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Full text of "A history of the Forty-fourth regiment, New York volunteer infantry, in the civil war, 1861-1865"




Uew YiDrk-VoluatBer-lnfantry 
Forty-fourth Regiment 
•yrnvp.mhftr in I i 919, 





44rH X ^- \. MOXUMKXT ox 




^etD ^orfe Bolunteer 3nfantr|> 


CIVIL WAR, 1861-1865 






CcPYRiGHT, igio, BY George B. Herenden 












Chapter Page 

I Sketch of the Life of Colonel E. E. Ellsworth . . i 

II The Ellsworth Ass'n of the State of New York . . 7 

III Organization of the Regiment 13 

IV Going to the Front 37 

V The Winter of 186 1-2 at Hall's Hill, Va 47 

VI The Army of the Potomac Moves 60 

VII YoRKTowN, the Peninsula AND Hanover C. H. ... 66 
VIII The Seven Days' Fight; Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mills, 

Savage Station, White Oak Swamp and Malvern Hill 8o 

IX The Army Leaves the Peninsula; Second Bull Run . 95 

X The Antietam (Md.) Campaign 103 

XI Gen. Burnside Relieves Gen. McClellan; Fredericks- 
burg no 

XII Gen. Joseph Hooker Takes Command; Chancellors ville, 

Aldie 125 

XIII Gen. Meade Takes Command; Gettysburg, Pa. . . . 139 

XIV The Return to Virginia; Jones' Cross Roads, Wapping 

Heights, Rappahannock Station, Mine Run .... 159 
XV The Winter of 1863-4; R. R. Guard Duty; Alexandria, Va. 178 

XVI The Campaign of 1864; The Wilderness 183 

XVII Gen. Grant Makes a Flank Movement; Laurel Hill, 

Spottsylvania, North Anna, Bethesda Church . . . 187 
XVIII From May 30, '64, to End of Regiment's Service: Cold 

Harbor, Petersburg, Weldon R. R 197 

XIX The 44th N. Y. Battalion, Poplar Spring Church . . . 207 

XX Homeward Bound, M. O., Oct. ii, 1864 215 

XXI Brig. Gen. James C. Rice 223 

XXII Itinerary of the Regiment and Battalion 228 

XXIII Casualties in Battle 233 

XXIV Appendix 

Third Brigade at Appomatox — General J. L. Chamberlain 243 

The Adjutant's Story — Captain O. L. Munger. . . . 250 

"New" Company E — Captain A. N. Husted 261 

The Captain's Story — Captain C. A. Woodworth. . . . 262 

Elnathan Meade's Story — By Himself 265 

Captain Grannis in Libby Prison 267 

"In the Company Street" — Colonel Charles E. Sprague. . 275 
Service with the 44TH N. Y. in 1864 — Captain B. R, 

Wood, Jr 285 

A Sample War Experience — James S. Dougall. . . . 293 

Lieutenant Eugene L. Dunham — O. C. Brown. . . . 295 

CONTENTS— CofHinued. 

Chapter Page 

In Memoriam, Charles E. Pease — Bradford R. Wood . 296 

Gettysburg in Perspective — Captain A. N. Husted. . . 297 

An Incident — Captain O. L. Hunger 303 

Letter by D. Shapley, Jr., August 21, '61 304 

Letter by McKendree Shaw 306 

Letter from D. Shapley, Jr., October 16, '61 . . . 308 

Letter from Alex. McRoberts 310 

Resolutions on Death of Chas. Chappell 311 

Letter by G. S. Parker 312 

Resignation of Major J. McKown 314 

Battle of Hanover C. H 316 

The Story of a Hero 318 

Appointments in 44TH N. Y 319 

Letter by Acting Adjutant Nash 320 

Letter by Sergeant Willett 321 

Picketing on the Rappahannock 322 

Letter by E. L. Harris 323 

Letter by Capt. Kimberly 324 

Letter from a Member of Company A 326 

William Nelson Norris 328 

Letter by Geo. H. Spry 329 

A Trip into Rebeldom 331 

Letter by M. H. Bliss 332 

Letter by John E. Stewart 334 

Execution of Five Deserters 335 

Weldon Railroad 338 

Norman Ottman is Dead 339 

Death of a Member of the 44TH Regiment .... 340 

Brigadier General Edward P. Chapin 341 

Sword Presentation to Col. Rice 343 

Gettysburg Letter from Col. Rice 349 

Letter from Geo. E. Baker 350 

XXV Roster of the Regiment 353 

Index of Portraits, Views and Maps 473 

General Index 475 






In writing the history of a regiment, which is a part of a 
large army, it is somewhat difficult to determine what opera- 
tions belong to it, and what more properly belong to larger sub- 
divisions. Each in a measure is involved in the other. As dif- 
ferent members of the same regiment did not have the same 
precise experiences, and did not see what occurred from the 
same stand point, so a regimental narrative may not in all its 
parts portray the views and recollections of each. Time, too, 
has been busy in obliterating the footprints of the contending 
armies, and obscuring the recollection of events by those who 
were participants. A general treatise of the war is apt to tell 
the conduct of campaigns, the operations of armies and the 
strategy of generals. The history of a regiment should take 
the reader into camp, show how the rank and file are sheltered 
and fed, portray the experiences on the skirmish and picket 
lines, describe the trying vicissitudes of those who execute the 
commands of generals and bear the burdens and dangers of the 
conflict. One who has participated in battles and witnessed 
their fluctuating movements is often filled with astonishment 
at the failure to portray events as they actually occurred. A 
most interesting history of a great battle would be the faithful 
portrayal of what actually took place by the different members 
on the firing line and in the heat of the conflict. 

The history of the Forty-Fourth New York Volunteers, 
the People's Ellsworth Regiment, ought to have been written 
many years ago, while a larger number of its survivors were 
still living and while its transactions were fresher in the mem- 
ory. The following work is a tardy, and it may be, but a par- 
tial record of one of the most select and gallant organizations 
of men that the state of New York ever produced. The incep- 
tion and development of the plan of its organization., its pa- 
triotic purpose, the select material of which it was composed, 
its faithful, gallant services, all combine to emphasize the im- 
portance of perpetuating its proud record. The entire mem- 
bership of this noted regiment, its dead as well as its living, 
demand this. 

It would be very unjust for him who has been designated 



"burning questions" of the day, were profitably considered 
and ably discussed. The primal elements of manhood, indeed, 
lie deeper than degrees of education and culture; but when 
the intelligent mind is able to comprehend the reasons, and 
the disciplined spirit to recognize the worth, of the cause to 
which they are committed, then even courage, fortitude and 
loyalty take on a deeper strength. These men knew well the 
full meaning of the old flag, and the grounds of the great issue 
for which it was uplifted. Even its wider bearings were not 
beyond their apprehension. It was their voice as well as his 
own, when, scaling the steeps of Round Top, their Colonel, the 
fervid Rice, rode up to me and said in the tone and manner of 
a prophet, "Colonel, we are making world-history to-day !" 

Nor was it the case with this regiment, as it was with many, 
that it took its character from its commander. The almost 
mystic devotion exemplified before them was not deeper than 
their own loyalty, courage and lofty obedience. There were 
subordinate officers and men of the ranks of this regiment quite 
able to judge of the character of commanders and their tactics, 
who refrained from comment, and obeyed without protest or- 
ders that led to unavailing death, as bravely as they did the 
well-considered plans and gallant leadership which secured vic- 
tory, because mind and soul had mastered circumstances and 
overcome matter. 

I remember having a sensation of instinctive protest when 
it was necessary to order this regiment into a storm-center of 
destruction where there was little chance of avail or survival, 
and how this was overborne by a thrill of pride when their 
gallant flag went down with its brave bearers again and again, 
to be instantly lifted in quick succession and borne still aloft 
and onward by ever-ready hands and undaunted hearts. The 
career of this regiment more than fulfilled the trusts reposed in 
it by its founders, and secured for its members immortal honor. 
It is with deep and far-reaching sensibility that I am per- 
mitted to traverse in this history fields of glorious offering and 
noblest service for the Country's life, and thus renew the high 
companionship so deeply cherished from those early beginnings 
in darkness and seeming defeat up to that crowning morning 
which beheld the new birth of a nation and the welcome of the 

Joshua L. Chamberlain. 

A History of the Forty-Fourth 
Regiment, New York Vol- 
unteer Infantry 



A few miles away from the town of Mechanicsville, N. Y., 
and not far from the city of Albany, N. Y., in the little village 
of Malta, Ephraim Elmer Ellsworth was born on the nth day 
of April, 1837. This is a locality near those made historic by 
the success of patriot arms — the scene of one of the decisive 
battles of the War for Independence. 

At the district school in this little village Ellsworth received 
his first knowledge of books, rules of discipline and his fellows. 
He is said to have been a favorite with his master, manly, a 
leader amongst and loved by his school mates (whom he used 
to drill with sticks), quick to learn, apt of memory and young 
as he was, he had a love of such books as told of war and the 
lives and deeds of men great in war. 

In 1 85 1 he entered the country store in this little village of 
Malta and was there a year learning something of the ways 
of business, and then went to the city of Troy, where his en- 
trance into the business world, with its struggles for wealth 
and existence, was made. After remaining in Troy for about a 
year, he turned his steps towards the metropolis of the nation, 
thinking to better his condition, and though he remained in the 
city of New York but a year, it proved an eventful one to him. 
He was present at every drill of the celebrated Seventh Regi- 
ment that it was possible for him to attend, read books of tac- 
tics, and seemed here first to feel the force of those ideas re- 
garding military matters which afterwards came to such splen- 
did fruition. 


[Chap. I. Ellsworth. 1859 

For several years after this period nothing unusual took 
place in his life. It was a struggle for place or position in the 
business world. He made himself perfect in all the accom- 
plishments of a soldier, master of several systems of tactics and 
a skillful swordsman. But a living had to be secured, and so he 
made an effort to enter the ranks of the students of law. He 
was baffled by hard circumstances but through all, his leading 
ideas grew apace. He became an industrious student, a hard 
reader and diligent worker, supporting himself from time to 
time by the copying of legal papers, and the doing of other 
clerical work. 

One of the great controlling ideas of Ellsworth's life, one 
formed in early boyhood, and perfected by years of study, 
was the forming by each State of the Union of "skeleton" regi- 
ments, each having its full complement of thoroughly drilled 
officers, ready to take command on a few days' warning, and 
the regiments likewise to be filled to their full quota on short 
notice. It has been thought by some, that had this scheme of 
Ellsworth been perfected in, say 1859 or '60, the Civil War, 
a struggle lasting over four years, would have been reduced to 
one of three or four months only, because the nation's troops 
would have been prepared at the outset of the War for the 
duties so suddenly devolving upon them. However that may be, 
it is certain that Ellsworth in his time was far in advance of the 
age in which he lived as regards military matters in the United 
States and had few followers. 

At this time ( 1858 to 1861 ) he was the picture of a soldier ; 
his form, though slight, was the size of Napoleon's; the head 
poised like that of a statue and crowned by a mass of long black 
curling hair ; dark eyes ; Roman nose and slight mustache. His 
voice, deep and musical ; his address soldierly and courteous and 
his apparel conspicuous for its military cut. 

Such a man was Colonel Ellsworth when he, in 1859, 
organized the United States Zouave Cadets in Chicago, from 
which organization so many officers of the 44th New York 
Volunteer Infantry and other regiments of the Civil War, were 

Ellsworth organized this Company and drilled it in apparent 
disregard of the rules then existing for the school of the soldier 
and the company and struck out boldly into a new system en- 


iChap. I. U. S. Z. Cadets. i860] 

tirely at variance with the customs and regulations then prev- 
alent in the drilling of soldiers, and added perfection of sol- 
dierly conduct to his men by enforced abstinence and rigid dis- 
cipline. No Company of its size probably, ever furnished so 
many officers for commands that served in the Civil War. Be- _^ 
sides the 44th N. Y. V. as mentioned, there was the nth \^ 
N. Y. V, composed of the Volunteer Firemen in New York 
City, and the 19th Illinois Volunteers, both of which regiments '-^ 
were largely officered by young men from this famous Com- 
pany. It would be difficult to trace or appreciate the important 
influence of this Company on other organizations of the War, 
suffice it to say that no active member of the U. S. Z. C. is 
known, who did not have a commission of some kind during 
the Civil War. It was in 1859 that this Company won a mag- 
nificent set of colors offered as a prize by the United States 
Agricultural Society to the best drilled Company in the Nation. 
Although two years before the Civil War, amongst the Judges 
who awarded the prize was George B. McClellan, afterwards 
the General commanding the Army of the Potomac, and in the 
fifth corps of which army was the 44th N. Y. V., many of / 
whose officers were privates in the Company which was 
awarded this prize by the Agricultural Society in 1859. 

These colors are now in the possession of the Chicago His- 
torical Society. 

It was in i860 that Ellsworth conducted this Company 
through all the principal cities of the North on a tour covering 
some six weeks. It was a march of triumph, and all observers 
good-naturedly conceded to his command the palm of superior- 
ity. Even the crack New York Seventh Regiment admitted 
that the drilling and tactics of these young soldiers was superior 
to anything that had been seen by them before. Every where 
the Company was praised and admired, and Ellsworth was for 
the hour the most talked of man in the country. 

In considering the character of Colonel Ellsworth, great 
credit should be given him for his achievements in a military 
way, for it was all done and accomplished in face of, and in 
spite of, an indifference not to say opposition, by the community 
generally to anything like military efficiency, that was exceed- 
ingly difficult to overcome; any proposal that would put such 
matters on a level of equal importance with commercial con- 


[Chap. I. Lieutenant, U. S. A. 1861] 

siderations was frowned upon. This sentiment had to be con- 
ciliated, money to support and equip his Company had to be 
raised, and that too from a public not vitally interested in mili- 
tary affairs ; hence the difficulty in the way of his achievements. 
A historical writer, speaking of the days just before or at the 
beginning of the Civil War, says : 

"The people of the United States had long cherished the 
Utopian dream that war was impossible upon their favored 
soil. The militia was considered an archaeological absurdity. 
The regular troops, admirable as was their work upon the fron- 
tier, were far from being a source of real pride. The uniform 
was held to be a badge of servitude. The drunken loafer, bar- 
tering his vote for a dollar or a dram, looked down with the 
contempt of a sovereign citizen upon men who submitted to 
the indignity of discipline; and in denouncing the expense of 
a standing Army, unscrupulous politicians found a sure path 
to popular favor." 

[Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War by G. F. R. 
Henderson, C. B.] 

So, we believe that great credit was due to Ellsworth for 
the success that he attained with his Company, nothwithstand- 
ing the sentiment of the country was not with him. 

The U. S. Z. C. were disbanded just before the war. Ells- 
worth removed to Springfield, 111., and entered the law office 
of Mr. Lincoln, of whom he was a great admirer. During the 
presidential campaign of i860, he made many speeches in sup- 
port of Mr. Lincoln. 

While at Springfield in i860, he submitted a bill to the 
Legislature of IlHnois embodying his ideas of militia reform, 
but no progress was made. The before-mentioned spirit of in- 
difference to military matters prevailed. 

On the invitation of President-elect Lincoln, he went with 
him as one of his escorts to Washington. Ellsworth's ambition 
was to hold some important position in the War department, and 
in that way be given an opportunity to put into practice his 
ideas regarding a National Militia. He never realized this am- 
bition. Possibly, the jealousy of regular army officers may have 
operated to prevent his reaching his goal. 

Early in the year 1861, he was commissioned a Lieutenant 
in the Regular Army. Soon after Mr. Lincoln's inauguration 


[Chap. I. First N. Y. Zouaves. May, 1861] 

he was taken sick and while lying ill in Washington, the war 
clouds gathered, and the fall of Sumter aroused him to health 
and strength. Scarce had the echo of the first gun fired against 
the flag on Sumter's walls died away, than he was en-route to 
New York, proceeding thither without orders, without assist- 
ance or authority, with the fixed purpose in his mind, that his 
own native State should have the first regularly organized Vol- 
unteer regiment at the capital of the Nation. On his way he 
made up his mind that from the ranks of the New York Vol- 
unteer Firemen, used to danger and duty, he would recruit his 
regiment. In forty-eight hours after his arrival in New York, 
he had 2,300 names on the roll, and in a few days thereafter his 
regiment, the First New York Zouaves, afterwards the nth 
New York Volunteers, was en-route to, and on the 7th day of 
May, 1861, was mustered into the service at Washington. 

It is a proud circumstance of this regiment and more proud 
still for its young commander, that while other regiments were 
at this time being mustered in for 30 days, 60 days, three 
months and two years, his was the only one mustered in "for 
the War." Others might be content to do a few months' fight- 
ing, but our young hero, only 24 years of age, was determined 
that though the war be long or short, he and his regiment would 
begin at the beginning and stay in until the death. In this regi- 
ment (nth N. Y. V.) Ellsworth secured the election as Com- 
pany officers of six boys from his old Chicago Zouave Cadets, 
namely: Conner, afterwards Colonel of the 44th. N. Y. V.; 
Knox, afterwards Major of the 44th N. Y. V. ; Larrabee, after- 
wards Captain Company B, 44th N. Y, V., and killed at Gettys- 
burg; Coates, afterwards in the Regular Army as Brigadier 
General until he retired at the age of 62 ; Fergus and Yates. 

Through his capacity to command this regiment, composed 
for the most part of men from the rougher walks of life, they 
came to both fear and love him. 

After a few days' drilling and discipline in Washington, on 
the 23rd day of May, 1861, through Col. Ellsworth's influence, 
the regiment was ordered to cross into Virginia and co-operate 
in the attack on Alexandria. Late in the night of the day be- 
fore this march he sought his tent, where in the hours preceding 
that march he busied himself with arrangements for the mor- 
row. In these hours his heart went out to the loved ones at 


[Chap. I. Death. May, 1861] 

home, to his father and mother, and as if even then he felt the 
shadow of the fate that was to befall him, he wrote his parents : 

"I am perfectly content to accept whatever my fortune may be, 
"confident that he who noteth even the fall of a sparrow will 
"have some purpose in the fate of one like me. * * * God 
"bless, protect and care for you." 

At early morn the regiment reached Alexandria. In the 
light wind of that May morning, from a house that had once 
sheltered General Washington, floated a rebel flag. On the im- 
pulse of the moment, and no doubt as he thought to save blood- 
shed, he, with a file of his men, ascended to remove this obnox- 
ious flag. In a few moments he had the colors in his arms, 
and was returning to his regiment. 

"Descending the stairs with the baleful colors in his arms, he 
"was met by the owner of the house, a blinding flash, a sudden 
"report from a rebel musket, followed instantly by a flash from 
"a Union Gun, a thud of northern steel and the souls of the 
"patriot and assassin passed back to their Maker. Ellsworth had 
"fallen in the line of duty; for him the reconnaissance of life 
"had ended, the bugle had sounded the recall, and his spirit 
"returned to its 'maker. The beloved of all who knew him, the 
"typical type of the northern soldier, true, generous, loyal 
"and brave, his death was the call for 100,000 men to spring 
"to arms." 

Such is a brief sketch of the life and conspicuous achieve- 
ments of Col. E. Elmer Ellsworth, whose untimely death 
aroused the loyal people of the Nation, and furnished the in- 
centive that led to the organization of the Forty-Fourth New 
York Volunteers, the People's Ellsworth Regiment. 

[For much of the matter contained in this chapter we are indebted 
to an address of the late Mr. Edward L. Cole of Troy, N. Y., made at 
the dedication of the Ellsworth Monument at Mechanicsville, May 27, 


Chap. n. Purpose of the Ellsworth Reg. May 35, 1861] 



The details of the organization of the Forty-Fourth Regi- 
ment, New York Infantry Volunteers, otherwise known as the 
Ellsworth Avengers, and later on as the People's Ellsworth 
Regiment, in the War of the Rebellion, or what later came to 
be called the Civil War, were so unique that it seems desirable 
to give a full account of them. Col. E. Elmer Ellsworth, a brief 
sketch of whose life is given in the preceding chapter, was the 
first prominent person to lose his life in that war. The news 
of his assassination on the 24th day of May, 1861, spread rap- 
idly throughout the country. For one so young, he had be- 
come quite prominent. On the 25th day of May, the day suc- 
ceeding his murder, the following communication appeared in 
the Albany Evening Journal over the signature of "Retribution." 

"The grief of the people of the North at the villainous assassination 
of the noble Ellsworth is universal and of the most poignant character. 
Let the people of New York, his native State, mingle with their tears 
practical plans for avenging his death. Let each town and ward in every 
county and city in the State provide by subscription of one dollar or 
less for the complete equipment of one man to be selected from said 
town or ward, the men to rendezvous at Albany at as early a day as 
possible and to be organized into a regiment or regiments to be called 
the Ellsworth Avengers. Let the men be between the ages of twenty- 
two and thirty, of undoubted courage and models of physical develop- 
ment and endurance, to be enrolled for the war, and commanded by the 
best and most experienced officers the State can produce. Let the uni- 
form and drill be that in which the gallant dead took so much pride 
while living, and let every officer and man be sworn to avenge his death. 
Appoint committees of well known citizens in each town or ward to 
receive subscriptions and let the excess of contributions beyond the first 
outfit of the men be reserved to clothe and equip their successors if they 
fall. Where is the town or ward in the State that would not promptly 
respond to a movement of this kind?" 

Thus quickly following the death of Ellsworth was evolved 
the plan for raising a regiment in his honor. The citizens of 


[Chap. n. Ellsworth Association. • May, 1861] 

Albany held a Tneeting in response to the foregoing communica- 
tion at which the following proceedings were had : 

"At a meeting of the citizens of Albany to take action concerning 
the assassination of the gallant and lamented E. Elmer Ellsworth, held 
May 27th, 1861, it was resolved that the undersigned immediately or- 
ganize an association to be called the Ellsworth Association of the State 
of New York, for the purpose of raising a regiment in honor of the 
lamented Col. E. Elmer Ellsworth to avenge his death, that one soldier 
be solicited from each town and ward in the State to be chosen by the 
people, that each candidate must be an able bodied man, temperate, of 
good moral character, not less than five feet eight inches in height, and 
not exceeding thirty years of age, and that he be armed and equipped 
by voluntary subscription." 

The following officers of the Association were chosen; 
President, Hon. George H. Thatcher, Mayor of Albany; Hon. 
Erastus Corning, M. C, Treasurer; Charles Hughes, Clerk of 
the Court of Appeals, Secretary; Executive Committee, Hon. 
James M. Cook, John K, Porter, Hon. Lyman Tremain, Jacob 
L Werner and Henry A. Brigham. 

In pursuance of the action taken at this meeting of citizens 
of Albany, a circular was issued of which the following is a 


To THE People of the State of New York : 

The recent assassination of the gallant and lamented Ellsworth and 
the barbarous manner in which the rebels have thus far conducted their 
hostilities against the government, has fired anew the zeal of our young 
men until all are chafing with impatience to meet the foe. The quota of 
New York called for by the President is already organized, and if they 
were not, too much time would be consumed in organizing under exist- 
ing laws. 

Under these circumstances it has been deemed advisable to raise a 
regiment from among the people of this State, each town and ward to 
be represented by furnishing one man, to be at once armed and equipped 
by voluntary subscription, and tendered to the general government to 
serve during the war as the avengers of the noble blood spilled on the 
soil of Virginia on the 24th inst. 

To carry out this purpose an organization was effected in this city, 
Saturday evening by the adoption of the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the undersigned immediately organize an Association 
to be called the Ellsworth Association of the State of New York for the 
purpose of raising a regiment in honor of the lamented Col. Ellsworth. 


Born at Middlesex, N. Y., April, 1844, of Revolutionary ancestors, 
both sides. Enlisted Aug. 7, 1862 in (new) Co. C, 44th N. Y. V. L, 
made Corporal in 1863, detached to First Division 5th Corps Sharp- 
Shooters in August, 1864, and transferred to the 140th N. Y. V. I., 
Sept., 1864 and to the 5th N. Y. Vet. Inf., June 3, 1865, remaining 
detached as a sharp-shooter during his term of service. Engaged in 
every action of his commands during" their entire service. In ranks at 
Battle of Fredericksburg with Frederick Mitchell, who was the first 
man of Co. C, 44th N. Y. V. killed in action. In squad of sharp- 
shooters went, without orders, into the battles of White Oak Road 
and Five Forks with Sergt. E. Ferris — the last man of the 44th N. Y. 
V. I. killed in action. At Appomattox in May, 1865, with the 5th 
N. Y. Veteran Volunteers as Sergeant of Co. E. Honorably discharged 
from service Aug. 18, 1865. Died June, 1874. 


[Chap. n. Ellsworth Association. May, 1861] 

That its officers be a President, Treasurer and Secretary, and an Exec- 
utive Committee of five members ; that the said officers serve one year 
and until others be chosen in their places ; that subscribers to the funds 
of this association be members thereof; 

That it be proposed to each town and ward in the state to furnish 
one able-bodied man for this regiment, said person to be selected from 
those who shall offer to enlist in the same by a committee of three to 
be chosen by the subscribers to the fund in said town or ward ; 

That in each town and ward in this State subscriptions be solicited 
not to exceed one dollar from each person, and that the same be im- 
mediately forwarded to the Treasurer of this Association at Albany; 

That the soldier to be selected from each town and ward be an 
unmarried man, not less than five feet eight inches in height, active, able 
bodied and not to exceed thirty years of age ; 

That as soon as may be each town and ward report to the Secretary 
the name and address of the soldier chosen by said town or ward and 
that it be recommended to each to select men of moral worth and so far 
as possible those who have some knowledge of military evolutions ; 

That on notice each person chosen to said regiment report himself 
for duty and rendezvous in the city of Albany; 

That with the funds to be subscribed the men so chosen be mustered 
into service and divided into companies and officered by the Executive 
Committee, and officers of this Association, and a regiment formed and 
officered by said committee and officers ; 

That the funds so subscribed and paid be faithfully applied to the 
mustering and complete equipment of said regiment, and when the same 
shall be ready for service it be tendered to the government for active 
duty during the war upon the same terms as other troops, and subject 
to all existing military regulations of the United States army; 

That the amount requested to be raised is about the sum of $150,000 
which will fully equip said regiment for the field and furnish it with all 
necessary equipage ; 

That it be recommended to each town and ward in the State to 
immediately open a correspondence with the Secretary in this City and 
to circulate subscriptions at once in order that the regiment may be 
organized, uniformed and equipped during the month of June. 

On motion the following officers of the Association were chosen : 
President, Hon. George H. Thatcher, Mayor of Albany; Treasurer, Hon. 
Erastus Corning, M. C. ; Secretary, Charles Hughes, Clerk of the Court 
of Appeals. The following Executive Committee were chosen : Hon. 
James M. Cook, John K. Porter, Hon. Lyman Tremain, Jacob I. Werner, 
Henry A. Brigham. 

On motion resolved that these proceedings be at once published 
in. all of the papers of this State and active measures be taken for earn,'- 
ing out the purposes of this Association ; that the names of all subscribers 
to the fund be transmitted to the Secretary at Albany for publication and 


[Chap. n. Ellsworth Association. May, 1861 

record ; that no funds be disbursed by the Treasurer except on vouchers 
certified by a majority of the Executive Committee and countersigned by 
the Secretary. 

Dated Albany, May 25th, 1861. 

George H. Thatcher, President, 
Erastus Corning, Treasurer, 
Charles H. Hughes, Secretary. 
Lyman Tremain, 
Henry A. Brigham, 
John K. Porter, 
James M. Cook, 
Jacob I. Werner, 

Executive Committee. 


1st. Publish above statement of organization in your county and 
city papers, and see that these circulars are sent into each town and ward 
of your county. 

2d. Circulate immediately subscription papers headed as follows : 

Honor to Col. Ellsworth. 

The undersigned citizens of the town of , County 

of N. Y., hereby promise to pay the sum of one 

dollar each on demand to the Ellsworth Association of the State of 
New York for the purpose of organizing and equipping the People's 
Regiment to the honor of the late Col. Ellsworth. 

3d. When the subscription amounts to one hundred dollars (or such 
sum as can be raised in each town or ward) let the subscribers meet and 
appoint a committee of three to select a person to represent the town or 
ward in the regiment (see qualifications in the above resolution). Send 
name and address of the person selected to Charles Hughes, Secretary, 

4th. Send the subscription list with the money to Hon. Erastus 
Corning, M. C, Treasurer of the Association at Albany, and send a 
duplicate to Charles Hughes, Esq., Secretary, at Albany. 

Sth. Let the person selected to serve in the regiment from each 
town or ward sign a consent to serve during the war which may be as 
follows: — I, (his name) hereby voluntarily enlist in the People's Regi- 
ment of the State of New York formed by the Ellsworth Association 
to serve the United States as a soldier during the war and also to report 
myself in Albany for duty immediately on being notified by the Secre- 
tary of the said Association. 

6th. Let the funds subscribed be forwarded at the earliest moment 
or send the Secretary a statement of what each town or ward will raise 
to enable the Executive Committee to purchase arms and clothing &c. 

7th. It is understood at present that the commissioned ofiicers of 
the companies (when proper officers can be found) will be selected from 
those volunteering by the officers of this Association and the Executive 


[Chap. II. Ellsworth Regiment. June, i86i| 

Committee. The non-commissioned officers will be selected by the men 
after the companies are formed, contiguous counties will be placed 
together to form companies. The officers of the regiment will be selected 
by the officers of the Association and Executive Committee. Merit, 
fitness and capacity will be the test in the choice of officers. 

8th. The pay of the men and officers will be the same as other 
infantry troops. The uniform and the equipments will be of the best 
quality to be had in the country and the camp equipage &c. will be as 
perfect as the funds subscribed will allow. 

Albany, June 3d, 1861. 

Charles Hughes, Secretary." 

Circulars containing these instructions were at once for- 
warded by the secretary to the various towns and wards in the 
State, and also published in the newspapers. The people in 
many of the towns and wards at once took steps to select repre- 
sentatives for the regiment, and to raise funds to use in equip- 
ping them. In many instances there was considerable rivalry 
in making selections of representatives. Candidates were care- 
fully scrutinized to ascertain if they complied with the re- 
quired standard. Short applicants walked tall as possible, and 
in some instances, extra lifts were put upon the shoes to give 
the required height of five feet and eight inches. Age and 
character were also considered in order that the candidate 
might pass inspection. Reports failed to show that the ade- 
quate number of men to complete a regimental organization 
had been selected. 

A second circular under date of August 2d, 1861, was there- 
upon issued of which the following is a copy : 

"Ellsworth Regiment. 
To the Town and Ward Ellsworth Associations of the State of New 


The Executive Committee announces that the general government 
has accepted the People's Ellsworth Regiment, but with the condition 
that the regiment shall be ready for marching orders within twenty-one 
days from the 24th ultimo. 

This condition the Committee find themselves unable to comply with 
in consequence of the towns of the State having failed as yet to respond 
to their call, and thus furnish the men and means to make up the regi- 
ment. Under these circumstances the Committee has resolved to call 
together the men already selected and to allow the towns which have 
furnished men and means to select as many more men from any town 
or ward in their several counties as they shall choose, up to the number 
of five men each, without raising any additional funds and to muster 


Chap. II. Ellsworth Regiment. Aug. 1861 

them into service under the call of the Governor for 25,000 men, (pro- 
vided that each man selected shall come up to the standard of qualifica- 
tions heretofore presented by the Committee). By availing themselves 
of this opportunity the Government will clothe and arm the men, and 
thus relieve the Committee of that expense and the soldiers of this reg- 
iment can avail themselves of the provisions of General Order No. 15, 
which is as follows : 

'Every soldier, non-commissioned officer, private, musician and 
artificer who enters the service of the United States under this plan shall 
be paid at the rate of fifty cents, and if a cavalry volunteer, twenty-five 
cents additional in lieu of forage for every twenty miles of travel from 
his home to the place of muster, the distance to be measured by the 
shortest usual traveled route, and when honorably discharged, an allow- 
ance at the same rate from the place of discharge to his home and in 
addition thereto the sum of one hundred dollars. Any volunteer who 
may be received into the service of the United States under this plan 
and who may be wounded or otherwise disabled in the service, shall be 
entitled to the benefits which have been or may be, conferred on persons 
disabled in the regular service, and the legal heirs of such as may die, 
or may be killed in the service, in addition to all of the arrears of pay 
and allowances, shall receive the sum of one hundred dollars.' With 
the money collected in the various towns and paid into the Treasury of 
the Association under our first plan of organzation, the Executive Com- 
mittee will purchase for the use of the regiment such additional articles 
of uniform, arms and wearing apparel as will add to the comfort and 
efficiency of the men of this regiment. 

Any town desiring to be represented in this regiment not having 
heretofore taken action, can select a man on raising the sum of twenty 
dollars or as many men as they choose at that rate, but all men selected 
must comply with our standard of qualifications, viz, that the soldier to 
be selected in each town and ward be an unmarried man, not less than 
five feet eight inches in height, active, able-bodied and not to exceed 
thirty years of age and of good moral character. 

Arrangements have been made by which it is expected that the pay 
of the men will commence on the day after their arrival in this city. 

All men selected before the eighth day of August will report them- 
selves for duty on that day at the City Hall in Albany. All men selected 
after that date will report themselves for duty at the camp of the regi- 
ment in Albany on the 20th day of August. 

We earnestly appeal to the patriotic citizens of every town in the 
State to furnish a representative for this regiment and ask our young 
men to come forward and give their aid to the country in defense of its 
time honored flag. 

We call upon the patriotic press of the State to give publicity to this 

By order of the Committee. 

Charles Hughes, Secretary." 


[Chap. m. Assembling. Aug. 8, 1861] 



The 8th day of August, 1861, came. It is a day memorable 
in the annals of the Forty-Fourth Regiment, New York Vol- 
unteers. It was the day fixed by the second circular of the 
Ellsworth Association for all members who had been selected 
prior to that date to assemble in the City Hall at Albany. The 
members from Buffalo and the western part of the State 
reached Albany in the morning, having ridden all night in a 
day coach. Hilarity and good fellowship prevailed throughout 
the entire night. The serious aspect of the undertaking was 
perceptibly in the background. After taking breakfast at 
Stanwix Hall, a hotel near the railroad station, the members 
from the western part of the State proceeded in a body to the 
City Hall. Here they met for the first time Hon. George H. 
Thatcher, Mayor of Albany, Hon. Erastus Corning, Member 
of Congress, Charles Hughes, Esq., Clerk of the Court of Ap- 
peals, respectively president, treasurer and secretary of the 
Ellsworth Association. These gentlemen had been selected by 
the Ellsworth Association to carry out the comprehensive plan 
for organizing and raising the regiment. They voluntarily and 
unsparingly devoted their time and influence to accomplish that 
purpose. All persons interested in the regiment are indebted 
to these gentlemen for their patriotic and zealous initiative in 
its behalf. The detail work which was large and laborious was 
conducted by Hon. Charles Hughes, the faithful and efficient 
secretary. He left nothing undone to accomplish the high ideal 
of the founders of the regiment. 

In speaking of his services, an Albany paper said : "Of the 
labor performed by the secretary, Hon. Charles Hughes, we 
desire to speak briefly. For months he has been almost con- 
stantly employed in the work, receiving and responding to hun- 
dreds of letters, besides attending to scores of matters which 
claimed the attention of the Executive Committee. In order 
to forward the movement and avoid any delay, he remained in 


(Chap. in. Qualifications. Aug. 8, 1861] 

town during all of the summer months and for no other pur- 
pose than faithfully to discharge the duties imposed upon him." 

At the City Hall there were present other candidates for 
membership from different parts of the State. In most cases 
they met as strangers. New faces and new experiences were 
the common lot. The tie that attracted and bound them together 
was a common patriotic purpose and the uncertain destiny of 
the military service. At this time and place credentials were 
delivered to the Committee, names were registered and sub- 
scription money paid to the Treasurer of the Association. 

The subscription money represented the bonus paid for the 
privilege of becoming a member of the regiment. There was an 
entire absence of the spirit of commercialism. At this period 
a large bounty had not become an incentive to volunteering. 
The committee also examined to ascertain if the different can- 
didates possessed the required standard of quaUfications, viz., 
an active, able-bodied man, unmarried, temperate, of good 
moral character, not less than five feet eight inches in height 
and not exceeding thirty years of age. It was no mean stand- 
ard of excellence. Those who passed appeared like collegians 
after matriculation. The preliminary business completed, 
those who had been accepted formed in two ranks and marched 
to the barracks in the suburbs of the city. It was the first mili- 
tary march and would hardly pass a critical inspection. The 
march was made in the middle of the street. It was a rainy, 
gloomy morning. The streets, especially after leaving the pave- 
ment, were muddy and sHppery. The march was a forerunner 
of what was to follow. Amused and animated by the novelty 
of what was happening, there was no disposition to anticipate 
what the future concealed. Nothwithstanding the rain, the 
mud and gloom, there were no stragglers on the way. It may 
be said in passing that it is a wise provision of human nature 
that mental operations are not at all times apparent. On reach- 
ing the barracks the broad gate swung open and the advance de- 
tachment of the Forty-Fourth Regiment, New York Volun- 
teers, entered. A material step had been taken in a long and 
varied experience which was to follow. Opportunity was now 
offered for observation and reflection. The barracks were 
situated on a large lot in the western part of the city of Albany, 
on the northwesterly side of what was known as the New 


[Chap. m. N. Y. Militia. Aug. i86z 

Scotland Road, Here we formed acquaintance with Captain 
Ainsworth's Co. B, 10th N. Y. S. Militia, otherwise known as 
the "Old Guard Washington Continentals," which under State 
authority had charge of the barracks as a Camp Guard during 
the summer of 1861. In this period many New York Volun- 
teer regiments were there assembled, organized, drilled and 
duly sent to the front. Company B, noted for its efficiency in 
drill and soldierly bearing, was one of the crack militia com- 
panies of Albany. Among its members then in service at the 
barracks, at hospitals and other places in the city, requiring 
military guard, were the following named men, who subse- 
quently joined and served in the Forty- Fourth New York, viz : 
Robert F. Buchanan, Charles C. Gates, Anthony G. Graves, Jr., 
Charles W. Gibbs, George B. Herenden, Andrew Love, Robert 
H. McCormic, James McMillan, Charles Wilber and Charles 
H. Zeilman. Co. B was a famous organization of citizen sol- 
diers dating from 1854. From its educative ranks went more 
than sixty men as officers of the Union volunteers and on Nov. 
21, 1862, the company as a body was mustered into the U. S. 
service as part of the 177th N. Y. V. Inf., serving for nine 
months at New Orleans and Port Hudson, La. 

Another company in the summer of 1861 was engaged at 
Albany in performing like service at hospitals. Quartermaster, 
Commissary and Medical depots. It was Co. A. of the lOth 
N. Y. Militia, otherwise known as the "Albany Zouave Ca- 
dets." Among the members of this company who early joined 
the Forty-Fourth New York were Charles E. Pease, Alexan- 
der McRoberts, Bradford R. Wood, Jr., and doubtless others 
unknown to the writer. Company A graduated over one hun- 
dred officers into the volunteer forces. By long service and as- 
siduous practice the officers and men of these militia companies 
had acquired great proficiency in the manual of arms and com- 
pany evolutions, and by example and as drill masters they were 
of great assistance to the members of the Forty-Fourth N. Y. 
who at this time were so anxiously seeking military knowledge. 

The barracks consisted of a large three-story brick building, 
erected by the city of Albany for an industrial school. This 
building was unoccupied at the beginning of the war, and was 
temporarily turned over to the State as a rendezvous for troops, 
before leaving for the seat of war. It was used for officers' 


(Chap. in. Albany Barracks. Aug. i86il 

quarters, as a place to store quartermaster's stores, for a guard 
house, and the basement was used for a mess hall. Near the 
brick building, numerous temporary wooden buildings had been 
erected for use as quarters for the soldiers. In these tem- 
porary buildings were bunks for sleeping made of rough 
boards, two tiers high and wide enough for two persons. Meals 
were serv^ed in a mess hall in the brick building in which were 
long rough tables with long benches to sit upon while eating. 
When the meal was prepared the order was given to "fall in" 
for the meal, and march was made to the mess hall. On reach- 
ing the mess hall the soldiers were aligned along either side of 
the table, when the order was given "uncover, seats." The 
next period was conducted without orders and generally free 
from any prescribed ceremony. The food was plain and sub- 
stantial, but in some instances the quality would hardly pass 
inspection under the present Pure Food Law. Some of the 
soldiers were so fastidious that they objected to being served 
with rancid butter, tainted meat, and to being obliged to eat off 
of tin plates. It was certainly quite an innovation from the ac- 
customed daily fare in an ordinary American home. Com- 
plaints were made to the contractor, a parley was held, and 
some of the causes of complaint removed. The meal finished, 
and the retreat from the mess hall was also made under orders. 
In fact, both day and night were regulated by orders. It did 
not take long to learn the extent of the accommodations af- 
forded in military barracks, nor the meaning of military orders. 
A military order is a command given by a superior in rank 
which the inferior in rank is bound to obey. It seemed simple 
in theory but often required considerable self control when 
reduced to practice. Another version was that orders could not 
be discussed and took effect in manner and form indicated. 
When the order came the person ordered had as little to say as 
though he were not a party in interest. It was just as impera- 
tive in the manner of going to and returning from dinner, in 
performing the daily routine of camp, as when actually en- 
gaged in drill. The essence of the whole matter was to have 
some leading commander give orders which all others within 
his jurisdiction must obey. Here was developed a gradual 
transition from the life of the civilian to that of the soldier. It 


(Chap. m. From Citizen to Soldier. Aug. 1861] 

was like going upon a voyage at sea. As the shore slowly re- 
cedes from the view, the trees, the banks, the scenery seem to 
take on additional charms and attractions. So the recruit as 
he looks back upon the vanishing experiences of civil life, re- 
calls the environments and comforts of home, comes to dis- 
cover elements of satisfaction and enjoyment never appre- 
ciated or realized before. It is no mean step from the proud 
freedom of American citizenship to the necessary restraints 
of military discipline. The change involves the descent, so to 
speak, from the lofty height of individual independence to be- 
come a part of an animate machine. Nurtured in the genial 
atmosphere of our free institutions, the American volunteer, 
when duty calls, readily adapts himself to the restraints of 
military discipline, but never yields to servile degradation. 

Soon after a considerable portion of the members of the 
regiment had reached the barracks, the following article was 
published in one of the Albany papers. 

"The regiment is steadily filling up every day, bringing additional 
members from the diflferent quarters of the State. Those now assembled 
at the barracks come up fully to the standard originally adopted as the 
passport to admission. They possess all of the physical qualifications 
that could be required and are pronounced by all who have visited their 
quarters to be the genuine material for soldiers. They are under drill 
six hours during the day, instructed by experienced and competent 
officers, many of them having belonged to the original 'Ellsworth U. S. 
Zouave Cadets of Chicago.' Their leisure hours are devoted in great 
part to athletic exercises, fencing, boxing and ball playing, while their 
evenings are passed in singing, a glee club having been formed in aid 
of which some tuneful citizen has furnished them with a melodeon and 
a hundred song books. 

They all read the newspapers and keep posted on the progress of 
the war. In the ranks are quite a number of graduates of Yale, Union 
and other colleges. Profanity and intemperance are utterly tabooed 
among them. Indeed although they have been together but a week, a 
temperance organization has been established. So far the regiment is 
all that can be desired and bids fair to be an honor to themselves and 
the State." 

Soon after the advance members of the regiment arrived in 
the barracks, a generous supply of copies of a song appeared. 
It was entitled Ellsworth Avengers, and was written by A. 
Lora Hudson, a young lady who resided not far from Albany. 
The text was soon known to all and sung by many. 


[Chap. m. A. Lora Hadsoa. Aug. 1861 

"Ellsworth Avengers." 

Down where the patriot army, 
Near Potomac's side, 
Guards the glorious cause of free- 
Gallant Ellsworth died. 
Brave was the noble chieftain, 
At his country's call 
Hastened to the field of battle, 
And was first to fall. 

Strike freemen for the Union 
Sheath your swords no more 
While remains in arms a traitor 
On Columbia's shore. 

Entering the traitor city 

With his soldiers true, 

Leading up the Zouave column, 

Fixed became his view. 

See that rebel flag is floating 

O'er yon building tall. 

Spoke he, while his dark eye 

"Boys that flag must fall." 

Strike freemen &c. 

Quickly from its proud position 
That base flag was torn, 
Trampled 'neath the feet of free- 

Circling Ellsworth's form. 

See him bear it down the landing 

Past the traitor's door. 

Hear him groan ! Oh God they've 

shot him, 
Ellsworth is no more. 

Strike freemen &c. 

First to fall thou youthful martyr, 

Hapless was thy fate, 

Hasten we as thy avengers from 

thy native State. 
Speed we on from town and city, 
Not for wealth or fame. 
But because we love the Union 
And our Ellsworth's name. 

Strike freemen &c. 

Traitors' hands shall never sunder 

That for which you died. 

Hear the oath our lips now utter 

Thou, our nation's pride. 

By our hopes of yon bright heaven, 

By the land we love. 

By the God that reigns above us, 

We'll avenge thy blood. 

Strike freemen &c. 

A short time after the above song appeared in camp the 
following proceedings were published in the city papers : 

Ellsworth Regiment. 

At a meeting of the People's Ellsworth Regiment at the barracks, 
on Monday last, Messrs. I. Russell, S. W. Tanner and E. A. Nash were 
appointed a Committee to draft resolutions expressive of the sense of 
the meeting. The following preamble and resolutions were presented 
and adopted : 

"We hold in grateful remembrance the late gallant Ellsworth whose 
short, eventful career had won the admiration of all, combining in his 
life the strictest habit, the highest military talent, the loftiest patriotism, 

Whereas, we deem all of those acts commendable and useful which 
have for their objects to hold up before our soldiery his bright example 
as worthy of imitation, and 


(Chap. m. Field and Staff. Sept. 1861] 

Whereas, we deem that they not alone fight the battles of our coun- 
try, who enter the field and shoulder the musket, but also they who seek 
to cheer and elevate, those who seek to kindle anew in each bosom a 
purer patriotism, a higher aspiration, a nobler manhood, therefore. 

Resolved, That we, the members of the People's Ellsworth Regi- 
ment, hereby express our approbation of the ballad entitled Ellsworth 
Avengers, and tender our sincere thanks to A. Lora Hudson, its talented 
author. The song finds a ready response in every heart, and is worthy 
of him of whom it is written, and 

Resolved, That we extend our thanks to George S. Dawson for his 
generous donation of a sufficient number of copies of the Ellsworth 
Avengers for the glee club of the regiment, and 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded to A. 
Lora Hudson and a copy of the same be published in the city papers. 
Albany, August 15th, 1861. 

I. Russell, 
S. W. Tanner, 
E. A. Nash, 

C. Addison Wood worth. President. 
Charles D. Grannis, Secretary. 

During the months of August, September and the fore part 
of October the ranks of the regiment were filled and company 
officers chosen. The officers of the Ellsworth Association rec- 
ommended to the Governor the names of those who were com- 
missioned as field officers. The company officers were chosen 
by the several companies. The following are the names and 
rank of the field and staff officers : 

Stephen W. Stryker, Colonel. 

James C. Rice, Lieut. Colonel. 

James McKown, Major. 

Edward B. Knox, Adjutant. 

Wm. Frothingham, Surgeon. 

Elias L. Bissell, Ass't Surgeon. 

Fred R. Mundy, Quar. Master. 

LooMis H. Pease, Chaplain. 

Colonel Stryker was twenty-six years of age, was a mem- 
ber of the Ellsworth's U. S. Zouave Cadets, of Chicago, joined 
the New York Fire Zouave (nth N. Y. Vol. Inf.) on its or- 
ganization and was made First Lieutenant and Adjutant of that 
regiment. On the death of Col. Ellsworth he accompanied and 
had charge of his remains until their burial. The fact that he 


(Chap. m. Field and Staff. Sept 1861] 

had been identified with Col. Ellsworth and was familiar with 
his methods and drill, no doubt, had much influence with the 
officers of the Ellsworth Association in recommending him to 
Gov. Morgan for appointment as Colonel. To have received 
that appointment was an honor of which any man of Col. 
Stryker's years and military experience might well be proud. 
He was a good drill master and disciplinarian and received many 
compliments while the regiment was at the rendezvous at 

Lieut. Col. Rice was thirty years of age, was a resident of 
New York City and had been an officer in the 39th New York 
Vols., otherwise known as the Garibaldi Guards. He came to 
the regiment from Virginia and was warmly endorsed for the 
position. His military experience was quite limited, especially 
in the evolution of the battalion. He was a man of culture 
and thoroughly patriotic. In the outset there was some appre- 
hension manifested that he might fail to sustain himself in the 
position to which he had been chosen. He was always brave, 
active and aggressive in battle. As his military experience in- 
creased, the earlier apprehensions of his qualifications disap- 
peared, and before leaving the regiment, on being commis- 
sioned Brigadier General, he had succeeded in establishing 
himself in the good will of the entire regiment. 

Major James McKown was a resident of Albany, had seen 
service in the Mexican War, and at the time of the organiza- 
tion of the regiment was a member of Gov. Morgan's staff. 
He was an early and life long member of the "Albany Burgess 
Corps," a famous military Company organized in 1834, that 
went to the front April 30, 1861, in response to President Lin- 
coln's first call for troops, and furnished many more or less 
distinguished officers and men for the Union Volunteer forces. 
He resigned January 2, 1862, before the regiment had seen any 
active service in the field. 

Adjutant Knox was twenty-five years of age. He was one 
of the Ellsworth U. S. Zouave Cadets of Chicago and was 
known as the "Little Corporal." He joined the New York Fire 
Zouaves (nth N. Y. V. L) under Ellsworth, was First Lieuten- 
ant, and participated with that regiment in the first battle of 
Bull Run. From the outset his soldierly qualities commended 
him to the entire regiment. 


(Chap. m. Non-Commissioned Staff. Sp«t. i86x] 

Quartermaster Mundy came from Seneca Falls to join the 
regiment and was twenty-two years old. He possessed excep- 
tional qualifications for the position to which he was appointed. 

Surgeon Frothingham was thirty-one years of age, came 
from New York City and was well recommended. He left the 
regiment November 22, 1862. 

Assistant Surgeon Bissell was twenty-seven years of age, 
came from Buffalo and had the reputation of being skilled in 
his profession. He left the regiment by promotion November 
19, 1862. 

Chaplain Pease was forty years of age, came from Saratoga 
to join the regiment. He was a graduate of Williams College 
and had travelled in Europe. He left the regiment February 
I, 1862. 


Sergeant-Major George B. Herenden came from Utica, a 
new-fledged lawyer by profession and was in service as a pri- 
vate of Co. B, loth N. Y. M. at the Albany barracks, when, on 
Aug. 16, 1 86 1, he enlisted in this regiment. 

Quartermaster-Sergeant Henry C. Howlett was thirty-two 
years of age and came from Mohawk to join the regiment. 
He was killed by lightning May 30, 1862, at Gaines Mills, Va. 

Commissary-Sergeant Samuel W. Tanner came from Buf- 
falo, was twenty-two years of age and was discharged for dis- 
ability May 19, 1862. 

Hospital Steward Edward Frothingham entered the 
regiment at Albany, was discharged Dec. 11, 1862, by promo- 
tion as Hospital Steward in the U. S. Army. 

The following were the first Commissioned officers and Ser- 
geants of the several companies. The Sergeants were first, 
second, third, fourth and fifth of the several companies in the 
order named. 


Edward P. Chapin, Captain ; George M. Love, First Lieut. ; 
Benjamin K. Kimberley, Second Lieut. ; Sergeants, Jacob Fox, 
John B. Mason, Junius H. Hatch, Jr., WilHam A. Rogers, Al- 
bert B. Tinkham. 

Captain Chapin was thirty years of age, came from Buflfalo, 
and was Assistant District Attorney when he left to join this 


Chap, m Company Officers. Sept 1861] 


Lucius S. Larabee, Captain ; Harrison Kelley, First Lieut. ; 
Clark E. Royce, Second Lieut. ; Sergeants, Martin Burns, 
George P. Allen, Henry M. Galpin, Elam C. Beeman, Elisha A. 

Captain Larabee came from Chicago to join the regiment. 
He was a member of the "Ellsworth's U. S. Zouave Cadets of 
Chicago," also a Lieutenant in the New York Fire Zouaves 
(nth N. Y. V. I.) and served with that regiment in the first 
battle of Bull Run. 


William H. Revere, Jr., Captain; Alexander McRoberts, 
First Lieut. ; Jacob W. Anthes, Second Lieut. ; Sergeants, Ed- 
ward Easterbrooks, Seth F. Johnson, Theodore Hoes, Lansing 
Hollister, Westel W. Hawkins. 


Freeman Conner, Captain ; Reuben B. Landon, First Lieut. ; 
Henry D. Burdick, Second Lieut. ; Sergeants, Eugene L. Dun- 
ham, Frederick A. Moak, Gardner S. Parker, Willie M, Rex- 
ford, John V. TenBroeck. 

Captain Conner came from Chicago, was a member of the 
"Ellsworth's U. S. Zouave Cadets of Chicago," also a First 
Lieutenant in the "New York Fire Zouaves" (nth N. Y. V. I) 
and served with that regiment in the first battle of Bull Run. 

Lieut. Landon was the tallest man in the regiment, stand- 
ing six feet and one-half in his stockings, and was a veteran of 
the Mexican war. 


Michael McN. Walsh, Captain; Bradford R. Wood, Jr., 
First Lieut. ; Myron H. Cole, Second Lieut. ; Sergeants, Charles 
J. Jackson, Simon P. Johnson, Horace M. Riggs, George W. 
Maret, Sherwood F. Carey. 


Campbell Allen, Captain; James McMillan, First Lieut.; 
Charles W. Gibbs, Second Lieut; Sergeants, Charles H. Zeil- 
man, Robert H. McCormic, Anthony G. Graves, Jr., Andrew 
Love, John A. Ramsay. 

Captain Allen at the time he joined the regiment was Prin- 
cipal of a public school in Albany. 


[Chap. in. Company Officers. Sept. 1861 


William L. Vanderlip, Captain; Charles E. Pease, First 
Lieut. ; Christopher R. Becker, Second Lieut. ; Sergeants, 
Jerome Yates, Peter Van Alstyne, Charles A. Webber, William 
R. Johnson. 


William N. Danks, Captain; Charles A, Woodworth, First 
Lieut. ; Eugene A. Nash, Second Lieut. ; Sergeants, Charles D. 
Grannis, Frank Campbell, Frank M, Kelley, Daniel Worthley, 
Wallace Gill. 

Captain Danks came from Chicago and was a member of 
the "Ellsworth's U. S. Zouave Cadets of Chicago." 


A. Webster Shaffer, Captain ; Edward B. Knox, First Lieut. ; 
Edwin L. Spencer, Second Lieut. ; Sergeants, William H. 
Greene, Hobart M. Walker, George S. Boyd, Henry J. 


William H. Miller, Captain ; Willam W. Jones, First Lieut. ; 
Frederick R. Mundy, Second Lieut.; Sergeants, William R. 
Bourne, Ashbell W. Burnham, John P. Willard, William H. 
Sentell, Darwin F. Godfrey. 

More than one-third of the members of the regiment were 
enrolled in the month of August, 1861. More than one-half 
of the members were enrolled in the month of September and 
the balance were enrolled in the fore part of the month of Octo- 
ber. Of those enrolled in the month of August, Company A 
received eighty-two members, Company B received eighty-six 
members. Company C received eighty-three members, Company 
D received fifty-two members. Company E received forty-five 
members and Company F received twenty members. Only a 
few members joined the other four companies in the month 
of August. The ranks of all the companies were practically 
full by the end of September. As fast as the several companies 
were organized the regular routine of camp duty and military 
drill were instituted. After breakfast the first order of the 
day was guard mounting. This consisted of sending a detail 


[Chap. m. Camp Guard. Sept. 1861] 

of men from each company to report to the Adjutant who con- 
ducted the ceremony. After the ceremony the guard was 
marched to the guard house where it was divided into three 
parts, each part being called a relief, and they were numbered, 
first, second, and third. The first relief was posted around the 
camp to guard the camp, keeping members of the regiment in 
and intruders out. After remaining on duty for two hours the 
second relief took their places, and the first relief was marched 
back to the guard house. In like manner at the end of two 
hours the third relief took the place of the second. Thus the 
three reliefs alternated during the twenty-four hours when the 
entire guard was changed. Guarding camp was an important 
duty. This was especially so while in an enemy's country. 
Because it was important strict orders were given and strict 
observance of those orders was required. The safety of the 
regimental camp, or, even the safety of the whole army, might 
depend on the vigilance and the intelligence of the soldier on 
guard. Because it was thus important, the failure of a sol- 
dier to perform faithfully his duties while on guard subjected 
him to severe punishment. 

Guard mounting over, officers of different companies took 
out their men, or the new men coming to their companies, foi 
squad drill. Here were imparted the lessons of the soldier. 
Improper carriage of the body or gait in walking had to be 
corrected. In order to have a company uniform in action and 
appearance all must execute the same order in the same way. 

Later on, after the muskets were received, the manual of 
arms was taught. This branch of the drill was usually taught 
to a less number than a full company, as beginners required' 
more roo-m to execute the movements than was available in a 
close formation. In the manual of arms there were many dif- 
ferent movements which required exact execution on a given 
time. In this branch of the work, the bayonet drill received 
its fair share of attention. Drill in the school of the soldier 
and in the manual of arms was prosecuted with earnestness 
and vigor. The time spent in these elementary instructions 
proved to be of lasting benefit. 

When some degree of proficiency had been obtained in the 
school of the soldier, and in the manual of arms, the next step 
consisted in instruction in the school of the company. A por- 
tion of the forenoon was devoted to this branch of the pre- 




Dr. Elias L. Bissell was born in Lancaster. N. Y., October 22. 1833. 
Educated in Michigan University and the New York College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons; practiced a year in Bellevue Hospital, and a 
short time in Buffalo before the War. 

September i, 1861, he was enrolled as Assistant Surgeon of the 44th 
N. Y. V. I., and promoted in November, 1862 to Surgeon of the 22nd 
N. Y. V. I., later becoming Brigade Surgeon of the First Brigade. 

In 1864 he married Miss A. Lora Hudson, who was the "daughter of 
the regiment" of the 44th N. Y. V. I. and composer of the regimental 
song, "Strike Freeman, etc."' She did devoted and valuable work in 
the Regimental Hospital. 

At the expiration of his service he opened an office in Buffalo, N. Y., 
where he practiced until his death. November t, 1905. 


]\Irs. Bissell, best known to the 44th Regiment as A. Lora Hudson, 
was born near Albany, Aug. 4, 1839, the daughter of a Baptist clerg\- 
man. Earh' left an orphan, she followed the vocation of school teacher 
until she began her work as an Army nurse. 

It was at her desk after school hours that she wrote the words of 
the "Ellsworth Avengers." This song came to the notice of the regi- 
ment A committee called on Miss Hudson, asked her permission 
to adopt the words as its regimental song, and learning of her desire 
to serve her country actively, invited her to accompany them as the 
Daughter of the Regiment. This she did, being with the regiment 
during her entire service. While matron of the 3d Brigade Hospital 
in 1861 at Hall's Hill, Va., she met Dr. Bissell, then Assistant Surgeon 
of the Regiment, to whom she was married in 1864 while she was still 
ill the service. 

After the War Mrs. Bissell resided in Buffalo, N. Y., until her 
death in 1899. 

She was an efficient and self sacrificing hospital nurse and never 
lost her love for "her Iwys" as she always called the men of the 44th, 
and they were as loyal to her as she to them. 

It was her great pride that her name is engraved on the Gettys- 
burg Monument. 


(Chap. m. Military Education. Sept. i86x] 

paratory work. This involved evolutions in close formation 
where soldiers touched elbows in line, kept a proper alignment, 
moved together in a uniform step, carried their muskets in a 
uniform manner. To observe all these things at the same time 
required on the part of the beginner, constant care and atten- 
tion. It often became a matter of extreme concern how to keep 
the step, while the mental energies were employed to keep in 
line by observing the guide and keeping up the touch of elbows. 
To begin with each member knew his right hand from his left, 
at the same time facings were often executed in the wrong di- 
rection. It would seem a little ludicrous to the novice and 
the least bit mortifying to find himself by some wrong ma- 
noeuver facing his companion. Such an accident generally pro- 
duced a moderate amount of suppressed mirth. 

Those officers of the regiment, who had been drilled by or 
who had served under Col. Ellsworth, and those officers who 
had belonged to Company A, Albany Zouave Cadets, and been 
drilled by its accomplished commander, Capt. Frederick Town- 
send, afterwards Adjutant General of the State of New York, 
or who had belonged to the loth N. Y. M., rendered valuable 
services, not only in drilling the men of their several companies, 
but also in advising and assisting those officers who lacked prior 
mihtary experience. Their zeal and deportment seemed to 
permeate the whole regiment. In the organization of our large 
volunteer army in the beginning of the Civil War, it frequently 
happened that inexperienced officers were placed in command 
of undrilled men. This, to some extent, applied to the original 
organization of the Forty-Fourth New York. It should be 
stated in this connection that an efficient officer must not only 
be familiar with the correct order to be given at the proper 
time, but he must also have an aptitude for commanding men. 
This aptitude can neither be acquired by the study of mihtary 
tactics and army regulations, nor by instructions under a com- 
petent commander. It is something which is innate in the 
person. It follows that in choosing the first officers of a com- 
pany or regiment, the fact that they may have had the bene- 
fit of some actual training, does not vouchsafe their efficiency 
when put to actual test in the field. Theory and training are 
necessary adjuncts to the qualifications of an officer, but ex- 
perience in actual field work is the final test of his efficiency. 
An officer may make a good showing on the parade ground. 


(Chap, in. Discipline. Sept. z86i 

or in the routine of camp duty, but be an utter failure when 
confronted with the trying and versatile problems of battle. 
The foregoing observations apply to officers of all grades. It 
required time and care to eliminate impractical and useless 
officers from the armies during the Civil War. 

In the early days of the regiment not infrequently unex- 
pected events would happen. The following is a faithful ver- 
sion of one such event. One evening three members of a pro- 
posed new company obtained passes to go down town to the 
telegraph office to send a dispatch to a person in another part 
of the State, asking him if he would accept the Captaincy of 
such proposed new company and asking for an immediate 
reply. As the officers of the company were to be selected 
next day, it was important to receive the reply at once. The 
three members waited for a reply as long as they thought the 
time limit of their passes would permit and enable them to 
report on time. The time limit was ten o'clock P. M. In order 
that there might be no failure on their part they ran most of 
the way back to the barracks. On reaching the entrance to 
the camp, the sentinel on duty at the gate looked at their passes, 
decided that the time limit had expired, and lustily called for 
the Corporal of the Guard. The Corporal's watch confirmed 
the suspicions of the guard and there was no escape from 
the penalty. Neither explanation nor apology was of any avail. 
The three members were hurried to the guard house under 
guard and locked in a cell. The cell was about eight feet long 
and six feet wide. The only furniture or furnishing of the 
cell was a small tick about two feet wide and six feet long, 
scantily filled with straw. To begin with the occupants of the 
cell were alternately amused at the ludicrousness of the situa- 
tion and indignant on account of their arbitrary treatment. The 
amusing feature soon passed away and indignation increased. 
It was difficult to keep the language that followed within proper 
limits of persons who had recently passed an examination 
for good moral character. It would not be in good form 
to repeat the language here. The occupants of the cell re- 
fused to accept bread and water for breakfast and managed 
to get the attention of Adjutant Knox who ordered their im- 
mediate release and mollified their feelings by proclaiming it 
a monstrous outrage. Before evening of the day of their re- 


[Chap. m. Lt. Col. Rice. Sept. i86z 

lease they were all chosen officers of their company. This in- 
cident is given to show how exact is military duty when ar- 
bitrarily performed. 

Another incident is here related for the purpose of showing 
the variety of experience in the camp of instruction. One 
forenoon one of the companies was out for the usual drill. If 
the letter of the company is not given, members of other com- 
panies may conjecture that the experience was their own. It 
was proposed to give an exhibition of a real bayonet charge. 
The officers in command of the company in question drew it 
up facing a high board fence. The company was informed 
that it would not be necessary to pursue the charge beyond 
the fence. Bayonets were fixed, careful instructions were 
given, and every member of the company appeared to feel 
that the company was about 

"Charging an army while 
All the world wondered." 

The order was given and away went the company. The 
movement was a model of speed, impetuosity and individual 
action. The vociferous and prolonged yell could not easily be 
equalled. Each member appeared to choose his own objective 
point, which was probably a knot hole in the fence. As the 
knot holes were not so numerous as the company, irregular in 
their relative positions and considerably extended beyond either 
flank, a chaotic confusion ensued. The momentum was so 
great that repeated orders failed to retard the movement or 
check the fury. At the end all semblance of organization was 
gone, one man had a bayonet wound in his cheek, one man 
fainted and several bayonets were broken. This charge was 
unique in its kind and unsurpassed during the subsequent serv- 
ice of the company. 

During the formative period of the regiment, Stephen W. 
Stryker was in charge with the rank of Major. On the third 
day of September James C. Rice joined the regiment and was 
commissioned Lieut. Colonel with rank from that date. Being 
senior officer in rank he assumed command of the regiment. It 
soon became apparent that he was not familiar with the evolu- 
tions in a battalion drill. Considerable disappointment was mani- 
fested by the rank and file of the regiment. A petition signed 


[Chap. m. Col. Stryker. Sept. 1861 

by several of the officers of the regiment was presented to 
him requesting him to resign. This incident aggrieved him 
greatly but he did not resign. In conversation with an officer 
of the regiment, who did not sign the petition, he showed much 
feeling and said he could not resign as that would disgrace 
him forever. The Committee of the Ellsworth Association 
had been endeavoring to secure a regular army officer for 
Colonel of the regiment. This they were unable to do as they 
were not able to find a suitable officer who was available at 
the time. It was finally decided to have Major Stryker com- 
missioned as Colonel and let him take command. He ranked 
as Colonel from the 21st day of September. Col. Stryker and 
Lieut. Colonel Rice were persons of very different type. Their 
divergence of character and military qualifications became 
more apparent later on. It would hardly be expected that from 
such divergent natures, congenial companionship could be 
formed. James McKown of Albany, N. Y., who had seen 
service in the Mexican War, was commissioned Major, to take 
rank from September 24th in place of Sti-yker, promoted. To 
some extent the opinion prevailed in the regiment that the 
Committee of the Ellsworth Association was not entirely for- 
tunate in selecting persons to recommend for commissions as 
field officers. It is a difficult problem to select persons from 
civil life who will make proper and successful military officers. 
Experiences of this kind might be multiplied indefinitely. It 
might be profitable for the Government to preserve a record 
of failures and their causes for future reference. 

The regimental organization completed, affairs about the 
camp took on an increased activity. The drill grounds at 
times were covered by separate companies or detachments 
severally performing a great variety of evolutions. An invisible 
enemy seemed to hover around the field, stimulating all in this 
preparatory work. 

In accordance with the promise contained in the circular 
issued by the Committee of the Ellsworth Association a new 
and unique uniform was provided for the non-commissioned 
officers and men. It consisted of a blue cap, Zouave jacket 
with brass buttons, blue trousers with red stripes on the outer 
seams, shoes with yellow leggins or over gaiters. They were 
also provided by the ladies of Albany with Hnen Havelock cap 


Chap. m. Uniforms. Sept. 1861] 

covers as a protection from the heat of the sun. When arrayed 
in these new jaunty uniforms, the regiment presented a fine 
appearance. These uniforms were very well while in camp or 
on garrison duty where attention could be given to caring for 
and renewing them, but it was impracticable to keep a regi- 
ment uniformed with them while engaged in field duty. So 
very soon they had to be laid aside and the regular U. S. uni- 
form substituted. The officers wore the regular U. S. uniform. 

The friends of the different officers made them various 
gifts. Some of them are herein referred to. 

Second Lieut. Christopher R. Becker of Company G was 
presented with an officer's uniform. Captain William L, Van- 
derlip of the same company was presented by Justice Parsons 
with sword, sash, belt and other equipments. First Lieut. Alex- 
ander McRoberts of Company C was presented by his friends, 
members of the Union Drill Association, with a complete set 
of equipments. Private Henry F. Real was presented by his 
fellows of the State Street Sunday School with an elegant 
Bible. One evening Company E was invited to the spacious 
and hospitable home of First Lieut. Bradford R. Wood and 
presented with a beautiful silk flag by some of the patriotic 
ladies of Albany, friends of the company and regiment. Mr. 
Jacob L Werner, a member of the Executive Committee of 
the Ellsworth Association, made the presentation speech. The 
company were then served with some light refreshments after 
which they gave a drill in the manual of arms to the great 
pleasure of the guests. Company F, the Albany company, 
was also presented with a beautiful silk flag of the regulation 
size by the ladies. 

As the army regulations provide for but one regimental flag, 
the company flags were not used in the field but were stored 
in Washington or elsewhere during the war. Second Lieut. 
Charles W. Gibbs of Company F was presented with a sword, 
sash, belt and revolver. Second Lieut. Myron H. Cole of 
Company E was presented with a sword, sash and belt by 
Charles E. Smith. Capt. Campbell Allen of Company F, who 
had been Principal of one of the public schools in Albany, was 
presented at Tweddle Hall by teachers, scholars and friends, 
with an officer's uniform, sword, belt, revolver and travelling 
trunk. Major James McKown one morning found hitched in 


[Chap. m. Total Abstinence. Oct. i86x 

front of his residence a handsome bay horse, the gift of many 
friends. At the residence of his brother-in-law, A. McClure, 
Lieut. Colonel James C. Rice in the presence of Gov. Morgan, 
Hon, Erastus Corning, John G. Gage and others, was presented 
with sword, sash, belt, a pair of revolvers and other things by 
friends in the city. The presentation address was made by 
Mrs. William Barnes, daughter of Thurlow Weed, who spoke 
with great feeling and patriotic fervor, and whose address 
stirred the hearts of all who listened. Lieut. Col. Rice made 
a very eloquent and touching reply, and in closing said : 

"I accept them as a soldier, willing to leave all, sacrifice all, 
save a Savior's love, willing to offer up my life, if need be, for 
my country." 

Citzens of Albany presented Col. Stryker with a beautiful 
horse, a uniform, sword, sash and belt. Color-Sergeant John 
G. Vanderzee was presented by Judge Nott of Bethlehem with 
a sword, sash, belt and blanket. 

The knapsacks of the men contained many presents from 
home and from the ladies of Albany. Among the gifts was 
plenty of lint and plaster for those who might be wounded. 
Many of the young men in the regiment were persuaded to 
sign a pledge not to drink intoxicating liquors during the war. 
It is believed that most of those who signed the pledge kept 
it during their entire term of service. 

The following is a copy of a pledge prepared and signed by 
Allen C. Adsit and others : 

"Whereas, we, the undersigned, having enlisted in the People's Ells- 
worth Regiment to serve during the war, and well knowing the dangers 
which surround us arising from intemperate habits and evil communi- 
cations which corrupt good manners, and which are more dangerous 
to the life, health and character, and destroy more lives, than the guns 
of the enemy, therefore, we do solemnly promise and agree that we will 
not during our said enlistment use intoxicating liquors as a beverage, 
tobacco in any form, nor profane language, and will discountenance the 
use of the same in others to the best of our ability and influence." 

It is not a small affair to organize, equip, drill and discipline 
one thousand young men, fresh from the various vocations of 
civil life, in a manner suitable for active military duty in the 
field. The labor was increased somewhat by the fact that 
the members of the regiment were selected from different parts 
of the State, and to a large extent strangers. The several 


[Chap. m. First Review and Parade. Oct. 8, z86i] 

schools of the soldier, company and battalion had their sepa- 
rate lessons and exercises. It involved not only the knowledge 
and ability to execute the various movements, and orders, but 
also that each member should become imbued vv^ith the proper 
spirit incident to the service. 

The first battle of Bull Run had recently been fought. The 
result was fearfully disastrous to the Union Army. It had 
the effect, however, to awaken those who adhered to the Union 
to the gravity of the situation. It now became apparent that 
there was no hope of compromise, that the differences of the 
people could only be settled by the arbitrament of contending 
armies. The knowledge of the National situation and the 
prospects of engaging a hostile army in actual warfare, has- 
tened the preparatory work while at the barracks. 

On Tuesday the 8th day of October, the regiment was re- 
viewed on the Washington parade ground by Gov. E. D. Mor- 
gan, attended by his military staff. At three o'clock a salute 
was fired in honor of the Commander-in-Chief. The review 
commenced at 3:15 P. M., and was followed by various evolu- 
tions of the battalion continuously until 5 o'clock, when the 
reviewing officer and his staff retired. It was estimated that 
there were about 6,000 people present, witnessing the review. 
It was the first review of the regiment and it received many 
compliments. As the time approached for leaving the bar- 
racks, the routine of camp duty and drills seemed to increase. 
During the fore part of October the bayonet and skirmish 
drills became quite prominent. On Friday October i8th the 
regiment made quite an extended practice march through 
various streets of the city. On the next day the following 
article appeared in one of the daily newspapers. 

"Parade of the Ellsworth Regiment." 
"Despite the unfavorable weather and the wretched condition of 
the streets the favorite Ellsworth Regiment made a street parade yester- 
day afternoon. They entered State Street at the Capitol soon after 4 
o'clock and marched down to the intersection of Broadway in companies. 
The companies then broke into platoons and wheeled into Broadway, 
marching up that Avenue to Clinton Street, up Clinton Avenue to Pearl 
Street, down Pearl to Lydius and up Lydius to the barracks. 

The appearance of the regiment while coming down State Street 
was splendid. Each company presented an unbroken front and every 
man had his eyes to the front. There was no wavering. The men 


[Chap. m. Press Comments. Oct. 1861] 

marched like old soldiers, and executed everj- movement promptly and 
admirably. As they passed along they were continually saluted by the 
citizens who had assembled to greet them." 

On Saturday the 19th day of October, the regiment was 
reviewed by the officers and Executive Committee of the Ells- 
worth Association. It was fitting and proper that they who 
had planned and labored so patiently and unselfishly to organize 
and equip the regiment, should have an opportunity to witness 
it as a whole before it left the State. The reviewing officers 
spoke with unstinted praise of the soldierly appearance of the 
regiment and that they felt richly paid for the time and labor 
which they had spent in its behalf. 

The regiment received many encomiums from the people 
and the press of the State. The high ideals of the Ellsworth 
Association had been realized. The Albany Morning Express 
under date of October 19th, in speaking of the regiment, said: 

"Albany, Erie and Herkimer counties, each furnished more mem- 
bers than any other single county in the State, the two former furnish- 
ing a full company each, and the latter the greater part of a company. 
Nearly every county in the State was represented in the regiment, by 
some of the very best young men of their respective localities, men who 
come up to the requirements of the Committee and who have shown 
themselves to be gentlemen in every sense of the word. The rapid 
improvement of the regiment, we think, can be easily accounted for. 
Each member felt that: he was assigned to a proud responsible position, 
that he was the representative of a constituency, who would expect from 
him a faithful account of his stewardship, and that he could not be un- 
mindful of his duty without bringing reproach and discredit upon those 
who had conferred the honor upon him. Actuated and prompted by 
such feelings each and every man devoted himself assiduously to his 
task, which was rendered pleasant by the care and attention of the of- 
ficers and their personal endeavors to instruct them. Thus the regiment 
has been brought to its high standard and thus it will become one of the 
best, if not the very best, organized in the State. 

The officers of the regiment are all excellent soldiers, as is evident 
from the excellent drill and the discipline maintained. They are all 
young, active, energetic and intelligent, and endeared to their men. We 
venture the assertion that in no regiment can there be found such a 
cordiality of feeling as exists between the rank and file of this really 
crack organization." 

Who that saw and knew the regiment, knew the quality and 
character of the rank and file of which it was composed, their 


Born at Perrysburg, N. Y., September 22, 1838. Enlisted in Com- 
pany H, September 15, 1861. Was mustered out with the Regiment, 
October, 1864. He was wounded in the Battles of Hanover Court 
House, Second Bull Run and Gettysburg. Except when disabled and 
absent on account of wounds he was in every battle that his Regi- 
ment fought. He married Christiana Badgers, a daughter of a soldier, 
and his only child, Grace, married George A. Grugg, an only son of a 

I pK librae 


[Chap. m. Ordered to "The Front" Oct 1861 

patriotic devotion and consecration to the cause, will not say 
that the picture in the main is correct? 

Colonel Fox in his History of Regimental Losses, in speak- 
ing of this regiment says : 

"The enlisted men of this regiment were the finest of any in the 
service. They were recruited from every county in the State in con- 
formity to the requirements calling for unmarried, able-bodied men, 
not over thirty years of age, not under five feet eight inches in height 
and of good moral character. The men were of a high order of in- 
telligence and when the regiment was organized it was found that the 
average age was twenty-two, and the average height five feet ten and 
one half inches. The men wore a Zouave uniform the first year of the 

At length the order came for the regiment to leave the bar- 
racks. The announcement of orders to proceed to Washingfton 
was received with much apparent satisfaction. 

"Yesterday afternoon the Ellsworth Regiment had a parade on 
the Poor House Farm opposite the barracks. And while maneuvering, 
Col. Stryker, who had been in the city during the day, arrived on the 
ground. He immediately took command of the regiment and after 
marching and wheeling in divisions for a short time, he halted the 
men in a ravine in the southeast comer of the field. He took position 
on an elevation to the right of the regiment while the band was on 
the left. Every man seemed to anticipate what was coming. Perfect 
quiet prevailed as the Colonel pulled from his belt an oflScial document 
which he proceeded to read, and which were the orders for the regi- 
ment to march on Monday next. Before the reading had been con- 
cluded there arose such a shout from the eight hundred men on parade 
as made the very earth tremble. Cheer after cheer was given, caps 
were thrown heavenward, muskets followed, and even the men them- 
selves jumped from the ground and leaped about as if each and all 
had received news of being heir to princely fortunes. Such dancing, 
such pirouetting, such prancing, such hugging, in fact such an en- 
thusiastic demonstration was never before witnessed in these parts. 
To say that the boys were wild with joy, but feebly describes their 
feelings and actions. It was a perfect delirium, and each man seemed 
to endeavor to exceed his neighbor in giving vent to his feelings. As 
the cheering ceased a loud cry was given 'Dixie!' and immediately 
the band struck up that familiar and pleasant air. The sweet strains 
of the music aroused the enthusiasm of the boys again, and with their 
loud huzzas they fairly drowned the notes of Schreiber and his com- 
rades. Even Charlie Kane's terrific thumps on his favorite bass drum 
could not be heard. 

As the band ceased playing Colonel Stryker waved his hand, com- 
manding order and silence, and in much less time than could have 


[Cbap. m. Enthusiasm. Oct. 1861] 

been expected, considering the excited state of feeling of the men, 
when the Colonel addressed them as follows : 

'Boys, I will now give you the program. To-morrow (Thursday) 
three companies (naming them) will be allowed their liberty until two 
o'clock in the afternoon. At which time all the men must be at the 
barracks. In the afternoon there will be a battalion drill. On Friday, 
three other companies (naming them) will have their liberty until two 
o'clock in the afternoon. In the afternoon we will make a street parade. 
In the evening we intend to give our band a complimentary concert at 
Tweddle Hall and we wish you all to attend. You know you have 
all had uniforms furnished you, but the band has not, and we desire 
to do something handsome for those who will add so much to our 
pleasure when away from here. (Rousing cheers were here given the 
band.) On Saturday the four remaining companies of the regiment 
will be given their liberty until two o'clock in the afternoon. Saturday 
afternoon we will be reviewed by the Executive Committee of the 
Ellsworth Association for the last time. Now boys you are to be 
given your liberty, and I hope not a man of you will do anything that 
you will be ashamed of. or that you will be ashamed to tell me. I am 
satisfied you will not. You have read in the papers that I am proud 
of this regiment, but they can't tell you half how proud I am of you. 

'I desire to state to you that Governor Morgan has telegraphed to 
New York for one thousand shirts, the best that can be procured for 
you. You have drawn all the clothing you are entitled to, but the 
Governor declares that his pet regiment shall not leave the city unless 
their every want is provided for. (This elicited another outburst of 
cheering for the Governor.) The Governor did not want to promise 
you about the new guns for fear he would disappoint you, but this after- 
noon he informs me that one thousand Minnie rifle muskets are on 
their way from Springfield for you, and they are the best ever made. 

'The date of our departure will be known to all your friends to- 
night, as I have telegraphed it all over the State, and they will have 
permission to pass within the lines and see you. On Sunday morning 
you will be permitted to attend church in the city, and in the afternoon 
there will be services in camp. At five o'clock there will be a dress 
parade. On Monday morning every man must be at his post. And 
at one o'clock your friends will have to leave you. (Just then one 
of the boys shouted, "Bully for that" which created much merriment.) 
At two o'clock everything must be in readiness to leave that old place 
(pointing to the barracks) for good. (The reminder that they were 
soon to enter the field was the signal for another rally of cheers from 
all hands.) And now boys, I propose three cheers for the glorious 
stars and stripes, the flag that can never meet with dishonor or dis- 
grace, so long as a People's Ellsworth is left to defend it.' " 

"The cheers were given, and three more, and three again, and 
three more still, winding up with a three times three and 'a tiger as is 
a tiger.' We think that if people had been listening in Greenbush, they 
might have heard those cheers, for we never heard such huzzas before ; 


(Chap. m. Official Commendation. Oct. 1861] 

nor have we ever seen men more enthusiastic, it was a scene without 
a parallel, and showed that the Ellsworth's to a man, are anxiously 
looking forward to the time when they may, by deeds of valor and 
courage, show that they are worthy of the name they bear, worthy of 
being the representatives of the Empire State." 

More than two months had passed since the advance de- 
tachment entered the barracks. The time had been well spent 
in preparatory work. It can not be denied that the routine 
in the Albany camp had become somewhat monotonous. The 
life in the barracks was but a short intermediate step between 
the life of a citizen and the life of a soldier in the field. Sub- 
stantial bunks in well-enclosed barracks, with cooked rations 
served even on crude tables, were far more luxurious than 
the limited accommodations in camp. Subsequent experience 
proved the wisdom of Hamlet's familiar saying: "It is better 
to endure the ills we have than flee to those we know not of." 

In honor of the regiment the following order was issued by 
the Adjutant General: 

"State of New York, Depot of Volunteers, 
October 20, 1861. 
Special Order No. 84. 

The General commanding the depot can not permit the People's 
Ellsworth Regiment to pass from his command without returning to 
all officers and privates alike his sincere thanks for the order and 
discipline which have been maintained during the difficult period of 
organization, for the promptness and alacrity with which they have 
obeyed every order, and for the uniform courtesy and soldierly bearing 
which have characterized them while they have been in this command. 
He feels that his own labors have been materially lessened by the entire 
and ready conformity of the regiment to his wishes and directions. The 
example it has shown enforced here and continued wherever it may 
go, can not but prove most beneficial and useful throughout the struggle 
in which we are engaged. The General commanding would especially 
express his approbation for the entire absence of intemperance, and, 
commending the regiment to more active scenes, would expect it to 
maintain the character which it has already won, and to rely upon 
Him who alone can crown our arms with victory. 

By order of 
Brigadier Gen'l John F. Rathbone, commanding. 
Charles E. Smith, 

Acting Aid de Camp." 

The final preparations had to be made. All were required 
to discard all articles except such as were actually necessary. 


[Chap. m. Packing Knapsacks. Oct. 1861 

Even necessaries had to be of a limited character, as the per- 
sonal baggage of each had to be encompassed within the limits 
of a knapsack which was suspended by straps around each 
shoulder. There was a great diversity of opinion as to what 
articles would be most useful. Whatever the rule of selection 
the knapsacks were filled to their utmost capacity. Surplus 
baggage was shipped home or otherwise disposed of and hasty 
farewells sent to friends. 


Born at Lyons, New York, March 6. 1836; went westward March 6. 
1855, residing in Illinois, ^linnesota Ter., Missonri and Tennessee; 
returning to Lyons at opening of Civil War, was chosen a repre- 
sentative of that town in the 44th N. Y. V. (People's Ellsworth) Regi- 
ment: Enr. August 20, 1861. served continuously as Private. First Ser- 
geant. Lieutenant and Captain, until at Gettyshurg July 2. 1863, he was 
thrice wounded in action, the last bullet remaining in his hip; honor- 
ably discharged for wounds, October 9, 1863. As Captain U. S. Vet. 
Reserve Corps he was military assistant to Surgeon in charge Armory 
Square Hospital. Washington. D. C. November. 1863 to September, 
1865 : then ordered to Wheeling. West Va.. in command of three Com- 
panies of 3d U. S. V. R. C. : assigned to duty in the Ereedman's Bu- 
reau, he served 22 months in Tennessee and Kentucky, leading a tem- 
pestuous and hazardous life among a disorderly element of the popula- 
tion who acted upon the legend that "the negro had no rights a white 
man need respect": then joined his regiment (42d L^ S. Inf.) serving 
at Plattsburg. N. Y.. Sacketts Harbor. N. Y. and Fort Gibson, Ind. 
Ter. : then in charge of the Green Bay, Wisconsin. Indian Agency until 
retired from active U. S. service : he was in charge of the Relief Com- 
mittee of the State of Wisconsin, distributing immense quantities of 
supplies to the thousands made destitute by the terril)le Peshtigo Fires, 
Octol)er 9. 1871 : in lumber trade in 1880 and following years at Bar- 
ronett and Shell Lake. Wis. : engaged in banking at Shell Lake, Wis. 
Brevetted Major \5. S. Vols, and First Lieutenant. U. S. A. : a comrade 
of the Grand Army of the Republic and a companion of the Military 
Order of the Loyal Legion and Past Commander of the Minnesota 
Commandery. Died, Oct. — 1910, at Shell Lake. Wis. 





[Chap. IV. We leare Albany. Oct. ai, 1861 ] 



On October 21, 1861, everybody in camp was astir. That 
afternoon the regiment was to take a boat for New York. Dur- 
ing the day much speculation was indulged in as to what the 
end would be. Each member was turning his back on his 
home, his chosen vocation and civic prospects. Before him 
was an untried and unknown destiny. He did not stop to con- 
sider the cost or sacrifice, the fabric of the Republic was in 
imminent peril. Everything was got in readiness and at 3 
o'clock the line was formed. At this moment the spectacle 
was one never to be forgotten. The organization contained 
1061 stalwart young men, attired in new Zouave uniforms, 
with new equipments and arms in good condition. As the 
broad gate to the barracks swung open and the regiment filed 
into the street on its way to the boat landing, thrilled and 
animated by the soul-stirring music of Schreiber's superb 
band, all were charmed by this intoxicating prelude of war. 
Escorted by the Albany Zouave Cadets, Capt. Van Vechten, 
Company B, Capt. Ainsworth and the Caledonia Guards, Capt. 
Dodds, cheered and applauded during its line of march by 
more than 20,000 people, an impression was created that can 
never be erased from memory. The spontaneity and hearti- 
ness of the ovation has seldom, if ever, been equalled in the 
capital city of the Empire State. Beautiful bouquets of flowers 
were lavishly bestowed. 

When the regiment had reached a point on State Street 
opposite the residence of Hon. Erastus Corning, a halt was or- 
dered to receive a stand of regimental colors from Mrs. Erastus 
Coming. The colors were of the most costly materials, of 
regulation size and elegantly mounted. Mayor Thatcher in- 
troduced Hon. Charles Hughes who made the following fitting 
and eloquent presentation address in behalf of the generous 
and patriotic donor. 


[Chap. IV. Flag Presentation. Oct. ai, 1861] 

"Colonel Stryker, you have been requested to halt at this point 
to enable me to present to you and through you to your regiment, in 
the name and in behalf of Mrs. Erastus Coming, this stand of regi- 
mental colors. Its patriotic donor thus tenders not only her individual 
sympathy and respect, but the good will and kindly feeling of all her 
sex throughout the entire State. Herself a wife and mother, her gift 
symbolizes the deep interest which the wives and mothers of New 
York take in the great cause in which you and your companions in 
arms are now about to engage. 

"Your regiment has sprung from the homes and the firesides of 
the loyal and liberty loving people all over our great commonwealth 
and bears a hero's name, and this woman has the full assurance that 
it will be guarded as a sacred trust. 

"It is no banner with a strange device. It is the National flag, and 
bears emblazoned on its proud folds thirty-four stars, representing all 
the confederated sovereignties which form our glorious Union, the 
United States of America. Traitors' hands now seek to sever that 
Union and you have been called to the battle field to defend and protect 

"Soldiers, yours is a noble mission. You go not forth at the 
behest of a monarch. No fanatical war cry arouses your passions, but 
the tocsin has sounded the warning of danger, and the rebel guns 
aimed at Sumpter have like another Cadmus sown dragon's teeth all 
over our fair land, until armed men have sprung up on every hillside 
and valley where dwell a patriotic and loyal people. 

"This banner is like the one our fathers bore when they won 
our liberty and laid broad and deep the foundations of our Government. 
Let it remind you of their struggle, their sacrifices and their victories. 
Its fluttering folds will speak to you of the suffering and endurance 
of Washington's army at Valley Forge, of Schuyler's sacrifices and 
Gates' valor at Saratoga, of the glorious victories of Monmouth and 
Trenton and with mute but forcible appeals, call you to imitate and 
emulate them. Thus as it flaunts in the breeze your courage and 
patriotism will be renewed and revived to strike strong and willing 
blows to sustain a Government, founded by patriots on the immortal 
principles of right and justice. 

"Go forth then, at your country's call assured of our prayers that 
the God of hosts and the God of battles may be your buckler and 
your shield. Bear this banner at the head of your regiment to the 
seat of war, and there baptize it with your blood if need be. Shun no 
danger when duty points the way. Defend- it at all hazards with your 
lives for it is also your country's flag, and if any of your files shall 
live to bring it back to us with honor, torn and begrimed though it 
may be, we will scatter garlands in your path for the living, weave cy- 
press wreaths for the tombs of your dead, and cover every hero's brow 
with those laurels which so well become the brave. Go with our bless- 
ings and come not back until you come to announce the Rebellion 
crushed and the traitors punished. Then amid the plaudits of loving 


I Chap. V. Response of the Regiment. Oct. ai, 1861 ] 

women, you may beat your swords into plowshares and your spears 
into pruning hooks and every man under his vine and under his fig tree 
become the honored recipient of the Nation's gratitude and care." 

Mayor Thatcher then took the colors and handing them to 
Colonel Stryker said, "Mrs. Corning desires me to say to you 
that this flag which she now confides to your protection is the 
emblem of every blessing, political or religious, that man can 
enjoy. She bids you to preserve it from the traitor's touch 
and to allow no coward to trail it in the dust. God speed you, 

These loyal words conveyed the sentiment of the loyal 
women of America. 

Colonel Stryker replied with a few appropriate words and 
then turning to the regiment said: 

"Boys, shall that flag ever fall?" 

With one acclaim the entire regiment responded, "Never!" 

The response was sincere as it was emphatic. The flag did 
fall, however, many times when the proud color bearer was 
laid low by wounds or death. But there never were wanting 
brave hearts and strong hands again to raise it aloft. Bearing 
in mind the noble words of the donor, sealed by the clarion 
shouts of ten hundred loyal sons of the Empire State, there is 
a proud satisfaction in recording that the pledge was sacredly 
kept, that the beautiful gift was never polluted by the touch 
of a traitor's hand nor trailed in the dust by a coward. Its 
staff was cut in twain and its silken folds were pierced and 
tattered by shot and shell, but it was never lowered in disgrace. 
The flag will receive later mention in this work. It may be 
proper in this place to state, that the regiment was indebted 
to the Hon. Erastus Corning for advancing to paymaster Rich- 
ardson the sum of $20,000 in bills of the Albany City Bank, 
in order that the regiment might be paid before leaving for 
the front. This was a timely and substantial accommodation 
which was highly appreciated. 

The flag presentation over, the regiment resumed its march 
to the steamboat landing where it embarked on the towboat 
Columbia and two barges for New York. The whole steamboat 
square was crowded with people. The boats moved out amid 
the roar of cannon, and the cheers and salutations of the vast 
throng of friends and spectators which were reciprocated and 


(Chap. IV. To N. Y. City by Boat Oct. ai, 1861 

responded to by the soldiers. It was an impressive spectacle, 
and evinced a mutual devotion and sentiment such as language 
fails to describe. Many were leaving their native state and 
bidding adieu to friends for the last time. Many of these 
who were gathered there looked, prayed and wondered what 
was concealed behind the obscuring cloud of destiny. As long 
as the shore line was in view mutual salutations were exchanged. 
As the intervening distance increased, the thousands of spec- 
tators gathered there wended their way homeward, carrying 
with them an object lesson of patriotic devotion never to be 
erased from the memory. The occasion and conveniences on 
board the boat were not conducive to sleep and much of the 
night was passed waiting and speculating on the hidden experi- 
ences which the coming day was to unfold. Viewing the rich 
autumnal scenery along the historical Hudson by moonlight 
tended somewhat to relieve the monotony. Daylight came but 
the general conditions remained unchanged. The boats reached 
New York at lO o'clock in the morning of the 22d, and a large 
concourse of people had gathered on and near the pier at the 
foot of Fourteenth Street, where a cordial welcome was ex- 
tended. After several hours of delay the regiment fell in, 
headed by Schreiber's band and preceded by a platoon of police- 
men, marched up Fourteenth Street to Broadway and down 
Broadway in column by company to the City Hall Park, where 
they occupied the barracks which had been erected for volunteer 
regiments on their way to Washington. 

The streets and houses along the line of march were filled 
with enthusiastic people who cheered, and in various other 
ways manifested their pleasure and approval of the soldierly 
bearing and splendid marching of the regiment. The oppor- 
tunity for a night of rest was appreciated and improved. The 
citizens of New York were very complimentary and generous 
to the regiment. Some of the officers, who had obtained meals 
and spent the night at the Astor House, when they went to the 
desk to pay their bills, were told that there was nothing for 
them to pay and were unable to obtain any further information. 
It is suspected that Hon. Charles Hughes, who accompanied the 
regiment to New York, had something to do with this arrange- 
ment. It may have been one of the many generous acts of the 
Ellsworth Association. 


Edward Payson Chapin was born August i6. 1831, in the Village 
of Waterloo, Seneca County, N. Y., the youngest of six children be- 
longing to Rev. Ephraim and Elizabeth Chapin. His father was a 
direct descendant of Deacon Samuel Chapin who settled in Spring- 
field, Mass., in 1642. The rudiments of his education were attained 
in a common village school, supplemented by a full classical and Eng- 
lish course in the academy of his native place. He began the study 
of law in Waterloo, afterwards pursuing the study in Buffalo and 
Ballston Spa, N. Y., and was admitted to the bar soon after he at- 
tained his majority. He began and continued the practice of law in 
Buffalo until the breaking out of the Rebellion. When it was pro- 
posed to raise the People's Ellsworth Regiment he raised a Company 
to represent Erie County and was unanimously elected its Captain. 
His Company was the first Company organized in the regiment, was 
designated Company A. and held the right of the line. At the battle 
of Hanover C. H., Va., on the 27th day of May, 1862, he was severely 
wounded and was sent North as soon as his condition would permit 
of bis removal. On recovering from his wound, which at first was 
thought to be fatal, he proceeded in his convalescent state to Buffalo 
to take charge of a recruiting office for the Forty-fourth Regiment. 
While engaged in this service he was tendered and accepted the Colo- 
nelcy of the ii6th N. Y. Volunteers. Four others of the Forty- 
fourth were invited by him and accepted commissions in this new 
regiment, viz., Capt. George M. Love to be Major, afterwards Colonel 
and Brevet Brigadier General ; Lieut. John B. Weber to be .Adjutant, 



afterwards Colonel 89th U. S. C. infantry ; Corporal John M. Sizer 
to be Captain, afterwards Lieut. Colonel, and Sergeant John B. Mason 
to be 1st Lieutenant. The ii6th Regiment was. therefore, modeled 
after the Forty-fourth and by reason of Chapin's superior abilities 
it soon took first rank for drill and discipline, and was frequently 
commended for soldierly qualities from department headquarters. 

Colonel Chapin, so far commended himself to his superior officers, 
that he was soon placed in command of a brigade. On the 27th day of 
May. 1863, just one year after being wounded at Hanover C. H., while 
leading his brigade in the terrible charge over the slashing at Port 
Hudson, he was struck by a bullet in the face, which, crashing through 
his brain, produced instant death. His remains were taken to New 
Orleans, thence home, where he was buried with all the honors due 
his rank. 

President Lincoln sent his father a commission, appointing Colonel 
Chapin a Brigadier General for gallant and meritorious service on the 
assault on Port Hudson, dating it from the day of his death. 

General Chapin, as a soldier, possessed a peculiar talent of keep- 
ing up the line of distinction between the different grades, so neces- 
sary to the preservation of discipline, without seeming to encroach 
upon natural privileges or resorting to severity of measure. His look, 
his manner and actions showed an innate talent to command that did 
not require shoulder straps or insignia of rank to exact obedience. 

In character and ability General Chapin reflected the highest credit 
upon the Forty-fourth N. Y. as a representative of that large class 
who received their military training in the old regiment and carried its 
inspirations into other fields of duty. 

His immediate commander. Major General Augur, said of him: 
"The army could illy afiford to lose such an officer or the country 
such a man." 

Brig. Gen. Chapin was of the best type of the American Volun- 
teer officer. 


Chap. IV. Parade at New York Oct. 22, 1861 

Another incident which will be referred to hereafter and 
which is worthy of note took place while the regiment was 
marching down Broadway. As he passed along in the ranks. 
Private James S. Dougall of Company H saw his uncle stand- 
ing on the walk near the curb, who called to him. Private 
Dougall obtained an excuse and ran to his uncle who thrust a 
roll of bills into his hands and when he protested that he could 
not accept the gift his uncle replied, "Keep it Jamie, it may 
do you good." Private Dougall resumed his place in the ranks 
and when an opportunity offered found that the roll contained 

The next day the old arms which had been received at Al- 
bany, were exchanged for bright new Springfield muskets. 
The exchange was most gratifying. The next morning after 
the arrival of the regiment in New York the following notice 
appeared in one of the leading daily papers : 

"Arrival and Reception of the Forty-Fourth New York Regiment. 
The Ellsworth Regiment left Albany on Monday afternoon, on 
board the steamer Columbia with two barges and arrived at the foot 
of Fourteenth Street, North River, at 10 o'clock yesterday morning. 
A large crowd of persons were assembled on the pier and in the vi- 
cinity in order to see the regiment land, and when the first man set 
his foot on the shore he was greeted with cheers from the crowd. After 
a delay of several hours the men were got in marching order and 
proceeded up Fourteenth Street to Broadway and down Broadway to 
City Hall Park headed by a body of policemen under Sergeant Suther- 
land. The marching and appearance of the men were perhaps the most 
perfect and imposing of any volunteer corps that has left the State of 
New York since the commencement of the war. All the men are tall 
and well formed, with that intelligent look and bright eye which be- 
token that they understand and feel the duty which is before them. 
Their nimble step and fine development of muscular points were the 
universal theme in every mouth, and as they marched down Broad- 
way they were received with highest enthusiasm and welcome. The 
piazzas, housetops and windows were filled with ladies who cast down 
their brightest smiles and wreaths of flowers upon that fine body of 
young men who were about to face the hot shot and cold steel to carry 
out one of the finest principles of humanity — retribution for a mur- 
derous wrong. With their young and gallant Colonel at their head 
and their steady determined step, bearing testimony to the valorous 
pulsations they felt in their hearts, the avengers of Ellsworth moved 
down Broadway to the music of the fine band which accompanies 
them to the war. The prayers and blessings of all who beheld those 
fine young fellows, the flower of our State, were frequently uttered 


[Chap. IV. Enthusiastic Greetings. Oct. 32, 1861] 

and well deserved. Several bouquets from fair hands were cast among 
the men which they gallantly affixed to the ends of their bayonets. 

And now that the avengers of the dead Ellsworth are en route 
to a place where they will be led by their gallant Colonel against the 
traitorous rebels, who were the instigators of the murder, let the pray- 
ers of the patriotic ascend to the throne of the God of battles, that 
He may shield the brave young soldiers from the perils of carnage. 
The pang of anguish and horror that convulsed the entire North, when 
the chivalrous Colonel of the New York First Fire Zouaves was shot 
dead at Alexandria, while tearing down the emblem of rebellion, still 
reverberates with double force in the hearts of those one thousand and 
forty six men of the Ellsworth regiment; and let us consider that 
though the remembrance of that hour may have grown cold in the 
recollection of many, yet those men are ready to sacrifice their lives 
to avenge that murder and vindicate the honor of the Union cause. 
With the battle cry of 'Remember Ellsworth' they will deal death to 
their enemy, and he who falls in the struggle will have the consolation, 
as he expires, that he has sacrificed a young life in defense of his 
country and avenging the murder of a patriot." 

At 5 o'clock on the evening of October 23d, the regiment 
formed in Hne on Broadway, broke into column by platoon, 
marched down Broadway and Cortlandt Street to the Jersey 
Ferry where it embarked for Jersey City and left on the 6 
o'clock train for Philadelphia. The cars were crowded and the 
ride was slow, cold and tedious. The train did not reach Phila- 
delphia until 3 o'clock on the morning of the 24th. It was an 
unseasonable hour, but the patriotic ladies of the City of Broth- 
erly Love had a surprise in store in the form of a warm, sub- 
stantial breakfast, which was most acceptable. There was delay 
in leaving Philadelphia and delay on the way to Baltimore. 
The reception accorded by the people of Baltimore was quite 
different from the reception received in Philadelphia. On the 
march through the streets of Baltimore there were no overt, 
hostile acts, but the language used by spectators along the route 
was often uncomplimentary, discourteous and insulting. The 
S. N. Y. on the brasses of the belts of the men, which stood for 
State of New York, was interpreted by the bystanders as mean- 
ing "snotty nosed Yankees." It was thought by some of the 
officers that it would be prudent to issue a few rounds of am- 
munition before starting to march through the city. The change 
of sentiment in passing from Albany to Baltimore may well 
be illustrated by the change of atmosphere in passing from 


(Chap. IV. En route to Washington. Oct 35, 1861] 

mid-summer to mid-winter. We crossed the Susquehanna 
River at Havre de Grace on the ferry. Twelve cars were 
taken across at one time. From Havre de Grace to Washington 
pickets were stationed to guard the railroad and a succession 
of military camps was observed. These things indicated that 
a point had been reached where it was deemed necessary to 
take precautionary measures. Washington was reached during 
the night of October 24th. There was no one at the station 
to welcome us. If any body was charged with the duty of 
giving information or providing accommodations for newly 
arrived regiments, he was evidently asleep or out of the city. 
We lunched at what was known as Soldiers' Rest and looked 
around for lodgings in which to sleep. Good accommodations 
for sleeping appeared to be scarce. The platform to the rail- 
road station, with the adjacent sidewalks, were utilized for that 
purpose. It was the first experience in sleeping out of doors. 
Some lasting impressions were made both on the body and 
mind. As no one was permitted to absent himself, the next 
forenoon was spent in viewing the National Capitol from a 
distance. Most members of the regiment had never seen the 
Capitol. It appeared massive and grand. The great men of the 
nation had been accustomed to meet there from an early 
period in the life of our nation. It was the place where the 
legislative and judicial branches of the Government were ac- 
customed to meet in their respective departments for delibera- 
tion. It was there that Hayne and Webster in matchless debate 
proclaimed the divergent views as to what rights and powers 
were given to the general government, and what rights and 
powers were reserved to the several states. Other statesmen, 
both before and after them, had tried in vain to find a peaceful 
solution of that vexed question. Arguments and compromises 
had proved inadequate. Contending armies were now in the 
field, and others hastening to the field to submit the final argu- 
ment. The buildings and grounds outside the capitol grounds 
appeared diminutive and ordinary. It did not require the 
perspective of the Capitol and its spacious grounds to demon- 
strate that proposition. Pennsylvania Avenue, the leading 
street in the city, from the Capitol to the Treasury building, 
with few exceptions, was lined with unimportant buildings, and 
the street itself and the approaching streets appeared to be 


[Chap. IV. March through Washington. Oct. 25, 1861] 

sadly neglected. In the afternoon of the day of our arrival in 
the city, the regiment marched down Pennsylvania Avenue and 
past the White House, where President Lincoln honored it by 
watching it pass. He remembered the regiment afterwards, in 
its decimated condition when he reviewed the army at Harri- 
son's Landing. 

The Tribune's Washington dispatch dated Friday says : 

"The 44th New York (Ellsworths) was a wonder to us this after- 
noon. Hackneyed as we are in marching regiments nothing in the army 
can compare with it. It is the finest body of men ever enlisted on this 
continent. Its march through the Avenue made a great sensation." 

It was after dark when the regiment reached Kalorama 
Heights about 2 miles north of the city. Here new experiences 
confronted us. Tents were to be pitched for the first time. 
Darkness in a measure concealed the want of skill and experi- 
ence in pitching them. Certainly time was not of the essence 
of this transaction. It is doubtful to this day whether awk- 
wardness or darkness contributed more to the want of regu- 
larity which dayHght revealed. Here also another new ex- 
perience was installed. There were no adequate boarding 
houses at hand. Every man had to cook his own rations, eat 
them without cooking, or to get some one to cook them for him. 
Probably there were instances in which all three expedients 
were resorted to. In this was illustrated the oft quoted saying 
"Necessity is the mother of invention." Here we remained 
two days, resting, experimenting and wondering what was to 
come next. The resting and experimenting were advantage- 
ous, but the wondering was unfruitful and of small account. 

On October 28th, after marching several miles, the regi- 
ment, with eleven other regiments, was reviewed by General 
McClellan, attended by his staff and other prominent officers. 
It was our first sight of the General, who occupied so much 
attention in the early part of the war. In passing the review- 
ing stand, but little opportunity was afforded to see hira, and 
much less to judge of his merits. The Forty-Fourth was given 
the right of the line which is regarded the position of honor, 
consequently was the first regiment to pass the reviewing officer. 
The review was a grand, fatiguing affair. At this review for 
the first time we came in touch with other troops of the army. 
After the review and late in the afternoon we marched to Hall's 


Born at Exeter, New Hampshire, March 2, 1836, was educated in the public 
schools of his native town and emigrated to Chicago, 111., in 1858, where his 
military experience began as a member of the "Cadets of the 60th Regiment." 
In 1859 he joined Ellsworth's famous "United States Zouave Cadets," and with 
that company made its celebrated tour of the chief cities of the United States. He 
was a Captain in the Chicago Zouave Regiment April 22, i86i. and a ist Lieu- 
tenant in the iith X. Y. \'. I. (N. V. Fire Zouaves), in which regiment he 
fought at First Bull Run, July 21, 1861; resigned his commission and en- 
listed as a private in the 44th X. Y. \'. I. August 8, 1861; was soon after 
elected and commissioned Captain of Company D. was later promoted to Major, 
Lieut. -Colonel and Colonel of the regiment. Was discharged with his regiment 
October 11, 1864. 

He took part in the following campaigns and battles: Siege of Yorktown, 
Hanover C. H., Gaines !Mills, White Oak Swamp, ^lalvern Hill, Second Bull Run, 
Antietam, Fredericksburg (severely wounded), Chancellorsville, L^pperville, Get- 
tvsburg, Rappahannock Sta., Wilderness, Spottsylvania (severely wounded), and 
VVeldon R. R. 

After the war he resided at Chicago where he was Commander of George 
H. Thomas Post, G. A. R., in 1885; a Past President of the Western Society 
of the Army of the Potomac, and became a Companion of the Military Order of 
the Loyal Legion of the United States through the Commandery of the State 
of Illinois in 1895. 

He died suddenly of heart disease at Chicago, 111., March 28, 1906, his residence 
then being Valpariso, Ind., where his widow now resides. 

Faithful Soldier, Patriot and Friend. 


PUBLIC Ui^R^^'-^ 


'jX ] 



(Chap. IV. In Camp at Hall's Hill, Va. Oct. 38, 1861] 

Hill, Va., crossing the Potomac on Long Bridge. Before start- 
ing on this part of the march, the regiment had marched far- 
ther than on any previous occasion. In addition to this the men 
were laden with well filled knapsacks. At the time it was con- 
jectured that the Army of the Potomac was waiting for us 
to come up before moving on Richmond. Such, however proved 
not to be the case. It afterwards occurred that those who knew 
the lack of necessity for a forced march and had authority to 
regulate it, might well have been less precipitate. On cross- 
ing Long Bridge, which spans the Potomac, the sacred soil of 
Virginia was reached. It was disputed territory. Camps were 
lighted up on either side of the road as we passed, and in the 
distant fields, but the soldiers in them paid very little attention 
to us. We kept on marching, wondering and getting tired. 
No one could assign any reason for it, no one disclosed what 
and where the end would be. The rout step, arms at will, and 
removal of restraint in talking, aflforded an opportunity for a 
free expression of feeling. One who has not had the oppor- 
tunity can not surmise the sharp criticisms and the quaint 
humor of a tired and hungry army on the march. While the 
regiment had merely crossed the threshold of military life, this 
feature lost nothing for want of experience. Darkness en- 
veloped the line of march and weariness increased the distance 
actually traveled. It was at least 8 o'clock when a halt was 
ordered. There was no apparent reason why it was ordered. 
It was in an open field on Hall's Hill, Virginia. There was no 
apparent haste to explore the surrounding country. The visible 
things around us were the darkness, the country about lis filled 
with a confusion of camps, and the heavens filled with countless 
stars. Among the invisible things were where we were going 
to get supper, where we were going to sleep, and what covered 
the expanse of darkness beyond. To provide supper and sleep- 
ing accommodations for ten hundred men was not a small un- 
dertaking. A good Samaritan, numerous, generous, and hos- 
pitable, embodied in the 83d Pa. Regiment, encamped near the 
spot where we halted, came to our relief. A simple generous 
act often produces the widest consequences. They not only 
furnished the supper, but pitched our tents ready for sleeping. 
That act was too highly appreciated and too lasting in its re- 
sults to be overlooked in this connection. The field and staflf 


Chap. IV. Hospitality of 83d Pa. Oct. 28, 1861] 

officers of the 83d Pa. entertained the field and staff officers 
of the Forty-Fourth N. Y., and the several companies of the 
83d Pa. entertained the corresponding companies of the Forty- 
Fourth N. Y. That evening's entertainment and hospitality 
were the beginning of an abiding friendship between the two 
regiments, which was kept up not only during those memorable 
years of war, but continued unabated in civil life. That attach- 
ment was afterwards sealed and tested by the noblest blood of 
those two distinguished regiments. As those great patriotic 
States from which they came are inseparably united by an in- 
visible contiguous boundary line, so those two noble regiments 
were united by an invisible sacred purpose in defense of our 
time honored flag. The 83d Pa. was one of the very best regi- 
ments in the service. 

Refreshed by sleep all our speculations were the next day 
set at rest as to our status in the Army of the Potomac. We 
were located on Hall's Hill, Va., upon the same grounds where 
the 50th New York had been encamped, and which had been 
detached a few days before our arrival to serve as a regiment 
of engineers. We had been assigned to Brig. Gen, Fitz John 
Porter's Division and Brig, Gen. Daniel Butterfield's Brigade. 


(Chap. V. Winter Camp. i86i-a] 



As the Division was a material part of the army which 
usually acted together it is thought best here to give the different 
brigade organizations of which it was composed. 

FIRST BRIGADE. i7th N. Y., Col. H. S. Lansing. 

Brig. Gen., J. H. Martindale. i6th Mich., Col. T. W. B. Stockton. 

2d Maine, Col. Charles N. Roberts. 83d Penn., Col. John W. McLane. 

13th N. Y., Col. John Marshall. 44th N. Y., Col. S. W. Stryker. 
i8th Mass., Col. James Barnes. 

22d Mass., Col. Jesse A. Gove. artillery. 

25th N. Y., Col. Chas. A. Johnson. Battery D., Fifth U. S. Capt. 

Charles Griffin. 

SECOND BRIGADE. Battery C, Mass., Capt. A. P. 

Brig. Gen., George Morell. Martin. 

14th N. Y., Col. James McQuade. Battery C, R. I., Capt. W. B. 

9th Mass., Col. Thomas Cass. Weeden. 

4th Mich., Col. D. A. Woodbury. Battery E., Mass., Capt. George D. 

62d Penn., Col. S. W. Black. Allen. 


Brig. Gen., Daniel Butterfield. ^^ P^""- C^^' ^°^- ^^ ^^ ^verill. 

I2th New York, Col. H. A. Weeks. 

The total of these organizations numbered about fifteen 
thousand. At that time, the Army of the Potomac was organ- 
ized into divisions of three or more brigades each, with a com- 
plement of cavalry and artillery attached. The entire army 
was encamped by divisions on the south side of the Potomac 
River in front of the defenses of Washington, with the right 
resting on the Potomac at Chain Bridge and the left at a point 
on the same river below Alexandria, except that McCall's di- 
vision on the right and Hooker's division on the left, occupied 
positions North of the river. 

The Forty-Fourth was given only two days to regulate 
camp after joining the brigade. There were ten companies and 
each company had what was known as a company street. The 
tents of the men were placed on a line facing inward on both 


[Chap. V. Joined Butterfield's Brigade Oct. 28, 1861 } 

sides of the street. The tents of the Hne officers were arranged 
at the head of the streets of their respective companies on a 
line at right angles with the company street. The tents of 
the field and staff officers were on a line to the rear of the tents 
of the line officers. On the opposite side of the camp from 
the officers' quarters were spacious drill grounds. As winter 
approached tents were raised on logs and banked up with 
earth. Nearly all tents were supplied with floors made of boards 
or spHt logs. Our first camp in the field was called Camp But- 
terfield, having been named after our Brigade Commander. 
General Butterfield was a distinguished looking officer, a splen- 
did horseman and strict discipUnarian. He gave careful, con- 
siderate attention to the welfare of all in his command and 
exacted strict obedience to orders and army regulations. He 
established a school for line officers and set apart stated times 
in which he personally examined them. The first meeting of 
the kind, held for the officers of the Forty-Fourth, was in a 
large tent at Brigade headquarters. Everybody was in his place 
promptly. An air of military propriety seemed to pervade the 
place and the occasion. The engagement soon opened. The 
General said to some one: "You may give the position of a 
soldier." The position of a soldier was one of the first things 
to be taught. As the officer first designated went on, he was in- 
formed that he was not correct and another officer was desig- 
nated to proceed. Number 2 soon failed. Then in succession 
several others were tried and with no better results. The Gen- 
eral then asked : "Is there a single officer present who can give 
the correct position of a soldier?" No one volunteered to try. 
The General said that he was surprised that we were daily 
drilling our men and had failed on one of the first important 
lessons. Like Napoleon in his Moscow campaign we had been 
overcome by the elements. There was no failure at the next 
meeting. It was a simple lesson but never forgotten. Not 
only was the correct position of a soldier learned, but also the 
more important lesson that the military instructor must be exact. 
The above incident also gave us a better insight into the char- 
acter of our Brigade Commander. General Butterfield was a 
brave, accomplished officer and one of the ablest Brigade Com- 
manders in the army. In the outset he was thought by some 
to be unnecessarily strict, but the sequel proved he was only 


Captain W. N. Danks' first military service was with the United 
States Zouave Cadets, Colonel Elmer E. Ellsworth Commandant, in 
1859, and was one of that Company when it made its memorable trip 
through the Eastern States in i860; afterwards commanded and drilled 
a Company in Chicago called the "Scammon Light Infantry." until 
War was declared when he was enrolled and commissioned 2d. Lieut. 
Co. ''C" Chicago Zouave Regt., but was not mustered in. 

On Sept. 20th. 1861 he was commissioned Captain Co. 'H' 44th 
N. Y. V. Infantry, and served with that Company until the muster out 
of the Regt., Oct'. 11, 1864. at Albany, N. Y. 




[Chap. V. Camp Butterfleld. N07. 1861] 

laying a proper foundation for the severer duties that were to 
follow. It was thought by many, that it was an unfortunate 
circumstance that later in the war he was obliged to become 
separated from the Fifth Corps. 

Col. Auchmuty quite clearly described the experience at 
this time in the following language : "Great, indeed, seemed 
the change from home to army life. There was the absence of 
much that had been looked upon as indispensable to comfort, 
almost to existence; there was the surrender of personal lib- 
erty ; and the constant receiving of orders without a wherefore 
or a please. There was a deference to be shown to rank regard- 
less of the age or estimate in which one might hold the bearer 
of a higher designation. A full measure of regard could easily 
be accorded to one's immediate commander, but it was some 
times trying at Hall's Hill to treat four Generals as if they were 
a superior order of beings, who were to be listened to, but 
not argued with. Those who volunteered on Lincoln's first 
call for men to serve three years or the war, brought to the front 
an eagerness and enthusiasm which could hardly be expected to 
last, or to be felt so strongly by those who came on later calls. 
They were citizen soldiers, intelligent enough to submit to 
necessary discipline, or even rules and orders, the need of 
which they could not understand, but reserving the right to 
criticise what was done and express opinions on the conduct 
of the war. They were — particularly the privates — mostly 
young men. If necessary restraint seemed at times hard to staff 
officers, who were not usually regarded as suffering from con- 
finement, still more hard was it for the privates who were 
always under surveillance. Indeed, the self-effacement for 
their country's good, which was cheerfully rendered by many 
thousands of men heretofore accustomed to do as they pleased, 
seemed pathetic." 

When the first of November came the regiment was fairly 
installed in the field in a military camp. As has been said it 
was named Camp Butterfield, and its location was known as 
Hall's Hill, Va. Orders were issued laying down an exact 
routine for each day. The operations under these orders were 
about as regular as the rising and setting of the sun. The 
daily routine was as follows : Reveille at 6 130 A. M. ; breakfast 
at 7. Squad drill and company drill from 7:30 to 9 o'clock. 


(Chap. V. Duty and Discipline. Nov. 1861] 

Battalion drill from lo o'clock to 1 1 :30. Dinner at 12 M. Brig- 
ade drill from 2 o'clock P. M. to 5 o'clock. Retreat and dress 
parade at 5 o'clock. Supper at 6 o'clock. Tattoo at 9 o'clock 
and taps at 9 :30. 

There were also held weekly and monthly inspections in 
which a critical examination was had of everybody and every- 
thing in and about the camp. The arms, the tents, the clothing, 
and camp were required to be kept scrupulously clean. Guard 
mounting was held daily at 9 o'clock A. M. This consisted 
of a detail of men being sent from each company to report to 
the Adjutant on the parade ground, where the prescribed cere- 
mony of guard mounting was performed. Under the efficient 
and soldierly Adjutant Knox no part was slighted. The camp 
guard were carefully instructed in their duties. The camp 
guard not on posts were to turn out on the approach of a 
general officer, the sentinels on posts were to patrol their re- 
spective beats, salute their superior officers and properly de- 
mand and receive the countersign from any person passing at 
night. This last requirement was of the utmost importance. 
It operated as a check on spies and disorderly persons passing 
in and out of the camp at night. It therefore became important 
that sentinels encircling the camp should not only understand 
their duties, but also be alert to know what was transpiring 
about them. There were innumerable instances where the 
knowledge and efficiency of the sentinels were put to the test. 
For instance, it would some times occur that some person would 
approach a sentinel as a friend and ask to look at his musket. 
The confiding sentinel would pass over his gun and when this 
was done it would be made to appear to him that he had 
become disarmed, had disobeyed his instructions, and placed 
himself at the mercy of his would-be friend. General Butter- 
field would some times unexpectedly appear and put to a test 
the efficiency of sentinels on duty. On one such occasion he 
approached a sentinel at a point at some distance from the 
guard house and the following colloquy took place. As he 
approached, the sentinel following his instructions, challenged 
him, saying: "Halt, who comes there?" To which the reply 
was given "General Butterfield." The sentinel said: "Approach 
and give the countersign." The General said : "But I am Gen- 
eral Butterfield and wish to pass in on business with Col. Stry- 


[Chap. V. The Sentinel's Duty. Nov. x86i] 

ker." The sentinel bringing his musket to a proper position 
to enforce obedience, said : "It don't make any difference if 
you are Jesus Christ, you can't pass this post without approach- 
ing and giving the countersign." It is hardly necessary to add 
that the General did not think it prudent longer to parley with 
the sentinel, and afterward commended the sentinel for his 
firmness in performing his duty. 

During the first winter there was inaugurated a method of 
calling off, in succession, the hours of the night. Starting at 
the guard house the sentinels encircling the camp were num- 
bered from one upwards. At the beginning of the hour the 
sentinel on Post i, would announce in a loud voice "Post No. i, 
9 o'clock and all is well." This would be taken up in succession 
by the other sentinels, each starting by announcing the number 
of his post until the announcement of the hour had gone the 
entire circuit of the camp. In a similar manner the hours of 
the entire night would be told off. It is not known how this 
custom originated. There was no known authority for it in 
army tactics or army regulations. Perhaps it had its origin 
in that poetic sentiment, "Watchman, what of the night?" In 
any event it was not practiced after leaving Hall's Hill. More 
or less time was spent in drilling in bayonet exercise, target 
practice and skirmish drill. These were all quite essential in 
actual warfare. In target practice the distance from the target 
varied from one hundred yards up to one thousand yards. The 
Springfield rifle, with which the regiment was armed, was not 
considered reliable for a distance above five hundred yards. 
Neither was it in all cases considered harmless at the rear end 
of the gun. Occasionally the officers were invited to brigade 
headquarters to practice in estimating distances. This, too, was 
a matter of much practical importance. In order to make the 
firing effective it was essential to know the distance to the object 
fired at. 

Every few days the regiment was called upon for a detail 
to go on picket. The picket line was 4 or 5 miles out. Each 
detail took 3 days' rations and remained out 3 days. This line 
was far enough from the main body of the army so that in 
case of attack the army could be aroused and line of battle 
formed. In this service the utmost vigilance was required. The 
enemy would sometimes inspect our picket line, but generally 


[Chap. V. Picket Duty. Nov. 1861J 

at a safe distance or from a sheltered position. At other times 
a show of force would appear and manifest a disposition to 
attack. While it was necessary for the sentry to be on the 
alert during the day, it was imperative that he should be ex- 
tremely vigilant during the night. Mischief concocted in the 
day time was often best carried out under the cover of dark- 

During the first winter a new system of patrolling the picket 
line was inaugurated. The plan was for sentinels on adjoin- 
ing beats to meet, then face about and patrol in the opposite 
direction until they should meet the sentinels on the posts 
next to them, when they would again face about and patrol 
their respective beats until they should meet again. This plan 
enabled a sentinel at an extreme point on a picket line to send 
a message or convey information along the line until it should 
reach the picket reserve. On one occasion Capt. Root of the 
1 2th New York, an excellent officer, had occasion one dark 
night to visit a distant point on the line. He decided to test 
this new system and send a report to the headquarters of the 
picket reserve. The darkness and his solitary situation seemed 
to awaken his poetic fancy and he dispatched the following 
report : 

"The sentry walks his lonely rounds, 

On these accursed rebel grounds. 
And if a traitor shows his head, 

We'll catch the cuss or shoot him dead." 

The message reached its destination safely, and thereafter 
the system was regarded as certain as our present wireless 
telegraphy. For some unknown cause, however, this new sys- 
tem did not survive the first winter. 

In the latter part of November our picket was about 5 miles 
from camp, near Falls Church. One morning while a detail 
from the Forty-Fourth was on picket, a squadron of cavalry 
went outside the line toward Hunter's Mills to reconnoiter. 
About noon they came galloping back in much confusion, shout- 
ing, "Turn out the guard, the rebels are coming." Some of the 
men were without hats, sabres or carbines, and some of the 
horses were without riders. The guard reserve was quickly 
drawn up across the road, and a messenger dispatched to 


[Chap. V. Picket Attacked. Kor. i86z] 

brigade headquarters. It was afterward ascertained that the 
cavalry had been attacked in front and rear, while passing 
through a narrow defile in the woods, which caused the con- 
fusion. The loss was about twenty-nine in killed, wounded 
and missing. The whole brigade came to the support of the 
picket line, but the enemy did not follow up his advantage. 
The brigade was soon ordered back to camp, and General But- 
terfield, after inspecting the guard, gave orders to fire on any 
one seen outside our lines. It is doubtful if the Forty-Fourth 
pickets were ever more alert than they were the following night. 
They spoke in whispers and every noise or rustle of leaves was 
suspected to be the approach of the enemy. Early the next 
morning firing occurred on the left of the picket line and 
soon after two prisoners were brought in to the officer com- 
manding the picket reserve. They were an old man totally deaf 
and a boy who had been watering stock. The boy was con- 
siderably frightened and the old man was very indignant. He 
claimed that he was a good Union man, that he would report 
the affair to General McClellan and have the whole picket guard 
court martialed. The threat did not materialize, but the order 
to fire on everybody outside the line was modified. This was 
the first affair having a tinge of war in which the regiment had 

Occasionally civilian visitors came to our camp. All who 
came were required to procure passes. This was necessary to 
guard against spies and sympathizers with the Confederate 
cause. Not all the people living in the North were in sympathy 
with those who sought to preserve the Union. There were 
conspirators in the North as well as in the South planning to 
overthrow the Government. Those conspirators became formi- 
dable and dangerous. They sought to scatter pestilence among 
the people, burn cities, hinder and embarrass the Government. 
They sought to awaken distrust and discouragement in the 
army. The danger was more real because it lurked in conceal- 
ment within our own borders. Open enmity was honorable 
in comparison. 

Among the visitors was Secretary of State Seward, who 
came at different times to visit his nephew, a private in one 
of our companies. Other distinguished men from Washing- 
ton also came. One day there came a delegation of warriors 


[Chap. V. The Brigade Bugle Call. Nov. 1861] 

from the Creek Nation to see what was left of the United 
States. They had been led to believe that the United States 
Government was fast becoming extinct. They manifested 
much pleasure on witnessing the soldiers drill and observing 
the extent of the army. 

General Butterfield formulated a bugle call which was dis- 
tinctive and quite unique. It was expressed in the following 
characters : 

n '^ 


^ I 

V " 


/>v 4 ^ ^ 


^^ I J 1 

The brigade bugler was directed to sound it when the Gen- 
eral commanding the brigade wished to get the attention of 
the different regiments. It was sounded many times during the 
day while in camp, on the march or in battle. Its clear piercing 
notes were always authoritative and called for prompt response. 
It created different impressions under different conditions. The 
words accustomed to be set to those notes were: "Dan- Dan- 
Dan- But-ter-field, But-ter-field." Some times when sounded 
at an unseasonable hour, in inclement weather or in trying 
times, the men would pronounce it as though the last letter in 
Dan were spelled with an m. No matter what impressions 
were created or what were the conditions, that bugle sound 
spoke with authority, and called for prompt obedience. That 
bugle call has long since ceased to sound. The gallant, enter- 
prising General who formulated it many years ago, joined the 
majority on the other side, but still its clarion notes linger in 
the memory awakening a variety of emotions. 

The monotony of the daily routine of camp life was occa- 
sionally relieved by sham battles and reviews. The sham battle 
had but little in it except noise by which it could be compared 
to an actual engagement. It was more like a holiday sport 
or harmless recreation. It lacked the intense earnestness and 
tragic consequences of a real battle. Reviews brought together 
different commands and enabled the Commanding General, or 
reviewing officer, to compare the appearance and military de- 
portment of one command with another. 


[Chap. V. A Grand Review. Nov. ao, 1861] 

On the 20th day of November a grand review of the whole 
army was held at Bailey's Cross Roads by General McClellan 
and staff. President Lincoln, Secretary of State Seward, Sec- 
retary of War Cameron and other distinguished persons were 
present. There were 70,000 troops in review, representing all 
arms of the service. 

It was a grand affair, and probably the largest of its kind 
ever witnessed in America. General McClellan commended 
General Porter's entire Division for its fine military appear- 
ance and the Forty-Fourth New York for marching in review 
with more steadiness and precision than any other regiment. 
This review was the first occasion after General McClellan 
succeeded to the command when the Army of the Potomac was 
all assembled on the same field. It was an imposing ceremony 
and afforded an opportunity to observe the magnitude of a 
large army when marshalled in one body. When returning 
from the review the regiment passed Professor Lowe with his 
war balloon which was seen several times afterward in the 
fore part of the war. 

One day while encamped at Hall's Hill, General McClel- 
lan, who had witnessed our dress parade, said something to 
Col. Stryker and rode away. When company commanders 
marched to the front to report, the Colonel said : "Gentlemen, 
I have some good news for you. The Commanding General 
says the Forty-Fourth New York is the best drilled regiment 
in the army." At another time in February he complimented 
the regiment for its efficiency in bayonet drill and for having 
marched 35 miles in one day while on a reconnoissance. Gen- 
eral McClellan at that time was very popular with the army, 
and made himself popular with the regiment by these compli- 
mentary statements. 

General McClellan also complimented the 83d Penn. very 
highly for proficiency in drill and attention to duty generally. 
This regiment, on recommendation of General Porter, Division 
Commander, was presented with one of the new uniforms 
which had been imported from France. The uniform and outfit 
of necessary articles for the soldier were that of the Chasseur 
de Vincennes, and were complete in every respect for a thousand 
men. These uniforms of the 83d Penn., like the Zouave uni- 
forms of the Forty-Fourth New York, were not practical for 
use m actual service. 


Chap. V. Christinas Day Festivities. Dec. 1861 ] 

From time to time foraging parties were sent outside for 
forage for the animals of the army, under the escort of a strong 
guard. At this stage of the war all such forage was paid for. 
On one such occasion a suspicious looking person was discov- 
ered, leaving a nearby dwelling, and Corporal C. H. Blair vol- 
unteered to capture him. Leave being given, by concealing his 
movements and moving at a rapid pace, he unexpectedly ap- 
peared in front of said suspicious looking person and with gun 
in position demanded and received his immediate surrender. 
This was the first prisoner of war captured by the regiment. 

Christmas day in 1861 was given up to the enlisted men. 
They played at ball in the morning and in the afternoon or- 
ganized a burlesque parade which was very comical. All of the 
officers gave over their commands to the men. Bob Hitchcock, 
a member of the band, whose avoirdupois was about 300 pounds, 
was duly promoted and mustered as Colonel of the parade. He 
was dressed in a manner becoming his high rank. He was 
mounted upon a horse that surpassed in inferiority the famous 
Rozinante. He rode with his face turned toward the horse's 
tail so that he might at all times watch his command. The 
horse was embellished with a pair of trousers on his fore legs, 
and a pair of drawers on his hind legs. The witty Charlie 
Kane, another member pf the band, was duly commissioned as 
Adjutant. The line officers were selected with great circum- 
spection, due regard being had for their fitness for this special 
occasion. The men were uniformed in most dissimilar and 
fantastic garbs. As a whole the rank and file easily surpassed 
Falstaff and his famous command. The commands given and 
the manner of their execution were unprecedented and quaint. 
The tactics of Scott, Hardee and Casey would be searched in 
vain to find precedent for those impromptu evolutions. The 
dress parade which followed was unique in its dissimilarity 
from anything promulgated in army regulations. No words 
can describe it. Frank Leslie's Illustrated paper only faintly 
depicted a short section of it but it lingers in the memory like 
a bright spot in that winter's experience of army life. A court 
martial was organized afterward and all the line officers were 
tried and sentenced to perform police duty, that is, sweep the 
streets and carry wood and water for the company cooks. 
Those who refused were taken to the guard house and com- 


Born in Warren County, N. Y, March 22, 1839. Was working 
as a carpenter and joiner when he enHsted in Company E in August, 
1861. Honorably discharged on account of wounds. September 23. 1862. 
Was wounded in the head at the Battle of Hanover Court House, 
May 27, 1862, was three weeeks unconscious and sent back to Albany 
Barracks, where a Mrs. French interested herself in his welfare be- 
cause he was a 44th N. Y. V. boy. She nursed him back to life, al- 
though at that time he could not give his name or state where he was 
from. As late as October. i86g, his wound was operated upon and 
pieces of bone from the skull and material in the cavity of the wound 
were removed. 

Married Miss Amy Jane Carpenter, January 4. 1864. and has two 
boys and two girls to comfort him in his old age. and to perpetuate 
his memorv as a Union soldier. 

' '.l^iL NEV/ YUkK I 




[Chap. V. New Year's Day. 1862] 

pelled to stand on barrels fifteen minutes. The Surgeon was 
also tried and sentenced to be punished for not giving to the 
sick the usual quantity of quinine and whisky. It was all very 
amusing and whatever was said or done was treated with the 
utmost good nature. 

Our neighbors, the 83d Penn., made great preparation for 
a festival on New Year's Eve, and a few extracts from a 
description given by Capt. A. M. Judson, in his history, may be 
interesting to recall : 

"The camp was beautifully trimmed with arches and gateways 
of evergreens and on the night of the festival, when lighted by Chinese 
lanterns, presented a most fascinating appearance. But the grand 
display was found in the huge T shaped tent. One wing for a dancing 
hall, floored and carpeted with canvas, the other with a table set 
and loaded with delicacies. The whole tent was properly decorated 
with branches and sprigs of cedar. Chandeliers of bayonets forming 
sockets for as many candles, each circle apparently hoops of different 
sizes and handsomely wound with tissue paper. The beautiful flags 
of the 83d Penn. and Forty-Fourth New York were joined in loving 
embrace, with the other flags of the Brigade to enhance the display. 

At the supper were accommodated nearly two hundred guests. The 
band (Schreibers') which furnished music for the dance was that of 
the Forty-Fourth New York. The music was superb as all will be- 
lieve who knew the band. Such was the scene of enchantment on the 
night of the New Year's festival. The weather was warm and pleasant, 
the skies were clear and balmy and the moon shone brilliantly. But 
lo, what a scene of havoc a few days after. Storms of rain, sleet, and 
snow, and tornadoes of wind passed over the fairy glen and down came 
the magnificent arches, the festooned gateways, the rows of shade 
trees, and the streets were deluged with water and mud." 

When the weather was bad during the winter drills were 
suspended. The guard and picket duty were necessarily con- 
tinued. Night and day, in sunshine and in storm, these duties 
could not be omitted. They were the safeguards of the camp 
and the army. During stormy weather all, who were not on 
guard or picket duty, remained quite closely in their tents, 
writing letters to friends, or for publication, exchanging anec- 
dotes, playing at games, reading the newspapers and books, 
planning campaigns for the army and considering the welfare 
of the nation. In fact, a military camp in hours of idleness 
afforded an opportunity for the consideration of all current 
events. It is scarcely necessary to add that the sentiment of 
the army was in favor of a vigorous prosecution of the war. 


(Chap. V. Drill and Recreation. Jan. 1862] 

Those who sought to obstruct and embarrass the Government 
in preserving the Union found no sympathizers among the 
soldiers. During the first winter there was much speculation 
as to what a battle was like. Evidences were not wanting that 
most of the rank and file of the army endeavored to anticipate 
what their conduct would be under its trying vicissitudes. Any 
one without experience is liable to have more or less solicitude 
as to what his mental equilibrium would be amid the whizzing 
of bullets, the bursting of shells and the carnage of battle. 
That is a question that can not be solved except by actual ex- 
perience. No other avocation is like it ; no other experience 
furnishes a parallel. Along the same line of reflection there 
would naturally arise a question as to what qualities are neces- 
sary to constitute a brave and faithful soldier. As winter wore 
away the army grew restless for a forward movement. It had 
become evident that there was serious work ahead, and those 
who had undertaken to perform the work, in a measure, be- 
came restless at the delay. 

From time to time rumors would spread through the camp 
that the army was about to move. No one could tell where 
they came from but still such rumors would obtain more or 
less credence. At different times orders were issued for the 
army to be held in readiness to move at a moment's notice with 
3 days' rations in haversack. Time would pass but no move- 
ment would be made. Such an order, however, had the effect 
to break the monotony of camp life. Thus in drilling, perform- 
ing camp and picket duty, playing at games, reading books and 
newspapers, writing letters, many of which formed valuable 
historic data, discussing military and civil affairs, and specu- 
lating as to what the future had in store the first winter passed. 

On the 6th day of February, 1862, the reported total strength 
of the regiment was 1020 with only forty on the sick list. Many 
men were detached for various clerical and other kinds of serv- 
ice. This was an excellent showing considering the circum- 

The history of the regiment would not be complete with- 
out a reference to Sutler A. C. James. He kept for sale in a 
sutler's tent in the rear of the camp articles of provisions, 
clothing and other things more or less useful which were not 
supplied by the Quartermaster or Commissary Department. 

[Chap. V. The Sutler. Feb. 1863] 

Having a pass to go to and from Washington, it was quite a 
convenience to send by him. It is scarcely necessary to add 
that commodities purchased were stamped with "war prices." 
It was a matter of common observation that those who indulged 
least in sutler's cakes and dainties less frequently attended the 
Surgeon's call. 


Chap. VI. Preparing to Move. March 9, 1862 



On Sunday March 9, 1862, orders were received to pack, 
ready to ship to the rear, all surplus baggage and to be ready to 
march the next morning at i o'clock. Very soon after the order 
was received the camp was in commotion preparing to move. 
There was no intimation as to our destination. It required care- 
ful discrimination to separate what was necessary from what 
was superfluous. It was a choice between what was least bur- 
densome on the march and the most necessitous in the bivouac. 
One o'clock on the morning of March lo, 1862, came. The order 
received the day before had not been countermanded. Reveille 
sounded promptly on time, a hasty breakfast was prepared and 
the line formed. A glance backward showed that Camp Butter- 
field presented a scene of devastation and destruction. Its well 
regulated streets and cleanly grounds had the appearance of 
having been crossed by a tornado. Falls Church was reached 
about 3 o'clock A. M. where a halt was ordered and muskets 
loaded. The point of apprehension and precaution had been 
reached. Fairfax C. H., which was 8 miles from Falls Church, 
was reached at 9 o'clock A. M. Here a halt was made until 
II o'clock A. M. when the regiment was designated to take the 
lead to Centerville which was 7 miles away. Just beyond the 
reach of the guns in the defensive works of Centerville, the line 
was formed and preparations made for an assault. On nearer 
approach it was ascertained that the works had been abandoned. 
It was an agreeable surprise. The regiment marched in about 
3 o'clock P. M., took possession of the works, and occupied the 
log barracks vacated by the enemy. The indications were that 
the enemy had very recently left, as their camp fires were still 
burning. Col. Averill proceeded to Manassas Junction with his 
regiment, the 3d Penn. Cavalry. Before leaving he said to 
Col. Stryker: "If you should see a mounted orderly riding at 
the top of his speed, so frightened that he can not tell his name, 
fall in at once and come to my assistance as you will under- 


[Chap. VI. Fairfax and Centerville. March lo, 1862] 

Stand that I am in trouble." That contingency did not happen 
and a quiet night was passed. The distance from Camp But- 
terfield to Centerville was about 20 miles, and an opportunity 
was all that was needed to insure a good night's sleep. The 
enemy's works at Centerville were quite formidable and cun- 
ningly mounted with wooden guns. Centerville was about the 
center of the more or less fortified line of the enemy extend- 
ing from Balls Bluff on the Potomac North of Washington to 
the mouth of the Occoquan on the Potomac South of Washing- 
ton. The next day General McClellan and staff came to Center- 
ville and proceeded to Manassas. The regiment returned to 
Fairfax C. H., where it rejoined the balance of the brigade. 
On the I2th a dress parade was held, after which a hollow 
square was formed, at which the announcement was made that 
General McClellan paid the regiment a high compliment for its 
march to Centerville. That same evening General McClellan 
reviewed the regiment by moonlight. The circumstance was 
noted as it was quite unusual. We remained at Fairfax C, H. 
until March 15th when we marched to Alexandria, reaching 
that place about 4 o'clock P. M, 

Toward the latter part of the day's march a heavy wind and 
rain storm set in drenching everybody's clothing and covering 
the earth with a sea of mud. Shelter was sought in the aban- 
doned barracks of the 88th New York. The weather continued 
cheerless and uncomfortable until the sun reappeared on the 
19th. Lest we should forget, a brigade drill was held on the 
19th. At 2 o'clock in the afternoon of the 21st we marched to 
the boat landing, embarked and anchored in the stream during 
the night. The river was full of boats of all descriptions. It 
was understood that Porter's entire Division had embarked. 
The fleet consisted of 15 steamers. At 9 o'clock on the 22d, 
anchors were weighed and a start was made for the new base 
of operations on the Peninsula, It was an imposing spectacle, 
such as is seldom witnessed even on the waters of the historic 
Potomac. In passing Mt. Vernon the bells tolled and all eyes 
were turned toward the last resting place of the Father of our 
Country. Many reflections were awakened in viewing this 
time honored spot. His native State of Virginia, the mother 
of Presidents, was in revolt against the flag he first unfurled 
to the breeze and against the Government that his valor and 


(Chap. VI. Fortress Monroe. March 33, i86a] 

statesmanship helped to establish. It would be impious to in- 
dulge in the thought that if he were then living he would have 
abetted the cause of disunion. Without accident the tran- 
sports laden with troops about 3 o'clock in the afternoon of the 
23d cast anchors under the frowning guns of Fortress Monroe. 
We there saw the little Monitor which had given such a good 
and timely account of itself in the fight with the rebel Merri- 
mac. The next day we landed, marched to Hampton and there 
encamped. The men became quite hungry and there were no 
rations to be had. On the 25th the regiment struck camp, 
marched about 2 or 3 miles and encamped in the woods near 
New Market Bridge on the Yorktown road. The hours 
passed, hunger increased and still no signs of the commissary. 
The forenoon wore away and the situation remained un- 
changed. One o'clock came and no rations were in sight. 
Neither friendship nor money could procure anything eatable. 
It was reported that fifty cents were offered for a single hard 
tack. That commodity, so common at other times, was not 
on the market at any price. It is possible that soldiers might 
have been found at this juncture, who would have been willing 
to exchange the balance of their term of enlistment for one- 
third of a day's rations. At 2 o'clock, some might have found 
vent for their feelings in the language of the poet, "I'll go to 
my tent and lie down in despair." ReHef came at 3 o'clock. 
Rations were issued and ordinary cheerfulness of camp at 
once resumed its sway. Early on the 27th we received orders 
to march in light marching order at 7 o'clock A. M. In pur- 
suance of the order our whole brigade moved in the direction 
of Big Bethel, the place where our troops had suffered defeat 
in June, 1861. After proceeding a few miles a halt was 
ordered, guns were loaded, and skirmishers and flankers 
thrown out. These precautionary steps indicated the possibil- 
ity of an engagement. On reaching a point in the vicinity of 
the enemy's defensive works at Big Bethel, line of battle was 
formed, bayonets fixed and a charge ordered. 

It was soon discovered that the works were occupied only 
by a few cavalry men who fired their carbines and rode away. 
This ended the engagement. After partaking of a luncheon in 
and about the enemy's works, a reconnoissance was continued 
for 2 or 3 miles towards the Warwick Road. Not finding any 


[Chap. VI. "On to Richmond." March, 1863] 

enemy the brigade returned to camp. During the next few 
days, company and regimental drills, camp and picket duty oc- 
cupied the attention. While here considerable sickness ap- 
peared in camp. This was attributed to the low swampy con- 
dition of country. 

It may be proper at this place to recall some of the leading 
events that occurred in relation to the organization of the 
Army of the Potomac. 

On the 27th day of July, 1861, six days after the disastrous 
battle of Bull Run, Major General George B. McClellan was 
appointed by President Lincoln to the command of the Depart- 
ment of the Potomac. At the time he assumed command he 
claimed that there was an apparent lack of order and organiza- 
tion ; that the defensive works for the protection of Washing- 
ton were entirely inadequate; that the troops South of the 
Potomac consisted of various independent commands, not well 
posted nor in a condition to cooperate; that officers and men 
were absent from their commands, many of whom were throng- 
ing the streets of Washington ; that the defenses of Washington 
had to be extended and strengthened, order restored, brigades 
and divisions organized. On the other hand it was claimed 
that General McClellan magnified the unpreparedness of the 
army, and minimized the adequacy of the defensive works 
about Washington ; that this was done for effect and for his 
own aggrandizement. Arguments were not wanting favorable 
to each position. It will hardly be disputed that General Mc- 
Clellan proved himself to be a competent officer for drilling, 
equipping and preparing an army for the field. On the first 
day of November, 1861, General McClellan was called upon to 
relieve the venerable old war chief, Lieut. General Winfield 
Scott, whose memorable services and ripe years entitled him 
to retirement from active command. General McClellan took 
up the important work entrusted to him. The following win- 
ter was devoted to the task. Many people became impatient at 
the delay. The Government became anxious and urgent. 
Leading newspapers became exponents of that state of feeling 
and persistently proclaimed the tocsin of "On to Richmond." 
The President, at two different times, issued peremptory 
orders fixing the date when the army should move. But the 
army did not move and the work of preparation went slowly 


[Chap. VI. Reorganization of A. O. P. March 8, 1862] 

on. On the 3d day of February, 1862, the plan for the coming 
campaign was taken up and considered by the President, Sec- 
retary of War and General McClellan. The President was in 
favor of taking the direct overland route to Richmond. Gen- 
eral McClellan, who was in command of all the armies of the 
United States, favored the plan of moving the main army to 
the Peninsula, and then having all of the available troops in 
Virginia make a combined movement against the enemy. The 
plan of campaign was under consideration for some time. On 
the 8th day of March, 1862, the President issued an order 
organizing the army about Washington into corps as follows: 
First corps to consist of four divisions, to be commanded by 
Major General I. McDowell. The second corps to consist of 
three divisions, to be commanded by Brig. General E. V. Sum- 
ner. The third corps to consist of three divisions to be com- 
manded by Brig. General S. P. Heintzelman. The fourth 
corps to consist of three divisions to be commanded by Brig. 
General E. D. Keyes. On the 12th day of March, 1862, Gen- 
eral McClellan Avas relieved of command of all troops except 
the Army of the Potomac. On the next day a council of the 
four Corps Commanders selected by the President, decided that 
active operations could be best carried on from Old Point Com- 
fort, between the York and James Rivers. This plan was not 
approved but was assented to by the President, provided a suf- 
ficient force were left to hold Manassas and garrison the de- 
fences around Washington. Arrangements were then made 
for moving in accordance with the accepted plans. On the 
31st day of March the President made an order taking Blenk- 
er's Division from the Second Corps and attached it to the 
command of General Fremont. On the 4th day of April the 
President made an order creating the Department of Shenan- 
doah, placing it under the command of General Fremont and 
the Department of Rappahannock placing it under the command 
of General McDowell. At the same time General McClellan 
was notified that the First Corps was taken from the Army of 
the Potomac and attached to the command of General McDow- 
ell. These changes took place while the Army of the Potomac 
was engaged moving against the enemy. This reduced the 
strength of the Army of the Potomac about one third. Gen- 
eral McClellan claimed that by reducing the strength of his 


Born in 1840 on his father's farm near Scotch Bush. .Montgomery 
Co., N. Y. ; enhsted Septemher 15. 1861 in Company H. 44th X. Y. ^'• I ; 
was constantly with the regiment until the Battle of Gaines" Mills, Va.. 
June 27, 1862, when he was captured, taken to Richmond, and con- 
lined in Libby and Belle Isle rebel prisons. August 8. 1862, he was 
exchanged and rejoined his regiment at Harrison's Landing. Va. At 
Second Bull Run. .\ugust ,30, 1862. he was severely wounded and lost 
his left leg by amputation below the knee. Discharged in October, 1862, 
he returned to his home, and after two years in school became a clerk 
in the census office, at .Albany, N. Y.. and later engaged in business 
there. Went to iMichigan in 1867. and engaged in the grain busi- 
ness. In 1890 was appointed a clerk in the Government service at 
Washington. D. C. where he now is. He was married to Helen 
AIcLean of Michigan in 1875, has one son. and now resides at Garrett 
Park. Md.. a -uburb of Washington, D. C. 





[Chap. VI. Plan of Campaign. April, 1862] 

command it became necessary to change his plan of opera- 
tions, that his original plan contemplated that the First Corps 
should advance on the North bank of the York River at the 
same time that the troops advanced on the South side. His idea 
was that the troops advancing on the North side of the river, 
would take the defensive works along the York River in re- 
verse, and compel the enemy to abandon them. Then followed 
the siege of Yorktown. The effect of what had been done in 
the latter part of March and the fore part of April was to 
divide the forces operating between Washington and Rich- 
mond into three different armies under three different com- 
manders. The aggressive force of the armies thus divided was 
materially lessened. 


[Chap. Vn. Advance to Yorktown. April 4, 1863] 



Early on the morning of April 4th, all the troops that had 
then arrived commenced the advance up the Peninsula. The 
command of General Keyes advanced on the road nearest the 
James River, and the command of General Heintzelman ad- 
vanced on the road nearest the York River. General Porter's 
Division, of which the Forty-Fourth was part, led the advance 
of Heintzelman's corps. Big Bethel was reached about 11 
o'clock. The videttes of the enemy rode away at the approach 
of Porter's skirmishers. After taking lunch, the march was 
resumed. The enemy were encountered at Howard's Mills, at 
the junction of the Yorktown and Warwick C. H. roads, 6 miles 
from Yorktown. After some brisk shelling, the enemy aban- 
doned their works and retreated. Our troops occupied the 
abandoned works which were quite strong. The day had been 
pleasant, a good day's march had been made, and a halt for the 
night was ordered. About 8 o'clock in the morning of April 5th 
the advance was resumed. Soon after the start was made, a 
heavy rain storm set in. The roads became extremely muddy, 
rendering the march uncomfortable for infantry and difficult for 
artillery. A point about 2 miles from the enemy's fortifica- 
tions at Yorktown was reached about 12 o'clock, noon. A halt 
was ordered, and very soon instructions were" received that 
knapsacks were to be left in charge of a guard, line soon to be 
formed, and the enemy's works assaulted. Artillery soon be- 
came engaged with the batteries of the enemy within their 
works. The skirmishers of both armies became hotly engaged. 
The day wore away but no assault was made. In his report the 
Commanding General claimed that by reason of some of the 
troops being detached from his command on whose support he 
had counted, it became necessary to change his plan of 
operations. It was at this juncture that the Departments of 
Shenandoah and Rappahannock, heretofore referred to, were 


[Chap. Vn. Siege of Yorktown. April, 1863] 

created and the ist Corps ordered to McDowell. In any event, 
the plan to carry the enemy's works by assault was abandoned 
and the siege of Yorktown commenced. The siege was con- 
ducted under the direction of skilled engineers. Yorktown is 
an old historical town, situated on the right bank of the York 
River. On the opposite bank of the river is Gloucester Point, 
which extends into the river, materially lessening its width. 
Yorktown and Gloucester Point were both strongly fortified. 
The fortifications around Yorktown were especially strong, and 
amply supphed with heavy cannon, commanding the approach 
by land and river. The Warwick River extending two-thirds of 
the way across the Peninsula, and emptying into the James 
River, and Wormley's Creek with its high irregular banks 
emptying into York River, were utilized by the enemy in con- 
structing their defensive works. The distance across the Penin- 
sula at this point was about 7 miles. These two natural bar- 
riers were of great advantage to the enemy in defending their 
line. Yorktown is noted as being the place where Lord Corn- 
wallis surrendered to General Washington on the 19th day of 
October, 1781. The works constructed at that time were plainly 
visible. The point where the surrender took place was marked 
by a monument. It did not seem possible that both armies could 
gather inspiration from the historic memories that cluster 
around this memorable field. The traditions of the revolution 
lingered here awakening in all loyal breasts sincerest hopes for 
the future. 

During the siege General Porter's Division occupied the ex- 
treme right of the army, and General Porter was designated as 
director of the siege. Between the lines of the respective armies 
in front of Porter's Division was a heavy body of woods. In 
the beginning of the siege the work was carried on in the night, 
by working parties protected by a strong line of pickets in ad- 
vance, to guard against surprise. When daylight came the 
pickets were withdrawn within the earthworks. When the 
works became sufficiently strong to warrant it, work was con- 
tinued during the day as well as at night. It was necessary 
at all times to keep armed men in the trenches to protect those 
who were working. The camp of the regiment was about 2 
miles from the enemy's fortified works. It was concealed from 
the enemy by the body of woods heretofore referred to. The 


[Chap. Vn. Siege of Yorktown. April, 1862] 

batteries, skirmishers and sharp shooters of the two armies, 
were almost constantly engaged. The whistling of bullets, the 
shrieking and bursting of shells became familiar sounds. The 
shots and shells of the enemy's batteries often struck in our 
camp, causing many narrow escapes. Considering the amount 
of firing there were but few casualties. On the 6th day of 
April, James A. Claghorn of Company A and Harmon Fisher 
of Company G were injured by the fall of a staging used in 
erecting a lookout at the front. On the 29th day of April pri- 
vate Delos W. Guernsey of Company H was mortally wounded 
by a shell. He was the first member of the regiment killed. He 
was given a military funeral and was buried a short distance 
from camp. During the entire siege great vigilance and caution 
were required. It was a foretaste of experiences which were to 
follow. From a concealed spot near our camp, Prof. Lowe 
made frequent ascensions in his balloon for the purpose of ob- 
serving the works and camp of the enemy. The enemy showed 
their dislike for this method of reconnoitering by making the 
balloon a target for their guns. On April 3d Second Lieut. 
E. D. Spencer of Co. I resigned, Sergt. Major George B. Her- 
enden was promoted to fill the vacancy, and Sergeant John B. 
Weber of Co. A was appointed Sergeant Major. 

The works of the siege progressed during the entire month 
of April and into the month of May. Much labor was per- 
formed in erecting earthworks, bomb proofs, and in planting 
batteries. As the end of April approached our works were well 
advanced toward those of the enemy. As the distance between 
the lines grew less, greater vigilance was required of our troops, 
and more fierce and hostile the enemy became. On the 3d day of 
May plans were nearly complete for a general assault along the 
whole line. About midnight, the enemy opened a furious can- 
nonade upon our works and camp, which continued for 2 hours. 
During the day of Saturday, May 3d, orders were received for 
the regiment to go on fatigue and picket duty the following 
morning. It was necessary to reach the front and make all ar- 
rangements under the cover of darkness. Long before day- 
light on Sunday morning. May 4th, the regiment reached the 
trenches. Soon after reaching the trenches, Lieut. Herenden 
and a few of his men, crept cautiously out to our picket line. 
On reaching the picket line, they were informed by the pickets 


[Chap. Vn. Enemy Evacuates Yorktown. May 3, 1862] 

that they suspected the picket line of the enemy was abandoned. 
While it was still dark, creeping cautiously across the interven- 
ing space, it was found that the suspicions of our pickets were 
well founded, and that the picket line of the enemy had been 
abandoned. Cautiously pursuing the investigation it was soon 
learned that Yorktown, itself, had been evacuated. Lieut. 
Herenden and his small party were among the first, if not the 
first, to enter that Confederate stronghold. The regiment was 
ordered to return, strike camp, march in and garrison the town. 
In General Porter's report the Forty-Fourth was mentioned as 
"being continually in the trenches and most faithfully and 
cheerfully under all the circumstances, frequently most trying, 
performing its laborious duties during the thirty days' siege." 
May 4th General McClellan made an order appointing General 
Van Alen Military Governor of Yorktown, and assigning the 
Forty-Fourth New York to garrison it. The quietude of that 
Sabbath morning was unbroken by hostile cannon. It was a 
marked change in the situation. 

At II o'clock on Sunday morning, May 4th, the regiment 
marched into Yorktown, with its bands playing and flags flying. 
The field rendered famous by two sieges had once more relaxed 
into quietude. The defensive works in and about Yorktown 
were formidable. Before leaving, the enemy planted torpedoes 
in various unexpected places in and about the town. General 
McClellan, in his report, says : "The rebels have been guilty of 
the most murderous and barbarous conduct in placing torpedoes 
within the abandoned works, near wells and springs, magazines, 
etc. Fortunately we have not lost many men in this manner. 
Some four or five killed and perhaps a dozen wounded. I shall 
make the prisoners remove them at their own peril." 

Lieut. Herenden was ordered to take a detail of about 25 
men, go to the rebel prison in Yorktown, get 25 able bodied 
prisoners, take them outside the works, and compel them to 
dig up the torpedoes planted there. They were somewhat reluc- 
tant and did not work with much zeal. In this manner about 50 
torpedoes were exhumed without accident. At the same time 
another Lieutenant was ordered to take a detail of men, take 
charge of about one-half dozen rebel prisoners, go through and 
ascertain if there were any torpedoes placed by the enemy in 
their powder magazines, before leaving. The prisoners pro- 


[Chap. Vn. Garrison Yorktown. May 4, 1862] 

tested against this "unreasonable" service. Their protests were 
of no avail. They were assured if there were no torpedoes 
planted therein they would not be harmed, and, even if there 
were, they would have the satisfaction of being blown up with 
Union soldiers. A magazine lantern was found, the search was 
made, but no torpedoes were discovered. Those shells found 
by Lieut. Herenden were ingeniously constructed, with per- 
cussion caps inserted in such a manner as to ignite the powder 
and explode the shells. It was a disagreeable, dangerous serv- 
ice, but fortunately no accident occurred. 

Companies D and H were ordered across the York River 
to garrison Gloucester Point. It was reported that some Con- 
federate cavalry were seen in that vicinity. Capt. Connor was 
ordered to take a hundred men and investigate the report. He 
marched into the country about 6 or 8 miles, having a colored 
man as a guide and returned without discovering the enemy. 

Colored people for miles around flocked to Yorktown as 
soon as occupied by our troops. They had bidden a final fare- 
well to slavery. The old and young, male and female, came in, 
bringing all their earthly possessions. Their earthly possessions 
were quite limited and consisted only of wearing apparel, which 
was also quite limited in quantity and quality. Their joy was 
unbounded. They strove in many ways to show their satisfac- 
tion and gratitude. They were extremely happy and hopeful. 
It became necessary to feed and shelter them. With them the 
day of jubilee had certainly come. They sang, they danced, 
they prayed. They were willing to work, and readily engaged 
in putting the town in a cleanly and wholesome condition. Their 
unrequited toil had ceased, the dawn of a new life had come 
No person who witnessed that scene can forget it, no pen can 
describe it. 

On evacuating Yorktown the enemy retreated to Williams- 
burg, where an important battle was fought on the 5th day of 
May. The sound of the battle was distinctly heard at York- 
town. The result was most creditable to our troops engaged. 
It was in this battle that General Hancock's Brigade made its 
famous bayonet charge. 

On the I2th day of May, Lieut. Nash received an order 
from General Van Alen, the Military Governor, to procure a 
detail of men, take charge of the rebel prisoners then confined 


(Chap. Vn. Garrison Yorktown. May, 1863 ] 

in Yorktown, proceed by boat to Fortress Monroe and report 
to General Wool. There were between 50 and 60 of the pris- 
oners, including several officers, among whom was Capt. Frank 
Lee, who claimed to be a nephew of the Confederate General 
Robert E. Lee. On arriving at Fortress Monroe, General Wool 
was not ready to receive the prisoners. On the 15th day of 
May the prisoners were transferred to the steamer John 
Brooks, and Lieut. Nash was ordered to proceed with them to 
Ft. Delaware near Philadelphia, and transfer them to the Com- 
mander of that Post. 

The officers were placed on their parole of honor and al- 
lowed the privileges of a certain part of the boat. The men 
were confined below with only one flight of stairs leading above. 
At the head of the stairs two guards were stationed. After a 
day or two the prisoners would come to the foot of the stairs 
and use disrespectful language to the guard, toward the Gov- 
ernment and our flag. The guard reported the matter, and al- 
lowed with some emphasis that there would be some dead reb- 
els, unless that disrespectful conduct were stopped. The pris- 
oners were ordered to fall in around the edge of the boat, after 
which they were admonished that if there were any more dis- 
respectful language used towards the guards, the Government 
or the flag they would be punished. After that they were more 
respectful. The prisoners were turned over to the Command- 
ant at Fort Delaware on the 19th day of May. 

On transferring the prisoners the Confederate officers as- 
sured Lieut. Nash that if he should be taken prisoner during 
the war and would enquire for them they would assure him 
courteous treatment. It did not seem worth while to verify the 
good faith of the promise. Lieut. Nash and his detail remained 
with the steamer, while it ran up to Philadelphia, discharged its 
cargo and returned to Fortress Monroe. On reaching York- 
town he found that the regiment had rejoined the brigade at 
the front. Soon as practical, transportation was taken to White 
House, thence by railroad reaching the regiment on the 25th 
day of May. 

On the 8th day of May, Porter's Division embarked on 
transports, went up the York River, leaving the Forty-Fourth 
to garrison Yorktown. On the following morning the trans- 
port anchored oflf West Point, which is at the junction of the 


[Chap. Vn. Main Army Moves to White House. May 8, 1862] 

Pamunkey and Mattapony Rivers, and was the terminus of the 
Richmond and York River R. R. Pontoon boats were used 
for landing the troops. The landing was completed in the after- 
noon and the troops moved back from the river and encamped. 
On the 1 2th the troops moved up near Cumberland, where 
they were reviewed by Secretary of State Seward. From there 
they moved up to White House where many other troops were 
encamped. White House is upon the Custis estate, which com- 
prises a large plantation along the Pamunkey River. It was 
the old homestead of the Custis family and occupied by them 
in the days of Washington. Here Washington first met Mar- 
tha Custis and here is where they were married. 

On the i8th day of May an order was made organizing the 
5th Corps, placing Major General Fitz John Porter in com- 
mand, and that corps designation was retained to the end of the 
war. It comprised the division formerly commanded by Gen- 
eral Porter, who was succeeded in command of the division by 
General George W. Morell, and was designated as the ist Divi- 
sion. The 2d Division was composed principally of regular 
troops and was commanded by Brig. General George Sykes. 
Later on, the Pennsylvania Reserves were added as the 3d 
Division commanded by Brig, General McCall. On the 25th 
day of May the 2d and 4th Corps were on the South side of 
the Chickahominy River, within 6 miles of Richmond, and the 
3d and 5th Corps were on the North side of that river. 

Let us now go back and take up the narrative of the Forty- 
Fourth New York, which was left at Yorktown. On the nth 
day of May Col. Stryker and Quartermaster Sergeant How- 
lett went to Washington to obtain and send to Yorktown, the 
Zouave uniforms of the regiment which had been left in a store 
house. About this time a petition was addressed to General 
Butterfield, requesting that an order be made directing the 
regiment to rejoin the brigade in the advance. Such proceed- 
ing was quite unmilitary, but it was thought that the object of 
the promoters of the regiment and its friends throughout the 
State of New York, would not be subserved by its remaining 
in the rear on garrison duty. It is understood that the Com- 
manding officer of the regiment was much displeased with the 
step taken, that he considered the ease and comfort of garri- 
son duty far preferable to campaigning at the front. His dis- 


Born in Hamilton County, N. Y., January i8, 1839. Possessing a 
brave and ardent spirit, with a keen sense of wrong and injustice, from 
his youth he was noted for his steady adherence to right and truth 
and for the good example he continually placed before his associates. 

Upon the breaking out of the Rebellion he was desirous of joining 
the Union Army immediately, but at the request of friends he post- 
poned his enlistment. When the news of the assassination of Ells- 
worth spread through the land, and the brave old state of New York 
called for a Regiment, to be composed of the flower of her young men, 
selected from every town, he was one of the first to offer himself. 
Was enrolled as First Sergeant. Company D. 44th N. Y. V. I., in 
Aug.. 1861. With this regiment he served continuously until the mem- 
orable 2d dav of Julv. 1863, when at the Battle of Gettvsburg he was 

Beloved by his companions, honored and respected by his superiors, 
by gallant and meritorious conduct he rose from First Sergeant to 
First Lieutenant, and for several months previous to his death, was 
acting captain of his company. 




[Chap. Vn. 44th N. Y. Rejoins its Brigade. May lo, 1863] 

pleasure at being ordered to the front was expressed in quite 
emphatic language. After all that had been done to raise a 
representative regiment for the service, after all that had been 
said in relation to the excellent material of which it was com- 
posed, it did not seem creditable to lag in the rear. The order 
to rejoin the brigade came without much delay. On the 19th 
day of May the regiment took a transport to White House, 
which place was reached without accident. Thereafter the 
regiment occupied its place again in the brigade. Rain and 
mud impeded the march from White House to the Chicka- 
hominy River. 

On the 25th day of May the base of supplies for the army 
was at White House and the army was supplied by the Rich- 
mond and York River R. R. The army being posted on both 
sides of the Chickahominy, the Commanding General of the 
army deemed it prudent to build several bridges across that 
river. The headquarters of the army were on the South side 
of the river. Savage Station was the depot of supplies for that 
part of the army on the South side of the river. 

The two armies were now facing each other about 6 miles 
from Richmond. A point had been reached on the South side 
of the river, where any material advance would bring on a 
general engagement. Both sides were watching for favorable 
opportunities to attack. On the 26th day of May, Porter's 
Corps moved to a point near New Bridge, on the left bank of 
the Chickahominy River, and went into bivouac. 

On the evening of May 26th, orders were received for the 
5th Corps to move at daybreak on the following morning, in 
light marching order, with 3 days' rations and 60 rounds of 
ammunition. The order had a telling look. Sixty rounds of 
ammunition meant something. No one knew where or for 
what purpose the movement was to be made. It was part of a 
soldier's duty to obey orders, ask no questions and never be 
surprised. The morning of May 27th came. Troops were 
aroused at 3 :30 o'clock and line was formed promptly at 4 
o'clock. It began to rain. That fact did not change the plans. 
The advance began at once. A detachment of cavalry under 
General Emery took the lead. The ist Division under General 
Morell followed, taking the direct road to Hanover C. H. Gen- 
eral Sykes followed with the 2d Division to protect the left 


[Chap. VII. Hanover C. H. May 27, 1862] 

and rear of the advance column. Col. Warren with a smaller 
detachment about the same time left Old Church with orders 
to advance on a road parallel to the Pamunkey River. The 
hours passed and still it rained. The ground was soaked, the 
streams were filled to overflowing, but the rain did not cease. 
Cavalr}', artillery and infantry, passing along the same road 
rendered it almost impassable. At lo o'clock the rain ceased 
and the sun came out blistering hot. It was a very tiresome, 
trying march. IMany became exhausted and were obliged to 
leave the ranks. About 12 miles from camp the Forty-Fourth 
was detached from the balance of the Division and left with a 
section of Martin's battery to guard a cross road leading to 
Richmond. Firing was soon heard in the advance. The 
troops that had gone along had been attacked. An order came 
for the Forty-Fourth to hasten forward. After a hasty march 
of about 2 miles an open field was reached, bordered on two 
contiguous sides by heavy woods. Other troops were there. It 
was soon ascertained that General ]\Iartindale was in command 
at this point with the 2d Me. and the 2.sth N. Y., two of the 
regiments of his brigade in line of battle. There was here 
also a section of artillery. It soon became apparent that stir- 
ring events were at hand. Two companies were deployed as 
skirmishers and advanced into the woods toward the left of 
the field. Very soon firing was heard in the other piece of 
woods to the right. The skirmishers were recalled and re- 
joined the balance of the regiment. While the regiment was 
advancing by the flank in an open field near the highway, a 
sudden and murderous fire at short range was opened by the 
enemy, concealed in the woods toward which it was advancing. 
A short distance to the right of the regiment was a section of 
Martin's battery, and to the right of Martin's battery were the 
25th New York and 2d Me., in the order named. This was 
the formation of the line which for two hours held the field 
against the greater part of Branch's Confederate Division. 
The sudden and severe fire of the enemy, converging upon the 
center of the line, drove the cannoneers from Martin's battery 
and forced backwards the 25th New York, and some of the 
companies on the right of the Forty-Fourth New York, Ex- 
cept this slight temporary fluctuation of the line in the outset. 


(Chap, Vn. Battle of Hanover C. H. May 27, i86a] 

all the troops maintained their position with great gallantry 
against overwhelming odds. 

While what has been narrated above was taking place the 
rest of Morell's Division continued to advance toward Han- 
over C. H., where they met and engaged a detachment of 
Branch's command under Col. Lane. These Confederate 
troops were driven from their position and retreated towards 
Hanover C. H. jMorell pursued, expecting to come upon the 
main body of Branch's command. This proved to be mislead- 
ing. Branch had concealed the greater part of his troops be- 
hind the woods, and after Morell's command had got well past, 
advanced and made the attack in the manner heretofore nar- 
rated. General Porter, who was with the advance, on hearing 
the heavy firing in the rear, ordered General Morell to face 
about his command and hasten to the support of the troops en- 
gaged. The firing was brisk and continuous and the relieving 
column was 2 miles away. The returning troops marched with 
commendable celerity, considering the march of 18 miles 
through rain and mud which they had already experienced that 
day. On reaching a point within the zone of the battlefield the 
relieving column halted, and formed a line of battle, after which 
they promptly advanced, striking the left flank and rear of the 
enemy's line. The enemy soon retreated in disorder from the 
field. Pursuit was made but darkness coming on, it was ob- 
liged to be abandoned. The victory was complete. The troops 
that had held the field against such overwhelming odds were 
entitled to very great credit. It was the first important battle 
in the open field in which the Forty-Fourth had been engaged. 
General Butterfield termed it their "baptismal fire." At the be- 
ginning of the battle. Col. Stryker turned the command over to 
Lieut. Col. Rice, and, as he stated, went to obtain reinforce- 
ments. Corporal Charles H. Blair, who was wounded and 
obliged to go to the rear, is responsible for the statement that 
he found the Colonel dismounted and seated quietly by a tree, 
holding his horse. He was severely criticised by his superior 
officers for leaving his command at the beginning of the en- 
gagement. Lieut. Col. Rice had his horse killed and his sword 
shot from his side. The colors of the regiment showed the 
severity of the fight. The Color Sergeant was shot through 


[Chap. Vn. Battle of Hanover C. H. May 27, i86a] 

the head. Corporal James Young of Company F raised the 
colors twice from the ground and was twice shot down. Sam- 
uel W. Chandler of Company F, who had been wounded in 
the leg and arm. with wounds bleeding, crept to the flag- 
staff and with great effort raised it the third time. In a mo- 
ment he, too, was shot in the breast and fell. Frank B. Schutt 
of Company G then raised it. The flag was pierced by forty 
bullets. The force encountered and defeated was Branch's Di- 
vision of North Carolina and Georgia troops, supposed to have 
been g.ocxD strong. Prisoners taken estimated the number at 

General McClellan, in his report made at the time, says : 

"The immediate results of these affairs were some 200 of the 
enemy's dead buried by our troops ; 730 prisoners, one twelve pound 
howitzer, one caisson, a large number of small arms, and two rail- 
road trains captured. Porter's victory of yesterday was truly a glorious 
victory. Too much credit can not be given to his magnificent division 
and its accompHshed leader. The rout of the rebels was complete. 
Not a defeat, but a complete rout. 

Our entire loss amounted to 53 killed and 344 wounded." 

The loss of the Forty-Fourth was 31 killed and died of 
wounds, and 53 wounded, making a total of 84. It will thus be 
seen that of the number killed more than one-half belonged to 
the Forty-Fourth New York. It will also be seen that the 
proportion of those killed to the number wounded was un- 
usually large. 

After the battle and during the night the wounded were 
carefully removed from the field, given attention, and the dead 
were gathered together. On the next day the dead of the 
Forty-Fourth, numbering 26, were buried in one trench on the 
field. While there was rejoicing over the victory won, there 
was sincere sorrow felt at the loss of so many noble lives. On 
this day Lieut. Nash was appointed Acting Adjutant in place 
of Adjutant Knox, wounded. Col W. H. Powell, in his his- 
tory of the Fifth Corps, in describing the battle of Hanover 
C. H., says : 

'The brunt of actual contact was splendidly sustained by the 2d 
Me. under their gallant Col. Roberts, and on the left by the fire of 
the Forty-Fourth New York effectually covering the guns that were 
temporarily abandoned, while the bearing of the regiment gave evi- 
dence of the future in store for it with the heroic Rice." 


[Chap. Vn. Rettim from Hanover. May 29, 1862] 

It may be here remarked in this connection that in the midst 
of the battle at the time the onslaught of the enemy was the 
fiercest, Lieut. Col. Rice shouted to his command, "Be careful 
men, be careful men, you are making history." 

The foregoing quotation from Powell's History of the 5th 
Corps fails to do justice to the 25th New Y'ork, inasmuch as 
that gallant regiment suffered the greatest loss of any regiment 

The object of the movement having been brilliantly accom- 
plished, Porter's troops were ordered to return to camp. 
About 4 o'clock on the afternoon of the 29th the troops started 
on their return, arriving about 3 o^clock the next morning. The 
return was wearisome and trying. The artillery and baggage 
trains frequently got stuck in the mud, increasing the fatigue 
and impatience of the troops. About 11 hours were consumed 
in its return march although the distance was only 18 miles. 
It was one of those long drawn-out marches that could not be 
hurried, neither could it be postponed. It did no good to be- 
come impatient nor to entertain angry thoughts. It went to 
make a chapter in a soldier's experience and furnish variety to 
his army life. 

On this day heavy firing was heard on the South side of the 
Chickahominy. Orders were received to be ready to march at a 
moment's notice. The day passed but we did not move. 
During the afternoon occurred a terrific thunder storm, during 
which lightning struck the tent of Quartermaster Sergeant 
Howlett and Sergeant Major Weber, instantly killing the for- 
mer, rendering the latter insensible and igniting and exploding 
a box of cartridges. Others in the tent, and near by, felt the 
shock perceptibly. The rain fell in torrents for more than one 
hour, causing the streams to overflow their banks and inundat- 
ing the low lands and marshes. 

On the 26th day of May, General Heintzelman's 3d Corps 
crossed to the South side of the Chickahominy, leaving Por- 
ter's Corps alone on the North side. 

On the afternoon of May 31st, the battle of Seven Pines or 
Fair Oaks was begun and continued on the ist day of June. 
All the attacks of the enemy were repulsed with great loss to 

About 9 or 10 o'clock in the evening of May 31st, our bri- 


IChap. Vn. Fair Oaks. May 31, 1863] 

gade was ordered to the banks of the Chickahominy, guns were 
loaded and stacked, and there it waited for the engineers to 
build a pontoon bridge across the river. The plan was for our 
brigade to cross soon as the pontoon bridge was finished and 
make a night attack upon the rebel works. The recent rains, 
however, had so swollen the river that its banks were over- 
flowed and its width abnormally increased. This greatly de- 
layed the construction of the bridge. Waiting in position until 
noon on the ist day of June and the bridge not being completed, 
the brigade returned to camp. It was thought that while the 
enemy were engaged in assaulting our lines on the field of Fair 
Oaks, it was good strategy to storm their works near the South 
banks of the river. The execution of the plan failed on ac- 
count of the untimely rise of the sluggish Chickahominy. The 
battle of Fair Oaks resulted in a splendid victory for our army. 

From the 2d of June to the 25th the regiment was quite 
constantly engaged in camp, fatigue and picket duty along the 
Chickahominy. Some of the pickets of the respective armies 
were stationed near each other and became quite friendly and 
sociable. They established a sort of truce between themselves, 
not to fire on each other, but made an exception in the case of 
commissioned officers. First Lieut. Harry Kelley, however, 
disguised himself as a private soldier, visited the extreme picket 
post, held a friendly chat with the rebel picket and returned 

The men exchanged tobacco for coffee and bantered each 
other as to what would be the final outcome of the war. Then 
an order was promulgated forbidding the pickets to meet or 
converse. The order was published in every regiment. After 
the order had been published a man by the name of Kennedy, 
belonging to Company H, while on picket, met and conversed 
with a rebel soldier. After the example of the ambitious 
weather cock, Kennedy was anxious to be first to make known 
the nature of the important coming events. Among others 
he entrusted the secret to Lieut. Col. Rice. Lieut. Col. Rice 
deemed the information of so much importance that he decided 
that it should be forthwith laid before General Porter. A sug- 
gestion that Kennedy had been guilty of violating the plain 
provisions of a recent order did not deter him. A mount was 
procured for Kennedy and he and the Adjutant rode away to 


[Chap. Vn. Review, Gen'I. Prim. Jane 9, 1862] 

General Porter's headquarters, where they arrived late in the 
evening, after the General had retired. The Adjutant awoke 
the General and laid before him the purpose of the visit. 

The General replied, "Put the man in the guard house and 
I will punish him in the morning." The Adjutant sought to 
explain saying to him that Col. Rice thought that the informa- 
tion was so important that he would overlook the violation of 
the order. The General only repeated with greater emphasis, 
"Put the man in the guard house and I will punish him in the 
morning." Kennedy was put into the guard house. The Adju- 
tant returned and reported the result to Col. Rice. Soon after 
daylight the next morning Col. Rice was seen riding rapidly 
toward Corps headquarters and presently Kennedy was seen 
wending his way back to camp on foot. What took place at 
that "sunrise court" never was officially reported. 

On the 9th day of June the 5th Corps was reviewed by 
General McClellan and General Prim of the Spanish Army, 
after which Generals Prim and Porter visited the picket line. 

On the loth a party of rebel cavalry crossed the Pamunkey 
River, captured and set fire to the wagons of our forage train, 
and drove away 50 mules. This incident caused some excite- 
ment at the landing where the supplies of the army were stored. 

During this period there was much sickness in the regiment. 
The hot weather and the miasma from the swamp had a tell- 
ing effect in depleting the ranks. 

During this period, also, Prof. Lowe made frequent ascen- 
sions with his balloon for the purpose of observing the position 
and movements of the enemy. The appearance of the balloon 
was sure to draw the fire of the enemy's guns. 


[Chap. Vm. Mechanicsville. June 26, 1863] 



The 26th day of June arrived. It was the first day of the 
Seven Days' Fight. It was what was known as the Battle of 
Mechanicsville. The Confederate Generals Longstreet, A. P. 
Hill and D. H. Hill, between 3 and 4 o'clock in the afternoon, 
crossed to the North side of the Chickahominy River and 
promptly formed their line of battle at and near Mechanics- 
ville ready to attack. Their forces numbered about 10,000. 

General McCall, commanding 3d Division, 5th Corps, 
which numbered about 5,000, took a strong position to resist 
the attack. From 4 o'clock until dark the enemy made repeated 
assaults upon the Union lines. Toward evening McCall's Divi- 
sion being hard pressed, the ist and 2d Brigades of our Divi- 
sion were ordered to their support. During the 26th the 3d 
Brigade took position near Cold Harbor to protect the right 
flank and rear of the Union lines. Its position was changed at 
different times as the day wore on but it did not become 
actually engaged. Darkness put an end to this day's engage- 
ment. The repeated assaults of the enemy were everywhere 
repulsed with great slaughter. The combatants of both armies 
slept on their arms and waited developments of the next day. 

At this time it was known that Stonewall Jackson was ap- 
proaching with his command and would be in position to co- 
operate when the battle was renewed. It had also been recently 
learned that the order for General McDowell, with his com- 
mand to cooperate with the army of the Potomac, had again 
been changed and that his command had been diverted to 
another purpose. At this critical time it became necessary to 
form new plans. General McClellan was in conference with 
General Porter until late at night. Before leaving, General 
McClellan said "Now, Fitz, you understand my views and the 
absolute necessity of holding the ground until arrangements 
over the river can be completed. Whichever of the two posi- 
tions you take, hold it." 


Born in Ulster Co., New York, July lo, 1838, enlisted in Company 
C 44 N. Y. V. Inf., August 8, 1861. Served as Sergeant with the 44th 
N. Y., until Decemljer 1863. Was appointed Second Lieutenant by the 
War Dept. and assigned to 7th U. S. C. Infantry. Promoted to First 
Lieutenant and Adjutant March 6, 1865, promoted to Captain, January 
12, 1866. Mustered out at expiration of service October 13, 1866. Bre- 
vetted Major of U. S. Vols. Wounded and captured in assault on 
Fort Gilmer, near Richmond, September 29, 1864, held prisoner until 
February 22, 1865. Personally highly commended in general orders 
from headquarters Army of the James. On detached service at Gen'l 
Heintzelman's headquarters at San .\ntonio, Te.xas, when mustered out. 

Brevet Alajor Ferguson returned to Civil life and resided in Orange 
Co., New York until 1877, when he migrated to a Homestead Claim in 
Kansas, where he occupied his time in farming, etc., etc. Served two 
years as County Superintendent of Public Instruction and as Editor 
and Proprietor of the leading county paper, "The Kinsley Graphic." 

During the years 1881-2 he was engaged in contracting and mining 
in the Elk Mountains, Colo. In 1884 he came to New Rochelle. N. Y., 
where he now resides. 


t'Ui.rjx: L 


Bfltfle of Games Mill, Va.: June 27, mi. 

i^^iWoodt. --^^ Swamp. 


[Chap. Vm. Gaines Mills. June 27, i86a] 

Porter replied, "Give yourself no uneasiness, I shall hold to 
the last extremity." About 3 o'clock in the morning of May 
27th, General Porter received orders to withdraw his command 
to Gaines Mills. Before daylight all the troops of the 5th 
Corps were cautiously withdrawn from the positions occupied 
during the night, and were moving to the several positions as- 
signed to them for the coming day. The backward movement 
was conducted in a deliberate and orderly manner, and by 9 
o'clock the new line of battle was formed. The 3d Brigade 
was formed with the 83d Penn. on the right and the Forty- 
Fourth N. Y. on the left, which was also the left of the entire 
line of battle. 

The I2th N. Y. was formed in a second line of battle to the 
rear of and supporting the 83d Penn.; and the i6th Mich, was 
formed to the rear of and in support of the Forty- Fourth New 

The I St Brigade was formed in a similar manner to the 
right of the 3d Brigade. A timely requisition had been made 
for intrenching tools but they did not arrive. Orders were, 
however, given to use the limited time and means at hand to 
throw up defensive works. Later in the day these works 
proved to be very useful. The Confederate forces engaged the 
day before, reinforced by Stonewall Jackson's command and 
other troops, swelling their number to 60,000 or more, advanced 
cautiously and formed their line of battle. The forces of the 
enemy were in command of General Robert E. Lee, who had 
succeeded to the command of the Army of Northern Virginia. 
They appeared in front of our brigade about 10 or 11 o'clock 
in the forenoon and commenced forming their line of battle. 
Lieut. Col. Rice, in his report, thus describes the field selected 
as the position of defense against the expected attack : 

"The natural character of this position of defense is an extended 
field of high rolling ground, skirted in front and on the right by a 
thin copse of woods and a small creek running through a deep ravine. 
On the left a meadow extends along the Chickahominy as far as the 
eye can reach, the ground becoming low and marshy toward the banks 
of the river. The ground in front of this position, which was taken 
by the enemy as his line of attack, is high and rolling, overlooking the 
meadow and frequently furrowed by deep ravines and sluggish streams. 
The Forty-Fourth New York, holding the extreme left of the line, 
had thrown up a temporary breastwork of considerable strength. 


[Chap. Vm. Gaines MiUs. June 27, 1863] 

Scarcely had these obstructions been thrown up before the line of 
skirmishers in front of the brigade gave evidence of the approach of 
the enemy. For nearly two hours, while the enemy was moving his 
troops into position on our center and right, the skirmishers and sharp 
shooters of the brigade, held in check the right of the enemy's forces 
and frequently compelled entire regiments to fall back under the cover 
of the woods to escape their deadly fire. The effectiveness of this line 
of skirmishers and sharp shooters in front of our massed forces de- 
serves especial notice. The names of these officers, belonging to the 
Forty-Fourth New York Volunteers are Captain Larabee, Lieuts. Gas- 
kill, Kelley, Weber, Becker and Orderly Sergeant Grannis. I would 
also most favorably mention, in this connection, the name of Acting 
Adjutant E. A. Nash who was with the skirmishers in front part of 
the day communicating the various changes in position taken by the 

About 2:30 P. M. the 3d Brigade was attacked in force. 
This attack was preceded by a light attack on the right and 
center. The enemy were evidently developing our line and 
feeling for its weak point. They did not find the weak point 
opposite our brigade and were forced to fall back with consid- 
erable loss. The second attack upon the 3d Brigade took place 
about 5 130 o'clock P. M. This attack was also preceded by a 
like attack on the right and center of the general line. It was 
more severe and determined than the first attack but met the 
same reception as the first and the forces of the enemy were 
again forced back with great loss. The entire brigade was for 
the first time today brought into action. Slocum's Division 
reached the battlefield from the South Side of the river about 4 
o'clock P. M. and took a vigorous part during the remainder 
of the engagement. Porter's Corps and Slocum's Division, 
numbering about 30,000, were contesting this memorable field 
against the choicest troops of the Confederate Army which 
numbered at least 60,000. 

Col. Powell, in his history of the 5th Corps, says : 

"For hours the air had been burdened with the roar of guns, the 
crash and plunge of shot, the bursting of shells, the whir of canister 
and hissing of a fearful leaden hail, mingled with the shouts of the 
combatants and the cries and groans of wounded and dying, — ^but still 
the Union line held fast and not a foot was given away." 

The third and final assault of the day began shortly after 6 
o'clock P. M. The enemy had gathered for a final effort. 
The attack was general along the whole line. The fighting 


(Chap. Vm. Gaines Mills. June 27, 1863] 

was at short range and at times hand to hand. General But- 
terfield, in his report of the battle, in part, says : 

"Finding the pressure upon General Martindale's line (which was 
next in line to the right of the 3d Brigade), I moved a portion of my 
command to his support; with the hope and endeavor to hold the 
enemy in check, who by their vastly superior strength and overpower- 
ing reinforcements of fresh toops, had succeeded in breaking a portion 
of General Martindale's line, without disgrace to any portion of his 
command, for no men could ever have fought better, braver or more 

Lieut. Col. Rice in his report, in part, said : 

"On the left of the line the enemy was constantly repulsed until 
late in the afternoon, when an entire brigade charged upon our line, 
broke through the left of the forces on our right, and vigorously at- 
tacked the right flank of our brigade. Thus severely pressed on the 
right and front by a superior force, the 83d Penn. and the 12th N. Y., 
which supported it, were obliged to fall back. They were now quickly 
rallied by the Commanding General and the i6th Mich, was ordered 
to their support. Not far from this point of time Col. McLane of 
the 83d Penn. gallantly fell at the head of his regiment, — the noblest 
soldier of us all, — fell honored, loved, mourned by us all. Here, too, 
fell Major Naghel and many other gallant officers of the same regi- 
ment who freely gave their lives for their country. They all sleep 
well. Their names are immortal. In the meantime the 83d Penn. and 
the i6th Mich, not being able to stand the deadly fire of the enemy 
from the right and rear joined the Forty-Fourth N. Y. Now the 
enemy was drawing nearer and nearer around us, but still we poured 
into his advancing ranks a terrible fire. At this moment Major Van 
Vegesack, aid de camp, informed me that the General had ordered 
him to bring off from the field the remaining regiments of the brigade. 
I, at once, sorrowfully beheld the utter hopelessness of the unequal 
contest and ordered a retreat. The enemy in our rear along the entire 
right, upon the crest of the hill, poured into our ranks from both mus- 
ketry and artillery a sheet of iron and lead. Still the column pressed 
forward across the long meadow, its ranks becoming thinner till at 
length through marsh, and swamp, and tangled underwood, dense and 
almost impassable, amid falling trees and bursting shells, it reached 
the river and plunging in waded to the opposite banks." 

It is thought that the foregoing extract from the report of 
Lieut. Col. Rice, being made at the time, w^ould furnish the 
most vivid description of the gallant conduct of the regiment 
at the battle of Gaines Mills. The regiment lost in the battle 
61 in killed, wounded and missing. Among the wounded were 
Captains Vanderlip and McRoberts and Lieutenants Gaskill and 


[Chap. Vm. Crossed the Chickahominy. June 27, i86a] 

Becker. No troops fought better than Butterfield's Brigade 
and had it not been assailed by overwhelming numbers in flank 
and rear its position could not have been carried. The 83d 
Penn., which held a position in the front line of battle to the 
right of the Forty-Fourth, occupied the position of greater 
danger and sustained itself in a most creditable manner under 
most trying circumstances. Its loss was very heavy, but its 
brilliant record was unsurpassed on that field. Wet, weary, 
without knapsacks, haversacks or blankets, some time after 
darkness had enveloped the earth, the Forty-Fourth New York 
and the 83d Penn. respectively assembled their broken ranks 
on the South banks of the Chickahominy. On crossing to the 
South side of the river we came within the territorial com- 
mand of General Smith. The 83d Penn. arrived on the South 
side of the river about the same time as the Forty-Fourth New 
York. The two regiments had shared together the fortunes 
of the day. The dead and wounded of the entire brigade were 
left upon the battlefield. Poncho tents, knapsacks, haversacks 
and blankets were also abandoned. Weary, hungry and bat- 
tle-begrimed, we came as uninvited and unexpected guests. 
General Smith's Adjutant General came to Lieut. Col. Rice and 
said that General Smith was expecting a night attack and de- 
sired his command to remain. As requested, the regiment 
took position in the rifle pits to the left of the fort and a little 
later rations were issued. In one or two hours the Forty- 
Fourth was relieved by other troops and moved back into 
an open field, lay down and sought much needed rest, with- 
out tents or blankets. Before daylight on the morning of the 
28th the regiment was ordered out to aid in repelling an attack, 
for which purpose ammunition was issued to the men. As soon 
as the attacking party was repulsed the command again sought 
rest. Soon after daylight the 83d Penn. and the Forty-Fourth 
N. Y. rejoined the Division near General Porter's head- 
quarters. About 2 o'clock the brigade was ordered to take 
position to guard a ford on the Chickahominy, and soon there- 
after was relieved and marched to Savage Station. A halt 
was made a short distance from the station and the regiment 
bivouacked for the night. We were still without tents or 
blankets and it rained hard all night. 

Early in the morning of June 29th the Division marched to 


Born in Cheektowaga, N. Y., May 14. 1840. He relates that he was 
raised on a farm and at the age of eighteen years commenced an ap- 
prenticeship at blacksmithing and served in that capacity for three years. 

Enlisted in Company A, 44th N. Y. V. I. in Aug., 1861. " Was 
with the regiment until it reached Yorktown, Va. in 1862, where he 
was taken with typhoid fever and removed to U. S. General Hospital, 
Annapolis. Md. After a long sickness which left him unfit for service 
at the Front, he served as hospital nurse until the spring of 1863, 
when he returned to, and remained with the regiment until July 2. 
1863. On that date he was wounded by buckshot in the left cheek at 
the Battle of Gettysburg, and was sent to U. S. General Hospital, West 
Philadelphia. Returned to regiment about Aug. 20. 1863. His next 
and last departure from the regiment was near the Weldon R. R. not 
far from Petersburg, Va., June 18, 1864, when he was disabled by 
gunshot wounds in left hand and left knee. Was then taken to Slough 
Barracks Hospital, near Alexanderia, Va., and was there when the 
regiment was mustered out Oct. 11, 1864. The wounds that he 
received at the Weldon R. R. in his hand and knee made him a cripple 
for life. Honorably discharged May 4, 1865. 



Chap. Vm. White Oak Swamp and Ttirkey Bend. June 30, 1862] 

White Oak Swamp on a reconnaisance and not discovering 
any of the enemy made arrangements to^ bivouac for the night. 
Orders were very soon received that the entire 5th Corps was 
to make a night march. The march was to be made with the 
least possible noise and with the utmost caution. The route 
taken was along a highway bordered on both sides by dense 
woods. In the middle of the night, while everybody and 
everything were obscured by dense darkness, a sudden and 
unexpected noise was heard. It sounded like the tread of 
horsemen. For a moment the entire body of troops was 
thrown into a panic. The road was instantly cleared. Men 
fired their muskets without purpose or aim. This episode 
caused no little amusement when it was learned that two 
lively mules, having a frolic of their own, were responsible for 
the commotion. The previous silent march was then resumed. 
General Porter was at the head of the column, conducting the 
movement under the direction of a single guide. The guide 
had taken the wrong road, and the mistake was not dis- 
covered by General Porter, until he came unexpectdly upon 
an outpost of the enemy's picket line. It was a narrow escape 
for him. The entire distance travelled had to be retraced. 
When daylight came a halt was made near the starting point 
of the evening before and everybody was soon stretched on 
the ground for rest. Soon orders came and the march was re- 
sumed towards Turkey Bridge, which point was reached about 
II A. M. In the afternoon of June 30th the troops were 
formed in line by brigades and General McClellan rode past 
in review. The troops were much fatigued by the almost con- 
tinuous marching and fighting, but the Commanding General 
was cheered with considerable enthusiasm. During this day 
different parts of the army were hotly engaged on different 
fields. The location of Porter's Corps was such that it took 
an active part in the engagement of White Oak Swamp 
and Turkey Bend. Late in the afternoon the 3d Brigade 
was subjected to quite a hot artillery fire. An incident here 
occurred which was quite far-reaching in its consequences. 
The regiment was in position of close column by division. An 
order was given by which it was sought to change front to the 
left, thereby establishing a new line at right angles to the 
former. Some of the rear companies failed to understand 


[Chap. Vni. Malvern Hill. July i, 1863] 

the order and a temporary confusion ensued. At this juncture 
General Butterfield rode up in haste and with much emphasis 

said : "Colonel Stryker what in H 1 are you doing with 

that battalion?" To which the reply was made, "I am obey- 
ing orders, sir" General Butterfield said, "Obeying the Devil. 
Get down from that position. I have heard of you before, sir. 
Who is next in command?" Col. Stryker dismounted and 
went to the rear and never again assumed command of the 
regiment. He was succeeded by Lieut. Col. Rice. 

The men slept on their arms that night and were ready for 
duty at a moment's call. The attacks of the enemy on the 
30th were all successfully repulsed. Jefferson Davis, Presi- 
dent of the psuedo-Confederacy, was present on the field with 
the Confederate Army. He came out there for the express 
purpose of seeing General Lee bag our army. His expectation, 
fortunately, however, was not realized. On the night of June 
30th, Morell's Division slept on their arms. The fighting of the 
day before and the relative positions of the armies indicated 
that the battle might be renewed at any moment. Command- 
ing officers were busy during the night in correcting their lines 
and preparing for the contest. Five days had now elapsed 
since the fighting began. During all that time our brigade had 
slept at irregular intervals without tents or blankets and much 
of the time were on short rations. The battle of Malvern 
Hill was fought on Tuesday, July ist. It was the greatest 
of the Seven Days' battles. The battlefield is briefly described 
in General McClellan's reports as — 

"An elevated plateau of about a mile and a half by three fourths 
of a mile in area, well cleared of timber and with several converging 
roads running over it. In front are many defensible ravines, and the 
ground slopes gradually toward the North and East to the woodland, 
giving clear ranges for artillery in those directions. Towards the 
Northwest the plateau falls off more abruptly into a ravine which ex- 
tends to the James River. From the position of the enemy his most 
obvious lines of attack would come from the direction of Richmond 
and the White Oak Swamp and almost of a necessity strike upon our 
left wing. Porter's Corps held the left of the line." 

At sunrise on the morning of July ist, the 3d Brigade 
was under arms and moving to the position assigned to it in 
the order of battle. The first position taken was toward the 
left of the general line and to the rear of woods encircling that 


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[Chap. Vra. Malvern HiU. July i, 1862] 

part of the field. The assigned position had hardly been taken 
when the artillery of both armies became engaged. The enemy 
followed with a spirited attack of infantry, lasting about 2 
hours, which was completely repulsed. Another and more de- 
termined attack was made about 11 o'clock A. M. toward the 
right of the general line, which lasted about 3 hours, and which 
was finally repulsed with great slaughter. "About 2 o'clock a 
column of the enemy was observed moving toward our right, 
but beyond the reach of our artillery. The column was long, 
occupying more than 2 hours in passing a given point, but it 
disappeared and was not heard of again in that part of the 
field. The presumption is that it returned by the rear and par- 
ticipated in the attack made afterwards upon our left." 

The regiment spent the day until about 4 or 5 o'clock P. 
M. in guarding batteries and listening to the terrible onsets of 
battle in other parts of the field. It is always trying for troops 
to remain inactive and unprotected upon a battlefield sub- 
ject to a fierce artillery fire. Notwithstanding the terribly ex- 
hausting experience of the preceding 5 days our troops dis- 
played great enthusiasm. Their determination and staying 
qualities were manifest by cheer after cheer that echoed and 
re-echoed along the whole line. About 5 o'clock P. M, the 
enemy opened on our left with the full force of his artillery. 
For nearly one hour the air was filled with whizzing shot and 
bursting shells. Several casualties occurred in the regiment 
at this time while prone upon the earth awaiting orders. What 
followed is graphically described in the report of Lieut. Col. 

"For two hours the brigade calmly and firmly endured the sever- 
est fire of shell, grape, canister, shrapnel and round shot, without 
a man leaving the ranks save those who were wounded. About 5 
o'clock in the afternoon the enemy attacked the left of our line with 
great vigor and the General moved up the 83d Penn. and i6th Mich. 
to support certain batteries in front, and soon afterwards the Forty- 
Fourth N. Y. was ordered to deploy and prepare for action. At this 
time while the musketry fire of the enemy was terrific and he seemed 
to be successfully advancing against all opposition, the bugle sound 
of the 3d Brigade to charge was heard above the din of battle. The 
Forty-Fourth N. Y. Volunteers was ordered to advance. * * * 
Onward the Forty-Fourth marched in regular line of battle, with 
its colors far advanced, passing line after line of our troops, who 
loudly cheered our flag as we steadily and firmly pressed on, till at 


[Chap. Vm. Malvern Hill. July i, 1862] 

length beyond the extreme front of our forces and within 100 yards 
of the enemy, the regiment was ordered to charge bayonets upon his 
line. Scarcely had the regiment charged 50 yards towards the enemy 
before his lines broke and fell back, leaving his colors upon the field 
soma 20 on 30 yards in front of our regiment. A dozen officers and 
soldiers sprang forward from our ranks to seize them when a Ser- 
geant of the 83d Penn. (which regiment we had passed on our right 
in the charge) * * * rushed forward and running across the en- 
tire right wing of our regiment outstripped all his competitors in 
the race, seized the colors and bore them off. 

Another brigade of the enemy was now advancing toward us. 
My command was ordered to halt and commence firing. For nearly 
half an hour the regiment held this brigade at bay by its constant and 
unerring fire. * * * 'p^g Forty-Fourth entered this engagement 
with 225 men. Its loss was 11 killed, 84 wounded and 4 missing. 
Among the wounded were Captain Schaffer and First Lieut. Wood- 
worth, the latter mortally. 

I desire especially to commend to the most favorable notice of 
the General Commanding the gallant conduct of Private James B. 
Hitchcock of Company K, who, after 4 color bearers had been shot 
down, asked permission to carry the colors, and though subsequently 
wounded twice, refused to resign the flag into any other hands than 
those of the Commanding Officer who had entrusted it to him. I 
would also call the attention of the General to the gallant and faith- 
ful conduct on the field of battle of Corporal Blasdell of Company H, 
who was shot in the arm early in the action and was urged by his 
Captain to go to the rear, but he preferred to remain when he was 
struck in the head and face by the enemy's balls and fell supposing him- 
self mortally wounded. Lying upon the ground, he bade his Captain 
farewell and told him to say to his parents that he died in a good 
cause. Afterwards recovering from the first shock he walked from 
the field of battle during the night to Harrison's Landing, carrying his 
musket and straps and delivered them into the hands of his Captain, 
with request that he would preserve the same until he should be able 
to return to duty. I would also commend to the notice of the General 
the good conduct of the following officers, non-commissioned officers 
and soldiers during the engagement: Captains Conner, Larabee, Schaf- 
fer and Danks ; Lieutenants : Woodworth, Nash, Weber, and Herenden ; 
Sergeants: Russell, Dunham, Rexford, Thomas, Johnson, Sentell, 
Weaver, Campbell, Mason and Hatch; Corporals: Hillebrandt, Wilbur, 
Kinney, Longwell, Harris, Whitbeck and St. John; Privates: Watson, 
Ferris, Pabodie, Skinner, Wood, Burnett, McClanethan, Case, Buck, 
Angus, Ferguson, Seeley, Oliver, Damms, Duff and Wendell." 

The foregoing are extracts copied from the official report 
of Lieut. Col. Rice. The account would be incomplete with- 
out adding somewhat to the description therein contained. 




Of English parents, came of Revolutionary stock, his grandmother, 
Eunice Hinckley, having been a niece of General Warren who was 
killed at Bunker Hill ; father, Samuel W. Gibbs, born at Litchfield, 
Conn. ; mother, Harriet Hinckley, born at Albany, N. Y., where the 
subject of this sketch, one of their ten children, was born Nov. 
8, i'838. 

He was selected to represent his (Albany) ward in this regiment, 
was mustered in as 2d Lieutenant of Company F, Aug. 17, 1861 and 
as Captain of Company I, Dec. 24, 1862. 

He was with the regiment in all battles from siege of Yorktown 
to Gettysburg ; was severely wounded, captured and paroled at Second 
Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1862 and carried his left arm in a sling in all 
subsequent battles. On account of wounds he was transferred to the 
21 st Regiment Vet. Res. Corps and was in active field service in resist- 
ing Early"s raid on Washington, July. 1864. Honorably discharged 
April II,' 1866. He was married to Eliza W. White of Providence, 
R. L. and thev now reside at Brooklvn. N. Y. 





[Chap. Vm. Malvern Hill. July i, 1862] 

Just before the charge the Brigade Bugler came down just to 
the rear of the regiment and sounded a bugle call. Lieut. 
Col. Rice, who was sitting upon the ground, said : "Bugler what 
is that?" He replied: "The General, sir, told me to sound 
the charge." Lieut. Col. Rice sprang to his feet, drew his 
sword, and commanded, "Forty-Fourth fall in." The regi- 
ment was in line in a moment. Lieut. Col. Rice then said: 
"Forty-Fourth, I want you to charge today as you never 
charged before." The regiment then advanced. It appeared 
to advance independently of any other troops. While thus 
advancing, commingling with the terrible din and carnage of 
battle the voice of Lieut. Col. Rice could be heard shouting, 
"Men we are Christians and we can die." This strange 
episode in battle is understood to have called from a member 

of Company H, "I don't see what the H 1 is the use of 

his saying that for we are dying fast enough." 

While at the farthest point at the front reached by the regi- 
ment there were no troops on its right or left, the enemy were 
driven back in confusion and there held at bay as long as the 
ammunition lasted. Several of the enemy appeared on our 
right rear and som.e of our file closers were seen to face in 
that direction and deliver some well directed shots. This phase 
of the battle was called to the attention of the writer by 
Sergeant Darling of Company H. After the ammunition was 
all exhausted the regiment was faced to the rear, deliberately 
marched back in good order, and re-formed on the left of the 
83d Penn. The shadows of night and the dense smoke of bat- 
tle enveloped the field, long before the fighting of infantry 
ceased. The line of blaze of the enemy's fire afforded the 
only target for our troops. When relieved the regiment 
marched to the rear. At the close of the battle the enemy had 
been everywhere overwhelmingly repulsed. 

Lieut. Col. Rice in his report, states that the regiment en- 
tered the engagement with 225 men. It is believed that num- 
ber covered the entire total reported for duty and included 
many not in the fighting Hne. The writer was Acting Adjutant 
at the time and has in his possession data from which the 
official report was made. While the data referred to do 
not in terms tell the number actually engaged, they do show 
that the killed, wounded and missing numbered 99 as stated 


[Chap. Vm. Retreat from Victory. July 2, 1862] 

by Lieut. Col. Rice and also states that there were left only 
98 muskets in the entire regiment. It is the writer's recollec- 
tion, confirmed by the above data, that the regiment took into 
battle 200 muskets. In the report, quoted above, it was stated 
that Lieut. Woodworth was mortally wounded. This, happily, 
proved not to be the case. While fearfully wounded and his 
face disfigured he has lived to enjoy many useful, happy years. 
This gallant officer was obliged to leave the service, however, 
on account of disability sustained in this battle. 

There is another incident connected with the report of 
Lieut. Col. Rice that may be of interest to recall. It is as 
follows : 

"Nor would I forget to mention here the most gallant conduct of 
Major Barnum of the 12th N. Y. Vols., who constantly exposed his 
life to gain information as to the position of the enemy during the 
day. This gallant officer now sleeps in death. He fell mortally 
wounded at the head of his regiment on the first instant. His last 
words were, 'My wife, My boy, My country's flag.' The thousand 
streams of the Peninsula are red with the best blood of the North, 
but none are crimsoned with purer or nobler than that which flowed 
from his heart — a heart entirely devoted to his country." 

A few days later it was learned that Major Barnum was 
not killed but a prisoner in the hands of the enemy. When 
Lieut. Col. Rice was informed of this fact, referring to 
his report, he said : "Well, what I lost in fact I made up in 
rhetoric." The fighting of the day being over, a detail was 
sent to care for the dead and wounded. Many brave, noble 
men fought here their last fight. Quite late at night the 
survivors, not sent out on the detail, lay down as heretofore 
without tents or blankets, to sleep, not having had anything 
to eat since morning. Fatigue overcame the pangs of hunger 
and the opportunity to rest was promptly utilized. 

After 2 or 3 hours sleep and about i o'clock A. M. of July 
2d the regiment was awakened from sleep and ordered to 
march. It was then learned for the first time that the Army 
of the Potomac was moving from Richmond instead of to- 
wards it. No army ever experienced greater humiliation. 
Darkness concealed the evidences of its grief. The patience, 
endurance and bravery of the army had been superb. The 
blame did not rest with the rank and file. Where did it rest? 
We were leaving a victorious field and retreating before a 


[Chap. Vin. Harrison's Landing. July 2, 1862] 

defeated army. Our gallant dead and wounded were left 
in the hands of the enemy. Many years have intervened 
but the humiliation and unfruitful result of that campaign 
still remain. About daylight on that direful occasion a heavy 
rain storm set in which continued during the rest of the day 
and the following night. The rain fell in torrents, the mud 
grew deeper and deeper, and still the Army of the Potomac 
moved slowly towards its new base on the James River. The 
feeble attacks of the enemy on our rear guard were suc- 
cessfully resisted. About 9 o'clock A. M. we came to a halt 
in a grain field. Rations were soon issued and the hunger that 
had lingered more or less acutely during the past 7 days was 
stayed. More time was required to recuperate from excessive 
exposure and fatigue. The opportunity came at last but con- 
veniences were quite limited. The problem was presented as 
to how to construct a protection from rain and mud with a 
limited number of fence rails, poles and sheaves of grain. 
These were the only materials at hand and ingenuity was taxed 
to its limit. The day wore away, night came and still it 
rained. Neither tattoo nor taps were required to quiet the 
camp. To cease moving was the only necessary condition to 
induce sleep. When sunshine reappeared, clothing was dried 
which added materially to the comfort of the situation. Regular 
rations were issued but there was a lack of tents and blankets. 
On the 4th day of July, our National holiday, a salute was 
fired. Preparations were made for General McClellan to re- 
view the army. Other duties, however, demanded his atten- 
tion and other arrangements were made. General Martin- 
dale's Brigade marched in review past our brigade, after 
which General Martindale, seated in his saddle, made a short, 
eloquent and patriotic address, in which he highly praised the 
conduct of the Forty-Fourth N. Y. at the battle of Hanover 
C. H. when under his command. As soon as the army reached 
Harrison's Landing Col. Stryker sent in his resignation which 
was promptly accepted on the 7th. He had failed to meet the 
expectations of the regiment, its promoters and friends. Presi- 
dent Lincoln reviewed the 5th Corps in the evening of July 
8th. He expressed amazement and much feeling when the 
remnant of the Forty-Fourth was pointed out to him. In his 
lifetime Col. Conner frequently referred to the President's 


(Chap. vm. Harrison's Landing. July, i86a] 

expression of sorrow on seeing the regiment. On the 3d day 
of July President Lincoln sent a dispatch to the General com- 
manding and among other things said: "I am satisfied that 
yourself, officers and men, have done the best you could. All 
accounts say better fighting never was done." 

General McClellan, in his report, after the battle of Mal- 
vorn Hill says: 

"This closed the hard fighting which had continued from the after- 
noon of the 26th ultimo, in a daily series of engagements wholly un- 
paralleled on this continent for determination and slaughter on both 

General Porter, in his report, of the Seven Days battle, 

"I can not close without a tribute in general terms to the gallant 
officers and men who have day after day contended successfully against 
immense odds in severe battles, made long marches, endured exposure, 
fatigue and hunger without a murmur; and patiently awaited attack 
of the immense forces of the enemy pouring upon us. This gallant 
band has on three occasions withstood the brunt of attack of the main 
forces of the enemy and finally driven him from the field when ex- 
pecting success to crown his efforts." 

General Morell, in his report of ist Division covering the 

same dates, says: 

"I can not speak too highly of the endurance and courage dis- 
played by officers and men during the period embraced in this report. 
From the moment we were summoned to Mechanicsville till we ar- 
rived at Harrison's they were constantly on the alert and though 
without shelter, and at times without food, they responded with the 
utmost alacrity to every call to duty." 

On reaching Harrison's Landing General Butterfield is- 
sued a circular of which the following is a copy : 

"Headquarters Butterfield's Brigade. 
Morell's Division. 
Harrison's Landing, July 7. 1862. 
Brave Soldiers of the Third Brigade: 

It is with no ordinary pride that your General promulgates to 
you General Orders No. 4 from the headquarters of the army corps. 
Your bravery and gallantry have won my love and you are as 
dear to me as brothers. 

Let the spirit and the pride which have always distinguished you 
be renewed and redoubled. Your children's children will be proud of 
your noble acts and your country will love you. 


Born March 17, 1840, at Fredonia, N. Y., enlisted at Brocton, N. Y., 
and joined Company A. 44th N. Y. at Buffalo, Aug. 7. 1861 ; joined 
the regiment at Albany and was transferred to Company H, Sept, 
19, 1861 ; assisted in enlisting Company H ; promoted to First Sergeant 
Sept. 20, 1861 ; Second Lieutenant, Nov. 30. 1862; First Lieutenant, Dec. 
31, 1862; Captain of Company B, Sept. i, 1863; mustered out with 
Regiment at Albany, Oct. 11, 1864. Died at Alamo, Mich.. Jan. 12, 1901. 

He was captured at the Battle of Gaines Mills, Va., June 2J, 1862, 
and confined in Libby Prison, Richmond, Va., until paroled. 

A fellow soldier, whom he nursed back to life and cared for through 
terrible experiences while both were confined in Libby Rebel Prison, 
mentions him as a brave and faithful soldier and friend. 

(public ^ 




[Chap. Vm. Shelled Across James River. July 31, i86a] 

Let every one, officers and men, make renewed exertions ; and 
let the next call to arms find the brigade as it always has heretofore, 
unflinching, unfaltering, devoted to the country and the honor of its 

Let the proud recollection of the glorious names your banners 
will bear redouble your strength and zeal, so that as heretofore you 
will equal twice the number of the enemy. 

By Command of Brig. Gen. Butteefield. 
Thomas J. Hoyt, 
Asst. Adj. Genl." 

In his report, General Butterfield said : "It is with mingled 
feelings of sorrow and pride that I close this report. The 
plains of Hanover, the banks of the Chickahominy, the heights 
of Malvern are wet with the blood of the gallant dead of the 

In the engagements known as the Seven Days Battles the 
Army of the Potomac was composed of four army corps in 
which the casualties aggregated 15,849 and of this number the 
5th Corps alone sustained a loss of 7,601 or nearly one-half of 
the entire loss. 

On reaching Harrison's Landing the army was in need of 
rest, rations, tents and blankets. The 5th Corps was placed 
in reserve and had little to do except camp duty. Its camp 
was not far from the North banks of the James River. In the 
middle of the night on July 31st the enemy placed 43 pieces 
of artillery on the South bank of the river, opposite our camp 
and opened upon our army a brisk cannonade. An unexpected 
attack at such an unseasonable hour had the effect to create 
much excitement. This was more noticeable among non- 
combatants and camp followers. Presently our artillery and 
gunboats got into position and made it so uncomfortable for 
the enemy that they were glad to get away. The next morning 
some of our troops were sent across the river and so placed 
as to prevent another such attack. On the 4th day of August 
the 3d Brigade crossed to the South side of the river and re- 
mained 5 days. We were encamped upon the plantation of 
Edmund Ruffin. This plantation was a large one, well man- 
aged and cultivated. It bore evidences of thrift and luxu- 
rious living. There were chickens, pigs, turkeys, potatoes, 
green com and different kinds of fruit without price and in 
quantities to suit the taker. Had it not been for that midnight 


[Chap. VIII. Ruflin's Plantation. Aug. 4, 1862] 

attack this pleasant entertainment would not have been ex- 
perienced. While there was an order in force against foraging, 
Col. Rice was heard to remark: "Boys, you know the orders 
against foraging, but if you catch a pig don't let him squeal." 
There was a rumor circulated through our camp that a cow 
became so attached to the troops that she actually followed 
them in their return to the North side of the river. Another 
version of the affair was that the attachment of the cow to 
the regiment was due to the gentle urging of "Faithful Jim," 
the enterprising negro servant of a Lieutenant of Co. L The 
cow proved to be a valuable asset to our regimental hospital. 
After 5 days of restful duty and high living return was made 
to the North side of the river and to the usual army rations of 
hard tack and pork. 

Schreiber's Band was regularly mustered in at Albany, N. 
Y., on the 14th day of September, 1861. It had the reputation 
of being one of the finest bands in the State of New York. 
It was an attractive feature on all public occasions. It never 
failed to respond in an efficient and cheerful manner whenever 
called upon. On leaving Albany Schreiber's Band led the 
regiment in its march from the barracks to the boat landing, 
through the streets of New York and along the famous Penn- 
sylvania Avenue in Washington. Everywhere it received gen- 
erous applause. During the winter of 1861-2 it frequently 
cheered and enlivened the camp with delightful music. Our 
dress parades, conducted by that typical soldier, Adjutant Knox, 
supplemented by the ever-creditable cooperation of the band, 
were unique and of a superior order. 

The band led the way when the regiment marched into the 
fortified works at Yorktown. It never missed an opportunity 
to cheer and encourage the troops during the Seven Days' 
battle in front of Richmond. In the midst of disaster, sorrow 
and gloom, on the 4th day of July, 1862, it did not fail to 
kindle anew heroic purpose by its lofty patriotic strains. It 
was mustered out on the loth day of July, 1862, at Harrison's 
Landing. Its departure seemed like losing an old and valued 
friend. Is it not within the realms of faith to believe that 
all the dear and tried comrades, in the near bye and bye may 
again assemble on the eternal camping ground at a dress parade, 
conducted by the much-loved Knox and thrilled by the inspir- 
ing music of Schreiber's superb band? 


[Chap. IX. Return from the Peninsula. Aug. 14, 1862] 



General Lee, surmising that movements connected with 
the Army of the Potomac indicated an intention to abandon 
the Peninsula, started the bulk of his army North to over- 
whelm Pope before reinforcements could reach him. At 5 
o'clock P. M. on the 14th day of August, General Porter re- 
ceived orders to move with his corps. About 8 or 9 o'clock 
that same evening, the corps struck camp and was on the march. 
Troops moved about half a mile and bivouacked for the night. 
At 3 o'clock the next morning, march was resumed and con- 
tinued during the day, crossing the Chickahominy River on 
a pontoon bridge, and halting for the night about one mile 
from the river. Before halting for the night the regiment had 
marched 21 miles. An early start was made on the morning 
of the i6th and Williamsburg was reached about 3 o'clock P. 
M., a march of 12 miles having been made. The balance of the 
day was spent in visiting the town and the field on which was 
fought the hotly contested battle of May 6th. There were 
to be seen many evidences of battle. Williamsburg is the 
location of William and Mary College, the oldest college in 
the U. S. except Harvard. The regiment was again on the 
march at an early hour on the morning of the 17th. The 
weather was hot and the roads were dusty. Yorktown was 
reached about 3 130 P. M., and having marched 12 miles the 
regiment went into bivouac on the same grounds occupied by 
it during the siege. Capt. W. H. Revere of Company 
C, was Provost Marshal at this place. Bright and early 
the next morning the regiment resumed its march to Hamp- 
ton, which place was reached about 5 o'clock P. M. 
troops having marched about 24 miles. We again encamped 
on our old camp ground, occupied before starting up the 
Peninsula. Many battles had been fought, many brave men 
had been lost by disease and in battle, much toil and fatigue 


[Chap. IX. Fortress Monroe. Aug. 19, 1863] 

had been endured and no appreciable gain had been made in 
the suppression of the infamous rebellion. Early in the morn- 
ing of Tuesday, the 19th day of August, we were again on 
the march and reached Newport News about 10 o'clock A. 
M. At 4 o'clock P. M. the regiment embarked on the steamer 
New Brunswick, steamed down to Fortress Monroe and 
awaited the balance of the brigade. We reached Acquia Creek 
about 8 o'clock A. M. on the morning of the 20th, and im- 
mediately took transportation on the cars for Falmouth, which 
place was reached about 10 o'clock A. M. Here the regiment 
went into bivouac. About 5 o'clock on the evening of August 
22d, orders were received and the Division took up its line 
of march along the banks of the Rappahannock River and con- 
tinued its march until midnight. From this time until the 
26th our movements appeared irregular and uncertain, but 
along or near the river. Kelley's Ford was reached on the 
26th. Teams were sent back from this point to Fredericksburg 
for rations and forage. All who were sick or disabled were 
also sent back. About midnight on the day the teams were 
sent back, orders were received to march at once to Bealeton 
Station on the line of the railroad. It became necessary to 
burn or destroy everything that could not be carried. On reach- 
ing the latter place it was learned that the enemy had inter- 
vened between our army and Washington, that they had cap- 
tured and burned cars and suppHes and torn up the railroad 
track. This information was more impressive because we 
were separated from our supply train and rations were nearly 
consumed. On the 27th near Bealeton, Lieut. Herenden was de- 
tailed by an order of the Division Commander to return over 
the route recently traversed, to Fredericksburg, with instruc- 
tions to gather up and turn back all stragglers, sutlers and 
camp followers, who were liable to be captured in the terri- 
tory recently abandoned. A start was made with about 100 
sick and othewise disabled soldiers. As the movement pro- 
gressed many accessions were made to the number. Falmouth 
was reached on the 29th with a large disorganized mass of 
people, horses, mules, including a great variety of vehicles 
drawn by horses, mules, oxen and cows. At Falmouth trans- 
portation was taken by cars to Acquia Creek, thence by steamer 
to Alexandria, which place was reached on the 31st. At 


Was born in 1837 at Dayton, Cattaraugus County, New York, and 
always resided in that town, except four years, in which he resided in 

He enlisted in Co. H, 44th N. Y. V. I., on Oct. 2, 1861, and served 
with that company during his entire enlistment. He was promoted 
Corporal Dec. 19, 1862, was appointed color-guard May 8. 1864 and 
soon after carried the colors until the final discharge of the regiment. 

He was in every battle in which the regiment was engaged except 
the second battle of Bull Run. He was present for duty everv day 
during his service except about two weeks when sick with erysipelas. 

In 1865 he married Philena Johnson, who has been a most faithful 
and devoted wife. They have four children : Lizzie M. Hall, Alethea 
M. Volk, Clara S. Pcrrin and George Adgate Gregg, all of whom are 
happily married and enjoy the respect of all who know them. 

The subject of this sketch is a prosperous farmer who enjoys the 
confidence and respect of a large circle of friends and acquaintances. 
His excellent record as a soldier, his pure upright life as a man and 
citizen furnish a legacy for posterity more valuable than gold or silver. 




[Chap. IX. Relief of General Pope. Aug. 28, 1862] 

Camp Convalescent Lieut. Herenden turned over 482 soldiers 
belonging to many different regiments and organizations. 
The above number did not include a variety of persons not at- 
tached to the service. It is doubtful if another such a motley 
and incongruous array was witnessed during the war. At 
Bealeton Station General Porter got into communication with 
General Pope, who was in command of the army operating 
against the enemy. The Confederate Army had out-manoeu- 
vered the armies operating on the line of the Rappahannock 
and passed around the flank of the troops commanded by 
General Pope. Before this time there had been an army 
commanded by General Banks, an army commanded by Gen- 
eral Sigel, an army commanded by General McDowell, and 
the Army of the Potomac commanded by General McClellan. 
These were separate commands apparently operating with- 
out concert of action and contrary to well established mili- 
tary precedents. 

Perhaps all of the armies have not been here named, but 
enough have been named to show a clear violation of the 
well settled military rule, that "to invade a country success- 
fully you must have one line of operations and one army 
under one General." The situation had become critical. These 
separate commands were hastily thrown together to contend 
with a compact, well organized and ably commanded army. 
Our marching was continued from day to day as fast and far 
as endurance would permit. On passing along the railroad, 
it was apparent that the devastating hand of war had been 
at work. The brigade went into bivouac on the night of the 
28th of August at Warrenton Station. Before daylight on 
the morning of the 29th, line was again formed and the march 
resumed. At this time all rations had been consumed. The 
route of the 5th Corps was in the direction of Groveton, which 
place was reached late in the afternoon. While on the march, 
some little time before halting for the day. Col. Rice had a 
conversation with Col. Fred T. Locke, General Porter's As- 
sistant Adjutant General. They were riding side by side Gen- 
eral Porter on the right of Col. Locke and with the writer, 
who was Acting Adjutant, riding on the left of Col. Rice. 
Col. Rice said: "Locke, are we expected to fight today?" 
Locke replied, "Yes, we have orders to that effect." Col. Rice 


[Chap. IX. Groveton. Aug. 29, 1862] 

said : "Why, Locke, my men are in no condition to fight. 
They are entirely out of rations and all tired out." Locke re- 
plied, "I know it. It is too bad, but it can't be helped. We 
have positive orders to attack at once." 

We halted somewhat before sundown but did not attack. 
There was, however, some brisk cannonading carried on at 
this place. The line of dust made it apparent that the enemy 
were on the march. A detail from the regiment was made 
for picket duty that night. 

Capt. Bourne who had charge of the picket line states: 
"Just before dark on the 29th of August a party of about 
20 men under my command was ordered on picket and di- 
rected by Col. Rice to take a position near a fence about 50 
rods in front of the regiment. Soon after the men were placed 
in position, (which they occupied alone), having no connec- 
tion with other pickets, a party of the enemy took position 
just over the fence. As they approached with the usual chatter- 
ing talk the Forty-Fourth party were cautioned to remain 
perfectly silent. 

Their line extended beyond each end of ours. We lay 
there until after they were relieved. As daylight approached 
and our regiment had been moved during the night the little 
party was marched to the point where the regiment was left 
and taking the fresh trail fortunately overtook the command 
just as the first shots were fired at the smoke where our boys 
were preparing to roast green corn." 

Before daylight on the morning of the 30th the regiment 
started on the march without withdrawing its pickets, marched 
about 7 miles and halted upon the field where the first battle 
of Bull Run had been fought. By some misunderstanding of 
orders. General Morell, commanding our Division, with his 
staff, marched to Centerville, followed by General Grifiin and 
his Brigade. This left General Butterfield in command of the 
1st and 3d Brigades of our Division, and Col. Weeks of the 
I2th N. Y. in command of our Brigade. About 9 o'clock A. 
M. the regiment was formed in support of a battery and the 
position assigned was such that it was exposed to a brisk fire 
of the enemy's artillery. Several casualties occurred here. 
It was another of those uncomfortable positions, where troops 
were required to remain inactive and take the consequences. 


(Chap. IX. Second Bull Run. Aug. 30, 1863] 

The shots and shells of the enemy would go plowing through 
the air, buzzing, shrieking and bursting, more or less elevated 
above the ground, and bearing audible evidence of their de- 
structive nature. Then, again, they would strike the ground 
with great force, diverge from a direct line, continue in a new 
course until another object was struck when their courses 
would again change, making their final destination very uncer- 
tain and carrying havoc in their irregular trails. Capt. 
Bourne quite graphically describes his experience while in this 
position. He related that he saw or heard one of those shots 
coming in his direction with its nerve-racking, unearthly 
screeching, strike the ground several times and each time 
bounce off in a new direction and momentarily approaching 
nearer; that he first dodged his head one way, then the other, 
and finally decided that he could not tell where the d — d thing 
was coming and shut up his eyes and said to himself "Good 
bye, old Bourne, you will be an angel in less than a week." 

About I o'clock P. M. the Brigade advanced about one-half 
of a mile and halted in a piece of woods. Two companies of the 
Forty-Fourth were immediately thrown out to strengthen the 
skirmish line. Before advancing. General Butterfield, com- 
manding the Division, called the officers together and explained 
the general plan of the battle. The right of the general line 
was to force the enemy in their front, while the left was to 
slowly fall back and thus have the entire line of battle turn 
on the center as a pivot. By this movement it was intended 
to swing the army around so as to establish it between the 
enemy and Washington. It was well enough to understand 
the general plan, but a regiment is such a small part of a 
large army that it does not readily appear to what part of the 
plan it belongs. About 3 o'clock P. M. the Brigade was 
ordered to advance and attack the enemy. When the line 
emerged from the woods it encountered a fence which caused 
some delay and temporary confusion. It was then discovered 
that the infantry of the enemy was formed within easy mus- 
ket range, in a railroad cut, with a considerable embankment 
which afforded a most complete protection. Back of the in- 
fantry upon the other side of the railroad cut, upon higher 
ground, many pieces of artillery were placed. After passing 
the woods the field between the lines was level and unob- 



[Chap. IX. Second Bull Run. Aug. 30, 1862] 

structed. The entire space between the woods and the rail- 
road cut, occupied by the enemy, was covered by their artillery 
raking the whole field with shot, shell and canister. Added 
to this was the terrible murderous fire of the infantry. On 
reaching the open field, after correcting alignments, the Bri- 
gade advanced rapidly on a charge. The assault was made 
with great spirit and determination. The Forty-Fourth 
reached a point in quite close proximity to the line of the 
enemy, successfully diminishing his fire. The engagement 
had lasted about one-half of an hour when a line of rebel in- 
fantry was discovered advancing on our right apparently un- 
opposed. Retreat was ordered, and the fire of the enemy be- 
came more brisk and destructive than before. Our troops 
suffered severely on recrossing the open field. The enemy fol- 
lowed quite closely our retreating Brigade. There was a line 
of regulars, belonging to the 2d Division of our Corps, lying 
upon the ground in the woods, which waited until the enemy 
had approached within a short distance, when they arose and 
gave them a deliberate and well-directed volley that decimated 
their ranks and sent them retreating in confusion. Our Brigade 
quickly reformed in the open field in the rear of the woods. 
Col. Conner in his report, which was not made until after the 
battle of Antietam, states that the regiment entered the en- 
gagement with 12 officers and 148 men, that the casualties 
were 6 officers wounded, one of whom was taken prisoner, 5 
enlisted men killed and 60 wounded, making a total of 71. It 
is the writer's recollection that the regiment carried into the 
fight only 140 muskets, that the difference between this state- 
ment and Col. Conner's report is accounted for by non-com- 
batants, belonging to the command, who did not enter the en- 
gagement. According to Col. Conner's report one-half the of- 
ficers were wounded. While the 5th Corps had only 2 Divi- 
sions engaged its casualties were greater than that of any other 
Corps. General Sykes, in his report, says: "Butterfield's at- 
tack was gallantly made and gallantly maintained until his 
troops were torn to pieces." 

Capt. C. W. Gibbs received a severe wound in this battle 
and was taken prisoner. Capt. Larabee was also wounded by 
having the third finger on his right hand badly shattered and 
was taken to Mt. Pleasant Hospital in Washington. The sur- 


[Chap. IX. March to Centerville. Aug. 31, 1862] 

geon told him that it would be necessary to have his finger am- 
putated, and asked him if he would take chloroform. He re- 
plied, "No, that is not necessary." He sat in a chair, watched 
the operation, and when done quietly observed that it hurt 
worse than he thought it would, and that if he were going to 
have another finger amputated he would take something. 

The 3d Brigade soon rallied after its repulse at the rail- 
road cut, and taking up a new position again presented a bold 
front to the enemy. For more than two days it had marched 
and fought without rations and for a much longer time with 
a very little rest. Neither defeat nor hunger could daunt the 
spirit of heroism which inspired the men. About sundown 
General Morell returned from Centerville whither he had gone 
under a misapprehension of orders. The Commandants of 
regiments were summoned to meet him and General Butter- 
field and when convened were notified to march to Centerville, 
where they would find plenty of rations and an opportunity to 
rest. It was a tedious, tiresome march, in the course of which 
it became necessary to ford Bull Run Creek, the waters of 
which reached nearly to the waist. The legions of Xenophon 
were not more elated on beholding the sea, than were the rem- 
nants of the 3d Brigade on beholding the heights of Center- 
ville. The promised rations were soon distributed and a mid- 
night repast was spread. It consisted of coffee and hard tack. 
Keen appetites overbalanced the lack of quality and variety. 
A drizzling rain augmented the gloom of the night. Inau- 
spicious conditions did not dispel the inclination to sleep. Re- 
pose followed quickly on the heels of subdued appetites. 

After remaining at Centerville two days, the Brigade re- 
sumed its march to the rear. Its route was by way of Chain 
Bridge to Halls Hill, which place was reached on the evening 
of September 2d. The dififerent regiments of the Brigade oc- 
cupied their respective camp grounds, which they had va- 
cated on the lOth day of the preceding March. The contrast 
was appalling. Since striking camp on the loth day of March, 
had anything been accomplished? If so, what or where? If 
not, where was the fault? These questions naturally arose at 
this juncture, but it is not within the province of this work to 
answer them. When the Army of the Potomac was moved 
from the Peninsula the 5th Corps passed from the command 


[Chap. IX. Return to HaU's Hill. Sept. 2, 1863] 

of General McClellan to that of General Pope. After the 
battle of Second Bull Run Gen. McClellan was again placed in 
command. About this time Col. Rice was obliged to leave the 
regiment on account of ill health and Lieut. Col. Conner as- 
sumed command. The Brigade remained at Halls Hill 3 days 
when it moved to Alexandria Seminary where a well laid out 
camp was established and where it remained until the 9th. 
From there it went into biv^ouac at Fort Corcoran where it 
remained until the 12th. 


The map of Antietam battlefield on the reverse of this leaf, 
locates the Confederate lines of battle on the i6th, 17th and i8th 
days of September, 1862. On the i6th and 17th the Federal 
forces approached from the eastward, against the most desperate 
resistance, carried the bridges and fords over Antietam Creek 
and established themselves on the heights beyond; on the 17th the 
Confederates were driven southwestwardly from their first to 
the second line, and during the night of the iSth were allowed 
to escape across the Potomac. 

The Potomac river is located about half a mile or more west- 
ward of the west border of this map and though very crooked 
its general direction is parallel thereto. 

ANTIETANI BATTLEFIELD. September le-l 7, 1 862. 

Scale, i^ inches = I mile. 


[Ctaap. X. Follow the Enemy to Maryland. Sept. 12, 1862] 



When it was ascertained that the Rebel Army was moving 
into Maryland Gen. McClellan was ordered to leave force 
enough to defend Washington and with the balance of the 
troops pursue and bring the enemy to battle. The ist Division 
remained in the defenses until the 12th when it was ordered 
to rejoin the army. Before daylight on the morning of the 
1 2th Morell's Division, supplied with three days rations, started 
on what proved to be the Antietam campaign. About this 
time the ii8th Penn. and the 20th Me., two new and excellent 
regiments, joined our Division, the former being assigned to 
the 1st Brigade and the latter to the 3d Brigade. Hence- 
forth the fortunes of the 20th Me. became very closely iden- 
tified with those of the other regiments of our Brigade. Its 
Colonel, Adelbert Ames, was graduated from West Point in 
May, 1 86 1, and served through the Peninsula campaign as 
First Lieutenant of the 5th U. S. Artillery. He was a strict 
disciplinarian, a brave, accomplished and faithful officer. The 
regiment was raised, however, under the superintendence of 
Lieut. Col. Joshua L. Chamberlain, who was a professor of 
high standing in Bowdoin College and who was granted a leave 
of absence to enable him to travel in Europe and took it to 
enter the army. He was a gentleman of high scholastic at- 
tainments, of excellent character and social standing, and 
made an enviable record as a soldier. The other officers and 
men of the regiment were an honor to the State and Nation. 

Let us now return to Morell's Division which had just 
started on the Antietam campaign. On leaving the defenses of 
Washington it crossed the Potomac at the Aqueduct Bridge, 
passed through Georgetown, Washington, Rockville, thence 
on the direct route to Frederick near which place it went into 
bivouac about 4 o'clock in the afternoon of the 14th of Sep- 
tember. The weather was pleasant, the country through which 
it passed was beautiful and bore evidences of thrift and pros- 


[Chap. X. Crampton's Pass and South Mountain. Sept. 14, 1862] 

perity. The people manifested a greater degree of loyalty 
toward the Government and the army than was manifested in 
the State of Virginia. The changed condition was truly ex- 
hilarating. The booming of cannon in the direction of Har- 
per's Ferry indicated that an engagement was on. The rever- 
berating echoes of war seemed out of harmony with the cul- 
tivated fields and the quiet homes along our route. On the 
14th were fought the battles of Crampton's Pass by the 6th 
Corps and South Mountain by the ist and 9th Corps. Both 
were important and decisive victories for the Union troops. 
Gen. Hooker in his report of the battle of South Mountain, 
says : "From its great elevation the progress of the battle on 
this part of the field was watched with anxious interest for 
miles around and elicited the applause of the spectators. 
They could not fail to notice the steadiness, resolution and 
courage of the brave officers and men engaged." We passed 
through Frederick about noon on the 15th and while passing 
the people showed many manifestations of loyalty and devo- 
tion. A halt was made for the night near Middletown. Early 
on the morning of the i6th Morell's Division resumed its 
march. Its route led across the South Mountain battlefield. 
There were many indications that an important battle had 
been fought. It was now apparent that the army was concen- 
trating and that a great battle was imminent. 

Gen. Porter, in his report, says : "Morell's Division arrived 
about noon on the 17th, the day of the battle, replaced Rich- 
ardson's Division in support of the batteries on the right of 
Antietam bridge." Here it remained until afternoon when the 
2d and 3d Brigades were dispatched rapidly to the right to 
support Gen. Sumner's Corps. On reaching that part of the 
field the emergency under which the order was made had 
passed and after dark those Brigades returned to their former 
positions. The 5th Corps had only the Divisions of Morell and 
Sykes on the field during the battle. Morell's Division was 
not actually engaged, but was charged with the important duty 
of maintaining the center of the general line, behind which 
was massed the reserve artillery, the ammunition and sup- 
ply trains of the army. The plan of battle was for the Corps 
of Hooker, Mansfield and Sumner to attack and turn the Con- 
fedefate left flank; and in the event that Lee should detach 



Son of Ricluird and Elmina Bowen Herendeen was born at Newport, Herkimer 
County, N. Y., December 21, 1837; educated in Common and Academic schools, 
studied law at Joliet, 111., and at the Albany (N. Y.) University, was admitted 
to the Bar in i860 and in May, 1861 entered Civil War service as a private of 
Co. B, 10 N. Y. AI. doing Gnard duty at the Albany Barracks; August 16, 1861, 
enlisted as a private in the 44th N. Y. V. I., and in i86j was promoted to Ser- 
geant Major, 2d Lieut., ist Lieut., and Adjutant; served in the field until Janu- 
ary 21, 1864, when detached for service in the Department of the East; Post 
Adjt. Elmira, N. Y.. Post Q. M. Auburn, N. Y., and Judge Adv. of Gen'l' Court 
Martial, Elmira, N. Y., until October 11, 1864, on the expiration of the regi- 
ment's term of service, when he was honorably mustered out at Albany, N. Y. 
Conduct commended in Commander's reports of battles of Hanover Court House 
and Malvern Hill, \'a. 

Commenced the practice of law at Hannibal, Mo., in 1865; was married to 
Miss Mary E. Royce in 1878, later engaged in various manufacturing and mer- 
cantile pursuits, and now resides at Wilmette, Cook Co., 111. Comrade of Geo. H. 
Thomas, Post No. 5 G. A. R. (Chicago), member of the Western Soc. Army of 
the Potomac and Companion of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the 
United States, Illinois Commandery. 

[His family, in 1866. by united action, modified the family name as indicated 

? rr,,-r, .-. • 

PUBLF Liisiv..i.Y 



[Chap. X. Antietam. Sept. 17, 1862] 

from his right in support of his left, Burnside was to at- 
tack and carry the right of the Confederate line. Hooker's 
troops were in position and opened the battle at daylight. In 
the outset these troops steadily advanced carrying everything 
before them. A little later on the Corps of Mansfield and 
Sumner were successively drawn into the battle. The contend- 
ing armies fought desperately. Generals Mansfield and Rich- 
ardson were killed and Hooker wounded. In order to resist 
the terrible assault on his left Lee detached from other parts 
of his line. Burnside was ordered to attack and make a coun- 
ter movement at 8 o'clock A. M. to relieve the situation on our 
right. He did not move until ii o'clock and then only on re- 
ceiving a most drastic order. He then quickly carried the 
bridge over the Antietam Creek but an important result had 
failed. Lee had been enabled to detach in support of his left 
and an unimpeded passage had been left open for the troops 
under the Confederate General Hill to reach the battlefield. 
It should be stated, however, that inferences drawn from a 
subsequent review of data, sometimes fail to reflect actual con- 
ditions existing at the time. Certain it is that the battle raged 
with awful fury from dawn until after the going down of the 
sun. Both armies fought desperately. The casualties on the 
battlefield of Antietam on the 17th day of September were 
greater than those of any other single day during the Civil 
War. Darkness put an end to the active hostilities of the day. 
The survivors of the Union army slept on their arms in line 
of battle, ready to resume operations at any moment. Details 
were busy under cover of the darkness caring for the wounded 
and gathering together the dead. The swath of war was 
piled high with the brave, loyal devotees of our Country and 
flag. Our loss was 12,410. The loss of the Confederates was 

Gen. McClellan in his report, says : 

"Night closed the long and desperately contested battle of the 
17th. Nearly 200,000 men and 500 pieces of artillery were for 14 hours 
engaged in this memorable battle. We had attacked the enemy in a 
position chosen by the experienced engineers, then in person directing 
their operations. We had driven them from their line on one flank 
and secured a footing within it on the other. Our soldiers slept that 
night conquerors on a field won by their valor and covered by the 
dead and wounded of the enemy." 


[Chap. X. Antietam. Sept. 19, 1862] 

The morning of the i8th came. Neither army advanced to 
the attack. Morell's Division took the position in line held by 
Burnside's Corps on the evening before. In his report Gen. 
McClellan says: 

"The i8th was spent in collecting the dispersed, giving rest to 
the fatigued, removing the woundec', burying the dead and the neces- 
sary preparations for a renewal of the battle." 

When daylight of the 19th came it w^as discovered that 
the enemy had retreated. They had crossed the river into 
Virginia. Porter's Corps took the lead in pursuit and passed 
through Sharpsburg. The buildings shov^ed the effect of the 
battle. The Potomac was reached at Shepardstovi^n Ferry, 
the point where the Confederate Army had crossed. The op- 
posite banks were high and precipitous. Along the banks on 
the North side was the Baltimore and Chesapeake Canal, out 
from which the water had been drained. On the South bank 
the enemy had artillery posted. During the night the ist and 
2d Brigade of Morell's Division crossed, captured some of the 
guns, moved back from the river a short distance and halted. 
On the morning of the 20th our brigade and the 2d Division 
were ordered to cross. While in the act of fording the river, 
the enemy advanced with a superior force, attacked the two 
brigades that had already crossed and drove them back to the 
river. While we were still in the river we were ordered to 
return and take position in the canal along the North bank. 

The bank of the canal afforded a breastwork from which 
our brigade did good execution in protecting our retreating 
troops. Skirmishing with the enemy posted along the South 
bank of the river was kept up during the day and the ferry 
was closely guarded at night. Soon as our own troops got out 
of the way our artillery, posted on the North bank, made it 
quite unpleasant for the enemy's troops posted along the South 
bank. Some of the enemy concealed themselves in and about 
an old building standing near the river, known as the Boteler's 
Mill, from which they kept up a brisk skirmish fire. Presently 
some of our artillery discovered their hiding places and soon 
checked their operations. Our Division suffered a loss in this 
affair of 363 killed and wounded, most of whom belonged to 
the ist and 2d Brigades. Skirmish firing was kept up quite 
briskly during the night. The 5th Corps remained here several 


[Chap. X. Reviewed by President Lincoln. Oct. i, 1862] 

days, guarding the line of the Potomac, resting and obtaining 
suppHes. It had been quite actively engaged in battle and 
marching since leaving Harrison's Landing on the James River 
until after the engagement at Shepherdstown Ford. The rest 
was quite acceptable but it was thought in some circles that the 
full fruits of the victory were not realized, on account of the 
failure to pursue the retreating enemy. 

On the 1st day of October President Lincoln visited and 
reviewed the army, remaining until the 4th. He viewed the 
battlefields of Antietam, South Mountain and Crampton's 

The hideousness of war was well exemplified by the bat- 
tlefield of Antietam after the battle. The wounded of the 
Union army and those of the enemy within our lines were 
taken care of as soon as possible after the battle. The dead 
of both armies were buried but in separate trenches. The 
burial consisted in digging a long trench, wide enough to 
admit the bodies, which were placed side by side and covered 
over with earth. 

On the right where the heaviest fighting occurred the field 
was strewn with mutilated muskets, haversacks, knapsacks, 
canteens, cartridge boxes and articles of clothing. Scattered 
here and there were shot, fragments of shells, broken gun 
carriages and caissons, and numberless carcasses of dead 
horses. The buildings within the zone of the battle were per- 
forated and mutilated by shot and shell. The ground bore 
evidences that it had been trampled by contending troops and 
plowed by the tremendous artillery fire. As another has said 
in describing this battlefield, "No matter in what direction he 
turned it was the same shocking picture, awakening awe rather 
than pity, benumbing the senses rather than touching the heart, 
glazing the eye with horror rather than filling it with tears. 
This was war in all its hideousness." 

On the 7th day of October the 5th Corps relieved the 9th 
Corps and Morell's Division was stationed at Antietam, which 
is situated near the point where the Antietam Creek empties 
into the Potomac River. About this time the Confederate Cav- 
alry under General Stuart crossed the upper Potomac and 
proceeded on a raid around the Union army. Precautionary 
orders were given to our troops, guarding the fords at night. 


[Chap. X. New Companies C and E Arrive. Oct. 14, 1862] 

that they might not be taken by surprise in his attempt to force 
a crossing into Virginia. This was the only episode disturbing 
our quietude during the month of October. 

While the Army of the Potomac was recuperating and 
guarding the line of the Potomac, the Forty- Fourth N. Y. was 
substantially reinforced by the accession of two entire new 
companies. Companies C and E were consolidated with other 
companies of the regiment and the new companies were given 
those letters and to distinguish them from the former com- 
panies they were spoken of as "new" companies C and E. 
Company C, which reached us on the 14th day of October, was 
raised principally in Yates County. Company E, which reached 
us on the 23d day of October, was raised in and near Albany 
and most of its members came from the Albany Normal 
School, and were also known as the Normal School Company. 
Thev were both excellent companies and by their subsequent 
service proved themselves worthy of the noble regiment whose 
fortunes they had joined. The names of the commissioned 
officers and Sergeants of Company C were as follows : Bennett 
Munger, Captain; Elzor B. James, First Lieutenant; Chas. 
Kelly, Second Lieutenant; Orett L. Munger, First Sergeant; 
Royal G. Kinner, 2d Sergeant; George E. Henderson, 3d Ser- 
geant; Samuel J. Powell, 4th Sergeant; John O'Neil, 5th Ser- 
geant. The names of the commissioned officers and Sergeants 
of Company E were as follows : Rodney G. Kimball, Captain ; 
William Kidd, ist Lieutenant; Albert N. Husted, 2d Lieuten- 
ant; Sergeants, Consider H. Willett, Thomas Dempsey, R. G. 
Warner, James O. Blakeley, Andress B. Hull. 

Capt. Kimball and 2d Lieut. Husted of Company E were 
professors in the Albany Normal School and laid aside their 
worthy calling to follow the flag and share with their students 
the vicissitudes of war. The regiment had become decimated 
by disease and battle and the arrival of the two new companies 
was a substantial addition. The reception given the new com- 
panies was not very cordial as the old members manifested a 
disposition not to receive them into full fellowship until their 
metal had been proved. The sequel showed that opportunity 
alone was wanting to pave the way to a sincere and lasting 
comradeship. The new companies proved their worth in try- 
ing campaigns and on many hard fought fields. 


[Chap. X. Guarding the Blue Ridge Passes. Not. 2, i86a 

On October 30th the 5th Corps was again put in motion 
and halted for the night about 23^ miles from Harper's Ferry. 

The next day it resumed its march, passing through Har- 
per's Ferry, noted as the place where John Brown assembled 
his forces to inaugurate a campaign to free the slaves. There 
stood the engine house which John Brown occupied for his 

The other buildings looked neglected and dilapidated. 

The march was continued along the Leesburg turnpike and a 
halt was made for the night about 8 miles from Harper's Ferry, 

On Sunday, the 2d day of November, the Forty-Fourth 
was detached from the rest of the Brigade and ordered to go 
upon the Blue Ridge to guard a pass over the mountains. 
The crest was reached after a hard march of about 15 miles 
and a picket line established a short distance down the slope 
toward the enemy. Strict orders were given and great vigi- 
lance exacted as it was important to hold this pass until our 
army had passed. 

On the crest of the mountain was a cleared field in which 
stood a lone pine tree. A wide scope of country could be seen 
from the top of the mountain. But Capt. Bourne was not 
satisfied to view the surrounding country from terra firma. 
With rails and poles he improvised a sort of ladder with 
which he was enabled to reach the lower limbs of the tree and 
from there ascend to the top. Having with him a powerful 
field glass, he remained a long time in the tree top observing 
the surrounding country and enjoying the grand scenery. 
From his view point he beheld the beautiful, fertile valleys of 
Loudon and Shenandoah, a long stretch up and down the his- 
toric Potomac, the conspicuous Maryland Heights, and the 
broad cultivated fields of Maryland. He finally left his perch 
in the tree and descended. On reaching the ground he was 
asked what he saw. He replied, with much emphasis and en- 
thusiasm, "Well, if the world was made in six days I have 
seen one d — d big day's work." 

On Wednesday, November 5th, we descended from the 
mountain, marched about four miles and rejoined the brigade 
at Snicker's Gap, where we bivouacked for the night. Our 
marches were continued each day passing through Middleburg, 
New Baltimore and on the evening of the 9th a halt was made 
near Warrenton. 


[Chap. XI. Burnside Succeeds McClellan. Nov. lo, 1862] 



On November loth, General McClellan, having received 
orders to turn the command over to General Burnside, took his 
leave of the army. The troops in the vicinity were drawn up 
in line each side of the highway and General McClellan, ac- 
companied by General Burnside, rode past. He was quite 
generally cheered as he rode along. Afterwards, and on the 
same day, the officers of the 5th Corps were invited to meet 
General McClellan at 5th Corps headquarters. At the Corps 
headquarters General McClellan made a short speech in which 
he manifested considerable feeling and among other things, 
said : "I shall look to history to do me justice." On the same 
occasion General Porter said : "I presume it will be my turn 

On the I2th of November General Porter took his leave 
of the 5th Corps, which he had commanded since its organi- 
zation. It can not be questioned that General Porter had per- 
formed meritorius service in his management at the battles of 
Hanover C. H., Mechanicsville, Gaines Mills and Malvern Hill. 

On leaving the army General McClellan issued the follow- 
ing address : 

"Headquarters, Army of the Potomac. 
Officers and Soldiers of the Army of the Potomac : 

An order from the President devolves upon Major General Burn- 
side the command of this army. 

In parting from you I can not express the love and gratitude I 
bear to you. As an army you have grown up under my care. In you 
I have never found doubt or coldness. The battles you have fought 
under my command will probably live in our Nation's history. The 
glory you have achieved, our mutual peril and fatigue, the graves of 
our comrades, fallen in battle and by disease, the broken forms of 
those whom wounds and sickness have disabled, — the strongest asso- 
ciations which can exist among men — unite us still by an indissoluble 
tie. We shall ever be comrades in supporting the constitution of our 
Country and the nationalty of its people. 

George B. McClellan, 
Major General, U. S. A." 


[Chap. XI. Reorganization of Army of the Potomac. Nov. 12, 1862] 

After assuming command General Burnside spent a few 
days in reorganizing the army, and making plans for an active 
campaign. The six Corps of the army were doubled up mak- 
ing three Grand Divisions. The right Grand Division was 
composed of the 26. and 9th Corps and placed under the com- 
mand of General Sumner. The left Grand Division was com- 
posed of the 1st and 6th Corps and placed under the command 
of General Franklin. The center Grand Division was com- 
posed of the 3d and 5th Corps and placed under the command 
of General Hooker. General Butterfield was assigned to the 
command of the 5th Corps, and General Griffin was assigned to 
the command of the ist Division of the 5th Corps, of which 
Division the Third Brigade formed a part. 

General Burnside inaugurated a different plan of campaign 
from the one in progress when he succeeded to the command. 
The plan which he finally adopted, while it was assented to, 
but not favored by the President, contemplated crossing the 
Rappahannock at some of the upper fords with the bulk of the 
army, proceed down the right bank of the river, and occupy 
the heights South of the City of Fredericksburg. This plan 
appears to have been changed a little later and the army 
proceeded to occupy the North bank of the river instead of 
the South bank. On the 14th day of November, General 
Sumner's command was put in motion and on arriving on the 
banks of the river opposite Fredericksburg he suggested to the 
Commanding General the advisability of crossing at once, dis- 
persing a small force of the enemy stationed there, and oc- 
cupy and hold the position. This suggestion failed to meet 
with approval. A little later, when General Hooker arrived, 
he made the same suggestion with no better result. General 
L^e was not slow in occupying in force the strong defensive 
position along the South banks of the Rappahannock. On the 
17th day of November, the 5th Corps broke camp at Warren- 
ton and proceeding by daily marches reached a point on the 
line of the Acquia Creek and Fredericksburg railroad, after- 
wards known as Stoneman's Switch, on the 26th day of No- 
vember. While on the march from Warrenton during much 
of the time the weather was rainy and the roads muddy. On 
arriving at Stoneman's Switch, the troops set to work to make 
themselves as comfortable as possible. Ingenuity, prompted 


(Chap. XI. Stoneman's Switch. Nov. 26, 1862] 

by necessity, was quite prolific in discovering ways and means. 
From arrival at Stoneman's Switch until December nth, the 
time of the Forty-Fourth was spent in establishing camp, per- 
forming picket and camp duty, and when the weather per- 
mitted engaging in drill. The new companies were diligent 
in acquainting themselves with the various duties pertaining 
to camp life. Their unassuming ways and zeal to become 
more efficient, soon established more cordial relations with the 
members of the old companies. 

In the fore part of December, 1862, Surgeon Morris W. 
Townsend joined the regiment, vice Surgeon Frothingham 
resigned. His coming was unheralded. His assignment 
proved to be a rare piece of good fortune. In camp, on the 
march or during the trying ordeals of battle he was always cool, 
alert and accessible. He easily ranked with the ablest and most 
distinguished surgeons of the 5th Corps. His genial nature, his 
faithful discharge of every duty and his high professional 
skill were characteristic qualities by which he adorned the 
service. No soldier in distress at night or by day ever failed 
to receive his kind, considerate attention. No wounded soldier 
whose life and death hung in equal balance was ever laid upon 
the operating table without a feeling of confidence that the 
wisest and best thing would be done. As a token of their ap- 
preciation of Surgeon Townsend the enlisted men of the regi- 
ment presented him with a complete equipment for his horse. 

On the loth day of December a rumor circulated through 
the camp that the army was about to move. Later on the rumor 
was verified. The verification came in the form of an order 
to be ready to move at 4 o'clock the next morning with 3 days 
rations and 20 extra rounds of ammunition. The preparations 
called for looked like serious business. On Thursday, De- 
cember nth, the reveille sounded at 3 o'clock A. M. and pre- 
parations were made for the start. At 5 o'clock musketry and 
artillery firing were heard at the front. It was afterwards 
learned that the firing was occasioned by the Engineers, pro- 
ceeding to lay pontoon bridges across the Rappahannock River 
The workmen were driven from their work by the infantry of 
the enemy posted in the streets and buildings of Fredericks- 
burg. Thereupon the artillery in General Sumner's command 
opened a furious cannonade upon the city which checked the 


Enlisted at Penn Yan, N. Y., on August 14, 1862, in the 148th 
N. Y. V. L, but the company being a supernumerar}' one, was trans- 
ferred to the 44th N. Y. V. L, was sent to camp at Albany, N. Y., 
and was assigned as new Co. C, which was dubbed the Penn Yan 
Company. This company joined the 44th Regiment at Antietam, Md., 
in September, 1862. On Jan. 31, 1863, he was made a Sergeant. On 
Aug. 10, 1863, was tranferred to the U. S. Signal Corps at Warrenton 
Junction and was assigned as Sergeant to the headquarters of A'lajor- 
General Judson Kilpatrick of the 3d Division Cavalry Corps. On 
Aug. 4. 1864, he was assigned to the ist Division Cavalry Corps, com- 
manded by Major-General Wesley Merritt and then sent to the Shen- 
andoah Valley. After the campaigns in this Valley his command joined 
the Army of the Potomac in Alarch, 1865. Discharged at close of the 
war at Winchester, Va. 



[Chap. XI. Prepare for Fredericksburg. Dec. ii, 1862] 

firing. Some of Sumner's infantry crossed the river in boats, 
drove the enemy from the banks of the river, and enabled 
the pontoniers to proceed with their work. As soon as the 
bridges were laid Sumner's troops began to cross and by day- 
light on the 1 2th enough of our troops had crossed to take pos- 
session of the entire city. During the 12th the two Grand 
Divisions of Sumner and Franklin had effected a lodgment 
on the South side of the river, and formed respectively the 
right and left wings of the general line. Hooker's Grand Divi- 
sion was held in hand on the North side of the river, ready 
to move to the support of either wing of the army as occa- 
sion might require. As the plan of battle was for Franklin 
to assault and turn the Confederate right his command was 
augmented by two Divisions from the 3d Corps. In a general 
way this was the condition of the Army of the Potomac at 
the close of the day of December 12th. 

The enemy occupied a semi-circular position, along the 
heights on the right bank of the river South of the city, extend- 
ing from the river above the city to Massaponox Creek South 
of the city. It was a strong natural position rendered many 
fold more so, by its strong defensive works. General Sumner, 
in his report, says : 

"The enemy held the successive crests and wooded slopes which 
encircle the town, his infantry covered by breast works and rifle pits, 
his guns protected by earthworks and rifle pits, and mostly in em- 
brasures. The general disposition of his lines being such as to give front 
and enfilading fire on any troops who might debouch from the city 
with intention of crossing the gradual slope, which swells from the 
town to the crest. He had also concentrated many guns on the bridge 
necessary to be crossed by the troops." 

The Confederate General Longstreet in his work entitled 
"From Manassas to Appomatox," says: 

"As I was inspecting my lines I found one gun not in position 
and asked General Alexander, Chief of Artillery, if it would not be 
well to place it in position and his reply was : 'We do not need it ; 
our guns are so placed that we can rake the whole field as with a fine 
tooth comb. A chicken can't live on that field.' " 

Such was a brief description of that memorable battle- 
field by a prominent General of each army. 

Let us now go back and take up the narrative of the Forty- 
Fourth New York. While the reveille sounded at 4 o'clock 


[Chap. XI. Fredericksburg. Dec. 13, 1862] 

A. M. on Thursday, December nth, we did not leave camp 
until about one o'clock P. M, The reverberating guns of 
Sumner told that the battle was on. It was a matter of 
anxious prophecy to know how soon we should be drawn into 
its murderous vortex. We then marched to the elevated ridge 
back of Falmouth, overlooking Fredericksburg on the North 
side of the Rappahannock and bivouacked for the night. The 
whole panorama of the battlefields was in full view. On the 
I2th we marched nearer to Falmouth, halted, stacked arms 
and were held in readiness to move at a moment's notice. 
During the day our position was not materially changed and 
we bivouacked for the night. The weather was not propi- 
tious for seeking lodging upon the ground and the prospects 
of the morrow did not add material comfort to the situation. 
The fateful morning of December 13th arrived. The discom- 
fort of the previous night was soon forgotten in making prep- 
arations for the day. There was no mistaking the ominous 
signs. One of the bloodiest chapters in the annals of war was 
about to be enacted. The impregnable works which crowned 
Marye's heights were to be assaulted. The right and left Grand 
Divisions were in position. The forenoon wore away in ar- 
ranging the details of the attack. The irregular firing along 
the picket line and occasional exchange of artillery shots were 
only preliminary challenges of the combatants. Franklin was 
tardy in commencing the execution of his part of the battle. 
His 60,000 excellent troops were to break the Confederate 
right, or draw to their support the troops necessary to man the 
guns and works on the left and center. The first fatal step of 
the day was here enacted. Meade, with his splendid Division, 
numbering only 5,000 men, gallantly advanced supported only 
by the Division of Gibbon. Ten thousand true and tried men 
were marshalled to accomplish what was expected of 60,000. 
The attack of these heroic troops was inadequate to break the 
Confederate right or compel the enemy to detach from his left 
and center. When Sumner's command on the right and center 
advanced to the assault they found the enemy's formidable 
works fully manned and ready to receive them. The Union 
line advanced in splendid order and with determined purpose. 
As soon as they reached the open field they were exposed to a 
most murderous fire of shot, shell and musketry. The whole 


Chap. XI. Fredericksburg. Dec. 13, 1862] 

hillside seemed alive with Confederate troops in their secure 
position of vantage, revelling in their bloody vocation. The 
advance was made in full view of the troops held in reserve. 
As soon as our troops left the cover of the buildings in the 
city the direful havoc began and increased as the distance 
between the combatants grew less. While watching the une- 
qual slaughter Lieut. Gaskill said : "I would consent to give 
my right arm to be assured that I could escape this day's peril 
with my life." From noon until we entered the battle, as 
brave and determined troops as ever marched to battle strove 
in vain to carry those impregnable works. About 3 o'clock 
our Brigade crossed the river on the pontoon bridge and pro- 
ceeded to the outskirts of the city. 

Late in the afternoon an order came to advance and re- 
lieve the troops engaged on the firing line. The impracticabil- 
ity of a further attempt to carry the enemy's works by direct 
assault had already been demonstrated. It is doubtful if a 
single person in the Brigade indulged the hope that any real 
success could be obtained in making the movement. The 
order must be obeyed, the consequence could not be con- 
sidered. Our experience was the same as befell those who 
had preceded us. Soon as the start was made we drew the 
fire of the enemy. The air was filled with shot, bursting 
shells and the deadly minnies. The earth was torn and plowed 
by countless, hurtling projectiles. The wounded and dying 
sank together upon the blood-soaked field. The broken ranks 
automatically closed and still advanced only to be broken 
again and again. The dead and wounded of those who had 
fallen earlier in the day were passed without stopping to 
lend a helping hand. When the farthest point which had 
been obtained by other troops was reached our decimated 
ranks were halted and permitted to lie prone upon the earth, 
partially protected by a slight undulation in the field. During 
this advance Lieut. Col. Conner was wounded, and Major 
Knox succeeded to the command of the regiment. Darkness 
and the smoke of battle gradually closed the havoc of the 
day. Then for the first time, the cries and groans of the dying 
and wounded could be heard. Then for the first time could 
relieving parties traverse the field, administer aid to the living 
and gather together the dead. Between the first advance at 


[Chap. XI. Fredericksburg. Dec. is, 1862] 

noon and the darkness-compelled armistice, more than 10,000 
patriots had fallen. The remnant of the regiment slept upon 
their arms upon the ground, ready for any contingency 
awaiting the undisclosed destiny yet to be revealed. Promptly 
at break of day, on Sunday morning December 14th, the enemy 
tried in vain to dislodge us from the position reached the 
evening before and held during the night. While the enemy 
could not drive us from our position, they made it extremely 
uncomfortable and hazardous to remain. The slight undula- 
tion of the ground afforded the merest protection while lying 
flat. Whoever exposed any part of his person above the dead 
line, was certain to receive a volley. It was just as dangerous 
to pass to the rear as it was to go to the front. Neither side 
appeared to be inclined to renew general hostilities. Perhaps 
the Confederates were satisfied with the loss they had inflicted 
and the Union troops with the loss they had sustained. In 
any event the day was spent in hugging the ground and care- 
fully watching the movements of the enemy. About 9 or 10 
o'clock in the evening we were relieved by other troops and 
under the cover of darkness returned to the city. After par- 
taking of much needed rations, the balance of the night was 
spent in seeking repose upon the- sidewalks and doorsteps of 
the houses. Our position was not changed on the 15th until 
about 6 o'clock P. M. when line was formed and we marched 
to another part of the city, where we again halted and stacked 
arms. About one o'clock in the morning of the i6th the 
Brigade was again aroused and line formed. The purpose of 
making a movement at this unusual hour was not at first made 
known. Conjecture was rife in place of actual information. 
All doubt was soon dispelled by our taking up our line of 
march across the war-worn battlefield, proceeding to the 
front and quietly relieving the troops on the advance line. It 
now became known that the army was retreating to the North 
side of the river and that our Brigade was to act as rear guard 
for our part of the general line. This was a delicate, dangerous 
duty. In case the enemy discovered the movement he was 
quite likely to advance in force and overpower the rear guard. 
This advance position was held until about 3 o'clock A. M. 
of the i6th when we had orders to quietly withdraw by the left 
flank. It had rained earlier in the night and when the order 


[Chap. XI. Withdrawal from Fredericksburg. Dec. i6, 1862] 

came to withdraw, floating clouds occasionally obscured the 
light of the moon. We again formed line in the outskirts of 
the city for the purpose of protecting the troops in recrossing 
the river. Captain Judson, in his History of the 83d Penn., 
says: "Then was heard the deep heavy baying of a blood- 
hound as if he, too, were set upon our track. Nearer and 
nearer, though cautiously and slowly, approached the monster. 
That misguided quadruped might have been an advance scout, 
but the peril was immeasurably less than as though the 
enemy had loosed his much more dangerous dogs of war." 
The streets and buildings of Fredericksburg bore visible evi- 
dences of the devastation and ruin of war. More or less 
pillaging was carried on by camp followers, who had the time 
and opportunity for such lawlessness. As daylight approached 
our position became more undesirable. The enemy, on dis- 
covering the retreat of our troops, dispatched a line of skir- 
mishers which a volley soon sent in retreat. As the first 
approach of dawn appeared our last position was abandoned, 
a hurried orderly march was made to the pontoon bridge, and 
the crossing effected. During the passage of our troops to the 
rear the people of Fredericksburg came out from their hiding 
places and assailed them with bitter and abusive taunts. 

In his report of the operations of the 5th Corps, General 
Butterfield says : "Col. Buchanan's Brigade of Sykes' Di- 
vision crossed last about 8 o'clock A. M. in most excellent 

It is proper to state here that Lieutenant and Acting Ad- 
jutant Bourne claims he was the last person to leave the South 
bank of the river in crossing. 

On reaching the Falmouth side of the river the regiment 
took up its march for the old camp at Stoneman's Switch, reach- 
ing there about one o'clock P. M. 

At the battle of Fredericksburg the regiment lost 7 killed 
and mortally wounded and 35 wounded. Thus ended the Fred- 
ericksburg campaign. It was a costly failure. In returning the 
roads were muddy, the troops were weary, the marching was 
tedious. Between the nth and i6th days of December a tragic 
chapter in American history had been enacted. The restoration 
of the Union seemed yet afar off. Tents were pitched, rations 
were obtained and eaten, and much needed rest was eagerly 


[Chap. XI. Return to Stoneman's Switch. Dec. i6, 1862] 

sought. The mental tension, and the days and nights of expos- 
ure and sleeplessness made a few days of relaxation most wel- 
come. On the 1 6th Lieut. Herenden was appointed Adjutant. 
After a few days of rest tents were raised on log foundations 
and various ingenious devices added to increase the comfort and 
sanitary condition of the camp. Col. Rice, who left the regi- 
ment after the Second Battle of Bull Run, returned on the 
24th. And a few days later Second Lieut. Chas. Kelly was 
appointed First Lieut, and First Sergeant O. L. Hunger of 
Co. C, was made Second Lieutenant. On Christmas Day 
the camp was nicely decorated with evergreens and a degree 
of cheerfulness restored. The work of improving quarters 
was continued with much diligence. It was wonderful what 
could be accomplished with limited means under the spur of 

At 2 o'clock P. M. on December 30th our Division was un- 
expectedly ordered out on a reconnaissance. The route was 
through Hartwood Church to Richard's Ford on the Rappa- 
hannock. It was a hurried, fatiguing march, which continued 
until 2 o'clock A. M. of the 31st. Our ist and 2d Brigades 
forded the river, and continued their march for some distance 
after crossing. Our Brigade was held in reserve on the 
North bank of the Rappahannock. The troops that crossed 
encountered a detachment of Confederate Cavalry which was 
soon put to flight. The reconnaissance was continued with- 
out meeting any more of the enemy, and its object having 
been accomplished our troops recrossed the river, and the 
whole Division returned to camp, arriving about one o'clock 
P. M. on Thursday January i, 1863. The return was more 
deliberate and less tiresome than was the march going out. 

A new year had begun. In 1862 many hard battles had been 
fought, great losses had been sustained and ostensibly very 
little had been accomplished. Soon after his return to the 
regiment. Col. Rice took steps to erect a log chapel. He sent 
for McKendree Shaw of Company D, and Enoch J. Lewis of 
Company G, to come to his tent. He then laid before them 
his plan to erect a log chapel to be used for religious and 
literary purposes. A detail of axmen and teams was made 
and soon the plan began to materialize. Some assisted, some 
joked about it, others stood idly by and asked questions like 
these; "What is the thing for any way? When is your saloon 


[Chap. XI. The Log Chapel. Jan., 1863J 

going to open ? Is the National Capitol to be moved down here ? 
Is it to be an asylum for played-out Generals?" But these 
two leading, faithful architects aided by others, went cheer- 
fully along. Rev. Alvord, who was connected with the Chris- 
tian Commission, thus described it: "Two of them, although 
only non-commissioned officers, seemed almost inspired on the 
subject. The logs had to be drawn a mile, trimmed, framed 
and piled up. The dimensions were 16x32 feet, sufficiently 
large to hold 160 persons. To most of their comrades the affair 
gave occasion only for jests and merriment. But these two 
Christian soldiers toiled on like Noah amid the scoffs of the 
multitude. The structure at last reached its proper height. 
A roof of poles, brush and poncho tents was put on. Later 
on a canvas covering was found. Meetings were then begun. 
The songs went up from the deep voices of the men and 
before our services closed tears rolled down the cheeks of 
hardy warriors. To be brief, every evening in the week this 
house was filled with men, brought together four times out 
of seven, for religious subjects. I stole in one evening while 
they were at their devotions. Prayer after prayer successively, 
in earnest, humble tones, went up before rising from their 
knees. Officers were present and took part in the service and 
among them was now the lamented General James C. Rice, 
who in his dying hour wanted to be turned on his cot that 
he might 'die with his face to the foe.' The whole regiment 
looked upon the house as a matter of pride. They encour- 
aged all the meetings. The house was attractive to visitors and 
when not used for religious worship was occupied for lyceum 
debates, musical concerts and the like." 

McKendree Shaw, who is now Rev. McKendree Shaw, 
wrote : 

"I doubt there being any church in the Nation, that was the earthly 
channel of better spiritual influences, than was our log chapel, with its 
log seats, log fire place and hard-tack box for pulpit, during the winter 
of 1862-3. On our longest marches and severest campaigns we seldom 
failed to have our Sunday and mid-week religious services, whether 
we had a Chaplain or not. If we halted for the night, we would cook 
and drink our coffee, collect a few pine fagots, build a little stand 
on which to burn them for light, sit on the lap of Mother Earth, sing, 
read the Holy Bible, offer our prayers to God, testify to the work of 
grace in our lives and then roll ourselves in our blankets and let our 
minds have undisturbed range to all parts of dreamland." 


[Chap. XI. Religion and Literature. Jan., 1863] 

The first religious service was held on Sunday, January 
5, 1863, at which Col. Rice took the lead and Captain Kimball 
of Company E, read a sermon. The wife of one of the officers 
of the 17th N. Y. was the only lady present. Her presence 
attracted attention, as it was an unusual sight to see a lady 
in camp. 

The literary exercises took a wide range. Public ques- 
tions were handled in a manner that showed research and 
mature thought. It was a rallying point for members of 
all companies and was a source of profit and enjoyment. The 
excellent material of which the regiment was composed was 
apparent by the exercises held in this crude chapel. At one 
of the evening's entertainments, Private James E. Spry of Com- 
pany D, presented the following parody, entitled — 

"a recruit's lament." 

"Backward, roll backward, oh time in thy flight, 

Make me a citizen just for a night. 
Bear me away from this valley of mud. 

Bore me no more with powder and blood. 
Let me turn from this fountain of tears, 

Far from the sound of orders and jeers. 
I have grown weary of Uncle Sam's work; 

Weary of living on hardtack and pork. 

Backward, roll backward, oh time in thy flight, 

Make me a citizen just for a night, 
Why did you torture me, grenadiers, thus? 

Why get me into this devilish muss? 
Had you no heart in your bosom of clay. 

Thus to entice my freedom away? 
Did you not know, that's where the shoe pinches? 

That hanging is better than dying by inches? 

Backward, roll backward, oh time in thy flight, 

Make me a citizen just for a night, 
I have grown tired of trouble and toil, 

Tired of sleeping on this cursed soil, 
Tired of having no cocktails or rum, 

Do send me home, doctor, do send me home, 
Many the faces that wish I was there. 

Many the creditors left in despair, 
Many the fond ones that pray I will come. 

Do send me home, doctor, do send me home. 



Born March 24, 1841, at Uxbridge, Middlesex Co., England; immigrated with 
his parents to America May 10, 1850. 

Present and participated in the siege of Yorktown and battles of Hanover 
C. H., Gaines Mills, Malvern Hill, Fredericksburg and Gettysburg. He was twice 
wounded while carrying the regimental colors at Malvern Hill; borne off the 
field on the shoulders of comrades, delivered the colors to the Colonel, who pro- 
moted him on the spot to a Sergeantcy. Was with his regiment every day of 
its service except five months in hospital on account of wounds. Appointed 
second in command of a detachment of one thousand convalescents sent from 
Alexandria to rejoiii their regiments at the Front. At Washington the Captain 
of the detachment disappeared, in consequence the command devolved upon Hitch- 
cock. At Harper's Ferry, having been refused rations by the Provost Marshal, 
the convalescents raided a sutler's shanty and successfully resisted arrest which 
w-as attempted to be made by the Provost Guard. Hitchcock was then notified 
by the Marshal that having received satisfactory advices from Washington, he 
would issue to the men rations and escort them across the Potomac, which was 
done. Werit into camp a short distance from the river, except 20 regulars, who 
having obtained permission, continued their march to the Front, going into bivouac 
about four miles out, where about midnight they were surprised and captured 
by Mosby and taken to Richmond. Hitchcock reported with the remainder of 
the detachment later, at Fifth Corps Headquarters and received the compliments 
of the Adjutant-General. 







[Chap. XI. Worship, Culture and Recreation. Jan., 1863] 

Backward, roll backward, oh time in thy flight. 

Make me a citizen just for a night. 
Let me a citizen, gallant and gay, be 

Let me go home to my wife and baby, 
Let me go home to the home guards again. 

Music of cannon oppresses my brain. 
Once I was brave and sound as a brick. 

Whistling of bullets has made me sick. 

Backward, roll backward, oh time in thy flight. 

Make me a citizen just for a night. 
Once I was strong and still I am zealous. 

Once I had lungs like a blacksmith's bellows. 
But to tell the plain truth accursed be the pegs 

I put too much faith in my confounded legs, 
My courage was good but my legs had a tendency 

Always to run, and they got the ascendency. 

Oh, take me back where the bullets don't rustle 

The hair on my head, then feel of my muscle. 
Send me where balls and bombs never come; 

Do send me home, doctor, do send me home. 
Backward, roll backward, oh time in thy flight, 

Make me a citizen just for a night. 
Hasten my pleasures, ye Gods if you can. 

Make me once more a family man. 

I will be valiant and brave as a lion 

Let me old Michigan once get my eye on, 
I will cry Onward ! and write editorial 

Frigid or warm auroral or boreal, 
I will be bold to counsel and think 

And shed for my country my heart's purest ink, 
Stand for no measure however inglorious, 

Foolish, fanatical, even laborious ! 
If oh, sweet doctor, thou picture of beauty. 

Thou wilt discharge me from war and its duty. 

Backward, roll backward, oh time in thy flight. 

Make me a citizen just for a night. 
Take back the bounty the golden advance, 

That bore all the charms to my earliest glance, 
Let me go home to the land of white collars. 

You bought me too cheap for nine hundred dollars 
You told me, alas, a beautiful story. 

Of honor and fame and soft bread and glory, 
Let me depart. Uncle Samuel do. 

And I'll leave all the honor and glory to you." 


Chap. XI. New Flag from Mrs. Coming. Jan. i6, 1863] 

The foregoing poetry was written some time after the 
disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg. That battle not only- 
caused a recruit's lament but also the lament of many other 
older soldiers. 

On the 8th day of January General Bumside, the new Com- 
mander of the Army, reviewed the 5th Corps. It was the 
first opportunity that many of the soldiers had to see him. 
This was taken to mean that some early movement was in 

On the i6th a bright, beautiful, new silk flag of regulation 
size was received from Mrs. Erastus Corning. The presenta- 
tion was made by General Griffin, our Division Commander. 
It was presented by the same patriotic lady, who presented our 
then old flag, on the day we left Albany. The two flags were 
thrown to the breeze side by side on the parade ground. When 
the old one was presented at Albany, a pledge was made that 
it should not be lowered in dishonor, nor polluted by the touch 
of a traitor. That pledge had been faithfully kept. Its beau- 
tiful folds had been torn by the murderous missiles of war, 
its staff cut in twain, its sacred field crimsoned with the blood 
of heroes, but these were scars of honor and not of disgrace. 
As the two flags floated side by side, they were mutely eloquent, 
the one of its past, the other of its future. The Washington 
correspondent of the New York Tribune stated that — 

"The battle flag of the Forty-Fourth New York is at the rooms 
of Mrs. Erastus Corning at Willard's, an object of veneration. It is 
ragged with eighty-four bullet holes. Twice was its staff cut in two 
by balls. Two shells have passed through it. Twelve color bearers 
have been shot dead, holding it in front of the regiment, and eighteen 
wounded. It is properly to be photographed by Brady. Mrs. Corning 
has given the regiment a new flag." 

Jesse, the army correspondent of the New York Evening 
Post, gave the following account of the presentation of a 
new flag to the gallant Forty-Fourth N. Y. 

"I happened to be accidentally present at a color presentation of the 
Forty-Fourth N. Y. Volunteers, Col. James C. Rice. The standard 
presented is the gift of Mrs. Erastus Corning of Albany, and is a most 
superb color, of the finest silk, the stars being beautifully embroidered 


There appeared in "Pictorial Battles of the Civil War," published 
in 1885, a picture of the 44th Flag and under it the following: 

"Flag of the Forty-Fourth N. Y. Volunteers, which became histori- 
cal by having twelve standard bearers killed and eighteen wounded 
while carrying it." 

Official reports do not state who among the killed and wounded 
were color bearers and the committee is therefore unable to verify 
or disprove the statement. 



(Chap. XI. The "Mud March." Jan. 20, 1863] 

on the blue ground in white silk, and the staff surmounted with a spear 
head of solid silver. 

The presentation was made in behalf of the donor by General 
Griffin, who accompanied it in a most graceful and felicitous speech. 

Col. Rice responded patriotically and promised on behalf of the 
regiment, that the banner should never be disgraced, a promise I 
know that these gallant boys will keep. 

The Forty-Fourth deserved a new color. Their old banner has 
a place among the souvenirs of the war. Pierced with eighty bullet 
holes, and its staff cut twice in two by shells, it speaks eloquently of 
the men who bore it, while the new and beautiful standard tells the 
enemy that men live to bear that flag still." 

On the 20th the tents were struck at lo o'clock A. M., 
and arms were stacked, preparatory to a movement. We did 
not move, however, until 4 o'clock P. M., marched only about 
2 miles, and camped in the woods. About dark rain set in 
and continued through the night. The rain was not only con- 
tinuous during the night, but was very heavy. The next morn- 
ing tents, blankets and clothing were completely soaked. Mud 
covered the fields, the roads and woods. The reveille that 
morning had a dreary and unpropitious sound. Artillery and 
trains endeavored to start but were soon stuck in the mud. 
Teams were doubled and still they could not move. Ropes 
were attached and men moved the artillery from one position 
only to be stuck in the mud in another. It does not describe 
the situation by simply saying it rained. The rain poured down 
in torrents. An advance of only 2 miles was made on the 
22d. Cavalry, artillery and infantry were floundering in the 
mud. The zone of our operations was a sea of mud. It 
was a source of amusement to the enemy, who taunted us with 
the calamitous situation, by placing sign boards in conspicuous 
places on which were inscribed the following: "Stuck in the 
mud." "This way to Richmond." "Shan't we come over and 
pull you out?" That uncertain factor, the weather had cer- 
tainly become an ally of the enemy. The object of the cam- 
paign having been defeated, the regiment returned again to 
its old camp. In order to return, it became necessary to build 
corduroy roads. Camp was reached about 3 o'clock P. M. on 
the 24th. From the time of leaving camp on the 20th until 
its return on the 24th, the condition of the army was one of 


[Chap. XI. Bumside Relieved from Command. Jan. 35, 1863] 

discomfort and discouragement. On reaching the camp, each 
company returned to the same position it had left, and again 
occupied its old quarters. The failure of the two successive 
campaigns within two months materially impaired the prestige 
of General Burnside as the Commander of the Army. On the 
25th day of January, General Bumside, at his own request, 
was relieved from command of the Army of the Potomac and 
Major General Hooker was placed in command. 


[Chap. Xn. Hooker Commands. Jan. 26, 1863] 



On assuming command of the Army of the Potomac, Gen- 
eral Hooker received a pointed letter from President Lincoln 
in which were stated his strong and weak points as a com- 
manding officer. 

Executive Mansion 
Washington D. C. January 26, 1863. 
Major General Hooker 

General : I have placed you at the head of the army of the Po- 
tomac. Of course I have done this upon what appears to me to be 
sufficient reasons, and yet I think it best for you to know that there 
are some things, in regard to which, I am not quite satisfied with you. 
I believe you to be a brave and skillful soldier, which, of course, I like. 
I also believe you do not mix politics with your profession, in which 
you are right. You have confidence in yourself, which is a valuable, 
if not an indispensable, quality. You are ambitious, which, within rea- 
sonable bounds, does good rather than harm; but I think that, during 
General Burnside's command of the army, you have taken counsel of 
your ambition, and thwarted him as much as you could, in which you 
did a great wrong to the country, and to a most meritorious and honor- 
able brother officer. I have heard, in such a way as to believe it, of 
your recently saying, that both the army and the Government needed 
a dictator. Of course, it was not for this, but in spite of it, that I 
have given you the command. Only those generals who gain successes 
can set up dictators. What I now ask of you is military success, and 
I will risk the dictatorship. The Government will support you to 
the utmost of its ability, which is neither more nor less than it has 
done, and will do for all commanders. I much fear that the spirit you 
have aided to infuse into the army, of criticising their commander and 
withholding confidence from him, will now turn upon you. I shall 
assist you as far as I can to put it down. Neither you nor Napoleon, 
if he were again alive, could get any good out of an army while such 
a spirit prevails in it. And now beware of rashness. Beware of rash- 
ness, but with energy and sleepless vigilance go forward and give us 

Yours very truly, 

A. Lincoln. 

General Hooker, to some extent, reorganized the army and 
set vigorously at work to inspire it with confidence. During 


[Chap. Xn. Picket Duty and Culture Resumed. Spring, 1863] 

the months of February, March and the forepart of April, 
the weather was such as to make active campaigning quite out 
of the question. Camp and picket duty were necessary at 
all times, but other duties were suspended in stormy, bad 
weather. Many leisure hours were spent in the log chapel. 
The religious and literary exercises, which were there con- 
ducted, attracted participants from other regiments. Moved 
by its invigorating atmosphere Col. Rice prepared and pro- 
cured to be published in the New York Times an address to 
the people of the State of New York. In describing that ad- 
dress McKendree Shaw wrote the following letter : 

"Camp near Falmouth, Va. 

March 10, 1863. 
Bro. Hosmer. 

The following address is signed by all the officers, non-commis- 
sioned officers and privates of our regiment, with perhaps half a dozen 
exceptions. It embodies the spirit of the soldier and its publication at 
this time will undoubtedly do good in awakening the people of the 
entire State to a sense of their obligations, and cause chicken-hearted 
persons at home, who cry 'Peace on any terms,' to blush for shame. 
Instead of soldiers receiving encouragement, sympathy and support at 
home, they are obliged not to ask for criticisms on Generals, or of the 
actions of the administration to crush the rebellion — not to be dis- 
charged from service — not that some means be adopted to secure a 
peace, glorious or inglorious, but to encourage those who should be 
their friends and ask for their support. All through the army there 
seems to be an intense hatred to this dishonorable 'Peace Party,' the 
Copperheads. Let the people of the North support vigorous prosecu- 
tion of the war a short time longer, employing all the means that God 
may give us, and we will again have a glorious government under the 
reign of peace. If the Union is destroyed, it will not be alone by the 
South, but also by the North. But here is the appeal. 

M. Shaw." 

"Headquarters 44th N. Y. Volunteers. 
Camp near Falmouth, Va., March 7, 1863. 
An Appeal to the People of the State of New York. 
We can no longer keep silent. A sacred devotion to our country,— 
an ardent love for our homes, and, above all, an abiding faith in God, 
bid us speak. For nearly two years we have suffered all things, periled 
all things, endured all things for the sake of our common country. 
We have left our business, our kindred, our friends, the firesides of 
our youth, the sacred places of prayer — all, all the nearest and dearest 
relations of life to serve our country. We have endured hunger, 
thirst, cold and heat. By day and by night we have borne the weight 


(Chap. Xn. An Appeal for Help. March 7, 1863] 

of our knapsacks and the weariness of the march. We have worked 
late and early in the trenches, we have bivouacked in the swamps, 
we have suffered sickness in the hospitals, we have not been spared 
from 'the pestilence that walketh in darkness' nor from 'the destruc- 
tion that wasteth at noonday.' We have never shrunk from duty, 
but rather have again and again cheerfully sought death, even at the 
cannon's mouth, to save our Union from destruction, our homes from 
disgrace, and you and your children from eternal shame. When we 
came to the field we came with your blessing. You told us to go, that 
God and your most fervent prayers would follow us. Encouraged by 
words of patriotism, of hope, of faith, we came to the war. After 
suffering thus much in behalf of you, and your children, and the na- 
tion's honor, dear alike to us all, will you withhold from us now 
your sympathy and support? Will you join with these worse than 
traitors at the North, and cry peace when they know there is no peace, 
and can be none, until this unholy rebellion is crushed? Will you 
ally yourselves with those who, by word of discouragement are pro- 
longing the war and who are thus becoming in the sight of Heaven 
and earth the insidious murderers of your sons and brothers now in 
the field? Why should you who suffer none of the danger, none of 
the privations of field or camp, be less patriotic, less faithful, less hope- 
ful, less confident in God and the holy cause in which we are engaged, 
than we, who endure all? Shall the future historian, in writing the 
record of this great struggle, declare, with truthfulness, that the people 
of the North, having sent their sons to the field, to peril their lives 
for the safety of their homes, their property, and the National govern- 
ment — having poured out at the first blush of their patriotism, their 
treasure and their blood, with the freeness of water, at length, through 
their indifference and apathy, and the love of ease and luxury, which 
the war engendered, sought the unstable terms of an inglorious peace, 
and finally became only subservient to those whom they attempted to 
subdue? That this shall not be the record of the people of the Empire 
State, with your sympathy and hearty co-operation, we, the under- 
signed ofiicers, non-commissioned officers and privates of the 44th 
Regiment of New York Volunteers, representing every county from 
Lake Erie to the Ocean, have pledged anew our lives and our sacred 
honor. For we feel assured if you seek peace, on any terms less than 
that of an entire submission on the part of the traitors in arms to 
the government of the United States that that peace will only be 
temporary, and that sooner or later, you will be obliged to send your 
younger sons and brothers to enrich this soil already fertile with the 
dead — younger and fresher blood to crimson the streams already red 
with the slaughter." 

In another letter for publication McKendree Shaw says : 

"Our regiment has a literary society, which meets semi-weekly 
for discussion, reading of essays, poems, papers, etc. Our last ques- 


[Chap. Xn. Reviewed by President Lincoln. March 26, 1863] 

tion for discussion read, 'Resolved that American Slavery ought to 
be Abolished.' But few were willing to take the negative. Those 
whom we had supposed to be strongly tinctured with pro-slaveryism, 
declared that they could not take that side. Those in favor of emanci- 
pation were not only listened to attentively, but were applauded. Our 
chapel was filled and the most sanguine could not have expected so 
strong an anti-slavery feeling. True, this is only speaking of the 
feeling in the Forty-Fourth regiment, but I think the feeling is spread- 
ing rapidly through the army." 

During the latter part of March President Lincoln visited 
the army and on the 26th reviewed the 5th Corps. General 
Butterfield became Chief of Staff, General Meade was placed 
in command of the 5th Corps, General Griffin was continued 
in command of the ist Division, Col, Stockton of the i6th 
Mich, was placed in command of the 3d Brigade, and Col. 
Rice was in command of the Forty-Fourth N, Y. Lieut. Frank 
M. Kelley was appointed Acting Assistant Adjutant General of 
the 3d Brigade. 

Capt. Nash was appointed Acting Assistant Inspector Gen- 
eral of the 3d Brigade. 

The following letter of Col. Rice was published in the 
Albany Evening Journal about the first of February, 1863: 


"The Forty-Fourth Regiment New York State Volunteers, was 
originally composed of 1023 men, rank and file, selected from the dif- 
ferent towns and villages throughout the State of New York, and it 
entered the service of the United States on the 8th day of August, 1861. 

The average height of the rank and file of this regiment was five 
feet ten and one-half inches, and more than four hundred of the same 
averaged six feet. 

The average age of the rank and file was twenty two years. On 
or about the ist of November, 1861, the regiment marched into Vir- 
ginia, forming a part of the Third Brigade under the command of 
General Butterfield. It became very proficient in the manual of arms 
and battalion drill, through the efficiency of that thorough disciplinarian 
and accomplished officer. 

Since the ist of November, 1861, this regiment has marched 713 
miles, performed 103 days picket and fatigue duty, and drilled 147 
days on an average of five hours per day. 

The regiment has been engaged in the following battles, viz : 
Siege of Yorktown, Hanover Court House, Gaines Mills, Turkey 
Bend, Malvern Hill, Second Bull Run, Antietam, Shepherdstown Ford 
and Fredericksburg. 

In the battle of Hanover Court House the regiment lost in killed 


Was born April 13, 1844, in Potter. Yates Co.. N. Y. ; resided in 
that town until his enlistment in Company C, 44th N. Y. V. I., at 
Penn Yan. X. ^'., on August 30, 1862. With the Company joined the 
regiment in the held in 1862 shortly after the battle of Antietam; 
saw constant service until May. 1864. Took part in the engagements 
at Fredericksburg, Va.. Richards Eord, Chancellorsville. Middleburg, 
Gettysburg. Jone's Cross Roads. Bristoe Station, Rappahannock Sta- 
tion. Mine Run. The Wilderness. Laurel HilTand Spottsylvania Court 

On Deceml;er 13th, 1862, while assisting after nightfall in remov- 
ing the wounded from the scene of the Union charge at Marye s 
Heights, Fredericksburg, he became separated from his Company, and 
at daybreak was compelled to run the gauntlet of Rebel sharpshooters 
to regain his command. At Gettysburg he was woimded in the left 
leg. At Spottsylvania Court House, while fighting almost within the 
Confederate lines, he was struck by a ball or piece of shell in the 
forehead, and on becoming conscious he made an effort to drag him- 
self to the rear, when he was struck in the right hip by a bullet and 
rendered helpless, but fortunately was soon discovered and helped to 
the rear. After spending three months in the hospital was trans- 
ferred to 9th V. R. C. Did garrison and patrol duty at and near 
Washington until June 26, 1865. when he was discharged. In 1886 
he joined the J. B. Sloan Post No. 93. G. A. R.. of which Post he 
was Commander in 1889 and 1900. 





[Chap. Xn. "What Became of the 44th Regt." Feb., 1863] 

and wounded twenty-five per cent of its force engaged. In the battle 
of Gaines Mills the loss was twenty per cent. And in the battle of 
Malvern Hill the loss was forty-five per cent. At the latter battle the 
regiment charged at a critical moment in the fortunes of the day, upon 
an entire brigade of the enemy, put it to flight and captured its stand 
of colors. 

The total number, rank and file of the original members of the 
regiment, killed and wounded is 314; of deaths by disease 67; dis- 
charged for disability 207 ; detached from the regiment 45 ; promoted 
to the rank of commissioned officers in this and other regiments 32; 
discharged by order of the Secretary of War including musicians 50. 

Of the original rank and file there are present for duty at this 
date, 229; present sick in camp, 9; absent sick, 125. 

Recapitulation of the original members of the Regiment, rank 
and file: 

Killed 113 

Wounded 201 

Died of disease 67 

Discharged for disability 207 

Detached from the Regiment 45 

Promoted 32 

Discharged by order 50 

Present for duty 229 

Present sick in camp 9 

Absent, sick 125 

Less wounded returned to duty 55 


The regiment has recruited since its organization 181, of which eight 
have been killed or wounded, five have died of disease, five have been 
discharged for disability, two detached from the regiment, one pro- 
moted to the rank of commissioned officer in this regiment, present 
for duty 116; present sick 22; absent sick 22. 
Recapitulation of recruits received: 

Killed I 

Wounded 7 

Died of disease 5 

Discharged for disability 5 

Detached 2 

Promoted i 

Present for duty 116 

Present sick 22 

Absent sick 22 

Total 181 


[Chap. Xn. Incompetency Inquiry. Feb., 1863I 

Companies C and E are composed of the recruits above mentioned, 
and entered the service after the battle of Antietam. 

Recapitulation of the total strength of the regiment at this date: 

Killed 1 14 

Wounded 208 

Died 72 

Discharged for disability 212 

Discharged by order Sec. of War 50 

Detached 47 

Promoted 33 

For duty 345 

Present sick 31 

Absent sick 147 


No accurate account of the number of the wounded that have died 
from their wounds, or been discharged on account thereof, has as yet 
been received by the Adjutant of the regiment, and therefore, all such 
of the rank and file have been included under the head of discharged 
for disability, and those of the wounded who are absent and unfit for 
duty are included among the absent sick. 

The following officers of the regiment have been wounded, viz : 
Lieut. Col. Conner, Major Chapin, Adjutant Knox, Captains, Larrabee, 
Nash, Vanderlip, Shaffer, Becker, Gibbs, McRoberts, and Woodworth, 
Lieutenants, Fox, Hardenburg, Kelley, Graves and Gaskill. 

Five officers were on detached service; three had resigned, and 
two had died before the first engagement. 

In several battles not all of the regiment was engaged, a large 
number of soldiers having been left as camp guard. 

Dated Feby. ist, 1863. 

Commanders are sometimes charged with over statement of 
battle losses, but in Col. Rice's article above, the reverse is 
true, as he reports but one killed and 7 wounded of the two 
companies, whereas Co. C, alone had one man killed and ten 
wounded, and a list of their names is in hand. 

Many means were taken to restore confidence among the 
troops and add to their efficiency. Steps were taken to rid 
the army of incompetent and unworthy commissioned officers. 
To that end a Commission was appointed in the 5th Corps to 
inquire into the habits, competency and fitness of officers or- 
dered before it. In making the test quite a rigid examination 
was held. 

General Butterfield, the resourceful Chief of Staff, devised 
corps badges to be worn on the hat or cap, to indicate to what 


Chap. Xn. Identification Badges Adopted. March, 1863] 

command the soldier belonged. The Maltese Cross was the 
emblem of the 5th Corps. The ist Division was indicated by 
a red badge, the 2d Division by a white badge, the 3d Di- 
vision by a blue badge. The other corps had distinctive 
badges and the different divisions were indicated in a similar 
manner. Early in the month of April an order was issued 
permitting fifteen days furloughs to be given to three mem- 
bers of each company in the different regiments. The fur- 
loughs were eagerly sought. Through some unfortunate mis- 
take in vaccinating, small pox was spread through the entire 
20th Me. regiment and they were removed to a separate camp. 
In the month of April frequent rumors spread through 
the army that a movement was about to be made. From time 
to time preparatory orders were issued and countermanded, 
on account of the weather or the condition of the roads. The 
irrevocable order came at last. It was to the effect that the 
5th Corps was to move at 11 o'clock on the 27th day of April, 
with 8 days rations. This meant that each man was to carry 
in haversack and knapsack his supply of rations, covering that 
period. Experience proved that it was difficult to make ra- 
tions hold out for that length of time, carried in that manner. 
The morning of the 27th day of April was clear and pleasant. 
The camp was in great confusion in making preparations for 
the start. At 12 o'clock M. line was formed and the move- 
ment began. After marching about 8 miles a halt was made 
for the night at Hartwood Church. On the 28th march was 
resumed at 12 o'clock M., and no halt was made until a point 
on the Rappahannock River near Kelley's Ford was reached. 
The distance travelled was about 12 miles. The regiment 
bivouacked about 2 miles from Kelley's Ford. Soon as the nth 
and 1 2th Corps cleared the pontoon bridge at Kelley's Ford 
the 5th Corps began to cross. After crossing, it took up its 
line of march for Ely's Ford on the Rapidan, which place was 
reached about 5 o'clock P. M. A detachment of cavalry forded 
the river and dispersed the Confederate cavalry, posted on the 
other side. It was important to have infantry follow the 
cavalry with as much dispatch as possible. There were no 
pontoons at hand with which to build a bridge. Col. Rice asked 
permission of General Meade to take the lead with the Forty- 
Fourth in fording the river. It did not require much persuasion 


[Chap. Xn. Chancellorsville. April 27, 1863] 

to obtain permission. Preparations were hastily made, the 
men hung their cartridge boxes on their bayonets, and the 
crossing began. The water was waist deep, quite cold, and 
the current very swift. As a matter of precaution in some in- 
stances men supported each other. The crossing was effected 
without accident and with very little delay. After crossing, 
the regiment moved back upon the heights and bivouacked for 
the night. The rest of the division soon followed. It was under- 
stood at the time that the regulars, which composed most 
of our 2d Division, made the request that they be allowed to 
wait until the pontoon bridge was laid before crossing, and 
that General Meade replied : "It does not hurt regulars to get 
wet any more than it does volunteers." A march of 21 miles 
had been made in the course of which two rivers were 
crossed. On the morning of the 30th the advance commenced 
about 6 o'clock, proceeding cautiously toward Chancellorsville, 
which place was reached about 11 o'clock A. M. The place, 
which was about to be rendered famous by the operations of 
the next few days, consisted of a large brick house at the 
junction of two cross roads. The 5th Corps was here joined 
by the nth and 12th Corps, which had crossed the Rapidan 
River at Germanna Ford. The position here reached secured 
the crossing of the Rappahannock River at U. S. Ford. At 
this time the ist, 3d and 6th Corps had successfully crossed 
the Rappahannock below Fredericksburg and were in posi- 
tion to take up the important work before them. At this 
juncture General Hooker issued the following order : 

"Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, 

April 30, 1863. 
General Order No. 47. 

It is with heartfelt satisfaction the General commanding announces 
to the army that the operations of the last three days, have determined 
that our enemy must either ingloriously fly, or come out from behind 
his defenses and give battle on our own ground, where certain destruc- 
tion awaits him. 

The operations of the 5th, nth and 12th corps have been a suc- 
cession of splendid achievements. 

By command of Major General Hooker, 

S. Williams, 
Asst. Adj. Genl." 

On the 1st day of May the next important step in the 
campaign was to be taken. Early in the morning line was 


[Chap. Xn. Chancellorsville. May i, 1863I 

formed and advance was made, with the view of opening up 
Bank's Ford, down the Rappahannock toward Fredericksburg. 
The I St Division formed the left of the Hne with its left near 
the river. When the division had reached a point within 
about one and one half miles from Bank's Ford, and within 
sight of it, an order was received to return to the position 
it occupied in the morning. No reason was given for such an 
order and none could be required. All troops in advance 
were ordered to return and a general line of battle was formed, 
extending each way from the Chancellor House with the 5th 
Corps occupying the left of the line, its left resting on the 
river. In this position skirmishers were thrown out and 
strong defensive works were erected. At this stage of the 
engagement our troops were cheered with the prospects that 
we were to fight behind entrenchments. About one o'clock 
in the morning of May 2d, with the view of contracting the 
general line, our brigade took a new position about one and 
a half miles nearer U. S. Ford, where new strong defensive 
works were erected, and a strong line of skirmishers thrown 

On the morning of the 3d the nth Corps, which had been 
disadvantageously attacked, and driven from its position on 
the evening of the 2d, relieved the 5th Corps and the 5th Corps 
was moved to the right center of the general line. On taking 
this new position skirmishers were thrown out and strong 
breastworks were thrown up. This position being considered 
important, special instructions were given that it must be held 
at all hazards. The 3d Brigade set cheerfully at work to 
comply with the order. It never feared a front attack when 
advantageously posted. In this position the brigade remained 
until 2 o'clock A. M. on Wednesday the 6th, From time to 
time during the interval heavy skirmish firing, both night and 
day, was had on our front but there was no general engage- 
ment. It was at this time that the woods between the fines 
became on fire, in which the wounded perished in great agony 
and the dead were consumed. The origin of the fire is not 
known. It is charitable to assume the fire was caused by acci- 
dent. At dark on the evening of Tuesday, May 5th, the army 
commenced its movement to the rear. The first division acted 
as rear guard of the army. At 2 o'clock in the morning of May 


[Chap. Xn. ChancellorsTille a Failure. May 6, 1863] 

6th, the balance of the army having withdrawn, our division 
gradually and cautiously fell back, the different brigades form- 
ing alternate lines of battle. During the forepart of the night 
a heavy rain storm set in, which was advantageous in con- 
cealing the movements of our troops but which rendered the 
rearward movement difficult and tedious. The U. S. Ford on 
the Rappahannock was reached and crossed on pontoon bridges 
about 8 o'clock. On reaching the North side of the river the 
brigade took up its line of march for its old camp ground at 
Stoneman's Switch, which was reached about 4 or 5 o'clock P. 
M. After a strenuous campaign of 9 days, the regiment had, 
for the third time, returned to this same camping ground. 
During the campaign the regiment lost in wounded 3 on May 
I St, 2 on May 3d and one on May 4th. The number of casual- 
ties were verified by the diary of Sergeant Hatch of Company 
A. The small number of losses is attributable to the lack of 
opportunity to become more seriously engaged. The Forty- 
Fourth was the first infantry regiment to reach the zone of 
the battlefield at Chancellorsville. It was present and ready 
for duty during the entire engagement, and took part with 
the I St Division in acting as rear guard in covering the re- 
treat of the army. The lack of opportunity to become more 
aggressive in the battle could not be attributed to General 
Meade, who commanded the 5th Corps. Accompanied by Lieut. 
Col. A. S. Webb, his Assistant Inspector General, he rode to 
General Hooker's headquarters, while the terrible assault was 
being made on the 3d Corps, and advised and urged that the 
5th Corps and the ist Corps should be ordered to attack the 
enemy in their front, in order to relieve the pressure on the 
3d Corps. The prearrangement for the campaign seems to 
have been well considered, the first stages of its execution, suc- 
cessfully accomplished, but later on there appeared to be a 
failure to comprehend the movements of the enemy, or to 
provide adequate counter movements to meet them. Surely, 
the failure could not be attributed to a lack of zeal or per- 
sistent fighting on the part of our army. 
General Meade, in his report, says : 

"To the men under their command (division officers) I can not 
adequately express the satisfaction with which I witnessed their ready 
and cheerful obedience to all orders, their submission to privation and 


[Chap. Xn. i2th and 17th N. Y. Discharged. May, 1863] 

exposure, night marches in mud and rain, fording deep streams, using 
the axe and the spade more than the musket, and ready at all times 
to go forward and meet the enemy. It is such service as this that tries 
and makes the real soldier." 

The recent reverses had not modified the impending issues 
nor dispelled in the army the hope and expectation of the 
final victory of the Union cause. A start was about to be 
made in a new campaign. The army looked to the future 
with undiminished confidence, while its footsteps were point- 
ing to the rear. The few days repose after returning from 
Chancellorsville w'ere spent in resting and removing from 
the person and clothing a liberal accumulation of Virginia mud. 
On the 17th day of May the 12th and 17th regiments of N, Y. 
Vols, left the brigade for home, their terms of service hav- 
ing expired. The 20th Me., which had been in a camp, removed 
from the rest of the brigade on account of smallpox, returned 
to its place. The brigade now consisted of the 83d Penn., the 
i6th Mich., the 20th Me. and the Forty-Fourth N. Y. On 
the i8th Col. Stockton of the i6th Mich., who had been in 
command of the brigade for several months, resigned and 
Col. Strong Vincent of the 83d Penn., succeeded to the com- 
mand. On the 19th General Hooker reviewed the army on 
the heights back of Falmouth, in plain sight of the Confederate 
army. On the 20th camp was struck and a final movement 
was made from Stoneman's Switch. A new camp was es- 
tablished about 2 miles from the old one. On reaching the 
new ground, work was at once begun to put the camp into 
proper condition. Major Knox took charge of having a fine 
flag pole erected. On the 23d, Col. Rice left on a short leave 
of absence. While here company, battalion and brigade drills 
were resumed. On the 28th tents were struck and the regi- 
ment marched to Banks' Ford, where it remained until the 
4th day of June, guarding the river. The rest of the brigade 
was stationed at different fords farther up the river. While 
at this place the Confederate pickets became quite commu- 
nicative. Our troops and the Confederates bathed at the same 
time in the river, each keeping on their own side. On the 4th 
day of June, march was resumed to Grove Church, a distance 
of 12 miles. On the next day march continued to Ellis' Ford, 
where we remained until the 9th. On the 8th Lieut. Col. Con- 


[Chap. Xn. The Army Moves. June 9, 1863] 

ner returned to the regiment, having been absent, wounded, 
since the Battle of Fredericksburg. At one o'clock A. M. on 
the 9th a march was made to Kemper's Ford on the Rappa- 
hannock. On the nth orders came to send to the rear all 
surplus baggage, all who were sick or disabled and be ready- 
to move at a moment's notice, with 3 days rations. Every- 
thing being in readiness on the 13th at 7 o'clock P. M. a march 
of 7 miles was made to Morrisville, arriving there at 1 1 o'clock 
P. M. Here we became reunited with the rest of the division. 
March was continued the next day to Catlett's Station, on the 
line of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad — reaching there 
at 8 o'clock P. M., and bivouacking for the night. The dis- 
tance marched was 13 miles. We started at 5 130 A. M. on the 
15th, and marched to Manassas Junction, where we remained 
until the 17th. We had now reached the vicinity of the old 
Bull Run battlefield. It became an important inquiry among 
the troops as to whether or not we were going to pass this 
historic field without adding another chapter to the war. At 
an early hour on the 17th march was resumed, 23 miles were 
made and we encamped in the woods near Gum Springs. The 
sun was hot, the roads were quite dusty and many were obliged 
to fall out. On the 19th the command marched to Aldie, a dis- 
tance of 5 miles, and bivouacked for the night. On the 21st 
the 1st Division under General Barnes, was ordered to report 
to General Pleasanton. In pursuance of such order the di- 
vision started for Middleburg about one o'clock A. M. On 
reaching that place, the 3d Brigade, under Col. Vincent, ad- 
vanced, and cooperated with the cavalry under General Gregg. 
The Confederate Cavalry, under General Stuart, were strongly 
posted behind a stone wall, perpendicular to the Ashby Gap 
road. A front and flank attack soon dislodged them. Our 
cavalry followed in pursuit until Crummer's Run was reached, 
where the enemy made a strong resistance and opened a brisk 
artillery fire. Again our brigade advanced, fording the stream, 
and sent the enemy whirling to the rear. The fighting con- 
tinued, with the same success to the Union troops, until Goose 
Creek was reached, where the Confederates took advantage 
of a stone wall, commanding the defile and bridge by which 
the Union troops must pass. The creek not being fordable, 
the i6th Mich., led by Capt. Fuller, gallantly rushed over 

'""the NEV/ YO R K 



Born Oct. 25. 1840 at Perrysburg, N. Y., enlisted in the 44th regi- 
ment in Sept. 1861. He saw active service until spring of 1862 when, 
because of sickness brought on by exposure during the winter, he was 
sent to the hospital and his physical condition becoming much reduced ; 
he was compelled to accept discharge and returned home. 

Later he engaged in farming until his removal to Jamestown in 
1891. In 189s he became assistant doorkeeper in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, which position he filled faithfully and conscientiously until 
his death June 28. 1908, at his home. Falconer, N. Y. 


Born at Perrysburg. N. Y., July 27, 1842, enlisted in the 44th Regi- 
ment N. Y. Vols, in September 1861. He went to the front in Oc- 
tober and gave continuous service until he was wounded at the Bat- 
tle of Hanover Court House, May 21, 1862. and instantly killed at 
the Battle of Gaines Mills, Va., June 27, 1862. 

An unselfish disposition, willingness to befriend those in need, 
courtesy and politeness toward comrades and officers, faithful dis- 
charge of duty in all places and undaunted bravery are some of the 
traits attributed to this son of Freedom bv those who knew him best. 


(Chap. Xn. Upperville and Aldie. June 21, 1863] 

the bridge, up to the stone wall, under a severe fire, dislodging 
the enemy and capturing a number of prisoners. The enemy 
again fled followed by the cavalry, who drove them into and 
beyond Upperville. The infantry, considerably fatigued, could 
not keep up with the cavalry. They followed as fast as their 
tired condition would permit to a point near Upperville, and 
took position in support of the artillery. At 6 o'clock P. M. 
Col. Tilton, commanding ist Brigade, relieved the 3d Brigade, 
which moved a short distance to the rear and bivouacked for 
the night. On the 22d our brigade returned to its camp near 
Aldie. During this engagement Col. Conner was in command 
of the 20th Me. In the engagement the Forty-Fourth lost i 
killed and 2 wounded. This movement developed the fact 
that none of the Confederate infantry had passed through 
the gap to the east side of the Blue Ridge. 

While in camp at Aldie 80 men from 14th N. Y. Vols., 
whose terms of service had not expired when that regiment, 
which was a two years' regiment, was mustered out, were 
transferred to the Forty-Fourth N. Y. and were distributed 
among the different companies. A large proportion of these 
transferred men became members of the Forty-Fourth only on 
paper, never joining it in person. In some instances the odious 
word "deserted" appeared opposite a soldier's name, but lack 
of definite information prevented the officers of the Forty- 
Fourth from determining the truth or falsity of such record, 
greatly to their regret. 

Not far from our camp at Aldie, stood the country resi- 
dence of President Monroe, then owned by Major Fairfax, 
who was absent in the Confederate Army. The original pro- 
prietor was present to the minds of many, but the present pro- 
prietor was absent from sight. Many of our soldiers visited 
the place and v^uld have been much pleased to have met the 
proprietor. The country in this part of Virginia is productive 
and beautiful. 

On the 26th our corps left camp at Aldie, passing through 
Carter's Mills and Leesburg, crossing the Potomac at Edwards 
Ferry and bivouacked for the night at Poolville, Md., having 
made a march of 20 miles. 

Starting at an early hour the next day a march of 20 
miles was made to a point near Frederick City, Md. The coun- 


Chap. Xn. Hooker Relinquished Command. June 37, 1863] 

try through which we passed was beautiful and the people 
loyal and friendly. We remained in camp all day on the 28th. 
General Hooker, becoming dissatisfied with the dictation from 
Washington, resigned the command of the army. The ne- 
cessity for making a change of commanders of the army at 
this juncture was deplorable. The affairs of the country had 
become such as to cause widespread anxiety among the people. 
A great battle was imminent, the enemy was confident and ag- 
gressive, and a misstep now might mean defeat for the army 
and dire disaster for the country. The selection of a proper 
commander of the Army of the Potomac was still in an experi- 
mental stage. 


(Chap. xm. Meade Succeeds Hooker. June 27, 1863 





President Lincoln relieved General Hooker from command 
and issued an order, making Maj, Gen. George G. Meade his 
successor. General Meade had distinguished himself by his 
gallantry and fidelity in a subordinate position, but placing 
him in command of the army was, in a measure, experimental. 
The order placing him in command was made without con- 
sulting him, was imperative, leaving no option but to assume 
the responsible duty. The Confederate Army, well commanded 
and confident of success, was concentrating for the terrible con- 
flict which was about to follow. 

The follovdng orders were issued : 

Sandy Hook, June 27, 1863, i P.M. 
Maj. Genl. H. W. Halleck, 

Commander in Chief. 
My original instructions require me to cover Harpers Ferry and 
Washington. I have now imposed on me in addition an enemy in my 
front of more than my number. I beg to be understood, respectfully, 
but firmly, that I am unable to comply with this condition with the 
means at my disposal, and earnestly request that I may at once be 
relieved from the position I occupy. 

Joseph Hooker, 

Major General. 

War Department Adjutant General's Office 

Washington, June 27, 1863. 
General Orders 
No. 194 

By direction of the President Major General Hooker is relieved 
from command of the Army of the Potomac and Major General George 
G. Meade is appointed to the command of that army, and of the troops 
temporarily assigned to duty with it. 


Adjutant General. 


[Chap. Xm. Safety of the Capital. June 28, 1863] 

Frederick, Md., June 28, 1863, 7 A.M. 
General H. W. Halleck, 

General in Chief. 
The order placing me in command of this army is received. As 
a soldier I obey it, and to the utmost of my ability will execute it. 
Totally unexpected as it has been, and in ignorance of the exact con- 
dition of the troops, and position of the enemy, I can only now say 
that it appears to me I must move toward the Susquehanna keeping 
Washington and Baltimore well covered, and if the enemy is checked in 
his attempt to cross the Susquehanna, or if he turns toward Baltimore 
to give him battle. I would say that I trust every available man that 
can be spared will be sent to me, as, from all accounts, the enemy is 
in strong force. So soon as I can post myself up I will communicate 
more in detail. 

Geo. G. Meade, 

Major General. 

The safety of the Capital and the destiny of the Nation 
hung in the balance. The grand Army of the Potomac, which 
never faltered in the performance of its duty, was ready to 
give a good account of itself, if properly marshalled. Maj. 
Gen. George Sykes succeeded General Meade in command of 
the 5th Corps, Gen. Butterfield, who had been the efficient 
Chief of Staff under General Hooker, was continued in that 
position under the new commander. The army remained in 
position on the 28th, in order that the new commander might 
make himself familiar with the general situation. 

At 8 o'clock on the morning of the 29th the 5th Corps was 
again put in motion. When the Forty-Fourth passed through 
Frederick City, it marched in column by platoon, with flag 
flying and drums beating. The manifestation of loyalty and 
good will on the part of the people of Frederick City was 
truly inspiring. The buildings were profusely decorated with 
flags and bunting, and the people in many ways displayed their 
sympathy. There was quite a contrast between the reception 
our troops received in this place and the reception they were 
accustomed to receive in the State of Virginia. Continuing 
our march, we passed through Liberty and after making a 
march of 18 miles, halted for the night between Liberty and 
Johnsville. It rained hard during the night and the troops 
got pretty well soaked. On the 30th the bugle sounded the 
reveille before daylight and at 4 :30 A. M. march was resumed, 
our brigade leading the corps and our regiment leading the 


[Chap. Xm. En Route to Gettysburg. July i, 1863] 

brigade. We passed through Johnsville, Middletown, Union- 
town, Frizellburgh and bivouacked for the night at Union Mills, 
having marched about 23 miles. After passing through Frizell- 
burgh our regiment had skirmishers out during the rest of 
the day. The precaution taken in marching indicated that a 
point had been reached where the enemy might be expected. 
On July I St, march was resumed about 8 o'clock A. M. About 
noon, the line between the States of Maryland and Pennsyl- 
vania was crossed. This circumstance awakened great en- 
thusiasm among the troops. Flags were unfurled, drums beat, 
bands played and the troops voluntarily changed from the "rout 
step" to regular order. The people hailed with delight the ad- 
vent of the army. The day before, this country had been 
over run by Confederate cavalry, who appropriated, unspar- 
ingly, horses, provisions and other property. The people and 
our army were of one sentiment and in hearty accord. Han- 
over was reached late in the afternoon. While here it was 
learned that the ist and nth Corps had been assailed by over- 
whelming numbers at Gettysburg, and after a desperate bat- 
tle, lasting nearly all day, were driven back with great loss. 
It was also learned that the gallant General Reynolds, who 
was in command of our troops, was killed. This news caused 
a change in the plan for the night. While preparing supper, 
orders were received to march at once to Gettysburg. Before 
the arrival of the infantry, there had been a sharp engage- 
ment of cavalry in the streets of Hanover, in which the Con- 
federates were defeated. After a short rest, our weary troops 
continued their march towards Gettysburg, passing through 
McSherrystown and Irishtown. All along the route, the people 
extended words of cheer and welcome and in many instances 
proffered such refreshments as they had. About one o'clock 
A. M. of July 2d a halt for rest was made about 4 or 5 miles 
from the battlefield. About 3 130 A. M. the bugle sounded the 
reveille, and after partaking of a hasty breakfast, our corps 
was again put in motion, reaching the battlefield about 7 o'clock 
A. M. The corps halted in reserve near the right of the gen- 
eral line. Arms were stacked and the troops were allowed 
to rest in position. On reaching the field fuller accounts of 
the first day's battle were received. It was then learned that 
the skirmishers of the Confederate infantry advanced from 


[Chap. Xm Gettysburg, First Day. July i, 1863] 

the North and West on Buford's Cavalry Videttes at an 
early hour on the morning of the first day of July. In the 
outset our troops consisted of only 2 small brigades of cavalry, 
who fought dismounted. Although attacked by a superior in- 
fantry force, they succeeded in holding their position until 
relieved by the ist Corps under General Reynolds, which 
began to arrive about 10 o'clock A. M. As fast as the ad- 
vance detachments of the ist Corps reached the field, they 
became at once engaged. While directing the posting of his 
troops as they arrived, the gallant General Reynolds was killed 
and the command of his corps devolved on General Abner 
Doubleday. The loss of so prominent a General at that crit- 
ical time was sorely felt. Later on the nth Corps came upon 
the field and at once became engaged. The Confederates ad- 
vanced from the West and North over 27,000 strong, while 
the two corps pitted against them numbered only a little over 
18,000. Although fighting desperately, our troops engaged 
out-numbered, out-flanked and about 4 o'clock P. M., were 
driven from their position, with a loss of more than 
8,000. On the death of General Reynolds, General Howard 
assumed command of the forces engaged, which in their rear- 
ward movement from their first position were formed on 
the East and South side of the town on what is known as 
Cemetery Hill. About 6 o'clock P. M. the 3d and 12th Corps 
began to arrive on the field. The new general line was formed 
with the I2th Corps on Gulps Hill on the right, the nth Corps 
on its left on Cemetery Hill, the 2d Corps on its left in con- 
tinuation of the line and the 3d Corps to the left of the 2d 
Corps. Geary's Division of the 12th Corps occupied a de- 
tached position near Little Round Top, but joined the balance 
of the 1 2th Corps the next morning, without being relieved 
by any other troops. 

This was the general situation when the 5th Corps reached 
the battlefield at 7 o'clock in the morning of July 2d. The 
day was ushered in with a cloudless sky. The events that oc- 
curred the day before, the hurried concentration of the army, 
the spiteful firing along the picket line, an occasional exchange 
of artillery shots, the hurrying to and fro of staff officers and 
orderlies, were unmistakable signs that a great battle was 
about to be fought. Important questions of State as well as 


The map on the reverse of this leaf shows, approximately, the 
positions of the forces engaged at and adjacent to Little Round Top 
between the hours of 3:30 and 7:00 p.m., July 2, 1863, commonly 
known as "Longstreet's Charge on Little Round Top." 

The contours are located for every change of eight feet in eleva- 
tion. The datum plane is taken at 500 feet below the surface at 
Gettysburg, Cemetery Hill. The elevations of Round Top, Little 
Round Top and the bed of Plum Run creek are given on the map as 
respectively, 661, 548 and 380 feet above the datum plane mentioned. 
An attempt is made to show that the surface at and immediately 
adjacent to Little Round Top was covered with trees and immense 

The Confederate line of battle was formed for this assault about 
one mile westwardly from Little Round Top (outside the limits of 
this map) and at about 4 o'clock p.m., moved in several lines to- 
wards Little Round Top and the elevated valley or plateau between 
that summit and Round Top. By figures given on the map are de- 
signated the hours at which the several Confederate organizations 
started from their positions in the main line, and by broken lines 
the routes they traversed and approximately the points reached by 
them before being repulsed. No attempt is made to locate artillery 
(except Hazlett's Battery and Gibb's Ohio Battery), most of the 
artillery of both sides being, at the hours named, located outside 
the limits of this map. 

This map, including contours, is drawn from surveys made and, 
published by the U. S. Government in 1876 and later. 



(Chap. Xni. Gettysburg, Second Day. July 2, 1863] 

military consideration, seemed to hinge on the result. The 
men of our corps employed their time in rest and in mak- 
ing preparations for the work before them. The general line 
of battle was formed apparently with the expectation that 
the main attack of the enemy was to be made upon our right, 
while the left had received but little attention. Geary's Division 
had been taken from its position near Round Top and moved 
to Gulps Hill. Buford's Gavalry, which had been guarding 
the left, was sent away and not replaced by any other troops. 
The 3d Gorps, which occupied the left of the line, was posted 
with a view of occupying a prominent position, rather than 
conforming to the rest of the general line. The position of 
the 5th Gorps was changed two or three times during the 
day. Early in the afternoon it became apparent to those to- 
ward the left of the line that Lee's plan of battle was to en- 
velop and turn the Union left. Longstreet, who was dispatched 
with his command to execute the command, by taking a cir- 
cuitous route to conceal his movements, was delayed in reach- 
ing the coveted position. In the meantime General Warren, 
a member of General Meade's staff, having been sent out by 
General Meade on a tour of observation, saw the importance 
of holding Little Round Top and took prompt measures to 
have it occupied. He applied to General Sykes, who was ad- 
vancing with the 5th Gorps to the left and front, to send troops 
to occupy and hold that position. General Barnes, who was 
accompanying General Sykes, was ordered to dispatch a bri- 
gade for that purpose, and the 3d Brigade, which was the 
leading brigade of the corps, was thereupon detached from the 
balance of the division and marched rapidly to and upon that 
unoccupied height, wnich proved to be the key of the battle- 
field. Little Round Top was an irregular, rocky formation, 
something over one hundred feet in height, with sloping sides, 
its crest and sides being covered with shrubs, second growth 
trees and with rocks of different sizes and shapes promiscuously 
scattered over its surface. The 3d Brigade was formed in the 
following order from right to left : i6th Mich., Forty- Fourth 
N. Y., 83d Pa., and 20th Me. The brigade was posted well 
down the slope of Little Round Top, forming nearly a semi- 
circle and facing the flat lands to the right of and surrounding 
what was known as Big Round Top. Big Round Top was 


[Chap. Xm. "Little Round Top." July 2, 1863] 

an elevation about three hundred feet high, with its base about 
three hundred yards distant from the base of Little Round 
Top. The lands between the two round tops were flat and 
thinly covered with brush and trees. Obliquely to the right of 
the right of the brigade and about five hundred yards dis- 
tant was what was known as "Devil's Den." While the bri- 
gade was forming, one company from each regiment was or- 
dered to advance and deploy as skirmishers. Capt. Lucius S. 
Larabee, commanding Company B, was designated to perform 
that service for the Forty-Fourth N. Y. About the same 
time Col. Vincent, pointing to Big Round Top, said to the 
writer, who was Acting Assistant Inspector General of the bri- 
gade, "Take a mounted orderly, go up on that bluff and ob- 
serve the movements of the enemy." At this time the enemy 
were seen to the right of Big Round Top, advancing with two 
or three lines of battle, preceded by no skirmishers. All move- 
ments were executed with the utmost celerity. With as much 
dispatch as possible, the writer rode well up the side of Big 
Round Top, dismounted, gave his bridle to the orderly, ran 
up on a large rock and with glass endeavered to discover what 
was on the side of Big Round Top toward the enemy. While 
thus standing, an indefinite number of poorly aimed shots 
struck the rock. It was then discovered that a line of Con- 
federate troops was advancing unopposed and unheralded over 
Big Round Top, It was also discovered that the troops, which 
were seen before leaving Little Round Top, had moved by 
the flank and were furiously assailing the front of our entire 
brigade. The troops seen on Big Round Top, passed down its 
side and engaged in the assault. This circumstance is given 
to show the enterprise and determined character of the as- 
sault upon the left of our line and the routes by which ap- 
proaches were made. 

Let us now go back and trace the battle as it developed in 
front of the regiment and incidentally in front of the whole 
brigade. Capt. Larabee, when ordered, promptly moved his 
company to the front, deployed as skirmishers, and advanced. 
He had advanced less than 200 yards when he came upon 
the enemy, only a short distance away, advancing in two or 
more lines of battle. He at once ordered his skirmishers in 
retreat. While executing this movement, he was shot through 


Eldest of six sons of Nathaniel and Elmira (Burhans) Husted; grandson of 
Thaddeus Husted, a Revolutionary soldier. Born in Dutchess Co., N. Y., Oct. 
19. 1833. Assisted in raising the '"Xormal School Company" (New Co. E) 
of which Prof. Rodney G. Kimball was the first Captain. He participated in all 
the battles of the "Army of the Potomac" (16) from Oct. 1862 to Oct. 
1864; was once slightly wounded but never in hospital. At battle of Chancel- 
lorsville, May, 1863, his life was saved by testament and diary in side pocket 
of his coat. At battle of Wilderness, May, 1864, one bullet pierced his hat and 
another his boot leg; in same battle he barely escaped capture; had many hair- 
breadth escapes from serious wovinds in battle. 

Past Commander, Post 63, N. V. G. .\. R. ; four years Historian Phillip 
Livingston Chapter, Sons of the Revolution; Member of the Military Order of 
the Loyal Legion. , 

Marriages: 1867, Jane E. IngersoU, (died 1891) two daughters, Mrs. Wm. M. 
Strong and Mrs. Edwin S. Wilson; 1903, Mrs. Elizabeth Neemes Gladding (died 

Degrees: A. M. Hamilton College, 1866; Ph.D., Illinois Wesleyan Uni- 
verity, 1896. 

Civil positions: Instructor since 1855. and since 1869 Professor of Mathe- 
matics in New York State Normal College, Albany. Trustee and Treasurer Al- 
bany Institute and Historical Society. Treasurer and member of Executive com- 
mittee N. Y. State Sabbath Association. President for three years of Albany 
City Mission. Superintendent for ten years of Rensselaer Street Henion Mis- 
sion Sunday School. Elder Madison Avenue Refoimed (Dutch) Church, Al- 



[Chap. Xm. Salvation of the A. O. P. July 2, 1863] 

the body and instantly killed. He was a brave, competent 
and faithful officer. His death was a great loss and caused 
much sorrow to the entire regiment. A more extended notice 
of his life, services and death, will be given in another place. 
Following closely on the heels of the skirmishers, the enemy 
soon reached the front of the i6th Mich, and Forty-Fourth 
N. Y. and opened a furious assault on their lines. The right 
of the i6th Mich., by reason of its more exposed position, was 
temporarily forced back. The Forty-Fourth by its oblique 
fire to the right, aided in checking the advance of the assailants. 
The 140th N. Y., Col. O'Rorke commanding, of Weed's bri- 
gade of the 2d Division, arrived upon the field just in time to 
aid in repelling the assault. From this time on the battle raged 
furiously, gradually extending to the left and enveloping the 
83d Penn. and the 20th Me. Our troops, without time to 
make preliminary preparations, steadfastly repelled the as- 
saults of the enemy and forced them to break and retreat in 
confusion. Early in the engagement, Lieut. Hazlett, by great 
effort, with his men tugging at the wheels, succeeded in plant- 
ing his excellent battery upon the crest of Little Round Top, 
and rendered valuable services in repelling the assaults of the 
enemy. When his guns opened on the impetuous, surging Con- 
federate masses no military music ever sounded sweeter and 
no aid was ever better appreciated. In the midst of the roar 
and carnage of battle, our troops found time to lustily cheer 
Hazlett and his brave men. While the engagement was at 
its height, the gallant, heroic Vincent untimely fell. His loss 
will be more fully noticed hereafter. Weed, with the balance 
of his brigade, soon followed Col. O'Rorke of the 140th N. 
Y. and took an important position to the right of the 3d Bri- 
gade. In the meantime the Confederates were hunting and 
hustling to find, overlap and turn the left of our general line. 
For this purpose troops were marched by the flank to the rear 
of their line engaged, to enable them to obtain an advantageous 
position from which to deliver the assault. Troops, referred 
to heretofore as being on Big Round Top, descended its slopes 
and also became actively engaged. Hood's Division, which 
formed the attacking column, numbered more than 7,000 men 
and was divided into four brigades of about equal strength. At 
least two of his brigades, Law's and Robertson's, were engaged 


[Chap. XIII. 2oth Maine and 83d Pa. July 2, 1863] 

in the assault upon the 3d Brigade, which carried into the 
battle only 1,141 muskets. The Confederate host, which was 
marshaled to outflank and turn the left of our general Hne, 
soon found themselves confronted by the 83d Penn. and the 
20th Me. Made confident by reason of their greatly superior 
numbers, they advanced boldly to the assault. They soon gave 
an illustration of the old saying, "In its quality oft lies the 
strength of the host." A brisk fire at short range, sent the 
assailants back more rapidly than they came — only to come 
again in larger numbers and longer line. Col. Chamberlain of 
the 20th Me. met this new formation by having his left wing 
take intervals to the left and forming them at nearly right 
angles with his right. The battle raged here in terrible fury. 
The final assault of the day, on the extreme left of the line, 
was about to be made. Our troops had become battle-stained, 
war-worn and their numbers sadly depleted. The 60 rounds 
of ammunition issued to each man had been expended. The 
crucial test of heroism, physical alertness and endurance had 
come. To falter was to be overwhelmed and lost. Col. 
Chamberlain became satisfied that he was about to be assailed 
by an overwhelming force, anticipated the preparations making 
to annihilate or drive his regiment from the field and ordered a 
bayonet charge. His men, clearly comprehending the direful 
alternative in which they were placed, quickly adjusted their 
bayonets and with loud and prolonged shouts rushed upon 
the enemy. The boldness of their movement, their long at- 
tenuated line, magnified their aggressive force, and carried 
surprise and consternation to the masses of the enemy. Hold- 
ing fast by their right and executing an extended right wheel, 
they swept everything before them. This movement of the 
20th Me., seconded successively by the other regiments of the 
brigade, cleared the entire level lands between the Round Tops 
of the enemy. It was a most glorious triumph. The Con- 
federate's plan of battle, to envelop and turn the Union left, 
had signally failed. Their choicest troops, commanded by their 
ablest lieutenant, had been defeated by a much smaller force, 
and driven ingloriously from the field. The visible results 
of this day's battle in this part of the field were 50 dead in 
front of the 20th Me. and about the same proportion in front 
of the other regiments of the brigade, over 500 prisoners, in- 


(Chap. Xm. Gettysburg, Second Day. July 2, 1863] 

eluding 2 Colonels and 15 eommissioned offieers, together with 
over 1,000 stand of arms. Capt. Judson, in his history of the 
83d Penn., says: "And further still to the right, in a more 
open space, where the right of the Forty-Fourth and the left 
of the 1 6th Mich, had fought, I counted, several days after- 
wards, over 40 dead bodies within a circle of 50 feet in cir- 
cumference. They lay in every conceivable position among 
the rocks." The more remote and invisble results of the 
day's fighting were the effects on the remaining operations of 
the battle, the contribution toward the final triumph of our 
arms in the Civil War, and the incalculable bearing on the 
subsequent destiny of our common country. Reflection will 
show that these speculations are not entirely groundless. With 
Little Round Top, the conceded key of the battlefield in pos- 
session of a triumphant enemy, the remainder of the Union 
line could not have been maintained. /Vnother retrograde move- 
ment meant incalculable disaster to our arms and would have 
added new complications to the critical questions of State then 
pending. But why speculate further? The rout was complete. 
The broken lines of the enemy, in confusion and haste with- 
drew from the field, and disappeared behind the banks of 
smoke and the lowering dusk of evening. The key to the 
battlefield was safe. It was a dearly bought victory. Weed, 
commanding brigade to our right, Hazlett, battery commander, 
the chivalric Vincent, commanding our own brigade, and 
a host of other brave officers and men sacrificed their lives that 
the Union might live. Three hundred twenty-one officers and 
men of the Forty-Fourth N. Y. were reported for duty that 
day. As was generally the case, not all of those reported for 
duty entered the engagement. Every company in the regi- 
ment performed its whole duty and suffered severe losses. The 
largest company loss, in proportion to the number engaged, 
however, was by Company A, It took into the fight 40 men, 
of whom it lost 21 in killed and wounded. In the death of 
Capt. Lucius S. Larrabee of Company B., First Lieut. Eugene 
L. Dunham of Company D, and Second Lieut. Benjamin N. 
Thomas of Company K, the regiment suffered a great and 
grievous loss. They were all brave, efficient and faithful of- 
ficers. Captains William R, Bourne of Company K and Ben- 
nett Munger of Company C were severely wounded, the former 


[Chap. Xm. 3d Brig. Seizes Big Round Top. July 2, 1863] 

who was an original member of the regiment, had faithfully 
served with it in all its campaigns and battles, was permanently- 
disabled for further active service in the field and was reluc- 
tantly obliged to leave it. Adjutant George B. Herenden and 
First Lieut. Charles H. Zeilman were also slightly wounded. 
The casualties of the regiment will be found in the list of cas- 
ualties in another part of this work. 

About 9 o'clock in the evening Col. Rice, who had suc- 
ceeded to the command of the brigade, directed Col. Cham- 
berlain to seize and hold Big Round Top. This, with much 
persistence and daring, he was able to do, his regiment suf- 
fering some loss in the movement but capturing a number of 
prisoners, among them an officer on the staff of the Confederate 
General Law. It was understood that Col. Fisher, command- 
ing a brigade of Pennsylvania Reserves, was to give support 
in this movement. His failure to do this, caused Col. Cham- 
berlain to send for other support. The 83d Penn. and Forty- 
Fourth N. Y. were promptly sent to his aid. It was under- 
stood at the time that the failure of Col. Fisher to give adequate 
support in seizing and holding Big Round Top was not satis- 
factorily explained. The new advance line, occupied by our 
brigade, was held until the forenoon of the 3d, when it was re- 
lieved by the ist Brigade and our brigade was then moved to 
and held in reserve, to the rear of the left center of the general 
line. This position was not changed during the day but the 
brigade was under orders to be ready to move at a moment's 

Very early in the morning of the 3d heavy fighting was 
heard on the right. It was General Slocum, with the 12th 
Corps and detachments of the 6th Corps, engaged in recap- 
turing the works, taken by the enemy, while all but one bri- 
gade of his command was detached the day before to par- 
ticipate in the battle toward the left. The battle raged furi- 
ously at this point until 10:30 A. M., when the enemy were 
driven in confusion from the works and retired to their orig- 
inal line. Quiet now reigned along the whole general infantry 
line. It was like the calm that precedes the gathering storm. 
The several attacks on Little Round Top, Cemetery Hill, and 
Gulps Hill, had all been successfully repulsed with fearful 
slaughter to the enemy. The 3d Corps alone, after a most gal- 


[Chap. Xm. Gettysburg; "Pickett's Charge." July 3, 1863] 

lant and desperate struggle, had been forced back from its faulty 
position, to the position it was originally intended by the Com- 
manding General it should occupy. As was tersely said : "It had 
been hammered back to its proper position." To this time 
the net general results were decidedly in favor of the Union 
arms. The whole Army of the Potomac was now in an in- 
quisitive attitude to know what was to be the next movement 
by the baffled enemy. At one o'clock P. M. a single gun 
ominously broke the impressive stillness. It was the signal 
for 150 pieces of Confederate artillery, skillfully placed on 
exterior lines, to concentrate their fire upon the proposed point 
of attack. Our artillery, being placed on interior lines, was 
able to reply with only 80 pieces. An artillery duel was con- 
tinued for two hours, filling the air with bursting, shrieking 
projectiles, tearing and mutilating the earth and trees and 
filling the country for miles around with its reverberating 
thunders. The execution caused by the firing was not in pro- 
portion to the amount of ammunition expended and the noise 
produced. At the end of two hours our own artillery was 
ordered to cease firing. The enemy, assuming that our guns 
had been silenced, proceeded to put into execution the next 
step in their carefully prepared plan. As soon as the firing 
ceased, at least 15,000 troops, ably led and commanded by the 
Confederate General George E. Pickett, moved out from their 
place of concealment in compact lines and advanced to the as- 
sault. Their column of attack was directed upon a clump of 
trees near the left center of our general line, held by the ever- 
ready 2d Corps. It was a favorite plan of Napoleon for the 
assailants to mass heavily upon a given point and deliver blow 
after blow, until by mere force of superior numbers the point 
attacked was forced to give way. Such was the movement 
apparently contemplated by the enemy. It was a spectacle such 
as was seldom seen in any army. Tacitus wrote that the first 
object of an attacking army, is by noisy and spectacular demon- 
stration to carry fear to the minds of the opposing force. Pick- 
ett's charge was well calculated to accomplish that purpose. The 
preliminary cannonading, the compact well-regulated lines of 
infantry, with flying flags and glistening guns, the bold, con- 
fident advance, surely embodied elements that ordinarily carry 
consternation. But neither booming cannon, nor spectacular 


[Chap. Xm. Gettysburg; Enemy Defeated. July 3, 1863] 

demonstration, lessened the courage or dampened the ardor 
of the dauntless veterans of the Union Army. They clutched 
their guns and eagerly awaited the onset. The opportunity 
had at length arrived to chastise and turn back the rebellious 
hordes of our misguided countrymen. Unlike Caesar, they 
came, they saw, they were conquered. The gallantry of the 
assailants and their crushing defeat have been too often told 
and too graphically described to be repeated in detail here. 
Suffice it to say that in this desperate attempt of the Con- 
federate General to redeem a lost battle what is known as the 
high water mark of the Rebellion was reached. With broken 
lines and dispiriting confusion the remnant of the assaulting 
column recrossed that bloody field, made memorable by their 
valiant deeds, leaving in their trail a host of killed, wounded and 

Coincident with the foregoing described assault, at some 
distance to the right of the general infantry line, there was 
plainly heard a spirited, determined engagement. It was a bat- 
tle in progress between bodies of cavalry of the two opposing 
armies. The Confederate General Stuart, was endeavoring to 
create a diversion in aid of Pickett's charge. General Gregg's 
gallant division, augmented by the brigade of the invincible 
Custer, turned back the over-confident Confederates in inglori- 
ous retreat. This ended the fighting of the third day. Our 
line of battle was well defined and intact, our troops were well 
in hand and ready for any emergency. 

On Saturday, July 4th, our time-honored Independence Day, 
reconnaissances from both the right and left of our main line, 
developed the fact that Lee had contracted his lines, entrenched 
and apparently awaited an attack. In our army the day was 
passed in burying the dead of both armies, caring for the 
wounded, procuring a supply of rations and ammunition, and 
awaiting developments. The aggressive spirit of the Confed- 
erate Army had departed. A soaking rain added discomfort 
to the sorrow felt and shared by the whole army over our loss 
in battle. Our independence was won by sacrifice and a new 
chapter of sacrifice and triumph had been added to augment 
the glorious achievements of our forefathers. 

The joy of the Nation was unbounded, when the glorious 


[Chap. Xni. Gettysbiug and Vicksbuigl July 4, 1863] 

news from Gettysburg was supplemented by the intelligence 
that Vicksburg had surrendered to Grant. 

When an advance was made on the morning of the 5th it 
was found that the enemy had departed during the night. The 
hope formed by the Confederates on the expected vantage of 
a campaign of invasion had proved to be illusory. 

A cursory view of the battlefield after the battle bore ter- 
rible evidence of the conflict. Dismounted guns, disabled gun- 
carriages and caissons, dead artillery horses, unsightly, un- 
buried soldiers, solid shots, unexploded and fragments of 
shells, musket balls, the ground, the trees and scattering build- 
ings torn by projectiles, fragments of muskets and accou- 
trement, made a picture horrible to look upon and impossible 
to describe. 

In his diary. Sergeant E. R. Goodrich of Company A, says, 
"at night of July 2d, our company was on picket in our front 
at the foot of the hill. The ground was literally covered with 
dead and wounded. It was the worst picket duty I ever per- 
formed. Will never forget it. The Rebs were principally 
Texan troops. They said it was the first time their brigade 
had ever been repulsed. I spent all my time, while on picket, 
attending to the wounded, giving them water, fixing them in 
easy positions, cutting off shoes and helping them in every 
way I could. It was terrible, some crying, some praying, some 
swearing and all wanting help." This incident at once shows 
the effectiveness of the musketry firing of the regiment, the 
cruelty of war and the nobler attributes of human nature. They, 
who, just before darkness set in, had fought each other fiercely, 
had now been brought into new relations. They were no 
longer enemies. The nobler ties of a common humanity had 
dispelled the bitterness engendered by war and brotherly aid 
was cheerfully, tenderly, bestowed. Another incident is here 
related. The opportunity and success of Company E, First 
Lieut. A. N. Husted commanding, in capturing prisoners dur- 
ing a lull of the battle on July 2d, were such as to deserve par- 
ticular mention. The first assault of the enemy was pushed 
to such close proximity to our lines, that when the repulse 
came it was extremely hazardous to retreat. When the mo- 
mentum of the Confederate charge was expended, their ranks 


[Chap. XIII. Notable Captures. July 2, 1863] 

broke in confusion, some took the chances of a hasty retreat, 
some held up their hats and handkerchiefs in token of sur- 
render, and others took refuge behind rocks and a shght eleva- 
tion of ground not far from and opposite the right of Com- 
pany E. The ground further to the left was more open, af- 
fording less shelter. Five men belonging to that company vol- 
unteered to advance beyond our lines, rescue and capture 
prisoners. Lieut. Husted directed that such action should be 
taken. The names of those who volunteered to go, and did 
go, were First Sergeant Consider H. Willett, Charles Prud- 
hom and David J. Ferris from the right of the Company, and 
Corporals Oliver W. Sturdevant and Horace F. Mills from 
the left of the Company. These men acted with creditable 
promptness and sagacity. The broken, scattered line of the 
enemy was liable, at any time, to be succeeded by another line 
more formidable than the former. Notifying our own men not 
to fire, they boldly advanced to and among the Confederates, 
receiving their surrender and escorting them to the rear. It 
was a perilous service and required great haste and circum- 
spection. Sergeant Willett found a large number of the 
enemy concealed behind the rocks and the depression in the 
field, lying prone upon the ground. They were taken by sur- 
prise at his appearance among them and he very adroitly put 
them in motion and had them conducted to the rear. From 
his standpoint he counted 97 prisoners. In a paper entitled 
"Incidents at Gettysburg" Sergeant Willett says: "Our mus- 
ketry firing leaving the dead piled so thick that it was almost 
impossible to walk over the ground without stepping on the 
Rebel dead." In another place he says: "They (the enemy) 
tried to reach us with their bayonets and we were prepared to 
resist them with our bayonets." 

Sergeant Sturdevant, in a letter describing the incident, 

"Sergeant Willett's position was on the extreme right of the Com- 
pany, while I was located at the left. In their first charge the Confed- 
erate line came very close to us, so close that when they failed to dis- 
lodge us from our position, they were unable to fall back on account 
of our fire, and all along our front held up handkerchiefs and hats in 
token of surrender. In order to bring them in, five men of Company 
E, calling our comrades not to fire, ran down among them and even 
beyond their line, to get as many prisoners as possible. Of these five 


Enlisted as John Johnson; was born May 21. 1843, in Albany Co., 
N. Y. Married in the year 1870 to Martha J. Hutchinson of Albany, 
N. Y. Died December 13. 1904. at Muncie. Ind., leaving one child, a 

He was with his regiment at Big Bethel and the siege of York- 
town, and was shot through the lx)dy at the Battle of Hanover Court 
House, May 27, 1862. When brought to the hospital at Albany, his 
recovery was thought to be impossil)le. After his discharge he settled 
with friends in Albany where he attended the Academy and Business 
College. In July, 1864, he entered the Sanitary Commission under 
Captain C. E. Jones, working at and in the vicinity of City Point, 
Va., remaining there until June. 1865, when that department was dis- 

He returned to Albany where he held positions of trust with sev- 
eral leading business houses, and in 1882 he removed to Bridgeport. 
Conn., and established a profitable business which he left in 1884 for 
a more promising field in Muncie. Ind. With the higher interests of 
the latter city he was closely identified until his death, having been 
for some years an Elder in the Fir'^t Presbyterian Church, and Presi- 
dent of the Delaware Countv National Bark. 

,! APT'^-'^ 


[Chap. Xni. Death of Gen. Strong Vincent. July 7, 1863] 

men, Willett, Prudhom and Ferris were on the right and Corporal 
Mills and I on the left. I do not think I saw any of the party except 
Mills during the incident, nor did I know of the result until after the 
second Confederate line came in, when Mills and I barely escaped 
capture as we were pursuing a fleeing Confederate, did not see their 
line until they were close upon us. I think most of the enemy on our 
front, who were able to walk, crowded over to our right, behind the 
knoll and rocks where they were found and captured by Willett, Prud- 
hom and Ferris. Probably our work on the left sent many in that 
direction, as the hillside on the left was bare and exposed. I fully 
agree with Willett, that the scene where our first volley struck the 
enemy's line was one of sickening horror. Their dead and wounded 
were tumbled promiscuously together, so that it was difficult to cross the 
line where they fell without stepping on them. One circumstance I 
will mention. As I was searching among them for prisoners, one 
poof fellow begged me to cut the strap of his cartridge box, as it drew 
across his wound, and another besought me to be careful not to step 
on him as he was wounded. I had some conversation with the poor 
fellows, and spoke some kind words to them, which I do not now 
regret. I pray God that I may never witness such a scene again." 

Lieut. Hiisted says : "The prisoners all passed near where 
I was standing and I counted 92. The prisoners came pretty 
well bunched. One of them was struck in the back by a rebel 
bullet as he stood directly between myself and the enemy, 
begging me not to shoot him." The discrepancy of five be- 
tween the count of Husted and Willett may well be accounted 
for by the fact that their respective counts were made from 
different points. Lieut. Husted also says: "It should not be 
said that these five men captured ninety-seven men. Our line 
of battle compelled the surrender." 

Col. Rice issued the following appropriate order in honor 
of Brig. Gen. Strong Vincent: 

"Hdqrs, 3d Brig, ist Div. sth Corps, 

July 12, 1863. 
Gen. Orders No. 5. 

The Colonel commanding hereby announces to the brigade the 
death of Brig. Gen. Strong Vincent. He died near Gettysburg July 7, 
1863, from the effects of a wound received on the 2d instant, and within 
sight of that field which his bravery had so greatly assisted to win. 
A day, hallowed with all the glory of success, is thus sombered by the 
sorrow of our loss. Wreaths of victory give way to chaplets of mourn- 
ing, hearts exultant to feelings of grief. A soldier, a scholar, a friend 
has fallen. For his country, struggHng for its life, he willingly gave 
his own. Grateful for his services, the State which proudly claimed 


[Chap. Xlll. Captain Larabee's Prophecy. July 2, 1863J 

him as her own, will give him an honored grave and a costly monument, 
but he will ever remain buried in our hearts and our love, for his 
memory will outlast the stone which shall bear the inscription of his 
bravery, his virtues and his patriotism. 

While we deplore his death and remember with sorrow his loss, 
let us emulate the example of his fidelity and patriotism, feeling that 
he but lives in vain who lives not for his God and his country. 

By command of Col. James C. Rice commanding Third Brigade. 
George B. Herendeen, A. A. A. G. 

The writer, as Assistant Inspector General, served on the 
staff of General Vincent during the time he was in command of 
the brigade and from daily association with him, takes this op- 
portunity to testify to his real worth as a man, his accomplish- 
ments as a gentleman and scholar, his excellence as a soldier, 
his exalted character and his devoted patriotism. As brigade 
commander he was cool, alert, prompt and discreet to act, and 
brave and unyielding in battle. In his death the army, his State 
and the Nation sustained a great loss. 

While waiting in momentary expectation to advance to 
battle, Capt. Lucius S. Larabee, in conversation with Captains 
Bourne and Kimberly, said: "Since our last battle I have 
known that I would be killed the next time I was under fire." 
And he said he wished them to take his watch, money and val- 
uables. They endeavored to cheer him up and told him he was 
no more liable to be killed than either of them. The premoni- 
tion had taken such a strong hold of him that he was unable to 
shake it off. He left, with Quartermaster Mundy, his watch 
and valuables and the address of his brother in Chicago. That 
done, he went into battle, facing with undaunted courage his 
fore-doomed destiny. While the line was forming on Little 
Round Top, he was ordered to take his Company and deploy it 
as skirmishers, which he promptly proceeded to do. As he left 
his position in line, Capt. Bourne spoke to him, wishing him 
good luck. He replied, "Good bye, Billy, I shall never see you 
again." In this unexpected order he saw the setting sun of his 
pure, noble life. After advancing about 200 yards, he suddenly 
came upon the enemy's first line of battle, and was killed at the 
first volley. No braver soldier, no purer or truer spirit took 
its flight from that blood-drenched field. 

A few extracts, taken from official reports, are hereto ap- 


[Chap. Xm. Little Round Top "the Key." July 2, 1863] 

Col. Rice, among other things, in his report of the part taken 
by the 3d brigade, says : 

"The ground occupied by the brigade in line of battle was nearly 
that of a quarter circle, composed mostly of high rocks and cliffs on the 
center and becoming more wooded and less rugged as you approached 
the left. The right was thrown forward somewhat to the front of the 
ledge of the rocks and was much more exposed than other parts of the 
line. A comparatively smooth ravine extending along the entire front, 
perhaps fifty yards from our line, while on the left and beyond a high 
and jagged mountain rises, called Round Top Hill. 

The brigade had scarcely formed in line of battle and pushed for- 
ward its skirmishers, when a division of the enemy's forces, under Gen- 
eral Hood, made a desperate attack along the entire line of the brigade. 
He approached in three columns with no skirmishers in advance. The 
object of the enemy was evident. If he could gain the vantage ground 
occupied by this brigade the left flank of our line must give way, opening 
to him a vast field for successful operations in rear of our entire army. 

To effect this object the enemy made every effort. Massing two or 
three brigades of his force, he tried for an hour in vain to break the line 
of the Forty-Fourth N. Y. and 83d Penn., charging again and again 
within a few yards of these unflinching troops. At every charge he was 
repulsed with terrible slaughter. Despairing of success at this point, he 
made a desperate attack upon the extreme right of the brigade, forcing 
back a part of the i6th Mich., but being immediately supported by the 
140th N. Y. Volunteers, the line again became firm and unbroken. It 
was at this point of time that Col. Vincent, commanding the brigade, 
fell mortally wounded. The enemy again attacked the center and the 
extreme left with desperation, passing one brigade of his forces by the 
right flank in three columns he pushed through the ravine toward the 
left of our brigade, came immediately to a front and charged upon the 
20th Me. Now occurred the most critical time of the action. For above 
half an hour the struggle was desperate. At length, the enemy pressed 
so strongly upon the left flank of Col. Chamberlain's regiment, that he 
wisely determined to change the order of battle and commanded his left 
wing to fall back at right angles to his right. He afterward ordered a 
charge and repulsed the enemy at every point. 

Although this brigade has been engaged in nearly all the great 
battles of the Army of the Potomac, and has always greatly distinguished 
itself for gallant behavior yet in none has it fought so desperately or 
achieved for itself such imperishable honors as in this conflict of the 
2d instant." 

General Slocum, the gallant commander of the 12th corps, 
says : 

"About half an hour before the attack on our left the 5th corps was 
moved to the support of that part of our line. The attack was made by 


[Chap. Xra. "Hand to Hand Fighting." July 2, 1863) 

the enemy in strong force and in great spirit and determination. Had 
it been successful the result would have been terribly disastrous to our 
army and the country. The arrival of the 5th corps at so critical a 
moment afforded it an opportunity of doing service for the country, 
the value of which can never be overestimated. Of the manner in which 
this opportunity was improved I need not speak. The long list of its 
killed and wounded attests more clearly than language can the valor of 
its officers and men." 

General Longstreet, in his book, entitled "From Manassas 
to Appomattox, says : 

"We were on Little Round Top grappling for the crowning point. 
The brigade commanders there, Vincent and Weed, were killed, also 
Battery Commander Hazlett and others, but their troops were holding 
to their work as firmly as the mighty boulders that helped them." 

General Sykes, in his report, says : 

"Night closed the fight. The key of the battlefield was in our pos- 
session intact. Vincent, Weed and Hazlett, chiefs lamented throughout 
the corps and army, sealed with their lives the spot entrusted to their 
keeping, on which so much depended." 

Lieut. Col. Conner, in his report, says : 

"It affords me great pleasure to be able to state that both officers 
and men behaved with the greatest coolness and bravery, not a single 
case of cowardice having come to my attention." 

Col. Chamberlain, of the 20th Me., whose command occu- 
pied the left of the entire line of battle, in his report, in speaking 
of his position, says : 

"But we were not a moment too soon ; the enemy's flanking column 
having gained their desired direction, burst upon my left where evidently 
they had expected an unguarded flank, with great demonstration. 

"We opened a brisk fire at close range, which was so sudden and 
effective that they soon fell back among the rocks and low trees in the 
valley, only to burst forth again with a shout and rapidly advanced, firing 
as they came. They pushed up to within a dozen yards of us, before 
the terrible effectiveness of our fire compelled them to break and take 

"The enemy renewed their assault on our whole front and for an 
hour the fighting was severe. Squads of the enemy broke through our 
line in several places and the fight was literally hand to hand. The edge 
of the fight rolled backward and forward like a wave. The dead and 
wounded were now in our front and then in our rear. Forced from our 
position we desperately recovered it and pushed the enemy down to the 
foot of the slope." 


[Chap. Xm. The Final Stroke of the Day. July 2, 1863] 

Then again : 

"The enemy seemed to have gathered all their energies for their final 
assault. We had gotten our thin lines into as good shape as possible, 
when a strong force emerged from the scrub wood in the valley as well 
as I could judge in two lines in echelon by the right, and opening a 
heavy fire, the first line came on as if they meant to sweep everything be- 
fore them. We opened on them as well as we could with our scanty sup- 
ply of ammunition, snatched from the field. It did not seem possible to 
withstand another shock like this now coming on. Our loss had been 
severe. One half of my left wing had fallen and one third of my regi- 
ment lay just behind us dead or wounded. My ammunition was soon 
exhausted. My men were firing their last shot and getting ready to 
'club' their muskets. It was imperative to strike before we were struck 
by this overwhelming force, in a hand to hand fight, which we could 
not probably have withstood or survived. At this crisis I ordered the 
bayonet. The word was enough. It ran like fire along the line from 
man to man, and rose into a shout, with which they sprang forward 
upon the enemy not now thirty yards away. The effect was surprising, 
many of the enemy's first line threw down their arms and surrendered. 
An officer fired his pistol at my head with one hand, while he handed 
me his sword with the other. Holding fast by our right and swinging 
forward our left, we made an extended right wheel before which the 
enemy's second line broke and fell back fighting from tree to tree, many 
being captured, until we had swept the valley and cleared the front of 
our entire brigade. 

Too much credit can not be given to General Chamberlain 
and his gallant regiment for their valorous and unflinching con- 
duct in maintaining against great odds the extreme left of the 
general line. 

Several years after the war, on the occasion when veterans 
of both armies met on the Gettysburg battlefield, the Confed- 
erate General Longstreet said : "1 was three minutes late in 
occupying Little Round Top. If I had got there first you would 
have had as much trouble in getting rid of me as I did in trying 
to get rid of you." 

In his report General Meade says : 

"Soon after the assault commenced, the 5th corps most fortunately 
arrived and took position on the left of the 3d corps. Major General 
Sykes commanding, sending immediately a force to occupy Round Top 
Ridge, where a most furious contest was maintained, the enemy making 
desperate but unsuccessful efforts to secure it." 

General Barnes commanding the division, in his report, 


[Chap. Xm. Strategical Value of Little Round Top. July 2, 1863] 

"Col. Vincent, on being detached, proceeded promptly to the posi- 
tion assigned him. It was upon an elevated, rocky hill known as 
Little Round Top. Its defense was of the utmost importance." 

General Meade in a letter written several years after the 
war, expressing his views of the position in the general line of 
battle at Gettysburg, taken by General Sickles, commanding the 
Third Corps says : 

"As to General Sickles having by his advance brought on an attack, 
and thus compelled a battle which decided the war, you have completely 
answered and it is a very favorite theory with the partisans of this 
officer. But these gentlemen ignore the fact that of the eighteen thou- 
sand men killed and wounded on the field during the whole battle more 
than two thirds were lost on the second day, and but for the timely 
arrival of the Fifth Corps, and the prompt sending a portion on Round 
Top, where they met the enemy, almost on the crest, and had a desperate 
fight to secure the position — I say but for these circumstances over which 
Sickles had neither knowledge nor control — the enemy would have se- 
cured Round Top, planted his artillery there commanding the whole 
battle field, and what the result would have been I leave you to judge." 

[Powell's History of the Fifth Corps, page 556.] 


[Chap XIV, We Again Pursue the Enemy to Virginia. July s, 1863] 



As generally happens after a great battle it rained on July 
5th. The 3d brigade advanced in line of battle, preceded by a 
strong line of skirmishers. It was presently discovered that 
the enemy had evacuated their position and abandoned the field. 
The 6th corps was ordered in immediate pursuit. Our brigade 
returned and rejoined the corps, which at 5 o'clock P. M., took 
up its line of march along the Emmettsburg road. The roads 
were muddy, the night was dark and the march was tedious. 
Our troops went into bivouac about midnight on Marsh Creek. 
March was resumed about noon on the 6th, and after proceed- 
ing a short distance a halt was ordered, and a congratulatory 
order issued by General Meade, was read to the troops. After 
marching about half a mile from last night's camp, a halt w^as 
ordered for the night and a strong picket line thrown out. An 
early start was made the next morning and before halting for 
the night a distance of about 20 miles was made. A point had 
now been reached about 5 miles from Frederick. On the 8th 
the command moved at an early hour, in a heavy rain, crossing 
the Catoctin Mountains and encamped about 4 o'clock P. M. 
near Middletown. On the 9th the command left the encamp- 
ment about 9 o'clock A. M., crossing over South Mountain and 
encamped for the night near Boonsborough. During the day 
we crossed the battlefield of South Mountain where a battle was 
fought on the 17th day of September, 1862. A point had been 
reached already made historical. The probabilities of another 
engagement appeared to increase. On the lOth reveille sounded 
at an early hour, breakfast was had, shoes and other necessary 
supplies were hastily issued. So much continuous marching had 
created a great demand for shoes. The marching began at 6 
o'clock. The last night's camping ground of the enemy was 
soon reached and crossed. The historic Antietam was also 
crossed, and detachments from the different regiments of the 


[Chap. XrV. Jones' Cross Roads. July lo, 1863) 

brigade were ordered to the front as skirmishers, and soon be- 
came actively engaged. This affair was what is known as Jones' 
Crossroads and was upon and along the Sharpsburg pike. The 
skirmishing was quite spirited. The i6th Mich, had one man 
wounded, and the 20th Me, had 2 men killed and 6 wounded. 
The proximity of the armies was such that all movements were 
cautiously made. 

On the nth the whole army advanced, prepared for battle, 
each corps in line and each brigade in columns of regimental 
front. The open country afforded a good opportunity for ob- 
servation. The cleared cultivated fields, presented but few ob- 
stacles to the extended operations of the army. The scene was 
at once rare and grand. The numberless flags proudly floating 
in the breeze, the thousands of muskets gleaming in the sun- 
light, the far-reaching lines of infantry, interspersed by a for- 
midable array of artillery, presented a spectacle which once seen 
could never be forgotten. Stimulated by the recent glorious vic- 
tories of our arms, the ever-present consciousness of a righteous 
cause and the hopeful prospect at hand, that war-worn, oft- 
tried army was rendered invincible. 

On the 1 2th the armies advanced in the same order they 
advanced the day before. They had lost none of their con- 
sciousness of power nor hopefulness of triumph. General 
Meade reported the position of the two armies to Washington 
and that he intended to attack the enemy the next day. That 
evening he called together his corps commanders, and submit- 
ted the question as to whether or not he should attack the enemy 
in position. Five of the six corps commanders were opposed 
to making the attack. This fact was also reported to Washing- 
ton. In reply General Halleck telegraphed back as follows : 

"You are strong enough to attack and defeat the enemy before he 
can effect a crossing. Act your own judgment and make your Generals 
execute your orders. Call no council of war. It is proverbial that coun- 
cils of war never fight. Do not let the enemy escape." 

A rumor prevailed throughout the army that the hour was 
fixed when the assault was to be made. The hour arrived, the 
army moved forward but did not attack. Early on the morning 
of the 14th it was learned that the Confederates had decamped 
during the night and recrossed the river into Va, They had 
been able to escape from the captivity in which they had been 


Seth F. Johnson, born in New York City, resided in Schodack, X. \ .. when on 
August S, 1861, he joined this regiment. He was then a popular boatman on the 
Hudson River. Well proportioned and possessing the strength of an athlete, 
he had no superior in the regiment as a boxer. His manly ways and cheerful, 
genial good nature made him the center of a large circle of friends. A local 
paper at the time says: "Seth F. Johnson has been selected by the patriots of 
Schodack as their man for the Ellsworth regiment. He is 2i years old, 6 feet 
plump in his stockings, a scholarly gentleman and a Goliath in muscle." ^ 

He was made Sergeant and later promoted First-Sergeant, O. j\I. Sergeant 
of the regiment, First Lieutenant and Captain. He sustained himself well in all 
of these positions. He marched into the Wilderness with his Company during the 
night of May 4, 1864. After line of battle was formed on the morning of May 
5th he spread his rulsber blanket en the ground, laid down and soon fell asleep. 
Presently an order came to change position. Captain Johnson at once arose, 
gave the proper order to his company and immediately fell, pierced by a rebel 
bullet. While being carried from the field he was again hit and mortally wounded. 
Recognizing that the second wound was fatal he said, "Tell my folks I was 
doing my duty." In these few parting w'ords he expressed the solicitude of a 
true soldier and patriot. To die nobly on the field of battle for his country is 
a soldier's priceless heritage. His young life went out amid the carnage of 
battle and the thunder of cannon. His manly form, his genial nature, his 
soldierly qualities and his promptness in the discharge of his duties made him 
a conspicuous figure in the command. lie was mourned and lamented by all 
who knew him. 

The following resolutions express tlie esteem in which Captain Johnson was 
held by the officers of the regiment : 

'Camp Forty-Fourth X. V. \'ols.. 

"June 15, 1864. 
"EurxoR Times .^nd Courier: 

".\t a meeting of the officers of the Forty-fourth New York Volunteers, held at 
the camp near Chickahominy, Va., on the 12th day of June, 1864, the following 
resolutions were unanimously adopted: 

"Resolved, That in the death of Capt. Seth F. Johnson, killed in the Battle 
of the Wilderness on the 5th of May, 1864, we, as individuals, have lost a warm, 
true-hearted friend, the service a gallant and efficient officer, the country a 
true patriot, one whose conduct in camp and field has been such as to confer 
honor upon the regiment of wliich he was a member, and to entitle him to the 
gratitude of his countrymen. 

"Resolved, That while bowed with grief at the death of our esteemed friend and 
brother officer, we humbly submit to the overruling Providence which has seen fit 
to call him from us in the flower of his days, and find consolation in the manner 
in which he met a soldier's glorious death in his country's righteous cause. 

"Resolved, That his memory shall ever be green and his name revered among 
us, and that we hereby tender our most cordial sympathy to his bereaved family 
and friends. 

"Resolved, That a copy of these Resolutions be sent to the family of the 
deceased; also, that copies be furnished for publication in the Albany Evcuing 
Journal, Albany Morning Express and Times and Courier. 

^ C. Alle.v. President. 

"Chas. H. Zeilman, Secretary." 




(Chap. XrV. Deliberate Pursmt. July is, 1863J 

held by the swollen waters of the Potomac. Thus ended the 
Pennsylvania campaign. 

There is extant authority for the statement that the com- 
manders of both armies were criticised for their failure to ac- 
complish all that was expected of them in that campaign. 
While the campaign was a costly one, it can not be gainsaid that 
it had an important bearing on the final result. 

After Lee had escaped into Va. General Halleck telegraphed 
to General Meade, as follows : 

"The enemy should be pursued and cut up wherever he may have 
gone. I need hardly say to you that the escape of Lee's army without 
another battle has created great dissatisfaction in the mind of the Pres- 
ident, and it will require an active, and energetic pursuit, on your part 
to remove the impression that it has not been sufficiently active here- 

To this telegram General Meade replied : 

"Having performed my duty conscientiously and to the best of my 
ability, the censure of the President, conveyed in your dispatch, is, in 
my judgment, so undeserved that I feel compelled most respectfully to 
ask to be immediately relieved from the command of this army." 

This called from General Halleck the following: 

"My telegram, stating the disappointment of the President, was not 
intended as a censure but as a stimulus to an active pursuit." 

Starting from a point about one mile from Williamsport at 
4 o'clock A. M. on the 15th the 5th corps made a march of about 
20 miles, passing through Keedysville, over South Mountain, 
and halting for the night near Burkittsville. It was a very hard, 
trying march, many men being unable to continue with their 
commands to the end of the day. The march was resumed 
about daylight on the next morning and a halt was made about 
noon, one mile from Berlin. Here we remained until 4 o'clock 
P. M. on the 17th, when, in the midst of a down-pouring rain, 
camp was struck, the ubiquitous Potomac was again crossed on 
pontoons, and a halt was made for the night at Lovettsville. 
The sacred soil of rebellious Va. had again been reached and 
was not again to be abandoned during the war. The march was 
continued daily during the i8th, 19th and 20th on which last day 
a halt was made at Upperville, on Goose Creek. On the i8th 
Col. Rice was placed in arrest for allowing men of the brigade 
to use bundles of wheat to sleep on, and Col. Chamberlain of 


[Chap. XIV. Wapping Heights. July 23, 1863 

the 20th Me. was placed in command. It was some times 
thought that Col. Rice was too indulgent with his men in not 
exacting obedience to existing orders. On the 22nd Major 
E. B. Knox, Capt. C. W. Gibbs and six non-commissioned of- 
ficers, were sent North to take charge of, and conduct to the 
front, quite a large number of men intended to swell the ranks 
of the regiment. The troops were allowed a day of rest, which 
was quite acceptable. Blackberries were very plentiful and 
they, too, were quite acceptable and much relished. 

On the 23d march was resumed to, and along Manassas Gap. 
The 3d corps advanced in line, followed by the 5th corps. The 
troops in front became briskly engaged. The 5th corps was 
held in reserve, within the range of the enemy's artillery and 
expected at any time to be drawn into the engagement. Dark- 
ness closed the active hostilities of the day. After dark our 
division went to the front and relieved the 3d corps. A strong 
picket line was thrown out and the troops slept in position, ex- 
pecting to renew the engagement in the morning. Morning 
came and it was soon learned that the enemy had departed. 
The whole surrounding country was enveloped in a dense fog, 
which delayed operations. When the fog cleared away our 
division was ordered to advance and carry at all hazards a cer- 
tain height visible in the distance. The purport of the oft- 
repeated phrase, to carry a position at all hazards meant that the 
position must be taken at whatever cost. It was the roughest, 
most difficult and trying ground over which the division ad- 
vanced in line during the war. The country was covered with 
ravines, rocks, trees and brush. Two different elevations were 
passed before the main height was reached. The nature of the 
country formed a material obstacle to reaching the crest, with- 
out being obliged to overcome the armed resistance of the 
enemy. When, at length, the crest was reached, it was found 
that the enemy had retreated. It must be admitted that our 
troops were able to overcome their feelings of disappointment 
when the crest was reached without firing a gun. The only 
wounds received were those caused by briars and brambles. 
While these were numerous, they were not deep or dangerous. 
The whole country was covered with berries to partake of 
which, happily, was not in violation of any military order. The 
affair was known as Wapping Heights, taking its name from 


(Chap. XrV. Warrenton, Va. July 37, 1863J 

the elevation heretofore described. It is remembered as a 
rough, trying march, ending in a happy surprise. After taking 
a rest the troops marched back about 2 miles and bivouacked 
for the night. A shortage of rations made it necessary to sub- 
sist on the luscious berries which the country afforded in 
abundance, and the meager provisions which could be picked up 
in a sparsely settled war-impoverished country. When a large 
army becomes short of rations, with supply trains inaccessible, 
in a poor, sparsely settled country, plausible excuses and clever 
promises fail to stay the ravages of hunger. It is recalled at 
this time, that the commander of the brigade and his staff, con- 
sisting of about half a dozen persons, were obliged to accept as 
a full meal one small duck roasted over a fire of faggots, with- 
out even salt for seasoning, and with nO' additional viands. 
Neither rank nor money enabled its possessor to escape the pen- 
alty of the shortage. 

From an early hour on the morning of the 25th to the after- 
noon of the 27th the time was spent in covering the distance 
back through Manassas Gap to a point 3 miles south of Warren- 
ton where the command went into camp. The roads were dusty, 
the weather was extremely hot and the march was wearisome. 
Several days of rest were spent here which were quite refresh- 
ing. On the 29th a dress parade was held which was the first 
one held in several weeks. On the 3d day of August a large de- 
tail of officers and men was made for fatigue duty from the 
brigade, to proceed under the command of Lieut. Col. Conner 
to Bealton Station, for the purpose of building block houses, 
bridges and corduroy roads. The work was out of the ordi- 
nary and quite strenuous. On Aug. 4th the rest of the brigade 
left its camp near Warrenton and moved to Beverly Ford on the 
Rappahannock River, arriving at that place on the forenoon of 
the 7th. The detail on fatigue duty, having finished its work, 
rejoined the brigade on the loth. First Lieut. Allen C. Adsit 
and Second Lieut. George I. Watson resigned on the 6th and 
bade good-bye to the regiment. Before leaving, a paper was 
presented to Lieut. Adsit, showing the high esteem in which 
he was held as a faithful soldier and a man of excellent habits 
and character. On the nth Second Lieut. James H. Russell 
resigned and left the regiment. 

Our brigade remained at Beverly Ford until the i6th, guard- 


(Chap. XIV. Col. Rice Appointed Brigadier General. July 19, 1863] 

ing the ford and performing the usual routine of camp and 
picket duty, interspersed with the ordinary company, regimen- 
tal and brigade drills. On the night of the 12th, a terrific thun- 
der storm visited the camp, leaving a trail of experiences scarce- 
ly equalled during the war. The copious, continued downpour 
of rain soaked the earth and sent innumerable brooklets under 
and through numberless tents, drenching alike blankets and 
occupants. It is recalled that two staff officers at brigade head- 
quarters had pitched their tent, and for the purpose of protect- 
ing it from the sun, had erected a net work of poles upon which 
was spread a liberal quantity of brush. When the brush be- 
came filled with water, the whole superstructure came tumbling 
down upon the tent, which, in turn, gave way and precipitated 
the whole mass upon the occupants and their frail bunk. Brush, 
poles, tent, bunk and occupants all went to grass together. The 
occupants of the tent extricated themselves from their predica- 
ment soon as possible, and in their scant night attire, sought 
refuge in the neighboring tent of Col. Rice, the commandant of 
the brigade, leaving their clothing behind in the wreck. The 
scene in Col. Rice's tent was amusing. Col. Rice was engaged 
holding one center pole while Major Sabin, the Paymaster, was 
engaged holding the other, and the two were striving heroically 
to maintain the tent in an upright position. They welcomed 
reinforcements, and the scant attire of all failed to indicate their 
military rank. The night wore away and the storm subsided. 
On the 17th there was a large detail of men from the brigade to 
build fortifications along the river. On the 19th news was re- 
ceived that Col. Rice had been appointed Brig. General, U. S. V. 
On the 20th General Rice turned the command of the brigade 
over to Col. Chamberlain of the 20th Me. and left immediately 
for Washington. There was some opposition manifested to his 
being returned to command the brigade. His sturdiest critics 
must admit that he had many excellent qualities as a man and 

Assistant Surgeon Herbert Fearn resigned today and left 
the regiment. 

Brig. General Rice returned to camp on the 23d and soon 
thereafter left to report to the commanding officer of the ist 
corps, for assignment to the command of a brigade. 

On the 29th day of August five men were executed in the 


William Wallace Johnson, l>orn in Dayton, N. Y., August 28, 1836, 
died in the Soldiers Home at Bath. N. Y., October 29, 1907. He was 
educated in the public school in his neighborhood. Thus equipped, 
while yet a young boy, lie worked on the farm to aid in the support 
of his deceased father's family. His services in that I^ehalf won high 

Thoroughly patriotic, of fine physique and robust health, he was 
selected to' represent the town of Perrysburg in the 44th N. Y. Vols., 
and was among the first to enter the Barracks at Albany. From the 
time of his enlistment to the end of his three years' term of service, he 
was numbered among those who were always ready for duty. His 
quaint sayings, his uniform good nature, and his genuine hospitality, 
endeared him to all who knew him. Brave and resolute in battle, kind 
and indulgeiDt in camp, faithful and tireless on the march, a model 
soldier. He always cheerfully shared his rations and blanket with a 
needy comrade, and was always ready to care for and administer to 
the sick and wounded. As a summary of his character it may well be 
said, to a resolute and hardy nature was added a kind and sympathetic 

THE K^w ,.•:,,. 



(Chap. XIV. Execution of Five Deserters. Aug. 29, 1863] 

presence of the 5th corps for desertion. While assigned to a 
regiment of our division, they never joined or became identified 
with it. They had been tried by a court martial for the grave, 
military offense of desertion, found guilty and ordered to be 
shot. The 5th corps was formed in two lines of battle, on ele- 
vated grounds, facing a broad open field, affording an unob- 
structed view by the troops assembled. Five new-made graves 
had been dug at the front and opposite the center of the line. 
When all was in readiness, a bugle sounded the signal for the 
direful procession to start. Four of the prisoners marched by 
twos, but the other one marched singly. All were accompanied 
b)'^ their spiritual advisers. A drum corps, with muffled drums, 
playing the dead march, led the procession, and the division 
provost guard of 50 men, in command of their Captain, marched 
in the rear. Starting at the left of one line of battle, the pro- 
cession proceeded at a slow measured tread along its entire 
front, then returned along the front of the other line until a 
point had been reached opposite its center, when a turn was 
made and the march continued to the open graves. The five 
graves were all on the same line. Here the prisoners were 
severally seated on the edges of different coffins, facing the pro- 
vost guard, which was formed in line about ten or fifteen yards 
from them. Ten of the fifty muskets, with which the guard 
were armed, were loaded for them with blank cartridges, that 
no member of the guard might know the result of his own shot. 
The guard was divided into groups of ten and each group was 
instructed to aim at a different prisoner. The officer read the 
order for the execution of the prisoners and black caps were 
placed over their faces. Everything being in readiness, the of- 
ficer commanded : Ready ; Aim ; Fire ! The prisoners were 
dead. The order for the execution had been carried out in 
every detail. 

The summer of 1863 was the most critical time in the affairs 
of the country during the war. This was shown by the most 
bitter opposition to the Government by forming in some of the 
States secret organizations ; by plotting to burn cities and by 
instigating draft riots, making it necessary to take troops from 
the field to ensure public order. Nor was this all. Some of the 
leading nations of Europe were not only extending sympathy, 
but were also secretly rendering material aid to the Confederate 


[Chap. XIV. Execution of One Deserter. Sept. 18, 1863] 

cause. The successes at Gettysburg, Vicksburg and Port Hud- 
son, were most opportune in staying the tendency, looking to 
the final dissolution of the Union. The disloyal sentiment in 
the North had much to do with causing restlessness and de- 
sertions in the army and the executions above described illus- 
trated the necessity of drastic measures to suppress that 
dangerous and demoralizing factor. The 5th Corps remained 
in camp at Beverly Ford until September i6th, when it broke 
camp, crossed the Rappahannock River, and marched to within 
2 miles of Culpepper and bivouacked for the night. At an early 
hour on the next morning the march was resumed, and while 
passing through Culpepper, drums beat and flags were unfurled. 
After passing Culpepper the corps advanced in line of battle 
and halted 2 miles beyond that place. We remained in camp 
at this place from the 17th day of September to the nth day 
of October. While in this camp Private Van of the 12th N. Y. 
V. Inf. was executed in the presence of the Division for the 
crime of desertion. During that time but little occurred wor- 
thy of note. The officers reviewed their tactics and recited to 
Lt. Col. Conner. Capt. B. K. Kimberly was an experienced 
and skillful base ball player and took the lead in inaugurating 
a series of games of base ball. On the 24th day of September 
the nth and 12th corps were detached from the Army of the 
Potomac and transferred to the Western Army, with which 
they afterwards operated. On the 28th of September General 
Meade reviewed the 5th corps. On the 30th Capt. W. N. 
Danks was in command of the regiment, while Lt. Col. Conner 
was absent on picket. Lieut. Zeilman returned to the regiment. 
During this time frequent orders were promulgated indicating 
that a movement might be made at any time. On the 4th day of 
October Capt. W. R. Bourne returned to the regiment for the 
first time since he was wounded at Gettysburg and remained 
until the loth. He was still lame from the effects of his wound, 
and was soon thereafter transferred to the Vet. Res. Corps. 
On the lOth a reconnoissance in force was made to the Rapidan 
River by the ist Corps, supported by the 5th Corps. The ob- 
ject of the reconnoissance having been accomplished the troops 
returned to the camp. On the nth reveille sounded before day- 
light, camp was struck and troops soon started on the march to 
the rear. Confederate cavalry followed closely, making fre- 


[Chap. XrV. Lee's Army in Motion. Oct. ii, 1863] 

quent attacks on the rear guard. The 5th Corps crossed the 
Rappahannock at Beverly Ford and bivouacked on grounds 
vacated on the i6th day of September. Early on the 12th, 
much to the surprise of our troops, the 2d, 3d and 5th Corps re- 
crossed the Rappahannock River, formed line of battle and ad- 
vanced, preceded by a strong line of skirmishers. On reaching 
the first range of hills, the enemy were plainly seen occupying a 
second range of hills about 4 miles distant. To our left, in the 
direction of Bristoe Station, our cavalry were plainly seen 
hotly engaged with the cavalry of the enemy. The field of 
operations was a broad, rolling plain, aflfording an uncommon 
opportunity to witness the operations of all the troops engaged. 
The charges and counter charges of the opposing cavalry forces, 
with drawn sabres, flashing in the sunlight, presented a specta- 
cle at once picturesque and thrilling. The long, compact lines 
of infantry, with a myriad of glistening guns, accompanied by 
a full complement of artillery, cooperating with the cavalry on 
that bright autumnal day, all within the scope of vision, pre- 
sented a panorama which could never be forgotten. Our troops 
advanced in line of battle and occupied the second range of hills. 
Contrary to expectations the enemy retreated before our line of 
skirmishers. It was after darkness had set in that our troops 
bivouacked for the night in line, with a strong picket line posted 
well to the front. At this time it became known that Lee had 
put his army in motion to pass the right flank of our army and 
as was supposed to intervene again between it and Washington. 
Had he inaugurated another Bull Run campaign? Counter 
movments at once became imperative. At i o'clock A. M. on 
the 13th bivouac was struck and soon thereafter our troops 
were on the march to the rear. The Rappahannock River was 
again crossed a little after daylight, a short halt was had for 
breakfast, after which the march to the rear was resumed. Our 
troops destroyed the railroad bridge across the Rappahannock 
River, to prevent the railroad from becoming a factor in the 
plans of the enemy. Our brigade acted as rear guard and much 
of the day had flankers out to prevent surprise. After making 
a march of 22 miles we went into bivouac near Catlett's Station. 
On the 14th reveille sounded at 2 o'clock in the morning but 
owing to the large number of troops on the same route we did 
not move until after daylight. A halt was made for dinner 


[Chap. XIV. Bristoe Station. Oct, 14, 1863 1 

about 2 or 3 miles from Manassas Junction. The fires of our 
troops cooking coffee soon attracted notice of the enemy and 
were ordered extinguished. Thereafter our march was re- 
sumed to the rear. It soon became apparent that the 2d Corps, 
which was following in the rear of the 5th Corps, was engaged 
in a spirited fight. The 5th Corps continued its march to Ma- 
nassas, where it halted and formed line of battle. Presently the 
5th Corps was ordered on double quick back to the support of 
the 2d Corps. Before we reached the field of operations, the 
2d Corps had repulsed the enemy, capturing 5 pieces of artil- 
lery and 450 prisoners. This engagement is known as the bat- 
tle of Bristoe Station. When it was found that the 2d Corps 
did not require our help, we again changed our direction to the 
rear, and contintied our march until 2 o'clock on the morning 
of the 15th, when we bivouacked 2 miles beyond Bull Run 
Creek. We again started at an early hour, marched through 
Centerville, and halted for the night near Fairfax C. H., hav- 
ing made a march of about 10 miles. We remained in bivouac 
near Fairfax C. H. on the i6th until 4 o'clock P. M, when we 
again marched back and bivouacked within one mile of Center- 
ville. This march was made in the midst of a cold, drizzling 
rain. The night was very dark and the roads extremely muddy. 
It was difficult for the troops to see their way while marching 
or to keep in touch with their command. 

In the midst of the dense darkness and down pouring rain, 
a group of mounted men rode past Colonel Chamberlain, com- 
manding the brigade, who had halted and sent back some of his 
staff to look after the column struggling through the mud and 
murk, and had ordered the bugler to sound the brigade call, to 
guide and cheer the men. When opposite him, only the dim 
outline of forms being discernible, one of the arriving group 
called out: "What command is this?" "Third Brigade, First 
Division, Fifth Corps," was the Colonel's reply. "Colonel," 
came back the voice, "your men are strung along the way for a 
mile back. You could not assemble them for any purpose." 
"Sir," replied the Colonel, irritated by the rebuke, "I can con- 
ceive of no 'purpose' governing this move, but this bugle-call 
would bring my men through Hell !" "Sir," came the rejoinder, 
"do you know that I am General Sykes?" "I know General 


Relates that having enlisted in the Regiment without previous mili- 
tary instruction of any kind whatever, he found it difficult to address 
the' various officers by their correct titles until he was reprimanded 
for not doing so, after which he always used the titles of officers when 
addressing them ; in return, however, for this discipline, he insisted that 
the officers should address him as "Comrade of the Front Rank," his 
only mark of distinction. 

He relates also that while in the army, he took an oath that if he 
ever went into another war, he "would be a Colonel or nothing," this 
desire for higher rank being a result of his experience while doing 
guard duty at the Colonel's tent ; he observed that the field officers 
lived high and was occasionally asked to share with them, getting 
away with more or less large quantities of sweet potatoes, beefsteak, 
coffee, milk, sugar and an assortment of cakes and pies ; and that after 
these feasts at headquarters, it often took him "six weeks to get back 
to a hard tack basis." 

The official record shows that he enlisted in the 44th N. Y. V. I. 
Sept. 16, '61, and served faithfully until Sept. 22. '62, when he was 
honorably discharged for disability at New York City. 

THE i^^^ 


[Chap. XrV. March and Countermarch. Oct. i8, 1863 J 

Sykes," replied Chamberlain, "and he would thank me for 
showing him through this muddle." "You are a little sharp on 
compliments, but I think you will get your men up," came a re- 
ceding voice. 

On the 17th our troops did not move. Tents were pitched 
and sunshine brought a degree of comfort and relief. 

One the i8th reveille was sounded at 3 o'clock in the morn- 
ing, march was made back again to Fairfax C. H., and camp 
was established with some degree of regularity. Very soon, 
however, camp was struck and a reconnoissance was ordered. 
The end of the day brought us to Hunter's Mills, where we 
bivouacked for the night. On the 19th we left bivouac at an 
early hour, marched through Centerville, over the Bull Run 
battlefield, and halted for the night near Groveton, about 4 
o'clock P. M. Here opportunity was given to look over the 
battlefield where our troops fought desperately and lost, a little 
more than a year before. Evidences were not wanting of that 
great struggle. There were to be seen the remains of soldiers, 
who had been hastily buried, also the remains of those who had 
never been buried. Among the latter were the remains of Ser- 
geant L. D. Darling of Company H, who was reported among 
the missing after the battle. His remains were identified by his 
belt, which was marked with his initials. 

On the 20th reveille was sounded at 2 o'clock in the morn- 
ing, but, on account of bad roads and other obstacles, little 
progress was made before daylight. A considerable halt was 
made at Gainesville. Starting again, a point near New Balti- 
more was reached about 4 130 in the afternoon, when a halt was 
made for the night. While in camp at this place, news was re- 
ceived that President Lincoln had issued a call for 300,000 more 
troops. This news was received with much satisfaction by the 
army. No change of camp was made until the afternoon of the 
23d. The rest was much appreciated by the troops. They had 
become considerably jaded by the continuous marching and 
counter marching, over very muddy roads, with little opportu- 
nity or convenience for sleep. If Lee's plan of campaign was 
to strike the Army of the Potomac unexpectedly, in flank and 
rear, bring on a general engagement near the old Bull Run 
battlefield, for which the Army of the Potomac was unprepared. 


{Chap. XIV. Confederate Strategy. Oct. 1863] 

and send it vanquished and broken to the rear, his plan had 
failed. If, on the other hand, his purpose was to drive the 
Union Army further from the Confederate capital, tear up the 
railroad upon which it depended to furnish supplies in its ad- 
vanced position and gain time to detach Longstreet's Corps to 
reinforce the Confederate Army of the West, then, to that ex- 
tent, it was a success. The continuous marching and counter- 
marching in which our army had been engaged indicated that 
General Meade had been kept busy in trying to anticipate what 
the real purpose was. After completely destroying the railroad 
from Bristoe Station to the Rappahannock, by burning the ties 
and bending the rails, the Confederate Army retired beyond 
that river. 

On the 23d our troops moved and went into camp a few 
miles from Warrenton. The wagons came to the regiment at 
this place, camp was regularly laid out, and the inference was 
drawn that no immediate movement was contemplated. About 
dark on the next day another move was made. About 9 o'clock, 
after making a march of about 5 miles, a halt was made for the 

In the afternoon of the 25th another movement was made 
and another permanent camp was laid out. These permanent 
camps were becoming quite frequent and the distance between 
them quite short. The delay of the army was caused by reason 
of the time required to repair the railroad. Near our camp was 
a venerable old Virginia gentleman by the name of McCormick. 
He was the owner of a large plantation, which had been culti- 
vated by slave labor. During the war the two armies had 
crossed and recrossed this plantation. Most of the time it was 
within the war zone. The fences and crops had been utilized 
or destroyed, the slaves and stock had been absorbed. In re- 
ferring to the condition of his personal affairs, McCormick 
said : "It looks like a blind trust on Providence as to how we 
are to get through the winter." When the army came to move, 
Hendricks and Crounce, correspondents respectively of the 
New York Herald and New York Times, decided to stay an- 
other night at the McCormick residence. Scarcely had the rear 
of our troops disappeared before the ubiquitous Mosby ap- 
peared upon the scene, made these correspondents prisoners, 
confiscated their horses and valuables and marched them off to 


(Chap. XIV. Warrenton Junction. Oct 30, 1863 

Richmond. The incident caused some merriment at the time. 
The newspaper strategy of "On to Richmond" had been veri- 
fied. Reveille sounded at 4 o'clock A. M. on the 30th and after 
marching about 5 miles a halt was made and the troops again 
laid out another permanent camp, about 3 miles from Warren- 
ton Junction. 

While in this camp there was considerable complaint made 
by the soldiers in regard to the quality of hard tack. They had 
learned not to be fastidious over small things. Hard tacks 
labeled B. C. were accepted with no adverse comment, but when 
they came to be filled with creeping things, an emphatic protest 
was made. The result was that an inspection was ordered, the 
hard bread inspected and condemned, and more issued in its 
place. In some quarters it was surmised that the whole affair 
was a species of strategy in order to increase the quantity of 
rations rather than improve the quality. There was no change 
of camp from the 30th of October until the 7th day of Novem- 

After destroying the Orange & Alexandria railroad from 
Warrenton Junction to Rappahannock Station, Lee withdrew 
the main body of his army to the South side of the Rapidan 
river, threw up strong defensive works and supposedly went 
into winter quarters. He left, however, two brigades of infan- 
try and a complement of artillery strongly entrenched to guard 
the crossing of the river at Rappahannock Station. Other Con- 
federate troops were stationed at Kelley's Ford, lower down the 
river. The detachment left to hold Rappahannock Station was 
posted in a line of earth works, encircling that place, and ex- 
tending from the river above to the river below it. These works 
were supplemented by others on the South side of the river. 
The 7th day of November was fair and cool. The few 
days rest and the bracing atmosphere gave renewed vigor 
to our troops. On reaching a point about 2 miles from the 
river a halt was made, line of battle was formed and a strong 
skirmish line was organized. The line of battle was formed 
with the 6th Corps on the right of the railroad and the 5th 
Corps on the left of the railroad. Large details of officers and 
men were made from the different regiments of our brigade to 
act as skirmishers. The line of battle and the skirmish line 
were formed in the woods, that skirted a broad open plain, ex- 


[Chap. XIV. Rappahannock Station. Nov. 7, 1863] 

tending to the banks of the river. Everything being in readi- 
ness the advance began about 4 o'clock in the afternoon. The 
line of Confederate skirmishers w^as posted about three fourths 
of a mile in front of their fortifications. As soon as our skir- 
mishers came in range they engaged the Confederate skirmish- 
ers and steadily drove them back to their fortifications. The line 
of battle of the 5th Corps was halted on reaching the road lead- 
ing to Kelley's Ford. The line of the 6th Corps advanced in 
splendid order, and gallantly charged and carried the enemy's 
works to the right of the railroad. Our skirmish line charged at 
the same time with the 6th Corps, and some of our troops were 
among the first to scale the enemy's works. When the enemy 
broke, they started to retreat across the bridge in rear of their 
works, but the raking fire of our troops soon caused them to 
abandon that line of escape. Some jumped into the river and 
endeavored to escape in that way, but, they, too, were forced to 
return and surrender. The victory was complete. Over 1,300 
prisoners and 8 pieces of artillery were taken. Some of the 
Confederate officers, who were compelled to surrender after 
jumping into the river, were detained as prisoners during the 
night at brigade headquarters. Orders were received that no 
fires were to be built as they furnished targets for the enemy. 
The night was cool and the prisoners who had been in the river 
entered some complaint because no fires were allowed by which 
they could dry their clothes. Blankets were procured for them 
and they were made comfortable as possible. 

An incident here occurred that should not be overlooked. 
Soon after the entry of our troops into the fort Lieut. Herenden 
discovered a number of Confederates, unguarded and uncared 
for, lurking in the darkness. Taking in the situation that re- 
sourceful officer commanded in a loud voice : "Fall in for cof- 
fee." He was surprised to find that his command or invitation, 
at once placed 5 officers and 55 men under his immediate and 
sole charge. These he conducted to regimental headquarters 
where with the aid of other members of the regiment, they were 
banqueted on pork, hard tack and coffee, after which they were 
taken to corps headquarters, where were assembled several hun- 
dred of their misguided associates. 

While the 5th and 6th Corps were engaged at Rappahannock 
Station General French with the 3d Corps advanced to Kelley's 


William W. Jones resided at the time of his enlistment with his 
father at Sodus, N. Y., and was then a school-teacher. 

He enlisted in this regiment on Aug. 8, 1861, for three years; was 
promoted to First Lieutenant of Co. K, Sept. 3. 1861 ; died of typhoid 
fever May 5. 1862, at New York City, and was buried at Huron, N. Y. 

It is to be regretted that no further information about the early 
life of this excellent young man has been obtained : comrades who knew 
him well during his brief career as a soldier unitedly testify that he was 
intelligent, courteous, diligent and efficient in the discharge of his 
military duties. 


(Chap. XIV. Camp at Rappahannock. Nov. lo, 1863 

Ford, forced a passage, dispersed the troops of the enemy sta- 
tioned at that point and captured 400 prisoners. What is known 
as the Battle of Rappahannock Station was very creditable to 
the troops engaged. 

On the 8th day of November, the day after the battle of 
Rappahannock Station, the army crossed the river. The ist, 
2d, 3d and 5th Corps crossed at Kelley's Ford and the 6th 
Corps crossed at Rappahannock Station. We moved back 
from the river about 2 miles and bivouacked for the night. 

On the 9th General J. J. Bartlett was assigned to the com- 
mand of our division, in the absence of General Griffin. 
Towards evening we returned, recrossed the river, and after 
marching about one mile further, halted for the night, about 9 
o'clock in an open plain. About dark a raging storm of wind, 
rain and sleet set in. The land was low and water-soaked, the 
place of bivouac was devoid of timber with which to build fires 
or pitch tents, making it a memorable night of discomfort. 

On the loth we moved back into the woods and pitched 
camp. Fires were soon built, a supply of better rations issued 
and more comfortable conditions prevailed. No change of camp 
was made until the 19th. In the meantime there were several 
premonitory symptoms, indicating a prospect of an early move- 
ment. Precautionary orders which came to nought were often 
issued for the purpose of keeping troops on the alert. On the 
13th General Rice visited camp. He seemed as much pleased 
to exchange greetings as a member of a family, returning home 
after a protracted absence. Reveille before daylight on Thurs- 
day, the 19th, indicated that some movement was surely con- 
templated. The Mine Run campaign was about to begin. At 
9 o'clock tents were struck and the troops were soon in motion. 
Kelley's Ford was reached and crossed for the sixth time and 
after marching about 2 miles further a halt was made. On the 
24th reveille sounded at 5 o'clock in the morning and soon the 
advance was resumed. A very heavy rain storm set in and after 
marching about 2 miles an order was received to return to the 
last night's camp. Before reaching camp everybody was thor- 
oughly wet. The next day was given to drying clothes and 
blankets. An early start was again made on the 26th. A strong 
line of skirmishers preceded the troops. The Rapidan River 
was reached and crossed at Gold Mine Ford. After crossing 


[Chap. XrV. Mine Run. Nov. 29, 1863J 

the river march was continued several miles before halting for 
the night. On this day a march of 20 miles was made. Early 
on Friday the 27th the advance was resumed, and after reach- 
ing it, the plank road leading to Orange C. H. was followed. 
About noon guerillas attacked our train, capturing 5 wagons, 
mules, teamsters and train guards. Three men of the Forty- 
Fourth, and members of the guard, were captured. We halted 
for the night a little before dark at a place called Coopers 
Church or Verdiersville. Before the arrival of the infantry a 
spirited battle of cavalry had been fought. General Meade had 
contemplated making on the 28th a general attack on the Con- 
federate Army in the position it occupied on the previous day, 
but on advancing it was found that Lee had taken up a new 
strong position beyond Mine Run. This circumstance delayed 
the day of battle. It rained a good share of the day. All move- 
ments were executed with extreme caution. Robinson's Tavern 
was reached about 11 o'clock A. M. The headquarters of the 
army were at this place. More or less musketry firing was 
heard during the day. Rain, mud and undeveloped events 
occupied the minds of the rank and file of the army. Long 
before daylight on the 29th the camp was aroused and soon 
thereafter a start for the front was made. On reaching the 
front pickets were detailed from our brigade to relieve the 
pickets of the 2d Corps. The rest of the brigade was held in 
reserve, concealed from the enemy by a grove of second growth 
pines. The Confederate pickets were posted on higher grounds 
on the opposite side of Mine Run, amply protected by rifle pits, 
and within easy musket range of our picket line. It will be 
readily seen that the act of relieving the picket line in open 
daylight was extremely hazardous. The enemy did not fail 
to utilize the opportunity. In executing the movement the 
Forty-Fourth had 3 men wounded. The next time the line was 
relieved was in the night and no casualty occurred. The prox- 
imity of the lines of the two armies, and the mental tension 
that takes possession of the combatants just before a battle, 
made it a Hvely day of skirmish line hostilities. The enemy's 
main line of battle could be plainly seen. Their position was 
a very strong one. It was made many times more so by ex- 
tensive earth works which had been erected. The enemy could 
be plainly seen at work on their fortifications, making them 


[Chap. XIV. Mine Run an Obstacle. Nov. 29, 1863] 

more formidable and the approach more difficult. On our 
side preparations were being made to storm the enemy's works. 
On the night before the attack was to be made men were selected 
to go to the bank of Mine Run, and ascertain by actual meas- 
urement the nature of the stream and the height of the banks. 
Corporal Adgate T. Gregg of Company H was selected for that 
duty for the Forty-Fourth. The duty was hazardous but quite 
important. Any indication of a movement to the front was 
sure to draw the fire of the enemy's picket line, posted on the 
opposite bank. Supplied with a pole, Corporal Gregg crept 
cautiously to the banks of the stream, made the desired meas- 
urements, and safely returned. The water in the stream was 
not so much of an obstacle as its banks, which were from 4 to 
10 feet in height and very steep. Taken together it made a seri- 
ous obstacle to a Hne of battle just starting to make an as- 
sault. After passing the Run there was a gradual incline of the 
field, leading up to the enemy's main works. It was a clear, 
open field, affording ample opportunity for the use of mus- 
ketry and artillery. It was considered quite problematic 
whether the enemy's main works in that front could be carried 
by direct assault. 

A little episode took place while the two armies confronted 
each other on this battle field. A flock of sheep innocently 
wandered between the opposing picket lines, opposite the front 
of the Forty-Fourth. Each side tried in various ways to lure 
the sheep within their own lines. The animal instincts of the 
sheep evidently induced them to act on the assumption that 
there was more to be feared from the keen demands of the 
soldiers appetites than their wanton desire to engage in a 
useless slaughter. For a time they took their chances be- 
tween the lines. Both sides failing to obtain possession of 
the sheep by coaxing, a few of the sheep were shot between 
the lines. Now, another difficulty presented itself. It was 
all a soldier's life was worth to set foot outside of his works. 
The dead sheep counted for nothing where they lay. An in- 
formal parley of the opposing troops in that immediate vicinity 
was held. It was agreed on honor that an equal, and limited 
number of soldiers on each side, might meet between the lines 
without arms, divide and carry away an equal number of dead 
sheep. This brief armistice was carried out to the mutual 


{Chap. XIV. Mine Run; On Picket Duty. Nov. 30, 1863] 

satisfaction of the interested parties. Presently the remainder 
of the flock of sheep showed their preference for the Union 
cause, made a rush, and came within our lines. Our men on 
the skirmish line were not allowed to leave their posts, but the 
men on reserve, concealed behind the second growth pines, un- 
heeding the brisk fire of the enemy, charged upon the balance 
of the sheep in the open field, captured and carried them away. 
The enemy's picket line opened a brisk fire on the men pur- 
suing the sheep and our picket lines countered on the enemy. 
The unusual nature of the incident can not fail to be re- 
called by those who took part or witnessed it. The affair 
furnished amusement to the spectators, fresh mutton for a 
large number, and no casualties. On the 29th orders were is- 
sued preparatory to delivering battle at 8 o'clock on the next 
morning. The 2d Corps, General Warren commanding, held 
the left of the general line. It was augmented by 2 divisions 
of the 3d Corps. With this increased command it was planned 
that General Warren was to open the battle, to be immediately 
followed by a determined assault by the 6th Corps, which 
held the right of the general line. The other troops were to 
cooperate with sufficient earnestness to prevent the enemy 
from detaching from their immediate front, or to convert their 
operations into a real assault in case opportunity offered. Thus 
it was planned and thus affairs stood on the evening of the 
29th, On the morning of the 30th the army was aroused with 
the full understanding that another bloody chapter was to be 
added to its record. When in readiness General Warren was 
to fire a signal gun. Eight o'clock on the morning of the 30th 
came but no signal gun was heard. An hour passed and still 
an ominous silence prevailed. Eager ears were listening for 
the reverberating sound of the signal cannon shot which was 
to set the ball in motion. General Meade became impatient. 
The suspense was broken on receipt of the following com- 
munication : 
General Meade: 

"November 30th, 1863, 7:45. 
"It is now 7 :4S and I have heard no firing from you, from which I 
fear the enemy has left your front. His position and strength seem 
so formidable in my present front that I advise against making the attack 
here. The full light of the sun shows me that I can not succeed. 

G. K. Warren, 
Major General." 


Enlisted as Private in Co. H, Sept. 25, 1861. Age 19. Promoted to 
Sergeant Sept.. 1861 and served as such vmtil March 1863 when he 
was promoted to 2d Lieutenant of Co. H Acting Adjutant April 6 to 
16, 1863; Acting Assistant Adjutant-General of the 3d Brigade, ist 
Div. 5th Army Corps, April 27, 1863 and during the campaign of Chan- 
cellorsville. In June, 1863, was detached as Acting Aide de Camp to 
the Commanding General of the Army of the Potomac and serv^ed with 
Generals Hooker and Meade through the Gettyshurg Campaign, Bre- 
veted Captain of U. S. Volunteers " for gallant, faithful and meri- 
torious services during the war." 



[Chap. XIV. Mine Run "A Closed Incident." Dec. i, 1863] 

Impatience at once changed to great disappointment. After 
ordering all movements suspended General Meade rode hur- 
riedly to General Warren's headquarters. He found General 
Warren adhering tenaciously to the opinion that it would be 
hopeless to make the attack on his front. After looking over 
the situation, General Meade reluctantly acceded to the views 
of General Warren. The proposed plan of battle having been 
abandoned it became necessary at once to decide on the next 
step to be taken. To that end the opinions of the other Corps 
Commanders were sought, to learn if in their several judg- 
ments it was practicable to make a determined assault on their 
respective fronts. The consensus of the opinions of the Corps 
Commanders, severally expressed, was against such attack. 
The only alternative left was to withdraw from the field and 
take position nearer the base of supplies. The order was ac- 
cordingly given and soon as dark the movement to the rear 
was begun. At 3 o'clock A. M. of December 2d the pickets 
were quietly withdrawn and reformed as a rear guard and 
they, too, cautiously marched to the rear. The rearward 
movement of the army back to the North bank of the Rappa- 
hannock was conducted with the same precaution as was ex- 
ercised in the advance. The 5th Corps crossed the Rapidan at 
Germanna Ford and the Rappahannock at the ford by that 
name. The record of the fruitless Mine Run campaign had 
now been made. 


[Chap. XV. la Winter Quarters. Dec. 4, 1863] 




THE WINTER OF 1863-4. 

On reaching the North side of the Rappahannock River 
on December 3d, the 5th Corps was posted along the Orange 
& Alexandria Railroad, extending from that river to Fair- 
fax C. H, The 3d Brigade was stationed about one mile 
from and overlooking the river. As that railroad was used to 
furnish supplies for the army it was important to keep it in- 
tact. The brigade was located upon the battle field of Novem- 
ber 7th and the diffierent regiments proceeded to lay out well 
regulated camps. There was a scarcity of materials obtain- 
able for fixing up camp. As they had to be brought some dis- 
tance, great economy and all kinds of ingenuity were ex- 
ercised in their use. The inclement weather had a tendency 
to facilitate operations. On the loth a few men, among whom 
was Assistant Surgeon Freer of the 83d Penn., went a short 
distance outside the lines and were captured by guerrillas. 
After taking all their valuables from the men they were per- 
mitted to return to camp. Dr. Freer, however, was detained, 
and a few days afterward his body was found near the place 
where he was captured, riddled by bullets. On the nth details 
were made from the regiment for picket duty, and to guard 
trains going to and from Alexandria. On this day Captains 
Allen and Danks and 10 men were detailed from the regi- 
ment for recruiting service in the State of New York, but they 
did not leave camp until the i6th. On January 21, 1864, Capt. 
Bennett Munger was detached for service at Prison Camp 
at Elmira, N. Y., and on Jan. 22nd Adjutant Herenden left 
camp for the North having been detached for duty in the De- 
partment of the East, and ist Lieut. O. L. Munger was ap- 
pointed Acting Adjutant. Camp and picket duty and guarding 
railroad trains occupied the attention of the regiment until the 
24th day of January, 1864. A new year had come. The forces 
of rebellion were still in the field, but more inclined to stand 
on the defensive. On the other hand, there was no lack of de- 












, ; 




























































PUBLIC Lil-tAsii 

V 1 





Standing, left to right: 

Ass't Surg. Spencer; Capt. Fox; Lieut. Chas. Kelly; Capt. Wood; Capt. Husted; 
Lieut. Munger; Lieut. Botchford; Lieut. Hardenburgh; Lieut. Bennett; Surg. Town- 
send; Capt. Kimberly; Lieut. Dempsey; Capt. Grannis. 


Lieut. Ten Broeck; Major Knox; Col. Conner; Capt. Johnson; Lieut. Graves. 




■o > 

.5 5-^ :S; 

— <u 






{Chap. XV. Moved to Alexandria. Jan. 25, 1864] 

termination to preserve the Union. On the 24th day of January. 
1864, an order was received for the regiment to strike camp 
and be ready to take the cars for Alexandria, to engage in the 
duty of guarding trains to and from the front. Everything 
was in readiness, the cars were boarded at 7 o'clock P. M., 
and Alexandria was reached at 2 o'clock the next morning. 
A day or two was spent in what was known as "Soldiers Rest" 
in Alexandria, and, soon as tents could be obtained, the regi- 
ment went into permanent camp for the rest of the winter, at 
the head of King street. The grounds were spacious and the 
camp was laid out with great regularity. It is not too much 
to say that when completed the camp was a model in all its 
details. The service was quite unique. A detail was made each 
day of 4 commissioned officers and 100 men, one officer and 
25 men to accompany each train on its round trip to the front. 
When the train was made up the detail went on top of the 
cars, and rode thereon to protect it from guerrillas and bandits. 
The distance to the front and the nature of the country afforded 
an opportunity for the vigilant Mosby and his irregular band 
to commit serious depredations. A resolute, well-armed guard 
had a very restraining influence in preventing such ill-timed 
operations. No instance is recalled where an attack was made 
upon a train during the winter. 

Mosby did, however, during the winter, get his mounted 
gang in hand, make a dash through the picket line, not far from 
the Rappahannock River, and with much noise and bustle 
make an attack in the middle of the night upon 2d Brigade at 
1st Division headquarters. The suddenness of the attack 
at an unexpected hour caused considerable consternation. Non- 
combatants were frightened and dispersed, mules were stam- 
peded and much confusion temporarily prevailed. As soon 
as troops could be awakened and rallied the gang seized what 
plunder they could carry and made a hasty exit from our lines. 

It was thought that Mosby and his gang should be pursued 
and punished for their rashness. On the next day a squadron 
of the 1st R. I. Cavalry was ordered out for that purpose. The 
writer was sent along in the capacity of guide and spectator. 
The route taken was along the river in the direction of Fred- 
ericksburg. The command numbered about 150 to 200 well 
mounted and equipped horsemen. The search was prosecuted 


[Chap. XV. Railroad Guard Duty. Jan. 25, 1864J 

with diligence until about sundown when a halt was taken. 
No sign of the gang had been discovered. The commanding 
officer had ample discretion as to how far he should go or 
how long remain. After resting and feeding, he decided to 
return to camp the same night. The start on the return was be- 
gun about dark. It was thought that Mosby might have been 
watching the movement and would plan to intercept the com- 
mand on its return. The night was clear and cold, the ground 
frozen and the tramp of cavalry could be heard quite a dis- 
tance. Nothing out of the ordinary happened until about ii 
o'clock at night. At that time the tramp of horses could be 
plainly heard directly in our front. The place, the hour and 
circumstance, were suspicious. One side of the highway was 
skirted with woods, on the other were cleared, open fields. It 
was noted that Mosby could have selected no better place to 
cut off the returning detachment. There was only one thing to 
do and that was to make a quick, determined charge. Sabers 
were drawn and the charge was ordered. The writer had a 
position of honor by the side of the commanding officer, who 
rode at the head of his command. The rattle of scabbards 
and the clanking of the horses' feet upon the frozen ground 
were well calculated to carry consternation to an expectant 
enemy. As the charge proceeded, the momentum and deter- 
mination of the horsemen increased. For lack of knowledge 
of a more modern illustration it might be compared to the 
charge of the Light Brigade. In the darkness a little way in 
advance two horsemen were discovered apparently awaiting 
the onset. The intervening space was soon covered. The 
spectre of Mosby and his gang had vanished. Paralyzed with 
fear, the two horsemen had only power of locomotion enough 
to move to the roadside. The suspected enemy proved to be 
two harmless negroes, mounted upon poor, woe-begone mules. 
Camp was reached during the night with few trophies and 
no casualties to report. 

After the streets and tents of the regiment had been put in 
superior condition, a beautiful arch was erected at the foot 
of each street. All the arches, except the central arch, were 
of similar design and construction, elaborately and beautifully 
trimmed with evergreens, and the letter of the Company sus- 
pended from the center of the arch. The central street was 


[Chap. XV. Camp at Alexandria, Winter, 1864] 

wider than the other streets, its arch was higher than the other 
arches, with canvas attached to framework on which in large let" 
ters were names of the different battles in which the regiment 
had been engaged. The officers' tents were placed at the head 
of the street, due regard being had to intervening space. As 
a whole, it was an ideal camp and maintained with scrupulous 
care. It was the pride of the whole regiment and did not re- 
quire drastic orders to keep it in excellent condition. 

Captain B. R. Wood returned to the regiment on the 7th 
day of February and was warmly greeted. He had been on 
detached duty in the Signal Corps with the Western Army, 
where he rendered distinguished services. 

On Sunday, the 20th day of March, an artist came from 
Brady's famous war-time picture gallery in Washington and 
took different impressions of the camp from which large pic- 
tures were made, many of which are still preserved by mem- 
bers and friends of the regiment. The picture showed the 
regiment faultlessly formed at dress parade, with the entire 
camp in the background. Another picture was taken showing 
the officers present with the regiment in full dress uniform, 
standing in the central arch. This, too, was an excellent pic- 
ture, and many copies of it are preserved. 

The regiment was engaged on duty guarding trains from 
January 24th to the 29th day of April, a little more than 
three months. The position up on top of the cars during inclem- 
ent weather was often quite uncomfortable, but on the whole, 
the service was considered preferable to the ordinary routine 
and monotony of camp and picket duty at the front. When 
not on duty many liberties were granted. A liberal number 
of passes were granted each day, enabling the bearer to visit 
places of interest in Alexandria and Washington. Public 
grounds and buildings were visited, and public receptions given 
by President Lincoln and other officials were attended. On 
the first day of April permission was given to all who desired 
to do so to attend the theater. Eighty-five members availed 
themselves of the opportunity. On the 23d a large party was 
made up of soldiers and civilians to visit Mt. Vernon. The 
tomb of the Father of our Country, being outside our lines, 
made it necessary for soldiers to go armed, accompanied by 
a cavalry escort to insure safety. Washington's "Farewell Ad- 


[Chap. XV. Ordered to "the Front." April 29, 1864] 

dress," emphasizing the necessity of a united people, failed to 
keep sacred his tomb from liability of attack by his mis- 
guided countrymen upon those paying respects to his memory. 
During the winter at Alexandria both smallpox and measles 
invaded camp, but enforcement of vigorous rules of quarantine 
under direction of Surgeon Townsend and his assistants pre- 
vented wide-spread sickness and only a few deaths resulted. 

On Thursday, April 26th, an order was received to be 
ready to go to the front and join the brigade as soon as re- 
lieved. The agreeable service of the past three months, the 
beautiful permanent camp, which had afforded a shelter and 
home during most of the winter, the closer touch with civil life, 
which tended to vary the monotony of camp duty, were all re- 
quired to be laid aside. The still uncompromising attitude of 
the Confederate authorities, the coming of "Unconditional 
Surrender Grant" to lead the army, the unyielding determina- 
tion that the Union must be preserved, were unmistakable 
signs that stirring events were about to be inaugurated. Nec- 
essary articles for campaigning had to be selected from those 
which had accumulated during the winter. During the next 
two days the camp was busy making the needful preparations. 
Friday, the 29th, came with orders to be ready to board the 
train for the front. Old friends and new acquaintances were 
on hand to exchange parting salutations. It was noted that 
a preponderance of the gentler sex were on hand to grace the 
occasion. As the regiment moved out from camp the drum 
corps played vigorously the air "The girl I left behind me." 
At noon the regiment boarded the train and was soon on its 
way to the front. Rappahannock Station was reached at 5 
o'clock P. M. when the regiment debarked and marched to 
Beverly Ford, where it went into bivouac. It had now reached 
the field and come in closer touch with its old, war-tried com- 
panions of the 3d Brigade. 



[Chap. XVI. 3d Brigade Reorganized Spring, 1864] 



Early in March, 1864, Major General Grant was appointed 
Lieut. General under an Act of Congress reviving that grade. 
Soon afterwards an order was issued placing him in com- 
mand of all the Union Armies. On the 24th day of March he 
established his headquarters at Culpeper C. H. with the Army 
of the Potomac. Before he came a reorganization of the army 
had taken place, some features of which it may be proper to 
note. The ist and 3d Corps were broken up and the ist and 
2d Divisions of the ist Corps were assigned to the 5th Corps, 
constituting the 2d Division, the former 2d Division having 
been consolidated into a single brigade and thereafter known 
as the ist Brigade of the ist Division. On this arrangement 
the old ist Brigade was broken up and the regiments compos- 
ing it were assigned to the 2d and 3d Brigades of the same 
division. Our (3d) Brigade, before starting on the campaign 
of 1864, was composed as follows: 

Brig. General J. J. Bartlett commanding, 

83d Penn., Col. O. S. Woodward. 

44th N. Y., Lieut. Col. Freeman Conner. 

i6th Mich., Major R. T. ElHott. 

20th Me., Col. J. L. Chamberlain. 

ist Mich., Lieut. Col. William A. Throop. 

1 8th Mass., Lieut. Col. Joseph Hayes. 

ii8th Penn., Col. James Gwyn. 

The last three regiments had heretofore constituted part 
of the ist Brigade. After the reorganization the Army Corps 
were numbered and commanded as follows : 

2d Army Corps, Major General W. S. Hancock. 

5th Army Corps, Major General G. K. Warren. 

6th Army Corps, Major General J. Sedgwick. 

After his arrival, Lieut. General Grant suggested some other 
changes, but none affecting the infantry organizations of the 
5th Corps, 


(Chap. XVI. The Wilderness. May s, 1864] 

Leaving camp at Beverly Ford on Sunday, May ist, our 
brigade crossed the Rappahannock and marched to within 
2 miles of Brandy Station, where it remained until the 3d. On 
the 3d it moved to within 2 miles of Culpeper C. H. While 
at this place an address to the army by General Meade was 
promulgated. In it General Meade paid a warm tribute to 
the army for its notable record in the past, and invoked for 
it a like devotion for the important work yet to be performed. 
At II o'clock on the evening of the 3d the command was again 
put in motion. The footing was uncertain, the march was 
slow and tedious. The Rapidan was reached and crossed at 
Germanna Ford about 9 o'clock on the morning of the 4th. A 
halt was had about one mile from the river. After resting 
about 2 hours the march was continued. Its route was through 
a vast, impenetrable wilderness, illy adapted to army manoeu- 
vres. A halt for the night was made at 5 o'clock in the after- 
noon, at Wilderness Tavern. Camp was aroused at an early 
hour on the 5th and an order was received to advance at 5 
o'clock. Before moving the enemy made his appearance in 
our front. Line of battle was formed preparatory to re- 
sisting an attack. The enemy did not attack and we were 
ordered to advance. The 6th Corps was on our right, the 5th 
Corps in the center and the 2d Corps on our left of the gen- 
eral line. The wooded nature of the country was such that 
it was impossible for different commands to cooperate. The 
line of battle of the enemy was also in the woods, within easy 
range and almost entirely invisible. Our division was formed 
for the attack in the following order: The ist Brigade on the 
right, 2d Brigade on the left, and our 3d Brigade in the 
center. The Forty-Fourth, unsupported, was on the right of 
the brigade with the 83d Penn. and the i8th Mass. respectively 
extending the line toward the left. The 20th Me. and the 
1 18th Penn. were placed in the second line to the rear of the 
83d Penn. and the i8th Mass. About 2 o'clock P. M. a charge 
was made with great force and vociferous shouts. The skir- 
mishers of the enemy were first reached and dispersed, the 
first line of battle was broken and sent in retreat, then the sec- 
ond line of battle was broken and forced from their posi- 
tion in great confusion. The charging column had carried the 
center of the enemy's general line. Considerable confusion 


Was a member of Col. Ellsworth's U. S. Zouave Cadets in Chi- 
cago and at the time they made their memorable tour of the principal 
cities of the country. He served with Battery A, Chicago Light Ar- 
tillery in the three months' service; with Battery left Chicago for the 
front on the 21st day of April 1861, being the first troops that left that 
city for the War. Enrolled in the 44th N. Y. Vols., September, 1861. 
(See Roster.) Was in the hands of the enemy as a prisoner for about 
sixty days after the seven days' battle, in front of Richmond. Was 
wounded at the Battle of Fredcrickslnirg and was discharged on tender 
of resignation shortly after that engagement. 




[Chap. ZVI. Wilderness. May 5, 1864 1 

among our troops resulted from the long, impetuous charge. 
It became necessary to halt and re-form. The charging troops 
had outdistanced those on either flank. Their great suc- 
cess in turn became their immediate danger. The enemy, per- 
ceiving their isolated position, attacked them in front and 
on both flanks and forced them to make a hurried retreat to 
the point from which they started. Had there been troops at 
hand to take advantage of the breach of the enemy's line, the 
result of the first day's battle might have been materially 
changed. Col. Woodward of the 83d Penn., Col. Hayes of 
the i8th Mass. and Col. Gwyn of the iiSth Penn. were among 
the wounded. The Forty-Fourth lost 4 killed, among whom 
was Capt. Seth F. Johnson, and 40 wounded, among whom was 
First Lieut. Chas. H. Zielman. Capt. Johnson was one of the 
original members of the regiment. He entered the regiment 
as a private and by his meritorious services rose to the rank 
of Captain in command of a Company. He was a great fa- 
vorite with the regiment and his death was a material loss to 
the service. 

Darkness put an end to the first day's battle. Both armies 
slept on their arms in line of battle, ready to renew the en- 
gagement. While no material advantage had been gained in 
the first day's fighting in the Battle of the Wilderness, the 
Army of the Potomac had successfully crossed the Rapidan 
River, penetrated the dense wilderness bordering on its South 
bank, and established a line of battle, in the face of a vigilant 
and aggressive enemy. 

At 4 o'clock on the morning of the 6th, our troops were 
quietly awakened and moved silently to the front. Orders were 
received that the enemy's works were to be assaulted at ^ o'clock. 
The 6th Corps on our right was to commence the assault and 
when it became actively engaged our corps was to advance 
to the attack at once. We waited all the forenoon in anx- 
ious expectancy but did not attack. Our position in the 
mean time was one of extreme discomfort. That our position 
might be concealed as much as possible from the enemy our 
troops were ordered to lie upon the ground and remain in- 
active. The enemy's skirmishers and sharp shooters kept 
busy in endeavoring to develop our position and strength. Any 
one who assumed a perpendicular position was sure to make 


IChap. XVI. Waderness. May 6, 1864] 

himself a target for the enemy. At noon the order to attack 
was countermanded. After the order to attack was counter- 
manded, a strong skirmish line was sent out and in a meas- 
ure suppressed the fire of the enemy. In the afternoon an 
attack was made upon the 2d Corps, which resulted in no per- 
manent advantage to the enemy. A little before dark an assault 
was made upon the line of the 6th corps, in which some of the 
troops of that corps were driven from their position. Darkness 
put an end to the operations at that point and the next morning 
the position was regained. During the attack on the 6th corps 
the fighting appeared to be working more and more toward the 
rear of the center, causing considerable uneasiness to the troops 
holding that part of the line. At dark the center was drawn 
back some distance, occupying the breast works thrown up in 
the earlier part of the engagement. This was the general sit- 
uation at the end of the second day. The army had lost heavily. 
General Grant reported that our casualties would not probably 
exceed 12,000, but later reports placed the number over 17,000. 
Our loss during the 6th was one killed, five wounded. 

About daylight on the morning of the 7th the enemy made a 
spirited attack on our center. Artillery had been advantageously 
posted and assisted materially in sending the attacking column 
in hasty retreat. It was thought that the object of the attack 
was to discover if our army had retreated during the night. In 
any event, they found we were still in the field, ready for bus- 
iness. The center of the line, held by the 5th corps, was not 
again engaged during the day. General Grant, in his report, 
tersely summed up the situation as follows : "The result of the 
three days' fight at Old Wilderness was decidedly in our favor." 


[Chap. XVn. A Flank Movement. May 7, 1864] 



At 9 o'clock, in the evening of May 7th, the 5th corps silently 
left its position in line and noiselessly moved toward the left. 
It was the first of a series of flank movements instituted by 
Grant in that campaign, which distinguished it from any of its 
former campaigns. The night was dark, the movement was 
slow and tedious, and the men were much fatigued by three 
days fighting. The march was made up of starts and stops with 
intermittent frequency. Its irregular, dilatory pace was well 
calculated to aggravate weariness. The march, which began 
at 9 o'clock on the evening of the 7th, was continued without 
other incident until about 8 o'clock in the morning of the 8th. 
The route taken was in the direction of Spottsylvania C. H. 
The cavalry that led the advance had encountered opposition 
which they could not overcome. A halt was made for about 
fifteen minutes to let the cavalry get out of the way. The 
march by the flank was then resumed. Many troops were 
passed by the road side. It was afterward found that the Con- 
federate commander had anticipated the movement of our army 
and had hastily placed some of his troops across our line of 
march. The Confederates were posted in a strong position in 
the edge of a piece of woods, at right angles to the road, behind 
breast works, with brush and trees felled in front of that part 
of their line on the left of the road. The position had been held 
by cavalry until a short time before the arrival of our troops, 
when they were relieved by Kershaw's division of Longstreet's 
corps of infantry. The engagement was known as the Battle 
of Laurel Hill. It became important to dislodge the enemy to 
enable our army to proceed. At this time it was supposed the po- 
sition was still held by cavalry. Lieut. Col. Connor sent Acting 
Adjutant Munger to General Bartlett to ask if the men might 
not stack knapsacks before advancing to the attack. General 
Bartlett replied : "No, tell Col. Conner there is no force in our 


[Chap. XVn. Laurel Hill, Preliminary to Spottsylvania. May 8, 1864] 

front but cavalry and to march right up the road by fours." 
After proceeding some distance in this formation we came to an 
open field on the right of the road, which gradually ascended 
to the position held by the enemy. On reaching the open field, 
about 8 or 9 o'clock in the morning, line of battle was formed 
with the left of the 83d Penn. and the right of the Forty-Fourth 
resting on the road. While these regiments were executing 
this formation an aide of General Bartlett rode up and said: 
"Hurry up, or you won't get a shot at them." Weary and hun- 
gry, as our troops were, and in addition encumbered with their 
knapsacks, they started with much vim on that up-hill charge. 
The distance to be covered was between one fourth and one half 
mile. For the purpose of lending encouragement to the men, 
the Adjutant and some of the Company commanders led in the 
charge. The charge of the two regiments was witnessed by 
many prominent officers and was a most spirited and determined 
affair. As soon as our troops got in range the enemy opened a 
murderous fire of musketry and artillery. The idea that the 
position was held only by cavalry was soon exploded. The 83d 
Penn. reached and vigorously used their bayonets across the 
Confederate works. The momentum of the charge of the For- 
ty-Fourth was broken by coming in contact with logs and brush 
entanglements about three or four rods in front of the enemy's 
works. The firing on both sides was brisk and at short range. 
The proximity of the enemy was such that Adjutant Hunger 
used his revolver with telling effect. While in this advanced 
position, Corporal Walworth W. Boynton of Company D re- 
ceived a mortal wound in his head and fell forward against the 
writer, saturating his coat with his blood. There were no troops 
on the right of the 83d Penn. and no troops on the left of the 
Forty-Fourth. There appeared to have been miscalculation 
somewhere. The enemy, taking advantage of the situation, 
dispatched a regiment to attack the left flank and rear of the 
Forty-Fourth. The flanking column advanced rapidly with- 
out opposition on a line perpendicular to the 44th, who, being 
busily engaged with the enemy in front failed to discover the at- 
tacking troops until they had gained a threatening position. The 
situation of the two regiments at once became critical. It be- 
came apparent to all that the only movement by which the 
Forty-Fourth could be saved from capture or destruction, was 


[Chap. XVn. Lauiel HiU. May 8, 1864] 

to break to the rear and make a hasty retreat. The line quickly 
dissolved, some to escape, some to fall and some to be cap- 
tured. From front and flank the enemy poured a murderous 
fire into our retreating troops. During the engagement Lieut. 
Col. Conner was wounded and obliged to go to the rear. Major 
Knox then came in command. Adj. Munger, Capt. B. R. 
Wood, Lieut. E. Bennett and 36 men were taken prisoners. 

At the time of this engagement the color guard had been 
reduced from eight members, at the beginning of the campaign, 
to three members. Of the three members present Corporal 
Burt Inman of Company H was wounded and private John 
Mitchell of Company F was killed, leaving only Corporal 
George W. Wing of Company C with the colors. Soon after 
the retreat began Corporal Wing, who had the flag, fell ex- 
hausted to the ground. In retreating the writer came to Corpo- 
ral Wing, lying upon the ground with the colors by his side, 
and said to him : "Wing, can I help you ?" He replied : "No, 
don't mind me, take the flag." There was no time for delibera- 
tion. The flag was carried a short distance to the rear and used 
to rally the regiment. While the regiment was reforming. 
Major Knox, seated on the ground for a moment's rest by 
the side of the writer, received an ugly wound in the head from 
a fragment of shell which burst directly over the two men. He 
was carried to the rear, as was supposed at the time, fatally 
wounded. The only field officers present with the regiment at 
the commencement of the engagement had now been wounded 
and disabled and the writer assumed command. The regiment 
promptly rallied on the colors and was soon re-formed facing 
the enemy. A feeling prevailed that proper foresight had not 
been exercised in ordering an inadequate force to make the 
charge. An order very soon came that the regiment be taken to 
the rear and that it would not be called upon to perform any fur- 
ther duty that day. The rest and breakfast were quite acceptable. 
Since leaving Culpeper C. H. on the evening of the 3d the reg- 
iment had marched two entire nights, been engaged in battle 
three days and during the intervening nights had slept on their 
arms. For the time engaged at Laurel Hill the loss was severe. 
According to the report of Major Kjiox, dated August 6, 1864, 
there were 11 killed and mortally wounded and 44 wounded, 
among whom were Lieut. Col. Conner, Major Knox, Capt. Fox 


[Chap. XVn. New Line of Battle. Enemy's Works in Plain View. May 8, 1864] 

and Lieut. Hoes. There were 3 officers and 23 men captured. 
The 3 officers and 20 men of those captured were recaptured by 
Sheridan's Cavalry near Beaver Dam Station on the following 
day and rejoined the regiment on the 26th, having been absent 
only 18 days. An interesting account of the capture and recap- 
ture is contained in an article by Acting Adj. Munger, which 
may be found in the appendix. In the confusion that ensued 
in retreating from the close proximity to the enemy's works 
there occurred an act of inter-regimental comity that is worthy 
of note. The color bearer of the 83d Penn. was wounded and 
fell upon the field, having in his possession the flag of his regi- 
ment. A member of the Forty-Fourth N. Y. luckily came along 
and was requested by the color bearer to take the flag and safely 
deliver it to his regiment. The request was faithfully per- 
formed. This circumstance in no wise reflected on the honor 
of the color bearer nor the noble regiment to which he belonged. 
It is regretted that the names of the soldiers, who participated 
in this gallant affair, and a more definite statement of the trans- 
action, are not at hand to embellish this narrative. It was an- 
other of those incidents that occurred during the war which 
showed the friendship and mutual confidence that existed be- 
tween the members of those noble regiments. 

The regular line of battle was formed some distance to the 
rear of the place where the Forty-Fourth re-formed and Major 
Knox was wounded. Our regiment remained at the rear in re- 
serve all day during the 9th and until noon on the loth, when it 
was ordered to the front to engage in a general assault along 
our whole line. The enemy's works were in plain view and ap- 
peared very formidable. Instructions were given that the move- 
ment was to begin on the right and to be taken up by the troops 
in succession toward the left. The 3d brigade occupied a posi- 
tion in line next to the left of the regular brigade which be- 
longed to the 2d division. There was manifest satisfaction 
among the troops when it became known that the assaulting 
column was only to keep abreast with the regulars on our right. 
The volunteers always felt equal to the task of maintaining 
their part of the line under such conditions. The line was 
made ready for the charge, the route to be traversed leading up 
to the works of the enemy was carefully scanned, and nothing 


[Chap. XVH. Successful Assault by and Corps. May I3, 1864] 

was left but to await the unfolding of the plan. Eager ears 
were listening to hear the initiative movement. On such occa- 
sions the mind is usually active in endeavoring to anticipate 
what the outcome will be. Anxious moments passed but no 
signal came. The order was finally countermanded and the 
mental tension that had prevailed was relaxed. No regrets were 
expressed when it became known that the movement had been 
abandoned, as there was considerable uncertainty as to what 
the result would be. 

On the nth the regiment relieved the i6th Mich, on picket 
and was in turn relieved at 3 o'clock on the morning of the 12th 
and took position further to the right in works vacated by the 
2d Corps. 

During the night of the nth preparations were made for the 
2d Corps to assault an angle in the works of the enemy at 4 
o'clock in the morning of the 12th. The movement was delayed 
one half hour on account of a dense fog that prevailed. A 
heavy rain storm afforded material aid in concealing the pre- 
paratory movements of the troops. At 4 o'clock the order to 
advance was given. It was at the first approach of dawn when 
the watchfulness of pickets is presumed to be somewhat re- 
laxed. The assault was bold and irresistible. The assaulting 
column followed close on the heels of the retreating skirmishers 
and on reaching the enemy's first line of breast works a most 
murderous contest ensued, in which bayonets and clubbed mus- 
kets were freely used. The result was most creditable to our 
troops which were engaged. There were captured 20 pieces of 
artillery, 30 colors and 4,000 prisoners, including one Major 
General and one Brigadier General. At 5 o'clock on the after- 
noon of the 1 2th our brigade marched to the rear and in support 
of the 2d Corps, which was engaged in holding the captured 
works. The enemy made repeated assaults during the entire 
day and night in endeavoring to recapture the works which 
they had lost. In the end they were obliged to abandon the 
attempt and fell back to their second line of works. At 2 o'clock 
A. M. on the 13th our brigade again returned to its position to 
the right of the Pine Grove road. On this day General Meade 
issued the following order which was read to the troops : 


(Chap. XVn. Advance toward Spottsylvania. May 13, 1864] 

Headquarters of the Army of the Potomac, 
May 13th, 1863. 

Soldiers : The moment has arrived when your commanding general 
feels authorized to address you in terms of congratulation. For eight 
days and nights, almost without intermission, in rain and sunshine, you 
have been gallantly fighting a desperate foe, in positions naturally strong, 
and rendered doubly more so by intrenchments ; you have compelled him 
to abandon his fortifications on the Rapidan, to retire and attempt to 
stop your onward progress, and now he has abandoned the last in- 
trenched position, tenaciously held, suffering in all a loss of 18 guns, 
22 colors and 8,000 prisoners, including 2 general officers. Your heroic 
deeds and noble endurance of fatigue and privations will ever be mem- 
orable. Let us return thanks to God for the mercy thus shown us, and 
ask earnestly for its continuance. 

Soldiers, your work is not over, the enemy must be pursued, and, if 
possible, overcome. The courage and fortitude you have displayed 
render your commanding general confident your future efforts will result 
in success. While we mourn the loss of many gallant comrades, let us 
remember the enemy must have suffered equal, if not greater, losses. 
We shall soon receive reinforcements which he can not expect. Let us 
determine then to continue vigorously the work so well begun, and, 
under God's blessing, in a short time, the object of our labors will be 

George G. Meade, 
Major General Commanding. 

At 9 o'clock P. M. we received orders and took up our line 
of march in the direction of Spottsylvania C. H. The weather 
was rainy, the roads were very muddy and an impenetrable 
darkness added to the gloom. This march was difficult and try- 
ing. A point near Spottsylvania C. H. was reached some time 
after daylight of the 14th. The enemy had anticipated our 
movement and occupied the town before our arrival. A line of 
skirmishers was thrown out, line of battle was formed and 
breastworks were thrown up. This position was occupied until 
the 17th when a new position, about one mile to the front and 
left was taken up, and earthworks were erected. Our skirmish- 
ers and artillery were hotly engaged. The latter were posted 
on higher ground to the rear of our infantry and fired over their 
heads. Capt. Campbell Allen returned on the i8th and being 
the ranking officer assumed command of the regiment. Our 
position was not changed until the 21st. During the time 
watchfulness and constant preparedness were kept up, with 
sufficient skirmishing to keep the troops on the alert. On the 


Enlisted October 21, 1861, Co. I, 44th N. Y. V. Detailed January 
nth, Signal Service, Camp Instruction, Georgetown, D. C. ; Alarcli. 
1862, to Military Division of the West; April ist. Gen. Halleck's 
H"d Qrs., St. Louis; April 6th, Gen. Grant at Pittsburg Landing; 
Camp Instruction, two months Paducah. Kv. ; June 6th, with Fleet on 
Mississippi River, at Memphis and White River; at St. Charles, Ark., 
on ill-fated "Mound City" at Battle St. Charles. June 17th; at Mem- 
phis, Columbus, Ky., Cincinnati and Louisville ; pursuit of Bragg by 
Gen. Buell ; early winter 1862 at Nashville ; with Rosencrans in his 
Tennessee Campaign, and over the mountains signaling night and day; 
besieged in Chattanooga, occupied the Signal Station at Moccasin 
Point; Relief of Burnside at Knoxville; January 14, 1864. transferred 
to signal corps U. S. A., promoted to Sergeant in February, 1864; re- 
enlisted for the War in February, 1864; Atlanta Campaign with Sher- 
man and Thomas in East Tennessee when Lee surrendered ; Military 
Division of Gulf in 1865 and 1866; discharged March 8, 1866, at Aus- 
tin, Texas. Battles : Pittsburg Landing, St. Charles. Perryville, Stone 
River, Tullahoma .Chickamauga. Chattanooga. Lookout Mountain, Mis- 
sion Ridge. Atlanta Campaign. Jonesboro. 




[Chap. XVn. Effective Artillery Practice. May 32, 1864] 

morning of the 21st our brigade left its position in close prox- 
imity to the enemy and unceremoniously marched to the rear. 
The enemy at once dispatched a strong picket line in pursuit. 
About one mile to the rear the enemy's skirmishers came in 
contact with a line of 6th corps troops, which promptly opened 
fire on them and sent them in hasty retreat. Our line of march 
was through a place known as Guiney's Station on the line of 
the Richmond and Fredericksburg Railroad. It was another 
of those forced marches, demanded by the strategy of the cam- 
paign and continued until 11 o'clock P. M. before halting for 
the night. The march was resumed bright and early on the 
morning of the 22d. During the day there was considerable 
skirmishing with the enemy. In the afternoon the resistance 
was so strong that it became necessary to advance in line of 
battle. The route was along and near a highway. When the 
right of the regiment reached a point opposite an elevated po- 
sition, partially secluded by woods, a battery of the enemy un- 
expectedly opened fire. The first shot mortally wounded James 
Gillin of Company F and wounded Thomas McDougal of Com- 
pany A, Edward Bennett and Amenzo Moyer of Company F 
and Sergt. W. W. Johnson of Company H. There were other 
narrow escapes. It is seldom that a single first shot will cause 
so much disaster. General Griffin was near and personally 
placed the 5th U. S. Battery, gave instructions as to the kind of 
shell to use, and stimulated activity by loudly proclaiming: 
"Give them Hell," which is another name for war. A few well- 
directed shots soon set the Confederates flying to the rear. 

The advance was continued until dark. At the close of the 
day the Forty-Fourth halted, threw out pickets and bivouacked 
in line. During the night a flock of sheep innocently wandered 
near our camp. The next morning all that was left of that 
flock of sheep was a pile of pelts and refuse. When General 
Bartlett came riding up he discovered the evidences of slaugh- 
ter and said: "If sheep attack you, you are obliged to fight." 
The reply was made : "that it was the most decisive victory since 
the beginning of the campaign." 

On Monday, the 23d, march was resumed at 9 o'clock A. M., 
the North Anna River was reached and crossed at Jericho 
Ford at 2 o'clock P. M. The 2d brigade forded the river, fol- 
lowed closely by our brigade. The approaches on either side 


[Chap. XVn. North Anna. May 24, 1864] 

were narrow and the banks abrupt, making the crossing- quite 
slow. After the crossing began it became necessary to make as 
much haste as possible. A pontoon bridge was laid without de- 
lay to facilitate the crossing of our troops. The enemy made all 
possible dispatch to check and drive back our advance troops be- 
fore a permanent footing could be made upon the south side of 
the river. To that end the 2d brigade, which took the advance in 
crossing late in the afternoon was furiously assailed by an over- 
whelming force. Our brigade was divided, part was hurried 
to prolong and protect each flank of the 2d brigade. All move- 
ments were rapidly made and brisk fighting continued until 
dark. The enemy evidently intended to drive our advance 
troops back to and into the river. The suddenness of the attack 
found non-combatants along with their several commands. But 
few men will remain on the firing line unless duty requires it. 
When the attack opened non-combatants did not stand upon the 
order of going but severally and unceremoniously took their 
departure across the open plains to the river. Their hegira to 
the rear looked like a stampede of a material part of our forces. 
The enemy were finally baffled in their attempt to drive our 
troops into the river. They were themselves driven back and 
fortifications thrown up. Their expected attack on the morn- 
ing of the 24th did not materialize. A reconnoissance de- 
veloped the fact that the enemy had taken up a new position, 
several miles to the rear, at Noel's Station on the line of the Va. 
Central Railroad. They evidently preferred to take position, 
entrench and let us attack. When available that kind of strat- 
egy is preferable. Late in the afternoon our troops advanced in 
force. After proceeding less than one mile a heavy wind and 
rain storm set in and a halt for the night was ordered. 

At 7 o'clock on the morning of the 25th, the advance was 
continued, the enemy's position was developed, our own line 
formed in close proximity and breastworks were thrown up. 
The skirmishing was spiteful and continuous. Between the 
armies was a broad open field well adapted to troops acting on 
the defensive, behind breastworks. During the day the Forty- 
fourth was held in reserve in the woods. After dark it was or- 
dered to deploy and advance between the lines and perform 
picket duty, while the 20th Me. threw up new works further to 
the front. Having been in reserve during the day, the topog- 


[Chap. XVn. Recaptured Prisoners Return to Regiment. May 26, 1864] 

raphy of the country and the exact location of the Confederate 
troops were unknown. A deployed line, darkness and an in- 
definite knowledge of the field all contributed to the complexity 
of the movement. The two wings of the regiment were sepa- 
rated by a cut in the Va. Central railroad, which added to the 
difficulty. It became necessary to go from man to man in order 
to correct the alignment. When the line was formed the 20th 
Me. advanced and in the darkness silently prosecuted the work 
of constructing a new line of breastworks. Just before day- 
light the Forty-fourth was ordered back into the new works, 
where it remained until later in the day, when it was relieved. 
As the field to the rear of the new works was in plain sight and 
within reach of the enemy's musketry each man was instructed 
to pick his own route in passing to the rear. There were many 
narrow escapes but it is not recalled that there were any casual- 
ties. On the 26th Adjutant Munger, Capt. Wood, Lieut. Ben- 
nett and 20 men reached the regiment and reported for duty. 
They had been taken prisoners on the 8th and recaptured by 
General Sheridan on the 9th. They received a most hearty wel- 
come on their arrival. Their numbers and quality afiforded an 
appreciable increase in the fighting strength of the regiment. 
About 9 o'clock in the evening the 5th corps left its position in 
front of the enemy, recrossed the North Anna River, halted 
two hours to draw rations, then continued the march until sun- 
down on the 27th, when it halted for the night at Mangohick, 
about 8 miles from the Pamunkey River, having marched 35 
miles since the start was made. The weather was extremely 
hot on the 27th, the men had no opportunity to sleep for two 
nights and the duty exacted was all that human nature could 
endure. In the heat of the day, while McKivitt was sweating 
at every pore and doing his best to keep up, he was discovered 
to have swung over his shoulder, a single piece of shelter tent, 
compactly rolled and tied and when asked if that was all the 
baggage he carried, he replied : "Yes, and I only carry that for 
the sake of a load as I don't get a chance to use it any." 

The camp was aroused at 4 o'clock on the morning of the 
28th and march was resumed at 5 o'clock. The Pamunkey 
River was reached and crossed at Hanover Town during the 
forenoon. After crossing the river the march was continued 
about two miles, when a halt was ordered and earthworks 


[Chap. XVn. Totopotomojr. May 29, 1864] 

thrown up. This precaution was taken in order to hold the 
crossing for the rest of the army. The remainder of the army 
crossed during the day and formed line of battle. 

March was resumed at an early hour on the morning of the 
29th. Considerable skirmishing took place during the day. 
Land generally becomes more valuable and for different pur- 
poses on the approach to an important city. The enemy from 
day to day became more and more reluctant to concede right of 
way as the Confederate Capital was approached. A halt for 
the night was made at Totopotomoy Creek about 9 P. M. 

The regiment broke camp about 11 o'clock on the 30th and 
advanced. The enemy utilized every opportunity to delay, 
harass and inflict loss upon our troops. They abandoned ter- 
ritory in the direction of Richmond only when compelled to do 
so. Our advance was almost continually engaged with the 
enemy. In the afternoon our troops were advancing on dif- 
ferent roads. It became necessary to halt and give attention 
to skirmishers and sharpshooters operating between the heads 
of advancing lines. For this purpose the Forty-fourth was 
ordered to take a certain position to the left of the road on 
which it was advancing. The position was taken and slight 
breastworks were hastily thrown up. A little time intervened in 
which brisk skirmishing was carried on, when an order was 
received to change positions. While in the act of executing this 
change of position the writer, who had been acting in the capac- 
ity of second in command of the regiment since the return of 
Capt. Allen and who was standing in front of the regiment, 
was wounded. This ended his active service in the army. The 
operations of the thirtieth of May are known as the Battle of 
Bethseda Church, Va. The narrative of the remainder of the 
term of service of the regiment is faithfully told in the next 
chapter by Capt. Orett L. Munger. 




By Capt. Orett L. Munger. 

From the battlefield of May 30, 1864, at Bethesda Church, 
Va., until the departure of the men and officers of the regiment 
whose terms of service had expired; and until the 44th Bat- 
talion, made up of the men that remained, had ceased to exist 
by reason of the transfer of its enlisted men to other regiments, 
— the area fought over was very limited, not exceeding prob- 
ably forty miles north and south and a much less distance east 
and west. Here severe battles were fought, with that intermit- 
tence of victory and defeat which always claims a place in great 
campaigns, but with much less comparative disaster to the 
Union army than to its foes. 

In this small territory the Forty-fourth under the varied 
command of Capt. Campbell Allen to July 17th, Major Edward 
B. Knox to August 14th, Lieut. Col. Freeman Conner to Sept. 
23d, and Capt. Bradford R. Wood to Oct. 13, 1864, saw a little 
more than four months' strenuous service. Practically all of it 
might be properly included in the general designation — Siege of 
Petersburg — since the frequent changes in location, and efforts 
for better position which involved battles and losses, were all 
subordinate to the great purpose to get possession of the strong- 
hold which was the main defense of Richmond from the south, 
and, that attained, to capture the capital city of the Confederacy 
and the army of General Lee which had so heroically defended 

Those now living who were with the regiment during these 
months will not forget the exhausting nature of the service 
the Army of the Potomac was called upon for and gave un- 
grudgingly. There were long days and weeks of enforced in- 
activity behind breastworks, in trenches and bomb-proofs. At 
times the works of the contending forces were so close to each 
other that to show one's head was to invite the attention of 
some willing sharp-shooter waiting for a shot. Despite re- 


[Chap. XVm. May 30 to Sept. 23d. 1864] 

peated cautions and the knowledge of danger, vigilance would 
sometimes be relaxed and some good soldier be killed or 

The want of physical exercise, the use of impure water, the 
lack of variety in food, and the great difficulty of sanitary 
police service to keep camp and quarters clean and wholesome, 
made this period a very trying one. For a while a multitude 
of flies armed with stings, possessed of voracious appetites, and 
with a persistence that never failed, constituted an unescapable 
discomfort. During certain hours of the day and atmospheric 
conditions of heat and moisture that prevailed a large part of 
the time, it was a skilful man who could transfer from fork 
or spoon to his mouth a morsel of food and escape a contest 
with these pests. "Necessity is the mother of invention" and 
it was soon learned that by using knife as scraper in one hand, 
while fork with the food in the other approached the partly 
opened mouth, it was possible by quick action to circumvent the 
robbers. These conditions were impressed upon the writer by 
reason of the fact that he was one of the victims of a disorder 
that grew to be common in trench life, and which resulted in 
the death of a number of the men. Six weeks were required 
in hospitals, and at home convalescing, to regain strength for 
return to further service. During this absence the affair of 
the Weldon railroad, where the Forty-fourth lost four men 
captured, was an important interruption to the usual routine. 

After the operations about Petersburg had settled into a 
siege, there was some relief from inactivity, by the building 
of military roads back of the line of trenches, by means of 
which supplies could be brought to the front with the minimum 
of risk to driver and team. Embankments so high as to screen 
wagon trains, or bodies of marching soldiers, from the enemy's 
view, proved of great value. 

During the four months under consideration, the Forty- 
fourth was not called to suffer any such serious losses as in the 
Wilderness and at Laurel Hill, but in several minor engage- 
ments had its part, and frequent casualties, week after week, 
show that it was under fire a great part of the time. 

In what follows an attempt will be made to narrate some 
of the movements and incidents of the period under consider- 
ation, in which the Forty- fourth was interested. 


[Chap. XVm. Bethesda Church, Cold Harbor. June 3, 1864] 

Numbers do not always measure the extent of battle loss. 
On May 30, 1864, when this narrative begins, and while but 
few of the Forty-fourth are reported hit at the battle of 
Bethesda Church that day, the unfortunate accuracy of some 
rebel soldier deprived the regiment during the remainder of 
its service of one of its officers whose kindly heart, good judg- 
ment, bravery, and steadiness in trying places, had won the re- 
spect and love of men and officers alike. The wounding of Capt. 
Nash was a grief to the regiment. 

Sent out as brigade picket on the evening of May 30th, the 
regiment was relieved the following noon by the 2d N. Y. 
Mounted Rifles, and remained under cover of the woods during 
the rest of the day. 

Cold Harbor. About 3 P. M., June ist, the regiment oc- 
cupies a position advanced a half mile, gained during the day 
by skirmishers at a cost of three wounded men. By vigorous 
use of bayonets, knives, sticks, tin plates and cups, a line of 
breastworks soon protected the men from rebel fire and were 
rapidly made stronger. This simple defense was soon to show 
its value, for about sundown the enemy advanced, drove in the 
skirmish line, and then attempted to dislodge our line of battle. 
Repulsed by the brisk fire encountered, the enemy retired with 
a considerable loss to them in killed and wounded. Our losses 
were one killed and five wounded. Anticipating another at- 
tack, the Forty-fourth had only intermittent rest that night, 
one-half being on duty while the other half caught such snatches 
of sleep as were possible, until its turn came to watch. 

June 2d our pickets resume advanced position, the enemy 
having retired. About four P. M. our battle line is withdrawn 
from the extreme front, a movement soon discovered by the 
rebels, who drive in our pickets but stop short of an attack on 
the new line. Burnside on our right had severe battle and 
handsomely repulsed the enemy. Only one of our men 
wounded today. 

June 3d. Roused at break of day, the men make coffee and 
try to dry clothing. Before sunrise, Burnside, on our right, ad- 
vances and after a hard fight is successful in securing advanced 
position. Battery fire intended for his column kills one of our 
men and wounds three. Ordered to swing around our right 
to connect with Burnside's advanced left, the Forty-fourth 


[Chap. XVm. More Flanking, Cross James River. June i6, 1864] 

helped drive the skirmishers of the enemy and succeeded in 
establishing its own near the rebel battery, so that horses were 
nearly all killed and gunners unable to work their pieces or draw 
them off. Breastworks were hastily constructed under heavy 
picket fire. These operations cost the Forty-fourth one officer, 
Capt. B. K. Kimberly, wounded, four enlisted men killed and 
thirteen wounded. During the advance, before the enemy's 
guns had been silenced, the writer was for a moment staggered, 
but not thrown, by a ball from an exploding canister shot, which 
made only a bruise. 

The contests of the first days of June, in the Army of the 
Potomac are usually grouped under the general head : Battle of 
Cold Harbor. On some parts of the army front, the struggles 
were fierce and losses enormous on the Union side, so that 
whatever gains were made were exceedingly costly. It was not 
the fortune of the Forty-fourth to have part in the fiercest of 
these struggles. 

June 5th was a rainy day and the picket lines of the two 
armies were close neighbors, but partially screened by trees 
and undergrowth. This proximity made watchfulness nec- 
essary and yet a rebel soldier was clever enough to penetrate 
our line undiscovered. Clad in a rain coat that covered him 
from shoulder to ankle, he passed easily for a Union soldier, 
and getting into conversation with one of our pickets soon had 
him "off guard," and, watching his opportunity for escape, suc- 
ceeded in getting away with him as prisoner. The withdrawal 
of the 5th Corps at night, in pursuance of Gen. Grant's flank- 
ing program, was successfully executed. The Forty-fourth, 
full of attentive and deep interest, remained as picket in front 
of the abandoned line till long after midnight. When, in the 
early morning, the regiment had reached its place in the column, 
the march was continued as rapidly as the crowded condition 
of the roads would permit. On June 7th the Forty- fourth goes 
into camp near Bottom's Bridge. On the 13th the Chicka- 
hominy is crossed and camp is made the following day at 
Charles City Courthouse. On June 15th camp is made near 
James River, which we cross on the i6th at Wilcox Ferry and 
march in the direction of Petersburg. Here the cheering news 
comes of the success of a Division of Negro troops which 


Joined the regiment just after the battle of Antietam and served 
until after "Burnside's AInd March." Resigned upon receiving a 
letter from General John T. Sprague, Adjutant-General of State of 
N. Y., promising him a commission as Major in the "Sprague Light 
Cavalry," then organizing. This organization was never completed. 
He was appointed Military Secretary to Governor Horatio Seymour 
with rank of Major and served as such until the end of the war. 




[Chap. XVm. Col. Chamberlain Wounded. June i8, 1864] 

showed its good mettle by successful assaults on the works be- 
fore them, a part of which were taken and held. 

Records show that from the crossing of the Rapidan May 
4th until the arrival of the army before Petersburg, the Union 
losses reached a total of nearly 55,000 men. About 12,000 
had been the contribution of the 5th Corps and of this num- 
ber the Forty-fourth gave its full proportionate share. 

In the general assault of June 18, 1864, in which by Gen- 
eral Meade's orders, the 2d, 5th and 9th Corps were to co- 
operate, our division, under General Griffin, constituted the re- 
serve. Beginning early in the morning, repeated assaults 
were made which met with important successes, but less than 
had been hoped for, and at very great cost. 

During one of these attempts on the enemy's works, Col. 
Joshua L. Chamberlain, of the 20th Me., commanding the 
1st Brigade, received a severe and apparently fatal wound. 
Held in high esteem, extraordinary efforts were made by a 
number of surgeons to save his life. His proper treatment at 
the time and his recovery later, constitute a high testimonial to 
the skill and devotion to duty, of our own much esteemed sur- 
geon — M. W. Townsend — , who, after many efforts, assisted 
by other surgeons, to do a particularly difficult bit of surgery 
and the abandonment of the effort as useless and only dis- 
tressing to the patient, turned back again for still another ef- 
fort. This time good fortune rewarded intelligent persistence, 
severed parts were artificially connected, and to the great 
joy of patient and surgeon, there was a possibility of recovery. 
Col. Chamberlain's gallant leadership on this occasion, added 
to previous excellent record, impelled General Grant to promote 
him, on the field, to be a Brigadier General, an action said to 
have had no precedent. 

The Forty-fourth was not called into severe battle, though 
skirmishing and advancing somewhat with the brigade, but 
at night was placed in the front line within short musket range 
of the enemy's breastworks. Need of self -protection encour- 
aged the tired men to work hard and fast in the construction of 
breastworks that would minimize the danger to be encountered 
as soon as morning light divulged our nearness to the watch- 
ful enemy. 


IChap. XVni. Mortar Practice. June 19, 1864I 

The operations of the three days, June i6th, 17th and 
i8th, had so fully demonstrated the strength of the enemy's 
position, that General Grant, in a communication to General 
Meade, said : 

"Now we will rest the men and use the spade for their protection 
until a new plan can be struck." 

In pursuance of this plan the use of intrenching implements 
occupied a good deal of time, and some approaches were made 
toward the rebel line. 

So exposed was the position occupied by the advanced line, 
that on the morning of the 19th, three of the Forty-fourth's 
men, waking from deep sleep and unwittingly exposing their 
heads above the breastworks, were instantly killed by sharp- 
shooters who had complete command of our front. This was 
lesson sufficient and all through the day the men remained pros- 
trate, except as it became necessary to change position, when 
greatest care was taken to keep close to the ground. During 
this blistering day, artillery officers began some experiments in 
the use of mortars, under cover of the hill on top of which we 
were intrenched. Two very accurate shots, so stirred up the 
rebels, that retaliation was at once resorted to, and their battery 
fire became furious. Perhaps the Union line of battle back of 
us suffered more than the front, but the protection afforded by 
our breastworks was most fully utilized and appreciated. Our 
artillery men, satisfied that they had the range and could make 
good use of the mortars at the proper time, discontinued their 
fire and the enemy became less active. 

During the night the Forty-fourth was relieved and took 
position about a mile further back, in another line of breast- 
works, not so exposed but still under fire. On the 21st a change 
in position gives us a view of church spires in Petersburg. One 
hundred men are detailed for picket duty. On the 22d picket is 
relieved and returns to regiment, having lost one killed and 
two wounded. Two others are wounded in the regimental line. 

On the 24th the enemy amuse themselves by artillery prac- 
tice, but the Forty-fourth is fortunate and has no casualties. 
On the 25th one man is wounded. The two following days a 
detail from the regiment for picket duty had no losses. On the 
29th it is said we are but two miles from Petersburg. June 


[Cbap. XV ill. Sanitary Commission and Pickles. July 3, 1864] 

30th the loth Corps assaults the enemy's position and though 
twice repulsed, is successful the third time, capturing and hold- 
ing a portion of the rebel line. 

On July 2d, a detail of one hundred men is called for picket 
and the rest of the regiment is sent on "fatigue duty" build- 
ing roads. 

July 3d was a "red letter" day and many a blessing was 
showered upon the Sanitary Commission, which had not for- 
gotten that soldiers were men with the same needs for bodily 
health and comfort as those who remained at home. A sample 
of delicacies reached the front and to the Forty-fourth was 
delivered a half-barrel of assorted pickles. These were care- 
fully distributed and eagerly received. The writer well re- 
members the almost ecstatic pleasure enjoyed in devouring a 
pickled onion, which was his share. Not usually a lover of the 
succulent vegetable, on that particular day nothing could have 
been more agreeable and welcome. It is quite possible that this 
timely arrival of the best of medicines actually saved some 
lives. Blessing on the good men and women at home who 
had sympathy enough with the boys in the field to remember 
their needs. 

On July 7th the regiment moved about six hundred yards 
to the left into front line of works. One man severely wounded. 
On the 9th a detail for picket was supplied and by a sort of un- 
derstanding picket firing was suspended. On the loth mus- 
ketry firing caused an order to "fall in," but no attack was 
made. One man mortally wounded on picket. 

For the next two weeks the situation as regards the Forty- 
fourth was much the same, and about half the time picket and 
fatigue duty gave occupation to the men, while occasional ar- 
tillery practice and the attention of , sharpshooters were con- 
stant reminders to be careful. 

On July 17th Major Knox is welcomed back to the com- 
mand of the regiment. Five deserters came in. Indications of 
activity behind the rebel lines make us watchful, but no at- 
tack came. On the 20th and 21st our batteries, by good marks- 
manship, exploded two of the enemy's caissons. On the 27th 
the 2d Corps on our right, makes successful attack, capturing 
900 prisoners and seven guns. For three weeks, interest in the 
mine which was being dug under the enemy's redoubt, later 


[Chap. XVm. Mine Explosion. July 30, 1864 

known as Elliott's Salient, had been growing deeper and 
deeper, as the time for its completion approached. To Lieut. 
Col. Pleasants, of the 48th Penn., was given the credit for the 
suggestion and prosecution of the enterprise, which, so far as 
he is concerned, was thoroughly and successfully accomplished. 
The Forty-fourth was, therefore, not surprised to receive or- 
ders on the 29th of July to have everything in readiness for 
battle early the following morning, when the mine was to be 
exploded. It was a busy night and hopes were high that some 
decisive result might come from the attack that was to be 
made. At 3 130 A. M. the men were waiting eagerly for the 
work to begin and for the order to "forward." Manoeuvres 
of the day or two before, under General Meade's orders, by a 
part of the army, were believed to have caused a withdrawal of 
a part of the enemy's force in our front, and that at the moment 
of the explosion of the mine, a favorable opportunity would 
be afforded for a general advance. The assault on the redoubt 
was to be made by the 9th Corps, but Ayres and Cutler's Di- 
visions of the 5th Corps were massed in support, while the ist 
Division occupied the entire 5th Corps front. The delay in 
opening the battle was later known to be caused by the failure 
of the fuse to carry past a low, wet spot, through which it had 
been laid. This necessitated a new connection, for which haz- 
ardous duty two brave volunteers were detailed. Following 
the explosion, the effects of which clearly showed the thor- 
oughness and skill of the engineers and workers, the Forty- 
fourth and other troops occupying the front line to the left of 
Burnside, awaited the expected order to advance, which never 
came. Looking to the right and front, our men saw the cloud 
of smoke and debris, as the fort became dust, the darker spots 
showing that men and guns were mingled with the mass of ma- 
terial thrown into the air. The orders had been for Bartlett 
to advance his division against the enemy's works in front of 
the 5th Corps, provided a sufficient break occurred in the 
enemy's line to offer a reasonable chance for success. 

Alas, that sad blundering or inefficiency on the part of the 
commanders of the assaulting column of the 9th Corps, should 
have turned what promised to be a brilliant and fruitful suc- 
cess, into a deplorable and costly defeat! The supporting 
divisions of the 5th Corps resumed their places in the trenche; 


[Chap. XVm. "Bill" the Chef. Aug. i, 1864] 

and there was a settling down to the old monotony of watching 
and waiting, with such relief as road building and picket duty 
afforded. The great suffering and losses among the men who 
made up Burnside's assaulting party and whose bravery and 
sacrifice came to naught, for lack of intelligent leading, were 
greatly deplored. 

From this time on for another two weeks, one day was much 
like another. The same watchful care against a possible night 
attack; the same placing of pickets under cover of darkness, 
some distance in front where small earth works and ditches 
gave protection ; the same efforts by marksmen of both armies 
to make life miserable for their enemies ; the occasional bring- 
ing in of a rebel or a squad of them, who, to escape further 
service in the Confederate army became deserters and sought 
shelter under the stars and stripes, constituted chiefly the rou- 
tine of trench life before Petersburg. 

It is a rare situation, however uncomfortable, where oc- 
casional incidents, foreign to the usual order of things, do 
not distract attention for the moment and afford relief and 
amusement. During these days in the trenches, there dropped 
from some unseen place a specimen of black humanity whose 
services in the mess of the regimental commander and his staff 
proved of not a little value and comfort. "Bill" sufficed for a 
name, and despite nature's unkindliness, which gave him but 
one good leg (the other being shrivelled to his knee) he was 
eager to serve and had the agility of an athlete. The knee of 
the bad leg, resting on a block nailed to an upright stick, did 
its duty well, and climbing embankments or fences with a 
heavy load, or making rapid marches, failed to discourage the 
brave patriotic darkey boy. Where "Bill" is today one may 
only guess, but his faithfulness entitles him to respectful consid- 
eration. About Petersburg and its environs his wanderings 
had been limited, but here he was at home, and, often, looking 
over beyond the Union entrenchments he would indicate by 
gesture the location of certain points in the city and express 
the wish that he had a chance to show the General the short- 
est cut. How it was managed I never knew, but one evening 
•'Bill," with a smile broader than usual, informed the Major 
that rations were ready to be served. Seated at the extension 
table, made of cracker boxes, our dusky benefactor gave us a 


(Chap. XVm. Weldon Railroad. Aug. i8. 1864] 

genuine and delightful surprise, when, with the air and pride 
of a veritable chef, he brought in and placed before the mess a 
well cooked fricasseed chicken. When asked where he got the 
fowl he replied, with a grin, "I jes' found 'urn." It was sur- 
mised that nothing less than a night trip, through difficulties 
and dangers many, must have been undertaken before this 
dainty for the Major was secured. Neither cowardice nor 
laziness was discovered in this man of Ethiopia. 

On August 14, 1864, Col. Conner reached the regiment 
and assumed command. His return, as well as that of 
other ofikers and a number of the men during the few weeks 
past, from absences necessitated by wounds and from other 
causes, made a considerable reenforcement to the depleted 
regiment, and was more than welcome. On the night of the 
14th of August, the 5th Corps moved back out of the trenches, 
relieved by the 9th. The debilitating effects of trench life had 
made many sick and the change was welcomed. 

Weldon Railroad. This proved to be in preparation for the 
movement to destroy the Weldon railroad, which was begun on 
the 1 8th, on which day and the three following, a considerable 
advantage in position was secured and great damage done to 
the enemy's communications. Although some portions of the 
Union force engaged in this expedition suffered considerable 
loss, the Forty-fourth reported four men captured and no 
other casualties. 

From this time to the 23d of September, the duties of the 
siege continued without further general engagement and the 
Forty-fourth was not called to battle. 

On September 24, 1864, the Forty-fourth battalion, which 
included Companies C and E, and later additions to the regi- 
ment whose terms of service had not expired, entered upon 
its short but effective career, the original men of the regi- 
ment having embarked for the north to be mustered out. 

The story of the battalion and its part in the successful bat- 
tle of Poplar Spring Church, September 30, 1864, the last ac- 
tion of importance in which any organization entitled to be 
called the Forty-fourth New York Infantry had a hand, is to 
be told by its worthy and efficient commander. 




By Capt. Bradford R. Wood. 

On September 23, 1864, the following order was received 
by Lieut. Col. Freeman Conner, a copy of which was given to 
Capt. B. R. Wood, Jr. : 

"Headquarters Army of the Potomac, 

Sept. 23, 1864. 
Special Orders. No. 257. (Extract.) 

II. Under the provisions of Circular No. 36 of May 2, 1864. from 
the War Department, the following named officers are selected to officer 
the battalion of the 44th New York Vols, to remain in the service on the 
discharge of the regiment: 

Captain, Bennett Hunger. 

Captain, B. R. Wood, Jr. 

Captain, A. N. Husted. 

First Lieut., O. L. Hunger. 

First Lieut., Edward Bennett. 

First Lieut., Theodore Hoes. 

Asst. Surg., D. C. Spencer. 

By Command of Haj. Gen. Meade. 

(Sd.) S. Williams, A. A. G. 

(Sd.) Fred T. Locke, A. A. G. 

(Sd.) Geo. Monteith, A. A. G. 

Chas. H. Hand, Lt. & A. A. A. G." 

The above order was followed by the last order entered in 
the Order Book of the Forty-Fourth Regiment N. Y. Vols., 
as follows: 

"Headquarters 44th New York Vols., 

Sept. 23, 1864. 
G. O. No. 36. 

By reason of the consolidation of the 44th Regt. N. Y. S. V. in com- 
pliance with S. O. No. 235, Head Qrs. 5th Corps, Sept. 21, 1864, the fol- 
lowing named officers of the 44th Regt. N. Y. S. V. are hereby author- 


[Chap. XIX. Col. Conner's Farewell. Sept. 24, 1864 J 

ized to turn over all surplus Ordnance and Ordnance Stores for which 
they are responsible, to the following named officers designated to com- 
mand the Companies of the 44th N. Y. S. Battalion : 

Capt. B. K. Kimberly, of Co. A and Lieut. Chas. Kelly, Comdg. Co. 
C, 44th N. Y. S. v., to 1st Lt. Theodore Hoes, Comdg. Co. C 44th New 
York State Battalion. 

Wm. N. Banks, Capt. Co. H and B. R. Wood, Jr., Capt. Co. E. 44th 
Regt. N. Y. S. Vols, to A. N. Husted, Capt. Co. E 44th New York 
State Battalion. 

A. N. Husted, Capt. Co. I, R. H. McCormic, ist Lt. Comdg. Co. K 
and C. H. Zeilman, ist Lt. Comdg. Co. F 44th Regt. N. Y. S. V. to ist 
Lt. Edward Bennett, Comdg. Co. A, 44th N. Y. S. Batt'n. 

C. D. Grannis, Capt. Co. B, Jno. V. TenBroeck, 2nd Lt. Comdg. Co. 
D and Theodore Hoes, ist Lt. Comdg. Co. G, 44th Regt. N. Y. S. V., to 
B. R. Wood, Jr., Capt. Co. B, 44th N. Y. S. Batt'n. 

By Command of 

Lieut. Col. Conner, 

Comdg. Regiment. 
H. J. BoTCHFORD, Lieut, and Actg. Adjt. 

As Capt. Bennett Hunger was absent on detached service at 
Elmira, N. Y., where he had been serving at the Draft Rendez- 
vous since January, 1864, Capt. B. R. Wood, Jr., being the next 
officer in rank, was notified by Adjutant Botchford that he 
would take command of the battaHon. 

On the morning of September 24, 1864, the Forty-Fourth 
Regiment N. Y. Vols., under command of Lieut. Col. Freeman 
Conner and the Forty-Fourth Battalion N. Y. Vols., under 
command of Capt. B. R. Wood, Jr., were drawn up in line 
facing each other to take their final farewell as soldiers to- 
gether in the field. 

After saluting by "Presenting Arms," the men stood at 
"Attention," while Col. Conner in a few kind words spoke of 
the many trials and dangers they had shared together and ex- 
pressed sincere regret that the time had now arrived for the 
Forty-Fourth Regiment to say "Farewell" to the comrades 
who were to remain in the service. He hoped the Forty-Fourth 
Battalion would acquit itself well ; that the war would soon be 
over, and that they might all meet again in the State of New 
York when the "Right" had triumphed and "Peace" had been 

Capt. Wood, in reply congratulated the Forty-Fourth Regi- 
ment on the excellent record it had made during its service in 


Sergeant Co. D. 44th X. Y. Vol. Inf. was born April 16, 1841, died 
July 28, 1902, at Corr\', Pa. 

A few years ago the writer of this sketch met Comrade Congdon 
of Co. G who, upon being informed of Jack's death, wept as only a 
comrade can over the death of one who stood shoulder to shoulder 
during the days of '61 to '65 and remarked that "Jack was a good 
soldier in a regiment of good soldiers." This, in a very few words, 
described the conduct of the individual as well as that of his regiment. 
The history of the 44th is the history of Comrade Kimball, for he was 
never absent from the regiment from the time it left Albany, Oct., 
i8()i. until May 5, 1864, when he was taken prisoner. He was in every 
engagement in which the 44th participated down to that time. The 
writer does not know that he ever performed any individual act of 
heroism, unless an incident occurring May 5, 1864, might be so termed. 
On that morning, George Stevens, Evans, and Jack were filling can- 
teens, when Stevens said, "I hope neither one of us will get hurt in 
this campaign, so that we may go home together." Before the day 
ended Stevens was shot in the right breast, Evans through the throat — 
dying three days later, and Jack was a prisoner and kept ten months 
at Andersonville and Florence. He carried Evans ofT the field and 
then took his place once more in the line of battle. 




(Chap. XIX. Battalion Organized. Sept. 35, 1864] 

the war, and wished them all a "happy and joyous reception," 
when they reached the City of Albany and their own homes. 
He assured them they would never be forgotten and that the 
Forty-Fourth Battalion would do their best to maintain the 
splendid record of the regiment. Then, while the Battalion 
stood at "Present Arms," the regiment faced to the right, and 
began their march to City Point, where they were to embark 
for the North. 

Preparations were immediately commenced to place the 
Battalion in serviceable condition for the future, ist Lieut. O. 
L. Munger was appointed Adjutant and ist Lieut. Theodore 
Hoes, Quartermaster. 

The four companies were given their proper position in 
camp and line and the recruits who had joined the regiment on 
September 17th were armed and equipped as far as possible. 

A new camp was laid out September 25th, which was the 
Sabbath Day, and arms and clothing were inspected. The re- 
cruits had not received much instruction as to their duties as 
soldiers, and during the few days the Battalion remained in this 
camp, some instruction was given as to the more important 
duties, such as alignments, marching, guard and picket duty 
and the manual of arms, particularly as to loading and firing. 

On September 30th the Battalion began marching towards 
the left of the army at 7 o'clock in the morning. For a few 
miles the march was through the woods. About 11 A. M, an 
open field was reached, where one of the enemy's forts and a 
long line of entrenchments could be seen, about half a mile in 
advance. Here the Battalion halted, formed in line of bat- 
tle, and the men were ordered to lie down to protect them from 
observation and shelling from the guns in the fort. The officers 
present knew that there was serious business ahead and in case 
anything should happen to them, each took the address of the 
relatives of the other three, and promised to inform them. 

There was a slight descent in the field in front of the Forty- 
Fourth to a ravine where the grounds rose again to the fort, 
which was on an elevation directly in our front. The i6th 
Mich, and the 83d Penn. were on our right and the ii8th Penn. 
and the 20th Me. on our left at short intervals. 

Soon after 12 o'clock, the order came from Brigade Head- 
quarters to advance, and the order was given to the Forty- 


[Chap. XIX. Battle of Poplar Spring Church. Sept. 30, 1864] 

Fourth "Rise up," "Forward" "Double-quick," "March," and 
soon after "Charge." The enemy had been firing spherical case 
shells, which were aimed high and passed over our heads ex- 
ploding in the rear. Then they fired a few rounds of solid 
shot. A few seconds after, as the Battalion ascended the in- 
cline to the fort, they used canister until the abatis was reached, 
when they ceased firing. A few men were seen through the 
smoke above the parapet who did not fire and were probably 
cannoneers. Capt. Wood went through the abatis and came to 
a ditch about ten feet deep and fourteen feet wide. As there 
was no way of crossing the ditch, he ran to the right of the 
fort and along the entrenchments connecting with it. He then 
came to the body of Col. Norval E. Welch of the i6th Mich., 
who had just been killed, lying in the ditch outside of the works. 
He then went over the entrenchment, joining some of the men 
of the i6th Mich, and 83d Penn. in the rear of the fort, just as 
the commanding officer surrendered to Capt. C. P. Rogers of 
the 83d Penn. The enemy had taken one gun out of the fort 
and were hauling it away with ropes about 500 yards distant. 
The Forty-Fourth did not go through the abatis, but moved to 
the right until they came to a part of the line where none had 
been placed. 

The lines were now reorganized in the entrenchments which 
had been captured. Lieut. Bennett and several men who had 
been wounded in the charge, were removed from the field and 
cared for. About this time General Griffin rode along the line 
and was received with hearty cheers. 

A little later the Forty-Fourth was detached from the bri- 
gade and moved to a fort about three-quarters of a mile to the 
right, which had been taken by General Ayers' Division, where 
they found the 83d Penn. and the i6th Mich, already posted, 
and this fort they were ordered to hold at all hazards as an at- 
tempt to recapture it was expected. They remained here until 
late in the afternoon when they were ordered to rejoin the 
brigade on the double-quick. They formed line of battle in an 
open field near some woods about 200 yards beyond the re- 
doubt which had been taken at noon. 

The line of battle was scarcely formed and the men ordered 
to lie down, when a portion of the 9th Corps, which had ad- 


[Chap. XIX. Poplar Spring Church. Sept. 30, 1864] 

vanced through the woods to the enemy's second line of en- 
trenchments, finding themselves outflanked, were obliged to 
fall back rather hurriedly through our lines. They were vig- 
orously pursued. The Forty-Fourth was cautioned not to fire 
until all of our troops had passed through our line, as it was 
now growing dark. They were closely followed by the enemy, 
who came on with their old familiar yell, and were received by 
a heavy fire which lasted for about half an hour, when they 
were driven back and all was still. 

A few of the enemy's dead were found in the woods close to 
our line, and these with one of our own men who was killed, 
were buried and the wounded removed. 

It was now quite dark and the Battalion was ordered back 
to the line of entrenchments which had been taken earlier in 
the day and there spent the night. 

The loss in the Forty-Fourth Battalion was, one man killed, 
one officer, Lieut. Bennett, and twenty-one men wounded, and 
four men missing, making a total of twenty-seven. The loss 
in the 3d Brigade, which was commanded by Col. James Gwyn 
of the ii8th Penn., and which at this time consisted of the 
20th Me., the i8th Mass., the ist and i6th Mich., the Forty- 
Fourth N. Y., the 83d and ii8th Penn. Vols., was five officers 
and twenty-seven men killed ; thirteen officers and one hundred 
and ninety men wounded, and twenty-one men missing, mak- 
ing a total of 256. The total loss in the 5th Corps was six hun- 
dred and twenty-six. 

The fort or redoubt in front of the 3d Brigade and capt- 
ured by it, was called Fort McRae, and contained two guns, one 
of which was captured with the commanding officer and about 
fifty men. 

General Warren, in a dispatch to General Humphreys at 
2 :20 P. M., September 30th, wrote : 

"The charge by Gen. Griffin is one of the boldest I ever saw. His 
line passed fully 600 yards over a clear field, defended by infantry against 
a parapet flanked by an enclosed redoubt." 

And Col. Fred T. Locke, in a dispatch to General S. Wil- 
liams at 6 P. M., wrote : 

"We have carried the enemy's works on the Squirrel Level Road, 
captured i gun, 7 officers and 52 men." 


(Chap. XIX. Battalion Merged with 140th and 146th N. Y. V. Oct. 11, 1864] 

This engagement took place in the vicinity of Poplar Grove 
or Poplar Spring Church, Peeble's or Pegram's farm, and is 
called by these different names in the dispatches. 

This movement towards Richmond on the left was made in 
connection with operations on the North side of the James 
River under General E. O. C. Ord commanding the i8th, and 
General D, B. Birney commanding the loth Corps. Both move- 
ments were very successful and many guns and prisoners were 

On October ist the entrenchments in our front were re- 
versed so that they could be better defended against the enemy. 
On October 2d the Battalion advanced to the position held on 
the evening of September 30th and threw up another line of 
entrenchments. Here it was exposed to some lively shelling. 

On October 3d, Lieut. O. L. Munger, who was very anx- 
ious to return to his home to attend to some business affairs, 
at his own request was mustered out of the service and after 
bidding "Good-bye" to his friends, started for his home at 
Penn Yan, N. Y. He had been a brave and capable officer and 
his loss was felt in the Battalion. 

On October 6th Capt. B. R. Wood, Jr., was ordered to re- 
port with the Forty-Fourth Battalion to General Frederick 
Winthrop, commanding the ist Brigade, 2d Division of the 
5th Corps, which was in line a few miles to the left. The 
following day Returns of Ordnance and Camp and Garrison 
Equipage were made out and sent to Washington and work was 
commenced on the transfer rolls of the Forty-Fourth Battalion 
to the 140th and 146th Regiments N. Y. Vols. 

On October 8th Genera] Winthrop's Brigade moved for- 
ward to make a reconnoissance and Capt. Wood was invited to 
accompany the General. The pickets of the enemy were driven 
in without bringing on an engagement, after which the troops 
returned to camp. The transfer of the enlisted men of the 
Forty-Fourth Battalion was completed in accordance with the 
following order : 

"Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, 

October 11, 1864. 
Special Orders No. 275. (Extract.) 

II. By authority of the War Department, the enlisted men of the 
44th N. Y. Vols, remaining in service after the discharge of the organi- 
zation, will be disposed of as follows: 


Chap. SIX. Final Orders. Oct. 13, 1864] 

One hundred and eighty-three (183) enlisted men will be trans- 
ferred to the 146th N. Y. Vols, and two hundred and sixty-six (266) 
enlisted men to the 140th New York Vols, and the men will be appor- 
tioned to Companies in such manner as to give each Company its proper 
complement of officers as allowed by law. 

The following named officers of the 44th New York Vols, rendered 
supernumerary by the consolidation herein ordered, will be promptly 
mustered out : 

Capt. B. R. Wood, Jr., Capt. A. N. Husted, 

Capt. Bennett Munger, ist Lieut. Edward Bennett, 

1st Lieut. Theodore Hoes. 

The Commissary of Musters 5th Army Corps is charged with the 
execution of this order. 

As soon as the consolidation is completed a special return of the 
140th and 146th Regts. New York Vols, will be forwarded to these 
Head Qrs. for transmittal to the Adjutant General of the Army. 
By command of Maj. Gen. Meade. 

S. Williams, 
Asst. Adjt. Gen. 

Headquarters 2nd Div. 5th Corps, 

October 12, 1864. 

C. E. LaMotte, 

Lieut. Col. A. A. A. Gen. 

Headquarters ist Brig. 2nd Div. sth Corps. 

October 13, 1864. 

William J. Broatch, 

2d Lieut. loth U. S. Infantry and A. A. A. Gen. 

Capt. Bennett Munger and ist Lieut, Theodore Hoes were 
mustered out of the service with the regiment at Albany, N. Y., 
October 11, 1864. Captains A. N. Husted and B. R. Wood, 
Jr., were mustered out by Capt. Wm. F. Gentry at the head- 
quarters of the 5th Corps, October 13, 1864, the former by 
reason of the consolidation, the latter by expiration of term of 
service. As ist Lieut. Edward Bennett, who was then in the 
hospital wounded, desired to remain in the service, he was 
transferred to the 146th N. Y. Vols, and mustered out with that 
regiment July 16, 1865. He had reenlisted as a veteran on De- 
cember 28, 1863, and evidently meant to keep his pledge to the 

The officers of the Forty-Fourth were treated with much 
courtesy by General Frederick Winthrop and the members of 


(Cbap. XIX. Farewell to Battalion. Oct. 14, 1864] 

his staff, and at midnight of their last night in camp were hon- 
ored by a serenade of charming music by the brigade band. 

On the morning of October 14, 1864, they bade "Farewell" 
to their kind friends and comrades of the Army of the Potomac, 
and proceeded to Washington, where, after remaining a few 
days to settle their accounts with the Government and obtaining 
letters from the Second and Third Auditors of the Treasury 
Department that their accounts had been received, examined, 
found correct and closed, they returned to their homes in Al- 
bany, N. Y. 




On the 23d day of September, 1864, an order was received 
by Lieut. Col. Conner, commanding, to turn over all surplus 
ordinance and ordinance stores to officers designated to receive 
them, and proceed with the regiment to Albany to be mustered 
out. The details of what took place immediately preceding the 
departure of the regiment are so faithfully and well told in the 
previous chapter by Captain B. R. Wood, that it is unnecessary 
to repeat them here. Suffice it to say that when the hour ar- 
rived to make the start, those who were to remain were formed 
in a line under command of Captain B. R. Wood, and those 
who were to leave were formed in another line facing them 
under command of Lieut. Col. Conner. It was an occasion of 
many vivid emotions. Reflection and anticipations alternately 
filled the mind. The lines of the poet not inaptly describe a 
feature of the occasion. 

"My very chains and I grew friends, 
So much a long communion tends 
To make us what we are, even I 
Regained my freedom with a sigh." 

In any event to those about to leave it was a sad and joyous 
occasion. It was sad to leave the service while waning rebellion 
was defiant in the field; sad to part with true and tried com- 
rades with whom the touch of elbows had been so often taken 
when marching to battle ; sad to terminate the companionship 
which had been cemented by the varied vicissitudes of mili- 
tary life. It was joyous to contemplate that the compact of 
enlistment for three years had been fulfilled ; joyous to feel that 
the discomforts of camp, the weariness of campaigns, the haz- 
ards of battle, were all experiences not again to recur; joyous 
that a return was to be made to the comforts of home, the free- 
dom of civil life, and the companionship of family friends. 
The last look was taken, the farewells were spoken, the mili- 


(Chap. XX. En Route Home. Sept. 35, 1864] 

tary compliments were exchanged, the faces of those whose 
terms had expired were turned homeward, and the regiment 
took up its march to City Point. It was cheered and congratu- 
lated by other troops while on its way. At City Point its one 
hundred and seventy members marched aboard a steamer for 
transportation to Washington. Glad cheers were given by 
soldiers and spectators on the wharf and on the bank which 
were lustily responded to by those on board. As the boat swung 
out into the stream and headed homeward, many joyful voices 
joined in singing, "Out on the Ocean all boundless we ride. 
We're homeward bound, homeward bound." 

The occasion added charm to the song, but its strains were 
noticeable for quantity rather than quality. Washington was 
reached without accident. From that point the experiences of 
three years ago were reversed. The start from Washington 
was made in cars of ancient origin and limited accommodations. 
As the distance from the National Capital increased, the ac- 
commodations also increased. It is not recalled, however, that 
anyone failed to proceed homeward on account of the limited 
accommodations. The army is well calculated to teach patience, 
forbearance and a disposition to accept the situation. Bal- 
timore, Philadelphia and New York were in turn reached and 
passed. The experiences of going to the front three years be- 
fore were vividly recalled. The reception in Baltimore was 
more passive and subdued. Philadelphia had not tired in pa- 
triotic endeavor. New York had eliminated the draft riots and 
Horace Greeley had ceased to urge "Let the wayward sisters go 
in peace." The crumbling rebellion was doomed, its northern 
sympathizers were sullenly silent and the loyal patriotic masses 
were buoyant with hope that the restored Union would soon 
be an accomplished fact. It was a matter of thrilling satisfac- 
tion to set foot on the soil of the grand old Empire State after 
such a prolonged absence. The greetings of the people and 
press were most generous and hearty. On the other hand the 
legions of Caesar were not more elated in returning in triumph 
to Imperial Rome, than were the members of the regiment on 
returning to the capital on the banks of the historic Hudson. 

The Albany Morning Express of Tuesday, September 27, 
1864, states under the title of "Reception to the Forty- Fourth 
(Ellsworth's) Regiment," as follows: 


The record of Captain Kimberly in the 44th N. Y. V. I. will be 
found full}- set forth in the Roster. Immediately after the mustering 
out of this regimen: at Albany in Octolier. 1864, he entered the service 
as Captain of Co. F in the i8th New York Cavalry and served with that 
organization in Louisiana and Texas until the close of the war. Soon 
after this he removed to the state of Colorado and was there elected 
to, and served a term in the legislature of that state. He was in the 
cattle business from 1874 to 1907 and during that time was made 
Receiver of Public ]\Ioney in the U. S. Land Office in Denver. Colo, 
in 1896 and served for over eight years in that positinn. 

THE ^^^ 

PUBLIC Li^. . 


|__2^EN£OUNDAftONS | 

*.; o 



3 o 


(Chap. XX. Albany Common Council. Sept. a7i 1864] 

"The meeting of the friends of the 44th Regiment and of members 
thereof, was held at Col. McCardel's last evening to consult together as 
to the reception of the regiment. Hon. George H. Thatcher presided, 
and Mr. J. C. Cuyler acted as Secretary. 

A letter was read from one of the members in which it was stated 
that the regiment would probably reach here in the middle of the week. 
A committee consisting of the Chairman, Secretary, Messrs. William 
Barnes, Alex. McRoberts, Hon. George Woolford, Perry Ewing, Wil- 
liam H. Greene, Paul Cushman, William A. Rice, Tennis G. Vischer, 
Lieut. James McMillan, David Zeh, David Weaver, Archibald McClure 
and John P. Rogers was appointed to make the necessary arrangements 
for receiving the regiment. 

The ex-members of the regiment are requested to meet at Col. 
McCardel's this evening at seven and one-half o'clock to make arrange- 
ments for the reception." 

On Wednesday, September 28th, the same paper published 
the following: 

"Reception of the Forty-Fourth Regiment. 

"There was a special meeting of the Common Council last evening 
to make arrangements for the reception of the 44th Regiment. The 
Mayor announced the object of the meeting and stated that he deemed 
it highly proper that the city authorities should take the necessary steps 
to give them on behalf of the City a hearty welcome. As to when the 
regiment will arrive, it was stated that it arrived in New York yesterday, 
but could not leave for Albany during the day. It may possibly arrive 
to-day or this evening. 

Messrs. Archibald McClure, Paul Cushman, and J. C. Cuyler were 
appointed a committee to co-operate with the Common Council. Mr. 
Cuyler stated that Major General Robinson had been waited on by them 
and at their request, said he would order out from the Reserve Corps 
at the barracks an escort to consist of a regiment of infantry and a full 

Aid. Judson said it would undoubtedly be proper on the occasion 
of the return of these war-worn veterans — the remnant of as gallant a 
regiment as ever left the State of New York— for the city to give them 
a reception that would evince the high estimation in which their services 
are held by all our citizens. He therefore moved the appointment of a 
committee of five to co-operate with the citizens committee to make the 
necessary arrangements on the part of the common council. 


The Mayor appointed Aldermen Judson, Tracy, Amsdell, Mclntyre, 
and Bancroft. The meeting then adjourned. 

The committee held a meeting subsequent to the adjournment of the 


[Chap. XX. 44th Arrives in Albany. Sept. 29, 1864] 

Board, when it was resolved to give the regiment a dinner on its arrival, 
and to extend to them a hearty welcome to the city. Captain Parr will 
fire a National salute on their arrival, and the troops from the barracks 
will parade. Schreiber's Band will play for the gallant old 44th. The 
committee will meet at the City Hall at ten o'clock this morning to per- 
fect the arrangements." 

Hon. George H. Thatcher, Mayor, other city officials and 
many prominent citizens spared no pains in making prepara- 
tions for the welcome home. Mayor Thatcher was President of 
the original Ellsworth Committee that conceived and elaborated 
the plan to organize the regiment. He followed its career in 
the field with paternal interest, and now stood prominent at the 
gates of the city to welcome it back. 

All of the Albany city papers were profuse and hearty in 
compliments in reference to the regiment on its arrival. The 
following taken from the Morning Express under date of Sep- 
tember 30th, is fairly indicative of the others. 

"The Forty-Fourth Regiment, N. Y. S. V. reached this city between 
four and five o'clock yesterday afternoon. It was expected that they 
would arrive at half-past two o'clock but the train was delayed. The 
Regiment was met at East Albany by the Common Council and Citizens 
Committees, and a detachment of ex-members of the regiment under 
command of Captain McRoberts, accompanied by Shreiber's band, the 
members of which volunteered their services. As soon as the train 
arrived Captain Parr fired a National salute which notified the people 
that the Ellsworths were really coming. And they responded in their 
strength, as thousands congregated on the different streets through 
which the procession was to pass to give the boys a hearty welcome. 
Major General Robinson in command of the troops at the barracks, 
having been requested to detail an infantry regiment and the battery 
stationed there, promptly acceded to the request of the Citizens Com- 
mittee and precisely at half past two o'clock the 22d regiment Veteran 
Reserves, and the i6th Mass. battery reported to the Marshal. Lieut. 
Col. Rutherford was in command of these troops. 

"The Forty-Fourth on disembarking marched through the railroad 
yard and Dean Street and so on to Broadway, where the veteran troops 
were drawn up in line to receive them. The Ellsworthsi passed the line 
and halted, and the escort then passed them, and the line of march was 
taken up, the members of the Common Council and Citizens Committee 
preceding the 44th. The route of the procession was through Broadway 
to Qinton Avenue, up Clinton Avenue to Pearl, down Pearl to Lydius, 
down Lydius to Broadway, through Broadway to State, up State to 
Washington Avenue, through Washington Avenue to Dove, across Dove 
to State, and down State to the Capitol, where the regiment was for- 
mally received by Governor Seymour. 


[Chap. XX. Gov. Seymour Welcomes the Regiment. Sept. 29, 1864] 

"Col. Conner and the officers of the regiment visited the Executive 
Chamber and were personally introduced to Governor S., after which 
he welcomed the regiment in a brief but patriotic speech. He alluded 
to their valuable and dangerous services in the cause of their country, 
and in behalf of the citizens of New York, whom they represented, 
extended to them a cordial welcome and hearty thanks. 

"Col. Conner responded in a few and exceedingly happy remarks. 
He thanked the Governor for the kind welcome extended to his com- 
mand, and alluded in the most feeling manner to the losses sustained by 
the regiment in officers and men. We have seldom listened to a more 
unassuming and touching speech. Col. C. is not only a good fighting 
man but a good speech maker. 

"We should have stated that Hon. Erastus Coming and his lady 
were on the stoop of his residence as the regiment passed up State 
Street, and Col. C. very properly paid them the honor of a marching 
salute. The same marked attention was bestowed upon the widow of 
the lamented General Rice, who is stopping at the residence of Archi- 
bald McClure, Esq. 

"After the reception by the Governor, the regiment stacked arms in 
the Park and were then marched to Congress Hall where they partook 
of a dinner, provided for them by order of the Common Council Com- 

"It is scarcely necessary to state that the boys relished their rations 
and did most ample justice to the good things spread before them by 
'mine host' General Mitchell. 

"At the conclusion of the dinner the regiment proceeded to the 
City Hall where Col. Conner established his quarters. The Mayor di- 
rected the building to be thrown open and such of the members as were 
not so fortunate as to have friends in the city were comfortably accom- 
modated. Our city boys were permitted to return to their homes, where 
a hearty greeting, we are sure, awaited each and all of them. 

"The crowd of people at the ferry landing and on Broadway and in 
fact at every point along the line of march was immense; men, women 
and children crowded every avenue and on Broadway it was with no 
little difficulty that the regiment passed through. Everybody was glad 
to see and receive the war-worn heroes, and we venture the assertion, 
that a more spontaneous outburst of welcome has never been witnessed 
in our city. It was a fitting tribute to the gallant fellows who fought 
so bravely for the old flag and one which they appreciated. 

"The veterans of this regiment who are returning home number one 
hundred and seventy men and fourteen officers whose names are as fol- 
lows : Lieut. Col. F. Conner, Maj. E. B. Knox, Acting Adj. H. J. Botch- 
ford, Surgeon, M. W. Townsend, Quarter Master, F. R. Mundy, and 
Captains, C. Allen, W. N. Danks, E. A. Nash, B. K. Kimberly, and 
C. D. Grannis ; First Lieutenants, C. H. Zielman, R. H. McCormick, and 
Charles Kelley, and Second Lieut. J. V. TenBroeck. 

"Captains Allen and Danks left Albany in 1861 as captains of com- 
panies F and H respectively, and were the only original captains of the 


[Chap. XX. Regiment Mustered Out. Oct. ii, 1864] 

regiment to retain their original offices throughout the entire term of 

"The receptions extended by Governor Seymour, other State and 
city officials, and the great masses of the people were hearty, enthusiastic 
and highly appreciated. A feature of especial interest was the presence 
of Captain Alexander McRoberts and a goodly number of former mem- 
bers of the regiment, who had become disabled by wounds and other- 
wise, and who were obliged to leave the service before the expiration 
of their term. It was a reunion of uncommon interest." 

The work of preparing- "muster out" rolls was promptly be- 
gun. The rolls were not completed, however, until the nth 
day of October, on which date the regiment was finally mus- 
tered out of the service. The interval, after the arrival of the 
regiment and before the completion of the rolls, was spent in 
relaxation and in forming plans for the future. This planning 
partook something of the nature of "speculating in futures." 
No doubt there were many air castles built. The members had 
originally come together from the four comers of the State. 
Where now should they go and what could they do? The 
places which they left on entering the service or which they 
might have had were already filled. It was most natural that 
they should report to the people whose representatives they 
were. Happy they, who on such an occasion should receive 
the plaudit "well done." It seemed like a return from dream- 
land to recall the experiences and anticipations of that partic- 
ular period. At that time was emphasized the unappreciated 
luxury of being able to sleep in regular beds, eat at well 
spread tables, and go and come at will. The habits and re- 
straints of the past three years had in a measure become sec- 
ond nature. To overcome these, to find a place and engage in 
regular business, called into requisition new resolutions, new 
endeavors, and untried experiences. In a majority of cases 
the members were without capital, without experience in busi- 
ness, and in many instances wounded or disabled by present or 
mcipient diseases. In short they had been materially out dis- 
tanced in the race of life by contributing three years of haz- 
ardous service in early manhood for the preservation of the 

The "muster out" complete, the Forty-Fourth New York 
Volunteers, "Ellsworth Avengers" otherwise known as the 
People's Ellsworth Regiment ceased to exist. Its record 


[Cbap. XX. Reunions. 1871 and 1886] 

was finished. It had followed the fortunes of the grand Army 
of the Potomac in sunshine and in storm, in victory and in de- 
feat. It had taken part or been present on the field, prepared 
for action, in more than two scores of battles. It never failed 
in high endeavor or heroic achievement. It contributed liberally 
toward the perpetuity of the Union and its preservation for 
posterity. The farewells were spoken, the organization was 
dissolved into its original units, and the members severally 
turned their faces with hopefulness towards the future. 

Two reunions of the regiment have been held in Albany 
since the war, one August 8th, 1871, the other August 8th, 
1886, respectively ten and twenty-five years after the day 
fixed for members selected from the different towns and wards 
in the State to assemble at Albany. Both were occasions of un- 
common interest. The preparations and proceedings were am- 
ple and appropriate. The welcome and entertainment were 
hearty, generous and complimentary. It was made apparent 
that the people and press were constant in their appreciation 
of the regiment and its noble record. It is proposed to hold an- 
other reunion on the 8th day of August, 191 1, which will be 
the fiftieth anniversary of the day when the first detachment of 
the regiment entered the barracks. As the intervening years 
multiply, interest in such an event must increase. It is hoped 
that all surviving members will be "present or accounted for." 
The past gives assurances that the people of Albany will not 
fail to extend a cordial welcome. Let it be an occasion when 
old comrades will add a new chapter to their history. 

It may not be inappropriate in this place to refer to another 
matter of general interest. In 1893, thirty years after the bat- 
tle of Gettysburg, a monument was erected to commemorate 
the services of the regiment. The State of New York, mem- 
bers of the regiment and their friends supplied the funds. The 
monument is erected on the crest of Little Round Top, directly 
in rear of the line where the regiment fought on the 2d day 
of July, 1863. The design is superb. Its workmanship, ar- 
tistic and beautiful. Its granite wajls are massive and durable. 
The height of its tower corresponds in feet to the number of 
the regiment. Hanging upon the capacious inner walls are 
symmetrical bronze tablets on which are legibly inscribed the 
names of the members of the regiment. The site upon which it 


(Chap. XX. Dedication of Gettysburg Monument. July 2, 1864] 

stands is more valuable and durable than brass or marble. The 
Almighty erected it, the blood of heroes has sanctified it, and 
the dews of eternity shall water it. 

The regiment also has an invisible monument. It is durable 
as earth and reaches to heaven. On its ethereal superstructure, 
emblazoned by the glorious sunlight of national destiny, are the 
magic words, Liberty, Union, Valor. On its crowning dome is 
the word Immortality. 




To prepare a brief sketch of the life and military services of James 
Clay Rice, and keep it within the allotted space, but little remains to be 
done except to collect and compile from the abundant material at hand. 
We are indebted to his nephew, Col. William G. Rice, for the following 
data : "James Clay Rice was born in Worthington, Mass., in the year 
eighteen hundred twenty-eight. He was educated at Yale College, where 
he graduated in the class of 1854. During his college course he wrote 
an interesting history of Worthington, which he inscribed to the old 
people of the town. Upon leaving college he took charge of a seminary 
at Natchez, Miss., giving such spare moments as he had at command to 
the study of law, having decided to make that his profession. He re- 
turned to the North the following year, and entered the office of Theo- 
dore Sedgwick, Esq., of New York City. He was there devoting him- 
self to the practise of law when the first call for volunteers came. He 
soon joined the 39th Regiment N. Y. Vols, known as the Garibaldi 
Guards, was commissioned first Lieutenant and appointed Adjutant of 
the regiment. He was soon thereafter promoted to a captaincy and in 
that capacity was engaged in the first battle of Bull Run." 

In the early days of the 44.th N. Y. he was commissioned its Lieu- 
tenant Colonel by Gov. Morgan, and served as such during its formative 
period, after it went to the front, and during the Peninsular campaign. 
He was active and conspicuous in all the battles in which the regiment 
was engaged on the Peninsula, and commanded it in the important 
battle of Malvern Hill. He was promoted Colonel on the 4th day of 
July, 1862, for gallant and meritorious services during the Seven Days 
Fight. After his promotion he commanded the regiment in all its op- 
erations except the Antietam and Fredericksburg campaigns, until the 
fall of the gallant Vincent at the battle of Gettysburg, when he suc- 
ceeded to the command of the brigade. He commanded the brigade until 
the month of August when he received his commission as Brigadier 
General U. S. Vols, and was assigned to the command of a brigade in 
the First Corps. He continued in this new command until he was mor- 
tally wounded on the loth day of May, 1864. 

His untimely death and what took place immediately preceding it 
are well and graphically told by his personal Aide, Lieutenant Archibald 
McClure Bush. "After four days before the enemy in the Wilderness 
Battle, Va., the Second Brigade 4th Division sth Corps commanded by 
Brig. Genl. James Clay Rice, exhausted, and without proper rest or food, 
was again called into action to repulse the enemy near Spottsylvania 


(Chap. XXI. Death of Gen. Rice. May zo, 1864) 

C. H. on May loth at early dawn, without having time to breakfast. 
They were engaged until almost noon when they were about to be re- 
lieved. The relieving column was moving too far to the left, and Genl. 
Rice anxious to have his entire command relieved, sent Lieutenants 
Bush and Tambdin, his aides, to overtake them. After dispatching 
them Genl. Rice thought that by mounting the earth works he could 
reach the line by voice. After Lieut. Bush delivered the order he turned 
and saw the General fall, and at once joined those who were lifting him 
in a blanket, and assisted in bearing him to the rear. A sharp shooter 
had hit him in the left thigh, the ball furrowing the leg to the knee, 
severing the femoral artery. It was sometime before a tourniquet could 
be applied, so that there was great exhaustion and shock from loss of 
blood before the hospital was reached. Primary amputation, under an 
anesthetic, was quickly performed, Lieut. Bush, at the General's request 
that he should not leave him, holding his hand. As he was being car- 
ried to the hospital, Genl. Meade dismounted on learning the name of 
the wounded officer, and taking his hand expressed his deep regret. 
General Rice said : "I am badly hurt. General, they must do all they 
can for me. I have tried to do my duty but am ready to die for my 
country." The reply of his commander was : "Would that all had done 
it as faithfully and were as well prepared to die." 

Upon regaining consciousness after the amputation, he asked if he 
was dying, and when told he was, said : "Lieutenant Bush, tell Jose- 
phine (his wife) I have been faithful to my God, faithful to my coun- 
try, and faithful to my wife." After a few moments he added : "No one 
can die too young if loving Christ he dies for his country." After a short 
interval he manifested great restlessness and said : "Turn me over." 
And when asked by his Aide which way, he replied, his voice growing 
strong for the efifort, "Toward the enemy, let me die with my face to 
the foe." Then with an appealing look, he said : "Pray for me, Lieuten- 
ant." And as the young Aide whispered a prayer in his ear, kneeling at 
his side, the General won his final victory, fulfilling his oft-repeated 
promise that "he loved his country and would willingly die for her if 
called to do so." 

Lieutenant Bush was detailed to convey the remains to where the 
funerals, private and military, in New York and Albany, took place. 

A funeral of General Rice was held in Madison Square Presbyte- 
rian Church, New York City. When the services were announced to 
begin the church was crowded to its utmost capacity, and many people 
came who were unable to gain admittance. The bearers consisted of Maj. 
Genl. Dix and other prominent military officers and citizens. The Rev. 
Dr. William Adams, pastor of the church, delivered an eloquent and 
patriotic discourse in the course of which he said : "The scene needs 
no mortal voice for its interpretation. All common speech would but 
disturb as by an impertinence the solemn and sublime sympathies of the 
hour. We bend over the bier of a true, brave and Christian soldier. 
He died in the discharge of his duty in the front of battle. Six years 


Edward A. Kinney was born Nov. 14, 1841. Enlisted in 44th N. Y. 
Vol. Inf. Sept. 30, 1861. Was discharged March 7, 1863 to accept 
promotion. Was commissioned 2d Lieut, in the 99th N. Y. Vol. Inf., 
was mustered in as 2d Lieut, at Suffolk, Va., May i, 1863 and on May 
2, 1864 was mustered in as ist Lieut, of the same regiment at New- 
bern. N. C. On April 25, 1865. at Raleigh, N. C, was discharged by 
reason of end of war. 

While a member of the 44th N. Y., he participated in all of the en- 
gagements of the regiment, except Second Bull Run. At the time of 
his discharge he was Corporal, and was twice "jumped?' for promotion 
to Sergeant by reason of favoritism of Col. Rice; (I think Capt Bourne 
can substantiate this). 

Capt. Bourne was as square a man as there was in the regiment 
regardless of a thrashing he once gave Kinney in a personal encounter 
while Bourne was ist Sergt. While a member of the 99th N. Y. he 
participated in all of its engagements which were few, as the regiment 
was mostly in garrison duty. 





(Chap. XXI. Gov. Seymotu's Annonncement. May 14, 1864] 

ago this coming June he stood in this very place and made confession of 
the holy name of Christ. Here he partook of his first communion. 
Eighteen months ago he stood before this altar and was married to her 
whose early widowhood was suffused by no ordinary measure of grat- 
itude and pride — the gold and crimson on the edge of the thunder cloud. 
Today in this very spot, which I believe of all others he would have 
chosen we lay his remains on their way to an honored grave. The 
cause itself is eloquent, patriotism is eloquent, religion is eloquent, death 
is eloquent. Who of us would not rather today be sleeping within that 
coffin, with the beautiful emblem of our nationality over us, than to be 
walking the earth, having upon his conscience the tremendous guilt of 
having inaugurated this wicked rebellion against the best government 
on which the sun of heaven ever shone." 

As a mark of respect Gov. Seymour issued the following order : 

"General Headquarters, State of New York. 

Albany, May 14th, 1864. 
"General Order No. — . 

I announce with pain the loss of General James C. Rice. 
Young, brave, ardent, enthusiastic, he engaged in the support of the 
flag of his country and in the suppression of the rebellion against the 
constitutional authority, as a duty demanding the devotion of body and 
soul and the willing sacrifice of life. 

Ever faithful to his trust, he was the gallant leader of his command, 
and in the midst of a brilliant career, he fell upon the battle-field, leaving 
to his companions in arms, to his friends and his country, a character of 
unsullied christian patriotism. 

As a mark of respect to his memory the national flag will be dis- 
played at half staff on the Capitol and upon all the arsenals of the State 
on Monday the i6th inst. 

Horatio Seymour, 
Governor and Commander in Chief." 
"J. I. Johnson, A. A. A. G." 

After the funeral in New York his remains were borne to Albany. 
They were met at the station by a military escort and conveyed to the 
residence of his brother, William A. Rice, where a private funeral was 
held which was attended by a large number of friends, together with 
many distinguished citizens. The services were conducted by Rev. Dr. 
Ray Palmer, who delivered an eloquent and appropriate address. 

His body was then taken to the Capitol where it lay in state until 
five o'clock in the afternoon, when a procession was formed and it was 
conveyed to the beautiful cemetery, escorted by the 25th regiment, Col. 
Church commanding, Governor Seymour and his staff in uniform, mem- 
bers of the city government, friends of the deceased and a large con- 
course of people. At the cemetery Dr. Palmer delivered another fitting 
and touching address, closing with the following inspiring stanzas written 
by himself: 


(Chap. XXI. Tributes to Gen. Rice. May 14, 1864] 

Rest, soldier, rest, thy weary task is done, 
Thy God — thy country — thou hast served them well: 

Thine is true glory, glory bravely won; 
On lips of men unborn thy name shall dwell. 

Rest, Patriot-Christian, thou hast early died. 

But days are measured best by noble deeds ; 
Brief though thy course, thy name thou hast allied 

To those of whom the world, admiring, reads. 

Rest, manly form. Eternal love shall keep 
Thy still repose till breaks the final dawn. 

Our Martyr stays not here — He knows no sleep 
On death's dark shadows burst a cloudless morn. 

Live ! Live on Fame's bright scroll, heroic friend. 

Thy memory now we to her record give, 
To earth, thy dust, our thoughts to Heaven ascend 

Where with the mortals thou dost live. 

As the sun was going down a volley was fired over his grave, his 
escort departed, and Brigadier General James Clay Rice, "was left alone 
in his glory." 

Brigadier General Rice was a noble type of the volunteer soldier. 
Before the war he had had no military training. While the country 
was at peace he was not attracted by the glamour of military pageantry. 
The cause of his country rather than the allurements of a military 
career was the incentive that induced him to lay aside his chosen pro- 
fession and follow the flag. Imbued by a lofty patriotism he responded 
to the first call to arms and never faltered in the discharge of his whole 
duty. Nurtured in the sunlight of Christian environments, he was 
prompt to resist with his whole power the encroachments of armed 
legions assailing the life of the Republic. 

The cause of his country, under the guidance of an all wise Provi- 
dence, was the incentive, the grand Forty-Fourth New York Volun- 
teers furnished the opportunity, and his own undaunted soul added 
the crowning glory. This sketch would be incomplete without adding 
the beautiful stanzas written by his admiring friend J. G. Holland. 

To the Memory of my Friend Brigadier General James C. Rice. 

Moaning upon the bloody plain, 
The young and gallant soldier lay. 
And from his failing heart and brain. 
The life was ebbing swift away. 

The restlessness of death was there, 
The weariness that longed for rest, 
The beaded brow, the matted hair. 
The hurried pulse, the heaving breast. 


[Chap. XXI. Tribute to Gen. Rice. May 14, 1864] 

"Turn me" he said, "that I may die 
Face to the foe," and ready hands 
And loyal hearts were waiting by 
To execute his last commands. 

Facing the enemy he died, 

A hero in his latest breath, 

And now with mingled love and pride, 

I weep and boast his glorious death. 

No braver words than these, my friend. 
Have ever sealed a soldier's tongue. 
No nobler words has history penned, 
No finer words hath poet sung. 

The oak that breaks beneath the blast, 
Or falls before the woodman's strokes, 
Spreads by its fall the ripened mast 
That holds in germ a thousand oaks. 

And in the words thy death hath strewn, 
More than thy fallen life survives. 
For o'er the nation they are sown, 
Seeds for a thousand noble lives. 




August 8th — Day set for assembling in Albany; time spent in organ- 

October i8th — A practice march in Albany; 21st, regiment left bar- 
racks to go to the front ; 22nd, reached New York by boat ; 24th, 
arrived in and left Philadelphia; 2Sth, reached Washington, 
marched past the White House and late in the afternoon marched 
to Kalorama Heights; 28th, review by Gen. McCIellan and 
march to Halls Hill. Spent winter of 1861-2 at Halls Hill. 


March loth — Left winter quarters, passed through Fairfax and marched 
to Centreville; nth, marched back to Fairfax; isth, marched to 
Alexandria; 21st, marched to Boat Landing; 22nd, left Alex- 
andria by boats; 23d, arrived at Fortress Monroe; 24th, reached 
Hampton; 2Sth, marched to near New Market Bridge; 27th, 
reconnaissance to Big Bethel. 

April 4th — Advance of the army up the Peninsula; Howards Mills 
reached; sth, march resumed to near Yorktown. The Siege of 

May 4th — Marched into Yorktown. Garrisoned Yorktown; 19th, took 
transports for White House; 26th, arrived at a point near New 
Bridge; 27th, marched to and took part in battle of Hanover 
C. H. ; 29th, returned to camp at Gaines Mills ; 30th, marched 
to bank of Chickahominy ready to cross and attack the works 
of the enemy on the south side. In camp near Gaines Mills. 

June 26th — Marched to support of troops engaged at the battle of 
Mechanicsville ; 27th, marched back to Gaines Mills and took 
part in the battle at that place. Same evening retreated across 
the Chickahominy; 28th, went on picket, then marched to Savage 
Station; 29th, had an all night's march on a wrong road; 30th, 
marched to and was present at the engagements of Turkey 
Bridge and White Oak Swamp. 

July 1st — Engaged in the battle of Malvern Hill; 2nd, marched to 
Harrison's Landing. Remained in camp until Aug. 4th. 

August 4th — Crossed the James river after being shelled ; 9th, recrossed 
the river; 14th, fifth corps broke camp and moved about one- 
half mile; 15th, started at an early hour, crossed the Chicka- 
hominy and halted; i6th, marched to Williamsburg and halted; 


Born at Eastport. Main-, in 1S38. P)esidcs liis service in the 44th 
N. Y. V. I., as slinwn liy the Roster, liie did considerable service in 
both the regular arm}* and militia. 

He came to Chicago in 1855 and shortly after became an intimate 
friend of Col. Ellsworth and when the U. S. Zouave Cadets were or- 
ganized by him. he was made Sergeant of this famous company. He 
was an enthusiastic member and participated diligently in all its work. 
He accompanied this organization on its famous tour of the principal 
cities of the Union made in the year i860 when Col. Ellsworth or- 
ganized a regiment from the Volunteer Fire Department of Xew York 
City and tendered it to the (Government in response to President Lin- 
coln's call for 75.000 men. Major Knox was appointed Lieutenant and 
served with that regiment up to about the time the 44th was organized, 
having participated in the first battle of Bull Run. 

After the war he held rank in the regular army for some time. 
On his return to Chicago he served with the ist Regiment Illinois 
National Guard and was finally promoted to be its Colonel. 

He died in Chicago, April 9. 1800. 


(Chap. XXn. Itinerary. 1862] 

17th, marched to Yorktown and bivouacked on old camp ground; 
i8th, marched to Hampton; 19th, marched to Newport News 
and embarked; 20th, arrived at Acquia Creek and took cars 
to Falmouth ; 22nd, took up march up the Rappahannock ; 26th, 
Kellys Ford reached ; 27th, moved to Bealton Station ; 28th, 
marched to Warrenton Junction ; 29th, marched to Groveton ; 
30th, marched to the battle field, fought the battle of Second 
Bull Run and marched to Centreville. 

September 2nd — Marched to Halls Hill; 5th, marched to Alexandria 
Seminary; 9th, moved to Fort Corcoran; 12th, the Fifth Corps 
passed through Washington and took the road through Rock- 
ville to Frederick; 14th, reached the Monocacy two miles from 
Frederick; 15th, passed through Frederick and camped near 
Middletown; i6th, march resumed to Antietam battle field; 17th, 
took position on battle field to right of Antietam Bridge; i8th, 
our division crossed Antietam Creek and relieved the Ninth 
Corps ; 19th, moved to Shepherdstown Ferry ; 20th, started to 
cross the Potomac but were driven back. 

October 7th — Moved to Antietam, junction of Antietam Creek and 
the Potomac. New Companies C and E joined the regiment 
on the 14th and 23d; 30th, marched to near Harpers Ferry; 
31st, marched through Harpers Ferry and eight miles beyond. 

November 2nd — Marched upon Blue Ridge ; remained three days ; Sth, 
rejoined the brigade at Snickers Gap; 9th, daily marches brought 
the command to Warrenton; loth, General McClellan relieved of 
command of the army; 12th, General Porter leaves the army; 
remained in camp five days; 17th, broke camp and proceeded 
by daily marches on Fredericksburg campaign ; 26th, reached 
Stonemans Switch ; remained in camp. 

December nth — Fifth Corps moved to heights opposite Fredericks- 
burg; I2th, marched nearer the city; 13th, advanced to the as- 
sault in the battle of Fredericksburg; 14th, in line on the battle 
field and returned to city after dark; 15th, returned again to the 
front; i6th, acted as rear guard of the army and returned to 
Stonemans Switch; remained in camp; 30th, reconnaissance to 
Richards Ford. 


January ist — Returned to camp from Richards Ford; Sth, Fifth Corps 
reviewed ; i6th, new flag presented ; 20th, marched about two miles ; 
22nd, marched about two miles more ; it was the Mud March. 
24th, returned to camp; 25th, Gen. Burnside relieved of com- 
mand of the army at his own request and Gen. Hooker ap- 
pointed. In camp awaiting events. 

April 27th — ^Left camp and marched to Hartwood Church; 28th, 
marched to a point near Kellys Ford; 29th, crossed Rappahan- 
nock at Kellys Ford and forded Rapidan at Elys Ford; 30th, 
advanced to Chancellorsville. 


[Chap. XXn. Itinerary. 1863] 

May 1st — Fifth Corps moved down the river to near Banks Ford and 
was recalled. The battle of Chancellorsville ; 2nd, took new 
position nearer U. S. Ford; 3d, Fifth Corps took new position 
right centre of general line; remained in position 4th and 5th; 
6th, crossed river at U. S. Ford ; acted as rear guard ; returned 
to Stonemans Switch ; in camp ; 20th, moved camp about two 
miles ; 23d, marched to Banks Ford. 

June 4th — Marched to Grove Church; 5th, marched to Ellis Ford; 
gth, marched to Kempers Ford; 13th, marched to Morrisville; 
14th, marched to Catlett Station; 15th, marched to Manassas 
Junction; 17th, marched to Gum Springs; 19th, marched to 
Aldie; 21st, battle of Aldie; 22nd, after pursuing the enemy 
returned to Aldie ; 26th, marched to Poolsville, Md. ; 27th, 
marched to near Frederick City. Gen. Hooker resigned com- 
mand. Gen. Meade appointed; 29th, marched through Fred- 
erick City and bivouacked between Liberty and Johnsville ; 30th, 
marched to Union Mills. 

July 1st — Marched to Hanover, thence to within three or four miles of 
Gettysburg; 2nd, marched to Gettysburg. The battle of Gettys- 
burg; 3d, brigade moved from Little Round Top to left center; 
4th, remained in same position ; no fighting ; 5th, reconnaissance ; 
returned and marched to Marsh Creek; 6th, moved one-half 
mile; 7th, marched to about five miles from Frederick City; 
8th, marched to Middletown ; 9th, marched to near Boonsboro ; 
loth, marched to and engaged at Jones Crossroads; nth, the 
whole army advanced in line; 12th, the army advanced as yes- 
terday; remained in position but did not attack; isth, marched 
to near Burketsville ; i6th, marched to near Berlin; 17th, crossed 
the Potomac and marched to Lovettsville ; 20th, daily marches 
made and Upperville reached ; 23rd, marched to Manassas Gap. 
In reserve to Third Corps; 24th, relieved Third Corps on front 
line; 25th, engagement of Wapping Heights. Moved back two 
miles ; 27th, by daily marches reached point three miles south 
of Warrenton ; remained several days. 

August 4th — Marched to Bealton. 

September loth — Marched to near Culpepper. 

October loth — Reconnaissance to the Rapidan; nth, marched to rear; 
crossed Rappahannock at Beverly Ford; 12th, recrossed river 
and advanced in line; 13th, marched to rear again, crossed river 
and halted at Catlett Station; 14th, again marched to rear and 
bivouacked at Bull Run Creek; 15th, again marched to rear and 
halted at Fairfax; i6th, advanced to near Centreville; i8th, 
marched back to Fairfax, thence to Hunters Mills; 19th, ad- 
vanced over Bull Run battle field and halted near Groveton; 
20th, marched to New Baltimore; 23rd, marched to near War- 
renton; 24th, moved five miles and halted; 25th, moved again; 
30th, moved to near Warrenton Junction ; remained here. 


[Chap. XXn. Itinerary. 1863] 

November 7th — Marched to and fought battle of Rappahannock Sta- 
tion; 8th, marched to Kellys Ford, crossed and marched two 
miles; 9th, recrossed river and moved back about one mile; loth, 
moved back into woods; remained here; 19th, crossed Kellys 
Ford and marched two miles beyond; remained here; 24th, 
marched two miles, rained and returned to same place; 26th, 
moved to front, crossed Rapidan and continued several miles; 
27th, marched to Coopers Church; 28th, marched to Robinsons 
Tavern ; battle of Mine Run ; in line awaiting order to attack. 

December 3d — Marched to rear and went into camp North of Rap- 
pahannock river; remained here. 


January 24th — Moved by train to Alexandria; remained here on duty 
guarding trains. 

April 29th — Moved by rail to Rappahannock Station, thence marched 
to Beverly Ford. 

May 1st — Marched to near Brandy Station; 3d, marched to near 
Culpepper C. H. ; started in night, made an all night march ; 
crossed Rapidan at Germanna Ford ; 4th, marched to Old Wilder- 
ness Tavern; 5th, battle of Wilderness; 7th, made an all night 
march to Laurel Hill ; battle fought there ; engaged in line of 
battle ; position changed several times ; 13th, night march to 
Spottsylvania ; in engagement here; 17th, new position taken far- 
ther to front; position not changed; 21st, withdrew from line 
moved to the left via Guiney Station ; continued march until 
after dark; 23d, North Anna reached and crossed at Jericho 
Ford; battle of North Anna; 24th, advanced to Noel Station; 
25th, Fifth Corps again advanced to proximity of Rebel line; 
26th, troops made a night march recrossing N. Anna river and 
halted at Mangohick; 28th, crossed Pamunkey at Hanovertown 
and halted about two miles therefrom; 29th, march resumed at 
early hour to Totopotomoy Creek; 30th, marched to Bethesda 
Church ; engagement fought. 

June 1st — Marched to Cold Harbor; battle fought; 7th, marched to 
Bottom Bridge; 13th, crossed the Chickahominy ; camped at 
Charles City C. H. ; 15th, camped near James River ; i6th, crossed 
James River at Wilcox Ferry and marched in direction of 

July 7th — Moved to the left 600 yards ; i8th, confederate works as- 
saulted ; 30th, Petersburg mine explosion. 

August i8th — Marched to and fought battle of Weldon Railroal ; en- 
gaged holding position., 

September 24th — Marched to City Point, thence by boat to Washington, 
thence by cars to Albany. 


Organized into four companies, A, B, C, E, by G. O. No. 36. Hd. Qrs. 
44th N. Y. Vols. Sep. 23, 1864. 


(Chap. XXTT. Itinerary. 1864] 

Sep. 30, 1864 — Marched at 7 A. M. through some woods to the left 
of the army to an open field at 11 A. M. near Poplar Grove 
Church, Peeble's farm, where enemy's fort and line of jntrench- 
ments could be seen; advanced with Third Brigade about noon 
and captured Fort McRae and line of intrenchments. 

Oct. 2 — Advanced a few hundred yards and made new line of in- 

Oct. 6 — Ordered to report to Gen. Frederick Winthrop commanding 
First brigade. Second division, Fifth Corps, in line of battle a 
few miles to the right. 

Oct. 8 — Gen. Winthrop's brigade moved forward to reconnoiter and 
after driving in the enemies pickets returned to camp. 

Oct. 11-12. — The 44th battalion was consolidated with the 140th and 
146th N. Y. Vols, in accordance with Special Orders No. 275. 
Extract 2. Hd. Qrs. Army of the Potomac. Oct. 11, 1864. 


The son of Lucius Calender Larrabee was born at Ticonderoga, N. Y., July 
29, 1837. He lived at this historic place with his father and sister, his mother 
having died when he was at the age of three years. When about eleven years 
old he removed with his sister's family to Albany. N. Y., where he remained 
for several years. At the age of fifteen years he took up his residence in Chicago 
with his brother, Mr. Charles R. Larrabee, an old and respected citizen of that 

He became a member of Colonel Ellsworth's United States Zouave Cadets 
soon after its oiganization in 1859 and accompanied it when it made its famous 
tour of the principal cities of the North in the year i860. 

His Civil War service commenced in x\pril. 1861, when he served as ist 
Lieutenant in the Chicago Zouave regiment. He was commissioned ist Lieu- 
tenant in the regiment organized by Colonel Ellsworth from the New York Vol 
unteer Fire Department, the nth N. Y. V. L, with which he took part in the 
First Battle of Bull Run and resigned therefrom to enlist in the 44th N. Y. V. I., 
in which regiment in October, 1861, he was commissioned Captain of Company B. 

Ho was wounded at the battle of Groveton, Va., August 30, 1862 and parti- 
cipated in all the campaigns and engagements of the regiment until the Battle of 
Gettysburg, where on July 2, 1863, he was killed. His remains were brought to 
Chicago and placed in Graceland Cemetery where they now repose. His funeral 
was from St. James Episcopal Church, of which parish he had long beeri an ac- 
tive member. His name, with others, is on the memorial tablet which was 
erected in the vestibule of this church, in honor of the young men who went from 
it to the war. 






[Abbreviations: — ^k., killed in action or died of wounds; w., wounded; 

c, captured.] 

Siege of Yorktown, Va. 
April 5 to May 4, 1862. 

Claghorn, James A. 




Guernsey, Delos W. 




Vischer, Harmon 




Walker, Hobart M. 




Hanover Court House 


May 27, 1862. 

Aikens, John 




Allen, William B. 




Anthony, Jay M. 




Babcock, Elisha 




Bace, Benjamin 




Baker, Edward 




Barnes. Addison 




Barrell, Charles L. 




Blair, Charles H. 




Brooks, Seward 




Burfitt, Charles E. 




Butler, John 




Cannady, Dennis 




Cary, William 




Chandler, Samuel W. 




Chapin, Edward P. 



Cole, William W. 




Conger, George D. 




Crook, Warren D. 




Dack, Garret 




Dailey, William J. 




Delehanty, James P. 




Densmore, R. H. 




Depuy, Thomas B. 




Dumas, Moses A. 




Dumass, Moses H. 




Dunham, Josiah 




Evans, Jonas 




Fellows, Henry 




Forman, Orlando J. 




Fox, Jacob 



Friar, Frederick 0. 




Gilkerson, Geo. W. 




Gould, James S. 




Graves, Anthony G. 




Griffin, Abraham M. 




Guernsey, Theodore 




Harris, Jabez 




Haskell, Norman 




Hickok, Franklin H. 




Hill, George V. 




Hoes, Theodore 




Holt, John B. 




Hooker, Hull 




Irish, Oliver K. 




Isaacs, Henry I. 




Johnson, John 




Johnson, Simon P. 




Jones, Luke 




Knox, Edward B. 



Lawless, John H. 




Leland, Lewis J. 




Leonard, John H. 




Marshall, Wm. D. 




McClelland, Wm. 




McCormick, Samuel 




McCutcheon, James 




Miller, Lewis A. 




Moffitt, James 




Morse, Perry 




Morse, Willis 




Muncy, Kenyon A. 




Nolan, William 




O'Banks, George 0. 




Ostrander, Philip 




Partridge, Eugene 




Peaslee, Horace 




Pitcher, Henry 




Ramsey, John A. 




Roberts, Wm. C. 




Robinson, John J. 




Shove, John 




Sitterly, Martin 




Sizer, John M. 




Skillen, Robert M. 




Smith, Bernard M. 




Smith, Horatio A. 




Stoddard, Eleazer B. 




Thrall, John C. 




Tinkham, Albert B. 




Vanderpool, Andrew 




Van Tromp, Wm. H. 




Van Zant, Garret 




Weinstein, Peter . . 




Whiteman, George H 




Wilday, Thomas 




Williams, George T. 





Battle Casualties. 

Wood, John w. Co. F 

Woodin, William H. w. " G 

Young, Floyd D. k. " C 

Young, James k. " F 

Gaines' Mills, Va. 

June 27, ] 


Baine, William I. 


Co. K 

Barnard, George A. 

w. &c. 


Becker, Chris. R. 

w. &c. 


Bender, Jacob 


Co. I 

Block, William 



Booth, John 


" K 

Borden, Wm. J. 


" B 

Boss, Edward B. 


" K 

Boynton, Wm. W. 


" H 

Brandt, Van Zandt 


" F 

Brown, James 


" B 

Brown, Samuel C. 



Burhans, Henry N. 


" C 

Burke, John 


" F 

Burns, Charles A. 


" B 

Clement, James H. 


" D 

Coburn, James M. 


" B 

Grain, Lyman C. 


" D 

Dodson, George P. 


" K 

Dougall, James S. 


" H 

Dowd, Sidney 


" D 

Fitch, Isaac P. 

w. & c. 

" D 

Foster, George T. 


" C 

Gardner, Wm. F. 


" H 

Gaskill, Chas. B. 

w. & c. 


Gilbert, Louis P. 


" FI 

Grannis, Charles D. 


" t[ 

Hammond, H. E. 

w. &c. 

" A 

Hardenburg, Jacob 

w. &c. 

" C 

Harlow, John R. 


" B 

Hickok, Salmon H. 


" C 

Hooker, Hull 


" H 

King, Nathaniel 


" C 

Knowlton, Julian 


" A 

Lockley, John A. 


" K 

Lucas, John 


" A 

Lynch, James 


" G 

Marvin, Benj. F. 


" D 

McMahon, William 


" A 

McRoberts, Alex. 

w. &c 


Morgan, Albert 


" E 

Persons, Franklin 


" H 

Quackenbush, Isaac 


" B 

Ransborough, Joseph k. 

" A 

Reese, James H. 


" B 

Reid, Alex. I. 


" K 

Roe, James E. 


" E 

Russell, James H. 


" C 

Ryan, John 


" E 

Satterly, Jerome B 


" B 

Smith, George C. 


" K 

Storrs, William 


" C 

Stearns, Tyler B. w. Co. A 

Steel, Samuel w. & c. " H 

Taylor, John N. w.&c. " K 

Teeling, Rufus A. c. " G 

Thomas, Judson P. k. " K 

Van Alstyne, Peter c. " G 
Vanderlip, Wm. L. w. & c. Capt. 

Warner, Corydon O. c. " H 

Wood, Henry w. " B 

Savage Station, Va. 

June 29 and 30, 1862. 

Anthes, Jacob W. c. Lieut. 

Brayton, John c Co. G 

Kelley Harrison c. Lieut. 

Malvern Hill, Va. 

July I, 1862. 

Adsit, Henry H. 




Badgley, Samuel D. 




Bender, Jacob 




Bennett, Edward 




Bennett, Ferdinand w 




Blasdell, Herman M. 




Bomas, James W. 




Boynton, Walworth W. w. 



Boynton, Wm. W. 




Brandle, Joseph 




Brayton, Erastus C. 




Brown, James H. w. & c 



Brown, William H. 




Bryant, Henry T. 




Buck, Halsey D. 




Burfitt, Charles E. 




Burke, Marcus D. 




Burnham, Ashbell W. 




Carter, Amos 




Chapman, George H. 




Chubbuck, Walter L. 




Clark, Paul B. 




Collier, Peter 




Comstock, Albert 




Cook, Elisha A. 




Cook, Sylvester A. 




Craig, Wm. F. 




Cross, Alonzo W. 




Curtis, James P. 




Darbee, John H. 




Davis, Daniel J. 




Delong, Guy C. 




Delong, Sylvester 




Eckler, Abram 




Engram, Anson 




Esmay, Moses H. 




Fosmire, Edgar 




French, Charles R. 




Gail, James T. 




Gallagher, Hugh 





Battle Casualties. 

Galpin, Henry M. w. 

Gates, George w. 

Groat, George S. k. 
Hammond. John M. k. 

Harlow, John R. w. 

Hasbrouck, Mihon w. 

Heavner, Harrison w. & c. 
Hitchcock, James B. w. 
Holmes, George M. w & c. 

Jones, Luke w. 

Judson, Hiram A. k. 

Kizer, Adam w. 

Lane, William F. w. 

Lewis, William E. w. 

Longwell, Wm. H. w. 

Mason, John B. w. 

Mattoon, W. V. R. k. 

McEwen. Daniel w. 

Miller, William A. k. 

Mittmesser, Joseph k. 

Montague, H. w. & c. 

Moore, John R. c. 

Muncy, Andrew J. k. 

Murphy, William w. 

Myers, Jerome k. 

Nellis, Adelbert D. w. 
Northrup, Edward B. w. 

Phillips, Amos w. 

Price, Theophilus k. 

Putnam, Frank k. 

Race, Michael k. 

Rice, Henry T. w. 

Rice, Horace N. w. & c. 

Russell, Isaac w. 

Schutt, Frank B. w. 
Shaffer, A. Webster w. 

Shaffner, David k. 

Shaw, McEndree w. &c. 

Shepard, James G. w. 

Shepard, James M. w. &c. 

Slater, Levi k. 

Smith. Henry C. w. 

Spry, George H. c. 

Spry, James E. w. 

Stearns, Tyler B. w. 

Stevens, John G. w. 

Stormes, James B. w. 

Story, Robert k. 

Sweet, James k. 

Taylor, Andrew J. w. 
Van Patten, John E. k. 

Wagner, John H. w. & c. 

Walker, Hobart M. w. & c. 

Walker, Seth A. w. 

Wallace, Spencer w. 

Westfall, Wesley k. 

Wigg, Henry D. w. 

Wilson, Albert C. w. 

Wilson, Harvey L. w. 

Wood, Henry w. 

Co. B 

" A 

" B 

" B 

" B 

" E 

" C 

" K 

" G 

" B 

" B 

" H 

" D 

" K 

" D 

" A 

" F 

" F 

" B 

" H 

' D 

' D 

' H 

' F 

' A 

' B 

' B 

' B 


' A 


' H 

' C 

' C 

" G 

' A 

' D 


' A 


' A 

' D 

' D 

' A 

' D 

' A 

' F 

' D 

* E 
' K 

• C 

' B 

' D 

' G 

' E 

' D 

' A 

' B 

Woods, William w. Co. A 

Woodworth, C. A. w. & c. Lieut. 
Young, Samuel C. w. " A 

Groveton and Second Bull 
Run, Va. 

Aug. 29 and 30, 1862. 

Babcock, Chapin w 


Co. A 

Ballou, Charles F. 



Bennett, Edward 


" F 

Bevier, Isaac 


" E 

Blackmar, Jacob 


" B 

Blair, Charles H. 


" H 

Brandle, Joseph 


" A 

Buck, Halsey 


" K 

Case, James B. 


" K 

Champlain, James H. 


" A 

Conklin, Ira 


" E 

Cupp, Wm. 


" A 

Damms, James 


" G 

Darling, Leonard D. 


" H 

Dearstyne, Sylvester 


" F 

Dorn, John H. 


" K 

Dougall, James S. w. & c 

" H 

Dowe, James W. 


" A 

Downing, John 


" F 

Eckerson, William w. & c 


Evans, King D. 


" D 

Fikes, David 


" G 

Frederick, Edward 


" G 

Frink, Prentiss S. 


" D 

Gallagher, Hugh 


" B 

Gibbs, Charles W. w 



Goold, James S. 


" B 

Gordon, David 


" E 

Graves, Anthony G. 


" F 

Grinnell, Wm. W. w. & c. 

" B 

Hammond, Henry E. 


" A 

Hardenburg, John J. 



Harris, Erastus L. 


" A 

Hill, George F. 


Co. A 

Hill, Wm. S. 


" F 

Horton, Orlando 


" A 

Horton, William B. 


" B 

Hurd, Allen J. 


" A 

Jennings, Asa C. w. & c. 

" A 

King, James 


" B 

King, Nathaniel 


" C 

La Due, Lorenzo D. 



Lammond, Alex. 



Larrabee, Lucius S. 



Lavery, William 


" F 

Lillie, Darius 


" E 

Luff, Charles 


" G 

McDougal, Ralph 


" F 

Nash, Eugene A. 



Quackenbush, Isaac 


" B 

Roberts, Azum 


" A 

Rockwood, Wm. H. 


" A 


Battle Casualties. 

Russell, James H. 
Ryder, George C. 
Sales, William 
Sandman, Joseph 
Seitz, George 
Sentell, Wm. C. 
Shafer, Peter 
Shaw, McEndrce 
Sheffield, Geo. N. 
Smith, George 
Smith, Horatio A. 
Smith, William 
Stevens, Edward G. 
Thomas, Oscar 
Vischer, Harmon 
Walker, Eugene 
Weaver, David S. 
Weaver, Wm. 
Webster. George W. 
White, James W. 
Woods, William 

w. Lieut, 
w. Co. G 



k. " 

w. " 

c. " 

k. " 

k. " 

k. " 

. &c. " 

k. " 

w. " 

k. " 

k. " 

c. " 

w. " 

w. " 

w. " 

w. " 

Bragg, William 
Wilson, Albert C 

Antietam, Md. 
Sept. 17, 1862. 

w. Co. 

Fredericksburg, Va. 
Dec. 12 to 16, 1862. 

Bain, James 
Beal, Chauncey H. 
Best, Nelson 
Buchanan, Robert F. 
Cannady, Dennis 
Case, Edward C. 
Cochrane, Wm. H. 
Cole, Andrew J. 
Conner, Freeman 
Depuy, Thomas R. 
Dollar, William I. E. 
Doolet, Napoleon 
Eaton, Sylvanus J. 
Eller, John 
Giddings, John K. 
Herbert, Ambrose 
Herrick, Wm. A. 
Hunter, George R. 
Isaacs, Henry I. 
Jennings, Alfred 
Johnson, John T. 
Kelley, Harrison 
Kelly, Charles 
Kennedy, D. H. 
Latham, Perry 
Mayer, John 
McBlain, George 
McCormick Samuel 
McMahon, William 

w. Co. 

w. " 

w. " 

w. " 

k. " 

w. " 

w. " 

w. " 


w. Lt. Col. 
w. Co. G 
" G 
' G 
' C 
' F 
" C 
' G 
" C 
" C 
' B 
' A 
" C 














k. Co 







w. Co. C 


' c 


' K 


' A 


' K 


' c 


' C 


' B 


' B 


' A 


' C 


' D 


' F 

Meade, Elnathan 
Mitchell, Fred 
Nevins, John 
Orr, Robert 
Parker, James H. 
Perry, Alexander 
Raymond, George C 
Ryan, Patrick 
Scott, Jeremiah 
Storms, James B. 
Taylor, Charles W. 
Thorp, Edward 
Zielie, Smith 

Chancellorsville, Va. 

May I to 3, 1863. 

Mahoney, Thomas J. w. Co. E 

Miller, Erastus c. " E 

Ottman, Norman k. " E 
Husted, Albert N. w. Lieut. 

Lewis, Enoch J. w. Co. E 

Aldie and Upperville, Va. 
June 21, 1863. 
Hallenbeck, Clark w. Co. 

Mapes, David D. w. 

Mosher, William H. k. 

Gettysburg, Pa. 

July 2, 1863. 

Baker, Anthony 
Ballou, Charles F. 
Barnaby, John E. 
Barrick, Thompson 
Beach, Wm. P. 
Beers, Peter 
Bennett, Ferdinand 
Blackman, Isaac B. 
Blair, Charles H. 
Block, William 
Bourne, William R. 
Brackett, John A. 
Brehl, Henry A. 
Brooks, Joel T. c. 

Burnham, Leander T. k. 
Burns, Robert C. k. 

Butler, John w. 

Byrne, Theodore k. 

Carey, Richard A. w. 
Carpenter, Charles H. k. 
Casey, Daniel k. 

Cessford, Andrew G. w. 
Chafee, Andrew J. k. 
Cheeseman, S. E. w. 

Cole, Seth F. w. 

Collier, Peter w. 

Conger, G«orge D. w. 

w. Co. 



" D 

" E 

" D 

" B 

" A 

w. " B 

w. " H 

w. " I 

w. Capt. 

k. Co. H 

k. " A 










Isaac T. Lawless. Clinton Hollow, N. Y. Age 19 years. Enlisted 
Sept. 2}f, 1861, at Albany to serve three years; mustered in as private 
Co. E, Oct. 3, 1861 ; detailed Dec. 1861, to Georgetown, D. C, for ser- 
vice in signal corps ; April, 1862, Dept. of JNIississippi ; April 6-7, Sliiloh, 
Dept. of Tennessee; May. Camp of Instruction, Paducah, Ky. ; June 
with detachment of signal corps, Mississippi flotilla; June 17, scalded 
mortally in action on gunboat Mound City, at St. Charles, Ark. ; died 
on gunboat Conestoga while on way to Memphis, Tenn., and buried 
with twenty-six others on McNeil's plantation on east side of Missis- 
sippi river, about one mile above island No. 68. 

\ i^ ^ J 


Battle Casualties. 

Cook, H. P. J. (ace.) 
Crawford, Harvey 
Cunningham, Wm. G. 
Dansenburgh, James 
Day, William 
Doing, John 
Downing, John 
Dunham, Eugene L. 
Duryea, Webster S. 
Easterbrook, Edward 
Eckerson, William 
Eells, Edwin R. 
Esmay, Aaron H. 
Ferrand, Louis G. 
Gallagher, Hugh 
Gauley, Richard 
Goodman, Wm. J. 
Goodrich, Wm. H. 
Graham, Marvin F. 
Green, George 
Green, Emery C. 
Griffith, Thomas E. 
Griswold, Francis M. 
Harris, Erastus L. 
Hays, Joel 
Helme, Joseph 
Hennega, Joseph 
Herenden, George B. 
Hobart, George W. 
Hollenbeck, Peter 
Houghton, Harrington 
Howland, Wm. R. 
Hunt, Thomas H. 
Hurd, Allen J. 
Ingersoll, Martin V. 
Irons, John M. 
Kendall, Henry C. 
Knowlton, Julian 
Kraft, Joseph 
Lantz, John 
Larrabee, Lucius S. 
Lawrence, Wm. S. w. 
Lee, Enoch H. 
Levoy, Francis G. 
Lewis, Enoch J. 
Look, John 
Mallory, James P. 
Maxson, Waren L. 
McGee, James 
McElligott, Richard 
Merchant, Edgar A. 
Morse, Willis 
Munger, Bennett 
Munson, Scott 
Nash, David 
Norris, William N. 
Phillips, Richard C. 
Ranscher, Jacob 
Reid, Alex I. 
Riseley, Samuel S. 









































































































































































































































Schermerhom, J. H. 
Schutt, Frank B. 
Scott, Jeremiah 
Shafer, Peter 
Shepard, Alonzo C. 
Simons, John 
Skinner, Sidney 
Smith, Chester 
Smith, William W. 
Sprague, Charles E. 
Steel, John 
Stevens, Henry E. 
Storms, James B. 
Story, Cornelius 
Sutfin, George H. 
Thomas, Benj. N. 
Thompson, Delos 
Thompson, Helim 
Thompson, Perry 
Todd, Henry L. 
Traver, Elbert 
Wagner, Jacob 
Wagoner, John 
White, Henry 
White, James W. 
White, Jesse 
Wigg, Henry D. 
Wolcott, George B. 
Zeilman, Charles H. 

Rappahannock Station, Va. 

November 7, 1863. 

Comstock, Albert 
Hill, Andrew A. 
Holcomb, Theodore 
Simmons, Josephus 
Vincent, Amos C. 
Wheaton, Jerome 
White, Henry 
Woods, William 

Mine Run, Va. 

November 26 to 28, 1863. 

Bliss, Moses H. w. Co. B 

Inman, Burt w. " H 

McCullouch, Daniel c. " D 

Parker, Gardner S. c. " D 

The Wilderness, Va. 

May 5 to 7, 1864. 

Allen, William W. w. Co. H 

Baker, Anthony w. " K 

Banner, Daniel w. " D 

Blackman, Isaac B. w. " B 

Burroughs, Sidney W. k. " E 

Campbell, Hicks w. " E 

Chubbuck, Walter L. w. " A 


























Battle Casualties. 

Clover, Albert S. 
Coburn, James M. 
Cole, Seth F. 
Colt, Charles H. 
Conlon, Patrick 
Cunningham, Wm. G. w 
Davis, Alexander 
Davis, David 
Defreest, Lewellen 
Delamater, Wm. W. 
DriscoU, Simon 
Edvi^ards, David 
Eldred, Moses S. 
Evans, Gideon 
Furner, Walter E. 
Gammel, Wm. W. 
George, Henry W. 
Giddings, Andrew A. 
Graham, Joseph 
Green, George 
Herbert, Ambrose 
Hoffman, Jacob 
Howland, Wm. R. 
Ilsley, Henry B. 
Ingersoll, Martin 
Johnson, John T. 
Johnson, Seth F. 
Jones, James W. 
Kimball, Andrew J. 
King, Joseph L. 
Kirwin, Joseph 
Krake, James H. 
Lamfare, Henry 
Legg, Oscar 
Lillie, Darius 
Lonergan, James 
Luce, Israel 
Mallory, James P. 
Manning, William 
Martin, Thomas 
McCready, Henry B. 
McManus. John 
Meade, Elnathan 
Mereness, David A. 
Miller, Harvey 
Moore, William 
Moreland, John J. 
Neligan, Theobold 
O'Hara, William 
Oliver, William 
Powderly, Robert 
Richards, Jason A. 
Rowe, Joseph H. 
Russell, Isaac 
Sandman, Joseph 
Stevens, George F. 
Swan, William 
Tidd, John L. 
Tyler, Charles 
Vandenburgh, William w. 


Co. G 


" B 




" D 


" D 


" A 


" D 


" D 






" B 


" D 


" E 


•'• D 


" C 




" D 


" C 




" K 


" G 


" H 


" B 


" G 


" G 


" C 




" A 


" D 


" G 


" F 


" K 




" F 


" G 


" B 


" H 


" F 


" H 


" A 


" H 


" G 


" C 


" F 


" G 


" B 


" F 


" F 


" D 


" E 


" A 


" E 


" E 


" A 


" A 


" D 


" E 


" C 





Wahl, Constantine 




Watkins, Oren E. 




White, Titus 




Woods, David 




Zeilman, Charles H. 



Laurel Hill, 


May 8, 1864. 

Angus, Walter H. 




Babcock, Elisha 




Bancroft, Ira J. w 




Bancroft, Joel B. 




Beal, Chauncey H. 




Bennett, Edward 



Bennett Ferdinand 




Blackman, George L 




Bliss, Moses H. 




Bomas, James W. 



Boynton, W. W. 




Bradt. Van Zandt 




Burnett, James H. w 

r. &C 



Claus, David 




Comstock, Joel T. 




Conner, Freeman 


Lt. Col. 

Crandall, Calvin B. w 




Crawford, Harvey 




Delong, Sylvester 




Dunham, David B. J. 




Dye, Stephen P. 




Elliott, George 




Ferris, Lanson S. 




Fox, Jacob 



Francisco, G. W. w 


. « 


Gardner, Robert W. 




Garvey, Chauncey D. 




Gates, George 




Gibney, Lewis 




Goodrich, Erastus L. 




Gould, James E. 




Green, Emory C. 




Grunwell, Nicholas B 




Haines, Peter 




Hall, Harvey C. 




Haver. William W. 




Herrick, Wm. A. 




Hill, Horace 




Hobart, George W. 




Hocknell, John 




Hoes, Theodore 



Hoyland, Charles E. 




Hunter, George E. 




Hyser, Jacob N. 




Imnan, Burt 




Ingersoll, Cyrus 




Joselyn, George 




Kelly, Charles 



Knox, Edward B. 



Lasher, William E. 




Lennox, William B. 





Battle Casualties. 

Lewis, Allen 
Long, David M. 
Madden, John 
McCutcheon. James 
McDuffe, Robert 
McGregor, Charles 
McKoy, Louis 
Miller, Chris C. w 
Mitchell, John 
Munger, O. L. w. 

Nash, Edward L. 
O'Lary, Lawrence 
Ostrander, Phillip 
Prud'hom, Charles 
Radley, Adam 
Rankin, Ami D. 
Riley, Patrick 
Riseley, Samuel A. 
Rosenkrans, Frazier w 
Rowley, Hiram S. 
Russell, James 
Senn, Anson 
Shearer, Benn 
Shufelt, Henry T. 
Smith, John 
Southerby, Thomas R. 
Starkings, John 
Stockholm, Aaron E. 
Sutfin, George H. 
Thomas, Oscar 
Thompson, Perry 
Thompson, William 
Thrasher, Nelson 
Tobias, Jacob 
Tooker, Oscar C. 
Wagner, John H. 
Wert, Albert W. 
Wigg, Henrv D. 
Wood, Bradford R. 
Woodworth, James R. 

Spottsylvania, Va. 

May 14 to 21, 1864. 

Barringer, Allen 
Flansburg, Alfred L. 
Furner, Charles B. 
Garner, Zavier 
Hardenburg, John J. 
Hoyland, Charles E. 
Shultz, Noah 

North Anna, Va. 

May 23-26, 1864. 

Adams, Edgar 
Bennett, Edward 
Davis, David 
Gillin, James 
Graves, Anthony G 


Co. I 


" G 


" E 


" A 


" E 


" H 


" G 


. " B 


" F 


. Lieut. 


Co. I 


" B 


" F 


" E 


" B 


" K 


" E 


" H 

. & c 

. " K 


" E 


" B 


" K 


" E 


" K 


" H 


" C 


" K 


" H 


" K 


" D 


" E 


" F 




" K 


" C 


" A 


" C 


" G 




Co. E 


Co. I 


" K 


" C 


" D 




Co. D 


" C 


" C 


" F 


" A 


" F 



Johnson, William W. w. Co. H 

Kemp, Peter H. w. " E 

McDougall, Thomas w. " A 

Moyer, Amenzo w. " F 

Bethesda Church, Va. 
May 30, 1864. 

Baker, George 
Eddy, Valora D. 
Nash, Eugene A. 
Smith, Abram H. 

k. " A 

c. " A 

w. Capt. 

w. Co. B 

Cold Harbor, Va. 

June 2-5, 1864. 

Beal, Chauncey H. k. 

Beckwith, George G. w. 

Bennett, Ferdinand k. 

Bevier, Isaac w. 

Bridgeford, Wm. W. w. 

Covel, Samuel w. 

Carknard, Richard w. 

Crane, Ethan A. k. 

Davis, David w. 

Duncan, Irvine w. 

Eckerson, Wm. k. 

Erwin, William H. w. 

Ewing, Perry w. 

Farrar, Ellis T. w. 

Gamer, Zavier w. 

Grunwell, Robert w. 

Hocknell, John w. 

Kimberly, Benj. K. w. 

Kinner, Royal G. w. 

Love, Andrew w. 

Osgood, Lucius L. w. 

Packer, John B., Jr. w. 

Shafer, Peter w. 

Shufelt, Henry T. w. 

Smith, James w. 

Thorn, Charles E. w. 
Vanderheyden, John I. k. 

Wilson, Matthew w. 

Wing, George W. w. 

Petersburg, Va. 

Co. D 

" D 

" A 

" G 

" F 

" C 

" F 

" K 

" A 

" B 

" F 

" A 

" D 

" D 

" E 

Co. C 

" F 

" C 

" G 

" B 

" K 

" K 

" E 

" F 

" A 

" C 

June 19 to Aug. 21, 1864. 

Adsit, Henry H. w. Co. 

Angus, Walter H. k. 

Connors, John c. " 

Costello, Patrick w. " 

Darling, Robert B. k. 

Downing, John w. " 

Downs, Henry w. " 

Ferrand, Louis G. w. " 

Harris, David S. w. " 

Hines, Patrick w. " 

Kemp, Peter H. w. " 





Battle Casualties. 

Leahy, John J. 
Markham, Aaron W. 
Mcjury, John 
Quant, Peter L. 
Shepherd, Henry 
Welsh, Edward 
White, Wm. Sidney 

Weldon Railroad, Va. 
August 18-19, 1864. 






















Bly, James M. c. 

Gregory, David c. 

Miller, Erastus w. 

Pangburn, James E. c. 

Tuttle, Martin V. k. 



Poplar Grove Chxjrch, Va. 

Sept. 30 to Oct. I, 1864. 

Bennett, Edward w. Lieut. 

Bleeker, Charles H. w. Co. B 
Combs, Thomas D. w. " E 

Corrigan, Thomas 
Day, William 
Dowling, Michael 
Ellis, Charles R. 
Grossman, Henry 
Hammond, Francis 
Helme, Joseph 
Hendrickson, Abram 
Hill, Francis A. 
Histanbrittle, Dedrick c, 
Lawton, Francis L. 
Lubke, William 
Maynard, Richard 
Minkler, Edward 
Nye, Milo D. 
Osgood, Lucius L. 
Paradu, Edward 
Petit, John 
Ring, Barnard 
Roe, Samuel E. 
Webster, Geo. R. 
Wessels, Abram 
Williams, John A 






































































Bassett, Dewitt C. 
Edwards, George 
Dempsey, Thomas 
Kemp, John W. 
Kenyon, Samuel 
Landon, Reuben B 
Lawless, Isaac T. 
Mason, Frederick c. 
McCormic, Robert H. w. 
McDuffee, Cyrus T. w. 
McNiff, Michael O. w. 
Rankin, Ami D. w. 

Rowley, Demmon L. w. 
Stacy, Almond w. 

Thompson, William w. 
Weinstein, Peter k. 


c. Co. C Nov. 17, '62. 

c. " I June 14, '62, with wagon train. 

" E accidentally. 

" F in accident at Reams Sta., June 29, '64. 

" I accidentally. 

Lieut, accidentally. 

Co. E on gunboat Mound City. 

" E Captured July 26, '63. 

Lieut. Nov., '63. 

Co. E April, '64. 

" D No date. 

" K Nov., '62. 

" E prior to Apr., 1864. 

" D No date. 

" F prior to Aug., 1864. 

G accidentally, Mch. 12, '63. 


Born January g, 1838, at New London, Conn., father, Jared 
Lewis; mother, Mary Crosby Lewis. Enlisted in Co. E. 44th N. Y. 
V. L Aug. 22nd, 1861 : transferred to Co. G. Oct., 1862, was 
promoted to Sergeant after the battle of Fredericksburg. Was 
wounded at Chancellorsville. At Gettysburg had a bullet put through 
his leg, and has the same bullet now in his home, it having been cut 
out by the surgeon. Returned to the regiment in February, 1864 and 
remained with it until mustered out. 

Entered the Christian ministry and served in that capacity thirty 
years. Left that profession on account of throat trouble. 

Is now superintendent of the National Cemetery at Winchester, Va. 
















































































































































































































































































































































































































March 10, 1862. 
March 27, 1862. 
April 4, 1862. 
April 5 to 

May 4, 1862. 
May 4 to 

May 19, 1862. 
May 27, 1862. 
June 26, 1862. 
June 27, 1862. 
June 29, 1862. 
June 30, 1862. 
June 30, 1862. 
July I, 1862. 
July 3, 1862. 
August 2, 1862. 
August 29, 1862. 
August 30, 1862. 
Sept. 17-18, 1862. 
Sept. 19-20, 1862. 
Dec. 11-15, 1862. 
Dec. 30-31, 1862. 
Jan. 20-24, 1863. 
May 1-6, 1863. 
June 21, 1863. 
July 2-4, 1863. 
July 10, 1863. 
July 23, 1863. 
October 14, 1863. 
November 7, 1863. 
Nov. 26 to 

Dec. 2, 1863. 
May 5-7, 1864. 
May 8, 1864. 
May 10-20, 1864. 
May 21-24. 1864. 
May 29, 1864. 
May 30, 1864. 
June 1-3, 1864. 
June 18 to 

July 17, 1864. 
July 17 to 

Aug. 14, 1864. 
Aug. 14-17, 1864. 
Aug. 17, 1864. 
Aug. 17 to 

Sept. 24, 1864. 
44TH Battalion. 
Sept. 30, 1864. 

Sept. 24 to 
Oct. 8, 1864. 

Battle or Affair. 

Centreville, Va. 
Big Bethel, Va. 
Yorktown & Warwick Rd., Va. 

Siege of Yorktown, Va. 

Garrison Yorktown, Va. 
Hanover Court House, Va. 
Mechanicsville, Va. 
Gaines' Mills, Va. 
Savage Station, Va. 
White Oak Swamp, Va. 
Turkey Bend, Va. 
Malvern Hill, Va. 
Harrison's Landing, Va. 
Coggins Point, Va. 
Groveton, Va. 
Second Bull Run, Va. 
Antietam, Md. 
Shepherdstown Ford, Md. 
Fredericksburg, Va. 
Richard's Ford, Va. 
"Mud March," Va. 
Chancellorsville, Va. 
Upperville and Aldie, Va. 
Gettysburg, Pa. 
Jones Cross Roads, Md. 
Wapping Heights, Va. 
Bristoe Station, Va. 
Rappahannock Station, Va. 

Mine Run, Va. 
Wilderness, Va. 
Laurel Hill, Va. 
Spottsylvania, Va. 
North Anna, Va. 
Totopotomoy Creek, Va. 
Bethesda Church, Va. 
Cold Harbor, Va. 

Siege of Petersburg, Va. 

Siege of Petersburg, Va. 
Siege of Petersburg, Va. 
Weldon Rail Road, Va. 

Siege of Petersburg, Va. 

Poplar Spring (or Grove) 
Church, Va. 

Siege of Petersburg, Va. 


Col. Stryker. 
Col. Stryker. 
Col. Stryker. 

Col. Stryker. 

Col. Stryker. 
Col. Stryker. 
Col. Str3'ker. 
Stryker & Rice. 
Col. Stryker. 
Stryker & Rice. 
Stryker & Rice. 
Col. Rice. 
Col. Rice. 
Col. Rice. 
Col. Rice. 
Col. Rice. 
Lt. Col. Conner. 
Lt. Col. Conner. 
Conner & Knox. 
Maj. Knox. 
Maj. Knox. 
Col. Rice. 
Col. Rice. 
Rice & Conner. 
Lt. Col. Conner. 
Lt. Col. Conner. 
Lt. Col. Conner. 
Lt. Col. Conner. 

Lt. Col. Conner. 
Lt. Col. Conner. 
Conner, Knox, Nash. 
Capt. Nash. 
Capt. Nash. 
Capt. Allen. 
Capt. Allen. 
Capt. Allen. 

Capt. Allen. 

Maj. Knox. 
Col. Conner. 
Col. Conner. 

Col. Conner. 

Capt. Wood. 
Capt. Wood. 




By General Joshua L. Chamberlain, 

Ex-Governor of Maine. 

At two o'clock on the morning of April g, 1865, the Third Brigade, 
after a feverish march of twenty-nine miles, came to a halt, the rear 
brigade of the division column, which on such occasions has the hard- 
est place of all. Worn out, body and spirit, by the vexations of a 
forced march, over a course blocked every half hour by the nondescript 
and unaccountable obstacles of a lagging column in the road ahead, 
men made few preliminaries about "going into camp." That peculiar 
ingredient of humanity called the nervous system held an imperious 
precedence not only over mind and matter, but over army regulations 
and discipline. There was no voice and ear for roll calls, and even 
the command of empty stomachs did not avail with habit or instinct 
to grope among the jumbled remnants of the too familiar haversacks. 
Officers and men alike flung themselves right and left along the road- 
side, whether it were bank or ditch, in whatever order or disorder the 
column had halted. Horses and riders exchanged positions, the pa- 
tient animals, with slackened girths, dozing with drooping head just 
over the faces of their masters. In an instant, as it were, the struggling, 
straggling hosts were wrapped in misty darkness and silence. 

But suddenly and soon the bugles rang out "The General !" Or- 
ders came to march within an hour's time. Word had come from 
Sheridan that he was at Appomattox Station, and that if we could 
hurry up he could cut the head of Lee's column, then near Appomattox 
Court House. Such a summons itself gave something of the strength 
it demanded. Spirit triumphed over body, and seemed to be on the 
alert before the latter could fully recover its senses. The time given 
was intended to provide for a meal, but that required also material, 
which indeed was now so simple as to quality and quantity as to make 
choice no task. Some of the younger regiments of the division were 
seen lighting dismal little fires to fry salt pork or steep some musty, 
sodden coffee. The Third Brigade, made up of veterans, spared their 
strength until the last for severer exercises. But this time patience 
did not attain to its perfect work. While sitting on their heels munch- 
ing crumbs of hard tack and watching the coffee gradually "taking 
water," so as to produce a black liquid which could be sipped from 
the black tin dipper, word suddenly came that the Third Brigade was 



to take the head of the column and must pull out at once. The glim- 
mering daybreak made still more weird the scenes and sounds which 
betokened that untimely departure, and the glimmering breakfasts must 
have evoked similar wild sensations for the benighted stomachs of 
the Third Brigade. But a brisk march with a fight at the end was 
the best medicine for such a mood. In three hours we were at Ap- 
pomattox Station, and then learned that Sheridan with the cavalry 
had pushed on to Appomattox Court House, leaving word for us to 
follow with all possible dispatch. Indeed, there was no need of orders 
to this effect, for we now began to hear the boom of cannon ahead, and 
we knew that Sheridan and our glorious cavalry had cut across Lee's 
last line of retreat. Every heart beat high. No "obstacles" hindered 
that march. The head of the Fifth Corps ran past the rear of the 
Twenty-fourth, which had had the advance in the order of march. 
It was a triple column. The roads were taken mostly by whatever 
was to go on wheels, the men of both corps pressing along the fields 
on each side. We were evidently so near the "front" that General 
Bartlett thought it time to throw forward a "division" skirmish line, 
which he and General Griffin followed with characteristic eagerness. 
I was following with my own brigade and the Second (Gregory's) 
when there dashed out of a farm road on our right an officer of 
General Sheridan's staff, who gave me a hurried order to break off 
from the column at once without waiting for communication with 
any immediate superiors, and hasten to the support of Sheridan, who 
vras that moment forced to fall back somewhat before the desperate 
onset of Gordon's old "Stonewall Corps." 

Now it was the "double-quick," indeed. This movement of course 
brought me on the ground our cavalry occupied, and on the enemy's 
left flank, at nearly the same time at which our skirmish line had struck 
them in their proper front, the direction of the Lynchburg Pike. Reach- 
ing the ground, I wheeled into double line of battle and gradually re- 
placed our cavalry, which galloped off to our right, while the Third 
Brigade still poured in upon my left. In this way we pressed the enemy 
steadily back upon Appomattox Court House. There was gallant and 
wild work done there by the Third Brigade, as well as by the rest of 
the division. 

Gordon had hoped to force his way through our cavalry before 
our infantry could get up, and reach Lynchburg with the resolute rem- 
nant of his famous old corps. But when there burst upon his front and 
flank these lines of ours they knew so well, that had so unexpectedly 
kept pace with the cavalry and marched around his retreating front, 
desperately as he had pressed his march, the veterans of Lee's army 
took in the situation as by instinct. Their resistance was mechanical 
and by force of habit or discipline. Their old dash and daring were 
gone. When our advance struck them at close quarters, they fell back 
in disorder or rendered themselves up as prisoners. As an example 
of this feeling, all that was left of an entire brigade surrendered to a 


single staff officer of the Third Brigade, who dashed up to them with 
the demand. It may well be believed that our men also were responsive 
to the logic of the situation. The end was now so near they could see 
through to it, and they were bound to "be there" themselves. Action 
there was of the most stirring kind, but of passion nothing. No man 
wantonly or in excitement struck at the life of his antagonist. It was 
an example of what is so strangely, and for want of an adequate word, 
called a "moral" effect. When in the heat of the onset, the flag of 
truce was seen coming in on our right, some deeper, inner sense seemed 
to stifle all the others. All was moving with such momentum, that 
when the order came at length to cease firing and to halt, it was next 
to impossible to stop the men. Thv.y saw well that we held the rebel army 
at bay, and what the consequence must soon be they did not need to 
be told, only whatever was to be done, they wanted to be there and 
have a hand in it. If there was anything to be seen, they had earned 
the right to front seats at the spectacle. But when at about 4 o'clock 
in the afternoon the brief, thrilling message was passed along the lines, 
"Lee surrenders !" there was a tumult as of an ocean let loose. Men 
went wild with the sweeping energies of that assurance, which an- 
swered so much of long-cherished hope and of long-endured suffering 
that had marked their loyal and brave career. Now that they were no 
longer allowed to go forward and did not know how to go backward, 
there was no direction left but to go upward, and that way they took — ■ 
to the top of fences, haystacks, roofs and chimneys, that they might send 
their hallelujahs and toss their caps higher toward heaven. The rebels 
over across the slender rivulets of the Appomattox were shouting their 
side of the jubilation, from whatever cause, whether cheering Lee as 
he rode over to speak a last word to them, or whether in deep truth 
they were heartily sick of the war and felt that their loyal spirit and 
manly energies were wasted in a hopeless and perhaps mistaken cause. 
There is reason to believe the latter feeling was the motive of their 
exuberant demonstration, whose echoes rolled along the hillsides long 
after all was silent in our bivouac. For toward evening some of the 
rations that had been promised us for distribution at 9 o'clock that 
morning, and from which we had double-quicked away, had now got 
up and we could finish our breakfasts before lying down in peace at 
the close of that eventful day; and a certain deeper peace was ours, 
in that, learning now of the starving condition of our surrendering 
foes, twenty thousand rations were sent over just as the day was done, 
into that camp of fellow countrymen we had restored to brotherhood. 
Fitting token and emblem of the spirit in which that victory was won 
and that day ended ! Here too was possible one reason for the cheering 
that echoed in our ears as we fell asleep on that Palm Sunday evening. 
All the next day and the day after, measures were being deter- 
mined as to the actual breaking up of Lee's army, and the return of 
ours. Grant and Lee had not lingered, after the main points were 
settled, nor indeed was Sheridan seen again on the field. Generals 


Griffin, Gibbon and Merritt were appointed commissioners to arrange 
the final details. 

All this while the visiting fever and the exchanging of tokens and 
souvenirs ran wild through both armies. Stringent measures had to 
be taken to prevent utter confusion in both camps, especially in ours, 
as it seemed to be understood that we were the hosts, and it was our 
"at home" reception. This spirit of exchange shortly passed into the 
spirit of trade; for our rations, after the best was done, were very 
short, and for three days afterwards it became necessary to forage the 
country far and wide to get even raw corn enough for man and 
beast. So the market "went up" decidedly on all sorts of farm produce. 
Hard tack was a luxury, and coffee and sugar at a high premium. 

How or why it came about I do not know, but on the evening of 
the loth of April I was summoned to headquarters and informed that 
I was to command tjie parade which was to receive the formal sur- 
render of the arms and colors of the rebel army the next morning. 
This was an order, and to be received and obeyed without question. 
One request only I ventured to make of my Corps Commander. It 
was that, considering this occasion, I might resume command of my 
old Brigade, the Third, from which I had been transferred in June, 
1864, with which I had served up to that time since my entrance into 
the service. My request was granted, and on that evening I yielded 
the command of my gallant First Brigade, and went back to my 

General Grant was a magnanimous man, great minded and large 
minded. He would have nothing done for show and no vain ceremony. 
He granted to officers the high privilege of retaining their swords, and 
all men who owned their horses were made welcome to keep them, 
as they would need them to plough their land. The rebels had begged 
to be spared the pain of actually laying down their arms and colors 
in the presence of our troops, and to be permitted to stack them in 
front of their own camps and march off, and let us go and pick them 
up after they had gone. But this would be to err too far on the side 
of mildness. So it was insisted that while the surrendering army should 
be spared all that could humiliate their manhood, yet the insignia of 
the rebellion and the tokens of the power and will to hurt, lifted against 
the country's honor and life, must be laid down in due military form 
in presence of a designated portion of our army. 

This latter office fell to our lot. It gave us no doubt a grateful 
satisfaction and permitted a modest pride, but it was not accepted as 
a token that we surpassed our comrades in merit of any kind. 

We formed our line of battle on the southern margin of the prin- 
cipal street in Appomattox Court House. Massachusetts on the right — 
her Thirty-second Regiment, with all that was left to us of her Ninth, 
Eighteenth and Twenty-second; then Maine — her Twentieth Regiment, 
with the delivered remnant of her Second and her First Sharpshooters; 
Michigan next — her Sixteenth, with interminglings of her First and 


Fourth. On the left Pennsylvania — her One Hundred and Fifty-fifth 
holding also filaments which bound us with the Sixty-second, Eighty- 
third, Ninety-first and One Hundred and Eighteenth, an immortal 
band, which held in it the soul of the famous "Light Brigade," and 
the stem old First Division, Porter's, which was nucleus of the Fifth 
Corps, men among them who had fired the first shot at Yorktown, and 
others that had fired the last at Appomattox, and who thus bore upon 
their banners all the battles of that army. 

By the courtesy of General Bartlett, the First Brigade, which I 
had so long commanded, and the Second, which had been with me in 
this last campaign, were sent to me and held part in the parade, being 
formed on another line across the street and facing us. These were, 
with the exception of the One Hundred and Ninety-eighth Pennsylvania, 
composed of New York regiments, the One Hundred and Eighty-fifth, 
One Hundred and Eighty-seventh, One Hundred and Eighty-eighth 
and One Hundred and Eighty-ninth, which in severe service had made 
themselves veterans worthy the fellowship of those sterling old New 
York regiments that had fulfilled their time and fame. Names and 
figures, all of these, dear to every heart that had shared their eventful 
and glorious history. 

As we stood there in the morning mist, straining our eyes toward 
that camp about to break up for the last march, a feeling came over 
our hearts which led us to make some appropriate recognition of this 
great, last meeting. 

We could not content ourselves with simply standing in line and 
witnessing this crowning scene. So instructions were sent to the 
several commanders that at the given signals, as the head of each di- 
vision of the surrendering column approached their right, they should 
in succession bring their men to "Attention" and arms to the "Carry," 
then resuming the "Ordered Arms" and the "Parade Rest." And now 
we see the little shelter tents on the opposite slope melting away and 
carefully folded, being things which were needed by men as men and 
not as tokens of rebellion. Soon the gray masses are in motion — 
once more toward us — as in the days that were gone. A thrilling 
sight. First, Gordon, with the "Stonewall Corps ;" then their First 
Corps — Longstreet's — no less familiar to us and to fame; then Anderson, 
with his new Fourth Corps ; and lastly, A. P. Hill's Corps, commanded 
now by Heth, since Hill had fallen at one of the river fights- a few 
days before. On they come with careless, swinging rout step, the 
column thick with battle flags, disproportionate to their depleted num- 
bers. As they come opposite our right our bugle sounds the signal, 
repeated along our line. Each organization comes to "Attention," and 
thereupon takes up successively the "Carry." The gallant General 
Gordon, at the head of the marching column, outdoes us in courtesy. 
He was riding with downcast eyes and more than pensive look; but 
at this clatter of arms he raises his eyes, and instantly catching the 
significance, wheels his horse with that superb grace of which he is 


master, drops the point of his sword to his stirrup, gives a command, 
at which the great Confederate ensign following him is dipped, and 
his decimated brigades, as they reach our right, respond to the "Carry," 
All the while on our part not a sound of trumpet or drum, not a 
cheer, nor word nor motion of man, but awful stillness, as if it were 
the passing of the dead. Now and then a gust of wind would spring 
up from the south with strange greeting; our starry ensigns stiffen 
and fly out as if to welcome back the returning brothers. The en- 
signs of rebellion seem to shrink back and strain away from the fated 

So a division at a time covers our front. They halt, face inward 
some ten paces from us; carefully "dress" their lines, each captain as 
careful of his alignment as if at a dress parade. Then they fix bayonets, 
stack arms, then wearily remove their cartridge boxes and hang them 
on the pile; lastly, reluctantly, painfully, they furl their battle-stained 
flags and lay them down ; some, unable to restrain themselves, rushing 
from the ranks, clinging to them, kneeling over them and kissing them 
with burning tears. And then the flag of the Union floats alone upon 
the field. 

Then, stripped of every sign of the rebellion and token of its hate 
and will to hurt, they march off to give their word of honor never to 
lift arms against the old flag again, and are free to go where they will 
in the broad Republic. 

Thus division after division passes, and it takes the whole day 
long to complete this deliverance. Twenty-seven thousand men paroled, 
one hundred and forty cannon and near that number of battle flags 
surrendered, but only about seventeen thousand stand of small arms. 
For some times a whole brigade, or what was left of it, had scarcely 
a score of arms to surrender, having thrown them away by roadside 
and riverside in weariness of flight or hopelessness of heart, or disdain- 
ing to carry them longer, only to be taken from them in token of a lost 
cause. After this it remained only to gather up what was serviceable 
of this material of war and to destroy the rest. Nothing was left which 
could be turned to use against the Union armies. The cartridge boxes 
were emptied on the ground for the most part, burned, and after the 
troops had withdrawn, at the first dusk of evening, it was a weird and 
almost sad sight to see the running flame with frequent bursts of lurid 
explosfon along the lines where the surrendering army had stood ; then 
only bits of leather writhing in the gray ashes. 

All was over. With the dawn of morning the hillsides were alive 
with men in groups or singly, on foot or horse, making their way as 
by the instinct of an ant, each with his own little burden, each for his 
own little harbor or home. 

And we were left alone and lonesome! The familiar forms that 
had long so firmly held our eyes, until they almost demanded the sight 
of them for their daily satisfaction, had vanished like a dream. The 
very reason of our existence seemed to have been taken away. And 


William H. Longwell, son of Hamilton and Rebecca Longwell, l)or;i 
in Fairfield. Adams Co., Pa.. Jan. i6, 1839. His great-grandfather. 
James Wilson, served as Captain in the Revolutionary War; his grand- 
father, William Longwell. also took part in that struggle; his family 
moved to Gettysburg, where he received a common school education 
and learned the printing trade. Private and Corporal in 44th ; 2nd 
Lieut. Co. C; ist Lieut. Co. D; Captain Co. C, 114th N. Y. Vols. 
Presented by his friends in Norwich with sword, belt and sash. 

While Lieut, of Co. D. commanded volunteers from Co. E, in what 
was looked upon as a "Forlorn Hope" June 14th, 1863. at Port Hudson. 
He had the reputation of being the best drill officer in the regiment. 

During three years and ten months' service, participated in battles 
of Yorktown, Hanover Court House, Gaines Mills. Turkey Bend. Mal- 
vern Hill (slightly wounded). Coggins Point, Bisland. Port Hudson 
(wounded) ; Mansura and at Winchester on the 19th of September. 
1864, was badly wounded. After leaving the army became associated 
in pu1)lishing Pithole Record, Petroleum Center Record. Bradford Era. 
and in establishing Oil Citv Dailv Derrick. At present Postmaster. 
Oil Citv, Pa. 


when on the morrow we took up our march again, though homeward, 
something was lacking in the spring and spice which had enlivened us 
through even the dreariest times. To be sure, the war was not over 
yet, but we felt that the distinctive work of the old Third Brigade was 
over. We were soon to be mustered out; but never to be again as if 
the Third Brigade had not become a part of our lives, a part of our 
souls. There were "thoughts that ran before and after," memories of 
things that can not be told, and new purposes of manly living and 
hopes of useful service yet, in visions of a broader citizenship and 
the career of an enfranchised country. 


By Capt. O. L. Munger. 

The battle of Laurel Hill, Va., was introductory to the series of 
conflicts between the armies of Grant and Lee which centered in and 
about Spottsylvania. Grant's famous movements by the left flank to 
get nearer Richmond were being initiated and the chase for Spottsylvania 
brought the advance of the Sth Corps to Laurel Hill about eight o'clock 
on the morning of May 8, 1864, and in the contest that almost imme- 
diately followed many were killed and wounded and twenty-three men 
and officers of the Forty-Fourth were made prisoners. The follow- 
ing is an attempt to tell some of the experiences of the captives. 

Circumstances which they were unable to control, placed them in 
the enemy's hands, and other circumstances, also not of their making, 
gave a turn to affairs they greatly enjoyed. 

Inasmuch as there was something of similarity in the experiences 
of these men, though the story of each one in many particulars would 
differ from all the rest, the narrative of one may serve as a reminder 
to such of the others as still survive. This may be called the "Ad- 
jutant's Story" because it was while so acting that the writer met with 
the adventures to be related. 

Understanding fully that other comrades if so inclined, might 
truthfully tell of wounds and sufferings, with a variety of happenings 
still more thrilling, the writer ventures to offer this, hoping to bring 
pleasure to those of that party who still live, in the thought of fortu- 
nate escape from dreaded imprisonment. 

You, comrades, who were present, vividly remember the Wilder- 
ness and its battles of the fifth and sixth of May, 1864, and the losses 
of the Forty-fourth which included many brave men and the kind 
hearted Captain, Seth F. Johnson. You have not forgotten the seventh of 
May, when, under sharpshooters' fire and behind breastworks, we 
quietly waited for orders, nor how that evening Gen. Grant inaugurated 
his long series of movements by the left flank. Here our tale begins. 

In pursuance of orders the Fifth Corps began its movement to the 
left on the evening of May 7, 1864, our Third Brigade leading the column. 
All night long the difficult tramp continued, short, indeed, as to number 
of miles, but more than usually trying because of obstructions in the 
way. The poor and narrow Wilderness road, difficult to see in the 
darkness of the night, had been blocked in places by the enemy with 
fallen trees, which had to be removed by our pioneers to make way 
for artillery and infantry. Their work caused frequent stops during 
which a snatch of sleep was possible. Many a time during that night 
the stumbling of the Adjutant's horse, as march was resumed after 
these enforced stops, wakened him from a brief nap in the saddle, and 
so it was with Col. Conner, by whose side he rode. The men, too, 
greatly fatigued by three days' strenuous work and insufficient food, 


dropped soundly asleep many times while pioneers cleared the road. 
So dragged the latter end of May 7th and the early hours of the 8th 
until the light of day made progress more easy. I think it was about 
eight o'clock when, emerging from the woods, the Forty-fourth formed 
line just at the edge of an open field. Here arms were stacked, knap- 
sacks thrown off, and the men were more than ready for coffee. Our 
good Colonel, thoughtful and brave, wished for his men all possible 
comforts, and told the Adjutant to present his compliments to the 
Brigade Commander, General Bartlett, who at that moment was seated 
with the Division Commander, General Griffin, on a harrow in the field 
about two hundred feet ahead, and to ask if there was time for coffee, 
and that, if our men were to charge the enemy, they might leave knap- 
sacks behind, because of their fatigue and the heat of the day. Gen. 
Griffin himself replied, in words as near as memory can recall, "No, 
tell Col. Conner there is nothing ahead of us but a few dismounted 
cavalry. Battery D will march right down the road, the 83d Penn. 
will follow, and tell Col. Conner to follow the 83d, marching by fours." 
Almost immediately the start was made, in the order named, the few 
skirmishers of the enemy contenting themselves by firing and retiring, 
until about a mile and a half had been covered. Approaching a cut 
through a hill, a Rebel battery was discovered in the edge of a wood 
about a half mile to the right. In this cut General Bartlett halted his 
command, sending back an aide to inform General Griffin of the near- 
ness of the enemy's artillery. The aide soon came galloping back, and 
blurted out the words, "The General says, take it !" Bartlett's trained 
eye had already measured the situation ; a fence to climb, advance down 
a gentle declivity, a small brook to cross, then up grade and two more 
fences, then woods with felled trees as abatis in front, and the enemy. 
Not wishing to expose his men unnecessarily, he requested the aide 
to ask General Griffin to come himself and view the situation. It 
seemed but a moment until the impatient Division General appeared, 
and addressing his Brigadier, said : "There is nothing ahead of you. 
General, but a few dismounted cavalry. Put in your first two regi- 
ments on the double-quick or you won't get a chance to shoot at them." 
Immediately the order was given, and the 83d Penn. with the Forty- 
fourth New York, like twin brothers always happy in each other's com- 
pany and best satisfied when battle was on to fight side by side, sprang 
to their feet, climbed out of the cut and over the fence, skirmishers in 
front, going to their work, veterans as they were, on the double-quick. 
The rebel skirmishers retired, disappearing in the woods, and our line 
advanced with little difficulty until more than half the distance had 
been covered, when the upgrade and shortened breath somewhat slack- 
ened the pace. With a few losses from the musketry fire of the in- 
visible foe, the last two fences were quickly climbed and there before 
us were fallen trees so obstructing the advance that it was utterly im- 
possible for proper alignment to be kept. Climbing over or crawling 
under this obstruction as conditions required, our men entered the 


woods and just before them was the demonstration that NOT "a 
few dismounted cavalry," but a full infantry line behind freshly con- 
structed breastworks, was waiting to give a reception, which imme- 
diately followed. Simultaneously with our entrance into the woods 
came a volley at so close range that, but for the upward tilt of the 
muskets in the hands of the Confederates — so common to troops pro- 
tected by breastworks — our losses, serious enough, would have been 
much greater. By common impulse our men dropped to the ground, 
firing as they lay, until after a brief interval the Colonel shouted "For- 
ward !" telling the Adjutant to repeat the order down the line. The 
distance gained was little, for the enemy's next volley was murderous, 
and a number of the men were killed and wounded. 

Once again the word, "Forward Forty-Fourth !" rang out, and 
the distance — not more than forty feet from certain parts of the line — 
would have been covered speedily had strength been sufficient, but 
with lessened numbers and formation broken, there was little chance 
to dislodge the enemy. The reader, it is hoped, will excuse personal 
reference which now seems essential to the tale. In this last attempt 
to carry the enemy's works, the Adjutant at once discovered that with- 
out semblance of a line of battle and with only little bunches of men, 
or single individuals, here and there, constituting the forward move- 
ment, the effort could not succeed. Impelled by the instinct of self- 
preservation, he made speed to reach a tree in front about half way 
to the enemy's line. A few vigorous jumps brought him to the de- 
sired haven, and although not half big enough to cover his body, the 
little tree became at once the basis of operation and a point of defense. 
Immediately in his front, perhaps twenty feet distant, was visible a 
little stretch of the enemy's breastworks, from behind which three 
rebel heads at once dropped out of sight. To the right and left, trees 
and bushes so screened other parts of the enemy's position, that for 
the moment this was all of the enemy's line within the Adjutant's sight. 
Standing with left shoulder guarded by the tree, the Adjutant found 
the revolver an essential part of the situation, and it became the agent 
which prevented either of the men in front from taking careful aim 
which could not have failed to kill. Enemy number one, first resting 
his musket on the works, showed for an instant his head to note the 
position of his target, and in another instant raised his shoulder and 
fired. The Adjutant's pocket on the right side of his blouse was torn 
by this bullet, and at the same time the compliments of the revolver 
were extended to the Confederate. Enemy number two then imitated 
his mate, but more cautious, did not expose so much of his body and 
his fire was high. He was, in turn, made the target for cartridge 
number two from the revolver. So centered was the Adjutant's atten- 
tion on the business in his front that he saw nothing of his comrades, 
for to turn his head was to invite death, but in the early moments of 
that particular situation he was cheered by the sight of a corner of the 
regimental colors which were held by Corporal George W. Wing as 


he lay, with knapsack and blanket protecting his head, waving "Old 
Glory" from side to side. Enemy number three tried his hand next, 
but fired high, and the third shot from the revolver was discharged 
in his behalf. Right here an interruption occurred, for, to the Adju- 
tant's surprise, a ball from the left chipped through the top of his hat. 
He thought perhaps this might have been a glancing ball which had 
first struck a tree, but, unwilling to trust that kind of an interpretation, 
dropped on his knee for safer position. In another instant a second 
bullet went through his hat and the tree itself was hit a number of 
times, convincing him that he was being made the target of Confed- 
erates more to the left. Watching for further activity in front, shot 
number four from the revolver replied to one from a rebel, and almost 
at the same instant a bullet cut through the coat over the Adjutant's 
left shoulder. Making himself as short in stature as was possible by 
crouching low, an outstretched leg was suddenly stung, and the Adju- 
tant called out, "Colonel, I guess I am hit." A few moments later it 
was discovered that the Colonel was not there, neither was the regi- 
ment. Then came the fifth chance for the exchange of compliments, 
and cartridge number five answered the fire of a man in front whose 
shot was high, and like those of his predecessors, did no harm. One 
cartridge remained, and what was to be done after it had been used was 
an open guess. To this day the Adjutant has been unable to explain 
a sudden impulse which caused him to jump to his feet and turn 
around. There stood two Confederate soldiers with muskets pointed 
at his head, while a quick glance discovered our fleeing regiments 
making speed to get back to their supports, and the enemy, in much 
greater numbers than they, in hot pursuit. Quick decision was im- 
perative, and the first thought, which was to shoot one of the men 
in his way and disable the other by a blow with his sword, and then 
try to make his escape, gave way to conclusions more sane. The 
enemy were swarming from both flanks trying their best to overtake 
the 83d and Forty-fourth, but with little success, for our men were soon 
back to their starting point, and with the support of other regiments of 
the brigade were too strong to tempt the Confederates to attack. To 
the demand, "Come in, you d — d Yank," the reply was made — "I think 
I'm in." Thus the Adjutant found himself a prisoner, while his two 
captors appropriated the revolver and sword. A few strides brought 
us to the enemy's breastworks and, stepping over, the prisoner was 
confronted by a Confederate officer who jumped up, the still damp 
dirt clinging to his uniform, and called out, excitedly — "Surrender, Sir ! 
Surrender, Sir !" Seeing scabbard and belt which my captors had 
failed to remove, this doughty officer busied himself in taking them 
off, so that they became the trophies of his prowess. By his direction, 
one of the boys — for, like most of our soldiers, they were still young, — 
started to the rear, having his captive in charge. The hurt leg both- 
ered, and the guard agreed to a halt when a shady grassy spot was 
reached, so that an examination of the wound could be made. It was 


an agreeable surprise to find only a strip of skin gone and the black 
and blue marks of a bad bruise, albeit the bootleg itself was badly 
wounded. The fear of a more serious hurt having vanished, the lame- 
ness became less apparent and the disability was disregarded. The 
guard seemed in no hurry and was willing to rest, until one of Griffiin's 
Battery D shells, passing over the breastworks, struck near by, and 
ricocheting, went over and beyond. The prisoner's sentiment that he 
did not care to be killed by Yankee shells was heartily seconded by 
his companion, and the tramp was resumed to the rear. This trip 
revealed to the Adjutant facts that made him yearn for the wings of 
a bird, so that he might inform General Griffin that the "few dismounted 
cavalry" against whom we were sent, had developed into a mass of 
infantry numbering thousands, with a half dozen batteries within easy 
call. The fences on either side the narrow road or lane through which 
we passed, were lined with artillerymen and other idle soldiers, who 
enjoyed the sight of captive Yankees. The Adjutant said to his guard, 
"I suppose you know your duty," and the reply came, "What do you 
mean?" The answer was, "You are my guard, and your duty is to de- 
liver me to the Provost, and in the meantime to protect me. I do not 
want to be robbed by these men." The young fellow said : "I know 
that; I'll take care of you;" and so he did, pushing back with his gun 
a man who grabbed for the Adjutant's hat, which, though bullet torn, 
had some of its freshness left, and possessed the added attraction of 
a 1st division, 5th corps badge; and another man who crowded up, 
saying : "Give me that watch, you d — d Yank 1" Thus protected, the 
headquarters of the Provost Guard were safely reached, and under the 
gentlemanly care of Major Ryals, in command, the prisoner was safe 
from further annoyance of that sort. The Adjutant soon discovered 
that he was not the only prisoner, and on the assumption that there 
would be given him an opportunity to communicate with the Commander 
of the Forty-fourth sooner or later, he proceeded to take the names 
of his comrades who had been captured. Later it was known that 
others had been taken, mo.st of them wounded, whose names he had 
no means of learning. Frazier Rosenkranz of Co. K was shot through 
the chest, the ball passing quite through his body, and yet was able 
to talk, and told the Adjutant that he was not suffering greatly. So 
far as the writer knows, no word ever came from him, but in the report 
of the Adjutant General of New York appears the following: "Rosen- 
kranz, Frazier, wounded and captured in action, Spottsylvania, Va., 
May 8, 1864. Prisoner of War at Andersonville , Ga., at muster-out of 
Company." He may have returned home later, but of this the writer 
is not informed. Here follow the names of the men who constituted the 

Capt. Bradford R. Wood Sergeant Chas. Prudham, Co. E 

First. Lieut. Edward Bennett Sergeant W. H. Angus, Co. K 

First Lieut, and Acting Adjutant Corporal O. C. Tooker, Co. E 
O. L. Hunger Corporal M. H. Bliss, Co. B 


Corporal Sylvester Delong, Co. B Private L. McCoy, Co. G 

Corporal J. N. Hyzer, Co. K Private Perry Morse, Co. H 

Private Ferd. Bennett, Co. A Private A. E. Stockholm, Co. H 

Private C. C. Miller, Co. B Private Joel T. Comstock, Co. H 

Private C. H. Beal, Co. D Private E. L. Nash, Co. I 

Private W. W. Haver, Co. D Private A. Lewis, Co. I 

Private J. Hocknell, Co. E Private H. T. Shufelt, Co. K 

Private Wm. Thompson, Co. F Private A. D. Rankin, Co. K 

A fine grove of trees was our resting place for the greater part 
of that hot May day, but food was not to be had. The prisoners were 
informed that on the next day they would reach a point where supplies 
would be furnished, a statement that proved literally and liberally true, 
though not in the fashion anticipated. Let me state, by way of paren- 
thesis, that this grove and resting place was identified by the writer 
during a visit to Spottsylvania Battle Fields in 1907, and is now the 
site of the Goshen Baptist Church. While a prisoner here the Ad- 
jutant had the pleasure of his first and only sight of Robert E. Lee, 
Commander of the Confederate forces, who rode up inspecting the 
condition of afifairs at the front. 

All through the remainder of that 8th day of May, at intervals 
of an hour or two, volleys of heavy musketry informed us that our 
uninformed Generals were repeating, with other regiments, the ex- 
periment at first tried with the 83d and Forty-fourth. Following each 
of these futile attacks on the enemy's position, other captives were 
added to our squad, until when night came 350 Union officers and men 
were claiming Confederate hospitality. 

The thought of dead and dying comrades whose sacrifice was a 
sad mistake and had its own reward in the satisfaction of duty bravely 
done, added to the heaviness of our hearts as we anticipated a turn 
in rebel prisons. The night was spent a mile further to the rear in 
pleasant woods, the blue sky visible between the leaves and branches 
above us, as we lay without blankets on the ground. The bright stars 
twinkled kindly, undisturbed by "man's inhumanity- to man," while 
happy dreams came to some and the night wore away. The morning 
of the 9th came early, and gnawing stomachs made their demands as, 
waking from the sound sleep of growing manhood, the consciousness 
of our situation again asserted itself. No time was wasted for break- 
fast, since there was nothing to eat, and when soft-voiced Lieut. Cun- 
ningham in command of the detail which was our conduct, gave the 
order to "fall in," those able to march were ready to proceed. I think 
all of the Forty-fourth squad, except Rosenkranz, started with the 
rest. Proceeding in the direction of Richmond, we met, after an hour 
or two had passed, a large force of the enemy's cavalry going toward 
Fredericksburg, and concluded, from remarks by our guard, that for 
some reason a demonstration by Sheridan was expected, with which 
the Confederates proposed to interfere. A bad guess it was as to 


Sheridan's route, but fortunate for us, as the sequel will show. The 
annoying activity of the enemy's cavalry had given trouble, and about 
the time of our engagement at Laurel Hill, a conference between Gen- 
erals Grant, Meade and Sheridan was in progress, as a result of 
which Sheridan was given the permission, so much desired by him, 
to cut loose from the army and deal such blows to the Confederacy 
as he might find possible. All was accomplished that he had promised, 
and the rebel cavalry found that they were more needed to protect 
Richmond than to chase after Meade's wagon trains. All this was 
of course unknown to our party, and the march was monotonous 
enough until, a little before noon, when the column halted and filed 
into a large enclosure, where to our joy was located one of the largest 
and most copious springs of cold water it has ever been my lot to see. 
The writer is reminded of Gideon's Band when he thinks of the 
eagerness our comrades showed and the various postures assumed, 
as they quaffed nature's most delicious beverage. Nothing could have 
been better. Some, lying flat, put their faces in the water, others on 
knees used their hands as cups, and drank and then drank again, for 
it had been more than twenty-four hours since most of the men had 
tasted water. It was refreshing, and the men lay down in the grass, 
happy for the moment, and glad to rest. A group of the officers agreed, 
for the sake of the few slightly wounded men in the party who were 
suffering from the unavoidable chafing of their hurts, that Lieut. Cun- 
ningham be requested to permit his prisoners to rest in this delightful 
spot for an hour. Before the Committee of one, chosen to make this 
request, could discharge his mission, the sudden arrival of a mounted 
messenger, who excitedly addressed the Lieutenant, put an end to the 
plan, and the order came immediately, "Fall in." There being no al- 
ternative, this beautiful green spot was regretfully left behind, and 
the tramp resumed. The main road was taken for but a short time, 
when to our surprise, our route lay through fields and woods. In reply 
to questions as to the reason of this, we were told that the bridge 
over a river had been destroyed, and that we were making a point 
where the stream could be forded. Thus the afternoon wore on, and 
the fact that we did after a while ford a stream, gave some confirma- 
tion to the statement. Water was arm-pit deep and swift, so that some 
of the shorter and less vigorous men required help of the sturdier ones, 
but the writer believes all crossed in safety. Between four and five 
o'clock, after passing through a strip of woods, the tired men again 
reached the Richmond road, when their ears were greeted by the sound 
of shrieking locomotive whistles impatiently but plainly saying "Hurry 
up." A messenger came, telling Lieut. Cunningham to be "quick," when 
another sound greeted our ears — a shot from the rear. Strange as it 
may seem, every one of the 350 men marching toward prison pens, 
tired and hungry, but with senses acute, measured correctly the mean- 
ing of that shot, and to the command, "double-quick," responded by 
instantly clearing the road and with common impulse, sidling oflf into 


Was a Private in Company C. Enlisted Aug. 19, 1861. Was 
wounded at Hanover C. H. May 27, 1862. in left forearm, left bone 
broken. Furloughed home and in hospital at Albany, N. Y. about 
five months. Rejoined the regiment and transferred to Company B. 
Was wounded at the Battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862, in both 
thighs. Furloughed and in hospital until 1863. Was then transferred 
to Co. D. 1 2th Regiment Veteran Reserve Corps, stationed at Albany, 
N. Y. and Schenectady, X. Y. Also at Alexandria. Va. and Fort 
Meade, Va. Was at Fort Stevens during General Early's attack in 
July, 1864. Discharged Sept. t. 1864. 




the woods on one side and into the corners of the rail fence on the 
other. The clatter of hoofs was soon heard, and memory still pictures 
three horsemen, who, with speedier beasts, led the advance of the 
gallant Custer's Brigade of Sheridan's Cavalry, as it appeared in view. 
These three impetuous riders, almost lying on their horses' necks, with 
carbines extended, crowded so closely the now fleeing Confederate 
guard, that three of its number were brought down while the others 

On came the troopers, receiving as they passed the wild and 
vociferous welcome of 350 liberated men, whose voices, raised in loud 
cheers, proclaimed their joy and gratitude. 

"How the" prisoners "shouted when they heard the joyful sound," 
Of Custer's gallant troopers as they sped o'er rebel ground! "Glory, 
glory. Hallelujah!" was the song most appropriate, and the sentiment 
was felt if not expressed by all our men. 

The half mile to Beaver Dam Station was so quickly covered and the 
surprise was so complete that three trains of cars were in possession 
of our cavalry before the engineers could get them out of the station. 
Supposing this to be his safe point. General Lee had concentrated sup- 
plies, and there was food in abundance for man and beast. Vast stores 
had been collected and, the prisoners found, literally fulfilled the promise 
made them the day before that at the end of this day's march they 
should be fed. Were we hungry? Young fellows scarce out of their 
'teens, after two full days without food, hungry? Were we hungry? 
Well, here was food in plenty, and one had but to help himself. Right 
opposite the station, in a log house suddenly vacated by the family 
which had occupied it a moment before, Capt. Bradford R. Wood and 
the writer found ready to hand a promising fire of coals in the fire- 
place, and the necessary utensils for cooking supper close at hand. A 
reconnaissance by two had discovered at the station some barrels of 
hams and lemon-box-looking packages which upon more intimate in- 
spection proved to be filled with eggs packed in saw-dust. No objec- 
tion to ham and eggs was to be offered on this occasion, and in a short 
time voracious appetites were being rapidly and satisfactorily appeased, 
at the expense of the Confederacy. 

During the night, after men and horses were fed and had loaded 
up with as many rations as could be conveniently carried, the sky was 
brilliantly illuminated by the fires which consumed the station with its 
contents, as well as the trains of cars which were to transport the 
prisoners to the Capital of the Confederacy. The cavalrymen busied 
themselves also in tearing up railroad tracks, burning ties, heating and 
twisting rails and interfering as far as possible with Lee's communica- 
tions. With happy hearts and weary bodies we lay down for rest, but 
were not permitted to sleep late, for early in the morning the enemy's 
cavalry, after its fruitless trip toward Fredericksburg and a long forced 
march, appeared on our rear, and the sound of their guns was our 
reveille. We recaptured, unarmed men constituted, of course, an im- 


pediment to our rescuers, but with veteran rebel cavalry pounding 
in the rear, and the front defended by homeguards, guerrillas and other 
irregulars, whenever a cut through a hill or a narrow road in the woods 
afforded an opportunity for a barricade, the progress was not so 
rapid, but that the infantrymen could maintain the pace. An officer of 
a Pennsylvania regiment kindly offered the use of two extra horses 
to Capt. Wood and the writer, so that the first day was not over- 
wearisome to us, though exciting. At night, the Adjutant, following 
the example of his friend of the cavalry, unsaddled and tied his horse 
to a tree, giving him corn to eat ; then, with body stretched upon the 
ground, with head to trunk of tree, quickly dropped into a deep sleep. 
Waking early, it was discovered that his horse was gone, no doubt 
taken by some dismounted cavalryman whose mount had been killed. 
No more extras were to be found, so that again the Adjutant became 
a footman, but was able to keep up with the procession. Enemy in 
front and rear made the work of our cavalry severe, and the progress 
was slow, but the march was continued on the main road until one 
night the Adjutant was told that Richmond lay but two miles further 
on, and he wondered, as he saw the lights twinkling in the distance, if 
Sheridan v/ould risk an attack on the enemy's stronghold, which 
seemed possible because of the absence of the main body of its de- 
fenders. That was not to be, and shortly after, a turn to the left 
brought us to the Chickahominy River. It was rainy and muddy, and 
the route lay across a corduroy bridge, while over the river swamps ex- 
tended on either side of the narrow road, which seemed the only 
point at which passage could be made. The Adjutant, unattached, ap- 
proached as near as he dared to Sheridan's headquarters flag where 
a number of officers were grouped about their General, and watched 
with much interest their movements. Across the Chickahominy were 
concentrated several hundred of the friends of the Confederacy, who 
with such arms as they had been able to gather together, proposed to 
assist the Home Guards and Guerrillas in disputing Sheridan's crossing. 
The main body of the enemy's cavalry was crowding behind in the 
evident thought that now was the time for their harvest and that when 
the crossing was attempted there would be much confusion, and that 
a portion at least of the Union forces would become their prisoners. 
Sheridan's grasp of the situation was complete, and the enemy's plans 
were frustrated. Rebellion's most masterly cavalry leader, General 
J. E. B. Stuart, meeting his death in the attempt to thwart the pur- 
pose of the Union General. A sudden dash of a part of the cavalry 
down the river, as if to reach quickly another possible crossing, de- 
ceived the Home Guard crowd, and a part of that force hurried in the 
same direction on their side of the river. Other cavalry ready for the 
rush galloped over the bridge, driving the mob before them like leaves 
before the wind. Regiment after regiment followed these, and a 
large part of the force was safely over; but what of those regiments 
who were facing their enemy in the rear? Batteries had been placed in 


the woods and, commanding the road over which our remaining troops 
must pass and the enemy follow, were ready for the work before 
them. When the order came, our cavalry in apparent retreat before 
the enemy, turned about and rapidly galloped for the bridge. Now was 
the enemy's chance, and confidently his troopers rushed on in pur- 
suit, unconscious of the trap laid for their discomfiture. Batteries which 
they had not seen belched out their fiery welcome with great effect, 
and the onslaught was turned into a rout as men and horses, surprised 
out of their self-possession, turned about in confusion and made haste 
to the rear. Needless to say, before they had sufficiently recovered 
to try again, Sheridan's Troopers, with every piece of artillery, and 
his wards, the recaptured prisoners, were safely across the Chicka- 
hominy. The enemy's cavalry did not follow after the crossing was 
made, and it remained for the guerrillas who at a safe distance were 
frequently in sight, following in the hope that some worn out soldier 
or weary horse might be their prey, to remind us that we were still in 
the enemy's country. 

Reaching Malvern Hill, overlooking the James River, on the 
thistoric field where in 1862 the Forty-fourth greatly distinguished 
itself in battle, the opportunity came for the transfer by General Sheri- 
dan of the recaptured prisoners, to General Butler, whose army lay 
at Bermuda Hundreds, across the river. One of Uncle Sam's gun- 
boats near by, gave assurance of protection, and after communicating 
with Butler, who promised to send boat for us next day, we bivouacked 
near Haxall's Landing. The cavalry proceeded on its way with our 
hearty God speed and sincere thanks for delivery. At Bermuda Hun- 
dreds we were supplied with clean underwear, which was eagerly 
received and greatly needed ; thanks to that grand association of good 
men and women called the Sanitary Commission. 

The following day we were taken by boat to Fortress Monroe, where 
transfer was made to another steamer, arriving at Alexandria on the 17th 
day of May. On the i8th our party reached Camp Distribution, and the 
next day the writer secured pass to Washington and provided himself 
with sword and belt and sundry items of wearing apparel. On return to 
camp, orders were received directing us to report to Col. Tally, who was 
to command a provisional battalion and march to the front. On the 20th 
the march was begun. On the 21st a detail of 50 men was made to guard 
a wagon train, with Capt. Bradford R. Wood, Lieut. Edward Bennett 
and the writer, in charge. Starting at midnight, we reached Fredericks- 
burg about 7 A. M., Sunday, May 22d, remaining during the day and 
visiting hospitals where a number of the Forty-fourth men lay wounded. 
On the 23d the train was started, and the rest of the Provisional Bat- 
talion joined in guarding it. A march of twenty-two miles brought 
us to Bowling Green, and three miles more the next day, to Milford Sta- 
tion. On the 26th, the wagon train having been safely delivered to 
proper authorities, we started for the regiment, where the glad reception 
by our old comrades, who had supposed some of us dead, made our 


hearts warm. Here for the first time, information reached us of the 
wounding of Col. Conner and Major Knox at Laurel Hill, and of the 
fact that Capt. Nash had been thereafter in command until the arrival of 
Capt. Allen, who, because of seniority in rank, assumed command. At 
the request of the latter, the writer resumed his duties as Acting Ad- 
jutant, and the work went on. 


By Capt. A. N. Husted. 

Volunteers for the Union Army in the summer of 1862 consisted, 
largely, of high-grade young men from our schools and colleges who had 
not, previously, felt that they had been "called," but, the Union defeat in 
the "Peninsula Campaign" and the urgent necessity for more men to 
sustain the Union flag, now impelled them to drop their books and 
shoulder their muskets for the National Service. It was at this period 
that the "Normal School" Company enlisted. The Normal boys formed 
a strong nucleus but it was necessary to invite others — of similar char- 
acter so far as practicable — to fill up the Company. The Company owed 
its inspiration and, also its organization, to Rodney G. Kimball and 
Albert N. Husted who, at that time, were Professors in the State Nor- 
mal School (now State Normal College) at Albany. Wm. Kidd of Al- 
bany also rendered valuable assistance. 

Capt. Kimball commanded the Company at the battle of Fredericks- 
burg, December, 1862, and until February 4, 1863, when he left the regi- 
ment on "Sick Leave;" he was honorably discharged on "Surgeon's 
Certificate of Disability" April 16, 1863 ; he was Professor of Applied 
Mathematics in the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institution from July, 1869, 
until his decease April 25, 1900. 

Lieut. Husted participated in all the engagements of the Army of 
the Potomac from October, 1862, to October, 1864, and was slightly 
wounded at the battle of Chancellorsville; he was promoted Captain, 
with rank from September 20, 1863, and honorably discharged October 
14, 1864. He still survives, in excellent health; since July, 1869, he has 
been Professor of Mathematics in the State Normal College at Albany. 

Lieut. Kidd served with the Company at the battle of Fredericks- 
burg, and was honorably discharged January 28, 1863, to accept the ap- 
pointment of Military Secretary to Gov. Seymour; he has retired from 
business and resides at Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

The Company was "enlisted" at Albany, but nearly all its members 
were from other places, as shown in the "Roster." 

As an organization the Company participated in all the battles in 
which the regiment was engaged and all the battles in which the 44th 
Battalion was engaged. 

Of the one hundred men, originally enlisted, seventeen died of 
wounds received in battle ; eight died of disease contracted in the service ; 
twenty received wounds which did not prove fatal; seven were com- 
missioned as officers in U. S. Colored troops, five of them as Captains ; 
seven received commissions in New York Volunteer regiments; twelve 
were discharged because of physical disability; nine were transferred 
to the Invalid Corps and three to the Signal Corps. Only one "de- 
serted," and he before the Company left Albany. 

When the term of the regiment expired, August, 1864, the enlisted 
men, then remaining on the rolls of th« Company, were transferred to 
the 140th N. Y. Volunteers. 


By Capt. Charles A. Woodworth. 

The Captain was a war enthusiast. He was dead in earnest. He 
knew why he was there at the front in the thick of battle. He had read 
the speeches of Charles Sumner and the editorials of Horace Greeley. 
He had taught school in Kentucky during the John Brown raid. He had 
seen slaves sold at auction and cruelly whipped. Truly the "iron had 
entered his soul" and he was ready for the sacrifice. 

The Captain was young, he was only twenty-two, but, to quote from 
his own note book of that da}', not too young to have a part in the great 
struggle. The day after Sumter was fired upon, he rode into Buffalo 
and enlisted in a cavalry regiment being raised by Alexander Sloan, but 
word came that the Government would not accept any cavalry at that 
time. The next opportunity that came to him was enlistment in the 
Forty-fourth, for which regiment he, with Captains Nash and Grannis, 
raised a Company, and now he was here commanding Company A at 
the battle of Malvern Hill. The regiment was passing through the Seven 
Days fight and this was the last day of that campaign. Only seventeen 
miles from Richmond ; we shall surely take it said these patriots. But 
the fortunes of war were otherwise. A charge was ordered and down 
the hill, with the Captain at their head, went the gallant Company A. 
When within a few rods of the gray hats in front of them, a bullet 
struck the Captain and he fell upon his face upon the field. The Com- 
pany went on and the enemy was routed, fleeing in great disorder and 
leaving us in possession of the field. 

A little later Whip Wickwire found the Captain lying on his face 
with arms outstretched and exclaimed : "This looks like our Captain," 
and stooping down he turned him over. Calling two comrades he said : 
"The Captain is dead ; he holds his sword with a death grip ; we must 
leave him and go on. Poor fellow! that is what we are here for, to 
die for our country." But the evening air after a time and a chance to 
breathe revived him, and he had just struggled to his feet, putting his 
sword into the ground for support, when William Cunningham of Black 
Rock came along, saying: "You are badly hurt. Captain, what can I do 
for you?" "Where am I hit?" said the Captain for he was unable to 
see or to find his wounds, though the blood was running down his 
clothes and he was growing weaker. "In the face and eyes" said Cun- 
ningham, and calling another comrade they dragged him to the surgeon 
who cared for him. Afterward, Joseph Morse, now of Plainfield, N. J., 
called a Massachusetts surgeon who looked at him and said : "I can do 
nothing for him; take him and lay him in the barn." This they did 
where the good comrade, Morse, washed the blood from his face, 
brought him some water and left him, as he supposed, to die. But the 
Captain did not die. With a cold compress on his eyes, weak and weary, 
he went to sleep. There were 365 men in this barn besides himself, 


many of whom died that night. The surgeons were busy all night, but 
they did not go near him, supposing him to be mortally wounded, but 
the night's sleep did him good. He awoke in the morning somewhat 
refreshed, but astounded and indignant when a man kicked him on the 
leg and said : "Get up here." Unable to see and not recognizing the 
voice, he said: "Well, who are you?" "I belong to Hill's Cavalry and 
you are our prisoners." The Captain's heart sank. Here he was, blind, 
a prisoner, in the enemy's country." Where is our army? and why are 
we left wounded and dying on the field after a victory?" That is one of 
the mysteries that has never been cleared up. The army had been moved 
at midnight to Harrison's Landing. These men were kept in the barn 
five days and this was their ration : the Confederates had six barrels of 
flour and some Virginia peas. They mixed the flour with cold water 
and baked it in a fire made of rails outside the barn. It was burned hard 
so it had to be chopped in pieces with an ax. This was given to the 
prisoners with a half pint cup half full of pea soup. The Captain, on 
account of swollen jaw and aching face, could not eat the bread, but 
lived mostly upon the soup. Why the Captain did not die under this 
treatment, I do not know, only it seemed to be his destiny to see the close 
of the war and afterward have a long and busy life. At the end of the five 
days in the barn, a long wagon train of 65 four mule teams conveyed 
them to Richmond and put them in Libby Prison. The Captain will 
never forget that ride of seventeen miles in those army wagons, nor the 
dreadful jar to his wounded face over the rough roads. But at last they 
reached the prison and he was put in the hospital department and laid 
upon a cot. Here he had a better ration, soft bread and boiled beef 
twice a day and, best of all, his dear friend and comrade, Charlie Gran- 
nis. who had been taken prisoner four days before at the battle of Gaines 
Mills, saw his name in the Richmond papers as wounded and in the 
prison. When the nurses came up on the third floor where he was after 
the mail and to hear the news, he tied a towel around his waist as he 
saw they did, and slipped in among them and so ran the guard and came 
down to the hospital where his friend, the Captain, was. That was a 
joyful meeting and the Captain obtained permission of the surgeons to 
let him stay as nurse. 

And what was the Captain thinking of all this time, blind, in prison 
and in this terrible condition, in the enemy's country. Was he despond- 
ent and without hope? His family at home mourning him as dead, so 
many of his regiment having testified to seeing him fall, shot through 
the head. No, indeed, he was cheerful, trying to contrive some way of 
escaping, and through the long nights the 23d Psalm, "The Lord is 
my Shepherd," would pass through his mind, comforting him and giv- 
ing him strength to endure as a good soldier of the Cross. I am sure he 
had no thought of dying, for he did not believe himself to be mortally 
wounded. But one day, the i8th of July, it was announced that 60 of 
the worst wounded ones would be exchanged, and the Captain was one 
of them ; and Grannis could not go ; he must stay as he was not wounded. 


This was, indeed, a sorrow to leave his best friend there. This was also 
a part of the fortunes of war. The Captain had sent his clothes to be 
washed and they brought them to him, all but the trousers. He de- 
manded them before leaving and they finally brought him a pair of 
dirty, greasy rebel pants. The Captain felt of them and refused to put 
them on. They waited no longer, but put him into the ambulance with 
no gentle hands. At once the fresh air, the singing of birds, the perfume 
of roses, and the easy riding ambulance seemed like the borderland of 
heaven to the wounded Captain. They took him to the James River 
where there was a flag of truce boat that took him to Fortress Monroe, 
where he was put on board the Commodore Vanderbilt, bound for New 
York, his native State. Here the Sanitary Commission supplied all his 
needs, gave him trousers and good food, such a change from the hot 
and suffocating prison hospital. The journey from Richmond to New 
York occupied six days, a long time compared to the present easy journey 
by rail. In New York City the Captain received every kindness and at- 
tention that a loyal people could give to a Union soldier. On landing, he 
went to the Dey St. Hotel. The proprietor received him with open 
arms, sent for a surgeon to dress his wounds, entertained him and sent 
him in a carriage to take the boat for Albany, where he was to take the 
train for Buffalo. At Albany he found Major Knox and other friends 
who helped him on his way and when he boarded the train. Conductor 
Crittenden took especial care of him, bringing him hot cofTee and a lunch 
at midnight. At Buffalo, Col. E. P. Chapin and Col. Botsford met him 
at the station, giving him boxes of lint and other things necessary to 
bind up his wounds. From Buffalo a ride of 35 miles was before him, 
most of the way by stage. At Rice's Corners, Comrade George Orr took 
him the rest of the way in his carriage and about sundown, July 24th, 
led him into his father's house. Great was the rejoicing. Soon the 
house and yard were filled with the people of the village. Solomon 
Lincoln, the merchant of the village and of whom the Captain was a 
great favorite, ordered out the village cannon, supplied the powder and 
the firing began. The farmers in the surrounding country heard it and 
hurried to the village to hear the news, for it was the custom in that 
town to fire the cannon whenever there was a Union victory. But on 
all sides you only heard : "The Captain has come home ; the dead has 
come to life again." 

This is the Captain's story and we may say in conclusion that he 
partially recovered his sight and returned to his country's service and 
served on the field and as Military Assistant at Philadelphia till the close 
of the war. 


Born November 7, 1845, in the Township of Gorham, Ontario 
County, New York, near the village of Rushville and entered the army 
from the town of Italy, Yates County, New York, in August 1862, in 
Co. C. 44th N. Y. Vols. ; was wounded at the Battle of Fredericksburg, 
Va., December 13, 1862, and again May 5, 1864. very severely at the 
Battle of the Wilderness, Va. by a musket ball weighing one ounce 
passing through the head and face. The wound is a very remarkable 
one and according to the records of the Surgeon-General, the only one 
of that character on record. 

Dr. T. B. Hood, Chief of the Medical Division of the U. S. Pension 
Office (Medical Referee), describes the disability resulting from gun- 
shot wound of head as follows : 

"I certify that I have intimately known Mr. EInathan Meade 
and that at intervals, for several years past, he has been in my 
professional care for the results of a gun-shot wound of his head 
and face. The missile, a large musket ball, struck him a little above 
the external canthus of the left eye and, passing somewhat down- 
ward, emerged just in front of the ear upon the right side of the 
face. In its track the ball fractured the malar or cheek-bone Cits 
zygomatic process) passed through the floor of the orbit of the left 
eye, fracturing the orbital plate of the upper jaw-bone (superior 
maxillary), injuring the globe of the eye, passed the nasal fossse, 
fracturing the bones there, and passing through the right upper 
jaw-bone, emerged through the rannis of the lower jaw-bone (inferior 
maxillary), fracturing it." 


ELXATHAX MEADE — continued 

Thus the ball passed through the face from left to right. The 
statement that Mr. Meade was thought to have been killed outright 
at first, and that when it was apparent that that was not true it was 
believed scarcely worth while to waste time and attention upon so 
hopeless a case, is wholly credible, and most certainly few persons 
would recover from so severe a wound. 

The sight of the left eye is wholly destroyed, and there is growing 
involvement of the right e\e from sympathy. The worst of the case 
is the involvement of the whole nervous system as a result of the 

Was discharged the service on Surgeon's certificate of disability 
and for over a year after leaving the service Mr. Meade was unable 
to masticate solid food; lived ou liquid food entirely, and during this 
time he made a wedge out of a pine stick which he carried in his 
pocket and every hour of the day he would pry his jaws open so as 
to enable him to get a more sulistantial quantity of food in his mouth. 

By Special Act of Congress, approved by President Harrison, Mr. 
Meade was granted an increase of his pension. 

In 1875 he was elected to the ofiice of Justice of the Peace in and 
for Yates County. N. Y. In 1881 he was appointed to a clerkship in 
the Interior Department, Washirgton. D. C. In 1887 he married Miss 
Lizzie Lindsley, daughter of Elzor B. Lindsley, Esq., of Rushville, 
N. Y., and has one child. Lola ^Madeline Meade. 


By Himself. 

You wish me to tell how I got from the field at the Battle of the 
Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 

The first thing I remember after regaining consciousness was that 
I found myself between Orrin E. Watkins and Stephen P. Dye (mem- 
bers of my Company), with my arms over their shoulders, slowly walk- 
ing down the road in the rear of the line of battle, looking for the field 
hospital tent for medical aid. I was almost blind, and so weak from the 
great loss of blood that I could not stand on my feet without help. 

We soon found men with a stretcher and I was laid on it and the 
surgeon cut out the ball, which had passed through from my left temple 
and was protruding just under the skin under my right ear. After this 
I was carried on the stretcher a short distance to the hospital tent, 
which was about full of wounded, and laid down in a corner on some 
pine boughs for bedding. 

I remained in this position until the next day before I had any 
attention. When it was found out that I was still alive, my face was 
washed in warm water and my wounds were bandaged up the best they 
could be under the circumstances. 

The reason I was not attended to at once, as I was told afterwards, 
was that the surgeon told the hospital steward that I could not live an 
hour and he had better attend to those who had a chance to live. I 
remember Lieut. Orett L. Munger called to look after the boys. I was 
only a few feet away from Munger when I was wounded. 

I can not recall to mind how long I lay on the field or how long I 
remained in the field hospital, but not very long before I was put in a 
baggage wagon (the ambulances had all been filled up with wounded), 
and sent to Fredericksburg, Va., and left on the sidewalk of one of the 
streets with many hundred others, all wounded, to stay until a place 
could be found for us. 

A soldier of the 7th Wisconsin regiment came along and I told him 
in the best way I could (I could not talk loud) that I wanted to go to a 
place where I could get medical attention. He kindly raised me up and 
let me lean on his shoulders and we walked slowly along to an old 
factory or mill, near the river, where were one or two hundred wounded 
men. I was taken in and given a bed on the floor with a blanket under 
me. My wounds were attended to by the nurses, but I could eat nothing. 
All the nourishment for a few days was a teacupful of beef tea and water 
to drink. 

Here I found Andrew Giddings, of my Company. He had lost an 
arm. When we had been in this place for about two weeks, getting more 
restless all the time to get away to better quarters, one day we both 
agreed to start out on foot for Acquia Creek and try to board a boat 
going up the Potomac to Washington, to get into one of the hospitals 
there where we could get better care. 


Well, I made up a little bundle, a nice, fine, red woolen shirt and 
some handkerchiefs and stockings, that the ladies of the Christian Com- 
mission had given me, and we started ; we walked in the direction of 
the road which we were to take. I had not walked more than five rods 
from the building which we left before my strength gave out entirely 
and I dropped down by the roadside, utterly exhausted and unable to 
stand up longer. Very soon two strong men with a stretcher came and 
placed me on it, carried me back to my old place on the floor, where I 
remained until I was sent to Fairfax Seminary hospital, near Alexan- 
dria, Va., thence to Mower General Hospital, Chestnut Hill, Philadel- 
phia, Fa. 

Giddings walked on and was fortunate in getting on a farmer's 
wagon and reached Acquia Creek, where he got passage on a boat and 
got to Washington and found good quarters in some one of the hospitals 
of the city. He has been dead many years. He was a brave and good 

I was discharged on Surgeon's certificate of disability and left the 
service the last of October, 1864, and went back to New York, on the 
farm, to regain my health and strength, and later came to Washington 
to accept a Government position. 

Elnathan Meade. 

Washington, D. C, November 11, 1909. 



His Interesting Personal Reminiscences Constitute a Valuable Review. 
(From Kalamazoo Daily Telegraph, Feb. 23d and Feb. 25, 1901.) 
("The following narrative of civil war recollections was prepared 
by the late Capt. Charles D. Grannis, at the instance, as is supposed, of 
Capt. C. A. Woodworth. 

"The original draft, from which our copy was made, was in pencil 
on loose sheets of paper." — Ed.) 

"At about 9 o'clock on the morning of the 27th of June, 1862 (second 
of the seven days' fight on the peninsula), our corps, the Fifth, moved 
into position and began preparations for battle. The day before there 
had been considerable fighting near Mechanicsville bridge across the 
Chickahominy river, but we did not participate. I think that none of our 
corps were engaged on the 26th. While we were getting into position 
on the 27th, we could hear evidences of sharp fighting, continually grow- 
ing more distinct, so we knew our troops were falling back. Our posi- 
tion was a good one, well chosen for defence, being along the north 
side of a ravine with moderate slope to the sides, that on the south side 
being some steeper, and rising considerably higher than on the side oc- 
cupied by our troops. At the bottom of the ravine was a small creek 
which had cut a channel about five or six feet in depth. 

The ravine and creek were crossed by a highway just at the right 
of our regiment. We destroyed the bridge, and felled all of the timber 
growing in our front, tops to the south. Some of the larger trees lying 
across the channel were trimmed so as to admit of our skirmishers 
passing back and forth on them. Some of our men having been engaged 
in building a dam a short distance below the left of the regiment, it was 
not long before the water was rising in the channel, and by night it was 
banks full. Our regiment was the extreme left of the infantry on that 
side of the Chickahominy, an almost impassable swamp free from timber, 
extending from near our left to the river. Of course, the greater part 
of our force was engaged in throwing up works, and by the time we 
needed them our pits were very good protection. 

Across the ravine to our front the ground rose to a point I should 
guess to be forty feet higher than our position, with very little timber. 
Beyond the brow of the hill were extensive wheat fields reaching across 
to timber, which must have been nearly a mile from our position. Our 
skirmishers were well advanced in this cleared country. It must have 
been about noon when our skirmishers were first driven in, and the first 
attempt made to dislodge us. The Confederates came with a rush, but 
as they showed themselves on the brow of the hill in our front, as I 
recollect not more than fifteen rods or so distant, our fire was too much 
for them and back they went, and all along our line they met an equally 
hot reception. My recollection is that they tried us four times during 
the afternoon without success, their fifth and successful assault being 


away to our right, directed against the second division, the regular 
division of our corps. 

This must have been at about 6 :30 or 6 :45 p. m. It had been very 
quiet in our front for some time, and Lieutenant Colonel J. C. Rice, who 
was then commanding the regiment, happening to be near Company H, 
of which I was then first sergeant, instructed me to go out to the skir- 
mish line (which, by the way, was entirely out of sight from our posi- 
tion), and get what information I could. So shouldering my musket 
I started. I remember Lieutenant Jones, of Company D, was in com- 
mand, and from him learned that the skirmish line in his front, with 
whom his men were exchanging shots, comprised all the force that he 
knew of. Not long after I reached the front, a tremendous musketry 
fire set in back of our lines, but knowing it could not be our brigade, I 
did not think much of it. More especially the case, as just then the 
Confederate skirmish line made an attempt to advance, which, of course, 
I took a hand in resisting. The fighting behind us grew heavier if any- 
thing, and it was not long before we discovered a line of battle bearing 
down on us, crowding close up to their skirmishers. Of course we ac- 
cepted the invitation to retire, but did so slowly, supposing the as- 
sault would result as the others had done. Before reaching the brow 
of the hill, the heavy firing we had been listening to had pretty much 
stopped and I remember thinking that another repulse had been dealt 
them, and that the troops following us would probably go back without 
assaulting. It was getting towards dusk at this time, and a very dense 
smoke made it seem still darker. The line of battle in our front halted 
for a few minutes, perhaps to align and get closed up ready for action, 
and then again drove ahead. When we broke over the top of the hill, 
the Confederates were so close to us, that we thought it advisable to get 
inside our works as soon as possible, so made a run for it, and jumped 
over our works to find them occupied by a thin line of rebels and our- 
selves prisoners. If we had discovered that the rebels had our works, 
I think we could have crossed the swamp to the river, crossed that, and 
soon found our friends. My recollection is that thirteen others were 
captured with me, and as many more of our regiment further to the 
right. I had often said I would never be taken ahve, but when it came 
to the pinch I changed my mind. I thought at the time that I might 
possibly shoot two men, bayonet another and then die myself, and I 
thought it not worth while. 

The prisoners were divided into squads, seven of us being placed in 
charge of five men with instructions to take us to Richmond. We soon 
started, and though we marched nearly all night did not cross Mechan- 
icsville bridge till just before daylight. I think our guards lost their 
bearings, and wandered around some. Soon after crossing the bridge, 
we joined quite a large body of prisoners and with them went into Rich- 
mond. At first I was placed in what was called the "prison room," that 
was the top floor of the up river end of the building, Libby prison, a 
room 40 X 80 feet, in which were confined 356 men. When we lay down 


at night it was necessary to do so in rows in order to give all a chance. 
While here our rations were very insufficient, and were issued at ir- 
regular intervals, and we became hungrier all the time. A small ration 
of sour bread, one very small ration of fresh beef, boiled without salt, 
and a ration of blackeyed pea soup, cooked so little that when poured 
from one dish to another the peas would rattle, constituted our daily 
supply of food. I think I remained in this room ten days. Two or three 
days previous to my change of quarters, I learned by a Richmond paper 
that Charles A. Woodworth, first lieutenant of Company H, Forty- 
Fourth, was captured at Savage Station, badly wounded, and was brought 
to Libby prison hospital. I was very anxious to get to him and every 
time a prison official came in sight I importuned him for permission 
to go, but with no result, and was giving it up as impossible, when one 
morning a transfer of some prisoners was to be made and the doors, 
leading down through the building from one end to the other, were 
opened, a guard being placed at each. 

I soon observed two or three fellows moving about, each with a 
towel tied about the waist. Speaking with one. I found he was a nurse 
in the hospital, which was on the lower floor, at the other end of the 
building, and said he had been given permission to come up there and 
see if he had any friends among the prisoners. After a little hesitation, 
I tied my towel about my waist, wandered around in sight of the guard 
for a while, then approached him with all the confidence I could mus- 
ter, said "nurse in hospital," and passed him as though it was a matter 
of course. I had no trouble with the other guards, and soon found 
myself in the hospital room. Much to my surprise, I found Dr. Bentley, 
our assistant brigade surgeon, in immediate charge of that floor. He 
was captured at Savage Station, with a large number of wounded men, 
I suppose at the same time Lieutenant Woodworth was taken. I at 
once told Dr. Bentley how I came to be there and asked that I be de- 
tailed as a nurse. He assured me I should remain there as long as he 
did, anyway. I soon found Lieutenant Woodworth, and in order that I 
might give him special attention, was given day duty in his ward. 

The hospital floor was about the same size as the prison, 40 x 80 
feet, with a small room partitioned ofif in one corner for a drug room, 
which was presided over by two hospital stewards, prisoners. I never 
saw a man more pleased than was Woodworth when he heard my voice. 
Poor fellow ! His face was covered with a bandage, and with that off 
he could see nothing, but how glad he was to talk. I forget at first how 
many men I had to care for, but I think about twenty, some of them 
amputated cases. About two weeks after I entered the hospital, a large 
lot of the patients who could stand moving, Woodworth among the 
number, were sent north. Dr. Bentley going also. I tried hard to get 
away with the others, but I was too healthy. A Confederate surgeon, 
named Brock, then took charge of the hospital, and I must say that our 
men were more carefully looked after and more kindness shown them 
in every way than had been the case under Dr. Bentley. Dr. Brock was 


a gentleman in every sense of the word. I continued doing nurse duty 
about ten days under Dr. Brock and then he made me what they called 
"sergeant of the floor," giving me a sort of general supervision of the 
floor with authority over all other nurses in his absence. I had for- 
gotten one point. 

Two days before this occurred, Ross, the prison clerk, the most 
contemptible scoundrel I ever knew, gave orders that the day nurses 
should scrub the floor every morning, before going on regular duty. A 
part of them went at it; but a man named Warner and myself refused, 
and were at once hustled into a prison room in Castle thunder, I pre- 
sume without Dr. Brock's knowledge. Anyway, pretty early in the morn- 
ing of the third day we were taken back to Libby and I received pro- 
motion. Ross, the clerk, and I had for some time been on bad terms, 
owing to his abuse of prisoners, which I always resented ; and I know 
that after this he was always watching for some chance to play me some 
meanness. As quite a large number of amputated cases had very lately 
been received, a part of my duty was to assist Dr. Brock what I could in 
dressing them twice each day, and I became moderately skillful in wind- 
ing a bandage. As I endeavored to do my duty faithfully, I, of course, 
became stronger with Dr. Brock every day and to good purpose, as but 
for that Ross would have come out ahead once at least. One afternoon, 
he, Ross, came into the hospital with several young fellows, Middies, I 
suppose, from some gunboat lying near Richmond, who wanted to see 
the Yanks. These chaps were nicely dressed in their light gray uni- 
forms, with all the gold braid the law allowed, and were nice, clean, 
pretty fellows anyway. Ross saying that he was too busy to accompany 
them, asked me to show them around. We started along through the 
hospital, and finally stopped near the back end. Right there was a bunk 
on which a man had died not long before, whose body had been removed 
to the dead room in the basement, but no change had as yet been made 
in the covering of the cot, and a person looking at it carefully would not 
fail to see numerous creepers moving about. Everything about the hos- 
pital was well populated with vermin. Well, one of these nice fellows 
sat down on that bunk, and I did not warn him of the consequence. In 
fact, I really enjoyed seeing him there, for I knew he wouldn't have to 
stay there long to get "salted" as we used to say. 

Well, while he was still seated, Ross returned and at once told him 
his danger. The young fellow was on his feet instantly and made very 
lively efforts to brush himself with his hands. Of course I laughed. 
Ross turned on me with an oath, and questioned why I didn't caution the 
man. I replied that "I didn't think lice would hurt him any more than 
they did me, and I was lousier than thunder." He appeared to be very 
angry, and after considerable abuse he started out, soon returning with 
a corporal and four men, who, under his orders, seized me and proceeded 
to buck and gag me. After a while they succeeded in tying me, and were 
preparing the gag, when Dr. Brock appeared on the scene and ordered 
that I be released, saying that I was one of his men, and he would not 


allow me to be punished. Ross made a strong effort to carry his point, 
but the doctor was firm, and I was untied at once. This did not increase 
the love Ross and I felt for each other, and I may have presumed a 
little on the doctor's friendship for me, in my treatment of Ross. 

The water supply for the building was taken from the James river, 
brought in through pipes. Just where this was taken from the river I 
never knew, whether from above or below Belle Isle, but I presume from 
above, for I do not think there was much sickness caused by the use of 
that water which would have been the case had it been contaminated. I 
never saw Belle Isle but once, and my remembrance of it is an island of 
perhaps three acres extent, low and sandy, with a few trees. I think 
there were a few tents erected on the island, but as a rule the hundreds 
of men who were kept there found any sort of shelter they could, and 
through exposure and insufficient food, sickness and death prevailed. 
Our rebel hospital steward asked me one afternoon for a detail to ac- 
company him and carry some medicines to Belle Isle. Thinking that I 
would be allowed to go on to the island and perhaps see some friends 
or acquaintances, I offered to go myself; so taking a two gallon jug of 
some sort of compound in each hand and promising him that I would 
make no effort to escape, we set out without a guard. Carey street, 
on which Libby stood, was the river street of the city, and our route 
was directly up river. It was a hot afternoon and it had been several 
weeks since I had been out in the sun, and I remember the tramp as a 
pretty tough one. Arrived at the ferry which was simply a landing for 
an ordinary sized skiff, I learned for the first time that I would not be al- 
lowed to visit the island; It was strictly against orders. The single sen- 
tinel on guard had no shelter from the sun, and the prospect of stay- 
ing there two or three hours with him was not pleasing. The steward 
taking pity on me, gave me the choice between waiting there for him, 
or going back to Libby alone, the latter on very faithful promises on 
my part that I would go back. Nothing was said as to the route I should 
travel, and I took advantage of that to see as much of the city as pos- 
sible, occupying at least two hours on the return trip, and arriving at 
Libby just as Ross, the clerk, was entering the building to "call the roll," 
which was in reality a count of the men, trusting to men answering to 
names not being allowed. While I was wandering around I met a good 
many curious looks. I was in our uniform, and to see one of our fel- 
lows out without a guard was something of a curiosity, I guess, to most 
of the people I met. I was not molested, however, and reached Libby 
in time to exchange salutations with Ross and be counted. The river 
water brought into the building was so warm and insipid, squads of 
men under guard were allowed to go once daily with pails to a big 
pump, which was, I think, about one-eighth of a mile from Libby, for 
water to use in the hospital. This was very good water, cool and nice 
when fresh, but without ice it soon got warm. It was a ridiculous spec- 
tacle to see six or eight stalwart Federals in charge, perhaps, of two 
boys who looked hardly able to carry muskets, and yet that was about 


the character of the guard frequently sent with the water squads. Of 
course it would have been folly for one to have tried to escape by day- 
light in the crowded streets, and we thought sending such a guard was 
a design to humiliate our men. I never went for water but once or 
twice, and we then had respectable guards. The men comprising the 
prison guards seemed about the most ignorant, useless fellows in exist- 
ence. I remember one who was stationed at the front door of the hos- 
pital, who, when he saw a bottle of ink, did not know the use of it. 
There was but one man shot by a guard while I was there. A man on 
the second floor, rear end of the building, was at a window and some 
way made himself obnoxious to the guard on the sidewalk below him. 
The guard suddenly raised his musket and fired. He missed the man 
he fired at, but the bullet entered the window and passed through the 
floor above, killing a man who chanced to be in its way. The guard was 
not molested for this act. I, one evening, surprised a guard, and it has 
always been a wonder to me that he did not shoot. As I have said, the 
hospital was in the lower end of the building on first floor above the 
basement. The basement doors opened onto a street, I forget the name. 
Carey street was higher and the first floor was on a level with it at 
front end. The "dead room," as it was called, was in the basement, one 
door up river from the basement under the hospital. To go from our 
basement to the "dead room," it was necessary to step out on the side- 
walk and pass along for 30 or 40 feet to the next door. On this evening 
an ambulance had brought a very sick man to the hospital and we could 
not move him without a stretcher. We had but one, and that one had 
been taken to the "dead room" with a corpse late in the day, and left 
there, so I hurried for it. The guard on duty patrolling the walk there 
was green, and the instant I approached on the walk brought his musket 
to bear on me. I simply said "dead room" and passed along. I soon 
appeared with the stretcher, his musket was brought to bear on me and 
covered me until I disappeared in the door of our basement. If he 
had been on duty around there long, he would have better understood 
what I was after and not given me such a scare. 

About two weeks before I left Richmond a lot of men in Libby 
prison, including those in the hospital who thought themselves well 
enough to make the trip, were allowed to sign a parole, preparatory to 
being sent north. There was quite a crowd about the table where they 
were signing in the hospital, and I was getting nearer to the table every 
moment, in fact had pen in hand, when some one took hold of me and 
drew me back. I was angry in an instant, and turned around ready to 
resent the interference, when I found that it was Dr. Brock. He ex- 
plained to me that if I went north then I would probably go into some 
parole camp where I could be of no use to any of our folks, and I could 
do them good where I was. That if I went away some one would have 
to be broken in to take my place, etc. He finally said it would be a per- 
sonal favor to himself if I would consent to remain until the next parole. 
Considering all his kindness to me and others, I could not refuse. My 


Born in 1840. His ancestors came to this countr\ from London. 

It is reported of him that at the battle of Hanover Court Honse, 
May 27, 1862, that the only prisoner captured by the regiment in that 
battle was by Sergeant Merchant. Tlie rebel was a Lieutenant in the 
5th Alabama Regiment: his captor relieved him of his sword, revol- 
ver, etc. 

An Albany, N. Y.. paper pubhshed at that date, says of him: 

"Young Merchant is but 22 years of age and formerly of our city. 
He is represented as being a young man of good moral character, a 
thorough soldier and one who never shirks from duty, no matter how 
thickly dangers may beset the post assigned to him. He has been in 
three hard fought battles and has conducted himself in a most gallant 
and fearless manner." 

He was killed in action at the battle of Gettysburg. July 2. 1863. 





recollection is that within the next two weeks most of the serious cases 
in Libby hospital were either sent north or transferred to some other 
place, for at about that time another parole was made, and Dr. Brock 
made no objection to my going, and thanked me for having remained at 
his request. It was only two or three years after the close of the war that 
I read an account of the collapse of a floor in the courthouse at Rich- 
mond, and among those killed I saw the name of Dr. Brock. He was 
certainly a good man, and I could but grieve at his untimely death. 
Leaving Libby, Qerk Ross, standing at the door checking us ofif, I 
stopped the procession long enough to give him an idea of what we 
thought of him, and also to make him one or two promises, which are 
still only promises, because I have never had the pleasure of meeting 
him since that time. 

We started for Aiken's Landing, fourteen miles below Richmond 
on the James river. I think it was about 8 p. m. when we started on our 
tramp accompanied by a few rebel cavalry. Our crowd did not need 
much guarding on that sort of a trip. I remember that it was a very 
pleasant day, pretty warm, but none too much so to prevent the able 
bodied ones making pretty good time. About one mile from the river 
we crossed some high ground, and from that point could see our flag 
flying from the masthead of the transport that was awaiting our ar- 
rival. What a cheer went up ! I can assure you the stars and stripes 
never before or since looked to me as they did on that day, and I think 
my companions experienced about the same feeling. The transport re- 
mained at the landing until the following morning, waiting for stragglers, 
some of them being brought in ambulances, sent out from Richmond to 
pick them up. We steamed down the river and were finally landed at 
Annapolis, where we were placed in a parole camp. I had no blanket 
nor could I get one. My only clothing was what I had on and was 
infested with vermin and I could get none to replace it. I slept on the 
ground under some horse sheds that had been used for cavalry. I 
would lie down and sleep until awakened by cold, then get up and run 
until warm, then lie down for another nap, and in that fashion wear out 
the night. We had plenty to eat in this camp, but it seemed impossible 
to get either clothing or blankets. The last two or three nights spent 
there, I with one or two others went down into a swampy piece of tim- 
ber in one corner of the inclosure, and picked what wood we could find, 
cut a lot of brush for beds, and endeavored to sleep there. Of course, 
we could warm only one side at a time, and the warm side was the one 
the little travelers preferred, and as they deemed it advisable to shift 
as often as we did, you can imagine about hov/ much sleep we got. We 
were kept at Annapolis about ten days, I think, and were then taken to 
Alexandria and placed in a parole camp that must have had some 5,000 
or 6,000 men present most of the time. In this camp men of the differ- 
ent corps were kept more by themselves, some paroled commissioned 
officer being in command, and looking after their interests generally. 
When we first reached the camp a captain from some Ohio regiment was 


in charge of the Fifth corps men. I do not remember his name, but think 
that he had done everything possible for the men, though he had been 
unable to get any clothing, and it was much needed. There were plenty 
of tents and an abundance of food was furnished — but there were men 
without shoes, some without trousers, having nothing more than a pair 
of army drawers on their legs, others without jackets, and the need for 
clothing was great. Two or three days after I entered the camp, the cap- 
tain commanding, who it seems had but lately arrived there, asked me 
if I knew of a man who would make a good clerk. I at once offered my 
own services for trial, and began work for him at once. There was a 
great deal of writing to do, the morning report which was required 
every morning at camp headquarters containing from 400 to 500 names. 
This report had to be made, states in alphabetical order, with regiments 
of each state in numerical order, and every day changes took place, men 
were exchanged and sent away, and others brought in, so it was no small 
job to get through it. I think it was about a week after I began clerking 
that our captain was exchanged and left us. An order from camp head- 
quarters announced that a lieutenant had been assigned to command 
Porter's corps men, but during the balance of my stay there I did not see 
him. Just about this time men from the other camps began to get cloth- 
ing, but we could get none because the quartermaster could only issue on 
the receipt of a commissioned officer, and we had none. I reported the 
condition of things at headquarters, but no result was effected, and so 
the thing went on for several days. I was getting all the blame and was 
helpless. I knew an order was in force declaring any one a deserter who 
should leave the camp without proper authority, yet it was so un- 
pleasant that I decided to go anyway, so practiced on two or three 
signatures that would have to appear on the passes required to get me 
into Washington. The camp pass proved to be good, and I was lucky 
enough to pass the provost guard patrol without trouble, but when I 
stepped up to the officer of guard at the end of long bridge, I felt a little 
shaky. He took my pass, looked at it, then at me, "Yes, it's pretty 
well done, go ahead." I didn't wait there long. I had just 10 cents in 
my pocket when I reached Washington. I soon learned that Colonel 
Rice was there sick, so hunted him up and got orders to rejoin the regi- 
ment near Harper's Ferry. Without his order I could not have got 
transportation. I think he also gave me a dollar or so, to feed me while 
there. Later in the day I found out where our Zouave uniforms were 
stored, and succeeded in getting mine and getting rid of the suit I wore 
through Libby. While at Alexandria, I had managed by boiling my 
clothes in salt water to kill off the vermin, so in that regard I had been 
more comfortable." 

[Here the account ends quite abruptly. Captain Grannis' return to 
the army was just after the battle of Antietam. He was thereafter in all 
of the battles of the Army of the Potomac until his regiment was mus- 
tered out.] 


By Col. Charles E. Sprague. 

The true history of a nation is not merely the deeds of kings and 
ministers, of parliaments and princes, but the growth of the people; the 
annals of the brilliant few are not more important than the unre- 
corded movements of the obscure many. So in an army, there are other 
points of view than that of the commanding officer. Interesting as are 
our discussions of grand tactics and strategy, it may also be profitable to 
study the soldier himself, his thoughts and feelings, his home-life in 
the big family of the company and in the big neighborhood of the regi- 
ment; to turn our attention from the select circles of headquarters to 
the proletariat of the company street. In short, as has often been re- 
marked, the need is for sketches of and by the obscure; and this I can 
help to supply, for in this brilliant organization I can lay claim to be 
conspicuous for my obscurity. 

How some things appeared to a boy of nineteen, who lived in a 
company street in the Army of the Potomac, is gathered from his mem- 
ory and from the letters he wrote to his mother. 

One Monday late in November, over thirty years ago, our com- 
pany came pulling ourselves along, at the finish of about fifteen miles 
of rather tough travel, and after dark turned into a piece of woods, 
stacked arms, and were told to "bivouac in rear of stacks, ready to 
march at daybreak." Now it was a rule we soldiers learned to recog- 
nize, that if you camped down at night with strict injunctions to be ready 
to march on at daybreak, with advices from your officers, that you'd 
better not waste any time in getting up comfortable shelter because this 
was the most temporary kind of halt, then for a certainty, if you fol- 
lowed this advice, you were going to be kept right in that bivouac long 
enough to repent not going to work at getting comfortably housed. So, 
after some experience, we never took any stock in assurances of brief 
stay; we went right to work at house building on the assumption that 
we should stay a month ; if we marched next day no great harm was 
done, but if we stayed a week we were well paid for our trouble. 

The pine trees were thick around us that night, in the morning we 
could scarcely see the nearest regiment ; but instead of marching at day- 
break we stayed and stayed and went away and came back again and 
stayed again until the company street first traced by our stacks of arms 
seemed like a home, and till the thick woods had disappeared ; every tree 
was cut down, first wastefully and extravagantly, at shoulder height, 
then down to a decent stump, then this stump was cut to the very 
quick, and finally we had no wood at all, having grubbed up the very 
roots. We stuck up our shelter tent that night and Eugene and Wilcox 
and I crawled under. The next morning after reveille, the first busi- 
ness was, of course, to settle bets on the sun. You see, in our com- 
pany, when we got to camp after dark, we usually had a debate as to 


which way was north. Some of us were good at keeping in our heads 
the points of the compass in spite of the meanderings of Virginia paths ; 
the rest of us thought we were equally smart, until the sun arose and we 
found our bets were lost. As I have said, we knew we should prob- 
ably stay some time on account of the notification we had had, and sure 
enough symptoms of the kind soon broke out, some agreeable, such as 
the arrival of the sutler, others rather unpleasant, such as the posting 
of a regular camp guard. 

We soon had enough to do in complying with all that the unceasing 
drum-beats suggested and compelled, but the improvement of our 
domestic architecture filled a large place in our thoughts. We built, 
tore down, and rebuilt on the self-same spot until our shanty seemed a 
part of ourselves, and of all the homes that I have ever loved and left 
there is none which has left so deep an impression as that little hut of 
one room, built of pine logs, sticks, sods, mud and canvas. It was built 
by days' work — a good many days — and Eugene and I (the third man 
having fallen out sick) were its architects, builders, masons, carpen- 
ters, sanitary engineers, and walking delegates. 

This residence of ours was situated in the State of Virginia. As 
nothing in that region is described by any closer geographical limit 
than a county, a Virginian would merely have said that it was "Stahf d" 
County, but we could define our location more accurately. Our town- 
ship was the Fifth Army Corps ; our village was the Third Brigade, 
First Division; our ward was the 44th N. Y. ; and our street was Com- 
pany E. As it turned out we were not far from Falmouth and near 
the railroad at a point which thenceforward, and possibly to this day, 
became known as "Stoneman's Switch." Stafford County never had 
so large a population up to the night we arrived, and probably never 
will have again. In our regiment they were not so strenuous for uni- 
formity of architecture as in some commands, and allowed scope for in- 
dividuality; as long as the line of front doors was pretty straight down 
the company streets, we could build our shanties of size and style to 
suit our tastes. Ours in its final form was about as follows : There was 
first, a cellar dug the full size of the ground plan, about two feet deep. 
Next came a wall of split pine logs, resting on the ground and held up 
by stakes, carrying up the cellar wall to a height of five feet in all. 
Now, the roof was of canvas, made of several of the little shelter tents, 
fastened together and stretched over a ridge-pole, which was sup- 
ported by two stout uprights in front and rear. The front or door was 
also of canvas until we got our chimney built later on. Our next step 
was to caulk our wall with mud. Glorious Virginia mud ! The one 
product of which there was always enough. Plastic as butter, but tough 
as spruce gum when dried ; for architectural purposes, admirable ; for 
pedestrian uses, vile. We plastered our wall pretty tightly with this 
natural stucco, and banked up the lower edge. We ditched around our 
home, and conducted the waters into the company gutter. Our bed, 
which comprised all our furniture, being also chair, sofa and table, was 


our next care. It was a spring bed. We split long straight pine sap- 
lings and laid them crosswise of the shanty on supports which held them 
about level with the surface of the ground. The bed was about three 
feet wide. Eugene and I were both slender. When sitting on the edge 
of the bed our feet rested against the front wall of our mansion. Here 
we talked ; here we smoked ; here we read ; in pleasant weather, with 
our front canvas fastened back, we conversed with our neighbors, dis- 
cussing every subject under heaven; and here we sat, Eugene and I, 
by our own fireside after the chimney was built. 

Our chimney was a picturesque structure of sods. The mortar 
which held together these substitutes for brick was the aforesaid mud. 
An open fireplace faced the right-hand man of the two inmates who sat 
on the bed, and that man did the cooking from that position. Our chim- 
ney was a large one, covering more than half the front of the house 
and forming our front wall. A wooden mantel defined the top of the 
fireplace. Above this the chimney tapered somewhat and ended in a 
barrel. Some of our comrades had double-barreled chimneys, but we 
found it hard enough to steal one barrel at a time to supply those which 
caught fire ; total loss ; no insurance. 

This was our home in the company street, as finished, but its evo- 
lution was gradual. It began as a mere tent ; it ended in a house. To 
what further flights of architecture we might have gone, cannot be 

Our first exodus was to Fredericksburg. We had begun to take root 
a little in our company street; the trees were pretty well thinned out, 
the street itself was graded and drained, our drill was regained, and it 
was evident we were now in camp. A sure sign was the fact that there 
was time to waste in court-martials, for the adjutant read us, at day 
parade, long stories of certain soldiers, who had "on or about" such a 
time, "at or near" such a place, done or said something, or "words to 
that effect." 

But one Thursday, December nth, we broke camp, never again, we 
supposed, to see the old street. The old shanty was dismantled to the 
music of that long and solemn call which every soldier knew as "Strike 
tents." First the brigade bugler had given it to us, after twice re- 
peating a preface, or heading as it were, to his proclamation, which to 
every Third Brigade man seemed to chant the name of our old com- 
mander thus : 

Dan! Dan! Dan! Butterfield! Butterfield! 

The angel Gabriel in his musical capacity is always associated with 
General Butterfield in the mind of any soldier of our brigade. If the 
bugler was not at hand, "Dan" could even sound the call himself and 
blow his own trumpet. 

Mike, the regiment bugler, next lifts his old battered copper horn 
to his good-natured mouth, and easy as a bird, out floats his little song. 
His preliminary call was different and addressed to the 44th alone. The 


buglers of the other regiments had each sounded his own tune, and 
about the same moment was ringing through the whole brigade the 
long, drawn exhortation, 

Come ! Come ! Come ! Come ! 
Strike your tents ! Strike your tents ! Strike your tents ! Strike your 
tents ! 

Down came the ponchos, and the camp looked like the skeleton of 
itself. We used to call our pieces of shelter-tent "ponchos," through 
some confusion of terms, for really the poncho was a rubber thing with 
a slit to put your head through. Our first sergeant had made us pack 
up everything beforehand, and now we sat around on our worldy pos- 
sessions, having destroyed what we could not carry, for we never ex- 
pected to see that camp again. Pat Riley, our next neighbor in the 
street, threw back his head and sang some ancient Irish lays in a voice 
up near his skull, with never a pause till the end, when his spare wind 
blew itself off like that of a bagpipe. Pat, being of bardic ancestry, was 
doubtless intoning a war-song, but it was unpleasantly like a dirge and 
did not inspirit us, except to throw things at Pat. The day was well 
advanced when we finally got the assembly, which we welcomed with a 
shout, for it meant doing something and not waiting in suspense. If I 
wanted to take all the spunk out of a lot of soldiers, I should get them 
all ready to go somewhere, or do something, and then — not do it. We 
were marched down in sight of Fredericksburg and spent two days as 
lookers-on, watching the explosive puffs of smoke on both sides of the 
river. At night we retired to the woods to sleep, regretting the old 
camp we had just left, and the spare blankets that were there. Saturday 
afternoon came a change. Our division headed for the pontoons and we 
knew where we were going, for we had seen a good many cross but few 
come back. One of the first who came back, a man from a new regi- 
ment, was well escorted. He was supported by a comrade on each side 
and another behind carried guns and knapsacks. The whole group of 
four must have gone, not wishing to confuse their company by counting 
off anew. The wounded man's injury was in one of his fingers. Our 
company kept straight on, though, and not a man dropped out. After 
getting through the town, Mike's bugle sounded "Lie down," and here 
I came to grief. The butt of my gun slipped, and the whole lock 
went into puddle and was covered with wet mud. I felt sure that I could 
not fire it, and I did not want a gun that would not shoot. My gun was 
very bright outside and in ; so elegant looking, that I hoped to get the 
vacant sergeantcy soon on the strength of its exquisite polish. Pretty 
soon we went ahead, and I was on the lookout for another weapon. I 
found one alongside of a soldier among some piled timber. He looked 
and acted as if he needed some quinine and his gun wasn't the kind that 
could bring promotion, but I took it from him and went on. I might 
just as well have had the old rifle into whose surface so much rubbing 
had gone, for firstly, we had no chance to shoot at all, merely excellent 


facilities to be shot at; secondly, when I investigated his, I found a 
cartridge in it bottom side up. Finally, the owner of the gun had cut 
his initials, which were T. M., on the left side of the stock — a most 
flagrant crime against military propriety. I had afterwards to explain 
away those deeply cut letters, to the first sergeant, to the captain, to the 
adjutant, to the officer of the day, to the major, and to the colonel, each in 
turn; and at last when Inspector-General Webb inspected us in person, 
I caught it again. By this time I had become a sergeant, in spite of the 
musket, which I had scoured up to a pretty good shine, but the carving 
was there still. Of course I was out in front, in plain sight, little finger 
on the seam of the pantaloons, body erect on the hips, inclining a 
little forward, eyes gazing into futurity with a stony stare. Expression- 
less as I made my face, there must have been guilt in it. I thought, 
"Will he see it?" (If it were now, I should have said, "Will he get on 
to it?" but in those days our language was more correct.) See it? Get 
on to it? General Webb looked right through that gun stock and saw 
the letters on the opposite side. I stood at "inspection arms." He turned 
the musket right over, read T. M.'s autograph, looked through my eyes 
into my back hair, and proceeded to scrutinize every inch of the piece, 
concluding by jingling the rammer up and down and trying to soil his 
glove with the end of it, while I was wondering how soon I should be 
the subject of the adjutant's recital — " said Sergeant Sprague, wilfully, 
maliciously at or near Falmouth, Va., on or about — letters T. M. or 
words to that effect," and ending up with "Fort Wool, Rip Raps, Hamp- 
ton Roads, Virginia." But probably there was no ring of rust on the 
glove. There was a rusty ring in his voice though when he burst forth — 
"Sergeant, what do you mean by cutting your name on your rifle?" 
I rattled off my now well learned explanation: "Did not cut it, sir; not 
my name, sir; could not fire my rifle at Fredericksburg, sir; dropped it, 
and picked up this one, sir." Then he threw it into my hand so that it 
stung, with the advice, in a much lower tone, "Swop, again, sergeant." 
He didn't touch another gun in our company — no other man had guilt 
in his eye. 

But I am wandering. We got over the broken ground and out into 
a field in front of the enemy or of a place where sheet lightning seemed 
to be playing. On we went, right towards that lightning. Pat Riley 
came to the front, he jumped about six feet forward and swung his 
rifle circularly above his head, dropping in a moment all the manual that 
had been drilled into him, and reverting to ancestral instincts. I think 
we were now beyond the point where there was any distinction between 
courage and cowardice; we were thoroughly insane and would have run 
right into that sheet lightning if little Major Knox had let us. But in- 
stead, he wheeled the battalion to the right. Why, I don't know, but I 
distinctly remember that our regiment wheeled in line of battle at 
double-quick. I remember how, in my delirium, with all the pedantry 
of a corporal who has studied the tactics and knows it all, I said to my- 
self, "there's no such thing in Casey as 'Battalion, right wheel.' It ought 
to have been, 'Change direction to the right.' " 


It was not more than ten minutes from the time I swopped guns, 
when we were lying behind a hill and Captain Larrabee of Company B 
was saying in his cheery voice, "Major, these two left companies are 
under an enfilading fire." Major Knox replied, "Move them more to the 
right." Then, as I still had a touch of insanity, I said to myself: "En- 
filading. Never heard that word pronounced before, though I have read 
it all my life. Now, first time I hear it, I am enfiladed. Practical ex- 
ample, like Squeer's teaching at Dotheboys Hall." 

Now we were in a queer box, but we did not know it till morning. 
We slept a little during the night, not knowing but that we were in a 
very desirable location. It turned out at sunrise that we were just barely 
hidden from the rebels, who could just graze the air a few feet above 
us. It was possible to get your head blown off by standing up ; it was 
possible to remain alive by close contact with the earth. We chose 
to spend a very quiet Sunday. Twenty-four hours we lay there until 
it was as dark as it had been when we came. Then we put our tin 
cups in our haversacks, and fixed everything so it would not rattle. 
We departed very unostentatiously, not with the pride, pomp, and cir- 
eumstance with which we came there Saturday afternoon. That night 
we slept on the sidewalk of Fredericksburg; the next night, oh, most 
joyful change, we went to bed in a house. The house had been venti- 
lated with some cannon balls, but some of the roof was there still and it 
could not be denied that we were sleeping in a house. It did not quite 
meet our anticipations, but it sounded well. At midnight we were 
waked up again, and very quietly taken out of the town to a place very 
much like our Sunday's lodging, relieving the 64th N. Y. Before day- 
light, we crept back to the town even more quietly, and in the grey of 
the morning, recrossed the pontoons with the usual cold rain in our 
faces. Although it seemed too good to be true, we were headed for the 
old camp — home again. We, prodigal sons, could now appreciate the 
comforts of a home, and were willing to dispense with the veal cutlets. 

We had picked up a good deal of plunder at Fredericksburg, but all 
I had brought back was a bad cough. Eugene and I went into the house- 
building again. We had our logs cut and in position, when about the 
last day of the year 1862, there was another pulling up of stakes — no, 
we didn't pull up many stakes this time. We may come back, thought 
we, or else some other fellow may, and we'll leave these sticks and 
things as they are. Our departure this time was part of a movement 
I never have seen mentioned in any history. We marched up the river 
about fifteen miles and camped in the snow, spending New Year's Day 
in a bitterly cold place, and then tramped back again. The manoeuver 
of getting back to the old camp was one we could now perform without 
tunes or motions. Again, after this interruption, we settled down to 
our regular professional work as architects. 

Our next trip was the famous "stick-in-the-mud," that mixture of 
mud, misery, pack-mules, and profanity, where wretchedness was car- 
ried to such a point that it became overwhelmingly funny. This time 


William H. Miller, son of John and Marion Armitage Miller, was 
born at Port Edward, N. Y., Oct. ii. 1838; received an academic edu- 
cation at Fort Miller. Argyle and at Eort Edward Institute ; entered 
Yale College in Sept., 1858, and the College of Physicians and Surgeons 
at New York City, March i, 1861 ; April 19, 1861 he enlisted in the 12th 
N. Y. State Militia and served therewith until its return to New York 
in August, 1861 ; enlisted as a private in the 44th N. Y. V. I. Aug. 14, 
1861 ; was promoted to Captain of Co. K, Sept. 25, 1861, and died of 
typhoid fever in hospital at Yorktown, Va., April 30, 1862. His remains 
were brought to the house of his parents in Fort Edward, N. Y. and 
interred with military honors in the Evergreen Cemetery at Salem N. Y. 

Captain Miller was a young man of moral virtues and religious 
principle : to these ennobling qualities were united kindly feelings, 
polished manners and fine intellectual culture. 

Those who were associated with Capt. Miller during his brief career 
as a member of this regiment unite in saying that by his early death the 
service was deprived of an earnest and efficient soldier and his brother- 
officers lost a genial and loved companion. 


we left all standing and soon came back to find several inches of water 
in the cellar of our shanty. Things were soon got to rights, however, 
and our dwelling made more comfortable than before. The street 
was jolly, gossipy, buzzing with jokes, full of rumors readily believed. 
Boxes from the north, letters from home, soft bread, and furloughs for 
a favored few brightened us up, and before we knew it we felt cheery 
and hopeful ; it was no longer fashionable to growl. Fashion had a good 
deal to do with the prevailing tone of the street; we were bullish or 
bearish like other streets. After Antietam, the correct thing was to say, 
"Well, you just let me get out of here once and you'll never see me a 
soldier again." After we had left Warrenton, this changed to the "bold, 
bad man" style, "Oh, I'm so used to this sort of thing, that Uncle Sam 
can't spare me; if I felt like it, I could lick anything." After Fredericks- 
burg. "I'm a sad-eyed, unappreciated martyr." Now, a few weeks 
after the mud campaign, optimism was in the ascendant again, especially 
after we found that Joe Hooker was working for us soldiers, was think- 
ing of us. That is what the soldier appreciated — not so much what was 
done for him, as the fact that some one was interested in him, was 
sympathizing with him. So our sullenness disappeared and Joe Hooker 
might have quoted the proverb, "Soft bread turneth away wrath." As 
it was understood that a clean and handsome camp was a credential for 
furloughs, we policed our street so that you would have thought Tom 
Brennan expected a Tammany parade to pass that way. Cleanliness, in 
camp, was 'way ahead of godliness. The regiment had a pretty good 
guard-house and resolved to erect a creditable church. I suppose the 
idea was, instead of enlarging the guard-house, to cut ofif its supply of 
material. This was a grand lark for some of the boys, going off with 
the quartermaster's mules into the thick woods and hauling logs for the 
church. Then we started another enterprise ; the boss flag-staff of the 
Army of the Potomac. There was a tall tree standing right on the 
parade ground ; some of our best axemen went out and cut another pine, 
the tallest and straightest they could find. This was, trimmed down to 
a mast, dragged into camp, fitted with halliards, hoisted up through 
the branches of the standing tree, lashed to its top; then its branches 
were cut away, leaving a flag-staff of two lengths, the lower part rooted 
in the ground. Our zouave uniforms were sent down from Washington 
where they had been stored for many months, and with white leggings 
and gloves, dress parade became a thing of beauty. These measures 
restored our spirits, and the company became cheery, chatty and chaffy. 

We had only one heavy snowstorm that I remember. Just at reveille 
one morning in February, I opened my eyes upon a cone-shaped mound 
of white snow in our fire-place, tall and slender, extending upward 
till its apex was invisible. At the same instant I became conscious that 
fine snow was sifting through the cracks, and that Eugene would soon 
be snowed under. Just then, boom went a cannon somewhere in the 
distance, and boom, boom, was repeated in a lively cannonade. 

This was disgusting. To get up in a snowstorm was bad enough, 


but here was somebody inconsiderate enough to start a fight in such un- 
comfortable weather, and doubtless the Fifth Corps would be turned 
out in a few minutes. The language used up and down our company 
street did not at all agree in temperature with the snow. In a minute, 
some fellow who was an expert on the almanac, shouted out, ''Wash- 
ington's birthday." What a groan of relief echoed along the street 
when we remembered that it was February 22d. If it had been in 
these latter days, we should have inquired what was the matter with 
. Washington, and explained who he was ; but in those times, we merely 
said, "Bully for George/' and "How are you, Washington?" These 
two formulas, together with "big thing," and "can't see it," were about 
the only witticisms we knew in 1863. 

We did have a fight before that snow vanished, but it was with 
snowballs, and the 17th New York was the enemy. 

So the days passed till the middle of April, when it was evident that 
something was going to happen. Our fancy uniforms were sent away 
and we lightened in advance the loads we were to carry through the 
summer. About two weeks were passed in suspense, losing something 
of the good feeling which had been so skillfully cultivated. Then off to 
Chancellorsville, making the fourth time we had assembled in the com- 
pany street for a final departure, to the sound of the "Dan Butterfield" 
bugle. Each time, the line in front of the first sergeant had shortened 
by a few files, and we knew that if we ever fell in on that ground again, 
more of us would be absent. As we stood in line in marching order, 
we were a fair specimen of an American regiment. We stood about 
three hundred rank and file. Few regiments had anything like the nomi- 
nal strength which a regiment should have. We were a very sun- 
burned, hearty-looking set of fellows ; we looked as if we could eat a 
square meal whenever we got one. In fact, we were a set of boys. The 
ages of our company averaged twenty-four, and probably there were 
more men about twenty-two than of any other age. We were not 
punctilious about the regulations as to dress. Our regimental uniforms 
of semi-zouave pattern had been turned in, and we had frock-coats, 
blouses, or jackets, just as it happened — anything blue would do. In 
hats and caps there was also much variety ; the hideous regular army 
cloth cap, with slanting peak, which some turned up and some turned 
down — each way it looked worse; or the more nobby French shape, 
with straight visor; or the McClellan cap, with top falling forward — 
these had been sent on from home or purchased when on furlough ; or 
the army black felt, which was generally worn with the crown de- 
pressed in the center; or other varieties of black soft hats, which were 
worn in spite of regulations. But every one had on his cap or hat a 
red Maltese cross, the badge of our division. Some had leggings, some 
had not ; some old hands were in favor of stuffing the trousers into 
the stockings and tying them there with strings. The broad shoes fur- 
nished by the Government and usually called "gunboats" were the most 
fashionable foot wear; this was a part of the uniform which private 


enterprise did not much improve on. Only one thing about our get-up 
would have pleased a military critic, — our guns were clean and bright. 

We were well keyed up to do anything Hooker asked, and I think 
that up to the very last of that discouraging campaign we were ready 
to make tremendous efforts for him. But the coming home was the 
worst yet. We had been the rear-guard as usual, and in the rain as 
usual ; we had struggled through a wilderness and waded knee-deep 
in mud; and when we had crossed the pontoons again, all semblance of 
discipline seemed suspended and the only thing was to get back to the 
old camp anyhow. Right glad we were to find ourselves there again. 
It was wisdom to let us rally on the old camp; in no other way could 
we so readily have been brought back to our accustomed condition. 
I find that I wrote this to my mother: 

"We got back to the old camp. Wednesday, soaked with mud and 
rain. We had not enough ponchos to cover our foundations, as we 
only carried one apiece and the extra ones we had left had been taken 
by the contractor for paper rags. So we had to huddle together about 
twice the number in the miserable wet holes. We were at about the 
lowest depth of misery and demoralization, which was not alleviated 
by being ordered to be ready to march next afternoon. But on Friday 
morning we were ordered to commence policing the street and make 
other preparations for a stay. This, with the more favorable news 
we received and a ration of soft bread, got us into better spirits, and 
now (Sunday) we are in the old routine of camp duty." 

It began to seem as though that old camp ground was our pre- 
destined habitat for all time. It was impossible for us to stay away, 
and each attempt had resulted in disaster. It was an unlucky place 
to start from evidently. Therefore our next campaign must start from 
somewhere else. Whether this was the line of argument or not, we 
finally broke up the old camp without waiting for the campaign to 
open. The brigade fell in in the old company street and this was, actually, 
the last time. We marched off to a new camp-ground and made prep- 
arations enough to stay there several years. As a result, we soon left 
it and never saw it again. 

I have never talked about the company street and about the best 
way to fix up a shanty with but one major-general, — until to-night. I 
had some conversation on the subject with the corps commander on 
the last day I revisited the old camp. Some half-dozen of our com- 
pany asked permission to go over to the old ground and bring away 
some of the bric-a-brac left behind, and I was with them. We were 
tramping cheerily across the country (I think we had a pass to go 
through the picket line) and crossed a road just as the General was 
riding by, accompanied by an officer and followed by a headquarters' 
wagon. He reined up and evidently had something to say. "Who is 
in command of these men?" I modestly replied that "I was, sir," and 
explained that our captain had permitted us to go back to get some 
boards and things. "Boards and things! a soldier has no business to 


have anything but what he can carry on his back." I involuntarily 
rolled my eyes to the left, where the big headquarters wagon had 
halted; perhaps this hint that soldiers of high degree need not carry 
all their possessions on their backs, hurt General Meade's feelings, for 
he rode on with a "Humph !" Evidently General Meade did not agree 
with General Hooker's ideas as to the treatment of the soldiers. Prob- 
ably he thought that from a dead level of discomfort we could easier 
bear any additional suffering, but that was not Hooker's theory. He 
believed in compensation, and thought the higher the pendulum swung 
on one side, the higher it would go on the other; that a soldier would, 
and could, endure more when called upon, if he had been made con- 
tented and comfortable up to that time. 

As I seldom have a chance to address an audience mostly of major- 
generals, I will take the opportunity to give them some advice on the 
conduct of the next war. 

Tho' the soldier 's attached to his hard-tack, 

He could eat Delmonico's bread ; 
Tho' he sleeps on the ground when he has to, 

Don't think he despises a bed. 

We settled it down by the camp-fire. 

As a principle well understood : 
For men who are willing to face the worst. 

The best is n't any too good. 

So, General, up at headquarters. 

Bear in mind the advice I repeat: 
Take good care of the man that carries the gun, 

And lives in the company street. 


By Capt. Bradford R. Wood. 

On the /th day of February, 1864, I reported for duty to Major 
Knox, commanding the Forty-fourth Regiment N. Y. Vols., at Alex- 
andria, Va., after an absence of two years, on detached service in the 
Signal Corps. On February 9th I was mustered into the service as 
Captain by Capt. W. T. Gentry, and on the next day was assigned to 
the command of Company C. 

The regiment had an excellent camp, nicely trimmed with ever- 
greens, on a hillside in the outskirts of Alexandria, and was doing 
guard duty on trains, running to Brandy Station, where the army of 
the Potomac was occupying winter quarters. The trains consisted of 
heavily loaded freight cars, and as neither officers or men were allowed 
inside of the cars on the outward trip, they were often exposed to the 
rain and snow, and as the details were very frequent, and generally at 
night, the duty was much more fatiguing than ordinary guard or picket 

On February 26th I was transferred to the command of Company 
E, and remained in command until the regiment returned home to be 
mustered out of the service. 

On the 19th of March there was a report that some of the enemy's 
cavalry had penetrated our lines, and would make an attack on Alex- 
andria. Our regiment was, accordingly, placed in line of battle in front 
of the wooden barracks between our camp and the city. Being "Officer 
of the Day," I wasi left in charge of the camp with a guard of thirty 
men, but no attack was made. 

On April 8th, Capt. Nash, who had returned to the regiment from 
acting as Inspector General on Gen. Chamberlain's staff, and myself, 
commenced messing together, and so continued until he was wounded 
at Bethesda Church. 

On April 27th, Sergeant Newton of Company E, an excellent young 
man, died suddenly of fever. I had the body embalmed at Alexandria 
to await arrival of N. Newton from Hopewell Centre, Ontario Co., 
N. Y. 

At II A. M., April 29th, the regiment left Alexandria to rejoin 
the army, and camped near Rappahannock at 5 P. M. 

On May ist marched at 8 A. M. and camped at 2 P. M. about one 
mile East of Brandy Station. 

On May 3d marched to within two miles of Culpeper and rested. 
Started again at 11 P. M., crossing Rapidan on pontoons at 9 A. M. 
May 4th, and bivouacked near the intersection of the pike and plank 
roads from Fredericksburg to Orange Court House, not far from Old 

On May 5th the regiment was in line of battle in the Wilderness 
soon after daylight, and about 11 A. M. commenced throwing up breast- 


works about loo yards in front of camp occupied during the night. This 
work was afterwards countermanded, and the regiment moved forward 
a short distance and halted, with right resting on road. The infantry 
in front of us had a severe engagement with the enemy during the 
morning. At about i P. M. we again moved forward a short distance, 
relieving the regiment fighting in the edge of a wood in our front, and 
remained under fire about half an hour, when we were relieved, having 
used up nearly all our ammunition. The rebels charged upon our lines 
twice and were twice driven back. At first their fire was very heavy 
and we all laid down, but afterwards rose up. When the order was 
given to fall back I misunderstood it, and as the rebels were retreating, 
gave the command to charge. My own Company and some men on 
our right and left went forward some distance, firing into the retreating 
rebels, but seeing the balance of the regiment did not come, but were 
moving off to the right, I gave the command to fall back again and 
join them. Sergeant McBlain, who was in advance firing away, would 
have been left, if I had not gone to him and touched his arm. The regi- 
ment returned to the line of breastworks it had commenced to build in 
the morning, completed them, and remained there the following night. 
During the fight Privates Burroughs and Richards of Company E were 
mortally wounded. Corporals Oliver and Swan seriously, and Privates 
Eldred, Rowe and Campbell, slightly. Capt. Johnson was killed and 
many men of the other Companies were killed and wounded whom I 
do not remember but believe all were taken from the field. A short 
time before. Private Burroughs had appeared before a Board of Ex- 
amination for a commission as Lieutenant in the Colored Troops, which 
was afterwards received for him and forwarded to his father. 

On May 6th reveille sounded at 3 A. M. and soon after we were 
placed in line of battle on right of road, near the same line occupied 
the day before. We remained here all day, without being attacked 
by infantry, li men in the regiment being wounded by sharpshooters 
and shells. We returned to breastworks at dusk. The next morning 
the enemy advanced on our line but were driven back without loss to 
us. At 10 o'clock P. M. on the 7th we withdrew from the Wilderness 
and marched towards Spottsylvania. We marched slowly during the 
night, making frequent halts, just long enough for some of the men 
to drop asleep, when they had to be roused up to continue the march. 
In the morning of May 8th we marched by large bodies of our troops, 
halted near the road, passing General Rice, our former Colonel, stand- 
ing by the roadside, who spoke kindly to many of our regiment whom 
he recognized. Two days after he fell mortally wounded. The regi- 
ment halted in the edge of a wood, and not knowing how long we 
would remain, I told my First Sergeant to call the roll, and was just 
preparing to take a little breakfast from my haversack, when our regi- 
ment and the 83d Penn. were ordered forward. Generals Griffin and 
Bartlett met us, and pointing to a little hill in an open field some dis- 
tance in front, the former said : "Boys, I want you to take the crest 


of that hill. There is nothing there but dismounted cavalry; see them 
run," and looking in that direction we did see two or three cavalrymen 
disappearing in the distance, but they were mounted. We charged to 
within about forty yards of the top of the hill, when we received a heavy 
volley of musketry from a long line of infantry, far outnumbering us, 
who were concealed by a slight breastwork of fence rails and brush. 
Our men immediately laid down and for some time returned their fire. 
Seeing Col. Conner urging our men to go forward, I rose up, and 
giving the command, "Forward !" went ahead a few yards but as the 
men did not follow, I laid down again, and they fired over me. Not 
long after I heard firing some distance in the rear, and at first thought 
we were being reinforced, but looking to the left saw a man running 
to the rear with the colors. I then thought we were being surrounded 
and the regiment was falling back, and, rising up, started after it, the 
bullets striking all around me, but keeping a little too far to the left, 
in order to gain the shelter of some brush, I ran across three rebels, 
who, pointing their guns at my breast, said "Get back thar," and hav- 
ing only my sword in my hand I saw that I was a prisoner. They made 
me enter their lines, which were only a few yards distant, the officers 
restraining their men from shooting me, which they seemed very 
anxious to do. I recognized some other prisoners behind their lines, 
who had just been captured, and was directed to join them as they 
were being taken to the Provost Marshal's Guard. I soon noticed the 
rebel soldiers relieving some of our officers and men of their posses- 
sions, and one approached me, and pointing to my haversack said, "What 
have you in there?" Hoping to delay him, I replied, "Oh, nothing but a 
little dried beef and a few crackers ; you are welcome to them," and 
taking my haversack off I handed it to him and started toward a road 
where I saw an officer on horseback, whom I addressed and asked if 
their men were permitted to rob us. "Certainly not," he replied, and 
pointing down the road to some troops, said : "If you will report to 
the officer in command he will see that you are properly treated !" 
Hastening on I soon found a large number of prisoners in charge of 
the Provost Guard, and reporting to the officer in command. Major 
Ryals, was assured that our personal effects would not be interfered 
with. Here I found Lieuts. Bennett and Munger and 22 men of the 
Forty-fourth, and Lieut. Montgomery of the 83d Penn. I afterwards 
learned that the Forty-fourth N. Y. and the 83d Penn. had been 
especially selected from our brigade and sent forward about half a mile 
in advance of the main body of troops to develop the strength of the 
enemy, who were found to be in much larger force than had been sup- 
posed. While we were lying down and returning their fire, they out- 
flanked us, and attacked us in the rear. Company E lost Private Craw- 
ford killed ; Corporal Woodworth and Private Gardner missing and 
probably killed ; wounded, Privates Claus, Madden, Rowley, Riley, Mc- 
Duflfee, Thompson, Shearer; prisoners, beside their Captain, Ser- 
geant Prud'hom, Corporal Tooker and Private Hocknell, Lieut. Col. 


Conner, Major Knox and Capt. Fox were wounded and there were many 
others killed and wounded whose names I did not hear. Many re- 
ported missing were no doubt killed, as they were never heard of again. 
As the prisoners had been for a long time without rest or food, I asked 
Major Ryals if he had any rations for us. He said he had nothing for 
himself except what his men gave him, but promised to give us plenty 
to eat when we should reach Beaver Dam Station, where the provi- 
sions were stored. He kindly gave me a small piece of smoked ham, 
which I shared with others of our regiment, who gave me a few crack- 
ers which they had saved in their haversacks. We rested all that day, 
which was the Sabbath and the next morning started for Beaver Dam 
Station, where we were to take the cars for Richmond. General Lee 
rode by us on the Sabbath with only one or two attendants and we 
had a good opportunity to see him. He appeared to be a large, strongly 
built man, was plainly dressed, had on top boots and was mounted on a 
large fine looking gray horse. He wore a full gray beard, neatly 
trimmed, and had piercing black eyes, which I thought looked upon us 
prisoners with little favor. On May 9th, while on the march, I induced 
one of our guards to go to a farm house and buy me some bacon and 
cornbread, which proved very acceptable. I offered him in payment 
a two dollar greenback, which he said was no good, but finally con- 
cluded to accept it. I think it was this same guard who afterwards 
offered me his horse to ride, but I persuaded him to lend it to a 
wounded Colonel, who needed it much more than I did. While we 
were resting for a short time at noon, one of our officers took from 
his pocket a map ,and I was looking over it with him to find out where 
we were, when Major Ryals stepped up to us and took it away, perhaps 
thinking we were plotting to escape. Towards evening, as we were 
descending into a ravine, I noticed one of the guard ride up from the 
rear and whisper something to Major Ryals, and then began to suspect 
that some of our troops were near. Soon after another of the guard 
came galloping up, exclaiming: "the Yanks are coming! the Yanks are 
coming!" Looking back we saw some mounted men in blue coats, 
coming out of the woods about half a mile distant, and soon after a 
long line of cavalry. Our guards gave the command "Double-quick" 
which we did not obey but stood on one side of the road. Without 
trying to enforce the order, they plunged the spurs in their horses and 
soon disappeared. Our cavalry came charging after them, an Orderly 
of Gen. Custer in advance, firing his revolver into the retreating rebels, 
a few of whom were wounded and taken prisoners, but most of them 
escaped. As our men went galloping by we gave them hearty cheers, 
and some of them threw us their haversacks full of provisions. About 
400 prisoners, who were captured in the Wilderness and Spotsylvania, 
were thus rescued. We were very near Beaver Dam Station, and had 
previously heard the locomotives whistling for us to hurry up. At 
that Station our cavalry captured and burned three trains of cars and 
an immense supply of provisions for Lee's army. General Sheridan 


Entered the service and was appointed Regimental Quartermaster, 
which position he maintained tliroughout the entire service of the regi- 
ment, being mustered out in October, 1864. He served the regiment in 
this responsible position with great fidelity and satisfaction to his 

Mr. Mundy was probably more closely identified with the origin 
and development of the Express Money Order system than any other 
man. He was for seven years in charge of the M. O. Department of 
the American Express Company and for three years occupied a simi- 
lar position with the U. S. Express Co. In 1887 he was appointed 
superintendent of and organized a M. O. Department for the Pacific 
Express Co., which position he held up to the time of his death which 
occurred in New York City, August 29, 1896. 

The president of this company, in announcing Mr. Mundy's death, 
pays the fbllowing tribute to his memory : 

"His was a mind strong, active and bright. Always cour- 
teous and affable, his happy disposition attracted friends and 
held them when they came. From first to last he was the em- 
bodiment of integrity and true manhood." 


being near, I inquired of one of his staff what we should do, and he 
thought some of us could ride in the ambulances. As it was now 
time for supper, some of our number went into a warehouse, where 
among the hospital stores we found a ham, some eggs and crackers 
and soon after had a better meal than we had enjoyed for many days. 
A little later, having found an ambulance, Lieut. Hunger and myself 
entered it to sleep for the night, but before we could get to sleep it 
was wanted for the wounded, so we concluded we would have to take 
care of ourselves the best way we could and accordingly made our 
bed on the ground and as the weather was warm and dry we did not 
suffer. The next morning, making some inquiries of Capt. Taylor, of 
the 2d Penn. Cavalry, when he learned my condition, he very kindly 
loaned me a horse and also gave one to Lieut. Hunger of our regi- 
ment. We rode with the 2d Penn. Cavalry that day and bivouacked 
with them during the night. To secure our horses we tied them near 
us while we slept, but Lieut. Hunger's horse, unfortunately, was stolen 
during the night, so for the next two days we took turns in riding 
the horse which had been loaned to me. 

On Hay nth there was heavy skirmishing all day. We marched 
rapidly all night, sometimes on the trot, and at early dawn had en- 
tered the outskirts of Richmond, and could see some iron fences along 
the road. 

On the morning of the 12th there was a severe fight with the rebels 
who had rallied for the defense of Richmond, but General Gregg, lead- 
ing them on to his guns, which he had massed together, opened upon 
them with canister and drove them back in confusion. After this we 
withdrew and passing through Hechanicsville about 2 P. M. camped 
in woods near Walnut Grove. Having met on the march Capt.. Tre- 
maine, then A. A. General on the staff of General Davis, with whom 

I was acquainted, he very kindly insisted on my remaining with him 
while accompanying the cavalry and General Davis also invited me to 
remain at his headquarters, saying, that I should act as one of his aides. 

On the 13th we marched to Bottom Bridge, which we found broken, 
and camped on the North side of the Chickahominy. 

On Hay 14th we reached the James River. Our own gunboats, 
mistaking us for rebels, fired a few shells at us before we could open 
communication with them. 

On Hay iSth the rescued prisoners embarked at Bermuda Hun- 
dreds for Fortress Honroe, which was reached at 8 P. H. 

On the i6th, after drawing rations, we started for Alexandria at 

II A. H. Stopping for four hours during the night, we passed Acquia 
Creek at 10 A. H. on the 17th and arrived at Alexandria at 3 P. H. 
On the i8th, at noon, we reported at Camp Distribution. Hay 20th I 
was assigned to the command of the ist Company, 2d Corps and ordered 
to receipt for muskets and equipments and at 3 P. H. we embarked on 
steamboat for Belle Plain, where we went into camp with a large 
number of troops who were expecting orders to rejoin the Army of 


the Potomac. On the 2ist, at my request, by special order. I left Belle 
Plain with Lieuts. Hunger and Bennett of the Forty-fourth and my 
Company for Fredericksburg in charge of four wagons loaded with 
entrenching tools. Marching all night we reached Fredericksburg at 
6 A. M. and reported to Col. Schryver. While here I visited the hos- 
pitals and saw Lieut. Hardenburg and Privates Claus, Thompson, Swan 
and others of the Forty-fourth. On the 23d started with wagon train 
for Bowling Green. Passed on to Milford on the 24th and crossed the 
North Anna on the 25th and bivouacked near army headquarters. 
Turned over my Company to the Provost Marshal and reported for 
duty to Capt. Allen in command of the Forty-fourth at noon on the 
26th, the regiment being in line on railroad track near the North Anna 
River. Company E now had only 19 men for duty, having lost 20 since 
leaving Alexandria on April 25th. The regiment withdrew at dark 
on May the 26th, marched all that night and most of the following day. 
The men straggled very badly on the 27th, only one man from Company 
E keeping up when we went into camp, being much exhausted from 
want of rest and the excessive heat. May 28th we crossed the Pamun- 
key on pontoons about 11 A. M., and rested in line on a hill about a 
mile from the river. On the 29th we marched about six miles, passing 
the 9th and 2d corps, forming line in edge of woods, where we re- 
mained for the night. On the 30th we moved forward slowly and 
about 2 P. M. formed line in a ploughed field, under fire of sharp- 
shooters, not far from Bethesda Church. Capt. Nash was badly 
wounded this day while standing in front of the regiment. Had charge 
of brigade pickets during night and not relieved until noon of the 31st. 
On June 1st we moved forward a short distance in neighborhood of 
Cold Harbor, and threw up breastworks. Skirmishers were thrown 
out but were driven in just before dark and our line attacked by a 
strong force. Our position was a good one and we repelled the rebels 
without much loss to us. During the fight some large branches of trees 
were broken off by the enemy's shells and fell across our line but were 
cleared away with cheers. The 3d Del. crowding into the right of our 
line, shot two of our men by mistake and one of its own lieutenants. 
After dark the woods caught fire in our front and some of the wounded 
were burned. On June 2d there was severe skirmishing during the 
day. At 4 P. M. we fell back about one mile in second line of works. 
The rebels charged the first line and were driven back by the 9th corps, 
which retired during the night. In the morning of June 3d the 9th 
corps charged across the open field and retook first line. Our regi- 
ment advanced on a rebel battery but found them too strongly posted 
and retired in good order to edge of a wood, where we built breast- 
works. Thorn, of Company E was wounded in the head by a piece of 
shell, and Capt. Kimberly by a sharpshooter. The skirmishing and 
shelling were severe this day. On picket duty during night and I made 
connection across open field in front of rebel battery with 9th corps. 
On the morning of June 4th we found the enemy had withdrawn from 


our front and in the afternoon our regiment was moved to the left 
On the 5th there was a little skirmishing in our front, but heavy mus- 
ketry and artillery firing on our left. At 11 P. M., June 5th, we with- 
drew and marched one mile beyond Allen's Mills where shoes were 
issued to the regiment. On June 6th, Lieut. Zeilman returned to the 
regiment. On the 7th we reached the Chickahominy and camped in a 
wood. We remained here several days and had clothing issued to the 
regiment which was very much needed. Our pickets were close to 
those of the enemy but there was an understanding not to fire, and some 
frequent exchanges of tobacco and provisions were made. Here a de- 
serter from a North Carolina regiment came into our lines. On June 
I2th we started for Long Bridge after dark and crossed the Chicka- 
hominy at daylight on the 13th. Marching again at night we reached 
Wilcox Landing on the James River on the 14th and relieved a regi- 
ment of heavy artillery in the breastworks. On June i6th we crossed 
the James River at 10 A. M. and marched to within two miles of Peters- 
burg. On June i8th our brigade acted as support to troops which were 
to storm a fort after dark. The assaulting column moved cautiously 
towards the fort but by the careless discharge of a musket their presence 
was disclosed to the enemy, who opened a heavy fire upon them and 
the attack was abandoned. On this day Sergeant Harris was wounded 
in the left thigh. Our brigade now took position in front and during 
the night erected a slight breastwork on crest of hill close to fort. At 
daybreak, on the 19th, as soon as our line was seen by the enemy, we 
received a severe fire of musketry and artillery. Corporal Darling of 
Company E was shot through the head and instantly killed as he was 
looking over the breastwork. As he was the tallest Corporal in the 
Company I had marched many miles by his side. He was a 
brave and excellent soldier and his loss was severely felt in 
the Company. The ground occupied by the rebels was a little higher 
than that occupied by us, so that many of our men were wounded 
while necessarily moving about. A brass Cohorn mortar was placed 
in the line of our regiment, which caused the enemy much annoyance 
and drew fire from several of their batteries. From the bottom of a 
ravine behind us the mine was started by the 48th Penn. which was 
afterwards exploded with such disastrous results to the enemy and to 
the 9th corps. On June 20th our regiment was relieved, moving fur- 
ther to the left, where we took up a new position and threw up en- 
trenchments. On the 22d there was a sharp engagement on our left 
between the 2d corps and the enemy. On this day Capt. Danks re- 
turned to the regiment. After this we had a quiet time for nearly a 
month. The pickets in our front were peaceful and the few shells and 
bombs which came over our lines did us no damage. The bombs, had, 
however, caused some destruction to the troops on our right, so that on 
July 14th some of our officers and men built bombproofs. On July 17th 
Major Knox returned to duty and on the 21st Captains Nash and 
Kimberly. Early in the morning of July 30th the mine laid by the 9th 


corps was successfully exploded and the rebel fort blown into the air 
with its guns and garrison. Our troops had been under arms all night 
and immediately opened fire all along the line. Directly in our front 
there was no reply, and we thought we could have taken the enemy's 
works with very little loss if the order had been given for the Sth corps 
to charge. On August 14th, Capt. Fox returned to the regiment and 
on the 15th Lieut. Col. Conner. August i6th our division was relieved 
by General Porter's division and we bivouacked in the woods about a 
mile in the rear. On August i8th we marched to Reams Station. This 
was a hard march, passing through a dense swamp to the Weldon R. R. 
expecting every moment to come on the enemy. On reaching the track 
the rails were torn up for a long distance, heated in a fire made from 
the ties, and twisted so they could not be relaid. The 2d division, on 
our right, had a brisk fight in the afternoon. We took position on the 
West side of railroad and threw up breastworks. On the 19th the 2d 
division was attacked in the afternoon and driven back some distance, 
losing many prisoners. Being reinforced they rallied, regained their 
position and took some prisoners from the enemy. Our regiment was 
moved to the right on the double-quick as support, but we were not 
needed and returned to our former position. As there were some woods 
in our front the rebels did not seem to be aware of the extent of our line 
of entrenchments, and on the 21st a brigade of infantry suddenly made 
its appearance under our guns, no doubt thinking they had outflanked 
some of our troops which had been advanced on our right, and were 
separated from us by a short interval. They found out their mistake 
when it was too late and were nearly all captured. On the 22d Private 
Gregory of Company E was missing from picket duty and probably 
captured. On August 29th Lieut. Hoes returned to camp. On the 
30th our regiment was detailed to work on a fort. On September 6th 
the officers of the Forty-fourth gave a supper to the officers of the 83d 
Penn., whose term of service had nearly expired. When the Forty- 
fourth joined the army in the fall of 1861, the regiment was received 
with great kindness by the 83d Penn., which provided a supper and 
rendered assistance in pitching tents. Ever since that time there had 
been the warmest friendship between the two regiments and officers 
and men now parted as volunteer soldiers with many feelings of regret. 
On September 17th, 207 recruits joined the regiment. On September 
24th the Forty-fourth N. Y. Vols, left the army for City Point and 
was soon after mustered out of service at Albany, N. Y., having com- 
pleted its term of service. The recruits and reenlisted men were or- 
ganized into four Companies, constituting the Forty-fourth Battalion 
N. Y. Vols, under my command, with the following additional officers : 
Capt. A. N. Husted and First Lieutenants, O. L. Hunger, Theodore 
Hoes and Edward Bennett. 



"Washington, D. C, Feby. 15, 1909. 
"Comrade Nash : 

"Some of my comrades and friends here in the city have urged 
me to write you and give a history of my experience on the Bull Run 
battlefield. As it might be of some interest to the old members of the 
Regiment it is submitted to you to use your discretion in inserting it. 
The facts are taken from my diary, written soon after the battle. 

"I was struck by a solid shot above the ankle of the left leg on 
the morning of August 30, 1862, at what is known as the Second Bull 
Run battle. My leg was amputated about six inches below the knee 
by Surgeon Frothingham. I was carried to the rear about half a mile 
and left with a large group of wounded where I remained until about 
5 o'clock in the afternoon. I was very anxious to get farther to the rear 
as I feared the result of the battle and, that I might be left a prisoner 
in my disabled condition. Late in the afternoon it became apparent 
that our lines were gradually giving way. About 5 o'clock I found my- 
self between the two lines of battle and about 100 yards' in front of 
the Duryea Zouaves who were hotly engaged with the enemy. I crawled 
on my hands and knees toward our line and when about 20 rods away 
two brave fellows ran out and carried me back a short distance to the 
rear. Their line soon gave way and I was soon in the hands of the 
advancing rebels. It rained nearly all that night and surrounded by 
the dead and dying I fully realized the horrors of war. The next morn- 
ing the sun shone brightly and as I was in the shade of a tree I 
moved out into the sunshine to dry my clothing. I do not know whether 
my exertion in moving or what it was caused the artery of my limb to 
give way and it bled freely. I at once made a tourniquet by tying a 
knot in my handerchief and with the knot on the artery above the knee 
by twisting it tightly with a short stick, I managed to partially stop 
the flow of blood but not entirely. I was then in a very bad plight 
with no one near but the dead and dying' and thought it was only a 
question of a short time when I would bleed to death. I was aided 
by a determined will and resolved to live as long as possible, hoping 
to get within our lines where I might get a decent burial and where 
my friends might get some account of me. 

"Some time after 5 o'clock in the afternoon a rebel surgeon was 
passing within about 20 rods and by urgent shouting I induced him 
to come to me and asked him to help me. This he positively declined 
to do with the remark that they had more than they could do with 
their own wounded without helping us fellows and said he was going 
to another hospital for a case of instruments and was in a great hurry. 
It was then that my previous precaution came to my aid and I informed 
him that I would give him twenty-five dollars in gold if he would 
assist me. He seemed to doubt my having that much on me. I as- 


sured him I had and would have it ready for him when he returned. 
He marked the location and returned in about fifteen minutes. I had 
the money in my hand and told him it was his soon as the work was 
done. He then took off the bandage, took out the stitches, tied and 
singed the artery, put on a clean bandage and did a first class job. I 
paid him what I promised. He seemed much pleased when he got the 
money and I was certainly pleased and grateful for what he had done 
for me. 

"Some may wonder how it was that I had this amount of gold 
at this time. Perhaps this will admit of a little explanation. When 
we were at Union Square in New York City on our way to the front 
I was given a sum of money by a good, loyal, Scotch friend with the 
wise advice that I keep plenty of money with me as I might need it 
some time. During the winter of '6i and '62 I bought in Washington 
fifty gold dollars, had a leather belt made, put this gold into it and 
placed it around my body. I used $15 of it while a prisoner in Rich- 
mond, having been taken a- prisoner at the battle of Gaines Mills. The 
remark of my Scotch friend came true. It was the means of saving 
my life as the Confederate Surgeon would have left me to my fate 
had I not shown him the glittering dollars. I then had $10 left, part 
of which I gave to an old darkey for bringing me a pint of milk and a 
little hoe cake every morning. I remained on the field four days when 
I was taken to a barn some distance away which was being used for 
a hospital. I was made as comfortable as the circumstances would 
admit in the cow stable. On' the ninth day after the battle I was taken 
from there to a hospital in Fairfax Seminary, near Alexandria. My 
companion in the ambulance, who had' also lost a limb, died before we 
reached there. 

"I do not like to recall to memory my experiences during those 
terrible days and have related them with a great deal of reluctance 
but if they will be of any interest to my old comrades of the grand 
old Forty-fourth Regiment, it will make me glad to state the facts as 
they occurred. 

"The old flag that we rallied around and fought under still waves 
over the great and prosperous nation and I sincerely hope the brave 
defenders of that flag will be provided for in their declining years. 
There is nothing too good for them and I trust the rising generation 
will appreciate what was done in that great struggle to save the Union. 


James S. Dougall.'' 



Camp of 44th Regt. N. Y. V., near Emmetsburg, Pa., 

July 6th, 1863. 
Mr. A. Dunham, 
Dear Sir: 

Not knowing as you have learned the painful particulars of the 
late battle of Gettysburg, it seems a painful duty devolving upon me to 
inform you of your great loss, and of the deep gloom and sadness hang- 
ing over us as a regiment. Lieut E. L. Dunham, Company D, 44th 
Regt. was killed suddenly on Thursday evening, July 2d, at six o'clock 
while nobly and gallantly urging his men on to duty. He was struck 
by a minnie ball under the right eye, and killed instantly. I suppose 
you to be his father. On leaving camp he gave me your address, and 
told me I might have to tell you of his death — and dear sir, so it has 

Sad is the duty, yet I feel that you will thank me for the few 
particulars I can write you, and the deep, deep interest I have taken 
in such a noble man. He fell in our hands, and all his effects are 
safely in our possession, and when an opportunity is afforded us, will 
be forwarded to you, if you will give us the directions. 

The dear fellow is respectfully buried in his blanket and poncho, 
and his burial place plainly marked. Captain Larrabee of Company B 
lies by his side. His (Larrabee's) body fell into the hands of the 
enemy, and was rifled of everything — many articles of value, $90 in 
money, &c. He was not found until the next day. 

As we passed the grave of my best friend on our way 'to this place 
I came ahead of the regiment and halted a few minutes to look upon 
the spot. Freely did the tears course down my cheeks, to think that 
poor Dunham was never more to be with us ; that his well loved form 
was made to lie low by the hand of some cursed traitor. For your in- 
formation and my own satisfaction I called at the house near by, and 
found the general directions as to the vicinity, when in some future time 
you may recover his remains. He lies in the corner of a fence joining 
the garden fence ; property owned by Leonard Brickest, two and one-half 
miles from Getty.sburg. Enclosed is a leaf of a peach tree under which 
his body rests. * * * 

He was highly appreciated by his company and all officers, par- 
ticularly the Colonel. Lieut. Grannis with myself, tender to you our 
heartfelt sympathy, at your great bereavement, but be assured that 
Lieut. Dunham fell in a noble cause, and God has called him home. 
Sad and lonely without our friends, I cannot but weep with you. 
I am Respectfully your obedient servant, 

O. C. Brown. 


By Bradford R. Wood. 

Brevet Major Charles Elliott Pease was born in Albany, N. Y., 
August 16, 1838, and was educated in the schools of that city and at 
Union College, Schenectady, leaving college to engage with his father, 
Richard H. Pease in the manufacture of agricultural implements. Soon 
after the beginning of the Civil War, he joined the 44th Regiment New 
York Infantry, and on September 25, 1861, was mustered into the 
service as First Lieutenant of Company G. He was discharged from 
the regiment May 27, 1863, for promotion to Assistant Adjutant General 
U. S. Volunteers with the rank of Captain, and on August i, 1864, was 
made a Major by Brevet, for faithful and meritorious services in the 

He was a member of the staffs of Brigadier General James H. Van- 
Alen and of Major Generals Joseph Hooker and George G. Meade. At 
the battle of Gettysburg his horse was shot under him. As the Union 
Army was approaching Appomattox, on April 9, 1865, a letter from 
Gen. Lee to Gen. Grant came to Gen. Meade's headquarters under a flag 
of truce, but Gen. Grant having gone to meet Gen. Sheridan, Major 
Pease had the honor to carry it to him. The letter requested an inter- 
view in regard to the terms of capitulation, and as soon as Gen. Grant 
had read it and sent a reply by Gen. Babcock, he hastened forward to 
meet Gen. Lee at Appomattox Court House, requesting Major Pease to 
accompany him. Gen. Lee being apprehensive that hostilities might be 
resumed during the conference, Gen. Grant sent Major Pease to Gen. 
Meade with orders that the truce be prolonged until positive orders 
were received by him. The shortest way back by several miles, being 
through the enemies lines, Gen. Lee wrote a pass for the Major through 
his lines. Major Pease was the first to bring the glad tidings of the 
surrender to the Commander of the Army of the Potomac. After the 
close of the war Major Pease was appointed Secretary of the United 
States Life Insurance Company, which position he held until failing 
health compelled him to relinquish business. He died in New York, 
March 25, 1886, and after the funeral services in that city, the remains 
were taken to Albany and laid to rest in the Albany Rural Cemetery 
He left surviving him a widow and one daughter. He was an accom- 
plished gentleman, and a brave and gallant soldier, who in his long 
service extending nearly through the entire War of the Rebellion, ren- 
dered distinguished and valuable aid to his country in the hour of need. 





Bennett Alunger. son of Gains and Abigail Hunger, was born 
October 25. 1817, at Agawani, Mass., and died at Canandaigua, 
N. v., October 2"], 1877. 

He was married. Septeml)er 22, 1841, to Mary Wilcox. One child, 
Ida, now Mrs. Edson Case of Niagara Falls, N. Y.. was the result of 
this union. A man of sterling character he was highly respected by 
those who knew him. He was a farmer and sometime Justice of the 
Peace. At the request of the War Committee for Yates County, N. Y., 
where he then resided, he assisted in securing recruits for a new Penn 
Yan Company, in August, 1862, and at its organization was elected 
Captain. As such he was mustered into the United States service, Octo- 
ber 3. 1862. and with his Company became a part of the 44th N. Y. 
Vol. Inf. He had a part in the battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville, Aldie, Gettysburg, where he was wounded, Rappahannock Sta- 
tion and ]\line Run. In January, 1864. he was detailed for special 
duty at Elmira, N. Y., where he was mspector of prisons for captive 
Confederates; he remained until his muster-out in October, 1864. 
While Inspector the accidental discharge of a rusty revolver, found by 
a Confederate, was the cause of a wound which troubled him as long 
as he lived and doubtless .shortened his life. 


By Captain A. N. Husted. 

The battle of Gettysburg was the culmination of a series of events 
which need to be reviewed, in part at least, in order that we may un- 
derstand and appreciate the conditions under which the battle was 
fought. Here were two armies of Americans, numbering approximately 
one hundred thousand men each, and, all things considered, not un- 
equally matched. For more than two years the Union "Army of the 
Potomac" and the Confederate "Army of Northern Virginia" by the 
severe training of arduous campaigns, had been hammered and moulded 
into as effective fighting machines as the world had ever known. Let us 
briefly recall the history of each. For these two years of the Army of 
the Potomac had known but little of the exhilaration and joy of victory 
and much of discouragement and defeat. Its first heroic contest with 
the rebel foe, in the "Peninsular Campaign" of July, 1862, closed in 
a disastrous retreat to Harrison's Landing, followed by a hurried trans- 
fer north to protect the nation's capitol from the assaults of the vic- 
torious foe. 

The battle of Antietam in September following should, I think, be 
called a "draw ;" Lee was halted and compelled to retreat, but we 
hardly dare call the result a Union victory. The rebels were attacking 
and could not carry our lines — honors were fairly even. In mid-Decem- 
ber the armies again faced each other, now on opposite sides of the 
Rappahannock at Fredericksburg. Every advantage rested with the 
southern army strongly intrenched on Marye's Heights a mile back from 
the swift flowing river. Great, indeed, must have been the political 
pressure to induce General Burnside to take the desperate chance of 
attacking when success was scarcely a possibility. A novice in war 
would have foreseen the inevitable result. Prodigies of valor were per- 
formed by our brave troops, but our army was defeated with loss of 
more than 10,000 in killed, wounded and missing, while the enemy's 
loss was comparatively small. 


This was my first battle. Our Third Brigade, First Division, Fifth 
Corps, was the last line of battle to be ordered forward to the slaughter. 
Fortunately the merciful night enshrouded us before we had time to 
rally for the final dash ; we were spared the frightful losses and terrible 
experiences of the gallant battalions whose thrice-decimated ranks 
had met inevitable defeat. It seems to me to-night, as it seemed to all 
of the participants then, that this fiasco, this complete and humiliating 
failure should have convinced both the soldier and the civilian, that only 
defeat and discouragement could result from another forward movement 
in winter ; but, not so. The "Onward to Richmond" cry and the "Peace 
at any price" cry, and the howls of the "Copperheads" of the North 


were so loud and persistent that another attack on the rebel stronghold 
was planned for January 20, 1863. The surface of mother earth was 
well frozen; the roads were hard and good, and the march began. 
Fortunately, again, the Great Commander of all the earthly armies, 
countermanded the order before we had marched many miles; that very 
afternoon the south wind blew softly and the softening moisture de- 
scended. Next morning the "chariot wheels" of the artillery "drove 
heavily" as they sank to the hub through the thin crust of frozen ground. 
The Army of the Potomac was literally "stuck in the mud." After a 
few days, well spent in building corduroy roads we laboriously but 
gladly made our way back to the shelter of our log-and-canvas domi- 
ciles. Thus passed into history the famous "Mud March" of the Army 
of the Potomac — there had been no "firing Hne" and no casualties. 

"onward to RICHMOND." 

After three months of reorganizing, reinforcement and drilling, the 
great army, now in full strength and full too of courage and enthu- 
siasm, again took up the "Onward to Richmond" march. Under the gal- 
lant Hooker whose victories in the West had won him prestige and fame 
in the East, success was anticipated. The initial movement of this, th^ 
Chancellorsville campaign, up the Rappahannock and across both the 
Rappanhannock and the Rapidan, by which the confederate intrench- 
ments were rendered worthless, was brilliantly conceived and admirably 
executed. The fatal mistake was the halt at Chancellorsville; had the 
march continued an hour longer, the army would have passed out of 
the "Wilderness" where its superiority of numbers would have given 
it a great advantage ; but, the halt at Chancellorsville, the wounding of 
the commanding general and other happenings which I need not narrate 
doomed us to failure. In less than one short week, the Army of the 
Potomac, mourning the loss of about 17,000 men, killed, wounded and 
missing, again sought safety behind the sheltering river. I should not 
omit to state, comrades, that here, as at Fredericksburg, the rear of 
the retreating army was protected by the valiant and rehable Forty- 
fourth New York. This second defeat, in a few months was very dis- 
couraging to the patriot army, and also very inspiriting to the rebel 

During the months of May and June the two armies moved leisurely 
northward, we by way of Manassas and Fairfax Court House; the 
Confederates via the rich Shenandoah valley, protected by the mountain 
wall which separated the two armies. By June 26 both armies were 
well across the Potomac, and both were in good fighting spirit. Lee's 
army flushed with its successive victories, boastfully regarded itself 
invincible; Hooker's men, maddened by this invasion of a free state 
were eager to meet and vanquish the rebel foe. At Gettysburg they 
have the opportunity. Gettysburg! "High-water mark of the Rebel- 
lion." An army of nearly 100,000 veteran rebel soldiers, confident of 
victory, a hundred miles directly north of the national capitol ; the slave 


holders and slave drivers of the South threatening to occupy our north- 
ern cities ; even to call the roll of their human chattels "at the foot 
of Bunker Hill monument." 

Let us now imagine ourselves standing July 2, 1863, at high noon 
on Little Round Top, looking north. Three miles away lie Gettysburg 
and Cemetery Hill — the latter now occupied by our shattered forces, 
so nearly defeated the previous afternoon. A mile or more, to the 
west, running nearly parallel to Cemetery Ridge is Seminary Ridge, held 
now by the marshalled forces of the rebel army. Round Top is, as yet 
unoccupied. It is the key to the field of battle — an ideal field; such a 
field and such a chance for open, field fighting on equal terms as the 
Army of the Potomac had rarely, if ever, before enjoyed. All the fore- 
noon our regiments, brigades and field batteries had been coming up. 
The Fifth Corps, after marching a great part of the preceding twenty- 
four hours, arrived about 8 A. M. 


Four o'clock in the afternoon had come and still there is no sound 
of battle. But listen ! The Fifth Corps bugles are sounding. Our 
"signal" men have just reported that two columns of Confederate soldiers 
with banners waving are rapidly marching to seize the coveted position. 
In a few minutes ten thousand "Boys in Blue," at "double quick" are 
hastening to repel the attack. A wide gap intervenes between the left 
of our troops on Cemetery Ridge and Round Top, the objective of both 
forces; when it is filled, only the Third Brigade of the first division — 
four small regiments numbering scarcely 1,200 rifles — remain. Only 
1,200! but they are all men-volunteers, every one, not a "bounty man" 
or a conscript among them. They were veterans too; they had fought 
under McClellan on the Peninsula and at Antietam, under Bumside at 
Fredericksburg, and under Hooker at Chancellorsville ; right well they 
knew that a great crisis, not only in the history of our nation, but 
also in the history of the world, was at hand. There was the Twentieth 
Maine, hardy woodsmen from "way down east;" the Sixteenth Michigan, 
their worthy companions ; the Eighty-third Pennsylvania, whose roster 
of "Fell in Battle" (282 names) was exceeded by but one of all the 
hundreds of regiments that followed the Stars and Stripes ; there, too, 
was the Forty-fourth New York, picked men from the Empire State — 
a regiment classed with the "300 fighting regiments of the war." These 
are the men whose task it is to seize and hold that hill, and they are 
not too late ; they gain the summit ten minutes in advance of the rebel 


A letter which I wrote a few days after the battle says Company 
E, "the Normal School Company," took ninety prisoners, which was 
nearly three times the number of muskets it carried. You naturally 
inquire as to how it came to pass that so many brave Texans could be 
"gobbled up" by so small a force of Yanks. This was the way it hap- 


pened. Our men were somewhat protected by large rocks and boul- 
ders, and, not far in front of the Union line were other rocks and boul- 
ders, which afforded considerable protection for the advancing foe, but 
from which it was very dangerous to retire when the main line retreated. 
Grasping the situation, some half-dozen men, led by First Sergeant 
Willett, sprang forward and received the surrender of the ninety Tex- 
ans, who found themselves caught as in a trap. I know that the prison- 
ers numbered at least ninety, for I counted them myself. One of them 
did me a great favor, for which, I fear, I did not thank him, but for 
which I have always been profoundly grateful. He stood directly in 
front of me begging me not to shoot him, when a bullet, from the 
musket of a brother Texan, entered his back. Probably he saved my life, 
or, at least, protected me from a severe wound. I commanded the 
little squad which conducted the prisoners to the rear. While I was 
gone, another line of battle was seen to be approaching and my company 
changed its position a little. When I returned I went directly to our 
first position, judging from appearances that the boys were lying close, 
when to my astonishment I saw that these men were all either dead 
or severely wounded. The new rebel line did not closely approach, 
fired but little, and soon withdrew ; then we went forward to view the 
work we had done. Our first volley, fired at close range, as they came 
into view at the brow of a sharp declivity, was very destructive — the 
dead lay all about, some in groups of half a dozen or more. 

The failure of Pickett's desperate charge on our centre, the fol- 
lowing day, is a matter of history. Lee's retreat was begun on July 4; 
by the morning of July 5 he was far away through a mountain gap. 

On July 5 I was over a considerable portion of the field, which 
presented a most horrible sight — literally square miles of the dead lying 
flat on their backs, as they had lain for two or three days, under a July 

Both armies fought at Gettysburg as probably they had never fought 
before. The Confederates, flushed with the series of victories to their 
credit, and further encouraged by the draft riots in our northern cities, 
were confident of success. The Unionists had a deep feeling that they 
were there to do and die, if need be, in defence of their homes and the 
free States now invaded by the boastful southron. 

General Meade has been severely criticized by the generals of 
both armies for not ordering a counter-charge when Pickett was so 
disastrously defeated. Had Grant or Sherman been commanding that 
counter-charge would probably have been made, with the possible re- 
sult of routing the rebel forces. I am not, however, altogether in sym- 
pathy with these criticisms. It is easy to prophesy after the event. 
General Meade doubtless knew better than any one else how narrowly 
his army escaped defeat on the nights of both July i and 2. 

It is well known, of course, that in the first day's battle, our forces, 
outnumbered two or three to one, were badly defeated, though not with- 
out inflicting severe losses on the enemy, and were forced to take refuge 


— if refuge it may be called — on Cemetery Hill. That night, or at early 
dawn of the next day, before the arrival of either the Fifth or Sixth 
Corps, was Lee's opportunity to capture the hill, capture or scatter the 
troops holding it, and thus open the way for using up the Union army 
by piecemeal. Was not Lee's failure to avail himself of this opportunity 
at least as great a mistake on his part as Meade's in not ordering 
the countercharge? 

"stonewall'^ jackson's death. 

It was the Duke of Wellington who said, "No one can foretell how 
a battle will result; all we can do is to make every possible preparation, 
then go in and do our best." At Chancellorsville, the vicissitudes of 
battle — the happenings which cannot be guarded against — all favored 
the enemy; all save one, and that one was the death of "Stonewall" 
Jackson, Lee's ablest lieutenant. Had Jackson at Gettysburg com- 
manded a corps — one third of the rebel army — the Gettysburg story 
might, and, I believe, not unlikely would, have been a story on which 
the Grand Army men of to-day would not delight to linger. 

At Gettysburg the vicissitudes of battle were quite in our favor. 
By accident, rather than by choice, our forces had the better position, 
an advantage which they never before enjoyed. At Gettysburg, almost 
accidentally, our forces gained and held to the end, the commanding 
position on Round Top ; this fact operated nearly as much in our favor 
as Jackson's staggering blow at Howard's Corps, contributed to rebel 
success at Chancellorsville. At Gettysburg Lee had no Jackson to 
duplicate the blow which gave him the victory in the former battle. 

MEADE and lee. 

As a commanding general Lee was, doubtless, Meade's superior, 
but in my judgment he made more strategic mistakes in those three 
days than Meade did; but, admitting, as perhaps we should, in the 
words of Colonel Alexander, Longstreet's chief of artillery, that "the 
enem> here lost the greatest opportunity they ever had for routing 
Lee's army by a prompt offensive," I am not sure but that in the light 
of subsequent history, Meade did his country a greater service by "miss- 
ing the opportunity" than he could have done by seizing it, and especially 
so, if, by seizing it, the war had soon been ended. To have ended the war 
with the South in the condition of a half-whipped boy unsubdued and 
defiant, would not permanently have settled the questions at issue. 

The sacrifices, sorrows and sufferings of nearly two years more 
of war, were most severe and deplorable, but Sherman's "March from 
Atlanta to the Sea" and Lee's "unconditional surrender" at Appomatox 
were the necessary antecedents to a lasting peace. 

We rejoice that so many of us have lived to realize that the final 
and complete success of the Union armies reunited the warring States, 
and that to-day we speak not of "free States" and "slave States," for 
all are free, and all are glad to be free, glad to be integral parts of a 


mighty nation, a "world power" and an inspiration to liberty and prog- 
ress for all peoples. 

Sacrifice has always been the price of national strength and solidar- 
ity. We mourn that the arbitrament of war demanded the life-blood 
of the bravest and best of our youthful countrymen, both of the North 
and of the South, but, more positively than ever before, are we now 
assured that the sacrifices of our patriot brothers were not in vain. 

"On Fame's eternal camping ground 

Their silent tents are spread 
And Glory guards with solemn round 

The bivouac of the dead ; 
Nor shall their glory be forgot 

While Fame her record keeps 
Or Honor points the hallowed spot 

Where Valor proudly sleeps." 


Contributed by Capt. O. L. Hunger. 

A regiment during three years' active service afifords a variety of 
striking individual experiences, which when told are of at least pass- 
ing interest. The incident itself is sometimes remembered while the 
identity of the person who figured in it has been lost to most of his 
comrades. The story that follows, at first attributed to another, is 
now confessed by Jerome B. Satterlee of Co. B to have been an 
event in his service with the 44th. It reminds one of Artemus Ward's 
effort in a like contingency, when having "surrounded" two rebels, 
intending to deliver them to his Captain, they politely declined to go 
with him and so pressed their invitation for him to be their guest, 
that he somewhat reluctantly became a boarder in one of the Con- 
federate hotels sometimes called rebel prisons. No doubt Satterlee's 
motives were equally patriotic. Then, too, the sentiment of the Golden 
Rule, so largely felt and practically applied by the mass of our Union 
Soldiery and particularly by the members of the 44th N. Y., could 
hardly fail to affect the sympathetic heart of a man who well knew 
that Rebels as well as Yanks sometimes suffered from thirst. We 
feel justified in quoting from his recent letter as follows: — "Some 
time ago in correspondence with a comrade, or in conversation with 
one, I related the experience, detailed substantially as it is written 
out here, as an illustration of how absolutely silly a man is liable to 
be even when the circumstances would apparently force the exercise 
of better sense. W^e were in a hot place, but the thought that I could 
refuse those fellows time to get a drink of water out of the spring 
that was right there did not occur to me until I lost out in the ex- 

We congratulate the captor-captive that his yielding to such a 
humanitarian impulse did not cost him his life and that at this writing 
he is still living and doing good work for his Country. 

The story follows: — "In the matter of my capture at Gaines Mill 
I was among those sent back to the original position after our partial 
break and rally on the left, and on my return I came upon and took 
into custody two men of a South Carolina regiment who had not 
succeeded in getting back in time. I reported to Capt. Larrabee with 
my prisoners and he directed me to hold them and I did so until the 
retreat was finally ordered, and undertook to take them off with us. 
They begged to be allowed to drink at a spring on the right bank of 
the creek a little to the left of the position of our Company, and I 
allowed them to drink, standing guard over them with no idea of any 
danger in the delay, but when I attempted to follow the rest, well, it 
was too close a thing front and rear and I became a prisoner in 



Albany, N. Y., Ellsworth Barracks, 

August 21, i86l. 
To the Editor of the Utica Morning Herald: 

I am anxious to have a few lines inserted in the Herald, in re- 
gard to the "People's Ellsworth Regiment," of which I am proud to 
say I am a member. Be it a shame to Oneida county that she hasi 
only three representatives in the regiment at the present writing. I 
will here say that Vernon has a "big thing." I allude to Dr. Landon, 
who is the tallest man in the regiment. He stands six feet six inches, 
and held a captain's commission in the Mexican war in which he 
served with distinction. There should be at least one company com- 
posed of and officered by men from our county. Herkimer, Madi- 
son, and Chenango have responded nobly to the call. Members are 
arriving daily from different parts of the state, which is steadily fill- 
ing up the regiment. Will not some of our patriotic young men, in 
the towns that have not taken action, be induced to make the effort 
immediately? Circulate your subscriptions in your respective towns. 
If you are not able to raise more than $20, do this and send your 
best man. Our regiment is composed of men representing nearly all 
the trades and professions, and many graduates from the best col- 
leges in the country. Many left good situations and made great sacri- 
fices willingly, esteeming it a duty to serve the country in its hour of 
peril. Major Stryker is in temporary command of the regiment. We 
are under drill from four to six hours each day. All our officers are 
experienced and competent men. Many of them formerly belonged to 
the celebrated Chicago Zouaves, and saw service with the Fire Zouaves 
at Bull Run. Our leisure hours are devoted to ball playing, reading, writ- 
ing, sparring, etc. We while away the evenings in singing, dancing and 
the like. We have a glee club called the "Ellsworth Glee Club," which 
discourses splendid music accompanied by a melodeon. We have a 
temperance organization which boasts of 106 members and is still in- 
creasing. The pledge is that we abstain from the use of intoxicating 
liquors while in the regiment, unless prescribed by the surgeon. I 
would say that our food is of the best quality in every respect and 
that we have all we want. We have excellent accommodations for 
washing, so none has an excuse for being unclean. Our uniform, which 
is to be the regular U. S., is expected this week. The fatigue suit, 
I understand, is to be a drab color, made up in Zouave style. The 
examining physician gave us a compliment by saying we were the 
finest body of men he ever examined. Many visitors are on the 
grounds each day. I heard one gentleman remark that he would see 
the regiment leave if he had to walk from Saratoga to do it. The 
father of the late Col. Ellsworth was on the grounds to-day and was 
very enthusiastically received by the boys. The Colonel has not been 
chosen as yet, but we can rest assured that he will be the right man 


Orett Ljman Munger, son of Lyman and Martha (Whitney) Mun- 
ger. born at Penn Yan, New York. July 7, 1843; enlisted August H, 
1862 and became a member of Company C, 44th N. Y. Volunteer In- 
fantry. At organization of Company he was made First Sergeant and 
later received promotions to be Second Lieutenant, First Lieutenant and 
Captain. From January 22 to August 16, 1864. he was acting Adju- 
tant of the Regiment. He had a part in the following battles and 
campaigns : Fredericksburg, Richards Ford, Mud March, Chancellors- 
ville, Upperville, Gettysburg, Jones Cross Roads, Wapping Heights, 
Bristoe Station, Rappahannock Station, Mine Run, Wilderness. Laurel 
Hill, Totopotomoy Creek, Bethesda Church, Cold Harbor, Siege of 
Petersburg and Poplar Springs Church. Was honorably mustered out 
October 3, 1864. 

Served the First National Bank of Mercer, Pa., as teller for two 
years and as Cashier for twelve years, resigning the latter position 
to accept business opportunity with his brothers in Chicago, in 1881, 
which City has since been his home. Is President Board of Trustees 
of McCabe Memorial M. E. Church, a member of the Military Order 
of the Loyal Legion, of the Grand Army of the Republic and of the 
Western Society Army of the Potomac of which he was President for 
the j-ear ending April 191 0. Is married and has six children. 


when found. The late Col. Farnham of the Fire Zouaves was to have 
been the Lieut. Colonel, but for his sudden and unexpected death, 
which was properly observed by the regiment. How can one think 
here of war, of strife and civil discord. We almost forget all these 
when we resume our sports. It seems more like a school, and, in fact, 
it is the "school of the soldier." Would that our soldiers might re- 
member that they are not only their country's defenders but her pride. 
She points to them as did the noble Roman matron to her jewels. 
They are no mercenaries, no tools of a despot, but intelligent and 
manly citizens, who imperil life for freedom and law, because they 
know their worth. They are the pride, too, of the loved ones at 
home. Many a mother speaks with tearful joy of her "boy" in the 
army; many a sister tells of a noble-hearted brother. Let these dear 
ones have no cause to blush for them when they shall return, as less 
pure, less worthy of their love and pride, than when they went forth 
at the call of duty. Yours for the Union, D. S., Jr. 



Headquarters People's Ellsworth Regiment, 

Albany, Oct. 8, 1861. 
To the Editor of the Utica Morning Herald: 

Our regiment is now full to the maximum standard, and the "boys" 
are anxiously awaiting marching orders. We shall remain here prob- 
ably not longer than ten days at the most. We paraded for review by 
His Excellency, Governor Morgan, yesterday and the people all say it 
was a fine affair. The Governor and his staff came upon the parade 
ground, well mounted and dressed in the full military uniform, and 
were received by the firing of the proper salute. About 800 of our 
men were on the ground with well filled knapsacks, which proved 
to be quite a load before the four hours were past, the time which we 
had to carry them. We marched before His Excellency in common, 
quick, and double quick time, went through various flanking march- 
ings and musket exercises, and the citizens say it was the best exhibi- 
tion of the kind ever witnessed in Albany. There were probably from 
ten to fifteen thousand spectators present of both sexes who seemed 
much pleased with the performance. 

We are using the Springfield musket now, but have the promise of 
soon exchanging them for the Minnie rifle musket. Our fatigue uni- 
forms, which are not like any other Zouave cut, are making, and those 
that have seen them say they are very nice. We expect to receive 
some pay from Uncle Sam's servant, the pa5miaster, in a few days, as 
the pay rolls are nearly completed. We have a fully organized Christian 
Association which promises to be a flourishing and profitable aflfair; 
and have also a Literary Society well under way, the exercises of which 
will be of a miscellaneous character, consisting of debates, essays, ora- 
tions, etc. H we carry a library, and we think we can, these institutions 
will be made of great use by way of guarding against the demoralizing 
influences of the camp, and keeping up a taste for literary pursuits. 
Health and hilarity pervade our ranks as much as ever, there being 
but one man in the hospital. The officers still retain the most un- 
shaken confidence of the soldiers, especially Col. Stryker, command- 
ing, who is loved and respected by the entire regiment and all who 
know him. 

Undoubtedly all are aware that the people of the great Empire State 
are looking to this, their "pet regiment," expecting hard work and 
fidelity to the glorious cause that has brought us together, and we 
trust they will not be disappointed in their expectations. We have no 
sympathy with any "peace measure." All the peace or compromise 
measure that our regiment will look at is the unconditional surrender 
of the Confederate Army, and the hanging of the secession leaders. 
Undoubtedly, should these semi-secession editors, and perfidious civi- 
lians, visit our barracks to promulgate their pernicious peace doctrines, 
they would find themselves under "marching orders" with very short 


time to "pack up." And they would probably fare no better in any 
regiment in our army. For the same love of country — a country, the 
principles of which are the most pure ever witnessed by intelligent 
beings — that animated our fathers, pervades the breasts of our soldiers 
in this trying hour. "Caesar aut nullus," cried the old Romans. So 
now our armies and patriotic men will shout, "Our country or nothing." 
Yours for the Union, M. Shaw. 



Headquarters People's Ellsworth Regiment, 

Albany, Oct. i6, 1861. 
To the Editor of the Utica Morning Herald : 

Our marching orders are at hand — we are ordered to leave our 
barracks next Monday at i p.m. for Washington. We are to be 
armed with the Minnie rifled muskets. The above orders were read 
on parade at 4 this p. m. The boys have been cheering nearly in- 
cessantly for two hours on the strength of this news. I write you 
these few lines in addition, hoping they may be somewhat interesting 
to the readers of the Herald. The various rumors that have been 
circulated respecting our marching orders and destination have kept 
the boys on the qui vive for the last fortnight. During this time 
Madam Rumor has appointed the day many times, and we have as 
often been disappointed. If some of these reports had been official, 
we should 'ere this have been encamped in the land of Secesh. Some 
would have located us in Missouri or Kentucky; others, in Virginia. 
I must admit that the state of affairs looks quite "dusty" in each of 
these departments. I am sure our companions in arms would welcome 
us wherever we might go. Our regiment, according to this morning's 
report, numbers 1,026 men. I think this number is not large enough 
by twenty-four men at least. Recruits continue to arrive daily. We 
will take them as long as we remain, Col. Stryler having the privi- 
lege to increase the regiment to 1,100 men. I am sorry there are not 
more Oneida county boys in this crack regiment. I am sure some will 
live to see the awful mistake they made in not coming here. The 
general health of the regiment is good and we are comfortably located 
in the large and spacious brick barracks which are so well adapted to 
the use made of them. We find much better protection here from the 
chilly nights of autumn than we did in the wooden barracks. If we 
now and then have a chill, which is but momentary, we do not suffer 
from the pangs of hunger, as our commissary department is always 
well stocked. Several members of Company D received last week 
from their fair friends, the patriotic young ladies of Norwich, several 
large boxes, which looked quite suspicious, owing to their great size, 
but when opened were found to contain a host of good things, such 
as an epicure might have envied. I, having a ticket for the collation, 
was able to judge of the goodness of the various edibles. If the fair 
donors had been present, they would have received many thanks for 
their kindness. 

Our parade ground is visited by hundreds daily to witness the drill 
and martial appearance of the boys, and none of them seem to regret 
having made the visit. Yesterday we were reviewed by General Rath- 
bone and staff, which attracted a crowd as usual. We went through 
the manual exercise and various battalion movements. But the main 
feature of the day was the "charge" made on double quick, the whole 


regiment being drawn up in line of battle. The other was the pre- 
sentation of a beautiful silk flag to Company F by the ladies of Al- 
bany. Presentations have been the order of the day for some time past. 
Many captains have received presents from their respective companies 
and friends. 

The regiment formed a hollow square previous to dismissal, for 
the purpose of introducing to the boys Mr. Ellsworth, father of the 
late Col. Ellsworth. When introduced by the Colonel, every soldier's 
head was uncovered and not a cheer was heard. We remained in this 
position some moments, expecting he would make some remarks. He 
seemed to make a careful survey of each man, and at last seemed to 
be so much affected that he was unable to speak. Perhaps his silence 
and the emotions which caused it told more than language could ex- 
press. The occasion was truly a solemn one for all. 

Rev. Mr. Pease, of Saratoga County, has been appointed Chaplain 
for the regiment. We have needed one for a long time, but I am confi- 
dent we have found the right man at last. Mr. Pease is a Presbyterian. 
He has traveled extensively in the Old World, thus having an oppor- 
tunity to store his mind with the incidents of his travels, and to study 
well the character and habits of men, consequently is well fitted for the 
position he has been urged to accept. He gave his first discourse last 
Sabbath. He remarked that he was of Old Revolutionary stock, his 
grandfather having fought at the battle of Bennington, and the fire of 
'76 burned in his breast. He came here not for pay or hoping to get 
office; all he wanted was his bread and butter. He now recognized 
no denomination, but was here as a Christian, hoping to do good 
among us, and to stand as an electric telegraph between the 44th and 

I have omitted much which is needless to repeat, as it was noticed 
in a letter of my comrade in last Saturday's Herald. 

I have been informed upon reliable authority that we are to have 
a grand reception in Washington, and, in fact, the whole route from 
here will be one continued ovation. In a few days, at least, we shall 
be near the scene of conflict, and if called upon shall endeavor 
to do our duty. We go to sustain a government to which all alike 
owe allegiance. It is not a war of hate and rapine, but one in 
which our principles and honor are involved. God is on our side. The 
sense of right is plain to all. It has the approval of conscience. It 
exalts the struggle into the heroic. We are fighting for truth (which 
is mighty and will prevail), for freedom, for national existence, for the 
hopes of humanity in all the future. We should go forth into battle 
with this motto, "God and our country," inscribed on our banners. 
When our work is done, we hope to return to our homes with our 
country redeemed, united and saved. 

Yours for the 44th, 

D. S. Jr., Co. D. 



Camp on Hall's Hill (Va.), Oct. 29, '61. 

After lunching, we slung knapsacks, and took up our march for 
Old Virginia, and how far do you think we plodded our way on Vir- 
ginia's sacred soil? No less than eighteen miles did I carry my "back 
sack" yesterday, and it was tough and no joking. The dust "flewed" 
and "blewed" until I almost thought I could sup on the dust in my 
throat. It was after i o'clock when we started, and at 8 p. m. I was 
taking (I must say enjoying) a nice supper at the hands of the Penn- 
sylvania 83d. It was the most acceptable feast I ever enjoyed. Our 
whole regiment was entertained. It was nothing less than an entertain- 
ment by the 83d boys, who kindly prepared an abundance of coffee for 
us. It has caused a feeling to arise that can never be blotted out, for 
it was so like a touch of Philadelphia love, that our boys discovered 
they were not too hoarse to cheer for their brother soldiers. We will 
stand by the Pennsylvania boys to the last. 

Our camp is on Hall's Hill, about five miles from the Rebels, and 
I presume the next time I write, if I do so again, I shall give you a 
full description of a live Rebel. Our camp was formerly occupied by 
the Rebels, and I feel that Little Mac is in a dusty place. You can 
rest assured that I slept well last night, and the ground seemed just 
the thing to sleep on after walking so great a distance on it. 

Gen. McClellan is a splendid looking officer. His general appear- 
ance is fine. The air with which he carries himself is just the kind 
which every officer should imitate. The number of officers on horse- 
back reminds me of the pictures of spirited horsemen dashing along 
regardless of life and limb. 

The boys did not all stand the march. A good many dropped out 
and were picked up by the ambulances. Some of them were sick and 
should not have started. Only two of Company C's boys fell out, and 
they were sick in the morning but would not remain behind. I stood 
it "like a book" and did my best to cheer on the men in their long and 
weary march. 



Death of a Soldier. — At a meeting of the members of Company F, 
44th (People's Ellsworth) Regiment, called in consequence of the death 
of their late esteemed comrade and fellow-soldier, Charles Chappell, 
on motion, it was unanimouslj^ resolved that a series of resolutions be 
drawn as expressive of their sense at this bereavement, and to forward 
to his afflicted family a copy thereof. 

In pursuance of the above, it is 
Resolved, That in the death of our late brother-soldier, Charles 
Chappell, we have lost a faithful comrade, the cause in which we are 
engaged an earnest supporter, and the service a young and promising 
soldier. Whatever may be our loss, or that of the army, in the early 
decease of our comrade, it "is our stern duty to bow to the mandate 
of an all-wise God, and in meek submission we acknowledge his right 
to rule among men, and feel that whatever he willeth is for our tem- 
poral and permanent good and welfare." 

Resolved, That to the parents and family of our deceased com- 
rade, we offer a soldier's heartfelt consolation and sympathy in this 
their hour of affliction. Though our own grief is keenly felt on this 
occasion, it must be as naught in comparison to that of an affectionate 
family. It is our fervent hope that the trial may be borne with resig- 
nation and fortitude, and we again ask them to accept our heartfelt 
sympathies in their bereavement. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded to the 
family of the deceased. 

Camp Butterfield, Hall's Hill, Va., November 26, 1861. 

Committee — John G. Vanderzee, color-sergeant; Robert F. Mc- 
Cormic, sergeant Company F; Samuel W. Chandler, corporal Com- 
pany F; George W. B. Seely, private Company F. 

John G. Vanderzee, President. 

George W. B. Seeley, Secretary. 



Headquarters 44th Regiment, N. Y. S. V. 

Camp Butterfield, Hall's Hill, Va. 

November 28th, 1861. 
To the Editor of the Utica Morning Herald: 

As your paper is taken by most of the citizens of Trenton and 
vicinity, I thought I would write a few lines to you to let you and my 
friends know how we are situated, and if you feel inclined you can 
publish them. We are encamped on Hall's Hill, one and one-half miles 
from Munson's Hill, and three miles from Fall's church. We arrived 
here the 28th of October, (just one week from the day we left Al- 
bany) about 7 :30 o'clock, after a tedious march of about ten hours and 
eighteen miles travel, and were quite surprised to find that the 83d Penn- 
sylvania regiment had pitched our tents and had a good warm supper 
ready for us, which we did ample justice to, I assure you. We are in 
Gen. Butterfield's Brigade and Porter's Divfsion. Our brigade is com- 
posed of the New York 17th and 44th regiments, and the Pennsylvania 
83rd, and Michigan i6th regiments. We drill about six hours a day, 
so you see we don't have much time to ourselves. We have knap- 
sack drill from 7 to 8 a. m. ; battalion drill from 10 to 12; and brigade 
drill from 2 to 5 p. m. We drill mostly in skirmishing, bayonet exer- 
cise and target shooting. The measles have broken out in camp, and 
most of the men have had them. We lost six men last week, whose 
names I here give : Company C, George W. Schermerhorn, of Albany 
county, and Nathan A. Wilson, of Salem, Washington county; Com- 
pany D, Elias D. Gardiner, of Burlington, Otsego county; Company 
E, Albert C. Belcher, of Newark Valley, Tioga county; Company F, 
Charles W. Chappel, of Schuyler Lake, Otsego county; Company I, 
John F. Hine, of Hamburg, Erie county. 

Last week Wednesday, our regiment, together with 71,000 more 
troops were reviewed by General McClellan and President Lincoln in 
a field of about 200 acres near Bailey's Cross Roads. It was the larg- 
est number of troops ever reviewed at one time. There was a perfect 
sea of heads as far as the eye could reach. From 9 o'clock a. m. till 
I p. m. every road leading to the review ground was crowded as far 
as you could see. At i o'clock the President and General made their 
appearance on the ground. They were greeted with cheers from the 
men as they passed, and our band struck up "Hail to the Chief." A 
salute from the batteries was also fired as they came upon the ground. 

Last Sunday General McClellan came to see us parade, and when 
we were done he told our Colonel that our regiment was the best 
drilled and finest looking regiment he had ever reviewed. That was 
something big for the Commander-in-Chief of the army to say, when 
there are so many fine regiments in the field. 

Last Tuesday night, a messenger came into camp post-haste, with 
the report that our pickets had been attacked by the rebels and driven 


The suljject of this sketch was horn in Chautauqua County. N. Y., 
in 1837. His family has furnished soldiers in all of our national 
wars. His brothers. Clinton D.. Silas C. and E. Hart were faithful 
soldiers in the Civil War. The subject of this sketch served as Private 
of Co. A, Sergeant and 2d Lieutenant of Co. H and Captain of Co. 
D. He was wounded in the battles of Second Bull Run and Bethesda 
Church and was in all the battles in which his regiment was engaged 
until w-ounded the second time. He was Acting Adjutant of the regi- 
ment from ]\Iay, 1862 until the following October and Assistant In- 
spector-General of the Third Brigade from January, 1863, until Febru- 
ary, 1864. He saved the flag from capture at the battle of Laurel Hill, 
when all the color-guard had been killed or disabled and commanded 
the regiment during the next ten days. 

He was commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel of the 23d U. S. C. T. 
but was imable to muster on account of wounds. He was graduated 
from Albion Academy, Wis. and Alfred University, N. Y., taught one 
year in the former, received the degree of A. B. and later the degree 
of A. M. from the latter. He was also graduated from the Albany 
Law School, received the degree of L.L.B., was admitted to the bar, 
and has practiced law since the war. Died at Cattaraugus, N. Y., Jan. 
I, 1911. 




in two miles. Five regiments were sent out, but it was found to be 
the old Pennsylvania 3rd regiment of cavalry that had been attacked, 
about nine miles beyond our lines. They were surrounded by the rebels 
and had to cut their way out. They lost 15 men, and a sorrier look- 
ing lot of men you never saw than they were when they came within 
our lines — some on foot — some on horseback — some minus hats, coats, 
etc., with their faces and arms scratched by the bushes. One Lieu- 
tenant came in the next morning with his head cut by a sabre; he had 
lain out in the woods all night. Our pickets were advanced one mile 
yesterday; they are now about three miles from Fall's Church towards 
Centerville. We expect to move on in a few days, but in what direc- 
tion we don't know; we hope it is South Carolina, for it is so cold 
here that we are willing to have a little fighting just for the sake of 
getting into a warmer climate. 

Yours for the country, 

Sergeant Gardner S. Parker, 
Company D, 44th Regiment, N. Y. S. V. 



Headquarters 44th Regiment, N. Y. S. V. 

Camp Butterfield, Hall's Hill, Va., 

January 6, 1862. 
When it was definitely known that the resignation of Major Mc- 
Kown had been accepted, last Saturday evening, and that it was his 
intention to leave for Albany in a very few days, the entire regi- 
ment assembled around his tent and gave him a parting serenade. 
After the music of the band had ceased Major McKown came from 
his tent and stated the reasons that had induced him to tender his 
resignation^ — which reasons were personal and intimately connected 
with the happiness of his family. While every officer and soldier 
deeply regretted the necessity which had caused him to leave a posi- 
tion which he has so well and so honorably filled, no^ one who listened 
to the reasons for his resignation, which he so eloquently and forcibly 
stated, could but admire the noble motives of filial duty which induced 
him to resign his commission. The address of the Major, who has 
ever had the respect and esteem of the entire regiment, was received 
with great applause; yet the cheers were mingled with sadness and 
regret at the thought of his departure. After Major McKown had 
retired, Colonel Stryker feelingly expressed to the regiment his deep 
regret at the loss of so valuable and experienced an officer, and was 
followed by Colonel McLean of the 83d Pennsylvania Regiment, and 
other officers, all expressing their kindest regard for the Major, and 
their sincere regret at the decision which he had made. Subsequently 
a letter, signed by every officer of the regiment, was presented to Major 
McKown, of which the following is a copy. The Major leaves for 
Albany Ho-day, and Captain E. P. Chapin, the senior Captain of the 
Regiment will doubtless be appointed to fill the vacancy created by 
Major McKown's resignation. R. 

Headquarters 44th Regiment N. Y. S. V., 

Hall's Hill, Va., Jan. 4, 1862. 
Major James McKown : 

Dear Sir — We, the undersigned officers of the 44th Regiment N. Y. 
S. v., having learned with feelings of the sincerest regret that, for 
private reasons intimately connected with the happiness and comfort 
of your family, you have decided to resign your commission as Major 
of this regiment, beg leave to express to you, before your departure 
from the camp, our high appreciation of your character as a faithful 
officer, a true gentleman, and a constant friend. 

Fully recognizing and appreciating those noble motives of patri- 
otism which induced you to leave the peaceful pursuits of home, and the 
dearest relations and enjoyments of domestic life, to assume the re- 
sponsible duties of that position which you have so well and honorably 
filled, we still more highly value those motives of filial duty which 


have persuaded you to abandon, the honor and rank of your office, that 
you might the better render protection and comfort to that one, who, 
like the Spartan mother, has given her every son for the preservation 
of her country. But, while we so highly appreciate your motives which 
induce you to join your family, we yet deeply regret your intended 
departure, since, as an officer, you have been faithful to every duty, 
as a gentleman, forgetful of no courtesy, and as a friend, true to every 
obligation. Be assured, sir, that when you leave our camp, you leave 
not one officer or soldier who is not your friend, and that you will 
carry with you the kindest wishes and sincerest prayers of all for your 
prosperity and happiness through life. 

S. W. Stryker, Col. 
James C. Rice, Lieut. Col. 
Wm. Frothingham, Surgeon. 
E. B. Knox, Adjutant. 
E. L. Bissell, Asst. Surgeon. 
Fred R. Mundy, Q. M. 

E. P. Chapin, Capt. Co. A. 
G. M. Love, 1st Lieut. Co. A. 

B. K. Kimberly, 2d Lieut. Co. A. 
W. H. Revere, Capt. Co. C. 
Alex. McRoberts, ist Lieut. Co. C. 
J. W. Anthes, 2d Lieut. Co. C. 

F. Conner, Capt. Co. D. 

R. B. Landon, 1st Lieut. Co. D. 
H. D. Burdick, 2d Lieut. Co. D. 
M. McN. Walsh, Capt. Co. E. 
B. R. Wood, 1st Lieut. Co. E. 
M. H. Cole, 2d Lieut. Co. E. 

C. Allen, Capt. Co. F. 
J. McMillan, ist Lieut. Co. F. 
C. W. Gibbs, 2d Lieut. Co. F. 
L. S. Larrabee, Capt. Co. B. 
H. Kelley, 1st Lieut. Co. B. 
C. E. Royce, 2d Lieut. Co. B. 
W. N. Banks, Capt. Co. H. 
C. A. Woodworth, ist Lieut. Co. H. 
E. A. Nash, 2d. Lieut. Co. H. 
W. L. Vanderlip, Capt. Co. G. 
C. E. Pease, ist Lieut. Co. G. 
C. R. Becker, 2d Lieut. Co. G. 
W. H. Miller, Capt. Co. K. 
W. W. Jones. 1st Lieut. Co. K. 
C. B. Gaskill, 2d Lieut. Co. K. 
A. W. Schaffer, Capt. Co. L 
E. L. Spencer, ist Lieut. Co. 1. 



Correspondence of Albany Evening Journal. 

Headquarters Forty-fourth N. Y. V. 
Bivouac, New Bridge, Va., June 9, 1862. 

History will record the engagement of the 27th ult., at Hanover 
Court House, in which the Forty-fourth Volunteers acted so destin- 
guiished and gallant a part, as one of the most severe and brilliant 
contests of the war. The enemy's force, composed of seven regiments 
of North Carolina and Virginia troops, under command of General 
Branch, numbered at least, in the aggregate, forty-five hundred. Our 
force consisted of the Forty-fourth New York Volunteers (450 men), 
Twenty-fifth New York Volunteers (250 men), Second Maine (310 
men) and a section of Martin's battery from Massachusetts. The battle 
ground was a circular field, bounded almost entirely by woods. 

The enemy was in front, and in the woods, on our right and left. 
At the enemy's first fire, many of the artillery horses were killed and 
wounded, the gunners driven from the artillery and the pieces were 
obliged to be abandoned, under the murderous fire. The Twenty-fifth 
New York Volunteers, which had fought so gallantly, and had lost 
so many officers and men in a previous engagement during the day, 
after sustaining the terrible fire of the enemy with great firmness for 
a few moments, was ordered to retire. The Second Maine and Forty- 
fourth New York were now left alone to wage this unequal contest. 
Again and again, the enemy attempted to advance and charge on our 
small but gallant line, but in vain. The cross-fire of the enemy was 
terrible, but our ranks were invincible. The field was covered with 
our dead and wounded, yet to yield a foot was annihilation. It now 
became nearly a question of life and death. To retreat would invite a 
charge upon our feeble line from the entire force of the enemy, which 
would have cut into fragments our whole command. There was but 
one alternative, to die if need he, but never to retreat. For nearly two 
hours this terrible struggle lasted. Our muskets became so heated by 
rapid firing, that many of them discharged in the act of loading, and 
obliged ua to cool them with water from our canteens. Our cart- 
ridges were fast being exhausted, although each man had sixty rounds, 
and amid the flying storm of balls, we emptied the cartridge boxes of 
the dead and dying. Frequently, the enemy now attempted to advance 
and charge upon us, but with balls and defiant cheers we kept him at 
bay. At length, our cartridges nearly failed. No reinforcements were 
in sight. It was a question of death or defeat; and, preferring the 
former to the latter, orders were given to fix bayonets and prepare for 
a charge. Just at this moment, reinforcements broke through the woods 
and ended the contest. CJod only knows with what eager, anxious, 
grateful eyes we looked upon those advancing colors, as the different 
regiments came to our assistance. The struggle had lasted nearly two 
hours. We lost thirty killed and seventy wounded — over twenty per 


cent of the entire force of our regiment engaged in the action. The 
enemy's loss was one hundred and seventy killed and four hundred 
wounded. Our flag was pierced with over forty balls. Torn and 
tattered, four times it was shot down, but willing patriotic hands, now 
cold in death, quickly raised it, and those stars and stripes proudly, 
defiantly, waved in the face of the enemy till he turned his back in 
retreat upon them. The victory was ours. The reinforcements pursued 
the routed enemy. We tenderly gathered up and cared for the wounded. 
The dead we collected, and fittingly laid out in the field, in line, with 
their faces looking toward the retreating foe. This last tender and 
beautiful act towards the dead, rendered by their surviving comrades, 
had scarcely been performed when the curtain of night fell, and the 
fearful, truthful tragedy was ended. I am. 

Respectfully yours, 

James C. Rice, Lieut. Col. 



During the late battle in which the 44th Regiment participated, 
Samuel W. Chandler, of this city, fell mortally wounded under the 
following circumstances : — The coloir-sergeant, while holding the flag, 
had been shot through the head and instantly killed. The flag was 
then seized by a man named Young, also of this city. No sooner had 
he raised it than he was shot, the ball severing his jugular vein. When 
he fell, young Chandler, who had been wounded in the leg and arm, 
and with his wounds bleeding, crept to the staff, and with great effort, 
raised it the third time. In a moment, he was shot in the breast and 
also fell. After lingering a few days in intense agony, death came to 
his relief. His last words were : "I regret that I have only one life 
to give to my country." 

It is impossible to conceive of an act of nobler daring than that of 
young Chandler. His two comrades lay dead at his feet. He was 
himself badly wounded. The balls were whistling thick and fast over 
his head. Knowing that it was almost certain death to attempt to 
raise the flag, he did not hesitate a moment, preferring to die in its 
defence. Young Chandler leaves a wife and two children who were 
dependent on him for support. We understand that they are in the 
most straitened circumstances. Would it not be well to testify our 
respect for the memory of this young hero by seeing to it that his 
family do not come to want? 

[The above, dated June 10, 1862, is thought to have been written by 
Lieut. Col. Rice, for the Albany Evening Journal. Young Chandler, 
wounded at Hanover Court House, Va., May 27, 1862, died June 3d. 



It will be seen by the following special order from Central Fitz- 
John Porter that several changes have been made in the list of officers 
of the Forty-fourth Regiment of this State. The promotion of Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Rice to the Colonelcy of the regiment is a proper recog- 
nition of the gallant services of that officer: — 

Headquarters Fifth Provisional Corps, 

Camp near Harrison's Landing, Va., 

July 14, 1862. 
Special Orders, No. 75. 

"The following named persons are hereby appointed to fill vacancies 
in their several regiments, occasioned by resignations, dismissals and 
losses in battle since June 26, 1862 : — * ********** 

"Forty-Fourth Regiment N. Y. S. Vols. — Lieutenant Col. James C 
Rice to be Colonel, vice Colonel S. W. Stryker, resigned July 4, 1862; 
Major Edward P. Chapin to be Lieutenant Colonel, vice Lieutenant 
Col. James C. Rice, promoted July 4, 1862; Captain Freeman Connor 
to be Major, vice Major Edward P. Chapin, promoted July 4, 1862; 
First Lieutenant Edward B. Knox to be Captain, vice Captain Freeman 
Conner, promoted July 4, 1862; Second Lieutenant C. D. Gaskill to be 
First Lieutenant, vice First Lieutenant Jones, died May 14, 1862; First 
Sergeant William R. Bourne to be Second Lieutenant, vice Second 
Lieutenant C. D. Gaskill, promoted May 14, 1862; First Sergeant James 
H. Russell to be Second Lieutenant, vice Second Lieutenant J. W. 
Anthes, promoted June i, 1862. ************* 

"These promotions are made for gallant and meritorious conduct 
on the field of battle, and are subject to the confirmation of the gov- 
ernors of their respective states. 

"By command of Brigadier General F. J. Porter. 

"Fred. F. Locke. Asst. Adjt. Gen. 

"Official : 

"R. T. Auchmutty, A. A. G. (ist Div.) Thomas B. Hoyt, A. A. 
G. (3d Brig.)" 
[Above thought to have appeared in the Albany Evening Journal, — Ed.] 



Headquarters Forty-fourth Reg. N. Y. V. 

Bivouac, near Harrison's Landing, Va., 

On the James River, July i6, 1862. 
Editors of the Evening Journal: 

The officers and privates of this regiment desire, through the 
columns of your extensively circulated paper, to call the attention of 
the friends of the Forty-fourth Regiment New York Volunteers to the 
condition and wants of the same. It is now about nine months since 
this regiment left its rendezvous at Albany to join the Army of the 
Potomac. Immediately on reaching Washington it was assigned to 
Butterfield's brigade. This brigade was encamped in front of our 
National Capitol during the winter. Here under command of General 
Butterfield, it acquired the efficiency and discipline which have since 
enabled it to gain its worthiest laurels. This brigade has been among 
the foremost in the advance of the Army of the Potomac, sharing its 
duties, its fortunes and its victories. Prominent in every action of the 
brigade has been the Forty-fourth, mingling the blood of its officers 
and men on every field, and adding new lustre to the arms of the 
Empire State. This regiment has won a reputation by its deeds. It 
has bought a name upon the battlefield. The casualties of war have 
greatly reduced its numbers, but it has been an honorable reduction. 
Side by side with the Forty-fourth has been that excellent regiment 
the Eighty-third Pennsylvania Volunteers, commanded by the late gal- 
lant Col. McLean, composed of like material, rivals only in high and 
soldierly conduct. There exists between the two regiments a mutual 
feeling of attachment. At all times placed under like circumstances, 
the present condition of the two regiments is similar. 

The citizens of Pennsylvania, and especially the people of Erie, 
have taken measures to abundantly supply the wanting members of the 
83d Pennsylvania. Will not the friends of the 44th and the citizens 
of the State of New York generously increase its numbers, that it may 
go on side by side With its comrades from the old Keystone States, 
winning new victories for our country and our flag? Will not every 
town and ward, village and hamlet throughout the great State of New 
York, send one good man from their midst to fill up our ranks? Are 
there not hundreds of young men throughout our State willing to 
make any sacrifice to preserve our country, when to outlive that 
country's safety and glory is worse than a thousand deaths? Young 
men of New York, we welcome you to our ranks. We ask you to join 
us, determined never to leave the field until our arms shall be crowned 
with victory, and peace be restored throughout our whole land. 

Acting Adjutant Nash, 44th Regiment. 


Born Lafayette, Xew York. January 22. 18.^6. Moved near Syra- 
cuse ; later to Onondaga Valley. Educated at Onondaga Academy, 
graduating at State Normal School. Taught at Onondaga Academy, 
Roscoe (Illinois) High School and elsewhere; in city engineer's office, 
Syracuse; civil engineering (railroad surveys) in Illinois, Wisconsin, 
Minnesota and Michigan; merchandising in Michigan and New York; 
in Secretary of State's Office, Michigan; now over twenty years in 
United States Bureau (formerly Department of Lalior), Washington. 
Married. 1864, Helen Chamherlain who died in 1873. leaving twoi sons 
residing in Western New York ; 1876 married Josephine Pearson who 
with two daughters reside with him. 



Fifth Day's Fight at the Battle of Fredericksburg. 
Dear Sir: 

To-day I am on my knapsack for a seat, on the brick sidewalk of 
Main Street, Fredericksburg. The batteries are playing around us, 
and the musketry occasionally throws in its voice to make the din of 
war complete. 

The boys of Company E crossed the Rappahannock on Saturday 
at 3 p.m. We were marched directly through the town, along or near 
the railroad. As we neared the outskirts of the town, a destructive 
fire poured upon us. We were ordered to lie down, so as to get under 
cover of a small hill in front of us. I thought, then, that it was more 
galling to stand the enemy's fire after this fashion than to be actively 
engaged. We lay in the mud, however, until we were again ordered 
forward. We advanced in line of battle up quite a steep hill, march- 
ing directly to the front of the enemy's fire, which was very severe, 
volley after volley thundering forth at the briefest possible intervals. 
Many of the 44th fell wounded, and our Color Sergeant was killed. 
Our Adjutant and Lieutenant Colonel were wounded in the arms. The 
command devolved upon Major Knox. The brigade was at the summit 
of the hill. The order to "lie down" was again given, and as soon 
countermanded ; and we rushed on, to relieve others in front, who were 
sheltered by a little hill and were without ammunition. The 13th New 
Hampshire broke under the severe fire, and ran back a few rods to the 
left of our regiment, crowding our company some, but the regiment 
kept the line finely. We were out from an hour before sunset on 
Saturday till 10 o'clock p.m. on Sunday; and we were expecting every 
minute to march into action. 

I have to hurry oflf my letter, or I shall fail to send it, so excuse 
the tumble-down news that I throw together. 

Two only of the Normal School company were hurt : Geo. McBlain, 
shot in the leg, (died of his wounds Feb. 9, '63) and W. W. Munson, 
missing. Capt. Kimball was hit by two spent balls, but without result- 
ing in serious injury. Of the regiment only one was killed — the Color 
Sergeant — and about 40 were wounded.* 

We are having a terrible battle here, but have high hopes in the 
Ruler of all things, that we shall ultimately succeed. 

I am writing to you on a blank leaf from an old ledger of a rebel 
merchant. My sheet must remain unfinished, as I am to send this by 
a sergeant across the river at once. 

I remain as true and firm in battle, as I hope to be in the battle 
of life. Yours, etc., 


P. S. — In my other letter, which was lost, I mentioned the deaths of 
Albert Smith and Thompson Barrick. C. H. W. 

(From "Journal" of Dec. 20, 1862.) 
*[The records show that at this battle the 44th Reg. lost 7 killed and 
died of wounds, 35 wounded and i captured.] 



We make the following extracts from a letter written by a member 
of Company F, 44th (Ellsworth) Regiment: 

We left our new camp on the 28th of May, (1863) and are now at 
Banks' Ford, a very handsome place. Our brigade extends from Banks' 
Ford to Richard's Ford, a distance of about eight miles. There are four 
regiments in this brigade, viz : the 83d Pennsylvania, 20th Maine, i6th 
Michigan, and 44th New York Volunteers. When we came here there 
was one company of cavalry doing picket which we relieved. Our 
regiment is in two parts — the right wing at the right of the Ford, and 
the left wing at or near the centre — and the ist Ohio battery of six 
brass twelve pounders — three guns with each wing. 

The rebel pickets are on the other side of the river, and ours this 
side. They dO' not fire at each other. The pickets of both sides go 
in swimming. The rebel pickets are not permitted to converse with 
us. All they say is, if we don't fire, they will not. To-day one iolf 
their picketsi was sitting with his back turned toward us, and one of 
our boys, named Lynch, swam over before he was discovered by the 
"reb," and ejaculated, "Hello, old boy, what are you doing there?" 
The fellow; looked around apparently amazed at seeing a Union soldier 
in the water, and replied, "Come over here quick." Lynch "couldn't 
see it" in that light, and immediately returned to his companions. 

Another of the boys swam across and got a Richmond paper, and 
came back to camp "safe and sound." 

As I remarked before this is the nicest place I have ever seen 
since leaving home. I write this letter in an old house — or, at least, 
made old by the soldiers. It is pretty well gone to ruin. But I don't 
think we can enjoy the pleasure of stopping here much longer, as, 
while I am writing, it is intimated by the "knowing ones" that we have 
received orders to move. If»we stay, I shall endeavor to give you a 
better idea of the place in my next. H. B. 



Bivouac of 44th Reg't, N. Y. Vols., 

Kelly's Ford, Rappahannock River, 

June 6. 1863. 
To THE Editor of the Springville Herald : 

I herewith send you a photograph of the old flag of the Forty- 
fourth Regiment which has obtained some celebrity through the news- 
papers. The people of Springville have a heritage in this flag, for 
Springville valor has sustained it in all the trying scenes through which 
it has passed, and its glory has been purchased with the blood of her 
truest and noblest sons. The names of Myers, Walker, and Hammond 
should be held in lasting remembrance as long as valor and country 
are cherished among men. These young men yielded up their lives to 
vindicate the honor of this flag, and maintain the integrity of the 
Union; and their names should not be allowed to sink into oblivion. 
Deeds of valor and heroism should be regarded among the choicest 
treasures of a free people, and every town should see to it, that the 
sacrifices and achievements of her sons are not forgotten, but treasured 
up in grateful hearts, and transmitted as a priceless legacy to future 

Mr. Editor, will you put this photograph in a frame and hang it 
up in your office, and let it commemorate the heroic deeds of *Jerome 
Myers, who fought at Yorktown, Hanover and Gaines Mill, and who 
fell with his face to the foe on the bloody field of Malvern ; and let it 
speak also of the indomitable courage and heroic endurance of *Eugene 
Walker, and *Henry Hammond, who followed it all through the Penin- 
sular campaign, and at last fell, amid gloom and defeat, on the 
sanguinary plains of Manassas. And if there be any among you who 
are praying and striving for an inglorious peace let this tattered banner 
appeal to what honor and manhood there is left in them, and say 
whether the blood of our martyred heroes shall have been shed in vain. 

Let it be known that every man from the town of Concord in the 
Ellsworth Regiment, without an exception, has followed the fortunes 
of this flag without a murmur of discontent, and they are entitled to 
no small share of its glory. There are but two of them with us now, 
Spaulding and Steams, tried veterans, than whom none braver or truer 
ever carried a musket. 

The health of the army, so far as I am able to learn, is excellent, 
and their spirits undaunted, not over anxious, but always ready for a 
fight. Yours for the war, 

E. L. Harris, 
44th N. Y. V. 
♦[Jerome Myers, k. in ac. July i, '62, Malvern Hill, Eugene Walker, k. 
in ac. Aug. 30, '62, Groveton. Henry E. Hammond of Co. A, w. in ac. 
at Groveton, Aug. 30, '62, and died of his wounds Sept. 13, '62.] 



On the Battle Field, near 

Gettysburg, Pa., July 4, 1863. 
Editors of Buffalo Morning Express : 

Knowing that a brief account of our summer campaign (thus far) 
would be interesting to most of your readers, I send you this. Our regi- 
ment broke up camp near Falmouth, Va., May 28th, and moved up 
the Rappahannock to Banks' Ford, where we did picket duty seven 
days. We then moved to Kemper's Ford, halting at Crittenden's Mills 
a day or two, and doing picket duty on our front and rear. On the 
13th of June we left Kemper's Ford and moved to Morrisville where 
we joined our Corps, and thence, via Catlett's and Bristow Stations, 
to Manassas Junction. On the 17th we moved across Bull Run, passed 
to the north of Centreville and halted at Gum Springs, having marched 
21 miles during one of the hottest days of the season. Thence, on the 
igth, to Aldie Gap. Here, after resting a day, we moved to Middle- 
burg, supporting Pleasanton's Cavalry, and driving Stuart from his 
position, across Loudon Valley to Ashby's Gap, our Brigade being 
actively engaged skirmishing the whole distance. Our regiment lost 
but two men. Returned to Aldie the next day. Left Aldie on the 26th, 
passed through Leesburg, crossed the Potomac at Edward's Ferry, and 
halted near Poolesville, Md. Thence, next day, to Frederick. Left 
Frederick on the 29th and moved to Liberty. June 30th, marched to 
Union Mills, via Johnsville, Union Bridge, Union Town, Frizellburgh, 
and Devilbiss' Mills. Started about noon, July ist, halted at Hanover, 
Pa., took a hasty cup of coffee and resumed our march, moving toward 
Gettysburg (our advance being already engaged). The people turned 
out en masse, cheering us on and offering us food and water. After 
marching nearly all night we arrived on the field of action and posi- 
tion (July 2d, 3 p. m.) on a rocky knoll, our Corps being the extreme 
left of our line. The enemy made desperate attempts to dislodge us, 
but were repulsed with fearful loss, leaving us in possession of the 
field and of many prisoners and small arms. Our regiment lost ill 
killed and wounded. Company A, out of 40 men, lost 4 killed, 10 
seriously wounded, 8 slightly wounded. Yesterday we changed position, 
and, being in reserve, were not engaged. To-day it is evident we have 
driven the enemy. Everything looks favorable. 

Complete list of killed and wounded in Company A. Killed : — 
Corporal Joseph Kraft; Privates — Chester Smith, John Look, John 
Simons. Wounded: — Sergeant James B. Stormes, wrist; Sergeant 
Allen J. Hurd, neck, badly ; Corp. Wm. G. Cunningham, head and arm ; 
Corp. Henry C. Kendall, eye, slight; Privates — Robt. C. Burns, thigh; 
Ferdinand Bennett, back; Lewis G. Ferrand, face; John Steele, thigh; 
Henry Brehle, slight; Joseph Hannagan, leg; Thomas Hunt, leg (since 
amputated and is doing well); Jacob Wagner, slight; William Day, 


slight; Sherwood A. Cheeseman, slight, in foot; Sergt. E. L. Harris, 
Privates Geo. D. Conger, Henry White (the last three very slight, 
not disabled for active duty). 

After the engagement every man of my company secured and 
brought a rebel musket from the field. 

B. K. KiMBERLY, Capt. Co. A., 44th N. Y. V. 



Middletown, Md., 

July 8, 1863. 
My Friends at Home : 

We came into this town this morning, having had a very hard 
march in the mud and rain. Most of the army is encamped near here. 
We are within eight miles of the old Antietam battle ground. It is 
now 3 p. m. Whether we shall move before morning I cannot tell. We 
have just received the news of the fall of Vicksburg. This morning 
we received another mail ; I got for my share six letters and about as 
many papers. I assure you, I was glad to hear from home. I have 
read each letter over a half dozen times. The latest was June 30th. 
This as the second mail we have had since we left the Rappahannock. 
I wrote you immediately after the battle of Gettysburg. This campaign 
has been a hard one so far, but I stand it first-rate. The day before 
the battle, we marched from 8 o'clock in the morning until twelve at 
night, moved again at three in the morning, July 2d, marched four 
miles to Che battlefield, maneuvered around until 4 p. m., when the 
rebels advanced, and from that time until dark we had hot work. Our 
Corps was on the left of the center, where the rebel Longstreet tried 
to break through and turn our lines. Our brigade lay on the side hill. 
It was covered with large stones. We threw up a small breast-work 
to protect us. I was where I could see nearly one half the field. At 
our right there were several battle fields. I could see the two armies 
advance. The lines would sway to and fro. The second and third 
Corps were in these fields. The rebels drove our men across these) 
fields twice ; our men would fall back, re-form, and then advance again. 
The second time our boys advanced, they held the field. Firing ceased 
about 8 p. m., and then we went to work caring for our wounded. 
Our regiment lost very heavily; iii out of 300. Our company lost 
more than any other company in the regiment, 22 out of 40, had 5 
killed. Each company cared for their wounded. Knowlton (Co. A.), 
from Forestville, was badly wounded in the knee. I helped carry him 
off from the field. The last I heard from him, he was doing well. Both 
of my tent-mates were wounded. After we had carried our wounded 
off from the field, we then buried our dead. Three boys from ouil 
company together with myself, carried four of our dead comrades 
back. It seemed hard, I tell you. They had stood right up beside us, 
in the ranks all through everything until now. 

About II o'clock that night, our company went down to the front 
on picket. Our lines were in the woods from where the rebels had 
advanced on us. Their dead and wounded lay in every direction, the 
wounded calling for water. Not twelve feet from my post lay three 
wounded, and two dead rebels. One of the wounded died while I was 
on my post. I did all I could for him, gave him some water from my 
canteen. The other two I made as comfortable as I could, wet their 


wounds and covered them up with a blanket. They were not very 
badly wounded, having been shot in the legs so that they could not 
walk. I had a long talk with them. They told me that they belonged 
to the Texas brigade, Hood's division, Longstreet's corps, and that they 
had never been repulsed before. They were large and noble-looking 
men. They were the same brigade that advanced upon us at Gaines 
Mills, on the Chickahominy, one year ago. After a while one of them 
fell asleep. I tell you, that was the most lonesome picket duty I ever 
did. I got from the one that died while I was on my post, a body* 
belt and a spoon with his name marked on it. I shall try and send 
them home. 

The next day, the 3d, there was the heaviest cannonading I ever 
heard. On the morning of the 4th, I went over the battle field, and 
such sights I never saw before, and never wish to again. In places 
our dead and theirs lay side by side. Dead artillery horses and broken 
artillery lay in every direction. In one place I saw six artillery horses 
all harnessed and hitched to a limber. They had all been killed by 
a shell, and lay in their harness just where they stood. Our loss must 
be very heavy. 

The battle of Gettysburg belongs to the rank and file of the army 
of the Potomac. The battle was not won by any superior handling 
of the troops; after our lines were once formed, they stood so. It 
was by the stubborn bravery of the men that the battle was won for us. 
I never saw the troops behave better. There was no skedadling to the 
rear; every man did his duty, and when our men did fall back, it was 
done in order. On the morning of the sth, our brigade advanced over 
the field, but found no enemy. The six Corps were ordered forward, 
and we joined our division and moved in this direction. Last night 
we encamped near Emmetsburg. Gen. Sykes commanded our Corps 
(the 5th), Gen. Griffin our division (the ist), and our Colonel (Rice) 
our brigade. 

Col. Vincent, who has commanded our brigade for the last three 
months, was badly wounded at Gettysburg. I have since heard that he 
was dead. We have three divisions in our Corps: the 1st, ours; the 
2nd, a division of regulars ; and the 3d, the Pennsylvania Corps, that 
Gen. Meade used to command. I must be closing, as it is nearly time 
for me to be getting my supper. I shall have fresh beef, hard bread 
and coffee for my supper. Write often. Good-bye, 


[Above appeared in the Dunkirk Union in its issue of Aug. 5, 1863. 



A son of Joshua and Samantha Norris, of Barrington, in this 
county (Yates), died in hospital in Gettysburg, Pa., July 22, 1863, from 
the effects of wounds received in the battle at that place. 

Nelson, as he was familiarly called, was a retired, sedate and 
peaceable young man, and was but little known out of the domestic 
circle in which he moved. In 1862, he was induced to enlist at the 
call of the President and enrolled his name among the defenders of 
his country's rights, in a company of men raised in this county under 
command of Capt. Bennett Hunger of Penn Yan. This company was 
subsequently attached to the 44th regiment N. Y. V. and was soon sent 
to Virginia. Here Nelson remained and participated in the action at 
Fredericksburg under Burnside. During a part of the winter follow- 
ing, he was confined to the hospital by sickness. He recovered, how- 
ever, in time to bear his share of duty in the action of the army of the 
Potomac under Hooker, and then marched with Meade to Pennsyl- 
vania, and took part in the action of Gettysburg. Here he was shot 
through the leg on the 2d of July, and subsequently suffered amputa- 
tion above the knee of the right leg. Under date of July 14th, he 
wrote to his mother, acquainting her with his situation, and seems 
to have been cheerful. On the i6th, he wrote again, saying, "he was in 
good spirits, had good attendance and was doing well." Time rolled 
on with no tidings, finally a letter was received by the anxious ones at 
home, dated Philadelphia, July 28th, from Mr. George Bringhurst, who 
had been his nurse, conveying the melancholy intelligence that Nelson 
had died on the 22nd inst., in peaceful resignation to his lot, and did 
not regret his fate. 

His comrades in the army, we learn by a letter to us, received news 
of his demise with sorrowful feelings. He had endeared himself to 
them. His officers give him the reputation of a good, faithful, and 
trusty soldier. Here is another life offered up on the altar of human 
rights. His age was 27 years. He was unmarried, but leaves a large 
circle of relatives in this region to mourn the sad cause that called him 
from his home and consigned him to the time honored grave of a sol- 

He rests in peace, and his humble name will be handed to posterity 
as one of the martyrs who fell a victim to the horrid and unnecessary 
war which has been forced upon this once happy country, by a rascally 
set of blacklegging, thieving politicians, who have been the cause of all 
the unnecessary bloodshed and sorrow which has spread so much gloom 
over the land. But these young men have died in a good cause. Let 
us cherish their memory. 


The subject of this sketch joined Company C of the 44th N. Y. 
V. I. in Aug., 1862 and was soon afterwards appointed Sergeant. 
He had command of his Company when it was stationed at Alexandria, 
Va., the winter after the Battle of Rappahannock Station, in which 
battle he was engaged. While in front of Petersburg he was detached 
to I\Iajor Jacklin's Company of sharp-shooters and, while so detached 
was transferred to Company D, 140th N. Y. V. L 

Sergeant Powell relates that in April. 1865, Sergeant Ackley 
and himself by a short cut across the country found themselves where 
the cavalry were retreating before the Confederate infantry; so that 
they turned their heels to the enemy and soon saw the Corps flag 
emerge from the woods and the 15th N. Y. Heavy Art, were formed 
in line and they went in with them ; soon the firing ceased and word 
came down the line "Lee has surrendered." You that were there 
know the rest. 

Shortly after he was transferred to the 5th N. Y. Veteran Inf., and 
after the Grand Review in Washington, which he viewed from the 
Virginia side of the Potomac, he was sent to Hart's Island, New York 
Harbor and discharged. 

Served eight years as Sheriff and Deputy in Ottawa Co., Kansas ; 
also one term as Police Judge of the City of Minneapolis. Kansas, and 
is to-dav a farmer. 



.■nTT_r;~N rGTJMDATTON?^ ? 



Camp near Warrenton, Va., 

Tuesday, July 28th, 1863. 

When the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps crossed the Pennsylvania 
line the troops were halted and eloquently addressed by some patriotic 
speaker, and that night I passed them on the way to Hanover and 
they were all singing or whistling. At Gettysburg many of the Penn- 
sylvania troops fought on their own farms — in sight of their fathers' 
houses; some fell there — their blood mingling with soil they had tilled 
in their youth. One boy fifteen years old, from near Gettysburg, went 
into the fight with his target rifle and fought until he was killed. Such 
heroism puts to shame the cowardly conduct of men, who at home are 
resisting or evading the draft. 

Now, when our successes foreshadow immediate peace honorably 
made, every man should stand firm by the government and, if needs 
be, come down and share with our country's defenders their perils 
and privations and their immortal honor. The riots in New York City 
and State, are a disgrace which will yet be remembered with burning 
shame. Blank cartridges should have been used after bullets, grape, 
and cannister had done their work and taught the rioters their just 
punishment and shown the danger of resisting the law. I hope that 
henceforth the draft will meet with no opposition, but if it does, I wish 
that the 44th might be summoned to enforce it. I know how well 'twould 
do its duty. It would use no blank cartridges. Every regiment in the 
army is anxious to see some of the "home-guards" in the field, and 
every one of them would rejoice at the chance of quelling the riots at 
home and enforcing the conscription law at the point of the bayonet. 

I believe, however, that after a few timely lessons to the conscript 
opposers there will be no difficulty, and that soon our decimated regi- 
ments may be filled to their maximum number and our foreshadowed 
victories hastened so the "olive branch" will supersede the sword, and 
the glorious "Stars and Stripes" brighter, purer and prouder than ever 
continue to float 

"O'er the land of the free 
And the home of the brave." 

God is on our side and sooner or later we shall triumph. 

I learned with pain of the death of Col. E. B. Smith. Our county 
begins to feel its loss in its heroes who have honorably fallen. May 
their memory and good deeds be so cherished by the people of Chen- 
ango that the prestige she has already won shall not be lost by any dis- 
graceful resistance of the draft or any cessation of her laudable sup- 
port of soldiers now representing her in the field. 

There are but few Norwich boys left in the 44th. Billy Lamb is 
in Fairfax Seminary Hospital, at Alexandria. Henry Dickson is in the 
Invalid Corps. Bill Lane is at Annapolis in the Dispensary. Henry 


Todd was wounded at Gettysburg — not dangerously — and is in some 
hospital. I know not what one. Gideon Evans, P. S. Frink, Jeff Carr, 
George, James and myself still flourish. Everything looks more en- 
couraging than ever before since the commencement of the war. Al- 
ready the curtain of peace has commenced dropping on this scene of 
carnage and its golden fingers shine brighter than ever. In the army 
we are joyous, and sanguine of the speedy termination of the war, for 
we see ultimate victory close at hand. The rebellion is in its death 
throes and soon its epitaph will be written in letters of blood amongst 
the records of nations' crimes and follies. I should be glad to hear 
from you often, though I know my letters hardly interest you or re- 
compense you for your time and trouble. G. H. S. 

[Above thought to have been published in Utica Morning Her- 
ald.— Ed.] 



Peter Schaffer, of the 44th N. Y. V., from this village, who was 
reported as missing after the battle of Gettysburg finally turns up at 
Annapolis, Md., whence he writes under date of August 4th, to friends 
here who permit us to extract as follows : 

The 44th reached Hanover on the ist day of July. We thefti 
marched all night and reached Gettysburg on the next day. They let 
us rest about three hours and then we went into the fight. This was 
about four o'clock and I was taken prisoner about half past five. 
Company B was out skirmishing and when I was taken the rebels 
flanked us and got in the rear of us. 

The rebels kept us until the 5th of July and then started us for 
Stanton, a distance of 190 miles. This was indeed a hard and most 
tedious journey, abounding in incidents and privations which I have 
not time to relate now. They gave us a pint of flour and a half pound 
of fresh meat for three days' rations. I verily came "within one" of 
starving to death. We went from Stanton to Richmond in the cars 
130 miles — reached Richmond on the 22nd of July. We were there 
put on Belle Island and received a pint of bean soup and a small piece 
of bread at night — the soup would sometimes have as many as nine or 
ten beans in it. In the morning we would get a small piece of bread. 
I never was so hungry before in my life ; I thought of your well-filled 
table a good many times while I was a prisoner. 

On the first day of August we started for City Point. After we 
got aboard the vessel we found plenty to eat. We arrived at this 
place (Annapolis) yesterday, the third, having been paroled. 



Camp at Beverly Ford, Va., 

August 15th, 1863. 
Friend Stebbins: 

At length the Army of the Potomac appears to have settled down 
for a season of rest. For an entire week we have been permitted to 
remain in one camp. We have been so constantly on the move for two 
months past that it seems odd enough to be quiet even for that length 
of time. It does not come unacceptably, however. Although in good 
spirits and willing to continue marching, we were nearly worn out. 
Our sleek and fleshy bodies and limbs of last spring had become lank 
and lean. Perhaps we had developed a larger quantity of muscle, but 
the fat had somehow disappeared. Bread may be the staff of lifev 
but when it comes in the shape of hard tack for a couple of months or 
so, the staff may possibly begin to fail of doing what is required. We 
are now drawing soft bread and otherwise, full rations. The effect is 
almost marvelous. The wearisome, careworn look is succeeded by 
cheerful, gladsome smiles, and we are becoming like ourselves again. 
By the time our reinforcements arrive, the army will be ready to com- 
mence another campaign with all the vigor and energy needful to make 
it a successful one. The glorious news from the South and Southwest, 
not only gladdens our hearts, but makes us more anxious if possible 
to do sometliing that will make us not ashamed of the "Army of the 
Potomac." I believe the army was never as ready and anxious to be 
at work against the enemy as now. Somehow, we have got the idea, 
that when the army under Lee is conquered, the war will soon be over. 
That we consider our mission and are confident of accomplishing it. 
But while we expect to see the Rebel Army beaten, we do not expect 
to see it done by our army now in the field alone. The conscripts are 
looked for anxiously, and woe be unto that man or party that strives 
to hinder the draft. To us, it is a matter of the deepest interest. For 
months, and for many of us, I might say, years, we have endured suf- 
ferings and privations ; we have toiled and marched under the scorching 
sun or the falling rain, amidst the suffocating dust or through mud and 
mire, have passed the chilly nights with the heavens for our covering, 
and mayhap standing the weary hours in the trenches or on picket, 
have faced death from shot and shell in the battle field, have seen our 
friends and companions fall by our side and have laid them in their 
gory graves; we have done this till our ranks are thin and our armies 
decimated. And now when we find ourselves just ready to reap the re- 
wards of our labor, and call for help to aid us in doing it, is it a 
wonder, that when we see bold copperheads and sneaking party politi- 
cians uniting against our call, is it a wonder, I say, that our feelings 
are aroused and that we swear vengeance for it? A day of reckoning 
and of retribution will surely come. We shall cease to be soldiers by 
and by, and as citizens no veto can deprive us of voting. Could some 


of the secessionists of the North, either copperheads or snakes, have 
been in our camps when we heard of the New York riots, their das- 
tardly hearts would have failed them at the threats they would have 
heard. The general wish of everyone was that their regiment had been 
there. No blank cartridges would have been used. We have learned 
the utility of hard bullets and the bayonet. One thing is certain, how^ 
ever "unpopular" the draft may be in the North, it is very popular 
here and whoever opposes it may be certain of the lasting opposition 
of the soldier. I fancy our vote may possibly turn the scale in the bal- 
ance between the parties in the next presidential election. Let politi- 
cians take heed and beware. 

We are now encamped at Beverly's Ford on the Rappahannock, 
three miles above the crossing of the Orange and Alexandria railroad. 
Our pickets are along the banks of the river. Occasionally a scouting 
party crosses and moves out toward Culpeper, but does not find the 
enemy in force. Everything is as quiet as at Falmouth last winter or 
at Hall's Hill the winter before. We have a pleasant camping ground, 
plenty of excellent water, and, on the whole, think we shall be able to 
pass the time pleasantly till the fall campaign commences. 

Truly yours, M. H. B. 



Near Bealeton, Va., 

Aug. 15, 1863. 
Friend E.: 

This has been rather an eventful day in the 3d Brigade — cause why, 
we have drawn soft bread, truly in our quiet domestic lives, an event of 
interest. Think of it, ye dwellers in houses, and partakers of the "fat 
of the land" so small a thing as a loaf of dry bread causes the mouths 
of an army to water and their hearts to overflow with thankfulness. 
It is also rumored that we are each to receive a piece of dried apple — 
but that is too good to believe. 

During the campaign just closed, it required much hard work to 
eke out our scanty rations, and several times we went to bed supper- 
less. To our shame be it said, that our anxiety to bag the Rebel Army 
was equally divided with our fears that the supply train would fail to 
come up on time — and we thereby "lose our bacon." We scoured the 
Blue Ridge Mountains, in Manassas Cap, with empty haversacks ; and 
climbed mountains such as we had never before encountered with noth- 
ing to sustain us but the justice of our" cause. We find ourselves otice 
more near the Rappahannock, a name that is identified with many 
stirring and saddening experiences of the Army of the Potomac. The 
cavalry had quite a spicy time across the river yesterday — with what 
success I know not). Stuart's troops are of a. more retiring disposition 
since our bold riders have proved their valor on so many fields. * * 

Your celebration over the recent victories must have been an en- 
thusiastic affair. The copperheads will have to go in mourning in a 
few days if our generals continue to wrest victories from their Southern 
brethren. Put a copperhead in one scale, and an armed rebel in another, 
and for contemptible meanness, duplicity and treason, the Northern 
reptile will outweigh the other. Them's my sentiments. 

For a nervous man, my tent might be a peculiar and annoying 
place. At the northeast corner lives a flourishing hive of "yellow 
jackets," on the opposite side dwells a large and increasing brood of 
wasps, with an occasional arrival of bumble bees, who make a noise 
not unlike a minie bullet; on the inside about a brigade of "animal- 
culae, peculiar to "sacred soil" are charging in good order upon us, and 
the ground is covered with some reptiles and "animiles" (on a small 
scale) that would add much to the variety of Barnum's collection, but 
do not seem tio facilitate military housekeeping. I suppose the best 
advice I can give you is "keep out of the draft." I hope it will spot 
some of the copperheads. We are expecting conscripts to fill up our 
ranks. Believe me ever your true friend and brother, "E. C." 

John E. Stewart. 



Camp of the 44th N. Y. Vols., 

Beverly Ford, Va., Aug. 31, 1863. 
Eds. Commercial: 

Other and better pens will undoubtedly give you earlier accounts 
of the military execution which occurred in our Division on Saturday 
last; but, knowing that no "special" occupied the "standpoint" from 
which these observations were taken, and thinking some of them may 
not be altogether uninteresting to you and your readers, I subjoin the 
following account of the shooting of five deserters from the ii8th Penn. 
Regiment, First Brigade, First Division and Fifth Army Corps. 

About a week ago it was reported through all the camps here that 
five conscripts or their substitutes, from Pennsylvania, had deserted on 
their way to the regiment to which they had been assigned, had been 
apprehended, tried by a court martial, sentenced to be shot, and that 
the sentence, approved by the President, was to be executed on Wednes- 
day. But Tuesday evening it was rumored that their execution had 
been postponed till Saturday afternoon to give them more time for 
preparation. Ours is a merciful administration, surely; but let none, 
because of its lenity, contemplate or encourage desertion, for the wages 
of that sin in the army is death. 

About noon on Saturday, the several drum corps connected with 
our Brigade began beating a Dead March, for practice, in the woods 
near by, and so unconsciously gave to us a sense of sadness and solem- 
nity, which ere long increased as flocks of soldiers from other corps 
commenced passing through our camp, or were seen going along the 
various roads that led to the ground, or were already observed in 
groups collected there, reminding us painfully of the fact that we 
were on the eve of another occasion not soon to be forgotten. 

Our regiment was ordered to be formed at half-past one p. m., as 
were the others of the Third Brigade, and the other Brigades must 
have had the same order, for scarcely had we formed on the color line 
when from beneath the white ponchos that crown nearly every hill top 
in sight, and where but a short time before there were few soldiers 
to be seen, there merged long lines of blue, trimmed with rows of 
shining brass and gleaming steel glittering in the sunlight. Soon came 
the General's orders, repeated by a hundred voices along the lines, and 
followed by the heavy, regular tramp of armed men marching to the 
notes of martial music. Having reached the spot at which we were 
to report, there was the usual amount of halting and fronting, of right 
and left dressing, till the whole was in line, Division front, and closed 
in mass. There was now an opportunity to look about, which disclosed 
to us boys perched in ti'ee tops, men located upon old buildings, of 
which there happened to be two on three remaining, and an immense 


number seated in saddles, or occupying, in one way or another, most 
places available for a good sight for a long way about. 

The band has begun the sad notes that form the requiem it has 
selected. It has a touching strain, and as you look toward the spot 
whence the sounds come, a sorrowful sight greets your steady gaze. 
The Division Provost Guard, with loaded pieces and bayonets fixed, 
follow in the footsteps of the buglers, and are in turn followed by the 
prisoners' spiritual advisers, who are apparently reading or repeating 
Scripture or prayers. In their rear are six men, the pall bearers, carry- 
ing a coffin, behind which there walks, with his hands pinioned and 
still closely guarded, the first victim, whose white shirt is in striking 
contrast to the darker colored clothes of those about him. His heart 
is undoubtedly hopeless ; his looks are downcast ; and thus, one after 
another, the criminals follow their coffins to their graves. It is an 
impressive scene; the most impressive, I think, that I ever saw. Tears 
come stealthily, yet perceptibly and forcibly into your eyes as you look, 
while long-drawn breaths evince the deep and earnest thoughts of those 
about you. 

Seems to me that no one there could suppress an appeal to Heaven 
for the Great God of Mercy to save the souls of the condemned and 
spare all others their fate. And thus, that all might see and take 
warning, were they marched the whole length of the Corps and about 
half way back, to their graves, before which that part of the guard 
whose duty it was to shoot them were halted, and faced towards the 
prisoners, who passed the length of their line and up to their posts 
of death — seats upon the ends of their coffins — placed along the sides 
of their graves, into which they must have looked as the soldiers seated 
them there. Ten or fifteen minutes, I should think, were now given 
the clergy in which to complete their admonitions, their counsels, and 
their prayers for the doomed. To us, merely "quiet observers," the 
minutes seemed long. To them how brief, how momentous, the last 
seconds of life — sealed prematurely by rashness and folly. In the 
meantime, the meagre paces were measured off, and the marksmen were 
stationed. There were fifty of them, and in their guns are but five 
blank cartridges, and none of them knows in which pieces they are, 
for their sergeants loaded their guns for them, that they might never 
know that they had shot a man. The officers step forward to blindfold 
those seated. One of them rises, and walking past the one at his left, 
approaches the third, kisses him fondly as a brother, and returns to his 
seat. The last words are spoken and the clergymen retire; the white 
cloths are bound before the eyes and about the heads of the prisoners; 
the guard at the grave is ordered away; the officer commands "ready," 
"take aim," "fire," and when the smoke of the volley, as one gun, has 
passed away, four lifeless forms appear resting on the coffins as they 
fell backwards in death, the other, in a brief contraction of the muscles, 
had fallen to the ground; but his deeds were done and his life had 




Colonel 44th N. Y. Vol. Infantry; Brigadier-General U. S. Vols, 
killed at the battle of Spottsylvania Court House, Va., May 11, 1864. 

7 '-.-iK 



departed. I believe, "they shed no tears, they heaved no sighs, they 
uttered no groans," but perished thus, without a struggle — a fearful 
warning to all cowards or merely mercenary men in the service. Thus 
ended the lives of five men who might have lived to do worthy work, 
to perform valiant deeds, and to win honor to themselves and their 

[The foregoing was published in the BuflFalo Commercial Advertiser, 
Sept. 4, 1863. — Ed.] 



(From Albany Morning Express, Monday, August 29, 1864.) 
The 44th Regiment, N. Y. Volunteers, composed chiefly of Al- 
banians, is attached to the Fifth Army Corps, to which is entrusted the 
important duty of taking possession of the Weldon Railroad, a highly 
important strategic point as it severs a portion of the enemy's com- 
munications. From a letter received here Saturday from a member 
of Company F, 44th, who participated in the movement we make the 
following extract. "We broke camp at 3. a. m., on the i8th, marched 
three miles, formed line of battle, and then marched one mile in line, 
struck the Weldon Railroad at 9 a. m. near the Yellow Tavern. Our 
Division having the lead, we halted on the Railroad, and allowed the 
Second, Third and Fourth Divisions to come up and take position on 
our right. All was quiet until 4 p. m., when the rebels came out in 
good force but were repulsed with heavy loss. The artillery on our 
side was used to good advantage, while the enemy had but one battery, 
and that was some distance off in a fort. The fight lasted about two 
hours. It rained a good deal during the day. On the 19th, heavy 
cannonading was heard in the direction of our old works; all wa9 
quiet again till 4 p. m., when the enemy made another attack and at- 
tempted to break our line, but met with the same defeat as the day 
previous. Our Division was dispatched on the "double quick" to the 
right, but on reaching there our services were not needed. The mud 
was ankle-deep, rendering it severe marching. The Second Division 
lost heavily. It rained some during the day. On the 20th nothing 
occurred but a little packet firing in our front. Another good shower 
in the afternoon. August 21st — I have not time to give an extended 
account of to-day's doings, but will say the "Johnnies" made another 
fruitless assault on our works — this time on the left of our line. They 
were so mistaken in our force that the assault proved a complete 
victory for us. The engagement commenced about 9 a. m. and lasted 
two hours. We took between seven and eight hundred prisoners in 
front of the First and Fourth Divisions; also three new stands of 
colors from the 7th North Carolina battalion. August 22d. All quiet; 
weather very hot. We still hold possession of the Railroad, and the 
enemy cannot very easily dislodge us." 



We do not feel like writing a merited obituary. Our heart is too 
sad. He was an old schoolmate, a personal friend of many years, a 
pious, and ("one of the noblest works of God") an honest man. We 
loved him as a brother. As a schoolteacher; as a citizen; as a friend; as 
a husband and as a father, he had no superiors in this town (Sharon, 
N. Y.). He was beloved by all, — mourned by all. He was worthy of 
their love and is entitled to their tears to wet the sod that lies upon 
his bosom. He died a noble death — in the service of his country; in 
the 44th N. Y. S. V. at the battle of Chancellorsville he received his 
death wound — a ball in the head. 

Let us plant flowers upon his grave and water them with our tears. 
And may the widow and the orphan who have given up their dearest 
treasure for the salvation of their country, be properly cherished by 
the friends of our country. 

[Comrade Ottman died May 27, 1863, from wounds received at bat- 
tle of Chancellorsville, Va., May 4th. Author of above tribute not 
known. — Ed.] 



Justin R. Huntly, only son of W. D. Huntly, Superintendent of 
the Expyerimental Department of the State Normal School, at Albany, 
N. Y., died recently in the hospital at Bristol, Pa. His remains reached 
this city yesterday morning. Mr. Huntly was a member of Company 
E, 44th Regiment, and was in all the battles after the Wilderness, serv- 
ing on General Bartlett's staflf. He was attacked before Petersburg 
with an illness that proved fatal. He was a young man of the highest 
promise, and beloved by a large circle of friends, upon whom this in- 
telligence will fall with crushing weight. 

Resolutions of Condolence. — At a meeting of the soldier friends of 
J. R. Huntly, Co. E, 44th N. Y. Vols., the following preamble and 
resolutions were adopted : 

Whereas, it has pleased the Almighty Ruler of the Universe to re- 
move from our midst by the hand of death our beloved comrade, J. R. 
Huntly; and whereas we have always found him during his stay a 
sincere friend and a true patriot, as well as a brave and gallant soldier, 

Resolved, That in the death of J. R. Huntly we are called on to 
sustain the loss of a dear friend and brother soldier, one who has 
commanded our admiration for his ability and integrity as a soldier, 
and our esteem as a gentleman for the uniform courtesy which marked 
his intercourse with all. 

Resalved, That while we deeply deplore his early death, we sym- 
pathize sincerely with his bereaved parents and friends, and we shall 
cherish the fond recollections of his many acts of kindness when living. 

Resolved, That the above be published in the Albany Morning 
Express, and a copy be transmitted to the parents of the deceased. 

[Above appeared in the Albany Morning Express, Sept. 15, 1864. — 


(By Col. John B. Weber.) 

Edward Payson Chapin was born August 16, 1831, in the Village of 
Waterloo, Seneca County, N. Y., the youngest of six children belong- 
ing to Rev. Ephraim and Elizabeth Chapin. His father was a direct 
descendant of Deacon Samuel Chapin who settled in Springfield, Mass., 
in 1642. The rudiments of his education were attained in a common 
village school, supplemented by a full classical and English course in 
the academy of his native place. He began the study of law in Water- 
loo, afterwards pursuing the study in Buffalo and Ballston Spa, N. Y., 
and was admitted to the bar soon after he attained his majority. He 
began and continued the practice of law in Buffalo until the breaking 
out of the Rebellion. When it was proposed to raise the People's Ells- 
worth Regiment he raised a company to represent Erie County and 
was unanimously elected its Captain. His was the first company or- 
ganized in the regiment, was designated Company A, and held the right 
of the line. At the battle of Hanover C. H., Va., on the 27th day of 
May, 1862, he was severely wounded and was sent North as soon as 
his condition would permit of his removal. On recovering from his 
wound, which at first was thought to be fatal, he proceeded in his 
convalescent state to Buffalo to take charge of a recruiting office for 
the Forty-fourth Regiment. While engaged in this service he was 
tendered and accepted the Colonelcy of the ii6th N. Y. Vols. Four 
others of the Forty-fourth were invited by him and accepted commis- 
sions in this new regiment, viz., Capt. George M. Love to be Major, 
afterwards Colonel and brevet brigadier-general : Lieut. John B. Weber 
to be Adjutant, afterwards Colonel 89th U. S. C. infantry; Corporal 
John M. Sizer to be Captain, afterwards Lieut. Colonel and Sergeant 
John B. Mason to be ist Lieutenant. The Ii6th Regiment was, there- 
fore, modeled after the Forty-fourth and by reason of Chapin's superior 
abilities it soon took first rank for drill and discipline, and was fre- 
quently commended for soldierly qualities from department head- 

Col. Chapin so far commended himself to his superior officers, 
that he was soon placed in command of a brigade. On the 27th day 
of May, 1863, just one year after being wounded at Hanover C. H., 
while leading his brigade in the terrible charge over the slashing at 
Port Hudson, he was struck by a bullet in the face, which, crashing 
through his brain produced instant death. His remains were taken to 
New Orleans, thence home, where he was buried with all the honors 
due his rank. 

President Lincoln sent his father a commission, appointing Col. 
Chapin a brigadier-general for gallant and meritorious service at the 
assault on Port Hudson, dating it from the day of his death. 

General Chapin, as a soldier, possessed a peculiar talent of keep- 
ing up the line of distinction between the different grades so necessary 


to the preservation of discipline, without seeming to encroach upon 
natural privileges or resorting to severity of measures. His look, his 
manner and actions showed an innate talent to command that did not 
require shoulder straps or insignia of rank to exact obedience. 

In character and ability General Chapin reflected the highest credit 
upon the Forty-fourth N. Y. as a representative of that large class, 
who received their military training in the old regiment and carried its 
inspirations into other fields of duty. 

His immediate commander, Major-General Augur, said of him: 
"The army could illy afford to lose such an officer or the country such 
a man." 

Brigadier-General Chapin was of the best type of the American 
volunteer officer. 



[The following account, published by The Albany (N. Y.) Evening 
Journal of Oct. 19, 1861, seems peculiarly appropriate for preservation 
in this history of the 44th N. Y. V. I. 

The eloquent words of Mrs. Barnes' address and those of the 
Colonel's patriotic response now read like prophecy.] 

"A large company of ladies and gentlemen met at the house of 
A. McClure, last evening, on the occasion of the presentation of a 
sword, etc., to Lieutenant-Colonel Rice of the Ellsworth Regiment. 
Among those present were Governor Morgan, Hon. Erastus Corning, 
John G. Saxe, Esq., and other distinguished citizens. The Presentation 
Address was made by Mrs. William Barnes, who spoke with great feel- 
ing and in a vein of patriotic fervor which stirred the hearts of all 
who listened. It will be long before the recipient will forget her elo- 
quent words and impressive counsels. Lieutenant-Colonel Rice re- 
sponded in an address marked at once by earnestness and scholarly 
finish. He pledged those present that the sword of which he was the 
recipient, should return to its scabbard when the war was ended, un- 
tarnished; and that no friend should have cause to blush over his 
record. He was deeply affected and spoke with the pathos of earnest 

"The sword is beautifully finished, and bears the following in- 
scription: 'Lieut.-Col. Rice, 44th Reg't N. Y. S. V. Presented by his 
Albany Friends.' Among the articles presented, in addition, were a 
pair of revolvers, belt and sash, etc." 

"presentation speech by MRS. WM. BARNES. 

"'Colonel Rice: 

" T have been asked to come here to-night to perform a duty and 
enjoy a noble privilege. My duty is easily and quickly performed. In 
the name and on behalf of your many friends in Albany, I present you 
these military arms and equipments, and I know I represent those 
friends fully when I say that their best wishes and most fervent prayers 
for your welfare go with the gift. Allow me, also, in this connection, 
to congratulate you upon your fortunate selection of a post of duty. 
The Empire State has been true to her great name; for no other com- 
monwealth has sent into the service of the United States such a 
regiment as the one which you and your brother officers have the honor 
to command. Every county, from Lake Erie to the Ocean, has been 
eager to send its representative to it, and every representative feels that 
he carries with him not only the honor of his constituents, but the 
sacred memory of our early martyr — the Warren of this war — who died 
only to live again in the heroic achievements and spotless reputation 
of this noble body which bears his name. 

" 'As citizens of Albany, especially, this regiment is very dear to 


us. For two months these men have been in our midst, teaching us the 
true chivalry of patriotism by their sobriety, their inteUigence, their 
faithful performance of every obligation which came to them as a duty, 
and if my voice could reach them to-night, I would say to them that 
Albany can never be indifferent to their future welfare; for she has 
learned through them to appreciate the sacredness of that cause which 
can call for men and be answered by such a Spartan Phalanx ! 

" 'In bidding you and them, farewell, I now claim the privilege of 
saying a few words to you, and to your brother officers, which might 
be inadmissible and inappropriate were I not a woman. 

" 'You are going out from among us at the head of a regiment 
which throbs with the best blood of our State; it is freely given, let it 
be freely shed, if the sacred cause of Liberty requires it. Ancient his- 
toric pages glow with the record of that Thebeian band who, in the 
third century, were relentlessly decimated by the Emperor Maximilian 
because they refused to offer sacrifices to a heathen god. Let not this 
regiment shrink, if it be necessary, to add such a page to our National 
history; for human life, at best, is but short, while the principles 
which inspire life, and alone make it worth the living, are eternal and 

" 'The occasion which opens to you such a noble field of action, 
is an occasion which comes but rarely to any man or people; and when 
I put in your hands these tokens of war, I confess it is with almost a 
feeling of envy; for I do not look upon this war as an evil to be 
dreaded — a calamity which must be borne, but rather an opportunity 
which every man who loves Liberty and Justice and National Honor 
better than he loves his life, welcomes with joy and embraces with an 
ardor that transforms him into a hero. I see in this war but the nat- 
ural outgrowth of that order of society which elevates one race only 
by the systematic crushing out of another and a weaker one ; and I 
know that so surely as God lives, any peace, any compromise, any con- 
cession made to that system now, is simply transferring the awful 
responsibility to our children which we are too timid and too cowardly 
to incur ourselves. 

"We enslave our children's children when we compromise with 

" 'I see in this conflict only the old contest between Civilization 
and Barbarism; only the old opposing forces that have always torn 
human society; and I rejoice that on this Continent, which the genius 
of Liberty claims as her own, the great decisive battle is to be fought 
which will test beyond all future caviling the principles of Constitu- 
tional Liberty and the Rights of Man. All honor to the men who, 
to-day, are found fighting on the right side ! The muse of history only 
waits to receive their names to give them immortal honor ! 

" 'I know that many good men fancy that this war is only a de- 
fensive war; that our army upon the Potomac is only there to defend 
our National Capital and that this rebellion is an incomprehensible 


Enlisted in Company A for three years or during the war at Buf- 
falo, N. Y.. and was with the regiment until the evacuation of York- 
town in May, 1862, and was then sent home suffering from typhoid 
fever. Rejoined the regiment about two months later at Harrison's 
Landing. Was wounded at the second battle of Bull Run, Aug. 30, 
1862. and was again absent from the regiment until just before Burn- 
side's "Stick in the Mud," at or near Falmouth, Va. Was furloughed 
for ten days, and discharged with the regiment in October, 1864, having 
served three vears and two months. 


madness, utterly without excuse. Such men, if they read history pro- 
foundly, would see that our army is but the Advance Guard of the 
great army of Christian civilization which is always aggressive, always 
persistent, always uncompromising. Having conquered the North and 
marked every step of its march through our Free States by schools, by 
churches, by factories, by mills, by farms, by villages, by libraries, by 
colleges, it now marshals all its forces and turns to the South for a 
desperate conflict with its old enemy — barbarism. Imbecile and blind 
in its old age, that enemy has come out from behind its constitutional 
intrenchments and has given battle in the open field and as on the 
plains of Ilium the gods themselves came down to wage the awful con- 
flict, so in this western world it requires no Homeric vision to see 
another battle of the gods. 

" 'Far-seeing men at the South saw the tide of battle setting back 
upon them, four years ago, from the blood-ensanguined fields of 
Kansas. There, as in a mirror, they saw the inevitable struggle which 
has come at last and taken so many worthy people by surprise. They 
fired the first gun at Sumter, it is true ; but we fired a gun long before, 
which shook their forts and battered down their intrenchments of 
compromise; for no Columbiad upon the banks of the Potomac or the 
Mississippi has so long a range or so deadly an aim as that simple 
declaration of ours, made four years ago, "No more Slave Territory." 

" 'Our noble river, the Hudson, at the coming of every spring 
struggles with its icy barriers until finally, with a burst of magnificent 
strength, it tears itself loose and rolls its turbid waters to the sea; yet 
we never find men bewailing the aggressions of the sun and complain- 
ing at the providence of God, which sent its beams upon that very 
errand; for they know that the normal condition of the river is to be 
free ; and though property may be destroyed, and human life may be 
swept away by its uprising, yet never since the days of Joshua, has 
man successfully commanded the sun to stand still. 

" 'And as it is the final destiny of this country to be free, let us not 
complain of any means which God sends to accomplish His mighty 
purpose. The sacrifice of property and of life let us gladly accept, as 
the condition of our release from the frigid and godless conservatism 
that would hold us forever in its icy grasp. 

" 'Let us fully realize that the war has actually begun. The whole 
world outside stands expectant; for they know that it is not only the 
genius of American institutions, but Christian civilization itself, that 
has entered the field to do battle for God and humanity. Remember 
this when you and your brother officers take the Ellsworth regiment 
into action ; and whether you are destined to achieve glory in the army 
of the Potomac under the wise guardianship of McClellan, or whether 
you carry the Banner of Freedom down the Mississippi under Fremont, 
always remember that the eyes of the world are upon you and that no 
victory is permanent, no peace is secure, unless grounded upon the 
immutable principles of justice. 


" 'One more word and I have done. If this sword which I now 
present you is to be always drawn in defense of Liberty and in vindi- 
cation of Human Rights, I shall never cease to thank God that I was 
permitted to place it in your hands; but may I never live to see that 
hour when its bright blade shall be tarnished by the breath of any 
poor, panting fugitive slave driven back by you to the hell from which 
he had escaped ! Spare the women of the State of New York, whose 
sons are in your noble regiment, the agony of believing that they have 
forgotten their mission of Civilization — that they have forgotten Justice 
— that they have forgotten GOD !' " 

"reply by colonel rice. 
" 'Respected Madam : 

" 'Be pleased to accept for yourself, and for those whom you have 
so eloquently represented here this evening, my grateful thanks for 
these precious testimonials of your and their regard. 

" 'Aside from the intrinsic value of these martial gifts, so rich and 
beautiful in themselves, the thought that they are the generous offer- 
ings of friends whose esteem long years of absence from their midst 
has not dimmed ; the thought that the fair and patriotic channel of their 
conveyance is, at this moment, recalling to the mind of each one pres- 
ent the distinguished source from which you spring; the thought that 
they are presented here, surrounded by my kindred and family friends, 
and above all, the thought that they are so soon to be used for the 
defense of a beloved country in whose preservation each of our homes 
and firesides, our families, and all the kindliest relations and blessings 
of life are so intimately allied, will ever enhance to me the value of 
your gifts — adding, whether upon the tented or battle-field, joy to 
duty — tenderly touching to their finest issues the sacred love and devo- 
tion I bear to my country, and causing me more fully than ever before, 
to realize 

"How home-felt pleasure prompts the patriot's sigh, 
And makes him wish to live, yet dare to die." 

" 'The manner, dear madam, in which these martial gifts have 
been presented to me — coming as they do from the hands of one of the 
gentler sex and surrounded as I am by so numerous an assemblage of 
fair women and brave men — naturally calls to mind those chivalric 
days of England's earliest kings, when around the Round Table of the 
good and gallant Arthur valorous knights modestly told their loves 
and feats of arms; when the fair Countess of Britanny and Montford 
stooped to bind the sash and sword around the waists of the bold 
Sir Tristram, and the generous Knight, Sir Launcelot; when the fair 
Lady Isabella and the beautiful Eloisa beside prancing steeds, grace- 
fully knelt and fixed the spurs to their gallant knights ; when the brave 
Templar of Ivanhoe won his fair Rowena by his faithful arms ; when 
love was the crowning grace — the grandeur of the soldier's toils and 
bravery, in woman's eyes, the dearest quality of the manly mind. In 


accepting this sword, on this occasion, from your fair hands, I would 
not entirely forget the noble exemplars of those chivalric times ; but I 
will remember their many virtues, their mercy towards the helpless 
and their kindness towards the oppressed. Be assured, Madam, that 
this sword, now entrusted to me by you, shall never be tarnished with 
one ignoble or ungenerous action ; that as it now comes from your 
hands, bright and unsullied, so shall it be sheathed, when this war 
shall have ceased and peace shall have been restored throughout the 
land. When the skillful armorers of Saragossa presented their new 
made swords to the brave knights of old they first plunged them, hot 
from the forge, into the river Salo, and thus tempered, baptized them 
with a sacred name and dedicated them to some noble cause. This 
night I receive this sword, tempered by your eloquent and burning 
words, and forever dedicate it to the freedom and preservation of my 
country. Inspired by your commands, I receive this sword, and with 
the Trojan hero as the Greeks threatened his beloved Troy, confi- 
dently exclaim : 

"Si Pergama dextra 
Defendi possent, etiam hac defensa fuissent." 

"If the Union can be defended by any right hand, even by this, 
it shall be defended." 

" 'In the sentiments which you have so eloquently and feelingly 
expressed in regard to this war I fully concur. I have long and con- 
fidently believed that God, looking down from His Eternal Throne of 
Justice upon the American people from the formation of our Govern- 
ment, and despairing, after a long and faithful trial, that justice and 
right would ever be done to the down-trodden slave, either by the 
North or the South, at last has taken their emancipation upon Himself. 
I believe that it is God's divine purpose, having used the wrath of the 
South to commence this war, to cause that wrath to praise Him by the 
freedom of every slave. And I also confidently believe that this war, 
under His providence, will be made just severe enough to effect this 
object; and that it will be ended by God only when we, as individuals, 
both North and South, shall see and realize this Divine object. Be 
assured. Madam, that in this war 

"There is a Divinity that shapes our ends, 
Rough hew them as we will." 
Bearing no unkind or ungenerous spirit towards the South but at the 
same time determined to defend my country to the last, on this Divin- 
ity, in conducting this war to a happy and glorious peace, I alone rely. 

" 'With feelings thus inspired, I receive these military arms and 
equipment from your hands. But be assured that in doing so, I accept 
them relying not boastingly or confidently upon my own strength. I 
receive them, feeling deeply the responsibility of the sacred trust im- 
posed upon me by your kindness and trusting for their unsullied 
keeping entirely to that Being who never forsakes the brave and the 
faithful, who, in the day of battle and of trial put their trust in Him 


alone. I accept them as a Christian, feeling that they are to be used 
in a most holy cause — a cause that God will bless, and in His own wise 
time and way bring to a happy and glorious issue. I accept them as a 
patriot, proudly remembering the blessings and the glory of our 
country's past, and anxiously trusting that the same glory and bless- 
ings, so abundantly shared by us, may be transmitted to our children. 
I accept them as a soldier, willing to leave all, sacrifice all (save a 
Saviour's love), willing to offer up my life, if need be, for my country; 
for in the loss of our country, all is lost, and whoever of us as shall 
be so unhappy as to survive his country, can but feel that he has 
already lived too long.' " 



"H'd Qrs. 3RD Brigade, on the Battlefield near Gettysburg, Pa. 

Saturday Morning, July 4th, 1863. 
"My dear Mrs. Barnes : 

"We have fought the entire army of General Lee for two days. 
Our forces are nearly equal — the contest has been severe, but the enemy 
has been repulsed both days at every point. The struggle is not over — 
it will commence in an hour again, but the day — the soil inspires us to 
victory. We have taken over ten thousand prisoners. The enemy 
seem to be discouraged and disheartened. This day shall save the 
country. Be assured of victory. Our army is in the most gallant 
spirit. Our losses have been great. The leaves of autumn are not 
thicker on the ground, than our dead and dying. Our blood has been 
given like water. Officers have fallen by hundreds. During this battle 
I have, after the reception of a mortal wound by Col. Vincent, been in 
command of this brigade. Never did soldiers behave more gallantly. 
We held the extreme left of the line — four regiments of 300 muskets 
each — opposed to us were two brigades of Texas troops of the best 
blood. After two hours of splendid fighting we drove them back, oc- 
cupied their ground, captured over three hundred prisoners — took over 
four hundred stand of arms. Among the prisoners were two colonels 
and fifteen commissioned officers. Our loss was about one hundred 
killed and three hundred wounded, one-third of our entire force. The 
Forty-fourth behaved splendidly — captured over one hundred prisoners, 
and repulsed the attacking force at every point. Every man did his 
duty, not one flinched. This is the bravest regiment that ever left 
New York without any question. Capt. Larrabee was killed. Capts. 
Bourne and Munger severely wounded, as well as Lieuts. Thomas and 
Zeilman. Lieut. Dunham was killed. The regiment lost out of three 
hundred in action, twenty-five killed and over eighty wounded. The 
regiment is a brigade in bravery, a company in numbers. I have not 
been out of my saddle for fifty hours, and I am very weary — but I 
trust that this day will decide the contest. Ah, that you might see and 
feel the sacrifices we are making for our country. Marched 200 miles 
— 20 miles a day — weary and barefoot, fought two days and buried the 
dead at night, ever listening to the groans of the wounded and dying. 
Sleepless carnage! Yours truly, 

"J. C. Rice." 



[The following letter from the Private Secretary of Secretary of 
State Seward, dated at Washington (9 days after the assassination of 
President Lincoln), is of historic interest. 

Contributed by Hon. Wm. Barnes, Sen., of Nantucket Island, 
Mass., formerly of Albany, N. Y.] 

"Washington, April 24, 1865. 
"Dear Mrs. Barnes: 

"Our correspondence has been suspended for some time. But I 
thought a word from me in this time of affliction and anxiety might 
be acceptable. 

"The Secretary is wonderfully improving. He is, however, shock- 
ingly hurt. A jaw broken, in two or more places, an arm broken near 
the shoulder and face and neck gashed with a bowie knife, are no 
ordinary wounds. But all these terrible injuries and the heart and 
. mind crushing death of the President, with the knowledge also that 
■•■Frederick's life is trembling in the scale are not sufficient to dis- 
courage or dishearten the noble .statesman and philosopher. We have 
great hopes of his recovery. With it we are confident of Johnson's 
successful administration. Every hour strengthens our faith in the 
new President. As to poor Fred, it is only today that really any hope 
could be reasonably indulged of his recovery. He has lain as uncon- 
scious as a sleeping man until within a short time, speaking no word. 
We flattered ourselves he knew his wife, the Dr. and Clarence, that 
was the most. His pulse rose to 140 and sunk very low on two occa- 
sions. His mother has said all through the week 'he will die.' Since 
an operation on his head his symptoms have greatly improved. But 
it must at best be a long time before he is himself. * * * 

"Is it not, my dear friend, a terrible tragedy — our good President 
killed, — the generous, noble hearted Secretary butchered like an ox, 
and the amiable Assistant sent to the very gates of death ! It is unlike 
almost any other calamity, it does not soften by time. 

"It was not and could not be exaggerated (as usual) and so no 
diminution of its horror attends our coming to the reality. 

"But God rules. We will not despair. 

"Your friend, 

"Geo. E. Baker." 

[♦Assistant Secretary of State Seward.] 



THE r; / 

TTLDrN FCfJXD;\--i. 

z; r 




Ofl&cers and men borne on the rolls when the regiment left Albany, 

N. Y., October 21, 1861 1061 

Accessions since then, Comprising, 

"New Co. C." — October 14, 1862 88 

"New Co. E." — October 23, 1862 loi 189 

Other recruits, substitutes, drafted men, and transfers from other regi- 
ments added to the rolls after leaving Albany- 
Total enrollment ........ 



Officers and men killed in action or died of wounds while serving in this 

regiment ........... 192 

Officers and men who died of disease while serving in this regiment . 120 

Officers and men who were woimded in action wihle serving in this 

regiment ........... 524 

Officers and men who were captured in action while serving in this regi- 
ment . . . . . . . . 113 

Number of men promoted from the ranks to be commissioned Officers 

while serving in this regiment . . . . . . -139 

Number of Officers and men whose honorable discharge from this regi- 
ment are shown by accessible records . . . . . -1372 

Known deserters from this regiment . . . . . . • iS 

Number of men whose official records are necessarily left incomplete in this 
Roster because of lack of further official or other information relat- 
ing thereto .......... 139 

A. — Age 
ac. — action 
Actg. — Acting 
Bat.— Battalion 
Batt.— Battery 
Brg. — Brigade 
cap. — Captured 
Capt. — Captain 
Cav. — Cavalry 
Co. — Company 
Com'd — Commissioned 




Com. Sgt.— Commissary Sergeant 

Conv. — Convalescent 

Corp. — Corporal 

det. — Detached 

disch.— Discharged 

disch. for dis.— Discharged honorably for disability 

Enr. — Enrolled 

Exp. — Expiration 

gall. — gallant 

H. A.— Heavy Artillery 

Hdqrs.— Headquarters 

Hosp. — Hospital 

Inf. — Infantry 

k.— Killed 

k. in ac— Killed in action 

L. A.— Light Artillery 

Lieut. — Lieutenant 

M O.— Mustered out of service honorably 

Meri. — Meritorious 

Muse. — Musician 

Mil.— Militia 

P. O.— Last known P. O. address 

Prior Serv.— Prior Service 

Prom. — Promoted or promotion 

Q M S.— Quartermaster Sergeant 

ret. — returned 

Regt.— Regiment 

Re-cap.— Recaptured 

Serv. — Service 

Sgt. — Sergeant 

S. O.— Special Order 

S. S.— Sharpshooters 

Sub. Serv.— Subsequent Service 

transf. — Transferred 

U s. v.— United States Volunteers 

Vet. — Veteran 

V. — Volunteer 

V. R. C.— Veteran Reserve Corps 

w. — Wounded 

w. in ac. — Wounded in action 

w & c— Wounded and captured 

Yrs. — Years 


Enlisted on formation of tlie 44th Regiment N. Y. V. I., and served 
with it imtil December 1863. when he was appointed hy the President, 
2d Lientenant of colored troops. Was afterwards promoted to ist 
Lieutenant and Captain. Received his final discharge on Surgeon's Cer- 
titicate of Disability, in February, 1866. He thus gave a continuous 
service in the War of four years and six months. He was captured at 
Bull Run, trying to help his tent-mate, Stevens, who was fatally 
wounded. He received his first wound at Malvern Hill. It was a gun 
shot wound in the left breast, fracturing a rib. The 1)ullet struck 
with such force as to knock him down, making him breathless and 
unconscious. It cut through all of his garments, and started some 
blood, but failed to force itself inside. He was reported dead, and the 
Company D boys greeted him on finding his way to them at Harri- 
son's Landing, as one risen from the dead. 

He was next wounded while in the colored service. It was in the 
charge on Petersburg. A bullet went through his left arm, through 
the shoulder, shattering" the bone. It was never set, and has troubled 
him constantly ever since. In less than five minutes after this wound 
was received, he was shot again, through the neck, the bullet going 
as close to the jugular vein as it could without tapping it. 

Was with the colored troops in the capture of Fort Fisher, and 
following up the Cape Fear River, when they took Goldsborough, 
Wilmington and Raleigh, and met Sherman's men as they came down 
"marching through Georgia." 

Comrade Shaw participated in twenty-three battles. 

He had the honor of being elected Department Chaplain, State of 
New York, G. A. R. for 1904. 

Studied in Drew Theo. Sem. two years, took post-graduate course 
4 years in Taylor LTniversity, is now (March. 1910) in the 44th year 
of his ministry in the Methodist Church, and is credited with having 
made a good record. 




. nLDEN FC"-^ ^N?. 


ACKLEY, S. Harvey.— A. 28, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, 3 yrs; Corp. Co. C. 

Oct. 3, '62; Sgt. Nov. 28, '62; transf. to Co. G. 140 N. Y. V. I. 

Oct. 10, '64; transf. Co. E. 5 N. Y. Vet. Infy. June 3, '65; M. O. 

Aug. 21, '65 ; died, Nov. 25, 1904 at Penn Yan, N. Y. 
ADAMS, Edgar.— A. 18, Enr. Aug. 7, '62, 3 yrs.; Co. C; Corp., 1863; 

w. in ac. June 22, '64, North Anna, Va. ; det. Sharpshooter Div. 

Hdqts. Aug. '64; transf. Co. D., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64, det. 

as S. S. ; transf. Co. E., 5 N. Y. Vet. Inf. June 3, '65 ; det. as S. S. ; 

Sgt. July 30, '65; M. O. Aug. 21, '65; died about June 20, 1874 at 

Middlesex, N. Y. 
ADAMS, James. — A. 25, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H; disch. for dis. 

July 9, '62. [P. O. South Britain, Conn.] 
ADAMS, John Q. — A. 19, Enr. Feb. 4, '64, 3 yrs. Co. I ; no record since 

April 28, '64. 
ADAMS, William J. — A. 20, Enr. Aug. 7, '62, 3 yrs. Co. C; transf. 

33d Co. 2d Bat. V. R. C. Oct. 25, '63; M. O. June 29, '65. [P. O. 

Mason, Mich.] 
ADAMS, William R.— A. 19, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; disch. 

for dis. Sept. 7, '63 ; died, June 28, 1893. 
ADSIT, Allen C— A. 24, Enr. Sept. 9, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; transf. Co. 

G. Sept. 28. '61 ; Sgt. Dec. 29, '62 ; First Lieut. Feb. 9, '63 ; M. O. 

Aug. 6, '63. [P. O. Grand Rapids, Mich.] 
ADSIT, Henry H. — A. 20, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A; w. in ac. 

July I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; Corp. July 8, '63; Sgt. Nov. 23, 

'63; w. in ac. June 19, '64, Petersburg, Va. ; M. O. with Co. Oct. 

II, '64. [P. O. Bradford, Pa.] 
AIKENS, John. — A. 19, Enr. Sept. 10, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; k. in ac. 

May 27, '62, Hanover C. H. Va. as John Hagens ; also borne as 

AKER, George.— A. 22, Enr. Sept. 12, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; M. O. with 

Co. Oct. II, '64. [P. O. Homecase, Schoharie Co., N. Y.] 
ALBRECHT, Moretz.— A. 20, Enr. Sept. 3, '64, i yr. Co. E. ; transf. 

Co. A. 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; cap. in ac. Mch. 31, '65; paroled; 

M. O. June 3, '65. [P. O. Nat. Soldiers Home, Va.] 
ALDRICH, Elias H.— A. 24, Enr. Aug. 9, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B; disch. for 

dis. Nov. 30, '61, at Hall's Hill, Va. 
ALLEN, Campbell.— A. 31, Enr. Sept. 4, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; Capt. Sept. 

S, '61; det., Prov. Marshal 5 Army Corps 1862-3; Com'd. Major 

Aug. 27, '63; not mustered; rejoined regt. May 18, '64; M. O. 

with Co. Oct. II, 64; died, Oct. 6, 1877 at Albany, N. Y., of con- 
gestion of the brain. 



ALLEN, George P. — A. 21, Enr. Aug. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B ; Sgt. Aug. 

30, '61 ; died of typhoid fever April 10, '62, at Fort Monroe, Va. 
ALLEN, William W. — A. 22, Enr. Feb. 27, '64, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; w. in ac. 

May 5, '64 at Wilderness, Va.; transf. Co. E. Sept. 21, '64; transf. 

Co. A. 14Q N. Y. V. L Oct. 10, '64; transf. Co. A. 5 N. Y. V. L 

June 3, '65; M. O. Aug. 21, '65; died . 

ALLEN, William B. — A. 22, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; k. in ac. 

May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. 
AMES, Nelson. — A. 20, Enr. Sept. 21, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A. ; disch. for dis. 

Oct. 3, '62 — Sub. Serv. Enr. Dec. 15, '63, 24 N. J. Cav., 3 yrs. Co. 

F. ; disch. for dis. Aug. 12, '64, near Petersburg, Va. 
ANDERSON, Archibald.— A. 28, Enr. Aug. 28, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; 

Corp. Jan. i, '63; Sgt. Dec. — '63; M. O. virith Co. Oct. 11, '64; 

died May 25, 1882. 
ANGELL, William S. — A. 19, Enr. Sept. 28, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; Wagoner 

at Conv. Camp, Dec. '62 to April '64; transf. 24 V. R. C. March 

15, '64; M. O. Oct. 4, '64. [P. O. Portis, Kan.] 
ANGERBINE, James P.— A. 18, Enr. Aug. 30, '64, i yr. Co. B. ; transf. 

Co. B. 146 N. Y. V. L Oct. II, '64; M. O. June 3, '65. 
ANGUS, Walter.— A. 18, Enr. Oct. 21, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K.; Corp. Jan. 

S> '63; Sgt. Feb. I, '63; re-enlisted as a vet. Feb. 23, '64; cap. in 

ac. May 8, '64, Laurel Hill, Va., re-cap. May 9, '64, Beaver Dam 

Sta., Va. ; k. in ac. June 21, '64, near Petersburg, Va. ; Com'd. 

Second Lieut. Oct. 9, '63, but not mustered. 
ANTHES, Jacob W. — A. 22, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; Second 

Lieut. Oct. 5, '61 ; First Lieut. June i, '62 ; cap. in ac. June 28, '62 

at Savage Sta., Va. ; paroled, Sept. 11, '62; transf. Co. A. Oct. 26, 

'62; disch. for dis. Dec. i, '62; sub. serv. as Ca,pt. Co. G., 18 N. Y. 

Cav. V. Oct. I. '63; dismissed, Nov. i, '64. 
ANTHONY, Jay M.— A. 23, Enr. Sept. 18, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A ; w. in 

ac. May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. ; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64. 

[P. O. Mayfield, N. Y.] Died, Dec. 21, '09. 
ARCHER, Joseph. — A. 19, Enr. March 7, '64, 3 yrs. Co. A.; transf. 

Co. C. Sept. 23, '64; transf. Co. F., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; 

transf. 5 N. Y. Vet. Inf. June 3, '65; absent sick at M. O. of Co. 

[P. O. Cleveland, Ohio.] 
ARNOLD, Ansung W. — A. 27, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; disch. 

for dis., May 4, '62. 
ARNOLD, Frank.— A. 18, Enr. Feb. 27, '64, 3 yrs. Co. B.; deserted 

March 18, '64 at Alexandria, Va. 
ARNOLD, George W. — A. 26, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; transf. 

Co. G. Oct. 26, '62; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64. 
ARNOLD, George W. — A. 22, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; wagoner 

Sept. — , '61 ; M. O. with Co. Oct. 1 1, '64, as George H. 
ARVIN, George. — A. 35, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; disch for 

dis. July 15, '62; sub. serv. in Co. H. 2d N. Y. Cav. Aug. 25, '63, to 

Dec. 22, '64, when he was drowned on U. S. Transport, "North 



ASELTINE, Thomas.— A. 19, Enr. March 3, '64, 3 yrs. Co. B.; transf. 

Co. D., 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; M. O. July 16, '65; also borne 

as Azeltine. 
ASHER, Jacob H.— A. 20, Enr. Aug. 14, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; left in hos- 
pital at Albany, Oct. 21, '61; disch. to date June 30, '62. [P. O. 

Rhinebeck, N. Y.] 
ATKINSON, Charles.— Private, 25 N. Y. V. I.; disch. for dis. July 

18, '62, at Conv. Camp, Va. ; name erroneously transf. to Co. K. 

this regt. Sept. 12, '63. 
AUSTED, John. — A. 24, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; no record 

after May, 1862 in hosp. N. Y. City; also borne as Anstatt. 
AXTELL, John.— A. 28, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K.; disch. for 

dis. Oct. 27, '62 ; subs. serv. Enr. i N. Y- Vet. Cav. 3 yrs. July 27, 

'63; Com. Sgt. Co. H. Oct. 10, '63; Q. M. Sgt., no date; M. O. 

with Co. July 20, '65. [P. O. Fleming, Ga.] 
AYER, Arthur J.— A. 18, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; disch. for 

dis. Jan. 2, '63 at Baltimore, Md. [P. O. Centreville, So. Dak.] 
BABCOCK, Buell.— A. 18, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D.; disch. for 

dis. Oct. 3, '61. 
BABCOCK, Chapin.— A. 18, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A. ; w. and 

cap. in ac. Aug. 30, '62, Groveton, Va. ; disch. for dis. March 3, '63; 

died Oct. 16, '92, at Eden, N. Y. 
BABCOCK, Elisha.— A. 18, Enr. Sept. 27, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; w. in ac 

May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. ; Corp. Feb. i, '64; w. in ac. May 

8, '64, Laurel Hill, Va.; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11. '64. [P. O. Wash- 
ington, D. C] 
BACE, Benjamin. — A. 20, Enr. Oct. 6, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; w. in ac. May 

27, '62, Hanover C. H. ; died of wounds May 28, '62, at Hanover 

C. H., Va. 
BACKMAN. Barney. — A. 19, Enr. Sept. 2, '64, i yr. Co. B. ; transf. 

Co. E., 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; M. O. June 3, '65. 
BACKUS, Philo H. — A. 20, Enr. Aug. 20, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; Corp. 

Jan. 17, '63; transf. Co. I. 12 Reg. Vet. R. C, Feb. i, '64; died . 

BADGLEY, Samuel D. — A. 20, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; transf. 

Co. K. Oct. 5, '61 ; k. in ac. July i, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. 
BAIN, James. — A. 25, Enr. Sept. 15, '62, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; w. in ac. Dec. 

13, '62, Fredericksburg, Va. ; no record after Aug. 28, '63, at 

Beverly Ford, Va. 
BAINE, William I. — A. 18, Enr. Sept. 24, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; cap. in aa 

June 27, '62, Gaines Mill, Va. ; paroled; disch. for dis. March 18, 

'63, at Point Lookout, Md. 
BAKER, Anthony.— Private Co. I, 25 N. Y. V. I.; transf. to Co. K. 

this regt. June 25, '63 ; w. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa. ; Corp. 

March i, '64; w. in ac. May 5, '64, Wilderness, Va. ; transf. Co. 

A. Sept. 23, '64; transf. Co. E, 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; 

disch. for dis. July 13, '65. 
BAKER, Edward. — A. 23, Enr. Aug. 26, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; k. in ac. 

May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. 


BAKER, George. — A. 19, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; k. in ac. 

June I, '64, Bethesda Church, Va. ; also borne as George W. 
BAKER, Kingsley. — A. 23, Enr. Sept. 10, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; transf. Co. 

G. Oct. 26, '62; Corp. May 25, '63; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64; 

died, . 

BAKER, William H. — A. 21, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A. ; disch. for 

dis. Oct. 3, '61. 
BALDWIN, Leroy E.— A. 27, Enr. Sept. 3, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; transf. 

Co. D. Oct. 25, '62; disch. Feb. 21, '64, for prom. Capt. 30 U. 

S. C. Inf. July 18, '65. Brevet Maj. March 13, '65. 
BALDWIN, Lewis M.— A. 21, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; died May 

27, '62, City Hosp., N. Y. City. 
BALL, George. — A. 20, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A. ; disch. for dis 

April 24, '62. 
BALLARD, Henry B.— A. 18, Enr. Sept. 5, '64, i yr. Co. B.; transf. 

Co. B., 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; M. O. June 3, '65. 
BALLARD, Lemuel. — A. 18, Enr. Aug. 30, '64, i yr. Co. C. ; transf. 

Co. K. 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; M. O. June 3, '65. 
BALLOU, Charles F. — A. 20, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A. ; transf. 

Co. I. Oct. 4, '61 ; cap. in ac. Aug. 30, '62 ; exchanged ; Corp. Jan. 

I, '63; w. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa.; disch. for dis. Dec. 

21, '63, at Harrisburg, Pa. [P. O. Austin, Pa.] 
BANCROFT, Ira J.— Private Co. E., 14 N. Y. V. I. ; transf. to Co. I. 

this regt. June 25, '63; w. and cap. in ac. May 8, '64, Laurel Hill, 

Va. ; paroled Sept. 24, '64; M. O. Aug. il, '65. 
BANCROFT, Joel B.— A. 28, Enr. Jan. 5, '64, 3 yrs. Co. I.; w. in ac. 

May 8, '64, Laurel Hill, Va. ; transf. Co. A. Sept. 23, '64; transf. 

Co. G., 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. ID, '64. 
BANNER, Daniel. — A. 19, Enr. Jan. 6, '64, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; w. in ac. 

May 5, '64, Wilderness, Va. ; transf. Co. B. Sept. 23, '64; transf. 

to Co. D., 146 N. Y V. I. Oct. II, '64; M. O. July 16, '65. [P. O. 

Bainbridge, N. Y.] 
BARBEE, John. — A. 23, Enr. Aug. 31, '64, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; transf. Co. 

E., 146 N. Y V. I. Oct. II, '64. 
BARNABY, Gorman L— A. 23, Enr. Sept. 4, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; M. O. 

with Co. Oct. II, '64. [P. O. Mason, Mich.] 
BARNABY, John E.— A. 25, Enr. Aug. 31, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; Corp. 

Nov. 27, '62 ; w. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa. ; disch. Jan. 12, 

'64, for prom. ; Capt. 20 U. S. C. Inf. ; resigned May 2, '65. 

[P. O. Masonville, N. Y.] 
BARNARD, George A. — A. 22, Enr. Oct. 20, '61, 3 yrs. Co. I. ; w. and 

cap. in ac. June 27, '62, Gaines Mill, Va. ; paroled ; disch. for dis. 

Nov. 29, '62. 
BARNES, Addison. — A. 24, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; w. in ac. 

May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. ; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64. [P. 

O. Brainard, N. Y.] ; died about 1908. 
BARNES, Henry D.— A. 22, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; transf. 

Co. E., 6 Regt. V. R. C. Sept. 4, '63; Corp. no date; disch. Oct. 

5, '64 as Harvey D. [P. O. North Rose, N. Y.] 


BARNEY, Joseph. — A. 19, Enr. Aug. 29, '64, i yr. Co. E. ; transf. Co. 

, 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; M. O. June 3, '65. [P. O. New 

London, la.] 
BARRELL, Charles L. — A. 24, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; w. 

in ac. May 27, '62, Hanover C. H. ; no record after Sept. 17, '64, in 

hosp., Albany, N. Y. ; also borne as Berrell. [P. O. Savannah, 

N. Y.] 
BARREN, James. — A. 19, Enr. Sept. i, '62, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; Corp. Oct. 

3, '62; ret'd to ranks Dec. 24, '62; no record after May 6, '64, at 

Wilderness, Va. 
BARRICK, John L.— A. 23, Enr. Aug. 29, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; died of 

disease Nov. 26, '62, Columbia College Hosp., Washington, D. C. ; 

also borne as John C. 
BARRICK, Thompson. — A. 24, Enr. Aug. 14, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; Corp. 

Sept. 25, '62; w. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa.; disch. March 

26, '64, for prom. ; Capt. 39 U. S. C. Inf. ; disch. Oct. 17, 

'64. [P. O. East Varick, N. Y.] 

BARRINGER, Allen.— A. 29, Enr. Jan. 4, '64, 3 yrs. Co. I.; w. in ac. 

May II, '64, Spottsylvania C. H., Va. ; no further record. 
BARRINGTON, John.— A. 34, Enr. Sept. 3, '64, 3 yrs. Co. E.; transf. 

Co. D., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64. 
BARTLETT, William.— A. 23, Enr. Oct. 5, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; disch. 

for dis. Oct. 3, '62, at Sharpsburg, Md. 
BASSETT, Dewitt C. — A. 19, Enr. Aug. 3, '62, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; cap. 

Nov. 17, '62; paroled; disch. for dis. Dec. 28, '62. Sub. serv. 

re-enlisted in Co. G., 14 N. Y. V. Arty. Dec. 14, '63, 3 yrs.; cap., 

sick May 10, '64; in rebel prisons 9^ months and paroled; M. O. 

June 17, '65, at Washington, D. C. [P. O. Woonsocket, S. Dak.] 
BATES, Charles H.— A. 18, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. I.; trahsf. 

Co. D. Nov. 9, '61 ; transf. Co. I. Dec. i, '61 ; disch. for dis. March 

18, '64; died, Jan. 23, 1910 at S. & S. Home, Bath, N. Y. ; buried 

in New York City. 
BAXTER, George N.— A. 18, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; M. O. 

with Co. Oct. II, '64, at Albany, N. Y. [P. O. Masonville, N. Y.] 
BAXTER, Oliver. — A. 19, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K.; disch. for 

dis. Aug. 30, '62, at Fort McHenry, Md. [P. O. Masonville, N. Y.] 
BEACH, William P. — A. 24, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; w. in 

ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa.; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64 at 

Albany, N. Y. 
BEAL, Chauncey H. — A. 23, Enr. Sept. 14, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; w. in 

ac. Dec. 15, '62, Fredericksburg, Va. ; cap. in ac. May 8, '64, Laurel 

Hill, Va. ; re-cap. May 9, '64, Beaver Dam Sta. ; k. in ac. June 3, 

'64, Cold Harbor, Va. 
BEAMS, Charles A. — A. 35, Enr. June 6. '64, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; transf. 

Co. D., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; transf. V. R. C. March 22, '65. 
BECKER, Christopher R. — A. 24, Enr. Sept. 4, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; transf. 

Co. G. Sept. II, '61; 2d Lieut. Oct. 8, '61; w. and cap. in ac. June 

27, '62, Gaines Mill, Va. ; paroled; Capt. Sept. i, '62; disch. for 


dis. Dec. i8, '62; died, May 3, 1902 of heart disease at Albany, 

N. Y. 
BECKER, Peter A.— Private Co. G., 14 N. Y. V. I. ; transf. Co. I. this 

regt. June 28, '63 ; transf. to V. R. C. Oct. 29, '63 ; also borne as 

Albert G. 
BECKWITH, George G.— A. 22, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; Corp. 

July — , '63; re-enlisted as vet. Feb. 23, '64; w. in ac. June 3, '64, 

Cold Harbor, Va.; Sgt. July 27, '64; transf. Co. B. Sept. 23, '64; 

transf. to 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 11, '64; M. O. Nov. 2, '64. 
BECSEE, Albert G. — Age, date and place of enrollment not known ; 

absent, sick, from July — , '63 to Feb. — , '64 ; also borne as Bissen. 
BEDFORD, John.— A. 29, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; disch. for 

dis. Nov. 30, '61 at Hall's Hill, Va. 
BEEMAN, Elam C— A. 25, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; Sgt. Aug. 

8, '61 ; disch. for dis. Nov. i, '61 at Canandaigua, N. Y. 
BEERS, Peter. — A. 19, Enr. Sept. 4, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; det. serv. with 

Griffin's Batt. U. S. Art. Jan. 8, '62; k. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettys- 
burg, Pa. 
BEERS, William H.— A. 23, Enr. Oct. 21, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; absent 

without leave at Hall's Hill, Va., Feb. 10, '62; returned and transf. 

to Co. E., 121 N. Y. V. I. July 12, '65 ; transf. to Co. E., 65 N. Y. 

V. I. June 24, '65 ; M. O. July 17, '65. 
BELCHER, Albert H.— A. 19, Enr. Aug. 27, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; died 

of disease Nov. 20, '61 at Hall's Hill, Va. ; also borne as Adelbert C. 
BELLINGER. Charles J.— A. 18, Enr. March 29, '64, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; 

transf. Co. E. Sept. 21, '64; transf. Co. I., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, 

'64; M. O. April 13, '65; also borne as Billinger. [P. O. Tonawanda, 

N. Y.] 
BEMISTER, Alfred.— Private, Co. A., 14 N. Y. V. I.; transf. to Co 

F. this regt. June 24, '63; transf. Co. A. Sept. 23, '64; transf. Co. 

H., 146 N. Y. V. L Oct. 10, '64; M. O. Oct. 23, '64. [P. O. May- 

nard, N. Y.] 
BENDER, Jacob. — A. 20, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. L; w. and mis. 

in ac. June 27, '62, Gaines Mills, Va. ; returned, no date ; reported 

k. in ac. July i, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. 
BENDON, James.— A. 18, Enr. Sept. 2, '64, i yr. Co. B. ; transf. Co. D., 

146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; w. in ac. April i, '65, Five Forks, Va. ; 

died of wounds April 6, '65 at City Point, Va. 
BENNETT, Edward.— A. 23, Enr. Aug. 8, '61. 3 yrs. Co. A.; Corp. 

Aug. 30, '61 ; Regt. Com. Sgt., May i, '62 ; re-enlisted as a vet. Dec. 

28, '63; 1st Lieut. Co. A. April 22, '64; cap. in ac. May 8, '64, Laurel 

Hill, Va., re-cap. May 9, '64, Beaver Dam Sta., Va. ; w. in ac. 

Sept. 30, '64, Poplar Springs Church; M. O. Oct. 11, '64. Sub. 

serv. 1st Lieut. Co. D., 146 N. Y. V. I.; M. O. with Co. July 

16, '65. [P. O. Waseca, Minn.] 
BENNETT, Edward.— A. 28, Enr. Oct. 6, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; w. in ac 

July I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; w. in ac. Aug. 30, '62, Groveton, 


Va. ; w. in ac. May 22, '64, North Anna River, Va. ; M. O. with 

Co. Oct. II, '64. 
BENNET, Ferdinand. — A. 24, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; w. and 

cap. in ac. July i, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; paroled, no date; w. in 

ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa.; cap. in ac. May 8, '64, Laurel Hill, 

Va., re-cap. May 9, '64, Beaver Dam Sta., Va. ; k. in ac. June 3, 

'64, Cold Harbor, Va. 
BENSON, Egbert H. — A. 19, Enr. Aug. 16, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; disch. 

for dis. Jan. 9, '62. [P. O. c/o Jas. V. N. Benson, Dover Plains, 

N. v.] 
BERLEE, Christian. — A. 21, Enr. Sept. 2, '64, i yr. Co. B. ; transf. Co. 

E., 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; M. O. June 3, '65. 
BEST, Nelson. — A. 18, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. P.; w. in ac. Dec. 

13, '62, Fredericksburg, Va. ; disch. for dis. Feb. 16, '62. 
BE VIER, Isaac. — A 19, Enr. Sept. 11, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; w. in. ac. Aug. 

30, '62, Bull Run, Va. ; transf. Co. G. Oct. 26, '62; w^. in ac. June 

3. '64, Cold Harbor, Va. ; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64. [P. O. 693 

Macon St., Brooklyn, N. Y.] 
BIGGAM, Andrew S. — A. 40, Enr. Aug. 15, '62, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; transf. 

Co. B. Sept. 23, '64; transf. Co. D., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 11, '64; 

M. O. June 3, '65. 
BISHOP, Henry N. — A. 25, Enr. Aug. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; disch. for 

dis. Dec. 20, '61 at Hall's Hill, Va. 
BISSELL, Elias L — A. 27, Enr. Sept. i, '61, 3 yrs.; Asst. Surgeon; 

M. O. Nov. 19, '62, for prom. ; Surgeon 22 N. Y. V. I. Nov. 20, '62 ; 

M. O. with regt. June 19, '63 at Albany, N. Y. ; also borne as 

Charles S. ; died, Nov. i, 1905 at Buffalo, N. Y. 
BLACKMAN, Esau.— A. 29, Enr. Sept. 2, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; M. O. with 

Co. Oct. II, '64 as Blackmer. 
BLACKMAN, George L. — A. 19, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; 

Corp. Jan. i, '64; k. in ac. May 8, '64, Laurel Hill, Va. ; also borne 

as Blackmer. 
BLACKMAN, Isaac B.— A. 26, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; Corp. 

Sept. 20, '61, Sgt. Nov. 29, '62; w. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, 

Pa. ; w. in ac. May 5, '64, Wilderness, Va. ; disch. for dis. Oct. 13, 

'64 at West Philadelphia, Pa. [P. O. 210 Tryon PI., Buffalo, 

N. Y.] 
BLACKMAR, Jacob. — A. 29, Enr. Sept. 2, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; w. in ac. 

Aug. 30. '62, Bull Run, Va. ; disch. for dis. Dec. 19. '62 as Blackmer. 
BLACKMER, George.— A. 21, Enr. Oct. i, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K.; M. O. 

with Co. Oct. II, '64 at Albany, N. Y. 
BLAIR, Charles Hartson. — A. 23, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; 

w. in ac. May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. ; w. in ac. Aug. 30, '62, 

2d Bull Run, Va. ; Corp. Sept. 4, '62 ; w. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettys- 
burg, Pa.; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64. [P. O. Dayton, N. Y.] 
BLAIR, John A. — A. 19, Enr. Aug. 19. '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; disch. for 

dis. Aug. 13, '62 at Annapolis, Md. 


BLAKELY, James O. — A. 24, Enr. Sept. 20, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; Corp. 

Sept. 25, '62; Sgt. Dec. 30, '62; disch. Dec. 8, '63 for prom.; — ist 

Lieut. 19 U. S. C. Inf. Dec. 20, '63; Capt. Nov. 19, '64; M. O. with 

regt. June 15, 'dy [P. O., 258 No. Union Ave., Los Angeles, Calif.] 
BLANCHARD, William H.— A. 19, Enr. Aug. 30, '64, i yr. Co. A.; 

transf. to Co. K., 146 N. Y. V. L Oct. 10, '64; M. O. June 3, '65. 

[P. O. Lisbon, N. Dak.] 
BLAISDELL, Herman M. — A. 21, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; 

Corp. Sept. 20, '61; w. in ac. July i, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; disch. 

for wounds July 18, '62 at Washington, D. C. [P. O. North Collins, 

N. Y] 
BLEEKER, Charles H. — A. 18, Enr. Aug. 16, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E.; transf. 

Co. G. Oct. 26, '62; re-enlisted as a vet. Feb. 11, '64; Corp. Aug. 

9, '64; transf. Co. B. Sept. 23, '64; w. in ac. Sept. 30, '64, Poplar 

Grove Church, Va. ; transf. to Co. F., 140 N. Y. V. L Oct. li, '64; 

transf. 5 N. Y. Vet. Inf. June 3, '65; absent sick at M. O. of Co. 

vet. [P. O. New Paltz, N. Y.] 
BLISS, Moses H. — A. 28, Enr. Sept. 4, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; Corp. Aug. 

25, '63 ; w. in ac. Nov. 29, '63, Mine Run, Va. ; cap. in ac. May 8, 

'64, Laurel Hill, Va. ; re-cap. May 9, '64, Beaver Dam Sta., Va. ; 

M. O. with Co. Oct. II, '64 at Albany, N. Y. [lived after the war 

at Pasadena, Calif.] ; died about 1905. 
BLOCK, William. — A. 21, Enr. Oct. i, '63, 3 yrs. Co. A.; transf. Co. 

I. Oct. 4, '61; w. in ac. June 27, '62, Gaines Mills, Va. ; w. in ac. 

July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa.; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64 at Albany, 

N. Y. [P. O. Springville, N. Y.] 
BLY, James M. — A. 21, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; cap. in ac. 

Aug. 21, '64, near Weldon Railroad, Va. ; paroled Feb. 27, '65 at 

Wilmington, N. C; M. O. April 8, '65 at Albany, N. Y. [P. O. 

Shelton, Buffalo Co., Neb.] 
BOARDMAN, James H.— A. 23, Enr. Sept. 30, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G.; died 

of typhoid fever, April 28, '62, at hosp., Annapolis, Md. 
BOGART, John A. — Age, date and place of enlistment and muster 

as Corp. not stated; disch. for prom. — ist. Lieut. Co. B., 127 N. Y. 

V. I. Sept. 22, '62 as John A. Bogert; Capt. Co. H. May 1, '63; 

disch. Feb. 2-^, '65 for prom. ; Lieut. Col. 103 U. S. C. Inf. Feb. 4, 

'65 ; disch. April 20, '66. Prior serv. ; Enr. Priv. 2 yrs. 9 N. Y. V. I. 

April 23, '61 ; Corp. Co. B. May 4, '61 ; disch. Aug. 31, '62 for prom. 
BOGLE, Clause. — A. 23, Enr. Sept. 3, '64, 3 yrs. Co. A. ; transf. Co. — , 

140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; no further record. 
BOMAS, James W. — A. 21, Enr. Oct. 3, '61, 3 yrs. Co. I. ; Corp. Dec. 

5, '61; Sgt. Apr. 23, '62; w. in ac. July i, '62, Malvern Hill, Va.; 

1st Sgt. Jan. I, '63; Sgt. Maj. April 16, '63; returned to ranks and 

transf. Co. I. Feb. i, '64; re-enlisted as a vet. Feb. 8, '64; cap. in 

ac. May 8, '64, Laurel Hill, Va. ; no further record ; com'd 2d Lieut. 

and 1st Lieut. Aug. 18, '63, but not mustered. 
BOND, Walter D. — A. 19, Enr. Sept. 12, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; no record 

after Sept. 1861 at Albany, N. Y. 


Was born at Williamson, N. Y.. May 8. 1838, and enlisted in Co. C, 
44th Reg.. New York Vol. Inf. at Penn Yan, N. Y., Aug. 14, 1862. He 
also served in Co. A, 140 N. Y. V. I. and was honorably discharged 
as 1st Sergeant from Co. I, 5th Reg. N. Y. Vet. Inf., Aug. 21, 1865. 

He participated in the following: Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, Wapping Heights, Rappahannock Station, Aline Run, 
Wilderness, Laurel Hill. Spottsylvania, Xorth Anna, Bethesda Church, 
Petersburg, Weldon R. R. Poplar Grove Church, Hatchers Run, White 
Oak Road, Five Forks, Appomattox. At the battle of Five Forks, for 
capturing a stand of colors from the Ninth Virginia Infantry, he was 
awarded the "Medal of Honor." His death occurred at Mendota, 111., 
April 29, 1903. 

■■OBIIC Li: 


BOOTH, John.— A. 24, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; Corp. Sept. 

25, '61 ; ret. to ranks Jan. '62 ; w. and cap. in ac. June 27, '62, Gaines 
Mills, Va. ; paroled; died of wounds Nov. 4, '62 at Philadelphia, Pa. 

BORDEN, William J.— A. 21, Enr. Sept. 7, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B.; w. in ac. 

June 27, '62, Gaines Mills, Va. ; disch. for prom. — 2d Lieut. 46 

N. Y. V. I. Feb. 28, '63; com'd, not mustered, no vacancy; disch. 

May 9, '63. 
BORTLE, Remington.— A. 19, Enr. Oct. 20, '61, 3 yrs. Co. I.; Corp. 

May '62; disch. for prom. — 2d Lieut. Co. B. 15 N. Y. Art. Feb. 

26, '64; transf. Co. I. and F. ; M. O. Jan. 27, '65; com'd ist Lieut, 
not mustered. 

BOSS, Edward P. — A. 22, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; w. in ac. 

June 27, '62, Gaines Mills, Va. ; disch. for dis. Feb. 28, '63 at 

Philadelphia, Pa. ; also borne as Edward W., and Edward B. [P. 

O. Cuba, N. Y.] 
BOTCHFORD, Henry J.— A. 22, Enr. Sept. 24, '61, 3 yrs. Co. I. ; Sgt. 

Sept. 26, '61; 1st Sgt. April 23, '62; 2d Lieut. Dec. 27, '62; ist 

Lieut. Co. D. Aug. 31, '63; acting Adjt. and M. O. with Co. Oct. 

II, '64. 
BOURNE, William R.— A. 25, Enr. Aug. 20, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; transf. 

Co. K. and ist Sgt. Sept. 5, '61; 2d. Lieut. May 14, '62; ist Lieut. 

Dec. 18, '62; acting Adjt. Dec. 13-16, '62; Capt. Jan. 11, '63; thrice 

w. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa. ; disch. for dis. from wounds Oct. 

9, '63. Sub. serv., Capt. U. S. V. R. Corps, Oct. 30, '63; 2d Lieut. 

U. S. A. July 28, '66; Brevet ist Lieut. U. S. A. March 2, '67, 

"for gall, and meri. serv. in battle of Gettysburg;" Brevet Major 

U. S. V. March 13, '65, "for gall, and meri. serv. during the war;" 

1st Lieut. U. S. A. Sept. 10, '68; Capt. U. S. A. and retired Dec. 

15, '70; Major U. S. A. April 23, '1904; Mil. Asst. to Surg, in 

chg. of Armory Square U. S. Gen'l Hosp. Washington, D. C. Nov. 

'63 to Sept., '65; comd. bat. (3 Co.'s) 3d U. S. V. R. Corps at 

Wheeling, W. Va. ; served with his regt. (42 U. S. Inf.) at Platts- 

burg and Sacketts Harbor, N. Y. and Fort Gibson, Ind. Ter., 1868; 

det, in charge of Green Bay, Wis. Indian Agency until retired. 

Died Oct. 17, 1910, at his home, Shell Lake, Wis. 
BOWEN, Charles D. — A. 22, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; Corp. 

Oct. 3, '62; Sgt. Oct. 5, '62; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64; died June 

4, 1893 at Colorado Springs, Colo. 
BOWEN, Menzo W.— A. 20, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; M. O. with 

Co. Oct. II, '64 at Albany, N. Y. 
BOWERS, Harmon. — A. 18, Enr. Aug. 19, '62, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; transf. Co. 

A. Sept. 23, '64; transf. Co. H., 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 11, '64; cap. 

and paroled; M. O. June 5, '65 as Herman Bower. [P. O. Police 

Captain, 133 Western Ave., Albany, N. Y.] 
BOWER, Jacob.— A. 36, Enr. Aug. 3, '64, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; transf. Co. E., 

146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; M. O. May 29, '65; also borne as 



BOYD, George S.— A. 20, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. I.; Sgt. Sept. 
23, '61; ret. to ranks Oct. 25, '62; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64 at 
Albany, N. Y. 

BOYD, James. — A. 26, Enr. Sept. 9, '64, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; transf. Co. D., 140 
N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; transf. Co. C, 5 N. Y. Vet. Inf. June 3, 
'65 ; Corp. Aug. 5, '65 ; M. O. with Co. Aug. 21, '65 at Harts Island, 
N. Y. 

BOYNTON, Walworth W.— A. 21, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; 
w. in ac. July i, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; Corp. Feb. 24, '64; k. in 
ac. May 8, '64, Laurel Hill, Va. 

BOYNTON, William W.— A. 18, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H.; 
w. in ac. June 27, '62, Gaines Mills, Va. ; w. in ac. July i, '62, Mal- 
vern Hill, Va. ; disch. for wounds Nov. 29, '62 at Albany, N. Y. 

BRACKETT, John A.— A. 22, Enr. Aug. 18, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; Corp. 
Aug. 15, '62; transf. Co. H. Oct. 26, '62; w. in ac. July 2, '63; died 
of wounds July 7, '63, Gettysburg, Pa.; also borne as John A. 

BRADFORD, Charles.— A. 24, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; Corp. 
Sept. 25, '61 ; disch. for dis. April 25, '62 ; also borne as Charles 

BRADT, John R.— Private Co. A., 25 N. Y. V. I.; transf. to Co. K. 
this regt. June 25, '63 ; disch. for dis. Aug. 28, '63 at Washington, 
D. C. 

BRADT, Van Zandt. — A. 18, Enr. Sept. 22,, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; cap. in 
ac. June 2j, '62, Gaines Mills, Va. ; paroled ; w. in ac. May 8, '64, 
Laurel Hill, Va. ; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64; died . 

BRAD WAY, Gilbert T.— A. 20, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B.; no 
record after May 10, '62 at Yorktown, Va. ; also borne as Broad- 
way. Died — • — . 

BRAGG, William. — A. 20, Enr. Aug. 16, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; w. in ac. 
Sept. 17, '62, Antietam, Md. ; transf. Co. I. Oct. 26, '62; transf. Co. 
. A. 13 Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 14, '63 ; M. O. Nov. 17, '65 at Galloups 
Island, Boston Harbor. 

BRANDLE, Joseph. — A. 22, Enr. Oct. i, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; w. in ac. 
July I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; w. in ac. Aug. 30, '62, Groveton, 
Va. ; died of wounds Sept. 10, '62, at Ebenezer Hosp., Washington, 
D. C. 

BRAYTON, Erastus C— A. 23, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; w. in 
ac. July I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; Corp. July 10, '62 ; Sgt. Jan. 10, 
'63; M. O. with Co. Oct. II, '64, at Albany, N. Y. Died about 1906. 

BRAYTON, George F.— A. 31, Enr. Aug. 28, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; Sgt. 
Dec. 15, '61 ; disch. for dis. Aug. i, '62, at hosp., Annapolis, Md. 

BRAYTON, Harrison. — A. 20, Enr. Oct. 2, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; transf. 
Vet. Res. Corps., Dec. 16, '63. [P. O. Kasson, Minn.] 

BRAYTON, John. — A. 21, Enr. Oct. 2, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; cap. in ac. 
June 29, '62, Savage Sta., Va. ; paroled; disch. for dis. Dec. i, '62, 
at Mt. Pleasant hosp., Washington, D. C. [P. O. Hartford, N. Y.J 


BRAZIER, Samuel F.— Private Co. B., 14 N. Y. V. I.; transf. Co. A. 

this regt. June 24, '63; transf. Co. C. Sept. 23, '64; transf. Co. F. 

140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. ID, '64; M. O. June 3, '65; borne also as Samuel 

BREHL, Henry.— Private Co. D. 14 N. Y. V. I. ; transf. to Co. A. this 

regt. June 24, '63 ; w. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa. ; died of 

wounds Aug. i, '63, at York, Pa. 
BRENNAN, James F.— A. 40, Enr. Feb. 15, '64, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; no 

record after Mch. 10, '64, at Alexandria, Va. 
BREWER, Homer.— A. 19, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G.; Corp. 

Sept. 25, '61 ; disch. for dis. Jan. 28, '63. Prior serv. in 71 N. Y. 

Militia; died Jan. 3, '09, at S. and S. Home, Los Angeles, Cal. 
BRIDGEFORD, William W.— A. 17, Enr. Aug. 16, '62, 3 yrs. Co. F.; 

mus. Aug., '62 ; w. in ac. June 6, '64, Cold Harbor, Va. ; transf. 

Co. A. Sept. 23, '64; transf. Co. I. 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; 

M. O. June 3, '65, near Alexandria, Va. [P. O. Chief of Fire 

Dept., City Bldg., Albany, N. Y.] 
BRIER, Casper. — A. 23, Enr. Sept. i, '64, i yr. Co. B. ; transf. 146 N. Y. 

V. I. Oct. II, '64; no further record. 
BRONSON, David H.— Private Co. H. 14 N. Y. V. I. ; transf. Co. D. 

this regt. June 23, '63; dropped Aug. 23, '64; no further record. 
BROOKS, Joel T. — A. 21, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; Corp. Sept. 

20, '61 ; cap. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa. ; paroled Sept. 2, '63 ; 

Sgt. June 6, '64; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64, at Albany, N. Y. 
BROOKS, Seward. — A. 23, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; w. in ac. 

May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. ; died of wounds June , '62, 

at Halls HilL Va. 
BROWN, Charles F.— A. 19, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; M. O. 

with Co. Oct. II, '64, at Albany, N. Y. 
BROWN, James.— A. 24, Enr. Sept. i, '64, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; transf. Co. E. 

146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64, as Julius; M. O. June 3, '65. 
BROWN, James. — A. 24, Enr. Aug. 7, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; Corp. Sept. 

30, '61 ; w. in ac. June 27, '62, Gaines Mills, Va. ; disch. for dis. 

Dec. 29, '62, at hosp., Baltimore, Md. 
BROWN, James H. — A. 20, Enr. Oct. 3, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; w. and mis'g 

in ac. July i, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; no further record. 
BROWN, John D.— A. 20, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; disch. for 

dis. Apr. II, '63, at Baltimore, Md. 
BROWN, Major.- A. 21, Enr. Aug. 26, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C; transf. Co. B. 

Oct. 26, '62; M. O. with company Oct. 11, '64, at Albany, N. Y. 

[P. O. St. Johnsville, N. Y.] 
BROWN, Orsel C. — A. 26, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; re-enl. as 

a vet. Feb. 23, '64; Sgt. no date; transf. Co. C. Sept. 23, '64; transf. 

Co. H. 140 N. Y V. I. Oct. II, '64; Q. M. Sgt. Oct. 6, '64; transf. 

5 N. Y. Vet. Inf. June 3, '65 ; com'd 2d Lieut. Dec. 13, '64, not 

mustered; M. O. Aug. 21, '65. 
BROWN, Samuel C. — A. 26, Enr. Sept. 30, '61, 3 yrs. Co. I. ; misg. in 

ac. June 27, '62, Gaines Mills, Va. ; returned; M. O. with. Co. Oct. 

II, '64, at Albany, N. Y. 


BROWN, Seneca D. — A. 22, Enr. Sept. 30, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; Corp. 

May 25, '63; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64; [P. O. 209 W. 56th St.. 

New York, N. Y.] 
BROWN, William. — A. 19, Enr. Mch. 3, '64, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; no record 

after May 5, '64, at the Wilderness, Va. 
BROWN, William H.— A. 21, Enr. Sept. 11, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; mis'g 

in ac. July i, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; returned; M. O. with Co. Oct. 

II, '64, at Albany, N. Y. [P. O. 1314 Hunting Park, Philadelphia, 

BROWNELL, Abel.— A. 23, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; disc, for 

disability, Oct. 8, '61. 
BRUNK, Daniel W.— A. 21, Enr. Sept. 24, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; disch. Jan. 

26, '62, at Fahmouth, Va., to enlist in regular U. S. Army, as Bronk. 

[P. O. Manchester, N. Y] 
BRYANT, Henry T.— A. 18, Enr. Oct. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; w. in ac. 

July I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; disch. for dis. Oct. 3, '62 ; also borne 

as Henry D. 
BUCHANAN, Robert F.— A. 20, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; Corp. 

Sept. 6, '61 ; w. in ac. Dec. 13, '62, Fredericksburg, Va. ; Sgt. Feb. 

24, '63; Sgt.-Maj. Feb. i, '64; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64, at 

Albany, N. Y. Prior serv. in Co. B. 10 N. Y. Militia, June 

and July, 1861, at Albany Barracks. 
BUCK, Halsey D. — A. 18, Enr. Sept. 20, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; w. in ac. 

July I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; w. in ac. Aug. 30, '62, 2nd Bull Run, 

Va.; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64, at Albany, N. Y. 
BUCKLEY, Benjamin F. — A. 23, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; disch. 

for dis. May 14, '62, at Georgetown, D. C. [P. O. Rowley, la.] 
BUCKLEY, Patrick A.— Private Co. D. 14 N. Y. V. I. ; transf. to Co. 

A. this regt. June 24, '63; transf. Co. C. Sept. 23, '64; transf. Co. 

H., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; M. O. with Co. June 3, '65 at 

Alexandria, Va. [P. O. Pembroke, N. Y.] 
BUMP, George.— A. 27, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; M. O. with 

Co. Oct. II, '64, at Albany, N. Y. ; also borne as George R. [P. O. 

Delevan, N. Y.] 
BURCH, William.— A. 18, Enr. Sept. 7, '64, i yr. Co. B. ; transf. Co. E. 

146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; cap. and paroled; M. O. June 3, '65, 

near Alexandria, Va. 
BURDICK, Henry D.— A. 28, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D.; 2nd 

Lieut. Aug. 30, '61 ; disch. Aug. 14, '62. [P. O. Lincklaen Centre, 

N. Y.] 
BURDICK, John.— A. 23, Enr. Sept. 30, '61, 3 yrs. Co. I. ; disch. for 

dis. Jan. 30, '63, at Philadelphia, Pa. 
BURFITT, Charles E.— A. 21, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B.; w. in 

ac. May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. ; w. in ac. July i, '62, Malvern 

Hill, Va. ; disch. for dis. Oct. 27, '62, at Albany, N. Y., as Edward 

Burfit. [P. O. Pittsfield, Mass.] 
BURGESS, Lafayette L.— A. 19, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; transf. 

Co. C. 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; Corp. March 6, '65; M. O. with 


Co. June 3, '65, near Alexandria, Va. [P. O. Onondaga Valley, 

N. Y.] 
BURHANS, Charles H. — A. 20, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; no 

record after Oct. i, '61, at exp. of furlough. 
BURHANS, Henry N.— A. 23, Enr. Oct. 2, 61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; w. June 

28, '62; transf. Co. H. Oct. 26, '62; disch. for wounds Oct. 27, '62, 

at Philadelphia, Pa. ; died at Soldiers' home, Leavenworth, 

BURKE, James H. — A. 27, Enr. Sept. 24, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; mus'n Sept. 

25, '62; private Oct. 26, '62; transf. Co. K. 9th Vet. Res. Corps 

March 15, '64; M. O. July 3, '65, Washington, D. C. 
BURKE, John.— A. 20, Enr. March 12, '64, at Catskill, N. Y., 3 yrs. 

Co. E. ; deserted March 29, '64, at Alexandria, Va. 
BURKE, John.— A. 22, Enr. Sept. 3, '61, at Albany, N. Y., 3 yrs. Co. 

F. ; Corp. Jan. 5, '62 ; k. in ac. June 27, '62, Gaines Mills, Va. 
BURKE, Marcus D. — A. 19, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; w. in ac. 

July I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; Corp. Feb. i, '63; Sgt. July i, '64; 

M. O. with Co. Oct. II, '64, at Albany, N. Y. ; borne also as 

Marcus B. and S. 
BURKE, Marshall B.— A. 20, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; disch. 

Sept. 7, '62, for prom. ; 2nd Lieut. 138 N. Y. V. L ; ist Lieut. 9 N. 

Y. H. A. Feb. 11, '63; w. in ac. July 9, '64; Capt. Oct. 9, '64; M. O. 

July 5, '65, at Washington, D. C. 
BURLINGHAM, Daniel A.— A. 25, Enr. Sept. 2, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B.; 

Corp. Sept. 20, '61 ; disch. for dis. Nov. 3, '63, at hosp. Philadelphia, 

BURNETT, James.— A. 19, Enr. Sept. 10, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; died of 

fever Jan. 29, '63, at Windmill Point, Va. ; also borne as James F. 
BURNETT, James H. — A. 22, Enr. Sept. 27, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; transf. 

Co. B. Oct. 20, '61 ; Sgt. Nov. 29, '62 ; w. and cap. in ac. May 8, 

'64, Laurel Hill, Va. ; paroled Aug. 12, '64; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, 

'64, at Albany, N. Y. [P. O. Wakefield, Kan.] 
BURNHAM, Ashbell W.— A. 28, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K.; Sgt. 

Sept. 5, '61 ; w. in ac. July i, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; disch. for 

wounds, Jan. 6, '63, at Albany, N. Y. ; borne also as Aswill. 
BURNHAM, Dyer F.— A. 25, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; Corp. 

Jan. II, '63; ret. to ranks July 22, '63; transf. Co. A. 6 Vet. Res. 

Corps Jan. 15, '64; Corp. Sept., '64; Sgt. Oct., '64; M. O. July 6, '65, 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 
BURNHAM, Leander T.— A. 21, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; k. in 

ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa. 
BURNS, Charles A.— A. 27, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; cap. in ac. 

June 27, '62, Gaines Mills, Va. ; paroled, Sept.. '62, at Belle Isle, 

Va. ; det. to Batt. K., U. S. Arty. Oct. '62 to April, '64 ; transf. Co. 

K. 12 Vet. Res. Corps April 28, '64; disch. Sept. i, '64, at Albany, 

N. Y. ; died . 

BURNS, John.— A. 19, Enr. at Malone, N. Y., Sept. 5, '64, i yr. Co. B.; 
transf. Co. E. 146 N. Y. V. L Oct. 11, '64; M. O. June 3, '65. 


BURNS, John. — A. 25, Enr. at Albany, N. Y., Aug. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. 

B. ; det. to Batt. D., 5 U. S. Arty. Jan., '62 to Aug., '64 ; M. O. with 

Co. Oct. II, '64 at Albany, N. Y. 
BURNS, Martin.— A. 23, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; Sgt. Aug. 30, 

'61 ; disch. for dis. April 19, '62 at Yorktown, Va. [P. O. Lancaster, 

BURNS, Michael.— A. 18, Enr. Sept. i, '64, i yr. Co. E. ; transf. 

140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; M. O. June 3, '65. 
BURNS, Robert C. — A. 19, Enr. Aug. 26, '62, 3 yrs. Co. A.; w. in ac, 

July 2, '63 ; died of wounds July 16, '63 at Gettysburg, Pa. 
BURROUGHS, Sidney W.— A. 19, Enr. Aug. 18, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E.; 

w. in ac. May 5, '64; died of wounds May 7, '64 at Wilderness, Va. ; 

commission as 2d Lieut. 31 U. S. C. Inf. Aug. 9, '64, received by his 

commanding officer after the soldier's death. 
BURTLESS, Mahlon.— A. 22, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; disch. 

for dis. March 12, '63. 
BUTLER, John. — A. 24, Enr. Aug. 15, '62, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; w. in ac. 

July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa. ; disch. for dis. Dec. 31, '63 at Conv. 

Camp, Va. 
BUTLER, John. — A. 20, Enr. Sept. 10, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; transf. Co. G. 

Oct. 8, '61 ; k. in ac. May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. 
BUTLER, John W. — A. 22, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; transf. Co. 

A., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64 ; M. O. June 3, '65 ; died, . 

BUTLER, Thomas.— A. 38, Enr. at Plattsburg, N. Y., Sept. 7, '62; no 

record after Oct. 2, '62. 
BUTTS, Henry H.— A. 21, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; Corp. Sept. 

25, '61 ; died of disease June 6, '62, Yorktown, Va. ; also borne as 

Henry D. 
BUZZER, Isaac— A. — , Private, Co. I., 25 N. Y. V. I. ; transf. to Co. 

G. this regt. June 24, '63 ; transf. Co. C, 19 Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 

6, '63 ; M. O. Aug. 3, '65 ; also borne as Bozee. 
BYINGTON, Charles.— Private Co. H., 14 N. Y. V. I. ; transf. to this 

regt. June 24, '63 ; no further record. 
BYRNE, Theodore.— Private Co. E., 14 N. Y. V. I. ; transf. to Co. I. 

this regt. June 24, '63 ; k. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa. 
CADDEN, Owen. — A. 23, Enr. Aug. 8, '62, 3 yrs. Co. I. ; transf. Co. A. 

Sept. 23, '62; transf. to 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; also borne as 

Caddin ; no further record. 
CADRO, Peter W. — A. 22, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; deserted 

Aug. 16, '62; re-enlisted in 12th Regt. U. S. Inf. [P. O. Fredonia, 

N. Y.] 
CALLAHAN, John.— Private Co. A., 25 N. Y. V. I.; transf. Co. K. 

this regt. June 25, '63; transf. Co. A. Sept. 21, '64; transf. Co. C, 

146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; M. O. June 16, '65; also borne as 

CAMPBELL, Charles.— A. 18, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; died of 

typhoid fever Jan. 31, '63, near Falmouth, Va. as Charles W. 


CAMPBELL, Cleveland J.— A. 25, Enr. Sept. 16, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C; 

disch. Nov. I, '61 for prom. — 2d Lieut. Co. C, i N. Y. V. C. Dec. 

12, '61, 3 yrs. ; disch. Oct. 24, '62 for prom. — Adjt. 152 N. Y. V. I. ; 

disch April 22, '6^ for prom. — Capt. 121 N. Y. V. I. April 10, '6$; 

disch. March 20, '64 for prom. — Lieut. Col. 23 U. S. C. Inf. March 

20, '64; Col. , Brevet Maj. Gen. U. S. V. March 13, '65; 

died of disease June 13, '65 at Charleston, N. Y. 
CAMPBELL, Frank. — A. 23, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; transf. 

Co. H. Sept. 19, '61 ; Sgt. Sept. 20, '61 ; ist Sgt. Dec. 19, '62; M. O. 

with Co. Oct. II, '64; com'd 2d. Lieut. Aug. 3, '63, not mustered. 

[P. O. Perrysburg, N. Y.] 
CAMPBELL, Hicks. — A. 27, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; w. in ac. 

May 5, '64, Wilderness, Va. ; transf. Co. A., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct 

10, '64; M. O. June 3, '65; also borne as Camel. [P. O. Fayette, 
N. Y] 

CAMPBELL, Sanford. — A. 18, Enr. Aug. 20, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; transf, 
Co. H. Oct. 25, '62; no record after Jan. 20, '63, in hosp., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

CAMPBELL, William.— A. 21, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H.; died 
of fever May 5, '62, Fort Monroe, Va. 

CANNADY, Dennis. — A. 20, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; w. in ac. 
May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. ; transf. Co. D. Oct. 25, '62 ; w. in 
ac. Dec. 13, '62, Fredericksburg, Va. ; died of wounds Dec. 14, '62, 
Fredericksburg, Va. 

CAREY, Richard A. — A. 21, Enr. Aug. 19, '62, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; w. in ac. 
July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa. ; transf. Co. A. Sept. 23, '64 ; transf. 
Co. H., 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; M. O. March 2, '65 at Hatchers 
Run, Va. 

CAREY, Sherwood F. — A. 28, Enr. Aug. 20, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E.; Sgt. 
Aug. 30, '61 ; disch. for dis. March 18, '63 at Providence, R. I. 

CARHOUNS, Joseph H.— A. 25, Enr. at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., i yr. 
Co. C; transf. Co. H., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; M. O. June 
3, '65 near Alexandria, Va. ; also borne as Cashouse. 

CARKNARD, Richard.— A. 27, Enr. Aug. 30, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; w. 
in ac. June 3, '64, Cold Harbor, Va. ; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64 as 
Carkner; died, . 

CARLO W, Franklin. — A. 21, Enr. Aug. 27, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; transf. 
Co. G. Oct. 26, '62 ; Corp. Dec. 25, '62 ; re-enlisted as a vet. Feb. 

11, '64; Sgt. Aug. 9, '64; transf. Co. B. Sept. 23, '64; transf. Co. D., 
146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II;, '64; ret. to ranks; disch for dis. Jan. 13, 
'65 near Petersburg, Va. [P. O. Mill Brook, Dutchess Co., N. Y.] 

CARMADY, Robert E.— A. 21, Enr. Sept. 26, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; disch. 

for dis. Oct. 14. '61. 
CARPENTER, Charles H.— A. 19, Enr. Sept. 30, '61, 3 yrs. Co. I.; 

k. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa. 
CARPENTER, Oliver P.— A. 20, Enr. Aug. 16, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E.; 

disch. Nov. ID, '61. Sub. serv. ; ist Lieut. Co. I., 2 N. Y. V. C. Oct. 

6, '64; Capt. Co. L., Dec. 10, '64; M. O. June 23, '65; Brevet Major, 


N. Y. V. ; also borne as Oliver W. ; died June 13, '09 at Kingston, 

N. Y. 
CARR, Jefferson W. — A. 25, Enr. Sept. 14, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; Corp. 

Nov. 27, '62; Sgt. Feb. 24, '64; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64 at 

Albany, N. Y. ; died Jan. 7, '09 at Norwich, N. Y. 
CARRIER, Duane W. — A. 24, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; disch. 

for dis. Oct. 4, '61. 
CARRUTH, Virgil D.— A. 26, Enr. Jan. 9, '64 at Oxford, N. Y., 3 yrs. 

Co. D. ; transf. Co. B. Sept. 23, '64 ; transf. Co. D., 146 N. Y. V. I. 

Oct. 6, '64; Corp. Feb. i, '65: M. O. with Co. July 16, '65 near 

Washington, D. C. ; also borne as Cossuth. 
CARTER, Amos. — A. 21, Enr. Oct. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; w. in ac. July 

I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; transf. Co. H. Oct. 25, '62; disch. for dis. 

Jan. 23, '63, Philadelphia, Pa. ; died, . 

CARTER, Henry. — A. 19, Enr. Aug. 27, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C; disch. for 

dis. Nov. 24, '62 at Albany, N. Y. 
CARY, Sherwood F.— A. 28, Enr. Aug. 28, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; Sgt. Sept. 

21, '61 ; transf. Co. E. Oct. 25, '61 ; ret. to ranks and transf. Co. 

G. ; disch. for dis. March 18, '63 in hosp. Portsmouth Grove, R. I, 

[P. O. Warren Centre, Pa.] 
CARY, William. — A. 21, Enr. Oct. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; w. in ac. May 

27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. ; disch. for dis. Feb. 17, '63 as Carey. 
CASE, Edward C— Private Co. A., 14 N. Y. V. I.; transf. to 

Co. B. this regt. June 24, '63; w. in ac. Dec. 11, '63, Fredericksburg, 

Va.; transf. Co. C, 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 11, '64; Corp. Feb. i, '65; 

Sgt. March i, '65 ; M. O. June 3, '65. 
CASE, James B. — A. 19, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; Corp. Sept. 

25, '61 ; ret. to ranks ; w. in ac. Aug. 30, '62, Bull Run, Va. ; disch. 

for dis. Sept. 22, '62 at Philadelphia, Pa. ; died, . 

CASEDY, Phillip.— A. 21, Enr. at Brooklyn, N. Y., Sept. 2, '64, 3 yrs. 

Co. A.; transf. Co. K., 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; M. O. July 16, 

CASEY, Daniel. — A. 19, Enr. Aug. 12, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; k. in ac. 

July 2, '63. Gettysburg, Pa. 
CASH, William H. — A. 20, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; died of 

disease in hosp., Fort Monroe, Va. 
CASWELL, William. — A. 23, Enr. Aug. 12, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; disch. 

for dis. Oct. i, '62; also borne as Coswell. [P. O. Coeyman's 

Hollow, N. Y] 
CAVERLY, John C— A. 19, Enr. Sept. 13, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F.; died of 

typhoid fever May 6, '62, on hosp. ship "Ocean Queen" near York- 
town, Va. ; also borne as Calverley. 
CESSFORD, Andrew G.— A. 19, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; w. in 

ac. July 2, '63. Gettysburg, Pa.; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64. [P. O. 

818 N. Weber St., Colorado Springs, Colo.] 
CHAFEE, Andrew J. — A. 27, Enr. Sept. 20, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; w. in 

ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa. ; died of wounds Aug. 12, '63 at 

Gettysburg, Pa. 


"Fayetteville, N. Y., August 9, 1910. 
"Will send you this picture which was taken just before enlisting. 
William Smith, private of Capt. Allen's Company F. 44th N. Y. 
Volunteers, enrolled on the 20th day of September. 1861, at Albany, 
N. Y., to serve three years. At the second battle of Bull Run was 
shot through tiie left ankle and taken prisoner. Myself and others 
were left on the battlefield eight days, by a stream of water with noth- 
ing to eat. We were then paroled and private carriages came from 
Washington. D. C, and took us to the LT. S. Hospital, Judiciary 
Square. I was discharged January 7, 1863. 

"Wm. Smith." 


CHAMPLAIN, James H. — A. 20, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; 

misg. in ac. June 27, '62, Gaines Mills, Va. ; ret. ; w. in ac. Aug. 30, 

'62, Groveton, Va. ; Corp. Nov. 18, '63; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, 

'64 at Albany, N. Y. [P. O. Yorkshire, N. Y] 
CHAMPLIN, Jeffry H.— A. 20, Enr. Aug. 14, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; disch. 

for dis. April 21, '62 at Philadelphia, Pa. 
CHANDLER, John B.— A. 22, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. P.; M. O. 

with Co. Oct. II, '64 at Albany, N. Y. [P. O. 415 Washington St, 

Scranton, Pa.] 
CHANDLER, Nelson. — A. 35, Enr. Oct. 26, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; wagoner 

Oct. 26, '61 ; ret. to ranks, no date ; disch. for dis. March 27, '63 

at hosp., Albany, N. Y. 
CHANDLER, Samuel W.— A. 27, Enr. Aug. 28, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; w. 

in ac. May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. ; died of wounds June 3, '62. 
CHAPIN, Edward P.— A. 30, Enr. Aug. 8, '61 at Buffalo, N. Y., 3 yrs. 

Co. A.; Capt. Aug. 30, '61; Maj. Jan. 2, '62; w. in ac. May 27, '62, 

Hanover C. H., Va. ; Lieut. Col. July 4, '62 ; disch. July 4, '62 for 

prom. — Col. 116 N. Y. V. L Sept. 5, '62; commander i Brg., i Div., 

19 A. C. Feb. 9, '63; k. in ac. May 27, '63, Port Hudson, La. 
CHAPMAN, George. — A. 17, Enr. Oct. 5, '61 and disch. as a minor 

Oct., '61. 
CHAPMAN, George H.— A. 23, Enr. Sept. 30, '61, 3 yrs. Go. G. ; 

w. in ac. July i, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; Corp. Dec. 29, '62; Sgt, 

May 25, '63; 1st Sgt. Nov. 17, '64; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64 at 

Albany, N. Y. [P. O. 74 Trinity Place, Albany, N. Y.] Died, . 

CHAPMAN, Sherman. — A. 21, Enr. Aug. 20, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. transf. 

Co. A. Oct. 26, '62; sick in hosp., Annapolis, Md., April 17, '62; 

died Oct. 26, 1909 at Chicago, 111. 
CHAPPELL, Charles.— A. 19, Enr. Sept. 18, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F.; died 

of measles Nov. 22, '61 at Eruptive Hosp., Washington, D. C. 
CHASE, John F. — A. 20, Enr. Sept. 12, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; died of 

disease May 14, '62 at City Hosp., New York City. 
CHEESEMAN, Sherwood E.— A. 18, Enr. Oct. 18, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; 

w. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa.; transf. Co. C. Sept. 23, '64; 

transf. Co. C, 140 N. Y. V. L Oct. 10, '64; M. O. Dec. 16, '64. 
CHOATE, George L. — A. 21, Enr. Sept. 24, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; Corp. 

Feb. I, '63; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64. [P. O. Morrisville, N. Y.] 
CHUBBUCK, Walter L.— A. 21, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; 

w. in ac. July i, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; w. in ac. May S, '64, Wilder- 
ness, Va. ; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64; died Feb. 7, '07 at Toledo^ 

CHURCHILL, John.— A. 29, Enr. at Tarrytown, N. Y. Sept. 5, '64, 3 

yrs. Co. E.; transf. Co. H., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 11, '64; said to 

have deserted Oct. 20, '64 from Div. Prov. Guard. 
CIRKWOOD, Charles H.— A. 25, Enr. Sept. 9, '62, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; disch. 

Sept. 6, '64 to re-enlist in S2d Co. 2d Bat. Vet. Res. Corps. 
CLAGHORN, James A.— A. 26, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; w. 

May 4, '62 ; disch. for dis. Aug. 26, '62 at Buffalo, N. Y. ; also borne 

as Cloghorn. [P. O. Moreland, N. Y.] 


CLAPP, Adelbert.— A. 25, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H.; disch. for 

dis. Feb. 5, '63 ; re-enlisted Jan. 2, '64 for 3 yrs. in Co. M., 8 N. Y. 

Arty.; prom, ist Lieut. April 13, '64; wounded; died of wounds, 

Nov. 21, '64 at City Point, Va. 
CLARK, Abram. — A. 21, Enr. Aug. 30, '64, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; transf. 140 

N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; w. in ac. Feb. 6, '65, Five Forks, Va. ; 

transf. Co. K., 5 N. Y. Vet. Infy. June 3, '65 ; M. O. with Co. Aug. 

21, '65. 
CLARK, Augustus B. — A. 24. Enr. Oct. 2, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; disch. 

for dis. Oct. 25, '62 at Philadelphia. Pa. [P. O. Bradford, Pa.] 
CLARK, Charles. — A. 21, Enr. Jan. 9, '64, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; deserted Jan. 

17, '64. 
CLARK, DeForest. — A. 24, Enr. Sept. 10, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B.; died of 

inflammation of the brain March 7, '62, at Georgetown, D. C. 
CLARK, Ezra P. — A. 18, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; disch. for 

dis. Nov. 24, '62 ; also borne as Ezra B. ; died . 

CLARK, Paul B. — A. 24, Enr. Oct. i, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; w. in ac. July 

I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; disch. for wounds Oct. 24, '62 at New 
York City. [P. O. Hammond, la.] 

CLAUS, David. — A. 22, Enr. Sept. 24, '62 at Albany, N. Y., 3 yrs. Co. 

E. ; w. in ac. May 8, '64, Laurel Hill, Va. ; died of wounds May 

20, '64 at hosp., Fredericksburg, Va. 
CLEAVELAND, Martin B. , Enr. as Chaplain, Feb. i, '62; disch. 

Oct. 21, '62. 
CLEMENT, James H.— A. 24, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; w. in 

ac. June 27, '62, Gaines Mills, Va. ; died of wounds July 7, '62, 

Savage Sta., Va. 
CLEMER, William.— Private Co. A., 14 N. Y. V. I. ; transf. to Co. I. 

this regt. June 24, '62; Corp. April 28, '64; transf. to Co. A. Sept. 

23, '64; transf. Co. H., 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; M. O. June 3, 

'65 ; also borne as Clemmer, William B. 
CLOVER, Albert S. — A. 19, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; w. in ac. 

May 5, '64, Wilderness, Va. ; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64; died . 

CLUTE, Sandford. — A. 36, Enr. Sept. 1, '64, i yr. Co. E. ; transf. to 

140 N. Y. V. L Oct. II, '64; cap. in ac. March 31, '65, Gravelly Run, 

Va. ; paroled ; M. O. June 3, '65. 
CLYDE, James D. — A. 18, Enr. Sept. 28, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; disch. for 

dis. Jan. 27, '62 at Halls Hill, Va. [P. O. Cherry Valley, N. Y.] 
COBURN, James M.— A. 28, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; w. in ac. 

June 27, '62, Gaines Mills, Va. ; re-enlisted as a vet. Dec. 28, '63 ; 

w. in ac. May 5, '62, Wilderness, Va. ; transf. to Co. D., 146 N. Y. 

V. L Oct. II, '64; M. O. July 26, '65. 
COCHRANE, William H.— A. 18, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; 

w. in ac. Dec. 13, '62, Fredericksburg, Va. ; M. O. with Co. Oct. 

II, '64 at Albany, N. Y. [P. O. Grand Rapids, Mich.] 
COFFIN, Merritt. — A. 32, Enr. Sept. 3, '64, 3 yrs. Co. C ; transf. Co. K., 

140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; disch. for dis. Jan. 16, '65 at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 


COGSWELL, Franklin.— A. 23, Enr. Aug. 14, '62 at Albany, N. Y., 3 
yrs. Co. E. ; Corp. Sept. 25, '62 ; ret. to ranks Jan. 25, '63 ; transf. 
Vet. Res. Corps April, '63; disch. S. O. War Dept. Jan. 4, '64 to 
enlist as hosp. steward, U. S. A. ; disch. by S. O. 290 War Dept. 
Sept. 2, '64 for prom. — Capt. 127 U. S. C. Inf. Sept. 14, '64; com- 
manded the regt. at battle in front of Petersburg, Va., April 2, '65 ; 
M. O. Nov. I, '65. [P. O. Claremont, Calif.] 

COLE, Ashley. — A. 20, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; granted 10 days' 
furlough Sept. 5, '61 and never returned. 

COLE, Andrew J. — A. 29, Enr. Aug. 21, '62, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; w., lost a leg 
in ac. Dec. 13, '62, Fredericksburg, Va. ; disch. for dis. April 8, '63 ; 
died Nov. 12, 1903 at Hillsdale, Mich. 

COLE, Myron H. — A. 24, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; 2d Lieut. 
Sept. 16, '61 ; dismissed Aug. 23, '62, by order of the War Dept. 

COLE, Seth F. — A. 18, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. L ; w. in ac. July 
2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa. ; transf. Co. B., 19 Vet. Res. Corps. Feb. i, 
'64 ; re-transf . to Co. L, 44 N. Y. V. I. March 7, '64 ; w. in ac. May 
5, '64, Wilderness, Va. ; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64 at Albany, N. Y. 

COLE, William.— A. 18, Enr. at Malone, N. Y. Aug. 30, '64, i yr. Co. 
C; transf. Co. K, 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64, as William S.; 
absent, sick in hosp. at M. O. of Co. 

COLE, William W. — A. 19, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; w. in ac. 
May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. ; died of wounds May 28, '62 at or 
near same place. 

COLLIER, Peter. — A. 19, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. I.; w. in ac. 
July I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; w. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa. ; 
transf. Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. i, '63. 

COLLINS, James. — A. 28, Enr. Sept. i, '64, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; transf. Co, 
G., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. ID, '64; w. in ac. Feb. 6, '65 at Hatchers 
Run, Va. ; M. O. June 3, '65 at Washington, D. C. , 

COLLINS, Oliver.— Private Co. D., 14 N. Y. V. I. ; transf. to Co. H. 
this regt. June 24, '6^', deserted July 3, '63; ret. Jan., '64; transf. 
to Vet. Res. Corps Jan. 22, '64; also borne as Colliver. 

COLT, Charles H. — A. 23, Enr. Oct. 7, '62, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; w. in ac. 
May 5, '64, Wilderness, Va. ; died of wounds May 16, '64, Fredericks- 
burg, Va. 

COMBS, Thomas D. — A. 18, Enr. Aug. 29, '64, i yr. Co. E. ; w. in ac. 
Sept. 30, '64, Poplar Grove Church, Va. ; transf. Co. A., 140 N. Y. 
V. I. Oct. II, '64; M. O. June 15, '65 at Philadelphia, Pa. 

COMFERT, William H.— A. 22, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. I.; Corp. 
Sept. 23, '61 ; died of disease Dec. 5, '61 at Union Hotel Hosp., 
Georgetown, D. C. 

COMSTOCK, Albert.— A. 19, Enr. March 3, '62, 3 yrs. Co. I.; w. in ac. 
July I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; w. in ac. Nov. 7, '63, Rappahannock 
Sta., Va. ; Corp. Co. A. Sept. 23, '64 ; ret. to ranks ; transf. Co. H., 
146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. ID, '64; disch. April 25, '65 at hosp., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 



COMSTOCK, Joel T.— A. 23, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; cap. in 
ac. May 8, '64, Laurel Hill, Va. ; re-cap. May 9, '64, Beaver Dam 
Sta.; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64 at Albany, N. Y. [P. O. West 
Plattsburgh, N. Y.] 

COMSTOCK, Joshua K.— A. 22, Enr. Aug. 14, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E.; 
transf. to Signal Corps Jan. 12, '64. 

CONGDON, John.— A. 20, Enr. Oct. 2, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; M. O. with 
Co. Oct. II, '64; died Aug. 7, '92 at Nat. S. and S. Home, Leaven- 
worth, Kan. 

CONGER, George D. — A. 18, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A. ; w. in ac. 
May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. ; w. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, 
Pa.; Corp. June 3, '64; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64 at Albany, N. 
Y. ; died Oct. 26, '08 at his home, Springville, N. Y. 

CONINE, Michael.— A. 18, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. I. ; transf. to 
Vet. Res. Corps, March — , '64. 

CONKLIN, Ira. — A. 28, Enr. Aug. 16, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; k. in ac. Aug. 
30, '62, Groveton, Va. 

CONKLIN, Philo H.— A. 21, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, 3 yrs. Co. C; Corp. 
Nov. II, '62; transf. Co. H., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; transf. to 
Co. H., 5 N. Y. Vet. Infy. June 3, '65 ; Sgt. Aug. i, '65 ; M. O. with 
Co. Aug. 21, '65 ; died Dec. 27, 1907, at his home, Penn Yan, N. Y. 

CONLON, Patrick. — A. 22, Enr. Aug. 25, '62, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; w. in ac. 
May 5, '64, Wilderness, Va. ; transf. Co. B. Sept. 23, '64; transf. 
Co. D., 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; Corp. ; M. O. June 

3, '6S- 

CONNER, Freeman. — A. 25, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; Capt. Sept. 
13, '61; Major July 4, '62; Lieut. Col. July 14, '62; w. in ac. Dec. 
13, '62, Fredericksburg, Va. ; disch. for wounds April 3, '63; re- 
instated and mustered in as Lieut. Col. May 12, '63 ; w. in ac. May 
8, '64, Laurel Hill, Va. ; com'd Col., not mustered, Aug. 27, '63. 
Prior serv. ; Capt. Chicago Zouave Regt. April 22, '61; ist Lieut. 11 
N. Y. V. I., [Ellsworth's N. Y. Fire Zouaves] April — , '61; died 
March 28, 1906 at Chicago, 111., of heart disease. 

CONNERS, Peter N.— A. 25, Enr. Sept. 24, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E.; Sgt. 
Sept. 24, '62; transf. Co. F., 24 Vet. Res. Corps March 7, '64; M. O. 
June 28, '65 at Washington, D. C. 

CONNORS, John. — A. 24, Enr. March 31, '64, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; cap. Aug. 
21, '64 near Petersburg, Va. ; prisoner Aug. 22, '64 at Richmond, 
Va. ; prisoner at Salisbury, N. C. Oct. 9, '64; no further record. 

COOK, Charles H.— Private, Co. G., 14 N. Y. V. I. ; transf. to Co. I. 
this regt. June 24, '63 ; no record after July 28, '64. 

COOK, Elisha A. — A. 20, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; Sgt. Sept. 20, 
'61 ; w. in ac. July i, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; disch. for dis. Nov. 26, 
'62, at hosp., Philadelphia, Pa. [P. O. Garden Prairie, 111.] 

COOK, Hobart P. J.— A. 19, Enr. Aug. 11, '62, 3 yrs. Co. I.; Muse. 
Aug. 28, '62 ; accidentally wounded July 2, '63, while acting as hosp. 
attendant; transf. Co. A. Sept. 23, '64; transf. Co. G., 146 N. Y. 
V. I. Oct. 10, '64 ; M. O. May 31, '65 at Albany, N. Y. 


COOK, Jerome. — Private, 12 Rhode Island Inf. a deserter therefrom; 

transf. to Co. A. this regt. Nov. 18, '63, to serve time lost by 

desertion; again deserted Dec. 19, '63 from Camp Distribution, Va. 
COOK, Sylvester A. — A. 20, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; Corp. 

Oct. I, '61 ; w. in ac. July i, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; disch. for dis. 

July 7, '62 at Washington, D. C. [P. O. Philadelphia, Pa.] 
COON, Francis A. — A. 18, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; died of 

small-pox Feb. 5, '62 at Kalorama Hosp., Washington, D. C. 
COONS, George W. — A. 20, Enr. Oct. 2, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; disch. for 

dis. June 20, '62 at Cliffburne Hosp., Washington, D. C. 
COONS, Rienzi. — A. 21, Enr. Aug. 27, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; transf. Co. H. 

Oct. 26, '62; disch. for dis. Jan. 27, '63 at Philadelphia, Pa. 
COOPER, John H.— A. 19, Enr. Sept. 2, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; disch. for 

dis. Sept. 16, '62 at Fort Wood, New York Harbor. 
COOPER, Marmaduke. — A. 22, Enr. Sept. 3, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; disch. 

Jan. 29, '62 for prom. — 2d Lieut. Co. I., 3 N. Y. V. I. Dec. 16, '61 

for 2 yrs.; prom, ist Lieut, no date; died of disease Nov. 16, '62 at 

Fort Monroe, Va. 
COPPERNOLL, Alonzo.— A. 19, Enr. Sept. 20, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; disch. 

for dis. Feb. 29, '62 at Hall's Hill, Va. 
CORBALLY, John.— Private, Co. E., 14 N. Y. V. I. ; transf. to Co. A. 

this regt. June 24, '63; no record after July 28, '64; also borne as 

CORCORAN, Timothy. — A. 26, Enr. Aug. 20, '62, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; transf. 

Co. A. Sept. 23, '64; transf. Co. C, 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; 

M. O. June 3, '65. [P. O. Troy, N. Y.] 
CORNWELL, John S.— A. 21, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H.; died of 

fever, Dec. 23, '62 at Point Lookout, Md. 
CORNWELL, William. — A. 20, Enr. Aug. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; transf. 

Co. H. Oct. 25, '62; transf. to Vet. Res. Corps Feb. 15, '64; transf. 

to Navy April 18, '64. 
CORRIGAN, Thomas. — A. 18, Enr. Sept. i, '64, i yr. Co. E. ; w. in ac. 

Sept. 30, '64, Poplar Grove Church, Va. ; transf. Co. A., 140 N. Y. 

V. Inf. Oct. II, '64; M. O. June 3, '65, at Annapolis, Md. 
CORY, Edward S. — A. 28, Enr. Sept. 3, '64, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; transf. Co. 

B., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; no record after Feb. 28, '65 at 

Finley Hosp., Washington, D. C. ; also borne as Corry. 
COSTELLO, Patrick. — A. 22, Enr. Jan. 25, '64, 3 yrs. Co. I. ; w. in ac. 

June 21, '64, Petersburg, Va. ; transf. Co. A. Sept. 23, '64; transf. 

Co. E., 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; Sgt., no date; disch. for dis. 

May 31, '65. 
COTTER, Hamilton. — A. 24, Enr. Sept. i, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; disch. for 

dis. Sept. 25, '62, at New York City; also borne as Carter and 

Colter; died . 

COULTER, Christopher. — A. 44, Enr. Sept. 17, '62, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; 

transf. to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 4, '63; died . 

COUNTERMAIN, Charles T— A. 19, Enr. Sept. i, '64, i yr. Co. E.; 

transf. to Co. E., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 11, '64; w. and c. in ac. 



March 31, '65, White Oak Ridge, Va.; paroled; disch. for dis. 

July 31, '65 at Finley Hosp., Washington, D. C. 
COURSER, Charles.— Private Co. D. 14 N. Y. V. I.; transf. to Co. 

A. this regt. July 19, '63; transf. Co. C. Sept. 23, '64; transf. 

Co. A., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; M. O. with Co. June 3, '65 as 

COVEY, Egbert— Private, Co. K., 14 N. Y. V. I.; transf. to Co. B. 

this regt. June 24, '63; ist Sgt. Co. G., 159 N. Y. V. I. Prior serv. 

in Co. B., 7 N. Y. V. Cav. ; Aug. 11, '64 in hosp., Washington, D. C. 
COVEL, Samuel. — A. 29, Enr. Aug. 16, '62, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; w. June i, 

'64, Cold Harbor, Va.; transf. Co. C, 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; 

cap. Dec. 12, '64, near Petersburg, Va., paroled Feb. 17, '65; M. O. 

Sept. 29, '65 at Elmira, N. Y. [P. O. Naples, N. Y] 
COZINE, George N. — A. 22, Enr. Sept. 18, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; Corp. 

Jan. I, '64; re-enlisted as a vet. March 31, '64; transf. Co. A. 

Sept. 23, '64; transf. Co. E., 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 11, '64; M. O. 

with Co., Washington, D. C, July 16, '65. [P. O. 1648 Third St., 

Rensselaer, N. Y.] 
CRAFTS, William C— A. 24, Enr. Sept. 9, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; transf. 

Co. E., 8 N. Y. V. Cav. Dec. 19, '61 for prom. 2d Lieut.; ist Lieut. 

Dec. 23, '62 ; commanded Co. C. Feb. 24, '63 ; transf. Co. G. ; died 

Aug. 29, '63 at Weaversville, Va. 
CRAIG, William F. — A. 21, Enr. Sept. 27, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; w. in ac. 

July I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; died of wounds July 18, '62 at Gen. 

Hosp., Washington, D. C. 
GRAIN, Cyrus S. — A. 37, Enr. Aug. 21, '62, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; Chaplain 

March 16, '63; disch. March 17, '64 as Crane. 
GRAIN, Lyman C. — A. 23, Enr. Dec. 3, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; cap. in ac. 

June 27, '62, Gaines Mills, Va. ; paroled Oct., '62 ; no record after 

Feb. 15, '63. 
CRANDALL, Bryant B.— A. 19, Enr. Sept. 12, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; M. O. 

with Co. Oct. II, '64 at Albany, N. Y. [P. O., S. and S. Home, 

Los Angeles, Calif.] 
CRANDALL, Calvin B. — A. 20, Enr. Aug. 29, '62, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; w. 

and cap. in ac. May 8, '64, Laurel Hill, Va. ; paroled Aug. 12, '64; 

transf. Co. E. Sept. 23, '64; transf. Co. K., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 11, 

'64; M. O. June 27, '65 at Annapolis, Md., as of Co. H., 44 N. Y. 

V. I. [P. O. Nortonville, Kan.] 
CRANDALL, George. — A. 25, Enr. Sept. 30, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; disch. 

for dis. Oct. 4, '62 at Utica, N. Y. [P. O. Pleasant Hill, Mo.] 
CRANE, Ethan Allen.— Muse, Co. A., 14 N. Y. V. I. transf. to Co. G. 

this regt. June 24, '63; transf. Co. K. Oct. 28, '63; w. in ac. June 

3, '64, Cold Harbor, Va. ; died of wounds June 22, '64, at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 
CRANSTON, Pel eg A.— A. 23, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; Corp. 

Aug. 30, '61; ret. to ranks Aug., '62; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64. 

[P. O. Poolville, N. Y.] 


CRAW, Edward. — A. 28, Enr. at Tarrytown, N, Y. Sept. 5, '64, i yr. 
Co. E.; transf. Co. D., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 11, '64; M. O. June 3, 

CRAWFORD, Harvey.— A. 25, Enr. Aug. 14, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; w. in 

ac. July 3, '63, Gettysburg, Pa.; w. in ac. May 8, '64, Laurel Hill, 

Va. ; died of wounds May 10, '64 at Laurel Hill, Va. 
CRAYTON, John N.— A. 19, Enr. Sept. 30, '61, 3 yrs. Co. L; disch. for 

dis. Oct. 2, '61 at Albany, N. Y. 
CRESCADEN, William.— A. 44, Enr. Aug. 25, '62, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; disch. 

for dis. April i, '62 at Falmouth, Va. ; died July 23, '82 at Jasper, 

N. Y. 
CRISPWELL, Jonas. — A. 21, Enr. Sept. 16, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; disch. 

for dis. Oct. 21, '61. [P. O. New Paltz, N. Y] 
CRIST, George W. — A. 25, Enr. Aug. 16, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; disch. for 

dis. Oct. 17, '62 at New York Harbor. [P. O. Walden, N. Y.] 
CROCKER, Ephraim C. — A. 18, Enr. Oct. 9, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; re- 
enlisted as a vet. Dec. 28, '63; transf. Co. B. Sept. 23, '64; transf. 

Co. B., 140 N, Y. V. L Oct. II, '64; transf. 5 N. Y. Vet. Inf. June 

3, '65 ; M. O. with Co. Aug. 21, '65 ; died Feb. 29, '08 at his home, 

Rensselaer, N. Y. 
CROCKER, Thomas R.— A. 18, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; re- 
enlisted as a vet. Feb. 28, '64; transf. Co. E. Sept. 21, '64; transf. 

Co. A., 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. ID, '64; transf. Co. A., 5 N. Y. Vet. 

Inf. June 3, '65 ; M. O. with Co. Aug. 21, '65 ; also borne as 

Thomas B. [P. O. Sardinia, N. Y.] 
CRONIN, Albert H. — A. 19, Enr. Aug. 25, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; no record 

after Oct. 26, '62. 
CROOK, Warren D.— A. 24, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; k. in ac. 

May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. 
CROSBY, Benjamin F. — A. 20, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; died of 

typhoid fever Jan. 15, '63, on transport, near Acquia Creek, Va. 
CROSBY, Henry I. — A. 21, Enr. at Greene, N. Y. for 3 yrs.; mustered 

in as a private, unassigned April 11, '64; never joined regt. ; no 

further record. 
CROSS, Alonzo W. — A. 21, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; k. in ac. 

July I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. 
CROUNSE, John H. — A. 22, Enr. Aug. 9, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; disch. for 

dis. April 24, '62 at Gen. Hosp., Georgetown, D. C. 
CRUMB, Thomas B.— A. 26, Enr. Sept. 5, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; died Aug. 

27, '62 at Mil. Hosp., West Philadelphia, Pa. 
CULLEN, Joseph.— Private, Co. B. 14 N. Y. V. I.; transf. to Co. B. 

this regt. June 24, '62; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64. 
CULVER, Fitz E. — A. 20, Enr. Aug. 19, '61. 3 yrs. Co. A. ; disch. for 

dis. Dec. 9, '62 at Providence, R. I. [P. O. Ingleside, 111.] 
CULVER, Edwin A. — A. 19, Enr. Oct. i, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; no record 

after Dec. 9, '62 in hosp., Washington, D. C. ; also borne as Edmund. 


CULVER, Jesse H.— A. 20, Enr. Oct. i, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; transf. to 

Vet. Res. Corps, May 25, '63 ; no record after June 27, '63 in hosp., 

Washington, D. C. 
CULVER, Theodore.— A. 22, Enr. Oct. i, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K.; M. O. 

with Co. Oct. II, '64 at Albany, N. Y. 
CUMMINGS, Joseph.— A. 14, Enr. Oct. 16, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; disch. for 

dis. Nov. 30, '61 at Hall's Hill, Va. ; also borne as Cummin. 
CUMMINGS, William H.— A. 19, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. I.; 

drummer Sept. 2;^, '61, entered ranks, no date; no record after 

Jan. 6, '64 at Gallatin, N. Y. 
CUNNINGHAM, William G.— A. 19, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; 

Corp. Jan. i, '63; w. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa.; w. in ac. 

May 5, '64, Wilderness, Va. ; Sgt. July 3, '64; M. O. with Co. Oct. 

II, '64 at Albany, N. Y. [P. O. Grand Island, N. Y.] 
CUPP, William. — A. 24, Enr. Aug. 22, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A. ; w. in ac. Aug. 

30, '62, Groveton, Va. ; died of wounds Sept. 30, '62 at hosp., 

Washington, D. C. 
CURETON, Cephas A.— A. 18, Enr. Oct. 3, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G.; transf. 

Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, '64. 
CURETON, John B.— A. 18, Enr. Feb. 10, '64, 3 yrs. Co. F.; transf. 

Co. A. Sept. 23, '64; transf. Co. K., 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 10, '64; 

M. O. May 29, '65 at Washington, D. C. [P. O. Albany, N. Y.] 

Died in 1905. 
CURTIS, James P. — A. 19, Enr. Aug. 15, '61, Co. C. ; w. in ac. July 

I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; transf. Co. K. Oct. 26, '62 ; no record after 

Dec. 9, '62 in hosp., Washington, D. C. 
CURTIS, John J.— A. 28, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; died of typhoid 

fever Feb. 11, '62 at Hall's Hill, Va. 
DACK, Garret. — A. 21, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; k. in ac. May 

27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. 
DACK, William H.— A. 22, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; disch. for 

dis. Nov. 20, '63 at Convalescent Camp, Alexandria, Va. ; sub. 

serv. : enr. Co. D., 20 N. Y. V. C. Aug. 28, '63; M. O. with Co. 

July 31, '65; Veteran. 
DAILEY, William J. — A. 26, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H. ; w. in ac. 

May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va.; disch. April 18, '64 to enlist in 

U. S. Navy; served as ordinary seaman and Gunner's Mate on 

U. S. S. S. Wamsutia, in So. Atlantic Blockading Squadron; also 

borne as Daly. [P. O. Arcade, N. Y.] 
DAMMS, James. — A. 20, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G. ; w. in ac. 

Aug. 30, '62, Bull Run, Va. ; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64; also borne 

as Danmas. [P. O. Canaan, Conn., R. F. D. No. i.] 
DAMMS, John. — A. 29, Enr. Sept. 6, '64, i yr. Co. E. ; transf. Co. D., 

140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64. 
DANKS, William N.— A. 21, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs.; Capt. Co. H. 

Sept. 20, '61; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64 at Albany, N. Y. Prior 

serv. 2d Lieut. Chicago Zouave Regt. April 22, '61. [P. O. 5412 

West Ontario St., Chicago, 111.] 


After his service in the 44th N. Y. V. L, as shown 1)\ the Roster, 
he was commissioned Captain Co. E, 7th \J. S. C. T., Oct. 10, 1863. 
Breveted Major and Lieutenant-Colonel for gallant and meritorious ser- 
vices, March, 1865. In command of his regiment, being senior officer 
present, from Sept. 29, 1864 to Oct., 1864, in front of Richmond, Va. 

Was instructor of officers' drills at brigade headquarters during 
Januar}', 1865 and again in March, 1865 in the field in Virginia. 

After the close of the war he was in command of the Post at 
]\Iatagorda, Texas, from July 5, 1865 to Januarv i, 1866, with four 
companies. Provost Marshal of sub-district of Victoria, Texas, from 
Jan. 1, 1866 to April i, t866. In command of Post, Victoria, Texas, 
From April i, 1866 to Oct. 15, 1866, with two companies. Mustered 
out ol the service Nov. 16, 1866 at Baltimore. Md. 

THE ii£.vV : 




DANSENBURGH, James. — A. 29, Enr. Aug. 31, '62, 3 yrs. ; mustered 

in as a private, Co. C. Oct. 3, '62; w. in. ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, 

Pa.; transf. Co. E. 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 11, '64; transf. Co. D. 5 

N. Y. Vet. Inf. June 3, '65; M. O. with Co. Aug. 21, '65. [P. O. 

Dundee, N. Y., R. F. D.] 
DARBEE, John H.— A. 27, Enr. Oct. 2, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H.; k. in ac. 

July I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. 
DARLING, Leonard.— A. 27, Enr. Sept. 15, '61, 3 yrs. Co. H.; Corp. 

Sept. 20, '61 ; Sgt. Jan. i, '62; k. in ac. Aug. 30, '62, Bull Run, Va. 
DARLING, Robert B.— A. 26, Enr. Aug. 14, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E.; Corp. 

Jan. 14, '64; k. in ac. June 19, '64, near Petersburg, Va. 
DAVIS, Alexander. — A. 20, Enr. Aug. 12, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; re-enlisted 

as a vet. Dec. 28, '63 ; w. in ac. May 5, '64, Wilderness, Va. ; died 

of wounds May 31, '64 at Fairfax Seminary Hosp., Va. 
DAVIS, Ashael I. — A. 21, Enr. Sept. 23, '61, 3 yrs. Co. K. ; died of 

disease, May 22, '62 at Yorktown, Va. 
DAVIS, Cyrus H. — A. 18, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; no record 

after July 7, '63 at Frederick, Md. ; died . 

DAVIS, Daniel J. — A. 19, Enr. Sept. 9, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; w. in ac. 

July I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; died of wounds July 7, '62 at 

Annapolis, Md. 
DAVIS, David. — A. 25, Enr. Sept. 9, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; w. in ac. May 

5, '64, Wilderness, Va. ; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64 at Albany, N. Y. 
DAVIS,: David.— Private Co. G. 14 N. Y. V. I.; transf. Co. A. this 

regt. June 23, '63; w. in ac. May 26, '64, North Anna River, Va. ; 

w. in ac. June 3, '64, Cold Harbor, Va. ; transf. Co. C. Sept. 23, '64; 

transf. Co. C. 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 11, '64 while absent, wounded; 

no further record. 
DAVIS, James M.— A. 23, Enr. Sept. 25, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G.; died of 

disease March 20, '62, at Union Hosp., Georgetown, D. C. 
DAVIS, Lewis W.— A. 18, Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C; disch, for dis. 

May I, '62, at Union Hosp., Georgetown, D. C. 
DAY, Edward. — A. 22, Enr. Sept. 23, '61 ; disch. for dis. Oct. i, '61, at 

Albany, N. Y. 
DAY, LaMott. — A. 22, Enr. Sept. 13, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; died of disease 

May 23, '62, at Yorktown, Va. 
DAY, William.— Private Co. D. 14 N. Y. V. I. ; transf. Co. A. this regt. 

June 24, '63; w. in ac. July 2, '63, Gettysburg, Pa.; transf. Co. C. 

Sept. 23, '64 ; w. in ac. Sept. 30, '64, Poplar Grove Church, Va. ; 

transf. Co. B. 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 11, '64; M. O. June 3, '65; also 

borne as Dey. Died Jan. 11, '97, at Pembroke, N. Y. 
DEARING, Sylvester. — A. 22, Enr. Sept. 3, '64, 3 yrs. Co. B.; transf. 

Co. K. 146 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; M. O. with Co. July x6, '65; 

died Jan. 6, '98. 
DEARSTYNE, Sylvester. — A. 24, Enr. Sept. 9, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; w. in 

ac. Aug. 30, '62, Groveton, Va. ; died of wounds Nov. 10, '62, Albany, 

N. Y 


DECKER, Francis. — A. 22, Enr. Aug. 19, '61, 3 yrs. Co. A.; det. Oct. 

25, '62, to First U. S. Artillery ; died Aug. 5, '07, in hosp. at Buffalo, 

N. Y. 
DEDERICH, James E. — A. 22, Enr. Sept. 9, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; disch. for 

dis. April 18, '62; also borne as Dedrick. [P. O. Saugerties, N. Y.] 
DEFREEST. Llewellyn.— A. , Private Co. A. 25 N. Y. V. I.; transf. 

Co. I. this regt. June 28, '63 ; w. in ac. May 5, '64, Wilderness, Va. ; 

transf. to Co. A. Sept. 23, '64, to Co. K. 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. 11, '64; 

M. O. with Co. July 16, '65. 
DELAHANT, Thomas.— Private Co. G. 14 N. Y. V. I. ; transf. to this 

regt. June 24, '63 ; no record after July 28, '64. 
DELEMATER, William W.— A. 24, Enr. Sept. 17, '61, 3 yrs. Co. I.; 

Corp. Sept. 23, '61 ; Sgt. Sept. 20, '62; ist Sgt. May 6, '63; w. in ac. 

May 5, '64, Wilderness, Va. ; M. O. with Co. Oct. 11, '64, Albany 

N. Y. ; Com'd 2nd Lieut. Sept. 16, '64, not mustered. [P. O. 

Windham, N. Y.] 
DELEHANTY, James P.— A. 20, Enr. Sept. 16, '61, 3 yrs. Co. F. ; w. in 

ac. May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. ; died of wounds Feb. 21, '95, 

at his home, E. Ii6th street, N. Y. City. 
BELONG, Guy C. — A. 22, Enr. Aug. 20, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; w. in ac. 

July I, '62, and died of wounds July 6, '62, at Malvern Hill, Va. 
DELONG, Stephen. — A. 22, Enr. Aug. 9, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; transf. to 

U. S. Art. Oct. 16, 62. [P. O. Joliet, 111.] 
DELONG, Sylvester. — A. 23, Enr. Aug. 20, '61, 3 yrs. Co. B. ; w. in ac. 

July I, '62, Malvern Hill, Va. ; Corp. May i, '64; cap. in ac. May 8, 

'64, Laurel Hill, Va. ; re-cap. May 9, '64, Beaver Dam Sta., Va. ; 

M. O. with Co. Oct. II, '64, at Albany, N. Y. 
DEMPSEY, Thomas. — A. 41, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; Sgt. Sept. 

25, '62; accidentally wounded Aug. 19, '63; ist Sgt. Oct. 28, '63; 

1st Lieut. Co. L Dec. 26, '63; M. O. June 29, '64. 
DENNIS, Elihu D.— A. 23. Enr. Aug. 8, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; died of 

disease May 17, '62, in hosp. at New York City. 
DENNIS, Henry C. — A. 18, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; transf. 24 

V. R. C. March 15, '64; M. O. June 9, '65, at Washington, D. C. ; 

died . 

DENSMORE, Ransford H.— A. 22, Enr. Aug. 16, '61, 3 yrs. Co. G.; 

transf. Co. E. Sept. 12, '61 ; Corp. Sept. 21, '61 ; w. in ac. May 27, '62, 

Hanover C. H., Va. ; disch. for dis. from wounds Sept. 23, '62, at 

Genl. Hosp., New York City. [P. O. South Corinth, N. Y.] 
DEPUY, Thomas R. — A. 22, Enr. Sept. 11, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; Corp. Sept. 

19, '61 ; w. in ac. May 27, '62, Hanover C. H., Va. ; transf. Co. G. 

Oct. 26, '62; w. in ac. Dec. 13, '62, Fredericksburg, Va. ; M. O. Oct. 

II, '64; also borne as Depuey. [P. O. Newburg, N. Y.] 
DEVLIN, John. — A. 27, Enr. Aug. 30, '62, at Penn Yan, N. Y., 3 yrs. 

Co. C. ; M. O. Oct. 3, '62. 
DEWEY, Melvin W. — A. 18, Enr. Aug. 30, '64, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; transf. 

140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; M. O. with Co. June 3, '65. 


DEWINT, Samuel. — A. 23, Enr. Sept. 13, '61, 3 yrs. Co. C. ; died of 

disease Nov. 29, '62, at Hall's Hill, Va. 
DICKSON, George H. — A. 19, Enr. Aug. 30, '61, 3 yrs. Co. E. ; transf. 

Co. D. 140 N. Y. V. I. Oct. II, '64; absent, sick at M. O. of Co.; 

died . 

DICKSON, Henry. — Enr. Aug. 20, '61, 3 yrs. Co. D. ; Cor