the term of twenty- seven years, 
or until 1798, when, by mutual agreement, it was assumed 
by the town. Samuel Griffin and Oliver Damon were chosen 
deacons in April of that year. The number of members ad- 
mitted to the church during the ministry of Mr. Brigham was 
two hundred and eighty-five — males, one hundred and thirty- 
one, and females, one hundred and fifty-four. Many of these 
died or removed from the town during the same period. Of 
the two hundred and eighty-five members, seventy-six are 
recorded as coming from other churches with letters of dis- 
mission and commendation. 

From everything that can be gathered from the church rec- 
ords, which seem to have been faithfully kept by Mr. Brig- 
ham as clerk of the church, there were no dissensions to mar 
its beauty and hinder its usefulness during the long service of 
its first and honored pastor. 

The house which he owned and occupied was the well- 
known landmark, the old dwelling just east of the church and 
cemetery at the foot of the hill, with the majestic elm in front 
of it, both of which have been recently removed. This 
house was built by Mr. Brigham, and was the parsonage dur- 
ing most of his ministry. The elm, it is said, was brought by 
his hired man from the flat toward the railroad station, and 
set out under the pastor's direction. 

In the early part of the year 1799 Mr. Brigham was feeble, 
and the compiler of this history learned from an aged man 
now deceased who attended upon his ministry while a lad, 
that he preached a number of Sabbaths in the parsonage, after 
he was unable to go up the hill to the church. On June 13th, 
1799, Mr. Brigham died, aged fifty-eight, in the twenty-ninth 
year of his ministry. His funeral, it appears, was attended 
the day following his death, Kev. Mr. Lee, of Royalston, 
preaching the funeral sermon. This sermon, with the one 
preached by the same clergyman at the funeral of the first 
Mrs. Brigham, was printed. 



104 IlISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

Rev. John Sabin, in one of his historical lectures, gives this 
testimony respecting the character and work of the first pastor : 

From what I can learn of this man in this town and out of it in this 
vicinity, I should think he was beloved and as near without an enemy 
as about ever falls to the lot of man. And there is this mark of his not 
designing war upon a great scale, that when a Committee (was) ap- 
pointed to inspect every man's 2:)reparation for war as duly equipped with 
arms, ammunition, and all accoutrements (this was during the Revolu- 
tionary War), Mr. Brigham was reported as not furnished. 

Mr. Sabin adds : 

It may scarcely be supposed that ever another Minister will get through 
life to so extensive regret of Community as did the first Minister. 

And the writer learned some years since from one of the 
aged men then living, that when the news of Mr. Brigham's 
death reached his father's lionse there was a depth of grief 
that he, a little lad, was wholly unable to comprehend. The 
following is from the church records : 

He was a good Divine, an able and faithful Pastor, the friend of 
jieace, truth and righteousness. While he lived he was greatly esteemed 
and beloved by his people and all his acquaintances, and at his death 
he was greatly lamented. 

His remains repose by the side of those of his first wife, 
Lucy Brigham (who died six years before him), in the central 
part of the old portion of the cemetery. The sermons 
preached at the funerals of this worthy couple were printed in 
1800. Quite a number of the manuscript sermons of the first 
pastor have been preserved, two of which were presented to the 
writer by Mrs. Selina P. Damon. The size of the page is 
about that of a duodecimo book, and the writing is very fine 
and compact, requiring for reading a magnifying power of 
considerable strength. The preacher must have held the 
manuscript directly before his eyes at the time of delivery. 

In 1809 the town appropriated " to procure Gravestones for 
the Rev. Benjamin Brigham's grave," the sum of twenty 
dollars. 

The maiden name of the first Mrs. Brigham was Lucy 



BAPTISMS BY MR. BRIGHAM. 105 

Morse. His second wife was Puali, the widow of John Mel- 
lon, Esq. 

During his ministry of about twenty-eight years Mr. Brig- 
ham baptized six hundred and fifty children, the first having 
been Rebecca, daughter of Nathaniel and Lucy Wilder. This 
baptism took place April 2Sth, 1771, 



CHAPTEE VII. 

SETTLEKS FKOM 1762-1800. 

From what Places — Character — Afje — Property — Dwellings — Dress — Means 
of Comnmnication — Social Qualities — Amusements — Religious Habits — 
Farming — Manufactures — Personal History — Benjamin Bigelow — James 
Reed and Others. 

"VrOT a few towns in our Western States and Territories 
-^^ are settled by colonies from some particular locality in 
the older portions of tlie country ; but the early settlers of 
ritzwilliam came from many places, and without anything like 
a concerted plan of settlement. The older towns in Middle- 
sex and Worcester counties, Mass., seem to have furnished 
at least four fifths of the first settlers, particularly Fram- 
ingham, Marlborough, Southborough, Sterling, Holliston, 
Lunenburg, Templeton, Leominster, Medfield, and Shrews- 
bury. Doubtless some acquaintance with or relationship to 
the proprietors and previous settlers induced the majority to 
remove to this place and take up these " wild lands," as they 
called them. Thus Daniel Mellen, of Holliston, led many 
relatives and friends from that town, from Framingham, 
Southborough, and Sherborn, to remove to Monadnock Xo. 
4, and James Reed did the same for settlers from Lunenburg 
and other places in that vicinity ; but after 1800 more seem 
to have come as strangers, and led by a common desire to bet- 
ter their condition or to provide for increasing families.. 

In its earliest years the settlement appears to have had a 
very slow growth, for it is related that the widow of Benjamin 
Bigelow, the first settler, was accustomed to say in her old age 
that for a long time she was the handsomest and smartest 
woman in Fitzwilliam, because she was the only one. 

As to the general character of the first settlers, it may be 
said that they were industrious, energetic, frugal, kind, con- 
siderate, and ready for hard labor and to make great sacrifices 



CHARACTER OF THE FIRST SETTLERS. 107 

for the comfort and welfare of their families and of society at 
large. That there were some M'orthlesss persons and some 
shiftless families among them there can be no question, for 
such will always find their way, as if by instinct, to a ncM' set- 
tlement ; but in the great majority of cases the men and 
women that undertook to found homes and establish social, 
civil, and religious institutions on these hills and along these 
streams were persons of real, genuine worth, fit to be pioneers 
in a great and important enterprise. They came expecting 
hard work and toilsome lives, many privations, but, after all, 
much comfort in laying good foundations and witnessing sub- 
stantial progress. 

That in general they were law-abiding and ready to frown 
upon vice, whoever might be guilty of it, we have the fullest 
evidence, for they brought with them not a few of the strong- 
est and best elements of the Puritan character. The home 
training and all the best moral and religious infiuences under 
which they had passed their childhood and youth it was their 
aim to transplant and cherish in this place of their adoption, 
as their entire history conclusively proves. 

As to the age of the first settlers when they came to Monad- 
nock No. -i, it may be said that the majority of them were 
young rather than old. A few came with gray heads and 
somewhat M-orn with life's struggles, with families already 
established and children grown to maturity, prepared, physi- 
cally and intellectually, to take an active part in maintaining 
all the interests of their new home (witness the family of 
General James Reed) ; but these were the exceptions rather 
than the rule. The record of the deaths of the pioneers in this 
settlement (which has been very carefully preserved, and by 
more than one party) shows us that generally the first set- 
tlers were from twenty-five to forty years of age, and of 
course in the strength of manhood and womanhood, while the 
fact that some were older tempered the energy of the settle- 
ment with a large share of wisdom and discretion. 

As to the education and general intelligence of the early 
settlers, it may be said that they were fully equal to their 
neighbors whom they left behind in the older settlements. 



108 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

Tlie culture of the laborious, hard- working families of New 
England at that day was not usually great, measured by mod- 
ern standards, for the training of the schools was not the best, 
while valuable books were few, and the almost omnipresent 
newspaper of the present day was hardly knovvn. Some have 
supposed that the early settlers of this region could have read 
only with great difficulty, and that by no means all were able 
to write, because in some important records of business that 
have come down to us men in responsible positions occasion- 
ally signed by a cross rather than wrote their names ; but this 
is plainly an erroneous and exaggerated view of their deficien- 
cies. As children few of them had had our adv^antao^es for 
culture, and paper, pens, and ink were in some households 
luxuries ; but most could converse and compose well according 
to the standards of that day, while some would be considered 
refined and cultured in almost any modern society. In the 
matters of spelling and the application of granmiatical rules 
their writing often appears to have been much in fault, but in 
both respects they generally followed the prevailing customs of 
the day, and did not exhibit as much ignorance as many sup- 
pose. x\t all events, they seem to have made laudable efforts 
to give their children the advantages of a good education, 
which was no easy matter with so small a population spread 
over thirty-six square miles of territory. 

Most of the early settlers appear to have come to Monadnock 
No. 4 with families. Nearly all had wives to assist them, and 
often the children constituted a large part of the increasing 
population ; for in those days the rich and the poor alike re- 
garded a goodly company of little ones as a blessing rather 
than an incumbrance. And from all tliat can be gathered 
from their early history, it would seem that the wives and the 
mothers who presided over the early homes of Fitzwilliam 
were as industrious, frugal, energetic, and ambitious as their 
husbands. That they generally worked in a very quiet man- 
ner and made their influence felt indirectl}' rather than other- 
wise is not to their discredit. 

As to the property of the early settlers, it may be said that 
most of them appear to have been in moderate circumstances, 



PROPERTY AND DWELLINGS OF FIRST SETTLERS. 109 

if we judge of them by modern views and feelings. Fn- 
doubtedl}^ a few of them were quite poor, and not more than 
two or three of them could have been regarded even then as 
wealthy. General James Reed had quite extensive landed 
possessions, and the Mellen family had means beyond most of 
their neighl)ors ; but nearly the entire company of immigrants 
had all they could do to live in a very unpretending manner 
and make limited improvements upon their farms annually. 
They knew next to nothing about bank shares or deposits in 
institutions for savings, and had no sound government securi- 
ties laid up for the time of misfortune and old age. But 
though they were far from being rich, they were perhaps as 
well oflf, for the times, as Western emigrants of forty years 
ago would average, and the Registry of Deeds proves that land 
speculation was as common then as it is to-day. But one of 
the original proprietors settled in Monadnock ]S«o. 4, so that 
but little was done by these men of means to make the town 
wealthy. M osc of the settlers doubtless purchased their lands 
in part certainly on credit, and years passed away before the 
last payment was made, and they could call themselves inde- 
pendent. 

More means, in the beginning of their work here, would 
have been to many of them a great convenience, especially as 
the heavy demands and sacrifices of the Revolutionary War 
were so soon to be encountered ; but their early struggles with 
comparative want were not without many and large compen- 
sations. 

Of their dwellings it may be remarked that, in nearly all 
cases, the first were built in the rudest manner. Almost of 
necessity these houses were cold, uncomfortable, and what 
we should deem but poorly fitted for the enjoyment of health, 
especially in winter, in this rigorous climate. A large fire- 
place, with the chinmey sometimes upon the outside of the 
structure and occasionally with no chimney at all, occupied 
one end of the building, while generally there was a great lack 
of most conveniences and comforts. During a large part of 
the year different occupations, and these of great variety, 
were of necessity carried on in the single living-room, which 



110 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

was at once kitclien, dining-room, sleeping- room, parlor, 
nursery, and shop. Men in those days were sometimes ingen- 
ious in building their houses. Mr. John Fassett came to town 
in the spring of 1769 and located some two miles or more west 
of the present central village, building on the spot where the 
late Mr. Dana Davis lived for many years and where Mr. 
Thatcher Matthews now resides — Lot 13, Range 9. His house 
he erected, chiefly with his own hands, in this manner : he 
set posts made from split logs in the ground, with but a small 
space between them, and then covered the sides as well as the 
roof with hemlock bark, which after being removed from the 
logs had been spread upon the ground and thoroughly dried, 
with large stones upon it to prevent it from rolling. These 
pieces of bark were fastened to the posts by means of green 
withes which passed around the posts and through holes in 
the bark made by a large gimlet which Mr. Fassett brought 
with him from his old home in Massachusetts. Eafters were 
erected for the roofs and ribs lashed across them, and upon 
these double courses of bark were laid, and the whole carefully 
secured by withes, like the bark upon the outside. The door 
was made of bark, and had in like manner withes for its 
hinges. In this house this honored father in the church and 
town lived for six years and until he had six children ; and 
these years, he was accustomed afterward to say, were the six 
happiest years of his life. 

Such exposure to cold and storms seems not to have been 
detrimental to health and longevity in this case, for Deacon 
Fassett when he died, January 12th, 1831, had reached the 
age of ninety-four years. Very few of his neighbors had 
dwellings showing such a variety and so much ingenuity of 
workmanship. 

Of the dwellings of the early settlers generally it may be 
said that most of them were built of logs. The chimney was 
of stone, and the fireplace was so large that logs and wood 
from four to six feet long could be conveniently used. 
Blocks of wood or sections of trees furnished the chairs and 
tables in many a habitation. Ladders were used to reach the 
chambers and cellars whenever luxuries of such a nature were 



DTtESS AND FOOD OF THE FIRST SETTLERS. Ill 

indulged in by the poorer families. No great variety was 
found upon their tables, for Indian bread, johnny-cakes, l:)ean 
porridge, and turnips rather than potatoes were the staple arti- 
cles of food. Pies and cakes were rarely tasted. 

The work dresses of both sexes were made of tow and linen 
cloth (home manufacture) for the warm season, while coarse 
woolens, obtained in the same way, were worn in the winter. 
A skirt and short loose gown were the ordinary dress of fe- 
males, and to appear in at church and on all special occasions 
these were made of chintz, if possible, and, in a few cases, of 
silk. The " long shorts," in quite general use, seem to have 
reached half way from the knee to the ankle. The shoes of 
both sexes were made of stout leather, and in the winter, when 
cow-hide boots could not be obtained by them, the men wore 
leggins. When the snow was deep snow-shoes were used, and 
we are assured that it was not uncommon to see a woman 
standing behind a man, both upon the same snow-shoes,- and 
keeping step perfectly. As there were no wagons for quite a 
number of years, side-saddles and pillions were in common use. 
' While noticinar the inconveniences under which the first set- 
tiers did their work, Dr. Cummings remarks : 

How should they be provided with writing materials, when they had 
not even the common implements for eating ! I was informed a few 
days since by one of the mothers in Israel that she worked in the family 
of one of the proudest men in town in 1785. and lived on bean porridge, 
and eat it out of a brown eartlien mug, which served as a dish for the 
whole family, it being the only one used in the kitchen. She also in- 
formed me that she was treated to the best lodging the Palace afforded, 
a cot bed on the floor with one sheet, there being but a single pair in the 
house. Her employment was spinning cattle's hair, procured from the 
tanner, to be made into bed-covers. 

Statements like these show us that the early settlers in Fitz- 
william had many hardships to encounter. According to mod- 
ern ideas of conveniences and helps they did everything at a 
disadvantage, while of luxuries they knew nothing. But though 
their dress was coarse and plain, and their food, with the 
manner of serving it, far from tempting for such as were deli- 
cate, a good degree of health and general thrift was maintained, 



112 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

and the settlement prospered. Always and everywhere the 
first settlers in new countries have many hardships to encounter. 

Regarding the social qualities of the early settlers, tradi- 
tion informs us that the interconrse between the different 
families was of that free-and-easy character that made calls 
and visits very enjoyable. All met upon the same level, for 
the distinctions of wealth were practically unknown, while 
each family had an abiding interest in the prosperity of every 
other. They had few books and no newspapers to furnish 
matter for conversation, but they seem to have been good 
talkers nevertheless. In fact, all their outward circumstances 
combined to make them prize, in an eminent degree, their 
social relations, while their sayings that have come down to us 
prove that not a few of them had that shrewdness and wit 
which never fail to enliven the gatherings of friends, neigh- 
bors, and kindred. 

Of their amusements it may be said that wdiile they had no 
clubs, in the modern acceptation of this term, to draw away 
the men from their famiHes, or parties for card-playing and 
other games that are now so fashionable, they did not lack the 
means of recreation when they had spare time upon their 
hands. Wrestling at that day was very common and popu- 
lar, vastly more so than it is at ^^I'esent, and the champion 
wrestler was known far and near. 

The game of quoits was often played in connection with 
family or neighborhood gatherings. In the autumn huskings 
were com.mon, when all the men, women, and children of some 
section of the town would strip all the corn of a neighl)or in 
an evening, and then do the same for others. When framed 
houses began to take the place of log hats the raising of a 
building was a great occasion, and was considered by most 
persons as a time for relaxation and sport, to be enjoyed, rather 
than of hard labor to be avoided. 

Where the men were clearing their lands of the heavy 
growth of wood log rollings were not uncommon, at which a 
great amount of work would be done in a single day, to be 
followed by the best supper and a plentiful supply of strong 
drink at the close. 



EARLY MODES OF TRAVEL. 113 

Among the ladies quiltings afforded a pleasant recreation, 
especially when prolonged till the evening, when the good 
wives and mothers would be joined by their husbands, and the 
inevitable treat was accompanied by a round of story-telling. 
The children had their little games of "hunt the slipper," 
" button, button," just as they now have a century later. 

Early in the history of Fitzwilliam, as was true at that 
period of nearly every other town in the country, military 
trainings were a great attraction, and brought together a large 
part of the people of all ages to enjoy a holiday. Even now 
men, women, and children do not easily tire while watching 
the manoeuvres of a company of trained soldiers. 

In their modes of travel the early settlers accommodated- 
themselves to their circumstances. At first their roads were 
only narrow paths through the forests, barely sufficient for 
the passage of ox-wagons, carts, and sleds, which appear to 
have been in common use from the first. After a few years 
vehicles drawn by horses began to be in use. Stephen Harris 
brought his wife and household goods from Massachusetts to 
this town on an ox-sled. Agabus Bishop, from "Wrentham, 
Mass., settled in the north-west part of the town about 1777 
or 177S, and the historian of Troy says of him : 

Here he commenced, as did nearly all the first settlers, by clearing a 
spot and building a log-house. And when he moved his family, instead 
of coming with an ox team, as had nearly all who preceded him, he came 
with a horse and wagon, and for some years this was the only horse in 
that part of the town. 

In one of his lectures Dr. Cummings relates a pleasant in- 
cident concerning Mrs. Eeed, the widow of James Reed, Jr. 
Mrs. Reed was a native of Lunenburg, Mass. Says the 
doctor : 

I very well remember hearing Mrs. Reed tell of a horseback ride she 
and several other girls took with their beaux from that place to this 
when she was quite young, and her name was Molly Dodge. I well 
remember, too, that her countenance grew animated aud her face shone 
when she told over what they saw by the way, and what good times 
they had. 

This agreeable expedition of Molly Dodge must have taken 

8 



114 IIISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

place before or during 1768, as on December lltb of that year 
she was married to Mr. Reed, 

In their regard for religious institutions the pioneers in the 
settlement of Fitzwilliam did not fall behind the best elements 
of the New England people generally. Each family had a 
right to and a part in the services of the meeting-house, and 
nothing but severe storms or sickness prevented the entire 
congregation from a regular attendance. Not a few of the 
people lived from three to five miles from the place of gath- 
ering, but the weather must have been very bad which would 
keep them at home on the Sabbath. When we consider that 
for years not a few of them walked so far to church with such 
insufficient protection for their feet, with no umbrellas, and 
often with but a poor supply of warm clothing, and then sat 
in the unwarmed meeting-house through two long services, we 
cannot fail to admire their courage and perseverance, even 
when we cannot affirm that they were all actuated by religious 
principle and devotion. 

That the prevailing public sentiment called for this sacrifice 
of comfort and exposure of health in the severest seasons of 
the year even was doubtless true, while the. abiiost universal 
desire to learn what was going on in the settlement ami in the 
world generally had not a little to do with their churoh-going 
habits ; still it will be hardly fair treatment to deny to them in 
their religious observances a large share of the old Puritan 
.principle. 

Of their habits touching the use of intoxicating drinks, this 
much may be said in their favor. In a time when ardent 
spirits were deemed necessary to give strength under hard and 
protracted labor and protection under great exposure and 
were, moreover, in general use, the wonder is that so few of 
the early settlers became drunkards. In the record of deaths 
in this town for fifty years after its incorporation no one is 
said to have died of drunkenness, if the examination made be 
correct. Many cases may have occurred in which drinking 
habits complicated and rendered fatal fevers and pulmonary 
diseases, which were then very common ; but evidently death 
could not often be traced among the early settlers in Fitzwil- 



USE OF INTOXICATING DRINKS, 115 

liam directly to strong tlriiik. For anything that appear^ to 
the contrary, intoxicating liquors were kept and used in every 
family and on all occasions ; but in all the written and tradi- 
tional accounts that have come down to us we find compara- 
tively few allusions to anything like beastly intoxication. 
Some years ago the writer was told by one of the oldest 
men in town (now deceased) that at the funeral of the tirst 
pastor, Rev. Benjamin Brigham, which he well remembered, 
the custom of providing intoxicating drink was observed, as it 
was on only extraordinary occasions. Usually only the officiat- 
ing clergyman, the bearers, and the mourners were expected 
and invited to drink, but at this funeral a strong sling made 
of rum, sugar, and water was prepared in a tub in a large 
(piantity, from which all present were invited publicly to 
help themselves — a scene which liappil}^ the present generation 
will never witness. 

With regard to the cultivation of the land and the crops 
raised by the early settlers, it is sufficient to say that the im- 
plements of husbandry used in those days were of the rudest 
kind. The ploughs were made almost wholly of wood, the 
hoes were heavy, as were also the forks and the shovels. Any 
one who has examined a scythe, a hand-rake, or an axe of a 
hundred years ago must perceive that they were clumsy in the 
extreme, and could not have failed to make heavy drafts upon 
the patience as well as strength of those who used them. We 
may well be thankful for the mower, the horse-rake, the 
reaper, etc. 

The productions of the soil, which were relied upon chiefly 
for food, and to carry, in small quantities, at a later date, into 
older and larger places for market, were not numerous. Eye 
and Indian corn may be said to have been the staples, while 
beans, turnips, and barley were considered important and 
profitable crops, as was also flax for the home manufacture of 
linen. This was before the days of cheap cottons, M'hich now 
enter so largely into the dress of both sexes. A century ago 
a calico dress, the entire material for which can now be bought 
for a dollar, was a luxury which but few could afford. A 
native of Templeton who settled in Fitzwilliam at the time of 



116 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

her marriage used to say that her first calico dress was a pres- 
ent from lier father, and cost sixty-two and a half cents a yard. 
The date of this must have been about 1788. At this time 
very little cloth of any kind was used except what was of home 
manufacture. For outside garments tow cloth for summer 
and woolen for winter wear constituted the dress of all, while 
for underclothing a coarse linen cloth was worn the year 
round. So almost every house had its great wheel for spin- 
ning wool, its little wheel for flax, and its loom for weaving 
the cloth. And not only was the cloth of home manufacture, 
but to a very great extent the garments were made at home 
also. 

There was an early tradition here that before Monadnock 
Ko. 4 was settled at allbeavershadcleared the trees from quite 
a meadow in the eastern part of the town upon Scott Brook, 
where a fine crop of grass was annually produced ; and it was 
added that a gentleman residing in Lunenburg, Mass., who 
knew of this meadow sent up his farm help from that place, 
who cut the grass and carried the hay to Massachusetts — a story 
that plainly should be received with considerable allowance. 

The opening alluded to was doubtless what was generally 
calle'd a natural meadow, and tliere are supposed to have been 
a number of others in the township, though less in size. A 
much higher value was placed upon the meadow than upon the 
more elevated farming lands, as the meadow required no clear- 
ing up. At a very early date " the Great Meadow" on Scott 
Brook was divided among many owners. 

In the following notice of the first settlers of Fitzwilliam no 
pains have been spared to make the dates and all other particu- 
lars as accurate as possible. The early records of the propri- 
etors, of the town, and of the church have been appealed to, 
in every instance, for all the aid they could afford, while family 
records have brought to light many facts not obtainable from 
any other quarter. The memoranda of the late Dr. Cum- 
mings, though of themselves of a very fragmentary nature, 
have furnished a multitude of facts which, supplemented and 
completed from other sources, have been of great value. The 
fullest use has been made of his papers, as well as of those of 
Mr. Charles Bigelow. 



DATE OF SETTLEMENT OF MONADNOCK NO. 4. 117 

As will always happen in such collections of incidents, some 
points are left obscnre, and fnller explanations from the lips 
of those who preserved them wonld have added greatly to the 
interest and value of these narratives. The first settlers com- 
mitted but very little to writing. 

Dr. A. M. Caverly, in preparing his " History of Troy," 
which was printed in 1859, was very laborious and remarkal)ly 
successful in obtaining and collating the history of the first 
settlers in that town, and deserves high commendation for his 
faithful work. After the lapse of nearly thirty years it would 
be impossible to-day to make such a collection of facts as he 
was able to present, for nearly all the aged, upon whom he 
depended for information, have passed away. 

As a considerable portion of Troy (something more than 
four thousand acres) was until 1815 a part of Fitzw^illiam, 
Dr. Caverly's chapters upon the early settlers embrace many 
of the most important facts respecting the families that origi- 
nally occupied the northern section of our town. 

In many, perhaps in a majority of cases no descendants of 
the first settlers are now inhabitants of Fitzwilliam ; in other 
cases the descendants now living in the town are through the 
female line of the families, and the family name is extinct, as 
is true of the Townsend, Brigham, and Davidson names. 

In settiniT forth what can now be learned of the historv of 
the early settlers it has been impossible in all cases to observe 
the exact order of time in their coming, for very often the pre- 
cise years of their arrival cannot be determined. Not infre- 
quently a young man would come from Massachusetts and 
begin the clearing of a piece of land, but return, after a few 
months, to his home. Sometimes, in such cases, many months 
would elapse before he wonld return and become an actual 
settler, and occasionally he would not return at all. 

The New Hampshire Gazetteer^ published in 1823, states that 

the first settlement was made early in 1760 by James Reed, John Fassetf 
Benjamin Bigelow, and others, 

which is plainly a mistake, as it is certain that no one of them 
came as early as the date named. 



lis HISTORY OF FITZ WILLIAM. 

Benjamin Bigelow and Elizabeth, his wife, were from 
Lunenburg, Mass., and they must have come to Monadnock 
No. 4: as early as 1762. Mr. Bigelow was, without doubt, the 
first settler. Probably he entered the territory by the old 
military road from Winchendon, as he came bringing his wife 
and goods in a cart doubtless drawn by oxen. This cart, 
turned up against trees, was the shelter of his family till a log- 
house conld be built, and under it the first white child, native 
of Fitzwilliam. was born, May 10th, 1TG2. Opinions vary 
with regard to the exact locality of this event. One tradition 
is that the child Beulah was born near the dividing line be- 
tween Massachusetts and New Hampshire, while another sup- 
poses that the worthy couple had already arrived at the spot 
west of the Pinnacle where their house was afterward erected. 
That the birth of this child occurred as here stated is unques- 
tionable. Beulah Bigelow was the only child of her parents 
who lived to maturity, and she became the wife of Ezekiel 
Gates, of Stow, Mass., and had a family of eight children. A 
letter from Artemas Gates, son of Ezekiel and Beulah, informs 
us that one of the eight had nine children, another eight, an- 
other seven, two five each, one six, and another four, while 
the other died young ; and he adds that as to his " mother's 
beino- born under a cart is more than I can vouch for ; but my 
father used to plague her about it, but she denied it." Mrs. 
Gates was hardly a competent witness in this case, and the 
uniform tradition will not be set at naught by her testimony. 
Mrs. Beulah Gates died at the age of seventy-two. 

Benjamin Bigelow was one of the six members of the clinrch 
at its organization, March 27th, 1771. Three or four years 
before he had been the agent of the proprietors to hire the 
first minister, Mr. Parker, and he was one of the committee 
that obtained, as a candidate for settlement, the first pastor, 
llev. Benjamin Brigham. He aided also in fixing upon a site 
for the meeting-house and cemetery, while he was active in 
clearing the first roads in the township. May 3d, 1771, Mr. 
Bigelow was drowned at Winchester, in the Ashuelot Eiver, 
while attempting to cross it on the ice, as he was returning to 
his home on foot with provisions for his family. His body 



GENERAL JAMES REED. 119 

was not recovered till many days after, when it was found in 
the Connecticut River at or a little below Northfield, Mass. 
His death was a severe loss to the church and entire commu- 
nity, as he was universally respected, confided in, and loved. 
After the birth of Beulali Mr. and Mrs, Bigelow liad two 
other children — viz., Ruth, who died June 24th, ITTO, and 
Sampson, who died five days later. After the death of her 
husband Mrs. Bigelow removed to Stow, Mass., which is sup- 
posed to have been the place of her birth, and died there. 

James Reed was doubtless the second to settle in Monad- 
nock IS o. 4, and the only one of the original proprietors that 
actually resided in this township. In the latter part of his life 
he was usually styled General Reed, having been commissioned 
as a brigadier-general during the Revolutionary \Yar. He 
was a native of Woburn, but removed to Fitzwilliam from 
Lunenburg, Mass. In a deed executed March 4th, 1765, he 
is called " James Reed of Lunenburg," doubtless for the good 
reason that since the final grant to the proprietors of Monad- 
nock No. 4 was not made till after the date given above, he 
could not legally have been described as belonging in this 
place. He built the second house (the first framed house) in 
the township, and it stood on the old military road about half 
a mile from the home of Benjamin Bigelow, and but a little 
distance from that lately occuj^ied by Mr. Gilbert C. Bemis. 
It had two large square rooms, beside a kitchen and bedroom 
on the lower fioor. It was two stories high, and had several 
lodging-rooms upon the second floor. This house was kept 
by General Reed and others for several years as an inn. 

Many of the proprietors' meetings were held in it, and it 
seems to have been the place where most of the religious 
services of the settlers were maintained during the years that 
elapsed before the meeting-house was in a condition to be oc- 
cupied. Tlie ordination of the first minister. Rev. Benjamin 
Brigham, took place March 27th, 1771, under that roof, unless 
tlie best traditionary evidence is in fault, though it should be 
noted that a single report comes to us that the public services 
on that occasion were held in the shop of Asa Johnson, which 



120 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

was near General Reed's, while the diinier for the council 
was laid at the inn. 

The military history of General Reed will more properly 
have a place among the records of Fitzwilliam in the Revolu- 
tionary War. 

He was a man of ordinary height, well built, and very active, 
care-taking, and energetic. 

James Reed was moderator of the proprietors' meeting, 
November 14th, 1769, which was the first meeting held in 
Monadnock No. 4, and proprietors' clerk from that time till 
1776. His name appears as a member of all the most impor- 
tant committees that shaped the action of the people in estab- 
lishing their civil and religious institntions. "While in the 
army in 1776, during the prevalence among his troops of small- 
pox, dysentery, and malignant fever. General Reed suffered 
severely. He was then at Crown Point, and Dr. Cumuiings 
suggests that through malpractice — of course not intentional — 
his eyes were so seriously affected that his sight was practically 
and permanently destroyed. While sick he had orders from 
General Washington to join him at headquarters, but it was 
impossible for him to comply with the wishes of the com- 
mander-in-chief, and he was soon obliged to retire from active 
duty on half pay. The close of the war found hira in Keene, 
and it is thought that he M-as there for medical attendance. 
" The Annals of Keene" say : 



This Gen. Eeed, whose ordinary place of residence was Fitzwilliam, is 
remembered here as an aged blind man, and as almost daily seen after 
the close of the War walking up and down Main Street, aiding and 
guided by Mr, Washburn, who wi\s paralyzed on one side ; he received 
a pension. 

The description is pathetic, the blind man led by but sup- 
porting a cripple. 

After a few vears' residence in Keene, General Reed re- 
turned to his home in Fitzwilliam, where everything was so 
familiar that he could walk in safety without a guide ; but later 
he went to Fitchburg, where he died. He was an officer in the 
army toward the close of the French and Indian War, and was 



GENERAL REED'S FAMILY. 121 

about Hftv A'ears old wlien lie entered the service of liii^ coun- 
try in the war of the Revolution. 

His first wife, a Miss Abigail Hinds, is represented as a 
smart and capable woman, able to do anything, and keeping 
her husband's financial matters in a good condition. His second 
wife was a daughter of Major John Farrar, of Fitzwilliam. 

His sons, Sjlvanus, James Jr., and Hinds were in the Con- 
tinental Army, and the two eldest received pensions. 

In his old age General Reed is reported as saying that his 
children were spoiled by his being so long absent in the army 
while they were young. (See the chapter upon the Revolu- 
tionary War, and also the genealogical records which comprise 
the latter part of this volume. These records may be consulted 
in all similar cases.) 

After Chapter X. of this work and the foregoing sketch of 
the life of General Reed had been written, the committee in 
charge of this history received from Amos J. Blake, Esq., of 
Fitzwilliam, a biographical sketch of General Reed, from 
which they have directed such extracts to be made both here 
and in Chapter X. as give additional facts respecting him, and 
are deemed by them appropriate for this volume. JNIr. Blake's 
sketch is understood to be the substance of a paper which he 
prepared for the Xew Hampshire Historical Society and read 
before that body. 

.James Reed " first settled in Brookfield, Mass., and afterward in that 
part of Lunenburg now Fitchburg. His dwelling stood upon tUe site 
of the present City Hall." 

His military life commenced in 1755, when he served in the campaign 
against the French and Indians, commanding a company of provincial 
troops under Col. Brown. In the same capacity he served with Gen. 
Abercrombie, in 1758, at Ticouderoga, and with Gen. Amherst, in 1759. 
He was employed in various public services until the peace of 1763. In 
thft French and Indian War he received the Commission of Lieutenant- 
Colonel. The lapse of time has hidden from view the detailed account 
of his services in those campaigns, but his early selection by his country- 
men for the command of a regiment at the beginning of the Revolution 
indicates that his military career was creditable to himself and valuable 
to his country. 

Upon the tidings of the battle of Lexington, he raised a Company of 
Volunteers, and marched at their head to Medford. His ardor in the 



122 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

cause did not permit him to remain idle. He continued to enlist volun- 
teers, and soon had four companies enrolled under his standard, the 
greater portion of whom were from Cheshire County. He was appointed 
Colonel of a Regiment by the New Hampshire Provincial Assembly on 
the first of June, 1775. 

He remained with the army in the vicinity of Boston after its com- 
mand was assumed by General Washington, being posted upon Winter 
Hill, and upon the reorganization of the forces on the first of January, 
1776, his regiment was ranked second in the Continental Army. 

The evacuation of the British troops on the 17th of March concluded 
the siege of Boston, and Colonel Reed accompanied the army in its 
movements to New York in the following April. On the 24th of April 
he was put into the 3d Brigade, under General Sullivan, and was soon 
after ordered up the Hudson to relieve the force under Arnold. 

The following receipt, given on his departure from New York, serves 
to illustrate the confidence reposed in Colonel Reed : 

New York, April 29, 1776. 
Then received from Gen. Washington three boxes, said to contain 
three hundred thousand dollars, to be delivered to Gen. Schuyler at 
Albany. 

(Signed) James Reed. 

The money above alluded to was doubtless for the payment of Schuy- 
ler's army. 

General Sullivan's command passed over the ground which was 
familiar to Colonel Reed by his campaigns in the previous wars, as far 
as the mouth of the river Sorel. 

Here they met the retreating army, and Gen. Sullivan assumed the 
command. The retreat reached Ticonderoga on the 1st of July, 1776. 
A worse foe than the enemy at this time attacked the American army, 
for disease, the unfailing attendant of hardship and exposure, now broke 
out and prevailed to an alarming extent. Small-pox, dysentery, and 
malignant fever rapidly thinned the ranks of the patriot army. Col. 
Reed was attacked with fever at Crown Point, and, perhaps for want 
of proper medical treatment, suffered the loss of his sight, which of 
course retired him from the service. On the 9th of August, 1776, and 
during this illness he was appointed by Congress a Brigadier-General, 
on the recommendation of Gen. Washington. 

He died at Fitchburg, Feb. 13th, 1807, aged eighty-three years, and 
was buried with military honors. In the old burying-grouud at Fitch- 
burg stands his monument, quite elaborate for the times, which bears 
the following inscription : In the various military scenes in which his 
country was concerned from 1755 to the superior conflict distinguished 
iii our history as the Revolution, he sustained commissions. In that 



JASON STONE AND FAMILY. 123 

Revolution, at the important post of Lake George, he totally lost his 
sight. From that period to his death he received from his country the 
reward allowed to pensioners of the rank of Brigadiei'-General. 

Jason Stone came from Framinghain, Mass., soon after the 
arrival of General Reed, and was doubtless the tliird settler. 
He was the son of Samuel Stone, and was born December 
28tli, 1737. His wife was Deborah Goodnow.* The exact 
time of the arrival of this family is uncertain, but they had a 
child born here as early as October 18th, 1765, and this was 
the first birth entered upon the records. This family had a 
son Thaddeus that died from being scalded, and was buried 
April 30th, 1769. This was the first burial in what has been 
ever since the cemetery of Fitzwilliam ; and the grave was in 
the south west corner of the lot as afterward laid out and ac- 
cepted by the proprietors for a burying-ground. Probably 
the location of the cemetery had been substantially settled in 
the minds of those most interested before this first grave was 
opened. The burial of this child is the first that appears upon 
the long record that covers the space of one hundred and 
seventeen years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Stone were peculiar people, and many anec- 
dotes respecting them have come down to us by tradition, 
most of which are not worth repeating. 

Dogs were numerous in those days, considering the small 
number of the families, and the sight of a dog vexed the soul 
of Mr. Stone. After the meeting-house was so far completed 
that it could be used for public worship, the dogs had a pro- 
pensity to attend. Mr. Stone carried with hira on all occa- 
sions a stout whip or heavy cane, wdiich he used effectually to 
put a stop to this nuisance, so that the sleepers in the meeting- 
house had no chance for rest while a dog remained in the sanc- 
tuary. Mrs. Stone always rode on a pillion behind her hus- 
band ; and if she was not always good-natured, he was not 
uniformly very accommodating. Incompatability of temper 
in the household is not wholly a modern evil. 

* Mr. and Mrs. Stone "owned the covenant" in the Framingrham Church, August 
irth, 1766 and three of their children are recorded as liaving been baptized in Framing- 
ham, probably after their removal to Fitzwilliam— viz., Deborah, Thaddeus, and Re- 
becca. 



124 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

THE MELLEN FAMILY. 

The father of this family, which was closely identified with 
the early history of Fitzwilliam, was 

Daniel Mellen, who removed from Framingham to Hol- 
liston, Mass., in 1750. Of the original proprietors of Monad- 
nock No. 4, no one did more to promote its settlement and 
general jDrosperity. He was here very often, and took an active 
part in all the affairs of the township, though he never resided 
in the place permanently. He built and set in operation the 
first saw-mill, which was located east of the house where Mr. 
Nahum Hayden has since lived. This mill was built in the 
spring of 1767, and Mr. Mellen w'as aided in building it by a 
vote of the proprietors that they would pay Colonel Sampson 
Stoddard from their treasury " twenty pounds, on condition 
that he should deed to Daniel Mellen two lots of land to en- 
courage him to build a saw-mill." Mr. Mellen built also a 
house on the hill where Sylvester Drury now lives, on the old 
Troy road. This house he designed for the home of his son, 
John Mellen. Daniel Mellen was associated with James Reed 
and Benjamin Bigelow on the earliest committee chosen by 
the j)roprietors to lay out roads, and of this committee he was 
the chairman. This appointment was the first made by the 
proprietors of which we have an}' record. At the next meet- 
ing of this body the same three men were chosen as a com- 
mittee to locate a meeting-house and lay out a lot of land for 
a burying-ground, and of this committee Mr. Mellen was also 
chairman. He held the same position on the enlarged com- 
mittee of later date that actually fixed upon the site for the 
church edifice and cemetery. He was also the first collector 
of taxes in the township. Indeed, during the earl}' history of 
Fitzwilliam Daniel Mellen was called to fill almost every office 
that required the best judgment and the greatest amount of 
honesty and energy ; and he may well be styled " one of the 
fathers of the town." 

John Mellen, better known in the latter part of his life as 
Esquire Mellen, was a son of the above-mentioned Daniel 
Mellen, and removed to Monadnock No. 4 as early as 1767, 



THE MELLEIST FAMILY. 125 

and probably a little earlier. As already noticed, liis father 
had built a house for him in which he lived for a number of 
years. This place beinpj consumed by lire, he afterward lived 
in a house which he owned, and that stood a little south of the 
par§^nage recently occupied by Kev. John Colby. This house 
was where there is an old cellar and a clump of aged apple- 
trees before we descend the hill toward the Hayden place. In 
the early years of the town he owned the land on which the 
south part of the village now stands, while Colonel Sylv^anus 
Reed ow^ied the north part. Esquire Mellen was a man of 
great influence in laying the foundations of society, and, like 
his father, was called upon to fill many important and responsi- 
ble offices. It was with him that Rev. Benjamin Brigluun 
boarded while preaching as a candidate for settlement. 

Outside of Fitzwilliam Mr. Mellen was called to transact a 
large amount of public business, and was plainly regarded as 
one of the most energetic and reliable men of Cheshire County. 
In 1780 he was appointed collector of beef for the Continental 
Army, and had the entire county for his field of operations. 
At another time he was associated with Colonel David Web- 
ster, by the appointment of the Committee of Safety, to visit 
every town in the district and to look after all the deficiencies 
in furnishing the full quota of beef cattle required by the 
State government. This was at a time when it was very diffi- 
cult to obtain anything like adequate supplies of food for the 
Continental Army. 

John Mellen was the representative from the district com- 
posed of Fitzwilliam and Swanzey in 1777 and 1779. 

He died of a nervous fever July 25th, 1784, aged forty years. 

In the history of Framingham, Mass., we are informed that 
John Mellen, Esq., married Sarah Fisher, of Med way ; but 
the name of his widow, who became the wife of Rev. Benja- 
min Brigham, was Puah, not Sarah. It is possible that this 
lady, who survived Esquire Mellen, was a second wife ; but 
this is not at all probable, as we have no record of such a mar- 
riage, or of the death of a first wife. 

In the autumn of 1770 a little daughter of Mr. Mellen 
about three years old wandered away from home and was lost 



126 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

in the woods, wliich tlien covered nearly the entire territory 
for miles in every direction. Missing her and not finding her 
in the immediate neighborhood, the family became alarmed 
and messengers were sent into every part of the settlement 
for help. ISight came on while men, women, and children 
were searching the forest. Pine torches were lighted, and 
the search was still continued, but it was not till toward morning 
that the child was found. She was discovered by David Perry 
sitting under the body of an upturned tree, with the little dog 
that had followed her by her side. The sound of the horn as 
the signal of success soon relieved the almost distracted par- 
ents, and being repeated through the forest, recalled the peo- 
ple from the pursuit, and in a short time they were all gath- 
ered at the house of Mr. Mellen. Mr. Brigham, who was 
then preaching here as a candidate and who boarded at Mr. 
Mellen's, led the devotions of the assembled people in a fer- 
vent prayer of thanksgiving to God, which was followed by 
songs of praise, and then all partook of the best refreshiiient 
that the house afforded. This lost child carried the effects of 
this fright all through her life. She died February 13th, 
1861, aged ninety-five years. 

Daniel Mellen, Jr., was another son of the Daniel Mellen 
already mentioned. Born in Ilolliston, Mass., he came to 
Monadnock J^o. 4 at the age of nineteen years. The early 
records of the proprietors show that he too, like his father and 
brother Jolm, was a man of worth, and ready to do his part in 
every public service and enterprise. He was comparatively a 
quiet man, but with a fair capacity for business. Beginning 
life in Fitzwilliam as a farmer, he continued such till the end 
of his days, dying, at the advanced age of ninety-eight years, 
January 7th, 1847. His home was on an old road to Troy, 
the house standing upon the site of the late residence (recently 
burned) of Mr, Gilbert C. Bemis. 

Rev. John Mellen, a brother of Daniel Mellen, Sr., and 
about seven years his junior, never resided in Monadnock No. 
4, but in 1768 was 



JOHN FASSETT— THE TOLMAN FAMILY. 127 

Earnestly Desired at y« Cost & Charge of this prop«>' to Repair to Portsm" 
as soon as liis pleasure suits & make application to the General Couit 
of New Hamp'' for a Confirmation of the meetings of tlie Prop''* of this 
Town & for a full power to be Given to the s"" Prop'" to sell Delinquents 
Lands for non Pajmeut of Taxes. 

John Fassett came to Monadnock No. 4 possibly in tlie fall 
of 176S, bat more probably in the spring of 1769. At a pro- 
prietors' meeting held November 14th, 1769, he was chosen 
one of the Board of Assessors, and also one of a committee to 
lay out roads in the township. The family came from Massa- 
chusetts, but from what town is not certainly known. A 
family account is that he came from Lexington, while another 
account states that lie came from Boylston. His wife Isabel 
was admitted to the clmrcli in 1771 on a letter from Temple- 
ton. Mr. Fassett was one of the six individuals that consti- 
tuted the church of Monadnoek No. 4 at its organization and 
the settlement of its first pastor, and April IStli, 1771, was 
elected its first deacon. From the beginning he took a deep 
interest in all that concerned the welfare and prosperity of 
this people, and for a long course of years was relied upon 
as a faithful and trustworthy representative of this church in 
ecclesiastical councils. And he wa* equally confided in by the 
proprietors and town in all their arrangements, filling every 
office to which he was called to the satisfaction of all con- 
cerned. Deacon Fassett built his house (covered on its sides 
and roof with bark) upon his original Lot 13, Range 9. In 
this he lived six years, the happiest, he was accustomed to say, 
of his life ; and there six of his children were born. Later 
he exchanged farms with Deacon Oliver Damon, and removed 
to what is still known as the Fassett Farm, Lot 15, Range 8. 

TOLMAN FAMILY. 

Thomas Tolman was from Dorchester, Mass., and his an- 
cestors are reported to have been among the first settlers of 
Boston and viciiiit3\ Mr. Tolman was a man of considerable 
importance in the early times of Fitzwilliam, especially in that 
part of the town where the village of Troy now stands. The 



128 HISTORY OF FIT Z WILLIAM. 

forest there was very heavy, and he felled with his own hands 
the first tree to make an opening for the log hut into which 
his family was introduced as early as the year 1768. His was 
the iirst house built and occupied in what is now the pleasant 
and flourishing village of Troy. Being an active, energetic, 
and vigorous man he made great improvements. Dr. Gideon 
Tiifany had contracted with the proprietors to erect in the 
town a good grist-mill, but failed of having it accepted, and 
Mr. Thomas Tolman completed a mill in 1TG9 that answered 
the purpose. This was known far and wide as the flarrington 
Mill. Near it he erected, a little later, a good saw-mill, which 
was close by the spot where the bi-idge in the village of Troy 
now stands. With plenty of lumber at his command, Mr. 
Tolman soon exchanged his log hut for a good substantial 
framed house, which afterward was opened as an inn. Not 
many years ago this house (with its location slightly changed) 
was owned and occupied by Mr. Joseph Haskell, it being the 
oldest dwelling in that part of Monadnock No. -l. 

Benjamin Tolman was, like his brother Thomas, a man of 
energy, but possibly not equally methodical and persistent in 
his work. He had, it apj^ars, resided for a season in Attle- 
borough, Mass., before migrating in 1770 to Monadnock No. 
4. Here he built a log-house in which he resided for ten 
years with Hepzibeth, his wife, who was the daughter of Jacob 
Newell, also one of the early settlers. Mr. Tohnan found it 
necessary to have a road to reach his log hut and farm which 
the proprietors were slow to furnish, and so he made it to suit 
his convenience, without asking leave of the owners of the 
intervening territory. He had fourteen children, born be- 
tween 1782 and 1807, all but two of wdiom seem to have lived 
to reach maturity. Of these seven were living in 1859, when 
the history of Troy was printed. 

FAEEAR FAMILY. 

Majoe John Faeeae was a native of Framingham, Mass. , 
in which place he was highly respected and honored before his 
removal to Monadnock No. 4. His name first appears upon 



THE FA REAR FAMILY. 129 

the reoords of the proprietors under date of Octoher 11th, 
176S, when he was chosen a member of a new committee 
raised to locate a meeting-house and to hiy out a burying- 
ground. That he removed his family to this place as early as 
176S is somewhat doubtfnl, for his youngest child, Tlitty, is re- 
corded as having been baptized in Framingham, October lltli, 
1771. In 1769 Major Farrar appears to have held the office 
of deputy sheriff in Middlesex County, Mass., and he held 
other important offices in Framingham as late as 1771. It is 
nearly or quite certain that for some years after 1768 he re- 
tained his residence in Framingham while he was activ^e in 
promoting all the civil and religious interests of Monadnoek 
iSTo. 4, going back and forth between tlie two places as cir- 
cumstances seemed to require."^ 

He was twice married, his first wife having been a daughter 
of Rev. John Swift, of Framingham, who left two children, 
two others liaving died in infancy, while Deborah Winch, his 
second wife, had nine children. His house here was in the 
northern part of the town, and Lot No. 23, Range 7 (now 
Troy), constituted his farm. In 1770 he was the moderator 
of the proprietors' meeting, and as acting chairman of a com- 
mittee chosen for that purpose, reported upon the matter of a 
suitable site for the meeting-house and the place for the 
cemetery. He was also upon a committee in 1770 to obtain 
a minister, and was plainly a v^ery active and influential man 
in all the movements and projects of the early settlers. For 
some time before his death, which was the result of a 
violent fever and occurred January 7th, 1777, he was the 
clerk of the proprietors. His death was a great loss to the 
settlement. 

His son, William Farrar, was sixteen years old in 1768, 
and if the family of Major Farrar came to Fitzwilliam at that 
time, he doubtless came with his mother and the other chil- 
dren. His home M^as near that of his father, and he was gen- 

* Probably the easiest way to harmonize the several matters respecting Major 
Farrar's residence is to suppose that he was here a considerable part of the years 17(58- 
70, as he held three offices in Monadnoek J\o. 4 during the year last mentioned, but 
was in Framingham, Mass., much of the time 1771-75. In 177G he held seven offices 
here, but none during the five previous years. 

9 



130 IIISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM, 

erally known as Colonel Bill Farrar, to distingnisli him from 
Colonel Daniel W. Farrar. 

John Farrar, Jr., son of Major John Farrar, was the eldest 
of the nine children of Deborah Winch. He is remembered 
as a very genial man and an agreeable, jovial companion. His 
patriotism led him into the Continental Army during the Revo- 
lutionary War, in which his peculiar characteristics rendered 
him a great favorite among his fellow-soldiers. Some amus- 
ing anecdotes are related of him, settino^ forth his iuirenious 
methods for obtaining fresh provisions for himself and his 
comrades when supplies for the troops were scanty. After 
the close of the war Mr. Farrar lived for some years in Fitz- 
william, but died in South Hadley, Mass., March 20th, 1809. 

Silas Wetherbee was from Westborough, Mass., and must 
have come to Monadnock No. 4 as early as 1T66 or 1767, At 
a meeting of the proprietors October 7th, 1767, they voted 
" to Captain Silas Wetherbee £13 68. Sd. for his encourage- 
ment in buihiing a saw-mill in said township." This mill was 
what has since been known as the Scott Mill, on Scott Brook, 
and derived its name from Benjamin and Barakiah Scott, 
father and son, the father having bought out the improve- 
ments made by Silas Wetherbee. The Scott family owned 
the premises for a considerable period, and carried on the busi- 
ness either alone or in coimection with Esquire Kendall. 

Mr. Wetherbee was a member of the committee of five that 
selected the site for the meeting-house and cemetery. 

THE KENDALL FAMILY. 

Edward Kendall, a native of Leominster, Mass., came to 
Monadnock No. 4 in 1768 or 1769, and made an opening on 
what has since been known as the Davidson place, building 
his house on the Rindge road, east of the present village, near 
the dwelling of the late Mr. Luke Bowker. Judged by the 
offices of trust which he held here, Mr. Kendall must have 
been a very capable and worthy man. His death occurred at 
Leominster, where his only daughter lived, the wife of a Mr. 



THE KENDALL FAMILY — CALEB WINCH. 131 

Lincoln. His only son, Edward, settled in Westminster, 
Macs., and was a cabinet-nuiker. Deacon Edward Kendall, 
now of Worcester, Mass., is a son of the second Edward men- 
tioned above. 

Samuel Kendall, a brother of the iirst Edward above men- 
tioned, came from Leominster in 1769 and settled where Cap- 
tain William F. Perry afterward lived, Lot l-i, Ilange 2. He 
was usually known as Esquire Kendall, for he was for many 
years a justice of the peace. By trade he was a carpenter, and 
was considered so capable in this line that he was employed as 
the master workman in framing and erecting the meeting- 
house. He was quite a farmer also, while for many years he 
was called to do a large part of the most important public 
business. 

He and William Locke, who were near neighbors all their 
lives, after they came to Monadnock Xo. 4, were married on 
the same day. 

Caleb Winch came from Framingham, Mass., as early as 
1768, and was one of the six original members of the church 
in this place. He built for himself a log-house in that part of 
Monadnock Xo. 4 which since 1815 has belonged to Troy, 
owning Lots 20 and 21, Range 0. At once he ])ecame a man 
of note in the township, for he was energetic, enterprising, and 
deeply interested in every measure that concerned the common 
welfare. His name appears upon the records both of the pro- 
prietor's and town in connection with important offices, while 
lie was among the first to respond to the call of his country 
when the Revolutionary War broke out. Mr. Winch was in 
the battle of Lexington, and followed the British troops in their 
retreat to Boston. The circunj stances of his family were such 
tliat he could not long remain in the army, but there was not 
in the region a truer and more devoted patriot. His wife's 
name was Mehetable, and they had ten children, born between 
1770 and 1788. Mr. Winch died in 1826. 

The following account of his experience as a civil officer is 
worth preserving. Being the collector of taxes, he had occa- 



132 HISTORY OF FITZT^'ILLIAM. 

sion to seize and drive off tlie only cow of an lionest bnt very 
poor man with a large family, who was not able to satisfy the 
demands of the law. The ronte of Mr. Winch with the cow 
took him past the door of Kev. Mr. Brigham, his minister. 
The nastor learning the circumstances at once turned the cow 
backward, and insisted upon her being driven home immedi- 
ately, under the promise that he himself would see that the 
tax bill should be settled. This act seems to have been char- 
acteristic of Mr. Brigham. 



THE HEMENWAY FAMILY. 

Of those bearing this name in the early days of Fitzwilliam, 
Joseph ELemenway was by far the most prominent in the 
history of the township. He came from Framingham, Mass., 
about 1769, and his home was on what is now called the Hoi- 
man place, now or lately owned by Mrs. Stephen Perham. 
Tradition asserts that his wife was a sister of Daniel Mellen, 
Sr., but according to the history of Framingham she was Mary 
Adams. A younger brother of Joseph, Joshua Hemenway, 
married Zerviah, the youngest daughter of Daniel Mellen, Sr., 
and hence probably the mistake. Joseph Hemenway was the 
moderator of a number of proprietors' meetings, and tilled ac- 
ceptably various other offices in the early years of the town. 

Of the others bearing this name who settled in Monadnock 
No. 4 but little is known. Tiie birth of only a single Hemen- 
way child is recorded. 

In 180Y one S. (probably Sylvanus) Hemenway made a map 
of Fitzwilliam from, actual survey. At this time the JiCgisla- 
ture required the towns throughout tlie State to furnish town 
maps made from actual survey, and from these town maps 
Philip Carregain made a map of the State, which is known as 
Carregain's map, and which was for a long time the founda- 
tion of all the maps of the State wherever published. A copy 
of Mr. Hemenway's m.ap has been very carefully made, and in 
a somewhat reduced form is here given. While this map evi- 
dently does not give all the local roads leading from house to 
house, it is quite certain that it gives all the turnpike roads, 



JSotcii. cl e d. 




sooz 



M 0^/;'/? H' 



PHOTO-QRAVURt CO N, >, 



THE BRIGHAM FAMILY. 133 

all the county roads, and all the town roads that lead directly 
to the adjoining towns. This man was a near relative of 
Joseph Ileuienway, before noted, but it is impossible to state 
the exact relationship. 

BRIGHAM FAMILY. 

Rev. Benjamin Brig ham is the prominent figure in the 
chapter on early ecclesiastical history, and to this the reader 
is referred. His life and work were closely identified with 
all the secular, educational, and religious interests of the town, 
and he was honored and beloved by all the people. 

Elisha Brigham, son of the first pastor, kept what was 
called the Crosby Store for about two years, the fnnds for the 
same, it was understood, having been furnished by General 
James Humphrey, of Athol, his brother-in-law. After this 
Mr. Brio-ham removed to Boston and was a clerk for a Mi-. 
Williams, whose sister he married, at the south end of Wash- 
ington Street. Later he removed to Cincinnati, O. 

Lieutenant Levi Brigham and Tabitha, his wife, were 
from Westborough, Mass. They came as early as 1771 or 
1772, since the eldest of their children, Lydia, was baptized 
here in August of- the latter year. Lieutenant Brigham was 
collector of taxes and constable during the first year after the 
incorporation of the town, and one of the selectmen in the 
year following. In 1775, when the militia of Fitzwilliam were 
organized, Levi Brigham was chosen lieutenant ; indeed, from 
time to time he seems to have held nearly every oflice in the 
gift of the people. Mr. Brigham owned Lots 6 and 7, 
E-ange 6. 

Silas Angier and Elizabeth Drury, his wife, were from 
Framingham, Mass., but resided for a few years after their 
marriage in Temple, N. H. They came to Fitzwilliam iu 
1779. Mr. Angier owned Lot 8, Eange 7, and Lot 6, Range 9. 
He built his house by setting posts in the ground and cov- 
ering the same with slabs brought through the woods by 



184 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

marked trees vvitli great difficulty from Allen's mill in Rojal- 
ston. Mr. Angicr cut the large maples and birches upon his 
land, burned the brush, and put in his corn and potatoes with 
a hoe without ploughing. 

Duncan Cameron, a native of Scotland, was a soldier under 
General Burgoyne, and in the battles of Bennington, Vt. , and 
Stillwater, N. Y., before the British army surrendered to the 
American General Gates. Unlike most of those who were 
taken prisoners with him, Mr. Cameron was pleased with our 
country, and upon being exchanged became to Fitzwilliam and 
settled down as a successful farmer, locating himself in the 
northern part of the town. Near the close of the century he 
removed to Vermont. 

Abel Bakee, Lot 12, Range 12, came quite early from 
Walpole, Mass., and settled in the western part of Fitzwil- 
liam, of which he was regarded as the first settler. He boarded 
at a Mr. Jillson's in Richmond while he was buildino; his loor 
hut. His wife was Harriet Smith, of Medtield, Mass. 

Mr. Baker had remarkably large eyebrows, which were cov- 
ered with very long hair, the whole giving him an appearance 
that sometimes frightened strangers and children. Having no 
children of her own to caress, Mrs. Baker is reported as hav- 
ing conceived a great fondness for cats, and the great number 
of these animals in and upon the bed (said to have been in 
one instance twenty-eight) served to vex the soul of her hus- 
band. Notwithstanding this domestic trial, Mr. Baker lived 
to accumulate considerable property. 

Thomas Clark, Lot 18, Range 12, came from Wrentham, 
Mass., in 1T79 and located in the north-west part of Fitzwil- 
liam, where he built, like most of the first settlers, a log-house 
to be the home of himself and family. This location was 
within the limits of the present town of Troy, and we are in- 
formed, in the history of that town, that his hut had no chim- 
ney, but was warmed from a stone fireplace in the centre of 
it, the smoke escaping through a hole in the roof left uncov- 



THOMAS CLARK— STEPHEN HARRIS. 135 

ered for this purpose. Mr. Clark, who was ingenious as well 
as industrious, followed the example of Stephen Harris, who 
lived three miles or more from him, and in addition to carry- 
iuff on his farm made various articles of wood for household 
use, as plates, trays, spoons, mortars, etc., either entirely by 
liand or assisted by the rudely constructed lathe of those days. 
At that time pewter plates and cups were used to some extent 
on the table, but crockery was too expensive and perishable, 
so that in families of moderate means wooden dishes were gen- 
erally regarded with favor. At a little later period brown earth- 
enware was substituted for wooden platters and other dishes. 

Stephen Harris, Lot 11, Range 8, started on the morning 
of March 3d, 1771, for Monadnock No. 4 with his wife and 
children on a sled drawn by oxen. They came from Fra- 
mingham, Mass. He had a hard drive and they had a hard 
ride of four days before reaching their destination, but finally 
arrived at the house of Joseph Hemenway, who was probably 
his old )ieii>:hbor. 

Mr. Harris had been here during the autumn of 1770, at 
which time he had purchased land and built a log-house which 
stood directly behind and within a few feet of the late dwell- 
ing of x\bel Angier. 

After clearing out the snow from his house and warming 
it up, the family took possession of it on March 9th, 1771. 
They brought with them neither bedstead, chair, nor table, 
and for a time their beds were spread upon the split logs that 
made the floor of their dwelling. Their first table was made 
of a large slab brought from a saw-mill, with legs inserted in 
auger-holes. Blocks of wood furnished them seats as they 
met for their meals, which consisted of hasty-pudding, a little 
venison, and bean porridge. On the 27th day of the same 
month Mrs. Harris attended the ordination of llev. Benjamin 
Brigham, drawn through the snow upon a hand sled by her 
husband and a hired helper. These were the grandparents of 
the late Deacon Joseph Harris and Mr. El)enezer Potter. 
Their neighbors in their new home were Mr. Benjamin Bige- 
low on Fay Hill, John Fassett, and John Chamberlain. 



136 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

Stephen Harris was an industrious and enterprising man, and 
lield many offices. He was a farmer, and besides had a shop 
in which, dnring stormy weather, lie mannfacturered chairs 
with seats made of ehn bark procured from Gap Momitain. 
He was also a tnrner, like Thomas Clark already mentioned, 
and with his lathe made similar articles for table use. 

Captain Jonathan Locke, better known as Esquire Locke, 
was a native of Holliston, Mass., but came to Monadnoek No. 
4 from Framingham,* He located upon wild lands, Lot 20, 
Range 11, and lived in a log-house. This was in 17T0. Later 
he built a framed house which is still standing, being the 
j)remises so long known as the Reed House, and which is now 
occupied by Mrs. Milne. This house has stood about one hun- 
dred and fourteen years, and is doubtless the oldest house in 
Fitzwilliam. In 1Y72, at the request of his father. Esquire 
Locke removed to Ashby, Mass., to take the charge of his 
father's farm, and there he resided till his death. He was one 
of the committee, in 1770, to notify Mr. Brigham of his call 
to Hie pastorate in this township, as he was also to attend the 
ordination in behalf of the proj^rietors. A very warm friend- 
ship sprang up between Mr. Locke and his pastor, and it is 
said that the latter walked the house in distress during the 
whole night previous to the departure of Mr. Locke for Ash- 
by. Li that town he held various important offices, and was a 
member of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress at Salem, 
and of a convention called to frame a constitution for that 
State. 

Near the junction of the old and newer Royalston roads 
were the houses of the brothers Abijah, Steplien, and Elipha- 
let Richardson. Stephen owned Lot 1, Range 11, while Lot 
?> in the same range belonged to Eliphalet. This family came 
from Royalston. Stephen married Rhoda Daniels. He was 
a healthy, robust man, but while returning home from the vil- 



* At a little later date two of his brothers came to Fitzwilliam. Deacon John Locke 
settled on Lot 16, Range 4, where Samuel Kendall now resides. William Locke lived 
on Lot 11, Kange 2. 



STEPHEN RICHARDSON — FORRISTALL. 137 

lage durino; a cold nio;ht, December 81 st, 1790, lie missed the 
road ill the darkness and wandered into the field, about fifty 
rods south of the cemetery, to an oak-tree. He was found the 
next mornino; dead by John Osborn, one of the scholars of 
District No. 8, while on his way to school. Among Dr. Cum- 
mings's papers these items are found : " Captain Kichardson 
was a stout man ; served as an ox-frame to have his oxen 
shod." " Captain Richardson came to town and made a be- 
ginning on his farm before the Revolution. He went to Miss 
Daniels, of Keene (whom he afterward married), and offered 
to deed to her his property if she would marry him ; Init she 
chose to remain single until the result of the war should decide 
the fate of the country." 

Captain Stephen Richardson was in the Continental Army 
about three years. 

Joseph Forristall came from Holliston, Mass., when he 
was twenty years of age. For a few months he had been in 
the Continental Army, and was stationed at Ticonderoga. His 
wife was Hannah Mellen. The one hnndred and twenty acres 
of land (Lot 19, Range 8) upon which this young con pie set- 
tled were pnrchased by the father of the bride, who came with 
Mr. Forristall and aided him in making a clearing and partially 
building a framed house. This was in the autumn, and early 
in the following spring the family took possession of their 
dwelling, though the floor of the house was not laid till the 
succeeding fall. The history of Troy states that the family 
came to town in 1779, but the town records make it very cer- 
tain that they did not come till 1781. 

Jesse Forristall, an older brother of Joseph, came about 
the same time, and settled in the extreme south part of the town. 

JosiAH Haskall lived on Lot 8, Range 11. For ten years 
or more he carried the mail from Worcester to Boston, and was 
distinguished for his politeness. He commenced with one 
poor horse, but before he left the route he had a covered stage, 
wnth four horses. 



138 HISTORY OF FITZWILLTAM. 

He made a weekly trip, but his route was somewhat circuit- 
ous, as it passed through Winchendon. 

Mr. Haskall was a basket-maker, and once made on a bet a 
bushel basket that, when filled with water, lost but two quarts 
during a night. 

SciPio Jawhaw, from whom Sip Pond was named, was a 
negro, who lived with his squaw wife north-east of the north 
end of the pond. He was an expert fisherman, and quite a 
character in the early years of the settlement. His wife, it is 
said, pretended to be a witch, to the great annoyance of the 
neighbors. 

Samuel Bent and Mary, his wife, were from Sudbury, 
Mass., and came to Fitzwilliam in 1780. Mr. Bent owned a 
part of Lots 7 and 8, Eange 1. He, with two of his neigh- 
bors, killed a moose south of Sip Pond. It is related that Mr. 
Bent, with his neighbors Mr. Clark, Mr. Goodnow, and Sip, 
were out upon the pond for fish during the famous dark day, 
May 19th, 1780. For a considerable time, as the darkness 
came on. the fish took the hook very quickly, but as the dark- 
ness increased, till nothing scarcely could be discerned, they 
ceased to take the bait, and the companj^ were glad to leave 
their sport for their homes. 

Samuel Divol owned a part of Lot C, Range 2, and either 
he or William Divol built the first saw-mill in that part of the 
town. At a more recent date Milton Chaplin had a mill on 
or near the same location which was afterward owned by Elislia 
Chaplin, and was consumed by fire a few years since. 

The Divols left town about 1791. 



THE GODDING FAMILY, 

consisting of the widow of John Godding and four sons and 
four daughters, came from Attleborough, Mass., in 1779, and 
settled upon Lot 21, Range 11. The eldest son, John, was 
then a capable and energetic young man, and he made the 



THE BOWKER FAMILY. 139 

piirohase of the land and arranged all the matters of the re- 
moval. This farm has since been owned by Albert Pratt. 
The Goddino; family was much respected, and formed good 
connections in this and some of the neighboring towns. 

Philip Amadox came from Oxford, Mass., with Eunice 
Shumway, his wife, in 1783, and settled upon Lot 10, Range 
4. Soon after his arrival he built the second grist-mill, but 
failing to get it in operation as easily as he had hoped, he re- 
turned to Oxford in 1784, and worked in the hay field to ob- 
tain funds to complete it. On his return he came through 
IS'orthfield, Mass., where he bought four bushels of corn, and 
brouoht the meal from the corn home on the back of his horse, 
M-hich he led. The family supplies had been reduced so low 
before his arrival that the mouthfuls of food were counted. 



THE BOWKEK FAMILY. 

Lots 19 and 20, Range 7. Baktlett and John Bowkee, 
brothers, came from Scituate, Mass., in 1780, and purchased 
two hundred acres of land where is now the village of Bow- 
kerville. Boarding at first with Mr. Mellen, they cleared ten 
acres, set up a house, and roughly covered it. In the spring 
following Bartlett and John introduced their wives into this 
dwelling, which had no chimney till snow fell. These brothers 
lived together for ten years, with their property in common, 
and then made an amicable division in fifteen minutes. Bart- 
lett had fourteen children and John fifteen. They built as 
soon as convenient a blacksmith-shop, buying their iron in bars 
and slitting it up for nails, which they used in large quantities 
in shoeing horses and oxen. The first ox-frame in town was 
set up by them, and twenty yokes of oxen were driven to their 
shop at one time from Surry for slioeing. The farmers would 
notifv them in season, so that the shoes and nails might be 
ready. Their father's family in Scituate lived in a small house 
about four miles from the beach, and there were ten boys and 
three girls in it, making fifteen in all ; and the whole family 
ate bean porridge out of one large wooden bowl. 



140 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

At a little later date another brother, Charles, came to town, 
and settled on Lot 17, Range 6. 

Jonas Robinson, or Robeson, as he spelled his name after he 
came to New Hampshire, was born in Lexington, Mass., and 
came to Fitzwilliam in 1791 or 1792, opening a store in the 
house of Reuben Ward, who lived in Marlborough. About a 
year later he erected a building near the Harrington Mills, 
finishing the front part for a store and the rear part for a 
dwelling-house. In 1805 he opened a store in the centre of 
Fitzwilliam, and in 1813 he sold out his interest in the first- 
named store to Daniel W. Farrar. From 180(5 to the time of 
his death, August 21th, 1819, he lived and carried on his busi- 
ness in Fitzwilliam village. Before his remov^al to this vil- 
lage he superintended the building of the new road or turn- 
pike from Fitzwilliam to Keene, as no one else wdio was 
responsible could be found to do it, building log huts for the 
men whom he employed. Later he was very active in the 
erection of the first meeting-house in Fitzwilliam village, and 
was much affected when it was burned. When the flames 
were bursting out from the doors and windows he took from 
the pulpit the Bible, and before the fire had gone out was 
arransine with Judffe Parker and Rev. Mr. Sabin for rebuild- 
ing at once. Mr. Robinson was captain of an independent 
military company, then major, but declined the office of 
colonel. In 1819 he represented this town in the Legislature. 

It is impossible to state very definitely when the most of 
the early settlers came to town. In some few instances the 
descendants of the various individuals are able to give the 
date of settlement, but in the larger number of cases the date 
where the name first appears in the records gives us the most 
reliable information that is attainable. The following hsts, 
17b5-85, have been prepared with much care, and are believed 
to be as complete as it is practicable to make at the present 
time. 

The first list gives the dates when the persons named settled 
in Fitzwilliam (Monadnock No. 4), the authority generally 
being the descendants of the several persons. 



LISTS OF EARLY SETTLERS. 141 

The second list gives the dates when tlie nannes first appear 
in the proprietary, church, or town records ; and while some 
of the persons may not have settled here much if any earlier 
than the date under which they are here placed, it is certain 
that others were in town some years before the date at which 
they first appear in the records. 

In both lists the names of the towns from whence the per- 
sons came are given so far as has been ascertained. The titles 
attached to some of the names are those by which the persons 
are best known, though in nearly every case they belong 
]u-operly to a much later period in the life of the individual. 
It is believed that very nearly all the persons named were 
heads of families, or became such soon after their settlement in 
Fitzwilliam. 

List No. 1. 

1767 John Mellen, Esq Ilolliston, Mass. 

1768 Reuben Pratt Westboro, " 

1771 Stephen Harris Framingham, Mass. 

1777 Samuel Stone , . . . " " 

1778 Silas Angier " " 

1780 Bartlett Bowker Scituate, Mass. 

John Bowker " " 

1781 Jesse Forristall Ilolliston, " 

1782 John Fav Marlborouo-h, Mass. 

Allen Grant Cumberland, E.. I. 

Asa Waite Sutton, Mass. 

1784 Philip Amadon Oxford, 



a 



List No. 2. 

1765 Benjamin Bigelow Lunenburg, Mass. 

General James Beed " " 

Jason Stone Framingham, " 

1767 (Captain Silas Wetherbee Shrewsbury, '' 

1768 Isaac Aplin 

Benjamin Davidson or Davison. . . 

Major John Farrar Framingham, Mass. 

Aaron Garfield 

Daniel Mellen, Jr Ilolliston, Mass. 

1769 Deacon John Fassett Templeton (?), Mass. 

John Goldsbury 



u 
u 
ii 
i i 
ii 



142 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

1769 Edward Kendall Leominster, Mass. 

Thomas Tolman Dorchester, " 

Joseph Twist 

Caleb Winch Framinghani, Mass. 

1770 Kev. Benjamin Brigham . . Marlborongh, 

Joseph Hemenway Framingham, 

Jonathan Locke Ashby, 

Benjamin Tolman Attleboro, 

Thomas Wetherbee Westboro, 

William Withington. . Ashby, 

1771 John Angier Framingham, " 

Captain Elijah Clays " *' 

Stephen Cool (Cole) Pomfret, Conn. 

David Denison 

Moses Dniry Framingham, Mass. 

Samuel Graves 

Samuel Kendall, Esq Leominster, Mass. 

Amos Knight Lancaster, " 

Henry Poor 

Nathaniel Wilder Lancaster, Mass. 

Llenry AYillard Pepperell, " 

1772 Levi Brigham Westboro, " 

Moses Cutting Framingham, Mass. 

Joseph Grow. Pomfret, Conn. 

Deacon John Locke 

John Mayhew 

Nathan Mixer Framingham, Mass, 

Nathan Platts 

Thomas Trowbridge Framingham, Mass. 

Jonathan Whitney Dunstable, " 

1773 Rev. David Goodale 

Robert Ware 

Jacob Wilson 

177-1 Amos Boynton 

Job Boynton 

Alpheus Brigham 

Joseph Brown Lancaster, Mass. 

Peter Burbee Attleboro, " 

James Butler 

Ebenezer Camp 

Francis Fullam Leominster, Mass. 

John Harrington Framingham, " 

Joshua Harrington " " 

Joshua Harrington, Jr 

J ohn Ilemenway 



a ii 



SETTLERS, 1774-1779. 143 

1774 Saimiel Ivilpatrick Fitcliburo;, Mass. 

Joseph Kneeland 

Jonas Knight 

William Locke 

John Mavnarcl Framiniiham, Mass. 

Ezekiel Mixer 

David Perry, Jr Sherborn, " 

Joseph Potter 

James Tiffany Chelmsford (?), Mass. 

1775 Abner Ball . ." 

Major Asa Bn'ajham Shrewsbury, Mass. 

Dr. Gershom Brigham : 

Leonard Brigham'. Shrewsbury, Mass. 

John Chamberlain 

Josepli Dun 

Aaron Morse 

Benjamin Potter 

Ebeiiezer Potter Marlboro, Mass. 

Jonas Rice Brooktield, " 

Ichabod Smith 

Daniel Stjuires 

1776 John Camp 

Silas Farnsworth 

Daniel Farrar Lincoln, Mass. 

Phinehas Llutchins Lunenburg, Mass. 

Joseph Xurse Framingham, " 

Abraham Rice * ' " 

1777 Solomon Badcock 

Amos Bucknam 

Calvin Clark Marlboro, Mass. 

Daniel Joslin 

Edward Platts Lunenburg (?), Mass. 

Benjamin Scott Sturbridge, " 

1778 Daniel Adams 

Joseph Farwell Groton, Mass. 

Jonathan Gibson 

Josiali Goodale 

Daniel Gould 

Jesse Hayden 

Isaac Jackson 

Job Pratt Soutliboro, Mass. 

Joshua Willard Grafton, 

1779 Benjamin Angler Framingham, 

Benjamin Bennett 

Ebenezer Boutwell 






144 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM, 

17Y9 Ephraim Boynton Sterling, Mass. 

Benjamin Byam 

Joseph Fassett 

Tlieopliiliis Hardy 

Josiali Plartwell Lunenburg, Mass. 

Abner Haskell Lancaster, " 

Joseph Muzzey 

Samuel Osborn . Hopkinton, Mass. 

Matthew Osborn " " 

Joseph Scott 

Joseph Stone Southboro, Mass. 

Kathan Townsend AVestboro, " 

Joseph Whitmore Lancaster, " 

John Whitney Dunstable, " 

Nathaniel Wilson Westminster, " 

1780 Samuel Bent Sudbury, " 

Stephen Brigham 

Thomas Clark Wrentham, Mass. 

Matthias Felton 

Joseph Forristall Holliston, Mass. 

Samuel Harris 

Isaac Jackson 

Asa Johnson Holliston, Mass. 

Joseph Knight 

Nathaniel Muzzey \ 

Joseph Smith 

Abner Stone Framingham, Mass. 

Samuel Wilson 

1781 Silas Colburn * Pelham, Mass. 

Abel Estabrook 

Joseph Morse 

Joseph Nichols Framingham, Mass. 

Joseph Nichols, Jr " " 

David Saunders Billerica, " 

Barakiah Scott Sturbridge, " 

Llezekiah Stone Framingham, " 

Abi jah Warner 

John Whitney, Jr 

Samuel A¥inch Framingham, Mass. 

1782 Daniel Bigelow " " 

William Bruce Sudbury, " 

Jesse Cheney 

Joseph Foster 

Eleazer Mason 

Needham Maynard Framingham, Mass. 



SETTLERS, 1782-1785. 145 

1782 Ed\Yard Payson 

Jacob Sargent 

James Stone South boro, Mass. 

Ezekiel AVhite 

1783 Agabus Bishop Wrentham, Mass. 

Daniel Foster 

John Godding Attleboro, Mass. 

AVilliam Ilartwell 

John Stimson 

Luther Stone Framinghara, Mass. 

Michael Sweetser Reading, " 

1784 Elijah Allen 

John Allen 

Wiliiam Crane Stoughton, Mass. 

Jotham Haven Framinghani, " 

Isaac Knight 

Samuel Rockwood Holliston, Mass. 

Benoni Slmrtleff 

John Sweetland Attleboro, Mass. 

Jonathan Whitcomb 

Azariah Wilson "Westboro (?), Mass. 

Jonas Woods Southboro, " 

1785 Samuel Barnard 

Asa Bennett Shrewsbury, Mass. 

Deacon Oliver Damon Sudbury, '' 

Isaac Goodenough " " 

William Nurse 

Simeon Perry 

Captain Stephen Richardson Royalston, Mass. 

Joel Wright Templeton, 



a 



10 



CHAPTER VIII. 

EARLY TOWN HISTORY, 1773-1800. 

Movement for Incorporation — Opposition to it — Petition for it — Charter 
Granted — Tlie Name Fitzwilliam — First Town Meeting — Injury of 
Records — ^Early Town Officers — Pew Associations — Warning out of 
Town — Provision for Soldiers — Depreciation of Currency — The Great 
Road — List of Land-Owners. 

A FTER 1769 the meetings of the proprietors were held 
-^--^ within the township, and evidently were not attended by 
many of the non-resident proprietors. Daniel Mellen con- 
tinned to be chosen to various offices for a few years, but with 
this exception all of the officers of the proprietorship were 
chosen from residents, and they originated all the important 
measures that were adopted. 

How early the matter of incorporating Monadnock No. -4 
as a town was agitated it is impossible to tell, but from the 
petition which follows it would appear that in 1768 the settlers 
were becoming somewhat restive under the proprietors' move- 
ments, and were, at least, considering the advantages and dis- 
advantages of an act of incorporation. There was opposition 
to any movement of this nature, and possibly it extended to 
many if not most of the non-resident proprietors. Certainly 
Sampson Stoddard, by far the largest of these, was not ready 
to sanction any proceedings that favored a plan of incorpora- 
tion, as will appear from the following : 

To His Excellency John Wentworth Esqr, Captain General, Gov- 
ernor and Commander in Chief in and over his Majesty's Province of 
New Hamp., the Hon^''" His Majesty's Council for Said Province — 

The Memorial of Sampson Stoddard of Chelmsford in the County of 
Middlesex in the Province of Massachusetts Bay Shews — 

That there is a Tract of Land in the Province of New Hampshire of 
the contents of about Six Miles Square Granted by the Purchasers of 



PETITION FOR INCORPORATION. 147 

the Right of John Tufton Mason Esqr, to Your Memorialist and others 
called the Township of Monadnock No 4 — that the Greater part thereof 
is finally Vested in him, that he has at great Expense Settled a Very 
Considerable Number of Inhabitants thereon. 

Wherefore your Memorialist humbly prays that the Lands afores'' may 
not be Incorporated into a Town and the Inhabitants there Infranchised 
with all Town priveledges without their first Giving Notice to him of 
their Design of applying to y"" E.xcell>' and honors and your Memorialist 
Shall (as in duty bound) Ever pray — 

Sampson Stoddard. 

Portsm" July 11. 1768. 

So far as can be learned from the eai-ly records, the move- 
ment for incorporation took form at the annnal meeting of 
the proprietors, March 31st, 1773. Doubtless the majority, 
if not all of those present and voting at that meeting were 
settlers as well as proprietors. This meeting was held at the 
house of James Reed, innholder, with John Mellen moderator, 
James Reed, Esq., John Mellen, and Joseph Hemenway 
were appointed a committee 

to repair to the Govner and Council of this Province to have this town- 
ship incorporated into a town and to have town privileges as soon as 
may be. 

No full record has been preserved of the proceedings of 
this connnittee, but from the fact that the petition presented 
to tiie governor was signed by James Reed alone, the prolta- 
bility is that he was not accompanied by the other members 
of the committee, though he acted under their authority. 

The following is the petition : 

To His Excellency John Wentworth Esquire Captain General and 
Commander in Chief in and over His Majestys Province of New Hamp- 
shire and Vice Admiral of the Same in Council. 

The Petition of James Reed, of Monadnock No. 4 in the County of 
Cheshire in the Province aforesaid Esqr and Clerk of the Proprietors 
of said Monadnock No. 4 unto your Excellency and Honors humbly 
Shews. 

That your Petitioner witli Joseph Hemmenway and John Millens at a 
legal meeting of s'' Proprietors held in s' Monadnock No. 4, on the 31st 
of Miirch last were chosen a committee to Petition this Honourable 



148 HISTORY OF FITZ WILLI AM. 

Court to incor^Jorate the said Monadnock No. 4 into a Township with 
the usual Privileges and Franchises of other corporate Towns in said 
Province, for the following Reasons, viz. 

That the Inhabitants of said Monadnock No. 4 have settled a Minister 
and built a Meeting House and have a large Number residing there, be- 
sides others daily coming to settle there. That they humbly conceive 
their Number Intitles them to the Indulgence of this Hon'''«' Court as iu 
the present mode of Provincial Taxation they are subject to the Controul 
of the Selectmen of Neighboring Towns, and they would humbly wish 
to have the Previledge of chusing Selectmen and other Town Officers of 
their own, which would quiet the Minds of the Inhabitants and promote 
the Interests and good Government of s'^ Monadnock No 4. 

That being destitute of Town Priviledges the Petitioners cannot 
legally warm out any vagrants that may come there, and many other In- 
conveniences. 

Wherefore, Your Petitioners, in behalf of the Proprietors humbly pray 
that this Hon^'*' Court would grant their Petition and as in duty he and 
they shall ever pray. 

James Reed. 
Committeeman and Proprietors' Clark. 

The three points made prominent in this petition will be 
seen to have been : 

1. The matter of taxation, from which it is plain that in 
some way the officers of the adjoining incorporated towns 
had some oversight of the unincorporated tow^ns as to their 
taxation, evidently a case of " taxation without representation." 

2. It was needful to quiet the minds of the people, as it was 

3. To be able to warn off vagrants. 

It is to be remembered that this movement w^as made before 
the breaking out of the American Revolution, but while 
the flame of patriotism which was soon to burst forth was 
smouldering, and needed but some comparatively slight cause 
to render it uncontrollable. This it found when the cargoes 
of tea were thrown overboard in the harbor of Boston, an oc- 
currence which rendered this same year, 1773, memorable. 
During the great excitement which succeeded that event the 
inhabitants of Monadnock No. 4 received their charter from 
their king, which must have been among the last of such 
.charters granted by the same authority to any of the towns in 
Southern New Hampshire. 



THE CHAKTER OF FITZ WILLI AM. 149 

This charter is here given entire : 

Province of New Hampshire. 
Seal of ) 
the Province. \ 

George the Third, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, France and 
Ireland, King-Defender of the Faith. 

To all to whom these Presents shall come Greeting. Whereas our 
Loyal Subjects and Inhabitants of a Tract of Land within our Province 
of New Hampshire aforesaid, commonly called and known by the name 
of Manadnock No (4) containing by estimation about six miles square, 
have Humbly Petitioned & requested us that they may be erected and 
incorporated into a Township and enfranchised with the same Powers 
and Priveledges which other Towns within our said Province, by Law 
have and enjoy, and it appearing unto us to be conducive to the General 
Good of Our Said Province as well as of the said Inhabitants in par- 
ticular by maintaining good order & encouraging the Culture of the Land 
that the same should be done : Know Ye that we, of our special grace 
certain knowledge and for the Enouragement and Promotion of the 
good Purposes and Ends aforesaid ; by and with the advice of our trusty 
and well beloved Jolm Wentworth Esqr, our Governor and Commander 
in Chief of our said Province and of our Council of the same. Have 
erected and ordained and by these Presents for us, our Heirs and Succes- 
sors do will and ordain, that the Inhabitants of the said Tract of Land 
and others who shall improve and Inhabit therein hereafter, the Same 
being butted and bounded as follows (Viz.) Beginning at the "West line 
of Mason's Patent so called, where that crosses the dividing Line be- 
tween the Province of Massachusetts Bay and the Province of New 
Hampshire, and runs from thence south Eighty degrees East by said 
Line, six miles to the South West corner of the South Manadnock, from 
thence North by the Needle, by said Township, five miles to the North 
West Corner of y"^ South Manadnock aforesaid, from thence North 
Eiglity Degrees west by Midle Manadnock Township, one mile & a 
q 'arter to the South West corner thereof, thence North by the needle 
two miles and forty rods, and from thence North Eighty [degrees West] 
till it comes to the Patent West Line as lately marked, and from thence 
Southerly by that Line to the first Bounds mentioned, Be and they are 
hereby declared to be a Town corporate by the name of Fitzwilliaui, 
to have Continuence for ever, with all the Powers and Privileges, author- 
ities, immunities and Franchises Avhich any other Towns in our said 
Province by Law hold and enjoy, to the said Inhabitants or those who 
shall hereafter Inhabit these and to their Sucessors forever, allways 
reserving to us our Heirs & Successors all White Pine Trees, that are or 
shall be found, being and growing within & upon the Said Tract of Land 
fit for the Use of our Royal Navy, reserving also to us, our Heirs and 



150 HISTORY OF FITZWILLTAM. 

Successors the Power of dividing said Town when it shall be necessary 
«fc Convenient for the Inhabitants thereof, Provided nevertheless & tis 
hereby declared that this Charter and Grant is not intended and shall 
not in any manner be construed to affect the Private Property of the 
Soil within the Limits aforesaid, And as the Several Towns within our 
said Province are by the Laws thereof enabled & authorized to assemble 
& by the majority of the Voters Present to chuse all officers and transact 
such affairs as in the said Laws are declared — And We do by these 
Presents nominate & appoint James Reed Esqr. to call the first 
meeting of said Inhabitants to be held •within the Said Town any Time 
within Thirty Days from the Date hereof, giving Legal Notice of the 
Time & design of Holding such Meeting, after which the annual Meet- 
ing for said Town shall be held for the choice of such Officers and the 
Purposes aforesaid on the tliird Thursday in march annually. 

In Testimony whereof we have caused the Seal of Our Said Province 
to be hereunto affixed. Witness Our aforesaid Governour and Com- 
mander in Chief the STiiieteeiith Day of May, in the Thirteenth Year 
of our reign, Anuoq Domini One Thousand Seven Hundred & Seventy- 
Three. J. Wentworth. 

By his Excellency's Comand. 
With advice of Council. 
Theodore Atkinson, Sec'y. 

Province of New Hampshire May 19, 1773. 

Entered & recorded in the 4th Book of Charters Page 147 and 148. 

Attest Theodore Atkinson, Sec'y. 

Why the name Fitzwilliara (the son of Wilh'ani) was given 
to the town we know only through tradition. Rev. John 
Sabin, in his lecture, makes this statement : 

It was named after the Earl of Fitzwilliara I believe, an Irish Gentle- 
man, then considered a very worthy man. Time has been after the 
burning of our Meetino: House that I wished to remind him of the town 
named for hirn and give him an opportunity for his substantial remem- 
brance of this his child. It is supposed that he lives in name and title 
in a descendant ; at least he did a few years since. 

That the Earl of Fitzwilliam was a man of influence and 
established reputation appears from the fact that Edmund 
Burke addressed to him one of his important communications 
relative to British interests, which may be found in Volume YI. 
of his works, Little & Brown's edition. 

This t(nvn was doubtless named for this English and Irish 



EARLY RECORDS INJURED. 151 

earl, and tlie strong probability is that he was an acquaintance 
unci friend of Governor John Wentworth, or a connection by 
marriage. Tiiis governor was the second of that name, and 
had recently been appointed to office by royal authority. For 
many years the Wentworth family had furnished governors 
for the province of T^ew Hampshire, and the predecessor of 
this John Wentworth, Benning Wentworth, had been in the 
liabit of o-ivinff the names of his intimate friends and favorites 
to not a few of the towns for which he obtained charters, and 
to some counties also. The probability is that his nephew, 
tiie last royal governor, followed his example in naming Fitz- 
william. 

James Reed called the first meeting of the town under its 
charter, but no record of that important meeting appears to be 
in existence. Early in the year 1785 the dwelling-house of 
Samuel Patrick, then town clerk of Fitzwilliam, was burned. 
The Town Book of Records was rescued from the fire in a badly 
damaged condition, but all the loose papers appertaining to 
the business of the town were entirely destroyed. The res- 
cued book, originally eleven inches long and seven inches wide, 
was burned upon the edges all around, but most upon the 
front and ends, and more at the beginning of the book than 
upon the other side. As a part of the front parchment cover 
was preserved, it would seem that none of the leaves were en- 
tirely consumed, though several leaves are now missing. By 
counting the folds of the sheets, it is found that four leaves 
are missing, probably three at the commencement of the book 
and one at ten or fifteen pages later. All the records of 1773 
are gone, the book now commencing with the warrant for the 
annual meeting in 1774. 

In consulting this damaged but still invaluable book, which 
furnishes the only direct and positive information respecting 
the business of the town for elev^en years — and those the years 
of the American Revolution — often a word or two at the beo:iii- 
ning and end of a line will be missing, but in general the por- 
tions remaining uninjured aid us in determining substantially 
both how much and what has been lost. In the records at the 
top and bottom of the pages the condition is different, as three 



152 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

or four lines may be gone from the top of a page and one or 
two lines from the bottom, which taking together the bottom 
of one page and the top of the next might make a loss of five 
or six entire lines and parts of several others. In some such 
cases, however, a careful comparison of the warrant for the 
meeting with the action as recorded may show whether the 
missing record is of much or little consequence. 

At the annual town meeting in March, 1785, Caleb Winch, 
Samuel Patrick, and Sylvanus Reed were chosen " a commit- 
tee to copy off the records belonging to the town that was in 
Samuel Patrick's house," but the work thus projected was 
never accomplislied. 

Though we have no formal record of the business done in 

1773, the call for the town meeting, which was held March 
17th, 1774, shows us who five of the officers of the town were 
when it was first organized, for this call, which is dated March 
2d, 1774, was signed by John Mellen and Joseph Grow, se- 
lectmen, and was served by Ed ward Kendall, constable, whose 
return was made on the day of the meeting, March 17th, 1774, 
while we find that Edward Kendall, as one of the selectmen, 
had been previously engaged in laying out a road in the town- 
ship. The first town clerk was plainly James Reed, as all the 
earliest town records are in his handwriting. 

AVe have, then, as town officers for 1773 : 

Town clerk, James Reed. 

Selectmen, John Mellen, Joseph Grow, and Edward Kendall. 

Constable, Edward Kendall. •' 

The record of the above-mentioned meeting, March 17th, 

1774, is here given in full : 

Town being met and Voted and Choose James R[eed 

Moderator]. 

Voted and Choose said Reed [Town Clerk]. 

[Voted and C]hoose said Reed first Select[man]. 

Voted and Choose Mr. John Mellen 3 Sele[ctman]. 

Voted and Choose Lieut. Brigham 3 Selectman. 

And also Voted the above said Reed, Mellen and Brigham assessors 
for the present year. 

ViAed and Choose Levi Brigham Constable and Collector. 

Voted and Choose John Mellen Treasurer. 



TOWJSr MEETING, 1774. 153 

Voted and Clioose Joseph Grow and Ciileb Winch Tidingmon for the 
pp"esent j-ear. 

Voted and Choose Samuel Killpatrick, John Anger, Francis Fullum, 
David Parey and Steplien Harris High way sveurs. 

Voted and Choose Nathaniel Wilder and Jolin Fassett fence vewers. 

Voted and Choose John AYhitney, James Reed Jr DeerRefs. (Reeves). 

Voted and Choose Samuel Killpatrick Lather Sealer. 

Voted and Choose Jonas Knights, David Parey Hog Refs or Field 
Drivers. 

Voted and Choose Nathaniel Wilder Svauer of Lumber. 

Voted and Choose Joseph Hemenway Clark of the Markett, Sealer of 
Wats and masuers. 

[Voted] the sum of seven pounds [for the] use of a scool for the pres- 
ent year. 

Voted that a pound be bult 25 feet square [and that the sides] be laid 
up 7 feet High with a wooden gate with iron Hinges, all to be Com- 
pleted by tlie first of June next to the exceptance of the Town, and John 
Mellen is bondsman to see the work Don. 

Voted tlie sum of £4. 10. 0. 0. to Defray nacasary Charges and building 
the above mentioned pound, and to provide scales, Wats, Masuers, etc. 

Voted £50. 0. 0. 0. L M to make and repair Roads the present year to 

be worked out at said after the rate of four pence a nower for 

each one, the work to be Don in June & September. 

Voted that the oners of the 2 corner pews in the Body parte of the 
Meeting House have Liberty to cut [windows] at the east and west end 
of the Meeting House for the benifet of those Pews, they doing it and 
keeping them in Repair at there one cost. 

Voted That Town Meetings in this Town for the present be warned by 
a notification being posted by wrighting on a poste at the Meeting House 
to be provided for that purpos. 

Voted and Excepted of a Road laid out by Edward Kendall and 
Joseph Grow, 2 of the Selectmen of said Town for the year 1773. Said 
Road Runs upon the north line of Lott — in the 8 rang Leading south by 

the House of Joseph to Lott no 2 in 8 Rang and so on as it is marked 

and Trod. 

A true Entrey of all the Vots and Trans[actions] passed at said meeting. 

pr James Reed 

Moderator and Town Clark. 

The words or passages enclosed in brackets are supplied to 
fill vacancies in the burnt record. Blanks are left where the 
proper words cannot be given. 

The following entry appears upon the same page with the 
record given above : 



154 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIA:\r. 

" of July 1774 then Mr. Stephen Harris took the Charge of 
our Meeting House to see that the windows was shet and the 
doors opened." 

Upon this record it maybe remarked that this appropriation 
for educational purposes, apparently small, being only seven 
pounds, was in reality quite liberal, for money at that time 
had a great purchasing power. Moreover, if the teacher of the 
single school received as wages four shilh'ngs or four shillings 
and sixpence per week (sixty-six and two thirds, or seventy-five 
cents), which was considered in those days a good price, and 
boarded around, as was the custom, the seven pounds must have 
supported a school of considerable length. It appears also 
from this record that the town entered at once upon the busi- 
ness of making and repairing roads, a work previously done 
at the expense of the proprietors, from which it would seem 
evident that most of the responsibilities of the proprietorship 
were immediately assumed by the town. But to this there 
was one exception, for the proprietors were still bound to pay 
the salary of the minister, and between the two parties there 
was a sort of partnership in the meeting-house, for we find 
both ordering changes and making repairs in that building, 
and moreover receiving and acting upon petitions from indi- 
viduals for the privilege of cutting windows, lengthening the 
seats, or building new pews. As the two parties were made 
up to a great extent of the same persons, there appears to have 
been no particular clashing of interests, and they worked to- 
gether harmoniously for the space of twenty five years, or 
until 1798, when the proprietors voluntarily relinquished all 
claims to the meeting-house, upon the town's becoming re- 
sponsible for the salary of the minister. 

A fac-simile of the first leaf of the burnt record book 
that has been preserved is here given. The original size 
of the leaf, eleven by seven inches, here reduced in size 
to five and a half by three and a half inches, is shown by 
the shaded part upon which the burnt leaf is laid. The 
margin shows the correct proportionate part of the leaf that 
is gone. 

Upon the first page, as shown in the illustration, is the war- 






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<1 VjCb' 



il 'i 






Ks 



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"^^l^^m^lvC 



iii^^^ii 









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PETITION FOR PI^V GROUND. 155 

rant for the meeting held March 17th. ITTi, while npyn the 
second page is a part of the record of the meeting. 

Another town meeting seems to have been held on August 
1st, 1774, at which a petition was presented and acted upon, 
involving other changes in the meeting-house. This is given 
entire : 

We your Immble Petitioners Do ask and Petition for all the Pew 
ground in the east Gallary exclusive of three seats which we the Sub- 
scribers or Proprietors Do Covenant and agree to and with each other to 
build and Complete [on said] pew ground into one pew and complete 
the same decently, and your answer or Compliance will oblige your 
Verey Humble Petitioners. Dated at Fitzwilliam July 4, 1774. Signed 
Joseph Kneeland, John Herrington, Joseph Potter, Luther Trowbridge, 
Joshua Herrington Jr. Thomas Tolman, Benjamin Davidson, Ezekiel 
Mixer, David Perry, John Whitney, Daniel Mellen, John Mellen. 

The action of the town upon this petition was as follows : 

The votable Inhabitants of Fitzwilliam at a meeting of said Town on 
the first day of August did take the above Petition under Consideration 
and did vote that the Request of said Petition be granted to the Sub- 
scribers on condition of there fulfilling there Perposalis in making a 
Hansom Pew in said front Gallery by Rasing the front of the Pew no 
hier than the Tops of the seat before said pew but the Length of the 
Banesters and the Rale that the Banesters are set in, and keeping it in 
Repair by them or there Suxecors, and the windos behind and that 
they take in as maney Partners as [can be seated] comfortably in said 
pew and keep it so (long as) they abide in this Town. 

Other similar petitions and grants are found recorded ujion 
the proprietors' records. 

This matter of obtaining pew ground in the meeting-house 
that had remained unoccupied, building pews thereon, and oc- 
cupying the same by companies of individuals, was one of 
much interest in the early history of this town. 

These associations were regularly and, it would seem, legally 
organized ; they called their meetings (which appear to have 
been frequently held) in a formal manner, and kept a partic- 
ular record of all their proceedings. Two of these record 
books came into the hands of and were preserved by the late 
Captain "William F. Perry. The oldest contains the records 



156 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

of one of these pew organizations, beginning with Decemuer 
8th, 1779. 

The petitioners and grantees in all these cases were invari- 
ably men, but they seem to have had no objection to the soci- 
ety of women in their pews. 

Voted Betsy Dodge set on said Lanes' Right. 
Voted Lucretia Newtoii into said Pew. 

Voted that Anna Harris, Drissilla Poor, Drissilla Platts to sit in said 
Pew During Pleasure. 

The second of these pew record books contains sixty or 
eighty pages of the proceedings of anotJier pew association. 
The date is August 1st, 1791 : 

The Names of the Persons that own Rites in said Pew — 

Lieut. .Josiah Hartwell, Chistophir Osgood, Stephen Harris, Thomas 
Bruce, John Whitney, John Amadon, Nathaniel Glezon, Nathaniel 
Grover, Joseph Pratt, Moses Pratt, Josiah Drury, Joel Millen, Ward 
Fassett, Abel Angier. A Meeting Warned and hild at time and place, 
and 1st Chose a moderator to Governed said meeting. 

2d. Voted and Choose Stephen Harris Jun. Clark for said Pew. 

3d. Voted that Betsy Park shall sit in s** Pew ou Whallem Fassitt's 
rite in s'' Pew. 

Voted that Rocksene Amadon shall Set in s"" Pew on John Osgood's 
rite. 

At a later meeting, among many other acts the following 
appears : 

Voted that if any Porson or Porsons shall put into s'^ Pew any of the 
Town's pepal more than tow Sunday bewins meeting shall forfet his rite 
in said Pew. 

This plainly has reference to the owners seating visitors or 
other persons in the pew " bewins" or hetioeen the meetings 
of the association. 

Voted that if any Porsen or Porsens shall By a rite in said Pew shall 
make Reeesquest (request) to the Clark of said Pew. 

In 1808. " Voted susy Pennemon on Demons' rite." 
The last record in this curious book was made in 1809. 
The rules of this pew association were very strict, for they 



TOWN MEETING, 1775. 157 

voted tliat " if any person or persons shall behave himself out 
of order on the Sunday shall quite his rite," while no one. was 
permitted to sell his rio-ht to any person " that the proprietors 
shall not think proper." 

It is hardly to be supposed that such an order of things pre- 
vailed in the first meetin2:-houses of the neig-hborine: towns. 

177.». The difticulties and disputes between the colonies 
and Great Britain had now assumed large and alarming pro- 
portions, and henceforward for the space of eight years in the 
history of this town its acts will be found to have been influ- 
enced greatly by the wants of the country at large, and the 
calls for funds, provisions, and troops. These matters will 
have their appropriate place in the chnptei* on the Revolution- 
ary War. 

March 16th, 1775, the annual town meeting was held which 
had been called by James Reed and John Mellen, selectmen. 
Joseph Hemenway was moderator, and John Locke was chosen 
town clerk. It was voted " that all the freeholders shall vote 
in this meeting." John Mellen, Levi Bi'igham, and John 
Locke were chosen selectmen and made assessors. John Mel- 
len was chosen treasurer and constable, but Daniel Mellen was 
accepted in his place for the latter office. After the choice of 
the other town officers, it was voted to raise seven pounds for 
the support of a school, five pounds to provide a town stock 
and to defray town charges, and fifty pounds for the making 
and repairing of roads to be worked out at f ourpence per hour. 

Voted to accept the pound built by Nathaniel Wilder, Mr. John 
Millen, ingaging in his behalf that the gate should be hung in a fort- 
night. 

Voted to allow Steven Harris ten shillings for service done in cleans- 
ing the meeting house. 

Voted to allow Levi Brigham for service done as Constable in w'arning 
out Moses Whitney and family in 1774 the sum of two shillings. 

Under the same date, March 16th, 1775, is the following 
entry : 

then Ichabod Smith underto6k for one year to take care of y^ meeting 
house, to see the doors opened and shut at proper seasons thearefor, the 



158 HISTORY OF riTZ"\VILLIA:\r. 

■windows properly shut and y* house properly swept for y" sum of six 
shillings, by order of the Selectmen. 

The other matters acted upon at the annual meeting in 1775 
were of secondary importance. 

Of the " warning out" alhided to in the record above, this 
may here bo said : 

Rindge was settled and incorporated earlier than Fitzwil- 
liam, and we learn from the history of that town that " for 
many years nearly all who removed hither without regard to 
their social or financial standing were warned out." 

As the adjoining towns of Jaffrey and Fitzwilliam pursued 
substantially the same course, it was undoubtedly the common 
custom of the times. It will be remembered that one of the 
reasons assigned for seeking incorporation was to obtain power 
to warn out vagrants. And so all were warned out. This 
seems to have been done as a legal formality, rather than be- 
cause families of character and means were not welcome as set- 
tlers. Very early the towns had, by statute law, the authority 
to free themselves from the presence of dangerous persons and 
of individuals and families that might become a tax upon them 
as paupers. Some of this class of persons resembled the tramps 
of the present day in that they believed that the community 
owed them a living, and that if this could not be easily gained 
by manual labor it must come in the way of charity. But 
there were others who differed from the tramps of our day, in 
that they were not single men, but had families that they took 
with them wherever they went. Sometimes these families 
were large, and it did not require a very long residence in any 
place to obtain a legal settlement, and so be able to claim sup- 
port from the town in case of sickness or extreme poverty. 

To provide against this liability, the selectmen had author- 
ity to order the constable to warn such persons and families 
out of town, and to remove them by force if they did not 
obey the command. Occasionally the orders were enforced, 
but generally they seem to have been wholly disregarded, and 
it was expected that they would be. Some of these persons 
afterward became the most respectable and responsible citizens 
in the town, like Deacon Griffin, who was town treasurer for 



WARNING OUT OF TOWN. 159 

thirty yeiirs in succession. In some cases the warrant was very 
brief, while in others it was made out with considerable 
formality. A copy of one of the latter class is i^iven in full : 

In His Majesty's Name, we require You to repair to the residence of 
Ahner Ball now residing in Fitzvvilliam and Mai'y Ball and Elizabeth 
Ball and Jerome Ball, tiie offspring of the said Abner Ball and Mary 
his -wife with all their effects, to warn and bid depart out of the Town of 
Fitzwiiliam to the place from whence they came within the space of 
— days, no more to return upon iheir peril. Heareof fail not and make 
due return of this warrant to one or more of the Selectmen with the day 
of the date of said warning as you would avoid the penalty of the law 
made and provided in that case. 

Given under our hands and seal this 22d day of March 1775 and in 

ye fifteenth year of his majesties' Reign, George ye third. 

Ye 7th of April 1775 John Mellen ) ^ , ^.. 

^ T^ , T , ^ Select Men. 

John Locke \ 

Warning given and ye warrant returned to the selectmen by Daniel 

Mellen Constable. A true entry. John Locke Town Clerk. 

It might be inferred that Mr. Ball did not like the command 
which was given to him " in his Majesty's name," as he was 
in the Ilevolntionary army fighting against " his Majesty" be- 
fore the year was out. 

The following list is compiled from the records and is given 
as approximately fixing the date when the persons named came 
into the town. The list given is not complete, as it is known 
that many persons were warned ont whose names do not ap- 
pear in the records. The recording of the warrants seems to 
have been in some measnre optional. 

LIST OF PERSONS RECOUDED AS WARNED OUT OF TOWN. 

1775 Abner and Mary Ball and their children Mary and Jerome and 
Elizabeth. 

1776 Samuel and Hannah White and their child Diadamia. Reuben and 
Sarah Parmenter and ch. Joel. 

1778 Jedediah and Deborah Smith — Eleazer and Mary Pratt — Mary 
Buckman — Nathaniel and Hannah Rugg and ch. Reuben and Rue. 

1780 Daniel and Martha Biglow and ch. Amos — Rachel and Thankful 
Boutwell — Susanna and Mary or Molly and Lucy and Peter Adams. 

1782 Robert Homer and his wife and ch. John and William and Moosha 
(?) and James and Benjamin and David. 

1783 Mary Rice, so-called, and " Salla Haggity." 

1785 Samuel and Lydia Taylor— Sarah Taylor— Dolly Whitney— Mar- 



160 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

garet Walls— John Walls — Joshua and Sarah Twitchell and ch. 
Polly and Joshua — Ichabod Hayward or Howard. 

1787 Zaccheus and Susanna Hall and ch. Zaccheus — Ebenezer and 
Meribah Robbins and ch. Ebenezer and Noah and William — Hack- 
aliah and Nelly Bridges and ch. William — Eli and Thankful 
Smith — Benjamin Elwell — Benjamin Puffer— Thomas and Ruth 
Couant and ch. Polly — Phineas Reed — Ebenezer Colburn— Ebene- 
zer May — Samuel Griffin — James and Elizabeth Stone and ch. 
James and Jonathan and Jerusha and Betty — Solomon and Mary 
Miller and ch. Daniel and Persis and Submit and Lydia — Jonas 
and Mary Gary and ch. Polly — Asa and Tamasin Goodale and ch. 
Elnathan — Micah and Elizabeth Perry and ch. Rhoda— Samuel and 
Rhoda Rockwood and ch. Martin — Edward and Eunice Payson 
and ch. David — Ruth Jackson. 

1789 Jonathan and Elizabeth Broadstreet — Allen and Hannah Stone — 
Levi and Azubah Stockwell— Hiram and Phebe Prescott — Aaron 
Gary — Samuel and Lydia Patch and ch. Oliver and Samuel and 
Abraham and Lydia and Susanna — James and Betsey Morse and ch. 
Elizabeth and Ede and Joseph and Silas and Asa and Mitte — Caleb 
and Abigail Deeth and ch. Polly— Jonathan Pierce and wife and 
ch. Huldah and Polly and Esther and Rhoda and Anna. 

The following will explain itself : 

At a meeting of ye Inhabitants of the Town of Fitzwilliam held on 
ye 10th day of May 1775. Voted and chose ye Rev^ Mr. Benjamin Brig- 
ham to Represent ye Town in ye Provintial Congress to be held at 
Exeter on ye — day of may instant, with jiower to act in behalf of him- 
self and his Constituents in all things for the public good in Conjunction 
•with the Representatives of the several Towns in this province, for the 
space of six months or untill another be chosen in his place. 

John Mellen, Moderator, 

Entry John Locke, Town Clerk. 

Thus the honored pastor was chosen the first representative 
from this town to what soon became the General Court of 
New Hampshire. 

It will be remembered that a few days before this appoint- 
ment the struggle with Great Britain had assumed the form of 
open hostility and actual war, in the fierce attack upon the 
royal troops at Lexington and Concord, Mass. Weighty re- 
sponsibilities, therefore, rested upon the Provincial Congress 
about to meet at Exeter. From all that can be learned, the 
choice of Mr. Brigham was eminently wise, as he was, without 
doubt, a man of excellent judgment and a firm and devoted 
patriot. 

The Provincial Congress (doubtless the one that met in 



OPPOSITION TO UNION WITH SWANZEY. 161 

Exeter in May, 1775), having passed a resolve that Swanzey 
and Fitzwilliam shonld unite in sending a representative to 
that body, the town hekl a meeting, prol)ably near the close 
of 1775, to consider the matter, when it was 

Voted that it is the opinion of ye Town that by being cupled with 
Swanzey they have not a free and full representation, agreeable to the 
advice of the Continental Congress. 

Voted not to meet with Swanzey to Elect a Representative to Repre- 
sent them in Congress. 

Voted to send a Committee to Swanzey at their meeting to signify the 
Reason of their not meeting with them for the above purpose. 

Voted that Majo Brigham, Majo Farrar, Lieut. Hutchings consist of 
the above Committee. 

John Farrar, Moderator. 

A true Entry John Locke, Town Clerk. 

Swanzey had a larger population at that time than Fitz- 
william, and the people of this town perceived that their can- 
didate would probably fail of an election. At a later date the 
])lan of the Provincial Congress seems to have been adopted, 
and these two towns constituted a single representative district. 

1776. A part of the record of the annual town meeting 
held March 21st, 1776, it is impossible to make out, but what 
follows is legible : 

After the appointment of the necessary town officers, the 
town 

Voted to Deacon John Locke for service done as a committee to wait 
upon the Superior Court at Keen in October last in order to lay before 
the Court some greavences and for service done as one of the Committee 
of Correspondence and Saifty for the last year, the sum of £0. 19. 0. 0. 
for expenses only. 

Also allowed Joseph Hemenway " for service done as a 
committeeman to attend a County Congress for expenses and 
horse the sum of £0. 19. 0. 0." To Ichabod Smith was voted 
six shillings " for taking care and sweeping the meeting 
[house] one year." 

" Also allowed Lieut. Levi Brigham for supporting John 
Camp and family, by order of the selectmen, the sum of ten 
11 



162 HISTORY OF FITZ WILLI AM. 

shillings." This John Camp appears to have settled in the 
township before its incorporation, and for this reason could not 
be legally compelled to leave it. 

A road laid out by the selectmen having been accepted, and 
a recess of half an hour having been taken, the town 

Voted that no cattle be suffered to run at large in the Town belong- 
ing to Non-Residence, and that the field Drivers upon complaint coming 
to them shall drive all such Non-Resident cattle out of the bounds of 
the Town taking witness that they went no farther and apply to the 
Town for reasonable cost. 

Voted that the Selectmen make inquirery Concerning the raaiutainance 
of those paupers who came into Town before it was incorporated. 

At this meeting no money was raised for the school, as, for 
some reason not named, the amount raised in 1775, for this 
purpose, had not been expended. Three pounds wore raised to 
meet town charges. 

1777. On March 20th, 1777, the annual town meeting 
.appears to have been held, at which the usual town business 
was transacted, but the dates are so often lacking in the records 
that it seems next to impossible to harmonize the different en- 
tries. Ten pounds were raised "for the use of a school," 
forty shillings to meet town charges, and thirty pounds for re- 
pairing highways " to be worked out at fourpence per hour." 
" Voted to pay for travel three miles per hour." Ichabod 
iSmith was again paid six shillings " for keeping the Meeting 
House." " Voted and chose Maj. Asa Brigham to meet the 
Town of Walpole and consuH affairs." 

This last action doubtless had reference to Ilevolutionary 
matters. 

1778. Annual meeting. The town " voted to give up a. 
note that the Rev. Mr. Brigham gave to the Town," the value 
of which is not stated. This was probably done on account 
of the depreciation of the currency in which his salary had 
been paid. With the same intent, doubtless, the town voted at 
this meeting " and raised thirty pounds to addition of Rev. 
Ml'. Brigham's salary for this present year." 

Also it was voted that " the school money should be spent 
in either squadron as they shall think proper," from which 



DEPRECIATION OF CURRENCY. 1G3 

it: would appear that the town had now been divided into some- 
thino; like school districts, which were called squadrons. 

Having given the names of the officers of the town, the 
amount of the several appropriations, etc., for the earliest 
years after the incorporation, it is deemed best to tabulate the 
-siime for the years that followed in a separate chapter, unless, 
as sometimes happened, there seems to be some special reason 
f.>r giving them here. 

1779. Annual meeting. The town " Voted three hun- 
di'cd pounds in addition to Rev, Mr. Brigham's Salary for this 
present year." Amos Knight, constable, is allowed four 
jjouiids " for earning of a family to Winchendon in the year 
1778." Ten shillings was the allowance made " for the cair 
of the meeting-house" this year. 

How much the paper currency had depreciated at this time 
has not been accurately ascertained — -indeed, the depreciation 
was greater or less in different localities ; but not long after 
the date of this meeting one dollar in silver was allowed in 
piying taxes to be equal to seventy-five dollars in paper money. 
The depreciation of the currency caused so much trouble 
that in 1781 the Legislature made an authorized scale of de- 
jtreciation, by which contracts made at different times might 
b^ legally adjusted. This scale is given in Chapter XI. 

The schools not being in a satisfactory condition, the town 
met the second Wednesday in June, 1779, to consider the mat- 
ter, when it was 

Voted to choose a Commity of Five men to provide Schools in Eictch 
Sijuadron and also to provide houses for to Ceept the Schools in and also 
to see the money Laid out in the proper season — and this Commity is as 
Below, Mr, Caleb Winch, Mr. Levi Brigham, Mr. Joseph Nurse Mr, 
John Locke Mr. Samuel Kendall, 

It is supposed there were live squadrons at this time, and 
that one member of the committee was chosen from each 
s<{uadron. 

A Convention sitting at Concord on June 5th, 1779, pro- 
posed among other things a plan of government for the State 
of New Hampshire, and the town assembled July 13th, 1779, 
to express approbation or disapprobation of the same ; but its 



164 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

action (which was recorded ori the bottom h'lies of one page, 
and the upper lines of the next page of the record book) it is 
impossible to ascertain. 

At this meeting the subject of a new valuation of the town 
was considered, and a committee of five was raised to report 
upon this subject at the next Marcli meeting, 

December 7th, 1779. The town met " to joyne with the 
town of Swanzey to act upon the following articles," one of 
which appears to have had reference to the choice by the united 
towns of a representative in the General Court, when the 
town " Voted, and chose John Mellen, Esq., for their Repre- 
sentative to sarve in the General Court at Exeter." 

1780. June 28th. The town " Voted and excepted (ac- 
cepted) the Cariage made by the Committee chosen for that 
purpose, "and also raised " £2500 for the pay of the sholders 
in the Continental Army. " 

And July 26th, 1780, the town raised £5000 for the same 
purpose, and " £6000 to purchase 5-467 weight of beef " for 
the army. 

Also the town ordered the horse-sheds near the church " to 
be move oft the grown they now stand on." 

Also it w\as voted that " the Inhal^itants mit build horse 
stables on the Common, if they should think fit," only that 
" the Selectmen should mark out the grown on the Common 
M'here the stables should be made." 

Other requisitions were made by the Council and House of 
Representatives of New Hampshire for beef to support the 
Continental army, and the printed copy of one of these has 
been found among the ancient papers in the town clerk's office 
of Fitzwilliam. This is a call " for raising 1,400,000 weight 
of Beef," and it w^as done by requiring the several towns, 
j)arishes, and districts in the State to furnish their proportion. 
The act for this purpose was adopted by the House of Repre- 
sentatives, January 26th, 1781, and enacted by the Council 
on the day following. One third of the quantity was to be 
ready " by the last day of March next, in Order to be salted, 
one fourth part by the fifteenth day of July next, one other 
fourth part by the first day of Sept. next, and the Residue of 



COLLECTION OF BEEF FOR THE ARMY. 105 

said Beef, being one sixth part tliereof," by the first day of 
December following. All the arrangements necessary for 
carrying this requisition into effect were made, and the propor- 
tion for each town to raise definitely stated. Fitzwilliam was 
to provide six thousand eight hundred and thirty-four pounds, 
Jaffrey nine thousand one hundred and fifty-eight, Rindge 
thirteen thousand seven hundred and fifty, Ilichmond twelve 
thousand five hundred and eighty-eight, Keene fourteen thou- 
sand one hundred and thirty-six. The beef was all to be 
" good, well salted and packed in Barrels, each barrel to con- 
tain 2J:0 weight, net," but good pork would " be received of 
any Town and allowed after the Rate and Proportion of eleven 
pounds of pork for fifteen pounds of Beef," The penalty for 
failure to meet this requisition was a fine equal to " double 
the value of the beef required of them, for the use of the 
State," " and the same shall be added to their next State and 
Continental Tax, without any other proof or Evidence than 
the want of a Certificate that the same has been delivered." 

The large amounts raised by the town for the pay of the 
soldiers, and to purchase beef as given above, it is to be remem- 
bered, were to be collected from the taxpayers in the depre- 
ciated currency of the times, when it took seventy-five dollars 
or more in paper money to make one dollar in silver. And 
the same fact is to be borne in mind when we find the town 
allowing twenty shillings per hour for work upon the high- 
ways. 

As was stated in the sketch of John Mellen, Esq., given in 
the chapter concerning the early settlers of Fitzwilliam, he was 
appointed an assistant collector to carry into effect the requisi- 
tion of the Council and House of Representatives respecting 
the above-mentioned supply of beef for the army, and Cheshire 
County was assigned to him for this purpose. It was a re- 
sponsible and delicate office for any one to hold because of the 
poverty of the people generally, and the urgency of the call 
for immediate supplies ; and notwithstanding all the efforts of 
the collector, and in the very face of the threatened fine, some 
of the toW'US w'ere slow to respond to the call or furnished 
only a part of their (piota. This failure led the Committee of 



166 IIISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

Safety to associate JolinMellen and Colonel David Webster ns 
special officers to visit the delinquent towns and to do every- 
thing possible that the needed supply might be forthcoming. 

1781. The town "Voted to pay the Remainder of the 
Beef and the liier of the Sholders wdiich is two thousand four 
hundred and thirty-four pounds." This was done at a meet- 
ing January 15th ; and February lltli, 1781, the town, among 
other acts for raising the quota of soldiers for the Continental 
army, voted " Twelve thousand dollars for to pay our Con- 
tenentles at their passing muster." 

March 15th, 1781, at the annual meeting after the clioice of 
the usual town officers, fifteen hundred pounds were appro- 
priated for the schools, and three thousand pounds for the 
highways, *' to be worked out at eighteen shillings per ouer." 
Also that the assessors should " make a new Valuation this 
present year." The town allowed " Stephen Harris four 
bushels of Ingun corn or the value of in money for taking car 
of the meeting house in 1780." 

Fitzwilliam March 15, 1781. The Town of Fitzwilliam Dr. to fifteen 
Daves of making Rates at 2 shillings and eight pence per day Lawful 
Money old way equal to rie at Four shillings per bushel, £2. 0. 0. 

Daniel Mellen. 

Fitzwilliam March 9, 1781. The Town of Fitzwilliam Dr. to me for 
two days' service to attend a Convention at Temple on the seventli Day 
of March £45. Daniel Mellen. 

The use of horse and expenses of travel were doubtless in- 
cluded in this charge, which at seventy-five for one, would be 
in silver, six shillings (one dollar) per day, or at ninety for 
one, five shillings per day. 

July 25th, 1781, the town " voted to raise our Cotto (Quota) 
of beef, for the army which is 0831 pounds," already al- 
luded to. 

Voted to give Sixth Dollars in hard money per hundred for said 
Beef. 

Voted to raise 4 hundred and Ten hard Dollars for pay for said 
Beef. 

Voted that our Continental Shoulders shall have Dollars in the 



OTHER SUPPLIES FOR THE ARMY. 107 

Rume of one thousand paper Dollars. (This blank cannot be 
tilled.) 

Voted that the Sesse.xsors (assessors) shall tax the non-residents. 

Voted to give five shillings per bushel for rye. 

Voted to raise £126 to pay the Continental Shoulders their fitst 
year's pay. 

The selectmen were appointed a committee to petition the 
General Court to " grant us liberty to have a recorder of deeds 
in said town." 

September 20th, 1781, an article being in the warrant to 
pay certain soldiers, the town 

Voted to pass over the article till the Selectmen shall see how they 
can agree with mr. muzzey and Mr. harris and Samuel winch in hard 
money. 

At a meeting October 5th, 1781, the town "Voted to p;iy 
Forty nine Gallons of VYest India Rum." This was for the 
army. November 5th, 1781, the town " voted to pay the 
three months' men their hier," and to raise " Forty nine Dol- 
lars to pay for the Rhom." 

Voted twenty pounds for the Chools in the Town in lue of the fifteen 
hundred pounds old Emission which was granted last March for that 
purp[ose]. 

Voted and chose Joseph Nichols, Deacon John Locke, Samuel Patrick 
a Committee to give our Representative instructions, and that this Com- 
mittee sliould make Report of their proseinds (proceedings) at the jurn- 
ment of the meeting. 

At an adjourned meeting in November the town met and 
received the report of the committee named above, and " then 
the Instructions was given of Mr. Abner Stone." Mr. Stono 
was the Representative elect. In the warrant for this meeting, 
article fifth was, 

To know the minds of the Town if they dont think necessary to give 
their Representative Instruction and to Enquire [if J Reasons can be 
civen that we have such Burthens laid when their is such a Scarciety of 
Cash among us by [reason] of the Old Emission being called in and tlie 
silver not [being ready] for circulation, and that nev/ Emission Bills is 
as notliing — and act thereon, etc. 



168 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

The exact words of this article cani)ot be determined, nor 
is tliere any other record of the election of Abner Stone as 
Representativ^e. That he was chosen and instructed is plain, 
but the copy of the instructions given was probably consumed 
with the town clerk's oiiice about three or four years later. 
A copy of the instructions given Major Eiisha Whitcomh 
about two years later has been preserved and is inserted in 
the proper place. 

1782. March 21st, the usual town officers were chosen, 
and at an adjourned meeting in May of the same year a com- 
mittee consisting of Lieutenant Levi Brigham, Stephen Har- 
ris, and Lieutenant Caleb Winch Avas raised " to provide the 
Beef, if needed, for the Continental Army. " A vote was also 
taken which seems to refer to a return to specie payments 
in paying the State tax. A large committee was raised to 
divide the school money and " provid Choolmasters in eictli 
Squadron." 

Also the town voted to send Joseph Nichols to attend a 
convention at Concord. 

178JJ. At the annual n)eeting no special business of im- 
portance was transacted, but considerable attention was paid 
to the matter of roads, and one hundred and forty pounds were 
raised "to pay the last three years' men their second years' 
pay." 

July 29th, 17S3. A committee was appointed to prepare 
instructions to be given to Major Eh'sha Whitconjb, Repre- 
sentative elect for the district comprising the towns of Fitzwill- 
iam and Swanzey and report at an adjourned meeting. 

Also " voted not to pay the obligation which the selectmen 
have given to Joseph Fassett." From the warrant for the 
meeting it appears that this has reference to a note given to 
Mr. Fassett for one year's service in the Continental army, 
but we have no means of judging correctly respecting the 
merits of the question upon which tlie town acted. 

August lltli, 1783. The committee to prepare instructions 
made their report. A copy of the instructions is here given. 

Ii^tructions to their Representative in the General Court, 
1783 : 



IXSTRUCTING REPRESENTATIVE. 1C9 

At ii Legal Me'^ting of tlie Inhabitants of the Town of Fit/william, 
held upon adjournniont August 14th, 1783 ; Voted to give their Repre- 
sentative for the ensuing year, the following Instructions : 

To Major Elisha Whitcombe Sr. You being chosen to represent the 
Towns of Swanscy and Fitz William for the ])resent year in the Gineral 
Assembly of the State of New Hampshire ; — The Town of Fitzwiliiam, 
a part of your Constituents, in Complyance with the request of said 
assembly, and from a Sense of Duty at this Critical period, do now 
openly, candidly, and Sincerely Speak and instruct you, not only with 
respect to the Article recomended, but other things we conceive neces- 
sary to the well being of the Community, We shall begin with the 
Reccommendation of the Honorable Congress, relative to an alteration 
proposed in the Eighth Article of the Confederation and perpetual union 
between the thirteen united states of America. 

Congress, we find. View it Expedient and even Necessary, that such 
an alteration, as they have reccommended be made ; and the General 
Assembly of this state appear to be of the same mind ; for they say 
" they are fully convinced of the Expediency and utility of the Measure" 
— with all Due Defference to the collected Wisdom of the Continent and 
of this State ; as we are called upon to shew our minds, we wouM say, 
that we have taken this matter into deliberate and mature consider- 
ation ; and are of opinion that the proposed alteration is neither Expedi- 
ent or necessary. We conceive that it cannot be so just and equitable a 
Mode of proportioning Taxes, by the number of Inhabitants, of every 
age, Sex and condition as by the Value of Land, etc., which each State 
is possessed of & which enables each State to pay the proportion — we 
apprehend, that, according to the present proposed method of Propor- 
tioning Taxes, there is a door opened for Some States to be eased and 
others burdened, but Reason, Justice, and Revelation Demand an 
Equality, that each State pay in jiroportion to what it is worth ; and no 
more — And as the number of Inhabitants according to the i)roposed 
alteration, is to be taken triennially — and as it is found necessary for 
proportioning taxes within each State to take the valuation of all Lands, 
etc., we conceive that by the proposed alteration much needless Cost 
must arise to the good people of these States, already Loaded with 
Taxes ; and know not which way to discharge them— nor can we think 
that the numbering of Souls is a justifiable method ; witness the con- 
duct of David and dismal consequences thereof — left no doubt U[)on 
Sacred Record for national admonition. 

We think it advisable, that one mode of Valuation, both as to poles 
and possession, should be adopted throughout the united States ; and 
us this appears to us the most Rational and equitable plan that can be 
devised ; altho we are Sensible there can be no mode fixed upon, but 
that some objections may be raised against it. 



170 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

We do therefore recommend it to you, Sir, to use your influence to 
prevent any alteration being made in the above-mentioned Eighth 
Article of the Confederation. 

We shall now take the liberty to address you upon some other sub- 
jects, which we conceive important and necessary, in our present Situa- 
tion of Affairs. 

By a Resolution of Congress of the 21 of October, 1780, we find they 
have promised the officers of the american army, half pay during life — 
and by a resolve of said Congress, bearing date March 23, 1783, they 
have engaged them five years full pay instead of the half pay proniise<l 
before —upon which we would observe that we have ever been and still 
are ready to Exert ourselves in Supjjorting our army, and to Reword 
those who have jeoparded their lives for us in the High places of tlie 
field, fought our battles. Bled in our Cause, and under God, have been 
our defence— we are willing, we say, amply to reward them—" none 
deserve more highly than our brave army— none shall have our money 
more freely, so far as is Justly Due ; and if there has been any failure 
on the part of the government in fulfilling their contracts, let the injury 
and all their just Demands be made up to them as soon as may be" — 
Yea, so ready and cheerful are we to have them fully compensated for 
their services, that we are willing, if it cannot otherwise be effected, To 
allow Both officers and Soldiers, over and above their Stipulated wages, 
one years full paj' — far be it from us to wrong our Soldiers ; — we are 
desirous to settle honorably with them ; aud seasonably aud fully dis- 
charge all our public & foreign Debts. 

But we cannot See the Reasonableness and Justice of giving the 
officers half pay during life or full pay for the term of five years, after 
they are Discharged from the Service — we think that the soldiers who 
have born the burden and heat of the day as well as the oflScers, have 
an equal Right to claim a share ; in proportion to thf ir pay. 

We doubt not but that Both officers and Soldiers have suffered much 
in their Countries Cause and the temporal interests of many have hereby 
been diminished — and has not this been the case with thousands that 
have generally been at Home — they have many a time been called off 
from their employments, been obliged to gird on the harness and take 
the field for a time in the common defence ; & why ought they not to 
be rewarded over and above their Stipulated pay, in proportion to the 
time they were gone and Services which they performed ? — it appears 
to be as reasonable as that the officers of our army should thus be re- 
warded. 

Besides do not the officers of our army hope & expect to share in the 
Blessings of Peace and independence ? We are willitig they should ; 
why then arc they not willing to Suffer with us, to lend a helping hand 
to support us under our Burdens ? — We think they ought to be— and not 



INSTRUCTIN^G RKPRESENTATIVE. 171 

make government instead of Being a Blessing, an insupportal)lc Burden 
to the people. 

We cannot see if the^^ have a reasonable recompense for their services, 
why they do not stand upon an equal footing with their Bretliren. AVe 
therefore request you. Sir, to use your influence to j^revent this p;iy being 
given to the officers of our army, as we cannot consent to it or nnytliing 
that is so subversive of the Principles of the ameiican Revolution. 

Further, we must Depend u])on your Exertions, and if need be, that 
you Strain every nerve to prevent the return of those persons called 
Tories, or absentees, wlio have withdrawn themselves from us, gone over 
to the Enemy, and either virtually or actually taken up arms against us. 
And many of them Shed the Blood of their Brethren — in the judgment 
of charity we cant but view them in an odious light — they deserve cen- 
sure — yea, many of them have long since, forfeited their heads as well 
as their estates to their countries .Justice— we doubt not but their situa- 
tion is disagreeable, and that things have turned out (juite contrary to 
their wish and Expectation ; but are we to blame for that ? had they 
chose it they might have continued with us & enjoyed their estates 
which we view they have now forfeited and all the priveledgos and im- 
munities of free citizens ; and Shared in the Blessings of independence, 
but they have chosen their side and we desire they would abide their 
choice, and not Presume to trouble us any more — Friendship to them 
and Safety to ourselves and dear Country forbid them to be anv more 
incorporated with us — We have sufficiently proved them and undei- 
stand their tempers and disposition by their inhuman and savage conduct 
toward us. We are convinced that we cannot put any confidence in 
them, they have proved themselves traitors to their country — Can we 
then receive you into our Bosoms again ? by no means, let them there- 
fore depart and repair to the frozen Regions of Acadia, the place destined 
for them by their Royal Master, and spend the rest of their days in deep 
Repentance for their Past follies. 

And as Religion is much Decayed in our Land, the Lord's Day shame- 
fully profaned, the holy name of God abused and all manners of vice 
prevalent and Barefaced, we expect that you will use your Best endeav- 
ors to have such Laws enacted and put in Execution, as shall tend to 
suppress Vice, Secure the honor of God's holy name and the Sanctifica- 
tion of the Sabbath, and to promote Religion and useful Literature 
among us. 

And that you give your constant and seasonable attendance at Court, 
in the time of its Sessions that neither your Constituents nor the Public 
may become Sufferers by your neglect, but a word to the wise is suffi- 
cient. 

At a legal meeting of the Inhabitants of the Town of Fitzwilliam on 
the Uth day of this instant, August. Voted That These Irfstruetious 



172 IIISTOIIY OB^ FITZWILLIA:\r. 

Should be Deliver to you, Sir, by the hand of Eqs" Samuel Kendall, at 
your house iu Svvansey. 

December 8th, 1783. Tlie town " voted to reconsider a 
former vot that had been past in a former Town meetino- for 
a Lottery in said Town." As a close examination fails to 
bring to light anything further aliout this lottery, the record 
of the vote authorizing it must have been made in that part of 
the record book that was burned. Of course it is impossible to 
state the object of the lotter3^ 

At another meeting held soon after December 8th, the 
town " Chose Ensign Samuel Kendall as a member to and in 
the General Court of this State until the first Wednesday of 
June next." 

" Voted and empower said member to vote in House of 
Delegates for the Continental Congress." 

" Voted that the Clerk should not send the votes for Coun- 
sellor to the Cort Committee who are to sent. " The last-men- 
tioned vote is not easily explained, but the vote immediately 
before it would indicate that the General Court elected mem- 
l)ers of the Continental Cong-ress. 

1784. The town " chose Mr. Josiah Hartwell a member 
to send to the County Convention to be convened at Peter- 
borough by adjournment on the last Tuesday of February next." 

" Voted that the wife and child of Abraham Rice, Jr., 
should be set up at a public Vandu at the lowest Bider. " 

Of course this action refers to the support of these persons 
as paupers, and they were bid off by Lieutenant Benjamin 
Boyem (Byam) at ten shillings per week. 

" Voted to choose a connnittee to send to Mr. Abraham 
Rice to hear (if) Mr. Rice wont du Sumting to support his 
sunes wife." And Deacon John Fassett, Ensign Samuel 
Kendall, and Mr. Josiah Hartwell were chosen to attend to 
this business. 

March loth, 1784. A meeting was held " pursuant to a 
precept From the General Court" for the choice of '" a presi- 
dent for said State of New Hampshire.' ' Mesheck Weare was 
elected, but enfeebled by age and long and laborious service 
for the ^ate, he resigned his office before the close of the year. 



ACTS OF TOWN, 1784-1786. l73 

At the same meeting the town voted for two senators for 
the county of Cheshire, and east twenty votes for Benjamin 
Bellows, Esq., and twenty votes for Thomas Aplin, Esij. 

This was the tirst election of President of Xew Hampshire 
and senators, of which we have any account, and it took place 
very soon after the adoption of the State Constitution in lT8-t. 

]\Jarch ISth, 1784. The oiiice of collector was put up to 
1)6 given to the lowest bidder, and Stephen Harris' bid for 
twenty-two silver dollars was the lowest. Moses Drury and 
Reuben Pratt were Mr. Harris' bondsmen. A committee of 
seven was raised to divide the school money " and to provide 
school Masters and Misters." A committee was raised "to 
say where the school houses should stand in Ech Squadron," 
and to build them, consisting of Abner Haskell, Jonathan 
"Whitney, eToseph Haskell, Josiali Hartwell, Abner Stone, and 
John Sweetland, and one hundred and fifty pounds were raised 
to build the same. 

The record of this meeting, March IStli, 1784, is the last 
which was entered in the record book that was saved from the 
burning of the town clerk's house. 

1785. The town was no longer united with any other for 
the clioice of a Representative. 

September 26th. The town " voted to Except (accept) 
Rev, Mr. Brigham's orders for part or all his sallery for the 
year Eighty fi ve. ' ' 

This was many years before the town assumed the support 
of the pastor. 

" the town voted to have the Selectmen distress Joshua Wil- 
lard for his collection if not recovered without." Joshua 
Willard was collector of taxes in 1780. 

178G. " Voted to give Abraham Rice, Jr., two months 
to com and settle with the town for the cost his wife has been 
to the Town." 

The town voted to Abner Stone among other services and 

expenses incurred " for a horse to Walpole and himself and 

horse to Hubbarcfeton to settle with Mr. Willard" 2 pounds 

10 shillings. Mr. Willard, collector in 1780, had removed 

Hubbardston, Mass. 

t 



174 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

The town also voted to pay Elisha Wliitconib (of Swauzey) 
its part of his expenses wliile " in the house." 

What appears in the above vote respecting Mr. Abner 
Stone's journey to Walpole may, very probably, be exphiineJ 
in this manner. 

Under the administration of the roval Governor. Bennin^- 
Went worth, Xew Hampshire claimed that its territory in- 
cluded all that now constitutes the State of Vermont. At the 
same time JVew York claimed that its eastern boundary was 
the Connecticut River in the region north of Massachusetts, 
while the last-mentioned State regarded itself as the owner of 
ut least a part of the dispmted territory. Governor Went- 
wurth went so far as to give charters to one hundred and 
thirty-eight towns west of the Connecticut River, but New 
York treated all his acts in this direction as null and void. 
In 1777 the people of what is now the State of Teruiont took 
ineasui'es to become an independent State under the name of 
the State of Vermont. Sixteen towns on the east side of the 
Connecticut River asked to be admitted and become a part of 
this new State. So far as Vermont was concerned, there was no 
serious objection to this proposal, but ^'ew Hampshire made a 
vigorous opposition to such an inroad upon her territory. 

The controversy was long, and juaintained with much spiiit. 
Diiferent views prevailed in all the towns most interested, and 
this fact led to a convention of delegates from the people upon 
Ijjth sides of the Connecticut River, and this convention met 
at Walpole (as a central point for the gathering), November 
15th, 17S0, to consider the situation. 

It is not certainly known upon which side in this contro- 
versy the people of Fitzwilliain ranged themselves, but as 
many of the towns in Cheshire County, such as Hinsdale, 
Richmond, Chesterfield, Walpole, and others, favored the 
plan of uniting with the towns in E.istei'u Vermont, there 
could have been here nothing like inditference concerning the 
result. The probability is that Mr, Abner Stone, who was a 
prominent man in Fitzwilliam, was a delegate from this town 
in that convention, and that Fitzwilliam was loval to New 
Hampshire. That the ealire scheme collapsed in about two 



POUND PROVIDED FOR. 175 

yc:\'.'?, and that the western houndary of Xew Hampshire is 
the westei II bank of tlie Connecticut llivor, all the parties con- 
cerned have had abundant reason to be thankful. 

1787. " V'oted to warn out all such persona as shall 
come into the town as Inhabitants." 

" Voted to fence the Burying Yard." 

'* Voted to build a pound in said Town." And to l)uild it 
with stone, twenty-five feet square within the walls, and to 
set the same by the house of Joseph Farwell. Likewise 

" Voted to build said pound i feet tliick at bottom and 1^ 
feet thick at top and 6 feet high" — meaning the walls of it. 

And then provision was made for " a good timber frame 
on the top'' of the wall, and " a Gate lock." At this meet- 
ing the financial condition of the towm received due attention, 
and a committee previouslj' appointed made their report, from 
which the following brief extract is made : 

" Fitzwilliam March the 12tli 1787. 

in the old ^V^riconing (reckoning) there remaned for Samuel 
patick to collect for the year 1781 and their Kemains in Sam- 
uel Patick's hands £2. 8. 2. 1— 

as Treasurer of in old paper money and to allow seventy five 
for (me it amounts to in silver money." 

The report above-named was long, and, in all its parts, not 
easy of comprehension, as is evident from the single item just 
quoted. 

It covered the space of about six years, and had pai'ticular 
reference to uncollected tax bills. Receipts and payments 
were presented in this report in the same connection, and the 
blanks, which were somewhat numerous, were doubtless filled 
to the satisfaction of the voters, by verbal statements and ex- 
planations. The amount due the town for taxes at that time 
appears to have been about two hundred and eight pounds. 

The collections seem to have been made about as promptly 
as at the present day. 

The subject of repairing and straightening what was called 
" the Great Road " through Fitzwilliam was considered by 
the town April Irth, 1787, when the owners thereof offered to 
give the new land that would be needed and accept as remu- 



176 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

neration tlie land tlirougli which the old road was laid. This 
offer was accepted. 

1788. January 3d. The town chose Caleb Winch as a 
delegate to the convention called to meet at Exeter on the 
second Wednesday of February, 1788, " for the purpose of 
Excepting or llejecting the new form of Goverment. " 

The committee to prepare instructions for Mr. Winch con- 
sisted of Rev. Mr. Benjamin Brigham, Mr. Benjamin WiU 
son, Mr. Josiah Hartwell, Deacon John Locke, and Mr. 
Abner Stone, and January ITtli the town accepted the form 
of instructions prepared. 

" Voted to allow Lieut. Levi Brigham £7. 1 — 6—0 for 
orders which he lost." 

The first meeting of the town to vote for representatives in 
the Federal Congress, and for electors to choose a President 
and Vice-President, was called for December 15th, 1788. 
Votes were given for three representatives and five electors. 
For the former JSIicholas Gilman had twenty-two ; " Pain 
Wingate," seventeen ; Peter Green, twelve. For presiden- 
tial electors Benjamin Bellows had twenty ; Ebenezer Freeman, 
thirteen ; Timothy Farrar, sixteen ; Joseph Badger, fourteen, 
and John Pickering had ten. Only a small vote was, cast con- 
sidering the population of the town. 

1789, At the annual meeting, March 19th, the vote 
for president (of the State) fifty, was cast unanimously for 
John Sullivan. 

Abner Stone was chosen Representative. 

Voted " that the Selectmen petition the General Court to 
have one penny laid on every acre of land in said town to l)e 
converted to making and re j3 airing highways." In accord- 
ance with this vote, the selectmen presented the following pe- 
tition : 

To the Honourable the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
State of New Hampshire in General Court to be assembled att Concord, 
the third day of .Tune Curent. 

The Petition of the Town of Fitzwilliam Humbly Sheweth that your 
Petitioners being Chosen by said Town for the purjiose to Present to 
your Honours and to Request that your Honours Would take into your 



PETITION IN BEHALF OF THE GREAT ROAD. 177 

Wise Consideration and Grant Some Relief. "We j'our Petitioners 
Humbly Shew the Situation we are in, and the Difficulty we labor under 
on account of our Roads, as we are situated in a Rough Part of the 
State, and have the Great Road which leads to the upper part of the 
State to take care of, which is eleven Miles in Length in said Town ; 
Which is a Large Road and much Improved (supposed to mean, used) 
and "We are liable to fines, if it is not kept in Good Repair, and the 
Town, of late, have widened the Great Road though s' Town and have 
cut off a Great Number of Crooks or Turns in s'^ Road, to make it more 
Comodious to the Public : "^'^hich makes considerable Cost and Charge 
to s'' Town ; and there is a number of other Road for the benefit of s'' 
Town which are New and uncultivated, all which are to be attended 
unto, and your petitioners humbly Shew that there is a Considerable 
Quantity of unimproved Lands in said Town owned by Nonresidents 
which are not obliged to Doe any thing toward making or repairing said 
Roads some of Which leads through juirt of said Lands which must In- 
crease the value thereof, if kept in good Repair, and your Petitioners 
Humbly Beg that there may be a tax of one Penney, Layed on each 
acre throughout s'^ Town except Public Lauds for the term of three 
years and to be layed out for the Repairing said Roads. And your 
Petitioners as in duty bound Shall ever Pray 

Abner Stone \ Selectmen 

John Fassett > for 

Stephen Brigham ) Fitzwilliam. 
Fitz William, 
May 27, 1789. 



The Legislature granted this petition, and at a town meet- 
ing, held on September 7th following, Captain Stephen Brig- 
ham was chosen to collect the tax for the first year. Captain 
Brigham did not accept the office and Simon Crosby was ap- 
pointed to take his place. It is understood that Mr. Crosby 
collected tlie tax for the three years it was levied. 

1790. The town allowed " 2 pounds and 8 shillings for the 
purpose of getting Rev. Mr. Brigham a Cashing" for the pulpit. 

1791. August 8th. The town "chose jSTahura Parker 
to represent them at Cuncord at a Convention appointed there 
by an act of the General Court." 

" Sold old Mr. Camp to Lieut. Byam and to give two shil- 
lings and ten pence per week for Keeping him with the Beufit 
of one Cow." "Sold Thankful Camp to Joseph Stone to 
have 3^. lOd. per week with the use of one bed." 
12 



178 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

In this manner tlie paupers were provided for from year to 
year ; and in the votes of the town upon this matter very par- 
ticnlar provisions were made for keeping them properly 
ch^thed and to " pay for any Extrodenery Doctring and jN^nris- 
inff. '' 

1792. Angnst 27th. The town cast all the votes given, 
thirty-seven in number, against a j3roposed amendment of the 
Constitution of tlie State. 

1 793. In this year the first record was made of licenses 
" to keep a Puhlic tavern" and " to sell Speritus Liquors." 
The innkeej^ers licensed in February and March of this year 
were Sylvanns Reed, Abner Stone, and Abijah Warner, while 
Simon Crosby, Thomas Gouldsmith, and Joseph Fox were 
authorized to deal in " Speritus Liqnors." And Jonas Rob- 
inson of the north village received a similar license " to sell 
Speritus Liquors, subject to such regulations and restrictions 
as the law of the State of New Hampshire imposes upon re- 
talers." 

Just previous to 1793 the Legislature had passed laws, mak- 
ing matei'ial changes in the manner of doing town business and 
keeping town records, and in the duties and requirements of 
town offiders generally. There are no regular town valuation 
and tax-lists in existence of an earlier date than 1793, but from 
this time onward the series is complete. At this time the se- 
lectmen began to keep a more formal record of their business 
transactions, and the records of the town clerk take a wider 
range. 

It is not practicable to furnish from the town records 
anything like an accurate list of the successive owners, or even 
occupants of the various lots and pieces of land in town. Com- 
mencing with 1793 the yearly valuation and tax-lists state the 
amount for which real estate is assessed to each individual 
owner, but do not give the location of the land except in the 
case of non-resident owners. Among the old records of the 
town, two books are found that give a more complete account 
of the location of the various owners of real estate in the town 
than can be obtained from any other source. One of these 
books gives " A List of all the Houses (above the value of 



LOCATION OF DWELLING-HOUSES, 1798. 179 

One Hundred Dollars) with the Out-Tlonses appurtenant 
thereto, and the Lots on which the same are erected, not ex- 
ceeding Two Acres'" in the town '' on the 1st day Oct. 1798."' 
The particulars given are : the owner of the house ; the occu- 
pant thereof ; the number of houses and out-houses ; quantity 
of land in the lot ; the situation of the house ; its dimensions ; 
number of stories ; number and size of the windows ; material 
of which the buildings were constructed, and the valuation by 
the assistcmt assessor of the property as described. The situa- 
tion of the houses is not described by lot and range, but by 
stating in what part of the town, or how far from the meet- 
ing-house, or in other similar ways. The house of [Xahum 
Parker was " On the great road to Boston, east part of the 
town." Phinehas Reed lived ''in the center of business on 
the main road. " Thomas Stratton's house was situated "in 
the south part of the town, west of the pond." The houses 
of Samuel Griffin and Jonas Knight were in the " ^ortli part 
of the Town on a Handsome Hill nigh the School House." 
John Pratt's house was in the " S. East Part of the town : not 
on any road nor ever will be." William Farrar lived in the 
" ^sortli part of y*^ Town, 3 Miles from the Center ; head of 
Hemlock Poe." Samuel Rock wood was located " X from 
the center ; west side of Fosters Pond." This is now called 
Rockwood Pond. 

The other book gives " A List of all the Dwelling Houses 
not above the value of 100$, and of all the Lands in the Town 
of Fitzwilliam and their owners on the first Day of Oct. 1798." 
The particulars given are names of owners ; number of acres 
owned ; description of lands ; adjunct proprietors ; location 
of land by lot anl range ; number and dimension of buildings ; 
valuation of hcu-es not over one hundred dollars, and valua- 
tion of the land. 

The assistant assessor was Simon Crosby, and both books 
appear to have been made out by him, though his signature is 
attached only to the one first described. 

The following tables have been carefully compiled from 
these two books with a few items added from other reliable 
sources. While not entirely free from errors, the books may 



180 



HISTORY OF FITZ WILLIAM. 



be accepted as substantially accurate. The first table gives a 
list of all residents owning land 07' buildings and non-residents 
owning land and buildings. Non-residents are marked f . 
The houses that are described as two stories high have their 
valuation marked X ; all the other houses are one story high. 
All the houses are constructed of wood. The second table 
gives a list of non-residents owning land only. Nearly all the 
land in this table is described as unimproved. A cipher (0) in- 
serted in an otherwise blank space means none. The mark ? 
inserted in a blank space signifies that the correct figures can- 
not be given. If inserted after figures, it implies doubt or 
uncertainty. 



TABLE I. 






Total 
No. of 


Lot on which 
house is 
located. 


Valuation 


other land 


acres 
owned. 


of house. 


owned. 


100 


L 8 in R 4 


$150. 


1 


121 


L 10mR4 


60. 


4 in 4 


15 


7 in 11 


70. 




110 


11 & 12 in 6 
& 12 in 5 ? 


70. 




180 


12 in 12 


200. 


18 in 11 


90 


7 in 1 


1 




18 


4 in G 


10. 




100 


5 in 11 


125. 




40 


18 in 12 


80. 




150 


1 in 5 (?) 


80. 


1 in 6 (?) 


180 


19 in 7 


200. 


18 in 7 & 16 in 
11 


100 ? 


17 in 6 


400. J 




165 


19 in 7 


200. 


20 in 7 & 16 in 
11 


100 


22 in 10 


60. 




120 


22 & 23 in 8 ? 


40. 




140 


13 in 7 


400. 1 


11 & 12 in 7 




13 in 6 


100. 




132 


6 in G 


85. 


3 in 5 & 5 in 6, 


100 


20 in 10 & 11? 


40. 




62 


5 in 9 


70. 




40 


23 in 9 


20. 




38 


21 in 8 


50. 




27 


18 in 12 


? 





Z. Names of owners and 

OCCaPANTS. 



tArunah Allen ^ 

Richard Gleason occ. \ 
Philip Amadon ...... 

Benj. Angier 

Silas Angier jr 

Abel Baker 

Samuel Bent 

Daniel Bigelow 

Joseph Bigelow 

Widow Wm Bishop. . . . 

fOliver Blood 

Bartlet Bo wker 

Charles Bowker 

John Bowker 

Asa Brewer 

James Brewer 

Rev Benj. Brigham . . . , 

Levi Brigham 

William Bruce 

Abel Byam 

Duncan Cameron 

Jonathan Capron 

Thomas Clark 



OW:^ERS AND OCCUPANTS OF HOUSES, 1798. 181 



TABLE I. (Continued.) 



Names of owners and 

occupants. 



John Cobleigh. . 
Ezekiel Collins 
William Crane. 
Simon Crosby . 



Ebenezer Cutler . . 
Jonathan Cutler . . 
Moses Cutting. . . . 
Oliver Damon . . . 

Samuel Davis 

Benjamin Davison 
Pearley Deetli .... 

Moses Drury 

Abraham Eddy. . . 
Benjamin Eddy. . . 

Abel Estabrook. . . 
Daniel Farrar . . . 
Nathan Platts occ. 
William Farrar, . . 



John Fassett .... 
Jedediah Fay. . . . 

John Fay 

William Fay . . . . 
Matthias Felton . 

Jesse Forristall. . 
Joseph Forristall 

Luna Foster 

Richard Foster . . 
Francis FuUam. . 



David & John Gary. . . 

Jonas Gary 

Richard Gleason 

.John Godding j 

Timothy Godding I 

Asa Goodale . . 

Isaac Goodenow 

Thomas Goldsmith 

Jesse Hayden occ 

Allen Grant 

Samuel Griffin 

Nath'l & Xath'l Grover 
jr 



Total 

No. of 

acies 

owned. 



160 
170 
109 



100 
48 
100 
130 
100 
184 
100 
55 

m 

203 

97 
200 
100 

200 
50 

120 
50 

173 

150 
147 

83 
50 

282 

130 

137 

126 

()5 

85 

100 

70 

83 

50 

too 

152 



Lot on which 
house is 
located. 



13 in 12 

11 in 6 

9 in 2 

15 in 6 



4 in 6 & 7 
4 in 6 

23 in 

13 in 

19 in 

15 in 
8 in 10 

18 in 6 

2 in 12 

3 in 12 
17 in 8 
12 in 2 



Vahiation 
of house. 



100 



21 in 8 «fc 9 ? 

23 in 6 & 33 

in 7 ? 

15 in 8 

7 in 10 

14 in 8 
9 in 10 

15 in 6 
4 in 8 
1 in 7 

19 in 8 
13 & 14 in 12 ? 

8 in 3 
13 in 2 

21 in 6 & 7 

7 in 10 

10 in 5 

IS in 12 

21 in 10 

1 in 11 

6 in 10 
15 in 6 
13 in 6 

7 in 12 

20 in 6 

3 in 7 



80. 

70. 

40. 
600. I 
150. 
105. 

10. 

15. 
125. 
200. 

80. 
300. 
175. 

05. 

40. 

60. 

40. 
110. 
150. 
110. 
300. 

60. 

80. 

80. 

40. 

700. I 

? 

50. 

80. 

130. 

0. 

300. 

150. I 

60. 

75. 

70. 

70. 

70. 

30. 

500. I 

250. 

1. 

300. 

80. 



Oiher land 
owned. 



14 in 11 

13 in 5 & 6 

? 

3 & 14 in 5 & 

15 in 4 



14 in 9 
14 in 4 & 13 in 3 



3 in 13 
13 in 4 & 16 in 7 

13 in 1 
18 in 6 



5 in 4 
14 in 7 
14 in 3 

18 in 10 



13 & 17 in 3 & 
2 & 14 in 7 

3 in 10 & 9 in 8 
8 & 11 in 5 



15 in 4 & 7 
21 in 5 



182 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



TABLE I. (Continued.) 



Names of owners and 
occupants. 



Joshua Harrington 

Stephen Harris 

Asael Hartwell 

Abner & Jos Haskell. 

Joseph Haskell 

Levi Haskell 

Joel Hayden 

Sylvanus Hemenway. 

Daniel Howe 

Nahum Howe . 

fjames Hubbard 

fPeter Hunt. 

Isaac Jackson 

John Jackson. 

Bezaleel Kendall 

Samuel Kendall 



John Knight 

Jonas Knight . , 

tStephen Knowlton. 

Luke Lincoln.. 

John Locke 

William Locke 

Eleazer Mason 

Elihu Mellen 



Joel Mellen 

John Mellen's heirs 

Daniel Mellen 

Joel Miles 

P. Gleason Miller. . 

Daniel Morse 

James Morse 



tNehemiah Munroe. . . ) 
Benj'n Sampson occ. . f 

Ebcuezer Nurse 

Matthew Osborn 

Ephraim Parker 

Nahum Parker 

Samuel Patch 

Samuel Patrick 

Micah Perry 

Simeon Perry 



Total 

No. of 

acres 

owned. 



55 

150 

150 

100 

20 

162 

75 

130 

120 

66 

70 

71 

90 

50 

50 

483 



50 
150 
190 

21 

50 
100 
100 

95 



200 

44 
100 

85 

53 
1 ■ 
100 

634 

100 
90 

150 
74 

100 

200 
60 

100 



t Lot on which 
house is 
located. 



8 
8 
8 
5 
5 
6 
6 
8 



23 in 

11 in 

12 in 

22 in 
15 in 

23 in 

10 in 
18 in 

17 & 18 in 11 

11 in 12 
4 in 5 
3 in 2 

19 & 20 in 10' 
23 in 10 
3 in 3 
14 in 2 



Valuation 
of house. 



16 
20 

17 in 
14 
16 
11 
17 

tin 4 

16 
16 
14 

17 
7 
9 

15 

7 



in 5 
in 5 
1 &2? 
in 6 
in 4 
in 2 
in 12 
& 14 in 
5 

in 9 
in 10 
in 5 
in 7 
in 11 
in 3 
in 6 
in 9 



1 in 10 

20 in 9 & 10 ? 

9 in 6 

15 in 12 

13 in 1 

14 in 10 
17 in 5 

3 & 4 in 12 ? 
6 in 10 



175. 

180. 
120. 
200. 

70. 
150. 

80. 

80. 

20. 
150. 

40. 

71. 

10. 

10. 

10. 
400. 



80. 
300. 

70. 
250. 

40. 
? 

125. 
0. 



150. t 
70. 



200. 

15. 

0. 

120. 

65. 

250. 

80. 

80. 
110. 
200. 
120. 
200. 

40. 

40, 



Other land 
owned. 



23 in 9 

8 in 9 
10 in 9 

14«fel5in4 

9 in 3 & ? 

9 in 6 

18 in 7 



4in 1 



14&15inl&15 
&19in2&13& 
14 in 3 & 16 in 
4 & 12 in 11 

21 in 5 

13 in 4 



16 in 7 



2 & 3 in 10 & 1 
& 2 in 9 & 1 & 

3 in 8 

10 in 5 

14 in 1 

15 in 10 (?) 



OWNERS AND OCCUPANTS OF HOUSES, 1798, 



183 



TABLE I. {Continued.) 



Names op o.wnrrs and 


Total 
No. of 


Lot on which 
tH)use is 
located. 


Valuation 


Other land 


OCCUPANTS. 


acre'* 
owned. 


t)f house. 


owned. 


Ebenezer Piiillips 


100 


15 in 9 


20. 




Elijah Phillips 


40 


5 in 7 


110. 




Edward Platts 


100 


18 in 5 


120. 




Ebenezer Potter 


100 


6 in 7 


15, 




Job Pratt 


55 

1 ? 
156 


6 in 1 
? 
12 in 1 


60. 
120. 
200, 


6 in 2 


John Pratt* 




Josepli Pratt 


10 in 2 & 16 & 










17 in 3 


Levi & Silas Pratt 


IGO 


1 & 2 in 2 ? 


75. 




Moses Pratt 


200 
264 


6 & 7 in 2 ^ 
10 in 1 


60. 

80. 


6 in 3 


Reuben Pratt 


11 & 13 in 1 & 










10. 11 & 12 in 2 










& 17 in 3 


Hiram Prescott 


130 


5 in 10 


40, 


6 in 11 


Peter Prescott 


100 


Sin 11 


50, 




David Pushee 


27 


10 in 2 


45. 




James Reed 


266 


16 in 9 
12 & 13 in 7 ? 


60. 

80. 


12 in 6 


Hinds Reed occ 




16 in 8 


200. 




Phinehas Reed 


09 


15 in 5 


800. t 


15in4 &6 


David Rice 


70 
150 


11 in 9 
6 in 8 


60. 
200. 




Abijah Richardson 


6 in 9 


Rhoda Richardson .... 


150 


3&4in 11 ? 


70. 




Timothy Richardson . . . 


170 


2& 3 in 11 ? 


50. 




Jonas Robeson 


2 


23 in 8 


300. 




Walter Capron occ .... 






125, 




Samuel Rockvvood 


180 


17 in 9 


120. 


17 & 18 in 10 


fEphraim Root ) 

Obil Fassett occ : ( 


209 


14 in 7 


120. 1 


23 in 11 & 12 


Jacob Sar<.'eant 


100 


1 in 12 


175. 




David Saunders . 


87 
50 


23 in 5 
19 in 11 


120. 
40. 




Ebenezer Saunders 




Selectmen of Fitzwilliam 


35 


4 in 10 


0. 




Barakiah Scott 


166 


16 in 3 


80, 


15 in 3 


Benjamin Scott 


25 


15 in 3 


40. 




Benoni Shurtleff 


135 


15 in 6 


700. 1 


14 in 6 & 15 in 7 


Calvin Smith 


140 
120 

20 


10 in 12 

13 in 11 

20 in 1 1 & 20 

& 21 in 12 ? 


140. 

5. 

150. 

150. 


9 in 12 


Daniel Smith 


14 in 11 


Peter Starkey 




Otis Starke v occ 




William Starkey 


200 


21 in 11 & 19 
& 20 in 12 ? 


160, 




Abner Stone 


100 


9 in 1 


300. \ 





* Lot ani ran^e not given. Mr. Crosby's description is " S. east part of the town 
not on any road, nor ever will be." 



184 



HISTOllY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



TABLE I. (Continued.) 






Names op ownkbs and 
occupants. 



Hezekiah Stone 

James S^ one 

Jason & Samuel Stone. . 

.Joseph Stone 

Samuel Stone 

Abijah Stowell 

Thomas Stratton 

t Swan* } 

Nathan Wheeler occ . f 

John Sweetland 

John Sweethind 

Michael Sweetser 

James Taylor 

Thomas Tolman 

Samuel Tower 

.Jacob Townsend 

Nathan Townsend. ... 
Nathan Townsend Jr. . . 
Reuben Underwood. . . , 

Asa Waite 

Tiobert Ware 

Abijah Warner 

Nathaniel Warner 

Silas Warner 

Silas Wheeler . 

Francis Whitcomb. . . . 

Oliver Whitcomb 

Stephen White 

flsaac Whitmore 

Joel Whitney 

Jolm & Jona. Whitney 

John Whittemore 

Arteraas Wilson 

Nathaniel Wilson 

Caleb Winch 

Joseph Winch 

Mathew Witliington . . 

Jonas Woods 

Aaron AVrii^ht ....... 

Ebenezer Wright 

Joel Wright 



Total 

No. of 

acres 

owned. 



180 

68 
100 
100 
153 

80 
125 

1 ? 

78 
50 
65 
70 
63 



75 

140 

30 

60 

100 

65 

190 

50 

100 

80 

76 

66 

50 

100 

100 

200 

16 
160 
154 

220 



100 

97 

190 

140 

80 



Lot on wliich 
house is 
located. 



9 in 

8 in 
18 in 

7 in 
13 in 
20 in 

5 in 



4 

4 
7 
6 
4 



Valuation 
of Louse. 



6 
1 

1 
3 
3 



23 in 11 &13? 

23 in 10 

4 in 10 

4 in 1 
33 in 9 

13 in 8 

10 in 10 

10 in 8 

11 in 10 

5 in 9 

3 in 

14 in 

5 in 

4 in 
3 in 

16 in 13 

3 & 3 in 8 ? 

10 & 11 in 13? 

13 in 13 

3 in 1 & 3 ? 

6 in 13 
in 8 & 19 

in 9 ? 
13 in 6 

7 in 8 

3 & 4 in 9 ? 

23 in 6 

31 in 6 

17 in 4 
13 in 7 

18 in 9 
16 in 6 

15 in 11 



30 



75. 

15. 

50. 

80. 
300. 

60. 
300. 

300. 

60. 

10. 

135. 

5. 

800. I 
180. 



Other land 
owned. 



9 in 5 



6 in 7 & 9 in 8 
13 in 5 

4 in 8 



one IS jr. 



33 in 10 
in 9 & 13 in 6 
& 10 
45. 
175. 10 in 7 

0. 
? 

60. 
40. 

300. :j: 6 in 1 »& 5 in 3 

0. 

10. 

40. 

30. 

? 

60. 

60. 

40. 

350. X 



15. 
130. 
200. 

40. 
180. 

80. 

; 

120. 

335. 

180! 

60. 



6 in 8 &4 in 9 



22 in 7 & 33 in 

5 & 6 

23 in 5 



11 in 4 

18 in 10 
10 in 5 



* Lot and range not given. Mr. Crosby's description is " on the ngrth end of the 
town on the great road." 



NOX-RESIDENT OWXERS OF LAND, 1798. 



185 



TABLE 11. 


Owners. 

* 


Acres 
owned. 


Location of land. 


Col. Atkinson 

Stephen Bailey 

Ja' Bellows . . 


100 

100 

150 

64 

50 

100 

100 

200 

50 

30 

100 

100 

40 

49 

50 

100 

100 

100 

70 

100 

100 

80 

40 

15 

100 

100 

100 

100 

70 

50 

100 

80 

100 

80 

50 

30 

200 


14 

2 iu 

4& 

2 

11 

8 

10 & 

2 

15 

1 

7 
2 

2& 

12 & 

9 

12 

6 

1 

10 

23 

19 



3 
12 

8 

2 
14 

2 

5 

3& 

5 

17 

14 

4 

21 & 


in 10 
5 & 
5 in 3 


•Jo^ Bigelow 


in 1 


David Briijham 


? 


Nath' Brooks 

.Tames Bowdoin 


in 11 
in 12 


Dr. .Tolin Chamberlain 

.John Clapp 


11 in 3 

in 6 


C'olton ... 


in 1 


John Crosby 

Isaac Davis 


in 4 
in 4 


Ebenezer Fry 


in 11 


.James Goddard 


3 in 12 


Daniel Golding 


9 


Josiah Ilartwell 


13 in 9 


Howe 


in 11 


Asa IIuntino;ton 


in 3 


George Jaffrey 


in 11 


Peter .Joslin 


in 1 


Heirs of Geo. Libbey 


in 11 


Esq. Phillips 


in 4 


Levi Randall 


in 11 


.Jona. liice 

Col. Stoddard 


in 11 
in 4 

in 11 


Sampson Stoddard Jr 

Ijuther Stone 


in 5 
in 4 


Phillips Sweetser 


ill 12 


Jonas Thompson 


in 8 


CoL Wallingford 


in 5 


Town of Westborough 

Enhraim Whitney 


4 in 5 
in 12 


1 *j 


in 3 


William Whitney 

Beni Wilson's heirs 


in 7 
in 9 


William Worcester 


22 in 4 







In the preceding tables and elsewhere in this book, so many 
locations are described by giving the number of lot and range, 
that for conv^enience of reference, the lot and range lines are 
shown on the accompanying map of the town. It was stated 
in the fourth chapter that there is considerable variation iu 



186 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



the size of tlie lots. It would be impracticable to show these 
variations with exactness without making a correct survey of 
the entire town, but the lines in the map are given with suffi- 
cient accuracy to answer the purpose intended. The minutes 
of the perambulation of tiie line between Troy and ]i"itzwill- 
iam, November 8th, 1847, are here given to illustrate the ir- 
regularity referred to. Beginning at the northwest corner of 
Fitzwilliam, being the southwest corner of Troy, the courses 
and distances were as follows : 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

7 


Course. 


Distances as measured. 


The distances properly 
should be. 


S 81° 26' E 
]N^3°W 

S 81° 30' E 

S 79° 52' E 
N 2° 6'E 
S 80° E. 


375 Eods. 

85 " 
167 '' 
147 " 
344 " 

218 " 
589 " 


320 Eods. 
100 " 
160 " 
100 " 
320 " 
200 " 
about 560 " 



to the west line of Jaffrey. 

The three northerly courses should agree in direction ; it 
will be seen that they vary over five degrees, and in like man- 
ner the four easterly courses vary over a degree and a half ; 
while a comparison of the two columns of distances will show 
the variation in that direction. 

The dividing line between Fitzwilliam and Eindge as given 
in the charters of both towns is " north by the needle five 
miles" (sixteen hundred rods), but the line as held by the ad- 
joining landholders in the two towns varied considerably from 
a straight line. The Legislature of 1847 legalized the local line 
as giving more substantial justice than would be obtained by 
straightening the line. The line as established is described 
thus : Beginning at the southeast corner of Fitzwilliam, being 
the southwest corner of Eindge thence, (1) N. 1° 27' E. 117j^ 
rods ; (2) E". 3° E. 30^0^ rods ; (3) N. 3° 20' E. 149^^ rods ; 
(4) N. 2° 28' E. 356^V rods ; (5) N. 4° E. 13^-^ rods ; (6) IS". 
4° 5' E. 16Sj% rods ; (7) N. 2° E. 117yVV rods ; (8) N. 0° 30' 



Ti-ov. 



6 „ ^a fc ^ \ 



Rjiniics , C"% 




MAP OF 

FITZWILLIAM. 



Ranges 



\ L. 


-/ 


^^-—^ 


\: ■■ 


5iyP~' 


^EJ,.H«df,,^ 


> 


A 




"'. ''it" 


-^ ' 






"- '-.1 


\y-:: 


' /h^" 


Ipg ' 






— ' 


^-... 


- V'jr- o 




_ _ 



iH 






•y; 



•tf'f 









!> 






V.' u X. ° ° t'tl'u 'M^s.^iiry., <\c.Cox. Vl2 









jj. jr. Wifson-.t 



m^^i^ 



■oWWilspn,. '(^ 



'\^v:EBlodgeU . 

Z.Blodgett*/^ ^ j^JlryanlA 



%. 









M-s./ifu-twllj/ ff 
f/OSCHOOLN^IO., \ 

p. Daley. •:.- 



I-I' 



>ft"' 



T.Perry./jm 



7. «\\ ' ^■^^''■^'fl'^*''""* 



./^ 



w/rf'-" 






10 



I? 



.'■Mi. . 



» %Mi-s.Stoiie. 



A.W.Gdweft* 






vii*/- 



isCHOOLN??. /to 



S.W.UpluuH'. 



Mm 



O. Hay^i 



C.F.Piffcr ,. I 



C.Sweeisri-. if* _^j\\ 



o 
state 








-^ 



"^'^'S^'iy^.^"^--- 



fy-a ^t-etUt0:. 



'B^-ita, ' 



''=>•. 



^•Btu-haith- 

F.E.Piem:t\^ V*C^* ^°^" 




Ibnt Pe 



5 



,v»« 



ROYALSTON 



_^ 



:-i.7;^J^^ 



%: 






P.Boose.%. y 






WINCH £N DON \ 



MasscLcHusetts - 



PHOTO-ORAVURE CO. N ■. 



'' BOUNDARY BETWEEN FITZWILLTAM AND BINDGE. 187 

W. 91-j-V rods ; (9) N. 0° 36' E. 109^?/^ rods ; (10) ]N". 1° 54' 
E. 5Sj\ rods ; (11) N. 1° W. 96/^ rods ; (12) N. 0° 15' W. 
89yV rods ; (13) N. 1° E. 90^^! ^^^s ; (14) N. 0" 5' E. 
106y% rods ; (15) N. 45^-^ rods ; (16) :N. 0'' 12' E. 106yo rods 
to the south line of Jati'rev. Total leii2;th of line 1T32A rods. 



CHAPTER IX. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY FBOM 1800 ONWARD. 

Rev. Stephen Williams Pastorate — Mr. John Sabin called — His Ordination 
— Location and Erection of a New Meeting-House — Divisions Among 
the People — Organization of the Unitarian Society — Its Ministers and 
History — The Orthodox Society Formed — Its Pastors and their Families 
— The Parsonages^The Centennial Anniversary — The Baptist Church 
and Society — Its Meeting-House and Ministers— The Methodist Episco- 
pal Houses of Worship and Ministers. 

AFTER the death of the first pastor, and before the close 
of the year 1799, Mr. Timothy Wilhams, of Wood- 
stock, Conn., supplied the pnlpit for some months and deliv- 
ered here a funeral oration at the solemn service which was 
observed throughout the country, when the people mourned 
for George Washington. The death of Washington took 
place December lltli, 1799. The corpse appears to have been 
deposited in the family vault with funeral solemnities, four 
days after his death, or December 18th, but the day set apart 
by Congress for the general service was February 22d, 1800. 
The oration of Mr. Williams was doubtless delivered at the 
time of the general observance. 

From "an Accoumpt of Money Expended for preaching" 
from December olst, 1799, to February 1st. 1801 (which in- 
cludes expenses " for board of Candidates"), it woukl appear 
that Mr. Timothy Williams preached fourteen Sabbatlis, at six 
dollars per Sabbath, his board bill being paid by the town. 
He or some one else was paid " $1.50 for Fast." 

A Mr. Marcy preached two Sabbaths and may have been a 
candidate for settlement, while Mr. Timothy Williams was 
probably only a supply. 

An elder brother of this Mr. Williams, viz., Mr. Stephen 
Williams, also from Woodstock, Conn., appears to have 
preached here as a candidate for settlement, early in the year 
1800, and on June 25th of that year the church extended a 



KEY. STEPHEN WILLIAMS* ORDINATIOX. 189 

call to liiui to become their piistor, and officially notified the 
toM'n of its action, and requested its concurrence, Tlie town 
voted to comply with this request, and offered ^Ir. "Williams 
a settlement of three hundred and thirty -four dollars and an 
annual salary of three hundred dollars, without the use of the 
ministerial lot. But it would seem that unfavorable reports 
respecting the character or habits of the candidate began to 
be circulated about that time, for the town took the precaution 
to vote that if Mr. Williams should become their pastor upon 
the terms proposed, and within six years should be dismissed 
because of charges affecting his morals, he should bind himself 
to restore to the town three fourths of the amount of his set- 
tlement, or two hundred and fifty dollars and fifty cents, and 
a less proportion, or one half of the same, if, for the same rea- 
son, his ministry should close in twelve years, aud one fourth 
of the same, if within eighteen years. These conditions prov- 
ing unsatisfactory, a compromise was made by Mr. Williams' 
relinquishing his settlement of three hundred and thirty-four 
dollars, and the town adding one hundred dollars to the amount 
of his stipulated salary, making it four hundred dollars annualh\ 
The ordination of Mr. Williams took place November 4th, 
1800, and the following churches were represented in the or- 
daining council by pastors or delegates, or by both, viz., the 
churches of Royalston, Longmeadow, and xVthol, Mass., of 
"Woodstock in Connecticut, and of Rindge, Keene, Jaffrey, 
and Marlborough, N. H. The record of the result of the 
council contains the following : 

In the examination, particular attention was paid to the moral char- 
acter of the Candidate, and we are happy to find Mr. Williams possessed 
of an unusually amiable moral character, continued from his early youth 
to the present time, and which we consider not in the least blemished 
by some injurious reports which Mr. Williams himself candidly came 
forward and informed the Council of ; but which upon full, satisfying 
evidence appear to have been originated and industriously propagated 
with a wicked, malicious design to injure Mr. Williams, and to disturb 
the happy unanimity of this people. 

The vote to proceed to the ordination was unanimous, and 
in that service Rev, Mr. Ainsworth, of Jaffrey, offered the 



190 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. ' 

introdactorj prayer, Kev. Eichard S. Storrs, of Longmeadow 
(graiidfatlier of Rev. Dr. Storrs, of Brooklyn, N. Y.), 
preached the sermon, Eev. Mr. Hall, of Keene, offered the 
ordaining prayer, Eev. Mr. Lee, of Royalston (who had been 
moderator of the church from the death of its first pastor), gave 
the charge, Eev. Seth Payson, of Eindge (father of Dr. Ed- 
ward Payson, who was a distinguished pastor in Portland, Me.), 
gave the right hand of fellowship, and the concluding prayer 
was offered by Eev. Mr. Fish, of Marlborough. 

The town voted fifty-five dollars to meet the expenses of 
the ordination. 

Mr. "Williams is represented to have been a man of educa- 
tion, of sound doctrinal belief, according to the standards of 
the times, and a fluent, pleasing speaker ; but, unhappily, he 
was very penurious, and so fond of intoxicating drinks that he 
would drink to excess when others stood ready to pay the 
bill."''' These habits soon produced disaffection, and in less 
than two years the church, the town, and Mr. Williams him- 
self, united in calling a council for his dismission, all parties, 
it would seem, proposing to ask for this, without setting forth 
the reasons for this request. 

The council, which met September 28th, 1802, declined to 
comply with the wishes of the parties calling it, unless the 
reasons for the dismission should be presented, and advised 
the calling of another council, to which the whole matter 
shonld be submitted. This was agreed to, and the church 
named the third Tuesday of November, 1802, as the day for 
the meeting of the second or new council. The records of 
the church from August 20th, 1802, to August ITth, 1801, 
are entirely blank. The committee of the church for the call- 
ing of this council consisted of Deacons Fassett and Da ;iuj, 
and Esquire Parker. 

The town records supply the following information : For 
some reasons, probably the occurrence of the annual Thanks- 

* " Mr. Williams was carried (drunk) from Goldsmith's (Tavern) to Mr. Felton's. Mrs. 
Deeth said we old women sat in the bodyseats and cried and felt very indignant at 
Dr. Wright for laughing, and enquired what he was laughing at ? he leplied to think 
how soon you would have it all to do over again.'' At Mr. Williams' public confession- 
Related by Mrs. John Sabin. 



CALL OF MR. JUIIX SABIX. 191 

giving, the council did not assemble till November 19tli, 1802, 
at which time Mr. Williams was dismissed (doubtless without 
the usual or any credentials), and the town voted on the same 
day its " thanks" 

to the venerable ecclesiastical Council now in session in this town, for 
their patience, candor, and impartial attention to the business laid 
before them, and for the result they have reached ; and that the town 
accept with gratitude the proposal of the Hon. Gentlemen of tlie Clergy 
belonging to the Council to supply the desk in this town a certain time.* 

Apparently this was a happy termination of a most serious 
difheulty, but, as is often true when pastors are dismissed, 
some of the people, who were the special friends of Mr. Will- 
iams, were aggrieved, and not ready to welcome his successor. 

It is supposed that a number of candidates for settlement 
were heard, after the dismission of Mr. Williams, before the 
people generally w'ere satisfied, but Augitst 20th, ISOi, the 
cilurch called Mr. John Sabin, of Pomfret, Conn., to the 
pastorate by twenty-nine votes in the affirmative and twenty- 
one in the negative ; the opposition, it is understood, coming 
chiefly from the warm personal fi'iends of the late pastor, Mr. 
Williams. The town concurring in the call, and offering Mr. 
Sabin one hundred and fifty dollars as a settlement, and an 
annual salarv of three hundred and fiftv dollars, and he ac- 
cepting the call, a council was selected for his ordination, to 
take place January 8th, 1805. The following churches were 
represented : Templeton, Royalston, and Winchendon, Mass., 
and Rindge, Jaffrey, and Marlborough in this State. 

Rev. Ebenezer Sparhawk, of Templeton, was chosen mod- 
erator, and Rev, Seth Payson, of Rindge, scribe. 

Before the council assembled, a protest against his accept- 
ance of the call, and ordination, as pastor, was presented to Mr, 
Sabin, signed by twenty-one male members of the church. 

This document, which has been preserved, bears evidence of 

* Stephen and Timothy Williams were the sons of Eev. Stephen Williams, pastor at 
Woodstock, Conn., and grandsons of Rev. Stephen Williams, D.D., of Lontjmeadow, 
Mass. Iq a sketch of the Woodstock pastor, published in 1861, this is said of his sons : 
Stephen was ordained pastor at Fitzwilliam, X. U., but became deranged soon. Timo- 
thy was liceused but never ordained. If the temperance reformation had come earlier, 
the elder brother's malady might have been prevented. 



192 HISTORY OF riTZWILLIA:\r. 

having been drawn up by Mr. Thomas Stratton, one of the 
protestants, and is a plain, temj^erate, and respectful appeal. 

Upon the opening of the council a protest against the or- 
dination and installation of the candidate, signed, we are told, 
" by a large number of the church, and some of the inhabitants 
of the town, ' ' was presented, while other testimony was offered, 
all of which, we are assured by the record, was patiently at- 
tended to and examined. The result arrived at was that the 
interests of religion, the peace of the town, and the usefulness 
of Mr. Sabin would not be promoted by his settlement. 

The formal result of council is found in full iTpon the records 
of the town and of the church. It was very carefully drawn, 
and the spirit of it is good in the main, but it took strong 
ground against proceeding to the ordination of Mr. Sabin, 
partly because of the want of harmony in the church and town 
respecting him, and partly because the candidate had, it was 
thought, as charged by those opposed to him, given occasion 
for dissatisfaction by being somewhat non-committal in his 
probationary preaching, touching some of the generally re- 
ceived doctrines of religion. 

Eight days later a request for a church meeting, to consider 
and act upon this result, was signed by thirty male members of 
the church, and at a meeting of the church, February 14th, 
1805, the call given to Mr. Sabin was declared to remain 
good, and provision was made for another council, while a long 
and particular answer to the action of the former council was 
adopted. This rej:)ly was sharp, as such replies usually are, 
but it did little or nothing toward silencing the opposition. 

The town joined in calling a second council, and in it the 
following churches were represented : viz., Lancaster, Leomin- 
ster, Gardner, Gerry (now Phillipston), Barre, New Brain- 
tree, and Petersham in Massachusetts, and from New Hamp- 
shire the single church of Peterborough. This council 
assembled March 5tli, 1805. Rev. Mr. Gardner, of Leomin- 
ster, was moderator, and Rev. Mr. Fiske, of New Braintree, 
w^as scribe. All the proceedings of the former council were 
carefully considered by this, as well as a new and very care- 
fully prepared protest of twenty-one members of the church, 



OKDINATION OF ME. SABIjV. 193 

and some others, when a committee of the council was raised 
to confer with both parties and bring abont a reconciliation, if 
possible. The interview was long, and conducted on all sides 
in a friendly spirit. Some of the objections to proceeding 
with the ordination were doubtless removed, for the final vote 
of the council was unanimous. Mr. Sabin was ordained as a 
Gospel minister and installed as pastor in Fitzwilliam, March 
6th, 1805. 

The introductory prayer was offered by Rev. Mr. Fiske, of 
j^ewBraintree ; Rev. Nathaniel Thayer, of Lancaster, preached 
the sermon ; the consecrating and installing prayer was offered 
by Rev. Mr. Osgood, of Gardner ; the charge to the pastor was 
by Rev, Mr. Gardner, of Leominster ; the right hand of fel- 
lowship was by Rev. Islv. Dunbar, of Peterborough, and the 
concluding prayer was by Rev. Mr. Bascom, of Gerry (now 
Phillipston). It will be noticed that there was no formal 
address to the people in the early installations of pastors in 
Southern New ILampshire. 

The circumstances of Mr. Sabin's settlement, as a matter 
of course, affected unpleasantly his relations to the neigh- 
boring pastors for a season, but in the course of two or 
three years they freely exchanged pulpits with him, and al- 
ways deemed him a conscientious and faithful Gosj^el minister. 
As they became acquainted with him they found him to be 
thoroughly sound in doctrine, though somewhat original in 
the manner of expressing his belief, and in time came to re- 
gard him as a wise and safe counsellor. His own good sense, 
urbanity, and devotion to his work did much toward the estab- 
lishment of a good name in this region, while the noble traits 
of Mrs. Sabin's character and her clear views upon all subjects 
of general interest made a most favorable impression upon the 
public generally. 

Rev. John Sabin was born in Pomfret, Conn., April ITth, 
1770, or nearly one year before the church in Fitzwilliam was 
organized. He graduated from Brown University in 1707, at 
the age of twenty-seven years, and ^vas nearly thirty-five years 
old at the time of his ordination. He was admitted to the 
church in Fitzwilliam, July 14th, 1805, on letter from the 
13 



194 ' HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

North Church in Salem, Mass. He studied theology in that 
place, probably under the direction of the pastor of the North 
Church. lie died in Fitzwilliam, October 14tli, 184:.5, at the 
age of seventy-five years and six months, and in the forty-first 
year of his ministry. Governor Bullock, in his Centennial ad- 
dress in Eoyalston, said : 

If each generation of men in New England could have forty such men 
as Lee in Royalston, Estabrook in Athol, and Sabin in Fitzwilliam, the 
towns and churches would live in perpetual peace. 

The pastorate of Mr. Sabin here covered a very important, 
and, at times, exceedingly exciting period of this town's his- 
tory. The meeting-house was too small, and, in most other 
respects, poorly fitted for the convenience and comfort of his 
congregation. As early as 1796 the matter of erecting a new 
church edifice was brouglit before the town, but the project 
was voted down, and though it was called up again and again 
in the succeeding years, for a long time it met with the same 
rcHult. At times it seemed almost certain that something 
would be done, for in September of 18U3, Thomas Stratton 
was paid three dollars and thirty-three cents for assisting to 
draft a plan for the meeting-house. The location of a new 
meeting-house, as is often the case, was found to be a ditficult 
point to settle. Various places were proposed, each of which 
had its own points of advantage. The localities which received 
the most consideration were, the old place near the cemetery, 
the spot where the Town Hall now stands, and a lot owned by 
John Whittemore, which, from the description thereof, must 
have been near, or identical with, the place where Daniel H. 
Reed now lives. In a short time all the other localities were 
given up, and the question was between the two places first 
mentioned. 

^ The dispute upon this point was warm and protracted. The 
people in the north part of the town were agitating the ques- 
tion of a new and separate township to be organized out of the 
south part of Marlborough, the north part of Fitzwilliam, and 
portions of Swanzey and Richmond, and were already adopt- 
ing measures for the erection of a new church edifice where 



BUILDING AND BURNING OF A NEW MEETING-HOUSE. 195 

the village of Troy now stands. The assent of Fitzwilliani to 
the formation of the new town, which it was desirable to ob- 
tain, and the location of the new meeting-house, were at length 
effected by a compromise, for those who were in favor of 
locating the meeting-honse where the Town Hall now stands, 
and the inhabitants of the north end of the town, uniting their 
forces at the polls, carried both measures by a large majority. 
But this action disaffected a large and influential party that 
stood aloof from the enterprise of erecting the new house of 
worship. 

But in the summer of 1816 a new and commodious meeting- 
house was erected where the Town Hall now stands, at an ex- 
pense of about seven thousand dollars, which was a large sum 
for the people to raise at that time for such a purpose. The 
town voted four hundred dollars toward this object, which ap- 
pears to have been all it ev^er paid for that house, in its cor- 
porate capacity.* 

On March 12th, 1816, the town voted 

to exempt those persons belonging to the Baptis Society, who signed 
protest given to the Selectmen, from paying their tax of the 400 dollars, 
granted for the Meeting Hous. 

We have no means for determining what disposal was made 
of the pews in this house of worship, but it is clear that there 
was a debt upon it, which, a year later, amounted to two thou- 
sand dollars or more. This church, which was in every way a 
noble structure, like churches built about the same time in 
Athol, Templeton, and Petersham, in Massachusetts, was 
dedicated November 6th, 1816. The probability is that the 
pastor. Rev. Mr. Sabin, preached the sermon on that occasion, 
but as his sermons were burned by his direction, this matter 
cannot be determined with certainty. 

The church had been occupied for worship nine, or, at most, 
ten Sabbaths, when, during a thunder-storm, on the night of 
January ITth, 1817, it was struck by lightning, fired and 
totally consumed. Nothing of importance seems to have been 

* When this meeting-house was about to be raised, Mr. Windsor Fay, of Boston, a 
native of Pitzwilliam, wishing to help forward the enterprise, sent up as his contri- 
bution a barrel of New England rum and fifty pounds of loaf sugar. 



196 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

saved, except tlie pulpit Bible, which Mr. Jonas Robeson re- 
moved while the flames were bursting forth from the doors 
and windows. The congregation was obliged to return to the 
old meeting-house for worship. The loss to the people was 
great, but it served the good purpose of uniting them as they 
had not been united for many years ; and even before the fire 
had gone out, the matter of rebuilding had been entered upon 
in earnest. During the same year the house now standing was 
erected. It occupies the same spot at the former house, 
though there were slight changes in the foundations. This 
church cost about six thousand dollars. About one thousand 
dollars of this came from sympathizing friends living in other 
places, while the remaining five thousand dollars were raised 
by the sale of the pews, which sold for about seven thousand 
dollars, or enough to pay for the new house and liquidate the 
debt that remained upon the one that was burned. " These 
things," said Rev. Mr. Sabin, in one of his lectures, "may 
give a little idea of the strength of a united, willing people, 
for they were built in the two unproductive years, 1816 and 
1817, cold seasons, snow or frost every month in the year, and 
yet the peoj^le did not suffer but got along comfortably." 

The corner-stone of this new church (the northwest corner) 
was laid May 28th, 1817, and in it is a cavity containing a 
plate with an inscription. This inscription is in L^tin, and was 
written by Rev. Mr. Sabin. The half sheet of paper upon 
M^hicli he prepared it has been preserved and is a curiosity. 
The sentence is written out nine times with more or less varia- 
tion. The ninth effort seems to have been satisfactory. 

It reads : " Haec fundamenta ^dis Sacrae pro conventu Ec- 
clesiee Congregationalis agi incipiuntur Die Maii 28. Anno 
Domini Christi 1817." And translated is : " These foundations 
of a sacred house for the meeting of the Congregational 
Church began to be laid on the 28th day of May, in the year 
of our Lord Christ 1817." 

Mr. Sabin counted and set down upon the paper the ninety- 
nine letters of this inscription, which leads to the belief that it 
was the one of the nine which was finally adopted, engraved, 
and placed in the corner-stone. 



DISSENSIO^iTS IN THE CIIURCJI. ]97 

This edifice, wliicli is an ornament to the town, was dedi- 
cated November 26th, 1817, one year and tM'enty days after 
the dedication of its predecessor. Of the two houses, the one 
now standing is said to be a little longer than the other. The 
town aj^propriated fifteen hundred dollars toward the building 
of the latter house, but the appropriation was not probably 
used, as the amount received from the sale of the pews was 
sutiicient to pay for the new house and to cancel the debt of 
two thousand dollars upon the edifice that was burned. 

In 1815, Troy, having been incorporated as a separate town, 
twelve or thirteen of the members of this church were dis- 
missed to aid in the formation of the Congregational Church 
in that place. 

The church in Fitzwilliam seems to have increased and pros- 
pered under the ministry of Mr. Sabin till about the year 
1827, when dissensions of considerable importance arose. Cer- 
tain differences in doctrinal belief were the ground of these, 
and they led, as is well known, to a division among the sup- 
porters of religious institutions here, and the organization of 
a new ecclesiastical society, which was called " The Orthodox 
Society in Fitzwilliam." The pastor, with the church organi- 
zation and records, went with the new society. 

Upon the merits of that unhappy controversy, which many 
now living remember, the historian of the town will not be 
expected to dwell. Time has done much to heal the wounds 
then made, and the people of but few towns in New England 
will be found more harmonious in their business and social re- 
lations. 

"^ For a better understanding, however, of the religious con- 
dition of the town for twenty years after 1827, it may be 
deemed important to state that a portion of the people claimed 
that the pastor was too exclusive in regard to making minis- 
terial exchanges, that the council that ordained him was one 
of liberal sentiments, that the church was established, and had 
always been maintained, upon a liberal covenant,f and that the 

* The facts that follow respecting tlie Unitarian Society have been kindly furnished 
by Miss Viola L. Spaulding. 
t A copy of this " Covenant" will be found in Chapter VI. of this volume, page 93. 



198 HISTORY OF FITZWILLTAM. 

majority of the people had always been opposed to what was 
called at that day rigid Calvinism. 

At a town meeting during the winter of 1827-28 these mat- 
ters were freely discussed, but the subject of the exchanges of 
the pastor with other clergymen (which, it had been supposed, 
was settled at that meeting in favor of a greater liberality) 
still divided the people, and rendered fruitless all efforts at 
reconciliation. 

On January 12th, 1831, a meeting was held by the friends 
of liberal Christianity to consult on the common good, and an 
association was formed of which the following persons were 
members : Elijah Bowker, Asa Brewer, Joseph Fawsett, 
second, John Fay, Benjamin Fay, Nahum Parker, Jr., Sam- 
uel Felch, Robinson Perkins, Daniel Spaulding, John Foster, 
Ephraim Parker, Charles Howe, Jabez Stearns, Daniel Mel- 
len, Sunmer Keith, Edward Holman, Sylvanus Holman, 
Joseph Brigham, Jubal E. Allen, Obil Fassett, Solomon Alex- 
ander, John J. Allen, Phineas Reed, Josiah Ingalls, Moses 
Stockwell, Peletiah M. Everett, Samuel Knight, Josiah Car- 
ter, John Whitcomb, Jacob Felton. 

Hon. Nahum Parker presided at the meeting, and measures 
were taken to obtain the use of the meeting-house a propor- 
tion of the time, if the pastor would not exchange with Uni- 
tarian ministers. A committee, consisting of Phineas Reed, 
Hon. Nahum Parker, and Robinson Perkins, was raised to 
wait upon Rev. Mr. Sabin and learn his decision, but he was 
unwilling to give the pledge that was asked. 

At the annual town meeting in March, 1831, the question, 
By whom shall the meeting-house be occupied ? was discussed, 
and decided in favor of those who sustained the course of the 
pastor, but this vote was set aside at another meeting a few 
da^^s later, and the following was adopted : 

That the Selectmen of this town, for the present year, be requested to 
assign to tlie Liberal party (so-called) the use of the Meeting House 
eight Sundays and the Baptists two Sundays, at such times as the Select- 
men shall judge proper. 

Accordingly they appointed the last Sabbaths in April, May, 
July, August, October, November, December, and January 



FIRST CONGREGATIONAL (UNITAK[AN) SOCIETY. 199 

for the liberal party, and the last Sabbath in September aud 
the first Sabbath in January for the I>ai)tist8. 

Soon after this, at an adjourned meeting of those who felt 
aggrieved at the coarse of Mr. Sabin and his friends, a paper 
drawn up byPhineas Heed, John J. Allen, Josiah Carter, and 
Josiah Ingalls, committee, appears to have been adopted, in 
whicli the pastor's amiable qualities, kind offices, and sympa- 
thies with the people are set forth, as well as the hold he had 
gained upon the affections of the congregation in general, 
while at the same time those who constituted the majority of 
the church were censured for the course they had pursued in 
withdrawing fellowship* from their former associates in the 
church. 

In such an excitement many things are often said and done, 
even by the wisest, that leave room for regret, and nearly sixty 
years ago this may have been the case with some of the good 
people of Fitzwilliam. 

First Congregational (Unitarian) Society. 

Of the events affecting this since the division, the following 
summary may be given : 

Rev. Seth Winslow occupied the pulpit during a large part 
of the year 1833, and Rev. J. K. "Waite during 1834 and 1835, 
except nine Sabbaths, when it was occupied by Mr. Robert F. 
AVallcut, to whom the people gave a call to become their pas- 
tor. Mr. Wallcut was installed in December, 1835. 

In 1831: it was deemed " necessarv for the comfort of the 
inhabitants of Fitzwilliam, who usually assemble in their town 
meeting-house for public worship, that there should be a stove 
in said house to warm it in cold weather." Accordingly a 
stove was procured and placed in the house, it being under- 
stood that the ownership thereof should remain with the per- 
sons who paid for it. 

At a meeting of the members of the First Congregational 
(Unitarian) Society in Fitzwilliam, March ITtli, 1837, for a 
more complete oi-ganization, it was voted to choose a commit- 
tee of three to prepare a constitution and by-laws for said soci- 



* From the Church Records it appears that the first vote of the church withdrawing 
fellowship from certain of its disaffected members, was passed in July, 1833. 



200 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

ety, and Amos A. Parker, Esq., John J. Allen, Esq., and 
Josiali Ingalls, Esq., were chosen. 

Rev. Mr. Farmer preached eight months in 1837, and Rev. 
Ezekiel L. Bascom from July, 1838, till October, 1839, when 
he was obliged to go South for his health. He returned in 
the spring of 1810, and continued his ministry till a short time 
before his death, which occurred April 2d, 1811. In 1811 
Mr. Bridge preached nine Sabbaths, and Mr. John K. Wright 
two. A call to the pastorate was given to Rev. Mr. Shaw in 
1812, which was declined, and the pulpit was occupied by Rev. 
C. Wellington and Rev. James H. Sayward. The ministry 
of the latter was during the great Millerite excitement (so- 
called), and, on one occasion, after preaching with much zeal 
and earnestness in opposition to what he believed to be erro- 
neous doctrines, he remained through some other exercises in 
the unwarmed house and took a severe cold, from which he 
never recovered, but died January 13th, 1811. In the same 
year a call was given to Mr. John S. Brown to become pastor, 
and he was ordained and remained with the peoj^le about ten 
years, a useful minister among his own people and an excel- 
lent citizen. Mr. Brown was earnest and successful in main- 
taining the interests of the common schools, in establishing the 
library, and promoting temperance and morality among the 
people of Fitzwilliam. At a meeting to consider his resigna- 
tion October 16th, 1851, it was voted 

that we accede to his desire for the dissolving a union which'^has har- 
moniously and satisfactorily existed for more than ten years, and which 
on our part we could have wished to still continue. 

Soon after leaving Fitzwilliam, Rev. Mr. Brown settled in 
Lawrence, Kan., and in 1881, at the age of seventy-eight, he 
visited his many friends in this place, apparently as intellect- 
uallv vio-orous and as much interested in the welfare of the 
town as he was thirty years before. 

After the Baptist Society had erected a house of worship, 
the question of chnnging the church edifice, built in 1817, into 
a town hall, and other rooms for town purposes was agitated ; 
and since these changes were made, the First Congregational 
Society has hired the Town Ilall for its religious services. 



UNITAKIAN MINISTERS. 201 

During the ten years succeeding 1854, the pulpit was sup- 
phed by Eev. Messrs. W. M. Fernald, S. Lincohi, W. B. 
Thayer, George L. Piper, W. O. Wilhird, E. ^V. Coffin, J. 
II. Wiggan, Addison Brown, J. Orrell, .1. E. Berry, and D. 
A. Tlussell, tlie hotter serving a hirge part of the time, from 
1861 to 1863 inchisive. 

October 5th, 1863, Be v. B. S. Fanton became pastor, and 
nnder liis ministry several united with the church, but his 
health failing, he closed his labors here March 6tli, 1861. 

After the pulpit had been supplied by a number of candi- 
dates, Rev. Eugene De Norniandie was called to the pastorate 
November 8th, 1861. A little before this event a union was 
formed between the church in Fitzwilliam and the liberal 
Cbristians in Troy which was continued a year or more, during 
Mr. De Normandie's ministry, and was acceptable to both 
parties. This pastor removed to Marlborough, Mass., in 1865, 
and was succeeded in 1866 by Rev. Ira Bailey, formerly of 
Athol, Mass., who was installed in 1866, and remained j)astor 
till September, 1868. 

From that time till the present (1886), this society has had 
no settled minister, as many of the most prominent members 
have died, and others have removed from town in considerable 
numbers. Among the latter was Asa S. Kendall, Esq., who 
was one of the most active workers in the denomination. At 
different times, and for different periods, during tliese years, 
the pulpit has been supplied by Rev. Messrs. John II. Iley- 
wood, Grindall Reynolds, George C. Wright, James K. Ap- 
piebee, and W. K. Brown, and at such seasons of the year as 
the people have thought most conducive to the interests of re- 
ligion and the cause of liberal Christianity, holding their ser- 
vices during three or four months or more annually. 

It ma}' here be stated that, for many years, a very efficient 
ladies' organization has existed in connection with the First 
Congregational or Unitarian Society, which, by the industry 
and self-denial of its members, has furnished, from time to 
time, a considerable part of the funds used for the support of 
preaching in that denomination. 

Mrs. Abba Batcheller, the secretary, has kindly furnished 



202 HISTORY OF FITZWILLTA:\r. 

the substance of what follows concerning it. The Unitariaii 
Ladies' Society was organized June 29th, 1833. The consti- 
tution was prepared bj' Rev. J. K. Waite, and the name given 
to the organization was '* Tlie Fitzwilliani Mutual Improve- 
ment and Charitable Society," the object of which was de- 
clared to be " to improve its members and benefit others." 
jSTone under twelve years of age could become members. The 
first board of officers chosen was as follows : Mrs. J. K. Waite, 
President ; Miss Selina Parker, Vice-President ; Miss M. 
E. Felton, Secretary and Treasurer ; Directors, Mrs. Felton, 
Miss Cooledge, Mrs. Cooledge, Mrs. Perkins, and Mrs. Fair- 
banks. 

The meetings have been holden on the first Thursday after- 
noon and evening of each month. The funds raised have been 
used for denominational purposes, and for charitable objects, 
as needed. The fund at the present time amounts to three 
hundred dollars. 

Mrs. Selina Parker Damon, the first vice-president, was 
chosen president in 1855, and resigned this office in 1884. 
Mrs. Caroline Chaplin served as vice-president from 1860 
to 1884. Mrs. Isabinda Carter was secretary and treasurer 
from 1848 to the time of her death in 1863, when Mrs. Abba 
Batcheller took her place. Nearly two hundred names have 
l)een affixed to the constitution. Officers 1884 : Mrs. S. A. 
Carter, President ; Mrs. Maria Perry, Vice-President ; Mrs. 
Abba Batcheller, Secretary and Treasurer ; Directors, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Gage, Mrs. Julia Perry, Mrs. Amanda Haskell, 
Mrs. Alicia Newton, and Mrs. Susa Platts. 

THE CONGEEGATIONAL CHUKCH AND ORTHODOX SOCIETY. 

On March 12th, 1833, the town 

voted that the contnict between the town and the Rev. John Sabin 
ceased on the oth of March, 1832, and that he is no longer the Minister 
of the church and congregation of this town ; and that the Selectmen 
notify him accordingly. 

In 1832 a meeting-house was erected upon the spot where 
the church of the Orthodox Society now stands. Rev. Mr. 
Sabin giving the land used for this purpose. This was dedi- 



REV. MR. SABIN's DEATH. 203 

cated October 31st, 1832. For a year or more ^Mr. Sabiii's 
congregation worshipped in various places while the work of 
building was in progress. That house took fire, and was con- 
sumed on Thursday, January 15th, 1857. The next season 
tlie present church was erected, and was dedicated December 
31st, 1857; Rev. A. P. Marvin, of Winchendon, Mass., 
preaching the sermon. Rev. Mr. Sabin was sole pastor from 
March Gth, 1805, till September 4th, 1841:, when Mr. Horace 
Herrick, of Peacham, Yt., was ordained and installed as his 
colleagne. About one year later, viz., October 14th, 1845, 
Mr. Sabin died. Rev. E. Rockwood, of Swanzey, preached 
the funeral sermon, which was printed, and from which the fol- 
lowing extract is made : 

He was uncommonly mild and even in his temper, social in his feel- 
ings, sincere in his friendships, hospitable to strangers, and courteous to 
all. He was interesting as a preacher. His sermons were general!^ 
well digested, discovering a good knowledge of the Scriptures and of 
human nature, with no small share of originality ; evangelical in doc- 
trine and highly practical. As a pastor in whom his people might 
repose full confidence, who was alive to all their spiritual wants, ready 
to sympathize with them in all their sorrows, consoling them under their 
varied trials, guiding their serious inquiries, and teaching them how to 
conflict with the king of terrors, his own people best knew his worth. 

Probably no resident of this town, with the possible excep- 
tion of the first pastor, Rev. Mr. Brigham, ever was able to 
do as much as Mr. Sabin in shaping the intellectual and moral 
character of the people of Fitzwilliam. During a considerable 
part of his long ministry, he was the trusted pastor of almost 
every family in town, and the young and the old looked up to 
him as a father. Five hundred of them he appears to have 
baptized, and seven hundred he had joined in marriage. 

Mr. Horace Herrick was ordained and installed as colleague 
pastor with Mr. Sabin, a little more than one year before the 
death of the latter. After a pastorate of about three years he 
was dismissed at his own request. 

Mr. Abraham Jenkins, Jr., a nativ^e of Barre, Mass., and a 
graduate of Amherst College, after supplying the pulpit for 
the space of four months, was called by the church and society 
to the pastorate, and ordained and installed as the fifth pastor, 



204 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

Febniaiy 16tli, 1848, Eev. Edward Hitchcock, D.D., Presi- 
dent of Amherst College, preaching the sermon. Mr. Jen- 
kins's ministry continued about six years, when, with failing 
health, he asked and obtained his dismission. 

Rev. John Woods, a native of this town, then became act- 
ing pastor, and served the church and congregation faithfully 
for about six years, when Mr. William L. Gaylord was called 
and ordained pastor, which event took place September 14th, 
1860, Kev. Edward N. Kirk, D.D., of Boston, preaching the 
sermon. Mr. Gaylord's ministry liere covered a period of 
about seven years, when he was dismissed at his own request 
by a council, December 26th, 1867. He was afterward pastor 
in Nashua, N. H., Meriden, Conn., and Chicopee, Mass., 
where he died. 

Hev. John F. Norton, a native of Goshen, Conn., who had 
bUen a pastor in Atliol, Mass., between fifteen and sixteen 
years, was installed as pastor here, September 23d, 1868, after 
he had supplied the pulpit for six months. Rev. Dr. A. C. 
Tliompson, of Roxbury, Mass., preached the sermon on that 
occasion. After a ministry of five years, Mr. Norton was dis- 
missed at his own request, March 31st, 1873, and removed to 
Natick, Mass., where he now resides. 

Rev. John Colby, of Southborough, Mass., was at once in- 
vited to supply the pulpit and was acting pastor for about 
thirteen years, when he removed to South Natick, Mass. 

In the genealogical record which fills the latter jDart of this 
volume, the families of Rev. Benjamin Brigham, Rev. Abra- 
liam Jenkins, Jr., and Rev. John Woods will be found in their 
proper place. 

Rev. Jolm Sabin had no children. His wife was Mary 
Damon, of Woodstock, Vt., and to her reference will be made 
in the account of the Sabin parsonage. 

The wife of Rev. Horace Herrick was Miss Aurelia Town- 
send, and they had no children. 

Rev. W^illiam L. Gaylord was born at Woodstock, Conn., 
October 14th, 1831. His parents were Horace and Mary A. 
Gaylord. He graduated at Union Theological Seminary, New 
York City, in 1861. His wife was Miss Juliette Foster Hyde. 




.^ \ i i ^ l\ 



FOOTE 






MINISTERS OF THE ORTHODOX CHURCH. 205 

of Xorwich, Conn., who died March ITth, 1875. Mr. Gay- 
lord was pastor at Fitzwilliain about six years, at Xashna, X. 11. , 
three years, at Meriden, Conn,, six years, and while pastor 
at Chicopee, Mass., died, March 26th, 1882, leaving three 
children, viz., Mary Foster, Josephine and William. 

Rev. John F. Xorton, of Xatick, Mass., has a wife, Ann 
Maria Mann, daughter of Rev. Cyrus Mann, for many years 
pastor in Westminster, Mass. Lewis M. Xorton, their only 
child, is Professor of Organic and Industrial Chemistry in the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston. Mr. Xorton 
is a native of Goshen, Conn., and the son of Lewis M. and 
Lauia (Foote) Xorton. He was educated at Yale College, and 
in tiie Theological Institute of Connecticut, now Hartford 
Theological Seminary. 

Rev. John Colby has a wife and two daughters, viz., Annie 
Lavinia, a graduate of Wellesley College, 1880, and Helen 
Kino^. Mr. Colbv is a native of York, Me. He fitted for 
college at Gilmanton Academy, New Hampshire, graduated 
at Dartmouth College in 1852, and from Andover Theological 
Seminary in 1855. Before his removal to this town he had 
been pastor at Hampton, N. H., and Southborough, Mass. In 
1884 he was elected a member of the Xew Hampshire Legisla- 
ture and served in it in 18S5. 

The several pastors were the clerks of this church for about 
one hundred years. Deacon Timothy Blodgett is the clerk at 
the present time. 

DEACOXS. 

There is no record of the choice of Benjamin Bigelow as 
the first deacon in 1771, and the tradition that he was chosen 
to fill this office at the organization of the church may be in 
fault. 

John Fassett was elected April 18, 1771. 
John Locke '' Jnly 8, 1773. 

Samuel Griftin " April 25, 1798. 

Ohver Damon " April 25, 1798. 

Calvin Coolidge " May 10, 1827. 

Rufus B. Phillips " May 10, 1827. 



206 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

Deacon Fassett died January 12th, 1834. Deacon Locke 
removed to Sullivan, N. H., and died February 16th, 1823, 
at the age of ninety. Deacons Griffin and Damon resigned 
May 10th, 1827, when their successors, Deacons Coolidge and 
Phillipp, were elected. Deacon Coolidge served as Deacon 
thirty-two years, and died April 6th, 1859. Deacon Joseph 
Harris, who had held this office in Saugus, Mass., was chosen 
to succeed Deacon Coolidge, but did not formally accept the 
office, though for a considerable time he discharged its duties ; 
and both Deacons Phillips and Harris received the thanks of 
the chnrcli for their faithful service, November 1st, 1859, 
Messrs, Horace Coolidge and Joel Whittemore were then 
chosen deacons, and after having served about nine years, l)otli 
resigned in 1868, when Timothy Blodgett and Dexter Collins 
were chosen to succeed them. Deacon Collins having removed 
to Winchendon, Mr, Leonard Byam was chosen in his place, 
May 4th, 1882. 

Counting Deacon Harris, this church has therefore had the 
services of twelve deacons since 1771, and all have been men 
highly respected and beloved. The first six served eighty- 
eight years. 

Of the membership of this church the following statements 
may be made. Before the settlement of the fourth pastor, 
Rev. Mr, Herrick, in 1844, there had been received six hundred 
and thirty-seven members, two hundred and forty-two males, 
and three hundred and ninety-five females. In 1871 the 
number received had reached eight hundred and four, of whom 
two hundred and ninety-four were males, and five hundred 
and ten females. During the last thirteen years fifty-two have 
been received, viz., fourteen males and thirty-eight females, 
making the whole number eight hundred and fifty-six, of whom 
three hundred and eight have been males and five hundred 
and forty-eight females. Of course a large part of this num- 
ber have died or gone elsewhere, and for the last twenty years 
the actual membership has varied between one hundred and 
twenty-five and one hundred and fifty. 

Nearly seventy years ago, the first Sabbath-school in Fitz- 
william was opened in the study of the pastor, Rev. Mr. 



PAESOISTAGES OF OKTIIODOX SOCIETY, 207 

Sabin, with about twenty pupils. It was taught hy Miss 
Sarah Knight and Miss Loisa Dutton. This was in 1817, and 
the next season more teachers were eniplo^^ed, and the sessions 
of the scliooi were lield in the vilhige school-house. In 1819 
the school was much larger and removed to the meeting-house, 
where it was regularly established as one of the important re- 
ligious institutions of the place. As the other religious soci- 
eties were formed and went into operation the Sabbath-school 
was adopted by them also, and thus has become general. 

TAKSONAGES. 

The first pastor, Rev. JSIr. Brigham, built for himself, 
owned, and occupied till his death, the house, recently re- 
moved, that stood under the shadow of the great elm-tree, a 
little east of the cemetery. 

Rev. Mr. AVilliams boarded at the house of Mr. Matthias 
Felton, and had no family. 

Rev. Mr. Sabin owned the house which he occupied, a little 
south of the Orthodox church, which is now the summer resi- 
dence of Mrs. Laura Simonds Estabrook, of Boston. The 
pastors that followed found homes in different parts of the 
village till, during the pastorate of Rev. Mr. Gaylord, the 
Orthodox Society purchased for a parsonage the house after- 
ward owned and occupied by the late Mr. John Forristall, 
and in which his widow now resides. In the year 1873 the 
society, having sold their parsonage to Mr. Forristall, erected 
a new one, at an expense of about four thousand dollars, a 
little south of the home of Captain J. S. Adams. 

As everything connected with the pastorate and home of 
Rev. John Sabin has an abiding interest with the people of 
this place, Mrs. Laura Simonds Estabrook, of Boston, who 
now owns the Sabin j^arsonage, has kindly furnished, by 
request, most of the facts that follow. 

Before he received a call to settle as pastor in this place, 
Mr. Sabin (then a licentiate) had passed through it, on horse- 
back, on his way from Connecticut to Woodstock, Vt. About 
a year after his ordination, in 1806, he brought his bride to 
this place. They came on horseback from Vermont to Keene, 



208 HISTORY OF FITZWILHAM. 

where tliej were met by a delegation of twenty of their par- 
ishioners, also on horsebaciv, who escorted their pastor and 
his bride to their home in Fitzwilliani. For six weeks they 
boarded with Matthias Felton, and then purchased and re- 
moved to the Sabin house. The purchase was made of Mr. 
Samuel Kilburn, who, it would seem, had agreed to go on 
with the work upon tlie house, which at the time of the pur- 
chase and occupancy by Mr, and Mrs. Sabin was in an un- 
finished state. 

The house then was only one story and a half high, and the 
clapboards had not been laid. 

The sitting-room and bedroom had been nearly finished, 
but Mrs. Kilburn had slept in that bedroom an entire summer 
with nothing but a blanket to protect the outer door. As he 
was able Mr. Sabin added the second story, the kitchen, and 
other convenient and comfortable rooms. His study was a 
room leading off from the kitchen, and it was in this that the 
first Sabbath-school was organized by Misses Loisa Dutton 
and Sarah Knight. 

At different times Mr. Sabin had with him young men who 
were fitting for college, and among the many names of those 
who are remembered occur tliose of Samuel Dinsmore, George 
Dunbar, and Thomas M. Edwards, of Keene. About 1839 
or 1840 Roswell D. Hitchcock, D.D., LL.D., was in Fitz- 
williara as a teacher, and after the close of his school he re- 
mained some time to study with Mr. Sabin. Eev. Cyrus 
Stone also was often at the parsonage. Miss Dorothy Dix 
was among the many visitors that were entertained nnder 
tliat roof, and it may interest some to know that the Hon. 
George P. Marsh, who did so much by his learning and noble 
character to honor his country among the crowned heads of 
Soutliern Europe as the Minister of the United States, was 
tauglit his letters by Mrs. Sabin while a teacher in Vermont. 

This lady, both as the wife of the pastor during his long 
and eventful ministry and as his widow in their old home for 
twenty years, was noted for her unvarying sweetness of dispo- 
sition, her wit, her bright fancies, her culture and charity, so 
far as her limited means would allow. 




MRS. MARY ( DAMON ) SABIN, 



CHURCH CENTENNIAL ANNIVEKSAKY. 209 

Mrs, Mary Sabiu died March 20tli, 1865, aged eighty-six 
years. 

The portrait of Eev. Mr. Sabin here giv'en is from an un- 
finished picture painted under very pecuh"ar circumstances. 
It was the last work of the artist, Ezra Woolson, a young man 
of much promise in his profession. There was to be (January 
1st, 1845) a social gathering at the parsonage of more than 
usual interest. It was not professedly a " donation party,'' 
but some of Mr. Sabin's friends quietly planned to give it 
that character, and Mr. "Woolson proposed to paint a portrait 
of Mr. Sabin as his donation. The picture was drawn and 
hastily painted the same day the party was to take place, so 
that it might be shown at the assemblage in the evening, and 
was afterward to be finished and completed in a proper 
mmner. But the artist was taken sick the next day and died 
within two weeks, aged twenty-one years. Mr. Sabin died 
the succeeding autumn. 

The centennial anniversary of the organization of the church 
in Fitzwilliam was observed with appropriate services March 
26th and 2Tth, 1871. Rev, John F. Xorton, at that time 
pastor of the church, prepared and preached on the Sabbath, 
March 26tli, two historical and commemorative discourses, 
which were deposited (in manuscript) with the records of the 
church. It was proposed at that time to print these discourses, 
but this project was not favored by the author, because of his 
conviction that the facts contained and arranged in them 
would soon be needed in the preparation of a town history. 
On the Sabbath when they \^'ere delivered very large audi- 
ences assembled, the other religious congregations in the town 
dispensing with their services and uniting in the commemora- 
tion. 

During the evening of the following day, March 27th, just 
one hundred years from the organization of the church and 
the ordination of the first pastor, a large coni])any assembled 
in the Town Hall for a social meeting, and listened to a recital 
of a multitude of interesting facts concerning the early settlers 
of the town and the progress of events during the century 
then closing. 
14 



210 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

Among the speakers, Dr. Silas Cummings, Mr. Charles 
Bigelow, and John Whittemore, Esq., all of whom have since 
died, and Captain Jonathan S. Adams, among those now 
living, were listened to by a deeply-interested audience. 

The Fitzwilliarn Female Benevolent Society is connected 
with this church, and has been in operation since the year 
1845, holding meetings monthly, or more frequently, accord- 
ing to circumstances. 

Its object has been to raise funds for benevolent work at 
home and elsewhere. From time to time it has sent boxes of 
clothing to the families of destitute home missionaries at the 
West, and aided in the support of the pastor, in repairing and 
furnishing the meeting-house, in purchasing an organ, in re- 
pairing the old parsonage, in building the new parsonage, in 
procuring hymn-books for the church, and in helping forward 
other objects of a similar nature. 

From the record of payments for those objects since 1854, 
it would appear that this society has raised and used for the 
purposes named above the sum of three thousand three hun- 
dred and three dollars and ninety-seven cents, or an average 
of about one hundred and three dollars each year. 

THE BAPTIST CHURCH AND SOCIETY. 

From the History of Troy and from other sources, it ap- 
pears that in November, 1789, a Baptist church was organized 
at the house of Agabus Bishop, in the south-western part of 
what is now the town of Troy, with twenty-five members. 
This church was known for about twenty-five years as " the 
Baptist Church of Fitzwilham." For twelve years it de- 
pended for preaching chiefly upon the Baptist pastors in the 
vicinity, and school and dwelling-houses furnished the places 
for its meetings. Among those named as pastors of that 
church, after 1791, are E-ufus Freeman, Arunali Allen, and 
Darius Fisher, the last-mentioned of whom is said to have been 
pastor for sixteen years. 

In 1815, about the time when Troy was incorporated, this 
church was divided to form what are now the Fitzwilliam and 
Troy Baptist churches. Some twelve- or fourteen of its mem- 



BAPTIST CHURCH AND SOCIETY. 211 

bers became the nucleus of the FitzwiHiam church, and this 
was called " the First Baptist Church of Fitzwilliani." * 

Several circumstances operated to impede its early growth, 
especially the fact that it had no meeting-house from the time 
of its organization until IS-tl, a period of twenty-six years. 
And having no church edifice, it could not support a regular 
ministry and enjoy the labors of a settled pastor. 

Rev. Arunah Allen appears to have been the first Baptist 
preacher belonging to this town, and mention is made of him 
in the records of the Baptist church at different times for 
several years, though he may not have been formally recog- 
nized as its pastor. 

Tradition asserts that Rev. Mr. Allen, who resided for a 
considerable period in School District ]S'o. 4, and whose name 
appears in tlie list of school-teachers near the close of the 
last and the opening of the present century, preached, more 
or less regularly, to congregations gathered in the school- 
houses in tlie south and west parts of Fitzwilliani, drawing 
his audiences to some extent from the adjoining towns in 
Massachusetts, as well as in New Hampshire, That he was 
regarded with favor as a man of good judgment and business 
capacity appears from the fact that he served the town as one 
of its selectmen in 1803-05, being chairman of the board in 
1805. Mr. Allen came to this town in 1799, began to preach 
in 1807 or 1808, and was ordained in 1810 or 1811 as an elder 
of the old Baptist church, whose members at that time resided 
largely on West Hill and in Richmond. He continued to 
preach in Fitzwilliani till 1823, when he removed to Stock- 
bridge, Vt, 

Elder Fisher and several other ministers served this church 
as occasional supplies, but no labors by a pastor are mentioned 
for a quarter of a century after it was organized ; and certainly 
the circumstances of the case confirm the opinion of the pres- 
ent pastor, that the church that had passed through hard 
struggles, and doubtless often met with sad reverses in main- 
taining its existence for so many years with small pecuniary 

* If this church regai-ded itself as the continuation of the one organized in the house 
of Agabus Bi;3hop, and dated from 1789 instead of 1815, few would dispute its claims. 



212 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

means and few members, must have liad something of the 
spirit of Roger Williams. 

But in 1840 the church seemed to obtain a new lease of life, 
for in May of that year Rev. John Peacock commenced 
evangelistic labors in Fitzwilliam, and found a church of 
twenty-two members ready to enter heartily into his work. 
He commenced at once a series of meetings, which were held 
partly in the old meeting-house and partly in a scliool-house, 
and continued fifteen days. More than forty persons were 
supposed to have been converted, of whom thirty-six united 
with the church by baptism, and several others by letter. 

These additions gave the Baptist church new strength and 
courage. 

Angust ITth of the same year, the members of the church 
formed themselves into an ecclesiastical society, to be called 
the Fitzwilliam Baptist Society, and this was incorporated by 
an act of the Legislature of New Hampshire, August 22dj 
1840. 

During the same year the church and society began to build 
a house of worship, to be fifty feet long and forty feet broad, 
and eighteen hundred dollars having been expended in its 
erection, it Avas dedicated in August, 1811. Soon after this a 
call was extended to Mr. Joseph Storer to become pastor. 
This being accepted, Mr. Storer was ordained J^ovember 
iTtlj, 181:1, and was the first minister to occupy the pulpit of 
the new meeting-house. He was pastor till June, 1843, when 
Rev. Warren Cooper was called to the pastorate, Mr. Cooper 
filled this office about one year. 

He was succeeded, June 10th, 1844, by Rev. John Peacock, 
whose pastoiate continued till 1847. August 5th of that year 
Rev. C. M. Willard was installed jDastor, and continued his 
labors more than three years. 

Api-il 3d, 1851, Rev. W. H. Dalrymple became pastor, 
and remained such till 1854, when Rev. A. W. Goodnow 
succeeded to the oflice. For about three years after February 
10th, 1855, Rev. A. B. Eggleston was pastor, while for two 
years after August 22d, 1858, Rev. N. B. Jones served the 
church in that capacit3^ In 1861, Rev. J. ]S^. Chase became 



PASTORS OF THE BAPTIST CHURCH. 213 

pastor, and continued such till his death, September 1st, 1862. 
Rev. George W. Cutting became pastor December 4th, 1802, 
and remained witli the people till November 5th, 1868. Mr. 
Cutting represented Fitzwilliam in the State L'3gislature in 
18G5, and again in 18()(), and was a meml)er of the Super- 
intending School Committee. 

Kev. E. H. Watrous was called to the pastorate April 23d, 
1869, and closed his labors here July 1st, 1872. August 25th 
of that year Rev. H. W. Day became pastor, and remained 
such till June 28th, 1874. 

Mr. W. H. Dean, of the ISTewton Theological Institute, 
was ordained pastor July 4th, 1875, and remained one year. 

The present officiating deacons of the church, Mr. II. A. 
Firmin and Mr. S. S. Stone, were elected September 5th, 
1875. 

The next pastor was Rev. Sumner Latham, who closed his 
labors, after about two years' service, in 1878. He was suc- 
ceeded July 7th, 1878, by Rev. William Reed, who served 
the people till IS"ovember 9th, 1879. From this time till 
August 7th, 1881, the church was without a pastor, when 
Rev. A. Dunn, the present incumbent, was called to the 
pastorate. 

The church now numbers sixty-six members, and the con- 
gregations upon the Sabl)ath range from sixty-five to one 
liundred. The system of having two regular sermons on the 
Sabbath is still adhered to, but does not give universal satis- 
faction. 

In 1873 and 1874 the meeting-house was extensively re- 
paired and made substantially new within and without, at the 
cost of about three thousand dollars, and it was reded icated 
February 3d, 1874. There are three convenient rooms in the 
basement of the church that are well furnished for social meet- 
ings, the Sabbath-school, ladies' circles, and social entertain- 
ments. No debt rests upon the church or society. For sev- 
eral years a Ladies' Benevolent Society has been in successful 
operation, and most of its hard-earned funds have been ex- 
pended in renovating and furnishing the meeting-house and 
the vestries, while something has been done for other objects. 



214 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM, 

There is also a Woman's Home and Foreign Mission Society, 
whose object is to raise funds to s^^read the Gospel in this and 
other lands. 

In connection with the church there is a flourishino^ Sabbath- 
school, with ten officers and teachers and one hnndred and 
twenty-one pupils. The average attendance is about fifty- 
five. Most of the facts given above were furnished by the 
pastor, Rev. A. Dunn. 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL SOCIETY. 

About 1866 Rev. William Merrill, a member of the New 
England Conference, but with health insufiicient to take a 
regular appointment, opened a Sabbath-school in District 
IS'o. 3, which was not far from his residence. The school in- 
creased till it numbered one hundred and twenty-five mem- 
bers, when Mr. Joel Howe, one of the leading manufacturers 
of Howeville, and others, favored the erection of a chapel for 
public worship in that village. Mr. Howe offered the neces- 
sary land, but his death led to the abandonment of this part 
of the project and to the purchase and fitting up of the Howe 
grocery store as a chapel. The cost of this was met by " the 
Ladies' Aid Society" and individual friends of the enterprise. 
The pulpit was supplied by Rev. Messrs. William Merrill, 
Joseph Merrill, Henry A. Merrill, and George A. Tyrril, for 
about ten years, when it was deemed best for the interests of 
Methodism in this town to have a place of worship at the 
depot village. The New HamjDshire Conference sent Rev. 
S. S. Dudley to labor for this end, and as the result of his 
faithful work a small chapel, costing about one thousand 
dollars, was erected. The site, purchased of Mr. D. H. 
Reed, cost one hundred dollars, while the materials for the 
building and most of the labor were donated by friends of the 
undertaking. 

The chapel was dedicated November, 1877, Dr. Bradford 
K. Pierce preaching the sermon. 

An audience of from forty to fifty is in attendance in this 
chapel on the Sabbath, while the Sabbath-school numbers 
twenty-one, and that at Howeville twenty-five. Since 1876 



MINISTERS OF METHODIST CIIURCn. 2l5 

the two pulpits have been supplied by Tiev. Messrs. S, S. 
Dudley, J. A. Parker, William ]\[errill, A. W. L. Nelson, 
and William Twombly. 

The facts for this sketch have been kindly furnished by 
Mrs. M. E, Spaulding. 



CHAPTER X. 

FITZWILLIAM IN THE REVOLUTIONAEY WAK. 

Town Meetings to Provide Soldiers — Colonel James Reed at Lexington and 
Banker Hill — New Hampshire Troops at Bunlier Hill — Committee of 
Inspection — The Tory, Breed Bachelor — Patriotism of tlie Town — List 
of Fitzwilliam Soldiei-s — Provisions for the Army — Pensioners. 

Tlie War of 1813-14. 

n^IlE early town meetings of Fitzwilliam were held imder 
-*- the intense excitement prevailing throughout the country 
that foreshadowed the American Revolution. 

In 1774 the famous Boston Port bill and the bill for re- 
moving those charged witli capital offences to Great Britain 
for trial, with other oppressive acts, had gone into effect, and 
the whole country was aroused to resistance. 

Deputies from eleven of the American provinces had been 
in session at Philadelphia to protest against the encroachments 
of the mother country, and had adjourned, to meet again in 
May, 1775. Early in that year, or late in the year 1771, the 
proceedings of this Congress seem to have been laid before 
the people of each town, certainly in the province of New 
Hampshire, and they had been requested to vote upon tlie 
question whether or not they would abide by tlie declarations 
made at Philadelphia. 

The people of Fitzwilliam were called together for this 
purpose Fe'bruary 23d, 1775, and the call for the meeting pre- 
sented to the selectmen was signed by Robert Ware, Jacob 
Wilson, William Locke, William Withington, John Locke, 
Gersham Brigham, Amos Knight, Aaron Morse, Nathan 
Platts, John Chamberlain, Thomas Weatherbee, Reuben 
Pratt, and Ebenezer Potter. 

Deacon John Locke was moderator of this meeting, and it 
was 

' ' Yoted to abide by tlie proceedings of the Continental 
Congress." 



committp:e of inspection. 217 

It was also voted to raise a Committee of Correspondence 
to consist of three members, and John Mellen, Jolin Locke, 
and Jolm Fassett were chosen. It was also 

" Voted that this Committee be a Committee of Inspection 
likewise." It was 

Voted that tlie Town Treasurer pay one pound and seven shillings to 
John Giddeness (Giddings?) Esqr., of Exeter, on or before the 29th 
day of March next, agreea!)le to a desire of John Wentworth, Esqr. 
(not Governor John Wentworth), to defray our part of the charges of 
the Delegates chosen to represent this Province in the next Continental 
Congress and to pay the balance due the former delegates. 

These " former delegates" were Nathaniel Folsom and John 
Sullivan, who had been chosen by a conv^ention at Exeter in 
1774. To this convention every town in the province had been 
invited by written letters to send deputies, and every town 
had been requested to pay its quota of a fund of two hundred 
pounds to defray the expenses of the convention. It was also 
recommended to the several towns to observe a day of fasting 
and prayer in the several congregations, " on account of the 
gloomy appearance of public affairs." The money was col- 
lected and " the fast was observed," says Belknap, " with 
religious solemnity." 

The Fitzwilliam " Committee of Inspection" provided for 
at the meeting, February 23d, 1775, attended at once to the 
business for which it was created. Its duties were not deii- 
nitely set forth in the vote by which such a committee was 
raised, but it is easy to conjecture what these three men were 
expected to look after, for in the very opening of the struggle 
with Great Britain there were those in all our towns who 
secretly, if not openly, favored the cause of the oppressors, 
and stood ready to betray all the precious interests of freedom 
and justice. Some of these had grudg-es against their patriotic 
neighbors that they were waiting to gratify, while others were 
jealous of the popularity of some of the leading men of the 
town or province, who were outspoken in the cause of liberty. 
Others still were determined to make money from the sale of 
forbidden articles. 



218 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

For these and other reasons there were some who needed to 
be watched or " inspected." 

At a later date we shall find the selectmen looking; after the 
equipments of all the men in town capable of bearing arms, 
but this was not the business of this Committee of Inspection. 

That this " Committee of Correspondence and Inspection'' 
understood that thej had duties to perform and were ready 
for any emergency that might arise is evident from the com- 
munication that they soon made to the General Assembly of 
the Colony of New Hampshire, which follows. 

The original paper, of which this is an exact copy, is care- 
fully preserved in the office of the Secretary of State at 
Concord. 

To the Hon. the General Assembly of the Colony of New Hampshire. 
Most Honorable Gentlemen. 

Whereas the late Congress for ye above said Colony past a vote on the 
16th day of Nov. 1775 that the Committees of Corispondence or Saifty 
for ye several Towns in this Colony [should furnish] the names of one 
person or persons whoom theay should know or suspect to be enemical 
to this country. 

These humbly sheweth to the Hon. Assembly that the Committee of 
Inspection of the Town of Fitzwilliam are of opinion that Breed 
Bachelor, of peckersfield (Packersfield), has conducted in an enemical 
maner, viz in openly violating the Assotiation of the Continental Con- 
gress by buying a large quantity of india tea and freely offering it for 
sale as he was passing though this town and did dispose of some of it to 
one or more persons in town, as we are able to prove from the confestion 
of Frederic Reed who has declared before one of this Committee and 
before other persons that he bought tea of the said Bachelor, and that 
he had retailed the most of it out again, and that he w ould by more if 
he could get it. and gave out some very threatening words in case any 
Committee or any persons should come to examine or disturb him about 
it whoom we think has conducted in an Enemecal maner likwise. 

We would give Your honors a short specemin of the conduct of the 
above said Bachelor's conduct as he past through the Town viz that 
the said Bachelor came to Town and taried over night at the above said 
Reeds'— the Committee of No 5 (Marlborough) understood that he was 
past though their town with a quantity of tea, they sent one of their 
Committee to jiersue him, who came to the house of Capt. John Mellen, 
inholder in Fitzwilliam, some time in the night and put theare. Capt. 



COMPLAINT AGAINST BREED BACHELOR. 219 

Mellen being one of our Committee the next morning the said Bachelor 
came along mounted on horseback with 3 bags of tea under him. Mr. 
Abijah Tucker, the Committee man from No. 5, went out and desired 
the said Bachelor to stop and come in to the house, but he refused. 
Mr. Tucker insisted something upon his stopping, the said Bachelor 
struck Mr. Tucker with a club he had in his hand and wounded him on 
the hand, and rode of as fast as he could. Capt. Mellen then took his 
horse and persued after him, and overtook him about a mile and a half. 
And persuaded him to turn back and settle the matter, he consented 
and came back to ye house of Capt. Mellen and agreed to leave it out 
to Major Farrah and Major Brigham what should be done with the 
tea who gave their judgment that the tea should be stored with Capt. 
Mellen till theare was some order of Congress concerning it, and upon 
their going out to his horse to bring in the tea they found but one bag. 
The Said Bachelor said he had two bags of tea, and that Mr. Tucker had 
stole one bag and that he should pay for it, but mistrusting that the 
said Bachelor had hid it some persons went in search of it and found it 
cast into the brush a little out of the Roade and brought it in — and upon 
further investigation it apjieared that the said Bachelor had three bags 
when he past the house next to Capt. Mellen's, seach being made the 
third bag was found in the brush not far from where the other was 
found, which bag he would not own untill the next morning and then 
he owned it and began worining at Capt. Mellen to let him have this 
bag untill the next evening when Major Brigham came to Capt. Mellen's 
house and Capt. Mellen desired Major Brigham to take that bag of tea 
and carry it home, and store it so that he might get rid of Bachelor, 
and upon the whole the Major received the bag at the hand of Capt. 
Mellen, one of this Committee in the presence of several persons. When 
Bachelor who was out of the room come to understand that Capt. 
Mellen had sent away that bag, he appeared to be very angry, and the 
next morning he went of and has since reported that Major Brigham 
stole that bag, which is a very fals report. 

The whole of which affair we submit to your wise consideration and 
determination. 



Fitzwilliam ye 
6th of March, 1776. 



John Fassett^ Com. of Corispondence and 
John Mellen [■ Inspection for the Town of 
John Locke j Fitzwilliam. 



The reputation of this Tory, Breed Bachelor, was very bad, 
and the loyal people rejoiced when he was out of the way. 



220 HISTORY OF riTZWILLTAM. 

Wlien the town voted to abide by tlie proceedings of the 
Continental Congress, it committed itself without any reserva- 
tion to the cause of the colonies against the unlawful and crael 
usurpations of Great Britain. How" uiuch was involved in 
that act the voters did not comprehend, but they were shrewd 
enough to perceive that the most important interests were at 
stake, and that they were taking a stand from which it might 
be next to impossible to retreat. 

In judging of their act a number of facts merit considera- 
tion. In 17'J'3 the people of Fitzwilliam were few in number 
— only two hundred and fourteen, and in 1775 two hundred 
and fifty — and they were scattered over a comparatively large 
territory. They were, moreover, mostly poor or in very 
moderate circumstances, as they had exhausted nearly all the 
means they possessed in the purchase of their farms and im- 
provements. But little of the land had been cleared, and all 
they had done in this direction had been done at great disad- 
vantage. Their dwellings were mostly poor log-huts wn'th 
very few of the conveniences of life. To improve their con- 
dition a little, year by year, demanded great economy, untiring 
industry, and the severest toil, so that if there was a town in 
Southern New Hampshire that seemed to require all its re- 
sources within itself to render life more comfortable within its 
borders, and to make better provision for the education of its 
children, that town was Fitzwilliam. 

And then for our poor and unprotected colonies to defy the 
power and wealth of Great Britain must ha'^e seemed to the 
wise a hazardous experiment. And yet there appears to have 
been no hesitation about sustaining the acts of the Continental 
Congress. The royal Governor of New Hampshire stood 
ready to do and was doing all in his power to keep the prov- 
ince from joining the patriots in other sections of the land, 
but the men of Fitzwilliam were ready and even eager to cast 
in their lot with their self-sacrificing countrymen. 

For the space of seven years after 1775 we find the acts of 
this town in all their business meetings largely influenced by 
the wants of the country at large, and the calls for funds, 



MILITARY COMPANY ORGANIZED. 221 

provisions, and troops to free the land from the armies of 
Great Britain. 

These were the absorbing matters that confronted the people 
here, just as they had succeeded in establishing their town 
government, and for these long and an.xioiis years it is not 
surprising if everything else was treated as of only secondary 
importance in their town meetings. 

In 1775, and very soon after American and British blood 
had been shed at Lexington and Concord, Mass., Governor 
John Went worth determined, as he expressed his purpose, 
" to plant the root of peace in Xew Hampshire,"' and " bring 
about an aflfectionate reconciliation with the mother country," 
A new Assembly was called by him in May of that year, but 
the members asked for time to consult their constituents, and 
while their reasonable recpiest called for delay a convention 
was doing its work at Exeter in which the province was 
largely represented. The Fitzwilliam pastor, Bev. Benjamin 
Bi'igham, was a member of that convention. This body 
sanctioned, in the plainest manner, all that the patriots had 
done to prevent the British troops from keeping New Hamp- 
shire in subjection by means of a powerful battery at Great 
Island, and, moreover, instructed the members of the Gov- 
ernor's Assembly how to act when they should again meet 
for business. The anticipated result soon followed, and in 
August, 1775, the Governor issued a proclamation adjourning 
his Assembly till April, 1770, which was the last act of his 
administration, and the end of the British Government in New 
Hampshire. This had been maintained in one form or 
another for ninety-five years. 

Some time during the year 1775, and possibly at the meet- 
ing held on May 10th of that year, the town arranged for the 
formation of a military company. The record follows. 

At a meeting called by the selectmen 

Voted and chose Capt. Asa Brigham, Moderator. Chose Joha Mellen, 
Captain of the Militia of Fitzwilliam. Chose Levi Brigham, Lieutenant, 
Samuel Kendall, Ensign, and Daniel 3Iellen, Clerk. 

Voted and Chose Messrs. Caleb Winch. Reuben Prutt, Nathan Mixer, 



222 HISTORY OF FITZ WILLI AM. 

and Benjamin Davidson, Sergeants. Chose Leonard Brigham, Jonas 
Knight, David Perry, and Ezekiel Mixer, Corporals. 

And also the Selectmen, agreeable to the directions of the Warrant 
for said Meeting, examined the Inhabitants in relation to what firearms 
were wanting, agreeable to the directions of the Provincial Congress, 
in order to make return thereof to said Congress, and found the follow- 
ing persons destitute — Viz. Ichabod Smith, Joseph Dunn, Daniel Squirs, 
Joseph Brown, Joseph Grow, James Rice, Capt. Brigham, James Butler, 
Sip Jawhar, Rev. Brigham, Doctor Brigham, Stephen Harris and Son, 
Deac, Fassett, Leonard Brigham, Nathan Mixer, John Chamberlain, 
Robert Ware. 

To understand this action on the part of the town it should 
be mentioned that the convention at Exeter, in adopting 
measures for a new form of government to take the place of 
that which had been administered by the Wentw^orths under 
royal authority, reorganized the militia of the province. 
Negroes, Indians, and a few of the highest civil and judicial 
officers were not included, but with these exceptions the entire 
male population of the province between the ages of sixteen 
and sixty-five were to be enrolled as belonging to the Training- 
Band, or the Minute Men. The former of these, the Train- 
ing Band, included all the males between sixteen and fifty 
years of age, with the exceptions named above ; and each of 
these men was required to furnish himself with the following 
articles, and to keep the same at all times ready for use — viz. : 

A good fire arm, good ramrod, a worm, priming wire and brush, a 
bayonet fitted to his gun, a scabbard and belt therefor, and a cutting 
sword or a tomahawk or hatchet, a pouch containing a cartridge box 
that will hold fifteen rounds of cartridges at least, a hundred buck shot, 
a jack knife and tow for wadding, six flints, one pound of powder, forty 
leaden bullets fitted to his gun, a knapsack and blanket, a canteen or 
wooden bottle sufllcient to hold one quart. 

The Minute Men comprised all the males between sixteen 
and sixty-five years of age not belonging to the Training 
Band, with the exceptions stated above. What equipments 
they were required to possess and keep in order w'e are not 
informed. 

In 1773 a census of the inhabitants of Fitzwilliam was taken 
by the selectmen, who were chosen at the first town meeting 



TRAINING BAND — MINUTE MEN. 228 

— viz., John Mellon, Edward Kendall, and Joseph Grow. 
The result was as follows : 

Unmarried men between sixteen and sixty IS 

Married " " " " " 44 

Males nnder sixteen 55 

Total males 117 

Females, married 44 

" unmarried 53 

Total females 97 97 

Total population 214 

There was not a man in town over sixty years of age, and 
there was not a widow in Fitzwilliam ; nor was there a 
slave, though ten were found in Cheshire County. 

The proportionate number belonging to the Training Band 
and the Minute Men of this town in 1775, when the popula- 
tion had reached the number of two hundred and fifty, it is 
impossible to state. The former were, however, largely in 
the majority, and to this class those found "destitute," or 
deficient in the matter of equipments, as named above, must 
have chiefly belonged. 

In every town in I^ew Hampshire a Training Band was or- 
ganized, so that efficient regiments might be ready for service 
on any emergency ; and thus it was that this State was so 
fully and ably represented by two regiments at the battle of 
Bunker Hill, June 17th, 1775. 

The Fitzwilliam Militia Company, whose organization has 
been already noted, was plainly its training band, and such 
companies were required to meet eight times each year for 
drill. 

The battle of Bunker Hill proved that the Kew Hampshire 
patriots did not wait to be summoned to the defence of the 
country when its liberty was in peril. 

General Stark, a veteran of the French and Indian War, 
was at his saw-mill wlien he was informed of the fight at Lex- 
ington. Going to his house, he changed his dress, mounted 



224 HISTOKY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

his horse, and starting at once for Boston called his country- 
men to arms throughout the entire journey. 

Medford was designated as the place of rendezvous, and in 
the hall of an old tavern there (called for a long time [N'ew 
Hampshire Hall) Stark was chosen colonel bj a hand vote. 
1 our days after the fight at Lexington, two thousand soldiers, 
from nearly every town in I^ew Hampshire, had reported 
themselves for duty, and, we are assured, they did not wish to 
return to their homes "till the work was done." In IVEay, 
1775, the Provincial Congress of this State voted to raise two 
thousand men, to comprise three regiments. John Stark, 
James Reed, and Enoch Poor were placed at the head of these 
regiments, and they were the first from beyond Massachusetts 
that were placed under the command of Major- General Ar- 
temas Ward, the comraandGr-in-chief of the forces assembled 
in the vicinity of Boston. 

Through Colonel James Reed, who commanded the Second 
(afterward called the Third) Regiment of these Xew Hamp- 
shire soldiers, Fitzwilliam was brought at once into promi- 
nence at the battle of Bunker Hill. 

Some account of this brave and patriotic man (who was 
one of the fathers of this town) has been already given in 
Chapter Yll. 

It may here be remarked, however, that James Reed, a na- 
tive of Woburn, Mass., and born in 172-1, had served in the 
Prench and Indian War at the head of a company of provincial 
troops, and that he did excellent service in that capacity till 
peace was restored. Upon the breaking out of hostilities with 
Great Britain, he was among the first to hasten to the front, 
and was appointed, as we have seen, to the command of the 
Second j^ew Hampshire Regiment, which was posted in the 
vicinity of Boston. June 13th, 1775, he took the station as- 
signed him on Charlestown Neck, and it is asserted that he 
was the first officer of his rank on the field, and his the only 
'New Hampshire regiment actually on the ground and ready 
for action on the morning of the Bunker Hill battle. He was 
stationed with Colonel Stark on the left wing, at a rail fence 
about forty rods in the rear of the redoubt, tosvard the Mystic 



CASUALTIES AT BUNKER HILL, 225 

River, a position that they reached " under a sliower of iron 
hail that was falling around them," Newly mown hay that 
they found upon the ground, stuffed between the rails of the 
fence, formed for tlie troops a breastwork that was better than 
nothing. Opposed to these New Hampshire troops was a 
Welsh regiment, that had gained great renown in the European 
wars, seven hundred strong. The next day only eighty-three 
of its men were fit for duty. " On the ground where the 
mowers had swung their scythes in peace the day before," said 
Colonel Stark, in his report, " the dead lay as thick as sheep 
in a fold." Twice during the action the New Hampshire 
troops drove back the foe in their front, and kept them in 
check, while their fellow-patriots from Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut escaped from their exposed position. Colonel Stark's 
regiment lost fifteen killed and missing, while sixty were 
wounded. Of Colonel Heed's regiment three were killed, one 
was missing, and twenty-three were wounded. 

The historians of the battle of Bunker Hill award the high- 
est praise to the New Hampshire troops and their leaders, for 
their cool courage and genuine braver}' in that memorable 
conflict. 

Before the battle, June 17th, Colonel Reed wrote to the 
Committee of Safety as follows : 

I repaired to Medford and their I met with Capt. Hinds, Whitcumbe, 
Town. Hutchins, Man, Marcy and Thomas. Whitcombe and Thomas I 
took out of Coll. Stark's Regiment for the 2 Conipanys that was assigned 
me — then I was informed by Coll. Stark that Medford was so full of sol- 
diers that it was necessary for some to take some other quarters— then I 
aplayed myself to Gen. Ward and there received orders in these words. 

Head Quarters June the 12. 1775. 
General Orders. 

That Coll. Reed quarter his Regiment in the houses near Charlestown 
Neck and keep all necessary Guards between his Barracks and the 
Ferry and on Bunker Hill. 

J. Ward Sectary, 

Then Sirs on the 13th I marched my Regiment from Medford to 
Charlestown Neck and with the assistance of Mr. Turfts, one of the 
Selectmen of Charlestown, I got my men into good Barracks and then 
15 



226 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

raised my gard consistiug of 1 Capt. 2 Luts. 4 Sergeants 4 corporals 
and 40 privates. 

I am, Gentelmen your obliged servant 

J. Reed. 

Other documents of great interest regarding the battle of 
Bunker Tlill and the preparations for it should here be intro- 
duced, especially as such a prominent place in it was assigned 
to Fitzwilliam and New Hampshire generally. 

Here is a copy of " Col. Reed's Return June ye 14, 1775," 
three days before the battle : 

Col. James Reed. 
Lieutenant Col. Gilman. 

Major Hale. 

Fit for service. Unfit. 

Capt. Jacob Hinds' Co 54 10 

" Josiah Crosley's Co 44 15 

" Philip Thomas' Co 46 5 

" Jonathan Whitcombs' Co 59 11 

" Benjamin Mann's Co 49 16 

" William Walker's Co 46 19 

" Levi Spauldings' Co 44 14 

" Ezra Town's Co.... 53 9 

" John Marcy's Co 48 28 

" Hezekiah Hntchins' Co 44 21 

Adjutant Stephen Peabody. 

Quarter Master Isaac Frye, rank of Captain. 

Quite a number of those reported above as unfit for service 
were probably able to enter the fight three days later, as 
Colonel Reed led into the battle on June 17th five hundred 
and thirty-nine men.* 

Of the " about one thousand men" who erected the forti- 
fications on Bunker Hill, one hundred and ten or more men 
were said to belong to New Hampshire. Prescott com- 
manded these men. 

On June 17th, the day of the battle, Colonel Reed's regi- 
ment was moved to the front soon after noon, and at two 
o'clock orders came for all to move, when Colonel Reed's 
regiment joined Colonel Stark's. 

* For many of the facts and calcnlations that immediately follow, the writer of this 
history is indebted to the Rolls of the New Hampshire Soldiers in the Revolutionary 
War, compiled by Hon. Isaac W. Hammond and published by the State. 



NEW HAMPSIIIRE TROOPS AT BUNKER HILL. 227 

Before they had reached the positions assigned them, they 
encountered two regiments (supposed to have been from Massa- 
chusetts or Connecticut, or from both) that had halted before 
the raking fire from the British fleet, when Major MeClary, 
from Epsom, who was killed on the retreat, rode forward 
and said to the commanders of those regiments, that if they 
did not intend to move on he desired them to open their ranks 
and let the New Hampshire regiments pass. This was done, 
and Colonels Stark and Reed marched their men deliberately 
to the Hill. Colonel Reed's regiment seems to have been on 
the right of the other New Hampshire troops, and these troops, 
with Captain Knowlton's company of Connecticut men on the 
right of them all, appear to have made a continuous line from 
the redoubt to the river. The New Hampshire men held their 
position till the redoubt was taken, when they retired in good 
order without having been defeated. The historian Bancroft 
asserts that " Prescott's troops would have been cut oif but 
for the unfaltering courage of these provincials." 

Drake says, " The weight of thelirst and second attacks" of 
the British troops " was borne by the defenders of the rail 
fence, where General Howe in person attacked with the very 
flower of his army, supported by artillery." 

The computation has been made that the American troops 
actually engaged in the fight numbered but nineteen hundred 
and eighty five men, and that of these twelve hundred and 
thirty were from New Hampghire, Mr. Hammond's enumer- 
ation of these twelve hundred and thirty is as follows : 

Colonel Stark's Regiment 593 

Colonel Reed's " 539 

Dow's Company under Prescott 59 

Other New Hampshire men in Prescott's Regiment.. 50 
From Plaistow in Colonel Frye's Regiment 4 

1245 
Deduct deserters and some sick 15 

and it will leave of New Hampshire men 1230 

or considerably more than half of the entire force of the pa- 



228 HISTOKY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

triots that were actually engaged in the conflict. The num- 
bers of the killed and wounded have been already given, but 
the name of no Fitzwilliam soldier is found in these lists. 

The staff roll of Colonel Reed's regiment shows that the pay 
of Colonel Reed commenced April 23d, 1775, or four days 
after the fight at Lexington, and that he received twelve 
pounds per month for his service, with the allowance of one 
penny per mile for travel. 

Colonel James Reed's return, June 21st, 1775, or four days 
after the Bunker Hill battle. 

Col. James Reed. 

Lieutenant Col. Gilman. 

Major Hale. 

Capt. Whitcomb's Co 52 fit for duty. 14 unfit. 

" Thomas' Co 37" •' '' 17 " . 

" Town's Co 53 " " " 8 " 

" Hinds' Co 39 " " " 24 " 

" Crosby'sCo 41" " " 16 " 

" Mann's Co 49" " " 16 " 

" Walker's Co 51" " " 15 " 

" Spaulding's Co 36" " '• 17 " 

" Marcy'sCo 42" " " 26 " 

" Hutchins' Co 54" " " 9 " 

Adjutent Stephen Peabody. 

Quarter Master Isaac Frye, Captain. 

These returns show considerable changes in Colonel Reed's 
regiment in the space of seven days, proving that recruits had 
joined some of the companies, while others had lost more or 
less by the casualties of the Bunker Hill battle. 

Colonel Reed's " return of losses" was as follows : 
1 Corporal and 3 privates killed, 2 Sergeants and 26 privates wounded. 

He returned also under the head of 

Clothing and Implements lost in retreat 
103 Blankets 36 Gunns 

133 Coats 1 Bagonet 

26 Waistcoats 5 Swords 

62 pair Breeches 4 Cartridge Boxes 

189 pair Stockings ^ 99 Haversacks 

47 pair Shoes 3 Pistols 

218 Shirts 1 Fife 

46 pair Trowses 3 Drumms. 

4 Hatts 



NEEDIIAM MAYj^ARD'S STATEMENT. 229 

To these statements and copies of documents respecting the 
part assigned to the J^ew Hampshire troops in general, and 
to tlie men from FitzwiUiam in particular, in the battle of 
Bunker Hill, the following may here be added, which was 
taken in substance from the lips of Needham Maynard and 
committed at once to writing, some years after the close of the 
Eevolutionary AVar. Mr. Maynard M'as from Framingham, 
Mass., but soon after the return of peace he became a resident 
of Fitzwilliam, and for a number of years was somewhat active 
in the affairs of this town.* 

On the morning of June ITth, 1775, the colonels in command of the 
regiments about to move upon Bunker Ilill were in anxious consulta- 
tion regarding the movement of their troops, and especially in respect to 
a Commander-in-Chief to lead them in the conflict, when General Warren 
rode up, unattended.! The regimental commanders at once said to 
him, in substance, that they were only colonels, that there was not u 
general among them, and proposed that he, General Warren, should take 
command over them, and lead them in the approaching battle. 

He declined the proposition, saying that he was not prepared for such 
a position, that he had no staff officers, not even an aid, when one of 
the colonels, turning to a young soldier standing by, said, here is Need- 
ham Maynard, of Framingham, Mass., and he is just the man for your 
aid. General Warren at once offered Maynard the position, and upon his 
acceptance of the same, he was immediately appointed, and entered 
upon his duties. In the fight that followed, Mr. Maynard carried General 
Warren's commands to the colonels and received messages from them 
to their Commander-in-Chief, going back and forth along the line of the 
rail fence till General Warren was shot. With the help of otliers Mr. 
Maynard took up the dying general, and removed liim to the spot where 
he breathed his last. J 

* Captain Needham MaynarJ's name first appears upon the records of Fitzwilliam 
under date of March 15th. 1787, when he bid off the contract for building a pound in 
this town for fourteen pouads sterling. He was admitted to the church here, Septem- 
ber, 1786. 

t Joseph Warren, M.D., an ardent patriot, was appointed a Major- General four days 
before the Bunker Uill battle, but had nof been assigned to any command. To en- 
courage the soldiers within the lines he appeared upon the field, June 17th, as a volun- 
teer, and for this reason was able to accept the offer of leadership made to him by the 
colonels in command. His age was thirty-five years. 

X This statement of Mr. Maynard, which is deemed perfectly reliable, has, it is under- 
stood, first appeared in print in the new History of Framingham, Mass., by Rev. J. II. 
Temple. This valuable and, as far as possible, exhaustive work has just been given to 
the public. We are indebted to Mr. Temple for the privilege of inserting in this history 
a portion of Mr. Maynard s testimony concerning the arrangements of the Bunker Ilill 
battle. 



230 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

In Congress March 14, 1776. 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the several Assemblies, Con- 
ventions, and Councils or Committees of Safety of the United States, 
immediately to cause all persons to be disarmed within their respective 
Colonies, who are notoriously disaffected to the cause of America, or 
who have not associated and refuse to associate to defend by Arms the 
United Colonies against the hostile attempts of the British Fleet and 
Armies. 

Extract from the minutes. 

Charles Thompson Secretary. 
Colony of New Hampshire. 

Committee of Safety. 

April 13. 1776. 

To the Selectmen of Fitzwilliam 

In order to carry the Resolve of the Continental Congress (just given) 
into execution. You are requested to desire all males above twenty one 
years of age (lunatics, idiots and negroes excepted) to sign the decla- 
ration on this paper, and when so done to make return thereof with the 
name or names of all who shall refuse to sign the same, to the General 
Assembly or Committee of Safety of this Colony. 

M. Weare Chairman. 

The declaration alluded to above, a copy of which was sent 
to the selectmen of every town in New Hampshire, was as 
follows : 

In consequence of the above Resolution of the Continental Congress, 
and to show our determination in joining our brethren, in defending the 
lives, liberties, and properties of the inhabitants of the United Colonies : 

We the Subscribers, do hereby solemnly engage and promise, that we 
will, to the utmost of our power, at the risk of our lives and fortunes, 
with Arms, oppose the hostile proceedings of the British Fleets and 
Armies against the United American Colonies. 

All of the men in the neighboring town of Rindge signed 
this declaration, while in Marlborough live were fonnd who 
were reported as unwilling to sign. Throughout the State of 
!N^ew Hampshire the great mass of the men were both willing 
and glad to give their names to this declaration, and this com- 
mon pledge did much to strengthen the hands and encourage 
the hearts of the patriotic peojile throughout the thirteen 
colonies. This declaration was doubtless signed, nearly or 
quite universally, in Fitzwilliam, but the paper was lost, as it 



ACTS OF THE TOWN, 1776 AND 1777. 231 

Ciinnot be found among similar documents in the office of the 
Secretary of State at Concord. 

The Dechiration of American Independence, July 4th, 
1776, soon followed, and the long and expensive war to secure 
our liberty was entered upon and prosecuted with new ear- 
nestness. 

Owing to the damaged condition of the Town Record Book 
it is often difficult to determine with certainty the precise 
time when the town adopted certain measures of great public 
importance during the progress of the Revolutionary War. 

1776. A.t the annual meeting, Major Asa Brigham, Major 
John Farrar, and Deacon John Locke were chosen a " Com- 
mittee of Safety' ' for the year, and it was voted to pay to 
Joseph Ilemenway eighteen shillings for expenses and horse 
while attendino; the Provincial Congress. The town took no 
other action at this meeting respecting national affairs, which 
is not remarkable, since the Declaration of Independence was 
not made till nearly four months later, though, as it has been 
well observed, '*' in the beginning of 1776 the colonists were 
farmers, merchants, and mechanics, at its close soldiers. " 

1777. March 15th, the town 

Voted and Chos a Comette of five men to agrea with and hire Eight 
men for three year or dureing the war with grate Britton to enter emedi- 
ately into the Contenental Sarvice this Comitty to Proportion the ser- 
vice don by thos that have heartofore sarv^ed in this ware acording to 
time and phice whare they Performed thare sarvice, and to proportion 
the mony that tliey agrea with the men for by a tax upon the town 
alowing Each mans poll to pay Eaquail alike and thar estats acording to 
what each man posesses. 

Voted to Rase Mony to pay those that shall go into the Continental 
service, " the Cometey" " to make return of thare doings." 

This committee appears to have reported at an adjourned 
meeting held in April, The eight men raised at this time are 
marked " F " in the list of revolutionary soldiers hereafter 
given. The Committee of Safety for this year consisted of 
Phinehas Ilutchins, Asa Brigham, and John Mellen, The 
town chose Asa Brigham to represent this committee at a con- 
vention of the committees of safety of Cheshire County, to be 
held at Walpole in August. 



232 HISTORY OF riTZWILLIAM. 

1778, Deacon John Locke, Lieutenant John Angler, and 
Lieutenant Levi Brighani were the Committee of Safety. 
From the imperfect condition of the records it is impracti- 
cable to state particnlarlj what action was taken by the town 
upon national aifairs this year. 

In 1779 the Committee of Safety consisted of Francis Ful- 
1am, Joseph Ilemenway, and Thomas Tolman, and it was 

Voted to raise men to go into the war for the future upon an Everage 
tliat is for every man to pay in Proportion to what he possesses. Voted 
and alowed Stephen Harris Twenty Two pounds for his service Last 
Summer in Rhode island. 

In Jane, 1780, the town voted to raise twenty-five hun- 
dred pounds to defray town charges and to pay the soldiers 
in the Continental Army, and a month later five thousand 
pounds were raised to pay soldiers, and six thousand pounds 
to purchase the town's share of beef that the State was called 
uj^on to furnish for the Continental Army. 

In January, 1781, another appropriation, for the same pur- 
poses, was made, amounting to two thousand four hundred and 
thirty-four pounds. The Committee of Safety consisted of 
Joseph Ilemenway, Samuel Patrick, and Ensign (Calvin?) 
Clark. 

February 14th, 1781, the town appointed a committee of 
five men — viz., John Mellen, Joseph Nichols, Caleb Winch, 
Thomas Tolman, and (Calvin ?) Clark — " to agree with and hier 
our Cooto of Continentle shoulders for the term of three 
years." 

February 19th the town " Yoted and Excepted of what the 
Committee had dun in the hier of the Contenentle shoulders." 

Also raised '" twelve thousand Dollars for to pay our Con- 
tenentles at theair passing muster.-' 

July 25th, 1781, the town " Voted to raise our Cotto of 
Beef for the army, which is G834- pounds," and to give six 
dollars in hard money per hundred for said beef. 

It was then voted to raise " 410 hard dollars to pay for said 
beef." 

Also " Voted that our Continental shoulders should have 
— Dollars in Rume of one thousand paper dollars." 



APPROPRIATIONS FOR ARMY. 233 

Also " Yoted to raise one liuiidred and twenty-six pounds 
to pay the Continental Shoulders their tirst year's pay." 

Xov^eniber 5th, 1781, the town appropriated sixty dollars to 
pay the three months' men their hire. 

Also appropriated forty-nine dollars to pay for nine gallons 
West India rum required by the army. 

During the years 1782 and 1783 the town voted different 
amonnts for the pay of its soldiers, but no record of the appro- 
priation of large sums during these years can be found. 

In 1781 Xew Hampshire undertook to raise thirteen hun- 
dred and tifty-four able-bodied, effective men, to serve in the 
Continental Army for three years, or during the war, but in 
most of the towns their quota was very imperfectly filled. In 
the notification respecting these deficiencies which was sent to 
all the towns concerned, in March, 1782, Fitzwilliam appears 
to have lacked two men. 

In Volume XIII. of the Early Town Papers of Xew 
Hampshire, under the head " Richmond," the following ap- 
pears : 

" Stephen Harris was allowed £20 — 9 — 4 for Doctors' bills 
&c for his son Joseph, a soldier in Captain Jones' Company, 
Col. James Reeds' Regiment, who was left sick or wounded 
in the march from Ticonderoga to the Jerseys." 

Joseph Harris was a son of Stephen Harris and belonged in 
this town, but as the Harris family resided near the Richmond 
line, it is probable that he was counted for a time upon the 
quota of Richmond rather than of Fitzwilliam. Such instances 
of enlistment in and military service for an adjoining town 
were not uncommon durino^ the Revolutionarv War. 

In the same volume under the head " Surry" the following 
appears : 

Mr Speeker Sir Whereas Col. Gideon of Exetor Was appointed a 
Collector of Beef (for the Continental Army) for 1780 and under him 
John Mellen Esqr for the County of Cheshire s<* Mcllen did in tlie year 
1780 collect TSO""^ of Beef more than he Recepted for to Col. Gideons 
and because s"* returns do not agree with the Return on the Book of the 
Treasurer cant credit the town of Surry for any part of the Beef which 
was delivered to s'* Mcllen, therefore it is motioned that the House give 



234 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

orders that the Treasurer receive said Recepts and Credit the town of 
Surry for the same, which the Treasurer is ready to do upon receiving 
the order. 

Portsmouth, Feb ye 23. 1786. Lemuel Holmes. 

Surry, Capt. Giddiugs returned 2600 lbs of Beef. 

There was a discrepancy between the beef accounts of the 
State Treasurer and the Collector in regard to the amount fur- 
nished by Surry, on account of which disagreement Surry had 
received no credit for beef furnished in 1781, and the object 
of this motion was to enable the accounts to be properly set- 
tled. Mr. Mellen was a man of large business capacity, but 
in 1Y80 tJie whole of the county of Cheshire was assigned to 
him as the Collector of nearly or quite two hundred thousand 
pounds of beef from thirty-two to\^ns, as the county was then 
constituted. In discharging the duties of such an office, it is 
not surprising that he occasionally made a mistake. A little 
later Colonel Daniel Webster was associated with Mr. Mellen 
to visit every town in the county that was deficient in this 
matter of beef supply. In the next call for beef for the army, 
which was made in 1781, Cheshire County was required to 
furnish the amount of two hundred and thirty-seven thousand 
fi^^e hundred and forty-eight pounds. ]S"ew Hampshire was 
called upon to furnish at this time one million, four hundred 
thousand pounds. 

Much effort has been made, by consulting the town records, 
tlie rolls of the men from Kew Hampshire who were in the 
Eevolutionary War, and the recorded and traditionary history 
of families and individuals, to give a complete list of the 
soldiers from Fitzwilliam who were in the Continental ser- 
vice, and, as far as possible, of the companies and regiments 
to which they belonged. 

The attempt has been a difficult one, and probably not 
wholly successful, for the following reasons : 

1. During all the earlier years of the war the regiments 
were designated, not by numbers as now, but by the names 
of their colonels ; and the companies were known in like man- 
ner by the names of their captains, so that, with a change of 
the higher officers for any reason, it became extremely difficult 



FITZWILLIAM 3IEN IIST EEYOLUTIONARY WAR. 235 

to learn the position or follow the fortunes of any individual 
soldier, 

2. The men were frequently transferred from one company 
or regiment to another, and companies were often detached 
from their regiments for some special service, and, thus scat- 
tered, were never reunited. 

8. The rolls were often kept on detached sheets of paper 
rather than in books, and these papers were easily mishdd or 
lost. In some cases names are spelled so differently as to 
make the identification difficult. 

MEN FROM FITZWILLIAM WHO SERVED IX THE REVOLUTIONARY 

WAR. 

« 

Explanations. 

The names that appear upon the Eevolutionary rolls, pub- 
lished by the State, are printed in Roman type ; those ob- 
tained from other sources are in italics. The other sources 
are stated in the proper places. In a few cases where the 
other sources make the identification more satisfactory names 
are given in italics^ though found upon the Revolutionary 
rolls. These rolls, in most cases, do not give the soldier's 
place of residence, but \vhere they do, the names are printed 
in LARGE CAPITALS. The names of those who are well 
known as belonging to Fitzwilliam are given in small capi- 
tals. The names of such as have been recos-nized as belong- 
ing to this town by identity of name and other concurring 
evidence are given in This Type. 

References, 

A. In the battle of Bunker Hill. Of these Zadock Dodo-e 
was in Captain Marcy's company, Hinds Reed was in Cap- 
tain Hinds's company, the others were in Captain Whit- 
comb's company, all in the regiment of ColonelJames Reed. 
Twenty-thi'ee in number. 

B. In Captain Joseph Parker's company ; joined the northern 
army at Ticonderoga. Mustered in July 18th, 1776. Five 
in number. 



236 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

C. In Captain Abijah Sniitli's company, for ^ew York. 
Mustered, September 21st, 1776. Four in number. 

D. In Massachusetts regiments as stated, in 1775 and 1776. 
Five in number. 

E. In expedition against Canada under Colonel Benedict 
Arnold. All but Joseph Potter were in Captain Ward's 
company. Seven in number. 

F. In 1777 Fitzwilliam returned eight men for three years, or 
the war. James Keed, Jr., w'as returned as from Jaffrey, 
but belonged in Fitzwilliam. Nine men in all. 

Boynton, Squire, and the two Dodges were in Captain 
Clayes' company, and the Burbees in Captain Blodgett's 
company, all in Colonel Hale's regiment. Boynton and the 
Dodges continued in the company and regiment when Colonel 
Eeid was in command. The Burbees were transferred to 
the southern army. 

G. In Captain Josiah Brown's company for Ticonderoga, 
]^. y. Marched, May 6th, 1777. Three men. John 
Chamberlain was second lieutenant in Captain Scott's com- 
pany. Four men in all ; service forty-two days. 

H. To reinforce the garrison at Ticonderoga on the alarm of 
June, 1777. In Captain John Mellen's company, which 
marched from Fitzwilliam and towns adjacent, twenty-four 
men. Silas Angier went in Captain Drury's company. 
Twenty-five men in all. Little or no actual service fell to 
their lot. 

I. In Colonel ITichols's regiment at the battles of Benning- 
ton and Stillwater. Of the eight men in the list, Foster 
was in Captain Parker's company, Starkey and Wilson in 
Captain Wi-ight's company, and the others in Captain Sal- 
mon Stone's company. Captain Stone belonged to Rindge, 
and his company marched, July 21st, 1777. Their time of 
service was two months and five days. Ebenezer Potter 

. was a corporal in Captain Stone's company, and it was at 
this time that his famous capture of the Hessians was made. 
In the battle of Bennington the American forces numbered 
about seventeen hundred and fifty, and of these New Hamp- 
shire furnished not far from one thousand, Yermont about 



EXPLANATION" OF TABLES. 237 

five hundred, and Western Massachusetts two hundred and 
fifty ; and it M-as just ])efore this battle that General Stark 
made the harangue to his troops which has become historical. 

Now, my men, yonder are the Hessians. They were bought for seven 
pounds tenpence a man. Are you worth more ? Prove it. To-night 
the American flag floats over yonder hill or Molly Stark sleeps a widow. 

J. In Colonel Moore's regiment to join the army at Saratoga 
Captain Lewis'^s company marched from Marlborough in 
September, 1777. Samuel Kendall held the office of en- 
sign. Time of service twenty-seven days ; three men. Silas 
Angier went in Captain Drury's company. Time of ser- 
vice twenty-eight days ; total, four men. 

K. In Colonel Enoch Hale's regiment, August, 1778, for ser- 
vice in Rhode Island. John Mellen was quartermaster on 
Colonel Hale's staff. Nine men went in Captain James 
Lewis's company, John Angier serving as lieutenant. 
Time of service twenty-three days, Daniel Gould went in 
another company and served twenty-four days ; total, eleven 
men. 

L. Other soldiers in Rhode Island service in 1778 and 1779. 
Sylvanus Reed was adjutant on Colonel Peabody's staff. 
Four men ; service as stated in the list. 

M. Enlisted for the war, July 15th, 1779. Two men. 

N. Enlisted, July, 1780, as by memorandum in the town 
records. Winch, Harris, and Rice enlisted for six months 
and served five months and a half. Winch received fifteen 
pounds bounty, and Harris and Rice each twelve pounds. 
The others enlisted for three months and served three 
months and a half. Brigham received nine pounds bounty, 
and the others eight pounds. Ten men in all. 

O. Enlisted in 1781 and 1782. Rice and Hadley enlisted in 
1781 for three months. Rice received six pounds bounty 
and Hadley probably the same. Patrick enlisted in 1782, 
and it does not appear what bounty he had. All the others 
enhsted in 1781 for three years, or the war, and each received 
twenty pounds bounty. In a letter to the selectmen of 
Fitzwilliam in 1832, Rice states the bounty he received at 



238 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



this time at twentv dollars. All these bounties were paid 
in specie. Nine men in all. 

P. Other items from the published Revolutionary rolls. Ser- 
vice as entered to each man. Five men. 

Q. Died in the service. From Rev. Mr. Brigham's list of 
deaths in the church records : j^ine men. At least two 
others died in the service, Joseph Fassett and Captain Elijah 
Clays. 
Summary of men as stated, one hundred and forty-four. 

. As several enlisted and served more than once, the number 

of different persons in the list is eighty-eight. 



Names. 


Service. 


Lieut. 


John Angier 


B H K. was Serg't in Capt. 
Parker's Co and Lieut, in 
Capt. Lewis' Co 




Silas Anffier 


G H J 




EDWARD ARNOLD 


AE 




Solomon Badcock 


H 




ABNER BALL 


D I In Capt Oliver Capron's Co. 
Col. Doolittle's (Mass) Reg. at 
Winter Hill Mass Oct 1775 




JOHN BARKER 


A E F The last service was in 






Col. Alden's (Mass) Reg. 


Serg't 


AMOS BOYNTON 


A E F Serg't in both Capt Whit- 
comb's and Capt Clays' Cos. 






Job Bojnton .... 


H 




Alpheus Brigham 


C 




Asa Bkigham 


H J 




Leonard Brigliam 


B 




Lyman Brigham 


N 




Stephen Brigham 


A 




PETER BURBEE 


F Q. Died June 1778 at Phila- 
delphia age 49 ? yrs 








PETER BURBEE JR 


FQ d Aug 1778 at Philadel- 
phia age 17 ? yrs 


Lieut 


JOHN CHAMBERLAIN 


D G In Capt W"^ Warner's Co 
Col J Whitney's (Mass) Reg. 
Dec 1776 

/ 1st. Lieut in Capt Whit- 
/ comb's Co at Bunker Hill, 
y prom. Capt. Nov 17. 1776 
A when Col Nathan Hale 
/ commanded the Resr, 


Capt 


ELIJAH CLAYE9 


■^ \ Was in command of the 








J Reg. after Col. Hale was 






/ taken prisoner. Wounded 






f in battle from which he d. 






V Nov 15. 1779 



FITZWILLIAM MEN IN REVOLUTIONARY SERVICE. 239 



Names. 


Service. 




Jesse Cheney , . . 

JOHN DODGE 


A 

F 


Sera't 


ZxVDOCK DODGE 


A F Serg't in Capt Clays' Co 
H 




Moses Dkury 




Abel Estabrook 


A C G H 




Pdul Farnsirarth 

JOHN FARliAR 


N 

O Son of Maj John Farrar 

G H J L Served 3 m 7 ds in 


Sersr't 


Joseph Farrar 




William Farrar 

JOSEPH FASSETT 


R. L in 1778 as Serg't 
J 
A E M Deserted at Battle of 




Enoch Foster 


Bunker Hill— Is said to have 
died in the service — Is sup- 
posed to have been a nephew 
of Dea. John Fassett 

N 




JAMES FOSTER 


I 




Joseph Foster 

Rufus Freeman 


D In Lt. Perkin's Co Col. Grid- 
ley's (Mass) Reg. at Winter 
Hill Sept 1775 

N 




Francis Fui.lam 


B '* 




DANIEL GOULD 


KL Served 24 days in 1778 
and 6 m 7 ds in 1779-80 



Q Dec 30. 1776 found dead in 
the woods between Charles- 
town N H and Ticonderoga 
N. Y. 






DANIEL GOULD JR 

Samuel Graves 




Peter JlacUev 




John Harrington 

Joshua Harrington 

BENJAMIN HARRIS 

Joseph Harris 

Stephen Harris 

Joseph Hemenway 

Phineas Hutchins 


HK 

AHK 

L N Served 6 m 26 ds in R. L 
P in Col Reid's Regt 3d Co 
HP In service in Rhode 
Island in 1778. In Capt 
Ephraim Stone's Co. under 
Maj. Benjamin Whitcomb in 
1780 
H 
H 


Ensign 


Samuel Kendall . . . 


H J 


Joseph Kneeland 


A 




Amos Knight 

Jonas Knigiit 


C 
K 




John Lock 

Daniel Mellen 


H 
H 


Capt 
Serg't 


JOHN MELLEN 


H K 


EzEKiEL Mixer ^ 

Natlian Mixer 


BH 

H I Q promoted sergeant July 
21. 1777 d Aug 16 1777 killed 
in battle of Bennington 



240 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



Names. 



Service. 



JOSEPH MUZZEY 

William Nurse 

Joseph Nurse 

Samuel Osborn 

RUFUS PATRICK 

Samuel Patrick: 

David Perry 

HENRY PIDGE 

Nathan Plattx 

Serg't Ebenezek Potter 

Capt. JOSEPH POTTER 

Hinds Reed 

Col JAMES REED 

James Reed jr. .g|. 

SYLVANUS ReSd 

ABRAHAM RICE 

Ensign JoTias Rice 

STEPHEN RICHARDSON. 



M 

HK 
H 
K 

O mustered July 15, 1782 

HN 

B Q d Sept 20. 177« at Mt In- 
dependence In Capt Daniel 
Barnes' Co, Col Ward's Reg. 

D Page ? (Mass) Reg. Sept 
1775 

Q d July 1776 at Crown Point 
Corporal in Capt Stone's 
; serg't in Capt. Mellen's 



Joseph Scott 

DANIEL SQUIRE 

Peter Starkey 

Samuel Stone 



Benjamin Tolman 

EBENEZER TOLMAN . . 

William Tolman 

Samuel Treadwell ^ 

Edmund Trowbridge 



HI 
Co 
Co 

A E later a Captain, com'd 2d 
Lieut. Nov 7. 1776. promoted 
quartermaster Aug 33. 1778 

A 

A 

F 

A L Serg't in Capt Whitcomb's 
Co at battle of Bunker Hill. 
Adjutant in Col. Peabody's 
Reg. Jan. 6. 1778. 

N O Enlisted for 6 mo's in 
1780 and 3 mo's in 1781— was 
16 yrs old at first enlistment 

Q d July 25. 1776 at Fort 
George 

O P Enlisted Apr 1. 1777 for 3 
years in Capt William Ellis' 
Co: Col. Scammell's Reg. — 
Enlisted July 5 1780 in Capt 
Joseph Kidder's Co. Col. 
Nichols' Reg. for West Point 
N. Y. Served 3 m 18 days 

N 

F 

I 

P was in Capt Peter Page's 
Co, Col Nichols' Reg. for West 



Service at this 
1780 to Oct 4. 



Point N. Y. 

time July 6 

1780 

IK 

E 



d Dec 26. 1776 in New Jer- 
sey 



REVOLUTIONARY ACCOUNTS AND VOUCHERS. 241 



Names. 


Service. 


Corp.l 


LUTHER TROWBRIDGE. . . . 

3Iose.<< Wni'e , 

STEPHEN WHITE 


AE 

Q d. Oct 1. 1776 at Ticonderoga 

N At first enlistement was 




JOHN WHITNEY 


16 years old. 
A C F H. Was for a time in 




Jolin Whitney 2d 


Col. Bigelow's (Mass) Reg. 
A 




Samuel Wilson 

Joseph Winch 

SAMUEL WINCH 


A I P In Capt Ephraim Stone's 
Co. under Maj. Benjamin 
Whitcomb in 1780 

Enlisted Mar, 21. 1781 

1 K N 


Corp. 


WILLIAM WITHINGTON. . . 


D H K In Capt William War- 
ner's Co. Col. J. Whitney's 
(Mass) Reg Dec 1776 



It is stated that Ebenezer Boutelle, Hezekiali Scott, Ilura- 
phrej Silk and Caleb Winch served in the Revolutionary 
Army from Fitz\villiara, but they have not yet been identified 
in the Revohitionary Rolls, and the traditions concerning them 
are not sufficiently definite to justify placing their names in 
the foreo;oino; list. 

Few of the particular accounts and vouchers appertaining to 
the expenses of Fitzwilliam in the Revolutionaiy War can now 
be found, and probably most of them were destroyed by fire in 
1785, but the originals of the following have been recovered 
among a mass of miscellaneous papers at the State House. 

State of New Hampshire 
to the Selectmen of Fitzwilliam Dr. 
1779, July 18. To cash paid Daniel Gould a soldier iulisted in Col. 

Mooney's Regiment for the defence of Rhode Island, six months. 

Bounty £30. Travel 90 miles to Providence £9. pr Rec' £89-0-0. 

Received an order on the Treasurer for Thirty Nine pounds. 

pr John Mellen one of the Selectmen. 

State of New Hampshire 
to the Selectmen of Fitzwilliam Dr. 

1779, July. To cash paid Joseph Fassett & Joseph Muzzey, two sol- 
diers inlisted in the Continental Army for one year. 
State Bounty £60 each. £120, 

Received an order on the Treasurer for One Hundred and 
twenty pounds. 

per John Mellen, one of the Selectmen. 
16 



Do. 




30. 


(1 




24. 


14. 8. 


0. 




9. 13. 


0. 


24, 


14. 8. 


0. 




9. 13. 


0. 


24 


iCo. 








242 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

An account of Town Bounties paid by the Town of Fitzwilliam to tlie 
following soldiers inlisted in the Continental Army for three years. Viz 

1777 Feb. Amos Boynton Capt. Clayes Co. £24. 0. 0. 
" Zadock Dodge 
" John Dodge 
" Peter Barbe [Burbee] 

1778 Do. 

1777 Peter Barbe, Jun. 

1778 Do. 
Daniel Squire Capt. Claye's Co. 0. 0. 0. 

Fitzwilliam, Jan. 1780. The above soldiers inlisted for the Town of 
Fitzwilliam, and were paid the several sums set against tlieir names. 
Attest John Mellen Selectman. 

Sworn to at Exeter March 9, 1780 before James Belton. 

To Mr. Thompson, Secretary for the Honorable Assembly of New 
Hampshire, Greeting. Agreeable to the order of Court April 7. 17«1 
Requiring of us to make a return of our Soldiers in the Continental 
Army by the 10th of June next, which soldiers' names are as follows 
viz. John Barker and Joseph Fassett engaged during the War some 
years ago. 

The names of those ingaged last March for the term of three years 
next ensuing the date are as follows viz. Stephen Richardson, John 
Farrar, Stejihen White, Daniel Gould gr. and James Foster which have 
been mustered before the Superintendent at Keene soon after their 
engagements, as will be made to appear to you by his returns. 

Joseph Nichols, Levi Brighum, Josiah Hartwell, Selectmen For Fitz 
William. 

Fitzwilliam, May the 28. 1781. 

Fitzwilliam. 

1 John Barker never joined. 

2 Joseph Fassett Deserted 1780. 

3 Stephen Richardson Must. Feb. 23. 1781. 

4 John Farrar " April 3 

5 Stephen White " Feb. 27. " 

6 Daniel Gould Jr. " " 23 " 

7 James Foster " " " " 

8 Rufus Patrick July 15. 1782 Must, by B. Ellis. 
Certified Nov. 7. 1785. 

From Town Accounts. Fitzwilliam. 

Amos Boynton £21—16—10 

Zadock Dodge 18—13 

John Dodge U—ll—l 

Peter Burbee 10—16—3 

Peter Burbee Jr. 10—16—2 £76—18—9 



DEPRECIATION OF THE CUREENCY. 243 

July 16. 1782. Gave a certificate to James Eeed per order from the 
Selectmen. 

Fitzwilliam Account. 
Pay Eoll to Cambridge in 1775 £32—19 

Do to Royaltou " 1780 5—11—6 

£38—10—6. 

As tlie Continental currency depreciated in value, the towns 
to some extent attempted to compensate the soldiers for the re- 
duction. After a period of service the depreciation in Amos 
Boynton's pay amounted to two hundred and fifty pounds, four 
shillings and threepence ; in that of Zadok Dodge as private 
and sergeant, two hundred and eight pounds ; in John Dodge's, 
one hundred and seventy-nine pounds. 

In Colonel Hale's regiment, at a later period, Benjamin Har- 
ris, Samuel TTinch, and Abraham Rice are reported. These 
three men appear to have enlisted in this regiment June 28th, 
1780, and to have been discharged December 4th of the same 
year. They were allowed nine days' travel " to come home." 
Time of service about five and one half months each. Pay, 
seven hundred and forty-one pounds nine shiUings each. Al- 
lowed for blankets, three hundred and thirty-five pounds each. 
Travel out ninety-five miles, allowed for it fifty-seven pounds. 
Advanced by the State fifty-seven pounds each. Due when 
discharged about eleven hundred pounds each. (This was 
when the currency was greatly depreciated.) 

Marcli 10th, 1780, the State of New Hampshire made pro- 
vision to pay non-commissioned ofiicers who served three years 
five hundred dollars each '*' toward depreciation, " and privates 
four hundred dollars each for the same term of service. 

Account of Fitzwilliam for Bounties. 

Jan. 5. Baldwin's Regiment 7 men in 1776 £22. 6s 

Feb. 7. Continental soldiers 8 " "1777 141.12 

•' 19. Stark's Brigade 3 " " " 10.5 

July 10. Continental Soldiers 2 " "1779 24. 

" 23. Nichols' Reg 7 " "1780 57. 

" 21. New Levies 3 " " " 39. 

" 15. Continental service 5 " "1781 506. 

" 17 " " 1 " " 1782 60. 

For 36 men. Total £860—3— 



244 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

It is probable that this account inchides onlj^ those who en- 
listed for three years or the war. From a comparison of the 
dates, and other particnlars, it would seem that some of these 
soldiers cannot be identified with any whose names are given in 
the j)receding list. The following identifications, however, are 
doubtless correct. The eight under date February 7th, 1777, 
are those marked F in the list, excepting James Keed, Jr. 
The two of July 10th, 1779, are marked M. The six in 1781 
and 1782 are included in those marked O in the list. These 
bounties are all evidently stated on a specie basis. 

" Quarter Master Isaac Frye's Return. Col. Reed's Reg. 
account of rations issued each 3 or 4 days from July 1. to 
Aug. 4. 1775. 
549—545—559—558—559—532—545—547—547—537," 

showing a remarkable uniformity in numbers. At the same 
time in the colonel's mess ten were always present, in the 
other messes fifteen once, sixteen on all the other days. 

In the report of deserters, July 11th, 1770, there are given 
their names, size, age, complexion, the Government to which 
they belonged, and the names of the captains of the companies 
from which they deserted. 

Stephen Harris was in service in Rhode Island. In March, 
1779, the town voted " to pay Stephen Harris for Continental 
Service," and at the same meeting " allowed 22 pounds paid 
to Stephen Harris last summer for his services in Rhode 
Island." 

Fitzwilliam April y 20th 1781. 

]\[r. Treasurer Winch. Please to pay jSTathaniel Muzzey Seventeen 

Hundred and seventy pounds five shillings and Six pence which we 

find due to him on accompt of his son's years' service (allowing him 

Ninety for one), 

Joseph Nichols ', Selectmen of 

Josiah Hartwell f Fitzwilliam. 

Upon the back of this order there are four receipts, for par- 
tial pa.yment, the last of which is as follows : 

Fitzwilliam August the 10 ye 1782. Receivd of the within order, 
the sum of four pounds sixteen shillings of Silver Money. I say, re- 
ceived By me. 

Nathaniel Muzzey. 



Arnold's expedition into Canada. 245 



Many of tlie old receipts observed this form, repeating tlie 
receipt with tlie emphatic " I say." 

The order above shows how alarmingly great the deprecia- 
tion of the cnrrency was in 17S1. 

In the year 1775 General Arnold was dispatched from the 
vicinity of Boston np the Kennebec River, and across what 
is now the State of Maine, with the hope of taking Qnebec l)y 
snrprise. Among his soldiers was Ebenezer Potter, of Fitz- 
william. The expedition was a miserable failure. Arnold's 
troops suffered terribly from Imnger and fatigue, and many of 
them died from starvation and exposure. Mr. Potter endured 
fifteen days' hard marching with no food but a part of a part- 
ridge and a quarter of a red squirrel. An Englishman among 
Arnold's soldiers deserted, and revealed the plans of the divi- 
sion to which Mr. Potter belonged, and the result was that he 
and his companions were captured, and remained prisoners, 
under the hardest experience, till the spring following. Other 
men from Fitzwilliam were in the same exj^edition, viz., 
Luther Trowbridge, age twenty, Cordwainer ; Ebenezer Tol- 
man, age twenty-seven, Carpenter ; Edward Arnold, age 
twenty-foar ; Amos Boynton, age thirty -three ; John Barker, 
age nineteen, and Joseph Fassett, age nineteen. Of the ex- 
perience of these we have no record. 

A number of men who served in the Eevolutionary War 
from other towns and States became, soon after its close, resi- 
dents of Fitzwilliam, and identified at once with all its inter- 
ests, among whom were Judge Nahum Parker, from Shrews- 
bury, Joseph Forristall, of Holliston, Samuel Patch, of Stow, 
Captain Needham Maynard, of Framingham, each of Massa- 
chusetts, Matthias Felton, and others. The names of such 
persons appear in a number of cases upon the list of Fitzwill- 
iam pensioners. 

Rev. John Sabin in his historical lecture delivered in 1836, 
said, 



sioners 



though the "War ended 54 years ago yet this town has now in it 18 pen- 
ners. 

In 18-12, he said, in a revised lecture, 



246 HISTORY OF riTZWILLIAM. 

this band is much diminished now though four or five are left and show 
Low little strength can combat with time. 

In a list of pensioners in 1840, found in the public library 
of Natick, Mass., these ten names appear under the head 

Fitzwilliam N. H, 

For Revolutionary or Military Service. 

Names of Pensioners. Age. Heads of Families. 

Leonard Colburn 44 Leonard Colburn. 

Matthias Felton 84 Matthias Felton. 

Joel Whitney 80 Benjamin B. Morse. 

Joel Miles 84 Noah Miles. 

Ebenezer Potter 91 Ebenezer Potter, Jr. 

John Shirley 85 Henry Shirley. 

Nathan Smith 76 Nathan Smith. 

Artemas Wilson ....... 83 Benjamin Wilson. 

Stephen White 78 Silas White. 

Sarah Whitney 92 David Whitney. 

The tirst on this list, Leonard Colburn, served in the War 
of 1812-14. The other nine plainly received pensions for 
service, either personally or by a husband, in the Revolution- 
ary War. Six of the ten above-named appear to have served 
upon the quotas of other towns, as their names do not appear 
upon the lists of Fitzwilliam soldiers. Seven of the ten were, 
in 1840, doubtless in the families of their children or other 
relatives. 

The following additional names are from other sources, 
principally from a list of pensioners found with the papers of 
Dr. Cummings : 

Oliver Damon Nahum Parker 

Benoni Foster Nathaniel Phillips 

Luna Foster Samuel Stone 

Benoni Foster probably served in the War of 1812, and the 
others in the Revolutionary War. None of these were resi- 
dents of Fitzwilliam when they performed the service for 
which they received the pension. 



MRS. ABIGAL CLAYS' PETITION. 247 

Elijah Clays (or Cloves), as appears in tliis record of service, 
entered the army at a very early date, and was commissioned 
as a captain Kovember Tth, 1776. He is reported in the 
liev^olutionary Holls as dead " of wounds" some time in No- 
vember, 1TT9. After the close of the war his widow pre- 
sented the following petition : 

The Hon* Counsel and House of Representatives of the State of Xew 
Hampshire in Geeneral Court Assembled. 

The Humble petition of Abigail Clays, widow of the late Captain 
Elijah Clays deceased of the 2' Regiment of the New Hampshire Line. 
Urged by her distressed situation ; begs your attention : as she is left 
with a family of small children without any other means of Subsistence 
but her own ludustr}', for there support. Impelled by these Circum- 
stances and the Horrid Idea of want, being fully impressed that the 
Honorable Body before (whom) this her petition will be laid, supported 
by there natural feelings as well as Justice and Humanity towards those 
in distress ; will exert every nerve for so desirable an end ; as to soften 
as far as in their power the distress incident to the widows and Father- 
less : and Consequently extend their generosity towards her by a grant of 
half pay agreeable to an Act of Congress of May 1778 in such cases 
made and provided and renewed and extended the 24th of August 
1780 which will enable her to bring up her Children in some degree of 
decenc}' and live above contempt, resting assured of your strict atten- 
tion to this her Petition. 

Your Petitioner As in duty bound shall forever pray. 

Abigal Clays. 

It is plain that the State endeavored to make reasonable 
compensation for the depreciation of the currency in which 
the soldiers were paid. Samuel Kendall, who presented the 
following petition in behalf of Mr, Reed, was representative 
to the Legislature or " General Assembly" at the time. 

To the General Assembly of the State of New Hampshire now sitting at 
Portsmouth. 

Humbly Shews. Sylvanus Reed of Fitzwilliam in the s'^ State. 
That he served as adjutant of a Battalion of Troops raised in this 
State for the defence of the Xew England states &c and Com- 
manded by Lieut Col" Stephen Peabody Esqr as appears by the Com- 
mission herewith presented. That your Petitioner is informed some 



248 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM, 

allowance has been mad those OfRcois on acc't of the Depreciating 
of the money they were paid in. Your Petitioner therefore humbly 
prays that your Honors will order such Depreciation to be paid to your 
Petitioner as is Customary in Such Cases. And as in duty bound shall 
ever pray &c 

Dated Feb'y^ 2'^ 1786 Samuel Kendall 

in behalf of the Petitioner. 

This petition was granted Febriiarj 21st, 1786. 

Mrs. Clays received a captain's half-pay for seven years, re- 
ceiving at one time the pay for five years, and afterward for 
the other two years. The half-pay was seventy-two pounds a 
year, or two hundred and forty dollars, at six shillings to the 
dollar. 

General Reed was paid eleven hundred and sixty-two 
pounds, ten shillings in 1786, but it cannot be stated whether 
it was all on account of half-pay, or whether a part of the 
payment was an allowance for depreciation. 

THE WAR OF 1812-14. 

Early in the present century the great mass of our country- 
men were far from being satisfied with the course of Great 
Britain relative to many international matters, but in New 
England, generally, the condition of affairs was not regarded as 
sufficiently serious to justify the declaration of war on the part 
of oar Government, For this reason what is called " the 
"War of 1812" was, throughout all this region, extremely un- 
popular, and while the leading men were disposed to avoid 
most studiously everything approaching treasonable acts, the 
determination was general to bring the struggle to an end as 
soon as it could be done in a constitutional manner. 

September 14th, 1812, the town chose Elder Arunah Allen, 
Thomas Stratton, and Phinehas Reed, Esq., as delegates to a 
county convention, the object of which was to consult and de- 
vise measures proper to be pursued under the existing circum- 
stances. All the votes of the town when these delegates were 
appointed were most carefully worded, and give no indication 
of a rebellious spirit. 



SOLDIERS IiN^ THE WAR OF 1812-1814. 249 

At a town meetino; held July 2()tli, 1^^12, the principal 
article in the warrant was 

To see what additional wages the town will give to the soldiers who 
are detached from said town provided they are called into actual ser- 
vice, and to act thereon as they shall think proper ; 

and it was 

Voted to makeup to each drafted Soldier ten dollars per month if called 
into actual service, including what each man shall receive from the gov- 
ernment. 

At that time volunteers were numerous, and it does not ap- 
pear that any formal call for troops had been issued. 

More than two years later, viz., October 3d, 1814, the town 

Voted and granted that (to) each soldier detached from the militia of 
this town, or that may be detached before the next annual meeting shall 
be made up the sum of fifteen dollars, including what they may receive 
from the State. 

This meeting followed a call for troops for the defence of 
Portsmouth, but the records do not mention the number re- 
quired from Fitzwilliam or how they w^ere raised. Receipts 
on file give us the names of the Fitzwilliam men who were in 
the service of the Government as follows : 

Daniel Forristall, Jotliam Wood, J. Taylor, Levi Streeter, 
John Stone, Second, Richard Kimball, Jr., William Farrar, 
Sanmel Graves, David Graves, John Twitchell, S. Redtield, 
Alvah Godding, Calvin Chase, John Bennett, Elisha Drurey, 
Jonas Pushee. Sixteen men. And it is believed this is the full 
number that went from this town. Kimball and Pushee re- 
ceived six dollars each, advanced pay, the others each four 
dollars. Six of the receipts are dated September 15th, 1814, 
while the date of ten others is September 30th, 1814. The 
soldiers from this part of the State were under the command 
of Captain Marsh, of Chesterfield, and Daniel Forristall of 
this town was a lieutenant in the company. A copy of Mr. 
Forristall's receipt is given. 

Fitzwilliam Sept. 30. 1814. 
Reed of the Town of Fitzwilliam four dollars as advanced pay for my 
service as a detached Officer by the Governor of the State of New 
Hampshire. 

Daniel Forristall. 



250 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

Mr. Redfield receipted not only for bis advanced pay, but 
also for bis accoutrements, as follows : 

Fitzwilliam Sept the 15. 1814. 
This day received one gun and Banent cartrage Box, Scabbord and 
Belt of the Town of Fitzwilliam which I promis to return to said town 
in three months if I return if not as soon as I do return if not deprived 
of them before I can return received by me 

S. Redfleld. 



CHAPTER XL 

TCWN OFFICERS— APPROPRIATIONS— VOTERS. 

Town Officers, 1773-1886— Votes for state Executive, 1781-1S86— Town Ap- 
propriations — Financial Summary — Funding the Town Debt— Check 
Lists — For List of Superintending School Committees see Chapter XIII., 
Educational. 

IX the last century, as well as in the early part of the pres- 
ent, the constable was an officer of considerable importance, 
filling, perhaps, a more pj-ominent position than the deputy 
sheritf of the present day, except that his powers did not ex- 
tend beyond the limits of the town. Two or three constables 
were generally chosen at each annual meeting, but as the 
records do not show who qualified and who did not, no list of 
them is here given. The collector was usually one of the per- 
sons chosen, and doubtless he always qualified. 





TKEAS 


CKERS. 


1773. 


Unknown. 


1841-42 . 


1774-76. 


John Mellen. 


1843-47. 


1777. 


Asa Brigham. 


1848-49. 


1778-80. 


Samuel Patrick. 


1850-51. 


1781. 


Caleb Winch. 


1852. 


1782-83. 


Samuel Patrick. 


1853. 


1784. 


Sylvanus Reed, 


1854. 


1785. 


Abner Stone. 


1855. 


1786-89. 


Sylvanus Reed. 


1856. 


1700. 


Nathan Townsend. 


1857. 


1791-94. 


John Fassett. 


1858-59. 


1795-1824 


.Samuel Grithn. 


1860. 


1825. 


John J. Allen. 


1861-62. 


1826. 


Dexter Wbittemore. 


1863-65. 


1827-35. 


Robinson Perkms. 


1866-80. 


1836-38. 


Daniel Spaulding. 


1887. 


1839^0. 


Dexter Whittemore. 





.Daniel Spaulding. 
.John Kimball. 
•Jolin Wood. 
.Milton Chaplin. 
Nelson Howe. 
Daniel Spaulding. 
Jonathan S. Adams, 
Thomas W. Whittemore. 
Charles C. Carter. 
Aaron N. Townsend. 
I.Josiah E. Carter. 
Curtis R. Crowell. 
• Charles C. Carter. 
.Amos A. Parker, 
, John "SI. Parker. 
D. W. Firmin. 



252 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



TOWN OFFICERS. 





MODEKATOUS. 


TOWN CLERKS. 


REPRESENTATIVES. 


1773 




James Reed. 




1774 


James Reed. 


1 i 




1775 


Joseph Hemenway. 


John Locke. 


Rev. Benj. Brigham. 


1776 


Maj. John Farrar. 


Maj. John Farrar. 


t 


1777 


Maj. Asa Brigham. 


John Mellen. 


I 


1778 


Capt. John Mellen. 


Samuel Patrick. 


Capt. John Mellen. 


1779 


u 


(( 


John Mellen, Esq. 


1780 


(1 


(( 




1781 


u 


(< 


Abner Stone. 


1782 


u 


(( 


Joseph Nichols. 


1783 


( i 


n 


Elisha Whitcomb. 


1784 


Lieut. Caleb Winch. 


(( 


Samuel Kendall. 


1785 


Abncr Stone. 


Sylvanus Reed. 


(( 


1786 


Sam. Kendall, Esq. 


a 


(( 


1787 


i t 


Isaac Moors Farwell. 


Lieut. Caleb Winch. 


1788 


Dea. John Locke. 


u 


( 1. 


1789 


Col. Sylvanus Reed. 


* 4f 


Abner Stone. 


1790 


(1 


Sylvanus Reed. 


(( 


1791 


Abner Stone. 


^l 


(( 


1793 


Samuel Kendall. 


U 


(( 


1793 


( < 


(( 


Nahum Parker. 


1794 


it 


P. C. Grosvener. 


* i 


1795 


Nahum Parker. 


Thomas Goldsmith. 


(( 


1796 


a 


(( 


(( 


1797 


(( 


11 


i( 


1798 


u 


u 


(( 


1799 


i( 


Dr. Luke Lincoln. 


u 


1800 


(( 


Thomas Goldsmith. 


(( 


1801 


u 


u 


(i 


1802 


u 


(( 


n 


1803 


u 


n 


u 


1804 


Dea. Oliver Damon. 


(( 


Phinehas Reed. 


1805 


Nahum Parker. 


u 


u 


1806 


( ( 


(( 


Nahum Parker. 


1807 


i( 


( I 


Erasmus Butterfield. 


1808 


Jonas Robeson. 


ii 


Thomas Strattbn. 


1809 


Dea. Oliver Damon. 


Moses Van Doom. 


(( 


1810 


1 1 


u 


u 


1811 


li 


<( 


a 


1812 


u 


(( 


Samuel Griffin. 


1813 


n 


" 


It 


1814 


Lt. Charles Bowker. 


u 


u 


1815 


L. Chapman, Esq. 


(( 


a 


1816 


( ( 


a 


L. Chapman, Esq. 


1817 


Hon. Nahum Parker. 


John Whittemore. 


u 


1818 


it 


(( 


Samuel Griffin. 


1819 


n 


u 


Jonas Robeson. 


1820 


a 


( ( 


Dr. T. Richardson. 


182] 


u 


Luke B. Richardson. 


Levi Chamberlain. 



SELECTMEN, 1773-1821. 253 



TOWN OFFICERS. 



SELECTMEN. 

1773 .John Mellen, Edward Kendall. .Joseph Grow. 

1774 .James Reed, Jolin Mellen, Levi Brigham. 

1775 John Mellen, Levi Brigham, John Locke. 
177(3 John ^lellen, Asa Brigham, Levi Brigham. 

1777 John Mellen, John Locke, Samuel Patrick. 

1778 John Mellen, Levi Brigham, John Fassett. 
177i» John ]\Iellen. Caleb Winch, Joseph Brown. 

1780 * Caleb Winch, Ephraim Boynton, Nathan Townsend. 

1781 -Joseph Nichols, Levi Biigham, Josiah Hartwell. 

1782 Josiah Hartwell, Samuel I^^endall, Sjlvanus Reed. 

1783 Caleb Winch, Calvin Clark, Ephraim Bo^nton. 

1784 Caleb Winch, Calvin Clark, Josiah Hartwell. 

1785 John Fassett, Abner Stone, Abner Haskell. 

1786 John Fassett, Abner Stone, Caleb ^yinch. 

1787 Ephraim Boynton, James IBrewer, Isaac Moors Farwell. 

1788 Sylvanus Reed, Caleb Winch, Benjamin Wilson. 

1789 Abner Stone, John Fassett, Stephen Brigham. 

1790 Abner Stone, Nahum Parker, Abijah Richardson. 

1791 Abner Stone, Nahum Park-.r, ]\Iatthias Felton. 

1792 Abner Stone, Nahum Parker, Matthias Felton. 

1793 Nahum Parker, Matthias Felton, Daniel Farrar. 

1794 Caleb Winch, James Brewer, Jonas Gary. 

1795 Caleb Winch, James Brewer, Jonas Gary. 

1796 Caleb Winch, James Brewer, Jonas Gary. 

1797 James Brewer, William Farrar, Thomas Goldsmith. 

1798 James Brewer, Thomas Goldsmith, William Farrar. 

1799 Caleb Winch, Oliver Damon, Abijah Richardson. 

1800 Oliver Damon, James Brewer, Matthias Felton. 

1801 Oliver Damon, James Brewer, Matthias Felton. 
1803 Oliver Damon, Thomas Stratton, Nahum Howe. 

1803 Oliver Damon, Nahum Howe, Arunah Allen. 

1804 Oliver Damon, Arunah Allen, John White. 

1805 Arunah Allen, John White, Joseph Brigham. 

1806 Nahum Howe, Joseph Brigham, Charles Bowker. 

1807 Nahum Howe, Joseph Brigham, Benjamin Eddy. 

1808 Charles Bowker, Thomas Stratton, Jolin Whittemore. 

1809 Charles Bowker, Thomas Stratton, .John Whittemore. 

1810 Charles Bowker, Thomas Stratton, John Whittemore. 

1811 Charles Bowker, Thomas Stratton, Joseph Brigham. 

1812 Charles Bowker, Thomas Stratton, Joseph Brigham. 

1813 Charles Bowker, Joseph Brigham, John Whittemore. 

1814 Charles Bowker, Joseph Brigham, John Whittemore. 

1815 Joseph Brigham, Matthias Felton, John J. Allen. 

1816 Joseph Brigham, John Whittemore, John J. Allen. 

1817 Josepli Brigham, John Whittemore, Jolm J. Allen. 

1818 Joseph Brigliam, John J. Allen, David Stone. 

1819 Joseph Brigham, John J. Allen, David Stone. 

1820 '. John J. Allen, Robinson I^erkins, Joel Hayden. 

1821 I John J. Allen, Robinson Perkins, Joel Hayden. 



254 



HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



TOWN OFFICBR8—iGo7it limed). 





MODERATORS. 


TOWN CLERKS. 


REPRESENTATIVES. 


1822 


Hou. Nahum Parker. 


Luke B. Richardson. 


Levi Chamberlain. 


1823 


n 


(( 


.1 


1824 


u 


i( 


11 


1825 


Levi Chamberlain. 


(( 


1 1 


1826 


( 1 


11 


11 


1827 


(1 


Curtis Coolidge. 


II 


1828 


(> 


11 


II 


1829 


(( 


11 


David Stone. 


1830 


a 


(< 


11 


1831 


Nahum Parker. 


11 


Joseph Brigham. 


1832 


Levi Cliamberlain. 


(( 


11 


1833 


John Foster. 


K 


John J. Allen. 


1834 


( ( 


(C 


< f 


1835 


Ephraim Parker. 


11 


Daniel Spaulding. 


1836 


Daniel T. Hayden. 


II 


1 1 


1837 


11 


II 


Curtis Coolidge. 


1838 


Amos A. Parker. 


1> 


11 


1839 


I i 


Jos. A. Penniman. 


Amos A. Parker. 


1840 


(( 


1 1 


11 


1841 


u 


1 1 


u 


1842 


u 


Daniel Spaulding. 


II 


1843 


t fc 


11 


II 


1844 


Calvin J. Parker. 


John P. Sabin. 


II 


1845 


a 


:^ 11 


Rev. John Sabin. 


1846 


u 


*Joel Hayden, Jr. 


Amos A. Parker. 


1847 


A. A. Parker. 


John J. Allen, Jr. < 


Jonathan S. Adams. 
Rufus B. Phillips. 


1848 


u 


11 


Amos A. Parker. 


1849 


Jonathan S. Adams. 


11 


John J. Allen, Jr. 


1850 


n 


11 


1 1 


1851 


u 


II 


Jonathan S. Adams 


1852 


Amos A. Parker. 


i( 


11 


1853 


Jonathan S. Adams. 


II 


Rufus B. Phillips. 


1854 


it 


* 11 


Asa S. Kendall. 


1855 


Amos A. Parker. 


Aaron N. Townsend. 


John Kimball. 


1856 


J. S. Adams. 


1 1 


11 


1857 


(( 


P. S. Batcheller. 


John J. Allen, Jr. 


1858 


(( 


1 1 


11 


1859 


Silas Cummings. 


*John J. Allen, Jr. 


P. S. Batcheller. 


1860 


1 1 


11 


11 


1861 


J. S. Adams. 


II 


Josiah E. Carter. 


1862 


u 


H: 11 


1 1 


1803 


11 


Joel Whittemore. 


Daniel Whitcomb. 


1864 


u 


11 


i< 


1865 


Silas Cummings. 


II 


George W. Cutting 


1806 


John M. Parker. 


11 


11 


1867 


a 


Ira Bailey. 


William L. Gaylord 


1868 


n 


11 


John N. Richardson 


1869 


t( 


* <( 


ii 



SELECTMEN, 18'22-1SG9. 



255 



TOWN OFFICERS— (C(?Mfitt«e(Z.) 



1822 John J. Allen, Eobinson Perkins, Joel Hayden. 

1823 John J. Allen, Robinson Perkins, Joel Hayden. 

1824 David Stone, William F. Perry, Samuel Felch. 
182n David Stone, William F. Perry, Samuel Felch. 

1826 David Stone, John J. Allen, Joseph Brigham. 

1827 David Stone, John J. Allen, Joseph Brigham. 

1828 David Stone, John J. Allen, Joseph Brigham. 
.1829 John J. Allen, Joseph Brigham, Daniel Spaulding. 

1830 Joseph Brigham, Daniel Spaulding, Samuel Felch. 

1831 Daniel Spaulding, Samuel Felch, Hyman Bent. 

1832 Daniel Spaulding. John J. Allen, Hyman Bent. 

1833 Daniel Spaulding, Thaddeus Cummings, Rufus B. Phillips. 

1834 Daniel Spaulding, Thaddeus Cummings, Rufus B. Phillips. 

1835 Thaddeus Cummings, John J. Allen, John Cobleigh. 

1836 Thaddeus Cummings, John J. Allen, John Cobleigh. 

1837 John Cobleigh, Daniel T. Hayden, Jonathan S. Adams. 

1838 Daniel T. Hayden, Jonathan S Adams, Levi Harris. 

1839 Jonathan S. Adams, Levi Harris, Reuben Pratt. 

1840 Jonathan S. Adams, Levi Harris, Reuben Pratt. 

1841 Dexter Wliittemore, George W. Bryant, Henry Shirley. 

1842 t Dexter Whittemore, Henry Shirley, Charles Bigclow. 

1843 Jonathan S. Adams, Levi Harris, Joseph A. Penniman. 

1844 Joseph A. Penniman, Henry Shirley, Nelson Howe. 

1845 Amos A. Parker, Henry Shirley, George W. Bryant. 

1846 Amos A. Parker, Henry Shirley, Milton Cliaplin. 

1847 Dexter Whittemore, Milton Chaplin, Levi Harris. 

1848 Dexter Whittemore. Milton Chaplin, Amos A. Parker. 

1849 Amos A. Parker, Elijah Bowker, Reuben B. Pratt. 

1850 Amos A. Parker, Levi Harris, Henry Shirley. 

1851 David Stowell, Reuben Augier, Elijah Bowker. 

1852 David Stowell, Reuben Angler, Elijah Bowker. 

1853 David Stowell, Reuben Angler, Elijah Bowker. 

1854 Reuben Angler, Amos A. Parker, Samuel Kendall. 

1855 Reuben xVngier, Samuel Kendall, John Whittemore, Jr. 

1856 Amos A. Parker, David Perry, Artemas Stone, Jr. 

1857 Jonathan S. Adams. Joel Howe, Daniel Whitcomb. 

1858 Daniel Whitcomb, Reuben Angier, William Bent. 

1859 Daniel Whitcomb, Reuben Angier, William Bent. 

1860 Daniel Whitcomb, William Bent, Abner Gage. 

1861 Daniel Whitcomb, George L. Stearns, William H. Shirley. 

1862 Daniel Whitcomb, George L. Stearns, William H. Shirley. 

1863 George L. Stearns, William H. Shirley, Milton Chaplin. 

1864 George L. Stearns, William H. Shirley, INIilton Chaplin. 

1865 George L. Stearns, William H. Siiirley, Joel Whittemore. 

1866 George L. Stearns, William 11. Shirley, Joel Whittemore. 

1867 Daniel Whitcomb, John Forristall, Norman U. Cahill. 

1868 . John Forristall, Norman U. Cahill, Daniel H. Reed. 
1863 Norman U. Cahill, Daniel H. Reed, William H. Shirley. 



256 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 
TOWN OFFICEUS— (Continued). 





MODERATORS. 


TOWN CLERKS. 


REPRESENTATIVES. 


1870 


John M. Parker. 


Stephen Batcheller. 


John M. Parker. 


1871 


n 


u 


a 


1873 


(( 


11 


Amos J. Blake. 


1873 


f ( 


11 


ii 


1874 


ii 


i( 


Silas Cummings. 


1875 


<( 


it 


Jonas Damon. 


1876 


(( 


a 


(( 


1877 


(( 


ti 


Stephen Batcheller, 


1878 


Amos J. Blake. 


u 




1879 


John M. Parker. 


(( 




1880 


u 


Harry J. Pratt. 




1881 


Amos J. BhTke. 


4: (( 




1882 


John M. Parker. 


Stejihen Batcheller. 




1883 


Amos J. Blake. 


u 




1884 


(( 


(( 




1885 


<( 


(( 




1886 


(( 


u 




1887 


n 


(( 





* In these cases the Cierk chosen by the town did not hold the oflBce the entire year, 
and appointments to fill the vacancies were made as follows: in 1789, Dea. John 
Fassett ; in 1845, Joel Hayden, Jr.; in 1846, Nelson Morse ; in 1854, Aaron N. Towni-end ; 
in 1859, Stephen Batcheller ; in 1862, Joel Whittemore ; in 1869 and 1881, Stephen Batch- 
eller. 

t From 1776 to 1783 Fitzwilliam and Swanzey appear to have been united for the 
choice of representative. In 1776 and 1777, Fitzwilliam refused to join in the election, 
and consequently lost its representation. For the succeeding six years, the repre- 
sentatives chosen in 1780 and 1783 were residents of Swanzey. This gave, for the entire 
eight years, four representatives to each town. 



AUDITORS. 

1851-2. John J. xVUen, Jonathan S. Adams. 

1853. Amos A. Parker, J. S. Adams. 

1854. David Stowell, John J. Allen. 

1855. J. S. Adams, J. J. Allen, 

1856. J. S. Adams, J. J. Allen. 

1857. Amos A. Parker, .John J. Allen, Jr. 
1858-9. John J. Allen, A. A. Parker. 
1860. Samuel Kendall, P. S. Batcheller. 
1861-2. John J. Allen, Joel Whittemore. 
1863-4. Joel Whittemore, Asa S. Kendall. 

1865. Anson Streeter. 

1866. Anson Streeter, Amos J. Blake. 
1867-8. Samuel Kendall. 

1869. Stephen Batcheller, Samuel Kendall. 

1870. .John Whittemore, Samuel Kendall. 
1871-2. Samuel Kendall, Amos J. Blake. 

1873. Jonathan S. Adams, Samuel Kendall. 

1874, J. S. Adams, Amos J. Blake. 



selectmi:n, 1870-1887— collectors. 



257 



TOWN OYFICEIlS—(Cmttnued.) 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1883 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 



Daniel H. Reed, William H. Shirley, Moses Chaplin. 
William H. Shirley, John Forristall, Norman U. Cahill. 
John Forristall, Norman U. Cahill, Levi G. Smith. 
Norman U. Cahill, Milton Chaplin, Wyman S. White. 
Milton Chaplin, Wyman S. White, Reuben L. Angier. 
Wyman S. White, Daniel H. Reed, Charles Byam. 
Daniel H. Reed, Charles Byam, Samuel S. Stone. 
Charles Byam, Samuel S. Stone, Charles D. Bigelow. 
Samuel S. Stone, Charles D. Bigelow, Charles Byam, 
Charles D. Bigelow, Charles Byam, Reuben L. Angier. 
Charles Byam, Reuben L. Angier, Charles D. Bigelow. 
William H. Shirley, Elisha M. Bent, Thomas B. Burns. 
Elisha M. Bent, Thomas B. Burns, William H. Shirley. 
Thomas B. Burns, William H. Shirley, Amos J. Blake. 
William H. Shirley, Amos J. Blake, Josiah K. Rand. 
Amos J. Blake, Josiah K. Rand, Frank B. Frye. 
Josiah K. Rand, Frank B. Frye, Timothy Blodgett. 
William H. Shirley, Thomas B. Burns, Edwin N. Bowen. 



* In 1780 five selectmen were chosen, the others being Abner Stone and Daniel 
Mellen. 

+ In 1843, two additional, Daniel Spaulding and Reuben Pratt, were chosen, at a special 
town meeting in July. 



1875. 


Stephen Batcheller. 








1876. 


J. S. Adams, A. 


A. 


Parker, Samuel Kendall. 


1877. 


Norman U. Cahill, 


R. L. Angier, A 


. R. Gleason. 


1878. 


Samuel Kendall, 


George A. Whittemore. 


1879. 


Samuel Kendall, 


Norman U. Cahill 




1880. 


Stephen Batcheller. 






1881. 


Charles D. Bigelow 


, 




1882. 


Charles D. Bigel 


ow 


, Calvin B. Perry. 


1883-5. 


Calvin B. Perry, 


Charles D. Bigelow. 


1886-7. 


Charles D. Bigelow, 


Stephen Batcheller. 








COLLECTOES. 




1773. 


Unknown. 






1785. 


Benoni Shurtleff 


1774. 


Levi Brigham. 






1786. 


Levi Brigham. 


1775. 


John Mellen. 






1787. 


Daniel Farrar. 


1776. 


Stephen Harris, 






1788. 


Barakiah Scott. 


1777-9. 


Unknown. 






1789. 


Edward Payson. 


1780. 


Joshua Willard. 






1790. 


Barakiah Scott, 


1781. 


Samuel Patrick. 






1791-3. 


William Crane. 


1782. 


John Fassett. 






1794. 


Dr. Eben'r Wrig 


1783. 


Amos Knight. 






1795-6. 


Thomas Bruce. 


1784. 


Stephen Harris. 
17 






1796-7. 


David White. 



258 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



1798. 


Joseph Winch. .. 


1799. 


Benj'n F. Brigham. 


1800. 


Thomas Goldsmith. 


1801-2. 


Benoni Shurtleff. 


1803. 


Caleb Winch. 


1805-9. 


John Whittemore. 


1810-14. David White. 


1815. 


Artemas Wilson, Jr. 


181G-19.John Whittemore. 


1820-1. 


Luke B. Richardson. 


1822-3. 


Daniel Reed. 


1824. 


Dexter Whittemore. 


1825. 


Ephraim Parker. 


1826-7. 


Dexter Whittemore. 


1828. 


Daniel Spaulding. 


1829. 


Jolin Foster. 


1830. 


Ephraim Parker. 


1831. 


John Foster. 


1832. 


Jes^e Forristall. 


1833-7. 


Dexter Whittemore. 


1838-9. 


Joseph A. Wilson. 


1840. 


Calvin J. Parker. 


1841. 


\ Daniel Spaulding. 


1842. 


Levi Harris. 


1843-7. 


Charles Bigelow. 



1848. 


Charles Sabin. 


1849- 


50. Nelson Morse. 


1851- 


2. John Whittemore, Jr. 


1853. 


Phinehas Whitcomb. 


1854. 


John Whittemore, Jr. 


1855. 


George A. AVhittemore. 


1856. 


Franklin Kendall. 


1857. 


John Whittemore. 


1858. 


William Pratt. 


1859- 


-60. George L. Stearns. 


1861- 


-2. Oliver Hawkins. 


1863- 


-4. George A. Whittemore 


1865. 


Leander Richardson. 


1866. 


Oliver Hawkins. 


1867. 


Ira Bailey. 


1868. 


^ Aaron R. Gleason. 


1869- 


-72.0rville L. Brock. 


1873. 


Melvin Wilson. 


1874. 


Orville L. Brock. 


1875- 


-9. John Forristall. ; 


1880- 


-3. Orville L. Brock. 


1884. 


Frank B. Frye. 


1885- 


-6. Elliot K. Wheelock. 


1887. 


B. F. Cummings. 



Thomas Bruce, collector for 1796, absconded, and David White was 
appointed to complete the collection of taxes for that year. 



TOWN OFFICERS CHOSEN IN NOVEMBEK. 

1878. Moderator, Amos J. Blake ; Supervisors, Daniel Whitcomb, Les- 
ter K. Stiles, John Forristall ; Representative, Elbridge Cum- 
mings. 

1880. Moderator, Amos J. Blake ; Supervisors, Daniel Whitcomb, 
Samuel Kendall, John Forristall* ; Representative, Aaron R. 
Gleason. 

1882. Moderator, Amos J. Blake ; Supervisors, Daniel Whitcomb, 
Charles D. Bigelow, Daniel H. Reed ; Representative, Orville 
L. Brock. 

1884. Moderator, Amos J. Blake ; Supervisors, Daniel H. Reed, Charles 
D. Bigelow, Charles F. Mitchell ; Representative, John Colby. 



* John Forristall died January 5th, 1881, and Leander Richardson was appointed to 
fill the vacancy. 



VOTES FOR GOVEKNOK, 1784-1811. 



259 



1886. Moderator, Amos J. Blake ; Supervisors, Charles D. Bigelow, 
Charles F. Mitchell, John A. Platts : Representative, Jonas 
Damon, 

ASSESSORS. 

In 1843 the town chose Daniel Spaulding, John Damon and Henry 
Shirley for assessors. In all otlier years the selectmen have acted as 
assessors. 

CONVENTIONS TO REVISE THE CONSTITUTION. 

Delegate in 1850 John S. Brown. 

Delegate in 1877 John M. Parker. 



VOTES FOK GOVERNOR. 

The chief magistrate of New Hampshire was styled Presi- 
dent under the Constitution of 1783, and Governor by the 
Constitution of 1793. In 1880 and after, he was elected for 
two years. The name of the person elected is placed first 
under each year. 



1784. 



1785. 



1786. 



178^ 



1788. 



1789. 



1 
36 
23 

6 



Meshech Weare 

Josiah Bartlett 11 

John Langdon. ...... 

John Langdon 

George Atkinson 

Theodore Atkinson . . . 

John Langdon 

John Langdon 43 

John Sullivan 7 

John Langdon 7 

John Sullivan 39 

John Sullivan 50 

1790. Josiah Bartlett 5 

Joshua Wentworth .... 30 

1791. Josiah Bartlett 7 

John Taylor Gilman ... 34 

Josiah Bartlett 43 

Josiah Bartlett 50 

John Taylor Gilman... 28 

Daniel Range 3 

John Taylor Gilman. . . 43 

John T. Gilman 54 

John T. Gilman 40 

John T. Gilman 61 



1792 
1793 
1794 



1795. 
1796. 
1797. 

1798. 



1799. 
1800. 

1801. 
1802. 

1803. 

1804. 

1805. 

1806. 

1807. 

1808. 

1809. 

1810. 

1811. 



John T. Gilman 75 

JohuT. Gilman 83 

Timothy Walker 7 

JohnT. Gilman 57 

John T. Gilman 83 

John Langdon 6 

JohnT. Gilman 103 

John Langdon 9 

John T. Gilman 143 

.John Langdon 11 

John Langdon 50 

JohnT. Gilman 92 

John Langdon 66 

Jeremiah Smith 63 

John Langdon 68 

Jeremiah Smith 46 

John Langdon 43 

Jeremiah Smith 50 

Jeremiah Smith 134 

John Langdon ........ 53 

John Langdon 72 

Jeremiah Smith 132 

John Langdon 61 

Jeremiah Smith 119 



260 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



1812. William Plumer 73 

John T. Oilman 139 

1818, John T. Gilman 132 

William Plumer 64 

1814. John T. Gilman 170 

William Plumer 73 

1815. John T. Gilman 162 

William Plumer 81 

1816. William Plumer 57 

James Sheafe 133 

1817. William Plumer 54 

Jeremiah Mason 120 

1818. William Plumer 65 

Jeremiah Mason Ill 

1819. Samuel Bell 73 

William Hale 46 

Scattering 2 

1820. Samuel Bell 70 

1821. Samuel Bell 149 

1822. Samuel Bell 147 

1823. Levi Woodbury 10 

Samuel Dinsmoor 121 

1824. David L. Morrill 31 

Jeremiah Smith 101 

Levi Woodbury 6 

Scattering. 1 

1825. David L. Morrill 136 

Scattering 1 

1826. David L. Morrill 58 

Benjamin Pierce 56 

1827. Benjamin Pierce 117 

David L. Morrill 13 

1828. John Bell 214 

Benjamin Pierce 7 

1829. Benjamin Pierce 15 

John Bell 204 

1830. Matthew Harvey 31 

Timothy Upham 175 

Nahum Parker 2 

1831. Samuel Dinsmoor 49 

Ichabod Bartlett 183 

1832. Samuel Dinsmoor 60 

Ichabod Bartlett 158 

1833. Samuel Dinsmoor 115 

Luther Chapman 6 



1833. Scattering 1 

1834. William Badger 74 

Moses Stockwell 5 

1835. Wilham Badger 67 

Joseph Healy 159 

1836. Isaac Hill 60 

George Sullivan 132 

Scattering 8 

1837. Isaac Hill 47 

1838. Isaac Hill 57 

James Wilson, Jr 269 

Scattering 2 

1839. John Page 67 

James ATilson, Jr 252 

1840. John Page 73 

Enos Stevens 196 

George Kent 8 

Scattering 1 

1841. John Page 48 

Enos Stevens 172 

Daniel Hoit 21 

Scattering 1 

1842. Henry Hubbard 52 

Enos Stevens ......... 90 

John H. White 74 

Daniel Hoit 26 

Scattering 1 

1843. Henry Hubbard 47 

Anthony Colby 112 

Daniel Hoit 39 

John H. White 35 

1844. John H. Steele 37 

Anthony Colby 150 

Daniel Hoit 57 

Scattering 1 

1845. John H. Steele 42 

Anthony Colby 117 

Daniel Hoit 50 

Scattering 1 

1846. Jared W. Williams 59 

Anthony Colby 127 

Nathaniel S. Berry 48 

1847. Jared W. Williams 70 

Anthony Colby 155 

Nathaniel S. Berry 44 



VOTES FOR GOVERNOR, 1848-1882. 



261 



1848. Jared W. Williams G!) 

Nathaniel S. Berry .... 185 

Scattering 1 

1849. Samuel Dinsmoor 58 

Levi Chamberlain 131 

Nathaniel S. Berry 55 

1850. Samuel Dinsmoor 54 

Levi Chamberlain 133 

Nathaniel S. Berry 49 

1851. Samuel Dinsmoor 67 

Thomas E. Savpyer 158 

John Atwood 30 

Scattering 1 

1853. Noah Martin 63 

Thomas E. Sawyer 140 

John Atwood 44 

1853. Noah Martin 56 

James Bell 98 

John H. White 72 

1854. Nathaniel B. Baker 56 

Jared Perkins 134 

James Bell 74 

1855. Ralph Metcalf 301 

Nathaniel B. Baker. ... 54 

Asa Fowler 31 

James Bell 17 

1856. Ralph Metcalf 175 

John S. Wells 83 

Ichabod Goodwin 31 

1857. William Haile 311 

John S. Wells 65 

Charles B. Haddock. . . 3 

1858. William Haile 301 

Asa P. Cate 60 

1859. Ichabod Goodwin 189 

Asa P. Cate 69 

1860. Ichabod Goodwin 319 

Asa P. Cate 88 

1861. Nathaniel S. Berry 300 

George Stark 65 

1863. Nathaniel S. Berry 186 

George Stark 75 

1863. Joseph A. Gilmore 177 

Ira A. Eastman 81 

Walter Harriman 7 



1864. Joseph A. Gilmore 310 

Edward W. Harrington 86 

1865. Frederick Smyth 186 

Edward W. Harrington 77 

1866. Frederick Smyth 188 

John G. Sinclair 56 

1867. Walter Harriman 103 

John G. Sinclair 64 

1868. Walter Harriman 323 

John G. Sinclair 76 

1869. Onslow Stearns 193 

John Bedel 50 

1870. Onslow Stearns 300 

John Bedel 46 

Scattering 1 

1871. James Pike 181 

James A. Weston 45 

Scattering 1 

1873. Ezekiel A. Straw 331 

James A. Weston 67 

1873. Ezekiel A. Straw 184 

James A. Weston 54 

Samuel K. Mason 5 

Scattering 1 

1874. James A. Weston 96 

Luther McCutchins. .. . 155 
John Blackmer 6 

1875. Person C. Cheney 303 

Hiram R. Roberts 96 

1876. Person C. Cheney 194 

Daniel Marcy 89 

Scattering 3 

1877. Benjamin F. Prescott.. 306 

Daniel Marcy 59 

Frank A. McKean 17 

Asa S. Kendall 5 

1878. Benjamin F, Prescott.. 186 

Frank A. McKean 81 

Asa S. Kendall 4 

1879. Nat. Head 184 

Frank A. McKean 70 

Warren G. Brown 21 

1880. Charles H. Bell Ilt6 

Frank Jones 84 

1883. Samuel W. Hale 101 



262 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



1882. Martin V. B. Edgerly. . Ill 

Scattering 1 

1884. Moody Currier 156 

John M. Hill 79 

L. P. Mason 28 



1884. Scattering 2 

1886. Charles H. Sawyer 130 

Thomas Cogswell 71 

Joseph Wentworth . . . . 17 



APPEOPRI ATION S . 

The table that follows will give a general idea of the regu- 
lar expenses of the town from the time of its incorporation, 
but a brief explanation of some particular points seems needful. 

The blanks in the first twelve years may be referred to the 
damaged condition of the records by the fire, elsewhere de- 
scribed, and the same may be said of the most of the blanks 
for the same period in the lists of town officers. 

The appropriations for town purposes in 1782, and afterward, 
were on a specie basis, but the State and cOunty taxes appear 
to have been made for a short time, at least, on a paper basis, 
though evidently not in the depreciated Continental currency, 
which at this time was comparatively worthless. In an abate- 
ment of taxes about tliis time, there was a money tax and a 
faper tax. 

This depreciation of the currency was referred to in Chap- 
ter VIII. on early town history, but it is necessary to notice it 
here also in explaining the appropriations. Perhaps the two 
following accounts will set the matter before the reader in a 
more practical light : 

The Town of Fitzwilliam Dr. 

to fifteen days of making rates at two Shillings and eight pence per day, 
lawful money, old way, equal to Rie at four Shillings per bushel. 

Abner Stone. 
Anaccomptfor carrying Eleazer Pratt and family out of Town. £50. 

Joshua Willard. 

Abner Stone was one of the selectmen, and made up his ac- 
count for service on a specie basis. While Constable Willard's 
fifty pounds in currency, allowing seventy five for one, which 
may be called the rate at that time, really amounted to only 
thirteen shillings fourpence in silver, or expressed in dollars, 
at six shillings to a dollar, it would be two dollars and twenty- 



AUTHORIZED SCALE OF CURRENCY DEPRECIATION. 263 

two cents. The value of the pound at that time was three 
doHars and thirty-three and one third cents. 

In the Revohitionary War and in tlie War of the Tlebellion 
the town raised very large amounts for war purposes whicli do 
not appear in the table. In Chapter XII. of this history, which 
treats of the last-mentioned struggle, a summary of the cost 
of that war to Fitzwilliam will be found, but what was raised 
during the Kevolutionary War for the common defence can- 
not be accurately stated. In about eight months the town ap- 
propriatc;d twenty-five thousand four hundred and thirty-four 
pounds for soldiers' wages, and to pay for provisions for the 
Continental Army. 

The rapid depreciation in the actual value of the currency 
caused so much trouble in the settlement of debts and con- 
tracts, that an authorized scale of depreciation was issued by 
the Legislature in 1781, by which contracts made at different 
times might be adjusted. This scale, which is here given, in- 
dicates the number of pounds of the paper currency which 
should be ecpiivalent to one hundred pounds in specie at the 
different dates. 



.January. . . 
February. . 
March. . . . 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August.. . . 
September 
October.. . 
November. 
December. 



1777. 


1778. 


100 


325 


104 


350 


106 


375 


110 


400 


114 


400 


120 


400 


125 


425 


150 


450 


175 


475 


275 


500 


310 


545 


310 


634 



1779. 



742 
868 
1,000 
1,104 
1.215 
1,342 
1,477 
1,630 
1,800 
2,030 
2,308 
2,393 



1780. 



1781. 



2,934 
3,322 
3,736 
4,000 
4,800 
5,700 
6,000 
0,300 
6,500 
6,700 
7.000 
7,300 



7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
12,000 



It is impossible to tell whether the appropriations for high- 
ways in the early years of the town were for repairs alone or 
included the cost of new roads, but since the present centurj' 
came in special appropriations have always been made for the 



264 HISTORY OF riTZWILLIAM. 

building of new roads, unless the projected road was very 
short, and sometimes even then. The amounts in the table 
were expended entirely for rej)airs, with these small exceptions, 
and were usually paid in labor. Previous to 1815, as far as 
has been ascertained, six cents per hour was allowed : 1815-17, 
eight cents ; 1818-20, six cents ; 1821-35, eight cents ; 
1836-39, ten cents ; 1840-4Y, eight cents ; 1848-63, ten 
cents ; 1864-72, sixteen and two third cents ; 1873-75, twenty 
cents ; 1876-78, sixteen and two third cents ; 1879, twelve 
cents ; 1880, sixteen and two third cents ; 1881-82, fifteen 
cents. 

In 1789 the town was authorized by special act of the Leg- 
islature to levy a tax of a penny per acre on all the land in 
town subject to taxation for three years, for the benefit of the 
highways. This was in addition to the regular appropriation. 
The collector of this tax was Simon Crosby for the tliree 
years. Partial lists of this tax and a complete list of the pro- 
prietors tax for 1788 have been preserved and are valuable as 
giving the ownership of the land at the time. The earliest 
regular town tax list that has been preserved is for the year 
1793, and from that date the series is complete to the present 
time. It is not known what has become of the earlier lists 
or why they were not preserved. As not a single list is found, 
it is possible that they were purposely destroyed when all the 
taxes had been Jiccounted for. Fitzwilliam is not alone in 
this, as several of the neighboring towns have no lists of an 
earlier date than 1793. 

In 1794 and before, the appropriations and taxes are stated 
in pounds, shillings and pence ; in 1795 and after, in dollars 
and cents. 



APPROPKIATIONS, 1773-1811. 



265 



APPROPRIATIONS. 



Date. 


Schools. 


Town 

Charges. 


High- 
ways. 


Date. 


Schools. 


Town 
Charges. 


High- 
ways. 


1773. . . 


. • • • 


• • • ♦ 


• • • • 


1831.. 


$420 


$400 


$800 


1774. . . 


£7 


£H 


£50:1832.. 


420 


400 


800 


1775. . . 


7 


5 


50 1833.. 


425 


400 


800 


1776. . . 


• • ■ ■ 


8 


.... 


1834.. 


450 


800 


800 


1777. . . 


10 


22 


30 


1835.. 


450 


700 


800 


1778. . . 


15 


13 


90 


1836.. 


500 


1,300 


1,000 


1779. . . 


180 


50 


350 


11837.. 


500 


1,200 


1,000 


1780. . . 


400 


300 


1,800,1838.. 


800 


1,000 


1,000 


1781. . . 


1,500 


700 


3,000 1839.. 


800 


1,500 


1,000 


1782. . . 


20 


• • • • 


50 1840.. 


800 


2,000 


500 


1783. . . 




• • • • 


50 


1841 . . 


800 


4,000 


500 


1784. . . 


"30 


• • ■ • 


100 


1842.. 


800 


2,500 


1,000 


1785. . . 


30 


15 


150 


1843.. 


800 


2,500 


1,200 


17SC). . . 


50 


20 


150 


1844.. 


800 


2,500 


1,200 


1787... 


50 


20 


150 


1845 . . 


800 


2,000 


1,200 


1788. . . 


75 


100 


150 


;i846.. 


900 


1,500 


1,200 


1789. . . 


60 


6 


100 


1847.. 


900 


1,200 


1,200 


1790. . . 


60 


40 


100 


1848..- 


900 


3,000 


1,500 


1791. . . 


90 


40 


100 


1849.. 


900 


500 


1,500 


1792, . . 


100 


50 


150 


1S50 . . 


900 


600 


1,500 


1793. . . 


100 


75 


150 


1851.. 


900 


800 


1,500 


1794. . . 


130 


30 


150 


il852.. 


1,000 


700 


1,500 


1795. . . 


$400 


$200 


$500 


1853.. 


1,000 


1,000 


1,500 


179C.. . . 


500 


170 


500 


1854.. 


1,000 


1,000 


1,500 


1797. . . 


600 


150 


600 


1855.. 


1,000 


1,500 


1,500 


1798. . . 


400 


150 


500 


1856.. 


1,200 


1,500 


1,500 


1799. . . 


400 


250 


400 


1857.. 


1,000 


1,500 


1,500 


1800. . . 


300 


200 


400 


1858.. 


1,000 


1,500 


1,500 


1801. . . 


450 


250 


450 


1859.. 


1,000 


1,000 


1,500 


1802. . . 


450 


150 


700 


I860.. 


1,000 


1,000 


1,500 


1803. . . 


450 


200 


450 


1861.. 


1,000 


1,500 


1,500 


1804. . . 


450 


200 


800 


1862.. 


800 


1,500 


1,000 


1805. . . 


400 


420 


800 


1863.. 


1,000 


2,000 


1,000 


1806. . . 


400 


200 


800 


11864.. 


1,000 


3,000 


1,400 


1807. . . 


400 


350 


800 


1865.. 


1,500 


3,000 


1,500 


1808. . . 


400 


400 


800 


1866.. 


1,500 


4,000 


1,500 


1809. . . 


45( 


350 


800 


1867.. 


1,500 


3,500 


1,500 


1810... 


450 


300 


800 


11868.. 


1,500 


3,500 


1,500 


1811... 


500 


350 


800 


,1869.. 


1,600 


5,000 


1,500 



266 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



APPROPRIATIONS. — ( Continued.) 



Date. 


Schools. 


Town 
Charges. 


High 
ways. 


Date. 


Schools. 


Town 
Charges. 


High- 
ways. 


1812. . . 


$500 


$300 


$400' 


1870.. 


$1,500 


$6,000 


$1,500 


1813... 


500 


450 


600 


1871.. 


1,500 


5,000 


1,200 


1814... 


500 


650 


650 


1872.. 


1,500 


3,500 


1,200 


1815. . . 


500 


450 


1,000 


1873.. 


1,600 


3,500 


1,600 


1816. . . 


400 


500 


800 


1874.. 


2,000 


2,000 


1,600 


1817. . . 


400 


450 


800 


1875.. 


2,000 


2,000 


1,600 


1818... 


410 


600 


410 


1876.. 


2,000 


2,000 


1,600 


1819... 


.... 


900 


410 


1877.. 


2,000 


1,500 


1,500 


1820. . . 


500 


700 


400 


1878.. 


2,000 


1,500 


1,600 


1821. . . 


500 


400 


800 


1879.. 


1,600 


500 


1,300 


1822. . . 


500 


200 


800 


1880.. 


2,000 


200 


2,000 


1823... 


500 


400 


1.000 


1881.. 


1,800 


100 


2,000 


1824. . . 


500 


350 


800, 


1882.. 


1,800 


500 


2,000 


1825. . . 


5C0 


200 


800' 


1883.. 


2,000 


500 


1,600 


1826. . . 


500 


275 


800 


1884.. 


2,000 


500 


1,600 


1827. . . 


500 


300 


800 


1885.. 


2,000 


100 


1,600 


1828. . . 


600 


200 


800 


1886.. 


2,000 


none 


1,300 


1829... 


600 


400 


1,000 


1887.. 


1,500 


. . . . 


1,300 


1830... 


425 


400 


600, 

1 











The number of resident tax-payers in 1793 was two liun- 
dred and twenty-one ; in 1803, two hundred and thirty-five ; 
in 1813, two hundred and fifty-eight ; in 1823, two hundred 
and thirty-nine, and in 1833, three hundred. 

The ten highest tax-payers were as follows : 



1793. 
Samuel Kendall, 
Sylvanus Reed, 
Matthias Felton, 
Reuben Pratt, 
Francis Fnllam, 
Jonas Knight, 
Nathaniel Wilson, 
Joshua Harrington, 
Levi Brigham, 
Benjamin Davison. 



1803. 
Phinehas Reed, 
Samuel Kendall, 
Jesse Forristall, 
William Farrar, 
Jonas Robeson, 



1813. 
Phinehas Reed, 
Thos, Richardson, 
Jonas Robeson, 
Samuel Tower, 
Samuel Griffin, 



Thomas Goldsmith, Amos Pratt, 

Matthias Felton, Nahum Parker, 

Francis Fullam, Abel Baker, 

Amos Pratt, William 
Artemas Wilson. 



Fs 



arrar. 



Matthias Felton. 



PKOMPT PAYMENT OF TAXES. 



267 



1823. 

Town, State, County, Minister, Highway 
and School Taxes. 



Daniel Reed 


..$42.17 


Saiiiuel Griffin .... 


.. 38.92 


Josiah Fn]lani 


.. 31.51 


John AVhittemore . . 


.. 30.02 


Levi Tower 


. . 28.90 


David Stone 


.. 28.53 


Pliinelias Wrig-lit. . . 


.. 27.60 


Snsan Robeson 


.. 27.29 


William F. Perrj . 


.. 26.78 


Tlieophilus May . . . . 


.. 26.65 



Town, 



1833. 

State, County, Highway 
School Taxes. 



Phinehas Reed $14. 

Samuel Knight 33. 

Jolm Bni'bank, Jr. . . . 33. 

John Sabin 31. 

Jacob Felton 30. 

Dexter Wliittemore. . . 3C. 

Daniel Spaulding- 29. 

Thomas Richardson. . . 27 

Daniel Forristall 2(1 

David Stone 26. 



and 

65 
39 
12 
32 
14 
0() 
19 
22 
1)7 
37 



With regard to the financial condition of Fitzwilliam since 
its incorporation in 1773, this may he said : 

In the earlier years of the town it would seem from tlie 
records that the taxes were not always paid as promptly as 
was desirable, owing, no doubt, in most cases to the scarcity of 
money, but since the commencement of the present century 
there has been very little cause for complaint regarding this 
matter. 

In 1858, the selectmen, in making their annual report to the 
town, were aljle to say that 

notwithstanding the embarrassed condition of all moneyed institutions 
through the length and breadtli of our country and the world, the tax- 
payers of Fitzwilliam, with the exception only of the abatements, stated 
in the above report, have paid every dollar of their taxes so promptly 
that the Treasury has ever been able to redeem our orders at sight, and 
on settlement with the Treasurer, we found the Collector had the receipts 
in full of State, County and Town Treasurers and of the School District 



Agents. 



This is certainly a favorable exliil)it in financial matters. 

In ordinary times the chief expenditures nmst always be for 
the support of schools and the making and maintaining the 
highways ; for schools because a new generation is always de- 
manding the means of education, and for the highways be- 
cause the face of the country is so irregular that the earth 
upon the hills is constantly finding its way to the valleys. 



268 HISTORY OF FITZWILLTAM. 

Before the breaking out of the Rebellion, when extraordinary 
expenses became at once necessary, it was the settled policy 
of the town to carry no debt along from year to year, but as 
far as was practicable to raise each year such amount as would 
be needed to cover the expenditures for the year. From 1861 
onward for the space of five years a large amount of money 
was needed to pay bounties to the men enlisting in the service 
of the country, to support soldiers' families, and to meet other 
extraordinary expenses, but probably few towns had less diffi- 
culty in keeping their treasuries supplied. During this time, 
as is well known, many towns paid a considerable bonus for 
money, but even when the United States Government was 
paying 7j\ per cent interest, this town borrowed all it needed 
at the rate of six per cent. The details of these war expenses 
will be shown in the chapter upon the suppression of the Re- 
bellion, but the following summary may here be given : 

In March, 1862, the extra expenses had amounted to two 
hundred and four dollars and nine cents, while the indebted- 
ness of the town was thirteen hundred and seventy-four dol- 
lars and forty-eight cents. 

In March, 1863, extra expenses reported amounted to forty- 
nine hundred and forty-three dollars and fifty cents, while the 
town's indebtedness was forty-one hundred and eighty dollars 
and fifty-four cents. 

March, 1864, the extra expenses occasioned by the M^ar 
amounted to twelve thousand five hundred and two dollars, 
and the indebtedness of the town was nine thousand eighty- 
two dollars and sixty-seven cents. 

March, 1865, the report showed that twelve thousand two 
hundred and seventeen dollars and thirty cents had been ex- 
pended for soldiers' bounties, etc., during the year, and that 
the town's indebtedness had reached the sum of nineteen 
thousand one hundred and thirty-two dollars and fifty-eight 
cents. 

March, 1866, the report showed that the extra expenses had 
been forty-two hundred and fifty dollars and nineteen cents, 
and that the town then owed twenty-one thousand eight hun- 
dred and thirty-three dollars and ninety-seven cents (its maxi- 



FUNDING THE TOWN DEBT. 269 

mum debt). The uncollected taxes for the year amounted to 
thirty-nine dollars and fifty cents. 

At the March meeting, 1867, the report showed that the 
rate of taxation had been one dollar and ninety-one cents on 
one hundred dollare, and that the town's indebtedness was 
twenty thousand live hundred and twenty-four dollars and 
forty-six cents. 

In 1S6S the rate had been one dollar and sixty-seven cents 
on every one hundred dollars, while the indebtedness had been 
reduced to nineteen thousand nine hundred and ninety-five 
dollars and fifty-three cents. 

The subject of funding the town debt having been properly 
brought before the town at the annual meeting in March, 
1867, it was voted that an amount not exceeding twenty thou- 
sand dollars of the debt should be funded by coupon bonds 
payable in from three to fifteen years, with interest at the rate 
of six per cent per annum, payable semi-annually, Kone of 
the bonds were to be sold under par, and they were to be issued 
only for funding the debt of the town. The committee ap- 
pointed to carry this vote into effect consisted of Amos A. 
Parker, Joel Whittemore, and Amos J. Blake. At the next 
annual meeting, March, 1868, this committee made the fol- 
lowing report : 

The Committee appointed at the last Annual Town Meeting to fund 
the town debt, not exceeding $20,000 in amount, promptly attended to 
the duty assigned them. As soon as practicable they procured a Town 
Seal and printed blank Bonds with coupons annexed ; and then 
proceeded to issue them as fast as people could be found to take 
them. 

This, especially at first, was no easy task, although repudiation by 
towns is impossible and the security most ample ; yet, as the Govern- 
ment were, all the time, paying a larger interest, not a few preferred the 
Government Bonds. The work, however, has been done, the whole 
amount of $20,000 has been funded in Bonds running not less than three 
nor more than fifteen years from their date. 

We would report our transactions in detail as follows : 

We have received accrued interest on Bonds issued after their date 
$28.74, and have allowed interest on moneys received for Bonds issued 
before their date $73.16, which makes the amount of money received by 
us $19,955.58. 



270 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIA]\r. 



After gis^ing a list of notes paid amounting with the interest 
on them to eighteen thousand eight hundred' and thirty-tsvo 
dollars and ninety-eight cents, which, with eleven hundred and 
twentj-two dollars and sixty cents paid into the town treasury, 
made the total amount nineteen thousand nine hundred and 
fifty-five dollars and fifty-eight cents, same as received, the re- 
port proceeded : 



The Bonds issued fall due as follows 



July 1, 1870 $1,000 

January 1, 1871 2,500 

July 1, 1871 300 

January 1, 1873 1,600 

July 1, 1873 3,100 

January 1, 1873 300 

July 1, 1873 2,300 

January 1, 1874 3,500 

January 1, 1875 700 



January 1, 1876 $1,000 

January 1, 1877 800 

July 1, 1877 1,400 

January 1, 1878 400 

January 1, 1880 200 

July 1, 1882 1,900 



Total 120,000 



The Committee, considering that they have completed the work as- 
signed them, have passed over to the Selectmen the Notes they have 
paid. Have jiaid to the town Treasurer the cash remaining in their 
hands, and are prepared to deliver over the Town Seal and the unused 
blank Bonds. 

A. A. Parker, ^ Committee 
Joel Wliittemore, ^ for funding the 
Amos J. Blake, ) Town Debt. 

Fitzwilliam, Feb. 20, 1868. 

The subscriber having examined the above report of the Committee 
for funding the Town Debt finds it accurately cast and properly vouched. 

Samuel Kendall, 
Fitzwilliam, Feb. 29, 1868. Auditor. 



Though the bonds were not so readily taken at the very 
first, yet afterward the committee could easily have disposed 
of a much larger amount. 

The following table shows the rate of taxation on a hundred 
dollars, and the amount of the town's indebtedness as reported 
by the selectmen at the annual meetings from 1869 to 1880 
inclusive. In 1873 the assets included five thousand dollars 
of State bonds, which reduced the indebtedness by that amount. 



LEGAL VOTERS IN 1820. 



271 



Year. 



1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 



Rate. 



$1.96 

2.20 
2.46 
2.60 
2.00 
1.85 



Debt. 



Tear. 



$19,139.40 1875.. 
18,943.79 1876.. 
15,644.55 1877.. 
13,761.86 1878.. 
5,322.38 1879.. 



3,097.55| 



1880. 



Rate. 



$1.38 

1.30 
1.28 
1.30 
1.42 
.95 



Debr. 



$1,947.88 

1,130.17 

2,022.74 

856.51 

80.43 

surplus 576.76 



In 1880 the assets exceeded the liabilities by five hundred 
and seventy-six dollars and seventy-six cents. 



It is proposed to insert here a copy of the list of legal voters 
in the town, as prepared by the selectmen, Joseph Brigham, 
John J. Allen, and David Stone, February 21st, 1820, for the 



annual meeting in March. 



A. 

Arunah Allen. 
John J. Allen. 
Jubal Allen. 
Philip Ainadon. 
Solomon Alexander. 
Abel Angler. 
Abel Angier, Jr. 

B. 

Hvman Bent. 
Wm. H. Bent. 
Elisha Bent. 
Art. Beard. 
Charles Bowker. 
Joseph Blodget. 
Abel Baker. 
Bartlett Bowker. 
Melvin Brown. 
John Bosworth. 
Levi Brigham. 
Joseph Brigham. 
Tiraotliy Blodget. 
Joseph Bigelow. 
John Burbank. 
John Burbank, Jr. 

C. 

Abisha Collins, 
Jonathan Cass. 
Silas Chase. 



Thaddeus Cummings. 
Ezekiel Collins. 
Luther Chapman. 
Calvin Coolidge. 
John Cobleigh. 
Amos Cobleigh. 
Curtis Coolidge. 
Moses Chaplin. 
Josiah Carter. 
Levi Chamberlain. 

D. 

Benjamin Davidson. 
Benjamin Davidson. 
Samuel Davis. 
Amos Davis. 
Moses Drury, Jr. 
Abel Dunton. 
Sylvanus Daua. 
Elisha Drury. 
Luther Damon. 
Jude Damon. 
Nathan Drury. 
Oliver Damon. 
Oliver Damon, Jr. 
George Damon. 

E. 

Benjamin Eddy. 
Samuel Ellis. 
Pelatiah M. Everett. 



F. 

William Flagg. 
Jesse Forristall. 
Jesse Forristall, Jr. 
Daniel Forristall. 
Philemon Fairbanks. 
Amos Freeman. 
Samuel Felch. 
Elisha Fassett. 
Levi Fassett. 
John Fassett. 
Joseph Fassett. 
Obi] Fassitt. 
Luna Foster. 
Rufus Foster. 
Darius Fisher. 
Herman Fisher. 
John Fay. 
Francis Fullum." 
Josiah Fullum. 
Matthias Felton. 
xVrtemas Felton. 
Joseph Fassett, 2d. 

G. 

Edward Goodwin. 
Samuel Griffin. 
Richard Gleason, Jr. 
James Godfrey. 
James Gibson. 
David Grant. ■ 



272 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



Allen Grant. 
Micah Graves, Jr. 
David Graves. 
Jonas Gary. 

H. 

Joel Hayden. 
Ezra Hayden. 
Asahel Hartwell. 
Joel Hunt. 
Nahum Howe. 
Edward Holman. 
Sylvanus Holman. 
Moses Hayden. 
Samuel Hayden. 
Phineas Howe. 
Amos Hale. 
Royal Howard. 

I and J. 

Josiah Ingalls. 
Eliphalet Johnson. 

K. 

John Knight. 
Luke Kendall. 
William Knight. 
Samuel Kilburn. 
Jonas Knight. 



William Locke. 
Edward Loud. 
William Locke, Jr. 
Joseph Locke. 
Asa H. Locke. 
Elijah Lyon. 

M. 

Jabez Morse. 
John Moody. 
Daniel Mellen. 
Cyrus Mul liken. 
John Mellen. 
Thomas Moore. 
Josiah Moore. 
Noah Miles. 
John Miles. 
John McCurdy. 
Joel Miles. 

O. 

Matthew Osborn. 
John Osborn. 



Jonah Osborn. 
Benjamin Osborn. 
Matthew Osborn, Jr. 

P. 

Robinson Perkins. 
Jared Perkins. 
Shubel Plympton. 
Samuel Patch. 
Elihu Penniman, Jr. 
Elihu Penniman. 
John Petts. 
Nahum Parker. 
Nahum Parker, Jr. 
Wm. F. Perry. 
Amos Pratt. 
Joseph Pratt. 
Reuben Pratt. 
Edward Platts. 
Jedediah Putney. 
Levi Pratt. 
Ebenezer Potter. 
Ebeuezer Potter, Jr. 
Peter Prescott. 
Peter Prescott, Jr. 
Ebenezer Prescott. 
Elijah Phillips. 
Nathaniel Phillips. 
Phineas Parks, Jr. 

R. 

David Rice. 
David Rice, Jr. 
Luke B. Richardson. 
Thomas Richardson. 
Phineas Reed. 
Daniel Reed. 
Samuel Randall. 
Samuel Rockwood. 
Thos. Richardson, Jr. 

S. 
John Sabin. 
Hezekiah Stone. 
Artemas Stone. 
Samuel Stone. 
Nathaniel S. Stone. 
Daniel Simonds. 
Ebenezer Saunders. 
Amasa Scott. 
Calvin Smith. 
John Stone. 
James Stone. 
John Sargent. 
Abner Stone. 
David Stone. 



John Shirley. 
Jonathan Stone. 
Elijah T. Smith. 
James Stone, Jr. 
Joseph Stone. 
Joseph Stone, 2d. 
John Stone, 3d, 
Moses Stone. 
Nathan Smith. 
Royal Smith. 
Caleb Sweetser. 
Daniel Streeter. 



Levi Tower. 
Samuel Tower. 
Nathan Townsend. 
Otis Taft. 
Aaron Townsend. 
James Taylor, Jr. 

V. 
John W. Van Doom. ] 

W. 

Ebenezer Wright. 
Phineas Wright. 
Aaron Wright. 
John Whitcomb. 
Oliver Whitcomb. 
Oliver Whitcomb, Jr. 
Joshua Worcester. 
Joel Wright. 
Stephen White. 
Thomas Wilson. 
Gardner Wright. 
Jonas Woods. 
Silas Woods. 
John Whittemore. 
Dexter Whittemore. 
Silas Warner. 
William Whittemore. 
Asa Wait. 
Asa Wait, Jr. 
Joel Whitney. 
Artemas Wilson. 
Artemas Wilson, Jr. 
Benjamin Wilson. 
David Whitney. 
Josiah Wilson. 
Noah White. 
Daniel White. 

Total number, 319. 

Checked on the list as 
voting, 105. 



t 

CHECK LISTS, 1830-1884. 273 

The clieck-list for the March meeting, 1830, contains two 
hundred and forty-seven names, and of these two hundred and 
seven voted for Governor. Only forty did not vote. 

At the Presidential election, November 2d, 1840, the check- 
list contained three hundred and seventy-two names ; of these 
three hundred and thirty-four voted. Thirty-eight did not 
vote. 

In 1850 the check-list prepared September 10th contained 
three hundred and twenty-six names. 

The check-list for the annual town meeting in March, 1860, 
contained three hundred and fifty-eight names, and of these 
three hundred and twelve voted the State ticket. Forty-six 
did not vote. 

For the annual meeting, March, 1870, the list contained the 
names of three hundred and four voters. 

In 1880 the list contained the names of three hundred and 
eight voters, and in November two hundred and eighty voted. 

At the Presidential election in 1884 the check-list contained 
three hundred and twelve names, and of these two hundred 
and sixty-five voted as follows for electors : 

Greenback or Butler Ticket 2 

Prohibition or St. John '* 27 

Democratic or Cleveland " SO 

Republican or Blaine '* 156. 

18 



CHAPTER Xll. 



riTZWILLIAM IN lllE REBELLION. 



Antagonism Between Freedom and Slavery — Election of Abraham Lincoln 
— Excitement at the Breaking Out of the War — Action of the Town for 
Enlisting Soldiers — These in Their Several Rejfiments — Summary of 
Expenses and Losses — Soldiers' Monument — Incidents of the War. 

THE history of the world proves conclusively that there is 
a deadly antagonism between freedom and slavery. In 
the early years of our republic, the two systems began the con- 
test, and it grew hotter and hotter till the great Rebellion was 
inangnrated. But long before the outbreak of hostilities be- 
tween the North and the South the desiirn of the slave nower 
to extend, if possible, but most certainly to perpetuate itself, 
was painfully manifest. When Missouri was admitted as one 
of the States of the Union, in 1821, and slavery was allowed 
there, the friends of liberty throughout the land were alarmed, 
and the pressure brought by them to bear upon Congress was 
so great that the measure called tlie Missouri Compromise 
was reluctantly passed. The South had demanded 

the right to extend slavery over all the Territories of the United States, 
the right to hold their slaves in all the States of the Union temporarily, 
that speaking or writing against slavery in any State of the Union should 
be a penal offence, that the North should catch the fugitive slaves and 
send them back to bondage, and that the administration of the General 
Government should be placed in the hands of those only whom the South 
could trust, us the pledged enemies of republican equality and the friends 
of slavery. 

To meet this demand, so far as the extension of slavery was 
concerned, the Missouri Compromise was framed, and it was 
recognized certainly at the North as a solemn compact never 
to be broken. But the great mass of the Southern people 
always regarded its terms with disfavor, and seemed ready to 
set it aside if possible, when the first hopeful opportunity 
should otfer. Such an occasion appeared to present itself when 



RESOLUTIONS RESPECTING SLAVERY EXTENSION. 275 

the people of the Territory of Nebraska adopted a Constitution, 
and asked to be admitted to tlie Union, for, if slavery could be 
legalized there, its friends were confident that nothing conld 
prevent its spreading over all the newer Territories that might 
soon be organized farther West. 

The liberty-loving people of the country had not forgotten 
the scenes that had been witnessed in Kansas, when the most in- 
human means were resorted to for the purpose of giving 
slavery a permanent foothold there ; and the indignation of the 
North was thoroughly aroused by this new effort to override the 
Compromise and make slavery possible in Nebraska. 

This statement will sufficiently explain the action of the 
voters of Fitzwilliam which is given below. 

At the annual meeting of the town, March lith, ISoi, Asa 
S. Kendall offered the following resolutions : 

1. Resolved, That we, the legal voters of Fitzwilliam in Town Meeting 
assembled, most earnestly and solemnly Protest against the passage by 
Congress of any Bill calculated to impair, annul or render inoperative, 
or declaring that any legislation has superseded, annulled or rendered 
inoperative, the provisions known as the Missouri Compromise embraced 
in the eighth section of the Act admitting Missouri into the Union, which 
is as follows : 

" That in all that Territory ceded by France to the United State 
under the name of Louisiana which lies noith of the thirty-sixth degree 
and thirty minutes of Xorth Latitude, not included within the limits of 
the State contemplated by this Act, Slavery and involuntary servitude, 
otherwise than as the punishment of crimes, shall be and hereby is for- 
ever proliibited." 

3. Resolved, That we fully coincide in the views expressed in a Re- 
solve passed by the House of Representatives of our State in 1850, as 
follows : " That the people of this State are bound by no compact, ex- 
press or implied, to suffer the introduction of Slavery into territory now 
free ; and that they are unalteral)ly opposed to the erection of any Tei- 
ritory without its prohibition, by positive law." 

3. Resolved, That our State Legislature be requested to instruct our 
Senators and Representatives in Congress, upon no consideration or con- 
dition whatever, not even the preservation of the Union, to give their 
assent to any Bill, permitting, allowing, or even tolerating Slavery in 
that territory which was declared to be forever consecrated to Freedom 
by the Missouri Compromise Act of 1820. 

4. Resolved, That these Resolutions be entered upon the Town Records 



276 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

and that a copy of the same be sent to our State Legislature and to each 
member of our delegation in the Congress of the United States. 

These resolutions, after an address by Ephraim Parker, a 
native of Fitzwilliam, and recently from Missonri, were 
adopted by a vote of one Imndred and twenty to seven. 

That this bold and determined opposition to the repeal, in 
any manner or degree, of the Compromise in qnestion, caused 
the defeat of the measures proposed for that purpose there 
can be no question. jSTebraska was made a free State, and the 
friends of human freedom breathed more freely. 

But the old antagonism, favored by the condition of the 
great political parties of the country, continued, and com- 
promises could do nothing effectual to allay it. The lire was 
only smouldering — it was by no means extinguished. 

The election of Abraham Lincoln to tlie Presidency, in 
1S60, and his inauguration, March 4t]i, 1861, hastened on the 
struggle. 

The outbreak of the Rebellion, which to most appeared so 
sudden and unexpected, was, after all, only the natural order 
of events, when we consider the strength and violence of 
human passion. The time comes when the underground fires 
that have been burning for generations must burst forth. 
But the explosion in this case was none the less fearful for this 
reason. 

The bombardment of Fort Sumter, a fortress of the United 
States in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, carried 
consternation to the hearts of all our loyal countrymen. The 
attack upon this fort, which was made April 12th, 1861, was 
the signal of war ; and when, thirty-six hours later, the heroic 
Colonel (afterward General) Anderson surrendered his little 
garrison to the rebel hosts that confronted him, the great 
struggle had commenced in earnest. Pouring into Virginia, 
an army of rebels at once threatened Washington, and soon 
troops from Massachusetts, dispatched in haste for the rescue 
of our national Capital, were assailed and shot down in the 
streets of Baltimore. All was commotion in the insurgent 
States, and soon the rebel cause seemed to have gained the 
most fearful proportions. These events, that followed one 



THE PATRIOTISM OF THE TOWN", 1861. 277 

anotlier in quick succession, aroused the })atriotism of the 
Korth, and in every town there was a determination to sup- 
port, at all hazards, our Government against the mighty com- 
bination that was threatening its destruction. Fitzwilliam was 
not lacking in this hour of trial, for the men, women, and 
children in every part of the town hastened to raise and honor 
the glorious flag of our Union, and to determine upon the 
course of action that duty and safety demanded. 

At a town meeting legally called and held May 9th, 1861, 
J. J. Allen, Jr. , offered the following preamble and resolutions : 

Whereas several States of the Union have wickedly joined in a rebel- 
lion against the rightful authorities thereof, with the avowed intention, 
by armed resistance to the laws, to subvert the government and estab- 
lish for themselves a Confederacy based upon the central idea of human 
slavery, and 

Whereas the Governor of New Hampshire has, in obedience to a req- 
uisition from the President, called out a portion of the Militia of this 
State to aid in suppressing the insurrection and in the support of the gov- 
ernment, and 

Whereas it becomes all legal persons and constituencies to properly 
show their devotion to the glorious institutions of our country, whicli 
have made it prosper as country never prospered before, 

Therefore 

Resolved, That this town views, with approbation and pride, the pa- 
triotism and spirit of those citizens who have volunteered to enlist from 
this town ; and that any expenditures which may have been made by 
individuals for the comfortable outfit of such volunteers be reimbursed 
to said contributors from the treasury of the Town. 

Resolved, That any such soldier from this town who has already en- 
listed and has a family dependent upon him for support, shall receive, 
either personally or by his said family, from the treasury of the town, a 
sum which, together with what may be paid him by the government, 
shall be equal to one dollar and twenty-five cents per day, exclusive of 
rations, for the time he may honorably discharge his duties in the service. 

Resolved, That the Selectmen be, and they are hereby authorized and 
instructed to purchase twenty-two Revolvers for the use of the soldiers 
now, or hereafter to be enlisted from this town, the intent being that 
upon the expiration of the term of enlistment of said soldiers, such 
weapons shall pass to their successors, if any such there be, if not, they 
shall revert to the town. 

These resolutions appear to have been adopted. 

It was then voted that the town make the pay of each and 



278 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

every soldier who has enlisted and lias not a family dependent 
upon him, equal to the sum of twenty doHars per month, ex- 
clusive of rations. 

It w^as voted also " That the town furnish suitable India- 
rubber blankets for the soldiers who have enhsted," but this 
action was so amended that the cost of the blankets was to be 
deducted from the amount to be paid to the soldiers. 

The selectmen were then directed to carry out these provi- 
sions, and for this purpose empowered to hire a sum of money 
not exceeding one thousand dollars. 

Before the date of the town meeting at which the resolutions 
given above were adopted, viz., May 9th, 1801, the President 
of the United States had issued a call for seventy-five tliousand 
soldiers to enh'st for the space of three months, it being the 
opinion of those in authority and of the loyal people generally, 
that this time would be amply sufficient for putting an end to 
the Rebellion. 

The first enlistments in Fitzwilliam were made under this 
call and were eighteen in number. 

The names of these men will be given nnder the head " First 
Regiment of New Hampshire Volunteers," but it may be 
stated in this place that Willard A. Newton has the honor to 
be the first man who enlisted as a volunteer from Fitzwilliam. 

Of the eighteen men who enlisted under the first call for 
volunteers as mentioned above, seventeen were mustered into 
the service. 

According to the vote of the town each of these men was 
furnished watli a revolver, the whole costing three hundred 
and forty-seven dollars and fifty cents. 

All of these men, with the exception of Mr. Wheeler (who 
served in a Vermont regiment), received from the town as 
bounties sums varying from twenty-five dollars and seventy- 
five cents to twenty-seven dollars each, the whole amounting 
to four hundred and forty-six dollars. 

At a meeting of the town, November 9th, 1861, on motion 
of A. A. Parker, Esq. , it was 

Resolved, That the sum of three hundred Dollars be, and the same is, 
hereby appropriated to the aid of the wife and the children under six- 



ENCOURAGEMENT OF THE EARLY VOLUNTEERS. 270 

teen years of age, of any inhabitant of the town of Fitzwilliam, who as 
a member of the volunteer or enrolled militia of this State, may have 
been mustered or enlisted into the service of the United States, and for 
each parent or child, who, at the time of his enlistment, was dependent 
on him for support ; provided that such persons are indigent and stand 
in need of snch relief. And the Selectmen are authorized to borrow on 
the credit of the towa a sum not exceeding three hundred dollars and 
apply so much thereof as may be needed for the purposes aforesaid. 

At an adjourned town meeting a week later, a statement of 
expenditures having been made by the selectmen, A. A. 
Parker, Es(i[., offered the following resolution, which was 
adopted : 

Resolved, That the sum of three hundred and sixty-five dollars and 
thirty-eight cents be raised to defray the expense already incurred in the 
purchase of Revolvers and Blankets for the soldiers of Fitzwilliam en- 
listed into the service of the United States, and the Selectmen be author- 
ized to hire said sum on the credit of the town. 

Subscriptions made in aid of the volunteers who enlisted in 
the service of the United States at the breaking out of the 
war, the town voted at tlie annual meeting in March, 1862, to 
refund. 

In the selectmen's report to the town at the annual meeting, 
March 11th, 1862, the only account of expenses occasioned by 
the war is as follows. Paid soldiers' families. 



Mrs. Nnthan Morse $33.50 

Elihu Morse 46. o9 

Mrs. AsaB. Fiske 31.00 

Frederic Lawrence 38.00 

Sarah Cass 14.00 



Paul Martin |13.00 

Lucius Whitcomb 28.00 

Total $204.09 



May 17th, 1862, the town appropriated four hundred dollars 
in aid of the families of volunteers, under provisions precisely 
similar to those adopted for the same purpose at the town 
meeting, November 9th, 1861, and which are recorded above. 

August 22d, 1862, the town adopted the following : 

Resolved, Tliat a Bounty of one Imndred and fifty dollars be paid to 
each volunteer from this town who shall hereafter be enlisted and mus- 
tered into the service of the United States in any regiment of volunteers 
heretofore raised in this State during the present rebellion ; that a 
Bounty of one hundred dollars be paid to every such volunteer so enlisted 
and mustered in any regiment of volunteers now being raised in this 



280 IIISTOET OF FITZWILLIAM. 

State, and that a Bounty of fifty dollars be paid to each volunteer from 
this town under the recent call for 300,000 troops to serve nine months 
unless sooner discharged. 

Provided however that said bounties shall not be paid unless such 
volunteers shall have enlisted or made known their readiness to enlist 
before any draft for the description of force they propose to join shall 
be actually made and they shall be accepted and mustered in as a part of 
the quota of the town. 

It was then voted to adopt the following preamble and reso- 
lutions : 

Whereas an act was passed at the last session of the General Court 
entitled " An Act in addition to and Amendment of the Act Authorizing 
cities and towns to aid the families of Volunteers and for other pur- 
poses," passed June Session, 18G1, which act restricts the provisions of 
the previous act in some particulars and extends them in others, therefore 

Resolved, That the resolution adopted at the town meeting held May 
17, 1862, appropriating four hundred dollars in aid of the families of 
Volunteers be, and the same is hereby rescinded. 

Resolved, That the sum of live hundred dollars be, and the same is 
hereby approjjriated for the purposes authorized by said act of the last 
session of the General Court, to be applied by the Selectmen as the same 
shall in their judgment be needed. 

The selectmen were then authorized to borrow the money 
needed to pay the bounties specified in the above-mentioned 
resolution, to pay the bounties and to procure volunteers. 

At an adjourned meeting held August 29tli, 1862, the se- 
lectmen having made a statement of their action in procuring 
volunteers, it was 

Resolved, That the volunteers for the new three years' Regiments be 
paid twenty-five dollars each, and the volunteers for nine months be 
paid Fifty dollars each in addition to the amount already voted. 

Resolved, That the Selectmen be, and they are hereby authorized and 
instructed to pay the wife and the children under twelve years of age 
of all volunteers in the regiments formed, under the recent requisitions 
for 300,000 men for three years and 300,000 men for nine months, four 
dollars per month, each, in addition to the bounties heretofore voted ; 
the whole amount so paid not to exceed twelve dollars per month for any 
one family ; and this payment to continue so long as the volunteer re- 
mains in the service. 

Voted, That the Bounties, exclusive of the aid to their families, be 



APPROPRIATIONS FOR SOLDIERS' FAMILIES. 281 

paid to the Volunteers on being mustered into the service of the United 
States. 

At the annual meeting, March 10th, 1863, the sum of eighteen 
luindred dollars was appropriated, or so much of it as should 
be needed to aid soldiers' families. 

At the same meeting, March 10th, 1863, the selectmen's re- 
port showed disbursements, on account of the war, as follows : 

Charles II. Woods, enlisting volunteers $25 

Bounties to three years' men 1800 

" " nine months' " 2100 

Paid to soldiers' families 1043.50 

Total, $4968.50 

As the soldiers' names to whom these bounties were paid, and 
the amount which each soldier received will appear in the 
tables annexed, Avhere the names of all the men who enlisted 
will be presented in their regiments and companies, no more 
particulars respecting these soldiers are here required. 

The families aided daring the year closing March 10th, 18(53, 
were as follows : 



Elihu Morse $134.04 

Lucius Whitcomb 106.46 

Nathan Morse 110..'iO 

Asa B. Fiske 94.00 

Paul Martin 28.00 

John L. Church 45.00 

Asaph Whitcomb 48.00 

JohnB. Fiske 40.00 

Frederick Lawrence 24.00 

Daniel P. Osborn 42.00 

Joseph H. Rarasdell 40.00 



Stillman S. Stone $40.00 

George A. Smiley 60.00 

Jefferson Richardson 48.00 

Loammi B. Underwood .... 9.50 

Charles R. Monroe 32.00 

Amos T. Town 48.00 

James M. Ingalls 32.00 

Elisha Harkness 48.00 

Leander Richardson 14.00 

Total $1,043.50 



September 13tli, 1863, the town voted 

to pay to the men now drafted of this town who have been or shall be 
mustered into the United States service, or to the substitutes of the said 
drafted men, who have been or shall be mustered into the United States 
service, three hundred dollars, eacli, ten days after being mustered into 
said service. 

December 21st, 1863, the town adopted the following : 

Resolved, That the Committee duly appointed for the purpose of fill- 
ing the quota required of the town of Fitzwilliara, are authorized to pay 



282 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

each citizen wlio will enlist and be mustered into the service of the 
United States the sum of three hundred dollars, in addition to the 
bounties offered by the Government of the United States and the State of 
New Hampshire. 

Resolved, That if the Committee fail of procuring citizens to fill (he 
quota as required of said town, then they are authorized to hire men to 
till up said quota, at a reasonable price, provided the sum of money re- 
quired for each man does not exceed three hundred dollars in addition 
to the bounties of the United States and the State of New Hampshire. 

Resolved, That the Committee of the town are authorized to cash the 
bounties offered by the Governments of the United States and the State 
of New Hampshire, in the payment of their contract with all the volun- 
teers that are mustered into the United States service to fill the quota of 
Fitzwilliam, provided such bounties are legally transferred and assigned 
to the town of Fitzwilliam. 

The committee appointed by the town to carry into effect 
the resolutions adopted at the meeting of December 21st, 18G3, 
consisted of George L. Stearns and Phillip S. Batcheller, and 
they were authorized to apj^oint another member of their com- 
mittee. 

Amos J. Blake, Esq., "was appointed upon this committee. 
Provision was also made for borrowing a sum of money, not 
exceeding fifteen thousand' dollars ($15,000), to carry into effect 
the resolutions above-mentioned. 

At the annual town meeting, March 8th, 1864, it was voted 

That all veteran soldiers of Fitzwilliam who have re-enlisted for three 
years or during the war, and can be allowed on the quota of this town 
on any call of the President, be paid, as Bounty, the sum of Three Hun- 
dred dollars each, provided they have not received any extra pay or 
bounty from this or any other town or State. 

At the same meeting, March 8th, 1864, the report of the , 
selectmen showed disbursements 0!i account of the war, as 
follows : 

Bounties paid to three years' men $9,724 

" " " drafted " ;... 1,200 

Paid balance due three months' men 265 

" to aid soldiers' families 1,313 

$12,502 



APPROPRIATIONS FOR SOLDIERS' BOFNTIES. 283 

The soldiers' families aided during the year closing March 
Sth, 18G4, and the amounts received by each were as follows : 

George A. Smilie $149.00 ! Jefferson Richardson $42.00 

Elihu Morse 140.00 J. Lovell Church 47.38 

Nathan Morse 127.75 Abraham H. Richards 48.00 

Daniel P. Osborne 120.00 Asa B. Fiske 24.00 

Asaph Whitcomb 98.67 Julius O. Stone 10.00 

John B. Fiske 88.00 Paul Martin 10.00 

Amos T. Town 72.00 Robert Nixon 12.00 

Samuel S. Stone 90.25 Elisha Rugp- 8.00 

James M. Inoalls 48.00 Lucius Whitcomb 6.00 

Charles R. Monroe 48.00 ' 

Elisha Harkness 48.00 ' Total $1,313.00 

At the same date among the assets of the town the follow- 
ing important items may be found : 

Dne from United States Government for 

bounties advanced $4004 

" from State for State aid 1136 



Total, §5140 
Jane 18th, 1864, the town adopted the following : 

Resolved, Tlu\t the Selectmen are authorized to pay to each soldier of 
Fitzwilliam who has been drafted since May 1, 1864, to fill the quota of 
the town, or who has furnished a substitute, the sum of three liundred 
dollars as a bounty, to be paid in ten days after he has been accepted 
and mustered into the service of the United States. 

July 23d, 1864, the town adopted the following : 

Resolved, That the Selectmen of the Town of Fitzwilliam be author- 
ized and instructed in behalf of the town, to pay tlie sum of one hun- 
dred dollars as a bounty, for each one year's man, two hundred dollars 
for each two years' man, and three hundred dollars for each three years' 
man, wl\o shall be mustered into the sers'ice of the United Slates, as a 
volunteer to fill the quota of this town, under the present call of the 
President for five hundred thousand men. 

The same bounties were offered for substitutes of enrolled 
men, while at the same time the town voted to pay 

to any drafted person of said town wlio may be held to service under the 
present order for a draft, who shall serve in person, the sum of two hun- 
dred dollars, or to his substitute the highest sum the law authorizes. 



284 HISTORY OF FITZ WILLI AM. 

September 5tli, 1864, the town adopted the following : 

Resolved, That the Selectmen are authorized to pay four hundred 
dollars as bounty to any person who has been an inhabitant of Fitzwill- 
iam for three months, and has enlisted on the quota of said town under 
the last call of the President and actually mustered into the service of 
the United States. 

Resolved, That the town does hereby appropriate as bounty to each 
soldier, except to those enlisted from insurgent States, who shall be mus- 
tered into the service of the United States, to fill the quota of Fitzwill- 
iam, under the last call of the President, whether such soldier shall 
have voluntarily enlisted, or volunteered as a substitute for a drafted or 
enrolled man, the sum of one hundred dollars for each one year's man, 
two hundred dollars for each two years' man, and three hundred dollars 
for each three years' man, and in the same proportion for any term of 
service, the above specified bounties of one hundred, two hundred, and 
three hundred dollars are hereby declared to be in lieu of the bounties 
voted by the town, July 23, 1864. 

Jannary 10th, 1865. The toM'n voted 

to pay the sum of two hundred dollars to each volunteer, the same being 
a citizen of this town that has or may enlist and be mustered into the 
service of the United States for the term of one year prior to the 2d 
Tuesday of March, 1805. 

At the annual meeting, March 14th, 1865, the action above 
mentioned of January 16th, 1865, was restricted to such as 
helped to fill the quota of Fitzwilliam, 

At this meeting, March 14th, 1865, the town repeated its 
offers of bounties to men serving one, two, and three years, of 
one hundred, two hundred, and three hundred dollars, as it 
had done July 23d, 1864, but the offer was under a new call 
of the President for three hundred thousand men. 

A bounty of two hundred dollars was pledged to each drafted 
man when mustered into service, and also a bounty of one 
hundred dollars for each year's service was offered to any per- 
son who should be mustered in under the same call, as a part 
of the quota of Fitzwilliam. 

April loth, 1865, the town voted 

to pay the sum of two hundred dollars additional bounty to the sum al- 
ready voted, to the seven men w ho last enlisted in the service of the 
United States to fill the quota of Fitzwilliam under the last call of the 
President, provided that no one of the seven men shall receive in all, as 
bounty, a sum exceeding five hundred dollars. 



KEPORTS OF THE SELECTMEIS", 1865 AND 1866. 285 

At the annual jneeting, March 14th, 1805, it appeared from 
the report of the selectmen that disbursements on account of 
tlie M'ar had been made during the year covered by the re- 
port, as follows : 

Paid bounties ^2400 

" balance due three months' men 155.25 

" for furnishing substitutes 8100 

To aid soldiers' families 1562.05 



Total, $12,217.30 

Soldiers' fann'lies were aided during the year closing March 
lith, 1865, as follows : 



Robert Nixon $144.00 

George A. Smilies 144.00 

Daniel P. Osborn 144.00 

Nathan Morse 120.00 

Elisha Rugg 96.00 

J. Orlando" Stone 100.00 

Abraliam H. Richards 144.00 

Darius 11. "Whitcomb OG.OO 

Lewis K. Ward 96.00 

Paul Martin 68.00 

Daniel H. Reed 70.00 



John A. Platts $34.00 

Levi N. Lillie 80.00 

Joseph E. Harkness 84.00 

n. H. Boyce 24.00 

Elisha Harkness 40.00 

JohnB. Fiske 40.00 

Samuel S. Stone 90. 00 

John H. Streeter 84.00 

Elisha Morse 2.05 

Total $1,562.05 



In the same report, among the assets of the town, these 
items appear : 

Due from United States Government $3118 

State for State aid 1244.05 



a 



a 



$4362.05 

It would appear from the appropriations of the town during 
these long years of painful suspense and immense sacrifices at 
home, in the army, and in the hospitals, that a liberal policy 
toward the soldiers and their families was pursued from the be- 
ginning. 

At the annual meeting, March 13th, 1866, the report of 
the selectmen shows the following disbursements on account 
of the war, which happily had been brought to a close the 
previous year. 

Bounties paid $3500 



Elisha Rugof $47.73 

Nathan C. Carter 47.57 

Orvis Fisher 47.14 

Daniel P. Osborn 33.00 

Sylvester Boutwell 31.48 

Ora Hohnan 47.14 

Robert McDonald 15.00 

John A. Platts 12.00 



286 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

The soldiers' families aided during the year closing Marcli 

13th, 1866, were as follows : 

Georfre A. Smilie |64.00 

Nathan Morse 40.00 

Robert Nixon 72.00 

Stillman S. Stone 27.73 

Julius O. Stone 65.20 

Darius H. Whitcomb 54.00 

Henry H. Boyce 18.00 

Joseph E. Harkness 24.00 

Lewis K. Ward 47.20 

Abraham H. Richards 57.00 \ Total $750.19 

The LTnited States Government owed the town at the date 
given above three thousand one Imndred and eighteen dollars, 
and the State four hundred and forty-six dollars and nineteen 
cents. 

In 1865 the town had appointed the three resident clergy- 
men of the place a committee to keep a record of FitzwiUiam 
in suppressing the Rebellion, but they had declined the ser- 
vice. Accordingly, March 8tli, 1870, the town voted : 

That a Committee of three be chosen to collect facts in regard to the 
enlistment, service and death of Soldiers in the late War, of or from 
this Town, and make report of the same, which report shail be recorded 
in the Records of the town. 

The committee chosen for this purpose consisted of Captain 
Jonathan S. Adams, George A. Whittemore, and John M. 
Parker. The chairman. Captain Adams, it is understood, did 
a large part of the work involved in collecting and arranging 
the materials of this important report, and appears to have been 
thorough and painstaking from the beginning to the end of 
his labor. 

Messrs. "Whittemore and Parker were in the service of the 
country, the former as assistant quartermaster, with the rank 
of captain for a period, while the latter served nearly three 
years in the lield and was first lieutenant of his company when 
mustered out of the service. In a voluminous report of this 
nature, there is always a liability to mistakes, but this is deemed 
to be as reliable as the circumstances would admit of. 

All the most important facts set forth in this report are here 
given, and the order observed in arranging them has been gen- 



SOLUIEllS IN THE FIRST AND SECOND REGIMENTS. 287 

erally followed, while a few corrections have been made and 
some additional facts incorporated. 

FIRST REGIMENT K H. VOLUNTEERS. 

SOLDIERS FOR THREE MONTHS WHO RECEIVED BOUNTIES. 





Bounty. 




Bounty. 


Daniel S. Brooks .... 


$25.75 


John G. Felch 


$27.00 


Calvin A. Blodo-ett. . . 


25.75, 


Silas L. Ileywood 


25.75 


Charles S. Blodo;ett.. 


25.75 


Danvers Miles 


25.75 


John H. Bnrrell 


25.75; 


George W. Miles 


27.00 


Daniel E. Burbank. . , 


27. oo; 


Michael McManns 


27.00 


Thaddeus Cumniings. 


27. (H» 


Willard A. Newton. . . . 


25.75 


George Coolidge 


25.75 


Thomas J. Richardson. , 


26.50 


William Dunton 


27.00 


'Albert G. Stone 


25.75 


Jonas Forristall 


25. 75 


Luther D. Wheeler .... 


None, 



These eighteen men were the first to enlist from Fitzwilliam 
for the defence of the country, and, as before stated, the town 
furnished each of them with a revolver at the cost of $19.38 
each. Messrs. Newton, Stone, and Wheeler were mustered 
into the service May 3d, 1801, and mustered out of it soon after 
the expiration of three months, viz., August 9th, 1861. 

Fourteen of the above were afterward mustered into the 
Second Regiment and two into the Sixteenth. One, Mr. 
Wheeler, was mustered into a Vermont regiment, while the 
remaining one, Mr. Felch, does not appear to have been mus- 
tered in at all. 

SECOND REGIMENT N. H. VOLUNTEERS. 

SOLDIERS FOR THREE YEARS OR THE WAR, WITHOUT BOUNTIES. 



Daniel S. Brooks. 



Calvin A. Blodgett. 
Charles S. Blodgett. 

John H. Burrell . . . 



Co. 



A. 

A. 
A. 

A. 



Mustered in. 



May 31, 1861. Captured at Bull Run, July 21, 
18G1 ; died, Oct. 19, 1861, a 
prisoner at Richmond, Va. 

Mustered out, June 21, 1864. 

Discharged for disability, 
Sept. 13, 1862. 

Mustered out, June 21, 1864. 



288 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



SECOND REGIMENT N. H. VOLUNTEERS— (Cwi^mMefZ). 





Co. 


Mustered in. 




Alfred K. Bowcn .... 


A. 


May 31, 1861. 


Promoted corporal, Dec. 1, 
1863 ; mustered out, June 
21, 1864. 


Daniel E. Burbank. . . 


A. 


(( 


Discharged, May 22, 18G2. 


Thaddeus Cummings . 


A. 


u 


Discharged for disability, 
Sept. 12, 1862. 


George Coolidge 


A. 


u 


Discharged for disability, 
Aug. 19, 1861. 


William Duiiton 


A. 


(< 


Promoted corporal; wounded, 
Aug. 29, 1862 ; discharged 
because of wounds, Nov. 6, 
1862. 


Jonas Forristall 


A. 


11 


Died, Oct. 25, 1862, of disease, 
at Bladensburg, Md. 


Henry M. Gilsou 


K. 


June 8, 1861, 


Date of discharge not learned. 


Silas L. Hey wood .... 


A. 


May 31, 1861. 


Promoted sergeant, Nov. 1, 

1861 ; 2d Lieut., Sept. 1, 

1862 ; 1st Lieut., July 3, 

1863 ; mustered out, Jan. 
21, 1864. 


Danvers Miles 


A. 


a 


Wounded, May 5, 1862 ; dis- 
charged. July 30, 1862, on 
account of wounds. 


George W. Miles 


A. 


u 


Killed at Fair Oaks, Va., June 
25, 1862. 


Michael McManus .... 


A. 


u 


Wounded, July 2, 1863 ; pro- 
moted corporal, Dec. 1, 1863 ; 
mustered out, June 21, 1864. 


Albert G. Stone 


A. 


Sept. 17, 18G1 


Wounded, Aug. 29, 1862; died. 
Nov. 2, 1862, from w^ounds. 


Charles A. Stone 


A. 


(( 


Mustered out, Sept. 14, 1864. 


John M. Stearns 


C. 


Jvine 1, 1861. 


Discharged , for disability, 
Dec, 1862. 


JosiahO. Taft 


A. 


May 31, 1861. 


Died, June 30, 1862, of disease, 
on the retreat near Rich- 
mond, Va. 



In the Second Regiment were tlie following who received 
bounty, $150 each : 



John B. Fiske 



James Walsh. 



Co. 



Mustered in. 



Sept. 18, 1862. 



Slightly wounded and missing, 

July 2, 1863, but returned ; 

discharged, Dec. 30, 1863. 
Wounded slightly, Aug. 18, 

1864 ; mustered out, June 

14, 1865. 



SOLDIERS IN^ THE THIRD REGIMENT. 



289 



James O. Amadou was reported as enlisted from Fitzwilliam 
in tlie Second Regiment, but his name is not found in tlie 
Adjutant-General's Heports. He went in 1861 and served 
through the war without receiving any injury, but was not 
legally mustered into service or mustered out, 

THIRD REGDIEXT X. H. VOLUNTEERS. 

FOR THKEE YEARS OR THE WAR, WITHOUT BOUKTY. 





Co. 
I. 


Mustered in. 




George W. Felch 


Aug. 24, 1861. 


Discharged for disability, 








Dec. 16, 1861. 


Marshall P. Hawkins. 


I. 


(( 


Promoted corporal; 1st Sergt., 
April 11, 1862 ; 2d Lieut., 
Aug. 28, 1862 ; resigned, 
Xov. 28, 1863. 


Joseph E. Harkness... 


I. 


(( 


Wounded slightly, Julv I'S, 
1863 ; re-enlisted, Feb. 22, 
1864. 


John M. Parker 


I. 


u 


Promoted 1st Sergt., Oct. 15, 

1862 ; 2d Lieut., June 14, 

1863 ; 1st Lieut., Jan. 6, 
1864; mustered out, Oct. 31. 
1864. 



Soldiers in Third Regiment with bounties 



Co. 



Joseph E. Harkness ; I, 
re-enlisted. Bounty, 
$300. 



Christopher Healy. 
Bounty, |700. 

Robert Xixon. Boun- 
ty, $702. 



Mustered in. 



Feb. 22, 1864. Wounded severely, May 13, 
1864 ; mustered out, July 
20, 1865 ; whole term of 
service, 46 mos. 26 days. 

Jan. 1, 1864. iMustered out, July 20, 1865. 



Jan. 5, 1864. 



Slightly wounded. May 13, 
1864 ; accidentally wounded, 
June 16, 1864 ; died, July, 
1865, at sea, on homeward 
passage. 



19 



290 



HISTORY OF FITZ WILLIAM. 



FIFTH N. H. REGIMENT. 
Enrolled soldiers of FitzwilHam wlio were drafted. 



following were exempted for disability : 



Phillip S. Batcheller, 
Amos O. Blanchard, 
Daniel F. Bowker, 
James B. Bowker, 
Zeplianiali A. Bojce, 
John II. Brooks, 
John F, Cummings, 
Lyman Davis, 
George O. Dnnton, 
Charles E. Emerson, 

Loammi B. 



George J, Full am, 
Levi A. Fuller, 
Isaac A. Handy, 
Peter Hoose, 
Charles F. Ingalls, 
Daniel Matheson, 
Frederic E. Pierce, 
Joshua E. Pierce, 
Lorenzo Pierce, 
Osborn H. Platts, 
Underwood. 



The 



Edwin Sykes was exempted as an alien ; Pobert Brooks, Jr., 
did not report to the provost-marshal. 

The following rendered personal service and received $3U0 
bounty each : 





Co. 


Date of Muster. 




Henry H. Boyce 


F. 


Oct. 3, 1863. 


Promoted corporal, Oct. 23, 

1864 ; captured, Mar. 25, 

1865 ; paroled, Mar. 30, 
1865 ; mustered out, June 
24, 1865. 


Alplieus Handy 


E. 


(( 


Missing at Cold Harbor, Va.. 
June 3, 1864, but returned ; 
discharged by order, June 






u 


16, 1865 ; lost an arm. 


Philander Martin 


C. 


u 


Wounded, June 5, 18G4 ; dis- 
charged by order, June 3, 
1865. 


Abraham H. Richards, 


E. 


(1 


Captured, Aug. 16, 1864, at 
FlusselTs Mills, Va. ; paroled, 
Sept. 1, 1864 ; discharged, 
June 8, 1865. 



SUBSTITUTES FOR DRAFTED AT^D ENROLLED MEN. 291 



The following drafted men furnished substitutes, for which 
each received bounty, $300 : 



Martin S. Deeth. 



Dexter Richardson. 



Supposed 
substitute, 

Pat. Morris. 
Supposed 
substitute, 

John Mud 
gett. 



Theophilus W. May. J. Trimble. 



Co. iDate of Muster. 



G. 



B. 



F. Aug. 11, 1864 



Oct. 2, 1863. Killed, June 22, 
1864, near Peters- 
burg, Va. 

Deserted near Pe- 
tersburg, Va., Oct. 
28, 1864 ; recov- 
ered from deser- 
tion ; -wounded. 
Mar. 6, 1865 ; ab- 
sent sick, since 
Mar. 6, 1865 ; no 
discharge. 

Deserted, Sept. 15, 
1864, near Peters- 
burg, Va. 



Aug. 19, 1864 



Enrolled soldiers, not drafted, who furnished substitutes to 
fill the quota of Fitzwilliani, for which each received a bounty 
of $300 : 





Substitutes. 


Co. 


Date of Mus- 








F. 


ter, 1864. 




Timothy Blodgett... 


F'k. McKee 


Sept. 2. 


Mustered out, June 










28, 1865. 


Lyman "W. Bowker . 


J. P. Haden 


B. 


Aug. 31. 


Mustered out, June 
28, 1865. 


Charles Byara 


John Cole.. 




Aug. 25. 


Deserted en route to 
rcoiment. 


Moses Chaplin . 


J Bao-o-ott 




Auo- 11 


Dcsprtpd pn roiitp to 










regiment. 


Jonas Damon. . . . . . 


H. J. Smith 


G. 


Aug. 31. 


Mustered out, June 
28, 1865. 


Marshall P. Damon. 


J. Barrigan. 




(< 


Deserted en route to 
regiment. 


Ira W. Ellis 


Wm. Waters 


C. 


Aug. 30. 


Deserted, Oct. 11, 
1864, near Peters- 
burg, Va. 


Gilbert A. Petts 


John Brown 




Aug. 22. 


Deserted en route to 
regiment. 


George W. Parker. . 


Aug. Adams 


B. 


Sept. 2. 


Mustered out, June 
12, 1865. 


Nelson E. Pratt 


Levi 3Iorris 


F. 


u 


Deserted, Dec. 30, 
1864,w]iiie on fur- 
lough from hos- 

_ pital. 



292 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 





Substitutes, 


Co. 


Date of Mus- 
ter 1864. 




Jolm N. Richardson 


E. Fazack- 




Mustered out, June 




erly 


A. 


Aug. 23. 


15, 1865. 


William H. Shirley. 


Th. Brown. 


K. 


Aug. 22. 


Transferred to Co. 
H. ; deserted to 
enemy, Dec. 1, 
1864. 


Edmund Spauldiug. 


A. Gorham. 


C. 


Aug. 24. 


Missing, April 7, 
1865,but returned; 
mustered out, 
June 28. 1865. 


Joseph. H. Streeter.. 


James Buss. 




Aug. 9. 


Deserted en route to 
regiment. 


A. J. Streeter 


Lawr. Tully 


G. 


n 


Captured, April 7, 
re-captured, April 
9, 1865; mustered 
out, June 28, 1865. 


Phinehas Whitcomb 


G. Blinville 


B. 


Sept. 2. 


Deserted, Oct. 11, 
1864, near Peters- 
burg, Va. 


Josiah Wilder, Jr.... 


Chas. Myers 


F. 


Sept. 1. 


Absent sick, June 28, 
1865 ; no dis- 










charge. 



The following rendered personal service : 



Paul Martin. 



Volunteered 
bounty, 

$800. 



Co. 



D. 



Date of Muster, 
1864. 



Jan. 1. 



Wounded, June 3, 
1864; discharged, 
Nov. 19, 1864, at 
De Camp Hospi- 
tal, New York. 



The following men in this regiment received no bounty 



Almond G. Lowell... 



Co. 



E. 



Date of Muster. 



Oct. 19, 1861. 



Mustered out, Oct. 29, 1864. 



SOLDIERS IN THE SIXTH EEGIMENT. 



293 



In tlie Adjntaiit-Geiierars Keports the followin<):; are credited 
to Fitzwilliam, but nothing further is known of them : 



Nelson C. Haskell. 
William Haley. . . . 



Co. Date of Muster. 



F. 
I. 



Oct. 23, 1861. Discharged, Dec. 27, 1862, for 

! disability. 
Aug. 31, 1864.:Discliarged, July 10, 1865. 



Transferred from Second Regiment U. S. Sharpshooters, 
January 30th, 1865 : 



Nathan Morse .... 
Wymau S. White 



Co. 



Mustered out, June 28, 1865. 
Discharged, Mar. 6, 1865. 



SIXTH REGIMENT N. H. VOLUNTEERS. 

MEN FOR THREE YEARS OR THE WAR, WHO RECEIVED NO BOUNTY. 





Co. 
F. 


Date of Muster. 




Henry J. Amadon. . . . 


Nov. 28, 1861. 


Wounded, May 13, 1864; mus- 








tered out, Nov. 27, 1864. 


John L. Church 


u 


(( 


Died, Sept. 30, 1863, at Nich- 
olasville, Kv. 


Asa B. Fiske 


u 


11 


Discharged, Nov. 6, 1862, at 
Alexandria, Va., on account 
of wounds. 


Daniel M. Fiske 


il 


li 


Killed, Sept. 16, 1862, at An- 
tietam, Md. 


Theodore Haskell .... 


u 


Dec. 3, 1861. 


Wounded, May 12, 1864; dis- 
charged, Dec. 3, 1864. 


Fred. C. Lawrence 


u 


Nov. 28, 1861. 


Died, Jan. 20, 1863, at Troy, 
N. H. 


Paul Martin 


G. 


Dec. 9, 1861. 


Discharged, Oct. 18, 1862, at 
Alexandria, Va. 




Elihu L. Morse 


F. 


Nov. 28, 1861. 


Died, Sept. 9, 1863, of disease, 
at Nicholasville, Ky. 


John A. Platts 


K. 


a 


Re-enlisted (Jan., 1864?). See 
after. 


Elijah T. Platts 


u 


(1 


Re-enlisted, Jan. 4, 1864. See 
after. 



294 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIA^r. 

SIXTH EEGDIENT N. H. YOLV:^TEEIiS— (Continued). 



Dauiel H. Reed . 



Levi W. Rice. 



John H. Streeter. 



Sylvanus C. Waters . 
Lucius Wliitcomb . . 



George H. AVilson. 



Charles W.Wilson. 



Co. Date of Muster. 



F. [Dec. 3, 1861.|Transferred toCo. E. 4tliReg. 
L'. S. Regular Artillery : mus- 
tered out, Xov. 27, 18G4. 
Nov. 28, 1861. Discharged, Aug. 23, 1862. at 
Newport News, Va., for dis- 
ability. 
Jan. 14, 1862. 'Promoted corj^joral; wounded. 
May 6, 1864 ; mustered out, 
Jan. 18, 1865. 
Killed, Sept. 17, 1862, at An- 
tietam, Md. 
H. Nov. 28, 1861. Transferred to Co. F, Dec. 1, 
1861; killed, Aug. 29, 1862, 
at Bull Run. 
Transferred to Co. F, Dec. 1, 
1861 ; discharged at New- 
berne, N. C. ; re-enlisted, 
Dec. 25, 1863. See after. 
Dec. 10, 1861. Deserted Jan. 26,1863, at Fifth 
Street Hospital, Philadel- 
jjhia, Pa. 



In the Adjutant-General's Reports the following are credited 
to Fitzwilliam, btit nothing further is known of them : 



James L. Demarv, Jr. 



Morris Howard 



Co. Date of Master, 



H. 



Nov. 28, 1861. Transferred to Co. F, Dec. 1, 
1861 ; discharged for disa- 
bility at Baltimore, Md. 

June 2, 1864.1 Supposed to have deserted eu 
route to reo'iment. 



FOR THREE YEARS OR THE WAR, WHO RECEIVED BOUNTIES. 



Charles Brown. 
Abram Corev. . 



Co. 



F. 



Dale of Muster. Bounty 



Dec. 31, 1863. $580 Desertedenroute to regi- 
ment. 
Absent sick, since April 
28, 1864; no discharge 
furnished. 



Dec. 30, 1863. 700 



SOLDIERS IN THE SIXTH AND NINTH REGIMENTS. 295 





Co. 

a. 


Date of Muster. 


Bounty. 




» 

John Conner 


Dec. 31, 1863. 


1580 


Deserted, Feb. 3, 1864, 










at Camp Nelson, Ky. 


Louis Hanson 




Dec. 30, 1863. 


580 


Deserted en route to regi- 
ment. 


John Johnson 


C4. 


Dec. 31, 1863. 


580 


Promoted cor})oral, July 
1, 1865; mustered out, 
July 17, 1865. 


Charles B. Perkins.. 


F. 


Dec. 30, 1863. 


700 


Transferred to Veteran 
Reserve Corps, Jan. 
20, 1865 ; discharged, 
June 7, 1865. 


Elisha Ruo-sr 


F. 


(( 


700 


Wounded, June 17, 1864; 










mustered out, July 17, 
1865. 



.Re-enlisted men 





Co. 
K. 


Date of Muster. 


Bounty. 




Elijah T. Plaits .... 


Jan. 4, 1864. 


$300 


Promoted serg't ; quar- 










termaster-serg't, Julv 










1,1864; mustered out. 










July 17, 1865. 


JohnA. Platts 


K. 




300 


Promoted sergeant, July 
1, 1864; 1st lieut., June 
1, 1865; mustered out, 
Julv 17, 1865. 


George H. "Wilson... 


F. 


Dec. 35, 1863. 


300 


Killed in battle, May 4, 
1864. 



NINTH N. H. REGLMENT. 

FOR THREE YEARS OR THE WAR ; RECEIVED NO BOUNTY. 



George A. Smilie. 



Co. 



Date of Muster. 



Aug. 19, 1862. 



Reported deserted, Sept. 17, 
1862, at Antietam, Md., but 
was recovered; discharged, 
June 10, 1865. 



296 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM, 

Drafted man ; received bounty, $300. 



Lewis K. Ward. 



Co. 



B. 



Date of Muster. 



June 6, 1864. 



Transferred to Co. B, 6th N.H. 
Reg. Junel, 1865; mustered 
out, July 17, 1865. 



Enrolled soldiers, not drafted, wlio furnished substitutes to 
fill the quota of Fitzwilliara, for which each received a bounty 

of $300. 



L. R. Angler. 



E. Cummings. . . .John Garvin 



N. Heath 



Dustin A. Gee... 



L. Richardson... 
JohnW. Shirley 



Jas.Woolsey 



II. B. Streeter... 
Caleb Sweetser.. 
Anson Streeter.. 



J.Furgurson 
G. Mendon.. 



E. Rochette. 

Geo. Tenry. 

J. Thomas, 
colored . 



Co. 



C. 
A. 



A. 
K. 



Date of Muster. 



Aug. 25, 1864. 



Aug. 24, 1864. 



Aug. 25, 1864. 
Aug. 24, 1864. 



June 14, 1864. 
Aug. 25, 1864. 



Transferred to Co. A, 
Sixth N. H. Reg., 
June 1, 1865 ; mus- 
tered out, July 17, 
1865. 

Deserted en route to 
regiment. 

Missing, Sept. 30, 1864, 
at Poplar Grove 
Church, Va., but was 
recovered ; trans- 
ferred to Co. A, Sixth 
l»j. H., .June 1, 18G5; 
mustered out, July 
17, 1865. 

Same as AVoolsey. 

Transferred to Co. K, 
Sixth N. H., June 1, 
1865; promoted cor- 
poral, June 10, 1865; 
mustered out, July 
17, 1865. 

Deserted en route to 
regiment. 

Deserted en route to 
regiment. 

Transferred to Nine- 
teenth U. S. Colored 
Regiment. 



SOLDIERS IN THE FOURTEENTH REGIMENT. 



297 



FOURTEENTH REGIMENT N. 11. VOLUNTEERS. 

MEN FOR THREE TEARS OR THE WAR, WITH BOUNTIES AS STATED. 

L. K, Wheeler was in Co. A, all the others in Co. C. 



Benjamin ^y. Byam.. 
Amos W. Brooks . . . . 



George W. Felch. . 



Thomas D. Havden. . 

Thomas F. Holman. . Sept. 23, 1862. 



Date of Muster. Bounty. 



Sept. 22, 1862. 



Daniel Harris.. 
Levi N. Lillie. 



Daniel P. Osborn . . . 
Josejjh H. Ramsdell. 



Dec. 15, 1863. 



Sept. 22, 1862. 



Samuel S. Stone Sept. 23, 1862, 



Julius O. Stone Dec. 15, 1863. 

Wright Whitcomb.... Sept. 22,1862 



Darius IL Wliitcomb. 



Joseph Whipple Dec. 22, 1864, 

Robert AValton Sei)t. 22, 1862. 



Lyman K. Wheeler. 



$125 
125 



125 
125 



700 



125 
125 

125 



702 
125 



125 



200 
125 

125 



Discharged for disability at 
Washington, Fcl). 28, 1863. 

Died at Anuaj^olis .Junction, 
Md., Jan. 14, 1865. 

Promoted corporal, .Jan. 27, 
1864; 1st serg't, June 12, 
1864; killed at Winchester, 
Va., Sept. 19, 1864. 

Mustered out, July 8, 1865. 

Promoted corporal, Oct. 1, 
1864: discharged, July 8, 
1865; died, July 29, 1865. 

Wounded, Oct. 19, 1864 ; 
mustered out, July 8, 1865. 

Died of disease at David's 
Island, N. Y., Sept. 15, 
1864. 

Discharged, May 23, 1865. 

Discharged for disabilitv at 
Wa.shington, Oct. 8, 1863. 

Wounded severely, Oct. 19, 
1864; discharged at Man- 
chester, N. H., on account 
of wounds, July 4, 1865. 

Mustered out, July 8, 1865. 

Promoted corporal, Jan. 8, 
1864; wounded severely, 
Oct. 19, 1864; transferred 
to Veteran Reserve Corps, 
Jan. 28, 1865; mustered 
out, Sept. 21, 1865. 

Wounded, Sept. 19. 1864 ; 
discharged for disability, 
May 27, 1865. 

Mustered out, July 8, 1865. 

Died of disease, at Savannah, 
Ga., July 3, 1865. 

Wounded slightly, Sept. 19, 
1864; mustered out, July 
8, 1865. 



Lorenzo A. Putnam received $300 for furnishing a substi- 
tute, viz.: 

Edward F. Fuller, mustered in, Sept. 12, 1864; mustered out, July 8, 

1865. 



298 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

SIXTEENTH REGIMENT N. H. VOLUNTEERS. 

MEN FOR NINE MONTHS, WITH BOUNTIES OF $100 EACH. 

All served in Co. F, and were mustered into service, Oct. 
23, 1862. 

John 8. Adams Left sick at Cairo, 111., Aug. 9, 1863. en route 

for home ; died at Mound City Hos])ital, Aug. 

16, 1863; mustered out, Aug. 20, 1863. 
Charles S. Blodgett*. .. . Wagoner; mustered out, Aug. 20, 1863. 
Elliot F. Ellis Died of disease at New Orleans, La., June 9, 

1863. 
Levi A. Forristall Died of disease at New Orleans, La., June 17, 

1863. 

Charles T. Heywood Died at Port Hudson, La., July 31, 1863. 

Frederic H. Haskell Mustered out, Aug. 20. 1863. 

Ransom Handy Died at Port Hudson, La., Aug. 1, 1863. 

Elisha Harkness Died at Brashear City, La., May 31, 1863. 

James M. Ingalls Mustered out, Aug. 20, 1863. 

Charles R. Monroe Mustered out, Aug. 20, 1863. 

Cliarles Newton Mustered out, Aug. 20, 1863. 

Willard A. Newton Mustered out, Aug. 20, 1863. 

Edward P. Phillips. . . . Promoted sergeant; mustered out, Aug. 20, 1863. 
Charles H. Parker Promoted corporal; died at Butte La Rose, La., 

May 16, 1863. 
Thomas J. Richardson.. Promoted sergeant; discharged at New Orleans, 

La., June 6, 1863; died at sea, coming home. 
Leander Richardson ... . Discharged at New York before the regiment 

embarked for the South. 

D. Henry Reed Promoted corporal; mustered out, Aug. 20, 1863. 

Joseph E. Stone Died of disease at Brashear City, La., June 5, 

1863. 

Amos T. Towns Mustered ovit, Aug. 20, 1863. 

Loammi B. Underwood. Sick at Boston ; did not join the regiment; 

mustered out, Aug. 20, 1863. 
Charles H. Woods Captain of Co. F: discharged, Aug. 30, 1863. 

FIRST N. H. HEAVY ARTILLERY VOLUNTEERS. 

FOR THREE YEARS OR THE WAR ; BOUNTY, $400. 

Orrin Brewer, Co. H, mustered in, Sept. 3, 1864; mustered out, June 15, 

1865. 

FIRST REGIMENT N. H. CAVALRY VOLUNTEERS. 

FOR THREE YEARS ; BOUNTY, $600, 

Henry J. Richardson, Troop L, mustered in, Jan. 4, 1864; mustered out, 

July 15, 1865. 

* Substitute for Sylvender B. Forristall. 



SUMMARY OF SOLDIERS TN THE SERVICE. 299 

For one year ; bounty, $5()() : 



Natlian C. Carter. . . 

Orvis Fisihcr 

Ora llohuan 

William II. Ilolman. 
Robert :\IcDouald . . . 
George Putney 



All mustered in, Mar. 2 (22?), 18(55, and .served' 
in Troo]) F. Adjutant-General's Report .says 
of Fisher: '"Sujjposed to have deserted en 
route to regiment," but he died of disease at 
Fortress Monroe. All the others mustered 
out, Julv 15. 1865. 



SECOND REGBIENT U. S. SHARPSHOOTERS VOLUNTEERS. 

FOR THREE YEARS OR THE WAR, WITHOUT BOUNTY. 

All mustered in, Isov. 26, 1861, and served in Co. F. 

Henry H. Boyce Discharged for disability. May 18, 1862. See 

under Fifth N. H. Regiment. 

Warren I. Boyce Discharged for disability. May 19, 1862. 

Daniel Chase Discharged for disability, Mar. 15, 1862. 

Charles H.Forristall Discharged, Nov. 26, 1864. 

Nathan Morse Re-enlisted, Dec. 21, 1868; transferred to Co. I, 

Fifth N. H., Jan. 30, 1865. See under Fifth 

Regiment. 
Wyman S. White Promoted corporal, Nov. 2, 1863; re-enlisted, 

Dec. 21, 1863; promoted sergeant, Oct. 14, 

1864; 1st sergeant, Jan. 25, 1865; transferred 

to Fifth N. H., Jan. 30, 1865. See under 

Fifth Regiment. 
Charles B. Wilson Re-enlisted, Dec. 21, 1863; promoted 2d lieut., 

Nineteenth U. S. Colored Regiment, Aug. 11, 

1864. 
Wm. Albert W'ithington. Died of disease, at Washington, D. C, Jan. 4, 

1862. 

At re-enlistment Wilson received bounty $100, White re- 
ceived $400, and Morse received $300. 

The quota of soldiers required of Fitzwilliam f rom and after 
Aug. 28, 1862, was 66 men for three years or the war, and 22 
men for nine months, making total number required, 88. 

The town furnished 6S men for three years or tlie war, and 
21 for nine months, making the total number furnished 89, 
being a surplus of one. 

The foregoing list gives a larger number of three-years' men, 
since it includes all those assigned to Fitzwilliam in the re- 
ports of the Adjutant-General and a few Fitzwilliam men that 
he assigns to other towns. 



300 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



FITZWILLIAM MEN IN" THE UNITED STATES REGULAR 

SERVICE. 

George A. Whittemore.. Commissioned assistant quartermaster, May 18, 

1864, with rank of captain; mustered out, 
Dec. 8, 1865. 

Charles B. Wilson Commissioned 2d lieutenant of Nineteenth Regi- 
ment of Colored Soldiers, Aug. 11, 1864. 

Daniel H. Reed Wagoner. Co. F, Sixth Regiment N. PI. ; trans- 
ferred to Horse Artillery, Co. E, Fourth Regi- 
ment U. S. Regular Artillery; mustered out, 
Oct. 11, 1864. 

John Thomas Colored substitute for Anson Streeter; trans- 
ferred to a colored regiment in the U. S. ser- 
vice. 

FITZWILLIAM MEN WHO ENLISTED IN OTHER STATES. 

John McManus, Mass. 



Ethan Blodgett, Twenty-first Mass., 

Co. A. 
Walter A. Brooks, Mass. 
Daniel W. Chase, Thirty-fifth Mass. 
Edward B. Ellis, Mass. 
George H. Ellis, Mass. 
Warren I. Ellis, Fifteenth Mass. 
Andrew Fisher, Fifteenth Mass. 
Luther W. Gowen, Mass. 
Charles W. Hayden, Thirty-fifth 

Mass. 



Henry C. Perkins, Twenty-first 

Mass. 
George A. Platts, N. Y. 
Wm. W. Stone, First Mass. 
Luther D. Wheeler, Vt. 
Benjamin Whitcomb, Fifteenth 

Mass. 
Francis L. Whitney, Thirty-sixth 

Mass., Co. D. 
Nelson G. Woods, Mass. 



SUMMARY. 

Excluding the tliree-montlis' men, the number named in the 
foregoing tables is 172, apportioned as follows : 

Second New Hampshire Regiment, Infantry 23 

Third " " " 

Fifth " " " 

Sixth " " " ■ 



Ninth 

Fourteenth 

Sixteenth 

First 

First 



7 

31 

" 29 

" 10 

" 17 

" 21 

Cavalry 8 

Artillery 1 



Second Regiment U. S. Sharjjshooters 8 

In Massachusetts regiments 15 

In Vermont " 1 

In New York " 1 

Assistant Quartermaster U. S. Service 1 



172 



Deduct those who are counted twice from serving in 
two regiments 11 



Making the whole number of different persons to be. . 161 



EECORD OF I*ITZ\VILLIAM SOLDIERS. 301 

GENERAL RECORD OF THE FITZWILLIAM SOLDIERS : 

Second Regiment : In Co. A 19 men won a good record ; 1 
deserted from Co. K ; 2 only received bounties from the 
town. 

Third Regiment : The record of the 1 men from Fitzwilh'am 
was not tarnished. Xo 3 of these the town paid bounties. 

Fifth Regiment : Four drafted men served ; 2 drafted sent 
substitutes, and IT enrolled men furnished sul)stitutes. Of the 
19 substitutes 10 deserted, and T served more or less.* 

Sivith Regiment : Ten received bounties ; 3 deserted, but 5 
served to good purpose. 

Ninth Regiment : Had 9 substitutes, of whom 3 deserted ; 
4 had a fair record, and 1, a colored man, was transferred to a 
U. S. colored regiment. 

Fourteenth Regiment : Most of the 17 credited to Fitzwill- 
iam belonged here. Xone deserted ; 12 lived to reach tlieir 
homes, and 5 died, including T. F. Ilolman, who was dis- 
charged a few days before liis death. 

Sixteenth Regiment : The 21 enlisting from Fitzwilliam be- 
longed here ; 2 of these failed of embarking with the regi- 
ment for Louisiana ; 10 barely lived to reach their homes, 
while 9 died. 

FULL SUMMARY OF BOUNTIES : 

First Regiment, bounties and extra expenses $7G5.25 

Second " " " " " 300.00 

Third " " " " " 1,702.00 

Fifth " " " " " 8.800.00 

Sixth " " " " " 5,320.00 

Ninth " " " *' " 2,700.00 

Fourteenth" " " " " 3,277.00 

Sixteenth " " " " " 2,100.00 

N. H. Artillery, " " " " 400.00 

First N. H. Cavalry, " " " " 4,100.00 

Total 129,464.25 

This amount does not include other expenses occasioned by 
the war, as follows : Extra services by the selectmen, and 

* After the close of the war, John P. Hayden, substitute for Lyman W. Bowker, came 
to Fitzwilliam for the sole purpose of seeing the man for whom he had seived in the 
confl'ct. 



302 HisTOEY OF fitzwillia:m. 

travelling expenses while making enlistments, etc., as appears 
by the selectmen's report to the town at the close of the war, 
$469.12. 

This will make the total expense of the town $29,933.37 

Of this sum, bounties reimbursed by 

State *$1,500.00 

Bounties reimbursed by U. S 886.00 2,386.00 



Total expenditure by the town $2Y,547.37 

The $1500 noted above as refunded by the State is under- 
stood to have been for bounties advanced by the town. 

About ten years later, under a scheme of equalization, I^ew 
Hampshire paid the town of Fitzwilliani $7900 in State bonds, 
which were used in paying off an equal amount of town bonds. 

In general, the amount paid out to aid soldiers' families was 
refunded by the State j^ear by year, though this could hardly 
havebeen the case at first, since the town appears to have pledged 
the aid in question before the State moved in the matter. 

During the Rebellion, large supplies were sent by the Ladies' 
Association, by families, and by individuals, for the comfort 
and general welfare of the soldiers, regarding which no record 
was made. These supplies consisted of clothing, food, medi- 
cines, delicacies for the sick, etc., while in many cases large 
expenses were incurred because of the sickness and mortality 
among the soldiers. 

It should be added, also, that the sums paid by individuals for 
substitutes in the army often, if not always, largely exceeded 
the bounties received from the town. 

The following are the names of those who died in service 
while suppressing the Rebellion : 



Jolm S. Adams, Co. F, Sixteenth 
Regiment. 

Daniel S. Brooks, Co. A, Second 
Regiment. 

Amos W. Brooks, Co. C, Fourteenth 
Regiment. 

Walter A. Brooks, Massachusetts 
Volunteers. 

JohnL. Church, Co. F, Sixth Regi- 
ment. 



George W. Felch, Co. C, Four- 
teenth Regiment. 

Orvis Fisher, Troop F, First Cav- 
alry. 

Thomas F. Holman, Co. C, Four- 
teenth Regiment. 

Elisha Harkness, Co. F, Sixteenth 
Regiment. 

Chartes T. Heywood, Co. F, Six- 
teenth Regiment. 



THE SOLDIEKS' MONUMENT. 



303 



Ransom Ilandy, Co. F, Sixteentli 
Rt'giment. 

Levi X. Lillie, Co. C, Fourteenth 
Keginient. 

Fred. C. Lawrence, Co. F, Sixth 
Kei^iment. 

Elihu L. Morse, Co. F, Sixth Regi- 
ment. 

George ^Y. Miles, Co. A, Second 
Regiment. 

.John .McMauus, Massachusetts Vol- 
unteers. 

Patrick Morris, Co. B. Fifth Regi- 
ment. 

Robert Nixon, Co. T, Third Regi- 
ment. 

Charles H. Parker, Co. F, Sixteenth 
Regiment. 

George H. Ellis, Massachusetts 
Volunteers. 

Elliot F. Ellis, Co. F, Sixteenth 
Regiment. 

Jonas Forristall, Co. A, Second 
Regiment. 

Levi A. Forristall, Co. F, Sixteenth 
Regiment. 



Daniel M. Fiske, Co. F, Sixth 

Regiment. 
Thomas J. Richardson, Co. F, Six- 
teenth Regiment. 
Levi W. Rice, Co. F, Sixteenth 

Regiment. 
Alljert G. Stone, Co. A, Second 

Regiment. 
Joseph E. Stone, Co. F, Sixteenth 

Recfiment. 
William W. Stone, Massachusetts 

Volunteers. 
Josiah O. Taft, Co. A, Second 

Regiment. 
Sylvanus C. Waters, Co. F, Sixth 

Regiment. 
Lucius Whitcomb, Co. H, Sixth 

Regiment. 
George H. Wilson, Co. H, Sixth 

Reojiment. 
Robert Walton, Co. C, Fourteenth 

Regiment. 
Francis L. Whitney, Massachusetts 

Volunteers. 
Albert W. Withington, Co. F, 

U. S. S. 
Total, 3G. 



THE soldiers' MONUMENT ASSOCIATION. 

This was organized February 2d, 1866, and its name indi- 
cates its object. The first officers were : President, Eev. AY. 
L. Gajlord ; Vice-President, Kev. G. W. Cutting ; Secre- 
tary, Stephen Batcheller ; Treasurer, Joel Whittemore ; Di- 
rectors, George "W. Simonds, Samuel Kendall, Amos J. Blake, 
John M. Parker, and Xorman U. Cahill. A co-operating 
committee, consisting of one gentleman and one lady for each 
school district, was appointed, and the association entered at 
once upon the work of raising funds for the erection of a suit- 
able soldiers' monument. For this purpose, and to awaken, 
if possible, a deeper and more general interest in the matter, 
a lecture was given in the Town Hall, November 25th, 1869, 
bv Colonel Carroll D. AVright, of Boston, formerly of the 
Fourteenth Regiment of New Hampshire Volunteers. The 
subject was " The Shenandoah Campaign." Colonel Wright 
declined any compensation for his services. 

In April, 1870, the funds in the treasury of the association 



304 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

amounted to five liniidred and forty-six dollars and ninety-one 
cents, and the town having appropriated one thousand dollars 
in aid of the object, a contract for making and erecting a 
monnment was made with a returned soldier. By a vote of 
the town, the monument stands in the village park. It is 
composed of four pieces of granite, viz., the base, which is 
plain, the plinth with a mould upon the top containing the in- 
scription in raised letters, " Soldiers who Died for their Coun- 
try in the llebellion of 1861," the die, upon which are cut in 
raised letters, within sunken panels, the names of thirty-three 
soldiers to whose memory the monument was erected, and the 
shaft, upon one side of which are two swords crossed in raised 
work, and on the opposite side the inscription in raised letters, 
" 1871. What we do for them may be forgotten. What 
they did for us, never." 

As a committee to act in conjunction with the committee of 
the towMi, to arrange for the dedication of the monument, 
Messrs. George W. Davis and I^s^orman U. Cahill were ap- 
pointed on the part of the association. 

It was dedicated, with appropriate services, Jul}' 4th, 1871. 
At 10 A.M a procession was formed upon the Common under 
the direction of John M. Parker, Chief Marshal, as follows : 

1. The Swanzey brass band. 

2. A company of twenty-fiv^e returned soldiers. 

8. Thirty-seven young ladies, dressed in white, representing 
the States of the Union. 

4. Citizens generally. 

The exercises took place in the park, under the direction of 
Dr. A. R. Gleason, President of the day. Amos J. Blake, 
Esq., w^as Toast Master. After music the Chairman of the 
Town Monument Committee, O. L. Brock, in an appropriate 
address, presented the monument to the town. It was ac- 
cepted on the part of the town by I^orman IT. Cahill, Chair- 
man of the Selectmen, who made an address. Selections from 
the Scriptures were then read by Rev. E. H. Watrous. Prayer 
was offered by Rev. John E. ISTorton. The Declaration of 
Independence was read by Lewis M. Norton. 

United States Senator, Hon. J. W. Patterson, who had been 



INCIDENTS RESPECTING FITZWILLIAM SOLDIERS. 305 

engaged to speak on the occasion, having been delayed on his 
waj to Fitzwilliani, addresses were made by Rev. J. F, Nor- 
ton, J. J. Allen, Esq., Rev. E. H. "VVatrous, Charles Bigelow, 
Ezra S. Stearns, Amos A. Parker, John N. Richardson, 
J. S. Adams, Esqs., Dr. Silas Cummings, and others. A 
pleasing feature of the dedication was the presence of the 
youth and children, in large numbers, from each of the schools 
in the town. At noon a bountiful collation was served, and 
this was followed in the afternoon by the toasts and addresses. 

This record of " Fitzwilliam in suppressing the great Rebel- 
lion' ' is necessarily incomplete after the lapse of twenty-two 
vears since the close of the war, but the incidents that follow 
will give a more vivid impression of the stern nature of the 
conflict and of the self-denial and suffering involved in sustain- 
ing it, than can be gained from the preceding statements and 
tables. 

What immediately follows has been furnished in substance 
by O. L. Brock, Esq. 

In the Fourteenth Regiment of New Hampshire Volunteers 
were fifteen men from Fitzwilliam. Embarking March 2Uth, 
1864, for New Orleans, they encountered a terrible storm of 
fifty-six hours' duration, which disabled their steamer, the 
Daniel Webster, and left them at the mercy of the winds and 
waves. They were finally rescued, however, and after being 
for a short time in the Department of the Gulf, they were 
transferred to Sheridan's army in the Shenandoah Valley. By 
a mistake the division in which the Fourteenth Regiment had 
been placed was unexpectedly exposed to a most fearful fire 
of shot and shell, when one hundred and sixty men were killed 
in thirty minutes, George W. Felcli, of Fitzwilliam, being of 
the number. Stillman S. Stone captured a prisoner and took 
him with him when retreating, Darius II. Whitconib did the 
same, but was obliged to shoot his prisoner, while he, the 
prisoner, was trying to escape. Later, when the Confederate 
Army had captured eighteen pieces of artillery and thousands 
of prisoners, and thought their victory sure, came Sheridan's 
famous movements, when the guns were recaptured and as 
many more taken, with many prisoners. In that fight Stillman 
20 



306 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

S. Stone received a ball in his arm and right side and was 
taken prisoner, but later was recaptured. His shattered arm 
was saved without amputation. Wright Whitcomb was 
wounded in the hand, a piece of a shell carried away his can- 
teen, and he had three bnllet-holes through his clothes. 

The celebrated poem, " Sheridan's Ride," commemorates 
this remarkable exploit. 

Among the first to enter the army from Fitzw^illiam in 1861 
was William Dunton. lie was in the first Bull Eun battle, 
and in all the encounters on the Virginia Peninsula, from Will- 
iamsburg to Harrison's Landing. Later, in the second Bull 
Bun fight, he was struck by a ball on the right cheek, which, 
passing through his mouth so as to break up the bone and 
teeth of the entire upper jaw, came out just below the eye on 
the left cheek. Mr. Dunton fell, and was left by his comrades 
as dead, wdien, shortly after, they were obliged to retreat. Be- 
ing now a prisoner, he was stripped of nearly all his clothes 
and of almost everything he had by the enemy, and left to die. 
Finding his mouth and throat fast filling up from the swelling 
of the mangled flesh, he succeeded in getting his knife from 
his pocket and deliberately cut away the torn flesh, and so 
cleared his mouth as far as possible. 

Hours now passed, and so did nights and days, and no relief 
was at hand. He could not cry out or even speak aloud, and 
could not have swallowed a morsel of food or a drop of water 
if he had had either. 

For six days and nights he endured what must have been 
agony, but on the morning of the seventh day he was discov- 
ered by a party of our own men who were burying the dead. 
He was still alive, but so weak that the men at first despaired 
of his living till he could be removed to a hospital. Faint and 
exhausted he was at length placed in the hands of the surgeons 
at Washington, five of whom decided that no human skill 
could save him. Still, desiring to give him a chance for re- 
covery, tliey dressed his wounds, inserted a small tube in his 
throat, and finally succeeded in having him sw^allow a few drops 
of brandy, which revived him. Mr. Dunton was fed in this 
way for more than a month, and still lives, after more than 



INCIDENTS IN THE ARMY. 307 

twenty years, to tell the story of his sufferings, and to remind 
all who meet hi in of the enormous cost involved in saving our 
country. 

Second New Hampshire Regiment. As the Sixth Massa- 
chusetts Kcgiment was the first from that State to engage in 
deadly encounter with the Rebellion, so the Second New 
Hampshire Regiment was the first from this State to meet the 
foe in the terrible strife, and it w^as engaged in nearly all the 
battles in Virginia, from the first at Bull Run to the fall of 
Richmond. Fitzwilliam was largely represented in this regi- 
ment, and nearly one half of those who went from this town 
and belonged to it, were either killed, wounded, or died in 
prison. Daniel S. Brooks died in Libby Prison, at Richmond, 
Va., while others died of wounds or disease. The record of 
all the men from Fitzwilliam in this regiment is very honor- 
able. 

The Third New Hampshire Regiment had its first experi- 
ence in the war when ordered to attack a strong battery near 
Secessionvdle, in South Carolina, from which the attacking 
forces had been three times repulsed, and lost one hundred 
and four men in the conflict. 

Later it was one of the regiments that made the famous 
sunrise attack upon Morris Island, when eleven siege guns and 
two hundred prisoners were captured. In the siege of Fort 
Wagner that immediately followed. Lieutenant John M. Par- 
ker, of Fitzwilliam, commanded Company I, and the Third New 
Hampshire Regiment was given the post of danger and honor. 
A most desperate resistance was anticipated, but when the 
regiment advanced the next morning to charge upon the fort, 
it was found deserted, and the victory gained was bloodless. 

In Florida many of the recruits that had been sent to this 
regiment deserted to the enemy, and one of these, taken while 
attempting to desert the second time, was tried and shot, Lieu- 
tenant Parker as acting adjutant reading to him his death-war- 
rant. There were no more desertions. 

The regiment at a later period did effective service in Vir- 
ginia, and lost in the terrible encounter at Drury's Bluff 
many of its brave men. 



308 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

The Sixth Regiment was organized at Keene and first met 
the enemy at Camden, S. C. Later it took part in nearly all 
the battles in Virginia (in one encounter capturing seven officers 
and one hundred and six men), and suffered severely through 
the unfortunate explosion at Petersburg. In one of the at- 
tacks upon the works in that city, one hundred and fifty men 
started but only fifty entered the works. 

This regiment left Keene with one thousand and forty-six 
men, and four hundred and eight more were added as recruits, 
but it returned with only four hundred and eighty-three men, 
and of these but ninety-eight belonged to the regiment orig- 
inally. It participated in twenty-two battles. At Antietani 
this with a Maryland regiment carried a bridge by storm that 
had resisted many attacks, and General Griffin was the first 
man to cross it. 

While in Virginia a negro servant was stooping over to stir 
his coffee, when a spent cannon-ball came rolling along and 
struck the negro on the back of the head, but after tumbling 
about for a time he jumped up, scratched his head, and fin- 
ished his preparation of his cottee. 

The Sixteenth New Hampshire Regiment had one captain 
and nineteen men from Fitzwilliam, and was sent to New Or- 
leans, and after having been encamped at various places was 
ordered into the lowlands, that were full of malaria, where 
nearly all were sick and many died. Eleven only reached 
home, and of these two died at a later period. The history 
of these men is a sad one, but they were loyal, and did their 
duty under the most trying circumstances. See the Roll 
Record. 

Three men are now living in Fitzwilliam who served in the 
Fifteenth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers, viz., An- 
drew Fisher, Benjamin Whitcomb, and Charles F. Pope. 
Mr. Pope is not a native of Fitzwilliam, but settled in town 
soon after the close of the war. Mr. Fisher is a native of the 
town. Mr. Whitcomb is not a native of the town, but resided 
here before the war. Mr. Whitcomb was wounded in the hip 
at Fair Oaks. Mr. Fisher was promoted to sergeant and from 
sergeant to captain. He was highly recommended by his su- 



INCIDENTS — W. I. ELLIS — ETHAN BLODGETT. 309 

perior officers to Governor Andrew, of Massachusetts, for pro- 
motion, and in the battle at Ball's Bluff was one of the last to 
retreat, and this he did, taking off his coat, jumping into the 
river and swimming to the opposite shore. His hat was rid- 
dled with bullets. At Antietam he was wounded in the 
shoulder, and at Gettysburg he was captured, and was in Libby 
Prison for months. Mr. Fisher participated in forty-seven 
battles and skirmishes. 

Warren I. Ellis, son of George W. Ellis, was one of four 
brothers who enlisted, two of whom died in the service, and 
the other two have since died of disease contracted while fight- 
ins: for their country. Warren I. Ellis served in the Fifteenth 
Massachusetts Itegiment, and when the Union forces were com- 
pelled to retreat after the battle of Ball's Bluff he, with hun- 
dreds of others, plunged into the Potomac and swam to an 
island in the stream. Mr. Ellis lost all his clothing and 
money, and slept under a haystack during the night that 
followed the battle. He was severely wounded in the shoul- 
der at the battle of Antietam, and, after recovery, was trans- 
ferred to the signal service, in which he remained till his dis- 
charo^e. 

Ethan Blodgett enlisted July 19th, 1861, from Philiipston, 
Mass., and served in Company A, Captain George P. Hawkes, 
of the Twenty-first Massachusetts Regiment, Colonel A. Maggi. 
This regiment was in the second Burnside expedition, and par- 
ticipated in the engagements at Annapolis Junction and 
Roanoke Island, In the assault upon the rebel intrenchments 
at Roanoke Island, the Twenty-first Massachusetts and the 
Fifty-first New York were the first within the works, the first 
Union flag planted being the State flag of the Twenty-first 
Massachusetts. The Massachusetts ofticial reports say that 
" the gallant Ethan Blodgett bore the flag, and planted it first 
on the rebel breastworks." 

The National Tribune, a newspaper published at Washing- 
ton, D. C, has for some time given considerable prominence 
to reminiscences of the war. In a recent number. Colonel 
Hawkins, of the Ninth New York Regiment (^Hawkins's 
Zouaves), claimed for his regiment so prominent a position in 



310 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

this engagement as to call out several communications in re- 
ply. One correspondent says : 

The Ninth New York Zouaves did not charge the fort until the works 
had been carried by the Twenty-first Massachusetts and part of tlie 
Fifty-first New York. The State flag of the Twenty-first Massachusetts 
was the first to be planted on the works. 

Another correspondent adds : 

Captain Ethan Blodgett was the man who carried it. 

In the spring of 1862 Mr. Blodgett was taken sick, and was 
sent North to the hospital at Boston, lie did not recover his 
health, and as there seemed to be no prospect that he would 
be able to return to the army, he was discharged, September 
29th, 1862. 

Benjamin F. Potter came to Fitzwilliam a short time before 
the commencement of the war. He served fourteen uionths 
in the Thirty-sixth Regiment of Massachusetts Vohmteers, 
and has lived in town since his discharge. 

But if Fitzwilh'am furnished a large company of men, not a 
few of whom proved themselves to be heroes in the great Civil 
War, the patriotic devotion and suffering of those trying years 
were not confined to them ; for, among the mothers, sisters, 
and daughters who remained at home and prayed and labored 
for the success of right, there were as patient and self-denying 
souls as ever lived, while among the sick, wounded, and dying 
in the field, this town had a heroine. 

The facts that follow regarding Miss Hannah A. Adams, of 
this town, daughter of Captain J. S. Adams, were first given 
to the public some years since, in a volume entitled " Woman's 
Work in the Civil War," a book that has had far less circula- 
tion than it deserves. The whole of that interesting narrative, 
which is too long for insertion here, will well repay perusaL 

Miss Adams, who became a school teacher at an early age, 
went West in 1856, hoping by the change of climate to check 
a predisposition to a pulmonary difficulty that had threatened 
her health and, possibly, her life. 

The breaking out of the Rebellion found her a teacher in 
one of the public schools of St. Louis, Mo., in which capacity 
she was eminently successful, but, in common with all the 



MISS HANNAH A. ADAMS' SERVICE. 311 

teachers from New England in that city, she lost her situation 
soon after liostilities commenced, most of the members of the 
Board of Education and othei-s controlling the school funds 
being strong secessionists. 

This cruel treatment only made Miss Adams more intensely 
loyal, and when the Ladies' Union Aid Society of St. Louis 
was formed in August, IStJl, she not only assisted in the or- 
ganization, but was chosen its first secretary, an office which 
demanded untiring industry and patience as well as great exec- 
utive ability. This office she filled for more than three years. 
In the autumn of 1863, her only brother, a soldier from 
Fitzwilliam, died in the service.* Hastening to the hospital 
at Mound City, 111,, where she knew he had been under surgi- 
cal treatment, and full of hope that he might recover under 
her tender care, she found that he was already dead and buried. 
From this time forth her interest in the wounded and sick of 
the Union forces became, if possible, more intense, and noth- 
ing was too hard for her to undertake that promised the suif er- 
ers any measure of relief. 

The stores of the Ladies' Union Aid Society and of the 
Western Sanitary Commission, to which she had access, were 
then large, and their rooms were open every day. Hundreds 
of the most patriotic and efficient women of St. Louis and 
vicinity were ready to aid in all possible ways, but, as a matter 
of course, their ready and self-denying secretary had the heavi- 
est part of the burden to bear. Hospital garments had to be 
receiv^ed or manufactured, and then arranged and given out 
in the hospitals, and to the sick and wounded in the regimental 
camps, not only in and around the city, but in other parts of 
the State and region. Advice must be given, applications for 
aid answered, accounts kept, reports made, sanitary stores col- 
lected, and a thousand other matters of great importance at- 
tended to, all of which found Miss Adams ready for service 
and competent to meet the incessant demands that were made 
upon her patience and judgment. 



* John S. Adams, of Fitzwilliam, Co. F, 16th Reg. N. H. Volunteers, enlisted for nine 
months, served 9 months. *J days. Left sick at Cairo, 111., Aug. 9, 1863, on his way 
home, and died at Mouud Ciiy Hospital, Aug. 16, 1863. 



312 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM, 

What she did for soldiers' families and for tlie widows and 
orphans, made by the war, in providing shelter, food, cloth- 
ing, and employment, cannot here be recorded, bnt thousands 
of these are now living to bless her memory. During the en- 
tire war St. Louis was crowded with troops, and in 1862 there 
were twenty thousand sick and wounded soldiers in the hos- 
pitals of that city and vicinity. In ministering to these in 
all the various ways that only a woman's heart could devise. 
Miss Adams found a field for the most self-denying effort. 
In 1863 she went to Nashville, Tenn., to open a special diet 
kitchen upon which requisitions could be made for the delicate 
articles of food that the very feeble and dangerously sick and 
wounded soldiers required ; and while in that city she secured 
the opening of the hospitals there to female nurses who had 
not previously been employed in them. The difficulties to be 
surmounted in this effort were many and great, for the preju- 
dices against such an innovation were strong, but all yielded 
at length to her good common-sense, womanly instincts, and 
persuasive manner. 

Resuming her work in St. Louis early in 1864, she was con- 
stantly at her post till the end of the year, when she resigned 
her position, retaining the warmest affection of those witli 
whom she had so long labored, and in the month of June, 
1865, she became the wife of Morris Collins, Esq., of St. 
Louis. 



CHAPTEK XIII. 



EDUCATIONAL. 



School Lands Leased -First Schools— Early Teachers— Discipline— Branches 
Tauprht— Supervision — Conmiiitees— Reports — Common-School Associa- 
tion—Lyceum—Farmers' and Mechanics' Club— Musical— Temperance 
Societies — Libraries. 

THE fathers planted the school-house by the side of the 
church, knowing full well that ignorance and vice are 
associated together the world over. 

This fact was so w^ell understood that the Masonian propri- 
etors, in the disposal of their property, always stipulated in 
their grants that provision should be made in the division of 
the lands for the education of the children of the settlers. 
As we have seen, in the grant to Sampson Stoddard and others 
in lTr)5, of Monadnock No. 4, it was made a condition that 
one share, viz., two lots of one hundred acres each, should be 
set apart and reserved forever for school purposes. 

The lots drawn for this purpose were No. 3 in Range 1 and 
No. 11 in Eange 5. The former was located in the southeast 
part of the town upon the boundary of Eindge, the third lot 
from the line of Massachusetts. The latter was southeast of 
the central village, the Templeton road passing through it 
about half a mile below the house of Nahum Hay den. 

The school lands, like the ministerial, could not be sold, but 
could be leased for a long term of years. 

At a proprietors' meeting held May 21st, 1777, Captain 
John Mellen, Lieutenant Levi Brigham, and Joseph Grow 
were chosen a committee " to Dispose of the Ministerial and 
school lands and make returns at y« next Proprietors' meeting. " 

It does not appear that this committee did anything ; and at 
the next meeting, May 20th, 1778, Samuel Patrick, John 
Mellen, and Levi Brigham were chosen a committee " to dis- 
pose of the Ministerial and School Lands as they shall Think 



314 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

Proper." This comniittee acted promptly, and within a montli 
had leased the two ministerial lots and the school lot No. II 
in Range 5. The lease first recorded in the Proprietors' Record 
Book reads as follows : 

This Indenture Witnesseth That we Samuel Patrick John Mel I en an:l 
Levi Brigluim All of Fitzwilliani in the County of Cheshire and Stiite of 
New Hampshire Being Chosen a Committee for the Purpose of Dispos- 
ing of the Minister^'? and School Land in Said Town at A Legal Meeting 
of the Proprietors of Said Township held the Twentieth Day of May 
one Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy Eight : we the Said Commit- 
tee Do therefore In the Name and Behalf of Said Proprietors Dispose of 
the following Land agreeable to A Vote Passed at s'^ meeting : ThMt is 
we Do hereby Releas Remise and Quit claim unto Samuel Osboin of Saiil 
Fitzwilliam Yeoman : one half of the Lot No Eleven in the fifth Range 
in Said Town it Being the Southerly Part of the School Lot so Call'd : 
He the Said Samuel Osborn his Heirs and Assigns To Have Hold and 
Improve Said Land with the Appur<i«ances and Freriledges thereunto 
Belonging : During the Term of Nine Hundred and Ninety nine Yejirs 
He or they Paying Annually To Said Proprietors Treasurer and liis Snc- 
cessors the Interest of Forty two Pounds Ten Sliillings L. M. at the Rate 
of Six per cent : Said Interest to be Improved for the Benefit of the 
School in Said Town And in Case the Said Samuel Osborn his Heirs or 
assigns Should Neglect or Refuse to pay Said Interest within Forty D:iys 
after it becomes Due : Then Said Treasurer or his Successors shall have 
Power to re-Enter upon the Premises and sell at Publick Vandue as 
much of Said Land as will pay Said Interest and Charges : he or tliey 
giving publick Notice thereof fourteen Days Preceeding Such Sale : and 
the overplus if any such there Be Shall be return'd to the owner within 
Twelve Days after the Sale ; and if it Shall So hapen that the Said S. 
Osborn his Heirs or assigns Shall at any time or times hereafter Pay tiie 
Principle Sum herein Specified Then he or tliey Shall be acquited fiom 
paying Said Interest to the End of Said Term : 

In Witness whereof we have hereunto Set our Hands and Seals Tliis 
fourth Day of June in the year of our Lord one Thousand Seven Hun- 
dred and Seventy Eight : it being the Second year of Independauce 

Signed Sealed and Delivered 

in Presance of Sam'l Patrick O 

Benjamin Willis John Mellen O 

Nathan Rugg Levi Brigham O 

The north half of this Lot, Ko, 11 in Range 5, was leased to 
Ichabod Smith, cooper, for the same rent. The ministerlitl 
Lot No. 12 in Range 5 was also leased to Ichabod Smith for 
the interest on sixty-five pounds ; and the other ministerial 
Lot No. 16 in Range 1 was leased to Samuel Kendall, gentle- 
man, for the interest on eighty-three pounds and eight shil- 
lings. The terms and conditions were the same in all the leases. 
The lease to Esquire Kendall was dated June 20th, 1778 ; the 
other three were dated June Irth. As the country returned to 



RENT OF MINISTERIAL AND SCHOOL LOTS. 815 

specie payments there was evidently some question as to wliat 
rent these lessees should pay in specie, and at a proprietors' 
meeting- hehl June ISth, 1773, it was 

Voted to choose a Committee to consolodate by the Scale the princi- 
pal sums of what the Ministerial and School Land was Leased out for 
and assertain the anua! interest on the same and make Return to the 
Treasurer and the Clark who is to enter the same on the proprietors 
Book, the committee chosen for j^ above purpose is messrs Jo&iah 
Hartwell Joseph Hemingway & Stephen Brigham 

The report of this committee is entered in the proprietors' 
records as follows : 

The Report of the Committee chosen to Consolodate by the Scale the 
sums that y*' ministerial and school Land was Leas'd out for and assertane 
the anual interest, is as folows : 

June 30. 1783. To Deacon John Locke Treasurer. We find by the 
scale of consolodation that the anual interest of the following Lots of 
Ministerial and School Lands which is Leas'd out is as folows, viz. To 
Mr. Samuel Osborn Half School Lot No 11 in 5 principal £42-10, inter- 
est is 12. 9. 

To Mr. Ichabod Smith Half School Lot No 11 in 5. principal £42-10 
interest is 12. 9. 

To Mr. Ichabod Smith Ministerial Lot No 12 in 5 principal £(J5. in- 
terest is 19. 6. 

To Ensign Samuel Kendall, Ministerial Lot 16 in 1 ])rincipal £83-8. 
interest is £1-5-1-3. 

the above is according to the scale Entred. 

Joseph Heminway ^ 

Josiah Hartwell >■ Committee 

Stephen Brigham ; 

The interest was scaled down to one for four. " The Scale 
of Consolidation/' as it is here called, may be found in Chap- 
ter XL The interest or rent at this reduced rate was paid by 
these lessees and their successors to the proprietors' treasuier 
till 1815, when the proprietors closed up their affairs, transfer- 
ring all their outstanding business over to the jurisdiction of 
the town. It is apparent that about all the business done in 
the name of the proprietors for many years was the collection 
of the rent of these lands, and paying it over to the town. In 
1815, the town having assumed the jurisdiction, by a commit- 
tee appointed for the purpose, leased the lands to the parties 



316 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

holding the titles under the old leases. The leases now given 
were for the term of nine hundred and ninety-nine years at 
the nominal rent of three cents a year on each lot, the lessees 
advancing and paying the rent in full, except this nominal sum 
of three cents a year, and in some of the leases at least, this 
sum was payable only when called for. The persons taking 
the several leases at this time and the amounts paid were as 
follows : 

L. 16, R. 1, Thomas How, of Rindge paid $115.00 

L. 12, R. 5, Josiah Osborn, of F " 66.78 

L. 11, R. 5, Richard Gleason, Jr., of F. . . . . " 86.00 

It is not practicable to give a complete account of what was 
done with the other school lot, Lot 3 in Range 1. In 1798 
all that part of the lot that is " west of the county road," 
containing forty acres by estimation, was leased to Isaac Whitte- 
more for nine hundred years at three cents a year rent. The 
amount paid on taking the lease is not stated, though as no 
farther reference is made to the land it is evident that it was 
practically sold and paid for at this time. 

In 1816 a committee was appointed to lease that j^art of the 
lot situated east of the county road, which is further described 
as the land formerly leased to Nathaniel Warner, but there is 
no record of 2inj action taken by the committee. In March, 
1823, the selectmen were authorized to dispose of the land 
which is now described as the land formerly leased to Nathan 
Pratt and Nathaniel Warner. Under this vote the land was 
leased, February 26th, 1824, to Daniel Streeter at three cents 
a year, a condition of the lease being that he should manage 
the land well. Nothing appears in the records to show when 
the land was leased to Pratt and Warner, or why they did not 
continue to hold possession of it. 

Whether a school was maintained in Monadnock No. 4 be- 
fore the incorporation of the town of Fitzwilliam in 1773, we 
have no means of determining, the proprietors' records being 
silent respecting the matter ; but as the population at that date 
was two hundred and fourteen, it is nearly certain that some- 
thing was done for the education of the children. And, as the 



EARLY PROYISIOX FOR SCHOOLS. 317 

recoi'ds of the town meeting or meetings held in 1773 are miss- 
ing, it cannot be stated whether tlie town raised any money 
for schooling in that year or not, hut at the meeting held 
March 17th, 1774, an appropriation of seven pounds was made 
" for the nse of a scool for the present year," and a similar 
amount was raised in 1775 for the same purpose. In both 
cases, the sum appropriated was for the use of a school, Avliich 
shows us that to this date but a single school was maintained. 
In 1776 no new appropriation was made for this purpose, for 
the reason tliat " the money raised last year for a school had 
not been expended." 

In 1777 ten pounds were raised " for the use of a school," 
and in 1778 fifteen pounds, while the town voted respecting 
this latter appropriation that " the school money should be spent 
in Eith Squarn (each squadron) as they shall think proper." 
From the tenor of this vote it is plain that there was to be 
more than one school now, and each squadron was to have 
the privilege of spending its money in such manner as should. 
be for its own best accommodation. 

In 1779, the currency in which taxes were paid having 
greatly depreciated, one hundred and eighty pounds were 
raised for schools, and the town chose Caleb "Winch, John 
Locke, Samuel Kendall, Levi Brigham, and Joseph Nurse a 
committee " to provide schools in eistcli Squarn, and also to 
provide houses for to ceept (keep) the schools in and also to 
see the money laid out in its proper season." As this com- 
mittee w^as composed of five njen, located in different parts of 
the town, the inference is that there were liv^e squadrons or 
districts in 1779. As early as anything can be definitely as- 
certained about it, it is evident that while the School Com- 
mittee was chosen by the town at the annual toM'u meeting, 
one member of the committee was chosen from each district, 
and that each member of the committee had the direction and 
management of the school in his own district. The School 
Committee was chosen in this manner till 1823, when the 
town " Voted that each School District have liberty to choose 
their own School Agent and lay out their own School Money." 

The currency having still further depreciated, four hundred 



318 HISTORY OF riTZWILLIA^r. 

pounds were raised for the support of the schools in 1780, and 
in 1781 this sum was increased to fifteen liundred pounds. In 
this last-named year, at a meeting held later in the year, the 
town voted to raise twenty pounds in silver in lieu of the fif- 
teen hundred pounds in paper currency voted at the earlier 
meeting. 

The divisions of the town for school purposes were not called 
districts till early in the present century. In 1802 the word 
districts first appears upon the records, and these were first 
designated by numbers in 1803. From the best information 
obtainable it appears that there were five squadrons in 1779-80, 
seven in 1781-88, eight in 1789-91, and nine in 1792-96. 

In 1803 the number had increased to thirteen, and this con- 
tinued to be the number of the districts till Troy was incor- 
porated in 1815. The new town took from Fitzwilliam two 
Vv'hole districts, viz., Nos. 10 and 13, and two half districts, 
viz., halves of I^os. 6 and 9. About the same time a new 
district was formed in Fitzwilliam from the adjoining parts of 
jS^os. 11 and 12, and this was numbered 10. 

The nine squadrons of 1792-96 answered to the districts ex- 
isting at the time that Troy was formed about as follows : 



Squadrons. Districts. 

Southwest No. 11 

Centre '' 4& 8 

North Centre ... . " 5 
South " 3 & 7 



Squadrons. Districts. 

East Nos. 1 & 2 

Northeast " 6 

North " 9 & 10 

Northwest "13 

West " 12 

Since 1815 the town has been formally redistricted, and 
various alterations have been made at other times, yet the 
boundaries have remained siobstantially as they were seventy 
years ago, and there has been no change at all in the number- 
ing of the districts. For a time No. 4 was classed with No. 
8, but for more than fifty years this district has had its sepa- 
rate school. 

In 1885 the Legislature abolished the district system, but the 
new plan devised to take its place is understood to meet with 
much opposition, and it is deemed altogether too early to de- 
cide upon its relative value. 



ERECTION OF THE FIRST SCHOOL-HOUSES. 319 

tup: first school- houses. 

For a number of years after the settlement of the town the 
schools were kept in private houses, and in localities as nearly 
central as circumstances w^ould admit. It was with the schools 
as it was with the religious services on the Sabbath, a room 
was obtained in some dwelling-house where the largest num- 
ber could be accommodated. In 1779, as we have seen, the 
town took measures for the erection of the first school -houses, 
but as the warrant for a town meeting to be held January 
1.5th, 1781, contained the following article, viz., 

to see if the town will grant money to build School houses and say how 
many, and where they shall be sott and how much money they will give 
for building them or act thereon as the town think proper 

it would seem that the committee appointed for this purpose 
nearly two years before had failed to act, probably for the good 
reason that no appropriation had been nuide for this purpose. 
The houses were, however, built at a later period, but when, 
where, or how many, the old records do not inform us. 

It is learned from other sources that the first one was built 
for the East Squadron, which comprised all the east part of the 
town. This was located on Lot 10 in Range 1, and was built 
in 1779. In 1795 this squadron was divided, the north part 
retaining the original name and the old school-house. Tliis 
was removed to the spot now occupied by No. 2 school-house, 
and in its two locations was used for about sixty years. The 
south part was named the Southeast Squadron, and for its ac- 
commodation a new school- house was built between the dwell- 
ing-houses of Calvin Clark (on Lot 6 in Range 1) and Abijah 
Warner (on Lot 5 in Range 1). This was a framed house, 
rough boarded, and with a large stone chimney. The fire- 
place was so large that logs were rolled into it, and on cold 
mornings the boys were accustomed to take their books and 
sit upon the forestick to keep comfortable while they pursued 
their studies. Six long seats were placed upon each side of 
the aisle. This school-house was burned not far from the year 
1808, and nothing was saved, as most of the people were absent 
from their homes. After this loss this school was maintained 



320 HISTORY OF riTZWILLIAM. 

for a number of years in dwelling-houses, and it was not till 
the year 1814 that another school-house was erected. This, 
which stood about fifteen rods north of the old house, was 
much better than its predecessor, but would not compare fa- 
vorably with the neat and convenient house that the important 
school in District No. 1 now occupies. 

The first school- house in District ^o. 5, or the Xorth Centre 
Squadron, as it was called at the commencement of the pres- 
ent century, was built of logs and was located on the Common 
near where the soldiers' monument now stands. 

EAKLY SCHOOL-TEACHERS. 

"We have but little information concerning the school-teach- 
ers of Fitzwilliam before the year 1800. Referring to the 
districts bv their numbers, as afterward desio;nated, it is stated 
that Dr. Grosvenor taught in 1786 in Xo. 8 and later in Xo. 
3. Mrs. Simeon Perry also taught in No. 3 at an early date. 
The first school-house in Xo. 11 was built in ITSS. The 
first female teacher who taught in this school-house was Ahce 
Graves, and the first male teacher was Israel Whitney. Jonas 
Gary taught in this district before the school-house was built. 
In the earlier years of the present century Arunah Allen and 
Ezekiel Rand taught in several districts in town. ^r. Allen 
was afterward a Baptist minister, Mr. Rand was a native of 
Rindge, and married a daughter of Abner Stone, of Fitzwilliam, 
Hannah Brisham, afterward Mrs. William F. Perry, and her 
sister Anna, afterward Mrs. Timothy Kendall, were both pop- 
ular teachers. Anna taught in !N'o. 8 in 1801 and 1803, in 
Xo. 13 in 1802 and 1803 and in No. 2 in 1803. Mary Chap- 
lin, afterward Mrs. Artemas Beard, taught in No. 5 in the 
summer of 1803. Phinehas Reed was school agent in that 
year. Sally Kendall, of Templeton, taught in No. 5 in the 
summers of 1804 and 1805. Other popular teachers, mostly of 
a little later date, were Amos Jones, Benjamin Eddy, John 
Fletcher, John J. Allen, Phinehas Howe, Lucy Whitney, 
Lucy Stone, Betsey "Wright, Betsey Bowker, Ohve Hancock, 
and Sarah Knight. Some further information about many of 
these teachers may be found in the Genealogical Records in 
this book. 



SCHOOL DISCIPLINE AND INSTRUCTION. 321 

EAELY SCHOOL DISCIPLIXE. 

This was often somewhat sterner than generally prevails at 
the present day, though not a few of the school-teachers one 
hundred years ago governed largely by kindness and love 
rather than by the rod. 

Benjamin Eddy had some roguish boys among his pupils, 
for one day John Miles appeared in " Old Hi verses'" " ragged 
clothes, and Eli Prescott was dressed in garments that had been 
worn by some one while picking geese. Master Eddy ordered 
them out of the house, but, as the school was completely de- 
moralized by the ludicrous appearance of the culprits, they 
seem to have remained, and '* John walked with the teacher to 
dinner, with his fox-skin muff for a hat." One girl received 
a severe punishment for shaking her clenched list in the face 
of another teacher, and he seems to have been one of the best 
schoolmasters of the time. She must have been exceptionally 
passionate and impudent. As a general thing good order was- 
maintained in the early schools. 

BRAN'CHES TArOHT IX THE EAELY SCHOOLS. 

The instruction was plainly confined to what we denominate 
the rudiments of a school education. Considerable attention 
"was paid to reading, spelling, and penmanship. Spelling- 
matches are not a modern invention, for '' Lucy Bigelow and 
Tamar Grant spelt for the scissors, and both missing, lost 
them." The word upon which the trial terminated is given, 
but cannot be deciphered. Xot much was attempted in the 
way of geography, and still less in grammar. Arithmetic was 
a popular study one hundred years ago, especially with the 
older boys, but in this branch much less proficiency was gen- 
erally made than is common now under our improved systems 
of teaching. No geography or maps adapted to common 
school instruction were to be found eighty years ago in this 
country or in Europe. No instruction was given in algebra, 
geometry, philosophy, physiology, drawing, or music, even to 

* This was in District No. 11. George Hivers, Hivas, or Hibrus, a colored man, died 
December 2 1st, 1807, aged 78 years. 

21 



322 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

the most advanced classes in tlie schools. Nevertheless, those 
schools were practically sufficient to enable the pupils to trans- 
act all the common business of life correctly and to maintain 
honorable and useful positions in society. 

SUPERVISION OF THE EARLY SCHOOLS. 

For many years after the incorporation of the town, there 
was no official board legally charged with the duty of exam- 
ining school-teachers in regard to their qualifications, or of 
taking cognizance of the condition and progress of the schools. 
Year by year the town raised and a^jpropriated such sums of 
money for the support of schools as was considered necessary, 
and chose a school committee to expend the money in a proper 
manner. This committee evidently consisted of one person 
from each squadron or district, and each committeeman seems 
to have taken the entire charge of the schools in his own dis- 
trict. Very early public sentiment required that the clergy- 
men of the several towns should, as far as possible, visit each 
school at its closing examination, remark upon the behavior 
and progress of the scholars and offer prayer. 

The town of Fitzwilliam seems to have taken measures for 
some general supervision of the schools before any State laws 
were passed making such supervision obligatory. 

In 1795 the town voted that Rev. Benjamin Brigham, 
Lieutenant Caleb Winch, and Nahum Parker, Esq., be a com- 
mittee to inspect the schools in town the year ensuing. 

In 1Y97 Rev. Mr. Brigham and the selectmen w^ere ap- 
pointed for the same purpose. 

In 1808 the town chose Rev. John Sabin, Thomas Stratton, 
and Charles Bowker a committee to inspect schools, wiiile in 
1809 and 1810 Mr. Sabin and the selectmen discharged this 
duty. In 1811 a committee of eleven was raised for this pur- 
pose, and it was requested that " Rev. John Sabin should at- 
tend as often as convenient." 

In 1812 and 1813 the town " chose a committee of twelve 
to inspect the schools," but no reference is made in the vote 
to Rev. Mr. Sabin. 

In 1814 Rev. Mr. Sabin and the several district committees 



SCHOOL COMMITTEES— 1815-1841. 323 

ft 

inspected the schools, and in 1815 there were associated with 
the pastor the selectmen, Elder Arnnah Allen, and Luther 
Chapman, Esq. 

In 1816 the town " chose Rev. John Sahin to visit the 
schools in this town with each Committee man," and the same 
vote was passed in 1817. 

From 1818 to 1820 inclusive no action of tlie town npon this 
suhject is recorded ; in 1821 and 1822, the committee to inspect 
schools consisted of Eev. John Sabin, Levi Chamberlain, and 
Jared Perkins, but in 1823 Alvah Godding took the place of 
Mr. Sabin. At this date the town voted that each district 
shall choose its own committee, and this vote was repeated in 
1821. This officer doubtless answered to the Prudential Com- 
mittee of recent days, and even since 1823 he has been chosen 
by the districts respectively and Tiot by the town, as was the 
former custom. 

In 1825 the town chose Rev. John Sabin, J. S. Adams, and 
John J. Allen to inspect the schools, but authorized Mr. Sabin 
to name six other persons in addition to serve with these, and 
he nominated Rnfus Foster, Newell Bent, Silas Cummings, 
John Perkins, Dexter Whittemore, and Lysander Tower. 

In 1826 a committee of ten was chosen to visit schools and 
recommend books, viz., Luther Chapman, Levi Chamberlain, 
John J. Allen, Dexter "Whittemore, Lysander Tower, Danvers 
Whittemore, Luke B. Richardson, John Perkins, J. S. 
Adams, and Curtis Coolidge. 

In 1827 Rev. John Sabin. Levi Chamberlain, John J. 
Allen, J. S. Adams, Xewell Bent, and Silas Cnmmings con- 
stituted the committee. 

From 1828 to 1832 inclusive there is no record of the ap- 
pointment of any Superintending School Committee by the 
town, but such a committee may have been appointed by the 
selectmen. 

That such a committee served during those years seems 

nearly certain from the fact that in 1833 the town 

•voted to dispense with the services of the Superintending School Com- 
mittee so far as relates to the inspection or examination of Schools. 

From this date to Ibll the records are very meagre on this 



324 HISTOEY OF riTZWILLIAM. 

point, thougli in some of the later years it is shown that a re- 
port was made and accepted. 

In an historical lecture delivered in the town in 183(5, Mr. 
Sabin took an advanced position relative to school matters ; 
and among: the errors which he labored to correct were 
these : 

1. The schools were too short because the appropriations 
were too small. 

2. The standard of education having been raised, the prog- 
ress of the schools had not kept pace with it. 

3. Some of the children had been crowded forward too early 
and rapidly in their studies, and had been injured thereby. 

"Parents and even teachers are in haste everywhere to 
have their children become men. How sad a mistake !" This 
Mr. Sabin quotes approvingly from The Moral Reformer. 

4. Some of the popular amusements of the time and town 
were interfering greatly with the substantial education of the 
children and youth, and the statement of this evil was followed 
with the suggestion that if they had met just as often to study 
Colbnrn's arithmetic or Euclid, they would have received 
greater and more lasting benelit, with less expense and less ex- 
posure of life and health. A man of Mr. Sabin 's age and ex- 
perience, and with views like these, must have done much for 
the intellectual as well as moral education of the young. 

Not long after this period the town increased its appropria- 
tions for school purposes and provided for a more efficient 
supervision of its schools. In 1840 Rev. John Sabin, Amos 
A. Parker, Daniel Spaulding, Dexter Whittemore, and Cal- 
vin J. Parker were chosen by the town as a School Commit- 
tee, and they did the work assigned them so well that a year 
later the town passed a vote of thanks for their service, and 
seems to have continued them in office another year by general 
consent. A list of the committees for the succeeding years is 
here given. The date prefixed is the year of appointment. The 
report of each commictee will, of course, be dated the follow- 
ing year. The committees of 1842 and 1843 were appointed 
by the selectmen, and that of 1844 was chosen by the town. 
Since 1844 the committees have been perhaps more usually 



SrJ'ERIXTp:Xl)IXG SCHOOL COMMITTEES. 325 

chosen by the town, though very frequently the appointment 
has been referred to the selectmen. 



SUPERINTENDING SCHOOL COMMITTEES. 

1842. Jonathan S. Adams, Daniel Spaulding, Silas Curamings. 

1843. Daniel Spaulding, Silas Cummings, Calvin J. Parker. 

1844. Calvin J. Parker, Dexter "Whittemore, John J. Allen, 

Jr. 
This was the first committee that qualified by taking the 
official oath. 

1845. Calvin J. Parker, Dexter Whittemore, Samuel Kendall. 

1846. Silas Cummings, Daniel Spaulding, Jonathans, Adams. 

1847. John S. Brown, Charles M. AYillard. 

1848. Charles M. Willard, John S. Brown, William D. Locke. 

1849. John S. Brown, Charles M. Willard, Abraham Jen- 

kins, Jr. 

1850. Abraham Jenkins, Jr., John S. Brown. 

1851. Silas Cummings, John J. Allen, Jr., Thomas AV. 

Whittemore. 

1852. Silas Cummings, John J. Allen, Jr., Daniel Spaulding. 

1853. John J. Allen, Jr., Augustus W. Goodnow, Milton 

Chaplin, Silas Cummings. 

1854. John Woods, Samuel Kendall. 

1855. John Woods. 

1856. John Woods. 

1857. Silas Cummings. 

1858. John J. AUen^ Jr. 

1859. Joel Whittemore. 

1860. Samuel Kendall, William L. Gayiord, C. R. Crowell. 

1861. James IT. Chase, William L. Gayiord, Curtis R. Cro- 

well. 

1862. William L. Gayiord. 

1863. John J. Allen, Jr. 

1864. Amos J. Blake. 

1865. William L. Gayiord, George W. Cutting, Eugene de 

]^ormandie. 

1866. William L. Gayiord, George W. Cutting, Ira Bailey. 



326 IIISTOKY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

1867. William L. Gajlord, George W. Cutting, Ira Bailey. 
Mr, Gaylord removed from town before the close of 
the year, and the report was made by Messrs. Cutting 
and Bailey. 

1868 to 1872 inclusive, Dr. A. R. Gleason. 

1873. A. 11. Gleason, Amos J. Blake, II. W. Day. 

1874. Amos J. Blake. 

1875. Amos J. Blake, John Colby. 

1876. Amos J. Blake, John Colby, A. R. Gleason. 

1877. John Colby, A. R. Gleason. 

1878. John Colby, A. R. Gleason, Amos J. Blake. 

1879. Silas Cummings, Samuel Kendall, Calvin B. Perry. 

1880. A. R. Gleason, Amos J. Blake, Samuel Kendall, 

1881. Amos J. Blake, Samuel Kendall, A. R. Gleason, 

1882. Samuel Kendall, A. R. Gleason, Amos J. Blake. 

1883. A. R. Gleason, Amos J. Blake, Elliot K. Wheelock. 

1884. Amos J, Blake, Elliot K, Wheelock, John M. Parker, 

1885. Elliot K. Wheelock, John M. Parker, Harriet W. 

Stearns. 

1886. A, R. Gleason, Jonas Damon, Harriet W, Stearns. 

1887. Jonas Damon, Harriet W, Stearns, Samuel Kendall. 
In 1880 the town adopted the plan of electing a single mem- 
ber of the School Committee each year, to hold office for three 
years, a system which has many advantages, as it keeps upon 
the committee constantly two members who have become well 
acquainted with the qualifications of the teachers and the con- 
dition of the schools. 

The town commenced the printing of the School Reports 
in 1844. The report made in 1845 covers thirty-one pages, and 
is very elaborate, as it sets forth the examination of the teach- 
ers and of the schools, the condition of the latter in detail, 
with the matter of the classification of the pupils, and considers 
at length the subjects of reading, writing, qualifications of 
teachers, vocal music, physical education, and visits of parents 
and others. 

Since 1850 the reports of the selectmen and other town 
officers have generally been printed with the School Reports. 
No reports were printed in 1854, 1855, and 1856. 



SCHOOL STATISTICS, 1843-18T6, 



327 



In the follovvino; tables. Table I. ijives the number of schol- 

ars attending school, and the aggregate length of the schools ; 

Table II. gives a more extended report for four representative 

years : 

TABLE I. 





Summer Schools. 


Winter Schools. 


Total Number of 
Different Scholars 
in the Year. 


0' - 


Xi -~ 
a ^ 
3 o 

o s 


Boys. 


Girls. 


Total Number 
of Scholars. 


Boys. 

1 


QQ 

5 


Number of W 
Schooling li 
Year. 


1843-4. . . 




320 




431 








218 


1844-5. . . 




361 


161 


200 


452 


239 


213 


488 


222 


1845-6. . . 




332 


139 


193 


469 


253 


216 




220 


1846-7. . . 




345 


148 


397 


428 


219 


209 




231 


1847-8. . . 




385 


157 


228 


410 


220 


190 




244 


1848-9. . . 




870 


163 


207 


447 


238 


209 




212 


1849-50. . 




332 


140 


192 


443 


229 


214 




219 


1850-1... 




335 


143 


192 


400 


206 


194 




217 


1851-2. . . 




261 


113 


148 


386 


203 


183 


419 


204 


1852-3... 




284 


115 


169 


396- 


210 


186 


422 


232 


1855-6. . . 




283 












432 


205 


1856-7. . . 




268 


109 


159 


366 


200 


166 


441 


220 


1857-8. . . 




275 






356 






394 


200 


1858-9. . . 




256 






343 






373 


211 


1859-60. . 




267 






354 






405 


198 


1860-1. . . 




256 






314 






325 


193 


1861-2. . . 




246 






333 






366 


208 


1862-3... 




253 






327 






371 


202 


1863-4. . . 




250 






377 






406 


203 


1864-5. . . 




255 






353 






398 


20() 


1865-6... 
















377 


235 


1866-7. . . 
















380 


220 


1867-8. . . 




290 






357 






383 


225 


1868-9. . . 




256 






325 






336 


205 


1869-70. . 




247 






304 






317 


227 


1870-1... 




246 






290 






327 


225 


1871-2. . . 




216 






266 






297 


196 


1872-3. . . 




222 






261 






282 


201 


1873-4 . . 




208 






298 






331 


204 


1874-5. . . 




235 






281 






319 


242 


1875-6. . . 




225 






269 








241. 



328 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



TABLE I.— {Continued.) 





Summer Schools. 


Winter Schools. 




















Total Number 
Different Scho 
in the Year. 


o 




H 

a| 

OO 


pa 


5 


a| 

s 2 
^■§ 

oO 




00 

o 


Number of W 
Schooling lu 
Year. 


1876-7. . . . 


228 






277 








244 


1877-8. . . . 


218 






259 








266 


1878-9. . . . 


219 






235 








275 


1879-80... 


215 






251 






277 


265 


1880-1. . . . 


199 






228 








299 


1881-2.... 


209 






221 








260 


1882-3. . . . 


200 


89 


111 


236 


129 


107 




251 


1883-4. . . . 


214 


98 


116 


269 


142 


127 




262 


1884-5. . . . 


236 


117 


119 


273 


143 


180 


269 


264 


1885-6. . . . 


234 


114 


120 


262 


135 


127 




250 


1886-7. . . . 


238 


117 


121 


247 


129 


118 




240 



TABLE IL 





1844-5. 


1852-3. 


1864-5. 


1884-5. 


Number of different schol- 
ars attending school in 
the year 


488 
260 

228 

361 
312 
452 

366 

$504.00 
800 . 00, 


422 

222 
200 

284 

235 

396 

341 

8577.20 
1,000.00 


398 
212 
186 

255 

230 

353 

297 

81,000 


269 


Of which were bovs 

" girls 

Whole number attending in 
summer 


141 
128 

236 


Average attendance in sum- 
mer 


216 


AVhole number attending in 
winter 

Average attendance in win- 
ter 


273 
250 


Amount required by law to 
be raised for support of 
schools 

Amount actually raised . . . . , 


$2,000 



SCHOOL STATISTICS CONTINUED. 



329 



TABLE II. — ( Continued. ) 



Amount of Literary Fund . 

Amount for each scholar. . . 

Terms tauglit by male teach- 
ers 

Terms taught by female 
teachers 

Average wages per month, 
including board, male 
teachers 

Average wages per month, 
including board, female 
teachers 

Kumberof visits by citizens 
before linal examinations 
at summer schools 

At winter schools 



1844-5. 1852-3. 1864-5. 1884-5. 



$50.19 

1.76 

h 

20 



825 . 20 



11.10 



275 
177 



$06.72 $99.96 
2.52 2.76 



4 

20 



1 
23 



$28.50' $50.00 



14.00 



402 
476 



19 . 68 



S;l30.05 
8.17 

6 

21 

$37.67 

29.14 



257 
262 



It will be seen that while the number of scholars belonging 
in the town and attending school has considerably diminished, 
the amount of money expended upon the schools has greatly 
increased. The result of the larger appropriations has been to 
command the services of more efficient and better educated 
teachers, and to add considerably to the length of the schools. 
It will be particularly noticed that much the larger advance 
has been made in the wages paid to female teachers. 

In a few cases a high school has been maintained in the 
autunm, with varying success, and nearly every .year some of 
the youth of the town have attended academies and high 
schools in other places. During these years a large amount 
of private instruction has been given by those well qualified 
to teach ; but ever since the settlement of the town, the chief 
reliance has been placed upon the common schools in the in- 
tellectual training of the children and youth. 

The printed annual School Reports for the last forty years 
contain a great amount of valuable information respecting the 



330 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

school education of children, and youth in general, and the 
condition of each district school in particular. The sugges- 
tions found in them relative to the increased efhciency of the 
schools are mostly of much practical importance, and show 
that, as the years have been coming and going, the intellectual 
training of tlie young of Fitzwilliam has not been overlooked. 

LITERAKY FUND. 

The Literary Fund, to which allusion has been made, is de- 
rived from an annual tax of one half of one per cent on the 
amount of the actual capital stock of banking corporations in 
this State, also from a tax of one per cent on deposits in sav- 
ings-bnnks by non-resident depositors, or depositors whose resi- 
dence is unknown, and also from the proceeds of the sale of 
the State lands in the northern portion of the State. 

The Governor, Secretary of State, and State Treasurer for 
tlie time being, constitute a Board of Commissioners to man- 
age said Literary Fund. 

The law provides that the State Treasurer shall assign nnd 
distribute, annually in June, the Literary Fund among the 
several towns and places, according to the number of scholars 
of such towns and places, not less than five years of age, who 
shall, by the last Report of the School Committee of the sev- 
eral towns and places returned to the Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Instruction, a])pear to have attended the district common 
schools in such towns and places for a term not less than two 
weeks within that year. 

The money so received by any town or place shall be ap- 
plied to the maintenance of common schools or to other pur- 
poses of education, in addition to the sums required to be raised 
by law, and in such manner as the town shall direct ; but no 
district in which no school shall be kept during the year shall 
receive any part of said money. See Chapter XCTY., Gen- 
eral Laws of New Hampshire. 

All money arising from the taxation of dogs remaining in 
the treasury of anv town or citv of this State on the hrst dav 
of April, which has not been ordered to be paid for damages 
done by dogs to domestic animals, shall be applied to the sup- 



FITZWILLIAM COMMON-SCHOOL ASSOCIATIOl!^^. 331 

port of schools. Section IS, Chapter CXY., General Laws of 
Kew Ilauipsliire. 

THE FITZWILLIAM COMMON-SCHOOL ASSOCIATION, 

From a printed circular issued bv A. S. Kendall, President, 
and Stephen Batcheller, Secretary, and addressed to the in- 
habitants of this town we learn that for some years the county 
of Cheshire among the counties, and the town of Fitzwilliam 
am.ong its towns, were regarded " as the banner county and 
town in ]^ew Hampshire in matters pertaining to common 
schools." It siiould be known, however, that this higli posi- 
tion had not been gained solely, perhaps not chiefly, by large 
appropriations for educational purposes, or by the employment 
of the most competent teachers, or, again, because the scliools 
of this town had been favored with a wiser and more energetic 
superintendence than most of its neighbors enjoyed. These 
had all done much to raise the standard of education here, 
but, after all, the secret of the success was plainly to be found 
in the prevailing sentiment of the people generally, their in- 
terest in their schools and determination to make them as effi- 
cient as possible. 

As early as October 25th, 1842, measures were adopted for 
the organization of what was known, for many years, as " The 
Fitzwilliam Common School Association," and on jS^ovember 
8th of that year the organization of this society was perfected. 
Rev. J. H. Say ward. Dr. S. Cummings, and Daniel Spauld- 
ing, Esq., reporting the form of a constitution for that pur- 
pose. 

The object aimed at is stated to have been " to increase the 
interest in and to improve and perfect our common schools."" 
The original constitution as slightly amended from time to time 
was signed by one hundred and eighty-eight persons of both 
sexes, with the name of Uev. John Sabin at the head of the 
list, and these names embrace those of the most active and 
energetic of the people of Fitzwilliam at that period. The 
plan proposed and successfully as well as generally carried out 
during the years that followed, was to hold, each year, a series 
of evening meetings in the several school districts, at which 



332 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

papers should be read, lectures given, and discussions engaged 
in relative to all the matters appertaining to the common 
schools. The meeting was usually held while the school in 
the district was in session. 

The officers of the organization were a president, a vice- 
president, a secretary and treasurer, three councillors, and in 
eacli district two coadjutors — one of each sex. At the first 
election, the persons whose names follow were chosen : Daniel 
Spaulding, President ; Joseph A. Penniman, Vice-President ; 
John P. Sabin, Secretary and Treasurer ; Rev. Messrs. John 
Sabin, James H. Sayward, and Joseph Storer, Councillors. 

District. Coadjutors. 

1. John Damon, Mrs. Lurena Gregory. 

2. Joshua T. Collins, Mrs. David Fullam. 

3. ]S"elson Howe, Miss Zerviah Waite. 

4. George E". Olmsted, Mrs. George W. Simonds. 

5. Silas Cummings, Miss M. E. Spaulding. 
Calvin J. Parker, Miss Sarah B. Pichardson. 

6. James Corey, Mrs. Jonathan Whittemore. 

7. Levi Harris, Mrs. William D. Locke. 

8. Lewis Taft, Miss Olive R. Felch. 

9. Henry H. Wheeler, Miss Tryphena Collins. 

10. Thomas Sweetser, Miss Maria Blodgett. 

11. Benjamin Heywood, Mrs. Daniel White. 

12. Riifus Foster, Miss Emeline AVorcester. 

The duties of these officers will be easily understood with 
the exception of the last-named, the coadjutors. These persons 
were appointed to arrange in each district for a fall attendance 
at the meetings as they should occur, to see that the school- 
houses should be properly warmed and lighted for the same, 
and to do everything possible to make each meeting successfnl, 
while, later, it was made a part of their duty to inquire into 
the condition of poor families within the hounds of their re- 
spective districts, and to report the facts to the Association, 
that assistance might be rendered, if deemed necessary and 
expedient. The list of coadjutors often, perhaps always, in- 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE C. S. ASSOCIATIO]S". 333 

eluded the names of tlie Prudential Committees of the several 
districts. 

This Fitzwilliam Common School Association soon became 
an important member of the Cheshire County Common School 
Association, which was in active service for many years. The 
Fitzwilliam Association was the tirst town association formed in 
the State, and it is believed that no other town association in 
the State or country had so long an active and continuous ex- 
istence. The lectures and discussions took a wide range at tlie 
meetings, but all were made to bear either directly or indi- 
rectly upon common-school education, with a view to correct 
the prevailing evils in the system and to raise the standard as 
high as possible. Such men as Revs.- Messrs. Sabin, Brown, 
and Herrick, Amos A. Parker, Esq., J. S. Adams, John J. 
Allen, Jr., Dexter Whittemore, Samuel Kendall, Dr. Silas 
Cummings, Daniel Spaulding, and others equally interested 
took an active part in all these proceedings. 

At the opening of the Association year, September 28th, 
1846, the following appointment of lecturers was made, and 
the lectures thus provided for seem to have been given regu- 
larly and promptly : 

District No. 1. Rev. D. Stowell, Parental Duties. 

" " 2. Daniel Spaulding, Esq., Power of Attention. 

" " 3. Henry Cummings, Reading and Spelling, 

" " 4. Samuel Kendall, Studies in School. 

" " 5. John J. Allen, Jr., Music in Schools. 

" " 7. Charles Cummings, Compositions. 

" " 8, Amos A, Parker, Esq., Punctuality and Con- 
stant Attendance. 

" " 9. Rev. Horace Herrick, Moral Culture. 

" " 10. Dr. Silas Cummings, Physical Culture. 

" " 11. Rev. John S. Brown, Intellectual Culture. 

" "12. Jonathan S. Adams, School Discipline. 

The directors or councillors in making the appointments 
for each year, as a matter of course introduced new lecturers 
and subjects for discussion, and October 25th, 1817, provision 
was made to have papers upon common-school education pre- 



334 HISTORY OF FITZWILLTAM. 

sented at each district meeting by two ladies. The Rrst ap- 
pointment of these was as follows : 

No. 1. Mrs. S. Kendall, Miss Ellen M. Allen. 

" 2. Miss M. B. Alexander, Miss Nancy S. Carter. 

3. Miss Lncy Newton, Miss Miranda S. Parker. 

4. Miss Jane E. Reed, Miss Nancy A. Harris. 

5. Mrs. C. C. Carter, Miss Esther E. Buckmiuster, 

7. Miss M. B. AVilder, Miss Eliza J. Newton. 

8. Miss J. A. Spaulding, Miss Ellen Hill. 
" 9. Miss O. R. Felch, Mrs. C. M. WiUard. 
" 10. Miss Eliza Whittemore, Mrs. J. S. Brown. 

11. Mrs. Joel Whittemore, Miss S. A. Thompson. 

12. Mrs. F. Kendall, Mrs. D. Stowell. 






u 



The records from this time forward show that the scholars 
ot the several districts were active in preparing for the district 
meetings, in the way of furnishing agreeable music for the 
same and school papers to be read by teacher or scholars. The 
essays by the ladies introduced a new and attractive feature, 
and the meetings were sustained through the season with great 
interest. And this plan of operations, an outline of which has 
here been given, was adopted substantially and carried out 
from year to year. New names appear from time to time 
upon the h'sts of writers and speakers. Ln nearly or quite 
every district, a school paper, witli a significant name, as. The 
YoutJi's Friend, The Evening Star, was carefully prepared 
by the scholars and read by the teaclier or by one or more of 
the pupils, and much was done in this way to maintain the 
interest of the meetings. The paper presented in District 
No. 5, January 0th, 1853, was read by three of the pupils, viz., 
Hannah A. Adams, Abbie H. Kimball, and Cynthia Whitte- 
more. It was entitled The /School Gleaner, and consisted of 
thirty-one articles from the higher and twelve from the primary 
department, but the whole was read in forty-eight minutes. 

Commencing with the autumn of 1853 the work of the Fitz- 
william Common School Association was continued, but under 
the name of " The Association for Educational Purposes in 
Fitzwilliam." A new constitution was adopted, but its fea- 



$ 



ASSOCIATION FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES. 335 

tuics were not nnlike those of its predecessor, t]iou<;li in its 
range it ma}' have been possibly a little wider. More and 
more the pupils in the several schools contributed to the in- 
terest and value of the district meetings by tlieir papers and 
irnisic, while the older members of the Association, both male 
and female, furnished their lectures and essays upon a great 
variety of practical matters appertaining to culture and train- 
ing in the home and the school. 

The officers for the year 1858-59 were John Forristall, 
President ; Charles Reed, Vice-president ; Joel Whittemore, 
Secretary ; Charles H. Woods, Editor ; Dr. S. Cummings, 
Philip D. Angier and Chancy Davis, Jr., Directors. The 
meetings (often weekly), seem to have been maintained Mith a 
good degree of interest through the entire period of the Civil 
^Yar, fifty, seventy, seventy-live, one hundred and six, and two 
liundred and ten being present on different occasions. In this 
connection it will be remembered that only a few of the school- 
houses in town have proper accommodations for over fifty 
scholars. November 6th, 1865, a printed schedule for the 
season was distributed, signed by Joel Whittemore, President, 
and Amos J. Blake, Secretary, giving the time and place of 
the meetings, the names of the speakers, etc. 

During all the earlier years of this x\ssociation's active 
work, the lectures were given by the appointees in person, 
and all the appointments were made in town, but after the 
change of its name and constitution in 1853, substitute lecturers 
were accepted, and occasionally a lecturer was obtained from 
out of town. 

The last meeting of the Association of which record was 
made, was held February 8th, 1867, at the close of which it 
was voted to discontinue the meetings of the Association for 
the winter, j^o reason is given why they were not re- 
sumed. 

So many and such large gatherings in all parts of the town, 
sustained through the period of twenty-five years by the best 
educated and most prominent people of the place, must have 
done for the cause of common school education what could not 
have been efl"ected by any other means whatever. 



336 HISTORY OF FITZ WILLI AM. 

THE rrrZWILLIAM LYCEUM. 

Forty or fifty years ago tliis Lyceum had a prominent place 
ill the affairs of this town, which it never obtained in most of 
the New England communities. 

In his historical lecture, given in 1836, Rev, John Sabin 
speaks of its operations and influence approvingly : 

It was formed, he says, a number of years ago, and has proceeded ac- 
cordino- to its design, not, however, exciting all the interest that was 
hoped. A little more than a year ago (it was) reformed and organized 
as at present. Its object, improvement, mental and mora^ ; and it may 
have done more good than for which it has credit in disciplining mind 
and turning attention to subjects of importance in particular. There 
are people enough with us and of a suitable age to make the Lyceum 
prosperous and useful. It is to be regretted that not more of our youth 
come in, this season, take an active part and with interest, by written 
pieces, if they do not like to talk. 

Every school-teacher should be found here, and all that have any idea 
of cultivating their own minds, and the minds of others. 

This Association held weekly meetings in the village school- 
house during the colder season of the year. The audiences 
attending were usually large, often filling the house to its 
fullest capacity, and it was noticeable that the interest in the 
meetings continued unabated year after year. Aside from the 
great amount of valuable information gained through this in- 
stitution, it obviously quickened the intellects of all concerned, 
and did much to train the debaters to think upon their feet. 
The Lyceum continued in active existence for some years after 
the formation of the Common School Association, when from 
the increasing popularity of the latter society, the meetings of 
the former were discontinued. 

Some years before the formation of the Lyceum, an associa- 
tion called " The ]\linervan Society" was organized here, with 
the object of promoting a literary taste and general culture 
among its members, but the amount of success achieved by it 
cannot be stated, nor is it known when or for what reason it 
was suspended. 

THE FARMEES' KSV) MECHANICS' CLUB. 

This organization was formed late in the year 1869, and has 
had a more or less active existence to the present time. By 




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FAKMERS' AND MECHANICS' CLUB. 337 

its original constitution the subjects for investigation at its 
meetings were required to be such as h;id a bearing on agri- 
culture, horticulture, or mechanics, but this rule was afterward 
changed so as to allow the consideration of any subject of 
general interest. Under the wider range of subjects, the con- 
dition of the schools was discnssed ; intellectual, physical, and 
moral culture, and cognate topics were urged upon the atten- 
tion of the people ; electricity, the telegraph, and kindred sub- 
jects of a scientific nature were considered, while protection 
and free trade, village improvements and other matters of a 
practical nature wore not neglected. Occasionally the services 
of a lecturer from out of town have been obtained, but gener- 
ally the club has relied upon its own members to render its 
ffatherino-s interesting and instructive. 

Besides these associations, to which particular reference has 
been made, others of a somewhat similar character have f rom 
time to time been formed, sometimes to fill a vacancy, some- 
times to furnish entertainment of a greater variety or of a; 
more social character, and sometimes, perhaps, by way of oppo- 
sition. Some of these may have continued for two or three 
seasons, but generally the interest in them was brief. 

It will be noticed that, with the exception of a few brief in- 
terruptions, the town has had some kind of a literary society 
for over sixty years. It may well be doubted whether there 
is another town in Kew Eno-land of the size of Fitzwilliam 
that has supported a society of this character for so many 
years, w^ith so little interruption, and with such continued in- 
terest during the entire period. 

MUSICAL TALENT AND CULTURE. 

An account of the educational resources and progress of 
Fitzwilliam can hardly be faithful and satisfactory without a 
brief reference to these matters. 

It is not claiming too much for this place to say that few 
of the country towns of New England have been more distin- 
guished during the last fifty years for the cultivation of music, 
both vocal and instrumental. 'No one will pretend that the 
23 



338 'history of fitzwilliam. 



k' 



singing in the old meeting-house on the hill near the cemetery 
was anything to boast of, when the chorister was not always 
selected because of his superior musical taste and acquirements. 
If tradition is not greatly in fault, some of the scenes enacted 
there, professedly to praise Jehovah in sacred song, partook 
more of the ludicrous than of the devotional. Choirs would 
not join in sustaining the music of the sanctuary under an in- 
competent or even an unpopular leader a hundred years ago 
any more readily than they will to-day, as some of the ancient 
choristers learned to their sorrow,"^ while but little can be said 
in favor of the general style and execution of church music in 
those days except that it was hearty. It was no worse here 
than elsewhere. 

But within the last fifty years a great change for the better 
has taken place, and this has been especially marked in Fitz- 
william. The people of this town might be divided and sub- 
divided ecclesiastically and politically, but when they came to 
the matter of music all their differences vanished, and they 
were ready to act as a unit. In all the later years musical 
concerts have been a favorite recreation and entertainment. 
Especially was this the case some fifteen years ago, when a 
series of annual musical conventions in this place greatly in- 
terested all the lovers of music, and, it may be added, the peo- 
ple generally. In some of these conventions much valuable 
assistance was rendered by musicians from abroad, but in gen- 
eral the chief reliance for success was placed upon home talent. 
During the sessions of the conventions many popular concerts 
were given before large and interested audiences, and not a lit- 
tle v,^as accomplished in the way of forming and correcting the 
musical taste of the community. 

A good organ or pianoforte was on all these occasions a 
positive necessity, and it seemed to all most concerned vastly 
better to own such an instrument than to continue to borrow. 
This conviction led to the choice of a committee consisting of 
Messrs. P. S. Batcheller, John Whittemore, and A. R. Gleason, 

* For a long time choristers were chosen by the town, and party spirit was not 
unknown in the early days. Some appointments were made in this line which the 
choir would not accept, when the leader sometimes attempted " the service of song " 
with no following. 



FITZWILLIAM MUSICAL ASSOCIATIOX. 330 

to consider the whole subject and ;ict upon it as circumstances 
niiii'ht seem to dictate. 

Their report, presented June 8th, 1870, from which extracts 
will here be given, will furnish all the information needed re- 
specting the success of this enterprise. 

To the Fitzwilliam Musical Association. 

Your Committee, chosen to select and purchase a Piano Forte for the 
Town Hall in Fitzwilliam, have, according to their best judgment, at- 
tended to the duty assigned them, and would respectfully ask leave at 
this time to submit the following Report : 

You will pardon the Committee if they advert to some circumstances 
connected witii the purchase of the Piano not legitimately belonging to a 
report of this kind. It may not be generally known that, a few years since, 
the ladies of our village feeling the need of a Piano for tlie Town Hail 
held a series of entertainments consisting of Charades, Tableaux, etc. By 
this and other means they collected some $45. This money was placed 
at interest, and amounts now to $55, and may properly be considered 
the first money raised for the Piano, the nucleus around which, after 
these years of patient waiting, have been gathered funds sufficient to 
nearly complete what they so nobly commenced. 

Since this first effort, nothing in aid of the enterprise was done until 
Jan. 1870, when at the suggestion of our citizens interested in Music an 
" Old Folks'' Concert''' was given, the avails of which were given to the 
purchase of a Piano. The Concert was, in every respect, a decided suc- 
cess. The music was well rendered and the audience the largest ever 
convened on any similar occasion in town. 

Following the Concert, two Dramatic entertainments were given at our 
own Hall and one at East .Jalfrev. The expense attending tlie getting 
up of these last entertainments was so heavy that the net proceeds were 
not so remunerative as could have been desired, still by them an addi- 
tion of over $50 was made to the Piano fund. 

That the instrument might be owned by some responsible bodj% it 
was deemed best to organize a permanent Musical Association, under the 
laws of New Hampshire provided for such cases. 

In the selection of a suitable instrument the Committee were early im- 
pressed with the superiority of " the School Piano" manufactured by 
Messrs. Steinway & Son, of New York City, and were unanimous in 
favor of accepting the offer which came from those celebrated manu- 
facturers. 

Tlie Committee agreed to pay for the Instrument delivered at the Fitz- 
william depot $865.00 including Stool and Cover. This amount was re- 
duced $10.00 on account of a slight defect in the finish of the instrument. 

At the close of their report, which is here condensed, the 
committee say, we " cannot allow this opportunity to pass 
without congratulating the Association upon being the owners 
of this beautiful piano, and also the town for the privilege thej 
will have from time to time of hearing it." 

" The Fitzwilliam Musical Association," to which allusion 



340 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

is made in tlie report which is given in part above, was duly 
organized April 7th, 1870, agreeable to the provisions of the 
General Statutes of Kew Hampshire in sncli cases made and 
provided. Its object is stated to be " to legally establish the 
ownership of the Piano Forte to be placed in the Town Hall of 
Fitz William." In Article 3 provision is made for the usual 
officers of such an association, while Article -4 declares that " all 
persons who assisted as singers or players at the ' Old Folks' 
Concert,' given at the Town Hall in Fitzwilliam in Jan. 1870, 
and also the actors and orchestra who assisted in the Dramatic 
Entertainments may become members of this Association by 
siffuino; these Articles." 

Provision is also made for callinof meetino-s of the Associa- 
tion. 

It is understood that the Musical Association keeps the in- 
strument insured. In real value the piano proves to be all 
that was anticipated respecting it when it was purchased over 
fifteen years ago. As this *hall is the place for holding more 
or fewer literary or social entertainments annually, and as music 
must, most deservedly, enter largely into the proceedings on 
such occasions, the inhabitants of Fitzwilliam are certainlv to 
be congratulated upon the possession of so pleasant and con- 
venient a place for their gatherings, and the means within 
their reach of cultivating and enjoying together one of the 
most elevating and ennobling of the arts of civilized life. May 
fifty years to come witness an equally great improvement in 
musical taste and attainments ! 

TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 

In his historical lecture, delivered in 1836, Pev. Mr. Sabin 
refers to the temperance society " as a very safe thing," that 
" does harm to none." It was called forth by the exigencies 
of the times, and "if it had not begnn in one way, it surely 
would in another." The earliest active and prominent advo- 
cate of temperance principles was Dr. Preston Pond, who was 
a practising phj'sician in town for several years about 1825-28. 

The doctor -was ardent, and said a good deal, and from this circum- 
stance became very obnoxious to not a few of our people and I should 



EARLIEST TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 341 

tliiiik from this cause lost no small part of his practice. At the first 
what there was to it, was some half a dozea pledged to each other in a 
still way to total abstinence from ardent spirits, and they were not to 
help others to it, more than drink themselves. 

But the agitation of the subject did not cease, even though 
Dr. Pond was compelled to leave town. The lirst formal or- 
ganization was effected in the winter of 1829-30. The society 
was styled " The Fitzwilliam Friendly Association for the 
Promotion of Temperance," and the first board of officers 
were : Captain Dexter Whittemore, President ; Aaron Town- 
send, Yice-President ; Deacon Calvin Coolidge, Deacon R. 
B. Phillips, Dr. Warren Partridge, Benjamin Davison, Ben- 
jamin Wilson, Directors, and Silas Cummings, M.D., Secre- 
tary. A paper dated Jnnuary 1st, 1830, setting fortli the 
necessity, the objects, and the aim of the Association, and signed 
by the officers and the members (thirty-eight in number) was 
printed for general circulation. Fivx vears later the society 
numbered three hundred and thirty-four members, though 
none joined it under twelve years of age, and none under 
twenty-one years, except with the consent of parents or 
o;uardians. 

In 1842 a new organization, originating in what was known 
as the Washington movement, and named for " the Father of 
his country," took the place of the earlier society, and appears 
to have embraced within a few years a very large part of the 
population. The pledge adopted was as follows : 

We the Subscribers pledge ourselves each to the others that we will 
not use any intoxicating drinks as a beverage, that we will not furnish 
them for others, that we will, in all suitable ways, discountenance their 
use and use our endeavors to redeem the intemperate. 

The constitution of this society, based upon this pledge, was 
drawn up by Amos A. Parker, Esq., and it was signed in the 
space of three and one half years by six hundred and sixty-, 
three of the inhabitants of Fitzwilliam, viz., by three hundred 
and fifty-three males and three hundred and ten females. In 
process of time against three of these names the word " broken" 
was written. 

At the meeting for organization, March 2d, 1842, officers 



342 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

M^ere elected as follows : Amos A. Parker, Esq., President ; 
Dexter Wliittemore, David Pierson, and John Reed, Vice- 
Presidents ; John P, SaLin, Secretary, and Benjamin J, 
Hawkes, Treasurer. 

The first meetings were held in the village hall or in some 
one of the churclies, but soon the gatherings often took place 
in the school-houses in all parts of the town. 

The meetings were well attended, and nearly all the more 
prominent men and women of the town gave the society their 
cordial support. At these meetings all the phases of the tem- 
perance reformation were brought before the people by many 
earnest speakers, while measures for the suppression of the 
ille<i:al traffic in intoxicatina: drinks received a Iaro;e share of 
attention. From time to time Sundav-evenino- meetino-s were 
held at which the moral and religious aspects of the cause were 
particularly considered. At the meeting, January 7th, 1846, 
a resolution in these words called forth an earnest discussion : 

Resolved, That the sickness which frequently occurs in the case of 
Temperance men on going out of town, requiting the aid of strong drink, 
is peculiar in its character, and in the judgment of charity may be omitted. 

This singularly worded, but very suggestive resolve was 
earnestly discussed by at least eleven speakers, and laid over 
for further consideration. At the next meeting it was 
adopted. 

This society appears to have been in active operation about 
twelve years, when, as was true in most of our 'New England 
towns, it gave place to other organizations of more or less effi- 
ciency. 

That the Washington Temperance Society in Fitzwilliam 
accomplished a great amount of good between the years 1842 
and 1854 there can he no question. 

For several years (date about 1850-55) there was an active 
* and efficient Lodge of Sons of Temperance, and at a more re- 
cent date (about 1867) a Lodge of Good Templars. 

LIBRARIES. 

Early in the history of Fitzwilliam the subject of providing 
a library seems to have been agitated, but nothing effectual 



EARLIEST LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. 343 

was done till 1707, when, forliiniself and others, Nahiim Par- 
ker, Es(]., presented tlie following petition to the General 
Court of Kew Hampshire : 

Petition for Incorporation of Librarj'. 

To the General Court of the State of Xew Hampshire now conveu'd 
at Portsmouth humbly Siieweth Naliura Parlvcr, that he \vitl\ a nurnbtr 
of others Inhabitants of Fitzwilliam purchased a Collection of Books 
for a Social Library, but find it necessary to be incorporated in order to 
realize the advantages Contemplated. Therefore pray that they may be 
incorporated with such privileges as are usually Granted in such Cases, 
and as in duty bound will pray 

Nahum Parker, for the purchasers 

Nov. 27'\ 1797. 

This petition appears to have been granted November 29th, 
1797. 

It is understood that this Association had a ffood degree of 
prosperity for twenty or thirty years, though, as it was dis- 
banded and the books sold at auction over forty years ago, but 
very few particulars concerning it can now be given. During 
the later years of its existence Dexter Whittemore was libra- 
rian, and the library was kept at his store. The books were 
well selected and of a high character, bat generally were more 
solid and valuable than popular and attractive. Works of fic- 
tion were conspicuous by their absence. From the best attain- 
able information the library contained over two hundred and 
fifty volumes, though many of them were old and well worn. 

But the people were not long satisfied without a library, and 
measures were taken early in 1851 to form a new association 
for this purpose. The subscription paper which was circulated 
to obtain funds for this object is dated March 31st, 1851, and 
the money subscribed was to be paid by the 22d day of May 
following, and to be used "' for the establishment of a town 
library." The first subscriptions upon the list were made by 
Nelson Howe and Dr. Silas Cummings for twentv-five dollars 
each, and these were followed by many others ranging from 
ten dollars to two dollars and fifty cents each, the wliole 
amount raised before the meetino; for oro^anization havino; 
been two hundred and fifty-five dollars from forty-nine sub- 
scribers. 



3M HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

" The Fitzwilliain Library Association" was regularly or- 
ganized May 81st, 1851. 

The by-laws adopted provide that " the members of the As- 
sociation shall consist of the representatives of shares in the 
property thereof, each share being valued at two and a half 
dollars actually paid in." 

The officers were to be a Board of Supervisors, consisting of 
seven, a hbrarian, secretary, and treasurer. The supervisors 
were to recommend the books that should be purchased, but 
the Association must pass upon the list before the purchase 
could be made. The supervisors first chosen were Dr. Silas 
Cunimings, Rev. Abraham Jenkins, Rev. J. S. Brown, J. J. 
Allen, Jr., Esq., William D. Locke, Rev, David Stowell, and 
Thomas W. AVhittemore. Daniel Spaulding, Esq., was chosen 
Librarian and Secretary, and Dr. S. Cummings, Treasurer. 
In October, 1852, the librarian reported the number of books 
in the library to be four hundred and eighty-eight, and that 
there had been drawn out and returned during the year four- 
teen hundred and fifty-seven volumes. A year later there 
were four hundred and ninety volumes belonging to the li- 
brary. 

For a number of years the size of the library remained about 
the same, though the number of the books drawn out rather 
diminished. In 1859 the librarian was authorized to furnish 
books to non -shareholders at the rate of fifty cents a year, 
which sum was changed in 1803 to twenty-five cents, the in- 
tention being to furnish the privileges of the library to the in- 
habitants of the town generally at a merely nominal cost. In 
18G3 Joel Whittemore was chosen Librarian, Secretary, and 
Treasurer. In 1869 Mr. Whittemore resigned these offices 
and Dr. Silas Cunimings was chosen to fill them. During 
this year the subject of disposing of the library was considered, 
but no definite action was taken. At a little later date, by 
permission of the selectmen, the library was removed to a room 
under the Town Hall 

At a meeting held January 21st, 1871, Daniel Spaulding, 
Librarian, reported that there were four hundred and seventy- 
five books in the library. At the same meeting Norman U. 



LIBRAKY OFFERED TO THE TOWiS". 345 

Caliill iutrodnced tlie following resolution, which after a full 
discussion was nnanimouslj adopted : 

Resolved, that we the shareholders of the Fitzwillium Library Associ- 
ation do hereby donate and turn over to the Town of Fitzwilliam all our 
books and cases contained in our Library at this date ; Provided that 
each family in town may have a right in said Library by paying to the 
Librarian appointed by the town a sum not less than one dollar, and 
thereby constitute tliemselves and their families life members thereof, 
reserving, however, to ourselves and to our families a life membership 
with the rigl>t to take out books from said Library without pay- 
ment of any additional sum therefor, subject to rules hereafter pre- 
scribed. 

And that the Society known as the Fitzwilliam Library Association is 
hereby dissolved. 

This proposal was accepted by the town at the annual meet- 
ing, held March 1-1-th, 1871, when the following action was 
taken : 

Eesolved, that the Town of Fitzwilliam does hereby receive, accept 
and approve of the generous donation of the Fitzwilliam Library Associ- 
ation of the books and cases contained in their late Librarj'^ on the terms 
expressed in their resolutions adopted Jan. 21, 1871, and that the name 
of said Library shall be "the Fitzwilliam Town Library," and there 
shall be chosen annually, at the annual town meeting, a Librarian who 
shall have the cliarge of said Library and act as Treasurer and also act as 
Supervisor of said Town Library, and two Supervisors who shall have 
the general supervision of said Library and of the Library room and 
shall annually make a report to the town of the condition and standing 
of said Library. 

And that the Librarian and Supervisors are hereby authorized and 
empowered to make such rules and regulations for the government and 
management of said Library, from time to time as they may deem ex- 
pedient, which said rules and regulations shall be recorded by the Clerk 
on the records of the Town, and that the centre room on the north side 
of the lower floor of the town house shall be assigned for the use of said 
Library and for such other literary and scientific meetings and exercises 
as the Board of Supervisors shall direct. 

This arrangement developed a wider interest in the library ; 
several entertainments were given, the proceeds of which 
were used in purchasing new books, and the number of 
readers, which had materially fallen off, began at once to in- 
crease. 



346 HISTORY OF FITZWILLTAM. 

At the annual town meeting, Marcli 13tli, 1S83, the town 
passed the following vote in relation to the library : 

Voted that the supervisors take measures to make the town Librar\' a 
free Library to all the citizens of the town under proper restrictions for 
the safe keeping of books. 

In accordance with this vote, the supervisors called a meet- 
ing of the life members of the library, whicli was held at the 
library room, March 31st, 1883, when Dr. A. R. Gleason was 
appointed chairman of the meeting and Amos J. Blake, Esq., 
clerk. The records of the last meeting of the Fitzwilliam 
Library Association, held January 21st, 1871, were read, as 
was also the portion of the General Laws of ]^ew Hampshire 
applicable to the matters before the meeting. So also were 
the vote of the town accepting the bequest of the Library As- 
sociation and the rules of the Fitzwilliam Town Library adopted 
by the supervisors, April 21:th, 1873. Amos J. Blake, Esq., 
then moved the following resolution, which, after a full dis- 
cussion, was unanimously adopted : 

Be it resolved, that agreeably to a vote passed at the Annual Town 
Meeting March 13, 1883 and the provisions of Chapter 50 of the General 
Laws of New Hampshire the Fitzwilliam Town Library shall hereafter 
be open to the free use of every inhabitant of the town, under proper 
rules and regulations to be made by the Librarian and Supervisors for 
the care, preservation and return of the books. 

The action thus described making this a free piiblic library 
has greatly increased the demand for books, and a wide and 
promising field of usefulness is now open before it, as one of 
the important institutions of Fitzwilliam. 

It should be generally known that this library contains a 
much larger proportion of very valuable books than can be 
found in most town libraries. Many standai-d works in his- 
tory, biography, and science have a prominent place upon its 
shelves. 

What proportion of the volumes drawn out and read may be 
classed as biographical, historical, scientific, or works of fic- 
tion, the reports of the supervisors do not give, but in most of 
our towns and cities, tlie latter exceed in number all the 
former. We are, however, informed that in Fitzwilliam there 



INCREASE OF THE LIBKARY. 



347 



is evidently a growing interest among the younger readers in 
works of the more vahiable character. 

The growth of the library and the increase in tlie number 
of readers is well shown b}^ the following table, which is ninde 
up mainly from the reports of the supervisors. The table 
gives the number of vohimes in tlie library, and the numl>er 
of volumes issued during the twelve months ending March 1st 
of the year stated : 



Tear. 



1871 
1873 

1874 
1875 

1870 

1877 
1878 
1879 



Volumes 


Volumes 


la 


issued, 


Library. 


iibuut 


475 


• • • • 


500 





840 


1,550 


943 


1,575 


1,059 


1,600 


1,123 


2,500 


1,177 


2,600 


1,237 


3,000 



Tear. 



1880. 
1881. 

1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 



Volumes 

in 
Library. 



Volumes 
issued. 



188" 



1,346 
1,431 
1,532 
1,574| 
1,690 
1,741 
1,864 
1,882 



3,000 
3,000 
3,400 
3,700 

6,000 
8,000 
8,000 



The first printed catalogue of the books was given to the 
public in the Town Reports of March, 1875. A complete cata- 
logue was also printed in 1882, and lists of the additions made 
from time to time have been printed as convenience re- 
quired. 

In 1877 the library of the Unitarian Society, containing over 
four hundred volumes, was loaned to the town library, with 
which it still remains. Tlie books of this library go into 
practical use as a part of the town library, but they are not in- 
cluded in the number of volumes as given in the preceding- 
table. 

At some future period (may the time be far distant, how- 
ever) the town lil)rary is to receive a large and choice addition 
to its shelves. The late John J. Allen, Jr., a native of Fitz- 
william, but resident in Keene for many years as Register of 
Deeds of Cheshire County, bequeathed his valuable private 
librarv to the town of Fitzwilliam, to be delivered to the town 



348 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

after the decease of his wife. This library is an exceptionally 
well-selected one, and contains a larger projiortion of books 
in extra bindings than is usual in private libraries in the conn- 
try. This addition will make our library one of the largest 
and best town libraries in the State. When this is received, and 
probably before, the library should have a better and more 
convenient room than it now occupies. Who will give the 
town a suitable library building ? 

THE LIBEAET OF SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 1. 

The facts respecting this library have been kindly furnished 
by Mr. Elisha Chaplin, 

On March 20tli, 1858, there was a meeting of the people of 
this district to see if the district, as such, would accept of the 
gift of one hundred dollars left by Mr. Newell Bent for the 
purpose of establishing a district library. It was voted to ac- 
cept this money, and a committee of three persons was raised 
to select and purchase books, viz., George Damon, John N. 
Richardson, and AYinslow Phillips. At the same time the 
sum of twenty-five dollars was raised to meet expenses and to 
purchase a suitable bookcase. 

At an adjourned meeting, held August 31st, 1858, Samuel 
S. Willard, Levi G. Smith, and Stillman Taylor were chosen 
as a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws. 

The report which they made was accepted and adopted, and 
officers were chosen as follows : President, William Bent ; 
Yice-President, Moses Chaplin ; Librarian, Elisha Chaplin ; 
Secretary, John N. Eichardson ; Treasurer, Charles Damon ; 
Directors, William H. Shirley, Winslow Phillips, and George 
Damon. 

In 1861 Levi G. Smith Avas chosen "Vice-President, and in 
1876 his place was taken by Jonas Damon. In 1882 Winslow 
Phillips was chosen Librarian. In 1876 Arthur L. Phillips 
was chosen Secretarj'^, and he was succeeded in 1880 by William 
H. Shirley. John N. Richardson was the second Treasurer 
chosen in 1861, and he was succeeded in 1876 by Arthur L. 
Phillips, while in 1880 this office was filled by William II. 
Shirley. 



LIBRARY OF DISTRICT NO. 1. 349 

In 1864 Levi G. Smith became one of the Directors, and in 
1870 Elisha M. Bent became one likewise. 

In 1868 the Sabbath-school of District No. 1 offered its 
library to the Bent Library Association, and it was accepted. 

For twenty-five years tin's library has been maintained with 
a good degree of interest, and has been of great value to the 
people in the south-east part of the town. At the present 
time the number of volumes belono-ino- to it is two hundred 
and seven tv-three. 



CHAPTER XIY. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Military Compauies — Town Hall — Fire Department — Fitzwilliam Savings- 
Bank — Post-Offices — Population — Pauperism— Mortuary Record — Con- 
nection with tlie World — Mercnants and Traders — Inns and Hotels — 
Free-Masons — Odd Fellows — Wild Animals. 

A LL over New England, as was true in many other parts 
J^^\. of our country, the defence of the colonies against the 
incursions of hostile Indians rendered from the first the estab- 
lishment of some military organization of the utmost impor- 
tance, while later the French and Indian wars increased the 
urgency of this demand. Hence, a very large proportion of 
the people on the frontiers were always armed and equipped 
with the instruments of war, and in this fact we find the chief 
reason why the American colonies were in a better condition 
to meet the armies of the mother country at the opening of 
the Revolution than they would have been if the early set- 
tlements had been made in a time of peace. 

As is true in nearly all the towns of New England, the in- 
terest in the military affairs of Fitzwilliam centres largely in 
the measures adopted to secure the independence of our coun- 
try from Great Britain, and to rescue the same from the hands 
of its enemies in the great Rebellion, hi both these instances 
the loyalty to right of the people of this town awakened and* 
kept alive the mai'tial spirit till the great ends of freedom and 
justice were gained. 

The war M'ith Great Britain in 1812 had few to favor it 
among the inhabitants of this town, and it is not known that 
it furnished any soldiers for the regular army in that conflict. 

What the town did in the Revolutionary War and also to 
suppress the Rebellion has been set forth in the two chapters 
devoted to those subjects. Previous to the Revolutionary 
War, as the difticulties between the colonies and the mother 



EARLIEST MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS. 351 

country became more defined, a resort to arms seemed more 
certain, and measures of preparation for the coining strngole 
were taken by the various State and provincial legishitive 
bodies, or by popular conventions called to consider the situa- 
tion of affairs. 

The men of Fitzwilliam voted February 23d, 1775, '^ to 
abide by the proceedings of the Continental Congress," and at 
a meeting held March 16th, 1775, a formal military organiza- 
tion was effected. At this meeting the town 

Voted and Chose Mr John Melleu, Capt. of y Militia of y'' Town of 
Fitzwilliiim 

Voted and chose Mr Levi Brigham, Lieut. 

Voted and chose Mr Samuel Kendall, Ensign. 

Voted and chose Mr Daniel Mellen, Clark. 

Voted and chose Messrs Caleb Winch, Reuben Pratt, Nathan Mixer, 
Benj. Davidson, Sarjants. 

'■ Voted and chose Messrs Leonard Brigham, Jonas Knight, David 
Perry, Ezekiel Mixer, Corporals. 

This organization continued during the Revolutionary "War, 
the company embracing all the men in town liable to do mili- 
tary duty, probably all the able-bodied men between the ages 
of sixteen and sixty. 

As the population of the town increased, after the close of 
the Revolutionary War, another company wms organized, and 
the town had two militia companies till the incorporation of 
Troy in 1815. The north company was the Third Company, 
and the south comjiany was the Eighth Company of the 
Twelfth Xew Hampshire Regiment. Among the early cap- 
tains of the north company may be named John Bowker, 
Daniel Farrar, David Gary, John Gary, and Aaron Wright, 
and of the south company Jesse Hayden, Ebenezer Cutler, 
John Fay, Moses Chaplin, Luke Kendall, Timothy Kendall, 
AVilliam Locke, and Josiah Osborne. The dividing line be- 
tween the two companies was what is now called " the old 
road " from Richmond through Fitzwilliam village to Rindge. 
After the incorporation of Troy in 1815, there was only one 
company (of militia) in Fitzwilliam, the south company en- 
larging its borders and taking in that part of the north com- 
pany that remained in the town. 



352 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

From time to time the laws of the State were modified with 
regard to the age when men became exempt from military 
duty, the number of days' service required of the enrolled men 
annually, the imposition of fines for the lack of arms and equip- 
ment, or for non-attendance at meetings for military drill, etc., 
but for a long course of years provision was always made for 
a large and effective body of citizen soldiery, to be held in 
readiness to repel foreign invasion or put down civil insurrec- 
tion. 

As the records of the Fitzwilliam companies for these early 
years have not been preserved, it is impossible to give any his- 
tory of the companies even so far as to give a correct list of 
the captains. In 1825 a complete reorganization of the mili- 
tary system of New Hampshire was effected, and in 1826 the 
Adjutant-General of the State issued new orders respecting 
military service within the State, from which it appears that 

every free, able-bodied, white, male citizen, resident within the limits 
of any standing Company in the State who is of the age of 18 years and 
under the age of 45 years, (except such as are absolutely exempted from 
doing military duty, or hold a military commission in some other corps, 
or belong to some Independent Company raised at large) must, severally 
and respectively, be enrolled therein by the Captain or commanding 
Officer of such Company. 

From 1827 the records of the Fitzwilliam Infantry Com- 
pany (which was the Second Company in the Twelfth Regi- 
ment, Fifth Brigade, and Third Division of the New Hamp- 
shire Militia) are full, and contain much valuable information. 
This company included all the men of FitzwiUiam liable to 
military duty, excej^t the members of the Artillery Company 
and the Fire-Engine Men, who were, while members of the 
Engine Company, exempt. 

Persons between forty and forty-five years of age, by com- 
plying with certain conditions, became "Conditional Exemjits," 
and physicians came under the same rule ; but the names of all 
of both these classes were, by law, borne upon the Eoll of the 
Infantry Company. 

As a matter of course, the Infantry Company in any town 
with the population of Fitzwilliam at that period would be 



CAVALEY — THE ARTILLERY COMPANY. 353 

large, l^aturallj it varied considerably during dilTercnt years, 
running from seventy-five to one hundred and fifty, of whom 
ten to twenty were " Conditional Exempts." At a later date 
the age limit of such exempts was lowered to thirty-five years. 
In 1S27 the captain of the Infantry Company was Ephraim 
Parker, wdiile IS^ihum Howe was lieutenant, and Levi Harris, 
ensign. 

It is believed that the following is a complete list of the 
captains of this company from and after 1827 : 



Ephraim Parker, 1827-8. 
Kahum Howe, 1829-30. 
Levi Harris, 1831. 
Nathan Whipple, 1832-3. 
Thomas Sweetser, 1834-5. 
Morrill Gilman, 1836-9. 
John Forristall, 1810. 



Lewis Moore, 1811-3. 
Charles C. Carter, 1814-5. 
Samuel Kendall, 1846. 
Thos. W. Whittemore, 1847. 
Daniel Forristall, Jr., 1848-9. 
William Brooks, 1850-5. 



CAVALRY. 

In addition to the infantry companies, the Twelfth K^ew 
Hampshire Regiment had for perhaps tvventy years or more 
two companies of cavalry. The First Company was made up 
from Rindge, Jaffrey, and Fitzwilliam, and the Second Com- 
pany from Dublin, Nelson, and Marlborough. It is not cer- 
tainlj'" known when these companies were formed, but it was 
probably several years before the close of the last century. 
The First Company, in which Fitzwilliam was included, w^as 
disbanded about 1820. So far as known no records of this 
company have been preserved, and the traditions concerning 
it are verv meagre : but amono: its commanding oflicers who re- 
sided in Fitzwilliam were Thomas Goldsmith, Joseph Winch, 
Charles Bowker, and Phinehas Reed. 

THE ARTILLERY COMPANY. 

That this section of the State was particularly interested in 
military affairs is shown by the fact that nearly every town in 
the Twelfth Regiment had a uniformed or independent com- 
pany, in addition to the militia company or companies which 
paraded in citizens' dress. The older inhabitants of Fitzwill- 
23 



354 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

iam will remember the Jaffrey Rifle Company, the Dublin 
Grenadiers, Rindge Light Infantry, JSTelson Riflemen, and 
Marlborough Light Infantry. The friendly rivalry between 
these companies as to which shonld make the best appearance 
in drill and uniform continued through successive years, and 
resulted in making the regiment one of the very best in the 
State. 

In 1807 both Fitzwilliam and Dublin made very active efforts 
to obtain a charter for an artillery company. In this compe- 
tition Fitzwilliam was the successful town, owing mainly to 
the skilful management of the case by Major Jonas Robeson, 
who took a great interest in the measure, though he was not 
the representative to the Legislature from Fitzwilliam that 
year. Dublin, not obtaining the artillery charter, organized 
at this time the Company of Grenadiers to which reference 
has been made. The formal organization of the Artillery 
Company in Fitzwilliam was effected October 1st, 1807, and 
the record of the proceed ings is as follows : 

At a meeting of a number of the Inhabitants, assembled at Captain 
Thomas Goldsmiths', TJuirsday Evening the 1"" day of Oct. 1807 for the 
purpose of chosing officers and (making) other arrangements to obtain 
au Artillery Company in this town — transacted the following business, viz. 

1. Chose Major Wiliam Farrar, Moderator. 

3. Chose Joseph Carter, Clerk. 

3. Chose Major Jonas Robeson for Captain. 

4. Chose Lieut. Wm. F. Perry, 1st Lieutenant. 

5. Chose Dr. Benjamin Bemis 2d " 

6. Chose a Committee of three to draft an obligation for individuals 
to assist in the Equijiping of said Company. Chose Jonas Roberson, 
Esqr. Dr. Benjamin Bemis and Phineas Reed Esqr — for said Committee. 

7. Voted to choose a Committee of five to obtain signors for the Equip- 
ping of said Company, according to the report of the above-mentioned 
Committee ; and chose Major William Farrar, Samuel Patch, Amos 
Pratt, Thomas Stratton, and Captain Thomas Goldsmith for said Com. 

.. AVilliam Farrer Moderator. 

A true copy. Attest Joseph Carter, Clerk. 
Oct. 1. 1S07. 

It is said that Dr. Bemis received a regimental appointment, 
in consequence of which Joseph Brigham was commissioned 
second lieutenant in the Artillery. William F. Perry was 



CAPTAINS OF THE ARTILLERY COMPANY 



3o5 



lien tenant in tlie Cavalry Company, from wliich he was trans- 
ferred to the Artillery Company. Such was the commence- 
ment of this company, which was so long noted for its excellent 
discipline and general good appearance. In 1837 the company 
obtained a new charter and was entirely reorganized. From 
1807 to 1838 the full company consisted of three commissioned 
officers, four musicians, and thirty-two privates. In 1839 the 
number of privates was increased to sixty-four, of whom thirty- 
two bore swords and were the proper artillery men, and 
thirty-two bore muskets. At the same time the company re- 
ceived a new cannon, a six-pounder, taking the place of the 
four-pounder they had previously held. 



CAPTAINS OF THE ARTILLERY COMPANY. 



Jonas Robeson, 1807. 
William F. Perry. 
Joseph Brigham. 
Daniel W. Farrar. 
Artemas Felton. 
Calvin Coolidge, 
K'athaniel S. Stone, 1820-1. 
Curtis Coolidge, 1822-3. 
Dexter Whittemore, 1824-6. 
Jonathan S. Adams, 1827-9. 
Asa Brewer, 1830-2. 
Martin Streeter, 1833. 
Elijah Bowker, 1834. 



Levi Haskell, 1835. 
Reuben B. Pratt, 1836-8. 
Jonathan S. Adams, 1839. 
Erastus Brown, 1840, 
Nelson Howe, 1841. 
William Lebourveau, 1842 
Matthias B. Felton, 1843. 
Almond Phillips, 1844. 
David Perry, 1845-6. 
Daniel C. Bissell, 1847. 
Jared D. Perkins, 1848. 
Andrew Parker, 1849-50. 
Moses Chaplin, Jr., 1851-^- 



The last entry in the record book of the company is as fol- 
lows : 

FitzwlUiam Artillery 
Enrolled according to law on the third Tuesday of May 1853 

Moses Cliaplin jr Capt 
Attest William Pratt Clerk 

About 1850 the laws of the State were so changed that only 
a formal enrollment of the persons liable to do military duty 
was required, and a few years later even this ceased to be 
obligatory. 



HISTOET or FITZ WILLI AM. 



TOWN HALL. 



The history of this edifice is so peculiar that it deserves a 
notice in this record. 

J^earlj all of the present generation know, and future gen- 
erations ought to know, that this building was erected not for 
town purposes, but as a house for divnne worship. As has 
been already stated in this history, it was built in 1817, and 
stands upon the spot occupied by its predecessor that was 
erected in 1816, and after being dedicated and used for public 
religious services nine Sabbaths, was fired by lightning, Janu- 
ary 17th, 1817, and burned to the ground with all its contents. 

A glance at the Town Hall will show that this building was 
erected before the present style of church architecture had be- 
come popular, but it is none the worse for that. For nearly 
seventy years strangers have adjnired its pleasant and conven- 
ient location and its harmonious ^proportions, which are in 
striking contrast with many church edifices of the present day. 

The house that was burned cost about seven thousand dol- 
lars, the town in its corporate capacity appropriating for its 
erection the sum of four hundred dollars. After the settle- 
ment of the bills for building, etc., there remained a debt upon 
the house amounting to about two thousand dollars. One year 
and twenty days after the dedication of its predecessor, the 
house now standing was dedicated and used at once for the 
usual religious services. Its cost was six thousand and sixty- 
four dollars, but about one thousand of this was generously 
contributed by natives of Fitzwilliam and other friends resid- 
ing elsewhere. At the sale of the pews the large sum of seven 
thousand six hundred and ninety-nine dollars and ninety-four 
cents was realized, which was sufficient to meet all the bills 
incurred by the erection of the new house, and to liquidate 
the debt contracted in the building of its predecessor. Early 
in 1817, and soon after the destruction of the first house, the 
town had voted to build another and had appropriated fifteen 
hundred dollars for this purpose, but how this appropriation 
was used, if used at all, the records do not show, possibly in 
part to pay for the land upon which the churches had been 




o 

H 

UJ 

X 



THE meetixCt-housp: of 1817. 357 

erected, although Phinehas Reed, Esq., of whom most of the 
land had been purchased, appears to have taken his pay largely 
in the pews of the second bouse. In 1815 Mr. Reed liad 
deeded his lot of land to the town for the purpose of erecting 
a church upon it, and the price wbicb the town was to pay for 
it was five hundred dollars. About the same time Solomon 
Alexander conveyed to the town for one hundred dollars some 
additional land adjoining the lot purchased of Mr. Reed, and 
Rev, John Sabin gave to the town a part of the land wliich 
was afterward used for horse-sheds or stables. Samuel GrifHn, 
David Stone, and Joseph Brigham, being a committee ap- 
pointed for this purpose, seem to have prepared the ground, 
erected the sheds, and sold the same to individuals, so that 
the town acquired no rights in the sheds themselves. 

The committee appointed to build the meeting-house now 
standing, to sell the pews, and to give titles to them consisted 
of Jonas Robinson, Cliarles Bowker, Thaddeus Cummings, 
Luther Chapman, and John Whittemore, and these gentlemen 
were aided by a " Consulting Committee" consisting of 
Phinehas Reed, Nahum Parker, Abel Baker, Thomas Richard- 
son, Samuel GrifHn, Joseph Brigham, and John J, Allen. 
Pew No. 1 was set apart for the minister, and three pews were 
reserved in the galleries. 

For fifteen years after its erection this was the only church 
edifice in the town, and the town as such paid the salary of 
its minister. Rev. John Sabin, up to March 5th, 1832. For 
five years or more before this date (as has been already stated 
in the chapter upon later ecclesiastical history), an increasing 
divergence in the religious views of the people had been man- 
ifesting itself, and this led to the erection of a new meeting- 
house by the Orthodox Society in 1832. Public worship was 
now maintained in two places, in addition to which occasional 
services were held by the Baptist Society. The pulpit and 
pews remained in what is now the town house as when they 
were first built till 1860. Many of those who had withdrawn 
and formed a new society still owned pews in the Iniilding, 
and the condition of thino;s relating to it was unsatisfactorv 
and embarrassing to all the parties concerned. 



358 HISTORY OF fitzwilliam. 

In 1854 tlie subject of altering the meeting-house and using 
a part or parts of it for other than religious purposes was dis- 
cussed in town meeting, and a committee to consider and re- 
port upon the matter was raised, consisting of Amos A. Par- 
ker, Jonathan S. Adams, Ciiarles C. Carter, Asa Brewer, and 
Samuel Kendall. ISTo plan proposed proving acceptable to the 
town, in 1857 the town offered to sell the church edifice to 
the Orthodox Society, this society having recently lost its house 
of worship by fire. The committee appointed to negotiate 
with that Society for this purpose consisted of Amos A. Parker, 
David Perry, and A. Stone, Jr. Captain J. S. Adams, in 
l:)ehalf of the Orthodox Society, offered to pay five hundred 
doUars for the upper part of the church, and to meet one half 
of the expenses of outside repairs, after the repairs then going 
on should have been completed. This plan was discussed in 
town meeting and laid upon the table. Later, the town gave 
to the Orthodox Society the use of the building and pulpit for 
one year. 

In 1858 the town voted to sell such portions of the lower 
part of the building as were not needed for town purposes, and 
to fit up the upper part for a town hall, and appointed as a 
committee to make a plan for this purpose, estimate expenses, 
learn how a title to the pews could be obtained, and wdiat 
amount such a portion of the building as was offered for sale 
-would bring. This committee consisted of Amos A. Parker, 
Esq., Elijah Bowker, and Josiah E. Carter. No definite re- 
sults having been reached, the town, in 1858, considered a 
motion to sell the whole lot, with the building upon it, at auc- 
tion, but legal difficulties having been suggested, because of 
the rights of the pew-owners, the matter was indefinitely j)0st- 
poned, the vote standing fifty-four to eighty-six. In 1858 the 
towm expended for repairs upon the building three hundred 
and fifty-four doHars and forty-two cents, and a year later 
paid A. A. Parker, as '' a Committee on the Meeting House," 
the sum of eleven dollars and ninety-two cents. 

In the same year, viz., 1858, the Legislature of New Hamp- 
shire passed an act authorizing towns with meeting-houses in 
vfhich they had certain rights, and pew-holders had others, to 



DIVISIOX OF THE PROCEEDS OF SALE. 359 

sell such houses at auction, the proceeds to be divided among 
the proprietors, owners, and pew-liolders, according to their 
respective interests in the same, which interests were to be 
determined by the County Commissioners. The passage of this 
act removed the legal restraint to the sale of the house, and 
the tovvn voted one hundred and one to twenty-seven, to sell 
it at auction, and appointed an agent to bid it off at the sale. 
This was done, the town taking it at the bid of one thousand 
dollars. Previous to tin's the selectmen of Jaifrey had been 
selected by the town and the Orthodox Society to appraise the 
pews in the house. Those in the lower part were appraised 
by them at from three to fifteen dollars each, six of them 
only at the highest price. The thirty-eight pews in the gal- 
lery were deemed worth two dollars each, and the whole amount 
of the appraisal was six hundred and forty-eight dollars. 

April 12th, 1S59, the County Commissioners John A. Pres- 
cott, Lawson Robertson, and \yillard Adams met in Fitzwill- 
iam and made the division of the one thousand dollars which 
the town paid for the house, as follows : viz., the town to re- 
ceive six hundred and fifty-one dollars and the pew-owners 
the remainder, or three hundred and forty-nine dollars. The 
pews upon the lower floor thus brought to their owners from 
one dollar to nine dollars each, and those in the galleries 
from seventy-five cents to one dollar and twenty- five cents 
each. 

The town had already voted that when a clear title to the 
pews should be secured it would sell a portion of the house to 
School District No. 5 or any other School District, and this 
offer was repeated by a vote of the town, May 7th, 1S59, the 
division of the voters present showing forty-four in favor of 
this plan and seventeen against it. The selectmen were made 
a committee to effect the sale. 

As this plan also miscarried, the town voted in 18 GO to ap- 
propriate the upper part of the house for a town hall, and ap- 
pointed as a committee to carry this vote into effect Dr. Silas 
Cummings, Joshua T. Collins, and Asa S, Kendall. Five 
hundred dollars were appropriated for this object, which sum 
must have been largely increased after the changes contem- 



360 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

plated were entered iipon, since the report of the selectmen 
made March 12th, 1861, shows that there had been paid for 
the Town Hall repairs and changes during the year closing at 
that time fourteen hundred and twenty-five dollars and thirty- 
one cents. 

Later, commencing with 1868, various improvements were 
made in the lower story, which now furnishes an office for the 
town clerk, a room for the selectmen, spacious quarters for 
the town library, and a convenient hall for the smaller gath- 
erings of the people, all very complete and satisfactory. 

The bell nj)onthe Town House has been recently recast and 
replaced at a cost to the town of three hundred and one dol- 
lars and five cents. This new bell weighs fifteen hundred and 
twenty-fonr pounds. It should be observed in this place 
that both the original bell and the town clock were purchased 
and put in position by private subscriptions, the town by vote 
granting to the individuals specially interested liberty to make 
these improvements,* 

Keference may here be appropriately made to the improve- 
ments that have taken place upon and around the Common 
within the last fifty or sixty years. Within the memory of 
persons hardly threescore years old no house was standing be- 
tween the dwelling of Miss Dyer and the Richmond Eoad, 
but the lots upon which are the houses of Messrs. Blake, 
Fisher, and Gleason constituted the dooryard of the small 
house just back of the home of Amos J. Blake, Esq. The 
east fence of this yard at that date was about where the stone 
curbing was recently put down in front of the three houses 
just named, while farther south the front fence of the garden 
of Dexter Whittemore, Esq., was about in the middle of the 
street as it is now used for travel. The ground toward the 
south-east part of the Common, as it now is, was low, and there 
a small pond was made by every considerable rain or heavy 
shower. 

In front of an old wood-colored house, north of the Common, 



* It is understood that for the clock the town is largely indebted to the public spirit 
and energy of Miss Ellen Fullam, since the project of procui-ing it, andtheself-deuyiujj 
labor involved in obtaining subscriptions for it, were chiefly her work. 



DEPOT 
•VILLAGE, 




PHOTO-ORAVURE CO I 



FITZWILLIAM FIRE DEPARTMENT. 3G1 

where the brick house now stands, were three or four tall Lora- 
bardj poplars, which were the only trees designed for oi'na- 
meiit in that part of the village, while two similar trees stood 
on the side of the road below the other end of the Common, 
and near the residence of the late Dr. Gummings. 

But more than forty years ago a Society for Village Im- 
provement had been organized, for in November, 184J:, 
the town " Voted that ' the Tree Society ' make such im- 
provements on the Common as the Selectmen may con- 
sent to." 

Under this vote trees were set out on the Common and the 
land was somewhat improved to give them a better chance for 
life and growth. 

And in March, 1860, the town " Voted that leave be 
granted to ' the Fitzwilliam Association to improve the Public 
Grounds,' to enclose a portion of the Common w^ith a suitable 
fence and otherwise improve it under the direction of the 
Selectmen." Accordingly, in the same year, the fence was 
built and the land still further improved. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

Ever since its settlement l^'itzwilliam has suffered more by 
fires than most towns of its size and population. A full list of 
the buildings and property consumed in this place within one 
hundred and twenty years it is impossible to give, but that 
which is presented in this connection, and is made up from 
tradition and the memory of some of the older natives and in- 
habitants of the town, is a long one, and embraces the loss of 
'many valuable buildings. 

This sad experience has had a good effect in two ])articulars, 
for it has made the owners of property liable to destruction 
by lire more and more careful abont the amounts and safety 
of their insurance, and it has kept before the minds of the 
peo])le the necessity of maintaining an efficient fire depart- 
ment. 

The Fitzwilliam Engine Company was incorporated in 
1825, and since that date the town has had a better fire 



362 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

department and better engines than three fourths of the 
'New England towns of the same size, wealth, and popula- 
tion. 

Fire wardens were first chosen by the town in 1825, and 
have been annually elected ever since. In general they have 
had such an organization as they have deemed necessary, and 
have made such regulations to guard against and extinguish 
fires as the law has allowed and the public safety required. 
Tor a considerable period they do not appear to have made 
formal reports to the town, but this has been done, as required 
by law, since 1876. 

Fitzwilliam has had three fire-engines, and each of these, 
when purchased, was considered a very efiicient machine for 
the times. But everything of this kind will grow old and 
wear out, and so when the wardens reported in 1876 that the 
engine company was composed of men " who could be relied 
on for promptness, and (with proper tools and equipments) 
efiicient," they were compelled to add that the " engine and 
hose were entirely inadequate for the extinguishment of any 
considerable fire." The force of this statement being appre- 
ciated, a committee was appointed for the purchase of a new 
fire-engine, consisting of John E. Fisher, C. L. Taft, Chaiincy 
Davis, Melvin Wilson, and George A. Whittemore, and they 
reported, a year later, that they had bought a new engine, 
hose-carriage, hose and other equipments costing the town 
(exclusive of a donation of freight bills by the Cheshire Rail- 
road) five hundred and sixty dollars and fifty cents. The 
freight donation amounted to forty-nine dollars and twenty- 
five cents. The department was now in a good condition for 
service. 

In 1879 three hundred feet of new hose were purchased. 

As no record of the fires in Fitzwilliam has ever been kept, 
the list that follows is imperfect : 



CHUKCHES. 



TownMeeting-IIouse. Jan. 17, 1817; erected, 1816; cost, 

$7000. 
Orthodox " Jan. 15, 1856 ; erected in 1832. 



RAVAGES OF FIRE IN FITZWILLIAM. 363 

DWELLINGS "WITH OUT-IIOUSES, BARNS, ETC. 

Samuel Patrick On east road to Troy ; rebuilt, 1T85. 

John Mellen, Esq. . . . Date unknown. 

Joel Mellen A special list of all the houses in town 

in 1798 above one hundred dollars in 
value gives the situation of this 
house as " N. west from the center 
under the great hill," and states that 
"this house was burnt the last of 
Dec'r, 1798." In a list of all the 
lands in toMni made at the same time 
the location is given as on Lot 16 in 
Range 9. 

Jesse Forristall Dec. 19, 1808. Where II. K. Fair- 
banks now lives. 

Caleb Winch May, 1809 ; grandson burned in it ; age 

7 years. 

Josiah Iniralls 1829. Where Wm. Lebourveau now 

lives. 

Wm. S. Whittemore. About 1833. Where Bartlett Hayden 

lives. 

Jacob Felton About 1839. Where Rev. A. Dunn 

resides. 

Dr. Silas Cummings. . About 1843. Where Mrs. Cummings 

resides. 

:N'oah Sabin 1803. In the village. 

Mrs. Martha Fislier . . N. W. corner of town. 

Joel Whittemore Feb. 4, 1872. In the village, op230site 

the school-house. 

Wm. O. Carkin March 3, 1876. 

Anson G. Beebe . . , 



Josiah Moore ) 

Philip Boyce May 19, 1878. 

AmosMcGee 1879 ; rebuilt on same spot. 

Geo. N. Olmstead . . . 1879, in S. E. j)art of town. 

Frederick Redwood . . March 28, 1881, with barn, etc.; ins., 

87500. 
Gilbert C. Bemis .... Dec. 27, 1884. 
Z. A. Boyce Oct. 27, 1885. 



364 HISTORY OF FITZ WILLIAM. 

MANUFACTORIES AND SHOPS. 

Howe & Sweetser. . . . Two at Howeville. 

Jacob Simoncls At Lower Howeville. 

Elijah Bowker At Bowkeiville. 

Geo. W. Simonds Scott Mill. 

Elislia Chaplin June 18, 1883, where the first saw-mill 

in District ]^o. 1 was built by Sam- 
uel Divol. 

John Kimball Blacksmith shop. 

Asa S. Kendall Tannery, on old Troy Road. 

Moses A. Allen Store-house, formerly the dwelling- 
house of Nahum Howe^ Sr. ; was 
built by him. 

barks, etc., consumed. 
On Fay Place. 

W. D. Locke 

J. S. Adams Aug. 20, 1878. 

D. T. Moore 

Nathan Whipple 

School-house, in District No. 1, 1808 ? 
" " " " 11, 1815? 

riTZWILLIAM SAYINGS-BANK. 

This history would be incomplete without a brief notice of 
this important institution. 

It was not organized to bring riches or influence to its pro- 
jectors and officers, for all engaged in conducting its aifairs, 
with the single exception of the treasurer, serve the public in 
this capacity without compensation ; but its design, asset forth 
upon the last page of each depositor's book, 

is to enable the industrious of all classes to iovest such part of their in- 
come as they can conveniently spare in a safe and profitable manner. It 
is intended to encourage the industrious and prudent, and to induce 
those who have not been such to lessen their unnecessary expenses, and 
lay up something for a period of life when they will be less able to pro- 
vide for themselves. Every clerk, apprentice, domestic and child should 
have an account with some bank of this kind. 



FITZWILLIAM SAVIJ^GS-BANK. 865 

Two facts led to the establisliinent of tlic FitzwilHam Sav- 
ings-Bank. 

1. The inconvenience that the people of this town must al- 
ways encounter in making deposits in and drawing their funds 
from otlier savings-banks, becanse they are located at such a 
distance from Fitzwilliam. 

2. Because of the natnre of some of our industrial pursuits, 
notably the granite business, there is, and for many years to 
come will be, a large number of persons in this town who 
should enjoy the benefits of such an institution. 

These considerations led a number of the business men of 
this place to apply for a charter of a savings-bank to be located 
in Fitzwilliam, which was granted in the usual form July 
13th, ISTl, with Stephen Batcheller, Amos A. Parker, Phillip 
S. Batcheller, Josiah E. Carter, John Whittemore, George 
TV. Simonds, Charles C. Carter, Silas Cummings, JSTorman V. 
Cahill, Anson G. Beebe, Amos J. Blake, and George A. 
"Whittemore as corporators. 

A constitution and by-laws were adopted, and the first board 
of ofiicers chosen as follows : 

President, Stephen Batcheller. 

Vice-Presidents, Josiah E. Carter, Daniel R. Spaulding. 

Secretary and Treasurer, Milton Chaplin. 

Trustees : Silas Cummings, Amos J. Blake, Edward P. 
Kimball,- John Whittemore, John M. Parker, Samuel Kendall, 
Abner Gage, N^orman U. Cahill, Peuben Angier, George W. 
Simonds, Aaron P. Gleason, William Wright, Ambrus W. 
Si^aulding. 

Financial Committee : Daniel P. Spaulding, Amos J, 
Blake, John M. Parker. 

The institution has been satisfactorily successful, fully meet- 
ing the expectations of its friends and projectors. 

The amount due to depositors January 1st, 18S7, was one 
hundred and fifty thousand, nine hundred and eighty-nine dol- 
lars and thirty-six cents, with a surplus and guarantee fund of 
eight thousand five hundred and fortv-three dollars and ninetv- 
six cents, making a total amount, as standing in the books, of 
one hundred and fifty-nine thousand, five hundred and thirty- 



366 HISTORY OF EITZWILLIA:\r. 

three dollars and thirty-two cents, but with an actual market 
value of one hundred and sixty-three thousand, three hundred 
and ninety-eight dollars and fifteen cents. 

The officers for 18S7 are : 

President, Amos J. Blake. 

Yice-President, Josiali E. Carter. 

Secretary and Treasurer, Stephen Batcheller. 

Trustees : John M. Parker, Kimball D. Webster, Aaron 
R. Gleason, Samuel Kendall, Elbridge Cummings, Wright 
Whitconib, Charles Byam, Edwin N, Bowen, Chauncy Davis, 
Melvin Wilson, Edmund Bemis, Herbert E. Wetherbee, 
Reuben L. Ano-ier. 

Board of Investment : John M. Parker, Charles Byam, 
Reuben L. Angler, Amos J. Blake, Stephen Batcheller. 

POST-OFFICES. 

So far as the Records of the Post-Office Department show, 
the Fitzwilliam Post-Office was established in 1805, and Jonas 
Robeson was appointed postmaster. 

The following is a list of the persons who have held the 
office of postmaster to the present time, with the date of their 
commissions : 

Jonas Robeson August 23, 1805. 

Curtis Coolidge December 25, 1819. 

Gideon C. Noble March 28, 1837. 

Jared D. Perkins May 23, 1842. 

Phinip S. Batcheller October 16, 1849. 

Silas Cummings March 27, 1855. 

Phillip S. Batcheller May 1, 1861. 

George A. Whittemore November 2, 1866. 

Phillip S. Batcheller December 10, 1866. 

Elliot K. Wheelock July 14, 1885. 

Thomas.B. Burns October 22, 1885. 

John J. Allen, Jr., was appointed in 1849, but as he did not 
qualify, he never received his commission. 



LOCATION OF THE POST-OFFICE. 367 

This office was made a money- order office in 1884, and as 
sucli it is a great convenience to many. 

In 1866 a post-office was established at Fitzwilliam Depot. 
Postmasters as follows : 

Elbridge Cummings March 27, 1866. 

Calvin^B. Perry. .' August 24, 1885. 

This office is kept in the store of Mr. Perry. 

As Mr. Robeson had a store in the village when he became 
postmaster, the office was doubtless kept in it, at Hrst in the 
house known afterward as the Everett House, and later in the 
two-story wing of his dwelling, when the store was removed to 
that place. Mr. Coolidge kept the office in the same 
place. 

When Dr. G. C. Noble became postmaster he removed the 
office to the building now owned and occupied by Messrs. P. 
S. & S. Batcheller, and it remained in the same place for 
about forty-eight years, with the exception of about five years, 
when Dr. Cummings, as postmaster, kept it in the Robeson 
store and a few weeks while George A. Whittemore was post- 
master, when it was kept in the store of D. Whittemore. 

At present the office is located in the store so long occupied 
by John Whittemore, Jr. 

"When the Fitzwilliam Post-Office was established in 1805, 
and for some years after, there do not appear to have been 
post-offices in some of the neighboring towns, particularly in 
Richmond and Rindge, and the mail for the people of those 
towns came chiefly through the Fitzwilliam office. The 
Rindge office was established in 1815, Richmond in 1812.* 

That this town had good postal facilities so early is accounted 
for by the fact that the "Great Road" from P>oston and 
vicinity to Iveene and the Northwest passed through this town, 
thus inviting the establishment, very early, of a regular line 
of stages. 

* From the History of Jafifrey : 

Owing to the fire which burned the Department Building at Washinjjton, Dec. 15, 
18.36, in which the earliest books of the oflice were destroyed, the ex^ict time of the 
establishment of the Post-OfSce in Jaffi ey cannot be ascertained. The first quarterly 
accounts began April 1, 1801. The Fitzwilliam oflice may have been established before 
1805. 



368 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

In the New Hampshire Sentinel^ bearing date April 23(;], 
1808, the following advertisement appeared : 

" List of Letters remaining in the Post Office Fitzwilliam 
K H. April 1. 1808 :— 

Fitzwilliam. Capt. John Bowker. ' 
Miss Rizpali Whipple. 
Richmond. Capt. Benjamin Crooker. 
Rinclge. Doctor Stephen Jewett, 3. 

" Talman Jennings 3, John F. Munro, Daniel 

Lake, John Bancroft, Asa Rand, Daniel Page, Doctor Josiah 
Whitney. 

Jonas Robinson P. M." 

A similar advertisement, dated Jnly 6tli, 1810, is signed 
" Jonas Robeson P M" 

At a little earlier date some of the post-offices served a much 
wider extent of country. The office in Worcester, Mass., sub- 
stantially served nearly the whole of Worcester County. In 
the Massachusetts Siyy, 1801, the Postmaster of Worcester ad- 
vertised letters for nearly all the towns in the county, and for 
some of the towns in the adjoining counties. 

The location of the Fitzwilliam post-offices is such that the 
people generally are well served by them, with the exception 
of some of the inhabitants of School District ]S[o. 1, who are 
better accommodated through the office of Winchendon, Mass. 

POPULATION. 

A brief statement relative to the population of New Hamp- 
shire, while it was one of the American provinces of Great 
Britain, will not be inappropriate in this connection. 

The settlement of this province commenced early, but its 
growth was slow when compared with the States and Terri- 
tories of our Union that have been organized within the last 
sixty years. 

No sreneral census of the United States was taken before 
1790, so that for nearly one hundred and fifty years the fig- 
ures representing the population of New Hampshire were 
mostly a matter of computation. The calculations of difEer- 



POPULATION AT VAKIOUS PEKIODS. 



369 



ent persons eq\ially well qualified to judge were not the same, 
but in general it may be supposed that there were in the prov- 
ince in 1640 a little less than one thousand inhabitants. In 
1690 there may have been five thousand, and forty years later 
ten thonsand. 

The first counties were organized in 1771, when the prov- 
ince contained less than seventy thousand inhabitants. In 
1775 the number had increased to eighty-two thousand two 
hundred. During the Revolutionary War N^ew Hampshire 
furnished twelve thousand four hundred and ninety-seven 
men, and a rapid increase of population could not have been 
expected in that period. Nevertheless, in 1790, according to 
the United States Census, Kew Hampshire had not far from 
one hundred and forty-two thousand inhabitants. 

Fitzwilliam w^as one of the last towns settled in Southern 
New Hampshire, and in 1762 the single family of Benjamin 
Bigelow contained the entire white population. 

It is proposed to jDresent here, at a single view, the popula- 
tion of this and the adjoining towns at the various periods 
when a reliable enumeration has been made. 



Date. 



1767 
1773 

1775 

1786 

1790 

1800 

1810 

1820 

1830 

1840 

1850 

1860, 

1870, 

1880. 



a 

03 






93 

214 

250 

870 

1,038 

1,240 

1,301 

1,167 

1,229 

1,366 

1,482 

1,292 

1,140 

1,187 



i 


•a 

1 

o 

1- 
aS 


Kindge. 


ia 

OS 




93 


298 


• • • • 




275 


604 


303 


Incor- 


322 


542 


351 


porat- 


618 


759 





ed in 


786 


1,143 


1,235 


1815. 


1,185 


1,196 


1,340 




1,142 


1,226 


1,336 


676 


766 


1,298 


1,339 


676 


822 


1,269 


1,354 


683 


831 


1,161 


1,411 


759 


887 


1,274 


1,497 


761 


915 


1,230 


1,453 


767 


1,017 


1,107 


1,256 


796 


1,286 


934 


1,267 



a 

o 

a 

.a 
o 

(S 



338 

745 

864 

1,250 

1,386 

1,390 

1,290 

1,391 

1,301 

1,165 

1,128 

1,014 

868 

669 



24 



870 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



Ill June, 1877, Everard Whittemore, a native of Fitzwill- 
iam, took a complete census of the town, and this was printed 
for circulation by his father, George A. Whittemore. This 
gives the name of each inhabitant of the town, with the date 
and place of birtli, and is arranged alphabetically. The total 
population was found to be thirteen hundred and fourteen, 
which exceeds the United States enumeration of 1870 by one 
hundred and seventy-four, and that of 1880 by one hundred 
and twenty-seven. This difference is probably to be accounted 
for by supposing a more careful and nearly perfect enumera- 
tion of the inhabitants on the part of Mr. Whittemore, rather 
than by concluding that there had been such a change in the 
population of the town as these figures would indicate. 

The statement of ages given is as follows : 



Under 10 years 

From 10 to 20 years , 

" 20 to 30' " , 
" 30 to 40 " , 
" 40 to 50 " . 



268 
241 
208 
186 
140 



From 50 to 60 years . . . 


. 112 


" 60 to 70 " ... 


. 78 


'• 70 to 80 " ... 


. 60 


" 80 to 90 " ... 


. 19 


" 90 to 100 " ... 


2 



The enterprise of all the parties concerned in taking and 
printing this census of 1877 was highly creditable. 

The census of 1773, taken about the time of the incorpora- 
tion of the town and preparatory to it, showed of unmarried 
men eighteen, married men forty-four, persons under sixteen 
years of age, fifty-five, females married forty-four, females 
unmarried fifty-three, total two hundred and fourteen. 

The population in 1775, as given in the table, was not re- 
turned by the town ofiicers, but was estimated and filled in by 
the ofiicials, probably at Exeter, acting under the authority of 
the Convention which met in that place. The population was 
probably a little less than the round number given — two hun- 
dred and fifty. The census of 1773 was taken by John Mellen 
and Edward Kendall, selectmen. That of 1786 was taken 
April 20th by John Fassett, Abner Stone, and Caleb Winch. 
The entire population at that time was white. 

When Troy was incorporated in 1815 Fitzwilliam lost about 
forty-five hundred acres of land, or about one sixth part of its 



CEMETERY AXD BURIALS. 371 

territory, and not far from two Imndred and ten of its inhab- 
itants, perhaps two hundred and twenty. The loss of the 
neio^hborino; town of Tiiehinond at the same time and for tlie 
same reason was small, perhaps one ninth or one tenth as large 
as that of Fitzwiliiam, 

A glance at the table of population given on page 369 will 
show that, considering all the circumstances of the case, and 
especially the diminution in the number of its inhabitants by 
the incorporation of Troy, Fitzwiliiam has well maintained 
its population, while the loss experienced by some of its 
neighbors, notably Rindge and Kichmond, has been very 
considerable. 

CEMETERY AXD DEATHS. 

In the early years of Fitzwiliiam the remains of eight or ten 
persons were buried in a lot belonging to a Mr, Warner, in 
School District No. 1, and tradition asserts that there were 
two other burials in private ground in that part of the town. 
Twelve or fifteen persons were buried on Lot 20 in Range 11, 
now within the limits of Troy. This place was originally 
enclosed by a stone wall, except at the place of entrance, but 
the wall is now very much broken down, and the lot is over- 
grown with trees. A number were buried also in what is now 
the old cemetery of Troy, before the incorporation of that 
town, but how many it is impossible to say, though it is not 
supposed that such cases were numerous. 

Occasionally, in the case of persons dying from small-pox, 
there are supposed to have been burials in unknown places, as 
the safety of the community might demand. And in later 
years there have been a few burials in Winchendon from the 
southeast part of the town. 

With these exceptions, the old cemetery on the hill (with 
the additions made to it in later years) has been the single 
burying-place of the dead of Fitzwiliiam from the beginning. 

The history of the laying out of this burying-ground has 
been already given in Chapter V., but it may be remarked in 
this place that a committee of five, appointed by the propri- 
etors in 1768, after a careful examination, reported in 1770, in 



372 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

favor of placing the meeting-house and locating the cemetery 
on the easterly part of Lot No. 13, in Range 7, and that " five 
acres of land be laid out for public use where Jason Stone - 
child is buried." 

Thaddeus, son of Jason Stone, died, April 80th, 1769, from 
being scalded, and was the first recorded death in Monadnock 
No. 4 ; and the burial of this child in that place was doubtless 
in anticipation of the act of the proprietors in locating as they 
did the cemetery. 

That there was a great lack of regularity and convenience 
of access in the arrangements of the ancient lot is not a matter 
for surprise, when we recall the circumstances under which 
the earlier interments were made. 

In 1840 it was deemed necessary to provide additional land 
for the cemetery, as the ground originally laid out was nearly 
all occupied. The land required was purchased of Mr. John 
Kimball, and it gave an opportunity for extensive and much- 
needed improvements. 

This cemetery was doubtless located where it is chiefly be- 
cause of its central position, and this will always be a most 
weighty reason for enlarging those grounds rather than seek- 
ing a new locality, if more space shall be needed. On every 
account it is very desirable that the interests and associations 
connected with the burial of the dead in a town like Fitzwill- 
iam shall be gathered around a single place. In many towns 
in New England nearly every school district had originally its 
cemetery, with the result that many of these present to-day a 
most unsightly appearance. N^ot a few towns could be named 
with ten or twelve burial-grounds, besides several family yards, 
and in nearly all such cases the stranger who looks for neat- 
ness, care, and refined taste in a burying-ground, too often 
will discover evidence of culpable neglect, if not of positive 
and unchecked dilapidation. 

N^o pains have been spared to make the table that follows 
accurate, but that it is perfectly so cannot be supposed. All 
the early pastors, especially Revs. Messrs. Brigham and Sabin 
(whose ministry covered nearly seventy years), appear to have 
made full and faithful records of the deaths that occurred dur- 



EXPLANATIONS OF THE TABLE OF DEATHS. 373 

ing their respective pastorates, wliile in later times a number 
of individuals have preserved lists of the mortality of the 
place, all of which have been used to a greater or less extent 
in preparing and correcting this table. 

It is contidently believed that few towns, if any, in New 
England have the means of making up so full and so nearly a 
correct list of deaths, covering a period of one hundred and 
eighteen years, as is here presented. 

The -first column in the table gives the total number of 
deaths in each decade. The last period, however, includes 
but eight years. 

The second column gives the years. 

The third column gives the whole number of deaths in town 
during the year. 

The columns four to fifteen classify deaths according to 
ages, so far as ages are known. 

The columns sixteen and seventeen give the number of 
deaths with no ages recorded, the column sixteen giving the 
number designated as, or supposed to have been, children, and 
the column seventeen giving the number known or supposed 
to have been adults. 

Th.e column eighteen includes all those who, dying else- 
where, are known to have been buried in Fitzwilliam. The 
number of these, especially in later years, has been large, but 
such cases are not included in the sum total. 



374 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



o 
a> 

o 

l-s 

■2=2 

Eh 



^3 

o 



31 



78 



154 



152 



1769 
1770 
1771 
1772 
1773 
1774 
1775 
1776 
1777 
1778 
1779 
1780 
1781 
1783 
1783 
1784 
1785 
1786 
1787 
1788 
1789 
1790 
1791 
1793 
1793 
1794 
1795 
1796 
1797 
1798 
1799 
1800 
1801 
1802 
1803 
1804 
1805 
1806 
1807 
1808 
1809 
1810 
1811 
1812 
1813 



s 



1 


1 


2 









2 


2 


3 


3 







3 




4 


1 


12 


4 


6 


3 


2 




10 


4 


9 


6 


7 


6 


8 


3 


9 


3 


10 


6 


11 


4 


3 


3 


9 


5 


10 


8 


24 


7 


18 


8 


9 


6 


16 


6 


11 


4 


29 


8 


9 


5 


13 


6 


15 


7 


13 


4 


17 


4 


14 


9 


15 


5 


13 


3 


16 


2 


20 


8 


11 


5 


13 


3 


20 


9 


14 


4 


10 


4 


12 


5 


28 


10 


8 


4 



6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 17 1 
Age noti 
stated. 


o 

s 

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o 

m 

s 

1 
1 


o 


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s 

o 


c5 

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s 


o 
I- 

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P. 


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8 


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o 

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O 
OS 


8 

o 


t 
1 

■ 3 
1 


2 


1 


1 






1 


1 










3 


1 


1 








1 






1 






1 
3 


1 
1 
3 


1 


1 








1 












1 


1 


1 




1 




3 










2 
4 


1 


1 


1 


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4 

1 
1 


1 
2 


1 


1 


















3 
3 


12 
5 


1 




1 




1 


1 


1 


1 






1 
3 
2 


4 

2 


3 




1 

1 








1 
1 








14 

1 


2 

1 


1 




1 
















1 


3 


3 




















4 


2 


1 








1 












4 


3 


2 


2 










1 








5 


1 


3 


2 






















2 




3 










1 


1 




1 


2 


1 


1 


















7 


1 


1 








1 












7 


4 


2 


2 
1 








3 




1 


1 




1 


2 




3 


1 


1 




3 


1 


1 








1 


2 






3 


1 


1 


1 




1 






1 






1 


2 
1 


2 


1 
1 


3 
1 




1 




1 






3 




2 


3 




1 












2 


1 




4 








3 










2 






1 














1 





1 18a 

.9 — 

S3 N 

"3 J* 

Is 



TABLE OF DEATHS. 



375 



r. 1 

L4 


2 


« 3 
•0 


4 

be 

C8 


5 


6 




s 


9 


10 


11 


"12 


13 


14 


15 


16 17 
Age not 
stated. 


18S 
1.2 


09 
1" 


1814 



14 




£ 

es 
c 

■a 

c 

6 




B 
3 




1 


2. 
1 


2 


g 
2 
g 

1 




g 




** 


S 



g 


s 




8 


£ 
1 


1 
1 

•5 

-5_ 


■32 




1 








1S15 


20 


11 




2 


2 


1 


1 








1 






1 


1 


3 




1816 


8 


2 






1 






1 


1 


2 


1 














1817 


17 


9 






2 


1 


1 


2 


1 




1 










3 


149 


1818 


18 


9 


1 




1 


1 






3 


1 


1 






1 




1 




1819 


19 


7 




1 


2 


3 


1 




1 




2 


1 






1 






1820 


24 


5 


1 




2 


1 


1 


1 




6 


4 


1 




1 


1 


1 




1821 


21 


8 


1 


3 


1 


2 






1 


3 


1 


1 








1 




1822 


23 13 


3 




2 




3 


1 




1 










1 


1 




1823 


17 


5 


1 


1 


2 




1 




4 


3 
















1824 


22 


6 


2 


1 


1 


3 


1 


1 


2 


5 












1 




1825 


17 


4 


2 


2 


2 


1 


2 




1 


3 
















1826 


24 


8 


1 


4 


1 




3 


1 


1 


3 


1 


1 








1 




1827 


19 


8 


1 




1 


3 


1 


1 




2 


1 






2 




1 


203 


1828 


17 


5 


1 


1 


4 


1 




1 


3 




1 










4 




1829 


15 


5 






3 


1 




1 


2 


1 


1 


1 








1 




1830 


13 


6 




2 


1 




1 


2 


1 














2 




1831 


19 


5 


1 




3 




1 




1 


6 


2 










1 




1832 


31 


9 


2 


3 




3 


1 


2 












1 








1833 


22 


8 


1 




1 




4 


1 


3 


2 


1 






1 




1 




1834 


27 


8 




3 


2 


1 


1 


3 


1 


2 


6 


1 








2 




1835 


19 


4 




1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


4 


2 










1 




1836 


23 


8 


1 




1 


1 


1 


4 


3 


1 




2 


1 






1 




1837 


39 


12 


5 


5 


3 


2 


1 


3 


1 


5 


1 


1 








2 


233 


1838 


25 


10 




2 


1 


4 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1 








1 




1839 


19 


4 


1 


2 


4 


2 


1 




1 


2 


2 










1 




1840 


17 


1 




4 




3 


2 


2 






4 


1 












1841 


31 


4 


1 


3 


3 


7 


1 


3 


1 


2 


4 




1 


2 




2 




1842 


35 


11 


B 


2 


2 


1 




1 




3 


1 






1 




3 




1843 


34 


9 


1 


3 


1 






4 


1 


4 


1 










5 




1844 


39 


9 


2 


2 


5 


4 


1 




2 




3 


1 








1 




1845 


21 


4 




1 


2 


3 




3 


3 


3 


1 


2 








4 




1846 


15 


5 


1 


2 










1 


1 


2 






1 


2 






1847 


40 


15 


1 


1 


4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


1 


3 




1 


1 


6 


245 


1848 


24' 3 




5 


5 


1 


2 




1 


4 


1 


1 




1 




3 




1849 


32 


13 


8 


5 


3 


1 




1 


1 


3 


1 


1 








4 




1850 


30 


11 


1 


1 


4 


3 


3 


1 


1 


2 


2 


1 




1 




2 




1851 


20 


2 


2 






3 


2 


3 


3 


2 


4 










3 




1852 


14 


2 






1 


2 


1 


2 




1 


4 


1 








8 




1853 


35 


11 


' 2 


4 


4 


3 


1 


3 


2 


2 


2 


1 








2 




1854 


30 


10 


1 


2 


3 


3 


2 


2 


3 


1 


3 










3 




1855 


20 


3 




3 






3 


1 




5 


4 


1 








3 




1856 


25 


7 


2 




3 


3 






3 


3 


2 


1 






1 


4 




1857 


35 


' 12 




2 


3 


3 


1 


3 


3 


4 


3 


1 








4 


259 


1858 


18 


3 




, 2 


1 


2 


2 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 






1 


1 



376 



IIISTOKY OF FITZWILLIAM. 





2 


53 

CIS 
ID 


4 

bo 

OS 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


13 


13 


14 


15 


16 17 
Age not 
stated. 


18S 

.S— 


»• 




CM 

o 

is 
13 


CM 
O 

CO 

(»1 

in 
i^ 
<u 

na 
q 

t3 


6 
o 

-M 

»n 


o 

-M 

o 

T— 1 


o 


o 

2 


o 
in 

O 

-M 

o 


g 
S 


o 

-M 
g 


o 


2 


8 
2 


8 

r-l 

_o_ 




•'if 


<2 

ll 

1^ 


a 

2 
13 


10 

-M 

<: 


P 




1859 


25 


5 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


1 




6 


4 










5 




1860 


21 


4 


1 


1 


3 


3 


3 


3 


5 


1 


1 










5 




1861 


28 


2 




1 


4 


4 


2 


4 


3 


3 


5 


1 








5 




1862 


26 


8 


3 


3 


2 








3 


4 


3 










9 




1863 


41 


9 


9 


3 


1 


3 


4 


5 


3 


3 


2 




1 


1 




13 




1864 


38 


13 


3 


6 


6 


3 


3 


3 


1 


1 


1 






1 




9 




1865 


83 


4 


1 


3 


2 


3 


3 


5 


4 


4 


4 




1 






11 




1866 


26 


9 








3 


2 


3 


4 


4 


3 










5 




1867 


18 


4 


1 


3 


4 








1 


4 


2 










3 


271 


1868 


15 


3 






1 


1 




1 


3 


3 


3 


1 








1 




1869 


18 


3 


1 


1 


2 




1 


3 


1 


3 


4 










2 




1870 


23 


3 


1 


3 


1 


1 


3 


5 


3 


3 


2 


2 








4 




1871 


20 


4 


1 






1 


3 


3 


3 


1 


3 


1 








12 




1872 


17 


3 






3 


3 


1 




1 


3 


3 


1 




1 


1 


12 




1873 


18 


8 


2 




1 






1 


3 




4 










7 




1874 


14 


5 


1 




1 




3 






2 


1 






2 




7 




1875 


22 


7 


1 




1 




6 


3 


1 


3 


1 










15 




1876 


24 


5 




3 


3 


1 


1 


3 


4 


3 


2 






1 




7 




1877 


23 


3 


3 


1 


1 


3 




1 


4 




7 


1 








5 


193 


1878 


13 


5 






1 




1 


1 


1 


3 


1 










7 




1879 


16 


3 


3 


1 


3 




1 


1 


1 


4 


1 


1 








8 




1880 


17 


3 




1 


1 


3 






3 


2 


1 


3 








7 




1881 


23 


5 


1 




3 


3 


3 


3 


1 


2 


2 








1 


13 




1882 


29 


5 




1 


3 






1 


3 


6 


9 


1 








12 




1883 


17 


4 




1 


3 




1 


1 


3 


3 


1 








2 


4 




1884 


19 


4 


3 


1 


4 




1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 




1 




7 




1885 


20 


4 




2 






3 




4 


4 


4 










7 


157 


1886 


16 


3 




1 




2 




3 


3 


3 




1 




1 




6 



The table includes a period of 118 years, and the total num- 
ber of deaths recorded is 2114. 

Under 5 years .... 649 
5 to 10 Ill 



10 to 20 138 

20 to 30 160 

30 to 40 116 

40 to 50 110 



50 to 60 125 

60 to 70 139 

YO to 80 182 

80 to 90 160 

90 to 100 44 

over 100 4 



Children — age not stated 104 

Adults — age not stated 72 

Died elsewhere, but interred in Fitzwilliam .... 300 



DEATHS OF AGED PERSONS. 377 

Died in Fitzwilliam and included in the foregoing table, but 
were interred elsewhere, about 160. Of this number, over 
30 were Roman Catholics, who were taken away to be interred 
in consecrated ground. 

PKOFESSIONAL MEN WHO HAVE DIED IN FITZWILLIAM : 

Clergijmen : Benjamin Brigham, June 5th, 1799, 8e. 57; 
Darius Fisher, September 2d, 1834, se. 63 ; Ezekiel L. Bas- 
com, April 2d, 1841, se. 64 ; James II. Sajward, January 
13th, 1844, £6. 35 ; John Sabin, October 14tli, 1845, ai. 75 ; 
John Woods, May 4th, 1861, se. 76 ; Abraham Jenkins, Jr., 
August 4th, 1861, se. 50 ; Luther Townsend, a native of Fitz- 
william, d. at Troy, February 9th, 1862, se. 48 ; was buried 
here. 

Physicians : Peter Clark Grosvener, December 14th, 1794 ; 
Amasa Scott, May 16th, 1821, ce. 38 ; Jared Perkins, October 
7th, 1824, 2d. 31 ; Ebenezer "VVright, March 16th, 1829, ^. 
67 ; Thomas Richardson, August 8th, 1852, ae. 86 ; James 
Batcheller, April 14th, 1866, se. 74 ; Silas Cummings, June 
30th, 1882, 86. 78. 

Lawyer : Luther Chapman, August 15th, 1856, se. 77. 

LIST OF DEATHS IN FITZWILLIAM OF PERSONS AGED 80 YEARS 

AND UPWARD : 

1778 Dec. 30. Mrs. (Mary [?]) Buckinan 81 

1794 Mar. 30. Mrs. Kendall, widow of 89 

1802 July 24. Mrs. Ruliama Pratt, mother of 

Job(0 93 

Sept. 19. Joseph Hemingway 83 

1805 Mar. 10. John Camp 95 

Dec. 17. Mrs. Elizabeth Davison, mother of 

Benjamin, Sr. (?) 85 

1807 April 15. Abraham Rice 82 

1808 Sept. 27. Mrs. Sampson, mother of Capt. 

Benjamin 96 

1809 April 12. Zechariah Davis 95 

1812 Feb. 8. Joseph Nurse 89 

Mar. 25. Sylvanus Hemingway 85 



378 HISTORY OF riTZWILLIAM. 

1814 Mar. 8. Eobert Ware 81 

1815 Feb. 11. Mrs. Lydia Paine 84 

1816 April 20. Abigail Deeth, widow of Caleb . . 85 

1817 Feb. 15. Capt. Samuel Patch 87 

181 8 Julj 18. Henry Rice 84 

1819 April 27. Relief Patrick, widow of Samuel (?) 84 

July 22. Michael Sweetser 81 

l^ov. 4. Stephen Harris 94 

1820 Jan. 16. Mary Sweetser, widow of Michael 80 

April 15, Mr. Moody , 85 

July 6. Susanna (Wilder) Rice, widow of 

Abraham 90 

Auo;. 18. Ptichard Gleason 82 

Nov. 20. Susanna Wallace, widow of 80 

1821 Mar. 14. Sarah Fisher, mother of Mrs. 

Francis Fullam 94 

Sept. 7. Benjamin Batchelder 86 

1826 April 8. Anna (Miles) Knowlton, widow of 

Ezekiel 85 

Dec. 3. Abner Stone 90 

1827 May 5. Molly Hemingw\ay, widow of Syl- 

vanus 

1828 Sept. 29. Elizabeth Stiles, mother of Mrs. 

Timothy Blodgett 88 

1829 Jan. 26. Mary (Angier) Harris, widow of 

Stephen 97 

Mar. 30. William Locke 80 

1831 Jan. 16. Mrs. Susanna Chase 81 

Dec. 15. Rebecca (Barrett) Locke, w^idow of 

William 87 

1833 April 21. James Gibson 82 

1834 Jan. 1. Anna (Stacy) Stone, wife of 

Samuel ' 82 

Jan. 12. Dea. John Fassett 94 

Feb. 2. Philip Amidon 85 

Aug. 14. Jonas Woods 82 

Nov. 30. Anna (Smith) Carter, widow of 

Joseph 



85 



84 



1884 


Dec. 16 




Dec. 17 


1835 


Nov. 1. 




Dec. 31 


1836 


Feb. 20. 




Sept. 6. 




Oct. 1. 


1837 


Feb. 5. 




Aug. 25 


1838 


Mar. 10, 




June 5. 




Oct. 8. 



DEATHS OF AGED PERSONS. 379 

Ruth Penniman, wife of Elihu. . . 84 

Ebenezer Saunders 81 

EHbu Penniman 84 

Allen Grant 89 

Mary (Dodge) Reed, widow of 

James, Jr 90 

Moses Drury 93 

Anna Batclielder, widow of Ben- 100 yrs., 

jamin G ni. 

Lydia [(Burbank) Lyon] Potter, 

wife of Ebenezer 81 

Eunice (^Shumway) Amidon, wid- 
ow of Philip . .V 90 

Elizabeth Stone, wife of James. . . 83 

Solomon Spaulding 96 

Mary (Hunt) Bent, widow of 

Samnel -84 

Nov. 24. Ruth (AVilder) Waite, widow of 

Asa 88 

1839 June 14. Capt. John Fay 83 

July 21. Charles Bowker . . 81 

1840 Feb. 13. Abigail (Baker) Fay, widow of 

Jonas and (1) of Ephraim Parker 82 
April 1. Lovina (Brigham) Fay, widow of 

Capt. John 80 

May 11. Elizabeth Pettes 99 

Sept. 18. Mary Grant, widow of Allen 80 

Dec. 31, Betsey Deeth, widow of Parley. .. 87 

1841 Jan. 5. James Stone 87 

May 12. Matthew Osborn 87 

June 12. Stephen White 80 

July 10. Lois Capron, widow of Jonathan. 81 
Dec. 2. Phebe (Wetherbee) Platts, widow 101 yrs., 

of Abel 4 m., *24d. 

Dec. 12. Samuel Stone, died at Swanzey. . 91 

1842 July 28. Hannah Griffin, dan. of Dea. 

Samuel ; died at Troy 86 

Dec. 28. Matthias Felton 87 



380 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

1843 Sept. 6. Elizabeth (Parks) Fassett, widow 

of Willard 85 

Dec. 2.5. Joel Miles, d. at Royalston 87 

1844 Feb. 11. Eunice (Ilawes) Foster, widow of 

Alexander 80 

Mar. 4. Martha (Gibson) Forristall, widow 

of Jesse 91 

Aug. 18. Oliver Whitcomb 81 

Sept. 6. Mary PliiUips, widow of Na- 
thaniel 85 

1845 Feb. 13. Lois (Pierce) White, widow of 

Daniel 84 

April 27. Ebenezer Potter 96 

May 27. Joseph Stone 93 

1846 Feb. 10. Betsey (:^richols), widow of Phil- 

lips Sweetser ; (1) of Dr. Ebe- 
nezer Wright 82 

July 11. Mary (Wilson) Prescott, wife of 

Peter 84 

Lieut. Daniel Mellen 97 

Pobinson Perkins 80 

Artemas Wilson 90 

Sarah (?) Whitney, widow of John 

(Jr-(?)) ' • ^9 

Hephzibah Johnson, widow of 

Ehphalet 89 

John Shirley 94 

John Damon, died at Pindge. ... 81 

Sarah Grover, widow of Antipas. 80 
Sarah (Fisher) Fullam, widow of [ 

Francis 91 

Mary (Harris) Stone, widow of 

Joseph 92 

Elizabeth (Stiles) Blodgett, of 

Timothy 82 

Mary (Taylor) Howe, widow of 

Nahurn 83 

Rebecca Johnson, widow of James 87 



1847 


Jan. 2. 
Feb. 19. 
April 30 
Aug. 4. 


1848 


Mar. 9. 


1849 


ISTov. 23, 
Dec. 14. 
April 10, 
Aug. 5. 


1850 


Feb. 8. 




May 15. 




July 29. 


1851 


Jan. 14. 



1851 


Mar. 22, 




April 2. 




Nov. 29 


1852 


Jan. 7. 




Feb. 2. 




April 30, 




April 30, 




July 14. 




Aug. 8. 


1853 


June 22, 



DEATHS OF AGED PERSONS. 381 

Cata (Drury) Wilson, widow of 

Arteraas 88 

Lydia (Richardson) Reed, widow 

of Pliineas 80 

Mrs. Hannah Spanlding, mother 

of James 81 

Calvin Smith 81 

Lydia Knights, widow of William, 

died at Marlboro 84 

Phinehas Reed 86 

Sally (Carter) Marshall, widow of 

William, (1) of Isaac Kimball . . 85 

Peter Prescott 94 

Dr. Thomas Richardson 86 

Eunice (Brigham) Cobleigh, wid- 
ow of John 87 

Oct. 29. Martha (Stickney) Saunders, wid- 

of Ebenezer 90 

Dec. 20. Molly AVliite, widow of Stephen.. 87 

1854 Feb. 2. Lydia (Parks) Townsend, widow 

of Xatlian, Jr 87 

Feb. 6. Orra Ripley, widow of 85 

Aug. 22. Otis Whipple 86 

1855 June 11. Polly Felch 80 

June 14. Capt. j^athan Smith 91 

Sept. 13. Zalmon Howe 80 

Nov. 29. Timothy Blodgett 89 

Dec. 26. John Whittemore 80 

1856 Feb. 14. Elizabeth (Woodbury) Burbank, 

widow of John 90 

June 15. Catherine McLeer, widow of . . . . 83 

July 28. Mary White, wife of Noah 88 

1857 April 26. Hannah (Woods) Fassett, widow 

of Joseph 83 

May 13. Anna (Harris) Byam, widow of 

Abel ' 90 

May 18. Mary Gee, widow of 89 

July 5. Joseph Pratt 87 



882 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

1858 Jan. 30. Hannah (Frost) Worcester, widow 

of William . 98 

Ang. 22. Roxana (Amidon) Angier, wife of 

Abel 83 

1859 Jan. 13. Silas Morse 82 

Oct. 3. Polly Kilbonrne, widow of 82 

Oct. 13. (Pratt) Taft, widow^ of David. . . 81 

Nov. 21. Moses Chaplin 82 

1860 Jnly 23. Elizabeth Playden, widow of Ezra 82 

1861 Feb. 13. Lncretia Mellen 95 

Feb. 21. Jedediah Putnev, died at Marl- 

boro 85 

Feb. 27. Abel Angier 86 

May 10. Elizabeth (Goss) Carter, widow of 

Joseph 83 

Aug. 27. Isabel (Manning) Stone, wife of 

Dea. Artemas 82 

Oct. 12. Asa Waite 85 

Dec. 16. Lj'dia Whipple, widow of Otis . . 88 

1862 Mar. 9. Ehjah T. Smith, died at Winchen- 

don 83 

April 8. Charles F. Cameron 84 

April 10. Dea. Artemas Stone 85 

Oct. 27. William Perry 82 

1863 June 27. Pamelia Whipple, widow of ]^a- 101 yrs., 

hum 1 m., 4 d. 

Aug. 21. Noah White 86 

Dec. 22. Samuel Carroll 83 

1864 May 1. Polly (Locke) Whittemore, widow 

of William S 88 

June 16. Mary (Bent) Pratt, widow of 

Amos ; died at Rindge 84 

1865 Jan. 9. Anna Grant, daughter of Allen. . 84 
Mar. 19. Mary (Damon) Sabin, widow of 

Rev. John 86 

June 7. Jesse Forristall 84 

Oct. 27. E^icy (Patch) Whitcomb, widow 101 yrs., 

of Oliver 11 m., 1 d. 



DEATHS OF AGED PERSONS. 383 

18G5 ISTov. 18. Lovicy(Mellen)Whitcoml), widow 

of John 83 

1866 Feb. 19. Elizabeth Keecl, widow of I'enja- 

inin ; died at Jaffrey 83 

Feb. 26. Josiah AYilder '. 80 

April 1. Betsey Hale, widow of Jacob. ... 81 
July 22. William II. Bent, died at Ash- 

burnham 81 

Oct. 25. Polly Wilder, widow of Josiah . . 80 

1867 April 10. Mrs. Pheve Howe 87 

Oct. 12. David Grant 83 

Xov. 11. Martha (Bent) Chaplin, widow of 

Moses 85 

1868 Mar. 13. Jonathan Gage 86 

May 6. Susanna (Phillips) Morse, widow 

of Silas 82 

Sept. 22. Annis (Whitney) Carroll, widow 

of Samuel 85 

ISToY. 3. Azubali Locke, daughter of Joseph 91 

1869 May 20. Polly [ (Blanding) Kendall ] 

Wright, widow of Capt. Aaron. 89 
Aug. 1. Sally (King) Chapman, widow of 

Luther. . . , 87 

Oct. 7. Ruth (Carroll) Whitney, wife of 

David .' 84 

Nov, 8. Levi Tower 87 

Nov. 9. Simeon Merrifield, died at New 

Salem, Mass 86 

1870 Feb. 7. John Cobleigh 80 

Mar. 8. Sally (Dadmun) Kendall, widow 

of Luke 90 

May 16. Cynthia (Randall) Ellis, widow of 

Samuel 91 

Sept. 18. Mary (Chaplin) Beard, widow of 

Artemas 88 

1871 Jan. 27. Abel Marshall 81 

Mar. 18. William Fisher Perry 95 

April 1. Philemon Fairbanks 89 



384 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

1871 April 28. Lovina Leathe, widow of Elislia 

Drury by previous m. ; died at 

Roy alston 80 

Aug. 9. Nancy (Sweetser) Mann, widow 

of liev. Cyrus 80 

Emory Taf t 93 

Benoni Peck 89 

Anstis (Stratton) Tower, widow of 

Levi 87 

Jude Damon, died at Keene 87 

Ruth (Pratt) Bent, widow of 

Samuel, Jr.; died in Vermont. 90 

Hyman Bent 84 

Polly (Davis) AVilson, widow of 

Artemas, Jr 82 

Sarah S. Poland, wife of Samuel. 87 

Polly (Stone) Osborn, widow of 

Matthew 85 

David Forbush 86 

]^ancy (Colburn) Davison, widow 

of Benjamin ; died at Winchen- 

don 81 

Samuel Poland, died at Keene. . . 84 

Dorcas (Aniidon) Rice, widow of 104 yrs., 

David ; died in Jafl'rey 4 m., 5 d. 

Oct. 21. Sally (Locke) Drury, wife of 

Moses 83 

1875 May 1. Ebenezer Potter 81 

1876 April 3. Mary (McClary) Parker, wife of 

Amos A 81 

April 21. Capt. Silas Chase, died at Win- 

cbendon 81 

Aug. 18. Benjamin Byam S3 

1877 Mar. 14. Sylvanus Holman 81 

May 29. David Thompson 89 

Sept. 11. Sukey (Penniman) Damon, widow 

of Jude 88 

Sept. 18. Huldali (Collins) Osborn, widow 

of Capt. Josiah 91 



1872 


April 12, 
Aug. 26. 

^ov. 14, 




Nov. 14, 
Dec. 9. 


1873 


Dec. 21. 
April 5. 




April 26, 
May 4. 


1874 


May 21. 
Mar. ^3, 




April 2. 
April 15, 



DEATHS OF AGED PERSONS. 38o 

1877 Sept. 18. Sibel (Fiske) Damon, widow of 

Luther ; died at Dana, Mass. . . 81 

Oct. 2. Lucy Wliitconil), daughter of 

Oliver 87 

Nov. 7. Samuel Sawyer Willard 84 

JS'ov. 18. Catherine (Bigelow) Frescott, 

widow of Peter, Jr 88 

Xov. 29. Sarah (Hayden) Bailey, widow of 

Edward ; (1) of Jared Perkins. 82 

1878 Dec. 5. Betsey (Grant) Handy, wife of 

Paul 81 

1879 Jan. 21. Eliza (Fay) Stone, widow of 

Moses 90 

June 5. Hephzibah (Stone) Forbush,widow 

of David ; died at Winchendon 87 

Aug. 28. Lucy (Fassett) Byam, wife of 

Benjamin 86 

Oct. 8. Ezra Alexander, died at Keene . . 85 

1880 Feb. 17. Dea. Joseph Harris, died at Bald- 

winville 83 

Mar. 22. Asaph Whitcomb 85 

May 20. John Jarvis Allen 90 

Sept. 16. Hannah (Woodward) Putney, 
widow of Jedediah ; (1) of 
Martin Rockwood ; died at 

Troy 85 

Oct. 25. Anna (Bowker) Collins, widow of 

Ezekiel 90 

Dec. 6. David AVhitney 93 

1881 Mar. 13. Caroline Smith, daughter of Dan- 

iel 80 

May 20. Paitli (Collins) Kuhn, wife of 

William; (1) of I^athan Drury. 87 

1882 Jan. 4. Tamar (Grant) Hayden, wife of 

Samuel 86 

Jan. 17. Samuel Hayden 88 

Jan. 29. Hannah Lovering, widow of 

Henry >9 

25 



386 HISTORY OF FITZWILLTAM. 

1882 Feb. 19. Clarissa (Holden) Fay, widow of 

Stephen 86 

Mar. 16. Lucy (Gates) Thompson, widow of 

David 89 

Mar. 17. Sylvia (Green) Taft, wife of 

Lewis 80 

Abel Diinton 89 

Alexander Matheson 85 

Daniel Spaulding 93 

Lucy Carpenter 86 

Levinah J. (Allen) Bent, widow 

of William H 86 

Francis Stone 81 

Moses Drury 95 

Josiah Moore 88 

Oren Grant, died in Royalston. . . 89 
Harriet B. (Tylor) Dyar, widow 

of Joseph 81 

Paul Handy 84 

Nancy (Robbins) Bent, w. of 

Elisha 84: 

Leonard Pierce 83 

Phineas Parks 90 

The foregoing list contains 233 names. Of this number, 25 
persons died elsewhere, but were brought here for interment, 
and are inserted in the list as properly belonging here. Of the 
208 who died in town, 87 were between 80 and 85 years of 
age ; 73 were between 85 and 90 ; 32 were between 90 and 
95 ; 12 were between 95 and 100, and 4 were over 100 years 
of age. 

LIST OF PERSONS OVER 80 TEARS OF AGE RESIDING IN FITZ- 

WILLIAM JAN, 1, 1887. 

Jonathan Sabin Adams . Sept. 22, 1802. Plainfield, Conn. 

Joseph Blodgett Oct. 28, 1796. Northiield, Mass. 

Simon Bosworth Mar. 22, 1803. Winchendon. 

Luke Bowker Oct. 28j 1800. Fitzwilliam. 





April 21. 




May. 




July 17. 




Kov. 17 


1883 


Nov. 13, 


1884 


Jan. 19. 




April 16, 




April 28 




Oct. 6. 


1885 


Feb. 1. 




April 5. 




April 30. 




June 12, 


1886 


Mar. 1. 



LIST OF AGED PERSONS, JAl^. 1, 1887. 387 

Betsey (Knight) Brewer, 

wid. of Asa May 4, 1804. Sudbury, Mass. 

Milton Chaplin April 7, 1805. Fitzwilliam. 

Selina (Parker) Damon, 

wid. of John July 5, 1799. '' 

Tamar (Thompson) Da- 
vis, wid. of Chancy. . Nov. 4, 1804. Holden, Mass. 

George W. Drury Jan. 11, 1800. Framingham, Mass. 

Samuel S. Dudley June 26, 1806. Sudbury, Mass. 

Ruth (Phillips) Dunton, 

wid. of Abel Aug. 21, 1799. Athol, Mass. 

Benjamin M. Fiske .... July 18, 1803. Fitzwilliam. 

Louisa (Storrow) Fores- 
tall, wid. of Jesse. . . . April 7, 1804. Boston, Mass. 

Eunice (Parks) Holnian, 

wid. of Seth Oct. 19, 1801. Eoyalston. 

Lucy (Fullam) Holman, 

wid. of Sylvanus .... June 27, 1797. Fitzwilham. 

Jane S. (Richardson) 

Kimball, wid. of John Nov. 21, 1802. Eoyalston. 

William Kuhn 1800. Montague, Mass. 

Harriet (Stone) Miles, 

wid. of John June 6, 1801. Sullivan, N. H. 

Mary R. (Felch) Milne, 

wid. of John -A-Ug. 29, 1805. Boston, Mass. 

Charlotte (Pratt) Petts, 

wid. of Abel Jan. 13, 1805. Fitzwilliam. 

Polly (Woods) Potter, 

wid. of Ebenezer .... Aug. 30, 1803. " 

Fanny W. Saunders, dau. 

of Ebenezer Sept. 15, 1805. " 

Isaac W. Stone Dec. 2, 1806. 

Daniel Smith Oct. 30, 1804. 

Lewis Taft. . . Mar. 4, 1803. CJxbridge, Mass. 

Tabitha (AVright) Whee- 
ler, wid. of Henry H. Oct. 3, 1805. Fitzwilliam. 

Rebecca Whitcomb, dau. 

of Oliver Sept. 24, 1801. 






(( 



388 HISTORY OF FITZ WILLIAM. 



DEATHS FROM ACCIDENT, 

AGE. 

1769, April 30. 1 Thaddeus Stone, s. of Jason. . . .scalded. 
1771, May 3. Benjamin Bigelow, 

drowned at Winchester. 

1778, June 12. Henry Poor fall from horse. 

1779, Mar. 16. Susan Bennett, w. of Benjamin, 

fall from horse in Royalston. 

Jnne 3. 50 John Bruce from fall at saw-mill. 

1782, July 26. 28 Thomas Platts, 

crushed between cart and tree, 
1790, June 19. Joseph Johnson, instantly, by falling tree. 

Dec. 31. Capt. Stephen Richardson frozen. 

1793, Mar. 25. 3 Sylvester Bowker, s. of Charles, drowned. 
1795, Mar. 22. 20 Abel Ware, s, of Robert, fall in saw-mill. 
Sept. 24, 13 Rufus Pratt, s. of Job, 

timber fell on him at a raising. 

1800, April 8. 1 Mary Perry, d. of Simeon scalded. 

1802, Mar. 18. 3 Harding Morse, s. of Daniel, 

by fall of wood-pile. 

1804, Sept. 9. 5 Joseph Reed, s. of Phineas. . ..drowned. 

1805, Sept. 21. 15 Joel Dunton blown up in a well. 

1809, May 10. 7 Caleb Winch, s. of Joseph, 

burned in his grandfather's (?) house. 

1811, Mar. 13. 50 William Bruce, 

from boards falling on him. 

1812, Sept. 4. 28 Abner Stone, Jr., 

fell from frame at a raising. 
1814, Jan. 21. 5 Child of Josiah Wilson, 

from wound in head. 
1818, Oct. 16. 60 Thomas Stratton, 

instantly, by falling tree. 
1821, Aug. 13. 2 William Perkins, s. of Dr. Jared, 

scalded, 

1824, Oct, 12. 68 Jesse Forristall fall from wagon. 

1825, Oct. I Chandler May, s. of Theophilus, 

overturning of a chaise. 



DEATHS FROM ACCIDEISTTS. 389 

AGE. 

1832, Jane 6. IS Calvin Chase, 

accidental discharge of his gun. 

1833, April 1. 22 Benjamin Bowker, 

liurt in mill, sawing hoe-handles. 
Sept. 30. 3 Henry Stone, s. of Francis, 

drowned in tan-vat. 

1834, July 13. 15 Elizabeth Goodspeed, 

thrown from wagon. 

1837, July 9. 10 James Follett. .drowned at Bowkerville. 

1838, Aug. 18. 30 Daniel T. Ilayden, 

accidental discharge of his rifle. 

1839, Oct. 30. 24 Hyman C. Pratt, 

accidental discharge of his gun. 
Nov. 28. 2 Child of Timothy S. Eeed scalded. 

1840, Sept. 10. 50 Stillman Collins. ..drowned in Sip pond. 
Is^ov. 12. 19 Sarah E. May, 

burned by clothes taking fire. 
1842, Jan. 13. 4 Levi A. Taft, s. of Lewis, 

burned by clothes taking tire. 
Sept. 1. 20 Daphne Allen, d. of Jubal E., 

burned by clothes taking fire. 
1845, June 14. 18 Daniel C. S. Parker, s. of Amos A., 

drowned at Troy. 
Dec. 15. 50 Michael Higgins, 

on E.R. bv a falling bank. 

1847, May 18. 50 Peter Shossiny on liR. by a stone. 

1848, Feb. 22. Dennis Daly run over by the cars. 

1853, Dec. 30. 30 Nathaniel Allen, 

on PR. at Collins' bridge. 

1854, Mar. 28. 52 Patrick McManus drowned at Troy. 

1861, Feb. 1. 40 Mrs. Damon, w. of Alonzo, of Hubbards- 

ton, Mass., 

on RR. at Templeton crossing. 
Feb. 1. 3 George Damon, s. of Alonzo, of Hub- 
bardston, Mass. 

on RR. at Templeton crossing. 
1864, Mar. 8. 1 Stillman A. Dunton, s. of George 0., ^ 

scalded. 



390 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



AGE. 



1865, Oct. 26, 57 Paul Martin, from injury by falling tree. 

1867, Aug, 4 Johnny Marvin drowned. 

1868, July 12. IS George A. Worcester, 

drowned at Richmond, 
1S7U, Aug. 24. 51 Dr. Horace B. Day, of Utica, N. Y., 

by the cars at depot. 
Aug. 25. 22 Charles Scott. . .fell under cars at depot. 

1872, Nov. 6. 52 Abijah Ellis murdered at Boston. 

Dec. 10. 23 Ealph Trumbull. . . .on RR., brakeman. 
Dec. 23. Prentiss, 

on RR. at Collins' bridge. 
Ellis, 8. of Timothy, 

in mill in Rindge. 
1877, Sept. 3. 8 Carrie Lizzie Beebe, adopted dau. of An- 
son G drowned. 

Nov. 7. 84 Samuel S. Willard. .by cars at State line. 

1879, Feb. 8. 22 Nathan Elwin Stone, s. of Nathan, 

by cars, at Worcester. 
Oct. 22. 24 Charles W. Perry, s. of Charles, 

from kick of a horse. 

1880, Feb. 12. 17 Artemas S. Campbell, s. of Dugald, 

killed in the mill. 

1881, Feb. 5. J. L. Davis, RR. engineer (?) 

killed on the railroad. 

The list includes a few who were killed elsewhere, but who 
may be considered as belonging to Fitzwilliam, and the most 
of whom were brought here for burial. 

DEATHS BY SUICIDE. 

1793, July 10. Azariah Wilson By hanging. 

1800, July 37. Hannah Richardson. . .Age, 19. Drowning. 

1810, Dec. 1. Ephraim Parker " 54. Hanging. 

1817, Aug. 33. Jacob Townsend " 50. 

1834, Oct. 11. Samuel Davis " G6. " 

1838, July 38. David Rice «' 60. " 

1839, Feb. 15. David Graves " 35. Cutting. 

1839, Mar. 6. Luther Holman " 35. Poison, at Keene. 

1830, Aug. 3. Lydia Moody " 47. Hanging. 



DEATHS BY SUICIDE. 391 

1850, May 24. Parkman Kendall.. . .Age, 31. Hanging. 

1861, Jan. 30. Elisha Dniry " 39. Cutting. 

1863, Aug. 16. Timothy N. Carroll.. " 43. 

1864, Sept. 13. Daniel G. Carter " 49. Hanging. 

1866, May 1. Mrs. Williani Flagg. . " 40. 

1873, June 7. Daniel Harris " 35. Poison, at Winchendon. 

1877, April 7. Reuben B. Pratt " 68. Hanging. 

1877, Nov. 19. Reuben Pratt '' 47. Poison, at Winchendon. 

Joseph Lee Hay ward, son of Benjamin Hay ward, was born 
in Fitzwilliani, August 12tli, 1837. At the age of twenty- 
three he went West, and for two years found employment in 
New Baltimore, Mich., and Moline, 111. In August, 1862, 
he enlisted as a soldier in the One Hundred and Twenty- 
seventh Ilegiment Illinois Volunteers, but his health giving 
way he was detailed to serve as a druggist in a dispensary at 
l^ashville, Tenn., and continued in this service till the close 
of the war. In 1866 he was in Faribault, Minn., and later 
in Minneapolis, but in 1867 became a resident of Northfield, 
Minn., and engaged in business as a book-keeper. In this 
capacity he was employed in 1872 by the First National Bank 
of Xorthfield. In September of that year, the cashier being- 
absent, Mr. Hayward was in charge as acting cashier, the 
teller, Mr. Bunker, and assistant book-keeper being also on 
duty. On the 7tli of that month eight mounted bank robbers, 
understood to be the so-called Jesse James baud, entered the 
place, and while three of the number attacked the bank the 
other five made the utmost possible commotion upon the out- 
side, to intimidate the people that might come to the rescue. 
But the citizens rallied so quickly and in such numbers that 
the attempted robbery was frustrated, and two of the robl)ers 
were killed, but as the last one was leaving the bank he turned 
and fired a fatal shot at Mr. Hayward. 

Elijah Phillips, son of Elijah Phillips, was l)orn in Fitzwill- 
iam, and in 1830, when he was a young man, went West and 
settled in Illinois. He made his journey partly on foot and 
partly by tlie Erie Canal, and by steamboat on Lake Erie, and 
joining his old friends, James G. Forristall and Sylvester Brig- 
ham, they built a log cabin for themselves in what is now the 
town of Dover. Kearly two years later Mr. Phillips, with 



392 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

seven others, left Fort Hennepin to look after their cattle, and 
rain coming on tliey remained overnight in the hut of one 
John L. Ament, who was not on friendly terms with the 
neighboring Indians. In some way Mr. Phillips had become 
somewhat involved in the quarrel. The men barricaded the 
hut and each slept with his loaded gun by his side. The Ind- 
ians M'ho were watching the cabin during the night were 
prevented by the rain from burning it, but early in the morn- 
ing as Mr. Phillips started for his own cabin, which was not 
far distant, a number of guns were fired at him and he fell 
dead, two bullets having entered his body. 

PAUPEKISM. 

The custom which prevailed in this region, a century ago, 
of warning nearly every new family out of town as soon as 
possible after its arrival, doubtless prevented pauperism in this 
place to some extent, still, Fitzwilliam, like all other towns, had 
its poor to care for at an early date. In 1776 the town paid 
Levi Brigham ten shillings for supporting John Camp and 
family, which appears to have been the first appropriation for 
tliis purpose. Previously the poor had been aided by private 
charity. 

In 1779 an appropriation of fifty pounds was made " for the 
use of the poor." At that date the currency in which the 
taxes were paid had greatly depreciated. In 1785 the sick- 
ness of the wife of Abraham Rice, Jr., called for appropriations 
amounting to about fifteen pounds ten shillings. In 1787 the 
town voted " to put out Mr. Butler's family to such persons 
as should take the care of them at the lowest," and at the 
vendue that followed they were taken at from six to eight 
pounds each for one year. In 1792 entries like the following 
appear in the Records : " Lieut. Daniel Mellen bought old 
Mr. Camp, for one year, he is to have two pounds and seven 
shillings per weeke and the said Mellen is to keep his cloath- 
ing as good as when he receives him." 

This method of caring for the poor was common in the 
country towns of I^ew England for many years, and had its 
advantages as well as disadvantages. 



PAUPERISM — HIGHWAYS. 393 

It should be borne in mind that in tlie early days the pauper 
went into the family as one of its members, and was expected 
to do such work as he or she was able, the com])ensation re- 
ceived from the town depending largely upon the pauper's 
ability to labor. It is believed that such persons were seldom 
overworked or misused in Fitzwilliam. 

In 1794 the town made choice of Benjamin Davidson, John 
Fassett, and John Locke as Overseers of the Poor, but in gen- 
eral the duties of such officers have here devolved upon the 
selectmen. 

The expense of supporting the poor of a town like this must 
always be consideral)le, but an examination of the reports of 
the selectmen will show that, for the last twenty years, the tax 
upon the people of Fitzwilliam for the support of paupers has 
not been increasing, but rather diminishing. 

CONNECTION WITH THE WORLD. 

The laying out, making and repairing of roads presented a 
problem to the proprietors and lirst settlers of Fitzwilliam that 
demanded good judgment, not a little patience, and large ap- 
propriations. It is probable that all the earliest settlers en- 
tered the township by the old military road, and settled on 
it or as near it as was convenient. As the settlement in- 
creased roads were laid out by the projirietors from neighbor- 
hood to neighborhood, but in very many cases as the log hut 
gave place to the framed house, the location of the highways 
w'as changed as convenience or preference seemed to require. 

Heferring to matters of this nature. Rev. John Sabin, in his 
historical lecture of February, 1842, said : " It has rarely been 
with a people that they calculate just as they would were it 
to begin again ;" and to illustrate this truth he added that in 
early times " roads were laid to accommodate individuals and 
so might not be permanent. Vast proportions of former roads 
have been discontinued and much of the labor done on them 
lost to later time." 

The evil complained of by this sensible man is probably, to 
some extent, inseparable from the conditions of a new settle- 
ment, but certainly it was great in Fitzwilliam, for the roads 



394 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

constructed in this townsliij), and discontinued during the first 
fifty years after it was purchased by Sampson Stoddard and 
others, seem to have extended over nearly every part of it, and 
in all directions, with very little regard to the future wants of 
the incoming population. From the very nature of the coun- 
try and soil roads have always been an expensive necessity in 
Fitzwilliam. 

As the population increased in the adjoining towns, county 
roads were constructed, and at a little later period as the exi- 
gencies of public travel seemed to require better accommoda- 
tions than the towns were willing to furnish, various turnpike 
companies were incorporated that built roads leading into or 
through Fitzwilliam. One by one all of these were given up 
many years ago, and the care of the roads thus made was as- 
sumed by the town. 

The first settler, Benjamin Bigelow, found in 1762 compar- 
atively easy access to his new home by the old military road, 
that for three or four years at least afforded the only connec- 
tion with the outside world. 

At proprietors' meetings held April 19th, 1765, and Octo- 
ber 11th, 1768, committees were chosen to lay out roads, and 
the committees undoubtedly attended to the duties of their 
appointment, though there are no records thereof. But at a 
meeting held June 19th, 1771, eleven roads, aggregating about 
thirty-tive miles in length, were accepted, and descriptions of 
the same entered in the records of the meeting. As nearly all 
of these i-oads are described " as now trod," " as now marked 
and travelled," or "as already laid out," it is plain that they 
were then in use, and the acceptance was only a formality 
whereby they became legally public highways. The first and 
longest of the roads is thus described : 

Beginea at the Province Line by Royalston Lag where it is now Trod 
Leeding to Swanzey up by where mr David Deneson now Livs and so on 
where it is now Traviled to the north east Cornor of Lott No. 16 in 8 
Rang then north on the Line between Lott No. 17 in 8 Rang and 
Lott No. 17 in 7 Rang to the Line of Lott No 18 in 8 Rang then to 
Continue where it is now Traviled to the Line of monadnock No. 5. 

Royalston Leg, the north part of Winchendon as now con- 
stituted, but then belonging to Royalston. 



THE GEEAT EOAD— STAGES. 395 

David Deneson (Dennison ?) lived on Lot 9 in "Range 1, 
where Henry T. Ilall now lives. From Fitzwilliam village to 
the State line this road substantially followed the route of the 
present east road to Winchendon. In the other direction it 
took a northwesterly course and struck the line between Monad- 
nock No. 4 and Monadnock No. 5, about a mile west of the 
saw and grist-mills of Thomas Tolman, now Troy village. A 
few years later a branch road was made, leaving the original 
road about three-quarters of a mile northwest of where Bow- 
kerville is now located, and proceeding nearly due north to 
the Tolman mills. This branch, and the remainder of the orig- 
inal road southerly, soon became the main thoroughfare from 
Keene and beyond to Boston, and for thirty years it is repeat- 
edly referred to in the records as '' The Great Road." Soon 
after 1787 this road was straightened in many places, and made 
wider throughout its entire length, but since then no material 
change has been made in its location, except that which took 
it away from the Mellen place, last occupied by Gilbert C. 
Bemis. Some additional reference is made to this road in 
Chapter YIII. 

Tradition asserts that the first line of stages in this town was 
established by Simon Crosby, to run to and from Worcester, 
Mass. , and connecting there with a line to and from Boston, 
but as he was taxed for three horses only his business could 
not have been large. About 1809 Simon Piper (said to have 
been engaged in the same business) was taxed for three or four 
horses only. So far as can be known the stage horses taxed 
in 1826 numbered three ; in 1827, eight ; in 1828, twelve, 
and from that date till 1839 tlie average was from fourteen to 
eighteen. Early in this century there was aline of stages from 
Boston through Fitzwilliam, to Keene and beyond, and some 
time later there were lines running to or through the town 
from Worcester, Lowell, and Brattleborough, Yt., and some- 
times a second and competing line to and from Boston. 

The meeting of so many different stage-lines here made this 
town in those times a place of considerable importance, and 
few towns of its size had direct communication with the out- 
side world in so many directions. 

In his lecture of 1842, Eev. Mr. Sabin said : " A little esti- 



396 HISTORY OF riTZWILLIAM. 

mate lias been made tliis winter past, 1io\y mncli is carried on 
the road between this and Boston, and been reckoned at two 
hundred and fifty tons, both ways — say fifty tons carried from 
this and brought here two hundred tons. Wliat carried from 
us consists in small part of the produce of the soil, but nearly 
all of palm-leaf hats, tubs, some chairs, etc. These do not in- 
clude common lumber from the saw-mills nor the almost un- 
told loads that go by the general name of wooden- ware." 

As Mr. Sabin was a very careful and conservative man, this 
estimate was probably under rather than above the actual 
amount of transportation over this thoroughfare. 

CHESHIRE EA.ILROAD. 

This road was opened through this town in May, 1848, and, 
in consequence, there has been an enormous increase in the pas- 
senger and freight traffic of the place. The number of pas- 
sengers leaving Fitzwilliani annually by this road is more than 
six thousand, while each year nearly five thousand enter it on 
tickets sold in other places. The road brings into the town 
about two thousand tons of freight annually, and carries away 
each year more than ten thousand tons. 

The elevation of the road at the highest j^oint in Fitzwilliam 
(which is understood to be the highest over which it passes) is 
eleven hundred and fifty-one feet. Its length in the town is 
about nine miles, but the distance in a straight line between 
the points of its entering and leaving our territory is about 
seven and a half miles. 

George W. Parker was the Fitzwilliam station agent at the 
opening of the road, but for very many years this office has 
been filled by Mr. Elbridge Cummings. 

The location of this important railroad through nearly the 
centre of the town, and in close proximity to the most exten- 
sive quarries of granite, makes it of inestimable value to the 
people of Fitzwilliam. 

MERCHANTS AND TRADERS. 

An ancient tradition, which is considered reliable, states that 
opposite the inn of General James Reed, on the old military 



MERCHANTS AND TRADERS. 397 

road, stood a small building about fifteen feet square in which 
the first ffoods were offered for sale in Monadnock No. 4. These 
consisted of rum, molasses, salt, and a few other common gro- 
ceries, with the addition of a few needles, pins, and other neces- 
sary articles that could not be supplied by home manufacture. 

AVho opened and stocked the first store in what is now Fitz- 
william village, it seems impossible to determine with any de- 
gree of certainty. The earliest town tax-list that has been 
preserved is for the year 1T93. In this list Simon Crosby is 
taxed on fifty pounds stock in trade, Joseph Fox on two hun- 
dred pounds, Jonas Robeson on one hundred and seventy-five 
pounds, and Phineas Heed on one hundred and thirty pounds. 
The tax of Mr. Reed was on his tannery, but all the other 
persons named are understood to have been traders. Robeson 
was in business at the north village, now Troy, while Crosby 
and Fox were at the south village, now Fitzwilliam village. 
The larger tax- paid by Mr. Fox seems to show that he kept 
the larger stock of goods, and may justify the inference that 
his was the older store, though tradition asserts that the first 
store here was kept by Mr. Crosby. 

Dr. Curamings states, apparently on the authority of Mrs. 
Dorcas (Amadou) Rice, that Mr. Crosby commenced business 
on the Townsend place, and removed to where the Everett 
House stood, and another account locates him at a later date 
on the northeast corner of the Common where the post-otfice 
is at the present time. Mr. Crosby continued in business till 
1798, and removed to Vermont a year or two later. The 
Townsend House was situated near the place where Edward 
A. Nutting now lives, and the brick house at the north end 
of the Common occupies the site of the Everett House. 

Joseph Fox was succeeded by Jonathan Fox — perhaps a 
younger brother — and Thomas Goldsmith under the firm name 
of Goldsmith & Fox. They were taxed four years, 1794-97, 
when Mr. Fox removed to Jaffrey and Mr. Goldsmith took 
the entire business, which he continued till about 1806. Mr. 
Goldsmith's store was located on the site now occupied by the 
Cheshire Hotel, and it is supposed that Goldsmith & Fox and 
Joseph Fox were located at the same place. 



398 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

Jonas Warren was taxed on a potash manufactory in 1793 
and on stock in trade two linndred pounds in 1794, and on 
three hundred and thirty-four dollars in 1795. Daniel Gould, 
Jr., was taxed on three hundred dollars stock in trade in 1796. 
Ezra Saunders was in trade from 1798 to 1803 at the Town- 
send place before referred to, and perhaps "Warren and Gould 
were located at the same place, following Crosby and preceding 
Saunders. 

Elisha Brigham, the youngest son of Rev. Benjamin Brig- 
ham, succeeded Mr. Crosby at his last place of business, and 
continued in trade abput two years, his capital being furnished 
by his brother-in-law. General Humphrey, of Athol. 

Jonas Robinson or Robeson commenced business in Marl- 
borough about 1791, occupying for over a year a part of the 
house of Reuben Ward in the south part of the town. Pie 
then bought a small piece of land of Joshua Harrington near 
said Harrington's grist-mill, in the north part of Fitzwilliam, 
on which he built a store. This was about half a mile west- 
erly from his former location and is the site now occupied by 
the store of Charles W. Whitney. About 1805 Robeson and 
his brother-in-law, Reuben Ward, Jr., opened a store in the 
Carter House at the south village. This is the same place 
previously referred to as the Everett House. A year or two 
later he built the three-story building now known as the Fitz- 
william Hotel, into which he moved when completed. The 
store business was taxed to Ward and Robeson & Ward in 1805 
and 1806, but after Robeson's removal he assumed the entire 
business, and Ward soon returned to Marlborough, his native 
place, where he died in 1808. A little later Mr. Robeson 
built a two-story extension ou the west side of his house to 
which he removed his store, and where he continued in trade 
till 1816, when he retired from business. When Mr. Robeson 
moved to the south village, the business in the north or border 
village (which became Troy village in 1815), was left in charge 
of Daniel W. Farrar, first as clerk, then as partner, and in 
1813 he bought out Mr. Robeson's share in the business. At 
or about this time Curtis Coolidge became a partner with Mr. 
Farrar, the partnership continuing about three years, when Mr. 





rf^-y^ ^. U^^^/i^ 



-H-^. 



MEECHANTS AND TRADERS. 399 

Farrar took tlie entire business, which lie conducted till 
about 1837, when he was succeeded by his son, David W. Far- 
rar, and John Whittemore, Jr., from Fitzwilliani, under the 
firm name of AVliittemore & Farrar. About 1842 Mr. Wliitte- 
more returned to Fitzwilliani, Mr. Farrar (David W.) contin- 
uing the business alone. 

When Farrar & Coolidge dissolved partnership in Troy, 
Mr. Coolidge came to Fitzwilliani, and, forming a partnership 
with Luke B. Richardson, succeeded to the business at the 
Robeson store. As near as can be ascertained from the tax- 
lists and other sources, the succession of occupants at this store 
seems to have been as follows : 

Coolidge & Richardson, in 1817-20 ; L. B. Richardson, 
1821 ; Richardson & Robeson (Jonas Robeson, Jr.), 1822 ; 
Coolidge & Robeson, 1823-2-1 ; Coolidge alone, 1825-34 ; 
Coolidge & Potter (John Potter), 1835-36 ; Hayden & Potter 
(Daniel T. Hayden), 1837 ; D. T. Hayden & Co. (Joel Hay- 
den, Jr.), 1838 ; Jesse Stone, draper and tailor, 1842-44 ; Joel 
Hayden, Jr., general store, 1845-46 ; Charles Sabin, apothe- 
cary and drug-store, 1847-48 ; Protective Union Division, No. 
317, general store, 1852-57 ; A. A. Parker & Co. (Asa S. 
Kendall), 1857-65 ; A. A. Parker alone, 1865 ; John M. 
Parker & Co. (P. S. & S. Batcheller), 1865-87 ; D. W. 
Firmin & Co. (P. S. & S. Batcheller), 1887. 

About 1859 Messrs. Parker & Co. erected a new store build- 
ing, to which they removed, and in which the business still re- 
mains. The premises vacated were finished off as an addition 
to the hotel. 

Drs. Benjamin Bemis and Amasa Scott built the store op- 
posite the town meeting-house, now Town Hall, on land of 
Dr. Bemis, probably in 1809. The store was taxed with the 
land to Dr. Bemis and the stock to Dr. Scott, till Dr. Bemis 
left town in 1812 or 1813, after which both store and stock 
were taxed to Dr. Scott. He was taxed on stock six years, 
1811-16, but the business may have been commenced some- 
what earlier, as Bemis & Scott were licensed to sell spirituous 
liquors in 1809, and B. Bemis ife Co. in 1808. 

Quite early in the century John Whittemore, Sr., com- 



400 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

menced trade in a small way in his dwelling-house, situated on 
the road to Rojalston about a third of a mile from the village, 
being the premises now owned by J. C. Baldwin, 

The exact date when he commenced business is not known, 
but he was licensed to sell spirituous liquors as early as 1804, 
though he was not taxed on stock in trade till 1808, In 1820 
he took his son Dexter as partner, with the firm name of 
J. AVhittemore & Son. In 1821 Dexter bought the Scott tfe 
Bemis store and the business was removed to the village, where 
it was conducted under different styles as follows : John Whit- 
temore & Son, 1821-25 ; D. Whittemore alone, 1826-27 ; 
D. & D. Whittemore (Danvers), 1828 ; Dexter Whittemore 
alone again, 1829-50 ; D. Whittemore & Son or Sons (Thomas 
W. and Charles), 1851-56 ; Joel Whittemore, 1858-68, Since 
the last-named date the store has been unoccupied. 

It may be added that Daniel W. Farrar, of Troy, to whom 
reference has been made in this chapter, and Dexter Whitte- 
more, of Fitzwilliam, were the first traders in this vicinity to 
abandon the sale of ardent spirits. 

James Stone, Jr., was in trade long enough to obtain the 
title of " marchant Stone," but not long enough to be taxed 
at any time on stock in trade. He lived in the " market 
house," the estate now owned by Wright Whitcomb. The 
early traders were accustomed to exchange goods very largely 
for farmers' produce, and it is related of Mr. Stone that on ac- 
count of lack of capital he was not able in all cases to settle for 
produce when he received it, in which case he would promise 
to deliver the goods on his return from Boston. He usually 
went to the city with a single horse, and his customers were so 
anxious for their pay that they were generally at his store when 
the goods arrived, though these were not always in sufficient 
quantities to meet all the demands. Mr. Stone was licensed to 
sell spirituous liquors from 1812-18. His sales of these goods 
must have been of considerable amount, as in 1816 and 1817 
(the only years for which returns are at hand) he paid the 
same United States revenue taxes as were paid by the other 
dealers in town. 

In 1822 or 1823 Luke B. Richardson, having withdrawn from 






^ 






2^, 




^i^y-ey 



MEROHANTS AND TKADERS. 401 

tlie Robeson store, erected a new building and commenced busi- 
ness on the Crosby site. From this time the successive occu- 
pants at this place have been as follows : Luke B. Richardson, 
1823-26 ; Spaulding & Perkins (Daniel Spaulding, John Rer- 
kins), 1827-32 ; D. Spaulding alone, 1833 ; Spaulding tV' 
Noble (Gideon C. Noble), 1831-35 ; D. Spaulding alone 
again, 1836-10 ; Wales & Morse (Jacob Wales, Royal T. 
Morse), 1811-12 ; Whittemorefife Damon (John Whittemore, 
Jr., Luke R. Damon), 1813-15 ; John AVhittemore, Jr., alone 
and with his son-in-law, William Pratt, and son George A. 
Whittemore, 1816-73; Whittemore & Co. (George A.), 
1871-78, Harry J. Pratt & Co., 1879-81. 

When Dr. G. C. Noble dissolved partnership with Daniel 
Spaulding, he opened a drug-store in a part of the shop of his 
father-in-law, Robinson Perkins. He continued in business 
from 1836-12, when he was succeeded by Jared D. Perkins, 
1813-19, and he in turn was followed by Phillip S. Batcheller, 
who is in business on this site at the present time. With the 
exception of a few years his brother Stephen has been witli 
him, the tirm name being P. S. & S. Batcheller. The build- 
ing they occupy has passed through more changes by way of 
alterations and enlargements than any other place in the village. 

About 1833 Milton Chaplin opened a store in District No. 1 
in a building standing between the houses of flyman Bent and 
Moses Chaplin, where he traded about seven years. In 1839, 
having purchased the liouse in the village where he now lives, 
he built a store near it, where he did business till 1817, when 
he purchased the jjlace now owned and occupied by Amos J. 
Blake, Esq. Here he did business till 1851, the last three years 
with Anson Streeter as partner, under the name of Chaplin & 
Streeter, Mr. Chaplin then went into business in Boston, and 
later removed to Adrian, Mich. 

The building last referred to was erected by Levi Haskell, 
and the lower storj'- having been fitted for a store had been 
previously occupied by Joseph A. Wilson, 1838-12, and 
J. A. Wilson & Co. (John G. Wilson), 1813-17. 

About 1815 Luke R. Damon, having dissolved partnership 
with John Whittemore, Jr., commenced business in the three- 
2o 



402 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

story building at the head of the Common. The business was 
continued by L. R. Damon, 1846-47 ; Howe & Damon (Nel- 
son Howe), 1848-49 ; Damon & Farrar (James Farrar), 
1850-52 ; Samuel Smith & Co. (Anson B. Smith), 1853. 
Damon & Farrar removed to Adrian, Mich., and Smith & Co. 
to Winchendon. 

A store was opened in Howeville in 1853 by N. & J. 
Howe, who continued in trade ^ill they closed their manufac- 
turins: business in 1867. 

Inl868 Daniel Pv. Spaulding, who had been in trade several 
years in Richmond, formed a partnership with Calvin B. 
Perry (Spaulding & Perry). They bought the storehouse at 
the depot village built by K. & J. Howe & Co., and com- 
menced business therein. In 1874 the partnership was dis- 
solved, Mr. Perry taking the business, which he still continues. 

At the State line a store has been kept by John N. Richard- 
son, 1855-73 ; Martin L. Bartlett, 1874-78, and Joel L. Gil- 
son, 1879 to the present time. 

Frank B. Frye has had a store at the depot village from 
1876 to the present time. 

Abner Gage had a store for several years at the village, and 
Melvin Wilson was in trade for some time at the depot. 

INNS AND HOTELS. 

The disproportion between the number of these and the 
population of the township for a number of years after its set- 
tlement and incorporation appears quite remarkable, for before 
the close of the last century there must have been as many as 
six inns open at the same time in Fitzwilliam, and how many 
more it is impossible to determine, as no licenses for keeping 
them were recorded before 1793. 

The first public-house that was opened in Monadnock No. 4 
was kept by General James Reed, in the first framed house 
erected in the place. This house stood on the old military 
road not far from the late residence of Mr. Gilbert C.^ Bemis. 
At this inn the proprietors of the township held their meet- 
ings for a number of years, and there, or in the shop of Mr. 
' Johnson nearly across the road, the first pastor, Rev. Benja- 




CALVIN BRIGHAM PERRY. 



PHOTOGRAVURE CO . N Y 



INNS AlVD HOTELS. 408 

mill Brigliani was ordained. Later, tin's inn was kept hy 
Colonel Sylvanus Reed, son of General Reed, till abont 1705. 

John Mellen kept an inn for a number of years in the house 
built for him by his father, Daniel Mellen, which stood upon 
the s])ot where Mr. Sylvester Drury now lives. This house of 
Mr. Mellen was kept as an inn late in the last century by 
Benoni Shurtliff. 

Thomas Goldsmith and Jonathan Fox were licensed to keep 
a tavern in 1793, and this partnership continued for three or 
four years, when Goldsmith alone kept the inn till 1808. 
Timothy Johnson succeeded Mr. Goldsmith in the tavern, and 
his successor in the same business was Dr. Thomas Richard- 
son. Matthias Felton was licensed as an innkeeper in 1705. 
His tavern, which he kept about fifteen years, was on the spot 
where George W. Simonds resided, but Mr. Felton' s house 
was burned forty or forty-five years ago. 

Colonel Levi Brigham kept a tavern on what is cnlled Brig- 
ham Hill, in District No. 3. In the east part of the town, at 
the place where Henry T. Hall now lives, Abner Stone kept a 
tavern for many years, while about a mile and a quarter 
south, on the same road, was the tavern of Abijah Warner. 
Both of these men were in this business before 1793. On the 
same road, still farther south, and a short distance beyond the 
State line, was another tavern, kept by one Kidder. These 
three men were popularly known as Honest Stone, Cheating 
Warner, and Lying Kidder, 

All of the storekeepers in the town for a long course of 
years were licensed to sell spirituous liquors as well as the inn- 
keepers. In addition to these quite a number of persons were 
licensed for one or two years, near the close of the last and 
early in the present century, who do not appear to have been 
either traders or innkeepers. 

At a later date, perhaps thirty-five or forty years ago, there 
were four hotels in Fitzwilliam, viz., the Spaulding Tavern, in 
the southeast part of the town, Bovv'ker's, in the north part 
(which was kept as a pnblic-house for a short time only), and 
two in the village. The inn of Messrs. Goldsmith, Johnson, 
& Richardson stood where the Cheshire Hotel now stands. 



404 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

and since the house was rebuilt it has been kept as a j)ubhc- 
Jionse by Pratt & Perry for a short time, then by David Perry 
alone for about twenty years, and later and at present by O. 
K. Wheelock. The Fitzwilliam Hotel has been kept by John 
Foster, John Reed, Abner Grage, J. L. Perry, and others 
whose names cannot be given. 

The list of innkeepers is very incomplete. 

FKEE MASONS. 

Charity Lodge No. 18 F. and A. M. was chartered July 
23d, 1806, and at the institution of the lodge the following 
officers were installed : 

Joshua Harrington, Worshi])ful Master. 

Joseph Winch, Senior Warden. 

David (Daniel, probably) Farrar, Junior Warden. 

Benjamin Bemis, Jr., Treasurer. 

Joseph Carter, Secretary. 

Benoni Shurtleff, Senior Deacon. 

Edward Perkins, Junior Deacon. 

Alexander Foster, Steward. 

Josiah Goldsmith, Tyler. 

Benjamin Bemis, Rep. to Grand Lodge. 

Joseph Carter, Proxy. 

SUCCEEDING MASTERS OF THE LODGE. 

Benjamin Bemis, Jr., 1807 ; Joshua Harrington, 1808. 

Joseph Carter, 1809 ; Robinson Perkins, 1810-11. 

Joshua Harrington, 1812-13 ; Joseph Carter, 1814. 

Abel Wilder, 1815 ; Edward Bayley, 1826-27. 

Silas Jillson, 1829-39 inclusive ; Edward Bayley, 1840-42. 

John J. Allen, 1843-45 ; Edward Bayley, 1846-47. 

The lodge was located in Swanzey in 1817-18, and in Troy, 
1819-26, when it returned to Fitzwilliam, where it remained 
until 1847, when it removed to Jaffrey. It is now located at 
East Jaft'rey. 

The first Masons made in Charity Lodge were AVilliam 
Barnard and Amasa Scott, of Fitzwilliam, and Robinson Per- 
kins, then of JafPrey. In the succeeding years members were 



ODD fellows' lodge— wild ANIMALS. 405 

adinitted from Mar] boron j^li, Kiclimond, Keene, Sullivan, 
Swanzey, and New Ipswich, N. II., and Wincliendon, Royal- 
ston, Greenfield, and Townsend, Mass. Largest number of 
members, about sixty. 

The members of the order now residing in town generally 
belong to the lodge in Troy. 

ODD fellows' lodge. 

On the petition of Nelson Howe and four others, this was 
instituted July 19th, 18-49, by Grand Master Lyford, and Nel- 
son Howe was appointed District Deputy Grand Master. The 
number of the lodge was 29, and it had in 1849 thirteen mem- 
bers and funds amounting to one hundred and ninety-two dol- 
lars. In 1851 there were twenty-three members, and a year 
later, when Artemas Stone was appointed District Deputy, 
there were twenty-two members, and funds amounting to 
forty-eight dollars. In 1854 the Grand Master reported No. 
29 as virtually extinct, because of the loss of business and busi- 
ness men from Fitzwilliam, and recommended that the char- 
ter be withdrawn, and the property, after a debt of fifty dol- 
lars should have been paid, returned. This course seems to 
have been pursued. 

WILD ANIMALS. 

These were numerous one hundred and twenty-five years 
ago in portions of Southern New Hampshire, and especially 
in the towns around the base of Mount Monadnock. As 
beasts of this nature retire before the approach of civilized 
man their numbers were the greatest, and they remained the 
longest where the white population, for any reason, was the 
least, and the latest in commencing their settlements. These 
conditions met in Fitzwilliam, for the township had a slow 
growth and, moreover, was settled later than most of its neigh- 
bors. Long after the wolves and the bears had been driven 
from the territory north, south, east and west, they found a 
comparatively safe retreat on the almost inaccessible sides and 
in the deep ravines of Monadnock, and here they maintained 
themselves with great boldness and vigor. 



406 HISTORY OF FITZ WILLIAM. 

As wolves rarely attack men, except when nearly starved, 
they were chiefly dreaded because of the depredations made 
by them upon the calves and sheep of the settlers. The bear 
was a more dangerous animal to encounter, while the thought 
of the catamount caused trembling in many a log hut of this 
region toward the close of the last century. Casual encounters 
with these beasts and the hunting of them (sometimes by large 
companies of armed men) served to break up the monotony 
of the life of the early settlers of this town, as the statements 
that follow will show conclusively. 

The accounts here given have been condensed chiefl.y from 
the papers of Dr. Silas Cummings, and especially from a lec- 
ture prepared by him from materials that he had been collect- 
ing for many years, and which he appears to have delivered 
before his fellow-townsmen in 1873 : 

In the early times wild cats were among the destructive ani- 
mals, though they do not appear to have been very numerous. 
So far as known none were killed in this town till 1811, when 
Deacon Angier found the remains of several sheep that a wild 
cat had killed, and started in pursuit. Captain Chace followed 
him with his dogs, and Deacon Angier shot the animal in the 
west part of the town. Its weight was twenty-three pounds. 

James Stone lost a sheep and found three wild cats feasting 
upon its carcase. Mr. Stone mounted his horse and rode near 
enough to shoot one of the animals, and afterward had the 
satisfaction of taking both the others in a trap. 

Another was followed by several hunters who failed to shoot 
it before it reached its den, not far east of the house of Benja- 
min By am. 

In the early times two little boys, seven and nine years of 
age, were sent by their father from the extreme southern part 
of the town with a yoke of oxen, to borrow a cart. They had 
several miles to travel after the cart was obtained, and night 
came upon them before they could reach their home. They 
were near where the Fitzwilliam railroad station now is when 
a pack of wolves came upon their track, and by their barking 
and yelping frightened the poor boys terribly. One of them, 
more than twenty years after, told Dr. Cummings that his 



ENCOUNTERS WITH WILD ANIMALS. 407 

hair stood erect and liis flesh crawled as he expected the wolves 
would spring upon thera every moment, while the affrighted 
oxen seemed to fly over stumps, rocks, nmdholes, and pole- 
bridges as if possessed. All escaped unharmed. 

A Mrs. Ivelley seems to have had an evening school two 
miles or so west of the village, and Levi Tower and Oliver 
Damon, when little boys, were her pupils. Late one night as 
they were returning home they were followed and terribly 
frightened by a pack of wolves. But their outcries, as they 
approached the home of one of them, brought them help. 
The tracks of the hungry animals were found around the barn 
of Mr. Tower the following morning. 

Mrs. Withington, living east of the village, went out to pick 
blueberries with her babe in her arms, when she found that a 
bear was her only companion in the field, a sight that sent her 
home with such rapidity that she had no time or courage to 
look behind her. 

A Mrs. Bryant, living near the line of Richmond, when re- 
turning home from a neighbor's one afternoon found that she 
was followed by a bear very closely. She was carrying a part 
of a cheese, and from this she instantly broke a piece and threw 
it back toward the bear, while she quickened her pace that she 
might gain as much as possible in her flight while the bear 
was eating it. This process she repeated, till just as she drop- 
ped the last piece of the cheese her cry reached her home and 
brought her a speedy rescue. 

Oliver Fullam was at work for Esquire Kendall on the hill 
east of the village where Mr. Charles Perry now lives, when 
he discovered a bear tearing in pieces one of Mr. Kendall's 
hogs. The bear at once left its repast and pursued Mr. Ful- 
lam, who ran for his life. As the race brought both the fright- 
ened man and the furious beast near the dwelling-house, Mrs. 
Kendall interfered by shaking her checked apron at the bear 
that retreated hastily and ignominously. A little after that 
bear or another destroyed three of Mr. Kendall's calves, and 
he had no success in the way of revenge. 

Mr. Boutelle, whose home was south of the depot, on Lot 7 
in Range 8, to save his corn set a gun in his field with which 



408 HISTORY OF FITZAVILLIAM. 

tlie intruder wounded himself so severely that he could not 
retreat, and Mr, Boutelle had the good fortune to secure a 
huge bear and save his crop from further depredations. 

On Lot 7 in Range 11 in the southwest part of the town 
lived for a time a Mr. Pierce, who came unexpectedly upon 
a bear with two cubs. Upon his raising a cry the cubs suc- 
ceeded in ascending a hemlock tree, while a shot from the gun 
of Mr. James Morse induced the old bear to retreat as fast as 
possible. The cubs were captured, Mr. Pierce taking one 
and giving the other to Mr. Benjamin Byam. 

The account, of which the following is an outline, Dr. Cum- 
mings received from his friend and neighbor, Mr. Daniel 
Spaulding : 

Deacon Lovejoy, of Rindge, found a bear held fast by one 
of its hind feet in a powerful steel trap which he had set and 
fastened by a draft chain to a log. He had his loaded gun 
with him, but as powder was dear and he did not wish to waste 
it, he went home and exchanged his gun for an axe. A little 
boy six or seven years old accompanied him as be went back 
to his trap. The bear dodged the first blow, and not only 
caught the axe from the hands of its assailant, but seized the 
arm of Mr. Lovejoy and drew him down under him. The 
boy attempting to aid his father was at once drawn down also. 
Under these desperate circumstances Mr. Lovejoy ran his hand 
and arm into the bear's mouth, and held them there till the 
bear was choked to death. His arm was injured for life, but 
he and his boy were saved. 

jSfear the close of the last century the bears seem to have 
left the town mostly or to have been destroyed, but they were 
succeeded by wolves in greater numbers and, if possible, more 
destructive than ever before, and wolf hunts were for some 
years a necessity, if not a pastime. 

The elder Mr. Forristall, Mr. Silas Angier, and Deacon 
Grriffin lost sheep and lambs in considerable numbers, while in 
a single night sixteen of the flock of Mr. Spaulding, of Jaff rey, 
were destroyed. The whole community was now aroused, 
every gun was put in order, and every able-bodied man and 
boy enlisted, to fight the common enemy. 



HUNTING OF WOLVES. 409 

Knowing that Monadnock was the stron2;liold of tlie wolves, 
a company of men from this and the adjoining towns chose 
Phineas Reed, Esq., as their leader, and surrounding the 
mountain a few rods apart tliey simultaneously worked their 
way to the top, only to find that the game secured consisted 
of an old bear with her two cubs, and four foxes. All except 
one of the cubs were shot, but the one saved repaid the kind- 
ness of the young man who was carrying it home by biting off 
one of his thumbs. 

After descending the mountain Captain Eeed's men heard 
the barking of a wolf in the woods not far off, and so they sur- 
rounded the w^oods and stood at their posts all night, deter- 
mined that their foe should not escape. In the morning the 
wolf was driven out into a piece of cleared land. At least fifty 
bullets were now fired at him, but he broke the ring and made 
his way east into a meadow belonging to Eev, Mr. Ainsworth, 
wliere he was shot by a young man named Nathaniel Stanley. 
Ilis weapon was one of the old "Queen's Arms," and he 
fired two balls and a slug before he finished his work. 

As usual on such occasions, the bounty of twenty dollars 
which was to be received was spent at the nearest tavern. 

Soon after this three wolves were killed in Swanzey and two 
in Marlborouffh. Meanwhile there were three successful wolf- 
luints in what is now Troy. In the former of these Andrew 
Sherman was the hero, and the bounty w^as expended at the 
AVarren store for liquor and crackers, but the company assem- 
bled was so large that the supply furnished to each man was 
only a single glass of rum and two crackers. Two years later, 
viz., in 1797, after the wolves had destroyed in one night ten 
sheep from the flock of Elijah Alexander, and a little later 
twenty owned by Levi Randall, two hundred or more men as- 
sembled, and succeeded in killing one wolf and fatally wound- 
ing another. On this occasion Jonas Robinson, whose store 
at that time was in the part of Fitzwilliam now belonging to 
Troy, met the returning hunters with a wagon -load of crackers, 
rum, and sugar. 

But a " three-legged wolf " was still left to prey upon the 
sheep. A still larger party of huntsmen was organized, and 



410 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

Jonathan Capron succeeded in wounding and partially dis- 
abling the animal. The wolf had still life enough to seize and 
shatter the stock of the musket which was raised to despatch 
it, and yielded only to a leaden ball in the head. The Com- 
mon in Troy was the place of rendezvous, and again Jonas 
Robinson furnished the refreshments. 

A single wolf was still left that alternated between Monad - 
nock and Watatic, and committed great depredations among 
the flocks wherever it went. In the winter of 1819-20 a num- 
ber of hunters with their hounds started in pursuit, but day 
after day the crafty beast rendered all their efforts fruitless. 
They followed the wolf through Jaffrey, Fitzwilliam, Winchen- 
don, and Ilindge, and even into the towns of Templeton and 
Gardner. Meanwhile storms came on, the snow became deep, 
and two of the original hunters becoming discouraged retired, 
though their places were at once supplied by more courageous 
and persevering men. At no time did the wolf neglect his 
nightly repast, but while the hunters were resting he took his 
meal in the nearest barnyard. Phineas Whitney entertained 
the wearied men one night, but while they were sleeping the 
wolf killed several of Mr. Whitney's sheep, drinking the blood 
as it flowed from the opened veins and taking a little of the 
most delicate meat, apparently not because it was hungry, but 
for the purpose of a pleasant entertainment. Then it lay down 
under some bushes and rested till it was time to start in the 
morning. For nine or ten days this warfare was kept up, and 
the wolf, though often seen and fired at, seemed as fresh as at 
the beginning. Colonel Jewett's bloodhounds were now put 
upon the track, and followed in close pursuit, but night came 
on and the w^olf was safe. On the morning of the next day 
(the Sabbath), the people in Fitzwilliam village, having learned 
that the wolf was approaching Monadnock, turned out and 
formed lines of men along the roads to Rindge and Jaffrey. 
The hounds drove the wolf into the Scott meadow, where it 
was shot first by Shubael Plympton and then by Lewis Rob- 
bins, two or three bullets passing through its body and leav- 
ing it dead. 

The prey was at once brought to Fitzwilliam Common amid 



DESTRUCTION OF THE LAST CATAMOUNT. 411 

the cheers of the people. There was no re]i<>;ious service in 
tlie meetiiifj-house on the niorniiio- of tliat Sabbath. 

This is said to have been tlie last wolf -hunt in the ref^ion 
about Monadnock. 

The catamount, which one hundred years ago was occasionally 
found in Southern New Hampshire, was a very formidable 
H and dangerous beast to encounter. It is not known that any 
of this class of animals were ever killed within the linn'ts of 
this town, but in the history of Troy we have an account of 
the slaughter of one of enormous proportions. 

Knowing that some monster had killed a deer in the vicin- 
ity of their home. Deacon Fife and his son borroM-ed the pow- 
erful steel trap already spoken of as belonging to Mr. Lovejoy, 
of Rindge, and were successful in capturing tlie animal. A 
ball from the musket of young Fife soon brought the defiant 
beast to terms, for it appeared upon examination to have 
pierced its heart. From the nose to the end of the tail the 
catamount measured thirteen feet and four inches. For its 
stuffed skin the proprietors of the Boston Museum are said to 
have paid forty-five dollars. 



CHAPTER XY. 

FITZ WILLIAM INDUSTKIES. 

t 

Agricultural Matters — Lumber — Mechanical Trades — Domestic Manufac- 
tures—Tanneries—Saw-Mills—The Scott Mill— G rist-Mills— Taxation 
of Mill Property — Wooden Ware— Other Manufactures — The Granite 
Industry — The Granite Itself— The Beginning and Progress ofithe Busi- 
ness — The Firms and Individuals Engaged in it. 

FOR nearly three-quarters of a century after the settlement 
of this town the facilities of communication with the 
world at large were small, and the same may be said of the 
manufacturing business of the country when we compare it 
with what it is at the present day. As a result of this state of 
things the early settlers of Fitzwilliam were obliged to depend 
for food and clothing chiefly upon what could be raised or 
manufactured at home. 

That the land was ever well adapted to the raising of large 
and largely remunerative crops, as is true in the valleys of our 
large rivers, we can hardly suppose, still it yielded a fair sup- 
port to the families of the early settlers, and, under a good sys- 
tem of husbandry, is still productive. Corn, rye, beans, potatoes, 
and turnips for food, and flax and wool for clothing, were the 
chief productions, and nearly all that was raised was for home 
consumption. Some of the butter, cheese, pork, and beef soon 
began to find its w^ay to other markets in exchange for family 
supplies that could not be readily obtained in any other man- 
ner, but from the bemnnino; the home demand for these arti- 
eles has been nearly equal to the production. 

As a whole the agricultural interests of Fitzwilliam have 
made but little if any advance during the last half century, 
but this has not been due so much to the lack of enterprise or 
the actual wearing out of the land, as to the more inviting 
openings for remunerative employment in other pursuits. 
Still, the annual products of the soil of FitzwilHam at the pres- 



FITZWILLIAM MANUFACTURERS. 413 

ent day are by no means inconsiderable. Probably, however, 
the time will never come when a fanner will become wealthy 
by raising wiieat and corn in Fitzwilliam, snch are the ease, 
rapidity, and cheapness of transportation from the vast agri- 
cultural regions of the West. 

From the earliest settlement of the town the various mechan- 
ical trades have been well represented, sufficiently so certainly 
to meet the wants of the people. The names of the early car- 
penters, shoemakers, tailors, and other mechanics cannot be 
reasonably looked for in this volume, yet reference may well 
be made to two families of blacksmiths. 

The Bowker Brothers — Bartlett, John, and Charles — were 
all blacksmiths, and had an established reputation in all the re- 
gion. The Davis family has followed in the same line, Chancy, 
senior and junior, and Ezekiel, with his sons Van jS^ess and 
Isaac, all blacksmiths, though Fitzwilliam could never claim 
them all as resident mechanics. 

Richard Foster, wdio lived in the east part of the town near 
the residence of Mr. A. W. Gowen, made spinning-wheels. 
Jason Babcock, who lived on Lot 3 in Eange 12, made linen 
wheels. Thomas Clark and Stephen Harris, as already men- 
tioned, manufactured various articles of wood for table use, 
such as bowls, cups, plates, etc., and this was the beginning 
of an important industry. 

For about iifty years nearly all the cloth for clothing and 
other household uses was of home manufacture. The o-arments 
for summer were mostly made of tow or tow and linen cloth, 
and the woollen for winter wear was of domestic manufacture. 
IS^early every dwelling had its spinning-wheels, great and 
small, its implements to prepare wool and flax, and its loom 
for weaving. About 1790 a clothing mill was built in the 
north village and in it the cloth-dressing business was carried 
on by various persons, particularly by Salmon Whittemore. 
For ten or twelve years, commencing in 1816, Thomas Wilson 
was in the same business in the south part of the town. For 
many years a carding machine M'as in operation at the Har- 
rington Mill, and for a shorter period another was run by 
Joel Hunt in the south portion of the town. 



414 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

For more than twenty-five years, commencing near the close 
of the last century, Phineas Reed conducted a large tannery, 
and was succeeded in this business by his sons, Daniel and 
Charles. Heavy shoes were manufactured for several years 
by Charles Reed, but this business was long since given up to 
the large manufacturers in other towns. 

Joel Hayden had a tannery for many years and was succeeded 
by A. M. & J. Wood, who in turn were followed by Asa S. 
Kendall. After the destruction of this tannery by fire Mr. 
Kendall removed to Swanzey. 

About 1830 the manufacture of palm-leaf hats was intro- 
duced, and this for many years furnished a very profitable oc- 
cupation for women and children. This business has continued 
till the present time, but at greatly reduced prices. 

In the spring of 1836 Setli Whiting, a brushmaker, came to 
Fitzwilliam from Rindge. His chief business here was the 
preparation of palm-leaf for the hat-braiders and the manufac- 
ture of brooms from the waste material of the palm-leaf. 
Later he removed to Boston and resumed the manufacture of 
brushes. At present his son, John L. Whiting, is one of the 
largest manufacturers of this article in the country. 

As there are no large and constant streams of water 
in Fitzwilliam, no large and extensive manufacturing busi- 
ness has ever been prosecuted here, still such water-power 
as the town affords has been improved from the earliest settle- 
ment. 

The proprietors of the township gave, as we have seen, sub- 
stantial aid toward building the first mills. In August, 1765, 
they voted to pay Colonel Sampson Stoddard twenty pounds 
on condition that he should deed to Daniel Mellen two lots of 
land to encourage Mr. Mellen to build a saw-mill. This was 
the first mill in town and was built probably in 1767. It was 
located at the foot of the little meadow, about one fourth of a 
mile easterly from the house of Nahum Hayden, and upon the 
two lots of land deeded for this purpose to Mr. Mellen. At 
the present time no one would think of locating a mill at that 
place, so many better localities could be found, though it is 
possible that the supply of water in that stream has greatly 



MANUFACTURERS CONTINUED. 415 

diminislied in one lumdred and twenty years. The proprietors 
voted, October Ttli, 17Cu, to Captain Silas Witherby tliirteen 
pounds six shilling and eightpence for his encouragement in 
building a saw-mill. This was located on Lot K) in liange 3, 
and was the second mill in the township. Mr. Wetherbee 
sold his interest in the lot and mill to Benjamin Scott, and 
from him and his son Barakiah the mill and the brook upon 
which it stands received the name which they retain to this 
day. 

Samuel Kendall, Esq., was interested in this mill at an early 
date, biit whether as early or earlier than the Scotts cannot be 
stated. 

The following list of the occupants of this mill has been 
made up from the tax-lists and other sources, and is believed 
to be substantially correct : 

Barakiah Scott, 1793 to 1810 inclusive. 

Samuel Kendall, Esq., 1793 to 1809. 

Timothy & Luke Kendall, 1806 to 1815. 

Luke Kendall and Abel Marshall, 1816 to 1823. 

Luke Kendall alone, 182-1 to 1836. 

Howe 6z Kand, 1837 to 1839. 

David Taft, 1840 to 1812. 

Jonathan S. Adams and Raymond Stratton, 1844. 

J. S. Adams alone, 1845 to 1847. 

Elijah Bowker (1848 to 1850 ?). 

George W. "Wilson and Seth E. Fisher, 1851. 

George W. Wilson and WiUiam H. Kinsman, 1852 to 1854. 

Hosea Platts, 1855 to 1859. 

AVilliam H. Kinsman alone, 1860 to 1871. 

George W. Simonds, 1872 to 1877. 

Elijaii Wilder, 1879 to 1880. 

Edward A. Kendall, 1881 to 1883. 

George A. Stone, 1884— 

The mill on Lot 9 in Range 4 was built near the close of 
the last century, and has been owned and occupied by four 
successive generations of Stones : Hezekiah, Artemas, Artemas, 
Jr., and Samuel S. 



416 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

At a meeting of the proprietors held October 11th, 1768, at 
the inn of Captain Thomas Cowdin, in Fitchbiirg, it was 

Voted the sum of £20 L" M" (Lawfal Money) be paid to Colo. Stod- 
dard in Consideration of his Conveying to Mr Tiffany two Lots of Land 
to Build a Grist mill on & that sum to be In full for the same. 

Mr. Tiffany did not make a satisfactory mill, and March 
•1th, 1772, the proprietors passed the following votes : 

Voted to not except of the Grist mill Bult in Monadnock No 4 by Doc- 
tor Gideon Tiffany. 

Voted and choose James Reed Esqr Mr Edward Kindal and Mr Elijah 
Clays a Committee in Behalf of this Propriety to put in Execution a 
Bond Given by Gideon Tiffany to Buld and Keep in Good Repair a 
water Grist mill in Monadnock No 4 on Either Lott No 22 or No 23 in 
the 8 Rang of Lotts or come to some proper settelment with the said 
Tiffany in Regard of Said mill as it is not Excepted by the Proprietors, 
and said Committee to Lay their Proseedings with Said Tiffany before 
this Propriety at their next meeting. 

The mill was completed and put in running order by Thomas 
Tolman, the History of Troy says, in 1769, which is certainly 
two, and, possibly, three years too early. Benjamin Bigelow, 
the first settler in town, went to Hinsdale in May, 1771, to 
have some grain ground, and was drowned in the Ashuelot 
River in Winchester on his return. It is evident that the mill 
was not in working order at this time, as no one would go 
twenty miles for what he could get done within three miles. 
It is probable that Mr. Tolman had bought the property, and 
that this change of ownership was the canst of the action taken 
against Dr. Tiffany. A few years later Mr. Tolman built a 
saw-mill on the same stream and very near the grist-mill. 
About 1780 the property was bought by Joshua Harrington. 
The saw-mill was not long used, but the grist-mill was kept in 
operation by Mr, Harrington and his sons for over fifty 
years. The location is now occupied by the Troy Blanket 
Factory. 

The second grist-mill was built by Philip Amadou about 
1784, and was located at or near the spot now occupied by the 
saw-mill of x\nson G. Beebe, The power at this place is now 



GRIST-MILLS— SAW-MILLS. 417 

entirely given to wood-working machinery, no grain having 
been ground for a long time. 

In 1825 Bartlet Bowker built a grist-mill wln'ch he and his 
sons Luke and Elijah kept in operation for many years. The 
Bowkers resided in Fitzwilliani, but the grist-mill was located 
just over the line in Troy, though within the original limits of 
this town. 

In later years Benjamin M. Fiske had a grist-mill at the 
south part of the town, and some few others have operated 
such mills for brief periods of time. 

The only grain- mill now in town is located at the old Stone 
mill. 

The records of Fitzwilliam contain no general town tax-lists 
of an earlier date than 1793. In that year Joshua Harrington, 
Samuel Kendall, Esq., and Barakiah Scott were taxed on mill 
property. As there were certainly more mills in the town at 
that time the others were doubtless included in real estate. 
From the date given above to 1800 all the mills were treated 
as real estate, but commencing with 1801 some of them were 
taxed separately,' while after 1810 the separation of mills from 
other property seems to have been general. Before 1833 the 
tax on mills appears to have been laid on an estimated rental 
depending probably somewhat upon the amount of business, 
but after 1833 mills, hke other property, were taxed according 
to their valuation. 

The number of persons in town who have been taxed on 
mill property from 1801 to 1886 is about one hundred and 
seventy-live, the length of time ruiming from one to thirty- 
six years. In many of the shorter periods the occupants of 
the mills rather than the owners paid the tax. 

Aside from common saw-mill work the quantity of wood 
worked up by machinery was very small till about 1825, when 
the manufacture of wooden ware increased rapidly, till it be- 
came at leno;th one of the chief industries of the town. 

The following list gives the names of all who appear to have 
been taxed on mills for ten years or more since 1801, includ- 
ing also such as were taxed on similar property in 1793. In 
27 ■ ' 



418 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

the list the first and last years of taxation are given, and, in 
brackets, the number of years each person named has been 
taxed : 

Philip Amadon [IG] 1801-1821. 

Anson G. Beebe [19] 1868-1886. 

Levi B. Bent [13] 1841-1854. 

Joseph Blod£?ett [12] 1840-1866. 

Luke & Elijah Bowker [14] 1834-1853 succeeded by 

Elijah Bowker [19] 1854-1877. 

Miiton Chaplin [13] 1827-1839 succeeded by 

Elisha Chaplin [25] 1840-1881. 

Joshua T. Collins [30] 1834-1867 succeeded by A G Beebe above. 

Horace Coolidge [34] 1846-86. 

Jonas Damon [21] 1866-1886. 

Bela W. Felch [21] 1837-1859. 

Joshua Harrington 1793 & 1801-1815. 

Albert Hayden [11] 1876-1886. 

Seth N. Holman [19] 1868-1886. 

Nelson Howe & Joel Howe & Co. (M. P. Damon) [34] 1834-1867. 

Nahum Howe [11] 1842-1854. 

Nahum Howe jr. [31] 1843-1873 succeeded by his son 

Henry P. Howe [13] 1874-1886. 

Samuel Kendall Esqr. 1793 & 1802-1809. 

Luke Kendall [27] 1806-1836 son of Samuel. 

William H. Kinsman [15] 1852-1871. 

Dea. Nehemiah Monroe [14] 1814-1829 non-resident. 

J. C. Ptichmond [19] 1868-1886. 

Barakiah and Elijah S. Scott 1793 & 1801-1810. 

George W. Simonds [25] 1840-1877. 

Jacob Simonds |16] 1831-47. 

Edmund Spaulding [10] 1860-1869. 

Hezekiah Stone [16] 1801-1820. 

Artemas Stone [36] 1803-1838 son of Hezekiah. 

Artemas Stone Jr. [11] 1833-1859, son of Artemas. ' 

Samuel S. Stone [18] 1869-1886, son of Artemas jr. 

Moses Stone [21] 1808-1848, son of Hezekiah. 

Thomas J. Streeter [28] 1825-1860. 

Emery Taft [16] 1824-1843. 

Charles L. Taft [12] 1867-1878. 

Lyman K. Wheeler [27] 1860-1886. 

Since 1832 thefol owing persons have been taxed on mills on $1000.00 
or over for 10 years or more : 

Anson G. Beebe, Jonas Damon, Seth N. Holman, N. & J. Howe & 
Co., Samuel S. Stone — 

On $1000.00 or over for 5 years or over and less than 10 years. 

William Brooks, Elisha Chaplin, Warner Clifford, Coolidge & 
Whittemore, Jacob Simonds, Thomas J. Streeter, Emery Taft. — 

On $500.00 or over for 10 years or more, and not included in preced- 
ing lists, 

Elijah Bowker, J. T. Collins, Horace Coolidge, Bela W. Felch, 
Nahum Howe Jr., Henry P. Howe, George W. Simonds, Charles L. 
Taft, Lyman K. Wheeler. 



WOODEN WARE — THE GRANITE INDUSTRY. 419 

As wooden ware constituted a class of goods not known 
during the early part of this century in the regular mercantile 
trade, it became necessary to seek for it a market, and within 
a few years after its manufacture was entered upon in earnest 
the wooden-ware peddlers of Milton Chaplin and Norris Col- 
burn were distributing their wares not only in Southern JS^ew 
Hampshire, but also in the other States of Xew England, and 
in Kew Tork, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Some time 
after the Cheshire Railroad was opened, two gentlemen be- 
longing in the northern part of New Tork, who were on their 
way to Boston, stopped over at Fitzwilliam that they might 
see the place whose name had become so familiar to them by 
the passage to and fro in their neighborhood of the wooden- 
ware carts. Supposing that they should find here a large town 
or city of ten or fifteen thousand inhabitants, they were aston- 
ished beyond measure to discover that the central part of the 
famous Fitzwilliam was only a small hamlet of some seventy- 
five houses. 

It may be added that at the present time substantially all the 
wooden ware manufactured in the country is disposed of 
through the regular channels of trade. 

About fifty years ago Jacob Felton manufactured chairs in 
this town, but it was found difiicult to compete in this indus- 
try with such places as Ashburnham and Gardner, Mass., 
with their vastly better water-power. In recent years George 
W. Simonds manufactured picture-frames in considerable 
quantities in this place, but like many others who made similar 
experiments in endeavoring to establish lines of profitable 
manufactures here, he found that the superior advantages of 
other places resulting from better water-power or more favor- 
able locations made it next to impossible for him to compete 
successfully in the markets of the country. 

THE FITZWILLIAM GRANITE INDUSTRY. 

As was stated in the opening chapter of this history, Fitz- 
william is noted both for its extensive ledges of granite under- 
lying the soil and its bowlders of the same material upon the 
surface. In this respect no other town in this part of JSTew 



420 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

England is more ln'glily favored. The stone has a uniformity 
of color, an evenness and firmness of texture, and a freedom 
from seams of a lighter or darker shade — characteristics that 
render it very valuable for building or monumental purposes, 
and this value is greatly enhanced by its being free in general 
from the oxide of iron which destroys the beauty of so much 
granite after a few years' exposure. This last-mentioned defect 
in not a little of the granite of New England has made, as is 
well known, many costly stone buildings and monuments, that 
were beautiful at first, so disagreeable and unsightly that noth- 
ing would tempt their owners to repeat their experiment, so 
that the one thing most sought after in granite construction is 
a stone that will not become stained after any amount of ex- 
posure to air and moisture. And the Fitzwilliam dealers in 
granite have this advantage also that the ledges most highly 
valued and extensively wrought are so favorably located, that 
the heaviest blocks of stone are loaded for removal by railroad 
at comparatively little expense. 

Eitzwilliam furnishes granite of two colors, the light and the 
dark, the former greatly exceeding the latter in quantity and 
vastly more popular for general use. The two kinds may be 
seen in contrast in the immense and massive walls, arches, and 
towers of the Union Railroad Dej^ot at Worcester, Mass. A 
large part of the material used in this structure was furnished 
by Daniel H. E,eed, of Fitzwilliam, the stone of both colors 
coming from different parts of his quarries. 

All the fine granite of this town is capable of receiving a 
beautiful polish, resembling in this particular more nearly the 
red granite of Scotland than does most of the granite obtained 
in otlier parts of New England. 

Thirty or forty years ago no granite quarries had been opened 
in this town, but large quantities of stone at that time M'ere 
obtained from the huge bowlders scattered over the township. 
For a long time flat stones of large dimensions have been 
taken from the surface of the hill, south of the depot, now 
owned by Daniel H. Reed. In places on this hill the stone 
lies in sheets and requires no splitting for its removal except 
to free the sides and ends. The steps of the Town Hall were 



GROWTH OF THE GRANITE INDUSTRY. 421 

obtained in this manner from that locality, and so were the 
larffe and beautiful stones that are found at the entrance of 
many of the Fitzwilliam dwellings. Sixty or seventy years 
ago persons came from towns in Massachusetts twenty or thirty 
miles distant, to obtain from this hill the large, liat stones 
which could not be found in their immediate neighborhoods. 
The transportation of granite from Fitzwilliam began to in- 
crease rapidly as soon as the building of the Cheshire Railroad 
was completed. 

This industry of FitzwilKam may be said to be at the pres- 
ent time largely in the hands of the second generation of 
workers. 

David Forbush, Jude Damon, and Calvin Dutton sent con- 
siderable quantites of granite out of town before the present 
means for transportation had been furnished. Melvin Wilson 
was also early in the field as a dealer in granite, but the first 
individual to engage largely and systematically in this work 
was Charles Reed. Mr. Reed was a man of enterprise, and 
could not be satisfied without opening a larger and wider 
market for this important production of his native town. 

Others soon after engaged in the same business, and from 
that day to this the granite interest lias increased in amount 
and value of production, till in Fitzwilliam it overshadows any 
other special industry. The stone and manufactured work 
from these quarries are now sent into all parts of Southern 
New England, into New York, and all the States lying West 
as far as the Valley of the Mississippi, and it is found in some 
of the largest and best business blocks in nearly all our Xorthern 
cities, in statues, in soldiers' monuments, and in the best ceme- 
tery work generally, in very many of our towns, cities, and 
villages, its characteristics already noticed commending it to 
the taste of the critical. 

Of the men and firms now engaged in this business, Mr. 
Melvin Wilson (the firm at the present time is Melvin Wilson 
& Son) has furnished and manufactured granite the longest, 
having engaged in the granite business about 1845. This firm 
gives more attention to manufactured work than to furnishing 
rough stock, and their productions may be found in the town 



422 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

houses of Winchendon, Mass., and Springfield, Vt., also on 
the Whitcomb tomb at the latter place, on the town tomb of 
Fitzvvilliam, and on the Cheshire County Court House. 

Daniel H. Reed is the son of Charles Reed, to whom 
reference has already been made, and is liis successor in the 
granite business. His quarries have been w'orked longer than 
any others in town and are also the most extensive. The 
statue on the Horticultural Hall in Boston was cut from a 
block furnished by Mr. Reed. 

Eisher & Newton is comparatively a new firm in the granite 
business, though Mr. Fisher has been engaged in it for a long 
time. They furnish granite for all kinds of building purposes, 
for monuments and cemetery work generally, and make polish- 
ing a specialty. This firm is working a new quarry a little 
east of the central village and is having a good and satisfactory 
business. 

The Ethan Blodgett Quarry, situated nearly one mile south- 
west of the railroad station, is now worked by "William E. 
Blodgett. For a number of years the amount of stone taken 
from this quarry was very large, and found its way over a wide 
extent of country. The granite in the beautiful library build- 
ing at Natick, Mass., was furnished by Mr. Ethan Blodgett, 
and a considerable quantity was furnished for the State Capitol 
at Albany, N. Y. 

The George D. "Webb Granite Company has recently pur- 
chased the quarry formerly worked by the Angier family, and 
is now doing a large and widespread business. The Cheshire 
Railroad runs directly throngh this quarry, giving the very 
best facilities for handling and shipping the stone. This com- 
pany furnishes both rough and manufactured work of every 
practicable size and shape, and in any desired quantity. In 
addition to their Eastern trade, whicli is extensive, this com- 
pany has filled large orders from Western cities, Cincinnati, 
Cleveland, Chicago, and St. Louis. 

From the accounts kept at the Fitzwilliam Railroad Station 
it appears that the amount of granite shipped in 1885 was 5750 
tons, and in 1886, 7080 tons. Probably about nine tenths of 
tliese amounts consisted of granite in the rough state. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



PROFESSIONAL. 



Claasification — Civilians — Lawyers — Physicians — Clergymen — Distinguished 
Educators — List of College Graduates. 

UNDER this head four classes of individuals are in- 
chided : 

1. Those who were known as civilians or were engaged in 
professional life here but were born elsewhere. 

2. Those who, though not born in Fitzwilliam, resided for 
some time liere, and have been known in professional life else- 
where. 

3. Those who were born and practised their professions in 
Fitzwilliam. 

4. Those who were born in Fitzwilliam, but were chiefly 
known in their professions elsewhere. 

Class I. 

CIVILIANS. 

Hon. Nahutvi Parker was born in Shrewsbury, Mass., March 
4th, 1Y60, and removed from that place to Fitzwilliam in 
February, 1786. At the age of fifteen years he, with five of his 
brothers, was a soldier in the Continental Army, and was pres- 
ent and took part in the battles that resulted in the capture of 
Burgoyne's forces near Saratoga, N. Y., in 1777.* The 
ability and fidelity of Mr. Parker were at once recognized by 
the people of Fitzwilliam, and he was soon called to fill ofiices 
of trust. October 17tli, 1792, the proprietors of this town- 

* A daughter of Judge Parker, Mrs. Selina Damon, has in her possession, and will 
show to those interested in such things, a relic which her father brought off from the 
field of battle after the defeat of Burgoyne's army. It is a bottle of dark glass, with 
a very short neck holding about a quart. This was doubtless lost in the fight by some 
British soldier, or, possibly, by one of the Hessian troops, which served at that time as 
mercenaries, in considerable numbers, in the British armies. 



424 HISTORY or fitzwilliam. 

ship elected him as their clerk and treasurer, and he held these 
offices till the closing up of the business of the proprietors in 
1815. Though not educated as a lawyer, he was well ac- 
(juainted with the forms and merits of civil proceedings, and 
brought to all his public duties a well-trained mind, a habit of 
exactness in all the calls issued bj him for legal meetings, and 
in the record of the same, and the utmost fidelity in accounting 
for the funds in his possession. To all these qualifications for 
a pnblic servant he added an almost faultless penmanship, so 
that from the date of his election as clerk of the proprietors, 
their record books become easy of comprehension. 

In 1790 Mr. Parker's name first appears upon the records 
of Fitzwilliam as one of the selectmen, and he held this office 
for fonr successive years. Beginning with 1792 he was often 
moderator of the town meetings. In 1794 he was chosen to 

CD 

represent this town in the State Legislature, and was re-elected 
annually till 1804, or for the period of ten years. In 1806 he 
was again chosen representative. In all the civil, social, and 
religious affairs of this town Mr. Parker was prominent for a 
long course of years, his ability, honesty, and fidelity being 
universally acknowledged. Of his kindness to the poor and 
afflicted many instances are related by aged persons, and his 
influence wa& invariably in favor of the culture and good 
morals of the people. 

His commissions as Justice of the Peace (the last one dated 
in 1836) were twelve in number. He was also a member of 
the Governor's Comicil and of the State Senate. 

In 1807 he became Judge of the Court of Common Pleas 
for Cheshire County, in which Sullivan County was then in- 
cluded. In 1813, when the Western Circuit Court, including 
the counties of Cheshire, Grafton, and Coos, was established, 
Mr. Parker was an associate judge, as he w^as three years later 
when the County Court of Common Pleas was restored. 

In 1806 he was elected a senator from New Hampshire in 
the United States Congress for the full term of six years, but 
finding his duties as judge and senator too onerons, and, more- 
over, sometimes conflicting in point of time, he resigned his 
office as senator after a service of three years and continued to 



PROFESSIONAL — LAWYERS. 425 

hold the office of judge. He died November 12th, 1839, aged 
eighty years. 

His disease was paralysis of the brain. He was a pensioner. 
Daring his service in the Continental Army Mr. Parker kept 
a diary, making daily entries in a little book which has been 
carefully preserved by Mrs. Damon. In after years, when he 
applied for a pension, this book was deemed amply sufficient 
to establish his claim, when all the other evidence offered 
proved insnfficient. 

LAWYERS. 

For twenty-five years or more after the incorporation of the 
town the law business of the j^eople of Fitzwilliam was not 
sufficient to support a local practitioner. Samuel Kendall was 
early a Justice of the Peace and competent to draw up legal 
documents, while a little later Judge Xahum Parker was so 
well acquainted with the forms and provisions of law that, in 
all ordinary cases, he was a safe legal adviser. The more 
difficult and complicated law business of the town was placed 
in the hands of the law vers at Keene. 

Erasmus Bctterfield had a law office here in the early years 
of this century, but little is known of him by the present gen- 
eration. He was taxed here from 1804 to 1808 inclusive, and 
is said to have maintained the dignity of his profession on all 
occasions, and to have been hardly popular with the laboring 
classes, that always furnish the bone and sinew of society in a 
town like Fitzwilliam. He, however, secured an election as 
the representative of this town in the Legislature of 1807. 
He comtnenced the erection of the house where the late Daniel 
Spaulding resided, now the home of his daughter. Miss Yiola 
L. Spaulding. 

Luther Cuapman* is said to have come to this town as a 
lawyer from Swanzey. He was taxed in this place from 1809 
to 1835 inclusive, which period covered his active jjrofessional 
life in Fitzwilliam. In 1816 and 1817 he represented this 
town in the Legislature. 

* This name is often spelled Chatman in the early records of the town, but the spell- 
in? Chapman is undoubtedly correct, and orifflnally designated the occupation of the 
person— chapman, one who buys and sells goods. 



426 IIISTOKY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

The facts that follow concerning Mr. Chapman have been 
kindly furnished by a niece of Mrs, Chapman, the wife of Mr. 
Charles C. Carter. 

He was born in Keene in 1778, and was the son of Samuel 
Chapman, a farmer of that place. His preparation for college 
was made at Chesterfield Academy, then one of the best 
schools in Xew England. Mr. Chapman graduated at Dart- 
mouth College in 1803, and after studying law with the Hon. 
J. C. Chamberlain, of Charlestown, he commenced practice 
in Swanzey in 1806. February 9tli, 1808, he married Sally, 
daughter of Colonel Samuel King, of Chesterfield. As he 
was regarded as one of the " best read " lawyers in the State 
his practice for many years was very large. He resided in 
Troy from 1836 till 1855, when he returned to Fitzwilliam, 
where he died, August 15th, 1856, aged seventy-seven. Mrs. 
Chapman died, August 1st, 1869, aged eighty-seven. 

Henry Thoendike came to this town as a lawyer from 
Jaffrey. He finished the Spaulding house, but remained only a 
short time in Fitzwilliam, for he soon went to Ohio, which was 
then considered the " Far West." Returning to Fitzwilliam 
lie gave glowing accounts of the fair country which he had 
visited, and soon removed to the State of his adoption. He 
was taxed here from 1813 to 1815 inclusive. 

Levi Chamberlain was a lawyer in Fitzwilliam contemporary 
with Mr. Chapman, though a little later in his arrival. He is 
said to have come here from Keene, though he was a native of 
Worcester, Mass. That he was a man of ability, influence, 
and distinction appears from the fact that he represented this 
town in the State Legislature from 1821 to 1828 inclu- 
sive. He was a member of the State Senate in 1829 and 
1830, and in 1819 and 1850 was the Whig candidate for Gov- 
ernor of the State. In 1832 he removed to Keene, where he 
resided till his death. He was taxed here thirteen years, 
1820 to 1832. 

Charles C. Webster was a lawyer in Fitzwilliam for some 
vears, but removed to Chesterfield about 1840, and at a later 
period to Keene, where he died, August, 1884. Mr. Webster 
was taxed in Fitzwilliam from 1834 to 1839 inclusive. 



LAAVYERS CONTINUED. 427 

Amos Jewett Blake, now and for a number of years past 
the only lawyer in Fitzwilliam, was born in Rindge, N. H., 
October 20th, 1S36. His grandfather, Deacon Eleazer Blake, 
was in the Continental service daring the entire period of the 
Revolutionary War, and participated in many of the most 
important batfles, holding the rank of sergeant. Removing 
from Wrontham, Mass., his native place, to Rindge, he lived 
and died there greatly respected and beloved. Ebenezer and 
Hepsibeth (Jewett) Blake were the parents of the subject of 
this sketch, who is the eighth child and seventh son in the 
family. Ebenezer Blake held many public offices in Rindge, 
and died in 1883. Amos Jewett Blake, Esq.. prepared for 
college in various classical institutions in this State and Ver- 
mont, but chiefly in Appleton Academy in New Ipswich. In 
1859, abandoning the plan of a college course, he commenced 
the study of law with F. F. Lane, Esq., of Keene. Two years 
later he entered the law office of Don. II. Woodward, Esq., 
also of Keene, where he remained till he was admitted to the 
bar in 1862. In July, 1863, he commenced practice in Fitz- 
william. In 1862 he was appointed Assistant Assessor of In- 
ternal Revenue, and held this office till 1871. In 1872 and in 
1873 he represented this town in the State Legislature, and 
was a member of the Judiciary Committee during both ses- 
sions. 

For four years after 1876, deemed the most trying years 
ever experienced by the New Hampshire savings-banks, he 
held the office of Bank Commissioner. Tbe United States 
census of Fitzwilliam for 1880 was taken by Mr. lilake. He 
served for ten years upon the Board of Superintending School 
Committee, was many times the moderator of town meetings, 
for years was one of tlie supervisors of the Fitzwilliam 
Free Library, and 1883-85 was a member of the Board 
of Selectmen, and is President of the Fitzwilliam Savings- 
Ban k. 

October 1st, 1867, he was admitted to practice in the 
United States District Court, and was a member of the 
Committee of Three appointed by the town to fund the war 
debt. 



428 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



PHYSICIANS. 



From Rev. Jolm Sabin's Mstorical lecture, delivered in 1836, 
we learn that this town had had up to that date eighteen phy- 
sicians who had practised their profession among this people, 
and that there were two other physicians in to^n at that time 
that declined to do business " though s(^me use (is) made of 
them." Four had died and been buried in this place, one 
after a successful practice here of more than forty years. This 
was doubtless Dr. Ebenezer Wright. One of the two who 
declined to do business in 1836 was Dr. N^oble, as Mr. Sabin 
speaks of him as keeping " an apothecary shop." The other 
alluded to was Dr. Thomas Richardson. The names even of 
all the early physicians here possibly cannot now be recovered, 
much less can full particulars be given respecting their profes- 
sional life. 

Rev. Mr. Sabin's testimony in their behalf is certainly worth 
preserving : 

The physicians of the town have always been ready to attend to the 
cases that required them, and most promptly ; at least I think 1 know 
this for the last thirty-three or thirty-four years. Such skill and faith- 
fulness may be supposed to be with them that there has never been a 
life saved by going out of town for medical assistance. To me it is next 
to certain that those who have recovered from sickness by help from 
abroad would have recovered through the skill at home. Anyhow the 
town has always been favored with a sufKcient number, and of compe- 
tent attainment, in the healing art. 

The following table probably names the eighteen physicians 
referred to by Mr. Sabin. The dates may not all be precisely 
accurate, but certainly approximate accuracy : 

1775-80. Gersham Brigham. Children baptized 1776 and 
1778- 

1783-90. Isaac Moors Farwell. Mar. December, 1785. 

1785-1829. Ebenezer Wright. 

1790-94. Peter Clark Grosvenor. Mar. May, 1793. 

1796-99. Luke Lincoln. Taxed 1797-99. 

1799-1802. Zephaniah Jennings. Taxed 1800-02. 

1806-12. Benjamin Bemis. Taxed 1807-12. 

1808-14. Samuel Lane. Taxed 1809-14. 



EARLY FITZWILLTAM PHYSICIANS. 429 

1810-21. Amasa Scott. Taxed 1804-21. 

1814-15. Abel Wilder. Taxed 1815. 

1817-18. Thomas Wells. Taxed 1818. 

1819-24. Jared Perkins. 

1824-27. Preston Pond. Taxed 1825-27. 

1827-28. Larkin Baker Cole. Taxed 1827-28. 

1827-82, Silas Cammings. 

1828-32. Warren Partridge. 

1834. Abraham H. Jaqiiith. Taxed 1834. 

1835-37. Thomas H. Marshall. 

Dr. Gersham Bkigham was doubtless the first physician of 
Fitzwilliam. He came from Marlborongh, Mass., about 1775, 
It has been generally supposed, but erroneously, that he was 
a brother of the first pastor. Rev. Benjamin Brigham. The 
pastor had a brother of this name born June 27th, 1750, but 
he was not a physician and lived in Northborongh, Mass. The 
name Gersham was common in the Brigham family, and long 
before this town was settled there was a physician bearing it in 
Marlborough, Mass. 

The Dr. Gersham Brigham of Fitzwilliam appears to have 
been a cousin of the first pastor, and to have been the only 
physician in this j)lace for a number of years. Of his profes- 
sional reputation we know nothing. Occasionally he held 
some minor town office. 

Dr. Isaac Moors Farwell married in this place in Decem- 
ber, 1785, and probably commenced medical practice here 
about that time. He held the office of selectman in 1787, 
and served for two years or more as town clerk. In 1790 the 
town was called together " tochuse a Town Clark in the place 
of Dr. Farwell, which is going to leave town." Little is 
known regarding his practice in this place. 

Dr. Ebenezer Wright was, so far as is known, the third 
ph^'sician of Fitzwilliam. He was born in Templeton, Mass., 
JSTovember 3d, 1761, and studied medicine in Kuthmd, Vt. 
x\t the age of twenty-four years he settled in Fitzwilliam, and 
soon gained the confidence of the community. In 1811 he 
removed to the north village, now Troy, but returned to the 
centre of Fitzwilliam three years later. He took an active 



430 HISTORY OF riTZ WILLIAM. 

part in the measures that resulted in the incorporation of Troy, 
and as early as 1T93 he was a member of the General School 
Committee. Dr. "Wright died here, March 16th, 1829, leav- 
ing two children. He was married here, November 22d, 
1790, to Mrs. Elizabeth Bates. 

Dr. Peter Clark Grosvenor was a physician in this town 
for two or three years, and in 1794 was chosen town clerk, but 
died before his term of service expired, viz., December 14th, 
1794. 

Dr. Luke Lincoln was a physician here for a short time and 
served as town clerk for one year, having been elected in 
1799. He is said to have died of severe burns, bnt how re- 
ceived is unknown. Another memorandum (perhaps more 
reliable) states that it was Dr. Lincoln's daughter, Sarah, that 
died of burns, but in either case this must have occurred after 
the family removed from Fitzwilliam, 

Dr. Benjamin Bemis, Jr., came from Brookfield, Mass., 
about 1806, and was in Fitzwilliam six or seven years. How 
much he did in his profession is unknown, but soon after his 
arrival he formed a partnership with Dr. Amasa Scott for 
mercantile purposes, and the firm — Bemis & Scott — built the 
store afterward occuj)ied by Dexter Whittemore, Esq. This 
lirm was dissolved December 27th, 1810. 

Dr. Samuel Lane came from Swanzey about 1808 and re- 
turned to that town about 1814, where he had a long and suc- 
cessful practice. He married a daughter of Hon. Nahum 
Parker. In the History of Troy an account is given of a savage 
encounter between Dr. Lane and a robber named Ryan, in the 
woods between Troy and Fitzwilliam in 1811. The doctor 
was attempting to arrest the robber, who had snapjied a pistol 
at him, which fortunately missed tire. Doctor Lane was on 
horseback, and attempting to dismount his foot was caught in 
the stirrup and he was dragged two or tliree rods before it was 
released, when Jie saw Ryan rushing toward him with a dirk 
in one hand and a pistol in the other. In the struggle that 
followed Dr. Lane was stabbed in the shoulder, but finally 
threw the robber, and though he was soon turned under the 
desperate man he succeeded in holding him down by his hair 



FITZWILLIAM PHYSICIANS. 431 

till his cries brought help and Ryan was secured. Dr. Lane's 
wounds were not very severe, but his escape from death was 
remarkable. The robber was doubtless crazy from strong drink, 
and was acquitted because his reason was deemed shattered. 

Dr. Jared Perkins was born in Jaif rey, February 1 2th, 1793, 
and came to Fitzwilliam with his fatlier's family in 1810. lie 
died October 7th, 1824. Dr. Perkins studied medicine with 
Dr. Luke Howe, of Jaffrey, and Dr. Stephen Batcheller, of 
Royalston, Mass., and was a classmate of Dr. James Batchel- 
ler. He received his deijree of M.D. at Dartmouth Colleo-e 
in August, 1819, and commenced the practice of medicine in 
Fitzwilliam the same month. Was married in 1819 to Sarah 
Hayden, of Fitzvvilliani. On returning from visiting a pa- 
tient during a very dark night, his horse sunk into a deep hole 
by the side of the road, and as it was raining and cold Dr. 
Perkins contracted a fever from which he never recovered. 
His age was thirty-one years. His general ability and line 
scholarship had promised great success in his profession. 

Dr. Thomas Richardson was born in Leominster, Mass., 
February 1st, 1766. Studied medicine with Dr. Carter, of 
Lancaster, and Dr. Shattuck, of Templeton, and practised 
several years in Royalston, Mass. He came to Fitzwilliam 
in 1812, but did not do a large business here, as his object in 
leaving Royalston was to avoid practice on account of his 
health, which suffered from irregular hours. Dr. Richardson 
died in Fitzwilliam, August 8th, 1852, aged eighty-six and one 
half years. 

Dr. Preston Pond came to this place from Keene about 
1824. He was very active in efforts to promote the temper- 
ance reformation, and laid the foundations for a strong tem- 
perance society which was formed in 1830. His practice is 
said to have suffered from his boldness in the temperance 
cause, and after three or four years he removed to Mississippi, 
where he died a few years ago. 

Dr. Warren Partridge came from Templeton, Mass., in 
1828. His wife was Araoret Potter. About 1832 Dr. Part- 
ridge removed to Princeton, Mass., where he died many years 
since. 



432 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

Dr. Thomas Hastings Marshall, a native of Jaffrey, com- 
menced medical practice in Fitzwilliam in 1835. He had been 
educated in the common scliools of Jaffrey, and in Appleton 
Academy at JSTew Ipswich, and commenced the study of medi- 
cine Matli Dr. Lulce Howe, of his native town. Later he at- 
tended medical lectures at Bowdoin College and at Harvard 
University, and graduated from the medical department of 
Dartmouth College in 1835. 

In 1S37 he removed to Mason Village, now Greenville, 
N. H., and was a successful practitioner there till the time of 
his death, December 16th, 1872, at the age of sixty-six years. 
Dr. Marshall was a member of both branches of the State Leg- 
islature. He was born December 2d, 1806, and his wife was 
Abigail S. Ilawkes, of Templeton, Mass. 

Dr. Gideon C. Noble was born June 6th, 1803, and received 
the degree of M.D. in 1S29. In 1830 he was in practice in 
Yarmouth, Mass. In 1831 he married Nancy S. Perkins, of 
Fitzwilliam, and removed to Chester, Warren County, N. Y. 
Coming to Fit/william in 1832 he formed a partnership with 
Mr. Daniel Spaulding in conducting a store, and a little later, 
retiring from the mercantile business, he opened a druggist's 
store where now is the business establishment of Messrs. 
P. S. & S. Batcheller. For five years, from 1837, he was post- 
master, and at the time of his appointment removed the post- 
office to his drug-store, where it has been kept ever since, with 
the exception of about five years. In 1812 Dr. ISToble re- 
moved to Fitchburg, Mass., where he was both druggist and 
physician. In 1811 he went to Harvard, Mass., and in 1868 
to Hudson, Mass., and again in 1871 to Waltham in the same 
State. The confinement of his business and professional life 
affected his health so seriously that after 1811 he devoted 
himself chiefly to agriculture, and died September 6th, 
1879. 

Dr. Luke Miller, a native of Peterborough, and student in 
the office of Dr. Albert Smith of that town, was in practice 
for a time in Ashby, Mass., then in Troy, and later in Win- 
chendon, Mass., from which place he came to Fitzwilliam in 
1854, when he entered into a partnership with Dr. Silas Cum- 



FITZWILLIAM PHYSICIANS. 433 

mings. In 1S57 lie removed to Chatfiekl, Minn. His wife 
was Abbey Ann Lovell. 

Dr. James Batcheller was a native of Royalston, and estab- 
lished himself as a physician in the neighboring town of Marl- 
borough in 1818. His practice in that place covered a period 
of thirty-seven years, and during those years he gained an en- 
viable reputation both in his profession and as a citizen of 
strong impulses in favor of human liberty, the temperance 
cause, and general good order and uprightness. As a physician 
he ranked high in all the region, and was for some time the 
President of the N^ew Hampshire Medical Society. Dr. 
Batcheller was also a representative and senator in the General 
Court, a councillor, and a delegate to the Convention to Re- 
vise the State Constitution in 1850-51. In 1855 he removed 
to Fitzwilliam, where his abilities were well known, and thougli 
he did not seek practice in this town his business was large 
for a number of years, or till failing health led to his retire- 
ment. He died here, April l^tli, 1866, aged eighty- three. 

Dr. Edwakd Aiken came to Fitzwilliam and commenced 
practice February 1st, 1861. He is the son of Silas Aiken, 
D.D., and Mary (Osgood) Aiken, and was born in Amherst, 
iN". H., April 10th, 1830. His father becoming pastor of 
Park Street Church, Boston, he was in the Adams grammar 
and public Latin schools, and graduated from each with a 
Franklin medal. In 1851 he graduated from Dartmouth Col- 
lege, and from And over Theological Seminary in 1855, havl^ig 
been previously appointed a missionary of the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. He sailed for the 
East soon after and landed at Beirut. His wife, Susan 
Dougherty Cole, of Rutland, Vt., died, in 1856, at Horns. 
Later, he married, July, 1857, Miss Sarah Cheney, formerly 
of Phillipston, Mass., but at that time at the head of the Mis- 
sion Female Seminary at Abeih, Syria. Rev. Mr. Aiken's 
health failing he returned to America in 1858 and commenced 
the study of medicine with Dr. Stephen Tracy, of Andover, 
Mass. He attended medical lectures at Harvard and Yale 
colleges, and graduated at the latter in 1861. Dr. Aiken was 
in Fitzwilliam during the Civil War, and returned to his native 
38 



434 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

place, Amlierst, in 1865. While here, at the request of the 
Syrian Mission, he edited the first complete Arabic atlas ever 
issued for the use of the larij^e population speaking that language. 

In 1864 he was appointed Professor of Materia Medica and 
Therapeutics in the New England Female Medical College, a 
position which he held for eight years, till this college was 
absorbed by the Boston University. 

Dr. Aaron R. Gleason was born at Warren, Yt., June 1st, 
1835, and is the son of Windsor and Sophia (Clark) Gleason, 
both born in Langdon, N. H. Dr. Gleason commenced teach- 
ing at the age of nineteen years, but in 1857 he engaged in the 
study of medicine with Dr. K. D. AVebster, of Gilsom, and 
then was a student in the office of Dr. George B. Twitchell, 
of Keene, for two years. Later he attended medical lectures 
in Burlington, "Vt., in Washington, D. C, and at the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City, graduating in 
1864. September 9th, 1861, he enlisted in the Second Regi- 
ment New Hampshire Yolunteers, and served with it two 
years as hospital attendant, was then transferred to Campbell 
General Hospital in Washington, D. C, as medical cadet. 
Receiving soon a commission as assistant surgeon he was on 
duty in that hosjjital till the close of the war. Dr. Gleason 
was also commissioned as assistant surgeon of the Fourteenth 
Regiment New Hampshire Yolunteers, but did not accept that 
office. Was in the service four years. 

He came to Fitzwilliam January 13th_, 1866, and after a suc- 
cessful practice of over twenty years removed to Keene in the 
fall of 1886. He married, January 19th, 1869, Miss Etta E. 
"Webster, only child of the Dr. Webster with whom he com- 
menced his medical studies. Soon after he came to Fitzwill- 
iam he was elected a member of the School Committee, and 
was either su25erintendent or an active member of the 
Superintending Board more than fifteen years. In 1881 he 
represented this town in the State Legislature, and since the 
changes which resulted in the establishment of the Fitzwilliam 
Free Town Library, he was one of its supervisors. Dur- 
ing the winter of 1885-86 Dr. Gleason attended a post-gradu- 
ate course of lectures in New York. 



CLASS II.— LAWYERS. 4.S5 

Several other plij'sicians have practised in town for longer 
or shorter periods of time, among whom may be named E. C. 
Fomeroy, E. Proctor Pierce, E. E. Joceljn, and Edwin G. 
Annable. 

The clergymen belonsfins; in this class are noticed in the 
ecclesiastical history of the town. 

Class II. 

William Pexximan, who resided in Fitzwilliam during a 
part of his early life, was a native of Peterborough, jS^. II. 
Soon after attaining his majority he removed to Ontario 
County, X. Y. , where he was a farmer. For many years he 
was a distinguished school-teacher, and held the offices of School 
Commissioner and Inspector and Superintendent of Schools 
where he resided. He was also Judge of the Court of Com- 
mon Pleas for Orleans County, jNT. Y., and represented that 
county in the Convention to Revise the State Constitution. 
In his official, social, and business hfe he was highly respected. 

George Edwin Bryaxt was a lawyer in Fitzwilliam for a lit- 
tle time, but removed to Wisconsin, where he became a judge. 
He was a native of Templeton, Mass., and had hardly entered 
upon the duties of his profession here before he left for the 
West. 

William L. Foster was born in Westminster, Yt., June 1st, 
1823. His grandfather was Rev. Edmund Foster, a promi- 
nent clergyman residing in Littleton, Mass., and a State sena- 
tor. His grandmother was Phebe Lawrence, of the John 
Lawrence family, of Charlestown, Mass. John Foster, the 
ninth of thirteen children of this family, lived in Westminster, 
Yt., before removing to Fitzwilliam in 1825 or 1826. His wife 
was Sophia Willard, In 183-1 John Foster removed to Keene, 
where he died in 18.51:. While residing there he was Sheriif 
of Cheshire County for several years. The boyliood of Judge 
Foster was therefore passed in Fitzwilliam, and from its com- 
mon schools he went to academies in Hancock, Keene, and 
Walpole. After a year at Cambridge Law School he entered 
the office of Levi Chamberlain in Keene, and was admitted to 
the bar in ISlri. In 1847 he was appointed one of Governor 



436 'histoey of fitzwilliam. 

Dinsmore's aides with the rank of colonel. From 1850 to 
185-4 he was Official Reporter of the Decisions of the State 
Courts. 

Removing from Keene to Concord, March, 1853, ]ie was 
appointed United States Commissioner, but after nine years' 
service he resigned to enter the State Legislature, in which 
he served for two years. In 1869 he was appointed one of 
the Judges of the Supreme Judicial Court, which office he held 
for five years, when he became Chief Justice of the Circuit 
Court. This last-mentioned court having been abolislied in 
1876 Judge Foster was appointed a Judge of the Supreme 
Court, which office he resigned in 1881 and resumed the 
practice of law, in which he is now engaged. In 1883 he was 
reappointed United States Commissioner. 

January 13th, 1853, Judge Foster was married to Miss Har- 
riett M. Perkins, of Hopkinton, K. H. His four children 
living are Ehzabeth B., born May 23d, 1857, Mary B,, born 
November 27th, 1859, married in 1881 to Lieutenant William 
A. Marshall, U. S. N., William H., born August 27th, 1862, 
a teacher in St. Paul's Scliool, Concord, N. H., and Roger 
E., born September 13th, 1868. 

William R. Brown resided in Fitzwilliam a number of years, 
and is a son of Rev. J. S. Brown, who was the minister of 
the Unitarian congregation of this place from 1844 to 1854. 
The subject of this sketch was born in Buffalo, X. Y., July 
16th, 1840, graduated at Union College, Schenectady, K. Y., 
in 1862, studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1864. 
Removing to Kansas he was elected Judge of the Ninth 
Judicial District of that State in 1867, and re-elected in 1872. 
Later he was chosen a member of the Forty-fourth Congress 
from Kansas, receiving nearly five thousand majority votes 
over his competitor. 

Charles H. Woods, son of Rev. John Woods, was born in 
Newport, IST. H., October 8th, 1836, and was educated at 
Kimball Union Academy, Meriden, N. H., and Williams Col- 
lege. He studied law in Lowell, Mass., and Newport, N. H., 
and resided in Fitzwilliam from 1854 to 1865. Was in the 
army as Captain of Company F, Sixteenth Regiment New 



CLASS II. CONTINUED — CLASS III. 437 

Hampshire Yolunteers, from September, 1862, to September, 
1863, and held a Groverrimeiit clerkship at Washins^ton, D. C, 
ill 1864 and 1865. In 1866 Mr. Woods removed to Minne- 
apolis, Minn., and has been in successful practice as a lawyer 
there till the present time, beinoj a member of the law firm 
AVoods & Hahn, the junior partner being the Attorney-Gen- 
eral of Minnesota. 

Mr. Woods was married, September 22d, 1862, to Miss 
Carrie C. Rice, of Brooktield, Vt. 

Lewis M. Norton, who passed not a little of his youth in 
Fitzwilliam, was born at Athol, Mass., December 26th, 1855. 
He is the son and only child of Rev. John F. and Ann Maria 
(Mann) Norton, and received his early education at home, in 
the public schools of Athol and Fitzwilliam, and in the High 
School of Keene. From the latter he entered the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology at Boston, and in 1876 and 1877 
was an Assistant-Instructor in the Department of Analytical 
Chemistry in that institution. In 1878 and 1879 he pursued 
the study of chemistry in the universities of Berlin and 
Gottingen, Germany, and was honored by the latter with the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy, obtained through examina- 
tions. Later he pursued his favorite studies in Paris, and 
after his return to America became, Jannary 1st, 1880, the 
chemist of the Amoskeag Manufacturing Co., Manchester, 
N. H. Two years and a half later he returned to the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technoh)gy, where he holds the position 
of Professor of Organic and Industrial Chemistry. 

June 6th, 1883, he was married to Mary Alice Peloubet, a 

graduate of Smith College, and daughter of Rev. F. N. 

Peloubet, D.D., of Natick, Mass. They have a daughter 

Margaret, born June 18th, 1881, and a son, John F., born 

June 23d, 1885. Professor Norton resides at Auburndale, 

Mass. 

Class III. 

Amos Andrew Parker is a native of Fitzwilliam, and son 
of Judge Nahum Parker, Until fifteen years of age he at- 
tended the schools of his native town and worked upon his 
father's farm. Then, fitting for college, he graduated at the 



438 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

University of Yermont in 1813, standing No. 2 in his class. 
A year later we find liim a tutor in the family of a planter in 
Fredericksburg, Va., where he remained for three years. 
Mr. Parker then commenced the study of law with James 
Wilson, Sr., Esq., of Keene, and completing his course in the 
office of Levi Chamberlain, Esq., then of Fitzwilliam, he was 
admitted to the bar in 1821. Soon after he commenced the 
practice of his profession in Epping, N. H., from which place, 
after about two vears, he removed to Concord as editor of the 
New Hampshire Statesinan. Later he was a lawyer in Exeter 
and Kingston, N. H., and returned from the latter place to 
his native town about 1837. While residing in Concord he 
went to Boston as one of the aides of Governor Morrill, to in- 
vite Lafayette to visit New Hampshire. This was in 1825, 
and a year later he took the same journey to escort that distin- 
guished French soldier and statesman to this State. 

The equipage consisted of a barouche, an elegant stage- 
coach, each drawn by four horses, and a two-horse carriage for 
baggage. 

While residing in Exeter Mr. Parker made a long excursion 
Westward, and published on liis return a valuable book (which 
was one of the first of its kind) entitled " A Trip to the West 
and Texas." Herein his native town after 1837 he held 
nearly every office in the gift of tlie people, and took a very 
active part in the measures adopted to suppress the Rebellion 
and to purchase and fit up the Town Hall, and the rooms for 
town purposes. He was also a member of the committee of 
three that funded the town debt. 

After his retirement from active professional life he pub- 
lished a work entitled "Recollections of Lafayette," and 
one or more volumes of poems. 

Since his third marriage he has resided in Glastonbury, and 
in Parkville, Hartford, Conn. 

Dr. Amasa Scott was a native of Fitzwilham, and practised 
medicine in this place for a number of years, but seems to 
have been more generally known as a trader, first as a partner 
of Dr. Benjamin Bemis, under the firm Bemis & Scott, and 
later as Amasa Scott & Co. 



DR. SILAS CUMMINGS. 439 

Dr. Scott died of consumption, May IGtli, 1821, aged 
tliirty-eiglit years. 

Dr. Silas Cummings, of whose interest in and labor for this 
history a particuhir account is given in the preface of this 
volume, was born in Fitzwilham, October 7th, 1803, and died 
in this phace, June 30th, 1882, at tlie age of seventy-nine years. 
He was the son of Thaddeus and Anna (Collins) Cummings, 
and from the brief and incidental allusions to his early life, 
found in various notes and statements relative to other families 
and individuals which he jDut upon paper in the hurry of his 
profession, we infer that during his youth he cultivated the 
soil and performed all the other kinds of hard work incident 
to a farmer's business. In his early manhood he appears to 
have been remarkably strong and athletic, for he alludes to the 
fact of doing nearly two days' work in one during the haying 
and harvest seasons. In his childhood and youth Dr. Cum- 
mings thirsted for knowledge, and improved every opportu- 
nity that offered to fit himself for his chosen profession. 

In 1827 he graduated from the medical department of Dart- 
mouth College, and appears to have entered at once upon the 
practice in his native town, which he never relinquished till 
his death, and which covered the long period of fifty-five 
years. Dr. Cummings is said to have visited, in his profes- 
sional duties in Fitzwilliam, not only the third and fourth 
generations of his patrons, but in some instances the fifth 
also, while at times his business in some of the adjoining towns 
was quite large. His health was remarkable, and for a long 
course of years he would read while riding, or listen to the 
reading of some one who accompanied him, that he might 
keep abreast of the times and be familiar especially with all 
new discoveries in the healing art. 

The schools of his native town had a warm and earnest 
friend and advocate in Dr. Cummings, and for many years he 
either superintended them or was an active member of the 
superintending board. All the valuable public enterprises of 
Fitzwilliam had in him a hearty supporter, and whether he 
was participating in the work of the Fitzwilliam Common 
School Association, in movements to promote temperance and 



440 HISTOET OF FITZWILLIAM. 

ajood morals, or in the debates of the Farmers' and Mechanics' 
Club, he was always found at the front, ready to do his part 
and much more if need be. For more than six years, from 
March 27th, 1855, he held the office of postmaster, and in 
1874 represented Fitzwilliam in the State Legislature. 

The funeral of Dr. Cummings took place in the Town Hall, 
July 2d, 1882, in the presence of one of the largest assemblies 
ever convened in Fitzwilliam. 

Class IY. 

Luther Waite was a native of Fitzwilliam, and a brother of 
Asa Waite, who built the house lately owned by Deacon Dex- 
ter Collins. Mr. "Waite graduated at the University of Ver- 
mont in 1811, studied law and removed to Sandy Hill, N". Y., 
where he was a lawyer of considerable note, and rose to the 
position of a judge. Mr. Waite is not living, but is repre- 
sented as a man of good education and of fine abilities. Rev. 
Mr. Sabin described him in 1842 as one that " has been or is 
a Judge of a Court in the State of ISIew York, and from the 
same State has been a member of the House of Representa- 
tives in Congress of the United States." 

Hon. Edward C. Reed, a native of Fitzwilliam, was born 
March 8th, 1793. He was a son of Phineas Reed, and uncle 
of our townsman, Daniel H. Reed. A graduate of Dart- 
mouth College in. 1812, he studied law in Troy, N. Y., and 
later served for a few months in the army under Governor 
Marcy, during the War of 1812-14, and his regiment was en- 
camped for a time on the ground just back of the Astor 
House, New York, when that crowded and busy part of the 
city was nothing but a pasture. 

Mr. Reed settled as a lawyer in the flourishing village of 
Homer, ]^. Y., where he resided for more than half a cen- 
tury, closely identified with all its interests. A flourishing 
academy (the Cortland Academy) was founded in that place 
in 1819, and Mr. Reed was one of its twenty-four trustees, and 
their secretary till 1870. In 1820 he married Miss Amanda 
Weller, a native of Pittsfield, Mass., and bought the place in 
Homer which was the homestead of the family for fifty years. 





CuJ^^-cA^^ 




HON. EDWARD C. REED. 441 

His five children were born in that home. In 1830 Mr. Reed 
was admitted to the Court of Chancery, and during tlie same 
year was elected to the Twenty-second Congress, serving under 
General Jackson's administration. He also filled the office of 
district attorney for a number of years. As a lawyer he 
avoided litigation as far as possible, and in this way saved his 
clients often from heavy expenses. 

A stanch Democrat always, he was, during the Rebellion, a 
War Democrat, but cast his last Presidential vote for General 
Garfield. Courtly in his manners, patient and faithful in his 
profession, active from 1833 in the Christian Church, and the 
beloved teacher of a large class of young men in the Sabbath- 
school, few men in the region had more influence. The last 
ten years of his life were spent with his children in Ithaca, 
N. Y., where he died, May 1st, 1883. His remains were in- 
terred in Homer. For many years Mr. Reed made tri -daily 
observations of the weather for the Smithsonian Institution at 
"Washington. 

It should be added that the title of " Judge," by which 
JVIr. Reed was often if not generally known, came from the 
fact that he was one of the associate judges of the Court 
of Common Fleas, of Cortland County, IST. Y., from 1836 
to 1840. 

The Court of Chancery, to which he was admitted as a 
practitioner, was a court of general equity jurisdiction which 
ceased to exist in 1846, when the cases of whidi it had taken 
cognizance were transferred to the Supreme Court. Solicitors 
in the Court of Chancery were required to pass a special ex- 
amination. Mr. Reed was solicitor and attorney as well as 
counsellor in both the Chancery and Supreme Courts. Few 
acquired a better reputation for fidelity and efficiency, while in 
the court-room, as everywhere else, he was a model of courteous 
deportment. 

C. FfiEDEKic Webster, a lawyer in Keene, is a native of Fitz- 
william, but removed from this place not far from 1840. 
During the Civil War he was for a time in the army and held 
the office of Quartermaster Fourteenth Regiment, New Hamp- 
shire Yolunteers. 



442 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

CLERGYMEN. 

Sketches of the pastors and ministers of the churches in this 
town, who were born elsewhere, will be found in the chapter 
entitled Ecclesiastical History. 

Calvin Waite, a Congregationalist, and son of Asa and Zer- 
viah (Smith) Waite, was born January 4th, 1785. Graduated 
at Dartmouth College in 1811, and studied theology with Dr. 
Asa Burton, of Thetford, Vt. He preached for a time in 
Connecticut and Maine, and was ordained pastor in Auburn, 
]Sr. Y. Later he preached in Sheldon, N. Y., in 1829, and 
two years later in Middlebury, IST. Y. He died in Western 
New York. In 1816 Yale College conferred upon him the 
degree of A.M. He married, but nothing has been learned 
respecting his family. 

John Woods was a Congregationalist and was born in Fitz- 
william, September 29th, 1Y85. After graduating at Williams 
College in 1812 he studied theology with Dr. Seth Payson, of 
Kindge. His first pastorate was in Warner, N. H., where he 
w^as ordained, June 22d, 1814. After nine years' service at 
Warner he became pastor in Newport, N. H., where he re- 
mained thirty years, the last two years wnthout pastoral 
charge.* In 1854 he returned to his native town, Fitzwilliam, 
where he was acting pastor of the orthodox church for six 
years. He died here, March 4th, 18G1, at the age of seventy- 
five years. He was thrice married. His widow, who survived 
him, was Mrs. Joanna Stevens, of Nashua, N. H., who now 
resides with his son, Charles H. Woods, Esq., of Minneapolis, 
Minn. 

Luther Townsend, a Congregationalist, was the son of 
Aaron and Sylvene (Davidson) Townsend, and was born in 
Fitzwilliam, August 12th, 1813. He graduated at Dartmouth 
College in 1839, and from Andover Theological Seminary in 
1842. Mr. Townsend was ordained as pastor at Troy, N. H., 
March 5th, 1845, where he remained for fifteen years. After 
this he resided a little more than a year in Fitzwilham in fee- 

* A sermon preached at the organization of a Moral Society by Mr. Woods, at 
Warner, N. H., was published in 1815. Also a sermon preached by him at the funeral 
of Phineas Chapin in 1851. 



NATIVES OF FTTZWILLIAM — CLERGYMEN. 443 

ble health, and died here of consumption, February 9th, 1862, 
aged forty-nine years. 

S. Mellen Stone, a native of Fitzwilliani, graduated at 
Dartmouth in 1839, and was a pastor in Chester, Yt. , in 184(3. 

James Wright Stone, A.M., was the son of James and 
Sally (Woods) Stone, and was born December 29th, 1815, 
He graduated at Dartmouth in 1845 and at Andover Theologi- 
cal Seminary in 1852. He was not ordained, but was a teacher 
at Nashua and Milford, N. H., and at Pepperell, Mass. 

Asa Prescoit is a native of this town and son of Ebenezer 
Prescott. Fitting for college in New Ipswich Academy he 
entered Yale College in 1839, but his health failing he en- 
gaged, in 1841, in the service of the American Tract Society 
of New York as a colporteur, and was the first person com- 
missioned by that society with that title. 

Mr. Prescott taught a number of schools between 1836 and 
1853. His wife was Tryphena F. Collins, of Fitzwilliam. 
With some aid from their native town, Mr. and Mrs. Prescott 
opened the first Protestant schools in Davenport, la. 

Licensed to preach as a Congregationalist, his first pastorate 
was in Annawan, Henry County, 111. In 1858 he united with 
the Baptist denomination, and since that date has Jiad charge 
of five Baptist churches. He has labored also among the 
Freedmen of Yirginia and North Carolina. At the present 
time Mr. Prescott has no pastoral charge. 

Bev. AsAEL Woods was a native of Fitzwilliam, a son of 
Jonas Woods, and a brother of Bev. John Woods, a sketch of 
whom has already been given. 

Where he was educated or when he entered the ministry is 
unknown. Mr. Woods belonged to the Baptist denomination 
and preached for a time in Sutton, N. H., and probably else- 
where before he settled in Putney, Yt. He died at Putney, 
November 17th, 1824, aged forty-five years. Mrs. Woods 
was ]\riss Jerusha Stone, of Fitzwilliam. 

Rev. Phineas Howe, a Baptist clergyman, a son of Nahum 
Howe, Sr., was born in Fitzwilliam, May 16th, 1T92, and mar- 
ried Mary Hayden, of Fitzwilliam, November 6th, 1816. He 
studied with Elder Graves, of Royalston, and in June, 1824, 



444 HISTORY OF FITZ WILLI AM. 

was called to tlie pastorate of the church of Marlborough and 
Newfane, Vt., where he remained seven years. After preach- 
ing two years in Heath and one year in Conway, Mass., he 
was recalled to the church in Marlborough and Kewfane, 
where he remained for seven years, and then was pastor at 
Hinsdale, N. H., two years. At Troy, N. H., in 1846, his 
health failed and he ceased to preach regularly. Returning to 
the place of his birth for one year and then living for a time 
on a farm in Winchester, N". H. , he passed the closing years 
of his life with his friends in Yermont, dying, January 16th, 
1869, at the age of seventy-seven years. 

Charles Edwakd Milliken, a son of Cyrus and Mary 
(Smith) Milliken, of Fitzwilliam, was born February 5th, 1830. 
He fitted for college at Kimball Union Academy in 1851-53. 
Graduated at Dartmouth in 1857 and at Andover Theological 
Seminary in 1860. Was ordained pastor at Littleton, IST. H., 
September 23d, J 860, and remained in that place eighteen 
years. Mr. Milliken removed to Maynard, Mass., as acting 
pastor in 1879. He married (1) Sarah F. Duncklee, of 
Francestown, N. H., and (2) Mary Frances Eedington, of 
Littleton, X. H. He is now preaching in Penacook, N". H. 

Lysandek T. Burbank was born November 24th, 1828, and 
is the son of John and Hannah (Lyon) Burbank, who lived at 
the Burbank place in Fitzwilliam. He prepared for college at 
the Kimball Union Academy in 1852-53. Graduated at Will- 
iams College in 1857 and at Union Theological Seminary, New 
York City, in 1860. Having been licensed to preach by the 
Fourth Presbytery, New York, he was ordained as an evan- 
gelist at Fitzwilliam, June 15th, 1860. Sailed as a missionary 
of the American Board, for Bitlis, Asia Minor, July 3d, 1860, 
where he remained in that capacity for ten years. Returning 
to the United States in 1870 he was pastor of a Congregational 
church in Herndon, Fairfax County, Ya., for seven years. 

Stephen Harris was born at Fitzwilliam, January 7th, 1834, 
and prepared for college at Kimball L^nion Academy in 1852- 
54. Fie graduated at Amherst College in 1858, and after spend- 
ing one year in the Theological Institute of Connecticut and 
two years at the Andover Theological Seminary he graduated 



NATIVES OF FITZAVILLIAM — CLERGYMEN. 4-45 

from the latter in 1861. Mr. Harris was ordained pastor at 
Windham, Yt., October 24th, ISOl, and dismissed March 4th, 
1869. lie then preached for nearly two years at "West Suffield, 
Conn., and for about the same time in Indian Orchard, Mass. 
Called to Phillipston, Mass., he was installed there, November 
20th, 1873, but about seven months later was killed while 
crossing the railroad track in Athol, Mass. 

Rev. William Edwin Locke, formerly of Fitzwilliam, is a 
son of WiUiam Dana Locke, who died recently in Xew Ips- 
wich, N. H. He graduated at Amherst College in 1864, and 
from Union Theological Seminary, New York, in 1867. March 
19tli, 1868, he was married to Zoe A. M. Koyes, of West- 
moreland, N. H., and having been appointed a missionary of 
the American Board, sailed from New York for Turkey, April 
25th, 1868. He reached his station, Philippopolis, in Turkey 
in Europe, June 11th of the same year, but removed a little 
later to Samokov, which has since been his home. In 1879 he 
visited the United States with his family. 

Rev. Isaac N ewton Locke, brother of William E. , was born 
in Fitzw^illiam. He began a course of study with the ministry in 
view, but was forced to abandon it because of a disease of the 
eyes. For three years he w^as a teacher in an educational in- 
stitution at Lookout Mountain, Tenn., and October 21st, 1872, 
he married the preceptress of that institution. Miss Mary A. 
Wilson, of SaHsbury, N. H. Mr. Locke was licensed to 
preach in October, 1877, and two years later ordained. As a 
devoted home missionary, he preached in Peru, Gould, West- 
ern Park, Howard and other places in Kansas, He died, Feb- 
ruary 2d, 1882, of small-i^ox, that was raging in the vicinity 
of his home, but from w^hich he supposed himself protected 
by vaccination. 

Among the physicians who were born in Fitzwilliam a 
prominent place should be assigned to Dr. Alvah Godding. 

The Godding family, consisting of a widow and eight chil- 
dren, four sons and four daughters, came to this place from 
Attleborough, Mass., not far from 1780. Among these 
children was Timothy, wh6 in 1790 married Ruth Robbins, of 
Warwick, Mass., and was a farmer in the part of Fitzwilliam 



446 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

which is now Troy. The third child of this family was 
Alvali, who was born November 5th, 179G. He settled in 
Winchendon, Mass., as a physician, and there secnred, and re- 
tained till his death, an enviable repntation, riot only in his 
professional life, but in all the relations he sustained to the 
community. Through his skill, kindness, and devotion to his 
patients he earned the title of " tlie beloved physician." 

Dr. Godding gave his life to save that of an Irishwoman, whose 
case had been pronounced hopeless, and to whom he was called 
at midnight in the dead of winter, when the cold was excessive. 
Going on foot, and repeating his visit a few hours later, he 
came home in such an exhausted state that death soon ensued. 
His age was seventy- eight, and he died January 11th, 1874. 

Ebenezer Clark Grosvenor, a native of Fitzwilliam, was a 
son of Dr. Peter Clark Grosvenor. He was the only physician 
among the early college graduates of Fitzwilliam. With great 
industry and the aid of his pastor he prepared for college and 
graduated at the University of Vermont in 1813, and later 
from the medical school in Boston. Rev. Mr. Sabin loaning 
him money for his expenses, he established himself in his pro- 
fession in Darien, Ga., of which city he was at one time the 
Mayor. After visiting Europe for study he continued his prac- 
tice successfully in Darien, but while still young was drowned 
in the Altamaha River while engaged in professional duty. 

Dr. Leslie Almon Phillips, son of Almon and Keziah (Al- 
len) Phillips, was born in Fitzwilliam, August 19th, 1847. He 
was educated in the public schools and such private schools as 
his native town afforded till he was seventeen years of age, 
when, while working during the day andstndyingin the night, 
he commenced reciting to his pastor. Later he was a student 
in a boys' English and classical school and a teacher in the 
same. In 1874 he began the study of medicine with Dr. 
Moore, of Quincy, 111., and in 1877 graduated from the Bos- 
ton University School of Medicine. Dr. Phillips began prac- 
tice in Boston as assistant of Dr. J. H. Woodbury, then passed 
nearly a year in Watertown, Mass., but at the expiration of 
this period returned to Boston at Dr. Woodbury's request, to 
whose practice he succeeded in 1879. 



LIST OF COLLEGE GRADUATES. 447 

Dr. Phillips's address is 105 Boylston Street, Boston, 

Mrs. Sarah D. (Locke) STo^v, a native of Fitzwilliam, is a 
dang-liter of Mr. William Dana Locke, formerly of this place. 
In her youth her home for a number of years was in the fam- 
ily of Rev. John P. Humphrey, then pastor in Winchester, 
In^. H. , but lately holding the same office in Winchendon, Mass. 

Mrs. Stow is a graduate of Mount Ilolyoke Female Sem- 
inary at South Hadley, Mass., and for a number of years be- 
fore her marriage was a teacher in that institution. Rev. John 
M. Stow, her husband, was a pastor in Sullivan, X. 11., but 
about 1870 removed to his native town, Hubbardston, Mass., 
and was pastor there at the time of his death, which occurred 
in 1877. Mr, Stow had been for some years engaged in pre- 
paring a history of his native town, and this, left by him in an 
unfinished state, -Mrs. Stow completed and carried through 
the press. 

She now resides in Hubbardston, but for a number of years 
has been, engaged in official duties for a large part of the time 
at Mount Holyoke Seminary. 

LIST OF COLLEGE GKADUATES FKOM FITZWILLTAM. 

J^otices of most of these will be found in the sketches al- 
ready given. 

Calvin Waite, graduated at Dartmouth, 1811. 

Luther Waite, graduated at University of Yermont, 1811. 

John Woods, graduated at Williams College, 1812. 

Amos A. Parker, graduated at University of Vermont, 1813. 

Ebenezer Clark Grosvenor, graduated at University of Ver- 
mont, 1813. 

Edward C. Reed, graduated at Dartmouth, 1812. 

Luther Townsend, graduated at Dartmouth, 1839, 

Samuel Mellen Stone, graduated at Dartmouth, 1839. 

James Wright Stone, graduated at Dartmouth, 1845, 

Charles E, Milliken, graduated at Dartmouth, 1857. 

Lysander T, Burbank, graduated at Williams College, 1857. 

Stephen Harris, graduated at Amherst College, 1858. 

William R. Brown, graduated at Union College, 1802, 

William Edwin Locke, graduated at Amherst College, 1804, 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 



GENEALOGICAL EEGISTEK 



OF THE 



FAMILIES OF FITZWILLIAM. 



EXPLANATIONS. 



Ix the arrangement of the following genealogies the plan 
used in the Histories of Rindge, ^Marlboro, and Ashburnham 
has been generally followed, and is so plain that no particular 
explanation is needed. The following variations may, however, 
be noted ; The acconnt of a family stock previous to settlement 
in Fitzwilliaui is given by generations, each generation being 
numbered with a heavy-faced figure in the margin, this num- 
bering running into the consecutive numbering of individuals 
as the more detailed records are introduced. Whenever the 
information is at hand, a brief sketch of the line back to the 
emigrant ancestor has been given. In these cases the usual 
method of notation by raised figures (John'. John", John^ etc.), 
has been introduced sufficiently to distinguish the successive 
generations. 

The Lists of Town Officers in the first part of this work are 
so full and complete, and the Records of the Soldiers in the 
Revolutionary War and the War of the Rebellion are so broad 
in their scope, and so particular in their details, that it is not 
considered necessary to refer to these services in the family 
records. 

In referring to towns in the immediate vicinity the name of 



452 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



the State has been purposely omitted, unless required to distin- 
guish from a town elsewhere of same name. When the name of a 
town has once been given in full, further reference to it in the 
same connection may be made by using only the initial letter. 

The earliest town tax-list that has been preserved is that for 
1793. When this date is referred to thus, 1793*, the infor- 
mation given is based on this tax-list. The Proprietors' Tax- 
list for 1788, and partial lists of the penny or road taxes for 
1789, 1790, and 1791 are also preserved, but none of these dis- 
tinguish between resident and nun-resident owners. In the 
town valuation and tax-lists all persons paying poll-taxes of 
course are residents. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



a., aged, 

ab., about. 

b., born. 

bapt., baptized. 

bro., brother. 

ch., child, children, 

clili., church. 

d., died, death. 

dau., daughter. 

dis., dismissed. 

F., Fitzwilliam. 

hus., husband. 

L., lot. 

m., married, marriage. 



prob., probable, probably. 

q.v., which see ; see the register 

of that family. 
E., range. 

rec, records, recorded, 
rec'd, received. 
rem., removed, 
res., resides, resided. 
s., son. 

s. p., without offspring, 
unm., unmarried, 
w., wife, 
wid., widow, 
y., years, young. 




J'Tni/TrV- (l^^rol -Ci^in^i—-^ 



PHOTO- GRAVURB CO.. N. T. 



GEXEALOGICAL REGISTER. 



ADAMS. 

I Mr. Johx Adams, son of Edward, of Medway, Mass., d. 1781 (?) ; 
m. Abigail Cleveland, who d. Dec. 15, 1782. They had ch. i. Lois, 
II. Mary; iii. .John, b. Feb. 12, 1744, 2: iv. Lydia ; v. Cornelius; 
VI. Ebenezer ; tii. Abigail ; viii. Samuel ; ix. Ruth. 

2 Capt. John, b. Feb. 12, 1744, d. Dec. 20, 1818 ; m. Mary Parker, 
who d. Oct. 11, 1798 ; res. Canterbury, Ct. They had ch. i. John ; 
II. Joshua, b. Dec. 4, 1775. 3 ; iii. Mary ; iv. Parker ; v. Abigail ; vi. 
Anna ; vii. Moses ; viii. Luceba ; ix. Aurelia ; x. Charles. 

3 Joshua, b. Dec. 4, 1775, d. Aug. 3, 1813 ; m. July 12, 1801, Abi- 
gail, b. Apr. 27, 1780, dau. of Jonathan and Mary Sabin, of Porafret, Ct. 
After the d. of Mr. Arlams she m. (2) July, 1814, John Parkhurst, by 
whom she had one ch., John F. Parkhurst, b. Nov. 4, 1815. Ch. of 
Mr. and Mrs. A. b. at Plainfield, Ct. : i. Jonathan Sabin, b. Sept. 22, 
1802, 4; II. Mary M., b. Apr. 4. 1804 ; in. Catherine P., b. July 9, 
1806, m, Curtis Coolidge, q.v. 



5 

G 
7 

8 

9 

10 

11 



Joiq^ATHAN SABiis" Adams, b. Sept. 22, 1802 ; came to 
F. when 12 v. old and lived with his uncle, Eev. Mr. 
Sabin ; m. Feb. 6, 1833, Abigail, b. Aug. 11, 1807, dau. 
of Levi and Anstris (Stratton) Tower, of F. 

I. Mary Ahhy, b. Nov. 22, 1833 ; m. Xorman TJ. 

Cahill, q.v. 
n. Lysander Toioer, b. Apr. 16, 1836 ; d. May 25, 
1836. 

III. Hannah Aurilla, b. June 2, 1837 ; ni. Morris 

Collins, a merchant of St, Louis, Mo. ; rem. to 
Jacksonville, 111., where Mr. 0. died. See 
Chap. XI r. 

IV. Catherine Amhra, b. June 25, 1840 ; m. John 

M. Parker, q.v. 
V. John Sabin, b. Apr. 29, 1842 ; d. Aug. 26, 1863, 

in the War of the llebellion ; unm. 
VI. Rebecca Anstis, b. Sept. 30, 1844.; d. Apr. 27, 

1850. 
VII. Martha Amelia, b. Mar. 17, 1847 ; d. Jan. 7, 
1856. 



454 
13 



13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 

20 



21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 



3 

4 

5 
6 



8 

9 

10 

11 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

Daniel Adams first appears in F. Rec. in 1778. 
He was taxed on L 22 R 10 in 1788 and 1790 and left 
town before 1793*. By w. Sarah lie had ch. b. in F. 

I. Stepheji, b. Oct. 29, 1779. 

II. Da7iiel, b. Mar. 22, 1781. 

III. William, b. Mar. 10, 1783. 

IV. Thomas, b. Mar. 9, 1785. 

V. Sarah, b. Jan. 28, 1787. 
VI. Lydia, b. Jan. 13, 1789. 

VII. Samuel, b, Apr. 30, 1791. 

George Adams settled on L 7 R 2, for which he was 
taxed in Prop. Lists of 1788 and 1790, and he was taxed 
in Town Lists, 1793 to 1797 ; by w. Mary he had ch. b. 
inF. 

I. ElizaUth, b. Sept. 28, 1789. 
II. Sarali, b. Mar. 17, 1791. 
III. Mary, b. Sept. 1, 1792. 
IV. Becca, b. Mar. 22, 1794. 

V. George, bapt. July 17, 1796. 
VI. Daniel, bapt. Feb. 11, 1798. 

Mary Adams, probably w. of George : was adm. to 
thechh., Sept. 4, 1791. 

Solomon" Alexander, b. Aug. 8, 1783 ; came to F. 
from Winchester, N. IL, in 1810, and bought the house 
now occupied by William Kuhn, in which he res. till 
his d. Nov. 29, 1849. He was a blacksmith and occu- 
pied the shop now of J. E. Bemis. His w. Gratia, b. 
Apr. 19, 1788 ; d. Apr. 19, 1837. 

I. Nelson, b. Apr. 26, 1807 ; res. Farmersville, 

N. Y. 
IL Bradley, b. Apr. 4, 1809 ; d. Mar. 13, 1812. 

III. Martha Dexter, b. May 22, 1811 ; d. Dec. 31, 

1882; m. Edward E.'Allen, q.v. 

IV. Joel, b. Feb. 25, 1814 ; res. Blaclc Creek. N. Y. 
V. Mary Bond, b. May 12, 1816 ; res. Franklin, 

Pa. 

VI. Abigail EocJctvood, b. Dec. 3, 1818 ; m. David 

N. Putney, q.v. 
viL Asa, b. Dec. 3, 1818 (twin) ; d. Oct. 4, 1819. 

VIII. Maria, b. Oct. 18, 1821 ; res. Nunica, Mich. 
IX. Susan, b. Aug. 6, 1823 ; res. Somerville, Mass. 

X. Sophia, res. Boston, Mass. 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 



455 



ALLEX. 

Walter' Allkn, b. in England in 1610 ; m. and came to this 
country in 16135, settling in Newbury, IMass, ; in 1652 rem. to Water- 
town, and later to Charlestown, where he d. July 8, 1681. His w. d. 
and he m. (2d) Nov. 9, 1678, Abigail Parsons. His s., 

2 Daniel-, b. 1635 ; lived in Lancaster, Watertown, and Sudbury, 
Mass. ; d. in Sudbury. His s., 

3 Davis^, b. 1659 ; d. 1711 ; served in one of the expeditions against 
Canada. ; res. in Watertown. His s., , 

4 Obadiaii'', b. 1695 in Watertown. His s., 

5 Elnathan\ b. 1728 ; d. 1805 ; m. May 31, 1753, Thankful Hast- 
ings, of Waltham, Mass. ; res. in Shrewsbury, Mass. ; ch. i. Elnathan ; 
n. Israel ; iii. Silas ; iv, Arunah", who rem. to F. ; v. Luther ; vr. 
Wilks ; VII. Liberty, who m. Apr. 5, 1801, Polly, dau. of Philip and 
Eunice (Shuniway) Amadon, of F. 



6 



Rev. Aruistah" Allen, b. Aug. 18, 1767, in Shrews- 
bury, Mass ; d. Dec. 15, 1853, in Stockbridge, Vt. ; m. 
Dec. 10, 1788, Mary, b. Mar. 31, 1775, dau. of Peter 
and Mary (Eice) Richardson. She was the sixth gener- 
ation from Samuel Richardson, the emigrant, the line 
of descent being Samuel', Samuel'-, Thomas^ Thomas', 
Peter", Mary''. Mr. and Mrs. Allen united with tlic 
Baptist chh. soon after m., it is believed, in Leicester, 
as there was no Baptist chh. in Shrewsbury. They 
lived on the farm with his father in S. till Feb., 1799, 
when they rem. to F., settling on L 7 R 4. He taught 
school several winters, v/as selectman 3 y., and filled 
other town offices. In 1807 or 1808 he began to preach ; 
was ordained ISIO or 1811 as Elder of the Baptist chh. 
Except during some intervals of sickness, he continued 
to preach in F. till 1833, when he rem. to Stockbridge, 
Vt. He preached in S. and the neighboring towns as 
his health Avould allow until he was 80 y. of a, His w. 
d. ab. 1830, after which he res. with his s. Arunah. 

John Jarvis', b. Oct. 24, 1780. -f- 

Blioda, b. Apr. 14, 1791 ; m. Jan. 10, 1813, 

Louis Long, of Rutland, Vt., wiiere they 

res. 
Jicbal Eldridge, b. Mar. 20, 1793. -f- 
Levinah Johnson, b. July 15, 1797 : m. Hyman 

Bent, q.v. 
Polly liichardson, b. Sept. 14, 1799 ; res. in 

Rutland, Vt., where she d. 
Arunah, b. July 3, 1805 ; res. Pittsfield, Vt. 



7 


I. 


8 


II. 


9 


III. 


10 


IV. 


11 


V. 


12 


VI. 



456 

(7) 

13 



14 

15 
16 

17 



18 

19 
20 

21 
22 

23 

(9) 



24 
25 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 
31 



32 



33 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

JoHK Jarvis' Allen, b. Oct. 24, 1789 ; d. May 20, 
1880 ; m. Aug. 20, 1809, Cynthia, d. Dec. 24, 1865, a. 
77 y., dau. of Philip and Eunice (Shumway) Amadon. 

I. Edward Ervin\ b. Dec. 17, 1809 ; d. Jan. 27, 
1841 ; m. Oct. 21, 1834, Martha, b. May 22, 
1811, dau. of Solomon and Gratia Alexander. 
II. Caroline, b. Dec. 17, 1811 ; m. Milton Chaplin, 

q.v. 
III. Infant, d. Nov. 30, 1813. 
• IV. Keziah A., b. Jan. 21, 1815 ; m. Almond Phil- 
lips, q.v. 
V. John Jarvis, b. Mar. 12, 1818 ; d. June 22, 
1884 ; m. Sarah E. Horton, who d. Oct. 22, 
1859, a. 26 y., and he m. (2d) Susan E., dau. 
of Nathan Wood, of Keene. 

1. Agnes^ b. Dec. 13, 1857 ; d. Oct. 20. 
1858. 
VI. Cynthia, b. Aug. 1, 1820 ; d. Sept. 22, 1822. 
VII. Cynthia, b. Mar. 3, 1823 ; m. Lorenzo C. 

Everett, q.v. 
VIII. Henry W., b. 1828 ; d. June 15, 1828. 
IX. Ellen Maria, b. Aug. 21, 1830 ; m. John W. 

Shirley, q.v. 
X. Charles H., b. 1832 : d. July 27, 1833. 



JuBAL E.' Allen, b. Mar. 20, 1793 ; d. in Troy, Feb. 
7, 1872 ; m. Nov. 20, 1816, Keziah, b. 1793 (?) ; d. 
Oct. 19, 1833, dau. of Philip and Eunice (Shumway) 
Amadon ; m. (2d) Mar. 29, 1838, Paulina, b. Feb. 20, 
1815 ; d. July 15, 1885, dau. of Zimri and Parna 
(Howe) Ingalls, of Eichmond. Ch. all b. in F. 

I. Man/, d. Oct. 9, 1822, a. 5 y. 
IL Ann, d. Sept. 25, 1818. 
Ill, Julia, d. Sept. 14, 1822, a. 3 y. 
TV. Daphne, d. Sept. 1, 1842, a. 20 y. 

V. Mary Ann Julia, b. Aug. 18, 1823 

1866. 

VI. Jtibal Eldridge, b. Oct. 1, 1827. 
VII. Henry Clay, b. Nov. 12. 1829. 

VIII. Harriet A., h. Dec. 15, 1839 ; 
Smith, of Worcester, Mass. ; 
Cleveland, 0. 
IX. Emily Josephine, b. Aug. 27, 1841 ; m. (1st) 
Aaron Kelton, of W^inchestcr, who d. 1878 ; 
and she m. (2d) Martin Baker, of Winchester, 
where they still res. 
X. Paulina Maria, b. May 26, 1843 ; m. Martin J. 



d. Feb. 16, 



m. Marshall 
now res. in 




/P^-^ J^' ^^^^^^^^-v^ 



34 
35 

36 
37 



38 
39 

40 

41 
42 

43 

44 
45 



46 
1 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 457 

Buss, of Marlboro, N. H. He served 3 y. in 

the War of the Rebellion ; was sergeant in 

Co. — , 3d N. H. Vols. ; res. Walpole, N.II. 
XI. Edward Ervin, b. July 8, 1845 ; d. Sept. 3, 

1847. 
xiL Caroline L., b. Jnly 15, 1847; m. Murray 

Fitch, of Marlboro, N. II., and they res. 

there. 
XIII. Edward E., b. Aug. 27, 1849 ; m. Ellen Howe, 

of Marlboro, Mass., and there res. 
XIV. Ellen J., b. Sept. 19, 1854 ; m. Orange Smith, 

of Fitchburg, Mass. He served 3 y. in the 

War of the Rebellion in a Mass. Reg. ; res. 

Gardner, Mass. 

Elijah Allen and w. Ruth had oh. : 
I. Sally, d. Oct. 18, 1784. 

Elijah Allen and w. Elizabeth. The family left 
town before 1793*. Ch. rec. in F. 

I. Relief, b. Apr. 11, 1784. 
II. James Pliilliin, b. Dec. 27, 1785. 
III. Luther, b. Apr. 3, 1789. 

John Allen, d. July 15, 1790. 

Elizabeth, w. of John, d. Apr. 5, 1790. 

The Elizabeth Allen admitted to chh. Oct. 29, 1786, 
was more prob. the w. of John, as there is no rec. of the 
bapt. of the ch. of Elijah and Elizabeth. 



Joseph Allen m. Anna Steel, July 7, 1772. 

Philip Amadon came to F. from Oxford, Mass., in 
1784. He d. Feb. 2, 1834, a. 85 y. His w. was Eunice 
Shumway, who d. Aug. 25, 1837, a. 90 y. He settled 
on L 10 R 4, and built the second grain-mill in town in 
1784-85. 

Dorcas, b. Dec. 10, 1769 ; m. David Rice, q.v. 
Polly, m. Apr. 5, 1801, Liberty Allen, of 

Shrewsbury, Mass. 
Eunice, m. Jan. 15, 1804, Benjamin Sampson, 

Jr., then of F. They rem. to Roxbury, Vt. 
Roxana, b. Feb. 3, 1774 ; m. (1st) Levi Haskell, 

q.v., (2d) Abel Angier, q.v. 
Lovina, b. 1776 ; m. Abel Angier, q.v. 
John, m. Roxy Leach, of Chesterfield, N. H,, 
and rem. to Canada. Of their ch. 



2 


I. 


3 


IL 


4 


ILL 


5 


IV. 


6 


V. 


7 


VI. 



458 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



8 1. Ahial, d. in F., Aug. 10, 1874, a. 73 y. 

9 2. Hortensia, m. Enoch W. Gardner and 

lived in Hingham, Mass. 

10 3. Roxana, m. Thomas Newman and rem. 

to New York State. 

11 VII. Infant, d. Mar. 22, 1785. 

12 VIII. Josiah,^ b. Aug. 9, 1787. + 

13 IX. Cynthia, b. 1789(?) ; m. John J. Allen, q.v. 

14 X. Keziah, b. 1793(?) ; m. Jubal E. Allen, q.v. 



(12) 



15 



16 

18 
19 
20 
21 



22 

23 

24 
25 

26 

27 

28 
29 



30 
31 



"I 



b. Nov. 11, 1841. 



JosiAH Amadon, b. Aug. 9, 1787 : d. July 6, 1847 ; m 
April 1, 1810, Lydia, b. May 8, 1788 ; d. Jan. 15, 1827, 
dan. of David and Esther (13ruce) White. He m. (2d) 
May 29, 1838, Mary White, b. Oct. 12, 1794, a sister of 
his first w. 

Ch. all by first w., and all b. in F. north village — 
Troy after 1815 : rem. to F. village ab. 1827. 

I. Mary, b. Oct. 29, 1810 ; m. Oct. 14, 1832, 
Gideon Bemis, of Westminster, Vt., s. of 
David and Lydia (Stiles). Ch. b. at W. 

1. Lydia Bemis, b. Aug. 4, 1833. 

2. Ruth " b. Mar. 5, 1836. 

3. Josiah 

4. Phebe 

5. Mary " ' b. Nov. 3, 1843. 
II. John, b. Nov. 12, 1832 : d. at Hatteras Inlet, 

Jan. 15, 1862 ; m. Betsey Putney, of Chester- 
field, b. July 3, 1814 ; res. in F., Richmond, 
Marlboro, and Troy. 

1. Sarah E., b. July 1, 1841 ; m. J. Foster 

C apron. 

2. James 0., b. Sept. 10, 1842 ; m. Susie 
Bryant. 

3. Henry J., b. Mar. 18, 1845. 
4 Frank E., b. Jtily 30, 1847 ; m. Sarah A. 

Wright. 

5. Charles H., b. Nov. 3, 1849. 

6. Ella Meade, b. Oct. 2, 1855 ; m. Jan. 1, 
1874, Julius Elwin Bemis, q.v. 

7. George F., b. May 11, 1857. 



III. Leander, b. Aug. 9, 1814 ; d. Dec. 12, 1878 ; 
m. May 14, 1847, Sarah H. Randall, b. Mar. 
18, 1822, dau. of Eleazer and Clarissa 
(Wheeler), of Chesterfield. Ch. b. at Bellows 
Falls, Vt. 

1. Clara, b. Feb. 18, 1850. 

2. Frederick, b. Feb. 25, 1852. 



GENEALOGICAL REGLSTER. 



459 



32 

34 
35 



36 



37 



2-6 



(5) 



12 
13 

(10) 



14 
15 
16 
17 

18 



IT. 
Y. 

VI. 



VII. 



3. Alice, b. Sept. 25, 1856. 

4. Henrv, b. Julv 31, 1858. 

Josiah, b. Feb. 20, 1816 ; d. Julv 18, 1849 : unm. 

Sarah A., h. Sept. 7, 1821 ;" m. J. D. Per- 
kins, q.v. 

Estlier, b. Oct. 9, 1823 ; m. Aug. 8, 1844, El- 
bridge Aldrich, b. May 18, 1817 ; d. Dec. 4, 
1879, at Worcester, Mass. He was s. of Luke 
and Mary (Martin), of Richmond. 



Hannah 
q.v. 



b. Aug. 26, 1825 ; m. David Damon, 



ANGIER. 

Joseph Angier, d. Nov. 30, 1718 ; m. Elizabeth 

, who d. Jan. 24, 1732 ; both in Framingham. 

Mass. They had previously res. at Dorchester, Mass. 
Ch. b. I. -IV. at D., v. at Fram. ; i. Elizabeth : ii. Mar- 
garet ; III. Joseph ; iv. (5) Benjamin, b. June 22, 1704 ; 



7 


I. 


8 


II. 


9 


III. 


10 


IV. 


11 


V. 



Mary. 

Benjamin", b. June 22, 1704 ; m. Sarah . Ch. 

in Marlboro, Mass., and Fram. 

Sarah, b. Sept. 25, 1729. 

Mary, b. Oct. 24, 1731 ; m. Stephen Harris, q.v. 

Benjamin, b. 1735. 

Silas, b. 1737. + 

Timothy, b. Feb. 28, 1740 fm. 1766, Mercy, b. 
Nov. 3, 1746, dau. of Joshua and Mary Haven, 
of Hopkinton, Mass., by whom he had several 
ch. The family settled in Ashburnham, 
Mass., ab. 1780. Mrs. A. d. there, Oct. 3^ 
1805, and he m. (2d) Apr. 16, 1807, Molly 
(Ames) Clark, wid. of Daniel. 
VI. Joltn, bapt. June 29, 1746. + 
VII. Sarah, b. July 24, 1747. 

Silas Angier, b. 1737 ; d. Oct. 6, 1808 ; m. Elizabeth, 
b. Aug. 5, 1741 ; d. Aug. 15, 1811, dau. of Caleb and 
Mehetabel (Maynard) Drury, of Fram. The family 
prob. came to F. ab. 1778, as the births of only the 
3 youngest ch. are rec. in F. The older ch. prob. b., 
i.-v. in Fram., vl-viii. in Temple, N. II. 

I. Benjamin, b. May 27, 1762. + 
II. Sibyl, b. Mav 14, 1764; m. James Dunton, q.v. 

III. Silas, b. Apr. 19, 1766. + 

IV. Betsey, bapt. Oct. 1, 1769 ; m. Waldo ; 

res. Alstead and Langdon. 
V. Joel, bapt. Nov. 4, 1770 ; m. Olive Turner ; res. 
Acworth. 



460 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



19 
20 
31 
22 
23 

24 
(12) 



25 

26 

27 
28 

(14) 



29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 

(16) 



37 
38 
39 
40 
41 

(20) 



VI. Sally, m. Nov. 22, 1796, Charles Saunders, q.v. 

VII. Ahel, b. Aug. 17, 1775. + 

VIII. Buth, d. July 24, 1780, a. 3 y. 

IX. Reuhen, b. Mar. 21, 1779 ; d. Jan. 11, 1797. 

X. Nedom (Needham), b. Apr. 8, 1781 ; m. 

Foster ; res. Langdon. 

XI. John, b. Dec, 20, 1784 ; res. Wethersfield, Yt. 

John Angier, bapt. June 29, 1746. His w. was 

Mary . The family was in F. as early as 1771, and 

left town before 1793*, prob. before 1788. Ch. i.-ii. b. 
and rec. in Framingham, iii.-iv. b. in F. 

I. Mary, b. July 15, 1766. 

II. John, b. Jan. 10, 1769. 

III. Matflieiu, bapt. May 14, 1775. 

IV. Olive, bapt. May 14, 1775. 



Benjamin Angier, b. May 27, 1762 ; m. Tirzah , 

who d. May 4, 1795, and he m. (2d) Dec. 27, 1795, Eunice 
Johnson ; rem. to Walpole, N. H., ab. 1805, and from 
thence to the State of New York. Ch. i.-vii. at F., 
VIII. at W. 

I. Elijah, b. June 29, 1787. 

II. Calvin, b. July 13, 1789. 

III. Ahel, b. x\ug. 25, 1791 ; d. Dec. 26, 1792. 

IV. Luther, b. Aug. 8, 1794. 
V. Tirzah, b. Nov. 4, 1796. ' 

VI. Eunice, b. Nov. 3, 1799. 
VII. Elis (Alice ?), b. Aug. 23, 1803. 
VIII. Aaron, b. Sept. 17, 1807. 



Silas Angier, b. Apr. 19, 1766 ; m. Apr. 23, 1789, 
Priscilla (Platts) Harris, wid. of Benjamin Harris, The 
family rem. to Walpole, N. H., ab. 1800, and from thence 
to State of New York. Ch. b. in F. 

I. Elisha, b. Dec. 6,1789. 

II. Relief, bapt. June, 1, 1794. 

III. Lucy, bapt. June 1, 1794. 

IV. Sally, bapt. Nov. 2, 1794 ; d. Sept. 18, 1796. 
V. Sally, bapt. Sept. 15, 1799. 

Abel Angier, b. Aug. 17, 1775 ; d. Feb. 27, 1861 ; m. 
Dec. 29, 1795, Lovina, b. 1776 ; d. July 11, 1844, dau. of 
Philip and Eunice (Shumway) Amadou ; m. (2d) Apr. 
16, 1845, Roxana, b. Feb. 3, 1774 ; d. Aug. 22, 1858, 
wid. of Levi Haskell, q.v., and a sister of his first w. 




J^ 



^: ^^^ ^^% 



i 




REUBEN ANGIER, 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 461 

42 ' I. Ahel, b. Feb. 11, 1797 ; d. Apr. 27, 1837 ; m. 

Jiin. 15, 1822, Laura Holmes, and res. in 
Keene. Their s. 

43 1. Thomas Stratton, m. Oct. 7, 1839, Fan- 
1 ny, b. Apr. 15, 1821, dan. of JJenjamin 

B. and Grata (Whitney) Morse, of F. 

44 II. Lovina, b. Aug. 19, 1798 ; m. EJisha Fassett, 
q.v. 

45 III. Sibyl, b. Oct. 6, 1800 ; m. Josiah Stone, q.v. 

46 IV. Elvira, b. Oct. 26, 1802 ; m. Apr. 24, 1826, 
Thomas E. Sears, of K. ; res. in Boston (?). 

47 V. Eliza, b. May 16, 1804 ; m. Moses A. Bowen, 
b. Nov. 16, 1800, s. of Zephaniah and Martha 
(Allen), of Richmond ; rem. to Illinois. 

48 VI. Eunice, b. Feb. 24, 1806 ; d. Apr. 28, 1838 ; 
m. Luther Lakin. 

49 VII. Reuben, b. June 28, 1807. + 

50 • VIII. A7ina, b. July 20, 1809 ; m. (1st) Lewis Mon- 
roe, q.v. ; (2d) Melvin Wilson, q.v. 

51 IX. Philip Doddridge, b. Mar. 25, 1811. + 

52 X. Mary, b. Aug. 9, 1817. 



(49) 



53 



(51) 



54 
55 
56 



Reuben" Angieii, b. June 28, 1807 ; d. Apr. 24, 
1881 ; m. Lydia, b. Feb. 10, 1810 ; d. Apr. 21. 1840, 
dan. of Zephaniah and Martha (Allen) Bowen, of Rich- 
mond ; m. (2d) Eliza A. M., b. Jan., 1814 ; d. Jan. 14, 
1870, a sister of his first w, 

I. Reuben Leander, b. Feb. 22, 1842 ; m. May 30, 
1863, Maria M. Bolles, of Swanzey, b. Mar. 
11, 1841. 

II. Lj/dia, b. May 20, 1847 ; d. Mar. 2, 1863 ; 
unm. 

Philip D. Angiee, b. Mar. 25, 1811 ; m. Sept. 28, 
1834, Nancy D., b. Dec. 19, 1814 ; d. Dec. 27, 1841, 
dau. of John and Nancy (Knights) Sargent, q.v.; m. 
(2d) Jan. 1, 1844, Mary, b. Oct. 18, 1820 ; d. July 8, 
1856, dau. of Samuel and Tamar (Grant) Hayden, q.v.; 
m. (3d) July 2, 1858, Arrabella S., b. Dec. 4, 1832, 
dau. of Merril and Sally (Townsley) Reed, of Newfane, 
Vt. ; rem. to Swanzey, N. H., in 1865. 

I. Eosannah Lovina, b. Mar. 4, 1837 ; m. Nov. 

29, 1856, Samuel Francis Bowker, q.v. 
II. Abbie Frances, b. Dec. 8, 1840 ; m. Daniel H. 

Reed ci. v. 
in. Mary Eliza, b. July 31, 1848 ; d. Dec. 8, 1871 : 
m. Nov. 12, 1866, George A. White, s. of 
Benson. 



462 

57 

58 
59 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

IV. Fannie Belle, b. Oct. 9, 1860 ; m. 

stock ; res. Swanzey. 
V. Walter Eugene, b. May 18, 1863. 
VI. Pnili^} Cozzens, b. Oct. 17, 1867. 



Bever- 



4 
5 



2 
3 



6 

I 

8 

9 

10 

11 



Jason Badcock was an early settler on L 3 R 12. He 
was a Tory in principle, but does not appear to have 
taken any active part against his country. He was a 
linen-wheel-maker by trade. He d. July 2, 1781, 
a. 67 y. 

Sept. 13, 1778, Josiali Goodell m. Persis Badcock, 
perhaps dau. of Jason. 



2 
3 



Solomon" Badcock res. on L 3 R 12, and was prob. 
s. of Jason. By w. Ruth he had. cli. rec. in F. 

I. Molly, bapt. Sept. 21, 1777 ; d. Sept. 5, 1778. 
II. Ruth, bapt. Apr. 30, 1780 ; d. Dec. 5, 17«3. 
The family left town about 1790. 

Samuel Barnard and w. Susanna lived in what is 
now F. villao-e. When the " great road " was straight- 
ened and widened in 1787 he was located between Mat- 
thias Felton and Simon Crosby. Left town ab. 1789. 
Ch. rec. in F. 

I. Joel, b. Jan. 22, 1785. 

II. Susanna, b. Sept. 8, 1787. 

William Barnard and w. Bathsheba came from 
Lancaster, Mass., in 1802 or 1803, and settled in the 
north part of the town. He was first taxed in 1803. 
They were adni. to chli. July 13, 1806, and wore dism, 
Sept. 3, 1815, to form chh. in Troy. Hist. Troy says 
in 1816 rem. to Cavendish, Vt. Ch. bapt. rec. in F. 

I. James Goodwin, bapt. Aug. 9, 1806. 

Ti. Eliza Ann, bapt. Aug. 9, 1806. 

iiL William, bapt. Aug. 9, 1806. 

IV. Milton, bapt. Dec. 14, 1806. 

V. John, bapt. June 25, 1809. 

VI. Abigail, bapt. Jan. 7, 1813. 

VII. Henry, bapt. Aug. 15, 1819. 

John Barnes was in town as early as 1787 ; settled 
about 1790 on L 8 R 8, and is not taxed in town after 
1794. Ch. rec. in F. 

I. I£e7iri/, bapt. May 6, 1787. 

II. Lovisa, bapt. May 10, 1789. 



4 
5 
6 



8 

9 

10 

11 



2 

3 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 463 

III. Lydia, bapt. Nov. 6, 1791. 

IV. Jo//n, bapt. June 1, 1794. 
V. Sally, bapt. Dec. 20, 1795. 

William Baenes, b. May 22, 1831, in ISTorfolk, 
N. Y. ; d. June, 1885, in Atbol ; m. in F. Sept. 25, 
1862, Harriet M., b. June 22, 1842, dan. of Almond 
and Sarah D. (Williams) Brewer, then of F. He served 
3 y. in the War of the Kebellion : res., Athol ; ch. b. i. 
and III. in F., ii. and iv. in Royalston. 

I. Etta Maria, b. July 13, 1863. 

II. Cora Loiiise, b. July 18, 1868. 

III. Sarah Estella, b. Oct. 27, 1870. 

IV. Walter Ellis, b. Aug. 28, 1884. 

Harrisox Barrus, s. of Samuel and Silence (Hol- 
man), b. June 9, 1818, in Eichmond ; d. Aug. 17, 1861, 
in Athol ; m. Apr. 6, 1845, Sarah Maria, b. Dec. 15, 
1826, dau. of John and Harriet (Stone) Miles, q.v. 
Ch. b. James A., in Swanzey, others in F. 

John Harrison, b. Apr. 26, 1846. 
James Alanson, b. July 31, 1848. 
Henry Alfonzo, b. Nov. 18, 1850. 
William Elisha, b. Aug. 28, 1853. 
A son, b. Aug.(?), 1856 ; d. June 11, 1857. 
Hattie Elizaheth, b. June 28, 1859. 
VII. Freddie /., d. July 25, 1867, a. 5 y. 6 m. 

Dr. James Batcheller, s. of Dr. Stephen Batcheller, 
was b. in Eoyalston, June 5, 1791 ; located in Marlboro 
in 1818, where he had a long and successful medical 
practice ; came to F. in 1855, and d. Apr. 14, 1866 ; m. 
Dec. 31, 1821, Persis, b. Sept. 16, 1799 ; d. Aug. 14, 
1851, dau. of Phillips and Persis (Joslin) Sweetser of 
M. 

T. James, b. Aug. 7, 1822 ; d. Dec. 24, 1831. 
II. Charles, b. June 15, 1825, came to F. with his 

father in 1855, and d. Mar. 12, 1860, unm. 
III. Phillip S., b. Sept. 2, 1828 ; came to F. in 
1846, entering the employ of J. D. Perkins. 
In 1849 he formed a partnership with his 
bro. Stephen and bought out the drug and 
jewelry business of Mr. Perkins, which they 
still continue (1887), in tbe same location. 
M. Feb. 11, 1852, Frances Ade, b. Sept. 30, 
1836 ; d. Dec. 28, 1871, dau. of Milton and 
Caroline (Allen) Chaplin, q.v. 



2 


I. 


3 


II. 


4 


III. 


5 


IV. 


6 


V. 


7 


VI. 


8 


VII. 



464 



HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



6 

7 



8 
9 

10 



1. Ida Louise, b. Apr. 1, 1859 ; m. Mar. 
22, 1883, Isaac F. Paul, b. Nov. 26, 
1856, s. of Ebenezer and Susan (Dres- 
ser) Paul, of Dedham, Mass. ; res. Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

1. Phillip Batcheller Paul, b. Dec. 
18, 1883. 
IV. Stephen, b. Sept. 14, 1830 ; came to F. in 1848. 
In 1849, in connection with his bro. Phillip, 
succeeded to the business of J. D. Perkins. 
Has since res. in F. except ab. 4 y., when he 
was in the dry-goods business in Adrian, 
Mich. M. Sept. 13, 1859, Abba, b. Apr. 10, 
1841, dau. of Joseph G. and Abigail (Woods) 
Briggs, of Claremonb, N". H. 

1. Fannie, b. June 25, 1867. 

2. James, b. Mar. 17, 1872 ; 

1872. 

3. James, b. June 29, 1873 ; 

1873. 



Aug. 17, 
Aug. 26, 



2 
1 



3 

4 
5 

6 

7 
8 
9 



Peleg Battles, said to have been from Kennebec, 
Me., settled in the southeast part of the town. His 
name does not appear in any Tax-List of residents, but 
he is taxed as non-resident on L 1 E 3 in 1798. By w. 
Lydia he had ch. rec. in F. 

I. Peleg, b. June 24, 1788. 

Artemas Beard, from Gardner, Mass., settled in F. 

in 1809 ; d. June 4, 1853, a. 79 y.; m. (1st) Lydia . 

who d. in Gardner ; m. (2d) May 2, 1809, Polly, b. 
Nov., 1782 ; d. Sept. 19, 1870, dau. of Micah and 
Betsey (Philbrick) Chaplin ; eh. b., i. in Gardner, 
others in F. 

I. Lydia, b. Dec. 30, 1801 ; m. Dec. 1, 1825, John 
Colburn, b. Mar. 15, 1799 ; d. at Eichmond 
Mar. 10, 1870, s. of Ebenezer and Hannah 
(Jewett) Colburn, of Eindge ; res. Eindge, 
F., Eichmond. 

1. John W. Colburn, b. Mar. 11, 1827. 



2. 


Ann E. 


b. July 6, 1829. 


3. 


Fanny 


b. Mar. 16, 1831. 


4. 


Charles 0. 


b. Feb. 26, 1833. 


5. 


Henry 


" b. June 10, 1835. 


6. 


Artemas B. 


b. July 26, 1838. 



II. Mary Fatima, b. Feb. 7, 1810 ; m. Oct. 10, 
1846, John P. Symonds, of Eindge (his 2d w.). 






r» 





-tj(\^^^^^^ 



jC^^C 



C//1 



10 

11 

12 



13 

14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 



20 



21 

22 
23 
24 
25 



GENEALOGICAL REGLSTEK. 465 

He was b. Jan. 30, 1709 ; d. Dec. 27, 1863, s. 
of Thomas and Lydia (Pratt). He liad 10 
ch. by 1st m., and by 2d m. : 

1. Sydney S. Symonds, b. Aug. 15, 1848 ; 

d. Sept. 5, 1849. 

2. Sydney C. Symonds, b. Jnly 6, 1850 : 

d. May 16. 1851. 

III. Eusina, b. Apr. 18, 1812 ; m. Xov. 30, 1837, 

EHsha H. Tolnian, b. June 17, 1811, s. of 
Ilenry and Polly (Harris), of Troy ; res. T. 

1. Ellen R. Tolman, b. Sept. 14, 1838. 

2. Sidney E. " b. Nov. 14, 1844. 

3. Sarah Ann " b. Mar. 4, 1847. 

4. Mary A. " b. Feb. 10, 1849. 

5. Minnie P. " b. Nov. 25, 1852. 

6. Charles H. " b. July 10, 1855. 

IV. Elizabeth Burnap, b. Dec. 20, 1814 ; d. Apr. 

29, 1877 ; m. Apr. 7, 1835, William Bemis, 
b. Jan. 2, 1808 ; d. Mar. 23, 1881, s. of 
William and Hannah (Derby) ; res. in Ash- 
burnham, Mass., but in rec. of m. he is called 
of Gardner. 

1. Sarah E. Bemis, b. Oct. 20, 1837 : m. 

Aug. 10, 1856, George C. Foster, b. 
Jan. 21, 1835, s. of Jerome W. and 
Mary (Colson) ; had 2 ch. ; res. Ash- 
burnham. 

2. Francis W. Bemis, b. Apr. 3, 1844 ; m. 

Mar. 26, 1875, Emily, dau. of Nathan 
and Mary (Colcord) Stoddard, of Tem- 
pleton. 2 ch. 
V. Bethiali Emeline, b. Sept. 27, 1817 ; m. Curtis 

Drury, q.v. 
VI. Sarah Nichols, b. Mar. 23, 1820 ; m. George 

Whitcomb, q.v. 
VII. Susan Caroline, b. Nov. 22, 1822 ; m. Warren 
Pratt, q.v. 
Yiii. Laura Emerson, b. Feb. 19, 1826 ; m. Dec. 28, 
1852, John Clifford Alexander, b. Mar. 17, 
1822, s. of Easman and Lucy (Garheld), of 
Troy ; res. T. 

Gilbert 0. Bemis, b. Jan. 22, 1831, s. of Elijah and 
Lucy (Butler), of Troy ; m. Oct. 19, 1854, Ellen Sarah, 
b. Feb. 18, 1836, dau. of Timothy and Mary (Pratt) 
Metcalf, of Rindge. Elijah is No. 104, Bemis Register, 
Hist. Marl. 

I. Charles Gilbert, b. Sept. 23, 1864, in Jaffrey. 
30 



466 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLTAM. 



4 
5 



7 
8 
9 

11 



12 
13 



2 
3 



2 
3 



WiLLEY A. Bemis, b. June 7, 1858, in Rindge ; m. 
Dec. 25, 1878, Alice Florence, b. Jan. 29, 1859, dau. of 
Elijah and Susan (Howe) Wilder, q.v. 
I. Lorin Clifton, b. Sept. 27, 1880. 
II. Norman Jay, b. Nov. 20, 1882. 

Julius Elwin Bemis, a native of Royalston, m. Jan. 
1, 1874, Ella M., b. Oct. 2, 1855, dau. of John and 
Betsey (Patne}-) Amadon, q.v. He is a blacksmith, 
occupying the old Alexander stand. 

I. Son, b. Dec. 20, 1875 ; d. y. 
II. Henry WUtcomb, b. Feb. 2, 1885. 
III. Chester Lnke, b, Aug. 14, 1886. 

George L. Bemis, b. Jan. 14, 1850, s. of Jonathan 
and Lois (Collins), of Marlboro ; m. Jan. 10, 1871, 
:N"ettie H., b. Oct. 19, 1854 ; d. Mar. 9, 1884, dau. of 
Amasa S. and Sally D. (Stone) Wilson, of F. ; m. (2d) 
Oct. 29, 1885, Sadie, b. May 25, 1860, dau. of Tbomas 
J. and Sarah E. (Adams) Spinney, of Portsmouth, 
N". H. He is No. 71 of Bemis Register in Hist. Marl. 
Ch. b. I. in M., ii. in F. 

I. Edwin E., b. Oct. 22, 1872. 
II. Nellie M., b. July 4, 1879. 



Andrew Benjamin had ch. bapt. 

I. Amos Pierce, bapt. Oct. 15, 1780. 
II. Betsey, bapt. Sept. 9, 1781, 
From Hist, of Winchendon it is learned that his w. 
was Mary Pierce ; that they had 9 ch. b., i. and ii. in 
Asliby, Mass., iii. in P., v.-ix. in Winch. The two 
bapt. in F. were ii. and iii. 

Asa Bennett and w. Sibyl were from Shrewsbury, 
Mass. He was adm. to chh. Sept. 18, 1785, on letter 
from 2d chh. in Shrewsbury. He was taxed in the 
penny Ifst of 1788 on L 7 R 11, and prob. left tovvn 
soon after, as he is not taxed in the List of 1789. Ch. 
baj)t. in F. 

I. Hepzihali, bapt. Oct. 2, 1785. 
II. Josiah, bapt. Aug. 26, 1787. 



Benjamin Bennett and w. Elizabeth settled on L 2 
R 12. She was adm. to chh. July 26, 1782. He was 
prob. a bro. of Asa, above, and it is understood that 
both families rem. to Winchendon ab. the same time. 
They had ch. bapt. rec. in F. 



GENEALOGICAL EEGISTER. 



467 



5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 



12 



T. Benjamin, bapt. Sept. 1, 1782. 
II. Elizabeth, bajit. May 30, 1784. 

III. Molly, bapt. Sept. 18, 1790. 

IV. Benjamin, bapt, Aug. 7, 1797. 

V. John, b. Feb. 28, 1795 ; bapt. Aug. 7, 1797. 
VI. Josiah, bapt. June 26, 1800. 



Joseph Bexnett, of Richmond, m. June 23, 1802, 
Betsey, b. Oct. 28, 1778, dan. of Asa and Zerviab 
(Smith) Waite ; res. but a short time in F., and rem. 
to Waterford, Vt., -where she d. Jan. 19, 1854. Ch. b. 
in F. 

I. Zerviah, b. Dec. 23, 1802. 



BENT. 

John Bent, from Peuton, England, came over in the ship Confidence 
in 1(538, then a. 35 v., with w. Martha and 5 ch. In 1639 settled in 
Sudbury, Mass., where he d. Sept. 27, 1773 ; his w. d. May 15, 1679. 
He was one of the original proprietors of Marlboro when it was granted 
in 1656. He had 7 ch., 5 sons and 2 daughters. Samuel Bent, 
who settled in F., came from Sudbury, and was doubtless descended 
from liim, though the line of descent cannot now be stated. The 
Drurj's, and some of the Hemenways and Mellcns who settled in F. were 
descended from John Bent, the emigrant, through his granddaughter, 
Hannah Bent, who m. John Adams, of Framinghum, Mass. 



3 

4 
5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



78 



y. ]\rary 
Came from 



Samuel Bent d. Apr. 22, 1833, a. 
Hunt, his w., d. Oct. 8, 1838, a. 84 y. 
Sudbury, Mass., in 1780, and settled on L 7 E 1. 

I. Samuel, b. 1778 (?) ; d. Mar. 20. 1854 ; m. Oct. 

9, 1804, Euth, b. Sept. 9, 1782 ; d. Dec. 9, 
1872, dau. of Eeuben and Euth (Williams) 
Pratt, q.v.; rem. from F. ab. 1810 to Stock- 
bridge, \^t., where he d. ; his wid. d. at F., 
having outlived all her descendants. Ch. rec. 
in F. 

1. Adeline, b. Aug. 23, 1805. 

2. Mary Ann, b. Oct. 13, 1808. 

II. Mary, b. Apr. 24, 1780 ; m. Amos Pratt, q.v. 

III. Martha, b. Sept. 26, 1782 ; m. Moses Chaplin, 

q.v. 

IV. William Hunt, b. July 14, 1785+ . 
V. Hymaji, b. Sept. 17, 1788+. 

VI. Sarah, b. Oct. 7, 1791 ; m. Jonathan Locke, q.v. 
VII. Eli^ha, b. Dec. 10, 1793+. 
VIII. Elizabeth; b. Aug. 9, 1796 : m. Henry Shirley, 
q.v. 
IX. Newell, b. Dec. 14, 1801 ; d. May 14, 1857, unm. 



468 



IIISTOKY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



(7) 



13 
14 



15 
16 



17 

18 
19 
20 

21 
22 



(8) 



23 



24 
25 
26 

27 

28 
29 

30 
31 

32 



William Hunt Bent, b. July 14, 1785 ; d. July 22, 
1866 ; m. Dec. 3, 1815, Margaret Brooks, d. July 10, 
1825, a. 35 y.; m. (2d) Betsey, b. May 5, 1798 ; d. May 
13, 1860, dau. of Isaac and Betsey W. Taylor, of Win- 
cliendon. 

I. Levi Brooks, b. Sept. 12, 1817 ; d. Aug. 21, 
1884 ; m. Sarah Lawrence. 

1. Abbie A., m. May 2, 1868, John D. 
Finegau, s. of Burney and Mary (Tur- 
ney) ; res. Lynn, Mass. 
II. Eliza, b. July 14, 1824 ; d. Sept. 13, 1824. 

III. William, b. Jan. 18, 1828 ; m. Lucy , d. 

Dec. 6, 1856, a. 24 y.; m. (2d) Jan. 18, 1859, 
Caroline H., b. May 22, 1840, dau. of Leonard 
and Caroline (Goodspeed) Pierce, q.v. 

1. Irving Pierce, b. Nov. 26, 1862 ; d. Dec. 

11, 1876. 

2. George Souther, b. Jan. 9, 1871. 

3. Florence Lyle, b. Nov. 1, 1880. 

IV. Betseij, b. Aug. 27, 1831 ; d. May 14, 1871 ; m. 

Woodbury, of Tovvnsend, Mass. 

V. Harriet, b. Feb. 13, 1838 ; d. Apr. 7, 1855. 
VI. Laura Ably, b. Nov. 1, 1841 ; m. Dec. 31, 
1868, Charles W. Hildreth, s. of Levi and 
Adaline Hildreth, of Tovvnsend ; res. T. 

Hyman Bent, b. Sept. 17, 1788 ; d. Dec. 21, 1872 ; 
m. Aug. 27, 1817, Levinah J., b. July 15, 1797 ; d. 
Nov. 13, 1883, dau. of Eev. Arunah and Polly (Rich- 
ardson) Allen, q.v. 

I. Sarmiel, b. Dec. 23, 1817 ; d. Aug. 10, 1883 ; 
m. Sept. 28, 1847, Mary Louisa, b. Sept. 15, 
1824, dau. of Samuel and Mary (Bailey) 
Emery, of Jaffrey ; res. (South) Gardner, 
Mass. 

1. Lizzie, m. Franklin Eaton, of G. 

2. Leslie. 

3. Addie Mabel. 

II. Eliza, b. Oct. 25, 1819 ; m. Nov. 3, 1840, John 
Sawin ; res. (So.) G. 

1. Mary Levina Saivin, d. 

2. Hamilton Hey wood Saioin, m. Janette 

Brown. 

3. Ida May Saivin, d. 

III. Lurene, b. Oct. 2, 1841 ; m. Matthias B. Felton, 

q.v. 

IV. Arunah Allen, b. Jan. 29, 1823 ; m. Nov. 1, 



•T '1 




HYMAN BENT. 



LEVINAH J, (ALLEN) BENT. 



PHOTO-GRAVURE CO, N. X, 



GENEALOGICAL KEGISTER. 



469 



33 
34 
35 

3G 

37 
38 
39 



40 
41 
43 
43 
44 



45 
46 

47 



48 
49 

50 

51 

52 
(10) 



53 
54 
55 
56 

57 

58 
59 



VI. 



1848, Sarah Brick ; res. Boston, Mass. 

1. Alice, d. 

2. Allen Herbert. 

Suscm, h. Dec. 30, 1825 ; m. Winslow Phillips, 

q.v. 
Marin, b. Oct. 13, 1828 : m. 

Marcus Wright ; res. (So.) G. 

1. Lois Maria Wright. 

2. Lewis Ashley Wright. 



Oct. 12, 1853, 



VII. Elmina, b. June 16, 1830 ; m. Xov. 



15, 1859, 
res. 



VTTT. 
IX. 



Joseph Green, of Hubbardston, Mass., 
(West) G. 

1. Willie Hyman Green. 

2. Arunah Allen Green. 

3. Lester Newell Green. 
So. rail, b. Jan. 5, 1832. 

Charles Orra, b. June 4, 1835 ; m. Sept. 18, 
1864, in Santa Cruz, Cal., Emeline Barnhill, 
a native of Nova Scotia ; res. (So.) G. 



1. 
2. 



Alice. 
George. 



X. Frances Flora, b. Oct. 27, 1838 ; m. Xov. 27, 
1862, Charles 0. Whitney, b. May 4, 1838, s. 
of Luke and Lovina (White) Whitney, of 
Troy ; res. Marlboro. Ch. b. 1 in G., 2 and 
3 in M. 

1. Frank Russell Whitney, b. Aug. 29, 1866. 

2. Charles Winfred Wliitney, b. Aug. 4, 

1877. 

3. Robert Lynmore Whitney, b. Sept. 10, 

1880. 
XI. Roderic Leslie, b. Mar. 22, 1843 ; m. July 10, 
1866, Mary Louisa, dau. of Silas Adams, of 
G.; res. (So.) G. 
1. Roland Adams. 

Elisha Bent, b. Dec. 10, 1793 ; d. Nov. 13, 1865 ; 
m. June 23, 1831, Nancy, b. Nov. 11, 1800 ; d. Apr. 
30, 1885, duu. of William and Eunice (Ware) Robbins, 
of Winchendon. CSee Robert Ware.) 

I. Neiuell, b. Aug. 30, 1832 : d. Dec. 22, 1837. 
Ti. Mary Anna, b. Jan. 8, 1834. 

III. Eunice R, b. May 10, 1835 ; d. Dec. 24, 1837. 

IV. Ja7ie E., b. Jan. 13, 1837 ; m, Martin S. Deeth, 

q. V. 

V. Elmina, b. Aug. 6, 1838 ; d. Oct. 24, 1841. 
VI. Lois, b. Sept. 30, 1839 : d. Oct. 10, 1841. 

VII. Nancy M., b. June 2, 1842 ; m. Caleb G. Cox. 



470 HISTOEY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

60 VIII. EUslia Melzo, b. Aug. 6, 1845 ; m. Jan. 1" 
18?8, Jnlia R., b. Apr. 26, 1856, dau. of Most 
and Abby (Marshall) Chaplin, q.v. 

61 1. Agnes, b. Sept. 27, 1878. 

62 2. Josie F., b. June 20, 1881. 

63 3. Waldo H., b. Mar. 25, 1883. 



BiaELOW. 

I John' Bigelow, the emigrant ancestor, was s. of Randall Baguley, 
of Wrentham, Suffolk Co., England. He came to tliis country and 
settled in Watertown, Mass., where he took the oath of fidelity in 1686. 
He d. in W., July 14, 1703 ; m. Oct. 30, 1642, Mary Warren, and (2d) 
Oct. 2, 1794, Sarah Bemis ; ch. all by 1st m. i. John ; ii. Jonathan ; 
in. Daniel, b. Dec. 1, 1650, 2 ; iv. Mary ; v. Samuel, b. Oct. 28. 1753, 
3 ; VI- Joshua ; vii. James ; viii. Elizabeth ; ix. Sary ; x. Martha ; 
xr. Abigail ; xir. Hannah ; xiii. Infant son. 

2 Daniel^, b. Dec. 1, 1650 ; settled in Framingham, Mass., where 
he d. ab. 1715 ; m. Abial, dau. of Thomas and Susannah Pratt, by 
whom he had ch. i. Abigail ; ii. Daniel, b. Nov. 24, 1691, 4 i m- 
Abial ; iv. Susannah ; v. Ephraim ; vi. Lydia. 

4 Daniel^ b. Nov. 24, 1691 ; d. ab. 1752 ; m. June 27, 1723, 
Rebeckah, b. July 25, 1697, dau. of Nathaniel and Anne Eames ; she 
d. July 7, 1738, and he m. (2d) July 7, 1746, Prudence Stone ; ch. all 
by 1st m. I. Rebeckah ; ii. Daniel, d. y. ; iii. Joseph; iv. Daniel, b. 
July 16, 1732, 5 ; v. Rebeckah ; vi. Ann. 



6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 



Daniel* Bigelow, b. July 16, 1732 ; m. Mar. 20, 1754, 
Martha, b. Dec. 15, 1728, dau. of Daniel and Eliza (Rice) 
Pratt. The family came from Fram. to F. in 1782 or 
before, and rem. from F. ab, 1800. 

Daniel and Martha Bigelow admitted to clih. in F. 
Mar. 31, 1782. Daniel taxed in F. to and including 
1709. Thomas was the only one of his ch. who settled 
in F., though it is supposed that Amos lived in town 
for a few years. Ch. all b. in Fram. 

I. Ainos\ b. Sept. 15, 1755 ; m. Feb., 1784, Anne 
Brown. 

II. Daniel, b. June 14, 1758 ; m. Mar., 1783, Eliza- 
beth, b. June 24, 1762, dau. of Peter and 
Lydia (Pratt) Gallot or (lallop, of Fram., and 
rem. to Keene, N. H., ab. 1800. 

III. ReUckah, b. Oct. 14, 1760 ;^ m. Jan. 20, 1791, 
Nathaniel Kingsbury, of K. 

IV. Mitty, b. Dec. 6, 1762. 
V. Mar'tha, b. Aug. 27. 1765. 

VI. Thomas', b. Apr. 20, 1768 + . 

VII. Anna, b. June 26, 1771. 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 



471 



(11) 



U 

15 

IG 

IT 

18 

19 

30 

21 
•)■) 



Thomas' Bigelow, b. Apr. 20, 1768 ; m. rianniili 
Lewis, of Fram.; rem. ab. 1803 from F. to Keeiic, and 
a few years later to \t., where he res. in Pittsford, 
Hubbardton, and Castleton, where both d. ab. 1820. 
Ch. i.-v. b. in F. 

I. Hannah, b. 1794 ; d. a. ab. 60. 

II. Daniel, b. Oct. 6, 1795 ; d. in Mich., a. 84. 

ITI. Polly, b. x\ng. 3, 1797 ; m. Joel Saunders, q.v. 

IV. Rufus. b. Mar. 21. 1799 ; d. a. S2. 

Y. Levi, b. Mar. 9, 1801 + . 

VI. Thomas, d. in Mich., a. ab. 50. 

VII. Roxana, d. in Benson, Vt., a. ab. 50. 

VIII. Sarah was living in Wisconsin in 1884. 

IX. Lucy, d. in Castleton, Vt., a. 51. 

X. Samuel, d. in infancy. 



(17) 



23 

24 
25 
26 

27 

28 



Levi" Bigelow, b. Mar. 9, 1801 ; d. Feb. 5, 1885 ; 
m. Mav 20, 1824, Pollv, b. Mar. 2, 1803 ; d. Mar. 31, 
1874, dan. of David cind Polly (Spofford) Cutter, of 
Jalfrcy ; m. (2d) Sept. 10, 1876, Cordelia Wilson, of 
Otisvi'lle, la. She d. Apr. 3, 1880. The family res. in 
F. from 1824 to 1858, when they rem. to Iowa ; res. 
Oakland Valley, Li. 



I. 



II. 
III. 

IV. 



VI. 



m, 



Purington 






1828. 



Levi Spofford, b. May 31^, 1825 

1849, Ann Elizabeth 

cester, Mass. 
Horace, b. Oct. 8, 1827 ; 
Horace, b. July 15, 1830 
Elizabeth, b. Oct. 4, 1831 

q.v. 
Mary, b. Oct. 31, 1836 ; 

Mar. 19, 1855, S. Willard Hartwell, q.v. 
Elliot S., b. Apr. 22, 1878. 



Apr. 25, 
res. Wor- 



d. Sept. 

; d. June 18, 1848. 

; m. Eli Adams Smith, 

d. Oct. 14, 1875 ; m. 



(3) SAsruEL- Bigelow, s. of John', b. Oct. 28, 16o3 ; d. 1733 (?) ; m. 
1673, Mary Flaepr. of Watertown, ]\Iass.; cli. b. in W. i. John, b. May 9, 
1675, 29 ; II- Mary ; iir. Samuel ; iv. Sarah ; \. Thomas ; vi. Marcy ; 
VI r. Abigail ; viii. Deliverance. 

29 John\ b. May 9, 1675 ; d. Sept. 8, 1769 ; m. June 13, 1696, 
Jerusha Garfield, and settled in Marlboro, Mass.; she d. Jan. 16, 1758 ; 
ch. b. in 31. i. Jeruslia ; ii. Thankful ; in. Joseph, b. Jan. 1, 1703, 
30 '■> i^'- John ; V. Comfort ; vi. Freedom ; vir. Anna, and viii. 
Gershom, twins ; ix. Jotham ; x. Benjamin ; xi. Sarah. 

30 Joseph'', b. Jan. 1, 1703 ; m. 1725, Martha Brigham, and lived 
in Shrewsbury, Muss.; bis s., 

31 Charles", lived in S. ; his s., 



472 
32 



33 
34 

35 
36 



37 

38 

39 
40 
41 



(33) 



42 



43 

44 
45 
46 
47 

48 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

Joseph" Bigelow, b. in S., Apr. 15, 1766 ; d. May 
17, 1845 ; m. Lucy, b. Mar. 23, 1769 ; d. Oct. 30, 1845, 
dau. of Timothy and Katheriiio Wliitiiey, of S. They 
rem. to Boylstoii, Mass., and from thence to F. Settled 
on L 5 R 11. Ch. b. i. in B., ii.-ix. in F. 

I. Joseph, b. Sept. 22, 1787+. 
II. Catharine, b. Aug. '2Q, 1789 ; m. Peter Prescott, 
q.v. 

III. Asahel, b. Oct. 15, 1791. 

IV. Levi, b. Sept. 13, 1794 ; m. Jan., 1821, Esther 

French and settled in Randolph, Vt., where 
he d. July 8, 1874. 
Y. Lucy, b. Aug. 20, 1797 ; d. Aug. 28, 1822, 

unm. 
VI. Lyman, b. Dec. 8, 1799 ; d. July 18, 1840, at 

Charleston, S. C. 
VII. Charles, b. Feb. 7, 1802+. 
VIII. Zehina, b. July 27, 1804 : d. Xov. 10, 1810. 
IX. Mary Whitney, b. Mar. 10, 1808; d. May 21, 
1831, unm. 



Joseph' Bigelow, b. Sept. 22, 1787 ; d. Aug. 15, 
1834 ; m. Eunice, dau. of Barnabas Doty, of Mont- 
pelier, \t. She m. (2d), 1841, Robert Thompson, of 
Royalston — his second wife. She d. Aug. 27, 1848. 
Ch, b. I. and vi. in M., ii. in Charleston, N. 13., iii. 
and IV. in F., v. in R. 

I. William Fordice, h. Dec. 14, 1817 ; m. Mar, 
25, 1844, Susan Maria, b. July 8, 1823 ; d. 
Aug, 17, 1873, dau. of Ilervey and Fidelia 
Taft, of R. ; m. (2d) Dulcena, dau. of Cyrus 
Davis, of R., and wid. of William Reed. Ch. 
all b. in R., where he still res. 

1. Delia Maria, b. Jan. 1, 1848 ; m. John 

Lowe, of Worcester, Mass., where they 
reside. 

2. Joseph Hervey, b. May 17, 1849 ; m. 

; res. Springfield, Mass. 

3. Lyman Edward, b. June 18, 1851 ; m. 

; res. Orange, Mass. 

4. Ellen Ilazen, b. Sept. 27, 1854 ; d. Jan. 

10, 1885. 

II. Sardine Sparroio, b. 'Nov. 9, 1819 ; d. June 9, 

1848 ; m. Oct. 30, 1845, Sarah M., b. Oct. 1, 

1827 ; d. Nov. 6, 1875, dau. of Samuel and 

Nancy (Locke) Hill, s.p. 

III. Lncretia Doty, b. Jan, 3, 1822 ; d. Nov. 2, 1876 ; 






Qd /i^-^ 




GENEALOGICAL KEGISTEE. 



473 



49 
50 
51 
53 



53 

54 
55 
56 



57 



58 

59 
60 



(39) 



61 



m. Dec. 34, 1845, John Worcester, b. Dec, 
15, 1818 ; d. Dec. 13, 1879, s. of John and 
Sully (Kimball), of JafTrey ; res. Medina, 
Mich. Ch. b. 1 in Jaffrcy, 3 and 3 in M. 

1. ITelcn Maria Worcester, b. Sept. 17, 

1847 ; d. May 6, 1849. 

2. Charles Fremont Worcester, b. Mar. 27, 

1863 ; res. Sheldon, la. 

3. George Edward Worcester, b. Nov. 15, 

1866 ; res. Sheldon, la. 

IV. Charles Prescott, b. Dec. 13, 1824 ; d. Oct. 14, 

1883 ; m. Aug. 6, 1856, at Clinton, Mich., 

Cornelia S.,b. Mar. 13, 1839, dau. of William 

and Sarah (Holbrook) Hubbard, of Cum- 

mington, Mass., and wid. of Mitchell. 

Ch. b. 1 in Palmyra, Mich., 3 in Menasha, 
Wis.; res. Pontiac, Mich. 

1. Helen Louisa, b. May 1, 1857 ; m. Jan. 

9, 1883, Ludovic K.' Cole, of P. 

1. Ivy C. Cole, b. Nov. 7, 1884. 
3. Charles Edmond, b. Nov. 34, 1870 ; res. 
P. 
V. Lucy Ann, b. June 39, 1838; unm.; res. Shel- 
don, la. 
Yi. Albert Stillman, b. Sept. 10, 1831 ; m. May 14, 
1855, Lydia Maria, b. May 3, 1834 ; d. Sept. 
24, 1872, dau. of John and Lovisa (Converse) 
Buss, of Marlboro, N. H.; m. (2d) Apr. 10, 
1873, Alice L., b. Dec. 36, 1854, dau. of 
Thaddeus and Eliza H. (Buss) Metcalf, of 
M.; res. M. 

1. Arthur Fremont, b. Mar. 31, 1856 ; m. 
May 38, 1877, AnnaM., dau. of George 
W. "Ellis, of Swanzev. 
3. Edith Maria, b. Mar"; 7, 1860 ; d. Aug. 
33, 1861. 

3. Arlie Wilson, b. Aug. 15, 1863. 

4, Lester Lvman, b. June 6, 1869 ; d. Feb. 

10, 1871. 

Chaeles" Bigelow, b. Feb. 7, 1803 ; d. Feb. 3, 
1880 ; m. Sept. 15, 1831, Elizabedi ; d. July 35, 1841, 

a. 37, dau. of Nichols, of Royalston ; m. (2d) July 

3, 1843, Lucy, b. Jan. 11, 1811, dau. of John and Han- 
nah (Stone) Whittemore. 

I. Isaac Lyman, b. Oct. 37, 1833 ; m. Aug. 7, 
1879, Delia J., b. Sept. 19, 1853, dau. of 



474 



HISTORY OF FTTZWILLIAM, 



62 
63 
64 



65 

66 

67 

68 
69 
70 

71 



73 

74 



75 
76 



7 



78 



II. 



Thomas and Elizabeth Anderson, of St. 
Mary's, Out.; res. Bay City, Mich. 
1." Cliarles Lyman, b. June 1, 1881. 
2. Ella May, b. July 14, 1882. 
Mary Elizabetli, b. Aug. 30, 1836 ; m. Jan. 30, 
1856, Abner S. Bardeu, b. Oct. 19, 1831, s. 
of Abner and Nancy (Scott) ; res. Richmond. 
1. Ilattie E. Barden, b. Dec. 6, 1856 ; m. 
July 6, 1875, Silas 0. Martin, b. Nov. 
2, 1849, s. of Danvers and Olive 
(Whipple). 

A. Martin, b. Feb. 12, 



III. 

IV. 
V. 



VI. 



VII. 



1. 



2. 



Percy 
1876. 
Stella 

1878. 



R. Martin, b. Apr. 13, 



2. Charles A. Barden, b. Sept. 17, 1859. 

3. Mary I. Barden, b. July 21, 1862. 
Harriet Newell, b. July 4, 1838 ; d. Jan. 29, 

1840. 
Lucy Charlotte, b. Aug. 3, 1843. 
Hannah, b. Mar. 28, 1845 ; m. Apr. 1, 1867, 

William H. Blanchard, b. May 3, 1840, s. of 

Rosel and Paulina (Ingalls), of Parishville, 

N. Y. 

1. Alice May Blanchard, b. July 12, 1879 ; 
d. Nov. "29, 1884. 
Charles Danvers, b. Oct. 12, 1846 ; m. June 12, 

1870, Frances M., b. Dec. 11, 1847, dau. of 

George W. and Sophia M. (Cliapin) Waters, 

of Jaffrey. 

1. Frederick Sylvanus, b. Apr. 29, 1874. 

2. Annie Maria, b. June 2, 1877. 

John Herbert, b. Feb. 14, 1852 ; m. June 19, 
1877, Mary Abby, b. Nov. 27, 1850, dau. of 
David N. and Abigail R. (Alexander) Putney. 



1. 



Charles 
Troy. 



Irwin, b. 



Aug. 



20, 1879 ; res. 



Agabus Bishop and w. Rebecca are said to have 
come from Wrentham, Mass. Instead of coming with 
an ox-team, as Avas the nsual manner, he came with a 
horse and wagon, and for some years this was the only 
horse in that part of the town. He settled ab. 1778 on 
L 18 R 12. lie d. Dec. 26, 1795. His wid. was taxed 
to 1802. They had 10 ch., all b. before the family came 
toF. 

I. Rebecca, m. William Clark (s. of Thomas?). 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 475 

After living in town a few years they went 
West. 
II. Dolly, m. Nathaniel Buekland, Jr. L 1!» R Vl 
was taxed to Rufiis Buckland in 1788, and to 
Xathaniel liuckland in 1790. Rufus prOb. 
never lived in town. Nath. and Nath., Jr., 
rem. ab. 1797. 

4 III. Hannah, m. Robert Bowditch ; lived in Vt.(:) 

5 IV. Abigail, m. Ezekiel Miles ; res. Wallingford, Vt. 

6 V. Betaey, m. Aaron Parks ; res. Springfield, Vt. 

7 Ti. Liicy, m. Aaron Spofford ; res. Peru (Vt. or 
N. Y. ?). 

8 Yii. Polly, m. James C. Allen ; res. AYallinoford, Vt. 

9 VIII. JcKse, m. Godding, a sister of Timothvand 

John. Jesse d. Oct. 3, 1790. His w. d. Sept. 
6, 1790. 

10 IX. Ayahus, m. Rebecca Sweetland, prob. dan. of 
John Sweetland, who settled on L 22 R 11. 
John S. was taxed to 1799, and John S., Jr., 
1797 to 1801. The Sweetlands rem. to Vt. 

11 1. Jesse, b. Jnly 4, 1800 ; d. ab. 1860 ; m. 

Lucinda, b. 1799 : (J. 1837, dan. of 
Jesse and Rose (Swift) Ballon, of Rich- 
mond ; res. R. 

12 1. Smith, b. Nov. 12, 1814. 

13 2. Betsey, b. Aug. 10, 1818. 

14 3. Lois. b. Apr."22, 1823; m. Har- 
rison Taft, of R. 

15 X. Tn7//a?«, d. Feb. 6, 1831, a. 57 v. He m. Betsey 
Jessup, of Warwick, Mass. She d. Aug. 21, 
1830, a. 57 y. 

16 1. Hosea, b. July 3, 1803. 

17 2. George, b. Feb. 27, 1806 ; d. Julv 10, 

1828. 



18 ; SiMEOx Bishop was taxed 1795-96. 

19 Bethuel Bishop m. another sister of T. and J. 
Godding and rem. to Shrewsbury, Vt. 

20 Lavi]S"A Bishop m. Cadish Boyce, of Richmond. 

i 

1 i Daniel Chandler Bissell, s. of Cliauncey and 

Philena (Cune) Bissell, was b. Oct, 9, 1814, in Marlboro, 
Vt., and came to F. ab. 1834 ; m. Feb. 10, 1841, Lydia, 
b. in Keene, N. H., May 27, 1823, dan. of CJeoige and 
Betsey (Kneeland) Lebourveau, and sister of "William, 
q.v. Ch. b. George W. in Marlboro, N. II., others in F. 

2 I. Frances J., b. Dec. 19, 1841 ; m. June 10, 1862, 



476 



4 
5 
6 



8 
9 

10 
11 

12 



13 

14 

15 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

George' Coolidge, b. Feb. 6, 1833 ; d. Jan. 8, 
1880, s. of Asher' (who was s. of Abraham") 
and Olive (Starkey) Coolidge, of Troy. See 
Coolidge (6) ; res. Akron, 0. 

1. Minnie A. Coolidge, b. in Fitchburg, 

Mass. 

2. Oscar H. Coolidge, b. Southbridge, Mass. 

3. Nellie E. Coolidge, b. Akron, 0, 

4. Lizzie A. Coolidge, b. Akron, 0.; d. Oct. 

11, 1872. 
II. George F., b. June 24, 1852; m. Liiella \. 
Lynn, and res. in Akron, 0. 

in. Addie M., b.*May 6, 1854 ; m. Charles S. Saf- 

ford. See Smith, No. 27. 
IV. Alice M., b. May 7, 1856 ; d. Apr. 26, 18o.. 
V. Willie, b. Mar. 24, 1858. 



George Bissell, a bro. of Daniel C., d. Dec. 28, 
1852, a. 36 y.; m. Nov. 5, 1845, Mary S., b.Aug. 20, 
1824, dan. of Henry and Betsey (Bent) Shirley, q.v. 
(She m. (2d] Levi Phillips, q.v.) 

I. Luella F., b. 1853(?) ; d. Sept. 20(?), 1875, at 
Manchester, Vt., nnm. 



Emerson E. Bissell, another bro. of D. C, m- ^ept 
17, 1850, Sarah S., dan. of Simeon and Lois (btone) 
Merri field, q.v. 

J\mes W. Bissell, another bro. of D. C, m. Jnne 4, 
1851, Elizabeth M., b. 1829, dan. of Caleb and Louisa 
(Bowen) Boyce, q.v. 



1 William' Blake, the eniigrant ancestor of the Blakes of New ^n^- 
l.nd w™e s of Giles and Dorothy (Twedy) Blake, and y^s b. in 
l-^qhrLitt e Badclow county of Essex, England, where several genera- 

iot of 1 fam Iv^ad resided. He, with his f-^»y^/^-\^o \his 
cXitry iu 1630, and settled in Dorchester, Mass where he d. Aug. .., 
1603. His wid., Agnes, d. July 22, 16 < 8. Mis s., 

2 EDWARD^ b. ab. 1625 ; m. Patience Pope, of D., and settled in 
i\Iilton, Mass. His s., 

3 .JoNATHAi.% b. .July 5, 1672 ; m. Mar. 16, 1699, Elizabeth Candage, 
of Cambridge, and res. in Boston. His s., 

4 EBEKEZKB^ b. 1709 ; d. Mar. 14, 1794 ; in Dec. ll;1^29,/at^°^^- 
neUaPeck, of Relioboth ; she d. Sept. 11, 1 '^7, a. 50 y., and he m. 
{2d) Elizabeth Partridge ; res. Wrentham. His s., 

5 EbekezeuS b. Sept. 28, 1730; d. Sept. 11, 1819; m. Oct. 11, 




v.4^--^-^--^^ <i/3^<^/i^ 



GENEALOGICAL KEGISTEK. 



477 



1756, Tamar Thompson, Avho d. Nov. 13, 1775, and he m. (3d) Feb. 8, 
1777, Anna Hodges. She d. June U, 17815, and he m. (:ld) Jan. 28, 1784, 
Raehel Balconi, d. Aug. 24, 18;];] ; res. W. His s., 

Q ELEAZEH^ b. Apr. 1, 1757 ; rem. to Rindge in 1702, and d. Sept. 
27, 1858 ; m. Nov. 29, 1785, Jerusha, dau. of Gamaliel and Jerusha 
(Mann) Gerould, of W. She d. May 20, 1849, a. 89 y. His s., 



rv 



9 
10 

11 

12 

13 

14 
15 



16 
17 



18 
19 



Ebenezer' Blake, b. Nov. 10, 1800 ; m. July 12, 
1824, Hepsibeth, b. Dec. 3, 1802 ; d. Nov. 10, 1874, dau. 
of Amos and Lydia (Jewett) Jewett, of Eindge ; res. R. 



I. Bela S]iedd\ b. June 25, 1825 ; m. Dec. 



35, 

res. 



1857, Sarah Howard, of New York Cit3' 
Cincinnati, 0. 
II. Henry, b. Sept. 17, 182G, num.; res. Keene. 

III. Pliny Fiskc, b. Oct. 14, 1827 ; d. Aug. i, 1853, 

nnm. 

IV. Milton, b. May 22, 1829 ; m. Sept. 14, 1857, 

Augusta N. Paul, of Hartland, Vt. ; res. K. 
V. Charles Locke, b. Jan. 17, 1831 ; d. Oct. 3, 

18G4, unm. 
VI. ArviUa, b. Dec. 22, 1832 ; d. Mar. 30, 1870 ; 

m. Nov. 1, 1853, Eliphaz H. Allen. 
VII. John Marshall, b. May 14, 1835 ; d. Oct. 18, 

1857, in Iowa, unm. 
VIII. Amos Jewett, b. Oct. 20, 183(3 ; m. Dec. 26, 
1865, Lizzie A., b. June 23, 1840 ; d. Juno 
22, 1867, dau. of Dennis and Lucv (Ball) 
Howe, of R.; m. (2d) Jan. 2, 1883, Flora E., 
b. Sept. 1, 1845, dau. of Nathan and Mary L. 
(Miles) Stone, q.i\; res. in F. since 1863. 

1. Howard^ b. Feb. 23, 1867 ; d. Sept. 8, 

1867. 

2, Leroy Stanley, b. Nov. 5, 1883. On his 

mother's side he is also the ninth gen- 
eration from the emigrant ancestor of 
the Stone family. 
IX. Hiram, b. Feb. 9, 1838 ; res. in K. 
X. Maria Elizaheth, b. July 17, 1839 ; m. Jan. 22, 
1872, Eliphaz H. Allen— his 2d m. See No. 
13 above. Res. Bradford, Vt. 

Ebekezer Blanding was a native of Rehoboth, Mass. 
Came to Royaiston. From thence rem. to Richmond, 
and from thence to Richfield, N. Y., where he d. a. ab. 
90 y. He had 17 ch. His s., 

Otis, lived in R. and F.; rem. to Michigan, where 
he d. He m. Dec. 1, 1808, Abigail, dau. of Jeremiah 
Barrus, of R.; m. (2d) Jan, 20, 1825, Sarah, b. Aug. 



478 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 



11 

12 

13 

14 

(9) 



15 
16 
17 

18 



IV. 
V. 



VI. 



20, 1797, dan. of Daniel and Lydia (Sweet) Cass, of R. 
She d. and he m. (3d) Mary Ann, b. Sept. 28, 1803 ; d. 
Aug. G, 1832, at Adrian, Mich., dan. of Alexander and 

Eunice (Hawes) Foster, of F. ; m. (4th) Wheeler, 

of ■ , Mich. Ch. b. i., ii., iv., v., in E.; in. in 

Hamilton, N. Y. ; vi. in F., vii. in Adrian ; 5 ch. by 
1st m., 1 each by 2d and 3d ni. 

I. Harvey, b. May 1, 1809 ; d. Mar. 23, 1859 ; m. 

Dec. 3, 1835, Mary, dan. of Zalmon and 
Phebe (Holt) Howe. He was a pail mann- 
factnrer in Troy. 

1. Mary Jane, b. Apr. 3, 1837 ; m. Apr. 

20, 1853, James Robb. 

2. Oscar Joel, b. Feb. 2G, 1842. 

3. Janette Adeline, b. Nov. 11, 1846. • 
II. Jason, b. Ang. 21, 1811 ; d. June 12, 1840. 

III. Prudence, b. Jan. 24, 1813 ; m. Dennis Bowen, 
s. of Zephaniah and Martha (Allen), of R. 

(Jscar F., b. Nov. 4, 1819+. 

Mansel M., b. Apr. 17, 1822 ; m. Dec. 24, 
1845, Persis M., dan. of Zimri and Parna 
(Howe) Ingalls, of R. 

William Ebenezer, b. Sept. 9, 1826 ; d. Jan. 3, 
1861, at F.; m. Aug. 10, 1855, Hannah E., 
b. Ang. 5, 1830 ; d. June 9, 1860, dan. of 
Daniefand Lucy (Sweetser) White, of F. 
• VII. Caroline Sahra, m. David B. Day. He served 
in the War of the Rebellion, and d. Ang., 
1864, at Andersonville. 

1. Walter Edmund Day, b. Aug. 8, 1854, 

in F. 

2. Edwin Harvey Day, b. Nov. 12, 1858, in 

Templetou, Mass. 

Oscar F., b. Nov. 4, 1819 ; m. June 5, 1844, Lydia, 
b. Mar. 24, 1821 ; d. Aug. 21, 1845, dau. of Thomas 
and Lydia (Cook) Goddard, of Richmond ; m. (2d) May 
18, 1846, Hannah, b. Dec. 4, 1820, dau. of Henry and 
Polly (Smith) Whipple, of Warwick ; res. R. and F. 
Ch. b. in R. 

I. Oscar G., b. July 24, 1845 ; m. Laura M. 
Peeler, and res. at Atliol, Mass. 

II. Anrora Jane, b. Feb. 28, 1848 ; m. Cliarles H. 

Leathe, and res. at Otter River, Mass. 

III. La2ira Ann, b. Sept. 27, 1849 ; m. George N. 

Dyer, and res. at Gardner, Mass. 

IV. Henry W., b. Jan. 10, 1852 ; m. Nellie Rugg, 

and res. at G. 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 



479 



19 
20 



Y. Hattie P., b. Jan. 28, 1854 

and res. at Otter R. 
VI. Lyman 11. , b. Jan. 24, 1858. 



m. 



C. C. Dyer, 



BLODGETT. 

1 Thomas' Blodgett (originally spelled Blogget), a. 30 y., and 
Susanna, his w. a. 87 y., came to this country from London, England, 
in the ship Increase, in the year 163o. They brought with them 2 eh., 
Daniel and Samuel, and had 2 cli., Susan and Thomas, b. in this country. 
They settled in Cambridge, Mass., where he had a grant of land, and 
w^herc he d. 1G42. His s., 

2 Samuel'-, settled in Woburn, Mass., where he was a prominent and 
influential citizen. His s., 

3 Thomas', b. Feb. 26, 1661 ; d. Sept. 29, 1740 ; m. Nov. 11, 1085, 
Rebecca Tidd, of Woburn. His s., 

4 Samuel*, bapt. in Lexington, Mass., .June 17, 1702 ; d. .Jan. 23, 
1773 ; m. June 26, 1726, Mary Russell. His s., 

5 TLMOTHY^ b. Aug. 7. 1740 ; d. Jan. 13, 1831 ; m. Millicent Perry, 
and had 12 ch., one of whom was Timothy", b. Sept. 24, 1766. 



6 



8 
9 



10 
11 
12 



Timothy* Blodgett, b. Sept. 24, 1760 ; d. Xov. 29, 
1855 ; m. Apr. 20, 1786, Elizabeth Stiles*, b. Sept. 4, 
1765 ; d. May 15, 1850, dan. of Edmond and Elizabeth 
(Preston) Stiles, of Wendell, Mass. Came from North - 
field, Mass., in the spring of 1797, and settled first on 
L 4 K 8, which had been previously owned by Thomas 
Stratton. Ch. b. i.-iii. in Wendell (?) ; iv. in North- 
field, Mass. ; v.-ix. in E. 

I. Parna\ b. May 4, 1790; m. Feb. 15, 1814, 
Samuel Parker, of Montpelier, Vt. She d. 
Sept. 22, 1873, at Bolton, Vt. 
ir. Ashley, b. Mar. 24, 1792 ; res. Norwich, Vt. 

III. Betsey, b. June 21, 1794; m. Jan. 24, 1817, 

Warren Kendall, of Dover, Vt. She d. Feb. 
22, 1827, at Buffalo, N. Y. 

IV. Joseph, b. Oct. 28, 1796 + . 

Y. Malta, b. July 14, 1799 ; d. Jan. 14, 1828, unm. 
VI. Roxana, b. Sept. 13, 1801 ; m. Mar. 19, 1822, 



* In the year 1638 a company of emigrants undor the spiritual lead of Rev. Ezekiel 
Rogers came from Yorkshire, Euglaua, and settled in Rowley, Mass. One of iliis 
company was 

1. RoBKRT Stiles, who m. Oct. 4, IGOO, Elizabeth Frye, of Andover, Mass. Ho d. 
July 30, 1090. Their s., 

3. John, b. Jnne 30, 1661, m. Deliverance Towne, of Topsfield, Mass. Their s., 

3. JouN, bapt. Dec. 16, 1088, at Topsfield, m. Eleanor Pearl, of Boxford, Mass. Their s., 

4. Ben.jasiin, b. Nov. 4, 1716 ; d. July 2."), 1703; m. Jan. 11, 1737, Elizabeth Foster, of 
Andover, Mass. Tlieir s., 

5. Edmond, b. Nov. 33, 1740 ; d. at Wendell, Mass , July 23. 1815 ; m. Oct. 11, 1763, Eliza- 
beth rYe.>iton, who d. ar, F., Sept. 39, 1838, a. 88 y. Tliey had 2 ch., both b. in Shrewsbury, 
Mass., Phineas and Elizabeth". Elizabeth" m. Timothy Blodgelt, as stated above. 



480 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



13 

14 

15 
(10) 



16 



17 



18 
19 

20 

n 

22 
23 

24 
25 

26 

27 



William Chase, Jr., of Royalston, where she 

d. Feb. 24, 1837. 
VII. Timothy, b. Apr. 17, 1804 ; d. Oct. 15, 1856, at 

Bolton, P. Q., Canada. 
Yiii Nancii, b. Oct. 30, 1806 ; d. Sept. 15, 1857 ; 

m. Jan. 16, 1827, Ethan Cutter, of Jaffrey, s. 

of John and Rebecca (Demary). 
IX. Lovlsa, b. Oct. 7, 1809 ; m. Barrett Whitte- 

more, q.v. 



Joseph' Blodgett, b. Oct. 28, 1796 ; m. June 23, 
1822, Hannah, b. June 23, 1800 ; d. Sept. 29, 1876, 
dau. of Charles and Hannah (Stewart) Chase, of Jaffrey. 
Mr. B. was in his 91st y. when the portrait of him 
which is here given was taken, and the oldest person res. 
in F. Ch. all b. in F. 

I Maria', b. Mar. 29, 1823 ; m. May 13, 1845, 
Michael Cloney, b. Oct. 15, 1815 ; d. Dec. 11, 
1874. He was a native of Ireland ; came to 
F. ab. 1841, and rem. to V^ermont ab. 1847. 
Mrs. C. res. in Manchester, Vt. 

1 Andrew Bailey' Cloney, b. May 18, 1846, 
at F. ; m. (1st) Celia Barnard, of Man- 
chester, Vt. She d. and he m. (2d) 
Ada Stevens, of Dorset, Vt. ; res. Wni- 
chendon. Ch. by 1st m. 

1. Mary Emma'" Clo7iey, b. Nov. 1, 
1868, at Manchester. 

2 Mary Lovisa' Cloney, b. Dec. 2, 1849, at 
Rutland, Vt. ; m. Alfred H. Bowman, 
of Manchester, where they res. 

1. Alfred Guy" Bowman, b. July 20, 
1870. 

2. Winfred A. Boivman, b. May 18, 
1872. 

3. Earl Cloney Boioman, b. Aug. 26, 
1875. 

4 D wight A. Boimnan, b. June 8, 
1880 ; d. Sept. 2, 1881. 

3. Emma Maria Cloney, b. Apr., 1853 : d. 
Apr., 1856. ^^^^ 

4. Joseph Herbert Cloney, b. Dec. 9, 1859 ; 
d. Feb., 1860. 

II. Eliza, b. Sept. 7, 1824 ; d. Apr. 11, 1826. 
III. Eliza Ann, b. July 1, 1826 ; m. Franklin Ken- 
dall, q.v.; m. (2d) Jan. 3, 1860, Elisha Hark- 
ness, who d. in the army, May 31, 1863 ; m. 
(3d) Apr. 28, 1873, Lewis D. Pease. 




JOSEPH BLODGETT. 



PHOTO-GRAVCRB CO . N Y 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 



4S] 



28 
29 
30 



31 
32 
33 



34 



35 
36 

37 
38 



39 

40 

(32) 



41 



V. 

VI. 
YII. 



VIII. 



IV. Joseph, b. July 13, 1828 ; ni. Emily Potter. 

1. Joseph Ellcry", d. July 25, 1876, a. 23 v. 

2. Etlie Stiles, "b. Dec. 4", 1854 ; m. Dec. 8, 
18T5, Walter Israel Peck, b. Aug. 8, 
1853, at Waterville, Vt.; d. Jan. 24, 
1880, at Marlboro, N. H., s. of Ahial 
and Maria (Jeudevine). 

Phebe, b. Sept. 3, 1830 ; m. Horace Coolidge, g.r. 

Ethan, b. Oct. 17, 1832+. 

Timothy, b. May 31, 1835 ; m. Mar. 13, 1801 . 
Jane IL, b. Mar. 13, 183G, dau. of Dea. Calvin 
and Patty (Hyde) Coolidge, q.v. 

Hannah Jane, b. Aug. 27, 1838 ; d. Jan. 13, 
1885 ; m. Mar. 9, 1865, Jerome H. Tovvsley, 
s. of William and Electa, of Eupert, Yt. ; res. 
Winchendon. Ch. b. in F. 

1. Abbie Maria" Towslej/, b. Mar. 18, 186i). 

2. William Joseph TowsJeij, b. Oct. 16, 

1870. 

3. Jennie Etta Towsley, b. Apr. 0, 1874. 
IX. diaries Simeon, b. Dec. 9, 1842 ; m. Feb. IT, 

1876, Sarah Flint, of Bowen's Prairie, la. 
She was b. Nov. 9, 1848, in Winchester, N. H.. 
and was dau. of Ezekiel and Sarah (Willard) 
Flint ; res. Kimball, Dak. Ch. b. in Water- 
loo, la. 

1. Hattie L., b. June 6, 1877. 

2. Arthur B., b. Aug. 27, 1882. 

Ethan^ Blodgett, b. Oct. 17, 1832 ; m. Mar. 23, 
1854, Mary Mayhew, b. Apr. 6, 1833, dau. of William 
Howland and Martha (Whittemore) Manchester, of New 
Bedford, Mass. Ch. b. i. and v.-viii. at F.; ii. at 
Hopkinton, la. ; iii. and iv. at Templeton, Mass. 

I. William Ethan\ b. Mar. 27, 1855 ; m. Aug. 31, 
1878, Nellie Eldora, b. Sept. 11, 1856, in 
Quincy, Mass., dau. of Henry and Mary E. 
Havden. 

1. William Henry'", b. Mar. 25, 1880. 

2. Hattie Howland, b. Aug. 6, 1881. 
Mary Martha, b. Dec. 25, 1856. 
Zenas Arllnir, b. Dec. 29, 1858. 
Susan Hannah, b. Sept. 1, 1860. 
Minnie Lincoln, b. Mar. 24, 1866 ; d. Dec. 13, 

1870. 
Grace Gertrude, b. Mar. 4, 1868. 
Thomas Mayhew, b. Dec. 25, 1869. 
Joseph Bertice, b. June 28, 1873. 



42 




43 




44 


II 


45 


III 


46 


IV 


47 


V 


48 


VI 


49 


VII 


50 


VIII 




31 



482 HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 

51 Joseph' Blodgett, a bro. of Timothy", came to 
F. ab. 1799, and d. here, Sept. 16, 1822 (a. 45 y.), 
though it is not certain that he lived in town all the 
intervening years. His w. was Thankful Hawkes, of 
Deer field, Mass. Five ch. (i.-v.) of " late Joseph 
Blodgett and his now widow. Thankful," were bapt. 
July 16, 1823. Three more are added from rec. ^of 
deaths. This prob. makes the fu41 number of ch., but 
the correct order cannot be given. 

52 I. TJianhful Tryphosa. 

53 II. Edmund Stiles, b. at Deerfield, Mass.; d, Apr. 1, 
1886 ; m. May 15, 1834, Rebecca, b. May 27, 
1811, dan. of William S. and Polly (Locke) 
Whittemore, q.v.; res. Bo wen's Prairie, la. 
Ch. b. in F. 

54 1. William Barrett, b. July 19, 1835 ; d. 

Apr. 19, 1861, nnm. 

55 2. Joseph Timothy, b. Apr. 5, 1837 ; d. 

May 1, 1851. 

56 3. Frederick Herbert, b. Aug. 22, 1840 ; 

d. Mar. 26, 1863, at Memphis, Tenn., 
in the army. 

57 III. Susanna Fidelia. 

58 IV. Lucy Angeline. 

59 V. Selah Hawkes. 

60 VI. Child, d. Feb. 13, 1804. 

61 VII. Adaline, d. Oct. 29, 1817, a. 14 mos. 

62 VIII. Levi, a twin, d. Oct. 18, 1822, a. 4 y. 

63 Prescott Blodgett, perhaps a nephew of Joseph 49, 
lived in town ab. 4 y. ; was taxed 1832-35 ; his w. 
Belinda, d. Sept. 3, 1834, a. 23 j. ; his dan., 

64 I. Susan R., d. Sept. 15, 1834, a. 8 weeks. 

65 Levi Blodgett, taxed in F. 1804-1806. 

66 SiMEOJf Blodgett, of Deerfield, Mass., d. in F, Sept. 
2, 1842, a. 56 y. 

67 Jedidiah Fay m. Jerusha Blodgett, June 16, 1800. 

68 Isaac Lyon m. Sally Blodgett, Feb. 5, 1822. 

William Blood was taxed 3 y., 1807-1809. By w. 
Betsey he had ch. rec. in F. 

2 I. Mary, b. Apr. 26, 1808. 

3 II. Lor'ing, b. Oct. 13, 1809. 

Joseph Nelson Bosworth, s. of Joseph and Abigail, 



2 

3 

4 

5 
6 



8 
9 



2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

t 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 483 

was b. in lloyalston, May 11, 1820 ; m. Nov. 2, 1843, 
Lydia F,, b. 'in R., June 16, 1817, dau. of David and 
Joanna (Prescott) Moore, q.v.j res. in F. Ch. b. i. in 
Rindge, others in Royalstou. 

I. SaraJi Jane, b. Nov. 3, 1844 ; m. Henry M. 

Gilson. 
II. Abhie Joanna, b. Aug. G, 184G ; in. D. Francis 

"White, q.v. 

III. Ann Lydia, b. Dec. 15, 1848; m. Milton W. 

FLagg, q.v. 

IV. Myra Jerusha, b. Dec. 16, 1850. 

Y. Maria EUa, b. Aug. 10, 1852 ; m. Daniel Edgar 

Gilson. 
VI. Charles Prescott, b. Jan. 9, 1856 ; m. June 5, 

1878, Emma E., b. Oct. 27, 1857, dan. of 

Thomas and Susan (Whittemore) Perry, of 

F. ; res. Royalston. 

1. George. 

2. Winifred. 



Ebenezer Boutwell and family were in F. before 

1779, as in that year he was one of the petitioners for 
leave to build pews in the meeting-house. He lived on 
L 7 R 10, and sold to Jedidiah Fay. He rem. to 
Leverett, Mass., ab. 1798. By w. Polly he had ch. rec. 
inF. 

I. Elijali, bapt. Sept. 28, 1793. 

II. John, bapt. Sept. 28, 1793. 

III. Lucinda, b. Dec. 16, 1787 ; d. Apr. 24, 1797. 

IV. Calvin, b. Aug. 19, 1789. 
V. Levi, b. Sept. 12, 1792. 

VI. Nancy, b. Jan. 11, 1796. 
VII. Charles, b. Jan. 31, 1797. 

Thankful Boutwell, wid. of Franklin, d. Nov. 12, 
1780. 

BOWKER. 

John and Anna (Wright) Bowker, of Scituate, 
Mass., had 13 ch., of whom 6 came to N. H., 5 lived in 
F., and 1 in Walpole. Bartlet and John came to F. in 

1780, and having commenced a settlement, brought up 
their wives the next year. They bought L 19 and 20 
R 7. In the Proprietors' Tax-list of 1788 and in the 
penny lists of 1789-91, L 19 is set to John and L 20 to 
Bartlet, but in their division of the land Bartlet had L 



484 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 



(3) 



15 

16 

17 

18 



19 
20 

21 
22 
23 

24 
25 
26 

27 



28 



19, Charles came a few y. later, but was in town prob. 
as early as 1785. 

I. Rehecca, d. unm. 

II. Bartlet, b. Feb. 2, 1749+. 

III. Lucy, m. Simeon Damon. ( , ,, 

IV. Anna, m. Samuel Damon. ] ^^I'others. 

V. John-\-. 

VI. Hannali, m. Dea. Samuel Griffin, q.v. 

VII, Charles-]-. 

VIII. Rutli, m, Peleg Curtis. 
IX. Delight, d. at F. July 27, 1793, a. 33 y., unm, 

X. Stepiien-\-. 

XI. Elijah. 

XII. Relief, m. Peres Jacobs, 

XIII. Deziah, m. Joseph Cushing, bro. of Lucy. (See 
Stej)lien, No. 11.) 

Bartlet Bowker, b. Feb. 2, 1749 ; d. Jan. 16, 1829 ; 
m. Christiana Holmes. She d. Dec. 11, 1793, and he 
m. (2d) Sept. 7, 1794, Mrs. Susanna Wellington. She 
d. Apr. 5, 1797, and he m. (3d) Feb. 1, 1798, Jemima, 
b. Feb. 28, 1771 ; d. Apr. 4, 1847, dau. of Ezekiel and 
Anna (Miles) Knowlton, of Templeton, and wid. of 
Thomas Wright, of F., q.v. Ch. 6 by 1st m., 1 by 2d 
m., 7 by 3d m. Christiana, perhaps b. in Scituate, 
but all the others in F. 

I. Chridiayia, b. Feb. 20 ; d. Feb. 21, 1781. 

II. Rebecca, b. May 30, 1782 ; m. David Stowell, 

q.v. 

III. Bartlet, b. Dec. 6, 1784. 

IV. Stei^hen, b. Dec. 8, 1788 ; m, Apr. 7, 1814, 

Sally, b. Jan. 31, 1790, dau. of John and 
Sarah Whitney, q.v. Ch. rec. in F. 
1. Mary Ann, b. Mar. 16, 1815. 
V. Anna, b. Jan. 22, 1792 ; m. Ezekiel Collins, 
q.v. 

VI. Samuel, b. Jan. 22 ; d. Jan. 23, 1792 (twin). 

VII. Daniel, b. Jan. 12, 1795. 

VIII. Wright, b. Nov. 18, 1798 ; d. Dec. 

unm. 
IX. Luke, b. Oct. 28, 1800+. 
X. Eli jail, b. Jan. 8, 1803 + . 

XI. Lucy, b. Nov. 3, 1804 ; d. Oct, 13, 1827, unm, 

XII. Cynthia, b. Feb. 12, 1807 ; m. Oct. 5, 1831, 
Dexter B. Rollins, of Charlestown, Mass. 
She m. (2d) Jesse Stone, q.v. 

1. Dexter Whittemore Rollins. 






1821, 



29 
30 






31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 

40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 

(8) 



47 
48 
49 

50 



51 
52 



53 
54 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 485 

.xiri. Bnxana, b. July 28, 1809 ; m. LeanJor H. 

Stovvell, q.v. 
XIV. Hannah, b. Mar. 25, 1815 ; m. James Corey, 

q-'f^'- \ 

Capt. John Bowker, m. Faith Holmes, sister of 
Christiana, w. of his bro. Bartlet. Faith d. July 20, 
1788, and he m. (2d) Annis Marshall, Dec. 10, i789 : 
rem. to Potsdam, N". Y., ab. 1810. Ch. 6 by 1st m., 10 
by 2d m. Lydia b. in Scituate, all the others in F. 

I. Lydia, b. Oct, 11, 1779. 
ir. John, b. A\\^. 1, 1781. 

III. Thuvias, b. Mar. 17, 1783. 

IV. Leafee (Eelief), b. Feb. 14, d. Feb. 16, 1785. 
V. Leafee, b. Feb. 13, 1786 ; d. Aug. 22, 1788. 

Ti. Hannah, b. Apr. 16, 1788 ; d. Sept. 2, 1788. 

Tii. Warren, b. Oct. 7, 1790 ; d. Apr. 7, 1791. 

VIII. Warren, b. June 16, 1792. 

IX. Leafee, b. Oct. 27, 1793 : m. Jan. 29, 1815, 

William 11. Wright, of Phillipston, Mass. 

X. Hannah, b. Aug. 26, 1795. 

XI. Salome, b. Nov. 9, 1798. 

xii. Infant, d. Oct. 7, 1800. 

XIII. Lncinda, b. Jan. 8, 1803. 

XIV. Bebecca, b. Aug. 27, 1805. 

XV. Benjamin Marshall, b. Jan. 12, 1808. 
XVI. Mary, bapt. Apr. 26, 1810. 
« 

Charles Bowker, d. July 21, 1839, a. 81 v.; m. 
Apr. 19, 1787, Beulah Stone, b. Feb. 22, 1767 ; d. Jan. 
24, 1836, dan. of Abuer and Lucy (Mellen), q.v. 

• T. Charles, b. July 24, 1787 ; res. Boston. 

II. Sylvester, b. Nov. 3, 1789 ; d. Mar. 25, 1793. 

III. Betsey, b. Aug. 29, 1793 ; m. Lyman Wright, 

q.v. 

IV. Sylvender, b. May 17, 1798 ; m. Louisa Storrow, 

of Boston. He d. 1828, and she m. (2d) Jesse 
Forristall, q.v. 

V. Leonard, b. May 13, 1801. 

VI. Melaneia, b. Sept. 7, 1803 ; m. July 27, 1831, 
Dr. fxcorge Newell, of Petersham, Mass. He 
d. and she m. (2d) Rev. John Storrs. 
VII. Laura, b. Dec. 9, 1805 ; m. Dec. 19, 1826, 

Ebenezer Roby, of Cambridge, Mass. 
VIII, Chestina, b. Sept. 27, 1808 ; m. Feb. 16, 1831, 
Asahel Gr. Allen, of Albany, Vt. 

Stephen Bowker m. Lucy Cushing and settled in 



486 



HISTORY OF FITZ WILLIAM. 



55 
56 



57 
58 



59 
(24) 



60 
61 



63 



63 
64 



65 
66 



Walpole, ]Sr. H., where he d. (before 1806), and she m. 

(2d) Carpenter. Stephen may liave had more than 

2 eh. The 2d one here given lived in F. from child- 
hood. 

I. Gushing, m. Feb. 13, 1817, Sarah, dan. of 
Moses and Sarah Van Doom, q.v.; res. Par- 
ish ville, N. Y. 
II. Samuel Griffin, d. Sept. 30, 1839, a. 37 v.; m. 
Nov. 16, 1826, Orpha, b. Nov. 9, 1804 ; d. 
Sept. 17, 1854, dau. of John and Lucy (Brig- 
ham) Fay, q.v. 

1. Charles, d. Mar. 24, 1832, a. 2 y. 

2. Samuel Francis, b. 1833(?) ; m. Nov. 29, 

1856, Rosanna L., b. Mar. 4, 1837 ; d. 
July 24, 1861, dau. of Philip D. and 
Nancy D. (Sargent) Angier, q.v.; m. 
(2d) May (29 i-'), 1862, Amanda M. 
(Chase) Martin, b. June 12, 1838, dau. 
of Daniel and Mary (Hale) Chase, q.v., 
and wid. of Warren Martin. Had 2 
ch. by 1st m. and 7 by 2d m., but no 
record has been obtained ; res. Crystal 
Lake, la. 

3. Daughter, d. Jan. 23, 1838, a. 2 y. 



II. 



Luke Cowker, b. Apr. 28, 1800 ; d. Mar. 23, 1887 ; 
m. Apr., 1828, Rhoda Harwood, of Oxford, Mass. She 
d. Juiie 17, 1844, a. 37 y., and he m. (2d) Sarah Howe, 
who d. Apr. 3, 1877, a. 68 y. ; m. (3d) May 28, 1878, 
Rebecca (Ballard), wid. of Reuben P. Simonds. 

I. Infant, b. Jan. 5, d. Jan. 8, 1829. 

Charles, b. Nov. 16, 1831 ; m. Sept.. 23, 1857. 
Sarah E., b. Aug. 2, 1837, dau. of Sylvanus 
and Lucy (Fullam) Holman, q.v.; res. Wil- 
mington, Del. Ch. b. in Fitchburg, Mass. 

1. Alice E., b. Sept. 9, 1862 ; m. Mar. 5, 
1883, Jolin H. Dearborn, s. of John C. 
and Harriet E., of Lawrence, Mass.; 
res. Philadelphia, Pa. 

1. Arthur Leslie, b. Dec. 22, 1883, 
in Boston, Mass. 

2. Louise R., b. June m, 1867. 
Milton, b. Aug. 3, 1834 ; d. in Fitchburg, 

Mass.'; m. Maria M. Lamb, of Phillipston, 

Mass., S.7). 
Emeline S', b. 1837 ; d. July 6, 1843. 
Fmma, b. Oct. 29, 1845 ; m. Mar. 2, 1874, 

Hiland Hall Heselton, s. of Isaiah and Relief 



III. 



IV. 
Y. 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 



487 



G7 
68 

(25) 

69 
70 

71 

73 

73 

74 
75 
76 



.78 
79 
80 
81 



YI. 



(Walker), of Weston, Vt. ; res. Gardner, Mass. 
1. Harry Heselton. 
Sarali, b. Aug. 3, 1849 ; m. Samuel S. Stone, 
a. V. 



m. May 7, 1857, 
d. June 9, 1881, 



Elijah Bowker, b. Jan. 8, 1803 ; d. Feb. 12, 1878 ; 
m. Nov. 18, 1830, Dorothy, b. June 9, 1807 ; d. Oct. 
19, 1884, dau. of Joseph and Mary (Wright) Crombie, 
of Eiudge. 

I. Lucy, b. Dec. 24, 1831 ; m. George Damon, 

q.v. 
II. Liiman W., b. Oct. 23, 1833 ; 

Clara Ann, b. Dec. 1, 1834 ; 

dau. of Lockhart W. and Mary Ann (Whitte- 

more) Brockwar, of Hinsdale. 

1. Mabel Dora, b. July 11, 18G0 ; d. Sept. 

23, 1883 ; m. "- Gove. 

2. Susan Janette, b. May, 1865. 

3. Oscar Curtice, b. Xov. 8, 1867 ; d. Dec. 

24, 1871. 

4. Dollie Bernice, b. May 24, 1873. 
III. James B., b. Jan. 6, 1839. 

lY. Daniel French, b. Aug. 31, 1841 ; m. Nov. 27, 
1861. Mary Elizabeth, b. Dec. 27, 1844, dau. 
of George C. and ]i[aria F. (Thompson) 
Everett ; res. Keene. Ch. b. in F. 

1. Leo Elijah, b. Apr. 9, 1863. 

2. Artliur Everett, b. Nov. 15, 1864. 

3. Edith Agnes, b. July 23, 1867. 

4. George Dauiel, b. Mar. 31, 1872. 

Y. Annie M., b. Aug. 2, 1851 ; m. Aug. 14, 1873, 
Henry A. Davis, b. June 1, 1850, s. of John 
M. and Maria L. (Wild), then of Marlboro. 



I Paul Boyce came from Smithfield, R. I., in 1772, and settled in 
the southeast part of Richmond ; d. in 1817, a. 81 y. He m. Hannah 
Staples, who d. 1803, and he m. (2d) Xov. 1, 1808, Phillis, dau. of Uriah 
Jillson, of Cumberland, R. I., and wid. of Nicholas Cook, of R. She 
d. Mar. 21, 181.) ; ch. all by 1st m., and all but Silas b. iu S. i. Cadish, 
b. 1758, 2 ; II. John ; iii. Xathan ; rv. Nicene ; v. Jacob, b. 1767 ; 
VI. Stephen ; vii. Silas, b. jSTov., 1779. 

2 Cadisii, b. 1758 ; d. 1835 ; m. Nov. 29, 1782, Lavina Bishop ; ch. 
b. in R. I. \Villiam, b. Oct. 7, 1783 ; m. Sally, b. Aug. 23, 178(5, dau. 
of Jacob and Lydia Sargent, of F., q.v.; rem. to Fayston, Vt. ; ii. Paul ; 
III. Lavina ; iv. Elizabeth ; v. Irene ; vi. Charlotte ; vii. David ; 
VIII. Robert ; ix. Caleb, b. June 17, 1802, 3 ; x. Silas ; xi. Phila. 



3 



Caleb Boyce, b. June 17, 1802 : d. July 13, 1863 ; 
m. 1827, Louisa, b. Aug. 3, 1807, dau. of Reuben and 



48S 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



Hannah (Allen) Bowen, of Richmond. Ch. b. i.-yi. 



4 
5 



< 

8 
9 
10 
11 
13 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
30 
31 

33 



33 
34 

35 
36 
37 
33 



3 

4 
5 
6 



m. James "W. Bissell, 



Y 

YI 

YII. 



8 



in R., YII. -XI. in F 

I. WiUmm B., b. 1837. 
II, Elizabeth J/., b. 1839 

q.v. 
III. BetUuel Bishop, b. Jan. 1, 1831 ; m. Oct. 18, 
1860, Mary E., b. Oct. 19, 1837, dan. of Abel 
and Ruth (Phillips) Dimton, q.v.; res. 
Winchendon. Ch. b. 1-3 in R, 4-7 in W. 
1. Stephen E. D., b. Oct. 1, 1861. 
3. Charles E., b. June 5, 1863. 

3. Winnie M., b. Mar. 30, 1866. 

4. Ferrinetta E., b. Mar. 11, 1871. 

5. Nellie C, b. Apr. 36, 1874 ; d. y. 

6. Nellie C, b. Dec. 30, 1876. 

7. Lizzie A., b. Julv 8, 1879. 
Martha I., b. 1833 ; d. Ang. 8, 1879. 
Sarah E., b. 1833 ; m. Silas A. Morse, q.v. 
Elvira M., b. 1835. 
Marij F., b. Feb. 5, 1838 ; d. 1878. 

Yiii. Henry II., b. June 19, 1840 ; d. Nov. 19, 1869. 

IX. Warren I., b. Apr. 7, 1843. 

X. Victoria, b. Sept. 13, 1846 ; d. Jan. 17, 1850. 

XI. Alfaretta, b. May 31, 1848. 

Zephaniah Axson" Boyce, s. of Robert 2 yiii., b. 
Apr. 5, 1883 ; m. Sept. 16, 1857, Sarah S., b. Nov. 5, 
1838, dan. of Nathan and Julia (Martin) Whippk. 
Oh. b. I. in Richmond, others in F. 

I. Edwin N., b. Feb. 30, 1859 ; d. June 38, 1881. 

II. Everett A., b. Oct. 3, 1860 ; d. July 31, 1863. 

III. Everett A., b. Oct. 10, 1865. 

IV. Frederick R., b. Dec. 15, 1873. 

v. Harry W., b. Oct. 33, 1879 : d. Apr. 3, 1881. 
YI. Herbert W., b. Oct. 33, 1879 (twin). 

Amos Boynton and w. Sarah had ch. rec. in F. 

I. Stuart, bapt. Sept. 11, 1774. 

II. Moses, bapt. Sept. 11, 1774. 
III. Stoddard, bapt. Apr. 9, 1775. 

iv. Sarah, bapt. Aug. 31, 1777 ; d. Jan. 11, 1778. 
v. Sally, bapt. July 13, 1779. 

Job Boynton and w. Mary were in town as early as 
1774. He was highway surveyor in 1776. Ch. rec. 
inF. 

I. Jedediali, bapt. Feb. 13, 1775. 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 489 



II. Jol, bapt. Apr. U, 1776. 

10 III. ElijaJi, bapt. Feb. 28, 1779. 



11 David Emery Boynton was one of the petitioners 
for leave to build pews, Dec., 1779. 

12 Ephkai.u Boyntox, from Sterling, Mass., was in 
town probably before 1778. Chosen proprietors' clerk 
and treasurer in 1780 ; taxed in 1788 on L 5 K 8 ; left 
town before 1793*. 

BREWEE. 

Ja5[ES Brewer was from East Sudbnry, Mass., now 
Wayland, and settled in Marlboro ab. 1768 or 1769. lie 
was in the Eerolutionary War, serving as Lieutenant in 
Capt. Mann's Co. After the war he came to F. and 
settled on L 22 R 8. AA as selectman in M. in 1782, and 
in F. in 1787. His wife was Mary Hoar. 

2 I. Am, b. July 24, 1767+. 

3 II. Per sis, b. July 22, 1771 ; m. Silas AA'^heeler, q.v. 

4 III. James, b. June 10, 1779. 

5 IV. Mary, b. Oct. 8, 1782. 

(2) Asa Brewer, b. Julv 24, 1767 ; d. Mar. 11, 1824 ; 

m. Aug. 25, 1794, Deborah, b. Apr. 17, 1772, dau. of 
Samuel and Deborah (Sylvester) Sargent, of Marlboro. 
AA'as taxed as resident in F. 1799 to 1815, when the in- 
corporation of Troy made him a resident of that town. 
A few years later he I'em. to Barton, A"t., where he d. 
Ch. allrec. in F. 

I. Polhj, b. Sept. 17, 1796 ; m. (1st) Jonathan 
Clark, q.v.; (2d) Isaac Stowell, q.v. 

7 II. Asa, b. May 9. 1798+. 

8 III. Deborah, h. Apr. 10, 1800 ; m. Mar. 14, 1822, 

Calvin Bemis, b. Jan. 27, 1798, s. of Jonathan 

and Delila (Riiodes), of Marlboro. After m. 

they res. 8 y. in Swanzey, 1 y. in Marlboro, 

.20 y. in Rindge ; rem. to Troy in 1851, where 

he d. Aug. 9, 1872. She d. July 17, 1882, 
in F. 

1. Eliza Bemis, b. Oct. 10, 1823 ; m. May 

8, 1845, Calvin Hastings, b. Nov. 25, 

1817, s. of Calvin and Polly (Baker), 

of Marlboro ; res. Keene. 

10 2. Maria Bemis, b. Jan. 24, 1826 ; m. 

Charles Perry, q.v. 



490 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



11 
12 
13 



14,15 

IG 



(7) 



17 
18 



19 
20 



21 



22 
23 
24 

25 



26 

27 
28 



29 



3. Mary Jane Bemis, b. Jan. 24, 1826 ; m. 
Leonard Wriglib, q.v. 
lY. Silas, b. Apr. 10, 1802 ; m. Lovina Woodward, 

of Swanzey, and moved West. 
V. Betsey, b. Mar. 10, 1807 ; m. " Benjamin Garry, 
of Jaffrey," according to Hist. Troy. Per- 
haps Benjamin Gary, s. of Jonas, of P, 
VI. -VII. Twins, infants, d. Nov. 14, 1808. 
VIII. Persis, b. Feb. 23, 1810 ; m. Samuel Cross, of 
Salem (Mass. [?]). 



Asa Brewer, b. May 9, 1798 ; d. Sept. 4, 1863 ; m. 
June 8, 1820, Kachel, b. Feb. 22, 1798, dau. of Joel 
and Betsey (Gibbs) Knight, of Sudbury, Mass. She d. 
Nov. 28, 1828, and he m. (2d) Betsey Kniglit, b. May 
4, 1804, a sister of his first w. Returned to F. in 1853. 
Ch. b. I., II. in Troy, iii.-vii. in F., viii.-xi. in Rindge 
— 4 by 1st m., 7 by 2d m. 

I. Joel IC, b. Jan. 27, 1822 ; d. June, 1879 ; res. 

Cluxrlestown, Mass. 
II. James, b. Jan. 25, 1825 ; m. Cynthia , who 

d. in Maine, Nov. 29, 1855, a. 31 y. ; res. 

Topeka, Kan. They had 

1 child d. in F. Aug. 11, 1855, a. 1 y. 3 mos. 

III. Harriet, b. Mar. 27, 1827 ; d. June 11, 1827. 

IV. George S., b. Nov. 18, 1828 ; m. Sept. 24, 1851, 

Rusina, b. Nov. 4, 1827 ; d. Nov. 20, 1871, 
dau. of Reuben and Beatrice (Beard) Tarbell, 
of Rindge ; res. Boston, Mass. 
V. Gardner, h. Oct. 11, 1829; m. Mariiida C, 
dau. of George W. Bryant. She d. Apr. 11, 



1856, in Boston, 
town, Mass. 



a. 22 y. 9 mos. 



res. Charles- 



1. Minnie Ella, d. Oct. 26, 1863, a. 8 y. 
VI. Eachel, b. Apr. 10, 1833 ; d. Oct. 2, 1853, iinm. 
VII. Harriet R., b. June 3, 1835 ; m. William H. 

Wheeler, q.v. 
VIII. Elizabeth A., b. June 21, 1837 ; m. Dec. 2, 
1864, Edwin 8. Chase, s. of William and 
Roxana (Blodgett), of Royalston (see Blodgett, 
No. 12) ; res. Boston, Mass. 
IX. Henry H., b. Mar. 19, 1841 ; res. Philadelphia, 

Pa. 
X. Calvin B., b. Sept. 17, 1844 ; res. Topeka, Kan. 
XI. Em.eranry H., b. Dec. 29, 1846 ; m, Thaddeus 
Cummings, q.v. 

Almond Brewer, s. of Jonas and Sally (Bemis) 



GENEALOGICAL KEGISTER. 



491 



30 



31 



32 
33 

31 

35 
3G 



Brewer, of Rovalston, was b. Dec. 9, 1810 ; m. Oct. 9, 
1837, Sarah D., b. Aiicr. 21, 1814; d. June 10, 1870, 
dau. of William and Bernice (Bellows) Williams, of 
Southboro, Mass.; m. (2d) Dec. 19, 1871, Hannah A., 
b. Sept. 11, 1830, dau. of Ira and Lydia (Allen)_l)ay, 



of Royalston, and wid. of 
13 y. ; res. Eoyalston. 

I. Sarah Adeline, b. Sept 
Mass.; m. George X. 
(2d) Xov. 24, 1864, 



Walker ; res. in F. ab. 

17, 1838, in Oakham, 
Stone, of F., q,v.; m. 
]\Iilton J. Scollav, and 
res. in Templeton. 
II. Algernon Almoiid, b. Mar. 20, 1840, in Peter- 
sham, Mass.: m. Mar. 28. 1871, Carrie S. 
Cole, of Wendell, Mass. She d. July 3, 1872, 
and he m. (2d) Jan., 1874, Myra Bosworth, 
of Royalston ; res. Royalston. 
Harriet Maria, b. June 22, 1842, in Hardwick, 

Mass.; m. William Barnes, q.v. 
Orrin Jonas, b. June 8, 1847, in Worcester, 
Mass.; m. June 0, 1872, Julia A. Amadon, of 
Richmond ; res. Winchester, N, H. 
Y. Rinaklo Warner, b. July 8, 1859, in F. ; m. 
Feb. 7, 1882, Hattie E. Allen, of Athol ; res. 
Rovalston. 

Lewis Brewer, a bro. of Almond, m. Laura Harris, 
q.v. 

Horatio Brewer, another bro. of Almond, lived in 
F. several v. No record of family. 



III. 



IV 



BRIGHAM. 

I TnOMAs' Brigham, the ancestor of the Brighams of New England. 
embarked at London for America, Apr., 1635, being then o'2 years of 
age. He settled in Watertown, Mass., on land afterward set to Cam- 
bridge. He was admitted freeman in 1089, and was selectman several 
years ; d. Dec. 18, IGoo. He ra. ab. 1637, Mercy Hard, b. in England. 
After Mr. Brigham's death she m. (2d) Mar. 1, 1655. Edmund Rice, then 
of Sudbury, Mass., and afterward of Marlboro. After the death of Mr. 
Rice she m. (8dj, 1664, William Hunt, of Concord and M., ]\Iass., who d. 
1667, and she d. 1693. She had no issue by her second and third mar- 
riages. Her ch. by Mr. Brigham were, i. Mary ; ir. Thomas, b. 1641, 
2 ; III. John ; iv. Hannah ; v. Samuel. 

2 Thomas-, s. of Thomas', b. 1641 ; d. Nov. 25, 1717 ; m. Mary, b. 
Sept. 19, 1646, eldest dau. of Henry and Elizabeth (Moore) Rice ; m. 
(2d) Mrs. Susanna Rice, of AV. ; res. in ]\I., Mass., and was prominent in 
public affairs ; ch. all by 1st m. i. Thomas ; ir. Nathan ; in. David ; 
IV. .lonathan ; v. David, b. Apr. 12, 1678,3; vi. Gershom, b. Feb. 
23. 1680 -1-; vii, Elnathan ; viii. Mary. 



492 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



3 David% 
Deborah 



of Thomas", b. Apr. 12, 1G78 ; d. June 26, 1850 ; m. 
■who ci. Oct. 11, 1708, and he m. (2d) Mary Newton ; 
settled in Westljorough, Mass. ; ch. i. John ; ir. David : iii. Silas ; iv. 
Jemima ; v. Deborah ; vi. Levi, b. Aug. 21, 1710, 4 ; vii. Jonas ; 
Yin. Asa, b. Dec. 2, 1721 + . 

4 Col. LEVI^ s. of David', b. Auff. 21, 1716 ; d. Feb. 



1, 1^ 



; m. 

Susanna Grout, who d. Mar. 17, 1816 ; res. in Northboro, Mass.; ch. 
I. Levi, b. Aug. 26, 1741, 5 ; ir. Joseph ; in. Elijah ; iv. Elijah ; v. 
Susanna ; vi. Winslow : vii. Josiah ; viii. Mindwell ; ix. Anna. 



7 
8 
9 

10 



11 



12 

13 

14 

15 
IG 

17 

CO 



Levi' Brigham, s. of Col. Levi^ b. Aug. 26, 1746 ; 
m. July 9, 1771, Tabitha Hardy ; came to F. soon after 
in., and a few y. later settled on L G E 6 ; he d. Apr. 



26, 1821 ; she d. Apr. 26, 1818, a. 7o y. 

24, 1772 ; m. Elijah Phillips, 



Aug. 



Mar. 16, 1776. 

Capt. AVilliam 



m. 



I. Lydia^, b. 

q.v. 
II. Josepli, b. June 2, 1774+. 

III. Anna, b. Mar. 14, 1776 ; d. 

IV. Hannah, b. Mar. 12, 1777 

F. Perry, q.v. 
V. Levi, b. Dec. 19, 1778 ; m. Mary Ayer (she was 
sister to the w. of Hon. Isaac Hill, ex-Gov. of 
N. H.). He was assistant architect in the 
building of the present State-House at Con- 
cord, N. H.; also connected with the build- 
ing of Quincy Market, at Boston, Mass. 

1. Levi, b. May 2, 1822 ; ent. Dartmouth 

College in 1841 ; grad. in 1843 ; went 
as a teacher to Port Tobacco, Md., 
where he d. of congestive fever, Oct. 1, 
1843, after an illness of ten days. 

2, Ann S., m. Col. John H. George, of 

Concord, N. H. 
Talltha, b. Sept. 30, 1780 ; m. Capt. Aaron 
Wright, q.v. 



VI. 

VII. 

VIII, 
IX. 

X, 



Atma, b, Apr. 26, 1782 ; m, Capt, Timothy 
Kendall, q.v. 

Rufus, b, Nov, 22, 1783 ; d. May 27, 1802, 

Mindtvell, b, Apr. 11, 1785 ; m, Elijah Scott, 
q.v. 

Susannah, b, Apr. 3, 1790 ; m, Ebenezer Pot- 
ter, Jr., q.v. 

Joseph" Brigham, s. of Levi', b, June 2, 1774 ; d. 
July 19, 1846 ; m, Apr. 28, 1803, Polly, b. Jan, 7, 
1779 ; d. Sept. 29, 1861, dau. of Francis and Sarah 
(Fisher [Perry]) Fullam, q.v. The family rem, to 
Illinois ; Silvester ab. 1829, and the remainder of the 
family a few y. later. 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 493 

18 I I. Belinda', b. Feb. 28, 1804 ; d. July 11, 1812. 

19 ' IT. Rufiis, b. May 2, 1805 ; d. June 28, 1812. 

20 III. SUvester\ b. June 17, 1807 ; d. Jan. 17, 1872. 

21 IV. Mary, b. Mar. 23, 1809 ; d. July 8. 1812. 

22 V. Lucy, b. June IG. 1811 ; m. David Chase, May 

25, 1834 ; res. Dover, 111. 

23 VI. Polly, b. Nov. 2, 1813 ; res. Princeton, 111. 

24 VII. Nancy, b. Juno G, 181G ; d. Oct., 1851. 

25 i VIII. Eliza, b. Aug. 31, 1818 ; d. Sept. 23, 18G3. 
2G IX. Joseph H., b. Jan. 31, 1823 ; res. Dover, 111. 



(2 VI.) Dr. Gershom' Brigham, s. of Thomas", b. Feb. 8, 1680 ; m. 

Melietabel ; res. Marlboro, Mass.; ch. i. Martha; ii. Joseph; 

III. Abigail ; iv. Gershom, b. Nov. 4, 1712, 27 ; v. Benjamin, b. Feb. 
9, 1715 + . 

27 Gershom^, s. of Gershom^, b. Nov. 4, 1712 ; m. Mary ; res. 

Westboro, Mass.; ch. i. Hephzibah ; ii. Gershom, b. Oct. 15, 1747; 
III. Seth ; IV. Silas ; t. Timothy ; vi. Joseph ; tii. Mary. 



28 ! Dr. Gershom", s. of Gersliom*. b. Oct. 15, 1747 ; m. 
Esther Belknap. He practised in F. for several y. ab. 
1776, and as far as known was the first physician who 
res. in town ; rem. 'to Westboro, Mass. The '" Brigham 
Genealogical Eegister" gives his ch. i. Sally ; ii. 

j Patty ; ill. Jesse ; iv., v. Josej^li and Benjamin (twins) ; 
VI. Xathaniel ; vii. Josiah ; but gives no dates of birth. 
If Jesse was placed before Patty in that rec, and Joseph 
Warren of the F. rec. d. in infancy, the two rec. would 

[agree. Ch. rec. in F. 

29 1 I. Joseph Warren^, bapt. May 5, 177G. 

30 II. Sarah, bapt. June 16, 1776. 

31 ' III. Jesse, bapt. May 31, 1778. 



(2 VI., V.) Benjamin* Brigham, s. of Gershom', b. Feb. 19, 1715 ; m. 

Hannah , and res. in Marlboro, Mass.; ch. i. Benjamin, b. Mar. 

11, 1742, 32 ; II- Caleb ; iii. Benjah ; iv. Hannah ; v. Gershom ; vi. 
Warren ; vii. Lydia ; viii. Levina. 

32 Kev. Bexjami^;^ Brigham, s. of BenjaminS b. 
Mar. 11, 1742 ; d. June 15, 1799 ; m. Juno 6, 1771, 
Lucy, b. Apr. 25, 1740 ; d. Apr. 22, 1793, dan. of Jonas 
and Lucy (Eager) Morse, of Shrewsburv, Mass.: m. 
(2d) Feb. 11, 1795, Puah, wid. of John Mellen, Esq., 
q.v. She d. Feb. 4, 1821, a. 76 y. 

! Rev. Benjamin Brigham was the first pastor of the 
Ichh. in F., and for an account of his life and work see 
'Chap. VL 

33 i I. Lucinda\ bapt. Mar. 22, 1772 ; m. May 5, 



494 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



34 

35 

36 
37 



38 
39 
40 

41 



43 
43 

44 
45 



(3 VIII.) 



1793, Dr. Peter Clark Grosvener, who d. Dec. 
14, 1794. She m. (2d) Dec. 10, 1795, Daniel 
Morse, a native of Sturbridge, Mass., who d. 
Oct. 1, 1812, a. 41 y. 

1. Ebenezer Clark' Qrosvener, b. Sept. 21, 
1793. For some account of him and 
his father see Chap. XVI. 

2. Eliza" Morse, b. Sept. 13, 1796 ; m. Oct. 
28, 1819, Ziba Baldwin, of Greenfield 
(Mass. [?]). 

3. Harding Morse, b. Oct. 1, 1798 ; d. 
Mar. 18, 1802. 

4. Loring Morse, b. Apr. 22, 1800. Left 
F. in 1823, and after living 2 y. in 
Hancock, N. H., settled permanently 
in Acworth, N. H.; m. and had a 
large family of ch. 

5. Lemuel Morse, b. Sept. 4, 1801 ; res. 
Hillsboro Bridge, N. H. 

6. Curtis Morse, b. Oct., 1803 ; d. 1855 at 
Geneseo, 111. 

Lucij, bapt. June 13, 1793 ; m. Nov. 27, 1793, 
Capt., afterward * Gen., James Humphrey; 
res. Athol, Mass. 

III. Benjamin Franklhf, bapt. Sept. 3, 1775 ; d. 

Oct. 13, 1801 ; m. Nov. 8, 1796, Sally, dau. 

of Abner and (Ward) Haskell, q.v. She 

was. Mar. 12, 1804, dismissed to chh. in , 

Penn. 

1. Fanny", b. Dec. 22, 1796. 

2. Benjamin Franklin, b. Jan. 24, 1799. 

3. Adolphus, b. Sept. 5, 1801. 

IV. Misha, bapt. Aug. 1, 1779. Was in trade ab. 

2 y. in the Crosby store on capital furnished 
by his brother-in-law. Gen. Humphrey. 
Went to Boston and was clerk for a Mr. 
Williams, whose sister he m.; afterward rem. 
to Cincinnati, 0. 



II. 



MaJ. Asa* Brigham, s. of David', b. Dec. 2, 1721 ; 
d. Nov. 6, 1777; m. Mary Newton, who d. Dec. 17, 
1795, a. 70 y. Mr. and Mrs. B. were rec'd by the chh. 
in F., Sept. 10, 1775, on letter from the 1st chh. in 
Sbrewsbury, Mass.; prob. came to town late in 1774 or 
early in 1775, though he owned land here as early as 
1766. Three of his s., Alpheus, Leonard, and Stephen, 
were out in the Revolutionary War. Ch. prob. all h. 
in S. 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 



495 



46 

47 
48 
49 
50 
51 



52 



06 
54 
55 

56 



57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 

66 

67 
68 



I. Alpheus^, settled in Jaffrey as early as 1775 ; m. 

Lydia . 

1. Asaph". 1). June 2, 17G5. 

2. AVright, b. June 23, 1768. 

3. Sylvanus. b. Feb. 10, 1771. 

4. Abel, b. July 31, 1773. 

5. Joseph, b. May 2, 1777 ; m. May 30, 

179G, Polly, b. Aug. 18, 1779, dan. of 
Thomas and Sarah (Bigelow) Dutton, 
of J. 

6. Lydia, b. Apr. 12, 1782 ; d. May 21, 

1859 ; m. June 7, 1807, Jedediah 
Foster, of J. 

II. Molly, b. 1748(?) ; m. Benjamin Davison, q.v. 

III. Leonard, rem. to Milton, Vt. 

IV. Levina, m. Antipas Harrington, and lived in 

Troy. 
V. Capt. Steplmt, b. May 13, 1754 ; d. Oct. 11, 
1849 ; m. Feb. 1, 1781, Sarah, b. Jan. 14, 
1754, dan. of Joshua and Betty (Bent) Har- 
rington, q.v. The family rem. from F. in 
1790. Mr. and Mrs. B. were dis. to the chh. 
in Whitesborough (Whitestown), N. Y., Jan. 
8, 1792. Ch. 1-5 b. and rec. in F. 

1. Dea. Sullivan% b. Dec. 29, 1781 ; m. 

Amanda Spaulding. 

2. Capt. Stephen, b. Apr. 11, i:83 ; d. 

July 24, 1850. 

3. Arethusa, b. Mar. 19, 1785 ; d. Aug. 28, 

1794. 

4. Polly, b. Aug. 18, 1786 ; m. Barney 

Spaulding and res. in Rutland, N. Y. 

5. Sally, b. Apr. 24, 1788 ; d. 1818 ; m. 

Ebenezer Cheever. 

6. Dea. John, b. Mar. 24, 1790 ; m. Susan 

Moore and res. in Ogden, N. Y. 

7. Lucinda, b. May 8, 1792 ; d. Aug. 26, 

1794. 

8. Electa, b. Mar. 3, 1794 ; m. Leon Moore 

and res. in Utica, N. Y. 
VT. Elizahetli, b. 1756 (?) ; m. Joshua Harrington, 
Jr., q.v. He was bro. of Sarah, w. of Stephen 
No. 56. 
VII. Tliankful, b. June 13, 1760 ; m. Dr. Isaac 

Moors Farwel), q.v. 
VIII. Lyman. 
IX. Josiah Newton^, b. ab. 1765 ; m. Feb. 14, 1793, 
Sarah, b. May 16, 1774 ; d. May 3, 1803, dau. 



496 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



69 

70 
71 

73 
73 

74 
75 
76 
77 
78 



79 
80 



2 
3 



2 

3 

4 
5 



twins. 



of David and Sarah (Fisher) Perry, q.v.; did 
not res. in F. after m.; rem. to Hartwick, 
N. Y. 

1. Elijah^ 

3. Josiah, 

3. Sally, 

4. Mary. 

5. Dea. David 
G. Dea. Perry. 

7. Phebe. 

8. Rebecca. 

9. Lncinda. 
10. Electa. 



John Brigham and w. Abigail had ch. 

I. NaMy, bapt. Mar. 13, 1791. 
Prob. of same family, but connection not traced. 

OitviLLE L. Brock, b. Oct. 5, 1838, at BuckGeld, 
Me., s. of Eobert M. and Catherine (Durgin) ; m. Apr. 
39, 1863, Abbie L., b. May 18, 1843, dau. of Samuel 
and Nancy (Locke) Hill, q.v. 

I. Edward R., b. June 1, 1864. 
II. Elbert H., b. Dec. 39, 1865. 



OREjq- Brooks, b. Oct. 37, 1800, in Plymouth, Vt, 
s. of Ebenezer and Tamar (Ross), came from Sterling, 
Mass., to F. in 1848, and res. in town till his d., Mar. 
19, 1876 ; m. Mar. 13, 1838, Jalia Ann Wright, b. 
Dec. 17, 1809, in Boston, Mass.; d. Jan. 3, 1859 ; m. 
(3d) May 13, 1865, Mrs. Elmina (Sawyer) Wheeler, d. 
Mar. 15, 1869, a. 53 y. 4 mos., dan. of Joel and Susan 
(Davis) Sawyer ; m. (3d) Apr. 34, 1870, Abigail, b. 
July 3, 1814 ; d. Sept. 16, 1883, dau. of Benjamin and 
Abigail Davison, and wid. of Daniel C. Prescott. He 
l^ad 13 ch., of whom only 6 lived to maturity. The 
following lived in F. 

I. Sarepta, b. Jan. 4, 1839 ; m. Alvah S. Clark, 

q.v. 
II. George W. 

III. Harriet L., m. Nov. 13, 1855, James Lawton. 

IV. John H., b. Sept. 38, 1836 ; d. May 6, 1876 ; 

m. July 10, 1863, Martha K., b. Sept. 14, 
1838 ; d. Mar. 5, 1887, dau. of Benjamin M. 
and Anna A. (Forristall) Fiske. Ch. b. 4th 
in Rindge, others in F. 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 



497 



G 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 
13 

14 
15 

16 



17 
18 
19 

20 
21 
22 
23 

24 
25 



1. Infant son, b. Apr. 19, 18G3 ; d, Apr. 

21, 18(;:}. 

2. Anna Lee. b. July 11, isr,5. 

3. Oren Benjamin, b. Jan. 2. 1808. 

4. John Fisk, b. Sept. G, 18T0. 

5. "Wallace Clayton, b. Mar. 1, 1873 ; d. 

Oct. 7, 187:3. 
V. Fliza P., m. June G, 18G0, Franklin AYhit- 

comb, of Troy. 
Yi. Mari/ Augusfa.'^d. Dec. 13, 1853, a. 12 y. 
VII. Amos IF., d. in the armv, Jan. (18 I), 18G5, a. 

21 y. 
VIII. Tamai\ d. May 1, 1857, a. 10 y. 
IX. Daughter, d. Apr. 1, 1856, a. 7 y. 



Rob 
F. ab. 
ch. 

I. 
II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 



ERT Brooks and family, from Canada, settled in 
1840, and rem. West ab. 18G7. By w. Sarah had 

William, b. ab. 1827. 
Christie A.,'' 1830. 

John, " 1832 ; m. Feb. 11, 1855, Sarah 

A., dau. of Benjamin Hey wood, of F. 



Mary ^., b. 
Bohert, 
Daniel S., 
James H., 
Alhert X., 
Sarah, 



ab. 



1836. 
1840. 
1843. 
1846. 
1848. 
1853. 



Joseph Brown and w. Annis were adm. to chh. Oct. 
9, 1774, on letter from 1st chh. in Lancaster, Mass., 
and were dis. May 27, 1781, to chh. in Walpole, X. H. 
They had ch. rec. in F. 

2 I. John Prentice, bapt. Feb. 12, 1775. 

3 II. Infant, d. Jan. 10, 1777. 

5 iv! St' [ *^^'^^' ^-P^- ^^^' 14^ 1^77- 

Melvin Brown was taxed 6 y. 1816-21. He built 
a part of the house so long occupied by Mrs. Dyer. By 
w. Bathsheba he had ch. rec. in F. 

7 I. WinsMu, b. Apr. 22, 1816. 

8 II. Eliza, b. Sept. 7, 1817 ; d. Feb. 27, 1819. 

Erastus Broavn was s. of Asaph and Martha 
(AViider), and grandson of Samuel and Lovina (Bruce). 
He w^as b. in Winchendon, May 2, 1808, and d. in Troy, 
32 



498 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



10 



n 

12 
18 
14 



2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



. 8 

9 

10 

11 

12 



13 



2 
3 



Sept. 17, 1845, from injuries received in his mill. 
Taxed in F. 1830 to 1840. and rem. to Trov in 1841 : 
m. Sept. 29, 1832, Alfreda, b. Sept. 4. 1808 ; d. Feb. 
6, 1873, dau. of Ezekiel Thompson, of Swanzey. 

I. i¥aria, b. ^^ov. 4, 1833 ; m. Sept. G, 1853, 
Chancy N. Garfield, of Troy, b. 1828, s. of 
Abel and Martha (Fuller). 

II. 3£arfha •/., b. Sept. 1, 1830 ; d. Nov. 4. 1837. 

III. Henri/ J. , b. Feb. 25, 1840. 

IV. Heleii J. (twin), b. Feb. 25. 1840. 
V. Martha A., b. Sept. 11, 1844, 

JoHis' Bruce, with w. Mary (Joslin) and 8 ch., came 
from Sndbury, Mass., ab. 1775 and settled on L 21 R s. 
He d. June 3, 1779, a. 50 y., " killed by logs at saw- 
mill ; lived ab. 30 hours." The town rec. give but 
little information ab. his family or descendants. The 
ch. may not be in proper order. 

I. Li(cy, m. Daniel Farrar, q.v. 

II. Polly, m. John Moore, of Warwick, Mass. 

III. Lyclia, m. William Nurse, q.v. 

IV. Esther, m. David AVhite. q.v. 

V. William, m. Dec. 11, 1781, Abigail Gould. He 
d. Mar. 13, 1811, a. 50 y., from boards falling 
on him. 

1. John, m. May 15, 1808, Johanna Childs. 

2. Infant, d. Oct. 30, 1782. 

3. Infant, d. Nov. 6, 1783. 
VI. John. d. y. 

VII. Tliomas, m. a dau. of Ichabod Shaw. 
VIII. Gyrus, m. Betsey Moore and settled in Ver- 
mont. 

FROM CHURCH KECORDS. 

Mary Bruce and Joseph Nurse {q.v.) m. Feb. 24. 
1785. 

John Burbank, a native of Sutton, Mass., after 
living ab. 15 y. in Royalston came to F. in Apr., 1803. 
He was b. Jan. 2, 1764 ; d. Mar. 25, 1835 ; m. June 11. 
1788, in Athol, Mass., Elizabeth W^oodbury. b. June 
17, 1765 ; d. Feb. 14, 1856. 

I. Nancy, b. June 9, 1789 ; d. July 10, 1789. 

II. John, b. July 29, 1793-1- . 

John Burbank, b. July 29, 1793 ; d. Feb. 18, 1866 ; 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 



499 



4 
5 

6 

7 

8 



19 



(4) 



20 



26 



ni. Apr, C. 1813, at Eovalston, Lis cousin Hannah, h. 
Sow :}, 1:80; d. Oct/ 20, 18G9, dau. of David and 
Lydia (Bnrbank) Lyon. 



I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 



9 


VI. 


10 


VII. 


11 




12 




13 




14 


VIII. 


15 


IX. 


16 


X. 


17 


XI. 


18 


XII. 



Daniel, b. Feb. 19, 1814+. 
David Lyon, b. Dec. 2, 1815 
Xanci/, b. July 31, 1817 ; d. 
Elizabeth Woodbury, b. Apr. 

9, 1842. 
Lydia, b. Dec 

Isaac, b. Sept. 
JoJin^ b. July 



XTII. 



: d. Oct. 13, 181T. 
Julv 13, 1818. 
12/1819 ; d. Aug. 

3, 1821 ; m. Daniel Forristall, 

ir, 1823 ; d. Oct. 31, 1843. 

18, 1825 ; m. June 8, 1870, at 
Winchendon, ]\Iary Jane Pricbard, b. July 28, 
1835, at Xew Ipswich, X. II. 

1. John Sumner, b. Aug. 20, 1871. 

2. Emma Adelia, b. Feb. 16, 1875. 

3. Avis Eugenia, b. Sept. 24, 1877. 
Sally Lyon, b. Apr. 21, 1827 ; d. May 29, 1849. 
Eev. Lysander Tower, b. Xov. 24, 1828 ; m. May 

10, 1860, at Xew York, Sarah Susanna Van 

Yleck ; res. Georgetown, Xeb. 
David, b. Julv 4, d. July 7, 1830. 
Elijuli, b. July 4, d. July 9, 1830. 
Hannah Newell, b. Jan. 11, 1832 ; m. "William 

L. Collins, q.r. 
Mary Mehetabel, b. Feb. 19, 1834 ; d. Sept. 7, 

1880 ; m. Charles Francis AVilson. 

Daniel Bckbaxk, b. Feb. 19, 1814 ; ra. Dec. 1, 
1840, Anna W., b. Mar. 13, 1812 ; d. Xov. 30, 1880, 
dau. of Abishai and Sarah (Farrar) Collins, q.v.; m. 
(2d) Xov. 28, 1883, Dene B. (Buel) Jackson, dau. of 
Shalor and Tirzah C. (Lee) Buel, of Lyndon, Vt. 

I. Daniel Edwards, b. Sept. 8, 1841 ; is m. and 
res. in Worcester, Mass. 
Son, b. Mar. 8, 1843 ; d. Mar. 13, 1843. 
Isaac Harvey, b. Sept. 8, 1845 ; m. X'ov. 26, 
1868, Harriet Ella, b. Mar. 1, 1848, dau. of 
Joseph S. Towns, of Royalston ; res. F. 

1. Anna Correna, b. July 25, 1871. 

2. Harriet Alice, b. Dec." 27, 1876. 

3. Edith Frances, b. Sept. 8, 1884. 

4. Ethel Florence, b. Sept. 8, 1884 (twins). 

Thomas B. Burns, b. July 31, 1838, s. of John H. 
and Frances H. (Greeley) Burns, of Gilnianton, X. H. ; 
m. Xov. 8, 1861, I'annie J., b. May 29, 1840, dau. of 
Joseph and Mary M. (Moore) Morrill, of G. Ch. b. at 
Gil man ton. 



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500 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



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I. H'«7/'er >S'co?'/, b. Dec. 10, 1862 ; d. Mar. 5, 

1870, at New Hampton, N. H. 
II. Ediuin Vincent, b. July 3, 1864. 
III. Josie Helens, b.May 28, 1870. 

Peter Burbee and family were in F. before 1774. 
His w. Margaret was adm. to chh. in F. Dec. 4, 1774, 
on letter from the 2d regular chh. in Attleborough, 
Mass. They had ch, rec. in F. 

I. Thomas, bapt. May 12. 1774. 
II. Child, d. Oct. 25, 1777. 

Peter, d. June, 1778, and Peter, Jr., d. Aug. 
1778, both at Philadelphia, in the army. 

James Walls, m. Margaret Burbee, Apr. 29, 1784. 
She was prob. wid. of Peter. 

Icliabod Hovjard, m. Mary Burbee, Dec. 8, 1785. 
The name does not appear after 1785. In 
some places the name is spelled Burpee. 

James Butler and w. Bijah (Abijah in rec. of bapt.) 
were in town before 1774. He bought of Samuel Ken- 
dall, Esq., 13 acres from east end of L 18 R 4, and was 
prob. first settler on the lot. Ch. rec. in F. 
I. Levi, b. Jan. 21, 1775. 
IT. Phehe, b. Apr. 24, 1776. 

III. Fhinehas, b. Dec. 3, 1777. 

IV. Deborah, b. Oct. 12, 1780. 
V. Jocelyn, b. 1782. 

Erasmus Butterfield practised law in F. for some 
y., for an account of which see Chap. XVI. He m. 
July 17, 1803, Esther, b. Sept. 20, 1786, dau. of Phillips 
and Persis (Joslin) Sweetser, of Marlboro. He d. in 
Westmoreland, N. H., Dec. 31, 1828. Ch. b. ii.-iii. 
at F., V. at Keene, others at Marlboro. 

I. Maria, b. Oct. 2, 1803. 

II. Charles Sweetser, b. Jan. 6, 1806 ; d. Mar. 5, 

1808. 
Harriet, b. June 28, 1808 ; d. Apr. 12, 1865 ; 
m. Samuel D. Allen, of Richmond, b. 1807 ; 
d. 1870, s. of Moses and Mary (Dow). 
Sarah Sweetser, b. Aug. 20, 1810 ; m. William 
Whittemore, q.v. 
Y. John, b. Sept. 6, 1812. 

VI. George W., b. Oct. 8, 1814 ; d. Apr. 29, 1867 ; 
m. Pamelia King, June 4, 1848. 



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GENEALOGICAL EEGISTEK. 501 

VII. Charles, b. Mar. 27, 1810 ; d. Mur., 1867. 
VIII. Fannie, b. Feb. M, 1820. 
IX. Eveline, b. Mar. 30, 18:35. 

Abel Byam, d. Mar. 31. 1802, a. 39 y.; m. July 17, 
1788, Anna, b. Oct. 22, 17G6 ; d. May 13, 1857, dau. of 
Stephen and Mary (Angier) Uarris, q.v. He lived on 
L 5 R 9, previously owned by Benjamin Byam, which 
may indicate that they were relatives. Benjamin was 
in town as early as 1779, and rem. ab. 1792. Cli. of 
Abel and Anna all b. in F. 

I. Arethum, b. May 1, 1789 ; d. Jan. 12, 1854 ; 
m. June 3, 1818, Otis Taft. He d. Mar. 22, 
1858, a. G7 y., s.p. 
II. Eunice, b. June 17, 1791 ; d. Jan. 6, 1851, 
num. 

III. Benjamin, b. May 14, 1793 + . 

IV. John, d. May 19, 1795, a. 2 mos. 

V. Xancg Ann, b. Mar. 23, 179G ; m. Levi Harris, 

q. V. 
VI. John, b. May 14, 1798+. 

VII. Betsey, b. Dec. 29, 1799 ; m. Levi Harris, q.v. 
VIII. Abel,h. June 17, 3 802 ; res. liandolph, Vt. 



Bkxjamin- Byam, b. May 4, 1793 ; d. Aug. 18, 1876 ; 
m. Mar. 16, 1819, Lucy, b. Aug. 1, 1793 ; d. Aug. 28, 
1879, dau. of AVillard and Betsey (Parks) Fassett. 

I. Clarissa, b. Oct. 27, 1819 ; m. Aug. 14, 1844, 
Xehemiah Cole Merritt, who d., and she m. 
(2d) Otis Beniis, of Royalston ; res. R. 
II. Mary Ann, b. Jan. 16, 1822 ; m. July 2, 1845, 
Aaron Jones, of R. , where they res. 

1. Leander. 

2. Clara. 
AM, b. Mar. 7, 1824 ; m. Irene Brown, of Erie, 

111., and res. there. 
Benjamin Willard, b. Feb. 21, 1826+- 
Leonard, b. Aug. 30, 1828. 
Elisha, b. July 26, 1831 ; d. Sept. 12, 1832. 
Nathan Toinnsend, b. Sept. 23, 1833+. 
Charles Franklin, b. Xov. 19, 1836 ; m. and 

res. in Fitchburg, Mass. 

Bexjamin" Willard Byam, b. Feb. 21, 1826 ; m. 
Mar. 17, 1853, Martha A., b. Aug. 28, 1832 ; d. Aug. 18, 
1887, dau. of Joel and Mary (Bigelow) Saunders, q.v.; 
had 8 ch. who d. in infancy, and 3 now living ; res. 
Swanzey. 



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HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



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I. Oscar Leroy, b. Jane 14, 1858, in F. 

II. Madella, b. Sept. 14, 1861, in Keene. 

III. Willifi Adelbert, b. May 12, 1870, in F. 

Leoxard Byam, b. Ansj. 30, 1828; m. Mar. 28, 
1854, Mary E., b. Nov. 13, 1838 ; d. Apr. 2, 1857, dau. 
of David and Marinda B. (Osborn) Taft, q.v.; m. (2d) 
Sabra, b. Nov. 28, 1838 ; d. Nov. 30, 1864, dau. of 
David and Joanna (Prescott) Moore, q.v.; m. (3d) Nov. 
1, 1865, Rosette M., b. Dec. 14, 1840, dau. of Benjamin 
and Miranda B. Frye, of Royalstou. Ch. 1 by ist m. 
and 2 by 2d m. 

I. Mary Elizaletli, b. Sept. 3, 1856 ; d. Oct. 28, 

1864. 
II. LilUe Etta, b. Apr. 20, 1860 ; d. Nov. o, 1864. 
III. Sylvia Sabra. 

Nathan Townsend Byam, b. Sept. 23, 1833 ; m. 
Aug. 20 (?), 1859, Elizabeth N. V., b. June 28, 1837, 
dau. of Josepli Church, of Winchendon. 

I. Arthur Toiunsend, b. July 20, 1860 ; m. Apr. 
12, 1882, Susie C, b. Nov. 17, 1861, dan. of 
Benjamin F. and Cornelia (Chase) Potter, 
q.v.; res. in F. 

1. Guy Blodgett, b. Mar. 25, 1883, in W. 

2. Arthur Waldo, b. Dec. 29, 1884, in W. 
II. Frances Amelia, b. Jan. 13, 1864 ; d. Mar. 31, 

1866. 
III. Minnie Bertha, b. June 17, 1870. 



I. 



II. 



John Byam, b. May 14, 1798 ; d. May 20, 1865 ; ra. 
Polly Newton, of Soutliboro, Mass. She was b. Oct. (?), 
1796, and d. Aug. 17, 1868. She was sister of AVillard 
Newton, q.v. 

John Newton, b. Feb. 3, 1825 ; d. Nov. 8, 1855, 
at Boston, Mass. 

Charles, b. Aug. 26, 1827 ; m. 1848, Charlotte 
Maryanna, b. Jan. 8, 1829, dau. of Ebenezer 
and Miranda (Darling) Scott, of Chester, Vt. 

1. Lizzie Ella, b. Feb. 16, 1850 ; d. Sept. 3, 
1850. 

2. Ida Emogene, b. Jan. 27, 1854 ; m. 
Loring P. Olmstead, q.v. 

3. Alice Lilian, b. Jan. 31, 1858. 

4. Carrie Scott, b. Feb. 16, 1862 ; m. July 
1, 1886, John A. Cross, of Enfield, N. 
H., s. of John and Lucretia (Lovejoy). 



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GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 503 

III. Milton, b. Jan. 20, 1833 ; d. Nov. 5, 1852, at 
Boston. 



Benjamin Byam was in town before 1770, bnt left 
before 1703*. In the Proprietors' tax-list of 1788 and in 
the Penny tax-list of 1701, L 5 R is set to him. By 
w. Mary he had ch. rec. in F. 

I. Esther, bapt. Jan. 31, 1770. 

II. Solomon, b. Mar. 18, 1781. 
III. Lucy, b. Mar. 25, 1783. 

Zebediah Byam was in town before 1703*, and rem. 
from town ab. 1803. 

NoRMAX Underwood Cahill, b. Jan. 20, 1830, in 
Machias, Me., s. of John R. and Margaretta (Allen) ; 
ra. May 25, 1858, Mary Abbie, b. Nov. 22, 1833 ; d. 
Mar. 6, 1875, dan. of Jonathan S. and Abigail (Tower) 
Adams, q.v.; m. (2d) Oct. 17, 1870, Georgiana (Barden) 
Hall, b. Sept. 21, 1831, at Boston, Mass., dau. of 
Heman and Lavinia M. (Chesley) Barden, and wid. of 
George K. Hall. Mr, C. came to F. in Jnne, 1852. 

I. Charles Adams, b. Dec. 0, 1801 ; m. Dec. 25, 
1880, Dollie Hughes, a native of AVales, G. B. ; 
res. Chamberlain, Dak. 
II. Fannie Aurilla, b. Jan. 25, 1803 ; d. at Minne- 
apolis, Minn., Dec. 10, 1884 ; m. Dec. 25, 
1882, Dr. Edgar I. Hall, s. of George K. and 
Georgiana (Barden) Hall. 

III. Mary Agnes, b. Jan. 1, 1805. 

John Camp or Kemp settled on the east part of L 4 
R 10, and west of the brook which is called by his 
name. He was in town quite early, perhaps before 
1770, and was doubtless the first settler on the lot 
named. The location of his house is still well marked, 
and a few years since some rose-bushes also remained to 
indicate the spot. In his old age he gave his property 
to the town for the support of himself and wife. He d. 
Mar. 10, 1805, a. 05 y. : his w. d. July 20, 1700. They 
had one dan. and prob. other ch. though nothing is 
known certainly about it. 

I. TlianTcful. 

Ebenezer Camp, of F., bought L 2 R 4 of Joseph 
Stone, of Southboro, Mass., by deed dated May 31, 
1774, for £30. 



504 



HISTORY OF FITZWILLIAM. 



4 



Abigail Kemp and Samuel Osborn, 
Nov. 22, 1T81. 



q.v., were 



m. 



Joshua CAPROisr was first taxed in 1826 ; rem. from 
town ab. 1849. By w. Philena had ch. rec. in F. 

I. Lurinda R., b. July 19, 1824; m. Martin P. 
Stone, q.v. 
Child, d. Oct. 1827, a. 2 y. 
Philenn, d. Jan. 3, 1833, a. 5 y. 
Horatio M., d. Jan. 2, 1833, a. 2 y. 6 mos. 
Marij Jane, d. Dec. 30, 183G, a. 3 y. 
Persis B., b. Nov. 24, 1836. 
Emilii G., b. July 24, 1839. 
Lijdia Ann, b. Feb. 17, 1842. 
Benjamin FranTdin, b. Aug. 11, 1846. 



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IX. 



CARTER. 

I Rev. Thomas' Carter