Skip to main content

Full text of "History of Franklin county, Pennsylvania; containing a history of the county, its townships, towns, villages, schools, churches, industries, etc.; portraits of early settlers and prominent men; biographies; history of Pennsylvania, statistical and miscellaneous matter, etc"

See other formats






Containing a History of the County, Its Townships, Towns, 

Villages, Schools, Churches, Industries, Etc.; Portraits of 

Early Settlers and Prominent men; Biographies; 

History of Pennsylvania, Statistical and 

Miscellaneous Matter, etc., etc. 





The reproduction of this book has been 
made possible through the sponsorship 
of the Greencastle-Antrim Civil War 
Roundtable, Greentastle, Pennsylvania. 


The New York 
Public Library 



Reproduction by Unigraphic, Inc. 

1401 North Fares Avenue 

Evansville, Indiana 47711 

Nineteen Hundred Seventy Five 


In submitting the History of Franklin County to the public, it may not 
be improper to state, briefly, a few of the characteristics of the work: 

I. The special prominence given to the pioneer times of the county 
— Hence a record of the persons, organizations, and events of the days 
anterior to 1820 has been given as fully as available data would war- 

II. The fullness with which the various religious, educational and 
society organizations have been presented, due allowance being made, of 
course, for the destruction or absence of proper records. 

III. The completeness of the official and postal records, the latter 
having been obtained direct from the proper department at Washington. 

IV. The importance attached to the various military organizations 
and their movements, in all the wars in which the people of the county 
have participated. 

V. The biographical sketches of many of the most prominent per- 
sonages, living and dead, which make the book valuable for reference 
purposes to all classes. 

VI. The classification of material under appropriate heads, which - 
facilitates the easy finding of any desired information. 

The outline history of the State, contained in Part I is from the pen 
of Prof. Samuel P. Bates, of Meadville. The history of Franklin County 
in Part II was compiled chiefly by Prof. J. Fraise Richard, who has 
striven to give an accurate and reliable account of the county's origin, prog 
ress and development; and, for that purpose, has laid under contribution the 
data afforded by historic sketches, newspaper articles, public and private 
records, personal interviews and correspondence, tombstones and other reli- 
able sources. The biographical sketches in Part III were, for the most 
part, collected by a corps of solicitors, and a proof of each sketch submitted 
by mail to each subject for correction. 

To repay, in detail, all the kindnesses manifested by Franklin County 
citizens to the writers and solicitors would compel involuntary bankruptcy. 
The special gratitude of the publishers, however, is due and is hereby ex- 
tended to the press of Chambersburg, Waynesboro, Greencastle and Mer- 


cersburg for the use of their files, and for other courtesies; to the county 
officials and to Hons. F. M. Kimmell, D. Watson Rowe and John Stewart 
for personal aid and favors; to Jacob Hoke, Esq., Drs. W. C. Lane, S. G. 
Lane, Chas. T. Maclay and W. H. Egle, State Historian; Capt. J. H. 
Walker, John B. Kaufman, J. W. Douglas and George S. Kyle for contri- 
butions and special aid; and to the pastors of the various churches, and 
secretaries of different orders for reports of their organizations. 

With due appreciation of the liberal patronage received, the publishers 
beg to present this volume to their patrons in the highly favored county of 






CHAPTER I.— Introductory.— Cornells Jacob- 
son Mey, 1624-25. William Van Hulst, 1626 
-26. Peter Minuit, 1626-33. David Peter- 
sen de Vries, 1632-33. VVouter Van Twiller, 
1633-38 15-23 

CHAPTER II.— Sir William Keift, 1638-47. 
Peter Minuit, 1638-41. Peter Hollandaer, 
1641-43. John Printz, 1643-53. Peter Stuy- 
vesant. 1647-64. John Pappagoya, 1653-64. 
John Claude Rysingh, 1654-56 23-33 

CHAPTER III.— John Paul Jacquet, 1655-57. 
Jacob Alrichs, 1657-59. Goeran Van Dyck. 
1657-58. William Beekmau, 1658-63. Alex. 
D'Hinoyossa, 1659-64 33-35 

CHAPTER IV.— Richard Nichols, 1664-67. Rob- 
ert Needhaui, 1664-68. Francis Lovelace, 
1667-73. John Carr, 1668-73. Anthony 
Colve, 1673-74. Peter Alrichs, 1673-74 35-41 

CHAPTER V.— Sir Edmund Andros, 1674-81. 
Edmund Cantwell, 1674-76. John Collier, 
1676-77. Christopher Billop, 1677-81 41-50 

CHAPTER VI.— William Markham, 1681-82. 
William Penn, 1682-84 51-61 

CHAPTER VTL— Thomas Lloyd, 1684-86. Five 
Commissioners, 1686-88. John Blackwell, 
1688-90. Thomas Lloyd, 1690-91. William 
Markham. 1691-93. Benjamin Fletcher, 
1693-95. William Markham, 1693-99 61-69 

CHAPTER VIII.— William Penn, 1699-1701. 
Andrew Hamilton, 1701-03. Edward Ship- 
pen, 1 703-04. John Evans, 1704-09. Charles 
Gooken, 1709-17 69-75 


CHAPTER IX.— Sir William Keith, 1717-26. 
Patrick Gordon, 1726-36. James Logan, 
1736-38. George Thomas, 1738-47. Anthony 
Palmer, 1747-48. James Hamilton 1748-54 

CHAPTER X.— Robert H. Morris, 1754-56. Wil- 
liam Denny, 1756-59. James Hamilton, 
1759-63 89-97 

CHAPTER XL— John Penn. 1763-71. James 
Hamilton, 1771. Richard Penn, 1771-73. 
John Penn, 1773-76 98-104 

CHAPTER XII.— Thomas Wharton, Jr., 1777- 
78. George Bryan, 1778. Joseph Reed, 1778 
-81. William Moore, 1781-82. John Dickin- 
son, 1782-85. Benjamin Franklin, 1785-88 

CHAPTER XIII.— Thomas Mifflin, 1788-99. 
Thomas McKean, 1799-1808. Simon Snyder, 
1808-17. William Findlay, IS 17-20. Joseph 
Heister, 1820-23. John A. Shulze, 1823-29. 
George Wolfe, 1829-35 Joseph Ritner, 
1835-39 114-121 

CHAPTER XIV— David R. Porter, 1839-45. 
Francis R. Shunk, 1845^8. William F. 
Johnstone, 1848-52. William Bigler.l 852-55. 
James Pollock, 1855-58. William F. Packer, 
1858-61. Andrew G. Curtin, 1861-67. John 
W. Geary, 1867-73. John F. Hartranft, 
1873-78. Henry F. Hovt, 1878-82. Robert 
E. Pattison, 1882-86. "James A. Beaver, 
1886 122 131 

Gubernatorial Table 132 




CHAPTER I.— Physical Description 137-141 

The Great Eastern Valley— The Path of a 
Probable Gulf Stream — The Mountain 
Ranges and their Appendages — Systems of 
Drainage — Geological and Mineralogical As- 
pects—Character of Soil — Vegetation — Cli- 

CHAPTER II.— Pioneer Settlers i41-159 

Two Classes: Scotch-Irish, their Origin, 
Arrivals, Character and Locations—Germans, 
Sketch of Persecutions, Arrival, Trials, etc. 
— Trend of Settlements in Cumberland Val- 
ley Westward — Shippensburg a Distributing 
Point — Settlements at Falling Spring — 
Sketch of Benjamin Chambers — Other Set- 
tlements and Settlers in Various Parts of 
the County — List of 1751-52 — 
Mason andDixon's Line. 

CHAPTER III.— Indian War 159-175 

Indian Nations Described — VVar Between 
French and English — Colonies Involved — 
Braddock's Defeat and its Effects — Forts 
Located and Described — Massacres from 1754 
to 1785 — Conflict Between the Civil and 
Military at Fort Loudoun. 


CHAPTER IV.— The Revolution 175-190 

Its Causes — Loyalty to the Mother Coun- 
try — Early Military — Roster and Roll of 
Franklin Men — From Colonies to States — 
Heroes from Franklin County — One of the 
First American Cannons, etc. 

CHAPTER V— Whisky War 190-191 

Eleven Years of Peace — Causes of the 
Whisky Insurrection — Its Prosecution and 
its Subversion — Sympathy of the Militia, 

CHAPTER VI. — Franklin County Organ- 
ized 192-214 

Date of Erection — Petitions in Favor of 
and in Opposition to the Project — Fight over 
the County Seat — The First Court House 
and First Jail — Early County Officers — Esti- 
mate of Population — First General Elec- 
tion — Officials, etc. 

CHAPTER VII.— Internal Affairs 214-235 

Lands and Land Titles— Indian Trails — 
Roads — Bridges — Turnpikes — Inns or Tav- 
erns — Militia — Muster Days — Mail Routes 
and Post-offices — Postmasters — Railroads 




— Cumberland Valley Railroad — First Sleep- 
ing Car Ever Made — Franklin Railroad — 
Shenaudoah Valley Railroad — Harrisburg 
.t Potomac Railroad — Western Maryland 
Railroad — Baltimore ct Cumberland Valley 
Railroad— Mont Alto Railroad — Mont Alto 
Iron Works, etc. 

CHAPTER VIII.— War of 1812-15 235-245 

Cause of the War — Declaration of War — 
Franklin County Companies — Incidents of 
the War. 

CHAPTER IX.— Mexican War 245-249 

Texas and Mexico— Whig and Democrat 
— Counter Arguments — Declaration of War 
— Franklin County Company — Its Services. 

CHAPTER X.— The Press 249-260 

Introductory — First Newspaper — Press of 
Chambersburg — Press of Waynesboro — 
Press of Mercersburg— Press of Greencastle. 

CHAPTER XL— Agriculture 260-266 

A Business of First Importance — Its Prom- 
ising Future — Improvements Introduced — 
Judge Watts — The First Reaper — First 
Stock in the Country — Wheat and Corn- 
Hessian Fly — Improved Implements — A 
Wonderful Fsat with the Scythe — Agri- 
cultural Societies, Officers, etc. 

CHAPTER XII.— The Medical Profession 


Introductory View of the Human Structure 
— Sketches of Prominent Deceased Physi- 
cians — Epidemics — Medical Societies — Ros- 
ter of Present Physicians. 

CHAPTER XIII.— Educational and Relig- 
ious Z95-316 

Educational — Education Defined — 
Teaching Defined — Early Schools and their 
Equipments— John B. Kaufman's Account 
of Early Schools and Teachers — History of 
School Legislation— Comparative Statistics — 
County Superintendents— County Institutes 
—Letter from Ex-Co. Supt. A. J. McElwain 

— List ol County Superintendents — Relig- 
ious—Early Settlers' Religions — Presbyie- 
rians — Lutherans— Reformed — Methodists — 
Fnited Brethren — Roman Catholic— Episco- 
palian— Church of Cod— German Baptists — 
River Brethren — Menuonites — Retormed 
Meunonites— Colored Churches— Mormon- 

CHAPTER XIV.— Popular Agitations and 

Philanthropic Reforms 319-331 

Human Society Compared to the Ocean — 
Early Outlaws— The Nugents— Slavery in 
Franklin County— A Curious Will— Gradual 
Abolition of Slavery— Runaway Slaves— The 
Underground Railroad— Capture of Bob and 
I :avc— History of John Brown's Raid on Har- 
per's Ferry— Fate of His Coadjutors— Wen- 
dell Phillips' Speech— curious Prophecies- 
History of Know-nothingism iu Chambers- 
burg— -Sketches of Early Temperance Move- 
ments in the County— Tidal- Waves— W ash- 
ingtonian Movement— Father Mathew's Ef- 
forts—Sons of Temperance -Good Temp- 
lars— Woman's Crusade- -National Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union — Murphy 
Movement- Prohibition— Franklin County 
Bible Society -Children's Aid Society. 

en \pter XV.— The Great Rebellion of 

1861-65 33U-390 

introduction — Civil War an Interest- 
ing study— Its Antecedents Must be Con- 
sidered— Jamestown and Plymouth Typical 
of I' wo Antagonistic Civilizations— Practical 
Inferences— War Statistics— Firing on Fort 
Sumter and its Effects— Patriotic Meetings 

— Hearty Response to President's Call for 
roops— Incidents of 1861— Complete Ro3ter 

of Troops Furnished by the County— Stuart's 
Raid in 1862— Lee's Invasion, Preceded by 
Jenkins' Raid— Rebel Occupation of Cham- 
bersburg and Its Events— Advance on Get- 
tysburg—Battle—Retreat—Lee's Train of 
Wounded — Burning of EwelPs Supplv Train 
and capture of Prisoners by Kilpatrick— 
McCausland's Raid and Burning of Cham- 

CHAPTER XVI.— Law Makers and Law In- ■ 

terpretess 390-422 

Law Defined and Analyzed — Founded in 
Natural Justice— Mental Requirements for 
its Study — Various State Conventions — 
Franklin's Representatives in National Con- 
gress, in State Senate and House — Early 
Bench and Bar— List of President and Asso"- 
eiate Judges— List of Attorneys from Organ- 
ization of County. 

CHAPTER XVII.— Master Spirits 422-433 

Uses and Abuses of Greatness— Character 
of Genius— Greatness— Its Elements— Power 
of Mothers— Sketches of Master Spirits : ,'l) 
Military, (2) Political, (3) Railroad Mana- 
gers, (4) Theologians, (5) County Officials, (6) 
Medical, (7.) Educational, (8) Press, (9) Legal 
—Franklin County's Roll of Honor. 

CHAPTER XVIIL— The County's First Cen- 
tennial 433-451 

Introductory— Value of Anniversaries- 
Triumphs of the Century— Preparations for 
the Coming Anniversary — Executive Com- 
mittee—Township Committees — Account of 
the Two Days' Doings — Extracts from Ad- 
dresses and Poems Delivered. 

CHAPTER XIX.— Borough of Chambers- 
burg 451-504 

Description— Early History — Incorpora- 
tion — Banks— First Market Houses— Present 
Market. House— Water-works— Gas Works 
—Fire Department— Manufactories— Secret 
Societies— Churches— Cemetery— Schools. 

CHAPTER XX.— Borough of mercersburg 


Location — Settlement — James Black- 
Early Traffic— Original Plat— Derivation of 
Name— Sketch of Dr. Mercer— Past and 
Present Business Interests— Incorporation 
—Prominent Residents— Birthplace of Presi- 
dent Buchanan— Mercersburg College and 
Public Schools— Church History— Cemetery 
—Banks— Fire Company— Secret Societies. 

CHAPTER XXI.— Borough of Waynesboro 


Origin of the Name— Location— The Plat- 
Original Lot Owners— Incorporation — Banks 

— Manufactories — Water-works — Societies 
—Churches— Temperance Union— Schools- 
Cemetery— Famous Sewing Machine. 

CHAPTER XXIL-Borough of Greencastle 


Site of the Borough — Ancient Burving 
Grounds— Plat of the Town, and iurst Resi- 
dents—Early Reminiscences and Anecdotes 
—Old Churches— Cemeteries and Epitaphs 

— Incorporation of Borough— Its Centen- 
nial—The Turnpike — Church Hi-tory— 
< emetery— The Schools — Industries— Bor- 
ough Officers— Bank— Town Hall Company 
— Societies. 

CHAPTER XXIII. —Townships 554-614 

Antrim 555 

Formation —Name— First Settlers— Early 
Land Titles— Old Graveyard Transcription's 
—List of Taxables, 1786— Early Settlements 
— Borough and Villages — The Mormons. 

Lurgan 504 

Formation— Topography— Earlv Land Ti- 
tles—List of Taxables, 1786— The' Pomeroys 
— Villages. 




Pkters 567 

Name — Formation — First Settlers — Early 
Laud Titles— List of Taxables, 1786 — Loudon 
— Leiuasters — Upton — Bridgeport — Cove 


Formation — Name — Early Land Entries — 
List of Taxables — Manors — Churches — Vil- 

Hamilton 577 

Name, etc. — Earliest Land Entries — List of 
Taxables, 1786 — Cashtown. 

Fannett 578 

Formation — The Indians and First Imnii- 

f rants — Name — Early Land Purchases — 
)arly Land Entries— List of Taxables, 1786 

Lktterkenny 583 

Formation — Bou ndary — Early Settlements 
— Earliest Land Titles — List of Taxables, 
1786— Early School Teaahers— Village- 

Washington 588 

Formation — Name — Early Land Titles-'- 
List of Taxables, 1786— Villages. 

Montgomery 591 

Formation — Name — Early Land Entries — 
List of taxables, 1786 — Villages. 


Southampton 593 

Kormation,elc. — Early Land Entries — List 
of Taxables, 1786- Borough of Orrstown — 

Franklin 596 

Absorption of Township by Chambers- 
burg — List of Taxables, 1786. 

Greene 596 

Formation — Name — Early Settlement — 
Early Land Entries — Early Uemiuiscences 
Greenvillage — Scotland — Fayetteville — 
Black's Gap — Sruoketown. 

Metal 604 

Boundary — Formation — Topography — 
Early Settlers — Early Land Entries — Promi- 
nent First Settlers — Taxables in 1786— F'irst 
Justices of the Peace — Villages — Churches. 

Wakren Su7 

Location — Its Early History — Name— Ear- 
liest Land Entries — Early Settlers— Old Doc- 
uments — Churches. 

St. Thomas 609 

Formation — Its Early History — Name — 
Immigration — Early Land Entries — Taxa- 
bles, 1786— Villages. 

Ql'INCY 611 

Formation — Its settlements — Its Wealth — 
Name — Early Settlers — Early Laud Entries 
— Transcriptions from Early Tombstones — 
Taxables iu 1786— Villages. 

part in. 



Chambersburg, Borough of 617 

Antrim Township and Borough of Greencastle.. 700 

Fannett Township 737 

Greene Township 763 

Guilford Township 795 

Hamilton Township 803 

Letterkenny Township 809 

Lurgan Township 817 

Metal Township 834 


Montgomery Township and Borough of Mercers- 
burg 845 

Peters Township 873 

Quincy Township 887 

St. Thomas Township 897 

Southampton Township and Borough of Orrs- 
town 917 

Warren Township 926 

Washington Township and Borough of Waynes- 
boro 927 



Alexander, Rev.S. C 417 

Amberson, W. S 267 

Bard, Robert M 207 

Besore, George 167 

Bonbrake, E. J 387 

Brotherton, Col. D. H 407 

Buhrman, C. H 497 

('arson, JamesO 157 

Chambers, George 79 

Chritzman, H. G., M. D 477 

Clayton, James H 367 

Crowell, J. B 277 

Davison, J. A 507 

Fleming, Archibald 177 

Foltz, M. A 487 

Garver, Samuel 307 

Good, Jacob S 297 

Hammond, Lawrence 187 

Hammond, M. L 427 

Harbaugh, Rev. H 257 

Harnish, H. R 347 

Hassler, Rev. J 317 


Hawbecker, S .Z 527 

Hoke, Jacob 327 

Hoover, Daniel 447 

Keefer, William S 337 

Kerlin, P 437 

Lamaster, J. R 537 

McDowell, A. B 357 

McKinstry, William 45 

Orr, William 197 

Rowe, D. Watson 397 

Rowe, John 217 

Sentman. S. L 227 

Sharpe, J. McD 377 

Shockey, Daniel 547 

Shoemaker, John A 557 

Skinner, S. M 287 

Snively, I. N.,M. D 517 

Snively, Joseph 147 

Walker, Capt. John H 457 

Winger, Joseph 237 

Winger, Col. B. F 467 

Ziegler, George W 247 



Map of Franklin County 10, 11 

Map showing various purchases from Indians - 113 

Diagram showing proportionate Annual Production of Anthracite Coal since 1820 118 

Table showing amount of Anthracite Coal produced in each region since 1820 119 

Table showing vote for Governors of Pennsylvania since Organization of State 132 

Relief Map of Cumberland Valley 134, 135 




"God, that has given it me through many difficulties, will, I believe, 
bless and make it the seed of a nation. I shall have a tender care to the 
government that it be well laid at first. ----- I do, therefore, 
desire the Lord's wisdom to guide me, and those that may be concerned 
with me, that we may do the thing that is truly wise and just." 




Introductory — Cornelis Jacobson Mey, 1624-25— William Van Httlst, 1625- 
26— Peter Mintjit, 1626-33— David Petersen de Vries, 1632-33— Wouter 
Van Twiller, 1633-38. 

IN the early colonization upon the American continent, two motives were 
principally operative. One was the desire of amassing sudden wealth 
without great labor, which tempted adventurous spirits to go in search of gold, 
to trade valueless trinkets to the simple natives for rich furs and skins, and even 
to seek, amidst the wilds of a tropical forest, for the fountain whose healing 
waters could restore to man perpetual youth. The other was the cherished 
purpose of escaping the unjust restrictions of Government, and the hated ban 
of society against tne worship of the Supreme Being according to the honest 
dictates of conscience, which incited the humble devotees of Christianity to 
forego the comforts of home, in the midst of the best civilization of the age, 
and make for themselves a habitation on the shores of a new world, where they 
might erect altars and do homage to their God in such habiliments as they 
preferred, and utter praises in such note as seemed to them good. This pur- 
pose was also incited by a certain romantic temper, common to the race, es- 
pecially noticeable in youth, that invites to some uninhabited J spot, and Ras- 
selas and Robinson Crusoe- like to begin life anew. 

William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, had felt the heavy hand of 
persecution for religious opinion's sake. As a gentleman commoner at Ox- 
ford, he had been fined, and finally expelled from that venerable seat of learn- 
ing for non-comformity to the established worship. At home, he was whipped 
and turned out of doors by a father who thought to reclaim the son to the 
more certain path of advancement at a licentious court. He was sent to prison 
by the Mayor of Cork. For seven months he languished in the tower of Lon- 
don, and, finally, to complete his disgrace, he was cast into Newgate with com- 
mon felons. Upon the accession of James II, to the throne of England, over 
fourteen hundred persons of the Quaker faith were immured in prisons for a 
conscientious adherence to their religious convictions. To escape this harassing 
persecution, and find peace and quietude from this sore proscription, was the 
moving cause which led Penn and his followers to emigrate to America. 

Of all those who have been founders of States in near or distant ages, none 
have manifested so sincere and disinterested a spirit, nor have been so fair ex- 
emplars of the golden rule, and of the Redeemer's sermon on the mount, as 
William Penn. In his preface to the frame of government of his colony, he 
says: " The end of government is first to terrify evil-doers; secondly, to cher- 
ish those who do well, which gives government a life beyond corruption, and 


makes it as durable in the world, as good men shall be. So that government 
seems to be a part of religion itself, a thing sacred in its institution and end. 
For, if it does not directly remove the cause, it crushes the effects of evil, and 
is an emanation of the same Divine power, that is both author and object of 
pure religion, the difference lying here, that the one is more free and mental, 
the other more corporal and compulsive in its operations; but that is only to 
evil-doers, government itself being otherwise as capable of kindness, goodness 
and charity, as a more private society. They weakly err, who think there is no 
other use of government than correction, which is the coarsest part of it. 
Daily experience tells us, that the care and regulation of many other affairs 
more soft, and daily necessary, make up much the greatest part of government. 
Governments, like clocks, go from the motion men give them, and as govern- 
ments are made and moved by men, so by them are they ruined, too. Where- 
fore, governments rather depend upon men, than men upon governments. Let 
men be good, and the government cannot be bad. If it be ill, they will cure 
it. But if men be bad, let the government be never so good, they will endeavor 
to warp and spoil to their turn. * * * That, therefore, which makes a good 
constitution, must keep it, men of wisdom and virtue, qualities, that because they 
descend not with worldly inheritances, must be carefully propagated by a vir- 
tuous education of youth, for which, after ages will owe more to the care and 
prudence of founders and the successive magistracy, than to their parents for 
their private patrimonies. * * * We have, therefore, with reverence to God, 
and good conscience to men, to the best of our skill, contrived and composed the 
Frame and Laws of this government, viz. : To support power in reverence 
with the people, and to secure the people from the abuse of power, that they 
may be free by their just obedience, and the magistrates honorable for their 
just administration. For liberty without obedience is confusion, and obedi- 
ence without liberty is slavery." 

Though born amidst the seductive arts of the great city, Penn's tastes were 
rural. He hated the manners of the corrupt court, and delighted in the homely 
labors and iunocent employments of the farm. " The country," he said, "is 
the philosopher's garden and library, in which he reads and contemplates the* 
power, wisdom and goodness of God. It is his food as well as study, and gives 
him life as well as learning." And to his wife he said upon taking leave of 
her in their parting interview: " Let my children be husbandmen, and house- 
wives. It is industrious, healthy, honest, and of good report. This leads to 
consider the works of God, and diverts the mind from being taken up with vain 
arts and inventions of a luxurious world. Of cities and towns of concourse, 
beware. The world is apt to stick close to thos9 who have lived and got wealth 
there. A country life and estate I love best for my children." 

Having thus given some account at the outset of the spirit and purposes of 
the founder, and the motive which drew him to these shores, it will be in 
place, before proceeding with the details of the acquisition of territory, and 
the coming of emigrants for the actual settlement under the name of Pennsyl- 
vania, to say something of the aborigines who were found in possession of the 
soil when first visited by Europeans, of the condition of the surface of the 
country, and of the previous attempts at settlements before the coming of Pehn. 

The surface of what is now known as Pennsylvania was, at the time of the 
coming of the white men, one vast forest of hemlock, and pine, and beech, 
and oak, unbroken, except by an occasional rocky barren upon the precipitous 
mountain side, or by a few patches of prairie, which had been reclaimed by 
annual burnings, and was used by the indolent and simple-minded natives for 
the culture of a little maize and a few vegetables. The soil, by the annual 


accumulations of leaves and abundant growths of forest vegetation, was luxu- 
rious, and the trees stood close, and of gigantic size. The streams swarmed 
with fish, and the forest abounded with game. Where now are cities and 
hamlets filled with busy populations intent upon the accumulation of wealth, 
the mastery of knowledge, the pursuits of pleasure, the deer browsed and 
sipped at the water's edge, and the pheasant drummed his monotonous note. 
Where now is the glowing furnace from which day and night tongues of flame 
are bursting, and the busy water wheel sends the shuttle flashing through the 
loom, half-naked, dusky warriors fashioned their spears with rude implements 
of stone, and made themselves hooks out of the bones of animals for alluring 
the finny tribe. Where now are fertile fields, upon which the thrifty farmer 
turns his furrow, which his neighbor takes up and runs on until it reaches 
from one end of the broad State to the other, and where are flocks and herds, 
rejoicing in rich meadows, gladdened by abundant fountains, or reposing at the 
heated noontide beneath ample shade, not a blow had been struck against the 
giants of the forest, the soil rested in virgin purity, the streams glided on in 
majesty, un vexed by wheel and unchoked by device of man. 

Where now the long train rushes on with the speed of the wind over 
plain and mead, across streams and under mountains, awakening the echoes of 
the hills the long day through, and at the midnight hour screaming out its 
shrill whistle in fiery defiance, the wild native, with a fox skin wrapped about 
his loins and a few feathers stuck in his hair, issuing from his rude hut, trot- 
ted on in his forest path, followed by his squaw with her infant peering forth 
from the rough sling at her back, pointed his canoe, fashioned from the barks 
of the trees, across the deep river, knowing the progress of time only by the 
rising and setting sun, troubled by no meridians for its index, starting on his 
way when his nap was ended, and stopping for rest when a spot was reached 
that pleased his fancy. Where now a swarthy population toils ceaselessly deep 
down in the bowels of the earth, shut out trom the light of day in cutting out 
the material that feeds the fifes upon the forge, and gives genial warmth to the 
lovers as they chat merrily in the luxurious drawing room, not a mine had 
been opened, and the vast beds of the black diamond rested unsunned beneath 
the superincumbent mountains, where they had been fashioned by the Creator's 
hand. Rivers of oil seethed through the impatient and uneasy gases and vast 
pools and lakes of this pungent, parti -colored fluid, hidden away from the 
coveting eye of man, guarded well their own secrets. Not a derrick protruded 
its well-balanced form in the air. Not a drill, with its eager eating tooth de- 
scended into the flinty rock No pipe line diverted the oily tide in a silent, 
ceaseless current to the ocean's brink. The cities of iron tanks, filled to burst- 
ing, had no place amidst the forest solitudes. Oil exchanges, with their vex- 
ing puts and calls, shorts aud longs, bulls and bears, had not yet come to dis- 
turb tbe equanimity of the red man, as he smoked the pipe of peace at the 
council fire. Had he once seen the smoke and soot of the new Birmingham of 
the West, or snuffed the odors of an oil refinery, he would willingly have for- 
feited his goodly heritage by the forest stream or the deep flowing river, and 
sought for himself new hunting grounds in less favored regions. 

It was an unfortunate circumstance that at the coming of Europeans the 
territory now known as Pennsylvania was occupied by some of the most bloody 
and revengeful of the savage tribes. They were known as the Lenni Lenapes, 
and held sway from- the Hudson to the Potomac. A tradition was preserved 
among them, that in a remote age their ancestors had emigrated eastward from 
beyond the Mississippi, exterminating as they came the more civilized and 
peaceful peoples, the Mound-Builders of Ohio and adjacent States, and who 


were held among the tribes by whom they were surrounded as the progenitors, 
the grandfathers or oldest people. They came to be known by Europeans as 
the Delawares, after the name of the river and its numerous branches along 
which they principally dwelt. Tbe Monseys or Wolves, another tribe of the 
Lenapes, dwelt upon the Susquehanna and its tributaries, and, by their war- 
like disposition, won the credit of being the fiercest of their nation, and the 
guardians of the door to their council housp from the North. 

Occupying the greater part of the tevitory now known as New York, were 
the five nations — the Senacas, the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Cayugas, and 
the Onondagas, which, from their hearty union, acquired great strength and 
came to exercise a commanding influence. Obtaining firearms of the Dutch 
at Albany, they repelled the advances of the French from Canada, and by 
their superiority in numbers and organization, had overcome the Lenapes, 
and held them for awhile in vassalage. The Tuscaroras, a tribe which had 
been expelled from their home in North Carolina, Avere adopted by the Five Na- 
tions in 1712, and from this time forward these tribes were known to the English 
as the Six Nations, called by the Lenapes, Mingoes, and by the French, Iroquois. 
There was, therefore, properly a United States before the thirteen colonies 
achieved their independence. The person and character of these tribes were 
marked. They were above the ordinary stature, erect, bold, and commanding, 
of great decorum in council, and when aroused showing native eloquence. In 
warfare, they exhibited all the bloodthirsty, revengeful, cruel instincts of the 
savage, and for the attainment of their purposes were treacherous and crafty. 

The Indian character, as developed by intercourse with Europeans, exhibits 
some traits that are peculiar. While coveting what they saw that pleased 
them, and thievish to the last degree, they were nevertheless generous. This 
may be accounted for by their habits. "They held that the game of the for- 
est, the tish of the rivers, and the grass of the field were a common heritage, 
and free to all who would take the trouble to gather them, and ridiculed the 
idea of fencing in a meadow." Bancroft says: " The hospitality of the Indian 
has rarely been questioned. The stranger enters his cabin, by day or by 
night, without asking leave, and is entertained as freely as a thrush or a 
blackbird, that regales himself on the luxuries of the fruitful grove. He 
will take his own rest abroad, that he may give up his own skin or mat of 
sedge to his guest. Nor is the traveler questioned as to the purpose of his 
visit. He chooses his own time freely to deliver his message." Penn, who, 
from frequent intercourse came to know them well, in his letter to the society 
of Free Traders, says of them: "In liberality they excel; nothing is too good 
for their friend. Give them a fine gun, coat or other thing, it may pass 
twenty hands before it sticks; light of heart, strong affections, but soon spent. 
The most merry creatures that live; feast and dance perpetually. They never 
have much nor want much. Wealth circulateth like the blood. All parts 
partake; and though none shall want what another hath, yet exact observers 
of property. Some Kings have sold, others presented me with several .parcels 
of land. The pay or presents I made them, were not hoarded by the particu- 
lar owners, but the neighboring Kings and clans being present when the 
goods were brought out. the parties chiefly concerned consulted what and to 
whom they should give them. To every King, then, by the hands of a per- 
son for that work appointed is a proportion sent, so sorted and folded, and 
with that gravity that is admirable. Then that King subdivideth it in like man- 
ner among his dependents, they hardly leaving themselves an equal share 
with one of their subjects, and be it on such occasions as festivals, or at their 
common mealB, the Kings distribute, and to themselves last. They care for 


little because they want but little, and the reason is a little contents them. In 
this they are sufficiently revenged on us. They are also free from our pains. 
They are not disquieted with bills of lading and exchange, nor perplexed 
with chancery suits and exchequer reckonings. "We sweat and toil to live; 
their pleasure feeds them; I mean their hunting, fishing and fowling, and 
this table is spread everywhere. They eat twice a day, morning and evening. 
Their Heats and table are the ground. Since the Europeans came into these 
parts they are grown great lovers of strong liquors, rum especially, and for it 
exchange the richest of their skins and furs. If they are heated with liquors, 
they are restless till they have enough to sleep. That is their cry, ' Some 
more and I will go to sleep; ' but when drunk one of the most wretched spec- 
tacles in the world." 

On the 28th of August, 1609, a little more than a century from the time 
of the first discovery of the New World by Columbus, Hendrick Hudson, an 
English navigator, then in the employ of the Dutch East India Company, hav- 
ing been sent out in search of a northwestern passage to the Indies, discovered 
the mouth of a great bay, since known as Delaware Bay, which he entered and 
partially explored. But finding the waters shallow, and being satisfied that 
this was only an arm of the sea which received the waters of a great river, 
and not a passage to the western ocean, he retired, and, turning the prow of 
his little craft northward, on the 2d of September, he discovered the river 
which bears his name, the Hudson, and gave several days to its examination. 
Not finding a passage to the "West, which was the object of his search, he returned 
to Holland, bearing the evidences of his adventures, and made a full report of 
his discoveries in which he says, " Of all lands on which I ever set my foot, 
this is the best for tillage." 

A proposition had been made in the States General of Holland to form a 
West India Company with purposes similar to those of the East India Com- 
pany; but the conservative element in the Dutch Congress prevailed, and while 
the Government was unwilling to undertake the risks of an enterprise for 
which it would be responsible, it was not unwilling to foster private enter- 
prise, and on the 27th of Mai'ch, 1614, an edict was passed, granting the 
privileges of trade, in any of its possessions in the New World, during four 
voyages, founding its right to the territory drained by the Delaware and 
Hudson upon the discoveries by Hudson. Five vessels were accordingly 
fitted by a company composed of enterprising merchants of the cities of Am- 
sterdam and Hoorn, which made speedy and prosperous voyages under com- 
mand of Cornells Jacobson Mey, bringing back with them fine furs and rich 
woods, which so excited cupidity that the States General was induced on the 
14th of October, 1614, to authorize exclusive trade, for four voyages, extend- 
ing through three years, in the newly acquired possessions, the edict designat- 
ing them as New Netherlands. 

One of the party of this first enterprise, Cornells Hendrickson, was left 
behind with a vessel called the Unrest, which had been built to supply the 
place of one accidentally burned, in which he proceeded to explore more fully 
the bay and river Delaware, of which he made report that was read before the 
States General on the 19th of August, 1616. This report is curious as dis- 
closing the opinions of the first actual explorer in an official capacity: " He 
hath discovered for his aforesaid masters and directors certain lands, a bay, 
and three rivers, situate between thirty-eight and forty degrees, and did their 
trade with the inhabitants, said trade consisting of sables, furs, robes and 
other skins. He hath found the said country full of trees, to wit, oaks, hick- 
ory and pines, which trees were, in some places, covered with vines. He hath 


seen in said country bucks and does, turkeys and partridges. He hath found 
the climate of said country very temperate, judging it to be as temperate as 
this country, Holland. He also traded for and bought from the inhabitants, 
the Minquas, three persons, being people belonging to this company, which 
three persons were employed in the service of the Mohawks and Machicans, 
giving for them kettles, beads, and merchandise." 

This second charter of privileges expired in January, 1618, and daring its 
continuance the knowledge acquired of the country and its resources promised 
so much of success that the States General was ready to grant broader privi- 
leges, and on the 3d of June, 1621, the Dutch West India Company was in- 
corporated, to extend for a period of twenty-four years, with the right of 
renewal, the capital stock to be open to subscription by all nations, and 
"privileged to trade and plant colonies in Africa, from the tropic of Cancer 
to the Cape of Good Hope, and in America from the Straits of Magellan to the 
remotest north." The past glories of Holland, though occupying but an in- 
significant patch of Europe, emboldened its Government to pass edicts for the 
colonizing and carrying on an exclusive trade with a full half of the entire 
world, an example of the biting off of more than could be well chewed. But 
the light of this enterprising people was beginning to pale before the rising- 
glories of the stern race in their sea girt isle across the channel. Dissensions- 
were arising among the able statesmen who had heretofore guided its affairs, 
and before the periods promised in the original charter of this colonizing com- 
pany had expired, its supremacy of the sea was successfully resisted, and its 
exclusive rights and privileges in the New World had to be relinquished. 

The principal object in establishing this West India Company was to- 
secure a good dividend upon the capital stock, which was subscribed to by the 
rich old burgomasters. The fine furs and products of the forests, which had 
been taken back to Holland, had proved profitable. But it was seen that »* 
this trade was to be permanently secured, in face of the active competition of 
other nations, and these commodities steadily depended upon, permanent set- 
tlements must bo provided for. Accordingly, in 1623, a colony of about forty 
families, embracing a party of Walloons, protestant fugitives from Belgium, 
sailed for the new province, under the leadership of Cornells Jacobson Mey and 
Joriz Tienpont. Soon after their arrival, Mey, who had been invested with 
the power of Director General of all the territory claimed by the Dutch, see- 
ing, no doubt, the evidences of some permanence on the Hudson, determined 
to take these honest minded and devoted Walloons to the South River, or Del- 
aware, that he might also gain for his country a foothold there. The testi- 
mony of one of the women, Catalina Tricho, who was of the party, is 
curious, and sheds some light upon this point. M That she came to this prov- 
ince either in the year 1623 or 1624, and that four women came along with 
her in the same ship, in which Gov. Arien Jorissen came also over, which four 
women were married at sea, and that they and their husbands stayed about 
three weeks at this place (Manhattan) and then they with eight seamen more, 
went in a vessel by orders of the Dutch Governor to Delaware River, and 
there settled." Ascending the Delaware some fifty miles, Mey landed 
on the eastern shore near where now is the town of Gloucester, and built a 
fort which he called Nassau. Having duly installed his little colony, he re- 
turned to Manhattan; but beyond the building of the fort, which served as a 
trading post, this attempt to plant a colony was futile; for these religious 
zealots, tiring of the solitude in which they were left, after a few months* 
abandoned it, and returned to their associates whom they had left upon the 
Hudson. Though not successful in establishing a permanent colony upon the 


Delaware, ships plied regularly between the fort and Manhattan, and this 
became the rallying point for the Indians, who brought thither their commodi- 
ties for trade. At about this time, 1626, the island of Manhattan estimated 
to contain 22,000 acres, on which now stands the city of New York with its 
busy population, surrounded by its forests of masts, was bought for the insig- 
nificant sum of sixty guilders, about $24, what would now pay for scarcely a 
square inch of some of that very soil. As an evidence of the thrift which had 
begun to mark the progress of the colony, it may be stated that the good ship 
" The Arms of Amsterdam," which bore the intelligence of this fortunate pur- 
chase to the assembly of the XIX in Holland, bore also in the language of 
O'Calaghan, the historian of New Netherland, the " information that the col- 
ony was in a most prosperous state, and that the women and the soil were 
both fruitful. To prove the latter fact, samples of the recent harvest, consist- 
ing of wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, canary seed, were sent forward, 
together with 8,130 beaver skins, valued at over 45,000 guilders, or nearly 
$19,000." It is accorded by another hisiorian that this same ship bore also 
" 853J otter skins, eighty-one mink skins, thirty-six wild cat skins and thirty-four 
rat skins, with a quantity of oak and hickory timber." From this it may be 
seen what the commodities were which formed the subjects of trade. Doubt- 
less of wharf rats Holland had enough at home, but the oak and hickory tim- 
ber came at a time when there was sore need of it. 

Finding that the charter of privileges, enacted in 1621, did not give suffi- 
cient encouragement and promise of security to actual settlers, further con- 
cessions were made in 1629, whereby " all such persons as shall appear and 
desire the same from the company, shall be acknowledged as Patroons [a sort 
of feudal lord] of New Netherland, who shall, within the space of four years 
next after they have given notice to any of the chambers of the company here, 
or to the Commander or Council there, undertake to plant a colony there of 
fifty souls, upward of fifteen years old; one- fourth part within one year, and 
within three years after sending the first, making together four years, the re- 
mainder, to the full number of fifty persons, to be shipped from hence, on pain, 
in case of willful neglect, of being deprived of the privileges obtained." * * 
" The Patroons, by virtue of their power, shall be permitted, at such places as they 
shall settle their colonies, to extend their limits four miles along the shore, or 
two miles on each side of a river, and so far into the country as the situation 
of the occupiers will permit." 

Stimulated by these flattering promises, Goodyn and Bloemmaert, two 
wealthy and influential citizens, through their agents — Heyser and Coster — 
secured by purchase from the Indians a tract of land on the western shore, 
at the mouth of the Delaware, sixteen miles in length along the bay front, and 
extending sixteen miles back into the country, giving a square of 256 miles. 
Goodyn immediately gave notice to the company of their intention to plant a 
colony on their newly acquired territory as patroons. They were joined by an 
experienced navigator, De Vries, and on the 12th of December, 1630, a vessel, 
the Walrus, under command of De Vries, was dispatched with a company of 
settlers and a stock of cattle and farm implements, which arrived safely in 
the Delaware. De Vries landed about three leagues within the capes, " near 
the entrance of a fine navigable stream, called the Hoarkill," where he pro- 
ceeded to build a house, well surrounded with cedar palisades, which served 
the purpose of fort, lodging house, and "trading post. The little settlement, 
which consisted of about thirty persons, was christened by the high sounding 
title of Zwanendal — Valley of Swans. In the spring they prepared their fields 
and planted them, and De Vries returned to Holland, to make report of his 


But a sad fate awaited the little colony at Zwanendal. In accordance with 
the custom of European nations, the commandant, on taking possession of the 
new purchase, erected a pust, and affixed thereto a piece of tin on which was 
traced the arms of Holland and a legend of occupancy. An Indian chieftain, 
passing that way, attracted by the shining metal, and not understanding the 
object of the inscription, and not having the fear of their high mightinesses, 
the States General of Holland before his eyes, tore it down and proceeded to 
make for himself a tobacco pipe, considering it valuable both by way of orna- 
ment and use. When this act of trespass was discovered, it was regarded by 
the doughty Dutchman as a direct insult to the great State of Holland, and 
so great an ado was raised over it that the simple minded natives became 
frightened, believing that their chief had committed a mortal offense, and in 
the strength and sincerity of their friendship immediately proceeded to dis- 
patch the offending chieftain, and brought the bloody emblems of their deed to 
the head of the colony. This act excited the anger of the relatives of the mur- 
dered man, and in accordance with Indian law, they awaited the chance to 
take revenge. O'Calaghan gives the following account (if this bloody massa- 
cre which ensued: "The colony at Zwanendal consisted at this time of thirty- 
four persons. Of these, thirty- two were one day at work in the fields, while 
Commissary Hosset remained in charge of the house, where another of the set- 
tlers lay sick abed. A large bull dog was chained out of doors. On pretence 
of selling some furs, three savages entered the house and murdered Hosset 
and the sick man. They found it not so easy to dispatch the mastiff. It was 
not until they had pierced him with at least twenty-five arrows that he was 
destroyed. The men in the fields were then set on, in an equally treacherous 
manner, under the guise of friendship, and every man of them slain." Thus 
was a worthless bit of tin the cause of the cutting off and utter extermination 
of the infant colony. 

De Vries was upon the point of returning to Zwanendal when he received 
intimation of disaster to the settlers. With a large vessel and a yacht, he set 
sail on the 24th of May, 1632, to carry succor, provided with the means of 
prosecuting the whale fishery which he had been led to believe might be made 
very profitable, and of pushing the production of grain and tobacco. On ar- 
riving in the Delaware, he fired a signal gun to give notice of his approach. 
The report echoed through the forest, but, alas! the ears which would have 
been gladened with the sound were heavy, and no answering salute came from 
the shore. On landing, he found his house destroyed, the palisades burned, 
and the skulls and bones of his murdered countrymen bestrewing the earth, 
sad relics of the little settlement, which had promised so fairly, and warning 
tokens of the barbarism of the natives. 

De Vries knew that he was in no position to attempt to punish the guilty 
parties, and hence determined to pursue an entirely pacific policy. At his 
invitation, the Indians gathered in with their chief for a conference. Sitting 
down in a circle beneath the shadows of the somber forest, their Sachem in 
the centre, De Vries, without alluding to their previous acts of savagery, 
concluded with them a treaty of peace and friendship, and presented them in 
token of ratification, "some duffels, bullets, axes and Nuremburg trinkets." 

In place of finding his colony with plenty of provisions for the immediate 
needs of his party, he could get nothing, and began to be in want. He accord- 
ingly sailed up the river in quest t>f food. The natives were ready with 
their furs for barter, but they had no supplies of food with which they wished 
to part. Game, however, was plenty, and wild turkeys were brought in weigh- 
ing over thirty pounds. One morning after a frosty night, while the little 


craft was up the stream, tho party was astonished to find the waters frozen 
over, and their ship fast in the ice. Judging by the mild climate of their own 
country, Holland, they did not suppose this possible. For several weeks they 
were held fast without the power to move their floating home. Being in need 
of a better variety of food than he found it possible to obtain, De Vries sailed 
away with a part of his followers to Virginia, where he was hospitably enter- 
tained by the Governor, who sent a present of goats as a token of friendship to 
the Dutch Governor at Manhattan. Upon his return to the Delaware, De 
Vries found that the party he had left behind to prosecute the whale fishery 
had only taken a few small ones, and these so poor that the amount of oil ob- 
tained was insignificant. He had been induced to embark in the enterprise of 
a settlement here by the glittering prospect of prosecuting the whale fishery 
along the shore at a great profit. Judging by this experience that the hope 
of great gains from this source was groundless, and doubtless haunted by a 
superstitious dread of making their homes amid the relics of the settlers of the 
previous year, and of plowing fields enriched by their blood who had been 
so utterly cut off, and a horror of dwelling amongst a people so revengeful and 
savage, De Vries gathered all together, and taking his entire party with him 
sailed away to Manhattan and thence home to Holland, abandoning utterly the 
settlement. . 

The Dutch still however sought to maintain a footnold upon the Dela- 
ware, and a fierce contention having sprung up between the powerful patroons 
and the Director General, and they having agreed to settle differences by 
the company authorizing the purchase of the claims of the patroons, those upon 
the Delaware were sold for 15,600 guilders. Fort Nassau was accordingly re- oc- 
cupied and manned with a small military force, and when a party from Con- 
necticut Colony came, under one Holmes to make a settlement upon the Dela- 
ware, the Dutch at Nassau were found too strong to be subdued, and Holmes 
and his party were compelled to surrender, and were sent as prisoners of war 
to Manhattan. 


Sir William Keift, 1638-47— Peter Minttit, 1638-41— Peter Hollandaer, 1641-43— 
John Printz, 1648-53— Peter Stuyvesant, 1647-64— John Pappagoya, 1653-54 — 
John Claude Rysingh, 1654-55. 

AT £his period, the throne of Sweden was occupied by Gustavus Adolphus, 
a monarch of the most enlightened views and heroic valor. Seeing the 
activity of surrounding nations in sending out colonies, he proposed to his 
people to found a commonwealth in the New World., not for the mere purpose 
of gain by trade, but to set up a refuge for the oppressed, a place of religious 
liberty and happy homes that should prove of advantage to " all oppressed 
Christendom. " Accordingly, a company with ample privileges was incorpo- 
rated by the Swedish Government, to which the King himself pledged $400,00( 
of the royal treasure, and men of every rank and nationality were invited to 
join in the enterprise. * Gustavus desired not that his colony should depend 
upon serfs or slaves to do the rough work. " Slaves cost a great deal, labor 
with reluctance, and soon perish from hard usage. The Swedish nation is 
laborious and intelligent, and surely we shall gain more by a free people with 
wives and children." 


In the meantime, the fruits of the reformation in Germany were menaced, 
and the Swedish monarch determined to unsheath his sword and lead his 
people to the aid of Protestant faith in the land where its standard had been 
successfully raised. At the battle of Lutzen, where for the cause which he had 
espoused, a signal victory was gained, the illustrious monarch, in the flower 
of life, received a mortal wound. Previous to the battle, and while engaged in 
active preparations for the great struggle, he remembered the interests of his. 
contemplated colony in America, and in a most earnest manner commended 
the enterprise to the people of Germany. 

Oxenstiern, the minister of Gustavus, upon whom the weight of govern- 
ment devolved during the minority of the young daughter, Christina, declared 
that he was but the executor of the will of the fallen King, and exerted him- 
self to further the interests of a colony which he believed would be favorable to 
"all Christendom, to Europe, to the whole world." Four years however 
elapsed before the project was brought to a successful issue. Peter Minuit, 
who had for a time been Governor of New Netherlands, having been displaced, 
sought employment in the Swedish company, and was given the command of 
the first colony. Two vessels, the Key of Calmar and the Griffin, early in the 
year 1638, with a company of Swedes and Fins, made their way across the 
stormy Atlantic and arrived safely in the Delaware. They purchased of the 
Indians the lands from the ocean to the falls of Trenton, and at the mouth of 
Christina Creek erected a fort which they called Christina, after the name of 
the youthful Queen of Sweden. The soil was fruitful, the climate mild, and 
the scenery picturesque. Compared with many parts of Finland and Sweden, 
it was a Paradiso, a name which had been given the point at the entrance of 
the bay. As tidings of the satisfaction of the first emigrants were borne back 
to the fatherland, the desire to seek a home in the new country spread rap- 
idly, and the ships sailing were unable to take the many families seeking pas- 

The Dutch were in actual possession of Fort Nassau when the Swedes 
first arrived, and though they continued to hold it and to seek the trade of the 
Indians, yet the artful Minuit was more than a match for them in Indian bar- 
ter. William Keift, the Governor of New Netherland, entered a vigorous 
protest against the encroachments of the Swedes upon Dutch territory, in 
which he said " this has been our property for many years, occupied with 
forts and sealed by our blood, which also was done when thou wast in the 
service of New Netherland, and is therefore well known to thee." But Minuit 
pushed forward the work upon his fort, regardless of protest, trusting to the- 
respect which the flag of Sweden had inspired in the hands of Banner and 
Torstensen. For more than a year no tidings were had from Sweden, ,and no 
supplies from any source were obtained; and while the fruits of their labors 
were abundant there were many articles of diet, medicines and apparel, the- 
lack of which they began to sorely feel. So pressing had the want become, 
that application had been made to the authorities at Manhattan for permission 
to remove thither with all their effects. But on the very day before that on 
which they were to embark, a ship from Sweden richly laden with provisions, 
cattle, seeds and merchandise for barter with the natives came joyfully to their 
relief, and this, the first permanent settlement on soil where now are the States 
of Delaware and Pennsylvania, was spared. The success and prosperity of the- 
colony during the first few years of its existence was largely due to the skill 
and policy of Minuit, who preserved the friendship of the natives, avoided an 
open conflict with the Dutch, and so prosecuted trade that the Dutch Governor 
reported to his government that trade had fallen off 30,000 beavers. Minuit 


was at the head of the colony for about three years, and died in the midst 
of the people whom he had led. 

Minuit was succeeded in the government by Peter Hollandaer, who had 
previously gone in charge of a company of emigrants, and who was now, in 
1641, commissioned. The goodly lands upon the Delaware were a constant 
attraction to the eye of the adventurer; a party from Connecticut, under the lead- 
ership of Robert Cogswell, came, and squatted without authority upon the site 
of the present town of Salem, N. J. Another company had proceeded up the 
river, and, entering the Schuylkill, had planted themselves upon its banks. 
The settlement of the Swedes, backed as it was by one of the most powerful 
nations of Europe, the Governor of New Netherland was not disposed to 
molest; but when these irresponsible wandering adventurers came sailing past 
their forts and boldly planted themselves upon the most eligible sites and fer- 
tile lands in their territory, the Dutch determined to assume a hostile front, 
and to drive them away. Accordingly, Gen. Jan Jansen Van Ilpendam — his 
very name was enough to frighten away the emigrants — was sent with two 
vessels and a military force, who routed the party upon the Schuylkill, destroy- 
ing their fort and giving them a taste of the punishment that v was likely to be 
meted out to them, if this experiment of trespass was repeated. The Swedes 
joined the Dutch in breaking up the settlement at Salem and driving away the 
New England intruders. 

In 1642, Hollandaer was succeeded in the government of the Swedish 
Colony by John Printz, whose instructions for the management of affahs were 
drawn with much care by the officers of the company in Stockholm. - He was, 
first of all, to maintain friendly relations with the Indians, and by the advan- 
tage of low prices hold their trade. His next care was to cultivate enough 
grain for the wants of the colonists, and when this was insured, turn his atten- 
tion to the culture of tobacco, the raising of cattle and sheep of a good species, 
the culture of the grape, and the raising of silk worms. The manufacture of 
salt by evaporation, and the search for metals and minerals were to be prose- 
cuted, and inquiry into the establishment of fisheries, with a view to profit, 
especially the whale fishery, was to be made." It will be seen from these in- 
structions that the far-sighted Swedish statesmen had formed an exalted con- 
ception of the resources of the new country, and had figured to themselves 
great possibilities from its future development. Visions of rich silk products, 
of the precious metals and gems from its mines, flocks upon a thousand hills 
that should rival in the softness of their downy fleeces the best products of the 
Indian looms, and the luscious clusters of the vine that could make glad the 
palate of the epicure filled their imaginations. 

With two vessels, the Stoork and Renown, Printz set sail, and arrived at 
Port Christina on the 15th of February, 1643. He was bred to the profession 
of arms, and was doubtless selected with an eye to his ability to holding posses- 
sion of the land against the conflict that was likely to arise. He had been a 
.Lieutenant of cavalry, and was withal a man of prodigious proportions, " who 
weighed," according to De Vries, " upward of 400 pounds, and drank three 
■drinks at every meal." He entertained exalted notions of his dignity as Govern- 
or of the colony, pr>d prepared to establish himself in his new dominions with 
some degree of magnificence. He brought with bim from Sweden the bricks 
to be used for the construction of his royal dwelling. Upon an inspection of 
the settlement, he detected the inherent weakness of the location of Fort 
Christina for commanding the navigation of the river, and selected the island 
of Tinacum for the site of a new fort, called New Gottenburg, which was 
speedily erected and made strong with huge hemlock logs. In the midst of 


the island, he built his royal residence, which was surrounded with trees and 
shubbery. He erected another fort near the mouth of Salem Creek, 
called Elsinborg, which he mounted with eight brass twelve- pounders, 
and garrisoned. Here all ships ascending the river were brought to, 
and required to await a permit from the Governor before proceeding 
to their destination. Gen. Van Ilpendam, who had been sent to drive 
away the intruders from New England, had remained after executing 
his commission as commandant at Fort Nassau; but having incurred the dis- 
pleasure of Director Keift, be had been displaced, and was succeeded by An- 
dreas Hudde, a crafty and politic agent of the Dutch Governor, who had no 
sooner arrived and become settled in his place than a conflict of authority 
sprang up between himself and the Swedish Governor. Dutch settlers secured 
a grant of land on the west bank of Delaware, and obtained possession by pur- 
chase from the Indians. This procedure kindled the wrath of Printz, who 
tore down the ensign of the company which had been erected in token of 
the power of Holland, and declared that he would have pulled down the 
colors of their High Mightinessps had they been erected on this the Swed- 
ish soil. That there might be no mistake about his claim to authority, the 
testy Governor issued a manifesto to his rival on the opposite bank, in which 
were these explicit declarations: 

" Andreas Hudde! I remind you again, by this written warning, to discon- 
tinue the injuries of which you have been guilty against the Royal Majesty 
of Sweden, my most gracious Queen; against Her Royal Majesty's rights, pre- 
tensions, soil and land, without showing the least respect to the Royal Majes- 
ty's magnificence, reputation and dignity; and to do so no more, considering 
how little it would be becoming Her Royal Majesty to bear such gross violence, 
and what great disasters might originate from it, yea, might be expected. * 
* * All this I can freely bring forward in my own defense, to exculpate me 
from all future calamities, of which we give you a warning, and place it at 
your account. Dated New Gothenburg, 3d September, stil, veteri 1646." 

It will be noted from the repetition of the high sounding epithets applied 
to the Queen, that Printz had a very exalted idea of his own position as the 
Vicegerent of the Swedish monarch. Hudde responded, saying in reply: " The 
place we possess we hold in just deed, perhaps before the name of South River 
was heard of in Sweden." This paper, upon its presentation, Printz flung to 
the ground in contempt, and when the messenger, who bore it, demanded an 
answer, Printz unceremoniously threw him out doors, and seizing a gun would 
have dispatched the Dutchman had he not been arrested; and whenever any of 
Hudde's men visited Tinicum they were sure to be abused, and frequently came 
back " bloody and bruised. " Hudde urged rights acquired by prior posses- 
sion, but Printz answered: " The devil was the oldest possessor in hell, yet he, 
notwithstanding, would sometimes admit a younger one." A vessel which had 
come to the Delaware from Manhattan with goods to barter to the Indians, was 
brought to, and ordered away. In vain did Hudde plead the rights acquired 
by previous possession, and finally treaty obligations existing between the 
two nations. Printz was inexorable, and peremptorily ordered the skipper 
away, and as his ship was not provided with the means of fighting its way up 
past the frowning battlements oE Fort Elsinborg, his only alternative was to 
return to Manhattan and report the result to his employers. 

Peter Stuyvesant, a man of a good share of native talent and force of char- 
acter, succeeded to the chief authority over New Netherland in May, 1647. 
The affairs of his colony were not in an encouraging condition. The New 
England colonies were crowding upon him from the north and east, and the 


Swedes upon the South River were occupying the territory which the Dutch 
for many years previous to the coining of Christina's colony had claimed. 
Amid the thickening complications, Stuyvesant had need of all his power of 
argument and executive skill. He entered into negotiations with the New En- 
gland colonies for a peaceful settlement of their difficulties, getting the very 
best terms he could, without resorting to force; for, said his superiors, the> 
officers of the company in Holland, who had an eye to dividends, " War can- 
not be for our advantage; the New England people are too powerful for us.'* 
A pacific policy was also preserved toward the Swedes. Hudde was retained 
at the head of Dutch affairs upon the Delaware, and he was required to inake 
full reports of everything that was transpiring there in order that a clear in- 
sight might be gained of the policy likely to be pursued. Stuyvesant was en- 
tirely too shrewd a politician for the choleric Printz. He recommended to the 
company to plant a Dutch colony on the site of Zwanendal at the mouth of 
the river, another on the opposite bank, which, if effectually done, would com- 
mand its navigation; and a third on tho upper waters at Beversreede, which 
would intercept the intercourse of the native population. By this course of 
active colonizing, Stuyvesant rightly calculated that the Swedish power would 
be circumscribed, and finally, upon a favorable occasion, be crushed out. 

Stuyvesant, that he might ascertain the nature and extent of the Swedish 
claims to tho country, and examine into the complaints that were pouring in 
upon him of wrongs and indignities suffered by the Dutch at the hands of the 
Swedish power, in 1651 determined to visit the Delaware in his official capac- 
ity. He evidently went in some state, and Printz, who was doubtless impressed 
with the condecension of the Governor of all New Netherland in thus coming, 
was put upon his good behavior. Stuyvesant, by his address, got completely 
on the blind side of the Swedish chief, maintaining the garb of friendship 
and brotherly good-will, and insisting that the discussion of rights should be 
carried on in a peaceful and friendly manner, for we are informed that they 
mutually promised " not to commit any hostile or vexatious acts against one 
another, but to maintain together all neighborly friendship and correspond- 
ence, as good friends and allies aro bound to do." Printz was thus, by this 
agreement, entirely disarmed and placed at a disadvantage; for the Dutch 
Governor took advantage of the armistice to acquire lands below Fort Chris- 
tina, where he proceeded to erect a fort only five miles away, which he named 
Fort Casimir. This gave the Dutch a foothold upon the south bank, and in 
nearer proximity to the ocean than Fort Christina. Fort Nassau was dis- 
mantled and destroyed, as being no longer of use. In a conference with the 
Swedish Governor, Stuyvesant demanded to see documental proof of his right 
to exercise authority upon he Delaware, and the compass of the lands to 
which the Swedish Government laid claim. Printz prepared a statement in 
which he set out the "Swedish limits wide enough." But Stuyvesant de- 
manded the documents, under the seal of the company, and characterized this 
writing as a "subterfuge," maintaining by documentary evidence, on his part, 
the Dutch West India Company's right to the soil. 

Printz was great as a blusterer, and preserver of authority when personal 
abusa and kicks and cuffs could be resorted to without the fear of retaliation; 
but no match in statecraft for the wily Stuyvesant. To the plea of pre-occu- 
pancy he had nothing to answer more than he had already done to Hudde'f 
messenger respecting the government of Hades, and herein was the cause oi 
the Swedes inherently weak. In numbers, too, the Swedes were feeble com- 
pared with the Dutch, who had ten times the population. But in diplomacy 
he had been entirely overreached. Fort Casimir, by its location, rendered 


the rival Fort Elsinborg powerless, and under plea that the mosquitoes had be- 
come troublesome there, it was abandoned. Discovering, doubtless, that a cloud 
of complications was thickening over him, which be would be unable with the 
forces at his commaud to successfully withstand, he asked to be relieved, and, 
without awaiting an answer to his application, departed for Sweden, leaving 
his son-in-law, John Pappegoya, who had previously received marks of the 
royal favor, and been invested with the dignity of Lieutenant Governor, in 
supreme authority. 

The Swedish company had by this time, no doubt, discovered that forcible 
opposition to Swedish occupancy of the soil upon Delaware was destined soon 
to come, and accordingly, as a precautionary measure, in November, 1653, the 
College of Commerce sent John Amundson Besch, with the commission of 
Captain in the Navy, to superintend the construction of vessels. Upon his 
arrival, he acquired lands suitable for the purpose of ship-building, and set 
about laying his keels. He was to have supreme authority over the naval force, 
and was to act in conjunction with the Governor in protecting the interests of 
the coiony, but in such a manner that neither should decide anything without 
■consulting the other. 

On receiving the application of Printz to be relieved, the company ap- 
pointed John Claude Bysingh, then Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, 
as Vice Director of New Sweden. He was instructed to fortify and extend 
the Swedish possessions, but without interrupting the friendship existing 
■with the English or Dutch. He was to use his power of persuasion in induc- 
ing the latter to give up Fort Casimir, which was regarded as an intrusion 
upon Swedish possessions, but without resorting to hostilities, as it was better 
to allow the Dutch to occupy it than to have it fall into the hands of the En- 
glish, "who are the more powerful, and, of course, the most dangerous in that 
country." Thus early was the prowess of England foreshadowed. Gov. 
Bysingh arrived in the Delaware, on the last day of May, 1654, and immediately 
demanded the surrender of Fort Casimir. Adriaen Van Tienhoven, an aide- 
de-camp on the staff of the Dutch commandant of the fort, was sent on board 
the vessel to demand of Gov. Bysingh by what right he claimed to dis- 
possess the rightful occupants; but the Governor was not disposed to discuss 
the matter, and immediately landed a party and took possession without more 
opposition than wordy protests, the Dutch Governor saying, when called on to 
make defense, "What can I do? there is no powder." Bysingh, however, in 
justification of his course, stated to Teinhoven, after he had gained possession 
of the fort, that he was acting under orders from the crown of Sweden, whose 
embassador at the Dutch Court, when remonstrating against the action of Gov. 
Stuyvesant in erecting and manning Fort Casimir had been assured, by 
the State's General and the offices of the West India Company, that they had 
not authorized the erection of this fort on Swedish soil, saying, " if our people 
are in your Excellency's way, drive them off." "Thereupon the Swedish 
Governor slapped Van Teinhoven on the breast, and said, ' Go! tell your Gov- 
ernor that.'" As the capture was made on Trinity Sunday, the name was 
changed from Fort Casimir to Fort Trinity. 

Thus were the instructions of the new Governor, not to resort to force, but 
to secure possession of the fort by negotiation, complied with, but by a forced 
interpretation. For, although he had not actually come to battle, for the very 
good reason that the Dutch had no powder, and were not disposed to use 
their fists against fire arms, which the Swedes brandished freely, yet, in mak- 
ing his demand for the fort, he had put on the stern aspect of war. 

Stuyvesant, on learning of the loss of Fort Casimir, sent a messenger to the 


Delaware to invite Gov. Rysingh to come to Manh attan to hold friendly confer- 
ence upon the subject of their difficulties. This Rysingh refused to do, and tht 
Dutch Governor, probably desiring instructions from the home Government be- 
fore proceeding to extremities, made a voyage to the West Indies for the purpose 
of arranging favorable regulations of trade with the colonies, though without 
the instructions, or even the knowledge of the States- General. Cromwell, 
who was now at the head of the English nation, by the policy of his agents, 
rendered this embassy of Stuyvesant abortive. 

As soon as information of the conduct of Rysingh at Zwanendal was 
mown in Holland, the company lost no time in disclaiming the representa- 
tions which he had made of its willingness to have the fort turned over to the 
Swedes, and immediately took measures for restoring it and wholly dispossess- 
ing the Swedes of lands upon the Delaware. On the 16th of November, 1655, 
the company ordered Stuyvesant "to exert every nerve to avenge the insult, 
by not only replacing matters on the Delaware in their former position, but 
by driving the Swedes from every side of the river," though they subsequent- 
ly modified this order in such manner as to allow the Swedes, after Fort Casi- 
mir had been taken, "to hold the land on which Fort Christina is built," with 
a garden to cultivate tobacco, because it appears that they had made the pur- 
chase with the previous knowledge of the company, thus manifesting a disin- 
clination to involve Holland in a war with Sweden. "Two armed ahips were 
forthwith commissioned; 'the drum was beaten daily for volunteers' in the 
streets of Amsterdam; authority was sent out to arm and equip, and if neces- 
sary to press into the company's service a sufficient number of ships for the 
expedition." In the meantime, Gov. Rysingh, who had inaugurated his 
reign by so bold a stroke of policy, determined to ingratiate himself ido the 
favor of the Indians, who had been soured in disposition by the arbi- 
trary conduct of the passionate Printz. He accordingly sent out on all sides 
an invitation to the native tribes to assemble on a certain day, by their chiets 
and principal men, at the seat of government on Tinicum Island, to brighten 
the chain of friendship and renew their pledges of faith and good neighbor- 

On the morning of the appointed day, ten .grand sachems with their at- 
tendants came, and with the formality characteristic of these native tribes, the 
council opened. Many and bitter were the complaints made against the Swedes 
for wrongs suffered at their hands, " chief among which was that many of 
their number had died, plainly pointing, though not explicitly saying it, to the 
giving of spirituous liquors as the cause." The new Governor had no answer 
to make to these complaints, being convinced, probably, that they were but too 
true. Without attempting to excuse or extenuate the past, Rysingh brought 
forward the numerous presents which he had taken with him from Sweden for 
the purpose. The sight of the piled up goods produced a profound impression 
upon the minds of the native chieftains. They sat apart for conference before 
making any expression of their feelings. Naaman, the fast friend of the white 
man, and the most consequential of the warriors, according to Campanius, 
spoke: ' Look," said he, "and see what they have brought to us." So say- 
ing, he stroked himself three times down the arm, which, among the Indians, 
was a token of friendship; afterward he thanked the Swedes on behalf of his 
people for the presents they had received, and said that friendship should be 
observed more strictly between them than ever before; that the Sweden and 
the Indians in Gov. Printz's time were as one body and one heart, striking his 
breast as he spoke, and that thenceforward they should be as one head; in 
token of which he took hold of his head with both hands, and made a motion 



as if he were tying a knot, and then he made this comparison: " That, as the 
calabash was round, without any crack, so they should be a compact body with- 
out any fissure; and that if any should attempt to do any harm to the Indians, 
the Swedes should immediately inform them of it; and, on the other hand, the 
Indians would give immediate notice to the Christians, even if it were in the 
middle of the night." On this they were answered that that would be indeed 
a true and lasting friendship, if every one would agree to it; on which they 
gave a general shout in token of consent. Immediately on this the great guns 
were fired, which pleased them extremely, and they said, "Poo, hoo, hoo; 
mokerick picon," that is to say "Hear and believe; the great guns are fired." 
Rysingh then produced all the treaties which had ever been concluded between 
them and the Swedes, which were again solemnly confirmed. " "When those 
who had signed the deeds heard their names, they appeared to rejoice, but, 
when the names were read of those who were dead, they hung their heads in 

After the first ebulition of feeling had subsided on the part of the Dutch 
Company at Amsterdam, the winter passed without anything further being 
done than issuing the order to Stuyvesant to proceed against the Swedes. In 
the spring, however, a thirty-six-gun brig was obtained from the burgomasters 
of Amsterdam, which, with four other crafts of varying sizes, was prepared for 
duty, and the little fleet set sail for New Netherland. Orders were given for 
immediate action, though Director General Stuyvesant had not returned from 
the West Indies. Upon the arrival of the vessels at Manhattan, it was an- 
nounced that " if any lovers of the prosperity and security of the province of 
New Netherland were inclined to volunteer, or to serve for reasonable wages, 
they should come forward," and whoever should lose a limb, or be maimed, was 
assured of a decent compensation. The merchantmen were ordered to furnish 
two of their crews, and the river boatmen were to be impressed. At this junct- 
ure a grave question arose: "Shall the Jews be enlisted?" It was decided 
in the negative; but in lieu of service, adult male Jews were taxed sixty five 
stivers a head per month, to be levied by execution in case of refusal. 

Stuyvesant had now arrived from his commercial trip, and made ready for 
opening the campaign in earnest. A day of prayer and thanksgiving was held 
to beseech the favor of Heaven upon the enterprise, and on the 5th of Septem- 
ber, 1655, with a fleet of seven vessels and some 600 men, Stuyvesant hoisted 
sail and steered for the Delaware. Arrived before Fort Trinity (Casimir), the 
Director sent Capt. Smith and a drummer to summon the fort, and ordered a 
flank movement by a party of fifty picked men to cut oft* communication with 
Fort Christina and the headquarters of Gov. Rysingh. Swen Schute, the com- 
mandant of the garrison, asked permission to communicate with Rysingh, 
which was denied, and he was called on to prevent bloodshed. An interview 
in the valley midway between the fort and the Dutch batteries was held, when 
Schute asked to send an open letter to Rysingh. This was denied, and for a 
third time the fort was summoned. Impatient of delay, and in no temper for 
parley, the great guns were landed and the Dutch force ordered to advance. 
Schute again asked for a delay until morning, which was granted, as the day 
was now well spent and the Dutch would be unable to mako the necessary 
preparations to open before morning. Early on the following day, Schute went 
on board the Dutch flag- ship, the balance, and agreed to terms of surrender 
very honorable to his flag. He was permitted to send to Sweden, by the first 
opportunity, the cannon, nine in number, belonging to the crown of Sweden, 
to march out of the fort with twelve men, as his body guard, fully aceoutered, 
and colors flying; the common soldiers to wear their side arms. The com- 


ruandant and other officers were to retain their private property, the muskets 
belonging to the crown were to be held until sent for, and finally the fort was 
to be surrendered, with all the cannon, ammunition, materials and other goods 
belonging to the West India Company. The Dutch entered the fort at noon 
with all the formality and glorious circumstance of war, and Dominie Megap- 
olensis, Chaplain of the expedition, preached a sermon of thanksgiving on the 
following Sunday in honor of the great triumph. 

While these signal events were transpiring at Casimir, Gov. Rysing, at his 
royal residence on Tinicum, was in utter ignorance that he was being despoiled 
of his power. A detachment of nine men had been sent by the Governor to 
Casimir to re-enforce the garrison, which came unawares upon the Dutch lines, 
and after a brief skirmish all but two were captured. Upon learning that the 
fort was invested, Factor Ellswyck was sent with a flag to inquire of the in- 
vaders the purpose of their coming. The answer was returned " To recover 
and retain our property." Rysingh then communicated the hope that they 
would therewith rest content, and not encroach further upon Swedish territory, 
having, doubtless, ascertained by this time that the Dutch were too strong for 
him to make any effectual resistance. Stuyvesant returned an evasive answer, 
but made ready to march upon Fort Christina. It will be remembered that 
by the terms of the modified orders given for the reduction of the Swedes, 
Fort Christina was not to be disturbed. But the Dutch Governor's blood was 
now up, and he determined to make clean work while the means were in his 
haods. Discovering that the Dutch were advancing, Rysingh spent the whole 
night in strengthening the defenses and putting the garrison in position to 
make a stout resistance. Early on the following day the invaders made their 
appearance on the opposite bank of Christina Creek, where they threw up de- 
fenses and planted their cannon. Forces were landed above the fort, and the 
place was soon invested on all sides, the vessels, in the meantime, having beon 
brought ioto the mouth of the creek, their cannon planted west of the fort and 
on Timber Island. Having thus securely shut up the Governor and his garri- 
son, Stuyvesant summmoned him to surrender. Rysingh could not in honor 
tamely submit, and at a council of war it was resolved to make a defense and 
" leave the consequence to be redressed by our gracious superiors." But their 
supply of powder barely sufficed for one round, and his force consisted of only 
thirty men. In the meantime, the Dutch soldiery made free with the property 
of the Swedes without the fort, killing their cattle and invading their homes. 
"At length the Swedish garrison itself showed symptoms of mutiny. The 
men were harassed with constant watching, provisions began to fail, many 
were sick, several had deserted, and Stuyvesant threatened, that, if they held 
out much longer, to give no quarter." A conference was held which ended 
by the return of Rysingh to the fort more resolute than ever for defense. 
Finally Stuyvesant sent in his trftimahim and gave twenty-four hours for a 
final answer, the generous extent of time for consideration evincing the humane 
disposition of the commander of the invading army, or what is perhaps more 
probable his own lack of stomach for carnage. Before the expiration of the 
time allowed, the garrison capitulated, " after a siege of fourteen days, dur- 
ing which, very fortunately, there was a great deal more talking than cannon- 
ading, and no blood shed, except those of the goats, poultry and swine, which 
the Dutch troops laid their hands on. The twenty or thirty Swedes then 
marched out with their arms; colors flying, matches lighted, drums beating, 
and fifes playing, and the Dutch took possession of the fort, hauled down the 
Swedish flag and hoisted their own." 

By the terms of capitulation, the Swedes, who wished to remain in the 


country, were permitted to do so, od taking the oath of allegiance, and rights 
of property were to be respected under the sway of Dutch law. Gov. Ry- 
singh, and all others who desired to return to Europe, were furnished passage, 
and by a secret provision, a loan of £300 Flemish was made to Rysingh, to be 
refunded on bis arrival in Sweden, the cannon and other property belonging 
■to the crown remaining in the hands of the Dutch until the loan was paid. 
Before withdrawing Stuyvesant offered to deliver over Fort Christina and the 
lands immediately about it to Rysingh, but this offer was declined with dig- 
nity, as the matter had now passed for arbitrament to the courts of the two na- 

The terms of the capitulation were honorable and liberal enough, but the 
Dutch authorities seem to have exercised little care in carrying out its provis- 
ions, or else the discipline in the service must have been very lax. For Ry- 
singh had no sooner arrived at Manhattan, than he entered most vigorous pro- 
tests against the violations of the provisions of the capitulation to Gov. Stuy 
vesant. He asserted that the property belonging to the Swedish crown had 
been left without guard or protection from pillage, and that he himself had 
not been assigned quarters suited to his dignity. He accused the Dutch 
with having broken open the church, and taken away all the cordage and sails 
of a new vessel, with having plundered the villages, Tinnakong, Uplandt, Fin- 
land, Printzdorp and other places. " In Christina, the women were violently 
torn from their houses; whole buildings were destroyed; yea, oxen, cows, hogs 
and other creatures were butchered day after day; even tbe horses were nol 
spared, but wantonly shot; the plantations destroyed, and tbe whole country 
so desolated that scarce any means were left for the subsistence of the inhab- 
itants." "Your men carried off even my own property, " said Rysingh, 
" with that of my family, and we were left like sheep doomed to the knife, 
without means of defense against the wild barbarians." 

Thus the colony of Swedes and Fins on the South River, which had been 
planned by and had been the object of solicitude to the great monarch himself, 
and had received tbe fostering care of the Swedish Government, came to an 
end after an existence of a little more than seventeen years — 1638-1655. But 
though it no longer existed ao a colony under the government of the crown of 
Sweden, many of the colonists remained and became the most intelligent and 
law-abiding citizens, and constituted a vigorous element in the future growth 
of the State. Some of the best blood of Europe at this period flowed in the 
veins of the Swedes. "A love for Sweden," says Bancroft, "their dear 
mother country, the abiding sentiment of loyalty toward its sovereign, con- 
tinued to distinguish the little band. At Stockholm, they remained for a 
century the objects of disinterested and generous regard; affection united them 
in the New World; and a part of their descendants still preserve their altar 
and their dwellings around the graves of their fathers." 

This campaign of Stuyvesant, for tbe dispossessing of the Swedes of terri- 
tory upon the Delaware, furnishes Washington Irving subject for some of the 
most inimitable chapters of broad humor, in his Knickerbocker's N9W York, to 
be found in the English language. And yet, in the midst of his side-splitting 
paragraphs, he indulges in a reflection which is worthy of remembrance. 
" He who reads attentively will discover the threads of gold which run 
throughout the web of history, and are invisible to the dull eye of ignorance. 
* * * By the treacherous surprisal of Fort Casimir, then, did the crafty 
Swedes enjoy a transient triumph, but drew upon their heads the vengeance 
of Peter Stuyvesant, who wrested all New Sweden from their hands. By the 
conquest of New Sweden, Peter Stuyvesant aroused the claims of Lord Balti- 


more, who appealed to the cabinet of Great Britain, who subdued the whole 
province of New Netherlands. By this great achievement, the whole extent of 
North America, from Nova Scotia to the Floridas, was rendered one entire 
dependency upon the British crown. But mark the consequence: The hith- 
erto scattered colonies being thus consolidated and having no rival colonies to 
check or keep them in awe, waxed great and powerful, and finally becoming 
too strong for the mother country, were enabled to shake off its bonds. But 
the chain of effects stopped not here; the successful revolution in America pro- 
duced the sanguinary revolution in France, which produced the puissant 
Bonaparte, who produced the French despotism." 

In March, 1656, the ship "Mercury," with 130 emigrants, arrived, the 
government at Stockholm having had no intimation of the Dutch conquest. 
An attempt was made to prevent a landing, and the vessel was ordered to 
report to Stuyvesant at Manhattan, but the order was disregarded and the col- 
onists debarked and acquired lands. The Swedish Government was not dis- 
posed to submit to these high-handed proceedings of the Dutch, and the min- 
isters of the two courts maintained a heated discussion of their differences. 
Finding the Dutch disposed to hold by force their conquests, the government 
of Sweden allowed the claim to rest until 1664. In that year, vigorous meas- 
ures were planned to regain its claims upon the Delaware, and a fleet bearing 
a military force was dispatched for the purpose. But, having been obliged to 
put back on account of stress of weather, the enterprise was abandoned. 


John Paul Jacquet, 1655-57— Jacob Alrichs, 1657-59— Goeran Van Dyck, 1657 
-58— William Beekman, 1658-63— Alexander D'Hinoyossa. 1659-64. 

TT^HE colonies upon the Delaware being now under exclusive control of the 
_L Dutch, John Paul Jaquet was appointed in November, 1655, as Vice 
Director, Derek Smidt having exercised authority after the departure of Stuy- 
vesant. The expense of fitting out the expedition for the reduction of the 
Swedes was sorely felt by the West India Company, which had been obliged 
to borrow money for the purpose of tae city of Amsterdam. In payment of. 
this loan, the company sold to the city all the lands upon the south bank of 
the Delaware, from the ocean to Christina Creek, reaching back to the lands 
of the Minquas, which was designated Nieur Amstel. Again was there di- 
vided authority upon the Delaware. The government of the new possession 
was vested in a commission of forty residents of Amsterdam, who appointed 
Jacob Alrichs as Director, and sent him with a force of forty soldiers and 150 
colonists, in three vessels, to assume the government, whereupon Jaquet relin- 
quished authority over this portion of his territory. The company in commu- 
nicating with Stuyvesant upon the subject of his course in dispossessing the 
Swedes, after duly considering all the complaints and remonstrances of the 
Swedish government, approved his conduct, "though they would not have been 
displeased had such a formal capitulation not taken place," adding as a paren- 
thetical explanation of the word formal " what is written is too long preserved, 
and may be produced when not desired, whereas words not recorded are, in the 
lapse of time, forgotten, or may be explained away." 


Stuyvesant still remained in supreme control over both the colony of the 
city and the colony of the company, to the immediato governorship of the lat- 
ter of which, Goeran Van Dyck was appointed. But though settlements in 
the management of affairs were frequently made, they would not remain set- 
tled. There was conflict of authority between Alrichs and Van Dyck. The 
companies soon found that a grievous system of smuggling had sprung up. 
After a searching examination into the irregularities by Stuyvesant, who vis- 
ited the Delaware for the purpose, he recommended the appointment of one 
general agent who should have charge of all the revenues of both co'onies, 
and "William Beekman was accordingly appointed. The company of the city 
soems not to have been satisfied with the profits of their investment, and ac- 
cordingly made new regulations to govern settlement, by which larger returns 
would accrue. This action created discontent among the settlers, and many 
who were meditating the purchase of lands and the acquisition of homes, de- 
termined to go over into Maryland where Lord Baltimore was offering far more 
liberal terms of settlement. To add to the discomforts of the settlers, " the 
miasms which the low alluvial soil and the rank and decomposed vegetation 
of a new country engenders, ' ' produced wasting sicknesses. When the planting 
was completed, and the new soil, for ages undisturbed, had been thoroughly 
stirred, the rains set in which descended almost continuously, producing fever 
and ague and dysentery. Scarcely a family escaped the epidemic. Six in 
the family of Director Alrichs were attacked, and his wife died. New colo- 
nists came without provisions, which only added to the distress. " Scarcity of 
provisions," says O'Calaghan, " naturally followed the failure of the crops; 
900 schepels of grain had been sown in the spring. They produced scarcely 
600 at harvest. Rye rose to three guilders the bushel; peas to eight guilders 
the sack; salt was twelve guilders the bushel at New Amsterdam; cheese and 
butter were not to be had, and when a man journeys he can get nothing but 
dry bread, or he must take a pot or kettle along with him to cook his victuals." 
" The place had now got so bad a name that the whole river could not wash it 
clean." The exactions of the city company upon its colony, not only did not 
bring increased revenue, but by dispersing the honest colonists, served to 
notify Lord Baltimore — who had laid claim to the lands upon Delaware, on 
account of original discovery by Lord De la War, from whom the river takes 
its name, and from subsequent charter of the British crown, covering territory 
from the 38th to the 40th degree of latitude — of the weakness of the colonies, 
and persuade him that now was a favorable opportunity to enforce his claims. 
Accordingly, Col. Utie, with a number of delegates, was dispatched to demand 
that the Dutch should quit the place, or declare themselves subjects of Lord 
Baltimore, adding, " that if they hesitated, they should be responsible for 
whatever innocent blood might be shed." 

Excited discussions ensued between the Dutch authorities and the agents 
of the Maryland government, and it was finally agreed to refer the matter to 
Gov. Stuyvesant, who immediately sent Commissioners to the Chesapeake to 
settle differences, and enter into treaty regulations for the mutual return of 
fugitives, and dispatched sixty soldiers to the Delaware to assist in preserving 
order, and resisting the English, sbould an attempt be made to dispossess the 

L'pon the death of Alrichs, which occurred in 1659, Alexander D'Hinoyossa 
was appointed Governor of the city colony. The new Governor was a man of 
good business capacity, and sought to administer the affairs of his colony for 
the best interests of the settlers, and for increasing the revenues of the com- 
pany. To further the general prosperity, the company negotiated a new loan 


with which to strengthen and improve its resources. This liberal policy had 
the desired effect. The Swedes, who had settled above od the river, moved 
down, and acquired homes on the lands of the city colony. The Fins and dis- 
contented Dutch, who had gone to Maryland, returned and brought with them 
some of the English settlers. 

Discouraged by the harassing conflicts of authority which seemed inter- 
minable, the West India Company transferred all its interests on the east side 
of the river to the colony of the city, and upon the visit of D'Hinoyossa to 
Holland in 1663, he secured for himself the entire and exclusive government 
of the colonies upon the Delaware, being no longer subject to the authority of 

Encouraged by liberal terms of settlement, and there being now a prospect 
of stable government, emigrants were attracted thither. A Mennonite commu- 
nity came in a body. " Clergymen were not allowed to join them, nor any 
* intractable people such as those in communion with the Roman See, usurious 
Jews, English stiff-necked Quakers, Puritans, foolhardy believers in the mil- 
lennium, and obstinate modern pretenders to revelation.' " They were obliged 
to take an oath never to seek for an office; Magistrates were to receive no com- 
pensation, " not even a stiver." The soiJ and climate were regarded as excel- 
lent, and when sufficiently peopled, the country would be the " finest on the 
face of the globe." 


Richard Nichols, 1664-67— Robert Neebham, 1664-68— Francis Lovelace, 
1667-73— John Carr, 1668-73— Anthony Colve, 1673-74— Peter Alrichs, 

AFFAIRS were scarcely arranged upon the Delaware, and the dawning of 
a better day for the colonists ushered in, before new complications 
began to threaten the subversion of the whole Dutch power in America. The 
English had always claimed the entire Atlantic seaboard. Under Cromwell, 
the Navigation act was aimed at Dutch interests in the New World. Captain 
John Scott, who had been an officer in the army of Charles I, having 
obtained some show of authority from the Governor of Connecticut, had visited 
the towns upon the west end of Long Island, where was a mixed population of. 
Dutch and English, and where he claimed to have purchased large tracts of 
land, and had persuaded them to unite under his authority in setting up a 
government of their own. He visited England and " petitioned the King to be 
invested with the government of Long Island, or that the people thereof be 
allowed to choose yearly a Governor and Assistants." By his representation, 
an inquiry was instituted by the King's council, "as to his majesty's title to the 
premises; the intrusions of the Dutch; their deportment; management of the 
country; strength, trade and government; and lastly, of the means necessary 
to induce or force them to acknowledge the King, or if necessary, to expel 
them together from the country. " The visit of Scott, and his prayer to the 
King for a grant of Long Island, was the occasion of inaugurating a policy, 
which resulted in the overthrow of Dutch rule in America. But the attention 
of English statesmen had for some time been turned to the importance of the 
territory which the Dutch colonies had occupied, and a belief that Dutch trade 
in the New World was yielding great returns, stimulated inquiry. James, 


Duke of York, brother of the King, who afterward himself became King, was 
probably at this time the power behind the- throne that was urging on action 
looking to the dispossession of the Dutch. The motive which seemed to actuate 
him was the acquisition of personal wealth and power. He saw, as he 
thought, a company of merchants in Amsterdam accumulating great wealth out 
of these colonies, and he meditated the transfer of this wealth to himself. He 
was seconded in this project by the powerful influence of Sir George Downing, 
who had been Envoy at The Hague, under Cromwell, and was now under Charles 
II. "Keen, bold, subtle, active, and observant, but imperious and unscrupulous, 
disliking and distrusting the Dutch," he had watched every movement of the 
company's granted privileges by the States General, and had reported every- 
thing to his superiors at home. "The whole bent," says O'Calaghan,'' of this 
man's mind was constantly to hold up before the eyes of his countrymen the 
growing power of Holland and her commercial companies, their immense 
wealth and ambition, and the danger to England of permitting these to pro- 
gress onward unchecked.'' 

After giving his testimony before the council, Scott returned to America 
with a letter from the King recommending his interests to the co-operation and 
protection of the New England colonies. On arriving in Connecticut, he was 
commissioned by the Governor of that colony to incorporate Long Island under 
Connecticut jurisdiction. But the Baptists, Quakers and Menuonites, who formed 
a considerable part of the population, " dreaded falling into the hands of the 
Puritans." In a quaint document commencing, "In the behalf e of sum hun- 
dreds of English here planted on the west end of Long Island wee address, ' r 
etc. , " they besought Scott to come and settle their difficulties. On his arrival 
he acquainted them with the fact, till then unknown, that King Charles had 
granted the island to the Duke of York, who would soon assert his rights. 
Whereupon the towns of Hemstede, Newwarke, Crafford, Hastings, Folestone 
and Gravesend, entered into a "combination" as they termed it, resolved to 
elect deputies to draw up laws, choose magistrates, and empowered Scott to 
act as their President; in short set up the first independent State in America. 
Scott immediately set out at the head of 150 men, horse and foot, to subdue 
the island. 

On the 22d of March, 1664, Charles II made a grant of the whole of Long 
Island, and all the adjoining country at the time in possession of the Dutch, 
to the Duke of York. Borrowing four men-of-war of the king, James sent 
them in command of Col. Richard Nicholls, an old officer, with whom was as- 
sociated Sir Robert Carr, Sir George Cartwright, and Samuel Maverick, Esq., 
and a force of 450 men, to dispossess the Dutch. To insure the success of the 
expedition, letters were addressed to each of the Governors of the New England 
colonies, enjoining upon them to unite in giving aid by men and material to 
Nicholls. The fleet sailed directly for Boston, where it was expected, and 
whence, through one Lord, the Dutch were notified of its coming. The great- 
est consternation was aroused upon the receipt of this intelligence, and the 
most active preparations were making for defense. But in the midst of these 
preparations, notice was received from the Chambers at Amsterdam, doubtless 
inspired by the English, that " no apprehension of any public enemy or dan- 
ger from England need be entertained. That the King was only desirous to 
reduce the colonies to uniformity in church and state, and with this view was 
dispatching some Commissioners with two or three frigates to New England to 
introduce Episcopacy in that quarter. " Thrown completely off his guard by 
this announcement, the Director General, Stuyvesant abandoned all preparations 
for resistance, and indulged in no anticipations of a hostile visitation. Thus 


were three full weeks lost in which the colonies might have been put in a very- 
good state of defense. 

Nicholls on arriving in American waters, touched at Boston and Connecti- 
cut, where some aid was received, and then hastened foward to Manhattan. 
Stuyvesant had but a day or two before learned of the arrival, and of tbe hos- 
tile intent. Scarcely had he issued orders for bringing out his forces and for 
fortifying before Nicholls scattered proclamations through the colony promis- 
ing to protect all who submitted to his Brittanic majesty in the undisturbed 
possession of their property, and made a formal summons upon Stuyvesant to 
surrender the country to the King of Great Britain. The Director found that 
he had an entirely different enemy to treat with from Rysingh, and a few half- 
armed Swedes and Fins upon the Delaware. Wordy war ensued between the 
Commissioners and the Director, and the English Governor finding that Stuy- 
vesant not in the temper to yield, landed a body of his soldiers upon the lower end 
of the island, and ordered Hyde, the commander of the fleet, to lay the frigates 
broadside before the city. It was a critical moment. Stuyvesant was stand- 
ing on one of the points of the fort when he saw the frigates approaching. 
The gunner stood by with burning match, prepared to lire on the fleet, and 
Stuyvesant seemed on the point of giving the order. But he was restrained, 
and a further communication was sent to Nicholls, who would listen to nothing 
short of the full execution of his mission. Still Stuyvesant held out. The 
inhabitants implored, but rather than surrender " he would be carried a corpse 
to his grave." The town was, however, in no condition to stand a siege. The 
powder at the fort would only suffice for one day of active operations. Pro- 
visions were scarce. The inhabitants were not disposed to be sacrificed, and 
the disaffection among them spread to the soldiers. They were overheard mut- 
tering, " Now we hope to pepper those devilish traders who have so long 
salted us; we know where booty is to be found, and where the young women 
live who wear gold chains. " 

The Rev. Jannes Myapoleuses seems to have been active in negotiations and 
opposed to the shedding of blood. A remonstrance drawn by him was finally 
adopted and signed by the principal men, and presented to the Director Gen- 
eral, in which the utter hopelessness of resistance was set forth, and Stuyve- 
sant finally consented to capitulate. Favorable terms were arranged, and 
Nicholls promised that if it should be finally agreed between the English and 
Dutch governments that the province should be given over to Dutch rule, he 
would peacefully yield his authority. Thus without a gun being fired, the En- 
glish made conquest of the Manhattoes. 

Sir Robert Carr, with two frigates and an ample force, was dispatched to- 
the Delaware to reduce the settlements there to English rule. The planters, 
whether Dutch or Swedes, were to be insured in the peaceable possession of 
their property, and the magistrates were to be continued in office. 

Sailing past the fort, he disseminated among the settlers the news of the 
surrender of Stuyvesant, and the promises of protection which Nicholls had 
made use of. But Gov. D'Hinoyossa was not disposed to heed the demand 
for surrender without a struggle. "Whereupon Carr landed his forces and 
stormed the place. After a fruitless but heroic resistance, in which ten were 
wounded and three were killed, the Governor was forced to surrender. Thus 
was the complete subversion of the State's General in America consummated, 
and the name of New Amsterdam gave place to that of New York, from the 
name of the English proprietor, James, Duke of York. 

The resistance offered by D'Hinoyossa formed a pretext for shameless 
plunder. Carr, in his report which shows him to have been a lawless fel- 


low, says, " Ye soldiers never stoping untill they stormed ye fort, and sae con- 
sequently to plundering; the seamen, noe less given to that sport, were quickly 
within, and have giton good store of booty." Carr seized the farm of 
D'Hinoyossa, hir brc&er, John Carr, that of Sheriff Sweringen, and Ensign 
Stock that of Peter Alrichs. The produce of the land for that year was seized, 
together with a cargo of goods that was unsold. " Even the inoffensive Men- 
nonists, though non-combatant from principle, did not escape the sack and 
plunder to which the whole river was subjected by Carr and his marauders. 
A boat was dispatched to their settlement, which was stripped of everything, 
to a very naile." 

Nieholls, on hearing of the rapacious conduct of his subordinate, visited 
the Delaware, removed Carr, and placed Kobert Needham in command. Pre- 
vious to dispatching his fleet to America, in June, 1664, the Duke of York had 
granted to John, Lord Berkeley, Baron of Stratton, and Sir George Carteret, 
of Saltrum in Devon, the territory of New Jersey, bounded substantially as the 
present State, and this, though but little settled by the Dutch, had been in- 
cluded in the terms of surrender secured by Nieholls. In many ways, he 
showed himself a man of ability and discretion. He drew up with signal 
success a body of laws, embracing most of the provisions which had been in 
force in the English colonies, which were designated the Duke's Laws. 

In May, 1667, Col. Francis Lovelace was appointed Governor in place of 
Nieholls, and soon after taking charge of affairs, drew up regulations for the 
government of the territory upon the Delaware, and dispatched Capt. John 
Carr to act there as his Deputy Governor. It was provided that whenever 
complaint duly sworn to was made, the Governor was to summon " the schout, 
Hans Block, Israel Helm, Peter Rambo, Peter Cock and Peter Alrichs, or any 
two of them, as counsellors, to advise him, and determine by the major vote 
what is just, equitable and necessary in the case in question. " It was further 
provided that all men should be punished in an exemplary manner, though 
with moderation; that the laws should be frequently communicated to the 
counsellors, and that in cases of difficulty recourse should be had to the Gov- 
ernor and Council at New York. 

In 1 668, two murders were perpetrated by Indians, which caused consider- 
able disturbance and alarm throughout the settlements. These capital crimes 
appear to have been committed while the guilty parties were maddened by 
liquor. So impressed were the sachems and leading warriors of the baneful 
effects of strong drink, that they appeared before the Council and besought its 
authority to utterly prohibit the sale of it to any of their tribes. These re- 
quests were repeated, and finally, upon the advice of Peter Alrichs, " the 
Governor (Lovelace) prohibited, on pain of death, the selling of powder, shot 
and strong liquors to the Indians, and writ to Carr on the occasion to use the 
utmost vigilance and caution." 

The native murderers were not apprehended, as it was difficult to trace 
them; but the Indians themselves were determined to ferret them out. One 
was taken and shot to death, who was the chief offender, but the other escaped 
and was never after heard of. The chiefs summoned their young men, and in 
presence of the English warned them that such would be the fate of all offend- 
ers. Proud justly remarks: "This, at a time when the Indians were numer- 
ous and strong and the Europeans few and weak, was a memorable act of jus- 
tice, and a proof of true friendship to the English, greatly alleviating the 
fear, for which they had so much reason among savages, in this then wilder- 
ness country." 

In 1669, a reputed son of the distinguished Swedish General, Connings- 


marke, commonly called the Long Fin, with another of his nationality, Henry 
Coleman, a man of property, and familiar with the language and habits of the 
Indians, endeavored to incite an insurrection to throw off the English rule and 
establish the Swedish supremacy. The Long Fin was apprehended, and was 
condemned to die; but upon reconsideration his sentence was commuted to 
whipping and to branding with the letter B. He was brought in chains to 
New York, where he was incarcerated in the Stadt-house for a year, and was 
then transported to Barbadoes to be sold. Improvements in the modes of 
administering justice were from time to time introduced. New Castle was 
made a corporation, to be governed by a Bailiff and six associates. Duties on 
importations were laid, and Capt. Martin Pringer was appointed to collect and 
make due returns of them to Gov. Lovelace. 

In 1673, the French monarch, Louis XIV, declared war against the Neth- 
erlands, and with an army of over 200,000 men moved down upon that de- 
voted country. In conjunction with the land force, the English, with a power- 
ful armament, descended upon the Dutch waters. The aged Du Buyter and 
the youthful Van Tromp put boldly to sea to meet the invaders. Three great 
naval battles were fought upon the Dutch coast on the 7th and 14th of June, 
and the 6th of August, in which the English forces were finally repulsed and 
driven from the coast. In the meantime, the inhabitants, abandoning their 
homes, cut the dikes which held back the sea, and invited inundation. Deem 
ing this a favorable opportunity to regain their possessions wrenched from them 
in the New World, the Dutch sent a small fleet under Commodores Cornelius 
Evertse and Jacobus Benkes, to New York, to demand the surrender of all 
their previous possessions. Gov. Lovelace happened to be absent, and his 
representative, Capt. John Manning, surrendered with but brief resistance, 
and the magistrates from Albany, Esopus, East Jersey and Long Island, on 
being summoned to New York, swore fealty to the returning Dutch power. 
Anthony Colve, as Governor, was sent to Delaware, where the magistrates 
hastened to meet him and submit themselves to his authority. Property in 
the English Government was confiscated; Gov. Lovelace returned to England, 
and many of the soldiers were carried prisoners to Holland. Before their de- 
parture, Commodores Evertse and Benkes, who styled themselves "The honora- 
ble and awful council of war, for their high mightinesses, the State's General 
of the United Netherlands, and his Serene Highness, the Prince of Orange," 
commissioned Anthony Colve, a Captain of foot, on the 12th of August, 1673, 
to be Governor General of "New Netherlands, with all its appendences, " 
and on the 19th of September following, Peter Alrichs, who had manifested 
his subserviency and his pleasure at the return of Dutch ascendancy, was ap- 
pointed by Colve Deputy Governor upon the Delaware. A body of laws was 
drawn up for his instruction, and three courts of justice were established, at 
New Castle, Chester and Lewistown. Capt. Manning on his return to En- 
gland was charged with treachery for delivering up the fort at New York with- 
out resistance, and was sentenced bv a court martial "to have his sword broken 
over his head in public, before the city hall, and himself rendered incapable 
of wearing a sword and of serving his Majesty for the future in any public 
trust in the Government. " 

But the revolution which had been affected so easily was of short duration. 
On the 9th of February, 1674, peace was concluded between England and 
Holland, and in the articles of pacification it was provided "that whatsoever 
countries, islands, towns, ports, castles or forts, have or shall be taken, on both 
sides, since the time that the late unhappy war broke out, either in Europe, or 
elsewhere, shall be restored to the former lord and proprietor, in the same con- 


dition they shall be in when the peace itself shall be proclaimed, after which 
time there shall be no spoil nor plunder of the inhabitants, no demolition 
of fortifications, nor carrying away of guns, powder, or other military stores 
which belonged to any castle or port at the time when it was taken." This 
left no room for controversy about possession. But that there might be no legal 
bar nor loophole for question of absolute right to his possessions, the Duke of 
York secured from the King on tbe 29th of June following, a new patent cov- 
ering the former grant, and two days thereafter sent Sir Edmund Andros, to 
possess and govern the country. He arrived at New York and took peaceable 
possession on the 31st of October, and two days thereafter it was resolved in 
council to reinstate all the officers upon Delaware as they were at the surrender 
to the Dutch, except Peter Alrichs, who for his forwardness in yielding his 
power was relieved. Capt. Edmund Cantwell and William Tom were sent to 
occupy the fort at New Castle, in the capacities of Deputy Governor and Sec- 
retary. In May, 3675, Gov. Andros visited the Delaware, and held court at 
New Castle " in which orders were made relative to the opening of roads, th»» 
regulation of church property and the support of preaching, the prohibition 
of the sale of liquors to the Indians, and the distillation thereof by the inhab- 
itants.'' On the 23d of September, 1676, Cantwell was superseded by John 
Collier, as Vice Governor, when Ephraim Hermans became Secretary. 

As was previously observed, Gov. Nicholis, in 1664, made a complete di- 
gest of all the laws and usages in "force in the English-speaking colonies in 
America, which were known as the Duke's Laws. That these iniodit now be 
made the basis of judicature throughout the Duke's possessions, they were, on 
the 25th of September, 1676, formally proclaimed and published by Gov. 
Lovelace, with a suitable ordinance introducing them. It may here be ob- 
served, that, in the administration of Gov. Hartranft, by act of the Legislature 
of June 12, 1878, the Duke's Laws were published in a handsome volume, to- 
gether with the Charter and Laws instituted by Perm, and historical notes 
covering the early history of the State, under the direction of John B. Linn, 
Secretary of the commonwealth, edited by Staughton George, Benjamin M. 
Nead, and Thomas McCamant, from an old copy preserved among the town rec- 
ords of Hempstead, Long Island, the seat of the independent State which 
had been set up there by John Scott before the coming of Nicholis. The num- 
ber of taxable male inhabitants between ihn ages of sixteen and sixty years, 
in 1677, for Uplandt and New Castle, was 443, which by the usual estimate of 
seven to one would give the population 3,101 for this district. Gov. Collier 
having exceeded his authority by exercising judicial functions, was deposed 
by Andros, and Capt. Christopher Billop was appointed to succeed him. But 
the change resulted in little benefit to the colony; for Billop was charged 
with many irregularities, " taking possession of the fort and turning it into 
a stable, and the court room above into a hay and fodder loft; debarring the 
court from sitting in its usual place in the fort, and making use of soldiers for 
his own private purposes." 

The hand of the English Government bore heavily upon the denomination 
of Christians called Friends or Quakers, and the earnest-minded, conscientious 
worshipers, uncompromising in their faith, were eager for homes in a land 
where they should be absolutely free to worship the Supreme Being. Berke- 
ley and Carteret, who had bought New Jersey, were Friends, and the settle- 
ments made in their territory were largely of that faith. In 1675, Lord Ber- 
keley sold his undivided half of the province to John Fenwicke, in trust for 
EHward Byllinge, also Quakers, and Fenwicke sailed in the Griffith, with a 
company of Friends who settled at Salem, in West Jersey. Byllinge, having 


become involved in debt, made an assignment of his interest for the benefit of 
his creditors, and William Penn was induced to become trustee jointly with 
Gowen Lawrie and Nicholas Lucas. Penn was a devoted Quaker, and he was 
of that earnest nature that the interests of his friends and Christian devotees 
were like his own personal interests. Hence he became zealous in promoting 
the welfare of the colony. For its orderly government, and that settlers might 
have assurance of stability in the management of affairs, Penn drew up " Con- 
cessions and agreements of the proprietors, freeholders and inhabitants of West 
New Jersey in America" in forty- four chapters. Foreseeing difficulty from 
divided authority, Penn secured a division of the province by " a line of par- 
tition from the east side of Little Egg Harbor, straight north, through the 
country to the utmost branch of the Delaware River." Penn's half was called 
New West Jersey, along the Delaware side, Carteret's New East Jersey along the 
ocean shore. Penn's purposes and disposition toward the settlers, as the 
founder of a State, are disclosed by a letter which he wrote at this time to a 
Friend, Richard Hartshorn, then in America: "We lay a foundation for 
after ages to understand their liberty, as men and Christians; that they may 
not be brought into bondage, but by their own consent; for we put the power 
in the people. * * So every man is capable to choose or to be chosen ; no man 
to be arrested, condemned, or molested, in his estate, or liberty, but by twelve 
men of the neighborhood; no man to lie in prison for debt, but that his estate 
satisfy, as far as it will go, and he be set at liberty to work; no man to be 
called in question, or molested for his conscience " Lest any should be in- 
duced to leave home and embark in the enterprise of settlement unadvisedly, 
Penn wrote and published a letter of caution, " That in whomsoever a desire to 
be concerned in this intended plantation, such would weigh the thing before 
the Lord, and not headily, or rashly, conclude on any such remove, and that 
they do not offer violence to the tender love of their near kindred and relations, 
but soberly, and conscientiously endeavor to obtain their good wills; that 
whether they go or stay, it may be of good savor before the Lord and good 


Sir Edmund Andros, 1674-81— Edmund Cantwell, 1674-76— John Collier, 1676- 

77— Christopher Billop, 1677-81. 

WILLIAM PENN, as Trustee, and finally as part owner of New Jersey, 
became much interested in the subject of colonization in America. 
Many of his people had gone thither, and he had given much prayerful study 
and meditation to the amelioration of their condition by securing just laws for 
their government. His imagination pictured the fortunate condition of a 
State where the law-giver should alone study the happiness of his subjects, and 
his subjects should be chiefly intent on rendering implicit obedience to 
just laws. From his experience in the management of the Jerseys, he had 
doubtless discovered that if he would carry out his ideas of government suc- 
cessfully, he must have a province where his voice would be potential and his 
will supreme. He accordingly cast about for the acquirement of such a land in 
the New World. 

Penn had doubtless been stimulated in his desires by the very roseate ac- 
counts of the beauty and excellence of the country, its salubrity of climate, its 


balmy airs, the fertility of its soil, and the abundance of the native fish, flesh 
and fowl. In 1680, one Malhon Stacy wrote a letter which was largely circu- 
lated in England, in which he says: "Ifcisa country that produceth all things 
for the support and furtherance of man, in a plentiful manner. * * * I 
have seen orchards laden with fruit to admiration; their very limbs torn to 
pieces with weight, most delicious to the taste, and lovely to behold. I have 
seen an apple tree, from a pippin-kernel, yield a barrel of curious cider; and 
peaches in such plenty that some people took their carts a peach gathering; I 
could not but smile at the conceit of it; they are very delicious fruit, and hang 
almost like our onions, that are tied on ropes. I have seen and know, this 
summer, forty bushels of bold wheat of one bushel sown. From May till 
Michaelmas, great store of very good wild fruits as strawberries, cranberries 
and hurtleberries, which are like our billberries in England, only far sweeter; 
the cranberries, much like cherries for color and bigness, which may be 
kept till frnit comes again; an excellent sauce is made of them for venison, 
turkeys, and other great fowl, and they are better to make tarts of than either 
gooseberries or cherries; we have them brought to our houses by the Indians 
in great plenty. My brother Robert had as many cherries this year as would 
have loaded several carts. As for venison and fowls, we have great plenty; 
we have brought home to our countries by the Indians, seven or eight fat bucks 
in a day. We went into the river to catch herrings after the Indian fashion. 
* * * We could have filled a three-bushel sack of as good large hei'rings 
as ever I saw. And as to beef and pork, here is great plenty of it, and good 
sheep. The common grass of this country feeds beef very fat. Indeed, the 
couatry, take it as a wilderness, is a brave country." 

The father of William Perm had arisen to distinction m tne British Navy. 
He was sent in Cromwell's time, with a considerable sea and land force, to the 
West Indies, where he reduced the Island of Jamaica under English rule. At 
the restoration, he gave in his adhesion to the royal cause. Under James, 
Duke of York, Admiral Penn commanded the English fleet which descended 
upon the Dutch coast, and gained a great victory over the combined naval 
forces led by Van Opdam. For this great service to his country, Penn was 
knighted, and became a favorite at court, the King and his brothor, the Duke, 
holding him in cherished remembrance. At his death, there was due him 
from the crown the sum of £16,000, a portion of which he himself had ad- 
vanced for the sea service. Filled with the romantic idea of colonization, and 
enamored with the sacred cause of his people, the son, who had come to be re- 
garded with favor for his great father's sake, petitioned King Charles II to 
grant him, in liquidation of this debt, " a tract of land in America, lying 
north of Maryland, bounded east by the Delaware River, on the west limited 
as Maryland, and northward to extend as far as plantable." There were con- 
flicting interests at this time which were being warily watched at court. The 
petition was submitted to the Privy Council, and afterward to the Lords of 
the committee of plantations. The Duke of York already held the counties of 
New Castle, Kent and Sussex. Lord Baltimore held a grant upon the south, 
with an indefinite northern limit, and the agents of both these territories 
viewed with a jealous eye any new grant that should in any way trench upon 
their rights. These claims were fully debated and heard by the Lords, and, 
being a matter in which the King manifested special interest, the Lord Chief 
Justice, North, and the Attorney General, Sir William Jones, were consulted 
both as to the grant itself, and the form or manner of making it. Finally, 
after a careful study of the whole subject, it. was determined by the highest 
authority in the Government to grant to Penn a larger tract than he had asked 


for, and the charter was drawn with unexampled liberality, in unequivocal 
terms of gift and perpetuity of holding, and with remarkable minuteness of 
detail, and t'hat Penn should have the advantage of any double meaning con- 
veyed in the instrument, the twenty-third and last section provides: "And, 
if perchance hereafter any doubt or question should arise concerning the true 
sense and meaning of any word, clause or sentence contained in this our present 
charter, we will ordain and command that at all times and in all things such 
interpretation be made thereof, and allowed in any of our courts whatsoever 
as shall be adjudged most advantageous and favorable unto the said William 
Penn, his heirs and assigns." 

It was a joyful day for Penn when he finally reached the consummation of 
his wishes, and saw himself invested with almost dictatorial power over a 
country as large as England itself, destined to become a populous empire. 
But his exultation was tempered with the most devout Christian spirit, fearful 
lest in the exercise of his great power he might be led to do something that 
should be displeasing to God. To his dear friend, Robert Turner, he writes 
in a modest way: " My true love in the Lord salutes thee and dear friends 
that love the Lord's precious truth in those parts. Thine I have, and for my 
business here know that after many waitings, watchings, solicitings and dis- 
putes in council, this day my country was confirmed to me under the great seal 
of England, with large powers and privileges, by the name of Pennsylvania, a 
name the King would give it in honor of my father. I chose New Wales, be- 
ing, as this, a pretty hilly country; but Penn being Welsh for a head, as Pen- 
manmoire in Wales, and Penrith in Cumberland, and Penn in Buckingham- 
shire, the highest land ia England, called this Pennsylvania, which is the high 
or head woodlands; for I proposed, when the Secretary, a Welshman, refused 
to have it called New Wales, Sylvania, and they added Penn to it; and though 
I much opposed it, and went to the King to have it struck out and altered, he 
said it was past, and would take it upon him; nor could twenty guineas move 
the Under Secretary to vary the name ; for I feared iest it should be looked on 
as a vanity in me, and not as a respect in the King, as it truly was to my 
father, whom he often mentions with praise. Thou mayest communicate my 
grant to Friends, and expect shortly my proposals. It is a clear and just 
thing, and my God, that has given it me through many difficulties, will, I be- 
lieve, bless and make it the seed of a nation. I shall have a tender care to the 
government, that it be well laid at first." 

Penn had asked that the western boundary should be the same as that of 
Maryland; but the King made the width from east to west five full degrees. 
The charter limits were " all that tract, or part, of land, in America, with the 
islands therein contained as the same is bounded, on the east by Delaware 
River, from twelve miles distance northwards of New Castle town, unto the 
three and fortieth degree of northern latitude. * * * * 

The said land to extend westward five degrees in longitude, to be computed 
from the said eastern bounds; and the said lands to be bounded on the north 
by the beginning of the three and fortieth degree of northern latitude, and, 
on the south, by a circle drawn at twelve miles distance from New Castle 
northward and westward unto the beginning of the fortieth degree of northern 
latitude; ^nd then by a straight line westward to the limits of longitude above 

It is evident that tne royal secretaries did not well understand the geogra- 
phy of this section, for by reference to a map it will be seen that the begin- 
ning of the fortieth degree, that is, the end of the thirty-ninth, cuts the 
District of Columbia, and hence Baltimore, and the greater part of Maryland 


and a good slice of Virginia would have been included in the clear terras of 
the chartered limits of Pennsylvania. But the charters of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia antedated this of Pennsylvania. Still, the terms of the Penn charter 
wei-e distinct, the beginning of the fortieth degree, whereas those of Maryland 
were ambiguous, the northern limit being fixed at the fortieth degree; but whether 
at the beginning or at the ending of the fortieth was not stated. Penn 
claimed three full degrees of latitude, and when it was found that a contro- 
versy was likely to ensue, the King, by the hand of his royal minister, Con- 
way, issued a further declaration, dated at Whitehall, April 2, 1681, in which 
the wording of the original chartered limits fixed for Pennsylvania were 
quoted verbatim, and his royal pleasure declared that these limits should be 
respected " as they tender his majesty's displeasure." This was supposed to 
settle the matter. But Lord Baltimore still pressed his claim, and the ques- 
tion of southern boundary remained an open one, causing much disquietude 
to Penn, requiring watchful care at court for more than half a century, and 
until after the proprietor's death. 

We gather from the terms of the charter itself that the King, in making 
the grant, was influenced "by the commendable desire of Penn to enlarge our 
British Empire, and promote such useful commodities as may be of benefit 
to us and our dominions, as also to reduce savage nations by just and gentle 
manners, to the love of civil society and Christian religion," and out of "re- 
gard to the memory and merits of his late father, in divers services, and par- 
ticularly to his conduct, courage and discretion, under our dearest brother, 
James, Duke of York, in the signal battle and victory, fought and obtained, 
against the Dutch fleet, commanded by the Herr Van Opdam in 1665." 

The motive for obtaining it on the part of Penn may be gathered from the 
following extract of a letter to a friend: " For my country I eyed the Lord in 
obtaining it; arid more was I drawn inward to look to Him, and to owe it to His 
hand and power than to any other way. I have so obtained and desire to keep 
it, that I may be unworthy of His love, but do that which may answer His 
kind providence and people." 

The charter of King Charles II was dated April 2, 1681. Lest any 
trouble might arise in the future from claims founded on the grant previously 
made to the Duke of York, of <<r Long Island and adjacent territories occupied 
by the Dutch," the prudent forethotight of Penn induced him to obtain a deed, 
dated August 31, 1682, of the Duke, for Pennsylvania, substantially in the 
terms of the royal charter. But Penn was still not satisfied. He was cut off 
from the ocean except by the uncertain navigation of one narrow stream. He 
therefore obtained from the Duke a grant cf New Castle and a district of 
twelve miles around it, dated on the 24th of August, 1682, and on the same 
day a further grant from the Duke of a tract extending to Cape Henlopen, 
embracing the two counties of Kent and Sussex, the two grants comprising 
what were known as the territories, or the three lower counties, which were 
for many years a part of Pennsylvania, but subsequently constituted the State 
of Delaware. 

Being now satisfied with his province, and that his titles were secure, Penn 
drew up such a description of the country as from his knowledge he was able 
to give, which, together with the royal chaiter and proclamation, terms of 
settlement, and other papers pertaining thereto, he published and spread 
broadcast through the kingdom, taking special pains doubtless to have the 
documents reach the Friends. The terms of sale of lands were 40 shillings for 
100 acres, and 1 shilling per acre rental. The question has been raised, why 
exact the annual payment of one shilling per acre. The terms of the grant by 





the royal charter to Perm were made absolute on the " payment therefor to us, 
our heirs and successors, two beaver skins, to be delivered at our castle in 
"Windsor, on the 1st day of January in every year," and contingent payment 
of one-fifth part of all gold and silver which shall from time to time happen 
to be found clear of all charges." Penn, therefore, held his title only upon 
the payment of quit-rents. He could consequently give a valid title only by 
the exacting of quit -rents. 

Having now a gveat province of his own to manage, Penn was obliged to 
relinquish his share in West New Jersey. He had given largely of his time and 
energies to its settlement; he had sent 1,400 emigrants, many of them people 
of high character; had seen farms reclaimed from the forest, the town of 
Burlington built, meeting houses erected in place of tents for worship, good 
Government established, and the savage Indians turned to peaceful ways. 
With satisfaction, therefore, he could now give himself to reclaiming and set- 
tling his own province. He had of coarse in his published account of the 
country made it appear a desirable place for habitation. But lest any should 
regret having gone thither when it was too late, he added to his description a 
caution, " to consider seriously the premises, as well the inconveniency as 
future ease and plenty; that so none may move rashly or from a fickle, but from 
a solid mind, having above all things an eye to the providence of God in the 
disposing of themselves." Nothing more surely points to the goodness of 
heart of William Penn, the great founder of our State, than this extreme 
solicitude, lest he might induce any to go to the new country who should af- 
terward regret having gone. 

The publication of the royal charter and his description of the country 
attracted attention, and many purchases of land were made of Penn before 
leaving England. That these purchasers might have something binding to 
rely upon, Penn drew up what he termed " conditions or concessions " between 
himself as proprietor and purchasers in the province. These related to the 
settling the country, laying out towns, and especially to the treatment of the 
Indians, who were to have the same rights and privileges, and careful regard 
as the Europeans. And jvhat is perhaps a remarkable instance of provident 
forethought, the eighteenth article provides " That, in clearing the ground, 
care be taken to leave one acre of trees for every five acres cleared, especially 
to preserve oak and mulberries, for silk and shipping." It could be desired 
that such a provision might have remained operative in the State for all 

Encouraged by the manner in which his proposals for settlement were 
received, Penn now drew up a frame of government, consisting of twenty- 
four articles and forty laws. These were drawn in a spirit of unexampled 
fairness and liberality, introduced by an elaborate essay on the just rights of 
government and governed, and with such conditions and concessions that it 
should never be in the power of an unjust Governor to take advantage of the 
people and practice injustice. " For the matter of liberty and privilege, I pur- 
pose that which is extraordinary, and leave myself and successors no power of 
doing mischief, that the will of one man may not hinder that of a whole coun- 
try. This frame gave impress to the character of the early government. It im- 
planted in the breasts of the people a deep sense of duty, of right, and of obli- 
gation in all public affairs, and the relations of man with man, and formed a 
framework for the future constitution. Penn himself had felt the heavy hand 
of government for religious opinions and practice' sake. He determined, for 
the matter of religion, to leave all free to hold such opinions as they might 
elect, and hence enacted for his State that all who " hold themselves obliged 



in conscience, to live peaceably and justly in civil society, shall, in no "ways, 
be molested, nor prejudiced, for their religious persuasion, or practice, in mat- 
ters of faith and worship, nor shall they be compelled, at any time, to fre- 
quent, or maintain, any religious worship, place, or ministry whatever. " At 
this period, such governmental liberality in matters of religion was almost un- 
known, though Roger Williams m the colony of Rhode Island had previously, 
under similar circumstances, and having just escaped a like persecution, pro- 
claimed it, as had likewise Lord Baltimore in the Catholic colony of Mary- 

The mind of Penn was constantly exercised upon the affairs of his settlement 
Indeed, to plant a colony in a new country had been a thought of his boyhood, 
for he says in one of his letters: "I had an opening of joy as to these parts in 
the year 1651, at Oxford, twenty years since." Not being in readiness to go 
to his province during the first year, he dispatched three ship loads of set- 
tlers, and with them sent his cousin, William Markham, to take formal pos- 
session of the country and act as Deputy Governor Markham sailed for New 
York, and upon his arrival there exhibited his commission, bearing date March 
6, 1681, and the King's charter and proclamation. In the absence of Gov. An- 
dros, who, on having been called to account for some complaint made against 
him, had gone to England, Capt. Anthony Brockholls, Acting Governor, re- 
ceived Markham's papers, and gave him a letter addressed to the civil officers 
on the Delaware, informing them that Markham's authority as Governor had 
been examined, and an official record made of it at New York, thanking them 
for their fidelity, and requesting them to submit themselves to the new author- 
ity. Armed with this letter, which was dated June 21, 1681, Markham pro- 
ceeded to the Delaware, where, on exhibiting his papers, he was kindly re- 
ceived, and allegiance was cheerfully transferred to the new government. In- 
deed so frequently had the power changed hands that it had become quite a 
matter of habit to transfer obedience from one authority to another, and they 
had scarcely laid their heads to rest at night but with the consciousness that 
the morning light might bring new codes and new officers. 

Markham was empowered to call a council of nine citizens to assist him in 
the government, and over whom he was to preside. He brought a letter ad- 
dressed to Lord Baltimore, touching the boundary between the two grants, and 
exhibiting the terms of the charter for Pennsylvania. On receipt of this let- 
ter, Lord Baltimore came to Upland to confer with Markham. An observation 
fixing the exact latitude of Upland showed that it was twelve miles south of 
the forty-first degree, to which Baltimore claimed, and that the beginning of 
the fortieth degree, which the royal charter explicitly fixed for the southern 
boundary of Pennsylvania, would include nearly the entire State of Maryland, 
and cut the limits of the present site of the city of Washington. "If this be 
allowed," was significantly asked by Baltimore, "where is my province?" 
He returned to his colony, and from this time forward an active contention 
was begun before the authorities in England for possession of the disputed 
territory, which required all the arts and diplomatic skill of Penn. 

Markham was accompanied to the province by four Commissioners sent 
out by Penn — William Crispin, John Bezer, William Haige and Nathaniel 
Allen. The first named had been designated as Surveyor General, but he 
having died on the passage, Thomas Holme was appointed to succeed him. 
These Commissioners, in conjunction with the Governor, had two chief duties 
assigned them. The first was to meet and preserve friendly relations with the 
Indians and acquire lands by actual purchase, and the second was to select the 
site of a great city and make the necessary surveys. That they might hnve a 


suitable introduction to the natives from him, Penn addressed to them a dec- 
laration of his purposes, conceived in a spirit of brotherly love, and expressed 
in such simple terms that these children of the forest, unschooled in book 
learning, would have no difficulty in apprehending his meaning. The refer- 
ring the source of all power to the Creator was fitted to produce a strong im- 
pression upon their naturally superstitious habits of thought. "There is a 
great God and power, that hath made the world, and all things therein, to 
whom you and I, and all people owe their being, and well being; and to whom 
you and I must one day give an account for all that we do in the world. This 
great God hath written His law in our hearts, by which we are taught and com- 
manded to love, and help, and do good to one another. Now this great God hath 
been pleased to make me concerned in your part of the world, and the King 
of the country where I live hath given me a great province therein; but I de- 
sire to enjoy it with your love and consent, that we may always live together, 
as neighbors and friends; else what would the great God do to us, who hath 
made us, not. to devour and destroy one another, but to live soberly and kindly 
together in the world? Now I would have you well observe that I am very 
sensible of the unkindness and injustice that have been too much exercised 
toward you by the people of these parts of the world, who have sought them- 
selves, and to make great advantages by you, rather than to be examples of 
goodness and patience unto you, which I hear hath been a matter of trouble 
to you, and caused great grudging and animosities, sometimes to the shedding 
of blood, which hath made the great God angry. But I am not such a man, 
as is well known in my own country. I have great love and regard toward 
you, and desire to gain your love and friendship by a kind, just and peaceable 
life, and the people I send are of the same mind, and shall in all things be- 
have themselves accordingly; and if in anything any shall offend you or 
your people, you shall have a full and speedy satisfaction for the same by an 
equal number of just men on both sides that by no means you may have just 
occasion of being offended against them. I shall shortly come to you myself, 
at which time we may more largely and freely confer and discourse of these 
matters. In the meantime, I have sent my Commissioners to treat with you 
about land, and form a league of peace. Let me desire you to be kind to 
them and their people, and receive these presents and tokens which I have sent 
you as a testimony of my good will to you, and my resolution to live justly, 
peaceably and friendly with you." 

In this plain but sublime statement is embraced the whole theory of Will 
iam Penn's treatment of the Indians. It was the doctrine which the Savior 
of mankind came upon earth to promulgate — the estimable worth of every 
human soul. And when Penn came to propose his laws, one was adopted 
which forbade private trade with the natives in which they might be overreached; 
but it was required that the valuable skins and furs they had to sell should be 
hung up in the market place where all could see them and enter into compe- 
tition for their purchase. Penn was offered £6,000 for a monopoly of trade. 
But he well knew the injustice to which this would subject the simple-minded 
natives, and he refused it saying: "As the Lord gave it me over all and 
great opposition, I would not abuse His love, nor act unworthy of His provi- 
dence, and so defile what came to me clean " — a sentiment worthy to be treas- 
ured with the best thoughts of the sages of old. And to his Commissioners he 
gave a letter of instructions, in which he says: "Be impartially just to all; 
that is both pleasing to the Lord, and wise in itself. Be tender of offending 
the Indians, and let them know that you come to sit down lovingly among 
them. Let my letter and conditions be read in their tongue, that they may see 


we have their good in our eye. Be grave, they love not to be smiled on." 
Acting upon these wise and just considerations, the Commissioners had no diffi- 
culty in making large purchases of the Indians of lands on the right bank' of 
the Delaware and above the mouth of the Schuylkill. 

But they found greater difficulty in settling the piace for the new city. 
Penn had given very minute instructions about this, and it was not easy 
to find a tract which answered all the conditions. For seven weeks they kept 
up their search. Penn had written, " be sure to make your choice where it is 
most navigable, high, dry and healthy; that is, where most ships may bestride, 
of deepest draught of water, if possible to load and unload at the bank or 
key's side without boating and lightening of it. It would do well if the river 
coming into that creek be navigable, at least for boats up into the country, 
and that the situation be high, at least dry and sound and not swampy, which 
is best known by digging up two or three earths and seeing the bottom." By 
his instructions, the site of the city was to be between two navigable streams, 
and embrace 10,000 acres in one block. " Be sure to settle the figure of the 
town so that the streets hereafter may be uniform down to the water from the 
country bounds. Let every house be placed, if the person pleases, in the 
middle of its plat, as to the breadth way of it, that so there may be ground on 
each side for gardens or orchards or fields, that it may be a green country town, 
which will nef^er be burnt and always wholesome." The soil was examined, 
the streams were sounded, deep pits were dug that a location might be found 
which should gratify the desires of Penn. All the eligible sites were inspected 
from the ocean far up into the country. Penn himself had anticipated that 
Chester or Upland would be adopted from all that he could learn of it; but 
this was rejected, as was also the ground upon Poquessing Creek and that at 
Pennsbury Manor above Bristol which had been carefully considered, and the 
present site of Philadelphia was finally adopted as coming nearest to the 
requirements of the proprietor. It had not 10,000 acres in a solid square, but 
it was between two navigable streams, and the soil was high and dry, being for 
the most part a vast bed of gravel, excellent for drainage and likely to prove 
healthful. The streets were laid out regularly and crossed each other at 
right angles. As the ground was only gently rolling, the grading was easily 
accomplished. One broad street, Market, extends from river to river through 
the midst of it, which is crossed at right angles at its middle point by Broad 
street of equal width. It is 120 miles from (he ocean by the course of the 
river, and only sixty in a direct line, eighty-seven miles from New York, 
ninety-five from Baltimore. 136 from Washington, 100 from Harrisburg and 
300 from Pittsburgh, and lies in north latitude 39° 56' 54", and longitude 75° 
8' 45" west from Greenwich The name Philadelphia (brotherly love), was 
one that Penn had before selected, as this founding a city was a project which 
he had long dreamed of and contemplated with never-ceasing interest. 



William Markham, 1681-82— William Penn, 1682-84. 

HAVING now made necessary preparations and settled his affairs in En- 
gland, Penn embarked on board the ship Welcome, in August, 1682, in 
company with about a hundred planters, mostly from his native town of Sussex, 
and set his prow for the New "World. Before leaving the Downs, he addressed 
a farewell letter to his friends whom he left behind, and another to his wife 
and children, giving them much excellent advice, and sketching the way of 
life he wished them to lead. With remarkable care and minuteness, he points 
out the way in which he would have his children bred, and educated, married, 
and live. A single passage from this remarkable document will indicate its 
general tenor. " Be sure to observe," in educating his children, " their genius, 
and do not cross it as to learning ; let them not dwell too long on one thing ; 
but let their change be agreeable, and let all their diversions have some little 
bodily labor in them. When grown big, have most care for them ; for then 
there are more snares both within and without. When marriageable, see that 
they have worthy persons in their eye ; of good life and good fame for piety 
and understanding. I need no wealth but sufficiency ; and be sure their love 
be dear, fervent and mutual, that it may be happy for them." And to his 
children he said, " Betake yourselves to some honest, industrious course of 
life, and that not of sordid covetousness, but for example and to avoid idle- 
ness. ***** Love not money nor the world ; use them only, 
and they will serve you ; but if you love them you serve them, which will 
debase your spirits as well as offend the Lord. ***** Watch 
against anger, neither speak nor act in it ; for, like drunkenness, it makes a 
man a beast, and throws people into desperate inconveniences." The entire 
letters are so full of excellent counsel that they might with great profit be 
committed to memory, and treasured in the heart. 

The voyage of nearly six weeks was prosperous ; but they had not been 
long on the ocean before that loathed disease — the virulent small-pox — broke, 
out, of which thirty died, nearly a third of the whole company. This, added 
to the usual discomforts and terrors of the ocean, to most of whom this was 
probably their first experience, made the voyage a dismal one. And here was 
seen the nobility of Penn. " For his good conversation " says one of them, 
" was very advantageous to all the company. His singular care was manifested 
in contributing to the necessities of many who were sick with the small-pox 
then on board." 

His arrival upon the coast and passage up the river was hailed with dem- 
onstrations of joy by all classes, English, Dutch, Swedes, and especially by his 
own devoted followers. He landed at New Castle on the 24th of October, 1682, 
and on the following day summoned the people to the court house, where pos- 
session of the country was formally made over jo him, and he renewed the 
commissions of the magistrates, to whom and to the assembled people he an- 
nounced the design of his coming, explained the nature and end of truly good 
government, assuring them that their religious and civil rights should be re- 
spected, and recommended them to live in sobriety and peace. He then pro- 


ceeded to Upland, hencefoward known as Chester, where, on the 4th of Novem- 
ber, he called an assembly of the people, in which an equal number of votes 
was allowed to the province and the territories. Nicholas Moore, President of 
the Free Society of Traders, was chosen speaker. As at New Castle, Penn 
addressed the assembly, giving them assurances of his beneficent intentions, 
for which they returned their grateful acknowledgments, the Swedes beio.g 
especially demonstrative, deputing one of their number, Lacy Cock, to say 
" That they would love, serve and obey him with all they had, and that this 
was the best day they ever saw. " We can well understand with what satisfac- 
tion the settlers upon the Delaware hailed the prospect of a stable government 
established in their own midst, after having been so long at the mercy of tne 
government in New York, with allegience trembling between the courts of 
Sweden, Holland and Britain. 

The proceedings of this first assembly were conducted with great decorum, 
and after the usages of the English Parliament. On the 7th of December, 
1682, the three lower counties, what is now Delaware, which had previously 
been under the government of the Duke of York, were formerly annexed to the 
province, and became an integral part of Pennsylvania. The frame of govern- 
ment, which had been drawn with much deliberation, was submitted to the 
assembly, and, after some alterations and amendments, was adopted, and be- 
came the fundamental law of the State. The assembly was in session only 
three days, but the work they accomplished, how vast and far-reaching in its 
influence ! 

The Dutch, Swedes and other foreigners were then naturalized, and the 
government was launched in fair running order: That some idea may be had 
of its character, the subjects treated are here given: 1, Liberty of conscience; 
2, Qualification of officers; 3, Swearing by God, Christ or Jesus; 4, Swearing 
by any other thing or name; 5, Profanity; 6, Cursing; 7, Fornication; 8, In- 
cest; 9, Sodomy; 10, Rape; 11, Bigamy; 12, Drunkenness; 13, Suffering 
drunkenness; 14, Healths drinking; 15, Selling liquor to Indians; 16, Arson; 
17, Burglary; 18, Stolen goods; 19, Forcible entry; 20, Riots; 21, Assaulting 
parents: 22, Assaulting Magistrates; 23, Assaulting masters; 24, Assault and 
battery; 25, Duels; 26, Riotous sports, as plays; 27, Gambling and lotteries; 
28, Sedition; 29, Contempt; 30, Libel; 31, Common scolds; 32, Charities; 
33, Prices of beer and ale; 34, Weights and measures; 35, Names of days and 
months; 36, Perjury; 37, Court proceedings in English; 38, Civil and crim- 
inal trials; 39, Fees, salaries, bribery and extortion; 40, Moderation of fines; 
41, Suits avoidable; 42, Foreign arrest; 43, Contracts: 44, Charters, gifts, 
grants, conveyances, bills, bonds and deeds, when recorded; 45, Wills; 46, 
Wills of non compos mentis; 47, Registry of Wills; 48, Registry for servants; 
49, Factors; 50, Defacers, corruptors and embezzlers of charters, conveyances 
and records; 51, Lands and goods to pay debts; 52, Bailable offenses; 53, 
Jails and jailers; 54, Prisons to be workhouses; 55, False imprisonment; 56, 
Magistrates may elect between fine or imprisonment; 57, Freemen; 58, Elec- 
tions; 59, No money levied but in pursuance of law; 60, Laws shall be printed 
and taught in schools; 61, All other things, not. provided for herein, are re- 
ferred to the Governor and freemen from time to time. 

Very soon after his arrival io the colony, after the precept had been issued, 
but before the convening of the Assembly, Penn, that he might not be wanting 
in respect to the Duke of York, made a visit to New York, where he was kind- 
ly received, and also after the adjournment of the Assembly, journeyed to Mary- 
land, where he was entertained by Lord Baltimore with great ceremony. The 
settlement of the disputed boundaries was made the subject of formal confer- 


ence. But after two days spent in fruitless discussion, the weather becoming 
severely cold, and thus precluding the possibility of taking observations or 
making the necessary surveys, it was agreed to adjourn further consideration 
of the subject until the milder weather of the spring. We may imagine that 
the two Governors were taking the measure of each other, and of gaining all 
possible knowledge of each other's claims and rights, preparatory to that 
struggle for possession of this disputed fortieth degree of latitude, which was 
desiined to come before the home government. 

With all his cares in founding a State and providing a government over a 
new people, Penn did not forget to preach the "blessed Gospel," and wherever 
he went he was intent upon his " Master's business." On his return from 
Maryland, Lord Baltimore accompanied him several miles to the house of 
William Richardson, and thence to Thomas Hooker's, where was a religious 
meeting, as was also one held at Choptauk. Penn himself says: " I have 
been also at New York, Long Island, East Jersey and Maryland, in which I 
have had good and eminent service for the Lord." And again he says; "As to 
outward things, we are satisfied — the land good, the air clear and sweet, tho 
springs plentiful, and provisions good and easy to come at, an innumerable 
quantity of wild fowl and fish; in fine, here is what an Abraham, Isaac and 
Jacob would be well contented with, and service enough for God: for the 
fields are here white for the harvest. O, how sweet is the quiet of these parts, 
freed from the anxious and troublesome solicitations, hurries and perplexities 
of woeful Europe! * * * Blessed be the Lord, that of twenty-three ships, 
none miscarried; only two or three had the small- pox; else healthy and swift 
passages, generally such as have not been known; some but twenty-eight days, 
and few longer than six weeks. Blessed be God for it; my soul fervently 
breathes that in His heavenly guiding wisdom, we may be kept, that we may 
serve Him in our day, and lay down our heads in peace." And then, as if re- 
proached for not having mentioned another subject of thankfulness, he adds in 
a postscript, " Many women, in divers of the ships, brought to bed; they and 
their children do well." 

Penn made it his first care to take formal possession of his province, and 
adopt a frame of government. When this was done, his chief concern was 
to look to the establishment of his proposed new city, the site of which had 
already been determined on by his Commissioners. Accordingly, early in 
November, at a season when, in this section, the days are golden, Penn em- 
barked in an open barge with a number of his friends, and was wafted 
leisurely up the Delaware to the present site of the city of Philadel- 
phia, which the natives called Coaquannock. Along the river was a bold shore, 
fringed with lofty pines, which grew close down to the water's edge, so much 
so that when the first ship passing up with settlers for West Jersey had brushed 
against the branches, the passengers remarked that this would be a good place 
for a city. It was then in a wild state, the deer browsing along the shore and 
sipping the stream, and the coneys burrowing in the banks. The scattered 
settlers had gathered in to see and welcome the new Governor, and when he 
stepped upon the shore, they extended a helping hand in assisting him up the 
rugged bluff. Three Swedes had already taken up tracts within the limits of 
the block of land chosen for the city. But they were given lands in exchange, 
and readily relinquished their claims. The location was pleasing to Penn, and 
was adopted without further search, though little could be seen of this then 
forest-encumbered country, where now is the home of countless industries, the 
busy mart, the river bearing upon its bosom the commerce of many climes, 
and the abiding place of nearly a million of people. But Penn did not con- 


sider that he had as yet any just title to the soil, holding that the Indians 
were its only rightful possessors, and until it was fairly acquired by purchase 
from them, his own title was entirely void. 

Hence, he sought an early opportunity to meet the chiefs of the tribes and 
cultivate friendly relations with them. Tradition fixes the first great treaty 
or conference at about this time, probably in November, and the place under 
the elm tree, known as the " Treaty Tree," at Kensington. It was at a sea- 
son when the leaves would still be upon the trees, and the assembly was called 
beneath the ample shade of the wide-sweeping branches, which was pleasing 
to the Indians, as it was their custom to hold all their great deliberations and 
smoke the pipe of peace in the open air. The letter which Penn had sent had 
prepared the minds of these simple-hearted inhabitants of the forest to regard 
him with awe and reverence, little less than that inspired by a descended god. 
His coming had for a long time been awaited, and it is probable that it had 
been heralded and talked over by the wigwam fire throughout the remotest 
bounds of the tribes. And when at length the day came, the whole popula- 
tion far around had assembled. 

It is known that three tribes at least were represented — the Lenni Lenape, 
living along the Delaware; the Shawnees, a tribe that had come up from the 
South, and were seated along the Lower Susquehanna; and the Mingoes, 
sprung from the Six Nations, and inhabiting along the Conestoga. Penn was 
probably accompanied by the several officers of his Government and his most 
trusted friends. There were no implements of warfare, for peace was a cardi- 
nal feature of the Quaker creed 

No veritable account of this, the great treaty, is known to have been made; 
but from the fact that Penn not lung after, in an elaborate treatise upon the 
country, the inhabitants and the natives, has given the account of the manner 
in which the Indians demean themselves in conference, we may infer that he 
had this one in mind, and hence we may adopt it as his own description of the 

" Their order is thus: The King sits in the middle of a half moon, and 
hath his council, the old and wise, on each hand; behind them, or at a little 
distance, sit the younger fry in the same figure. Having consulted and re- 
solved their business, the King ordered one of them to speak to me. He stood 
up, came to me, and, in the name of the King, saluted me; then took me by 
the hand and told me he was ordered by the King to speak to me; and now it 
was not he, but the King that spoke, because what he would say was the 
King's mind. * * * * During the time that this person spoke, not 
a man of them was observed to whisper or smile; the old grave, the young 
reverant, in their deportment. They speak little, but fervently, and with ele- 
gance. " 

In response to the salutation from the Indians, Penn makes a reply in 
suitable terms: "The Great Spirit, who made me and you, who rules the 
heavens and the earth, and who knows the innermost thoughts of men, knows 
that I and my friends have a hearty desire to live in peace and friendship 
with you, and to serve you to the uttermost of our power. It is not our custom 
to use hostile weapons against our fellow- creatures, for which reason we have 
come unarmed. Our object is not to do injury, and thus provoke the Great 
Spirit, but to do good. We are met on the broad pathway of good faith and 
good will, so that no advantage is to be taken on either side; but all to be open- 
ness, brotherhood and love." Having unrolled his parchment, he explains to 
them through an interpreter, article by article, the nature of the business, and 
laying it upon the ground, observes that the ground shall be for the use of 


both people. "I will not do as the Marylanders did, call you children, or 
brothers only; for parents are apt to whip their children too severely, and 
brothers sometimes will differ; neither will I compare the friendship between 
us to a chain, for the rain may rust it, or a tree may fall and break it; but. I 
will consider you as the same flesh and blood with the Christians, and the same 
as if one man's body were to be divided into two parts." Having ended his 
business, the speaker for the King comes forward and makes great promises 
"of kindness and good neighborhood, and that the Indians and English must 
live in love as long as the sun gave light." This ended, another Indian makes 
a speech to his own people, first to explain to them what had been agreed on, 
and then to exhort them "to love the Christians, and particularly live in peace 
with me and the people under my government, that many Governors had been 
in the river, but that no Governor had come himself to live and stay here be- 
fore, and having now such an one, that had treated them well, they should never 
do him nor his any wrong." At every sentence they shouted, as much as to 
say, amen. 

The Indians had no system of writing by which they could record their 
dealings, but their memory of events and agreements was almost miraculous. 
Heckewelder records that in after years, they were accustomed, by means of 
strings, or belts of wampum, to preserve the recollection of their pleasant in- 
terviews with Penn, after he had departed for England. He says, " They fre- 
quently assembled together in the woods, in some shady spot, as nearly as pos- 
sible similar to those where they used to meet their brother Miquon (Penn), and 
there lay all his words and speeches, with those of his descendants, on a 
blanket, or clean piece of bark, and with great satisfaction go successively 
over the whole. This practice, which I have repeatedly witnessed, continued 
until the year 1780, when disturbances which took place put an end to it, 
probably forever." 

The memory of this, the "Great Treaty," was long preserved by the na- 
tives, and the novel spectacle was reproduced upon canvas by the genius of 
Benjamin West. In this picture, Penn is represented as a corpulent old man, 
whereas he was at this time but thirty-eight years of age, and in the very 
height of manly activity. The Treaty Tree was preserved and guarded from 
injury with an almost superstitious care. During the Revolution, when Phila- 
delphia was occupied by the British, and their parties were scouring the coun- 
try for firewood, Gen. Simcoe had a sentinel placed at this tree to protect it 
from mutilation. It stood until 1810, when it was blown down, and it was 
ascertained by its annual concentric accretions to be 283 years old, and was, 
consequently, 155 at the time of making the treaty. The Penn Society erected 
a substantial monument on the spot where it stood. 

Penn drew up his deeds for lands in legal form, and had them duly exe- 
cuted and made of record, that, in the dispute possible to arise in after times, 
there might be proof definite and positive of the purchase. Of these purchases 
there are two deeds on record executed in 1683. One is for land near Nesha- 
miny Creek, and thence to Penypack, and the other for lands lying between 
Schuylkill and Chester Rivers, the first bearing the signature of the great 
chieftain, Taminend. In one of these purchases it is provided that the tract 
" shall extend back as far as a man could walk in three days. " Tradition 
runs that Penn himself, with a number of his friends, walked out the half this 
purchase with the Indians, that no advantage should be taken of them by mak- 
ing a great walk, and to show his consideration for them, and that he was not 
above the toils and fatigues of such a duty." They began to walk out this 
land at the mouth of the Neshaminy, and walked up the Delaware; in one day 


and a half they got to a spruce tree near the mouth of Baker's Creek, when 
Penn, concluding that this would include as much land as he would want at 
present, a line was run and marked from the spruce tree to Neshaminy, and 
the remainder left to be walked when it should be wanted. They proceed- 
ed after the Indian manner, walking leisurely, sitting down sometimes to 
smoke their pipes, eat biscuit and cheese, and drink a bottle of wine. In the 
day and a half they walked a little less than thirty miles. The balance of the 
purchase was not walked until September 20, 11'6'd, when the then Governor of 
Pennsylvania offered a prize of 500 acres of land and £6 for the man who 
would walk the farthest. A distance of eighty-six miles was covered, in 
marked contrast with the kind consideration of Penn. 

During the first year, the country upon the Delaware, from the falls of 
Trenton as far as Chester, a distance of nearly sixty miles, was rapidly taken up 
and peopled. The large proportion of these were Quakers, and devotedly attached 
to their religion and its proper observances. They were, hence, morally, of the 
best classes, and though they were not generally of the aristocracy, yet many 
of them were in comfortable circumstances, had valuable properties, were of 
respectable families, educated, and had the resources within themselves to live 
contented and happy. They were provident, industrious, and had come hither 
with no fickle purpose. Many brought servants with them, and well supplied 
wardrobes, and all necessary articles which they wisely judged would be got 
in a new country with difficulty. 

Their religious principles were so peaceful and generous, and the govern- 
ment rested so lightly, that the fame of the colony and the desirableness of 
settlement therein spread rapidly, and the numbers coming hither were unpar- 
alleled in the history of colonization, especially when we consider that a broad 
ocean was to be crossed and a voyage of several weeks was to be endured. In 
a brief period, ships with passengers came from London, Bristol, Ireland, 
Wales, Cheshire, Lancashire, Holland, Gerinan} r , to the number of about fifty. 
Among others came a company of German Quakers, from Krisheim, near 
Worms, in the Palatinate. These people regarded their lot as particularly 
fortunate, in which they recognized the direct interposition and hand of Provi- 
dence. For, not long afterward, the Palatinate was laid waste by the French 
army, and many of their kindred whom they had left behind were despoiled of 
their possessions and reduced to penury. There came also from Wales a com- 
pany of the stock of aucient Britons. 

So large an influx of population, coming in many cases without due pro- 
vision for variety of diet, caused a scarcity in many kinds of food, especially 
of meats. Time was required to bring forward flocks and herds, more than 
for producing grains. But Providence seemed to have graciously considered 
their necessities, and have miraculously provided for them, as of old was pro 
vision made for the chosen people. For it is recorded that the "wild pigeons 
flame in such great numbers that the sky was sometimes darkened by their 
flight, and, flying low, they were frequently knocked down as they flew, in 
great quantities, by those who had no other means to take them, whereby the) 
supplied themselves, and, having salted those which they could not immedi- 
ately use, they preserved them, both for bread and meat." The Indians were 
kind, and often furnished them with game, for which they would receive no 

Their first care on landing was to bring their household goods to a place 
of safety, often to the simple protection of a tree. For some, this was their 
only shelter, lumber being scarce, and in many places impossible to obtain. 


Some made for themselves caves in the earth uritil better habitations could be 

John Key, who was said to have been tho first child born of English par- 
ents in Philadelphia, and that in recognition of which William Penn gave 
him a lot of ground, died at Kennet, in Chester County, on July 5, 17G8, 
in tho eighty-fifth year of his age. He was born in one of these caves upon 
the river bank, long afterward known by the name of Penny-pot, near Sassa- 
fras street. About six years before his death, he walked from Kennot to the 
city, about thirty miles, in one day. In the latter part of his life he went 
under the name of D'irst Born. 

The contrasts between the comforts and conveniences of an old settled 
country and this, where the heavy forests must be cleared away and severe la- 
bors must be endured before the sun could be let in sufficiently to produce 
anything, must have been very marked, and caused repining. But they had 
generally come with meek and humble hearts, and they willingly endured 
hardship and privation, and labored on earnestly for the spiritual comfort 
which they enjoyed. Thomas Makin, in some Latin verses upon the early set- 
tlement, says (we quote the metrical translation): 

"Its fame to distant countries far has spread, 
And some for peace, and some for profit led, 
Born in remotest climes, to settle here 
They leave their native soil and all that's dear, 
And still will flock from far, here to be free, 
Such powerful charms has lovely liberty." 

But for their many privations and sufferings there were some compensat- 
ing conditions. The soil was fertile, the air mostly clear and healthy, the 
streams of water were good and plentiful, wood for fire and building unlimit- 
ed, and at certain seasons of the year game in the forest was abundant. Rich- 
ard Townsend, a settler at Germantown, who came over in the ship with Penn, 
in writing to his friends in England of his first year in America, says: "I, 
with Joshua Tittery, made a net, and caught great quantities of fish, so that, 
notwithstanding it was thought near three thousand persons came in the first 
year, we were so providentially provided for that we could buy a deer for 
about two shillings, and a large turkey for about one shilling, and Indian corn 
for about two shillings sixpence a bushel." 

In the same letter, the writer mentions that a young deer came out of the 
forest into the meadow where he was mowing, and looked at him, and when 
he went toward it would retreat; and, as he resumed his mowing, would come 
back to gaze upon him, and finally ran forcibly against a tree, which so 
stunned it that he was able to overmaster it and bear it away to his home, and 
as this was at a time when he was suffering for the lack of meat, he believed 
it a direct interposition of Providence. 

In the spring of 1683, there was great activity throughout the colony, and 
especially in the new city, in selecting lands and erecting dwellings, thb Sur- 
veyor General, Thomas Holme, laying out and marking the streets. In the 
center of tho city was a public square of ten acres, and in each of the four 
quarters one of eight acres. A large mansion, which had been undertaken be- 
fore his arrival, was built for Penn, at a point twenty-six miles up the river, 
called Pennsbury Manor, where he sometimes resided, and where he often met 
the Indian sachems. At this time, Penn divided the colony into counties, 
three for the province (Bucks, Philadelphia and Chester) and three for the 
Territories (New Castle, Kent and Sussex). Having appointed Sheriffs and 
other proper officers, he issued writs for the election of members of a General 


Assembly, three from each county for the Council or Upper House, and cine 
from each county for the Assembly or Lower House.* 

This Assembly convened and organized for business on the 10th of Jan- 
uary, 3683, at Philadelphia. One of the first subjects considered was the 
revising some provisions of the frame of government which was effected, re- 
ducing the number of members of both Houses, the Council to 18 the As- 
sembly to 36, and otherwise amending in unimportant particulars. In 
an assembly thus convened, and where few, if any, had had any experience in 
serving in a deliberative body, we may reasonably suppose that many crude 
and impracticable propositions would be presented. As aD example of these 
the following may be cited as specimens: That young men should be obliged 
to marry at, or before, a certain age; that two sorts of clothes only shall be 
worn, one for winter and the other for summer. The session lasted twenty two 

The first grand jury in Pennsylvania was summoned for the 2d of Feb- 
ruary, 1683, to inquire into the cases of some persons accused of issuing 
counterfeit money. The Governor and Council sat as a court. One Picker- 
ing was convicted, and the sentence was significant of the kind and patriarchal 
nature of the government, "that he should make full satisfaction, in good 
and current pay, to every person who should, within the space of one month, 
bring in any of this false, base and counterfeit coin, and that the money 
brought in should be melted down before it was returned to him, and that he 
should pay a fine of forty pounds toward the building a court huuse, stand 
committed till the same was paid, and afterward find security for his good 

The Assembly and courts having now adjourned, Penn gave his attention 
to the grading and improving the streets of the new city, and the managing 
the affairs of his land office, suddenly grown to great importance. For every 
section of land taken up in the wilderness, the purchaser was entitled to a 
certain plot in the new city. The .River Delaware at this time was nearly a 
mile broad opposite the city, and navigable for ships of the largest tonnage. 
The tide rises about six feet at this point, and flows back to the falls of 
Trenton, a distance of thirty miles. The tide in the Schuylkill flows only 
about five miles above its confluence with the Delaware. The river bank along 
the Delaware was intended by Penn as a common or public resort. But in 
his time the owners of lots above Front street pressed him to allow them to 
construct warehouses upon it, opposite their properties, which importunity in- 
duced him to make the following declaration concerning it: "The bank is a 
top common, from end to end; the rest next the water belongs to front- lot 
men no more than back-lot men. The way bounds them; they may build stairs, 
and the top of the bank a common exchange, or wall, and against the street, 
common wharfs may be built freely; but into the water, and the shore is no 
purchaser's." But in future time, this liberal desire of the founder was dis- 
regarded, and the bank has beeu covered with immense warehouses. 

*It may be a matter of curiosity to know the names of the members of this first regularly elected Legis- 
lature in Pennsylvania, and they are accordingly appended as given in official records: 

Council: William Markham, Christopher Taylor, Thomas Holme, Lacy Cock, William Ilaige, John Moll, 
Raiph Withers, John Simcock, Edward Cant well, William Clayton, William Biles, James Harrison, William 
Clark, Francis Whitewell, John Richardson. John Hillyard. 

Assembly: From Bucks, William Yardly, Samuel Darke, Robert Lucas, Nicholas Walne, John Wood, John 
Howes, Thomas Fitzwater, Robert Hall, James Boyden ; from Philadelphia. John Longhurst, John Hart, Wal- 
ter King, Andros Binkson, John Moon, Thomas Wynne (Speaker), Griffith Jones, William Warner, Swan Swan- 
son; from Chester, John Hoskius, Robert Wade, George Wood, John Blunston, Dennis Rochford, Thomas 
Bracy, John Bezer, John Harding, Joseph Phipps ; from New Castle, John Cann, John Darby, Valentine Holl- 
ingswovth, Gasparus Herman John Dehoaef, James Williams, William Guest, Peter Alrich, Henrick Williams; 
from Kent, John Biggs, Simon Irons, Thomas HafTbld John Curtis, Bobert Bedwell, William Windsmore, John 
Brinkloe, Daniel Brown, Benony Bishop; from Sussex, Luke Watson, Alexander Draper, William Futcher, 
Henry Bowman, Alexander Moleston, John Hill, Robert Bracy, John Kipshaven, Cornelius Verhoof. 


Seeing now his plans of government and settlement fairly in operation, as 
autumn approached, Penn wrote a letter to the Free Society of Traders in 
London, which had been formed to promote settlement in his colony, in which 
he touched upon a great variety of topics regarding his enterprise, extending to 
quite a complete treatise. The great interest attaching to the subjects dis- 
cussed, and the ability with which it was drawn, makes it desirable to insert 
the document entire; but its great length makes its use incompatible with the 
plan of this work. A few extracts and a general plan of the letter is all that 
can be given. He first notices the injurious reports put in circulation in En- 
gland during his absence: " Some persons have had so little wit and so much 
malice as to report my death, and, to mend the matter, dead a Jesuit, too. 
One might have reasonably hoped tha^ this distance, like death, would have 
been a protection against spite and envy. * * * However, to the great sorrow 
and shame of the inventors, I am still alive and no Jesuit, and, I thank God, 
very well." Of the air and waters bH says: " The air is sweet and clear, the 
heavens serene, like the south parts of France, rarely overcast. The waters 
are generally good, for the rivers and brooks have mostly gravel and stony bot- 
toms, and in number hardly credible. We also have mineral waters that 
operate in the same manner with Barnet and North Hall, not two miles from 
Philadelphia." He then treats at length of the four seasons, of trees, fruits, 
grapes, peaches, grains, garden produce: of animals, beasts, birds, fish, whale fish 
ery, horses and cattle, medicinal plants, flowers of the woods; of the Indians 
and their persons. Of their language he says: "It is lofty, yet narrow; but, 
like the Hebrew, in signification, full, imperfect in their tenses, wanting in their 
moods, participles, adverbs, conjunctions, interjections. I have made it my busi- 
ness to understand it, and I must say that I know not a language spoken in Europe 
that hath words of more sweetness or greatness in accent and emphasis than 
theirs." Of their customs and their children : " Tbe children will go very young, 
at nine months, commonly; if boys, they go a fishing, till ripe for the woods, which 
is about fifteen; then they hunt, and, after having given some proofs of their 
manhood by a good return of skins, they may marry, else it is a shame to think 
of a wife. The girls stay with their mother and help to hoe the ground, plant 
corn and carry burdens. When the young women are fit for marriage, they 
wear something upon their heads as an advertisment; but so, as their faces hardly 
to be seen, but when they please. The age they marry at, if women, is about 
thirteen and fourteen; if men, seventeen and eighteen; they are rarely elder." 
In a romantic vein he speaks of their houses, diet, hospitality, revengefulness 
and concealment of resentment, great liberality, free manner of life and 
customs, late love of strong liquor, behavior in sickness and death, their re- 
ligion, their feastings, their government, their mode of doing business, their 
manner of administering justice, of agreement for settling difficulties entered into 
with the pen, their susceptibility to improvement, of the origin of the Indian race 
their resemblance to the Jews. Of the Dutch and Swedes whom he found set- 
tled here when he came, he says: " The Dutch applied themselves to traffick. 
the Swedes and Finns to husbandry. The Dutch mostly inhabit those parts 
that lie upon the bay, and the Swedes the freshes of the Delaware. They are 
a plain, strong, industrious people; yet have made no great progress in culture 
or propagation of fruit trees. They are a people proper, and strong of body, 
so they have fine children, and almost every house full; rare to find one of them 
without three or four boys and as many girls — some, six, seven and eight sons, 
and I must do them that right, I see few young men more sober and laborious." 
After speaking at length of the organization of the colony and its manner of 
government, he concludes with his own opinion of the country: "I say little 


of the town itself; but this I will say, for the good providence of God, that 
of all the many places I have seen in the world, I remember not one better 
seated, so that it seems to me to have been appointed for a town, whether we 
regard the rivers or the eonvenieney of the coves, docks, springs, the loftiness 
and soundness of the land and the air, held by the people of these parts to be 
very good. It is advanced within less than a year to about fourscore bouses 
and cottages, where merchants and handicrafts are following their vocations 
as fast as they can, while the countrymen are close at their farms. * * * I 
bless God I am fully satisfied with the country and entertainment I got in it; 
for I find that particular content, which hath always attended me, where God in 
His providence hath made it my place and service to reside." 

As we have seen, the visit of Penn to Lord Baltimore soon after his arrival 
in America, for the purpose of settling the boundaries of the two provinces, after 
a two days' conference, proved fruitless, and an adjournment was had for the 
winter, when the efforts for settlement were to be resumed. Early in the 
spring, an attempt was made on the part of Penn, but was prevented till May, 
when a meeting was held at New Castle. Penn proposed to confer by the aid 
of counselors and in writing. But to this Baltimore objected, and, complain- 
ing of the sultryness of the weather, the conference was broken up. In the 
meantime, it had come to the knowledge of Penn that Lord Baltimore had 
issued a proclamation offering settlers more land, and at cheaper rates than 
Penn had done, in portions of the lower counties which Penn had secured 
from the Duke of York, but which Baltimore now claimed. Besides, it was 
ascertained that an agent of his had taken an observation, and determined the 
latitude without the knowledge of Penn, and had secretly made an ex parte 
statement of the case before the Lords of the Committee of Plantations in En- 
gland, and was pressing for arbitrament. This state of the case created much 
uneasiness in the mind of Penn. especially as the proclamation of Lord Balti- 
more was likely to bring the two governments into conflict on territory mutu- 
ally claimed. But Lord Baltimore was not disposed to be content with diplo- 
macy. He determined to pursue an aggressive policy. He accordingly com- 
missioned his agent, Col. George Talbot, under date of September 17, 1683, 
to go to Schuylkill, at Delaware, and demand of William Penn " all that part 
of the land on the west side of the said river that lyeth to the southward of 
the fortieth degree." This bold demand would have embraced the entire colony, 
both the lower counties, and the three counties in the province, as the fortieth 
degree reaches a considerable distance above Philadelphia. Penn was absent 
at the time in New York, and Talbot made his demand upon Nicholas Moore, 
the deputy of Penn. Upon his return, the proprietor made a dignified but 
earnest rejoinder. While he felt that the demand could not be justly sus- 
tained, yet the fact that a controversy for the settlement of the boundary was 
likely to arise, gave him disquietude, and though he was gratified with the 
success of his plans for acquiring lands of the Indians and establishing friendly 
relations with them, the laying-out of his new city and settling it, the adop- 
tion of a stable government and putting it in successful operation, and, more 
than all, the drawing thither the large number of settlers, chiefly of his own 
religious faith, and seeing them contented and happy in the new State, he 
plainly foresaw that his skill and tact would be taxed to the utmost to defend 
and hold his claim before the English court. If the demand of Lord Balti- 
more were to prevail, all that he had done would be lost, as his entire colony 
would be swallowed up by Maryland. 

The anxiety of Penn to hold from the beginniug of the 40 D of latitude was 
not to increase thereby his territory by so much, for two degrees which he 


securely had, so far as amount of land was concerned, would have entirely 
satisfied him; but he wanted this degree chiefly that he might have the free 
navigation of Delaware Bay and River, and thus open communication with the 
ocean. lie desired also to hold the lower counties, which were now well 
settled, as well as his own counties rapidly being peopled, and his new city of 
Philadelphia, which he regarded as the apple of his eye. So anxious was he 
to hold the land on the right bank of the Delaware to the open ocean, that at 
his second meeting, he asked Lord Baltimore to set a prico per square mile on 
this disputed ground, and though he had purchased it once of the crown and 
held the King's charter for it, and the Duke of York's deed, yet rather than 
have any further wrangle over it, he was willing to pay for it again. But this 
Lord Baltimore refused to do. 

Bent upon bringing matters to a crisis, and to force possession of his 
claim, early in the year 1684 a party from Maryland made forcible entry 
upon the plantations in the lower counties and drove off the owners. The 
Governor and Council at Philadelphia sent thither a copy of the answer of 
Penn to Baltimore's demand for the land south of the Delaware, with orders 
to William Welch, Sheriff at New Castle, to use his influence to reinstate the 
lawful owners, and issued a declaration succinctly stating the claim of Penn, 
for the purpose of preventing such unlawful incursions in future. 

The season opened favorably for the continued prosperity of the young 
colony. Agriculture was being prosecuted as never before. Goodly flocks 
and herds gladdened the eyes of the settlers. An intelligent, moral and in- 
dustrious yeomanry was springing into existence. Emigrants were pouring 
into the Delaware from many lands. The Government was becoming settled 
in its operations and popular with the people. The proprietor had leisure to 
attend to the interests of his religious society, not only in his own dominions, 
but in the Jerseys and in New York. 


Thomas Lloyd, 1684-86— Five Commissioners, 1686-88— John Blackwell, 1688 
-90— Thomas Lloyd, 1690-91— William Markham, 1691-93— Benjamin 
Fletcher, 1693-95— William Markham, 1693-99. 

BUT the indications, constantly thickening, that a struggle was likely soon 
to be precipitated before the crown for possession of the disputed terri- 
tory, decided Penn early in the summer to quit the colony and return to En- 
gland to defend his imperiled interests. There is no doubt that he took this 
step with unfeigned regret, as he was contented and happy in his new country, 
and was most usefully employed. There were, however, other inducements 
which were leading him back to England. The hand of persecution was at 
this time laid heavily upon the Quakers. Over 1,400 of these pious and in- 
offensive people were now, and some of them had been for years, languishing 
in the prisons of England, for no other offense than their manner of worship. 
By lis friendship with James, and his acquaintance with the King, he might 
do sc icething to soften the lot of these unfortunate victims of bigotry. 

Hi accordingly empowered the Provincial Council, of which Thomas 
Lloyd was President, to act in his stead, commissioned Nicholas Moore, Will- 
iam Welch, William Wood, Robert Turner and John Eckley, Provincial 


Judges for two years; appointed Thomas Lloyd, James Claypole and Robert 
Turner to sign land patents and warrants, and William Clark as Justice of 
the Peace for all the counties; and on the 6th of June, 1684, sailed for Europe. 
His feelings on leaving his colony are exnibited by a farewell address which 
he issued from on board the vessel to his people, of which the following are 
brief extracts: "My love and my life is to you, and with you, and no water 
can quench it, nor distance wear it out, nor bring it to an end. I have been 
with you, cared over you and served over you with unfeigned love, and you 
are beloved of me, and near to me, beyond utterance. I bless you in the 
name and power of the Lord, and may God bless you with His righteousness, 
peace and plenty all the land over. * * * Oh! now are you come to a 
quiet land; provoke not the Lord to trouble it. And now liberty and author- 
ity are with you, and in your hands. Let the government be upon His 
shoulders, in all your spirits, that you may rule for Him, under whom the 
princes of this world will, one day, esteem their honor to govern and serve in 
their places * * * And thou, Philadelphia, the virgin settlement of 
this province, named before thou wert born, what love, what care, what serv- 
ice and what travail has there been, to bring thee forth, and preserve thee from 
such as would abuse and defile thee! * * * So, dear friends, my love 
again salutes you all, wishing that grace, mercy and peace, with all temporal 
blessings, may abound richly among you — so says, so prays, your friend and 
lover in the truth. William Penn." 

On the 6th of December of this same year, 1684, Charles II died, and was 
succeeded by his brother James, Duke of York, under the title of James II. 
James was a professed Catholic, and the people were greatly excited all over 
the kingdom lest the reign of Bloody Mary should be repeated, and that the 
Catholic should become the established religion. He had less ability than 
his brother, the deceased King, but great discipline and industry. Penn en- 
joyed the friendship and intimacy of the new King, and he determined to use 
his advantage for the relief of his suffering countrymen, not only of his sect, 
the Quakers, but of all, and especially for the furtherance of universal liberty. 
But there is no doubt that he at this time meditated a speedy return to his 
province, for he writes: "Keep up the peoples' hearts and loves; I hope to be 
with them next fall, if the Lord prevent not. I long to be with you. Nc 
temptations prevail to fix me here. The Lord send us a good meeting." By 
authority of Penn, dated 18th of January, 1685, William Markham, Penn's 
cousin, was commissioned Secretary of the province, and the proprietor's Sec- 

That he might be fixed near to court for the furtherance of his private as 
well as public business, he secured lodgings for himself and family, in 1685, at 
Kensington, near London, and cultivated a daily intimacy with the King, who, 
no doubt, found in the strong native sense of his Quaker friend, a valued ad- 
viser upon many questions of difficulty. His first and chief care was the set- 
tlement of his disagreement with Lord Baltimore touching the boundaries of 
their provinces. This was settled in November, 1685, by a compromise, by 
which the land lying between the Delaware and Chesepeake Bays was divided 
into two equal parts — that upon the Delaware was adjudged to Penn, and that 
upon the Chesapeake to Lord Baltimore. This settled the matter in theory; 
but when the attempt was made to run the lines according to the language of 
the Royal Act, it was found that the royal secretaries did not understand the 
geography of the country, and that the line which their language described was 
an impossible one. Consequently the boundary remained undetermined till 
1732. The account of its location will be given in its proper place. 


Having secured this important decision to his satisfaction, Penn applied 
himself with renewed zeal, r>ot only to secure the release of his people, who 
were languishing in prisons, but to procure for all Englishmen, everywhere, 
enlarged liberty and freedom of conscience. His relations with the King fa- 
vored his designs. The King had said to Penn before he ascended the throne 
that he was opposed to persecution for religion. On tho first day of his reign, 
he made an address, in which he proclaimed himself opposed to all arbitrary 
principles in government, 'and promised protection to the Church of England. 
Early in the year 1686, in consequence of the King's proclamation for a gen- 
eral pardon, over thirteen hundred Quakers were set at liberty, and in April, 
1687, the King issued a declaration for entire liberty of conscience, and sus- 
pending the penal laws in matters ecclesiastical. This was a great step in ad- 
vance, and one that must ever throw a luster over the brief reign of this un- 
fortunate monarch. Penn, though holding no official position, doubtless did 
as much toward securing the issue of this liberal measure as any Englishman. 

Upon the issue of these edicts, the Quakers, at their next aonual meeting, 
presented an address of acknowledgment to the Ring, which opened in these 
words: " We cannot but bless and praise the name of Almighty God, who 
hath the hearts of princes in His hands, that He hath inclined the King to hear 
the cries of his suffering subjects for conscience' sake, and we rejoice that he 
hath given us so eminent an occasion to present him our thanks." This ad- 
dress was presented by Penn in a few well -chosen words, and the King re- 
plit d in the following, though brief, yet most expressive, language: " Gentle- 
men — I thank you heartily for your address. Some of you know (I am sure 
you do Mr. Penn), that it was always my principle, that conscience ought not 
to be forced, and that all men ought to have the liberty of their consciences. 
And what I have promised in my declaration, I will continue to perform so 
long as I live. And I hope, before I die, to settle it so that after ages shall 
have r>o reason to alter it." 

It would have been supposed that such noble sentiments as these from a 
sovereign would have been hailed with delight by the English people. But 
they were not. The aristocracy of Britain at this time did not want liberty of 
conscience. They wanted nomformity to the established church, and bitter 
persecution against all others, as in the reign of Charles, whi.-h filled the 
prisons with Quakers. The warm congratulations to James, and fervent prayers 
for his welfare, were regarded by them with an evil eye. Bitter reproaches 
were heaped upon Penn, who was looked upon as the power behind the throne 
that was moving the King to the enforcing of these principles. He was ac- 
cused of having been educated at St. Omer's, a Catholic college, a place which 
he never saw in his life, of having taken orders as a priest in the Catholic 
Church, of having obtained dispensation to marry, and of being not only a 
Catholic, but a Jesuit in disguise, all of which were pure fabrications. But in 
the excited state of the public mind they were believed, and caused him to be 
regarded with bitter hatred. The King, too, fell rapidly into disfavor, and so 
completely had the minds of his people become alienated from him, that upon 
the coming of the Prince of Orange and his wife Mary, in 1688, James was 
obliged to flee to France for safety, and they were received as the rulers of 

But while the interests of the colony were thus prospering at court, they 
were not so cloudless in the new country. There was needed the strong hand 
of Penn to check abuses and guide the course of legislation in proper chan- 
nels. He had labored to place the government entirely in the hands of the 
people — an idea, in the abstract, most attractive, and one which, were the entire 



population wise and just, would result fortunately: yet, in practice, he found 
to his sorrow the results most vexatious. The proprietor had not long been 
gone before troubles arose between the two Houses of the Legislature relative 
to promulgating the laws as not being in accordance with the requirements of 
the charter Nicholas Moore, the Chief Justice, was impeached for irregular- 
ities in imposing fines and in other ways abusing his high trust. But though 
formally arraigned and directed to desist from exercising his functions, he suc- 
cessfully resisted the proceedings, and a final judgment was never obtained. 
Patrick Robinson, Clerk of the court, for refusing to produce the records in the 
trial of Moore, was voted a public enemy. These troubles in the government 
were the occasion of much grief to Penn, who wrote, naming a number of the 
most influential men in the colony, and beseeching them to unite in an endeavor 
to check further irregularities, declaring that they disgraced the province, 
" that their conduct had struck back hundreds, and was £10,000 out of his 
way, and £100,000 out of the country." 

In the latter part of the year 1686, seeing that the whole Council was too 
unwieldy a body to exercise executive power, Penn determined to contract the 
number, and accordingly appointed Thomas Lloyd, Nicholas Moore, James 
Claypole, Robert Turner and John Eckley, any three of whom should consti- 
tute a quorum, to be Commissioners of State to act for the proprietor. In 
place of Moore and Claypule, Arthur Cook and John Simcock were appointed. 
They were to compel the attendance of the Council; see that the two Houses 
admit of no parley; to abrogate oil laws except the fundamentals; to dismiss 
the Assembly and call a new one, and finally he solemnly admonishes them, 
" Be most just, as in the sight of the all-seeing, all-searching God." In a 
letter to these Commissioners, he says: "Three things occur to me eminently: 
First, that you be watchful that none abuse the King, etc. ; secondly, that you 
get the custom act revived as being the eqnalest and least offensive way to 
support the government; thirdly, that you retrieve the dignity of courts and 

In a letter to James Harrison, his confidential agent at Pennsbury Manor, 
he unbosoms himself more freely respecting his employment in London than 
in any of his State papers or more public communications, and from it can be 
seen how important were his labors with the head of the English nation. " I 
am engaged in the public business of the nation and Friends, and those in au- 
thority would have me see the establishment of the liberty, that I was a small 
instrument to begin in the land. The Lord has given me great entrance and 
interest with the King, though not so much as is said; and I confess I should 
rejoice to see poor old England fixed, the penal laws repealed, that are now 
suspended, and if it goes well with England, it cannot go ill with Pennsyl- 
vania, as unkindly used as I am: and no poor slave in Turkey desires more 
earnestly, I believe, for deliverance, than I do to be with you." In the sum- 
mer of 1687, Penn was in company with the King in a progress through the 
counties of Berkshire, Glocestersuire, Worcestershire, Shropshire, Cheshire, 
Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Oxfordshire and Hampshire, during which he 
held several religious meetings with his people, in some of which the King ap- 
pears to have been present, particularly in Chester. 

Since the departure of Penn, Thomas Lloyd had acted as President of 
the Council, and later of the Commissioners of State. He had been in effect 
Governor, and held responsible for the success of the government, while pos- 
sessing only one voice in the disposing of affairs. Tiring of this anomalous 
position, Lloyd applied to be relieved. It was difficult to find a person of 
sufficient ability to fill the place: but Penn decided to relieve him, though 


showing his entire confidence by notifying him that he intended soon to ap- 
point him absolute Governor. In his place, he indicated Samuel Carpenter, 
or if he was unwilling to serve, then Thomas Ellis, but not to be President, his 
will being that each should preside a month in turn, or that the oldest mem- 
ber should be chosen. 

Perm foresaw that the executive power, to be efficient, must be lodged in 
the hands of oue man of ability, such as to command the respect of his people. 
Those whom he most trusted in the colony had been so mixed up in the wran- 
gles of the executive and legislative departments of the government that he 
deemed it advisable to appoint a person who had not before been in the col 
ony and not a Quaker. He accordingly commissioned John Blackwell, July 
27, 1688, to be Lieutenant Governor, who was at this time in New England, 
and who had the esteem and confidence of Penn. With the commission, the 
proprietor sent full instructions, chiefly by way of caution, the last one being: 
" Rule the meek meekly; and those that will not be ruled, rule with authority." 
Though Lloyd had been relieved of power, he still remained in the Council, 
probably because neither of the persons designated were willing to serve. 
Having seen the evils of a many-headed executive, he had recommended the 
appointment of one person to exercise executive authority. It was in con 
formity with this advice that Blackwell was appointed. He met the Assembly 
in March, 1689; but either his conceptions of business were arbitrary and im- 
perious, or the Assembly had become accustomed to great latitude and lax 
discipline; for the business had not proceeded far before the several branches 
of the government were at variance. Lloyd refused to give up the great seal, 
alleging that it had been given him for life. The Governor, arbitra- 
rily and without warrant of law, imprisoned officers of high rank, denied the 
validity of all laws passed by the Assembly previous to his administration, and 
set on foot a project for organizing and equipping the militia, under the plea 
of threatened hostility of France. The Assembly attempted to arrest his 
proceedings, but he shrewdly evaded their intents by organizing a party 
among the members, who persistently absented themselves. His reign 
was short, for in January, 1690, he left the colony and sailed away for En- 
gland, whereupon the government again devolved upon the Council, Thomas 
Lloyd, President. Penn had a high estimation of the talents and integrity 
of Blackwell, and adds, " He is in England and Ireland of great repute for 
ability, integrity and virtue." 

Three forms of administering the executive department of the government 
had now been tried, by a Council consisting of eighteen members, a commission of 
five members, and a Lieutenant Governor. Desirous of leaving the government 
as far as possible in the hands of the people who were the sources of all 
power, Penn left it to the Council to decide which form should be adopted. 
The majority decided for a Deputy Governor. This was opposed by the mem- 
bers from the provinces, who preferred a Council, and who, finding themselves 
outvoted, decided to withdraw, and determined for themselves to govern the 
lower counties until Penn should come. This obstinacy and falling out be- 
tween the councilors from the lower counties and those from the province 
was the beginning of a controversy which eventuated in a separation, and 
finally in the formation of Delaware as a separate commonwealth. A deputa- 
tion from the Council was sent to New Castle to induce the seceding members 
to return, but without success. They had never regarded with favor the re- 
moval of the sittings of the Council from New Castle, the first seat of gov- 
ernment, to Philadelphia, and they were now determined to set up a govern- 
ment for themselves. 


In 1689, the Friends Public School in Philadelphia was first incorporated, 
confirmed by a patent from Penn in 1701, and another in 1708, and finarlly, 
with greatly enlarged powers, from Penn personally, November 29, 171 1. The 
preamble to the charter recites that as "the prosperity and welfare oE any 
people depend, in great measure, upon the good education of youth, and their 
early introduction in the principles of true religion and virtue, and qualifying 
them to serve their country and themselves, by breeding them in reading, 
writing, and learning of languages and useful arts and sciences suitable to 
their sex, age and degree, which cannot be effected in any manner so well as 
by erecting public schools," etc. George Keith was employed as the first mas- 
ter of this school. He was a native of Aberdeen, Scotland, a man of learning, 
and had emigrated to East Jersey some years previous, where he was Surveyor 
General, and had surveyed and marked the line between East and West New 
Jersey. He only remained at the head of the school one year, when he was 
succeeded by his usher, Thomas Makin. This was a school of considerable 
merit and pretension, where the higher mathematics and the ancient lan- 
guages were taught, and was the first of this high grade. A school of a pri- 
mary grade had been established as early as 1683, in Philadelphia, when 
Enoch Flower taught on the following terms: "To learn to read English, 
four shillings by the quarter; to write, six shillings by ditto; to read, write and 
cast accounts, eight shillings by the quarter; boarding a scholar, that is to 
say, diet, lodging, washing and schooling, £10 for one whole year,"' from which 
it will be seen that although learning might be highly prized, its cost in 
hard cash was not exorbitant. 

Penn's favor at court during the reign of James II caused him to be sus- 
pected of disloyalty to the government when William and Mary had come to 
the throne. Accordingly on the 10th of December, 1688, while walking in 
White Hall, he was summoned before the Lords of the Council, and though 
nothing was found against him, was compelled to give security for his appear- 
ance at the next term, to answer any charge that might be made. At the sec- 
ond sitting of the Council nothing having been found against him, he was 
cleared in open court'. In 1690, he was again brought before the Lords on 
the charge of having been in correspondence with the late King. He ap- 
pealed to King William., who, after a hearing of two hours, was disposed to 
release him, but the Lords decided to hold him until the Trinity term, when 
he was again discharged. A third time he was arraigned, and this time with 
eighteen others, charged with adhering to the kingdom's enemies, but was 
cleared by order of the King's Bench. Being now at liberty, and these vexa- 
tious suits apparently at an end, he set about leading a large party of settlers 
to his cherished Pennsylvania. Proposals were published, and the Govern- 
ment, regarding the enterprise of; so much importance, had ordered an armed 
convoy, when he was again met by another accusation, and now, backed by 
the false oath of one William Fuller, whom the Parliament subsequently de- 
clared a "cheat and an imposter." Seeing that he must prepare again for his 
defense, he abandoned his voyage to America, after having made expensive 
preparations, and convinced that his enemies were determined to prevent his 
attention to public or privato affairs, whether in England or America, he with- 
drew himself during the ensuing two or three years from the public eye. 

But though not participating in business, which was calling loudly for his 
attention, his mind was busy, and several important treatises upon religious 
and civil matters were produced that had great influence upon the turn of 
public affairs, which would never have been written but for this forced retire- 
ment. In his address to the yearly meeting of Friends in London, he says: 


" My enemies are yours. My privacy is not because men have sworn truly, 
but falsely against me. " 

His personal grievances in England were the least which he suffered. For 
lack of guiding influence, bitter dissensions had sprung up in his colony, 
which threatened the loss of all. Desiring to secure peace, he had commis- 
sioned Thomas Lloyd Deputy Governor of the province, and William Mark- 
ham Deputy Governor of tbe lower counties. Penn's grief on account of this 
division is disclosed in a letter to a friend in the province: "I Jeft it to them, 
to choose either the government of the Council, five Commissioners- or a deputy. 
What could be tenderer? Now I perceive Thomas Lloyd is chosen by the 
three upper, but not the three lower counties, and sits down with this broken 
choice. This has grieved and wounded me and mine, I fear to the hazard of 
a U I * * * for else the Governor of New York is like to have all, if he 
has it not already." 

But the troubles of Penn in America were not confined to civil affairs' 
His religious society was torn with dissension. George Keith, a man of con- 
siderable power in argumentation, but of overweaning self -conceit, attacked the 
Friends for the laxity of their discipline, and drew off some followers. So 
venomous did he become that on the 20th of April, 1692, a testimony of de- 
nial was drawn up against him at a meeting of ministers, wherein he and his 
conduct were publicly disowned. This was confirmed at the next yearly meet- 
ing. He drew off large numbers and set up an independent society, who 
termed themselves Christian Quakers. Keith appealed from this action of the 
American Church to the yearly meeting in London, but was so intemperate in 
speech that the action of the American Church was confirmed. Whereupon 
he became the bitter enemy of the Quakers, and, uniting with the Church of 
England, was ordained a Vicar by the Bishop of London. He afterward re- 
turned to America where he wrote against his former associates, but was final- 
ly fixed in a benefice in Sussex, England. On his death bed, he said, " I wish 
I had died when I was a Quaker, for then I am sure it would have been well 
with my soul." 

But Keith had not been satisfied with attacking the principles and prac- 
tices of his church. He mercilessly lampooned the Lieutenant Governor, say- 
ing that :j He was not fit to be a Governor, and his name would stink," and of 
the Council, that "He hoped to God he should shortly see their power taken 
from them." On another occasion, he said of Thomas Lloyd, who was reputed 
a mild-tempered man, and had befriended Keith, that he was " an impu- 
dent man and a pitiful Governor,'' and asked him "why he did not send him 
to jail," saying that "his back (Keith's) had long itched for a whipping, and 
that he would print and expose them all over America, if not over Europe. " 
So abusive had he finally become that the Council was obliged to take notice 
of his conduct and to warn him to desist. 

Penn, as has been shown, was silenced and thrown into retirement in En- 
gland. It can be readily seen what an excellent opportunity these troubles 
in America, the separation in the government, and the schism in the church, 
gave his enemies to attack him. They represented that he had neglected his 
colony by remaining in England and meddling with matters in which he had 
no business-, that the colony in consequence had fallen into great disorder, 
and that ho should be deprived of his proprietary rights. These complaints 
had so much weight with William and Mary, that, on the 21st of October, 1692, 
they commissioned Benjamin Fletcher, Governor of New York, to take the 
province and territories under his government. There was another motive 
operating at this time, more potent than those mentioned above, to induce the 


King and Queen to put the government of Pennsylvania under the Governor 
of New York. The French and Indians from the north were threatening the 
English. Already the expense for defense had become burdensome to New 
York. It was believed that to ask aid for the common defense from Penn, 
with his peace principles, would be fruitless, but that through the influence of 
Gov. Fletcher, as executive, an appropriation might be secured. 

Upon receiving his commission, Gov. Fletcher sent a note, dated April 19, 
1693, to Deputy Gov. Lloyd, informing him of the grant of the royal commis- 
sion and of his intention to visit the colony and assume authority on the 29th 
inst. He accordingly came with great pomp and splendor, attended by a 
numerous retinue, and soon after his arrival, submission to him having been 
accorded without question, summoned the Assembly. Some differences having 
arisen between the Governor and tbe Assembly about the manner of calling and 
electing the Representatives, certain members united in an address to the Gov- 
ernor, claiming that the constitution and laws were still in full force and 
must be administered until altered or repealed; that; Pennsylvania had just as 
good a right to be governed according to the usages of Pennsylvania as New 
York had to be governed according to the usages of that province. The Leg- 
islature being finally organized, Gov. Fletcher presented a letter from the 
Queen, setting forth that the expense for the preservation and defense of Albany 
against the French was intolerable to the inhabitants there, and that as this 
was a frontier to other colonies, it was thought but just that they should help 
bear the burden. The Legislature, in firm but respectful terms, maintained 
that the constitution and laws enacted under them were in full force, and 
when he, having flatly denied this, attempted to intimidate them by the threat 
of annexing Pennsylvania to New York, they mildly but firmly requested that 
if the Governor had objections to the bill which they had passed and would 
communicate them, they would try to remove them. The business was now 
amicably adjusted, and he in compliance with their wish dissolved the Assembly, 
and after appointing William Markham Lieutenant Governor, departed to his 
government in New York, doubtless well satisfied that a Quaker, though usu- 
ally mild mannered, is not easily frightened or coerced. 

Gov. Fletcher met the Assembly again in March, 1694, and during this 
session, having apparently failed in his previous endeavors to induce the Assem- 
bly to vote money for the common defense, sent a communication setting forth 
the dangers to be apprehended from the French and Indians, and concluding in 
these words : "That he considered their principles ; that they could not carry arms 
nor levy money to make war, though for their own defense, yet he hoped that 
they would not refuse to feed the hungry and clothe the naked; that was to 
supply the Indian nations with such necessaries as may influence their contin- 
ued friendship to their provinces." But notwithstanding the adroit sugar- 
coating of the pill, it was not acceptable and no money was voted. This and a 
brief session in September closed the Governorship of Pennsylvania by 
Fletcher. It would appear from a letter written by Penn, after hearing of 
the neglect of the Legislature to vote money for the purpose indicated, that 
he took an entirely different view of the subject from that which was antici- 
pated; for he blamed the colony for refusing to send money to New York for 
what he calls the common defense. 

Through the kind offices of Lords Rochester, Raoelagh, Sidney and Somers, 
the Duke of Buckingham and Sir John Trenchard, the king was asked to 
h^ar the case of William Penn, against whom no charge was proven, and who 
would two years before have gone to his colony had he not supposed that he 
would have been thought to go in defiance of the government. King William 


answered that William Penn was his old acquaintance as well as theirs, that 
he might follow his business as freely as ever, and that he had nothing to say 
to him. Penn was accordingly reinstated in his government by letters patent 
dated on the 20th of August, 1694, whereupon he commissioned William Mark- 
ham Lieutenant Governor. 

When Markham called the Assembly, he disregarded the provisions of the 
charter, assuming that the removal of Penn had annulled the grant. The 
Assembly made no objection to this action, as there were provisions in the old 
charter that they desired to have changed. Accordingly, when the appropria- 
tion bill was considered, a new constitution was attached to it and passed. 
This was approved by Markham and became the organic law, the third consti- 
tution adopted under the charter of King Charles. By the provisions of this 
instrument, the Council was composed of twelve members, and the Assembly 
of twenty-four. During the war between France and England, the ocean 
swarmed with the privateers of the former. When peace was declared, many of 
these crafts, which had richly profited by privateering, were disposed to con- 
tinue their irregular practices, which was now piracy. Judging that the peace 
principles of the Quakers would shield them from forcible seizure, they were 
accustomed to run into the Delaware for safe harbor. Complaints coming 
of the depredations of these parties, a proclamation was issued calling oa 
magistrates and citizens to unite in breaking up practices so damaging to the 
good name of the colony. It was charged in England that evil-disposed per- 
sons in the province were privy to these practices, if not parties to it, and that 
the failure of the Government to break it up was a proof of its inefficiency, 
and of a radical defect of the principles on which it was based. Penn was 
much exercised by these charges, and in his letters to the Lieutenant Governor 
and to his friends in the Assembly, urged ceaseless vigilance to effect reform. 


William Penn, 1699-1701— Andrew Hamilton, 1701-3— Edward Shippen 
1703-4— John Evans, 1704-9— Charles Gookin, 1709-17. 

BEING free from harassing persecutions, and in favor at court, Penn de- 
termined to remove with his family to Pennsylvania, and now with the ex- 
pectation of living and dying h«re. Accordingly, in July, 1699, he set sail, 
and, on account of adverse winds, was three months tossed about upon the 
ocean. Just before his arrival in his colony, the yellow fever raged there with 
great virulence, having been brought thither from the West Indies, but had 
been checked by the biting frosts of autumn, and had now disappeared. An 
observant traveler, who witnessed the effects of this scourge, writes thus of it 
in his journal: " Great was the majesty and hand of the Lord. Great was 
the fear that fell upon all flesh. I saw no lofty nor airy countenance, nor 
heard any vain jesting to move men to laughter, nor witty repartee to raise 
mirth, nor extravagant feasting to excite the lusts and desires of the flesh 
above measure; but every face gathered paleness, and many hearts were hum- 
bled, and countenances fallen and sunk, as such that waited every moment to 
be summoned to the bar and numbered to the grave. " 

Great joy was everywhere manifested throughout the province at the arriv- 


al of the proprietor and his family, fondly believing that he had now come to 
stay. He met the Assembly soon after landing, but, it being an inclement 
season, he only detained them long enough to pass two measures aimed against 
piracy and illicit trade, exaggerated reports of which, having been spread 
broadcast through the kingdom, had caused him great uneasiness and vexation. 
At the first monthly meeting of Friends in 1700, he laid before them his 
concern, which was for the welfare of Indians and Negroes, and steps were 
taken to instruct them and provide stated meetings for them where they could 
hear the "Word. It is more than probable that he had fears from the first that 
his enemies in England would interfere in his affairs to such a degree as to re- 
quire his early return, though he had declared to his friends there that he 
never expected to meet them again. His greatest solicitude, consequently, 
was to give a charter to his colony, and also one to his city, the very best that 
human ingenuity could devise. An experience of now nearly twenty years 
would be likely to develop the weaknesses and impracticable provisions of the 
first constitutions, so that a frame now drawn with all the light of the past, 
and by the aid and suggestion of the men who had been employed in admin- 
istering it, would be likely to be enduring, and though he might be called 
hence, or be removed by death, their work would live on from generation to 
generation and age to age, and exert a benign and preserving influence while 
the State should exist. 

In February, 1701, Penn met the most renowned and powerful of the In- 
dian chief tains, reaching out to the Potomac, the Susquehanna and to the Ononda- 
goes of the Five Nations, some forty in number, at Philadelphia, where he 
renewed with them pledges of peace and entered into a formal treaty of active 
friendship, binding them to disclose any hostile intent, confirm sale of lands, 
be governed by colonial law, all of which was confirmed on the part of the In- 
dians "by five parcels of skins;" and on the part of Penn by "several English 
goods and merchandises." 

Several sessions of the Legislature were held in which great harmony pre- 
vailed, and much attention was giving to revising and recomposing the consti- 
tution. But in the midst of their labors for the improvement of the organic 
law, intelligence was brought to Penn that a bill had been introduced in the 
House of Lords for reducing all the proprietary governments in America to 
regal ones, under pretence of advancing the prerogative of the crown, and 
the national advantage. Such of the owners of land in Pennsylvania as hap- 
pened to be in England, remonstrated against action upon the bill until Penn 
could return and be heard, and wrote to him urging his immediate coming 
hither. Though much to his disappointment and sorrow, he determined to 
go immediately thither. He promptly called a session of the Assembly, and 
in his message to the two Houses said, "I cannot think of such a voyage 
without great reluctancy of mind, having promised myself the quietness of a 
wilderness. For my heart is among you, and no disappointment shall ever be 
able to alter my love to the country, and resolution to return, and settle my 
family and posterity in it. * * Think therefore (since all men are mortal), 
of some suitable expedient and provision for your safety as well in your privi- 
leges as property. Review again your laws, propose new ones, and you will 
find me ready to comply with whatsoever may render us happy, by a nearer 
union of our interests." The Assembly returned a suitable response, and then 
proceeded to draw up twenty-one articles. The first related to ttie appoint- 
ment of a Lieutenant Governor. Penn proposed that the Assembly should 
choose one. But this they declined, preferring that he should appoint one. 
Little trouble was experienced in settling everything broached, except the 


union of the province and lower counties. Penn used his best endeavors to 
reconcile them to the union, but without avail. The new constitution was 
adopted on the 28th of October, 1701. The instrument provided for the 
union, but in a supplementary article, evidently granted with great reluctance, 
it was provided that the province and the territories might be separated at any 
time within three years. As his last act before leaving, he presented the city 
of Philadelphia, now grown to be a considerable place, and always an object 
of his affectionate regard, with a charter of privileges. As his Deputy, ho ap- 
pointed Andrew Hamilton, one of the proprietors of East New Jersey, and 
sometime Governor of both East and AY est Jersey, and for Secretary of the 
province and Clerk of the Council, he selected James Logau, a man of sin- 
gular urbanity and strength of mind, and withal a scholar. 

Penn set sail for Europe on the 1st of November, 1701. Soon after his 
arrival, on the 18th of January, 1702, King William died, and Anne of Den- 
mark succeeded him. He now found himsolf in favor at court, and that he 
might be convenient to the royal residence, he again took lodgings, at Kensing- 
ton. The bill which had been pending before Parliament, that had given him 
so much uneasiness, was at the succeeding session dropped entirely, and was 
never again called up. During his leisure hours, be now busied himself in 
writing "several useful and excellent treatises on divers subjects." 

Gov. Hamilton's administration continued only till December, 1702, when 
he died. He was earnest in his endeavors to induce the territories to unite 
with the province, they having as yet not accepted the new charter, alleging 
that they had three years in which to make their decision, but without success. 
He also organized a military force, of which George Lowther was commander, 
for the safety of the colony. 

The executive authority now devolved upon the Council, of which Edward 
Shippen was President. Conflict of authority, and contention over the due in- 
terpretation of some provisions of the new charter, prevented the accomplish- 
ment of much, by way of legislation, in the Assembly which convened in 1703; 
though in this body it was finally determined that the lower counties should 
thereafter act separately in a legislative capacity. This separation proved 
final, the two bodies never again meeting in common. 

Though the bill to govern the American Colonies by regal authority failed, 
yet the clamor of those opposed to the proprietary Governors was so strong 
that an act was finally passed requiring the selection of deputies to have the 
royal assent. Hence, in choosing a successor to Hamilton, he was obliged to 
consider the Queen's wishes. John Evans, a man of parts, of Welsh extrac- 
tion, only twenty-six years old, a member of the Queen's household, and not a 
Quaker, nor even of exemplary morals, was appointed, who arrived in the col- 
ony in December, 1703. He was accompanied by William Penn, Jr., who was 
elected a member of the Council, the number having been increased by author- 
ity of the Governor, probably with a view to his election. 

The first care of Evans was to unite the province and lower counties, 
though the final separation had been agreed to. He presented the matter so 
well that the lower counties, from which the difficulty had always come, were 
willing to return to a firm union. But now the provincial Assembly, having 
become impatient of the obstacles thrown in the way of legislation by the dele- 
gates from these counties, was unwilling to receive them. They henceforward 
remained separate in a legislative capacity, though still a part of Pennsylvania, 
under the claim of Penn, and ruled by the same Governor, and thus they con- 
tinued until the 20th of September, 1776, when a constitution was adopted, 
and they were proclaimed a separate State under the name of Delaware, 


During two years of the government of Evans, there was ceaseless discord be- 
tween the Council, headed by the Governor and Secretary Logan on the one 
side, and the Assembly led by David Lloyd, its Speaker, on the other, and 
little legislation was effected. 

Realizing the defenseless condition of the colony, Evans determined to 
organize the militia, and accordingly issued his proclamation. "In obedience 
to her Majesty's royal command, and to the end that the inhabitants of this 
government may be in a posture of defense and readiness to withstand and 
repel all acts of hostility, I do hereby strictly command and require all per- 
sons residing in this government, whose persuasions will, on any account, per- 
mit them to take up arms in their own defense, that forthwith they do pro- 
vide themselves with a good firelock and ammunition, in order to enlist them- 
selves in the militia, which I am now settling in this government. " The Gov- 
ernor evidently issued this proclamation in good faith, and with a pure pur- 
pose. The French and Indians had assumed a threatening aspect upon the north, 
and while the other colonies had assisted New York liberally, Pennsylvania had 
done little or nothing for the common defense. But his call fell stillborn. 
The " fire-locks" were not brought out, and none enlisted. 

Disappointed at this lack of spirit, and embittered by the factious temper of 
the Assembly, Evans, who seems not to have had faith in the religious prin- 
ciples of the Quakers, and to have entirely mistook the nature of their Christian 
zeal, formed a wild scheme to test their steadfastness under the pressure of 
threatened danger. In conjunction with his gay associates in revel, he agreed 
to have a false alarm spread of the approach of a hostile force in the river, 
whereupon he was to raise the alarm in the city. Accordingly, on the day of 
the fair in Philadelphia, 16th of March, 1706, a messenger came, post haste 
from New Castle, bringing the startling intelligence that an armed fleet of the 
enemy was already in the river, and making their way rapidly toward the city. 
Whereupon Evans acted his part to a nicety. He sent emissaries through the 
town proclaiming the dread tale, while he mounted his horse, and in an ex- 
cited manner, and with a drawn sword, rode through the streets, calling upon all 
good men and true to rush to arms for the defense of their homes, their wives 
and children, and all they held dear. The rase whs so well played that it 
had an immense effect. " The suddenness of the surprise,'" says Proud, " with 
the noise of precipitation consequent thereon, threw many of the people into 
very great fright and consternation, insomuch that it is said some threw their 
plate and most valuable effects down their wells and little houses; that others 
hid themselves, in the best manner they could, while many retired further up 
the river, with what they could most readily carry off; so that some of the 
creeks seemed full of boats and small craft; those of a larger size running as 
far as Burlington, and some higher up the river; several women are said to 
have miscarried by the fright and terror into which they were thrown, and 
much mischief ensued." 

The more thoughtful of the people are said to have understood the 

deceit from the first, and labored to allay the excitement; but the seeming 

earnestness of the Governor and the zeal of his emissaries so worked upon the 

more inconsiderate of the population that the consternation and commotion 

was almost past belief. In an almanac published at Philadelphia for the next 

year opposite this date was this distich: 

"Wise men wonder. good men grieve, 
Knaves invent find tools believe." 

Though this ruse was played upon all classes alike, yet it was generally 

believed to have been aimed chiefly at the Quakers, to trv the force of their 


principles, and see if they would not rush to arms when danger should really 
appear. But in this the Governor was disappointed. For it is said that only 
four out of the entire population of this religious creed showed any disposition 
to falsify their faith. It was the day of their weekly meeting, and regardless 
of the dismay and consternation which were everywhere manifest about them, 
they assembled in their accustomed places of worship, and engaged in their 
devotions as though nothing unusual was transpiring without, manifesting 
such unshaken faith, as Whittier has exemplified in verse by his Abraham 
Davenport, on the occasion of the Dark Day : 

Meanwhile in the old State House, dim as ghosts, 

Sat the law-givers of Connecticut, 

Trembling beneath their legislative robes. 

It is the Lord's a;reat day! Let us adjourn,' 

Some said; and then, as with one accord, 

All eyes were turned on Abraham Davenport. 

He rose, slow, cleaving with his steady voice 

The intolerable hush. ' This well may be 

The Day of Judgment which the world awaits; 

But be it so or not, I only know 

My present duty, and my Lord's command 

To occupy till He come. So at the post. 

Where He hath set me in His Providence, 

I choose, for one, to meet Him face to face. 

No faithless servant frightened from my task, 

But ready when the Lord of the harvest calls; 

And therefore, with all reverence, I would say, 

Let God do His work, we will see to ours. 

Bring in the candles.' And thej r brought them in." 

In conjunction with the Legislature of the lower counties, Evans was in- 
strumental in having a law passed for the imposition of a tax on the tonnage 
of the river, and the erection of a fort near the town of New Castle for com- 
pelling obedience. This was in direct violation of the fundamental compact, 
and vexatious to commerce. It was at length forcibly resisted, and its impo- 
sition abandoned. His administration was anything but efficient or peaceful, 
a series of contentions, of charges and counter-charges having been kept up 
between the leaders of the two factions, Lloyd and Logan, which he was pow- 
erless to properly direct or control. " He was relieved in 1709. Possessed of 
a good degree of learning and refinement, and accustomed to the gay society 
of the British metropolis, he found in the grave and serious habits of the 
Friends a type of life and character which he failed to comprehend, and with 
which he could, consequently, have little sympathy. How widely he mistook 
the Quaker character is seen in the result of his wild and hair- brained experi- 
ment to test their faith. His general tenor of life seems to have been of a 
piece with this. Watson says: 'The Indians of Connestoga complained of 
him when there as misbehaving to their women, and that, in 1709, Solomon 
Cresson, going his rounds at night, entered a tavern to suppress a riotous as- 
sembly, and found there John Evans, Esq. , the Governor, who fell to beat- 
ing Cresson.' " 

The youth and levity of Gov. Evans induced the proprietor to seek for a 
successor of a more sober and sedate character. He had thought of proposing 
his son, but finally settled upon Col. Charles Gookin, who was reputed to be a 
man of wisdom and prudence, though as was afterward learned, to the sorrow 
of the colony, he was subject to fits of derangement, which toward the close of 
his term were exhibited in the most extravagant acts. He had scarcely ar- 
rived in the colony before charges were preferred against the late Governor, 
and he was asked to institute criminal proceedings, which he declined. This 


was the occasion of a renewal of contentions between the Governor and his 
Council and the Assembly, which continued during the greater pare of his ad- 
ministration. In the midst of them, Logan, who was at the head of the Coun- 
cil, having demanded a trial of the charges against him, and failed to secure 
one, sailed for Europe, where he presented the difficulties experienced in ad- 
ministering the government so strongly, that Penn was seriously inclined to 
sell his interest in the colony. He had already greatly crippled his estate by 
expenses he had incurred in making costly presents to the natives, and in set- 
tling his colony, for which he had received small return. In the year 1707, 
he had become involved in a suit in chancery with the executors of his former 
steward, in the course of which he was confined in the Old Baily during this 
and a part of the following year, when he was obliged to mortgage his colony 
in the sum of £6,600 to relieve himself. Foreseeing the great consequence 
it would be to the crown to buy the rights of the proprietors of the several 
English colonies in America before they would grow too powerful, negotia- 
tions had been entered into early in the reign of William and Mary for their 
purchase, especially the ''fine province of Mr. Penn." Borne down by these 
troubles, and by debts and litigations at home, Penn seriously entertained the 
proposition to sell in 1712, and offered it for £20,000. The sum of £12,000 
was offered on the part of the crown, which was agreed upon, but before the 
necessary papers were executed, he was stricken down with apoplexy, by which 
he was incapacitated for transacting any business, and a stay was put to fur- 
ther proceedings until the Queen should order an act of Parliament for con- 
summating the purchase. 

It is a mournful spectacle to behold the great mind and the great heart of 
Penn reduced now in his declining years, by the troubles of government and 
by debts incurred in the bettering of his colony, to this enfeebled condition. 
He was at the moment writing to Logan on public affairs, when his hand was 
suddenly seized by lethargy in the beginning of a sentence, which he never 
finished. His mind was touched by the disease, which he never recovered, 
and after lingering for six years, he died on the 30th of May, 1718, in the 
seventy- fourth year of his age. With great power of intellect, and a religious 
devotion scarcely matched in all Christendom, he gave himself to the welfare 
of mankind, by securing civil and religious liberty through the operations of 
organic law. Though not a lawyer by profession, he drew frames of govern- 
ment and bodies of laws which have been the admiration of succeeding gener* 
ations, and are destined to exert a benign influence in all future time, and by 
his discussions with Lord Baltimore and before the Lords in Council, he 
showed himself familiar with the abstruse principles of law. Though but a 
private person and of a despised sect, he was received as the friend and confi- 
dential advisee of the ruling sovereigns of England, and some of the princi- 
ples which give luster to British law were engrafted there through the influ- 
ence of the powerful intellect and benignant heart of Penn. He sought to 
know no philosophy but that promulgated by Christ and His disciples, and 
this he had sounded to its depths, and in it were anchored his ideas of public 
law and private and social living. The untamed savage of the forest bowed in 
meek and loving simplicity to his mild and resistless sway, and the members 
of the Society of Friends all over Europe flocked to his City of Brotherly Love. 
His prayers for the welfare of his people are the beginning and ending of all 
his public and private correspondence, and who will say that they'have not 
been answered in the blessings which have attended the commonwealth of his 
founding? And will not the day of its greatness be when the inhabitants 
throughout all its borders shall return to the peaceful and loving spirit of 


Penn? In the midst of a licentious court, and with every prospect of advance- 
ment in its sunshine and favor, inheriting a great name and an independent 
patrimony, he turned aside from this brilliant track to make common lot with 
a poor sect under the ban of Government; endured stripes and imprisonment 
and loss of property; banished himself to the wilds of the American continent 
that he might secure to his people those devotions which seemed to them re- 
quired by their Maker, and has won for himself a name by the simple deeds of 
love and humble obedience to Christian mandates which shall never perish. 
Many have won renown by deeds of blood, but fadeless glory has come to 
William Penn by charity. 


Sir William Keith, 1717-2 >— Patrick Gordon, 1726-36— James Logan, 1736-38 
—George Thomas, 1738-47— Anthony Palmer, 1747-48— James Hamilton, 

IN 1712, Penn had made a will, by which he devised to his only surviving 
son, William, by his first marriage, all his estates in England, amounting 
to some twenty thousand pounds. By his first wife, Gulielma Maria Springett, 
he had issue of three sons — William, Springett and William, and four daugh- 
ters — Gulielma, Margaret, Gulielma and Letitia; and by his second wif§, 
Hannah Callowhill, of four sons — John, Thomas, Richard and Dennis. To 
his wife Hannah, who survived him, and whom he made the sole executrix of 
his will, he gave, for the equal benefit of herself and her children, all his 
personal estate in Pennsylvania and elsewhere, after paying all debts, and 
alloting ten thousand acres of land in the Province to his daughter Letitia, by 
his first marriage, and each of the three children of his son William. 

Doubts having arisen as to the force of the provisions of this will, it was 
finally determined to institute a suit in chancery for its determination. Before 
a decision was reached, in March, 1720, William Penn, Jr., died, and while 
still pending, his son Springett died also. During the long pendency of this 
litigation for nine vears, Hannah Penn, as executrix of the will, assumed the 
proprietary powers, issued instructions to her Lieutenant Governors, heard 
complaints and settled difficulties with the skill and the assurance of a veteran 
diplomatist. In 1727, a decision was reached that, upon the death of William 
Penn, Jr., and his son Springett, the proprietary rights in Pennsylvania de 
scended to the three surviving sons — John, Thomas and Richard — issue by the 
second marriage; and that the proprietors bargain to sell his province to the 
crown for twelve thousand pounds, made in 1712, and on which one thousand 
pounds had been paid at the confirmation of the sale, was void. Whereupon 
the three sons became the joint proprietors. 

A year before the death of Penn, the lunacy of Gov. Gookin having be- 
come troublesome, he was succeeded in the Government by Sir William Keith, 
a Scotchman who had served as Surveyor of Customs to the English Govern 
ment, in which capacity he had visited Pennsylvania previously, and knew 
something of its condition. He was a man of dignified and commanding 
bearing, endowed with cunning, of an accommdating policy, full of faithful 
promises, and usually found upon the stronger side. Hence, upon his 
arrival in the colony, he did not summon the Assembly immediately, 


assigning as a reason in his first message that he did not wish to inconvenience 
the country members by calling them in harvest time. The disposition thus 
manifested to favor the people, and his advocacy of popular rights on several 
occasions in opposition to the claims of the proprietor, gave great satisfaction 
to the popular branch of the Legislature which manifested its appreciation of 
his conduct by voting him liberal salaries, which had often been withheld from 
his less accommodating predecessors. By his artful and insinuating policy, 
he induced the Assembly to pass two acts which had previously met with un- 
compromising opposition — one to establish a Court of Equity, with himself as- 
Chancellor, the want of which had been seriously felt; and another, for organ- 
izing the militia. Though the soil was fruitful and produce was plentiful, 
yet, for lack of good markets, and on account of the meagerness of the cir- 
culating medium, prices were very low, the toil and sweat of the husbandman 
being little rewarded, and the taxes and payments on land were met with great 
difficulty. Accordingly, arrangements were made for the appointment of in- 
spectors of provisions, who, from a conscientious discharge of duty, soon 
caused the Pennsylvania brands of best products to be much sought for, and 
to command ready sale at highest prices in the West Indies, whither most of 
the surplus produce was exported. A provision was also made for the issue of 
a limited amount of paper money, on the establishment of ample securities, 
which tended to raise the value of the products of the soil and of manufact- 
ures, and encourage industry. 

By the repeated notices of the Governors in their messages to the Legis- 
lature previous to this time, it is evident that Indian hostilities had for some- 
time been threatened. The Potomac was the dividing line between the 
Northern and Southern Indians. But the young men on either side, when out 
in pursuit of game, often crossed the line of the river into the territory of the 
other, when fierce altercations ensued. This trouble had become so 
violent in 1719 as to threaten a great Indian war, in which the pow- 
erful confederation, known as the Five Nations, would take a hand. 
To avert this danger, which it was foreseen would inevitably involve 
the defenseless familes upon the frontier, and perhaps the entire colony, 
Gov. Keith determined to use his best exertions. He accordingly made 
a toilsome journey in the spring of 1721 to confer with the Governor of 
Virginia and endeavor to employ by concert of action such means as would 
allay further cause of contention. His policy was well devised, and enlisted 
the favor of the Governor. Soon after his return, he summoned a council of 
Indian Chieftains to meet him at Conestoga, a point about seventy miles west 
of Philadelphia. He went in considerable pomp, attended by some seventy 
or eighty horsemen, gaily caparisoned, and many of them armed, arriving 
about noon, on the 4th of July, not then a day of more note than other days. 
He went immediately to Capt. Civility's cabin, where were assembled four 
deputies of the Five Nations and representatives of other tribes. The Gov- 
ernor said that he had come a long distance from home to see and speak to 
representatives of the Five Nations, who had never met the Governor of Penn- 
sylvania. They said in reply that they had heard much of the Governor, and 
would have come sooner to pay him their respects, but that the wild conduct of 
some of their young men had made them ashamed to show their faces. In the 
formal meeting in the morning, Ghesaont, chief of the Senecas, spoke for all 
the Five Nations. He said that they now felt that they were speaking to the 
same effect that they would were William Penn before them, that they had not 
forgotten Penn, nor the treaties made with him, and the good advice he gave 
them; that though they could not write as do the English, yet they could keep 


all these transactions fresh in their memories. After laying down a belt of 
wampum upon the table as if by way of emphasis, he began again, declaring 
that "all their disorders arose from the use of rum and strong spirits, which 
took away their sense and memory, that they had no such liquors," and desired 
that no more be sent among them. Here he produced a bundle of dressed 
skins, by which he would say, "you see how much in earnest we are upon this 
matter of furnishing fiery liquors to us." Then he proceeds, declaring that 
the Five Nations remember all their ancient treaties, and they now desire that 
the chain of friendship may be made so strong that none of the links may 
ever be broken. This may have been a hint that they wanted high-piled 
and valuable presents; for the Quakers had made a reputation of brightening 
and strengthening the chain of friendship by valuable presents which had 
reached so far away as the Five Nations. He then produces a bundle of raw 
skins, and observes "that a chain may contract rust with laying and become 
weaker; wherefore, he desires it may now be so well cleaned as to remain 
brighter and stronger than ever it was before." Here he presents another par- 
cel of skins, and continues, " that as in the firmament, all clouds and dark- 
ness are removed from the face of the sun, so they desire that all misunder- 
standings may be fully done away, so that when they, who are now here, shall 
be dead aDd gone, their whole people, with their children and posterity, may en- 
joy the clear sunshine with us forever." Presenting another bundle of skins, 
he says, "that, locking upon the Governor as if William Penn were present, 
they desire, that, in case any disorders should hereafter happen between their 
young people and ours, we would not be too hasty in resenting any such acci- 
dent, until their Council and ours can have some opportunity to treat amicably 
upon it, and so to adjust all matters, as that the friendship between us may 
still be inviolably preserved." Here he produces a small parcel of dressed 
skins, and concludes by saying " that we may now be together as one people, 
treating one another's children kindly and affectionately, that they are fully 
empowered to speak for the Five Nations, and they look upon the Governor as 
the representative of the Great King of England, and therefore they expect 
that everything now stipulated will be made absolutely firm and good on both 
sides." And now he presents a different style of present and pulls out a 
bundle of bear skins, and proceeds to put in an item of complaint, that " they 
get too little for their skins and furs, so that they cannot live by hunting ; 
they desire us, therefore, to take compassion on them, and contrive some way 
to help them in that particular. Then producing a few furs, he speaks only 
for himself, "to acquaint the Governor, that the Five Nations having heard 
that the Governor of Virginia wanted to speak with them, he himself, with 
some of his company intended to proceed to Virginia, but do not know the 
way how to get safe thither." 

To this formal and adroitly conceived speech of the Seneca chief, Gov. 
Keith, after having brought in the present of stroud match coats, gunpowder, 
lead, biscuit, pipes and tobacco, adjourned the council till the following day, 
when, being assembled at Conestoga, he answered at length the items of the 
chieftain's speech. His most earnest appeal, however, was made in favor of 
peace. " I nave persuaded all my [Indian] brethren, in these parts, to con- 
sider what is for their good, and not to go out any more to war ; but your 
young men [Five Nations] as they come this way, endeavor to force them ; 
and, because they incline to the counsels of peace, and ihe good advice of their 
true friends, your people use them ill, and often prevail with them to go out 
to their own destruction. Thus it was that their town of Conestoga lost their 
good king not long ago. Their young children are left vvithout parents ; 


their wives without husbands ; the old men, contrary to the course of nature, 
mourn the death of their young ; the people decay and grow weak ; we lose 
our dear friends and are afflicted. Surely you cannot propose to get either 
riches, or possessions, by going thus out to war ; for when you kill a deer, you 
have the flesh to eat, and the skin to sell ; but when you return from war, you 
bring nothing home, but the scalp of a dead man, who perhaps was husband 
to a kind wife, and father to tender children, who never wronged you, though, 
by losing him, you have robbed them of their help and protection, and at the 
same time got nothing by it. If I were not your friend, I would not take the 
trouble to say all these things to you." When the Governor had concluded 
his address, he called the Senaca chieftain (Ghesaont) to him, and presented a 
gold coronation medal of King George I, which he requested should be taken 
to the monarch of the Five Nations, " Kannygooah," to be laid up and kept as 
a token to our children's children, that an entire and lasting friendship is now 
established forever betwean the English in this country and the great Five 
Nations." Upon the return of the Governor, he was met at the upper ferry of 
the Schuylkill, by the Mayor and Aldermen of the city, with about two hun- 
dred horse, and conducted through the streets after the manner of a conqueror 
of old returning from the scenes of his triumphs. 

Gov. Keith gave diligent study to the subject of finance, regulating the 
currency in such a way that the planter should have it in his power to dis- 
charge promptly his indebtedness to the merchant, that their mutual interests 
might thus be subserved. He even proposed to establish a considerable settle- 
ment on his own account in the colony, in order to carry on manufactures, and 
thus consume the grain, of which there was at this time abundance, and no 
profitable market abroad. 

In the spring of 1722, an Indian was barbaromsly murdered within the 
limits of the colony, which gave the Governor great concern. After having 
cautioned red men so strongly about keeping the peace, he felt that the honor 
of himself and all his people was compromised by this vile act. He immedi- 
ately commissioned James Logan and John French to go to the scene of the 
iQurder above Conestoga, and inquire into the facts of the case, quickly appre- 
hended the supposed murderers, sent a fast Indian runner (Satcheecho), to 
acquaint the Five Nations with his sorrow for the act, and of his determination 
to bring the guilty parties to justice, and himself set out with three of his 
Council (Hill, Norris and Hamilton), for Albany, where he had been invited 
by the Indians for a conference with the Governors of all the colonies, and 
where he met the chiefs of the Five Nations, and treated with them upon the 
subject of the murder, besides making presents to the Indians. It was on this 
occasion that the grand sachem of this great confederacy made that noble, 
and generous, and touching response, so different from the spirit of revenge 
generally attributed to the Indian character. It is a notable example of love 
that begets love, and of the mild answer that turneth away wrath. He said : 
" The great king of the Five Nations is sorry for the death of the Indian 
that was killed, for he was of his own flesh and blood. He believes that the 
Governor is also sorry ; but, now that it is done, there is no help for it, and 
he desires that Cartlidge [the murderer] may not be put to death, nor that he 
should be spared for a time, and afterward executed ; one life is enough to be 
lost ; there should not two die. The King's heart is good to the Governor and 
all the English." 

Though Gov. Keith, during the early part of his term, pursued a pacific 
policy, yet the interminable quarrels which had been kept up between the As- 
sembly and Council during previous administrations, at length broke out with 

_ , g, ■ trgw ■''■■ 

t-*-C C^flOu^^S^ 



more virulence than ever, and he who in the first flush of power had declared 
"That he should pass no laws, nor transact anything of moment relating to 
the public affairs without the advice and approbation of the Council," took it 
upon himself finally to act independently of the Council, and even went so 
far as to dismiss the able and trusted representative of the proprietary inter- 
ests, James Logan, President of the Council and Secretary of the Province, 
from the duties of his high office, and even refused the request of Hannah 
Penn, the real Governor of the province, to re-instate him. This unwarranta- 
ble conduct cost him his dismissal from office in July, 1726. Why he should 
have assumed so headstrong and unwarrantable a course, who had promised at 
the first so mild and considerate a policy, it is difficult to understand, unless it 
be the fact that he found that the Council was blocking, by its obstinacy, 
wholesome legislation, which he considered of vital importance to the pros- 
perity of the colony, and if, as he alleges, he found that the new constitution 
only gave the Council advisory and not a voice in executive power. 

The administration of Gov. Keith was eminently successful, as he did not 
hesitate to grapple with important questions of judicature, finance, trade, 
commerce, and the many vexing relations with the native tribes, and right 
manfully, and judiciously did he effect their solution. It was at a time when 
the colony was filling up rapidly, and the laws and regulations which had been 
found ample for the management of a few hundred families struggling for a 
foothold in the forest, and when the only traffic was a few skins, were entirely 
inadequate for securing protection and prosperity to a seething and jostling 
population intent on trade and commerce, and the conflicting interests which 
required wise legislation and prudent management. No colony on the Ameri- 
can coast made such progress in numbers and improvement as did Pennsylvania 
during the nine years in which William Keith exei'cised the Gubernatorial 
office. Though not himself a Quaker, he had secured the passage of an act of 
Assembly, and its royal affirmation for allowing the members of the Quaker 
sect to wear their hats in court, and give testimony under affirmation instead 
of oath, which in the beginning of the reign of Queen Anne had been with- 
held from them. After the expiration of his term of office, he was immedi- 
ately elected a member of the Assembly, and was intent on being elected 
Speaker, " and had his support out- doors in a cavalcade of eighty mounted 
horsemen and the resounding of many guns fired;" yet David Lloyd was 
elected with only three dissenting voices, the outdoor business having perhaps 
been overdone. 

Upon the recommendation of Springett Penn, who was now the prospective 
heir to Pennsylvania, Patrick Gordon was appointed and confirmed Lieutenant 
Governor in place of Keith, and arrived in the colony and assumed authority 
in July, 1726. He had served in the army, and in his first address to the 
Assembly, which he met in August, he said that as he had been a soldier, he 
knew nothing of the crooked ways of professed politicians, and must rely on a 
straightforward manner of transacting the duties devolving upon him. George 
I died in June, 1727, and the Assembly at its meeting in October prepared 
and forwarded a congratulatory address to his successor, George II. By the 
decision of the Court of Chancery in 1727, Hannah Penn's authority over the 
colony was at an end, the proprietary interests having descended to John, 
Richard and Thomas Penn, the only surviving sons of William Penn, Sr. 
This period, from the death of Penn in 1718 to 1727, one of the most pros- 
perous in the history of the colony, was familiarly known as the " Reign of 
Hannah and the Boys." 

Gov. Gordon found the Indian troubles claiming a considerable part of his 



attention. In 1728, worthless bands, who had strayed away from their proper 
tribes, incited by strong drink, had become implicated in disgraceful broils, in 
which several were killed and wounded. The guilty parties were apprehended, 
but it was found difficult to punish Indian offenders without incurring the 
wrath of their relatives. Treaties were frequently renewed, on which occa- 
sions the chiefs expected that the chain of friendship would be polished " with 
English blankets, broadcloths and metals." The Indians found that this 
"brightening the chain" was a profitable business, which some have been un- 
charitable enough to believe was the moving cause of many of the Indian diffi- 

As early as 1732, the French, who were claiming all the territory drained 
by the Mississippi and its tributaries, on the ground of priority of discovery 
of its mouth and exploration of its channel, commenced erecting trading posts 
in Pennsylvania, along the Allegheny and Ohio Rivers, and invited the Indians 
living on these streams to a council for concluding treaties with them at Mon- 
treal, Canada. To neutralize the influence of the French, these Indians were 
summoned to meet in council at Philadelphia, to renew treaties of friendship, 
and they were invited to remove farther east. Bat this they were unwill- 
ing to do. A treaty was also concluded with the Six Nations, in which they 
pledged lasting friendship for the English. 

Hannah Penn died in 1733, when the Assembly, supposing that the pro- 
prietary power was still in her hands, refused to recognize the power of Gov. Gor- 
don. But the three sons, to whom the proprietary possessions had descended, 
in 1727, upon the decision of the Chancery case, joined in issuing a new com- 
mission to Gordon. In approving this commission the King directed a clause 
to be inserted, expressly reserving to himself the government of the lower 
counties. This act of the King was the beginning of those series of encroach- 
ments which finally culminated in the independence of the States of America. 
The Judiciary act of 1727 was annulled, and this was followed by an attempt 
to pass an act requiring the laws of all the colonies to be submitted to the 
Crown for approval before they should become valid, and that a copy of all 
laws previously enacted should be submitted for approval or veto. The agent 
of the Assembly, Mr. Paris, with the agents of other colonies, made so vigor- 
ous a defense, that action was for the time stayed. 

In 1732, Thomas Penn, the youngest son, and two years later, John Penn, 
the eldest, and the only American born, arrived in the Province, and were re- 
ceived with every mark of respect and satisfaction. Soon after the arrival of 
the latter, news was brought that Lord Baltimore had made application to have 
the Provinces transferred to his colony. A vigorous protest was made against 
this by Quakers in England, headed by Richard Penn; but lest this protest 
might prove ineffectual, John Penn very soon went to England to defend the 
proprietary rights at court, and never again returned, he having died a bach- 
elor in 1746. In August, 1736, Gov. Gordon died, deeply lamented, as an 
honest, upright and straightforward executive, a character which he expressed 
the hope he would be able to maintain when he assumed authority. His term 
had been one of prosperity, and the colony had grown rapidly in numbers, 
trade, commerce and manufactures, ship-building especially having assumed ex- 
tensive proportions. 

James Logan was President of the Council and in effect Governor, during 
the two years which elapsed between the death of Gordon and the arrival of 
his successor. The Legislature met regularly, but no laws were passed for 
lack of an executive. It was during this period that serious trouble broke out 
near the Maryland border, west of the Susquehanna, then Lancaster, now 


York County. A number of settlers, in order to evade the payment of taxes, 
had secured titles to their lands from Maryland, and afterward sought to be 
reinstated in their rights under Pennsylvania authority, and plead protection 
from the latter. The Sheriff of the adjoining Maryland County, with 300 
followers, advanced to drive these settlers from their homes. On hearing of 
this movement, Samuel Smith, Sheriff of Lancaster County, with a hastily sum- 
moned posse, advanced to protect the citizens in their rights. Without a con- 
flict, an agreement was entered into by both parties to retire. Soon afterward, 
however, a band of fifty Mary landers again entered the State with the design 
of driving out the settlers and each securing for himself 200 acres of land. 
They were led by one Cressap. The settlers made resistance, and in an en- 
counter, one of them by the name of Knowles was killed. The Sheriff of 
Lancaster again advanced with a posse, and in a skirmish which ensued one 
of the invaders was killed, and the leader Cressap was wounded and taken 
prisoner. The Governor of Maryland sent a commission to Philadelphia to 
demand the release of the prisoner. Not succeeding in this, he seized four of 
the settlers and incarcerated them in the jail at Baltimore. Still determined 
to effect their purpose, a party of Mary landers, under the leadership of one 
Higginbotham, advanced into Pennsylvania and began a warfare upon the 
settlers. Again the Sheriff of Lancaster appeared upon the scene, and drove 
out the invaders. So stubbornly were these invasions pushed and resented 
that the season passed without planting or securing the usual crops. Finally 
a party of sixteen Marylanders, led by Richard Lowden, broke into the Lan- 
caster jail and liberated the Maryland prisoners. Learning of these disturb- 
ances, the King in Council issued an order restraining both parties from fur- 
ther acts of violence, and afterward adopted a plan of settlement of the vexed 
boundary question. 

Though not legally Governor, Logan managed the affairs of tbe colony 
with great prudence and judgment, as he had done and continued to do for a 
period of nearly a half century. Ho was a scholar well versed in the ancient 
languages and the sciences, and published several learned works in the Latin 
tongue. His Experimenta Meleiemata de plantarum generatione, written in 
Latin, was published at Leyden in 1739, and afterward, in 1747, republished 
in London, with an English version on the opposite page by Dr. J. Fothergill. 
Another work of his in Latin was also published at Leyden, entitled, Canonum 
pro inveniendis refraction um, turn simplicium turn in lentibus duplicum focis, 
demonstrations geometricae. After retiring from public business, he lived at 
his country seat at Stenton, near Germantown, where he spent his time among 
his books and in correspondence with the literati of Europe. In his old age 
he made an English translation of Cicero's De Senectute, which was printed at 
Philadelphia in 1744 with a preface by Benjamin Franklin, then rising into 
notice. Logan was a Quaker, of Scotch descent, though born in Ireland, and 
came to America in the ship with William Penn, in his second visit in 169'J, 
when about twenty-five years old, and died at seventy-seven. He had held the 
offices of Chief Commissioner of property, Agent for the purchase and sale of 
lands, Receiver General, Member of Council, President of Council and Chief 
Justice. He was the Confidential Agent of Penn, having charge of all his vast 
estates, making sales of lands, executing conveyances, and making collections. 
Amidst all the great cares of business so pressing as to make him exclaim, "I 
know not what any of the comforts of life are," he found time to devote to the 
delights of learning, and collected a large library of standard works, which he 
bequeathed, at his death, to the people of Pennsylvania, and is known as the 
Loganian Library. 


George Thomas, a planter from the West Indies, was appointed Governor 
in 1737, but did not arrive in the colony till the following year. His first care 
was to settle tne disorders in the Cumberland Valley, and it was finally agreed 
that settlers from either colony should owe allegiance to the Governor of that 
colony wherever settled, until the division line which had been provided for 
was surveyed and marked. War was declared on the 23d of October, 1739, 
between Great Britain and Spain. Seeing that his colony was liable to be 
encroached upon by the enemies of his government, he endeavored to organ- 
ize the militia, but the majority of the Assembly was of the peace element, and 
it could not be induced to vote money. Finally he was ordered by the home 
government to call for volunteers, and eigbt companies were quickly formed, 
and sent down for the coast defense. Many of these proved to be servants for 
whom pay was demanded and finally obtained. In 1740, the great evangelist, 
Whitefield, visited the colony, and created a deep religious interest among all 
denominations. In his first intercourse with the Assembly, Gov. Thomas en- 
deavored to coerce it to his views. But a more stubborn set of men never met 
in a deliberative body than were gathered in this Assembly at this time. 
Finding that he could not compel action to his mind, he yielded and con- 
sulted their views and decisions. The Assembly, not to be outdone in mag- 
nanimity, voted him £1,500 arrearages of salary, which had been withheld bo- 
cause he would not approve their legislation, asserting that public acts should 
take precedence of appropriations for their own pay. In March, 1744, war 
was declared between Great Britain and France. Volunteers were called 
for, and 10,000 men were rapidly enliste^ and armed at their own expense. 
Franklin, recognizing the defenseless condition of the colony, issued a pamph- 
let entitled Plain Truth, in which he cogently urged the necessity of organ- 
ized preparation for defense. Franklin was elected Colonel of one of the 
regiments, but resigned in favor of Alderman Lawrence. On the 5th of May, 
1747, the Governor communicated intelligence of the death of John Penn, the 
eldest of the proprietors, to the Assembly, and his own intention to retire from 
the duties of his office on account of declining health. 

Anthony Palmer was President of the Council at the time of the with- 
drawal of Gordon, and became the Acting Governor. The peace party in the As- 
sembly held that it was the duty of the crown of England to protect the colony, 
and that for the colony to call out volunteers and become responsible for their 
payment was burdening the people with an expense which did not belong to 
them, and which the crown was willing to assume. The French were now 
deeply intent on securing firm possession of the Mississippi Valley and the en- 
tire basin, even to the summits of the Alleghanies in Pennsylvania, and were 
busy establishing trading posts along the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers. They 
employed the most artful means to win the simple natives to their interests, 
giving showy presents and laboring to convince them of their great value. 
Pennsylvania had won a reputation among the Indians of making presents of 
substantial worth. Not knowing the difference between steel and iron, the 
French distributed immense numbers of worthless iron hatohets, which the 
natives supposed were the equal of the best English steel axes. The Indians, 
however, soon came to distinguish between the good and the valueless. Un- 
derstanding the Pennsylvania methods of securing peace and friendship, the 
the natives became very artful in drawing out " well piled up " presents. The 
government at this time was alive to the dangers which threatened from the 
insinuating methods of the French. A trusty messenger, Conrad Weiser, was 
sent among the Indians in the western part of the province to observe the 
plans of the French, ascertain the temper of the natives, and especially to 


magnify the power of the English, and the disposition of Pennsylvania to give 
great presents. This latter policy had the desired effect, and worthless and 
wandering bands, which had no right to speak for the tribe, came teeming in, 
desirous of scouring the chain of friendship, intimating that the French were 
making great offers, in order to induce the government to large liberality, 
until this " brightening the chain," became an intolerable nuisance. At a sin- 
gle council held at Albany, in 1747, Pennsylvania distributed goods to the 
value of £1,000, and of such a character as should be most serviceable to the 
recipients, not worthless gew-gaws, but such as would contribute to their last- 
ing comfort and well being, a protection to the person against the bitter frosts 
of winter, and sustenance that should minister to the steady wants of the 
body and alleviation of pain in time of sickness. The treaty of Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle, which was concluded on the 1st of October, 1748, secured peace between 
Great Britain and France, and should have put an end to all hostile encoun- 
ters between their representatives on the American continent. Palmer re- 
mained at the head of the government for a little more than two years. He 
was a retired merchant from the West Indies, a man of wealth, and had come 
into the colony in 1708. He lived in a style suited to a gentleman, kepi a 
coach and a pleasure barge. 

On the 23d of November, 1748, James Hamilton arrived in the colony from 
England, bearing the commission of Lieutenant Governor. He was born in 
America, son of Andrew Hamilton, who had for many years been Speaker of 
the Assembly. The Indians west of the Susquehanna had complained that set- 
tlers had come upon their best lands, and were acquiring titles to them, where- 
as the proprietors had never purchased these lands of them, and had no claim 
to them. The first care of Hamilton was to settle these disputes, and allay the 
rising excitement of the natives. Richard Peters, Secretary of the colony, a 
man of great prudence and ability, was sent in company with the Indian in- 
terpreter, Conrad Weiser, to remove the intruders. It was firmly and fear- 
lessly done, the settlers giving up their tracts and the cabins which they had 
built, and accepting lands on the east side of the river. The hardship was in 
many cases great, but when they were in actual need, the Secretary gave 
money and placed them upon lands of his own, having secured a tract of 
2,000,000 of acres. 

But these troubles were of small consequence compared with those that 
were threatening from the West. Though the treaty of Alx was supposed to 
have settled all difficulties between the two courts, the French were determined 
to occupy the whole territory drained by the Mississippi, which they claimed 
by priority of discovery by La Salle. The British Ambassador at Paris entered 
complaints before the French Court that encroachments were being made by 
the French upon English soil in America, which were politely heard, and 
promises made of restraining the French in Canada from encroaching upon 
English territory. Formal orders were sent out from the home government to 
this effect; but at the same time secret intimations were conveyed to them that 
their conduct in endeavoring to secure and hold the territory in dispute was 
not displeasing to the government, and that disobedience of these orders would 
not incur its displeasure. The French deemed it necessary, in order to estab- 
lish a legal claim to the country, to take formal possession of it. Accordingly, 
the Marquis de la Galissoniere, who was at this time Governor General of 
Canada, dispatched Capt. Bienville de Celeron with a party of 215 French and 
lifty-tive Indians, to publicly proclaim possession, and bury at prominent 
points plates of lead bearing inscriptions declaring occupation in the name of 
the French King. Celeron started on the loth of Juno, 1749, from La Chine, 


following the southern shores of Lakes Ontario and Erie, until he reached a 
point opposite Lake Chautauqua, where the boats were drawn up and were taken 
bodily over the dividing ridge, a distance of ten miles, with all the impedimenta 
of the expedition, the pioneers havin >■ first opened a road. Following on down 
the lake and the Conewango Creek, they arrived at Warren near the confluence 
of the creek with the Allegheny River. Here the first plate was buried. 
These plates were eleven inches long, seven and a half wide, and one-eighth 
of an inch thick. The inscription 7 was in French, and in the following terms, 
as fairly translated into English: "In the year 1749, of the reign of Louie 
XIV, King of France, We Celeron, commander of a detachment sent by 
Monsieur the Marquis de la Galissoniere, Governor General of New France, 
to re-establish tranquillity in some Indian villages of these cantons, have 
buried this plate of lead at the confluence of the Ohio with the Chautauqua, 
this 29th day of July, near the River Ohio, otherwise Belle Riviere, as a mon- 
ument of the renewal of the possession we have taken of the said River Ohio, 
and of all those which empty into it, and of all the lands on both sides as far 
as the sources of the said river, as enjoyed or ought to have been enjoyed by 
the King of France preceding, and as they have there maintained themselves 
by arms and by treaties, especially those of Ryswick, Utrecht and Aix-la- 
Chapelle." The burying of this plate was attended with much form and cer- 
emony. All the men and officers of the expedition were drawn up in battle 
array, when the Commander, Celeron, proclaimed in a loud voice, '"Vive le 
Roi," and declared that possession of the country' was now taken in the name 
of the King. A plate on which was inscribed tne arms of France was affixed 
to the nearest tree. 

The same formality was observed in planting each of the other plates, the 
second at the rock known as the "Indian God," on which are ancient and un- 
known inscriptions, a few miles below Franklin, a third at the mouth of 
Wheeling Creek: a fourth at the mouth of the Muskingum; a fifth at the mouth 
of the Great Kanawha, and the sixth and last at the mouth of the Great Miami. 
Toilsomely ascending the Miami to its head- waters, the party burned their 
canoes, and obtained ponies for the march across the portage to the head- waters 
of the Maumee, down which and by Lakes Erie and Ontario they returned 
to Fort Frontenac, arriving on the Cth of November. It appeal's that the In- 
dians through whose territory they passed viewed this planting of plates with 
great suspicion. By some means they got possession of one of them, gener- 
ally supposed to have been stolen from the party at the very commencement of 
their journey from the mouth of the Chautauqua Creek. 

Mr. O. H. Marshall, in an excellent monograph upon this expedition, made 
up from the original manuscript journal of Celeron and the diary of Father 
Bonnecamps, found in the Department de la Marine, in Paris, gives the fol- 
lowing account of this stolen plate: 

" The first of the leaden plates was brought to the attention of the public 
by Gov. George Clinton to the Lords of Trade in London, dated New York, 
December 19, 1750, in which he states that he would send to their Lordships 
in two or three weeks a plate of lead full of writing, which some of the upper 
nations of Indians stole from Jean Coeur, the French interpreter at Niagara. 
on his way to the River Ohio, which river, and all the lands thereabouts, the 
French claim, as will appear by said writing. He further states 'that the lead 
plate gave the Indians so much uneasiness that they immediately dispatched 
some of the Cayuga chiefs to him with it, saying that their only reliance was 
on him, and earnestly begged he would communicate the contents to them 
which he had done, much to their satisfaction and the interests of the English. 


The Governor concludes by saying that ' the contents of the plate may be of 
great importance in clearing up the encroachments which the French have 
made on the British Empire in America.' The plate was delivered to Colonel, 
afterward Sir William Johnson, on the 4th of December, 1750, at his resi- 
dence on the Mohawk, by a Cayuga sachem, who accompanied it by the follow- 
ing speech: 

"' Brother Corlear and War-ragh-i-ya-ghey! I am sent here by the Five 
Nations with a piece of writing which the Senecas, our brethren, got by some 
artifice from Jean Coeur, earnestly beseeching you will let us know what it 
means, and as we put all our confidence in you, we hope you will explain it 
ingeniously to us.' 

" Col. Johnson replied to the sachem, and through him to the Five Na- 
tions, returning a belt of wampum, and explaining the inscription on the 
plate. He told them that 'it was a matter of the greatest consequence, involv- 
ing the possession of their lands and hunting grounds, and that Jean Coeur 
and the French ought immediately to be expelled from the Ohio and Niagara.' 
In reply, the sachem said that 'he had heard with great attention and surprise 
the substance of the "devilish writing " he had brought, and that Col. Johnson's 
remarks were fully approved.' He promised that belts from each of the Five 
Nations should be sent from the Seneca's castle to the Indians at the Ohio, to 
warn and strengthen them against the French encroachments in that direc- 
tion." On the 29th of January, 1751, Clinton sent a copy of this inscription 
to Gov. Hamilton, of Pennsylvania. 

The French followed up this formal act of possession by laying out a line 
of military posts, on substantially the same line as that pursued by the Cele- 
ron expedition; but instead of crossing over to Lake Chautauqua, they kept 
on down to Presque Isle (now Erie), where was a good harbor, where a fort 
was established, and thence up to Le Boeuf (now Waterford), where another 
post w;*s placed; thence down the Venango River (French Creek) to its month 
at Franklin, eptablishing Fort Venango there; thence by the Allegheny to 
Pittsburgh, where Fort Du Quesne was seated, and so on down the Ohio. 

To counteract this activity of the French, the Ohio Company was char- 
tered, and a half million of acres was granted by the crown, to be selected 
mainly on the south side of the Ohio, between the Monongalia and Kanawha 
Rivers, and the condition made that settlements (100 families within seven 
years), protected by a fort, should he made. The company consisted of a 
number of Virginia and Maryland gentlemen, of whom Lawrence Washington 
was one, and Thomas Hanbury, of London. 

In 1752, a treaty was entered into with the Indians, securing the right of 
occupancy, and twelve families, headed by Capt. Gist, established themselves 
upon the Monongalia, and subsequently commenced the erection of a fort, 
where the city of Pittsburgh now is. Apprised of this intrusion into the 
very heart of the territory which they were claiming, the French built a fort 
at Le Boeuf, and strengthened the post at Franklin. 

These proceedings having been promptly reported to Lieut. Gov. Dinwid- 
die, of Virginia, where the greater number of the stockholders of the Ohio 
Company resided, he determined to send an official communication — protesting 
against the forcible interference with their chartered rights, granted by the 
crown of Britain, and pointing to the late treaties of peace entered into be- 
tween the English and French, whereby it was agreed that each should respect 
the colonial possessions of the other — to the Commandant of the French, who 
had bis headquarters at Fort Le Boeuf, fifteen miles inland from the present 
site of the city of Erie. 


But who should be the messenger to execute this delicate and responsible 
duty? It was winter, and the distance to be traversed was some 500 miles, 
through an unbroken wilderness, cut by rugged mountain chains and deep and 
rapid streams. It was proposed to several, who declined, and was finally 
accepted by George Washington, a youth barely twenty-one years old. On 
the last day of November, 1753, he bade adieu to civilization, and pushing on 
through the forest to the settlements on the Monongalia, where - he was joined 
by Capt. Gist, followed up the Allegheny to Fort Venango (now Franklin); 
thence up the Venango to its head-waters at Fort Le Boeuf, where he held 
formal conference with the French Commandant, St. Pierre. The French 
officer had been ordered to hold this territory on the score of the dis- 
covery of the Mississippi by La Salle, and he had no discretion but to execute 
his orders, and referred Washington to his superior, the Governor General of 
Canada. Making careful notes of the location and strength of the post and 
those encountered on the way, the young embassador returned, being twice 
fired at on his journey by hostile Indians, and near losing his life by being 
thrown into the freezing waters of the Allegheny. Upon his arrival, he made 
a full report of the embassage, which was widely published in this country 
and in England, and was doubtless the basis upon which action was predicted 
that eventuated in a long and sanguinary war, which finally resulted in the 
expulsion of the power of France from this continent. 

Satisfied that the French were determined to hold the territory upon the 
Ohio by force of arms, a body of 150 men, of which Washington was second 
in command, was sent to the support of the settlers. But the French, having 
the Allegheny River at flood-tide on which to move, and Washington, without 
means of transportation, having a rugged and mountainous country to over- 
come, the former first reached the point of destination. Contracoeur, the 
French commander, with 1,000 men and field pieces on a fleet of sixty boats and 
300 canoes, dropped down the Allegheny and easily seized the fort then being 
constructed by the Ohio Company at its mouth, and proceeded to erect there 
an elaborate work which he called Fort Da Quesne, after the Governor Gen- 
eral. Informed of this proceeding, Washington pushed forward, and finding 
that a detachment of the French was in his immediate neighborhood, he made 
a forced march by night, and coming upon them unawares killed and captured 
the entire party save one. Ten of the French, including their commander, 
Jumonville, were killed, and twenty-one made prisoners. Col. Fry, the com- 
mander of the Americans, died at Will's Creek, where the command devolved 
on Washington. Though re -enforcements had been dispatched from the sev- 
eral colonies in response to the urgent appeals of Washington, none reached 
him but one company of 100 men under Capt. Mackay from South Carolina. 
Knowing that he was confronting a vastly superior force of the French, well 
supplied with artillery, he threw up works at a point called the Great 
Meadows, which he characterizes asa" charming field for an encounter," nam- 
ing his hastily built fortification Fort Necessity. Stung by the loss of their 
leader, the French came out in strong force and soon invested the place. Unfor- 
tunately onepartof Washington's position was easily commanded by the artil- 
lery of the French, which they were not slow in taking advantage of. The ac- 
tion opened on the 3d of July, and was continued till late at night. A capit- 
ulation was proposed by the French commander, which Washington reluctantly 
accepted, seeing all hope of re-enforcements reaching him, cut off, and on the 
4th of July marched out with honors of war and fell back to Fort Cumberland. 

Gov. Hamilton had strongly recommended, before hostilities opened, that the 
Assembly should provide for defense and establish a line of block-houses alongr 


the frontier. But the Assembly, while willing to vote money for buying peace 
from the Indians, and contributions to the British crown, from which protec- 
tion was claimed, was unwilling to contribute directly for even defensive war- 
fare. Id a single year, £8,000 were voted for Indian gratuities. The proprie- 
tors werb appealed to to aid in bearing this burden. But while they were 
willing to contribute liberally for defense, they would give nothing for Indian 
gratuities. They sent to the colony cannon to the value of £400. 

In February, 1753, John Penn, grandson of the founder, son of Richard, 
arrived in the colony, and as a mark of respect was immediately chosen a mem- 
ber of the Council and made its President. In consequence of the defeat of 
Washington at Fort Necessity, Gov. Hamilton convened the Assembly in extra 
session on the 6th of August, at which money was freely voted; but owing to 
the instructions given by the proprietors to their Deputy Governor not to sign 
any money bill that did not place the whole of the interest at their disposal, 
this action of the Assembly was abortive. 

The English and French nations made strenuous exertions to strengtnen 
their forces in America for the campaigns sure to be undertaken in 1754. The 
French, by being under the supreme authority of one governing power, the 
Governor General of Canada, were able to concentrate and bring all their 
power of men and resources to bear at the threatened point with more celerity 
and certainty than the English, who were dependent upon colonies scattered 
along all the sea board, and upon Legislatures penny-wise in voting money. 
To remedy these inconveniences, the English Government recommended a con- 
gress of all the colonies, together with the Six Nations, for the purpose of con- 
certing plans for efficient defense. This Congress met on the 19th of June, 
1754, the first ever convened in America. The Representatives from Pennsyl- 
vania were John Penn and Richard Peters for the Council, and Isaac Norris 
and Benjamin Franklin for the Assembly. The influence of the powerful 
mind of Franklin was already beginning to be felt, he having been Clerk of 
the Pennsylvania Assembly since 1736, and since 1750 had been a member. 
Heartily sympathizing with the movers in the purposes of this Congress, he 
came to Albany with a scheme of union prepared, which, having been pre- 
sented and debated, was, on the 10th of July, adopted substantially as it came 
from his hands. It provided for the appointment of a President General by 
the Crown, and an Assembly of forty-eight members to be chosen by the sev- 
eral Colonial Assemblies. The plan was rejected by both parties in interest, 
the King considering the power vested in the representatives of the people too 
great, and every colony rejecting it because the President General was given 
" an influence greater than appeared to them proper in a plan of government 
intended for freemen." 


Robert H. Morris, 1754^56— William Denny, 1756-59— James Hamilton, 1759-63. 

FINDING himself in a false position by the repugnant instructions of the 
proprietors, Gov. Hamilton had given notice in 1753, that, at the end ot 
twelve months from its reception, he would resign. Accordingly in October, 
1754, he was succeeded by Robert Hunter Morris, son oi Lewis Morris, Chief 
Justice of New York and New Jersey, and Governor of New Jersey. The son 


was bred a lawyer, and was for twenty-six years Councilor, and twenty Chief 
Justice of New Jersey. The Assembly, at its lirst session, voted a money bill, 
for £40,000, but not having the proviso required by the proprietors, it was 
vetoed. Determined to push military operations, the British Government had 
called early in the year for 3,000 volunteers from Pennsylvania, with subsis- 
tence, camp equipage and transportation, and had sent two regiments of the 
line, under Gen. Braddock, from Cork, Ireland. Landing at Alexandria, 
Va., he marched to Frederick, Md., where, finding no supplies of 
transportation, he halted. The Assembly of Pennsylvania had voted to borrow 
£5,000, on its own account, for the use of the crown in prosecuting the cam- 
paign, and had sent Franklin, who was then Postmaster General for the colo- 
nies, to Braddock to aid in prosecuting the expedition. Finding that the army 
was stopped for lack of transportation, Franklin returned into Pennsylvania, 
and by his commanding influence soon secured the necessary wagons and beasts 
of burden. 

Braddock had formed extravagant plans for his campaign. He would 
march forward and reduce Fort Du Quesne, thence proceed against Fort Ni- 
agara, which having conquered he would close a season of triumphs by the 
capture of Fort Frontignace. But this is not the first time in warfare that 
the result of a campaign has failed to realize the promises of the manifesto. 
The orders brought by Braddock giving precedence of officers of the line over 
provincials gave offense, and Washington among others threw up his commis- 
sion; but enamored of the profession of arms, he accepted a position offered 
him by Braddock as Aide-decamp. Accustomed to the discipline of military 
establishments in old, long-settled countries, Braddock had little conception of 
making war in a wilderness with only Indian trails to move upon, and against 
wily savages. Washington had advised to push forward with pack horses, and, 
by rapidity of movement, forestall ample preparation. But Braddock had but 
one way of soldiering, and where roads did not exist for wagons he stopped to 
fell the forest and construct bridges over streams. The French, who were 
kept advised of every movement, made ample preparations to receive him. In 
the meantime, Washington fell sick; but intent on being up for the battle, he 
hastened forward as soon as sufficiently recovered, and only joined the army 
on the day before the fatal engagement. He had never seen much of the pride 
and circumstance of war, and when, on the morning of the 9th of July, the 
army of Braddock marched on across the Monongahela, with gay colors flying 
and martial music awakening the echoes of the forest, he was accustomed in 
after years to speak of it as the "most magnificent spectacle" that he had ever 
beheld. But the gay pageant was destined to be of short duration; for the 
army had only marched a little distance before it fell into an ambuscade skill- 
fully laid by the French and Indians, and the forest resounded with the un- 
earthly whoop of the Indians, and the continuous roar of musketry. The 
advance was checked and thrown into confusion by the French from their well- 
chosen position, and every tree upon the flanks of the long drawn out line con- 
cealed a murderous foe, who with unerring aim picked off the officers. A res- 
olute defense was made, and the battle raged with great fury for three hours; 
but the fire of tbe English was ineffectual because directed against an invisi- 
ble foe. Finally, the mounted officers having all fallen, killed or wounded, 
except Washington, being left without leaders, panic seized the survivors and 
"they ran," says Washington, "before the French and English like sheep be- 
fore dogs." Of 1,460, in Braddock's army, 456 were killed, and 421 wounded, 
a greater mortality, in proportion to the number engaged, than has ever oc- 
curred in the annals of modern warfare. Sir Peter Halkett was killed, and 


Braddock mortally wounded and brought off the field only with the greatest 
difficulty. When Orine and Morris, the other aids, fell, Washington acted 
alone with the greatest gallantry. In writing to his brother, he said: "I have 
been protected beyond all human probability or expectation; for I had four 
bullets through my coat, and two horses shot under me; yet I escaped unhurt, 
though death was leveling my companions on every side." In after years, 
when Washington visited the Great Kanawha country, he was approached by 
an Indian chieftain who said that in this battle he had fired his rifle many 
times at Washington and had told his young men to do the same; but when he 
saw that his bullets had no apparent effect, he bad bidden them to desist, be- 
lieving that the Great Spirit was protecting him. 

The panic among the survivors of the English carried them back upon the 
reserve, commanded by Gen. Dunbar, who seems himself to have been seized 
with it, and without attempting to renew the campaign and return to the en- 
counter, he joined in the flight which was not stayed until Fort Cumberland 
was reached. The French were* anticipating a renewal of the struggle; but 
when they found that the English had fled leaving the frontier all unprotected, 
they left no stone unturned in whetting the minds of the savages for the 
work of plunder and blood, and in organizing relentless bands to range at 
will along all the wide frontier. The Indians could not be induced to pursue 
the retreating English, but fell to plundering the field. Nearly everything 
was lost, even to the camp chest of Braddock. The wounded General was 
taken back to the summit of Laurel Hill, where, four days after, he breathed 
his last. He was buried in the middle of the road, and the ariny marched 
over his grave that it might not be discovered or molested by the natives. 
The eajy victory, won chiefly by the savages, served to encourage them in 
their fell work, in which, when their passions were aroused, no known people 
on earth were less touched by pity. The unprotected settler in his wilder- 
ness hrme was the easy prey of the torch and the scalping knife, and the burn- 
ing cabin lit up the somber forests by their continuous blaze, and the shrieks 
of women and children resounded from the Hudson to the far Potomac Be- 
fore the defeat of Braddock, there were 3,000 men capable of bearing arms 
west of the Susquehanna. In six months after, there were scarcely 100. 

Gov. Morris made an earnest appeal to the Assembly for money to ward off 
the impending enemy and protect the settlers, in response to which the As- 
sembly voted £50,000; but having no exemption of the proprietor's estates, 
it was rejected by the Governor, in accordance with his original instructions. 
Expeditions undertaken against Nova Scotia and at Crown Point were more fortu- 
nate than that before Du Quesne, and the Assembly voted £15,000 in bills of credit 
to aid in defraying the expense. The proprietors sent £5,000 as a gratuity, 
not as any part of expense that could of right be claimed of them. 

In this hour of extremity, the Indians for the most part showed themselves 
a treacherous race, ever ready to take up on the stronger side. Even the Shaw- 
anese and Delawares, who had been loudest in their protestations of friendship 
for the English and readiness to fight for them, no sooner saw the French vic- 
torious than they gave ready ear to their advice to strike for the recovery of 
the lands which they had sold to the English. 

In this pressing emergency, while the Governor and Assembly were waging 
a fruitless war of words over money bills, the pen of Franklin was busy in in- 
fusing a wholesome sentiment in the minds of the people. In a pamphlet 
that he issued, which he put in the familiar form of a dialogue, he answered the 
objections which had been urged to a legalized militia, and willing to show 
his devotion by deeds as well as words, he accepted the command upon the 


frontier. By his exertions, a respectable force was raised, and though in the 
dead of winter, he commenced the erection of a line of forts and block-houses 
along the whole range of the Kittatinny Hills, from the Delaware to the Po- 
tomac, and had them completed and garrisoned with a body sufficient to with- 
stand any force not provided with artillery. In the spring, he turned over the 
command to Col. Clapham, and returning to Philadelphia took his seat in the 
Assembly. The Governor now declared war against the Indians, who had es- 
tablished their headquarters thirty miles above Harris' Ferry, on the Susque- 
hanna, and were busy in their work of robbery and devastation, having se- 
cured the greater portion of the crops of the previous season of the settlers 
whom they had killed or driven out. The peace party strongly objected to the 
course of the Governor, and voluntarily going among the Indians induced 
them to bury the hatchet. The Assembly which met in May, 1756, prepared a 
bill with the old clause for taxing the proprietors, as any other citizens, which 
the Governor was forbidden to approve by his instructions, "and the two 
parties were sharpening their wits for another wrangle over it," when Gov. 
Morris was superseded by William Denny, who arrived in the colony and as- 
sumed authority on the 20th of August, 1756. He was joyfully and cordially 
received, escorted through the streets by the regiments of Franklin and Duche\ 
and royally feasted at the State House. 

But the promise of efficient legislation was broken by an exhibition of the 
new Governor's instructions, which provided that every bill for the emission of 
money must place the proceeds at the joint disposal of the Governor and As- 
sembly; paper currency could not be issued in excess of £40,000, nor could ex- 
isting issues be confirmed unless proprietary rents were paid in sterling 
money : proprietary lands were permitted to be taxed which had been actually 
leased, provided that the taxes were paid out of the rents, but the tax could 
not become a lien upon the land. In the first Assembly, the contention be- 
came as acrimonious as ever. 

Previous to the departure of Gov. Morris, as a retaliatory act he had 
issued a proclamation against the hostile Indians, providing for the payment 
of bounties: For every male Indian enemy above twelve years old, who shall 
be taken prisoner and delivered at any forts, garrisoned by troops in pay 
of this province, or to any of the county towns to thu keepers of the common 
jails there, the sum of one hundred and fifty Spanish dollars or pieces of eight; 
for the scalp of every male Indian above the age of twelve year's, produced as 
evidence of their being killed, the sum of one hundred and thirty pieces of 
eight; for every female Indian taken prisoner and brought in as aforesaid, 
and for every male Indian under the age of twelve years, taken and brought 
in, one hundred and thirty pieces of eight; for the scalp of every Indian 
woman produced as evidence of their being killed, the sum of fifty pieces of 
eight/' Liberal bounties were also offered for the delivering up of settlers who 
had been carried away captive. 

But the operation which had the most wholesome and pacifying effect upon 
the savages, and caused them to stop in their mad career and consider the 
chances of war and the punishment they were calling down upon their own 
heads, though executed under the rule of Gov. Denny, was planned and 
provided for, and was really a part of the aggressive and vigorous policy of 
Gov. Morris. In response to the act of Assembly, providing for the calling 
out and organizing the militia, twenty-five companies were recruited, and had 
been stationed along the line of posts that had been established for the defense 
of the frontiers. At Kittanning, on the Allegheny River, the Indians had one 
of the largest of their towns in the State, and was a recruiting station and 


rallying point for sending out their murderous bands. The plan proposed and 
adopted by Gov. Morris, and approved and accepted by Gov. Denny, 
was to send out a strong detachment from the militia for the reduction of this 
stronghold. Accordingly, in August, 1756, Col. Armstrong, witb a force of 
three hundred men, made a forced march, and, arriving unperceived in the neigh- 
borhood of the town, sent the main body by a wide detour from above, to come 
in upon the river a few hundred yards below. At 3 o'clock on the morning of 
the 7th of September, the troops had gained their position undiscovered, and 
at dawn the attack was made. Shielded from view by the tall corn which cov- 
ered all the flats, the troops were able to reach in close proximity to the cabins 
unobserved. Jacobs, the chief, sounded the war-whoop, and made a stout re- 
sistance, keeping up a rapid tire from wfco loop holes in his cabin. Not desir- 
ing to push his advantage to the issue of no quarter, Armstrong called on the 
savages to surrender: but this they refused to do, declaring that they were 
men and would never be prisoners. Finding that they would not yield, and 
that they were determined to sell their lives at the dearest rate, he gave orders 
to tire the huts, and the whole town was soon wrapt in flames. As the heat 
began to reach the warriors, some sung, while wrung with the death agonies; 
others broke for the river and were shot down as they fled. Jacobs, in attempt- 
ing to climb through a window, was killed. All calls for surrender were re- 
ceived with derision, one declaring that he did not care for death, and that he 
could kill four or five before he died. Gunpowder, small arms and valuable 
goods which had been distributed to them only the day before by the French, 
fell into the hands of the victors. The triumph was complete, few if any 
escaping to tell the sad tale. Col. Armstrong's celerity of movement and 
well conceived and executed plan of action were publicly acknowledged, and 
he was voted a medal and plate by the city of Philadelphia. 

The finances of the colony, on account of the repeated failures of the 
money bills, were in a deplorable condition. Military operations could not 
be carried on and vigorous campaigns prosecuted without ready money. Ac- 
cordingly, in the first meeting of the Assembly after the arrival of the new 
Governor, a bill was passed levying £100,000 on all property alike, real and 
personal, private and proprietary. This Gov. Denny vetoed. Seeing that 
money must be had, the Assembly finally passed a bill exempting the proprie- 
tary estates, but determined to lay their grievances before the Crown. To 
this end, two Commissioners were appointed, Isaac Norris and Benjamin 
Franklin, to proceed to England and beg the interference of the royal Gov- 
ernment in their behalf. Failing health and business engagements of Norris 
prevented his acceptance, and Franklin proceeded alone. He had so often de- 
fended the Assembly in public and in drawing remonstrances that the whole 
subject was at his fingers' ends. 

Military operations throughout the colonies, during the year 1757, con- 
ducted under the command of the Earl of Loudoun were sluggish, and resulted 
only in disaster and disgrace. The Indians were active in Pennsylvania, and 
kept the settlers throughout nearly all the colonies in a continual ferment, 
hostile bands stealing in upon the defenseless inhabitants as they went to 
their plantings and sowings, and greatly interfering with or preventing alto- 
gether the raising of the ordinary crops. In 1758, Loudoun was recalled, 
and Gen. Abercrombie was given chief command, with Wolfe, Amherst and 
Forbes as his subordinates. It was determined to direct operations simul- 
taneously upon three points — Fort Du Quesne, Louisburg and the forts upon 
the great lakes. Gen. Forbes commanded the forces sent against Fort Du 
Quesne. With a detachment of royal troops, and militia from Pennsylvania 


and Virginia, under command of Cols. Bouquet and Washington, his column 
moved in July, 1758. The French were well ordered for receiving the attack, 
and the battle in front of the fort raged with great fury; but they were finally 
driven, and the fort, with its munitions, fell into the hands of the victors, and 
was garrisoned by 400 Pennsylvanians. Returning, Forbes placed his remain- 
ing forces in barracks at Lancaster. 

Franklin, upon his arrival in England, presented the grievances before the 
proprietors, and, that he might get his case before the royal advisers and the 
British public, wrote frequent articles for the press, and issued a pamphlet 
entitled " Historical Review of the Constitution and Government of Pennsyl- 
vania." The dispute was adroitly managed by Franklin before the Privy 
Council, and was finally decided substantially in the interest of the Assem- 
bly. It was provided that the proprietors' estates should be taxed, but that 
their located uncultivated lands should be assessed as low as the lowest uncul- 
tivated lands of the settlers, that bills issued by the Assembly should be re- 
ceivable in payment of quit rents, and that the Deputy Governor should have 
a voice in disposing of the revenues. Thus was a vexed question of loDg 
standing finally put to rest. So successfully had Franklin managed this con- 
troversy that the colonies of Massachusetts, Maryland and Georgia appointed 
him their agent in England. 

In October, 1759, James Hamilton was again appointed Governor, in place 
of Gov. Denny, who had by stress of circumstances transcended his instruc- 
tions. The British Government, considering that the colonies had borne more 
than their proportionate expense in carrying on the war against the French 
and Indians, voted £200,000 for five years, to be divided among the colonies, 
the share falling to Pennsylvania being £26,000. On the 25th of October, 
1760, George II died, and was succeeded by his grandson, George III. Early 
in 1762, war was declared between Great Britain and Spain, but was of short 
continuance, peace having been declared in November following, by which 
Spain and France relinquished to the English substantially the territory east 
of the Mississippi. The wise men of the various Indian nations inhabiting 
this wide territory viewed with concern this sudden expansion of English 
power, fearing that they would eventually bo pushed from their hunting 
grounds and pleasant haunts by the rapidly multiplying pale faces. The In- 
dians have ever been noted for proceeding against an enemy secretly and 
treacherously. Believing that by concerted action the English might be cut 
off and utterly exterminated, a secret league was entered into by the Shawa- 
nese and the tribes dwelling along the Ohio River, under the leadership of a 
powerful chieftain, Pontiac, by which swift destruction was everywhere to be 
meted out to the white man upon an hour of an appointed day. The plan was 
thoroughly understood by the red men, and heartily entered into. The day 
dawned and the blow fell in May, 1763. The forts at Presque Isle, Le Boeuf, 
Venango, La Ray, St. Joseph's, Miamis, Onaethtanon, Sandusky and Michili- 
mackinack, all fell before the unanticipated attacks of the savages who were 
making protestations of friendship, and the garrisons were put to the slaugh- 
ter. Fort Pitt (Du Quesne), Niagara and Detroit alone, of all this line of 
forts, held out. Pontiac in person conducted the siege of Detroit, which he 
vigorously pushed from May until October, paying his warriors with promises 
written on bits of birch bark, which he subsequently religiously redeemed. It is 
an evidence of his gieat power that he could unite his people in so gen- 
eral and secretly kept a compact, and that in. this siege of Detroit he was able 
to hold his warriors up to the work so long and so vigorously even after all hope 
of success must have reasonably been abandoned. The attack fell with great 


severity upon the Pennsylvania settlors, and they continued to be driven in 
until Shippensbung, in Cumberland County, became the extreme outpost of 
civilization. The savages stole unawares upon the laborers in the tields, or 
came stealthily in at the midnight hour and spared neither trembling age nor 
helpless infancy, firing houses, barns, crops and everything combustible. 
The suffering of the frontiersmen in this fatal year can scarcely be conceived. 

Col. Armstrong with a hastily collected force advanced upon their towns 
and forts at Muncy and Great Island, which he destroyed; but the Indians 
escaped and withdrew before him. He sent a detachment under Col. Bouquet 
to the relief of Fort Pitt, which still held out, though closely invested by the 
dusky warriors. At Fort Ligonier, Bouquet halted and sent forward thirty 
men, who stealthily pushed past the Indians under cover of night, and reached 
the fort, carrying intelligence that succor was at hand. Discovering that a 
force was advancing upon them, the Indians turned upon the troops of Bou- 
quet, and before he was aware that an enemy was near, he found himself sur- 
rounded and all means of escape apparently cut off. By a skillfully laid 
ambuscade, Bouquet, sending a small detachment to steal away as if in retreat, 
induced the Indians to follow, and when stretched out in pursuit, the main 
body in concealment fell upon the unsuspecting savages, and routed them with 
immense slaughter, when he advanced to the relief of the fort unchecked. 

As we have already seen, the boundary line between Maryland and Penn- 
sylvania had long been in dispute, and had occasioned serious disturbances 
among the settlers in the lifetime of Penn, and repeatedly since. It was not 
definitely settled till 1760, when a beginning was made of a final adjustment, 
though so intricate were the conditions that the work was prosecuted for seven 
years by a large force of surveyors, axmen and pioneers. The charter of Lord 
Baltimore made the northern boundary of Maryland the 40th degree of lati- 
tude; but whether the beginning or end of the 40th was not specified. The 
charter of Penn, which was subsequent, made his southern boundary the 
beginning of the 40th parallel. If, as Lord Baltimore claimed, his northern 
boundary was the end of the 40th, then the city of Philadelphia and all the 
settled parts of Pennsylvania would have been included in Maryland. If, as 
Penn claimed by express terms of his charter, his southern line was the begin- 
ning of the 40th, then the city of Baltimore, and even a part of the District of 
Columbia, including nearly the whole of Maryland would have been swal- 
lowed up by Pennsylvania. It was evident to the royal Council that neither 
claim could be rightfully allowed, and nence resort was had to compromise. 
Penn insisted upon retaining free communication with the open ocean by the 
Delaware Bay. Accordingly, it was decided that beginning at Cape Henlopen, 
which by mistake in marking the maps was fifteen miles below the present 
location, opposite Cape May, a line should be run due west to a point half way 
between this cape and the shore of Chesapeake Bay; from this point " a line 
was to be run northerly in such direction that it should be tangent on the west 
side to a circle with a radius of twelve miles, whose center was the center of 
the court house at New Castle. From the exact tangent point, a line was to be 
run due north until it should reach a point fifteen miles south on the parallel 
of latitude of the most southern point in the boundary of the city of Phila- 
delphia, and this point when accurately found by horizontal measurement, was 
to be the corner bound between Maryland and Pennsylvania, and subsequently, 
when Delaware was set off from Pennsylvania, was the boundary of the three 
States. From this bound a line was to be run due west five degrees of longi- 
tude from the Delaware, which was to be the western limit of Pennsylvania, 
and the line thus ascertained was to mark the division between Maryland and 


Pennsylvania, and forever settle the vexed question. If the due north line 
should cut any part of the circle about New Castle, the slice so cut should be- 
long to New Castle. Such a segment was cut. This plan of settlement was 
entered into on the 10th of May, 1732, between Thomas and Richard, sons of 
William Penn, on the one part, and Charles, Lord Baltimore, great grandson 
of the patentee. But the actual marking of the boundaries was still deferred, 
and as the settlers were taking out patents for their lands, it was necessary 
that it should be definitely known in which State the lands lay. Accordingly, 
in 1739, in obedience to a decree in Council, a temporary line was run upon a 
new basis, which now often appears in litigations to plague the brain of the 

Commissioners were again appointed in 1751, who made a few of the 
measurements, but owing to objections raised on the part of Maiyland, the 
work was abandoned. Finally, the proprietors, Thomas and Kichard Penn, 
and Frederic, Lord Baltimore, entered into an agreement for the executing of 
the survey, and John Lukens and Archibald McLean on the part of the Penns, 
and Thomas Garnett and Jonathan Hall on the part of Lord Baltimore, were 
appointed with a suitable corps of assistants to lay off the lines. After these 
surveyors had been three years at work, the proprietors in England, thinking 
that there was not enough energy and practical and scientific knowledge mani- 
fested by these surveyors, appointed Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, two 
mathematicians and surveyors, to proceed to America and take charge of the 
work. They brought with them the most perfect and best constructed instru- 
ments known to science, arriving in Philadelphia on the 15th of November, 
1763, and, assisted by some of the old surveyors, entered upon their work. By 
the 4th of June, 1766, they had reached the summit of the Little Allegheny, 
when the Indians began to be troublesome. They looked with an evil eye on 
the mathematical and astronomical instruments, and felt a secret dread and 
fear of the consequences of the frequent and long continued peering into the 
heavens. The Six Nations were understood to be inimical to the further prog- 
ress of the survey. But through the influence of Sir William Johnson a 
treaty was concluded, providing for the prosecution of the work unmolested, 
and a number of chieftains were sent to accompany the surveying party. 
Mason and Dixon now had with them thirty surveyors, fifteen axmen, and fif- 
teen Indians of consequence. Again the attitude of the Indians gave cause of 
fear, and on the 29th of September, twenty-six of the surveyors abandoned the 
expedition and returned to Philadelphia. Having reached a point 244 miles 
from the Delaware, and within thirty-six miles of the western limit of the 
State, in the bottom of a deep, dark valley, they came upon a well-worn 
Indian path, and here the Indians gave notice that it was the will of the Six 
Nations that this survey proceed no further. There was no questioning this 
authority, and no means at command for resisting, and accordingly the party 
broke up and returned to Philadelphia. And this was the end of ^e labors of 
Mason and Dixon upon this boundary. From the fact that this was subse- 
quently the mark of division between the Free and Slave States, Mason and 
Dixon's line became familiar in American politics. The line was marked by 
stones which were quarried and engraved in England, on one side having the 
arms of Penn, and on the opposite those of Lord Baltimore. These stones 
were firmly set every five miles. At the end of each intermediate mile a 
smaller stone was placed, having on one side engraved the letter P., and on the 
opposite side the letter M. The remainder of the line was finished and marked 
in 1782-84 by other surveyors. A vista was cut through the forest eight yards in 
width the whole distance, which seemed in looking back through it to come to a 


point at the distance of two miles. In 1849, the stone at the northeast corner 
of Maryland having been removed, a resurvey of the line was ordered, and 
suryeyors were appointed by the three States of Pennsylvania, Delaware and 
Maryland, who called to their aid Col. James D. Graham. Some few errors 
were discovered in the old survey, but in the main it was found to be accurate. 
John Penn, grandson of the founder, and son of Richard, had come to the 
colony in 1753, and, having acted as President of the Council, was, in 1763, 
commissioned Governor in place of Hamilton. The conspiracy of Pontiac, 
though abortive in the results contemplated, left the minds of the Indians in 
a most dangerous state. The more resolute, who had entered heartily into the 
views of their leader, still felt that his purposes were patriotic, and hence 
sought, by every means possible, to ravage and destroy the English settlements. 
The Moravian Indians at Nain and Wichetunk, though regarded as friendly, 
were suspected of indirectly aiding in the savage warfare by trading firearms 
and ammunition. They were accordingly removed to Philadelphia that they 
might be out of the way of temptation. At the old Indian town of Conestoga 
there lived some score of natives. Many heartless murders had been com- 
mitted along the frontier, and the perpetrators had been traced to this Con- 
estoga town ; and while the Conestoga band were not known to be impli- 
cated in these outrages, their town was regarded as the lurking place of roving 
savages who were. For protection, the settlers in the neighboring districts of 
Paxton and Donegal, had organized a band known as thePaxton boys. Earnest 
requests were made by Kev. John Elder and John Harris to the Government 
to remove this band at Conestoga ; but as nothing was done, and fearful 
depredations and slaughter continued, a party of these Paxton rangers attacked 
the town and put the savages to the sword. Some few escaped, among them a 
known bloodthirsty savage, who were taken into the jail at Lancaster for pro- 
tection ; but the rangers, following them, overpowered the jailer, and breaking 
into tba jail murdered the fugitives. Intense excitement was occasioned by 
this outbreak, and Gov. Penn issued his proclamation offering rewards for the 
apprehension of the perpetrators. Some few were taken ; but so excel lent was 
their character and standing, and such were the provocations, that no convic- 
tions followed. Apprehensions for the safety of the Moravian Indians induced 
the Government to remove them to Province Island, and, feeling insecure 
there, they asked to be sent to England. For safety, they were sent to New 
York, but the Governor of that province refused them permission to laud, as 
did also the Governor of New Jersey, and they were brought back to Philadel- 
phia and put in barracks under strong guard. The Paxton boys, in a consider- 
able body, were at that time at Germantown interceding for their brethren, 
who were then in durance and threatened with trial. Franklin was sent out 
to confer with them on the part of the Government. In defending their course, 
they said : " Whilst more than a thousand families, reduced to extreme dis- 
tress, during the last and present war, by the attacks of skulking parties of 
Indians upon the frontier, were destitute, and were suffered by the public to 
depend on private charity, a hundred and twenty of the perpetrators of the 
most horrid barbarities were supported by the province, and protected from 
the fury of the brave relatives of the murdered." Influenced by the persua- 
sions of Franklin, they consented to return to their homes, leaving only 
Matthew Smith and James Gibson to represent them before the courts. 



John Penn, 1763-71— James Hamilton, 1771— Richard Penn, 1771-73— John 

Penn, 1773-76. 

A DIFFERENCE having arisen between the Governor and Assembly on the 
vexed question of levying money, the Assembly passed a series of reso- 
lutions advocating that the " powers of government ought to be separated from 
the power attending the immense proprietary property, and lodged in the 
hands of the King. " After an interval of fifty days — that time for reflection 
and discussion might be given — the Assembly again convened, and adopted a 
petition praying the King to assume the direct government of the province, 
though this policy was strongly opposed by some of the ablest members, as 
Isaac Norris and John Dickinson. The Quaker element was generally in 
favor of the change. 

Indian bai'barities still continuing along the frontier, Gov. Penn declared 
war against the Shawanese and Delawares in July, 1765, and sent Col. Bouquet 
with a body of Pennsylvania troops against them. By the 3d of October, he 
had come up to the Muskingum, in the heart of the most thickly peopled 
Indian territory. So rapid had been the movement of Bouquet that the savages 
had no intelligence of his advance until he was upon them with no preparations 
for defense. They sued for peace, and a treaty was entered into by which the 
savages agreed to abstain from further hostilities until a general treaty could 
be concluded with Sir William Johnson, the general agent for Indian affairs 
for all the colonies, and to deliver up all English captives who had been carried 
away during the years of trouble. Two hundred and eight were quickly 
gathered up and brought in, and many others were to follow, who were now 
widely scattered. The relatives of many of these captives had proceeded with 
the train of Bouquet, intent on reclaiming those who had been dear to them. 
Some were joyfully received, while others who had been borne off in youth had 
become attached to their captors, and force was necessary to bring them away. 
" On the return of the army, some of the Indians obtained leave to accompany 
their former captives to Fort Pitt, and employed themselves in hunting and 
carrying provisions for them on the road. " 

The great struggle for ihe independence of the colonies of the British 
crown was now close at hand, and the first sounds of the controversy were be- 
ginning to be heard. Sir William Keith, that enterprising Governor whose 
head seemed to have been full of new projects, as early as 1739 had proposed 
to lay a uniform tax on stamped paper in all the colonies, to realize funds for 
the common defense. Acting upon this hint, Grenville, the British Minister, 
notified the colonists in 1763 of his purpose to impose such a tax. Against 
this they remonstrated. Instead of this, a tax on imports, to be paid in coin, 
was adopted. This was even more distasteful. The Assembly of Rhode 
Island, in October, 1765, submitted a paper to all the colonial assemblies, with 
a view to uniting in a common petition to the King against parliamentary 
taxation. This was favorably acted on by the Assembly of Pennsylvania, and 
Franklin was appointed agent to represent their cause before the British Par- 
liament. The Stamp Act had been passed on the 22d of March, 1765. Its 
passage excited bitter opposition, and a resolution, asserting that the Colonial 


Assemblies had the exclusive right to levy taxes, was passed by the Virginia 
Assembly, and concurred in by all the others. The Massachusetts Assembly 
proposed a meeting of delegates in New York on the second Tuesday of October, 
1765, to confer upon the subject. The Pennsylvania Assembly adopted the 
suggestion, and appointed Messrs. Fox, Morton, Bryan and Dickenson as dele- 
gates. This Congress met according to the call and adopted a respectful pe- 
tition to the King, and a memorial to Parliament, which were signed by all 
the members and forwarded for presentation by the Colonial Agents in En- 
gland. The Stamp Act was to go into effect on the 1st of November. On the 
last day of October, the newspapers were dressed in mourning, and suspended 
publication. The publishers agreed not to use the stamped paper. The 
people, as with one mind, determined to dress in homespun, resolved not to 
use imported goods, and, to stimulate the production of wool the colonists cov- 
enanted not to eat lamb for the space of one year. The result of this policy 
was soon felt by British manufacturers who became clamorous for repeal of 
the obnoxious measures, and it was accordingly repealed on the 18th of March, 

Determined in some form to draw a revenue from the colonies, an act was 
passed in 1767, to lay a duty on tea, paper, printers' colors, and glass. The As- 
sembly of Pennsylvania passed a resolution on the '20th of February, 1768, 
instructing its agent in London to urge its repeal, and at the session in May 
received and entered upon its minutos a circular letter from the Massachusetts 
Assembly, setting forth the grounds on which objection to the act should be 
urged. This circular occasioned hostile feeling among the ministry, and the 
Secretary for foreign affairs wrote to Gov. Penn to urge the Assembly to 
take no notice of it; but if they approved its sentiments, to prorogue their 
sittings. This letter was transmitted to the Assembly, and soon after one 
from the Virginia Assembly was presented, urging union of all the colonies 
in opposing the several schemes of taxation. This recommendation was 
adopted, and committees appointed to draw a petition to the King and to each 
of the Houses of Parliament. To lead public sentiment, and have it well 
grounded in the arguments used against taxation, John Dickinson, one of the 
ablest of the Pennsylvania legislators at this time, published a number of 
articles purporting to come from a plain farmer, under the title of the Farmer's 
Letters, which became popular, the idea that they were the work of one in 
humble life, helping to swell the tide of popularity. They were republished 
in all the colonies, and exerted a commanding influence. Alarmed at the 
unanimity of feeling against the proposed schemes, and supposing that it was 
the amount of the tax that gave offense, Parliament reduced the rate in 1769 
to one sixth of the original sum, and in 1770 abolished it altogether, except 
three pence a pound on tea But it was the principle, and not the amount 
that was objected to, and at the next session of the Assembly in Pennsylvania, 
their agent in London was directed to urge its repeal altogether. 

It would seem incredible that the colony of Connecticut should lay claim 
to any part of the territory of Pennsylvania, but so it was. The New En- 
gland charters gave limitless extent westward even to the shores of the Pacific 
Ocean, and south to the northern limits of the tract ceded to Lord Baltimore — 
the territory between the 40th and 46th degrees of north latitude, and from 
ocean to ocean. To encroach upon New York with its teaming popu- 
lation was not calculated to tempt the enterprise of the settler; but 
the rich virgin soil, and agreeable climate of the wide Wyoming Val- 
ley, as yet unappropriated, was likely to attract the eye of the explorer. 
Accordingly, at the general conference with the Indians held at Albany 


in 1754, the Connecticut delegates made a purchase of a large tract in 
this valley ; a company, known as the Susquehanna Company, was formed in 
Connecticut to promote the settlement of these lands, and a considerable im- 
migration commenced. The proprietors of Pennsylvania had also made pur- 
chase of the Indians of these identical lands, and the royal charters of Charles 
and James covered this ground. But the Plymouth Charter antedated Penn's. 
Remonstrances were made to the Governor of Connecticut against encroach- 
ments upon the territory of Pennsylvania. The answer returned was under- 
stood to disclaim any control over the company by the Connecticut authorities; 
but it subsequently appeared that the Government was determined to defend 
the settlers in the possession of their lands. In 1768, the proprietors of Penn- 
sylvania entered into treaty stipulations with the Indians for all this tract cov- 
ered by the claim of the Susquehanna Company. Pennsylvania settlers, 
attracted by the beauty of the place, gradually acquired lands under Penn- 
sylvania patents, and the two parties began to infringe on each other's claims. 
Forts and block-houses were erected for the protection of either party, and a 
petty warfare was kept up, which resulted in some loss of life. Butler, the 
leader of the Connecticut party, proposed to settle their differences by per- 
sonal combat of thirty picked men on each side. In order to assert more direct 
legal control over the settlers, a new county was formed which was called 
Northumberland, that embraced all the disputed lands. But the Sheriff, even 
with the aid of the militia, which he called to his assistance, was unable to 
execute his processes, and exercise legal control, the New Englanders, proving 
a resolute set, determined to hold the splendid farms which they had marked 
out for themselves, and were bringing rapidly under cultivation. To the re- 
monstrances of Gov. Penn, Gov. Trumbull responded that the Susquehanna Com- 
pany was proceeding in good faith under provisions secured by the charter of 
the Plymouth Colony, and proposed that the question be submitted to a com- 
petent tribunal for ai'bitrament. An ex parte statement was submitted to 
Council in London by the Connecticut party, and an opinion was rendered 
favorable to its claims. In September, 1775, the matter was submitted to the 
Continental Congress, and a committee of that body, to whom it was referred, 
reported in favor of the Connecticut claim, apportioning a tract out of the 
very bowels of Pennsylvania nearly as large as the whole State of Connecticut. 
This action was promptly rejected by the Assembly of Pennsylvania, and a 
final decision was not reached until 1802, when Congress decided in favor of 
the integrity of the chartered rights of Penn. 

Richard Penn, son of the founder, died in 1771, whereupon Gov. John 
Penn returned to England, leaving the President of the Council, James Ham- 
ilton, at the head of the Government. John Penn, eldest son of Richard, suc- 
ceeded to the proprietary interests of his father, which he held in conjunction 
with his uncle, Thomas, and in October of the same year, Richard, the second 
son, was commissioned Governor. He held the office but about two years, and 
in that time won the confidence and esteem of the people, and so much attached 
was he to the popular cause, that upon his return to England, in 1775, he was 
intrusted by Congress with the last petition of the colonies ever presented to 
the King. In August, 1773, John Penn returned with the commission of 
Governor, superseding his brother Richard. Soon after his arrival, the Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, Lord Dunmore, issued his proclamation, laying claim to a 
vast territory in the Monongalia Valley, including the site of the present 
city of Pittsburgh, and upon the withdrawal of the British garrison, one Con- 
nolly had taken possession of it in the name of Virginia. Gov. Penn issued a 
counter-proclamation, calling on all good citizens within the borders of Penn- 


Bylvania, to preserve their allegiance to his (government, seized and imprisoned 
Connolly, and sent Commissioners to Virginia to effect an amicable settlement. 
These, Dunmore refused to hear, and was preparing to assert his authority by 
force; but his Council refused to vote him money for this purpose. 

To encourage the sale of tea in the colonies, and establish the principle of 
taxation, the export duty was removed. The colonies took the alarm. At a 
public meeting called in Philadelphia to consider the subject, on the 18th of 
October, 1773, resolutions were adopted in which it was declared : " That the 
disposal of their own property is the inherent right of freemen; that there can 
be no property in that which another can, of right, take from us without our 
consent; that the claim of Parliament to tax America, is, in other words, a claim 
of right to levy contributions on us at pleasure.'' The East India Company 
now made preparations for sending large importations of tea into the colonies. 
The ships destined for Philadelphia and New York, on approaching port, and 
being advised of the exasperated state of public feeling, returned to England 
with their cargoes. Those sent to Boston came into the harbor; but at night a 
party disguised as Mohawk Indians boarded the vessels, and breaking open 
the packages, emptied 300 chests into the sea. The ministry, on being apprised 
of this act, closed the port of Boston, and subverted the colonial charter. 
Early in the year, committees of correspondence had been established in all 
the colonies, by means of which the temper and feeling in each was well un- 
derstood by the others, and concert of action was secured. The hard condi- 
tions imposed on the town of Boston and the colony of Massachusetts Bay, 
aroused the sympathy of all ; for, they argued, we know not how soon the heavy 
hand of oppression may be felt by any of us. Philadelphia declared at a pub- 
lic meeting that the people of Pennsylvania would continue firmly to adhere 
to the cause of American liberty, and urged the calling of a Congress of dele- 
gates to consider the general interests. 

At ■: meetiug held in Philadelphia on the 18th of June, 1774, at which 
nearly 8,000 people were convened, it was decided that a Continental Congress 
ought to be held, and appointed a committee of correspondence to coramuni- 
cate with similar committees in the several counties of Pennsylvania and in the 
several colonies. On the 15th of July, 1774, delegates from all the counties, 
summoned by this committee, assembled in Philadelphia, and declared that 
there existed an absolute necessity for a Colonial Congress. They accordingly 
recommended that the Assembly appoint delegates to such a Congress to 
represent Pennsylvania, and Joseph Galloway, Samuel Rhoads, George Ross, 
Edward Biddle, John Dickinson, Charles Humphries and Thomas Mifflin were' 

On the 4th of Septemoer, 1774, the first Continental Congress assembled in 
Philadelphia. Peyton Randolph, of Virginia, was called to preside, and 
Charles Thomson, of Pennsylvania, was appointed Secretary. It was resolved 
that no more goods be imported from England, and that unless a pacification 
was effected previously, no more Colonial produce of the soil be exported 
thither after September 10, 1775. A declaration of rights was adopted, and 
addresses to the King, the people of Great Britain, and of British America 
were agreed to, alter which the Congress adjourned to meet again on the 10th 
of May, 1775. 

In January, 1775, another meeting of the county delegates was held in 
Philadelphia, at which the action of the Colonial Congress was approved, and 
while a restoration of harmony with the mother country was desired, yet if 
the arbitiary acts of Parliament were persisted in, they would at every hazard 
defend the "rights and liberties of America." The delegates appointed to 


represent the colony in the Second Congress were Mifflin, Humphries, Biddle, 
Dickinson, Morton, Franklin, Wilson and Willing. 

The government of Great Britain had determined with a strong hand to 
compel obedience to its behests. On the 19th of April, 1775, was fought the 
battle of Lexington, and the crimson fountain was opened. That blow was 
felt alike through all the colonies. The cause of one was the cause of all. 
A public meeting was held in Philadelphia, at which it was resolved to organize 
military companies in all the counties. The Assembly heartily seconded these 
views, and engaged to provide for the pay of the militia while in service. 
The Second Congress, which met in May, provided for organizing a continental 
army, fixing the quota for Pennsylvania at 4,300 men. The Assembly adopted 
the recommendation of Congress, provided for arming, disciplining and pay- 
ing the militia, recommended the organizing minutemen for service in an 
emergency, made appropriations for the defense of the city, and offered a pre- 
mium on the production of salt peter. Complications hourly thickened. Ticon- 
deroga was captured on the 10th of May, and the battle of Bunker Hill was 
fought on the 17th of June. On the 15th .of June, George Washington was 
appointed Commander-in-chief of the Contiuental Army, supported by four 
Major Generals and eight Brigadiers. 

The royal Governors were now an incumbrance greatly in the way of the 
popular movement, as were also the Assemblies where they refused to represent 
the popular will. Accordingly, Congress recommended that the several col- 
onies should adopt such government as should " best conduce to the happiness 
and safety of their constituents in particular and America in general." This 
meant that each colony should set up a government for itself independent of 
the Crown. Accordingly, a public meeting was held in Philadelphia, at 
which it was resolved that the present Assembly is " not competent to the pres- 
ent exigencies of affairs," and that a new form of government ought to be 
"adopted as recommended by Congress. The city committee of correspondence 
called on the county committees to secure the election of delegates to a colonial 
meeting for the purpose of considering this subject. On the 18th of June, 
the meeting was held in Philadelphia, and was organized by electing Thomas 
McKean President. It resolved to call a convention to frame a new con- 
stitution, provided the legal forms to be observed, and issued an address to 
the people. 

Having thus by frequent argumentation grown familiar with the declara- 
tion of the inherent rights of every citizen, and with flatly declaring to the 
government of Great Britain that it had no right to pursue this policy or that, 
and the several States having been recommended to absolve themselves from 
allegience to the royal governments, and set up independent colonial govern- 
ments of their own, it was a natural inference, and but a step further, to de- 
clare the colonies entirely independent of the British Government, and to or- 
ganize for themselves a general continental government to hold the place of King 
and Parliament. The idea of independence had been seriously proposed, and 
several Colonial Assemblies had passed resolutions strongly recommending it. 
And yet there were those of age and experience who had supported independ- 
ent principles in the stages of argumentation, before action wa3 demanded, 
when they approached the brink of the fatal chasm, and had to decide 
whether to take the leap, hesitated. There were those in the Assembly of 
Pennsylvania who were reluctant to advise independence; but the majority 
voted to recommend its delegates to unite with the other colonies for the com- 
mon good. The convention which had provided for holding a meeting of del- 
egates to frame a new constitution, voted in favor of independence, and au- 
thorized the raising of 6,000 militia. 


On the 7th of June, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia, introduced in 
Congress the proposition that, "the United Colonies are, and of right ought to 
be, free and independent States, and that all political connection between 
them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." 
It was impossible to mistake or misinterpret the meaning of this language. 
The issue was fairly made up. It was warmly discussed. John Dickinson, 
one of the Pennsylvania delegates, and one who had been foremost in speak- 
ing and writing on the popular side, was not ready to cut off all hope of rec- 
onciliation, and depicted the disorganized condition in which the colonies 
would be left if the power and protection of Britain were thus suddenly re- 
moved. The vote upon the resolution was taken on the 2d of July, and re- 
sulted in the affirmative vote of all the States except Pennsylvania and 
Delaware, the delegates from these States being divided. A committee con- 
sisting of Adams, Franklin, Jefferson, Livingston and Sherman had been, some 
time previous, appointed to draw a formal statement of the Declaration, and 
the reasons "out of a decent respect to the opinions of mankind," which led 
to so important an act. The work was intrusted to a sub-committee consisting of 
Adams and Jefferson, and its composition was the work of Mr. Jefferson, though 
many of the ideas, and even the forms of expression, had been used again and 
again in the previous resolutions and pronunciamentoes of the Colonial Assem- 
blies and public meetings. It had been reported on the 28th of June, and was 
sharply considered in all its parts, many verbal alterations having been made in 
the committee of five; but after the passage of the preliminary resolution, the 
result was a foregone conclusion, and on the 4th of July it was finally adopted 
and proclaimed to the world. Of the Pennsylvania delegation, Franklin, 
Wilson and Morton voted for it, and Willing and Humphrey against, Dickin- 
son being absent. The colonial convention of Pennsylvania, being in session 
at the time, on receiving intelligence that a majority of its delegates in Con- 
gress had voted against the preliminary resolution, named a new delegation, 
omitting the names of Dickinson, Willing and Humphrey, and adding othere 
which made it thus constituted — Franklin, Wilson, Morton, Morris, Clvmer, 
Smith, Taylor and Ross. An engrossed copy of the Declaration was made, 
which was signed by all the members on the 2d of August following, on 
•which are found the names from Pennsylvania above recited. 

The convention for framing a new constitution for the colony met on the 
15th of July, and was organized by electing Franklin President, and on the 
28th of September completed its labors, having framed a new organic law 
and made all necessary provisions for putting it into operation. In the mean- 
time the old proprietary Assembly adjourned on the 14th of June to the 26th 
of August. But a quorum failed to appear, and an adjournment was had to 
the 23d of September, when some routine business was attended to, chiefly 
providing for the payment of salaries and necessary bills, and on the 28th of 
September, after a stormy existence of nearly a century, this Assembly, the 
creature of Penn, adjourned never to meet again. With the ending of the As- 
sembly ended the power of Gov. Penn. It is a singular circumstance, much 
noted by the believers in signs, that on the day of his arrival in Amerioa, 
which wa.s Sunday, the earth in ttiat locality was rocked by an earthquake, 
which was interpreted as an evil omen to his administration. He married the 
daughter of William Allen, Chief Justice of the colony, and, though at times 
falling under suspicion of favoring the royal cause, yet, as was believed, not 
with reason, he remained a quiet spectator of the great struggle, living at his 
country seat in Bucks County, where he died in February, 1795. 

The titles of the proprietors to landed estates were suspended by the action 


of the convention, and on the 27th of November, 1779, the Legislature passed 
an act vesting these estates in the commonwealth, but paying the proprietors a 
gratuity of £130,000, " in remembrance of the enterprising spirit of the- 
Founder." This act did not touch the private estates of the proprietors, nor 
the tenths of manors. The British Government, in 1790, in consideration of 
the fact that it had been unable to vindicate its authority over the colony, and 
afford protection to the proprietors in the enjoyment of their chartered rights, 
voted an annuity of £4,000 to the heirs and descendants of Penn. This annuity 
has been regularly paid to the present time, 1884. 


Thomas Wharton, Jr., 1777-78— George Bryan, 1778— Joseph Reed, 1778-81— 
William Moore, 1781-82— John Dickinson, 1782-85— Benjamin Franklin, 


THE convention which framed the constitution appointed a Committee of 
Safety, consisting of twenty-five members, to whom was intrusted the 
government of the colony until the proposed conetitution should be framed and 
put in operation. Thomas Rittenhouse was chosen President of this body, 
who was consequently in effect Governor. The new constitution, which was 
unanimously adopted on the 28th of September, was to take effect from its 
passage. It provided for an Assembly to be elected annually; a Supreme Ex- 
ecutive Council of twelve members to be elected for a term of three years; As- 
semblymen to be eligible but four years out of seven, and Councilmen but 
one term in seven years. Members of Congress were chosen by the Assembly. 
The constitution could not be changed for seven years. It provided for the 
election of censors every seven years, who were to decide whether there was 
a demand for its revision. If so, they were to call a convention for the pur- 
pose. On the 6th of August, 1776, Thomas Wharton, Jr., was chosen Presi- 
dent of the Council of Safety. 

The struggle with the parent country was now fully inaugurated. The 
British Parliament had declared the colonists rebels, had voted a force of 
55,000 men, and in addition had hired 17.000 Hessian soldiers, to subdue them. 
The Congress on its part had declared the objects for which arms had been 
taken up, and had issued bills of credit to the amount of $6,000,000. Par- 
liament had resolved upon a vigorous campaign, to strike heavy and rapid 
blows, and quickly end the war. The first campaign had been conducted in 
Massachusetts, and by the efficient conduct of Washington, Gen. Howe, the 
leader of the British, was compelled to capitulate and withdraw to Halifax in 
March, 1776. On the 28th of June, Sir Henry Clinton, with a strong detach- 
ment, in conjunction with Sir Peter Parker of the navy, made a combined 
land and naval attack upon the defenses of Charleston Harbor, where he was 
met by Gen. William Moultrie, with the Carolina Militia, and after a severe 
battle, in which the British fleet was roughly handled, Clinton withdrew and 
returned to New York, whither the main body of the British Army, under Gen. 
Howe, had come, and where Admiral Lord Howe, with a large fleet directly 
from England, joined them. To this formidable power led by the best talent 
in the British Army, Washington could muster no adequate force to oppose, 
and he was obliged to withdraw from Long Island, from New York, from 


Harlem, from White Plains, to cross into New Jersey, and abandon position 
after position, until he had reached the right bank of the Delaware on Penn- 
sylvania soil. A heavy detachment under Cornwallis followed, and would 
have crossed the Delaware in pursuit, but advised to a cautious policy by 
Howe, he waited for ice to form on the waters of the Delaware before passing 
over. The fall of Philadelphia now seemed imminent. Washington had not 
sufficient force to face the whole power of the British Army. On the 2d of 
December, the Supreme Council ordered all places of business in the city to 
be closed, the schools to be dismissed, and advised preparation for removing 
the women and children and valuables. On the 12th, the Congress which was 
in session here adjourned to meet in Baltimore, taking with them all papers 
and public records, and leaving a committee, of which Robert Morris was 
Chairman, to act in conjunction with Washington for the safety of the place. 
Gen. Putnam was dispatched on the same day with a detachment of soldiers 
to take command in the city. 

In this emergency the Council issued a stirring address: "If you wish 
to live in freedom, and are determined to maintain that best boon of heaven r 
you have no time to deliberate. A manly resistance will secure every bless- 
ing, inactivity and sloth will bring horror and destruction. * * * May 
heaven, which has bestowed the blessings of liberty upon you, awaken you to 
a proper sense of your danger and arouse that manly spirit of virtuous resolu- 
tion which has ever bidden defiance to the efforts of tyranny. May you ever 
have the glorious prize of liberty in view, and bear with a becoming fortitude 
the fatigues and severities of a winter campaign. That, and that only, will 
entitle you to the superlative distinction of being deemed, under God, the 
deliverers of your country." Such were the arguments which our fathers 
made use of in conducting the struggle against the British Empire. 

Washington, who had, from the opening of the campaign before New 
York, haen obliged for the most part to act upon the defensive, formed the 
plan to suddenly turn upon his pursuers and offer battle. Accordingly, on 
the night of the 25th of December, taking a picked body of men, he moved up 
several miles to Taylorsville, where he crossed the river, though at flood tide 
and filled with floating ice, and moving down to Trenton, where a detachment 
of the British Army was posted, made a bold and vigorous attack. Taken by 
surprise, though now after sunrise, the battle was soon decided in favor of 
the Americans. Some fifty of the enemy were slain and over a thousand 
taken prisoners, with quantities of arms, ammunition and stores captured. A 
triumphal entry was made at Philadelphia, when the prisoners and the spoils, 
of war moved through the streets under guard of the victorious troops, and 
were marched away to the prison camp at Lancaster. Washington, who was 
smarting under a forced inactivity, by reason of paucity of numbers and lack 
of arms and material, and who had been forced constantly to retire before a 
defiant foe, now took courage. His name was upon every tongue, and foreign 
Governments were disposed to give the States a fair chance in their struggle 
for nationality. The lukewarm were encouraged to enlist under the banner of 
freedom. It had great strategic value. The British had intended to push 
forward and occupy Philadelphia at once, which, being now virtually the cap- 
ital of the new nation, had it been caotured at this juncture, would have given 
them the occasion for claiming a triumphal ending of the war. But this ad, 
vantage, though gained by a detachment small in numbers yet great in cour- 
age, caused the commander of a powerful and well appointed army to give up 
all intention of attempting to capture the Pennsylvania metropolis in this 
campaign, and retiring into winter cantonments upon the Raritan to await 


the settled weather of the spring for an entirely new cast of operations. 
Washington, emboldened by his success, led all his forces into New Jersey, 
and pushing past Trenton, where Cornwallis, the royal leader, had brought 
his main body by a forced march, under cover of darkness, attacked the 
British reserves at Princeton. But now the enemy had become wary and vig- 
ilant, and, summoned by the booming of cannon, Cornwallis hastened back to 
the relief of his hard pressed columns. Washington, finding that the enemy's 
whole army was within easy call and knowing that he had no hope of success 
with his weak army, withdrew. Washington now went into winter quarters at 
Morristown, and by constant vigi lance was able to gather marauding parties 
of the British who ventured far away from their works. 

Putnam commenced fortifications at a point below Philadelphia upon the 
Delaware, and at commanding positions upon the outskirts, and on being 
summoned to the army was succeeded by Gen. Irvine, and he by Gen. Gates. 
On the 4th of March, 1777, the two Houses of the Legislature, elected under 
the new constitution, assembled, and in joint convention chose Thomas 
Wharton, Jr., President, and George Bryan Vice President. Penn had expressed 
the idea that power was preserved the better by due formality and ceremony, 
and, accordingly, this event was celebrated with much pomp, the result being 
declared in a loud voice from the court house, amid the shouts of the gathered 
throngs and the booming of the captured cannon brought from the field of 
Trenton. The title bestowed upon the new chief officer of the State was fitted 
by its length and high-sounding epithets to inspire the multitude with awe and 
reverence: "His Excellency, Thomas Wharton, Junior, Esquire, President of 
the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, Captain General, and Com- 
mander-in-chief in and over the same. " 

While the enemy was disposed to be cautious after the New Jersey cam- 
paign so humiliating to the native pride of the Britain, yet he was determined 
to bring all available forces into the field for the campaign of 1777, and to 
strike a decisive blow. Early in April, great activity was observed among the 
shipping in New York Harbor, and Washington communicated to Congress his 
opinion that Philadelphia was the object against which the blow would be 
aimed. This announcement of probable peril induced the Council to issue a 
proclamation urging enlistments, and Congress ordered the opening of a camp 
for drilling recruits in Pennsylvania, and Benedict Arnold, who was at this 
time a trusted General, was ordered to the command of it. So manv new ves- 
sels and transports of all classes had been discovered to have come into New 
York Harbor, probably forwarded from England, that Washington sent Gen. 
Mifflin, on the 10th of June, to Congress, bearing a letter in which he ex- 
pressed the settled conviction that the enemy meditated an immediate descent 
upon some part of Pennsylvania. Gen. Mifflin proceeded to examine the de- 
fensive works of the city which had been begun on the previous advance of 
the British, and recommended such changes and new works as seemed best 
adapted for its protection. The preparations for defense were vigorously pros- 
ecuted. The militia were called out and placed in two camps, one at Chester 
and the other at Downington. Fire ships were held in readiness to be used 
against vessels attempting the ascent of the river. 

Lord Howe, being determined not to move until ample preparations were 
completed, allowed the greater part of the summer to wear away before he 
advanced. Finally, having embarked a force of 19,500 men on a fleet of 300 
transports, he sailed southward. Washington promptly made a corresponding 
march overland, passing through Philadelphia on the 24th of August. Howe, 
suspecting that preparations would be made for impeding the passage of the 


Delaware, sailed past its mouth, and moving up the Chesapeake instead, de- 
barked fifty-four miles from Philadelphia and commenced the march north- 
ward. Great activity was now manifested in the city. The water-spouts were 
melted to furnish bullets, fair hands were busied in rolling cartidges, power- 
ful chevaux-de-frise were planted to impede the navigation of the river, and 
the last division of the militia of the city, which had been divided into three 
classes, was called out. Washington, who had crossed the Brandywine, soon 
confronted the advance of Howe, and brisk skirmishing at once opened. See- 
ing that he was likely to have the right of his position at Red Clay Creek, 
where he had intended to give battle, turned by the largely superior force of 
the enemy, under cover of darkness on the night of the 8th of September, he 
withdrew across the Brandywine at Chad's Ford, and posting Armstrong with 
the militia upon the left, at Pyle's Ford, where the banks were rugged and pre- 
cipitous, and Sullivan, who was second in command, upon the right at Brin- 
ton's Ford under cover of forest, he himself took post with three divisions, 
Sterling's, Stephens', and his own, in front of the main avenue of approach at 
Chad's. Howe, discovering that Washington was well posted, determined to 
flank him. Accordingly, on the 11th, sending Knyphausen with a division of 
Hessians to make vigorous demonstrations upoQ Washington's front at Chad's, 
he, with the corps of Cornwallis, in light marching order, moved up the Brandy- 
wine, far past the right flank of Washington, crossed the Brandywine at the 
fords of Trumbull and Jeffrey unopposed, and, moving down came upon 
Washington's right, held by Sullivan, all unsuspecting and unprepared to re- 
ceive him. Though Howe was favored by a dense fog which on that morning 
hung on all the valley, yet it had hardly been commenced before Washingtou 
discovered the move and divined its purpose. His resolution was instantly 
taken. He ordered Sullivan to cross the stream at Brinton's, and resolutely 
turn the left flank of Knyphausen, when he himself with the main body would 
move ever and crush the British Army in detail. Is was a brilliant conception, 
was feasible, and promised the most complete success. But what chagrin and 
mortification, to receive, at the moment when he expected to hear the rauf ic of 
Sullivan's guns doubling up the left of the enemy, and giving notice to him 
to commence the passage, a message from that officer advising him that he had 
disobeyed his orders to cross, having received intelligence that the enemy were 
not moving northward, and that he was still in position at the ford. Thus 
balked, Washington had no alternative but to remain in position, and it was not 
long before the guns of Howe viere heard moving in upon his all unguarded 
right flank. The best dispositions were made which time would permit. His 
main body with the force of Sullivan took position along the brow of the hill 
on which stands the Birmingham meeting house, and the battle opened and 
was pushed with vigor the whole day. Overborne by numbers, and weakened 
by losses, Washington was obliged to retire, leaving the enemy in possession 
of the field. The young French nobleman, Lafayette, was wounded while gal- 
lantly serving in this fight. The wounded were carried into the Birmingham 
meeting house, where the blood stains are visible to this day, enterprising 
relic hunters for many generations having been busy in loosening small slivers 
with the points of their knives. 

The British now moved cautiously toward Philadelphia. On the 16th of 
September, at a point some twenty miles west of Philadelphia, Washington 
again made a stand, and a battle opened with brisk skirmishing, but a heavy 
rain storm coming on the powder of the patriot soldiers was completely ruined on 
account of their defective cartridge boxes. On the night of the 20th, Gen. 
Anthony Wayne, who had been hanging on the rear of the enemy with his 


detachment, was surprised by Gen. Gray with a heavy column, who fell sud- 
denly upon the Americans in bivouac and put them to the sword, giving no 
quarter. This disgraceful slaughter which brought a stigma and an indelible 
stain upon the British arms is known as the Paoli Massacre. Fifty-three of 
the victims of the black flag were buried in one grave. A neat monument 
of white mai'ble was erected forty years afterward over their moldering 
remains by the Republican Artillerists of Chester County, which vandal hands 
have not spared in their mania for relics. 

Congress remained in Philadelphia while these military operations were 
going on at its very doors; but on the 18th of September adjourned to meet 
at Lancaster, though subsequently, on the 30th, removed across the Susque- 
hanna to York, where it remained in session till after the evacuation in 
the following summer. The Council remained until two days before the fall 
of the city, when having dispatched the records of the loan office and the more 
valuable papers to Easton, it adjourned to Lancaster. On the 26th, the British 
Army entered the city. Deborah Logan in her memoir says : " The army 
marched in and took possession in the city in the morning. We were up-stairs 
and saw them pass the State House. They looked well, clean and well clad, 
and the contrast between them and our own poor, bare-footed, ragged troops 
was very great and caused a feeling of despair. * * * * Early 
in the afternoon, Lord Cornwallis' suite arrived and took possession of 
my mother's house." But though now holding undisputed possession of the 
American capital, Howe found his position an uncomfortable one, for his fleet 
was in the Chesapeake, and the Delaware and all its defenses were in posses- 
sion of the Americans, and Washington had manned the forts with some of 
his most resolute troops. Varnuni's brigade, led by Cols. Angell and Greene, 
Rhode Island troops, were at Fort Mercer, at Red Bank, and this the enemy 
determined to attack. On the 21st of October, with a force of 2,500 men, led 
by Count Donop, the attack was made. In two colums they moved as to an 
easy victory. But the steady tire of the defenders when come in easy range, 
swept them down with deadly effect, and, retiring with a loss of over 400 and 
their leader mortally wounded, they did not renew the fight. Its reduction was 
of prime importance, and powerful works were built and equipped to bear upon 
the devoted fort on all sides, and the heavy guns of the fleet were brought up 
to aid in overpowering it. For six long days the greatest weight of metal was 
poured upon it from the land and the naval force, but without effect, the 
sides of the fort successfully withstanding *the plunging of their powerful 
missiles. As a last resort, the great vessels were run suddenly in close under 
the walls, and manning the yard-arms with sharp-shooters, so effectually 
silenced and drove away the gunners that the fort fell easily into the Brit- 
ish hands and the river was opened to navigation. The army of Washing- 
ton, after being recruited and put in light marching order, was led to German- 
town where, on the morning of the 3d of October the enemy was met. A 
heavy fog that morning had obscured friend and foe alike, occasioning con- 
fusion in the ranks, and though the opening promised well, and some progress 
was made, yet the enemy was too strong to be moved, and the American leader 
was forced to retire to his camp at White Marsh. Though the river had now 
been opened and the city was thoroughly fortified for resisting attack, yet 
Howe felt not quite easy in having the American Army quartered in so close 
striking distance, and accordingly, on the 4th of December, with nearly his 
entire army, moved out, intending to take Washington at White Marsh, sixteen 
miles away, by surprise, and by rapidity of action gain an easy victory. But 
1 i3 heroism and fidelity of Lydia Darrah, who, as she had often done before 


passed the guard? to go to the mil] for flour, the news of the coming of Howe 
wap communicated to Washington, who was prepared to receive him. Finding 
that he could effect nothing. Howe returned to the city, having had the weari- 
some march at this wintry season without effect. 

Washington now crossed the Schuylkill and went into winter quarters at 
Valley Forge. The cold of that winter was intense; the troopH, half clad and 
indifferently fed, suffered severely, the prints of their naked feet in frost and 
snow being often tinted with patriot blood. Grown impatient of the small 
results from the immensely expensive campaigns carried on across the ocean, 
the Ministry relieved Lord Howe, and appointed Sir Henry Clinton to the 
chief command. 

The Commissioners whom Congress had sent to France early in the fall of 
1776 — Franklin, Dean and Lee had been busy in making interest for the 
united colonies at the French Court, and so successful were they, that arms and 
ammunition and loans of money were procured from time to time. Indeed, so 
persuasive had they become that it was a saying current at court that, "It was 
fortunate for the King that Franklin did not take it into his head to ask to 
have the palace at Versailles stripped of its furniture to send to his dear 
Americans, for his majesty would have been unable to deny him." Finally, 
a convention was concluded, by which France agreed to use the royal army and 
navy as faithful allies of the Americans against the English. Accordingly, a 
fleet of four powerful frigates, and twelve ships were dispatched under com- 
mand of the Count D'Estaing to shut up the British fleet in the Delaware. The 
plan was ingenious, particularly worthy of the long head of Franklin. But 
by some means, intelligence of the sailing of the French fleet reached Che 
English cabinet, who immediately ordered the evacuation of the Delaware, 
whereupon the Admiral weighed anchor and sailed away with his entire fleet to 
New York, and D'Estaing, upon his arrival at the mouth of the Delaware, found 
that the bird had flown. 

Clinton evacuated Philadelphia and moved across New Jersey in the direc- 
tion of New York. Washington closely followed and came up with the enemy 
on the plains of Monmouth, on the 28th of June, 1778, where a sanguin- 
ary battle was fought which lasted tha whole day, resulting in the triumph of 
the American arms, and Pennsylvania was rid of British troops. 

The enemy was no sooner well away from the city than Congress returned 
from York and resumed its sittings in its former quarters, June 24, 1778, and 
on the following day, the Colonial Legislature returned from Lancaster. Gen 
Arnold, who was disabled by a wound received at Saratoga, from tield duty, 
was given command in the city and marched in with a regiment on the day 
following the evacuation. On the 23d of May, 1778, President Wharton died 
suddenly of quinsy, while in attendance upon the Council at Lancaster, when 
George Bryan, the Vice President, became the Acting President. Bryan was a 
philanthropist in deed as well as word. Up to thi3 time, African slavery had 
been tolerated in the colony. In his message of the 9th of November, he said : 
" This or some better scheme, would tend to abrogate slavery — the approbrium 
of America — from among us. * * * In divesti&g the State of slaves, you 
will equally serve the cause of humanity and policy, and offer to God one of 
the most proper and best returns of gratitude for His great deliverance of us 
and our posterity from thraldom; you will also ser, your character for justice 
and benevolence in the true point of view to Europe, who a«.-e astonished to see 
a people eager for liberty holding negroes in bondage." He perfected a bill 
for the extinguishment of claims to slaves which was passed by the Assembly, 
March 1, 1780, by a vote of thirty-four to eighteen, providing that no child 


of slave parents born after that date should be a slave, but a servant till the 
age of twenty-eight years, when all claim for service should end. Thus by a 
simple enactment resolutely pressed by Bryan, was slavery forever rooted out 
of Pennsylvania. 

In the summer of 1778, a force of savages and sour- faced tories to the num- 
ber of some 1,200, under the leadership of one Col. John Butler, a cruel and in- 
human wretch, descending from the north, broke into the Wyoming Valley on 
the 2d of July. The strong men were in the army of Washington, and the 
only defenders were old men, beardless boys and resolute women. These, to 
the number of about 400, under Zebulon Butler, a brave soldier who had won 
distinction in the old French war, and who happened to be present, moved 
resolutely out to meet the invaders. Overborne by numbers, the inhabitants 
were beaten and put to the sword, the few who escaped retreating to Forty 
Fort, whither the helpless, up and down the valley, had sought safety. Here 
humane terms of surrender were agreed to, and the families returned to 
their homes, supposing all danger to be past. But the savages had 
tasted blood, and perhaps confiscated liquor, and were little mindful of capitu- 
lations. The night of the 5th was given to indiscriminate massacre. The 
cries of the helpless rang out upon the night air, and the heavens along all 
the valley were lighted up with the flames of burning cottages; " and when the 
moon arose, the terrified inhabitants were fleeing to the Wilkesbarre Mount- 
ains, and the dark morasses of the Pocono Mountain beyond. " Most of these 
were emigrants from Connecticut, and they made their way homeward as fast 
as their feet would carry them, many of them crossing the Hudson at Pough- 
keepsie, where they told their tales of woe. 

In February, 1778, Parliament, grown tired of this long and wasting war, 
abolished taxes of which the Americans had complained, and a committee, 
composed of Earl Carlisle, George Johnstone and William Eden, were sent 
empowered to forgive past offenses, and to conclude peace with the colonies, 
upon submission to the British crown. Congress would not listen to their 
proposal?, maintaining that the people of America had done nothing that 
needed forgiveness, and that no conference could be accorded so long as the 
English Armies remained on American soil. Finding that negotiations could 
not be entered upon with ihe government, they sought to worm their way by 
base bribes. Johnstone proposed to Gen. Reed that if he would lend his aid 
to bring about terms of pacification, 10,000 guineas and the best office in the 
country should be his. The answer of the stern General was a type of the 
feeling which swayed every patriot: " My influence is but small, but were it 
as great as Gov. Johntone would insinuate, the King of Great Britain has noth- 
ing in his gift that would tempt me. " 

At the election held for President, the choice fell upon Joseph Reed, with 
George Bryan Vice President, subsequently Matthew Smith, and finally Will- 
iam Moore. Reed was an erudite lawyer, and had held the positions of Pri- 
vate Secretary to Washington, and subsequently Adjutant General of the 
arm} 7 . He was inaugurated on the 1st of December, 1778. Upon the return 
of the patriots to Philadelphia, after the departure of the British, a bitter 
feeling existed between them and the tories who had remained at their homes, 
and had largely profited by the British occupancy. The soldiers became dem- 
onstrative, especially against those lawyers who had defended the tories in 
court. Some of those most obnoxious took refuge in the house of James Wil- 
son, a signer of the Declaration. Private soldiers, in passing, fired upon it, 
and shots were returned whereby one was killed and several wounded. The 
President on being informed of these proceedings, rode at the head of the 


eity troop, and dispersed the assailants, capturing the leaders. The Academy 
and College of Philadelphia required by its charter an oath of allegiance to 
the King of Great Britain. An act was passed November 27, 1779, abrogating 
the former charter, and vesting its property in a new board. An endowment 
from confiscated estates was settled upon it of £15,000 annually. The name 
of the institution was changed to the " University of the State of Pennsyl- 

France was now aiding the American ca\ise with money and large land 
and naval forces. While some of the patriots remained steadfast and were 
disposed to sacrifice and endure all for the success of the struggle, many, who 
should have been in the ranks rallying around Washington, had grown luke- 
warm. The General was mortified that the French should come across the 
ocean and make great sacrifices to help us, and should find so much indiffer- 
ence prevailing among the citizens of many of the States, and so few coming 
forward to fill up the decimated ranks. At the request of Washington, Presi- 
dent Keed was invested with extraordinary powers, in 1780, which were used 
prudently but effectively. During the winter of this year, some of the veteran 
soldiers of the Pennsylvania line mutinied and commenced the march on 
Philadelphia with arms in their hands. Some of them had just cause. They 
had enlisted for "three years or the war," meaning for three years unless 
the war closed sooner. But the authorities had interpreted it to mean, three 
years, or as much longer as the war should last. President Reed immediately 
rode out to meet the mutineers, heard their cause, and pledged if all would re- 
turn to camp, to have those who had honorably served out the full term of 
three years discharged, which was agreed to. Before the arrival of the Presi- 
dent, two emissaries from the enemy who had heard of the disaffection, came 
into camp, offering strong inducements for them to continue the revolt. But 
the mutineers spurned the offer, and delivered them over to the officers, by 
whom they were tried and executed as spies. The soldiers who had so patriot- 
ically arrested and handed over these messengers were offered a reward of fifty 
guineas; but they refused it on the plea that they were acting under authority 
of the Board of Sergeants, under whose order the mutiny was being conducted. 
Accordingly, a hundred guineas were offered to this board for their fidelity. 
Their answer showed how conscientious even mutineers can be: "It was not 
for the sake, or through any expectation of reward; but for the love of our 
country, that we sent the spies immediately to Gen. Wayne; we therefore 
do not consider ourselves entitled to any other reward but the love of our 
country, and do jointly agree to accept of no other." 

William Moore was elected President to succeed Joseph Reed, from No- 
vember 14, 1781. but held theoffice less than one year, the term of three years 
for which he had been a Councilman having expired, which was the limit of 
service. James Potter was chosen Vice President. On account of the hostile 
attitude of the Ohio Indians, it was decided to call out a body of volunteers, 
numbering some 400 from the counties of Washington and Westmoreland, 
where the outrages upon the settlers had been most sorely felt, who chose for 
their commander Col. William Crawford, of Westmoreland. The expedition 
met a most unfortunate fate. It was defeated and cut to pieces, and the 
leader taken captive and burned at the stake. Crawford County, which was 
settled very soon afterward, was named in honor of this unfortunate soldier. 
In the month of November, intelligence was communicated to the Legislature 
that Pennsylvania soldiers, confined as prisoners of war on board of the Jer- 
sey, an old hulk tying in the New York Harbor, were in a starving condition, 
receiving at the hands of the enemy the most barbarous and inhuman treat- 


ruent. Fifty barrels of flour and 300 bushels of potatoes were immediately 
sent to them. 

In the State election of 1782, contested with great violence, John Dickin- 
son was chosen President, and James Ewing Vice President. On the 12th of 
March, 1783, intelligence was first received of the signing of the preliminary 
treaty in which independence was acknowledged, and on the 11th of April 
Congress sent forth the joyful proclamation ordering a cessation of hostilities. 
The soldiers of Burgoyne, who had been confined in the prison camp at Lan- 
caster, were put upon the march for New York, passing through Philadelphia 
on the way. Everywhere was joy unspeakable. The obstructions were re- 
moved from the Delaware, and the white wings of commerce again came flut- 
tering on every breeze. In June, Pennsylvania soldiers, exasperated by delay 
in receiving their pay and their discharge, and impatient to return to their 
homes, to a considerable number marched from their camp at Lancaster, and 
arriving at Philadelphia sent a committee with arms in their hands to the 
State House door with a remonstrance asking permission to elect officers to 
command them for the redress of their grievances, their own having left them, 
and employing threats in case of refusal. These demands the Council rejected. 
The President of Cougress, hearing of these proceedings, called a special ses- 
sion, which resolved to demand that the militia of the State should be called 
out to quell the insurgents. The Council refused to resort to this extreme 
measure, when Congress, watchful of its dignity and of its supposed supreme 
authority, left Philadelphia and established itself in Princeton, N. J., and 
though invited to return at its next session, it refused, and met at Annapolis. 

In October, 1784, the last treaty was concluded with the Indians at Fort 
Stanwix. The Commissioners at this conference purchased from the natives 
all the land to the north of the Ohio River, and the line of Pine Creek, which 
completed the entire limits of the State with the exception of the triangle at 
Erie, which was acquired from the United States in 1792. This purchase 
was confirmed by the Wyandots and Delawares at Fort Mcintosh January 21, 
1785, and the grant was made secure. 

In September, 1785, after a long absence in the service of his country 
abroad, perfecting treaties, and otherwise establishing just relations with other 
nations, the venerable Benjamin Franklin, then nearly eighty years old, feel- 
ing the infirmities of age coming upon him, asked to be relieved of the duties 
of Minister at the Court of France, and returned to Philadelphia. Soon after 
his arrival, he was elected President of the Council. Charles Biddle was 
elected Vice President. It was at this period that a citizen of Pennsylvania, 
John Fitch, secured a patent on his invention for propelling boats by steam. 
In May, 1787, the convention to frame a constitution for the United States 
met in Philadelphia. The delegation from Pennsylvania was Benjamin Frank- 
lin, Robert Moms, Thomas Mifflin, George Clyraer, Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared 
Ingersoll, James Wilson and Gouverneur Morris. Upon the completion of 
their work, the instrument was submitted to the several States for adoption. A 
convention was called in Pennsylvania, which met on the 21st of November, and 
though encountering resolute opposition, it was finally adopted on the 12th of De- 
cember. On the following day, the convention, the Supreme Council and offi- 
cers of the State and city government, moved in procession to the old court 
house, where the adoption of the constitution was formally proclaimed amidst 
the booming of cannon and the ringing of bells. 

On the 5th of November, 1788, Thomas Mifflin was elected President, and 
George Rosa Vice President. The constitution of the State, framed in and 
adapted to the exigencies of an emergency, was ill suited to the needs of State 


in its relations to the new nation. Accordingly, a convention assembled for 
the purpose of preparing a new constitution in November, 1789, which was 
finally adopted on September 2, 1790. By the provisions of this instrument, 
the Executive Council was abolished, and the executive duties were vested in 
the hands of a Governor. Legislation was intrusted to an Assembly and a 
Senate. The judicial system was continued, the terms of the Judges extend- 
ing through good behavior. 


Thomas Mifflin, 1788-99— Thomas McKean, 1799-1808— Simon Snyder, 1808-17— 
William Findlay, 1817-20— Joseph Heister. 1820-23— John A. Shulze, 1823 
-29— George Wolfe, 1829-35— Joseph Ritner, 1835-39. 

THE first election under the new Constitution resulted in the choice of 
Thomas Mifflin, who was re-elected for three successive terms, giving him 
the distinction of having been longer in the executive chair than any other 
person, a period of eleven years. A system of internal improvements was now 
commenced, by which vast water communications were undertaken, and a moun- 
tain of debt was accumulated, a portion of which hangs over the State to this 
day. In 1793, the Bank of Pennsylvania was chartered, one-third of the cap- 
ital stock of which was subscribed for by the State. Branches were established 
at Lancaster, Harrisburg, Reading, Easton and Pittsburgh. The branches 
were discontinued in 1810; in 1843, the stock held by the State was sold, and 
in 1857, it ceased to exist. In 1793, the yellow fever visited Phila- 
delphia. It was deadly in its effects and produced a panic unparalleled. 
Gov. Mifflin, and Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the United States Treasury, 
were attacked. " Men of affluent fortunes, who gave daily employment and 
subsistence to hundreds, were abandoned to the care of a negro after their 
wives, children, friends, clerks and servants had fled away and left them to 
their fate. In some cases, at the commencement of the disorder, no money 
could procure proper attendance. Many of the poor perished without a hu- 
man being to hand them a drink of water, to administer medicines, or to per- 
form any charitable office for them. Nearly 5,000 perished bv this wasting 

The whisky insurrection in some of the western counties of the State, 
which occurred in 1794, excited, by its lawlessness and wide extent, general 
interest. An act of Congress, of March 3, 1791, laid a tax on distilled spirits 
of four pence per gallon. The then counties of Washington, Westmoreland, 
Allegheny and Fayette, comprising the southwestern quarter of the State, 
were almost exclusively engaged in the production of grain. Being far re- 
moved from any market, the product of their farms brought them scarcely any 
returns. The consequence was that a large proportion of the surplus grain 
was turned into distilled spirits, and nearly every other farmer was a distiller. 
This tax was seen to bear heavily upon them, from which a non-producer of 
spirits was relieved. A rash determination was formed to resist its collection, 
and a belief entertained, if all were united in resisting, it would be taken oft. 
Frequent altercations occurred between the persons appointed United States 
Collectors and these resisting citizens. As an example, on the 5th of Septem- 


ber, 1791, a party in disguise set upon Robert Johnson, a Collector fur Alle- 
gheny and Washington, tarred and feathered him, cut off his hair, took away 
his horse, and left him in this plight to proceed. Writs for the arrest of the 
perpetrators were issued, but none dared to venture into the territory to serve 
them. On May 8, 1792, the law was modified, and the tax reduced. In Septem- 
ber, 1792, President Washington issued his proclamation commanding all per- 
sons to submit to the law, and to forbear from further opposition. Bnt these meas- 
ures had no effect, and the insurgents began to organize for forcible resist- 
ance. One Maj. Macfarlane, who in command of a party of insurrectionists, 
was killed in an encounter with United States soldiers at the house of Gen. 
Neville. The feeling now ran very high, and it was hardly safe for any per- 
son to breathe a whisper against the insurgents throughout all this district. 
" A breath," says Brackenridge, " in favor of the law, was sufficient to ruin 
any man. A clergyman was not thought orthodox in the pulpit unless against 
the law. A physician was not capable of administering medicine, unless his 
principles were right in this respect. A lawyer could get no practice, nor 
a merchant at a country store get custom if for the law. On the contrary, to 
talk against the law was the way to office and emolument. To go to the 
Legislature or to Congress you must make a noise against it. It was the Shib- 
boleth of safety and the ladder of ambition " One Bradford had, of his own 
notion, issued a circular letter to the Colonels of regiments to assemble with 
their commands at Braddock's field on the 1st of August, where they appoint- 
ed officers and moved on to Pittsburgh. After having burned a barn, and 
made some noisy demonstrations, they were induced by some cool heads to re- 
turn. These turbulent proceedings coming to the ears of the State and Na- 
tional authorities at Philadelphia, measures were concerted to promptly and 
effectually check them. Gov. Mifflin appointed Chief Justice McKean, and 
Gen. William Irvine to proceed to the disaffected district, ascertain the facts, 
and try to bring the leaders to justice. President Washington issued a proc- 
lamation commanding all persons in arms to disperse to their homes on or be- 
fore the 1st of September, proximo, and called out the militia oli four States 
— Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia — to the number of 13,000 
men, to enforce his commands. The quota of Pennsylvania was 4,500 infan- 
ts, 500 cavalry, 200 artillery, and Gov. Mifflin took command in person. 
Gov. Richard Howell, of New Jersey, Gov. Thomas S. Lee, of Maryland, and 
(lien. Daniel Morgan, of Virginia, commanded the forces from their States, 
and Gov. Henry Lee, of Virginia, was placed in chief command. President 
Washington, accompanied by Gen. Knox, Secretary of War, Alexander Hamil- 
ton, Secretary of the Treasury, and Richard Peters, of the United States Dis- 
trict Court, set out on the 1st of October, for the seat of the disturbance. On 
Friday, the President reached Harrisburg, and on Saturday Carlisle, whither 
the army had preceded him. In the meantime a committee, consisting of 
James Ross, Jasper Yeates and William Bradford, was appointed by President 
Washington to proceed to the disaffected district, and endeavor to persuade 
misguided citizens to return to their allegiance. 

k meeting of 260 delegates from the four counties was held at Parkinson's 
Ferry on the 14th of August, at which the state of their cause was considered, 
resolutions adopted, and a committee of sixty, one from each county, was ap- 
pointed, and a sub-committee of twelve was named to confer with the United 
States Commissioners, McKean and Irvine. These conferences with the State 
and National Committees were successful in arranging preliminary conditions 
of settlement. On the 2d of October, the Committee of Safety of the insur- 
gents met at Parkinson's Ferry, and having now learned that a well-organized 


army, with Washington at its head, was marching westward for enforcing 
obedience to the laws, appointed a committee of two, William Findley and 
David Reddick, to meet the President, and assure bim that the disaffected were 
disposed to return to their duty. They met Washington at Carlisle, and sev- 
eral conferences were held, and assurances given of implicit obedience; but 
the President said that as the troops had been called out, the orders for the 
march would not be countei'manded. The President proceeded forward on the 
11th of October to Chambersburg, reached Williamsport on the 13th and Fort 
Cumberland on the 14th, where he reviewed the Virginia and Maryland forces, 
and arrived at Bedford on the 19th. Remaining a few days, and being satis- 
fied that the sentiment of the people had changed, he returned to Philadel- 
phia, arriving on the 28th, leaving Gen. Lee to meet the Commissioners and 
make such conditions of pacification as should seem just. Another meeting of 
the Committee of Safety was held at Parkinson's Ferry on the 24th, at which 
assurances of abandonment of opposition to the laws were received, and the 
same committee, with the addition of Thomas Morton and Ephriam Douglass, 
was directed to return to headquarters and give assurance of this disposition. 
They did not reach Bedford until after the departure of Washington. But at 
Uniontown they met Gen. Lee, with whom it was agreed that the citizens 
of these four counties should subscribe to an oath to support the Constitution 
and obey the laws. Justices of the Peace issued notices that books were opened 
for subscribing to the oath, and Gen. Lee issued a judicious address urging 
ready obedience. Seeing that all requirments were being faithfully carried 
out, an order was issued on the 17th of November for the return of the army 
and its disbandment. A number of arrests were made and trials and convic- 
tions were had, but all were ultimately pardoned. 

With the exception of a slight ebulition at the prospect of a war with France 
in 1797, and a resistance to the operation of the " Homestead Tax '' in Lehigh, 
Berks and Northampton Counties, when the militia was called out, the re- 
mainder of the term of Gov. Mifflin passed in comparative quiet By an act 
of the Legislature of the 3d of April, 1799, the capital of the State was re 
moved to Lancaster, and soon after the capital of the United States to Wash- 
ington, the house on Ninth street, which had been built for the residence of the 
President of the United States ; passing to the use of the University of Pennsyl- 

During the administrations of Thomas McKean, who was elected Governor 
in 1799, and Simon Snyder in 1808, little beyond heated political contests 
marked the even tenor of the government, until the breaking-out of the troub- 
les which eventuated in the war of 1812. The blockade of the coast of France 
in 1806, and the retaliatory measures of Napoleon in his Berlin decree, swept 
American commerce, which had hitherto preserved a neutral attitude and prof- 
ited by European wars, from the seas. The haughty conduct of Great Britain 
in boarding American vessels for suspected deserters from the British Navy, 
under cover of which the gi'ossest outrages were committed, American seaman 
being dragged from the decks of their vessels and impressed into the English 
service, induced President Jefferson, in July, 1807, to issue his proclamation 
ordering all British armed vessels to leave the waters of the United States, and 
forbidding any to enter, until satisfaction for the past and security for the 
future should be provided for. Upon the meeting of Congress in December, 
an embargo was laid, detaining all vessels, American and foreign, then in 
American waters, and ordering home all vessels abroad. Negotiations were 
conducted between the two countries, but no definite results were reached, and 
in the meantime causes of irritation multiplied until 1812, when President 


Madison declared war against Great Britain, known as the war of 1812. 
Pennsylvania promptly seconded the National Government, +he message of 
Gov. Snyder on the occasion ringing like a silver clarion. The national call 
for 100,000 men required 14,000 from this State, but so great was the enthu- 
siasm, that several times this number tendered their services. The State force 
was organized in two divisions, to the command of the first of which Maj 
Gen. Isaac MorrellNvas appointed, and to the second Maj. Gen. AdamsonTan- 
nehill. Gunboats and privateers were built in the harbor of Erie and on the 
Delaware, and the defenses upon the latter were put in order and suitable 
armaments provided. At Tippecanoe, at Detroit, at Queenstown Heights, at 
the River Raisin, at Fort Stephenson, aud at the River Thames, the war was 
waged with varying success. Upon the water, Commodores Decatur, Hull, 
Jones, Perry, Lawrence, Porter and McDonough made a bright chapter in 
American history, as was to be wished, inasmuch as the war had been under- 
taken to vindicate the honor and integrity of that branch of the service. Napo- 
leon, having met with disaster, and his power having been broken, 14,000 of 
Wellington's veterans were sent to Canada, and the campaign of the next year 
was opened with vigor. But at the battles of Oswego, Chippewa, Lundy's 
Lane, Fort Erie and Plattsburg, the tide was turned against the enemy, and 
the country saved from invasion. The act which created most alarm to 
Pennsylvania was one of vandalism scarcely matched in the annals of war- 
fare. In August, 1814, Gen. Ross, with 6,000 men in a flotilla of sixty sails, 
moved up Chesapeake Bay, fired the capitol, Pre3ident's house and the various 
offices of cabinet ministers, and these costly and substantial buildings, the nation- 
al library and all the records of the Government from its foundation were utterly 
destroyed. Shortly afterward, Ross appeared before Baltimore with the design 
of multiplying his barbarisms, but he was met by a force hastily collected under 
Gen. Samuel Smith, a Pennsylvania veteran of the Revolution, and in the brief 
engagement which ensued Ross was killed. In the severe battle with the 
corps of Gen Strieker, the British lost some 300 men. The fleet in the mean- 
time opened a fierce bombardment of Fort McHenry, and during the day and 
ensuing night 1,500 bombshells were thrown, but all to no purpose, the gal- 
lant defense of Maj. Armistead proving successful. It was during this awful 
night that 'Alaj. Key, who was a prisoner on board the fleet, wrote the song of 
the Star Spangled Banner, which became the national lyric. It was in the ad- 
ministration of Gov. Snydei in February, 1810, that an act was passed making 
Harrisburg the seat of government, and a commission raised for erecting public 
buildings, the sessions of the Legislature being held in the court house at Har- 
risburg from 1812 to 1821. 

The administrations of William Findley, elected in 1817, Joseph Heister, 
in 1820, and John Andrew Schulz in 1823, followed without marked events. 
Parties became very warm in their discussions and in their management of po- 
litical campaigns. The charters for the forty banks which had been passed in 
a fit of frenzy over the veto of Gov. Snyder set a flood of paper money afloat. 
The public improvements, principally in opening lines of canal, were prose- 
cuted, and vast debts incurred. These lines of conveyances were vitally need- 
ful to move the immense products and vast resources of the State 

Previous to the year 1820, little use was made of stone coal. Judge 
Obediah Gore, a blacksmith, used it upon his forge as early as 1769, and 
found the heat stronger and more enduring than that produced by charcoal. 
In 1791, Phillip Ginter, of Carbon County, a hunter by profession, having on 
one occasion been out all day without discovering any game, was returning at 
night discouraged and worn out, .\cross the Mauch Chunk Mountain, when, in 








1 63, 221 

























































fi 221,934 




































































Total Tons. 































































3 358,899 



































the gathering shades he stumbled upon something which seemed to have a 
glistening appearance, that he was induced to pick up and carry home. This 
specimen was takea to Philadelphia, where an analysis showed it to be a good 
quality of anthracite coal. But, though coal was known to exist, no one knew 
how to use it. In 1812, Col. George Shoemaker, of Schuylkill County, took 
nine wagon loads to Philadelphia. But he was looked upon as an imposter 
for attempting to sell worthless stone for coal. He finally sold two loads for 
the cost of transportation, the remaining seven proving a complete loss. In 
1812, While & Hazard, manufacturers of wire at the Falls of Schuylkill, in- 
duced an application to be made to the Legislature to incorporate a com- 
pany for the improvement of the Schuylkill, urging as an inducement the im- 
portance it Would have for transporting coal; whereupon, the Senator from 
that district, in his place, with an air of knowledge, asserted "that there was 
no coal there, that there was a kind of black stone which was called coal, but 
that it would not burn." 

White & Hazard procured a cart load of Lehigh coal that cost them $1 a 
bushel, which was all wasted in a vain attempt to make it ignite. Another 
cart load was obtained, and a whole night spent in endeavoring to make a fire- 
in the furnace, when the hands shut the furnace door and left the mill in de- 
spair. "Fortunately one of them left his jacket in the mill, and returning for 
it in about half an hour, noticed that the door was red hot, and upon opening 
it, was surprised at finding the whole furnace at a glowing white heat. The 
other hands were summoned, and four separate parcels of iron were heated 
and rolled by the same fire before it required renewing. The furnace was 
replenished, and as letting it alone had succeeded so well, it was concluded to 
try it again, and the experiment was repeated with the same result. The 
Lehigh Navigation Company and the Lehigh Coal Company were incorporated 
in 1818, which companies became the basis of the Lehigh Coal and Naviga- 
tion Company, incorporated in 1822. In 1820, coal was sent to Philadelphia 
by artificial navigation, but 365 tons glutted the market." In 1825, there 
were brought by the Schuylkill 5,378 tons. In 1826, by the Schuylkill, 
16,265 tons, and by the Lehigh 31,280 tons. The stage of water being in- 
sufficient, dams and sluices were constructed near Mauch Chunk, in 1819, by 
which the navigation was improved. The coal boats used were great square 
arks, 16 to 18 feet wide, and 20 to 25 feet long. At first, two of these were 
joined together by hinges, to allow them to yield up and down in passing over 
the dams. Finally, as the boatmen became skilled in the navigation, several 
were joined, attaining a length of 180 feet. Machinery was used for jointing 
the planks, and so expert had the men become that five would build an ark 
and launch it in forty-five minutes. After reaching Philadelphia, these boats 
were taken to pieces, the plank sold, and the hinges sent back for constructing 
others. Such were the crude methods adopted in the early days for bringing 
coal to a market. In 1827, a railroad was commenced, which was completed 
in three months, nine miles in length. This, with the exception of one at 
Quincy, Mass., of four miles, built in 1826, was the first constructed in the 
United States. The descent was 100 feet per mile, and the coal descended by 
gravity in a half hour, and the cars were drawn back by mules, which rode 
down with the coal. "The mules cut a most grotesque figure, standing three 
or four together, in their cars, with their feeding troughs before them, appar- 
ently surveying with delight the scenery of the mountain; and though they 
preserve the most profound gravity, it is utterly impossible for the spectator 
to maintain his. It is said that the mules, having once experienced the com- 
fort of riding down, regard it as a right, and neither mild nor Bevere measures 


will induce them to descend in any other way." Bituminous coal was discov- 
ered and its qualities utilized not much earlier than the anthracite. A tract 
of coal land was taken up in Clearfield County in 1785, by Mr. 8. Boyd, and 
in 1804 he sent an ark down the Susquehanna to Columbia, which caused 
much surprise to the inhabitants that "an article with which they were wholly 
unacquainted should be brought to their own doors." 

During the administrations of George Wolf, elected in 1829, and Joseph 
Ritner, elected in 1835, a measure of great beneficence to the State was passed 
and brought into a good degree of successful operation — nothing less than a 
broad system of public education. Schools had been early established in 
Philadelphia, and parochial schools in the more populous portions of the 
State from the time of early settlement. In 1749, through the influence of 
Dr. Franklin, a charter was obtained for a "college, academy, and charity 
school of Pennsylvania," and from this time to the beginning of the present 
century, the friends of education were earnest in establishing colleges, the 
Colonial Government, and afterward the Legislature, making liberal grants 
from the revenues accruing from the sale of lauds for their support, the uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania being chartered in 1752, Dickinson College in 1783, 
Franklin and Marshall College in 1787, and Jefferson College in 1802. Com- 
mencing near the beginning of this century, and continuing for over a period 
of thirty years, vigorous exertions were put forth to establish county acad- 
emies. Charters were granted for these institutions at the county seats of 
forty-one counties, and appropriations were made oE money, varying from 
$2,000 to $6,000, and in several instances of quite extensive land grants. In 
1809, an act was passed for the education of the "poor, gratis." The Asses- 
sors in their annual rounds were to make a record of all such as were indi- 
gent, and pay for their education in the most convenient schools. But few 
were found among the spirited inhabitants of the commonwealth willing to 
admit that they were so poor as to be objects of charity. 

By the act of April 1, 1834, a general system of education by common 
schools was established. Unfortunately it was complex and unwieldy. At the 
next session an attempt was made to repeal it, and substitute the old law of 
1809 for educating the " poor, gratis," the repeal having been carried in the 
Senate. But through the appeals of Thaddeus Stevens, a man always in the 
van in every movement for the elevation of mankind, this was defeated. At 
the next session, 1836, an entirely new bill, discarding the objectionable feat- 
ures of the old one, was prepared by Dr. George Smith, of Delaware County, 
and adopted, and from this time forward has been in efficient operation. It may 
seem strange that so long a time should have elapsed before a general system of 
education should have been secured. But the diversity of origin and lan- 
guage, the antagonism of religious seats, the very great sparseness of popula- 
tion in many parts, made it impossible at an earlier day to establish schools. 
In 1854, the system was improved by engrafting upon it the feature of the 
County Superintendency, and in 1859 by providing for the establishment of 
twelve Normal Schools, in as many districts into which the State was divided, 
for the professional training of teachers. 



David R. Porter, 1839-45— Francis R. Shone, 1845-48— William F. Johnstone 
1848-52— William Bigler, 1853-55— James Pollock, 1855-58— William F. 
Packer, 1858-61— Andrew G. Curtin, 1861-67— John W. Geary, 1867-73— 
John F. Hartranft, 1873-78— Henry F. Hoyt, 1878-82— Robert E. Pat- 
tison, 1882. 

IN 1837, a convention assembled in Harrisburg, and subsequently in Philadel- 
phia, for revising the constitution, which revision was adopted by a vote of 
the people. One of the chief objects of the change was the breaking up of 
what was known as "omnibus legislation." each bill being required to have 
but one distinct subject, to be definitely stated in the title. Much of the pat- 
ronage of the Governor was taken from him, and he was allowed but two terms 
of three years in any nine years. The Senator's term was fixed at three years. 
The terms of Supreme Court Judges were limited to fifteen years, Common 
Pleas Judges to ten, and Associate Judges to five. A step backward was taken 
' i limiting suffrage to white male citizens twenty-one years old, it having pre- 
viously been extended to citizens irrespective of color. Amendments could be 
proposed once in five years, and if adopted by two successive Legislatures, 
and approved by a vote of the people, they became a part of the organic law. 
At the opening of the gubernatorial term of David R. Porter, who was 
chosen in October, 1838, a civil commotion occurred known as the Buckshot 
War, which at one time threatened a sanguinary result. By the returns, 
Porter had some 5,000 majority over Ritner, but the latter, who was the in- 
cumbent, alleged frauds, and proposed an investigation and revision of the 
returns. Thomas H. Burrows was Secretary of State, and Chairman of the 
State Committee of the Anti-Masonic party, and in an elaborate address to the 
people setting forth the grievance, he closed with the expression " let us treat 
the election as if we had not been defeated. " This expression gave great 
offense to the opposing party, the Democratic, and public feeling ran high 
before the meeting of the Legislature. Whether an investigation could be had 
would depend up'on the political complexion of that body. The Senate was 
clearly Anti-Masonic, and the House would depend upon the Representatives of 
a certain district in Philadelphia, which embraced the Northern Liberties. 
The returning board of this district had a majority of Democrats, who pro- 
ceeded to throw out the entire vote of Northern Liberties, for some alleged 
irregularities, and gave the certificate to Democrats. Whereupon, the minor- 
ity of the board assembled, and counted the votes of the Northern Liberties, 
which gave the election to the Anti -Masonic candidates, and sent certificates 
accordingly. By right and justice, there is no doubt that the Anti-Masons 
were fairly elected. But the majority of a returning board alone have 
authority to make returns, and the Democrats had the certificates which bore 
prima facie evidence of being correct, and should have been received and 
transmitted to the House, where alone rested the authority to go behind the 
returns and investigate their correctness. But upon the meeting oE the House 
the Secretary of the Commonwealth sent in the certificates of the minority of 
the returning board of the Northern Liberties district, Which gave the major- 
ity to the Anti -Masons. But the Democrats were not disposed to submit, and 


the consequence was that two delegations from the disputed district appeared, 
demanding seats, and upon the organization, two Speakers were elected and 
took the platform — Thomas S. Cunningham for the Anti-Masons, and Will- 
iam Hopkins for the Democrats. At this stage of the game, an infuriated 
lobby, collected from Philadelphia and surrounding cities, broke into the 
two Houses, and, interrupting all business, threatened the lives of members, 
and compelled them to seek safety in flight, when they took uncontrolled pos- 
session of the chambers and indulged in noisy and impassioned harangues. 
From the capitol, the mob proceeded to the court houso, where a "committee 
of safety" was appointed. For several days the members dared not enter 
either House, and when one of the parties of the House attempted to assemble, 
the person who had been appointed to act as Speaker was forcibly ejected. All 
business was at an end, and the Executive and State Departments were closed. 
At this juncture, Gov. Ritner ordered out the militia, and at the same time 
called on the United States authorities for help. The militia, under Gens. 
Pattison and Alexander, came promptly to the rescue, but the Presidentrefused 
to furnish the National troops, though the United States storekeeper at. the 
Frankford Arsenal turned over a liberal supply of ball and buckshot cartridges. 
The arrival of the militia only served to tire the spirit of the lobby, and they 
immediately commenced drilling and organizing, supplying themselves with 
arms and fixed ammunition. The militia authorities were, however, able to 
clear the capitol, when the two Houses assembled, and the Senate signified the 
willingness to recognize that branch of the House presided over by Mr. Hop- 
kins. This ended the difficulty, and Gov. Porter was duly inaugurated. 

Francis R. Shunk was chosen Governor in 1845, and during his term of 
office the war with Mexico occurred. Two volunteer regiment?, one under 
command of Col. Wynkoop, and the other under Col. Roberts, subsequently 
Col. John W. Geary, were sent to the field, while the services of a much 
larger number were offered, but could not be received. Toward the close of 
his first term, having been reduced by sickness, and feeling his end approach- 
ing, Gov. Shunk resigned, and was succeeded by the Speaker of the Senate, 
William F. Johnston, who was duly chosen at the next annual election. Dur- 
ing the administrations of William Bigler, elected in 1851, James Pollock in 
1854, and William F. Packer in 1857, little beyond the ordinary course of 
events marked the history of the State. The lines of public works undertaken 
at the expense of the State were completed. Their cost had been enormous, 
and a debt was piled up against it of over $40,000,000. These works, vastly 
expensive, were still to operate and keep in repair, and the revenues therefrom 
failing to meet expectations, it was determined in the administration of Gov. 
Pollock to sell them to the highest bidder, the Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany purchasing them for the sum of $7,500,000. 

In the administration of Gov. Packer, petroleum was first discovered in 
quantities in this country by boring into the bowels of the earth. From the 
earliest settlement of the country it was known to exist. As early as July 18, 
1627, a French missionary, Joseph Delaroche Daillon, of the order of Recol- 
iets, described it in a letter published in 1632, in Segard's L'Histoire du 
Canada, and this description is confirmed by the journal of Charlevois, 1721. 
Fathers Dollier and Galinee, missionaries of the order of St. Sulpice, made a 
map of this section of couutry, which they sent to Jean Talon, Intendent of 
Canada, on the 10th of November, 1670, on which was marked at about the 
point where is now the town of Cuba, N. Y. , "Fontaine de Bitume." The 
Earl of Belmont, Governor of New York, instructed his chief engineer, 
Wolfgang W. Romer, on September 3, 1700, in his visit to the Six Nations, 


" To go and view a well or spring which is eight miles beyond the Seneks* 
farthest castle, which they have told me blazes up in a flame, when a lighted 
coale or firebrand is put into it; you will do well to taste the said water, and 
give me your opinion thereof, and bring with you some of it." Thomas Cha- 
bert de Joncaire, who died in September, 1740, is mentioned in the journal of 
Charlevoix of 1721 as authority for the existence of oil at the place mentioned 
above, and at points further south, probably on Oil Creek. The following 
account of an event occurring during the occupancy of this part of the State 
by the French is given as an example of the religious uses made of oil by the 
Indians, as these fire dances are understood to have been annually celebrated: 
''While descending the Allegheny, fifteen leagues below the mouth of the 
Connewango (Warren) and three above Fort Venango (Oil City), we were 
invited by the chief of the Senecas to attend a religious ceremony of his tribe. 
We landed and drew up our canoes on a point where a small stream entered 
the river. The tribe appeared unusually solemn. We marched up the stream 
about a half a league, where the company, a large band it appeared, had 
arrived some days before us. Gigantic hills begirt us on every side. The 
scene was really sublime. The great chief then recited the conquests and 
heroisms of their ancestors. The surface of the stream was covered with a 
thick scum, which burst into a complete conflagration. The oil had been 
gathered and lighted with a torch. At sight of the flames, the Indians gave 
forth a triumphant shout, and made the hills and valley re-echo again." 

In nearly all geographies and notes of travel published during the early 
period of settlement, this oil is referred to, and on several maps the word petro- 
leum appears opposite the mouth of Oil Creek. Gen. Washington, in his will, 
in speaking of his lands on the Great Kanawha, says: " The tract of which the 

125 acres is a moiety, was taken up by Gen. Andrew Lewis and myself, for and 
on account of a bituminous spring which it contains of so inflammable a nat- 
ure as to burn as freely as spirits, and is as nearly difficult to extinguish." 
Air. Jefferson, in his Notes on Virginia, also gives an account of a burning 
spring on the lower grounds of the Great Kanawha. This oil not only seems 
to have been known, but to have been systematically gathered in very early 
times. Upon the flats a mile or so below the city of Titusville are many acres 
of cradle holes dug out and lined with split logs, evidently constructed for 
the purpose of gathering it. The fact that the earliest inhabitants could 
never discover any stumps from which these logs were cut. and the further fact 
that trees are growing of giant size in the midst of these cradles, are evidences 
that they must have been operated long ago. It could not have been the work 
of any ol the nomadic Indian tribes found here at the coming of the white 
man. for they were never known to undertake any enterprise involving so 
much labor, and what could they do with the oil when obtained. 

The French could hardly have done the work, for we have no account of 
the oil having been obtained in quantities, or of its being transported to 
France. May this not have been the work of the Mound- Builders, or of colo- 
nies from Central America? When the writer first visited these pits, in 1855, 
he found a spring some distance below Titusville, on Oil Creek, where the 
water was conducted into a trough, from which, daily, the oil, floating on its 
surface, was taken off by throwing a woolen blanket upon it, and then wring- 
ing it into a tub, the clean wool absorbing the oil and rejecting the water, and 
in this way a considerable quantity was obtained. 

In 1859, Mr. E. L. Drake, at first representing a company in New York, 
commenced drilling near the spot where this tub was located, and when the 
company would give him no more money, straining his own resources, and his 


credit with his friends almost to the breaking point, and when about to give 
up in despair, finally struck a powerful current of pure oil. From this time 
forward, the territory down the valley of Oil Creek and up all its tributaries 
was rapidly acquired and developed for oil land. In some places, the oil was 
sent up with immense force, at the rate of thousands of barrels each day, and 
great trouble was experienced in bringing it under control <md storing it. In 
some cases, the force of the gas was so powerful on being accidentally fired, 
as to defy all approach for many days, and lighted up the forests at night 
with billows of light. 

The oil has been found in paying quantities in McKean, Warren, Forest, 
Crawford, Venango, Clarion, Butler and Armstrong Counties, chiefly along 
the upper waters of the Allegheny River and its tributary, the Oil Creek. It 
was first transported in barrels, and teams were kept busy from the first dawn 
until far into the night. As soon as practicable, lines of railway were con- 
structed from nearly all the trunk lines. Finally barrels gave place to im- 
mense iron tanks riveted upon cars, provided for the escape of the gases, and 
later great pipe lines were extended from the wells to the seaboard, and to the 
Great Lakes, through which the fluid is forced by steam to its distant destina- 
tions Its principal uses are for illumination and lubricating, though many 
of its products are employed in the mechanic arts, notably for dyeing, mixing 
of paints, and in the practice of medicine. Its production has grown to be 
enormous, and seems as yet to show no sign of diminution. We give an ex- 
hibit of the annual production since its discovery, compiled for tbis work by 
William II. Siviter, editor of the Oil City Derrick, wh'^h is the acknowledged 
authority on oil matters: 

Production of the Pennsylvania Oil Fields, compiled from the Derrick's 
Hand-book, December, 1883: 

Barrels, Barrels. 

1859 82,000 1873 9,849,508 

1860 500,000 1874 ...11,102,114 

1861 2,113,U00 1875 8,948,749 

1862 3.056,606 1876 9,142,940 

1863 2.611,399 1877 13,052,713 

1864 2,116,182 1878 15,011,425 

1865 3.497,712 1879 20.085,716 

1866 3,597,512 1880 24,788,950 

1867 3.347,306 1881 29,674,458 

1868 3. 715, 741 1882 31,789, 190 

1869 4,186,475 1883 24,385,966 

1870 5,308,046 

1871 5,278,076 A grand total of 13,749,558 

1872 6,505,774 

In the fall of 1860, Andrew G. Curtin was elected Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania, and Abraham Lincoln President of the United States. An organized 
rebellion, under the specious name of secession, was thereupon undertaken, 
embracing parts of fifteen States, commonly designated the Slave States, and 
a government established under the name of the Confederate States of America, 
with an Executive and Congress, which commenced the raising of troops for 

On the 12th of April, an attack was made upon a small garrison of United 
States troops shut up in Fort Sumter. This was rightly interpreted as the 
first act in a great drama. On the 15th, the President summoned 75,000 vol- 
unteers to vindicate the national authority, calling for sixteen regiments from 
Pennsylvania, and urging that two be sent forward immediately, as the capital 
was without defenders. 

The people of the State, having no idea that war could be possible, had no 


preparation for the event, There chanced at the time to be five companies in 
a tolerable state of organization. These were the Ringold Light Artillery, 
Capt. McKnight, of Reading; the Logan Guards, Capt. Selheirner, of Lewis- 
town; the Washington Artillery, Capt. Wren, and the National Light Infan- 
try, Capt. McDonald, of Pottsville; and the Allen Rifles, Capt. Yeager, of 

On the 18th, in conjunction with a company of fifty regulars, on their way 
from the West to Fort McHenry, under command of Capt. Pemberton, after- 
ward Lieut. Gen. Pemberton, of the rebel army, these troops moved by rail 
for Washington. At Baltimore, they were obliged to march two miles through 
a jeering and insulting crowd. At the center of the city, the regulars filed 
off toward Fort McHenry, leaving the volunteers to pursue their way alone, 
when the crowd of maddened people were excited to redoubled insults. In the 
whole battalion there was not a charge of powder; but a member of the Logan 
Guards, who chanced to have a box of percussion caps in his pocket, had dis- 
tributed them to his comrades, who carried their pieces capped and half 
cocked, creating the impression that they were loaded and ready for service. 
This ruse undoubtedly saved the battalion from the murderous assault made 
upon the Massachusetts Sixth on the following day. Before leaving, they were 
pelted with stones and billets of wood while boarding the cars; but, fortu- 
nately, none were seriously injured, and the train finally moved away and 
reached Washington in safety, the first troops to come to the unguarded and 
imperiled capital. 

Instead of sixteen, twenty-five regiments were organized for the three months' 
service from Pennsylvania. Judging from the threatening attitude assumed 
by the rebels across the Potomac that the southern frontier would be con- 
stantly menaced, Gov. Curtin sought permission to organize a select corps,, 
to consist of thirteen regiments of infantry, one of cavalry, and one of artillery r 
and to be known as the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps, which the Legislature, in 
special session, granted. This corps of 15,000 men was speedily raised, and the 
intention of the State authorities was to keep this body permamently within 
the limits of the Commonwealth for defense. But at the time of the First 
Bull Run disaster in July, 1861, the National Government found itself with- 
out troops to even defend the capital, the time of the three months' men being 
now about to expire, and at it3 urgent call this fine body was sent forward and 
never again returned for the execution of the duty for which it was formed, 
having borne the brunt of the fighting on many a hard- fought field during the 
three years of its service. 

In addition to the volunteer troops furnished in response to the several 
calls of the President, upon the occasion of the rebel invasion of Maryland in 
September, 1862, Gov. Curtin called 50,000 men for the emergency, and 
though the time was very brief, 25,000 came, were organized under command 
of Gen. John F. Reynolds, and were marched to the border. But the battle of 
Antietam, fought on the 17th of September, caused the enemy to beat a hasty 
retreat, and the border was relieved when the emergency troops were dis- 
banded and returned to their homes. On the 19th of October, Gen. J. E. B. 
Stewart, of the rebel army, with 1,800 horsemen under command of Hampton, 
Lee and Jones, crossed the Potomac and made directly for Chambersburg, 
arriving after dark. Not waiting for morning to attack, he sent in a flag of 
truce demanding the surrender of the town. There were 275 Union soldiers in 
hospital, whom he paroled. During the night, the troopers were busy picking 
up horses — swapping horses perhaps it should be called — and the morning saw 
them early on the move. The rear guard gave notice before leaving to re- 


move all families from the neighborhood of the public buildings, as they in- 
tended to lire them. There was a large amount of fixed ammunition in them, 
which had been captured from Longstreet' s train, besides Government stores 
of shoes, clothing and muskets. At 11 o'clock the station house, round house, 
railroad machine shops and warehouses were fired and consigned to 
destruction. The fire department was promptly out; but it was dangerous to 
approach the burning buildings on account of the ammunition, and all 

The year 1862 was one of intense excitement and activity. From about the 
1st of May, 1861, to the end of 1862, there were recruited in the State of Penn- 
sylvania, one hundred and eleven regiments, including eleven of cavalry and 
three of artillery, for three years' service; twenty-five regiments for three months; 
seventeen for nine months; fifteen of drafted militia; and twenty-five called out 
for the emergency, an aggregate of one hundred and ninety- three regiments — a- 
grand total of over 200,000 men — a great army in itself. 

In June, 1863, Gen. ttobert E. Lee, with his entire army of Northern Vir- 
ginia, invaded Pennsylvania. The Army of the Potorrfac, under Gen. Joseph 
Hooker, followed. The latter was superseded on the 28th of June by Gen. George 
G. Meade. The vanguards of the army met a mile or so out of Gettysburg on the 
Chambersburg pike on the morning of the 1st of July. Hill's corps of the 
rebel army was held in check by the sturdy fighting of a small division of 
cavalry under Gen. Buford until 10 o'clock, when Gen. Reynolds came to his 
relief with the First Corps. While bringing his forces into action, Reynolds 
was killed, and the command devolved on Gen. Abner Doubleday, and the 
fighting became terrible, the Union forces being greatly outnumbered. At 2 
o'clock in the afternoon, the Eleventh Corps, Gen. O. O. Howard, came to the 
support of the First. But now the corps of Ewell had joined hands with Hill,, 
and a full two-thirds of the entire rebel army was on the field, opposed by 
only the two weak Union corps, in an inferior position. A sturdy fight was 
however maintained until 5 o'clock, when the Union forces withdrew through 
the town, and took position upon rising ground covering the Baltimore pike. 
During the night the entire Union army came up, with the exception of the 
Sixth Corps, and took position, and at 2 o'clock in the morning Gen. Meade 
and staff came on the field. During the morning hours, and until 4 o'clock in 
the afternoon, the two armies were getting into position for the desperate 
struggle. The Third Corps, Gen. Sickles, occupied the extreme left, his corps 
abutting on the Little Round Top at the Devil's Den, and reaching, en echelon, 
through the rugged ground to the Peach Orchard, and thence along the Em- 
mettsburg pike, where it joined the Second Corps, Gen. Hancock, reaching 
over Cemetery Hill, the Eleventh Corps, Gen. Howard, the First, Gen. Double- 
day, and the Twelfth, Gen. Slocum, reaching across Culp's Hill — the whole 
crescent shape. To this formation the rebel army conformed, Longstreet op- 
posite the Union left, Hill opposite the center, and Ewell opposite the Union 
right. At 4 P. M. the battle was opened by Longstreet, on the extreme left of 
Sickles, and the fighting became terrific, the rebels making strenuous efforts 
to gain Little Round Top. But at the opportune moment a part of the Fifth 
Corps, Gen. Sykes, was brought upon that key position, and it was saved to 
the Union side. The slaughter in front of Round Top at the wheat-field and 
the Peach Orchard was fearful. The Third Corps was driven back from its 
advanced position, and its commander, Gen. Sickles, was wounded, losing a 
leg. In a more contracted position, the Union lino was made secure, where it 
rested for the night. Just at dusk, the Louisiana Tigers, some 1,800 men, 
made a desperate charge on Cemetery Hill, emerging suddenly from a hillock 


just back of the town. The struggle was desperate, but the Tigers being 
weakened by the fire of the artillery, and by the infantry crouching behind the 
stone wall, the onset was checked, and Carroll's brigade, of the Second Corps, 
coming to the rescue, they were finally beaten back, terribly decimated. At 
about the same time, a portion of Etvell's corps made an advance on the ex- 
treme Union right, at a point where the troops had been withdrawn to send to 
the support of Sickles, and unopposed, gained the extremity of Culp's Hill, 
pushing through nearly to the Baltimore pike, in dangerous proximity to the 
reserve artillery and trains, and even the headquarters of the Union com- 
mander. But in their attempt to roll up the Union right they were met by 
Green's brigade of the Twelfth Corps, and by desperate fighting their further 
progress was stayed. Thus ended the battle of the second day. The Union left 
and right had been sorely jammed and pushed back. 

At 4 o'clock on the morning of the 3d of July, Gen. Geary, who had been 
ordered away to the support of Sickles, having returned during the night and 
taken position on the right of Green, opened the battle for the recovery of his 
lost breastworks on the right of Culp's Hill. Until 10 o'clock, the battle raged 
with unabated fury. The heat was intolerable, and the sulphurous vapor 
hung like a pall over the combatants, shutting out the light of day. The 
fighting was i n the midst of the forest, and the echoes resounded with fearful 
distinctness. The Twelfth Corps was supported by portions of the Sixth, 
which had now come up. At length the enemy, weakened and finding them- 
selves overborne on all sides, gave way, and the Union breastworks were re- 
occupied and the Union right made entirely secure. Comparative quiet now 
reigned on either side until 2 o'clock in the afternoon, in the meantime both 
sides bringing up fresh troops and repairing damages. The rebel leader hav- 
ing brought his best available artillery in upon his right center, suddenly 
opened with 150 pieces a concentric fire upon the devoted Union left center, 
where stood the troops of Hancock and Doubleday and Sickles. The shock 
was terrible. Rarely has such a cannonade been known on any field. For 
nearly two hours it was continued. Thinking that the Union line had been 
broken and demoralized by this fire, Longstreet brought out a fresh corps of 
some 18,000 men, under Pickett, and charged full upon the point which had 
been the mark for the cannonade. As soon as this charging column came into 
view, the Union artillery opened upon it from right and left and center, and 
rent it with fearful effect. When come within musket range, the Union 
troops, who had been crouching behind slight pits and a low stone wall, 
poured in a most murderous fire. Still the rebels pushed forward with a bold 
face, and actually crossed the Union lines and had their hands on the Union 
guns. But the slaughter was too terrible to withstand. The killed and 
wounded lay scattered over all the plain. Many were gathered in as prisoners. 
Finally, the remnant staggered back, and the battle of Gettysburg was at an 

Gathering all in upon his fortified line, the rebel chieftain fell to strength- 
ening it, which he held with a firm hand. At night-fall, he put his trains 
with the wounded upon the retreat. During the 4th, great activity in build- 
ing works was manifest, and a heavy skirmish line was kept well out, which 
resolutely met any advance of Union forces. The entire fighting force of the 
rebel army remained in position behind their breastworks on Oak Ridge, until 
nightfall of the 4th, when, under cover of darkness, it was withdrawn, and 
before morning was well on its way to Williamsport. The losses on the Union 
side were 2,834 killed, 13,709 wounded, and 6,643 missing, an aggregate of 
23,186. Of the losses of the enemy, no adequate returns were made. Meade 


reports 13.621 prisoners taken, and the losses by killed and wounded must 
have been greater than on the Union side. On the rebel side, Maj. Gens. 
Hood, Pender, Trimble and Heth were wounded, Pender mortally. Brig. 
Gens. Barksdale and Garnett were killed, an 1 Semms mortally wounded. 
Brig. Gens. Kemper, Armistead, Scales, G. T. Anderson, Hampton, J. M. 
Jones and Jenkins were wounded; Archer was taken prisoner and Pettigrew 
was wounded arid subsequently killed at Falling Waters. In the Union army 
Vlaj. Gen. Reynolds and Brig. Gens. Vincent, Weed, Willard and Zook were 
iilled. Maj. Gens. Sickles, Hancock, Doubleday. Gibbon, Barlow, Warren 
md Butterfield, and Brig. Gens. Graham, Paul, Stone, Barnes and Brooke 
were wounded. A National Cemetery was secured on the center of the field, 
where, as soon as the weather would permit, the dead were gathered and care- 
fully interred. Of the enl.ire number interred, 3,512, Maine had 104; New 
Hampshire, 49; Vermont, 61; Massachusetts, 159; Rhode Island, 12; Con- 
necticut, 22; New York, 867; New Jersey, 78; Pennsylvania, 534; Delaware, 
15; Maryland^ 22; West Virginia, 11; Ohio, 131; Indiana, 80; Illinois, 6; 
Michigan, 171; "Wisconsin, 73; Minnesota, 52; United States Regulars, 138; 
unknown, 979. In the center of the field, a noble monument has been erect- 
ed, and on the 19th of November, 1864, the ground was formally dedicated, 
when the eminent orator, Edward Everett, delivered an oration, and President 
Lincoln delivered the following dedicatory address: 

"Fourscore and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth upon this conti- 
nent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that 
all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing 
whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long en- 
dure. W 7 e are met on a great battle field o£ that war. We are met to dedi- 
cate a portion of it as the final resting place of those who here gave their 
lives that this nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we 
should do this. But in a larger sense we cannot dedicate, we cannot conse- 
crate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who 
struggled here have consecrated it far above our power to add or detract. 
The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can 
never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather to be dedi- 
cated here to the unfinished work that they have thus far so nobly carried on. 
It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us— 
,hat from these honored dead we take increased devotion to the cause for which 
they here gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve 
that the dead shall not have died in vain; that the nation shall, under God, 
have a new birth of freedom, and that the government of the people, by the 
people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth.'' 

So soon as indications pointed to a possible invasion of the North by the 
rebel army under Gen. Lee, the State of Pennsylvania was organized in two 
military departments, that of the Susquehanna, to the command of which 
Darius N. Couch was assigned, with headquarters at Harrisburg, and that ot 
the Monongahela, under W. T. H. Brooks, with headquarters at Pittsburgh. 
Urgent calls for the militia were made, and large numbers in regiments, in 
companies, in squadrons came promptly at the call to the number of over 36,- 
000 men, who were organized for a period of ninety days. Fortifications 
were thrown up to cover Harrisburg and Pittsburgh, and the troops were moved 
to threatened points. But before they could be brought into action, the great 
decisive conflict had been fought, and the enemy driven from northern soil. 
Four regiments under Gen. Brooks were moved into Ohio to aid in arresting a 
raid undertaken by John Morgan, who, with 2,000 horse and four guns, had 
crossed the Ohio River for a diversion in favor of Lee. o 


In the beginning of July, 1864, Gen. Early invaded Maryland, and rnado 
his way to the threshold of Washington. Fearing another invasion of the 
State, Gov. Curtin called for volunteers to serve for 100 days. Gen. Conch 
was still at the head of the department of the Susquehanna, and six regiments 
and six companies were organized, but as fast as organized they were called to 
the front, the last regiment leaving the State on the 29th of July. On the 
evening of this day, Gens. McCausland, Bradley Johnson and Harry Gilmore, 
with 3,000 mounted men and six guns, crossed the Potomac, and made their 
way to Chambersburg. Another column of 3,000, under Vaughn and Jackson 
advanced to Hagerstown, and a third to Leitersburg. Averell, with a small 
force, was at Hagerstown, but finding himself over-matched withdrew through 
Greencastle to Mount Hope. Lieut. McLean, with fifty men in front of Mc- 
Causland, gallantly kept his face to the foe, and checked the advance at every 
favorable point. On being apprised of their coming, the public stores at Cham- 
bersburg were moved northward. At six A. M. , McCausland opened his bat- 
teries upon the town, but, finding it unprotected, took possession. Ringing the 
court house bell to call the people together, Capt. Fitzhugh read an order to 
the assembly, signed by Gen. Jubal Early, directing the command to proceed 
to Chambersburg and demand $100,000 in gold, or $500,000 in greenbacks, 
and, if not paid, to burn the town. While this parley was in progress, hats, 
caps, boots, watches, clothing and valuables were unceremoniously appropriated, 
and purses demanded at the point of the bayonet. As money was not in hand 
to meet so unexpected a draft, the torch was lighted. In less than a quarter 
of an hour from the time the first match was applied, the whole business part 
of the town was in flames. No notice was given for removing the women and 
children and sick. Burning parties were sent into each quarter of the town, 
which made thorough work. With the exception of a few houses upon the 
outskirts, the whole was laid in ruins. ^ Retiring rapidly, the entire rebel 
command recrossed the Potomac before any adequate force could be gathered 
to check its progress. 

The whole number of soldiers recruited under the various calls for troops 
from the State of Pennsylvania was 366,000. By authority of the common- 
wealth, in 1866, the commencement was made of the publication of a history 
of these volunteer organizations, embracing a brief historical account of the 
part taken by each regiment and independent body in every battle in which it 
was engaged, with the name, rank, date of muster, period for which he en- 
listed, casualties, and fate of every officer and private. This work was com- 
pleted in 1872, in five imperial octavo volumes of over 1,400 pages each. 

In May, 1861, the Society of the Cincinnati of Pennsylvania, an organiza- 
tion of the officers of the Revolutionary war and their descendants, donated 
$500 toward arming and equipping troops. By order of the Legislature, 
this sum was devoted to procuring flags for the regiments, and each organiza- 
tion that went forth, was provided with one emblazoned with the arms of the 
commonwealth. These flags, seamed and battle stained, were returned at the 
close of the war, and are now preserved in a room devoted to the purpose in 
the State capitol — precious emblems of the daring and suffering of that great 
army that went forth to uphold and maintain the integrity of the nation. 

When the war was over, the State undertook the charge of providing for 
all soldiers' orphans in schools located in different parts of its territory, fur- 
nishing food, clothing, instruction and care, until they should be grown to 
manhood and womanhood. The number thus gathered and cared for has been 
some 7,500 annually, for a period of nineteen years, at an average annual ex- 
pense of some $600,000. 


At the election in 1866, John W. Geary, a veteran General of the late war. 
was chosen Governor. During his administration, settlements were made with 
the General Government, extraordinary debts incurred during the war were 
paid, and a large reduction of the old debt of $40,000,000 inherited from the 
construction of the canals, was made. A convention for a revision of the con- 
stitution was ordered by act of April 11, 1872. This convention assembled in 
Harrisburg November 18, and adjourned to meet in Philadelphia, where it 
convened on the 7th of January, 1873, and the instrument framed was adopted 
on the 18th of December, 1873. By its provisions, the number of Senators 
was increased from thirty-three to fifty, and Representatives from 100 to 201, 
subject to further increase in proportion to increase of population; biennial, 
in place of annual sessions? making the term of Supreme Court Judges twenty- 
one in place of fifteen years; remanding a large class of legislation to the ac- 
tion of the courts; making the term of Governor four years in place of three, 
and prohibiting special legislation, were» some of the changes provided for. 

In January, 1873, John F. Hartranft became Governor, and at the election 
in 1878, Henry F. Hoyt was chosen Governor, both soldiers of the late war. 
In the summer of 1877, by concert of action of the employes on the several 
lines of railway in the State, trains were stopped and travel and traffic were in- 
terrupted for several days together. At Pittsburgh, conflicts occurred between 
the railroad men and the militia, and a vast amount of property was destroyed. 
The opposition to the local military was too powerful to be controlled, and 
the National Government was appealed to for aid. A force of regulars was 
promptly ordered out, and the rioters finally quelled. Unfortunately, Gov. 
Hartranft was absent from the State at the time of the troubles. 

At the election in 1882 Robert -E. Pattison was chosen governor. The Legis- 
lature, which met at the opening of 1883, having adjourned after a session of 
156 days, without passing a Congressional apportionment bill, as was required, 
was immediately reconvened in extra session by the governor, and remained 
in session until near the close of the year, from June 1 to December 5, without 
coming to an agreement upon a bill, and finally adjourned without having 
passed one. This protracted sitting is in marked contrast to the session of that 
early Assembly in which an entire constitution and laws of the province were 
framed and adopted in the space of three days. 

November 2, 1886, James A. Beaver was elected governor. 





Thomas Mifflin 27,725 

Arthur St. Clair 2,802 


Thomas Mifflin 18,590 

F. A. Muhlenberg 10,706 


Thomas Mifflin 30,020 

F. A. Muhlenberg 1,011 


Thomas McKean 38,036 

James Ross 32,641 


Thomas McKean 47,879 

James Ross, of Pittsburgh 9,499 

James Ross 7,538 


Simon Snyder 67,975 

James Riss 39,575 

John Spayd 4,006 

W. Shields 2 

Charles Nice 1 

Jack Koss 2 

W. Tilghman 1 


Simon Snyder 52,319 

William Tighlman 3,609 

Scatt'ring,no record for whom 1,675 


Simon Snyder 51,099 

Isaac Wayne 29,566 

G. Lattimer 910 

J. R. Rust 4 


William Findlay 66,331 

Joseph Hiester 59,272 

Moses Palmer 1 

Aaron Hanson 1 

John Seffer - I 

Seth Thomas 1 

Nicholas Wiseman 3 

Benjamin R. Morgan 2 

William Tilghman 1 

Andrew Gregg 1 


Joseph Hiester 67,905 

William Findlay 66,300 

Scattering (no record) 21 


J. Andrew Shulze 81,751 

Andrew Gregg 64,151 

Andrew Shulze 112 

John Andrew Shulze 7,311 

Andrew Gragg 53 

Andrew Greg 1 

John A. Shulze 754 

Nathaniel B. Boileau *.... 3 

Capt. Glosseader 3 

John Gassender 1 

Isaac Wayne 1 

George Bryan 1 


J. Andrew Shulze 72,710 

John Sergeant 1,175 

Scattering (no record) 1,174 


George Wolf. 78,219 

Joseph Ritner 51,776 

George E. Baum 6 

Frank R. Williams 3 


George Wolf. 91,335 

Joseph Ritner 88,165 


Joseph Ritner 94,023 

Goorge Wolf. 65,804 

Henry A. Muhlenberg 40,586 


David R. Porter 127,827 

Joseph Ritner 122,321 


David R. Porter 136,504 

John Banks 113,473 

T.J. Lemoyne 763 

George F. Horton 18 

Samuel L. Carpenter 4 

Ellis Lewis 1 


Francis R. Shunk 160,322 

Joseph Markle 156,040 

Julius J. Lemoyne 10 

John Haney 2 

James Page 1 


Francis R. Shunk 146,081 

James Irvin 128,148 

Emanuel 0. Reigart 11,247 

F. J. Lemoyne 1,861 

George M. Keim 1 

Abijah Morrison 3 


William F. Johnston.... 168,522 

Morris Longstreth 168,225 

E. B. Gazzani 48 

Scattering (no record) 24 


William Bigler. 186,489 

William F. Johnston 178,034 

Kimber Cleaver 1,850 


James Pollock 203,822 

William Bigler 166,991 

B. Rush Bradford 2,194 


William F. Packer 188,846 

David Wilmot 149,139 

Isaac Hazlehurst 28,168 

James Pollock 

George R. Barret 

William Steel 

F. P. Swartz 

Samuel McFarland 

George F. Horton 


Andrew G. Curtin 262,346 

Henry D. Foster 230,239 


A. G. Curtin 269,506 

George W. Woodward 254,171 

John Hickman .' 1 

Thornau M. Howe -.. 1 


John W. Geary 307,274 

Hiester Clymer 290,097 

Giles Lewis 7 


John W. Geary 290,552 

Asa Packer 285,956 

W. D. Kelly ] 

W. J. Robinson 1 


John F. Hartranft 353,387 

Charles R. Buckalen 317,760 

S. B.Chase 1,197 

William P. Schell 12 


John F. Hartranft 304,175 

Cyrus L. Pershing 292,145 

R. Audley Brown 13,244 

James S. Negley 1 

Phillip Wendle 1 

J. W. Brown X 

G. F. Reinhard 1 

G. D. Coleman 1 

James Staples 1 

Richard Yaux 1 

Craig Biddle 1 

Francis W. Hughes 1 

Henry C. Tyler 1 

W. D. Brown 1 

George V. Lawrence 1 

A. L.Brown 1 


H. M. Hoyt 319,490 

Andrew H. Dill 297,137 

Samuel R. Ma3on 81,758 

Franklin H. Lane 3,753 

S. Matson 2 

John McKee 1 

D. Kirk 1 

R. L. Miller 1 

J. H. Hopkins 1 

A. G. Williams 1 

Samuel H. Lane 1 

John Fertig 1 

James Musgrove 1 

Silas M. Baily 1 

A. S. Post 9 

C. A. Cornen 3 

Seth Yocum 1 

Edward E. Orvis 1 


Robert E. Pattison 355,791 

James A. Beaver 315,589 

John Stewart 43,743 

Thomas A. Armstrong 23,996 

Alfred C. Pettit 5,196 

Scattering SS 


James A. Beaver 412,285 

Chauncey F. Black 369,634 

CharlesS. Wolfe 32,458 

Robert J. Houston 4,835 

Scattering 66 





klin County. 

History of Franklin County, 



The Great Eastern Valley— The Path of a Probaele Gulf Stream— The 
Mountain Ranges and their Appendages— Systems of Drainage — Geo- 


THE beautiful valley, of which Franklin County forms but a small part, 
sweeps along the entire eastern coast of the United States, extending, 
under different names, from the southern extremity of Vermont across the 
Hudson at Newburgh, the Delaware at Easton, the Susquehanna at Harris- 
burg, the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, the James at Lynchburg, the Tennes- 
see at Chattanooga, and losing itself in Alabama and the southwest. By some 
it is claimed to have been the path along which an ocean current, possibly the 
beneficent Gulf Stream, whose influence changes the natural and social con- 
ditions of both American and European civilization, flowed long prior to the 
present order of things, in either the old or the new world. It is bounded on 
either side by a chain of the great Appalachian Mountain system, running 
from the northeast to the southwest, and is of nearly uniform width, from 
twelve to twenty miles — the whole distance. It is broken into fertile agricult- 
ural sections by the beautiful streams already mentioned, apparently to meet 
the diversified wants of its future occupants. 

The section lying between the Susquehanna and the Potomac is usually 
designated as the Cumberland Valley. The valley west of ' ' Harris Ferry, ' ' 
as Harrisburg was originally known, was called by some ' ' Kittochtinny, ' ' by 
others "North " Valley. The northwestern boundary is known in Pennsylva- 
nia as North Mountain, or the Kittatinny Mountain, the latter name, signify- 
ing endless, being an euphonic change from Kekachtannin, by which the Del- 
aware Indians called it. The southwestern boundary is South Mountain, a 
beautiful range, parallel with the Kittatinny. From the Susquehanna to the 
Potomac, the Kittatinny maintains an almost uniform summit line, ranging 
from 700 to 1,200 feet above the valley beneath. Several picturesque points or 
projections, known as Clark's, Parnell's, Jordan's and Casey's Knobs, and 
Two-Top Mountains, give fine relief to the range. Of these, Parnell's and 
Casey' s were used, during the civil war, as union signal stations. Between Kit- 
tatinny and Tuscarora, lying still farther to the west, are several beautiful 
and productive valleys: Path Valley, terminating at the extreme north end in 
Horse Valley, and sending off to the right of Knob Mountain another known 
as Amberson's Valley; Bear and Horse Valleys, elevated and of smaller extent, 
having a trend northeastward ; Cove Gap, a picturesque opening, through which 
packers in the olden, and vehicles in the modern time, pass across the moun- 


tain westward, and Little Cove, a long narrow valley, that slopes southwestward 
toward the Potomac. In the southwestern part of what is now Franklin Coun- 
ty, formed by Kittatinny on the west, Cross Mountain on the south, and Two- 
Top Mountain on the east, lies a relic of the mythical days, when the giants 
piled Ossa on Pelion, and known as the Devil's Punch Bowl. From its spa- 
cious receptacle the gods, in their Bacchanalian revelry, quaffed their intoxi- 
cating drinks. 

South Mountain, less picturesque in its scenery, is covered with a good 
supply of valuable timber. Like Kittatinny range, its table-lands are valu- 
able for the fuel supplies they furnish to the inhabitants of the valley, as well 
as for the diversified scenery they afford to the passers-by. The richness of 
view afforded by these two mountain ranges is calculated to inspire a remark- 
able love for the beautiful in nature, and to develop the poetic sentiment in 

The drainage of Franklin County is most perfect, and consists of two sys- 
tems. The first, flowing northeastward in a tortuous course, and empyting 
into the Susquehanna Kiver at "West Fairview, two miles above Harrisburg, 
embraces the Conodoguinet and its tributaries, viz. : Spring Creek and its 
branches, Furnace and Main's, Muddy, Keasey's, Lehman's, Paxton's, Clip- 
pinger's and Trout Runs. The northern portion of the county, particularly 
Southampton, Letterkenny, Lurgan, and portions of St. Thomas, Peters, Metal 
and Fannett, is thus provided with good drainage and the means of preserving 
animals and plants against drouth. 

The second system, embracing all those water-courses which flow south- 
ward, and finally discharge their contents into the Potomac River, includes the 
following streams: 

1. The Conococheague with two distinct branches, East Conococheague and 
West Conococheague, which unite near the southern part of the county on the 
farm of Mr. Lazarus Kennedy, empties into the Potomac at "Williamsport. 
East Conococheague receives from the central portion of the county the con- 
tributions of Rocky Creek, Falling Spring, Back Creek, Campbell's Run and 
Muddy Run. Several of these streams are supplied with abundant mill power, 
which is Titilized to the best advantage. West Conococheague, traversing the 
whole extent of Path Valley, leaps into the broad open valley from between 
Cape Horn and Jordan's Knob, and, gathering in the waters of Broad and 
Trout Runs, Licking Creek, Welsh Run and other small streams, hastens to 
join its twin sister at their junction on the Kennedy place. 

2. Marsh Run, which divides, a part of the way, the present townships of 
Antrim and Washington. 

3. Little Antietam, which with its two branches, East Antietam and W T est 
Antietam, thoroughly drains the southeastern part of the county, carrying its 
sparkling waters finally into the Potomac River near Sharpsburg, Md. 

All these streams are fed by beautiful springs, whose sparkling waters 
come gushing forth from mountain and hillside, and many of them, in addition 
to supplying pure cold water for man and beast, are richly provided with an 
excellent quality of fish. They supply a water-power, which has long been 
utilized for milling and manufacturing purposes. Chambersburg and Waynes- 
boro supply their own citizens with the clear refreshing water found in these 
mountain streams. 

An observing traveler will notice that the ledges or beds of rocks trend 
from northeast to southwest, corresponding with the course of the mountain 
ranges; likewise that the various layers have positions one above another at 
different angles to the horizon. They have been broken up by some disturbing 


element beneath, and have left their edges outcropping at various angles from 
a level to a perpendicular. Along the range of South Mountain he will find 
the rocks of a different character from those in the valley, being a hard, com- 
pact, white sandstone, which rings when it is struck, and when broken has a 
splintery and sometimes discolored appearance. At the northern base of South 
Mountain he encounters the great limestone formation, which obtains through- 
out the whole length of Cumberland Valley. "It is usually of a bluish but 
occasionally of a grey and nearly black color, generally pure enough to yield 
excellent lime, but not unfrequently mixed with sand, clay, and oxide of iron. 
Flint stones and fossils are also occasionally met with in some parts of this 
formation. In the soil above it, iron ore is sometimes abundant enough to be 
profitably worked; and indeed some of the most productive ore banks in the 
State are found in it and its vicinity. Pipe ore and kindred varieties of that 
material have been obtained of good quality in several localities in this lime- 
stone region. About the middle of the valley, though with a very irregular 
line of demarcation, we meet with a dark slate formation extending to the foot 
of North Mountain; though its usual color is brown or bluish, it is sometimes 
reddish and even yellow. Lying between the great limestone and the coarse 
grey sandstone, it is sometimes intermingled with sandstone which contains 
rounded pebbles forming conglomerate, but this is too silicious to receive a good 
polish. The rocks of Kittatinny or North Mountain consist almost exclusively 
of this massive grey limestone of various degrees of coarseness. They are not 
valuable for either building or mineral purposes."* 

Iron ore in extensive, and copper in limited quantities have been found; 
' ' beneath the surface ore, inexhaustible deposits of magnetic iron conveniently 
near to valuable beds of hematite, which lie either in fissures between the rocky 
strata or over them in a highly ferruginous loam. This hematite is of every 
possible variety and of immense quantities. When it has a columnar stalactite 
structure it is known under the name of pipe ore. It usually yields a superior 
iron, and at the same time is easily and profitably smelted. It generally pro- 
duces at least fifty per cent of metallic iron. ' ' 

The nature and fertility of soil are determined by the character of the un- 
derlying rocks by whose disintegration it is produced. The limestone lands 
are very productive. The slate lands, well improved by lime and other fertil- 
izers, and properly cultivated by skilled labor, yield abundant crops. These 
two kinds of soil, the limestone and the slate, are both rendered product- 
ive. In fact, the entire belt of land in the valley is susceptible of the highest 
cultivation, the only unproductive land lying along the sides of the mountain.. 
And even this is prized highly for its timber; or, when cleared, for its graz- 
ing and fruit-growing qualities. 

Says Dr. Wing: " The natural productions of the soil, when it was first dis- 
covered by white men, awakened admiration quite as much as the meadows 
and the fields of grain have done at a later period. A rich luxuriance of grass 
is said to have covered the whole valley, wild fruits abounded, and in some 
parts the trees were of singular variety. Of the trees there were many species 
of oak, white and black walnut, hickory, white, fed and sugar maple, cherry, 
locust, sassafras, chestnut, ash, elm, linden, beech, white and scrub pine, 
dogwood and iron-wood. The laurel, plum, juniper, persimmon, hazel, 
wild currant, gooseberry, blackberry, raspberry, spice bush, sumac and the 
more humble strawberry and dewberry and wintergreen almost covered the 
open country; and their berries, in some instances, constituted no small por- 
tion of the food of the Indians and the early settlers." 

*State Geological Survey. 


The climate of Cumberland Valley does not differ essentially from that 
which prevails in the southeastern portion of the State. Hedged in by moun- 
tains, the keenness and force of the Atlantic winds are necessarily somewhat 
broken and modified; and yet strong mountain storms occasionally break in 
upon its peaceful habitations. The statements of careful observers in- 
duce the belief that perceptible changes in climate have occurred in the valley 
since its first settlement. Owing, it is thought, to the disappearance of for- 
ests and the consequently increased drainage of the lands, many streams are 
less copious and violent, the averages of cold and heat are decreased, and the 
moisture of the atmosphere is perceptibly diminished. Dr. Rush, of Phila- 
delphia, a close observer of the climatology of the State from 1789 to 1805, 
remarked that a material change had taken place since the days of the found- 
ers: the cold of winters and the heat of summers were less uniform than they 
had been for forty or fifty years before * * "The .variableness of 

weather in our State," he continued, " is found south of 41° of latitude, 
and north of that the winters are steady and in character with the Eastern and 
Northern States; but no two successive seasons are alike, and even the same 
months differ from each other in different years. There is but one steady 
trait, and that is, it is uniformly variable " 

What Dr. C. P. Wing wrote in 1879, concerning Cumberland County, may 
be applied with equal force to its daughter, Franklin County. Hear him: 
' 'Within the past thirty years, there have not been more than a score of days 
when the thermometer fell below zero, and about as many when it rose above 

" The summers more nearly resemble each other than do either of the other 
seasons ; most of the days are hot and clear, but interrupted by violent thunder 
gusts, heavy rains from the northeast and warm showers from the south. 
Snow sometimes covers the ground in winter for months, and at other times 
there is scarcely enough for sleighing. The prevailing winds are, in summer, 
from the northwest and southwest, the former bringing clear and the latter 
cloudy weather; in winter, the northwest winds bring clear, cold weather, and 
the northeastern, snow, storms and rain. The winter seldom sets in with sever- 
ity until the latter part of December and commonly begins to moderate in Feb- 
ruary.* Near the close of this latter month, or early in March, the snow dis- 
appears, and in the beginning of April the fruit trees blossom and vegetation 
commences. At this season, however, the atmosphere is often damp, chilly 
and stormy, and until the beginning of May, there are frequent returns of wet 
and disagreeable weather, Owing to these changes, vegetation advances very 
unequally in different years, and the promising blossoms of the early spring are 
often blasted by the frosts of April and May. The average of rain and snow 
fall for three years was found to be, for the spring, 9. 05 inches ; for the sum- 
mer, 9.67; for the autumn, 7.68; for the winter, 7.61, and for the whole year, 
34.01. The autumn is usually the most agreeable season. The mornings and 
evenings become cool about the middle of September, and soon after the equi- 
noctial rain and after the first frosts of November commences that remarkable 
peculiarity of our climate, the ' Indian summer. ' The name is probably de- 
rived from the Indians, who were accustomed to say they always had a second 
summer of nine days just before the winter set in. It was the favorite time for 
their harvest, when they looked to gather in their corn, and when, from acci- 
dent or design, on their hunting excursions, the woods and grass of the moun- 
tains and prairies were burned and their game was driven from concealment. 

*The compiler of this history spent the time from February 11 to December 14, 1886, in Franklin 
County, during which he did not find it necessary to wear an overcoat. 


Certainly a more delightful climate, all things considered, it would be difficult 
to find in the United States. A stagnant pool or swamp, sufficient to produce 
malarious disease, is probably not known, and is scarcely possible on account 
of the peculiar drainage of the soil." 


Two Classes: Scotch-Irish, their Origin, Arrivals, Character and Loca- 
tions—Germans, Sketch of Persecutions, Arrivals, Trials, etc.— Trend 
of Settlements in Cumberland Valley Westward— Shippensburg a Dis- 
tributing Point— Settlements at Falling Spring— Sketch of Benjamin 
Chambers— Other Settlements and Settlers in Various Parts of the 
County— List of Taxables in 1751-52— Mason and Dixon's Line. 

Ye pioneers, it is to you 

The debt of gratitude is due; 

Ye builded wiser than ye knew 

The broad foundation 

On which our superstructure stands; 

Your strong right arms and willing hands, 

Your earnest efforts still command 

Our veneration. — Pearre. 

TWO general classes of people constituted the early settlers of Cumberland 
Valley, viz: the Scotch -Irish and the Germans. 

The Scotch- Irish were a numerous but honorable class who migrated to 
Pennsylvania and other Eastern States at an early day. The origin of the term 
is traceable to events that occurred early in the seventeenth century. James 
I, of England [reign 1603-25], was very desirous of improving the civiliza- 
tion of Ireland. The Irish Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconell having conspired 
against the English Government, and been compelled to flee the country, their 
estates, consisting of about 500, 000 acres, were confiscated. These estates the 
king divided into small tracts, and induced many Protestant people from his 
own country (Scotland) to locate upon them on condition that possession should 
be taken within four years. 

A second revolt occurring soon after, another large forfeiture of the six 
counties in the Province of Ulster followed, the confiscated property being 
seized by Government officials. The King, being a zealous Protestant, aimed 
to root out the native Irish who were all Catholic, hostile to his government and 
incessantly plotting against it. Their places he intended to supply with peo- 
ple concerning whose loyalty he had no doubt, the sturdy inhabitants of his 
own land, Scotland. Encouraged and aided by the Government, these Scotch 
went in great numbers across to the near Province of Ulster, and took posses- 
sion of the lamp, which had been hitherto neglected and almost ruined by their 
indolent occupants. They addressed themselves, at once, with intelligence 
and industry, to reclaim the country and introduce a higher material and social 
order of things. The counties of Antrim, Armagh, Caven, Donegal, Down, 
Fermanagh, Londonderry, Monaghan and Tyrone — names familiar to all intel- 
ligent Pennsylvanians — soon became prominent because of the new blood and 
brains introduced. 


Thus Protestantism was planted in Ireland. Its Scotch advocates, like 
the Jews, have maintained a separate existence, refusing to intermarry with 
their Irish neighbors. Protestant in religion, they have steadily refused to 
unite with the Irish, Celtic in origin and Roman Catholic in faith. This 
marked isolation has continued through a period of more than 250 years. 

In the succeeding reign of Charles I (1625-49), a spirit of bitter retalia- 
tion was engendered, on the part of the native Irish, against this foreign 
element, resulting in a most deplorable condition of affairs. Incited by two 
ambitious and unscrupulous leaders, Roger More and Philim O'Neale, the 
Irish Catholics began, October 27, 1741, a massacre which continued until 
more than 40,000 victims were slaughtered. 

Owing to these persecutions and others of similar nature during the suc- 
ceeding century, owing to the want of religious toleration by the reigning 
powers, owing to their inability to renew their land rents on satisfactory 
terms and owing to the general freedom offered them by William Penn in his 
new American colony — free lands, free speech, free worship and free govern- 
ment — these Scotch settlers left the north of Ireland and came to America by 
thousands, where they are known as Scotch-Irish. 

According to Watson, these ' ' immigrants did not come to Pennsylvania as 
soon as the Germans," few, if any, arriving prior to 1719. The first arrivals 
usually settled near the disputed line between Maryland and Pennsylvania. 
James Logan (an intelligent and influential representative of the Penn govern- 
ment, and though of Irish extraction thoroughly in sympathy with the Quaker 
principles) complains, in 1724, to the proprietaries of these people as "bold 
and indigent strangers ' ' because they had taken up lands near the disputed 
line without securing proper authority from him as the representative of the 
Government. In 1725 he stated that at least 100,000 acres of land were 
possessed "by persons (including Germans) who resolutely set down and 
improved it without any right to it," and that he was "much at a loss to deter- 
mine how to dispossess them. ' ' In 1728, 4, 500 persons, chiefly from Ireland, 
arrived in New Castle. In 1729 Logan expressed his gratification that parlia- 
ment was ' ' about to take measures to prevent the too free emigration to this 
country," intimating that the prospects were that Ireland was about "to send 
all her inhabitants hither, for last week not less than six ships arrived. " "It 
is strange," continued he, "that they thus crowd where they are not wanted. 
The common fear is that if they continue to come, they will make themselves 
proprietors of the province. " In 1730 he again complains of them as " auda- 
cious and disorderly " for having, by force, taken possession of the Conestoga 
Manor, containing 15, 000 acres of the ' ' best land in the country. ' ' Of this they 
were, by the sheriff, subsequently dispossessed and their cabins burned. 
About the same time, he says, in another letter, "I must own, from my own 
experience in the land ofiice, that the settlement of five families from Ireland 
gives me more trouble than fifty of any other people." 

The captious spirit manifested by Logan against both German and Scotch- 
Irish settlers, and especially the latter, and which was subsequently shared, to 
some extent, by Peters, Dickinson and Franklin, is readily accounted for by 
his fear of losing his position in the Government, should any other than the 
Quaker influence prevail. 

From 1730 to 1740 the influx was great. Settlements were commenced in 
Cumberland (then Lancaster) County in 1730 and 1731, the Chambers broth- 
ers having crossed west of the Susquehanna about that time. After 1736, 
during the month of September, in which year alone 1,000 families are said 
to have sailed from Belfast, the influx into the Kittochtinny Valley, west of 


the Susquehanna, increased rapidly; for, in 1748, the number of taxables, not 
counting the fifty Germans, was about 800. 

Soon after the erection of Cumberland County (1750), " in consequence of 
the frequent disturbances between the governor and Irish settlers, the proprie- 
taries gave orders to their agents to sell no lands in either York or Lancaster 
Counties to the Irish; and also to make to the Irish settlers in Paxton, Swa- 
tara and Donegal Townships advantageous offers of removal to Cumberland 
County, which offers being liberal were accepted by many." 

Injustice has been done to the Scotch-Irish settlers of these early days by 
two classes of writers: first, those who were actuated by jealousy, as was Lo- 
gan, in his inability to see good in any classes not directly connected with the 
original Friend or Penn element; secondly, those who have failed to study 
carefully the circumstances which surrounded the Scotch-Irish immigrants in 
their settlements and conduct toward the Indians. Under these circumstances 
we are not surprised to hear Mr. Sherman Day, in his Historical Collections 
of Pennsylvania, call them " a pertinacious and pugnacious race," ''pushing 
their settlements upon unpurchased lands about the Juniata, producing fresh 
exasperation among the Indians. " "As the result of this, ' ' he continues, 
" massacres ensued, the settlers were driven below the mountains, and the 
whole province was alive with the alarms and excitements of war." 

In reply to these serious charges, Judge George Chambers, in his "Tribute 
to the Principles, Virtues, Habits and Public Usefulness of the Irish and 
Scotch Early Settlers of Pennsylvania," a carefully written and most admira- 
ble little book, enters a most emphatic protest. Without attempting to pre- 
sent in detail the facts which enable him to reach his conclusions, we give a 
brief summary of his argument: Admitting the aggressive character of the 
early Scotch-Irish settlers in pushing into the forests and occupying lands, the 
outrages and massacres by the Indians were, nevertheless, not the direct result 
of these encroachments, but a retaliatory protest against the unjust manner in 
which tneir lands and hunting grounds had been taken from them by so-called 
purchases and treaties with the government. By the cession of 1737, the Indi- 
ans were to convey lands on the Delaware to extend back into the woods as 
far as man can go in one day and a half. By the treaty of Albany, in 1754, 
between the Proprietary of Pennsylvania and the Six Nations, nearly all the 
lands claimed by them in the province were ceded for the small sum of £400. 
The dissatisfaction produced by this cession, which the Indians claim they did 
not understand, was fanned by the French into open hostility, manifesting 
itself in the indiscriminate and wholesale devastation and massacres following 
the Braddock campaign. The wrongs of the government, and not the en- 
croachments of a few daring settlers, it is claimed by Mr. Chambers, produced 
these destructive Indian outrages. Gov.Morris, in his address to the Assembly, 
of November 3, 1755, clearly reminds them ' " that it seemed clear, from the 
different accounts he had received, that the French had gained to their interest 
the Delaware and Shawnese Indians, under the ensnaring pretense of restoring 
them to their country." 

The Assembly, in their reply to Gov. Denny, in June, 1757, say: "It is 
rendered beyond contradiction plain, that the cause of the present Indian in- 
cursions in this province, and the dreadful calamities many of the inhabitants 
have suffered, have arisen, in a great measure, from the exorbitant and unrea- 
sonable purchases made, or supposed to be made of the Indians, and the man- 
ner of making them — so exorbitant, that the natives complain that they have 
not a country left to subsist in." — Smith's Laws. 

A careful study of these people clearly shows that, while they were aggress- 


ive, they moved along the line of a higher civilization; while they were firm 
in their convictions, they advocated the rights of man to liberty of thought and 
action; while they cherished many of the institutions and beliefs of the old 
country, they were intensely patriotic and loyal to the new; and while they 
possessed what they regarded the best lands, they were just in their dealings 
with the untutored red man. These were the people who laid broad and deep 
the foundations of social, educational and religious liberty in America. 

The German immigrants, as a class, were hardy, industrious, honest and 
economical, retaining, to a great extent, the prejudices, superstitions, manners, 
language and characteristics of the fatherland. Like the Scotch-Irish, their 
migration to America was the result of a deprivation of certain religious rights 
in their native countries, and a desire to improve their physical condition in 
the new world. 

Like the Scotch-Irish, they, too, were Protestants, belonging to different 
denominations: (1) The Swiss Mennonites were among the earliest to come, 
about the beginning of the last centuiy, and settled in the neighborhood of 
Philadelphia and at Pequea and other points in what is now Lancaster County. 
They were orderly, honest, peaceable and advocates of non-resistant or peace 
principles. (2) German Baptists (Dunkards), Moravians, Seventh-day Bap- 
tists. (3) Lutherans and German Beformed, the latter two constituting the 
great body of the arrivals, and furnishing the aggressive element of the new 
settlers. They came later than the others and entered new fields. 

Many of these early Germans, having first located In the State of New 
York, were dissatisfied with the unjust treatment received at the hands of the 
authorities, and therefore came to Pennsylvania. They wrote messages to 
their friends in Europe, advising them to shun New York and come direct to 
the province of Penn, which afforded superior inducements. 

Their arrivals in the province were, briefly: Henry Frey came two years 
earlier than William Penn and one Platenbach a few years later. In 1682 a 
colony arrived and formed a settlement at Germantown; and in 1684-85, a com- 
pany of ten persons was formed in Germany, called the Frankfort Land Com- 
pany, of which F. D. Pastorius was appointed attorney. They bought 25,000 
acres of land from Penn, in addition to other tracts. From 1700 to 1720, the 
Palatines, so called because they sprang principally from the Palatinate in Ger- 
many, whither they had been driven by persecutions in various parts of Europe, 
came in vast numbers. They suffered great privations. In 1708-09, more than 
10,000 went to England, where, in a sickly and starving condition, they were 
cared for by the generous Queen Anne who, at an expense to herself of 
£135,775, alleviated their sufferings in that country and assisted them to come 
to New York and Pennsylvania. Their number was so great as to draw from 
James Logan, secretary of the province of Pennsylvania in 1717, the remark: 
" We have, of late, a great number of Palatines poured in upon us without any 
recommendation or notice, which gives the country some uneasiness; for for- 
eigners do not so well among us as our own English people." In 1719 Jona- 
than Dickinson said: "We are daily expecting ships from London, which bring 
over Palatines, in number about six or seven thousand. " 

The arrivals from 1720 to 1730 were so numerous as to produce some 
alarm lest the colony should become a German one. Says Bupp : "To arrest 
in some degree the influx of Germans, the assembly assessed a tax of twenty 
shillings a head on newly arrived servants; for as early as 1722 there were a 
number of Palatine servants or Bedemptioners sold to serve a term of three or 
four years at £10 each to pay their freight. ' ' 

From 1730 to 1740, about sixty-five vessels well filled with immigrants, 


having with them their own preachers and teachers, landed at Philadelphia, 
from which they scattered in various directions ; many of these located in York 

From 1740 to 1755, more than a hundred vessels arrived, some of them, 
though small, containing from 500 to 600 passengers. In the summer and 
autumn of 1749, not less than 12,000 came. This period— 1740 to 1755— 
witnessed many outrages upon the unsuspecting passengers. Within the State 
were certain Germans known as neulaenders, who, having resided in this 
country long enough to understand the business, profited by the ignorance and 
credulity of their own people abroad. Going to various parts of Germany and 
presenting the new world in glowing colors, they induced, by misrepresenta- 
tions and fraudulent practices, many of their friends and kinsmen to sell, and 
in some cases even to abandon their property and forsake their firesides in 
order to reach this new land of promise. Many, starting with inadequate 
means, were unable to pay their passage, and on arriving were sold for a series 
of years as servants, to liquidate their claims. These were called redemption- 
ers, or Palatine servants. 

The number of Germans in Pennsylvania about 1755 was from 60,000 to 
70,000. About nine-tenths of the first settlers of York County, then including 
Adams, were Germans. The great influx into Cumberland County which, with 
the exception of a few English, was settled almost exclusively by Scotch and 
Scotch -Irish, began about 1770; though as early as the period from 1736 to 
1745, there were found in the Conococheague settlements, the Snivelys, Schnei- 
ders, Piscackers, Liepers, Ledermans, Haricks, Laws, Kolps, Gabriels, Ring- 
ers, Steiners, Senseneys, Radebachs, Reischers, Wolffs, Schneidts.* Rev. 
Michael Schlatter, a German reformed minister, in a letter dated May 9, 1748, 
thus describes a visit through the valley : ' ' On the Conogogig we reached the 
house of an honest Schweitzer [supposed to be Jacob Snively, of Antrim 
Township,] where we received kind entertainment with thankfulness. In this 
neighborhood there are very fine lands for cultivation and pasture, exceedingly 
fruitful without the application of manures. Turkish corn (Indian maize) 
grows to the height of ten feet and higher, and the grasses are remarkably 
fine. Hereabout, there still remain a good number of Indians, the original 
dwellers of the soil. They are hospitable and quiet, and well affected to the 
Christians until the latter make them drunk with strong drink." 

The original German has, by imperceptible changes, been gradually trans- 
formed into a being very unlike the original, known as the Pennsylvania 
Dutch. The latter has in him more of the democratic spirit, which ignores 
the clannishness of the olden time and forms friendships and alliances with 
people of other nationalities. The dialect, Pennsylvania Dutch, is sui generis 
an anomaly in the domain of language. Its possessor is a cosmopolitan, fond 
of social life, ambitious and industrious, and in these latter days quite fond of 
public office and other ' ' soft places. ' ' He is destined to take the land. 

The three original counties of Pennsylvania, established by William Penn 
in 1682, were Chester, Philadelphia and Bucks. Chester County included all 
the land (except a small portion of Philadelphia County) southwest of the 
Schuylkill Lo the extreme limits of the State. Lancaster County was formed 
and taken from Chester May 10, 1729; York was taken from Lancaster August 
9, 1749. Cumberland County remained a part of Lancaster until it was itself 
erected a separate county, January 27, 1750. Franklin County, the then 
southwestern part of Cumberland, and known as the ' ' Conococheague Settle- 
ment," was established September 9, 1784. To understand the early history 
of this county, the reader will need, therefore, to bear in mind two facts : 



1. Prior to January 27, 1750, its territory (with the exception of Warren 
Township) was found in the county of Lancaster. 

2. From January 27, 1750, to September 9, 1781, it belonged to Cumber- 
land County. Since the latter date (September 9, 1784,) it has had a distinct 
organization of its own. 

Long prior to Greeley' s famous advice, ' ' Go west, young man, ' ' or Bishop 
Berkley's oft-quoted "Westward the course of empire takes its way," the 
tide of migration was toward the setting sun. Since the race began, the line 
of movement has been along the parallels, and in the direction of the receding 
darkness. The early settlers of the Kittatinny or Cumberland Valley came 
from the older eastern counties, where they located soon after their landing on 
the Atlantic coast. No record exists of those who may have wandered through 
this region on prospecting or hunting tours, if any such adventurers ever did 
make these hazardous trips. As early as 1719, John Harris had commenced a 
settlement near the present site of Harrisburg, and for many years afterward 
ran a ferry across the Susquehanna at that point known as Harris' Ferry. On 
either side of the river were Indian villages, the one where Harris lived being 
known as Peixtan or Paxtan. On the western side of the river, at the mouth 
of the Conodoguinet, at the present site of Bridgeport, and at the mouth of 
the Yellow Breeches, were three Indians towns, at which trading posts were 
established. At the last-named place, James Chartier, an Indian trader, had 
a store and landing place. It is claimed by some that James Le Tort, one of 
these traders, after whom the beautiful stream in Cumberland County was 
named, lived at a very early period at a place called Beaver Pond, near the 
present site of Carlisle. 

What is now Cumberland County had settlements at various points away 
from the river. Richard Parker and his wife settled three miles north of Car- 
lisle in 1724. His application at the land office in 1734 was for a warrant to 
land on which he "had resided ye ten years past." George Croghan, an 
Indian trader, whose name occurs frequently in early records, lived about five 
miles from the river on the north side of the Conodoguinet. He owned tracts 
in various parts of the county, a large one being north of Shippensburg. He 
did not cultivate all these, but changed about as his convenience and trade 
demanded. He was an Irishman of common education, and in later years 
lived at Aughwick or Old Town, west of the North Mountains, where he was 
trusted as an Indian agent. In the settlement commenced by James Cham- 
bers near Newville, then known as Big Spring, a group of inhabitants, so 
numerous as to form and support a religious society as early as 1738, was 
found, consisting of David Ralston, Robert Patterson, James McKehan, John 
Carson, John Erwin, Richard Fulton, Samuel McCullough and Samuel Boyd. 
Robert Chambers, brother of the preceding, as well as of Benjamin, who 
located at Falling Spring, formed a prosperous settlement near Middle Spring, 
about two miles north of Shippensburg, at the same early date. The first set- 
tlers were such men as Hugh and David Herron, Robert McComb, Alexander 
and James Young, Alexander McNutt, Archibald, John and Robert Machan, 
James Scott, Alexander Sterrett, Wm. and John Piper, Hugh and Joseph 
Brady, John and Robert McCune and Charles Morrow. In asking that the 
State road, which was laid out in 1735-36, might be directed through that 
neighborhood rather than through Shippensburg, the petitioners claimed that 
theirs was the more thickly settled part. By some* it is claimed that in the 
Middle Spring settlement the first land in the Cumberland Valley taken under 

♦Historical discourse of Rev. S. S. Wyiie at the Centennial celebration of Middle Spring. This claim, how- 
ever, is incorrect. Blunston's license to Benjamin Chambers at Falling Spring was dated March 30, 1734. 



authority of the "Blunston Licenses*" and assigned to Benjamin Furley, was 
located. According to the record in the county surveyor's office at Chambers- 
burg, this tract, embracing some 1,094 acres and allowances, warranted De- 
cember 18, 1735, and surveyed April 15, 1738. was situated on the Conodoguinet 
Creek in what was then Pennsborough Township, Lancaster County, but now 
Southampton Township, Franklin County. It was subsequently occupied by 
William, David, James and Francis Herron. William Young and John Watt. 
Where Shippensburg now stands, a settlement was made as early as 1730. 
In June of that year, according to Hon. John McCurdy, the following persons 
came to that locality and built their habitations: Alexander Steen, John 
McCall, Richard Morrow, Gavin Morrow, John Culbertson, Hugh Rippey, 
John Rippey, John Strain, Alexander Askey, John McAllister, David Magaw 
and John Johnston. They were soon followed by Benjamin Blythe, John 
Campbell and Robert Caskey. From this settlement ultimately sprang a vil- 
lage older than any other in the Cumberland Valley. It was a distributing 
point for settlers, and hence important, as will be shown by the following let- 
ter written therefrom: 

May 21, 1733. 
Dear John: I wish you would see John* Harris, 'at the ferry, and get him to write 
to the Governor, to see if he can't get some guns for us; there's a good wheen of ingns 
about here, and I fear they intend to give us a good deal of troubbel, and may do us a grate 
dale of harm. We was three days on our journey coming from Harrisses ferry here. We 
could not make much speed on account of the childer; they could not get on as fast as 
Jane and me. I think we will like this part of the country when we get our cabbiu built.. 
I put it on a level peese of groun, near the road or paih in the woods at the fut of a hill. 
There is a fine stream of watter that comes from a spring a half a mile south of where 
our cabbin is bilt. I would have put it near the watter, but the land islo and wet. John 
McCall, Alick Steen and John Rippey bilt theirs near the stream. Hu<dV Rippey's daugh- 
ter Mary (was) berried yesterday; this will be sad news to Andrew Simpson, when it 
reaches Maguire's bridge. He is to come over in the fall when they were to be married, 
Mary was a verry purty gerl; she died of a faver, and they berried her up on rising groun, 
north of the road or path where we made choice of a peese of groun for a graveyard. 
She was ihe furst berried there. Poor Hugh has none left now but his wife, Sam and lit- 
tle Isabel. There is plenty of timmer south of us. We have 18 cabbins bilt here now. 
and it looks (like) a town, but we have no name for it. I'll send this with .John Sin'pson. 
when he goes back to paxtan. Come up Soon; our cabbin will be ready to go into a week 
and you can go in till you get wan bilt; we have planted some corn and potatoes. Dan 
McGee, John Sloan and Robert Moore was here and left last week. Remember us to Mary 
and the childer; wc are all well. Tell Billy Parker to come up soon and bring Nancy 
with him. I know he will like the countr}\ I forgot to tell you that Sally Brown was 
bit by a snaik, but she is out of danger. Come up soon. 

Yr. aft. brother, 

James Maohaw 

The first settlement, in what is now Franklin Countv, was made in 1730, at 
Falling Spring (now Chambersburg) — the confluence of the two streams, Fall- 
ing Spring and Conococheague — by Col. Benjamin Chambers and his older 
brother, Joseph. Between 1726 and 1730, four brothers, James, Robert, Jo. 
seph and Benjamin Chambers, emigrated from the county of Antrim, Ireland, 
to the province of Pennsylvania. They settled and built a mill shortly after 
their arrival, at the mouth of Fishing Creek, in what is now Dauphin County, 

♦Samuel Blunston of Wright's Ferry 'now Columbia) was authorized by the proprietaries?^! make a par- 
tial survey of ; :>ud and to grant to settlers permission to take up and improve, or continue to improve, such 
lands as they desired, with the promise that a more perfect title should be given them when the Indian claims 
should be extinguished. The Indians were also assured that these claims would be satisfied as soon as the 
pemliug Indian treaties should be completed. The first of these licenses was dated January 24, 1733-34 and 
the last October 31, 1737. Appended is a copy of one of these: 

"Lancaster County, ss. — By the Proprietary: These are to license, and allow Andrew Ralston to run, 
tiuue to improve and dwell on a tract of two hundred acres of land on the Great Spring, a branch of the ( Vine* 
doguinet, joyning to the upper side of a tract granted to Handle Chambers for the use of his son, .lames Cham.- 
bers; to be hereafter surveyed to the said Ralston on the common terms other lands in those parts are sold; 
provided the same has not been already granted to any other person and so much can be had without prejudice 
to other tracts before granted. Given under my hand this third day of January, Anno Domini, 1736-7. 

Pennsylvania, ss. Sa. Blunston." 



where they occupied a tract of fine land. These brothers were among the 
first to explore and settle the valley. James made a settlement at the head of 
Great Spring, near Newville; Robert, at the head of Middle Spring, near 
Shippensburg, and Joseph and Benjamin at Falling Spring, where Chambers- 
burg now stands. 

By an arrangement among the brothers, Joseph returned to supervise their 
property at the mouth of Fishing Creek, and Benjamin remained to develop 
the settlement at Falling Spring. He built a one-storied hewed-log house 
which he covered with lapped cedar shingles secured by nails — an innovation 
upon the prevailing style of architecture, which consisted of a round log struct- 
ure covered with a roof of clapboards, held in position by beams and wooden 
pins. Having completed this, the finest .residence in the settlement, he ad- 
dressed himself to clearing land, erecting necessary buildings and planning 
the future growth of the colony. Some time after this, Benjamin had occa- 
sion to visit his former homestead at Fishing Creek. Returning, he found his 
house had been burned by some avaricious person for the " sake of the nails," 
which were a rarity in those days. 

Subsequently Mr. Chambers received what was then the only authority 
for the taking up and occupying of land. The following is a copy of the inter- 
esting instrument, which was a narrow strip of common writing paper, the 
chirography on which would not stand the crucial test of modern straight 
lines, ovals and right and left curves. 

Pennsylvania, ss. 

By order of the Proprietary. These are to License and allow Benjamin Chambers to 
take and settle and Improve of four hundred acres of Land at the falling spring's mouth 
and on both sides of the Conegochege Creek for the conveniency of a Grist Mill and plan- 
tation. To be hereafter surveyed to the said Benjamin on the common terms other Lands 
in these parts are sold. Given under my hand this thirtieth day of March, 1734. 

Lancaster County. Samuel Blunston. 

A rnill-wright by occupation, he at once erected a saw-mill and subsequently 
a flouring-mill. These were both indispensable to the comfort and growth of the 
settlement, and were evidently heralded as strong inducements for others to cast 
in their lot with this growing colony. The saw-mill stood on what is known as 
the " Island," a few rods northwest of where the woolen-mill now stands; the 
flouring-mill, constructed mainly of logs, stood near the residence of its owner. 
It was shortly destroyed by fire, but its place was occupied by a new one, whose 
walls were made of stone. 

Benjamin Chambers was upward of twenty one years of age when he settled 
at Falling Spring. His death occurring February 17, 1788, in his eightieth year, 
he must have been born about 1708 or 1709. Shortly after (1741), he married a 
Miss Patterson, residing near Lancaster, who was the mother of his eldest son, 
James. She lived but a few years. In 1748 he married a second time, his 
choice being a Miss Williams, the daughter of a Welsh clergyman living in 
Virginia. She bore seven children, viz. : Ruhamah, married to Dr. Calhoun ; 
William; Benjamin; Jane, married to Adam Ross; Joseph, George and Hetty, 
married to Wm. M. Brown. Esq. 

He used his influence with his acquaintances to settle in his neighborhood, 
directing their attention to desirable locations for farms. He was early com- 
missioned a justice of the peace, and later a colonel of the militia organized. 
He served as a daysman to adjust many controversies between his neighbors, 
and thus became a general counselor in the community. During the contro- 
versy between Lord Baltimore and the Penns, concerning the boundary between 
Pennsylvania and Maryland, he went to England to assist, by his evidence and 
advice, in the adjustment of the difficulties involved. From England he went 


to Ireland, his native soil, where he induced many acquaintances with their 
families to remove to his new settlement. 

In 1764 Col. Chambers laid out the town of Chambersburg, whose history 
is sketched elsewhere in this volume. The history of this sturdy early settler 
is the history of the county and of the commonwealth for more than half a 
century. From the time he landed at the Falling Spring till his declining 
health rendered further activity impossible, he was the acknowledged leader of 
the people in all civil, military and religious movements. 

We have no means of determining the exact order of settlements in other 
parts of the county. 

In what is Antrim Township there must have been settlers as early as 

1734. In the Johnston graveyard, near Shady Grove, is a tablet bearing the 
name of James Johnston, who died in 1765. " From documents still extant," 
says the inscription, ' ' he settled on the land on which he died as early as 

1735, and was probably the first white settler in what is now Antrim Township, 
Franklin County." He had two sons, James and Thomas, both of whom 
were colonels in the Revolutionary war. About the same time settlements 
were made near the present site of Green Castle, by Joseph Crunkleton, Jacob 
Snively and James Rody. Snively was the progenitor of a large and respecta- 
ble family, many of whom still live in the township, concerning whom much 
will be said in the township and biographical sketches. * 

At that time the settlements in the county were known in the aggregate as 
the " Conococheague Settlement. " Owing to the peculiar condition of land 
arrangements, settlers occupied certain tracts by virtue of a sort of "squatter 
possession," each one choosing a site according to his taste. Hence, families 
lived, often, for a series of years on tracts before they received proper legal 
authority for the same. 

On the west bank of the Conococheague, near the present site of Bridge- 
port, in Peters Township, settled William McDowell in 1730 or 1731. He had 
a large family of sons and daughters, who became prominent in the subsequent 
development of the country. The records of the surveyor's office show that 
warrants for land were held in what is Peters Township, as early as 1737, by 
Rev. John Black and Samuel Han-is; 1738, Andrew McCleary; 1742, Henry 
Johnston and John Taylor; 1743, James Glenn, William Burney and James 
McClellan; 1744, Robert McClellan. By McCauley it is claimed that some of 
these were settlers as early as 1730. They were mainly Scotch-Irish, as will be 
seen by the names. 

Path Valley had early settlers, likewise. The records of the surveyor's 
office show that Samuel Bechtel had a warrant in what is now Fannett Town- 
ship, for 176 acres, which bore date January 24, 1737, and was surveyed the 
24th of the following May by Zach. Butcher, deputy surveyor. At that time 
it was in Hopewell Township, Lancaster County. The same records show that 
Thomas Doyle had a warrant in same region for 530 acres, dated November 
29, 1737, and surveyed December 30 following. Neither of these men had 
neighbors immediately adjoining them, showing the settlements to be sparse. 
Settlements must have been made quite rapidly in the valley, notwithstanding 
its ownership by the Indians; for in 1750 Richard Peters, secretary of the com- 
monwealth, in a letter to the governor dated July 2, in which he gives an 
account of the removal of certain citizens because of their encroachments on 
interdicted territory, says: "On Wednesday, the 30th of May, the magis- 

*Some of the earliest warrants found in the surveyor's office hear date as follows: 1737, John Mitchell, 
David McGaw ; 1738, David Scott, George Reynolds ; 1740-42, David Kennedy, Humphrey Jones ; 1743-50, John 
Potter, Samuel McPherren, John Brotherton, Hohert Wallace. William Magaw, Thomas Poe, George Gibson, 
William Smith, Jacob Snively, William Allison, Abraham Gable and John Davison. 


trates* and company*} - , being detained two days by rain, proceeded over the 
Kittochtinny Mountains, and entered into Tuscara [Tuscarora] Path or Path 
Valley, through which the road to Alleghany lies. Many settlements were 
formed in this valley, and all the people were sent for, and the following per- 
sons appeared, viz. : Abraham Slach, James Blair, Moses Moore, Arthur Dun- 
lap, Alexander McCartie, David Lewis, Adam McCartie, Felix Doyle, Andrew 
Dunlap, Robert Wilson, Jacob Pyatt, Jacob Pyatt, Jr. , William Ramage, Rey- 
nolds Alexander, Samuel Patterson, Robert Baker, John Armstrong and John 
Potts, who were all convicted, by their own confession to the magistrates, of the 
like trespasses with those at Shearman's Creek, and were bound in the like 
recognizances to appear at court, and [give] bonds to the proprietaries to remove, 
with all their families, servants, cattle and effects, and having all voluntarily 
given possession of their houses to me, some ordinary log houses, to the num- 
ber of eleven, were burnt to the ground, the trespassers, most of them cheer- 
fully and a very few of them with reluctance, carrying out all their goods. 
Some had been deserted before, and lay waste. ' ' 

John Hastin was one of the early settlers on the line of Lurgan and Letter - 
kenny Townships. He may have radiated from Shippensburg as a center. 
The statement of his survey, made by Zach. Butcher, D. S. , November 4, 1736, 
says: "By virtue of a warrant from the honorable proprietaries, bearing date 

, I have surveyed and laid out unto John Hastin, in the township 

of Hopewell, in the county of Lancaster, on the west side of the Susquehanna 
River, six hundred and three acres of land with allowance of six per cent. ' ' 
The warrant, it seems, though no date is given, was of prior time. Francis 
and Samuel Jones are represented as neighbors. 

John Reynolds had a warrant for land, in what is now Lurgan Township, 
dated October 6, 1738, and surveyed May 16, 1743. His neighbors at the 
time were Robert Edmonson, Samuel Reynolds and Edward Shippen, Esq. 
In what is now Hamilton Township, warrants were issued in 1737 to Matthew 
Patton and George Leonard; in 1738 to David Black and Samuel Morehead. 
Their neighbors at the time were Samuel Jones, Nathaniel Newlins, Robert 
Patton, James Brotherton, Adam Hoops, Benjamin Gass, James Young, 
Thomas Morehead and Thomas Patterson. In Montgomery, as it now exists, 
was Philip Davis in 1737; James Harland and John Davyrich were his neigh- 
bors; in 1740, Thonlas Evans, with David Alexander, John Davis and Aaron 
Alexander as neighbors; in 1743, William Maxwell, with John McLellandand 
Robert McCoy as neighbors; and in same year, Robert Culbertson, with Will- 
iam and Thomas Dinwiddy and James Gardner as neighbors. About the same 
time, also, Alexander Brown, Thomas Sellers, John McClellan, Walter Beatty, 
Alex White, Wilson Halliday and Martha Howry were settlers. In the 
present Southampton, Rev. John Blair and Thomas Edmundson had warrants 
as early as 1743. 

In St. Thomas were, 1738, Thomas Armstrong ; in 1742, John Holliday; 
1743 and 1744, Robert Clugadge, James Campbell, George Galloway, Michael 
Campbell, William Campbell, George Cuming, John McConnell, Samuel Mc- 
Clintock, Robert Ritchey. 

In Greene the oldest warrant found was that of Joseph Culbertson, in 1744. 
Alexander Culbertson had one dated 1749. Their neighbors at the time were 
John Neal, William Carr, Reuben Gillespie, John Stump. This settlement 
was known as Culbertson' s Row. 

At the early period we have thus far borne in mind, Little Cove seems not 

♦Matthew Dill, George Croghan, BeDjamin Chambers, Thomas Wilson, John Findlay and James Galbreath, 
Esqs., justices of the county of Cumberland. 

•"■Under-sheriff of Cumberland County. 


to have been settled, it being greatly exposed to Indian depredations. As a 
rule, warrants date from 1755, the earliest one found, to 1769, between which 
dates are found Enoch Williams, Rees Shelby, "William Smith, William Pin- 
dell, Evan Phillips, Samuel Owen, James McClellan, Hugh Martin, John Mar- 
tin, David Huston, Lewis Davis and David Brown. 

Washington Township, it seems, was not settled so early as some of the 
eastern and southwestern districts. It and Quincy Township became largely 
the homes of the Germans, who crossed South Mountain from York and Ad- 
ams Counties. Warrants from 1743 to 1750 embrace Michael Legate, John 
Markley, John Moorhead, James Johnston, Jacob Beesecker, Edward Nichols, 
Michael Raumsawher, Mathias Ringer, John Stoner, John Steiner, John Snow- 
berger, James Whitehead and John Wallace. 

In Quincy, between same dates, George Cook, William Patrick, John 
Leeper, James Jack. 

It is much to be regretted that the names of these early pioneers, who 
struggled so heroically against the wilds of the forest and the depredations of 
the savages, have not been more carefully preserved. We append, however, a 
list of taxable names in 1751 and 1752. From it may be learned the general 
locations of these settlers: 

TAXABLES' NAMES, 1751 AND 1752. 

In Antrim Township — which embraced the territory now in Antrim, Wash- 
ington and Quincy Townships — the taxables' names were as follows: William 
Allison, Widow Adams, Joshua Alexander, Thomas Brown, Jacob Batterly, 
William Brotherton, John Chambers, George Cassil, William Clark, William 
Cross, Joshua Coal, Josh. Crunkleton, Jr., Peter Craul, John Crunkleton, 
William Dunbar, Thomas Davis, John Davies, Henry Dutch, David Dun- 
can, William Erwin, Robert Erwin, James Finley, William Grimes, Nicholas 
Gulp, John Gyles, Lorance Galocher, Thomas Grogan, George Gordon, Abra- 
ham Gabriel, Paulus Harick, Robert Harkness, William Hall, Nath. Harkness, 
Christian Hicks, Robert Hamilton, Adam Hoops, James Jack, James Johnston, 
Peter Johnston, Henry Kefort, James Kerr, David Kennedy, Widow Leiper, 
Peter Leiper, Kath. Leatherman, Dietrich Lauw, James Lilon, Thomas 
Long, William McGaw, Samuel McFaran, John Mitchel, William McAlmory, 
William Mearns, William McLean, George Martin, John Monk, John Moor- 
head, John McMath, William McBriar, David McBriar, James McBride, Josh. 
McFaran, David McClellan, James McClanahan, Hugh McClellan, Patrick 
Mclntire, Arch. McClean, Samuel Monagh, William McClellan, John Moor, 
John McCoon, John McDowell, Alexander Miller, James McKee, Patrick Mc- 
Clarin, Edward Nichols, Thomas Nisbit, Jacob Pisacker, Thomas Patterson, 
John Pritchet, Thomas Poa, Henry Pauling, John Potter, James Paile, Will- 
iam Patrick, James Pattro, John Reynolds, William Rankin, William Ram- 
sey, James Ramsey, John Roass, Mathias Ringer, Joseph Roddy, John Roal, 
Samuel Smith, John Scott, Robert Southerland, John Smith, James Scott, 
Daniel Scott, John Staret, Henry Stall, Jacob Snider, William Shanon, Jacob 
Snively, John Stoaner, Katharine Thomson, Anthony Thomson, Moses Thom- 
son, Joseph Walter, John Wlllocks, John Wallace. Freemen: E. Alexander, 
Alex. Cook, W. Campbel, Jacob Gabrial, Hugh Galocher, Adam Murray, 
Hugh McKee, Daniel McCoy, Daniel McCowan, Wm. McGaughey, James 
McGowan, Joseph Morgan, James Ross, John Snively, Charles White, James 
Young— 128. 

In Guilford — including what is now Chambersburg — John Anderson, Wm. 
Adams, Thomas Baird, George Cook, Benjamin Chambers, Frederick Croft, 


Peter Coaset, James Crawford, Edward Crawford, Mayant Duff, John For- 
syth, Benjamin Gass, John Henderson, James Jack, Patrick Jack, James Lind- 
say, John Lindsay, Charles McGill, Wm. McKinney, John Mushet, John 
Noble, William Nujant, John O'Cain, Solomon Patterson, Robert Patrick, 
Nathaniel Simpson, Henry Thomson. Freemen: Archibald Douglass, Henry 
Black, Alexander McAlister, Robert Uart, 31. 

In Hamilton— which then included the present township of Hamilton and 
about one-half of the present township of St. Thomas — Joseph Armstrong, 
Matthew Arthur, Josh. Barnet, James Barnet, Thomas Barnet, Jr., James 
Boyd, Thomas Barnet, Andrew Brattan, John Blain, Wm. Boal, Robert Bar- 
net, John Campbell, Adam Carson, James Denny, Robert Donelson, John 
Dixon, Matthew Dixon, John Eaton, Josh. Eaton, James Eaton, Robert Elliot, 
Johnston Elliot, Wm. Eckery, John Galaway, James Hamilton, John Hind- 
man, Alex. Hamilton, Edward Johnston, Patrick Knox, William McCord, Sam- 
uel McCamish, Samuel Moorhead, Thomas Patterson, Joshua Pepper, George 
Reynolds, William Rankin, John Swan, Widow Swan, Edward Thorn, Aaron 
Watson. Freemen: Dennis Kease, Josh. McCamish, 42. 

In Lurgan — which then included the present townships of Lurgan, Letter - 
kenny, Southampton and Greene — Benjamin Allworth, James Allison, Thos. 
Alexander, Andrew Baird, Jr. , James Breckenridge, John Boyd, James Boall, 
James Boyd, Laird Burns, Robert Boyd, Samuel Buckenstos, William Barr, 
William Baird (turner), William Baird (at Rocky Spring), John Burns, Fran- 
cis Brain, William Breckenridge, Alexander Culbertson, Archibald Campbell, 
Dennis Cotter, Joseph Culbertson, John Cessna, James Calwell, John Craw- 
ford, John Cumins, James Culbertson, Nathaniel Cellar, Oliver Culbertson, 
Samuel Culbertson, Samuel Cochran, Steven Colwell, William Cox, William 
Cochran, William Chambers, David Carson, Wm. Devanner, Jacob Donelson, 
William Erwin, John Evans, John Erwin, Andrew Finley, John Finley, Sr., 
John Finley, Esq. , John Finley (sawyer), James Finley, Robert Finley, George 
Ginley, John Graham, Robert Gabie, Thomas Grier, William Greenlee, Will- 
iam Guthrie, John Grier, Arthur Graham, Isaac Grier, John Gaston, David 
Heron, Francis Heron, Gustavus Henderson, James Henderson, Joshua Hen- 
derson, James Henry, John Hawthorn, Christian Irwin, William Jack, Samuel 
Jordan, John Jones, Nathaniel Johnson, David Johnson, John Johnson, Thomas 
Jack, John Kirkpatrick, John Kirkpatrick, Jr., John Kerr, John Kennedy, 
James Kirkpatrick, John Lowrie, John Leckey, James Lawder, Robert Long, 
Samuel Laird, William Linn, William Linn, Jr., David Linn, Archibald 
Machan, Arthur Miller, Andrew Murphey, Alexander Mitchell, Alexander 
McNutt, Charles McGlea, David McCright, George Mitchell, Gavin Mitchell, 
Humphrey Montgomery, Henry Machan, John Miller, Esq., James McCamant, 
John McKeany, John McCall, James McCall, John McCrea, John McKee, John 
Mitchel, James Mitchel, John Mitchel, Jr., John McCrea, John Machen, 
Joseph McKibben, John McNaught, John McCappin, John Montgomery, John 
McCombs, Machan McCombs, Mat. McCreary, Robert McConnell, Robert Mil- 
ler, Robert Machan, Thomas McComb, Thomas Miner, William McConnell, 
William Mitchell, William McNutt, William McCall, Charles Murray, Joseph 
Mitchell, Andrew Neal, James Norrice, Thomas Neal, James Ortan, David 

Paxon, George Pumroy, James Patterson, Mr. Riley (at Mr. Hoops'), 

John Rippie, Josiah Ramage, James Reed, Sr. , James Reed, Jr. , James Reed, 
Samuel Rippie, Wm. Reed, Robert Reed (cordwainer), Charles Stewart, James 
Sharp, Robert Scott, Ranald Slack, William Turner, Alvard Terrence, Joseph 
Thomson, James Tait, Robert Urie, Thomas Urie, Abm. Wier, David Watson, 
Hugh Wier, John Weyley, John Weir, James Waid, John Wilson, Nathaniel 


Wilson, Oliver Wallace,* Wm. Withrow, Wm. Woods, Wm. Walker, Alexander 
Walker, William Young. Freemen: James Hawthorne, Morgan Linch, Geo. 
McKeaney, William Milrea, Charles Moor, George Ross, John Tait — 176. 

In Peters Township — which then included the present townships of Peters 
and Montgomery, and that part of St. Thomas Township west of Campbell's 
Run — Daniel Alexander, Andrew Alexander, Wm. Armstrong, Hezekiah Alex- 
ander, Adam Armstrong, Arthur Alexander, John Baird, James Blair, Alex. 
Brown, Thomas Barr, Ann Black (widow,) Thomas Boal, Samuel Brown, Wm. 
Barnett, Joshua Bradner, John Black, John Baird, James Black, Widow 
Brown, Robert Barnet, David Bowel, John Blair, George Brown, Wm. Clark, 
Robert Clugage, AVm. Campbell, Michael Carsell, Samuel Chapman, Thomas 
Calhoun, Michael Campbell, Robert Crawford, Patrick Clark, Wm. Campbell, 
Robert Culbertson, Charles Campbell, Thomas Clark, John Dickey, James 
Dickey, Widow Donelson, Wm. Dunwood, John Docherty, Samuel Davis, 
David Davis, James Davis, Widow Davis, Philip Davis, Joseph Dunlop, Ar- 
thur Donelson, David Davis, Nath. Davis, Josh. Davis, Thomas Davis, James 
Erwin, Widow Farier, John Flanaghin, James Flanaghin, Moses Fisher, James 
Galbreath, John Gilmore, Widow Garison, Samuel Gilespie, James Galaway, 
Josh. Harris, John Harris, Jeremiah Harris, Charles Harris, Widow Huston, 
James Holland, John Huston, John Hamilton, Joseph How, John Holyday, 
Wm. Holyday, Wm. Hanbey, David Huston, John Hill, James Holiday, Alex. 
Hotchison, Mesech James, Hugh Kerrell, Wm. Lowrie, Henry Larkan, Wm. 
Maxwell, James Mitchell, John Morlan, John Martin, James Mercer, John 
Mercer, Wm. Marshall, Wm. Moor, Widow McFarland, Andrew Morison, 
John McDowell, Alex. McKee, Robert McClellan, Wm. McDowell, Jr. , Wm. 
McClellan, John McClellan, Andrew Moor, Wm. McDowell, James McConnell, 
Robert McCoy, Wm. McHlhatton, James McMahon, James Murphy, Wm. 
Morrison, James McClellan, Robert Newell, Victor Neely, James Orr, Thomas 
Orbison, Thomas Owins, Nathan Orr, Matthew Patton, John Patton, Francis 
Patterson, David Rees, James Rankin, Alex. Robertson, Wm. Semple, James 
Sloan, Richard Stevens, Andrew Simpson, Wm. Shannon, Hugh Shannon, 
Widow Scott, Alex. Staret, Collin Spence, John Taylor, James Wright, Wm. 
Wilson, John Wilson, John Winton, James Wilkey, James Wilson, Matthew 
Wallace, Moses White, John Wasson, Joseph Williams, John Wood, Joseph 
White, Thomas Waddle. Freemen: Robert Anderson, David Alexander, Rob- 
ert Banefield, James Brown, James Blair, Gavin Cluggage, James Carswell, 
James Coyle, William Gueen, Alex. Hutchison, Ed. Horkan, John Laird, Alex. 
McConnell, Samuel Templeton, Wm. Tayler, James Wilson, James Wallace,. 
Andrew Willabee, Oliver Wallace, David Wallace — 162. 

One of the complications in earlier times, along the southern portion of the 
county, was the difficulty which settlers had in determining whether their pos- 
sessions were in Pennsylvania or Maryland. This involved the famous Mason 
and Dixon's line. 

This remarkable line, alluded to by political writers and speakers through 
the whole period of our national existence, and even anterior to it, is named 
in honor of its surveyors, and marks the boundary between Pennsylvania and 
Maryland. Since 1820, when John Randolph was continually harping on the 
words " Mason and Dixon' s Line, " as Felix Walker, of North Carolina, was 
on ' ' Buncombe, " one of the counties of his district, it has been the line of 
demarkation between two distinct schools of politicians, the representatives of 
two opposing sections of territory. 

The original controversy between the States, thus lying side by side, was 
waged with great spirit and varying results between the Lords Baltimore 


and the Perm family, from 1682 to 1767. These various phases, interesting 
and exciting in themselves, can not here be given. The reader is referred to 
the special works which trace the controversy. It needs simply to be stated 
briefly that "on the 4th of August, 1763, the Penns — Thomas and Eichard, 
and Frederick Lord Baltimore, then being .together in London, agreed with 

7 O * O 7 & 

Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, two mathematicians and surveyors, to 
mark, run out, settle, fix and determine all such parts of the circle, marks, 
lines and boundaries, as were mentioned in the several articles or commissions, 
and were not yet completed; that Mason and Dixon arrived in Philadelphia, 
November 15, 1763, received their instructions from the commissioners of the 
two provinces, December 9, 1763, and forthwith engaged in the work assigned 
them; that they ascertained the latitude of the southernmost part of the city of 
Philadelphia (viz. : 39° 56' 29. 1" north — or, more accurately, according to Col. 
Graham, 39° 56' 37.4"), which was agreed to be in the north wall of the house 
then occupied by Thomas Plumstead and Joseph Huddle, on the south side of 
Cedar Street; and then, in January and February, 1764, they measured thirty- 
one miles westward of the city to the forks of the Brandy wine, where they 
planted a quartzose stone, known then, and to this day, in the vicinage, as the 
star-gazer's stone; that, in the spring of 1764, they ran, from said stone, a 
due south line fifteen English statute miles, horizontally measured by levels, 
each twenty feet in length, to a post marked ' west;' that they then repaired to 
a post marked 'middle.' at the middle point of the peninsula; west 
line running from Cape Healopen to Chesapeake Bay, and thence, during 
the summer of 1764, they ran, marked and described the tangent line agre d 
on by the proprietaries. Then, in the autumn of 1764, from the post marked 
'west,' at fifteen miles south of Philadelphia they set off and produced a 
parallel of latitude westward, as far as the river Susquehanna ; then they went 
to the tangent point, and in 1764-65 ran thence a meridian line northward until 
it intersected the said parallel of latitude, at the distance of five miles, one 
chain and fifty links — thus and there determining and fixing the northeast 
corner of Maryland. Next, in 1765, they described such portion of the semi- 
circle around New Castle, as fell westward of the said meridian, or due north 
line from the tangent point. This little bow, or arc, reaching into Maryland, 
is about a mile and a half long, and its middle width, 116 feet; from its upper 
end, where the three States join, to the fifteen-mile point, where the great Ma- 
son and Dixon's line begins, is a little over three and a half miles; and from 
the fifteen-mile corner due east to the circle, is a little over three-quarters of 
a mile — room enough for three or four good Chester County farms. This was 
the only part of the circle which Mason and Dixon ran." 

In 1766-67 they continue! the west line beyond the Susquehanna, extending 
the same to the distance of 230 miles, IS chains and 21 links from the northeast 
corner of Maryland near to an Indian war-path, on the borders of a stream 
called Dunkard Creek. The hostile attitude of the Indians prevented Mason 
and Dixon from continuing the line to the western boundary of Pennsylvania. 
The remainder of the line, less than twenty miles, was subsequently run (1782) 
by other surveyors. The portion run by Mason and Dixon was certified by 
commissioners November 9, 1768, as having been properly marked by stones 
distant one mile from each other, every fifth mile-stone having on the north 
face the arms of Thomas and Richard Penn, and on the south face the arms of 
Lord Baltimore. These stones were oolitic rock, imported for the purpose 
from England. 

These surveyors were paid twenty-one shillings eaco per day for services 
and expenses, from the time they came to this country till they reached Eng- 

7 ^^^-zJ 


land. The amount paid by the Penns from 1760 to 1768 was £34,200, Penn- 
sylvania currency. 


Indian Nations Described — War Between French and English — Colonies In- 
volved — Braddock's Defeat and its Effects — Forts Located and De- 
scribed — Massacres from 1754 to 1765 — Conflict Between the Civil 
and Military at Fort Loudoun. 

AT the time the Cumberland Valley was opened up to the colonization of the 
white race, it was virtually in possession of the aggregation of tribes known 
as the Six Nations. At the opening of the seventeenth century, it is declared, 
"the lower valley of the Susquehanna appears to have been a vast uninhabited 
highway, through which hordes of hostile savages were constantly roaming be- 
tween the northern and southern waters, and where they often met in bloody 
encounters. The Six Nations were acknowledged as the sovereigns of the 
Susquehanna, and they regarded with jealousy and permitted with reluctance 
the settlement of other tribes upon its margin. ' ' * 

The Six Nations were the Onondagas, Cayugas, Oneidas, Senecas, Mo- 
hawks and the Tuscaroras, the last-named tribe joining the other five from North 
Carolina in 1712. By the French they were called the Iroquois. The Lenni 
Lenape, another powerful Indian confederacy, disputed the claim of the Six 
Nations to this rich territory, and professed to be, as their name implies, "the 
original people." The Lenni Lenape were known among the white settlers as 
the Delaware Indians. They were divided into three principal tribes viz. : 
the Turtle, the .Turkeys and Monseys or Wolf tribes. Monseys or Wolf tribe 
occupied the country between the Kittatinny or Blue Mountain, and the sources 
of the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers, and had settlements also on the 
banks of the Susquehanna. The Shawanees, also, by the permission of the 
Six Nations, held for a time the Cumberland Valley as a hunting-ground. 
This rivalry between these two great Indian Confederacies, the Lenni Lenape 
and the Six Nations, both of which laid claim to the original right to the soil 
of Pennsylvania, and hence to the Cumberland Valley, led to bloody conflicts, 
and greatly retarded the permanent settlement of the region between the Sus- 
quehanna and the Potomac. It led, also, to unpleasant complications in the 
securing of legal titles. The Indians had as serious disputes among them- 
selves relative to their lands as the inhabitants of Pennsylvania and Maryland 
subsequently did. The result of this quarrel among the Indians was that the 
Six Nations overcame the Lenni Lenape and held them in a state of vassalage 
until the year 1756. The Shawanees ultimately proved bad neighbors to both 
the Delawares and the Iroquois, and were removed by the latter, in 1755, to 
the head waters of the Ohio. 

For the reasons previously given, Kittatinny or Cumberland Valley was a 
hunting-ground for the Indians, and highly prized by them. None of the 
tribes made permanent settlement in its forests, which accounts for the absence 

♦Historical Collections of Pennsylvania. 


of Indian relics so numerous in certain western and southern localities. With 
reluctance, therefore, did they leave this beautiful valley, and seek their wild 
game and fish elsewhere, and yet they finally consented to dispose of their 
cherished possessions. On the 11th of October, 1736, the chiefs of the Six, 
Nations met in Philadelphia, and, reviving all past treaties of friendship, ex- 
ecuted a deed conveying to John, Thomas and Richard Penn and their heirs, 
"all the said river Susquehanna, with the lands lying on both sides thereof, to 
extend eastward as far as the head of the branches or springs which run into 
the said Susquehanna, and all the land lying on the west side of the said river 
to the setting sun." The indefiniteness of this language was destined to re- 
sult in serious trouble. Advantage of the ambiguity of treaties made with 
the Indians was taken by unscrupulous white men, and thus gradually the 
red man saw himself deprived of all he held dear; and yet it is true that no 
serious complaints were made by him until about 1742, and were then con- 
fined to unlawful settlements on lands in Tulpehocken, on the Juniata, Augh- 
wick, Path Valley and on Licking Creek near the Potomac, which embraced 
the Big and Little Coves. 

The French were eager and successful, too, in poisoning the Indian mind 
with a sense of their gross wrongs, and thus secured their co-operation against 
the regular British soldiers. The animosities existing between the two Euro- 
pean governments were readily transferred to the rival colonies in the new 
world. Twenty years of cunning effort on the part of the French had re- 
sulted in winning the Indians to them- as allies, in endeavoring to establish 
French supremacy in America. Since 1744, war had existed between Eng- 
land and France, but its effects had not been felt in the colonies. The set- 
tlers of this valley, isolated as they were, did not exhibit any fears of attack 
till 1748, when they banded together for the support of their home and for- 
eign governments. Loyalty to his English majesty reigned in every heart. 
An associated regiment was formed in the valley and included among its of- 
ficers the following from what is now Franklin County: Col. Benjamin Cham- 
bers, of Chambersburg ; Maj. William Maxwell, of Peters; Lieuts. William 
Smith, of Peters; Andrew Finley, of Lurgan; John Potter, of Antrim; 
Charles McGill, of Guilford; John Winton, of Peters; Ensign John Rand- 
alls, of Antrim. At first some doubts existed as to the legality and expediency 
of these organizations, but these doubts were finally removed by a letter from 
the council to the proprietaries, dated July 30, 1748. " The zeal and industry, 
the skill and regularity of the officers have surprised every one, though it has 
been for them a hard service. The whole has been attended by such expense, 
care and fatigue, as would not have been borne or undertaken by any who 
were not warm and sincere friends of the Government, and true lovers of their 
country. In short, we have by this means, in the opinion of most strangers, 
the best militia in America; so that, had the war continued, we should have 
been in little pain about any future enterprises of our enemies. Whatever 
opinions lawyers or others, not fully acquainted with our unhappy circum- 
stances, may entertain of it, it is, in our opinion, one of the wisest and most 
useful measures that was ever undertaken in any country." 

The lull was but temporary. In 1753 war broke out in earnest. The 
French established a line of forts from the lakes to the sources of the Ohio, 
and thence along it to the Mississippi and down it to its mouth. They held 
the bow of the country, while the English held the string along the Atlantic. 
One of these strongholds was Fort Du Quesne, at Pittsburgh. Against it, in 
1755, marched the English and provincial troops under command of Gen. 
Braddock, a skillful and experienced officer in ordinary warfare, but 



unacquainted with the nature and intrigues of the Indian. Disregarding the 
wise suggestions of his subordinates, he was thoroughly routed by the French 
and Indians on the Monongahela July 9, 1755, and his demoralized and strag- 
gling army hurled back along the line of its advance, the merciless enemy 
hanging on flank and rear to increase the consternation and destruction. 

The effect of this retreat can be better imagined than told. ' ' News of 
contemplated attacks upon the settlements along the frontier from the Dela- 
ware to the Maryland and Virginia line came upon the people in quick succes- 
sion, and some actual massacres, burnings and captivities were reported from 
the south, west and north. Even before Braddock's defeat, and when that 
General with his army had gone only thirty miles from Fort Cumberland, a 
party of 100 Indians, under the notorious Shingas, came to the Big Cove and 
to the Conolloways (creeks on the border of Maryland, in what is now Fulton 
County) and killed and took prisoners about thirty people, and drove the 
remainder from their homes. ' ' [Penn. Archives, Vol. II. ] 

The consternation which succeeded the defeat was inexpressible. The 
retreat left the whole frontier uncovered. The inhabitants, unprotected and 
undisciplined, were compelled to flee hastily or use such means of defense as 
were at hand. Men, women and children were ruthlessly slaughtered like dumb, 
animals. A reign of terror prevailed everywhere. The occupations of civil 
life were suspended, and all efforts to secure safety by flight or resistance were 
resorted to. Gov. Morris, moved by the piteous appeals from the frontier, 
summoned the Assembly to convene November 3, when he presented the case 
clearly and demanded men and a law for calling out the militia. Petitions 
were pouring in upon him, asking for men and the munitions of war, and 
beseeching protection from the destruction raging on every hand. The Assem- 
bly was tardy. The people, to impress its members with the folly of the 
1 ' non-resistance policy, ' ' actually sent some of the dead and mangled victims 
of savage cruelty to Philadelphia to be exhibited on the streets. Everywhere 
men flew to arms. Twenty-five companies of militia, numbering about 1,400 
men, were raised and equipped for the defense of the frontier. The second 
battalion, comprising 700 men and stationed west of the Susquehanna, was 
commanded by Col. John Armstrong, of Carlisle. His subordinates were 
Capts. Hance Hamilton, John Potter, Hugh Mercer, George Armstrong, 
Edward Ward, Joseph Armstrong and Robert Callender. Of these, Joseph 
Armstrong was an early settler of Hamilton Township, this county. The fol- 
lowing is the roster of his private soldiers, the names of the subordinate 
officers not being known: 

John Armstrong. 
Thomas Armstrong. 
James Barnet. 
John Barnet. 
Joshua Barnet. 
Thomas Barnet, Sr. 
Thomas Barnet, Jr. 
Samuel Brown. 
John Boyd. 
Alexander Caldwell. 
Robert Caldwell. 
James Dinney. 
William Dinney. 
Robert Dixson. 
William Dixson. 

James Eaton. 
John Eaton. 
Joshua Eaton. 
James Elder. 
George Gallery. 
Robert Groin. 
James Guthrie. 
John Hindman. 
Abram Irwin. 
Christopher Irwin. 
John Jones. 
James McCamant, Sr. 
James McCamant, Jr. 
Charles McCamant. 
James McCamish. 

John McCamish. 
William McCamish. 
Robert McConnell. 
John McCord. 
Jonathan McKearney. 
John Machan. 
James Mitchell. 
Joshua Mitchell. 
William Mitchell. 
Jon. Moore. 
James Norrice. 
John Norrice. 
James Patterson. 
Joshua Patterson. 
William Rankin. 


Jon. Rippey. Matthew Shields, Sr. "William Swan. 

Barnet Robertson. Matthew Shields, Jr. Charles Stuart. 

Francis Scott. Robert Shilds, Sr. Daniel Stuart. 

Patrick Scott. Robert Shilds, Jr. Devard Williams. 

William Scott. Jon. Swan. Jon. Wilson. 

David Shields. Joshua Swan. 

The intense feeling of the time is shown by the following letters, which 
speak for themselves: 

Falling Springs, Sabbath morning, Nov. 2, 1755. 
To the inhabitants of the lower part of the county of Cumberland: 
Gentlemen — 

If you intend to go to the assistance of your neighbors, you need wait no longer for 
the certainty of the news. The Great Cove is destroyed. James Campbell left his com- 
pany last night and went to the fort at Mr. Steel's meeting house, and there saw some of 
the inhabitants of the Great Cove who gave this account, that as they came over the Hill 
they saw their houses in flames. The messenger says that there are but one hundred, and 
that they are divided into two parts; the one part to go against the Cove and the other 
against the Conollaways, and that there are two French among them. They are Dela- 
wares and Shawnese. The part that came against the Cove are under the command of 
Shingas, the Delaware King. The people of the Cove that came off saw several men lying 
dead; they heard the murder shout and the firing of guns, and saw the Indians going into 
their houses that they had come out of before they left sight of the Cove. I have sent 
express to Marsh creek at the same time I send this; so I expect there will be a good com- 
pany there this day, and as there are but one hundred of the enemy, I think it is in our 
power, if God permit, to put them to flight, if you turn out well from your parts. I 
understand that the West settlement is designed to go if they can get any assistance to 
repel them. 

All in haste, from 

Tour humble servant, 
Benjamin Chambers. 

Shippensburg, 2d November, 1755. 
To Hon. Edward Shippen, Esq., at Lancaster: 
Dear and Honored Sir: 

We are in great confusion here at present — We have received express last night that 
the Indians and French are in a large body in the Cove, a little way from William Max- 
well, Esq. ; and that they immediately intend to fall down upon this county. We, for these 
two days past, have been working at our Fort here, and believe shall work this day (Sun- 
day). This town is full of people, they being all moving in with their families — five or 
six families in a house. We are in great want of arms and ammunition; but with what 
we have we are determined to give the enemy as warm a reception as we can. Some of 
our people had been taken prisoners by this party, and have made their escape from them, 
and came in to us this morning. 

As our Fort goes on here with great vigor, and expect it to be finished in fifteen days, 
in which we intend to place all the women and children; it would be greatly encouraging, 
could we have reason to expect assistance from Philadelphia by private donation of 
Swivels, a few great guns, small arms and ammunition, we would send our own wagons 
for them; and we do not doubt that upon proper application but something of this kind 
will be done for us from Philadelphia. 

We have one hundred men working at Fort Morris with heart and hand every day. 

Dear Sir, yours, &c, 

James Burd. 

Conococheague,. Nov 6, 1755. 
May it please your Honor: 

I have sent enclosed two qualifications, one of which is Patrick Burns', the bearer, 
and a tomahawk which was found sticking in the breast of one David McClellan. 

The people of Path Valley are all gathered in a small foivt, and according to the last 
account, were safe. The Great Cove and Conolloways are all buried to ashes, and about 
fifty persons killed or taken. — Numbers of the inhabitants of this county have moved their 
families, some to York county, some to Maryland. 

Hance Hamilton, Esq., is now at John McDowell's mill, with upwards of two hun- 
dren men (from York county) and two hundred from this county, in all about four hun- 
dred. To-morrow we intend to go to the Cove and Path Valley, in order to bring what 
cattle and horses the Indians let live. We are informed by a Delaware Indian, who lives 
amongst us, that on the same da\ _ the murder was committed, he saw four hundred In- 
dians in the Cove; and'we have some reason to believe they are about there yet. 


The people of Shearman's creek and Juniata have all come away and left their 
horses; and there are now about thirty miles of this county laid waste. I am afraid 
there will soon be more. 

I am your Honor's most 

Humble servant, 

Adam Hoops. 

P. S. I have just received the account of one George McSwane, who was taken cap- 
tive about 14 days ago, and has made his escape, and brought two scalps and a toma- 
hawk with him. 

Shortly after the Indians had made hostile incursions into the Great Cove 
and commenced their devastation, Sheriff Potter was in Philadelphia, as ap- 
pears from the following extract, under date of November 14, 1755. — [Prov. 
Rec. N. 289.] 

Mr. Potter, the sheriff of Cumberland being in town was sent for, and desired to give 
an account of the upper part of that county in which the Indians had committed their late 
ravages; and he said that twenty-seven plantations were burnt and a great quantity of 
cattle killed; that a woman ninety-three years of age was found lying killed with her 
breast torn off and a stake run through her body. That of ninety-three families which 
were settled in the two Coves and the Conolloways, forty-seven were either killed or 
taken, and the rest deserted. 

The names of those murdered and abducted, besides those already men- 
tioned, are given in the Pennsylvania Gazette of November 13, 1755, and are 
as follows: 

Elizabeth Gallway, Henry Gilson, Robert Peer, William Berryhill and 
David McClelland were murdered. The missing are John Martin's wife and 
five children; William Gallway' s wife and two children, and a young woman; 
Charles Stewart's wife and two children; David McClelland' s wife and two 
children. William Fleming and wife were taken prisoners. Fleming's son 
and one Hicks were killed and scalped. 

But the times demanded more than men and ammunition. Families needed 
to be put into some place of safety while their natural protectors were gone to 
overtake the cruel savages, who had burned houses and destroyed helpless 
women and children. This necessitated the building of private and public 
forts at such natural points as would best accommodate the people. Wisely 
these were distributed along the western line of the valley to guard against the 
hostile invasions from the west, and notably from Path Valley, Cove Gap and 
the Little Cove. 

These forts answered several purposes: 1. They were places for the con- 
centration of defenseless and helpless women and children while their natural 
protectors were absent from home. 2. They served as deposits for the sur- 
plus ammunition and other valuable stores needed in the settlements. 3. They 
served as rallying points, for protection and defense, to the frightened inhabi- 

At a meeting of the general committee of Cumberland County, convened 
by order of John Potter, sheriff of the county, at the house of Edward Ship- 
pen, October 30, 1755, at which eighteen persons*, including Col. Benjamin 
Chambers, were present, it was resolved to build immediately five large 
forts, viz.: at Carlisle, Shippensburg, Col. Chambers', Mr. Steele's meeting- 
house and William Allison, Esq. 's, in which the women and children were to 
be deposited, from which, on any alarm, intelligence was to be sent to the other 
forts. It is thought to be doubtful whether this plan was executed in full. 

Chambers' Fort. — This fort was erected by Col. Benjamin Chambers and 
located at the confluence of the Falling Spring and the Conococheague Creek, 

♦Names: William Allison, John Irwin, Adam Hoops, James Burd, William Smith, James McCormick 
Benjamin Ohamhers, Robert rhambers, H. Alexander, John Findlay, John Potter, Rev. Mr. Bay, John Mush- 
ett, Samuel Reynolds, Rev. John Blair, John Smith, Alex Culbertson, John Armstrong. 


"where Chambersburg now stands. Hon. George Chambers said: "It was 
erected in the winter and spring of 1756, being a stockade, including the 
dwelling house, flour and saw-mills of the proprietor (Col. Chambers) ; within 
the fort he erected a large stone building two stories in height, the waters of 
the Falling Spring running under part of it; for safe access to the water, its 
windows were small, and adapted to defense; the roof of it was covered with 
sheet-lead, to protect it against fire from the savages. In addition to 
small arms, Col. Chambers had supplied himself with two four-pound cannon 
which wore mounted and used. Within the fort he remained in safety with his 
family throughout the whole .series of Indian wars. It was also a place of 
shelter and security to many of the neighboring families in times of alarm. 
In a letter dated Harris' Ferry, October 17, 1756, Jas. Young pronounces it 
" a good Private Fort, and on an Exceeding good situation to be made very De- 
fenceable. " He feared lest the fort, with its two four-pound cannon, with "no- 
body but a few Country People to defend it, ' ' should be captured, and they 
used against Shippensburg and Carlisle. He recommended the removal of the 
guns, or a proper force stationed for their protection. When Gov. Denny 
directed these guns to be removed from Fort Chambers, he found his orders 
disregarded, as was proper under the circumstances, 

Davis' Fort was erected by Philip Davis in 1756. It was about nine miles 
south of Fort Loudoun, near the Maryland line, at the northern termination of 
one of the Kittochtinny ranges, known in early times and since as Davis' 
Knob. It was sixteen and one-half miles from Chambers' Fort, and eight 
from McDowell' s mill. 

McDowell's Mill. — This fort was known by several names, as "Fort at Mc- 
Dowell's Mill," " McDowell's Mill," or " McDowell's." It was named in hon- 
or of its founder, John McDowell, who settled at and around the present site 
of Bridgeport, shortly after the Chambers settlement was made at Falling 
Spring. He erected a mill of logs, and some thirty yards from it a rude two 
story log house with a liberal supply of port holes. The mill and fort sites 
are now owned by Mr. Jacob Wister. 

This fort, which occupied such a conspicuous place in the early history 
of the province for the period of only about two or three years, was built as 
early as 1754: for Col. John Armstrong, then stationed at Carlisle, in a "plan 
for the defence of the Frontier of Cumberland County from Philip Davies' to 
Shippensburg," issued in 1754, " ordered that one company cover from Philip 
Davies' to Thomas Waddel's; And as John McDowell's mill is at the most im- 
portant Pass, most exposed to danger, has a fort already made about it, and there 
provisions may be most easily had — for these Reasons let the Chief Quarters be 
there; let five men be Constantly at Philip Davies', William Marshall's and 
Thomas Waddle's, which Shall be relieved every day by the patrolling guards; 
let Ten men be sent early every morning from the Chief Quarters to Thomas 
Waddle's, and Ten return from thence back in the evening. A likewise Ten 
men Sent from the Chief Quarters to the other extremity daily, to go by Will- 
iam Marshall's to Philip Davies', and return the same way in the afternoon. 
By this Plan the Whole Bounds will be patrolled every Day; a Watch will be 
constantly kept at four most important Places, and there will be every night 
forty-five men at ye Chief Quarters ready for any Exigence. " The impor- 
tance of the place is further seen in the fact that, when Gen. Braddock, in the 
spring of 1755, was passing on his way for the reduction of Fort DuQuesne, 
he urged Gov. Morris to hurry up the army supplies along the public road 
that passed near McDowell' s mill. On the 3d of July, 1755, the Governor 
announces his compliance with the request and his purpose to ' ' form the mag- 


azine at or near McDowell' s mill, and put some Stuccados around it to protect 
the Magazine and the people that will have the Care of it. " In response, Gen. 
Braddock indicated his "Approbation of the Deposits being made at McDow- 
ell's Mill." In November of this year (1755), as we learn from a letter by 
Adam Hoops, commissary to Gov. Morris, "Hance Hamilton, Esq., was at 
John McDowell's Mill with about 400 men," to be used in gathering up the 
cattle and horses not destroyed by the Indians in Path Valley. 

In consequence of the cutting of a new road to the Ohio, about two miles 
north, and in view of the indefensibility of McDowell's, it was determined to 
chancre the location of the fort; hence its successor. 

Fort Loudoun. — In the autumn of 1756, Col. John Armstrong began the 
construction of this place of defense. Some difficulty was experienced in se- 
curing a suitable site. At last one was chosen near to Parnell's Knob, where 
one Patton lived, ' 'near the new road, ' ' making the ' 'distance from Shippens- 
burg to Fort Lyttleton two miles shorter than by McDowell' s. " In a letter 
to Gov. Denny, dated at McDowell's, November 19, 1756, Col. Armstrong 
says: "I'm makeing the best preparation in my power to forward this Fort 
(Loudon), as well as to prepare by barracks, etc. , all the others for the ap- 
proaching winter. * * To-day we begin to Digg a Cellar in the New Fort, the 
Loggs and Roof of a new House having there been erected by Patton before the 
Indians burn' d his Old One. We shall apprise this House, and then take the 
benefit of it, either for Officers' Barracks or a Store-House ; by which Means the 
Provisions may the sooner be mov'd from this place, which at present divides 
our strength." December 22, 1756, A. Stephens says: "The public stores 
are safely removed from McDowell' s mill to Fort Loudoun — the barracks for the 
soldiers are built, and some proficiency made in the Stockado, the finishing of 
which will doubtless be retarded by the in clemency of the weather. ' ' Capt. 
Thompson, in a letter dated at Loudoun, April 7, 1758, mentions the arrival 
of forty Cherokee Indians at the fort, and that more were daily expected. He 
desires Gov. Denny' s immediate directions as to how they were to be treated 
and supplied, as they had come without arms or clothes; they had come for 
service in the colonies. 

Gen. Forbes, while on his expedition to Fort Du Quesne to expel the 
French and their Indian allies from the frontiers, addressed a letter from Lou- 
doun (the town being distant a mile from the fort) to Gov. Denny, urging the 
hearty co operation of the authorities and people to secure the desired success. 
September 9, 1758, he wrote: "Everything is ready, for the army is advanc- 
ing; but that I cannot do, unless I have a sufficient quantity of provisions in 
the magazines at Raystown. " His march was resumed soon afterward, and 
continued till he reached Fort Du Quesne, which the enemy evacuated Novem- 
ber 24, 1758. In October of the same year, Forbes recommended to the gov- 
ernor the necessity of distributing 1,200 men among the different forts, 100 of 
whom were to be stationed at Fort Loudoun. 

Col. Bouquet having assumed command of the regular and provincial 
troops, left Carlisle (whither Gov. Penn had accompanied him) on his expedi- 
tion westward early in August. "On August 13 their small army got to Fort 
Loudoun; but notwithstanding all the precautions taken to prevent desertions, 
the Pennsylvania troops were now reduced to 700 men. Further ad- 
ditions were therefore requested, and furnished by the governor. While 
here he received an account from Presque Isle, by Capt. Bradstreet, of peace 
being made with the Delawares and Shawnese; but Col. Bouquet, not believing 
they were sincere, proceeded forward from Fort Loudoun to Fort Pitt, where 
he arrived on September 17." — [Bouquet's Hist. Account.] 


The name Pomfret Castle was first suggested, but was dropped and that 
of Loudoun (spelled Loudon at present) in honor of the Earl of Loudoun, 
lately arrived as commander-in-chief of His Majesty's forces, was adopted. 
It embraced over an acre of ground. The foundations were of stone, the su- 
perstructure of logs, bastions being placed in each corner. No vestiges of it 
remain at present. The site of the fort is owned by Mr. J. H. Horner of the 
village of Loudon. 

McCord's was a private fort, erected probably in 1755 or 1756, along the 
base of Kittochtinny Mountains, north of Parnell's Knob, and intended, doubt- 
less, for temporary occupation during the early Indian wars. It is believed 
to have been not many miles from Fort Loudoun, but its precise location can 
not be definitely fixed. It was attacked and burned by the Indians in April, 
1756, and many captives taken and carried off. This circumstance greatly 
impaired confidence in private forts, and led to the early erection of those of 
greater security. 

Steele's Meeting-house. — Judge Chambers, in a note published in the Ap- 
pendix to Pennsylvania Archives, says : ' ' The first fort of which I have infor- 
mation, in the Conococheague Settlement, which comprised nearly the whole 
of the County of Franklin, was at the Rev. John Steele's meeting house, 
which was surrounded by a rude Stockade Port in 1755. It was erected shortly 
after Braddock' s defeat, we suppose, as it was referred to in the Indian Inva- 
sion in November, 1755.* It was situated where what is called The Presby- 
terian White Church, south of Fort Loudoun about five miles, and east of 
Mercersburg three miles.. It was a place of notoriety during the Indian Wars." 
Upon a visit of the Indians to this settlement, in November, 1755," the Rev. 
Mr. Steele, with others, to the number of about 100, went in quest of them, 
but with ho success. " In a letter from Peters Township to Gov. Morris, dated 
April 11, 1756, Mr. Steele says: " As I can neither have the men, arms nor 
blankets, I am obliged to apply to your Honor for them ; the necessity of the cir- 
cumstances has obliged me to muster before two magistrates the one-half 
of my company whom I enlisted, and am obliged to order guns. I pray that 
with all possible expedition, 54 fire arms and as many blankets, and a quan- 
tity of flints, may be sent to me: for since McCord's Fort has been taken, and 
the men defeated and pursued, our county is in the utmost confusion, great 
numbers have left the county, and many are preparing to follow. May it 
please your honor to allow me an ensign, for I find a sergeant's pay will not 
prevail with men to enlist in whom much confidence is reposed." — [Penn. 
Arch., Vol. II, p. 623.] 

Waddle's is sometimes referred to in the old records. It must have been a 
private fort built about the same time with the others, probably near what is 
now called Waddle's (sometimes Eckert's) graveyard. 

Allison's was also a private fort near Greencastle, and served its purpose. 

Maxwell's. — Where this was located the writer has not been able to 
ascertain. It was evidently a private fort or block-house in the general line of 
defense against the incursions of Indians from the west. 

Elliott's stood in Path Valley, about a mile north of Fannettsburg, at the 
place now known as Springtown. It was erected in 1754 or 1755. At this 
place are half a dozen limestone springs, one of which was enclosed by the 
fort. At the time the barn of James and Samuel Walker, one mile south of 
Fannettsburg, was burned by the Indians, viz. : On the night of March 22, 
1763, the neighbors collected together and scouts were sent by a by-path to 

♦"November ye 25, 1755. The Reverand John. Steele at Conegochig: 2 quarter casks of powder; 2 cwt. of 
Lead." — [Government Account.] 




give alarm at the fort, so that it must have been still occupied by British 

Baker's is supposed to have been at or near the village of Dry Run. 

The foregoing is by no means an enumeration of all the forts of a private 
character in Franklin County. The great danger, however, was to be appre- 
hended from the west, and hence the wisdom of locating a line of these 
defenses from Parnell's to Casey's Knobs, and patrolling them regularly. 
From Path Valley and through Cove Gap the greatest danger was to be 

The massacres mentioned in the following pages are found in various 
records, which can not here be specified. It will be seen that they occurred 
more frequently and with greater malignity shortly after the defeat of Brad- 
dock' s army. 

In September, 1754, Joseph Campble was killed, near Parnell's Knob, by 
an Indian of the Six Nations, named Israel. 

In February, 1756, two lads were taken at Widow Cox's, near Parnell's 
Knob, also a man named John Craig. They afterward escaped. 

February 29, 1756, two boys were fired at by the Indians in the Little 
Cove. One was killed but the other alarmed the fort, and the Indians were 
pursued and driven away after a loss of four soldiers. 

On the same day, a man named Alexander discovered a party of Indians 
near Thomas Barr's place, in Peters Township. The alarm was given, and 
an engagement ensued, in which several citizens were killed, one being Barr's 

April 5, 1756, McCord's Fort was burned and many inhabitants killed and 
captured by the Indians. Immediately upon receipt of the news, Capt. 
Alexander Culbertson, with a company of fifty men, set out in pursuit, and 
overtook them at Sidling Hill, where a serious contest ensued, in which Capt, 
Culbertson was slain. So many were wounded, that a surgeon, living in 
Carlisle, was sent for, and even then much inconvenience was experienced. 
Following is a list of killed and wounded: 


Alexander Culbertson, Francis Scott. 

captain. William Boyd. 

John Reynolds, ensign, Jacob Payntor. 

Capt. Chambers' Co. Jacob Jones. 
William Kerr. 
James Blair. 
John Layson. 
William Denny. 

Robert Kerr. 
William Chambers. 
Daniel McCoy. 
James Robertson, tailor. 

James Robertson, weaver. 

James Peace. 

John Blair. 

Henry Jones. 

John McCarty. 

John Kelly. 

James Lowder. 

William Hunter. 
Matthias Ganshorn. 
William Swailes. 


Abraham Jones. Benjamin Blyth. 

Francis Campbell. John McDonald. 

William Reynolds. Isaac Miller. 

John Barnet. Ensign Jamieson. 

Shortly after, Capt. Jacobs (Indian chief), with a band of forty savages, 
made an expedition into the Coves, burning and scalping. Hugh McSwine 
was taken prisoner, and afterward escaped on the leader's horse. This he 
took to Col. Washington, who gave him a commission as lieutenant. 

William Mitchel, living in Conococheague, was shot and killed by a band 
of Indians, while at work in the harvest field. 



On the 26th of May, 1756, John Wasson, a farmer living in Peters Town- 
ship, was horribly mangled and scalped by a small party of Indians. His 
house was burned and his wife taken captive. 

July 26, 1756, Joseph Martin was killed, and John and James McCollough 
captured in the Conococheague settlement. 

August 27, 1756, William Morrison was captured and his house burned. 

August 28, Betty Ramsey, her son and the cropper were killed and daugh- 
ter taken prisoner. 

November, 1756, in the upper part of the county, near Conococheague, a 
party of savages barbarously mangled a number of the inhabitants, and took 
many women and children captives. Following is a list of killed and missing : 


James McDonald. John Woods, with his wife John Culbertson. 

William McDonald. and mother- in law. Elizabeth, wife of John 

Bartholomew McCafferty. Samuel Perry. Archer. 

Anthony McQuoid. Hugh Kerrel. 


James Corkem. John Archer's four chil- Samuel Neely. 

William Cornwall. dren. James McCoid. 

March 29, 1757, the Indians made a breach at Rocky Springs, where one 
woman was killed and eleven taken prisoners. 

April 2, 1757, William McKinley and son were killed. He had left Cham- 
bers' Fort to visit his farm on the creek below Chambersburg, but was dis- 
covered and scalped by the Indians. 

April 7, 1757, three families, two named Campbell and Patterson, were cut 
off at Conococheague, and barbarously treated. 

April 23, 1757, John Martin and William Blair were killed at Conocochea- 
gue, and Patrick McClelland wounded by savages. 

May 13, 1757, William Walker and an unknown man killed at Conodo- 

June 24, 1757, Alexander Miller killed, and his two daughters captured 
at Conococheague. 

July 2, 1757, a man named Springson killed near Logan's mill. 

July 8, two boys taken prisoners at Cross's Fort, Conococheague. 

July 27, man named McKisson wounded, and son captured at South Moun- 

August 17, 1757, William Manson and son killed at Cross's Fort, Conoco- 

September 26, 1757, Robert Rush, John McCracken killed, and five others 
captured near Chambersburg. 

May 23, 1758, Joseph Galady killed, and his wife and child captured at 

November 9, 1757, John Woods, his wife and mother-in-law, and the wife 
of John Archer, were killed, four children taken captives, and nine men killed 
near McDowell's mill. 

April 5, 1758, one man killed and ten taken near Black's Gap, South 

April 13, 1758, one killed and nine taken near Archibald's, South Mountain. 

For a long time after this no record of any massacres has been found; but 
doubtless many were committed, and many outrages perpetrated, of which 
nothing is known. 


We are indebted to Capt. J. H. Walker, a descendant of James Walker, 
for the following well authenticated and detailed account of his captivity and 
escape from the Indians. 

"About the middle of August, 1762, James Walker, who lived on the 
farm where John D. Walker now resides, near Fannettsburg, was on his way 
home from the fort at Loudon, and when near Richmond, on the old Braddock 
road, was fired at by a party of Indians. His horse was killed under him, 
and in falling the horse fell on him in such a way that before he could extricate 
himself the Indians captured him. They then took the saddle off his horse, 
and fastening it on his back compelled him to carry it, and started over the 
mountain westward. The first night they stopped near Fort Littleton, and to 
make their prisoner secure, they tied his hands and an Indian slept on each 
side of him. The next morning, discovering some horses grazing in the neigh- 
borhood of the fort, they made several attempts to capture them, but without 
success. After repeated failures they determined that their prisoner should 
make a trial of it, and lest he might wander off too far, or attempt his escape, 
they made a rope or line of hickory bark, and fastened to his leg, the Indians 
holding one end of the line, but the horses were shy, he met with no better 
success, and they were compelled to give it up, being fearful that they might 
be discovered from the fort. After remaining nearly the whole day and 
watching the operations at the fort, they again started westward. For several 
days they traveled by easy stages, crossing on their way the South or Kays- 
town branch of the Juniata Eiver. At length, as they seemed to approach the 
Indian settlement, the party divided one evening, and left their prisoner in 
charge of two of their company for the night. Taking the precaution to tie 
him safely as before, they lay down, one on each side of him, and soon were in 
a sound sleep. The apparently sound sleep of their prisoner, however, was 
not real, as he had fully determined that now, if ever, was his opportunity to 
try to make his escape. He had a knife secreted about his person, which for- 
tunately his captors had failed to discover. After long and patient effort, he 
succeeded in getting one of his hands loosed. He then worked his knife out 
of its hiding place, and cut the cords with which he was fastened. During 
this operation one of the Indians started as if about to rouse up, but their 
prisoner affected such soundness of sleep that his suspicions were allayed, and 
he soon went to sleep again. 

' ' But this being too critical a position in which to remain very long, Mr. 
Walker, as soon as he thought it safe to do so, raised cautiously to his feet, but 
in doing so the same wily savage again awoke, and this time realizing the 
situation, grasped his tomahawk, and was about to spring to his feet, and 
while in the act of doing so Mr. Walker seized him by the hair, and quick as 
thought plunged his knife into the throat of his antagonist, who fell mortally 
wounded at his feet. The other Indian, being awakened by the scuffle, and 
the death knell of his companion, and supposing doubtless that they had been 
pursued by a party of whites, hastily fled, leaving Mr. Walker master of the 
situation. He knew too well the importance of having as great a space 
between himself and the scene of his encounter as practicable before daylight, 
and made all possible speed in the homeward direction. When daylight came 
he sought a secure hiding place, and remained there all day. His journey 
eastward was attended with many difficulties, and much suffering, as he trav- 
eled mostly by night to avoid recapture, and the country being a dense wilder- 
ness, he frequently became bewildered, and sometimes traveled in a wrong 
direction. Besides subsisting chiefly on roots, berries, etc., his flesh was torn 
with briars, and badly bruised when crossing the mountains, and forcing his 


way through the thickets. At length, after many weary days and nights, he 
found his way back to the fort at Littleton, where he received the medical 
attention that his situation demanded. He was greatly weakened by the 
exposure and suffering, and the condition of his sores was so horrible, the 
worms having already got into them, that he was compelled to remain there 
for some time before he could be removed to his home." 

In 1764, however, on July 26, three miles northwest of Greencastle, was 
perpetrated what Parkman, the great historian of colonial times, pronounces 
"an outrage unmatched in fiend-like atrocity through all the annals of the war. " 
This was the massacre of Enoch Brown, a kind-hearted exemplary Christian 
schoolmaster, and ten pupils — eight boys and two girls. Ruth Hart and Ruth 
Hale were the names of the girls. Among the boys were Eben Taylor, George 
Dunstan and Archie McCullough. All were knocked down and scalped by the 
merciless savages. Mourning and desolation came to many homes in the val- 
ley, for each of the slaughtered innocents belonged to a different family. The 
last named boy indeed survived the effects of the scalping knife, but in a some- 
what demented condition. 

The teacher offered his life and scalp in a spirit of self-sacrificing devotion, 
if the savages would only spare the lives of the little ones under his charge 
and care. But no ! the tender mercies of the heathen are cruel, and so a per- 
fect holocaust was made to the Moloch of war by the relentless fiends in hu- 
man form. The school -house was located on the farm now owned by Mr. 
Henry Diehl, and formerly owned by Mr. Christian Koser. It stood in a 
cleared field at the head of a deep ravine, surrounded by dense forests. Down 
this ravine the savages fled a mile or two until they struck Conococheague Creek, 
along the bed of which, to conceal their tracks, they traveled to the mouth of 
Path Valley up which and across the mountains they made good their escape 
to their village near the Ohio. The bodies were given, at the time, a burial 
in a common grave — a rude box containing the forms of the teacher and his as- 
sociate victims. 

August 4, 1843, or seventy nine years after the slaughter, a number of the 
principal citizens of Greencastle made excavations to verify the traditional ac- 
count of the place and manner of burial. Some remains of the rough coffin 
were found at quite a depth from the surface, and then the skull and other re- 
mains of a grown person, alongside of which were remains of several children. 
Metal buttons, part of a tobacco box, teeth, etc. , were picked up as relics by 
those present, among whom were some of our citizens still living with us in a 
green old age, viz. : Dr. Wm. Grubb,* Dr. J. K. Davison, George W. Ziegler, 
Esq. , and Gen. David Detrich. 

The question of erecting a monument to the memory of these unfortunates 
was agitated at different times, but never reached a tangible solution till 1885, 
when, as the result of a very spirited canvass of schools, Sunday-schools, 
churches, and private individuals, as well as by excursions and other legitimate 
agencies, about $1,400 was raised for the purpose. Twenty acres of land was 
purchased, and the monument was finally unveiled August 4, 1885, in the pres- 
ence of 5,000 people. 

The meeting was called to order by Col. B. F. Winger, chief marshal. 
Mounting the base of the monument the Rev. Cort made a few preliminary re- 
marks, and then four little girls and nine boys pulled the cords, the mantle of 
red, white and blue fell, and the monument stood forth a thing of beauty and 
strength, the delight of all beholders. It is indeed a massive affair. On the 
top of four feet of solid masonry underneath the ground are nearly four feet of 

* Since deceased. 


dressed limestone of immense proportions from Hawbecker's Williamson 
quarry. On the top of this limestone foundation, which is five feet square, is 
placed the granite base of the monument, four feet square and seventeen inch- 
es high, and weighing 4,600 pounds. Next comes the polished die or sub- 
base, three feet square and two feet high, on the four sides of which are en- 
graved the inscriptions. On the top of this stands the shaft of the monument, 
two feet square at the base, ten feet high and tapering gracefully to a pyrami- 
dal apex. The shaft weighs 4, 100 pounds. Inclosing the monument is a 
very substantial iron fence, fifteen feet square. The following are the in- 
scriptions : 

On the east side: 

Sacred to the Memory of School-master Enoch 
Brown and Eleven Scholars, viz. : Ruth Hart, Ruth 
Hale, Eben Taylor, George Dunstan, Archie Mc- 
Cullough, and Six Others (Names Unknown), who 
were Massacred and Scalped by Indians on this 
Spot, July 26, 1764, During the Pontiac War. 

On the north side: 

Erected by Direction of the Franklin County 
Centennial Convention of April 22, 1884, in the 
Name of the Teachers and Scholars of All the 
Schools in the County, Including Common Schools, 
Select Schools and Sunday Schools. For a Full 
List of Contributors see Abchives of Franklin 
County Historical Society or Recorder's Office. 

West side inscription, next to grave: 

The Remains of Enoch Brown and Ten Scholars 
(Archie McCullough Survived the Scalping) Lie 
Buried in a Common Grave, South 62£ Degrees, 
West 14| Rods from this Monument. They Fell 
as Pioneer Martyrs in the Cause of Education 
and Christian Civilization. 

On the south side: 

The ground is holy where they fell. 

And where their mingled ashes lie, 
Ye Christian people, mark it well 

With granite columns strong and high; 
And cherish well forevermore 

The storied wealth of early years, 
The sacred legacies of yore, 

The toils and trials of pioneers. 

The small monument was unveiled at the grave by Rev. Cort after a few 
preliminary remarks. It is a very chaste and pretty structure, composed, like 
the larger monument, of Concord granite. It is about seven feet high and 
two feet square at the base. On the side facing the grave is this inscription: 
" The grave of Schoolmaster Enoch Brown and Ten Scholars, massacred by 
the Indians July 26, 1764." Around it is also a solid iron fence ten feet square. 

George W. Ziegler, Esq., was chosen president for the day, and made a 
short address, heartily approving the cause which had brought the people to- 
gether and commending the monument committee for its faithful and energet- 
ic labors. Rev. J. D. Hunter then offered a very appropriate prayer. The 
Reformed Church choir, under the lead of Prof. Collins, assisted by a few am- 
ateurs, sang " America, " " My Country, 'tis of Thee, " and afterward " The 
Infant Martyrs," a hymn composed by Dr. Henry Harbaugh on the martyred 
babes of Bethlehem, who were slain by King Herod. The organization was 
completed by the election of the vice-presidents and secretaries, viz. : 


Vice-presidents : Rev. J. Spangler Kief er, Hagerstown, Md. ; Gen. David 
Detrich, Dr. James K. Davidson, Capt. Jacob Diehl, Antrim; Jacob Hoke, 
Judge Kimmel, Rev. Herbert, Chambersburg ; Jacob B. Brumbaugh., Peters; 
Simon Lecron, D. C. Shank, George J. Balsley, D. O. Nicodemus, Washing- 
ton; Joseph Winger, Montgomery; Dr. Frick, Quincy; Rev. Knappenberger, 
John Hoch, Mercersburg; Rev. Banner, Waynesboro; Rev. Riddle, Fairfax, 
Va. ; Andrew K. Kissecker, Tiffin, Ohio. Secretaries: W. G. Davison, W. 
C. Kreps, Greencastle; Bruce Laudebaugh, G. W. Atherton, Mercersburg; 
William A. Ried, Antrim; A. N. Pomeroy, Chambersburg. 

Rev. Cyrus Cort, chairman of the monument committee, then made the 
presentation speech, which was well received. 

After a sumptuous dinner, Rev. J. W. Knappenberger, of Mercersburg, of- 
fered a short but appropriate prayer. Peter A. Witmer, of Hagerstown, Md., 
made an address heartily approving the work. He was followed by Rev. F. M. 
Woods, of Martinsburg, W. Va. John M. Cooper, of Harrisburg, read a very 
fine poem appropriate to the occasion. Dr. W. H. Egle, of Harrisburg, de- 
livered the historical address of the occasion on " Pontiac and Bouquet. " He 
complimented, in eloquent terms, Rev. Cyrus Cort* for the intense zeal he had 
manifested in the erection of this, the people' s monument — a tribute to the ed- 
ucational martyrs of the county. The benediction was pronounced by Rev. 
John R. Agnew. 

One of the last massacres committed by the Indians in Franklin County, 
probably about the time of the Revolutionary war, was that of the Renfrew 
sisters (Sarah and Jane), on what is now the farm of A. J. Fahnestock, near 
Waynesboro. The girls, it is said, were washing clothes on the bank of the 
Little Antietam, when two Indians came upon them, and having stricken them 
down and taken their scalps, went to the little cabin standing on the hill and 
killed an infant, dashing its brains out against a tree. They then betook 
themselves in flight to the mountains, westward, but were pursued by two ex- 
perienced hunters living in the neighborhood. The savages were finally over- 
taken in an open forest, in the Big Cove, engaged in eating wild plums. Ac- 
cording to previous plans, the wary hunters approached sufficiently close to see 
the seeds of the plums drop, one by one. Raising their trusty guns, they 
fired, each bringing his victim to the ground. Scalping the savages and re- 
covering the scalps of the girls, they hastily retraced their steps and reached 
the Renfrew home in time to deposit all four scalps by the coffin ready to be 
buried. The dust of the Renfrews now rests in an humble grave in what is 
known as the Burns grave-yard, on the Fahnestock place, and is marked by a 
simple slab of rough sandstone. 

In 1765 a difficulty occurred between the military authorities at Fort 
Loudoun, under command of Lieut. Charles Grant, and certain citizens in 
Peters Township, under the leadership of James Smith. The whole affair 
grew out of the fact that certain Indian traders from Philadelphia were in the 
habit of smuggling lead, tomahawks, scalping knives, etc. , through the lines 
and disposing of the same to the ruthless savages. With a band of men, 
blacked and painted, Smith, highly incensed at these damnable acts, ambushed 
and waylaid a company of traders, killing their ponies, capturing certain sup- 
plies and burning others. The traders repaired to the fort, and secured the 
services of a squad of Highland soldiers, under command of Sergt. Leonard 
McGlashan, to arrest the robbers, as the citizens were called. A number of in- 
nocent men were apprehended and thrown into the guard-house at the fort. 

♦The writer is indebted for tbe facts contained in this account of the Enoch Brown massacre to Rev. Cort's 
excellent little volume, " Enoch Brown Memorial." 


Smith raised 300 riflemen and marched to the fort, encamping on a high hill in 
sight of the works. "We were not long there," says Smith, " until we had 
more than double as many of the British troops prisoners in our camp, as they 
had of our people in the guard-house. Capt. Grant, a Highland officer 
who then commanded Fort Loudoun, then sent a flag of truce to our camp, 
where we settled a cartel and gave them above two for one, which enabled us 
to redeem all our men from the guard-house without further difficulty. ' ' 

Grant retained a number of rifle guns which his men had taken from the 
citizens, refusing to deliver them until he had explicit orders from his superior, 
Gen. Gage. "As he was riding out one day, ' ' continues Smith, ' ' we took 
him prisoner, and detained him until he delivered up the arms; we also de- 
stroyed a large quantity of gunpowder that the traders had stored up, lest it 
might be conveyed privately to the Indians. The king' s troops and our party 
had now got entirely out of the channel of the civil law, and many unjustifiable 
things were done by both parties. This convinced me, more than ever I had 
been before, of the absolute necessity of the civil law in order to govern man- 
kind. " 

This conflict between the civil and military authorities, the outgrowth of 
Indian difficulties, involved the magistrates of the township, the governor of 
the State and the commander-in-chief of the British forces in America. It was 
finally settled, but not without much difficulty and ill-feeling. 



Its Causes— Loyalty to the Mother Country— Early Military— Ros- 
teu and Roll of Franklin Men— From Colonies to States— Heuoes 
from Franklin County— One of the First American Cannons, etc. 

THE colonists had hardly recovered from the cruelties and sufferings of 
the French and Indian war and the ensuing raids of the savages upon 
the scattered and defenseless settlers, when dark clouds began to gather in 
the distance, that were portentous of a coming storm of seven long years of 
cruel and bitter war between the feeble colonies and the mother country. 

The century and a half preceding the breaking out of the Revolutionary 
war had been a long and severe school for the colonists and their ancestors to 
prepare them for the coming ordeal. Most of the immigrants were fugitives 
from cruel religious persecutions, and outlaws from their native lands. Those 
who escaped death emerged from dismal dungeons to skulk in caves and out- 
of-the-way places, and to hide, by strange disguises, from the inappeasable 
wrath of man, guilty of no crime save that of a determination to be free "to 
think, act and serve their Divine Master in accordance with the dictates of 
their own consciences. This was a trying school in which to rear a people — - 
it was the ordeal of fire, the baptism of blood; but it tended to mold charac- 
ters of iron, to instill heroic blood, to plant the seed of liberty in the hearts of 
the people thus relentlessly pursued, and raise up heroes who feared nothing 
but their God. These poor, suffering victims had heard of the New World; 
and, in the dark perspective, it was to them the guiding star of promise, bid- 
ding them come. 


They gladly fled from their native country and landed upon the shores 
of this continent — the land of the ignorant and treacherous savages. They 
were in the direst extremities of poverty, but rich in hope and deeply imbued 
with the first lessons in the love of freedom. Their awful persecutions, 
instead of driving them away from their religion and its practices, only made 
them the more determined in their convictions and more fearless in proclaiming 
their faith. 

Nothing that has occurred in this world has had so powerful an influence upon 
mankind as the war for independence. All men realize that it made this a great, 
free and independent people. But this was only a part of what that righteous 
war effected. It gave liberty to mankind. It was the turning point in man' s 
destiny upon earth. It was the enduring and ever-growing triumph in the 
struggle between right and wrong. It lifted up the human race, and, as an 
instance of how strong and wide -reaching its effects were, it need only be 
noticed that its good results were, and have been, as strong in Great Britain 
as they have been anywhere else, and the blessings of freedom she so strove to 
crush have penetrated her entire realms, and, like the gentle dews from heaven, 
have blessed all alike. Since the earliest traditions the earth has been chiefly 
the theater of bloody wars — wars of tribes ; wars of nations ; civil wars ; wars 
for pelf, for power, for the ambition of rulers, and religious wars and crusades 
for sentiment. What a stream of blood it was! What a world of wo this 
raging stream bore upon its bosom ! Rulers, besotted and beastly, made war ; 
men were simply food-powder-victims driven to the bloody shambles; until the 
American Revolution, no war had. been successfully waged for the rights of 
the people — for liberty of the souls and bodies of men. 

In 1765 the people of Pennsylvania began to enter their first protest 
against the oppressive action of the mother country. At first these could not 
be called mutterings — they were merely the mild expressions of a loyal people 
against the manifold acts of injustice, with no thought of any one going fur- 
ther than words of the most respectful and loyal dissent. Their words fell up- 
on dull ears; they were not heeded, and, even if noticed at all, they were only 
answered with silent contempt. In the course of time a public sympathy 
sprang up for the people of Boston. The outrages grew in numbers and severity, 
and in the course of the next decade men became alarmed, and then public ex- 
pression and public action began to take place. 

July 12, 1774, the people of Cumberland County met at Carlisle. John 
Montgomery presided over the meeting. The state of the country was briefly, 
very briefly, it seems, discussed, and steps were promptly taken that showed the 
temper of the men of those times. They unanimously passed resolutions con- 
demning Parliament for closing the port of Boston; recommending a General 
Congress of the colonies; the abandonment of the use of British merchandise, 
and finally for the appointing of deputies to concert measures for the meeting 
of the General Congress. As emphatic as were the people of this meeting, 
there was no sentiment of revolt or war upon the mother country. Even af- 
ter the war had actually commenced and the battle of Lexington had been fought, 
the loyalty of the people to their government is manifested by the action of 
the Assembly of Pennsylvania, in November, 1775, appointing delegates to 
represent the province in Congress, and expressly instructing them ' ' that they, 
in behalf of this colony, dissent from, and utterly reject any proposition, should 
such be made, that may cause or lead to a separation from our mother country, 
or a change of the form of this government." This was in November, but the 
battle of Lexington occurred in the preceding April. 

In Vol. II, page 516, " American Archives" of date May 6, 1775, seventeen 




•days after the battle of Lexington, occurs the following: "Yesterday the 
county committee of Cumberland County, from nineteen townships, met on the 
short notice they had. About 3,000 have already associated. The arms re- 
turned are about 1,500. The committee have voted 500 men, besides com- 
missioned officers, to be taken into pay, armed and disciplined, to march on the 
first emergency ; to be paid and supported as long as necessary, by a tax on all 
estates real and personal. " The next day they again met and unanimously 
voted they "were ready to raise 1,500 or 2,000 men," should they be needed, 
and also were ready and willing to put a debt of £27,000 per annum on the 
county. A number of companies from Cumberland County were soon ready, 
and marched to join Washington's army at the siege of Boston. One of these 
companies, it is known, was from what is now Franklin County. This was 
Capt. James Chambers' company. He was soon promoted colonel, and after- 
ward became a brigadier-general; he and his company continued in the service 
during nearly all the seven years' war. Gen. James Chambers was the eldest 
son of Col. Benjamin Chambers, the founder of Chambersburg. His company 
joined Pennsylvania's first rifle regiment, under Col. William Thompson, of 
Cumberland County. This was the first regiment south of the Hudson that 
marched to the relief of Boston, and the historian says ' ' their arrival attracted 
much attention; they were stout and hardy yeomanry, the flower of Pennsyl- 
vania's frontiersmen and remarkable for the accuracy of their aim 11 — an im- 
portant desideratum at that time. This regiment had been enlisted under the 
resolution of, Congress, July 14, 1775, authorizing the raising of six companies 
of expert riflemen in Pennsylvania, ten in Maryland, and two in Virginia. 
Each company was to contain 68 privates, 1 captain, 3 lieutenants, 4 sergeants, 
1 corporal and 1 drummer. They rendezvoused at Reading, where the regi- 
ment was organized by the election of William Thompson, of Carlisle, colonel; 
Edward Hand, of Lancaster, lieutenant-colonel; and Robert Magaw, of Car- 
lisle, major. 


Captain — James Chambers. 

First lieutenant — James Grier. 

Second lieutenant — Nathan McConnell. 

Third lieutenant — Thomas Buchanan. 

Sergeants — David Hay, Arthur Andrews, Alex. Crawford. 

David Boyd. 
John Brandon. 
Johnson Brooks. 
James Black. 
Thomas Beatty. 
David Biddle. 
Michael Benker. 
Archibald Brown. 
Black Brown. 
John Brown. 
William Barnett. 
Timothy Campbell. 
William Campbell. 
Benjamin Carson. 
William Chestney. 
John Dermont. 
Joseph Eaton. 
Joljn Everly. 
Abijah Fairchild. 
James Furmoil. 
John Fidd. 
William Gildersleeve. 


Richard Henny. 
Peter Hogan. 
Geo. Houseman. 
John Hutchinson. 
Thomas Hutchinson. 
Charles Irwin. 
Francis Jamieson. 
Robert Joblier. 
Andrew Johnston. 
George Justice. 
Andrew Keith. 
Lewis Kettling. 
Michael Kelly. 
Thomas Kelly. 
Silas Leonard. 
David Lukens. 
Thomas Lochry. 
Patrick Logan. 
Nicholas Lowrie. 
John Lynch. 
John McCosh. 
James McEleve. 

John McDonald. 
Michael McGibson. 
Cornelius McGiggin. 
James McHaffey. 
John McMurtrie. 
Patrick McGaw. 
Thomas Mason. 
Patrick Neale. 
William Parker. 
David Riddle, 
Thomas Rogers. 
Nicholas Sawyer. 
Joseph Scott. 
Jacob Shute. 
Moses Skinner. 
Timothy Styles. 
Patrick Sullivan. 
James Sweeny. 
James Symns. 
Thomas Vaughn. 


This was not only the first company of infantry that went to the war from 
what is now Franklin, but it was the first from this valley. The account of 
the patriotic Chambers family, in the Indian wars and in the war of the Revo- 
lutidn, is very nearly as complete an account of the doings of the people of the 
county as can now be learned. Col. Benjamin Chambers had been the most 
conspicuous figure in southern Pennsylvania in the first Indian wars and raids 
in the valley. When the war for independence broke out, he was then 
too old to go to the battle-field, but his three sons, all of whom became emi- 
nent in the ranks of the colonial armies, were the first to heed the call of duty 
and rally the people around the flag of liberty. These were James, Will- 
iams and Benjamin. James, as related above, by rapid promotion for gallantry, 
was soon made brigadier-general. Williams and Benjamin were each pro- 
moted to captain, and all served during nearly the entire war. 

A full account of the Chambers family may be found in the biography 
given elsewhere, but a brief resume is here given of the services in the field of 
Gen. Chambers, as it is, in a large measure, now the best account we can 
obtain of the part taken by the people in the war. 

August 26, 1775, 400 men drawn from Cumberland County companies were 
placed under the command of Capt. James Chambers, and sent to Prospect and 
Ploughed Hill, near Boston, to protect a force of nearly 2,000 men, who were 
erecting a redoubt near the latter hill. Here they performed some hard and 
efficient service. In March, 1776, he was promoted lieutenant-colonel vice 
Col. Hand, appointed colonel in the place of Col. Thompson, who had been 
made a brigadier-general. Col. Chambers was ordered to Long Island, was 
in the battle of Flat Bush August. 22, 1776, and also in the fight at King' s 
Bridge. In his report of the operations at Flat Bush, among other things, he 
says: "Capt. John Steele acted with great bravery. " In August, 1776, the 
Pennsylvania troops were selected as a reserve to cover the retreat of our army 
from Long Island. That body was composed mostly of troops from Cumberland 
and what is now Franklin County. September 26, 1776, Lieut. Col. Chambers 
was made colonel of his regiment, Col. Hand having been promoted. In June, 
1777, his command was in New Jersey, and was among the first to enter New 
Brunswick, driving the enemy before it. September 11, 1777, his command 
was opposed to the Hessians, under Gen, Knyphausen, at Chadd's ford 
and Brandywine, where Col. Chambers was wounded in the side, Lieut. Holli- 
day was killed, and Capts. Grier and Craig were wounded. With his command 
he was also in the battle of Germantown October 4, 1777, and in the fight at 
Monmouth June 28, 1778. He led the attack of Bergen Point July 20, 1780, 
and the command was highly complimented by Gen. Wayne, for gallantry in 
this charge. He, with his command, was at White Plains, West Point, and in 
many other minor battles up to the time of his resignation in 1781. After his 
retirement he was three different times appointed to the command of a battalion 
in his native county. In 1794 he was appointed to command the Third Brig- 
ade of Pennsylvania troops, called out to quell the whisky insurrection. In 
1798 he was again appointed to a similar command in anticipation of a war 
with France. 

The substance of an article from the pen of Hon. John B. Linn, deputy 
secretary of the commonwealth, that appeared in the Philadelphia Weekly 
Times of April 14, 1878, is given below, confined as much as possible to 
those parts that refer to this action of the Franklin County men: "The His- 
torical Society of Pennsylvania has in its temporary possession a very inter- 
esting relic of the revolution. It is the standard of the First Pennsylvania 
Rifle Battalion. * * * This regiment was raised on the reception of the 


news of the battle of Bunker Hill, and entered the trenches in front of Boston, 
August 8, 1775. It was in the skirmishes in front of Boston, and before 
the British evacuated that city it was ordered to New York to repel their land- 
ing there. * * * The term of the battalion expired June 30, 1776, but 
officers and men in large numbers re-enlisted for three years, or during the 
war. * * * It was at Long Island, White Plains, Trenton and Princeton 
under command of Col. Hand, and under the command of Col. Chambers, at 
Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, and in every other battle and skirmish 
of the main army until Col. Chambers' resignation in 1781. 

Col. Chambers was succeeded by Col. Daniel Broadhead, May 26, 1781. The 
regiment, after this long service under Gen. Wayne, joined Gen. Lafayette at 
Raccoon Ford on the Rappahannock, June 10; fought at Green Springs, July 
6; opened the second parallel at Yorktown. Gen. Steuben, in his orders dated 
October 21, says of this movement that he considered it the most important 
part of the siege. The regiment then went south with Gen. Wayne and fought 
in the last battle of the war at Sharon, Ga., May 24, 1782; entered Savannah in 
triumph July 11, and Charleston December 14, 1782; went into camp on James 
Island, S. C, May 11, 1783, and when the news of the cessation of hostilities 
reached there, they embarked for Philadelphia. In its services it traversed 
every one of the original thirteen States of the Union; for while in Boston 
Capt. Parr was ordered with a battalion to Portsmouth, N. H. , to defend that 
point." In December, 1775, the Second Pennsylvania Regiment was formed. 
It was at first under the command of Col. John Bull, afterward under Col. 
John Philip De Haas. 

Under a call from Congress for four more battalions, in January, 1776, 
Col. Irvine's Sixth Regiment was formed. It was composed of eight com- 
panies; and of these, three companies were mostly from Franklin County 
territory, to- wit: Company 3, Capt. Abraham Smith. There is some dispute 
as to whether Capt. Smith's company was from what is now Cumberland 
County, or from this county. The truth probably is, it was made up of men 
from both of them. The others were Company 4, Capt. William Rippey, and 
Company 8, Capt. Jeremiah Talbott. 

It is now believed that Capt. Smith was from Lurgan Township, just north 
of the Franklin County line. There evidently were two Capt. Abraham Smiths 
from this and Cumberland County. One was a civilian; but which was 
which, the confusion in the records does not always make plain. One was of 
Lurgan and the other of Antrim Township. This fact is now evident. 

The following are the names of the officers and men: 


Captain — Abraham Smith, commissioned January 9, 1776. 

First lieutenant — Robert White. 

Second lieutenants — John Alexander, Andrew Irvine. 

Ensigns — Samuel Montgomery, Samuel Kennedy. 

Sergeants— John Beatty, Samuel Hamilton, Hugh Foster, William Scott, William 

Corporals— William Burke, George Standley, John Moore, William Campbell. Seth 
Richey, William McCormick, William Drennon; William Cochran, fifer; John Fannon,. 


David Armor. Josiah Cochran. William Downey. 

John Brown. Robert Craighead. Hugh Drennon. 

Patrick Brown. Anthony Creevy. Daniel Divinney. 

John Blakeley. William Cochran. Pat. Fleming. 

John Brannon. James Dunlap. William Gwin. 

Philip Boyle. Thomas Drennon. Alex. Gordon, 



Robt. Gregg. 
Thomas Higgins. 
James Holhday. 
Thomas Holmes. 
John Hendricks. 
Benj. Ishmail. 
Robert Jarrett. 
Thomas Johnson. 
Samuel Love. 
Geo. Lucas. 
Nicholas Little. 
James Lowrey. 
Daniel McKusick. 
John McCollam. 
William McCormick. 
Michael McGarea. 
Bryan McLaughlin. 
John McFetridge. 

Michael McMullin. 
James McKissock. 
Adam McBreas. 
John McDowell. 
Samuel McBrea. 
Robert Mcllno. 
Alex. McKenny. 
John McKingham. 
John Montgomery. 
Alex. Moore. 
Robert Miller. 
Hugh Milligan. 
Moses Powell. 
Nathan Points. 
John Rannell. 
Seth Richey. 
Patrick Rogers. 
John Rannell, Jr. 

Peter Runey. 
Alex. Reid. 
Borthal Roharty. 
Thomas Smith. 
Patrick Silvers. 
Thomas Scott. 
George Simpson. 
Robert Swinie. 
John Stoops. 
Ad. Sheaver. 
William Stitt. 
Peter Sheran. 
Charles Tipper. 
John Todd. 
Mich. White. 
James White. 
John Wilson. 
John Young. 


Captain— William Rippey. 

First lieutenants — William Alexander, Alexander Parker. 
Second lieutenant — John Brooks. 
Ensign — William Lusk. 

Sergeants — John Hughes, Robert Watt, John McClelland, William Anderson. 
Corporals — William Gibbs, Jeremiah McKibben, James McCulloh, George Gordon, 
Nath Stevenson; William Richards, fifer; Daniel Peterson, drummer. 

Jacob Anderson. 
Robert Barckley. 
Bernerd Burns- 
Robert Caskey. 
Henry Cartright. 
Robert Cortney. 
Jacob Christyardinger. 
Benjamin Cochran. 
Hugh Call. 
John Collins. 
William Dougherty. 
John Davison. 
Joseph Devine. 
Anthony Dawson. 
Thomas Dycke. 
James Fiherty. 
Hugh Forsyth. 
Hugh Ferguson. 
Thomas Falls. 
William George. 
Henry Girden. 
Thomas Gell. 
Jacob Glouse. 
Nathan Hemphill. 
Robert Haslet. 
John Hendry. 
William Henderson. 
James Hervey. 


Cumberland Hamilton. 
Neal Hardon. 
George Hewitt. 
Robert Irvine. 
Jacob Justice. 
John Johnston. 
Christopher Kechler. 
Francis Kain. 
John Kelly. 
William Lowry. 
Daniel Lavery. 
David Linsey. 
James Lynch. 
John Madden. 
Josiah McCall. 
John McMicheal. 
James McComb. 
William Mclntyre. 
John Moore. 
James Mullin. 
Thomas McCall. 
Philip Melon. 
Alexander McNichols. 
James McCoy. 
James McCon. 
David McClain. 
John McDonell. 
Daniel McClain. 

John McGaw. 
Charles Malone. 
George McFerson. 
William Nicholson. 
John Ortman. 
John O'Neal. 
Thomas Pratt. 
Thomas Parsons. 
Aaron Patterson. 
Charles Rasbrough. 
John Rasbrough. 
John Rogers. 
Thomas Reed. 
Robert Robeson. 
Basil Regan. 
John Stoner. 
Henry Scott. 
Alexander Stephenson. 
Nathan Stephenson. 
James Smiley. 
William Thompson. 
John Tribele. 
' Jacob Trash. 
John Van Kirk. 
William Winn. 
John Wright. 
Peter Young. 


Captain — Jeremiah Talbott. 
First lieutenant — John McDonald. 
Second lieutenant — Alexander Brown. 
Ensign — William Graham. 

Sergeants — John McCollam, John Wilson, James Cupples, Samuel Mitchell. 
Corporals — William Campbell, Robert Hunter, John Chain, John Reniston and John 
Milton, drummer; John Killin, fifer. 



Robert Asten. 
John Bradley. 
William Black. 
John Church. 
George Coghren. 
Francis Clark. 
Robert Carnahan. 
Charles Conna. 
John Campbell. 
Joseph Chambers. 
John Dinning. 
William Evans. 
John Faulkner. 
Hugh Fairess. 
James Gardner. 
Daniel Gibson. 
William Heaslett. 
John Heatherington. 


Duke Handlon. 
John Higgens. 
Kern Kelley. 
Stephen Lyon. 
Jacob Lewis. 
Hugh Lilley 
John Marten. 
Robert Mollon. 
Benj. Morrison. 
James McFarlan. 
Charles McRoun. 
Archibald McDonald. 
Matthew McConnell. 
Thomas McCreary. 
Charles McMullen. 
Thomas Mitchell. 
Charles Marry. 
Patrick Marry. 

Able Morgan. 
Archibald Nickel. 
Andrew Pinkerton. 
Samuel Power. 
John Pollock. 
James Quarre. 
William Shaw. 
Mike Sesalo. 
John Shoemaker. 
James Sloan. 
John Thompson. 
Hugh Thompson. 
William White. 
John White. 
John Welch. 
Robert Watson. 
Isaac Wiley. 

In April, 1777, Capt. Talbott's company had been so reduced by hard serv- 
ice that it was recruited up to the required number. The following are the 
recruits that were then added: 

John McKinley. 
Charles Kelly. 
John Johnson. 
William Antrican. 
Michael Brown. 
John Milton. 
Henry Vaughan. 
James Ralls. 
Patrick Doyle. 
William McDonald. 
Michael Danfee. 
John Kellenough. 
Patrick Murrey. 
Conrad Carcass. 
William Gibbs. 
Thomas Whitely. 
Hugh Thompson. 
William Foster. 
Phelix O'Neal. 
John Crowl. 

John Fullerton. 
Pat Boyle. 
Thomas Sherry. 
John Cavenaugh. 
Robert Burns. 
Andrew McGahey. 
William McCalley. 
Isaac Shockey. 
Christopher Row. 
Francis O'Harrah. 
Thomas Dunn. 
Daniel McCartey. 
Barney McGilligen. 
Thomas Aston. 
John Smith (tanner). 
Patrick McKinley. 
John Robinson. 
John Feaghander. 
William Campbell. 
Patrick McCullum. 

John McCullum. 
John Foster. 
John Ferguson. 
Michael Black. 
John Wilson. 
Robert Hunter. 
John Brown. 
Gilbert Berryhill. 
Hugh Casserty. 
Charles Conner. 
George Corohan. 
Edward Hart. 
John Shoemaker. 
James Garlant. 
James Loe. 
Jacob Weaver. 
Patrick Guinn. 
Joseph West. 
Peter Smith. 
John Smith. 
Michael Sitsler. 

In addition to the companies enumerated above, it is an established fact 
that there were the companies of Capts. James McConnell, William Huston, 
Robert Culbertson and Conrad Schneider — four full companies — that were 
from what is now Franklin County. These were recruited and all prepared to 
go to the front, but as they were among the last men enlisted, it is not posi- 
tively known, nor are there any records by which the fact can be exactly stated, 
that they were ordered from the county and were in the field. Possibly they 
did not really join the Colonial Army, and this may account for the absence of 
them on the army rolls. 

In the early part of 1777, the first battalion of Cumberland County mili- 
tia was formed; commanded by Col. James Dunlap. The lieutenant- colo- 
nel was Robert Culbertson, of Franklin County. In this battalion were three 
companies that were from what is now Franklin County — the companies of 
Capts. Noah Abraham, of Path Valley; Patrick Jack, of Hamilton, and 
Charles Maclay, of Lurgan. The roster of Capt. Abraham's company was as 
follows : 

Captain — Noah Abraham. 

First lieutenant — Archibald Elliott. 



Second lieutenant— Samuel Walker. 

Sergeants — James McConnaughy, Joseph Noble, Robert McConnell, Thomas Clark. 

John Garven. 
George Farmer. 
Samuel Elder. 
William Elliott. 
Francis Elliott. 
Abram Elder. 
George Dixson. 
Alex. Douglas (weaver). 
Henry Delmer. 
Patrick Dougherty. 
Andrew Douglas, Sr. 
Samuel Campbell. 
James Carmady. 
Hugh McCurdy. 
Robert Alexander. 
Alexander McConnell. 
James Alexander. 
Charles Gibson. 
James Harvey. 
James Howe. 
Andrew Hemphill. 


James Mitchell. 
David Armstrong. 
John Mclellan, Jr. 
John Adams. 
Samuel Mears. 
William Adams. 
James Mackey. 
James Allen. 
Robert McGuire. 
John Brown. 
Henry McGee. 
James Boggs. 
John Mackey. 
Nathaniel Bryan. 
John Montgomery. 
Allen Brown. 
James Nealy. 
Alex. Hopper. 
Adam Humberg. 
John Johnson. 
Joseph Kilgore. 
Alex. Long. 
John McLellan. 

William Buchanan. 
David Neal. 
John Bell. 
James Park. 
Daniel Colbert. 
Henry Varner. 
William Cortz. 
William Wright. 
John Canady. 
Robert Walker. 
Samuel Watson. 
William Woodrow. 
Alexander Mear. 
Samuel McCauley. 
Samuel Woodrow. 
James McLellan. 
Patrick Davidson. 
Wm. McLellan. 
Wm. Mclbbins. 
John Means. 
Nathan McColley. 
James Montgomery. 
Alex. Meor. 

William Harvey. 
Henderson Harvey. 

In Col. John Davis' Second Battalion, was Capt. Charles Leeper's com- 
pany, of Lurgan Township. Capt. James McConnell, of Letterkenny, with 
his company, was in the Fourth Battalion. 

The Sixth Battalion was mostly officered by Franklin County men, as fol- 
lows: Colonel, Samuel Culbertson; lieutenant-colonel, John Work; major, James 
McCammont (McCalmont) ; adjutant, John Wilson; quartermaster, Samuel 
Finley ; surgeon, Richard Brownson. The officers in Company No. 2, of this 
battalion were the following: Captain, Patrick Jack; first-lieutenant William 
Reynolds ; second lieutenant, James McLene ; ensign, Francis Gardner. This 
company was recruited from Hamilton Township. 

Company 3 in this battalion, was from Letterkenny Township, and the fol- 
lowing officers: Captain, Samuel Patt on; first lieutenant, John Eaton; second 
lieutenant, David Shields ; ensign, William Ramsey. A company from Peters 
Township, No. 4, had the following: Captain, James Patton; first lieutenant, 
Thomas McDowell; second lieutenant, John Welsh; ensign, John Dickey. 
Company No. 5: Captain, Joseph Culbertson; first lieutenant, John Barr; sec- 
ond lieutenant, William Cessna; ensign, Hugh Allison. This company was from 
Lurgan Township. Company 6 as follows: Captain, William Huston; first 
lieutenant, William Elliott; second lieutenant, James McFarland; ensign, Robert 
Kyle. It is said this company was recruited from Montgomery, Peters and 
Hamilton Townships. To this company Rev. Dr. John King delivered a pa- 
triotic-address as they were about starting for the field.* 

Company 7 the following: Captain, Robert McCoy; first lieutenant, James 
Irwin; second lieutenant, Samuel Dunwoody; ensign, Walter McKinney — 
from Peters Township. Company No. 8 as follows: Captain, John McCon- 
nell; first lieutenant, Joseph Stevenson; "second lieutenant, Geo. Stevenson; 
ensign, James Caldwell, from Letterkenny Township. 

In the Eighth Battal- 

* - 'The case is plain; life must be hazarded or all is gone. You must go and fight, or send your humble 
submission, and bow as a beast to its burden, or as an ox to the slaughter. The king of Great Britain has de- 
clared us rebels, a capital crime; submission therefore consents to the rope or the ax. Liberty is doubtless gone; 
none could imagine a tyrant king should be more favorable to conquered rebels, than he was to loyal, humble, 
petitioning subjects. No! No! If ever a people lay in chains we must, if our enemies carry their point against 
us, and oblige us to unconditional submission. This is not all. Our Tory neighbors will be our proud and tor- 
menting enemies." 


ion, colonel, Abraham Smith, of Franklin County. There were four other 
field officers from this county, named: Lieutenant-colonel, James Johnston; 
major, John Johnston; adjutant, Thomas Johnston; and quartermaster, Ter- 
rance Campbell. 

Four companies in the Eighth Battalion were Franklin County men as fol- 
lows: Company No. 1. of Waynesboro — Captain, Samuel Royer; first lieu- 
tenant, Jacob Foreman; second lieutenant, John Riddlesberger; ensign, 
Peter Shaver. Company 2, Lurgan Township — Captain, John Jack; first 
lieutenant, James Brotherton; second lieutenent, Daniel McLene; ensign, 
James Drummond. Company 3, from Antrim Township — Captain, James 
Poe; first lieutenant, Joseph Patterson; second lieutenant, Jacob Stotler; 
ensign, James Dickson. Company 8, Lurgan Township — Captain, John 
Rea; first lieutenant, Albert Torrence; second lieutenant, Alexander Thom- 
son; ensign, Hugh Wiley. This is all the record now accessible concerning 
these companies. 

In 1779 a company recruited from Path Valley was mustered into the 
service, and sent west to quell an Indian disturbance. This was Capt. Noah 
Abraham's company — First-lieutenant, Nathaniel Stevenson; second lieuten- 
ant, Adam Harman; sergeants, Joseph Ferguson, Campbell Lefever, James 
Hamilton, John Roatch; privates, Daniel Colbert, Neal Dougherty, Frederick 
Dougherty, Patrick Dougherty, Thomas Knox, Daniel Lavrey, William Love, 
Redmond McDonough, Mathias Maers, John Maghan, John Millison, James 
Megraw, Isaac Miner, James Russell, John Robinson, James Ray and 
W T illiam Walker. 

At the same time another company went from Letterkenny Township: Cap- 
tain, Samuel Patton; first lieutenant, Ezekiel Sample; sergeants, John Kin- 
caid, William Spear; privates, John Bran, Thomas Crotley, Richard Cooper, 
George Hunter, Samuel Howard, John Hart, AVilliam Lowry, George Lamb, 
John Lytle, Henry Marshal, John Mathias (weaver), Lorans McReady, John 
Parker, William Patterson, Abram Rosenberry, William Sharp, John Welsh, 
Henry Williamson. 

It is supposed the above enumeration includes all of the separate organiza- 
tions that went to the war from what is now Franklin County. Just how many 
men did go cannot now be accurately told. That there were many who joined 
commands from other counties in small squads and singly, cannot be doubted; 
but on the rolls their identity is lost, and it is greatly to be regretted their 
names cannot be properly placed on the roll of the immortals. 

There were men who enacted a conspicuous part in the Revolution outside 
of the line of military duty. For instance, in the Provincial Conference, 1776, 
the Province of Pennsylvania sent a full delegation, which met in Carpenter's 
Hall, in the city of Philadelphia. The delegates from Franklin were McLene, 
Allison, Maclay, Calhoun and Creigh. 

Here and there, through all the annals of the Revolution, is to be found a 
hero, who was a native of what is now Franklin County. Of these Col. James 
Smith, a native of Peters Township, has left an illustrious record. As early 
as 1755, while engaged in opening a road from Fort Loudoun to Bedford, he 
was captured by the Indians. He was adopted in the Conewago tribe and re- 
mained with them until 1759, when he escaped to Montreal, and reached his 
home in 1760. In 1763 he was actively engaged against the Indians, as 
captain of a company of rangers. He then became an ensign in the English 
provincial army. In 1764 he served under Gen. John Armstrong, and was a 
lieutenant in Bouquet's expedition against the savages. In 1765 he was the 
leader of a band of settlers, who attacked the Indians, drove them off and burned 


the goods of some Indian traders, because they were selling, to the savages, 
powder and lead. Some of Col. Smith's neighbors, who had nothing to do 
with this burning, were arrested by British officers and locked up in Fort 
Loudoun. Smith and his sturdy and fearless gang went to the resciie of their 
neighbors, captured the fort, released their friends and took more English sol- 
diers prisoners than Smith' s command numbered. Afterward more of Smith' s 
neighbors were arrested for the burning of the Indian traders' goods, and this 
time confined in Fort Bedford. Again, Smith rallied his neighbors, assaulted 
the fort, captured the garrison and liberated the prisoners. Some time after, 
Smith was arrested for this. In making the arrest a struggle ensued and 
Smith's companion was killed. He was then charged with the killing and 
thrown in prison. A body of 600 of his neighbors gathered and marched 
to Carlisle and demanded his release. He made an address to his friends, 
refused to be released, and counseled them to peacefully go home. He was 
kept in prison four months, tried and acquitted. At once he was elected 
commissioner of Bedford County. He then removed to Westmoreland, 
and there was elected to the same office. In 1774, he was again a captain of 
rangers in the field, serving against the Indians. In 1776, he, in command of 
a company of rangers serving in the Revolutionary war, and with thirty- six men, 
defeated 200 Hessians, taking the most of them prisoners. Then for two years 
he was in civil offices. In 1777 Gen. Washington offered him a major's commis- 
sion, but not liking the colonel of the regiment, he declined to accept, it. He 
asked and was given permission to raise a battalion of rifle rangers to serve 
against the British in New Jersey. His major was James McCammont, a 
Franklin County man. When Col. Smith was disabled by disease, McCammont 
became commanding colonel. Col. James McCalmont (originally spelled 
McCammont), was born in Letterkenny Township, in 1739 — a typical fron- 
tiersman, wonderfully made for the troublous time i i which he was born. He 
was a brave man and an ardent patriot. His services to his country, in the Revo- 
lution, were invaluable. When the British occupied Philadelphia he was com- 
manding a troop of rangers, and assigned to the duty of preventing the Tories 
of the interior from furnishing the enemy with supplies. While on this 
duty he captured a lot of Hessians in New Jersey; he not only made prisoners 
of them, but induced them to become settlers near Strasburg, where may be 
found their descendants to this day. He served as major in the Sixth Battalion 
of the Cumberland County troops under command of Col. Samuel Culbert- 
son, another native of Franklin County, and an eminent Revolutionary soldier 
and patriot. After the war he was for many succeeding terms elected to the 
House of Representatives; in 1789, appointed judge, which position he held 
until his death, July 19, 1809. 

Capt. Samuel Brady, already celebrated before the Revolution as an In- 
dian scout, was, of course, the first to respond to his country's call to fight 
for liberty. He was under command of Col. Hand, at Princeton, and 
at the massacre of Paoli he barely escaped. He was promoted for bravery 
after the battle of Monmouth, and then was ordered to Fort Pitt (Pittsburg), 
to join Gen. Broadhead, with whom he soon became a great favorite, and was 
almost constantly employed as a scout. His father and brother had been mas- 
sacred in 1778-79 by the Indians, and he never failed to wreak vengeance upon 
the savages at every opportunity. His name was a terror to the Indians. 
He died in West Liberty, Va. , in 1800. 

Col. Joseph Armstrong was one of the early settlers in Hamilton Town- 
ship. He was a brave and fearless Indian fighter, commanding a company of 
rangers in 1755. After much service in the Indian wars, in 1776 he raised a 




battalion (the Fifth Cumberland Company), and marched to the defense of 
Philadelphia. Among his captains were John Andrew, Samuel Patton, John 
McConnell, William Thompson (became brigadier-general), Charles Maclay, 
James McKee, John Martin, John Rea (afterward brigadier-general), John 
Murphy, George Mathews and John Boggs. This command had been chiefly 
recruited from Lurgan, Letterkenny and Hamilton Townships. They were 
noted for their activity, bravery and alertness in punishing the country's ene- 
mies, as well as their rigid faith in Presbyterianism. It is said that a majority 
of them had been members of the old Rocky Spring Church. Capt. Charles 
Maclay' s company, which numbered 100, was raised in Lurgan Township, andi 
every man said to be six feet in height. This company suffered severely in the? 
surprise of Gen. Lacy' s command at Crooked Billet, Bucks County, May 4, 
1778. Capt. Maclay and about half his company were killed. "Gen. Lacy, 
in his report, says: " The wounded were treated in a manner the most brutal 
savages could not equal ; even while living, some were thrown into buckwheat, 
straw, the straw set on fire and burned. ' ' 

In addition to these great Revolutionary heroes, there were noted: Rev- 
John Steele and Dr. Robert Johnston, his son, John Johnston, and many others. 


There are conflicting accounts, in different histories, on the subject of the* 
making of the first cannon in this country. We are indebted for this account of 
the making of, if not the first certainly very close to being, the first wrought iron 
cannon in the world, to Mr. J. C. Burns, who writes from " near Waynesboro, 
May 3, 1886." He gives the current history of this successful effort at making 
a wrought iron cannon, omitting such portions of the generally published ac- 
counts, and making such additions as his information made necessary to- 
arriving at the truth of the matter. 'Another man in Cumberland County,, 
about the same time, made two cannon, and one of these two was also> 
captured at Brandy wine, and, quoting from Hazard's Register, "is now in> 
the Tower of London." He then alludes to a letter written by a British sol- 
dier soon after the battle of Brandy wine, in which the writer refers to " two 
cannon of singular appearance and construction, captured ' ' from the Amer- 
icans. Evidently one of these cannon was the one of the two made by the 
Cumberland County man, and the other, the one made by Mr. Bourns. In- 
further explanation, it may be stated, that John Bourns was the grandfather- 
of J. C. Burns, whose account of the cannon is given, as taken from ' ' McCan- 
ley's Historical Sketch of Franklin County," with Mr. Burns' corrections: 

"A century ago near the banks of the Antietam, three miles east of 
Waynesboro, Penn. , stood a blacksmith shop. Here, in 1775, worked Johns 
Bourns, at his trade of sickle making. The war alarum rang over the country,, 
and to John Bourns it brought the tidings that he, too, must do his share to» 
free his fair land from the tyrant's yoke. He determined to try his skill on a 
wrought iron cannon. An extra pair of bellows was set up, and his brother — 
James Bourns — together with some neighbors, being called -upon to give ali 
necessary aid in keeping up a continuous hot fire for the purpose of welding, 
the work was begun. A core of iron was first prepared, and bars of iron were 
welded together one by one longitudinally around this core. The 
welding having been accomplished successfully, and the core withdrawn, 
the bore was brought to as perfect a degree of smoothness and circularity as 
was possible with the tools accessible. It is likely this was one of the first 
successful attempts ever made to manufacture a wrought iron cannon. 

"This small cannon was taken to the army, and doubtless gave no uncertain 


voice in freedom's favor. On the 11th of September, 1777, the battle of 
Brandywine was fought, and this cannon was captured and taken to 

' ' John Bourns was drafted into the army previously to the battle of Brandy- 
wine, was in the battle himself, and no doubt regretted the loss of his pet 
when he learned that it had fallen into the hands of the enemy. On account 
of his superior skill as a smith, he was detached from active service and de- 
tailed to repair gunlocks and make bayonets for the use of the army. 

"John Bourns was the father of the late Gen. James Burns, of Waynes- 
boro, and he and William Burns — his brother — frequently related the story, 
heretofore given, to different persons. Readers will notice the change in the 
orthography of the names of the father and son." 



Eleven Years of Peace — Causes of the Whisky Insurrection— Its Pros- 
ecution and Its Subversion— Sympathy of the Militia, etc. 

FOR eleven long years after the close of the Revolution, or until 1794, the 
country was at peace, save a few unimportant Indian troubles, and as 
there was no one else to fight convenient to hand, some of the people of Fay- 
ette, Allegheny, Westmoreland and Washington Counties, of this State, con- 
cluded to get up an insurrection. Open rebellion was, therefore, proclaimed 
against the Government because of the excise tax on whisky. It was not the 
amount of tax on the whisky, but the principle and the Government' s selection 
of that favored product of the land that fired the warlike souls of these good 
people. It was not any especial love of the ' ' craythur " as an article of regu- 
lar diet that caused these threatenings of internal war, but the fact that at that 
time pack-horses were the only mode of transportation, and the raw products 
of the farms could not be carried to the distant markets, except when reduced 
by distillation into whisky, the people felt that the excise tax was a blow at 
their industry that free men should not in any way tolerate. Hence, near- 
ly every farmer had his still — often this was put up before he was able to 
erect his barn. Whisky was made everywhere, and, in a moderate degree, 
used in nearly every family. The evidence of the public sense on this subject 
of the use of intoxicants is furnished in a church trial. A preacher was tried 
for drunkenness; the proof was strong and clear; but the sessions let him off 
with a gentle reprimand, and returned him to his desk. The next year the 
same man was put upon trial for whistling on Sunday — conduct "unbecoming 
a minister, and showing a vacuity of mind. ' ' The sessions convicted, deposed 
him, and sent him from his church in disgrace. The wits of the day said he 
might ' ' whistle for his back pay. ' ' 

The spirit of insurrection was not wholly confined to the western part of 
the State — there were many warm sympathizers east of the mountains. Gen. 
James Chambers, in a letter to A. J. Dallas, from Loudon Forge, September 
22, 1794, says: " On the 16th inst. I arrived in Chambersburg, and to my great 
astonishment I found the Rabble had raised what they Called a Liberty pole. 


Some of the most active of the inhabitants were at that time absent, and, upon 
the whole, perhaps it was best, as matters has Since taken a violent change. 
When I came here I found the magistrates had opposed the sitting of the pole 
up, to the utmost of their power, but was not supported by the majority of the 
Cittyzens. They wished to have the Royators Subject to the Law, and (Mr. 
Justice John Riddle, John Scott and Christian Oyster) the magistrates of this 
place, informed of their zealous wish to have them brought to justice, I ad- 
vised them to call a meeting of the inhabitants of the town on the next morn- 
ing, and we would have the matter opened to them and Show the necessity of 
Soporting Government, Contrassed with the destruction of one of the best gov- 
ernments in the world. ' ' 

The meeting was duly convened in the " Coorthouse, " and John Riddle 
made a * ' very animating address " to the people. Resolutions were drawn 
pledging them to support the justices in their efforts to bring the " Royaters 
to Tryal." Gen. Chambers then further writes to the governor: "I am now 
happy to have in my power to request you, Sir, to inform his Excellency, the 
Governour, that these exertions has worked the desired change. The magis- 
trates has sent for the men, the very same that erected the pole, and I had the 
pleasure of seeing them, on Saturday Evening, Cut it down; and with the 
same wagon that brought it into town they were oblidgeed to draw the remains 
of it out of town again. The Circumstance was mortifying, and they behaved 
very well. They seem very penetent, and no person offered them any insult. 
It has worked such a change, I believe we will be able Shortly to Send our 
Quota to Carlisle. " This letter shows the temper of the people very plainly. 
It was only the great influence and firm stand by such men as Gen. Cham- 
bers that prevented the spirit of insurrection from becoming general all over 
the State. The people were very loth to respond to President Washington's 
call for troops to quell the turbulent elements of society. Secretary Dallas, 
September 10, 1794, says: "According to the information I have from several 
parts of the country, it appears that the militia are unwilling to march to quell 
the insurrection. They say that they are ready to march against a foreign 
enemy, but not against the citizens of their own State. ' ' 

August 7, 1794, President Washington called for 12,950 troops, from Vir- 
ginia, Maryland, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The New Jersey and Penn- 
sylvania troops assembled at Carlisle. Gov. Mifflin, of Pennsylvania, and 
Gov. Richard Howell, of New Jersey, commanded the respective troops of 
their State. The quota of this State was 5, 196 men. The quota of Frank- 
lin County was 281 men. It was difficult to fill these quotas, but this 
county recruited its number and sent them to Carlisle. There they were 
met by President Washington,* and the army reviewed by him. The Penn- 
sylvania troops were in one division, under command of Maj. -Gen. William 
Irvine. It was divided into three brigades: the first commanded by Gen. 
Thomas Proctor, the second by Brig. -Gen. Francis Murray, the third by Brig. - 
Gen. James Chambers. In Chambers' brigade were the men from Franklin 
County. The troops passed through this county, by way of Strasburg, and 
crossed the mountains, passed through Fort Lyttleton, and reached Pittsburgh 
in November. This display of force by the Government ended the cruel war, 
and in ten days after their arrival in Pittsburgh, they started on their return 
home. They came by way of Greensburg, Ligonier. Bedford, Sideling Hill, 
Fort Lyttleton, Strasburg and Shippensburg, to Carlisle, where they were 
disbanded. Their entire term of service was about one month. 

*In his route to the western part of the State, Washington tarried over night, some say over Sunday, in 
Chambersburg, October 11, 1794, stopping with William Morrow in a stone hotel on South Main Street. Pass- 
ing through Greencastle he was the guest of Dr. Robert Johnston. 




Date or Erection — Petitions in Favor of and in Opposition to the 
Project — Fight Over the County Seat— The First Cottrt-Hotjse ani> 
First Jail— Early County Officers— Estimate of Population— First 
General Election— Officials, etc. 

THE act of the Assembly creating Franklin County, was passed Septem- 
ber 9, 1784. The county of Cumberland, the sixth formed in the prov- 
ince of Pennsylvania, was erected in 1750. It embraced ' all and singu- 
lar the lands lying within the said Province to the westward of Susquehanna, 
and northward and westward of the county of York" (organized the year pre- 
vious). It was ' 'bounded northward and westward with the line of the Prov- 
ince." From this vast area and ample limits were subsequently constructed 
Bedford in 1771 ; a portion of Northumberland in 1772; Westmoreland' from 
Bedford in 1773; Washington in 1781, and Fayette in 1783 from Westmore- 
land. Originally comprising two-thirds of the area of Pennsylvania, the 
county of Cumberland is well deserving the name " Old Mother Cumberland. ' y 
We first hear of efforts for the formation of the county of Franklin during 
the closing years of the struggle for independence in petitions therefor in 1780; 
but remonstrances were poured in upon the Assembly to postpone the subject 
until the Revolutionary war was over. No sooner was the prospect of peace 
heightened than renewed efforts were made by the inhabitants of the western 
parts of the county of Cumberland for a division, representing "the incon- 
veniences and hardships which they suffer by the large extent of the said coun- 
^j. * * * * the great distance at which the said petitioners dwell from 
the town of Carlisle, where the courts of justice and the public offices of the 
same county are held and kept." On the 25th of March, 1782, the petitions 
therefor were ordered by the Oeneral Assembly to be referred to Moses Mac- 
lean, Mr. Agnew and Mr. Maclay, with directions to bring in a bill. A bill 
was subsequently reported and passed second reading, but the inhabitants of 
" New Town " Township petitioning to have Shippensburg included in the new 
county, while the inhabitants of Lurgan Township remonstrated forcibly against 
a division — the whole subject was dropped until the following Assembly. The 
next Assembly were not favorable to the new county project, and the matter 
was referred by them to their successors. The new Assembly had scarcely or- 
ganized when a petition was received from John Clark for the appointment of 
register for the probate of wills for the new county to be erected out of Cum- 
berland. This was Col. John Clark, of the town of York, a brave officer of 
the Revolution. His application was premature. Numerous petitions for the 
division of the county of Cumberland poured in upon the, legislative body, 
with not a few remonstrances against the same. The latter were chiefly from 
Shippensburg and Lurgan Township, a portion of whose inhabitants preferred, 
since the former place was not considered eligible for the county seat, to re- 
main with the old county. On the 16th of March, 1784, the committee to 
whom the petitions and remonstrances were referred reported the following: 


Resolved, That a new county be granted and laid out, to be'gin on the York County 
line on the South Mountain; thence by a square line to be run from the said beginning to 
the North or Blue Ridge, leaving Shippensburg to the east of said line; thence from the 
summit of the said North Mountain by the ridges dividing the waters of Shearman's Val- 
ley from the waters of the Path Valley, to the Gap, near the heads of the said Path Val- 
ley joining Bedford County; thence by the Bedford County line to the Maryland line; 
thence by said line to the line of York County; thence by said county line to the place of 
beginning; to be called county; and that the said new county town shall be estab- 
lished by law, at the well-known place called Chambers Town, and not elsewhere; and 
that a committee be appointed to bring in a bill accordingly. 

On the 18th of March the resolution was read the second time, and Messrs. 
Rush, Coleman and McPherson were appointed a committee to bring in a bill. 
As yet it will be seen no name was mentioned in connection with the new 
county project. The committee appointed were Jacob Rush, of Philadelphia, 
subsequently president judge of the courts of that city; Robert Coleman, of 
Lancaster, the great iron master, and the head of that family so intimately 
connected with the iron trade of Pennsylvania, and Col. Robert McPherson, of 
York County, a brave soldier of the Revolution, and the grandfather of Hon. 
Edward McPherson, of Gettysburg; a remarkable committee — gentlemen of 
culture, and eminent in public affairs. To them must the credit be given of 
naming the county Franklin for that patriot, sage and philosopher, whose rep- 
utation was even then world-wide. It was a deserving honor, and the first in 
successive ones which, next to the immortal Washington, has given name to more 
towns and counties than any other in the American Union. 

On the 25th of March the bill was reported and read the first time. Four 
days after, it was read the second time and ordered to be printed. Then fol- 
lowed a flood of petitions, for and against not only the division of the county, 
but the location of the county seat. For the latter, Greencastle and Ship- 
pensburg were anxious to be selected, although the latter was unwilling to be 
included within the limits of the new county unless it was thus honored. 
Greencastle contended that it was equally as central as Chambers' Town, and 
much better situated with reference to the back counties and to Maryland. 

On the 25th of August, the Assembly took up the bill and debated it at 
length, which was continued on the 30th. On the 6th of September a clause 
was adopted to the effect "that the inhabitants of the new county of Franklin 
should have their full proportion or share of what moneys were raised for Cum- 
berland County uses, after all just demands against said county of Cumberland, 
before passing this act, are paid. ' ' 

On the 9th of September, 1784, the bill "was enacted, and signed by the 
speaker," and thus was erected the county of Franklin with Chambers' Town 
as the seat of justice, ' ' and not elsewhere. ' ' 

The active parties in petitioning the Assembly for the new county and to fix 
the northern boundary line at Big Spring (now Newville), so as to include all of 
Hopewell Township in the county to be formed, were John Rannells, John John- 
son, James McCammont, John Scott, Dr. George Clingin, Samuel Royer, Pat 
Campbell, Patrick Vance, Nat McDowell, Richard Brownson, George Math- 
ews, Oliver Brown, James Campbell, Thomas Campbell, John Colhoun, John 
Holliday, John Crawford, Josiah Crawford, Edward Crawford, John Boggs, 
Jeremiah Talbot, William Rannells, Joseph Armstrong, James Brotherton, 
Benjamin Chambers, Benjamin Chambers, Jr., Joseph Chambers, James 
Chambers, AVilliam Chambers and others. 

During the progress of the struggle to strike off the new county, some of 
the people of Lurgan Township opposed the measure in toto " because the mi- 
litia battalion, and the religious societies to which they belonged, would be divid- 
ed and thrown into different counties, and the social intercourse requisite 


in these respects would be greatly obstructed, ' ' not to mention the burdens that 
would come of having to erect a new court-house, etc. They therefore 
prayed to be left quietly in Cumberland County. The people of Greencastle 
wanted their town to be the county seat, but Chambers' Town prevailed, and 
soon all was well, and the new county was thus started upon her long career 
of prosperity and glory. 

The act of the Assembly, organizing the county, appointed James Maxwell, 
James McCammont, Josiah Crawford, David Stoner and John Johnston trus- 
tees, to procure ground for county buildings. The act also provided for the 
county commissioners to pay over to the trustees $3, 200, to be expended in 
erecting a court house and jail. 

September 28, 1774, Col. Benjamin Chambers, by deed, for the nominal 
consideration of $26.66§, conveyed to the county the parcel of ground on 
which the court-house stands, " to be used as a site for a court -house and pub- 
lic buildings and no other, ' ' and in the same deed conveyed to the county the 
lot on the north side of East Market Street, opposite the " Washington House," 
for a jail. 

The trustees contracted with Capt. Benjamin Chambers to build the court- 
house, and with David and Joshua Riddle to build the jail. The cost of the 
court house, which was not entirely finished until 1794, was $4, 100. The 
work on the jail progressed even more slowly, it not being completed until 1797. 

The old court-house was of brick, two stories high, and about fifty feet 
square. It stood immediately west of the present building, its eastern wall being- 
about four or five feet distant from the western end of the present court house, 
and it was occupied by the courts and public offices whilst the new building 
was being erected. It was then torn down and the portico and steps of the 
present building were put up on a part of its site. It was well and substan- 
tially built, presented a rather pleasing appearance, and was fully sufficient 
for those early times. The main front faced Market Street, and there was a 
heavy cornice all around the building. There were a cupola and bell on the 
building. The spire was surmounted by an iron rod with a large copper ball 
on it' next the top of the spire; then above that a rooster, and above the latter a 
smaller ball. The main entrance was on the southern front, but it was not 
used for many years. A door in the western end, near the southern corner, was 
the usual place of entrance. Opposite this last door was another door in the 
eastern end, opening into the yard. The court hall occupied all the lower 
floor. Along its southern side was a tier of seats for spectators, some three 
or four in number, rising high up on the wall. These were put in after the 
building was completed, and they crossed over and closed up the main door in 
the south side of the room. Between these seats and the bar (which occupied 
nearly one half of the floor) there was a space of about ten feet in width, paved 
with red brick. The bar was raised some two or three feet above this pave- 
ment, and the judge' s seat, which was on the north side of the room, was 
some two or three steps above the bar. The traverse jury box was on the east 
side of the bar, and the grand jury box on the west side, adjoining the stairs 
leading to the second story, in which there was a grand jury room and two 
traverse jury rooms. The floor of the court-room was paved with brick. It 
was warmed by two ten-plate stoves, into which full length cordwood could be 
put. In one corner stood an old hydrant, the solitary visible memorial of the 
old water- works. 

The old court-house was torn down in 1842, and a new one erected at a cost 
of $45,545. The contractors were Philip Miterhouse, carpenter, and Silas 
Havy, mason. This building was totally destroyed by the rebels in 1864, 


and the next year the work on the new and present elegant building was com- 
menced. It was completed at a cost of $52,683.25. 

The old jail was of stone, two stories high, about 40x60 feet in size, and 
stood on the northeast corner of Second and Market Streets, where Judge 
Rowe' s residence now stands. It was often crowded with poor debtors in those 
early days, men who were so unfortunate as to be in debt and had neither goods 
nor money with which to pay their liabilities. To honest men it was a fearful 
place; but rogues laughed at its nail -studded doors, iron bars, and thick but 
poorly -constructed walls. Between the date of the formation of the county, 
in 1784, and the completion of the old stone jail, in 1798, persons charged 
with the commission of grave offenses were kept in the jail at .Carlisle. The 
county accounts for those years contained many items for the expenses of tak- 
ing prisoners to Carlisle, keeping them there and bringing them here for trial. 
Persons charged with offenses of a minor grade were kept in a temporary prison, 
and there are also numerous charges for " repairs ' ' to that prison — for ' ' iron 
for bars, ' ' for ' ' leg bolts, manacles, etc. ' ' and for the pay of those who acted 
as " guards ' ' at the prison. Tradition says that this prison was an old log house 
on the lot now the property of Levi D. Hummelsine, on the west side of South 
Main Street. That it was some such insecure place is evidenced by the ex- 
penditures made upon it above referred to, and also from the fact that, in 1785, 
the commissioners of the county paid Samuel McClelland £2 5s. 6d. for "un- 
derpinning the prison." Thei'e were no brick buildings here in 1785, and only 
three stone ones, viz. : Chambers' Fort, John Jack's tavern and Nicholas Sni- 
der' s blacksmith shop. All the rest were of logs, small and inconvenient, and 
it must have been one of the worst of these that was used as a prison, as only 
such a one could have needed " underpinning, ' ' and require bars, leg bolts, 
manacles and guards to keep its inmates safely. The first jailor was Owen 
Aston, who lived in a small house east of the prison. In 1818 the New jail 
was erected to supply a long-felt want. This is the present jail building. 

County Officers. — From 1784 to 1809 Edwa/d Crawford was, by appoint- 
ment, prothonotary, register, recorder and clerk of the court. He had erected 
a building for an office on East Market Street — the site now occupied by the 
law office of Kennedy & Stewart. The old county offices were not completed 
until October, 1806. This building stood about twenty feet east of the old 
court-house, facing Market Street; cost, $2,500. It was of brick, two stories, 
40x25 feet. The prothonotary ' s and clerk's offices were in the west end, the 
register's and recorder's in the east end, a division hall in the center. In the 
rear of each office was a narrow vault for the records. On the second story 
were the offices of the county commissioners, county treasurer, deputy sur- 
veyor, etc. This building was torn down when the new court-house was com- 
menced, in 1842. 

The act erecting the county provided that the court of common pleas and 
quarter sessions should be held four times a year, and that the quarter sessions 
should sit ' ' three days each term, and no more. ' ' Edward Crawford was in 
Philadelphia when the act was passed creating the county, and was the same 
day appointed and sworn in as prothonotary, etc. 

The following papers are the first of their kind found in the records of 
Franklin County after its erection, September 9, 1784. The books from which 
they were taken were opened by the skilled and long-continued officer whose 
modest preface to Deed-book A was as follows: "Franklin County erected by 
Act of Assembly passed 9th September, 1784, and this Record Book A begun 
in pursuance thi -eof. 

Edw. Crawford." 



1. Date of instrument: April 18, 1782. 

2. Parties: Root. Dixson, Hamilton Township, Cumberland Co., Pa., to William 
Dixson, his son, same twp. 

3. Property: 276 acres and 64 perches, and usual allowances in Hamilton Township. 
4 - Consideration £15 specie, as well as natural love and affection. 

5. Witnesses: Robert Boyd and John Dickson. 

6. Acknowledged before Jno. Rannell3, Justice of Cumberland Co. 

7. Recorded 13 day of December, 1784. 


1. Date: April 20, 1784. 

2. Parties: Jacob Ziegler Carpenter, of Guilford Township, Cumberland Co., to 
Jabob Schmiesser and Peter Menges, of York County. 

3. Property: Lot 246 and buildings tbereon, in town of Chambersburg. 

4. Consideration: £17, 7s. lOu. 

5 Witnesses- 3 Philip Ziegler, 

o. \Y ltnesses. -j George Philip Zieg i er . 

6. Recorded Oct. 11, 1784. 


%Xt the Hame Of (&a&, ^mzU.—l Hanse Michael Millar of Antrim 
Township County of Franklin and State of Pennsylvania being weak in body but 
•of sound Memory ( God) do make and Publish this my last Will and Testa- 
ment in Manner following that is to say, all my Just Debt & Funeral Expenses, be 
paid by my Executors hereafter mentioned. First I give- and Bequeath unto my Be- 
loved Wife Elizabeth the sum of two hundred Pounds of good and lawfull money of 
Pennsylvania specie all my household Furniture one Bay Mare and two Cows which she 
shall Choose. In case my wife Elizabeth should marry the above sum' of Two hundred 
pounds to be Equally Divided among my sons and daughters. . Secondly I give and Be- 
queath to my son Daniel that Plantation he lives on lying and Being in Frederick County 
Maryland Two hundred and thirteen acres to him his Heirs and assigns forever, he paying 
the sum of four Hundred Pounds good and lawfull money of Pennsylvania specie in five 
years after my Decease to my executors. Thirdly I give and Bequeath unto my daugh- 
ter Rebecca Rence Two hundred Pounds good and lawful money of Pennsylvania specie 
to be paid in one year after my Decease. Fourthly I give and Bequeath unto my Daughter 
Hannah Cigar the one-half of the Plantation she now lives on it being upon New Creek 
•which emptys into the North Branch of Potomack in Virginia under the Allygany Moun- 
tains in Hampshire County. Fifthly I give and Bequeath unto Christian Baker The sum 
of forty Pounds in one year after my Decease, and also one Hundred and Sixty Pounds 
•specie . which Peter Baker stands due to me at this time. Sixthly I give and Bequeath 
unto my Daughter Maryann Stoner the sum of two Hundred and Ten pounds lawful 
money of Pennsylvania specie in one year after my Decease. Seventhly I give and 
Bequeath unto my Daughter Susanna Stover the sum of two Hundred and Ten Pounds 
good and lawfull money of Pennsylvania specie to be paid in one year after my decease. 
Eighthly I give and Bequeath unto my son John the Farm and Plantation it being in 
Antrim Township Franklin County, which I now live on. Also a Negro Boy named 
'Charles one sorrell mare and Colt and all my farming utensils. Ninthly I give and 
Bequeath unto my son Michael the one-half of the Plantation that John Cigar lives on 
to him and his heirs and assigns, to be divided equally between my Daughter Hannah 
Cigar and my son Michael at the Discretion of my executors. All my movable stock 
that is not Bequeathed I give unto my son John, also any sum or sums of Money 
that should remain as over-plush after the Discharging of the Bequeathments to be 
equally divided amongst my sons and Daughters. My son John and my son in law 
Abraham Stofier to be my whole and sole executors of my last Will and Testament, in 
Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this twenty-eighth Day of Sep- 
tember, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-four 1784. 

Signed Sealed in the Presence of his 

Elias Davison Hans Michael x Millar 


Henry Pawling Elizabeth x Millar 


Edward Crawford was also commissioned justice of the county, Septem- 
ber 3 5, 1784. Six days after the county was formed, the first county court 
convened, the justices being Humphrey Fullerton and Thomas Johnston, for 

4^l£e<^~- ov^ 


Antrim Township, and James Finley, of Letterkenny Township — all of them 
formerly justices of Cumberland County. There were no jurors summoned to 
this first court, no causes for trial, and the strong inference is, no lawyers were 
present, except John Clark, of the York bar, who appeared to plead guilty to 
the crime of matrimony, and by the court was married to Miss Bittinger, 
daughter of Nicholas Bittinger, of Mont Alto Furnace. He appeared in 
court, and upon his own request was admitted to the bar, the first attorney 
so admitted in the county. 

The second session of the county court convened Thursday, December 2, 
1784, in the second story of John Jack's stone tavern, which stood where 
Miller's drugstore now is. This building was burnt in 1864. The judges pres- 
ent were William McDowell, of Peters; Humphrey Fullerton, of Antrim; James 
Finley, of Letterkenny. Crawford was clerk. Talbot was sheriff. The grand 
jurors were James Poe, Henry Pawling, William Allison, William McDowell, 
Robert Wilkins, John McConnell, John McCarney, John Bay, John Jack, Jr., 
John Dickson, D. McClintock, Joseph Chambers and Joseph Long. 

The courts were held up stairs, and tradition says the crowd was so great 
as to strain the joists of the floor, causing great alarm to the court and bar, 
and others in the house. That the courts were held in John Jack's house for 
several years, while the court-house was being built, and up until 1789, inclu- 
sive, is conclusively shown by the following extracts from the county expendi- 
tures, found in the annual accounts of the commissioners for the years named, 

1785 — By an order to John Jack for the use of his house to 

hold courts in, etc £12 7s. 6d. 

1789 — By a draw given to Margaret Jack (John's widow), for 

the use of house to hold courts in £9 

1790 — Order to Mrs. Jack for fire wood and candles for the 

court £4 4s. 5d. 

A change was then made, for in — 
1790 — An order was issued to Walter Beatty for preparing a 

place for court £15 6s. 

This place was no doubt some temporary selection. Walter Beatty was the 
sub -contractor, under Benjamin Chambers, for the building of the court-house. 
The court-house and the old stone jail were then being built. The latter must 
have been gotten under roof at least in 1791, for that year the commissioners 
paid Walter Beatty "for preparing for the court to sit in the prison, £15 19s." 
In 1793 the commissioners, by order of the court, paid to Walter Beatty, £10 
10s. ' ' for detaining his hands from work on the court-house. ' ' The judges 
took possession and occupied the court-house for county purposes before it 
was finished, and ordered Mr. Beatty to be paid for the lost time of his hands, 
as aforesaid. 

County courts, as thus constituted, continued to administer justice until the 
adoption of the constitution of 1790. That instrument went into force, for 
most purposes, on the 2d of September, 1790, but the third section of the 
schedule to it extended the commissions of the justices of the peace and judges 
then in office until the first day of September, 1791. 


The following list gives the names of the justices of the peace who were 
judges of the county courts for this county, from the 9th of September, 1784, 
to the 2d of September, 1791, with the townships they were appointed from 
and the dates of their respective commissions, which ran for seven years: 



William McDowell , , Peters November 13, 1778. 

.April 18, 1782. 
.April 18, 1782. 
.March 1, 1783. 

Humphrey Fullerton Antrim. 

Thomas Johnston Antrim 

James Finley Letterkenny , 

Edward Crawford, Jr Chambersburg September 11, 1784. 

James Chambers Peters September 17, 1784, 

George Matthews Hamilton February 4, 1785. 

John Rannels. Guilford.. March 1. 1785. 

Noah Abraham Fannett October 31, 1785. 

John McClay Lurgan November 2, 1785. 

Richard Bard Peters March 15, 1786. 

Samuel Royer Washington March 27, 1786. 

John Scott Chambersburg. 

John Boggs Chambersburg 

James Maxwell* Montgomery . . 

John Barring Southampton . . 

John Andrew Guilford 

John Martin Chambersburg. 

James Maxwell Montgomery. 

August 4, 1786. 
August 4, 1786. 
August 26, 1786. 
November 1, 1786. 
April 16, 1787. 
December 8, 1787. 
September 17, 1788. 
William Henderson .Greencastle September 25, 1788 

James M'Calmont Letterkenny. 

Christian Oyster Chambersburg. 

Thomas Johnston Antrim 

.September 23, 1789. 
.July 16, 1790. 
.September 29, 1790. 

The population in the new county can only be arrived at approximately. In 
1786 the records show there were taxables in the county 2,291, divided among 
the townships as follows: 




























Letterkenny , ■ 














From this can be estimated the total population at about 13,000 at the time 
the county was formed. By the census of 1790, the first taken of the county, 
the population was .15,655; in 1800, 19,638; 1810, 23,173; 1820, 31,892; 
1830, 35,037; 1840, 37,793; 1850, 37,956; 1860, 42,121; 1870, 45,365; 
1880, 49,855. 

The first general election in the county was held October 12, 1784, in 
Chambersburg, that being the only polling place in the county. The county 
was entitled to elect one member of the Supreme Executive Council, and three 
representatives in the Legislature. James McLene was elected councilor, to- 
serve three years; James Johnston, Abraham Smith and James McCalmont 
were elected representatives; Jeremiah Talbot, sheriff; John Rea, coroner; 
James Poe, John Work, John Beard, county commissioners. As some index 
of the number of votes the new county was able to poll, it may be stated that 
the vote on county commissioners was as follows : James Poe, 822 ; John 
"Work, 421; John Beard, 339. 

By act of the Assembly, September 13, 1785, the county was divided into 

♦Commissioned president of the courts. 



two election districts: the first district, composed of the townships of Antrim, 
Peters, Guilford, Lurgan, Hamilton, Letterkenny, Franklin (Chambersburg), 
Washington, Southampton and Montgomery, to vote at the court-house, in 
Chambersburg; the second district was Fannett Township, to vote at the house 
of Widow Elliott. 

In 1787 the county was divided into four election districts: the First to be 
composed of the townships of Guilford, Franklin, Hamilton, Letterkenny, 
Lurgan and Southampton, to vote at the court-house, in Chambersburg; the 
Second District, Fannett Township, to vote at Widow Elliott's; the Third Dis- 
trict, composed of Antrim and Washington Townships, to vote at the house of 
George Clark, in Greencastle; the Fourth District, Peters and Montgomery 
Townships, to vote at James Crawford's, in Mercersburg. 

The first tax collected in the county was for the year 1785, and by town- 
ships is as follows: 



State Tax. 

County Tax. 


Samuel McCullock. . 

Nathaniel Paul 

Peter Fry 

£365 5s. 
69 1 
179 4 
223 6 
207 7 
320 11 
312 6 
272 10 
262 16 








£57 Is. 4d, 


11 19 11 


30 19 10 


36 8 2 


William Dickson. . . . 

» George Stinger 

Gavin Morrow 

Thomas Kennedy. . . . 

Frederick Foreman. . 


35 7 8 
54 18 9 


50 16 4 

Montgomery 7T^ . 

51 7 4 


44 10 


44 15 2 

£2,510 11 


£418 4 6 

Being, for State purposes. 
For county purposes 

.$6,694 91 
. 1,115 27 


1784-1809— Edward Crawford, Jr. 1854-57- 

1809-21— John Findlay. 1857-60- 

1821-24— John Shryock. 1860-63- 

1824-30— John Hershberger. 1863-66- 

1830-36— John Flanagan. 1866-69- 

1836-39^Joseph Minnich. 1869-72- 

1839-45— Mathias Nead. 1872-79- 

1845-48— Thomas P. Bard. 1879-82- 

1848-51— James Wright.. 1882-85- 

1851-54— Isaac H. McCauley. 1885 

-Abraham K. Wier. 
-Hiram C. Keyser. 
-Abram C. Kaufman. 
-K. S. Taylor. 
-William H. McDowell. 
-George W. Welch. 
-John A. Hyssong. 
-John M. McDowell, 
-James Sweney. 
-M. E. Brown. 


1784-1809— Edward Crawford. 
1809-18— John Findlay. 

1818-21^Peter Spyker Dechert. 
1821-24— Joseph Culbertson. 


1824-30— John Findlay, Jr. 




1830-36— Paul I. Hetich. 
1836-39— Joseph Pritts. 
1839-42— Henry Ruby. 
1842-45— John W. Reges. 
1845-48 — James Watson. 
1848-51 — Benjamin Mentzer. 
1851-54— David Oaks. 
1854-57— George H. Merklein. 

1857-60— George W. Toms. 
1860-63— Edward C. Boyd. 
1863-69— Henry Strickler. 
1869-72— Hiram T. Snyder. 
1872-79— Adolphus A. Skinner. 
1879-82— John S. Sollenberger. 
1882-85— C. H. Fulweiler. 
1885 —Frederick T. Snyder. 


1784-1809— Edward Crawford. 
1809-21— John Findlay. 

1821-24— John Shryock. 


1824-30— John Hershberger. 


1830-36— Richard Morrow. 
1836-39 — Joseph Morrow. 
1839-45— John Wood. 
1845-48— John M. Fisher. 
1848-51— Josiah W. Fletcher. 
1851-57 — Henry S. Stoner. 
1857-60— B. Y. Hamsher. 


1860-66— William G. Mitchell. 
1866-69— Thaddeus M. Mahon. 
1869-72— Bernard A. Cormany. 
1872-75— Lewis W. Detrich. ' 
1875-79— W. Rush Gillan. 
1879-85— Van T. Haulman. 
1885 —J. A. Benedict. 


1784-87— Jeremiah Talbot. 

1835-38 — James Burns. 

1787-90 — John Johnston. 

1838-41— George Hoffman. 

1790-93— Henry Work. 

1841-44— William Gilmore. 

1793-96— Robert Shannon. 

1844-47— Adam McKinnie. 

1796-99— George Hetich. 

1847-50— John W. Taylor. 

1799-1802— John Hetich. 

1850-53— Thomas J. Earley. 

1802-05— John Brotherton. 

1853-56— William Skinner. 

1805-08— Jacob Snider. 

1856-59— Jacob S. Brown. 

1808-11— Jacob Merkle. 

1859-62— William McGrath. 

1811-14— William Alexander. 

1862-65— Samuel Brandt. 

1814-17 — Thomas Alexander. 

1865-68— John Doebler. 

1817-20— Jeremiah Snider. 

1868-71— J. W. Fletcher. 

1820-23— John McClay. 

1871-75— S. F. Greenawalt. 

1823— David Washabaugh.* 

1875-78— John Sweney. 

1823-26— Archibald Fleming. 

1878-81— Michael Gable. 

1826-29— Joseph Culbertson. 

1881-84— W. G. Skinner. 

1829-32— David Washabaugh. 

1884-87— Luther B. Kurtz. 

1832-35— Ennion Elliott. 

1887 —Jacob S. Mowery. 


1784— John Rea. 

1789— George Clark. 

1785 — John Johnston. 

1790— George Clark. 

1786— Conrad Snider. 

1793— Matthew Duncan. 

1787— Conrad Snyder. 

1796 — Archibald Rankin. 

1788— George Clark. 

1801— Archibald Rankin. 

*.Tune to November, 1823. 

t Years named indicate date of appointment. 


1805— James Campbell. 1829— Allen K. Campbell. 

1809— Andrew Eobeson. 1832— John Tritle. 

1812— Robert Liggett. 1835— James McDowell. 

1815— William Young. 1838— William Slyder. 

1817 — Thomas McKinstry. 1841 — Alexander Hamilton. 

1820— William Young. 1844— John M. McDowell. 

1824 — David Washabaugh. 1849 — James Burns. 
1827 — James Burns. 

For a long period coroners refused to qualify, their work being performed 
by justices of the peace in their several townships. No records of the cor- 
oners therefore appear. 

1864— Victor D. Miller. 1882— Geo. S. Hull. 

1867— Victor D. Miller. 1885— Geo. S. Hull, present incumbent. 
1879-Robt. W. Ramsey. 


County treasurers were appointed by the county commissioners until the 
act of May 27, 1841, provided for their election, in October of that year, to 
hold office for two years from the first Monday in January after their election. 

The following is a list of the names of those persons who have been treas- 
urers of this county, with their years of service: 
1785-90— Dr. George Clingan. 1839-42— Henry Smith. 

1790-93— Matthew Wilson. 1842-44— Joseph Pritts. 

1793-96— John Ridc.le. 1844-46— George K. Harper. 

1796-1806— Pal rick • Campbell. 1846-48— George Garlin. 

1806-09— Davia Denny. 1848-50— William McLellan. 

1809-12— Jacob Heyser. 1850-52— Lewis Denig.* 

1812-14— Henry Reges. 1852-54— Washington Crooks. 

1814-17— John Hershbergor. 1854-56— Daniel K. Wunderlich. 

1817-20— Jacob Heyser. 1856-58— J. Smith Grier. 

1820-23— William Heyser. 1858-60— William D. McKinstry. 

1823-24— Samuel G. Calhoun. 1860-62— John Stouffer. 

1824-25— Dr. John Sloan. 1862-64— George J. Balsley. 

1825-27— Hugh Greenfield. 1864-66— James G. Elder. 

1827— William Hamilton. 1866-68— John Hassler. 

1827-30— Daniel Spangler. 1868-70— George W. Skinner. 

1830-32— Joseph Pritts. 1870-72— William Reber. 

1832— Henry Smith. 1872-74— Samuel Knisley. 

1833-36— Jasper E. Brady. 1874-76— Hiram M. White. 

1836-39— George Garlin, Jr. 


1876-79— Elias K. Lehman. 1882-85— W. H. H. Mackey. 

1879-82— John L. Grier. 1885-88— Jacob N. Flinder. 


1785 — James Poe, John Work, John Beard. 

1786 — John Work, James Poe, John Beard. 

1787 — John Beard, James Poe, John Work. 

1788 — Robert Boyd, James McConnell, William Allison. 

1789 — James McConnell, William Allison, Josiah Crawford. 

1790 — William Allison, Josiah Crawford, Matthew Wilson. 

♦Jeremiah Snider was^elected treasurer in October, 1849, but not being able to give the bond required by 
law, he resigned January 7, 1850, and the county commissioners that day appointed Lewis Denig to fill the va- 


1791 — Matthew Wilson, James Poe, Daniel Royer. 

1792 — Matthew Wilson, James Poe, John Work. 

1793 — James Poe, Daniel Royer, James Chambers. 

1794 — Daniel Royer, James Chambers, George Hetich. 

1795 — James Chambers, George Hetich, Henry Work. 

1796— George Hetich, Henry Work, William Scott. 

1797— Henry Work, William Scott, William Allison. 

1798 — William Scott, William Allison, James Irvin. 

1799 — William Allison, James Irvin, John Holliday. 

1800 — James Irvin. John Holliday, Nathan McDowell. 

1801 — John Holliday, Robert McDowell, David Maclay. 

1802 —Robert McDowell, David Maclay. 

1803 — Robert McDowell, David Maclay, William Rankin. 

1804 — Robert McDowell, David Maclay, Archibald Rankin, Jacob Heyser. 

1805 — William McClay, Archibald Rankin, Jacob Heyser. 

1806 — William McClay, Jacob Heyser, Patrick Campbell. 

1807 — Jacob Heyser, Patrick Campbell, John Royer. 

1808 — Patrick Campbell, James Smith, Jacob Dechert. 

1809 — Jacob Dechert, John Rothbaust, Robert Crooks. 

1810-11 — John Rothbaust, Robert Crooks, William Alexander. 

1812-13 — David Rankin, John Cox, Ludwig Heck. 

1814 — John Cox, Ludwig Heck, Isaac Eaton. 

1815 — Ludwig Heck, James McDowell, John M. Maclay. 

1816— James McDowell, John M. Maclay, William Bleakney. 

1817 — John M. Maclay, William Bleakney, Philip Berlin. 

1818 — William Bleakney, Philip Berlin, William Rippey, Jr. 

1819 — Philip Berlin, William Rippey, Jr., David Besore. 

1820 — William Rippey, Jr. , David Besore, Frederick Miller. 

1821 — Frederick Miller, David Besore, Andrew Thomson. 

1822 — David Besore, Frederick Miller, Andrew Thomson. 

1823 — Andrew Thomson, James Walker, Jacob Wunderlich. 

1824 — Jacob Wunderlich, Philip Laufman, David Fullerton. 

1825 — Jacob Wunderlich, Philip Laufman, Benjamin Keyser. 

1826 — Philip Laufman, Benjamin Keyser, William Heyser. 

1827 — William Heyser, Benjamin Keyser, John Walker. 

1828— William Heyser, John Walker, Daniel Shaffer. 

1829 — John Walker, Daniel Shaffer, John Radebaugh. 

1830 — Daniel Shaffer, John Radebaugh, John Walker. 

1831 — Daniel Shaffer, John Radebaugh, Jacob Walter. 

1832 — John Radebaugh, Jacob Walter, Samuel Duim. 

1833 — Samuel Dunn, Joseph Culbertson, John Cox. 

1834 — Joseph Culberston, John Cox, Tobias Funk. 

1835 — John Cox, Tobias Funk, George Hoffman. 

1836 — Tobias Funk, George Hoffman, George Johnston. 

1837 — George Hoffman, John Johnston, John Johnston (of George). 

1838 — John Johnston, John Johnston (of George), George Hoffman. 

1839-40 — John Johnston (of George), D. Washabaugh, Emanuel Hade. 

1841 — D. Washabaugh, Emanuel Hade, William Seibert. 

1842 — Emanuel Hade, William Seibert, Gai'land Anderson. 

1843 — William Seibert, G. Anderson, James Burns. 

1844 — G. Anderson, James Burns, Jacob Oyster. 

1845 — James Burns, Jacob Oyster, Thomas Pumroy. 

846 — Jacob Oyster, Thomas Pumroy, James Davison. 



1847 — Thomas Puuiroy, James Davison, George A. Madeira. 
1848 — James Davison, George A. Madeira, Dewalt Keefer. 
1849— G. A. Madeira, Dewalt Keefer, John A. Shank. 
1850— D. Keefer, John A. Shank, George S. Eyster. 
1851 — John A. Shank, George S. Eyster, James Lowe. 
1852 — George S. Eyster, James Lowe, John Alexander. 
1853 — James Lowe, John Alexander, John Huber. 
1854 — John Alexander, John Huber, Jos. Johnston. 
1855 — John Huber, Jos. Johnston, Robert Mcllvaney. 
1856 — Jos. Johnston, Robert Mcllvaney, Samuel Myers. 
1857 — Robert McHvaney, Samuel Myers, D. M. Leisher. 
1858 — Samuel Myers, D. M. Leisher, John S. Nimmon. 
1859 — D. M. Leisher, John S. Nimmon, J. A. Eyster. 
1860 — J. S. Nimmon, J. A. Eyster, Jacob S. Good. 
1861 — J. A. Eyster, Jacob S. Good, James D. Scott. 
1862 — Jacob S. Good, James D. Scott, John Nitterhouse. 
1863 — James D. Scott, John Nitterhouse, John Downey. 
1864 — John Nitterhouse, John Downey, Henry Good. 
1865 — John Downey, Henry Good, John Armstrong. 
1866 — Henry Good, John Armstrong. Daniel Skinner. 
1867 — John Armstrong, Daniel Skinner, Jonas C. Palmer. 
1868— Daniel Skinner, J. C. Palmer, William Shinafield. 
1869— J. C. Palmer, William Shinafield, E. K. Lehman. 
1870 — William Shinafield, E. K. Lehman, J. B. Brumbaugh. 
1871— E. K. Lehman, J. B. Brumbaugh, S. M. Worley. 
1872— J. B. Brumbaugh, S. M. Worley, R. J. Boyd. 
1873— S. M. Worley, R. J. Boyd, Jacob Kauffman. 
1874— R. J. Boyd, Jacob Kauffman, W. D. Guthrie. 
1875— Jacob Kauffman, W. D. Guthrie, Samuel Coble. 
1876-79 — Daniel Gelwix, James Patton, J. Watson Craig. 
1879-82 — Wm. S. Reed, John Kyner, Frank Creamer. 
1882-85 — Daniel Potter, Henry Omwake, Martin Miller. 
1885-88— Jacob Middour, Jacob S. Snively, John Waidlich. 


1784-88— Unknown. 
1788— Robert Boyd. 
1789-96— Unknown. 
1796-99--James Parks. 
1799— William Scott. 
1800— William Orbison. 
1801-04— William Ward, Jr. 
1804-06— Thomas G. McCulloh. 
1806— J. M. Russell. 
1807— E. B. Mendenhall. 
1808-11 — Henry Reges. 
1811-15— William M. McDowell. 
1815-18— Peter S. Deckhert. 
1818-27 — Daniel Spangler. 
1827 — Hiram Cox. 
1828-36— John Colhoun. 
1836-42— Richard Morrow. 
1842— Henry Smith. 

1843— James R. Kirby. 
1844-46—1. H. McCauley. 
1846-50— A. H. McCulloh. 
1850-53— John M. Fisher. 
1853-56— Thomas L. Fletcher. 
1856— Jacob Sellers. 
1857— William Gelwicks. 
1858 — Jacob Sellers. 
1859 — Samuel Longenecker. 
1860-71 — George Foreman. 
1871— H. C. Koontz. 
1872— H. C. Keyser. 
1873-75— H S. Shade. 
1875— H C. Keyser. 
1876— Thomas M. Nelson. 
1876-77— T. M. Nelson. 
1880— E. G. Etter. 
1886— D. S. Hager. 



1785-88— Unknown. 

1788 — James Johnston, Benjamin Chambers, James Irwin. 

1789-93— Unknown. 

1793-94 — Benjamin Chambers, James Irwin, John Rea. 

1794-98— Unknown. 

1798-1800 — James Ramsey, John Brown. 

1800-01 — John Brown, James Buchanan. 

1802 — James Buchanan, Nicholas Clopper. 

1803 — Nicholas Clopper, George Hetich. 

1804 — George Hetich, William Scott. 

1805 — Nicholas Clopper, William Scott, Robert Smith. 

1806 — William Scott, Robert Smith, Thomas Brown. 

1807 — Robert Smith, Thomas Brown, John Gilmor. 

1808 — Thomas Brown, John Gilmor, John Holliday. 

1809 — John Gilmor, John Holliday, David Rankin. 

1810 — D. Fullerton, David Maclay, Henry Thompson. 

1811 — Henry Thompson, David Fullerton, D. Maclay. 

1812 — Henry Thompson, Robert Robison, Joseph Scott. 

1813 — Robert Robison, Joseph Scott. 

1814— Patrick Campbell, David Eby, W T illiam Scott. 

1815 — David Eby, Andrew Robison, William Alexander. 

1816 — William Alexander, Sr. , Andrew Robison, John Walker. 

1817 — John Walker, John Culbertson. 

1818 — John Walker, John Culbertson, James McCoy. 

1819— John Culbertson, James McCoy, John Flanagan. 

1820 — James McCoy, John Flanagan, Thomas McClelland. 

1821 — John Flanagan, George Hetich. 

1822— Thomas McClelland, George Hetich, Thomas Waddell. 

1823 — George Hetich, Joseph Grubb. 

1824 — Thomas Waddell, Joseph Grubb, William Gamble. 

1825 — Joseph Grubb, William Gamble, Thomas Carson. 

1826 — William Gamble, Thomas Carson, John Walker. 

1827 — Thomas Carson, John Walker, Isaac Ward. 

1828 — John W T alker, Jacob Negley, John Findlay, Sr. 

1829 — Isaac Ward, Jacob Neglev, John McClintock. 

1830— Jacob Negley, Archibalds. McCune. 

1831— Archibald S. McCune, J. Allison. 

1832 — J. Allison, James Colhoun. 

1833 — Jacob Heyser, Joseph Pumroy. 

1834— Jacob Heyser, Joseph Pumroy, John McClintock. 

1835 — Joseph Pumroy, John McClintock, John Witherow. 

1836 — John McClintock, John Witherow, Jacob Negley. 

1837 — John Witherow, Jacob Negley. 

1838 — Jacob Negley, William Fleming, David Lytle. 

1839— William Fleming, David Lytle, John Orr. 

1840— David Lytle, John Orr, J. B. Guthrie. 

1841— John Orr, J. B. Guthrie, John Deardorff. 

1842— J. B. Guthrie, John D. Work. John Deardorff. 

1843— John Deardorff, John D. Work, Robert Wallace. 

1844 — Samuel Lehman, Robert Wallace, John Tritle. 

1845— Robert Wallace, John Tritle. 

1846 — John Tritle, John Johnston, Abram Stouffer. 

hyBGWJha • ■ " 



1847 — John Johnston, Abram Stouffer, Joseph Snively. 

1848 — Abraui Stouffer, Joseph Snively, Thomas Carson. 

1849— Joseph Snively, Thomas Carson, B. A. Doyle. 

1850 — Thomas Carson, B. A. Doyle, George W. Zeigler. 

1851 — B. A. Doyle, George W. Zeigler, James L. Black. 

1852— G. W. Zeigler, James L. Black, W. A. Shields. 

1853 — William A. Shields, William Armstrong, David Spencer. 

1854 — William Armstrong, David Spencer, W. S. Amberson. 

1855 — D. Spencer, W. S. Amberson, John Bowman. 

1856 — W. S. Amberson, John Bowman, C. W. Burkholder. 

1857— John Bowman, C. W. Burkholder, D. H. McPherson. 

1858— C. W. Burkholder, D. H. McPherson, William Fleagle. 

1859— D. H. McPherson, William Fleagle, J. E. Brewster. 

1860 — William Fleagle, Andrew Davison, John Downey. 

1861 — John Downey, Andrew Davison, George Jarrett. 

1862 — John Downey, George Jarrett, D. K. Wunderlich. 

1863— George Jarrett, D. K. Wunderlich. 

1864— D. K. Wunderlich, D. B. Martin, W. S. Amberson. 

1865— D. B. Martin, W. S. Amberson, M. Martin. 

1866— W. S. Amberson, D. B. Martin, Samuel W. Nevin. 

1867 — M. Martin, Samuel W. Nevin, Samuel Myers. 

1868-69 — Samuel W. Nevin, Samuel Myers, Joseph Mowers. 

1870 — Samuel Myers, Joseph Mowers, J. W. Winger. 

1871— Joseph Mowers, J. W. Winger, John C. Tritle. 

1872— J. W. Winger, John C. Tritle.. John A. Sellers. 

1873 — John A. Sellers, John Cressler, Samuel Taylor. 

1874 — John A. Sellers, John Cressler, H. R. Harnish. 

1875 — J. Cressler, H. R. Harnish, Samuel Taylor. 

1876— Samuel Taylor, W. H. Blair, William M. Gillan. 

1876-79— Samuel Taylor, W. H. Blair, Wm. M. Gillan. 

1879-82— Simon Lecron, James W. Duffield, AVilliam Frye. 

1882-85— Aaron F. Snoke, D. C. Clark, Lemuel Snively. 

1885-88 — Samuel S. Reisher, John Pensinger, George W. Johnston. 


The Act of Assembly for the erection of the ' ' House for the employment 
and support of the poor ' ' of the county was approved by the governor, March/ 
11, 1807. The second section of the act provided that at the election to be 
held in October, 1807, five persons should be elected "to determine upon and; 
fix the place on which the buildings should be erected," and also that there 
should be elected ' ' three persons to be directors of the poor, ' ' one to serve 
for one year, one for two years, and one for three years, their terms to be de- 
termined by lot. 

William Allison, David Fullerton, John Colhoun, Col. Joseph Culbertsoc 
and John Maclay, were elected the commissioners to fix the site for the poor- 
house, and Robert Liggett, James Robinson and Ludwig Heck were elected 
directors of the poor. 

The commissioners selected the farm of Thomas Lindsay (the site of the 
present poor-house) as the place where the poor-house should be erected, and 
in the year 1808 the directors purchased it for the stun of $8,200. Tne farm 
then contained 165 acres, and had a stone farm house, barn, etc., upon it. 
This house was somewhat enlarged, and used until the year 1811, when the 
large stone building, now standing, was put up. 



In the years 1853-54, the large brick house was erected at a cost of about 
$12,000. The farm now contains about 210 acres. 

The following lists contain the names of the directors of the poor-house, its 
stewards, treasurers, attorneys, clerks and physicians, from the year 1807 to 
the present time, so far as they could be ascertained: 


1808 — James Robinson, Robert Liggett, Ludwig Heck. 
1809 — Robert Liggett, Ludwig Heck, Henry Etter. 
1810 — Ludwig Heck, Henry Etter, Isaac Eaton. 
1811 — Henry Etter, Isaac Eaton, Samuel Radebaugh. 
1812 — Isaac Eaton, Samuel Radebaugh. 
1813 — Samuel Radebaugh, Matthew Lind. 

1814 , Matthew Lind, John Vance. 

1815 — Matthew Lind, John Vance, Philip Berlin. 

1816 — John Vance, Philip Berlin, John Snider. 

1817 — Philip Berlin, John Snider, John Rudisil. 

1818 — John Snider, John Rudisil, Matthew Patton. 

1819 — John Rudisil, Matthew Patton, D. Washabaugh. 

1820— Matthew Patton, D. Washabaugh, J. Stouffer. 

1821 — D. Washabaugh, J. Stouffer, William McKesson. 

1822— J. Stouffer, William McKesson, John Snider. 

1823 — William McKesson, John Snider, Thomas Yeates. 

1824 — John Snider, Thomas Yeates, Jacob Heck. 

1825 — Thomas Yeates, Jacob Heck, A. Thompson. 

1826 — Jacob Heck, A. Thompson, John Davison. 

1827 — A. Thompson, John Davison, Thomas Yeates. 

1828 — John Davison, Thomas Yeates, John Vance. 

1829 — Thomas Yeates, John Vance, John Coble. 

1830 — John Vance, John Coble, Samuel Dechart. 

1831 — John Coble, Samuel Dechart, Nicholas Baker. 

1832 — Samuel Dechart, Nicholas Raker, James Davison. 

1833 — Nicholas Baker, James Davison, John Radebaugh. 

1834 — James Davison, John Radebaugh, John Orr. 

1835 — John Radebaugh, John Orr, Jacob Oyster. 

1836 — John Orr, Jacob Oyster, John Whitmore. 

1837 — Jacob, Oyster, John Whitmore, William Linn. 

3838 — John Whitmore, William Linn, Samuel Campbell. 

1839 — William Linn, Samuel Campbell, Philip Nitterhouse. 

1840 — Samuel Campbell, Philip Nitterhouse, James Davison. 

1841 — Philip Nitterhouse, James Davison, Matthew Patton. 

1842 — James Davison, Matthew Patton, Upton Washabaugh. 

1843 — Matthew Patton, Upton Washabaugh, John Monn, Jr. 

1844 — Upton Washabaugh, John Monn, Jr., Samuel Lehman. 

1845 — John Monn, Jr., Samuel Lehman, John S. Detwiler. 

1846— Samuel Lehman, John L. Detwiler, Daniel Bonebrake. 

1847 — John L. Detwiler, Daniel Bonebrake, Fred. Boyer. 

1848 — Daniel Bonebrake, Fred. Boyer, John Wise. 

1849 — Fred. Boyer, John Wise, David Hays. 

1850 — John Wise, David Hays, S. Detwiler. 

1851 — David Hays, S. Detwiler, Jacob Garver. 

1852 — Samuel Lehman, Jacob Garver, Martin Newcomer. 

1853 — Jacob Garver, Martin Newcomer, D. O. Gehr. 



1854 — Martin Newcomer, D. O. Gehr, James Ferguson. 

1855 — D. O. Gehr, James Ferguson, Josiah Besore. 

1856— James Ferguson, Josiah Besore, Jacob Weaver. 

1857 — Josiah Besore, Jacob "Weaver, M. Gillan. 

1858 — Jacob Weaver, M. Gillan, Jacob Strickler. 

1859 — M. Gillan, Jacob Strickler, David Spencer. 

1860 — Jacob Strickler, David Spencer, J. S. Latshaw. 

1861 — David Spencer, J. S. Latshaw, William Harris. 

1862 — J. S. Latshaw, William Harris, Samuel Seacrist. 

1863 — William Harris, Samuel Seacrist, John Doebler. 

1864 — Samuel Seacrist, John Doebler, John H. Criswell. 

1865 — John H. Criswell, James H. Clayton, Martin Heintzelman. 

1866 — John H. Criswell, James H. Clayton, Martin Heintzelman. 

1867 — James H. Clayton, Martin Heintzelman, John Gillan, Jr. 

1868-69 — Martin Heintzelman, John Gillan, Jr., J. R. Smith. 

1870- John Gillan, John Smith, Fred. Long. 

1871— J. R. Smith, Fred. Long, Peter McFerren. 

1872 — Fred. Long, Peter McFerren, David Deatrick. 

1873 — Peter McFerren, David Deatrick, Jacob Kreider. 

1874 — David Deatrick, Jacob Kreider, Amos Stouffer. 

1875 — Jacob Kreider, Amos Stouffer, William Bossart. 

1876 — Amos Stouffer, William Bossart, Henry Lutz. 

1877— William Bossart, Henry Lutz, B. F. Funk. 

1878— Henry Lutz, B. F. Funk, Jacob Frick. 

1879— B. F. Funk, Jacob Frick, John Lindsay. 

1880 — Jacob Frick, John Lindsay, Benjamin Lehman. 

1881 — John Lindsay, Benjamin Lehman, H. B. Angle. 

1882 — Benjamin Lehman, H. B. Angle, John E. Maclay. 

1883— H. B. Angle, John E. Maclay, Geo. W. Brindle. 

1834— John E. Maclay, Geo. W. Brindle, Charles A. Clark. 

1885 — Geo. W. Brindle, Charles A. Clark, John A. Witherspoon. 

1886-*Charles A. Clark,* John A. Witherspoon, H. C. Funk.f 

1887 — John A. Witherspoon, John H. Crisswell, Levi D. C. Houser. 


1808-14— Daniel Shrceder. 
1814-21 — Benjamin Graver. 
1821-27— Richard Morrow. 
1827-30— Philip Lauffman. 
1830-33— Andrew McLellan. 
1833-39— Col. John Snider. 
1839— David Fegley. 
1840-43— WiUiam J. Morrow. 
1843-45 — Emanuel Crosland. 
1845-54 — Samuel Jeffries. 

1854-56— David Piper. 
1856-59— William Shinafield. 
1859 — John Bowman. 
1860-64 — James Chariton. 
1864-66— William McGrath. 
1866-68— John Ditzlear. 
1868— David Piper. 
1869-73— Samuel Brandt. 
1873-84— Joseph Middouer. 
1884-87— Augustus H. Etter. 


1808-14— David Denney. 1823— John Sloan. 

1814-21— Unknown. 1824-27— Hugh Greenfield. 

1821-23— William Heyser. 1827-30— Daniel Spangler. 

*Died, and vacancy filled April 27 until January, 1886, by the appointment of Levi D. C. Houser, who, at 
the November election, was elected for a full term of three years. 

tDied and vacancy filled July 17 by the appointment of John H. Crisswell until January 1, 1886, who, at 
the November election, was elected for two years, Mr. Funk's unexpired term. 



1830-32— Joseph Pritts. 
1832-35— Henry Smith. 
1835 — Jasper E. Brady. 
1836-38— William Bard. 
1838— Henry Kuby. 
1839-43— Daniel Dechert. 
1843-45— William Flory. 
1845-48— Daniel S. Fahnestock 
1848— James Wright. 


-D. S. Fahnestock. 
-J. Smith Grier. 
-John W. Reed. 
-Charles Gelwicks. 
-Alex. Martin. 

1872— Thomas Metcalfe. 
1873-80— Hugh B. Davison. 
1881-87— S. Miller Shillito. 



14— Elijah B. Mendenhall. 

-F. Hershberger. 

—Matthew Lind. 

-D. C. Dehart. 

-James McKay. 

21 — Henry Reges. 

23 — Daniel Spangler. 

27 — Richard Morrow. 

—Hiram Cox. 

31— William S. Davis. 

1831— John Colhoun. 
1832— James R. Kirby. 
1833-35— John Smith. 
1835-37— John W. Reges. 
1837^L0— Richard Morrow. 
1840-43— Jacob Heck. 
1843-45— Hugh B. Davison. 
1845-48— Charles W. Heart. 
1848-50— John W. Reges. 




-Lyman S. Clarke. 
-J. Wyeth Douglass. 
-Snively Strickler. 
-William S. Everett. 
-E. J. Bonebrake. 
-John R. Orr. 


1808 — Abraham Senseny. 
1809-14— John Sloan. 
1815-18— Andrew McDowell. 
1819-20— George B. McKnight. 
1821-23— A. J. Dean. 
1824-26— Samuel D. Culbertson. 
1827— Peter Fahnestock. 
1828— N. B. Lane. 
1829-30— Andrew McDowell. 
1831 J 32 — Jeremiah Senseny. 
1833— D. S. Byrne. 
1834-35— J. Bayne. 
1836-37— A. H. Senseny. 
1838 — John Lambert. 
1839^1— J. Evans. 
1842-43— J. C. Richards. 
1844— William H. Boyle. 
1845-47— John Lambert. 

1873-76— James A. McKnight. 
1876-77— Frank Mehaffey. 
1878— John M. McDowell. 
1879-82— N. Bruce Martin. 
1882-85— Loren A. Culp. 
1885-87— J. F. Linn Harbaugh. 


1848-49— N. B. Lane. 
1850-52— John King. 
1853 — -John Lambert. 
1854— A. H. Senseny. 
1855— S. G. Lane. 
1856-57— A. H. Senseny. 
1858— W. H. Boyle. 
1859-61— S. G. Lane. 
1862-63 — James Hamilton. 
1864-65— J. L. Suesserott. 
1866-67— J. C. Richards. 
1868— C.L. Bard, T.J. McLanahan. 
1869-72— W. H. Boyle. 
1873-75— T. J. McLanahan. 
1876-77— Samuel G. Lane. 
1878-81— T. J. McLanahan. 
1882-85— Charles F. Palmer. 
1886-87— John P. Seibert. 


1872-78— Augustus Bickley. 
1879-80— Philip Hamman. 

1881-87— Augustus Bickley. 

*Mr. Davison died, and on April 5, 1880, S. Miller Shillito was elected to fill remainder of year. 


Mr. j?iekley commenced holding religious service at the poor-house in 
1836, and continued with few interruptions until 1872, when he was regular- 
ly elected chaplain, witn d salary. 


1736 — Zachariah Butcher, Lancaster County. 
1743-1746 — Thomas Cookson, Lancaster County 
1750 — Col. John Armstrong, Cumberland County. 

1784 — Matthew Henderson, of Cumberland County, to 

1784-96 — Matthew Henderson, of Lurgan Township. 

1796-1804— Daniel Henderson. 

1804-09— Thomas Kirby, Chambersburg. 

1809-13— Thomas Poe, Antrim. 

1813-21 — Archibald Fleming, Antrim. 

1821-24— William S. Davis. 

1824-29 — William Hamilton, Peters or Montgomery. 

1830-34— William S. Davis, Chambersburg. 

1834-36— Seth Kline, Greene. 

1836-37 — William S. Davis, Chambersburg. 

1837-39— Samuel M. Armstrong. 

1839-45 — Hugh Auld, Chambersburg. 

1845-47 — Augustus F. Armstrong, Chambersburg. 

1847-50— Hugh Auld, Chambersburg. 


By the act of the 9th of April, 1850, county surveyors were directed to 
be elected to serve for the term of three years each. 
The following persons have filled the office: 
1850-56— Emanuel Kuhn, St. Thomas. 
1856-62 — John B. Kaufman, Letterkenny. 
1862-71 — Emanuel Kuhn, Chambersburg.* 
1871-75 — John B. Kaufman, Letterkenny. 
1875-78— John W. Kuhn, Peters. 
1878-87 — John B. Kaufman, Letterkenny (present incumbent). 


Prior to the passage of the act of 1850, providing for the election of dis- 
trict attorneys, the State's attorney or prosecuting attorneys were the 
deputies of the attorney-general for the time being, appointed by him, 
and removable at his pleasure. The court records prior to 1842 having 
been burned, it is not possible to make more than a partial list of the former 
prosecuting attornevs, as follows: 

1789-90— John Clark. 1824— Frederick Smith. 

1790-1802— William Brown. 1842-45— Wilson Reilly. 

1802-12— William Maxwell, Gettysburgl845-47— William R. Rankin. 
1813— William M. McDowell. 1847-49— George W. Brewer. 

1819— Matthew St. Clair Clarke. 1849-51— Hugh W. Reynolds. 


Elected under the act of 3d of May, 1850, to serve three years, from first 
Monday in November after election. 

♦Resigned April, 1871, and John B. Kaufman was appointed for the unexpired term. Mr. Kaufman 
was also elected for the full term in October, 1871. 


1851-54— James S. Ross. 1872-75— Theodore McGowan. 

18^1-^7- i Thomas B. Kennedy. 1875-78 — Oliver C. Bowers. 

° ( Lyman S. Clarke. 1878-81— Oliver C. Bowers. 

1857-60— Lyman S. Clarke. 1881-84— Chas. A. Suesserott. 

1860-63— George Eyster. 1884-87— W. J. Zacharias. 

1863-72— William S. Stenger. 1887 —Hiram J. Plough. 


Elected under the act of 10th of April, 1867, to serve for three years. 

1867-70 — Addison Imbrie, William Boyd. 

1870-73— W. H. H. Mackey, Elias Patton. 

1873-76— John Gilbert, A. H. Etter. 

1876-79— J. C. McCulloh, Lewis Lecron. 

1883 — George S. Coover, David M. Lowry. 

1886— John E. Harvey, L. H. Henkell. 


Selected under act of May 8, 1854, to serve for three years. 
1854-57— James McDowell, Hugh 1869-72— Samuel Gelwix. 
J. Campbell. 1872-75— Jacob S. Smith. 

1857-63— Philip M. Shoemaker. 1875-81— S. H. Eby. 

1863-66— Andrew J. McElwain 1881-87— Harry A. Disert. 

1866-69— Philip M. Shoemaker. 



Lands and Land Titles— Indian Trails— Roads— Bridges— Turnpikes— Inns 
or Taverns — Militia— Muster Days— Mail Routes and Postoffices— 
Postmasters — Railroads — Cumberland Valley Railroad — First 
Sleeping Car Ever Made— Franklin Railroad— Shenandoah Valley 
Railroad— Harrisburg & Potomac Railroad— Western Maryland Rail- 
road — Baltimore & Cumberland Valley" Railroad— Mont Alto Rail- 
road — Mont Alto Iron Works, etc. 

WHEN the white man came here he found all the lands in the possession of 
the Indians. Their title was simply that of tribal possession. There was 
no individual ownership, and to this day that race spurns the idea of individual 
property in land. When civilization put its foot down to stay upon this con- 
tinent it taught these children of the forest the sad lesson to them, of not only 
individual title to land but title acquired by right of discovery and con- 

By grant from England, William Penn became the proprietary of the lands 
that constitute the commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The spendthrift king 
was in debt to the Penn estate something over £16,000, and it was an easy 
matter for him to pay his debts by granting anything the creditor might want 
in the New World. Penn, by his agents first, and then in person, came on and 
entered upon his possessions. He used every means to bring immigrants here, 
and was very liberal in conferring titles to all who wished to occupy land. 


After Perm had purchased of the English Government what he had supposed 
was an indefeasible title to the land described in his grant, and his agents 
came to occupy the same, he found that his title was disputed by tribes of In- 
dians — first the Five Nations and afterward the Six Nations. He met them in 
the spirit of the utmost fairness, and again purchased what he had already 
paid his king in full for. And more than once he had to buy the title to the 
same property from new claimant tribes, and in some instances, where the same 
tribe had sold and spent the proceeds of the sale, they demanded a second 
payment. Even these unreasonable claims were attended to and the second 
payments cheerfully made. 

Penn sold at very cheap rates to immigrants wanting to settle upon lands. 
He was as lenient to the absurd claims of some squatters, who here and there 
took possession and resisted his rights, as he had been to the ignorant Indians, 
in his sales generally reserving a small quit rent per acre, or in case of town 
lots, per lot, to be paid to proprietary per annum. In this way came all the 
titles to lands in Pennsylvania prior to the Revolution. When the independ- 
ence of the colonies was established, the right of eminent domain and the title 
to all lands, not transferred to individuals, rested in the General Government, a 
satisfactory compensation having been made the proprietaries in the adjust- 
ment of the subject. 

The modern convenient plan of sectionizing land was then unknown. 
A purchaser would get a grant for so much land in a certain locality, and then 
locate it and mark it out as his judgment dictated, his first consideration being 
a spring of water, and then to curve and crook his lines to get where he sup- 
posed would be the best land. 


The setting sun, the mountain passes, and the topography of mountain and 
valley, determined the course of the Indian trails — the only highways known 
to the savages. The " war-path" was a term full of meaning. Bloody and 
senseless wars were the chief end in life of the most of them, and the trails 
from tribe to tribe usually meant " the war-path " — the thin trails worn in the 
primeval rocks by the generations of painted braves on their bloody missions. 

These Indian trails directed the white man to the heart of the wilderness. 
They were the primitive roads pointing his course in his slow voyage from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific. The adventurous hunters would discover and 
first follow up these trails, and then tell the young immigrants of the wonders of 
the country they had seen. It was a hunter, that had looked upon Falling 
Springs and the surrounding beautiful land, who told young Chambers about 
it, and determined him to come here. By following the trail leading from 
about Harrisburg toward the Potomac, as directed by the hunter, the Cham- 
berses were led to the spot that will ever be a monument to the memory of that 
illustrious family. 


In 1736 the first road was laid out in the Cumberland Valley. It would be 
most probably termed in these days a bridle road, that is, a road over which 
the trains of pack-horses could travel and carry, as they did, the articles of 
commerce of that day. In the year named, the court of Lancaster appointed 
Col. Chambers, and five others, to view roads and survey important lines. In 
1735 a road had been ordered to be made from Harris' Ferry toward the Po- 
tomac River, and Col. Chambers and party surveyed the route and ' ' blazed it 
out." This first road, strange as it seems now, met with considerable opposi- 
tion ' ' from a number of inhabitants on the west side of the Susquehanna. ' ' It 


was originally intended to extend only from Harris' Ferry to Letort Springs, 
(Carlisle. ) 

Military Road, 1755. — This road extended from McDowell's Mill, near 
Chambersburg, "over the mountains to Raystown (Bedford), by the forks of 
the Youghiagheny, to intersect the Virginia road somewhere on the Mononga- 
hela," being supposed indispensable for the supply of Braddock's troops on 
the route to Fort Du Quesne, and after their arrival. One of the commission- 
ers to lay out this road was Adam Hoops, of Antrim. A route was surveyed 
from a gap in the mountain near Shippensburg over an old Indian trail to 
Raystown. The road was from ten to thirty feet wide, according to the work 
necessary ti construct it; it was completed to Baystown in June. Braddock's 
defeat rend vred further work unnecessary, and it was stopped. 

In 1768 he first public road extending through this county and into Fulton 
County was ordered by the court of quarter sessions of Cumberland County. 
It was an extension of the old ''Harris' Ferry toward the Potomac " road. 
When made, it ran through Peters, Antrim and Washington Townships, as they 
are now formed. 

At the April session of the court of Cumberland County, 1761, a petition 
of the people of Peters Township was presented, asking for a road, saying that 
they have no prospect for a standing market for the produce of the county, 
only at Baltimore, and having no road leading from their township to said 
town of Baltimore, and flour being the principal commodity their ' ' township 
produceth, and having two mills in said township, viz. : John McDowell's and 
William Smith' s, ' ' they pray the court to appoint men to view and lay out a 
road from each of said mills to meet at or near the house of William Maxwell, 
and from thence to run by the nearest and best way toward said town of Bal- 
timore, until it intersects the ' ' temporary line, ' ' or the line of York County. 
The court appointed Henry Pawling, James Jack, John Allison, Joseph Brad- 
ner, John McClellan, Jr. , and William Holliday, viewers, any four of them to 
make a report. No report was made until April, 1768, when the viewers re- 
ported in favor of granting the petition of the people of Peters and Hamilton 
Townships. But the branch roads to the mills were restricted to be bridle 
roads. They were to unite at or near James Irwin's mill, in Peters Town- 
ship; thence crossing to the Conococheague Creek, at the mouth of Muddy Run; 
thence through Antrim Township to Nicholson's Gap, in the South Mountain, 
from there to Baltimore. Thus it mainly followed the old trail ; the trail being 
superseded by a bridle road, and this by a wagon road, and the last by a 
turnpike. This was the regular order of development that has now resulted 
in the railroads — the first and main lines of which substantially follow the great 
Indian trails. 

In 1 768 the court appointed Edward Crawford, Jonah Cook, George Brown, 
AVilliam McBrier, William Holliday and William McDowell, viewers, to locate 
a road from James Campbell's, near Loudon, through Chambersburg, to the 
county line in Black' s Gap. This is now substantially the route of the present 
turnpike road. 

When Chambersburg was laid out as a town, the road toward Shippensburg 
crossed the spring at the present fording on King Street, and following its 
course through the Indian burial place and the yard of the Presbyterian 
Church, finally joined the present road in front of the church, and pursued its 
eastward course several rods distant from the present turnpike, but nearly 
parallel with it. The only place where the Conococheague could be crossed 
near the southern limit of the town was . at the lower fording, at Lemon' s 
factory, where the bridge now is. At this ancient fording Col. Chambers once 



kept a fiat-boat for carrying foot passengers. Two roads ran westward from 
the ford, one of which, now Franklin Street, wound over the hill to Market 
Street, and then proceeded directly west. The other ran through "Wolfstown 
and formed a junction with the former at Western Point, about a mile from 

Of the roads in early times in the county, Dr. W. C. Lane, in Public 
Opinion, June 20, 1877, says: "In the infancy of the settlement the facilities 
which merchants now enjoy for bringing their goods from the eastern cities 
were unknown. Then we were not within a few hours' ride of Philadelphia, 
and could riot order goods one day and receive them the next. Turnpikes were 
yet among the things of the future, and goods from the East were slowly drawn 
over the rough roads, in small and lumbering wagons, and many days were re- 
quired for the journey. Commercial intercourse with the West was carried on 
exclusively by means of pack-horses, and the process of sending goods to, Or 
bringing them from, this remote part of the State, was both slow and expen- 
sive; as a necessary consequence, merchandise of all varieties then commanded 
a much higher price than it does now. This mode of transporting goods on 
pack-horses from Chambersburg ran into the beginning of the present century. 
The roads from Chambersburg to the West were then narrow and rough, and 
wagons could hardly be drawn over them, and pack-horses were, necessarily, 
almost exclusively used as a means of transportation. Long strings of these 
horses, with small bells suspended from their necks, and laden with salt, iron 
and goods of various kinds, were accustomed to start from the town on their 
weary march to their distant destination. A wooden pack-saddle was fastened 
on the back of the horse, and over this was placed bent bars of iron, on the 
curved and projecting ends of which sacks of salt, iron bars and cast iron uten- 
sils of various kinds were strapped. Each horse carried about 200 pounds, and 
many weary days were spent in traversing the country over which they passed. 
It will not be forgotten that, at this early date, the western counties of the 
State were sparsely settled, and that the manufacture of iron, salt and different 
other commodities, was yet undeveloped. Hence, the people of these sections 
were entirely dependent upon the East for these indispensable articles of daily 
use. We may incidentally remark that, about the year 1790, Mr. John Gil- 
more, of Strasburg, sold salt at his store in that town, for transportation to 
Washington County, on pack-horses, at $8 per bushel. Other articles of trade 
brought correspondingly high prices. In the few following years the roads 
over the mountains were widened and otherwise improved, and wagons then 
took the places of pack-horses. The usual time required for a loaded wagon 
to make the trip from Chambersburg to Pittsburg, and return, was three 
weeks. The average price of freight between these places was $10 per hun- 


The first consideration to the settlers, in order to live at all, was roads. 
They had to have salt and iron. These they could, after a fashion, carry over 
the rough and narrow roads they made. The growth of their wants soon com- 
pelled the making of wagon ways, and then it was some time before they felt 
compelled to put bridges across the streams. They contented themselves with 
* ' fords ' ' — shallow places — where, by a little work in digging the banks, it was 
possible to cross on the wagons with light loads, but here, as in many places 
in the mountain passes, they would "double teams," and in mud and water, 
and in sore trials and labor, after spending the most of a day at a bad cross- 
ing, they would pass over. Then selecting places of narrow and steep banks 
they would make rude bridges. These were very imperfect affairs — often 


washed away by the freshets that went raging down the mountain streams, and 
many were the freighters and travelers who had to go into camp and patiently 
wait the subsidence of the waters. When the waters had gone down, the people 
would replace the washed- away first bridge with one better constructed, but 
still their inexperience often deceived them as to what the stream could do the 
next effort it made, and sometimes the second and third bridges would follow 
down the stream like the first one. 


The building of the first turnpike road was an era in the history of the de- 
velopment of the county. The people heard of its promised advantages, and 
the probabilities of its ever being really made, with some incredulity. The 
national and State governments willingly lent their aid to the construc- 
tion of these important improvements. Better ways for commercial inter- 
course among the distant communities were imperative. The great Mis- 
sissippi Valley was being rapidly taken up by settlers, and the stupendous 
national project was conceived of a great highway from Baltimore to 
the Mississippi River, through the States of Maryland, Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
Indiana and Illinois. The work upon this enterprise was carried on for 
nearly a generation. It was never completed to the Mississippi River, but waa 
built to Vandalia, the then capital of Illinois. It was the wants, the foresight 
and energy of the people of Franklin that caused the commencement of this 
national road. 

The turnpike road from Chambersburg to Baltimore was made in 1809, and 
the first broad- wheeled wagon which passed over it was made by Mr. Philip 
Berlin, of Chambersburg in that year. 

The Pittsburgh turnpike was made about 1820. The first stage coach from 
Chambersburg to Pittsburgh ' l passed over a rough and narrow mountain road 
in the year 1804" 

The construction of the Western turnpike gave an active impulse to trade, 
and goods were shipped over it in great broad-wheeled wagons in large quan- 
tities. The business activity of Chambersburg and the surrounding country 
then greatly increased. Several lines of stages started daily for Philadelphia, 
Pittsburgh and Baltimore, besides other lines, which reached less distant places. 
The town then was a great thoroughfare for travel, and at all seasons the town's 
hotels were filled with travelers. The public highways were soon lined with 
blacksmith and wagon-makers' shops, stage and hack stands, and trading 
places. The tavern yards were crowded with wagons, and merchants were busily 
engaged receiving and shipping goods. Large numbers of men were thus em- 
ployed. The road from Chambersburg to Pittsburgh was often lined with long 
files of broad-wheeled wagons, with their high bows covered with heavy can- 
vas, and drawn by those teams of powerful draught horses, for which Pennsyl- 
vania was once famous, many of whose necks were mounted with bearskin 
housings and tinkling bells. 

The following account kept by Henry R. F. Mollwitz, keeper of the North 

Mountain turnpike gate, leading from Loudon to McConnellsburg, for the years. 

1830 and 1834, exhibits at one view the amount of traveling, etc., on the 

turnpike, during those years. 

During the year 1830 1834 1830 1834 

Broad wheeled wagons 6641 6359 Riding horses 3116 2817 

Narrow wheeled " 495 374 Draft horses 39824 42330' 

Single horse " 761 1243 Heads of cattle 5834 6457 

Carriages 138 107 Sheep 2180 2852 

Two horse wagons 318 779 Hogs 1180 40 

Gigs 18 00 Carts 18 00 


The first turnpike company in the State was incorporated in April, 1792; 
but it was not built till about 1814, when many similar companies were char- 
tered, and the public mind became deeply interested in their building. The 
State was a liberal subscriber to such enterprises. Every State in the Union 
subscribed largely to its enterprises of internal improvements. During these 
times three important turnpike roads were constructed into Franklin County, 
and to each of these the State contributed liberally. The three roads were: 
The Carlisle and Chambersburg road (this received from the State $100,000); 
the Chambersburg and Bedford road ($175,000); and the Waynesboro, Green- 
castle and Mercersburg road ($25,000). 


Inns or taverns were numerous in those days. It is said that nearly 
every tenth house along the turnpike was a hostelry, whose yards were night- 
ly filled with wagons, and whose tap-rooms were thronged with noisy and 
hilarious teamsters. A violin was then considered an indispensable adjunct to 
a country tavern; and, moved by its inspiring notes, the jolly crowd often 
stamped and thundered through the ' ' stag dance, ' ' the Virginia reel, and the 
" hoe down." The fun was fast and furious, especially when the throng was 
maddened by their frequent and generous potations of the "worm of the 
still;" then a brawl and promiscuous fight was not unfrequent, and bloody 
noses and blackened eyes were the proud badges of the royal fun they had 
had. Certainly these were wild times — but they were jolly. The good old 
days of the wayside taverns ; the era of Concord coaches and their ' ' great men' ' 
drivers, who were the heroes par excellence, whether mounted upon their box, 
the "ribbons" guiding the prancing horses, the long whip, and the winding 
horns blowing defiance and triumph in the face of a gaping world, like the 
heralds of the plumed knights of old; or in the bar-room, the center of an ad- 
miring crowd, to which they gave their condescending and oracular "Yes; 
with a little sugar, please." They were the country taverns' truly great men. 
The flattering "treats" of the men, the gracious smiles of the blooming bar- 
maid, were theirs exclusively. What a picture of rural life and happy con- 
tent your recollection conjures up! Now all is gone. The shrill whistle of 
the flying engine has blown out of this world even those great heroes, the 
stage- drivers. Your memory lingers now like a fading tradition — ye have 
passed away, like a dissolving view — a silent tear to your shades. 


The earliest settlers were, soon after landing here, compelled to resort 
to some mode of military organization, by the action of the Indians. Then 
there were the conflicting claims to the country by the Spaniards, French and 
English. The different settlements, as they happened to be from different 
nations of Europe, were often given to raids upon neighboring colonies, and 
sometimes drove them off and destroyed their property; at other times they 
were content to take the colony under their authority, and incorporate the 
conquered colonists with their own society. Except the Quakers, all the peo- 
ple were more or less militant. As early as 1750, nearly every able-bodied 
man was in some way or other connected with the militia of his county. The 
Indians had become so troublesome that parties, when they went out to open 
new roads, had to go as armed squads of militia. In 1755 Col. James Smith, 
who afterward became eminent in the wars of the country, was captured by 
the Indians while in the act of opening a road from Loudon to Bedford. 

After the Revolution the Assembly enacted laws for the regular organiza- 


tion of the militia, and appointed officers to take charge thereof, and to hold 
regular encampments and muster days. All the people of the county en- 
rolled in the militia were required to meet upon the muster days, and to 
bring their guns and learn the drill of arms. Those who had no guns, the 
State being too poor to supply any, were requested to use a stick or, as some 
did, a corn stalk; and, hence, the name of " cornstalk militia" was at onetime 
a term quite common. These muster days were eventually great annual events in 
the county. Here the people met, discussed political and current events, arbitrated 
disputes, fought out old quarrels, and some drank whisky and rather indiscrim- 
inately frolicked and fought, as opportunity offered. In the early part of the cen- 
tury the authorities ordered a change in the uniform from a black to a white cock- 
ade in the hats of the militia. In counties where the Federal party was the 
stronger, this order created in some places almost riots, and in many there 
were acts of insubordination and open denunciation of the order. Companies 
would put on the required cockade while in the ranks drilling, but, the moment 
the commanding officer would say ' ' dismiss, ' ' they would tear off the regular 
cockades and trample them under foot, and from their pockets produce and 
place in their hats the other color cockade, and thus boisterously parade the 
town. Many court-martials of militia officers occurred for insubordinations, 
and the two political parties for a while were the "white cockades " and the 
' ' black cockades. ' ' 


It sounds strange to the people of to-day, to say that, for six years 
after the formation of the county, there was not a postoffice, or mail 
facilities of any kind, in the county, or in this part of the common- 
wealth. People in those days wrote letters and watched for opportuni- 
ties to send them by the hands of some party going to their destination. The 
Government sent letters to its army officers only by special couriers. Busi- 
ness men sent and received important business letters, and remitted and re- 
ceived money by the hands of persons going from one to the other. The 
freighters were, of course, a common convenience in this respect. But off 
these routes of general travel, it was a very difficult matter to communicate 
with friends. Practically then at one time, after there were certainly as 
many as 10,000 people in what is now Franklin County, neither letters nor 
papers were brought into the county. The first provision of the Government au- 
thorities, that refers to this county, was a resolution of Congress, passed May 20, 
1788. It provided that the Postmaster- General be directed to employ posts 
for the regular transportation of the mails between the city of Philadelphia, 
and the town of Pittsburgh, ' ' by the route of Lancaster, Yorktown, Carlisle, 
Chambers' Town and Bedford," and that the mail be dispatched, "once in 
each fortnight from the said postoffices respectively. ' ' 

The first postoffice in the county was established in Chambersburg in June, 
1790. The settlement was then sixty years old, and all this time the people 
had to supply their imperative necessities by such means as they could find. 
For many years thereafter, as the reader will see by reference to the dates of 
the establishment of the postoffices as given below, it was only the few princi- 
pal offices in the county that had any mail connections with one another. For 
a long time regular mails could only be sent from Chambersburg to Shippens- 
burg ; Chambersburg to Greencastle ; Chambersburg to Mercersburg, and Mer- 
cersburg to Hagerstown. Papers, circulars and political addresses preceding 
a hotly contested election were distributed by horseback couriers, each political 
party sending oat its distributors. These pony riders would usually start 
from the county seat on the first of the week, each provided with horns to 


blow when he would approach a hamlet or some leading citizen's house. The 
people would gather, they would distribute their important mail matter, and 
in this way go all over the county. These trips would occupy about the en- 
tire week. Barney O' Neil and Theo. Ditz, both living near Chambersburg, 
were such mail carriers. 

A copy of the Chambersburg Gazette of June 19, 1793, contains a list of 
settlers in the Chambersburg postoffice as follows: David Adams, Falling 
Springs; Patrick Boyle; Mathew Brown; Mary Brettow, care John Scott, 
Esq. ; John Bigham, care Hugh Bigham ; Thomas Cooper, James Crawford, 
Greencastle; Archibald Cunningham, care James Finley, Esq.; Andrew 
Dougherty, care J. Mahoney; James Dodds, care James Ramsey; John Mc- 
Donald, care John Gilmore; John Dorans, care John King; Thomas Downing, 
care Dr. Huey; David Ewing, care Andrew Kennedy; Christopher Ferris, 
Greencastle; Mathew Fleming, care Rev. John King; John Grimes, care John 
Martin; Andrew Givins, Tuscarora Valley; John Glenn, Mercersburg; William 
Guthrie, Southampton Township ; John Gilmore, Strasburg ; James Gregg, 
care John Calhoun; Thomas Henderson, hatter; Eleanor Hayes, care Samuel 
Calhoun; James Henderson, care John Scott; Charles Hunter, care James 
Ramsey or John Parkhill ; Lenox Hallam, care Capt. Beatty; James Hender- 
son; Andrew Irwin, care Samuel Quigley ; Robert Kidd, care Alexander Dobbin; 
John Kennon, care James Gailey; James Kelly, care James Ramsey; John Mil- 
ler, Coyler's Creek; William McKee, James McCaslin, John McCurdy, John 
McKillop, Alexander McCracken, care James Ramsey; William McCleneghan, 
care James McCleneghan; Samuel McMillin, Burnt Cabins; Robert Martin 
Cooper, care Geo. Clark; Thomas Mitchell, Susanah McShane, care Rev. 
John King; William Martin, Sherman's Valley; Walter McKinney, care John 
King; John Neal, care Thomas Lucas; Robert Porter, Robert Peebles, 
Hamilton Township; Archibald Patterson, shoe-maker; Robert Patterson, 
cooper; Nathaniel Rankin, Greencastle; Thomas Stewart, James Semple, 
Mrs. Polly Stokes, Charles Victor Shook, Peter Shields, Joseph Thompson, 
Henry Work, Esq., M. Williams, Peter Walter, Jacob Year, John Urr. 

The following is an alphabetical list of the postoffices in the county and 
the postmasters, with dates of appointments: 

Altenwald. — Jacob B. Cook, December 21, 1881. 

Amberson's Valley. — Benjamin J. Culbertson, December 16, 1850; Samuel 
Shearman, June 21, 1852; John Creamer, June 25, 1853; Jeremiah B. Jones, 
March 29, 1865; John M. Shearer, July 2, 1866; John A. Shoemaker, April 
28, 1874; Francis L. Shoemaker, August 3, 1885. 

Antietam (late Quincy). — Abraham Stoner, July 16, 1839; changed to 
Quincy September 2, 1841. 

Black's Gap. — Robert Black, June 15, 1869; changed to Greenwood Mills, 
September 29, 1869. 

Black's Gap (late Greenwood Mills). — Robert Black, February 9, 1870; 
Nannie C. Bohn, September 23, 1885. 

Blue Ridge Summit (late Monterey Springs). — A. C. Roosman, April 5, 
1876; Maggie L. Chapman, January 7, 1881. 

Bridgeport Mills. — Martin Hoover, February 15, 1837; discontinued May 
10, 1842; re-established with Jacob Phillipi, December 19, 1873; changed to 
Lemasters, April 6, 1877. 

Brown' s Mills, — Andrew Dalrymple, May 14, 1867; Hiram Young, April 15, 
1869; John H. Grayson, April 1, 1870; John T. Valentine, March 31, 1871; 
Jeremiah R. Young, February 25, 1876; Hiram Young, January 15, 1878: 
Henry C. Gelwicks, April 14, 1882; James B. Weicht, March 17, 1886. 


Carrick. — Samuel Dunn, April 16, 1834; John Dunn, May 8, 1843; Ben- 
jamin H. Eshleman, February 8, 1849; discontinued December 24, 1849. 

Carrick Furnace. — George W. Swank, July 5, 1860; William Noonan, Feb- 
ruary 26, 1864; discontinued, January 19, 1865; re-established with Samuel 
H. Brown, postmaster, October 23, 1872; Alvin W. Horning, January 12, 
1874; changed to Metal, May 19, 1884. 

Chambersburgh. — John Martin, June 1, 1790; Patrick Campbell, July 1, 
1795; Jeremiah Mahoney, January 1, 1796; John Brown, July 5, 1802; Jacob 
Deckert, April 7, 1818; John Findlay, Sr., March 30, 1829; John Findlay, 
July 9, 1836; William Gilmore, November 24, 1838; George H. Harper, April 
3, 1841; David D. Durboran, July 8, 1842; John McClintock, February 3, 
1846; Nicholas Pearse, April 18, 1849; John Noel, May 13, 1853; John Lig- 
gett, April 13, 1858; John W. Deal, April 15, 1861; Mathew P. Welsh, Sep- 
tember 19, 1866; John A. Seiders, April 8, 1869; Daniel O. Gehr, April 21, 
1877. E. W. Curriden, November 14, 1884; James Sweney, October 19, 1886. 

Clay Lick.— Elam B. Winger, April 21, 1862; Joseph W. Winger, Febru- 
ary 17, 1866; Jacob M. Winger, December 2, 1874; Albert C. Winger, March 
21, 1881; Jacob M. Winger, February 11, 1885; William B. Zullinger, July 
24, 1886. 

Concord. — Edward W. Doyle, April 1, 1811; Edward Doyle, January 16, 
1816; James Wilson, April 3, 1826; William E. Pumroy, June 15, 1849; Will- 
dam Johnston, June 10, 1853; Solomon B. Hockenberg, March 13, 1861; Til- 
lie E. McElheny, March 20, 1886; Rachel J. McElheny, April 10, 1886. 

Doylesburgh.— Philip T. Doyle, May 23, 1854; Joseph M. Doyle, April 29, 
1856; John Goshorn, February 11, 1865; Isaac Clugston, December 15, 1869; 
Alva C. Clugston, February 6, 1879. 

Dry Run. — William Campbell, Jr., February 5, 1825; James Ferguson, 
May 27, 1839; Thomas Wilson, April 27, 1849; John E. Kerr, December 1, 
1853; William W. Piles, January 16, 1854; Henry S. Doyle, June 21, 1856; 
James H. Craig, February 23, 1859; James M. Rankin, June 29, 1861; George 
E. Stewart, September 27, 1866; William H. H. McCoy, March 19, 1869; 
Wilson H. Coons, January 6, 1882; J. B. Elder, July 30, 1885. 

Edenville. — Levi L. Springer, December 21, 1882; William C. Hartman, 
November 9, 1885. 

Fannettsburgh — James Sweeney, March 30, 1809; Chamber Anderson, April 
11, 1820; James Brewster, December 19, 1834; Jacob Flickinger, April 14, 
1838; William Uttz, June 14, 1839; John Kyle, May 16, 18.45; Mary Kyle, 
October 5, 1848; William W. Skinner, September 23, 1850; John S. Skinner, 
May 1, 1854; Mary Kyle, July 19, 1853; John S. Skinner, May 1, 1854; George 
W. Swank, February 6, 1855; John Kegerries, November 1, 1855; Mary A. 
Kegerries, June 7, 1860; George A. Miller, December 22, 1870; Robert E. 
Typer, October 23, 1873; John J. Basore, January 6, 1875; Jacob B. Wine- 
man, December 9, 1885. 

Fayetteville. — John Darby, September 4, 1826; Frederick Ashbaugh, 
March 20, 1827; James D. Rea, December 27, 1831; Charles P. Cummings, 
June 14, 1832; William B. Cummings, October 21, 1835; R. M. French, Jan- 
uary 24, 1837; Joseph Boggs, June 22, 1841; R. M. French, July 29, 1845; 
Mary A. French, April 8, 1846; Hiram Heysinger, September 27, 1855; Will- 
iam Richey, April 24, 1857; David F. Richey, October 18, 1859; Joseph Boggs, 
June 17, 1861; Upton J. Cook, January 23, 1866; Jacob Oyler, August 29, 
1866; William N. Horner, March 19, 1869; John D. Boggs, January 6, 1882; 
John N. Baxter, September 14, 1885. 

Five Forks.— William H. Brown, March 5, 1873. 


Foltz. — Appleton Berger, April 2, 1880; Thomas O. Bradley, November 1, 
1882; George F. Grove, May 15, 1884; John A. Wister, August 24, 1885. 

Fort Loudon (late Loudon). — Thomas G. McGuire, June 22, 1883; John 
H. Metz, July 30, 1885. 

Greencastle. — John Watson, April 4, 1797; David Watson, June 29, 1837; 
Jacob F. Kreps, July 7, 1845; George Eby, February 27, 1849; William W. 
Fleming, April 9, 1849; William McCrary, June 11, 1853; George Eby, May 
28, 1861; Eli Fuss, July 29, 1868; George H. Miller, May 6, 1869; Henry P. 
Prather, December 18, 1871. 

Green Village. — James McAnulty, September 12, 1827; John E. McGaw, 
March 9, 1832; Thomas Sturgis, April 16, 1832; William Blankney, February 
22, 1833; Charles W. Lego, June 18, 1841; William Blankney, February 3, 
1843; John P. Wallace, May 4, 1849; Thomas H. Wallace, November 28, 1881; 
John Ditzlear, September 23, 1885. 

Greenwood Mills, (late Black's Gap). — Bobert Black, September 29, 1869; 
changed to Black's Gap, February 9, 1870. 

Jackson Hall. — John S. Kerr, May 12, 1827; Frederick Koemer, Febru- 
ary 2, 1830; John P. Baker, March 16, 1835; William McCleary, May 30, 
1837; John Underlich, April 11, 1839; John C. Tritle, June 21, 1853; 
Thomas C. Fitzgerald, September 19, 1854; Jacob C. Snyder, July 5, 1860; 
John McKnight, May 8, 1861; Jeremiah Y. Herman, March 30, 1868; James 

A. Davidson, December 22, 1870; Charles A. W. Baker, March 20, 1872; Fred- 
erick J. Pfoutz, March 27, 1879 ; changed to New Franklin August 21, 1882. 

Keeffer's Store. — Lewis Keeffer, August 25, 1849; Isaac H. Thompson, 
July 29, 1853; Lewis Keeffer, December 29, 1854; Jonathan Strine, Decem- 
ber 20, 1855; discontinued, December 5, 1856; re-established, with Philip 
D. Weaver, postmaster, May 13, 1858; George Westhafer, December 12, 
1859; discontinued, April 18, 1864; re-established with Wlliam Karper, 
postmaster, October 20, 1864; discontinued, February 9, 1871. 

Keef ers. — Jacob A. Karper, December 9, 1879 ; Daniel G. Hoover, March 
10, 1882; Jacob A. Karper, September 24, 1883; Joshua A. Phillips, Novem- 
ber 19, 1884. 

Lemasters (late Bridgeport Mills). — Samuel Plum, April 6, 1877; Edgar 

B. Diehl, May 11, 1885. 

Loudon. — Nicholas Baker, May 2, 1814; William H. Brotherton April 8, 
1817; Alexander Elder, February 1, 1819; William H. Brotherton, , June 27, 
1821; JohnEaston, October 18, 1823; Benjamin Stinger, December 24, 1828; 
Hugh L. McGaw, February 14, 1831; William Minich, October 11, 1833; 
Jane Minich, August 5, 1850; John Mullan, December 10, 1852; Jacob Sny- 
der, July 5, 1860; Eliza L. B. Madden, December 4, 1861; John Thompson, 
December 14, 1863; John H. Jarrett December 28, 1866; William Burgess, 
March 19, 1869; Hettie A. Easton, June 28, 1872; Thomas G. Maguire, 
October 2, 1878; changed to Fort Loudon, June 22, 1883. (This office was 
at one time called Loudontown. ) 

Lurgan. — D. D. Swanger, February 27, 1886; MaryE. Swanger, April 14, 

Marion. —William Martin, March 2, 1833; Abraham Scott, April 5, 1834; 
Emanuel Kuhn, January 21, 1835; John S. Scheible, March 29, 1837; John 
Clugston, April 2, 1838 ; Jacob Greenawalt, July 9, 1847 ; Jacob A. Swigert, 
October 9, 1865; Andrew Statler, March 10, 1874; Samuel S. Ledy, October 
19, 1885. 

Mason & Dixon. — Abraham B. Barnhart, May 15, 1868; Jacob H. Brewer, 
April 25, 1871; Huron A. Huyett, July 17, 1872; Henry B. Harnish, Octo- 


ber 9, 1875; Frank H. McLaughlin, May 25, 1877; Henry P. McLaughlin, 
March 25, 1886. 

Mercersburgh. — James Bahn, January 1, 1803; George King, October 1, 
1803; James McCoy, January 1, 1808; William B. Guthrie, January 22, 
1813; Peter W. Little, February 11, 1822; Robert King, May 5, 1827;' Elli- 
ott T. Lane, July 15, 1829; Daniel Shaffer, April 30, 1834; Thomas P. Bard, 
June 24, 1841; Daniel Shaffer, January 21, 1845; Sarah H. Findlay, April 
18, 1849; Eliza Carson, April 14, 1853; Maggie G. Grove, March 29, 1861; 
JohnHoch, September 26, 1866; Elizabeth Rice, March 6, 1867; Wilson L. 
Harbaugh, February 17, 1879; W. A. Shannon, July 24, 1885 (at first called 

Metal (late Carrick Furnace). — Alvin W. Horning, May 19, 1884; George 
W. Swank, April 16, 1886. 

Midvale.— M. R. Nevin, February 24, 1881; Oscar W. Good, March 24, 
1881; Jacob F. Good, November 28, 1881. 

Mongul.— William A. Baer, April 14, 1882. 

Mont Alto. — John Kuhn, December 14, 1843; discontinued, December 9, 
1845; re-established with Peter Heefner, August 15, 1846; Joseph F. Walter, 
April 21, 1848; Ephraim J. Small, May 29, 1849; Peter Heefner, July 15, 
1853; George W. Toms, August 27, 1853; discontinued, June 22, 1855; re- 
established with George W. Toms, June 30, 1855; Ephraim J. Small, Octo- 
ber 6, 1855; John Small, November 21, 1857; John Keis, May 28, 1861; 
Ralph Smith, May 17, 1866; Henry Shiery, October 17, 1866; Ephraim J. 
Shank, April 10, 1869; David Ziegler, April 24, 1873; David Knepper, Janu- 
ary 9, 1882; Edward M. Small, July 24, 1885. 

Monterey Springs. — Henry Yingling, September 28, 1870; changed to Blue 
Ridge Summit, April 5, 1876. 

Mount Parnell. — John Mullan, April 3, 1862; Charles Gillan, April 6, 
1866; James D. McDowell, April 1, 1878; John A. Gillan, March 2, 1880; 
Alexander Dale, March 28, 1881; discontinued, August 19, 1881. 

Mowers ville. — Jacob H. Snoke, March 3, 1868; A. S. Bashore, February 

8, 1875; Andrew B. Gross, October 15, 1879; Samuel Taylor, March 15, 1881; 
David R. Frehn, September 23, 1885; James F. Geyer, March 25, 1886. 

New Bridge. — Harmon P. Piper, September 8, 1868. 

New Franklin (late Jackson Hall). — Jeremiah Hoover, August 21, 1882. 

New Guilford. — George Trittle, December 17, 1849; discontinued, August 
31, 1852; re-established with Jacob Snyder, December 17, 1852; Nathan R. 
Hutchinson, January 9. 1856; John L. Wingert, December 27, 1856; John. 
Wolfkill, October 17, 1859; discontinued, February 27, 1866. 

Opher. — John H. McMullen, April 16, 1883; discontinued, January 12, 

Orrstown. — James B. Orr, June 26, 1836; William L. Smith, March 19, 
1849; Ephraim Bear, April 26, 1850; Jacob R. Zearfoss, March 4, 1852; Henry 
Ruby. January 18, 1853; Cyrus B. Ruby, October 9, 1855; James B. Orr, 
May 24, 1857; William Orr, Jr., March 12, 1858; David T. Bard, December 
18, 1860; Jacob Kindig, March 25, 1861; Samuel Knisley, March 16, 1864; 
David L. Powders. January 9, 1872; Samuel Knisley, April 20, 1874; David 
E. Kendig, December 9, 1875; Lottie A. Kendig, January 5, 1883; Samuel 
Knisley, July 7, 1884; John A. Zullinger, July 20, 1885. 

Pen Mar.— Charles A. Rouzer, April 16, 1883. 

Pleasant Hall. — Charles Whealan, August 28, 1851; Jonathan Strine, May 

9, 1855; Charles Whealan, December 14, 1855; John S. Myers, May 11, 
1859; Albert M. Hunter, May 1, 1860; Abraham Keefer, April 20, 1863; 


discontinued October 20, 1873; re-established with Isaac Burkholder, post- 
master, January 13, 1876; Abraham W. Hoover, February 14, 1882. 

Quincy. —Jacob Byer, March 27, 1830; George Wertz, November 2, 1832; 
changed to Antietam July 16, 1839. 

Quincy (late Antietam). — James McKinley, September 2, 1841; Jacob 
Firor, May 28, 1846; William B. Raby, December 15, 1846; John B. Way- 
nant, December 14, 1848; Jacob S. Zeigler, March 22, 1849; David Piper, 
August 12, 1852; Hugh Logan, June 11, 1853; John R. Smith, December 21, 
1853; George A. Anderson, May 2, 1854; discontinued October 12, 1860; re- 
established with David Wertz, October 31, 1860; John R. Smith, October 

3, 1866; Samuel Secrist, October 24, 1866; William B. Raby, January 20, 
1868; Elam B. Wingar, March 19, 1869; David Sommers, May 8, 1871; 
Christian W. Good, July 1, 1874; Levi C. Kefmer, January 16, 1878; Benja- 
min R. Summer, August 6, 1885. 

Richmond Furnace. — William Burgess, May 23, 1872; Charles Hoffman, 
December 7, 1876; John A. Diehl, March 18, 1878. 

Rocky Spring.— Barnard Fohl, May 4, 1839; Robert E. Tolbert, March 
7, 1844; discontinued April 1, 1847. 

Rowzersville.— Samuel Gonder, January 22, 1873; Charles H. Buhrman, 
June 26, 1873; Anie E. Gresanam, December 13, 1880. 

Roxbury. — William^Reynolds, February 5, 1822; Godlieb Wunderlich, Jan- 
uary 17, 1823; Thomas' Rumroy, May 1, 1826; William I. Thompson, March 
12, 1832; George A. Dougherty, February 3, 1837; Robert Gilmore, March 

14, 1839; Samuel Stailey, June 24, 1841; William Deardorff, April 1, 1851; 
William J. G. Thompson, April 7, 1852; John Taylor, January 20, 1853; 
Esrom D. Weaver, October 9, 1855; George W. Saltsman, April 9, 1861; John 
M. Saltsman, December 18, 1862; Robert A. Hamilton, November 23, 1885. 

Saint Thomas. — James Edwards, February 21, 1824; William G. Sterrett, 
March 20, 1832; James Edwards, April 20, 1835; Henry Smith, April 18, 
1837; Daniel S. Hossler, December 7, 1848; Barnard Fohl, May 4, 1849; 
Christian W. Burkholder, July 7, 1853; William D. Dickson, January 14, 
1858; Barnard Fohl, March 29, 1861; Michael H. Keyser, September 22, 
1862; William D. Dickson, March 19, 1869; William L. Gillem, October 10, 
1872; Cyrus C. Gelwicks, August 14, 1885. 

Scotland. — George R. Mcllroy, June 29, 1849; James W. Dunmire, April 

15, 1854; James S. Chambers, July 5, 1861; William Wallace, Jr., April 25, 
1866; Henry Sleichter, June 15, 1869; John G. Youst, April 4, 1881; Will- 
iam L. Craig, August 4, 1885. 

Shady Grove. — Charles McCauiey v April 15, 1852; Jacob B. Waynant, 
May 13, 1854; discontinued, April 25. 1856. 

Shady Grove. — Frank B. Snively, December 7, 1860; Melchi Snively, May 

4, 1879; William T. Phillips, August 24, 1885; John F. Wilt, April 29, 1886. 

Spring Run. — William A. Mackey, November 13, 1850; Isaac Clugston, 
November 22, 1858; William A. Mackey, July 5, 1861; William M. Nesbitt, 
August 21, 1877; William S. Elliott, September 7, 1880; Daniel Wolff, March 
20, 1883. 

State Line. — David Brumbaugh, Jr., February 9, 1830; Joseph Gilbert, 
May 28, 1634; Jacob Felmlee, April 2, 1838; Gearhart Brenner, April 1, 1843; 
William Martin, June 12, 1843; Jacob Felmlee, August 15, 1844; discontin- 
ued, FeV a "'3, 1845; re-established with John Rearick, postmaster, Jan- 
uary 6, lv 1 aiel S. Barnhart, June 20, 1857; John Rearigh, August 15, 
1859; John A. Orr, September 10, 1861; Daniel B. Hade, June 17, 1869; 



George W. Harbaugh, June 15, 1874; Jacob A. Witmer, September 10, 1875? 
Henry R. Harnish, Jnne 7, 1877; Philip N. Brumbaugh, August 24, 1885. 

Stone Bridge. — -Isaac Kuhn, September 22, 1873; discontinued May 6, 

Strasburgh. — George Beaver, July 1, 1797; George McClellan, April 23, 
1798; William McClellan, August 4, 1823; changed to Upper Strasburgh 
February 28, 1829. 

Sylvan. — John Zimmerman, June 6, 1843. 

Svlvan. — William Bowers, February 3, 1837; discontinued, February 

9, 1842. 

Upper Strasburgh (late Strasburgh). — William McClellan, February 28, 
1829; James McFarland, March 14, 1839; John Grove, July 2, 1841; William 
Gilmor, December 26, 1844; William S. Doyle, May 9, 1849; John Grove, 
June 10, 1850; Philip Karper, July 14, 1853; Josephus M. Wolf kill, November 
2, 1855; Samuel Gilmore, June 9, 1858; James S. Slyder, July 5, 1861; 
William W. Britton, March 24, 1865; Frederick C. Karper, December 10, 
1880; Jacob V. B. Leedy, May 11, 1885. 

Upton (late Whitestown). — George Cook, July 24, 1837; Robert J. Boyd, 
November 15, 1867. 

Warren Point. — Archibald S. Winger, February 11, 1878; discontinued 
August 26, 1878. 

*Waynesborough. — Michael Stoner, December 19, 1807; Joseph Deardorf, 
September 22, 1830; Thomas Walker, February 28, 1833; Michael M. Stoner, 
May 2, 1837; John W. Stoner, December 17, 1840; James Brotherton, July 
19, 1845; James Brotherton, Jr., February 15, 1849; Jacob R. Welsh, June 
13, 1853; Thomas G. Pilkington, May 28, 1861; Nancy Pilkington, February 

10, 1863; Andrew G. Nevin, September 30, 1864; Jacob R. Welsh, November 
26, 1866; Andrew G. Nevin, May 6, 1869; Matilda R. Nevin, February 5, 
1875; George Middow, January 19, 1882; James P. Lowell, March 12, 1886. 

Welsh Run. —John Eldon,May 17,1830; James Watson, February 16, 1832; 
Thomas Bowles, February 16, 1839; William H. Craig, June 18, 1859; Thomas 
Bowles, February 18, 1862; John R. Stover, December 27, 1877; Henrv G. 
Chritzman, December 12, 1881; Frank T. Elliott, December 3, 1884. 

Whitestown. — George Cook, July 10, 1837; changed to Upton, Julv 24, 

Williamson. — E. H. Hagerman, August 20, 1872; Upton G. Hawbecker, 
September 23, 1885. 

Willow Kill.— Charles Fleming, September 24, 1878; Edgar S. Bock, 
April 24, 1882. 

Wingerton. — Philip Wiesner, January 22, 1884. 

Yetter. — Christian Yetter, May 17, 1881; discontinued February 16, 1882. 

Zullinger.— David Zullinger, February 23, 1882. 

Zero.— Lewis Ripple, February 7, 1837; John P. Baker, July 28, 1838;. 
discontinued, April 10, 1839. 


The Cumberland Valley Railroad is the oldest road in this section, and 
among the pioneer roads of the country. Its history is the history of the rail- 
roads of this valley, as well as the interesting story of the simpler, crude- 
beginnings that have grown into the great railroad system of the country. 
The simplest statement of the facts is a story full of interest to the general 

The Cumberland Valley Railroad Company was chartered by the Legisla- 
ture of Pennsylvania on the 2d of April, 1831, to construct a railroad from 

*First called " Waynesburgh or Waynesboro." 


Carlisle to a point on the Susquehanna Eiver at or near Harrisburg. The 
charter, having expired by limitation of time, was revived by an act of Assem- 
bly of the 15th of April, 1835, and authority extended to construct the road 
from the Susquehanna River to Shippensburg and Chambersburg. In accord- 
ance with the provisions of the charter, in order to organize the company, an 
election for officers and managers was held on the 27th of June, 1835. in 
the borough of Carlisle with the following results: President, Thomas G. Mc- 
Colloh, of Chambersburg; treasurer, Joseph B. Mitchell, of Philadelphia; 
secretary, Abraham Hendel, of Carlisle; managers, Samuel Alexander, 
Charles B. Penrose, Lewis Harlan, Frederick Watts, John K. Neff, John 
Grigg, David Mahon, Frederick Byers, Philip Berlin, Thomas Chambers, 
Charles S. Border, George W. Himes. The board of managers, at a meeting 
held on the 21st of August, 1835, selected William Milner Roberts for chief 

On the 23d of October, 1835, Mr. W. Milner Roberts reported to the 
board of directors the results of his survey of the line from the Susquehanna 
River, opposite Harrisburg to Chambersburg. He estimated the cost of build- 
ing the road to a connection with the Harrisburg & Lancaster Railroad, 
including the bridge across the Susquehanna at $564,064, and the average 
annual receipts of the road at $284,617.50. He calculated on 100 
passengers each way per day at 3 cents per mile, and 35,000 tons of through 
freight and 51,950 tons of local freight, all at the rate of 4^ cents per ton per 

On February 21, 1836, the Pennsylvania Legislature granted authority to 
bridge the Susquehanna and connect with the Pennsylvania Canal, and the 
Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mount Joy & Lancaster Railroad, and authorized 
the managers of the Cumberland Valley Railroad to manage for uninterrupted 
communication of trade and travel between Chambersburg and Philadelphia. 

The Cumberland Valley Railroad was opened for travel from White Hill to 
Carlisle in August, 1837, and through to Chambersburg in November of the 
same year. The first locomotive and cars were hauled across the Harrisburg 
Bridge (a part of which still stands), and over the turnpike to White Hill. 
The locomotive had two driving wheels, wooden spokes, was named " Cumber- 
land Valley," and was built by William Norris in Philadelphia. The passen- 
ger cars were like the old stage coaches. They had been run on the State road 
from Philadelphia to Columbia, and would seat, inside and out, fourteen pas- 
sengers each. The railroad track consisted of cross ties laid four and a half 
feet apart upon the ground without ballast, upon which were laid oak stringers 
5x9 inches, on which bar iron five-eighths of an inch thick and two and a 
quarter inches wide was spiked. The ends of the iron bars were mitred, and 
the bar which extended on the inside of the track would become pressed 
away from its connection, so as to be caught on the flange of the wheels 
going in an opposite direction, causing them to turn up against the bottom, 
and sometimes through the car. As a protection against the turning up of 
bars, the bottoms of the cars, were covered with two- inch plank, inside of 
which was a lining of boiler plate, and at the time the road was opened to 
Chambersburg, the iron was not laid for about three miles from Chambersburg, 
and the cars were run in on the wooden stringers. 

The railroad bridge across the Susquehanna was built in 1837-38, and 
completed in January, 1839, when on the 16th of that month it was opened for 
travel and connection made with the Harrisburg & Lancaster Railroad. A 
poster, bearing pictures of the primitive locomotive and train, was issued by 
Mr. T. G. McColloh, president of the Cumberland Valley Railroad, January 


25, 1839, announcing that "on the first day of the next February the regular 
train of passenger cars would commence running as follows: 

" Leave Chambersburg at 4 o' clock in the morning; arrive at Harrisburg 
at 8, at Lancaster at 12, and at Philadelphia before 6 P. M. Returning, it 
will leave Harrisburg as soon as the cars from Philadelphia arrived, about 5 
o'clock in the evening, and arrive at Chambersburg at 10 P. M. " 

The first sleeping-car ever used on any railroad was put in use on the Cum- 
berland Valley Railroad in the spring of 1839, a historical fact of great import- 
ance, because it was the first of the kind in the world. The berths were 
upholstered boards, in three rows, one above the other, held by leather straps, 
and in the daytime were folded back against the walls — very simple and plain 
in construction, but comfortable, and in all essential features the germ of the 
luxurious sleeper of the present day. At that time travel between Philadel- 
phia and Pittsburgh was by rail to Chambersburg, and stage from Chambers- 
burg to Pittsburgh. Passengers going east reached Chambersburg about mid- 
night, and left about 1 A. M. , reaching Harrisburg about 5 A. M. 

The oldest extant report of the operations of the Cumberland Valley 
Railroad was made by President McColloh for the year 1839. In it he deplores 
' ' the general financial depression of the country, due to the error which has 
everywhere prevailed, of forcing public improvements further than the means 
of the countiy would justify." ".We start," he says, "with half means, and 
are then forced to finish on credit at a ruinous cost, and one experience has 
been an example of this prevailing error." He finds hope, however, in the 
fact that ' ' we are an energetic and elastic people, and with care and economy 
our wonted prosperity will soon be attained." He announces the purchase of 
three locomotives for $21,250, and two passenger cars at $4,175; that two 
passengers and one freight train are run each day between Chambersburg and 
Harrisburg, and that no injury has been done to any passenger since the road 
has been operated — two and one-half years. 

On the 27th of April, 1840, Thos. G. McColloh tendered his resignation as 
president of the company, and on the same day Chas. B. Penrose, of Carlisle, 
was elected by the board of managers to fill his place. 

On the 26th of April, 1841, Chas. B. Penrose tendered his resignation of 
the presidency of the company, having accepted the position of solicitor of 
the treasury, under the administration of Gen. Harrison, at Washington. 
Upon its acceptance, on the same day Frederick Watts was unanimously 
chosen by the board to fill the position, which he held for thirty-two continu- 
ous years. 

The next report of which we find a copy was made by Hon. Frederick 
Watts, president for the year 1842, in which he states that the universal de- 
pression of the last few years has had its effect upon the business of the com- 
pany; but that it is hoped that prosperity will again bless the country, and if 
it does, he is confident that the stock of the Cumberland Valley Railroad will 
be profitable to its owners. The total earnings for the year were $70,116.82. 
For the year 1849 the earnings were $101,084.77, and the tonnage, which 
is for the first time shown, was 37,439, of which 7,818 was flour, 5,126 ore, 
4,247 coal, 2,123 grain, 2,237 lumber. It is stated in the report for the year 
1849 that " arrangements have been made to relay the road with heavy T 

In March, 1832, the Franklin Railroad was chartered by the Pennsylvania 
Legislature, and on January 16, 1837, by the Legislature of Maryland. The 
road was built from Chambersburg to Greencastle in 1837, and to Hagerstown 
in 1841. It was run by steam-power for two years, when an arrangement was 


made with the Cumberland Valley Kailroad to operate the line and its own motive 
power was sold. It is worthy of note that the first cab ever put on a locomo- 
tive was placed on one of the Franklin Railroad locomotives, named "'Wash- 
ington," at the shops of the Cumberland Valley Railroad, in Chambersburg, 
in 1841. The Franklin Railroad was only operated a short time by the Cum- 
berland Valley Railroad, when steam-power was withdrawn, and it was then 
operated by Mr. D. O. Gehr, of Chambersburg, with horse-power. It was 
never profitable, and was sold several times, until, in i860,- it was rebuilt and 
laid with T rails. The Cumberland Valley then contracted to run it, and, 
with some changes in the contract, continued to do so, except during the time 
of its possession and partial destruction by the rebels, until 1865, when the 
two roads consolidated. 

In October, 1862, the rebels destroyed the shops and depot buildings in 
Chambersburg, and on June 15, 1863, they made another raid, destroying all 
company property in the town, and tearing up and destroying five miles of the 
track of the Franklin Railroad. 

The rebel raid and burning of Chambersburg July, 1864, also caused the 
company great inconvenience and loss. 

In 1871 the Southern Pennsylvania Railroad was opened from Marion to 
Richmond, Penn. , and leased by the Cumberland Valley Railroad. 

In the year 1872 the Mont Alto Railroad was completed from a point near 
Scotland to Mont Alto. 

In 1873 the Hon. Frederick Watts, who had been president of the Cum- 
berland Valley Railroad for thirty-two years, declined a re-election, as he had 
accepted the position of commissioner of agriculture at Washington, and Mr. 
Thomas B. Kennedy, of Chambersburg, was elected president. In this year 
the Martinsburg & Potomac Railroad was completed, and leased by the Cum- 
berland Valley Railroad. 

In June, 1882, the Shenandoah Valley Railroad was opened from Hagers- 
town to a connection with the Norfolk & Western Railroad, at Roanoke, Va. , 
making a through line via the Cumberland Valley, between the northeast and 
southwest. From the year 1837 up to this time the business of the Cumber- 
land Valley Railroad had been entirely local, that is, it had originated or ter- 
minated at local points on its road. 

The management of the Cumberland Valley Railroad has always been in 
close sympathy with the patrons of the road, giving all possible accommoda- 
tions, and the benefit of the best transportation facilities of the times, keeping 
pace in improvements with the best and most enterprising railroad companies 
of the country. 

The Old "Tape Worm 1 '' Line was chartered about the same time the Cum- 
berland Valley Railroad was — or in 1 835. This was the day of the rage of 
internal improvements in the country. Thad. Stevens stood sponsor to this 
enterprise for many years. He was then a resident of Gettysburg, and had 
iron mills in Franklin County, and he wanted a railroad to his mills. The 
charter was for a road to start at Gettysburg, to run into Franklin County and 
then turn south, tapping the heart of the southern country wherever it was 
advisable and most convenient. The State made a large appropriation to the 
road, and the managers, when they came to spend the money, commenced 
all along the line. The result was, a great deal of money was expended, 
the appropriations were exhausted, the State internal improvement scheme 
collapsed, and the work stopped, and not a mile of the road was completed, 
and practically this was the end of the ' ' Tape Worm. ' ' 

The Harrisburg & Potomac Railroad was chartered in 1870, as the 


Mermar Iron & Railroad Company. Its chief promoters were Daniel V. and 
Peter A. Ahl, of Newville. It was originally intended to pass through the 
county via Shippensburg, Mont Alto, Quincy and Waynesboro, but owing to 
financial difficulties was never completed. 

The Baltimore & Cumberland Valley Railroad was organized in 1876, to 
run from Chambersburg by a direct line through Waynesboro to a junction 
with the Western Maryland Railroad, at a point on the west slope of the 
Blue Ridge, two and one-half miles east of Smithsburg, and seventy-two miles 
west from Baltimore, the line to be built in the interest of the Western 
Maryland Road, and, when constructed, leased by it and operated. The length 
of the line, twenty-one miles, made the distance from Chambersburg to 
Baltimore ninety-three miles, thus lessening the old route, via Harrisburg, 
forty miles. The road was built, and May 18, 1886, the Cumberland Valley 
Railroad Extension Company leased the line to the Western Maryland Rail- 
road, at an annual rental of $32, 700. This is one of the most valuable lines 
now in Franklin County. It opens up to the trade of the county, not only a 
competing line to the eastern ports, but is the great highway to the South — 
to Memphis, New Orleans, Savannah and all southern points. 

Mont Alto Railroad. — In 1872 the Mont Alto Railroad, extending from Mont 
Alto to a connection with the Cumberland Valley Railroad at a point three 
and one-half miles northeast of Chambersburg, was built by the Mont Alto 
Railroad Company, Geo. B. Wiestling, engineer and superintendent. 

It was opened for business on October 2, 1872. It was ten and one- 
quarter miles in length. During 1878 and 1879 the line was extended to 
Waynesboro, Penn. , making the entire line eighteen miles in length. The 
extensive iron ore fields in the Mont Alto region were largely depended upon 
to furnish tonnage to the railroad, and it is only in prosperous stages of the 
iron business that this can be realized. 

In 1875 the magnificent summer resort, Mont Alto Park, was improved 
and opened by Geo. B. Wiestling, and has received the evidence of high 
appreciation by the liberal patronage bestowed upon it by the public. 

Mont Alto Iron Works consist of a blast-furnace, steam bloomary, re- 
finery, machine shops, foundry, blacksmith, carpenter and wheel -wright shops, 
charcoal kilns, two saw- mills, seventeen developed iron mines, seven farms and 
20,000 acres of ore and timber lands. In prosperous times it employs 500 
men, 75 horses and mules and 21 steam engines. 

The furnace was built in 1807-08, by Daniel and Samuel Hughes, of 
Maryland. At first it was what is known as a " quarter stack," and was 31 
feet high, and 8 feet diameter of boshes. It was operated with cold blast; 
the water-wheel was 30 feet in diameter. The first output was from two to three 
tons per day of pig iron, but this only accumulated hands for want of transpor- 
tation. To reach markets, the pig iron was hauled by wagon to the Potomac 
River, at Williamsport, and then waited for a rise in the water, to be taken 
down on flat-boats. 

A foundry was built in 1815, and then the pig iron was made into stoves 
and hollow ware on the grounds, which were then wagoned to Baltimore. For 
some time the iron was not remelted to cast, but was dipped out of the fur- 
nace and poured into the molds. A cupola furnace was put up, and then the 
iron was remelted. 

In 1811 the Messrs. Hughes brought over an expert, Mr. Overmeyer. He 
leased land in East Antietam Valley, five miles from Mont Alto, and erected a 
bloomary, forge and saw-mill, and commenced manufacturing hammered bar 
iron. In 1832 a rolling-mill was put up near the bloomary, on East Antietam 


Creek. This was at that time supposed to have the best power of any mill in 
the country, and therefore could roll the largest bars of iron. 

In 1835 the Messrs. Hughes built nail works near the above rolling-mill. 
These were eventually burned. 

In 1864 the entire Mont Alto plant was purchased by the Mont Alto 
Iron Company, Geo. B. Weistling, superintendent. The furnace was enlarged 
to 37 feet high, and nine feet diameter of boshes; two additional tuyeres were 
introduced, making it a three-quarter stack, and steam-power was introduced. 
The output was fifteen tons a day of pig iron. Another enlargement was made 
in 1880; the stack increased in height, the boshes made nine and one-half 
feet, and other modern improvements were introduced. Capacity then be 
came thirty-five tons of pig iron per day. 

The Caledonia Iron Works were constructed in 1837, by Thad. Stevens 
and James D. Paxton, in Greene Township. These men were the firm until 1848, 
when a heavy indebtedness caused a change, and Stevens bought out Paxton, 
and assumed the entire indebtedness. The new proprietor put Mr. Wm. 
Hammett in charge as superintendent, who filled the place for twenty years, 
and was succeeded by Mr. John Swaney who had charge of them at the time of 
their destruction in 1863. In the plant were about 20,000 acres of good ore 
and lumber land. The ore was converted into blooms and marketed in the 
eastern cities — average price $65 to $75 per ton. It is supposed that Stevens 
lost considerable money by his iron-mills. The mill and machinery were en- 
tirely destroyed during the war, by order of Gen. Early. 

Mount Pleasant Iron Works were established by the Chambers, about 
1783. They afterward passed into the possession of the Kings, Dunns and 
Doyles, respectively. Through all these various changes, they were operated 
more or less successfully, until 1829, when they were permanently closed. 
Being among the earliest of iron-mills in the country, they served in their time 
a valuable purpose. 

The Carrick furnace, four miles north of the Mount Pleasant works, was 
the substitute that made the latter such a prime necessity. The Carrick fur- 
nace was erected about 1830, and continued to be operated through various 
changes, until 1844, when it closed down for want of patronage. 

The Richmond furnace, in Metal Township, at the time of the general de- 
pression of the iron trade of the country, banked its furnaces and closed up. It 
is fully equipped for the production of iron, and it is the intention to start 
it again into full operation as soon as a change in the trade will warrant it. 


WAR OF 1812-15. 

Cause of the War— Declaration of War— Franklin County Companies- 
Incidents of the War. 

FREE trade and sailors' rights" was the Nation's watch -word, that 
culminated in the second war with Great Britain. The mother country 
seems to have forgotten that the colonies had relinquished maternal depen- 
dence, and were living a national existence of their own. The right to search 


our merchant vessels upon the high seas, and also the right to impress seamen r 
found in such merchant service, was the provoking cause to the national 
motto given above. 

June 12, 1812, Congress declared war against Great Britain, and the Presi- 
dent called upon the people to take up arms. 

It is not proposed here to give a history of the ensuing war. That is a 
part of the general history of our country. The part taken therein by Franklin 
County is the boundary limit of this chapter. 

During the three years of hostilities thirteen companies of Franklin 
County men were recruited and sent to the field of action. Some time before 
actual hostilities were declared our people anticipated the coming struggle, 
and in the towns, villages and rural districts the nuclei of military organiza- 
tions were formed. A large number of these was found in this county, 
many of them ready on short notice to march in effective martial display to the 
front. We have the names of the Antrim Greens, a rifle company of 60 
men; Franklin County Light Dragoons, 41 men — captain, Mathew Patton;. 
Mercersburg Rifles, 72 rank and file — captain, James McDowell; Concord 
Light Infantry, 30 men — captain, Michael Harper; Chambersburg Union Vol- 
unteers, 51 men — captain, Jeremiah Snider. These companies at once ten- 
dered their services, through County Brigade Inspector William McClellan, to> 
the Government. 

The first detachment of troops left the county September 5, 1812. This 
was composed of the Union Volunteers, the Franklin Riflemen, the Concord 
Light Infantry, the Mercersburg Rifles and the Antrim Greens — total, 264, 
officers and men. The quota of the county was 507, and the deficiency was 
made up by draft from the militia. Maj. William McClellan was in command of 
the detachment. They were sent to the northwest frontier, proceeding there 
by way of Bedford, Pittsburgh and Meadville, reaching the latter place in 
September. The troops were there re-organized into four regiments — two of 
rifles and two of infantry. Jeremiah Snider was elected colonel of the First 
Regiment, John Purviance, of the Second Regiment. The four regiments being 
formed into a brigade, under Gen. Tannahill, Dr. Samuel D. Culbertson, of 
Chambersburg, was appointed surgeon-in-chief; John McClintock became cap- 
tain of Snider' s company, on latter being made colonel, and G eo. K. Harper was 
promoted to the vacant lieutenancy in Snider' s company. The companies of 
Capts. McClintock, Reges and Harper were in Col. Snider' s regiment, and those 
of Capts. Oaks and Hays in Col. Jared Irwin's regiment. Immediately after 
the re- organization, the command marched to Buffalo, reaching there in No- 
vember, where it went into winter quarters, and remained until discharged, their 
term of enlistment expiring in January, 1813. 


Captain — Jeremiah Snider. 

Lieutenant — John McClintock. 

Ensign — Owen Astoq. 

Sergeants — John Stevenson, Alexander Allison, John Calhoun, Andrew Calhoun. 

Corporals— Robert Haslett. William Tillard, H. Ruthrauff, John Reed. 

Musicians— William Donaldson, Henry Bickney. 


Timothy Allen. A. L. Crain. Robert Foote. 

John Andrews. Andrew Clunk. Hugh Greenfield. 

Joseph Barnett. David Clouser. Isaac Grier. 

Samuel Beatty. John Cummings. Peter Glossbrenner. 

David Blythe. George Faber. John Hunter. 



George Heist. 
Horace Hill. 
John Hutchinson. 
Thomas Harvey. 
Daniel Hood. 
Andrew Lindsay. 
James Murray. 

Alexander McConnell. 
Spencer McKinney. 
Elisha Nahh. 
John Phillipy. 
John Plummer. 
Stephen Ritrler. 
William Shannon. 

George Sampson. 
Moses H. Swan. 
William Taylor. 
Joshua Wilson. 
James Wilson. 
Bernard Wolf. 


Captain — Henry Reges. 
First lieutenant — Jeremiah Senseny. 
Second lieutenant — John Musser. 
First sergeant — Peter Flack. 

John Bayle. 
John Baughman. 
Robert Cunningham. 
John Cook. 
Edward Crawford. 
Arthur Dobbin. 
John Denig. 
John Essig. 
Isaac Erwin. 
John Favorite. 
John Gilwicks. 
William Grice. 
Joseph Good. 
John Gilmore. 


Philip Grim. 
Christian John. 
George W. Lester. 
Josiah Lemon. 
Isaiah Lamer. 
Robert. McMurry. 
John Mumma. 
Hugh Marmon. 
Hugh McConnell. 
Hugh McNulty. 
John Martin. 
Benjamin Matthews. 
James McConnell. 
William Pollock. 

Richard Runnion. 
John Radebaugh. 
John Robinson. 
John Reilly. 
Jacob Snyder. 
Joseph State. 
Henry Smith. 
Thomas Schools. 
Joseph Severns. 
Daniel Sailer. 
John Whitney. 
James Wise. 
George Wilson. 
George Zimmerman. 


Captain— Andrew Oakes. 
Lieutenant — Thomas Wilson. 
Ensign— George Zeigler. 

Sergeants — Peter Cramer, Jacob Gudtner, Jacob Fletter, James Pennell. 
Corporals — William Dugan, George Sharer, Henry Sites, Jacob Garresene, Thomas- 
Brady, John Poper. 

William Bolton. 
George Bettes. 
Henry Brendlinger. 
Joseph Byerly. 
Samuel Bender. 
William Carroll. 
Patrick Dugan. 
Evan Evans. 
William Foster. 
Thomas Fletcher. 


John Gaff. 
John Garner. 
William Gordon. 
Richard Keller. 
Samuel Martin. 
James McCurdy. 
Samuel McLaughlin. 
William Ovelman. 
Thomas Plummer. 
William Scully. 

George Shaffer. 
Samuel Smith. 
John Snyder. 
John Sreader. 
George Stuff. 
George Uller. 
Samuel Weidner. 
Daniel Weidner. 
Christian Willhelm. 


Captain — Patrick Hays. 
Lieutenant — John Small. 
Ensign — Samuel Elder. 

Sergeants — James McQuown, Jacob Small, Jacob Williams, George Spangler. 
Corporals — Joseph Herrington, John Donothen, John Mull, Daniel Leer, Jacob Cain, 
Jacob Wise. 

James Bennett. 
Isaac Brubaker. 
Samuel Campbell. 
Joseph Cunningham. 
Henry Cline. 
John Crouch. 
William Cooper. 
Samuel Craig. 
John Clapsaddle. 
Alexander Dunlap. 


John Dunlap. 
Fredik Divelbiss 
David Deitrick. 
James Elder. 
Jacob Groscope. 
Peter Gaster. 
Jonas Hissong. 
John Hastier. 
Abraham Hodskins. 
John Harris. 

William Hart. 
John Heart. 
Jacob Hodskins. 
John Hallin. 
James Halland. 
John King. 
Peter Kyler. 
Robert McFarland. 
James McDowell. 
William McCurdy. 


Robert McQuown. Samuel Martin. Peter Teach. 

John Mowry. Charles Pettet. James Walker. 

Campbell Montgomery. Henry Suffecool. Henry Weaver. 

William McQuown. William Stewart. Daniel Welker. 

Charles McPike. 

harper's company from path valley. 

Captain— Michael Harper. 

Lieutenant — William McKinzie. 

Ensign — John Campbell. 

Sergeants— William Irwin. James McKinzie, John Widney, Hugh Barrack. 

Corporals— Jeremiah Baker, Francis McCullogh, Samuel Campbell, James Girmeren. 


John Cannon.' James Hockenberry. Isaac Scooly. 

James Dever. Peter Hockenbery. William Smith. 

Barnabas Donnelly. George Irwin. Richard Scott. 

David Evans. James Linn. James Taylor. 

Barnabas Fegan. Samuel Phillips. Peter Timmons. 

Jere Hockenberry. 

In 1814, in obedience to orders from the Government, Gov. Snyder ordered 
a draft upon the State for troops. Franklin, Cumberland, York and Adams 
Counties' quota under the call was 1,000 men, the men from this county to 
assemble in Loudon on the 1st of March. Capt. Samuel Dunn, of Path Val- 
ley, had a company of forty men. These at once volunteered. The balance 
of the county's quota was 175 men. Capt. Samuel Gordon's full company from 
Washington, and Capt. Stake's partial company from Lurgan, rendezvoused at 
Loudon, Wm. McClellan in command, who took them to Erie, leaving Loudon 
March 4. Maj. McClellan' s official report says the command, 221 privates, was 
officered by one major, three captains, five lieutenants, and two ensigns. At 
Erie they were put in the Fifth Eegiment, commanded by Col. James Felton; 
James Wood, of Greencastle, was major; Thomas Poe, of Antrim, adjutant. 
The latter was a brave and gallant soldier. He was a man born to command. 
It is told of him that by the mere power of his presence he quelled an outbreak 
of his men in camp, and by a word forced them to go quietly to their quarters. 
He fell mortally wounded at the battle of Chippewa, July 6, 1814. 

Capt. Jacob Stake lived between Eoxbury and Strasburg. Dr. W. C. 
Lane says of his command: ''He went as a captain of drafted men as far as 
Erie, at which place his company was merged into those of Capts. Dunn 
and Gordon. " 

dunn's company. 

Captain — Samuel Dunn. 

First lieutenant — James McConnell. 

Second lieutenant — Robert Foote. 

Third lieutenant — John Favorite. 

Ensign — William Geddes. 

Sergeants— John Snively, Samuel Baker, James McHenry, John M. Shannon. 


Levi Black. James Connor. Abraham Flagle. 

John Brandt. Samuel Creamer. Jacob Frush. 

Jesse Beams. John Cunningham. Jere Gift. 

George Bryan. James Compton. Hugh Henderson. 

Fredk. Boreaugh. Barnabas Clark. Nehemiah Harvey. 

Anthony Bates. Thomas Cummings. Edward Heil. 

John Barclay. Benj. Davis. Henry Halby. 

John Brewster. Samuel Davenport. Thomas Hays. 

Hugh Baker. John Doyle. Robert Hunter.* 

John Beatty. James Elliott. John Humbert. 

William Buchanan. Robert Elder. _ Henry Hess. 

Andrew Barclay. Joseph Fingerty. Robert Johnston. 

♦Afterward colonel of the Fiftieth Regiment. 



Enoch Johns. 
John Krotzer. 
James Keever. 
Michael Kester. 
James Kirkwood. 
Benjamin Long. 
David Lightner. 
Tobias Long. 
Noah Macky. 
John McConnell. 
Robert McConnell. 
James Morhead. 
John McDowell. 
Adam Meyers. 
George Macomb. 
John Miller. 
William McClure. 
Samuel Mateer.^ 
William Moore. 

John Marshal. 
James McKim. 
Absalom Mcllwee. 
John Murray. 
Joseph Noble. 
John Noble. 
John Over. 
Joseph Phipps. 
Thomas Penwell. 
George Plucher. 
Mathias Panther. 
William Reed. 
Charles Runion. 
William Ramsay. 
Philip Roan. 
Jacob Stevick. 
Peter Schell. 
Samuel Swope. 
John Shell. 

John Smith. 
John Swanger. 
Jacob Staley. 
William Sheets. 
John Stewart. 
Barney Shiptou. 
John Stake. 
David Trindle. 
William Woods. 
Richard Wright. 
John Walker. 
George Wrist. 
William Williams. 
William Westcott. 
John Young. 
Robert Young. 
John Young. 
Jacob Zettle. 

This company was in service seven months, in the battles of Chippewa and 
Lundy's Lane; guarded prisoners captured on the frontier to Albany, N. Y. 
They were mustered out at Albany. 

Gordon's company, march 1, 1814. 

Captain — Samuel Gordon. 
First lieutenant — William Dick. 
Second lieutenant — William Patton. 
Third lieutenant — James Burns. 
Ensign — William Miller. 

Sergeants — Hugh Davison, Charles Miller, James Scott, Josiah Gordon. 
Corporals — Joseph Arthur, James Hall, Joseph Shilling, John Podman, Philip Mason, 
William Burgiss. 

Thomas Allen. 
William Alsip. 
Martin Beard. 
Henry Baugher. 
Benjamin Bump. 
George Burr. 
Fred'k Beverson. 
John Baker. 
Michael Borer. 
Jacob Baker. 
Peter Baker. 
Michael Bear. 
Adam Brown. 
Conrad Croft. 
John Coon. 
John Craig. 
Richard Cahil. 
William Clem. 
John Carver. 
William Clark. 
Richard Donahoe. 
William Divelbiss. 
John Dowman. 
Edward Detrick. 
Geo. Davis. 
Saml. Dean. 
Jacob Deemer. 
John Davis. 
Adam Duncan. 
Jacob Eby. 
George Ensminger. 
William Edwards. 
Nathaniel Fips. 


Joseph Flora. 
John Fisher. 
Michael Fritz. 
Henry Geiger. 
George Glaze. 
Moses Getrich. 
John Greenly. 
John Graham. 
John Huber. 
Joseph Hoffman. 
William Hardin. 
Geo. Harmony. 
James Hardy. 
John Hawk. 
Peter Harger. 
John Irwin. 
David Johnston. 
John Jeffery. 
Nathaniel King. 
Jacob Keefer. 
William Kline. 
William King. 
Peter Keefer. 
Mathew King. 
James Logan. 
Benj. Lewis. 
Jacob Liepert. 
John McColley. 
John McConnell. 
Alexander McMullen. 
Peter Myers. 
John McNeal. 

John McClay. 
Phillip Myers. 
William Mahaffy. 
Murdock Mitchell. 
John McCurdy. 
Robt. McClelland. 
Daniel Mentzer. 
G. M. Miller. 
George Miller. 
George Neff. 
Joseph Neal. 
Nathan Phipps. 
Abraham Piaceare. 
William Pearslake. 
Thomas Poe. 
Erasmus Quarters. 
Andrew Robertson. 
William Reesemen. 
John Ritter. 
Adam Rankin. 
Adam Ream. 
Christopher Sites. 
Fredk. Stumbaugh. 
Jacob Stauffer. 
Nicholas Smith. 
Jacob Smith. 
Henry Satin. 
Joseph Tic'e. 
James Thompson. 
Henry Unger. 
William Wolf. 
William Whitman. 
Henry Weaver. 



August 24, 1814, the Americans, under Gen. Winder, were defeated at the 
battle of Bladensburg; the same day the British entered Washington and 
burned the capitol and other buildings. This fired anew the hearts of the peo- 
ple. The people by common impulse rang the bell and assembled in meetings. 
The people at one of these meetings, in Franklin County, dispatched one of 
their number as a messenger to the national authorities to learn if more troops 
were wanted or would be accepted. The news borne by the messenger was- 
gladly received, and word returned that the Government wanted more troops. 
When the people learned this they gave expressions to their joy, and all the 
bells of the town were rung, drum and fife corps paraded the streets, and in a 
few days seven companies were organized, equipped, and on their way to Bal- 
timore. One of them was a troop of cavalry, from Mercersburg, under Capt. 
Mathew Patton, which marched to Baltimore, but their services were not 
accepted as cavalry were not needed, but the majority of the troops determined 
to go to the war, disposed of their horses, and joined different companies of 

The following are the rosters of the companies that left the county in the- 
early part of September, 1814: 


Captain — John Findlay. 
First lieutenant — John Snider. 
Second lieutenant — Greenberry Murphy. 
Ensign — John Hershberger. 

Sergeants — Joseph Severns, Andrew Rea, Henry Smith, Jeremiah Senseny, Jacob 

Corporals— John Robison, Geo. W. Lester, Jacob Heck, Jacob Bickley. 

Jacob Abrahams. 
John Berlin. 
Peter Bonebrake. 
John Baxter. 
James Buchanan. 
John Brindle. 
William Bratten. 
Benj. Blythe. 
John Baughman. 
John Bucher. 
Jacob Bittinger. 
Abraham Burkholder. 
Fred'k Best. 
John Campbell. 
James Carberry. 
Conrad Clouse. 
Daniel Crouse. 
Joseph Cope. 
John Clugston. 
McFarlin Cammel. 
Conrad Draher. 
Daniel Dechert. 
"William Dugan. 
James Dixon. 
John Eaton. 
Simon Eaker. 
Benj. Firnwalt. 
Henry Fry. 
Thomas Fletcher. 
Henry Gauter. 


Jacob George. 
John Gillespy. 
Jacob Glosser. 
John Gelwicks. 
Michael Helman. 
Thomas Hall. 
William Harman. 
James Huston. 
Daniel Helman. 
Isaac Irvin. 
Thomas Jones. 
William Kinneard. 
David Keller. 
Thomas Kaisey. 
Jacob Laufman. 
John Lucas. 
Reuben Monroe. 
Robert McAfee. 
Daniel McAllister. 
William McKesson. 
William McKean. 
William Mills. 
Samuel McElroy. 
Soyer McFaggen. 
John Milone. 
David Mentzer. 
Jacob McFerren. 
Cammel Montgomery. 
David Mumma. 
Ludwick Nitterhouse. 


Samuel Nogel. 
John Nitterhouse. 
Jacob NefE. 
John Nixon. 
John Porter. 
Edward Ruth. 
Jacob Reichert. 
John Radebaugh. 
Elijah Sargeant. 
Charles Stuard. 
Samuel Shillitto. 
Daniel Sharp. 
William Sipes. 
Jacob Spitel. 
Ross Sharp. 
Joseph Suttey. 
John Tritler. 
John Todd. 
Joseph Wilson» 
Benj. Wiser. 
James Walker. 
Jacob Wolfkill. 
Josiah Wallace. 
David White. 
Matthew Wright. 
James Westbay. 
Hugh Woods. 
William White. 
George Young. 
George Zimmerman. 

Captain — Samuel D. Culbertson. 
First lieutenant — John McClintock. 



Second lieutenant — George K. Harper. 

Ensign — John Stevenson. 

Sergeants — Andrew Calhoun, John Calhoun, Stephen Rigler, Alex Allison. 

Corporals — Hugh Greenfield, James Wilson, Samuel Beatty, John Andrew. 

John Arntt. 
Henry Burchett. 
John Besore. 
Samuel Brand. 
Mathew Besore. 
George Beaver. 
James Crawford. 
Augustus Capron. 
William Cook. 
James Campbell. 
Edward Crawford. 
Edward Capron. 
Peter Crayton. 
John Devine. 
William Denny. 
Joseph Duffield. 
John Denig. 
John Daugherty. 
Joseph Erven. 
Benj. Fahnestock. 
William Ferry. 
Isaac Grier. 
Jacob Grove. 
Henry Greenawalt. 
William Grove. 
Paul Heoflich. 


John Holmes. 
William Heyser. 
Joseph Housem. 
John Hutchinson. 
George Harris. 
Herman Helfmire. 
John Hinkle. 
Michial S. Johns. 
William Jamison. 
George Jasonsky. 
John Kindline. 
Jacob Kelker. 
Andrew Lindsay. 
William M. McDowell 
John McBride. 
Patrick Murray. 
John McCormick. 
George B. McKnight. 
Thds. G. McCulloh 
Henry Merklein. 
John Nunemacher. 
Wm. Nochtwine. 
George Oyster. 
John O'Neal. 
Samuel Porter. 
William Reynolds. 

James D. Riddle. 
Phillip Reges. 
John Reed. 
Samuel Ruthrauff. 
William Richey. 
Adam Rcemer. 
George Simpsou. 
William Schoeplin. 
John Snider. 
Samuel Shillitt. 
William Shane. 
Daniel Stevenson. 
Jacob Smith. 
David Trittle 
Robert Thompson. 
Abraham Voress. 
Bernard Wolff. 
Jacob Widefelt. 
John Weaver. 
John Whitmore. 
John B. Watts. 
James Warden. 
Joseph Wallace. 
George Wilson. 


Captain — Thomas Bard. 

First lieutenant — James McDowell. 

Second lieutenant — John Johnston. 

Ensign — Joseph Bowers. 

Sergeants — A. T. Dean, G. Duffield, Thomas Smith, G. Spangler. 

Corporals — William Smith, Thomas Grubb, William McDowell, Thomas Johnston. 

Fifer— John Mull. 

John Abbott. 
John Brown. 
Archibald Bard. 
Robert Carson. 
Samuel Craig. 
John Coxe. 
John Cox, Jr. 
John Campbell. 
Joseph Dick. 
Joseph Dunlap. 
Jeremiah Evans. 
Peter Elliott. 
John Furley. 
John Glaz-/. 
William Glass. 
Joseph Garvin. 
Henry Garner. 
Leonard Gaff. 
James Garver. 
William Hart. 
James Harrison. 


William Houston. 
Joseph Harrington. 
Fred'k Henchy. 
James Hamilton. 
John Harrer. 
Samuel Johnson. 
John King. 
John Liddy. 
James McDowell. 
William McDowell, Sr. 
James McNeal. 
John McCurdy. 
John Maxwell. 
John McClelland. 
George McFerren. 
Augustus McNeal. 
Robert McCoy. 
William McKinstry. 
Thomas C. McDowell. 
James Montgomery. 
Samuel Markle. 

John McCulloch. 
Charles Pike. 
Mathew Patton. 
David Robston. 
William Rankin. 
Thomas Speer. 
George Stevens. 
Conrad Stinger. 
James Sheilds. 
John Sybert. 
William Stewart. 
David Smith. 
Thomas Squire. 
William Wilson. 
James Walker. 
Christopher Wise. 
Samuel Witherow. 
John Werlby. 
Thomas Williamson. 
John Witherow. 
Thomas Waddle. 




Captain — Andrew Robson. 

First lieutenant — John Brotherton. 

Second lieutenant — James Mitchell. 

Ensign — JacoB Besore. 

Sergeants— James Walker, Andrew Snively, Thomas Wilson, Archibald Fleming 

Corporals — John Randall, George Bellows, George Sackett, Alex Aiken. 

Paymaster — William Carson. 

William Armstrong, Jr. 
John Allison. 
Robert Bruce. 
Samuel Bradley. 
Robert Brotherton. 
John Billings. 
William H. Brotherton. 
Frederick Baird. 
William Bratten. 
Henry Beatty. 
James Brotherton. 
John Boggs. 
Benjamin Core. 
George Clark. 
James Camion. 
Walter B. Clark. 
Frederick Carpenter. 
William Clark. 
William Coffroth. 
James Davison. 
Jesse Deman. 
William T. Dugan. 
John Dennis. 
George Flora. 
David Fullerton. 
Samuel Foreman. 
Robert Guinea. 
William Gallagher. 
Peter Gallagher. 
Hugh Guinea. 


John Gaff. 
John Garner. 
Edward Gordon. 
Fred'k Gearhart. 
Joseph Hughes. 
William Harger. 
John Henneberger. 
William Irwin. 
James Johnston. 
William Krepps. 
Jonathan Keyser. 
George Kuy. 
Mathew Kennedy. 
James McGaw, 
William H. Miller. 
Samuel McCutchen. 
Abraham McCutchen. 
John McClellan. 
John McCune. 
James McCord. 
William Moreland. 
John Miller. 
John McCoy. 
Adam McCallister. 
William McGraw. 
John McConnell. 
Archibald McLane. 
John B. McLanahan. 
Samuel Nigh. 
Robert Owen. 

Jacob Poper. 
James Poe. 
J. Piper. 
John Park. 
A. B. Rankin. 
John Reed. 
John Rowe, Sr. 
Roger Rice. 
John Rogers. 
John Shira. 
John Shearer. 
Henry Sites. 
Robert Smith. 
Charles Stewart. 
Samuel Statler. 
George Speckman. 
John Shaup. 
Adam Sayler. 
George Schreder. 
John Snyder. 
George Uller. 
William Vanderaw. 
George Wallack. 
John Weaver. 
Thomas Welsh. 
Christian Wilhelm. 
Thomas Walker. 
James Wilson. 
Christian Wise. 
Alexander Young. 


Captain — John Flanagan. 

Lieutenant — William Bivins. 

Ensign — Daniel McFarlin. 

Sergeants — Robert Gordon, George Cochran, William Downey and George Foreman. 

Samuel Allison. 
Christian Bechtel. 
Hugh Blair. 
John Bowman. 
David Beaver. 
John Bormest. 
William Barnet. 
William Call. 
James Duncan. 
Joseph Fulton. 
James Fullerton. 
Jacob Fry. 
Loudon Fullerton. 
Samuel Green. 


James Gettys. 
George Gettys. 
Daniel Haulman, 
David Heffner. 
Peter Haulman. 
Daniel Hartman. 
James Harshman. 
James Hayden. 
George Koontz. 
John Logan. 
Daniel Logan. 
James McCray. 
William Mooney. 
William McDowell. 

Joseph Misner. 
John Oellig. 
Maximillian Obermeyer. 
George Price. 
Robert Ray. 
Abraham Roberson. 
John Sheffler. 
Alex. Stewart. 
John Stoner. 
Adam Stonebraker. 
David Springer. 
George Weagley. 
David Weaver. 


Captain — William Alexander. 
Lieutenant — Francis McConnell. 
Ensign — James Barkley. 


Sergeants — John Maclay, Richard Childerson, Peter Foreman, William Young. 
Corporal — John Sterrett. 


James Alexander. George Houston. Hugh Maxwell 

Thomas Childerstone. James Irwin. John McRee. 

Edward Dunn. James Jones. John Neal. 

John Elder. David Kyle. Peter Piper. 

Noah Elder. James KcConnell. John Patterson. 

Andrew Foreman. John Little. John Ryan. 

William Finnerty. Robert Lewis. William Shutter. 

Thomas Geddis. Robert McMillon. Arthur Sheilds. 

John Harry. James McKibben. John Vanlear. 

Samuel Hockenberry. Robert McCleary. David Witherow. 

John Hill. John McAllen. James Wallace. 

Thomas Harry. Joseph McKelvy. Peter Wilt. 

These companies formed a regiment, Col. John Findlay commanding. 
After Findlay' s promotion Lieut. William Young became captain. The 
other field officers of this regiment were major, David Fullerton; surgeon, 
John McClelland; first mate, Dr. JohnBoggs; second mate, Dr. Jesse McGaw; 
adjutant, James McDowell; quartermaster, Thomas G. McCulloh; sergeant- 
major, Andrew Lindsay; quartermaster- sergeant, William Carson; paymaster- 
general, George Clark. 

These troops continued in active service until September 23 following when 
they were mustered out. • 


Texas and Mexico— Whig and Democrat — Counter Arguments— Declara- 
tion of War—Franklin County Company— Its Services. 

TEXAS had revolted and conquered its independence from Mexico, and asked 
to become a part of the Union. The Lone Star State was of herself a great 
and rich empire in territory, and when she knocked at the doors of the United 
States for admission as one of the sister States, to the average American there 
was a strong desire to bid her come and welcome. Had Mexico quietly con- 
sented at that time, and abandoned all claims to still control the independent 
State, it is highly probable it would have peacefully become a member of the 
Union, and Mexico would have avoided a disastrous war with this country, and 
the consequent loss of her immense territories north of the Rio Grande; and 
then, too, it is probable that the annexation of Texas would not have caused a 
political feud in the United States, over which discussion became heated, and 
new political issues were made — presidents were elected, and eminent politi- 
cians were defeated in their ambitious purposes. 

When a national question in this country assumes a political phase it is 
curious to watch its accidental outcomes. Men apparently shut their eyes and 
rush forward in spite of the most solemn warnings of their neighbors. They 
care only to know what their political rival wants them to do, and then they 
set their faces like steel to accomplish the very opposite. Thus, by curious ac- 
cident, the Mexican war became, in the minds of men of that time, a Democratic 
war; and the Whigs, as a party, were placed in the position as opposed to the 


annexation of Texas. To demonstrate how purely accidental were the controll- 
ing influences among men, we give an incident that occurred between a Demo- 
cratic and a Whig politician in Illinois in 1844. They were two bright and 
ambitious young men — both, afterward, becoming eminent in the Nation' s coun- 
cils. They lived in the same village in southern Illinois, and each was striv- 
ing for his party nomination for congressman. In order to advertise their 
claims they agreed to travel together over the vast district, and hold in each 
county joint discussions. They started out on the absorbing topic of both 
Whig and Democrat, the annexation of Texas, ranged on different sides. They 
were bright, witty, brilliant and eloquent, and they drew nearly equal to a 
circus in the Illinois back counties. But, in taking sides, the Whig favored 
annexation, and the Democrat opposed it. Thus they had passed over about 
two-thirds of the district, when the long delayed news from the National 
Democratic Convention reached them, and lo, it had nominated Polk, and upon 
the strongest kind of a Texas annexation platform. Here, indeed, was a kettle 
of fish. What. could they do? Why, simply, just what they did do — swap 
sides and continue their trip and discussion through the remainder of the 
district, hammering each other over the heads, each with the other's own 

Congress passed a bill admitting Texas into the union of States, and on the 
4th of July, 1845, the Legislature of Texas, by solemn act, approved of the 
measure, and the union was consummated. Mexico considered this as an act 
of war; and withdrew her minister from Washington. Some feeble and pos- 
sibly half-hearted attempts to tide over the threatened conflict were made by 
the United States, and then the two nations declared war, and at once began 
marshalling their armies. In the early part of 1846 our armies had marched to 
the border lines of Mexico, and after a brief halt they invaded the country of 
the enemy. The declaration of war was made by Congress, May 11, 1846, 
and $10,000,000 voted to furnish the army, and the President was authorized 
to call for 50,000 volunteers. The temper of our people is shown by the fact, 
that at once 200,000 volunteers offered themselves, and from every part of the 
Union it was a race among companies and regiments to get in first. Every- 
where companies were formed that the Government was compelled to reject. 

Franklin County sent one company. This was recruited in 1847, by Mar- 
tin M. Moore, of Washington, who had procured authority to enlist a Pennsyl- 
vania company for the Mexican war. He opened a recruiting office in Cham- 
bersburg, and soon filled his company, and it left Chambersburg, March 17, 
1847, for the seat of war, numbering 122 men, rank and file, officered as fol- 

Captain — Martin M. Moore. 

First lieutenant — Charles T. Campbell. 

Second lieutenants — Horace Haldeman, Washington Meads. 

Third sergeant — James S. Gillan. 

Corporals — Michael W. Houser, J. R. Thompson, Henry Remley. 


Jacob Arbaugh. George Barmord. William Fisher. 

James S. Bigger. Emanuel Burns. William Johnson. 

John Bricker. Davrd Beard. Jeremiah Keefer. 

Joseph Bricker. Hugh P. Coxe. Henry Koyler. 

Fredrick Berkle. Washington Cramer. Samuel Kraft. 

Fredrick Baker. Jeremiah Douglas. Amos Lightner. 

William Bittinger. Mathew Downs. George Miller. 

James Briley. John Davis. Daniel Miller. 

John Beamhop. George Eldridge. James McCullough. 

' - ^ : Wi 


John Mehaffey. Henry Ray. Thomas Shoemaker. 

Alexander McCarthey. Lewis Rummel. John Sheaffer. 

John McCumseh. William Retter. Joseph Welch. 

William I. McClellan. Heury Reafsnider. Jacob West. 

Joseph McMahan. Hezekiah Stuff. Jacob Williams. 

Joseph Nave. John C. Sheffield. John Zumbro. 

John A. Pierson. David M. Stump. John Harnish. 

Jacob Pentz. John Suders. Joseph Grimes. 

William Robison. Henry Sheafer. David Cordell. 

Although we have no complete list of the men of Company B, Eleventh 
United States Infantry, as furnished by the War Department, yet we give only 
those that were known to be from Franklin County. 

This company marched to Pittsburgh, by way of Bedford, where it received 
some additional recruits. It arrived with the army at Brazos Santiago, in 
April, 1847, and for some time was in garrison at Tampico, where a number of 
men died of yellow fever. From here it went to Vera Cruz, and from there to 
the City of Mexico. The company was in active service until the close of the 
war, July 4, 1848. 

Capt. Moore was dismissed from the service at Tampico, and Charles T. 
Campbell was promoted to captain, and was in command until our army was 
mustered out. At the time of the close of the war it was in the interior of 
the country, about seventy-five miles from the City of Mexico. When the 
company reached New York on its return home in July, 1848, its force of 100 
men had been reduced to about twenty-four men in the line. 

There were other men recruited who went to the war from this county in ad- 
dition to those given above in Company B. Capt. Whipple and Lieut. 
Hanson got recruits for their command here. Then we are informed that 
there were several Franklin County men who joined commands that went out 
from Cumberland County, and their identity as Franklin County men was 
thereby lost. 

Captain Charles T. Campbell is now a resident of Scotland, Dak. , to which 
point he removed from Franklin Countv, some years ago. 



Introductory — First Newspaper — Press of Chambersburg — Press of 
Waynesboro — Press of Mercersburg — Press of Greencastle. 

THE corner-stones of modern civilization are the family, the school, the 
church and the state. 
The family is the origin of all government — the germ of all organization. 
Upon it all social and political institutions rest. From it all others derive 
their vitality and inspiration. Without its economy, the body politic and the 
social fabric could not exist. The family may be regarded a preparatory 
university, whose president is the father, and whose chief instructor is the 
loving and faithful mother. All science and all art are taught in this univer- 
sity. The most important lessons in life are the "things learned at that best 



academy, a mother's knee," embracing the names and qualities of objects and 
actions; government, philosophy, religion, political economy, theology, poetry, 
literature, music — all the gems of an encyclopedic education. 

From this preparatory school pupils are admitted to the conventional 
school under the control of a licensed master or mistress. New lessons and 
new duties are to be learned. Certain personal rights must be sacrificed to 
enjoy certain privileges that are desired. True republicanism is cultivated. 
Genuine philanthropy is developed, and the pupil qualified to enter intelligently 
the next grade — the church. It is the great theological institution intended 
to teach the higher duties and responsibilties of a moral and pious life. Self- 
control, charity, benevolence, consecration, devotion, unselfishness — all these 
are its legitimate purposes to accomplish. Its work done efficiently, the 
subject is prepared to occupy his appropriate position in the state; in other 
words, to become an intelligent, conscientious citizen. Three sets of agencies, 
each working efficiently in its own sphere, have co-operated to produce the 
highest type of manhood, the conception which inspired Holland to write : 

"God gives us men! a time like this demands 
Strong minds, great hearts, true faith and ready hands; 

Men whom the lust of office does not kill; 
Men whom the spoils of office can not buy; 

Men who possess opinions and a will, 
Men who have honor — men who will not lie; 

Men who can stand before a demagogue 
And damn his treacherous flatterers without winking, 

Tall men, sun-crowned, who live above the fog 
In public duty, and in private thinking." 

Men may condemn the evils of church and state; they can not be divorced. 
As well attempt to separate youth and manhood, the soil and its crop, or any 
cause from its effect. If the child is the father of the man, the family, the 
school and the church are the progenitors of the state. 

But as society is organized, the life-blood of all these institutions is the 
modern newspaper. It is the food of all. In its greed it has usurped the 
prerogative formerly enjoyed by the oral teacher, secular and religious. It 
is the accepted text-book of the ordinary laborer, the learned divine and the 
profoundest statesman. It is more powerful than the throne, which it makes 
and unmakes at will. It is, in our modern civilization, the life-blood of the 
body politic. Hence the power and the responsibility of the press. 

In the history of English journalism occurs this account of the growth of 
the newspaper : ' ' First we have the written news letter, furnished to the 
wealthy aristocracy; then, as the craving for information spread, the ballad of 
news, sung or recited; then the news pamphlet, more prosaically arranged; 
then the periodical sheet of news ; and lastly, the newspaper. ' ' 

The English newspaper was born in London, in 1622. Its liberty at first 
was greatly restricted, nothing being allowed publication until it had passed 
proper official inspection. In its struggle for independence, the press had to 
undergo many prosecutions and trials unknown to the present generation. 
The blood of martyrs is the seed not only of the church, but of the press as 
well. Governmental influence with the subject-matter of the newspaper was 
regarded a divine right; hence we are not astonished to find the House of 
Commons resolving, in 1729, that "it is an indignity and a breach of privilege 
of the House of Commons for any person to presume to give, in written or 
printed newspapers, any account or minutes, of the debates or other proceed- 
ings of this House or any committee thereof." In 1764 the editor of the 
Evening Post, of London, was fined £100 by the House of Lords, for mention- 


ing the name of Lord Hereford in his paper. The good work continued, how- 
ever, till the press was disenthralled. 

France had much difficulty in liberating the press. Daring the reign of 
Louis Napoleon there were 6,000 prosecutions of publishers; but they finally 
succeeded, and France can hear from plebeians, sentiments which the throne 
did not dare to utter. Not by German battalions only was the usurper over- 
thrown. He was shot through and through by the paper bullets of a hostile 
and enraged public press. 

In America the first neAvspaper was published at Boston, September 25, 
1090, by Benjamin Harris, the printing being done by Richard Pierce. Its 
name, Public Occurrences, both Foreign and Domestick, was very significant. 
The only copy now in existence is preserved in the State office in London. 
Others sprang up in regular order, until to-day the American press stands 
forth as one of the greatest bulwarks of national liberty — the proudest monu- 
ment of the progressive spirit of the age. 

A sentence or two may serve to sketch the editor who realizes the nature 
of the trust he holds. 

1. An editor, like a poet, is born, not made. A plug hat, a waxed mustache, 
a cigar and a goose quill, will not necessarily edit a paper successfully. Pro- 
fanity, bad grammar, excessive slang and whisky, are not the indispensable 
requisites of modern journalism. 

2. He has an inherent right to be both a gentleman and a scholar. He 
should be sufficiently educated, at least, to express an original thought occa- 
sionally, in good Anglo-Saxon. Scissors and paste have their legitimate sphere, 
but this does not imply that he should have "just enough learning to mis- 
quote," nor does it require that he should demonstrate in his own case that, 

' ' to follow foolish precedents, and wink with both eyes, is easier than 
to think." 

3. He should be a leader in public sentiment. It is his province to 
mould the thought of his constituents. On every new issue he should be able 
to sound forth the clarion notes of truth and progress, and lead his readers to 
occupy advanced grounds in the face of ignorant. opposition. Some one has 
truly said : "To know hoiv to say what others only know how to think, is what 
makes men poets and sages ; but to dare to say what others only dare to think, 
is what makes them heroes or reformers or both." 

4. He should have a conscience on matters that affect the public weal. 
A newspaper is not private property in the sense that it is to reflect only the 
wishes and piques of its manager. It represents a constituency whose con- 
sciences it ought to respect, while it aims to educate them. It can not be 
made the vehicle for giving vent to private ill-will. For that reason it ought 
to treat an opponent with courtesy, so long as he exhibits marks of sincerity. 

The press of Franklin County has had an existence since the opening of the 
last decade of the eighteenth century and has had some able representatives in the 
ranks of journalism. As will be seen from the lists that are to follow, these daily, 
weekly and monthly heralds of light and life, have been exceedingly numer- 
ous, but many of them, having accomplished their mission, did obeisance to 
an apparently disinterested public, and silently departed to enjoy the rewards 
of achieved fame. For the information, and in many cases, the language 
contained in these brief sketches, obligation is publicly acknowledged to those 
faithful chroniclers of Franklin County History, Dr. W. C. Lane,* Judge 
Henry Rubyj and I. H. McCauley, Esq. J 

*[n Public Opinion of January 1, 1878. 
fin Shippensburg News of October 16, 1875. 
^Historical Sketch of Franklin County. 



From the organization of the county, in September. 1784, to July 14, 
1790, no newspaper was published in Franklin County, all sheriffs' proclama- 
tions, notices of candidates for office, offers of real estate for sale, estrays, 
runaway negroes, desertions of bed and board by wives, obituaries, divorce 
and sale notices, etc. , being printed in the Carlisle Gazette and Repository of 

As the population of Chambersburg increased, one of its chief wants was a 
weekly journal, to " note the passing tidings of the times." This want was 
eventually supplied by the advent of Mr. William Davison, from Philadelphia, 
who, in the month of June, 1790, issued the first number of the first news- 
paper published in Franklin County. The name of this primitive journal was 
The Western Advertiser and Chambersburg Weekly Newspaper. It was a small, 
dingy sheet of three columns to the page, and 10x15 inches in size. Its con- 
tents consisted mainly of advertisements and a few extracts from London and 
Eastern journals, and an occasional ponderous and drowsy original communi- 
cation upon some political or literary subject. It was singularly dignified 
and dull. The price of the paper was 15 shillings per annum. Mr. Davison did 
not more than fairly start his enterprise, before his health began to decline, and he 
was obliged to call to his assistance Mr. Eobert Harper, brother of the late George 
Kenton Harper. Mr. Harper came to Chambersburg in 1792, and took charge 
of the paper. Mr. Davison dying soon afterward, Mr. Harper then became 
its sole proprietor. In 1793 Mr. Harper changed the elaborate title of the 
journal to the simpler one of The Chambersburg Gazette. This name it re- 
tained until the year 1796, when it was further changed to The Franklin Reposi- 
tory. Soon after Mr. Robert Harper became the owner of the paper, he associated 
with himself in its publication a gentleman named Dover. This connection ex- 
isted only a few months, and was severed by Mr. Dover' s withdrawal. In the year 
1800, Robert Harper sold the establishment to his brother, George Kenton 
Harper. * The latter gentleman had previously learned the art of printing in 
the office in Chambersburg, although, at the time of the purchase, he was a 
resident of Philadelphia. Under the able and judicious management of George 
K. Harper, the Repository became one of the most extensively circulated and 
influential journals in the interior of the State. The Repository was published 
by Mr. George K. Harper for a period of thirty-nine years, and was then sold 
to Joseph Pritts, who was publishing the Chambersburg Whig, and by whom 
the two papers were united under the title of the Repository and Whig. 

This venerable and influential old journal was successively owned by many 
companies and individuals, until it fell into the most competent hands of Col. 
Alexander K. McClure, by whom it was enlarged and otherwise improved. Its 
title was, by this gentleman, again changed, and its old and honored name of 
The Franklin Repository most appropriately given it. Under Col. McClure' s 
proprietorship, it became an acknowledged political power in the State. The 
paper is now ownedf and edited by Maj. John M. Pomeroy, and it may be said with 
perfect truth and candor, and without any invidious disparagement of the very 
many able gentlemen by whom it had formerly been conducted, that its present 
proprietor exhibits in its management a combination of energy, enterprise, tact 
and ability which, at least, have never been exceeded in its past history. The 
Repository has always been a fearless and able defender of the principles of the 

*D. P.. Kirby, of Chambersburg, has a copy of the Repository, dated February 20, 1800, which was marked 
No. 44 of Vol. IV. Its subscription price is put at $2.25 per year. G. K.Harper is its owner and publisher. 
In Us columns is a notice that Geo. K. Harper had bought of Robert Harper the Minerva, showing its publi- 
cation in the last century. See McCauley's denials, in loco. 

tSee statement at close of this sketch of the press of Chambersburg. 


old Whig and Republican parties, in whose defense it has been compelled to 
break many a lance; and, in its mature age of eighty-seven years, it exhibits 
more than the vigor and energy which characterized its earlier days. 

The Repository was first issued from an old log house, originally built and 
used for a blacksmith shop, which stood on the lot now occupied by Mr. Jacob 
Snider' s book store. It was then removed to a small one-story weatherboarded 
building, which stood on Main Street, near the corner of the Diamond, on the 
lot on Which Mr. Thomas E. Paxton's store now stands. 

For many years the Repository was the only newspaper published in Frank- 
lin County. At length, about the year 1809, a Democratic rival, called the 
Franklin Republican, was issued by Mr. John Hershberger. Previously, how- 
ever, two papers, one in English and the other in the German language,* had 
been published for a few years. The names of these papers have not been 
ascertained, although extended inquiry has been made. The English paper 
was now united with the Franklin Republican. On relinquishing the business 
of printing in 1816, Mr. Hershberger sold his office to John McFarland, by 
whom the publication of the English journal was continued; but who discon- 
tinued the German paper for want of adequate support. McFarland sold the 
paper to John Sloan, who published it until his death, a few years after the 
purchase. Mr. Sloan died about the year 1824. The late Joseph Pritts, who 
had been employed in the office of Sloan, married his widow, and thus became 
the owner of the printing establishment. Mr. Pritts continued to publish the 
paper in the interest of the Democratic party, until the anti-Masonic excite- 
ment in 1834, when he became a member of that organization, and purchased 
an anti-Masonic newspaper which had previously been established by James 
Culbertson. The two papers were then conjoined and the name changed to 
The Chambersburg Whig, which it bore until it was merged into the Franklin 
Repository, in 1889. Mr. Pritts having thus abandoned the Democratic party, 
that organization was left without an organ, until the Franklin Telegraph was 
started about the year 1831, by Messrs. Ruby & Maxwell. This partnership 
continued but six weeks, at the end of which time James Maxwell withdrew. 
Mr. Ruby then selected another partner named Hatnick. Mr. Hatnick dying 
after a partnership of only nine months, Mr. Ruby became sole proprietor of 
the paper, and continued its publication until the year 1840, making it an able 
and successful exponent of the principles of the party in whose interests it was 
established. Having been appointed one of the associate judges of Franklin 
County, Judge Ruby sold his journal to Messrs. Brown & Casey. These gen- 
tlemen, after conducting it for several years, sold it to John Brand, who 
changed its name to the Chambersburg Times. Mr. Franklin G. May bought 
the paper from Mr. Brand, and held it until April 6, 1846, when he transferred 
it to E. R. Powell. Daring the proprietorship of Mr. Powell, its name was 
changed to the Valley Sentinel. In January, 1850, it was purchased by Fred- 
erick Smith, Esq., and edited by his son, Alfred H. Smith, until April, 1851, 
when this gentleman moved to Philadelphia. Messrs. Nead & Kinneard then 
became the owners of the Sentinel, under whose management it remained until 
late in the year 1852, when it was sold to Messrs. P. S. Dechert & Co. ; and, 

*One of these was called Der Redliche Registrator. Its publisher and editor, F. W. Nihoeplin, announced in 
the Repository of December 21, 1813: "The first number of this paper will be issued from this office to-morrow." 
lie says, further: "Nearly the whole contents of this paper is weekly translated from the latest English papers, 
which, together with the quick conveyance by mails running in all directions from Chambersburg, enables its 
patrons to receive information of the occurrences of our own and foreign countries as early as they could 
through any of the English weekly papers." It must be remembered, that at that time all mail matter was dis- 
tributed by carriers but once a week, and yet these crude facilities were highly appreciated. The German pop- 
ulation in the county, too, was an important factor at this eai ly date. *ays .fudge Ruby : " There were but few 
families in the town or country that did not then understand the German language, which accounts for two 
weekly papers being sustained in that language." After Mr. Schoeplin's death, in 1825, the office was sold to 
Henry Ruby. 


its apposite name, after appearing for a season in company with the Spirit, as 
the Spirit and Sentinel, died away. 

The Valley Spirit was started in Shippensburg, by John M. Cooper and 
Daniel Dechert, in July, 1847, under the title of the Valley Spirit and Cum- 
berland and Franklin County Democrat. In July, 1848, it was moved to 
Chambersburg, and conducted under the firm of P. S. Dechert & Co. , with Mr. 
Cooper as editor. In 1852 the firm bought the Sentinel, and united the two 
papers. In 1857, the Valley Spirit, which had dropped part of its original 
name, became the property of George H. Mengel & Co. , and was published by 
them until 1862, when it was purchased by B. Y. Hamsher & Co. , who retained 
it until 1867, when it passed into the hands of Messrs. J. M. Cooper & Co. , 
and in 1868 Mr. Cooper withdrew from the establishment, Messrs. Wm. S. 
Stehger and Augustus Duncan becoming its proprietors. In 1876 Mr. Joseph 
C. Clugston purchased the paper, and reinstated its old and popular editor, 
Mr. Cooper, in the editorial chair. 

The Valley Spirit is an ably-managed and vigorous publication, and is an 
able and fearless advocate of the principles of the great party to which it be- 
longs; and its influence is not limited merely to the locality in which it is pub- 
lished, but is sensibly felt in the politics of the State. In that peculiar tact, 
as well as talent, so essential to the successful editor, Mr. Cooper was gifted 
in an eminent degree. October 1, 1879, the paper was purchased by its pres- 
ent owners, John GK & D. A. Orr, from J. H. Wolf kill, through whom it had 
come from Clugston and Cooper. On the 2d of August, 1886, John Gr. 
and D. A. Orr purchased at sheriff's sale the Franklin Democrat and Daily 
Herald, and immediately began the publication of a morning daily known 
as the Valley Spirit. In a prominent position on its second page stands 
this epitome of its own history: "Established, 1847. Founded in 1831, merged 
in Valley Spirit, 1852 — Franklin Telegraph, Chambersburg Times, Cumber- 
land Valley Sentinel. Founded in 1858; merged in Valley Spirit, 1862 — the 
Independent, the Times. Founded in 1878; merged in Valley Spirit, 1886 — the 
Daily Herald. Founded in 1882; merged in Valley Spirit, 1886 — the Frank- 
lin County Democrat. ' ' Both daily and weekly editions show the highest style 
of mechanical execution, and the contents of each are newsy and spicy, evi- 
dencing careful and painstaking research. It is a pronounced anti-Randall 
Democratic exponent of the theories of government. 

In July, 1853, Mr. Robert P. Hazelet started a folio sheet, devoted more 
especially to literature, which he called the Transcript. It became the Know- 
Nothing organ in the fall of 1854, and was subsequently merged into the 
Repository, under the title of the Repository and Transcript, and, after a titular 
fellowship of a few years, ultimately perished. 

In 1854, Messrs. Kell & Kinneard started an educational monthly, called 
the Tutor and Pupil, which had an ephemeral existence. 

David A. Werz instituted The Independent in 1858, a handsome and able 
paper, which attracted much attention for its literary ability, but sold it in 
April, 185 ( J, to William I. Cook and P. Dock Frey. A few months later, 
namely, on the 7th of October, 1859, they transferred it to Frey & Foltz, who 
converted it from a neutral into a Republican paper. On the 31st of August, 
1860, it again changed owners, and Messrs. William Kennedy and Jacob Sellers 
converted it into a Democratic organ, as an exponent of the principles of the 
Douglas wing of the party, in opposition to the Valley Spirit, which sup- 
ported Breckenridge. After holding it a few years it was united with the 
Valley Spirit, as the Valley Spirit and Times, and, a short time after, its dis- 
tinctive title passed into oblivion. 


In the year 1814, the Hon. Henry Rnby moved to Chanibersburg, and was 
apprenticed to a German printer named F. W. Schoflin, who was publishing a 
German paper in connection with Mr. Geerge K. Harper. This paper was 
soon afterward sold to Mr. Schoflin. Mr. Schoflin died in 1825, and his paper 
was managed by Mr. Ruby, for his widow, for a period of six months, at the 
expiration of which time he bought the office. He continued its publication for 
some time after the publication of the Franklin Telegraph, but under a new 
name, and eventually sold it to Mr. Victor Scriba, by whom it was removed to 
Pittsburgh. Mr. Scriba changed its name to Freiheif s Freund, and it soon 
attained a large circulation and much influence among the German population 
of Pittsburgh. Another German paper was started in Chambersburg, by John 
Dietz, in 1824, but enjoyed a very brief existence, dying in its second year. 

During the time embraced by these publications, a large number of papers 
were launched upon the treacherous waves of popular favor, but soon stranded 
on the hidden rock of impecuniosity, and sank even beneath public recollection. 
A notable exception to this statement, however, was the Transcript, estab- 
lished in 1853 by Robert P. Hazelet. This paper aspired to the establish- 
ment of a literary reputation, in which it secured a marked degree of success. 
It was then purchased by the Know-Nothings, and upon the sudden collapse 
of that political monstrosity, was merged into the Repository, and lived a short 
time longer in the Repository and Transcript. 

The Despatch, a semi-weekly paper, was started in the spring of 1861, by 
George H Merklein and P. Dock Frey, under the firm of George H. Merk- 
lein & Co., and lived until the spring of 1863. 

The Country Merchant, an advertising sheet, was issued in July, 1866, by 
M. A. Foltz, and was succeeded, in 1869, by Public Opinion, a progressive 
weekly newspaper, devoted to advanced Republican principles. It deals es- 
pecially with news of a local nature, always giving the preference to such, but, 
at the same time, it never neglects matters of national or State import or in- 
formation of general interest. The people of Franklin County have always 
had in it a true friend. Their interests have been its interests, and it has 
fought their battles with vigor from the moment that it first saw the light. 

The first issue appeared on the 20fch of July, in the year above named, and 
met with immediate success. It rapidly became a leading paper, not only in 
its own county, but throughout the whole of the Cumberland Valley, its views 
being quoted far and wide. It has continued to hold this prominence, and is 
to-day one of the most influential newspapers in southern Pennsylvania. And 
at the present time, as in the past, it is representative of its title, and is truly a 
reflex of public opinion. 

With the commencement of its third volume, in July, 1871, the Opinion 
enlarged, and in 1885 it re-enlarged, thus becoming one of the largest week- 
lies published in its section of the State. It has now a circulation of about 
2, 500, and goes into the best families in the county. 

The Silver Cornet, a monthly musical journal, was published by P. Dock 
Frey & Co. , coming into the world of letters in September, 1869, ' ' and piping 
out ' ' at the somewhat immature age of seven months. 

The People's Register was started in 1876 as the Centennial Register. It 
is a patent outside, and was edited by Rev. J. G. Schaff until the time of his 
death, when it passed into the hands of his sons, who are still publishing it. 
In the summer of 1886, they began the publication of an evening daily which 
has met with a favorable reception. The Register has given special attention 
to educational news and articles, and thus has become the teachers' friend in 
the county. 


The Farm Journal and Experimental Farm Journal were issued success- 
ively by George A. Dietz & Co., and were extensively circulated. 

The first religious journal published by the German Reformed Church was 
a monthly pamphlet called The Magazine of the German Reformed Church, 
and was issued at Carlisle, Penn. , under the editorship of Rev. Dr. Lewis Mayer. 
It appeared in November, 1827. In 1829 it was removed to York, Penn. In 
1832, its title was changed to The Messenger of the German Reformed Church, 
and the numbers were designated as the New Series. In 1834 it was 
changed to a semi-monthly, in a quarto form, which was continued until July, 
1835, at which time it was removed to Chambersburg. Its title was now 
changed to the Weekly Messenger and was issued weekly. A specimen number 
of the paper was published in July, but the regular issue did not begin until 
the September following. The numbering as a new series again com- 
menced, which has been continued to the present date. In December, 1848, 
the name of the paper was further changed to that of The German Reformed 
Messenger. In September, 1867, the title was again changed to The Reformed 
Church Messenger, because the word " German ' ' had been omitted in the church 
itself. The office in Chambersburg was destroyed by the rebels in 1864, and 
its place of publication was then transferred to Philadelphia. Its name is 
now simply The Messenger, and it is edited by the accomplished and scholarly 
divine, Rev. P. S. Davis, D. D. , ably assisted by Samuel R. Fisher, D. D., 
and others. For a time after the removal of the paper to Chambersburg, it 
was published by Joseph Pritts, and subsequently by Henry Ruby, until the 
church established a printing office of her own, in the Masonic Hall, on 
Second Street, in 1840. The old Mansion House on the east side of the public 
square was then purchased, refitted, and the office removed into it. 

The late Rev. Benjamin S. Schneck, D. D. , became editor of the Messenger 
in 1835, after its removal to Chambersburg, and occupied this position until 
the year 1844. In the beginning of 1840, the Rev. Samuel R. Fisher, D. D.,* 
became associated with him in its editorial management. Dr. Schneck' s 
relation to the paper, which was suspended in 1844, was resumed in the fall 
of 1847, and continued until the year 1852. During Dr. Schneck' s pastorate 
in Gettysburg, Penn. , in 1834, he began the publication of a semi-monthly in 
the German language, styled the Christliche Herold. The publication of this 
journal was transferred to Chambersburg in 1840, and issued under the name 
of the Christliche Zeitschrift. Dr. Schneck then took charge of it, changing 
its name to that of Reformirte Kirchenzeitung, and continued this relation 
until the destruction of the office in 1864, when it was removed to Philadelphia, 
with the exception of an interval of five years, from 1852 to 1857, when it was 
edited by the Rev. Samuel Miller. 

For a time the Saturday Local was published by Joseph Pomeroy & Co. 
Having accomplished its mission, it quietly took its departure to the sweet 

In the foregoing sketch it is stated that the Repository is owned and 
edited by Maj. John M. Pomeroy, and a merited compliment is paid him. 
Since that was written by Dr. W. C. Lame, the daily Franklin Repository has 
been established, which is now in its fourth volume. It has, like the weekly, 
attained a large circulation, and is, with the People's Register, an evening 
paper. Until November 26, 1886, it was published and edited by the Pomeroy 
Bros. ; but owing to certain complications, growing out of the right of title, 
it was sold by Sheriff Kurtz to T. M. Mahon and H. Gehr for $2,200, and 
immediately leased by them to its former managers. The paper is now under 

*Since deceased. 

,v W: . ,j ,,,p 


the management of John H. Pomeroy and A. Nevin Pomeroy, lessees and 

The Repository is the oldest paper in the Cumberland Valley, and its pages, 
from 1793 to the present, contain the substantial history of the county. Its 
influence upon the population of the cotinty through these years has been 
wonderful. It requires little sacrifice to be able to concur in the sentiment of 
Hon. Henry Ruby, himself an old printer and a competent judge, "that few 
towns in Pennsylvania have newspaper establishments conducted with as much 
ability as the Franklin Repository, Valley Spirit and Public Opinion of 
Chambersburg. ' ' 


In Rupp's " History of the Five Counties," 1846, is this simple statement: 
"A weekly paper — Waynesboro Circulator — is published by M. C. Grote." 

The Village Record, weekly, was founded March 13, 1847, by D. O. & W. 
Blair. D. O. Blair afterward studied medicine and went to Abingdon, 111., 
where he died. W. Blair had sold his interest to his brother, but in 1851 
repurchased it and has retained it every since. It was during the war published 
regularly till the time of Lee's invasion in 1863, when an interruption 
occurred. The outside was printed June 19, and the inside July 31. Rebel 
soldiers pied his type and overturned his cases, producing confusion which 
required several weeks to overcome. 

By virtue of continuous services, Mr. Blair is entitled to be known as the 
Nestor of the Franklin County press. 

The Keystone Gazette was established in 1876, as a Democratic weekly, bv 
J. C. West and W. C. Jacobs. In 1878 Jacobs retired. In 1880, S. M. 
Robinson bought it, but in 1882 sold to N. Bruce Martin and Jas. B. Fisher, 
who conducted it as an independent paper till January 1, 1885. At the last 
date, Mr. Fisher bought Martin's interest, and conducted the paper till March, 
1886, when D. B. Martin assumed editorial control, with Fisher as manager. 

The Brethren Advocate, a religious weekly periodical, was published at 
Waynesboro from August 5, 1879, to July 5, 1882. It was published in the 
interests of the German Baptist or Brethren Church. The contributors to its 
columns were some of the ablest writers of the sect. D. H. Fahrney was 
publisher. Size of sheet, 22x32. 


In 1846, The Mercersburg Visitor, weekly, was published by McKinstry and 


The Mercersburg Journal was established in 1846. It is a weekly, neutral 
in politics and has a good local circulation. Its present owners and managers 
are M. J. Slick and George Hornbraker. It has passed through a number of 
changes, which can not be given. 

In 1851-52, the Mercersburg Review was published in the interests of 
Marshall College. It was a bi-monthly, and sold at $3 per year. 


The first paper started in the town was called the Conococheague Herald, 
and was published by E. Robinson, August, 1848. In a few months it was 
sold by him to Charles Martin. After running it a year, he sold it to A. N. 
Rankin, who in turn disposed of it to Elliott B. Detrich, by whom the name 
was changed to the Franklin Intelligencer. At his death the paper passed into 
the hands of McCrory and Bonner, who named it the Franklin Ledger. When 


Bonner died, the new firm, Strickler & McCrory changed the name to The Pi- 
lot. Mr. Strickler retiring, McCrory ran the paper on his own responsibility 
for several years, when he sold it to Robert and William Crooks. The first 
brother soon withdrawing from the firm, the other continued the paper till 
1867, when he sold to Rev. John R. Gaff, who associated M. D. Reymer with 
himself, and changed the name to The Valley EcJio. In 1867 Col. B. F. 
Winger purchased the paper and, with the aid of Geo. E. Haller, the present 
proprietor, ran it till January 6, 1876, at which time he sold the establishment 
to the present owner and manager. 

The Greencastle Press was established by Col. B. F. Winger, after retiring 
from The Valley Echo, in 1876, and has been controlled by him ever since. 
At present his associate in the management and editorial work is J. C. Seacrest. 
It is a weekly, and has a good circulation in that portion of the county. 

About the opening of the war, a small paper was published at Concord by 
a brother of J. W. C. Goshorne, but after a time it was removed to the West. 

In 1886 the Path Valley News was established at Fannettsburg, and is 
still in existence. 



A Business of First Importance— Its Promising Future— Improvements 
Introduced — Judge Watts — The First Reaper — First Stock in the 
Country— Wheat and Corn— Hessian Fly— Improved Implements— A 
Wonderful Feat With the Scythe Agricultural Societies, Offi- 
cers, Etc. 

I PROM the land comes the life of every living, breathing, thing. It is the 
nourishing mother of animal and vegetable life. It is the beginning of all 
existence, and " dust to dust" is the common end. The soil and the climate 
are the determining factors in the growth and quality of the world' s civilization. 
From the soil comes all that we can possess — the best type of manhood, the 
great cities with their spires and minarets gleaming in the morning sun, the 
army with banners, the armadas whose sails fleck every sea, the maiden's 
blush, the bubbling laughter of childhood, the sweet bondage of love, the 
restful haven of home, are all from this one common, fruitful source. The 
dull soil, the primeval rocks from which all soils are made, bore the great 
secrets of life. 

It has been well said that were you to show a man, sufficiently versed in 
the subject of the rocks, a new world, that by an examination of the soil and 
rocks he could tell exactly what kind of men, the degree of civilization, the 
boundary line of their improvements, in farming and in all other industries, 
the new world would eventually evolve. This might seem to some a sweeping 
assertion, but by all men of tolerable culture it is accepted without further 

Of all vocations in life that of the farmer brings him in closer relations to 
the land than that of any other class of men. To perfect his education, prac- 
tically and scientifically, is to make him the master of the philosophy of the most 
vital subject that can affect life, because he is in the position of first import- 


ance, and when his energies are properly directed, it will of itself place him 
high and supreme above all others. The fundamentals of our physical life 
have always rested primarily upon the tillers of the soil, and to the coming 
farmer will mankind go for the higher qualities of mental life as they have 
already gone for their physical existence. The rudest tillers of the soil in the 
darkest ages learned, by patient experiments, some of the lessons the land had 
to give its children. However limited their acquirements may have been, they 
were the first lessons in nature's supreme university, whose final diplomas will 
attest to the best type of minds the earth can produce. The coming farmer 
will understand the physical laws of this fountain of life at which he toils, sows 
and reaps. The schools will then teach that all knowledge is simply under- 
standing the mental and physical laws that hedge us about, that form and shape 
us in every way from the cradle to the grave. Then, too, will be revealed to the 
world the important secret that there is nothing so wholly practical as real 
knowledge. When this great age shall dawn upon the race, then will the 
unfortunate city boy go to the farmer's school to learn the true knowledge — to 
be educated. In that age the great man, "the sun crowned," to whom is 
accorded universal respect and honors, will be that farmer with the most knowl- 
edge of the soils he tills. 

The improvement in the manner of cultivating the soil — the introduction of 
machinery — has distinguished the last half of this century. It is not a great 
while ago that farming, stock raising and all branches of the business, were 
greatly matters of chance. Mostly the farmer would plow and sow, and gather 
his crops after the manner of his ancestors. He then did not concern himself 
about drainage, or fertilizing, or improving his stock, or better implements of 
husbandry. Now the poorest farmer makes some effort to inform himself. He 
has learned to read agricultural papers and books, to meet and interchange 
ideas with his fellow- farmers, and thus he bestows and receives valuable hints 
and a more accurate knowledge of his own affairs. Agricultural schools are 
the evidences of what this important class are beginning to do for themselves. 
These steps along the line of advancement once came very slow, but now they 
are keeping abreast with the age. These are the most cheering signs of our 
times. Already he realizes fully that he is in a position to experiment and 
study cause and effect. This is the beginning of his real school, and once 
in the right path he will never turn aside. By these means he lifts himself 
above the narrow selfishness that too often characterizes nearly all other classes 
of men. 


Reforms move slowly. They are required, as Herbert Spencer says, to pass 
through three stages: First, that of indifference; second, that of violent opposi- 
tion; third, that of adoption. Improvements in the material and methods of 
farming are, by no means, an exception to this general law. 

It was the writer's good fortune lately to have a pleasant interview with 
Hon. Fred. Watts, of Carlisle, touching the changes in farming that have char- 
acterized the community. Said he: "About the middle of June, 1839, I was 
driving in a carriage with my wife from New York to Philadelphia, there being 
at that time no railroad communication. Near Trenton, N. J. , I was met in 
the road by a former resident of Carlisle Barracks, Lieut. Wm. lnman t of the 
United States Navy, who invited us to spend the night at his house on the farm. 
We went over. The next day he showed me a field of beautiful wheat which was 
rapidly ripening for the harvest. He told me that two years prior to that time 
he had procured three bushels of the seed near Leghorn, Italy, and was now 
raising his second crop. I obtained from him six barrels of the same kind, and 


sowed it on my farm near Carlisle. This was the introduction into the United 
States of the beautiful variety of wheat for a long time very popular and known 
as Mediterranean. From the six barrels which I sowed it was spread through 
the Cumberland Valley, and into other portions of the State. 

' ' It was in the summer of 1840, ' ' continued the judge, ' ' I bought a McCor- 
mick reaper, and brought it to my farm. When harvest came I determined to 
test its power in a twelve-acre field that would yield at least thirty -five bushels 
per acre. When the appointed time came there were present from five hun- 
dred to a thousand persons anxious to witness the signal failure of ' Watts' 
folly, ' as they called the machine. 

"The wheat stood well. The team was started, the cutting was excellent; 
the draught was not heavy, but the general decision was that one man could not 
remove the wheat rapidly enough from the machine. The team could not be 
driven more than ien or twelve rods till it was necessary to stop and rest the 
raker and straighten up his sheaves. Finally a well-dressed gentleman, of or- 
dinary size and pleasant demeanor, came up and asked whether he might be 
permitted to remove the wheat for a few rounds. Being answered in the affirm- 
ative, he mounted the machine, and took the raker' s stand. With perfect ease 
he raked off the wheat, nor did he seem to labor hard. After two or three 
rounds the spectators reversed their former decision and unanimously agreed 
that the machine was a complete success. ' Watts' folly ' became a favorite, 
and thus was introduced into the Cumberland Valley the first McCormick, the 
original reaping machine of the United States. The well-dressed gentleman 
who did the raking was Cyrus H. McCormick, the inventor of the American 
reaper. ' ' 

Similar illustrations might be adduced relative to the difficulties that at- 
tended the introduction of left-handed steel plows, threshing machines, im- 
proved varieties of fruit and stock, and the general elements of agricultural 
improvements. The organization of agricultural and horticultural societies, 
the publication of State and National reports, the teaching of botany, physi- 
ology, geology and agricultural chemistry, the wide-spread distribution of 
farm journals, and the general education of the people by all rational means 
have tended to hasten reforms. The good work is going on. Scientific farm- 
ing is destined to be not only a lucrative calling, but an intensely interesting 
intellectual one. 


The first animals brought to America from Europe were imported by Colum- 
bus, in his second voyage in 1493. He brought over seventeen ships, 
laden with European trees, plants and seeds of various kinds, and a number 
of horses, a bull and several cows. The second lot of horses, the first hav- 
ing all been destroyed soon after landing, was in 1539, by De Soto — a large 
lot of horses and thirteen cows. The Portugese took cattle and swine to 
Nova Scotia and Newfoundland in 1553. Thirty years after, they had in- 
creased so much that Sir Richard Gilbert was tempted to land there to get 
supplies of cattle and hogs, but his vessel was wrecked. In 1609 three ships 
landed at Jamestown, with many emigrants and the following domestic ani- 
mals: 6 mares, 1 horse, 600 swine. 500 domestic fowls, and a few sheep and 
goats. Other domestic animals had, however, been introduced there. In 
1610, an edict was issued in Virginia, prohibiting the killing of domestic ani- 
mals, on penalty of death. By 1617 the swine had increased so rapidly that 
the people were obliged to palisade Jamestown to prevent being overrun by 
them. In 1627, the Indians in Virginia subsisted mostly upon wild hog meat. 


In 1648, some of the settlers had a good stock of bees. In 1657, sheep and 
mares were by law forbidden to be exported from the colony. 

The first importation of domestic animals into New York was in 1625, by 
the West India Company. These consisted of horses, cattle, sheep and swine. 
In 1750, the French in Illinois had numbers of horses, cattle and swine. 


The first raising of wheat antedates history. Its native country even is 
not known. It was brought to this country by the earliest settlers, and 
was first sown in Massachusetts by a man named Gosnold in 1602. It is 
known that it was raised in Virginia in 1611, but here it was for many years 
neglected forthe cultivation of tobacco. Prior to the Revolution, Pennsylvania, 
among a few other provinces, raised enough for the home market and shipped 
wheat to the West Indies. 

In 1776 there was entailed upon the country the enduring calamity — the 
Hessian or wheat fly, which it is supposed came from Germany, in some straw 
employed in the debarkation of Howe's troops, on the west end of Long Is- 


This was called sometimes maize, and for a long time was called Indian 
corn. But now it is corn and is known, used and cultivated throughout the 
civilized world. It is indigenous to the Western Hemisphere. Once it was 
the accepted saying in this country, "cotton is king, " but in the past quar- 
ter of a century, cotton has abdicated, and now " corn is king. ' ' 

Corn is still found growing in its wild state from the Rocky Mountains in 
the north to the humid forests of Paraguay, where, instead of having each 
grain naked, as is always the case after long cultivation, it is completely cov- 
ered with glumes or husks. Columbus found corn cultivated on the island of 
Cuba a+ the time of discovery. 

The first successful attempt to raise it by the English in this country was 
in 1608, on the James River, by the colonists sent over by the London Com- 
pany. They pursued the mode that they saw the Indians practice. 


It is known that oats have been raised at least from the times of Pliny. 
The plant was introduced in North America early in the seventeenth century. 

In the early years of this century, the farming implements used were of the 
primitive kind. The old wooden plow was the means of preparing the ground; 
then came the Carey plow, and finally the iron moldboard was introduced with 
constant improvements to date, and we now have the gang plow, the sulky plow 
and others in almost endless variety. Men of middle age now can easily re- 
member when there was no corn planted except that dropped from the hand. 
The mower and reaper came, and then the reaper and binder, until now a well 
stocked agricultural store would be a veritable curiosity — a world's agricult- 
ural implement fair — to those who left the farm only a few years ago. There 
are men now living who can remember when grain was cut only by the ancient 
sickle — the scythe and cradle were in their day a great invention. They were 
an advance like the reaper and binder are to the scythe. 


In putting away the old " cradle " it is appropriate to here record what may 
be considered an extraordinary feat by a gentleman now living, and the truth 
of which is so well attested that its correctness cannot be questioned. 


During the harvest of 1858, the gentleman in question, an expert cradler, 
cut ten acres of grain in a single day. The feat being noised abroad, some- 
newspaper ridiculed the statement as being absurdly ridiculous. In the mean- 
time, the report reached the ears of a firm in the Empire State, the proprie- 
tors of the Millard Fillmore Manufacturing Company, of Claysville, N. Y., 
who wrote him to inquire whether he could cut ten acres of wheat provided 
they should make a cradle just to suit his wants; if so, they would be pleased 
to make him the implement, and present it to him with their compliments. He 
responded to the effect that if they would make an implement as ordered, he 
would undertake to cut twelve acres. They agreed. In due time his cradle 
came, a marvel of beauty and strength.' The blade was sixty-five inches in 
length, and made of silver steel, cost alone $25. The only difference between 
this cradle and the ordinary one, was in point of size and the slight curvature 
of the blade at its heel. 

The long-expected time finally arrived, judges were appointed, and the 
champion was authorized to begin his day' s task, the limits being from sunrise 
to sunset. From far and near the people came, some to witness, as they, pre- 
dicted, a failure; some to gratify idle curiosity, and others to see the modern 
Hercules actually accomplish his thirteenth wonder. 

He had employed a physician to traverse the field with him, and to give 
such medical advice as circumstances required. Under the physician' s advice 
he worked bareheaded, cutting the grain regularly by going around the field. 
He was clad in linen pants and shirt and ordinary slippers. He took no solid 
food during the day, nor halted at noon. Once every two hours he stopped 
briefly to whet his scythe, and then pushed ahead, cutting a swath eleven feet 
wide and five feet deep at every clip. He made, on an average, twenty -two 
clips per minute. 

About 2 o' clock in the afternoon, a heavy thunder storm came up, the rain 
falling in torrents. The lightning flashed, the blade gleaming as it was 
thrust into the heavy grain. Slippers were thrown aside, and still the heroic 
man pushed on, determined to redeem his pledge or die in his tracks. No 
solid food was taken, but liquid nourishment was consumed under the advice of 
the physician. Sometime during the afternoon, an old hunter suggested to 
the physician that a piece of raw beef taken between the teeth would benefit 
the man. It was done, a man being dispatched to Mercersburg to procure a 
piece which was held and the juice absorbed. At night only the fibres re- 

As the sun sank behind the western hills the judges called time. His task 
was done. The field was subsequently surveyed, and measured something 
over twelve acres and a half. It is located near the village of Mercersburg, 
Franklin Co. , Penn. The product of this remarkable day' s cradling was 365 
dozen shocks of wheat, yielding, when thresbed, 262 bushels of grain. The la- 
bor of four men was required to bind after him. 

The gentleman who did this work, and whose constitution was thoroughly 
shattered by it, is Michael Cromer, at present the genial and popular conduct- 
or on the South Penn Railroad from Chambersburg to Richmond. He never 
speaks of it with pride, the honor having been gained by wrecking a constitu- 
tion of unusual vigor and power. A more accommodating railroad official it 
has not been our good fortune to meet anywhere. At the age of fifty-eight 
years he still has the respect of everybody who is acquainted with him. 

In the early part of this century the farmers of Franklin County began 
agitating the subject of forming county agricultural societies. Exactly what 
year the first meetings of the people were held, looking toward organizing, is 


not definitely known. The following is found in a chance copy of an old paper: 

' ' The Agricultural Society of Franklin County held a meeting at the 
court-house the 1st day of June, 1824. James Riddle, Prest. ; T. G. McCul- 
lough. Secy. 

"Note — The members of the society are expected to pay up their annual 
contribution on or before the day of meeting at Chambersburg. 

"Tuesday, June 5, 1827, a meeting of the Agricultural Society of Franklin 
was held. T. G. McCullough, Secy." 

Exactly when these society meetings were organized, how long they con- 
tinued, or exactly their manner of organization is not definitely known. The 
organization was in advance of the county agricultural societies as they now 

The first regular organization was in the year 1853 — the charter members 
being Judge James Kennedy; George Chambers, vice president, S. M. Arm- 
strong, recording secretary; James Mills, corresponding secretary; Alex. K. 
McClure, treasurer. 

The grounds were fifteen acres, about one mile west of Chambersburg, 
which is now the colored cemetery. It belonged to Judge Kennedy. 

In 1854 the society held a most successful fair. To the novelty of the oc- 
casion, Alex. K. McClure succeeded by personal efforts in securing Horace 
Greeley to come and deliver an address on agriculture. The address was of 
course able, edifying and interesting. Col. McClure was at that time pub- 
lishing the Repository and was so pleased with the address that he appealed 
to Mr. Greeley to permit him to publish it. The great editor placed the manu- 
script in his hands and the hieroglyphics were as inscrutable as the characters 
on a tea-chest. After many patient efforts the services of D. S. Early (who 
was drowned in Philadelphia in 1855) were called in, and he finally translated 
the strange characters into English, and the address was printed. But when 
once in print it richly repaid the labor it had cost. Its advice to the farmers 
deserved to be not only printed in Col. McClure' s paper, but also to have 
been hung up over the portals of every farm house in the country, and to be 
read and re-read at least once every year. 

The second list of officers for the society, elected in 1853, for the year 1854, 
were: President, George Chambers; vice-president, William Heyser; record- 
ing secretary, S. M.Armstrong; corresponding secretary, James Nil!; treas- 
urer, Alex. K. McClure. At the fair in 1853, Daniel F. Robenson delivered an 
address on agriculture. 

The following officers were elected for the Franklin County Agricultural 
Society for the year 1855: President, William Heyser; vice-presidents, Will- 
iam McDowell, James Davidson, James Lowe, Samuel Thompson ; managers, 
Daniel Trostle, F. S. Sambaugh, George Aston, Jacob Heyser, William Bos- 
sert, Hez. Easton, Peter Brough, Martin Newcomer, Christian Stouffer, Jacob 
Garver, Benjamin Snively and James Crawford; recording secretary, S. M. 
Armstrong; corresponding secretary, Jacob Heyser; treasurer, A. K. Mc- 

Farmers and Mechanics Industrial Association was the third agricultural 
association formed in the county. A meeting was called in Chambersburg, 
Tuesday, January 18, 1859. Col. James B. Orr, president, John Ruthrauff, 
J. Watson Craig, William Bossert, Capt. Samuel Walker, David Spencer, 
Esq. , John Ditch, John W. Taylor, Joseph G. Cressler, Samuel Gilmore, Sam- 
uel Alexander, Jacob B. Cook, John Thomas, Benjamin Chambers and Hon. 
James J. Kennedy, vice-presidents; Francis North craft and William D. McKin- 
stry, secretaries. A committee of two from each township, and two from Cham- 
bersburg, appointed to solicit membership for the new organization, as follows : 


Antrim — John Ruthrauff, Benjamin Snively; Chambersburg — J. W. Taylor, A. 
R. Hurst; Fannett — Samuel Holliday, Simon Miller; Greene — Jacob Garver, S. 
Breckenridge; Guilford — G. W. Immell, F. Walk; Hamilton — William Bos- 
sert, Henry Keefer; Letter kenny — S. Gilmore, Samuel Lehman; Lurgan — 
Thomas Pumroy, D. C. Byers; Metal — Capt. S. Walker, Jacob Flickinger; 
Montgomery — J. Watson Craig, J. L. Rhea; Peters — A. E. McDowell, S. Al- 
exander; Quincy — Jacob Secrist, John A. Shank; Southampton — D. Hays, 
David Spencer, Esq.; St. Thomas — Charles Gillan, John Miller; Warren — 
A. H. McCulloh, Jacob Zimmerman; Washington— Abraham Bar, H. X. 

On motion, Hon. John Orr, John W. Taylor, and David M. Lesher were 
appointed a committee to wait upon the last board of managers of the de- 
funct old Agricultural Society of Franklin County, and learn if they will con- 
tribute to the present company as soon as formed, the funds, lands, and other 
property of said defunct body. 

Andrew N. Rankin, Col. James B. Orr, and Mr. John Ruthrauff appointed 
a committee to draft a constitution. 

An able and highly instructive address was delivered by William McLellan. 

A constitution was adopted. 

Andrew N. Rankin, Dr. Samuel G. Lane, Jacob Henninger, Jacob N. Sni- 
der and Peter B. Housum were appointed the county executive committee. 

Officers elected at a meeting, June 7, 1859, to serve the ensuing year, as 
follows: President, Col. James B. Orr; vice-presidents, William Bossert, 
James Davison, S. Armstrong, Bradley and Henry Keefer; recording secre- 
tary, Wm. S. Everett; corresponding secretary, Andrew N. Rankin; treas- 
urer, Emanuel Kuhn; managers, John Ruthrauff, J. Watson Craig, Benjamin 
Chambers, Esq., Jacob Heyser, Peter Stenger, Esq., Capt. Samuel Walker, 
David M. Lesher, William Cline, David A. Wertz, William B. Gabby, Robert 
Clugston, and James G. Elder. 

A fair to be held in October, continuing four days, was provided for. 

The old society promptly turned over their assets to the new society. 

The Franklin County Agricultural Society was organized October 19, 1875. 
The board of directors were; James Scott, president; Dr. J. L. Suesserott, 
vice-president; Calvin Gilbert, secretary; William Heyser, treasurer; Dr. E. 
Culbertson, James A. McKnight, John P. Culbertson, M. A. Keefer. Dr. A. 
H. Senseny, E. J. Bonebrake, Peter Kreighbaum, M. A. Foltz, W. F. Eyster, 
and John Forbes, 

The last board: Dr. J. L. Suesserott, president; A. H. Etter, vice-pres- 
ident; Calvin Gilbert, secretary; William Heyser, treasurer; John P. Cul- 
bertson, James A. McKnight, M. A. Keefer, E. J. Bonebrake, M. A. Foltz, 
Jere Rhoadarmer, N. P. Grove, A. A. Skinner, John Gerhig and W. P. 
Slaughenhaupt. It ceased to exist in 1882 or 1883. 

Pet Stock Association in 1879-80 was in a nourishing condition. Its meet- 
ings were held in Repository Hall, Chambersburg. The following were the 
officers: President, L. L. Springer. Vice-Presidents,. Rev. F. F. Bahner, 
Waynesboro; K. C. Greenawalt, Fayetteville; J. M. Long, Loudon; Solomon 
Sellenberger, Guilford; Dr. W. C. Lane, Orrstown; John Croft, St. Thomas; 
P. E. Kreps, Greencastle; Dr. Martin, Mercersburg; H. S. Gilbert, Cham- 
bersburg; C. C. Schrebler, Chambersburg; G. R. Colliflower, Chambersburg; 
Dr. B. Bowman, Chambersburg. Recording Secretary, W. E. Tolbert. Cor- 
responding Secretary, T. M. Nelson. Treasurer, A. H. McCulloh. Auditor, 
J. P. Keefer. Executive Board, N. P. Grove, J. N. Snider, Rev. A. S. Hart- 
man, J. M. Gable, J. L. Senseny, H. C. Seibert. Superintendent, N. P. 

'M/ri -l|# 

'A^y '-•'-' 





Introductory View of the Human Structure— Sketches of Prominent 
Deceased Physicians— Epidemics— Medical Societies— Roster of Pres- 
ent Physicians. 

THE proper study of mankind is man " is a truth very generally conceded. 
This embraces a knowledge Of man in all his departments and relations 
— his origin, his mental and physical structure, his duties to himself, to his 
kind and to his creator, and his destiny. 

Our subject has to do mainly with but one principal department, man's 
physical nature, " the house I live in." This house is truly a complex and 
interesting structure, two stories and a half in height, the windows all being 
in the half story or cupola. Its frame-work is such as to compel an inspired 
man to say admiringly of his own body: "lam fearfully and wonderfully 
made. ' ' It has the power of locomotion, being removed from one point to 
another with ease and rapidity. This house has a firm and perfectly fitted 
framework, well covered with weather-boarding, and thoroughly joined to- 
gether by cords properly adapted to their purpose. Within it has a most re- 
markable system of machinery, consisting of engines and fans and boilers and 
tubes and valves, and all the arrangements to run it successfully. The ex- 
pression, " the house I live in, " implies two beings, the house and its occu- 
pant. We are all renters. Like the snail, we carry about us and with us, 
everywhere, a temporary dwelling place. With ordinary care, it may be held 
seventy years, the allotted period of life. With abuse, it must be vacated on 
short notice — often without any notice. 

There are comparatively few good housekeepers. Carlyle, learned and 
caustic, confessed that when seventy years old he discovered he had a stomach. 
Sidney Smith said every man living to the age of seventy had eaten forty 
wagon loads more than he needed. The majority of mankind live from day to 
day in utter ignorance and in many cases utter defiance of the simplest laws 
of their being. Strange as it may seem, the race was not aware till it had 
reached the opening of the seventeenth century that the heart sends a life-fluid 
coursing through the system; and but for the courage of Dr. Harvey, in an- 
nouncing and defending the doctrine of the constant circulation of the blood, 
mankind would, doubtless, be to-day enveloped in like ignorance. 

It is within the memory of not the oldest inhabitant, that all sorts of 
diseases were cured by the sorcerer's incantation or pow-wow; that the use of 
a buzzard's gizzard, immersed in vinegar, would cure every species of snake 
bite; that rubbing of skunk oil or goose fat upon the side would cure pleurisy; 
that the hanging about the neck of a spider incased in a thimble would cure 
whooping-cough; that the letting of a small quantity of blood from the chief 
vein of the arm would relieve the patient from earthly ills ; that the sight of 
the moon over the left shoulder was indicative of good luck; that the washing 
of the cat's face indicated the approach of visitors; that vegetables planted in 
the dark of the moon would produce rank tops but no fruit; that the paring 
of finger nails on Friday was indicative of ill-luck, etc. 

The age of superstition is not wholly past when people imagine that the 



ills of mankind may be removed by charms and spells and certain faith cures. 
Until people realize that certain causes produce certain effects and that noth- 
ing short of the removal or modification of the cause can produce any perma- 
nent change, no marked reform can be hoped for. 

One of the hopeful signs of the times is the fact that the rudiments of anat- 
omy, physiology and hygiene are being introduced into our common school 
courses of study. Children need to learn that sound health depends upon 
proper eating, sleeping, drinking and exercising, and not upon the particular 
locality occupied, or the amount of foreign substances taken into the system; 
that good habits of life, early established, will continue steadfast friends all along 
the journey and insure happiness; that a vigorous and pleasant old age depends 
upon the foundation laid in youth; and that not by a change of climate neces- 
sarily, but by heeding nature' s laws, perfect health is secured. 

Physicians will have an easier and pleasanter practice when their patients, 
are intelligent in these fundamental matters. Doctors will then become what 
they were intended to be, and what the good sense of all intelligent ones sug- 
gests they should be, the confidential and successful health advisers of the 
people. An intelligent obedience to health laws will supplant the indiscrimin- 
ate and often hurtful use of patent nostrums and strong medicines. 

Through all these difficulties medical science has had to advance. Its po- 
sition to-day is the result of much empiricism, and the recording of observa- 
tions made. It must of necessity be a growth, the concentrated wisdom of 
the ages. 

It is much to be regretted that no records of the early medical practice in. 
the county are accessible. Rebel flames consumed, in 1864, much of what had 
been collected in that line. In the following pages will be found such facts 
as could be gathered from a variety of sources. Dr. W. C. Lane, of Mercers- 
burg, has kindly contributed the personal sketches of a number of prominent 
physicians, all written in his inimitable style. His brother, Dr. S. Gr. Lane, 
has furnisned the material relative to the early diseases and epidemics of the 

Had the registration now in force existed from the early settlement, many 
facts connected with the profession, which are now wholly lost, would have 
been preserved, The past may not be remedied: the future may be secured by 
an adoption of the wise policy of preserving records carefully and fully. 


The first physician who ever practiced medicine within the present limits 
of Franklin. County was Dr. Hugh Mercer, subsequently the distinguished 
general of the Revolution. 


Hugh Mercer was born in Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1721, and, after receiv- 
ing a liberal education, devoted himself to the study of medicine. At the 
memorable battle of Culloden, between the forces of Charles Edward and the 
Duke of Cumberland, Dr. Mercer served as a surgeon's assistant; and, after 
the defeat of the Scotch army, and the flight of the Pretender, he left his na- 
tive country, a refugee, and came to America. He settled near Greencastle, 
Franklin Co., Penn. , about the year 1750. At that early date, this region was 
an almost unexplored wilderness, and it is difficult to understand why the cul- 
tivated young physician should select so wild a location, in which few white 
men were yet to be found. He remained there until the Indians, emboldened 
by the defeat of Braddock, in 1755, made frequent and bloody forays into the 
country east of the Kittatinny Mountain. To protect themselves from these 


murderous irruptious, the settlers formed themselves into several companies of 
rangers, of one of which Dr. Mercer was appointed captain. His commission 
is dated March 6, 1756. His held of operation extended from the Welsh 
Run District, and Mercersburg, into remote regions along the foot of the moun- 
tain. His headquarters were frequently at McDowell's Fort, situated at the 
present village of Bridgeport. Dr. Mercer's company formed a part of the 
force of Col. John Armstrong, with which he surprised and destroyed the In- 
dian village at Kittatinny, in the fall of 1756. On this occasion, he marched 
from Fort Shirley, in Huntingdon County, at which post he discharged the 
duties of surgeon to the garrison, as well as those pertaining to his military 
station. At Kittanning, he was severely wounded in the shoulder, by a rifle 
bullet, and was carried from the field to a place of safety. But becoming sep- 
arated from his comrades, he was soon surrounded by the savages, and saved 
himself from capture by crawling into the trunk of a fallen and hollow tree. 
During the progress of the fight, the Indians passed over the tree in which he 
was concealed; but, not suspecting his presence, he remained undiscovered. 
After the rout of the foe, Mercer crept from his hiding place, and found that 
his friends had also left the field of battle. His situation was now one of no 
ordinary embarrassment and danger. Faint from the loss of blood, and suf- 
fering from a severe wound, he was alone in the wilderness, surrounded by a 
savage foe, at a distance of more than one hundred miles from any settlement, 
and without the means of procuring subsistence. Under these trying and 
discouraging circumstances, the dauntless courage of the heroic soldier did not 
desert him. He determined to pursue his way as best he could toward Fort 
Cumberland, which then stood where the town of Cumberland, Md. , was sub- 
sequently built. On his slow and painful journey he lived on roots, berries 
and the body of a rattlesnake, which, with much difficulty, he managed to kill 
and skin, in consequence of the wound received at Kittanning having rendered 
his right arm powerless. After encountering many and great privations, he at 
length reached the Fort, just as his strength was about sinking under the fa- 
tigue and suffering he had so long endured. He slowly recovered from his 
wound, and, in the summer of the following year, 1757, he was commander 
of the garrison in the fort at Shippensburg, then the verge of the frontier of 
the province. On December 4, 1757, he was commissioned major in the 
"forces of the Province of Pennsylvania," and "was posted west of the 
Susquehanna. ' ' Mercer accompanied the command of Gen. John Forbes, in 
his expedition in the following year, against Fort Du Quesne. During this 
march he first met Washington, then a brigadier- general of Virginia troops; 
and, at this period, began the intimate and enduring friendship which existed 
between these two distinguished men. After the evacuation and burning of 
Fort Du Quesne, by the French and Indians, Mercer, now promoted to colonel, 
was left in command of the post, and by him the fortification was partially re- 
built. Two hundred of Washington's Virginia troops formed part of the 
garrison, which comprised in all 409 men. 

After the conclusion of the French and Indian war and the evacuation of 
the Western forts by their French garrisons, Col. Mercer temporarily retired 
from military life, and, at the solicitation of Washington, left his home in the 
wilds of Pennsylvania, taking up his abode at Fredericksburg, Va. , where he 
resumed the practice of medicine. He was living in Fredericksburg at the be- 
ginning of the Revolution, and was commissioned colonel of one of the Vir- 
ginia regiments in the patriot army. Through the influence of Washington he 
received the appointment of brigadier- general. He accompanied Washington 
on his retreat through New Jersey, and " rendered him valuable aid at the 


battle of Trenton." At the battle of Princeton in 1777, Mercer led the van- 
guard of the American army, and, while exhibiting admirable skill and courage 
in the management of his command, his horse was shot under him and he was 
forced to continue the fight on foot. He was quickly surrounded by a number 
of British soldiers and ordered to surrender. Unheeding the summons he drew 
his sword and vigorously began the unequal contest with his overpowering 
foes. At length he was beaten to the ground with their muskets, and, after 
brutally thrusting him with their bayonets, they left him, supposing life had 
fled. He was carried to a neighboring house by Maj. Armstrong, a son of 
his old commander, Col. John Armstrong. When Washington heard the sad 
fortune of his friend and compatriot, he sent his nephew, Maj. Lewis, to watch 
over the last hours and minister to the wants of the dying hero. A few 
days after the battle, Mercer died in the arms of Maj. Lewis. In private life 
Mercer was mild and retiring, and his gentle and amiable deportment gave no 
indication of the dauntless bravery he so often displayed in sanguinary con- 
flicts with savage and civilized foes. 

Whether the professional visits of Dr. Mercer extended to the settlement 
at the Falling Spring, we have no means of ascertaining; but beyond doubt 
they did, as there was at that time no physician but himself in the Conoco- 
cheague settlement, which then included the district between Chambersburg 
and his place of residence. At a much later day .the physicians of Cham- 
bersburg were in the habit of making much longer professional rides. 

In the early days of Chambersburg, the hardy settlers were unacquainted 
with the luxuries and refinements of more cultivated society, and their primi- 
tive habits and modes of living rendered the services of a physician rarely 
necessary. In most new settlements of that day, there were men among the 
sturdy pioneers who possessed some general knowledge of the more simple 
diseases, and the means by which they could be successfully treated. Thus, 
they were enabled to dispense with the services of the medical man, until the 
growth of the community, and the introduction of the many enervating 
customs of fashionable life, multiplied their diseases, and required the aid of 
those who made diseases and their treatment their special study. The people 
of the Conococheague formed no exception to this rule. 

Many years ago, the Hon. George Chambers told the writer that his 
grandfather, Col. Benjamin Chambers, the founder of the settlement, was 
in the habit of gratuitously prescribing for his neighbors, and performing the 
operations of extracting teeth and bleeding when they were required. 


However, as the settlement increased in numbers, and the habits of the 
people changed, a physician was needed, and Dr. John Calhoon came to the 
place. We know little about Dr. Calhoon' s early life, further than that he 
was a native of Cumberland County, and a gentlemen of education who had 
been regularly instructed in the' science of medicine. He married Miss 
Kuhamah, daughter of Col. Chambers, and lived in the white weather-boarded 
house on the northeast corner of Main and King Streets. He lived there for 
some years, and, in 1782, began the erection of the fine stone building north 
of the Falling Spring Church, now owned and occupied by William L. 
Chambers, Esq. Dr. Calhoon died in the same year, in the forty-second year 
of his age. The building was completed and occupied by his widow. During 
a visit to his daughter, Mrs. Calhoon, Coh Benjamin Chambers received his 
summons to depart; and, after an illness of a few hours, died on the 17th of 
February, 1788, aged about eighty years. The departure of this noted man 
was calm and peaceful, and free from physical suffering. 



The next physician who settled in Chambersburg was Dr. Abraham Sen- 
seny, the first of a family of physicians who adorned the medical profession 
and whose professional labors extended through a century of the history of 
Chambersburg. It is sad to remember that, only now, this conspicuous 
family has no medical representative in the community in whose growth and 
interest they were so prominently identified for so long a period. Dr. 
Senseny was born in New Holland, Lancaster County, in 1761. At an early 
age he went to York and began the study of his profession. In 1799, he went 
to Hagerstown, Md. , with the design of locating in that town. But, not 
liking the place, he came to Chambersburg, where he remained a short time, 
and then returned to York, and recommenced his medical studies, and 
remained in that town until the fall of 1781, when he finally settled perma- 
nently in Chambersburg. At that early date the town was small and the 
inhabitants few in number. The only street then laid out was Main Street, 
which extended from the site of the Reformed Church to the residence of Dr. 
Calhoon, which was some distance beyond the majority of the buildings. Dr. 
Senseny lived in a small log house, which stood near the residence of the late 
Dr. B. S. Schneck, on East Market Street. Between his house and the Public 
Square were only three or four small log houses, mostly surrounded by woods. 
Near the residence of Dr. Senseny was a considerable hill, on part of which 
the academy now stands. This hill, which was largely removed by the 
grading of the streets and the making of the railroad, was covered with 
thick woods, which abounded in wild animals of different varieties. Mrs. 
Senseny told the writer, many years ago, that the wolves could be heard howling 
upon the hill at nightfall, and that they often ve'ntured near enough to the 
margin of the woods to enable her to see their lank and grisly forms from her 
door. On Market Street, between the Diamond and the Conococheague 
Creek, no houses had been built, and the original forest yet remained. Col. 
Chambers lived on the bank of the creek, near the western extremity of the 
King Street bridge, and his orchard covered many acres, extending to Market 
Street on the south, and to Franklin Street on the west. The only place 
where the creek could be crossed was at the ford, where the fine bridge now 
spans the stream at the western end of Queen Street. This ford was crossed 
by means of a flat boat belonging to Col. Chambers. Dr. Senseny practiced 
his profession in Chambersburg and the surrounding country for a period of 
sixty- three years, and had a large practice, and was considered a safe and 
judicious practitioner. He was the first physician to the Franklin County 
Alms House, his term of service beginning in 1808, the year in which the 
institution was built. Dr. Senseny died suddenly, of apoplexy, in February, 
1844, when he had nearly completed his eighty -third year. 


Dr. Alexander Stewart was a native of Edinburgh, Scotland, and received 
his medical education at the celebrated university of that city. We know noth- 
ing of hie early life. He was appointed surgeon's mate in the Third Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment, in the Continental Army, and served in the general hospital 
for three years, from 1776 to 1779. On the 16th of October, 1779, he'was 
appointed surgeon of the regiment. He resigned his position January 1, 1783, 
and settled in Chambersburg. He was induced to go there by the influence of 
Maj. Allison, a soldier of the Revolution, and then a resident of the town. 
Many of the older citizens will remember the brave old soldier who lived so 
long among them. The writer has had access to an old day-book which 


belonged to Dr. Stewart, and which contains charges against many of the old 
and most influential citizens of Chambersburg and its neighborhood. It will 
be observed that the professional visits of the Doctor extended many miles 
from his home, and into remote regions whose people wished to avail themselves 
of his professional skill. The charges extend through the years 1783-84-85- 
86. A few of these entries we will transcribe. On the 13th of March, 1783, 
appear the following items: "Col. Benjamin Chambers, To Miss Hetty, Sal. 
Glaub. 1 oz." "Col. James Chambers, To family visit, 15 shillings; August 
17th, 1783, To Betsy, 12 pil. Mercury, 2s. Gd." "Col. Crawford (at creek), 
23 September, 1783, To 6 vomits, 4s." "Andrew Phillips (cross the ford), 
To son, vomit, 2s." "John Andrew (spring), Dec. 8, 1783, to the Schoolmas- 
ter, Cath. Is." "Samuel Ireland (Fort London), July 16, 1783, To son, 
vomit, Is. 3d." "Mr. Lang (Minister), June 26, 1784, To a poor man a 
vomit and cathartic, by your desire." "Capt. Benjamin Chambers, Nov. 23, 
1783, To 1 dr. Camphor Is. 6d.'" "Col. Culbertson, May 5, 1783, To son, 
visit and dressing toe, 8 shillings." Among other names appear those of 
William Chambers, Col. James Young. John Calhoon, Mr. McCulloh (at 
Fullerton's Mill, father of the late Thomas G McCulloh, Esq.), Edward Craw- 
ford, Sr,, Samuel Dryden, Walter Beatty, George Chambers, Joseph Cham- 
bers, Maj. Boggs, Alexander Culbertson, John Eaton (mountain fort), William 
Wier (below Claren's gap), John Ramsey (Tuscarora Yalley), against whom 
the following entry is made on the 28th of September, 1783, " To visit, reduc- 
ing fractured tibia and fibula 1£ — 10 shillings." Nathan McDowell, John 
Kerr (near Town), James Crawford (in the corner), Mr. Brown (Big Spring), 
Capt. Piper (near Fort Loudon), Humphrey Fullerton, Esq., Fergus Moor- 
head, Jeremiah Galvin (Rocky Spring), Col. John Thomson, John Morton 
(Tuscarora Valley), Nicholas Snider, Alexander Crawford, Mr. Elliott (Path 
Yalley), Josiah Allen, William Wallace (in town), Capt. Conrad Snider, John 
Moor (Back Creek), Maj. Talbot, Col. Watson, M. Fawver (minister), John 
Jack, John Yance and William Dickie (West Conococheague). These, as 
well as many other names in this quaint old book, are conspicuously distin- 
guished in the early history of Franklin County, and many of them were brave 
soldiers in the Revolution. The Doctor's practice was large, and, as is obvi- 
ous from the extracts from his account book, of the highest respectability. 

Citizens of Bedford, McConnellsburg, Big Spring and other equally dis 
fcant localities, were also among the Doctor's large clientage. Dr. Stewart 
built and resided in the white rough-cast house, on the corner of Queen and 
Water Streets, which, after his death, was for many years occupied by his 
brother-in-law, the late Maj. Allison. Dr. Stewart died in 1793. 


Dr. Andrew McDowell was brought up in the neighborhood of Mercersburg, 
and prosecuted his medical studies at the University of Pennsylvania, from 
which institution he received the degree of M. B. . in the vear 1787. 
Soon after the completion of his studies, he located in Chambersburg, and 
entered upon the active practice of his profession. He remained here 
until the year 1831, when he relinquished his profession, moved to Mer- 
cersburg, Penn. , and lived with his son, Dr. John McDowell, a prominent 
practitioner of that town, until the occurrence of his death, at an advanced 
age. in the year 1846. Dr. McDowell had another son, Dr. Andrew, who re- 
sided in Pittsburgh, and ranked among the most prominent physicians of 
Western Pennsylvania. Dr. McDowell was a fine classical scholar, and, 
during his residence in Chambersburg, enjoyed a large and respectable practice. 



A Dr. Clingman lived in Chambersburg for six or seven years, between the 
years 1788 and 1798. He was a man of fine ability and character, and stood 
high in the estimation of the public. His manners were agreeable and his 
address very pleasing. Yet, he made little effort to secure a medical practice, 
and, consequently, his success was rather limited. 


Dr. Andrew Baum, a native of Germany, lived in Chambersburg in the 
year 1790, and occupied the house owned by the late Col. Elder, nearly oppo- 
site the Falling Spring Church. He was a graduate of one of the celebrated 
German universities, and was a fine scholar and an accomplished physician. 
He remained in Chambersburg only two or three years, and then removed to 
Demarara, where he died, after the accumulation of a very large fortune. 


The next physician in regular succession was Dr. William B. Scott. Dr. 
Scott was a son of Judge Scott, of Hunterstown, Adams Co. , Penn. , and set- 
tled in Chambersburg about the year 1793. He was certainly here very early 
in the following year, because his name frequently occurs in an old day-book 
of 1794, which the writer had in his possession. He left town probably in 
1804 or 1805. Dr. Scott was highly respected and was very popular on ac- 
count of his fine social qualities and professional attainments. His friends 
were many, and his practice was large. 


Dr. John Sloan was born in the County Tyrone, Ireland, in the year 
1760. Of his early years, no information can now be obtained, but the fact 
that he was a licentiate of Dublin College of Surgeons, and the additional , 
assurance presented in his advertisement, when he movec 1 to Chambersburg, 
"that he had attended the different classes in the profession, for nine years in 
London, with the practice of their hospitals for that time;" and, further, 
that he had ' ' practiced ten years in Europe, and four years in the city of 
Philadelphia." Dr. Sloan acted a prominent part in the Irish rebellion of 
1798, and was seized by the British Government and confined in the military 
barracks at Claremont. After a few days' confinement in that place, he was 
tried for treason, convicted and sentenced to death. Through the intercession 
of the Rev. Hugh Boleyn, a Presbyterian divine, with his friend, Lord Caledon, 
the latter exerted his influence with Lord Henry Murray, the commander of 
of the force engaged in the suppression of the rebellion, and thus secured a 
commutation of the sentence to one of one thousand lashes and banishment 
from the country, within fourteen days, the original sentence to be en- 
forced, provided he should ever return. The execution of this inhuman sen 
tence was begun; but, before receiving one half of the number of lashes or- 
dered, the surgeon of the station declared that his life would be forfeited, 
should the whole number be inflicted. He was, accordingly, released, and left 
Ireland as soon as he had recovered sufficiently to embark for America. He 
arrived in Philadelphia in the beginning of the year 1799, with his body 
cruelly lacerated by the brutal punishment he had received, by order of the 
British Government. He remained in Philadelphia, and practiced hi s profes- 
sion until 1803, when, on November 22, of that year, he moved to Chambers- 
burg. Dr. Sloan died in August, 1831, aged seventy-one years. 



Dr. Thomas Walmsley completed his medical studies in Philadelphia, in 
1803, and moved to Chambersburg soon afterward. He remained there only 
a short time, and went to Hagerstown in the summer of 1805. He died soon 
after his settlement in his new home. Dr. Walmsley was a gentleman of fine 
intellect, and possessed a fondness for scientific investigations, which he pur- 
sued with ardor and enthusiasm. As a physician he occupied the highest rank 
among his brother physicians, both in Philadelphia and Chambersburg, while 
with some of the most distinguished of the former he was associated in his 
medical pupilage. In his death science lost an ardent and devoted follower. 


Among the most distinguished men of the Cumberland Valley, the late Dr. 
Samuel Duncan Culbertson holds a conspicuous place. Dr. Culbertson' s ances- 
tors belonged to the famous Scotch-Irish, who were chiefly instrumental in res- 
cuing the beautiful valley from its savage invaders in the old French and Indian 
wars, and were ardent and uncompromising patriots all through the dark days 
of the Revolution. Robert Culbertson, the father of the Doctor, was captain 
of a company of Cumberland County troops in the Fifth Battalion of Col. 
Joseph Armstrong, as early as the summer of 1776. On the 14th day of Au- 
gust, at a meeting of the supreme executive council of Pennsylvania, held in 
Philadelphia, it was "ordered, that Robert Culbertson, Esq'r. be appointed 
Waggon Master of said county (Cumberland), in the room of the said Matthew 
Gregg," resigned. This was a responsible position in the military service of 
the State, and its duties were by no means indicated by its title. Previous to 
this date he had been promoted to lieutenant-colonel. This promotion had been 
made as early as April, 1778. Samuel D. Culbertson was born on his father's 
farm, at the head of " Culbertson' s Row," on the 21st of February, 1786. He 
was educated at Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pa. After the completion of 
his college course he began the study of medicine in the office of Dr. Walmsley, 
in Chambersburg. When that gentleman moved to Hagerstown, in 1805, 
young Culbertson accompanied him; and, when the death of Dr. Walmsley oc- 
curred soon afterward, the young student continued his studies in the office of 
Dr. Young, with whom his deceased preceptor had formed a partnership. He 
returned to Chambersburg in 1807, and began the practice of medicine, and 
soon secured a very large and respectable business. Before his settlement in 
Chambersburg, he attended one course of lectures in the University of Penn- 

In 1836, as an acknowledgment of his professional skill and attainments, 
he received the honorary degree of M. D. When the President made a requi- 
sition on Pennsylvania for her quota of troops to resist the invasion of the 
British army in 1812, the Doctor marched as first lieutenant of Capt. Jere- 
miah Snider' s company of volunteers. When the troops had all assembled at 
Meadville, the place of rendezvous, and were formed into a brigade, he was- 
appointed surgeon-in-chief of the brigade, and remained in the field until the 
expiration of the time for which the troops had enlisted, and then returned 
home and resumed his practice. The peaceful vocation of a physician' s life 
was, however, soon again interrupted by the rude alarm of war. When the 
news of the threatened attack of the British on Baltimore, in 1814, reached 
Chambersburg, Dr. Culbertson immediately raised a company of volunteers, 
of which he was unanimously chosen captain, and marched without delay to> 
the relief of that city. When the enemy retired and the services of the com- 
pany were no longer needed, he marched it home, and again resumed his pro- 


fessional labors. He continued in active and laborious practice until the year 
1832, when he retired from the ranks of a profession which he had so signally- 
adorned, in favor of Drs. Lane and Bain, whom he had associated with him- 
self a few months previously. After his retirement from practice, he did not 
lose his interest in medical affairs, and was habitually consulted by his medical 
brethren in emergencies and difficult or obscure cases. His wise counsel was 
always cheerf ully rendered whenever sought. After his retirement from his 
profession, he became extensively engaged in the manufacture of straw boards, 
in conjunction with G. A. Shryock and several other gentlemen of Chambers- 
burg. Subsequently he bought the interests of his partners, and, the business 
proving highly lucrative and successful, he finally retired with a large fortune. 
Dr. Culbertson' s contributions to medical literature were not extensive, but 
they were original and valuable. ' ' A lengthy report of a case treated by him 
was deemed of sufficient value to be appended to a work on kindred diseases 
by a writer of authority; and a communication of his on a vexed question in 
physiology attracted the hearty commendations of the celebrated Prof. Chap- 
man, ' ' so long the most eminent member of the medical profession in America. 
Dr. Culbertson died August 25, 1865, aged seventy-nine years, leaving a 
reputation, possibly yet unrivaled, certainly unexcelled, in the medical his- 
tory of Franklin County. 


Dr. Jeremiah Senseny was a native of Chambersburg, and a son of Dr. 
Abraham Senseny. He studied medicine under the instruction of his father, 
and began the practice of it in the year 1809. Dr. Senseny pursued his pro- 
fessional business with much ardor and enthusiasm until the beginning of the- 
war with England, in 1812, when he promptly enlisted as a private in th» 
company of Capt. Henry Reges, in the fall of that year. At Meadville, when 
the brigade was formed, he was appointed assistant to Dr. S. D. Culbertson, 
the surgeon-in-chief, but was soon compelled to resign the office in conse- 
quence of failing health. In 1814 he again volunteered in his country's de- 
fense, and went with Capt. John Findlay to Baltimore, as one of the officers 
of the company commanded by that gentleman. At the close of the war he 
resumed his practice in Chambersburg, which, for many years, was very large 
and lucrative. He died August 6, 1863, at an advanced age. 


Dr. Alexander T. Dean located in Chambersburg in 1815, after the close 
of the war, in which he had taken an active part as a volunteer. He was a 
member of a company that was formed in the neighborhood of Mercersburg, 
and proceeded to Buffalo, in 1812. Previous to his removal to Chambersburg 
he had resided for a short time in Huntingdon, Penn. , his native county. In 
1816 he formed a partnership with Dr. Watkins, which, however, was not 
long continued. In 1824 he and Dr. N. B. Lane formed an association, 
which continued until 1826, and was dissolved by the contemplated removal 
of Dr. Dean to Harrisburg, which event occurred in 1828. Dr. Dean was a 
gentleman of very superior intellect, and possessed varied and extensive ac- 
quirements. In medical lore, especially, he was thoroughly skilled. Although 
possessing a great fondness for the literature of his profession, his mind was, 
perhaps, rather too metaphysical and speculative for the dry details and un- 
bending facts of medicine. He was a fluent and graceful speaker, and an 
elegant and accomplished writer. Having suffered from severe attacks of 
rheumatism, as well as from occasional hemorrhages from the lungs, he was, 
to a considerable degree, unfitted for encountering the arduous duties per- 


taming to the practice of medicine. Dr. Dean practiced in Harrisbnrg from his 
removal from Chambersburg, in 1828, until the autumn of 1834, when his valu- 
able life was destroyed by cholera. Dr. Dean was forty-six years old when so 
suddenly called away, and he died much lamented by a large circle of admir- 
ing friends, to whom his many estimable qualities, of both head and heart, 
had greatly eDdeared him. 


Dr. Thomas G. Watkins lived and practiced in Chambersburg from the 
autumn of 1814 to the close of the year 1816. He then returned to Virginia, 
in which State he had previously resided. He was a gentleman of fine appear- 
ance and address, and was the possessor of much medical knowledge and skill. 
However, he soon became unpopular with the people of the town, in conse- 
quence of the exorbitant fees which he demanded for his professional services. 


Dr. George B. McKnightwas a native of Chambersburg, and the son of the 
Rev. Dr. John McKnight, for some years pastor of Rocky Spring Church. Dr. 
McKnight was also engaged in the war of 1814, and was a member of the vol- 
unteer company commanded by Dr. Culbertson. At the close of the war he 
was appointed surgeon in the army, in which capacity he served until the year 
1824, when he resigned and settled in Chambersburg. He remained in prac- 
tice there until 1829, when he received an appointment in the navy. 


Dr. Peter Fahnestock practiced in Chambersburg from 1825 to 1837, re- 
moving to Pittsburgh in the latter year. After residing in that city for several 
years, he went to Indiana, in which State he died many years ago. 


In the year 1830, Dr. Joseph Langston went to Chambersburg and en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession. He was an Englishman, and had 
been licensed by the College of Apothecaries, of London, but had not received, 
as that association does not confer, the title of doctor of medicine. After- 
ward he devoted his attention particularly to surgery, and, as a practical sur- 
geon, his acquirements were considered quite respectable. He was a skill- 
ful operator, and, had sufficient opportunities offered, he would, doubtless, 
have distinguished himself in that branch of medical science. He left town in 
1883, and returned to England. 


Dr. William Elder and Dr. Alexander Shields began the practice of medi- 
cine in Chambersburg nearly at the same time. Dr. Elder began in 1834, 
and remained until 1836, and then moved to the western part of the State, 
and, we believe, lived at one time in the city of Pittsburgh. Dr. Shields prac- 
ticed between the years 1833 and 1835, and then went to Springfield, HI. , 
where he entered into a medical partnership with the late Dr. Edmund Cul- 
bertson, of Chambersburg. Dr. Elder had a fine literary taste, which he assid- 
uously improved, and became a lecturer on slavery and temperance, of much 
power and acceptance. He was an able, eloquent and effective speaker. 


Dr. David Jamison, a young physician of Baltimore, located in Chambers- 
burg in 1832, with the design of making that town the theater of his future 


professional labors. But his hopes were destined to an early and fatal disap- 
pointment. A short time after his arrival, in the night of October 13, 1832, 
he was seized with cholera, during its first visitation to Chambersburg, and, 
before the dawn of the morrow, his spirit had fled to another sphere, beyond 
the grave. 


Dr. William A. Finley, after having been largely engaged in the practice 
of his profession for more than twenty years in Shippensburg, Penn. , moved to 
Chambersburg in 1836. His career was lamentably short, as he died suddenly 
in the next year. Dr. Finley was a gentleman of fine literary cultivation and 
general acquirements, and was very popular as a man, as well as a physician. 
His acquaintance with history, both ancient and modern, sacred and profane, 
was large and accurate. He had a special fondness for poetry, and, among 
modern poets, Burns was his favorite, most of whose poems he had committed 
to memory, and extracts from which, on proper occasions, he was fond of quot- 
ing. He was a gentleman of imposing presence; and, in manner, was courte- 
ous and attractive. As a physician he was held in high esteem by his medi- 
cal brethren, as well as by the community at large. 


Dr. William H. Boyle was born on Rathlin Island, off the northern coast of 
Ireland. In his infancy his family came to America, and lived successively in 
Upper Strasburg, Shippensburg, and, finally, in Chambersburg- In his boy- 
hood it was the intention of his father that his son should adopt the trade fol- 
lowed by himself, that of the tailor. Accordingly William took his place upon 
the board, and worked industriously at his calling, and gradually became in- 
ducted into the mystery of cutting and making garments. He soon found that 
his trade was not quite congenial, and longed for a larger and more conspicu- 
ous sphere of usefulness. Dr. William A. Finley, of Shippensburg, a former 
friend of the family, moved to Chambersburg, and furnished the opportunity. 
The young aspirant for medical fame entered the office of Dr. Finley, and pur- 
sued his studies with untiring zeal and assiduity. The pleasant relations be- 
tween the young student and his preceptor were, unfortunately, terminated 
by the sudden death of Dr. Finley, in 1837. Soon after that untoward event, 
he entered the office of Dr. N. B. Lane, under whose direction his studies were 
continued and his pupilage ended. In 1841, Dr. Boyle began the practice of 
medicine in Chambersburg. In recognition of his high professional character 
and attainments, the Pennsylvania Medical College conferred on him the hon- 
orary degree of M. D. Dr. Boyle was distinguished for the versatility of his 
talents, and was a remarkably fluent and piquant writer. During the years 
1851-52 he was editor of the Valley Sentinel, a Democratic newspaper, which 
was subsequently merged into the Valley Spirit. Dr. Boyle was a most kind 
and generous friend. Those who applied to him for sympathy or relief, were 
never sent away empty. The work of charity and of love, which is compre- 
hended in nearly a half-century of a life devoted to the amelioration of 
human infirmity and suffering in their diversified forms, can iiot be fully appre- 
ciated here, but must wait for its full revelation in eternity. Dr. Boyle was, 
in the truest sense, a self-made man. He had not the advantages of an early 
education, and his pathway through life was rugged, and, often, beset with 
thorns. But he trod it bravely, and grew stronger as he walked, and strewed it 
with blessings upon the poor, the lowly and the sorrowing, who were soothed and 
comforted by the kind ministrations of this " beloved physician." Dr. Boyle 
died on the 9th of April, 1877, aged about sixty years. 



Dr. John Lambert moved to Chambersburg in the year 1837, from Waynes- 
boro, where he had been engaged in practice. He had also previously prac- 
ticed in Maryland. Dr. Lambert was an energetic and capable physician, and 
soon acquired a respectable share of the practice of the town and neighborhood. 
His manners were hearty and pleasing, and his acquaintance rapidly grew into 
large proportions. After an active life of many years, Dr. Lambert died Sep- 
tember 27, 1872. 


There is another distinguished physician, without some reference to whom 
this sketch would be singularly incomplete. We refer to the late Dr. John 
McClellan, of Greencastle. Although Dr. McClellan was never a resident of 
Chambersburg, yet, living so near it and visiting it so often, professionally, 
as he did, and exercising so large an influence over its medical affairs, we 
may, without violence to the unity of our task, speak of him among the promi- 
nent physicians of the town. Dr. McClellan was a native of Franklin County, 
and was brought up near the place where his long and useful life was spent. 
At an early age he went to Philadelphia and began the study of medicine in the 
office of the celebrated Dr. Benjamin Rush, one of the most illustrious names in 
American history. Dr. McClellan remained in the office of his distinguished 
preceptor for nearly three years, during which time he also attended the lec- 
tures delivered in the University of Pennsylvania, and, in due time, received 
from that institution, then the only medical school in America, the degree of 
Bachelor of Medicine, as, at that date, the degree of M. D. was not yet con- 
ferred by the university on its graduates. After the completion of his pupil- 
age under Dr. Rush, he received from him the following flattering testimonial: 

I do hereby certify that Dr. John McClellan hath studied Physic under my care as an 
apprentice near three years, during which time he hath diligently and punctually attended 
all the Medical Lectures given in the University; also the Pennsylvania Hospital. He 
hath since undergone the usual examination, public and private, and hath entitled himself, 
with reputation, to a Degree in Medicine. I beg leave to recommend him as a gentleman 
of abilities and knowledge in his profession — of great integrity — of amiable manners — 
and of irreproachable moral character. He carries with him not only the esteem of his 
preceptors in Physic, but of all who have known him in the course of his studies. 

Benjamin Rush, M. D., 
Professor of Chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania. 

Philadelphia, April 30th, 1788. 

The same year in which Dr. McClellan received this flattering recommenda- 
tion he settled in Greencastle, and unremittingly practiced his arduous and 
exacting profession for the long period of fifty- eight years. For ten or twelve 
years before his death he partially withdrew from the general labors of the 
profession, and devoted his time particularly to the more intricate duties of a 
physician's life, such as consultations and the more important surgical opera- 
tions. Dr. McClellan was a man of sound judgment, and thoroughly ac- 
quainted with medical science in its widest range. He was, of course, a judi- 
cious and successful practitioner, He had, however, an especial fondness for 
the practice of surgery, for which his steady hand and firm nerve and exten- 
sive knowledge of anatomy admirably fitted him. He was a bold and dextrous 
operator, and, among others, successfully performed most of the more difficult 
and hazardous operations of the art. In private life Dr. McClellan was kind, 
courteous and unaffected. His manners were hearty and sympathetic, and his- 
fine moral character and great professional ability have made him one of 
Franklin County's greatest and most esteemed citizens. He died in June,, 
1846, at the advanced age of eighty-four years. 



One of the cultivated and successful physicians of Chambersburg, whom 
his medical brethren and the people generally delight to honor, was the dis- 
tinguished and lamented subject of our sketch. Born in Baltimore, Md., June 
1, 1812, of highly reputable Welsh ancestry, and possessed in his childhood of 
superior social advantages, he began life with all the preparation which a care- 
ful and systematic education could furnish. Under the admirable scholastic 
training, for five years, of Rev. R. H. Davis, in charge of an academy at Bell 
Air, Md., and six months' practical instruction at Burlington, N. J., he was ad- 
mirably qualified to enter the Sophomore class at Yale College in 1830. After 
•eighteen months he was called home by the severe illness of his mother and 
brother, both of whom died soon after his return. He at once began his 
studies for the medical profession under the direction of Dr. Samuel Baker, 
professor of anatomy in the Medical University of Maryland, and graduated 
in 1834, his diploma being issued by the university just mentioned. After 
his graduation he began a very successful professional career in Baltimore, 
but the city practice being distasteful to him, he removed to Chambersburg in 
1837. His professional skill, combined with unusual personal graces, soon se- 
cured an extensive and lucrative practice in the best families of the town 
and adjoining country. 

During the war of the Rebellion he was unswerving in his attachment to 
the Government, and willingly made any personal sacrifice for its defense and 
support. In the early part of the war he had charge of a soldiers' hos- 
pital in Chambersburg, and later held the position of aid on the staff of the 
surgeon-general of the State. At the burning of the town in 1864 he lost all 
his property, the accumulation of many years of patient toil. He regretted 
most, however, the destruction of his papers and his well-stocked library. The 
Doctor was one of the organizers of the first medical society of the county in 
1854, and always held a prominent place in its list of officials and active 
workers. When its successor was established, he took an equally active part 
in its affairs. He was twice married, and left a widow, three daughters 
and one son, at the time of his death, June 11, 1874. His family life was 
a most happy one — the sunlight so freely exhibited in his intercourse with 
people generally being particularly manifested in the domestic circle. He 
was careful and conscientious in his practice. His diagnosis of disease was 
rational and thorough; his treatment prompt to the demands of duty, and 
his intercourse with other physicians always in harmony with the most rigid 
code of professional ethics. His presence with the sick was the impartation of 
joyful hope, his whole expression being of the inspiring class. His varied ex- 
perience in life, his retentive memory, his fine conversational powers, which 
utilized his vast store of reminiscences and pleasing anecdotes, made him an 
agreeable companion. 

Dr. S. G. Lane, who knew him long and intimately, thus speaks of him: 
"Dr. Richards was a notable man in many respects. He was remarkably 
handsome; his fine physique was developed and invigorated by athletic training 
in his youth, and by field sports, which he enjoyed throughout his life; he was 
a splendid type of elastic strength. Added to his fine presence were rare 
graces of address and demeanor, courtesy, affability, refinement — all the pleas- 
ing traits which constitute the gentleman. His disposition was kind and affec- 
tionate; he was warmly attached to his friends; of a gentle, forbearing tem- 
perament, averse to contentions and controversies, yet compelling respect. Dr. 
Richards was a higher style of man still; he was a faithful Christian — a full 
member of the Falling Spring Presbyterian Church. In the public progress, 


and in the limited movements of the community about him, he took an active 
interest. During the rebellion his heart was loyal to the government, and his- 
sympathies and anxieties were keenly enlisted in the cause of the Union and 
freedom. ' ' 


Among the distinguished men of Franklin County was Dr. William Magaw, 
of Revolutionary fame. He was a native of Carlisle, and a brother of Col. 
Robert Magaw, commander of the Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion, which was- 
captured by the British at Fort Washington, on November 16, 1776. In_ 
June, 1775, James Chambers, son of Col. Benjamin Chambers, of Cham- 
bersburg, enlisted a company of volunteers in the town and neighborhood, and 
marched at once to join the American Army, then lying before Boston. This 
was styled the First Company of the First Pennsylvania Rifle Battallion, 
which was commanded by Col. William Thompson, of Carlisle. Subsequent- 
ly, Edward Hand, of Lancaster, became its colonel, and the battalion was 
known as Hand's Rifle Battalion in the army at Cambridge. Of this 
battalion Dr. Magaw was appointed surgeon, his commission bearing date 
June 25, 1775. 

The Rifle Battalion enlisted for one year, at the expiration of which time 
it re-enlisted as the First Regiment of the Pennsylvania Line, with Col. Ed- 
ward Hand as its commander. This brave officer was soon afterward ap- 
pointed brigadier-general, and Col. Chambers succeeded to the command of 
the regiment on the 26th of September, 1776. Dr. Magaw re-enlisted as 
third lieutenant, and also surgeon, August 10, 1776, and was promoted to a 
second lieutenantcy January 16, 1777, thus acting in a two-fold capacity, as 
a military and medical officer. He was then transferred to the Ninth Penn- 
sylvania Regiment and finally to the Fourth Pennsylvania, January 17, 1781. 
It appears from the record (Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Vol. X), 
that he was also surgeon of the Fourth Pennsylvania, before receiving his ap- 
pointment as surgeon of the First, on its organization in 1776. 

After leaving the army he settled in Mercersburg, practiced medicine- 
for many years, and became the owner of much valuable land near the 
town. At length, when well stricken in years, he was taken to Meadville by 
his son, William, in whose family he lived the residue of his days, which, how- 
ever, were not many. 


An equally distinguished man was Dr. Robert Johnston, a native of Antrim 
Township, and also a surgeon in the Revolution. Col. James Johnston, the 
eldest brother of Robert, was a soldier in the Revolution. " Col. Thomas John- 
ston, the second brother, was adjutant of the detachment of troops under Gen. 
Wayne which was surprised and slaughtered at Paoli, September 20, 1777. 
He twice served as colonel in the Revolutionary war." [McCauley.] The 
third son, Robert, entered the medical profession. At a meeting of the com- 
mittee of safety, held in Philadelphia, January 16, 1776, it was resolved, 
' ' that Dr. Robert Johnston, recommended by Drs. Thomas Cadwallader, 
Thomas Bond, Adam Kuhn and William Shippen, Jr., according to a former 
resolve of this board (January 4, 1776,) is hereby appointed surgeon to the Sixth, 
or Col. William Irvine's Battalion, to be raised by order of the Congress." 
He continued in service until 1781, "when he was ordered by Gen. Greene, to 
leave the regimental service and assist the wounded officers and soldiers of 
the American Army, prisoners in the British hospital in Charleston, S. C. Dr. 
Johnston died November 25th, 1808, near Waynesboro, Franklin County, 
Penn., and is buried in the Johnston graveyard, now (November, 1879), on 


the Whitmer farm near that place." [Pennsylvania Archives, New Series, 
Vol. X.] 


Dr. Jesse Magaw, son of Dr. William Magaw, was born and brought up 
in Mercersburg. He studied medicine with his father, and began the practice 
of his profession in his native town. He was a medical officer in the American 
Army in the last war with England. He was married to Maria, widow of 
Samuel Johnson, and sister of the Hon. James Buchanan, late President of 
the United States. He died September 29, 1823. He is buried in a neg- 
lected graveyard, situated a short distance east of the town of Mercersburg. 


This eminent surgeon of Philadelphia, who was one of the prominent physi- 
cians called to the bedside of President Garfield during his eighty days' strug- 
gle with the assassin's mortal wound, was at one time a practicing physician 
of Franklin County, as will appear from the following letter in reply to an 
interrogatory submitted him. 

1611 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. Penn. 

May 10, 1886. 
Mr. J. Fraise Richard, 

Dear Sir: — Immediately after I graduated, I settled for a very short time near Up- 
ton, contemplating, if the locality promised well, to remain permanently. My stay was 
brief. Yours truly. 

D. Hayes Agnew. 

The Doctor graduated about 1838, and shortly afterward published in the 
Repository the following card: 

Dr. D. H. Agnew offers his professional services to all who may favor him with their 
calls. He may be found at Mr. Thomas McCausland's. near the Greencastle and Mer- 
cersburg turnpike, midway between the above named places. 

May 10, 1839. 

Probably some of the older citizens in Peters, Montgomery and Antrim 
Townships remember him well as their family physician. 


A few words explanatory of the above may be in order, if not absolutely re- 
quired. It was not the design of the writer to present a full and complete 
medical biography of the physicians of Chambersburg. His purpose was to 
sketch those who lived and practiced there in the early years of *its settlement 
and growth, and to embrace a period terminating a half century ago. In short, 
his main object was to rescue from oblivion those pioneers in the profession 
who were identified with the early history of the town. It would have been a 
pleasing task for him to have followed the history down to the present day; 
but this was obviously impossible, and would for many reasons, have been 
impracticable. This is the less to be regretted, as it is to be presumed that 
sketches of Drs. N. B. Lane, A. H. Senseny and most, if not all, of the accom- 
plished medical gentlemen of Chambersburg will appear in the special bio- 
graphical department. — W. C. L. 


In 1821 an epidemic of fever prevailed in Franklin County. It is thus 
described in the graduating essay of Dr. N. B. Lane, which was published by 
the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania, and can be found on the pages 
of The American Medical Recorder, July, 1823 : 

" The disease was distinguished by the following symptoms: Dullness, lan- 
guor, lassitude, pains in the bones, sickness of stomach, coldness, a creeping 


sensation along the back, and pain in the side; the tongue was natural; vomit- 
ing sometimes appeared in the first stage, and the bowels were costive; the 
skin was dry, shriveled and cold. These symptoms were soon followed by 
the fever, during which the pulse was not very full, but quick and frequent ; 
the skin very hot and dry, and the fever high, often continuing for twenty - 
four hours ; the tongue was parched, and furred in the middle, and of a brown 
color; the thirst was excessive, and drinks taken into the stomach were fre- 
quently rejected; the bowels were torpid; the eyes wild and sometimes fixed 
and dull; the countenance gloomy and clouded; great debility and inclination 
to sleep prevailed, with the mind often disordered and delirious and the res- 
piration anxious and uneasy. The third stage commenced, sometimes in 
twelve, and often not till twenty-four hours had elapsed. The perspiration 
was sometimes free, at others cold and clammy, and, in general, partial and 
imperfect. The patient aften complained of illness for several days; but, in 
many instances, was taken suddenly after slight exercise. They were at- 
tacked equally in the day and night. The disease assumed the intermittent, 
remittent and continued types; it first appeared in the quotidian, tertian, quar- 
tan and double tertian forms, and its type was sometimes characterized by 
coma and convulsions of an hysterical and epileptic character. It was, how- 
ever, generally tertian in its type and continued so. It sometimes varied, be- 
coming quartan, quotidian and very often remittent. The changes at times 
were sudden, but not unfrequently protracted and slow, before they exhibited 
the symptoms of the new type; the intermissions were rather feverish and 
short. In the neighborhood of Chambersburg, this epidemic first appeared in 
the latter part of July, spread more extensively in August, gained its height 
in September and finally terminated in November. It was general; whole 
families were confined at once. It did not, however, prove fatal, few deaths 
only occurring, and those taking place after the third paroxysm in the sopor- 
ose form of the disease, or after relapses, which were frequent, occurring three 
or four times in the same person, and were sometimes produced by the slight- 
est exposure. 

" In other parts of the county, for instance in the neighborhood of Mercers- 
burg, a small town sixteen miles southwest of Chambersburg, the disease pre- 
vailed to a more alarming extent, as also in the neighborhood of Greencastle 
and Waynesburg, both small towns situated in a southern direction; the former 
distant eleven and the latter fifteen miles. From a very respectable practi- 
tioner of the former place, I understood the disease first made its appearance 
in his neighborhood in harvest, and was likewise very destructive. Imme- 
diately in our borough, it was as healthy as usual; the cases which occurred 
were principally confined to its suburbs, and along the water- courses. ' ' The dis- 
ease was recognized as miasmatic, and treated accordingly. 

From a letter of Dr. N. B. Lane, written to his sister, Mrs. Hayman of 
Georgetown, D. C, dated September 30, 1823, we make the following quota- 
tions: " There has been much sickness in Franklin County this season, but 
particular in this neighborhood. Dr. Culbertson ' ' (the leading, but not the 
most employed physician in the town) ' ' has ridden from four o' clock in the 
morning, till three o'clock, three nights in succession; his shop was often so 
full that many could not get speaking to him for hours after being in. There 
have not been many deaths in proportion to the number sick, but many have 
died notwithstanding. Business never was so dull in our place since my first 
recollection of it; but it is owing to the sickness. The diseases are bilious fe- 
ver, ague and fever and dysentery; the last has been most obstinate, and has 
but lately made its appearance." 


'-4-' i ' 

i. .--.',■■ 

2/ ^f (JJu^t^uaJ 


Cholera has twice invaded Chambersburg, in 1832 and in 1852, and proved 
very destructive. It is a striking fact that the first case, in each visitation, 
occurred in the same house, located in a healthy and central part of the town. 
Such instances, however, have been reported in the history of the pestilence. 
The first case in the epidemic of 1832 was a boy who had just returned home 
from Hagerstown, Md., where the cholera was prevailing. Excepting persons 
who had visited Chambersburg, no cases, we believe, occurred in the country. 

Dysentery prevailed endemically in Chambersburg in 1850, and carried 
off several of our foremost citizens. In 1850 it raged along the foot of the 
North Mountain, and in 1885 it appeared violently in the same region, having 
its center in Mercersburg. 

Typho-malarial fever frequently spreads along the mountain side, and ery- 
sipelas and puerperal diseases are more frequent there than in the center of 
the valley. With the exceptions noted, Franklin County has had no epidemics 
or endemics, worthy of special record. 


Franklin County has had several medical societies. Owing to the destruc- 
tion of newspaper files and the records of these societies, we can give but an im- 
perfect sketch of them as obtained frorn various sources. 

In the FrankliD Repository of January 4, 1825, we find the following rec- 
ord. The previous notice could not be found, but its nature may readily 
be inferred. 

"la pursuance of previoas notice, a large number of the physicians of Frank- 
lin County and its neighborhood met at the house of Col. John Findlay; and 
upon having organized themselves by calling Dr. Culbertson to the chair, and 
appointing Dr. Dean and Dr. Findlay, of Shippensburg, secretaries, adopted 
the following resolutions: 

R 'solved (1st), That a nodical society be established in Chambersburg, to meet semi- 
anually, and that Dcs. Dean, Culbertson, McKnight, Lane and McDowell, be appointed 
a committee to draft a constitution, and make a report thereof at the first meeting of the 
society, which will be held on the 7th of February, at early candle light. 

R S)lv3d (21), That one of the objects of this convention is to establish a uniform 
and fixed mode of charging, suited to the state of the times, the publication of the bill of 
rates, which has been agreed upon, be delayed until after the meeting in February next, 
in order that tlie physicians who could not mak ; it convenient to attend, may again have 
an opportunity of being present, and voting upon a revision of its several items. 

Resolved (3d), That the nude of charging which shall have been agreed upon and 
published, be considered as the standard by winch all contested accounts shall thereafter 
be settled in case they are referred to any of the members of this society. 

Resolved (4th), That the annexed regulations, which have been read to the conven- 
tion, be published as the Rule of Conduct by which the members of this society shall be 
governed in their intercourse with each other and the sick. [Not found in my text. — R.] 

Resolved (5th), That all those members of the medical profession in Franklin Coun- 
ty, and its immediate neighborhood who do not attend the next meeting, or express their 
approbation of its proceedings, by letter or otherwise, be considered as inimical to the 
objects of the society, and unwilling to subject themselves to the government of the set of 
rules to which the convention feel fully persuaded every honorable minded physician will 
at once subscribe. 

Resolved, That the above proceedings be signed by the chairman and secretaries, 
and be published. 

S. D. Culbertson, Chairman. 

A. T. Dean, W. A. Finley — Secretaries. 

This meeting is thus reported: 

"An adjourned meeting of the physicians of Franklin County, and else- 
where, was held at Col. John Findlay' s, in Chambersburg, on Monday even- 
ing, the 7th of February, and after organizing themselves for business, by 
calling Dr. John McClellan to the chair, and appointing Drs. McDowell and 



Lane, secretaries, the constitution for a medical society, to be called the Medi- 
cal Society of Franklin County, was reported and adopted. The following- 
gentlemen were then elected officers for the ensuing year, viz.: "Dr. John 
McClellan, president; Drs. S. D. Culbertson and A. Heatherington, * vice- 
presidents; Dr. A. T. Dean, corresponding secretary; Dr. N. B. Lane, re- 
cording secretary; Dr. A. N. McDowell, treasurer; Drs. A. McDowell, Sr., G. 
B. McKnight and L. Byrne, standing committee. 
It was then resolved: 

First, That the fee-bill, which had been reduced to suit the state of the times, be- 
signed by all the physicians belonging to the society, and take effect from the 1st of Janu- 
ary next. 

Second, That all medical bills be presented for settlement, as far as practicable, at the 
expiration of every year, and where any account is settled within six months after it haa 
been contracted, a discretionary power be left with the physician to make a discount. 

Third, That all physicians who belong to this society shall proceed to settle up their 
back accounts as soon as practicable. 

Fourth, That Dr. A. T. Lane, the corresponding secretary, be authorized to open a 
correspondence with the different medical societies which are now in existence in the 
State of Pennsylvania, or which may be hereafter organized, in order that such measures 
may be devised and adopted as will be best calculated to suppress quackery, not only 
within the immediate neighborhoods of such societies, but over the whole State; and that 
in order to the more effectual attainment of this end, the combined talents and influence 
of such societies be so directed as will be most likely to procure the enactment of a law for 
the regulation of the practice of medicine in this Commonwealth. 

Fifth, That the corresponding secretary be further authorized to open such corre- 
spondence with individuals, 'andjwith the different medical associations, as will best tend to- 
the advancement of medical science, or in any way promote the honor, usefulness or dig- 
nity of the medical profession. 

" Sixth, That we, the members of the Medical Society of Franklin County, agree to- 
subject ourselves to be governed by, and most rigidly adhere to, all the rules and regula- 
tions which are laid down in the Medical Ethics of Dr. Percival, and which have already 
been published in the papers of this place. 

Seventh, That these proceedings be signed by the president and secretaries. 

Jno. McClellan, President. 

N. B. Lane, A.. N. McDowell — Secretaries. 

Chambersburg, February 15, 1825. 

No further reports of the proceedings of this association can be found, 
except this little extract from an old paper, which shows that the organization 
was still in existence in the year 1829: 

On the 16th of December, 1828, notice was given by N. B. Lane, Recording Secretary, 
of a meeting to be held first Monday in January for the election of officers for ensuing 

The next account we find of any meeting of the disciples of iEsculapius is 
taken from the Transcript of November 21, 1853, as follows: 

At an incidental meeting of many of the physicians of the county in Chambers- 
burg, on the 26th ult., E. Negley, M. D., of Mercersburg, having been called to the chair, 
and A. H. Senseny, M. D., appointed secretary, it was resolved that a meeting of the 
physicians of Franklin County be held at Chambersburg on the 8th of January next, for 
the purpose of organizing a county medical society, as an auxiliary of the State Medical 
Association. A. H. Sensent, Secretary. 

At the appointed time the medical society convened (7thf January, 1854) 
when Dr. E. Negley, of Mercersburg, was called to the chair, and Dr. S. G. 
Lane, of Chambersburg, was appointed secretary. A committee on constitu- 
tion and by-laws made a report, which was unanimously adopted. Adjourned 
to meet the first Tuesday of the following April. 

On the 4th of April, 1854, the first regular meeting of the medical society 
of Franklin County was held, and the following officers elected: President, 
S. D. Culbertson; vice-presidents, Dr. T. Hunter, Dr. Jno. Lambert; cor- 


tThe call was made for the 8th. Probably the change was made to accommodate those who desired to cele- 
brate Jackson's birthday. 



responding secretary, Dr. Eliab Negley; recording secretaries, Dr. E. D. 
Rankin, Dr. S. G. Lane; treasurer, Dr. J. C. Richards; censors, Drs. A. H. 
Senseny, T. Hunter and Win. Grubb; board of examiners, Dr. J. C. Rich- 
ards, Dr. J. K. Davidson. 

This society continued for a term of years, doing efficient service to the 
members of the profession in the county. It did not survive the war. Its 
successor is the present organization. 

We find from the minutes that on January 19, 1869, in pursuance of a call 
signed generally by the physicians of the county, a meeting was held for the 
purpose of forming a county medical society in connection with the State Med- 
ical Society and National Medical Association. There were present Drs. W. 
A. Hunter, J. M. Gelwix, I. N. Snively, E. A. Herring, J. B. Amberson, John 
Lambert, J. C. Richards, A. H. Senseny, J. L. Suesserott, S. G. Lane, T. 
J. McLanahan, Thos. M. Kennedy, John Montgomery, and W. H. Boyle. 

A constitution and by-laws were adopted. From this we select the section 
which defines the terms of membership as follows: 

A candidate for membership must be a graduate of a reputable medical 
college, must have practiced medicine in Franklin County for at least one year, 
must be recommended by two members in good standing, and must pay an 
admission fee of $3 and sign the constitution. 

The following is the list of officers from the organization to the present 

1869. 1873. 

President. A. H. Senseny. 

Vice Presidents, J. K. Davidson, A. H. 

Treasurer, J. C. Richards. 

Recording Secretary, Wm. H. Boyle. 

Corresponding Secretary, Sam. G. Lane. 

Censors, J. L. Suesserott, Benj. Frantz, 
Wm. A. Hunter. 


President, J. K. Davidson. 

Vice-Presidents, Robert S. Brownson, 
J. L. Suesserott. 

Recording Secretary, Wm. H. Boyle. 

Corresponding Secretary, S. G. Lane. 

Treasurer, John Montgomery. 

Censors, J. L. Suesserott, Wm. A. Hunter, 
R. S. Brownson. 


President, John C. Richards. 

Vice-Presidents, I. N. Snively, Wm. A. 

Recording Secretary, Wm. H. Boyle. 

Corresponding Secretary, Samuel G. Lane. 

Treasurer, John Montgomery. 

Censors, J. L. Suesserott, Wm. A. Hunter. 
R. S. Brownson. 


President, Wm. A. Hunter. 

Vice Presidents, T. M. Kennedy, John H. 

Treasurer, T. J. McLanahan. 

Recording Secretary, Wm. H. Boyle. 

Corresponding Secretary, I. N. Snively. 

Censors, Wm. A. Hunter, Geo. Cleery, 
E. N. Senseny. 

President, I. N. Snively. 

Vice-Presidents, J. M. Gelwix, T. M. 

Recording Secretary, Wm. H. Boyle. 

Corresponding Secretary, Samuel G. Lane. 

Treasurer, T. J. McLanahan. 

Censors, George Cleery, E. N. Senseny, 
A. H. Strickler. 


President, Samuel G. Lane. 

Vice-Presidents, Jno. Montgomery, Wm. 
P. Noble. 

Recording Secretary, Wm. H. Boyle. 

Corresponding Secretary, J. L. Suesserott. 

Treasurer, T. J. McLanahan. 

Censors, E. N. Senseny, A. H. Strickler, 
John C. Richards. 


President, Wm. H. Boyle. 

Vice-Presidents, Wm. A. Hunter, 1. N. 

Treasurer, E. N. Senseny. 

Recording Secretary, Samuel G. Lane. 

Corresponding Secretary, John Mont- 

Censors, A. H. Strickler, Wm. P. Noble, 
T. M. Kennedy. 


President, John Montgomery. 

Vice-Presidents, A. H. Strickler, Wm. 
P. Noble. 

Recording Secretary, Samuel G. Lane. 

Corresponding Secretary, J. L. Suesserott. 

Treasurer, E. N. Senseny. 

Censors, Wm. P. Noble, T. M. Kennedy, 
J. L. Suesserott. 




President, J. L. Suesserott. 

Vice-Presidents, Thomas H. Walker, E. 

Recording Secretary, John Montgomery. 

Corresponding Secretary, A. H.' Strickler. 

Treasurer, E. N. Senseny. 

Censors, Wm, H. Boyle.'J. L. Suesserott, 
R. W. Ramsey. 


President, T. J. McLanahan. 

Vice-Presidents, H. G. Chritzman, J. K. 

Recording Secretary, John Montgomery. 

Corresponding Secretary. W. P. Noble. 

Treasurer, E. N. Senseny. 

Censors, J. L. Suesserott R. W. Ramsey, 
T. J. McLanahan. 


President, A. H. Strickler. 

Vice-Presidents, R. W. Ramsey, H. G. 

Recording Secretary, John Montgomery. 

Corresponding Secretary, C. H. Merklein. 

Treasurer, J. L. Suesserott, 

Censors, R. W. Ramsey, T. J. McLana- 
han, S. G. Lane. 


President, H. G. Chritzman. 

Vice-Presidents, E. Hartzell, Chas. Gar- 

Recording Secretary, John Montgomery. 

Corresponding Secretary, C. H. Merklein. 

Treasurer, J. L. Suesserott. 

Censors, T. J. McLanahan, S. G. Lane. 
D. F. Unger. 


President, W. P. Noble 

Vice-Presidents, D. F. Unger/ J. C. Gil- 

Recording Secretary, J. Montgomery. 

Corresponding Secretary, S. G. Lane. 

Treasurer, J. L. Suesserott. 

Censors, S. G. Lane, D. F. Unger, R. W. 


President, R. W. Ramsey. 
Vice-Presidents, D. Maclay, E. Hartzell. 
Recording Secretary, J. Montgomery. 
Corresponding Secretary, S. G. Lane. 
Treasurer, J. L. Suesserott. 
Censors, D. F. Unger, R. W. Ramsey, H. 
G. Chritzman. 


President, D. F. Unger. 

Vice-Presidents, J. C. Gilland, G. S. Hull. 

Recording Secretary, J. Montgomery. 

Corresponding Secretary, L. F. Suess- 

Treasurer, J. L. Suesserott. 

Censors, R. W. Ramsey, H. G. Chritz- 
man, David Maclay. 


President, J. M. Gelwix. 

Vice-Presidents, D. Maclay, J. P. Seibert. 

Recording Secretary, C. F. Palmer. 

Corresponding Secretary, H. G. Chritz- 

Treasurer, L. F. Suesserott. 

Censors, H. G. Chritzman, David Maclay, 
T. J. McLanahan. 


President, David Maclay. 

Vice-Presidents, J. B. Amberson, J. P. 

Recording Secretary, C. F. Palmer. 

Corresponding Secretary, G. S. Hull, 

Treasurer, L. F. Suesserott. 

Censors, H. G. Chritzman, T. J. McLana- 
han, R. W. Ramsey. 


President, E. Hartzell. 

Vice-Presidents, J. P. Seibert, J. B. Am- 

Recording Secretary, C. F. Palmer. 

Corresponding Secretary, G. S. Hull. 

Treasurer, L. F. Suesserott. 

Censors, T. J. McLanahan, D. F. Unger, 
R. W. Ramsey. 


The following is a list of physicians in Franklin County, who have register- 
ed in the office of the county prothonotary, in the order of record. The law 
requires a number of facts to be stated. In the following list, the order pur- 
sued is the name of physician, residence, date of registration, name of college 
from which graduated and date thereof; or in case of nongraduates, the time 
of service; together with literary degrees in certain instances. 

George M. Merz, Chambersburg, June 23, 1881; ten years practice. 

Aaron B. Gingrich, Altodale, June 24, 1881; Univ. Penn.. Mch. 10, 1876. 

Jas. K. Davidson, Greencastle, July 2, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col.. Phila., Mch., 1833. A. 
M. by Dickenson College. 

Abraham H. Strickler, Waynesboro, July 5, 1881; Bellevue Hosp. Med. Col., N. Y., 
Jan. 1, 1866. A. B. and A. M. College, Princeton, N. J. 

Michael M. Garry, Warren Twp., July 5. 1881; Univ. Md., Mch. 10, 1846. 

Jno. C. Gilland, Greencastle, July 5, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., Mch. 11, 1876. 

Robert W. Ramsey, St. Thomas, July 5, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., 1874. 


Horace M. Fritz, Quincy, July 6, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., Mch. 12, 1879. 

Joseph L. Suively, Shady Grove, July 13, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., Mch. 12, 1877. A. B. 
Franklin and Marshall College. 

Benjamin Bowman, Chambersburg, July 13, 1881; New York Homoeopathic Med. Col. 
Feb. 28, 1865. 

Emanuel Brallier, Chambersburg, July 14, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., Mch. 7; 1868. 

Aaron B. Grove, New Franklin. July 16, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., Mch. 13, 1880. 

Franklin A. Bushey, Greencastle, July 19, 1881; Univ. Md., Mch. 2, 1861. 

Adam Carl, Greencastle, July 20, 1881; Washington Med. Col., Balto., Mch., 1829. 
Practiced in Greencastle since 1829. 

John S. Flickinger, Dry Run, July 21, 1881; Penn. Med. Col., Mch. 8, 1850. 

Geo. D. Carl, Greencastle, July 22, 1881; Penn. Med. Col., Phila., Mch. 3, 1855. 

Jno. F. Nowell, Greencastle, July 23, 1881; Hahnemann Med. Col., Phila., Mch., 1875. 

Henry G. Chritzman, Welsh Run, July 29, 1881; Penn. Med., Col., Phila., 1859. 

Robt. S. Brownson, Mercersburg, July 29, 1881; Univ. Penn., 1851. A. B. and A. M., 
Marshall College of Mercersburg, 1847 and 1851. 

William C. Lane, Mercersburg, July 29, 1881; Univ. Penn., 1851. Greensburg, Rox- 
bury, Strasburg, Orrstown and Mercersburg. 

Oliver F. Jones. Mercersburg, July 29, 1881; Univ. of Md*, Mch. 6, 1880. 

David F. Unger, Mercersburg, July 29, 1881; Bellevue Hosp. Med. Col., N. Y., 1869. 

Wm. P. Noble, Upton, July 29, 1881; Jiff. Med. Col.. Phila., Mch. 12, 1869. 

John Montgomery, Chambersburg, July 30, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., 1858. 

Charles F. Palmer, Chambersburg, Aug. 8, 1881; Univ. Penn., Mch. 15, 1878. 

Daniel C. Leberknight, Lemaster's Station, Aug. 16. 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., 1880. 

James H. Dyarmao, near Spring Run, Aug. 18, 1881. 

Francis Reifsnyder, Scotland, Aug. 19, 1881; Phil. Univ. Med. and Surg., Feb. 23, 1869. 

Geo. S. Hull, Chambersburg, Aug. 19, 1881; Univ. Penn., Mch. 10, 1876. 

Joseph Frantz, Waynesboro, Aug. 23, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., Phila., Mch., 1878. 

Johnston McLanahan, Chambersburg, Aug. 25. 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., Mch. 10, 1865. 

Wm. A. Hinchman, Dry Run, Aug. 25, 1881; Univ. Aid., Baltimore, Mch. 1, 1873. 

Thos. M. Kennedv, Greencastle, Aug. 26, 1881; Bellevue Hosp. Med. Col.,N. Y., Mch. 
1, 1866. 

John H. Koons, Waynesboro, Aug. 26, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., 1881. 

Geo. W. Boteler, Waynesboro, Aug. 26, 1881; Univ. Md., Baltimore, 1868. 

Isaac N. Snively, Waynesboro, Aug. 26, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., Mch., 1863. 

John M. Ripple, Waynesboro, Aug. 26, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., 1868. 

J. Burns Amberson, Waynesboro, Aug. 26, 1881; Univ. Penn., Mch., 1868; A. B. 
Westminster College, Penn., I860. 

Edmund G. Shower, Waynesboro, Aug. 26, 1881; Hahnemann Med. Col., Phila., Mch. 
12, 1878. 

Benj\ Frantz, Waynesboro. Aug. 26, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col.. Mch. 4, 1846. 

Jacob L. Suesserott, Chambersburg, Aug. 27, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., 1851; D. D. S., by 
Penn. College, of Dent. Surg. 

A. U. Holland, Fayetteville, Sept. 5, 1881. 

Henry X. Bonebrake, Montalto, Sept. 5, 1881; Bellevue Hosp. Med. Col., Feb. 25, 1865. 

Lewis F. Suesserott, Chambersburg, Sept. 8, 1881; Univ. Penn., Mch. 14, 1879. 

Samuel G. Lane, Chambersburg, Sept. 8, 1881; Univ. Penn., 1849. 

Adam K. Leberknight, Orrstown, Sept. 17, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col. 1878. 

Eli J. Zook, Fannettsburg, Sept. 20, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., 1878; B. S., by National 
Normal Univ., Lebanon, Ohio. 

Thos. H. Walker, Mercersburg, Sept. 23, 1881; Pennsylvania College, Phila., 1846. 

John P. Seibert, Chambersburg, Oct. 4, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., 1875. 

Joseph H. McCintock, Loudon, Oct. 5, 1881; Columbia College, Washington, D. 
C, 1845. 

Jeremiah Hess, Quincy, Oct. 6, 1881; practiced nineteen years. 

D. Reutch Miller, Greencastle, Oct. 7, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col., Phila., 1874. 

John S. Flickinger, near Fannettsburg, Oct. 12, 1881; Penn. Med. Col., Phila., 1850. 

Edgar N. Senseny, Chambersburg, Oct. 17, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col, 1870. 

Henry K. Byers, Fayetteville, Oct. 18, 1881; Washington Med. College, Baltimore, 1845. 

Ezekiel Hartzell, Fayetteville, Oct. 21, 1881; Penn/Med. College, Phila., 1847. 

David L. McDonald, Concord, Oct. 21. 1881; Columbus Med. College, 1881. 

Wm. A. Hunter, Strasburg, Oct. 21, 1881; practiced since 1847. 

James M. Gelwix, Strasburg, Oct. 21, 1881; Jeff. Med. College 1866. 

Geo. R. Kauffman, Antrim Township, Oct. 22, 1881; Bellevue Med. Col., N. Y., 1867. 

Charles T. Maclay, Green Village, Nov. 2. 1881; practiced forty- two years. 

David Maclay, Green Village, Nov. 2, 1881; Univ. Penn., Mch. 12, 1875. 

Daniel F. Royer, Shady Grove, Oct, 25, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col. Mch., 1875. 

Oliver P. Stoey, Roxbury, Nov. 17, 1881; Jeff. Med. Col. 1881. 

Nancy Hoover, Stoufferstown, Dec. 16, 1881; twenty-two years. 


Benj. L. Ryder, Chambersburg, Dec. 23, 1881; Hygeis Therapeutic College, N. Y., 
Mch. 21, 1870. 

Jno. L. Blair, Mercersburg, February 27, 1882; Univ. Md., Mch., 1868. 

Theo. H. Weagley, Greencastle, Mch. 13, 1882; College Phys. and Surg., Baltimore, 
Mch. 1, 1882. 

James S. Kennedy, Chambersburg, Mch. 20, 1882; Jeff. Med. Col. 1879. 

Charles Lanteline, Chambersburg. Apr. 6, 1882; Jeff. Med. Col. Mch. 30, 1882. 

Dan'l Eckerman, Salem Church, April 19, 1882; twenty years. 

Henry C. Lessig, Chambersburg, May 9. 1882; Jeff. Med. Col., Mch. 12, 1878. 

J. J. Pierce, Chambersburg, May 15, 1882; twelve years. 

Francis A. Oellig, Upton, May 15, 1882; attended Univ. Md., 1846-47; thirty-six years' 

Henry S. Herman, State line, May 17, 1882; Maryland Univ., Feb. 29, 1876. 

Randall M.. Alexander, Fannettsburg. May 23, 1882; twelve years. 

Alex. E. Cresswell, St. Thomas, May 26. 1882; practice 1869. 

V. D. Miller, Mason and Dixon, Penn., June 7, 1882; Jeff. Med, Col., 1861. 

James A. Vinson, Clayliek. June 20, 18S2; Louisville Med. Col., June, 1838. 

Jno. E. Kline, Chambersburg, June 28, 1882; Jeff. Med. College, Mch. 27, 1882. 

Alanson W. Kelley, Wavuesboro, Sept, 9, 1882; Castleton Med. College, 1860. 

Edwin Bergstresser, Waynesboro, Sept, 21, 1882; Jeff. Med. Col., Mch. 30, 1882. 

J. R. Bemisdarfer, Shady Grove, Mch. 3, 1883; Col. Phys. and Surg., Mch. 1, 1883. 

Jno. H. Young, Waynesboro, Apr. 9. 1883; since 1870. 

M. H. Miller, Roxbury, Apr. 14, 1883; Jeff. Med. Cob, 1883. 

David A. Strickler, Chambersburg, Apr. 17, 1883; Hahnemann College, Philadelphia, 
Mch. 10, 1881. 

Christian R. Scheller, Shady Grove, Apr. 21, 1883; Jeff. Med. College, Apr. 2, 1883. . 

Henry C. Devilbiss, Chambersburg, Apr. 14. 1883; College Phys. and Surg., 1877. 

Wm. O. Lantz, Lemaster's Sta., July 12. 1883; Jeff. Med. Col., Mch. 30, 1882. 

Jno. A. Bause, AVaynesboro, Nov. 20, 1883; Univ. Penn., Mch. 1875. 

B. F. Shope, Dry Run, Mch. 1, 1884;Bellevue Hosp. Med. Col., N. Y, Mch. 16, 1882. 

George G. Shively, Waynesboro, Mch. 19, 1884: Jeff. Med. Col.. Mch., 1877. 

Edwin F. Lehman, Chambersburs, April 12. 1884; Jeff. Med. Col., Mch. 29, 1884. 

S. Snively Bishop, Greencastle, May 12, 1884; Jeff. Med. Col., 1884. 

Chas. B. West, Strasburg, Mav 26, 1884; Jeff. Med. Col., 1883. ■ 

Eldredge C. Price, Monterey, June 28, 1884; Hahnemann Med. Col., Phila,, Mch. 10, 

Chas. H. Lane, Chambersburg, July 15, 1884; Univ. Penn., 1870. 

Wm. T. Phillippv, Shady Grove, June 30, 1884; Jeff. Med. Col., Mch. 29, 1884. 

Elias C. Price, Monterey, Penn., July 31, 1884; Univ. Md., Balto., 1848. 

A. Sargeant Tinges, Waynesboro, Sept. 6, 1884; Univ. Md., 1872. 

Geo. W. Zeigler, Carlisle. Temporarv practice, Nov. 4, 1884; Univ. Penn., Mch. 12, 

M. J. Jackson, New York City, Feb. 26, 1885; Eclectic Med. Col., Mch. 1, 1884. Tem- 

J. H. Devor, Ft. Loudon, April 29, 1885; Col. Phys. and Surg., Balto., Mch. 13, 1885. 

Katharine M. Crawford, Fayetteville, June 24, 1885; Hahnemann Med. Col., Mch. 20, 

John J. Coffman, Scotland, Julv 10, 1885; Dartmouth Med. Col., Nov. 15, 1881. 

W. J. Coleman, Huntingdon Co., Penn., Aug. 5, 1885; Med. Col. Va,, Mch. 4, 1879. 

James F. Tate, Roxbury, Aug. 6, 1885; Univ. N. Y., 1869. 

Geo. E. Stewart, Dry Run, Dec, 23, 1885; practiced from April 1. 1863. 

Wm. M. Shull, Concord, Penn., Feb. 10, 1886; Jeff. Med. Col., April 2, 1885. 

Peter B. Montgomery, Chambersburg, Mch. 24, 1886; Bellevue Hosp. Med. Col., Mch. 
15, 1886. 

Wm. II. Brjsius, Greencastle, April 21, 1886; Jeff. Med. Col., April 2, 1886. 



Educational.— Education Defined — Teaching Defined— Early Schools 
and their equipments— j ohn b. kaufman's account of early schools 
and Teachers— History of School Legislation— Comparative Statis- 
tics — County Superintendents— County Institutes— Letter from Ex- 
Co. Supt. A. J. McElwain— List of County Superintendents. 

Eeligious. — Early Settlers' Eeligions — Presbyterians— Lutherans— Ee- 
formed —Methodists — United Brethren— Eoman Catholic— Episcopa- 
lian— Church of God— German Baptists — Eiver Brethren— Mennonites 
— Eeformed Mennonites— Colored Churches — Mormonism. 


EDUCATION, as the derivation of the term implies, is a leading out of 
the powers and capacities of the individual. It is training, developing, 
inspiring, guiding, refining and elevating the being wrought upon. It makes 
of the being all that he is capable of becoming, working always, of course, 
upon the capital stock of brain and muscle and heart possessed. Out of crude 
material it can not make a perfect product. A diamond can not be developed 
unless it exist in the rough quartz presented. Statesmen can not be fash- 
ioned from crude pigmies. Education is not a pouring-in or cramming pro- 
cess, but a leading out and unfolding of all the powers — physical, intellectual, 
moral and social — which the being possesses. Every parent, every child, 
every book, every paper, every street, every association, every experience, 
favorable or otherwise, every joy and every defeat is an educator. Life from 
the cradle to the grave is but so much time spent in the preparatory school of 
eternity, the lessons of which are often imperfectly learned. The old adage, 
"Experience teaches a dear school, but fools will learn in no other," is un- 
true. Experience teaches a good school, the best, and wise people will learn 
in it; fools in none. 

Teaching, then, is not telling simply; it is not questioning simply; it is not 
frowning or smiling and correcting only. It is more. Viewed from a rational 
standpoint, teaching is the science which trains the mind to think clearly and 
earnestly, the heart to feel keenly and rationally, and the hand to execute 
what the mind and the heart have approved. With this in mind we are prepared 
to understand, the statement of the wise man: " Train up a child in the way he 
should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it. ' ' Train by telling, 
by questioning, by suggesting, by repressing, by stimulating, by all the means 
which a fruitful ingenuity can invent. 

In a new country, and in fact everywhere, the best school, the most valuable 
lessons learned are those found ' ' at the best academe, a mother' s knee. ' ' 
Family instruction was the primitive kind; and, when the mother was intelli- 
gent and wise, it laid the foundation for whatever might be subsequently 
furnished by the higher order of schools. The records of this faithful work, 
however, have not been preserved in tables and reports and percentages at 
the State capital. Only in the noble lives and matchless characters given to 
the world can the records be read. The silent lessons taught in the little 
•cabin, by the wayside, or in the lonely forest were not forgotten, but mani- 


fested themselves in life's "late afternoon." Only when the veil of eternity is 
lifted, and things can be seen in their true light, will be understood fully the 
nature and potency of the valuable home school. 

But the early cabin school, built by the joint efforts of the neighborhood, 
legitimately followed the family school. With its rude logs, puncheon floor, 
slab benches, open-throated chimney, it served as a people' s college to prepare 
boys and girls to become the future men and women of the neighborhood, the 
citizens of the commonwealth. Methods of instruction were not discusse'd in 
those primitive days. Knowledge was power. Facts and principles were 
supposed to have a transforming influence upon the minds and lives of the 
young. The what or subject matter was first in importance; then came the 
how or the methods of instruction; and later, the why or the philosophy of 

Text-books were rare and simple. The spelling-book, the English reader, 
the New Testament, some simple text in arithmetic which would enable the 
pupil to "do sums ' ' as far as the ' ' double rule of three, ' ' or perchance, in rare 
cases, to include double position, and, later, a manual of United States history. 
Grammar and geography were not taught at first. They were higher branches, 
whose study gave position in the community, and indicated unusual learning. 
When Lindley Murray's or Kirkham's grammar first appeared, an innovation 
was announced. Daboll's or Pike's or Dill worth's arithmetic afforded the 
knowledge of mathematics deemed essential. Slates and black-boards were, 
at first, unknown; and steel pens likewise. The ever-faithful goose quill, 
made and sharpened by the master's skillful knife, supplied the penmanship 
of the times. No Spencerian or Eclectic or other modern system of pen- 
manship knocked at the school-room door for recognition. No book agent 
ready to introduce a new series, perambulated those early school districts. No 
globes or wall maps, no numeral frames or other objects of illustration, cum- 
bered the humble log schoolhouse. Work was done in a humble manner, and 
good work too. Pupils learned because they appreciated their opportunities. 
No graded course of study presented its charms or its terrors to the young 
urchin. Individual work and personal progress were the rule. How faithfully 
those early schools served their purpose is attested by the numerous specimens 
of grand men and women, the pride of the land, they turned out. "There were 
giants in those days." 

We shall be pardoned for introducing here the testimony of one of Frank- 
lin County' s worthy and honored sons, John B. Kaufman, a pupil and teacher 
both of "ye olden time. ' ' His picture will doubtless be familiar to many who 
were once rustics. ' ' Going back some fifty odd years, I have a distinct rec- 
ollection of my old teacher, Daniel Eckerman, an excellent instructor, who 
wrote a hand like copper plate; spelled correctly; whose pronunciation was 
faultless and distinct; a good arithmetician; understood grammar and geogra- 
phy, and wouldn't lick me, because I had spoken truthfully when I had got- 
ten into a little scrape. His kindly admonition is by no means forgotten, 
though it was given fifty-two years ago. The lesson was a valuable one. 

' ' Next in order was Capt. Thomas Anderson, who was very particular, and 
somewhat stern in his discipline. He quit teaching in 1836, and now resides 
in Knox County, Ohio. Then there was Benjamin Davis, who stood high as 
to qualifications, and his ability to vigorously apply the rod and ferule. He 
moved to the West soon after 1850. He was well up in years at that time. 
Eugene Owens, a brilliant scholar and surveyor, flourished somewhat earlier 
than my time, but was highly spoken of. Then I mention Capt. Isaac Miller, 
who taught, probably, over half a century, and died only a few years ago. 



Who didn't know him? A good penman, and the very man who conld manage 
schools with a hard reputation. He had an abiding faith in a liberal applica- 
tion of Solomon's celebrated cure for a fool's back, and at the same time could 
work out any number of knotty problems. As he taught many years, ho was 
also contemporaneous as a teacher during my career. Beginning in 1849, 
your humble friend figured in a modest way, trying ' to teach the young idea 
how to. shoot,' and to keep the boys of that day from carrying me out of the 
schoolroom. That would not be an easy job now, but in those days I was ex- 
tremely spare — in fact, lean — so my weight could not have been a great matter, 
but I was active and rather muscular, so they never tried it. However, I was 
elected county surveyor in 1856, and in those days there was more official bus- 
iness than now. I resigned mv school after a short career, though I have 
taught fractional terms since. I was one of the first two who introduced men- 
tal arithmetic in the schools of our township, and belonged to one of the first, 
if not the first township institute (at least in the rural districts), in the county 
This was composed of P. M. Shoemaker, since county superintendent three oi 
four terms; Capt. E. K. Lehman, Hon. W. W. Britton, late member of Legis- 
lature; John W. De Haven, at present teaching in Greene Township; B. A. 
Cormany, Esq. , clerk of the courts, and now of Junction City, Kas. ; A. B. 
Wingert, a splendid young teacher then, who followed the business very suc- 
cessfully for a number of years, but is in other business now, and your humble 
servant. Nearly all of these had, or afterward obtained, professional certifi- 
cates. Montgomery Martin and Henry A. Thomas also figured prominently in 
those days as teachers. Then there was, a little later, D. D. Swanger, of 
Lurgan Township, but he is a merchant now and a justice of the peace. I 
must not omit Saml. Gelwix, ex-county superintendent, and his brother, Dr. 
J. M. Gelwix. I feel a little proud of some of my school boys, who afterward 
taught awhile successfully. First I would name Prof. Wm. C. McClelland, of 
Shippensburg High School; A. G. Huber, Esq., principal of a soldiers' orphans' 
school, of Philadelphia. He was a graduate of the Michigan University, at 
Ann Arbor. His brother, Rev. B. G. Huber, also, was one of my little school 
mischiefs thirty-four years ago. Rev. S. B. McClelland, a Presbyterian minister, 
is a younger brother of W. C. McClelland. Rev. Jonathan A. West, Jr., now a 
resident of your State, but his charge extending into Ohio, was one of my bright- 
est boys in the first class in mental arithmetic, and in the advanced class in gram- 
mar. Then I had aD other quiet boy in Greenleaf's National, who seldom 
required help; it was R. Walker Ramsey, who, after teaching awhile, studied 
medicine, and is one of our best physicians in the county. He has a large 
practice in and around St. Thomas. Then Rev. H. A. Schlichter, presiding 
elder, and Danl. W. Sollenberger, who was deputy recorder, are ministers in 
the United Brethren Church. The latter was a very successful teacher, and all 
these were pupils of mine. Of course they became what they are, since they 
left my school, but I can not help feeling some pride in them; I feel as if I had, 
perhaps, helped to put a stone in the foundation. But to come down still further; 
we have had D. A. Flora, B. F. Newton, L. F. Creamer, now of Dayton, 
Ohio, and Frank H. Slyder, the latter a prospective candidate for county 
superintendent, and Misses Emma and Naomi Minehart, all splendid teachers. 
Most of them had permanent, and all of them professional certificates, but 
there is not one of them teaching here. A few of them teach elsewhere, and 
the rest are engaged in other business. Why are they no longer teaching 
here? The case is plain enough. School directors are generally selected 
because they pay a good deal of school tax, or such as are in favor of low 
taxes for school purposes, and such as favor low salaries and short school 


terms. The natural consequences have followed. Salaries from $20 to 
per month for five or six months are not exactly calculated to keep in the 
raaks, or in the district, teachers with professional papers. Comment is unnec- 

' ' I told you something of our teachers of 'ye olden time, ' and I imagine I 
see the schoolhouse of the same ancient day. It is a log house in the midst 
of the woods; board roof; low room; low window-sash, sliding sidewise; joist 
unhewed on lower side; slab benches, pin feet, like a meat bench; desks of slabs 
along walls, suppoi*ted by sticks driven into two-inch holes in the logs of the 
wall, and a stove of the most primitive kind. The house crouches modestly in 
the woods, sheltered from the chilly blast, and forming play grounds unlimited 
in dimensions. Here we played town ball, corner ball, sow ball and long ball. 
Sometimes we would jump, to see how high we could leap; then it was hop, step 
and jump. Once in a while we played ring, provided the girls would help, 
and generally they would. As far as it goes we were learning, too. We had 
but little grammar or geography, and we hardly knew what algebra meant, 
only that it was much harder than arithmetic; but our spelling class would not 
need to blush in m6dern days. Nary blackboard nor other appliance; only two 
things were prominently in view — the old schoolmaster's pipe, the cloud of 
6moke almost hiding the inevitable, the ever present birch. Then the rosy- 
cheeked, home-spun, flannel-bedecked little maidens, to whom we wrote little 
missives, though it was strictly forbidden; yet we found means to slyly con- 
vey them unobserved by the teacher, and the tender replies were just as slyly 
brought to our side. Just think of it. Such wonderful effusions as, 

The rose is red, the vilets blew, 
Shooger is sweat, and so ar you. 

" Then what heart beatings there would be to get, the same hour, a reply 
something like this. 


the ring is round, it has no end 
So is my love to you, my friend. 


My pen is bad, my ink is pail 
My Love to you Shall never f ale. 

' ' Not very good spelling to be sure, but human nature, among children as 
well as men, fifty years ago, was much as now. Ah! those days are past a 
long, long time ago for us. The parents who sent us to school with our small 
dinner baskets and a few books, are nearly all gone, and if here yet, are in 
their second childhood. 

' ' Nearly every one of our old-style teachers are gone to their reward. May 
they wear an extra bright crown in the celestial city. The old log school- 
house has long ago given way to the larger and better ventilated and well- 
furnished room, with blackboards and other aids to efficient and intelligent 
instruction. Schoolhouses are nearer together, so children have not so far 
to go, and, when there, find comfortable seats and desks, etc. Additional 
branches are taught in a scientific and common-sense manner, and yet some of 
us sigh for the good old times of yore. What unreasonable creatures we are! 
' I commenced to study surveying from an old ' Gibson, ' in the fall of 
1348, and undertook to survey a farm of over 200 acres on the 9th of Febru- 
ary, 1349. This I did with a set of borrowed instruments, but I had remark- 
able success that day, and it brought me other work. I had never seen any one 
survey, had no living teacher, but I struggled onward, and, when I floundered 
among difficulties, I struggled, as did Christian in the slough of despond, toward 
the far side, or the side toward which I had been traveling. The instruments 


■were old and worn, and I had a good deal of trouble with thern at times, es- 
pecially the compass, but these very difficulties proved of value in after life. I 
watched the movements of the needle very closely, to detect, if possible, irreg- 
ularities in its movements. I was always on the alert, a habit that sticks to 
me to this day; and I natter myself I can notice such vagaries as the needle 
often displays as soon, perhaps, as any one, and should it be out of order 
apply the remedy as soon as possible. My parents would have preferred that 
I should let surveying alone, and threw many discouragements in my way — 
sometimes I did become discouraged for a time — but I had a good deal of per- 
severence and enthusiasm for the business, which sometimes amounted to a 
passion, but I went on, got other books and other instruments by degrees, so 
I at last became established as a surveyor. When I taught school I took up 
algebra and in a year or two had acquired a very good knowledge of the 
elements of that useful branch, which aided me in understanding better the 
later works on surveving. I have constructed several useful tables for use in 
the field. One is a table of the amount of declination, or popularly the varia- 
tion, of the needle for each year from 1736 to the present time. It is very use- 
ful and convenient. To find an analytical expression to compute the numerical 
values for each year was a tedious and difficult matter, but I succeeded in ob- 
taining an empirical expression that fits in nicely. I would have published 
it, but it is only of local value, the needle not pointing the same except in a nar- 
row belt of territory, and the rates of changes in different localities not being 
the same. Another table is to find the amount of refraction to allow on my 
solar transit in setting off the declination arc of the instrument, the amount for 
different hours of the day, during the different seasons of the year, depending 
upon the elevation of the sun. This had to be ascertained by spherical trigo- 
nometry and a little practical astronomy. It involved more labor than I ex- 
pected when I began, or I would certainly have left it alone, but having made 
a beginning I did not like to give up, and I didn't. The table is found in 
my field books, and when I use the solar attachment I can depend on it 
pretty well. It would do very well, but the refraction of the atmosphere varies 
with the temperature, as well as barometrical changes, etc., and I don't carry 
either a thermometer or barometer with me; am too poor." 

A provision was contained in the constitution of 1776 to the effect that 
"A school or schools shall be established in each county by the Legislature 
for the convenient instruction of youth, with such salaries to the masters paid 
by the public as may enable them to instruct youth at low prices. " This 
was a step toward popular education as a condition of worthy citizenship, but 
it indicated no precise way in which the desirable result was to be accom- 
plished. For many years this provision of the constitution seems to have 
been a dead letter, the Legislature exercising its discretionary power w 7 ith no 
perceptible results. 

The constitution of 1790 proceeded a step farther and required that "the 
Legislature should, as soon as conveniently might be, provide by law for the 
establishment of schools throughout the State in such manner that the poor 
might be taught gratis. " But no scheme which makes an odious discrimina- 
tion between the children of the poor and those of the rich can hope to be 
worthy of popular favor, being diametrically opposed to the genius of our 
civil institutions. Neither by the organic law nor by the law of 1809, which 
failed to avoid the same difficulty, did relief come. It came only when pro- 
vision for the education of rich and poor was equally gratuitous. 

In the constitution of 1838 the odious feature of 1790 was re-enacted; but 
in that of 1873 it was declared that "the General Assembly shall provide 


for the maintenance and support of a thorough and efficient system of public 
schools, wherein all the children of this Commonwealth, above the age of six 
years, may be educated, and shall appropriate at least one million of dollars each 
year for that purpose. No money raised for the support of the public schools of 
the Commonwealth shall be appropriated to or used for the support of any 
sectarian school. Women twenty-one years of age and upward shall be eli- 
gible to any office of control or management under the school laws of this 

From the foregoing constitutional and statutory provisions it will be 
clearly seen that the public-school system, like the methods of instruction and 
the character of private schools briefly referred to in the first part of this 
chapter, has been a gradual growth. School systems, like the best men, are 
molded out of faults. 

The act of the Assembly establishing the free schools of the common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania, was approved by the governor on the 1st of 
April, 1834. Under its provisions the first election for school directors in 
each district was held on the third Friday of September following, and on 
the first Tuesday of November was appointed a joint meeting in each county of 
a delegate from the several boards of school directors and the county commis- 
sioners, for the purpose of deciding whether or not a tax should be levied for 
the support of schools. At an election held on the 19th of September, 1834, 
under the above provisions, the following persons were elected school directors 
for Chambersburg District: Samuel D. Culbertson, Thomas Chambers, 
Jacob Heart, William Seibert, Frederick Smith and William Heyser. 

On Tuesday, the 4th of November, 1834, the joint meeting of the 
delegates from the different boards of school directors and county commis- 
sioners of Franklin County was held in the court-house, in Chambersburg, and 
was organized by electing Andrew Thomson, president, and Thomas Chambers, 
secretary. The following townships had accepted the provisions of the school 
law and were represented by delegates: Antrim, George W. Hewett; Cham- 
bersburg, Thomas Chambers; Fannett, William Campbell; Greene, Andrew 
Thomson; Guilford, Samuel Wingerd; Hamilton, David Lytle; Letter kenny, 
Benjamin Hoover; Lurgan, John Reynolds; Me.tal, Joseph Flickinger; Peters, 
Nicholas^Baker ; Southampton, Jonathan Peal; Warren, John Thomas; Wash- 
ington, David Wertz; county commissioners, Joseph Culbertson and John 

The convention resolved that a tax be levied, not exceeding in amount 
double the funds appropriated by the State to each school division; Saturday, 
December 4, was fixed on as the day on which the people of the several school 
districts should assemble, at the usual place of holding township elections, to 
decide whether they would raise, for the current year, a sum in addition 
to that determined on by this meeting. At the meeting of the citizens of 
Chambersburg District, held in conformity with the above resolution, it was 
decided not to raise any additional sum for school purposes. There are no 
records in existence to show when the schools were opened, but likely about 
he 1st of January, 1835, as the following appropriations by the State for that 
ye ar are the first that can be found : 

Antrim $225 80 Lurgan $ 65 44 

Chambersburg 143 08 Metal 74 29 

Fannett 64 90 Peters 12116 

Greene 162 06 Southampton 78 50 

Guilford 154 56 St. Thomas 96 20 

Hamilton 75 65 Warren ' 5155 

Letterkenny 112 50 Washington 218 45 


Though the records are very meager, we are convinced that the educational 
sentiment was slowly developing. In his history of Franklin County, Rupp 
has this paragraph in 1846: 

'"The state of education is improving. The common-school system has 
been adopted in every district except one township — Warren. The schools are 
in operation in 13 districts, in which 112 schools are open about five months 
and a half in the year, employing 96 male and 17 female teachers, at an aver- 
age salary of $17.72, of the latter $11.21 per month; in these schools 3,282 
male and 2,711 females are taught, 70 of whom are learning German. A 
district tax has been raised of $11,781.74 — the State appropriation was $8,- 
136 — cost of instruction $10,490.74; fuel and contingencies $904.70, for 
the year 1844. Besides the public schools, other literary institutions, already 
noticed, exert a salutary influence upon the several classes of society. ' ' 

Comparatively little can be found concerning the common schools up to 
1857, all the records prior to that date having been destroyed in the Chambers- 
burg fire. In the following table, taken from the report of the State school super- 
intendent for 1885, is exhibited a condition of things very favorable as com- 
pared with the imperfect showing in the reports of 1835 and 1846. The attend- 
ance is increased, wages advanced and a spirit of growing liberality exhibited: 




I— I 


















i— i 



•s8iini c i B ! r i 

o : 

o : 
r- : 

cm ■ to • : 

co ■ cc : ; 

cc I CC - • 

cm : m • ; 
r- *cn • 

0» ?5 

32 82 

1,113 57 

46 93 

■ c- 
: K 
' IC 

: «£ 


_ oo 






o CO • C ■ iCCO 

r- Tt< • ro : in ro 

C^ CO * "** • '«■ o 
'•o ic : °o * l.O CO 

rH - O . O 

© — t ^ 
© © © 

r- © tO 

© iO © 
"^ CO 



I— < 


■ B 


•sajnjipnadxa ib^ox 

C tftlftO!Ct-I^f)>C-' CO O ^ CO r- imor- 

?iccciLO — t^wM— cm — o cs_co o^t-- co^c 
oc'^S^'f'-ScSuz^yfoS^o^-tr'iS^iO^ co cc 




■sasuadxa laqio 
\\b pnB 'sioioajiOD jo 

?2(N'f , M^I>iOiCO^OCOON;OtCMCi-' ^ 
OCCOiOt-r-r^^r^'^'COO.CCO© — O^'-' CO 


•s9Se.ii ,sjaqoB3x 

©iOt— lO©©©©iO©"3<CO©iOC--t--©©T-« CM 

t^© cm"^%h~m~^h cN*p-Tr-r^H c-f co'co* <n~ of co"co" r-T 

~o%3 'Snpnai 
'Snipimq 'SaisBqaind 
'sasnoq-jooqas jo iso[) 



©•^©©•■^CM^i— "CM 

© -^ ^*t cm © o c r- ic 

O IC- Cfl IC M H CM Oi ia 

©ir^©©co *-^© ' °o 
r-Ti-Ti-T i-T 1 co" 

1 ^ 





•sjdiaoai pjjox 

o^OiooonaoMTHntOr-iCJHiNiNao o 

c^r^r— © © © I>- <3» CM ©_CM © »— (StH r^ 00 <© ^-» W, 

Oc"oO*co"*t- C^tfr©i* CO*"cS~CO CA-<&tOiOlOiO t^t^ ** 

'noi}Budojdde 9je:}g 
^dgoxa 'sgojnos J9qi0 
lie pas saxBj toojj 

co co o ^ '^io OMrtHOioc^ic^t- i>. o 

oc — csNCTtcoM^ncnior^oiC'OiO'- 
f- B Oisc cm — ro t}* o r- cs o) 't 3j t> 'J ^o c »f 

^"r^co*^cc~^c>fro%H'c<fi^co~us~^^Tir I>"t£ 

1 1 -* 
1 1 oo 

i 5 

i eo_ 


•nopBudoiddB 9}B?g 

iOUiqci^p- ' — ^cotooo^cDGOoor^— -ooir 


! CM 

; °° 





•ggsodjnd Stnpjinq 

pnB JOOqOS JOJ p9IA9[ 

ibj jo janoraB \bjox 

005CM-TOO'-«"^*OC50r-iCCC»t-Tj«C<Ji— • « 


c:_— ^,— ccco — r~-c5cc'*o«ocrHcc?ooc 

COW CO O" r-T lOO^Oi^ CN CM""co'"^" TjT CO TjT tP IT 

• 1 CO 

> 1 o 
: 1 cs 
s co^ 

r •*" 


■sgsodjnd Sntpjinq joj 
p9iA9[ S[nni jo jaqnm sj 

o o 

cm »o : : . 

cncni-« : : »-< : 

o o © © : o 

CS. CM ^ r-t CM rH : C 


1 « 

, 1 rt - 


■sasodmd jooqos joj 
peiA9i snita jo jgqtnn sj 

CM lOOiOr-iCOiOr-iO *o 


1 CN 


5 1 CO 






•qjaom J9d isoq 




1 #? 

- 1 (N 


1 «** 

-IB jo jgqninn gSajgiV 


s id 

> 00 

'looqos Snipng; 
-IB igqrana 93bi9av 

t>Ol-^NlOCO , *N^W^lOOT)'COr^lOif 

< 1 CS 

> = . 


•S9IBTH9J jo jgqtnn^i 

-^-T^oio-^"ooco-^ic--t--'*co , #c-ic<icocbc 


5 1 CO 
* ! t- 

5 CS^ 

1 US' 

s9iBin jo jeqmnsi 

C^ n 0CX(N?;iC*t?3 , *«l s *CCiOOM — O', 
— 0~0-*'CO-*CD'M'MCOtCOiOC<liOCSXCOr 

- 1 = 








•q;aotn J9ds9iBrn 


i-iCOXCiOXlOCOOrtCMTj<iOXM«0 , tT 

l~-C10000COCT>CiCll— •-'t^CN'— ir^-r~u^co« 


S 1 CM 

J 1 o 

: IS 

qjnom J9d 



5©©"^xioococ:©cx z 

*©^-u-^-tj«iC ^ OX C 


"to © "o~cTrjTccVcV"'- 'ib'F 

3 1 CO 


3 Is 
■ II 

•s9jBtn9j jo jgqranjsj 

•89[biujo jgqran^j 

ifttJ'X^HiCn^-JDrH'tiNr-iCXXrrrf - 

1 00 




sqjn^tn jgqranngSBJaAy 

■jaqcana 9joqA\ 

©C. OCt-iQiC'-OOMOC C u* O *-C i/t C 
M ?J r- ^ » — 1-" ^tT-'t-'-Hr-''-" r- I- 

1 ° 

1 CO 

' 1 CS 
1 CM 







: SP 

- — ■ 

- ci f 

\s M = 

■ , * a * r* C3 

J 1/ •- - S ! 

- t- — ^ aj 
r >--' -^' t-I oc c 

: U : >> 
i ?- * ^ 

m r 

: : 3 

': £ S 


: t£- 


s « 


- CC c 







The county superintendency was established under the following section of 
the law of May 8, 1854: 

"The school directors of the several counties of the commonwealth shall 
meet in convention at the seat of justice of the proper county, on the first 
Monday of June next, and on the third Monday of May in each third year 
thereafter, and select viva voce by a majority of the whole number of direc- 
tors present, one person of literary and scientific acquirements, and of skill and 
experience in the art of teaching, as county superintendent for three succeeding 
school years; and the school directors or a majority of them in such conven- 
tion, shall determine the amount of compensation for the county superinten- 
dent, which said compensation shall be paid by the superintendent of common 
schools, by his warrant drawn upon the State treasurer, in half yearly install- 
ments if desired, and shall be deducted from the amoxmt of the State appro- 
priation to be paid to the several school districts for said county." 

Under the law the directors met in the court-house, Chambersburg, Mon- 
day, June 5, 1854, choosing James O. Carson, president, and Geo. Cook and 
Wm. B. Gabby, secretaries. Nominees for county superintendent were: Rev. 
B. S. Schneck, Chambersburg; James McDowell, Antrim; Joseph Eckhart, 
Guilford; Matthew Irwin, Montgomery; Rev. Joshua Kennedy, Fayetteville; 
Jas. D. McDowell, Peters; Rev. J. F. Kennedy, Chambersburg. On the 
fourth ballot James McDowell was selected, and his salary fixed, after much 
controversy, at $600 per annum for the next three years. One of the first 
acts of a general character, after Mr. McDowell's election, was the organiza- 
tion of a county teachers' institute. In the Franklin Repository of December 
13, 1854, appears the following sensible call: 

"To the friends of education: With a view the more successfully to carry out 
the design of the common school system, and to advance the cause of educa- 
tion in general, we respectfully invite and earnestly request a convention of 
teachers, school directors and the friends of education generally, to meet in 
Chambersburg, on Friday, £ke 29th inst. , at 10 o'clock, in order to make ar- 
rangements for the organization of a county association for the improvement 
of teachers and to aid each other in the management and government of 
schools and the art of teaching, and for the dissemination of correct views 
and information on the subject of education, and the best methods of pro- 
moting it. And we hope that all interested will give us their countenance in 
the movement; that our lady teachers will not be backward to cheer us with 
their presence and support us by their very efficient aid, and that none of the 
teachers will absent themselves who can attend, and also that directors will 
encourage the attendance of teachers by all means, if, even to the exoneration 
of them from replacing the time which they may occupy in attendance on this 
matter; as it may, and no doubt will, result in a general and lasting benefit 
to the schools within the county. 

' ' Addresses and essays appropriate to the occasion may be expected. 

"J. McDowell, 

" Greencastle, December 13, 1854. County Superintendent. '.' 

It is doubtful whether any teacher or superintendent anywhere, has had a 
more intelligent conception of the legitimate sphere of the teacher's work 
and responsibilities than is indicated in the foregoing announcement. It 
must be remembered that at that time, with probably the exception of " Page's 
Theory and Practice of Teaching, " no professional text books on the science of 
education had been published, and yet this proclamation implies an acquaint- 
ance with the advanced views of educational writers and thinkers. 

Mr. McDowell lived but a portion of his term, and was succeeded by Hugh 


J. Campbell who filled out the unexpired term. No records of the institutes 
and county superintendent's work having been accessible, we give the fol- 
lowing interesting report, prepared at our request by one of the old teachers 
and superintendents of the county, Mr. A. McElwain, * now of Fannettsburg : 

" My first knowledge of the schools of Franklin County was prior to the 
creation of the office of county superintendent, which was in 1854. I taught a 
term of five or six months in Green Village, and lived in Scotland, Greene Town- 
ship, in the winter of 1851-52. Dr. Charles Howland, during the same winter, 
taught, the Scotland school. In the winter of 1852-53 I taught the grammar 
school in Mercersburg, which had for several years been taught by Mr. Thos. 
Richards. I then left Franklin County and, from the fall of 1854, to that of 
1858, in Shippensburg. In the fall of 1858 1 was elected principal of the schools 
of Chambersburg, which post I held for five years, when I was elected in May, 
1863, county superintendent. P. M. Shoemaker, Esq. , was county superin- 
tendent during the five years of my teaching in Chambersburg. My relations 
with him were of a pleasant character. He was an efficient officer and had 
inaugurated both annual meetings of the teachers in Chambersburg, and semi- 
annual meetings to be held in the other towns and villages in the county. 
These meetings were carried on mainly by home workers, the county super- 
intendent being one of them, with an occasional lecture by a member of the 
Chambersburg bar. During the day sessions the exercises were conducted by 
the teachers, led generally by some one appointed by a committee or the 
county superintendent to open the subject, which was generally some 
branch of education then in the schools. Greencastle, Waynesboro, St. 
Thomas, Strasburg and Mercersburg were points of meeting for the semi- 
annual gathering. These points, though not calling out so many of the 
teachers of the county, always manifested a deep interest in the proceedings, 
and the practice of the institute was, I believe, uniformly to elect, as a presid- 
ing officer, some citizen, director or otherwise, to serve during our session. The 
branches received that attention which we thought they required in order to 
a uniformity of method in teaching, as well as a more thorough scholar- 
ship of the teachers. Mental arithmetic, or the analysis of problems 
orally under certain formulas, was a frequent exercise, and few teachers were 
disposed to shirk their duties when called upon. Algebra was frequently 
presented by some one or other in a fair degree of clearness. 

' ' The institutes in Chambersburg scarcely ever called out the citizens to any 
great degree. "Whether this was favorable or unfavorable to the cause of edu- 
cation, each one, I presume, will judge for himself. Our object in meeting 
was our mutual improvement, and our attendance was altogether voluntary. 
No legislative enactment provided for such meetings or provided for the ex- 
penses. That many teachers profited by the exercises, when conducted by 
those teaching the elementary schools, as well as those teaching the schools of 
higher grade, was a matter not doubted at the time : however, it may be looked 
upon now as " a day of small things" by those who are the quiet recipients 
and passive auditors in our now journal-trumpeted institutes, which, by legis- 
lative enactments, can draw to the extent of $200 from the county treasurer to 
help pay instructors from other parts of the world for what could be as well ob- 
tained from our own teachers. It will be understood that the breaking out of 
the war in 1861 was terribly inimical to school interests in Frpnklin County. 

*During the burning of Chambersburg, Mr. McElwain was living two and a. half miles west of the town. 
Rebel soldiers stopped in large numbers at his house. Among them was a chaplain who inquired of the 
superintendent whether he had ever been a teacher of " niggers." Mr. McElwain replied that he had oca«- 
sionally been. This was enough. When the troops retired, they fired his house, and, permitted nothing to be 
removed under penalty of death. The loyalty, honesty and philanthropy of the school-master caused the 
loss of his property. The oflense was — he had taught "niggers." 


The attention of its citizens was too much engrossed with the threatened destruc- 
tion of their property and their government to be easily gained to school inter- 
ests, and on entering upon my duties of county superintendent I found 
myself handicapped in my efforts to secure attention to school interests, in the 
face of superior claims upon the attention to homes and property. I insti- 
tuted no new policy, except that I declined to accept the proffered help of 
fledgeling attorneys of the law and politicians to build up an institute of pro- 
fessional teachers. I regarded it then, as I do now, an opportunity for devel- 
opment of the qualities which the teachers need, if only they could be trained 
to do as all other professions do — hold their own conventions and conduct 
them themselves. The first institute held during my incumbency was held in the 
Washington Street School building, in Chambersburg. State Superintendent 
Coburn was invited to attend, and met with us there. He gave us encourage- 
ment, and the response made to my requests to teachers to aid in making our 
institute profitable was very gratifying. I have no preserved data from which 
to give a full account of our proceedings, but my memory reverts with pleasure 
to many teachers who contributed valuable aid to your humble servant in hi9 
efforts to assist young and earnest teachers in qualifying themselves for their 
duties. 1 trust it will not be regarded as invidious to name those who took a 
deep interest in our discussions and investigations of the topics brought before 
the institutes: Messrs. Eby, Omwake, Smith and Weir, of Antrim and Green- 
castle; Gaff, Stoler and Brown, of Washington and Waynesboro; Richards, 
McElwain, Hockenberry. McFadden, Eckhart and Moore, of Chambersburg; 
Moore, Croft and Kendig, of Hamilton; Shoemaker, Gelwix, Winger, Leh- 
man and Kaufman, of Letterkenny; De Haven, Swanger, Shoemaker and 
Martin, of Lurgan; Blair, McClelland, Mc Mullen and Orr, of Southampton; 
Thompson, Sollenbergers and Bollinger, of Greene; Shaffer, Snyder, Shriver, 
Cook and Wolf kill, of Guilford; Keyser, Hays, Detrichs, Wolf, Jones, Mc- 
Clean, and others, who taught in different townships. Some of these are still 
teachers in the county, some following other pursuits in life, and quite a num- 
ber have passed beyond the dark river, toward which most of them are rapidly 
moving. Many ladies also attended our institutes, and only a want of mem- 
ory prevents a mention of the particular exercises in which they engaged. 

"Our second annual institute, during my term of office, was held in the 
basement of the Lutheran Church, it being in the year 1864. Chambersburg 
had been laid in ashes by the rebels on the 30th of July preceding, and the 
educational fires burned low. I can give nothing definite of our proceedings. 
The semi-annual meetings also were abandoned on account of the distraction 
occasioned by the war. A meeting was held in the Masonic Hall, I believe, in 
1865, which was tolerably well attended. During the year 1865, a move was 
made to secure the Normal School of the Seventh District of Pennsylvania in 
Chambersburg. Notice of a meeting to be held in Chambersburg, was given to 
the counties embraced iu the district to send representatives to the meeting. 
Cumberland County and Franklin County only were represented. State Supt. 
Coburn was present as chairman of the meeting. It was settled on the basis of 
the number of schools of the two counties that Franklin County have nine, and 
Cumberland County eight, delegates. An effort had been made to secure pledges 
of stock in Shippensburg, Newville, Mechanicsburg and Shiremanstown, aDd 
they had agreed to pool their interests so as to secure the school either in Ship- 
pensburg or Newville. On motion of F. M. Gilliland, a delegate from Cum- 
berland County, Shippensburg was nominated as the seat of the school. This 
motion was amended by A. M. McElwain, a delegate from Franklin County, 
that action in the premises be postponed, on account of the depleted condition 



■of Chambersburg' s finances in consequence of the burning of the town the 
year previous. This amendment was carried by a vote of 9 to 8. Thus 
ended all efforts on the part of the several counties to locate the school. It 
was subsequently located at Shippensburg, through individual enterprise of 
citizens of that place, and recognized by the State as the Seventh District 
School. This meeting was called at the instance of George Swartz, Esq., 
superintendent of Cumberland County. I made some efforts to secure the 
school in Chambersburg. Hon. F. M. Kimmel and J. Wythe Douglas, Esq., 
were delegates in behalf of Franklin County. In my preparation for the 
meeting I called on a number of the leading business men of Chambersburg, to 
get them to attend the meeting. Among them was Mr. William Wallace, mer- 
chant, now deceased, who said he could not attend, but that I might say for 
him that he would give $500 toward the enterprise. 

" During my incumbency, on account of the war prices bearing hard on 
salaried officers, a meeting of the school directors was called about the middle 
of my term to increase my salary, which was then $600. The directors met 
in convention in the public school building, on King Street, Qhambersburg. 
Mr. Craig McLanahan was called to the chair. A motion to increase the salary 
to $1,000 was lost; $950 was a tie, and on second vote was lost; $800 was 
then fixed as my salary for the remainder of my term. This continued to be 
the salary of P. M. Shoemaker, Esq., my successor, for part of his term, 
when by a convention called it was raised to $1,200, and thus remained until, 
by legislative enactment, it was fixed on the present basis of $4. 50 for each 
school of the county. I was not a candidate for re-election; other business 
took my attention from the schools to some extent, but I remained in the 
county till 1871. The law, giving financial aid to the institute and the time to 
the teachers, increased the attendance of teachers and introduced hiring of 
instructors. ' ' 


1854-57— James McDowell, Hugh J. Campbell. 

1857-60— Philip M. Shoemaker. 

1860-63— Philip M. Shoemaker. 

1863-66— Andrew J. McElwain. 

1866-69— Philip M. Shoemaker. 

1869-72— Samuel Gelwix. 

1872-75— Jacob S. Smith. 

1875-81— S. H. Eby. 

1881-87— H. A. Disert. 


The early settlers of Franklin County were, as a rule, members of the 
■church, and took immediate steps not only for the preaching of the Word, but 
for the erection of suitable places of worship. While "the groves were God's 
first temples, " the people of the valley were not content until the log meeting 
house, located near some sparkling spring, was erected. To them the dearest 
place on earth, next to the humble log dwelling, was the little meeting-house 
where, often under most trying circumstances, they were accustomed to meet 
for divine worship. 

The early Scotch-Irish settlers were Presbyterians. Their churches are 
the oldest, dating back to within a few years of the first settlements made. 
Rocky Spring, in Letterkenny Township, Falling Spring, at Chambersburg, 
Mossy Spring, at Greencastle, Upper West Conococheague, formerly at Church 


Hill, but now at Mercersburg, Welsh Run, and the congregation in Upper 
Path Valley are the primitive congregations, built on the teachings of the con- 
fession of faith. Their origin and history are given in the several boroughs 
and townships to which they belong and need not be repeated. 

As early as November, 1734, the presbytery of Donegal, which had the charge 
of the territory west of the Susquehanna, sent Rev. Alexander Craighead to 
preach to the scattered Presbyterian settlers over the river. His labors were con- 
fined to two or three Sabbaths. The succeeding year, Revs. Craighead, Thomp- 
son, James Anderson and William Bertram, all ministered to the same people, 
their labors, however, being confined to Silver Spring and other points in Cumber- 
land County. The earliest reference to Presbyterians in what is now Frank- 
lin County, is found in the records of Donegal Presbytery during its sessions 
at Derry, September 2, 1736, as follows: " It being represented by Thomas 
Brown from Conococheague N that Mr. W'r, lately from England, who was re- 
jected by our presbytery, is likely to do harm to our interests by inveigling 
the people, Mr. Anderson is ordered to visit said people in order to dissuade 
them from entertaining him as a minister. ' ' Who this ' ' Mr. W'r' ' was, or what 
became of his efforts to turn the elect from the faith, is not known, all conjec- 
tures to the contrary notwithstanding. The expression, ' ' Conococheague, ' ' 
embraced all Presbyterians scattered over a large territory, including those 
who became the nuclei of the congregations at Falling Spring, Greencastle, 
Mercersburg and Rocky Spring. 

At the same session at Derry, September 2, 1736, it was decreed: "Mr. 
Samuel Gelston is ordered to supply the people of Monada on the third Sab- 
bath instant, the second at Conodoguinet, and the 1st and 2d of October at 
Conococheague." In April, 1737, Messrs. Samuel Caven and Samuel Thomp- 
son were both sent to Conococheague. By the presbytery, held November 
17, 1737, Mr. Samuel Caven was ordered to supply, at Conococheague, the 
first and fourth Sabbath to come, and so alternately until our next. At the 
next meeting of presbytery, June 29, 1738, Benjamin Chambers and Thomas 
Brown both presented petitions for ministerial aid to inspect into their dis- 
orders, * and supply their needed spiritual wants. ' ' After a pretty deal of time 
in consulting as to the matter, ' ' Mr. Samuel Black was directed to go on the 
expedition, and to answer the demands of both petitions. It was ordered by 
the presbytery at its session, August 31, 1738, that "Mr. Caven supply every 
third Sabbath on the west side of Conococheague, till our next. ' ' 

Finally, after much delay and difficulty, Mr. Caven was installed as pastor 
of the people of Conococheague November 16, 1739, Messrs. Anderson, Boyd, 
Craighead and Thompson officiating. At this meeting it was announced that 
"Joseph Armstrong, Richard O'Cahan, Patrick Jack and Benjamin Chambers 
have agreed to pay Mr. Samuel Thompson the sum of £1 5s., at or before 
next meeting of presbytery, as being the whole of arrears due him by the 
people at Conococheague. " The duration of Mr. Caven' s service was determined 
by some difficulty which arose between him and his people, leading him to 
request his removal by the presbytery. The time of his service is specified 
in the sketch of Falling Spring Church, at Chambersburg, which the reader is 
requested to see. 

The first meetings of the Falling Spring people were held in the saw-mill 
of Benjamin Chambers. About 1739, a small structure of rough hewn logs 
was erected. It was used also as a schoolhouse, and in later years became the 
study house. In 1767 a large and more convenient one was erected on the 

*These disorders were the difficulties which separated the Presbyterians into two divisions, East Conoco- 
cheague joining with Falling Spring, and West Conococheague. 


same site. The following was the agreement between the trustees of the 
congregation and the builder: 

We, in the name of the Falling Spring congregation, do promise to pay, or cause to 
be paid, to James Shanks, or his assigns, the sum of forty-five pounds of the currency of 
Pennsylvania, for the building for a meeting-house at the Falling Spring, and when said 
house is built and sufficiently done, the money is to be paid, as witness our hands and 
his, 5th day of July, 1767. 

Benjamin Chambers, 
John Dixon, 


Richard X Venable, 


Matthew Wilson, 
Wm. Gass, 
Patrick Vance, 
Test: Benjamin Gass, 

George Latmer, Robert Jack, 

Archibald Brown. Thomas Burnet. 

In the following year Col. Chambers presented the congregation the 
ground on which the house was built, the consideration being the annual pay- 
ment of ' ' one rose, if required. ' ' The subsequent history of Presbyterian- 
ism in the county is known, and will be read in the leading congregations 
sketched elsewhere. Its members have ever been honest and industrious, in- 
telligent and patriotic, religious and aggressive, the leaders in all the advance 
movements of the people. 

The Seceders, or Associates, and Associate Reformed Presbyterians had 
several congregations in primitive times, at Greencastle, Mercersburg, Cham- 
bersburg, and several other points. These good people have been absorbed 
by the United Presbyterians and other religious people, and are known only 
as churches of the past. Among the early ministers were such devoted 
men as John Cuthbertson, who preached in Franklin County as early as 1751 ; 
Matthew Lind, who died at Greencastle at the age of sixty-nine, after a 
ministry of some forty years; John Young, who died in 1803, having acted as 
pastor at Greencastle, West Conococheague and the Great Cove; John Lind, 
s >n of Matthew, who succeeded Mr. Young in October, 1808, and was a popu- 
lar preacher and pastor; James Walker who preached at Chambersburg as early 
as September, 1799, and continued till 1820; Thomas N. Strong, who succeeded 
Walker and continued a year or two; Thomas McPherrin, in the Welsh Run 
region from 1774 to 1779. 

The United Presbyterian Church is the result of a union, in 1858, between 
the Associate, or Seceder, and Associate Reformed Churches. Its origin in 
the county is accounted for by what is said concerning the absorption and dis- 
appearance of the other two denominations just mentioned. In his excellent 
' ' History of Big Spring Presbytery, ' ' in which he gives ' ' not merely the his - 
tory of the presbytery of Big Spring, but of all the churches, whether Re- 
formed Presbyterian, or Associate, or Associate Reformed, or United Presbyte- 
rian, which have existed or do still exist, * * so intimately related to each 
other that their histories cannot well be separated," the author, Rev. J. B. 
Scouller, gives a list of the following named ministers who have been born within 
the limits of Franklin County: David Carson, Greencastle; John X. Clark; 
Robert G. Ferguson, near Concord; Matthew L. Fullerton, Greencastle; Jere- 
miah R. Johnson, D. D. ; Joshua Kennedy; John Lind; George McCormick, near 
Concord; George Stewart, Greencastle; T. J. C. Webster, near Mercersburg; 
John C. Young, D.D., Greencastle. They all became learned, popular 

The Lutherans began to occupy the field very early, as will be seen by 


examining the history of some of the older churches. The first Lutheran 
family in the Grindstone Hill settlement, one of the oldest of German settle- 
ments in the county, was that of Matthias George, in 1742. Even at that 
early day, Lutheran itinerant ministers preached occasionally to their people, 
but history has not recorded their names. One of the earliest on record was the 
Rev. John G. Bager, ' ' a pious and learned man, ' ' who preached at Grindstone 
Hill between 1765 and 1770. Other early preachers, of the last century, 
whose labors did much to establish Lutheran congregations in the county, 
were John George Young, John Michael Steck, Anthony U. Ludgen and John 

Through the efforts of these tireless workers and their successors, the 
Lutheran Church has become the largest organization, in point of numbers, in 
the county, its membership exceeding 2,500. 

Contemporaneous with the Lutherans, and allied to it in language, sympathy 
and national characteristics, is the Reformed Church, formerly called German 
Reformed. In the beginning of German settlements, and in many instances 
still, the Lutherans and Reformed built houses of worship conjointly, and had 
their separate congregations and pastors. With many it is a question why 
those two strong denominations, with but slight differences to separate them, 
should not have united in organization as well as in their business enterprises. 

As early as 1748, Rev. Michael Schlatter, of Philadelphia, made a mission- 
ary tour through the county, visiting and instructing his scattered brethren. 
It was during this trip he visited Jacob Snively, in Antrim, and wrote a 
description of the rich country visited. So far as the records show, however, 
the first preacher regularly in charge of the Reformed congregations of the 
county was Rev. Jacob Weymer, of Hagerstown, or Elizabethtown, as it was 
called at the time. He was a zealous and devoted man. His remains are 
buried at Hagerstown, unmarked by any monument, his dying request being 
that his grave should have no tablet. 

Mercersbui-g early became the Mecca of the Reformed church in the county. 
In the college and the seminary were to be found some of the greatest scholars 
and thinkers of either continent; but Ichabod has unfortunately been written 
upon the walls of these institutions, and the memories of the past are largely all 
that is left. The church has prospered, however, and Mercersburg Classis, of 
which Rev. Wm. M. Deatrich is clerk, reports twenty-two organized congre- 
gations, twenty-two church edifices, six of which are union churches, and a 
membership of 2, 360. In point of numbers it is next to the Lutheran Church. 

The Methodists, the aggressive church of the country, began to take pos- 
session of the field toward the close of the last century. Their first members 
in the borough of Chambersburg were Daniel Madeira and his wife Eleanor. 
They came from Reistertown, Md. , in 1793. The first preacher who visited 
them was Rev. Charles Burgoon, then on the Frederick circuit. This occurred 
in 1794. He was succeeded in 1799 by Seely Bunn. For history of these 
men and their labors, the reader is referred to the chapter on Chambersburg. 
With its thorough system of organization and supply, the church extended its 
dominion extensively and rapidly until it had in 1884. twelve organizations 
and about 1,500 members in the county. Though recent statistics have not 
been had, its membership has greatly increased. This denomination in the 
North has always been noted for its opposition to slavery, its ardent support of 
the Government, and its earnest advocacy of the principles of temperance. 
Candidates for admission to the ranks of the ministry are required, in addition 
to literary and theological attainments, to be exempt from the use of intoxi- 
cating drink and its kindred, tobacco. It is decidedly a reform church. 


The United Brethren in Christ is a church that was founded toward the close 
of the last century by Rev. William Otterbein, a learned minister of the 
Reformed Church. From the centennial sermon of Rev. J. P. Miller, of 
Charobersburg, as well as from the autobiography of Rev. Samuel Huber, the 
following facts are gathered: The first preacher in the county was Rev. Chris- 
tian Newcomer. As early as 1796 he preached in John Huber' s house at 
Rocky Spring. On Christmas day of the same year he preached in Chambers- 
burg, and in 1797 at Henry Kumler's, four miles from Greencastle; in 1799, 
in Mercersburg; in 1802 at John Crider's, in the neighborhood of Crider's. 
Church; in 1803, at Lemaster's, near White Church, and in 1804 at 
George Fetterhoff ' s, near Fetterhoff Chapel. Rev. George A. Guething was 
his coadjutor in 1797. The following were some of the early preachers in the 
county: William Otterbein, Christian Newcomer, George A. Guething, Martin 
Boehm, Joseph Hoffman, John Neiding, Martin Crider, Abraham Draksel, 
Christian Grosh, Felix Light, Christian Smith, Samuel Huber, Jacob Wingert, 
J. S. Kessler, John Fohl, J. M. Bishop, E. Hoffman, W. Owens. Some of 
these are yet doing valiant service. 

The first class in the county was organized by Rev. Newcomer at Green- 
castle in April, 1815; the second at Rocky Spring in 1817; Chambersburg was 
organized in 1818. Preaching in Amberson's Valley began in 1819; in 1820 
at John Mower's, in the vicinity of Mowersville, the first house being erected 
in 1845, the second (Otterbein Church) in 1867; first Fetterhoff Chapel was 
built in 1834; Crider's Church in 1840. 

The following statement is taken from Mr. Miller's address in 1884: "To 
show the growth of the church in the county I will quote a few statistics 
taken from the record of Pennsylvania Conference: In 1847 we had in Frank- 
lin County 3 pastoral charges, 34 appointments, 740 members, and contrib- 
uted that year $28.61 for missionary purposes. In 1857 we had 5 pastoral 
charges, 15 churches, 54 appointments, about 1,000 members, 11 Sunday- 
schools, 450 children in Sunday-schools, and contributed for missions $136.50. 
In 1886 we had 7 pastoral charges, 18 churches, 44 appointments, about 
1,200 members, 15 Sunday-schools, 950 children in Sunday-schools, and con- 
tributed $434 for missions. At present, according to the statistics of our 
last conference, we have in Franklin County 9 pastoral charges, 30 churches, 
valued at $60,000, 47 appointments, 2,500 members, 35 Sunday-schools, 2,700 
children in Sunday-schools, and contributed for missionary purposes $1,500. 
Our church in the county last vear contributed for all church purposes little 
less than $25,000." 

The Roman Catholic Church in the county had preaching during the 
close of the last century, Chambersburg being the oldest organization. W'aynes- 
boro and Doylesburg have congregations. 

The Episcopal Church has but one congregation, whose history is given 
in the chapter on Chambersburg. 

The Church of God, organized by Rev. John Winebrenner about 1830, 
has some three or four congregations in the county, the oldest being the one at 
Orrstown, the next the one at Chambersburg, and last Fayetteville. Its exist- 
ence in the county is subsequent to 1840. 

The German Baptists, or Brethren, constitute a numerous and respectable 
part of the religious element in the county. Like some other denominations, 
they are averse to giving any statistics, or making any exhibition of a worldly 
character. From an article published in 1884 in The Vindicator by Judge 
F. M. Kimmel, a great admirer of these people, some facts are gathered. 
They were founded by Alexander Mack, a native of the Palatinate in Germany, 


in 1708. The first congregation, consisting of six immersed members, "cove- 
nanted together to walk in all the commands of the Lord." The entire devo- 
tion of these people to the canse which they espoused, their practical and 
peaceful lives, their purity and integrity, won many to their cause. They 
practice trine immersion, feet-washing, and salute one another with the holy 
kiss. They are earnest advocates of simple Bible teaching, and constitute an 
earnest division of the band of Christian workers. Their churches are largely 
in the country. Their first entrance into Franklin County was early in the 
last century. One of the oldest congregations in the county is one that was 
organized near Waynesboro, and is sketched in the chapter on that borough. 

The River Brethren came into the county about 1831), divided into several 
branches ; they have a number of congregations in different parts of the coun- 
try. They constitute a quiet and industrious portion of the p'eople. 

The Mennonites are thus described by John B. Kaufman, county surveyor,, 
who is one of their prominent members. They keep no records. 

"A few Mennonites found their way to the southern part of Franklin 
County, as early as 1735. Among these were Jacob Schnebele, my great-great- 
grandfather; Samuel Bechtel, my great -grand- uncle, and others. Samuel 
Bechtel, was for many years a Mennonite minister, but whether he was at 
this early date or not, it is pretty certain that there were preaching and other 
religious exercises in the dwellings of these early settlers soon after they 
reached their new homes. 

" I do not know that many of our people came to this county, at least not 
where they are now most numerous, till some time after the close of the Rev- 
olution, when there was a large influx of them, as well as of other Germans, from; 
the lower counties, especially from Lancaster. It was then that the Sherks^ 
Stouffers, Lehmans, Freys, Wingerts, Eberlys, Rissers, Hubers and Sollen- 
bergers settled in Greene, Guilford and Letterkenny Townships, taking the 
places of many of the Scotch-Irish. There is reason to believe that the largest 
influx was between 1790 and 1800. For many years they had no churches, but so 
arranged their dwellings that they held services in them by turns, and it was 
about 1810, or soon after, when they erected a church, about one mile north 
east of Chambersburg, in Greene Township, where the brick church now stands, 
and a small log church in Letterkenny Township, about two and one-quarter 
miles south of Strasburg. The present structure, built in 1859, is about a 
mile and a half farther south than the old one. The church near Brown's 
Mill was erected years ago. It was discontinued and a new one built, in 1867, 
about one mile north of Marion, on the road leading from that place to Cham- 
bersburg. In 1860 another church was erected in Southampton Township, at 
the lower end of Culbertson's Row, and is known as the Row Church. It is 
near the Southampton Station, on the Baltimore & Cumberland Valley Rail- 
road extension. 

"A fifth congregation built a church on the Warm Spring road, in Peters- 
Township, soon after the rebellion, called Hege's Church. The last named 
three congregations are quite small in numbers. Next come the ministers. 
I begin with those of the Letterkenny congregation, within the limits 
of which I have lived all my life. Christian Sherk, of Letterkenny Town- 
ship, officiated many years; died in 1832 or 1833. Jacob Lehman, of Letter- 
kenny Township, officiated many years; died near the same time. John Gsell, 
of Letterkenny Township, was installed some years after the death of above, and 
died about 1872. John Himsecker, now bishop, was installed in 1858; bishop 
in 1872 or 1873, and holds the same office. John O. Lehman, of Letterkenny, 
was installed as minister in Cumberland County; has been here about twenty 


years. The ministers of the church, near Chambersburg, have been Daniel 
Lehman, of Greene Township, was many years a minister, died about 1850; 
Peter Lehman of Greene Township, died about 1836 or 1837; David Horst, 
of Greene Township, several years a minister, died in 1857 ; Philip H. Par- 
ret, of Greene Township, perhaps twelve or fifteen years, still serves; Samuel 
D. Lehman was installed a little over a year ago. Those of the Row Church 
co agregation have been Joseph Bomberger, of near Middlespring, served 
m my years, died nearly twenty years ago; Peter Wedel succeeded him soon after 
his death and still officiates. The ministers serving Marion congregation 
have been Jacob Hege, of Guilford Township, many years a minister, died 
some twenty years ago; Benj. Lesher, of Peters Township, installed nearly 
thirty years ago, has charge yet. Hege's Church, near Williamson, has been 
under charge of Benjamin Leslie r. same as above. 

"The bishops of this denomination have been John Gsell (deceased); John 
Hunsecker, as above, has charge of the five churches. The others have only 
local preachers. There is a very close relation between the Chambersburg 
and Letterkenny congregations. The same ministers officiate in both. The 
congregations commune together twice a year: in the spring at the Letter- 
kenny Church, and in the autumn at the Chambersburg Church. I am unable 
to give the number of members. ' ' 

The Reformed Mennonites are thus sketched by H. B. Strickler, a member at 
Waynesboro : ' ' The Reformed Mennonite Church does not keep records of 
admission to membership, nor of deaths; neither does it record any matters 
referring to ordination of ministers or bishops, nor such as a'efer to building 
houses for worship Hence these matters can not be given in full. The 
doctrine of the church was first regularly advocated by Christian Frantz, who 
migrated to the county from Lancaster County in the year 1825, and settled 
on a farm near Waynesboro. He had been ordained to the ministry while he 
yet resided in Lancaster County, and after his removal to Franklin County, 
exercised himself in preaching as opportunities presented themselves. A 
house was built about 1827, near Ringgold, Md. , just at the State line between 
Pennsylvania and Maryland. Here regular services have been held from that 
time to the present. In 1876 a house was erected in Waynesboro. About 
1850 a house was built on the Falling Spring, near Chambersburg. These, with 
a house near Upton, Penn., constitute the houses erected by the membership 
of the church for public worship. Services are held at a number of places 
where members of the church are located but have no houses of their own. 
Ministers are called by the voice of the church from the membership. After 
serving for a season on probation, if found acceptable, they are ordained to 
the ministry, and give their services without compensation. Ministers are not 
stationed to fill particular charges, but serve in the locality where they reside, 
and fill such appointments as may be within reach. There are four regularly 
ordained ministers in the county, and two more who are serving on probation. 
The doctrine advocated is known as non-resistant, because its members do not 
engage in litigation nor bear arms. ' ' 

A number of colored churches are found in the county. They belong mainly 
to the Methodist Church, and are under pastoral and conference care. Mention 
is made of those in Chambersburg, Greencastle and Mercers-burg. 

An attempt to establish Mormonism, in Antrim Township, was made in 
1845-17, but failed. The particulars are given in the History of Antrim 





Human Society Compared to the Ocean— Early Outlaws— Tiie Nugents— 
Slavery in Franklin County— A Curious Will— Gradual Abolition of 
Slavery— Runaway Slaves— The Underground Railroad— Capture of 
Bob and Dave— History of John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry- 
Fate of His Coadjutors— Wendell Phillips' Speech— Curious Prophe- 
cies—History of Knownotiiingism in Chambersru kg— Sketches of Early 
Temperance Movements in the County— Tidal Waves— Wamiing- 
tonian Movement— Father Matilew's Efforts— Sons ok Temperance- 
Good Templars— Woman's Crusade— National Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union— Murphy Movement— Prohibition-Franklin County 
Bible Society— Children's Aid Society. 

HUMAN society is fitly and often compared to the great deep, whose 
bosom at times is perfectly placid and anon agitated by fierce winds. 
The longer continued and the deeper the condition of peace, the more noticeable 
will be any disturbing element. A single interval of malignant disease will 
be remarked longer and more carefully than all the preceding period of health. 
Public agitations are but landmarks along the pathway of human progress, 
serving to give relief from the wearying monotouy. 

Honest industry did not mark all the early settlers of this beautiful valley. 
As in every community, there were some who, rather than secure their food 
by honest toil, were disposed to prey upon the dearly- earned accumulations of 
others. Infatuated with the idea that the world owes them a living, they were 
disposed to obtain the means of earthly subsistence by processes wholly 
beyond the realm of justice and integrity. We are not surprised, therefore, 
to learn that toward the close of the last century a band of desperadoes, 
known by the name ' ' Nugents, ' ' infested the Cumberland Valley, and preyed 
upon the people, whom they terrorized. Organized and systematic in their 
operations, they swooped down upon hamlet and rustic homestead, taking 
horses or whatever else of plunder they could most conveniently seize, and 
hurrying to their dens in the mountains. Law and official authority were defied; 
the people yielded their property voluntarily, often, rather than be subjected 
to greater outrages at an unexpected hour, and, for a time, the peace and 
prosperity of the community were at the mercy of these reckless banditti. The 
colonial records are nut wanting in accounts like the following of the proceedings 
of the Supreme Executive Council, dated January 14, 1784: " Ordered, that the 
case of William Nugent, now confined in the gaol of York County, be referred to 
the Magistracy of the said county, and that the remission of the fine imposed 
upon him be liable to such conditions as they may think proper to direct. ' ' Will- 
iam, it seems, was the leader of this notorious gang. A little later, when Franklin 
County had been organized, a reward of £100 was offered for his apprehension. 
It is understood that in expiation of his crimes he was finally executed, thus 
ending the career of one who had been the chief of a band of outlaws con- 
cerning which some marvelous tales were told. 

It is known to but few, probably, of the younger class of our citizens that 
African slavery at one time existed in Franklin County as it did throughout 
the State, but never in the malignant form which characterized the Southern 


States. The early Scotch-Irish did not entertain the same sentiment of oppo- 
sition to the institution which distinguished the Quakers; hence many of them, 
even the leading members of church and state, held slaves. No evidence 
exists, however, that they were ever treated with any other conduct than would 
have been extended to ordinary white servants, except that they were subject 
to sale or bequest just as other property was. With this knowledge in mind, we 
need not be surprised to find in the records of the county the following docu- 

Know ye that I Benjamin Chambers of Franklin County, in the State of Pennsyl- 
vania for and in consideration of Filial affection and divers other good reasons and 
causes mo thereunto moving, Do by these Presents voluntarily give, bestow and transfer 
to my Daughter, Ruhamah Calhoon and her assigns, a certain Mulatto girl, a slave, 
named Phebe, about thirteen years of age and by these presents do confirm to my said 
daughter Ruhanlah and her assigns all my right, title and property in or to the said slave 
Phebe from myself, my heirs, executors, administrators or assigns. In witness whereof I 
have hereunto set my hand and seal this first day of August in the year of our Lord One 
Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty five. Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of 
Jno. Boyse, George Armstrong. 

Acknowledged May 12, 1797. Benjamin Chambers. 

Pennsylvania, however, was the first State to take steps for the abolition 
of slavery. Even during the stormy days of the Revolution, the question 
presented itself for solution. The Colonial Records, Vol. XI, page 688, has 
the following minutes of the Supreme Executive Council of which James Mc- 
Lene, of Antrim Township, was a member, the date being February 15, 1779: 

" We would also again bring into your view a plan for the abolition of 
slavery, so disgraceful to any people and more especially to those who have 
been contending in the great cause of liberty th