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By Rev. Edward D. Neill; 


State Edu(3/\tion, 







Page. . 


Preface - - - . - 




Geneva Township 


Explorers and Pioneers of Minnesota 




Hayward Township - 

- 458-464 

Outline History of the State of Minnesota 

1 '29 -160 



Hartland Township - 

- 464-470 

State Education . . - - 




London Township - - . 

- 470-474 

History of the Sioux Massacre 




Manchester Township 

- 475-483 

Chronology . • - . - 




Mansfield Township 

- 484-489 

Freeborn County - . . - 




Moscow Township 

- 489-498 

City of Albert Lea - - - . 




Nuuda Townnhip 


Albert Lea Township 



Alden Township . - - - 


Newry Township 


- 509-511 

Bancroft Township - - - - 


Oakland Township - 

- 512-516 



Bath Township . . - . 


Pickerel Lake Township - 

- 517-524 



Carlston Township . . - - 

Freeborn Township - - - - 

Freeman Township . - - - 



Riceland Township - 

Shell Rock Township 
Index . - - - - 

- 525-528 

- 528-540 

- 541-548 


In the compilatioi' of the History of Freeborn County it has been the aim of the Publishers 
to present a local history, comprising, in a single volume of convenient form, a varied fund of informa- 
tion, not only of interest to the present, but from which the cjming searcher for historic data may 
draw without the tedium incurred in its preparation. There is always more or less difficulty, even in a 
historical work, in selecting those things which will interest the greatest number of readers. Individual 
tastes differ so widely, that what may be of absorbing interest to one, has no attractions for another. Some 
are interested in that which concerns themselves, and do not care to read even the most thrilling adven- 
tures where they were not participants. Such persons are apt to conclude that what they are not in- 
terested in is of no value, and its preservation in history a useless expense. In the settlement of a new 
County or a new Township, there is no one person entitled to all the credit for what has been accom- 
plished. Each individual is a part of the great whole, and this work is prepared for the purpose of 
giving a general resmne. of what has thus far been done to plant the civilization of the present century 
in Freeborn County. 

That our work is wholly errorless, or that nothing of interest has been omitted, is more than we dare 
hope, and more than is reasonable to expect. In closing our labors we have the gratifying consciousness 
of having used our utmost endeavors in securing reliable data, and feel no hesitancy in submitting the 
result to an intelligent public. The impartial critic, to whom only we look for comment, will, in pass- 
ing judgment upon its merits, be governed by a knowledge of the manifold duties attending the pro- 
secution of the undertaking. 

We have been especially fortunate in enlisting the interest of Rev. Edward D. Neill and Charles S- 
Bryant, whose able productions are herewith presented. We also desire to express our sincere thanks 
to the County, Town, and Village officials for their uniform kindness to us in our tedious labors; and 
in general terms we express our indebtedness to the Press, the Pioneers, and the Citizens, who have 
extended universal encouragement and endorsement. 

That our efforts may prove satisfactory, and this volume receive a welcome commensurate with the 
care bestowed in its preparation, is the earnest desire of the publishers, 







HitmefiotH's Central Position. — D'Avagour's Prediction. — Nicolet's Visit to Green 
Bay.— First Wliite Men in Minnesota.— Notices of Groselliers and Badisson.— 
Uurons Flee to Minnesota. — Visited by Frenchraen. — Father Menard Disap- 
pears.— Groselliers Visits Hudson's Bay.— Father Allouez Describes the Sioux 
Mission at La Pointe, — Father Marquette. — Sioux at Sault St. Marie. — Jesuit 
Missions Fail. — Groselliers Visits England.— Captain GiUam, ot Boston, at Hud- 
son's Bay.— Letter of Mother Superior of Ursulines., at Quebec— Death of 

The Dakotahs, called by the Ojibways, Nado- 
'waysioux, or Sioux (Soos), as abbreviated by the 
French, used to claim superiority over other peo- 
ple, because, their sacred men asserted that the 
mouth of the JNIinnesota River was immediately 
over the centre of the earth, and below the centre 
of the heavens. 

While this teaching is very different from tliat 
of the modem astronomer, it is certainly true, 
that the region west of Lake Superior, extending 
through the valley of the Miimesota, to the Mis- 
souri River, is one of the most healthful and fer- 
tile regions beneath the skies, and may prove to 
be the centre of the republic of the United States 
of America. Baron D'Avagour, a brave officer, 
who was killed in fightuig the Turks, while he 
was Governor of Canada, in a dispatch to the 
French Government, dated August 14th, 1663, 
after referrmg to Lake Huron, wrote, that beyond 
" is met another, called Lake Superior, the waters 
of which, it is believed, flow into New Spain, and 
this, according to general opinion, ought to he the 
centre of the country.'''' 

As early as 1635, one of Champlain's interpre- 
ters, Jean Kicolet (Kicolay), who came to Cana- 
da in 1618, reached the western shores of Lake 
Michigan. In the summer of 1634 he ascended 

the St. Lawrence, with a party of llurons, and 
probably during the next winter was trading at 
Green Bay, in Wisconsin. On the ninth of De- 
cember, 1635, he had returned to Canada, and on 
the 7th of October, 1637, was married at Quebec, 
and the next month, went to Three Rivers, where 
he lived until 1642, when he died. Of him it "is 
said, in a letter written in 1640, that he had pen- 
etrated farthest into those distant countries, and 
that if he had proceeded " three days more on a 
great river which flows from that lake [Green 
Bay] he would have found the sea." 

The first white men in Minnesota, of whom we 
have any record, were, according to Garneau, two 
persons of Huguenot aflinities, Medard Chouart, 
known as Sieur Groselliers, and Pierre d'Esprit, 
called Sieur Radisson. 

GroselUers (pronounced Gro-zay-yay) was born 
near Ferte-sous-Jouarre, eleven miles east of 
Meairx, in France, and when about sixteen years 
of age, in the year 1641, came to Canada. The fur 
trade was the great avenue to prosperity, and in 
1646, he was among the Huron Indians, who then 
dwelt upon the eastern shore of Liike Huron, 
bartering for peltries. On the second of Septem- 
ber, 1647, at Quebec, he was married to Helen, 
the widow of Claude Etienne, who was the daugh- 
ter of a pilot, Abraham Martin, whose baptismal 
name is still attached to the suburbs of that city, 
the " Plains of Abraham," made famous by the 
death there, of General Wolfe, of the English 
army, in 1759, and of General Montgomery, of 
the Continental armv, in December, 1775, at the 


commencement of tlie " War for Independence." 
His son, Medard, was liorn in 1G57, and tlie next 
year his mother died. The second wife of Gro- 
selliers was Marguerite Hayet(IIayay) Radisson, 
the sister of his associate, in the exploration of 
the region west of Lalce Superior. 

Eadisson was born at St. Malo, and, wliile a 
boy, went to Paris, and from IheTice to Canada, 
and in 165G, at Three Eiver.s, maixied Elizabetli, 
the daugliter of Madelehie Ilainault, and, after 
her death, the daughter of Sir David Kirli or 
Kerkt, a zealous Huguenot, became his wife. 

The Iroquois of New York, about the year 1650, 
drove the Ilurons from their villages, and forced 
them to take refuge Mith their friends the Tinon- 
tates, called by the French, Petuns, because they 
cultivated tobacco. In time the Ilurons and 
their allies, the Ottawas (Ottaw - waws), were 
again driven by the Iroquois, and after successive 
wanderings, were found on the west side of Lake 
Michigan. In time they reached the Mississippi, 
and ascending above the Wisconsin, they found 
the Iowa River, on the west side, which they fol- 
lowed, and dwelt for a time with the Ayces 
(loways) who were very friendly ; but being ac- 
customed to a country of lakes and forests, they 
were not satisfied with the vast prairies. Return- 
ing to the Mississippi, they ascended this river, 
in .search of a better land, and were met by some 
of the Sioux or Dakotalis, and conducted to their 
villages, where they were well received. The 
Sioux, delighted with the axes, knives and awls 
of European manufacture, whieh had been pre- 
sented to them, allowed the refugees to settle 
upon an island in the Mississippi, below the 
mouth of the St. Croix River, called Bald Island 
from the absence of trees, about nine miles from 
the site of the present city of Hastings. Possessed 
of firearms, the Hurons and Ottawas asserted 
their superiority, and determined to conquer the 
country for themselves, and having incurred the 
hostility of the Sioux, were obliged to flee from 
the isle in the Mississippi Descending below 
Lake Pepin, they reached the Black River, and 
ascending it, found an imoccupied country around 
its sources and that of the Chippeway. In this 
region the Ilurons established themselves, wiiile 
their allies, the Ottawas, moved eastward, till 
they found the shores of Lake Superior, and set- 
tled at Chagouamikon (Sha - gah - wah - mik - ong ) 

near what is now Bayfield. In the year 1659, 

(iroselliers and Radisson arrived at Chagouamik- 
on, and deternuned to visit the Hurons and Pe- 
tuns, with whom the former had traded when 
they resided east of Lake Huron. After a six 
days" journey, in a .southwesterly direction, they 
reached their retreat toward the sources of the 
Black, Chippewa, and Wisconsin Rivers. From 
this pomt they journeyed north, and passed the 
winter of l(>59-60 among tlie " Xadoucchiouec," 
or Siou.x villages in the JSIille Lacs (Mil Lak) re- 
gion. From the Hurons they learned of a beau- 
tiful river, wide, large, deep, and comparable with 
the Samt Lawi'ence, the great Mississippi, which 
flows through the city of Minneapolis, and whose 
sources are in northern Minnesota. 

Northeast of Mille Lacs, toward the extremity 
of Lake Superior, they met the " Poualak," or 
Assiniboines of the prairie, a separated band of 
the Sioux, who, as wood was scarce and small, 
made fire with coal (charlion de terre) and dwelt 
in tents of skins ; although some of the more in- 
dustrious built cabins of clay (terre grasse), like 
the swallows build their nests. 

The spring and summer of 1660, Groselliers and 
Radisson passed in trading around Lake Superior. 
On the 19th of August they returned to ilon- 
treal, with three hundred Indians and sixty ca- 
noes loaded with " a wealth of skins." 

" Furs of bison and of beaver, 
Furs of sable and of ermine." 

The citizens were deeply stirred by the travelers' 
tales of the vastness and richness of the region 
they had visited, and their many romantic adven- 
tures. In a few days, they began their return to 
the far West, accompanied by six Frenchmen and 
two priests, one of whom was the Jesuit, Rene ^le- 
nard. His hair whitened by age, and liis mind 
ripened by long experience, he seemed the man 
for the mission. Two hours after micbiight, of tlie 
day before departure, the venerable missionary 
penned at " Three Rivers," the following letter 
to a friend : 

' Reverend Father : 
" The peace of Christ be with you : I write to 
you probably the last, which I hope will be the 
seal of our friendship \nitil eternity. Love wliom 
the Lord Jesus did not disdain to love, thougli 
the greatest of sinners; for he loves whom he 



loads with his cross. Let your friendship, my 
good Father, be useful to me by the desirable 
fruits of your daily sacrifice. 

" lu three or four months you may remember 
me at the memeuto for the dead, on accoimt of 
my old age, my weak constitution and the hard- 
ships I lay imder amongst these tribes. Never- 
theless, I am in peace, for I have not been led to 
this mission by any temporal motive, but I think 
it was by the voice of God. I was to resist the 
grace of God by not conihig. Eternal remorse 
would have tormented me, had I not come when 
I had the opportimity. 

" We have been a little surprized, not being 
able to provide ourselves with vestments and oth- 
er things, but he who feeds the little birds, and 
clothes the lilies of the fields, will take care of 
his servants ; and though it should happen we 
should die of want, we would esteem ourselves 
happy. I am burdened with business. What I 
can do is to recommend our journey to your daily 
sacrifice, and to embrace you with the same sen- 
timents of heart as I hope to do in eternity. 
" My Reverend Father, 

Your most humble and affectionate 
servant in Jesus Christ. 

"From the Three Rivers, this 26th August, 2 

o'clock after midnight, 1660." 

On the loth of October, the party with which 
he journeyed reached a bay on Lake Superior, 
where he found some of the Ottawas, who had 
fled from the Iroquois of New York. For more 
than eight months, surroimded by a few French 
voyageurs, he lived, to use his words, " in a kind 
of small hermitage, a cabm built of flr branches 
piled one on another, not so much to shield us 
from the rigor of the season as to correct my im- 
agination, and persuade me I was sheltered." 

During the summer of 1661, he resolved to visit 
the Hurons, who had fled eastward from the Sioux 
of Minnesota, and encamped amid the marshes of 
Northern Wisconsin. Some Frenchmen, who had 
been among the Ilurons, in vain attempted to dis- 
suade him fi'om the journey. To their entreaties 
he repUed, " I must go, if it cost me my life. I 
can not suffer souls to perish on the ground of 
saving the bodily life of a miserable old man like 
myself. What! Are we to serve God only when 
there is nothing to suffer, and no risk of Ufe?" 

Upon De ITsle's map of Louisiana, pubUshed 
nearly two centuries ago, there appears the Lake 
of the Ottawas, and the Lake of the Old or De- 
serted Settlement, west of Green Bay, and south 
of Lake Superior. The Lake of the Old Planta- 
tion is supposed to have been the spot occupied 
by the Hurons at the time when Menard attempt- 
ed to visit them. One way of access to this seclu- 
ded spot was from Lake Superior to the head- 
waters of the Ontanagon River, and then by a port- 
age, to the lake. It could also be reached from 
the headwaters of the Wisconsin, Black and Chip- 
pewa Rivers, and some have said that Menard 
descended the AVisconsin and ascended the Black 

Perrot, who lived at the same time, writes : 
" Father Menard, who was sent as missionary 
among the Outaouas [Iltaw-waws] accompanied 
by certain Frenchmen who were going to trade 
with that people, was left by all who were with 
him, except one, who rendered to him until death, 
all of the services and help that he could have 
hoped. The Father followed the Outaouas [Utaw- 
waws]to the Lake of the Illinoets [Illino-ay, now 
Michigan] and in their flight to the Louisianne, 
[Mississippi] to above the Black River. There 
this missionary had but one Frenchman for a 
companion. This Frenchman carefully followed 
the route, and made a portage at the same place 
as the Outaouas. He found himself in a rapid, 
one day, that was carrying him away in his canoe. 
The Father, to assist, debarked from his own, but 
did not find a good path to come to him. He en- 
tered one that had been made by beasts, and de- 
siring to return, became confused in a labjTinth 
of trees, and was lost. The Frenchman, after 
having ascended the rapids with great labor, 
awaited the good Father, and, as he did not come, 
resolved to search for him. With all his might, 
for several days, he called his name in the woods, 
hoping to find him, but it was useless. He met, 
however, a Sakis [Sauk] who was carrying the 
camp-kettle of the missionary, and who gave him 
some intelligence. He assured him that he had 
foimd his foot -prints at some distance, but that 
he had not seen the Father. He told him, also, 
that he had foimd the tracks of several, who were 
going towards the Scioux. He declared that he 
supposed that the Scioux might have killed or 
captm-ed him. Indeed, several years afterwards, 


there were found among this tribe, his breviary 
and cassock, which they exposed at their festivals, 
making offerings to them of food." 

In a journal of tlie Jesuits, Menard, about the 
seventh or eighth of August, 1661, is said to have 
been lost. 

GroselUers (Gro-zay-yay), while Menard was 
endeavoring to reach the retreat of the Hurons 
wliich he had made known to the authorities of 
Canada, was pushing through the country of the 
Assineboines, on the shore of Lake 
Superior, and at length, probably by Lake Alem- 
pigon, or NepigOn, reached Hudson's Bay, and 
early in May, 1662, returned to Montreal, and 
sui-prised its citizens witli his tale of new iliscov- 
eries toward the Sea of the North. 

The Hurons ilid not remain long toward the 
sources of the Black River, after Menard's disap- 
pearance, and deserting iheir plantations, joined 
their allies, the Ottawas, at La Pointe, now Bay- 
field, on Lake Superior. While here, they deter- 
mined to send a war party of one huuth-ed agamst 
the Sioux of MiUe Lacs (Mil Lak) region. At 
length they met their foes, who drove them into 
one of the thousand marshes of the water-shed 
between Lake Superior and the Mississippi, wlierc 
they hid themselves among tlie tall grasses. Tlie 
Sioux, suspecting that they might attempt to es- 
cape in the night, cut up beaver skins into strips, 
and hung thereon little bells, which they had ob- 
tained from the French traders. The Hurons, 
emerging from their watery hiding place, stumbled 
over the unseen cords, ringing the bells, and the 
Sioux inst<anlly attacked, killing all but one. 

About the year 1665, four Frenchmen visited 
the Sioux of Minnesota, from the west end of 
Lake Superior, accompanied by an Ottawa cliief , 
and in the summer of the same year, a flotilla of 
ciinoes laden ■with peltries, came down to Mon- 
treal. Upon their return, on the eighth of Au- 
gust, the Jesuit Father, Allouez, accompanied the 
traders, and, by the first of October, reached Clie- 
goimegon Bay, on or near the site of the modern 
town of Bayfield, on Lake Superior, where he 
found tlie refugee Hurons and Ottawas. While 
on an excursion to Lake Alempigon, now Ne- 
pigon, tliis missionary saw, near the mouth of 
Saint Louis River, in Minnesota, some of the 
Sioux. lie writes : " Tliere is a tribe to the west 
of this, toward the great river called Messipi. 

They are forty or fifty leagues from here, in a 
country of prairies, abounding in all kinds of 
game. They have fields, in wliich they do not 
sow Indian corn, but only tobacco. Providence 
has provided them with a species of marsh rice, 
which, toward the end of summer, they go to col- 
lect in certain small lakes, that are covered with 
it. Tliey presented me with some when I ^\as at 
the extremity of Lake Tracy [Superior], where I 
saw- them. They do not use the gim, but only 
the bow and arrow with great dexterity. Their 
cabins are not covered with bark, but with deer- 
skins well dried, and stitched together so that the 
cold does not enter. These people are above all 
other savage and warUke. In our presence they 
seem abashed, and 'were motionless as statues. 
They speak a language eutkely unknown to us, 
and the savages about here do not understand 

The mission at La Pointe was not encouraging, 
and Allouez, " weary of their obstinate unbelief," 
departed, but Marquette succeeded him for a brief 

The ''Relations'" of the Jesuits for 1670-71, 
allude to the Sioux or Dakotahs, and then- attack 
upon the refugees at La Pointe : 

" There are certain people called Nadoussi, 
di'eaded by their neighbors, and although they 
only use the bow and arrow, they use it with so 
much skill and dexterity, that in a moment they 
lill the air. After the Parthian method, they 
turn their heads in flight, and discharge their ar- 
rows so rapidly that they are to be feared i;o less 
in their retreat than in their attack. 

" They dwell on the shores and around the 
great river Messipi, of which we shall speak. 
They number no less than fifteen populous towns, 
and yet they know not how to cultivate the earth 
by seeduig it, contenting themselves with a sort 
of marsh rye, which we call wild oats. 

" For sixty leagues from the extremity of the 
upper lakes, towards sunset, and, as it were, in 
the centre of the western nations, they have all 
united their force by a general league, which has 
been made against them, as agamst a common 

" They speak a peculiar language, entirely dis- 
tinct from that of the Algonquuis and Hurons. 
whom they generally surpass in generosity, since 
they often content themselves with the glory of 



having obtained the victory, and release the pris- 
oners they liave taken in battle. 

" Our Outouacs of the Poiat of the Holy Ghost 
[La Pointe, now Bayfield] had to the present time 
kept up a kind of peace vrith them, but affairs 
having become embroiled during last winter, and 
some murders having been committed on both 
sides, our savages had reason to apprehend tliat 
the storm would soon burst upon them, and judged 
that it was safer for them to leave the place, which 
in fact they did in the sprmg." 

Marquette, on the 13th of September, 1669, 
writes : " The Nadouessi are the Iroquois of this 
country. * * * they lie northwest of the Mission 
of the Holy Ghost [La Pointe, the modern Bay- 
field] and we have not yet visited them, having 
confined ourselves to the conversion of the Otta- 

A Soon after this, hostilities began between the 
Sioux and the Hurons and Ottawas of La Pointe, 
and the former compelled their foes to seek an- 
other resting place, toward the eastern extremity 
of Lake Superior, and at length they pitched 
their tents at Mackinaw. 

In 1674, some Sioux warriors came Actvni to 
Sault Saint Marie, to make a treaty of peace with 
adjacent tribes. A friend of the Abbe de Galli- 
nee wrote that a coimcil was had at the fort to 
which " the Nadouessioux sent twelve deputies, 
and the others forty. During the conference, 
one of the latter, knife in hand, drew near the 
breast of one of the Nadouessioux, who showed 
surprise at the movement ; when the Indian with 
the knife reproached him for cowardice. The 
Nadouessioux said he was not afraid, when the 
other planted the knife in his heart, and killed 
him. All the savages then engaged ui conflict, 
and the Nadouessioux bravely defended tliem- 
selves, but, overwhelmed by numbers, nine of 
them were killed. The two who survived rushed 
into the chapel, and closed the door. Here they 
found munitions of war, and fired gims at their 
enemies, who became anxious to burn down the 
chapel, but the Jesuits would not permit it, be- 
cause they had their skins stored between its roof 
and ceiling. In this extremity, a Jesuit, Louis 
Le Boeme, advised that a cannon should be point- 
ed at the door, which was discharged, and the two 
brave Sioux were killed." 

Governor Frontenac of Canada, was indignant 

at the occurrence, and in a letter to Colbert, one 
of the Ministers of Louis the Fourteenth, speaks 
in condemnation of this discharge of a cannon by 
a Brother attached to the Jesuit Mission. 

From this period, the missions of the Church of 
Kome, near Lake Superior, began to wane. Shea, 
a devout historian of that church, writes: " In 
ICSO, Father Enjalran was apparently alone at 
Green Bay, and Pierson at Mackinaw ; the latter 
mission still comprising the two villages, Huron 
and Kiskakon. Of the other missions, neither 
Le Clerq nor Hennepin, the Recollect, writers of 
the West at this time, makes any mention, or in 
any way alludes to their existence, and La Hon- 
tan mentions the Jesuit missions only to ridicule 

The Pigeon River, a part of the northern boun- 
dary of Minnesota, was called on the French maps 
Grosellier"s River, after the first explorer of Min- 
nesota, whose career, with his associate Radisson, 
became quite prominent in connection with the 
Hudson Bay region. 

A disagreement occurring between Groselliers 
and his partners in Quebec, he proceeded to Paris, 
and from thence to London, where he was intro- 
duced to the nephew of Charles I., who led the 
cavalry charge against Fairfax and Cromwell at 
Naseby, afterwards commander of the English 
fleet. The Prince listened with pleasure to the 
narrative of travel, and endorsed the plans for 
prosecuting the fur trade and seeking a north- 
west passage to Asia. The scientific men of Eng- 
land were also full of the enterprise. In the hope 
that it would increase a knowledge of nature. 
The Secretary of the Royal Society wrote to Rob- 
ert Boyle, the distinguished philosopher, a too 
sanguine letter. His words were : " Siu:ely I need 
not tell you from hence what is said here, with 
great joy, of the discovery of a northwest passage; 
and by two EngUshmen and one Frenchman 
represented to his Majesty at Oxford, and an- 
swered by the grant of a vessel to sail into Hud- 
son's Bay and channel into the South Sea." 

The ship Nonsuch was fitted out, in charge of 
Captam Zachary Gillain, a son of one of the early 
settlers of Boston ; and m this vessel GroseUiers 
and Radisson left the Thames, la June, 1668, and 
in September reached a tributary of Hudson's 
Bay. The next year, by way of Boston, they re- 
turned to England, and in 1670, a trading com- 



pany was chartered, still known among venerable 
English corporations as " The Hudson's Bay 

The Keverend Mother of the Incarnation, Su- 
perior of the Ursuliues of Quebec, in a letter of 
the 27th of August, 1670, writes thus : 

"It was about this time that a Frenchman of 
our Touraine, named des Groselliers, married in 
this coimtry, and as lie had not been successful 
in making a fortune, was seized with a fancy to 
go to New England to better his condition. He 
excited a hope among the English that he had 
found a passage to the Sea of the North. With 
this expectation, he was sent as an envoy to Eng- 
land, where there was given to him, a vessel, 
with crew and every thing necessary lor the voy- 
age. With these advantages, he put to sea, and 
in place of the usual route, which others had ta- 
ken in vain, he sailed in another direction, and 
searched so wide, that he found the grand Bay of 
the North. He found large popidation, and fiUed 
his ship or ships with peltries of great value. * * * 

He has taken possession of this great region for 
the King of England, and for Ms personal benefit 
A publication for the benefit of this French ad- 
venturer, has been made in England. He was 
a youth when he arrived here, and his wife and 
children are yet here." 

Talon, Intendent of Justice in Canada, in a dis- 
patcli to C(>ll)ert, Minister of the ("olonial Depart- 
ment of France, wrote on the 10th of November, 
167Q, that he has received intelligence that two 
English vessels are approaching Hudson's Bay, 
and adds : '• After reflecting on all the nations 
that might have penetrated as far north as that, 
I can ahght on only the EngUsh, who, under the 
guidance of a man named Des Grozellers, for- 
merly an inhabitant of Canada, might possibly 
have attempted that navigation." 

After years of service on the shores of Hudson's 
Bay, either with Englisli or French trading com- 
panies, the old explorer died in Canada, and it has 
been said that his son went to England, where he 
was Uving ui 1096, ui receipt of a pension. 

eauly mention of lake sufehiob copper. 



Sagard, A. D. 1636, on Copper Minop.— Boucher, A, D. 1640. Describes Lake Supo> 
rior Copper.— Jesuit Relatioas, A. D. 1666-67.— Copper on Isle Royals.— Half- 
Breed Voyaeeur Goes to France with Talon.— Jolhet and Perrot Search for 
Copper.— St. Lusson Plants the French Arms at Sault St. Marie.— Copper at 
Ontanagon and Head of Lake Superior, 

Before white men had explored the shores of 
Lake Superior, Indians had brought to the tra- 
ding posts of tlie St. Lawrence River, specimens of 
copper from that region. Sagard, in his History 
of Canada, published in 1636, at Paris, writes : 
" There are mines of copper which might be made 
profitable, if there were inliabitants and work- 
men who would labor faithfully. That would be 
done if colonies were established. About eighty 
or one hundred leagues from the Ilurons, there 
is a mine of copper, from which Truchemont 
Brusle showed me an ingot, on his return from a 
voyage whicli he made to the neighboring nation." 

Pierre Boucher, grandfather of Sieur de la Ye- 
rendrye, the explorer of the lakes of the northern 
boundary of Minnesota, in a volume published 
A. D. 1640, also at Paris, writes : " In Lake Su- 
perior there is a great island, fifty or one hundred 
leagues in circumference, in which there is a very 
beautiful mine of copper. There are other places 
in those quarters, where there are similar mines ; 
so I learned from four or five Frenchmen, who 
lately retiu-ned. They were gone three years, 
without finding an opportunity to I'etum; they 
told me that they had seen an ingot of copper all 
refined which was on the coast, and weighed more 
than eight hundred pounds, according to their es- 
timate. They said that the savages, on passing 
it, made a fire on it, after which they cut off pie- 
ces Willi their axes." 

In the Jesuit Relations of 1666-67, there is this 
description of Isle Royale : '• Advancing to a 
place called the Grand Anse, we meet with an 
island, three leagues from land, which is cele- 
brated for the metal which is found there, and 
for the thunder which takes place there; for tliey 
say it always thunders there. 

" But farther towards the west on the same 
north shore, is the island most famous for copper, 
Minong (Isle Royale). Tliis island is twenty-five 
leagues in length ; it is seven from the mainland, 
and sixty from the head of the lake. Nearly all 
around the island, on the water's edge, pieces of 
copper are found mixed with pebbles, but espe- 
cially on the side which is opposite the south, 
and principally in a certain bay, which is near 
the northeast exposure to the great lake. * * * 

" Advancing to the head of the lake {Fon du 
Lac) and returning one day's journey by the south 
coast, there is seen on the edge of the water, a 
rock of copper weighing seven or eight hundred 
poimds, and is so hard that steel can hardly cut it, 
but when it is heated it cuts as easily as lead. 
Near Point Chagouamigong [Sha - gah - wah - mik- 
ong, near Bayfield] where a mission was establish- 
ed rocks of copper and plates of the same metal 
were found. * * * Returning still toward the 
mouth of tlie lake, following the coast on the south 
as twenty leagues from the place last mentioned, 
we enter the river called Nantaouagan [Ontona- 
gon] on which is a hill where stones and copper 
fall into the water or upon the eartli. They are 
readily found. 

"Three years since we received a piece which 
was brought from this place, which weighed a 
lumdred pounds, and we sent it to Quebec to Mr. 
Talon. It is not certain exactly where this was 
broken from. We thmk it was from the forks of 
the river ; others, that it was from near the lake, 
and dug up." 

Talon, Intendent of Justice in Canada, visited 
France, taking a half-breed voyageur with him, 
and while in Paris, wrote on the 26th of Febru- 
ary, 1669, to Colbert, the Mmister of the Marine 
Department, " that this voyageur had penetrated 
among the western nations farther than any other 
Frenchman, and had seen the copper mine on 
Lake Huron. LSuperiory] The man offers to go 



to that mine, and explore, either by sea, or hy 
lake and river, the communication supposed to 
exist between Canada and the South Sea, or to 
the regions of Hudson's Bay." 

As soon as Talon returned to Canada he com- 
missioned Jolliet and Pere [Perrot] to search for 
the mines of copper on the upper Lakes. Jolliet 
received an outfit of four hundred livres, and four 
canoes, and Perrot one thousand Uvres. Mhiis- 
ister Colbert wrote from Paris to Talon, in Feb- 
ruary, 1671, approving of the search for copper, 
in these words ; " The resolution you have taken 
to send Sieur de La Salle toward the south, and 
Sieur de St. Lusson to the north, to discover the 
South Sea passage, is very good, but the principal 
thing you ought to apply yourself in discoveries 
of this nature, is to look for the copper mine. 

" Were this mine discovered, and its utility 
evident, it would be an assured means to attract 
several Frenchmen from old, to New France." 

On the 14th of June, 1671, Saint Lusson at Sault 
St. Marie, planted the arms of France, in the pres- 
ence of Nicholas Perrot, who acted as interpreter 
on the occasion ; the Sieur Jolliet ; Pierre Moreau 
or Sieur de la Taupine ; a soldier of the garrison 
of Quebec, and several other Frenchmen. 

Talon, in announcing Saint Lusson's explora- 
tions to Colbert, on the 2d of November, 1671, 
wrote from Quebec : " The copper which I send 
from Lake Superior and the river Nantaouagan 
[Ontonagon] proves that there is a mine on the 
border of some stream, which produces this ma- 
terial as pure as one could wish. More than 
twenty Frenchmen have seen one lump at the 
lake, which they estimate weighs more than eight 
hundred poimds. The Jesuit Fathers among the 
Outaouas [Ou-taw-waws] use an anvil of this ma- 
terial, which weighs about one hundred pounds. 
There will be no rest until the source from whence 
these detached lumps come is discovered. 

" The river Nantaouagan FOutonagouJ appears 

between two high hills, the plain above which 
feeds the lakes, and receives a great deal of snow, 
which, m melting, forms torrents which wash the 
borders of this river, composed of soUd gravel, 
which is rolled down by it. 

"The gravel at the bottom of this, hardens it- 
self, and assumes different shapes, such as those 
pebbles which I send to ^Mr. Bellinzany. My 
opuiion is that these pebbles, rounded and carried 
off by the rapid waters, then have a tendency to 
become copper, by the influence of the sun's rays 
which they absorb, and to form oilier nuggets of 
metal similar to those which I send to Sieur de 
Bellinzany, found by the Sieur de Saint Lusfon, 
about four hundred leagues, at some distance from 
the mouth of the river. 

" lie hoped by the frequent journeys of the 
savages, and French who are beginning to travel 
by these routes, to discern the source of nroduc- 

Governor Denonville, of Canada, sixteen years 
after the above circumstances, WTote : " The cop- 
per, a sample of which I sent M. Anion, is found 
at the head of Lake Superior. The body of the 
mine has not yet been discovered. I have seen 
one of our voyageurs who assures me that, some 
lifteen months ago he saw a lump of two hundred 
weight, as yellow as gold, in a river which falls 
into Lake Superior. "When heated, it could be 
cut with an axe ; but the superstitious Indians, 
regarding this boulder as a good spirit, would 
never permit him to take any of it away. His 
opinion is that the frost undermined this piece, 
and that the mine is in that river. He has prom- 
ised to search for it on his w'ay back." 

In the year 17,30, there was some correspond- 
ence with the authorities in France relative to 
the discovery of copper at La Poiute, but, practi- 
cally, little was done by the French, in developing 
the mineral wealth of Lake Superior. 




Da Luth's Relatives. — Randin Visits Extremity of Lake Superior. —Do Loth 
Plants King's Arms.— Post at Kaministigoj-a.— Pierre MoreaF. alias La Taupine. 
—La Salle's Visit.— A Pilot Deserts to the Sioux Country.— uaifart, Du Lutli's 
Interpreter. — Descent of the River St. Croix.— Meets Fatlier Hennepm.- Crit. 
iciscd tiy La Salle.— Tra.les with New England.— Visits France.— In Command 
at Mackinaw, — Frenchmen Murdered at Keweenaw. — Du Lulh Arrests and 
Shoots Murderers.- Builds Fort above Detroit. — With Indian Allies in the 
Seneca War.— Du Luth's Brother.— Cadillac Defends the Brandy Trade.— Du 
Luth Disapproves of Selling Brandy to the Indians. — In Command at Fort 
Frontenac— Death. 

In the year 1678, se-«eral prominent merchants 
of Quebec and Montreal, with the support of 
Governor Frontenac of Canada, formed a com- 
pany to open trade with the Sioux of Minnesota, 
and a neplie'w of Patron, one of these merchants, 
a brother-in-law of Sieur de Lusigny, an oflBcer 
of the Governor's Guards, named Daniel Grey- 
solon Du Luth [Doo-loo], a native of St. Germain 
en Laye, a few miles from Paris, althougli Lalion- 
tan speaks of him as from Lyons, was made the 
leader of the expedition. At the battle of Sene'ffe 
against the Pruice of Orange, he was a gendarme, 
and one of tlie King's guards. 

Du Luth was also a cousin of Henry Tonty , who 
had been in the revolution at Naples, to throw off 
the Spanish dependence. Du Luth's name is va- 
riously spelled in the documents of liis day. Hen- 
nepin writes, "Du Luth;" others, "Dulhut," 
" Du Lhu," " Du Lut," " De Luth," " Du Lud." 

The temptation to procure valuable furs ft-om 
the Lake Superior region, contrary to the letter 
of the Canadian law, was very great ; and more 
than one Governor winked at the contraliand 
trade. Eandin, who visited tlie extremity of 
Lake Superior, distributed presents to the Sioux 
and Ottawas in the name of Governor Frontenac, 
to secure the trade, and after his death, DuLutli 
was sent to complete what he liad begun. With 
a party of twenty, seventeen Frenchmen and 
three Indians, he left Quebec on the first of 
September, 1678, and on the fifth of April, 1679, 
Du Luth writes to Governor Frontenac, that he 
is in the -woods, about nine miles from Sault St. 
Marie, at the entrance of Lake Superior, and 

adds that : he " -will not stir from the Nadous- 
sioux, until further orders, and, peace being con- 
cluded, he -will set up the King's Arms ; lest the 
English and other Europeans settled towards 
California, take possession of the country." 

On the second of July, 1679, he caused his 
Majesty's Arms to be planted in the great village 
of the Nadoussioiix, called Kathio, where no 
Frenchman had ever been, and at Songaskicons 
and Houetbatons, one hundred and twenty leagues 
distant from the former, where he also set up the 
King's Arms. In a letter to Seignaliiy, published 
for the first time by Ilarrisse, he writes that it 
was in the village of Izatys [Issati]. Upon Fran- 
queUn's map, the Mississippi branches into the 
Tintonha [Teeton Sioux] comitry , and not far from 
here, he alleges, was seen a tree upon which was 
this legend: " Arms of the King cut on this tree 
in the year 1679." 

He established a post at Kamanistigoya, which 
was distant fifteen leagues from the Grand Port- 
age at the western extremity of Lake Superior ; 
and here, on the fifteenth of September, he held 
a council with the Assenipoulaks [Assineboines] 
and other tribes, and urged them to be at peace 
with the Sioux. During tliis summer, he dis- 
patched Pierre Moreau, a celebrated voyageur, 
nicknamed La Taupine, with letters to Governor 
Frontenac, and valuable furs to the merchants. 
His arrival at Quebec, created some excitement. 
It was charged that the Governor corresponded 
with Du Luth, and that he passed the beaver, 
sent by him, in the name of merchants in his in- 
terest. The Intendant of Justice, Du Chesneau, 
wrote to the Minister of the Colonial Department 
of France, that " the man named La Taupine, a 
famous coureur des bois, who set out in the month 
of September of last year, 1678, to go to the Ou- 
tawacs, -with goods, and who has always been in- 
terested with the Governor, having returned this 
year, and I, being advised that he had traded in 



two days, one Inmdred and fifty beaver robes in 
one \'illage of this tribe, amounting to nearly nine 
hundred beavers, which is a matter of public no- 
toriety ; and that he left with Du Lut two men 
whom he had with him. considered myself bound 
to have him arrested, and to interrogate him ; but 
having presented me with a license from the Gov- 
ernor, pennittiiig him and his comrades, named 
Lamonde and Dupuy, to repair to the Outawac, 
to execute his secret orders. I liad him set at 
liberty : and immediately on Ids going out. Sieur 
Prevost, To^ii Mayor of Quebec, came at the head 
of some soldiers to force the prison, in case he 
was still there, pursuant to his orders from the 
Governor, in these terms : " Sieur Prevost, ^layor 
of (^»uebec, is ordered, in case the Intendant arrest 
Pierre ^loreau alias La Taupiue, whom we have 
sent to Quebec as bearer of our dispatches, upon 
pretext of his having been in the bush, to set him 
forthwith at libertVi and to employ every means 
for this purpose, at his peril. Done at Montreal, 
the 5th September, 1679." 

La Taupine. in due time returned to Lake Su- 
perior with another consignment of merchandise. 
The interpreter of Du LuUi, and trader with the 
Sioux, was Paffart, who had been a soldier under 
La Salle at Fort Frontenac. and had deserted. 

La Salle was commissioned in 1678, by the 
King of France, to explore the "West, and trade in 
Cibola, or buffalo skins, and on condition that he 
did not traffic with the Ottauwaws, who carried 
their beaver to Montreal. 

On the 27th of August, 1679, he anived at 
Mackinaw, in the " Griffin,'' the first saiUng ves- 
sel on the gi-eat Lakes of the West, and from 
thence went to Green Bay, where, in the face of 
his commission, he traded for beaver. Loading 
his vessel with peltries, he sent it back to Niag- 
ara, while he, in canoes, proceeded with his ex- 
pedition to the Illinois River. The ship was 
never heard of, and for a time supposed to be lost, 
but La Salle afterward leained from a Pawnee 
boy fourteen or fifteen years of age, who was 
brought prisoner to hisfort on the Illinois by some 
Indians, that the pilot of the " Griffin " had been 
among the tribes of the Upper ISIissouri. lie had 
ascended the Mississippi with four otliers in two 
birch canoes with goods and some hand grenades, 
taken from the ship, witli the intention of join 
ing Du Lutli, who had for months beeu trading 

with the Sioux ; and if their efforts were unsuc- 
cessful, they expected to push on to the English, 
at Hudson's Bay. AVliile ascendiilg the Missis- 
sippi they were attacked by Indians, and the pilot 
and one other only sursived, and they were sold 
to the Indians on the Jlissouri. 

In the month of June, 1680, Du Luth, accom- 
panied by Faffart, an interpreter, with four 
Frenchmen, also a Chippeway and a Sioux, with 
two canoes, entered a river, the mouth ot which 
is eight leagues from the head of Lake Superior 
on the South side, named Xemitsakouat. Beach- 
ing its head waters, by a short portage, of half a 
league, he reached a lake ■\\hich was the source 
of the Saint Croix River, and by this, he and his 
companions were the first Europeans to journey 
in a canoe from Lake Superior to the Mississippi. 

La Salle writes, that Du Luth, finding that 
the Sioux were on a hunt in the Mississippi val- 
ley, below the Saint Croix, and that Accault, Au- 
gelle and Hennepin, who had come up from the 
Illinois a few ^\eeks before, were with them, de- 
scended until he found them. In the same letter 
he disregards the truth in order to disparage his 
rival, and writes: 

'• Thirty-eight or forty leagues above the Cliip- 
peway they found the river by which the Sieur 
Du Luth did descend to the ilississippi. He had 
been three years, contrary to orders, with a com- 
pany of twenty " coureurs du hois " on Lake Su- 
perior; he had borne himself bravely, proclaiming 
everywhere that at the head of his brave fellows 
he did not fear the Grand Prevost, and that he 
would compel an amnesty. 

'• "Wliile he was at Lake Superior, the Nadoiie- 
sioux, enticed by the presents that the late Sieur 
Randin had made on the part of Coimt Fronte- 
nac. and the Sauteurs [Ojibways]. who are the sav- 
ages who carry the peltries to Montreal, and who 
dwell on Lake Superior, wislung to obey the re- 
peated orders of the Count, made a peace to 
unite the Sauteurs and French, and to trade with 
the Xadouesioux, situated about sixty leagues to 
the west of Lake Superior. Du Luth, to disguise 
liis desertion, seized the opportunity to make 
some reputation for himself, sending two messen- 
gers to the Count to negotiate a truce, during 
which period their comrades negotiated still bet- 
ter for beaver. 

Several conferences were held with the Na- 



douessionx, and as he needed an interpreter, he led 
off one of mine, named Faffart, formerly a sol- 
dier at Fort Frontenac. During tliis period there 
were frequent \'isits between the Sauteurs [Ojil)- 
ways] and Nadouesioux, and supposing that it 
might increase the number of beaver skins, lie 
sent Faffart by land, with the Nadouesioux and 
Sauteurs [Ojibways]. The yoiuig man on liis re- 
tnrn, having given an account of the quantity of 
beaver in that region, he wished to proceed thither 
himself, and, guided by a Sauteur and a Nadoue- 
« sioux, and four Frenchmen, he ascended the river' 
Nemitsakouat, where, by a short portage, he de- 
scended that stream, whereon he passed through 
forty leagues of rapids [Upper St. Croix Kiver], 
and finding that the IN^adouesioux were below with 
my men and the Father, Avho had come down 
again from the village of the Xadouesioux, he 
discovered them. They went iip again to the 
village, and from thence they all together came 
down. They returned by the river Ouisconsing, 
and came back to Montreal, where Du Luth in- 
sults the commissaries, and the deputy of the 
'procurem- general,' named d'Auteuil. Count 
Frontenac had him arrested and imprisoned in 
the castle of Quebec, with the intention of return- 
mg him to France for the amnesty accorded to 
the coureurs des bois^did not release him." 

At tills very period, another party charges 
Frontenac as being Du Luth's particular friend. 

Du Luth, during the fall of 1681, was engaged 
in the beaver trade at Montreal and Quebec. 
Du Chesneau, the Intendant of .Justice for Can- 
ada, on the 13th of November, 1G81, wrote to the 
Marquis de Siegnelay^ in Paris : " Not content 
with the profits to be derived from the countries 
under the King's dominion, the desire of making 
money everywhere, has led the Governor [Fron- 
tenac], Boisseau, Du Lut and Patron, his uncle, 
to send canoes loaded with peltries, to the En- 
glish. It is said sixty thousand livres' worth has 
been sent thither;" and he further stated that 
there was a very general report that within five 
or six days, Frontenac and his associates had di- 
vided the money received from the beavers ^ent 
to New England. 
"^ At a conference in Quebec of some of the dis- 
tinguished men in that city, relative to difficulties 
with the Iroquois, held on the 10th of October, 
1682, Du Luth was present. From thence he went 

to France, and, early in 1683, consulted with the 
Minister of ^Marine at Versailles relative to the 
interests of trade in the Hudson's Bay and Lake 
Superior region. Upon his return to Canada, he 
departed for Mackinaw. Governor De la Barre, 
on the 9th of November, 1683, wrote to the French 
Government that the Indians west and north of 
Lake Superior, " when they heard by expresses 
sent them by Du Lhut, of his arrival at Missili- 
makinak, that he was coming, sent him word to 
come quickly and they would unite with him to 
prevent others going tliither. If I stop that pass 
as I hope, and as it is necessary to do, as the Eng- 
lish of the Bay [Hudson's] excite against us the 
savages, whom Sieur Du Lhut alone can quiet." 

AVliile stationed at Mackinaw he was a partici- 
pant in a tragic occurrence. During the summer 
of 1683 Jacques le Maire and Colin Berthot, while 
on their way to trade at Keweenaw, on Lake Su- 
perior, were surprised by three Indians, robbed, 
and murdered. Du Luth was prompt to arrest 
and punish the assassins. In a letter from Mack- 
inaw, dated April 12, 1681, to the Governor of 
Canada, he writes: " Be pleased to know. Sir, 
that on the 24tli of October last, I was told that 
Folle Avome, accomplice in the murder and rob- 
bery of the two Frenchmen, had arrived at Sault 
Ste. Marie with fifteen families of the Sauteurs 
[Ojibways] who had fled from Chagoamigon [La 
Pointe] on accoimt of an attack wliicli they, to- 
gether with the people of the land, made last 
Spring upon the Nadouecioux [Dakotahs.] 

" He believed himself safe at the Sault, on ac- 
count of the number of allies and relatives he had 
there. Kev. Father Albanel informed me that 
the French at the Saut, being only twelve in num- 
ber, had not arrested him, beUeving themselves 
too weak to contend with such numbers, espe- 
cially as the Sauteurs had declared that they 
would not allow the French to redden the land 
of their fathers with the blood of their brothers. 

" On receiving this information, I immediately 
resolved to take with me six Frenchmen, and em- 
bark at the da^vn of the next day for Sault Ste. 
Marie, and if possible obtain possession of the 
mirrderer. I made known my design to the Kev. 
Father Engahran, and, at my request, as he had 
some business to arrange with Rev. Father Al- 
banel, he placed himself in my canoe. 

" Having arrived within a league of the village 



of the Saut, the Rev. Father, the Chevalier de 
Fourcille, CanlonnieiTe, and I disembarked. I 
caused the canoe, iu wliicli were 15aribaud, Le 
Mere, La Fortune, and Macons, to proceed, wliile 
we went across the wood to the house of the Kev. 
Fatlier, fearing that the savages, seeing me, niiglit 
suspect the object of my visit, and cause Folle 
Avoine to escape. Fmally, to cut tlie matter 
short, I arrested him, and caused him to be 
guarded day and iiiglit by six Frenclimen. 

" I then called a council, at which I requested 
all the savages of the place to be present, where 
I repeated what I had often said to the Ilurons 
and Ottawas since the departure of M. Pere[Per- 
rot], giving them tlie message you ordered me. 
Sir, that in case there should be among them any 
spirits so evil disposed as to follow the example 
of those who have murdered the French on Lake 
Superior and Lake Michigan, they must separate 
the guilty from the innocent, as I did not wish 
the whole nation to suffer, unless they protected 
the guilty. * * * The savages held several 
councils, to whirli I was invited, bi;t their only 
object seemed to be to exculpate the prisoner, in 
order that I might release liim. 

" All united in accusmg Achiganaga and his 
children, assuring themselves with the belief that 
M. Pere, [Perrot] with his detachment would not 
be able to arrest them, and wishing to peisuade 
me that they apprehended that all the Frenchmen 
might be killed. 

"I answered them, * * * 'As to the antici- 
pated death of yi. Pere [Perrot], as well as of the 
other Frenchmen, that would not embaiTass me, 
since I believed neither the allies nor the nation 
of Achiganaga would ■wish to have a war witli us 
to sustain an action so dark as that of which we 
were speaking. Having only to attack a few 
murderers, or, at most, those of their own family. 
1 was certain that the French would have them 
dead or alive.' 

" This was the answer they had from me during 
the tliree days that the councils lasted ; after 
wliich 1 embarked, at ten o'clock in the moniing, 
sustained by only twelve Frenchmen, to show a 
few unruly persons who boasted of taking the 
prisoner away from me, that the French did not 
fear them. 

" Daily I received accounts of the number of 
savages that Achiganaga drew from his nation to 

Kiaonan [Keweenaw] mider pretext of going to 
war in the spring against the Kadouecioux, to 
avenge the death of one of his relatives, son of Ou- 
enaus, but really to protect himself against us, 
in case we should become convinced that his chil- 
dren had killed the Frenchmen. This precaution 
placed me between hope and fear respecting the 
expedition which M. Pere [Perrot] had imder- 

" On the 24th of November, [1683], he came 
across the wood at ten o'clock at night, to tell me 
that he had arrested Achiganaga and four of his * 
children. He said they were not all guilty of the 
murder, but had thought proper, in this affair, to 
follow the custom of the savages, which is to seize 
all the relatives. Folle Avoine, whom I had ar- 
rested, he considered the most guilty, being wth- 
out doubt the originator of the mischief. 

'' I immediately gave orders that Folle Avoine 
should be more closely confined, and not allowed 
to speak to any one ; for I had also learned that 
he had a brother, sister, and uncle in the village 
of the Kiskakons. 

'• il. Pere informed me that he had released the 
youngest son of Achiganaga, aged about tliirteen 
or fourteen years, that he might make known to 
their nation and the Sauteurs [Ojibways], who are 
at Xocke and in the neighborhood, the reason 
why the French had arrested his father and bro- 
tliers. M. Pere bade him assure tlie savages tliat 
if any one wished to complain of what he had 
done, he would wait for them with a firm step ; for 
he considered himself in a condition to set them 
at defiance, havingfound at Kiaonau [Keweenaw] 
eighteen Frenchmen who had wintered there. 

"On the 2.')th, at daybreak, M. Pere embarked 
at the Sault, with four good men whom I gave 
him. to go and meet the prisoners. He left them 
four leagues from there, luider a guard of twelve 
I'renchmen ; and at two o'clock in the afternoon, 
they arrived. I had prepared a room Ln my house 
for the prisoners, in which they were placed under 
a strong guard, and were not allowed to converse 
with any one. 

"On the 26th, I commenced proceedings; and 
this, sir, is tlie course I pursued. I gave notice 
to all the chiefs and others, to appear at the 
council which I had appointed, and gave to Folle 
Avoine the privilege of selecting two of his rela 



tives to supiwrt his interests ; and to tlie other 
prisoners I made the same offer. 

" The council being assembled, I sent for Folle 
Avorue to be interrogated, and caused his answers 
to be written, and afterwards they were read to 
Mm, and inquiry made whether they were not, 
word for word, what he had said. He was tlien 
removed under a safe guard. I used the same 
form with the two eldest sons of Achigauaga, and, 
as Folle Avoine had iiuUrectly charged the father 
with being accessory to the murder, I sent for 
him and also for Folle Avoine, and bringing them 
into the council, confronted the four. 

" FoUe Avoine and the two sons of Achiganaga 
accused each other of committing the murder, 
without denying that tliey were laarticipators in 
the crime. Achiganaga alone strongly mamtained 
that he knew nothing of the design of Folle 
Avoine, nor of his children, and called on them 
to say if he had advised them to kill the French- 
men. They answered, ' iSTo.' 

" This confrontation, which the savages did not 
expect, sui"prised them; and, seeing the prisoners 
had convicted themselves of the murder, the 
Chiefs said: ' It is enough; you accuse your- 
selves; the French are masters of yourl)odies.' 

" The next day I held another council, in which 
I said there could be no doubt that the French- 
men had been murdered, that the murderers were 
known, and that they knew what was the prac- 
tice among themselves upon such occasions. To 
all this they said nothing, which obliged us on 
the following day to hold another council in the 
cabin of Brochet, where, after having spoken, and 
seeing that tliey would make no decision, and that 
all my councils ended only in reducing tobacco to 
ashes, I told them that, since they did not wish to 
decide, I should take the responsibihty, and tliat 
the next day I would let them know the deter- 
mination of the French and myself. 

" It is proper. Sir, you should know that I ob- 
served all these forms only to see if they would 
feel it their duty to render to us the same justice 
that they do to each other, having had divers ex- 
amples m which when the tribes of those who 
had committed the murder did not wish to go to 
war with the tribe aggrieved, the nearest rela- 
tions of the murderers killed them themselves; 
that is to say, man for man. 

" On the 29th of November. I gathered together 

the French that were here, and, after the interro- 
■ gations and ans^\■ers of the accused had been read 
to them, the guilt of the three appeared so evi- 
dent, from their own confessions, that the vote 
was imanimous that all should die. But as the 
French who remained at Kiaonan to pass the win- 
ter had written to Father Engalran and to myself, 
to beg us to treat the affair with all possible len- 
iency, tlie savages declaring that if they made 
the prisoners die they would avenge themselves, 
I told the gentlemen who were with me in coun- 
cil that, this bemg a case witliout a precedent, I 
believed it was expedient for the safety of the 
French who would pass the winter in the Lake 
Superior country to put to death only two, as that 
of the third might bring about grievous conse- 
quences, while the putting to death, man for 
man, could give the savages no complaint, since 
this is then- custom. M. de la Tour, chief of tlie 
Fathers, who had served much, sustained my 
opinions by strong reasoning, and all decided that 
two should be shot, namely, Folle Avoine and 
the older of the two brothers, while the younger 
should be released, and hold his Life, Sir, as a gift 
from you. 

" I thni returned to the cabin of Brochet with 
Messrs. Boisguillot, Pere, De Repentigny, De 
Manthet, De la Ferte, and Macons, where were 
all the chiefs of the Outawas du Sable, Outawas 
Sinagos, Easkakons, Sauteurs, D'Achiliny, a part 
of the Ilurons, and Oumamens, the chief of the 
Amikoys. I informed them of our decision * 

* * that, the Frenclmien having been killed by 
the different nations, one of each must (.lie, and 
that the same death they had caused the French 
to suffer they must also suffer. * * * This 
decision to put the murderers to death was a hard 
stroke to them all, for none had believed that I 
would dare to undertake it. * * * I then left 
the council and asked the Kev. Fathers if they 
wished to baptize the prisoners, which they did. 

"An hour after, I put myself at the head of 
forty-two Frenchmen, and, in sight of more than 
four hundred savages, and within two himdred 
paces of their fort, I caused the two murderers 
to be shot. The impossibility of keeping them 
until sprmg made me hasten their death. * * 

* "Wlien M. Pere made the arrest, those who had 
committed the murder confessed it; and when he 
asked them what they had dlone with our gnodn 



they answered that they were ahnost all con- 
cealed. He jiroceeded to the place of conceal- 
ment, and was very much suiinised, as were also 
the French with him, to find them, in fifteen or 
twenty different places. By the carelessness of 
the savages, the tobacco and powder were entire- 
ly destroyed, having been placed in the pinery, 
imder the roots of trees, and being soaked in the 
water caused by ten or twelve days' continuous 
rain, which inundated all the lower country. 
The season for snow and ice having come, they 
had all the trouble in the world to get out the 
bales of cloth. 

'They then went to see the bodies, but could 
not remove them, these miserable wretches hav- 
ing thro%\ni them into a marsh, and thrust them 
down into holes which they had made. Kot sat- 
isfied with this, they had also piled branches of 
trees upon tlie bodies, to prevent them from float- 
ing when the water should rise in the spring, 
hopmg by this precaution the French would find 
no trace of those who were killed, but would tliink 
them drowned; as they reported that they had 
foimd in the lake on the other side of the Portage, 
a boat with the sides all broken in, which they 
believed to be a French boat. 

" Those goods which the French were able to 
secure, they took to Kiaouau [Keweenaw], where 
were a number of Frenchmen who bad gone tliere 
to pass the winter, who knew nothing of the deatli 
of Colin Berthot and Jacques le ilaire, imtil il. 
Pere arrived. 

'' Tlie ten who formed M. Pere's detachment 
having conferred together concerning the means 
they should take to prevent a total loss, decided 
to sell the goods to the highest bidder. The sale 
was made for 1 100 livres, which was to be paid in 
beavers, to M. de la Chesnaye, to whom I send 
the names of the purchsers. 

" The savages who were present when Acliiga- 
naga and his children were arrested wished to 
pass the calumet to M. Pere, and give him cap- 
tives to satisfy him for the miuder committed on 
the two Frenchmen ; but he knew their inten- 
tion, and would not accept their offer, lie told 
them neither a hundred captives nor a hundred 
packs of beaver would give back the blood of his 
brothers; that the murderers must be given up 
to me, and I would see what I woidd do. 

" I caused M. Pere to repeat these things in the 

council, tliat in future the savages need not think 
by presents to save those who commit similar 
deeds. Besides, sii", il. Pere showed plainly by 
his conduct, that be is not strongly inclined to 
favor the savages, as was reported. Indeed. I do 
not know any one whom they fear more, yet who 
flatters them less or knows them better. 

'■ The criminals being in two different places, 
M. Pere being obliged to keep four of them, sent 
Messrs. de Eepentigny, Manthet, and six other 
Frenchmen, to arrest the two who were eight 
leagues in the woods. Among others, M. de Re- 
pentigny and M. de Mauthet showed that they 
feared nothing when their honor called them. 

" M. de la Chevrotiere has also served well in 
person, and by his advice, havuig pointed out 
where the prisoners were. Achiganaga, who had 
adopted him as a son, had told him where he 
should hunt during the winter. ***** 
It still remained for me to give to Achiganaga and 
his three children the means to return to his 
family. Their home from which they were taken 
was nearly twenty-six leagues from here. Kjiow- 
ing their necessity, I told them you would not be 
satisfied in giving them life; you wished to pre- 
serve it, by giving them all that was necessary to 
prevent them from dying with himger and cold 
by the way, and that your gift was made by my 
hands. I gave them blankets, tobacco, meat, 
hatchets, knives, twine to make nets for beavers, 
and two bags of corn, to supply them tiU they 
could kill game. 

" They departed two days after, the most con- 
tented creatures in the world, but (iod was not ; 
fur when only two days' journey from here, the 
old Achiganaga fell sick of the quinsy, and died, 
and his children returned. "When the news of his 
death arrived, the greater part of the savages of 
this place [Mackinaw] attributed it to the French, 
sa>iiig we had caused him to die. I let them 
talk, and laughed at them. It is only about two 
months shice the children of Achiganaga retumel 
to Kiaonan." 

Some of those opposed to Du Liitli and Fron- 
tenac, prejudiced the King of France relative to 
the transaction we have described, and in a letter 
to the Governor of Canada, the King vrates : " It 
appears to me that one of the principal causes of 
tlie war arises from one Du Luth having caused 
two to be killed w ho had assassinated two French- 



men on Lake Superior ; and you sufficiently see 
now mueli this man's voyage, wliicli can not pro- 
duce any advantage to the colony, and wliich was 
permitted only in the interest of some private 
persons, has contributed to distract the peace of 
the colony." 

Du Luth and his young brother appear to have 
traded at the western extremity of Lake Superior, 
and on the north shore, to Lake Nipegon. 

In June, 1684, Governor De la Barre sent Guil- 
let and Ilebert from Montreal to request Du Luth 
and I>urantaye to bring down voyageurs and In- 
dians to assist iu an expedition against the Iro- 
quois of New York. Early in September, they 
reported on the St. Lawi-ence, with one hundred 
and fifty coiu-eurs des bois and three hundred and 
fifty Indians ; but as a treaty had just been made 
with the Senecas, they returned. 

De la Barrels successor. Governor Denonvllle, 
in a dispatch to the French Government, dated 
November 12th, 1685, alludes to Du Luth being 
in the far West, in these words : " I likewise sent 
to M. De la Durantaye, who is at Lake Superior 
imder orders from M. De la Barre, and to Sieur 
Du Luth, who is also at a great distance in an- 
other direction, and all so far beyond reach that 
neither the one nor the other can hear news from 
me this year ; so that, not being able to see them 
at soonest, before next July, I considered it best 
not to think of undertaking any thing during the 
whole of next year, especially as a great number 
of our best men are among the Outaouacs, and 
can not return before the ensuing summer. * * * 
In regard to Sieur Du Luth, I sent him orders to 
repair here, so that I may learn the number of 
savages on whom I may depend. He is accredit- 
ed among them, and rendered great services to 
M. De la Barre by a lai'ge number, of savages he 
brought to Niagara, who would have attacked 
the Senecas, was it not for an express order from 
JSi. De la Barre to the contrary." 

In 1686, while at Mackinaw, he was ordereu to 
establish a post on tlie Detroit, near Lake Erie. 
A portion of the order reads as follows : " i\iter 
having given all the orders that you may judge 
necessary for the safety of this post, and having 
well secured the obedience of the Indians, you 
will return to Michil i mackinac, there to await 
Rev. Father Engelran, by whom I wiU commu- 
nicate what I wish of you, there." 

The design of this post was to block the pas- 
sage of the English to the upper lakes. Before 
it was established, in the fall of 1686, Thomas 
Roseboom, a daring trader from Albany, on the 
Hudson, had found his way to the vicinity of 
Jlackinaw, and by the proffer of ))randy, weak- 
ened the allegiance of the tribes to the French. 

A canoe coming to Mackinaw with dispatches 
for the French and their alUes, to march to the 
Seneca country, in New York, perceived this New 
York trader and associates, and, giving the alarm, 
they were met by three himdred coureurs du 
bois and captured. 

In the spring of 1687 Du Luth, Durantaye, 
and Tonty all left the vicuiity of Deti-oit for Ni- 
agara, and as they were coasting along Lake Erie 
they met another EngUsh trader, a Scotchman 
by birth, and by name Major Patrick McGregor, 
a person of some influence, going with a number 
of traders to Mackinaw. Having taken him pris- 
oner, he was sent with Roseboom to ^Montreal. 

Du Luth, Tonty, and Durantaye arrived at Ni- 
agara on the 27th of June, 1687, with one hun- 
dred and seventy French voyageurs, besides In- 
dians, and on the 10th of July jouied the army of 
Denonvllle at the mouth of the Genesee River, 
and on the 13th Du Luth and his associates had 
a skirmish near a Seneca village, now the site of 
the town of Victor, twenty miles southeast of the 
city of Rochester, New York. Governor Denon- 
vllle, in a report, writes: " On the 13th, about 4 
o'clock in the afternoon, having passed through 
two dangerous defiles, we arrived at the third, 
where we were vigorously attacked by eight hun- 
dred Senecas, two hundred of whom fired, wish- 
ing to attack our rear, while the rest would attack 
om' front, but the resistance, made produced 
such a great consternation that they soon resolved 
to fly. * * * We witnessed the p,iinful sight 
of the usual cruelties of the savages, who cut the 
dead into quarters, as is done in slaughter houses, 
in order to put them into the kettle. The greater 
nimiber were opened while still warm, that the 
blood might be drunk. Our rascally Otaoas dis- 
tinguished themselves particularly by these bar- 
barities. * * * We had five or six men killed 
on the spot, French and Indians, and about 
twenty wounded, among the first of whom was the 
Rev. Father Angelran, superior of all the Otaoan 
Missions, by a very severe gun-shot. It is a great 



misfortune that this woimd will prevent him go- 
jng back again, for he is a man of caiiacity." 

In the ord«r to Uu Luth assigning him to duty 
at the post on the site of tJie modem Fort Gra- 
tiot, above the city of Detroit, the Governor of 
Canada said: " If you can so arrange your affairs 
that your brother can be near you in tlie Spring. 
I shall be very glad. He is an mtelligent lad. 
and might bo a great assistance to you; he might 
also be very servicealile to us." 

This lad, CJreysolon de la Tourette, dining tliii 
wiuter of 1686-7 was trading among the Assina- 
boines and other tribes at tlie west eud of Lake 
Superior, but, upon receiving a dispatch, hastened 
to his brother, journeying in a canoe without any 
escort from ]Mackinaw. lie did not arrive until 
after the battle with the Senecas. Governor Den- 
onville, on the 2oth of August, 1687, wrote: 

" Du Luth's brother, who has recently arrived 
from the rivers above the Lake of the Allempi- 
gons [Nipegon], assures me that he saw more than 
fifteen hundred persons come to trade with liim, 
and they were very sorry he had not goods suffi- 
cient to satisfy them. They are of the triltes ac- 
customed to resort to the English at Port Kelson 
and River IJourbon, where, they say, they did not 
go this year, througli Sieur Du Lhu's iutluence." 

After the battle in the vicinity of Rochester, 
New York, Du Lutli, with his celebrated cousin. 
Henry Tonty, returned together as far as the post 
above the present city of Detroit, llichigan, but 
this point, after KiSS, was not again occupied. 

From this period Du Lutli becomes less prom- 
inent. At the time wlien the Jesuits attempted 
to exclude brandy from the Indian country a bit- 
ter controversy arose between them a^id the 
traders. Cadillac, a Gascon by birth, command- 
ing Fort Buade, at Mackinaw, on Aiigust 3, 16'.)o, 
wrote to Count Frontenae: "Now, what reason 
can we assign that the savages should not drink 
brandy bouglit with their own money as well as 
we? Is it prohibited to prevent them from be- 
coming intoxicated? Or is it because the use of 
brandy reduces them to extreme .misery, placing 
it out of their power to make war by depriving 
them of clothing and arms? If such representa- 
tions in regard to the Indians have been made to 
the Count, they are very false, as every one knows 
who is acciuaintcd with the ways of the savages. 
* * * It is bad faith to represent to the Count 

that the sale of brandy reduces the savage to a 
state of nudity, aifd by that means places it out 
of his power to make war, since he never goes to 
war in any other condition. » * » Perhaps it 
will be said the sfile of brandy makes the 
labors of the missionaries unfruitful. It is neces- 
sary to examine this i)roposition. If the mission- 
aries care for only the extension of commerce, 
pursuing the coiurse they have hitherto, I agree 
to it; but if it is the use of brandy that hinders 
tlie advancement of the cause of God, I deny it, 
for it is a fact which no one can deny that there 
are a great number of savages who never drink 
brandy, yet who are not, for that, better Chris- 

" All the Sioux, the most numerous of all the 
tribes, who inhabit the region along the .shore of 
Lake Superior, do not even like the smell of 
brandy. Are they more advanced in religion for 
that? They do not wish to have the subject men- 
tioned, and when the missionaries address them 
tlicy only laugh at the foolishness of preaching. 
Yet these priests boldly fling before the eyes of 
Europeans, whole volumes filled with glowing 
descriptions of the conversion of souls by thou- 
sands in this country, causing the poor missiona- 
ries from Eiu'ope, to run to martyrdom as flies to 
sugar and honey.'' 

Du Lutli, or Du Lliut, as he wrote his name, 
during this discussion, was found upon the .side 
of order and good morals. His attestation is as 
follows : " I certify that at different periods I 
have lived about ten years among the (Ottawa 
nation, from the time that I made an exploration 
to the Nadouecioux people until Fort Saint Jo- 
seph was established by order of the Monsieur 
Marquis Denonville, (kivernor (Jeneral, at the 
head of the Detroit of Lake Brie, wliich is in the 
Iroquois country, and which I had the honor to 
command. During this period, I have seen that 
tlie trade in eau-de-vie (brandy) produced great 
disorder, the father killing the son, and the son 
throwing his mother into the fire; and I maintain 
that, morally speaking, it is impossible to export 
liiandy to the woods and distant missions, with- 
out danger of its leading to misery." 

Governor Frontenae, in an expedition against 
tlie Oneidas of New York, arrived at Fort Fron- 
tenae, on the l!)th of July, 169.5, anil Captain Du 
Luth was left in command with forty soldiers, 



and masons and carpenters, with orders to erect 
new builtlings. In about four weeks he erected 
a building one hundred and twenty feet in length, 
contammg officers' quarters, store-rooms, a bakery 
and a chapel. Early in 1697 he was still in com- 
mand of the post, and in a report it is mentioned 
that " everybody was then in good health, except 
Captain DuUiut the commander, who was imwell 
of the gout." 

It was just before this period, that as a member 
of the Eoman Catholic Church, he was firmly 
impressed that he had been helped by prayers 
which he addressed to a deceased Iroquois girl, 
who had died in the odor of sanctity, and, as a 
thank offering, signed the following certificate : 
" I, the subscriber, certify to all whom it may 
concern, that having been tormented by the gout, 
for the space of twenty-three years, and with such 

severe pains, that it gave me no rest for the*pac 
of three montlis at a time, I addi-essed myself to 
Catherine Tegahkouita, an Iroquois virgin de- 
ceased at the Sault Saint Louis, in the reputation 
of sanctity, and I promised her to visit her tomb, 
if God should give me health, tlu'ough her inter- 
cession. I have been as perfectly cured at the 
end of one novena, which I made in her honor, 
tliat after five months, I have not perceived the 
slightest touch of my gout. Given at Fort Fron- 
tenac, this 18th day of August, 1696." 

As soon as cold weather returned, his old mal- 
ady again appeared. He died early in A. D. 1710. 
Marquis de Vaudreuil," Governor of Canada, xm- 
der date of first of May of that year, wrote to 
Count Pontchartrain, Colomal Mmister at Paris, 
" Captain Du Lud died this winter. He was a 
very honest man." 





FalU of SI. Anthony Visitcl liy White Men.— La Salle Gives the First IVscription 
of Upper Mississippi Valley.— Accault, the Leader, Aecompanieil by Anfelle 
and Hennepin, at Falls of Saint Anthony.— Hennepin Declared Unreliable by 
La Salle.— His E.»rly Life.— His First Book Criticised by Abbe Bernou and 
Tn>nson. — Dceeptivo Map. — First Meeting with Sioux.;— Astonishment at 
Reading' His Breviary,- Sioux Nitmc for Guns.- Accault and Hennepin at 
Liike Pepin.— Leave the River Below Saint Paul.- At Mille Lacs.— A Sweating 
Cabin.— Sioux Wonder at Mariner's CoUtp.iss.— Fears of an Iron Pot — Miikinf 
a Dictionary.- Infant Baptisfd. -Route to the Pacific— Hennepin Descends 
Rum River.- FirstVisitto Falls of Saint Anthony.— On a Buffalo Hunt.— Meets 
Du Luth.— Returns to Mille Ucs.— With Du Luth at Falls of St. Anthony.— 
Returns to France. — Subscijuent Life.- His Books Examined.— Peoies in First 
Book His Descent to the Gulf of Mexico.— Dispute with Du Luth at Falls of St, 
Anthony.- Patronage of Du Luth.— Tribute to Du Luth.— Hennepin's Answer 
to Cnticisms.— Denounced by D'lbcrviUo and Father Gravier.— Kcsidcuce in 

In the summer of 1680, Michael Accault (jVko), 
lleiuiepin, the Frauciscau missionary, Augelle, 
Du Luth, and Faffart all visited the Falls of 
Saint Aiitliony. 

The first description of the valley of the upper 
Mississippi ■was written by La Salle, at Fort 
Frontenac, on Lake Ontario, on the 22d of Au- 
gust, 1()82, a month before Hennepin, in Paris, 
obtained a license to print, and some time before 
the Franciscan's first work, was issued from the 

La Salle's knowledge must have been received 
from Michael Accault, the leader of the expedi- 
tion, Augelle, his comrade, or the clerical attache, 
the Franciscan, Hennepin. 

It differs from nennepin's narrative in its free- 
dom from bombast, and if its statements are to 
be credited, the Francisciin must be looked on as 
one given to exaggeration. The careful student, 
however, soon learns to be cautious m receiving 
the statement of any of the early explorers and 
ecclesiastics of the Northwest. The Franciscan 
depreciated the Jesuit missionary, and La Salle 
did not hesitate to misrepresent Du Lutli and 
others tor his own exaltation. La Salle makes 
statements which we deem to be -nide of the 
trutli when his prejudices are aroused. 

At the very time that the lutendant of Justice 
in Canada is complauiing that Governor Fronte- 
nac is a friend and correspondent of Du Luth, 

La Salle WTites to Ids friends in Paris, tliat Du 
Luth is looked upon as an outlaw by the governor. 

"While ollicial documents prove that Du Luth 
was in IMinnesota a year before Accault and asso- 
ciates, yet La Salle writes: " Moreover, the Xa- 
donesioux is not a region which he has discov- 
ered. It is known that it was discovered a long 
time before, and that the Rev. Father Hennepin 
and Michael Accault were there before him." 

La Salle in this communication describes Ac- 
cault as one well acquainted with the language 
and names of the Indians of the Illinois region, 
and also " cool, brave, and prudent," and the head 
of the party of exploration. 

We now proceed with tlie first description of 
the country above the Wisconsin, to which is 
given, for the first and only time, by any writer, 
the Sioux name, Meschetz Odeba, perhaps in- 
tended for Mcshdeke AVakpa, River of the Foxes. 

He describes the Upper Mississippi in these 
words : " Followuig the windings of the Missis- 
sippi, they found the river Ouisconsing, AViscon- 
smg, or Meschetz Odeba, which flows between 
Bay of Puans and the Grand river. * * * About 
twenty-three or twenty-four leagues to the north 
or northwest of the mouth of the Ouisconsing, 
* * * they fomid the Black river, called by tlie 
Nadouesioux, Chabadeba [Chapa AVakpa, Beaver 
river] not very large, the mouth of which is bor- 
dered on the two sliores by alders. 

" Ascending about thirty leagues, almost at the 
s.ame point of the compass, is the Buffalo river 
[Chippewa], as large at its mouth as tliat of the 
Ilhnois. They follow it ten or twelve leagues, 
where it is deep, smaU and without rapids, bor- 
dered by hills which widen out from tiu\e to time 
to form prairies." 

About three o'clock in the afternoon of the 1 Uh 
of April, 1680, the tl'avelers were met by a war 
party of one hundred Sioux ui thu'ty-three birch 
bark canoes. "Michael Accault, who was the 



leader," says La Salle, "presented the Calumet." 
The Indians were presented by Accault with 
twenty knives and a fathom and a half of tobacco 
and some goods. Proceeduig with the Indians 
ten days, on the 22d of April the isles in the Mis- 
sissippi were reached, where the Sioux had killed 
some ilaskoutens, and they halted to weep over 
the death of two of their own number ; and to 
assuage their grief, Accault gave them in trade a 
box of goods and twenty-four hatchets. 

When they were eight leagues below the Falls 
of Saint Anthony, they resolved to go by land to 
their village, sixty leagues distant. They were 
well received ; the only strife among the villages 
was that which resulted from the desire to have 
a Frenchman in their midst. La Salle also states 
that it was not correct to give the impression that 
Du Luth had rescued his men from captivity, for 
they could not be properly called prisoners. 

He continues: " In going up the Mississippi 
again, twenty leagues above that river [Saint 
Croixj is found the falls, which those I sent, and 
who passing there first, named Saint Anthony. 
It is thirty or forty feet high, and the river is nar- 
rower here than elsewhere. There is a small 
islaild in the midst of the chute, and the two 
banks of the river are not bordered by high hills, 
which gradually diminish at this point, but the 
country on each side is covered with thin woods, 
such as oaks and other hard woods, scattered wide 

" The canoes were carried three or four hun- 
dred steps, and eight leagues above was found 
the west [east?] bank of the river of the Nadoue- 
sioux, ending in a lake named Issati, which ex- 
pands into a great marsh, where the mid rice 
grows toward the mouth." 

In the latter part of his letter La Salle uses the 
foUowmg language relative to his old chaplain: 

" I believed that it was appropriate to make for 
you the narrative of the adventures of this canoe, 
because I doubt not that they will speak of it, and 
if you wish to confer with the Father Louis Hen- 
nepin, Recollect, who has returned to France, you 
must know him a little, because he will not fail 
to exaggerate all things; it is his character, and 
to me he has written as if he were about to be 
burned when he was not even in danger, but he 
beUeves that it is honorable to act in this manner, 

and he speaks more conformably to that wliich 
he wishes than to that which he knows." 

Hemiepin was born in Ath, an inland town of 
the Netherlands. From boyliood he longed to 
visit foreign lands, and it is not to be wondered 
at that he assumed the priest's garb, for next to 
the soldier's life, it suited one of wandering pro- 

At one time he is on a begging expedition to 
some of the towns on the sea coast. In a few 
months he occupies the post of chaplain at an 
hospital, where he shrives the dying and admin- 
isters extreme unction. From the quiet of the 
hospital he proceeds to the camp, and is present 
at the battle of Seneffe, which occurred in the 
year 1674. 

His whole mind, from the time that he became 
a priest, appears to have been on " things seen 
and temporal," rather than on those that are " un- 
seen and eternal." While on duty at some of the 
ports of the Straits of Dover, he exliibited the 
characteristic of an ancient Athenian more than 
that of a professed successor of the Apostles. 
He sought out the society of strangf.-rs " who 
spent their time in nothing else but either to tell 
or to hear some new thing." With perfect non- 
chalance he confesses that notwithstanding the 
nauseating fumes of tobacco, he used to slip be- 
hind the doors of sailors' taverns, and spend days, 
without regard to the loss of his meals, listening 
to the adventures and hair-breadth escapes of the 
mariners in lands beyond the sea. 

In the year 1676, he received a welcome order 
from his Superior, requiring liim to embark for 
Canada. Unaccustomed to the world, and arbi- 
trary in his disposition, he rendered the cabin of 
the ship in which he sailed any thing but heav- 
enly. As in modern days, the passengers in a 
vessel to the new world were composed of hete- 
rogeneous materials. There were young women 
going out in search for brothers or husbands, ec- 
clesiastics, and those engaged in the then new, 
but profitable, commerce in furs. One of his 
fellow passengers was the talented and enterpri- 
prising, though unfortunate. La Salle, with whom 
he was afterwards associated. If he is to be 
credited, his intercourse with La SaUe was not 
very pleasant on ship-board. The yoimg women, 
tired of being cooped up in the narrow accommo- 
dations of the ship, when the evening was fair 



sought the deck, and engaged in tlie rude dances 
of the French peasantry of that age. Hennepin, 
feeling that it was improper, began to assume 
the air of the priest, and forbade the sport. La 
Salle, feeling that his interference was uncalled 
for, called liim a pedant, and took the side of the 
girls, and dumg the voyage there were stormy 

Good hiunor appears to have been restored 
when they left the ship, for Hennepin would otli- 
er^vise liave not been the companion of La Salle 
in his great western journey. 

Sojourning for a short period at Quebec, the 
adventure-loving Franciscan is permitted to go 
to a mission station on or near the site of the 
present town of Kingston, Canada West. 

Here there was much to gratify his love of 
novelty, and he passed considerable time in ram- 
bling among the Iroquois of Kew York. In 1678 
he returned to (Juebec, and was ordered to join 
the expedition of Robert La Salle. 

On the 6th of December Father Hennepin and 
a portion of the exploring party had entered the 
Niagara river. In the vicinity of the Falls, the 
winter was passed, and wliile the artisans were 
preparing a ship above the Falls, to navigate the 
great lakes, the Recollect whiled away the hours, 
in studying the manners and customs of the Sen- 
eca Indians, and in admiring the subUmest han- 
diwork of God on the globe. 

On the 7th of August, 1679, the ship being 
completely rigged, luifurled its sails to the breezes 
of Lake Eiie. The vessel was named the " Grif- 
fin," in honor of the arms of Frontenac, Governor 
of Canada, the first ship of Em-opean constric- 
tion that had ever ploughed the waters of the 
great inland seas of North America. 

After encountering a violent and dangerous 
storm on one of the lakes, during which they had 
given up all hope of escaping .shipwreck, on the 
27th of the month, they were safely moored in 
the harbor of " MissiUmackinack."' From thence 
the party proceeded to Green Bay, where they 
left the ship, procured canoes, and continue<l 
along the coast of Lake Jliehigan. By the mid- 
dle of January, 16.S0, La Salle had conducted his 
expedition to tlie Illinois River, and, on an emi- 
nence near Lake Peoria, he commenced, with 
much heaviness of heart, the erection of a fort, 

which he called Crevecoeur, on account of the 
many disappointments he had experienced. 

On the last of February, Accault, Augelle, and 
Hennepin left to ascend the Mississippi. 

The first work bearhig the name of the Rev- 
erend Fatlier Louis Hennepin, Franciscan Mis- 
sionary of tlie Recollect order, was entitled, " De- 
scription de la Louisiane," and in 1683 published 
in Paris. 

As soon as the book appeared it was criticised. 
Abbe Bernou, on the 29th of February, 1684, 
writes from Rome about the " paltry book" (mes- 
hcant livre) of Father Hennepin. About a year 
before the pious Tronson, imder date of March 
13, 1683, wrote to a friend: " I have interviewed 
the P. Recollect, who pretends to have descended 
the Mississippi river to the Gulf of Mexico. I do 
not know that one li'ill believe n-hat he speaks any 
more than that which is in the pirintcd relation of 
P. Louis, which I send you that you may make 
your own reflections." 

On the map accompanymg his first booli, he 
boldly marks a Recollect Mission many miles 
north of the point he had visited. In the Utrecht 
edition of 1697 this deUberate fraiul is erased. 

Tliroughout the work he assumes, that he was 
the leader of the expedition, and magnifies trifles 
into tragedies. For mstance, Mr. La Salle writes 
that Michael Accault, also written Ako, who was 
the leader, presented the Sioux with the calu- 
met ;" but Hennepin makes the occurrence more 

He writes : " Our prayers were heard, when on 
the nth of April, 1680, about two o'clock in the 
afternoon, we suddenly perceived thirty -three 
bark canoes manned by a hundred and twenty 
Indians coming down mth very great speed, on a, 
war party, against the Miamis, Illinois and Jlaro- 
as. These Intlians sin-rounded us, and while at 
a distance, discharged some arrows at us, but as 
they approached our canoe, the old men seeing us 
with the calumet of peace in our hands, prevent- 
ed the young men from kilhiig us. These sava- 
ges leaping from their canoes, some on land, 
others into the water, with frightful cries and 
yells approached us, and as we mad6 no resist- 
ance, being only tliree against so great a number, 
one of them wrenched our caltunet from our 
hands, while our canoe and theirs were tied to 
the shore. We first presented to them a piece of 



French tobacco, better for smoking than theirs' 
and the eldest among them uttered the words' 
" Miamiha, Miamiha." 

" As we did not understand their language, we 
took a little stick, and by signs which we made 
on the sand, showed tliem that their enemies, the 
Miamis, whom they sought, had fled across the 
river Colbert [Mississippi] to jom the Islinois ; 
when they saw themselves discovered and unable 
to surprise their enemies, three or four old men 
laying their hands on my head, wept in a moiuTi- 
ful tone. 

" With a spare handkerchief I had left I vnped 
away their tears, but they would not smoke our 
Calumet. They made us cross the river with 
great cries, while all shouted with tears in their 
eyes; they made us row before them, and we 
heard yells capable of striking the most resolute 
with terror. After landmg our canoe and goods, 
part of which had already been taken, we made a 
fire to boil our kettle, and we gave them two large 
wild tiu-keys which we had killed. These Indians 
having called an assembly to deliberate what they 
were to do with us, the two head chiefs of the 
party approaching, showed us by signs that the 
warriors wished to tomahawk us. This com- 
pelled me to go to the war chiefs with one young 
man, leaving the other by our property, and 
throw into their midst six axes, fifteen knives 
and six fathom of onr black tobacco ; and then 
bringing down my head, I showed them with an 
axe that they might kill me, if they thought 
proper. This present appeased many individual 
members, who gave us some beaver to eat, put- 
ting the three first morsels into our mouths, accor- 
ding to the custom of the country, and blowing on 
the meat, which was too hot, before putting the 
bark dish before us to let us eat as we liked. We 
spent the night in anxiety, because, before reti- 
ring at night, they had returned us our peace 

" Our two boatmen were resolved to sell their 
lives dearly, and to resist if attacked ; their arms 
and swords were ready. As for my own part, I 
determined to allow myself to be killed without 
any resistance ; as I was going to amiounce to 
them a God who had been foully accused, un- 
justly condemned, and cruelly crucified, without 
showing the least aversion to those who put him 
to death. We watched in tm-u, in oui- anxiety, 

so as not to be surprised asleep. The next mom- 
mg, a chief named Narrhetoba asked for the 
peace calumet, filled it with wUlow bark, and all 
smoked. It was then signified that the white 
men were to return with them to then- villages." 

In liis narrative the Franciscan remarks, " I 
found it diflicult to say my office before these 
Indians. Many seeing me move my lips, said in 
a fierce tone, ' Ouakanche.' Aliehael, all out of 
countenance, told me, that if I continued to say 
my breviary, we should all three be killed, and 
the Picard begged me at least to prAy apart, so as 
not to provoke them. I followed the latter's 
advice, but the more I concealed myself the more 
I had the Indians at my heels ; for when I en- 
tered the wood, they thought I was going to hide 
some goods imder gromid, so that I knew not on 
what side to turn to pray, for they never let me 
out of sight. This obliged me to beg pardon of 
my canoe -men, assming them I could not dis- 
pense with saying my oflice. By the word, ' Ou- 
akanche,' the Indians meant that the book I was 
reading was a spuit, but by their gesture they 
nevertheless showed a kind of aversion, so that 
to accustom them to it, I chanted the litany of 
the Blessed Virgin in the canoe, vrtth my book 
opened. They thought that the breviary was a 
spirit which taught me to smgfor their diversion ; 
for these people are naturally fond of singing." 

This is the first mention of a Dahkotah word 
in a Eiu-opean book. The savages were annoyed 
rather than em-aged, at seeing the white man 
reading a book, and exclaimed, " Wakan-de I" 
this is wonderful or supernatiu'al. The war 
party was composed of several bands of the M'de- 
wahkantonwan Dahkotahs, and there was a di- 
versity of opinion m relation to the disposition 
that should be made of the white men. The 
relatives of those who had been killed by the 
Miamis, were in favor of taking theu* scalps, but 
others were anxious to retain the favor of the 
French, and open a trading intercoiuse. 

Perceiving one of the canoe-men shoot a wild 
turkey, they called the gun, ' ' Manza Ouackange," 
iron that has understanding; more correctly, 
" Maza Wakande," this is tlie supernatural metal. 

Aquipaguettn, one of the head men, resorted 
to the following device to obtain merchandise. 
Says the Father, " This wily savage had the 
bones of some distinguished relative, which he 



preserved with great care in some skins dressed 
and .idonied with several rows of black and red 
porcupine quills. From time to time he assem- 
bled his men to give it a smoke, and made us 
come several days to cover the bones with goods, 
and by a present wipe away tlie tears he liad shed 
for him, and for las own son kiUed by tlie Miamis. 
To appease this captious man, we threw on the 
bones several fathoms of tobacco, axes, knives, 
beads, and some black and white wampum brace- 
lets. * * * We slept at the pomt of the Lake 
of Tears [Lake Pepin], which we so called from 
the tears which this chief shed all night long, or 
by one of liis sons whom he caused to weep when 
he grew tired." 

The next day, after four or five leagues' sail, a 
chief came, and telling them to leave their canoes, 
he pulled up three piles of grass for seats. Then 
taking a piece of cedar fidl of Uttle holes, he 
placed a stick into one, which he revolved between 
the palms of liis liands, until he kuidled a lire, 
and informed the Frenchmen that they would be 
at Mille Lac in six days. On the nmeteenth day 
after their captivity, they arrived in the vicinity 
of Saint I'aul, not far, it is ]irt)baV)le, from the 
marshy ground on which the Kaposia baud once 
lived, and now called Pig's Eye. 

Tlie journal remarks, " Having arrived on the 
nineteenth day of our navigation, five leagues 
below St. Anthony's Falls, these Indians landed 
us in a bay, broke our canoe to nieces, and se- 
creted their own in tlie reeds."' 

They then followed the trail to MUle Lac, sixty 
leagues distant. As they approached their villa- 
ges, the various bands began to show tlieir spoils. 
The tobacco was liiglily prized, and led to some 
contention. The chalice of the Father, which 
gUstened in the sun, they were afraid to touch, 
supposing it was ''wakan." After five days' 
walk they reached the Issati [Dahkotah] settle- 
ments in the valley of the Kum or Knife river. 
The different bauds eacli conductcil a Frenchman 
to their village, the chief Aqiiipaguetiu taking 
charge of Hennepin. After marching through 
the marslies towards the sources of Eum river, 
five wives of the cliief, in tliree bark canoes, met 
them and took tliem a short league to an island 
where their cabins were. 

An aged Indian Mndly nibbed down the way- 
worn Franciscan ; placing him on a bear- skin 

near the fire, he anointed his legs and the soles 
of his feet with wildcat oil. 

The son of the chief took great pleasure in car- 
rying upon his bare back the priest's robe with 
dead men's bones enveloped. It was called Pere 
Louis Chinnen. In the Dabkotali language Shm- 
na or Shinnan signifies a buffalo robe. 

Hennepin's description of his life on the island 
is in tliese words : 

" Tlie day after our arrival, Aquipaguetln, who 
was the head of a large family, covered me with 
a robe made of ten large dressed beaver skins, 
trimmed with porcupine quills. Tliis Indian 
showed me five or six of his wives, telling them, 
as I afterwards learned, that they shoul-' in fu' 
ture regard me as one of their children. 

" He set before me a bark dish full of fish, and 
seeing that I could not rise from the ground, he 
had a small sweating-cabin made, in which he 
made me enter with four Indians. This cabin he 
covered with buffalo skins, and inside he put 
stones red-hot. He made me a sign to do as the 
others before beginning to sweat, but I merely 
concealed my nakedness with a handkerchief. 
As soon as these Indians had several times 
breathed out quite violently, he began to sing vo- 
ciferously, the others puttuig their liands on me 
and rubbing me while they wejit bitterly. I be- 
gan to faint, but I came out and could scarcely 
take my habit to put on. When he made me 
sweat thus three times a week. I felt as strong as 

The mariner's compass was a constant source 
of wonder and amazement. Aquipaguetln hav- 
ing assembled the braves, would ask lleiinepin 
to show his compass. Perceiving that the needle 
turned, the chief harangued his men, and told 
them that the Europeans were spirits, capable of 
doing any thing. 

In the Franciscan's possession was an iron pot 
with feet Uke lions', which the Indians would not 
touch unless their hands were wrapped in buffalo 
skins. The women looked upon it as " wakan," 
and would not enter the cabin where it was. 

" The chiefs of these savages, seeing that I was 
desirous to learn, frequently made me write, 
naming aU the parts of the human body ; and as 
I would not put on paper certain indelicate words, 
at which they do not blush, they were heaitiiy 



They often asked the Franciscan questions, to 
answer which it was necessary to refer to his lex- 
icon. This appeared very strange, and, as they 
had no word for paper, they said, " That white 
thuig must be a spirit which tells Fere Louis all 
we say." 

Ilennepm remarks : " These Indians often 
asked me how many wives and children I had, 
and how old I was, that is, how many winters ; 
for so these natives always coimt. Never illu- 
mined by the light of faith, they were surprised 
at my answer. Fointing to our two Frenchmen, 
wliom I was then visiting, at a pomt three leagues 
from our village, I told them that a man among 
us could only have one wife ; that as for me, I 
had promised the Master of life to live as they 
saw me, and to come and live with them to teach 
them to be like the French. 

" But that gross people, till then lawless and 
faithless, turned all I said into ridicule. ' How,' 
said they, ' would you have these two men with 
thee have wives? Ours would not Uve with them, 
for they have hair all over their face, and we have 
none there or elsewhere.' In fact, they were 
never better pleased with me than when I was 
sliaved, and from a complaisance, certainly not 
ciiminal, I shaved every week. 

" As often as I went to visit the cabins, I found 
a sick child. Whose father's name was ilamenisi. 
Michael Ako would not accompany me ; the 
Picard du Gay alone followed me to act as spon- 
sor, or, rather, to witness the baptism. 

" I christened the child Antoinette, in honor of 
St. Anthony of Padua, as well as for the Pieard"s 
name, which was Anthony Anguelle. He was a 
native of Amiens, and nephfew of the Procurator- 
General of the Premonstratensians both now at 
Paris. Having poured natural water on tlie head 
and uttered these words : ' Creature of God, I 
baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of 
tlie Son, and of the Holy Ghost,' I took half an 
altar cloth wliich I had wrested from the hands 
of an Indian who had stolen it from me, and put 
it on the body of the baptized child ; for as I 
could not say mass for want of wine and vest- 
ments, this piece of linen could not be put to bet- 
ter use than to enshroud the first Christian child 
among these tribes. I do not know whether the 
softness of the linen had refreslied her, but she 
was the next day smiling m her mother's arms. 

who beUeved that I had cured the child ; but she 
died soon after, to my great consolation. 

" During my stay among them, there arrived 
four savages, who said they were come alone five 
hundred leagues from the west, and had been four 
months upon the way. They assured us there 
was no such place as the Straits of Anian, and 
that they had traveled without restmg, except to 
sleep, and had not seen or passed over any great 
lake, by which phrase they always mean the sea. 

" They further informed us that the nation of 
the Assenipoulacs [Assiniboiues] who lie north- 
east of Issati, was not above six or seven days' 
joirmey ; that none of the natiojis, within their 
knowledge, who lie to the east or northwest, had 
any great lake about their comitries, which were 
very large, but only rivers, which came from the 
north. They further assured us that there were 
very few forests in the countries through which 
they passed, insomuch that now and then they 
were forced to make flres of buffaloes' dung to 
boil their food. All these circumstances make it 
appear that there is no such place as the Straits 
of Anian, as we usually see them set do^\ii on the 
maps. And whatever efforts have been made for 
many year;* past by the English and Dutch, to 
find out a passage to the Frozen Sea, tliey have 
not yet been able to effect it. But by the help of 
my discovery and the assistance of God, I doubt 
not but a passage may still be found, and that an 
easy one too. 

" For example, we may be transported into the 
Pacific Sea by rivers which are large and capable 
of carrying great vessels, and from thence it is 
very easy to go to China and Japan, without cross- 
ing the equinoctial line ; and, in all probability, 
Japan is on the same coniinent as America.'''' 

Hennepin in his first book, thus describes his 
first visit to the Falls of St. Anthony : " In the 
beginning of July, 1680, we descended the [Rum] 
River in a canoe southward, with the great chief 
Ouasicoude [AVauzeekootay] that is to say Pierced 
Pine, with about eighty cabins composed of more 
than a hundred and thirty families and about 
two hundred and fifty warriors. Scarcely would 
the Indians give me a place in their little flotilla, 
for they had only old canoes. They went four 
leagiies lower downi, to get birch bark to make 
some more. Having made a hole in the groinid, 
to hide our silver chalice and our papers, till our 



return from the hunt, and keeping onl)' our bre- 
viary, so as not to be loaded, I stood on the bank 
of the lake formed by the river we had called St. 
Francis [now Rum] and stretched out my hand 
to the canoes as they rapidly passed in succession. 

"Our Frenclimen also liad one for themselves, 
whicli the Indians had given them. They would 
not take me in, Michael Ako saying that he had 
taken me long enough to satisfy him. I was hurl 
at this answer, seeing myself thus abandoned by 
Christians, to whom I had always done good, as 
they both often acknowledged; but God never 
having abaniloned me on that painful voyage, in- 
spired t^vo Indians to take me in their little 
canoe, where I had no other employment than to 
bale out witli a little bark tray, the water which 
entered by little holes. This 1 did not do with- 
out getting all wet. Tliis boat might, indeed, be 
called a death box, for its lightness and fragility. 
These canoes do not generally weigli over hfty 
pounds, the least motion of the body upsets them, 
unless you are long accustomed to that kind of 

" On disembarking in the evening, the Picard, 
as an excuse, told me that their canoe was half- 
rotten, and that had we been three in it, we 
shoidd have run a gi'eat risk of remaining on the 
way. * * * Four days after our departure for 
the buffalo hunt, we halted eight leagues above 
St. Anthony of Padua's Falls, on an eminence 
opposite the mouth of the River St. Francis [Rum] 
* * * The Picard and myself went to look for 
haws, gooseberries, and little wild fruit, which 
often did us more harm than good. This obliged 
us to go alone, as Itlichael Ako refused, in a 
wretched canoe, to Ouisconsin river, which was 
more tlian a hundred leagues off, to see whether 
the Sieur dc la Salle liad sent to that place a re- 
inforcement of men, with powder, lead, and 
other mimitions, as he had promised us. 

"The Indians would not have suffered this 
voyage had not one of the three remained willi 
them. They wished me to stay, but Michael 
Ako absolutely refused. As we were making tlic 
portage of our canoe at St. Anthony of Padua's 
Falls, we perceived five or six of our Indians wlio 
had taken the start ; one of them was up in an 
oak opposite the great fall, weeping bitterly, witli 
a rich dressed beaver robe, whitened inside, and 
trimmed with porcupine quills, which he was 

offering as a sacrifice to the falls; which is, in it- 
self, admirable and fi-ightful. I heard him while 
shedding copious tears, say as he spoke to the 
great cataract, ' Thou who art a spirit, grant tliat 
our nation may pass here quietly, without acci- 
dent ; may kill buffalo in abundance ; conquer 
our enemies, and bring in slaves, some of whom 
we will put to death before thee. The Messenecqz 
(so they call the tribe named by the French Outa- 
gamis) have killed our kindred ; grant that we 
may avenge them.' This robe offered in sacrifice, 
served one of our Frenchmen, who took it as we 

It is certainly wonderful, that Hennepin, who 
knew nothing of the Sioux language a few weeks 
before, should understand the prayer offered at 
the Falls without the aid of an interpreter. 

The narrator continues : " A league beyond 
St. Anthony of Padua's Falls, the Picard was 
obliged to land and get his powder horn, which he 
had left at the Falls. * * * As we descended 
the river Colbert [Mississippi] we fomwl some of 
our Indians on the islands loaded with buffalo 
meat, some of which they gave us. Two hours 
after landing, fifteen or sixteen warriors whom we 
had left above St. Anthony of Padua's Falls, en- 
tered, toniakawk in hand, upset the cabin of those 
who had invited us, took all the meat and bear 
oil they found, and greased themselves from head 
to foot," 

This was done because the others had violated 
the rules for the buffalo limit. With the Indians 
Hennepin went down the river sixty leagues, and 
then went up the river again, and met buffalo. 
He continues : 

" While seeking the Ouisconsin River, that 
savage father, Aquipaguetin, whom I had left, 
anil who I believed more than tv*-o hundred 
leagues off, on the 11th of July, 1680, appeared 
with the warriors." After this, Hennepin and 
I'icard continued to go up the river almost eighty 

There is great confusion here, as the reader 
will see. When at the mouth of the Rum River, 
he speaks of the "Wisconsin as more than a liun- 
dred leagues off. He floats down the river sixty 
leagues ; then he ascended, but does not stiite the 
distance; then he ascends eighty leagues. 

He continues : " The Indians whom he had left 
with Michael Ako at Buffalo [Chippuway] River, 



with the flotilla of canoes loaded with meat, came 
down. * * * AH the Indian women had their 
stock of meat at the month of Buffalo Kiver and 
on the islands, and again we went dowTi the Col- 
bert [Mississippi] about eighty leagues. * * * 
^ye had another alarm in our camp : the old men 
on duty on the top of the mountauis auuounced 
that they saw two warriors in the distance ; all 
the bowmen hastened there with speed, each try- 
ing to outstrip the others ; but they brought back 
only two of their enemies, who came to tell them 
that a party of their people were himting at the 
extremity of Lake Conde [Superior] and had found 
four Spirits (so they call the French) who, by 
means of a slave, had expressed a wish to come 
on, knowing us to be among them. * * * On 
the 25th of July, IbSO, as we were ascending the 
river Colbert, after the buffalo hunt, to the In- 
dian villages, we met Sieur du Luth, who came 
to the Nadouessious with five French soldiers. 
They joined us about two hundred and twenty 
leagues distant from the country of the Indians 
who had taken us. As we had some knowledge 
of the language, they begged us to accompany 
tliem to the villages of these tribes, to which I 
readily agreed, knowing that these two French- 
men had not approached the sacrament for two 

Here again the nimiber of leagues is confusing, 
and it is impossible to believe that Du Luth and 
liis interpreter Faffart, who had been trading 
with the Sionx for more than a year, needed the 
help of Hennepin, who had been about three 
months with these people. 

We are not told by what route Hennepin and 
Du Luth reached Lake Issati or Mille Lacs, but 
Hennepin says they arrived there on the 11th of 
August, 1680, and he adds, " Toward the end of 
September, having no implements to begin an 
establishment, we resolved to tell these people, 
that for their benefit, we would have to return to 
the French settlements. The grand Chief of the 
Issati or Nadouessiouz consented, and traced in 
pencil on paper I gave him, the route I should 
take for four hundred leagues. With this chart, 
we set out, eight Frenchmen, in two canoes, and 
descended the river St. Francis and Colbert [Rum 
and Mississippi]. Two of our men took two bea- 
ver robes at St. Anthony of Padua's Falls, which 
the Indians had himg in sacrifice on the ti-ees." 

The second work of Hennepin, an enlargement 
of the first, appeared at Lftrecht in the year 1697, 
ten years after La Salle's death. During the in- 
terval between the publication of the first and 
second book, he had passed three years as Super- 
intendent of the Recollects at Reny in the province 
of Artois, when Father Hyacinth Lef evre, a friend 
of La Salle, and Commissary Provincial of Recol- 
lects at Paris, wished him to return to Canada. 
He refused, and was ordered to go to Rome, and 
upon his coming back was sent to a convent at 
St. Omer, and there received a dispatch from the 
Minister of State in France to return to the coun- 
tries of the King of Spain, of which he was a 
subject. This order, he asserts, he afterwards 
learned was forged. 

In the preface to the English edition of the 
New Discovery, published m 1698, hi London, he 
writes : 

" The pretended reason of that violent order 
was because I refused to return into America, 
where I had been already eleven years ; though 
the particular laws of our Order oblige none of us 
to go beyond sea against his will. I would have, 
however, returned very willingly had I not kno\«i 
the malice of M. La Salle, who would have ex- 
posed me to perish, as he did one of the men who 
accompanied me in my discovery. God knows 
that I am sorry for his unfortunate death ; but 
the judgments of the Almighty are always just, 
for the gentleman was killed by one of his own 
men, who were at last sensible that he exposed 
them to visible dangers without any necessity and 
for his private designs." 

After this he was forabout five years at Gosse- 
lies, in Brabant, as Confessor in a convent, and 
from thence removed to his native place, Ath, in 
Belgium, where, according to his narrative in the 
preface to the " Nouveau Decouverte," he was 
again persecuted. Then Father Fayez, Grand 
Commissary of Recollects at Louvain, being in- 
formed that the King of Spain and the Elector of 
Bavaria recommended the step, consented that 
he should enter the service of William the Third 
of Great Britam, who had been very kind to the 
Roman Catholics of Netherlands. By order of 
Payez he was sent to Antwerp to take the lay 
habit in the convent there, and subsequently 
went to Utrecht, where he finished his second 
book known as the New Discovery. 



His first volume, printed in 1683, contains 312 
pages, with an appendix of 107 pages, on the 
Customs of tlie Savages, while the Utreclit book 
of 1697 contains 5()9 pages without an appendix. 

On page 249 of the Xew Discovery, he begins 
an account of a voyage alleged to have been ma(k> 
to the mouth of the Mississippi, and occupies 
over sixty pages in tlie narrative. Tlie opening 
sentences give as a reason for concealing to this 
time his discovery, that La Salle would have re- 
ported him to his Superiors for presuming to go 
down instead of ascending the stream toward tlie 
north, as had been agreed ; and that the two with 
him threatened that if he did not consent to de- 
scend the river, they would leave him on shore 
during the night, and pursue their own course. 

lie asserts that he left the Gulf of Mexico, to 
return, on the 1st of Apiil, and on the 24th left 
the Arkansas ; but a week after tliis, he declares 
he lauded with the Sioux at the marsh about two 
miles below the city of Saint Paul. 

The account has been and is still a puzzle to 
the historical student. In our review of his first 
book we have noticed that as early as 1683, he 
claimed to have descended the ilississippi. In 
the Utrecht publication he declares that while at 
Quebec, upon his return to France, he gave to 
Father Valentine Roux, Commissary of Recol- 
lects, his journal, upon the promise that it would 
be kept secret, and that this Father made a copy 
of his whole voyage, including the visit to the 
Gulf of Mexico ; but in his Description of Louis- 
iana, Ilenneiiin wrote, " We had some design of 
going to tlie mouth of the river Colbert, which 
more probably empties into the Gulf of Mexico 
than into tlie Red Sea, but the tribes that seized 
us gave us no time to sail up and down the river." 

The additions in his Utrecht book to magnify 
his importance and detract from others, are 
many. As Sparks and Parkman have pointed 
oiit the plagiarisms of this edition, a reference 
here is unnecessary. 

Du Luth, who left Quebec in 1678, and had 
been in northern Minnesota, with an interpreter, 
for a year, after he met Ako and Hennepin, be- 
comes of secondary importance, in the eyes of 
the Franciscan. 

In the Description of Louisiana, on page 289, 
Uennepin speaks of passing the Falls of Saint 
Anthony, upon his return to Canada, in these 

few words : " Two of our men seized two beaver 
robes at the Falls of St. Anthony of Padua, 
which the Indians had in sacrifice, fastened to 
trees."' But m the Utrecht edition, conuuencing 
on page 416, there is nuuJi added concerning Du 
Luth. After using the language of the edition 
of 1683, already quoted it adds: "Hereupon 
there arose a dispute between Sieiir du Ltitli and 
my.self. I commended wliat they liad done, say- 
uig, 'The savages might judge by it that they 
disliked the superstition of these people.' Tlie 
Sieur du Luth, on tlie contrary, said tliat they 
ought to have left the robes where the savages 
placed them, for they would not fail to avenge 
the insult we had put upon tliem by this action, 
and that it was feared that they would attack iis 
on this journey. I confessed he had some foun- 
dation for what he said, and that he spoke accor- 
ding to the rules of jirudence. But one of the 
two men flatly replied, the two robes suited them, 
and they cared nothing for the savages and their 
superstitions. The Sieur du Luth words 
was so greatly enraged that he nearly struck the 
one who uttered them, but I inlei-vened and set- 
tled the dispute. The Picard and Michael Ako 
ranged themselves on the side of those who had 
taken the robes in question, which might have 
resulted badly. 

" I argued with Sieur du Luth that the savages 
would not attack us, because I was persuaded 
that their great chief Ouasicoude would have our 
interests at heart, and he had great credit with 
his nation. The matter terminated pleasantly. 

" When we arrived near tlie river Ouiscoiisin, 
we halted to smoke tlie meat of the buffalo we 
had killed on the journey. During our stay, three 
savages of the nation we had left, came by the 
side of our canoe to tell us that their great chief 
Ouasicoude, liaving learned tliat another chief of 
these people wished to pursue and kill us, and 
that he entered the cabin wliere he was consult- 
ing, and had struck him on tlu^ liead with sucli 
violence as to scatter his brains upon his associ- 
iites ; thus preventing the executuig of this inju- 
rious project. 

'■ We regaled the three savages, having a great 
abundance of food at that time. The Sieur du 
Luth, after the savages had left, was as enraged 
as before, and feared that they would pursue and 
attack us on om' voyage. He w ould have pushed 



the matter f iirtlier, but seeing that one man would 
resist, and was not in the humor to be imposed 
upon, he moderated, and I appeased them in the 
end with tlie assurance that God would not aban- 
don us in distress, and, provided we confided in 
Ilim, he would deliver us from our foes, because 
lie is the protector of men and angels." 

After describing a conference with the Sioux, 
lie adds, "Thus the savages were very kind, 
without mentioning the beaver robes. Tlie chief 
Ouasicoude told me to offer a fathom of ilarti- 
nico tobacco to the chief Aquipaguetin, who had 
adopted me as a son. This had an admirable 
effect upon the barbarians, who went off shouting 
several times the word ' Louis,' [Ouis or We] 
which, as he said, means the sun. Without van- 
ity, I must say that my name will be for a long 
time among these people. 

"The savages having left us, to go to war 
against the Messorites, the Maroha, the Illinois, 
and other nations which live toward the lower 
part of the Mississippi, and are irreconcilalile foes 
of the people of tlie North, tlie Sieur du Lutb. 
who upon many occasions gave me marks of his 
friendship, could not forbear to tell our men that 
I had all the reason in the world to believe that 
the Viceroy of Canada would give me a favorable 
reception, should we arrive before winter, and 
that he wished with all his heart that he had been 
among as many natives as myself." 

The style of Louis Hennepin is unmistakable 
in this extract, and it is amusing to read his pa- 
tronage of one of the fearless explorers of the 
Northwest, a cousin of Tonty, favored by Fron- 
tenac, and who was in jyiinnesota a year before 
his arrival. 

In 1691, six years before the Utrecht edition of 
Hennepin, another Recollect Franciscan had pub- 
Ushed a book at Paris, called " The First Estab- 
lishment of the Faith in New France," in which 
is the following tribute to Du Luth, whom Ilen- 
nepui strives to make a subordinate : " In the last 
years of M. de Frontenac's administration, Sieur 
DuLuth,a man of talent and experience, opened 
a way to the missionary and the Gospel in many 
different nations, turning toward the north of 
that lake [Superior] where he even built a fort, 
he advanced as far as the Lake of the Issati, 
caUed Lake Buade, from the family name of M. 

de Frontenac, planting the arms of his Majesty 
in several nations on the right and left." 

In the second volume of his last book, which is 
called " A Continuance of the New Discovery of 
a vast Country in America," etc., Hennepin no- 
ticed some criticisms. 

To the objection that his work was dedicated 
to William the Third of Great Britain, he replies : 
" My King, his most Catholic Majesty, his Elec- 
toral Highness of Bavaria, the consent in writing 
of the Superior of my order, the integrity of my 
faith, and the regular observance of my vows, 
which his Britannic Majesty allows me, are the 
best warrants of the uprightness of my inten- 

To the query, how he could travel so far upon 
the Mississippi in so little time, he answers with 
a bold face, " That we may, with a canoe and a 
pair of oars, go twenty, twenty-five, or thirty 
leagues every day, and more too, if there be oc- 
casion. And though we had gone but ten leagues 
a day, yet in thirty days we might easily have 
gone three hundred leagues. If during the time 
we spent from the river of the Illinois to the 
mouth of the Meschasipi, in the Gulf of Mexico, 
we had used a little more haste, we might have 
gone the same twice over." 

To the objection, that he said, he nad passed 
eleven years in America, when he had been there 
but about four, he evasively replies, that " reck- 
oning from the year 1674, when I first set out, to 
the year l(iS8, when I printed the second edition 
of my ' Louisiana,' it appears that I have spent 
fifteen years either in travels or prmting my 

To those who objected to the statement in his 
first book, in the dedication to Louis the Four- 
teenth, that the Sioux always call the sun Louis, 
he writes : " I repeat what I have said before, 
that being among the Issati and Nadouessans, by 
whom I was made a slave in America, I never 
heard them call the sun any other than Louis. 
It is true these savages call also the moon Louis, 
but with this distinction, that they give the moon 
the name of Louis Bastache, which in their lan- 
guage signifies, the sim that shines in the night." 

The Utrecht edition called forth much censure, 
and no one in France doubted that Hennepin 
was the author. D'Iberville, Governor of Lou- 
isiana, while in Paris, wrote on July 3d 1699, to 


the Minister of Marine and Colonies of France, 
in these words : " Very much vexed at the Rec- 
ollect, whose false narratives had deceived every 
one, and caused our suffering and total failure of 
our enterprise, by the time consumed in the 
' search of things which alone existed in his imag- 

The Eev. Father James Gravier, in a letter 
from a fort on the Gulf of Mexico, near the Mis- 
sissippi, dated February 16th, 1701, expressed the 
sentiment of his times when he speaks of Hen- 
nepin " who presented to King William, the Rela- 
tion of the Mississippi, wliere he never was, and 
after a thousand falsehoods and ridiculous boasts, 

* * * he makes Mr. de la Salle appear in liis 
Relation, wounded with two balls in the head, 
turn toward the Recollect Father Anastase, to 
ask him for absolution, having been killed in- 
stantly, without uttering a word • and other like 
false stories." 

Hennepin gradually faded out of sight. Bru- 
net mentions a letter written by J. B. Dubos, 
from Rome, dated March 1st, 1701, which men- 
tions that Hennepin was li\ing on the Capitoline 
Hill, in the celebrated convent of Ara Coeli, and 
was a favorite of Cardinal Spada. The time and 
place of his death has not been ascertaiiied. 





£arly Life. — Searches for Topper. — Interpreter at Sault St. Marie, Employed Ijy 
La Salle. — Bmlds Stocl;ade at Lake Pepin. — Hostile Indians Relinked. — A 
Silver Ostensorium Given to a Jesuit Chapel. — Perrot in the Battle against 
Seneeas, in New York. — Second Visit to Sioux Country. — Taking Possession by 
"Proces Verbal." — Discovery of Lead Mines. — Attends Council at Montreal. — 
Establishes a Pbst near Detroit, in Michigan. — Perrot's Death, and his Wife. 

Nicholas Perrot, sometimes written Pere, was 
one of the most energetic of the class in Canada 
known as " coureurs des bois," or forest rangers. 
Born in 1644, at an early age he was identified 
with the fur trade of the great inland lakes. As 
early as 1665, he was among the Outagamies 
[Foxes], and in 1667 was at Green Bay. In 1669, 
he was appointed by Talon to go to the lake re- 
gion in search of copper mines. At the formal 
taking possession of that country in the name of 
the King of France, at Sault St. Marie, on the 
14th of May, 1671, he acted as interpreter. In 
1677, he seems to have been employed at Fort 
Froutenac. La Salle was made very sick the 
next year, from eating a salad, and one Nicholas 
Perrot, called Joly Coeur (Jolly Soul) was sus- 
pected of having mingled poison with the food. 
After this he was associated with Du Luth in 
the execution of two Indians, as we have seen. 
In 1684, he was appointed by De la Barre, the 
Governor of Canada, as Commandant for the 
West, and left Montreal with twenty men. Ar- 
riving at Green Bay in Wisconsin, some Indians 
told him that they had visited countries toward 
the sotting sun, where they obtained the blue 
and green stones suspended from their ears and 
nosts, and that they saw horses and men like 
Frenchmen, probably the Spaniards of New Mex- 
ico ; and otliers said that they had obtamed hatch- 
ets from persons who lived in a house that walked 
on the water, near the mouth of the river of the 
Assiniboines, alluding to the English established 
at Hudson's Bay. Proceeding to the portage be- 
tween the Fox and Wisconsui, thirteen Ilurons 
were met, who were bitterly opposed to the es- 
tablishment of a post near the Sioux. After the 

Mississippi was reached, a party of Winnebagoes 
was employed to notify the tribes of Northern 
Iowa that the French had ascended the river, 
and wished to meet them. It was further agreed 
that prairie fires would be kindled from time to 
time, so that the Indians could follow the French. 

After entering Lake Pepin, near its mouth, on 
the east side, Perrot foimd a place suitable for a 
post, where there was wood. The stockade was 
built at the foot of a bluff beyond which was a 
large prairie. La Potherie makes this statement, 
which is repeated by Penicaut, who writes of 
Lake Pepin : " To the right and left of its shores 
there are also prairies. In that on the right on 
the bank of the lake, there is a fort, which was 
built by Nicholas Perrot, whose name it yet [1700] 

Soon after he was established, it was announced 
that a band of Aiouez [loways] was encamped 
above, and on the way to visit the post. The 
French ascended in canoes to meet them, but as 
they drew nigh, the Indian women ran up the 
bluffs, and hid in the woods ; but twenty of the 
braves mustered courage to advance and greet 
Perrot, and bore him to the chief's lodge. The 
chief, bending over Perrot, began to weep, and 
allowed the moisture to fall upon his visitor. 
After he had exhausted himself, the principal 
men of the party repeated the slabbering process. 
Then buffalo tongues were boiled in an earthen 
pot, and after being cut into small pieces, the 
chief took a piece, and, as a mark of respect, 
placed it in Perrot's mouth. 

During the winter of 1684-85, the French tra- 
ded in Minnesota. 

At the end of the beaver hunt, the Ayoes 
[loways] came to the post, but Perrot was absent 
visiting the Nadouaissioux. and they sent a chief 
to notify him of their arrival. Four Illinois met 
him on the way, and were anxious for the return 
of four children held by the French. When the 



Sioux, who were at war with tlie Illinois, per- 
ceived them, they wislied to seize their canoes, 
but the Frendi voyageurs who were guarding 
them, pushed into the middle of the river, and 
the French at the post coming to their assistance, 
a reconciliation was effected, and four of the 
Sioux took the Illinois upon their shoulders, and 
bore them to the shore. 

An order having been received from Denon- 
ville. Governor of Canada, to bring the JSIiamis, 
and other tribes, to the rendezvous at Niagara, 
to go on an expedition against the Senecas, Per- 
rot entrusting the post at Lake Pei)in to a few 
Frenchmen, visited the Miamis, who were dwel- 
ling below on the Mississippi, and with no guide 
but Indian camp fires, went sixty miles into the 
country beyond the river. 

Upon his return, he perceiveci a great smoke, 
and at first thought that it was a war party pro- 
ceeding to the Sioux country. Fortunately he 
met a Maskouten chief, who had been at the post 
to sec him, and he gave the intelligence, that the 
Outagamies [Foxes], Kikapous [Kickapoos], and 
Mascoutechs [Maskoutens], and others, from the 
region of Green Bay, had determined to pillage 
the post, kill the French, and then go to war 
against the Sioux. Hurrying on, he reached the 
fort, and learned that on that very day three 
spies had been there and seen that there were 
only SIX Frenchmen in charge. ' 

The next day two more spies appeared, but 
Perrot had taken the precaution to put loaded 
guns at the door of each hut, and caused his men 
frequently to change their clothes. To the query, 
" How m<any French were there?" the reply was 
given, " Forty, and that more w-ere daily expected, 
who had been on a buffalo hunt, and that the 
gims were well loaded and knives well shaqseued/' 
They were then told to go back to their camp 
and bring a chief of each nation represented, and 
that it Indians, in large numbers, came near, they 
would be fired at. In accordance with this mes- 
sage six chiefs presented themselves. After their 
bows and arrows were taken away they were in- 
vited to Perrot's cabin, who gave something to 
eat and tobacco to smoke. Looking at Perrot's 
loaded guns they asked, '-If he was afraid of his 
childrenV" He replied, he was not. They con- 
tinued, " You are disjileased." lie answered, 
" I have good reason to be. The Spirit has warned 

me of your designs; you wiU take my thmgs 
away and put me in tlie kettle, and proceed 
against the Nadouiiissioux, The Spirit told me 
to be on ray guard, and he would help me." At 
this they were astonished, and confessed that an 
attack was meditated. That night the chiefs 
slei)t in the stockade, and early the next morn- 
ing a part of the liostile force was encamped in 
the vicinity, and wished to trade. Perrot had 
now only a force of fifteen men, and seizing the 
chiefs, he told them he would break their heads 
if they did not disperse the Indians. One of the 
chiefs then stood up on the gate of the fort and 
said to the warriors, " Do not advance, young 
men, or you are dead. The Spirit has warned 
Metaminens [PerrotJ of your designs." They fol- 
lowed the advice, and afterwards Perrot present- 
ed them with two guns, two kettles, and some 
tobacco, to close the door of war against the Na- 
douaissioux, and the chiefs were all permitted to 
make a brief visit to the i)Ost. 

Ileturning to Green Hay in 1686, he passed much 
time in collecting allies for the expedition against 
the Iroquois in New York. During this year he 
gave to the Jesuit cliai)el at Depere, five miles 
above Green Bay, a church utensil of silver, fif- 
teen inches high, still in existence. The stand- 
ard, nine inches in height, supports a radiated 
circlet closed with glass on both sides and sur- 
moinited with a cross. This vessel, weighing 
about twenty ounces, was hitended to show the 
consecrated wafer of tlie mass, and is called a 
soleil, monstrance, or ostensorium. 

Around the oval base of the rim is the follow- 
ing inscription: 









& ^%0 


In 1S(I2 some workmen in digging at (Jreen 
Bay, Wisconsin, ou the old Langlade estate dis- 



covered this relic, wliicli is now kept iii the vault 
of the Koman Catholic bishop of that diocese. 

During the spring of 1687 Perrot, with De Lii- 
th and Tonty, was with the Indian allies and the 
French in the expedition against the Senecas of 
the Genessee Valley in New York. 

The next year Denonville, Governor of Canada, 
agaui sent Perrot with forty Frenchmen to the 
Sioux who, says Potherie, " were very distant, 
and who would not trade with us as easily as 
the other tribes, the Outagamis [Foxes] having 
boasted of having cut off the passage thereto." 

When Perrot arrived at Mackinaw, the tribes 
of that region were much excited at the hostility 
of tlie Outagamis [Foxes] toward the Sauteurs 
[Chippeways]. As soon as Perrot and his party 
reached Green Bay a deputation of the Foxes 
sought an interview. lie told them that he had 
nothing to do with this quarrel with the Chippe- 
ways. In justification, they said that a party of 
tlieir young men, in going to war against the 
Nadouaissioux, had found a young man and three 
Chippeway girls. 

Perrot was silent, and continued his journey 
towards the Nadouaissioux. Soon he wns met by 
five chiefs of the Foxes in a canoe, who begged 
him to go to their village. Perrot consented, and 
when he went into a chief's lodge they placed be- 
fore him broiled venison, and raw meat for the 
rest of the French. He refused to eat because, 
said he, "that meat did not give him any spirit, 
but he would take some when the Outagamis 
[Foxes] were more reasonable."' He then chided 
tliem for not havmg gone, as requested by the 
Governor of Canada, to the Detroit of Lake 
Erie, and during the absence of the French fight- 
ing with the Chippeways. Having ordered them 
to go on their beaver hunt and only fight against 
the Iroquois, he left a few Frenchmen to trade 
and proceeded on his journey to the Sioux coun- 
try. Arriving at the portage between the Fox and 
Wisconsin Rivers they were impeded by ice, but 
with the aid of some Pottawattomies they trans- 
ported their goods to the Wisconsin, which they 
found no longer frozen. Tlie Chippeways were 
informed that their daughters had been taken 
from the Foxes, and a deputation came to take 
them back, but being attacked by the Foxes, who 
did not know their errand, they fled without se- 
curing the three girls. Perrot then ascended the 

Mississippi to the post which in 1684 he had 
erected, just above the mouth, and on the east 
side of Lake Pepin. 

As soon as the rivers were navigable, the Na- 
douaissioux came down and escorted Perrot to 
one of their villages, where he was welcomed 
with much enthusiasm. He was carried upon a 
beaver robe, followed by a long line of warriors, 
each bearhig a pipe, and singing. After taking 
liim around the village, he was borne to the chief's 
lodge, when several came in to weep over his head, 
with the same tenderness that the Ayoes (loways) 
did, when Perrot several years before arrived at 
Lake Pepin. " These weepings," says an old 
chronicler " do not weaken their souls. They are 
very good warriors, and reported the bravest in 
that region. They are at war with all tlie tribes 
at present except the Saulteurs [Chippeways] and 
Ayoes [loways], and even with these they have 
quarrels. At the break of day the Nadouaissioux 
bathe, even to the youngest. They have very fine 
forms, but the women are not comely, and they 
look upon them as slaves. They are jealous and 
suspicious about them, and they are the cause 
of quarrels and blood-shedding. 

" The Sioux are very dextrous with their ca- 
noes, and they fight unto death if surrounded. 
Their country is full of swamps, which shelter 
them in summer from being molested. One must 
be a Nadouaissioux, to find the way to their vil- 

While Perrot was absent in New York, fight- 
ing the Senecas, a Sioux chief knowing that few 
Frenchmen were left at Lake Pepin, came with 
one hundred warriors, and endeavored to pillage 
it. Of this complaint was made, and the guilty 
leader was near being put to death by his associ- 
ates. Amicable relations having been formed, 
preparations were made by Perrot to return to 
liis post. As they were going away, one of the 
Frenchmen complained that a box of his goods 
had been stolen. Perrot ordered a voyageur to 
bring a cup of water, and into it he poured some 
brandy. He then addressed the Indians ajid told 
them he would dry up their marshes if the goods 
were not restored ; and then he set on fire the 
brandy in tlie cup. The savages were astonislied 
and terrified, and supposed that he possessed su- 
pernatural powers ; and in aUttle "-'^'lethe goods 



were found and restored to the owner, and the 
French descended to llieir stockade. 

The Poxes, while rerrot was in the Sioux 
country, clianged their village, and settled on the 
Mississippi. Coming up to visit Perrot, they 
asked him to establish friendly relations between 
tliem and the Sioux. At the time some Sioux 
were at the post trading furs, and at first they 
supposed the French were plotting w^th the 
Foxes. Perrot, however, eased them by present- 
ing the cahunet and saying that the Preuch con- 
sidered the Outagamis [Foxes] as brothers, and 
then adding: "Smoke in my pipe; this is the 
maimer with which Onontio ((iovenior of Can- 
ada] feeds his children." The Sioux replied that 
they wished the Foxes to smoke first. This was 
reluctantly done, and the Sioux smoked, but 
would not conclude a definite peace until they 
consulted their chiefs. This was not concluded, 
because Perrot, before the chiefs came down, 
received orders to return to Canada. 

About this time, in the presence of Father Jo- 
seph James Marest, a Jesuit missionary, Boisguil- 
lot, a trader on the Wisconsin and Mississippi. I>e 
Sueur, who afterward built a post below tlie Saint 
Croix lliver, about nine miles from Hastings, the 
following document was prepared: 

" Nicholas Perrot, commanding for the King at 
the post of the Nadouessioux, commissioned by 
the Marquis Denonville, Governor and Lieuten- 
ant Governor of all New France, to manage the 
interests of commerce among all the Indian tribes 
and people of the Bay des Puants [Green Bay], 
Nadouessioux, Mascoutens, and other western na- 
tions of the Upper Mississijipi, and to take pos- 
session in the King's name of all the places where 
he has heretofore been and whither he will go: 

" We this day, the eighth of May, one thousand 
six hundred and eighty-nine, do, in the presence 
of the Reverend Father Marest, of the Society of 
Jesus, Missionary among the Nadouessioux, of 
Monsieur de BoisguUlot, commanding the French 
in the neighborliood of the Ouiskonclie, on the 
Mississippi, Augiistin Legardeur, Esquire, Sieur 
de Caumont, and of Messieurs Le Sueur, Hebert, 
Lemire and Blein. 

" Declare to all whom it may concern, that, be- 
ing come from the Bay des Puants, and to the 
Lake of the Ouiskonches, we did transport our- 
selves to the country of the Nadouessioux, on the 

border of the river St. Croix, and at the mouth 
of the river St. Pierre, on the bank of which were 
the Mantantans, and furtlier up to the interior, 
as far as the Menchokatonx [Med-ay-wah-kawn- 
twawn], with whom dwell the majority of the 
Songeskitons [Se-see-twawns] and otlier Nadou- 
essioux who are to the northwest of the Missis- 
sippi, to tiike possession, for and in the name of 
the King, of tlie countries and rivers inliabited by 
the said tribes, and of which they are prcijirietors. 
The present act done jn our presence, signed with 
our hand, and subscribed." 

The three Cliipiieway girls of whom mention 
has been made were still with tlie I'oxes, and 
Perrot took them with him to ^Mackinaw, upon 
his return to Canada. 

AVhile there, the Ottawas held some prisoners 
upon an island not far from the mainland. Tlie 
Jesuit Fathers went over and tried to save the 
captives from harsh treatment, but were misuc- 
cessful. The canoes appeared at length near each 
other, one man paddling in each, while the war- 
riors were answering the shouts of the prisoners, 
who each held a white stick in his hand. As 
they neared the shore the chief of the party made 
a speech to the Indians wiio lived on the shore, 
and giving a history of the campaign, told them 
that they were masters of the jirisoners. The 
warriors then came on land, and, according to 
custom, abandoned the spoils. An old man then 
ordered nine men to conduct the prisoners to a 
separate place. The women and the young men 
formed a line with big sticks. The young pris- 
oners soon found their feet, but the old men were 
so badly used they spat blood, and they were con- 
demned to be burned at the ilamilion. 

The Jesuit Fathers and the French officers 
were much embarrassed, and feared that the Iro- 
quois would complain of the little care which had 
been used to prevent cruelty. 

Perrot, in this emergency, walked to the place 
where the prisoners were singing the death dirge, 
in expectation of being l)unied, and told them to 
sit ilown and be silent. A few Ottauwaws rudely 
told them to sing on, but Perrot forbade. He 
then went back to the Council, where the old men 
had rendered judgment, and ordered one prisoner 
to be burned at Mackinaw, one at Saiilt St. Marie 
and another at Green Bay. Undaunted he spoke 
as follows : " I come to cut the strings of the 



(logs. I will not suffer them to be eaten • I have 
pity on them, since my Father, Onontio, has com- 
manded me. You Outaouaks [Ottavraws] are 
like tame bears, who will not recognize them who 
lias brouglit them up. You have foi^otten Onon- 
tio's protection. When he asks your obedience, 
you want to rule over him, and eat the flesh of 
those children he does not wish to give to you. 
Take care, that, if oyu swallow them, Onontio 
will tear them with violence from between your 
teeth. I speak as a brother, and I think I am 
showing pity to your children, by cuttmg the 
bonds of your prisoners." 

His boldness had the desired effect. The pris- 
oners were released, and two of them were sent 
witli him to Montreal, to be retimied to the Iro- 

On the 22nd of May, 1690, with one hundred 
and forty-three voyageurs and six Indians, Fer- 
ret left Montreal as an escort of Sieur de Lou- 
vigny La Porte, a half-pay captain, appointed to 
succeed Durantaye at Mackinaw, l)y Frontenac, 
the new Governor of Canada, who in October of 
the previous year had arrived, to take the place 
of Denonville. 

Perrot, as he approached Mackinaw, went in 
advance to notify the French of the coming of 
the commander of the post. As he came in sight 
of the settlement, he hoisted the white flag with 
the fleur de lis and the voyageurs shouted, " Long 
live the king! " Louvigny soon appeared and was 
received by one hundred " coureur des bois " 
mider arms. 

From Mackinaw, Perrot proceeded to Green 
Bay, and a party of Miamis there begged him to 
make a trading establishment on the Mississippi 
towards the Ouiskonsing ( Wisconsin. ) The chief 
made him a present of a piece of lead from a 
muie which he had found in a small stream which 
flows into the Mississippi. Perrot promised to 
visit him within twenty days, and the chief then 
returned to his village below the d'Ouiskonche 
(iWsconsin) Eiver. 

Having at length reached his post on Lake 
Pepin, he was informed that the Sioux were 
forming a large war party against the Outaga- 
mis (Foxes) and other allies of the French. He 
gave notice of his arrival to a party of a))out four 
hundred Sioux who were on the Mississippi. 

They arrested the massengers and came to the 
post for the purpose of plunder. Perrot asked 
them why they acted in this manner, and said 
that the Foxes, Miamis, Kickapoos, Illinois, and 
Maskoutens had united in a war party against 
them, but that he had persuaded them to give it 
up, and now he wished them to return to their 
families and to their beaver. The Sioux declared 
that they had started on the war-path, and that 
they were ready to die. After they had traded 
their furs, they sent for Perrot to come to their 
camp, and begged that he would not hinder them 
from searching for their foes. Perrot tried to dis- 
suade them, but they insisted that the Spirit had 
given them men to eat, at three days' journey 
from the post Then more powerful influences 
were used. After giving them two kettles and 
some merchandise, Poerrt spoke thus: " I love 
your life, and I am sure you will be defeated. 
Your Evil Spirit has deceived you. If you kill 
the Outagamis, or their allies, you must strike me 
first; if you kill them, you kill me just tlie same, 
for I hold them luider one wing and you under 
the other." After this he extended the calumet, 
which they at first refused; but at length a chief 
said he was right, and, making invocations to the 
sun, wished Perrot to take him back to his arms. 
This was granted, on condition that he would 
give up his weapons of war. The chief then tied 
them to a pole in the centre of the fort, turning 
them toward the sun. He then persuaded the 
other chiefs to give up the expedition, and, send- 
ing for Perrot, he placed the calumet before him, 
one end in the earth aud the other on a small 
forked twig to hold it firm. Then he took from 
his own sack a pair of his cleanest moccasins, and 
taking off Ferret's shoes, put on these. After he 
had made him eat, presenting the calumet, he 
said: " We listen to you now. Do for us as you 
do for our enemies, and prevent them from kill- 
ing us, and we will separate for the beaver hunt. 
The sun is the witness of our obedience." 

After this, Perrot descended the Mississippi 
and revealed to the Maskoutens, who had come to 
meet him, how he had pacified the Sionx. He, 
about this period, in accordance with his prom- 
ise, visited the lead mines. He found the ore 
abundant " but the lead hard to work because it 
lay between rocks which required Ijlowing up. 
It had very little dross and was easily melted." 



Pemcaut, who ascended the Mississippi in 1700, 
wrote that twenty leagues below the "Wisconsin, 
on both sides of the Mississippi, were mines of 
lead called '• Nicolas Perrofs." Early French 
maps indicate as the locality of lead mines the 
site of modem towns. Galena, in Illinois, and Du- 
buque, In Iowa. 

In August, 1693, about two hundred French- 
men from Mackinaw, with delegates from the 
tribes of the AVest, arrived at Montreal to at- 
tend a grand council called by Governor Fronte- 
nac, and among these was Perrot. 

On the first Sunday in September the governor 

gave the Indians a great feast, after which thej 
and the traders began to return to the wilder- 
ness. Perrot was ordered by Frontenac to es- 
tablish a new post for tlie !Miamis in ilichigan, 
in the neigliBbrhood of the Kalamazoo River. 

Two years later he is present again, in August, 
at a council in Montreal, then returned to the 
West, and in 1699 is recalled from (Jreen Hay. 
In 1701 he was at Montreal acting as interpreter, 
and appears to have died before 1718: his wife 
was Madeline Raclos, and his residence was in 
the Seigneury of Becancourt, not far from Three 
Rivers, on the St. Lawrence. 





Ln Hoiitan, a Gascon by Birth.— Early Life-— Description of Fox ami Wisconsin 
Kivers — Indian Feast. — Alleged Ascent of Long River. — Bobe Exposes tlie 
Deception. — Route to the Pacific. 

The '• Travels" of Baron La Hontan appeared 
in A. D. 1703, both at London and at Hague, and 
were as saleable and readable as those of Ilerinepin, 
which were on the comiters of booksellers at the 
same time. 

La Hontan, a Gascon by birth, and in style of 
writing, when about seventeen years of age, ar- 
rived in Canada, m 1683, as a private soldier, and 
was with Gov. De la Barre in his expedition of 
1684, toward Niagara, and was also in the battle 
near Rochester, New York, in 1687, at which Du 
Lnth and Perrot, explorers of Minnesota, were 

In 1688 he appears to have been sent to Fort 
St. Joseph, which was built by Du Luth. on the 
St. Clare River, near the site of Fort Gratiot, 
Michigan. It is possible that he may have accom- 
panied Perrot to Lake Pepin, who came about 
this time to reoccupy his old post. 

From the following extracts it v^dll be seen that 
his style is graphic, and that he probably had been 
in 1688 in the valley of the Wisconsin. At Mack- 
inaw, after his return from his pretended voyage 
of the Long River, he writes: 

" I left here on the 24th September, with my 
men and five Outaouas, good hunters, whom I 
have before mentioned to you as having been of 
good service to me. All my brave men being 
provided with good canoes, filled with provisions 
and ammunition, together with goods for the In- 
dian trade, I took advantage of a north wind, and 
ill three days entered the Bay of the Pouteouata- 
mis, distant from here about forty leagues. The 
entrance to the bay is fidl of islands. It is ten 
leagues wide and twenty-five in length. 

" On the 29th we entered a river, wliich is quite 
deep, wliose waters are so affected by the lake 
that they often rise and fall three feet iu twelve 

Lours. This is an observation that I made dur- 
ing these three or four days that I passed here. 
The Sakis, the Poutouatamis, and a few of the 
Malominis have their villages on the border of this 
river, and the Jesuits have a house there. In the 
place there is carried on quite a commerce in furs 
and Indian corn, which the Indians traffic with 
the ' coureurs des bois' that go and come, for it is 
their nearest and most convenient passage to the 

" The lands here are very fertile, and produce, 
almost without culture, the wheat of our Europe, 
peas, beans, and any quantity of fruit unknown 
in France. 

" The moment I landed, the warriors of tliree 
nations came by turns to my cabin to entertain 
me with the pipe and chief dance ; the first in 
proof of peace and friendship, the second to indi- 
cate their esteem and consideration for me. In 
return, I gave them several yards of tobacco, and 
beads, with which they trimmed their capots. The 
next morning, I was asked as a guest, to one of 
the feasts of this nation, and after having sent my 
dishes, which is the custom, I went towards noon. 
They began to compliment me of ray arrival, and 
after hearing them, they all, one after the other, 
began to sing and dance, in a manner that I will 
detail to you when I have more leisure. These 
songs and dances lasted two hours, and were sea- 
soned with whoops of joy, and quililili^s that they 
have woven into their ridiculous miisifiue. Then 
the captives waited upon us. The whole troop 
were seated in the Oriental custom. Each one 
had his portion before him, like our monks in 
their refectories. They commenced by placing 
four dishes before me. The first consis^^^ed of two 
white fish simply boiled in water. The second 
was chopped meats with the boiled tongue of a 
bear ; the third a beaver's tail, all roasted. They 
made me drink also of a syrup, mixed with water, 
made out of the maple tree. The feast lasted two 



hours, after which, I requested a chief of the 
nation to sing for me ; for it is the custom, when 
we have husmess with them, to employ an inferior 
for self in all the ceremonies they perform. I 
gave him several pieces of tohacco, to oblige him 
to keep the party till dark. The next day and the 
day following, I attended the feasts of the other 
nations, where I observed the same formahties.'" 

He alleges that, on the 23d of October, he 
reached the Mississippi Kiver, and, ascending, on 
the .Sd of November he entered into a river, a 
tributary from the west, that was almost without 
a current, and at its mouth filled with rushes. 
He then describes a journey of five hundred miles 
up this stream. He declares he foimd upon its 
banks three great nations, the Eokoros, Essa- 
napes, and Gnacsitares, and because he ascended 
it for sixty days, he named it Long Eiver. 

For years his wondrous story was believed, and 
geographers hastened to trace it upon their maps. 
But in time the voyage up the Long Kiver was 
discovered to be a fabrication. There is extant 
a letter of Bobe, a Priest of the Congregation of 
the Mission, dated Versailles, March 15, 1716, and 
addressed to De L'Isle, the geographer of the 
Academy of Sciences at Paris, which exposes the 

He writes: "It seems to me that you might 
give the name of Bourbonia to these vast coun- 
tries which are between the ^Missouri, ilississippi. 
and the "Western Ocean. "Would it not be well to 
efface that great river which La Hontan says he 

" All the Canadians, and even the Governor 
General, have told me that tliis river is unknown. 
If it existed, the French, who are on the Illinois, 
and at Ouabache, woidd know of it. The last 
volume of the ' Lettres Edifiantes' of the Jesuits, 
in wliich there is a very fine relation of the Illinois 
Coimtry, does not speak of it, any more than the 
letters \\iiich I received this year, which tell won- 
ders of the beauty and goodness of the country. 
They send me some quite pretty work, made by 
the wife of one of the chiefs. 

" They tell me, that among the Scioux, of the 
Mississippi, there are always Frenchmen trading; 
that the course of the Mississippi is from north 
to west, and from west to south; that it is knovsai 
that toward the soiux-e of the ^lississippi there is 
a river in the liighhmds that leads to the western 

ocean; that the Indians say that they have seen 
bearded men with caps, who gather gold-dust on 
the seashore, but that it is very far from this 
comitry, and that they pass through many nations 
unknown to the French. 

" I have a memoir of La :Motte Cadillac, form- 
erly Governor of Missilimacktnack, who says that 
if St. Peters [Minnesota] Hiver is ascended to its 
soiu'ce they will, according to all appearance, find 
in the higliland another river leading to the "West- 
ern Ocean. 

"For the last two years I have tormented 
exceedmgly the Governor-General, M. Baudot, 
and M. Duche, to move them to discover this 
ocean. If I succeed, as I hope, we shall hear 
tidings before three years, and I shall have the 
pleasure and the consolation of having rendered 
a good service to Geography, to Keligion and to 
the State." 

Charlevoix, m liis Ilistorj' of New France, al- 
luding to La Hontan's voyage, writes: " The 
voyage up the Long River is as fabulous as the 
Island of Barrataria, of which Sancho Panza was 
governor. Nevertheless, in France and else- 
where, most i)eople have received these memoirs 
as the fruits of the travels of a gentleman wIkj 
wrote badly, althougli (juite lightly, and who had 
no religion, but who described pretty sincerely 
what he had seen. The consequence is that the 
compilers of historical and geographical diction- 
aries have almost always followed and cited them 
in preference to more faithful records." 

Even in modern times, Nicollet, employed by 
the United States to explore the Upper 2ilississ- 
ippi, has the following in his report: 

"Having procured a copy of La Ilontan's 
book, m which there is a roughly made map of 
his Long River, I was struck \\ith the resem- 
blance of its course as laid down with that of 
Cannon River, which I had previously sketched 
in my own tield-book. I soon convinced myself 
that the principal statements of the Baron in ref- 
erence to the country and the few details he gives 
of the physical character of the the river, coui- 
cide remarkably with what I had laid dowii as 
belonging to Cannon River. Then the lakes and 
swamps corresponded; traces of Indian villages 
mentioned by him might be found by a growtli 
of wild grass that propagates itself around aU olii 
Indian settlements." 





Le Sueur Visits Lake Pepin. — Stationed at La Poinie. — Establishes a Post on an 
Island Above Lake Pepin. — Island Described by Penicaut. — First Sioux Chief 
at Montreal. — Ojibway Chiefs' Siteeches. — Speech of Sioux Chief. — Teeoskah- 
tay's Death. — Le Sueur Goes to France. — Posts West of Mackinaw Abandoned 
— Le Sueur's License Revoked. — Second Visit to France. — Arrives in Gulf of 
Mexico witli D'Iberville. — Ascends the Mississippi. — Lead Mines. — Canadians 
Fleeing from the Sioux. — At the Mouth of the Wisconsin. — Sioux Robbers, — Elk 
Hunting.— Lake Pepin Described.— Rattlesnakes.— La Place Killad.- St. Croix 
River Named After a Frenchman. — Le Sueur Reaches St. Pterre, now Minne' 
sola River. — Enters Mankahto, or Blue Earth, River.— Sioux of the Plains. — 
Port L'Huillier Completed. — Conferences with Sioux Bands — Assinaboines a 
Separated Sioux Band. — An Indian Feast. — Names of the Sioux Bands. — Char- 
levoix's Account. — Le Sueur Goes with D'Iberville to France. — D'Iberville's 
Memorial.— Early Census of Indian Tribes.— Penicaut's Account of Fort L'Huil 
lier. — Le Sueur's Departure from the Fort. — D'Evaqe Left in Charge. — Return' 
to Mobile.— Juchereau at Mouth of Wisconsin.— Bonder a Montreal Merchant. — 
Sioux Attack Miamis. — Boudor Robbed by the Sioux. 

Le Sueur -was a native of Canada, and a rela- 
tive of D'Iberville, the early Governor of Louis- 
iana. He came to Lake Pepin in 1683, -n'ith 
Nicholas Perrot, and his name also appears at- 
tached to the document prepared in May, 1689, 
after Perrot had re-occupied his post just above 
the entrance of the lake, on the east side. 

In 1692, he 'was sent by Governor Frontenae of 
Canada, to La Pointe, on Leake Superior, and m a 
dispatch of 1693, to the French Govermneut, is 
the following : " Le Sueur, another voyageiu-, is 
to remain at Chagouamagon [La Pointe] to en- 
deavor to maintain the peace lately concluded be- 
tween the Saulteurs [Chippeways] and Sioux. 
This is of the greatest consequence, as it is i\ov,' 
the sole pass by -which access can be had to the 
latter nation, whose trade is very profitable ; the 
comitry to the south being occupied by the Foxes 
and Maskoutens, who several times plundered the 
French, on the ground they were carrying ammu- 
nition to the Sioux, their ancient enemies." 

Entering the Sioux country in 1694, he estab- 
lished a post upon a prairie island in the Missis- 
sippi, about nine miles below the present to\A'n of 
Hastings, according to Bellin and others. Peni- 
caut, who accompanied him in the exploration of 
the Minnesota, -writes, " At the extremity of the 
lake [PepinJ you come to the Isle Pelee, so called 
because there are no trees on it. It is on this island 

that the French fi'om Canada established their 
fort and storehouse, and they also -winter here, 
because game is very abundant. In the month of 
September they bring their store of meat, obtained 
by hunting, and .after having skinned and cleaned 
it, hang it upon a crib of raised scaffolding, in 
order that the extreme cold, -which lasts from 
September to March, may preserve it from spoil- 
ing. During the whole winter they do not go out 
except for water, when they have to break the ice 
every day, and the cabin is generally built upon 
the bank, so as not to have far to go. When 
spring arrives, the savages come to the island, 
bringing their merchandize." 

On the fifteenth of July, 1695, Le Sueur arrived 
at Montreal with a party of Ojibways, and the 
first Ikikotah brave that had ever visited Canada. 

The Indians -were much impressed with the 
power of France by the marching of a detach- 
ment of seven hundred picked men, under Chev- 
aUer Cresafl, who were on their way to La Chine. 

On the eighteenth, Frontenae, in the presence 
of Callieres and other persons of distinction, gave 
them an audience. 

The first speaker was the chief of the Ojibway 
band at La Pointe, Shingowahbay, who said: 

" That he was come to pay his respects to Onon- 
tio [the title given the Governor of Canada] in the 
name of the young warriors of Pomt Chagouami- 
gon, and to thank him for having given them 
some Frenchmen to dwell with them; to testify 
their sorrow for one Jobin, a Frenchman, who 
was killed at a feast, accidentally, and not ma- 
liciously. We come to ask a favor of you, which 
is to let us act. We are allies of the Sciou. Some 
Outagamies, or Mascoutuis, have been killed. 
The Sciou came to mom-n with us. Let us act, 
Father; let us take revenge. 

" Le Sueiu- alone, who is acquainted -with the 
langufige of the one and the other, can serve us. 
We ask that he return with us." 



Another speaker of the Ojibways was Le Bro- 

Teeoskahtay, the Dahkotah chief, before he 
spoke, spread out a beaver robe, and, laying an- 
otlier with a tobacco poudi and otter skin, liegan 
to weep bitterly. After drying his tears, he said: 

" All of the nations had a father, who afforded 
them protection; all of them have iron. B'lthe 
was a bastard in quest of a father; he was come 
to see him, and hopes that he will take pity on 

He then placed upon the beaver robe twenty- 
two arrows, at each aiTow naming a Dahkotah 
village that desired Frontenac's protection. Ke- 
suming his speech, he remarked: 

" It is not on account of what I bring that I 
hope him who rules the earth will have pity on 
me. I learned from the Sauteurs that he wanted 
nothing; that he was the Master of the Iron; that 
he had a big heart, into wliich he could receive 
all the nations. This has induced me to abandon 
my people and come to seek his protection, and 
to beseech bim to receive me among the number 
of his children. Take courage. Great Captain, 
and reject me not; despise me not, though I ap- 
pear poor in your eyes. jXJI the nations here 
present know tliat I am rich, and the little they 
oiler here is taken from my lands." 

Count Frontenac in reply told the chief that he 
would receive the Bahkotahs as his children, on 
condition that they would be obedient, and that 
he would send back Le Sueur with him. 

Teeoskahtay, taking hold of the governor's 
knees, wept, and said: "Take pity on us; we 
are well aware that we are not able to speak, be- 
ing children; but Le Sueiu', who imderstands our 
language, and has seen all our villages, will next 
year inform you what v\'ill liave been achieved by 
the Sioux nations represented by those arrows be- 
fore you." 

Having finished, a Dahkotah woman, the vnfe 
of a great chief whom Le Sueur liad purcliased 
from captivity at Mackinaw, approached those in 
authority, and, with downcast eyes, embraced 
their knees, weeping and saying: 

" I thank thee. Father; it is by thy means I 
have been liberated, and am no longer captive.'" 

Then Teeoskahtay resumed: 

" I speak like a man penetrated ■with joy. The 
Great CaptaLu; he who is the Master of Iron, as- i 

sures me of his protection, and I promise him that 

if he condescends to restore my children, now 
prisoners among the Foxes, Ottawas and llurous, 
I will return hither, and bring with me tlie twen- 
ty-two villages wlioin he lias just restored to life 
by promising to send tlieni Iron." 

On the 14th of August, two weeks after the 
Ojibway chief left for his home on Lake Superior, 
Nicholas I'errot arrived witli a dciiulation of 
Sauks, Foxes, Menomonees, Sliamis of Maramek 
and Pottowatomies. 

Two dajs after, they had a council witli the 
governor, who thus spoke to a Fox brave: 

" I see that you are a young man; your nation 
has quite tmned away from my wishes; it has 
pillaged some of my young men, wliom it has 
treated as slaves. I know tliat your father, who 
loved the French, had no hand in the indignity. 
You only imitate the example of your father 
who had sense, when you do not co-operate 
with those of your tribe who are wishing to go 
over to my enemies, after they grossly insulted 
me and defeated the Sioux, whom I now consider 
my son. I pity the Sioux; I pity the dead whose 
loss I deplore. Perrot goes up there, and he )jill 
speak to your nation from me for the release of 
their prisoners; let them attend to him." 

Teeoshkalitay never returned to his native land. 
"Wliile in Montreal he was taken sick, and in 
thirty-three days he ceased to breathe; and, fol- 
lowed by white men, his body was interred in the 
white man's grave. 

Le Sueur instead of going back to ilumesota 
that year, as was expected, went to France and 
received a license, in l(i9", to open certain mines 
supposed to exist in ilinnesota. The ship in 
which he was returning was captured by the Eng- 
lish, and he was taken to England. After liis 
release he went back to France, and, iu 1098, ob- 
tained a new commission for minhig. 

AVhile Le Sueur was in Europe, the Dahkotas 
waged war against tlie Foxes and Miamis. In 
retaliation, the latter raised a war party and en- 
tered the land of the Dahkotahs. Finding their 
foes intrenched, and assisted by " coureurs des 
bois," they were indignant; and on their return 
they had a skirmish with some Frenchmen, who 
were carrying goods to the Dahkotahs. 

Shortly after, they met Perrot, and were about 
to burn him to diath, when prevented by some 



friendly Foxes. The Miamis, after this, were 
disposed to be friendly to the Iroquois. In 1696, 
the year previous, the authorities at Quebec de- 
cided that it was expedient to abandon all the 
posts west of Mackinaw, and withdraw the French 
from Wisconsin and Minnesota. 

The voyageurs were not disposed to leave the 
country, and the governor wrote to Pontcbar- 
train for instructions, in October, 1698. In liis 
dispatch he remarks: 

" In this conjuncture, and under all these cir- 
cumstances, we consider it our duty to postpone, 
imtil new instructions from the court, the execu- 
tion of Sieur Le Sueur's enterprise for the mines, 
though the promise had already been given him 
to send two canoes in advance to Missilimackinac, 
for the puiijose of purchasing there some pro- 
visions and other necessaries for his voyage, and 
that he would be permitted to go and join them 
early in the sprmg with the rest of his hands. 
What led us to adopt this resolution has been, 
that the French who remained to trade off with 
the Five Nations the remamder of their merch- 
andise, might, on seeing entirely new comers 
arriving there, consider themselves entitled to 
dispense with coming down, and perhaps adopt 
the resolution to settle there; whilst, seeing no 
arrival there, with permission to do what is for- 
bidden, the reflection they will be able to make 
duruig the winter, and the apprehension of being 
guilty of crime, may oblige them to retm-n in the 

" This would be very desirable, in consequence 
of the great difficulty there will be m constraining 
them to it, should they be inclined to Uft the mask 
altogether and become buccaneers ; or should 
Sieur Le Sueur, as he easily could do, furnish 
• them with goods for their beaver and smaller 
peltry, which he might send down by the retimi of 
other Frenchmen, whose sole desire is to obey, and 
who have remained only because of the impossi- 
bihty of getting tlieu- effects down. This would 
rather induce those who would continue to lead a 
vagaVxind life to remain there, as the goods they 
would receive from Le Sueur's people would afford 
them the means of doing so." 

In reply to this communication, Louis XIA'. 
answered that — 

" His majesty has approved that the late Sieur 
<ie Fronteuac and De Champigny suspended the 

execution of the Ucense granted to the man named 
Le Sueur to proceed, with fifty men, to explore 
some mines on the banks of the Mississippi. He 
has revoked said license, and desu'es that the said 
Le Sueur, or any other person, be prevented from 
leaving the colony on pretence of going in search 
of mines, without his majesty's express permis- 

Le Sueur, undaimted by these drawbacks to the 
prosecution of a favorite project, again visited 

Fortunately for Le Sueur, D 'Iberville, who was 
a friend, and closely connected by marriage, was 
appointed governor of the new territory of Louis- 
iana. In the month of December he arrived from 
France, with thirty workmen, to proceed to the 
supposed mines in Minnesota. 

On the thirteenth of July, 1700, with a felucca, 
two canoes, and nineteen men, having ascended 
the Mississippi, he had reached the mouth of the 
Missouri, and six leagues above this he passed the 
Illinois. He there met three Canadians, who 
came to join him, with a letter from Father Mar- 
est, who had once attempted a mission among the 
Dahkotahs, dated July 13, Mission Immaculate 
Conception of the Holy Virgin, in Illinois. 

" I have the honor to write, in order to inform 
you that the Saugiestas have been defeated by the 
Scioux and Ayavois [lowas]. The people have 
formed an alliance with the Quincapous [Kicka-, 
poos], some of the Mecoutins, Eenards [Foxes], 
and Metesigamias, and gone to revenge them- 
selves, not on the Scioux, for they are too much 
afraid of them, but perhaps on the Ayavois, or 
very likely upon the Paoutees, or more probably 
upon the Osages, for these suspect nothing, and 
the others are on their guard. 

"As you -will probably meet these allied nar 
tions, you ought to take precaution against their 
plans, and not allow them to board your vessel, 
since they are traitors, and utterly faithless. I pray 
God to accompany you in all your designs." 

Twenty-two leagues above the Illinois, he passed 
a small stream which he called the River of Oxen, 
and nine leagues beyond tliis he passed a smaU 
river on the west side, where he met four Canar 
dians descending the Mississippi, on their way to 
the Illinois. On the 30th of July, nine leagues 
above the last-named river, he met seventeen 
Scioux, in seven canoes, who were going to re- 



venge the death of three Scioux, one of whom liad 
been burned, and tlie others killed, at Tamarois, 
a few days before his arrival in that village. As 
he had promised the chief of the Illinois to ap- 
pease the Scioux who should go to war against 
his nation, he made a present to the chief of the 
party to engage liim to turn back. He told tliem 
the King of France did not wish them to make 
this river more bloody, and that he was sent to teU 
them that, if tliey obeyed the king's word, they 
would receive in futiu'e all things necessary for 
them. The chief answered that he accepted the 
present, tliat is to say, that he would do as had 
been tuld liim. 

From tlie SOth of July to the 2oth of August, Le 
Sueur advanced lifty-thiee and one-foiuth leagues 
to a small river which he called the Elver of the 
Mine. At the mouth it nms from the north, but 
it tiuns to the noitheast. On the right seven 
leagues, there is a lead mine in a prairie, one and 
a half leagues. The river is only navigable in 
high water, that is to say, fi-om early spring till 
the month of June. 

From the 25th to the 27th he made ten leagues, 
passed two small rivers, and made himself ac- 
quainted vAih a inhie of lead, from which he took 
a supply. From the 27th to the SOth he made 
eleven and a half leagues, and met five Canadians, 
one of whom had been dangerously wounded in 
the head. They were naked, and had no ammu- 
nition except a miserable gmi, witli five or six 
loads of powder and balls. They said tliey were 
descending from the Scioux to go to Tamarois. 
and, when seventy leagues above, they perceived 
nine canoes in the Jlississippi, in which were 
ninety savages, who r<)bl)ed and cruelly beat them. 
Tliis party were gfiing lo war against the Scioux, 
and were composed of four different nations, the 
Outagamies [Foxes], Poutouwatamis [Pottowatta- 
mies], and Pnans [Winiiebagoes], \\\\o dwell in a 
country eiglil}' leagues east of the iiississippi 
from where Le Sueur then was. 

The Canadians determined to follow the detach- 
ment, wliidi was composed of twenty-eight men. 
Tills day they made seven and a half leagues. 
On the 1st of September he passed the Wisconsin 
river. It nms into the Mississippi from the north- 
east. It is nearly one and a half miles wide. At 
about seventy-five le;igues up this river, on the 
right, ascending, there is a portage of more than 

a league. The half of tins portage is shaking 
ground, and at the end of it is a small river wliich 
descends into a bay called "Winnebago Bay. It is 
inhabited by a great number of nations who cari-y 
their furs to Canada. Monsieur Le Sueur came 
by the Wisconsin river to the Mississippi, for tlie 
first time, in 1GS3, on his way to the Scioux coun- 
try, where he had aheady passed seven years at 
different periods. The Mississippi, opposite the 
mouth of tlie Wisconsin, is less than half a mile 
wide. From the 1st of September to tlie otli, our 
voyageur advanced fourteen leagues. He passed 
the river " Aux Canots." which comes from the 
northeast, and then the Quincapous. named from 
a nation which once dwelt upon its lianks. 

From the 5th to the 9th he made ten and a lialf 
leagues, and passed the rivers Cachee and Aux 
Ailes. The same day he perceived canoes, filled 
witli savages, descending the river, and the five 
Canadians recognized them as the party who liad 
robbed them. They placed sentinels in the wood, 
for fear of bemg surprised by land, and when 
they had approached within hearing, tliey cried to 
them that if they approached farther they would 
fire. They then drew up by an island, at lialf the 
distance of a gun shot. Soon, foiu' of the princi- 
pal men of tlie band approached in a canoe, and 
asked if it was forgotten that they were our 
brethren, and with what design we had taken 
arms when we perceived them. Le Sueur replied 
that he had cause to distrust them, since they liad 
lobbed five of his party. Nevertheless, for the 
surety of his trade, being forced to be at peace 
with all the tribes, he demanded no redress for 
the robbery, but added merely that the king, their 
master and his, wished that his subjects sliould 
navigate that river without insult, and that they 
had better beware how they acted. 

The Indian who had spoken was sDent, but an- 
other said they had been attacked liy the Scioux, 
and that if tliey did not have pity on tliem, and 
give them a little powder, they should not be able 
to reach their villages. The consideration of a 
missionary, who was to go up among the Scioux, 
and whom these savages might meet, induced 
them to give two pounds of powder. 

M. Le Sueur made the same day three leagues; 
passed a stream on the west, and afterward an- 
other river on the east, which is navigable at all 
times, and which the Indians call lied liiver. 



On the 10th, at daybreak, they heard an elk 
whistle, on the other side of the river. A Cana- 
dian crossed in a small ScioiLX canoe, which they 
had found, and shortly returned with the body of 
the animal, which was very easily killed, " quand 
11 est en rut,"' that is, from the beginnmg of Sep- 
tember until the end of October. The hunters at 
this time made a whistle of a piece of wood, or 
reed, and when they hear an elk whistle they an- 
swer it. The animal, believing it to be another 
elk, approaches, and is killed with ease. 

From the 10th to the 14th, JNI. Le Sueur made 
seventeen and a half leagues, passing the rivers 
Eaisin and Paquilenettes (perhaps the Wazi Ozu 
and Buffalo.) The same day he left, on the east 
side of the Mississippi, a beautiful and large river, 
which descends from the very far north, and 
called Bon Secours (Chippeway), on account of the 
great quantity of buffalo, elk, bears and deers 
which are fomid there. Three leagues up tliis 
river there is a mine of lead, and seven leagues 
above, on the same side, they found another long 
river, iu the \'lcinity of which there is a copper 
mine, from which he had taken a lump of sixty 
pomids in a former voyage. In order to make 
these mines of any account, peace must be ob- 
tained between the Seioux and Ouatagamis (Fox- 
es), because the latter, who dwell on the east side 
of the Mississippi, pass this road coutuiually when 
going to war against the Sioux. 

Penicaut, in his journal, gives a brief descrip- 
tion of the Mississippi between the Wisconsin 
and Lake Pepin. He writes: "Above the Wis- 
consin, and ten leagues higher on the same side, 
begins a great jirairie extending for sixty leagues 
along the bank; this prairie is called Aux Ailes. 
Opposite to Aux Ailes, on tlie left, there is 
another prairie facing it called Paquilanet wliich 
is not so long by a great deal. Twenty leagues 
above these prairies is found Lake Bon Secours " 
[Good Help, now Pepin.] 

In this region, at one and a half leagues on the 
northwest side, commenced a lake, which is six 
leagues long and more than one broad, called 
Lake Pepin. It is bounded on the "west by a 
chain of mountains; on the east is seen a prairie; 
and on the northwest of the lake there is another 
prairie two leagues long and one wide. In the 
neighborhood is a chain of mountains quite two 
hundred feet high, and more than one and a half 

miles long. In these are found several caves, to 
which the bears retire in winter. Most of the 
caverns are more than seventy feet in extent, and 
two hundred feet high. There are several of 
which the entrance is very narrow, and quite 
closed up with saltpetre, It would be dangerous 
to enter them in summer, for they are filled with 
rattlesnakes, the bite of which is very dangerous. 
Le Sueur saw some of these snakes which were 
six feet in length, but generally they are about 
four feet. They have teeth resembUng those of 
the pike, and their gums are f uU of small vessels, 
in which their poison is placed. The Seioux say 
they take it every mornin :, and cast it away at 
night. They have at the tail a kind of scale which 
makes a noise, and this is called the rattle. 

Le Sueur made on this day seven and a half 
leagues, and passed another river, called Iliam- 
bouxecate Ouataba, or the Kiver of Flat Eock. 
[The Sioux call the Cannon river Inyanbosndata.] 

On the loth he crossed a small river, and saw 
in the neighborhood several canoes, filled with 
Indians, descencUng the Mississippi. He sup- 
posed they were Seioux, because he could not dis- 
tinguish whether the canoes were large or small. 
The arms were placed in readiness, and soon they 
heard the cry of the savages, which they are ac- 
customed to raise when they rush upon their en- 
emies. He caused them to be answered in the 
same manner; and after having placed all the 
men behind the trees, he ordered them not to fire 
until they were commanded. He remained on 
shore to see what movement the savages would 
make, and perceivmg that they placed two on 
shore, on the other side, where from an eminence 
they could ascertain the strength of his forces, he 
caused tlie men to pass and repass from the shore 
to the wood, in order to make them believe that 
they were numerous. This ruse succeeded, for 
as soon as the two descended from the eminence 
the chief of the party came, bearing the calumet, 
which is a signal of peace among the Indians. 
They said that having never seen the French navi- 
gate the river with boats like the felucca, they had 
supposed them to be English, and for that reason 
they had raised the war cry, and arranged them- 
selves on the other side of the Mississippi; but 
havuig recognized their flag, they had come with- 
out fear to inform them, that one of their num- 
ber, who was crazy, had accidentallv killed a 



Frencliman, and tliat tliey would go and bring liis 
comrade, \\lio would tell how the mischief had 

The Frenchman they brought was Deuis, a Ca- 
nadian, and he reported that his companion was 
accidentally killeil. Jlis name was I.,aplace. a de- 
serting soldier from Canada, who had ta^ieu ref- 
uge in this country. 

Le Sueur replied, that Ononlio (the name they 
give to all the governors of Canada), being their 
father and his, they ought not to seek justification 
elsewhere than before him; and he advised them 
to go and see him as soon as possible, and beg 
him to wipe ofi: the blood of this Frenchman from 
their faces. 

The party was composed of forty-seven men of 
different nations, who dwell far to the east, about 
the forty-fourth degree of latitude. Le Sueur, 
discovering who the chiefs were, said the king 
whom they had spoken of in Canada, had sent 
liim to take possession of the north of the river; 
and that he wished the nations wlio dwell on it, 
as well as those under his protection, to live in 

He made this day tlii-ee and three-fourths 
leagues; and on the 16th of September, he left a 
large river on the east side, named St. Croix, be- 
cause a Frenchman of that name was shlpu'rcch'd 
at its mouth. It comes from the north-northwest. 
Four leagues higher, in gomg up, is found a small 
lake, at the mouth of which is a very large mass 
of copper. It is on the edge of the water, in a 
small ridge of sandy eailh, on the west of this 
lake. [One of La Salle's men was named St. 

From the 16th to the 19th, he advanced thir- 
teen and three-fourths leagues. After ha\'ing 
made from Tamarois two hundred and nine and a 
half leagues, he left the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi, to enter the river St. Pierre, on the west 
side. By the 1st of October, he had made in this 
river forty-four and one-fourth leagues. After he 
entered lilue river, thus named on account of the 
mines of blue earth found at its mouth, he fomid- 
ed liis post, situated in forty-four degrees, thir- 
teen minutes north latitude. He met at this 
place nine Scioux, who told him that the river 
belonged to the Scioux of the west, the Ayavois 
(lowas) and Otoctatas (Ottoes), who lived a little 
farther off; that it was not their custom to hunt 

on ground belongmg to others, unless invited to 
do so by the owners, and that when they would 
come to the fort to obtain ijrovisions, they would 
be in danger of being killed in ascending or de- 
scending the rivers, v/hich were narrow, and that 
if they would show their pity, he must establish 
himself on the Jlississippi, near the mouth of the St. 
Pierre, where the Ayavois, the Otoctatas, and the 
other Scioux coidd go as well as they. 

Having linished their speech, they leaned over 
the head of Le Sueur, according to their custom, 
crying out, "Ouaechissou ouaepanimanabo," that 
is to say, " Have pity upon us." Le Sueur had 
foreseen that the establishment of Blue Earth 
river would not please the Scioux of the East, 
who were, so to speak, masters of the other Scioiix 
and of the nations which will be hereafter men- 
tioned, becaux they tcere the first with wham trade 
loas commenced, and in consequence of which they 
had already quite a number of guns. 

As he had commenced his operations not only 
with a view to the trade of beaver but also to 
gain a knowledge of the mines which he had pre- 
viously discovered, he told them that he was sor- 
ry that he had not known their intentions sooner, 
and that it was just, since he came expressly for 
them, that he should establish himself on their 
land, but that the season was too far advanced 
for him to return. He then made them a present 
of powder, balls and knives, and an armful of to- 
bacco, to entice them to assemble, as soon as pos- 
sible, near the fort he was about to construct, 
that when they should be all assembled he might 
tell them the intention of the king, their and his 

The Scioux of the West, according to the state- 
ment of the Eastern Scioux, have more than a 
thousand lodges. They do not use canoes, nor 
cultivate the earth, nor gather wild riee. They 
remain venerally on the prairies which are be- 
tween the Upper Mississippi and Missouri rivers, 
and live entirely by the chase. The Scioux gen- 
erally say they have three souls, and that after 
death, that which has done well goes to the warm 
country, that which has done evil to the cold 
regions, and the other guards the body. Poly- 
gamy is common among them. They are very 
jealous, and sometimes fight in duel for their 
wives. They manage the bow admirably, and 
have been seen several times to kill ducks on the 



whig. They make their lodges of a lumiljer of 
buffalo skins interlaced and sewed, and carry 
them wherever they go. They are all great smo- 
kers, but their mamier of smoking differs from 
that of other Indians. There are some Seioux 
who swallow all the smoke of the tobacco, and 
others wlio, after having kept it some time in 
their mouth, cause it to issue from the nose. In 
each lodge there are usually two or three men 
with their families. 

On the third of October, they received at the 
fort several Seioux, among whom was Wahkan- 
tape, chief of the village. Soon two Canadians 
arrived who had been hunting, and who had been 
robbed by the Seioux of the East, who had raised 
their gims against the establishment which M. 
Le Sueur had made on Blue Earth river. 

On the fourteenth the fort was finished and 
named Fort LTIuilher, and on the twenty-second 
two Canadians were sent out to invite the Aya- 
vois and Otoctatas to come and establish a vil- 
lage near the fort, because these Indians are in- 
dustrious and accustomed to cultivate the earth, 
and they hoped to get provisions from them, and 
to make them work in the mines. 

On the twenty-fourth, six Seioux Oujalespoi- 
tons wished to go into the fort, but were told 
that they did not receive men who had lulled 
Frenchmen. This is the term used when they 
have insulted them. The next day they came to 
the lodge of Le Sueur to beg him to have pity on 
them. They wished, according to custom, to 
weep over his head and make him a present of 
packs of beavers, which he refused. He told 
them he was surprised that people who had rob- 
bed should come to him ; to which they replied 
that they had heard it said that two Frenchmen 
had been robbed, but none from their village had 
been present at that wicked action. 

Le Sueur answered, that he knew it was the 
Mendeoucantous and not the Oujalespoitons ; 
" but," continued he, "you are Seioux; it is the 
Seioux who have robbed me. and if I were to fol- 
low your manner of acting I should break your 
heads; for is it not true, thft when a stranger 
(it is thus they call the Indians who are not 
Seioux) has insulted a Seioux, Mendeoucanton, 
Oujalespoitons, or others — all the villages revenge 
upon the first one they meet':"' 

As they had nothing f o answer to what he said 

to them, they wept and repeated, according to 
custom, " Ouaechissou ! ouaepanimanabo !'' Le 
Sueur told them to cease crying, and added that 
the French had good hearts, and tliat they had 
come into the country to have pity on them. At 
the same time he made them a present, saying to 
them, " Carry back your beavers and say to all 
the Seioux, that they will have from me no more 
powder or lead, and they will no longer smoke 
any long pipe until they have made satisfaction 
for robbing the Frenchman. 

The same day the Canadians, who had been 
sent off on the 22d, arrived without having found 
the road which led to the Ayavois and Otoctatas. 
On the 25th, Le Sueur went to the river with 
three canoes, which he filled with green and blue 
earth. It is taken from the hills near which are 
very abundant mines of copper, some of which 
was worked at Paris in 1696, by L"IIuillier, one 
of the chief collectors of the king. Stones were 
also found there which would be curious, if 

On tlie ninth of November, eight Mantanton 
Seioux arrived, who had been sent by their chiefs 
to say that the Mendeoiicantons were still at their 
lake on the east of the Mississippi, and they could 
not come for a long time ; and that for a single 
village which had no good sense, the others ought 
not to bear the punishment ; and that they were 
willing to make reparation if they knew how. 
Le Sueur replied that he was glad that they had 
a disposition to do so. 

On the loth the two Mantanton Seioux, who 
had been sent expiessly to say that all of the 
Seioux of the east, and part of those of the west, 
were joined together to come to the French, be- 
cause they had heard that the Christianaux and 
the Assinipoils were making war on them. 
These two nations dwell above the fort on the 
east side, more than eighty leagues on the Upper 

The Assinipoils speak Seioux, and are certainly 
of that nation. It is only a few years since that 
they became enemies, The enmity thus origi- 
nated: The Christianaux, having the use of arms 
before the Seioux, through the English at Hud- 
son's Bay, they constantly warred upon the As- 
sinipoils, who were their nearest neighbors. 
The latter, being weak, sued for peace, and to 
render it more lasting, married the Christianaux 



women. The other Scioux, who had not made 
the compact, continued the war; and, seeing some 
Christianaux with the Assinipoils. biolve their 
heads. The Cliristianaiix furnished the Assini- 
poils with arms and merchandise. 

On the 16th the Scioux returned to their vil- 
lage, and it was reported that the Ayavois and 
Otoctatas were gone to establish themselves to- 
wards the Missouri River, near the llaha, who 
dwell in that region. On the 26th the Mantan- 
tons and Oujalespoitons arrived at the fort; and, 
after they had encamped in the woods, Wah 
kantape came to beg Le Sueur to go to his 
lodge. He there found sixteen men with women 
and children, with their faces daubed with black. 
In the middle of the lodge were several buffalo 
skins which were sewed for a carpet. After mo- 
tioning him to sit down, they wept for the fourth 
of an hour, and the chief gave him some wild 
rice to eat (as was their custom), putting the 
first three spoonsful to his mouth. After which, 
he said all present were relatives of Tioscate, 
whom Le Sueur took to Canada in 1695, and who 
died there in 1696. 

At the mention of Tioscate they began to weep 
again, and wipe their tears and heads upon the 
shoulders of Le Sueur. Then Wahkan tape again 
spoke, and said tliat Tioscate begged him to for- 
get the insult done to the Frenchmen by the 
Mendeoucantons, and take pity on his brethren 
by giving them powder and balls whereby they 
could defend themselves, and gain a living for 
their wives and children, wlio languish in a coun- 
■ try full of game, because they had not the means 
of killing them. " Look," added the chief, " Be- 
hold thy children, thy brethren, and thy sisters; 
it is to thee to see whether tlu)u wishest them to 
die. They will live if thou givest them powder 
and ball; they will die if thou refusest." 

Le Sueur granted them their request, but as 
the Scioux never answer on the spot, espeeially 
in matters of importance, and as he had to speak 
to them about his establishment he went out of 
the Iodide witliout saying a word. The chief and 
all those witliin followed him as far as the door 
of the fort; and when he had gone in, they went 
around it three times, crying with all their 
strength, " Atheouanan! " that is to say, " Father. 
have pity on us." [Ate un>anpi, means Our 

The next day, he assembled in the fort the 
principal men of both villages; and as it is not 
possible to subdue the Scioux or to hinder them 
from going to war, unless it be by inducing them 
to cultivate the earth, he said to them that if 
they wished to render themselves worthy of the 
protection of the king, tliey must abandon their 
ening life, and form a village near his dwelling, 
where they would be shielded from the insults of 
of their enemies; and that they might be happy 
and not hungry, he would give them all the corn 
necessary to plant a large piece of ground; that 
the king, their and liis chief, in sending him, had 
forbidden him to purchase beaver skins, knowing 
that this kind of hunting separates them and ex- 
poses them to their enemies; and that in conse- 
quence of this he had come to establish himself 
on Blue River and vicinity, where they had many 
times assured him were many kinds of beasts, 
for the skins of which he would give them all 
things necessary; that they ought to reflect that 
they could not do without French goods, and that 
the only way not to want tliem was, not to go to 
war with our alhed nations. 

As it is customary with the Indians to accom- 
pany their word with a present proportioned to 
the affair treated of, he gave them fifty pounds of 
powder, as many balls, six guns, ten axes, twelve 
armsful of tobacco, and a hatchet pipe. 

On the first of December, the Mantantons in- 
vited Le Sueur to a great feast. Of four of their 
lodges they had made one, in which were one 
hundred men seated around, and every one his 
dish before him. After the meal, Wahkautape, 
the cliief , made them all smoke, one after another, 
in the hatchet pipe which had been given them. 
He then made a present to Le Sueur of a slave 
and a sack of wild rice, and said to him, showing 
him his men: " Behold the remains of this great 
village, which thou hast aforetimes seen so nu- 
merous! All the others have been killed in war; 
and the few men whom thou seest in this lodge, 
accept the present thou hast made them, and are 
resolved to obey the great chief of all nations, of 
whom thou hast spoken to us. Thou onghtest 
not to regard us as Scioux, but as French, and in- 
stead of saying the Scioux are miserable, and have 
no mind, and are fit for nothing but to rob and 
steal from the French, thou shalt say my breth- 
ren are miserable and have no mind, and we must 



try to procure some for them. They rob us, but 
I will take care that they do not lack iron, that is 
to say, all kinds of goods. If thou dost this, I as- 
sure thee tliat in a little time the Mantantons will 
become Frenchmen, and they will have none of 
those vices, with which thou reproachest us." 

Having finished his speech, he covered his face 
with his garment, and the others imitated him. 
They wept over their companions who had died 
in war, and chanted an adieu to their country in 
a tone so gloomy, that one could not keep from 
partaking of their sorrow. 

Wahkantape then made them smoke again, and 
distributed the presents, and said that he was go- 
ing to the Mendeoucantons, to inform them of the 
resolution, and invite them to do the same. 

On the twelfth, three Mendeoucauton chiefs, 
and a large number of Inilians of the same vil- 
lage, arrived at the fort, and the next day gave 
satisfaction for robbing the Frenchmen. They 
brought four hundred pounds of beaver skins, and 
promised that the summer follo^^'ing, after their 
canoes were built and they had gathered their 
wild rice, that they would come and establish 
themselves near the French. The same day they 
returned to their village east of the Mississippi. 


Mantantons— That is to say, Village of the 
Great Lake which empties into a small one. 

Mendeotjacantons— Village of Spirit Lake. 

QuioPETONS — Village of the Lake with one 

PsiouMANiTONs — Village of Wild Rice Gath- 

Otjadebatons— The River Village. 

OuAETEJiANETONS — Village of the Tribe who 
dwell on the Point of the Lake. 

SoNGASQUiTONS— The Brave Village, 


ToucHOUAESiNTONS— The Village of the Pole. 

PsiNCHATONS — A^illage of the Red Wild Rice. 

OuJALESPOiTONS — Village divided into many 
small Bands. 

PsiNOUTANHiNiiiNTONS — The Great Wild 
Rice Village. 


OuAEPETONS — Village of the Leaf. 


OuAPEONTETONS — Village of those who shoot 
in the Large Pine. 

HiNHANETONS — Village of the Red Stone 

The above catalogue of villages concludes the 
extract that La Harpe has made from Le Sueur's 

In the narrative of Major Long's second expe- 
dition, there are just as many villages of the Gens 
du Lac, or M'dewakantonwan Scioux mentioned, 
though the names are different. After leaving 
tlie Mille Lac region, the divisions evidently were 
different, and the villages known by new names. 

Charlevoix, who visited the valley of the Lower 
iSIississippi in 1722, says that Le Sueiu: spent a 
winter in his fort on the banks of the Blue Earth, 
and that m the foUowmg April he went up to the 
mine, about a mile above. In twenty-two days 
they obtained more than thirty thousand pounds 
of the substance, four thousand of which were se- 
lected and sent to France. 

On the tenth of February, 1702, Le Sueur came 
back to the post on the Gulf of Mexico, and found 
D'lberville absent, who, however, arrived on the 
eighteenth of the next month, wth a ship from 
France , loaded with suppUes. After a few weeks, 
the Governor of Louisiana sailed again for the 
old coimtry, Le Sueur being a fellow passenger. 

On board of the ship, D'lberville wrote a mem- 
orial upon the Mississippi valley, with sugges- 
tions for carrying on commerce therein, which 
contains many facts furnished by Le Sueur. A 
copy of the manuscript was in possession of the 
Historical Society of Mimiesota, from which are 
the foUovrang extracts: 

"If the Sioux remain in their o-mi coimtry, 
they are useless to us, being too distant. We 
could have no commerce vnth them exeept that 
of the beaver. M. Le Sueur, who goes to France 
to give an account of this country, is the proper per- 
son to make these movements. He estimates the 
Sioux at four thousand families, who could settle 
upon the Missouri. 

" He has spoken to me of another which he 
calls the Mahas, composed of more than twelve 
hundi-ed families. The Ayooues (loways) and the 
Octoctatas, their neighbors, are about three 
hundred families. They occupy the lauds be- 



tween tiie ilississippi and the Missouri, about 
one huncked leagues from the IllLuois. These 
savages do not know tlie iise of arms, and a de- 
scent miglit be made upon tliem in a river, wUicli 
is beyond tlie Wabash on the west. * * * 

" The Assinibouel. Quenistinos, and people of 
the north, who are upon the rivers which fall into 
the Mississippi, and trade at Fort Xelson (Hud- 
son Bay), are about four hundred. We could 
prevent them from going there if we wish."' 

" In four or five years we can establish a com- 
merce witli these savages of sixty or eighty thou- 
sand buffalo skins; more than one hundred deer 
slcins, which will yiroduce. delivered in France, 
more tlian two million four hundred thousand 
livres yearly. One might obtain for a buffalo 
skin four or five pounds of wool, wliich sells for 
twenty sous, two pounds of coarse hair at ten 

" Besides, from smaller peltries, two hundred 
thousand livres can be made yearly." 

In the tliird volume of the " History and Sta- 
tistics of the Indian Tribes," prepared under the 
direction of the Commissioner of Indian affairs, 
by Mr. Schoolcraft, a manuscript, a copy of which 
was in possession of General Cass, is referred to as 
containing the first enimieration of the Indians of 
the Mississippi A'alley. The following was made 
thirty-four years earlier by D"Iberville: 

"The Sioux, Families, 4,000 

Mahas, 12,000 

Octata and Ayoues, 300 

Causes [Kansas], 1,500 

Missouri, 1,500 

Akansas, &c., 200 

jSIanton [.MandanJ, 100 

Panis [Pawnee], ti.oiiO 

Illinois, of the great village and Cania- 

roua [Tamaroa], 800 

Meosigamea [Metchigamias], .... 200 
Kikapous and Mascoutens, .... 4-50 

Aliamis, . , 500 

Chactas, 4,000 

Cliicachas, 2,000 

MobiUens and Chohomes, 3.50 

Concaques [Conchas], 2,000 

Ouma [Houmas], loO 

Colapissa, 250 

Bayogoula, 100 

People of the Fork, 200 

Counica, &c. [TonicasJ, 300 

Xadeches, 1,500 

Belochy, [Biloxi] Pascoboula, .... 100 

Total, . . ■ 23,850 

'■ The savage tribes located in tlie places I have 
marked out, make it necessary to establish three 
posts on tlie Mississippi, one at the ^Vrkiinsas, 
another at tlie Wabash (Ohio), and the third at 
the Missouri. At each post it would be proper 
to have an oflicer with a detachment of ten sol- 
diers with a sergeant and corporal. All French- 
men should be allowed to settle there with their 
families, and trade with the Indians, and they 
miglit eslabli.sli tanneries for properly dressing 
the buffalo and deer skins for transportation. 

" Xo Frenchman shall be allmced to follow the 
Indians on their hunts, as it tends to keeji them 
hiinters, as is seen in Canada, and when they are 
La the woods, they do not desire to become tillers 
of the soil. ******* 

•■ I have said nothing in this memoir of wliich 
I have not personal knowledge or the most relia- 
ble sources. The most of what I propose is 
founded uimn personal reflection in relation to 
what might Ije done for the defence and advance- 
ment of the colony. ***** 
* * * It ^\'ill be absolutely necessary 
that tlie king should define tlie limits of this 
country in relation to the govTsmment of Canada. 
It is important that the commandant of the 
^Mississippi should have a report of those who 
inhabit the rivers that fall into the ^Mississippi, 
and principally those of the river Illinois. 

'■ The Canadians intimate to the savages that 
tliey ouglit nf)t to listen to us but to the governor 
of Canada, who always speaks to tliem with large 
presents, that the governor of Mississippi is mean 
and never sends them any thing. This is ti'ue, 
and what I cannot do. It is imprudent to accus- 
tom the savages to be spoken to by presents, for, 
with so many, it would cost the king more than 
the revenue derived from the trade. AVhen they 
come to us, it will be necessary to bring them in 
subjection, make tliein no presents, and compel 
them to do what we wish, (i.s if they were'French- 

" The Spaniards have divided the Indians into 
parties on tliis point, and we can do the same. 
A\'hen one nation does wrong, we can cease to 



trade with them, and threaten to draw down the 
hostility of other Indians. We rectify the ditli- 
culty by having missionaries, who will bring 
them into obedience secretly. 

" The Illinois and Mascoutens have detained 
the French canoes they find upon the ]\Iississippi, 
saymg that the governors of Canada have given 
them permission. I do not know whether this is 
so, but if true, it follows that we have not the 
liberty to send any one on the Mississippi. 

" M. Le Sueur would have been taken if he 
had not been the strongest. Only one of the 
canoes lie sent to the Sioux wasplmidered." * * * 

Penicaut's account varies in some particulars 
from that of La Ilarpe's. He calls the Mahkahto 
Green River instead of Blue and writes: " We 
took our route by its mouth and ascended it forty 
leagues, when we f ouud another river falling in- 
to the Saint Pierre, which we entered. We 
Dalled this the Green Eiver because it is of that 
color by reason of a green earth which loosening 
itself from from the copper mines, becomes dis- 
solved and makes it green. 

" A league up this river, we found a point 
of land a quarter of a league distant from the 
woods, and it was upon this point that M. Le 
Sueur resolved to build his fort, because we could 
not go any higher on account of the ice, it being 
the last day of Septemljer. Half of our people 
went hunting whilst the others worked on the 
fort. We killed foiu' hundred buffaloes, which 
were our provisions for the winter, and which we 
placed upon scaffolds in our fort, after havuig 
skinned and cleaned and quartered them. We 
also made cabins in the fort, and a magazine to 
keep our goods. After havmg drawn up our 
shallop within the inelosirre of the foi-t, we spent 
the winter in our cabins. 

" "WHien we were working in our fort in the 
begmning seven French traders from Canada 
took refuge there. They had been pillaged and 
stripped naked by the Sioux, a wandering nation 
hving only by liuuting and plundering. Among 
these seven persons there was a Canadian gen- 
tleman of Le Sueur's acquaintance, whom he rec- 
ognized at once, and gave him some clothes, as 
he did also to all the rest, and whatever else was 
necessary for them. They remained with us 
during the entire winter at our fort, where we 
had not food enough for all, except buffalo meat 

wlrich we had not even salt to eat with. We had 
a good deal of trouble the first two weeks in ac- 
customing ourselves to it, havmg fever and di- 
arrhoea and becoming so tired of it as to hate the 
smell. But by degrees our bodies became adapt- 
ed to it so well that at the end of six weeks there 
was not one of us who could not eat six pounds 
of nieat a day, and drink four bowls of broth. 
As soon as we were accustomed to this kind of 
livuig it made us very fat, and then there was no 
more sickness. 

" When spring arrived we went to work in the 
copper mine. This was the beginning of April of 
this year [1701.] We took with us twelve labor- 
ers and four hunters. This mine was situated 
about three-quarters of a league from our post. 
We took from the mine in twenty days more than 
twenty thousand pounds weight of ore, of which 
we only selected four thousand pomids of the 
finest, which M. Le Sueur, who was a very good 
judge of it, had carried to the fort, and which has 
since been sent to France, though I have not 
learned the result. 

'•This mine is situated at the beginning of a 
very long mountain, which is upon the bank of 
the river, so that boats can go right to the mouth 
of the mme itself. At this place is the green 
earth, which is a foot and a half in tliickness, 
and above it is a layer of earth as firm and 
hard as stone, and black and burnt like coal by 
the exlialation from the mme. The copper is 
Scratched out with a knife. There are no trees 
upon this mountain. * * * After twenty-two. 
days' work, we returned to our fort. When the 
Sioux, who belong to the nation of savages who 
pDlaged the Canadians, came they brought us 
merchandize of furs. 

"They had more than four hundred beaver 
robes, each robe made of nine skins sewed to- 
gether. M. Le Sueur purchased these and many 
other skins which he bargained for, in the week 
he traded with the savages. * * * * 
We sell in return wares which come very dear to 
the buyers, especially tobacco from Brazil, in the 
proportion of a hundred cro'wis the pound; two 
little horn-handled knives, and foiu- leaden bul- 
lets are equal to ten crowns in exchange for 
skins ; and so with the rest. 

" In the beginning of May, we launched our 
shallop ui the water, and loaded it with green 



earth that hail hvcu taken out of the river, and 
Willi tlie furs we liail tiaih'd for, of wliieli we hiul 
three canoes full. M. Le Sueur before going 
held council with M. D'Evaque [or Eraque] the 
Canadian jieutlenian, and the three great chiefs 
of the Sioux, three lirothers, and told them that 
as he had to return to the sea, he desired them 
to live in peace with M. D'Evaque, whom he left 
ill command at Fort L'lluillicr. with twelve 
Frenchmen. M. Le Sueur made a considerable 
pre.sent to the three brothers, chiefs of the sava- 
ges, desiring them to never abanih>n the French. 
Afterward we the twelve men whom he had chosen 
to go down to the sea with him emliarked. In set- 
ting out, ^I, Le Sueur promised to M. D'Evaque 
and the twelve Frenchmen who remained with 
him to guard the fort, to send up munitions of 
war from the Illinois country as soon as he should 
arrive there ; which he did, for on getting there 
he sent off to him a canoe loaded with two thou- 
sand pounds of lead and powder, with three of 
our people iu charge.'' 

Le Sueur arrived at the French fort on the 
Gulf of Mexico in safety, and in a few weeks, in 
the spring of 1701, sailed for France, with his 
kinsman, D'Iberville, the first governor of Lou- 

In the spring of the next year (17(i2) D"Eva<ine 
came to ^Mobile and reported to D"lberville, who 
had come back from France, that he had been 
attacked by the Foxes and jMaskoutens, who killed 
three Frenchmen who were working near Fort 
L'Huillier, and that, being out of powder and 
lead, he had been obliged to conceal the goods 
which were left and abandon the post. At the 
Wisconsin River he had met Jucherean, formerly 
criminal judge in ilontreal, with thirty-fiv>' 
men, on his way to establish a tannery for buffalo 
skins at the Wabash, and that at the Illinois he 
met the canoe of supplies sent by tjienville, 
D'lbervUle's brother. 

La ^lotte Cadillac, in command at Detroit, in 
a letter written on August 31st, ITO.'i, alludes to 
Le Sueur's expedition in these w ords: " Last 
year they sent Mr. Boudor, a ^lontreal merchant, 
into the country of the Sioux to join Le Su- 
eur. He succeeded so well in that journey he 
transported thither twenty-five or thirty thous- 
and ])oimds of merchandize with which to trade 
in all the coinitry of the Outawas. This proved 

to him an unfortunate investment, as he has 
befu robbed of a part of the goods by the Outa- 
gamies. Tlie occiusion of the robbery by one of 
onr own allies was as follows. 1 speak with a 
full knowledge of the factsas they occurretl while 
I was at Michillimackianc. From time immemo- 
rial our allies have been at war with the Sioux, 
abd on my arrival there in conformity to the or- 
der of yi. Frontenac, the most able man who has 
ever come into Canada, I attempted to negotiate 
a truce between the Sioux and all om- allies. 
Succeeding in this negotiation I took the occa- 
sion to turn their arms against the Iroquois with 
whom we were then at war, and soon after I ef- 
fected a treaty of peace between the Sioux and 
the French and theirallieswiiich lasted two years. 

"At the end of tha time the SioiLX came, in 
great numbers, to the villages of the iliamis, un- 
der i)retense of ratifying the treaty. They were 
well received by the Miamis. and. after spending 
several days in their villages, 'departed, apparent- 
ly perfectly satisfied with their good reception, as 
they certainly had every reason to be. 

" The JSIiamis, believing them already far dis- 
tant, slept quietly; but the Sioux, who had pre- 
meditated the attack, retiu-ned the same night to 
the principal village of the Miamis, where most 
of the tribe were congregated, and, taking them 
by surprise, slaughtered nearly three thousandC:') 
and put the rest to fiight.. * 

"This perfectly infuriated all tne nations. 
They came with their complaints, liegging me to 
join with tliem and exterminate the Sioux. But 
the war we then had on our hands did not permit 
it, so it became necessary to play the orator in a 
long harangue. In conclusion I advised them to 
' weep their dead, and wrap them up, and leave 
them to sleep coldly till the day of vengeance 
should come;' telling them we must sweep the 
land on this side of the Iroquois, as it was neces- 
sary to extinguish even their memory, after which 
the allied tribes could more easily avenge the 
atrocious deed that the Sioux had just committed 
uiion them. In short, I managed them so well- 
that the affair was settled in the manner that I 

"But the twenty-five permits still existed, and 
the cupidity of the French induced them to go 
among the Sioux to trade for beaver. Our allies 
complained bitterly of this, sa\ing it was injust- 



ice to them, as tbey had taken up arms in our 
quarrel against tlie Iroquois, while the French 
traders were carrying munitions of war to tlie 
Sioux to enable them to kiU the rest of our allies 
as they had the Miamis. 

" I immediately informed M. Frontenac, and M. 
Champigny having read tlie communication, and 
commanded that an ordinance be publ ished at Mon- 
treal forbidding the traders to go into the country 
of the Sioux for the purpose of traffic under penalty 
of a thousand francs fine, the confiscation of the 
goods, and other arbitrary penalties. The ordi- 
nance was sent to me and faithfully executed. 
The same year [1699] I descended to Quebec, 
having asked to be relieved. Since that time, in 
spite of this prohibition, the French have con- 
tinued to trade with the Sioux, but not without 
being subject to affronts and indignities from our 
allies themselves which bring dishonor on the 
French name. * * * I do notconsider it best 
any longer to allow the traders to carry on com- 
merce with the Sioux, under any pretext what- 

ever, especially as M. Boudor has just been 
robbed by the Fox nation, and M. Jucheraux has 
given a thousand crowns, in goods, for the right 
of passage through the country of the allies to 
his habitation. 

" The allies say that Le Sueur has gone to the 
Sioux on the Mississippi; that they are resolved 
to oppose him, and if he offers any resistance they 
will not be answerable for the consequences. 
It would be well, therefore, to give Le Sueur 
warning by the Governor of Mississippi. 

" The Sauteurs [Chippeways] being friendly 
with the Sioux wished to give passage through 
their country to M. Boudor and others, permit- 
ting them to carry arms and other munitions of 
war to this nation; but the other nations being 
opposed to it, differences have arisen betvsreen 
them which have resulted in the roljbery of M. 
Boudor. This has given occasion to the Sau- 
tem's to make an outbreak upon the Sacs and 
Foxes, killing thirty or forty of them. So there 
is war among the people." 



CHAPTER yill. 


Be'EsUbhshineut of Mackinaw.— Sieur do Louvigny at Mackinaw.— De Lignery 
at Mackinaw.- Louvigny Attacks the Foxes.— Du Luth's Post Bcoccupied.— 
Saint Pierre at 1a Poiuto on Lake Superior.- Preparations for a Jesuit Mission 
amoni; the Sioux.— Ia Perriere Boucher's Expedition to Lake Pepin.— Dc 
Conor and Guiguos, Jesuit Missionaries.— Visit to Foxes and Winnebagoes. — 
Wisconsin River Described.— Fort Beauharnuis Built.- Fireworks Displayed. — 
High Water at Lake Pepin.— De Conor Visits Mackinaw.— Boucherville, Mont- 
brun and Guiguas Captured by Indians.— Montbrun's Escape.— Boucherville's 
Presents to Indians.— Exaggerated Account of Father Guiguas' Capture.— liis- 
patches (.'oncerning Fort Beauhamois.— Sicur de la Jeineraye. — Saint Pierre at 
Fort Beauharnois.— Trouble between Sioux and Foxes —Sioux Visit Queliec.— 
De Lusignan Visits tlie Sioux Country.— Saint Pierre Noticed in the Travels 
of Jonathan Carver and Lieutenant Pike. 

After the Fox Indians drove away Le Sueur's 
men, in 1702, from the ^Slakalito, or Blue Earth 
river, t\w mercliants of :si<)iitreal and Quebec did 
not encourage trade with the tribes beyond :Mac'li- 

D'Aigreult, a French officer, sent to inspect 
that post, in the summer of 1708, reported tliat 
he arrived there, on the 19th of August, and 
found tliere but fourteen or fifteen Frenchmen. 
He also wrote: " Since tliere are now onlj' a few 
wanderers at Micliilimaclcinack, the greater part 
of the furs of tlie savages of the north goes to the 
English trading posts on Hudson's Bay. The 
Outawas are unable to make this trade by them- 
selves, because the northern savages are timid, 
and will not come near them, as they have often 
been plundered. It is, therefore, necessary that 
the French be allowed to seek these northern 
tribes at the mouth of theii- own river, which 
empties into Lake Superior." 

Louis de la Porte, the Sieur De Louvigny, in 
1690, accompanied by Nicholas Perrot, with a de- 
tachment of one hundred and seventy Canadians 
and Indians, came to ISIackinaw, jind until 1094 
was in command, when lie was recalled. 

In 1712, Father Joseph J. ISIarest the Jesuit 
missionary wrote, " If this country ever needs 
M. Louvigny it is now ; the savages say it is ab- 
solutely necessary that he should come for the 
safety of the country, to unite the tribes and to 
defend tliose wliom the war has caused to return 
to Michiliniaciiiac. ****** 

I do not know wliat course the Pottawatomies 
will take, nor even wliat course they will pursue 
who are here, if M. Louvigny does not come, es- 
pecially if the Foxes were to attack them or us." 

The next July, M. Lignery urged upon the au- 
thorities the establishment of a garrison of trained 
soldiers at Mackinaw, and the Intendant of Can- 
ada wrote to the King of France : 

" Michilimackinac might be re-established, 
without expense to his Jilajesty, either by sur- 
rendering the trade of the post to such individu- 
als as will obligate themselves to pay all the ex- 
penses of tw^enty-two soldiers and two officers; to 
furnish munitions of war for the defense of the 
fort, and to make presents to the savages. 

'■ Or the expenses of the post might be paid by 
the sale of permits, if the King should not tlihik 
proper to grant an exclusive commerce. It is ab- 
solutely necessary to know the •wishes of tlie King 
concerning these two propositions ; and as M. 
Lignery is at Michilimackinac, it will not be any 
greater injury to the colony to defer the re-estab- 
ment of this post, than it has been for eight or 
ten years past." 

The war with England ensued, and in April. 
1713, the treaty of Utrecht was ratified. Fniiice 
liad now more leisure to attend to the Inilian 
tribes of the "West. 

Early in 1714, ^Mackinaw was re-occupied, and 
on the fourteenth of March, 1716, an expedition 
under Lieutenant Lou-vigny, left Quebec. His 
arrival at Mackinaw, where he had beeU long ex- 
pected, gave confidence to the voyageurs, and 
friendly Indians, and with a force of eight hun- 
dred men, he proceeded against the Foxes in 
Wisconsin. He brought with him two pieces of 
cannon and a grenade mortar, and besieged the 
fort of the Fo.xes, wliich he stated contained five 
Inuidred warriors, and three thousand men, a 
declaration which can scarcely be credited. After 



three days of skirmishing, he prepared to mine 
the fort, when the Foxes capitvilated. 

The paddles of the bircli bark canoes and the 
gay songs of the voyageiirs now began to be heard 
once more on the waters of Lake Superior and its 
tributaries. In 1717, tlie post erected by Du 
Luth, on Lake Superior near the northern boun- 
dary of ilinnesota, was re-occnpied by Lt. llo- 
bertel de la None. 

In view of the troubles among the tribes of the 
northwest, in the month of September, 1718, Cap- 
tain St. Pierre, who had great mfluence with the 
Indians of Wisconsin and Minnesota, was sent 
with Ensign Linctot and some soldiers to re-oc- 
cupy La Pointe on Lake Superior, now Bayfield, 
in the northwestern part of Wisconsin. The 
chiefs of the baud there, and at Keweenaw, 
had threatened, war against the Foxes, who had 
killed some of their nu mber. 

When the Jesuit Charlevoix returned to France 
after an examination of the resources of Canada 
and Louisiana, he urged that an attempt should 
be made to reacli the Pacific Ocean by an inland 
route, and suggested that an expedition should 
proceed from the mouth of the Missouri and fol- 
low that stream, or that a post should be estab- 
lished among the Sioux which should be the point 
of departure. The latter was accepted, and in 
1722 an allowance was made by the French Gov- 
ernment, of twelve hundred Uvres, for two Jes- 
uit missionaries to accompany those who should 
establish the new post. D'Avagour, Superin- 
tendent of Missions, in May, 1723, requested the 
authorities to grant a separate canoe for the con- 
veyance of the goods of the proposed mission, 
and as it was necessary to send a commandant 
to persuade the Indians to receive the mission- 
aries, he recommended Sieur Pachot, an officer of 

A dispatch from Canada to the French govern- 
ment, dated October 14, 1723, amiounced that 
Father de la Chasse, Superior of the Jesuits, ex- 
pected that, the next spring, Father Guymoneau, 
and another missionary from Paris, would go to 
the Sioux, but that they had been hindered by the 
Sioux a few months before kiUing seven French- 
men, on their way to Louisiana. The aged 
Jesuit, Joseph J. Marest, who had been on Lake 
Pepin m 1089 with Perrot, and was now in Mon- 
treal, said that it was the wandering Sioux who 

had killed the French, but he thought the sta- 
tionary Sioux would receive Christian instruction. 

The hostility of the Foxes had also prevented 
the establishment of a fort and mission among the 
Sioux. \ 

On the seventh of June, 1726, peace was con- 
cluded by De Lignery with the Sauks, Foxes, and 
AVinnebagoes at Green Bay; and Linctot, who 
had succeeded Saint Pierre m command at La 
Pointe, was ordered, by presents and the promise 
of a missionary, to endeavor to detach the Dah- 
kotahs from their alliance with the Foxes. At 
this time Linctot made arrangements for peace 
between the Ojibways and Dahkotas, and sent 
tw^o Frenchmen to dwell in the villages of the 
latter, with a promise that, if they ceased to figlit 
the Ojibways, they should have regular trade, 
and a "black robe" reside in their country. 

Traders and missionaries now began to prepare 
for visitmg the Sioux, and in the spring of 1727 
the Governor of Canada wrote that the fathers, 
appointed for the Sioux mission, desired a case of 
mathematical instruments, a universal astro 
nomic dial, a spirit level, chain and stakes, and a 
telescope of six or seven feet tube. 

On the sixteenth of June, 1727, the expedition 
for the Sioux country left Montreal in charge of 
the Sieur de la Perriere who was son of the dis- 
tinguished and respected Canadian, Pierre Bou- 
cher, the Governor of Three Rivers. 

La Perriere had .served in aSTewfoimdland and 
been associated with Hertel de Rouville in raids 
into New England, and gained an unenviable no- 
toriety as the leader of the savages, while Rou- 
ville led the French in attacks upon towns like 
Haverhill, Massachusetts, where tlie Indians ex- 
ultuigly killed the Puritan pastor, scalped his 
loving wife, and dashed out his infant's brams 
against a rock. He was accompanied by his 
brother and other relatives. Two Jesuit fathers, 
De Gonor and Pierre Michel Guignas, were also 
of the party. 

In Shea's " Early French Voyages" there was 
printed, for the first time, a letter from Father 
Guignas, from the Brevoort manuscripts, written 
on May 29, 1728, at Fort Beauharnois, on Lake 
Pepin, which contains facts of much interest. 

He writes: " The Scioux convoy left the end 
of Montreal Island on the 16th of the month of 
Jime last year, at 11 a. m., and reached Michili- 



mackinac the 22d of the month of July. This 
post is two hundred and fift)'-one leagues from 
Itlontreal, almost due west, at 45 degrees 46 min- 
utes north latitude. 

" We spent the rest of the month at this post, 
in the hope of receiving from day to day some 
news from Montreal, and in the design of 
strengthening ourselves against the alleged ex- 
treme difficulties of getting a free passage through 
the Foxes. At last, .seeing nothing, we .set out 
on our march, the first of the month of August, 
and. after seventy-three leagues quite pleasant 
sail along the northerly side of Lake Michigan, 
running to the southeast, we reached the Bay 
[Green] on the 8th of the same month, at 5:30 p. 
51. This post is at 44 degrees 43 minutes north 

""We stopped there Iavo days, and on the 11th 
in the morning, we embarked, in a very great 
impatience to reach the Foxes. On the third day 
after our departure from the bay, (juite late in 
the afternoon, in fact somewhat in tlie night, the 
chiefs of the Puans [Winnebagoes] came out three 
leagues from their village to meet the French, 
with their peace calumets and some bear meat as 
a refresliment, and the next day we were received 
by that small nation, amid several discharges of 
a few guns, and with great demonstrations. 

" They asked us with so good a grace to do 
them the honor to stay some time with them tliat 
we granted them the rest of the day from noon, 
and the following day. Tliere may be in all the 
village, sixty to eighty men, but all tlie men and 
women of very tall stature, and well made. They 
are on the bank of a very pretty little lake, in a 
most agreeable spot for its situation and the 
goodness of the soil, nineteen leagues from the 
bay and eight leagues from the Foxes. 

" Early the next morning, the loth of the montli 
of August, the convoy preferred to continue its 
route, with quite pleasant weather, but a storm 
coming on in the afternoon, we arrived quite wet, 
still in the rain, at the ••al)ins of tlie Foxes, a nation 
so much dreaded, and really so little to be dreaded. 
From all that we could see, it is composed of 
two hundred men at most, but there is a perfect 
hive of children, especially boys from ten to 
fourteen years old, well formed. 

'• They are cabined on a little eminence on the 
bank of a small river that bears their name, ex- 

tremely tortuous or wmding, so that you are con- 
stantly boxing the compass. Yet it is apparently 
quite wide, with a cliain of hills on both sides, 
but there is only one miserable little channel 
amid this extent of apparent bed, which is a kind 
of marsh full of rushes and wild rice of almost 
impenetrable thickness. They have nothing but 
mere bark cabins, without any kind of pahsade or 
other fortification. As soon as the French ca- 
noes touched their sliore they ran do«ii with 
their peace calumets, liglited in spite of the rain, 
and all smoked. 

" "We stayed among them the rest of this day, 
and all the next, to know wliat were their designs 
and ideas as to the French post among the Sioux. 
The Sieur Reaume, interpreter of Indian lan- 
guages at the Bay, acted efficiently there, and 
with devotion to tlie King's service. Even if my 
testimony, Sii', should be deemed not impartial, I 
must have the honor to tell you that Rev. Father 
Chardon, an old missionary, was of very great as- 
sistance there, and the presence of three mission- 
aries reassured these cut-throats and assassins of 
the French more than all the speeches of the best 
orators could have done. 

" A general council was convened in one of the 
cabins, they were addressed in decided friendly 
terms, and they replied in the same way. A 
small present was made to tliem. On tlieir side 
they gave some quite handsome dishes, lined with 
dry meat. 

On the following Simday, 17th of the month 
of August, very early in the morning, Fatlier 
Chardon set out, with Sieur Reaume, to return 
to the Bay, and the Sioux expedition, greatly re- 
joiced to have so easily got over this difficulty, 
which had everywhere been represented as so in- 
surmountable, got uiider way to endeavor to 
reach its journey's end. 

" Never was navigation more tedious than 
what we subsequently made from uncertainty as 
to our course. No one knew it, and we got 
astray every moment on water and on land for 
want of a guide and pilots. ^Ve kept on, as it 
were feeling our way for eight days, for it was 
only on the ninth, about three o'clo'ck p. m., that 
we arrived, by accident, believing ourselves stiil 
far off, at tlie portage of the Ouisconsin, which is 
forty-five leagues from tlie Foxes, counthig ail 
the twists and turns of this abominable river. 



This portage is lialf a league in length, and half 
of that is a kind of marsh full of mud, 

" The Ouisi'onsin is quite a handsome river, 
but far below what we had been told, apparently, 
as those who gave the description of it in Canada 
saw it only in the high waters of spring. It is a 
shallow river on a bed of quicksand, which forms 
bars almi;st everywhere, and these often change 
place. Its shores are either steep, Ijare mountains 
or low points wi th sandy base. Its course is from 
northeast to southwest. From the portage to its 
mouth in the Mississippi, I estimated thirty-eight 
leagues. The portage is at 43 deg. 2-1 min. north 

" The Mississippi from the mouth of the Ouis- 
conshi ascending, goes northwest. This beauti- 
ful river extends between two chains of high, 
bare and very sterile mountains, constantly a 
league, three-quarters of a league, or where it is 
narrowest, half a league apart. Its centre is oc- 
cupied by a chain of well wooded islands, so that 
regarding from the heights above, you would 
thmk you saw an endless valley watered on the 
right and left by two large rivers ; sometimes, too, 
you could discern no river. These islands are 
overflowed every year, and would be adapted to 
raising rice. Fifty-eight leagues from the mouth 
of the Ouisconsin, accordmg to my calculation, 
ascending the Mississippi, is Lake Pepin, which 
is nothmg else but the river itself, destitute of 
islands at that point, where it may be half a 
league wide. This river, in what I traversed of 
it, is shallow, and has shoals in several places, be- 
cause its bed is moving sands, like that of the 

"On the 17th of September, 1727, at noon, we 
reached this lake, which had been chosen as the 
bourne of our voyage. We planted ourselves on 
the shore about the middle of the north side, on 
a low point, where the soil is excellent. The 
wood is very dense there, but is already thumed 
in consequence of the rigor and length of the 
winter, which has been severe for the climate, 
for we are here on the parallel of 43 deg. 41 min. 
It is true that the difference of the winter is 
great compared to that of Quebec and Montreal, 
for all that some poor judges say. 

"From the day after our landing we put our 
axes to the wood: on the fourth day following 
the fort v:as entirely finished. It is a square plat 

of one hundred feet, surrounded by pickets twelve 
feet long, with two good bastions. For so small 
a space there are large buildings quite distinct and 
not huddled togetlier, each thirty, thirty-eight 
and twenty-five feet long by sixteen feet wide. 

" All would go well there if the spot were not 
inundated, but this year [1728], on the 15th of 
the month of April, we were obliged to camp out, 
and tlie water ascended to the height of two feet 
and eight inches in the houses, and it is idle to 
say that it was the quantity of snow that fell 
tills year. The snow in the vicinity had melted 
long before, and there was only a foot and a half 
from the 8th of February to the IStli of March; 
you could not use snow-shoes. 

" I have great reason to think that this spot is 
inundated more or less every year; I have always 
thought so, but they were not obliged to believe 
me, as old people who said that they had lived in 
this region fifteen or twenty years declared that 
it was never overflowed. AVe could not enter 
our much-devastated houses until the 30th of 
April, and the disorder is even now scarcely re- 

" Before the end of October [1727] all the houses 
were finished and furnished, and each one found 
himself tranquilly lodged at home. They then 
thought only of going out to explore the hills and 
rivers and to see those herds of all lands of deer 
of which they tell such stories in Canada. They 
must have retired, or diminished greatly, since 
the time the old voyageurs left the comitry; they 
are no longer in such great numbers, and are 
killed with difliculty. 

"After beatmg the field, for some time, all re- 
assembled at the fort, and thought of enjoying a 
little the fruit of their labors. On the 4th of No- 
vember we did not forget it was the General's 
birthday. Mass was said for him [Beauharnois, 
Governor-General of Canada] in the morning, 
and they were well disposed to celebrate the day 
in tlie evening, but the tardmess of the pyro- 
technists and the inconstancy of the weather 
caused them to postpone the celebration to the 
14th of the same month, when they set off some 
very fine rockets and made the air rmg with an 
hundred shouts of Vive k Roy! and Vive Charles 
de Beauharnois! It was on this occasion that the 
wine of the Sioux was broached; it was par eoo- 



celknce, although there are no ynnes here finer 
than in Canada. 

•' What contributed much to the amusement, 
was the terror of some cabins of Indians, who 
were at the time around the fort. AVhen these 
poor people saw the fireworks in the air, and the 
stars fall from heaven, the women and children 
began to take flight, and the most courageous of 
the men to cry mercy, and implore ns very earn- 
estly to stop the surprising pla\' of that wonder- 
ful medicine. 

" As soon as we arrived among them, they as- 
sembled, in a few days, around the French fort to 
the number of ninety-five cal)ins. which might 
make in all one hundred and fifty men; for there 
axe at most two men in their portable cabins of 
dressed skins, and in many there is only oue_ 
This is all we have seen except a band of about 
sixty men, who came on the 26th of the month of 
February, who were of those nations called Sioux 
of the Prairies. 

" At the end of November, the Indians set out 
for theii- winter quarters. They do not, indeed, 
go far, and we saw some of them all through the 
winter; but from the second of the month of 
April last, when some cabins repassed here to go 
in search of them, [lie] sought them in vain, du- 
ring a week, for more than sixty leagues of the 
Mississippi. He [La PerriereV] arrived yesterday 
without any tidings of them. 

" Although I said above, that the Sioux were 
alarmed at the rockets, which they took for new 
phenomena, it must not be supposed from that 
they were less intelligent than other Indians we 
know. They seem to me more so ; at least they 
are much gayer and open, apparently, and far 
more dextrous thieves, great dancers, and great 
medicine men. The men are almost all large and 
well made, Init the women are very ugly and dis- 
gusting, which does not, however, check debauch- 
ery among them, and is perhaps an effect of it." 

In the summer of 172.S the Jesuit De Gonor 
left the fort on Lake Pepin, and, by way of Mack- 
inaw, returned to Canada. The Foxes had now 
become very troublesome, and De Lignery and 
Beaujeu marched against their stronghold, to find 
they had retreated to the Mississippi Biver. 

On the 12th of October. Boucherville, his bro- 
ther Montbnui, a young ^adet of enterprising 
spirit, the Jesuit Guiguas, and other Frenchmen, 

eleven in all. left Fort Pepui to go to Canada, by 
way of the Illinois River. They were captured 
by the Mascoutens and Kickapoos. ami detained 
at the river " Au Ba-iif,"" which st;;cam was prob- 
ably the one mentioned by Le Sueur as twenty- 
two leagues above the Illinois River, although the 
sjmie name was g'ven liy Ilenneiuu to the Chip- 
pewa River, just below Lake Pepin. They were 
held as prisoners, with the view of delivering 
them to the Foxes. The iiight Viefore the deliv- 
ery the .Sieur ^lontbrun and liis l)rother and an- 
other Frenchman escaped. !Montbnm, leaving 
his sick brother in the Illinois country, journeyed 
to Canada and informed the authorities. 

Boucherville and Guignas reinaiueil prisoners 
for several months, and the former did not reach 
Detroit until .June. 1729, The account of expen- 
ditures made during his captivity is interesting as 
showing the value of merchandize at that time. 
It reads as follows: 

" ;Memi>randuni of the goods that Monsieur de 
Boucherville was ol)liged to furnish in the ser- 
vice of the King, from the time of his detention 
among the Kickapoos, on the 12th of October, 
172s. until his return to Detroit, in the year 1729, 
in the month of June. On arriving at the Kick- 
apoo village, he made a present to tlie young men 
to secure their opposition to some evil minded' 
old warriors — 
Two barrels of powder, each fifty pounds 

at Montreal price, valued at the sum of 1.50 Uv. 
One hundred pounds of lead and balls 

making the simi of .50 liv. 

Fom- pounds of vermillion, at 12 francs 

the poiuid 48 fr. 

Four coats, braided, at twenty francs. . . 80 fr. 
Six dozen knives at foiu- francs the dozen 24 fr. 
Four hinidred flints, one hundred gim- 

worms, two hundred ramnids and one 

hundred and fifty files, the total at the 

maker's prices 90 liv. 

After the Kickapoos refused to deliver them to 
the Renards [Foxes] they wished some favors, and 
I was obliged to give them the following which 
would allow them to weep over and cover their 

Two braided coats (« 20 fr. each. . .- 40fr. 

Two woolen blankets (n 1.5 fr 30 

One hundred pounds of powder @ 30 sous 75 
One hundred pounds of lead (^ 10 sous. . 25 



Two pounds of vermillion @ 12 fr 24f r. 

Moreover, given to- the Eenards to cover 
their dead and prepare tliem for peace, 

fifty pounds of powder, making 7o 

One hundred pounds of lead @ 10 sous . 50 

Two pounds of vermillion (a) 12 fr 24 

During the winter a considerable party was 
sent to strike hands with the Illinois. Given at 
that time : 

Two blue blankets @ 15 fr 30 

Four men's shirts @ 6 f r 2-1 

Four pairs of long-necked bottles @ 6 f r 24 

Four dozen of knives @ 4 f r 16 

Gun-worms, files, ramrods, and flints, es- 
timated 40 

Given to engage the Kickapoos to establish 
themselves upon a neighboring isle, to protect 
fj'om the treachery of the Kenards — 

Four- blankets, @ 15f 60f 

Two pairs of bottles, 6f 24 

Two pomids of vermillion, 12f 24 

Four dozen butcher knives, 6f 24 

Two woolen blankets, @ 15f 30 

Four pairs of bottles, @ 6f 24 

Four shirts, @ 6f 24 

Four dozen of knives, @ 4f 16 

The Kenards having betrayed and killed their 
brothers, the Kickapoos, I seized the favorable 
opportunity, and to encourage the latter to avenge 
themselves, I gave — 
Twenty-five poundsof powder, @ 30sous 37f.l()s. 

Twenty-five pounds of lead, @ 10s I2f.l0s. 

Two guns at 30 livres each 60f 

One half pound of vermillion 6f 

Flints, gims, worms and knives 20f 

The Illinois coming to the Kikapoos vil- 
lage, I supported them at my expense, 
and gave them powder, balls and shirts 

valued at oOf 

In departing from tlie Kikapoos \illage, I 
gave them the rest of the goods for 
their good treatment, estimated at ... . SOf 
In a letter, written by a priest, at Xew Orleans, 
on July 12, 1730, is the followmg exaggerated ac- 
count of the capture of Father Guignas: " We 
always felt a distrust of the Fox Indians, although 
they did not longer dare to undertake anything, 
since Father Guignas has detached from their al- 
liance the tribes of the Kikapous and Maskoutins. 
You luiow, my Reverend Father, that, being in 

Canada, he had the courage to penetrate even to 
the Sioux near the sources of the Mississippi, at 
the distance of eight hundred leagues from New 
Orleans and five hundi'ed from Quebec. Obliged 
to abandon this important mission by the unfor- 
tunate result of the enterprise against the Foxes, 
he descended the river to repair to the Illinois. 
On the 15th of October in the year 1728 he was 
arrested when half way by the Kickapous and 
Maskoutins. For four months he was a captive 
among the Indians, where he had much to suffer 
and everything to fear. The time at last came 
when he was to be burned alive, when he was 
adopted by an old man whose family saved his 
life and procured his liberty. 

" Our missionaries who are among the Illinois 
were no sooner acquainted with the situation 
than they procured him all the alleviation they 
were able. Everything which he received he em- 
ployed to conciUate the Indians, and succeeded 
to the extent of engaging them to conduct him to 
the ininois to make peace with the French and 
Indians of this region. Seven or eight months 
after this peace was concluded, the Maskoutins 
and Kikapous returned again to the Illinois coim- 
try, and took back Father Guignas to spend the 
winter, from whence, in all probability, he will 
return to Canada." 

In dispatches sent to France, in October, 1729, 
by the Canadian government, the following refer- 
ence is made to Fort Beauharnois : " They agree 
that the fort built among the Scioux, on the bor- 
der of Lake Pepin, appears to be badly situated 
on account of the freshets, but the Indians assure 
that the waters rose higher in 1728 than it ever 
did before. When Sieur de Laperriere located it ■ 
at that place it was on the assurance of the In- 
dians that the waters did not rise so high." In 
reference to the absence of Indians, is the fol- 
lowing : 

" It is very true that these Indians did leave 
shortly after on a hunting excursion, as they are 
in the hal)it of doing, for their own support and 
that of their families, who have only that means 
of livelihood, as they do not cultivate the soil at 
all. M. de Beauharnois has just been informed 
that their absence was occasioned only by having 
fallen in while hunting with a number of prairie 
Scioux, by whom they were invited to occompany 
them on a war expedition against the MahaSj 



which invitation they accepted, and returned 
only in the month of July following. 

" The interests of religion, of the service, and 
of the colony, are involved in the maintenance of 
this establishment, which has been the more nec- 
essary as there is no doubt but the Foxes, when 
routed, would have found an asylum among the 
Scicux had not the French been settled there, 
and the docility and submission manifested by 
the Foxes can not be attributed to any cause ex- 
cept the attention entertained by the Scioux for 
the French, and the offers which the former 
made the latter, of which the Foxes were fully 

" It is necessary to retain the Scioux in these 
favoraVile dispositions, in order to keep the Foxes 
in check and counteract the measures they might 
adopt to gain over the Scioux, who will invaria- 
bly reject their propositions so long as the French 
remain in the country, and their trading post 
shall continue there. But, despite all these ad- 
vantages and the importance of preserving that 
establishment, JI. de Beauharnois cannot take 
any steps imtil he has news of the French who 
asked his permission this summer to go up there 
with a canoe load of goods, and until assm-ed that 
those who wintered there lia\e not dismantled 
the fort, and that the Scioux continue in the same 
sentiments. Besides, it does not seem very easy, 
in the present conjuncture, to maintain that post 
unless there is a solid peace with the Foxes; on 
the other hand, the greatest portion of the tra- 
ders, who applied in 1727 for the establishment 
of that post, have wthdrawn, and will not send 
thither any more, as the rupture with the Foxes, 
through whose country it is necessary to pass in 
order to reach tlie Scioux in canoe, has led them 
to abandon the idea. But the one and the other 
case might be remedied. The Foxes will, in all 
probability, come or send next year to sue for 
peace; therefore, if it be granted to them on ad- 
vantageous conditions, there need be no appre- 
hension when going to the Sioux, and another 
company could be formed, less numerous than 
the first, through whom, or some responsilile mer- 
chants able to afford the outfit, a new treaty 
could be made, whereby these difficulties woidd 
be .soon obviated. One only trouble remains, and 
that is, to send a commanding and sul>officer, 
and some soldiers, up there, which are absolutely 

necessary for the maintenance of good order at 
that post; the missionaries would not go there 
without a commandant. This article, which re- 
gards the service, and the expense of which must 
be on his majesty's accoimt, obliges them to ap- 
ply for orders. They will, as far as lies in their 
power, induce the traders to meet that expense, 
which will possibly amount to lOoo livres or 
1500 livres a year for the commandant, and in 
proportion for the officer luider him; but, as in 
the beginning of an establishment the exi)enses 
exceed the profits, it is improbable that any com- 
pany of merchants will assume the outlay, and 
in this case they demand orders on this point, as 
well as his majesty's opinion as to the necessity 
of preserving so useful a post, and a nation which 
has already afEorded proofs of its fidelity and at- 

" These orders could be sent them by the way 
of lie Royale, or by the first merchantmen that 
wiU sail for Quebec. The time required to re- 
ceive intelUgence of the occurrences in the Scioux 
country, will admit of their waitmg for these 
orders before douig anything."' 

Sieur de la Jemeraye, a relative of Sieur de la 
Periiere Boucher, with a few French, during the 
troubles remained in the Sioux country. After 
peace was established with the Foxes, Legardeur 
Saint Pierre was in comman<l at Fort Beauhar- 
nois, and Father Guignas again attempted to es- 
tabUsh a Sioux mission. In a communication 
dated 12th of October, 1736, by the Canadian au- 
thorities is the followmg: "In regard to the 
Scioux, Samt Pierre, who commanded at that 
post, and Father Guignas, the missionary, have 
written to Sieur de Beauharnois on the tenth and 
eleventh of last April, that these Indians a.\y- 
peared well intentioned toward the French, and 
had no other fear than that of being abandoned 
by them. Sieur de Beauharnois annexes an ex- 
tract of these letters, and although the Scioux 
seem very friendly, the resultouly can tell whether 
this fideUty is to be absolutely depended upon, 
for the imrestrauied and mconsistent spirit which 
composes the Indian character may easily change 
it. They have not come over this summer as yet, 
but M. de la St. Pierre is to get them to do so 
next year, and to have an eye on their proceed- 

Tlif reply to this couinnuiieation from Louis 



XV. dated Versailles, May 10th, 1737, was in 
these words : " As respects the Seioux, according 
to what tlie commandant and missionary at that 
post have written to Sieur de Beauluirnois rela- 
tive to the disposition of these Indians, nothing 
appears to be wanting on that point. 

" But their delay in coming down to Montreal 
since the time they have promised to do so, must 
render their sentiments somewhat suspected, and 
nothing but facts can determine whether their 
fidelity can be absolutely relied on. But what 
must still further increase the uneasiness to be 
entertained in their regard is the attack on the 
convoy of M. de Verandrie, especially if this officer 
has adopted the course he had informed tlie 
Marquis de Beauharnois he should take to have 
revenge therefor." 

The particulars of the attack alluded to will be 
found in the next chapter. Soon after this the 
Foxes again became troublesome, and the post on 
Lake Pepui was for a time abandoned by the 
French. A dispatch in 1741 uses this language : 
" The Marquis de ISeauharuois' opinion respect- 
ing the war agamst the Foxes, has been the more 
readily approved liy the Baron de Longeuil, 
Messieurs De la Chassaigne, La Corne, de Lig- 
nery, LaNoue, and Duplessis - Fabert, whom he 
had assembled at his house, as it appears from 
all the letters that the C(-)unt has wril n for sev- 
eral years, that he has nothing so much at heart as 
the destruction of that Indian nation, which can 
not be prevailed on by the presents and the good 
treatment of the French, to live in peace, not- 
withstandmg all its promises. 

" Besides, it is notorious that the Foxes have a 
secret understandmg with the Iroquois, to secure 
a retreat among the latter, in case they be obliged 
to abandon their villages. They have one already 
secured among the Sioux of the prairies, with 
whom they are allied; so that, shoidd they be 

advised beforehand of the design of the French 
to wage war against them, it would be easy for 
them to retire to the one or the other before their 
passage could be intersected or themselves at- 
tacked in their villages.'' 

In the summer of 17-13, a deputation of the 
Sioux came down to Quebec, to ask that trade 
might be resumed. Three years after this, four 
Sioux chiefs came to Quebec, and asked that a 
commandant might be sent to Fort Beauharnois ; 
which was not granted. 

During the winter of 1745-6, De Lusignan vis- 
ited the Sioux country, ordered by the govern- 
ment to hunt up the "cuureurs des bois," and 
witlulraw them from the country. They started 
to retiu'n with him, but learning that they would 
be arrested at Mackinaw, for violation of law, 
they ran away. While at the villages of the Sioux 
of the lakes and plains, the chiefs brought to 
this officer nineteen of their young men, bound 
with cords, who had killed three Frenchmen, at 
the Illinois. AVliile he remained with them, they 
made peace with the Ojibways of La Pointe, 
with whom they had been at war for some time. 
On his return, four chiefs accompanied him to 
Montreal, to solicit pardon for their young braves. 

The lessees of the trading-post lost many of 
their peltries that winter in consequence of a Are. 

Reminiscences of St. Pierre's residence at Lake 
Pepin were long presei-ved. Carver, in 1766, "ob- 
served the ruins of a French factory, where, it 
is said, Captain St. Pierre resided, and carried on 
a great trade with the Nadouessies before the re- 
duction of Canada." 

Pike, in 1805, wrote in his journal: " Just be- 
low Pt. Le Sable, the French, who had driven the 
Uenards [Foxes] from Wisconsin, and chased 
them up the Mississippi, built a stockade on this 
lake, as a barrier against the savages. It became 
a noted factory for the Sioux." 






Coiivcrsution of Vcrendrye wilh FatlitT Do Gonor— Parcntapc and Eurly Life.— 
Olil Indian Map Prcsprved. — Vtrendryc's Son and Ex|dorc Pigeon 
KiviT and Keacli Rain>' l^kc. — Father Messayera Companion.— Furt St. Pierre 
Established.— Lake of the Wootis Keachcd and Fort St, Charles Built.— De la 
Jeinorayo's Map.— Fort on the Assinnhoine River.— Verendrye's Son, Father 
Ouneau and Associates Killed by Sioux, on,-icre Isle, in l><ke of the Woods 
—Port La Reine.— Verpndrj'c's Eldest Son, with Others, Reaches the Missouri 
River.— Discovers the Rocky Mountains.— Returns to Lake of the Woods.— 
Exploration of Saskatchewan River.— Sieur de la Verendrye Jr. — Verendryo 
the Father, made Captain of the Order of St. Louis.- His Death.— The Swedish 
Traveler, Kaliu, Notices Verendrye, — Bougainville Describes Verendrye's Ex- 
plorations. — Lcgitrdeur de St. Pierre at Fort La Reine. — Fort Jonquiere Estab- 
lished. —De Ja Corne Succeeds St. Pierre. — St. Pierre Meets Washington at 
French Creek, in Pennsylvania,— Killed in Battle, near Lake George. 

Karly in the year 1728. two travelers met at 
the secluded post of ilackinaw, one was named 
De Gonor, a Jesuit Father, who with Guignas, 
had gone with the expedition, that the September 
before had built Fort Beauharnois on tlie shores 
of Lake Pepui, the other was Pierre Gualtier V a- 
reniies. the Sieur de la Verendrye the commander 
of the post on Lake Nepigon of the north shore 
of Lake Superior, and a relative of the Sieur de 
la Perriere, thie commander at Lake PepLn. 

Verendrye was the sou of Eene Gualtier Va- 
rennes who for twenty-two years was the chief 
magistrate at Three Rivers, whose wife was Ma- 
lie Boucher, the daughter of his predecessor 
whom he had married when she was twelve years 
of age. He became a cadet in 1097, and in 1704 
accompanied an expedition to New England. 
The next year he was in Newfoundland and the 
year following lie went to France, joined a regi- 
ment of Brittany and was in the conflict at Mal- 
plaquet when the French troops were defeated 
by the Duke of Marlborough. When he returned 
to Canada he was obliged to accept the position 
of ensign notwithstanduig the gallant manner in 
which he had behaved. In time he became iden- 
tilied with the Lake Superior region. While at 
Lake Nepigon the Inilians assured him that there 
was a communication largely by water to the 
Pacific Ocean. One, named Ocliagachs, drew a 
rude map of the country, wliicli is still preserved 
among the French archives. Pigeon River is 

marked thereon Mantohavagane, and the River 
St. Louis is marked R. fond du L. Superior, and 
the Indians appear to have passed from its head- 
waters to Rainy Lake. Upon the western ex- 
tremity is marked the River of the West. 

De Gonor conversed much upon the route to 
the Pacific with Verendrye, and promised to use 
his influence •nith the Canadian authorities to 
advance the project of exploration. 

Charles De Beauharnois, the Governor of Can- 
ada, gave Verendrye a respectful hearing, and 
carefully examined the map of the region west of 
the great lakes, which had been drawn by Ocha/- 
gachs (Otchaga). the Indian guide. Orders were 
soon given to tit out an expedition of fifty men. 
It left Montreal in 1731, under the conduct of his 
sons and nephew De la Jemeraye, he not joining 
the party till 1733, iu consequence of the deieu- 
tions of business. 

In the autumn of 1731, the party reached Rainy 
Lake, by the Nantouagan, or Groselliers river, 
now called Pigeon. Father ^lessayer, who had 
been stationed on Lake Superior, at the Grosel- 
liers river, was taken as a spiritual guide. At 
tlie foot of Rainy Lake a post was erected and 
called Fort St. Pierre, and the next year, having 
crossed Minittie, or Lake of the Woods, they es- 
tablished Fort St. Charles on its southwestern 
bank. Five leagues from Lake AVinnipeg they 
established a post on the Assrnaboine. An un- 
published map of these discoveries by De la Jem- 
eraye still exists at Paris. The river Winnipeg, 
calleil by them ilaurepas. in honor of the minis- 
ter of France in 173-t, was protected by a fort of 
the same name. 

About this time their advance was stopped by 
the oxliaustion of supijlies, liut ou the 12th of 
April, 1735, an arrangement was made for a sec- 
ond equipment, and a fourth son jouied the expe- 

In June, 1736, while twenty-one of the expedi- 

DISCO r En Y OF the bocky mountains. 


tion were camped upon an isle in the Lake of the 
\Voods, they were surprised by a band of Sioux 
hostile to the French allies, the Cristinanx, and 
all killed. The island, upon this account, is 
called Massacre Island. A few days after, a 
piirty of live Canadian voyageurs discovered their 
dead bodies and scalped heads. Father Ouneau, 
t'.ie missionary, was found upon one knee, an ar- 
row in his head, his breast bare, his left, hand 
touching the ground, and the riglit hand raised. 

Among the slaughtered was also a son of Ver- 
endrye, who had a tomahawk in his back, and his 
body adorned with garters and lii'acelets of porcu- 
pine. The father was at the foot of the Lake of 
the Woods when he received the news of his son's 
murder, and about the same time heard of the 
death of his enterprising nephew, Dufrost de la 
-Jemeraye, the son of his sister Marie Keine de 
Varennes, and brother of Madame Youville, the 
foundress of the Ilospitaliers at jNIontreal. 

It was under the guidance of the latter that 
the party had, in 1731, mastered the difficulties 
of the Kantaouagon, or GroseUiers river. 

On the 3d of October, 1738, they built an ad- 
vanced post. Fort La Reine, on the river Assini- 
boels, now Assinaboine, which they called St 
Charles, and beyond was a branch called St. 
Pierre. These two rivers received the baptismal 
name of Verendrye, which was Pierre, and Gov- 
ernor Beauharnois, which was Charles. The post 
became the centre of trade and point of departure 
for explorations, either north or south. 

It was by ascending the Assinaboine, and by 
the present trail from its tributary. Mouse river, 
they reached the coinitry of the Mantanes, and in 
1741, came to the upper Missouri, passed the Yel- 
low Stone, and at length arrived at tlie Rocky 
Mountains. The party was led Ijy the eldest son 
and his lirother, the chevalier. They left the. 
Lake of the Woods on the 29th of April, 1742, 
came in sight of the Rocky Mountains on the 1st 
of .January, 1743, and on the 12th ascended them. 
On the route they fell in with the Beaux Hom- 
mes, Pioya, Petits Renards, and Arc tribes, and 
stopped among the Snake tribe, but could go no 
farther in a southerly direction, owing to a war 
between the Arcs and Snakes. 

On the 19th of May, 1744, the\- had returned to 
tlie upper Missouri, and. in the country of the 
Petite Cerise tribe, they planted on an eminence 

a leaden plate of the arms of France, and raised 
a monument of stones, which they called Beau- 
harnois. They returned to the Lake of the Woods 
on the 2d of July. 

Korth of the Assiniboine they proceeded to 
Lake Dauphin, Swan's Lake, explored the riv- 
er "Des Biches," and ascended even to the 
fork of the Saskatchewan, which they called Pos- 
koiac. Two forts were subsequently established, 
one near Lake Dauphin and the other on the 
river " des Biches," called Fort Bourbon. The 
northern route, by the Saskatchewan, was thought 
to have some advantage over tlie Missouri, be- 
cause there was no danger of meeting with the 

Governor Beauharnois having been prejudiced 
against Verendrye by envious persons, De Noy- 
elles was appointed to take command of the 
posts. During these difficulties, we find Sieur de 
la Verendrye, .Jr., engaged in other duties. In 
August, 1747, he arrives from Mackinaw at Mon- 
treal, and m the autumn of that year he accom- 
panies St. Pierre to Mackinaw, and brings back 
the convoy to Montreal. In February, 1748, with 
five Canadians, five Cristenaux, two Ottawas, and 
one Sauteur, he attacked the Mohawks near 
Schenectady, and returned to :Montreal with two 
scalps, one that of a cliief. On June 20tli, 1748, 
it is recorded that ChevaUer de la Verendrye de- 
pai-ted from jSIontreal for tlie head of Lake Supe- 
rior. Margry states that he perished at sea in 
November, 1764, by the wreck of the " Auguste." 

Fortunately, Galissioniere the successor of 
Beauharnois, although deformed and Insignifi- 
cant in appearance, was fair minded, a lover of 
science, especially botany, and anxious to push 
discoveries toward the Pacific. Verendrye the 
father was restored to favor, and made Captain 
of the Order of St. Louis, and ordered to resume 
explorations, but he died on December 6th, 1749, 
while planning a tour up the Saskatchewan. 

The Swedish Professor, Kalm, met him in Can- 
ada, not long before his decease, and had inter- 
estmg conversations with him about the furrows 
on tlie plains of the Missouri, which he errone- 
ously conjectured indicated the former abode of 
an agricultural people. These ruts are familiar 
to modern travelers, and may be only buffalo 

Father Coquard, wno had been associated with 



Verendrye, says that tliey tirst met the ilantanes, 
and next the Biochets. After these were tlie 
Uros Ventres, the Oows, the Flat Heads, the 
Hhick Feet, and Dog Feet, who were established 
on the Missouri, even uj) to the falls, and that 
ahoiit thirty leagues beyond they found a narrow- 
pass in the mountains. 

Houj^ainville gives a more full account: he says: 
■' He who most advanced this discovery was 
the Sieur de la Veranderie. He went from Fort 
la Reiiie to the Missouri. He met on the banks 
i)f this river the Mandans, or White Beards, who 
bad seven villages with pine stockades, strength- 
ened by a ditch. Next to these were the Kinon- 
gewiniris. or the Brochets, in three villages, and 
toward the upper part of the river were three 
villages of the Maliantas. All along the mouth 
of the "Wabeik, or Shell Eiver, were situated 
twenty-three villages of the Panis. To the south- 
west of this river, on the banks of the Ouanaradc- 
ba, or La Graisse, are the Hectanes or Snake 
tribe. They extend to the base of a chain of 
mountains which rnns north northeast. South 
of tiiis is the river Karoskiou, or ("erise Pelee, 
which is supposed to flow to California. 

" He found in the inuiiense region watered by 
the Missouri, and in the vicinity of forty leagues, 
the Maliantas, the Owiliniock, or Beaux Hom- 
mes, four villages; opposite the Brochets the Black 
Feet, three villages of a hundred lodges each; op. 
posite the Mandansare the Ospekakaerenousques, 
or l-'Ial Heals, four \illages; opposite tlia Panis 
are the Arcs of Cristinaux, and Utasibaoutchatas 
of Assiniboel. three villages; following these the 
Makescli, or Little Foxes, two villages; the Pi- 
wassa, or great talkers, three villages; the Ka- 
kokoscheiia, or Gens de la Pie, five villages; the 
Kiskipisounouini,, or the Garter tribe, seven vil- 

Galassoniere was succeeded by Jonquiere in 
the governorship of Canada, who proved to be a 
grasping, jieevish, and very miserly person. For 
the sons of Verendrye he had no sympathy, and 
forming a clique to profit by their father "s toils. 

he determined to send two expeditions t')"vard 
the Pacific Ocean, one by the Missouri and the 
other by the Saskatchewan. 

Father ("oquard, one of the companions of Ve- 
rendrye, was consulted as to tlie probability of 
linding a pass in the Rocky Mountains, through 
which they might, in canoes, reach the great 
lake of salt water, perhaps Pugefs Sound. 

The enterprise was at length conlided to two 
experienced oflice'rs, Lamarque de JIarin and 
Jacques Legardeur de Saint Pierre. The former 
was assigned the way, by the Missouri, and to 
the latter was given the more northern route; 
but Saint Pierre in some way excited the hostil- 
ity of the Cristinaux, who attempted to kill him, 
and burned Fort la Reine. His lieutenant, Bou- 
cher de Niverville, who had been sent to establish 
a post toward the source of the Saskatchewan, 
failed on account of sickness. Some of his men, 
however, pushed on to the Rocky Momitains, 
and in 1753 established Fort Jonquiere. Henry 
says St. Pierre established Fort Bourbon. 

In 17o3, Saint Pierre was succeeded in the 
command of the posts of the West, by de la 
Corne, and sent to French Creek, in Pennsylva- 
nia. He had been but a few days there when he 
received a visit from Washington, just entering 
upon manhood, bearing a letter from Governor 
Dinwiddie of Virginia, complaining of the en 
croaclunents of the French. 

Soon the clash of arms between France and 
England began, and Saint Pierre, at the head of 
the Indian allies, fell near Lake George, in Sep- 
tember, 1 Too, in a battle with the English. After 
the seven years' war was concluded, by the treaty 
of Paris, the French relinquished all their posts 
in the Northwest, and the work begun by Veren- 
drye, was, in 1805, completed by Lewis and 
Clarke; and the Northern Pacific Railway is fast 
approaching the passes of the Rocky Mountains, 
through the valley of the Yellow Stone, and from 
thence to the great land-locked bay of the ocean, 
Pugefs Somid. 





English Influence Increasing.— Le Due Robbed at Lake Superior.— St. Pierre at 
Mackinaw.— Kscape ol Indian Prisoners.— La Ronde and Verendrye.— Influence 
of Sieur Mann. — St. Pierre Recalled from Winnipeg Region. — Interview with 
Washington. — Langlade Urges Attack Upon Troops of Braddock.— Saint Pierre 
Killed in Battle. — Marin's Boldness. — Rogers, a Partisan Ranger, Commands at 
Mackinaw.— At Ticonderoga.— French Deliver up the Posts in Canada. — Capt. 
Balfour Takes Possession of Mackinaw and Green Bay. — Lieut. Gorrell in Com. 
mand at Green Bay.— Sioux Visit Green Bay. — Pennensha a French Trader 
Among the Sioux.— Treaty of Paris. 

Englisli influence produced increasing dissatis- 
faction among the Indians that were beyond 
Mackinaw. Not only were the voyageurs robbed 
and maltreated at Sault St. Marie and other points 
on Lake Superior, but even the commandant at 
Mackinaw was exposed to insolence, a*id there 
was no security anywhere. 

On the twenty-third of August, 1747, Philip Le 
Due arrived at Mackinaw from Lake Superior, 
stating that he had been robbed of his goods at 
Kamanistigoya, and that the Ojibways of the 
lake were favorably disposed toward tlie English. 
The Dahkotahs were also becoming unruly in the 
absence of French officers. 

In a few weeks after Le Due's robbery, St. 
Pierre left Montreal to become commandant at 
Mackinaw, and Vercheres was appointed for the 
post at Green Bay. In the language of a docu- 
ment of the day, St. Pierre was " a very good 
officer, much esteemed among all the nations of 
those parts ; none more loved and feared." On 
his aiTival, the savages were so cross, that he ad- 
vised that no Frenchman should come to trade. 

By promptness and boldness, he secured the 
Indians who had murdered some Frenchmen, 
and obtained the respect of the tribes. While 
the three murderers were being conveyed in a 
canoe down the St. Lavsrence to Quebec, in charge 
of a sergeant and seven soldiers, the savages, with 
characteristic cunning, though manacled, suc- 
ceeded in killing or drowiiing the guard. Cutting 
their irons with an axe, they sought the woods, 
and escaped to their own country. " Thus," 
writes Galassoniere, in 1748, to Count Maurepas, 

was lost in a great measiure the fruit of Sieur St. 
Pierre's good management, and of all the fatigue 
I endured to get the nations who smTendered 
these rascals to listen to reason." 

On the twenty-first of June of the next year. 
La Ronde started to La Pointe, and Verendrye 
for West Sea, or Fon du Lac, Minnesota. 

Under the mfluence of Sieur Marin, who was 
in command at Green Bay in 1753, peaceful re- 
lations were in a measure restored between the 
French and Indians. 

As the war between England and France deep- 
ened, the officers of the distant French posts 
were called in and stationed nearer the enemy. 
Legardeur St. Pierre, was brought from the Lake 
Winnipeg region, and, in December, 1753, was in 
command of a rude post near Erie, Pennsylvania. 
Langlade, of Green Bay, Wisconsin, arrived early 
in July, 1755, at Fort Duquesne. With Beauyeu 
and De Lignery, who had been engaged in fight- 
ing the Fox Indians, he left that fort, at nine 
o'clock of the morning of the 9th of July, and, a 
little after noon, came near the English, who had 
halted on the south shore of the Monongahela, 
and were at dinner, with their arms stacked. By 
the urgent entreaty of Langlade, the western 
half-breed, Beauyeu, the officer in command or- 
dered an attack, and Braddock was overwliehned, 
and Washington was obliged to say, " We have 
been beaten, shamefully beaten, by a handful of 

Under Baron Dieskau, St. Pierre commanded 
the Indians, in September, 1755, during the cam- 
paign near Lake George, where he fell gallantly 
fighting the English, as did his commander. 
The Rev. Claude Coquard, alluding to the French 
defeat, in a letter to his brother, remarks: 

" We lost, on that occasion, a brave officer, M. 
de St. Pierre, and had his advice, as well as that 
of several other Canadian officers, been followed, 
Jonckson [Johnson] was irretrievably destroyed. 



and we should have been spared the trouble we 
have had this year." 

Other oflicers who had been stationed on the 
borders of Mhinesota also distinguished them- 
selves during the French war. The Marquis 
Montcalm, in camp at Ticonderoga, on the twen- 
ty-seventh of July, 1757, writes to Vaudreuil, 
(iovenior of Canada: 

" Lieutenant Marin, of the Colonial troops, who 
has exhiliitcd a rare audacity, did not consider 
himself bound to halt, although his detachment 
of about four hundred men was reduced to about 
two hundred, the balance having been sent back 
on account of inability to follow. He carried off 
a patrol of ten men, aud swept away an ordinary 
guard of fifty like a wafer; went up to the en- 
emy's camp, under Fort Lydias (Edward), where 
he was exposed to a severe fire, and retreated like 
a warrior. He was miwilling to amuse himself 
making prisoners; he brought in only one, and 
thirty-t«'o scalps, and must have killed many men 
of the enemy, in tlie midst of whose raidjs it was 
neither wise nor prudent to go in sesu'ch of scalps. 
The Indians generally all behaved well. » * * 
The Outaouais, who arrived with me, and whuui 
I designed to go on a scouting party towards the 
lake, had conceived a project of administermg a 
corrective to the English barges. * * * On 
the (lay before xesterday. your brother formed a 
detachment to accompany them. 1 arrived at his 
camp on the eveningof the same day. Lieuten- 
ant de Corbiere, of the Colonial troops, was re- 
turning, in consequence of a misunderstanding, 
and as I knew the zeal and intelligence of that 
officer, I made him set out witli a new instruc- 
tion to join Messrs de Langlade and Hertel de 
Chantly. They remained in auiliusli all day and 
niglit yesterday; at break of day the Euglisli ap- 
peared on Lake St. Sacrament, to the number of 
twenty-two barges, luider the commanl of Sieur 
Parker. The whoops of our Indians impressed 
them with such terror that they made but feeble 
resistance, and only two barges escaped." 

After De Corbiere's victory on Lake Cham- 
plain, a large Frencli army was collected at Ti- 
conderoga, with which there were many Indians 
from the tribes of the Northwest, and the loways 
appeared for the first time in the east. 

It is an interesting fact tliat the English offi- 
cers who were in freciueut engagements witli St. 

Pierre, Lusignan, Marin, Langlade, and others, 
became the pioneers of tlie IJrifish, a few years 
afterwards, in the occupation of the outposts of 
the lakes, and in the exploration of Mimiesota. 

Rogers, tlie celebrated captain of rangers, sub- 
sequently commander of Mackinaw, and Jona- 
than Carver, the first British explorer of Minne- 
sota, were both on duty near Lake Champlaiu. the 
latter narrowly escaping at the battle of Fort 

On Christmas eve, ]7o7, Eogers approached 
Fort Ticonderoga, to fire the outhouses, but was 
prevented by discharge of the camions of the 
Fren h. 

He contented himself witli killing fifteen beeves, 
on the horns of one of wliicli he left this laconic 
and amusing note, addressed to the commander 
of the post: 

'• I am obliged to you. Sir, for the repose you 
have allowed me to take; I thank ymifor tlie fresh 
meal you Jiave sent me, I request you to present 
my compliments to the ^larquis du Montcalm." 

On the thiiteenth of March, 1758, Durantaye, 
formerly at Mackinaw, had a skirmish with Ilog- 
ers. Both had been trained on tlie frontier, and 
tliey met " as Greek met Greek." The conflict 
was fierce, and tlie French victorious. Tlie Li- 
dian allies, finding a scalp of a chief underneath 
an officer's jacket, we>'e furious, and took one 
hundred and fourteen scalps in return. 'When 
the French returned, they supposed that Captain 
Rogers was among the killed. 

At Quebec, when Montcalm and AVolfe fell, 
there were Ojibways present assisting the French 

The Indians, returning from the expeditious 
against the English, were attacked with small- 
pox, and many died at Mackinaw. 

On tlie eightli of September, 1760, the French 
delivered up all their posts in Canada. A few 
days after the capitulation at Montreal, ^Major 
Rogers was sent with English troops, to garrison 
the posts of the distant Northwest. 

On the eighth of September. 1761, a year after 
the suiTender, Captani Balfour, of the eightieth 
regiment of tlie British army, left Detroit, with 
a detachment to take possession of tlie French 
forts at Mackinaw and Green Bay. Twenty-five 
soldiers were left at Mackinaw, in command of 
Lieutenant Leslie, and tlie rest sailed to Grten 
Bay, under Lieutenant Gorrell of the Royal 



Americans, where they arrived on the twelfth of 
October. The fort had been abandoned for sev- 
eral years, and was in a dilapidated condition. 
In charge of it there was left a lieutenant, a cor- 
poral, and fifteen soldiers. Two EngUsli traders 
arrived at the same time, McKay from Albany, 
and Goddard from Montreal. 

Gorrell in his journal alludes to the Minnesota 
Sioux. He writes — 

" On March 1, 1763, twelve warriors of the Sous 
came here. It is certainly the greatest nation of 
Indians ever yet found. Not above two thousand 
of them were ever armed with firearms ; the rest 
depending entirely on bows and arrows, wliich 
they use with more skill than any other Indian 
nation in America. They can shoot the wildest 
and largest beasts in the woods at seventy or one 
hundred yards distant. They are remarkable for 
their dancing, and tlie other nations take the 
fashions from them. ***** Tliis nation 
is always at war with the Chippewas, those who 
destroyed Mishamakinak. Tliey told me with 
warmth that if ever the Chippewas or any other 
Indians wished to obstruct the passage of the 
traders coming up, to send them word, and they 
would come and cut them oft' from the face of 
the earth ; as all Indians were their slaves or dogs. 
I told them I was glad to see them, and hoped to 
have a lasting peace with them. Tliey tlien gave 
me a letter wrote in French, and two belts of 
wampum from their lung, in which he expressed 
great joy on hearing of there being English at 
his post. The letter was written by a French 
trader whom I had allowed to go among them 
last fall, witli a promise of his behaving well ; 
which he did, better than any Canadian I ever 
knew. ***** With regard to traders, I 
would not allow any to go amongst them, as I 

then understood they lay out of the government 
of Canada, hut made no doulit they would have 
traders from the ^lississippi in the spring. They 
went away extremely well pleased. June 14th, 
1763, the traders came dowii from the Sack coim- 
try, and confirmed the news of Landsmg and his 
son being killed by the French. There came with 
the traders some Puans, and four young men with 
one chief of the Avoy [loway] nation, to demand 
traders. ***** 

" On the nineteenth, a deputation of Winneba- 
goes, Sacs, Foxes and Menominees arrived with 
a Frenchman named Pennensha. This Pennen- 
sha is the same man who wrote the letter the 
Sous brouglit with them in French, and at the 
same time held council with that great nation in 
favour of the English, by which he much promo- 
ted the interest of the latter, as appeared by the 
behaviour of the Sous. He brought with him a 
pipe from tlie Sous, desiring that as the road is 
now clear, they would by no means allow the 
Chippewas to obstruct it, or 'give the English any 
disturbance, or prevent the traders from coming 
up to them. If they did so they would send all 
their warriors and cut them off." 

In July, 1763, there arrived at Green Bay, 
Bruce, Fisher; and Eoseboom of Albany, to en- 
gage in the Indian trade. 

By the treaty of Paris of 1763, France ceded to 
Great Britain all of the country east of tlie ilis- 
sissippi, and to Spain the whole of Louisiana, so 
that the latter power for a time held the whole 
region between the Mississippi River and the Pa- 
cific Ocean, and that portion of the city of Jilin- 
neapolis known as the East Division was then 
governed by the British, while the West Division 
was subject to the Spanish code. 





Carver's Early Life.— In the Battle near Lake George.— Arrives at Mackinaw.— 
01(1 Fort at Green Bay.— WinneUgo Village.— Description of Prairie du Cliicu. 
Earthworks on Banks of Lake Peiiin.— Sioux Bands Described. — Cave and 
Burial Place in Suburbs of St. Paul.— The Falls of Saint Anthony.— Burial 
Rites of tLe Sioux. — Sjieech of a Sioux Chief.— Schiller's Poem ol the Death 
Soug. — Sir John Herschel's Translation.— Sir K. Buhver Lytton's Version. •-• 
Correspondence of Sir William Johnson.— Carver's Project lor Oiieuinga Route 
to the Pacific.— Supposed Origin of the Sioux.— Carver's Claim to I-inds Ex- 
atniucd.— Alleged Deed.—Testiniony of Rev. Samuel Peters.— Communication 
from Gen. Leavenworth. •••Report of U. S. Setiate Committee. 

Jonatliaii Carver was a native of Connecticut 
His grandfatlier, "Williaia Carverj was a native of 
AVigan, Lancashire, England, and a captain in 
King William's army during the campaign in 
Ireland, and for meritorious services received an 
appointment as an oilicer of the colony of Con- 

His father was a justice of the peace ■in the 
new world, and in 1732, the subject of this sketch 
was born. At the early age of fifteen he was 
called to mourn the death of his father. He then 
commenced the study of medicine, but his roving 
disposition could not l)ear the confines of a doc- 
tor's office, and feeling, perhaps, that his genius 
woidd be cramped by pestle and mortar, at the 
ago of eighteen he purchased an ensign's commis- 
sion m one of the regiments raised during the 
French war. He was of medium stature, and of 
strong mind and quick perceptions. 

In llie year 1757, he was captain mider Colonel 
Williiuns in the battle near Lake George, where 
Samt Pierre was killed, and narrowly escaped 
with his life. 

After the peace of 1763, between France and 
England was declared, Carver conceived the pro- 
ject of exploring the Northwest. Leaving Boston 
in the month of June, 1766, he arrived at Macki- 
naw, then the most distant British iiost, in the 
month of August. Having obtained a credit on 
some French and English traders from Major 
Rogers, the ofllcer in command, he started with 
them on the third day of Seiiteiiiher. Pursuing 
the iMoal route to Cireen Bay, they arrived tliere 
on the eighteenth. 

Tlie Frencli fort at that time was standing, 
though much decayed. It was, some years pre- 
vious to his arrival, garrisoned for a short time 
by an officer and thirty English soldiers, but they 
having been captured by the Menominees, it ■was 

In company with the trailers, he left Green 
Bay on tlie twentietli. and ascending Fox river, 
arrived on the tweiity-fifth at an island at the 
east end of Lake Winnebago, containing about 
fifty acres. 

Here he found a 'Winnebago village of fifty 
houses. He asserts tliat a woman was in author- 
ity. In the month of October the party was at 
the portage of the "Wisconsin, and descending 
that stream, they arrived, on tlie ninth at a town 
of the Sauks. While here he visited some lead 
mines about fifteen miles distant. An abundance 
of lead was also seen in the village, that had been 
brought from the mines. 

On the tenth they arrived at the first village of 
the " Ottigaumies" [Foxes] about five miles be- 
fore the AVisconsin joins the ^lississippi, he per- 
ceived the remnants of another village, and 
learned that it had lieen deserted about thirty 
years before, and tluit the inhabitants soon after 
their removal, built a town on the Mississipjii. 
near the mouth of the " Ouisconsin," at a i>lace 
called by the French La Prairie les Chiens, which 
signified the Dog Plains. It was a large town, 
and contained about three hundred families. 
The houses were built after the Indian manner, 
and pleasantly situated on a dry rich soil. 

He saw here ni;iny houses of a good size and 
shape. This town was the great mart where all 
the aiijacent tribes, and where those who inliabit 
the most remote branches of the Mississippi, an- 
nually assemble about the latter end of May, 
bringing with them their furs to dispose of to the 
traders. But it is not always that they conclude 
their sale here. This was determined by a gen 



eral council of the chiefs, who consulted whether 
it would be more conducive to their interest to 
seU their goods at this place, or to carry them 
on to Louisiana or Macliinaw. 

At a small stream called Yellow River, oppo- 
site Prairie du Chien, the traders who had thus 
far accompanied Carver took up their residence 
for the winter. 

From this point he proceeded in a canoe, with 
a Canadian voyageur and a Mohawk Indian as 
companions. Just before reaching Lake Pepin, 
while his attendants were one day preparing din- 
ner, he walked out and was struck with the pecu- 
liar appearance of the surface of the country, and 
thought it was the site of some vast artificial 
earth-work. It is a fact worthy of remembrance, 
that lie was the first to call the atteution of the 
civilized world to the existence of ancient monu- 
ments m the Mississippi valley. We give his own 
description : 

" On the first of November I reached Lake 
Pepin, a few miles below which I landed, and, 
whilst the servants were preparing my dinner, I 
ascended the bank to view the country. I had 
not proceeded far before I came to a fine, level, 
open plain, on which I perceived, at a little dis- 
tance, a partial elevation that had the appearance 
of entrenchment. On a nearer inspection I had 
greater reason to suppose that it had really been 
intended for this many centuries ago. Notwith- 
standing it was now covered with grass, I could 
plainly see that it had once been a breastwork of 
about four feet in height, extending the best part 
of a mile, and sutfieiently capacious to cover five 
thousand men. Its form was somewhat circular 
and its flanks reached to the river. 

" Tliough much defaced by time, every angle 
was distinguishable, and appeared as regular and 
fashioned with as much miUtary skill as if planned 
by Vauban himself. The ditch was not visible, 
but I thought, on examining more curiously, that 
I could perceive there certainly had been one. 
From its situation, also, I am convinced that it 
must have been designed for that purpose. It 
fronted the country, and the rear was covered by 
the river, nor was there any rising ground for a 
considerable way that commanded it; a few 
straggling lakes were alone to be seen near it. 
In many places small tracks were worn across it 
by the feet of the elks or deer, and from the depth 

of the bed of earth by which it was covered, I was 
able to draw certain conclusions of its great anti- 
quity. I examined all the angles, and every part 
with great attention, and liave often blamed my- 
self since, for not encamping on the spot, and 
drawing an exact plan of it. To show that this 
description is not the offspring of a heated imag- 
ination, or the chimerical tale of a mistaken trav- 
eler, I find, on inquiry suice my return, that 
Mons. St. Pierre, and several traders have at dif- 
ferent times, taken notice of similar appearances, 
upon which they liave formed the same conjec- 
tures, but without examining them so minutely 
as I did. How a work of this kind could exist in 
a country that has hitherto (according to the gen- 
erally received opinion) been the seat of war to 
untutored Indians alone, whose whole stock of 
military knowledge has only, till withm two cen- 
turies, amomited to drawing the bow, and whose 
only breastwork even at present is the thicket, I 
know not. I have given as exact an account as 
possible of this singular appearance, and leave to 
future explorers of those distant regions, to dis- 
cover whether it is a production of nature or art. 
Perhaps the hints I liave here given migtit lead 
to a more perfect mvestigation of It, and give us 
very different ideas of the ancient state of realms 
that we at present believe to have been, from the 
earliest period, only tlie habitations of savages." 

Lake Pepin excited his admiration, as it has 
that of every traveler since his day, and here he 
remarks : " I observed the ruins of a French fac- 
tory, where it is said Captain St. Pierre resided, 
and carried on a very great trade with the Nau- 
dowessies, before the reduction of Canada." 

Carver's first acquaintance with the Dahkotahs 
commenced near the river St. Croix. It would 
seem that the erection of trading posts on Lake 
Pepin had enticed them from their old residence 
on Rum river and MUle Lacs. 

He says : " Near the river St. Croix reside 
bands of the Naudowessie Indians, called the 
River Bands. This nation is composed at pres- 
ent of eleven bands. They were originally 
twelve, but the Assinipoils, some years ago, re- 
volting and separating themselves from the oth- 
ers, there remain at this time eleven. Those I 
met here are termed the River Bands, because 
they chiefly dwell near the banks of this river; 
the other eight are generally distinguished by the . 



title of >"adowessies of the Plains, and inhabit a 
country more to the westward. The names of 
the former are Nehogatawonahs, the Mawtaw- 
bauntowahs, and Sliashweentowahs. 

Arriving at what is now a suburb of the cap- 
ital of Minnesota, he continues: "About thir- 
teen miles below the Falls of St. Anthony, at 
which I arrived the tenth day after I left Lake 
Pepin, is a rcmarl<able cave, of an amazinj.; dei)tli. 
The Indians term it Wakon-teebe [Wakan-tipil. 
The entrance into it is about ten feet wide, the 
height of it five feet. The arcli witliin is fifteen 
feet high and about thirty feet broad: tlie bottom 
consists of fine, clear sand. Aliout thirty feet 
from the entrance begins a lake, the water of 
wliicli is transparent, and extends to an unsearch- 
able distance, for the darkness of the cave pre- 
ents all attempts to accpiire a knowledge of it.] 
I threw a small pebble towards the nterior part 
of it with my utmost strength. I could hear that 
it fell into the water, and, notwithstanding it was 
of a small size, it caused an astonishing and ter- 
rible noise, that reverberated through all those 
gloomy regions. I f(iund in this cave many In- 
dian hieroglyphics, which appeared very ancient, 
for time had nearly covered them with moss, so 
that it was with difficulty I could trace them. 
They were cut in a rude manner upon the inside 
of the wall, which was composed of a stone so ex- 
tremely soft that it might be easily penetrated 
with a knife; a stone everywhere to be found 
near the Mississippi. 

" At a little distance from this dreary cavern, 
is the burying-place of several bands of the Nau- 
dowessie Indians. Tho\igh these people have no 
fixed residence, being in tents, and seldom but a 
few months in one spot, yet they always bring 
the bones of the dead to this place. 

" Ten miles below the Falls of St. Anthony, 
the river St. Pierre, called by the natives Wada 
paw Meuesotor, falls into the Mississippi from the 
west. It is not mentioned by Father Hennepin, 
though a large, fair river. This omission, I con- 
sider, must have proceeded from a small island 
[Pike's] that is situated exactly in its enti-ance." 

Wlien he reached the Mnnesota river, the ice 

became so troublesome that he left his ciinoe in 

the neighborhood of what is now St. Anthony, 

and walked to St. Anthony, in company with a 

' young Winnebago chief, who had never seen the 

curling watere. The chief, on reaching the emi- 
nence some distance below Cheever's, began to 
invoke his gods, and offer oblatious to the spirit 
in the waters. 

" In the middle of the Falls stands a smjill 
island, aljout forty }\(t broad and somcwlial lon- 
ger, on wliich grow a few cragged hemlock and 
spruce trees, and about half way between this 
island and the eastern shore is a rock, lying ai 
the very edge of the Falls, in an oblique position 
that appeared to he about five or six feet broad, 
and thirty or forty long. At a little distance be- 
low the Falls stands a small island of about an 
acre and a lialt, on which grow a great number of 
oak trees." 

From this description, it would appear that the 
little island, now some distance below the Falls, 
was once in the very midst, and shows that a con- 
stant recession has been going on, and that in 
ages long past they were not far from the Minne- 
sota river. 

No description is more glowing than Carver's 
of the country adjacent: 

" The country around them is extremely beau- 
tiful. It is not an uninterrupted plain, where the 
eye finds no reUef , but composed of many gentle 
ascents, which in the summer are covered with 
the finest verdure, and interspersed witli little 
groves that give a pleasing variety to the pros- 
pect. On the whole, when the Falls are inclu- 
ded, which may be seen at a distance of four 
miles, a more pleasing and picturesque ^iew, I 
believe, caimot be foimd throughout the uni- 

" He arrived at the Falls on the seventeenth of 
November, 176(5, and appears to have asceniled as 
far as Elk river. 

On the twenty-fifth of November, he had re- 
turned to the place opposite the Minnesota, where 
he had left his canoe, -and this stream as yet not 
being obstructed with ice, he commenced its as- 
cent, with the colors of Great Britain flying at 
the stem of his canoe. There is no doubt that 
he entered this river, but how far he exjilorcd it 
camiot be ascertauied. He speaks of the Kapids 
near Sliakopay, and asserts that he went as far as 
two hundred miles beyond Jlendota. He re- 

" On the seventh of December, I arrived at the 
utmost of my travels towards the West, where I 



met a large party of the Jfaudowessie Indians, 
among whom I resided some months." 

After speaking of the upper bands of the Dah- 
kotahs and their alUes, he adds that he " left the 
habitations of the hospitable Indians the latter 
end of AprU, 1767, but did not part from them 
for several days, as I was accompanied on my 
journey by near three himdred of them to the 
mouth of the river St. Pierre. At this season 
these bands annually go to the great cave (Day- 
ton's Bluff) before mentioned. 

"Wlien he arrived at the great cave, and the In- 
dians had deposited the remains of their deceased 
friends in the burial-place that stands adjacent 
to it, they held their great council to which he 
was admitted. 

"\Mien the Xaudowessies brought their dead for 
iaterment to the great cave (St. Paul), I attempted 
to get an insight into the remaming burial rites, 
but whether it was on account of the stench 
which arose from so many dead bodies, or whether 
they chose to keep this part of their custom secret 
from me, I could not discover. I foimd, however, 
that they considered my curiosity as ill-timed, 
and therefore I withdrew. * * 

One formality among the Ifaudowessies in 
mourning for the dead is very different from any 
mode I observed in the other nations through 
which I passed. The men, to show how great 
their sorrow is, pierce the fiesh of their arms 
above the elbows with arrows, and the womt n 
cut and gash their legs with broken flints till the 
blood flows very plentifully. * * 

After the breath is departed, the body is 
dressed in the same attire it usually wore, his 
face is pamted, and he Is seated in an erect pos- 
tiu-e on a mat or skin, placed in the middle of the 
hut, with his weapons by his side. Ills relatives 
seated around, each in turn harangues the de- 
ceased; and if he has been a great warrior, re- 
counts liis heroic actions, nearly to the following 
purport, which in the Indian language is extreme- 
ly poetical aud pleasing 

" You still sit among us, brother, yoiu' person 
retains its usual resemlilance, and continues sim- 
ilar to oitts, without any visible deficiency, ex- 
cept it has lost the power of action! But whither 
is that breath flown, which a few hours ago sent 
up smoke to the Great Spirit? Why are those 
lips silent, that lately delivered to us expressions 

and pleasing language? Why are those feet mo- 
tionless, that a few hours ago were fleeter than 
the deer on yonder mountains? Why useless 
hang those arms, that could climb the tallest tree 
or draw the toughest bow? Alas, every part of 
that frame which we lately beheld with admira- 
t ion and wonder has now become as inanimate as 
it was three hundred years ago! We will not, 
however, bemoan thee as if thou wast forever 
lost to us, or that thy name would be buried in 
oblivion; thy soul yet lives in the great comitry 
of spirits, with those of thy nation that have gone 
before thee; and though we are left behhid to 
perpetuate thy fame, we will one day join thee. 

" Actuated by the respect we bore thee whilst 
living, we now come to tender thee the last act of 
kindness in our power; that thy body might not 
lie neglected on the plain, and become a prey to 
the beasts of the field or fowls of the air, and we 
will take care to lay it with those of thy predeces- 
sors that have gone before thee; hoping at the 
same time that thy spuit wdll feed with their 
spirits, and be ready to receive ours when we 
shall also arrive at the great coimtry of souls." 

For this speech Carver is pruicipally indebted 
to his imagination, but it is well conceived, and 
suggested one of Schiller's poems, which Gcethe 
considered one of his best, and wished '■ he had 
made a dozen such." 

Sir E. Lytton Bulwerthe distinguished novelist, 
and Sir John Herschel the eminent astronomer, 
have each given a translation of Schiller's '■ Song 
of the Nadowessee Chief." 

SIR E. L. BULWER'S translation. 

See on his mat — as if of yore, 

All life-like sits he here ! 
With that same aspect which he wore 

^Vhen light to him was dear 

But where the right hand's strength ? and where 
The breath that loved to breathe 

To the Great Spirit, aloft in air. 
The peace pipe's lusty wreath ? 

And where the hawk-like eye, alas ! 

That w^ont the deer piu'sue. 
Along the waves of rippling grass. 

Or flelds that shone with dew ? 



Are tliese the limber, bouncluig feet 
That swept tlie winter's snows ? 

What stateliest stag so fast and lleet ? 
Their speed outstripped the roe's ! 

These arms, that then the steady bow 

Could siii)iilc froni ifs pride, 
How stark and helpless hang they now 
Adown the stiffened side ! 

Yet weal to liim— at peace he stays 

Wherever fall the snows ; 
^Vliere o'er the meadows springs the maize 

Tliat mortal never sows. 

Where birds are blithe on every brake — 
Where orests teem with deer— 

Where glide the fish through every lake — 
One chase from ) ear to year ! 

With spirits now he feasts above ; 

All left us to revere 
The deeds we honor with our love. 

The dust we bury here. 

Here bring the last gift ; loud and shrill 
Wail death dirge for the brave ; 

What pleased him most in life, may still 
Give pleasure in the grave. 

We 1 ly the axe beneath liis head 

He swung when strength was strong— 

The bear on which his lianqucts fed, 
The way from earth is long. 

And here, new sharpened, place the knife 

That severed from the clay. 
From which the axe had spoiled the life, 

The conquered scalp away. 

The paints that deck the dead, l)cstow ; 

Yes, place them in his hand, 
Tliat red the kingly shade may glow 

Amid the spirit land. 


See, where upon the mat he sits 

I^rect, before his door, 
With just the same majestic air 

That once in life he wore. 

But where is lied his sti'engtli of limb. 

The whirlwind of Ids breath, 
To the Great Spirit, when he sent 

The peace jjipe's mounting wreath? 

AVliere are those falcon eyes, which late 

Along the plain could trace, 

Along th(^ grass's dewy waves 

The reindeer's printed pace? 

Tliose legs, which once with matchless speed, 

Flew through the drifted snow. 
Surpassed the stag's unwearied course, 

Outran the mountain roe? 

Those arms, once used with might and main, 

The stubborn l)ow to twang? 
See, see, their ner\'es are slack at last, 

AU motionless they hang. 

'Tis well with him, for he is gone 

AMiere snow no more is found, 
■\Miere thi> gay thorn's perpetual bloom 

Decks all the field around. 

AVliere wild birds sing from every spray, 

AVhere deer come sweeping by, 
AVhere fish from every lake afford 

A plentiful supply. 

AVith spirits now he feasts above, 

And leaves us here alone. 
To ce!el)rate his valiant deeds. 

And round his grave to moan. 

Sound the death song, bring forth the gifts, 
. The last gifts of the dead,— 
Let all which yet may yield him joy 
AVithhi his grave be laid. 

The hatchet place beneath his bra I 

Still red with hostile blood; 
And add, because tlie way is long. 

The bear's fat limbs for food. 

The scalping-knife beside him lay, 

AVlth paints of gorgeous dye. 
That in the land of souls his form 

May shine triumphantly. 

It appears from other sources that Carver's 
visit to the Dahkotahs was of some effect in bruig- 
ing about fiieiidly intercourse between them and 
the commander of the English force at Mackinaw. 


The earliest mention of the Dahkotahs, in any 
public British documents that we know of, is in 
the correspondence between Sir "William Johnson, 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Colony 
of New York, and General Gage, in command of 
11 le forces. 

On the eleventh of September, less than six 
months after Carver's speech at Dayton's Bluff, 
and the departure of a number of chiefs to the 
English fort at Mackinaw, Johnson writes to 
General Gage: "Though I wrote to you some 
days ago, yet I would not mind saying something 
again on the score of the vast expenses incurred, 
and, as I understand, still incurring at Michili- 
mackinac, chiefly on pretense of making a peace 
between the Sioux and Chippeweighs, with which 
I think we have very little to do, in good policy 
or otherwise." 

Sir William Johnson, in a letter to Lord Hills- 
borough, one of his Majesty's ministers, dated 
August seventeenth, 1768, again refers to the 
subject : 

"]SIuch greater part of those who go a trading 
are men of such circumstances and disposition as 
to venture their persons everywhere for extrava- 
gant gains, yet the consequences to the public 
aie not to be slighted, as we may be led into a 
general quarrel through their means. The In- 
dians in the part adjacent to Michillmackinac 
have been treated with at a very great expense 
for some time previous. 

"Major Kodgers brings a considerable charge 
against the former for mediating a peace between 
some tribes of the Sioux and some of the Chippe- 
weighs, which, had it been attended with success, 
would only have been interesting to a very few 
French, and others that had goods in that part 
of the Indian country, but the contrary has hap- 
pened, and they are now more violent, and war 
against one another." 

Though a wilderness of over one thousand 
miles intervened between the Falls of St. An- 
thony and the white settlements of the English, 
Carver was fully impressed with the idea that the 
State now organized under the name of Minne- 
sota, on account of its beauty and fertility, would 
attract settlers. 

Speakmg of the advantages of the counti-y, he 
says that the future population will be "able to 
convey their produce to the seaports vsdth great 

facility, the current of the river from its source 
to its entrance into the Gulf of Mexico being ex- 
tremely favorable for doing this in small craft. 
Ihis might also in time be facilitated by canal.-- or 
shorter cuts, and a communication opened by water 
vnth New York by way of the Lakes." 

The subject of this sketch was also confident 
that a route would be discovered by way of the 
Minnesota river, which would open a passage 
to China and the English settlements in the East 

Carver having returned to England, interested 
Whitworth, a member of parUament, in the 
northern route. Had not the American Revolu- 
tion commenced, they proposed to have built a 
fort at Lake Pepin, to have proceeded up the 
Minnesota imtil they found, as they supposed 
they could, a branch of the Missouri, and from 
thence, journeying over the summit of lands un- 
til they came to a river which they called Ore- 
gon, they expected to descend to the Pacific. 

Carver, in common with other travelers, had 
his theory in relation to the origin of the Dahko- 
tahs. He supposed that they came from Asia. 
He remarks: "But this might have been at dif- 
ferent times and from various parts — from Tar- 
tary, China, Japan, for the inhabitants of these 
places resemble each other. * * * 

"It is very evident that some of the names and 
customs of the American Indians resemble those 
of the Tartars, and I make no doubt but that in 
some future era, and this not far distant, it will 
be reduced to certainty that during some of the 
wars between the Tartars and Chinese a part of 
the inhabitants of the northern provinces were 
driven from their native country, and took refuge 
in some of the isles before mentioned, and from 
thence found their way into America. * » * 

"Many words are used both by the Chinese and 
the Indians which have a resemblance to each 
other, not only in their sound, but in their signi- 
fication. The Chinese call a slave Shungo; and 
the Noudowessie Indians, whose language, from 
their little intercom'se with the Europeans, is 
least corrupted, term a dog Shimgush [Shoan- 
kah.J The former denominate one species of their 
tea Shoushong; the latter call their tobacco Shou- 
sas-sau fChanshasha.] Many other of the words 
used by the Indians contain the syllables che, 
chaw, and chu, after the dialect of the Chinese." 



The comparison of languages has become a rich 
source of liistorical Imovvledge, yet many of the 
analogies traced are fanciftil. The remarlj of 
Humbolt in " Cosmos" is worthy of remembrance. 
"As tlie structure of American idioms appears 
remarkably strange to nations speaking the mod- 
ern languages of Western Europe, and who readily 
suffer themselves to be led away by some acci- 
dental analogies of sound, theologians have gen- 
erally believed that they could trace an affinity 
with the Ileljrew, Spanish colonists with the 
Basque and the English, or French settlers with 
Gaelic, Erse, or the Bas Breton. I one day met 
on the coast of Peru, a Spanish naval officer and 
an English whaling captain, the fontjcr of whom 
declared that he had heard Basque spoken at Ta- 
hiti; the other, Gaelic or Erse at the Sandmch 

Carver became very poor while in England, 
and was a clerk in a lottery-office. He died in . 
1780, and left a widow, two sons, and five daught- 
ers, in Xew England, and also a child by another 
wife that he had married in (ireat Britain 

After his death a claim was urged for the land 
upon which the capital of IMinnesota now stands' 
and for many miles adjacent. As there are still 
many persons who believe that they have some 
right through certain deeds purporting to be from 
tlie lieirs of Carver, it is a matter worthy of an 

Carver says nothing in his book of travels in re- 
lation to a grant from the Dahkotahs, but after 
he was buried, it was asserted that there was a 
deed belonging to him m existence, conveying 
valuable lands, and that said deed was executed 
at the cave now in the eastern suburbs of Saint 


" To Jonathan Carver, c chief under the most 
mighty and potent George the Third, King of the 
English and other nations, the fame of whose 
warriors has reached our ears, and has now been 
fully told us by our g(Jod brother Jonathan, afore- 
said, whom we rejoice to have come among us, 
and bring us good news from his country. 

" We, chiefs of the Naudowessies, who have 
hereunto set our seals, do by these presents, for 
ourselves and heirs forever, in return for the aid 
and other good services done by the said Jona- 

tlian to ourselves and allies, give grant and con- 
vey to him, the said Jonathan, and to his heirs 
and assigns forever, the whole of a certain tract 
or territory of land, bounded as follows, viz: from 
the Falls of St. Anthony, numing on the east 
bank of the Jlississippi, nearly southeast, as far 
as Lake Pepin, wiiere the Chippewa joins the 
Mississippi, and from thence eastward five days 
travel, accomiting twenty EngUsh miles per day; 
and from thence again to the Falls of St. Anthony, 
on a direct straight line. AVe do for om-selves, 
heirs, and assigns, forever give inito the said Jo- 
nathan, his heirs and assigns, with all the trees, 
rocks, ami rivers therein, reserving the sole lib- 
erty of hunting and fishing on land not jjlanted 
or improved by the said Jonathan, his heirs and 
assigns, to which we have affixed our respective 

" At the Great Cave, May 1st. 1767. 



The original deed was never exhibited by the 
assignees of the heirs. By his English wife Car- 
ver had one child, a daughter Martha, who was 
cared for by Sir Richard and Lady Pearson. In 
time she eloped and married a sailor. A mercan- 
tile firm in London, thinking that money could 
be made, induced the newly married couple, the 
day after the wedding, to convey the grant to 
them, w'ith the miderstandiug that they were to 
have a tenth of the profits. 

The merchants despatched an agent by the 
name of Clarke to go to the I)ahkotahs. and ob- 
tain a new deed; but on his way he was murdered 
in the state of New York. 

In the year 1794, the heirs of Carver's Ameri- 
can wife, in consideration of fifty thousand pounds 
sterling, conveyed their interest in the Carver 
grant to Edward Houghton of Vermont. In the 
year 1806, Samuel Peters, who had been a toiy 
and an Episcopal minister dui'ing the Revolu- 
tionary war, alleges, in a petition to Congress, 
that he had also purchased of the heirs of Carver 
their rights to tlie grant. 

Before the Senate committee, the sanic year, 
he testified as follows: 

"In the year 1774, I arrived there (London), 
and met Captain Carver. In 1775, Carver had a 
hearing before the king, prayhig his majesty's 
approval of a deed of land dated May first, 1767, 



and sold and granted to him by the Naudowissies. 
The result was his majesty approved of the exer- 
tions and bravery of Captain Carver among the 
Indian nations, near the Falls of St. ^Vnthony, in 
the Mississippi, gave to said Carver 1371L 13.s. 8(?. 
sterling, and ordered a frigate to be prepared, 
and a transport ship to carry one hundred and 
fifty men, under command of Captain Carver, with 
four others as a committee, to sail the next June 
to New Orleans, and then to ascend the Missis- 
sippi, to take possession of said territory conveyed 
to Captain Carver ; but the battle of Bunker Hill 

In 1821, General Leavenworth, having made 
inquiries of the Dahkotahs, m relation to the 
alleged claim, addressed the following to the 
commissioner of the land office : 

" Sir: — Agreeably to your request, I have the 
honour to inform you what I have understood 
from the Indians of the Sioux Nation, as well Jis 
some facts within my own knowledge, as to what 
Is commonly termed Carver's Grant. The grant 
purports to be made by the chiefs of the Sioux 
of the Flams, and one of the chiefs uses the sign 
of a serpent, and the other of a turtle, purport- 
ing that their names are derived from those ani- 

"The land lies on the east side of the Mississ- 
ippi. The Indians do not recognize or acknowl 
edge the grant to be valid, and they among others 
assign the followuig reasons: 

"1. The Sioux of the Plains never owned a 
foot of land on the east side of the Mississippi. 
The Sioux Nation is divided into two grand di- 
visions, viz: The Sioux of the Lake; or perhaps 
more literally Sioux of the River, and Sioux of 
the Plain. The former subsists by hunting and 
fishing, and usually move from place to place by 
water, in canoes, during the summer season, and 
travel on the ice in the winter, when not on 
their huntmg excursions. The latter subsist en- 
tirely by huntmg, and have no canoes, nor do 
they know but little about the use of them. They 
reside in the large prairies west of the Mississippi, 
and follow the buffalo, ui)on which they entirely 
subsist; these are called Sioux of the Plain, and 
never owned land east of the Mississippi. 

" 2. The Indians say they have no knowledge 
of any such chiefs as those who have signed the 
grant to Carver, either amongst the Sioux of the 

River or the Sioux of the Plain. They say that 
if Captam Carver did ever obtain a deed or 
grant, it was signed by some foolish yomig men 
who were not chiefs and who were not author- 
ized to make a grant. Among the Sioux of the 
River there are no such names. 

" 3. They say the Indians never received any- 
thing for the land, and they have no intention to 
part with it witliout a consideration. From my 
knowledge of the Indians, I am induced to think 
they would not make so considerable a grant, and 
have it to go into full effect without receiving a 
substantial consideration. 

'• 4. They have, and ever have had, the pos- 
session of the land, and intend to keep it. I 
know that they are very particular in making 
every person who wishes to cut timber on that 
tract obtain their permission to do so, and to ob- 
tain payment for it. In the month of May last, 
some Frenchmen brought a large raft of red cedar 
timber out of the Chippewa River, which timber 
was cut on the tract before mentioned. The In- 
dians at one of the villages on the Mississippi, 
where the principal chief resided, compelled the 
Frenchmen to land the raft, and would not per- 
mit them to pass until they had received pay for 
the timber, and the Frenchmen were compelled 
to leave their raft with the Indians until they 
went to Prairie du Chien, and obtained the nec- 
essary articles, and made the payment required." 

On the twenty-third of January, 1823, the Com- 
mittee of Public Lands made a report on the 
claim to the Senate, which, to every disintere.sted 
person, is entirely satisfactory. After stating 
the facts of the petition, the report continues: 

" The Rev. Samuel Peters, in his petition, fiu-- 
ther states that Lefei, the present Emperor of 
the Sioux and Naudowessies, and Red Wing, a 
sachem, the heirs and successors of the two grand 
chiefs who signed the said deed to Captam Car- 
ver, have given satisfactory and positive proof 
that they allowed their ancestors' deed to be gen- 
uine, good, and valid, and that Captain Carver's 
heirs and assigns are the owners of said territory, 
and may occupy it free of all molestation. 

The committee have examined and considered 
the claims thus exhibited by the petitioners, and 
remark that the original deed is not produced, nor 
any competent legal evidence offered of its execu- 
tion ; nor is there any proof that the persons, who 



it is alleged made the deed, were the chiefs of 
said tribe, nor that (if chiefs) they had authority 
to grant and give away the laud belonging to their 
tribe. The paper annexed to the petition, as a 
copy of said deed, has no subscribing witnesses ; 
and it would seem impossil)le, at this remote pe- 
riod, to ascertain the important fact, that tlie per- 
sons who signed the deed comprehended and 
imderstooA the meaning and effect of their act. 

" The want of proof as to these facts, would 
interpose in the way of the claimants insuperable 
difficulties. But, in the opinion of the committee, 
the claim is not such as the United States are 
under any obligation to allow, even if the deed 
were proved in legal form. 

" The British government, before the time when 
the alleged deed bears date, had deemed it pru- 
dent and necessary for the preservation of peace 
with the Indian tribes under their sovereignty, 
protection and dominion, to prevent British sub- 
jects from purchasing lands from the Indians, 
and this rule of policy was made known and en- 
forced by the proclamation of the king of Great 
Britam, of seventh October, 1763, which contains 
an express prohibition. 

" Captain Carver, aware of the law, and know- 
uig that such a contract could not vest the legal 
title in him, applied to the British govenunent to 
ratify and confirm the Indian grant, and, though 
it was competent for that government then to 
confirm the grant, and vest the title of said laud 

in him. yet. from some cause, that government 
did not think proper to do it. 

" The territory has since become the property 
of the United States, and an Indian grant not 
good against the British goverumeut, would ap- 
pear to be not binding unon the United States 

" What benefit the British government derived 
from the ser\ices of Captain Carver, by his trav- 
els and residence among the Indians, that gov- 
ernment alone could determine, and alone could 
judge what remuneration those services desened. 

" One fact appears from the declaration of Mr. 
Peters, in his statement in writing, among the 
papers exhibited, namely, that the British gov- 
ernment did give Captain Carver the sum of one 
thousand three hundred and seventy-five pounds 
six shillings and eight pence sterling. To the 
United States, liowever. Captain Carver rendered 
no services wliich could be assumed as any equit- 
able ground for the support of the petitioners' 
claim. . 

" The committee being of opinion that the 
United States are nfit bound in law and equity to 
confirm the said alleged Indian grant, recom- 
mend the adoption of the resolution: 

" ' Bcsolvcd, That the prayer of the petitioners 
ought not to be granted." ' 

Lord Palmerston stated in 1839, that no trace 
could be foimd in the records of the British 
oflice of state papers, showing any ratification of 
the Carver grant. 





"raffjiB Posts at the beginuing of Nineteenth Century.— Sandy Lake Fort.— 
Lteun Lake Fort.— Williftm Morrison, before Schoolcraft at Lake.— Divi- 
sion of Northwest Territory.- Organization of Indiana, Michigan and Upper 
Louisiana.— Notices of Wooc!, Frazer, Fisher, Cameron, Faribault.— Early 
Trade.-*. —Pike's Council at Mouth of Minnesota River.— Grant for Mihtary 
Posts.— encampment at Falls of St. Anthony.— Block House near Swan River. 
—Visit to Sandy and Leech Lakes.— British Flag Shot at and Lowered.— 
TbompBon, Topographer of Northwest Company.— Pike at Dickson's Trading 
Post.— Returns to Mendota.— Fails to find Carver's Cave.— Conference with 
Little Crow. —Cameron sells Liquor to Indians. 

At the beginning of the present century, the 
region now known as Minnesota, contained no 
white men, except a few engaged in the f lu- trade. 
In the treaty effected by Hon. Jolni Jay, Great 
Britain agreed to witlidraw her troops from all 
posts and places within certain boimdary lines, 
on or before the first of June, 1796, but all Brit- 
ish settlers and traders might remain for one 
year, and enjoy all their former privileges, with- 
out being obliged to be citizens of the United 
States of America. 

In the year ISOO, the trading posts of Mimiesota 
were chiefly held by the 2^orthwest Company, 
and their chief traders resided at Sandy Lake, 
Leech Lake, and Fon du Lac, on St. Louis River. 
In the year 1794, this company built a stockade 
one hundred feet square, on the southeast end of 
Sandy Lake. There were bastions pierced for 
small arms, in the southeast and in the northwest 
corner. The pickets which surroiuided the post 
were thirteen feet high. On the north side there 
was a gate ten by nine feet ; on the west side, one 
six by five feet, and on the east side a third gate 
six by five feet. Travelers entering the main 
gate, saw on the left a one story building twenty 
feet square, the residence of the superintendent, 
and on the left of tlie east gate, a building twenty- 
five by fifteen, the quarters of the voyagenis. 
Entering the western gate, on the left was a stone 
house, twenty by thirty feet, and a house twenty 
by forty feet, used as a store, and a workshop, 
and a residence for clerks. On the south shore 
of Leech Lake there was another establishment, 
I little larger. The stockade was one hundred 

and fifty feet square. The main building was 
sixty by twenty-five feet, and one and a half story 
in height, where resided the Director of the fur 
trade of the Fond du Lac department of the North- 
west Company. In the centre was a small store, 
twelve and a half feet square, and near the main 
gate was flagstaff fifty feet in height, from 
which used to float the flag of Great Britain. 

William ilorrison was, in 1802, the trader at 
Leech Lake, and in 1804 he was at Elk Lake, the 
source of the Mississippi, thirty-two years after- 
wards named by Schoolcraft, Lake Itasca. 

The entire force of the Northwest Company, 
west of Lake Superior, in 1805, consisted of three 
accountants, nineteen clerks, two interpreters, 
eighty-five canoe men, and with them were 
twenty-nine Indian or half-breed women, and 
about fifty cliildren. 

On the seventh of May, 1800, the Northwest 
Territory, which included all of the western 
country east of the Mississippi, was divided. 
The portion not designated as Ohio, was organ- 
ized as the Territory of Indiana. 

On the twentieth of December, 1803, the 
province of Louisiana, of which that portion of 
Minnesota west of the Mississippi was a part, 
was officially delivered up by the French, who 
had just obtained it from the Spaniards, accord- 
ing to treaty stipulations. 

To the transfer of Louisiana by France, after 
twenty days' possession, Spain at first objected; 
but in 1804 withdrew all opposition. 

President Jefferson now deemed it an object 
of paramount importance for the United States 
to explore the country so recently acquired, and 
make the acquaintance of the tribes residing 
therein ; and steps were taken for an expedition 
to the upper Mississiiapi. 

Early in March, 1804, Captain Stoddard, of the 
United States army, arrived at St. Louis, the 
agent of the French Eepublic, to receive from 



the Spanish authorities tlie possession of the 
countiy, wliicli he immediately trausferred to tlie 
United States. 

As tlie old settlers, on the tenth of March, saw 
the ancient flag of Spain displaced by that of the 
United States, the tears coursed down their 

On the twentieth of the same month, the terri- 
tory of Upper Louisiana was constituted, com- 
prising the present states of Arkansas, Missouri, 
Iowa, and a large portion of Minnesota. 

On the eleventh of January, 1805, the terri- 
tory of Michigan was organized. 

The first American officer who visited ]SIinne- 
sota, on business of a public nature, was one who 
was an ornament to his profession, and in energy 
and endurance a true representative of the citi- 
zens of the United States. We refer to the 
gallant Zefculon Montgomery Pike, a native of 
New Jersey, wl)o afterwards fell in battle at 
York, Upper Canada, and whose loss was justly 
mourned by the whole nation. 

When a young lieutenant, he was ordered l)y 
General Wilkinson to visit the region now known 
as Minnesota, and expel the British traders who 
were found violating the laws of the United 
States, and form alliances with the Indians. 
With only a few common soldiers, he was obliged 
to do the work of several men. At times he 
would precede his party for miles to reconnoitre, 
and then he would do the duty of hunter. 

During the day he would perform the part of 
surveyor, geologist, and astronomer, and at night, 
though hungry and fatigued, his lofty enthu- 
siasm kept him awake until he copied the notes, 
and ])lotted the courses of the day. 

On the 4th day of September, 180.5, Pike ar- 
rived at Prairii^ <ln Chien, from St. Louis, and 
was politely treal(Ml by three traders, all born un- 
derthe llagof the United States. One was named 
Wood, another Prazer, a native of Vermont, 
who, when a young man l)ecame a clerk of one 
]51akely, of Montreal, and thus became a fur 
trader. Tlie third was Henry Fisher, a captain 
of the Militia, and Justice of the Peace, whose 
wife was a daughter of Goutier de Verville. 
I'^isher was said to have been a nephew of Pres- 
dent Monroe, and later in life traded at the 
sources of the Minnesota. One of his daughters 
was the mother of Joseph Polette, Jr., a mem- 

ber of the early Minnesota Legislative assem- 
blies. On the eighth of the month Lieutenant 
Pike left Trairie du Chien, in two batteaux, with 
Sergeant Henry Kennerman, Corporals William 
E. Mack and Samuel Bradley, and ten privates. 

At La Crosse, Frazer, of Prairie du Chien, 
overtook him, and at Sandy point of Lake Pepin 
he found a trader, a Scotchman by the name of 
Murdoch Cameron, with his son, and a young 
man named John Rndsdell. On the twonty- 
first he breakfasted with the Kaposia band of 
Sioux, who then dwelt at the marsli below Day- 
ton's Bluff, a few miles below St. Paul. The 
same day he passed three miles from Jlendota 
the encampment of J. B. Faribaidt, a tiader and 
native of Lower Canada, then about thirty years 
of age, in which vicinity he contiiuied for more 
than fifty years. He married Pelagie the daugh- 
ter of Francis Kinnie by an Indian woman, 
and his eldest son, Alexander, born soon after 
Pike's visit, was the founder of the town of 

Arriving at the confluence of the Minnesota 
and the Mississippi Rivers, Pike and his soldiers 
eneamjted on the Northeast point of the island 
which still bears his name. The next day was 
Sunday, and he visited Cameron, at his trading 
post on the Minnesota Iliver, a short distance 
above Mendota. 

On Monday, the 23d of September, at noon, 
lie held a Council with th(! Sioux, under a cover- 
ing made by suspending sails, and gave an ad- 
mirable talk, a portion of wliich was as follows : 

" Brothers, I am happy to meet you here, at 
this council fire which your father has sent me to 
kindle, and to take you by the hands, as our chil- 
dren. We having but lately aciiiiired from the 
Spjinish, the extensive territory of Louisiana, our 
general has thoiight proper to send out a number 
of his warriors to visitall his red children ; to tell 
them his will, and to hear what request they may 
have to make of their father. I am happy the 
choice fell on me to come this road, as I find 
my brothers, the Sioux, ready to listen to my 

" IJrothers, it is the wish of our government to 
establish military jiosts on the Upper Mississippi, 
at such places as might be thought expedient. I 
have, therefore, examined the country, and have 
jiitched on the mouth of the river St. Croix, this 



place, uiiil the i alls of St. Anthony ; I therefore 
wish you to grant to the United States, nine 
miles square, at St. Croix, and at tliis place, from 
a league below the confluence of the St. Peter's 
and lilississippi, to a league above St. Anthony, 
extending thrte leagues on each side of the river ; 
and as we are a people who are accustomed to 
have all our acts written down, in order to have 
tliem handed to our children, I have drawn up a 
form of an agreement, which we will I)oth sign, 
in the presence of the traders now present. After 
we know the terms, we will fill it up, and have it 
read and interpreted to you. 

" Brothers, those posts are intended as a bene- 
fit to you. The old chiefs now present must see 
that their situation improves by a communication 
with the whites. It is the intention of the Umted 
States to establish at those posts factories, in 
which the Indians may procure all their things 
at a cheaper and better rate than they do now, or 
than your traders can afford to sell them to you, 
r.s they aie single men, who come from far in 
small boats; but your fathers are many and 
strong, and will come with a strong arm, in large 
boats. There will also be i iiiefs here, who can 
attend to the wants of then- brothers, without 
their sending or going all the way to St. Louis, 
and will see the tiarlers that go up your rivers, 
and know that they are good me- * * * * 

"Brothers, I now present you . ;i some of 
yo;ir father's tobacco, and some other trilling 
thmgs, as a memorandum of my good will, and 
before my departure I ■will give you some liquor 
to clear your throats." 

The traders, Cameron and Frazer, sat with 
Pike. Ilis interpreter was Pierre llosseau. 
Among the Chiefs present were Le Petit Cor- 
beau (Little Crow), and Way-ago Enagee, and 
L"Orignal Leve or Rising Moose. It was with 
difficulty that the cliiefg signed the following 
agi-eement; not that they objected to the lan- 
guage, but because they thought their word 
should be taken, mthout any mark ; but Pike 
overcame their objection , by saying that he wished 
them to sign it on his account. 

"Whereas, at a conference held between the 
United States of America and the Sioux na- 
tion of Indians, Lieutenant Z. M. Pike, of the 
army of the United States, and the cliiefs and 
warriors of said trihe. have atrreed to the follow- 

ing articles, which, when ratified and approved of 
by the proper authority, shall be binding on both 
parties : 

Akt. 1. That the Sioux nation grant xmto the 
United States, for the purpose of establishment 
of military posts, nine miles square, at the mouth 
of the St. Croix, also from below the confluence 
of the Mississippi and St. Peter's, up the Missis- 
sippi to include the Falls of St. Anthony, extend- 
ing nine miles on each side of the river ; that the 
Sioux Nation grants to the United States the full 
sovereignty and power over said district forever. 
Art. 2. That in consideration of the above 
grants, the United States shall pay [filled up by 
the Senate with 2,000 dollars]. 

Art. 3. The United States promise, on their 
part, to permit the Sioux to pass and repass, hunt, 
or make other use of the said districts, as they 
have formerly done, without any other exception 
than those specified in article first. 

In testimony whereof, we, the undersigned, 
have hereunto set our hands and seals, at the 
mouth of the liver St. Peter's, on the 23d day of 
September, 1805. 

Z.M.PIKE, [L S.] 
1st Lieutenant and agent at the above conference. 

. his 
mark " 

The following entries from Pike's Journal, des- 
criptive of the region around the city of Minne- 
apolis, seventy-five years a;;o, are worthy of pres- 

^'Skft. 26th, Tliursday. — Embarked at the usual 
hour, and after much labor in passing through 
the rapids, arrived at the foot of the Falls about 
three or four o'clock ; imloaded my boat, and had 
the principal part of her cargo carried over the 
portage. With the other boat, however, full 
loaded, they were not able to get over the last 
shoot, and encamped aboiit six yards below. I 
pitched my tent and encamped above the shoot. 
The rapids mentioned in this day's march, might 
properly be called a continuation of the Falls of 
St. Anthony, for they are equally entitled to this 
appellation, with the Falls of the Pelawaj'e aad 



Sus(iuehanna. Killed one deer. Distance nine 

Sept. 27th, Friday. Brought over the residue 
of my loading this moniing. Two men arrived 
from Mr. Frazer, on St. Peters, for my dispaU-hes. 
This business, closing and sealing, appeared like 
a last adieu to the civilized world. Sent a large 
packet to the General, and a letter to Mrs. Pike, 
with a short note to Mr. Frazer. Two young 
Indians brought my flag across by land, who ar- 
rived yesterday, just as we ciime in sight of the 
Fall. I made them a present for their punctual- 
ity and expedition, and the danger they were ex- 
posed to from the journey. Carried our boats out 
of the river, as far as the bottom of the hill. 

Sept. 2fHh,iiatui-da>/. — Brought my barge over, 
and put her Ln the river above the Falls. "Wliile 
■we were engaged vrith her three -fourths miles 
from camp, seven Indians painted black, appeared 
on the heights. We had left our gims at the 
camp and were entirely defenceless. It occurred 
to me that they were the small party of Sioux who 
were obstinate, and would go to war, when the 
other part of the bands came in ; these they 
proved to be ; they were better armed than any I 
had ever seen ; having guns, liows, arrows, clubs, 
spears, and some of them even a case of pistols. 
I w^as at that time gi\ Ing my men a dram ; and 
giving the cup of liquor to the iirst, he di'ank it 
off ; but I was more cautious with the remainder. 
I sent my Interpreter to camp with them, to wait 
my coming ; w^ishiug to purchase one ol theu- w-ar 
clubs, it being made of elk horn, and decorated 
with inlaid work. Tliis and a set of bows and 
arrows I wished to get as a curiosity. But the 
liquor I had given him began to operate, he came 
back for me, but refusing to go till I brought my 
boat, he returned, and (I suppose being offended) 
borrowed a canoe and crossed the river. In the 
afternoon got the other boat near the top of the 
hill, when the projis gave way, and she slid all the 
way down to the bottom, but fortunately without 
injuring any person. It raining very hard, we 
left her. Killed one goose and a racoon. 

Sept. 29th, Sunda!/.-~l killed a reniarka'jly 
large racoon. Got our large boat over the port- 
age, and put her in the river, at the upper land- 
ing; this night the men gave sufficient proof of 
their fatigue. l)y all tlirowing themselves down to 
sleep, preferring rest to supper. Tliis day 1 had 

but fifteen men out of twenty-two ; the others 
were sick. This voyage could have been per- 
formed with great convenience, if we had taken 
our departure in Jime. But the proper time 
would be to leave the IlUnois as soon as the ice 
would permit, when the river would be of a good 

Sept. 30th, Monday.— hoaded my boat, moved 
over aTid encamped on the Island. The large Iwats 
loading Likewise, we went over and put on board. 
In the mean time, I took a sm-vey of the Falls, 
Portage, etc. If it be possible to pass the Falls 
in high water, of which I am doubtful, it must 
be on the East side, about thirty yards from 
shore ; as there are three layers of rocks, one be- 
low the other. The pitch off of either, is not 
more than five feet ; but of this I can say more 
on my ret\mi. 

On the tenth of October, the expedition 
readied some 'arge island below Sauk Rapids, 
where ui 1797, Porlier and Joseph Renville had 
wintered. Six days after this, he reached the 
Rapids m Morrison county, which still bears his 
name, and he writes : ' • When we arose in the 
morning, found that snow had fallen during the 
night, the ground was covered and it continued 
to snow. This, indeed, was but poor encourage- 
ment for attacking the Rapids, in which we were 
certain to wade to our necks. I was determined, 
however, if possible to make la riviere de Cor- 
beau, [Crow Wing River], the highest point was 
made by traders in their bark canoes. We em- 
l)arked, and after four hours work, became so 
benumbed with cold that our limbs were perfectly 
useless. We put to shore on the opposite side of 
the river, about two-thirds of the way up the 
rapids. Built a large fire ; and then discovered 
that our boats were nearly half full of water; 
both having sprung large leaks so as to oblige me 
to keep three hands bailing. My sergeant (Ken- 
nerman) one of the stoutest men I ever knew, 
broke a blood-vessel and vomited nearly two 
quarts of blood. One of my corporals (Bradley) 
also evacuated nearly a pint of blood, when he 
attempted to void his urine. These unhappy 
circiunstances, in addition to the inability of 
four other men whom we were obliged to leave 
on shore, con^^n(■pd me, that if I had no regard 
for my own health and constitution, I should 
ha\e some for those poor fellows, who were kill- 



iug themselves to obey my orders. After we 1 lad 
breakfast and refreshed ourselves, we went down 
to our boats on the rocks, where I was obliged to 
leave them. I then informed my men that we 
would return to the camp and there leave some 
of the party and oiu- large boats. This informa- 
tion was pleasing, and the attempt to reach the 
camp soon accomplished. My reasons for this 
step have partly been already stated. The nec- 
essity of unloadmg and refitting my boats, the 
beauty and convenience of the spot for buildmg 
huts, the fine pme trees for peroques, and the 
quantity of game, were additional inducements. 
We immediately imloaded our boats and secured 
their cargoes. In the evening I went out upon a 
small, but beautiful creek, which emptied mto 
the Falls, for the purpose of selecting puie tiees 
to make canoes. Saw five deer, and killed one 
buck weighing one himdi-ed and thirty-seven 
pounds. By my leaving men at this place, and 
from the great quantities of game in its vicinity, 
I was ensured plenty of provision for my return 
voyage. In the party left behuid was one hunter, 
to be continually employed, who would keep our 
stock of salt provisions good. Distance two 
hundred and thirty-three and a half miles above 
the Falls of St. Anthony. 

Having left his large boats and some sohliers 
at this point, he proceeded to the vicinity of 
Swan River where he erected a block house, and 
on the tliirty-flrst of October he writes: "En- 
closed my little work completely with pickets. 
Hauled up my two boats and turned them over 
on each side of the gateways; by wliich means 
a defence was made to the river, and had it not 
been for various poUtical reasons, I would have 
laughed at the attack of eight hundred or a 
thousand savages, if all my party were within. 
For. except accidents, it would only have afford- 
ed amusement, the Indians having no idea of 
taking a place by storm. Found myself power- 
fully attacked with the fantastics of the brain, 
called ennui, at the mention of which I had 
hitherto scoffed ; but my books being packed up, 
I was like a person entranced, and could easily 
conceive why so many persons who have been 
confined to remote places, acquire the habit of 
drinking to excess, and many other vicious prac- 
tices, which have been adopted merely to pass 

Dm-ing the next month he hunted the buffalo 
which were then in that vicinity. On the third 
of December he received a visit from Bobert 
Dickson, afterwards noted m the history of the 
country, who was then trading about sixty miles 
below, on the Mississippi. 

On the tenth of December with some sleds he 
continued his journey northward, and on the last 
day of the year passed Pine River. On the thud 
of .January, 1806, he reached the trading post at 
Red Cedar, now Cass Lake, and was quite indig- 
nant at finding the British flag floatmg from the 
staff. The night after this his tent caught on 
fire, and he lost some valuable and necessary 
ck thing. On the evening of the eighth he reach- 
ed Sandy Lake and was hospitably received by 
Grant, the trader hi charge. He writes . 

" Jan. 9th, r/w«>da2/.— Marched the corporal 
early, m order that our men should receive 
assurance of our safety and success. He carried 
with him a small keg of spirits, a present from 
Mr. Grant. The establishment of this place was 
formed twelve years since, by the North-west 
Company, and was fonnerly imder the charge of 
a Mr. Charles Brusky. It has attained at present 
such regularity, as to permit the superintendent 
to Uve tolerably comfortable. They have horses 
they procured from Red River, of the Indians; 
raise plenty of Irish potatoes, catch pike, suckers, 
pickerel, and white fish in abundance. They 
have also beaver, deer, and moose; but the pro- 
vision they chiefly depend upon is wild oats, of 
which they purchase great quantities from the 
savages, giving at the rate of about one dollar 
and a half per bushel. But flour, pork, and salt, 
are almost interdicted to persons not principals 
in the trade. Flour sells at half a dollar ; salt a 
dollar; pork eiglity cents; sugar half a dollar ; 
and tea four doUars and fifty cents per pound. 
The sugar is obtained from the IncUans, aud is 
made from the maple tree." 

He remained at Sandy Lake ten days, and on 
the last day two men of the Northwest Company 
arrived with letters from Fon du Lac Superior, 
one of which was from Athapuscow, and had 
been since May on the route. 

On the twentieth of January began his journey 
to Leech Lake, which he reached on the first of 
February, and was hospitably received by Hugh 


McGillis, the head of the Northwest Company at 
this post. 

A Mr. Anderson, in the employ of Robert 
Dick-son, was residing at the west end of the lake. 
While here he hoisted the American flag in the 
fort. The English yacht still flying at tlie top of 
the flagstaff, he directed the Indians and his sol- 
diers to shoot at it. They soon broke the iron 
pin to wliich it was fastened, and it fell to the 
ground. lie was informed by a venerable old 
Ojibw'ay chief, called Sweet, that the Sioux dwelt 
there when he was a youth. On the tenth of 
February, at ten o'clock, he left Leecli I>ake with 
Corponil ISradley, the trader McGillis and two of 
his men, and at sunset arrived at Hed Cedar, now 
Cass Lake. At this place, in 1798, Tliompson, 
employed by the Northwest Company for three 
years, in topograjHucal surveys, made some ob- 
servations. He believed that a line from the 
Lake of the Woods would touch the sources of 
the ^lississippi. Pike, at this point, was very 
kindly treated by a Canadian named IJoy, and liis 
Ojibway squaw. On his return home, he reached 
Clear Kiver on the seventh of April, where he 
foimd his canoe and men, and at night \\as at 
( Jrand Uapids, Dickson's trading post. He talked 
until four o'clock the next morning with tliis 
person and another trader named Porlier. lie 
forbade while there, the traders (Jreignor [Grig- 
non] and La Jemiesse, to sell any more liquor to 
Indians, who had become very drunken and un- 
ruly. On the tenth he again readied the Falls 
of Saint Anthony. He writes in his journal as 
follows : 

Aphtt. nth, Fridn;/. — Although it snowed very 
hard \\e brought over both V)oats, and descended 
the river to the island at the entrance of the St. 
Peter's. I sent to the chiefs and informed them 
I had something to communicate to them. The 
Fils de Pincho innnediately waited on me, and 
informed me that he would i)rovide a place for 
the purpose. About sundown I was sent for and 
introduced into the council-house, where I found 
a great many chiefs of the Sussitongs, (iens de 
Feuilles, and the (iens du Lac. The Yanctongs 
had not yet come down. They were all awaiting 
for my arrival. There were about one hundred 
lodges, or six hundred people; we were saluted 
on our crossing the river with ball as usual. The 
council-house was two large lodges, capable of 

containing three hundred men. In the upper 
were forty chiefs, and as many pipes set against 
the poles, alongside of wliich I had the Santeur's 
pipes arranged. I then infcjrmed them in short 
detail, of my transactions with tin; Santeurs; but 
my interpreters were not capable of making them- 
selves tniderstood. I was therefore obliged to 
omit mentioning every particular relative to the 
rascal who fired on my sentinel, and of the scoun- 
drel who broke the Fols Avoins' canoes, and 
threatened my life; the interpreters, however, in- 
■ formed them that I wanted some of their princi- 
pal chiefs to go to St. Louis; and that those who 
thought proper might descend to the prairie, 
wliere we would give them more explicit in • < r 
mation. They all smoked out of the Santeur's 
pipe, excepting three, who were painted black, 
and were some of those who lost their relations 
last winter. I invited the Fils de Pinchow, and 
the son of tlie Killeur Eouge, to come over and 
sup with me; when Mr. Dickson and myself en- 
deavored to explain what I intended to have said 
to them, could I have made myself understood; 
that at the prairie wc would have all things ex- 
plained; that I was desirous of making a better 
report of them than Captain Lewis could do from 
their treatment of him. The former of those 
savages was the jierson who remained around my 
post all last winter, and treated m.\' men so well; 
they endeavored to excuse their people. 

"Apuil 12th, Saturday. — Embarked early. Al- 
though my interiireter liad been frecpiently u)) the 
river, he could not tell me wliere the cave (spoken 
of by Carver) could be fomid ; we carefully 
sought for it, but in vain. At the Indian village, 
a few miles below St. Peter's, we were about to 
pass a few lodges, but on receiving a very partic- 
ular invitation to come on shore, we landed, and 
were received in a lodge kindly; they presented 
us sugar. I gave the proprietor a dram, and was 
about to depart when he demanded a kettle of 
liquor; on being refused, and after I had left the 
shore, he told me he did not like the arrange- 
ments, and that he would go to war this suiiiiiicr. 
I directed the interpreter to tell liiinthalif 1 
returned to St. Peter's with the troops, 1 would 
settle that affair with him. On our arrival at tlie 
St. Croix, I found the Pettit Corbeau w ilh his 
people, and Messrs. Frazer and Wood, ^\'e had 
a conference, when the Pettit Corbeau made 


many apologies for the misconduct of his people; 
he i-epreseiited to us the different manners in 
•which tlie young warriors liad been inducing him 
to go to war; that he had been much blamed for 
dismissing his party last fall; but that he was de- 
termined to adhere as far as lay in his power to 
our instructions; that he thouglit it most prudent 
to remain here and restrain the warriors. lie 
then presented me with a l)eaver robe and pipe, 
and his message to the general. That he was 
determined to preserve peace, and make the road 
clear; also a remembrance of his promised medal. 
I made a reply, calculated to confirm him in his 
good intentions, and assured him that he should 
not be the less remembered by his father, although 
not present. I was informed that, notwithstand- 
ing the instruction of his license, and my par- 
ticular request, Murdoch Cameron had taken 
liquor and sold it to the Indians on the river St. 
Peter's, and that his partner below had been 

equally imprudent. I pledged myself to prose- 
cute them according to law; for they have been 
the occasion of great confusion, and of much 
injury to the other traders. This day met a 
canoe of Mr. Dickson's loaded with provisions, 
under the charge of Mr. Anderson, brother of 
the Mr. Anderson at Leech Lake. He politely 
offered me any provision he had on board (for 
which Mr. Dickson had given me an order), but 
not now being in want, I did not accept of any. 
This day, for the first time, I observed the trees 
beginning to bud, and indeed the climate seemed 
to have changed very materially since we passed 
the Falls of St. Anthony." 

The strife of political parties growmg out of 
the French Eevoliition, and the declaration of 
war against Great Britain in the year 1812, post- 
poned the military occupation of the Upper 
Mississippi by the United States of America, for 
several years. 



cnAPTEE xni. 


Dickson and other tra'lors liostilf, — American slockado at Prairie tlu Chi^n — Fort 
Shelby siuTcnders to Lt. Col. William McKay— I,>yal tra«l«rs l*rovencaUc and 
Faribault— Rising Moose or Ono-eyed Sioux— Capt. Bulger evacuates Port 
McKay — ^Intellii'aiifO of Peace. 

Notwithstanding tlie professions of f riendsliip 
made to Pike, in tlie second war with Great Brit- 
ain, Dickson and others were found bearmg arms 
agahist tlie Republic. 

A year after Pike left Praiiie du Wiien, it was 
evident, that under some secret influence, the 
Indian tril les were combining agauist tlie United 
States. In the year 1809, Nicholas Jarrot declared 
that the British traders were f urnishmg the sav- 
ages with guns for hostile pui-poses. On the first 
of Ma)', 1H12, two Indians were apprehended at 
Chicago, who were on theu- way to meet Dickson 
at Green Bay. They had taken the precaution 
to hide letters in their moccasms, and bury them 
in the ground, and were allowed to proceed after 
a brief detention. Frazer, of Prairie du Cliien, 
who had been with Pike at the Council at the 
mouth of the Minnesota River, was at the port- 
age of the A\'isconsiu when the Indians deUvered 
these letters, which stated that the British flag 
would soon be flying again at Mackinaw. At 
Green Bay, the celebrated warrior. Black Hawk, 
was placed in charge of the Indians \\\\o were to 
aid the British. The American troops at ilacki- 
naw were obUged, on the seventeenth of July, 
1812, to capitulate without firing a single gun. 
One who was made prisoner, writes from Detroit 
to the Secretary of War : 

" The persons who commanded the Indians are 
Robert Dickson, Indian trader, and John Askin, 
Jr., Indian agent, and his son. The latter two 
were painted and dressed after the manner 
of the Indians. Those who commanded tliu 
Canadians are John Johnson, Crawford, Pothier, 
Annitinger, La Croix, Rolette, Franks, Living- 
ston, and Dther traders, some of whom were lately 
concerned in smuggUng British goods into the 

Indian eoimtry, and, in conjunction with others, 
have been using their utmost efforts, several 
months before the declaration of war, to excite 
the Indians to take up arms. The least resist- 
ance from the fort would have been attended 
with the destruction of all the persons who fell 
hito the hands of the British, as I have been as- 
sured by some of the British traders," 

On the first of May, 1814, Governor Clark, 
wiX\\ two luuidred men, left St. Louis, to build a 
fort at the junction of the 'Wisconsin and ilissis- 
sippi. Twenty days before he arrived at Prairie 
du Chien, Dickson had started for Mackinaw 
with a band of Dahkotalis and 'Winnebagoes. 
The place was left in command of Captain Deace 
and the Mackinaw Fencibles. The Dahkotahs 
refusing to co-operate, when the Americans made 
their appearance they fled. The Americans took 
possession of the old ilackinaw house, in which 
they foimd nine or ten trunks of papers belong- 
ing to Dickson. From one they took the follow- 
ing extract : 

" ' Arrived, from below, a few AViimebagoes 
with scalps. Gave them tobacco, six pomids 
powder and six pounds ball.' " 

A fort was immediately commenced on the 
site of the old residence of the late H. L. Dous- 
man, which was composed of two block-houses 
in the angles, and another on the bank of tlie 
river, with a subterranean communication. In 
honor of the governor of Kentucky it was named 
" Shelby." 

The fort was in charge of Lieutenant Perkuis, 
and sixty rank and file, and two gunboats, each 
of which carried a six-pounder; and several 
howitzers were cummaiided by Captains Yeiser, 
Sullivan, and Aid-de-camp Kennerly. 

The traders at Mackinaw, learning that the 
Americans had built a fort at the Prairie, and 
knowing that as long as they held possession 
i\w\ would be cut oil from the trade with the 



Dahkotalis, immediately raised an expedition to 
capture the garrison. 

Tlie captain was an old trader by the name of 
McKay, and imder him was a sergeant of ar- 
tillery, with a brass six-poimder, and tlu-ee or 
four volunteer companies of Canadian voyageurs, 
officered by Captains Griguon, Rolette and An- 
derson, ■with Lieutenants Brisbois and Duncan 
Graham, all dressed in red coats, with a niunber 
of Indians. 

The Americans had scarcely completed their 
rude fortification, before the British force, guid- 
ed by Joseph Kolette, Sr., descended m canoes 
to a point on the "Wisconsin, several miles from 
the Prairie, to which they marched in battle 
array. McKay sent a flag to the Fort demanding 
a surrender. Lieutenant Perkins replied that he 
would defend it to the last. 

A fierce encounter took place, in which the 
Americans were worsted. The officer was 
wounded, several men were killed and one of 
their boats captured, so that it became necessary 
to retreat to St. Louis. Port Shelby after its 
eaptiu-e, was called Fort McKay. 

Among the traders a few remained loyal, es- 
pecially Provencalle and J. B. Faribault, traders 
among the Sioux. Faribault was a prisoner 
among the British at the time Lieut. Col. Wm. 
McKay was preparing to attack For*" Shelby, and 
he refused to perform any seiTice, Faribault's 
wife, who was at Prairie du Chien, not Isnowing 
that her husband was a prisoner in the hands of 
the advancing foe, fled with others to the Sioirx 
village, where is now the city of Winona. Fari- 
bault was at length released on parole and re- 
turned to his trading post. 

Pike writes of his flag, that "being in doubt 

whether it had been stolen by the Indians, or had 

fallen overboai d and floated away, I sent for my 

friend the Orignal Leve." He also call« the 

Chief, Eising JNIoose, and gives his Sioux name 

Tahamie. He was one of those, who in 1805, 

signed the agreement, to surrender land at the 

jimction of the Muuiesota and Mississippi Eivers 

to the United States. He had but one eye, 

having lost the other when a boy, belonged to 

the Wapasha band of the Sioux, and proved 

true to the flag wliich had waved on the day he 

sat in council with Pike. 

In the fall of 1814, vrtth another of the same 

nation, he ascended the Missouri under the pro- 
tection of the distinguished trader, Manual Lisa, 
as far as the An Jacques or James Eiver, and 
from thence struck across the country, enlisting 
the Sioux in favour of the United States, and at 
length arrived at Prairie du Cliien. On his arri- 
val, Dickson accosted him, and inquured from 
whence he came, and what was his business ; at 
the same time rudely snatching his bundle from 
his shoulder, and searching for letters, The 
"one-eyed warrior" told him that he was from 
St. Louis, and that he had promised the white 
chiefs there that he would go to Prairie du Ghien, 
and that he had kept his promise 

Dickson then placed him in confinement in 
Fort McKay, as the garrison was called by the 
British, and ordered him to divulge what infor- 
mation he possessed, or he wo aid put him to 
death. But the faithful fellow said he would 
impart nothing, and that he was ready for death 
if he wished to kill him. Findmg that confine- 
ment had no effect, Dickson at last'liberatedhim. 
He then left, and visited tlie bands of Sioux on 
the Upper ilississippi, with which he passed the 
winter. When he returned in the sprmg, Dick- 
son had gone to Mackinaw, and Capt. A. Bulger, 
of the Eoyal Xew Fouudland Eegiment, was in 
command of the fort. 

On the twenty-third ot May, 1815, Capt. Bul- 
ger, wrote from Fort JMcKay to Gov. Clark at St. 
Louis : " Official intelligence of peace reached 
me yesterday. I propose evacuatmg the fort, 
taking with me the gims captured in the fort. * 
* * * I have not the smallest hesitation in 
declaring my decided opinion, that the presence 
of a detachment of British and United States 
troops at the same time, would be the means of 
embroiling one party or the other in a fresh rup- 
ture with the Indians, which I presiune it is the 
wish of both governments to avoid." 

The next month the " One-Eyed Sioux," with 
three other Indians and a squaw, visited St. Louis, 
and he informed Gov. Clark, that the British 
commander left the cannons in the fort when he 
evacuated, but in a day or two came back, took 
the cannons, and fired the fort with the American 
flag flying, but that he rushed in and saved it 
fi-om being burned. From this time, the British 
flag ceased to float in the Valley of the Missis- 




long's expedition, a. D. i817, in a SIX-OAUED skiff, to the falls of saint ANTHONY. 

Carver a Grandsons.— Roque, Sioux Intcrpretcr.—Waposhaw's Village and Its 
Vicinity.— A Sacred Dance.— Indian Villus" Below Da)-ton's Bluff.— Carver's 
Cave-— Fountain Cave.— Falls of St. Anthony Described,— Site or a Fort. 

Major Stephen II. Long, of the Engineer Corps 
of tlie United States Army, learning that there 
was little or no danger to be apprehended from 
the Indians, determined to ascend to the Falls of 
Saint Anthony, in a six-oared skiff presented to 
him hy Governor Clark, of Saint Louis. His 
party consisted of a Mr. Hempstead, a native of 
New London, Connecticut, whc had been living 
at Prairie du Chien, seven soldiers, and a half- 
breed interpreter, named Iloque. A bark canoe 
accompanied them, containing Messrs. Gun and 
King, grandsons of the celebrated traveler, Jona- 
than Carver. 

On the ninth ot July, 1817, the expedition left 
Prairie du Chien, and on the twelfth arrived at 
" Trempe a I'eau." lie writes : 

" When we stopped for breakfast, Mr. Ilemp- 
stead and myself ascended a high peak to take a 
view of the country. It is laio\\'n by the name 
of the Kettle Hill, having obtained this appella- 
tion from the circumstance of its having numer- 
ous piles of stone on its top, most of them 
fragments of the rocky stratifications which 
constitute the principal part of the hill, but some 
of them small piles made by the Indians. These 
at a distance have some similitude of kettle: 
arranged along upon the ridge and sides of the 
hill. Prom this, or almost any other eminence in 
its neighborhood, the beauty and grandeur of the 
prospect would bailie the skill of the most inge- 
'nious pencil to depict, and that of the most ac- 
complished pen to describe. Hills marshaled 
into a variety of agreeable shapes, some of them 
towering into lofty peaks, while others present 
broad summits embellished with contours and 
slopes in the most pleasing manner ; champaigns 
and waving valleys; forests, lawns, and parks 
alternating with each other; the humble Missis- 

sippi meandering far below, and occasionally 
losing itsel' in numberless islands, give variety 
and beauty to the picture, while rugged cliffs and 
stupendous precipices here and there present 
themselves as if to add bolilness and majesty to 
the scene. In the midst of this beautiful scenery 
is situated a village of the Sioux Indians, on an 
extensive lawn called the Aux Aisle I'rairie ; at 
which we lay by for a short time. On our amval 
the Indians hoisted two American flags, and we 
returned the comrliment by discharging our 
blunderbuss and pistols. They then fired several 
guns ahead of us by way of a salute, after which 
we landed and were received with much friend- 
ship. The name of their chief is Wauppaushaw, 
or the Leaf, commonly called by a name of the 
same import in French, La Feuille, or La Fye, 
as it is pronounced in English. He is considered 
one of the most honest and honorable of any of 
the Indians, and endeavors to inculcate into the 
minds of his people the sentiments and principles 
adopted by himself. He was not at home at the 
time I called, and I had no opportunity of seeuig 
him. The Indians, as I suppose, with the ex- 
pectation that I had something to communicate 
to them, assembled themselves at the place 
where I lauded and seated themselves upon the 
grass. I inquired if their chief was at home, 
and was answered in the negative. I then told 
them I should be very glad to see him, but as he 
w".s absent I would call on him again in a few 
days when I should return. I further told them 
that cur father, the new President, wished to ob- 
tain some more information relative to his red 
children, and that I was on a tour to acquire any 
intelligence he might stand in need of. With 
this they appeared well satisfied, and permitted 
Mr. Hempstead and myself to go through their 
village. While I was in the wigwam, one of the 
subordinate chiefs, whose name was Wazzecoota, 
or Shooter from the I'ine Tree, vobniteered to 



accompany me np the river. I accepted of his 
Bervioes, and he was ready to attend me on the 
tour in a very short time. When we hove in 
sight the Indians were engaged in a ceremony 
called the Be^r Dance; a ceremony which they 
are in the habit of performing when any young 
man is desirous of bringing himself into partic- 
ular notice, and is considered a kind of initiation 
into the state of manhood. I went on to the 
ground where they had theii- performances, 
which were ended sooner than usual on account 
of our arrival. There was a kind of a flag made 
of fawn akin dressed with the hair on, suspended 
on a pole. Upon the flesh side of it were drawn 
certain rude figures indicative of the dream 
which it is necessary the young man should have 
dreamed, before he can be considered a proper 
candidate for this kind of initiation; with this a 
pipe was suspended by way of sacrifice. Two 
arrows were stuck up at the foot of the pole, 
and frrigments of painted feathers, etc., were 
strewed about the ground near to it. per- 
tained to the religious rites attending the cere- 
mony, which consists in bewailing and self-mor- 
tiflcation, that the Good Spirit may be induced 
to pity them and succor their undertaking. 

"At the distance of two or three hundred 
yards from the flag, is an excavation which they 
call the bear's hole, prepared for the occasion. 
It is about two feet deep, and has two ditches, 
about one foot deep, leading across it at right an- 
gles. The young hero of the farce places himself 
in this hole, to be hunted by the rest of the young 
men, all of whom on this occasion are dressed in 
their best attire and painted in their neatest style. 
The hunters approach the hole in the direction of 
one of the ditches, and discharge their guns, 
which were previously loaded for the purpose 
with blank cartridges, at the one who acts the 
part of the bear; whereupon he leaps from his 
den, having a hoop in each hand, and a wooden 
lance; the hoops serving as forefeet to aid him 
in characterizing his part, and his lance to defend 
him from his assailants. Thus accoutred he 
dances round the place, exhibiting various feats 
of activity, while the other Indians pursue him 
and endeavor to trap him as he attempts to re- 
turn to his den, to eflfect which he is privileged to 
use any violence he pleases with impunity against 

his assailants, even to taking the life of any of 

" This part of the ceremony is performed three 
times, that the bear may escape from his den 
and retiirn to it again through three of the ave- 
nues communicating with it. On being hunted 
from the fourth or last avenue, the bear must 
make his escape through all his pursuers, if pos- 
sible, and flee to the woods, where he is to remain 
through the day. This, however, is seldom or 
never accomplished, as all the young men exert 
themselves to the utmost in order to trap him. 
When caught, he must retire to a lodge erected for 
his reception in the field, where he is to be se- 
cluded from all society through the day, except 
one of his particular friends whom he is allowed 
to take with him as an attendant. Here he 
smokes and performs various other rites which 
superstition has led the Indians to believe are sa- 
cred. After this ceremony is ended, the young 
Indian is considered qualified to act any part as 
an efficient member of their community. The 
Indian, who has the good fortune to catch the 
bear and overcome him when endeavoring to 
make his escape to the wood, is considered a 
candidate for preferment, and is, on the first suit- 
able occasion, appointed the leader of a small war 
party, in order that he may further have an op- 
portunity to test his prowess and perform more 
essential service in behalf of his nation. It is 
accordingly expected that he will kill some of 
their enemies and return with their scalps. I re- 
gretted very much that I had missed the oppor- 
tunity of witnessing this ceremony, which is 
never performed except when prompted by the 
particular dreams of one or other of the young 
men, who is never complimented twice in the 
same manner on account of his dreams." 

On the sixteenth he approached the vicinity of 
where is now the capital of Minnesota, and 
writes: "Set sail at half past four tliis morning 
with a favorable breeze. Pased an Indian bury- 
ing ground on our left, the first that I have seen 
surrounded by a fence. In the center a pole is 
erected, at the foot of whic'- religious rites are 
performed at the burial of an Indian, by the 
particular friends and relatives of the deceased. 
Upon the pole a flag is suspended when any per- 
son of extraordinary merit, or «ne who is very 
much beloved, is buried. In the inclosure were 



two scaffolds erected also, about six feet high 
and six feet square. Upon one of them were two 
coflins containing dead bodies. Passed a Sioux 
village on our right conlaining fourteen cabins. 
The name of the chief is tlie Petit Corbeau, or 
Little Raven. The Indians were all absent on a 
hunting party up tlio Hiver St. Croix, whicli 
is but a little distance across tlie country from 
the village. Of this we were very glad, as this 
band are said to be the most notorious beggars 
of all the Sioux on tlie Mississippi. One of their 
cabms is furnished with loop holes, and is sit- 
uated so near tlie water that the opposite side 
of the river is within musket-shot range from 
the building. By tliis means the Petit Corbeau 
is enabled to exercise a command over the pass- 
age of the river and has in some instances com- 
pelled traders to land witli their goods, and in- 
duced them, probably tlirough fear of offending 
him, to bestow presents to a considerable amount, 
before he would suffer them to pass. The cabins 
are a kind of stockade buildings, and of a better 
appearance than any Indian dwellings I have 
before met with. 

" Two miles above the village, on the same 
side of the river, is Carver's Cave, at which we 
stopped to breakfast. However interesting it 
may have been, it does not possess that character 
in a very high degree at present. "\\'e descend- 
ed it witli lighted candles to its lower extremity. 
The entrance is very low and about eight feet 
broad, so that a man in order to enter it must be 
completely prostrate. Tlie angle of descent 
within the cave is about 25 deg. The flooring 
is an inclined plane of quicksand, formed of the 
rock in wliich the cavern is formed. The dist- 
ance from its entrance to its inner extremity is 
twenty-four paces, and the width in the broadest 
part about nine, and its greatest height about 
seven feet. In shape it resembles a bakers's oven. 
Tiie cavern was once probably much more ex- 
tensive. My mterpreter informed me that, since 
his remeniliiance, tlie entrance was not less 
than ten feet high and its lengtli far greater than 
at present. The rock in which it is formed is 
a very white sandstone, so friable that the frag- 
ments of it will almost crumble to sand when 
taken into the hand. A few yards below the 
mouth of the ciwern is a very copious spring of 
flue water issuing from the bottom of the cliff. 

" Five miles above this is the Fountain Cave, 
on the same side of the river, formed in the same 
kind of sandstone but of a more pure and line 
quality. It is far more curious and interesting 
than the former. The entrance of the cave is a 
large winding hall about one hundred and fifty 
feet in length, fifteen feet in width, and from 
eight to sixteen feet in height, finely arched 
overhead, and nearly perpendicular. Xext suc- 
ceeds a narrow passage and dilliciilt of entrancCj 
which opens into a most beautiful circular room, 
finely arched above, and about forty feet in di- 
ameter. The cavern then contiiuies a meander- 
uig course, expanding occasionally into small 
rooms of a circular form. We penetrated about 
one hundred and fifty yards, till our candles 
began to fail us, when we retmiied. To beauti- 
fy and emliellisli the scene, a fine crystal stre:ira 
Hows through the cavern, and cheers the lone- 
some dark retreat with its enlivening murmurs. 
The temperature of the water in the cave was 
40 deg., and that of the air 60 deg. Entering 
this cold retreat from an atmosphere of 89 deg., 
I thought it not prudent to remain in it long 
enough to take its several dimensions and me- 
ander its courses ; particularly as we had to w ade 
in water to our knees in many places in order to 
penetrate as far as we went. The fountam sup- 
plies an abundance of water as fine as I ever 
drank. This cavern I was informed by my 
interpreter, has been discovered but a few years. 
That the Indians formerly liraig in its neiglibor- 
hood knew nothing of it till witlun six years 
past. That it is not the same as that described 
by Carver is evident, not only from this circum- 
stance, but also from the circumstance that in- 
stead of a stagnant pool, and only one accessible 
room of a very different form, this cavern has 
a brook running through it, and at least four 
rooms in succession, one after the other. Car- 
ver's Cave is fast filling up with sand, so that 
no water is now found in it, whereas this, from 
the very nature of the place, must be enlarging 
as the fountain will carry along with its current 
all the sand that falls into it from the roof and 
sides of the cavern." 

On the night of the sixteenth, he arrived at tlie 
Falls of 8aint Anthony and encamped on the east 
sliore just below the cataract. He writes in '.lis 
journal : 



"Tiie place where we encamped last night need- 
ed no embellishment to render it romantic in the 
highest degree. The banks on both sides of the 
river are about one hundred feet high, decorated 
with trees and shrubbery of various kinds. The 
post oak, hickory, walnut, linden, sugar tree, 
white birch, and the American box ; also various 
evergreens, such as the pine, cedar, juniper, 
etc., added their embellishments to the scene. 
Amongst the shrubery were the prickly ash, 
plum, and cherry tree, the gooseberry, the black 
and red raspberry, the chokeberry, grape vine, 
etc. There were also various kinds of herbage 
and (lowers, among which were the wild parsley, 
rue, spikenard, etc., red and white roses, morning 
glory and various other handsome flowers. A 
few yards below us was a beautiful cascade of 
fine spring water, pouring down from a project- 
ing precipice about one hundred feet hight. On 
our left was the Mississippi hurrying through its 
channel with great velocity, and about three 
quarters of a mile above us, in plain view, was 
the majestic cataract of the Falls of St. Anthony. 
The murmuring of the cascade, the roaring of the 
river, and the thunder of the cataract, all contrib- 
uted to render the scene the most interesting and 
magnificient of any I ever before witnessed." 

"Tlie perpendicular fall of the water at the 
cataract, was stated by Pike in his journal, as six- 
teen and a half feet, which I found to be true by 
actual measurement. To this height, however, 
four or five feet may be added for the rapid des- 
cent which immediately succeeds to the perpen- 
dicular fall within a few yards below. Immedi- 
ately at the cataract the river is divided into two 
parts by an island which extends considerably 
above and below the cataract, and is about five 
hundred yards long. The channel on the right 
side of the Island is about three times the width 
of that on the left. The quanity of water pass- 
ins through them is not, however, in the same 
proportion, as about oue-tliird part of the whole 
passes through the left channel. In the broadest 
channel, just below the cataract, is a small island 
also, about fifty yards in length and thirty in 
breadth. Both of these islands contain the same 
kind of rocky formation as the banks of the river, 
and are nearly as high. Besides these, there are 
immediately at the foot of the cataract, two 
islands of very inconsiderable size, situated in 

the right channel also. The rapids commence 
several hundred yards above the cataract and 
continue about eight miles below. The fall of 
the water, beginning at the head of the rapids, 
and extending two hundred and sixtj' rods down 
tlie river to where the portage road commences, 
below the cataract is, according to Pike, fifty- 
eight feet. If this estimate be correct the whole 
fall from the head to the foot of the rapids, is not 
probably much less than one hundred feet. But 
as I had no instrument sutBciently accurate to 
level, where the view must necessarily be pretty 
extensive, I took no pains to ascertain the extent 
of the fall. The mode I adopted to ascertain 
the height of a cataract, was to suspend a line 
and plummet from tlie table rock on the south 
side of the river, which at the same time had 
very little water passing over it as tlie river was 
unusually low. The rocky formations at this 
place were arranged in the following order, from 
the surface downward. A coarse kind of lime- 
stone in thin strata containing considerable silex; 
a kind of soft friable stone of a greenish color 
and slaty fracture, probably containing lime, 
aluminum and silex ; a very beautiful satratifica- 
tton of shell limestone, in thin plates, extremely 
regular in its formation and containing a vast 
number of shells, all apparently of the same 
kind. This formation constitutes the Table Rock 
of the cataract. The next in order is a white or 
yellowish sandstone, so easily crumbled that it 
deserves the name of a sandbank rather than that 
of a rock. It is of various depths, from ten to 
fifty or seventy-five feet, and is of the sa^ie char- 
acter with that found at the caves before des- 
cribed. The next in order is a soft friable sand- 
stone, of a greenish color, similar to that resting 
upon the shell limestone. These stratifications 
occupied the whole space from the lovv' water 
mark nearly to the top of the blulfs. On the east, 
or rather north side of the river, at the Falls, are 
high grounds, at the distance of half a mile from 
the ri\'er, considerably more elevated than the 
bluffs, and of a hilly aspect. 

Speaking of the bluff at the confluence Ox Jie 
Mississippi and Minnesota, he writes: "A military 
work of considerable magnitude might be con- 
structed on the pomt, and might be rendered 
suflSciently secure by occupying the commanding 
height in the rear in a siutable manner, as the 



latter would control not only the point, but all 
the neighboring heights, to the fuU extent of a 
tw'elve pounder's range. The work on the point 
would be necessary to control the navigation of 
the two rivers. But without the commandmg 
work in the rear, would be liable to be greatly 
annoyed from a height situated directly opposite 

on the other side of the Mississippi, which is 
here no more than about two hundred and fifty 
yards wide. This latter height, however, would 
not be eligible for a permanent past, on account 
of the niunerous ridges and ravines situated im- 
mediately in its rear." 





Early travelers to Lake Winnipeg — Earliest Map by tlie Indian Otchaga— Bcllin's 
allusion to it — Verendrye's Map— De la Jemeraye's Map — Fort La Heine— Fort 
on Red River abandoned — Origin of name Red Lake — Earl of Selkirk— Ossini- 
boia described— Scotch immifn-ants at Pembina- Strife of trading companies- 
Earl of Selkirk \-isits America- Governor Semple Killed— Romantic life of John 
Tanner, and his son James — Letter relative to Selkirk's tour through Minne- 

The valley of the Red Biver of the North is 
not only an important portion of Minnesota, but 
has a most interesting history. 

While there is no evidence that Groselliers, the 
iirst white man who explored Minnesota, ever 
visited Lake Winnipeg and the Eed River, yet he 
met the Assineboines at the head of Lake Supe- 
rior and at Lake Nepigon, while on his way by a 
northeasterly trail to Hudson's Bay, and learned 
something of this region from them. 

Tlie first person, of whom we have an account, 
who visited the region, was an Englishman, who 
came in 1692, by way of York River, to Winni- 

Ochagaclis, or Otchaga, an intelligent Indian, in 
1728, assured Pierre C4ualtier de Varenne, known 
in history as the Sieur Verendrye, wliile he was 
stationed at Lake Nepigon, that there was a 
communication, largely by water, west of Lake 
Superior, to the Great Sea or Pacific Ocean. The 
rude map, drawn by this Indian, was sent to 
Prance, and is still preserved. Upon it is marked 
Kamanistigouia, the fort first established by Du 
Luth. Pigeon River is called Mantohavagane. 
Lac Sasakanaga is marked, and Rainy Lake is 
named Tecamemiouen. The river St. Louis, of 
Minnesota, is R. fond du L. Superior. The 
French geographer, BelUn, in his " Remarks 
upon the map of North America," published in 
1755, at Paris, alludes to this sketch of Ochagachs, 
aftd says it is the earliest drawing of the region 
west of Lake Superior, in the Depot de la Marine. 

After this Verendrye, in 1737, drew a map, 
which remains unpublished, which shows Red 
Lake in Northern Minnesota, and the point of 
the Big AVoods in the Red River Valley. There 

is another sketch in the archives of Prance, 
drawn by De la -Jemeraye. He was a nephew of 
Verendrye, and, under ins uncle's orders, he was 
in 1731, the first to advance from the Grand 
Portage of Lake Superior, by way of the Nalao- 
uagan or Groselliers, now Pigeon River, to Ramy 
Lake. On this appears Fort Rouge, on the south 
bank of the Assineboine at its junction with the 
Red River, and on the Assineboine, a post estab- 
lished on October 3, 1738, and called Fort La 
Reine. BelUn describes the fort on Red River, 
but asserts that it was abandoned because of its 
vicinity to Fort La Reme, on the north side of 
the Assinneboine, and only about nuie miles by 
a portage, from Swan Lake. Red Lake and Red 
River were so called by the early French explo- 
rers, on account of the reddish tint of the waters 
after a storm. 

Thomas Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, a wealthy, 
kind-hearted but %isionary Scotch nobleman, at 
the commencement of the present century formed 
the design of planting a colony of agriculturists 
west of Lake Superior. In the year 1811 he 
obtained a grant of land from the Hudson Bay 
Company called Ossiniboia, which it seems 
strange has been given up by the people of Man- 
itoba. In the autumn of 1812 a few Scotchmen 
with their families arrived at Pembina, in the 
Red River Valley, by way of Hudson Bay, where 
they passed the winter. In the winter of 1813-14 
they were again at Fort Daer or Pembina. The 
colonists of Red River were rendered very un- 
happy by the strife of rival trading companies. 
In the spring of 1815, McKenzie and Morrison, 
traders of the Northwest company, at Sandy 
Lake, told the Ojibway chief there, that they 
would give him and his band all the goods and 
rum at Leech or Sandy Lakes, if they would an- 
noy the Red River settlers. 

The Earl of Selkirk hearing of the distressed 
condition of his colony, sailed for America, and 



in the fall of 1815, arrived at New York City. 
Proceftling to Monti-eal he found a messenger 
who had traveled on foot in mid-wmter from the 
Bed Hirer by M&y of Ked Lake and Ton du Lac, 
of Lake Superior. He sent back by this man, 
kind messages to the dispirited settlers, but one 
night he was way-laid near Fou du Lac, and 
robbed of his canoe and dispatches. \n Ojib- 
way chief at Sandy Lake, aftera-ards testified 
that a trader named Grant offered him nun and 
tobacco, to send persons to uitercept a bearer of 
dispatches to Red River, and soon the messenger 
was brought in by a negro and some Indians. 

Failing to obtain military aid fmrn the 
British authorities in Canada, Selkirk made an 
engagement with four officers and eighty privates, 
of the discharged Meuron regiment, twenty of 
the De WattevLUe, and a few of the Glengary 
Fencibles, which had served in the late war with 
the United States, to accompany him to Bed 
Biver. They were to receive monthly wages for 
navigating the boats to Red River, to have lands 
assigned them, and a fiee passage if they wished 
to return. 

"\\1ien he reached Sault St. ^Nlaiie. he received 
the intelUgeuce that the colony had again been 
destroyed, and that Semple, a mild, amiable, but 
not altogether judicious man, the chief governor 
of the factories and territories of the Hudson 
Bay company, residing at Red River, had been 

Schoolcraft, in 1832, says he saw at Leech 
Lake, Majegabowi, the man who had killed Gov. 
Semple, after he fell woimded from his horse. 

Before he heard of the death of Semple, the 
Earl of Selkirk had made arrangements to visit 
his colony by way of Fon du Lac, on the St. Louis 
Biver, and Red Lake of ilinnesota, but he now 
changed his mind, and proceede<l with his force 
to Fort William, the chief trading post of the 
Korthwest Company on Lake Superior ; and ap- 
prehending the principal partners, warrants of 
commitment were issued, and they were forward- 
ed to the Attorney-General of T'pper Canada. 

^\hile Selldrk was engaged at Fort AVilliam, 
a party of < rnigrants in ch<u-ge of Jliles McDon- 
nel, Governor, and Captain D'Orsomen, W'ent 
forward to reinforce the colony. At Rainy 
Lake they obtained the guidance of a man « ho 
had all the characteristics of an Indian, and yet 

had a bearing which suggested a different origin. 
By his efficiency and temperate habits, he had se- 
cured the respect of his employers, and on the Earl 
of Selkirk's arrival at Red River, his attention was 
called to him, and in his welfare he became 
deeply interested. By repeated conversations 
with him. memories of a different kind of exist- 
ence were aroused, and the light of other days 
began to l)righten. Though he had forgotten his 
father's name, he furnished sufficient data for 
Selkirk to proceed willi a search for his relatives. 
Visiting the United States in 1817, he published 
a circular in the papers of the Western States, 
which led to the identification of the man. 

It appeared from his own statement, and 
those of his friends, that his name was John 
Tamier, the son of a miTiister of the gospel, who, 
about the year 1790, lived on the Ohio river, near 
the Miami. Sliortly after his location there, a 
band of roving Indians jiassed near the house, 
and found John Tanner, then a little boy, filling 
his hat with wahints from under a tree. They 
seized him and fled. The party was led by an 
Ottawa whose wife had lost a son. To compen- 
sate for his death, the mother begged that a boy 
of the same age might be captured. 

Adopted by the band, Tanner grew up an 
Indian m his tastes and habits, ami was noted 
for bravery. Selkirk was successful in finding 
his relatives. After twenty-eight years of sepa- 
ration, Jolni Tanner in 1818, met his brother 
Edward near Detroit, and went with him to his 
home in Missouri. lie soon left his brother, and 
went back to the Indians. For a time he was 
interpreter for Henry R. Schoolcraft, but became 
lazy and ill-natured, and in 1S36, skulking behind 
some bushes, he shot and killed Schoolcraft's 
brother, and fled to the wilderness, where, in 
1847, he died. His son, James, was kindly treatr 
ed by the missionaries to the Ojibways of Minne- 
sota; but he walked in the footsteps of his father. 
In the year 1851, he attempted to impose upon 
the Presbyterian mmister in Saint Paul, and, 
when detected, called upon the Baptist minister, 
who, beUeving him a penitent, cut a hole in tlie 
ice, and received him into the church by immer- 
sion. In time, the Baptistsfound him out, when 
he became an Unitarian missionary, and, at last, 
it is said, met a death by violence. 

Lord Selkirk was in the lied River "^^illey 



during the summer of 1817, and on the eighteenth 
of July concluded a treaty with the Crees and 
Saulteaux, for a tract of land beginning at the 
mouth of the Red River, and extending along 
the same as far as the Great Forks (now Grand 
Forks) at the mouth of Red Lake River, and 
along the Assimiiboine River as far as Musk Rat 
River, and extending to the distance of six miles 
from Fort Douglas on every side, and likewise 
from Fort Daer (Pembina) and also from the 
Great Forks, and in other parts extending to the 
distance of two miles from the banks of the said 

Having restored order and confidence, attend- 
ed by three or four persons he crossed the plains 
to the Miimesota River, and from thence pro- 
ceeded to St. Louis. The Indian agent at 
Prairie du Chien was not pleased with Selkirk's 
trip through- Minnesota ; and on the sixth of 
February, 181S, wrote the Governor of Illinois 
under excitement, some groundless suspicions : 

•' "What do you suppose, sir, has been the re- 
sult of the passage through my agency of this 
British nobleman? Two entire bands, and part 
of a third, all Sioux, have deserted us and joined 
Dickson, wlio has distributed to them large quan- 
tities of Indian presents, together with flags, 
medals, etc. KJiowing this, what must have been 
my feelings on hearing that his lordship had met 
with a favourable reception at St. Louis. The 
newspapers announcing his arrival, and general 
Scottish appearance, all tend to discompose me ; 
believing as I do, that he is plottuig with his 
friend Dickson our destruction — sharpening the 
savage scalping knife, and colonizing a tract of 
country, so'remote as that of the Red River, for 
the purpose, no doubt, of monopolizing tlie fur 
and peltry trade of this river, the JSIissouri and 
their waters; a trade of the first importance to 
our Western States and Territories. A courier 
who had arrived a few days since, confirms the 
belief that Dickson is endeavouring to undo what 
I have done, and secure to the British govern- 
ment the affections of the Sionx, and subject the 
Northwest Company to his lordship. * * * 

Dickson, as I have before observed, is situated 
near the head of the St. Peter's, to which place 
he transports his goods from Selkirk's Red River 
establishment, in carts made for the purpose. 
The trip is performed in live days, sometimes 
less. He is directed to build a fort on the high- 
est land between Lac du Traverse and Red River, 
which he supposes will be the established lines. 
This fort will be defended by twenty men, with 
two small pieces of artillery." 

In the year 1820, at Berne, Switzerland, a cir- 
cular was issued, signed, R. May D'Uzistorf, 
Captain, in his Britannic Majesty's sei-vice, and 
agent Plenipotentiary to Lord Selkirk. Like 
msuiy documents to induce emigration, it was so 
highly colored as to prove a delusion and a 
snare. The climate was represented as " mild 
and liealthy." " Wood either for building or 
fuel in the greatest plenty," and the country 
supplymg " in profusion, whatever can be re- 
quired for the convenience, pleasure or comfort 
of life." Remarkable statements considering 
that every green thing had been devoured the 
year before by grasshoppers. 

Under the influence of tiiese statements, a num- 
ber were induced to embark. In the spring of 
1821, about two hundred persons assembled on 
the banks of the Rhine to proceed to the region 
west of Lake Superior. Having descended the 
Rhine to the vicinity of Rotterdam, they went 
aboard the ship "Lord Wellington," and after a 
voyage across the Atlantic, and amid the ice- 
floes of Hudson's Bay, they reached York Fort. 
Here they debarked, and entering batteaux, as- 
cended Nelson River for twenty days, when they 
came to Lake AV'innipeg, and coasting along the 
west shore they reached the Red River of the 
North, to feel that they had been deluded, and 
to long for a milder clime. If they did not sing 
the Switzer's Song of Home, they appreciated its 
sentiments, and gradually these immigrants re- 
moved to the banks of the Mississippi River. 
Some settled in Minnesota, and were the first to 
raise cattle, and till the soil. 





A. D. 1H19, TO A. D. 1827. 

Orders for military occupation of Upper Mississippi— Leavenworth and Forsyth 
at Prajrie du Chion— Birth in Camp — Troops arrive at Mendota—Cantoninent 
Kstablished— Wheat carried to Pembina— Notice of Devotion, Prescott, and 
Mjyor Taliaferro— fanip Cold Water Estahlished— Col. Snelling takes command 
— Impressive Scene— Oififcrs in 1820— Condition of the Fort in 1821— Saint 
Anthony Mill— Alexis Bailly takes cattle to Pembina— Notice of Beltrami- 
Arrival of first Steamboat — Ma,ior Long's Expedition to Northern Boundary — 
Beltrami visits the northern sources of the Mississippi— First flour mill — First 
Sunday School— Great flt>od in 1S26. African slaves at the Fort — Steamboat 
Arrivals — Duels— Notice of William Joseph Snelling — Indian fight at the Fort- 
Attack upon keel boats — (icneral Gaines* report — Removal of Fifth Regiment — 
Death of Colonel Snelling. 

The nimor that Lord Selkirk was founding a 
colony on the borders of the United States, and 
that the British trading companies within the 
boundaries of what became the territory of ^lin- 
nesota, convinced the authorities at Washington 
of the importance of a military occupation of the 
valley of the Upper ^lississippi. 

By direction of ilajor General Brown, the fol- 
lowing order, on the tenth of February, 1819, was 
issued : 

" Major General Macomb, commander of the 
Fifth Military department, will without delay, 
concentrate at Detroit the Fifth Regiment of In- 
fantry, excepting the recruits otlierwisu directed 
by the general order herewith transmitted. As 
soon as the navigation of the lakes will admit, he 
will cause the regiment to be transported to Fort 
Howard ; from thence, by the way of tlie Fox 
and Wisconsin Rivers, to Prairie du Chien, and, 
after detaching a sufDcient number of companies 
to garrison Forts Crawford and ^Vnnstrong, the 
remainder will proceed to the mouth of the River 
St. Peter's, where they will establish a post, at 
whicli the headquarters of the regiment will be 
located. The regiment, previous to its depar- 
ture, will receive the necessary suppUes of cloth- 
ing, provisions, arms, and ammunition. Imme- 
diate application will be made to Brigadier Gen- 
eral Jesup, Quartermaster General, for funds 
necessary to execute the movements required by 
this order." 

On the thiiteenth of April, this additional order 
was issued, at Detroit : 

" The season having now an-ived when the 
lakes may be navigated with safety, a detach- 
ment of the Fifth Regiment, to consist of Major 
ilarston's and Captain Fowle's companies, under 
the command of Major Muhlenburg, will proceed 
to Green Bay. Surgeon's ^Mate, R. ^I. Byrne, of 
the Fifth Regiment, will accompany the detach- 
ment. The Assistant Deputy Quartermaster 
General will furnish the necessary transport, and 
will send by the same opportunity two hundred 
barrels of provisions, which he will draw from the 
contractor at tliis post. The provisions must be 
examined ami inspected, and properly put up for 
transportation. Colonel Leavenworth will, with- 
out delay, prepare his regiment to move to the 
post on the Mississippi, agreeable to the Divi- 
sion order of tlie tenth of Febniary. The Assist- 
ant Deputy Quartermaster General will furnish 
the necessary transportation, to be ready by the 
first of jSIay next. The Colonel will make requi- 
sition for such stores, ammunition, tools and 
implements as may be required, and he be able to 
take with him on the expedition. Particular in- 
stnietions will be given to the Colonel, explaining 
the objects of his expedition." 


On Wednesday, the last day of June, Col. Leav- 
enworth and troops arrived from Green Bay, at 
Prairie du Chien. Scarcely had they reached 
this point when Charlotte Seymour, the wife of 
Lt. Nathan Clark, a native of Hartford, Ct., 
gave buth to a daugliter, whose first baptismal 
name was Charlotte, after her mother, and the 
second Oiusconsin, given by the ofHcers in view 
of tlie fact that she was born at the junction of 
that stream with the Mississippi. 

In time Charlotte Ouisconsin married a young 
Lieutenant, a native of Princeton. Xew Jersey, 
and a graduate of West Point, and still resides 
with her husband, General II. P. Van Cleve, in 



the city of Miui ^sapolis, living to do good as slie 
has opportunity. 

In June, luifler instnictions from the AVar 
Department, Major Tliomas Forsyth, connected 
with the office of Indian affairs, left St. Louis 
with two thousand dollars worth of goods to be 
distributed among the Sioux Indians, m accor- 
dance with the agreement of 1805, already re- 
ferred to, by the late General Pike. 

About nine o'clock of the morning of the fifth 
of July, he joined Leavenworth and his conunand 
at Prairie du Cliien. Some time was occupied by 
Leavenworth awaiting the arrival of ordnance, 
provisions and recruits, but on Sunday morning, 
the eightli of August, aljout eight o'clock, the 
expedition set out for the point now known as 
Mendota. The flotilla was quite imposing ; there 
were the C'oloners barge, fourteen batteaux with 
ninety-eight soldiers and officers, two large canal 
or ]SIackinaw boats, filled with various stores, and 
Forsyth'rj keel boat, containing goods and pres- 
ents fov the Indians. On the twenty-third of 
Angus*", Forsyth reached the mouth of the Min- 
nesota with his boat, and the next monring Col. 
Leave iworth arrived, and selecting a place at 
Mendota, near the present railroad bridge, he 
ordered the soldiers to cut down trees and make 
a clearing. On the next Saturday Col. Leaven- 
worth, Iilajor Vose, Surgeon Purcell, Lieutenant 
Clark and the wife of Captain Gooding ivited 
the Falls of Saint Anthony with Forsyth, in 
his keel boat. 

Early in September two more boats and a bat- 
teaux, with officers and one hundred and twenty 
recruits, arrived. 

During the winter of 18:20, Laidlow and others, 
in behalf of Lord Selkirk's Scotch settlers at 
Pembina, whose crops had been destroyed by 
grasshoppers, passed the Cantonment, on their 
way to Prairie du Chien, to purchase wheat. 
Upon the fifteenth of April they began their 
return with their Mackinaw boats, each loaded 
with two himdred bushels of wheat, one himdred 
of oats, and thirty of peas, and reached the mouth 
of the ^Minnesota early in JIay. Ascending this 
stream to Big Stone Lake, the boats were drawn 
on rollers a mile and a half to Lake Traverse, 
and on the third of June arrived at Pemliinaand 
cheered the desponding and needy settlers of the 
Selkirk colony. 

The first sutler of the post was a Mr. Devotion. 
He brought with him a young man named Phi- 
lander Prescott, who was born in 1801 , at Phelps- 
town, Ontario county, New York. At first they 
stopped at Mud Hen Island, in the Mississippi 
below the mouth of the St. Croix Kiver. Coming 
up late in the year 1819, at the site of the pres- 
ent town of Hastings they found a keel-boat 
loaded with supplies for the cantonment, m charge 
of Lieut. OUver, detained by the ice. 

Amid all the changes of the troops, Mr. Pres- 
cott remained nearly all his life in the vicinity of 
the post, to which he came when a mere lad, and 
was at length killed in the Sioux Massacre. 


In the spring of 1820, Jean Baptiste Faribault 
brought up Leavenworth's horses from Prairie 
du Cliien. 

The first Indian Agent at the post was a former 
army officer, LawTence Taliaferro, pronounced 
Toliver. As he had the confidence of the Gov- 
ernment for twenty-one successive years, he is 
deserving of notice. 

His family was of Italian origin, and among 
the early settlers of Virgmia. He was born in 
1794, in King WilUam county in that State, and 
when, in 1812, war was declared against Great 
Britain, with four brothers, he entered the army, 
and was commissioned as Lieutenant of the 
Thirty-fifth Infantry. He behaved gallantly at 
Fort Erie and Sackett's Harbor, and after peace 
was declared, he was retained as a First Lieuten- 
ant of the Third Infantry. In 1816 he was sta- 
tioned at Fort Dearborn, now the site of Chicago. 
AVTiile on a furlough, he called one day upon 
President Monroe, who told him that a fort would 
be built near the Falls of Saint Anthony, and an 
Indian Agency estalilished, to which he offered 
to appoint him. His commission was dated 
March 27th, 1819, and he proceeded in due time 
to his post. 

On the fifth day of May, 1820, Leavenworth 
left his winter quarters at Mendota, crossed the 
stream and made a summer camp near the 
present miUtary grave yard, which in consequence 
of a fine spring has been called " Camp Cold 
Water." The Indian agency, under Taliaferro, 
remained for a tune at the old cantonment. 

The commanding officer estabUshed a fine 



guiilen in the bottom lands of the iliniiesota, 
and on tlie flfteenth of June the earliest garden 
peas were eaten. The first distinguished visitors 
at the new encampment were (iovcrnor Lewis 
Cass, of Michigan, and Henry Schoolcraft, who 
arrived in July, by way of Lake Superior and 
Sandy Lake. 

The relations between Col. Leavenworth and 
Indian Agent Taliaferro were not entirely har- 
monious, growing out of a disagreement of views 
relative to the treatment of the Indians, and on 
the day of the arrival of Governor Cass, Tal- 
iaferro writes to Leavenworth : 

" As it is now imderstood that I am agent for 
Indian affairs in this country, and you are about 
to leave the upper Mississippi, in all probability 
in the course of a month or two, I beg leave to 
suggest, for the sake of a general luiderstanding 
with the Indian tribes in this country, that any 
medals, you may possess, would by being turned 
over to me, cease to be a topic of remark among 
the different Indian tribes under my direction. 
I will pass to you any voucher that may be re- 
quired, and I beg leave to observe that any pro- 
gress in influence is much impeded in conse- 
quence of this frequent intercourse with the gar- 

In a few days, the disastrous effect of Indians 
mingling with the soldiers was exhibited. On 
the third of August, the agent wrote to Leaven- 

" His Excellency Governor Cass during his 
visit to this post remarked to me that the Indians 
jn this quarter were spoiled, and at the same 
time said they should not be permitted to enter 
the camp. An unpleasant affair has lately taken 
place ; I mean the stabbing of the old chief 
Mahgossau l>y his comrade. This was caused, 
doubtless, by an anxiety to obtain the chief's 
whiskey. I beg, therefore, that no whiskey 
whatever be given to any Indians, unless it be 
through their proper agent. "While an overplus 
of whiskey thwarts the benificent and humane 
poUcy of the government, it entails misery upon 
the Indians, and endangers their lives." 

A few days after this note was v.ritten Josiah 
Snelling, who had been recently promoted to the 
Colonelcy of the Fifth Regiment, arrived with 
his family, relieved Leavenworth, and infused 
new life and energy. A little while before his 

arrival, the daughter of Captain Gooding was 
married to Lieutenant Green, the Adjutant of 
the regiment, the first maniage of white persons 
in ^ILunesota. Mrs. Snelling, a few days after 
her an-ival, gave birth to a daughter, the first 
white child born in Minnesota, and after a brief 
existence of thirteen months, she died and was 
the first interred in the military grave yard, and 
for years the stone which marked its resting 
place, was visible. 

The earUest manuscript in Minnesota, written 
at the Cantonment, is dated October 4, 1820, and 
is in the handwriting of Colonel Snelling. It 
reads : " In justice to Lawrence Taliaferro, Esq., 
Indian Agent at this post, we, tlie midersigned, 
officers of the Fiftli Regiment here stationed, 
have presented him this paper, as a token, not 
only of our individual respect and esteem, but as 
an entire approval of his conduct and deportment 
as a public agent in this quarter. Given at St. 
Peter, this 4th day of October, 1820. 

J. Snellixg, N. Clark, 

Col. 5th Inf. Lieutenant. 

S. BuEBANK, Jos. Hare, 

Br. Major. Lieutenant. 

David Perut, Ed. Purcell, 

Captain. Surgeon, 

D. Gooding, P. R. Green, 
Brevet Captain. Lieut, and Adjt. 

J. Plyjii'ton, ^y. G. Cajip, 

Lieutenant. Lt. and Q. M. 

E. A. McCabe, H. Wilkins, 

Lieutenant. Lieutenant." 

During the summer of 1820, a party of the 
Sisseton Sioux killed on the Missoiu:i, Isadore 
Poupon, a half-breed, and Joseph Andrews, a 
Canadian engaged in the fur trade. The Indian 
Agent, through Colin Campbell, as interpreter, 
notified the Sissetons that trade would cease 
with tliein, until the murderers were delivered. 
At a council held at Big Stone Lake, one of the 
murderers, and the aged father of another, agreed 
to surrender themselves to the commanding 

On the twelfth of November, accompanied by 
their friends, they approached the encampment 
in solemn procession, and marched to the centre 
of the parade. First appeared a Sisseton bear- 
ing a British flag ; then the murderer and the de- 
voted father of another, their arms i)inioned,and 



large wooden splinters thrust througb the flesh 
above the elbows indicating their contempt for 
pain and death ; in the rear followed friends and 
relatives, with them chanting the death dirge. 
Having arrived in front of the guard, fire was 
kindled, and tlie British flag burned ; then the 
murderer delivered up his medal, and both prison- 
ers were surrounded. Col. Snelling detained t'.;e 
old cliief, while the murderer was sent to St. 
Louis for trial. 


Col. Snelling built the fort in the shape of a 
lozenge, in view of the projection between the 
two rivers. The first row of barracks was of 
liewu logs, obtained from the pine forests of Rum 
River, but the other buildings were of stone. 
JNIrs. Van Cleve, the daughter of Lieutenant, 
afterwards Captain Clark, writes : 

" In 1821 the fort, although not complete, was 
fit fur occupancy. JNIy father had assigned to 
him the quarters next beyond the steps leading 
to tlie Commissary's stores, and during the year 
my little sister Juliet was bom there. At a later 
period my father and Major Garland obtained 
permission to build more commodious quarters 
outside the walls, and the result was the two 
stone houses afterwards occupied by the Indian 
Agent and interpreter, lately destroyed." 

Early in August, a young and intelligent mixed 
blood, Alexis Bailly, in after years a member of 
the legislature of ^Minnesota, left the cantonment 
with the first drove of cattle for the Selkirk Set- 
tlement, and the next winter returned with Col. 
Robert Dickson and Messrs. Laidlow and Mac- 

The next montli, a party of Sissetons visited 
the Indian Agent, and told him that they had 
started with another of the murderers, to which 
reference has been made, but that on the way he 
had, through fear of being hung, killed himself. 

This fall, a mill was constructed for the use of 
the garrison, on the west side of St. Anthony 
Falls, under the supervision of LieutenantMeCabe. 
During the fall, George Gooding, Captain by 
brevet, resigned, and became Sutler at Prairie du 
Chien. He was a native of Massachusetts, and 
entered the army as ensign in 1808. In 1810 he 
became a Second Lieutenant, and the next year 
was wounded at Tippecanoe. 

In the middle of October, there embarked on 
the keel-boat " Saucy Jack," for Prairie du Chien, 
Col. Snelling, Lieut. Baxley, Major Taliaferro, 
and Mrs. Gooding, 

EVENTS OF 1822 AND 1823. 

Early in January, 1822, there came to the Fort 
from the Red River of the North, Col. Robert 
Dickson, Laidlow, a Scotch farmer, the superin- 
tendent of Lord Selkirk's experimental farm, and 
one Mackenzie, on their way to Prairie du Chien. 
Dickson returned with a drove of cattle, but 
( iwing to the hostility of the Sioux his cattle were 
scattered, and never reached Pembina. 

During the winter of 1823, Agent Taliaferro 
was in Washington. While returning in March, 
lie was at a hotel in Pittsburg, when he received 
a note signed G. C. Beltrami, who was an Italian 
exile, asking permission to accompany him to the 
Indian territory. He was tall and commanding 
in appearance, and gentlemanly in bearing, and 
Taliaferro was so forcibly impressed as to acced.; 
to the request. After reaching St. Louis tliey 
embarked on the first steamboat for the Upper 

It was named tlie Virginia, and was built in 
Pittsburg, twentj'-two feet in width, and one 
hundred and eigliteen feet in lengtli, in charge of 
a Captain Crawford. It reached the Fort on the 
tenth of May, and was saluted by the discharge 
of cannon. Among the passengers, besides the 
Agent and the Italian, were Jtlajor Biddle, Lieut. 
Russell, and others. 

The arrival of the "\''irginia is an era in the 
history of the Dahkotah nation, and will proba- 
bly be transmitted to their posterity as long as 
they exist as a people. They say their sacred 
men, the night before, dreamed of seeing some 
monster of the waters, which frightened them 
very much. 

As the boat neared the shore, men, women, 
and children beheld with silent astonishment, 
supposing that it was some enormous water-spirit, 
coughing, puffing out hot breath, and splashing 
water in every direction. When it touched the 
landing their fears prevailed, and they retreated 
some distance ; but when the blowing off of 
steam commenced they were com}iletely im- 
nerved : mothers forgetting tlieir children, wth 
streaming hair, sought hidmg-places ; chiefs, re- 



nouncliig their stoicism, scampered away like 
affrighted animals. 

Tlie peace agreement beteen tlie Ojibways and 
Dahkotahs, made througli the infhience of Gov- 
ernor Cass, was of brief duration, tlie latter be- 
ing the first to violate the provisions. 

On the foiutli of Jinie, Taliaferro, the Indian 
agent among the Dahkotahs, took advantage of 
the presence of a large number of Ojibways to 
renew the agreement for the cessation of hostili- 
ties. The council hall of the agent was a large 
room of logs, in which waved conspicuously the 
flag of the United States, surrounded by British 
colors and medals that had been delivered up 
from time to time by Indian chiefs. 

Among the Dalikotah chiefs present were 
Wapashaw, Little Crow, and Penueshaw ; of the 
Ojibways there were Kendouswa. iloshomene. 
and Pasheskonoepe. After mutual accusations 
and excuses concerning the infraction of the pre- 
vious treaty, the Dahkotahs lighted the calumet, 
they having been the first to infringe upon tlie 
agreement of 1820. After smoking and passing 
the pipe of peace to the Ojibways, who passed 
through the same formalities, they all shook 
hands as a pledge of renewed amity. 

The morning after the council. Flat Mouth, 
the distinguished Ojibway chief, arrived, who 
had left his lodge vowing that he would never be 
at peace with the Dahkotahs. As he stepped from 
his canoe, Penneshaw held out his hand, but was 
repulsed with scorn. The Dahkotah warrior 
immeiliately gave the alarm, and in a moment 
runners were on their way to the neighboring 
villages to raise a war party. 

On the sixth of June, the Dahkotahs had assem- 
bled, stripped for a fight, and surrounded the 
Ojibways. The latter, fearhig the worst, con- 
cealed their women and children behind the old 
barracks which had been used by the troops while 
the fort was being erected. At the solicitation of 
the agent and commander of the fort, the Dahko- 
tahs desisted trom an attack and retired. 

On the seventh, the Ojibways left for their 
homes; but, in a few hours, while they were 
making a portage at Falls of St. Anthony, they 
were again approached by the Dahkotahs, who 
would have attacked them, if a detachment of 
troops had not arrived from the fort. 

A rumor reaching Penneshaw's village that he 

had been killed at the falls, liis mother seized an 
Ojibway maiden, who had been a captive from 
infancy, and, with a tomahawk, cut her in two. 
Upon (lie return of the son in safety he was much 
gratified at what he considered the prowess of 
his parent. 

On the third of -Ttily, 1S2.3. Major Long, of the 
engineers, arrived at the fort in command of an 
expedition to explore the Minnesota Eiver, and 
the region along the northern lioundary line of 
the United States. Beltrami, at the request of 
Col. Snelling. was permitted to be of the party, 
and ilajor Taliaferro kindly gave him a horse 
and equipments. 

The relations of the Italian to Major Long were 
not pleasant, and at Pembina Beltrami left the 
expedition, and with a " bois brule ", and two 
Ojibways proceeded and discovered the northern 
sources of the Mississippi, and suggested where 
the western sources would be found ; wliich was 
verified by Schoolcraft nine years later. About 
the second week in September Beltrami returned 
to the fort by way of the Mississipjii, escorted by 
forty or fifty Ojibways, and on the 2oth departed 
for Kew Orleans, where he published his discov- 
eries in the French language. 

The mill which was constructed in 1821, for 
sawing lumber, at the Falls of St. Anthony, stood 
upon the site of the Holmes and Sidle ilill, in 
MinneapoUs. and in 1S23 was fitted up for grind- 
ing flour. The following extracts ft'om corres- 
pondence addressed to Lieut. Clark, Commissary 
at Fort Snelling, will be read with interest. 

Under the date of August 5th, 1823, General 
Gibson writes : " From a letter addressed by 
Col. Snelling to the Quartermaster General, 
dated the 2d of April, I leani that a large quan- 
tity of wheat would be raised this summer. The 
assistant Commissary of Subsistence at St. Louis 
has been instructed to forward sickles and a pair 
of millstones to St. Peters. If any flour is manu- 
factured from the wheat raised, be pleased to let 
me know as early as practicable, that I may deduct 
the quantity manufactured at the post from the 
quantity advertised to be contracted for." 

In another letter, General Gibson writes : 
'• Below you will find the amount charged on the 
books against the garrison at Ft. St. Anthony, 
feu- certain articles, and forwarded for the use of 
the troops at that post, which yoii will deduct 



from the payments to be made for flour raised 
and turned over to you for issue : 

One pair buhr millstones $250 1 1 

337 pounds plaster of Paris 20 22 

Two dozen sickles IS 00 

Total $288 33 

Upon tbe lOtli of January, 1824, the General 
writes: " The mode suggested by Col. Snelling, 
of fixing the price to be paid to the troops for the 
flour furnished l)y them is deemed equitable and 
just. You wUl accordingly pay for the flour 
$3.33 per barrel." 

Charlotte Ouisconsin Van Cleve. now the oldest 
person living who was connected with the cau- 
toimient in 1819, in a paper read before the De- 
partment of American History of the Mimiesota 
Historical Society in January, 1880, wrote : 

" In 1823, Mrs. Snelling and my mother estab- 
lished the first Sunday School in the Northwest. 
It was held in the basement of the commanding 
officer's quarters, and was productive of much 
good. Many of the soldiers, with their families, 
attended. Joe. Brown, since so well know in 
this countrj', then a drummer boy, was one of 
the pupils. A Bible class, for the officers and 
their wives, was formed, and all became so inter- 
ested in the history of the patriarchs, that it fur- 
nished topics of conversation for the week. One 
day after the Sunday School lesson on the death of 
Moses, a member of the class meeting my mother 
on the parade, after exchanging the usual greet- 
ings, said, in saddened tones, ' But don't you feel 
sorry that Moses is dead ? " 

Early in the spring of 1824, tlie Tully boys 
were rescued from the Sioux and brought to the 
fort. They were children of one of the settlers 
of Lord Selkirk's colony, and with their parents 
and others, were on their way from Red River 
Valley to settle near Fort SneUing. 

The party was attacked by Indians, and the 
parents of these children murdered, and the boys 
captured. Through the influence of Col. Snell- 
ing the children were ransomed and brought 
to the fort. Col. Snelling took John and 
my father Andrew, the younger of the two. 
Everyone became interested in the orphans, and 
we loved Andrew as if he had been our o^\^l lit- 
tle brother. John died some two years after his 
arrival at the fort, and ]Mrs. Snelling asked me 

when I last saw her if a tomb stone had been 
placed at his grave, she as requested, during a 
visit to the old home some years ago. She said 
she received a promise that it should be done, 
and seemed quite disappointed when I told her it 
had not been attended to." 

Andrew Tully, after being educated at an 
Orphan Asylum in New York City, became a 
carriage maker, and died a few years ago in that 


In the year 1824 the Fort was visited by Gen. 
Scott, on a tour of inspection, and at his sug- 
gestion, its name was changed from Fort St. 
Anthony to Fort Snelling. The following is an 
extract from his report to the War Department : 

" This work, of which the AVar Department is 
in possession of a plan, reflects the highest credit 
on Col. Snelling, his otticers and men. The de- 
fenses, and for the most part, the public store- 
houses, shops and quarters being constructed of 
stone, the whole is Ukely to endure as long as the 
post shall remam a frontier one. The cost of 
erection to the government has been the amount 
paid for tools and iron, and the per diem paid 
to sokliers employed as mechanics. I wish to 
suggest to the General in Chief, and through him 
to the War Department, the propriety of calling 
this work Fort Snelling, as a just compliment 
to the meritorious officer under whom it has 
been erected. The present name, (Fort St. jVn- 
thony), is foreign to all our associations, and is, 
besides, geographically incorrect, as the work 
stands at the junction of the Mississippi and 
St. Peter's [Minnesota] Rivers, eight miles be- 
low the great falls of the Jilississippi, called 
after St. Anthony." 

In 1824, Major Taliaferro proceeded to Wash- 
ington with a delegation of Chippeways and Dah- 
kotahs, headed by Little Crow, the grand father 
of the chief of the same name, who was engaged 
in tlie late horrible massacre of defenceless 
women and children. The object of the visit, was 
to secure a convocation of all the tribes of the 
Upper Mississippi, at Prairie du Chein, to define 
theirboundary Unes and establish friendly rela- 
tions. When they reached Prairie du Chein, 
Wahnatah, a Yankton chief, and also Wapashaw, 
by the whisperuigs of mean traders, became dis- 



afEected, and wished to turn back. Little Crow, 
perceiving tliis, stopped all hesitancy by the foL 
lowing speech: '-^ly friends, you can do as you 
please. I am no coward, nor can my ears be 
pulled about by evil counsels. We are here and 
should go on, and do sotne good for our nation. 
I have taken our Father here (Taliaferro) by tlie 
coat tail, and will follow him until I take by the 
hand, our great American Father." 

While on board of a steamer on the Ohio 
Kiver, Marcpee or tlie Cloud, in (•onse(iuence of a 
bad dream, jumped from the stern of the boat, 
and was shpposed to be drowTied, but he swam 
ashore and made his way to St. Charles, ilo.. 
there to be murdered by some Sacs. The re- 
mainder safely arrived in Washington and ac- 
complished the object of the visit. The Dahko- 
tahs returned by way of Xew York, and while 
there were anxious to jiay a visit to certain par- 
ties Willi ^Vm. Dickson, a half-breed son of Col 
Robert Dickson, the trader, wlio in the war of 
1812-15 led the Indians of the Xorthwest iigainst 
the United States. 

After this visit Little Crow carried a new 
double-barreled gun, and said that a medicine 
man by the name of I'eters gave it to him for 
signing a certain paper, and that he also prom- 
ised he would send a keel-boat full of goods to 
them. The medicine man referred to was tlie 
Eev. Samuel Peters, an Episcopal clerg>7uan, 
who had made himself olmoxious during the 
Revolution by his tory sentiments, and was sub- 
sequently nominated as Bishop of Vermont. 

Peters asserted that in 1806 he had pm-chased 
of the heirs of Jonathan Carver the right to a 
tract of land on the upper Mississippi, embracing 
St. Paul, alleged to have been given to Carver by 
the Dahkotahs, in 1767. 

The next year there arrived, in one of tlie keel- 
boats from Prairie du Chien, at Fort Snelling a 
box marked C<il. Robert Dickson. On opening, it 
was found to contain a few presents from Peters 
to Dickson's Indian Vvife, a long letter, and a 
copy of Carvers alleged grant, written on parch- 


On the 301h of October, 1825, seven Indian 
women in canoes, Avere drawn into the rapids 
above the- Falls of St. Anthony. ^Vll \\ ere saved 

but a lame girl, who was dashed over the cata- 
ract, and a month later her body was found at 
Pike's Island in front of the fort. 

Forty years ago, the means of communication 
between Fort Snelling and the civilized world 
yere very limited. The mail in winter was usu- 
ally carried by soldiers to Prairie du Chien. On 
the 26th of January, 1X26, there was great joy in 
the fort;, caused by the return from furlough of 
Lieutenants Baxley and Russell, who brought 
with them the first mail received for live months. 
About this period there was also another excite- 
ment, cause by the seizure of liquors in the trad" 
ing house of Ale.xis IJailey, at Xew Hope, now 

During the mouths of Febinjary and ilarch, in 
this year, snow fell to the depth (,f two or three 
feet, and there was great suffering among the 
Indians. On one occasion, thirty lodges of Sisse- 
ton and other Sioux were overtaken by a snow 
storm on a large prairie. Tlfe storm continued 
for three days, and juovisions gruw scarce, for 
the party were seventy in number. At last, the 
stronger men, with the few pairs of snow-shoes 
in their possession, .started for a trading post one 
hundred miles distant. They reached their des- 
tination half alive, and the traders sympathizing 
sent foiu' Canadians with supplies for those left 
behind. After great toil they reached the scene 
of distress, and found many dead, and, what was 
more horrible, the living feeding on the corpses 
of their relatives. A mother had eaten her dead 
child and a portion of her own father's arms. 
The shock to her neiTous system was so great 
that she lost her reason. Her name was Pash- 
uno-ta, and she was both young and good look- 
ing. One day in Septu'ralter, while at Fort Snell- 
ing, she asked Captain Jouett if he knew which 
was the best portion of a man to eat, at the same 
time taking him by the collar of his coat. lie 
replied with great astonishment. --Xo !" and she 
then said, "The arms." She then asked for a 
piece of his servant to eat, as she was nice and 
fat. A few days after this she dashed herself 
from the bluffs near Fort Snelling, into the river. 
Her body was found just above the mouth of the 
Minnesota, and decently interred by the agent. 

The spring of 1826 was very backward. On 
the 20th of March snow fell to the depth of one 
or one and a half feet on a level, and drifted in 



heaps from six to fifteen feet in height. On the 
- 5tli of April, early in the day, there was a violent 
storm, and the ice was still thick in tlie river. 
During tlie storm flashes of lightnmg were seen 
and thunder heard. On the 10th, the thermome- 
ter was four degrees above zero. On the 14th 
there was rain, and on the next day the St. Peter 
river broke up, hut the ice on the Mississippi I'e- 
mained firm. On the 21st, at noon, the ice began 
to move, and carried away ilr. Faribault's houses 
on the east side of the river. For several days 
the river was twenty feet above low water mark, 
and all the houses on low lands were swept off. 
On the second of May, the steamboat T,awrence, 
Captain Eeeder, arrived. 

Major Taliaferro had inherited several slaves, 
which he used to hire to officers of the garrison. 
On the 31st of March, his negro boy, William, 
was employed by Col. Snelling, the latter agree- 
ing to clothe him. About this time, William at- 
tempted to shoot a hawk, but Instead shot a small 
boy, named Henry CuUum, and nearly killed him. 
In May, Captain Plympton, of the Fifth Infantry, 
wished to purchase his negro woman, Eliza, but 
lie refused, as it was his intention, ultimately, to 
free his slaves. Another of his negro girls, Har- 
riet, was married at the fort, the Major perform- 
ing the ceremony, to the now historic Dred Scott, 
who was then a slave of Surgeon Emerson. The 
only person that ever purchased a slave, to retain 
in slavery, was Alexis Bailly, who lionght a man 
of Major Garland. The Sioux, at first, had no 
prejudices against negroes. They called them 
" Black Frenchmen," and placing their hands on 
their wooUy heads would laugh heartily. 

The following is a list of the steamboats that 
had arrived at Fort Snelling, up to ilay 26, 1826 : 

1 Virginia, May 10, 1823 ; 2 Neville ; 3 Put- 
nam, April 2, 1825 ; 3 Mandan ; 5 Indiana ; 6 Law- 
rence, May 2," 1826 ; 7 Sciota ; 8 Eclipse ; 9 Jo- 
sephine ; 10 Fulton; 11 Red Rover; 12 Black 
Rover; 13 Warrior; 14 Enterprise; lo Volant. 

Life within the walls of a fort is sometimes the 
exact contrast of a paradise. In the year 1826 a 
Pandora box was opened, among the officers, and 
dissensions began to prevail. One young officer, 
a graduate of West Point, whose father had been 
a professor in Princeton College, fought a duel 
with, and slightly wounded, A^■illiam Joseph, the 
talented son of Colonel Snelling, who was then 

twenty-two years of age, and had been three years 
at West Point. At a Court Martial convened to 
try the officer for violating the Articles of War, 
the accused objected to the testimony of Lieut. 
William Alexander, a Temiesseean, not a gradu- 
ate of the Military Academy, on the ground that 
he was an infidel. Alexander, hurt by this allu- 
sion, challenged the objector, and another duel 
was fought, resultmg only in slight uijuries to 
the clothing of the combatants. Inspector Gen- 
eral E. P. Gaines, after this, visited the fort, and 
in his report of the inspection he wrote : " A 
defect in the discinline of this regiment has ap- 
neared in the character of certain personal con- 
troversies, between the Colonel and several of his 
young officers, the particulars of which I forbear 
to enter into, assured as I am that they will be 
developed in the proceedings of a general court 
martial ordered for the trial of Lieutenant Hun- 
ter and other officers at Jefferson Barracks. 

" From a conversation with the Colonel I can 
have no doubt that he has erred in the course 
pursued by him in reference to some of the con- 
troversies, inasmuch as he has intimated to his 
officers his willingness to sanction in certain cases, 
and even to participate in personal conflicts, con- 
trary to the twenty-fifth. Article of War." 

The Colonel's son, William Joseph, after this 
passed several years among traders and Indians, 
and became distinguished as a poet and brilliant 

His "Tales of the Northwest," published in 
Boston in 1820, by Hilliard, Gray, Little & Wil- 
kins, is a work of great literary ability, and Catlin 
thought the book was the most faithful picture of 
Indian hf e he had read. Some of his poems were 
also of a high order. One of his pieces, deficient 
in dignity, was a caustic satire upon modern 
American poets, and was published under the 
title of " Truth, g, Gift for Scribblers." 

Natlianiel P. Willis, wlio had winced luider 
the last, wrote the following lampoon : 
" Oh, smelling Joseph ! Thou art like a cur. 

I'm told thou once did live by hunting fur : 

Of bigger dogs thou smellest, and, in sooth. 

Of one extreme, perhaps, can tell the truth. 

'Tis a wise shift, and shows thou know'st thy 

To leave the ' North West tales,' and take to 
smelling ours." 



In ISJi a second edition of ■■ Trtuh " appearevl < 
vith additions and ememlatious. In ihi* ap- 
peared the following pasquinade upon Willis : 
"I live by hunting fui. thou sayst. si> let it be. 

But tell me, Xatty 1 Had I hunteil thee. 

Had not my time been thiowu away, young sir. 

And eke my powder ? Puppies have no ftir. 

Our tails ? Thou ownest thee to a taU, 
I've scanned thee o"er and o'er 
But. though I guessed the species right. 
I was not sure before. 

Our savages, authentic tr^veierj say. 
To natural fools, religious homage pay, 
Zadst thou been bom in wig^vam's smoke, and 

died in. 
2fat ; thine apotheosis had been certain." 

Snelling died at Chelsea. Mass.. December ax- 
teenth. l!i*>. a victim to the appetite which en- 
enslaved Robert Bums- 

In the year 1S26. a small party of Ojibway<? 
(Chippe\*-ays came to see the Indian Agent, 
and three of them ventured to visit the Colum- 
bia Fur Company's trading house, two miles 
from the Fort. While there, they became 
aware of their danger, and desired two of the 
white men attached to the establishment to 
aecempany them back, thinking that their pres- 
ence might be some protection. They were in 
error. As they passed a little copse, three Dah- 
kotahs sprang from behind a log with the speed of 
light, fired their pieces into the face of the fore- 
most, and then fled. The guns must have been 
doable loaded, for the man's head was literally 
blown from his shoulders, and hfe white coot- 
panions were spattered with brains and blood. 
The survivors gained the Fort without further 
molestation. Their comrade was buried on the 
spot where he feU. A staff was set up on his 
grave, which became a landmark, and received 
the name of The Murder Pole. The murderers 
boasted of their achievement aud with impunity. 
They and their tribe thought that they had struck 
a fair blow on their ancient enemies, in a becom- 
ing manner. It was only said, "hat Tooponkah 
Zeze of the village of the Batttere <rux Fiems. 
and two others, had each acquired a right to 
wear skunk skins on their heels and wur-eagles" 
feathers on their heads. 

ISVKXTS or A. D. 1827. 

On the twenty-eighth of May, IS^, the Ojib- 
way fhief at Sandy Lake, Kee-wee-zais-hish'.ed by the English, Flat Mouth with se>-¥n 
w.irriors aud s«.>me womeji and children, in all 
amoimtiug to twenty-four, arrived about sunrise 
at Fort Snelling. Walking to the gates of the 
garrL5<>u. they aske^l the pn.>tection of Colonel 
SneUing and Taiiafenv>, the Inilian agent. They 
wtre told, that as long as they remaineil under 
the luiteil States flag, they were secure, and 
were ordered to encamp within musket shot of 
the high stone walls of the fort. 

During the afternoon, a Dahkotah. Toopiuikah 
Zeze. from a viUage near the first rapids of the 
Minnesota, visited the Ojib'^y camp. They 
were cordially receivevl, and a feast of meat and 
com and sugar, was soon made ready. The 
wooden plates emptied of their contents, they 
' engaged iu conversation, sjnd whiffed the peace 

i That night, some officers and their f rientls were 
spending a pleasant evening at the head-quarters 
of Captain Clark, which was in one of the stone 
houses which used to stand outside of the walls 
of the fort. As Captain Cruger was walking on 
the porch, a ballet whizzed by. and rapid firing 
was heard. 

As the Dahkotahs. or Sioux, left the Qjibway 
camp, notwithsianding their friendly talk, they 
tuFned and discharged their guns with deadly aim 
upon their entertainers, and ran off with a shout 
of satisfaction. The report was heard by the 
, sentinel of the fort, and he cried, repeatedly. 
" Corporal of the guard '." and soon at the gates, 
were the Ojibways. vrith their women and the 
wounded, telling their tale of woe in wild and in- 
coherent language. Two had been killed and six 
woonded. Among others, was a little girl about 
seven years old. who was pierced through Kuh 
thighs with .-. buUet. Surgeon McMahon made 
every effort to save her life, but wittout avail. 

Flat Mouth, the chief, reminded Colonel Snel- 
ling that he had been attacked while tmder the 
protection of the United States flag, and early the 
next morning. Captain Clark, with oae hundred 

soldier-. ' " \rds Land's End. a tra- 

ding-pos: La Fur Company, on the 

2tIiimesota. a mile above the former residemee cf 



Franklin Steele, where the Dahkotahs were sup- 
posed to be. The soldiers had just left the large 
gale of the fort, when a i)arty of Dahkotahs, in 
battle array, appeared on one of the jnairie 
hills. After some parleying they turned their 
backs, and being pursued, thirty-two were cap- 
tured near the tradnii;-post. 

Colonel Snelling onlered the prisoners to be 
brouf^ht before the Ojihways, and two bemg 
pointed out as participants in the slaughter of the 
preceding uight, they were delivered tt) the 
aggrieved party to deal with in accordance with 
their customs. They were led out to the plain 
in front of the gate of the fort, and when placed 
nearly without tlie range of the Ojibway guns, 
they were told to run for their lives. AVith the 
rajHdity of deer they boundeil away, but the Ojib- 
way Ijullet lli'W faster, and after a few steps, they 
fell gasping on the ground, and were soon lifeless. 
Then the savage nature tlisplayed itself in all its 
hideousness. Women and children danced for 
joy, and placing their fingers in tlie bullet holes, 
from wliich -the blood oozed, tliey licked them 
with delight. The men tore the scalps from the 
dead, and seemed to luxuriate in the privilege of 
plunging their knives through the corjjses. After 
the execution, the Ojibways returned to the fort, 
and were met by the Colonel. He had prevented 
all over whom his authority extended from wit- 
nessing the scene, and had done his best to con- 
fine the excitement to the Indians. The same 
day a deputation of Dalikotah warriors received 
audience, regretting the violence that had been 
done by their young men, and agreeing to deliver 
up the ringleaders. 

At the time appointed, a son of Flat Mouth, 
with those of the Ojibwa party that were not 
wounded, escorted by United States troops, 
marched forth to meet the Dahkirtah deputation, 
on the prairie just beyond the old residence of 
the Indian agent. With much solemnity two 
more of the guilty were handed over to the 
assaulted. One was fearless, and with firmness 
stripped himself of his clothing and ornaments, 
and distributed them. The other could not face 
death with composure. He was noted tor a hid- 
eous hare-lip, and had a bad reinitation among 
his fellows. In the spirit of a coward he prayed 
for life, to the mortification of his tribe. The 
same oppoiiunity was presented to them as to the 

first, of running for their lives. At the first fire 
the coward fell a corpse; but his brave compan- 
ion, though wounded, ran on, and had nearly 
reached tlie goal of safety, when a seciHid bullet 
killed him. The body of the coward now became 
a common object of loathing for both Dahkotahs 
and Ojibways. 

Colonel Snelling told the Ojibways that the 
bodies must be removed, and then they took the 
scalped Dahkotahs, and dragging them by the 
heels, threw them off the blufE into the river, a 
hundred and fifty feet beneath. The dreadful 
scene was now over ; and a detachment of troops 
was sent with the old chief Flat Mouth, to escort 
him out of the reach of Dahkotah vengeance. 

An eyewitness wrote : " After this catastrophe, 
all the Dahkotahs quitted the vicinity of Fort Snel- 
liug, and did not return to it for .some months. 
It was said that they formed a conspiracy to de- 
mand a council, and kill the Indian Agent and 
the commanding officer. If this was a fact, they 
had no opportimity, or wanted the spirit, to exe- 
cute their purpose. 

" The Flat Mouth's band Ungered in the fort 
till their wounded comrade died. He was sensi- 
ble of hLs condition, and bore his pains with great 
fortitude. When he felt his end approach, he 
desired that his horse might be gaily caparisoned, 
and brought to the hospital window, so that he 
might touch the animal. He then took from his 
medicine bag a large cake of maple sugar, and held 
it forth. It may seem strange, but it is true, that 
the beast ate it from his hand. His features 
were radiant with deUght as he fell back on the 
pillow exhausted. His horse had eaten the sugar, 
he said, and he was sure of a favorable reception 
and comfortable quarters in the other world. 
Half an hour after, he breathed his last. We 
tried to discover the debiUs of his superstition, 
but could not succeed. It is a subject on which 
Indians imwiUiugly discourse." 

In the fall of 1826, all the troops at Prairie du 
Chien had been removed to Fort Snelling, the 
commander taking with liim two Witmebagoes 
that had been confined in. Fort Crawford. After 
the soldiers left the Prairie, the Indians in the 
Nicinity were quite insolent. 

In June, 1827, two keel-boats passed Prairie du 
Chien on the way to Fort SneUing with provis- 
ions. When they reached Wapashaw village, on 



the site of the present town of Winona, the crew 
were ordered to come ashore by the Dalikotahs. 
Complying, they found themselves surrounded by 
Indians with hostile intentions. The boatmen 
had no fire-arms, but assuming a bold mien and a 
defiant voice, the captain of the keel-boats ordered 
the savages to leave the decks ; which was suc- 
cessful, The boats pushed on, and at Red Whig 
and Kaposia the Indians showed that they were 
not friendly, though they did not molest the 
boats. Before they started on their return from 
Fort Snelling, the men on board, amounting to 
thirty-two, were all provided with muskets and a 
barrel of ball cartridges. 

When the descending keel-boats passed Wapa- 
shaw, the Dahkotas were engaged m the war 
dance, and menaced them, but made no attack. 
Below this point one of the boats moved in ad- 
vance of the other, and when near the mouth of 
the Bad Axe, the half-breeds on board descried 
hostile Indians on the banks. As the channel 
neared the shore, the sixteen men on the first 
boat were greeted with the war whoop and a vol- 
ley of rifle balls from tlie excited Winnebagoes, 
killing two of the crew. Rushing into their ca- 
noes, the Indians made the attempt to board the 
boat, and two were successful. One of these 
stationed himself at the bow of the boat, and 
fired with killing effect on the men below deck. 
An old soldier of the last war with Great Britain, 
called Saucy Jack, at last despatched him, and 
began to rally the fainting spirits on board. Du- 
ring the fight the boat had stuck on a sand-bar. 
With four companions, amid a shower of balls 
from the savages, he plunged into the water and 
pushed off the boat, and tlius moved out of reacli 
of the galling shots of the Winnebagoes. As 
they floated down the river during the night, 
they heard a wail in a canoe behind them, the 
voice of a fatlier mouniiug the death of the son 
who had scaled the deck, and was now a corpse 
in possession of the white men. The rear boat 
passed the Bad Axe river late in the night, and 
escaped an attack. 

The first keel-boat arrived at Prairie du Chein, 
■with t«-o of their crew dead, four wounded, and 
the Indian that had been killed on the boat. The 
two dead men had been residents of the Prairie, 
and now the panic was increased. On the morn- 
ing of the twenty-eighth of June the second 

keel -boat appeared, and among her passengers 
was Joseph Snelling, the talented son of the 
colonel, who wrote a story of deep interest, based 
on the facts narrated. 

At a meeting of the citizens it was resolved to 
repair old Fort Crawford, and Thomas McXair 
was aiipiiinted captain. Dirt was thrown around 
the bottem logs of the foitiflcation to prevent its 
being fired, and young Snelling was put in com- 
mand of one of the block-houses. On the next 
day a voyageur named Lover, and the well-known 
trader Duncan Graham, started through the in- 
terior, west of the Mississippi, with intelligence 
of the murders, to Fort Snelling. Intelligence 
of this attack was received at the fort, on the 
evening of the ninth of July, and Col. Snelling 
started in keel boats with four companies to Fort 
Crawford, and on the seventeenth four more 
companies left under Major Fowle. After an 
absence of six weeks, the soldiers, without firing 
a gun at the enemy, returned. 

A few weeks after the attack upon the keel 
boats General Gaines inspected the Fort, and, 
subsequently in a communication to the War 
Department wrote as follows ; 

" The main points of defence against an enemy 
appear to have been in some respects sacrificed, 
in the effort to secure the comfort and conven- 
ience of troops in peace. These are important 
considerations, but on an exposed frontier the 
primary object ought to be security against the 
attack of an enemy. 

" The buildings are too laige, too numerous, 
and extending over a space entirely too great, 
enclosing a large parade, five times greater than 
is at all desireable in that climate. The build- 
ings for the most part seem well constructed, of 
good stone and other materials, and they contain 
every desirable convenience, comfort and securi- 
ty as barracks and store houses. 

" The work may be rendered very strong and 
adapted to a garrison of two himdred men by re- 
moving one-lialf the buildings, and with the ma- 
terials of which they are constructed, building a 
tower sufficiently high to command the hill be- 
tween the Mississippi and St. Peter's [Minnesota], 
and by a block on the extreme point, or 
brow of the cliff, near the commandanfs quarters, 
to secure most effectually the banks of the river, 
and the boats at the landing. 



"^Much cret'.it i; due to Colonel Snelliiig, his 
officers and men, for their immense labors and 
excellent workmanship exhiliited in the construc- 
tion of these barracks and store houses, but this 
has been effected too much at the expense of the 
discipline of the regiment." 

From reports made from 1823 to 1826, the health 
of the troops was good. In the year ending Sep- 
tember thirty, 1823, there were but two deaths ; 
HI 1824 only six, and in 1825 but seven. 

In 182 J tliere were three desertions, in 1824 
twenty-two, and in 1825 twenty-nine. Most of 
the deserters were fresh recruits and natives of 
America, Ten of the deserters were foreigners, 
and five of these were born in Ireland. In 182(3 
there were eight companies numbering two hun- 

dred and fourteen soldiers quartered in the Fort- 
During the fall of 1827 the Fifth Regiment was 
relieved by a part of the First, and the next year 
Colonel Snelling proceeded to Washington on bus- 
iness, where he died with inflammation of the 
brain. JNIajor General Macomb announcing his 
death in an order, wrote : 

" Colonel Snelling joined the army in early 
youth. In the battle of Tippecanoe, he was 
distinguished for gallantry and good conduct. 
Subsequently and during the whole late war with 
Great Britain, from the battle of Brownstown to 
the termination of the contest, he was actively 
employed in ttie field, with credit to himself, and 
honor to his country." 





Arrival of J. N. NicoUei— Marriage of James Wells— Nicollet's letter from Falls- 
of St. Anthouy— Perils of Martin MfU-od— Chippeivay trcacherj-— Sioux Re 
vcnge — Rum River and Stillwater batllrs— tlrog shops lu-iir the Fort. 

Oil the second of July 1836, the steamboat 
Sauit Peter landed siippUes, and among its 
passengers was the distinguished French as- 
tronomer, Jeau X. Xicollet (Xicokiy). ^Major 
Taliaferro on the twelfth of July, wrote; 
" Mr. Nicollet, on a visit to the post for scientilic 
research, and at present in my family, has shown 
me the late work of Henry R. Schoolcraft on the 
discovery of the source of the Mississippi ; which 
claim is ridiculous in the extreme." On the 
twenty-seventh, Nicollet ascended the Mississippi 
on a tour of observation. 

James Wells, a trader, who afterwards was a 
member of the legislature, at the house of Oliver 
Cratte, near the fort, was married on the twelfth 
of September, by Agent Taliaferro, to Jane, a 
daughter of Duncan (Jraham. Wells was killed 
in 1862, by the Sioux, at the time of the massacre 
in the IMinnesota Valley. 

Nicollet in September returned from his trip 
to Leech Lake, and on the twenty-seventh wrote 
the following to Major TaUaferro the Indian 
Agent at the fort, which is supposed to be the 
earliest letter extant written from the site of the 
city of Minneapolis. As the principal hotel and 
one of the finest avenues of that city bears his 
name it is worthy of preservation. He spelled 
his name sometimes Nicoley. and the pronuncia- 
tion in English, would be Nicolay, the same as 
if written Nicollet in French. The letter shows 
that he had not mastered the English language": 
" St. Anthony's Falls, 27th September, 183(i. 

Dear Frieni) :— I anived last evening about 
dark; all well, nothing lost, nothing broken, 
happy and a veiy successful journey. But I 
done exhausted, and nothing can relieve me, but 
the pleasure of meeting you again under your 
hospitable roof, and to see all the friends of th" 
garrisou who have been so kind to me. 

" This letter is more particularly to give you 
a very extraordinary tide. Flat ilouth, the chief 
of Leech Lake and suite, ten in number are with 
me. The day before yesterday I met them again 
at Swan river where they detained me one day. 
I had to bear a new harangue and gave answer. 
All termhiated by tlieu" own resolution that they 
ought to give you the hand, as well as to the 
Guinas of the Fort (Colonel Da.enport.) I 
thought it my duty to acquaint you with it be- 
forehand. Peace or war are at stake of the visit 
they p;iy you. Please give them a good welcome 
until I liave reported to you and Colonel Daven- 
port all that has taken place dui'iug my stay 
among the Pillagers. But be assured I have not 
trespassed and that I have behaved as would 
have done a good citizen of tlie U. S. As to 
Schoolcraft's statement alluding to you, you will 
have full and complete satisfaction from Flat 
Mouth himself. In haste, your friend, J. N. 

events of a. d. 1837. 

On the seventeenth of March, 1837, there ar- 
rived ilartin !McLcod, who became a prominent 
citizen of Minnesota, and the legislature has 
given his name to a county. 

He left the Red River country on snow shoes, 
with two companions, one a Polander and the 
other an Irishman named Ilays, and Pierre Bot~ 
tiueau as interpreter. Being lost in a violent 
snow storm the Pole and Irishman perished. He 
and his guide, Bottineau, lived for a time on the 
llesh of one of their dogs. After being twenty- 
six days without seeing any one, the sm'vivors 
reached the trading post of Joseph R. Brown, at 
Lake Tra\erse, and from thence they came to 
the fort. 

events of a. d. 1838. 

In the month of April, eleven Sioux were slain 
in a dastanlly manner, by a party of Ojibways, 



under the noted and elder Hole-in-the-Day. The 
Chippeways feigned the warmest friendship, and 
at dark lay down in the teuts by the side of the 
Sioux, and in the night sUeutly arose and killed 
them. The oceirrrence took place at the Chippe- 
way River, about thirty miles from Lac qui Parle, 
and the next day tlie Eev. G. H. Pond, the Indian 
missionary, accompanied by a Sioux, \.ent out 
and buried the mutilated and scalpless bodies. 

Ou the second of August old IIole-in-the-Day, 
and some Ojil)ways, came to the fort. They 
stopped first at the cabin of Peter Quinn, whose 
wife was a half-breed Chippeway, about a mile 
from the fort. 

The missiouary, Samuel W. Pond, told tlie 
agent that tlie Sioux, of Lake Callioun were 
aroused, and on their way to attack the Chippe- 
ways. The agent quieted them for a time, but 
two of the relatives of those slain at Lac qui Parle 
m April, hid tliemselves nearQuimi's house, and 
as Hole-iu-the-Day and his associates were pass- 
ing, they fired and killed one Chippeway and 
wounded another. Obequette, a Cliippeway from 
Bed Lake, succeded, however, in shooting a 
Sioux while he was in the act of scalping his 
comrade. The Chippeways were brought within 
the fort as soon as possible, and at nine o'clock 
a Sioux was confined in the guard-house as a 

Notwithstanding the murdered Chippeway had 
been buried m the graveyard of the fort for safety, 
an attempt was made on the part of some of the 
Sioux, to dig it up. On the evening of the sbctli. 
Major Plympton sent the Chippeways across the 
river to the east side, and ordered them to go 
home as soon as possible. 

EVENTS OF A. r>. 1839. 

On the twentieth day of June the elder IIole- 
in-the-Day arrived from tlie Upper Mississippi 
with several hundred Chippeways. Upon their 
return homeward tlie ^Mississippi and Mille Lacs 
band encamped the first night at the F.alls of Sauit 
Anthony, and some of the Sioux visited them and 
smoked the pipe of peace. 

On the second of July, aljout simrise, a son-in- 
law of the chief of the Sioux band, at Lake Cal- 
houn, named Meekaw or Badger, was killed and 
scalped by two Chippeways of the Pillager band, 
relatives of him who lost liis lifp near Patrick 

QiuHn's the year before. The excitement was 
intense among the Sioux, and immediately war 
parties started in pursuit. IIole-in-the-Day's 
band was not sought, but the Mille Lacs and 
Saint Croix Chippeways. The Lake Callioun 
Sioux, with those from the villages on the 
^Minnesota, assembled at the i'alls of Saint 
Anthony, and on the morning of the fourth 
of July, came up with the Mille Lacs 
Chippeways on Rum Kiver, before sunrise. Not 
long after the war whoop was raised and the 
Sioux attacked, killing and woimding ninety. 

The Kaposia band of Sioux piu'sued the Saint 
Croix Chippeways, and on the third of July found 
them in tlie Penitentiary ravine at Stillwater, 
under the influence of whisky. Aitkin, the old 
trader, was with them. The sight of the 
Sioux tended to make them sober, but in the fight 
twenty-one were killed and twenty-nine were 

Whisky, during the year 1839, was freely in- 
troduced, m the face of tlie law prohibiting it. 
The first boat of the season, the Ariel, came to 
the fort on the fourteenth of April, and brought 
twenty barrels of whisky for Joseph R. Brown, 
and on the twenty-first of May, the Glaucus 
brought six barrels of liquor for David Faribault. 
On the thirtieth of June, some soldiers went to 
Joseph R. Brov^i's groggery on the opposite side 
of the Mississippi, and that night forty - seven 
were in the guard-house for drunkenness. The 
demoralization then existing, led to a letter by 
Smgeon Emerson on duty at the fort, to the Sur- 
geon General of the United States army, in which 
he writes : 

" Tlie whisky is brought here by citizens who 
are pourmg m upon us and settling themselves 
on the opposite shore of the Mississippi river, 
in defiance of our worthy commanding officer. 
Major J. Plympton, whose authority they set 
at nauglit. At this moment there is a 
citizen named Brown, once a soldier in 
the Fifth Infantry, who was discharged at 
this post, while Colonel Siielling commanded, 
and wiio has been since employed by the Ameri- 
can Fur Company, actually buUdmg on the land 
marked out by the land officers as the reserve, 
and mthm gunshot distance of the fort, a very 
expensive whisky shop." 





Sioux or Dahkot;ih pcoplo— Meaning' of words Sioux and Daliki't;ili— IvJirly villages 
— Residcuce of Sioux in Z84&-Tiie Winnelmgoes— The Ojibways or Chippeways. 

The three Indian nations who dwelt in tliis 
region after the organization of ilinnesota, were 
the Sioux or Dalil-cotalis; the Ojibways or Chip- 
peways ; and the Ho-tchun-graws or Winneba- 


Tliey are an entirely different gronp from tlie 
Algonquin and Iroquois, who were found by the 
early settlers of the Atlantic States, on the banks 
of the Connecticut, Mohawk, and Susquehanna 

A\'hen the Dahkotahs were first noticed by the 
European adventurers, large numbers were occu- 
pying the Mille Lacs region of country, and appro- 
priately called by the voyageur, "People of the 
Lake," "Gens du Lac." And tradition asserts that 
here was the ancient centre of this tribe. Though 
we have traces of their warring and hunting on the 
shores of Lake Superior, there is no satisfactory 
evidence of their residence, east of the Mille Lacs 
region, as they have no name for Lake Superior. 

The word Dahkotah, by which they love to be 
designated, signifies allied or joined together in 
friendly compact, and is equivalent to " E pluri- 
bus unum," the motto on the seal of the United 

In the liistory of the mission at La Pointe, 
Wisconsin, published nearly two centuries ago, a 
a writer; referring to the Dahkotahs, remarks : 

"For sixty leagues from the extremity of the 
Upper Lake, toward sunset ; and, as it were in 
the centre of the western nations, they have all 
unilcd their force by a general league.'' 

The Dahkotahs in the earliest documents, and 
even until the present day, are called Sioux, Scioux, 
or Soos. The name originated with the early voy- 
ageurs. For centuries the Ojibways of Lake 
Superior waged war against the Dahkotahs; and, 

whenever they spoke of them, ciiUed them Xado- 
waysioux, which signifies enemies. 

The French traders, to avoid exciting the atten- 
tion of Indians, while conversing in their pres- 
ence, were accustomed to designate them by 
names, which would not be recognized. 

The Dahkotahs were nicknamed Sioux, a word 
composed of the two last syllables of the O jib way 
word for foes 

Under the influence of the French traders, the 
eastern Sioux began to wander from the Mille 
Lacs region. A trading post at 0-ton-we-kpa- 
dan, or Rice Creek, above the Falls of Saint 
Anthony, induced some to erect their summer 
dwellings and plant corn there, which took the 
place of wild rice. Those who dwelt here were 
called Wa-kpa-a-ton-we-dan Those v/ho dwell on 
the creek. Another division was known as the 

Less than a hundred years ago, it is said that 
the eastern Sioux, pressed by the Chippeways, 
and influenced by traders, moved seven miles 
above Fort SnelUng on the Minnesota River. 


In IS-tO there were seven villages of Med-day- 
wah-kawn-twawn Sioux. (1) Below Lake Pepin, 
where the city of Winona is, was the village of 
Wapashaw. This band was called Kee-yu-ksa, 
because with them blood. relations intermariied. 
Bounding or Whipping Wind was the chief. (2) 
At the head of Lake Pepin, under a lofty bluff, 
was the Red \Ving village, called Ghay-mui-chan 
Hill, wood and water. Shooter was the name 
of the chief. (3) Opposite, and a little below the 
Pig's Eye Marsh, was the Kaposia band. The 
word, Kapoja means light, given Vieeause these 
people are quick travelers. His Scarlet People, 
better known as Little Crow, was the chief, and 
isnotoi'ious as the leader in the massacre of 1862. 

On the Minnesota River, on the south side 



a few miles above Fort Snelling, was Black Dog 
village. The inhabitants were called, Ma-ga-yu- 
tay-shnee. People who do not a geese, be- 
cause they touud it profitable to sell game at Fort 
Snelling. Grey Iron was the chief, also known 
as Pa-ma-ya-yaw, My head aches. 

At Oak Grove, on the north side of the river, 
eight miles above the fort, was (5) Hay-ya-ta-o- 
ton-wan, or Inland Village, so called because 
they formerly lived at Lake Calkoun. Contigu- 
ous was (6) 0-ya-tay-shee-ka, or Bad People, 
Known as Good Roads Band and (7) the largest 
village was Tin-ta-ton-wan, Prairie Village ; 
Shokpay, or Six, was tlie chief, and is now the 
&ite of the to^\'n of Shakopee. 
West of this division of the Sioux were— 


The War-pay-ku-tay, or leaf shooters, who 
occupied the country south of the ^linnesota 
around the sources of the Cannon and Blue Earth 


North and west of the last were the War-pay- 
tw'awns, or People of the Leaf, and their princi- 
pal village was Lac qui Parle. They numbered 
about fifteen hundred. 


To the west and southwest of these bands of 
Sioux were the Se-see-twawns (Sissetoans), or 
Swamp Dwellers. This band claimed the land 
west of the Blue Earth to the James River, and 
the guardianship of the Sacred Red Pipestone 
Quarry. Their principal village was at Traverse, 
and the number of the band was estimated at 
thirty-eight hundred. 


The Ho-tchun-graws, or Wiunebagoes, belong 
to the Dahkotah family of aljorigines. Cham- 
plain, although he never visited them, mentions 
them. Nicollet, who had been in his employ, 
visited Green Bay about the year 1635, and an 
early Relation mentifins that he saw the Ouiiii- 
pegous, a people called so, because they came 
from a distant sea, which some French erron- 
eously called Puants. Another writer speak- 

ing of these people says: "This people are 
called ' Les Puants ' not because of any bad odor 
peculiar to them, but because they claim to have 
come from the shores of a far distant lake, 
towards the north, whose waters are salt. They 
call themselves the people ' de Teau puants,' of 
the putrid or bad water." 

By the treaty of 1«37 they were removed to 
Iowa, and by another treaty in October, 1846, 
they came to Minnesota in the spring of 1848, 
to the country between the Long Prairie, 
and Crow Wing Rivers. The agency was located 
on Long Prairie River, forty miles from the 
Mississippi, and in 1849 the tribe numbered 
about twenty-five hundred souls. 

In February 1855, another treaty was made 
with them, and that spring they removed to lands 
on the Blue Earth River. Owing to the panic 
caused by the outbreak of the Sioux in 1862, Con 
gress, by a special act, without consulting them, 
in 1863, removed them from their fields in Min- 
nesota to the Missouri River, and in the words 
of a missionary, "they were, like the Sioux, 
diunped in the desert, one hundred miles above 
Fort Randall" 


The Ojibways or Leapers, when the French 
came to Lake Superior, had their chief settlement 
at Sault St. Marie, and were called by the French 
Saulteurs, and by the Sioux, Hah-ha-tonwan, 
Dwellers at the Falls or Leaping Waters. 

When Du Luth erected his trading post at the 
western extremity of Lake Superior, they had not 
obtained any foothold in Minnesota, and were 
constantly at war with their hereditary enemes, 
the Nadouaysioux. By the middle of the 
eighteenth century, they had pushed in and occu- 
pied Sandy, Leech, Mille Lacs and other points 
between Lake Superior and the Mississippi, which 
had been dwelling places of the Sioux. In 1S20 
the principal villages of Ojibways in Minnesota 
were at Fond du Lac, Leech Lake and Sandy 
Lake. In 1837 they ceded most of their lands. 
Since then, other treaties have been made, until 
in the year 1881, they are confined to a few res- 
ervations, in northern Minnesota and vicinity. 





jMuit Minions not jwrmantnt— Presbjrterian Minion at Mackinaw— Visit of Rev 
A. Coc an<! J D. Stevens to Fort Suelliug— Notice of Ayrpi. Hall, and Boutwell 
—Formation of the won! Itasca— The Brothers Pond— Arrival of Dr. William- 
son-Pre8b>*teri;mChiircl> at Fort Sneliing- Mission at Lake Harriet— Mourn. 
ing for the Dead— Church at Lac-qui parte— Father lUvoux— Mission at Uke 
PokeRunia — Attack by the Sioux — Chippewoy att.ick at Pig's Eye— Death of 
Rev. Sherman Hall — Methodist Missions Rev. S. W. Pond prepares a Sioux 
Grammar and Dictionary Swiss Presbyterian Ui&sion. 

Bancroft the distinguished historian, catching 
the enthusiasm of the narratives of the early 
Jesuits, depicts, in language which glows, tiieir 
missions to the Xortlnvest; yet it is erroneous 
to suppose that the Jesuits exercised any perma- 
nent influence on the Aborigines. 

Shea, a devoted memlter of the Koman Catho- 
lic Clnirch. in his History of American CatlioUc 
Missions writes : " In 1680 Father Engalrau was 
apparently alone at Green Bay, and Pierson at 
Mackinaw. Of the other missions neither Le- 
Clerq nor Ilenuepin, the Recollect writers of the 
West at this time, make any mention, or in any 
way allude to their existence." lie also says 
that "Father .Menard had projected a Sioux 
mission ; Marqiiette, Allouez, Druilletes, all en- 
tertained hopes of lealizing it, and had some 
intercourse with that nation, but none of them 
ever succeeded in establishing a mission." 

Father Hemiejiin wrote: " Can it be possible, 
that, that pretended prodigious amount of savage 
converts could escape the sight of a multitude 
of French Canadians who travel every year? 
* * * * How comes it to pass that these 
churches so devout and so mimerous, should be 
invisible, when I passed through so many 
countries and nations V " 

After the American Fur Company was formed, 
the island of Mackinaw became the residence of 
the princijial agent for the Northwest, Robert 
Stuart a Scotchman, and devoted Presbyterian. 
In the month of June, 1820, the Rev. Dr. 
Morse, father of the distinguished inventor of 
the telegraph, visited and pi-eached at Mackinaw, 
and in consequence of statements published by j 

him, upon his return, a Presbyterian ^Missionary 
Society in the state of Xew York sent a graduate 
of Union College, the Rev. W. M. Ferry, father 
of the present United States Senator from Michi- 
gan, to explore the field. In 1823 he had estab- 
lished a large boarding school composed of 
children of various tribes, and here some were 
educated who became wives of men of intelli- 
gence and influence at the capital of Minnesota. 
After a few years, it was determined by the 
Mission Board to modify its plans, and in the 
place of a great central station, to send mission- 
aries among the several tribes to teach and to 

In pursuance of this ])olicy, the Rev. Alvan 
Coe, and J. D. Stevens, then a licentiate who 
had been engaged in the Mackinaw- ilission, 
made a tour of exploration, and arrived on 
September 1, 1829, at Fort Snelling. In the 
journal of Major Lawrence Taliafeno, wliich 
is in possession of the Jliiniesota Historical 
Society, is the following entry : " The Rev. 
Mr. Coe and Steveus reported to he on their way 
to this post, members of the Presbyterian church 
looking out for suitable places to make mission- 
ary establishment for the Sioux and Chippeways, 
found scliools, and instruct in the arts and agri- 

The agent, although not at that time a commu- 
nicant of the Church, welcomed these visitors, 
and afforded them every facility in visiting the " 
Indians. Oii Sunday, the Gth of Septemlier, the 
Rev. Mr. Coe preached twice in the fort, and the 
next night hcUl a prayer meeting at the quartere 
of the commimiling oilicer. On the next Sunday 
he preached again, and on the 14th, with Mr. 
Stevens and a hired guide, returned to Mackinaw 
by way of the St. Croix river. Duruig this visit 
the agent offered for a Presbyterian mission the 
mill which then stood on the site of Minneapolis, 
and had been erected by the government, as well as 



the farm at Lake Callioiin, which was begun to 
teach the Sioiix agriculture. 


In 1830, r. Ayer, one of the teachers at ilack- 
iiiaw, made an exploration as far as La Pointe, 
and returned. 

Upon the 30th day of August, 1831, a Macki- 
naw boat about forty feet long arrived at La 
Pointe, bringing from INIackinaw the principal 
trader, Mr. Warren, Rev. Sherman Hall and wife, 
and !Mr. Frederick Ayer, a catechist and teacher. 

Mrs. Hall attracted great attention, as she was 
the first white woman who had visited that 
region. Sherman Hall was born on April 30, 
1801, at "Wethersfield, Vermont, and in 1828 
graduated at Dartmouth College, and completed 
his theological studies at Andover, Massachu- 
setts, a few weeks before he journeyed to the 
Indian country. 

His classmate at Dartmouth and Andover, the 
Eev W. T. Boutwell still living near Stillwater, 
became his yoke-fellow-, but remained for a time 
at Mackinaw, which they reached about the mid- 
dle of July. In June, 1832, Henry E. School- 
craft, the head of an explorhig expedition. Invited 
ilr. Boutwell to accompany him to the sources of 
the Mississippi. 

Wlien the expedition reached Lac la Biche or 
Elk Lake, on 5\\\y 13, 1832, ilr. Schoolcraft, who 
was not a Latin scholar, asked the Latin word for 
<riith, and was told "Veritas." He then wanted 
.iK ^vord wliich signified head, and was told 
"caput." To the astonishment of many, School- 
craft struck off tlie fh-st sylable, of the word 
ver-i-tas and tlie last sylable of ca-put, and thus 
coined the word Itasca, which he gave to the 
lake, and which some modem writers, with all 
gravity, tell us was the name of a maiden who 
once dwelt on its banks. ITpon Mr. BoutweU's 
return from tins expedition he was at first asso- 
ciated with Mr. Hall in the mission at La Pointe. 

In 1833 the mission band which had centered 
at La Pointe diffused their influence. In Octo- 
ber Rev. Mr. Boutwell went to Leech Lake, Mr. 
Ayer opened a school at Yellow Lake, Wiscon- 
sin, and ilr. E. F. Ely, now in California, became 
a teacher at Aitkin's trading post at Sandy Lake. 


Mr. Boutwell, of Leech Lake Station, on lli>> 

sixtli of May, 1834, happened to be on a visit to 
Fort SnelUng. While there a steamboat arrived, 
and among the passengers were two young men, 
brothers, natives of Waslungtoii, Connecticut, 
Samuel W. and Gideon H. Pond, who had come, 
constrained by the love of Christ, and without con- 
ferring with flesh and blood, to try to improve 
the Sioux. 

Samuel, the older brother, the year before, had 
talked with a liquor seller in Galena, Illinois, who 
had come from the Red River country, and the 
desire was awakened to help the Sioux ; and he 
wrote to his brother to go with him. 

The Rev. Samuel AV. Pond still lives at Shako- 
pee, in the old mission house, the first building of 
sawed lumber erected in the vaUey of the Minne- 
sota, above Fort Suelling. 


About this period, a native of South Carolina, 
a graduate of .Jeilerson CoUege, Pennsylvania, 
the Rev. T. S. Williamson, M. D., who previous 
to his ordination had been a respectaljle physi- 
cian in Ohio, was appointed by the American 
Board of Foreign Missions to \dsit the Dahkotahs 
with the view of ascertaining what could be done 
to introduce Christian instruction. Having made 
inquiries at Prairie du Chien and Fort Snelling, 
he reported tlie field was favorable. 

The Presbyterian and Congregational Churches, 
through their joint Missionary Society, appointed 
the following persons to labor in Minnesota : 
Rev. Thomas S. Williamson, M. D., missionary 
and physician ; Rev. J. D. Stevens, missionary ; 
^Vlexander Huggins, farmer ; and their wives ; 
Miss Sarah Poage, and Lucy Stevens, teacliers; 
who were prevented during the year 1834, by the 
state of navigation, from entering upon their 

During the winter of 1834-3.5, a pious oflicer 
of the army exercised a good influence on his 
fellow oflicers and soldiers under his command. 
In the absence of a chaplain of ordained minis- 
ter, he, like General Ilavelock, of the British 
army in India, was accustomed not only to drill 
the soldiers, but to meet them in bis own quar- 
ters, and reason with them " of righteousness, 
temperance, and judgment to come." 

In the month of May, 1835, Dr. AVilliamson 
and mission band arrived at Fort Snelling, and 



were hospitably received by tlie ollicers of tlie 
garrison, tlie Indian Agent, and Mr. Sibley, Agent 
of the Company at Mendota, who had been in 
the country a few mnnlbs. 

On tlie twenty-seventh of this month the T?ev. 
Dr. AN'illiamson united in marriage at the Fort 
Lieutenant Edward A. Ogden to Eliza Edna, the 
daughter of Captain G. A. Looniis, the tirst 
marriage service in which a clergyman officiated 
in the present State of Minnesota. 

On the eleventh of June a meeting was held 
at the Fort to organize a Presbj'terian Church, 
sixteen persons who had been communicants, 
and six who made a i)rofcssion of faith, one of 
whom was Lieutenant Ogden, were enrolled as 

Four elders were elected, among whom were 
Capt. Gustavus Loomis and Samuel W. Pond. 
The next day a lecture preparatory to administer- 
ing the communion, was delivered, and on Sun- 
day, the 14th, the first organized church in the 
Valley of the Upper Mississippi assembled for 
the first time in one of the Comi>any rooms of the 
Fort. Theservicesin the morning were conducted 
by Dr. AVilliamson. The afternoon service com- 
menced at 2 o'clock. The sermon of Mr. Stevens 
was upon a most appropriate text, 1st Peter, ii:2o ; 
"For ye were as slveep going astray, but are now 
returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your 
souls." Afterthediscourse, the sacrament of the 
Lord's supper was administered. 

At a meeting of the Session on the thirty-first 
of July, Rev. J. D. Stevens, missionary, was in- 
vited to preach to the church, " so long as the 
duties of his mission will permit, and also to pre- 
side at all the meetings of the Session." Captain 
Gustavus Loomis was elected Stated Clerk of the 
Session, and they resolved to observe the monthly 
concert of prayer on the first Monday of each 
month, for the conversion of the world. 

Two points were selected by the missionaries 
as proper spheres of labor. Mr. Stevens and 
family proceeded to Lake Harriet, and Dr. \\'i\- 
liamson and family, in June, proceeded to Lac 
qui Parle. 

As there had never been a chaplain at Fort 
Snelhng, the Rev. J. D. Stevens, the missionary 
at Lake Harriet, preaclied on Sundays to tlie 
Presbyterian chiirch, there, recently organized. 

Writing on Jainiary twenty-seventh, 1836, he 
says, in relation to his field of labor: 

" Yesterday a portion of this band of Indians, 
who had been some time absent from this village, 
returneil. One of the niiinber (a woman) was 
informed that a brollier nl' liers had died during 
her absence. lie was not at this village, but 
with another band, and the information had just 
reached here. In the evening they set up a most 
piteous crying, or rather wailing, which con- 
tinued, with some little cessations, during the 
night. The sister of the deceased brotlierwould 
repeat, times Vi'ithout number, words which may 
be thus translated into English : ' Come, my 
brother, I shall see you no more for ever.' The 
night was extremely cold, the thermometer 
standing from ten to twenty below zero. About 
sunrise, next morning, preparation was made for 
lierfonniiig the ceremony of cutting their llesh, 
in (uder to give relief to their grief of mind. 
The snow was removed from the frozen ground 
over about as large a space as would lie recjuired 
to place a small Indian lodge or wigwam. In the 
centre a very small fire was kindled up, not to 
give warmth, apparently, but to cause a smoke. 
The sister of the deceased, who was the chief 
mourner, came out of her lodge followed by 
three other women, \\ho repaired to the place 
jirepared. They were all b.irefooted, and nearly 
naked. Here they set up a most bitter lamentii- 
tion and crying, mingling their waitings with the 
words before mentioned. The principal mourner 
commenced gashing or cutting her ankles and 
legs up to the knees with a sharp stone, until her 
legs were covered with gore and tlowuig blood ; 
then in like manner her arms, shoulders, and 
breast. The others cut themselves in the same 
way, but not so severely. On this poor infatuated 
A\-oman I presume there were more than a hun- 
dred long deep gashes in the flesh. I saw the 
operation, and the blood instantly followed the 
instrument, and flowed down upon the fiesh. She 
ajijieared frantic with grief. Through the pain 
of her wounds, the loss of blood, exhaustion of 
strength by fasting, loud and long-continued and 
bitter groans, or the extreme cold upon her al- 
most naked and lacerated body, she soon sunk 
ujion the frozen ground, shaking as with a violent 
fit of the ague, and writhing in apparent agony. 
'Surely,' I exclaimed, as I beheld the bloody 



scene, 'the tender mercies of the heathen are 

'■ The Uttle church at the fort hegms to mani- 
fest sometliing of a missionary spirit Their con- 
tributions are considerable for so small a number. 
I hope they wiW not only be willmg to contribute 
liberally of their substance, but will give them- 
selves, at least some of them, to the missionary 

" The surgeon of the military post, Dr. Jarvis, 
has been very assiiluous in his attentions to )is in 
our sickness, and has very generously made a do- 
nation to our board of twenty-five dollars, being 
the amount of his medical services in our family. 

"On the nineteenth instant we commenced a 
school with six full Indian children, at least so m 
all their habits, dress, etc.; not one could speak a 
word of any language but Sioux. The school has 
since increased to the number of twenty-tive. I 
am now collecting and arranging words for a dic- 
tionary. Mr. Pond is assiduously employed in 
preparing a small spelling-book, which we may 
forward next mail for printing. 

On the fifteenth of September, 1836, a Presby- 
terian church was organized at Lac-qui-Parle, a 
branch of that in and near Fort Snelling, and 
Joseph Renville, a mixed blood of great influ- 
ence, became a communicant. He had been 
trained in Canada by a Roman Catholic priest, 
liut claimed the right of private judgment. Mr. 
Renville's wife was the lirst pure Dahkotiih of 
whom we have any record that ever joined the 
Church of Christ. This church has never become 
extinct, although its menibei's have been neces- 
sarily nomadic. After the treaty of Traverse des 
Sioux, it was removed to Ilazlewood. Driven 
from thence by the outln'eak of ISiii;, it has be- 
came the parent of other churches, in the valley 
of the upper Missouri, over one of which John 
Renville, a descendant of the elder at Lac-qui- 
Parle, is the T)astor. 


Father Ravoux, recently from France, a sin- 
cere and earnest priest of the Church of Rome, 
came to Mendota in the autumn of 1841, and 
after a brief sojourn with the Rev. L. Galtier, 
who iiad erected Saint Paul's chapel, which has 
given the name of Saint Paul to the capital of 
Mimiesota, he ascended the Minnesota River 
and visited Lac-qui-Parle. 

Bishop Loras, of Dubuque, wrote the next year 
of his visit as follows : " Our yomig missionary, 
M. Ravoux, passed the winter on the banks of 
Lac-qui-Parle, vslthout any other support than 
Providence, without any other means of conver- 
sion than a burning zeal, he has wrought in the 
space of six months, a happy revolution among 
the Sioux. From the time of his arrival he has 
been occupied night and day in tlie study of tlieir 
language. ***** "When he instructs 
the savages, he speaks to them with so much fire 
whilst showing them a large copper crucifix which 
he carries on his breast, that he makes the strong- 
est impression upon them." 

The impression, however was evanescent, and 
he soon retired from the field, and no more efforts 
were made in this direction by the Churcli of 
Rome. This young Mr. Ravoux is now the highly 
respected vicar of the Roman Catholic diocese of 
JMinnesota, and justly esteemed for his simpUcity 
and unobtrusiveness. 


Pokegnma is one of the " ISIille Lacs," or thou- 
sand beautiful lakes for which Minnesota is re- 
markable. It is about four or five miles In extent , 
and a mile or more in width. 

This lake is situated on Snake River, about 
twenty miles above the junction of that stream 
vrith the St. Croix. 

In the year 1836, missionaries came to reside 
among the Ojibways and Pokeguma, to promote 
their temporal and spiritual welfare. Their mis- 
sion house was biult on the east side of the lake ; 
but the Indian village was on an island not far 
from the shore. 

In a letter written in 1837, we find the fol- 
lowing: "The young women and girls now 
make, mend, wash, and iron after our man- 
ner. The men have learned to build log houses, 
drive team, plough, hoe, and handle an American 
axe with some skill ui cutting large trees, the 
size of which, two years ago, W(jnld have afforded 
them a sufficient reason why they should not med- 
dle with them." 

In May, 1841, Jeremiah Russell, who was In- 
dian farmer, sent two Chippeways, accompanied 
by Elam Greeley, of Stillwater, to the Falls of 
Saint Croix for supplies. On Saturday, the 
fifteenth of the month they arrived there, and 



the next day a steamboat came up with the 
goods. The captain said a war party of Sioux, 
headed by Little Crow, was advancinj;, and the 
two Chippeways prepared to go back and were 
their friends. 

They had hardly left the Falls, on their re- 
turn, before they saw a party of Dalikotahs. The 
sentinel of the enemy liad not noticed the ai> 
proach of tlie young men. lu the twinkling of 
an eye, these two young Ojibways raised their 
guns, fired, and killed two of Little t'row"s sons. 
The discharge of the guns revealed to a sentinel, 
that an enemy was near, and as the Ojibways 
were retreating, he fired, and mortally wounded 
one of the two. 

According to custom, the corpses of the chiefs 
sons were dressed, and then set up with their 
faces towards the coimtry of their ancient ene- 
mies. Tlie woiuided Ojibway was horribly 
mangled by the infuriated party, and his limbs 
strewn about in every direction. His scalped 
head was placed in a kettle, and suspended in 
front of the two Dahkotah corpses. 

Little Crow, disheartened by the loss of his two 
boys, returned with liis party to Kaposia. But 
other parties were in the field. 

It was not till Friday, the twenty-first of May, 
that the death of one of the young Ojiliways 
sent by Mr. Russell, to the Falls oi Saint Croix. 
was knowni at Pokeguma. 

Mr. Russell on the next Sunday, accompanied 
by Captain AVilliam Ilolcoml) and a half-breed, 
went to the mission station to attend a religious 
service, and while crossing the lake in returning, 
the half-breed said that it was rumored that tlie 
Sioux were approaching. On jSIonday, the twen- 
ty-fourth, three young men left in a canoe to go 
to the west shore of the lake, and from tlience to 
Mille l^acs, to give intelligence to the Ojibways 
there, of the .skirmish that had already occm-red. 
They took with them two Indian girls, about 
twelve years of age, who were pupils of the mis- 
sion school, for the purpose of bringing the canoe 
back to the island. Just as the three were land- 
ing, twenty or thirty Dahkotah warriors, with a 
war whoop emerged from their concealment be- 
liiud the trees, and fired into the canoe. The 
young men instantly siirang into the water, which 

was shallow, returned the fire, and ran into the 
woods, escaping without material injury. 

The little girls, in their fright, waded into the 
lake ; but- were pursued. Tlieir i)arents upon 
the i.sland, heard the death cries of their children. 
Some of tlie Indians around the mission-house 
jumped into their canoes and gained the islaml. 
Others went into some fortified log huts. The 
attack upon the canoe, it was afterwards learned, 
was premature. The party upon that side of the 
lake were ordered not to fire, until the party 
stationed in the woods near the mission began. 

There were in all one hundred and eleven 
Dahkotah warriors, and all the fight was in the 
vicinity of tlie mission-house, and the Ojibways 
mostly engaged in it were those who had been 
under religious uistniction. The rest were upon 
the island. 

Tlie fiUhers of the nuuxlered girls, burning for 
revenge, left the island in a canoe, and drawing 
it up on the shore, hid behind it, and fired upon 
the Dalikotahs and killed one. The Dalikotahs 
advancing upon them, they were obliged to 
escape. The canoe was now launched. One lay 
on his back in the bottom; the other plunged 
into the water, and, holding the canoe with one 
hand, and swimming with the other, he towed 
his friend out of danger. The Dalikotahs, in- 
furiated at their escajie, fired volley after volley 
at the swimmer, but he escaped tlie balls by 
putting his head under water whenever he Siiw 
them take aim, and waiting till he heard the 
discharge, he would then look up and breathe. 

After a fight of two hours, the Dalikotahs re- 
treated, with a loss of two men. At the request 
of the parents, ^Ir. E. F. Ely, from whose 
notes the writer ha? obtained these facts, be- 
ing at that time a teaclier at the mission, 
went across the lake, with two of his friends, to 
gather the remains of his murdered pupils. lie 
found the corpses on the shore. The heads cut 
off and scalped, with a tomahawk buried in the 
brains of each, were set up in the sand near the 
bodies. The bodies were pierced in the breast, 
and tUe right arm of one was taken away. Re- 
moving the tomahawks, the bodies were brought 
back to the i.sland, and in the afternoon were 
buried in accordance with the simple but solemn 
riles of the Church of Christ, by members of the 



The sequel to this stoiy is soon told. The In- 
dians of Pokeguma, after the fight, deserted their 
vilhige, and went to reside with their coimtrymen 
near Lake Superior. 

In July of tlie following year, 1842, a war party 
was formed at Fond du Lac, about forty in num- 
ber, and proceeded towards the Dahkotah country. 
Sneaking, as none but Indians can, they arrived 
luuioticed at the httle settlement below Saint 
Paul, commonly called "Pig's Eye," which is 
opposite to what was Kaposia, or Little Crow's 
village. Finding an Indian woman at work in 
the garden of her husband, a Canadian, by the 
name of Gamelle, they killed her ; also another 
woman, with her infant, whose head was cut off. 
The Dahkotalis, on the opposite side, were mostly 
intoxicated ; and, flying across in their canoes but 
half prepared, they were worsted in the en- 
coimter. They lost thirteen warriors, and one of 
their number, known as the Dancer, the O jib- 
ways are said to have skinned. 

Soon after this the Chippeway missions of the 
St. Croix Valley were abandoned. 

In a little while Rev. Mr. Boutwell removed to 
the vicinity of Stillwater, and the missionaries, 
Ayer and Spencer, went to Bed Lake and other 
points in ^linnesota. 

In 1853 the Rev. Sherman Hall left the Indians 
and became pastor of a Congregational church at 
Sauk Rapids, where he recently died. 


la 1837 the Rev. A. Bnmson commenced a 
Methodist mission at Kaposia, about four miles 
below, and opposite Saint Paul. It was afterwards 
removed across the river to Red Rock. He was 
assisted by the Rev. Thomas W. Pope, and the 
latter was succeeded by the Rev. J. Ilolton. 

The Rev. ]\Ir. Spates and others also labored 
for a brief period among the Ojibways. 


At ihe stations the Dahkotah language was dil- 
igently studied. Rev. S. W. Pond had prepared 
a dictionary of three thousand words, and also a 
small grammar. The Rev. S. R. Riggs, who 
joined the mission in 1837, in a letter dated 
February 24, 1841, wiites : " Last summer 
after returnuig from Fort SneUtng, 1 spent five 
weeks in copying again the Sioux vocabulary 
which \vc had collected and arranged at this sta- 

tion. It contained then about 5500 words, not 
includmg the various forms of the verbs. Since 
that time, the words collected by Dr. Williamson 
and myself, have, I presume, increased the num- 
ber to sis thousand. ***** In this con- 
nection, I may mention that during the winter of 
1839-40, Mrs. Riggs, with some assistance, wrote 
an English and Sioux vocabulary containing 
about three thousand words. One of Mr. Ren- 
ville's sons and three of his daughters are en- 
gaged in copying. In committing the grammati- 
cal principles of the language to ■WTiting, we have 
done something at this station, but more has been 
done by Mr. S. W. Pond." 

Steadily the numlier of Indian missionaries 
increased, and in 1851, before the lands of the 
Dahkotahs west of the Mississippi were ceded to 
the whites, they were disposed as follows by the 
Dahkotah Presbytery. 

Lac-qid-parle, Rev. S. R. Riggs, Rev. M. N. 
Adams, Missionaries, Jonas Pettijohn, Mrs. 
Fanny Pettijohn, Mrs. ilary Ann Riggs, Mrs. 
Mary A. M. Adams, Miss Sarah Rankin, .!.•?- 

Traverse cks Sioux, Rev. Robert Hopkins, J/(.s- 
sionary; Mrs. Agnes Hopkins, Alexander G. 
Huggins, Mrs. Lydia P. Huggins, Assistants. 

Shttl-paij, or Shokjxty, Rev. Samuel W. Pond, 
Missionary ; Mrs. Sarah P. Pond, Assistant. 

Oak Grove, Rev. Gideon H. Pond and wife. 

Kaposia, Rev. Thomas "Williamson, M. D., 
Missionary and Physician; Mrs. Margaret P. 
Williamson, Miss Jane S. Williamson, Assistants. 

Bed Wing, Rev. John F. Alton, Rev. Joseph 
W. Hancock, Missionaries; Mrs. Nancy H. Alton, 
Mrs. Hancock, Assistants. 

The Rev. Daniel Gavin, the Swiss Presbyte- 
rian Missionary, spent the winter of 1839 in Lac- 
qui-Parle and was afterwards married to a niece 
of the Rev. J. D. Stevens, of the Lake Harriet 
Mission. Mr. Stevens became the farmer and 
teacher of the Wapashaw band, and the tirtt 
white man who lived where the city of Winona 
has been built. Another missionary from Switz- 
erland, the Rev. Mr. Denton, manied a iliss 
Skiinier, formerly of the Mackinaw mission. 
During a portion of the year 1839 these Swiss 
missionaries lived wth the American mission- 
aries at camp Cold Water near Fort Snelling, 
but their chief field of labor was at Red Wing. 





Oriifiu of the name Saint Croix— Dii Luth, (Iret Explorer— Frendi Post on the Si. 
Croix— Pitt, un cm-iy pioneer— Early Kettlent at Saint Croix Falli— First women 
there— Marine Settlement — Joseph R. Brown's town site— Saint Croix County 
orKanized— Proprietors of Stillwater— A dead Negro woman— Pig's Eye. orintn 
of name -Kise of Saint Paul -Dr. Williamson seeures llr^t school leather for 
Saint Paul— Detcription of first sehool r>K>m— Saint Croix County re.organized 
— Rev. W. T. Boutwell, pioneer clergyman. 

The Saint Croix river, according to Le Sueur, 
named after a Frencliman who was drowned at 
its mouth, was one of tlie earliest throughfares 
from Lake Superior to tlie ^Mississippi. The first 
wliite man who directed canoes upon its waters 
was Du Lutli, who had in 1679 explored Minne- 
sota. He thus describes liis tour in a letter, first 
published by Harrisse : " In June, 1680, not be- 
ing satisfied, with having made my discovery by 
land, I took two canoes, with an Indian who was 
my inteiiJieter, and four Frenelimen, to seek 
means to make it by water. With this view I 
entered a river which empties eight leagues from 
the extremity of Lake Superior, on the south 
side, where, after having cut some trees and 
broken about a hundred beaver dams, I reached 
the upper waters of the said river, r.nd then I 
made a portage of half a league to reach a lake, 
the outlet which fell into a very fine river, 
which took l e down into the Mississippi. Tliere 
I learned from eight cabins of Xadouecioux that 
the Kev. Father Louis lleiine))iu, Uecollect, now 
at the convent of Saint (Jermain, with two other 
Frenchmen had been robbed, and carried off as 
slaves for' more than three hundred leagues by 
the I>radouecioux themselves." 

He then relates how he left two Frenchmen 
with his goods, and went with his interpreter and 
two Frenchmen in a canoe down the Mississippi, 
and after two days and two nights, found Henne- 
pin, Accault and Augelle. He told Hennepin 
that he must return with him through the country 
of the Fox tribe, and writes : "I preferred to re- 
trace my steps, manifesting to them [the Sioux] 
the just indignation I felt against them, rather 
than to remain after the violence they had done 

to the Rev. Father and the other two Frenchmen 
with him, whom I put in my canoes and brought 
them to Michiliraackinack." 

After this, the Saint Croix river became a chan 
nel for commerce, and ]5ellin writes, that lieforo 
17.5-5, the French had erected a fort forty leagues 
from its mouth and twenty from Lake Superior. 

The pine forests between the Saint Croix and 
Minnesota had been for several years a tempta- 
tion to energetic men. As early as November, 
1836, a >Ir. Pitt went with a boat and a party of 
men to the Falls of Saint Croix to cut pine tim- 
ber, with the consent of the Chippeways but the 
dissent of the United States authorities. 

In 1837 while the treaty was being made by Com- 
missioners Dodge and Smith at Fort Snelling, on 
one Sunday Franklin Steele, Dr. Fitch, Jeremiah 
Russell, and.a Mr. Maginnis left Fort Snelling 
f(U' the Falls of Saint Croix in a birch bark canoe 
paddled by eight men, and reached that point 
about noon on Monday aud comincuced a log 
cabin. Steele and Jlajfiunis remained here, 
while the others, dividing into two parties, one 
under Fitch, and the other under Russell, search- 
ed for pine land. The first stopped at Sun Rise, 
while Russel went on to the Snake Iliver. About 
the same time Rol)binet and Jesse B. Taylor 
came to the Falls in the interest of B. F. Baker 
who had a stone trading house near Fort Snelling, 
since destro) ed by fire. On the fifteenth of July, 
1838, the Palmyra, Capt. Holland, arrived at 
the Fort, with the official notice of the ratifica- 
tion of the treaties ceding the lands between the 
Saint Croix and Mississippi. 

She had on board C. A. Tuttle, L. AV. Stratton 
and others, with the machinery for the projected 
mills of the Northwest Lumlier Company at the 
Falls of Saint Croix, and reached that point on 
the seventeenth, the first steamboat to disturb the 
waters above Lake Saint Croix. The steamer 
Gypsy came to the fort on the twenty-first of 



October, with goods for the Chippeways, and was 
chartered for four hundred and fifty dollars, to 
carry them up to the Falls of Saint Croix. In 
passuig througli the lake, the boat grounded near 
a projected town called Stambaughville, after S. 
C. Stambaugh, the sutler at the fort. On the 
afternoon of the 26th, the goods were landed, as 

Tlie agent of the Improvement Company at the 
falls was Washington Libbey, who left in the fall 
of 1838, and was succeeded by Jeremiah Russell, 
Stiatton acting as millwright in place of Calvin 
Tuttle. On the twelfth of December, Eussell and 
Strattoii walked down the river, cut the first tree 
and built a cabin at ilariue, and sold their claim. 

The first women at the Falls of Saint Croix were 
a Mrs. Orr, Mrs. Sackett, and the daughter of a 
Mr. Yoimg. During the winter of ls:'>.S-9, Jere- 
miah Russell married a daughter of a respectable 
and gentlemanly trader, Charles II. Oakes. 

Among the first preachers were the Rev. W. T. 
Boutwell and ilr. Seymour, of the Chippeway 
Mission at Pokeguma. The Rev. A. Brunson, of 
Prairie du Chieu, who visited this region in 1838, 
wrote that at the mouth of Snake River he four.d 
Franklin Steele, with twenty-five or thirty men, 
cutting timber for a mill, and when he offered to 
preach Mr. Steele gave a cordial assent. 

On the sixteenth of August, ^Ir. Steele, Living- 
ston, and others, left the Falls of Saint Croix m a 
barge, and went around to Fort Snelling. 

The steamboat Fayette about the middle of 
May, 1839, lauded sutlers' stores at i^ort Snell- 
'ng and then proceeded with several persons of 
intelligence to the Saint Croix river, who S-4tled 
at Marine. 

The place was called after Marine in Madison 
county, Illinois, where the company, consisting 
of Judd, Hone and others, was formed to build 
a saw mill m the Saint Croix Valley. The mUl 
at Marine commenced to saw lumber, on August 
24, 1839, the first in Minnesota. 

Joseph R. Brown, who since 1838, had lived at 

Chan Wakan, on the west side of Grey Cloud 

Island, this year made a claim near the upper 

end of the city of Stillwater, which he called 

Dahkotah, and was the first to raft lumber down 

the Saint Croix, as well as the first to represent 

the citizens of the valley in the legislature of 


Until the year 1841, the jurisdiction of Craw- 
ford county, Wiscousm, extended over the delta 
of country between the Saint Croix and JMissis- 
sippi. Joseph R. Brown having been elected as 
representative of the comity, in the territorial 
legislature of Wisconsin, succeeded in obtaining 
the passage of an act on Novemljer twentieth, 
1841, organizing the county of Saint Croix, with 
Dahkotah designated as the comity seat. 

At the time prescribed for holding a court in 
the new county, it is said that the judge of the 
district arrived, and to his surprise, found a 
claim cabin occupied by a Frenchman. Speedily 
retreating, he never came again, and judicial 
proceedings for Saint Croix county ended for 
several years. Phineas Lawrence was the first 
sheriff of tliis county. 

On the tenth of October, 1843, was commenced 
a settlement which has become the town of Still- 
water. The names of the proprietors were John 
McKusick from Maine, Calvin Leach from Ver- 
mont, Elam Greeley from Maine, and Elias 
McKean from Pennsylvania. They immediately 
commenced the erection of a sawmill. 

John IT. Fonda, elected on the twenty-second 
of September, as coroner of Crawford county, 
Wisconsin, asserts that he was once notified that 
a dead body was lying in the water opposite Pig's 
Eye slough, and immediately jjroceeded to the 
spot, and on taking it out, recognized it as the 
body of a negro woman belonging to a certain 
captain of the United States army then at Fort 
Crawford. The body was cruelly cut and bruised, 
but no one appearing to recognise it, a verdict of 
" Found dead," was rendered, and the corpse was 
buried. Soon after, it came to light that the 
woman was whipped to death, and thrown into 
the river during the night. 

The year that the Dahkotahs ceded their lands 
east of the Mississippi, a Canadian Frenchman 
by the name of Parrant, the ideal of an Indian 
whisky seller, erected a shanty in what is now 
the city of Saint Paul. Ignorant and overbear- 
ing he loved money more than his own soul. 
Destitute of one eye, and the other resembling 
that of a pig, he was a good representative of 
Caliban. Some one writing from his groggery 
designated it as " Pig's Eye." The reply to the 
letter was directed in good faith to" Pig's Eye" 



Some years ago the editor of the Samt Paul 
Press described the occasion in these words: 

" Edmiuid Brisette, a clerkly Frenchman for 
those days, who lives, or did live a Uttle while 
ago, on Lake Harriet, was one day seated at a 
table in Parranfs cabin, V!\i\\ pen and paper 
about to write a letter for Parrant (for Parrant, 
like Charlemagre, could not write) to a friend' 
of the latter in Canada. The question of geog- 
raphy puzzled Brissette at the outset of the 
epistle ; where should he date a letter from a 
place without a name ? He looked up inquir- 
ingly to PaiTant, and met the dead, cold glare of 
the Pig's Eye lixed upon him, with an irresist- 
ible suggestiveuess that was inspiration to 

In 1842, the late Henry Jackson, of Mahkahto, 
settled at the same spot, and erected the first 
store on the height just above the lower landing, 
Eoberts and Simpson followed, and opened 
small Indian trading shops. In 1846. the site of 
Saint I'aul was chielly occupied liy a few shanties 
owned by '' certain lewd fellows of the baser 
sort," who sold rum to the soldier and Indian. 
It was despised by all decent white men, and 
known to the Dahkotahs by an expression in 
their tongue which means, the place where they 
sell mimie-wakan [superna;;ural water]. 

The chief of the Kaposiabaud in 1846, was shot 
by his own brother in a drunken revel, but sur- 
viving the wound, and apparently alarmed at the 
deterioration under the influence of the modern 
harpies at Saint Paul, went to Mr. Bmce, Indian 
Agent, at Port Snelling, and requested a mis- 
sionary. The Indian Agent in his report to gov- 
ernment, says : 

" The chief of the Little ("row's band, who re- 
sides below this place (Fort Snelling) about nine 
miles, in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
wluskey dealers, has requested to have a school 
established at his village. He says they are de- 
termined to reform, and for the future, will try 
to do better. I wrote to Doctor WilUamson soon 
after the request was made, desiring him to take 
charge of the school. He has had charge of the 
mission school at Lac qui Parle for some years ; 
is well qualified, and is an excellent physician." 

In November, 1846, Dr. "Williamson came from 
Lac qui Parle, as requested, and became a resi- 
dent of Kaposia. "While disapproving of their 

practices, he felt a kindly interest in the wliites 
of Pig's Eye, which place was now beginning to 
be called, after a little log chapel which had been 
erected at the suggestion of Rev. L. Galtier, and 
called Sauit Paul's. Though a missionary among 
the Dahkotahs, he was the first to take steps to 
promote the education of the whites and half- 
breeds of Minnesota. In the year 1847, he wrote 
to ex-Governor Slade, President of the Xational 
Popular Education Society, in relation to the 
condition of what has subseipiently becc)me the 
capital of the state. 

In accordance with liis request, Miss II. E. 
Bishop came to his mission-house at Kaposia, 
and, after a short time, was introduced by him 
to the citizens of Saint Paul. The first school- 
house in Minnesota besides those connected with 
the Indian missions, stood near the site of the 
old Briik Presbyterian church, corner of Saint 
Peter and Third street, and is thus described by 
the teacher : 

•'The school was commenced in a little log 
hovel, covered with bark, and chinked with mud, 
previously used as a blacksmith shop. On three 
sides of the interior of this humble log cabin, 
pegs were driven into the logs, upon which boards 
were laid for seats. Another seat was made by 
placing one end of a plank between the cracks 
of the logs, and the other upon a chair. Tliis 
was for visitors. A rickety cross-legged table in 
the centre, and a hen's nest in one corner, com- 
pleted the furniture." 

Saint Croix county, in the year 1847, was de- 
tached from Crawford county, Wisconsin, and 
reorganized for judicial purposes, and Stillwater 
made the county seat. In the month of Jime 
the United States District Court held its session 
in the store-room of Mr. John McKusick ; Judge 
Charles' Dunn presiding. A large nuuilier of 
lumbermen had been attracted by the pineries 
in the up|)er portion of the valley of Saint Croix, 
and Stillwater was looked upon as the center of 
the lumbering interest. 

The Rev. Mr. Boutwell, feeling that he could 
be more useful, left the Ojibways. and took up 
his residence near Stillwater, preaching to the 
lumbermen at the Falls of Saint Croix. Marine 
Mills, Stillwater, and Cottage Grove. In a letter 
speaking of Stillwater, he says, " Here is a little 
village sprung up like a gourd, but whether it is 
to perish as soon, God only knows." 





ffUconsin State Boundaries — First Bill for the Organization of Minnesota Terri' 
tory, A, D, 1846 — Change of Wisconsin Boundary — Memorial of Saint Croix 
Valley citizens — Various names proposed for the New Territory — Convention at 
Stillwater— H. H. Sibley elected Delegate to Congress.— Derivation of word 

Three years elapsed from the time that the 
territory of iliiiuesota was proposed in Congress, 
to the final passage of the organic act. On the 
sixth of August, 1846, an act was passed by Con- 
gress authorizing the citizens of Wisconsin Ter- 
ritory to frame a constitution and form a state 
government. Tlie act fixed tlie Saint Louis river 
to the rapids, from thence south to the Saint 
Croix, and thence down that river to its junction 
with the Mississippi, as the western boundary. 

On the twenty -third of December, 1846, the 
delegate from Wisconsin, Morgan L. Martin, in- 
troduced a bill in Congress for the organization 
of a territory of Minnesota. This bill made its 
western boundary the Sioux and Red River of 
the North. On the third of ^March, 1847, per- 
mission was granted to Wisconsin to change her 
boundary, so that the western limit would pro- 
ceed due south from the first rapids of the Saint 
Louis river, and fifteen miles east of the most 
easterly point of Lake Saint Croix, thence to the 

A number in the constitutional convention of 
Wisconsin, were anxious that Rum river should 
be a part of her western boundary, while citizens 
of the valley of the Saint Croix were desirous 
that the Chippeway river should be the l imi t of 
Wisconsin. The citizens of Wisconsin Territory, 
in the valley of the Saint Croix, and about Fort 
Snelliug, wished to be included in the projected 
new territory, and on the twenty-eighth of March, 
1848, a memorial signed by II. H. Sibley, Henry 
M. Rice, Franklin Steele, William R. Marshall, 
and others, was presented to Congress, remon- 
strating against the proposition before the con- 
vention to make Rum river a part of the bound- 
ary line of the contemplated state of Wisconsin. 

On the twenty-ninth of May, 1848, the act to 
admit Wisconsin changed the boundary line to 
the present, and as first defined in the enabling 
act of 1846. After the bill of Mr. Martin was 
introduced into the House of Representatives in 
1846 it was referred to the Committee on Terri- 
tories, of which Mr. Douglas was chairman. On 
the twentieth of January, 1847, he reported in 
favor of the proposed territory with the name 
of Itasca. On the seventeenth of February, be- 
fore the bill passed the House, a discussion arose 
in relation to the proposed name. Mr. Win- 
throp of Massachusetts proposed Chippewa as a 
substitute, alleging that this tribe was the prin- 
cipal in the proposed territory, which was not 
correct. Mr. J. Thompson of Mississippi disliked 
all Indian names, and hoped the territory would 
be called Jackson. Mr. Houston of Delaware 
thought that there ought to be one territory 
named after the " Father of his country," and 
proposed Washington. All of the names pro- 
posed were rejected, and the name in the original 
bill inserted. On the last day of the session, 
ilarch third, the bill was called up in the Senate 
and laid on the table. 

When Wisconsin became a state the query 
arose whether tlie old territorial government did 
not continue in force w^est of the Saint Croix 
river. The first meeting on the subject of claim- 
ing teiTitoricil privileges was held In the building 
at Saint Paul, known as Jackson's store, near the 
corner of Bench and Jackson streets, on the 
bluff. Tills meeting was held in July, and a 
convention was proposed to consider their posi- 
tion. The first public meeting was held at Still- 
water on August fourth, and Messrs. Steele and 
Sibley were the only persons present from the 
west side of the Mississii.pi. This meeting is- 
sued a call foi a general convention to take steps 
to secure an early territorial organization, to 
assemble on the twenty-sixth of the month at 



the same place. Sixty-two delegates answered 
tlie call, and among those ]ires(nt, were W. D. 
Pliillips, J. V,'. Bass, A. Lar[ientenr, J. M. Boal, 
and othere from Saint Paul. To the convention 
a letter was presented from Jlr. f'atlin, who 
claimed to be acting governor, giving his opinion 
that the Wisconsin territorial organization was 
still in force. The meeting also appointed Mr. 
Sibley to visit Washington and rei>resent their 
vaews; but the Hon. .lolm 11. Tweedy having 
resigned his ollice of delegate to Congress on 
September eighteenth, 1848, Mr. Catlin, who had 
made Stillwater a temi)or;iry residence, on the 
ninth of October issued a proclamation ordering 
a special election at Stillwater on the tliirtieth, 
to fill a vacancy occasioned by the resignation. 
At this election Henry II. Sibley was elected as 
delegate of the citizens of the remaming portion 
of Wisconsui Territory. His credentials were 
presented to the House of Representatives, and 
the committee to whom the matter was referred 
presented a majority and minority report ; but 
the resolution introduced by the majority passed 
and Mr. Sibley took his seat as a delegate from 
Wisconsin Territory on the lifteenth of January, 

Mr. H. M. Kice, and other gentlemen, visited 
Washington during the winter, and, uniting with 
Mr. Sibley, used all their energies to obtain the 
organization of a new territory. 

Mr. Sibley, in an interesting commimication to 
the Minnesota Historical Society, writes : " When 
my credentials as Delegate, were presented by 
Hon. James Wilson, of Xew Hampshire, to the 

House of Representatives, there was some curi- 
osity manifested among the memljers, to see what 
kind of a person liad been elected to represent the 
distant and wild territory claiming representation 
in Congress. I was told by a New England mem- 
ber with whom I became suljsequently quite inti- 
mate, tliat there was some disappointment when 
I made my appearance, for it was expected that 
the delegate from this remote region would make 
his debut, if not in full Indian costume, at least, 
with some peculiarities of dress an<l manners, 
cliaracteristic of the rude and semi-civilized peo- 
ple who had sent him to tlie Capitol.'' 

The territory of ilinnesota was named after 
the largest tributary of the Mississijipi within its 
limits. The Sioux call the ^Missouri Minneslio- 
shay. muddy water, but the stream after which 
tiiis region is named, Minne-sota. Some say that 
Sota means clear; others, tui-bid; Schoolcraft, 
bluish green. Nicollet wrote. " The adjective 
Sotah is of dillicult translation. The Canadians 
translated it by a pretty eqiiivalent word, brouille, 
perhaps more properly rendered into English by 
.blear. I lune entered upon this explanation l)e 
cause the word really means neither clear nor 
turbid, as some authors have asserted, its true 
meaning being found in the Sioux ej.pression 
Ishtali-sotah, blear-eyed." From the fact that the 
word signilies neither blue nor white, but the 
peculiar appearance of the sky at certain times, 
by some, ^linnesota has been defined to mean the 
sky tinted water, which is certaiidy poetic, and the 
late Rev. Gideon H. Pond thought quite correct. 





Appearance of the Country, A. I>. 1S49 — Arrival of first Editor — Governor 
Ramsey an'ives — Guest of H. H. Sihley — Froclnination issued — Governor 
Ramsey and H. M. Rice move to Saint Paul— ^Fourtli of July Celebration — 
First election — Early newspape'rs — First Courts— Kirst Legislature — Pioneer 
News Carrier's Address — Wedding at Fort Snelling — Territorial Seal — Scalp 
Dance at Stillwater — First Steamboat at Falls of Saint Antliony — Presbyterian 
Chapel burned — Indian council at Fort Snelling — First Steamboat above Saint 
Anthony — First boat at the Blue Earth River — Congressional election — Visit.of 
Frcdrika Bremer — Indian newspaper — Otlier newspapers— Second Legislature 
— University of Minnesota — Teamster killed by Indians — Sioux Treaties — Third 
Legislature— Land slide at Stillwater — Death of first Editor — Fourth Legislature 
Baldwin School, now Macalester College — Indian fight in Saint Paul. 

On the third of March, 1849, tlie bill was passed 
by Congress for organizing the territory of 
Minnesota, wbose boimdary ou the west, extended 
to the ilissonri River. At this time, the region was 
little more than a wilderness. The west bank of 
the Slississippi, from the Iowa line to Lake 
Itasca, was unceded by the Indians. 

At "Wapashaw, was a trading post in charge of 
Alexis Biiilly, and here also resided the ancient 
voyageur, of fourscore years, A. Rocque. 

At the foot of Lake Pepin was a store house 
kept by ilr. F. S. Richards. On the west shore of 
the lake lived the eccentric Wells, whose wife 
was a bois brule, a daughter of the deceased 
trader, Duncan Graham. 

The two unfinished buildings of stone, on 
the beautiful bank opposite the renowned 
Maiden's Rock, and the surrounding skin lodges 
of his wife's relatives and friends, presented a 
rude but pictiuesque scene. Above the lake was 
a cluster of bark wigwams, the Dahkotah village 
of Raymneecha, now Red AVing, at which was a 
Presbyterian mission house. 

The next settlement was Kaposia, also au In- 
dian village, and the residence of a Presbyterian 
missionary, the Rev. T. S. Williamson, M. D. 
On the east side of the Mississippi, the first set- 
tlement, at the mouth of the St. Croix, was Point 
Douglas, then as now, a small hamlet. 

At Red Rock, thesite of a former Methodist 
mission station, there were a few ftirmers. Saint 
Paul was just emerging from a collection of In- 
dian whisky shops and birch roofed cabins of 

half-breed voyageurs. Here and there a frame 
tenement was erected, and, under the auspices of 
the Hon. H. il. Rice, who had obtained an inter- 
est in the town, some warehouses were con- 
structed, and the foundations of the American 
House, a frame hotel, which stood at Third and 
Exchange street, were laid. In 1849, the popu- 
lation had increased to two hundred and fifty 
or three hundred inhabitants, for rumors had 
gone abroad that it might be mentioned in the 
act, creating the territory, as the capital 
of ilinnesota. More than a month after 
the adjournment of Congress, just at eve, 
on the ninth of April, amid terrific peals of 
thunder and torrents of rain, the weekly steam 
packet, the first to force its way through the icy 
barrier of Lake Pepin, rounded tlie rocky point 
whistling loud and long, as if the bearer of glad 
tidings. Before she was safely moored to the 
landing, the shouts of the excited villagers were 
he;ird announcing that there was a territory of 
Minnesota, and that Saint Paul was the seat of 

Every successive steamboat anival poured out 
on the landing men big with hope, and anxious 
to do something to mould the future of the new 

Nine days after the news of the existence of the 
territory of Minnesota was received, there arrived 
James M. Goodhue with press, type, and printing 
apparatus. A graduate of Amherst college, and 
a lawyer by profession, he wielded a sharp pen, 
and wrote editorials, which, more than anj-thing 
else, perhaps, induced immigration. Though a 
man of some faults, one of the counties properly 
bears his name. On the twenty-eighth of April, 
he issued from his press the first number of the 

On the twenty - seventh of May, Alexander 
Ramsey, the Governor, and family, arrived at 
Saint Paul, butowiug to the crowded state of pub- 


HXPLGJiERS AAB PlONEMMii OF 3f/iViV£,«01'vl. 

lie houses, immediately proceeded in the steamer 
to the establishmetit of the Far Company, kuowii 
as Meudota, at the junction of the Minnesota and 
Mississippi, and became the guest of the lion. H. 
U. Sibley. 

On the first of June, Gtovemor Ramsey, by pro- 
clamation, declared the territory duly organized, 
with the followiiif; oflicers : Alexander Kamsey, 
of Pennsylvania, Governor ; C. K. Smith, of Ohio, 
Secretary ; A. Goodrich, of Tennessee, Chief 
Justice ; D. Cooper, of Pennsylvania, and B. B. 
Meeker, of Kentucky, Associate Judges ; Josliua 
L. Taylor, Marshal ; II. L. Moss, attorney of the 
United States. 

On the eleventh of June, a second proclama- 
tion was issued, dividing tlie territory into three 
temporary judicial disti'icts. The first comprised 
the county of St. Croix ; the county of La Pouite 
and the region north and west of the ilississippi. 
and north of the ]Minnesota and of a Une rumiing 
due west from the headwaters of the Minnesota 
to the ilissouri river, constituted the second : 
and the country w^stof the Mississippi and south 
of the Minnesota, formed the third district. 
Judge Goodrich was assigned to the first, Meeker 
to the second, and Cooper to the tliird. A court 
was ordered to be held at Stillwater on the second 
Monday, at the Falls of St. Anthony on the thii-d, 
and at Mendota on the fourth Monday of August. 

Until the twenty -sixth of June, Governor 
Ramsey and family had been guests of Hon. H. 
If. Sibley, at Mendota. On the afternoon of 
that day they arrived at St. Paul, in a birch-bark 
canoe, and became permanent residents at the 
capital. The house first occupied as a guber- 
natorial mansion, was a small frame building that 
stood on Third, between Robert and Jackson 
streets, formerly known as the Xew England 

A few days after, the Hon. II. M. Rice and 
family moved from Mendota to St. Paul, and oc- 
cupied the house he had erected on St. Anthony 
street, near the corner of Market. 

On the first of July, a land office was estab- 
lished at Stillwater, and A. "Van Vorhes, after a 
few weeks, became the register. 

The anniversary of our J^ ational Indepenaence 
was celebrated in a becoming manner at the cap- 
ital. The place selected for the address, was a 
grove that stood on the sites of the City HaU and 

the Baldwin School buikUng, and the late Frank- 
lin Steele was the marshal of the day. 

On the seventh of July, a proclamation was is- 
sued, dividing the territory into seven council 
districts, and ordering an election to be held on 
the first day of August, for one delegate to rep- 
resent tlie people in tlie House of Representatives 
of the United Stales, for nine councillors and 
eighteen representatives, to constitute the Legis- 
lative Assembly of Miimesota. 

Ill this month, the Hon. H. M. Rice despatch- 
ed a boat laded with Indian goods from the 
the Falls of St. Anthony to Crow Wing, wliich 
was towed by horses after the maimer of a canal 

Tlie election on the first of August, passed off 
with little excitement, lion. 11, II. Sibley being 
elected delegate to Congress without opposition. 
David Lambert, on what might, perhaps, be 
termed the old settlers" ticket, was defeated in 
St. Paul, by James M. Boal. The latter, on the 
night of the election, was honored wth a ride 
through town on the axle and fore-wheels fif an 
old wagon, which w^as drawn by his admiring 
but somewhat undisciplined friends. 

J. L. Taylor having declined the office of 
United States Marshal; A. M. Mitchell, of Ohio, 
a graduate of West Point, and colonel of a regi- 
ment of Ohio volunteers in the Mexican war, was 
appointed and arrived at the capital early in 

There were three papers published in the ter- 
ritory soon after its organization. The first was 
the Pioneer, issued on April twenty-eighth, 1849, 
imder most discom'aging circumstances. It w^as 
at first the intention of the witty and reckless 
editor to have called his paper " The Epistle of 
St. Paul." About the same time there was issued 
in Cincinnati, mider the auspices of the late Dr. 
A. RandaU, of California, the first number of 
the Register. The second number of the paper 
was printed at St. Paul, in July, and the office 
was on St. Anthony, between Washington and 
Market Streets, About the first of June, James 
Hughes, afterward of Hudson, Wisconsin, arrived 
with a press and materials, and established the 
Minnesota Chronicle. After an existence of a 
few weeks two papers were cUscontinued ; and, 
in theii' place, was issued the " Cluonicle and 



Register," edited by Nathaiel McLean and John 
P. Owens. 

The first courts, pursuant to proclamation of 
the governor, w ere lield in tlie month of August. 
At Stillwater, the court was organized on the 
thirteenth of the month. Judge Goodrich pre- 
siding, and Judge Cooper by courtesy, sitting on 
the bencli. On the twentieth, the second iudi- 
cial district held a court. The room used was 
the old government mill at Minneapolis. The 
presiding judge was B. 13. Sleeker; the foreman 
of the grand jury, Franklin Steele. On the last 
Monday of the month, the court for the third 
judicial district was organized in the large stone 
warehouse of the fur company at Mendota. Tlie 
presiding judge was David Cooper. Governor 
Eamsey sat on the right, and Judge Goodrich on 
the left. Hon. H. II. Sibley was the foreman of 
the grand jury. As some of the jurors could not 
speak the English language, W. II. Forbes acted 
as interpreter. The charge of Judge Cooper was 
lucid, scholarly, and dignified. At tlie request 
of the grand jury it was afterwards published. 

On Monday, the third of September, the first 
Legislative Assembly convened in the " Central 
House,'" in Saint Paul, a building at the corner 
of Mimiesota and Bench streets, facing the 
Mississippi river which answered the double 
purpose of capitol and hotel. On the first 
floor of the main biulding was the Secreta- 
ry's oflBce and Representative chamber, and in 
the second stoiy was the library and Council 
chandler. As the flag was run up the stafl; ui 
front of the house, a number of Indians sat on a 
rocky bluff in the vicinity, and gazed at what to 
them was a novel and perhaps saddenuig scene ; 
for if the tide of immigration sweeps in from the 
Pacific as it has from the Atlantic coast, they 
must soon dwindle. 

The legislatiue having organized, elected the 
following permanent officers: David Olmsted, 
President of Council ; Joseph R. Brown, Secre- 
ary ; H. A'. Lambert, Assistant. In the House 
of Representatives. Joseph ^V. Furber was elect- 
ed Speaker ; W. D. Phillips, Clerk ; L. B. Wait, 

On Tuesday afternoon, both houses assembled 
m the dining hall of the hotel, and after prayer 
was offered by Rev. E. D. NeUl, Governor Ram- 
sey delivered his message. The message was alily 

written, and its perusal afforded satisfaction at 
home and abroad. 

The first session of the legislature adjourned on 
the first of November. Among other proceed- 
ings of interest, was the creation of the following 
counties: Itasca, Wapashaw, Dalikotah, "\Vah- 
nahtah, Mahkahto, Pembina Washington, Ram- 
sev and Benton. Tlie three latter counties com- 
prised the country tliat up to that time had been 
ceded by the Indians on the east side of the Mis- 
sissippi, Stil.'water was decla'.'cd the county seat 
of Washington, Sahit Paul, of Ramsey, and '• the 
seat of justice of the county of Benton was to be 
within one-quarter of a mile of a poinLoii the east 
side of the Mississippi, directly opposite the moutb 
of Sauk river." 

EVENTS OF A. D 1850. 

By the active exertions of the secretary of th» 
territory, C. K. Smith, Esq., the Historical 
Society of Minnesota was incorporated at the 
first session of the legislature. Tlie opening an- 
nual addi-ess was deUvered in the then Metliodist 
(now Swedenborgian) church at Saint Paul, on 
the first of January, 1850. 

The follo\\ing account of the proceedings is 
fi-om the Chronicle and Register. "The first 
public exercises of the Minnesota Historical 
Society, took place at the Methodist church. Saint 
Paul, on the first inst., and passed off higlily 
creditable to all concerned. The day was pleasant 
and the attendance large. At the appointed 
hour, the President and both Vice-Presidents of 
the society being absent ; on motion of Hon. C. 
K. Smith, Hon. Chief Justice Goodrich was 
.called to the chair. The same gentleman then 
moved that a committee, consistmg of Messrs. 
Parsons K. Jolmson, John A. Wakefield, and B. 
W. Brunson, be appointed to wait upon the 
Orator of the day. Rev. Mr. Neill, and inform 
him that the audience was waiting to hear his 

"Mr. Neill was shortly conducted to the pulpit; 
and after an eloquent and approriate prayer by 
the Rev. Mr. Parsons, and music by the band, he 
proceeded to deliver his discourse upon the early 
French missionaries and Voyageurs into ilinne- 
sota. We hope the society wUl provide for its 
liublication at an early day. 

■'After some brief remarks by Rev. Mr, 


Exi'Luumta AM) riosjujaus OJf mixnehota. 

Hobart, upon the objects and ends of histoi y. the 
ceremonies were concluded witli a prayer by 
that gentleman. The audience dispersed highly 
delighted with all that occurred.' 

At this early period the Minnesota Pioneer 
issued a Carrier's New Year's .Vddress, which 
was amusing doggerel. The reference to the 
future greatness and ignoble origin of the capital 
of Minnesota was as follows : — 

The cities on this river must be three, 
Two that are bu: t and one that is to be. 
One, is the mart of all the tropics yield, 
The cane, the orange, and the cotton-fleld, 
And sends her ships abroad and boasts 
Her trade extended to a thousand coasts; 
Thb other, central for the temperate zone, 
Garners the stores that on the plains are grown, 
A place where steamboats from all quarters, 

To meet and speculate, as 'twere on 'change. 
Tlie third will ht, where rivers confluent How 
From the wide spreading north through plains 

of snow ; 
The mart of all that boundless forests give 
To make mankiiul more comfortably live, 
The land of manufacturing industry, 
The workshop of the nation it shall be. 
Propelled by this wide .stream, you'll see 
A thousand factories at Saint Anthony : 
And the Saint Croix a hundred mills shall drive, 
And all its smiling villages shall thrive ; 
IJut theii mij town— remember that high bench 
With cabins scattered over it, of French ? 
A man named Henry Jackson's living there. 
Also a man— why eveiy one knows L. Kobair, 
Below Fort Snelling, seven mi'.es or so, 
And three above the village of Old Crow 'i* 
Pig's Eye 'i* Yes ; Pig's Eye I That's the spot I 
A very funny name ; is't not y 
I'ig's I<;ye's the spot, to plant my city on. 
To be remembered by, when 1 am gone. 
I'ig's Eye converted thou shalt be, like Saul : 
Thy name henceforth shall be Saint Paul. 

On the evening of New Year's day, at Fort 
Snelling, there was an assemblage which is only 
seen on the outposts of civilization. In one of 
the stone edifices, outside of the wall, belonging 
to the United Slates, there resided a gentleman 
who had dwelt in Minnesota suice the year 1819, 

and for maii> years had been in the employ of 
the govenmient, as Indian interpreter. In youth 
he had been a member of the Columbia Fur Com- 
pany, and conforming to the habits of traders, 
liad purchased a Dahk<»tah wife who was wholly 
ignorant of the English language. As a family 
of children gathered around him he recognised 
the relation of husband and father, and consci- 
entiously discharged his duties as a parent. His 
daughter at a proper age was sent to a boarding 
school of some celebrity, and on the night re- 
ferred to was married to an intelligent young 
American farmer. Among the guests luesent 
were the ofllcers of the garrison in full uniform, 
with their wives, the United States Agent for 
the Dahkotahs, and family, the bois bndes of 
the neighborhood, and the Indian relatives of the 
mother. The mother did not make her appear- 
ance, but, as the minister proceeded with the 
ceremony, the Dahkotah relatives, wia|)ped in 
their blankets, gathered in the hall and looked 
in through the door. 

The marriage feast was wortliy of the occa- 
sion. In consequence of the numbers, tiie 
ofTicers and those of Eui^pean extraction partook 
first ; then the bois brules of Ojibway <and Dah- 
kotah descent; and, finally, the native Ameri- 
cans, who did ample justice to the plentiful sup- 
ply spread before them. 

Governor Kamsey, Hon. H. H. Sibley, and the 
delegate to Ctmgress devised at Washington, this 
winter, the ten-itorial seal. Thedcsign was Falls 
of St. Anthony in the distance. An immigrant 
ploughing the land on the borders of the Indian 
coinitry, full of hope, and looking fonvard to the 
possession of the luniting grounds l)eyond. An 
Ind'an,'amazed at the sight of the plough, and 
fleeing on horseback towards the setting sini. 

The motto of the Earl of Dunraven, "(iuse 
sursum volo videre" (I wish to see what is above) 
was most appropriately selected by Mr. Sibley, 
but by the blunder of an engraver it appeared on 
the tenitorial seal, "Quo sursum velo videre," 
which no scholar could translate. At length was 
substituted, "L' Etoile du Nord," "Star of the 
North," while the device of the setting sim 
remained, and this is objectionable, as the State 
of Maine had already placed the North Star on 
her escutcheon, with the motto " IJirigo," "I 
.!?uide.'' Perhai)s some future legislature may 



direct the first motto to be restored and correctly 

In the montii of April, tliere was a renewal of 
hosUHties lietween the Dalikotalis and Ojibways, 
on lands tliatliad been ceded to the Tiiited States. 
A war prophet at Red Wing, dreamed that he 
ought to raise a war party. Announcing the fact, 
a number expressed theirwilliugnesstogoon such 
an expedition. Seveial from the Kaposia village 
also joined tlie jiarty, under the leadership of a 
wortliless Indian, who bad been confined in the 
guartl-bouse at Fort. Snelling, the year previous, 
for scalping his wife. 

Passhig up the valley of the St. Croix, a rew 
miles above Stillwater the party discovered on the 
snow the marks of a keg and footprints.* These 
told them that a man and woman of the Ojibways 
had been to some whisky dealer's, and were re- 
turning. Following their trail, tliey found on 
Apple river, about twenty nnles from Stillwater, 
a Ijand of Ojibways encamped in one lodge. Wait- 
uig till daybreak of Wednesday, April second, the 
Dahkotahs commenced firing on the unsuspecting 
inmates, some of whom were drinlung from the 
contents of the whisky keg. The camp was com- 
posed of fifteen, and all were murdered and scalp- 
ed, with the exception of a lad, who was made -a 

On Thursday, the victors came to Stillwater, 
and danced the seal]) dance around tlie cai)tiv(^ 
boy, in tlie heat of excitement, striking liini in the 
face with the scarcely cold and bloody scalps of 
his relatives. The child was then taken to Ka- 
posia, and adopted l)y the cliief. Governor Ram- 
sey immediately took measures to send the boy to 
his friends. At a conference held at the Gov- 
ernor's mansion, the boy was delivered up, and, 
on being led out to the kitchen Iiy a little son of 
the Governor, since deceased, to receive refresh- 
ments, he cried bitterly, seemingly more alarmed 
at being left with tlie whites than he had been 
while a captive at Kaposia. 

From the iirst of April the waters of the Mis- 
sissii>pi began to rise, and on the thirteenth, the 
lower floor of tlie wai'elioiise, tlien occupied by 
William Constans, at the foot of Jackson street, 
St. Paul, was submerged. Taking advantage of 
the freshet, the steamboat Antliouy Wayne, for a 
purse of two hundred dollars, ventured through 
the swift current above i^'ort Snelling, and reached 

the Falls of St. Anthony. The boat loft the fort 
after dinner, with Governor Ramsey and other 
guests, also the band of the Sixth Regiment on 
board, and reached the falls between three and 
four o'clock in the afternoon. The wliole town, 
men, women and chihlren, lined the shore as the 
boat approached, and welcomed this first arrival, 
wnth shouts and waving handkerchiefs. 

On the afternoon of May fifteenth, there might 
have been seen, huiTying through the streets of 
Sahit Paul, a number of naked and painted braves 
of the Kaposia band of Uahkfitahs, ornamented 
with all the attire of war, and panting for the 
scalps of their enemies. A few hours before, the 
warlike head chief of the Ojibways, young Ilole- 
in-the-Day, having secreted his canoe in tlie retired 
gorge which leads to the cave in the upper sulj- 
urbs, with two or three associates had crossed the 
river, and, almost in sight of the citizens of tho 
town, had attacked a small iiaity of Dahkotahs, 
and murdered and scalped one man. On receipt 
of the news, (iovernor Ramsey granted a parole 
to the thirteen Dahkotahs confined in Fort Snell- 
ing, for participating in tlie Apple river massacre. 

On the morning of the sixteenth of May, tlu^ 
first Protestant church edifice completed in tlie 
white settlements, a snii'll frame building, built 
for the Presbyterian church, at Saint Paul, was 
destroyed by fire, it being the first conflagi-ation 
that had occurred since the organization of the 

One of the most interesting events of the year 
1850, was the Indian council, at Fort Snelling. 
Governor Ramsey had sent runners to the diifer- 
ent bands of the Ojibways and Dahkotahs, to 
meet him at the fort, for the purpose of en- 
deavouring to adjust their diniculti(^s. 

On Wednesday, the twelfth of June, after 
much talking, as is customary at Indian councils, 
the two tribes agreed as they had frequently done 
before, to be friendly, and Governor Ramsey 
presenting to each party an ox. the council was 

On Thursday, the Ojibways visited St. Paul 
for the first time, young lIole-m-the-Day being 
dressed in a coat of a captain of United States 
infantry, which had been iiresented to him at the 
fort. On Friday, they left hi the steamer (gov- 
ernor Ramsey, which had been built at St. An- 
thony, and just commenced running between 



that point and Sauk Rapids, for their homes in 
the wilderness of the Upper ^Mississippi. 

Tlie summer of ISoO was the commencement 
of the navigation of the Minnesota River by 
steamboats. With the exception of a steamer 
tliat made a pleasure e.xciirsion as far as Shokpay, 
in 1841, no large vessels had ever disturbed the 
waters of this stream. In June, the '-Anthony 
Wayne," which a few weeks before had ascended 
to the Falls of St. Anthony, made a trip. On 
the eighteenth of Juiy she made a second trip, 
going almost to Mahkahto. The " Nominee " 
also navigated the stieam for some distance. 

On the twenty-second of July the o(lici?rs of 
the " Yankee," taking advantage of the high 
water, determined to navigate the stream as far 
as possible. The boat ascended to near the (liit- 
touwood river. 

As the time for the general election in Septem- 
ber approached, considi-ialile e,\citement was 
manifested. As there were no political Issues 
before the people, parties were formed based on 
personal preferences. Among nominated 
for delegate to Congress, by various meetings, 
were 11, II. Sibley, the former delegate to- Con- 
gress, David Olmsted, at that time engaged in 
the Indian trade, and A. M. Mitchell, the United 
States marshal. Mr. Olmsted williilrew his 
name before election day, and the contest was 
between those interested in Sibley and jMitchell. 
The friends of each betrayed the greatest zeal, 
and neither pains nor money were spared to in- 
sure success. Mr. Sibley was elected by a small 
majority. For the first time in the territory, 
soldiers at the garrisons voted at tliis election, 
and there was considerable discussion as to the 
propriety of such a course. 

Miss Fredrika Bremer, the well known Swedish 
novelist, visited Minnesota in the month of 
October, and was the guest of Governor Ramsey. 

During November, the Dahkotah Tawaxitku 
Kin, or the Dahkotah Friend, a monthly paper, 
was commenced, one-half in the Dalikotah and 
one-half in the English language. Its editor was 
the Rev. Gideon II. Pond, a Presbyterian mis- 
sionary, and its place of publication at Saint Paul. 
It was published for nearly two years, and, though 
it failed to attract the attention of the Indian 
mind, it conveyed to the English reader nmcli 

correct information in relation to the habits, the 
belief, and superstitions, of the Dahkotahs. 

On the tenth of December, a new paper, owned 
and edited by Daniel A. Roliertson, late United 
I States marshal, of Ohio, and called the Minne- 
sota Democrat, made its appearance. 

During the summer there had been changes in 
the editorial suiicrvision of the "Chronicle and 
Register." For a brief period it was edited by 
L. A. Babcock, Esq., who was succeeded by \Y. 
a. Le Dr.c. 

About the time of the issuing of the Demo- 
crat, C. J. Ilenniss, formerly reporter for the 
Ignited States (ia/.ette, Philadelphia, became the 
editor of t!ie Chronicle. 

The lirst proclamation for a thauksKiving day 
was issued in IS.jO by the governor, and the 
tweuty-sixtli of December was the time appointed 
and it was generally observed. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1851. 

On AVednesday, January first, 1851, the second 
Legislative Assembly assembled in a three-story 
brick building, since desti'oyed by fire, tliat stood 
on St. Anthony street, between Washington and 
Franklin. D. 15. Loonus was chosen Speaker of 
the Council, and M. E. Ames Speaker of the 
House. This assembly was characterized by 
more bitterness of feeling than any that has 
since convened. The preceding delegate election 
had been based on personal preferences, and 
cliques and factions manifested themselves at an 
early i)eriod of tlie session. 

The locating of the iienitentiary at Still\\ater, 
and the capitol building at St. Paul gave some 
dissatisfaction. By the efforts of J. W. North, 
Esq., a bill creating the University of ^Minnesota 
at or near the Falls of St. Anthony, was passed, 
and signed by the Governor. This institution, 
by the State Constitution, is now the State Uni- 

During the session of this Legislature, the pub- 
lication of the " Chronicle and Register" ceased. 

,\bout the middle erf May, a war party of Dah- 
kotahs discovered near Swan River, an Ojibway 
with a keg of whisky. The latter escaped, with 
the loss of his keg. The war party, drinking the 
contents, became intoxicated, and, firing upon 
some tcamrters they met driving their wagons 
\\ ith goods to tlie Indian Agency, killed one of 



them, Andrew Swartz, a resident of St. Paul. 
The news was conveyed to Fort Kipley, and a 
party of soldiers, with Hole-ia-the-day as a guide, 
started in pursuit of the murderers, but did not 
succeed in capturing them. Through tlie influ- 
ence of Little Six, the Dahkotah chief, whose vil- 
lage was at (and named after him) Shok- 
pay, five of the oflfenders were arrested and 
placed in the guard house at Port Suelliug. On 
Monday, June ninth, they left the fort in a wagon, 
guarded by twenty-five dragoons, destined for 
Sauk Rapid.s for trial. As they departed they all 
sang their death eong, and the coarse soldiers 
amused themselves by making signs that they 
were going to be hung. On the first evening of 
the journey the five culprits encamped with the 
twenty-five dragoons. Handcuffed, they were 
placed in the tent, and yet at midnight they all 
escaped, only one being wounded by the guard- 
What was more remarkable, the wounded man 
was the first to bring the news to St. Paul. Pro- 
ceeding to Koposia, his wound was examined by 
the missionary and physician. Dr. Williamson; 
and then, fearing an arrest, he took a oanoe and 
paddled up the Minnesota. The excuses offered 
by the dragoons was, that all the guard but one 
fell asleep. 

The first paper published in Minnesota, beyond 
the capital, was the St. Anthony Express, which 
made its appearance during the last week of 
April or May. 

The most important event of the year 1851 
was the treaty with the Dahkotahs, by which the 
west side of the Mississippi and the valley of the 
Minunesota River were opened to the hardy immi- 
grant. The commissioners on the part of the 
United States were Luke Lea, Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs, and Governor Eamsey. The 
. place of meeting for the upper bands was Trav- 
erse des Sioux. The commission arrived there 
on the last of June, but were obliged to wait 
many days for the assembling of the various 
bands of Dahkotahs. 

Oa the eighteenth of July, all those expected 
having arrived, the Sissetons and Wahpayton 
Dahkotahs assembled in grand council with the 
United States commissioners. After the usual 
feastings and speeches, a treaty was concluded 
on Wednesday, July twenty-third. The pipe 
having been smoked by the commissioners, Lea 

and Eamsey, it was passed to the chiefs. The 
paper containing the treaty was then read in 
English and translated into the Dahkotah by tlie 
Kev. S. E. Kiggs, Presbyterian Missioaary among 
this people. This finished, the chiefs came up 
to the secretary's table and touched the pen; the 
white men present then witnessed the document^ 
and nothing remained but the ratification of the 
United States Senate to open that vast country 
for the residence of the hardy immigrant. 

During the first week in August, a treaty was 
also concluded beneath an oak bower, on Pilot 
Knob, Mendota, with the M'dewakantonwan and 
WaUpaykootay bands of Dahkotahs. About sixty 
of the chiefs and principal men touched the pen, 
and Little Crow, who had beeen in the rnisssion- 
school at Lac qui Parle, signed his own name. 
Before they separated Colonel Ijea and Governor 
Eamsey gave them a few words of advice on 
various subjects connected with their future well- 
being, but particularly on the subject of educa- 
tion and temperance. The treaty was interpret- 
ed to them by the Eev. G. H. Pond, a gentleman 
who was conceded to be a most correct speaker 
of the Dahkotah tongue. 

The- day after the treaty these lower bands 
received thirty thousand dollars, which, by the 
treaty of 1837, was set apart for education; but, 
by the misrepresentations of interested half- 
breeds, the Indians were made to believe that 
it ought to be given to them to be employed as 
they pleased. 

The next week, with their sacks filled with 
money, they thronged the streets of St. Paul, 
purchasing whatever pleased their fancy. 

On the seventeenth of September, a new paper 
was commenced iu St. Paul, under the auspices 
of the "Whigs," and John P. Owens became 
editor, which relation he sustained until the fall 
of 1857. 

The election for members of the Legislature 
and county officers occurred on the fourteenth of 
October; and, for the first time, a regular Demo- 
cratic ticket was placed before the people. The 
parties called themselves Democratic and Anti- 
organization, or Coalition, 

In the month of November Jerome Fuller ar- 
rived, and took the place of Judge Goodricli as 
Chief Justice of Minnesota, who was removed; 
and, about the same time, Alexander Wilkin was 



appouitetl secretary of tbe territory in place of 
C. K. Smith. 

The eigliteenth of December, piirsiiant to 
protlamation, was obser\'e<i as a day of Thaiiks- 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1852. 

The third Legislative Assembly commenced its 
sessions ia one of the <;4i{>cp,<i on Tl'.ird below 
Jackson street, which became a portion of tlie 
Merchants' Hotel, ou the seventh of January, 

This session, compared with the previous, 
formed a contrast as great as that between a 
boisterous day in ilanh and a calm June morn- 
ing. The minds of the population were more 
deeply interested in the ratiDcatiou of thetre.ities 
made A\-ith the Dahkoluhs, tluni in poUtical di.-> 
cussions. Among otl>pr le^isljition of interest 
was the creation of Ileiir.epin county. 

On Saturday, the .fc-irtoenth of February, a 
dog-traui arrived at S' Vaid from the north, 
with the distinguished Arctic explorer, Dr. Rae. 
He had been in search of the long-missing Sir 
John Franklin, by ^\■ay of the Mackenzie river, 
and was now on liis way to Europe. 

Ou the fourteentli of ilay, an interesting lusus 
natura3 occurred at Stillwater. On the prairies, 
beyond the elevated blulTs wliicli encircle the 
business portion of the town , tliere is a lake which 
discharges its waters through a ravine, and sup- 
pUcd McKusick's mill. Owing to heavy rairis, 
the hills became saturated with water, and the 
lake very fuU. Before daylight tlie citizens heard 
the " voice of many waters," and looking out, saw 
rushing down through the ravine, trees, gi^avel 
and dUnvium. Xothing impeded its course, and 
as it issued from the ravine it spread over th.e 
town site, covering up barns and small tenements, 
and, continuing to the lake shore, it materially 
improved the landing, by a deposit of many tons 
of earth. One of the editors of the day, alluding 
to the fact, quauitly remarked, that "it was a 
very extraordinary movement of real estate." 

During the summer, EUjah Terry, a young 
man Mho had left St. Paul the premuis March, 
and went to Pembina, to act as teacher to the 
mixed bloods in that vicinity, was murdered m\- 
der distressing circumstances. "With a bois bnile 
he had started to the woods on the morning of 

his death, to hew timber. A^^lile there he was 
fired upon by a small party of Dahkotahs ; a ball 
broke liis arm, and he was ]>ierced witli anows. 
His scalp was wrenched from his head, and was 
afterwards seen among Sissetoii Dalikotahs, near 
Big Stone Lake. 

About tlie last of August, the pioneer editor 
of Mimiesota, James M. Goodhue, died. 

At the November Term of the United States 
District Court, of Ramsey county, a Dalikotah, 
named Yu-ha-zee, was tried for the murder of a 
German woman. "\\'ith others she was travel- 
ing al>ove Shokpay, when a party of Indians, of 
whom the prisoner was one, met them ; and, 
gathering about the wagon, were much excited. 
The prisoner punched the woman firet with ids 
gun, and. being tlueatened by one of the party, 
loaded and fired, killing the woman and wound- 
ing one of the men. 

On the day of his trial he was escorted from 
Fort Suelling by a company of mounted dragoons 
in full dress. It was an impressive scene to 
witness the poor Indian half hid in his blanket, 
in a buggy with the civil oflicer, surrounded with 
all the pomi> and circumsUmee of war. Tlie jury 
found him guilty. Ou being asked if he had 
anything to say why sentence of death should 
not be passed, he replied, through the uiterpreter, 
that the band to which he belonged would remit 
their amuiities if he could be released. To tlus 
Judge Hayner, the successor of Judge Fuller, 
replied, that he had no authority to release 
Lini : and, ordering him to rise, after some 
appropriate and impressive remarks, he pro- 
nounced the first sentence of death ever pro- 
nounced by a judicial officer in ilinnesota. The 
prisoner treml)led while the judge spoke, and 
was a piteous spectacle. By the statute of Min- 
nesota, then, one con%icted of murder could not 
be exicutcd until twelve months had elapsed, and 
he was confined until the governor of the ter- 
orrity should by waiTant order his execution. 

K VENTS OF A. D. 1S53. 

The fourtli Legislative Assembly convened on 
the fifth of January. 1853, in the two story brick 
edifice at the corner of Tliird and Minnesota 
streets. The Council chose Martin McLeod as 
presiding officer, and the House Dr. David Day, 



Speaker. Governor Ramsey's message was an 
interesting document. 

The Baldwin school, now known asMacalester 
College, was incorporated at this session of the 
legislature, and was opened the following Jime. 

On the ninth of April, a party of Ojibways 
killed a Dalikotah. at the village of Shokpay. A 
war party, from Kaposia, then proceeded up the 
valley of the St. Croix, and killed an Ojibway. 
On the morning of the twenty-seventh, a band 
of Ojibway warriors, naked, decked, and fiercely 
gesticulatmg, might have been seen in the busiest 
street of the capital, in search of their enemies. 
Just at that time a small party of women, and 
one man, who had lost a leg in the battle of Still- 
water, arrived in a canoe from Kaposia, at the 
Jackson street landing. Perceiving the Ojib- 
ways, they retreated to the building then known 
as the " Pioneer " office, and the Ojibways dis- 
charging a volley through the windows, wounded 
a Dahkotaji woman who soon died. For a short 
time, the infant capital presented a sight 
■ similar to that witnessed in ancient days in 
Hadley or Deerfleld, the then frontier towns of 
Massachusetts. jSiessengers were despatched to 
Fort Snelling for the dragoons, and a party of 
citizens mounted on horseback, were quickly in 
pursuit of those who with so much boldness had 
sought the streets of St. Paul, as a place to 
avenge their wrongs. The dragoons soon fol- 
lowed, with Indian guides scenting the track of 
the Ojibways, like bloodliounds. The next day 
they discovered the transgressors, near the Falls 
of St. Croix. The Ojibways manifesting what 
was supposed to be an insolent spirit, the order 
was given by the lieutenant in command, to lire, 
and he whose scalp was afterwards dagueireo 

typed, and which was engraved for Graham's 
Magazine, wallowed in gore. 

During the summer, the passenger, as he stood 
on the hurricane deck of any of the steamboats, 
might have seen, on a scaffold on the bluffs in 
the rear of Kaposia, a square box covered with a 
coarsely fringed red cloth. Above it was sus- 
pended a piece of the Ojibway's scalp, whose 
death had caused the affray in the streets of St. 
Paul. Within, was the body of the woman who 
had been shot in the " Pioneer " buildmg, while 
seeking refuge. A scalp suspended over the 
corpse is supposed to be a consolation to the soul, 
and a great protection in the journey to the spirit 

On the accession of Pierce to the presidency of 
the United States, the ofHcers appointed under 
the Taylor and Fillmore administrations were 
removed, and the foUowmg gentlemen substitu- 
ted : Governor, W. A. Gorman, of Indiana ; Sec- 
retary, J. T. Kosser, of Yirguiia ; Chief Justice, 
W. 11. Welch, of Minnesota ; Associates, Moses 
Sherburne, of Maine, and A. G. Chatfield, of 
Wisconsin. One of the first official acts of the 
second Governor, was the making of a treaty 
with the Winnebago Indians at AVatab. Benton 
county, for an exchange of country. 

On the twenty-ninth of June, D. A. Robei-tson, 
who by his enthusiasm and earnest advocacy of 
its principles had done much to organize the 
Democratic party of Alinnesota, retired from the 
editorial chair and was succeeded by David Olm- 

At the election held in October, Henry M. 
Rice and Alexander Wilkin were candidates 
for deligate to Congress. Tlie former was elect- 
ed by a decisive majority. 





Fifth LesiBlnture— Execution of Yuhnzee— Sixth Lceialaturc- First i»ridge over the 
Mississippi— Arctic Explorcir— Seventh I^Bislature — Indian girl killed near 
BIn*>iiiiiiptun Ferry— Eintitli l^trislatiire — Attrmpt to Remove the Capital- 
Special Session of the Letn^lature — Convention to frame a State Constitution- 
Admission of Minnesota to the Union. 

The fifth session of the legislature was com- 
menced in the buikling just completed as the 
Capitol, on January fourth, 1854. The President 
of the Council was S. 13. Olmstead, and the Speak- 
er of the Uouse of Kepresent^itives was N. C. D. 

Governor Gorman delivered his first annual 
message on the tenth, and as his predecessor, 
urged the importance of railway communications, 
and dwelt upon the necessity of fostering the in- 
terests of education, and of the lumbermen. 

The exciting bill of the session was the act in- 
corporating the Alimiesota and Northwestern 
Railroad Company, introduced by Joseph K. 
Brown. It was passed after the hour of midnight 
on the last day of the session. Contrary to the 
expectation of his friends, the Governor signed 
the bill. 

On the afternoon of December twenty-seventh, 
the first public execution in Minnesota, in accord- 
ance with tlie forms of law, took place. Yu-ha- 
zee, the Dahkotah who had been convicted in 
November, 1852, for the murder of a German 
woman, above Shokpay, was the mdividual. 
Tlie scaffold was erected on t)ie open space be- 
tween an inn called the Franklin House and the 
rear of the late Mr. J. W. Selby's enclosru'e 
in St. Paul. About two o'clock, the prisoner, 
dressed in a white shroud, left the old log pris- 
on, near the court house, and entered a carriage 
with the officers of the law. Being assisted up 
the steps that led to the scaffold, he made a few- 
remarks in his own language, and was then exe- 
cuted. Numerous ladies sent in a petition to 
tlie governor, asking tlie pardon of the Indian, 
to which tliat officer in decUnuig made an appro- 
priate reply. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1855. 

The sixth session of the legislature convened 
on the tliird of January, 1855. \V. P. ^lurray 
was elected President of the Council, and James 
S. Norris Speaker of the House. 

About the last of January, the two houses ad- 
journed one day, to attend the exercises occa- 
sioned by the opening of tlie first bridge of 
any kind, over tlie mighty Mississippi, from 
Lake Itasca to the Gulf of Mexico. It was at 
Falls of Saint Anthony, and made of wire, and 
at the time of its opening, tlie patent for the 
land on which the west piers were built, had not 
been issued from the Land Office, a striking evi- 
dence of the rapidity with whicli tlie city of 
JIinne;ipolis, which now surrounds the Falls, has 

On the twenty-ninth of March, a convention 
was held at Saint Anthony, which led to the 
formation of the Republican party of ^Minnesota. 
This body took measures for the holding of a 
territorial convention at St. Paul, wliich con- 
vened on the twenty-fifth of July, and William 
R. Marshall was nominated as delegate to Con- 
gress. Shortly after tlie friends of Mr. Sibley 
nominated David Olmsted and Henry M. Rice, 
tlie former delegate was also a candidate. The 
contest was animated, aud resulted in the elec- 
tion of Mr. Rice. 

About noon of December twelfth, 1855, a fonr- 
horse vehicle was seen driving rapidly through 
St. Paul, and deep was the mterest when it was 
announced that one of the Arctic exploring party, 
Mr. James Stewart, was on his way to Canada 
with relics of the world - renowiied and woiid- 
mounied Sir John Frankhn. Gathering together 
the precious fragments found on ^Montreal Island 
and vicinity, the party had left the region of ice- 
bergs on the ninth of August, and after a con- 
tinued land journey from that time, had reached 



Saint Paul on that clay, en route to the Hudson 
Bay Company's quarters in Canada. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1856. 

The seventh session of the Legislative Assem- 
bly was begun on the second of January, 1856, 
and again the exciting question was tlie ]Sliime- 
sota and Xorthwestern Railroad Company. 

Jolm B. Brisbm was elected President of the 
Council, and Charles Gardner, Speaker of the 

This year was comparatively devoid of interest. 
The citizens of the tenitory were busily engaged 
in making claims in newly organized coimties, 
and in enlarging the area of civilization. 

On the twelfth of June, several Ojibways 
entered the farm house of Mr. WhaUon, who re- 
sided in Hennepin county, on the banks of the 
Minnesota, a mile below the Bloomington ferr>-. 
The wife of the farmer, a friend, and three cliild- 
ren, besides a little Dahkotah girl, who had been 
brought up in tlie mission-house at Kaposia, and 
so changed in manners that her origin was 
scarcely perceptible, were sitting in the room 
when the Indians came in. Instantly seizing 
the little Indian maiden, they threw her out of 
the door, killed and scalped her, and fled before 
the men who were near by, in the field, could 
reach the house. 

EVENTS OF A. D. 1857. 

The procurement of a state organization, and 
a grant of lauds for railroad purposes, were the 
topics of political interest during the year 1857. 

The eighth Legislative Assembly convened at 
the rapitol on the seventh of January, and J. B. 
Brisbin was elected President of the Council, and 
J. W. Furber, Speaker of the House. 

A bill changing the seat of government to 
Saint Peter, on the Minnesota River, caused 
much discussion. 

On Saturday, February twenty -eighth, Mr. 
Balcombe offered a resolution to report the bUl 
for the removal of the seat of government, and 
shoiUd Mr. Rolette, chairman of the committee, 
fail, that W. W. Wales, of said committee, report 
a copy of said bill. 

Mr. Setzer, after the reading of the resolution, 
moved a call of the Council, and Mr. Rolette was 
foimd to be absent. The chair ordered the ser- 
geant at arms to report Mr Eolette in his seat. 

>Ir. Balcombe moved that further proceedings 
imder tlie call be dispensed with; which did not 
prevail. From that time untU the next Thursday 
afternoon, March the fiftli, a period of one hun- 
dred and twenty-three liours, the Council re- 
mained in their chamber without recess. At that 
time a motion to adjourn prevailed. On Friday 
another motion was made to dispense with the 
call of the Coimcil, which did not prevail. On 
Saturday, the Council met, the president declared 
the call still pending. At seven and a half p. m., 
a committee of the House was announced. The 
chair ruled, that no commimication from tlie 
House could be received wliile a call of the Coun- 
cil was pending, and the committee withdi'ew. 
A motion was agam made during the last night 
of the session, to dispense with all fiurther pro- 
ceedings under the call, which prevailed, with 
one vote only in tlie negative. 

Mr. Ludden then moved that a committee be 
appointed to wait on the Governor, and inquire if 
he had any further communication to make to 
the Council. 

Mr. Lowry moved a call of the Council, which 
was ordered, and the roll being called, Messrs. 
Rolette, Thompson and Tillotson were absent. 

At twelve o'clock at night the president re- 
sumed the chair, and announced that the time 
limited by law for the continuation of the session 
of the territorial legislature had expired, and he 
therefore declared the Council adjomned and the 
seat of government remained at Saint Paul. 

The excitement on the capital question was in- 
tense, and it was a strange scene to see members 
of the Comicil, eating and sleeping in the hall of 
legislation for days, waiting for the sergeant-at- 
arms to report an absent member in his seiit. 

On the twenty-third of February, 1857, an act 
passed the United States Senate, to authorize 
the people of Minnesota to foiTa a constitution, 
preparatory to their admission into the Union 
on an equal footing with the original states. 

Governor Gorman called a special session 
of the legislattu'e, to take iuto consideration • 
measures that would give efficiency to the act. 
The extra session convened on April twenty- 
seventh, and a m-essage was transmitted by Sam- 
uel Aledary, who had been appointed governor 
in place of W. A. Gorman, whose term of office 



had exi)iied. The extra session adjourned on 
the twenty-third of May ; and in accordance 
with tne provisions of the enal ill ng act of Con- 
gress, an election was lield on the lirst Monday 
in June, for delegates to a convention wliicli was 
to assemble at the capitol on the second ^Monday 
in July. The election resulted, as was tlioii!,'ht. 
in giving a majority of delegates to tlie Itepiihli- 
cau party. 

At nii(hiight previous to the day fixed for the 
meeting of the convention, tlie Kcpublicans pro- 
ceeded to the capitol, because the enabling act 
had not fixed at what hour on tlie second -Mon- 
day the convention should asscnil)le, and fear- 
ing that the Democratic delegates might antici- 
pate them, and elect the oflicers of the liody. 
A little before twelve, A. Jl., on Monday, the 
. secretary of the territory entered the si)eaker"s 
rostrum, and began to call t!ie body to order ; 
and at the same time a delegate, J. "\V. Xorth. 
who had in his ]iossession a written request from 
the majority of the delegates pi;.;(:nt, proceeded 
to do tlie same tiling. The secretary of the ter- 
ritory put a motion to adjourn, aiul the Demo- 
cratic members present voting in the alih-mative, 
they left the hall. The Republicans, feeling that 
they were in the majority, remained, and in due 
time organized, and proceeded with the busiues;; 
specified in the enabling act, to form a constitu- 
tion, and-take all necessary steps for the est^ib- 
iishment of a state goverimient, in conformity 
with the Federal Constitution, subject to the 
approval and ratification of the people of the 
proposed state. 

After several days the Democratic wing also 
organized in tlie Senate chamber at the capitol, 
and, claiming to be the true body, also proceeded 
to form a constitution. Botli parties were re- 
markably orderly and intelligent, and everything 
w'as marked by perfect decorum. After they had 
been in session some weeks, moderate counsels 

prevailed, and a committee of conference was 
appointed from each body, which resulted in 
both adopting the constitution framed by the 
Democratic wing, on tlie twenty-ninth of Ang- 
gust. According to the provision of the consti- 
tution, an election was lield for state ofBcere 
and the adoption of the constitution, on tlie 
second Tuesday, the thirteenth of October. The 
constitution was adopted by almost a unanimous 
vote. It provided that the territorial officers 
should retain their ollices until the stale was ad- 
mitted into the Union, not anticipating the 
long delay which was experienced. 

The first session of the stale legislature com- 
menced on the first 'Wednesday of December, at 
the capitol, in the city of Saint Paul ; and during 
the month elected Henry M. Kice and .James 
Shields as their Representatives in the United 
States Senate. 

EVENTS OK A. I>. 18.5S. 

On the twenty-ninth of .January, I808, Mr. 
Douglas submitted a bill to the United States 
Senate, for the admission of ^liimesota into the 
Uiiiim. On the first of February, a discussion 
arose on the bill, in wliich Senators Douglas, 
Wilson, Gwiu, Hale, ]\Iasoii, (Jreen, Brown, and 
Crittenden participated. Brown, of Mississijipi, 
was opposed to the admission of Minnesota, un- 
til the Kansas question was settled. Mr. Crit- 
tenden, as a Southern man, could not endorse i'.ll 
that was said liy the Senator from Mississipji; 
and his words of wisdom and moderation during 
this day's discussion, were worthy of remeji- 
brance. Oil April the scveiilli, the bill passed 
the Senate with only three dissenting votes ; and 
in a short time tlie House of Representatives 
concurred, and on !May the eleventh, the Presi- 
dent approved, and .Minnesota was fully rec- 
ognized as one of the I'nited States of America. 










The transition of Minnesota from a territorial 
to a state organization occurred at the period when 
the whole republic was suffering from financial em- 

By an act of congress approved by the president 
on the 5th of March, 1857, lands had been granted 
to Minnesota to aid in the construction of railways. 
During an extra session of the legislature of Min- 
nesota, an act was passed in May, 1857, giving 
the congressional grant to certain corporations to 
build railroads. 

A few months after, it was discovered that the 
corporators had neither the money nor the credit 
to begin and complete these internal improve- 
ments. In the winter of 1858 the legislature again 
listened to the siren voices of the railway corpora- 
tions, until their words to some members seemed 
like "apples of gold in pictures of silver," and an 
additional act was passed submitting to the people 
an amendment to the constitution which provided 
for the loan of the public credit to the land grant 
railroad companies to the amount of $5,000,000, 
upon condition that a certain amount of labor on 
the roads was performed. 

Some of the citizens saw in the proposed meas- 
ure "a cloud no larger than a man's hand," which 
would lead to a terrific storm, and a large public 
meeting was convened at the capitol in St. Paul, 
and addressed by ex-Governor Gorman, D. A. 
Robertson, William E. Marshall and others depre- 


elating the engrafting of such a peculiar amend- 
ment into the constitution; but tlie people were 
poor and needy and deluded and would not lis- 
ten; their hopes and happiness seemed to depend 
upon the pHghted faith of railway corporators, and 
on April the 15th, the appointed election day, 
25,023 votes were deposited for, while only 6,733 
votes were cast against the amendment. 


The election of October, 1857, was carried on 
with much partisan feeling by democrats and re- 
publicans. The returns from wilderness precincts 
were unusually large, and in the counting of votes 
for governor, Alexander Kamsey appeared to have 
received 17,550, and Henry H. Sibley 17,796 bal- 
lots. Governor Sibley was declared elected by a 
majority of 246, and duly recognized. The first 
legislature assembled on the 2d of December, 
1857, before the formal admission of Minnesota 
into the Union, and on the 25th of March, 1858, 
adjourned until June the 2d, when it again met. 
The next day Governor Sibley delivered his mes- 
sage. His term of office was arduous. On the 
4th of August, 1858, he expressed his determina- 
tion not to deliver any state bonds to the railway 
companies unless they would give first mortgages, 
with priority of lien, upon their lands, roads and 
franchises, in favor of the state. One of the com- 
panies applied for a mandamus from the supreme 
court of the state, to compel the issue of the 
bonds without the restrictions demanded by the 

In November the court. Judge Flandrau dis- 
senting, directed the governor to issue state bonds 
as soon as a railway company delivered their fh-st 



mortgage bonds, as provided by the amendment 
to the constitution. But, as was to be expected, 
bonds sent out under such peculiar circumstances 
were not sought after by capitalists. Moreover, 
after over two million dollars in bonds had been 
issued, not an iron rail had been laid, and only 
about two hundred and fifty miles of grading had 
been completed. 

In his last message Governor Sibley in refer- 
ence to the law in regard to state credit to railways, 
says: "I regret to be obliged to state that the 
measure has proved a failure, and has by no means 
accomplished what was hoped from it, either in 
providing means for the issue of a safe currency 
or of aiding the companies in the completion of 
the work upon the roads." 


Notwithstanding the pecuniary complications of 
the state, during Governor Sibley's administra- 
tion, the legislature did not entirely forget that 
there were some interests of more importance than 
railway construction, and on the 2d of August, 
1858, largely through the influence of the late 
John D. Ford, M. D., a public spirited citizen of 
Winona, an act was passed for the estabhshment 
of three training schools for teachers. 


In the month of June, 1859 an important route 
was opened between the Mississippi and the Eed 
Elver of the North. The then enterprising firm 
of J. C. Burbank & Co., of St. Paul, having se- 
cured from the Hudson Bay Company the trans- 
portation of their supjjlies by way of the Missis- 
sippi, in place of the tedious and treacherous routes 
through Hudson's Bay or Lake Superior, they 
purchased a bttle steamboat on the Red River of 
the North which had been built by Anson North- 
rup, and commenced the carrying of freight and 
passengers by land to Breckenridge and by water 
to Pembina. 

This boat had been the first steamboat which 
moved on the Mississippi above the falls of St. 
Anthony, to which there is a reference made upon 
the 121st page. 

Mr. Nortbrup, after he purchased the boat, with 
a large number of wagons carried the boat and 
machinery from Crow Wing on the Mississippi 
and on the 8th of April, 1859, reached the Red 
River not far from the site of Fargo. 


At an election held in October, 21,335 votes were 

deposited for Alexander Ramsey as governor, and 
17,532 for George L. Becker. Gkivernor Ramsey, 
in an inaugural delivered on the second ot Jan- 
•uary, 1860, devoted a large space to the discus- 
sion of the difficulties arising from the issue of 
the railroad bonds. He said: "It is extremely 
desuable to remove as speedily as possible so vex- 
ing a question from our state politics, and not al- 
low it to remain for years to disturb our elections, 
possibly to divide our people into bond and anti- 
bond parties, and introduce, annually, into our 
legislative halls an element of discord and possi- 
bly of corruption, all to end justas similar compli- 
cations in other states have ended. The men who 
wiU have gradually engrossed the poscssion of all 
the bonds, at the cost of a few cents on the dollar, 
wOl knock year after year at the door of the legisla- 
turo for their payment in full, the press will be 
subsidized; the cry of repudiation will be raised; 
all the ordinary and extraordinary means of pro- 
curing legislation in doubtful cases will be freely 
resorted to, until finally the bondholders will pile 
up almost fabulous fortunes. * * * * It is 
assuredly true that the present time is, of all 
others, aUke for the present bondholder and the 
people of the state, the very time to arrange, ad- 
just and settle these uufortimate and deplorable 
raih'oad and loan comjjhcations." 

The legislature of this year passed a law sub- 
mitting an amendment to the constitution which 
would prevent the issue of any more railroad bonds. 
At an election in November, 18G0, it was voted on, 
and reads as follows: "The credit of the state 
shall never be given on bonds in aid of any in- 
dividual, association or corporation; nor shall there 
be any further issue of bonds denominated Min- 
nesota state railroad bonds, under what purports 
to be an amendment to section ten, of article nine, 
of the constitution, adopted April 14, 1858, which 
is liereby expunged from the constitution, saving, 
excepting, and reserving to the state, nevertheless, 
all rights, remedies and forfeitures accruing under 
said amendment." 


On p'.ige 126 there is a notice of the first In- 
dian hung under the laws of Minnesota. On 
March 23, 1860 the first white person was executed 
and attracted considerable attention from the fact, 
the one who suffered the penalty of the law was a 

Michael Bilansky died on the 11th of March, 
1859, and upon examination, he was found to have 



been poisoned. Anna, his fourth wife, was tried 
for the offence, found guilty, and on the 3d of De- 
cember, 1859, sentenced to be hung. The oppo- 
nents to capital punishment secured the passage of 
an act, by the legislature, to meet her case, but it 
was vetoed by the governor, as unconstitutional. 
Two days before the execution, the unhappy wo- 
man asked her spiritual adviser to write to her 
parents in North Carolina, but not to state the 
cause of her death. Her scafifold was erected 
within the square of the Bamsey county jaU. 


The third state legislature assembled on the 8th of 
January, 1861, and adjourned on the 8th of March. 
As Minnesota was the first state which received 
1,280 acres of land in each township, for school 
purposes. Governor Ramsey in his annual message 
occupied several pages, in an able and elaborate 
argument as to the best methods of guarding and 
sfelUng the school lands, and of protecting the 
school fund. 

His predecessor in ofiice, while a member of the 
convention to frame the constitution, had spoken 
in favor of dividing the school funds among the 
townships of the state, subject to the control of 
the local officers. 


The people of Minnesota had not been as excited 
as the citizens of the Atlantic states on the ques- 
tion which was discussed before the presidential 
election of November, 1860, and a majoiity had 
calmly declared their preference for Abraham Lin- 
coln, as president of the republic. 

But the blood of her quiet and intelligent popu- 
lation was stirred on the morning of April 14, 
1861, by the intelligence in the daily newspapers 
that the day before, the insurgents of South Caro- 
lina had bombarded Fort Sumter, and that after a 
gallant resistance of thirty-four hours General 
Eobert Anderson and the few soldiers of his com- 
mand had evacuated the fort. 

Governor Bamsey was in Washington at this 
period, and called upon the president of the repub- 
lic with two other citizens from Minnesota, and 
was the first of the state governors to tender the 
services of his fellow citizens. The offer of a regi- 
ment was accepted. The first company raised un- 
der the call of Minnesota was composed of ener- 
getic young men of St. Paul, and its captain was 
the esteemed William H. Acker, who afterwards 
fell in battle. 

On the last Monday of April a camp for the 

First regiment was opened at Fort Snelling. 
More companies having offered than were necessary 
on the 30th of May Governor Bamsey sent a tele- 
gram to the secretary of war, offering another 


On the 14th of June the First regiment was or- 
dered to Washington, and on the 21st it embarked 
at St. Paul on the steamboats War Eagle and 
Northern Belle, with the foUowiug officers: 

Will's A. Gorman, Colonel — Promoted to be 
brigadier general October 7, 1861, by the advice 
of Major General Winfield Scott. 

Stephen MiUer, Lt. Colonel — Made colonel of 7th 
regiment August, 1862. 

WUliam H. Dike, Major — Besigned October 22, 

WiUiam B. Leach, Adjutant — Made captain and 
A. A. G. February 23, 1862. 

Mark W. Downie, Quartermaster — Captain 
Company B, July 16, 1861. 

Jacob H. Stewart, Surgeon — Prisoner at Bull 
Bun, July 21, 1861. Paroled at Richmond, Vir- 

Charles W. Le BoutUlier, Assistant Surgeon — 
Prisoner at Bull Run. Surgeon 9th regiment. 
Died April, 1863. 

Edward D. Neill, Chaplain — Commissioned July 
13, 1862, hospital chaplain U. S. A., resigned in 
1864, and ajjpointed by President Lincoln, one 
of his secretaries. 

After a few days in Washington, the regi- 
iment was sent to Alexandria, Virginia, where 
until the 16th of July it remained. On the 
morning of that day it began with other 
troops of Franklin's brigade to movetoward 
the enemy, and that night encamped in the val- 
ley of Pohick creek, and the next day marched 
to Sangster's station on the Orange & Alexandria 
railroad. The third day Centreville was reached. 
Before daylight on Sunday, the 21st of July, the 
soldiers of the First regiment rose for a march to 
battle. About three o'clock in the morning they 
left camp, and after passing through the hamlet of 
Centreville, halted for General Hunter's column to 
pass. At daylight the regiment again began to 
move, and after crossing a bridge on the Warren- 
ton turnpike, turned into the woods, from which at 
about ten o'clock it emerged into an open coun- 
try, from which could be seen an artiUery engage- 
ment on the left between the Union troops under 
Hunter, and the insurgents commanded by Evans. 



An hour after this the regiment reached a branch 
of Bull Bun, and, as the men were thirsty, began 
to fill their empty canteens. While thus occu- 
pied, and as the St. Paul company under Captain 
Wilkins was crossing the creek, an order came 
for Colonel Gorman to hurry up the regiment. 

The men now moved rapidly through the wood- 
laud of a hillside, stopping over some of the dead 
of Burnside's command, and hearing the cheers 
of victory caused by the pressing back of the in- 
surgent troops. At length the regiment, passing 
Sudley church, reached a clearing in the woods, 
and halted, while other troops of Franklin's brig- 
ado passed up the Sudley church road. Next 
they passed through a narrow strip of woods and 
occupied the cultivated field from which Evans and 
Bee of the rebel army had been driven by the 
troops of Bumside, Sykes and others of Himter's 

Crossing the Sudley road, Eiekett's battery un- 
limbered and began to fire at the enemy, whose 
batteries were between the Kobinson and Henry 
house on the south side of the Warrenton turn- 
pike, while the First Minnesota passed to the right. 
After firing about twenty minutes the battery was 
ordered to go down the Sudley road nearer the 
enemy, where it was soon disabled. The First 
Minnesota was soon met by rebel troops advancing 
under cover of the woods, who supposed the reg- 
iment was a part of the confederate army. 

Javan B. Irvine, then a private citizen af St. 
Paul, on a visit to the regiment, now a captain in 
the United States army, wrote to his wife : "We 
had just formed when we were ordered to kneel 
and fire upon the rebels who were advancing under 
the cover of the woods. We fired two volleys 
through the woods, when we were ordered to rally 
in the woods in our rear, which all did except the 
first platoon of our own company, which did not 
hear the order and stood their ground. The 
rebels soon came out from their shelter between 
us and their battery. Colonel Gorman mistook 
them for friends and told the men to cease firing 
upon them, although they had three secession 
tiags directly in front of their advancing columns. 
This threw our men into confusion, some declaring 
they are friends; others that they are enemies. I 
called to our boys to give it to them, and fired 
away myself as rapidly as possible. The rebels 
themselves mistook us for Georgia troops, and 
waved their hands at us to cease firing. I had 
just loaded to give them another charge, when a 

lieutenant-colonel of a Mississippi regiment rode 
out between us, waving his hand for us to stop 
firing. I rushed up to him and asked 'If he was a 
secessionist?' He said 'He was a Mississippian.' 
I presented my bayonet to his breast and com- 
manded him to surrender, which he did after some 
hesitation. I ordered him to dismount, and led 
him and his horse from the field, in the meantime 
disarming him of his sword and pistols. I led him 
oflf about two miles and placed him in charge of 
a lieutenant with an escort of cavalry, to be taken 
to General McDowell. He requested the officer to 
allow me to accompany him, as he desired my pro- 
tection. The officer assured him that ho would 
be safe in their hands, and he rode off. I retained 
his pistol, but sent his sword with him." In an- 
other letter, dated the 25th of July, Mr. Irvine 
writes from Washington : "I have just returned 
from a visit to Lieutenant-Colonel Boone, who is 
confined in the old Capitol. I found him in a 
pleasant room on the third story, surrounded by 
several southern gentlemen, among whom was 
Senator Breckenridge. He was glad to see me, 
and appeared quite well after the fatigue of the 
battle of Sunday. There were with mo Chaplain 
Neill, Captains Wilkin and Colville, and Lieuten- 
ant Coates, who were introduced." 

The mistake of several regiments of the Union 
troops in supposing that the rebels were friendly 
regiments led to confusion and disaster, which was 
followed by panic. 


The Second Minnesota Regiment which had 
been organized in July, 1861, left Fort Snelling 
on the eleventh of October, and proceeding to 
Louisville, was incorporated with the Army of the 
Ohio. Its officers were: Horatio P. Van Cleve, 
Colonel. Promoted Brigader General March 21, 
1862. James George, Lt. Colonel. Promoted 
Colonel; resigned June 29, 1864. Simeon Smith, 
Major. Appointed Paymaster U. S. A., Septem- 
ber, 1861. Alexander Wilkin, Major. Colonel 
9th Minnesota, August, 1862. Reginald Bingham, 
Surgeon. Dismissed May 27, 1862. M. C. Toll- 
man, AssH Surgeon. Promoted Surgeon. Timothy 
Cressey, CJuiplain. Resigned October, 10, 1863. 
Daniel D. Heaney, Adjutant. Promoted Captain 
Company C. William S. Grow, Q uarler Master. 
Resigned, January, 1863. 


A company of Sharp Shooters under Captain 
F. Peteler, proceeding to Washington, on the 11th, 



of October was assigned as Co., A, 2d Kegiment 
U. S. Sharp Sbootera. 


On the 16th of November, 1861, the Third Keg- 
iment left the State and went to Tennessee. Its 
officers were: Henry C. Lester, Cofoft^?. Dismissed 
Decmber 1, 1862. Benjamin F. Smith, Lt. Colond. 
Resigned May 9, 1862. John A. Hadley, Major. 
Resigned May 1, 1862. R. C. Olin, Adjutant.— 
Resigned. O. H, Blakely, Adjutant. Levi Butler. 
ISuffjeon. — Resigned September 30, 1863. Francis 
Millipan, AssH Surgeon. — Resigned April 8, 1862. 
Chaunoey Hobart, Chaplain,. — Resigned June 2, 


In December, the First Battery of Light Artil- 
lery left the State, and reported for duty at St. 
Louis, Missouri 


During the fall, three companies of cavalry 
were organized, and proceeded to Benton Barracks, 
Missouri. Ultimately they were incorporated 
with the Fifth Iowa Cavalry. 


On Sunday the 19th of January, 1862, not far 
from Somerset and about forty miles from Danville, 
Kentucky, about 7 o'clock in the morning. Col. 
Van Cleve was ordered to meet the enemy. In 
ten minutes the Second Minnesota regiment was 
in line of battle. After supporting a battery for 
some time it continued the march, and pro- 
ceeding half a mile found the enemy behind the 
fences, and a hand to hand fight of thirty minutes 
ensued, resulting in the flight of the rebels. Gen. 
ZollicofFer and Lieut. Peyton, of the insurgents 
were of the killed. 


On Sunday, the 6th of April occurred the battle 
of Pittsburg Landing, in Tennessee. Minnesota 
was there represented by the First Minnesota bat- 
tery, Captain Emil Munch, which was attached to 
the division of General Prentiss. Captain Munch 
was severely wounded. One of the soldiers of his 
command wrote as follows: "Sunday morning, 
just after breakfast, an officer rode up to our Cap- 
tain's tent and told him to prepare for action. * 
* * * * We wheeled into battery and opened 
upon them. * * * The first time we wheeled 
one of our drivers was killed; his name was Colby 
Stinson. Haywood's horse was shot at almost the 
same time. The second time we came into bat- 
tery, the captain was wounded in the leg, and his 

horse shot under him. They charged on our gims 
and on the sixth platoon howitzer, but they got 
hold of the wrong end of the gun. We then lim- 
bered up and retreated within the line of battle. 
While we were retreating they shot one of our 
horses, when we had to stop and take him out, 
which let the rebels come vqy rather close. When 
within about sis rods they fired and woimded 
Corporal Davis, breaking his leg above the ankle." 
As the artillery driver was picked up, after be- 
ing fatally wounded, at the beginning of the fight 
he said, 'Don't stop with me. Stand to your guns 
like men,' and expired. 


Early in April the First regiment as a 
part of Sedgwick's division of the Army 
of the Potomac arrived near Yorktown, 
Virginia, and was stationed between the 
Warwick and York rivers, near Wynnes' mill. Dur- 
ing the night of the 30th of May, there was a con- 
tinual discharge of cannon by the enemy, but just 
before daylight the next day, which was Sunday, 
it ceased and the pickets cautiously approaching 
discovered that the rebels had abandoned their 
works. The next day the regiment was encamped 
on the field where Cornwallis surrendered to Wash- 


While Gorman's brigade was encamped at 
Goodly Hole oreek, Hanover county, Virginia, an 
order came about three o'clock of the afternoon of 
Saturday, the tliirty-first day of May to 
to cross the Chicahominy and engage in 
the battle which had been going on for a few 
hours. In a few minutes the First Minnesota was 
on the march, by a road which had been cut 
through the swamp, and crossed the Chicahominy 
by a rude bridge of logs, with both ends com- 
pletely submerged by the stream swollen by re- 
cent rains, and rising every hour. 

About 5 o'clock in the afternoon the First Min- 
nesota as the advance of Gorman's brigade reached 
the scene of action, and soon the whole brigade 
with Kii'by's battery held the enemy in check at 
that point. 

The next day ^ley were in line of battle but not 
attacked. Upon the field around a country farm 
house they encamped. 


Just before daylight on Sunday, Jime the 29th, 
Sedgwick's, to which the First Minnesota belonged, 
left the position that had been held since the bat- 



tie of Fair Oaks, and had not proceeded more than 
two miles before they met the enemy in a peach 
orchard, and after a sharp conflict compelled 
them to retire. At about 5 c' clock the afternoon 
of the same day they again met the enemy at 
Savage Station, and a battle lasted till dark. Bur- 
gess, the color sergeant who brought ofl' the flag 
from the Bull Kuu battle, a man much respected, 
^?as killed instantly. 

On Monday, between Wliite Oak swamp and 
Willis' church, the regiment had a skirmish, and 
Captain Colville was sliglitly wounded. Tuesday 
ivas the 1st of July, and the regiment was drawn 
up at the dividing line of Henrico and Charles 
City county , in sight of James river, and although 
much exposed to the enemy's batteries, was not 
actually engaged. At midnight the order was 
given to move, and on the morning of the 2d of 
July they tramped upon the wheat fields at Har- 
rison's Landing, and in a violent rain encamped. 


The Fourth regiment left Fort Snelling for Ben- 
ton barracks, Missouri, on the 2l8t of April, 1862, 
with the following officers: 

John B. Sanborn, Colonel — Promoted brigadier 

Minor T. Thomas, Lt. Colond — Made colonel of 
8th regiment August 24, 1862. 

A. Edward Welch, Major — Died at Nashville 
February 1, 1864. 

John M. Thompson, Adjtitant — Captain Com- 
pany E, November 20, 1862. 

Thomas B. Hunt, Qaaricrmasier — Made captain 
and A. Q. M. April 9, 1863. 

John H. Murphy, Surf/eon — Eesigned July 9, 

Elisha W. Cross, Assistant Surgeon — Promoted 
July 9, 1863. 

Asa S. Fiske, Chaplain — Eesigned Oct. 3, 1864. 


The Second Minnesota Battery, Captain W. A. 
Hotchkiss, left the same day as the Fourth regi- 
ment. On the 13th of May the Fifth regiment 
departed from Fort Snelling with the following 
officers: Eudolph Borgesrode, colonel, resigned 
August 31, 1862; Lucius F. Hubbard, heutenant- 
colonel, promoted colonel August 31, 1862, elected 
governor of Minnesota 1881; William B. Gere, 
major, promoted lieutenant-colonel; Alpheus R. 
French, adjutant, resigned March 19, 1863; W. 
B. McGrorty, quartermaster, resigned September 
15, 1864; F. B. Etheridge, surgeon, resigned Sep- 

tember 3, 1862 ; V. B. Kennedy, assistant surgeon, 
promoted surgeon; J. F. Chaffee, chaplain, re- 
signed June 23, 1862; John Ireland, chaplain, re- 
signed April, 1863. 

Before the close of May the Second, Fourth and 
Fifth regiments were in conflict with the insur- 
gents, near Corinth, Mississippi. 


On the 18th of September, Colonel Sanborn, 
acting as brigade commander in the Third divis- 
ion of the Army of the Mississippi, moved his 
troops, including the Fourth Minnesota regiment, 
to a position on the Tuscumbia road, and formed 
a line of battle. 


In a few days the contest Viegan at luka, culmi- 
nated at Corinth, and the Fourth and Fifth regi- 
ments and First INIiunesota battery were engaged. 

On the 3d of October, about five o'clock. Colo- 
nel Sanborn advanced his troops and received a 
severe fire from the enemy. Captain Mowers 
beckoned with his sword during the firing, as if 
he wished to make an important communication, 
but before Colonel Sanborn reached his side he 
fell, having been shot through the head. Before 
(hiylight on the 4th of October the Fifth regiment, 
under command of Colonel L. F. Hubbard, was 
aroused by the discharge of artillery. Later in 
the day it became engaged with the enemy, and 
drove the rebels out of the streets of Corinth. A 
private writes: "When we charged on the enemy 
General Rosecrans asked what little regiment that 
was, and on being told said 'The Fifth Minnesota 
had saved the town.' Major Coleman, General 
Stanley's assistant adjutant-general, was with us 
when he received his bullet-wound, and his last 
words were, "Tell the general that the Fifth Min- 
nesota fought nobly. God bless the Fifth.' " 


A few days after the fight at Corinth the Sec- 
ond Minnesota battery. Captain Hotchkiss, did 
good service with Buell's army at PerryviUe, Ky. 

In the battle of Fredericksburg, Va., on the 
13th of December, the First Minnesota regiment 
supported Kirbey's battery as it had done at Fair 


On the morning of the 13th of July, nearMur- 
f reesboro, Ky.; the Third regiment was in the pres- 
ence of the enemy. The colonel called a council 
of officers to decide whether they should fight, 
and the first vote was in the affirmative, but an- 



other vote being taken it was decided to surrender. 
Lieutenant-Colonel O. W. Griggs, Captains An- 
drews and Hoyt voted each time to fight. In 
September the regiment returned to Minnesota, 
humiliated by the want of good judgment upon 
the part of their colonel, and was assigned to duty 
in the Indian country. 


The year 1862 will always be remembered as the 
period of the uprising of the Sioux, and the 
slaughter of the unsuspecting inhabitants of the 
scattered settlements in the Minnesota valley. 
Elsewhere in this work will be found a detailed ac- 
count of the savage cruelties. In this place we 
only give the narrativfe of the events as related by 
Alexander Kamsey, then the governor of Min- 

"My surprise may therefore be judged, when, on 
August 19th, while busy in my office, Mr. Wm. H. 
Shelley, one of our citizens who had been at the 
agency just before the outbreak, came in, dusty 
and exhausted with a fifteen hours' ride on horse- 
back, bearing dispatches to me of the most start- 
ling character from Agent Galbraith, dated Au- 
gust 18th, stating that the same day the Sioux at 
the lower agency had risen, murdered the settlers, 
and were plundering and burning all the build- 
ings in that vicinity. As I beUeve no particulars 
regarding the manner in which the news were first 
conveyed to me has been published, it might be 
mentioned here. Mr. Shelley had been at Eed- 
Vood agency, and other places in that vicinity, 
with the concurrence of the agent, recruiting men 
for a company, which was afterwards mustered into 
the Tenth regiment under Captain James O'Gor- 
nran, formerly a clerk of Nathan Myriok, Esq., a 
trader at Eedwood, and known as the Renville 
Eangers. He (Shelley) left Eedwood, he states, 
on Saturday, August 16th, with forty-five men, 
bound for Fort Snelling. Everything was quiet 
there theu. It may be well to note here that one 
of the supposed causes of the outbreak was the 
fact that the Indians had been told that the gov- 
ernment needed soldiers very badly, that many 
white men had been killed, and that all those in 
that locality were to be marched south, leaving 
the state unprotected. Seeing the men leave on 
Saturday may have strengthened this behef. Stop- 
ping at Fort Ridgely that night, the Eenville 
Eangers the next day continued their march, and 
on Monday afternoon arrived at St. Peter. Gal- 
braith was with them. Here, he was overtaken by 

a messenger who had ridden down from Eed- 
wood that day, hearing the news of the terrible 
occurrences of that morhing. This messenger was 
Mr. — Dickinson, who formerly kept a hotel at 
Henderson, but was living on the reservation at 
that time. He was in great distress aboiit the 
safety of his family, and returning at once was 
killed by the Indians. 

"When Agent Galbraith received the news, Mr. 
Shelley states, no one would at first believe it, 
as such rumors are frequent in the Indian country. 
Mr. Dickinson assured him of the truth with such 
earnestness, however, that his account was finally 
credited and the Eenville Rangers were at once 
armed and sent back to Fort Ridgely, where they 
did good semce in protecting the post. 

"Agent Galbraith at once prepared the dispatches 
to me, giving the terrible news and calHng for aid. 
No one could be found who would volunteer to 
carry the message, and Mr. Shelley offered to 
come himself. He had great difficulty in getting 
a horse; but finally secured one, and started for 
St. Paul, a distance of about ninety miles, about 
dark. He had not ridden a horse for some years, 
and as may be well supposed by those who have 
had expei'ience in amateur horseback-riding, suf- 
fered very much from soreness; but rode all night 
at as fast a gate as his horse could carry him, . 
Spreading the startling news as he went down the 
Minnesota valley. Reaching St. Paul about 9 A. 
M., much exhausted he made his way to the oapitol, 
and laid before me his message. The news soon 
spread through the city and created intense ex- 

"At that time, of course, the full extent and 
threatening nature of the outbreak could not be 
determined. It seemed serious, it is true, but in 
view of the riotous conduct of the Indians at 
Yellow Medicine a few days before, was deemed a 
repetition of the emeuie, which would be simply 
local in its character, and easily quelled by a small 
force and good management on the part of the 
authorities at the agency. 

"But these hopes, (that the outbreak was a local 
one) were soon rudely dispelled by the arrival, an 
hour or two later, of another courier, George C. 
Whitcomb, of Forest City, bearing the news of 
the murders at Acton. Mr. Whitcomb had ridden 
to Chaska or Carver on Monday, and came down 
from there on the small steamer Antelope, reaching 
the city an hour or two after Mr. Shelley. 

"It now became evident that the outbreak was 



more general than had at first been credited, and 
that prompt and vigorous measures would be re- 
quired for its suppression and the protection of 
the inhabitants on the frontier. I at once pro- 
ceeded to Fort Snelling and consulted with the 
authorities there (who had already received dis- 
patches from Fort Ridgely) regarding the out- 
break and the best means to be used to meet the 

"A serious difficulty met us at the outstart. The 
only troops at Fort Snelling were the raw recruits 
who had been hastQy gathered for the five regi- 
ments. Most of them were without arms or suit- 
able clothing as yet; some not mustered in or 
properly oflBcered, and those who had arms had 
no fixed ammunition of the proper calibre. We 
were without transportation, quartermaster's or 
commissary stores, and, in fact, devoid of anything 
with which to commence a campaign against two 
or three thousand Indians, well mounted and 
armed, with an abundance of ammunition and 
provisions captured at the agency, and flushed 
with the easy victories they had just won over the 
unarmed settlers. Finally four companies were 
fully organized, armed and uniformed, and late at 
night were got off on two small steamers, the An- 
telope and Pomeroy, for Shakopee, from which 
point they would proceed overland. It was ar- 
ranged that others should follow as fast as they 
could be got ready. 

"This expedition was placed under the manage- 
ment of H. H. Sibley, whose long residence in the 
country of the Sioux had given him great influ" 
ence with that people, and it was hoped that the 
chiefs and older men were stiU sensible to reason, 
and that with his diplomatic ability he could bring 
the powers of these to check the mad and reck- 
less disposition of the "young men," and that if 
an opportunity for this failed that his knowledge 
of Indian war and tactics would enable him to 
overcome them in battle. And I think the result 
indicated the wisdom of my choice. 

•'I at once telegraphed all the facts to President 
Lincoln, and also telegraphed to Governor Solo- 
mon, of Wisconsin, for one hundred thousand cart- 
ridges, of a calibre to fit our rifles, and the requi- 
sition was kindly honored by that patriotic officer, 
and the ammunition was on its way next day. 
The governors of Iowa, Illinois and Michigan were 
also asked for arms and ammimition. 

During the day other messengers arrived from 
Fort Kidgely, St. Peter and other points on 

the upper Minnesota, with intelhgence of the 
most painfid character, regarding the extent and 
ferocity of the massacre. The messages all pleaded 
earnestly for aid, and intimated that without 
speedy reinforcements or a supjjly of arms. Fort 
Kidgely, New Ulm, St. Peter and other points 
would undoubtedly fall into the hands of the 
savages, and thousands of persons be butchered 
The principal danger seemed to be to the settle- 
ments in that region, as they were in the vicinity 
of the main body of Indians congregated to await 
the payments. Comers arrived from various 
points every few hours, and I spent the whole 
night answering their calls as I could. 

"Late that night, probably after midnight, Mr. 
J. Y. Branham, Sr., arrived from Forest City, after 
a forced ride on horseback of 100 miles, bearing 
the following message: 

***** *»♦ 

"Forest City, Aug. 20, 1862, 6 o'clock a. m. 

His Excellency, Alexander Kamsey, Governor, 
etc. — Sir: In advance of the news from the Min- 
nesota river, the Indians have opened on us in 
Meeker. It is warl A few propose to make a 
stand here. Send us, forthwith, some good guns 
and ammunition to match. Yours truly, 

A. C. Smith. 

Seventy-five stands of Springfield rifles and sev- 
eral thousand roimds of ball cartridges were at 
once issued to George C. Whitcomb, to be used in 
arming a company which I directed to be raised 
and enrolled to use these arms; and Gen. Sibley 
gave Mr. Whitcomb a captain's commission for 
the company. Transportation was furnished him, 
and the rifles were in Forest City by the morning 
of the 23d, a portion having been issued to a 
company at Hutchinson on the way up. A com- 
pany was organized and the arms placed in their 
hands, and I am glad to say they did good service 
in defending the towns of Forest City and Hutch- 
inson on more than one occasion, and many of the 
Indians are known to have been killed with them. 
The conduct and bravery of the courageous men 
who guarded those towns, and resisted the assaults 
of the red savages, are worthy of being commemo- 
rated on the pages of our state history." 


On the 3d of April, 1863, the Fourth regiment 
was opposite Grand Gulf, Mississippi, and in a 
few days they entered Port Gibson, and here Col. 
Sanborn resumed the command of a brigade. On 
the 14th of May the regiment was at the batUe 



of Kayraond, and on the 14th participated in the 
battle of Jackson. A newspaper correspondent 
writes: "Captain L. B. Martin, of the Fourth 
Minnesota, A. A. G. to Colonel Sanborn, seized the 
flag of the 59th Indiana infantry, rode rapidly be- 
yond the skirmishers, (Co. H, Fourth Minnesota, 
Lt. Geo. A. Clark) and raised it over the dome of 
the Capitol" of Mississippi. On the 16th the regi- 
ment was in the battle of Champion Hill, and four 
days later in the siege of Vicksburg. 


The Fifth regiment reached Grand Gulf on the 
7th of May and was in the battles of Kaymond 
and Jackson, and at the rear of Vicksburg. 


The First regiment reached Gettysburg, Pa., 
on the 1st of July, and the nest morning Han- 
cock's corps, to which it was attached, moved to a 
ridge, the right resting on Cemetery HiU, the left 
near Sugar Loaf Mountain. The line of battle 
was a semi-ellipse, and Gibbon's division, to 
which the regiment belonged occupied the 
center of the curve nearest the enemy. On the 
2d of July, about 5 o'clock in the afternoon, Gen- 
eral Hancock rode up to Colonel Colville, and 
ordered him to charge upon the advancing foe. 
The muzzles of the opposing muskets were not far 
distant and the conflict was terrific. When the 
sun set Captain Muller and Lieutenant Farrer were 
kiUed; Captain Periam mortally wounded; Colonel 
ColviUe, Lieut-Colonel Adams, Major Downie, 
Adjutant Peller, Lieutenants Sinclair, Demerest, 
DeGray and Boyd, severely -wounded. 

On the 3d of July, about 10 o'clock in the morn- 
ing, the rebels opened a terrible artUlery fire, 
which lasted until 3 o'clock in the afternoon, and 
then the infantry was suddenly advanced, and 
there was a fearful cotflict, resulting in the defeat 
of the enemy. The loss on this day was also very 
severe. Captain Messick, in command of the 
First regiment, after the wounding of Colville, 
and Adams and Downie, was killed. Captain FarreU 
was mortally wounded, and Lieutenants Harmon, 
Heffelfinger, and May were wounded. Color-Ser- 
geant E. P. Perkins was wounded on the 2d of 
July. On the 3d of July Corporal Dehn, of the 
color guard was shot through the hand and the 
flag staff cut in two. Corporal H. D. O'Brien 
seized the flag with the broken staff and waving 
it over his head rushed up to the muzzles of the 
enemy's muskets and was wounded in the hand, 
but Corporal W. N. Irvine instantly grasped the 

flag and held it up. Marshall Sherman of com- 
pany E, captured the flag of the 28th Virginia 


The Second regiment, under Colonel George, 
on the 19th of September fought at Chicamauga, 
and in the first day's fight, eight were killed and 
forty-one wounded. On the 25th of November, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Bishop in command, it moved 
against the enemy at Mission Bidge, and of the 
seven non-commissioned officers in the color guard, 
six were killed or wounded. 

The Fourth regiment was also in the vicinity of 
Chattanooga, but did not suffer any loss. 

EVENTS OF 1864. 
The Third regiment, which after the Indian ex- 
pedition had been ordered to Little Bock, Arkan- 
sas, on the 30th of March, 1864, had an engage- 
ment near Augusta, at Fitzhugh's Woods. Seven 
men were killed and sixteen wounded. General 
C. C. Andrews, in command of the force, had his 
horse killed by a bullet. 


The First regiment after three year's service 
was mustered out at Fort SneUing, and on the 
28th of April, 1864, held its last dress parade, in 
the presence of Governor Miller, who had once 
been their lieutenant-colonel and commander. In 
May some of its members re-enlisted as a battal- 
ion, and again joined the Army of the Potomac. 


The Sixth regir-'^nt, which had been in the ex- 
pedition against the Sioux, in Jrme, 1864, was as- 
signed to the 16th army corps, as was the Seventh, 
Ninth and Tenth, and on the 13th of July, near 
Tupelo, Mississippi, the Seventh, Ninth and Tenth, 
with portions of the Fifth, were in battle. Dur- 
ing the first day's fight Surgeon Smith, of the 
Seventh, was fatally wounded through the neck. 
On the morning of the 14th the battle began in 
earnest, and the Seventh, under Colonel W. E. 
Marshall, made a successful charge. Colonel Al- 
exander Wilkin, of the Ninth, was shot, and fell 
dead from his horse. 


On the 15th of October the Fourth regiment 
were engaged near Altoona, Georgia. 


On the 7th of December the Eighth was in bat- 
tle near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, and fourteen 
were killed and seventy -six wounded. 




During the month o[ Decemljer the Fifth, 
Seventh, Ninth and Tenth regiments did good ser- 
vice before Nashville. Colonel L. F. Hubbard, of 
the Fifth, commanding a brigade, after he had 
been knocked off his horse by a ball, rose, and on 
foot 'led his command over the enemy's works. 
Colonel W. R. Marshall, of the Seventh, in com- 
mand of a brigade, made a gallant charge, and 
Lieutenant-colonel S. P. Jennison, of the Tenth, 
one of the first on the enemy's parapet, received a 
severe wound. 


In the spring of 1865 the Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, 
Ninth and Tenth regiments were engaged in the 
siege of Mobile. The Second and Fourth regi- 
ments and First battery were with General Sher- 
man in his wonderful campaign, and the Eighth 
in the month of March was ordered to North Car- 
olina. The battalion, the remnant of the First, 
was with the Army of the Potomac until Lee's sur- 

Arrangements were soon perfected for disband- 
ing the Union army, and before the close of the 
summer all the Minnesota regiments that had been 
on duty were discharged. 


First, Organized April 



May .5, 136J 

Second '* 




July n, 1865 





Sept. " 





Aug. '* 











Seventh " 














• 1 ,. 





" " 

Eleventh ** 




•' " 


First Regiment, Heavy, May, 1861. Discharged Sept. 1865. 


First, October, 1831. Discharged June, 1885. 
Second, Dec. " " July " 

Third, Feb. 1863 " Feb. 1886. 


Rangers, March, 1883. Discharged Dec. 1863. 
Brackctt's, Oct. 1861. " June 1868. 

2dReg't, July, 1883. 


Company A, organized ia 1861, 
B, " " 1682. 


STATE APFAntS FROM A. D. 1862 to A. D. 1882. 

In consequence of the Sioux outbreak, Grov- 
emor Ramsey called an extra ses.sion of the legis- 
lature, -which on the 9th of September, 1862, as- 

As long as Indian hostilities continued, the flow 
of immigration was checked, and the agricultural 
interests suffered; but notwithstanding the dis- 
turbed condition of affairs, the St. Paul & Pacific 
Railroad Company laid ten miles of rail, to the 
FaUs of St. Anthony. 


During the fall of 1862 Alexander Ramsey had 
again been elected governor, and on the 7th of 
January, 1863, delivered the message before 
the Fifth state legislature. During this session he 
was elected to fill the vacancy that would take 
place in the United States senate by the expira- 
tion of the term of Henry M. Kice, who had been 
a senator from the time that Minnesota was organ- 
ized as a state. After Alexander Ramsey became a 
senator, the lieutenant-governor, Henry A. Swift, 
became governor by constitutional provision. 


At the election during the fall of 1863, Stephen 
A. Miller, colonel of the Seventh regiment, was 
elected governor by a majority of- about seven 
thousand votes, Henry T. Welles being his com- 
petitor, and representative of the democratic party. 
During Governor Miller's administration, on the 
10th of November, 1865, two Sioux chiefs, Little 
Six and Medicine Bottle, were hung at Fort Snel- 
ling, for participation in the 1862 massacre. 


In the fall of 1865 William R. Marshall, who 
had succeeded his predecessor as colonel of the 
Seventh regiment, was nominated by the republi- 
can party for governor, and Henry M. Rice by the 
democratic party. The former was elected by 
about five thousand majority. In 1867 Governor 
Marshall was again nominated for the oiBce, and 
Charles E. Flandrau -was the democratic candidate, 
and he was again elected by about the same major- 
ity as before. 


Horace Austin, the judge of the Sixth judicial 
district, was in 1869 the republican candidate for 
governor, and received 27,238 votes, and George 
L. Otis, the democratic candidate, 25,401 votes. 
In 1871 Governor Austin was again nominated, 



and received 45,883 votes, while 30,092 ballots 
were cast for Winthrop Young, the democratic 
candidate. The important event of his adminis- 
tration was the veto of an act of the legislature 
giving the internal improvement lands to certain 
railway corporations. 

Toward the close of Governor Austin's adminis- 
tration, William Seeger, the state treasurer, was im- 
peached for a wrong use of public funds. He 
plead guilty and was disqualified from holding 
any ofiBce of honor, trust or profit in the state. 


The republicans in the fall of 1873 nominated 
Oushman K. Davis for governor, who received 
40,741 votes, while 35,245 ballots were thrown for 
the democratic candidate, Ara Barton. 

The summer that he was elected the locust 
made its appearance in the land, and in certain 
regions devoured every green thing. One of the 
first acts of Governor Davis was to relieve the 
farmers who had sufifered from the visitation of 
locusts. The legislature of 1874 voted relief, and 
the people of the state voluntarily contributed 
clothing and provisions. 

During the administration of Governor Davis the 
principle was settled that there was nothing in the 
charter of a railroad company limiting the power 
of Minnesota to regulate the charges for freight 
and travel. 


At the election in November, 1875, the people 
sanctioned the following amendment to the con- 
stitution: "The legislature may, notwithstanding 
anything in this article, [Article 7, section 8] pro- 
vide by law that any woman at the age of 
twenty-one years and upwards, may vote at any 
election held for the jiurpose of chosing any officer 
of schools, or upon any measure relating to schools, 
and may also provide that any such woman shall 
be eligible to hold any office solely pertaining to 
the management of schools." 


John S. Pillsbury, the republican nominee, at 
the election of November, 1875, received 47,073 
for governor while his democratic competitor, D. 
L. Buell obtained 35,275 votes. Governor PiUsbury 
in his inaugural message, delivered on the 7th of 
January, 1876, urged upon the legislature, as his 
predecessors had done, the importance of provid- 
ing for the payment of the state railroad bonds. 


On the 6th of September, 1876, the quiet citi- 

zens of Minnesota were excited by a telegraphic 
announcement that a band of outlaws from Mis- 
souri had, at mid-day, ridden into the town of 
Northfield, recklessly discharging firearms, and 
proceeding to the bank, killed the acting cashier 
in an attempt to secure its funds. Two of the 
desperadoes were shot in the streets, by firm resi- 
dents, 'and in a brief period, parties from the 
neighboring towns were in pursuit of the assassins. 
After a long and weary search four were sur- 
rounded in a swamp in Watonwan county, and one 
was killed, and the others captured. 

At the November term of the fifth district court 
held at Faribault, the criminals were arraigned, 
and imder an objebtionable statute, by pleading 
guilty, received an imjjrisonment for lite, instead 
of the merrited death of the gallows. 


As early as 1874 in some of the counties of 
Minnesota, the Kocky Mountain locust, of the 
same genus, but a different species from the Eu- 
rope and Arctic locust, driven eastward by the 
failure of the succulent grasses of the upper Mis- 
souri valley appeared as a short, stout-legged, dj- 
vouring army, and in 1875 the myriad of eggs 
deposited were hatched out, and the insects bom 
within the state, flew to new camping grounds, to 
begin their devastations. 

In the spriug the locust appeared in some coun- 
ties, but by an ingenious contrivance of sheet 
iron, covered with tar, their numbers were speedily 
reduced. It was soon discovered that usually 
but one hatching of eggs took place in the same 
district, and it was evident that the crop of 1877 
would be remunerative. When the national 
Thanksgiving was observed on the 26th of No- 
vember nearly 40,000,000 bushels of wheat had 
been garnered, and many who had sown in tears, 
devoutly thanked Him who had given plenty, and 
meditated upon the words of the Hebrew Psalm- 
ist, "He maketh peace within thy borders and 
fiUeth thee with the finest of the wheat." 


At the election in November, 1877, Governor 
Pillsbury was elected a second time, receiving 
59,701, while 39,247 votes were cast for William L. 
Banning, the nominee of the democratic party. 
At this election the people voted to adopt two im- 
portant amendments to the constitution. 


One provided for a biennial, in place of the an- 
nual session of the legislature, in these words: 



"The legisluture of the state shall consist of a 
senate and house of representatives, ■who shall 
meet biennially, at the seat of goyemment of the 
state, at such time as shall be prescribed by law, 
but no session shall exceed the term of sixty 


The other amendment excludes Christian and 
other religious instructions from all of the edu- 
cational institutions of Minnesota in these words: 
"But in no case, shall the moneys derived as afore- 
said, or any portion thereof, or any public moneys, 
or property be appropriated or used for the sup- 
port of schools wherein the distinctive doctrines, 
or creeds or tenets of any particular Christian or 
other religious sect, are promulgated or taught." 


The personal unpopularity of Sherman Page, 
judge of the Tenth judicial district, culminated by 
the house of rej^resentatives of the legislature of 
1878, presenting articles, impeaching him, for con- 
duet unbecoming a judge: the senate sitting as a 
court, examined the charges, and on the 22d of 
June, he was ac quitted. 


The republican party nominated John S. Pills- 
bury for a third term as governor, and at the elec- 
tion in November, 1879, he received 57,-171 votes, 
wliile 42,444 were given for Edmund Kice, the rep- 
resentative of the democrats. 

With a persistence which won the respect of the 
opponents of the measure. Governor Pillsbury con- 
tin ued to advocate the payment of the state rail- 
road bonds. The legislature of 1870 submitted an 
amendment to the constitution, by which the "in- 
ternal improvement lands" were to be sold and the 
proceeds to be used in cancelling the bonds, by the 
bondholders agreeing to purchase the lands at a 
certain sum per acre. The amendment was 
adopted by a vote of the people, but few of the 
bondholders accepted the provisions, and it failed 
to effect the proposed end. The legislature of 
1871 passed an act for a commis.sion to make an 
equitable adjustment of the bonds, but at a sjiecial 
election in May it was rejected. 

The legislature of 1877 passed an act for calling 
m the railroad bonds, and issueing new bonds, 
which was submitted to the people at a special 
election on the 12th of June, and not accepted. 

The legislature of 1878 proposed a constitu- 
tional amendment offering the internal imj)rove- 
meut lands in exchange for railroad bonds, and the 

people at the November election disapproved of the 
proposition. Against the proposed amendment 
45,669 votes were given, and only '26,311 in favor. 


The first biennial session of the legislature con- 
vened in January, 1881, and Governor Pillsbury 
again, in his message of the 6th of January, held 
up to the view of the legislators the dishonored 
railroad bonds, and the duty of providing for their 
settlement. In his argument he said:* 

"Tlje liability having been voluntarily incurred, 
whetlier it was wisely created or not is foreign to 
the present question. It is certain that the obli- 
gations were fairly given for which consideration 
was fairly received; and the state having chosen 
foreclosure as her remedy, and disposed of the 
property thus acquired unconditionally as her own, 
the conclusion seems to me irresistible that she 
assumed the payment of the debt resting upon 
such property by every principle of law and 
equity. And, moreover, as the state promptly 
siezed the railroad property and franchises, ex- 
pressly to indemnify her for payment of the bonds, 
it is difficult to see what possible justification there 
can be for her refusal to make that payment." 

The legislature in March passed an act for the 
adjustment of these bonds, which being brought 
before the supreme court of the state was declared 
void. The court at the same time declared the 
amendment to the state constitution, which pro- 
hibited the settlement of these bonds, without the 
assent of a popular vote, to be a violation of the 
clause in the constitution of the United States of 
America prohibiting the impairment of the obliga- 
tion of contracts. This decision cleared the way 
for final action. Governor Pillsbury called an 
extra session of the legislature in October, 1881, 
which accepted the offer of the bondholders, to be 
satisfied with a partial payment, and made pro\-is- 
ions for cancelling bonds, the existence of which 
for more than twenty years had been a humiliation 
to a large majority of the thoughtful and intelli- 
gent citizens of Minnesota, and a blot upon the 
otherwise fair name of the commonwealth. 


Lucius F. Hubbard, who had been colonel of 
the Fifth Eegiment, was nominated by the repub- 
lican party, and elected in November, 1881, by a 
large majority over the democratic nominee, E. 
W. Johnson. He entered upon his duties in Jan- 
uary, 1882, about the time of the present chapter 
going to press. 








Among the public buildings of Minnesota, the 
capitol is entitled to priority of notice. 


In the absence of a capitol the first legislature 
of the territory of Minnesota convened on Mon- 
day, the 3d of September, 184.9, at St. Paul, in 
a log building covered with pine boards painted 
white, two stories high, which was at the time a 
public inn, afterward known as the Central Hous3, 
and kept by Robert Kennedy. It was situated on 
the high bank of the river. The main portion of 
the building was used for the library, secretary's 
office, council chamber and house of representa- 
tiyes' h.ill, while the annex was occupied as the 
dining-room of the hotel, with rooms for travelers 
in the story above. Both houses of the legisla- 
ture met in the dining-hall to listen to the first 
message of Governor Ramsey. 

The permanent location of the capital was not 
settled by the first legislature, and nothing could 
be done toward the erection of a capitol with the 
$20,000 appropriated by congress, as Jhe perma- 
nent seat of government had not been designated. 

William R. Marshall, since governor, at that 
time a member of the house of rejjresentatives 
from St. Anthony, with others, -svished that point 
to be designated as the capital. 

Twenty years after, in some remarks before tho 
Old Settlers' Association of Hennepin county, Ex- 
Governor Marshall alluded to this desire. He 
said: "The original act [of congress] made 
St. Paul the temporary capital, but provided that 
the legislature might determine the permanent 
capital. A bill was introduced by the St. Paul 
delegation to fix the permanent capital there. I 
opposed it, endeavoring to have St. Anthony made 
the seat of government. We succeeded in defeat- 
ing the bill which sought to make St. Paul the 
permanent capital, but we could not get through 
the bill fixing it at St. Anthony. So the question 
remained open in regard to the permanent capital 
until the next session in 1851, when a compromise 
was effected by which the capitol was to be at St. 
Paul, the State University at St. Anthony, and 

the Penitentiary at Stillwater. At an early day, 
as well as now, caricatures and burlesques were 
in vogue. Young William Randall, of St. Paul, 
now deceased, who had some talent in the graphic 
line, drew a picture of the efforts at capitol re- 
moval. It was a building on wheels, with ropes 
attached, at which I was pictured tugging, while 
Brunson, Jackson, and the other St. Paul mem- 
bers, were holding and checking the wheels, to 
prevent my moving it, with humorous speeches 
proceeding from the mouths of the parties to the 

The second territorial legislature assembled on 
the 2d of January, 1871, in a brick building three 
stories in height, which stood on Third street in 
St. Paul, on a portion of the site now occupied by 
the Metropolitan Hotel, and before the session 
closed it was enacted that St. Paul should be the 
permanent capital, and commissioners were ap- 
pointed to expend the congressional appropriation 
for a capitol. 

When the Third legislature assembled, in Jan- 
uary, 18.52, it was still necessary to occupy a 
hired building known as Goodrich's block, which 
stood on Third street just below the entrance of 
the Merchants' Hotel. In 1853, the capitol not 
being finished, the fourth legislature was obliged 
to meet in a two-story brick building at the corner 
of Third and Minnesota streets, and directly in the 
rear of the wooden edifice where the first legisla- 
ture in 1849 had met. 


After it was decided, in 1851, that St. Paul was 
to be the capital of the territory, Charles Bazille 
gave the square bounded by Tenth, Eleventh, 
Wabasha, and Cedar streets for the capitol. 
A plan was adopted by the building commission- 
ers, and the contract was taken by Joseph Daniels, 
a builder, who now resides in Washington as a 
lawyer and claim agent. The building was of 
brick, and at first had a front jjortico, supported 
by four Ionic columns. It was two stories above 
the basement, 139 feet long and nearly 54 feet in 
width, with an extension in the rear 44x52 feet. 
In July, 1858, it was so far completed as to allow 
the governor to occupy the executive ofBce. 


Before the war it was used not only by the legis- 
lature, and for the offices of state, but was granted 



for important meetings. On the 8th of June a 
large excursion party, under the auspices of the 
builders of the Ciiicago & Kock Island railway, 
arrived at St. Paul from the latter point, in five 
large steamboats, and among the passengers were 
some of the most distinguished scholars, statesmen 
and divines of the republic. At night the popu- 
lation of St. Paul filled the capitol, and the more 
sedate listened in the senate chamber to the stir- 
ring speeches of Ex-President Fillmore, and the 
historian, George Bancroft, who had been secre- 
tary of the navy, and minister plenipotentiary to 
Great Britain, while at a later period of the night 
the youthful portion of the throng danced in the 
reom then used by the supreme court. 

The "Pioneer" of the next day thus alludes to 
the occasion: "The ball in honor of the guests 
of the excursion came off, in fine style. At an 
early hour, the assembly having been called to or- 
der, by the Hon. H. H. Sibley, a welcoming speech 
was delivered by Governor Gorman, and replies 
were made by Ex-President Fillmore and the 
learned historian Bancroft. ****** 
The dancing then commenced and was kept up till 
a late hour, when the party broke up, the guests 
returning to the steamers, and our town's people 
to their homes, all delighted with the rare enter- 


On the 8th of S^itember, 18G0, the capitol was 
visited by Hon. William H. Seward. At mid-Jay 
he met by invitation the memljers of the Histori- 
cal Society in their rooms at the Capitol, and an 
address of welcome was made by the Kt. Rev. 
Bishop Anderson, of Rupert's Land, to which he 
made a brief response. 

In the afternoon, crowds assembled in the 
grounds to listen to an expected speech, and every 
window of the capitol was occupied with eager 
faces. Standing upon the front steps, he ad- 
dressed the audience in the language of a patriot 
and a statesman, and among bis eloquent utter- 
ances, was the following prediction. 

" Every step of my progress since I reached the 
northern Misissippi has been attended by a great 
and agreeable surprise. I had, early, read the 
works in which tlie geographers had described the 
scenes upon which I was entering, and I had 
studied them in the finest productions of art, but 
still the grandeur and luxuriance of this region 

had not been conceived. Those sentinel walls that 
look down upon the Mississippi, seen as I beheld 
them, in their abundant verdure, just wlien the 
earhest tinge of the fall gave luxuriance to the 
forests, made me think how much of taste and 
genius had been wasted in celebrating the high- 
lands of Scotland, before the civilized man had 
reached the banks of the Mississippi; and the 
beautiful Lake Pepin, seen at sunset, when the 
autumnal green of the hills was lost in the deep 
blue, and the genial atmosphere reflected the rays 
of the sun, and the skies above seemed to move 
down and spread their gorgeous drapery on the 
scene, was a piece of upholstery, such as none 
but the hand of nature could have made, and it 
was liut the vestibule of the capitol of the state 
of Minnesota. ***** ***** 
* * * Here is the place, the central place 
where the agriculture of the richest region of 
North America must pour its tribute. On the 
east, all along the shore of Lake Sujierior, and 
west, stretching in one broad plain, in a belt quite 
across the continent, is a country where State after 
State is to arise, and where the productions for the 
support of humanity, in old and crowded States, 
must be brought forth. 

"This is then a commanding field, but it is as 
coraiiiaudiug in regard to the destiny of this coim- 
try and of this continent, as it is, in regard to the 
commercial future, for power is not permanently 
to reside on the eastern slope of the Alleghany 
Mountains, nor in the sea-ports. Sea-ports have 
always been overrun and controlled by the people 
of the interior, and the power that shall communi- 
cate and express the will of men on this continent 
is to be located in the Mississippi valley and at the 
sources of the Mississippi and Saint Lawrence. 

"In our day, studying, perhaps what might 
seem to others trilling or visionary, I had cast 
about for the future and ultimate central seat of 
power of North American people. I had looked 
at Quebec, New Orleans, Washington,' Cincinnati, 
St. LouLs, and San Francisco, and it had been tlje 
result of my last conjecture, that the seat of power 
in North America could be found in the valley of 
Mexico, and that the glories of the Aztec capital 
would be surrendered, at its becoming at last the 
capital of the United States of America, but I 
have corrected that view. I now believe that the 
ultimate seat of government in this great Conti- 
nent, will be found somewhere within the circle or 



radius not very far from the spot where I now 


In a few months after this speech, Mr. Seward 
was chosen by President Lincoln, inaugurated 
March 4, 1861, as secretary of slate, and the next 
great crowd in front of the capitol was collected 
by the presentation of a flag by the ladies of St. 
Paul to tlie First Minnesota regiment which had 
been raised for the suppression of the slave-holders 
rebeUion. On May the 25th, 1861, the regiment 
came down from their rendezvous at Port Snelling, 
and marched to the capital grounds. The wife of 
Governor Ramsey, -with the flag in hand, aj)peared 
on .the front steps, surrounded by a committee of 
ladies, and presenting it to Colonel Gorman, made 
a brief address in which she said: "Prom this 
capitol, to the most remote frontier cottage, no 
heart but shall send up a prayer for your safety; 
no eye but shall follow with affection the flutter- 
ings of your banner, and no one but shall feel 
pride, when you crown the banner as you will 
crown it, with glory." 

As the State increased in population it was nec- 
essary to alter and enlarge the building, and in 
1873, a wing was added fronting on Exchange 
street, and the cupola was improved. The legis- 
lature of 1878 provided for the erection of another 
wing, at an expense of $14,000, fronting on Waba- 
sha street. The building, by successive additions, 
was in length 204 feet, and in width 150 feet, and 
the top of the dome was more than 100 feet from 
the ground. 


On the morning of the 1st of March, 1881, it 
was destroyed by fire. About 9 o'clock in the 
the evening two gentlemen, who lived opposite, 
discovered the capitol was on fire, and immedia- 
tely, by the telegraph, an alarm notified the firemen 
of the city, and the occupants of the capitol. 

The flames rapidly covered the cupola and licked 
the flag flying from the staff on top. One of the 
reporters of the Pioneer Press, who was in the 
senate chamber at the time, graphically describes 
the scene within. 

He writes: "The senate was at work on third 
reading of house bills ; Lieutenant Governor GU- 
man in his seat, and Secretary Jennison reading 
something about restraining cattle in Rice county ; 
the senators were lying back listening carelessly, 

when the door opened and Hon. Michael Doran 
announced that the building was on fire. All eyes 
were at once turned in that direction, and the 
flash of the flames was visible from the top of the 
gallery, as well as from the hall, which 
is on a level with the floor of the senate. The panic 
that ensued had a different effect upon the differ- 
ent persons, and those occupying places nearest the 
entrance, pushing open the door, and rushing pell 
mell through the blinding smoke. Two or three 
ladies happened to be in the vicinity of the doors, 
and happily escaped uninjured. But the opening 
of the door produced a draft which drew into the 
senate chamber clouds of smoke, the fire in the 
meantime having made its appearance over the 
center and rear of the gallery. All this occurred 
so suddenly that senators standing near the re- 
porter's table and the secretary's desk, which were 
on the opposite side of the chamber from the en- 
trance, stood as if paralyzed, gazing in mute as- 
tonishment at the smoke that passed in through 
the open doors, at the flames over the gallery, and 
the rushing crowd that blocked the door-ways. 
The senate suddenly and foi-maUy adjourned. 
President GkUman, however stood in his place, 
gavel in hand, and as he rapped his desk, loud and 
often he yelled: "Shut that door! Shut that 

"The cry was taken up by Colonel Crooks and 
other senators, and the order was fiually obeyed, 
after which, the smoke clearing away, the senators 
were enabled to collect their senses and decide 
what was best to be done. President Gilman, 
still standing up in his place, calm and collected 
as if nothing unusual had happened, was encour- 
aging the senators to keep cool. Colonel Crooks 
was giving orders as if a battle was raging around 

"Other senators were giving such advice as oc- 
curred to them, but unfortunately no advice was 
pertinent except to keep cool and that was aU. 
Some were importuning the secretary and his as- 
sistants to save the records, and General Jennison, 
his hands full of papers, was waiting a chance to 
walk out with them. But that chance looked re- 
mote, indeed, for there, locked in the senate cham- 
ber, were at least fifty men walking around, some 
looking at each other in a dazed sort of a way; 
others at the windows looking out at the snow-cov- 
ered yard, now Ulumiaated from the flames, that 
were heard roaring and crackUng overhead. 



From some windows men were yelling to the lim- 
ited crowd below: "Get some ladders! Send for 
ladders!" Other windows were occupied. About 
this time terror actually siezed the members, when 
Senator Buck remarked that the fire was raging 
overhead, and at the same moment bummg brands 
began to drop through the large ventilators upon 
the desks and floor beneath. 

"Then, for a moment, it seemed as it all hopes of 
escape were out off. * * * * * 
But happily the flames having made their way 
through the dome, a draught was created strong 
enough to clear the halls of smoke. The dome 
was almost directly over the entrance of the senate 
chamber, and burning brands and timbers had 
fallen down through the glass ceiling in front of 
the door, rendering escape in that director im- 

"But a small window leading from the cloak room 
of the senate chamber to the first landing of the 
main stairway furnished an avenue of escape, and 
through this little opening every man in the sen- 
ate chamber managed to get out. 

"The windows were about ten feet high, but Mr. 
Michael Doran and several other gentlemen stood 
at the bottom, and uobly rendered assistance to 
those who came tumbling out, some headlong, 
some sidewaj'-s and some feet foremost. 

" As the reporter of the Pioneer-Press came out 
and landed on his feet, he paused for a moment to 
survey the scene overhead, where the flames were 
lashing themselves into fury as they played under- 
neath the dome, and saw the flag-staff burning, 
and coals dropping down like fiery hail. 

"It took but a few minutes for the senators to get 
out, after which they assembled on the outside, 
and they had no sooner gaiued the street than the 
ceiling of the seaate chamber fell in, and in ten 
minutes that whole wing was a mass of flames." 

Similar scenes took place in the hall of the 
house of representatives. A young lawyer, with 
a friend, as soon as the fire was noticed, riin into 
the law library and began to throw books out of 
the wmdows, but in a few minutes the density of 
the smoke and the approach of the flames com- 
pelled them to desist, and a large portion of the 
library was burned. The portraits of Generals 
Sherman and Ihomas which were hung over the 
stairway were saved. The books of the Histori- 
cal Society, in the basement, were removed, but 
were considerably damaged. In three hours the 

bare walls alone remained of the capitol which 
for nearly thirty years had been familiar to the 
law-makers and public men of Minnesota. 

Steps were immediately taken to remove the 
debris and build a new capitol, upon the old site. 
The foundation walls have been laid, and in the 
course of a year the superstructure will be com- 


Before the penitentiary was built, those charged 
or convicted of crime were placed in charge of the 
commandants of Fort Snelling or Eipley, and kept 
at useful employment under military supervision. 
At the same time it was decided to erect a capitol 
at St. Paul,it was also determined that the territorial 
prison should be buUt at or within half a mile of 
Stillwater. A small lot was secured in 1851 in 
what was called the Battle ravine, in consequence of 
the conflict between the Sioux and Chippeways de- 
scribed on the 103d page. Within a stone wall was 
erected ofBces of the prison, with an annex con- 
taining six ceUs. A warden's house was built 
on the outside of the wall. In 1853, an addition 
of six cells was made and on the 5th of March, 
1853, F. R. Delano entered upon his duties as 
warden. His reports to the legislature show that 
for several years there was little use for the cells. 
The prison was opened for criminals on the 1st of 
.Septcmber,1853,auduntilJanuary, 1858 there had 
been received onlj' five convicts, and forty-one 
county and thirty city prisoners awaiting trial. 
The use of the prison by the counties and city as 
a temporary place of confinement led to some 
misunderstanding between the warden and Wash- 
ington county, and the grand jury of that county 
in November, 1857, complained that the wai'den 
was careless in discharge of his duties. The jury, 
among other complaints sent the following ironi- 
cal statement: "It was also found in such exami- 
uution that one Maria Roffin, committed on charge 
of selling spirituous hquors to the Indians within 
the territory of the United States escaped in the 
words of the record, 'by leaving the prison' and it 
is a matter of astonishment to this grand jury 
that she so magnanimously consented to leave the 
penitentiary behind her." 

Francis O. J. Smith acted as warden for a brief 
l)eriod after Delano, and then H. N. Setzer. In 
1859, the number of cells had increased to sixteen, 
iiul among the inmates was a hitherto respectable 



citizen sentenced for fifteen years for robbing a 

In 1860 John S. Proctor became warden, and 
after eight years of efBoieut service, was succeeded 
by Joshua L. Taylor. By successive additions 
in 1869 nearly ten acres were enclosed by prison 
walls, and during this year extensive shops were 
built. The State in 1870 erected a costly prison 
at an expense of about $80,000, which, besides a 
chapel and necessary offices, contained two hun- 
dred and ninety-nine cells. 

A. 0. Webber succeeded Taylor as Warden in 
March, 1870, and the following October, Henry 
A. Jackman took his place, and continued in office 
until August, 1874, when the present incumbent, 
J. A. Keed, was appointed. 

It has been the policy of the State to hire the 
convicts to labor for contractors, in workshops 
within the walls. At present the inmates are 
largely engaged in the making of agricultural 
machines for the firm of Seymour, Sabin & Co. 


The Territorial Legislature of 18.51, passed an 
act establishing the University of Minnesota at or 
near the Falls of St. Anthony, and memorialized 
Congress for a grant of lands for the Institution. 
Soon after, Congress ordered seventy-two sections 
of land to be selected and reserved for the use of 
said University. 

As the Kegents had no funds, Franklin Steele 
gave the site now the public square, on Second 
Street in the East Division, oj^posite the Minnesota 
Medical College. Mr. Steele and others at their 
own expense erected a wooden building thereon, 
for a Preparatory Department, and the Eev. E. W. 
Merrill was engiiged as Principal. At the close 
of the year 1853, the Eegents reported that there 
was ninety- four students in attendance, but that 
the site selected being too near the Falls, they had 
purchased of Joshtia L. Taylor and Paul B. George 
about twenty-five acres, a mile eastward, on 
the heigth overlooking the Falls of St. Anthony. 

Governor Gorman, in his message in 1854 to 
the Legislature said : "The University of IMinne- 
sota exists as yet only in name, but the time has 
comewjien a substantial reality may and should 
be created." But the Eegents could not find any 
patent which would compress a myth into reality, 
for not an acre of the land grant of Congress was 
available. The Governor in his message therefore 
■'idded: "It would not embarrass our resources, 

in my judgment, if a small loan was effected to 
erect a building, and establish one or two profes- 
sorships, and a preparatory department, such loau 
to be based upon the townships of land appropri- 
ated for the sole use of the University." 

While it was pleasing to loc; 1 pride to have e 
building in prospect which could be seen from 
afar, the friends of education shook their heads, 
and declared the prospect of borrowing money to 
build a University building before the common 
school system was organized was visionary, and 
would be unsuccessful. The idea, however, con- 
tinued to be agitated, and the Begents at length 
were authorized by the Legislature of 1856, to 
issue lionds in the name of the University, under 
its corporate seal, for fifteen thousand dollars, to 
be secured by the mortgage of the University 
building which had been erected on the new site, 
and forty thousand dollars more were authorized 
to be issued by the Legislature of 1858, to be 
secured by a lien on the lands devoted for a Ter- 
ritorial University. With the aid of these loans a 
costly and inconvenient stone edifice was con- 
structed, but when finished there was no demand 
for it, and no means for the payment of interest or 

In the fall of 1858, in the hope that the Uni- 
versity might be saved from its desperate condi- 
tion, the Regents elected the Rev. Edward D. 
Neill as Chancellor. He accepted the position 
without any salary being pledged, and insisted 
that a University must necessarily be of slow de- 
velopment, and must succeed, not precede, the 
common schools, and contended that five years 
might elapse before anything could be done for a 
University which would be tangible and visible. 
He also expressed the belief that in time, with 
strict watchfulness, the heavy load of debt could 
be hf ted. 

The Legislature of 1860 abolished the old board 
of Regents of the Territorial University by pass- 
ing an act for a State University, which had been 
prepared by the Chancellor, and met the, approval 
of Chancellor Tappan, of Michigan University. 
Its first section declared "that the object of the 
State University established by the Constitution of 
the State, at or near the Falls of St. Anthony, 
shall be to provide the best and most efficient 
means of imparting to the youth of the State an 
education more advanced than that given in the 
public schools, and a thorough knowledge of the 



branches of literature, the arts and Boiences, with 
their various applications." 

This charter also provided for the appointment 
of five Regents, to be appointed by the Governor, 
and confirmed by the Senate, iu place of the 
twelve who had before been elected by the Legis- 
lature. The Legislature of 1860 also enacted that 
the Chancellor shoiild be ex-officio State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction. 

The first meeting of the Regents of the State 
University was held on the fifth of April, 1860, 
and steps were taken to secure the then useless edi- 
fice from further dilapidation. The Chancellor 
urged at this meeting that a large portion of the 
territorial land grant would be absorbed in pay- 
ment of the moneys used in the erection of 
a building in advance of the times, and that 
the only way to secure the existence of a State 
University was by asking Congress for an addi- 
tional two townshi^js, or seventy-two sections of 
land, which he contended could be done under the 
phraseology of the enabUug act, which said: "That 
seventy-two sections of land shall be set apart and 
reserved for the use and support of a State Univer- 
sity to be selected by the Governor of said State,'" 

The Regents requested the Governor to suggest 
to the authorities that it was not the intention of 
Congress to turn over the debts and prospectively 
encumbered lands of an old and badly managed 
Territorial institution, but to give the State that 
was to be, a grant for a State University, free 
from all connection with tlie Territorial organiza- 
tion. The Governor communicated these views 
to the authorities at Washington, but it was not 
tUl after years of patient waiting that the land was 
obtained by an act of Congress. 

At the breaking out of the civil war in 1861, 
the Chancellor became Chaplain of the First Regi- 
ment of Minnesota Volunteers, and went to the 
seat of war, and the University affairs continued to 
grow worse, and the University building was a 
by-word and hissing among the passers by. Dur- 
ing the year 1863, some of the citizens of St. An- 
thony determined to make another effort to extri- 
cate the institution from its difficulties, and the 
legislature of 1864 passed an act abolishing the 
board of Regents, and creating three persons sole 
regents, with power to liquidate the debts of the 
institution. The Regeuts under this law were 
John S. Pillsbury and O. C. Merriman, of St. An- 
thony, and John Nicols, of St. Paul. 

The increased demand for pine lands, of which 
the University owned many acres, and the sound 
discretion of these gentlemen co-operated in pro- 
curing happy results. In two years Governor 
Marshall, in his message to the legislature, was 
able to say: "The very able and successful man- 
agement of the affairs of the institution, imder the 
piesent board of Regents, relieving it of over one 
hundred thousand dollars of debt, and saving over 
thirty thousand acres of land that was at one time 
supposed to be lost, entitles Messrs. Pillsbury, 
Merriman, and Nicols to the lasting gratitude of 
the State." 

The legislature of 1867 appropriated $5,000 for 
a preparatory and Normal department, and the 
Regents this year chose as principal of the school, 
the Rev. W. W. Washburn, a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, and Gabriel Campbell, of the 
same institution, and Ira Moore as assistants. The 
legislature of 1868 passed an act to reorganize the 
University, and to establish an Agricultural Col- 
lege therein. 

Departing from the policy of the University of 
Michigan, it established what the Regents wished,a 
department of Elementary instruction. It also pro- 
vided for a OoUege of Science, Literature and the 
Arts; a College of Agriculture and MecUaniiis with 
Military Tactics; a college of Law, and a College 
of Medicine. 

The provision of the act of 1860, for the appoint- 
ment of Regents was retained, and the number to 
be confirmed by the Senate, was increased from 
five to seven. 

The new board of Regents was organized in 
March, 1868. John S. Pillsbury, of St. Anthony, 
President; O. C. Merriman, of St. Anthony, Sec- 
retary, and John Nicils, of St. Paul, Treasurer. 

At a meeting of the Regents in August, 1869, 
arrangements were made for collegiate work by 
electing as President and Professor of mathematics 
^^■illiam W. FolweU. 

President FohveU was bom in 1835, in Seneca 
county. New York, and graduated with distinction 
in 1827, at Hobart College in Geneva, New York. 
For two years lie was a tutor at Hobart, and then 
went to Europe. Upon his return the civil war was 
raging, and he entered the 50th New Y'ork Volun- 
teers. After the army was disbanded he engaged 
in business in Ohio, but at the time of his election 
to the presidency of the University, was Professor 
oE mathematics, astronomy, and German at Ken- 
yon College. 




The present faculty of the institution is as fol- 

William W. Folwell, instructor, political science. 

Jabez Brooks, D. D., professor, Greek, and in 
charge o£ Latin. 

Newton H. WincheU, professor, State geologist, 
C: N. Hewitt, M. D., professor, Public Health. 

JohnG. Moore, professor, German. 

Moses Marston, Ph. D., professor, English lit- 

C. W. Hall, professor, geology and biology. 

John 0. Hutchinson, assistant professor, Greek 
and mathematics. 

Johu S. Clark, assistant professor, Latin. 

Matilda J. Campbell, instructor, German and 

Maria L. Sanford, professor, rhetoric, and elocu- 

William A. Pike, 0. E., professor, engineering 
and physics. 

John F. Downey, professor, mathematics and 

James A. Dodge, Ph. D., professor, chemistry. 

Alexander T. Ormond, professor, mental and 
moral philosophy and history. 

Charles W. Benton, professor, French.- 

Edward D. Porter, professor, agriculture. 

William H. Leib, instructor, vocal music. 

William F. Decker, instructor, shop work and 

Edgar C. Brown, U. S. A., professor, military 

James Bowen, instructor, practical horticulture. 


The campus of the university since it was orig- 
inally acquired, has been somewhat enlarged, and 
now consists of about fifty acres in extent, undu- 
lating in surface, and well wooded with native 
trees. The buildings are thus far but two in 
number, the plan of the original building, which 
in outline was not unlike the insane asylum build- 
ing at St. Peter, having been changed by the 
erection in 1876, of a large four-story structure 
built of stone and surmounted by a tower. This 
building is 186 feet in length and ninety in 
breadth, exclusive of porches, having three stories 
above the basement in the old part- The walls 
are of blue limestone and the roof of tin. The 
rooms, fifty -three in number, as well as all the 
corridors are heated by an efficient steam appara- 

tus, and are thoroughly ventilated. Water is sup- 
plied from the city mains, and there is a stand- 
pipe running from the basement through the roof 
with hose attached on all the floors for protection 
against fire. The assembly hall, in the third 
story, is 87x55 feet, 24 feet high, and wiU seat 
with comfort 700 people, and 1,200 can be accom- 


is the first of the special buildings for the separ- 
ate colleges, and was built in 1876. It is of 
brick, on a basement of blue stone, 146x54 feet. 
The central portion is two stories in height. The 
south wing, 46x25 feet, is a plant house of double 
sash and glass. The north wing contains the 
chemical laboratory. There are class rooms for 
chemistry, physics and agriculture, and private 
laboratories for the professors. A large room in 
the second story is occupied by the museum of 
technology and agriculture, and the basement is 
filled up with a carpenter shop, a room with vises 
and tools at which eight can work, and another 
room fitted with eight forges and a blower — the 
commencement of the faciUties for practical in- 


Of all the public institutions of Minnesota, no 
one has had a more joleasing history, and more 
symmetrical development than the Institution for 
the education of the deaf and dumb and the blind 
at Faribault. 

The legislature of 1858, passed an act for the 
establishment of "The Minnesota State Institute 
for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb," within 
two miles of Faribault, in Rice county, upon con- 
dition that the town or county, should within one 
year from the passage of the law give forty acres 
of land for its use. The condition was comj^lied 
with, but the financial condition of the country 
and the breaking out of the civil war, with other 
causes retarded the progress of the Institution for 
five years. 

The legislature of 1863 made the first appro- 
priation of fifteen himdred dollars for the opening 
of the Institution. Mr. E. A. Mott, of Faribault, 
who has to this time been an efiicient director, at 
the request of the other two directors, visited the 
East for teachers, and secured Prof. Kinney and 
wife of Columbus, Ohio. A store on Front Street 
was tfien rented, and adapted for the temporary 



use of the Institution, which opened on the 9th of 
September, 1863, with live pupils, which soon in- 
creased to ten. 

On February 13th, 1864, the State appropriated 
about four thousand dollars for the supiiert of the 
Institution, and the directors expended about one 
thousand dollars in the erection of small additional 
building, eighteen by twenty feet in dimensions, 
as s boys' dormitory. 

After laboring faithfully for three years and se- 
curing the respect of his associates, on July 1st, 
1866, Prof. Kinney resigned on account of ill health. 

The directors the nest month elected as Super- 
intendent Jonathan L. Noyes, A. M. On the 7th 
of SejJtember Professor Noyes an-ived at Faribault 
with Miss A. L. Steele as an assistant teacher and 
Henrietta Watson as matron. 


Upon the 17th of March, 1863, the Institution 
was removed to a wing of the new building upon 
a site of fifty-two acres beautifully situated upon 
the brow of the hills east of Faribault. The edi- 
fice of the French louvre style, and was designed 
by Monroe Sheire, a St. Paul architect, and cost 
about fifty-three thousand dollars, and water was 
introduced from si^rings in the vicinity. 


In 1869, the Superintendent was cheered by the 
completion of the first work shop, and soon eight 
mutes imder the direction of a mute foreman be- 
gan to make flour barrels, and in less than a year 
had sent out more than one thousand, and in 1873 
4,054 barrels were made. 


The completed wing was not intended to accom- 
modate more than sixty pupils and soon there was 
a demand for more room. During the year 1869 
the foundation of the south wing was completed, 
and on the 10th of September 1873 the building 
was occupied by boys, the other wing being used 
for the girls. By the time the building was ready 
■■itudents were waiting to occupy. 


In 1879 the design was completed by the finith- 
ing of the centre building. The whole edifice is 
thus described by the architect, Monroe Sheire: 
"The plan of the building is rectangular, and con- 
sists of a central portion one hundred feet north 

and south, and one hundred and eight feet east 
and west, exclusive of piazzas, and two wings, one 
on the north, and the other on the south side, 
each of those being eighty by forty-five. This 
makes the extreme length two hundred and sixty 
feet, and the width one hundred and eight feet. 
The entire building is four stories above the base- 

The exterior walls are built of blue Ume stone 
from this vicinity, and the style Franco Roman- 
esque. Over the center is a graceful cupola, and 
the top of the same is one hundred and fifty feet 
above the ground. 

The entire cost to the State of all the improve- 
ments was about $175,000, and the building wdl 
accommodate about two hundred pupils. The 
rooms are lighted by gas from the Faribault Gas 


Tlie first shop opened was for making barrels. 
To this cooper shop has been added a shoe shop, a 
tailor shop and a printing office. 


The pupils established in March, 1876, a little 
paper called the Gopher. It was printed on a 
small press, and second-hand* type was used. 

In June, 1877, it was more than doubled in 
size, and changed its name to "The Mutes' Com- 
piiuion." Printed with good type, and filled with 
pleasant articles it still exists, and adds to the in- 
terest in the institution. 


In 1863 a law was passed by the legislature re- 
quiring blind chOdren to be educated under the sir- 
pervision of the Deaf and Dumb Institutior.. 
Early in July, 1866, a school for the blind was 
opened in a separate building, rented for the pur- 
\,ox, under the care of Miss H. N. Tucker. Dur- 
ing the first term there were three pupils. In May, 
1863, the blind pupils were brought into the deal 
and dumb institution, but the experiment of in 
strufting these two classes together was not satis- 
factory, and in 1874 the blind were removed to 
the old Faribault House, half a mile south of 
the Deaf and Dumb Institution, which had been 
fitted up for their accommodation, and where 
a large new brick building, for the use of the 
blind, has since been erected. In 1875, Profes- 
sor James J. Dow was made prineiiml of the 




From time to time, iu his report to the Legisla- 
ture, Siiperiutendent Noyes alhided to the fact that 
Bome children appeared deaf aud dumb because of 
their feeble mental development, and in 1879, the 
state appropriated S5,000 for a school for imbecile 

The institution was started in July of that year 
by Dr. Henry M. Knight, now deceased, then 
Superintendent and founder of the Connecticut 
school of the same description, who was on a visit 
to Faribault. He superintended the school until 
the arrival, in September, of his son, Dr. George 
H. Knight, who had been trained imder his father. 

For the use of the school the Fairview House was 
rented, and fourteen feeble children were sent 
from the Insane Asylum at St. Peter. In eigh- 
teen months the number had increased to twenty - 

The site of the new building for the school is 
about forty rods south of the Blind School. The 
dimensions are 44x80 feet, with a tower projection 
20x18 feet. It is of limestone, and three stories 
above the basement, covered with an iron hip-roof, 
and cost about $25,000. 


The growth of the Minnesota institution for the 
education of the deaf and dumb and the blind, 
has been so symmetrical, and indicative of one ' 
moulding mind, that c sketch of the institution 
would be incomplete without some notice of the 
Superintendent, who has guided it for the last 
sixteen years. 

On the 13th of June, 1827, Jonathan Lovejoy 
Noyes was born in Windham, Kockingham county. 
New Hampshire. At the age of fourteen years he 
was sent to Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachu- 
setts, not only one of the oldest, but among 
the best schools in the United States. At Andover 
he had the advantage of the instruction of the 
thorough Greek scholar. Dr. Samuel H. Taylor, 
the eminent author, Lyman H. Coleman, D. D., 
afterwards Professor of Latin in Lafayette Col- 
lege, Pennsylvania, and William H. Wells, whose 
English grammar has been used in many insti- 

After completing his preparatory studies, in 
1848, he entered Yale College, and in four years 
received the diploma of Bachelor of Arts. After 
graduation he received an appointment in the 

Pennsylvania Institution of the Deaf and Dumb, on 
Broad Street, Philadelphia, and found instructing 
deaf mutes was a pleasant occupation. After six 
years of important work in Philadelphia, he was 
employed two years in a similar institution at 
Baton Bouge, Louisiana, and then received an ap- 
pointment in the well known American Asylum so 
long presided over by Thomas H. Gallandet, at 
Hartford, Connecticut. While laboring here he 
was invited to take charge of the "Minnesota In- 
stitution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb 
and the Blind," and in September, 1866, he ar- 
rived at Faribault. With wisdom and patience, 
gentleness and energy, and an unfaltering trust in 
a superintending Providence, he has there contin- 
ued his work with the approbation of his fellow 
citizens, and the affection of the pupils of the 

At the time that he was relieved of the care of 
the blind and imbecile, the directors entered upon 
their minutes the following testimonial: 

"■Resolved, That upon the retirement of Prof. J. 
L. Noyes from the superintendency of the dej)art- 
ments of the blind and imbecile, the board of 

Directors, of the Minnesota Institution for the 
Deaf and Dumb, and Blind and Idiots, and Imbe- 
ciles, desire to testify to his deejD interest in these 
several departments; his efficient and timely ser- 
vices in their establishment; and his wise direction 
of their early progress, until they have become 
full-fledged and independent departments of our 
noble State charitable institutions. ' 

"For his cordial and courteous co-operation with 
the directors in their work, and for his timely 
counsel and advice, never withheld when needed, 
the board by this testimonial, render to him their 
hearty recognition and warm acknowledgement." 

On the 2l8tof July, 1862, Professor Noyes mar- 
ried Eliza H. Wadsworth, of Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, a descendent of the Colonel Wadsworth, who 
in the old colony time, hid the charter of Connecti- 
cut in an oak, which for generations has been 
known in history as the "Charter Oak." They 
have but one child, a daughter. 


Until the year 1866, the insane of Minnesota 
were sent to the Iowa Asylum for treatment, but 
in January of that year the Legislature passed an 
act appointing Wm. K. Marshall, John M. Berry, 
Thomas Wilson, Charles Mclhath, and S. J. K. 
McMillan to select a proper place for the Minne- 



sota Hospital for the Insane. The vicinity of St. 
Peter was chosen, the citizens presenting to the 
State two hundred and ten acres one mile south of 
the city, and on the Minnesota River, directly op- 
posite to Kasota. 

In October, 1866, temporary buildings were 
erected, and the Trustees elected Samuel E. 
Shantz. of Utica, N. Y., as the Superintendent. 
A plan submitted by Samuel Sloan, a Philadelphia 
architect, consisting of a central building, with 
sections and wings for the accommodation of at 
least five hundred patients, in 1867, was adopted, 
and in 1876 the great structure was completed. 
• It is built of Kasota limestone, the walls lined 
with brick, and the roof covered with slates. The 
central building is four stories in height, sur- 
mounted ■with a fine cupola, and therein are the 
chapel and offices. Each wing is three stories 
high, with nine separate lialls. 

The expenses of construction of the Asylum, 
with the outbuildings, has been more than half a 
million of dollars. Dr. Shantz having died, Cyrus 
K. Bartlett, M. D., of Northampton, Massachu- 
setts, was appointed Superintedent. 

In January, 1880, in the old temporary build- 
ings and in the Asylum proper there were six hun- 
dred and sixty patients. On the 15th of Novem- 
ber, 1880, about half past eight in the evening, 
the Superintendent and assistants were shocked by 
the announcement that the north wing was on 
fire. It began in the northwest comer of the 
basement, and is supposed to liave been kindled by 
a patient employed about the kitchen who was not 
violent. The flames rapidly ascended to the dif- 
ferent stories, through the holes for the hot air 
pipes, and the openings for the dumb waiters. 

The wing at the time contained two himdred 
and seventy patients, and as they were Uberated 
by their nurses and told to make their escape, ex- 
hibited various emotions. Some clapped their 
hands with glee, others trembled with fear. 
Many, barefooted and with bare heads, rushed for 
the neighboring hills and sat on the cold snow. 
A few remained inside. One patient was noticed 
in a window of the third story, with his knees 
drawn up to his chin, and his face in his hands, a 
cool and interested looker on, and with an expres- 
sion of cynical contempt for the flames as they ap- 
proached his seat. When a tongue of fire would 
shoot toward him, he would lower his head, and 
after it passed would resume his position with more 
than the indifierence of a stoic. At last the brick 

work beneath him gave way with a loud crash, 
and as he was precijiitated into the cauldron of fire 
soon to be burned to ashes, his maniacal laugh was 
heard above the roar of the flames. 

The remains of eighteen patients were found in 
the ruins, and seven died in a few days after the 
fire, in consequence of injuries and exposure. 

Immediate steps were taken by the Governor to 
repair the damages by the fire. 


In 1878, the Legislature enacted a law by 
which an inebriate asylum commenced at Koches- 
ter could be used for an Insane Asylum. With the 
ai^propriation, alterations and additions were 
made, Dr. J. E. Bowers elected Superintendent, 
and on the Ist of January, 1879, it was opened for 

Twenty thonsatld dollars have since been appro- 
priated for a wing for female patients. 


During the year 1865, I. V. D. Heard, Esq., a 
lawyer of Saint Paul, and at that time City At- 
torney sent a communication to one of the daily 
papers urging the importance of separating child 
ren arrested for petty crimes, from the depraved 
adults found in the station house or county jail, 
and also called the attention of the City Council 
to the need for a Reform School. 

The next Legislature, in 1866, under the influ- 
ence created by the discussion passed a law creat- 
ing a House of Eefuge, and appropriated $5,000 for 
its xise on condition that the city of Saint Paul 
would give the same amount. 

In November, 1867; the managers purchased 
thirty acres with a stone farm house and Ijam 
thereon, for S10,000, situated in Rose township, in 
Saint Anthony near Snelling Avenue, in the west- 
em suburbs of Saint Paul. 

In 1868 the House of Refuge was ready to re- 
ceive wayward youths, and this year the Legis- 
lature changed the name to the Minnesota State 
Reform School, and accepted it as a state institu- 
tion. The Rev. J. G. Riheldaflbr D. D., who had 
for years been pastor of one of the Saint Paul 
Presbyterian churclies was elected superintendent 

In 1869 the main budding of light colored 
brick, 40x60 feet was erected, and occupied in 

In February, 1879, the laundry, a separate 
building was burned, and-^n appropriation of the 



Legislature was made soon after of $15,000 for 
the rebuilding of the laundry and the ei'ection of 
a work shop. This shop is 50x100 and three 
stories high. The boys besides receiving a good 
English education, are taught to be tailors, tinners, 
carjsenters and gardeners. The sale of bouquets 
from the green house, of sleds and toys, and of 
tin ware has been one of the sources of revenue. 

Doctor Riheldaffer continues as superintendent 
and by his judicious management has prepared 
many of the inmates to lead useful and honorable 
lives, after their discharge from the Institution. 


By the influence of Lieut. Gov. Holcomb and 
others the first State Legislature in 1858 passed 
an Act by -which three Normal schools might be 
erected, but made no proper provision for their 


Dr. Ford, a graduate of Dartmouth college, 
and a respectable physician in Winona, \vith sev- 
eral residents of the same place secured to the 
amount of $5,512 subscriptions for the establish- 
ment of a Normal School at that point, and a 
small appropriation was secured in 1880 from the 

John Ogden, af Ohio, was elected Principal, and 
in September, 1860, the school was opened in a 
temporary building. Soon after the civil war be- 
gan the school was suspended, and Mr. Ogden 
entered the army. 

In 1864 the Legislature made an appropriation 
of $3,000, and and WiUiam F. Phelps, who had 
been in charge of the New Jersey Normal School 
at Trenton, was chosen principal. In 1865 the 
State appropriated S5,000 annually for the school 
and the citizens of Winona gave over |20,000 to- 
ward the securing of a site and the erection of a 
permanent edifice. 

One of the best and most ornamental education- 
al buildings in the Northwest was commenced and 
in September, 1869, was so far finished as to ac- 
commodate pupils. To complete it nearly $150,- 
000 was given by the State. 

In 1876 Prof. W. F. Phelps resigned and was 
succeeded by Charles A. Morey who in May, 
1879 retired. The present principal is Irwin 


In 1866, Mankato having offered a site for a 

second Normal School, the Legislature give $5,000 
for its support. George M. Gage was elected 
Principal and on the 1st of September, 1868 the 
school was opened, It occupied the basement of, 
the Methodist church for a few weeks, and then 
moved into a room over a store at the corner of 
Front and Main streets. In April 1870, the State 
building was first occupied. 

Prof. Gage resgned in June, 1872, and his suc- 
cessor was Miss J. A. Sears who remained one year. 
In July 1873, the Eev. D. 0. John was elected 
principal, and in the spring of 1880, he retired. 

The present Principal is Professor Edward Sear- 
ing, formerly State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction in Wisconsin, a fine Latin scholar, and 
editor of an edition of Virgil. 


In 1809, the citizens of St. Cloud gave $5,000 
for the establishment in that city of the third 
Normal School, and a buildiug was fitted up for 
its use. The legislature in 1869, appropriated 
$3,000 for current expenses. In 1870, a new build- 
ing was begun, the legislature having appropriated 
.1;10,000, and in 1873, $30,000; this building in 
1875 was first occupied. In 1875, the Rev. D. L. 
Kiehle was elected Principal, Prof. Ira Moore, the 
first Principal having resigned. In 1881, Prof. 
Kiehle was appointed State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, and Jerome Allen, late of New 
York, was elected his successor. 





GOVERNOR BAMSEI A. D. 1849 TO A. D. 1853. 

Alexander Ramsey, the first Governor of the 
Territory of Minnesota, was born on the 8th of 
September, 1815, near Harrisburg, in Dauphin 
county, Pennsylvania. His grandfather was a 
descendent of one of the many colonists who came 
from the north of Ireland before the war of the 
Revolution, and his father about the time of the 
first treaty of peace with Great Britain, was boru in 
York county, Pennsylvania. His mother Elizabeth 
Kelker, was of German descent, a woman of en- 
ergy, industry and religious principle. 

His father dying, when the subject of this sketch 



was ten years of age, he went into the store of his 
maternal uncle in Harrisburg, and remained two 
years. Then he was emplojed as a copyist in the 
ofiBee of Register of Deeds. For several years he 
was engaged in such business as would give sup- 
port. Thoughtful, persevering and studious, at 
the age of eighteen he was able to enter Lafayette 
College, at Easton, Pennsylvania. After he left 
College he entered a lawyer's ofBce in Harrisburg, 
and subsequently attended lecture j at the Law 
Sohool at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. 

At the age of twenty-four, in 1839, he was ad- 
mitted to the bar of Dauphin county. His execu- 
tive ability was immediately noticed, and the nest 
year he took an active part in the political cam- 
paign, advocating the claims of William H. Harri- 
son, and he was complimented by being made 
Secretary of the Pennsylvania Presidential Elec- 
tors. After the electoral vote was delivered in 
Washington, in a few weeks, in January 18il, he 
was elected chief clerk of the House of Represen- 
tatives of Pennsylvania. Here his ability in dis- 
patching business, and his great discretion made 
a most favorable impression, and in ISiS, the 
Whigs of Dauphin, Lebanon and Schuylkill 
counties nominated him, as their candidate for 
Congress. Popular among the young men of 
Harrisburg, that city wliich had hitherto given a 
democratic majority, voted for the Whig ticket 
which he represented, and the whole district gave 
him a majority of votes. At the expiration of his 
term, in 18-15 he was again elected to Congress. 

Strong in his political preferences, without man- 
ifesting political rancor, and of large perceptive 
power, he was in 1818 chosen by the Whig party 
Pensylvania, as the secretary of the Central Com- 
mittee, and he directed the movements in his na- 
tive State, which led to the electoral votes being 
thrown for General Zachary Taylor for President. 

On the 4th of March, 1849, President Taylor 
took the oath of office, and in less than a month he 
signed the commission of Alexander Ramsey as 
Governor of the Territory of Minnesota, which 
had been created by a law approved the day before 
his inauguration. 

By the way of Buffalo, and from thence by 
lake to Chicago, and from thence to Galena, where 
he took a steamboat, he traveled to Minnesota and 
arrived at St. Paul early in the morning of the 
27th of May, with his wife, children and nurse, 
but went with the boat up to Mendota, where he 
was cordially mot by the Territorial delegate, 

Hon. H. H. Sibley, and with his family was his 
guest for several weeks. He then came to St, 
Paul, occupied a small housa on Ttiird street near 
the comer of Robert. 

On the Ist of Jane he issued his first proclama- 
mation declaring the organization of the Territorial 
government, and on the 11th, he issued another 
creating judicial districts and providing for the 
election of members of a legislature to assemble 
in September. To his duties as Governor was 
added the superintendency of Indian affairs and 
during the first summer he held frequent confer- 
ences with the Indians, and his first report to the 
Conmaissioner of Indian Affairs is still valuable 
for its information relative to the Indian tribes at 
that time hunting in the valleys of the Minnesota 
and the Mississippi. 

During the Governor's term of office he visited 
the Indians at their villages, and made himself 
familiar with their needs, and in the summer of 
1851, made treaties with the Sioux by which the 
country between the Mississippi Rivers, north of the 
State of Iowa, ojjened for occupation by the 
whites. His term of office as Governor expired in 
April, 1853, and in 1855 his fellow townsmen 
elected him Mayor of St. Paul. In 1857, after 
Minnesota had adopted a State Constitution, the 
Republican party nominated Alexander Ramsey 
for Governor, and the Democrats nominated Henry 
H. Sibley. The election in October was close 
and exciting, and Mr. Sibley was at length de- 
clared Governor by a majority of about two hun- 
dred votes. The Rejjublicans were dissatisfied 
with the result, and contended that more Demo- 
cratic votes were thrown in the Otter Tail Lake 
region than there were citizens residing in the 
northern district. 

In 1859, Mr. Ramsey was again nominated by 
the Republicans for Governor, and elected by four 
thousand majority. Before the expiration of his 
term of office, the Republic was darkened by civil 
war. Governor Ramsey happened to be in Wash- 
ington when the news of the firing upon Fort 
Sumter was received, and was among the fii-st of 
the State Governors to call upon the President 
and tender a regiment of volunteers in defense of 
the EepubUc. Returning to the State, he dis- 
played energy and wisdom in the organization of 

In the fall of 1861, he was again nominated and 
elected as Governor, but before the expiration of 
this term, on July 10th, 1863, he was elected by 



the Legislature, United States Senator. Upon en- 
tering the Senate, he was placed on the Commit- 
tees on Naval Affairs, Post-offices, Patents, Pacific 
Railroad, and Chairman of the Committee on Rev- 
olutionary Pensions and Revolutionary Claims. 
He was also one of the Committee appointed by 
Congress to accompany the remains of President 
Lincoln to Springfield Cemetery, Illinois. 

The Legislature of 1869 re-elected him for the 
term ending in March, 1875. In 1880, he was ap- 
pointed Secretary of War by President Hayes, and 
for a time also acted as Secretary of the Navy. 

He was married in 1845 to Anna Earl, daughter 
of Michael H. Jenks, a member of Congress from 
Bucks county. He has had three children; his 
two sons died in early youth; his daughter 
Marion, the wife of Charles Eliot Furness, resides 
with her family, with her parents in St. Paul. 

GOVEENOB GOBM.\N A. D. 1853 TO A. D. 1857. 

At the expiration of Governor Ramsey's tenn 
of office, President Pierce appointed Willis Arnold 
Gorman as his successor. Gevernor Gorman was 
the only son of David L. Gorman and born in 
January, 1866 near Flemingsburgh, Kentucky- 
After receiving a good academic education he went 
to Bloomington, Indiana, and in 1836 graduated 
in the law department of the State University. 
He imediately entered upon the practice of law 
with few friends and no money, in Bloomington, 
and in a year was called upon to defend a man 
charged with murder, and obtained his acquittal. 

That one so young should have engaged in 
such a case excited the attention of thepubHo, and 
two years afterwards was elected a member of the 
Indiana legislature. His popularity was so great 
that he was re-elected a number of times. When 
war was declared against Mexico he enlisted as a 
private in a company of volunteers, which with 
others at New Albany was mustered into the ser- 
vice for one year, as the Third Regiment of 
Indiana Volunteers, with James H. Lane, after- 
wards U. S. Senator for Kansas, as Colonel, while 
he was commissioned as Major. It is said that 
under the orders of General Taylor with a de- 
tachment of riflemen he oi^ened the battle of 
Buena Vista. In this engagement his horse was 
shot and fell into a deep ravine carrying the 
Major with, him and severely bruising him. 

In August, 1847, he returned to Indiana and by 
his enthusiasm helped to raise the Fourth Regi- 
ment and was elected its Colonel, and went back 

to the seat of war, and was present in several bat- 
tles, and when peace was declared returned with 
the reputation of being a dashing officer. 

Resuming the practice of law, in the fall of 1848 
he was elected to Congress and served two terms, 
his last expiring on the 4th of March, 1853, the 
day when his fellow officer in the Mexican War, 
Gen. Franlvlin Pierce took the oath of office as 
President of the United States. With a commis- 
sion bearing the signature of President Pierce he 
arrived in Saint Paul, in May, 1853, as the second 
Territorial Governor of Minnesota. 

His term of Governor expired in the spring of 
1857, and he was elected a member of the Com- 
mittee to frame a State Constitution, which on the 
second Monday in July of that year, convened at 
the Capitol. After the committee adjourned he 
again entered upon the practice of law but when 
the news of the firing of Fort Sumter reached 
Saint Paul he realized that the nation's life 
was endangered, and that there would be a civil 
war. He offered his services to Governor Ram- 
sey and when the First Regiment of Minnesota 
volunteers was organized he was commissioned as 
Colonel. He entered with ardor upon his work of 
drilling the raw troops in camp at Fort Snelling, 
and the privates soon caught his enthusiasm. 

No officer ever had more pride in his regiment 
and his soldiers were faithful to his orders. His 
regiment was the advance regiment of FrankUn's 
Brigade, in Heintzelman's Division at the first Bat- 
tle of Bull Run, and there made a reputation 
which it increased at every battle, especially at 
Gettysburg. Upon the recommendation of Gen- 
eral Winfield Scott who had known him in Mex- 
ico after the battle of Bull Run he was aj)pointed 
Brigadier General by President Lincoln, 

After three years of service as Brigadier General 
he was mustered out and returning to St. Paul 
resumed his profession. From that time he held 
several positions under the city government. He 
died on the afternoon of the 25th of May, 1876. 

GOVEBNOB SIBLET, A. D. 1858 to A. D. 1860. 

No one is more intimately asssociated with the 
development of the Northwest than Henry Hast- 
ings Sibley, the first Governor of Minnesota under 
the State constitution. 

By the treaty of Peace of 1783, Great Britain 
recognized the independence of the United States 
of America, and the land east of the Mississippi, 



and northwest of the Ohio river was open to set- 
tlement by American citizens. 

la 1786, while Congress was in session in New 
York City, Dr. Manasseh Cutler, a graduate of 
Yale, a Puritan divine of a considerable scientific 
attainments, visited that place, and had frequent 
conferences with Dane of Massachusetts, and Jef- 
ferson, of Virginia, relative to the colonization of 
the Oliio valley, and he secured certain provisions 
in the celebrated "ordinance of 1787," among 
others, the grant of land in each to\vnship for the 
supi^ort of common schools, and also two 
townships for the use of a University. 

Under the auspices of Dr. Cutler, and a few 
others, the first colony, in December, 1787, left 
Massachusetts, and after a wearisome Journey, on 
April 7, 1788, reached Marietta, at the mouth of 
the Muskingum River. 

Among the families of this settlement was the 
maternal grandfather of Governor Sibley, Colonel 
Ebenezer Sproat, a gallant officer of Ehode Island, 
in the war of the Eebellion, and a friend of Kos- 

Governor Sibley's mother, Sarah Sproat, was 
sent to school to the then celebrated Moravian 
Seminary at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and subse- 
quently finished her education at Philadelphia. 
In 1797 she returned to her wilderness home and 
her father purchased for her pleasure a piano, said 
to have been the first transported over the Alle- 
ghany Mountains. Soon after this Solomon Sibley, 
a young lawyer, a native of Sutton, Massachusetts, 
visited Marietta, and become acquainted and at- 
tached to Sarah Sproat, and in 1802, they were 
married. The next year Mrs. Siljley went to De- 
troit where her husband had settled, and she com- 
menced housekeeping opposite where the Biddle 
House is situated in that city. In 1799, Gover- 
nor Sibley's father was a representative from the 
region now known as Michigan, in the first Ter- 
ritorial Legislature of Northwest, which met at 
Cincinnati. From 1820 to 1823 he was delegate 
to Congress from Michigan, and in 1824 he became 
judge of the supreme court, and in 1836 resigned. 
Respected by all, on the 4th of April he died. 

His son, Henry Hastings Sibley, was born in 
February, 1811, in the city of Detroit. At the age 
of seventeen, relinquishing the study of law, he 
became a clerk at Sault St. Marie and then was 
employed by Eobeit Stuart, of the American Fur 
Company at Mackinaw. In 1834 he was placed in 
charge of the Indian trade above Lake Pepin with 

his new quarters at the mouth of the Minnesota 

In 1836, he built the first stone residence in 
Minnesota, without the military reservation, at 
Mendota, and here he was given to hospitality. 
The missionary of the cross, and the man of sci- 
ence, the officer of the army, and the tourist from 
a foreign land, were received with a friendliness 
that caused them to forget while under his roof 
that they were strangers in a strange land. 

In 1843, he was married to Sarah J. Steele, the 
sister of Franklin Steele, at Fort Snelling. 

On August Gth, 1846, Congress authorized the 
people of Wisconsin to organize a State govern- 
ment with the St. Croi.\ River as a part of its west- 
em boundary, thus leaving that portion of Wis- 
consin territory between the St. Croix and Missis- 
sijipi Rivers s( 11 under the direct supervison of 
Congress, and the Hon. M. L. Martin, the dele- 
gate of Wisconsin territory in Congress, intro- 
duced a bill to organize the territory of Minnesota 
including portions of Wisconsin and Iowa. 

It was not until the 29th of May, 1848, how- 
ever, that Wisconsin territory east of the Saint 
Croix, was reorganized as a State. On the 30th 
of October, Mr. Sibley, who was a resident of Iowa 
territory, was elected delegate to Congress, and 
after encountering many difficulties, was at length 
admitted to a seat. 

On the 3d of March, 1849, a law was approved 
by the President for the organization of Minne- 
sota teritory, and in the fall of that year he was 
elected the first delegate of the new Territory, as 
his father had been at an early period elected a 
delegate from the then new Michigan territory. In 
1851, he was elected for another term of two 

In 1857, he was a member of the convention to 
frame a State constitution for Minnesota, and was 
elected presiding officer by the democrats. By 
the same party he was nominated for Governor and 
elected by a smiU majority over the republican 
candidate, Alexander Rm sey. 

Minnesota was admitted as a State on the 11th 
of May, 1858, and on the 28th Governor Sibley 
delivered his inaugural message. 

After a residence of twenty -eight yeara at Men- 
dota, in 1862, he became a resident of Saint Paul. 
At the beginning of the Sioux outbreak. Governor 
Ramsey appointed him Colonel, and placed him 
at the head of the forces employed against the In- 
dians. On the 23d of September, 1862, he fought 



the severe and decisive battle of Wood Lake. In 
March, 1863, he was confirmed by the senate as 
Brigadier General, and on the 29th o£ November, 
1865, he was appointed Brevet Major General for 
efficient and meritorious services. 

Since the war he has taken an active interest in 
every enterprise formed for the advancement of 
Minnesota, and for the benefit of St. Paul, the city 
of his residence. His sympathetic nature leads 
him to open Lis ear, and also his purse to those in 
distress, and among his chief mourners when he 
leaves this world will be the many poor he has be- 
friended, and the faint-hearted who took courage 
from his words of kindness. His beloved wife, in 
May, 1869, departed this life, leaving four chil- 
dren, two daughters and two sons. 


Alexander Ramsey, the first Territorial Gov- 
ernor, was elected the second State Governor, as 
has already been mentioned on another page. Be- 
fore his last term of oifice expired he was elected 
United States Senator by the Legislature, and 
Lieutenant Governor Swift became Governor, for 
the unexpired term. 


Henry A. Swift was the son of a physician. Dr. 
-John Swift, and on the 23d of March, 1823, was 
born at Ravenna, Ohio. In 1842, he graduated at 
Western Reserve College, at Hudson, in the same 
State, and in 1845 was admitted to the practice of 
the law. During the winter of 1846-7, he was an 
assistant clerk of the lower house of the Ohio 
Legislature, and his quiet manner and methodic 
method of business made a favorable impression. 
The ijext year he was elected the Chief Clerk, and 
continued in oifice for two years. For two or 
three years he was Secretary of the Portage Farm- 
ers' Insurance Company. In April, 1853, he 
came to St. Paul, and engaged in merchandise and 
other occupations, and in 1856, became one of ttie 
founders of St. Peter. At the election of 1861, he 
was elected a State Senator for two years. In 
March, 1863, by the resignation of Lieutenant 
Governor Donnelly, who had been elected to the 
United States House of Representatives, he was 
chosen temporary President of the Senate, and 
when Governor Ramsey, in April, 1863, left the 
gubernatorial chair, for a seat in the United States 
Senate he became the acting Governor. When he 
ceased to act as Governor, he was again elected to 

the State Senate, and served during the years 
1864 and 1865, and was then appointed by the 
President, Register of the Land Office at St. Pe1;pr. 
On the 25th of February, 1869 he died. 

GOVEBNOR MILLER A. D. 1864 TO A. D. 1866. 

Stephen A. Miller was the grandson of a Ger- 
man immigrant who about the year 1785 settled 
in Pennsylvania. His parents were David and 
Rosanna Miller, and on the 7th of January, 1816, 
he was born in what is now Perry county in that 

He was like many of our best citizens, obliged 
to bear the yoke in his youth. At one time he 
was a canal boy and when quite a youth was in 
charge of a canal boat. Fond of reading he ac- 
quired much information, and of pleasing address 
he made friends, so that in 1837 he became a for- 
warding and commission merchant in Harrisburg. 

He always felt an interest in public affairs, and 
was an efficient speaker at political meetings. In 
1849 he was elected Prothonatary of Dauphin 
county. Pa., and from 1853 to 1855 was editor of 
the Harrisburg Telegraph; then Governor Pol- 
lock, of Pennsylvania, appointed him Flour In- 
spector for Philadelphia, which office he held until 
1858, when he removed to Minnesota on account of 
his health, and opened a store at Saint Cloud. 

In 1861, Governor Ramsey who had known him 
in Pennsylvania, appointed him Lieutenant Colo 
nel of the First Regiment of Minnesota Volunteers, 
and was present with his regiment on July 2l8t of 
that year in the eventful battle of Bull Run. 
Gorman in his report of the return of the First 
Minnesota Regiment on that occasion wrote: "Be- 
fore leaving the field, a portion of the right wing, 
owing to the configuration of the ground and in- 
tervening woods, became detached, under the com- 
mand of Lt. Col. Miller whose gallantry was con- 
spicuous throughout the entire battle, and who 
contended every inch of the ground with his for- 
ces thrown out as skirmishers in the woods, and 
succeeded in occupying the original ground on 
the right, after the repulse of a body of cavalry." 

After this engagement, his friend Simon Cam- 
eron, the Secretary of War, tendered him a posi- 
tion in the regular army which he declined. 

Although in ill health he continued with the 
regiment, and was present at Fair Oaks and Mal- 
vern Hill. 

In September, 1862, he was made Colonel of the 
Seventh Regiment, and proceeded against the 



Sioux Indians who had massacred so many set- 
tlers in the Upper Minnesota Valley, and in De- 
cember he was the Colonel commanding at Man- 
kato, and imder bis supervision, thirty -eight 
Siox, condemned for participation in the killing 
of white persons, on the 26th of February, 18G3, 
were executed by hanging from gallows, upon one 
scaffold, at the same time. This year he was made 
Brigadier General, and also nominated by the re- 
pubhcans for Governor, to which office he was 
elected for two years, and in January, 1864, en- 
entered upon its duties. 

In 1873, he was elected to the Legislature for 
a district in the southwestern portion of the State, 
and in 1876, was a Presidential elector, and bore 
the electoral vote to Wasliuigton. 

During the latter years of his life he was em- 
ployed as a land agent by the St. Paul & Sioiix 
City Railroad Company. In 1881 he died. He 
was married in 1839 to Margaret Funk, and they 
had three sons, and a daughter who died in early 
childhood. His son Wesley, a Lieutenant in the 
United States Army, fell in battle at Gettysburg; 
his second son was a Commissary of Subsistence, 
but is now a private; and his youngest son is in 
the service of a Pennsylvania railroad. 

GOVEKNOB MAKSHAlj, A. D. 1866 to A. D. 1870. 

William Rainey Marshall is the son of Joseph 
Marshall, a farmer and native of Bourbon county, 
Kentucky, whose wife was Abigail Shaw, of Penn- 
sylvania. He was born on the 17th of October, 
1825, in Boone county, Missouri. His boyhood 
was passed in Quincy, Illinois, and before he at- 
tained to manhood he went to the lead mine dis- 
trict of Wisconsin, and engaged in mining and 

In September, 1847, when twenty-two years of 
age, he came to the Falls of St. Croix, and iu a 
few mouths visited the Falls of St. Anthony, staked 
out a claim and returned. In the spring of 1848, 
he was elected to the Wisconsin legislature, but 
his seat was contested on the ground that he 
lived beyond the boundaries of the state of Wis- 
consin. In 1849, he again visited the Falls of St. 
Anthony, perfected his claim, opened a store, and 
represented that district in the lower house of the 
first Territorial legislature. In 1851, he came to 
St. Paul and established an iron and heavy hard- 
ware business. 

In 1852, he held the office of County Surveyor, 
and the next year, with his brother Joseph and 

N. P. Langford, he went into the banking busi- 
ness. In January, 1861, he became the editor of 
the Daily Press, which succeeded the Daily Times. 

In August, 1862, he was commissioned Lieut. 
Colonel of the Seventh Minnesota Regiment of In- 
fantry and proceeded to meet the Sioux wlio had 
been eugaged in the massacre of the settlers of 
the Minnesota valley. In a few weeks, on the 23d 
of September, 1862, he was in the battle of Wood 
Lake, and led a charge of five companies of his 
own regiment, and two of the Sixth, which routed 
the Sioux, sheltered in a ravine. 

In November, 1863, he became Colonel of the 
Seventh Regiment. After the campaign in the 
Indian country the regiment was ordered south, 
and he gallantly led his command, on the 14th of 
July, 1864, at the battle near Tupelo, Mississippi. 
In the conflict before Nashville, in December, he 
acted as a Brigade commander, and in April, 1865, 
he was present at the surrender of Mobile. 

In 1865, he was nominated by the Republican 
party, and elected Governor of Minnesota, and in 
1867, he was again nominated and elected. He 
entered ujion his duties as Governor, in January, 
1866, and retired in 1870, after four years of 

In 1870, he became vice-president of the bank 
which was known as the Marine National, which 
has ceased to exist, and was engaged in other en- 

In 1874, he was appointed one of the board of 
Railroad Commissioners, and in 1875, by a change 
of the law, he was elected Railroad Commissioner, 
and until January, 1882, discharged its duties. 

He has always been ready to help in any move- 
ment which would tend to promote the hapjjiness 
and intelligence of humanity. 

On the 22d of March, 1854, he was married to 
Abby Langford, of Utioa, and has had one child, 
a son. 

GOVEBNOB AUSTIN A. D. 1870 TO A. D. 1874. 

Horace Austin, about the year 1831, was bom 
in Connecticut. His father was a blacksmith, and 
for a time he was engaged in the same occupation. 
Determined to be something in the world, for sev- 
eral years, during the winter, he taught school. 
He then entered the office of a well known law 
firm at Augusta, Maine, and in 1854 came west. 
For a brief period he had charge of a school at 
the Falls of Saint Anthony. 

In 1856, he became a resident of St. Peter, on 



the Minnesota Biver. In 1863, in the expedition 
against the Sioux Indians, he served as captain in 
the volunteer cavalry. In 1869, he was elected 
Governor, and in 1871 he was re-elected. Soon 
after the termination of his second gubernatorial 
term, he was appointed Auditor of the United 
States Treasury at Washington. He has since 
been a United States Laud Officer in Dakota ter- 
ritory, but at present is residing at Fergus Falls, 

GOVEBNOB DAVIS A. D. 1874 TO A. D. 1876. 

Cuahman Kellog Davis, the son of Horatio JJ. 
and Clarissa F. Davis, on the 16th of June, 1838, 
was born at Henderson, Jefferson county. New 
York. "When he was a babe but a few months old, 
his father moved to Waukesha, Wisconsin, and 
opened a farm. At Waukesha, Carroll College 
had been commenced, and in this institution Gov- 
ernor Davis was partly educated, but in 1857 grad- 
uated at the University of Michigan. 

He read law at Waukesha with Alexander Kan- 
dall, who was Governor of Wisconsin, and at a 
later period Postmaster General of the United 
States, and in 1859 was admitted to the bar. 

In 1862, he was commissioned as first lieuten- 
ant of the 28th Wisconsin Infantry, and in time 
became the adjutant general of Brigadier General 
Willis A. Gorman, ex-Governor of Minnesota, but 
in 1864, owing to ill health he left the army. 

Coming to Saint Paul in August, 1864, he en- 
tered ujjon the practice of his profession, and 
formed a partnership with ex-Governor Gorman. 
Gifted with a vigorous mind, a fine voice, and an 
impressive speaker, he soon took high rank in his 

In 1867, he was elected to the lower house of 
the legislature, and the next year was commisioned 
Unit-ed States District Attorney, which position 
he occupied for five years. 

In 1863, he was nominated by the republicans, 
and elected Governor. Entering upon the duties 
of the office in 1874, he served two years. 

Since his retirement he has had a large legal 
practice, and is frequently asked to lecture upon 
literary subjects, always interesting the audience. 


John Sargent Pillsbury is of Puritan ancestry. 
He is the son of John and Susan Pillsbury, and 
on the 29th of July, 1828, was bom at Sutton, 

New Hampshire, where his father and grandfather 

Like the sons of many New Hampshire farmers, 
he was obliged, at an early age, to work for a sup- 
port. He commenced to learn house painting, but 
at the age of sixteen was a boy in a country store. 
When he was twenty-one yea'rs of age, he formed 
a partnership with Walter Harriman, subsequently 
Governor of New Hampshire. After two years he 
removed to Concord, and for four years was a tailor 
and dealer in cloths. In 1853, he came to Michigan, 
and in 1855, visited Minnesota, and was so pleased 
that he settled at St. Anthony, now the East Divi- 
sion of the city of Minneapolis, and opened a 
hardware store. Soon a fire destroyed his store 
and stock upon which there was no insurance, but 
by perseverance and hopefulness, he in time re- 
covered from the loss, with the increased confldenct 
of his fellow men. For six years he was an efficient 
member of the St. Anthony council. 

In 1863, he was one of three appointed sole Ee- 
gents of the University of Minnesota, with powel 
to liquidate a large indebtedness which had been 
unwisely created in Territorial days. By his 
carefiilness, after two or three years the debt was 
canceled, and a large partion of the land granted 
to the University saved. 

In 1863, he was elected a State Senator, and 
served for seven terms. In 1875, lie was nomi- 
nated by the republicans and elected Governor; 
in 1877, he was again elected, and in 1879 for the 
third time he was chosen, the only person who has 
served three successive terms as the Governor of 

By his courage and persistence he succeeded in 
obtaining the settlement of the railroad bonds 
which had been issued under the seal of the State, 
and had for years been ignored, and thus injured 
the credit of the State. 

In 1872, with his nephew he engaged in the 
manufacture of flour, and the firm owns several 
mills. Lately they have erected a mill in the 
East Division, one of the best and largest in the 


LiiL^ius Frederick Hubbard was born on the 26th 
of January, 1836, at Troy, New York. His father, 
Charles Frederick, at the time of his death was 
Sheriff of Rensselaer county. At the age of six- 
teen, Governor Hubbard left the North Granville 
Academy, New York, and went to Poultney, Ver- 



mont, to learn the tinner's trade, and after a short 
period hs moved to Chicago, where he worked for 
four years. 

In 1857, he came to Minnesota, and established 
a paper called tlie "Republican," which he con- 
ducted until 1861, when in December of that year 
he enlisted as a private in the Fifth Minnesota 
Regiment, and by his efficiency so commended 
himself that in less than one year he became its 
Colonel. At the battle of Nashville, after he had 
been knocked ofiF his horse by a ball, he rose, and 
on foot led his command over the enemy's works. 
"For gallant and meritorious service in the battle 
of NashwUe, Tennessee, on the 15th and 16th of 
December, 1864," he received the brevet rank of 
Brigadier General. 

After the war he returned to Red Wing, and has 
been engaged in the grain and flour business. He 
was State Senator from 1871 to 1875, and iu 1881 
was elected Governor. He married in May, 1868, 
Amelia Thomas, of Red Wing, and has three 

mirsesota's kepbesextatives ts conghess of the 
united states of ameeica. 

From Maroli, 1849, to May, 1858, Minnesota 
was a Territory, and entitled to send to the con- 
gress of the United States, one delegate, with the 
privilege of representing the interests of his con- 
stituents, but not allowed to vote. 


Before the recognition of Minnesota as a sepa- 
rate Territory, Henry H. Sibley sat in Congress, 
from January, 1849, as a delegate of the portion 
Wisconsin territory which was beyond the boun- 
daries of the state of Wisconsin, in 1848 admit- 
ted to the Union. In September, 1850 he was 
elected delegate by the citizens of Minnesota ter- 
ritory, to Congress. 

Henry M. Rice succeeded Mr. Sibley as delegate, 
and took his seat in the thirty-third congress, which 
convened on December 5th 1853, at Washington. He 
was re-elected to the thirty-fourth Congress, which 
as<iembled on the 3d of March, 1857. During his 
term of office Congress passed an act extending 
the pre-emption laws over the unsurveyed lands of 
Minnesota, and Mr. Rice obtained valuable land 
grants for the construction of railroads. 

William W. Kingsbury was the last Territorial 
delegate. He took his seat in the thirty-fifth con- 
gress, which convened on the 7th of 1 )ecember. 

1857, and the next May his seat was vacated by 
Minnesota becoming a State. 


Henry M. Rice, who had been for fonr years 
delegate to the House of Representatives, was on 
the 19th of December, 1857, elected one of two 
United States Senators. During his term the civil 
war began, and he rendered efficient service to the 
Union and the State he represented. He is still 
living, an honored citizen in St. Paul. 

James Shields, elected at the same time as Mr. 
Rice, to the United States Senate, drew the short 
term of two years. 

Morton S. Wilkinson was chosen by a joint con- 
vention of the Legislatiire, on December 15th, 
1359, to succed General Shields. During the re- 
bellion of the Slave States he was a firm supporter 
of the Union. 

Alexander Ramsey was elected by the Legisla- 
ture, on the 14th of January, 1863, as the suc- 
cessor of Henry M. Rice. The Legislature of 
1869 re elected Mr. Ramsey for a second term of 
six years, ending March 1875. For a full notice 
see the 138th page. 

Daniel S. Norton was, on January 10th, 1865, 
elected to the United States Senate as the suc- 
cessor of Mr. Wilkinson. Mr. Norton, who had 
been in feeble lieaUh for years, died in June, 1870. 

O. P. Stearns was elected on Jauuary 17th, 1871, 
for the few weeks of the unexpired term of Mr. 

WiUiam Windom, so long a member of the 
United States House of Representatives, was 
elected United States Senator for a term of six 
years, ending March 4th, 1877, and was re-elected 
for a second term ending March 4th, 1883, but re- 
signed, having been aj^pointed Secretary of the 
Treasury by President Garfield. 

A. J. Edgerton, of Kasson, was appointed by 
the Governor to fill the vacancy. President Gar- 
field having been assassinated, and Mr. Edgerton 
having been appointed Chief Justice of Dakota 
territory, Mr. Windom, at a special session of the 
Legislature in October, 1881, was re-elected 
United States Senator. 

S. J. R. McTMiUan, of St. Paul, on the 19th of 
February, 1875, was elected United States Sen- 
ator for the term expiring March 4th, 1881, and 
has since been re-elected for a second term, which, 
in March. 1887, will expire. 




William W. Phelps was one of the first mem- 
bers of the United States House of Representatives 
from Minnesota. Born in Michigan in 1826, he 
graduated in 1846, at its Slate University. In 
1854, he came to Minnesota as Register of the 
Land OiBce at Red Wing, and in 1857, was elected 
a representative to Congress. 

James M. Cavanaugh was of Irish parentage, 
and came from Massachusetts. He was elected to 
the same Congress as Mr. Phelps, and subsequently 
removed to Colorado, where he died. 

William Windom was born on May 10th, 1827,in 
Belmont,county,Ohio. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1850, and was, in 1853, elected Prosecuting At- 
torney for Knox county, Ohio. The next year he 
came to Minnesota, and has represented the State 
in Congress ever since. 

Cyrus Aldrioh,of Minneapolis, Hennepin county, 
was elected a member of the Thirty-sixth Con- 
gress, which convened December 5th, 1859, and 
was re-elected to the Thirty-seventh Congress. 

Ignatius Donnelly was born in Philadelphia in 
1831. Graduated at the High School of that city, 
and in 1853 was admitted to the bar. In 1857, 
he came to Minnesota, and in 1859 was elected 
Lt. Governor, and re-elected in 1861. He be- 
came a rejjresentative of Minnesota in the United 
States Congress which convened on December 7th, 
1863, and was re-elected to the Thirty-ninth Con- 
gress which convened on December ith, 1865. He 
was also elected to the Fortieth congress, which 
convened in December, 1867. Since 1873 he has 
been an active State Senator from Dakota county, 
in which he has been a resident, and Harper 
Brothers have recently published a book from his 
pen of wide research called "Atlantis." 

Eugene M. Wilson, of BEnneapolis, was elected 
to the the Forty-first Congress, which assembled 
in December, 1869. He was bom December 25th, 
1833, at Morgantown, Virginia, and graduated at 
Jeiferson College, Pennsylvania. From 1857 to 
1861, he was United States District Attorney 
for Minnesota. During the civil war he was cap- 
tain in the First IMinnesota Cavalry. 

Mr. Wilson's father, grandfather, and maternal 
grandfather were members of Congress. 

M. S. Wilkinson, of whom mention has been 
made as U. S. Senator, was elected in 1868 a rep- 

resentative to the congress which convened in De- 
cember, 1869, and served one term. 

Mark H. DunneU of Owatonna, in the fall of 
1870, was elected from the First District to fill 
the seat in the House of Representatives so long 
occupied by Wm. Windom. 

Mr. Dunnell, in July, 1823, was born at Bus- 
ton, Maine. He graduated at the college estab- 
lished at Waterville, in that State, in 1849. From 
1855 to 1859 he was State Superiatendent of 
schools, and in 1860 commenced the practice of 
law. For a short period he was Colonel of the 
5th Maine regiment but resigned in 1862, and 
was appointed U. S. Consul at Vera Cruz, Mexi- 
co. In 1865, he came to Minnesota, and was 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction from 
April, 1867 to August, 1870. Mr. DonneU still 
rejsresents his district. 

John T. AveriU was elected ia November, 1870, 
from the Second District, to succeed Eugene M. 

Mr. AveriU was born at Alma, Maine, and com- 
l^leted his studies at the Maine Wesleyan Univer- 
sity. He was a member of the Minnesota Senate 
in 1858 and 1859, and during the rebellion was 
Lieut. Colonel of the 6th Minnesota regiment. 
He is a member of the enterprising firm of paper 
manufacturers, AverUl, Russell and Carpenter. 
In the fall of 1872 he was re-elected as a member 
of the Forty-second Congress, which convened in 
December. 1873. 

Horace B. Strait was elected to Forty -third and 
Forty-fourth Congress, and is still a representative. 

William S. King, of Minneapolis, was born De- 
cember 16, 1828, at Malone, New York. He has 
been one of the most active citizens of Minnesota 
in developing its commercial and agriculutral in- 
terests. For several years he was Postmaster of 
the United States House of Representatives, and 
was elected to the Forty-fourth Congress, which 
convened in 1875. 

Jacob H. Stewart, M. D., was elected to the 
Forty-fifth Congress, which convened in Decem- 
ber, 1877. He was born January 15th, 1829, in 
Columbia county. New York, and in 1851, grad- 
uated at the University of New York. For sev- 
eral years he practiced medicine at PeekskiU, New 
York, and in 1855, removed to St. Paul. In 1859, 
he was elected to the State Senate,' and was Chair- 
man of the Railroad Committee. In 1864, he was 
Mayor of St. Paul. He was Surgeon of the First 



Jilinnesota, aud taken prisoner at the first battle of 
Bull Kun. From 18G9 to 1873, he was again 
Mayor of St. Paul, and is at the present time 
United States Surveyor General of the Minnesota 
land offioe. 

Henry Poehler was the successor of Horace B. 
Strait for the term ending March 4, 1881, when 
Mr. Strait was again elected. 

William Drew Washburn on the 1-lth of lan- 
uary, 1831, was born at Livermore, Maine, and in 
1854, graduated at Bowdoin College. In 1857, he 
came to Minnesota, and in 18G1, was appointed by 
the President, Surveyor General of U. S. Lands, 
for this region. He has been one of the most 
active among the business men of Minneapolis. 
In November, 1878, he was elected to represent 
the 3d district in the U. S. House of Kcpresenta- 
tives, and in 1880, re-elected. He is a brother of 
C. C, late Governor of Wisconsin, and of E. B., 
the Minister Plenipotentiary of U. S. of America, 
to France, and resident in Paris during the late 
Franco-German war. 



Alexander Ramsey 1« 10-1853 

Willis A. Gorrann 1S53-1857 

Samuel Medary 1857 


Henry H. Sibley 1858-1860 

Alexander Rams?y 1860-1863 

H. A. Swift, Acting Gov. . . '. 1863-1861 

Stephen Miller 1864-18GG 

W. R. Marshall 1866-1870 

Horace Austin 1870-1874 

C. K. Davis 1874-1S76 

John S. PilLsbury 1876-1882 

L. F. Hubb.'.rd . ." 1882 


Henry H. Sibley 1849-1853 

Henry M. Rice 1853-1857 

W. W. Kingsbury 1857-1858 


Henry M. Rice 1857-1863 

James Shields 1857-1859 

M. S. Wilkinson 1859-1865 

Alexander Ramsey 1863-1875 

Daniel S. Norton 1865-1870 

O. P. Stearns 1871 

William Wiudom 1871 

A. J. Edgerton 1881 

S. J. R. McMillan 1875 


W. W. Phelps 1857-1859 

J. M. Oavauaugh 1857-1859 

WiUiam Windom 1859-1871 

Cyrus Aldrieh 1859-1863 

Ignatius Donnelly 1863-1869 

Eugene M. Wilson : 1869-1871 

M. S. Wilkinson 1869-1771 

M. H. Dunnell 1871 

J. T. Averill 1871-1875 

H. B. Strait 1875-1879 

" 1881 

Henry Poehler 1879-1S81 

W.S. King 1875-1877 

J. H. Stewart 1877-1879 

W. D. Washburn 1879 










As a word, education is of wide application and 
may convey but an indefinite idea. Broadly, it 
means to draw out, to lead forth, to train up, to 
foster, to enable the individual to properly use the 
faculties, mental or corpora), with which he is en- 
dowed; and to use them in a way that will accom- 
plish the desired result in all relations and in any 
department of industry, whether in the domain of 
intellectual research, or confined to the fields of 
physical labor. 

State Education points at once to a definite field 
of investigation; an organization which is to have 
extensive direction and control of the subject matter 
embraced in the terms chosen. It at once excludes 
the conclusion that any other species of education 
than secular education is intended. It excludes all 
other kinds of education not included in this term, 
without the slightest reflection upon parochial, sec- 
tarian, denominational or individual schools; inde- 
pendent or corporate educational organizations. 
State Education, then, may embrace whatever is 
required by the State, in the due execution of its 
mission in the protection of individual rights and 
the proper advancement of the citizen in material 
prosperity; in short whatever may contribute in 
any way to the honor, dignity, "and fair fame of a 
State; whose sovereign will directs, and, to a very 
great extent, controls the destiny of its subjects. 


A reason may be given for this special depart- 
ment of education, without ignoring any others 
arising from the necessity of civil government, and 
its necessary separation from ecclesiastical control. 
It must be observed by every reasoning mind, that 
in the advancement and growth of social elements 
from savagery through famUies and tribes to civil- 
ization, and the better forms of government, that 
in the increasing growth multijjlied industries 
continually lead to a resistless demand for devision 
of labor, both intellectual and physical. This 
division must eventually lead, in every form of 
government, to a separation of what may be termed 
Church and State: and, of course, in such division 
every separate organization must control the ele- 
ments necessary to sustain its own perpetuity; for 
otherwise its identity would be lost, and it would 
cease to have any recognized existence. 

In these divisions of labor, severally organized 
for different and entirely distinct objects, mutual 
benefits must result, not from any invasion of the 
separate rights of the one or the other, by hostile 
aggression, but by reason of the greatest harmony 
of elements, and hence greater perfection in the 
labors of each, when limited to the promotion of 
each separate and peculiar work. In the division, 
one would be directed towards the temporal, the 
other toward the spiritual advancement of man, in 
any and all relations which he sustains, not only 
to his fellow men, but to the material or immaterial 
universe. These departments of labor are suffic- 
iently broad, although intimately related, tojequire 
the best directed energies of each, to properly cul- 
tivate their separate fields. And an evidence of 
the real harmony existing between these organiza- 



tionB, the Church and State, relative to the present 
investigation, is found in the admilted fact that 
education, both temporal and spiritual, secular and 
sectarian, was a principal of the original organiza- 
tion, and not in conflict with its highest duty, or its 
most vigorous growth. In the division of the 
original organization, that department of educa- 
tion, which was only spiritual, was retained with 
its necessary adjuncts, while that which was only 
temporal was relegated to a new organization, the 
temporal organization, the State. The separate 
elements are still of the same (juality, althougli 
wielded by two instead of one organization. In 
this respect education may be compared to the 
diamond, which when broken and subdivided into 
most minute particles, each separate particle re- 
tains not only the form and number of facets, but 
the brilliancy of the original diamond. So in the 
case before us, though education has suffered 
division, and has been aj)i)ropriated by different 
organisms, it is nevertheless the same in nature, 
and retains the same quaUty and luster of the 
parent original. 

The laws of growth in these separate organiza- 
tions, the Church composed of every creed, and 
the State in every fonn of government, must de- 
termine the extent to which their special educa- 
tion shall be carried. If it shall be determined 
by the church, that her teachers, leaders, and fol- 
lowers in any stage of its growth, shall be limited 
in their acquisitions to the simple elements of 
knowledge, reading, writing, and arithmetic, it may 
be determined that the State should limit educa- 
tion to the same simple elements. But as th(! 
Church, conscious of its immature growth, has 
never restricted her leaders, teachers, or followers, 
to these simple elements of knowledge; neither 
lias the State seen fit to limit, nor can it ever limit 
education to any standard short of the extreme 
limits of its growth, the fullest development of 
its resources, and the demands of its citizens. 
State Education and Church Education are alike 
in their infancy, and no one is able to prescribe 
limits to the one or the other. The separation of 
Church and State, in matters of government only, 
is yet of very narrow limits, and is of very recent 
origin. And the separation of Church and State, 
in matters of education, has not yet clearly dawned 
upon the minds of the accredited leaders of these 
clearly distinct organizations. 

It is rational, however, to conclude, that among 

reasonable men, it would be quite as easy to de- 
termine the final triumph of State Education, as 
to determine the final success of the Christian 
faith over Buddhism, or the fijial triumph of man 
in the subjugation of the earth to his control. 
The decree has gone forth, that man shall subdue 
the earth; so that, guided by the higher law, Ed- 
ucation, under the direction or protection of the 
State, must prove a final success, foi' only by 
organic, scientific, and human instrumentality can 
the purpose of the Creator be possibly accom- 
plished on earth. 

If we have found greater perfection in quality, 
and better adaptation of methods in the work done 
by these organizations since the separation, we 
must conclude that the triumphs of each wiU be 
in proportion to the completeness of the separa- 
tion; and that the countries the least shackled by 
entangling alliances in this regard, must, other 
things being equal, lead the van, both in the ad- 
vancement of science and in the triumphs of an 
enlightened faith. And we can, by a very slight 
comi^arison of the ])resent with the past, deter- 
mine for ourselves, that the scientific curriculum of 
State schools has been greatly widened and en- 
riched, and its methods better adapted to proposed 
ends. We can as easily ascertain the important 
fact that those countries are in advance, where the 
two great organizations, Church and State, are 
least in conflict. We know also, that from the 
nature of the human movement westward, that 
the best defined conditions of these organizations 
should be found in the van of this movement. On 
this continent, then, the highest development of 
these organizations should be found, at least, when 
time shall have matured its natural results in the 
growth and polish of our institutions. Even now, 
in our infancy, what coimtry on earth can show- 
equal results in either the growth of general 
knowledge, the advance of education, or the tri- 
umphs of Christian labor at home and abroad ? 
These are the legitimate fruits of the wonderful 
energy given to the mind of man in the separate 
labors of these organizations, on the j'rinciple of 
the division of labor, and consequently better di- 
rected energies in every department of industry. 
This movement is onward, across the continent, 
and thence around the globe. Its force is irresist- 
able, and all efforts to reunite these happily di- 
vided powers, and to return to the culture of past 
times, and the governments and laws of past ages, 



must be as unavailiug as an attempt to reverse 
the laws of nature. In their separation and 
friendly rivalry, exists the hope of man's temporal 
and sjnritual elevation. 

State Education is natural in its application. 
In the beginning God created the heavens and the 
earth, and every organism after its own kind. 
Now, in pursuance of this well known law of na- 
ture, that everything created is made after its own 
order and its own likeness, it follows that the new 
comers on this continent brought with them the 
germ of national and spiritual life. If we are 
right in this interpretation of tlie laws of life re- 
lating to living organisms, we shall expect to find 
its proper manifestation in the early institutions 
they created for their own special purposes imme- 
diately after their arrival here. We look into 
their history, and we find that by authority of the 
General Court of Massachusetts, in 1636, sixteen 
years after the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers, 
Harvard College was established, as an existing 
identity; that in 1638, it was endowed by John 
Harvard, and named after him. But the Common 
School was not overlooked. At a public meeting 
in Boston, April 13th 1636, it was "generally 
agreed that one Philemon Pormont be entreated 
to become schoolmaster for teaching and nourter- 
ing children." 

After the date above, matters of education ran 
through the civil authority, and is forcibly ex- 
pressed in the acts of 1642 and 1647, passed by 
the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Col- 
ony. By the act of 1642, the select men of every 
town are required to have vigilant eye over their 
brothers and neighbors, to see, first, that none of 
them shall suffer so much barbarism in any of 
their families, as not to endeavor to teach, by them- 
selves or others, their children and apprentices so 
much learning as shall enable them perfectly to 
read the English tongue, and knowledge of the 
Capital laws, under penalty of twenty shillings 
for each offence. By the act of 1647, support of 
schools was made compulsory, and their blessings 
universal. By this law "every town containing 
fifty house-holders was required to appoint a 
teacher, to teach all children as shall resort to him 
to write and read;" and every town containing one 
hundred families or house-holders was required to 
"set up grammar schools, the master thereof being 
able to instruct youths so far as they may be fitted 
for the University." 

In New Amsterdam, among the Keformed Prot- 
estant Dutch, the conception of a school system 
guaranteed aud protected by the State, seems to 
have been entertained by the colonists from Hol- 
land, although circumstances hindered its practi- 
cal development. The same general statement is 
true of the mixed settlements along the Delaware; 
Menonites, Catholics, Dutch, aud Swedes, in con- 
nection -with their churches, established little 
schools in their early settlements. In 1682, the 
legislative assembly met at Chester. William 
Penn made provision for the education of youth 
of the province, and enacted, that the Governor 
and provincial Council should erect and order all 
public schools. One section of Penn's "Great 
law" is in the woi'ds following : 

'^Be it enacted by authority aforesaid, that all 
persons within the province and territories thereof, 
having children, and all the guardians and trus- 
tees of orphans, shall cause such to be instructed 
in reading and writing, so that they may be able 
to read the scriptures and to write by the time that 
they attain the age of 12 years, aud that they then 
be taught some useful trade or skill, that the poor 
may work to live, and the rich, if they become 
poor, may not want; of which every county shall 
take care. And in case such parents, guardians, 
or oversee;'s shall be found deficient in this respect, 
every such parent, guardian, or overseer, shall pay 
for every such child five pounds, except there 
should appear incaisacity of body or understanding 
to hinder it." 

And this "Great law" of William Penn, of 1682, 
will not suffer in comparison with the English 
statute on State Education, passed in 1870, and 
amended in 1877, one hundred and ninety-five 
years later. In this respect, America is two hun- 
dred years in advance cf Great Britain in State 
education. But our present limits will not allow 
us to compare American and English State school 

In 1693, the assembly of Pennsylvania passed a 
second school law providing for the education of 
youth in every couuty. These elementary 
schools were free for boys and girls. In 1755, 
Pennsylvania College was endowed, and became a 
University in 1779. 

In Virginia, William and Mary College was 
famous even in colonial times. It was supported 
by direct State aid. In 1726, a tax was levied on 
liquors for its benefit by the House of Burgesses; 



in 1759, a tax on peildlers was given this college 
by law, and from various revenues it was, in 1776, 
the richest coUege in North America. 

These extracts from the early history of State 
Education in pre-Cohjnial and Colonial times give 
abundant evidence of the nature of the organisms 
planted in American soil by the Pilgrim Fathera 
and their successors, as well as other early settlers 
on our Atlantic coast. The inner life has kept 
pace with the rcrpiirements of the external organ- 
izations, as the body assumes still greater and 
more national proportions. The inner life grew 
with the exterior demands. 

On the 9th of July, 1787, it was proclaimed to 
the world, that on the 15th of November, 1778, in 
the second year of the independence of America, 
the several colonies of New Hampshire, Massa- 
chusetts Bay, Kbode Island, Providence Planta- 
tions, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virgiuia, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia had entered 
into a Confederate Union. 

This Confederate Union, thus organized as a 
Government, was able to receive grants of land 
and to hold the same for such purposes as it saw 
proper. To the new government cessions were 
made by several of the States, from 1781 to 1802, 
of which the Virginia grant was the most im- 

The Confederate Government, on the 13th of 
July, 1787, and within less than four years after 
the reception of the Virginia Land Grant, known 
as the Northwest Territory, passed the ever memo- 
rable ordinance of 1787. This was the first real 
estate to wliich the Confederation had acquired 
the absolute title in its own right. The legal 
government had its origin September 17th, 1787, 
while the ordinance for the government of the 
Northwest Territory was passed two months and 
four days before. Article Third of the renowned 
ordinance reads as follows: 

"lieUgion, morality, and knowledge being nec- 
essary to good government and the happiness of 
mankind, schools and the means of education shall 
forever be encouraged." 

What is the territory embraced by this authori- 
tative enunciation of the Confederate (ToveruniBut ? 
The extent of the land embraced is abnost if not 
quite e(iual to the area of the original thirteen colo- 
nies. Out of this munificent possession added to the 
infant American Union, have since been carved, by 

the authority of the United States government, the 
princely states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michi- 
gan, Wisconsin, and in part Minnesota. In this 
vast region at least, the Government has said that 
education "shall bo forever encouraged." En- 
couraged how and by whom? Encouraged by 
the Government, by the legal State, by the su- 
preme power of the land. This announcement of 
governmental aid to State schools was no idle 
boast, made for the encouragement of a delusive 
hope, but the enunciation of a great truth, in- 
spired by the spirit of a higher life, now kindled 
in this new American temple, in which the Creator 
intended man should worship him according to the 
dictates of an enlightened conscience, "where none 
should molest or make him afraid." 

The early Confederation passed away, but the 
sjjirit that animated the organism was immortal, 
and immediately manifested itself in the new Gov- 
ernment, under our present constitution. On the 
17th of September, 1787, two months and four 
days from the date of the ordinance erecting the 
Northwest Territory was adopted, the new Con- 
stitution was inaugurated. The first State gov- 
ernment erected in the new territory was the state 
of Ohio, in 1802. The enabling act, passed by 
Congress on this accession of the first new State, 
a part of the new acquisition, contains this sub- 
stantial evidence that State aid was faithfully 
remembered and readily olTered to the cause of 
education : 

Sec. 3: "That the following proposition be and 
the same is hereby offered to the convention of the 
eastern States of said territory, when formed, for 
their free acceptance or rejection, which if accepteil 
by the convention shall be obligatory upon the 
United States: 

" That section number sixteen in every town- 
ship, and where such .section has been sold, granted 
or disposed of, other lands equivalent thereto, and 
most contiguous to the same, shall be granted to 
the inhabitants of such township for the use of 

The proposition of course was duly accepted bj 
the vote of the people in the adoption of theii 
constitution prior to their admission to the Union, 
and on March 3d, 1803, Congress granted to Ohio 
in addition to section sixteen, an additional grant 
of one complete township tor the purpose of estab- 
lishing any higher institutions of learning. This 
was the beginning of substantial national recogni- 




tion of State aid to schools by grants of lanJ out of 
the national domain, but the government aid did 
not end in this first effort. The next State, Indi- 
ana, admitted in 1816, was granted the same sec- 
tion, number sixteen in each township; and in 
addition thereto, two townships of land were ex- 
pressly granted for a seminary of learning. In the 
admission of Illinois, in 1818, the section numbered 
sixteen in each township, and two entire townships 
in addition thereto, for a seminary of learning and 
the title thereto vested in the legislature. In the 
admission of Michigan in 1836, the same section 
sixteen, and seventy-two sections in addition there- 
to, were set apart to said State for the purpose of 
a State University. In the admission of Wis- 
consin, in 1848, the same provision was made as 
was made to the other States previously formed 
out of the new territory. This was the com- 

These five States completed the list of States 
which could exist in the territory northwest of the 
Ohio Kiver. Minnesota, the next State, in part 
lying east of the Mississippi, and in jiart west, 
takes its territory from two different sources; that 
east of the Father of Waters, from Virginia, which 
was embraced in the Northwest Territory, and that 
lying west of the same from the " Louisiana Pur- 
chase," bought of France by treaty of April 30, 
1803, including also the territory west of the Mis- 
sippi, which Napoleon had previously acquired 
from Spain. The greater portion of Minnesota, 
therefore lies outside the first territorial acquisi- 
tion of the Government of the United States; and 
yet the living spirit that inspired the early grants 
out of the first acquisition, had lost nothing of its 
fervor in the grant made to the New Northwest. 
When the Territory of Minnesota was organized, 
Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, then a Senator in Con- 
gress from the state of Illinois, nobly advocated 
the claims of Minnesota to an increased amount of 
Government aid for the support of schools, extend- 
ing from the Common school to the University. 
By Mr. Douglas' very able, disinterested and gen- 
erous assistance and support in Congress, aided by 
Hon. H. M. Rice, then Delegate from Minnesota, 

our enabling act was made still more liberal in 
relation to State Education, than that of any State 
or Territory yet admitted or organized in the 
amount of lands granted to schools generally. 

Section eighteen of the enabling act, passed on 
the 3d of March, 1849, is as follows: 

"And be it further enacted, That when the lands 
in said Territory shall be surveyed under the direc- 
tion of the Government of the United States, pre- 
paratory to bringing the same into market, sec- 
tions numbered sixteen and thirty-six in each town- 
ship in said Territory, shall be, and the same are 
hereby reserved for the purpose of being applied 
to schools in said Territory, and in the States and 
Ttrritories hereafter to be created out of the same." 

As the additions to the family of States increase 
westward, the national domain is still more freely 
contributed to the use of schools; and the charac- 
ter of the education demanded by the people 
made more and more definite. In 1851, while 
Oregon and Minnesota were yet territories of the 
United States, Congress passed the following act: 

" Be it enacted by the Senate and House of 
Eepresentatives of America, in Congress assembled : 
That the Governors and legislative assemblies of 
the territories of Oregon and Minnesota, be, and 
they are hereby authorized to make such laws and 
needful regulations as they shall deem most expe- 
dient to protect from injury and waste, sections 
numbered sixteen and thirty-six in said Territories 
reserved in each township for the support of schools 

(2.) "And be it further enacted, That the Secre- 
tary of the Interior be, and he is hereby authorized 
and directed to set apart and reserve from sale, out 
of any of the public lands within the territory of 
Minnesota, to which the Indian title has been or 
may be extinguished, and not otherwise appropri- 
ated, a quantity of land not exceeding two entire 
townships, for the use and support of a University 
in said Territory, and for no other purpose what- 
ever, to be located by legal subdivisions of not 
less than one entire section." 

[Approved February It), 1851.] 








When Minnesota was prepared by her popula- 
tion for ajiplication to Congress for admission as 
a State, Congress, in an act authorizing her to 
form a State government, makes the following 
provision for schools: 

( 1 ) "That sections uumliered sixteen and thirty- 
sis in every township of public lands in said State, 
and where either of said sections, or any part 
thereof, has been sold or otherwise disposed of, 
other lands equivalent thereto, and as contiguous 
as may be, shall be granted to said State for the 
use of schools. 

(2) "That seventy-two sections of land shall 
be set apart and reserved for the use and support 
of a State TJuivei'sity to be selected by the Gov- 
ernor of said State, subject to the approval of the 
commissioner at the general land office, and be 
appropriated and applied in such manner as the 
legislature of said State may prescribe for the 
jMirposes aforesaid, but for no other purpose." 
[Passed February 26, 1857.] 

But that there might be no misapprehension 
that the American Government not only had the 
inclination to aid in the proper education of the 
citizen, but that in cases requiring direct control, 
the government would not hesitate to exercise its 
authority, in matters of education as well as in 
any and all other questions affecting its sover- 
eignty. To this end, on the second of July, 1862, 
Congress passed the "act donating public lands to 
the several States and Territories which may pro- 
vide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the 
mechanic arts." 

"Be it enacted, «fcc., that there be granted to the 
several States for the purposes hereinafter men- 
tioned, an amount of public land to be appor- 
tioned to each State (except States in reliellion), a 
quantity equal to thirty thousand acres for each 
senator and representative in Congress to which 
the States are respectively entitled by the appor- 
tionment imdor the census of 1860." 

Section four of said act is in substance as fol- 

"That all moneys derived from the sale of these 

lands, directly or indirectly, shall be invested in 
stocks yielding not less than five per cent, upon 
the par value of such stocks. That the money so 
invested shall constitute a perpetual fund, the cap- 
ital of which shall remain forever undiminished, 
and the interest thereof shall be inviolably appro- 
])riated by each State which may claim the benefit 
of the act to the endowment, support, and main- 
tenance of at least one college, where the leading 
object shall be, without excluding other scientific 
and classical studies, and including military tac- 
tics, to teach such branches of learning :is are re- 
lated to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in 
such manner as the legislatures of the States may 
respectively prescribe, in order to promote the 
liberal and practical education of the industrial 
classes in the several pursuits and professions of 

Section five, second clause of said act, provides 
"That no portion of said fund, nor the interest 
thereon, shall be applied, directly or indirectly, 
under any pretence whatever, to the purchase, 
erection, preservation, or repair of any building or 

Section five, third clause, "That any State 
which may take and claim the benefit of the pro- 
visions of this act shall provide, within five years, 
at least not less than one college, as described in 
tlie fourth section of this act, or the grant to such 
State shall cease; and the said State shall be 
bound to pay the United States the amount re- 
ceived of any lands previously sold." 

Section five, fourth, "An annual report 
shall be made regarding the progress of each col- 
lege, recording any improvements and experi- 
ments made, with their costs and results, and such 
other matters, including State industrial and eco- 
nomical statistics, as may be supposed useful; one 
copy of which shall be transmitted by mail free, 
by each, to all the other colleges which may be 
endowed under the provisions of this act, and aLso 
one copy to the Secretary of the Interit)r." 

Under this act Minnesota is entitled to select 
150,000 acres to aid in teaching the branches in 
the act named in the State University, making the 
endowment fund of the Government to the state 
of Minnesota for educational purposes as follows: 

1. For common schools, in acres 3,000,000 

2. For State University, four townships 208,360 

Total apportionment 3,208,360 



All these lands have not been selected. Under 
the agricultural college grant, only 94,439 acres 
have been selected, and only 72,708 acres under 
the two University grants, leaving only 167,147 
acres realized for University purposes, out of the 
208,360, a possible loss of 41,203 acres. 

The permanent school fund derived from the 
national domain by the state of Minnesota, at a 
reasonable estimate of the value of the lands se- 
cured out of those granted to her, cannot vary 
far from the results below, considering the prices 
already obtained: 

1. Common school lands in acres, 
3,000,000, valued at .^18,000,000 

2. University grants, in all, in acres, 

223,000, valued at 1,115,000 

Amount in acres, 3,223,000. . . . $19,115,000 
Out of this permanent school fund may be real- 
ized an annual fund, when lands are all sold : 

1. For common schools $!1,000,000 

2. University instruction 60,000 

These several grants, ample as they seem to be, 
are, however, not a tithe of the means required 
from the State itself for the free education of the 
children of the State. We shall see further on 
what the State has already done in her free school 

Minnesota, a State first distinguished by an 
extra grant of government land, has something to 
unite it to great national interest Its position in 
the sisterhood of States gives it a prominence that 
none other can occupy. A State lying on both 
sides of the great Father of waters, in a conti- 
nental valley midway between two vast oceans, 
encircling the Western Hemispliere, with a soil of 
superior fertility, a climate unequalled for health, 
and bright with skies the most inspiring, such a 
State, it may be said, must ever hold a prominent 
position in the Great American Union. 

In the acts of the early settlements on the At- 
lantic coast, in the Colonial Government, and the 
National Congress, we have the evidence of a 
determined intention "that schools and the means 
of education shall forever be encouraged" by the 
people who have the destinies of the Western 
Hemisphere in their hands. That the external 
organism of the system capable of accomplishing 
this heavy task, and of carrying forward this re- 
sponsible duty, rests with the people themselves, 

and is as extensive as the government they have 
established for the protection of their rights and 
the growth of their physical industries, and the 
free development of their intellectual powers. 
The peojjle, organized as a Nation, in assuming 
this duty, have in advance proclaimed to the 
world that "Religion, Morality, and Knowledge" 
are alike essential "to good government." And in 
organizing a government free from sectarian con- 
trol or alliance, America made an advance hitherto 
unknown, both in its temporal and spiritual power; 
for hitherto the work of the one had hindered the 
others, and the labors and unities of the two were 
inconsistent with the proper functions of either. 
The triumph, therefore, of either, for the control 
of both, was certain ruin, while separation of each, 
the one from the other, was the true life of both. 
Such a victory, therefore, was never before known 
on earth, as the entire separation, and yet the 
friendly rivalry of Church and State, first inaugu- 
rated in the free States of America. This idea was 
crystalized and at once stamped on the fore-front 
of the Nation's life in the aphorism, "Keligion, 
morality, and knowledge are alike essential to 
good government." And the deduction from this 
national aphorism necessarily follows: "That 
schools and the means of education should forever 
be encouraged." We assume, then, without fur- 
ther illustration drawn from the acts of the Nation, 
that the means of education have not and will not 
be withheld. We have seen two great acquisitions, 
the Northwest Territory, and the Louisiana Pur- 
chase, parceled out in greater and greater pro- 
fusion for educational uses, till the climax is 
reached in the Mississippi Valley, the future great 
cent«r of national power. At the head of this 
valley sits as regnant queen the state of Minne- 
sota, endowed with the means of education unsur- 
passed by any of her compeers in the sisterhood 
of States. Let us now inquire, as pertinent to 
this discussion, 


The answer is in part made up from her con- 
stitution and the laws enacted in pursuance 
thereof: First, then, article VIII. of her consti- 
tution reads thus: 

Section 1. The stability of a republican form of 
government depending mainly upon the intelli- 
gence of the people, it shall be the duty of the 
Legislature to establish a general and uniform 
system of public schools. 



Section 2. The proceeds of such lands as are, 
or hereafter may \>e granted by the United States, 
for the use of schools in each towuship in this 
State, shall remain a perpetual school fund to the 
State. * * * * The principal of aU funds 
arising from sales or other disposition of lands or 
other property, granted or entrusted to this State, 
sliall forever be preserved inviolate and undimin- 
ished; and tlie income arising from the lease or sale 
of said school land shall be distributed to the dif- 
ferent townships throughout the State in propor- 
tion to the number of scholars in each township, 
between the ages of five and tweuty-one years; 
and shall be faitlifully applied to the specific object 
of the original grant or appropriation." 

Section 3. The legislature shall make such pro- 
vision by taxation or otherwise, as, with the in- 
come arising from the school fund, will secure a 
thorough and efficient system of public schools in 
each township in the State. 

But in no case shall the moneys derived as afore- 
siiid, or any portion thereof, or any public moneys 
or property, be njipropriated or used for the sup- 
port of schools wherein the destinctive doctrines, 
creeds, or tenets of any particular Christian or 
other religious sect are promulgated or taught." 


"Section 4. Tlie location of the University of 
Minnesota, as established by existing laws, [Sept. 
1851] is hereby confirmed, and said institution is 
hereby declared to be tie University of Minnesota. 
All the rights, immunities, franchises, and endow- 
ments heretofore granted or conferred, are hereby 
perpetuated unto the said University; and all lands 
which may be granted hereafter by Congress, or 
other donations for said University purposes, shall 
rest in the institution referred to in this section. 

The State constitution is in full harmony with 
the National government in the distinctive outlines 
laid down in the extracts above made. .\nd the 
Territorial and State governments, within these 
Umits, have consecutively appropriated by legis- 
lation, sufficient to carry forward the State school 
system. In the Territorial act, establishing the 
University, the peojile of the State announced in 
advance of the establishment of a State govern- 
ment, " that the proceeds of the land that may 
hereafter be granted by the United States to the 
Territory for the sujjport of the University, shall 
be and remain a perpetual fund, to be called "the 

University Fund," the interest of which shall be 
appropriated to the support of a University, and 
no sectarian instruction sliall be allowed in such 
University! "' This organization of the University 
was confirmed by the State constitution, and the 
congressional land grants severally passed to that 
corporation, and the use of the funds arising there- 
from were subjected to the restrictions named. So 
that both the common school and University were 
dedicated to State school purposes, and exjirossly 
excluded from sectarian control or sectarian in- 

In this respect the State organization corres- 
ponds with the demands of the general govern- 
ment; and has organized the school system reach- 
ing from the common school to the university, so 
that it may be said, the State student may, if he 
choose, in the state of Minnesota pass from grade 
to grade, through common school, high school, and 
State University free of charge tor tuition. With- 
out referring f.pecially to the progressive legisla- 
tive enactments, the united system may be referred 
to as made up of units ot diflerent order.i, and suc- 
cessively in its ascending grades, governed by 
separate boards, rising in the scale of importance 
from the local trustee, directors, and treasurer, in 
common school, to the higher board of education, 
of six members ip the independent school district, 
and more or less than that number in districts and 
large cities under special charter, until we reach 
the climax in the dignified Board of Regents; a 
board created by law and known as the Regents of 
the State University. This honorable body con- 
sists of seven men nominated by the Governor and 
confirmed by the senate of the State legislature, 
each holding his office for three years; and besides 
these there are three ex-officio members, consisting 
of the President ot the State University, the' 
Superintendent ot Public Instruction, and the Gov- 
ernor of the State. This body of ten men are in 
reality the legal head of the State University, and 
indirectly the effective liead ot the State school 
system of Minnesota, and are themselves subject 
only to the control of the State Legislature. 
These various officers, throughout this series, are 
severally trustees ot legal duties which cannot be 
delegated. They fall under the legal maxim 
"that a trustee cannot make a trustee." These 
are the legal bodies to whom the several series of 
employes and servitors owe obedience. These 
various trustees determine the courae of studv 



and the rules of transfer from grade to grade until 
the last grade is reached at the head of the State 
system, or the scholar has perhaps completed a 
post-graduate course in a polytechnic school, in- 
augurated by the State for greater perfection, it 
may be in chemistry, agriculture, the mechanic 
arts, or other specialty, required by the State or 
national government. 

This system, let it be understood, differs from 
all private, parocliial, denominational, or sectarian 
schools. The State organism and all the sectarian 
elements of the church are, in this department of 
labor, entirely distinct. The State protects and 
encourages, but does not control either the schools 
or the faith of the church. The church supports 
and approves, but does not yield its tenets or its 
creed to the curriculum of the schools of the State. 
The State and the Church are in this respect en- 
tirely distinct and diflferent organizations. State 
education, however, and the education of the ad- 
herents of the church are in harmony throughout 
a great portion of the State curriculum. Indeed, 
there seems to be no reason why the greater por- 
tion of denominational teaching, so far as the same 
is in ha'mony with the schools of the State, should 
not be relegated to the State, that the church 
throughout all its sectarian element might be the 
better able to direct its energies and economize 
its benevolence in the cultivation of its own fields 
of chosen labor. But, however this may be, and 
wherever these two organizations choose to divide 
their labors, they are still harmonious even in their 

The organism as a State system has, in Minne- 
sota, so matured that through all the grades to the 
University, the steps are defined and the gradients 
passed without any conflict of authority. The 
only check to the regular order of ascend- 
ing grades was first met in the State Uni- 
versity. These schools, in older countries, had at 
one time an independent position, and in their 
origin had their own scholars of all grades, from 
the preparatory department to the Senior Class in 
the finished course; but in our State system, when 
the common schools became graded, and the High 
School had grown up as a part of the organism of 
a completed system, the University naturally took 
its place at the head of the State system, having 
the same relation to the High School as the High 
School has to the Common School. There was no 
longer any reason why the same rule should not 

apply in the transfer from the High School to the 
University, that applied' in the transfer from the 
Common School to the High School, and to this 
conclusion the people of the State have already 
fully arrived. The rules of the board of Regents 
of the State University now allow students, with 
the Principal's certificate of qualification, to enter 
the Freshman class, on examination in sub-Fresh- 
man studies only. But even this is not satisfac- 
tory to the friends of the State school system. 
They demand for High School graduates an en- 
trance into the University, when the grade below 
is passed, on the examination of the school below 
for graduation therein. If, on the one hand, the 
High schools of the State, under the law for the 
encouragement of higher education, are required 
to prepare students so that they shall be qualified 
to enter some one of the classes of the University, 
on the other hand the University should be re- 
quired to admit the students thus qualified with- 
out further examination. The rule should work 
in either direction. The rights of students under 
the law are as sacred, and should be as inalienable, 
as the rights of teachers or faculties in State in- 
stitutions. The day of unlimited, irresjionsible 
discretion, a relic of absolute autocracy, a des- 
potic power, has no place in systems of free 
schools under constitutional and statutory limita- 
tions, and these presidents and faculties \\ ho con- 
tinue to exercise this power in the absence of 
right, should be reminded by Boards of Regents 
at the head of American State systems that their 
resignation would be acceptable. They belong to 
an antiquated system, outgrown by the age in 
which we live. 

The spirit of the people of our State was fully 
intimated in the legislature of 1881, in the House 
bill introduced as an amendment to the law of 
1878-79, for the encouragement of higher educa- 
tion, but finally laid aside for the law then in 
force, slightly amended, and quite in harmony 
with the House bill. Sections two and five 
alluded to read as follows; 

".\ny public, graded or high school in any city 
or incorporated village or township organized into 
a district under the s(<-called township system, 
which shall have regular cla.sses and courses of 
study, articulating with some course of study, op- 
tional or required, in the State University, and 
shall raise annually for the expense of said school 
doiible the amoiuit of State aid allowed by this 



act, and shall admit students of either sex into the 
higlier classes thereof from any part of the State, 
without charge for tuition, shall receive State aid, 
as specified in section four of this act. Provided, 
that non-resident pupils shall in all cases be qual- 
ified to enter the highest department of said 
school at the entrance examination for resident 

"The High School Board shall have power, and 
it is hereby made their duty to provide uniform 
questions to test the qualifications of the scholars 
of said graded or high schools for entrance and 
graduation, and especially conduct the examina- 
tions of scholars in said schools, when desired and 
notified, and award diplomas to graduates who 
shall upon examination be found to have completed 
any course of study, either optional or required, 
entitling the holder to enter any class in the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota named therein, any time 
within one year from the date thereof, without 
further examination; said dijiloma to be executed 
by the several members of the High School 


We have now seen the position of the University 
in our syst«m of public schools. In its position 
only at the head of the series it differs from the 
grades below. The rights of the scholar follow 
him throughout the series. When he has com- 
pleted and received the certificate or diploma in 
tlic prescribed course in the High School, articu- 
lating with any course, optional or required, in the 
University, he has the same right, unconditioned, 
to pass to the higher class in that course, as he 
had to pass on examination, from one class to the 
other in any of the grades beiow. So it follows, 
that the University faculty or teacher who as- 
snmes the right to reject, condition, or re-examine 
such student, would exercise an abuse of power, 
unwarranted in law, arbitrary in spirit, and not 
republican in character. This rule is better and 
better understood in all State Universities, as free 
State educational organisms are more crystalized 
into forms, analogous to our State and national 
governments. The arbitrary will of the interme- 
diate, or head master, no longer prevails. His will 
niust yield to more certain legal rights, as the 
learner passes on, midcr prescribed rules, from in- 
fancy \o manhood through all the grades of school 
life. And no legislation framed on any other 

theory of educational promotion in republican 
States can stand against this American conscious- 
ness of equality existing between all the members 
of the body politic. In this consciousness is em- 
braced the inalienable rights of the child or the 
youth to an education free in all our public 
schools. In Minnesota it is guaranteed in the 
constitution that the legislature shall make such 
provisions, by taxation or otherwise, as, with the 
income arising from the school fund, will secure a 
thorough and cllicient system of public schools in 
each township in tlie State. Who shall say that 
the people have no right to secure such thorough 
and efficient system, even should that "thorough 
and efficient system" extend to direct taxation for 
a course extending to graduation from a Univer- 
sity? Should such a course exceed the constitu- 
tional limitation of a thorough and eflicient sys- 
tem of public schools? 


The people, through the medium of the law- 
making power, have given on three several occa- 
sions, in 1878, 1879, and 1881, an intimation of 
the scope and measuring of our State constitution 
'on educational extension to higher education than 
the common school. In the first section of the act 
of 1881, the legislature created a High School 
Board, consisting of the Governor of the State, 
Superintendent of Public lustniction, and the 
President of the University of Minnesota, who are 
charged with certain duties and granted certain 
powers contained in the act. And this High 
School Board are required to grant State aid to 
the amount of .f 400 diiring the school year to any 
public graded school, in any city or incorporated 
village, or township organized into a district, 
which shall give preparatory instruction, extend- 
ing to and articulating with the University course 
in some one of its classes, and shall admit stu- 
dents of either sex, from any part of the State, 
without charge for tuition. Provided only that 
non-resident pupils shall be qualified to enter 
some one of the organized classes of such graded 
or high school. To carry out this act, giving 
State aid directly out of the State treasury to a 
course of education reaching upward from the 
common school, through the high school to the 
University, the legislature appropriated the entire 
sum of #20,000. In this manner we have the in- 
terpretation of the people of Minnesota lis to the 



meaning of "a thorough and efficient system of 
public schools, operative alike in each township in 
the State." And this interpretation of our legis- 
lature is in harmony witli the several acts of Con- 
gress, and particularly the act of July the second, 
1862, granting lands to the several States of the 
Union, known as the Agricultural College Grant. 
The States receiving said lands are required, in 
their colleges or universities, to "teach such 
branches of learning as are related to Agriculture 
and the Mechanic arts, without excluding other 
scientific and classical studies, and including mil- 
itary tactics, in such manner as the legislatures of 
(he States may respectively prescribe, in order to 
jMomote the liberal and practical education of the 
industrial classes in the several pursuits and pro- 
fessions of life."' 

And the Legislature of Minnesota has already 
established in' its University, optional or required 
courses of study fully meeting the limitations in 
the congressional act of 1862. In its elementary 
department it has three courses, known as classi- 
cal, scientific, and modern. In the College of 
Science, Literature, and the Arts, the courses of 
study are an extension of those of the elementary 
departments, and lead directly to the degrees of 
Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, and Bach- 
elor of Literature. In the College of Mechanic 
Arts the several courses of studies are principally 
limited to Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engi- 
neering, and Architecture. In the College of Ag- 
riculture are : (1 ) The regular University course, 
leading to the degree of Bachelor of Agriculture. 
(2) The elementary course, in part coinciding with 
the Scientific course of the Elementary Depart- 
ment. (3) A Farmers' Lecture course. (4) Three 
special courses for the year 1880-81. Law and 
Medicine have not yet been opened in the State 
University for want of means to carry forward 
these departments, now so much needed. 

Our State constitution has therefore been prac- 
tically interpreted by the people, by a test that 
caimot be misconstrued. They have fortified 
their opinion by the payment of the necessary tax 
to insure the success of a thorough and efficient 
system of public schools throughout the State. 
This proof of the people's interest in these schools 
appears in the amounts paid for expenses and in- 
struction. From the school fund the State of 
Minnesota received, in 1879, the full sum of 
$232,187.43 The State paid out the same year, 

the sum of $394,737.71. The difference is $162,- 
550.28, which was paid out by the State more than 
was derived from the government endowment fund. 
And it is not at all likely that the endowment fund, 
generous as it is, will ever produce an amount 
equal to the cost of instruction. The ratio of the 
increase of scholars it is believeil will always be in 
advance of the endowment fund. The cost of in- 
struction cannot fall much below an average, for 
all grades of scholars, of eight dollars per annum 
to each pupil. Our present 180,000 scholars en- 
rolled would, at this rate require $1,440,000, and 
in ten years and long before the sale of the school 
lands of the State shall have been made, this 180,- 
000 will have increased a hundred per cent., 
amounting to 360,000 scholars. These, at $8.00 
per scholar for tuition, would equal $2,880,000 
per annum, while the interest from the school 
fund in the same time cannot exceed $2,000,000, 
even should the land average the price of $6.00 
per acre, and the interest realized be always equal 
to per cent. 


In these infant steps taken by our State, we can 
discern the tendency of our organism towards a 
completed State system, as an element of a still 
wider union embracing the nation. To know 
what is yet to be done in this direction we must 
know what has already been done. We have, in 
the twenty years of our State history, built 3,693 
schoolhouses, varying in cost from $400 to $90,- 
000; total value of all, $3,156,210; three Normal 
school buildings at a cost of (1872) $215,231.52; 
a State University at an expenditure for buildings 
alone of $70,000, and an allowance by a late ack 
of the legislature of an additional $100,000, in 
three yearly appropriations, for additional build- 
ings to be erected, in all $170,000, allowed by the 
State for the University. Add these to the cost of 
common school structures, and we have already 
expended in school buildings over $4,800,000 for 
the simple purpose of housing the infant oi-gan- 
ism, our common school system here planted. 
We have seen a movement in cities like St. Paul, 
Minneapolis, Stillwater, and Winona, towards the 
local organization of a completed system of home 
schools, carrying instruction free to the University 
course, with a total enrollment of 13,500 scholars 
and 265 teachers, daily seated in buildings, all in 
the modem style of school architecture and school 



furniture, costing to these cities the sum of 8850,- 
000 for buildings, and for instruction the sum of 
8118,000 annually. 

We have, in addition to these schools in the 
cities named, other home and fitting schools, to 
whom have been paid iji'lOO eaeh, under the law 
for the "Enoouragemont of Higher Education," 
passed in 1878, and amended in 1870, as follows: 
Anoka, Austin, Blue Earth City, Chatfield, Cannon 
Falls, Crookstou, Duluth, Detroit, Eyota, Fari- 
bault, Garden City, Glenooc, Howard Tiake, Hast- 
ings, Henderson, Kasson, Litchfield, Lancbboro, 
Le Sueur, Lake City, Monticello, Moorhead, Man- 
kato, Northfield, Owatonna, Osseo, Plainview, Eed 
Wing, Rushford, Rochester, St. Cloud, St. Peter, 
Sauk Centre, Spring Valley, Wells, Waterville, 
Waseca, Wabasha. Wilmar, Winnebago City, Zum- 
brota, and Mantorville. 

These forty-two Stat* aid schools have paid in 
all for buildings and furniture the gross sum of 
8042,700; some of these buildings are superior in 
all that constitutes superiority in school architect- 
ure. The Rochester buildings and grounds cost 
the sum of $90,000. Several others, such as the 
Austin, Owatonna, Faribault, Hastings, Red Wing, 
Rushford, St. Cloud, and St. Peter schoolhouses, 
exceed in value the sum of 825,000; and others of 
these buildings arc estimated at «G,000, 88,000, 
.$10,000, and 815,000. In all they have an enroll- 
ment of scholars in attendance on classes graded up 
to the University course, numbering 13,000, under 
301 teachers, at an annual salary amounting in all 
to $123,509, and having in tlieir A, B, C, D classes 
1704 scholars, of whom 120 were prepared to 
enter the sub-freshman class of the State Univer- 
sity in 1880, and the number entering these grades 
in the year 1879-80 was 934, of whom 400 were 
non-residents of the districts. And in all these 
forty-two home schools of the people, the fitting 
schools of the State University, one uniform course 
of study, articulating with some course in the 
Univenrity, was observed. As many other courses 
as the local boards desired were also carried on in 
these schools. This, in short, is a part of what 
we have done. 

The organic elements that regularly combine to 
form governments, are similar to organic ele- 
ments that combine to form systems of mental 
culture. The primitive type of government is the 
family. This is the lowest organic form. If no 
improvement is ever made upon this primitive ele- 

ment, by other combinations of an artificial na- 
ture, human governments would never rise higher 
than the family. If society is to advance, this 
organism widens into the clan, and in like manner 
the clan into the village, and the village into the 
more dignified ])rovince, and the province into the 
State. All these artificial conditions above tho 
family are the evidences of growth in pursuance 
of the laws of artificial life. In like manner the 
growth of intellectual organisms proceeds from 
the family instruction to the common school. 
Here the artificial organism would cease to ad- 
vance, and would remain stationary, as the clan in 
the organism of government, unless the common 
school should pass on to the wider and still higher 
unit of a grad(>d system reaching upward to the 
high school. Now this was the condition of the 
common school in America during the Colonial 
state, and even down to the national organization. 
Soon after this period, the intellectual life of the 
nation began to be aroused, and within the hujt 
fifty years the Stata common school has culmi- 
nated in the higher organism of the high school, 
and it is of very recent date that the high school 
has reached up to and articuhitod in any State 
with the State University. On this continent, both 
government and State schools started inlo life, 
freed from the domination of institutions grown 
effete from age and loss of vital energy. Hero, 
both entered into wider combinations, reaching 
higher results than the ages of the past. And 
yet, in educational organization we are far below 
the standard of perfection we shall attain in the 
rapidly advancing future. Not until our eystem 
of education has attained a national character as 
complete in its related articulation as the civil or- 
ganization of towns, counties, and States in the 
national Union, can our educational institutions do 
the work required of this age. And in Minnesota, 
one of the leading States in connected school or- 
ganic relations, we have, as yet, some 4,000 com- 
mon school districts, with an enrollment of some 
100,000 scholars of different ages, from five to 
twenty -one years; no higher in the scale than the 
common school, prior to the first high school on 
the American continent. These chaotic elements, 
outside of the system of graded schools now aided 
by the State, must be reduced to the same organ- 
ized graded system as those that now articulate in 
their course with the State University. 

Our complete organization as a State svstem for 



educational purposes, equal to the demands of the 
State, and required by the spirit of the age, will 
not be consummated until our four thousand 
school districts shall reap the full benefits of a 
graded system reaching to the high school course^ 
articulating with some course in the State Uni- 
versity and a course in commen with every other 
high school in the State. The system thus or- 
ganized might be required to report to the Board 
of Begents, as the legal head of the organization 
of the State School system, not only the numerical 
statistics, but the number and standing of the 
classes in each of the high schools in the several 
studies of the uniform course, established by the 
Board of Eegents, under the direction of the State 
Legislature. To this system must finally belong 
the certificate of standing and graduation, en- 
titling the holder to enter the designated class in 
any grade of the State schools named therein, 
whether High School or University. But this 
system is not and can never be a skeleton merely, 
made up of lifeless materials, as an anatomical 
specimen in the office of the student of the 
practice of the healing art. Within this organism 
there must preside the living teacher, bringing 
into this organic structure, not the debris of the 
effete systems of the past, not the mental esuvia 
of dwarfed intellectual powers of this or any for- 
mer age, but the teacher inspired by nature to 
feel and appreciate her methods, and ever moved 
by her divine afflatus. 

Every living organism has its own laws of 
growth; and the one we have under consideration 
may, in its most important feature, be compared to 
the growth of the forest tree. In its earlier years 
the forest tree strikes its roots deep into the earth 
aud matures its growing rootlets, the support of 
its future trunk, to stand against the storms and 
winds to which it is at all times exposed. When 
fully rooted in the groimd, with a trunk matured 
by the growth of years, it puts forth its infant 
branches and leaflets, suited to its immature but 
maturing nature; finally it gives evidence of stal- 
wart powers, and now its widespreading top tow- 
ers aloft among its compeers rearing its head high 
among the loftiest denizens of the woods. In like 
manner is the growth of the maturing State school 
organism. In the common school, the foundation 
is laid for the rising structure, but here are no 
branches, no fruitage. It seems in its earliest in- 
fancy to put forth no branches, but is simjjly tak- 

ing hold of the elements below on which its inner 
life and growth depend. As the system rises, the 
underlaying laws of life come forth in the princi- 
ples of invention, manufacturing, engraving, and 
designing, enriching every branch of intellectual 
and professional industry, and beautifying every 
field of human culture. These varied results are 
all in the law of growth in the organism of State 
schools carried on above the common schools to 
the University course. The higher the course the 
more beneficial the results to the industries of the 
world, whether those industries are intellectual or 
purely physical, cater only to the demands of 
wealth, or tend to suljserve the modi st demands of 
the humblest citizen. 

The only criticism that can reach the question 
now under consideration, is whether the graded 
organization tends to produce the results to which 
we have referred. The law relating to the division 
of .labor has esiJCcially operated in the graded sys- 
tem of State schools. Under its operation, it is 
claimed, by good judges, that eight years of 
school life, from five to twenty-one, has been saved 
to the pupils of the present generation, over those 
of the imgraded schools ante-dating the last fifty 
years. By the operation of this law, in one gen- 
eration, the saving of time, on the enrollments of 
State schools in the graded systems of the north- 
ern States of the American Union, would be 
enormous. For the State of Minnesota alone, on 
the enrollment of 180,000, the aggregate years of 
time saved would exceed a million! The time 
saved on the enrollment of the schools of the dif- 
ferent States, under the operation of this law 
would exceed over twenty million years! 

To the division of labor is due the wonderful 
facility with which modern business associations 
have laid their hands ui^on every branch of indus- 
trial pursuits, and bestowed upon the world the 
comforts of life. Introduced into our system of 
education it produces results as astonishing as the 
advent of the Spinning Jenny in the manufacture of 
cloth. As the raw material from the cotton field 
of the planter, passing, by gradation, through the 
unskilled hands of the ordinary laborer to the 
more perfect process of improved machinery, se- 
cure additional value in a constantly increasing 
ratio; so the graded system of intellectual culture, 
from the Primary to the High school, and thence 
to the University, adds increased lustre and value 
to the mental development in a ratio commen- 



surate with the increased skill of the meutal ope- 

The law of growth in State schools was clearly 
aniidunced by Horace Mann, when he applied to 
this system the law governing hydraulics, that no 
stream could rise above its fountain. The com- 
mon school could not jjroduce a scholarship above 
its own curriculum. The high school was a grade 
above, and as important in the State system as 
the elevated fountain head of the living stream. 
This law of growth makes the system at once the 
most natural, the most economical, and certainly 
the most pojnilar. These several elements might 
be illustrated, but the reader can easily imagine 
them at his leisure. As to the last, however, suffer 
an illustration. In Minnesota, for the school year 
ending August 21st, 1880, according to the report 
of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, there 
were enrolled, one hundred and eighty thousand, 
two hundred and fifty-eight scholars in the State 
schools, while all others, embracing kindergartens, 
private schools, parochial schools, of all sects and 
all denominations, had an attendance at the same 
time of only two thousand four hundred and 
tweuty-eight; and to meet all possible omissions, 
it M'O allow double this number, there is lyss than 
three per cent, of the enrollment in the State 
school. This ratio will be found to hold good, at 
least throughout all the Northern States of the 
American Union. These State schools, then, are 
not unpopular in comparison with the schools of a 
private and opposite character. Nor is it owing 
altogether to the important fact, that State schools 
are free, that they are more popu'ir than schools 
of an 0])posit€ character; for these State schools 
are a tax upon the property of the people, and yet 
a tax most cheerfully borne, in consequence of 
their superior excellence and importance. 

The State school, if not already, can be so 
graded that each scholar can have the advantage 
of superior special instruction far better adaptsd 
to the studies through which he desires to pass, 
than similar instruction can be had in ungraded 
schools of any character whatever. In this re- 
spect the State system is without a rival. It has 
the power to introduce such changes as may meet 
all the demands of the State and all the claims of 
the learner. 

The State school knows no sect, no party, no 
privileged class, and no special favorites; the high, 
the low, the rich, and the poor, the home and for- 

eign-boru, black or white, are all equal at this 
altar. The child of the ruler and the ruled are 
here equal. The son of the Governor, the wood- 
sawyer, and tlie hod-carrier, here meet on one 
level, and alike contend for ranks, and alike expect 
the honors due to superior merit, the reward of 
intellectual culture. But, aside from the republi- 
can character of the State school system, the sys- 
tem is a State necessity. Without the required 
State culture under its control, the State must 
cease to exist as an organism for the promotion of 
human hapjriness or the protection of human 
rights, and its people, though once cultured and 
refined, must certainly return to barbarism and 
savage life. There can be no compromise in the 
warfare against inherited ignorance. Under all 
governments tha statute of limitations closes over 
the subject at twenty-one years; so that during 
the minority of the race must this warfare be 
waged by the government without truce. No 
peace can ever be proclaimed in this war, until the 
child shall inherit the matured wisdom, instead of 
the primal ignorance of the ancestor. 

The State school system, in our government, is 
from the necessity of the case, national. No 
State can enforce its system beyond the limits of 
its own territory. And unless the nation enforce 
its own uniform system, the conflict between juris- 
dictions could never be determined. No homo- 
geneous system could ever be enforced. As the 
graded system of State schools has now reached 
the period in its history which corresponds to the 
colonial history of the national organization, it 
m\ist here fail, as did the colonial system of gov- 
ernment, to fully meet the demands of the people. 
And what was it, let us consider, that led the peo- 
ple in the organization of the national government 
"to form a more perfect union?" Had it then be- 
come necessary to take this step, that "justice" 
might be established, domestic tranquility insured, 
the common defense made more efficient, the gen- 
eral welfare promoted, and the blessings of liberty 
better secured to themselves and their posterity, 
that the fathers of the government should think it 
necessary to form a more perfect union?" Why 
the necessity of a more perfect union? Were our 
fathers in fear of a domestic or foreign foe, that 
had manifested his power in their immediate jjres- 
cnce, threatening to jeopardize or destroy their do- 
mestic tranquility? Was this foe an hereditary 
enemy, who mi_L'ht at long intervals of time invade 



their territory, and endanger the liberties of this 
people ? And tor this reason did they demand a 
more perfect imion? And does not this reason 
now exist in still greater force fur the formation of 
» still more perfect union in our system of State 
schools? Our fathers were moved by the most 
natural of all reasons, by this law of self-defense. 
They were attacked by a power too great to be 
successfully resisted in their colonial or unorgan- 
ized state. The fear of a destruction of the sev- 
eral colonies without a more perfect union drove 
them to this alternative. It was union and the 
hope of freedom, against disunion and the fear of 
death, that cemented the national government. 
And this was an external organism, the temple in 
which the spirit of freedom should preside, and in 
which her worshippers should enjoy not only do- 
mestic but national tranquility. Now, should it be 
manifested to the world that the soul and spirit, 
the very life of this temple, erected to freedom, is 
similarly threatened, should not be the same cause 
that operated in the erection of the temple itself, 
operate in the protection of its sacred fires, its soul 
and spirit? It would seem to require no admoni- 
tion to move a nation in the direction of its highest 
hopes, the protection of its inner life. 

And what is this enemy, and where is the power 
able to destroy both the temple and the spirit of 
freedom? And why should State Education take 
upon itself any advanced position other than its 
present indej)endent organic elements? In the 
face of what enemy should it now be claimed we 
should attempt to change front, and "form a more 
perfect union to insure domestic tranquility, and 
promote the {.eneral welfare," to the end that we 
may the better secure the blessings of liberty to 
ourselves and our posterity ? That potent foe to 
our free institutions, to which we are now brought 
face to face, is human ignornuce, the natural hered- 
itary foe to every form of enlightened free gov- 
ernment. This hereditary enemy is now home- 
steaded upon our soil. This enemy, in the lan- 
guage of the declaration made by the colonies 
against their hereditary foe, this enemy to our 
government, has kept among us a standing army 
of illiterates, who can neither read nor write, but 
are armed with the ballot, more powerful than the 
sword, ready to strike the most deadly blow at 
human freedom; he has cut off and almost en- 
tirely destroyed our trade between States of the 
same government; has imposed a tax upon us 

without our consent, most grievous to be borne; 
he has quite abolished the free system of United 
States laws in several of our States; he has estab- 
lished, in many sections, arbitrary tribunals, ex- 
cluding the subject from the right of trial by jury, 
and enlarged the powers of his despotic rule, en- 
dangered the lives of peaceable citizens; he has 
alienated government of one section, by declaring 
the inhabitants aliens and enemies to his supposed 
hereditary right; he has excited domestic insur- 
rections amongst us; he has endeavored to destroy 
the peace and harmony of our people by bringing 
his despotic ignorance of our institutions into con- 
flict with the freedom and purity of our elections; 
he has raised up advocates to his cause who have 
openly declared that our system of State Educa- 
tion, on which our government rests, is a failure;* 
he has spared no age, no sex, no portion of our 
country, but has, with his ignominious minions, 
afflicted the North and the South, the East and the 
West, the rich and the poor, the black and the 
white; an enemy alike to the people of every sec- 
tion of the government, from Maine to California, 
from Minnesota to Louisiana. Such an inexora- 
ble enemy to government and the domestic tran- 
quility of all good citizens deserves the oppro- 
brium due only to the Prince of Darkness, against 
whom eternal war should be waged ; and for the 
support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on 
the protection of Divine Providence, we should, as 
did our fathers, mutually pledge to each other, 
as citizens of the free States of America, our lives, 
our fortunes, and our sacred honor. 

We have thus far considered the State school 
system in some of its organic elements, and the 
nature, tendency, and neceseary union of these 
elements; first in States, and finally for the forma- 
tion of a more perfect union, that they may be 
united ia one national organization under the con- 
trol of one sovereign will. The mode in which 
these unorganized elements shall come into union 
and harmony with themselves, and constitute the 
true inner life and soul of the American Union, is 
left for the consideration of those whose special 
duty it is to devote their best energies to the pro- 
motion of the welfare of the Nation, and by 
.statesman-like forethought provide for the domes- 
tic, social, civil, intellectual, and industrial pro- 
gress of the rapidly accumulating millions who 

'Richard Grant White in North American Kevicw 



are soon to swarm upou tbo American continent. 
We see truly that 

"The rudiments of empire here 
Are plastic yet and warm; 
The ehaos nf a miyhty world 
Is rounding into form! 

"Each rude and jostling fragment sof)n 
Its fitting plaee shall find— 
The raw material of a State, 
Its muscle and its mind." 

But we must be allowed, in a word, to state the 
results which we hope to see accomplished^ before 
the jostling fragments which are yet plastic and 
warm, shall have attained a temperament not 
easily fused and "rounded" into one homogenous 
national system, rising in the several States from 
the kindergarten to the University, and from the 
State Universities through all orders of specialties 
demanded by the widening industries and growing 
demands of a progressive age. And in this direc- 

tion we cannot fail to see that the national govern- 
ment must so mould its intellectual systems that 
the State and national curricula shall be uniform 
throughout the States and territories, so that a 
class standing of every pupil, jji'operly certified, 
shall be equally good for a like class standing in 
every portion of the government to which he may 
desire to remove. America will then be ready to 
celebrate her liual indejjendeuce, the inalienable 
right of American youth, as ha\'ing a standing 
limited by law in her State and national systems 
of education, entitling them to rank everywhere 
with associates and compeers on the same plain; 
when in no case, shall these rights be denied or 
abridged by the United States, or by any State 
or authority thereof, on account of race, color, 
or previous condition of scholarship, secular or 
secfarian, till the same shall forever find'the most 
ample protection under the broad banner of 
NATIONAL and NATURAL rights, common alike to 
all in the ever widening uia-unLic of i.eiters. 








The first authentic knowledge of the country 
upon the waters of the Upper Mississippi and its 
tributaries, was given to the world by Louis Hen- 
nepin, a native of France. In 1680 he visited the 
FaUs of St. Anthony, and gave them the name of 
his patron saint, the name they still bear. 

Hennepin foimd the country occupied by wild 
tribes of Indians, by whom he and his compan- 
ions were detained as prisoners, but kindly treated, 
and finally released. 

In 1766, this same country was again visited by 
a white man, this time by Jonathan Carver, a 
British subject, and an officer in the British army. 
Jonathan Carver spent some three -years among 
different tribes of Indians in the Upper Missis- 
sippi country. He knew the Sioux or Dakota 
Indians as the Naudowessies, who were then occu- 
pying the country along the Mississippi, from 
Iowa to the Falls of St. .'Vntliony, and along the 
Minnesota river, then called St. Peter's, from its 
6ource to its mouth at Mendota. To the north of 
these tribes the country was then occupied by the 
Ojibwas, commonly called Chippewas, the heredi- 
tary enemies of the Sioux. 

Carver found these Indian nations at war, and 
by Ms commanding influence finally succeeded in 
making peace between them. As a reward for his 
good offices in this regard, it is claimed that two 
chiefs of the Naudowessies, acting for their nation, 
at a council held with Carver, at the great cave, 


now in the corporate limits of St. Paul, deeded to 
Carver a vast tract of land on the Mississippi 
river, extending from the FaUs of St. Anthony to 
the foot of Lake Pepin, on the Mississippi; thence 
east one hundred English miles; thence north one 
hundred and twenty miles; thence west to the 
place of beginning. But this pretended grant has 
been examined by our government and entirely 
ignored as a pure invention of parties in interest, 
after Carver's death, to profit by his Indian ser- 
vice in Minnesota. 

There can be no doubt that these same Indians, 
known to Captain Carver as the Naudowessies, in 
1767, were the same who inhabited the country 
upon the Upper Mississippi and its tributaries 
when the treaty of Traverse des Sioux was made, 
in 1851, between the United States and the Sisse- 
'ton and Wapaton bands of Dakota or Sioux Indi- 
ans. The name Sioux is said to have been bestowed 
upon these tribes by the French; and that it is a 
corruption of the last syllable of their more an- 
cient name, which in the peculiar guttural of the 
Dakota tongue, has the sound of the last syllable 
of the old name NaudowesszVs, Sioux. 

The tribes inhabiting the Territory of Minne- 
sota at the date of the massacre, 1862, were the 
following: Medawakontons (or VUlage of the 
Spirit Lake); WajDatons (or Village of the 
Leaves); Sissetons (or Village of the Marsh); 
and Wajjakutas (or Leaf Shooters). All these 
were Sioux Indians, connected intimately with 
other wild bands scattered over a vast region of 
country, including Dakota Territory, and the 
country west of the Missouri, even to the base of 
the Eocky Mountains. Over all this vast region 
roamed these wild bands of Dakotas, a powerful 
and warlike nation, holding by their tenure the 
country north to the British Possessions. 




The Sissetons had a hereditary chief, Ta-tanka 
Mazin, or Standing Bufialo; and at the date of 
the massacre his father, "Star Face," or the "Or- 
phan," was yet aUve, but superannuated, and all 
the duties of the chief were vested in the sou. 
Standing Buffalo, who remained friendly to the 
whites and took no part in the terrible massiicre 
on our border in 1862. 

The four tribes named, the Medawakontons, Wa- 
patons, Sissetons and Wapakutas, comprised the 
entire "annuity Sioux" of Miune-ota; and in 18C2 
these tribes numbered about six thousand and two 
hundred persons. All these Indians had from 
time to time, from the 19th day of July, 1815, to 
the date of the massacre of 1SC2, received pres- 
ents from the Government, by virtue of various 
treaties of amity and friendship between us and 
their accredited chiefs and heads of tribes. 

Soon after the close of the last war with Great 
Britain, on the first day of June, 1816, a treaty 
was concluded at St. Louis between the United 
States and the chiefs and warriors representing 
eight bands of the Sioux, composing the three 
tribes then called the "Sioux of the Leaf," the 
"Sioux of the Broad Leaf," and the "Sioux who 
Shoot in the Pine Tops," by the terms of which 
these tribes confirmed to the United States all 
cessions or grants of lands previously made by 
them to the British, French, or Spanish govern- 
ments, within the limits of the United States or 
its Territories. For these cessions no annuities 
were paid, for the reason that they were mere con- 
firmations of grants made by them to powers 
from whom we had acquired the territory. 

From the treaty of St. Louis, in 1816, to the 
treaty ratified by the United States Senate in 1859, 
these tribes liad remained friendly to the whites, 
and had by treaty stipulations parted with all the 
lands to which they claimed title in Iowa; all on 
the east side of the Mississippi river, and all on 
the Minnesota river, in Minnesota Territory, ex- 
cept certain reservations. One of these reserva- 
tions lay upon both sides of the Minnesota, ten 
miles on either side of that stream, from Hawk 
river on the north, and Yellow Medicine river on 
the south side, thence westerly to the head of Big 
Stone Lake and Lake Traverse, a distance of 
about one hundred miles. Another of these reser- 
vations commenced at Little Kock river on the 
east, and a line running due south from opjjosite 
its mouth, and extending up tlie river westerly to 
the easterly line of the first-named reservation, at 

the Hawk and Yellow Medicine rivers. This last 
resers-ation had also a width of ten miles on each 
side of the Minnesota river. 

The Indians west of the Missouri, in referring 
to those of their nation east of the river, called 
them Isanties, which seems to have been applied 
to them from the fact that, at some remote period, 
they had lived at Isantamde, or "Knife Lake," 
one of the Mille Lacs, in Minnesota. 

These Indian treaties inaugurated and contrib- 
uted greatly to strengthen a custom of granting, 
to the pretended owners of lands occupied for 
purposes of hunting the wild game thereon, and 
living upon the natural products thereof, a con- 
sideration for the cession of their lands to the 
Government of the United States. This custom 
culminated ia a vast annuity fund, in the aggre- 
gate to over three million dollars, owing to these 
tribes, before named, in Minnesota. This annuity 
system was one of the causes of the massacre of 

Indian Litb. — Before the whites came in con- 
tact with the natives, they dressed in the skins o' 
animals which they killed for food, such as the 
buffalo, wolf, elk, deer, beaver, otter, as well as the 
small fur-bearing animals, which they trapped on 
lakes and streams. In later years, as the settle- 
ments of the white race approached their borders, 
they exchanged these peltries and furs for blankets, 
cloths, iind other articles of necessity or ornament. 
The Sioux of the plains, those who inhabited the 
Cuteau and beyond, and, indeed, some of the 
Sisseton tribes, dress in skins to this day. Even 
among those who are now called "civilized," the 
style of costume is often unique. It is no picture 
of the imagination to portray to the reader a "stal- 
WAKT Indian" in breech-cloth and leggins, with 
y. calico shirt, all "fluttering in the wind," and hia 
head surmouuted with a stove-pipe hat of most 
surprising altitude, carrying in his hand a pipe of 
exquisite workmanship, on a stem not unlike a 
cane, sported as an ornament by some city dandy. 
His appearance is somewhat varied, as the seas(ms 
come and go. He may be seen in summer or in 
winter dressed in a heavy cloth coat of poarse fab- 
ric, often turned inside out with all his civilized 
and savage toggery, from head to foot, in the most 
bewildering juxtaposition. On beholding him, 
the dullest imagination cannot refrain from the 
poetic exclamtion of Alexander Pope, 

"Lol the poor Indian, whose untutored mind>" 



Efforts to Civilize these Ankuity Indians. 
— The treaty of 1858, made at Washingtou, elabo- 
rated a scheme for the civihzation of these annnity 
Indians. A civilization fund was proxdded, to be 
taken from their annuities, and expended in im- 
provements on the lands of such of them as should 
abandon their tribal relations, and ;:dopt the habits 
and modes of life of the -n-hite race. To aU such, 
- lands were to be assigned in severalty, eighty 
acres to each head of a family. On these farms 
were to be erected the necessary farm-buildings, 
and farming implements and cattle were to be 
furnished them. 

In addition to these favors the government 
offered them pay for such labors of value as were 
performed, in addition to the crops they raised. 
Indian farmers now augmented rapidily, until the 
appalling outbreak in 1862, at which time about 
one hundred and sixty had taken advantage of the 
munificent provisions of the treaty. A number of 
farms, some 160, had good, snug brick houses 
erected upon them. Among these cisj7z>cfZ savages 
was Little Crow, and many of these farmer- Indians 
belonged to his own band. 

The Indians disliked the idea of taking any por- 
tion of the general fund belonging to the tribe for 
the purpose of carrying out the civilization scheme- 
Thos6 Indians who retained the "blanket," and 
hence called "blanket Indians," denounced the 
measure as a fraud upon their rights. The chase 
was then a God-given right; this scheme forfeited 
that ancient natural right, as it pointed unmistaka- 
bly to the destruction of the chase. 

But to the friends of Indian races, the course 
inaugurated seemed to be, step by step, lifting 
these rude children of the plains to a higher level. 
This scheme, however, was to a great degree 
thwarted by the helpless. condition of the "blanket 
Indians" during a great portion of the year, and 
their persistent determination to remain followers 
of the chase, and a desire to continue on the war- 

When the chase fails, the "blanket Indians" re- 
sort to their relatives, the farmers, pitch their 
tepees around their houses, and then commence 
the process of eating them out of house and home. 
When the ruin is complete, the farmer Indians, 
driven by the law of self-preservation, with their 
wives and children, leave their homes to seek such 
subsistence as the uncertain fortunes of the chase 
may yield. 

In the absence of the family from the house and 
fields, thu5 deserted, the wandering "blanket In- 
dians" commit whatever destruction of fences or 
tenements their desires or necessities may suggest. 
This perennial process go2s on; so that in the 
spring Allien the disheartened farmer Indian re- 
turns to his desolate home, to prepare again for 
another crop, he looks forward with no different 
results for the coming winter. 

It will be seen, from this one illustration, drawn 
from the actual results of the civilizing process, 
how hopeless was the prospect of elevf/ting one 
class of related savages without at the same time 
protecting them from the incursions of their own 
relatives, against whom the class attempted to be 
favored, had no redress. In this attempt to civil- 
ize these Dakota Indians the forty years, less or 
more, of missionary and other efforts have been 
measurably lost, and the money spent in that di- 
rection, if not wasted, sadly misapplied. 

The treaty of 1858 lu-d opened for settlement a 
vast frontier country of the most attractive char- 
acter, in the Valley of the Minnesota, and the 
streams putting into the Minnesota, on either side, 
such as Beaver creek. Sacred Heart, Hawk and 
Chippewa rivers and some other small streams, 
were flourishing settlemelits of white families. 
Within this ceded tract, ten miles wide, were the 
scattered settlements of Birch Coolie, Patterson 
Eapids, on the Sacred Heart, and others as far up 
as the Upper Agency at Yellow Medicine, in Een- 
ville county. The county of Brown adjoined the 
reservation, and was, at the time of which we are 
now writing, settled mostly by Germans. In this 
county was the flourishing town of New Ulm, and 
a thriving settlement on the Big Cottonwood and 
Watonwan, consisting of German and American 
pioneers, who had -selected this lovely and fertUe 
valley for their future homes. 

Other counties. Blue Earth, Nicollet, Sibley, 
Meeker, McLeod, Kandiyohi, Monongalia and 
Murray, were all situated in the finest portions of 
the state. Some of the valleys along the streams, 
such as Butternut valley and others of similar 
character, were lovely as Wyoming and as fertile 
as the Gardaa of Edeu. These counties, with 
others somewhat removed from the direct attack of 
the Indians in the massacre, as Wright, Stearns 
and Jackson, and even reaching on the north to 
Fort Abercrombie, thus extending from Iowa to 
the Valley of the Bed Eiver of the North, were 
severally involved in the consequences of the war- 



fare of 18G2. This extended area had at the time 
a population of over fifty thousand people, princi- 
pally in the pursuit of agriculture; and although 
the settlements were in their infancy, the people 
were happy and contented, and as prosperous as 
any similar community in any new country on the 
American continent, since the landing of the Pil- 
grim Fathers. 

We have in short, traced the Dakota tribes of 
Minnesota from an early day, when the white man 
first visited and explored these then unknown re- 
gions, to the time of the massacre. We have also 
given a synopsis of all the most important treaties 
between them and the government, with an allu- 
sion to the country adjacent to the reservations, 
and the probable number of people residing in the 
portions of the state ravaged by the savages. 






In a former chapter the reader has had some 
account of the location of the several bands of 

Sioux Indians in Minnesota, and their relation 
to the white settlements on the western border of 
the state. It is now proposed to state in brief 
some of the antecedents of the massacre. 


1. By the treaty of Traverse des Sioux, dated 
July 23, 1851, between the United States and the 
Sissetons and Wapatons, $275,000 were to be paid 
their chiefs, and a further sum of .§30,000 was to 
be expended for their benefit in Indian improve- 
ments. By the treaty of Mendota, dated August 
5, 1851, the Medawakantons and Wapakutas were 
to receive the sum of $200,000, to be paid to their 
chief, and for an improvement fund the further 
sum of $30,000. These several sums, amounting 
in the aggregate to .$555,000, these Indians, to 
whom they were payable, claim they were never 
paid, except, perhaps, a small portion expended in 
improvements on the reservations. Thej became 
dissatisfied, and expressed theii- views in councO 
freely with the agent of the govei'nment. 

In 1857, the Indian department at Washington 
sent out Major Kintzing Prichette, a man of great 
experience, to inquire into the cause of this disaf- 

fection towards the government. In his report of 
that year, made to the Indian department, JNIajor 
Prichette says: 

"The complaint which runs through all their coun- 
cils points to the imperfect performance, or non-ful 
fillment of treaty stipulations. Whether these 
were well or ill founded, it is not my promise tc 
discuss. That such a behcf prevails among them, 
uupairing their coufideuce and good faith in the 
government, cannot be questioned." 

In one of these councils Jagmani said : "The 
Indians sold their lands at Traverse des Sioux. 1 
say what we were told. For fifty years they were 
to be paid 850,000 per annum. We were also 
promised $300,000, and that we have not seen." 

Mapipa Wicasta (Cloud Man), second chief of 
Jagmani's baud, said: 

"At the treaty of Traverse des Sioux, $275,000 
were to be paid them when they came upon their 
reservation; they desired to know what had be- 
come of it. Every white man knows that they 
have been five years upon their reservation, and 
have yet heard nothing of it." 

In this abridged form we can only refer in brief 
to these complaints; but the history would seem 
to lack completeness without the presentation of 
this feature. As the fact of the dissatisfaction ex- 
isted, the government thought it worth while to 
appoint Judge Yoimg to investigate the charges 
made against the governor, of the then Minnesota 
territory, then acting, ex-officio, as superintendent 
of Indian affairs for that locahty. Some short 
extracts from Judge Young's report are here pre- 
sented : 

"The governor is next charged -n-ith having paid 
over the greater part of the money, appropriated 
under the fourth article of the treaty of July 23 
and August 5, 1851, to one Hugh Tyler, for pay- 
ment or distribution to the 'traders' and 'half- 
breeds,' contrary to the wishes and remonstrances 
of the Indians, and in violation of law and the 
stipulations contained in said treaties; and also 
in violation of his own solemn pledges, personally 
made to them, in regard to said payments. 

"Of $275,000 stipulated to be paid under the 
first clause of the fourth article of the treaty of 
Traverse des Sioux, of July 24, 1851, the sum of 
.§250,000, was dcUvered over to Hugh Tyler, by 
the governor, for distribution omong the 'traders" 
and 'half-breeds,' according to the arrangement 
made by the schedule of the Traders^ Papr.r, dated 
at Traverse des Sioux, July 23, 1851." 



" For this large sum of money, Hugh Tyler ex- 
ecuted two receipts to the Governor, as the attor- 
ney for the 'traders' and 'halt breeds;' the one for 
$210,000 on account of the 'traders,' and the other 
for .^40,000 on account of the 'half-breeds;' the 
first dated at St. Paul, December 8, 1852, and the 
second at Meudota, December 11, 1852." 

"And of the sum of $110,000, stipulated to be 
paid to the Medawakantons, under the fourth ar- 
ticle of the treaty of August 5, 1851, the sum of 
$70,000 was in like manner paid over to the said 
Tyler, on a power of attorney executed to him by 
the traders and claimants, under the said treaty, 
on December 11, 1852. The receipts of the said 
Tyler to the Governor for this money, $70,000, is 
dated at St. Paul, December 13, 1852, making to- 
gether the sum of $320,000. This has been shown 
to have been contrary to the wishes and remon- 
strances of a large majority of the Indians." And 
Judge Young adds: "It is also believed to be in 
violation of the treaty stipulations, as well as the 
law making the appropriations under them." 

These several sums of money were to be paid to 
these Indians in open council, and soon after they 
were on their reservations provided tor them by 
the treaties. In these matters the report shows 
they were not consulted at all, in open coimcil; 
but on the contrary, that arbitrary divisions and 
distributions were made of the entire fund, and 
their right denied to direct the manner in which 
they should be appropriated. See Ads of Con- 
gress, August 30, 1852. 

The Indians claimed, also, that the third section 
of the act was violated, as by that section the ap- 
propriations therein referred to, should, in every 
instance, be paid directly to the Indians them- 
selves, to whom it should be due, or to the tribe, 
or part of the tribe, per capita, " unless otherwise 
the imperious interest of the Indians or some 
treaty stipulation should require the payment to 
be made otherwise, under the direction of the 
president." This money was never so paid. The 
report further states that a large sum, " $55,000, 
was deducted by Hugh Tyler by way of discount 
and percentage on gross amount of payments, 
and that these exactions were made both from tra- 
ders and half-breeds, without any previous agree- 
ment, in many instances, and in such a way, in 
some, as to make the impression that unless they 
were submitted to, no payments would be made to 
such claimants at all." 

And, finally the report says, that from the testi- 

mony it was evident that the money was not paid 
to the chiefs, either to the Sisseton, Wapaton, or 
Medawakanton bands, as they in open council re- 
quested; but that they were compelled to submit 
to this mode of payment to the traders, otherwise 
no payment would be made, and the money would 
be returned to Washington; so that in violation of 
law they were compelled to comply with the Gov- 
ernor's terms of payment, according to Hugh Ty- 
ler's power of attorney. 

The examination of this complaint, on the part 
of the Indians, by the Senate of the United States, 
resulted in exculpating the Governor of "Minnesota 
(Governor Ramsey) from any censure, yet the In- 
dians "were not satisfied with the treatment they 
had received in this matter by the accredited agents 
of the Government. 

2. Another cause of irritation among these In- 
dians arose out of the massacre of 1857, at Spirit 
Lake, known as the Inkpaduta massacre. Inkpa- 
data was an outlaw of the Wapakuta band of 
Sioux Indians, and his acts in the murders at 
Spirit Lake were entirely disclaimed by the "annu- 
ity Sioux." He had slain Tasagi, a Wapakuta 
chief, and several of his relatives, some twenty 
years previous, and had thereafter led a wandering 
and marauding life about the head waters of the 
Des Moines river. 

Inkpaduta was connected with several of the 
bands of annuity Sioux Indians, and similar rela- 
tions with other bands existed among his followers. 
These ties extended even to the Yanktons west of 
the James river, and even over the Missouri. He 
was himself an outlaw for the murder of Tasagi 
and others as stated, and followed a predatory and 
lawless life iu the neighborhood of his related 
tribes, for which the Sioux were themselves blamed. 

The depredations of these Indians becoming in- 
suCferable, and the settlers finding themselves suf- 
ficiently strong, deprived them of their gims and 
drove them from the neighborhood. Eecovering 
some of their guns, or, by other accounts, digging 
up a few old ones which they had buried, they 
proceeded to the settlement of Spirit Lake and 
demanded food. This appears to have been given 
to a portion of the band which had first arrived, 
to the extent of the means of those applied to. 
Soon after, Inkpaduta, with the remainder of his 
followers, who, in all, numbered twelve men and 
two boys, with some women who had hngered be- 
hind, came in and demanded food also. The set- 
tler gave him to understand that he had no more 



to give; wbereupon Inkpaduta Bpoke to his eldest 
Bon to the effect that it was disgracerul to ask 
these people for food which they ought to take 
themselves, and not to have it thrown to them like 
dogs. Thus assured, the son immediately shot the 
man, and the murder of the whole family fol- 
lowed. From thence they proceeded from house, 
to house, until every family in the settlement, 
without warning of those previously slain, were 
all massacred, except four women, whom they bore 
away prisoners, and afterward violated, with cir- 
cumstances of brutality so abhorrent as to find uo 
parallel in the annals of savage barbarity, unless 
we except the massacre of 1862, whicli occurred a 
few years later. 

From Spirit Lake the murderers proceeded to 
Springfield, at the outlet of Shetek, or Pelican 
lake, near the head waters of the Des Moines 
river; where they remained encamped for some 
days, trading with Mr. William Wood from Man- 
kato, and his brothers. Here .tbey succeeded in 
killing seventeen, including the Woods, making, 
in all, forty-seven persons, when the men rallied, 
and tiring upon them, tbey retreated and deserted 
that part of the country. Of tba four women 
taken captives by Inkpaduta, Mrs. Stevens and 
Mrs. Noble were killed by the Indians, and Mrs. 
Marble and Miss Gardner were rescued by the 
Wapaton Sioux, under a promisa of reward from 
the Government, and for which the three Indians 
who brought in these captives received each one 
thousand dollars. 

The Government liad required of the Sioux the 
delivery of Inkpaduta and bis band as the condi- 
tion for the payment of their annuities. This was 
regarded by certain of the bauds as a great wrong 
visited upon the innocent for the crimes of the 
guilty. One of their speakers (Mazakuti Mani), 
in a council held with the Sissetons and Wapatous, 
August 10, 1S57, at Yellow Medicine, said: 

"The soldiers have appointed me to speak for 
them. The men who killed the white people did 
not belong to us, and we did not expect to be called 
upon to account for the deeds of another band. 
We have always tried to do as our Great Father 
tells us. One of our young men brought in a 
captive woman. I went out and brought in the 
other. The soldiers came up here and our men 
assisted to Jdll one of Inkpaduta's sons at this 
place. The lower Indians did not get ujd the war- 
party for you; it was our Indians, the Wapatons 
and Sissetons. The soldiers here say that they 

were told by you that a thousand dollars would 
be paid for killing each of the murderers. We, 
with the men who went out, want to be paid for 
what we have done. Three men were killed, as 
we know. ***** AH of us want our 
money very much. A man of another band has 
done wrong, and we are to suffer for it. Our old 
women and children are hungry for this. I have 
seen S10,000 sent here to pay for our going out. 
I wish our soldiers were paid for it. I 
our Great Father has more money than this." 

Major PritcUette, the special government agent, 
thought it necessary to answer some points made 
by Mazakuti Mani, and spoke, in council, as fol- 

"Your Great Father has sent me to see Suppr- 
intendent Cullen, and to say to him he was well 
satisfied with bis conduct, because he had acted ac- 
cording to his instructions. Your Great Father 
bad heard that some of his white children had been 
cruelly and brutally murdered by some of the 
Sioux nation. The news was sent on the wings of 
the lightning, from the extreme north to the land 
of eternal summer, throughout which his children 
dwell. His young men wished to make war on 
the whole Sioux nation, and revenge the deaths of 
their brethren. But your Great Father is a just 
father and wishes to treat all his children alike 
Avith justice. He wants no innocent man punished 
for the guilty. He punishes the guilty alone. Ho 
expects that those missionaries who have been here 
teac! iag you the laws of the Great Spirit had 
taught you this. Whenever a Sioux is injured by 
a wliite man your Great Father will punish him, 
and expecis from the chiefs and warriors of the 
gi'eat Sioux nation that they will punish those In- 
dians who injure the whites. He considers the 
Si mx as a part of his family; and as friends and 
brothers he expeots them to do as the whites do to 
tham. He kuow.s that the Sioux nation is divided 
into bands; but he knows also how they can all 
band together for common protection. Ho expects 
the nation to punish these m;irJerers, or to deliver 
them up. He expects this because they are his 
friends. As long as these murderers remain un- 
punished or not delivered up, they are not acting 
as friends of their Great Father. It is for this 
reason that ho has witheld the annuity. Y''our 
( Father will have his white children p.o- 
teoted; <ind all who have told you that your Great 
Father is not able to punish those who injure them 
will find themselves bitterly mistaken. Your 



Great Father desires to do good to all lais children 
and will do all in his power to accomplish it; but 
he is firmly resolved to punish all who do wrong." 

After this, another similar council, SejDtember 1, 
1857, was held with the Sisseton and Wapaton 
band of Upper Sioux at Yellow Medicine. Agent 
Flandran, in the meantime, had succeeded in or- 
ganizing a band of warriors, made up of all the 
"annuity" bands, under Little Crow. This expe- 
dition numbered altogether one hundred and six, 
besides four half-breeds. This party went out af- 
ter Inkpaduta on the 22d of July, 1857, starting 
from Yellow Medicine. 

Oa the 5th of August Major Pritchette reported 
to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, "That the 
party of Indians, rejiresenting the entire Sioux na- 
tion, under the nominal head of Little Crow, re- 
turned yesterday from the expedition in search of 
Inkpaduta and his band," after an absence of thir- 
teen days. 

As this outlaw, Inkpaduta, has achieved an im- 
mortality of infamy, it may be allowable in the 
historian to record the names of his followers. In- 
kpaduta (Scarlet Point) heads the hst, and the 
names of the eleven men are given by the wife of 
Tateyahe, who was killed by the party of Sioux 
under Little Crow, thus: Tateyahe (Shifting 
Wind); Makpeahoteman (Roaring Cloud), son of 
Inkpaduta, killed at Yellow Medicine; Makpiope- 
ta (Fire Cloud), twin brother of Makpeohotoman; 
Tawachshawakan (His Mysterious Feather), killed 
in the late expedition; Bahata (Old Man); Kech- 
omon (Putting on as He Walks); Huhsan (One 
Leg); Kahadai (Rattling), son-in-law of Inkpa- 
duta; I'etoa-tanka (Big Face); Tatelidashinksha- 
mani (One who Makes Crooked Wind as He 
Walks); Tachanchegahota (His Great Gun), and 
the two boys, children of Inkpaduta, not named. 

After the band had been pursued by Little 
Crow into Lake Chouptijatanka (Big Dry Wood), 
distant twenty miles in a northwestern direction 
from Skuuk Lake, and three of them killed out- 
right, wounding one, taking two women and a 
little child prisoners, the Indians argued that they 
had done sufficient to merit the payment of their 
annuities; and on the 18th of August, 1854, Maj. 
Cullen telegraphed the following to the Hon. J. 
W. Denver, commissioner of Indian affaire: 

"If the department concurs, I am of the opinion 
that the Sioux of the Mississippi, having done all 
in their power to punish or surrender Inkpaduta 
and his band, their annuities may with propriety 

be paid, as a signal to the military movements 
from Ports Ridgely and Randall. The special 
agent from the department waits an answer to 
this dispatch at Dunleith, and for instructions in 
the premises." 

In this opinion Major Pritchette, in a letter of 
the same date, concurred, for reasons therein 
stated, and transmitted to, the department. In 
this letter, among other things, the wi-iter says : 

"No encouragement was given to them that 
such a request would be granted. It is the 
opinion, however, of Superintendent Cullen, the 
late agent. Judge Flandrau, Governor Medary, 
and the general intelligent sentiment, that the an- 
nuities may now with propriety, be paid, without 
a violation of the spirit of the expressed deter- 
mination of the department to withhold them until 
the murderers of Spirit Lake should be surren- 
dered or punished. It is argued that the present 
friendly disposition of the Indians is manifest, and 
should not be endangered by subjecting them to 
the wants incident to their condition during the 
coming winter, and the consequent temptation to 
depredation, to which the withholding their 
money would leave them exposed." 

The major yielded this point for the reasons 
stated, yet he continued: 

"If not improper for me to express an opinion, I 
am satisfied that, without chastising the whole 
Sioux nation, it is impossible to enforce the sur- 
render of Inkpaduta and the remainder of his 
band." * * •* "Nothing less than the entire 
extirpation of Inkpaduta's murderous outlaws will 
satisfy the justice and dignity of the government, 
and vindicate outraged humanity." 

We here leave the Inkjoaduta massacre, remark- 
ing only that the government paid the Indians 
their annuities, and made no further effort to bring 
to condign punishment the remnant who had 
escaped -alive from the piirsuit of Little Crow and 
his soldiers. This was a great error on the part 
of our government. The Indians construed it 
either as an evidence of weakness, or that tie 
whites were afraid to pursue the matter further, 
lest it might terminate in still more disastrous re- 
sults to the infant settlement of the state border- 
ing upon the Indian country. The resiUt was, 
the Indians became more insolent than ever be- 
fore. Little Crow and his adherents had found 
capital out of which to foment future difficulties 
in which the two races should become involved. 
And it is now believed, and subsequent circum- 



stances have greatly strengthened that belief, that 
Little Crow, from the time the government ceased 
its efforts to punish Inkpaduta, began to agitate 
his great scheme of driving the whites from the 
state of Minnesota; a scheme which finally cul- 
minated in the ever-to-be-remembcred massacre of 
August, A. D. 1862. 

The antecedent exciting causes of this massacre 
are numerous. The displaced agents and traders 
find the cause in the erroneous action of the Gov- 
ernment, resulting in their removal from office. 
The statesman and the pbilosopber may unite in 
tracing the cause to improper theories as to the 
mode of acquiring the right to Indian lands. 
The former may locate the evil in our system of 
treaties, and the latter in our theories of goveru- 
meut. The philanthropist may find the cause in 
the absence of justice which we exhibit in all our 
intercourse with the Indian races. The poet and 
the lovers of romance in human character find the 
true cause, as they believe, in the total absence of 
all appreciation of the noble, generous, confiding 
traits peculiar to the native Indian. The Chris- 
tian teacher finds apologies for acts of Indian 
atrocities in the deficient systems of mental and 
moral culture. Each of these different classes 
are satisfied that the great massacre of August, 
1862, had its origin in some way intimately con- 
nected with his favorite theory. 

Let us, for a moment, look at the facts, in rela- 
tion to the two races who had come into close con- 
tact with each other, and in the light ot these 
facts, judge of the probable cause of this fearful 
collision. The white race, some two hundred 
years ago, had entered upon the material conquest 
of the American continent, armed with all the ap- 
pliances for its complete subjugation. On the 
shores of this prolific continent these new ele- 
ments came in contact with a race ot savages with 
many of the traits peculiar to a common human- 
ity, yet, with these, exhibiting all, or nearly all, 
the vices of the most barbarous of savage races. 
The period of occupancy of this broad, fertile 
land was lost in the depths of a remote antiquity. 
The culture of the soil, if ever understood, had 
been long neglected by this race, and the chase 
was their principal mode of gaining a scanty subi- 
sistence. It had lost all that ennobled man, and 
was alive only to all his degradations. The white 
man was at once acknowledged, the Indian being 
judge, superior to the savage race with which he 
had come in contact. 

Here, then, is the first cause, in accordance with 
a universal principle, in which the conflict of the 
two races had its origin. It was a conflict of 
knowledge with ignorance, of right with wrong. 
If this conflict were only mental, and the weapons 
of death had never been resorted to in a single 
instance, the result would have been the same. 
The inferior race must either recede before the su- 
perior, or sink into the common mass, and, like the 
raindrops falling upon the bosom of the ocean, 
lose all traces of distinction. This warfare takes 
place the world over, on the principle of mental 
and material progress. The presence ot the supe- 
rior light eclipses the inferior, and it to 
retire. Mind makes aggression upon mind, and 
the superior, sooner or later, overwhelms the infe- 
rior. This process may go on, with or without 
the conlliot of physical organisms. The final 
result will be the same. 

Again, we come to the great law of right. The 
white race stood upon this undeveloped continent 
ready and willing to execute the Divine injunc- 
tion, to replenish the earth and subdue it. On the 
one side stood the white race armed with his law ; 
ou the other the savage, resisting the execution of 
that law. The result could not be evaded by any 
human device. In the case before us, the Indian 
races were in the wrongful possession of a conti- 
nent required by the superior right of the white 
man. This right, founded in the wisdom of God, 
eliminated by the ever-operative laws of progress, 
will continue to assert its dominion, with varying 
success, contingent on the use of means employed, 
until all opposition is hushed in the perfect reign 
of the superior aggressive principle. 

With these seemingly necessary reflections, we 
introduce the remarks of the Sioux agent touching 
the antecedents oE the great massacre, unparalleltd 
in the history of the conflict of the races. The 
agent gives his peculiar views, and they are worthy 
of careful consideration. 

Major Thomas Galbraith, Sioux Agent, says: 

"The radical, moving cause ot the outbreak is, 
I am satisfied, the ingrained and fixed hostility of 
the savage barbarian to reform and civilization. 
As in aU barbarous communities, in the history of 
the world, the same people have, for the most part, 
resisted the encroachments of civilization upon 
their ancient customs; so it is in the case before 
us. Nor does it matter materially in what shape 
civilization makes its attack. Hostile, opposing 
forces meet in conflict, and a war of social elements 



is the result — civilization is aggressive, and bar- 
barism stubbornly resistant. Sometimes, indeed, 
civilization has achieved a bloodless victory, but 
generally it has been otherwise. Christianity, it- 
self, the trae basis of civilization, has, in most in- 
stances, •waded to success through seas of blood. 
* * * Having stated thus much, I state as a 
settled fact in my mind, that the encroachments of 
Christianity, and its handmaid, civilization, uj^on 
the habits and customs of the Sioux Indians, is 
the cause of the late terrible Sioux outbreak. There 
were, it is true, many immediate inciting causes, 
which will be alluded to and stated hereafter, but 
they are subsidiary to, and developments of, or 
incident to, the great cause set forth. * * * 
But that the recent Sioux outbreak would have 
happened at any rate, as a result, a fair conse- 
quence of the cause here stated, I have no more 
doubt than I doubt that the great rebellion to 
overthrow our Government would have occurred 
had Mr. Lincoln never been elected President of 
the United States. 

" Now as to the existing or immediate causes of 
the outbreak: By my predecessor a new and 
radical system was inaugurated, practically, and, 
in its inauguration, he was aided by the Christian 
missionaries and by the Government. The treaties 
of 1858 were ostensibly made to carry this new 
system into effect. The theory, in substance, 'wss 
to break up the community -system which prevailed 
among the Sioux; weaken and destroy their 
tribal relations, and individualize tliem, by giving 
them each a separate home. * * * On the 
1st day of June, A. D. 1861, when I entered upon 
the duties of my office, I found that the system 
had just been inaugurated. Some hundred fami- 
lies of the Annuity Sioux had become novitiates, 
and their relatives and friends seemed to be favor- 
ably disposed to the new order of things. But I 
also found that, against these, were arrayed over 
live thousand "Annuity Sioux," besides at least 
three thousand Tanktonais, all inflamed by the 
most bitter, relentless, and devilish hostility. 

" I saw, to some extent, the difficulty of the 
situation, but I determined to continue, if in my 
power, the civilization system. To favor it, to aid 
and build it up by every fair means, I advised, 
encouraged, and assisted the farmer novitiates; in 
short, I sustained the poUoy inaugurated by my 
predecessor, and sustained and recommended by the 
Government. I soon discovered tliat the system 
could not be successful without a sufficient force 

to protect the "farmer" from the hostility of the 
"blanket Indians." 

"During my term, and up to the time of the out- 
break, about one hundred and seventy-five had 
their hair cut and had adopted the habits and cus- 
toms of white men. 

" For a time, indeed, my hopes were strong that 
civilization would soon be in the ascendant. But 
the increase of the civilization party and their evi- 
dent prosperity, only tended to exasperate the In- 
dians of the 'ancient customs,' and to widen the 
breach. But while these are to be enumerated, it 
may be permitted me to hope that the radical 
cause will not be forgotten or overlooked; and I 
am bold to express this desire, because, ever since 
the outbreak, the public journals of the country, 
religious and secular, have teemed with editorials 
by and communications from 'reliable individuals,' 
politicians, philanthropists, philosophers and hired 
'penny-a-liners,' mostly mistaken and sometimes 
willfully and grossly false, giving the cause of the 
Indian raid." 

Major Galbraith enumerates a variety of other 
exciting causes of the massacre, which our limit 
will not allow us to insert in this volume. Among 
other causes, * * that the United States was 
itself at war, and that Washington was taken by 
the negroes. * * But none of these were, in 
his opinion, the cause of the outbreak. 

The Major then adds: 

"Grievances such as have been related, and 
numberless others akin to them, were spoken of, 
recited, and chanted at their councils, dances, and 
feasts, to such an extent that, in their excitement, 
in June, 1862, a secret organization known as the 
' Soldier's Lodge,' was founded by the young 
men and soldiers of the Lower Sioux, with the 
object, as far as I was able to learn through spies 
and informers, of preventing the 'traders' from 
going to the pay-tables, as had been their custom. 
Since the outbreak I have become satisfied that 
the real object of this 'Lodge' was to adopt 
measures to 'clean out' all the white people at the 
end Qf the payment." 

Whatever may have been the cause of the fear- 
ful and bloody tragedy, it is certain that the man- 
ner of the execution of the infernal deed was a 
deep-laid conspiracy, long cherished by Little 
Crow, taking form under the guise of the " Sol- 
diers' Lodge," and matured in secret Indian coun- 
cils. In all these secret movements Little Crow 
was the moving spirit. 



Now the (ipjiortune moment seemed to have 
come. Only tliirty soldiers were stationed at Fort 
Ridgely. Some thirty were all that Fort Ripley 
could muster, and at Fort Abercrombie one com- 
pany, under Captain Van Der Hork, was all the 
whites could depend upon to repel any attack iu 
that quarter. The whole effective force for th;- 
defense of the entire frontier, from Pembina to the 
Iowa line, djd not exceed two hundred men. The 
annuity money was daily expected, and no troops 
except about one hundred men at Yellow Medi- 
cine, had been detailed, as usual, to attend the an- 
ticipated payment. Here was a glittering prize to 
be paraded before the minds of the excited sav- 
ages. The whites were weak; they were engaged 
in a terrible war among themselves; their atten- 
tion was now directed toward the great struggle 
in the Soiitli. At such a time, offering so many 
chances for rapine and plunder, it would be easj' 
to unite, at least, all the annuity Indians in one 
common movement. Little Crow knew full well 
that the Indians could easily be made to believe 
that now was a favorable time to make a grand 
attack upon the border settlements. In view of all 
the favorable auspices now concurring, a famous 
Indian coimcil was called, which was fully attended 
by the " Soldiers' Lodge." Rev. S. R. Riggs, iu 
his late work, 1880, ("Mary. and I"); referring to 
the outbrejik, says: 

"On \ug\ist 17th, the outbreak was commenced 
in the border whits settlements at Acton, Minne- 
sota. Tliat night the news was carried to the 
Lower Sioux Agency, and a council of war was 
called." * * * "Sometliing of the kind had 
been meditated and talked of, and prepared for 
undoubtedly. Some time before this, they had 
formed tlie Tce-yo-tee-pee, or Soldiers' Lodge." 

A memorable council, convened at Little Crow's 
village, near the Lower Agency, on Sunday night 
previous to the attack on Fort Ridgely, and pre- 
cisely two weeks before the first massacres at Ac- 
ton. Little Crow was at this council, and he was 
not wanting in ability to meet the greatness of 
the occasion. The proceedings of this council, of 
course, were secret. Some of the results arrived 
at, however, have since come to the writer of these 
pages. The council matured the details of a con- 
spiracy, which for atrocity has hitherto never 
found a place in recorded history, not excepting 
that of Cawnpore. 

The evidence of that conspiracy comes to us, in 
part, from the relation of one who was present at 

the infamous council. Comparing the statement 
of the narrative with the known occurrences of 
the times, that council preceded the attack on the 
Government stores at the Upper Agency, and waB 
convened on Sunday night; the attack on the 
Upper Agency took place the next day, Monday, 
the 4th of August; and on the same day, an at- 
tempt was made to take Fort Ridgely by strategy. 
Not the slightest danger was anticipated. Only 
thirty soldiers occupied the post at Fort Ridgelv 
and this was deemed iimply sufficient in times of 
peace. But we will not longer detain the reader 
from the denouement of this horrible plot. 

Our informant states the evidences of the de- . 
crees of the council of the 3d of August, thus: 

"I was looking toward the Agency and saw a 
large body of men Coming toward the fort, and 
supposed them soldiers returning from the pay- 
ment at Yellow Medicine. On a second look, I 
observed they were mounted, and knowing, at this 
time, that they must be Indians, was surprised at 
seeing so large a body, as they were not expected. 
I resolved to go into the garrison to see what it 
meant, having, at the time, not the least suspicion 
that the Indians intended any hostile demonstr i- 
tion. When I arrived at the garrison, I toui.d 
Sergeant Jones at the entrance with a mounted 
howitzer, charged with shell and canister-shot, 
pointed towards the Indians, who were removed 
but a short distance from the guard house. I 
inquired of the sergeant what it meant? whether 
any danger was apprehended? He replied indif- 
ferentlj-, "No, but that he thought it a good rule 
tT observe that a soldier should always be ready 
for any emergency." 

These Indians had requested the privilege to 
dance in the inclosure surrounding the fort. On 
this occasion that request was refused them. But 
I saw that, about sixty yards west of the guard 
house, the Indians were m:iking the necessary 
preparations for a dance. I thought nothing of it 
as they had frequently done the same thing, but a 
little further removed from the fort, under some- 
what different circumstances. I considered it a 
singular exhibition of Indian foolishness, and, at 
the solicitation of a few ladies, went out and wr.s 
myself a spectator of the dance. 

"When the dance was concluded, the Indians 
.sought aud obtained permission to encamp on 
some rising ground about a quarter of a mile west 
of the trrirrison. To this ground they soon re- 
[laired, and encamped for the night. The next 



mo.-uing, by 10 o'clock, all had left the vicinity of 
the garrison, departing in the direction of the 
Lower Agency. This whole matter of the dance 
was so conducted as to lead most, if not all, the 
residents of the garrison to believe that the In- 
dians had paid them that visit for the purpose of 
dancing and obtaining provisions for a feast. 

"Some things were observable that were unu- 
sual. The visitors were all warriors, ninety-six in 
number, all in undress, except a very few who wore 
calico shirts; and, in addition to this, they all car- 
ried arms, guns and tomahawks, with ammunition 
pouches suspended around their shoulders. Pre- 
vious to the dance, the war implements were de- 
posited some two hundred yards distant, where 
they had left -their ponies. But even this circum- 
Bi'ance, so far as it was tben known, excited no 
suspicion of danger or hostilities in the minds of 
the residents of the garrison. These residents 
were thiity-five men; thirty soldiers and five citi- 
zens, with a few women and children. The guard 
that day consisted of three soldiers; one waswalk- 
uig leisurely to and fro in front of the guard- 
h;mse; the other two were off duty, passing about 
an "■ taking their rest; and all entirely without aji- 
prehcnsion of danger from Indians or any other 
foe. As the Indians left the garrison without do- 
ing any mischief, most of us supposed that no evil 
was meditated by them. But there was one man 
who acted on the supposition that there was al- 
v.ays danger surrounding a garrison when visited 
by savages; that man was Sergeant Jones. From 
t':e time he took his position at the gun he never 
left it, but acted as he said he believed it best to 
do, that was to be always ready. He not only re- 
mained at the gun himself, but retained tw'o other 
men, whom he had previously trained as assistants 
to work the piece. 

"Shortly before dark, without disclosing his in- 
tentions. Sergeant Jones said to his wife: 'I have 
a little business to attend to to-night; at bed-time 
I wish you to retire, and not to wait for me.' As 
he had frequently done this before, to discharge 
some official duty at the quartermaster's office, she 
thought it not singular, but did as he had re- 
quested, and retired at the usual hour. On awak- 
ening in the morning, however, she was surprised 
at finding that he was not there, and had not been 
in bed. In truth, this faithful soldier had stood 
by bis gun throughout the entire night, ready to 
fire, if occasion required, at any moment during 
that time; nor could he be per ,uaded to leave that 

gun until all this party of Indians had entirely 
disappeared from the vicinity of the garrison. 

"Some two weeks after this time, those same In- 
dians, with others, attacked Fort Ridgely and, af- 
ter some ten days' siege, the gnrrison was relieved 
by the arrival of soldiers under Colonel H. H Sib- 
ley. The second day after Colonel Sibley arrived, 
a Frenchman of pure or mixed blood appeared 
before Sergeant Jones, in a very agitated manner, 
and intimated that he had some disclosures to 
make to him; but no sooner Lad he made this in- 
timation than he became extremely and violently 
agitated, and seemed to be in a perfect agony of 
mental perturbation. Sergeant Jones said to him, 
'If you have anything to disclose, you ought, at 
once, to make it known.' The man repeated that 
he had disclosures to make, but that he did not 
dare to make them; and although Sergeant Jones 
urged him by every oonside}ation in his power to 
tell what he knew, the man seemed to be so com- 
pl( tely under the dominion of terror, that he was 
rmable to divulge the great secret. 'Why,' said 
he, 'they will kill me; they will kill my wife and 
children.' Saying which he turned and w;il . 

"Shortly after the first interview, this man i 
turned to Sergeant Jones, when again the S. 
geant urged him to disclose what he knew; ai. 
promised him that if he would do so, he would 
keep his name a j^rofound secret forever; that if 
the information which he should disclose should 
lead to the detection and punishment of the giulfy 
the name of the informant should n, ver be 
known. Being thus assured, the Frenchman soon 
became more calm. Hesitating a moment, he in- 
quired of Sergeant Jones if he remembered that, 
some two weeks ago, a party of Indians came 
down to the fort to have a dance? Sergeant 
Jones replied that he did. 'Why,' said the French- 
man, 'do you know that these Indians were aU 
warriors of Little Crow, or some of the other lower 
bands ? Sir, these Indians had all been selected 
for the purpose, and came down to Fort Eidgel> 
by the express command of Little Crow and thi. 
other chiefs, to get permission to dance; and when 
all suspicion should be completely lulled, in the 
midst of the dance, to seize their weapons, kill 
every person in the fort, seize the big guns, open 
the magazine, and secure the ammuuifion, when 
they should be joined by all the remaining war- 
riors of the lower bands. Thus armed, and in- 
creased by numbers, they were to proceed together 



down the valley of the Minnesota. With this 
force and these weapons they were assured they 
could drive every white man beyond the Missis- 

"All this, the Frenchman informed Sergeant 
Jones, he had learned by being present at a coun- 
cU, and from conversations had with other Indians, 
who bad told him that they had gone to the gar- 
rison for that very purpose. When he had con- 
cluded this revelation, Sergeant Jones inquired, 
'Why did they not execute their purpose? Why 
did they not take the fort?' The Frenchman re- 
phed: -Because they saw, during all their dance, 
and then stay at the fort, that big gun constantly 
pointed at them.' " 

Interpreter Quinn, now dead, told the narrator 
of the foregoing incidents that Little Crow had 
said, repeatedly, in their councils, that the Indians 
could kiU all the white men in the Minnesota Val- 
ley. In this way, he said, we can get all our lands 
back; that the whites would again want these lands, 
and that they could get double annuities. Some 
of the councils at which these suggestions of Lit- 
tle Crow were made, dated, he said, as far back as 
the summer of 1857, immediately after the Ink- 
paduta war. 

On the 17th day of August, 1862, Little Crow, 
Inkpaduta, and Little Priest, the latter one of the 
Winnebago chiefs, attended church at the Lower 
Agency, and seemed to listen attentively to the 
services, conducted by the Eev. J. D. Hinman. 
On the afternoon ot that day Little Crow invited 
these Indians to his house, a short distance above 
the Agency. On the same day an Indian council 
was held at Eice Creek, sixteen miles above the 
Lower Agency, attended by the Soldiers' Lodge. 
Inkpaduta, it ia believed, and Little Priest, with 
some thirteen Winnebago warriors, attended this 
council. Why this council was held, and what 
was its object, can easily be imagined. The de- 
crees of the one held two weeks before had not been 
executed. The reason why the fort was not taken 
has been narrated. The other part of the same 
sclieme, the taking of the agency at the Yellow 
Medicine, on the same day the fort was to have 
fallen, will be alluded to in another chapter. It 
then became necessary for the conspirators to hold 
another council, to devise new plans for the exe- 
cution of their nefarious designs upon the whites. 

The Acton tragedy, forty miles distant, had taken 
place but a few hours before this council was con- 
vened. On Monday, the 18th of August, these 

Acton murderers were seen at the miU on Crow 
river, six miles from Hutchinson, with the team 
taken from Acton; so that these Indians did not 
go to the Lower Agency, but remained in th( 
country about Hutchinson. One of the number 
only returned to the Agency by the next morning 
after the council at Rice Creek had been held. 
AU that followed in the bloody drama, originated 
at this council of Death, over which Little Crow 
presided, on Sunday afternoon, the 17th day of 
August, 1862, on the evening of the same day of 
the Acton murders. The general massacre of all 
white men was by order ot this council, to com- 
mence at the Agency, on the morning of the 18th, 
and at as many other points, simultaneously, as 
could be reached by the dawn of day, radiating 
from that point as a center. The advantage 
gained by the suddenness of the attack, and the 
known panic that would result, was to be followed 
up until every settlement was massacred, Fort 
Ridgely taken, both Agencies burned. New Ulm, 
Mankato, St. Peter, and all the towns on the river 
destroyed, the whole country plundered and devas- 
tated, and as many of the inhabitants as were left 
alive were to be driven beyond the Mississippi 
river. The decree of this savage council, matured 
on a Christian Sabbath, by Indians, who were sup- 
posed to be civilized, so immediately after atten- 
tively listening to the gospel of peace, filled the 
measure of the long-cherished conspiracy matured 
by Little Crow, until it was full of the most hope- 
ful results to his polluted and brutal nature. 
"Once an Indian, always an Indian," seems in this 
instance to have been horribly demonstrated. 


Change of Indian officials — patsient of 1861 — 
bepokt or agent galbbaith — tjppeb and 
lower bands — supplies attack on the ware- 
house renville kangeks return to fort 


The change in the administration of the Grov- 
ernment in 1861, resulting, as it did, in a general 
change in the minor offices throughout the coun- 
try, carried into retirement Major William J. Cul- 
len. Superintendent ot Indian Affairs for the 
Northern Superintendency, and Major Joseph K. 
Brown, Agent for the Sioux, whose places were 
filled respectively by Colonel Clark W. Thomp- 
son and Major Thomas J. Galbraith. Colonel 



Thompson entered upon the duties of his office in 
May of that year, and Major Galbraith on the 
first day of June. In that month the new agent 
and many of the new employes, with their fami- 
lies, took up their residence on the reservations. 

These employes, save a few young men who 
were employed as laborers, were, with two excep- 
tions, men of families, it being the policy of the 
agent to employ among the Indians as few un- 
married men as possible. 

During that year nothing occurred on the res- 
ervations of an unusual character more than the 
trouble with which the Agents had always to deal 
at every semi-annual gathering at the Agencies. 
We say "semi-annual," because they came in the 
summer to draw their annuities, and again in the 
autumn tor their winter supply of goods. 

It has been usual at the payment of annuities 
to have a small force of troops to guard against 
any xintoward event which might otherwise occur. 
The payment to the lower bands, in 1861, was 
made in the latter part of June, and to the upper 
bands about the middle of July. These pay- 
ments were made by Superintendent Thompson 
in person. 

The Sisseton bands came down to the Agency 
at a very early day, as had always been their 
habit, long before the arrival of the money, 
bringing with them a large body of Yanktonais 
(not annuity Sioux), who always came to the 
payments, claiming a right to a share of the an 
nuities issued to the Indians, 

These wild hunters of the plains were an un- 
failing element of trouble at the payments to the 
upper bands. At this last payment they were in 
force, and by their troublesome conduct, caused a 
delay of some days in the making of the payments. 
Tlus was, however, no unusual occurrence, as they 
always came with a budget of grievances, upon 
which they were wont to dilate in council. This 
remark is equally true of the annuity Indians. 
Indeed, it would be very strange if a payment 
could be made without a demand, on the part of 
the "yoimg men," for three or four times the 
amount of their annual dues. 

These demands were usually accompanied by 
overt acts of violence; yet the j^aymentwas made; 
and this time, after the payment, all departed to 
their village at Big Stone Laka They came 
again in the fall, drew their supply of goods, and 
went quietly away. 

It so turned out, however, that the new agent, 

Galbraith, came into office too late to insure a large 
crop that year. He says: 

"The autumn of 1861 closed upon us rather un- 
favorably. The crojjs were light; especially was 
this the case with the Upper Sioux ; they had little 
or nothing. As heretofore communicated to the 
Department, the cut-worms destroyed aU the 
Sisetons, and greatly injured the crop of the 
Wapatons, Medawakantons, Wapakutas. For 
these latter I purchased on credit, in anticipation 
of the Agricultural and Civilization Funds, large 
quantities of pork and flour, ut current rates, to 
support them during the winter. 

"Early in the autumn, in view of the necessitous 
situation of the Sisetons, I made a requisition on 
the department for the sum of $5,000, out of the 
special fund for the relief of 'poor and destitute 
Indians;' and, in anticipation of receiving this 
money, made arrangements to fe:d the old and in- 
firm men, and the women and children of these 
people. I directed the Rev. S. R. Riggs to make 
the selection, and furnish me a list. 

"He carefully did this, and we fed, in an econ- 
omical, yea, even parsimonious way, about 1,500 
of these people from the middle of December until 
nearly the first of April. We had hoped to get 
them off on their spring hunt earlier, but a tre- 
mendous and unprecedented snow-storm during 
the last days of February prevented. 

"In response to my requisition, I received 
$3,000, and expended very nearly $5,000, leaving 
a deficiency not properly chargable to the regular 
funds, of about $2,000. ' 

"These people, it is believed, must have per- 
ished had it not been for this scanty assistance. 
In addition to this, the regular issues were made 

to the farmer Indians in payment for their labor. 
**** * m ^ * Hi 

"In the month of August, 1861, the superinten- 
dents of farms were directed to have ploughed 'in 
the fall,' in the old public and neglected private 
fields, a sufficient quantity of land to provide 
'plantings' for such Indians as could not be pro- 
vided with oxen and implements. In jmrsuance 
of this direction, there were ploughed, at rates 
ranging from $1.50 to $2,00 per acre, ac- 
cording to the nature of the work, by teams and 
men hired for the purpose, for the Lower Sioux, 
about 500 acres, and for the Upper Sioux, about 
475 acres. There were, also, at the same time, 
ploughed by the farmer Indians and the depart- 
ment teams, about 250 acres for the Lower, and 



nbout 325 acres for the Upper Sioux. This fall 
ploughing was continued until the frost prevented 
its further prosecution. It was done to facilitate 
the work of the agrionltural department, and to 
kill the worms which had proved so injurious the 
previous year. * * * 

"The carp?nter-shops at both Agencies were 
Bupphed with lumber for the manufacture and re- 
pair of sleds, wagons, and other farming utensils. 
Sheds were erected for the ])rotectioii of the cattle 
and utensils of the depertment, and the farmer 
Indians, assisted by the department carpenters, 
erected stables, pens, and out-houses for the pro- 
tection of their catt-'e, hoi-ses and utensils. * '' 
Hay, grain, and other supplies were provided, 
and, in short, every thing was done which the 
means at command of the agent would justify. 

"The work of the autiunn bc>ing thus closed, I 
set about making preparations for the work of the 
next spring and summer, and in du'ectiug the 
work of the winter. I made calculations to erect, 
during the summer and autumn of 1862, at least 
lit'ty dwelling-houses for Indian families, at an 
estimated average cost of S'300 each; and also to 
aid the farmer Indians in erecting as many ad- 
ditional dwellings as possible, not to exceed thirty 
or forty; and to have planted for the Lower 
Sioux, at least 1,200 acres, and for the Upper 
Sioux, at least 1 ,300 acres of crops, and to have 
all the land planted, exsept that at Big Stone 
L;ike, inclosed by a fence. 

"To carry out these calculations, early in the 
the winter the superintendents of farms, the black- 
smiths, the carpenters, and the superintendents of 
schools wore directed to furnish estimates for the 
amount of agricultural implem^nt^,, oxen, 
wagons, carts, bnilJiug material, iron, steel, tools, 
and supplies needed to carry on successfully their 
several departments for one year from the open- 
ing of navigation in the sjiring of 1SG2. 

"These estimates were prepared and furnished 
me about the 1st of February. In accordance 
with these estimates, I proceeded to purchase, in 
open market, the articles and supplies recommend- 

"I made the estimates for one year, and pur- 
chases accordingly, in order to secure the benefit 
of transportation by water in the spring, and thus 
avoid the delays, vexations, and extra expense of 
transportation by land in the fall. Tlie bulk of 
purchases were made with the distinct undenstand- 
ind that payment would be made out of the funds 

belonging to the quarter in which the goods, im- 
plements, or supplies, were expended." 

"Thus it will be seen that, in the spring of 1862, 
there was on hand supplies and material sufficient 
to carry us through the coming year. * * * 
Thu."!, to all appearance, the spring season opened 
propitiously. * * * To carry out my original 
design of having as much as possible planted for 
the Indians at Big Stone Lake and Lac qui Parle 
as early in the month of May, 1862, as the condi- 
tion of the swollen streams would permit, I visited 
Lac qui Parle and Big Stone Lake, going as far 
as North Island, in Lake Traverse, having with 
me Antoine Freniere, United States Interpreter, 
Dr. J. L. Wakefield, physician of the Upper Sio>ix, 
and Nelson Givens, assistant Agent. At Lac qui 
Parle I found the Indians wiDing and anxious to 
plant. I inquired into their condition and wants, 
and made arrangements to have them supplied 
with seeds and imj)lements, and directed Amos W. 
Huggins, the school teacher there, to aid and in- 
struct them in their work, and to make proper 
distribulion of the seeds and implements furnished, 
and placed at his disposal an ox-team and wagon 
and two breaking-teams, with instructions to de- 
vote his whole time and attention to the superin- 
tendence and instruction of the resident Indians 
during the planting season, and until the crops 
were cultivated and safely harvested. 

"I also found the Indians at Big Stone Lake and 
Lake Traverse very anxious to plant, but without 
any means whatever so to do. I looked over their 
tields in order to see what coiild be done. After 
having inquired into the whole matter, I instructed 
Mr. Givens to remain at Big Stone Lake and su- 
perintend and direct the agricultural operations 
of the season, and to remain there imtil it was too 
late to plant any more. I placed at his di'>posal 
ten double plough teams, with men to operate 
them, and ordered forward at once one hundred 
Ijushels of seed corn and five hundred bushels of 
seed potatoes, with pumpkin, squash, turnip, and 
other seeds, in reasonable proportion, together 
with a sufficient supply of ploughs, hoes, and 
other imj)lemcuts for the Indians, and a black- 
smith to repair breakages; and directed him to 
see tha* every Indian, and every Indian horse or 
pony, did as much work as was poesible. * * 
' "On my way down to the agency, I visited the 
plantings of Tahampih'da, (Rattling Moccasin), 
Alazasha, (Bed Iron), Mahpiya Wicasta, (Cloud 
xMan), and Battling Cloud, and found that the 



Superintendent of Farms for the Upper Sioux had, 
in accordance with my instructions, been faithfully 
attending to the ivants of these bands. He had 
supplied them with implements and seeds, and I 
left them at work. On my arrival at the Agency, 
I found that the farmer Indians residing there- 
abouts had, in my absence, been industriously at 
«ork, and had not only completed their plowing, 
but had planted very extensively. The next day 
after my arrival at the Agency, I visited each 
farmer Indian at the Yellow Medicine, and con- 
gratulated him on his prosjject for a good crop, 
and spoke to him such words of encouragement 
■IS occurred to me. 

"The next day I proceeded to the Lower Agency, 
and then taking with me Mr. A. H. Wagner, the 
Suiwrintendent of Farms for the Lower Sioux, I 
weut around each planting, and, for the second 
time, visited each farmer Indian, and found that, 
in general, my instructions had been carried out. 
The plowing was generally completed in good 
order, and the planting neai'ly all done, and many 
of the farmer Indians were engaged in repairing 
old and making new fences. I was pleased and 
gratified, and so told the Indians — the prospect 
was so encouraging. 

"About the first of July I visited gll the plant- 
ings of both the Upper and Lower Sioux, except 
those at Big Stone Lake, and found, in nearly 
every instance, the prospects for good crops very 
hoj^eful indeed. The superintendents of farms, 
the male school teachers, and all the employes 
assisting them, had done their duty. About this ■ 
time Mr. Givens returned from Big Stone Lake, 
and reports 1 to me his success there. From all I 
knew and aU I thus learned, I was led to believe 
that we would have no 'starving Indians' to feed 
the next winter, and little did I dream of the un- 
fortunate and terrible outbreak which, m a short 
time, biirst upon us, * * * 

"In the fall of 1861, a good and substantial 
school- room and dwelling, a store-house and black- 
smith-shop, were completed at Lac qui Parle, and, 
about the first of November, Mr. Amos W. Hug- 
gins and his family occupied the dwelling, and, 
assisted by Miss Julia LaFrambois, prepared the 
school-room, and devoted their whole time to 
teaching such Indian children as they could in- 
duce to attend the school. 

"The storehouse was supplied with provisions, 
which Mr. Huggins was instructed to issue to the 
fhildren and their parents at his discretion. Here 

it may be permitted me to remark to Mr. Hug- 
gins, who was born and raised among the Sioux, 
and Miss LaFrambois, who was a Sioux mixed- 
blood, were two persons entirely capable and in 
every respect qualified for the discharge of the 
duties of their situation, than whom the Indians 
had no more devoted friends. They lived amor,; 
the Indians of choice, because they thought they 
could be beneficial to them. Mr. Huggins exer- 
cised nothing but kindness toward them. He fed 
them when hungry, clothed them when naked, 
attended them when sick, and advised and cheered 
them in all their difficulties. He was intelligent, 
entrgetic, industrious, and good, and yet he was 
one of the first 'victims of the outbreak, shot down 
like a dog by the very Indians whom he had so 
long and so well served. * ^ * * * * * 
"In the month of June, 1862, being well aware 
of the influence exerted by Little Crow over the 
blanket Indians, and, by his plausibility, led to 
believe that he intended to act in good faith, I 
promised to build him a good brick house pro- 
vided that he would agree to aid me in bringing 
around the idle young men to habits of industry 
and civilization, and that he would abandon the 
leader.-hip of the blanket Indians and become a 
'wliite man.' 

"This being well understood, as I thought, I 
directed Mr. Nairn, the carpenter of the Lower 
Sioux, to make out the plan and estimates for 
Crow's house, and to jjroceed at once to make the 
window and door frames, and to prepare the lum- 
ber necessary for the building, and ordered the 
teamsters to deliver the necessary amount of brick 
as soon ;.s possible. Little Crow agreed to dig 
the cellar and haul the necessary lumber, both of 
which he had commenced. The carpenter had 
nearly completed his part of the work, and the 
brick was being promjatly delivered at the time 
of the outbreak. 

"On the 15th of August, only three days pre- 
vious to the outbreak, I had an interview with 
Little Crow, and he seemed to be well pleased and 
satisfied. Little indeed did I susj^ect, at that 
time, that he would be the leader in the terrible 
outbreak of the 18th." 

There were planted, according to the statement 
of Agent Galbraith in his report, on the lower 
reservation, one thousand and twenty-five acres of 
corn, two hundred and sixty acres of potatoes, 
sixty acres of turnips and ruta-bagas, and twelve 
acres of wheat, besides a large quantity of field 



and garden vegetables. These crops, at a low 
estimate, would have hai-vested, in the fall, 74,865 
bushels. There were, on the lower reservation, 
less than three thousand Indians, all told. This 
crop, therefore, would have yielded full twenty- 
tive bushels to each man, woman and child, in- 
cluding the blanket as weU as the farmer Indians 

There were, also, of growing crops, in fitne con- 
dition, on the upper reservation, one thousand one 
hundred and ten acres of com, three hundred 
acres of potatoes, ninety acres of turnips and 
nita-bagas, and twelve acres of wheat, and field 
and garden vegetables in due proportion. These, 
at a low estimate, would have harvested 85,740 
bushels. There were, on the upper reservation, a 
little over four thousand annuity Sioux. This 
crop, therefore, would have harvested them about 
twenty-one bushels for each man, woman and 
child, including, also, the blanket Indians. 

Thus, under the beneficent workings of the hu- 
mane policy of the Government inaugurated in 
1858, they were fast becoming an independent 
people. Let it be borne ia mmd, however, that 
these results, so beneficial to the Indian, were ac- 
complished only through the sleepless vigilance 
and untiring energy of those who had the welfare 
of these rude, savage beings in their care. 

Major Galbraith, after giving these statistics of 
the crops on the reservations, and the arrange- 
ments made for gathering hay, by the Indians, 
for their winter's use, says: 

"I need hardly say tliat our Lopes were high at 
the prospects before us, nor need I relate my 
chagrin and mortification when, in a moment, I 
found these high hopes blasted forever." 

Such, then, was the condition, present and pros- 
pective, of the "Annuity Sioux Indians," in the 
summer of 1862. No equal number of pioneer 
settlers on the border could, at that time, make a 
better showing than was exhibited on these reser- 
vations. They had in fair prospect a surplus over 
and above the wants of the entire tribes for the 
coming year. This had never before occurred in 
their history. 

The sagacity and wise forethought of their 
agent, and the unusually favorable season, had 
amply provided against the possibility of recurring 
want. The coming winter would have found their 
granaries full to overflowing. Add to this the 
fact that they had a large cash annuity coming to 
them from the Government, as well as large 
amounts of goods, consisting of blankets, cloths. 

groceries, flour and meats, powder, shot, lead, etc., 
and we confidently submit to the enlightened 
reader the whole question of their alleged griev- 
ances, confident that there can be but one verdict 
at their hands, and that the paternal care of the 
Government over them was good and just; nay, 
generous, and that those having the immediate su- 
pervision of their interests were perfornung their 
whole duty, honestly and nobly. 

The hopes of the philanthropist and Christian 
beat high. They believed the day was not far 
distant when it could be said that the Sioux Indi- 
ans, as a race, not only could be civilized, but that 
here were whole tribes who tccrc civilized, and had 
abandoned the chase and the war-jjuth for the cul- 
tivation of the soil and the arts of peace, and that 
the juggleries and sorcery of the medicine-men 
had been abandoned ior the milder teachings of 
the missionaries of the Cross. 

How these high hopes were dashed to the earth, 
extinguished in an ocean of blood, and their own 
bright prospects utterly destroyed, by their horri- 
ble and monstrous perfidy and unheard of atroci- 
ties, it will be our work, in these pages, to sliow. 

We are now rapidly approaching the fatal and 
bloody denouement, the terrible 18th of August, 
the memory of which will linger in the minds of 
the survivors of its tragic scenes, and the succeed- 
ing days and weeks of horror and blood, till rea- 
son kindly ceases to perform its oifice, and blots 
out the fearfiil record in the oblivion of the grave. 

Again we quote from the able report of Major 
Galbraith : 

"About the 25th of June, 1862, a number of the 
chiefs and head men of the Sissetons and Wapa- 
tons visited the Agency and inquired about the 
payments; whether they were going to get any 
( as they had been told, as they alleged, that they 
would not be paid,) and if so, how much, and 
when? I answered them that they woiild cer- 
tainly be paid; exactly how much I could not 
say, but that it would be nearly, it not quite, ;i 
full payment; that I did not know when the pay- 
ment would be made, but that I felt sure it could 
not be made befoi-e the 20th of July. I advised 
them to go home, and admonished them not to come 
back again until I sent for them. I issued pro- 
visions, powder and shot and tobacco to them, and 
they departed. 

" In a few days after I went to the Lower Agency, 
and sjjoke to the lower Indians in regard to their 
payments. As thev all lived within a few miks of 



the Agency, little was said, as, when the money 
came, (liey could be called together in a day. I 
remained about one week there, visiting the farms 
and plantings, and issued to the Indians a good 
supply of pork, flour, powder, shot, and tobacco, 
and urged upon them the necessity of cutting and 
securing hay for the winter, and of watching and 
keeping the birds from their corn. 

" I left them apparently satisfied, and arrived at 
Yellow Medicine on the 14th of July, and found, 
to my surprise, that nearly all the Upper Indians 
had arrived, and were encamped about the Agency. 
I inquired of them why they had come, and they 
answered, that they were afraid something was 
wrong; they feared they would not get their 
money, because white men had been telling them so. 
"Being in daily expectation of the arrival of 
the money, I determined to make the best of it^ 
and notified the Sujjerintendent of Indian Affairs 

"How were over 4,000 Annuity, and over 1,000 
Tanktonais Sioux, with nothing to eat, and entirely 
dependent on me for supplies, to be provided for? 
I supplied them as best I could. Our stock was 
nearly used iip, and still, on the 1st day of Au- 
gust, no money had come. 

" The Indians complained of starvation. I held 
back, in order to save the provisions to the last 
moment. On the 4th of August, early in the 
morning, the young men and soldiers, to the num- 
ber of not less than four hundred mounted, and 
one hundred and fifty on foot, surprised and de- 
ceived the commander of the troops on guard, 
and surrounded the camp, and proceeded to 
the warehouse in a boisterous manner, and in 
sight of, and within one hundred and fifty 
yards of one hundred armed men, with two 
twelve-pound mountain howitzers, out down the 
door of the warehouse, shot down the American 
flag, and entered the building, and before they 
could be stopped had carried over one himdred 
sacks of flour from the warehouse, and were evi- 
dently bent on a general 'clearing out.' 

"The soldiers, now recovered from their panic, 
came gallantly to our aid, entered the warehouse 
and took possession. The Indians all stood around 
with their guns loaded, cooked and leveled. I 
spoke to them, and they consented to a talk. The 
result was, that they agreed, if I would give them 
plenty of pork and flour, and issue to them the 
annuity yoods the next day, they would go .away. 
I told them to go away with enough to eat for two 


days, and to send the chiefs and head men for a 
council the nest day, unarmed and peaceably and 
I would answer them. They assented and went 
to their camp. In the meantime I had sent for 
Captain, the commandant of Fort Eidgely, 
who promptly arrived early in the morning of the 
next day. 

"I laid the whole case before him, and stated 
my plan. He agreed with me, and, in the after- 
noon, the Indians, unarmed, and apparently 
peaceably disposed, came in, and we had a 'talk,' 
and, in the presence of Captain Marsh, Eev. Mr. 
Eiggs and others, I agreed to issue the annuity 
goods and a Qxed amount of provisions, provided 
the Indians would go home and watch their corn, 
and wait for the payment until they were sent for. 
They assented. I made, on the 6th, 7th and 8th 
of August the issues as agreed upon, assisted by 
Captain Marsh, and, on the 9th of August the In- 
dians were all gone, and on the 12th I had defi- 
nite information that the Sissetons, who had started 
on the 7th, had all arrived at Big Stone Lake, and 
that the men were preparing to go on a buffalo 
hunt, and that the women and children were to 
stay and guard the crops. Thus this threatening 
and disagreeable event passed off, but, as usual, 
without the punishment of a single Indian who 
had been engaged in the attack on the warehouse. 
They should have been punished, but they were 
not, and simply because we had not the power to 
punish them. And hence we had to adopt the 
same 'sugar-plum' policy which had been so often 
adopted before with the Indians, and especially at 
the time of the Spirit Lake massacre, in 1857." 

On the 12th day of August, thirty men enlisted 
at Yellow Medicine; and, on the 13th, accompa- 
nied by the agent, proceeded to the Lower Agency, 
where, on the 14th, they were joined by twenty 
more, making about fifty in all. On the afternoon 
of the 15th they proceeded to Fort Kidgely, where 
they remained imtil the morning of the 17tb, 
when, having been furnished by Captain Marsh 
with transportation, accompanied by Lieutenant 
N. K. Culver, Sergeant McGrew, and four men of 
Company B, Fifth Minnesota Volunteers,- they 
started for Fort Snelling by the way of New Ulm 
and St. Peter, little dreaming of the terrible mes- 
sage, the news of which would reach them at the 
latter place next day, and turn them back to the 
defense of that jaost and the border. 

On Monday morning, the 18th, at about 8 
o'clock, they left New Ulm, and reached St. Peter 


iiii^rony OF THE aioux massacre. 

at about 4 o'clock P. M. About 6 o'clock, Mr. J. 
C. Dickinson arrived from the Lower Agency, 
bringing the startling news that the Lidians Lad 
broken out, and, before he left, had conunenced 
murdering the whites. 

They at once set about making preparations to 
return. There were in St. Peter some fifty old 
Harper's Ferry muskets ; these they obtained, and, 
])rocuring ammunition, set about preparing cart- 
ridges, at which many of them worked all night, 
and, at sunrise on Tuesday morning were on their 
way back, with heavy hearts and dark forebodings, 
toward the scene of trouble. 

In the night Sergeant Sturgis, of Captain 
Marsh's company, had arrived, on his way to St. 
Paul, with dispatches to Governor Ramsey, from 
Lieutenant Thomas Gere, then in command of 
Fort Ridgely, bringing the sad news of the des- 
truction of Captain Marsh and the most of his 
command at the ferry, at the Lower Agency, on 
Monday afternoon. Tbey had but a slender 
chance of reaching the fort in safety, and still less 
of saving it from destruction, for they knew that 
there were not over twentj--five men left in it, 
Lieutenant Sheehan, with his company, having 
left for Fort Eipley on the 17th, at the same time 
that the "Kenville Rangers" (the company from 
the Agencies) left for Fort Snelling. Their friends, 
too, were in the very heart of the Indian country. 
Some of them had left their wives and little ones 
at Yellow Medicine, midway between the Lower 
Agency and the wild bands of the Sissetons and 
Yanktonais, who made the attack upon the ware- 
house at that Agency only two weeks before. 
Their hearts almost died within them as they 
thought of the dreadful fate awaiting them at the 
hands of those savage and blood-thirsty monstera. 
But they turned their faces toward the West, de- 
termined, if Fort Ridgely was yet imtaken, to enter 
it, or die in the attempt, and at about siuidown 
entered the fort, and found all within it as yet 

A messenger had been sent to Lieutenant Shee- 
han, who immediately turned back and had enter- 
ed the fort a few hours before Dhem. There were 
in the fort, on their arrival, over two hundred and 
fifty refugees, principally women and children, 
and they continued to come in, until there were 
nearly three hundred. 

Here they remained on duty, night and day, 
uutil the morning of the 28th, when reinforce- 

ments, under Colonel McPhail and Captain Anson 
Northrup and R. H. Chittenden arrived. 

The annuity money by Superintendent Thomp- 
son had been dispatched to the Agency in charge 
of his clerk, accompanied by E. A. C. Hatch, J. 
C. Ramsey, M. A. Daily, and two or three others. 

On their arrival at the fort, on Tuesday night. 
Major Galbraith found these gentlemen there, 
they having arrived at the post Monday noon, the 
very day of the outbreak. Had they been one day 
sooner they would have been at the Lower Agency, 
and their names would have been added, in all 
probability, to the long roll of the victims, at that 
devoted point of Indian barbarity, and about 
$10,000 in gold would have fallen into the hands 
of the savages. 

These gentlemen were in the fort during the 
siege which followed, and were among the bravest 
of its brave defenders. Major Hatch, afterwards 
of "Hatcli's Battalion" (cavalry), was particu- 
lary conspicuous for his cool courage and undaunt- 
ed bravery. 

Thus it will be seen how utterly false was the 
information which the Indians said they had re- 
ceived that they were to get no money. 

And notwithstanding all that has been said as 
to the cause of the outbreak, it may be remarked 
that the removal of the agent from Yellow Medi- 
cine, with the troops raised by him for the South- 
ern Rebellion, at the critical period when the In- 
dians were exasperated and excited, and ready at 
any moment to arm for warfare upon the whites, 
was one of the causes acting directly upon the In- 
dians to precipitate the blow that afterwards fell 
upon the border settlements of Minnesota on the 
18th of August, 1862. Had he remained with his 
family at Yellow Medicine, as did the Winnebago 
agent, with his family, at the agency, the strong 
probability is that the attack at Yellow Medicine 
might have been delayed, if not entirely pre- 






We come now to the massacre itself, the terrible 
blow which fell, like a thunderbolt from a clear 
sky, with such appalling force and suddenness, 



upon the unarmed and defenceless border, crim- 
soning its fair iielda with the blood of its murdered 
people, and lighting up the midnight sky with 
the lurid blaze of burning dwellings, by the light 
of which the affrighted survivors fled from the 
nameless terrors that beset their path, before the 
advancing gleam of the uplifted tomahawk, many 
of them only to fall victims to the Indian bullet, 
while vainly seeking a place of security. 

The first blow fell upon the town of Acton, 
thirty-five miles north-east of the Lower Sioux 
agency, in the county of Meeker. -On Sunday, 
August 17, 18C2, at 1 o'clock P. M., six Sioux In- 
dians, said to be of Shakopee's band of Lower An- 
nuity Sioux, came to the house of Jones and de- 
manded food. It was refused them, as Mrs. Jones 
was away from home, at the house of Mr. Howard 
Baker, a son-in-law, three fourths of a mile dis- 
tant. They became angry and boisterous, and 
fearing violence at their hands, Mr. Jones took 
his children, a boy and a girl, and went himself to 
Baker's, leaving at the house a girl from fourteen 
to sixteen years of age, and a boy of twelve — 
brother and sister — who lived with him. The In- 
dians soon followed on to Baker's. At Howard 
Baker's were a Mr. Webster and his wife. Baker 
and wife and infant child, and Jones and his wife 
and two children. 

Soon after reaching the house, the Indians pro- 
posed to the three men to join them in target- 
shooting. They consented, and all discharged 
their guns at the target. Mr. Baker then traded 
guns with an Indian, the savage giving him $3 
as the difference in the value of the guns. Then 
all commenced loading again. The Indians got 
the charges into their guns first, and immediately 
turned and shot Jones. Mrs. Jones and Mrs. 
Baker were standing in the door. When one of 
the savages leveled his gun at Mrs. Baker, her 
husband saw the movement, and sprang between 
them, receiving the bullet intended for his wife 
in his own body. At the same time they shot 
Webster and Mrs. Jones. Mrs. Baker, who had 
her infant in her arms, seeing her husband fall, 
fainted, and fell backward into the cellar (a trap- 
door being open), and thus escaped. Mrs. Web- 
ster was lying in their wagon, from which the 
goods were not yet unloaded, and escaped unhurt. 
The children of Mr. Jones were in the house, and 
were not molested. They then returned to the 
house of Mr. Jones, and killed and scalped the girl. 
The boy was lying ou the bed and was undiscov- 

ered, but was a silent witness of the tragic fate of 
his sister. 

After killing the girl the savages left without 
disturbing anything, and going directly to the 
hoiise of a settler, took from his stable a span of 
horses already in the harness, and while the fam- 
ily was at dinner, hitched them to a wagon stand- 
ing near, and without molesting any one, drove 
off in the direction of Beaver Creek settlement and 
the Lower Agency, leaving Acton at about 3 
o'clock in the afternoon. This span of horses, har- 
ness and wagon were the only property taken from 
the neighborhood by them. 

The boy at Jones's who escaped massacre at 
their hands, and who was at the house during the 
entire time that they were there, avers that they 
obtained no liquor there that day, but even that 
when they came back and murdered his sister, the 
bottles upon the shelf were untouched by them. 
They had obtained none on their first visit before 
going over to Baker's. It would seem, therefore, 
that the very general belief that these first mur- 
ders at Acton, on the 17th, were the result of 
drunkenness, is a mistake. 

Mrs. Baker, who was unhurt by the fall, re- 
mained in the cellar until after the Indians were 
gone, when, taking the children, she started for a 
neighboring settlement, to give the alarm. Before 
she left, an Irishman, calling himself Cox, came 
to the house, whom she asked to go with her, and 
carry her child. Cox laughed, saying, "the men 
were not dead, but drunk, and that, falling down, 
they had hurt their noses and made them bleed," 
and refusing to go with Mrs. Baker, went off in 
the direction taken by the Indians. This man 
Cox had frequently been seen at the Lower Agen- 
cy, and was generally supposed to be an insane 
man, wanderiQg friendless over the country. It 
has been supposed by many that he was in league 
with the Indians. We have only to say, if he was, 
he coimterfeited insanity remarkably well. 

Mrs. Baker reached the settlement in safety, and 
on the next day (Monday) a company of citizens 
of Forest City, the county seat of Meeker county, 
went out to Acton to bury the dead. Forest City 
is twelve mUes north of that place. The party 
who went out on Monday saw Indians on horse- 
back, and chased them, but failed to get near 
enough to get a shot, and they escaped. 

As related in -a preceding chapter, a council was 
held at Kice Creek on Sunday, at which it was de- 
cided that the fearful tragedy should commence 



on the next morning. It is doubtful whether the 
Acton murders were then known to these con- 
spirators, as this council assembled in the after- 
noon, and the savages who committed those mur- 
ders had some forty miles to travel, after 3 o'clock 
in the afternoon, to reach the place of this coun- 
cil. It would seem, therefore, that those murders 
could have had no influence in precif>itating this 
council, as they could not, at that time, have been 
known to Little Crow and his conspirators. 

The final decision of these fiends must luive been 
made as early as sundown; for by early dawn al- 
most the entu'e force of warriors, of the Lower 
tribes, were ready for the work of slaughter. They 
were already armed and painted, and dispersed 
through the scattered settlements, over a region at 
least forty miles in extent, and were rapidly gath- 
ering in the vicinity of the Lower Agency, until 
some 250 were collected at that point, and sur- 
rounded the houses and stores of the traders, 
while yet the inmates were at their morning meal, 
or asleep in their beds in fancied security, all un- 
conscious of the dreadful fate that awaited them. 
The action was concerted, and the time fixed. 
The blow was unexpected, and unparalleled! In 
the language af Adjutent-General Malniros: 

"Since the formation of our general Govern- 
ment, no State or Territory of the Republic has 
received so severe a blow at the hands of the sav- 
ages, or witnessed within its borders a parallel 
scene of murder, butchery, and rapine." 

Philander Presoott, the aged Government In- 
terpreter at that Agency, who had resided among 
the Sioux for forty-five years, having a wife and 
children alhed to them by ties of blood, and who 
knew their language and spoke it better than any 
man of their own race, and who seemed to under- 
stand every Indian impulse, had not the sUghtest 
intimation or conception of such a catastrophe as 
was about to fall upon the country. The Kev. S. 
R. Riggs, in a letter to a St. Paul paper, under 
date of August 13, writes that "all is quiet and 
orderly at the place of the forthcoming payment." 
This gentleman had been a missionary among 
these people for over a quarter of a century. His, 
intimate acquaintance with their character and 
language were of such a nature as to enable him 
to know and detect the first symptoms of any in- 
tention of committing any depredations upon the 
whites, and had not the greatest secrecy been ob- 
served by them, the knowledge of their designs 
would undoubtedly have been communicated to 

either Mr. Prosoott, Mr. Riggs, or Dr. Williamson, 
who had also been among them almost thirty 
years. Such was the position of these gentlemen 
that, had they discovered or suspected any lurking 
signs of a conspiracy, such as after developments 
satisfy us actually existed, and had failed to com- 
municate it to the authorities and the jjeople, they 
would have laid themselves open to the horrible 
charge of complicity with the murderers. But 
whatever may be the public judgement upon the 
course afterward pursued by the two last-named 
gentlemen, in their etTorts to shield the guilty 
wretches from that punishment their awful crimes 
so justly merited, no one who knows them would 
for a moment harbor a belief that they had any 
suspicion of the coming storm until it burst upon 

A still stronger proof of the feeling of security 
of these upon the reservation, and the belief thai 
the recent demonstrations were only such as wer4> 
of yearly occurrence, and that all danger was 
passed, is to be found in the fact that, as late au, 
the 15th of August, the substance of a dispatcb. 
was published in the daily papers of St. Paul, 
from Major Galbraith, agreeing fully with thy 
views of Mr. Riggs, as to the quiet and orderlj^ 
conduct of the Indians. This opinion is accom. 
panied by the very highest evidence of humau 
sincerity. Under the belief of their peaceabli, 
disposition, he had, on the 16th day of August, 
sent his wife and children from Fort Ridgely tj- 
Yellow Medicine, where they arrived on Sunday, 
the 17th, the very day of the murda/o at Acton,, 
and on the very day, also, that the o^inncil at Rico 
Creek had decided that the white ioce in Minn&- 
sota must either perish or be drivfcu back east o/ 
the Mississippi. But early on tiis fatal Monday 
morning Mr. Prescott and Re/. J. D. Hinmaw 
learned from Little Crow that the storm of ss.vagt( 
wrath was gathering, and abowt to break upoj, 
their devoted heads, and that their only safety 
was in instant flight. 

The first crack of the Indian, guns that fell o/. 

his ear, a moment afterward, round Presoott auU 

Hinman, and his household fleeing for their hves, 

"While on the billowy bosom jf the air 
Rolled the dread notes of anguish and despair." 

Mrs. Hinman was, fortunately, then at Fari- 
bault. All the other members of the family es- 
caped with Mr. Hinman co Fort Ridgely. The 
slaughter at the Agency now commenced. John 
Lamb, a teamster, was shot down, near the house 



of Mr. Hinman, just as that gentleman and his 
family were starting on their perilous journey of 
escape. At the same time some Indians entered 
the stable, and were taking therefrom the horses 
belonging to the Government. Mr. A. H. Wag- 
ner, Superintendent oE Farms at that Agency, en- 
tered the stable to prevent them, and was, by order 
of Little Crow, instantly shot down. Mr. Hin- 
man waited to see and hear no more, but fled 
toward the ferry, and soon put the Minnesota river 
between himself and the terrible tragedy enact- 
ing behind him. 

At about the same time, Mr. J. C. Dickinson, 
who kept the Government boarding-house, with 
all his family, including several girls who were 
working for him, also succeeded in crossing the 
river with a span of horses and a wagon; these, 
with some others, mostly women and children, who 
had reached the ferry, escaped to the fort. 

Very soon after. Dr. Philander P. Humphrey, 
physician to the Lower Sioux, with his sick 
wife, and three children, also succeeded in 
crossing the river, but never reached the fort. 
All but one, the eldest, a boy of about twelve 
years of age, were killed upon the road. They 
had gone about four miles, when Mrs. Humphrey 
became so much exhausted as to be unable to pro- 
ceed further, and they went into the house of a 
Mr. Magner, deserted by its inmates. Mrs. Hum- 
phrey was placed on the bed; the son was sent to 
the spring for water for his mother. * * The 
boy heard the wild war-whoop of the savage 
break upon the stillness of the air, and, in the 
nest moment, the ominous crack of their guns, 
which told the fate of his family, and left him its 
sole survivor. Fleeing hastily toward Fort Eidge- 
ly, about eight miles distant, he met the com- 
mand of Captain Marsh on their way toward the 
Agency. The young hero turned back with them 
to the ferry. As they passed Magner's house, 
they saw the Doctor lying near the door, dead, 
but the house itself was a heap of smouldering 
ruins; and this brave boy was thus compelled to 
look upon the funeral pyre of his mother, and his 
little brother and sister. A burial party afterward 
found their charred remains amid the blackened 
ruins, and gave them Christian sepulture. In the 
charred hands of the little girl was foimd her china 
doU, with which she refused to part even in death. 
The boy went on to the ferry, and in that disas- 
trous conflict escaped unharmed, and finally made 
liis way into the fort. 

In the mean time the work of death went on. 
The whites, taken by surprise, were utterly de- 
fenseless, and so great had been the feeling of se- 
curity, that many of them were actually unai-med, 
although living in the very midst of the savages. 
At the store of Nathan Myrick, Hon. James W. 
Lynd, formerly a member of the State Senate, 
Andrew J. Myrick, and G. W. Divoll were among 
the first victims. * * * In the store of Wil- 
liam H. Forbes were some five or six persons, 
among them Mr. George H. Spencer, jr. Hearing 
the yelling of the savages outside, these men ran 
to the door to ascertain its cause, when they were 
instantly fired upon, kilUng four of their number, 
and severely wounding Mr. Spencer. Spencer and 
his uninjured companion hastily sought a tempo- 
rary place of safety in the chamber of the build- 

Mr. Spencer, in giving an accoiint of this open- 
ing scene of the awful tragedy, says: 

" When I reached the foot of the stairs, I turned 
and beheld the store filling with Indians. One 
had followed me nearly to the stairs, when he took 
deliberate aim at my body, but, providentially, 
both barrels of his gun missed fire, and I succeeded 
in getting above without further injury. Not ex- 
pecting to live a great while, I threw myself upon 
a bed, and, while lying there, could hear them 
opening cases of goods, and carrying them out, 
and threatening to burn the building. I did not 
relish the idea of being burned to death very well, 
so I arose very quietly, and taking a bed-cord, I 
made fast one end to the bed-post, and carried the 
other to a window, which I raised. I intended, in 
case they fired the building, to let myself down 
from the window, and take the chances of being 
shot again, rather than to remain where I was and 
bum. The man who went up-stairs with me, see- 
ing good opportunity to escape, rushed down 
through the crowd and ran for life; he was fired 
upon, and two charges of buckshot struck him, 
but he succeeded in making his escape. I had 
been up-stairs probably an hour, when I heard the 
voice of an Indian inquiring for me. I recognized 
his voice, and felt that I was safe. Upon being 
told that I was up-stairs, he rushed up, followed by 
ten or a dozen others, and approaching my bed, 
asked if I was mortally wounded. I told him that 
I did not know, but that I was badly hurt. Some 
of the others came up and took me by the hand, 
and appeared to be sorry that I had been hurt. 
! Ih&s then asked me where the guns were. I 



pointed to them, when my comrade assisted me in 
getting down stairs. 

" The name of this Indian is Wakinyatawa, or, 
in English, 'His Thunder.' He was, up to the time 
of the outbreak, the head soldier of Little Crow, 
and, some four or five years ago, went to Wash- 
ington with that chief to see their Great Father. 
He is a fine-looking Indian, and has always* been 
noted for his bravery in fighting the Chippewas. 
When we reached the foot of the stairs, some of 
the Indians cried out, 'Kill him!' 'Spare no 
Americans!' 'Show mercy to none!' My friend, 
who was unarmed, seized a hatchet that was lying 
near by, and declared that he would cut down the 
first one that should attempt to do me any further 
harm. Said he, 'If you had killed him before I 
saw him, it would have been all right; bu"; we have 
been friends and comrades for ten years, and now 
that I have seen him, I will protect him or die with 
him.' They then made way for us, and we passed 
out; he procured a wagon, and gave me over to a 
couple of squaws to take me to his lodge. On the 
■way we were stopped two or three times by armed 
Indians on horseback, who inquired of the squaws 
'What that meant?' Upon being answered that 
' This is Wakinyatawa's friend, and he has saved 
his life,' they suffered us to pass on. His lodge 
was about four miles above the Agency, at Little 
Crow's village. My friend soon came home and 
washed me, and dressed my wounds with roots. 
Some few white men succeeded in making their 
escape to the fort. There were no other white 
men taken prisoners." 

The relation of "comrade," which existed be- 
tween Mr. Spencer and this Indian, is a species 
of Freemasonry which is in existence among the 
Sioux, and is jDrobably also common to other In- 
dian tribes. 

The store of Louis Robert was, in like manner, 
attacked. Patrick McClellan, one of the clerks in 
charge of the store, was killed, There were at the 
store several other persons; some of them were 
killed and some made their escape. Mr. John 
Nairn, the Government carpenter at the Lower 
Sioux Agency, seeing the attack upon the stores 
and other places, seized his children, four in num- 
ber, and, with his wife, started out on the prairie, 
making their way toward the fort. They were 
accompanied by Mr. Alexander Hunter, an at- 
tached personal friend, and his young wife. Mr. 
Nairn had been among them in the employ of the 
Government, some eight years, and had, by his 

urbane manners and strict attention to their in- 
terests, secured the personal friendship of many 
of the tribe. Mr. Nairn and his family reached 
the fort in safety that artemoon. Mr. Hunter had, 
some years before, frozen his feet so badly as to 
lose the toes, and, being lame, walked with great 
difficulty. When near an Indian village below the 
Agency, they were met by an Indian, who urged 
Hunter to go to the village, promising to get them 
a horse and wagon with which to make their es- 
cape. Mr. Hunter and his wife went to the Indian 
village, believing their Indian friend would re- 
deem his promises, but from inabiUty, or some 
other reason, he did not do so. They went to the 
woods, where they remained all night, and in the 
morning started for Fort Ridgely on foot. They 
had gone but a short distance, however, when they 
met an Indian, who, without a word of warning, 
shot poor Hunter dead, and led his distracted 
young wife away into captivity. 

We now return once more to the scene of blood 
and conflagration at the Agency. The white- 
haired interpreter, Philander Prescott (now verg- 
ing upon seventy years of age), hastily left his 
house soon after his meeting with Little Crow, and 
fled toward Fort Eidgely. The other members of 
his family remained behind, knowing that their 
relation to the tribe would save them. Mr. Pres- 
cott had gone several miles, when he was overtaken. 
His murderers came and talked with him. He 
reasoned with them, saying: "I am an old man: 
I have lived with you now forty-tive years, almost 
half a century. My wife and children are among 
you, of your own blood; I have never done you 
any harm, and have been your true friend in all 
your troubles; why should you wish to kill me?" 
Their only reply was: "We would save your life 
if we could, but the white manmust die; we cannot 
spare your life; our orders are to kill all white 
men; we cannot spare you." 

Seeing that all remonstrance was vain and hope- 
less, and that his time had come, the aged man 
with a firm step and noble bearing, sadly turned 
away from the deaf ear and iron heart of the sav- 
age, and with dignity and composure received the 
fatal messenger. 

Thus perished Philander Prescott, the true, tried, 
and faithful friend of the Indian, by the hands of 
that perfidious race, whom he had so long and so 
faithfully labored to benefit to so little purpose. 

The number of persons who reached Fort Ridge- 
ly from the agency was forty-one. Some are 



known to have reached other places of safety. All 
suffered incredible hardships; many hiding by day 
in the tall prairie grass, in bogs and sloughs, or 
under the trunks of prostrate trees, crawling 
stealthily by night to avoid the lurking and wily 
foe, who, with the keen scent of the blood-hound 
and ferocity of the tiger, followed on their trail, 
thirsting for blood. 

Among those who escaped into the fort were 
BIr. J. O. Whipple, of Faribault; Mr. Charles B. 
Hewitt, of New Jersey. The services of Mr. 
Whipple were recognized and rewarded by the 
Government with a first lieutenant's commis- 
sion in the volunteer artillery service. 

James Powell, a young man residing at St. 
Peter, was at the Agency herding cattle. He had 
just turned the cattle out of the yard, saddled and 
mounted his mule, as the work of death com- 
menced. Seeing Lamb and Wagner shot down 
near him he turned to flee, when Lamb called to 
him for help; but, at that moment two shots were 
fired at him, and, putting spurs to his mule he 
turned toward the ferry, passing close to an In- 
dian who leveled his gun to fire at him ; biit the 
caps exploded, when the savage, evidently sur- 
prised that he had failed to kill him, waved his 
hand toward the river, and exclaimed, "Packachee! 
Puckachee!" Pcwell did not wait for a second 
warning, which might come in a more unwelcome 
form, but slipped at once from the back of his an- 
imal, dashed down the bluff through the brush, 
and I'eached the ferry just as the boat was leaving 
the shore. Looking over his shoulder as he ran, 
he saw an Indian in full pursuit on the very mule 
he had a moment before abandoned. 

All that day the work of sack and plunder went 
on; and when the stores and dwellings and the 
warehouses of the Government had been emptied 
of their contents, the torch was applied to the var- 
ious buddings, and the little village was soon a 
heap of smouldering ruins. 

The bodies of their slain victims were left to fes- 
ter in the sun where they fell, or were consumed 
in the buildings from which they had been unable 
to effect their escape. 

So complete was the surprise, and so sudden 
and unexpected the terrible blow, that not a sin- 
gle one of all that host of naked savages was slain. 
In thirty minutes from the time the first gun was 
fired, not a white person was left alive. All were 
either weltering in their gore or had fled in fear 
and terror from that place of death. 


At the Bedwood river, ten miles above the 
Agency, on the road to Yellow Medicine, resided 
Mr. Joseph B. Reynolds, in the employment of 
the Government as a teacher. His house was 
within one mile of Shakopee's village. His family 
consisted of his wife, a niece — Miss Mattie Wil- 
liams, of Painesville, Ohio — Mary Anderson and 
Mary Sohwandt, hired girls. William Landmeier, 
a hired man, and Legrand Davis, a yoimg man 
from Shakopee, was also stoppmg with them tem- 

On the morning of the 18th of August, at about 
6 o'clock, John Moore, a half-breed trader, resid- 
ing near them, came to the house and informed 
them that there was an outbreak among the In- 
dians, and that they had better leave at once. Mr. 
Reynolds immediately got out his buggy, and, 
taking his wife, started off across the prairie in 
such a direction as to avoid the Agency. At the 
same time Davis and the three girls got into the 
wagon of a Mr. Patoile, a trader at Yellow Medi- 
cine, who had just arrived there on his way to New 
Ulm, and they also started out on the prairie. 
WiUiam, the hired man, would not leave until he 
had been twice warned by Moore that his life was 
in danger. He then went down to the river bot- 
tom, and following the Minnesota river, started for 
the fort. When some distance on his way he 
came ujDon some Indians who were gathering up 
cattle. They saw him and there was no way of 
escape. They came to him and told him that if 
he would assist them in driving the cattle they 
would not kiU him. Making a merit of necessity 
he complied, and went on with them tUl they were 
near the Lower Agency, when the Indians, hear- 
ing the firing at the ferry, suddenly left him and 
hastened on to take part in the battle then pro- 
gressing between Captain Marsh and their friends. 
William fled in an opposite direction, and that 
night entered Fort Ridgely. 

We return now to Patoile and his party. 
After crossing the Redwaod near its mouth, he 
drove some distance up that stream, and, turning 
to the left, struck across the prairie toward New 
Ulm, keeping behind a swell in the prairie which 
ran parallel with the Minnesota, some three miles 
south of that stream. 

They had, unpursued, and apparently unob- 
served, reached a point within about ten miles of 
New Uhn, and nearly opposite Fort Ridgely, when 
they were suddenly assailed by Indians, who 



killed Patoile and Davis, and severely wounded 
Mary Anderson. Miss Williams and Mary 
Sehwandt were captured unhurt, aud were taken 
back to Waucouta's village. 

The poor, injured young woman survived her 
■wounds and the brutal and fiendish violation of 
her person to which she was subjected by these 
dej)ils incarnate, but a few days, when death, in 
mercy, came to her relief and ended her sufferings 
in the quiet of the grave! 

Mattie Williams and Mary Sehwandt were af- 
terwards restored to their friends by General Sib- 
ley's expedition, at Camp Eelease. We say, res- 
stored to their friends; this was hardly true of 
Mary Sehwandt, who, when release came, found 
alive, of all her father's family, only one, a little 
brother; and he had witnessed the fiendish slaugh- 
ter of all the rest, accompanied by circumstances 
of infernal barbarity, without a parallel in the his- 
tory of savage brutality. 

On Sunday, the 17th, George Gleason, Govern- 
ment stoie-keeper at the Lower Agency, accomjsa- 
nied by the family of Agent Galbraith, to Yellow 
Medicine, and on Monday afternoon, ignorant of 
the terrible tragedy enacted below, started to re- 
turn. He had with him the wife and two children 
of Dr. J. S. Wakefield, physician to the Upper 
Sioux. When about two miles above the mouth 
of the Eedwood, they met two armed Indians on 
the road. Gleason greeted them with the usual 
salutation of "Ho !" accompanied with the inquiry, 
in Sioux, as he passed, "Where are you going ?" 
They returned the salutation, but Gleason had 
gone but a very short distance, when the sharp 
crack of a gun behind him bore to his ear the first 
iutimntion of the death in store for him. The 
bullet passed through his body and he fell to the 
ground. At the same moment Chaska, the Indian 
who had not fired, sprang into the wagon, by the 
side of Mrs. Wakefield, and driving a short dis- 
tance, returned. Poor Gleason was lying upon 
the groimd, still alive, writhing in mortal agony, 
when the savage moniter completed his hellish 
work, by placing his gun at his breast, and shoot- 
ing him again. Such was the sad end of the life 
of George Gleason; gay, jocund, genial and gen- 
erous, he was the life of every circle. His pleas- 
ant face was seen, and his mellow voice was heard 
in song, at almost every social gathering on that 
rude frontier. He had a smile and pleasant woi-d 
for all; and yet he fell, in his manly strength, by 
the hands of these bloody monsters, whom he had 

never wronged in word or deed. Some weeks af- 
terward, his mutilated remains were found by the 
troops imder Colonel Sibley, and buried where he 
fell. They were subsequently removed by hia 
friends to Shakopee, where they received the rites 
of Christian sepulture. 

Mrs. Wakefield and children were held as pris- 
oners, and were reclaimed with the other captives 
at Camp Eelease. 








Early on the morning of the 18th, the settlers 
on the north side of the Minnesota river, adjoining 
the reservation, were surprised to see a large num- 
ber of Indians in their immediate neighborhood. 
They were seen soon after the people arose, simul- 
taneously, all along the river from Birch Coolie to 
Beaver Creek, and beyond, on the west, apparent- 
ly intent on gathering up the horses and cattle. 
When interrogated, they said they were after 
Chippewas. At about 6 or 7 o'clock they sudden- 
ly began to repair to the various houses of the set- 
tlers, and then the flight of the inhabitants and 
the work of death began. 

In the immediate vicinity of Beaver Creek, the 
neighbors, to the number of about twenty-eight, 
men, women, and children, assembled at the house 
of Jonathan W. Earle, and, with several teams, 
started for Fort Ridgely, having with them the 
sick wife of S. K. Henderson, her children, and 
the family of N. D. White, and the wife and two 
children of James Carrothers. 

There were, also, David Carrothers and family, 
Earle and family, Henderson, and a German named 
Wedge, besides four sons of White and Earle; the 
rest were women and children. They had gone 
but a short distance when they were surrounded 
by Indians. When asked, by some of the party 
who could speak their language, what they wanted, 
the Indians answered, "We are going to kiU you." 



When asked why they were to be killed, the In- 
dians consented to let them go, with one team and 
the buggy with Mrs. Henderson, on giving up the 
rest. They had gone but a short distance when 
they were again stopped by the savages, and the 
remaining team taken. Again they moved on, 
drawing the buggy and the sick woman by hand 
but had gone but a few rods further, when the In- 
dians began to fire upon them. The men were 
with the buggy ; the women and children had gone 
on ahead, as well as the boys and Carrothers. 

Mr. Earle, seeing the savages were determined 
to kill them, and knowing that they could not now 
save Mrs. Henderson, hastened on and came up 
with the fleeing fugitives ahead. Mr. Henderson 
waved a white cloth as a flag of truce, when they 
shot off his fingers, and, at the same time, killed 
Wedge. Henderson then ran, seeing that he could 
not save his wife and children, and made his es- 
cape. They came up with his buggy, and, taking 
out the helpless woman and children, threw them 
on the prairie, and placing the bed over them, set 
it on fire, and hastened on after the fleeing fugi- 

The burned and blackened remains of both the 
mother and her two children were afterward found 
by a burial party, and interred. 

Coming up with the escaping women and chil- 
dren, they were all captured but two children of 
David Carrothers. These they had shot in the 
chase after Carrothers, Earle, and the sons of Earle 
and White. They killed, also, during this chase 
and running fight, Eugene White, a son of N. D. 
AVhite, and Eadner, son of Jonathan W. Earle. 

Carrothers escaped to Crow Kiver, and thence to 
St. Paul. Mr. Earle and two of his sons, and one 
son of Mr. White, after incredible hardships, es- 
caped to Cedar City, and subsequently made their 
way back to St. Peter and Fort Ridgely. All the 
captives taken at this time were carried to Crow's 
village, and, with the exception of Mrs. James 
Carrothers and her children, were recovered at 
Camp Eelease. 

After they had captured the women and children, 
they returned to the houses of the settlers, and 
plundered them of their contents, carrying off 
what they could, and breaking up and destroying 
the balance. They then gathered up the stock 
and drove it to their village, taking their captives 
with them. 

Some two or three miles above the neighborhood 
of Earle and White was a settlement of German 

emigrants, numbering some forty persons, quiet, 
industrious, and enterprising. Early on the 
morning of the 18th these had all assembled al 
the house of John Meyer. Very soon after they 
had assembled here, some fifty Indians, led by 
Shakopee, appeared in sight. The people all fled, 
except Meyer and his family, going into the grass 
and bushes. Peter Bjorkman ran toward his own 
house. Shakopee, whom he knew, saw him, and 
exclaimed, "There is Bjorkman; kill him!" but, 
keeping the building between him and the sav- 
ages, he plunged into a slough and concealed 
himself, even removing his shirt, fearing it might 
be the means of revealing his whereabouts to the 
lurking savages. Here he lay from early morning 
until the darkness of night enabled him to leave 
with safety — suffering unutterable torments, mos- 
quitoes literally swarming upon his naked person, 
and the hot sim scorching him to the bone. 

They immediately attacked the house of Meyer, 
killing his wife and all his children. Seeing his 
family butchered, and having no means of de- 
tense, Meyer effected his escape, and reached Fort 
Eidgely. In the meantime the affrighted people 
had got together again at the house of a Mr. 
Sitzton, near Bjorkman's, to the number of about 
thirty, men, women, and children. In the after- 
noon the savages returned to the house of Sitzton, 
kiUing every person there but one woman, Mrs. 
Wilhelmina Eindeutield, and her child. These 
ware captured, and afterward found at Camp Ee- 
lease, but the husband and father was among the 
slain. From his place of concealment Mr. Bjork- 
man witnessed this attack and wholesale massacre 
of almost an entire neighborhood. After dark he 
came out of the slough, and, going to his house, 
obtained some food and a bundle of clothing, as 
his house was not yet plundered; fed his dog and 
calf, and jvent over to the house of Meyer; here 
he foimd the windows all broken in, but did not 
enter the house. He then went to the house of 
Sitzton ; his nerves were not equal to the task of 
entering that charnel-house of death. As he 
passed the yard, he turned out some cattle that the 
Indians had not taken away, and hastened toward 
Fort Ridgely. On the road he overtook a woman 
and two children, one an infant of six months, the 
wife and children of John Sateau, who had 
been killed. Taking one of the children in his 
arms, these companions in misfortune and suffer- 
ing hurried on together. Mrs. Sateau was nearly 
naked, and without either shoes or stockings. 



The rough prairie grass lacerated her naked feet 
and limbs terribly, and she was about giWng out 
in despair. Bjorkman took from his bundle a 
shirt, and tearing it in parts, she woimd it about 
her feet, and proceeded on. 

At daylight they came in sight of the house of 
Maguer, eight miles above the fort. Here they 
saw some eight or ten Indians, and, turning aside 
from the road, dropped down into the grass, where 
they remained until noon, when the Indians disap- 
peared. They again moved toward the fort, but 
slowly and cautiously, as they did not reach it 
until about midnight. Upon reaching the fort 
Mrs. Sateau found two sons, aged ten and twelve 
years respectively, who had efl'ected their escape 
and reached there before her. 

Mrs. Mary, widow of Patrick Hay den, who re- 
sided about one and a half miles from the house 
of J. W. Earle, near Beaver Creek, in Kenville 
county, says : 

"On the morning of the 18th of August, Mr. 
Hayden started to go over to the house of Mr. J. 
B. Keynolds, at the Redwood river, on the reser- 
vation, and met Thomas Kobinson, a half-breed, 
who told him to go home, get his family, and 
leave as soon as possible, for the Indians were 
coming over to kill all the whites. He came im- 
mediately home, and we commenced to make 
preparations to leave, but in a few minutes we 
saw some three or four Indians coming on horse- 
back. We then went over to the house of a 
neighbor, Benedict June, and found them all 
ready to leave. I started off with June's people, 
and my husband went back home, still thinking 
the Indians would not kiU any one, and intending 
to give them some provisions if they wanted them. 
I never saw him again. 

"We had gone about four miles, when jje saw a 
man lying dead in the road and his faithful dog 
watching by his side. 

"We drove on tiU we came to the house of David 
Faribault, at the foot of the hill, about one and a 
half miles from the Agency ferry. When we got 
here two Indians came out of Faribault's house, 
and stopping the teams, shot Mr. Zimmerman, 
who was driving, and his two boys. I sprang out 
of the wagon, and, with my child, one year old, in 
my arms, ran into the bushes, and went up the 
hill toward the fort. When I came near the house 
of Mr. ISIaguer, I saw Indians throwing furniture 
out of the door, and I went down into the bushes 

again, on the lower side of the road, and staid 
there until sundown. 

"While I lay here concealed, I saw the Indians 
taking the roof off the warehouse, and saw the 
buildings burning at the Agency. I also heard 
the firing during the battle at the ferry, when 
Marsh and his men were killed. 

"I then went up near the fort road, and sitting 
down under a tree, waited till dark, and then 
started for Fort Ridgely, carrying my child all the 
way. I arrived at the fort at about 1 o'clock A. 
M. The distance from our place to Eidgley was 
seventeen miles. 

"On Tuesday morning I saw John Magner, who 
told me that, when the soldiers went up to the Agen- 
cy the day before, he taw my husband lying in the 
road, near David Faribault's house, dead. John 
Hayden, his brother, who lived with us, was found 
dead near La Croix creek. They had got up the 
oxen, and were bringing the family of Mr. Eisen- 
rich to the fort, when they were overtaken by In- 
dians. Eisenrich was killed and his wife and five 
children were taken prisoners. 

"Mrs. Zimmerman, who was blind, and her re- 
maining children, and Mrs. Jime and her children, 
five in number, were captured and taken to the 
house of David Faribault, where they were kept 
till night, the savages torturing them by teUing 
them that they were going to fasten them in the 
house and bum them alive, but for some inexpli- 
cable reason let them go, and they, too, reached 
the fort in safety. Mr. Jime, who with one of his 
boys, eleven years old, remained behind to drive 
in his cattle, was met by them on the road and 
killed. The boy was captured, and, with the other 
prisoners, recovered at Camp Release." 

The neighborhoods in the vicinity of La Croix 
creek, and between that and Fort Ridgely, were 
visited on Monday forenoon, and the people either 
massacred, driven away or made prisoners. Ed- 
ward Magner, living eight miles above the fort, 
was killed. His wife and children had gone to 
the fort. He had returned to look after his cat- 
tle when he was shot. Patrick Kelley and David 
O'Coimor, both single men, were killed near Mag- 

Kearn Horan makes the followbig statement. 

"I lived four miles from the Lower Sioux 
Agency, on the fort road. On the 18th of August 
Patrick Horan, my brother, came early from the 
Agency and told us that the Indians were murder- 
ing the whites. He had escaped alone and crossed 



the ferry, and with some Frenchmen was on bis 
waj to the fort. My brothers and Wilham and 
Thomas Smith went with me. We saw Indians in 
the road near Magner's. Thomas Smith went to 
them, thinking they were white men, and I saw 
them kill him. We then turned to flee, and saw 
men escaping with teams along the road. All fled 
towards the fort together, the Indians firing ujjon 
us as we ran. The teams were oxen, and the In- 
dians were gaining upon us, when one of men in 
his excitement dropped his gun. The savages 
came up to it and picked it up. All stopped to 
examine it, and the men in the wagons whipped 
the oxen into a run. This delay enabled us to 
elude them. 

"As we passed the house of Ole Sampson, Mrs. 
Sampson was crying at the door for help. Her 
three children were with her. We told her to go 
into the bush and hide, for we could not help 
her. We ran into a ravine and hid in the grass. 
After the Indians had hunted some time for us, 
they came along the side of the ravine, and called 
to us in good English, saying, 'Come out, boys; 
what are you afraid of? We don't want to hurt 
you.' After they left us we crawled out and made 
our way to the fort, where we arrived at about 4 
o'clock P. M. My family had gone there before 
me. Mrs. Sampson did not go to the bush, but 
hid in the wagon from which they had_ recently 
come from Waseca county. It was what we call a 
prairie schooner, covered with cloth, a genuine 
emigrant wagon. They took her babe from her, 
and throwing it down upon the grass, put hay im- 
der the wagon, set fire to it and went away. Mrs. 
Sampson got out of the wagon, badly burned, and 
taking her infant from the ground made he, w y 
to the fort. Two of her children were burned to 
death in the wagon. Mr. Sampson had been pre- 
viously killed about eighty rods from the house. 

In the neighborhood of La Croix creek, or Birch 

CooUe, Peter Pereau, Frederick Closen, 

Piguar, Andrew Bahlke, Henry Keartner, old Mr. 
Closen and Mrs. WiUiam Vitt, and several others 
were killed. Mrs. Maria Frorip, an aged Ger-v 
man woman, was wounded fom- different times 
with small shot, but escaped to the fort. The wife 
of Henry Keartner also escajied and reached the 
fort. The wife and child of a Mr. Cardenelle 
were taken prisoners, as were also the wife and 
child of Frederick Closen. 

William Vitt came into Fort Kidgely, but not 

until he had, with his own hands, buried his mur- 
dered wife and also a Mr. Piguar. 

A flourishing German settlement had sprung up 
near Patterson's Eapids, on the Sacred Heart, 
twelve miles below YeUow Medicine. 

Word came to this neighborhood about sun- 
down of the 18th, that the Indians were murder- 
ing the whites. This news was brought to them 
by two men who had started from the Lower 
Agency, and had seen the lifeless and mutilated 
remains of the murdered victims lying upon the 
road and in their plundered dwellings towards 
Beaver Creek. The whole neighborhood, with the 
exception of one family, that of Mr. Schwandt, 
soon assembled at the house of Paul Kitzman, with 
their oxen and wagons, and prejjared to start for 
Fort Eidgely. 

A messenger was sent to the house of Schwandt 
but the Indian rifle and the tomahawk had done 
their fearful work. Of all that family but two 
sui-vived; one a boy, a witness of the awful scene 
of butchery, and he then on his way, covered with 
blood, towards Fort Kidgely. The other, a young 
girl of about seventeen years of age, then residing 
at Redwood, who was captured as previously 

This boy saw his sister, a young married wo- 
man, ripped open, while ahve, and her unborn 
babe taken, yet struggling, from her person and 
nailed to a tree before the eyes of the dying 

This party started in the evening to make their 
escape, going so as to avoid the settlements and 
the traveled roads, striking across the country to- 
ward the head of Beaver creek. 

They traveled this way all night, and in the 
morning changed their course towards Fort Eidge- 
ly. They continued in this direction until the 
sun was some two hours high, when they were met 
by eight Sioux Indians, who told them that the 
murders were committed by Chippewas, and that 
they had come over to protect them and punish 
the murderers; and thus induced them to turn 
back toward their homes. One of the savages 
spoke Enghsh well. He was acquainted with some 
of the company, having often hunted with Paul 
Kitzman. He kissed Kitzman, telling him he was 
a good man; and they shook hands with all of the 
party. The simple hearted Germans believed 
them, gave them food, distributed money among 
them, and, gratefully receiving their assurances of 
friendship and j)rot€Ction, turned back. 


uisronr of tub sioux massacre. 

They traveled on toward their deserted homes 
till noon, when they again halted, and gave their 
pretended protectors food. The Indians went 
away by themselves to eat. The suspicions of the 
fugitives were now somewhat aroused, but they 
felt that they were, to a great extent, in the power 
of the wretches. They soon came back, and or- 
dered them to go on, taking their position on each 
side of the train. Soon after t)i ey went on and 
disappeared. The train kept on toward home; 
and when within a few rods of u house, where they 
thought they could defend themselves, as they had 
guns with them, they were suddenly surrounded 
by fourteen Indians, who instf ntly fired upon them, 
killing eight (all but three of the men) at the first 
discharge. At the next fire tJiey killed two of the 
remaining men and six of the women, leaving only 
one man, Frederick Kreiger, alive. His wife was 
also, as yet, unliurt. They soon dispatched Kreiger, 
and, at the same time, began boating out the brains 
of the screaming children \\ith the butts of their 
guns. Mrs. Kreiger was standing in the wagon, 
and, when her husband fell, attempted to spring 
from it to the grouisd, but was shot from behind, 
and fell back in the wagon-box, although not dead, 
or tntirely unconscious. She was roughly seized 
and dragged to the ground, and the teams were 
driven off. She now became insensible. A few of 
the children, during this awful scene, escaped to 
the timber near by ; and a few also, maimed and 
mangled by these horrible monsters, and left for 
dead, survived, and, after enduring incredible 
hardships, got to Fort Ridgely. Mrs. Zable, and 
five children, were horribly mangled, and almost 
naked, entered the fort eleven days afterward- 
Mrs. Kreiger also survived her unheard-of suffer- 

Some forty odd bodies were afterward found and 
buried on that fatal field of slaughter. Thus per- 
ished, by the hands of these terrible scourges of 
the border, almost an entire neighborhood. Quiet, 
sober, and industrious, they had come hither from 
the vine-clad hills of their fatherland, by the green 
shores and gliding waters of the enchanting 
Rhine, and had built for themselves homes, where 
they had fondly hoped, in peace and quiet, to 
spend yet long years, under the fair, bluo sky, and 
in the sunny clirae of Miimosota, when suddenly, 
and in one short hour, by the hand of the savage, 
they were doomed to one common annihilation. 

During all the fatal 18th of August, the people 
at the Upper Agency pursued their usual avoca- 

tions. As night approached, however, an unusual 
gathering of Indians was observed on the hill just 
wejit of the Agency, and between it and the house 
of John Other Day. Judge Givens and Charles 
Crawford, then acting as interpreters in the ab- 
sence of Freniere, went out to them, and sought 
to learn why they were there in coimcil, but coidd 
get no satisfactory reply. Soon after this. Other 
Day came to them witli the news of the outbreak 
below, as did also Joseph Laframbois, a half- 
breed Sious. The families there were soon all 
gathered together in the warehouse and dwelling 
of the agent, who resided in the same building, 
and with the guns they had, prepared themselves 
as best they could, and awaited the attack, deter- 
mined to sell their lives as dearly as possible. 
There were gathered here sixty-two persons, men, 
women, and children. 

Other Day, and several other Indians, who came 
to them, told them they would stand by them to 
the last. These men visited the council outside, 
several times during the night; but when they 
were most needed, one only, the noble and heroic 
Other Day, remained faithful. AH the others dis- 
appeared, one after another, during the night. 
About one or two o'clock in the morning, Stewart 
B. Garvie, connected with the traders' store, known 
as Myrick's, came to the warehouse, and was ad- 
mitted, badly wounded, a charge of buckshot hav- 
ing entered his bowels. Garvie was standing in 
the door or his store when he was fired upon and 
wounded. He ran up stairs, and jumping from 
the window into the garden, crawled away, and 
reached the Agency without further molestation. 
At about this time Joseph Laframbois went to the 
store of Daily & Pratt, and awakened the two men 
in charge there, Duncan R. Kennedy and J, D. 
Boardman, and told them to flee for their lives. 
They hastily dressed and left the store, but had 
not gone ten rods when they saw in the path be- 
fore them three Indians. They stepped down 
from the jiath, which ran along the edge of a rise 
in the ground of some feet, and crouching in the 
grass, the Indians passed within eight feet of 
them. Kennedy went on toward Fort Ridgely, 
determined to reach that post if possible, and 
Boardman went to the warehouse. At the store of 
William H. Forbes, Constans, book-keeper, a na- 
tive of France, was killed. At the store of Pa- 
toile, Peter Patoile, clerk, and a nephew of the 
proprietor, was shot just outside the store, the ball 
entering at the back and coming ont near the nip- 



pie, passing througli bis lungs. An Indian came 
to him after be fell, turned bim over, and saying, 
"He is dead," left bim. 

Tbey then turned their attention to the stores. 
The clerlis in the store of Louis Koliert had effect- 
ed their escape, so that there were now no white 
men left, and when they had become absorbed in 
the work of plunder, Patoile crawled off into the 
bushes on the banks of the Yellow Medicine, and 
secreted himself. Here he remained all day. 
After dark he got up and started for a place of 
safety; ascending the bluflf, outof the YeUow Med- 
icine bottom, he dragged himself a mile and a 
haK further, to the Minnesota, at the mouth of 
the Yellow Medicine. Wading the Minnesota, be 
entered the house of Louis Labelle, on the oppo- 
site side, at the ford. It was deserted. Finding a 
bed in the house he lay down upon it and was soon 
fast asleejj, and did not awake until morning. 
Joseph Laframbois and Narces Freniere, and an 
Indian, Makacago, entered the house, and finding 
him there, awoke him, telUng bim there were hos- 
tile Indians about; that he must bide. They gave 
him a blanket to disguise himself, and going with 
him to the ravine, concealed bim in the grass and 
left him, promising to return, as soon as it was 
safe to do so, to bring him food, and guide him 
away to the prairie. He lay in this ravine until 
toward night, when his friends, true to their 
promise, returned, bringing some crackers, tripe, 
and onions. They went with him some distance 
out on the prairie, and enjoined upon him not to 
attempt to go to Fort Ridgely, and giving him the 
best directions they could as to the course he 
should take, shook hands with him and left him. 
Their names should be inscribed upon tablets more 
enduring than brass. That night he slept on the 
prairie, and the nest day resumed his wanderings, 
over an unknown region, without an inhabitant. 
After wandering for days without food or drink, 
bis little stock of crackers and tripe being exhaust- 
ed, he came to a deserted bouse, which he did not 
know. Here he remained all night, and obtained 
two raw potatoes and three ears of green corn. 
These he ate raw. It was all the food he had for 
eight days. Wandering, and unknowing whither 
to go, on the twelfth day out from Labelle's house, 
he heard the barking of dogs, and creeping nearer 
to them, still fearing there might be Indians about, 
he was overjoyed at seeing white men. Soon 
making himself and his condition known, he was 
h'keu and kindly cared for by these men, who had 

some days before deserted their farms, and had 
now returned to look after their crops and cattle. 
He now learned for the first time where he was. 
He bad struck a settlement far up the Sauk Val- 
ley, some forty miles above St. Cloud. He must 
have wandered, in these twelve days of sufifering, 
not less than two hundred miles, including devia- 
tions from a direct course. 

He was taken by these men, in a wagon, to St. 
Cloud, where his wound was dressed for the first 
time. From St. Cloud the stage took bim to St. 
Anthony, where he took the cars to St. Paul. A 
case of equal suffering and equal endurance is 
scarcely to be found on record. With a bullet 
wound through the lungs, he walked twelve days, 
not over a smooth and easy road, but across a 
trackless prairie, covered with rank grass, wading 
sleighs and streams on his way, almost without 
food, and for days without water, before he saw the 
face of a man; and traveled by wagon, stage, 
and cars, over one hundred miles. 

His recovery was rapid, and he soon enlisted in 
the First Regiment Minnesota Mounted Rangers 
under General Sibley, in the expedition against 
the Siovix. Patoile was in the battles on the Mis- 
souri in the summer of 1863, where his company, 
that of Captain Joseph Anderson, is mentioned as 
having fought with great bravery. 

We now return to the warehouse at Yellow Med- 
icine, which we left to follow the strange fortunes 
of young Patoile. Matters began to wear a seri- 
ous aspect, when Garvie came to them mortally 
wounded. Other Day was constantly on the watch 
outside, and reported the progress of aifairs to 
those within. Toward daylight every friendly 
Indian had deserted save Other Day; the yells of 
the savages came distinctly to their ears from the 
trading-post, half a mile distant. They were ab- 
sorbed in the work of plunder. The chances of 
escape were sadly against them, yet they decided 
to make the attempt. Other Day knew every foot 
of the country over which they must pass, and 
would be their guide. 

The wagons were driven to the door. A bed 
was placed in one of them; Garvie was laid upon 
it. The women and children provided a few loaves 
of bread, and just as day dawned, the cortege 
started on its perilous way. This party consisted 
of the family of Major Galbraith, wife and three 
children; Nelson Givens, wife, and wife's mother, 
and three children ; Noah Sinks, wife, and two chil- 
dren; Henry EscheUe, wife, and five children; John 



Fadden, wife, and three cliildren; Mr. German and 
wife; Frederick Patoile, wife, and two children; 
Mrs. Jane K. Murch, Miss IMaiy Charles, Miss 
Lizzie Sawyer, Miss Mary Daly, Miss Mary Hays, 
Mrs. Eleanor Warner, Mrs. John Other Day and 
one child, Mrs. Haurahan, N. A. Miller, Edward 
Cramsie, 'Zi. Hawkins, Oscar Canfil, Mr. Hill, an 
artist from St. Paul, J. D. Boardman, Parker 
Pierce, Dr. J. L. Wakefield, and several others. 

They crossed the Minnesota at Labelle's farm, 
and soon turned into the timber on the Hawk 
river, crossed that stream at some distance above 
its mouth, and ascended from the narrow valley 
through which it runs to the open prairie beyond, 
and followed down the Minnesota, keeping back 
on the prairie as far as the farm of Major J. K. 
Bro^^■n, eight miles below the Yellow Medicine. 
Mr. Fadden and Other Day visited the house and 
found it deserted. A consultation th'en took place, 
for the purpose of deciding where they should go. 
Some of them wished to go to Fort Kidgely; oth- 
ers to some town away from the frontier. Other 
Day told them that if they attempted to go to the 
fort they would all be killed, as the Indians would 
either be lying in ambush on that road for them, 
or would follow them, believing they would at- 
tempt to go there. His counsel prevailed, and 
they turned to the left, across the prairie, in the 
direction of Kandiyohi Lakes and Glencoe. At 
night one of the pnrty mounted a horse and rode 
forward, and found a house about a mile ahead. 
They hastened forward and reached it in time to 
escape a furious storm. They were kindly re- 
ceived by the only person about the premises, a 
man, whose family were away. The next morn- 
ing, soon after crossing Hawk river, they were 
joined by Louis Labelle and Gertong, his son-in- 
law, who remained with them all that day. 

On Wednesday morning they left the house of 
the friendly settler, and that night reached Cedar 
City, eleven miles from Hutchinson, in the county 
of McLeod. The inhabitants had deserted the 
town, and gone to an island, in Cedar Lake, and 
had erected a rude shelter. From the main land 
the island was reached through shallow water. 
Through this water our escaping party drove, 
guided by one of the citizens of Cedar City, and 
were cordially welcomed by the people assembled 

That night it rained, and all were drenched to 
the skin. Poor Garvie was laid under a rude 
shed, upon his bed, and all was done for him that 

man could do; but, in the morning, it was evident 
that he could go no further, and he was taken to 
the house of a Mr. Peek, and left. He died there, 
a day or two afterward. Some of the company, 
who were so worn out as to be unable to go on be- 
yond Hutchinson, returned to Cedar City and saw 
that he was decently interred. 

On Thursday they went on, by way of Hutchin- 
son and Glencoe, to Carver, and thence to Shako- 
pee and St. Paul. Major Galbraith, in a report to 
the department, says of this escape: 

"Led by the Noble Other Day, they struck out 
on the naked prairie, literally placing their lives 
in this faithful creature's hands, and guided by 
him, and him alone. After intense suffering and 
jirivation, they reached Shakopee, on Friday, the 
22d of August, Other Day never leaving them for 
an instant; and thia Other Day is a pure, full- 
blooded Indian, and was, not long since, one of the 
wildest and fiercest of his race. Poor, nolile fel- 
low! must he, too, be ostracized for the sins of his 
nation ? i commend him to the care of a just God 
and a Uberal government ; and not only him, but 
all others who did Ukewise." 

[Government gave John Other Day a farm in 
Minnesota. He died several years since univer- 
sally esteemed by the white people.] 

After a knowledge of the designs of the Indians 
reached the people at the Agency, it was impossi- 
ble for them to more than merely communicate 
with the two families at the saw-miU, three miles 
above, and with the families at the Mission. They 
were, therefore, reluctantly left to their fate. 
Early in the evening of Monday, two civilized In- 
dians, Chaskada and Tankanxaceye, went to the 
house of Dr. Williamson, and warned them of their 
danger, informing them of what had occurred be- 
low; and two halt-breeds, Michael and Gabriel 
Renville, and two Christian Indians, Paul Maxa- 
kuta Mani and Simon Anaga Mani, went to the 
house of Mr. Kiggs, the missionary, at Hazel- 
wood, and gave them warning of the danger im- 
pending over them. 

There were at this place, at that time, the family 
of the Eev. Stephen R. Eiggs, Mr. H. D. Cun- 
ningham and family, Mr. D. W. Moore and his 
wife (who reside in New Jersey), and Jonas Petti- 
john and family. Mr. Pettijohn and wife were 
in charge of the Government school at Red Iron's 
village, and were now at Mr. Eiggs'. They got 
up a team, and these friendly Indians went with 
them to an Island in the Minnesota, about tliree 



miles from the Mission. Here they remained till 
Tuesday evening. In the afternoon of Tuesday, 
Andrew Hunter, a son-in-law of Dr. Williamsou, 
came to him with the information that the family 
of himself and the Doctor were secreted below. 
The families at the saw-mill had been informed by 
the Eenvilles, and were with the party of Dr. Wil- 
liamson. At night they formed a junction on the 
north side of the Minnesota, and commenced their 
perilous journey. A thunder-storm effectually ob- 
Uterated their tracks, so that the savages could not 
follow them. They started out on the prairie in a 
northeasterly direction, and, on Wednesday morn- 
ing, changed their course south-easterly, till they 
struck the Lac qui Parle road, and then made di- 
rectly for Fort Eidgely. On Wednesday they 
were joined by three Germans, who had escaped 
from YeUow Medicine. On Wednesday night tliey 
found themselves in the vicinity of the Upper 
Agency, and turned to the north again, keeping 
out on the prairie. On Friday they were in the 
neighborhood of Beaver Creek, when Dr. Wil- 
liamson, who, with his wife and sister, had re- 
mained behind, overtook them in an ox-cart, hav- 
ing left about twenty -four hours later. They now 
determined to go to Fort Bidgelj. When within 
a few miles of that post, just at night, they were 
discovered by two Indians on horseback, who rode 
along parallel with the train for awhile, and then 
turned and galloped away, and the fugitives has- 
tened on, momentarily expecting an attack. Near 
the Three-Mile creek they passed a dead body 
lying by the road-side. They drove on, passing 
the creek, and, turning to the left, passed out on 
to the prairie, and halted a mile and a half from 
the fort. It was now late at night; they had 
heard firing, and had seen Indians in the vicinity. 
They were in doubt what to do. It was at length 
decided that Andrew Hunter should endeavor to 
enter the fort and ascertain its condition, and 
learn, if possible, whether they could get in. 
Hunter went, and, although it was well-nigh sur- 
rounded by savages (they had been besieging it 
all the afternoon), succeeded in crawling by on his 
hands and knees. He was told that it would be 
impossible for so large a party, forty-odd, to get 
through the Indian lines, and that he had better 
return and tell them to push on toward the to\vns 
below. He left as he had entered, crawling out 
into the prairie, and reached his friends in safety. 
It seemed very hard, to be so near a place of fan- 
cied security, and obliged to turn away from it, 

and, weary and hungry, press on. Perils beset 
their path on every hand; dangers, seen and un- 
seen, were around them ; but commending them- 
selves to the care of Him who "suffereth not a 
sparrow to fall to the ground without His notice," 
they resumed their weary march. They knew 
that all around them the work of death and deso- 
lation was going on, for the midnight sky, on 
every side, was red with the lurid flame of burn- 
ing habitations. They heard fiom out the gloom 
the tramp of horses' feet, hurrying past them in 
the darkness; but they still pressed on. Soon 
their wearied animals gave out, and again they 
encamped for the night. With the early dawn 
they were upon the move, some eight miles from 
the fort, in the direction of Henderson. Here, 
four men, the three Germans who had joined them 
on AVeJuesday, and a young man named Gilligan, 
left them, and went off in the direction of New 
Ulm. The bodies of these unfortunate men were 
afterward found, scarcely a mile from the place 
where they had left the guidance of Other Day. 

They traveled on in the direction of Henderson, 
slowly and painfully, for their teams, as well as 
themselves, were nearly exhausted. That day the 
savages were beleaguering New Ulm, and the 
sounds of the conflict were borne faintly to their 
ears upon the breeze. They had flour with them, 
but no means of cooking it, and were, consequently, 
much of the time without proper food. On the 
afternoon of this day they came to a deserted 
house, on the road from Fort Ridgley to Hender- 
son, the house of Michael Cummings, where they 
found a stove, cooking utensils, and a jar of cream. 
Obtaining some ears of corn from the field or gar- 
den near by, and " confiscating" the cream, they 
prepared themselves the first good meal they had 
had since leaving their homes so hastily on Mon- 
day night. 

After refreshing themselves and their worn ani- 
mals at tliis place for some hours, their journey 
was again resumed. That night they slept in a 
forsaken house on the prairie, and, on Sabbath 
morning early, were again on their way. As they 
proceeded, they met some of the settlers returning 
to their deserted farms, and calh'ng a halt at a de- 
serted house, where they found a large company of 
jjeople, they concluded to remain until Monday, 
and recuperate themselves and teams, as well as to 
observe in a proper manner the holy Sabbath. On 
Monday morning they separated, part going to 
Henderson and part to St. Peter, all feeling thai 



the All-seeing Eye that never slumbers or sleeps 
had watched over them, and that the loving hand 
of God had guided them siifely through the dan- 
gers, seen and unseen, that had beset their path. 

In the region of the State above the Upper 
Agency there were but few white inhabitants. Of 
all those residing on the Cliippewa river, near its 
mouth, we can hear of but one who escaped, and 
he was wounded, while his comrade, who lived with 
him was killed. This man joined the party of the 
missionaries, and got away with them. 

On the Yellow Medicine, above the Agency about 
twelve mUes, was a settler named James W. 
Lindsay. He was unmarried, and another single 
man was "baching it" with liim. They were both 
killed. Their nearest white neighbors were at 
the Agency, and they could not be warned of their 
danger, and knew nothing of it until the savages 
were upon them. 







The news of the murders below reached Leo- 
pold Wohler at the "lime-kUn," three miles be- 
low Yellow Medicine, on Monday afternoon. 
Taking his wife, he crossed the Minnesota river, 
and went to the house of Major Joseph E. Brown. 

Major Brown's family consisted of his wife and 
nine children; Angus Brown and wife, and Charles 
Blair, a son-in-law, his wife, and two children. 
The Major himself was away from home. Includ- 
ing Wohler and his wife, there were then at their 
house, on the evening of the 18th of August, 
eighteen persons. 

They started, early on the morning of the 19th, 
to make their escape, with one or two others of 
their neighbors, Charles Holmes, a single man, re- 
siding on the claim above them, being of the party. 
They were overtaken near Beaver Creek by Indi- 
ans, and all of the Browns, Mr. Blair and family, 
and Mrs. Wohler, were captured, and taken at 
once to Little Crow's village. Messrs. Wohler and 
Holmes escaped. Major Brown's family were of 
mixed Indian blood. This fact, probably, accounts 

for their saving the lite of Blair, who was a 
white man. 

Crow told him to go away, as his young men 
were going to kill him ; and he made his escape to 
Fort Kidgely, being out some five days and nights 
without food. Mr. Blair was in poor health. The 
hardships he endured were too much for his al- 
ready shattered constitution; and although he es- 
caped the tomahawk and scalping-knife, he was 
soon numbered among the victims of the massacre. 

J. H. Ingalls, a Scotchman, who resided in this 
neighborhood, and his wife, were killed, and their 
four children were taken into captivity. Two of 
them, young girls, aged twelve and fourteen years, 
were rescued at Camp Release, and the two httle 
boys were taken away by Little Crow. Poor httle 
fellows! their fate is still shrouded in mystery. 
A Mr. Frace, residing near Brown's place, was also 
killed. His wife and two children were foimd at 
Camp Release. 

The town of Leavenworth was situated on the 
Cottonwood, in the county of Brown. Word was 
brought to some of the settlers in that town, on 
Monday afternoon, that the Indians had broken 
out and were killing the inhabitants on the Min- 
nesota. They immediately began to make prepa- 
rations to leave. Mr. Wilham Carroll started at 
once for New Ulm alone, to learn the facts of the 
rumored outbreak. The most of the inhal)itants, 
alarmed by these rumors, fled that night toward 
New Ulm. Some of them reached that town in 
safety, and others were waylaid and massa:Ted 
upon the road. 

The family of a Mr. Blum, a worthy German 
citizen, were all, except a small boy, killed while 
endeavoring to escape. On Tuesday morning, 
Mr. Philetus Jackson was killed, while on the way 
to town with his wife and son. Mrs. Jackson and 
the young man escaped. 

We insert here the statements of two ladies, who 
escaped from this neighborhood, as they detail 
very fully the events of several days in that local- 
ity. Mrs. Mary J. Covill, wife of George W. 
OoviU, says: 

"On Monday, the 18th of August, messengers 
came to the house of Luther Whiton, from both 
above and below, with a rejjort of an outbreak of 
the Indians. My husband was at Mr. Wliiton's, 
stacking grain. He came home about four o'clock 
P. M., and t;)ld me about it, and then went back 
to Whiton" s, about half a mile away, to get a Mr. 
Biaut, who had recently come there from the State 



of Maine, to take his team aud esnap^. I packed 
a triiuk with clothing, and hid it in the grass, and 
then went myself to Whitou's, as I was afraid to 
remain at home. Mr. Kiant got up his team, 
and taking bis two trunks — one of them 
containing over two thousand dollars in gold 
— took us all with him. There was a family at 
Mr. Whiton's from Tennessee, and a young child 
of theirs had died that day. The poor woman 
took her dead, child in her arms, and we all started 
across the prairie, avoiding the road, for Mankato. 
We camped that night about three miles from 
home, on the prairie; and seeing no fires, as of 
burning buildings, returned to the house of our 
neighbor, Van Guilder, and found that tlie settlers 
had nearly all left. Mr. Van Guilder and family, 
Edward Allen and wife, Charles Smith and family 
and Mrs. Carroll, were all we knew of that re- 

" We started on, thinking that we would over- 
take the Leavenworth party, who had J;)een gone 
about an hour. We had gone about two and a 
half miles, when we saw, ahead of us, a team, with 
two men in the wagon, who drove toward us until 
they got into a hollow, and then got out and went 
behind a knoU. We drove quite near them, when 
Mr. Covin discovered -them to be Indians. Kiant 
turned his horses round and fled, when they jumped 
up out of the grass, whooped, and fired at us. 
They then jumped into their wagon and followed. 
Mr. Covin had the only gun in the party that 
could be used, and kept it pjinted at the Indians 
as we retreated. They fired at us some half-dozen 
times, but, fortunately, without injuring any one. 
" We drove hastily back to the house of Van 
Guilder, and entered it as quickly as possible, the 
savages firing upon us all the time. Mr. Van 
Guilder had just started away, with bis family, as 
we came back, and returned to the house with us. 
A shot from the Indians broke the arm of his mo- 
ther, an aged lady, soon after we got into the 
house, as she was passing a window. In our haste, 
we had not stopped to hitch the horses, and they 
soon started off, aud the Indians followed. As 
they were going over a hill near the house, they 
shook a white cloth at us, and, whooping, disap- 
peared. There were in this comj^any — after Riant 
was gone, who left us, and hid in a slough — fifteen 
persons. We immediately started out on the prai- 
rie again. We had now only the ox-team of Van 
Guilder, and the most of us were compelled to 
ivalk. His mother, some small children, and some 

trunks, made a wagon-load. The dead child, 
which the mother had brought back to the h<juse 
with her, was left lying upon the table. It was 
afterward found, with Us head severed from its body 
by the fiends. S. L. Wait and Luther Whiton, 
who had concealed themselves in the grass when 
they saw the Indians coming, joined us. Mrs. A. 
B. Hough and infant child were with the family ot 
Van Guilder. These made our number up to fif- 
teen. We traveled across the prairie all day with- 
. out seeing any Indians, and, at night, camped on 
the Little Cottonwood. We waded the stream, 
and made our 'camp on the opposite side, in the 
tall grass and reeds. We reached this spot on 
Tuesday night, aud remained there till Friday af- 
ternoon, without food, save a little raw flour, which 
we did not dare to cook, for fear the smoke would 
reveal our whereaboTits to the savages, when a 
company from New Uhn rescued us. 

"On Wednesday night, ^ter dark, CoviU and 
Wait started for New Ulm, to get a party to come 
out to our aid, saying they would be back the 
next day. That night, and nearly all the next 
day, it rained. At about daylight the next day, 
when just across the Big Cottonwood, five miles 
from New Ulm, they heard an Indian whooping in 
their rear, and turned aside into some hazel-bushes, 
where they lay aU day. At the place where they 
crossed the river they found a fish-rack in the 
water, and in it caught a fish. Part of this they 
ate raw that day. It was now Thursday, and 
they had eaten nothing since Monday noon. They 
started again at dark for New Ulm. When near 
the graveyard, two miles from the town, an Indian, 
with grass tied about his head, arose from the 
ground and attempted to bead them off. They 
succeeded in evading him, aud got in about ten 
o'clock. When about entering the place, they 
were fired upon by the pickets, which alarmed the 
town, and when they got in, all was in commo- 
tion, to meet an expected attack. 

" The next morning, one hundred and fifty men, 
under Captain Tousley, of Le Sueur, and S. A. 
Buell, of St. Peter, started to our relief, reachin"' 
our place of coucealmsnt about two o'clock. They 
brought us food, of which our famished party 
eagerly partook. They were accompanied by Dr. 
A. W. Daniels, of St. Peter, and Dr. Mayo, of 
Le Sueur. They went on toward Leavenworth, 
intending to remain there all night, bury 
the dead, should any be found, the next 
day, reseu3 any who might remain alive, 




and then return. They buried the Blum fam- 
ily of six persons that afternoon, and then con- 
cluded to return that night. We reached New 
Ulm before midnight. Mr. Van Guilder's mother 
died soon after we got into town from the effects 
of her wound and the exposure to which she had 
. been subjected. 

"At about the same time that we returned to the 
house of Mr. Van Guilder, on Tuesday, Charles 
Smith and family, Edward Allen and wife, and 
Mrs. Carroll had left it, and reached New Ulm 
without seeing Indians, about halt an hour before 
the place was attacked. The same day, William 
Carroll, with a party of men, came to the house 
for us, found Mr. Riant, who was concealed in a 
slough, and started back toward New Ulm. But 
few of them reached the town alive." 

An account of the adventures of this company, 
and its fate, will be found elsewhere, in the state- 
ment of Ralph Thomas, one of the party. 

On Monday, the 18th of August, two women, 
Mrs. Harrington and Mrs. Hill, residing on the 
Cottonwood, below Leavenworth, heard of the out- 
break, and prevailed upon a Mr. Henshaw, a sin- 
gle man, living near them, to harness up his team 
and take them away, as their husbands were away 
from home. Mr.s. Harrington had two childnm ; 
Mrs. Hill none. They had gone but a short dis- 
tance when they were overtaken by Indians. Mr. 
Henshaw was killed, and Mrs. Harrington was 
badly woimded, the ball passing through her 
shoulder. She had just sprung to the ground 
with her youngest child in her arms; one of its 
arms was thrown over her shoulder, and the ball 
passed through its little hand, lacerating it dread- 
fully. The Indians were intent upon securing the 
team, and the women were not followed, and es- 
caped. Securing the horses, they drove away in 
an opposite direction. 

Mrs. Harrington soon became faint from the loss 
of blood; and Mrs. Hill, concealing her near a 
slough, took the eldest child and started for New 
Ulm. Before reaching that place she met John 
Jackson and William Carroll, who resided on the 
Cottonwood, above them; and, telling them what 
had happened, they put her on one of their horses 
and turned back with her to the town. 

On the next day, Tuesday, Mr. Jackson was one 
of the party with Carrcll, heretofore mentioned, 
that wont out to Leavenworth, and visited the 
house of Van Guilder, in search of their families. 
When that party turned back to New Ulm, Jack- 

son did not go with them, but went to his own 
house to look for his wife, who had already left. 
He visited the houses of most of his neighbors, and 
finding no one, started back alone. When near 
the house of Mr. Hill, between Leavenworth and 
New Ulm, on the river, he saw what he supposed 
were white men at the house, but when within a 
tew rods of them, discovered they were Indians. 
The moment he made this discovery he turned to 
flee to the woods near by. They filed upon him, 
and gave chase, but he outran them, and reached 
the timber unharmed. Here he remained concealed 
until late at night, when he made his way back to 
town, where he found his wife, who, with others of 
their neighbors, had fled on the first alarm, and 
reached the village in safety. Mrs. Laura Whiton, 
widow of Elijah Whiton, of Leavenworth, Brown 
county, m ikes the following statement: 

"We had resided on our claim, at Leavenworth, 
a little over four years. There were in our family, 
on the 18th of August, 1862, four persons — Mr. 
Whiton, myself, and two children — a son of sixteen 
ye:irs, and a daughter nine years of age. On Mon- 
day evening, the 18th of August, a neighbor, Mr. 
Jackson, and his son, a yoimg boy, who resided 
three miles from our place, cr-me to our house in 
search of their horses, and told us that the Indians 
had murdered a family on the Minnesota river, and 
went away. We saw no one, and heard nothing 
more until Thursday afternoon following, about 4 
o'clock, when about a dozen Indians were seen 
coming from the direction of the house of a neigh- 
bor namsd Heydriek, whom they were chasing. 
Hoydrick jumped off a bridge across a ravine, and, 
raaniug down tlie ravine, concealed himself under 
a log. wliere he remained until 8 o'clock, when 
he came out, and made his escape into New Ulm. 

'•The savages had already slain all his family, 
cousi.sting of his wife and two children. Mr. 
Whiton, who was at work near the door at the 
time, came into tlie house, but even then did not 
believe there was any thing serious, supposing 
H3ydrick was unnecessarily frightened. But when 
he saw them leveling their gims at him, he came 
tj the conclusion that we had better leave. He 
loaded his double-barreled gun, and we aU started 
for the timber. After reaching the woods, Mr. 
Whiton left us to go to the house of his brother, 
Luther, a single man, to see what had become of 
him, telling us to remain wliere we were until he 
came back. We never saw him again. After he 
bft us, not daring to remain where wo were, we 



forded the river (Cottonwood), and hid in the tim- 
ber, on the opposite side, where we remained 
until about 8 o'clock, when we started for New Uhn. 

" While we lay concealed in the woods, we heard 
the Indians driving up onr oxen, and yoking them 
up. They hitched them to our wagon, loaded it 
up with our trunks, bedding, etc., and drove away. 
we went out on the prairie, and walked all night 
and all next day, arriving at New Ulm at about 
dark on Friday, the 22d. About midnight, on 
Thursday night, as we were fleeing along the road, 
we passed the bodies of the family of our neigh- 
bor, Bhim, lying dead by the road-side. They had 
started to make their escape to town, but were 
overtaken by the savages upon the road, and all 
but a little boy most brutally murdered. 

" Mr. Whiton returned home, from his visit to 
the house of his brother, which he found deserted, 
and found that our house had already been plun- 
dered. He then went to the woods to search for 
us. He remained in the timber, prosecuting his 
search, until Saturday, without food; and, failing 
to find us, he came to the conclusion that we were 
either dead or in captivity, and then himself start- 
ed for New Ulm. On Saturday night, when trav- 
eling across the prairie, he came suddenly upon a 
camp of Indians, but they did not see him, and he 
beat as hasty a retreat as possible from their vi- 

"When near the Lone Cottonwood Tree, on 
Sirnday morning, he fell in with William J. Duly, 
who had made his escape from Lake Shetek. 
They traveled along together tiU they came to the 
house of Mr. Henry Thomas, six miles from our 
farm, in the town of Milford. This house had evi- 
dently been deserted by the family in great haste, 
for the table was spread for a meal, and the food 
remained untouched upon it. Here they sat down 
to eat, neither of them having had any food for a 
long time. WhOe seated at the table, two Indians 
came to the house; and, as Mr. Whiton arose and 
stepped to the stove for some water, they came into 
the door, one of them saying, '2?a mea iepee.' 
[This is my house.] There was no way of escape, 
and Mr. Whiton, thinking to propitiate him, said 
'Come in' Mr. Duly was sitting partly behind t^ie 
door, and was, probably, unobserved. The savage 
made no answer, but instantly raised his gun, and 
shot him through the heart, they then both went 
into the corn. Duly was unarmed; and, when Mr. 
Whiton was killed, took his gun and ran out of the 
house, and concealed himself in the bushes near by. 

"While lying here he could hear the Indians 
yelling and firing their guns in close proximity to 
his place of concealment. After awhile he ven- 
tured out. Being too much exhausted to carry 
it, he threw away the gun, and that night ar- 
rived at New Ulm, without again encountering 

We now return to Mrs. Harrington, whom, the 
reader wiU remember, we left badly wounded, con- 
cealed near a slough. We regret our inability to 
obtain a full narrative of her wanderings during 
the eight succeeding days and nights she spent 
alone upon the prairie, carrying her wounded 
child. We can only state in general terms, that 
after wandering for eight weary days and nights, 
without food or shelter, unknowing whither, early 
on the morning of Tuesday, the 26th, before day- 
light, she found herself at Crisp's farm, midway 
between New Ulm and Mankato. As she ap- 
proached the pickets she mistook them for In- 
dians, and, when hailed by them, was so fright- 
ened as not to recognize the EngUsh language, 
and intent only on saving her life, told them she 
was a Sioux. Two guns were instantly leveled at 
her, but, providentially, both missed fire, when an 
exclamation from her led them to think she was 
wliite, and a woman, and they went out to her. 
She was taken into camp and all done for her by 
Judge Flandrau and his men that could be done. 
They took her to Mankato, and soon after she was 
joined by her husband, who was below at the time 
of the outbreak, and also found the child which 
Mrs. HiU took with her to New Ulm. 

Six mUes from New Ulm there Uved, on the 
Cottonwood, in the county of Brown, a German 
family of the name of Heyers, consisting of the 
father, mother and two sons, both young men. 
A burial party that went out from New Ulm on 
Friday, the 22d, found them aU murdered, and 
buried them near where they were killed. 

The town of Milford, Brown county, adjoining 
New Ulm on the west and contiguous to the res- 
ervation, was a farming community, composed en- 
tirely of Germans. A quiet, sober, industrious, 
and enterprising class of emigrants had here 
made their homes, and the prairie wilderness 
around them began to "bud and blossom like the 
rose." Industry and thrift had brought their sure 
reward, and peace, contentment and happiness 
filled the hearts of tins' simple-hearted people. 
The noble and classic Ehine and the vine-clad hills 
of Fathei'land were almost forgotten, or, if not 



forgotten, were now reniHmbered without regret, 
in these fair prairie homes, beneath the glowing 
and genial sky of Minnesota. 

When the sun arose on the morning of the 18th 
of August, 1862, it looked down upon this scene 
in all its glowing beauty; but its declining rays 
fell upon a field of carnage and horror too fearful 
to describe. The council at Eice Creek, on Sun- 
day night, had decided upon the ' details of the 
work of death, and the warriors of the lower 
bands were early on the trail, thirsting for blood. 
Early in the forenoon of Monday they appeared 
in large numbers in this neighborhood, and the 
work of slaughter began. The first house visited 
was that of Wilson Massipost, a prominent and 
iniiuentiiil citizen, a widower. Mr. Massipost had 
two daughters, intelligent and accomplished. 
These the savages murdered most brutally. The 
head of one of them was afterward found, severed 
from the body, attached to a fish-hook, and hung 
upon a nail. His son, a young man of twenty- 
four years, was also killed. Mr. Massipost and a 
son of eight yeai-s escaped to New Ulm. The 
house of Anton Hanley was likewise visited. Mr. 
Hanley was absent. The children, four in num- 
ber, were beaten with tomahawks on the head and 
person, inflicting fearful wounds. Two of them 
were lulled outright, and one, an infant, recovered; 
the other, a young boy, was taken by the parents, 
at night, to New Ulm, thence to St. Paul, where 
he died of his wounds. After killing these child- 
ren, they proceeded to the field near by, where 
Mrs. Hanley, her father, Anton Mesmer, his wife, 
son Joseph, and daughter, were at work harvesting 
wheat. AU these they instantly shot, except Mrs. 
Hanley, who escaped to the woods and secreted 
herself tUl night, when, her husband coming home, 
they took their two wounded children and 
made their escape. At the house of Agrenatz 
Hanley all the children were kUlcd. The parents 

Bastian Mey, wife, and two children were mas- 
sacred in their house, and three children were ter- 
ribly mutilated, who afterward recovered. 

Adolph Shilling and his daughter were killed; 
his son badly wounded, escaped with his mother. 
Two families, those of a Mr. Zeller and a Mr. Zet- 
tle, were completely annihilated; not a soul was 
left to tell the tale of their sudden destruction. 
Jacob Keck, Max Fink, and a Mr. Belzer were 
also victims of savage barbarity at th's place. Af- 
ter kUUng the inhabitants, they plundered and 

sacked the houses, destroying all the property 
they could not carry away, driving away all the 
horses and cattle, and when night closed over the 
dreadful scene, desolation and death reigned su- 

There resided, on the Big Cottonwood, between 
New Ulm and Lake Shetek, a German, named 
Charles Zierke, familiarly kno^vn throughoiit all 
that region as "Dutch Charley." On the same 
road resided an old gentleman, and his son and 
daughter, named Brown. These adventurous pio- 
neers lived many miles from any other human 
habitation, and kept houses of entertainment on 
that lonely road. This last-named house was 
known as "Brown's place." It is not known to us 
when the savages came to those isolated dwell- 
ings. We only know that the mutilated bodies of 
all three of the Brown family were found, and 
buried, some miles from their house. Zierke and 
his family made their escape toward New Ulm, 
and, when near the town, were pursued and over- 
taken by the Indians on the prairie. By sharp 
running, Zierke escaped to the town, but his wife 
and children, together with his team, were taken 
by them. Returning afterward with a jiarty of 
men, the savages aliandoued the captured team, 
woman, and children, and they were recovered 
and all taken into New Ulm in safety. 

The frontier of Nicollet county contiguous to 
the reservation was not generally visited by the 
savages until Tuesday, the 19th, and the succeed- 
ing days of that week. The people had, generally 
in the meantime, sought safety in' flight, and were 
principally in the town of St. Peter. A few, how- 
ever, remained at their homes, in isolated locali- 
ties, where the news of the awful scenes enacting 
aroimd them did not reach them; or, who having 
removed their families to places of safety, returned 
to look after their property. These generally fell 
victims to the rifle and tomahawk of the savages. 
The destruction of life in this county, was, how- 
ever, trifling, compared with her sister counties of 
Brown and Renville; but the loss of projierty was 
immense. The entire west half of the county was, 
of necessity, abandoned and completely desolated. 
The ripened grain crop was much of it imcut, and 
wasted in the field, while horses and cattle and 
sheep and hogs roamed unrestrained at will over 
the unharvested fields. And, to render the ruin 
complete the savage hordes swept over this por- 
tion of the county, gathering up horses and cattle 
shooting swine and sheep, and all other stock that 



they could not catch; liuishing the work of ruin 
by jipplyiug the torch to the stacks of hay and 
grain, and in some instances to the dwelhngs of 
the settlers. 

William Mills kept a public house in the town 
of West Newton, four miles from Fort Kidgely, on 
the St. Peter road. Mr. Mills heard of the out- 
break of the Sioux on Monday, and at once took 
the necessary steps to secure the safety of his fam- 
ily, by sending them across the prairie to a se- 
cluded spot, at a slough some three miles from the 
house. Leaving a span of horses and a wagon 
with them, he instructed them, if it should seem 
necessary to their safety, to drive as rapidly as 
possible to Henderson. He then went to Fort 
Ridgely to possess himself, if possible, of the exact 
state of affairs. At night he visited his house, to 
obtain some articles of clothing for his family, and 
carried them out to their place of concealment, and 
went again to the fort, where he remained until 
Tuesday morning, when he started out to his fam- 
ily, thinking he would send them to Henderson, 
and return and assist in the defense of that post. 
Soon after leaving the fort he met Lieutenant T. J. 
Sheehan and his company, on their way back to 
that post. Sheehan roughly demanded of him 
where he was going. He replied he was going to 
send his family to a place of safety, and return. 
The lieutenant, with an oath, wrested from him his 
gun, the only weapon of defense he had, thus leav- 
ing him defenseless. Left thus unarmed and 
powerless, he took his family and hastened to Hen- 
derson, arriving there that day in safety. 

A few Indians were seen in the neighborhood of 
West Newton on Monday afternoon on horseback, 
but at a distance on the prairie. The most of the 
inhabitants fled to the fort on that day : a few re - 
mained at their homes and some fled to St. Peter 
and Henderson. The town of Lafayette was, in 
like manner, deserted on Monday and Monday 
night, the inhabitants chiefly making for St. Peter. 
Courtland township, lying near New Ulm, caught 
the contagion, and her people too fled — the women 
and children going to St. Peter, while many of her 
brave sons rushed to the defense of New Ulm, and 
in that terrible siege bore a conspicuous and hon- 
orable part. 

As the cortege of panic stricken fugitives poured 
along the various roads leading to the towns be- 
low, or Monday night and Tuesday, indescribable 
terror seized the inhabitants; and the rapidly ac- 
cumulating human tide, gathering force and num- 

bers as it moved across the prairie, rolled an 
overwhelming flood into the towns along the 

The entire county of Nicollet, outside of St. 
Peter, was depopulated, and their crops and herds 
left by the inhabitants to destruction. 

On the arrival of a force of mounted men, under 
Captains Anson Nortbriip, of Minneapolis, and B. 
H. Chittenden, of the First Wisconsin Cavalry, at 
Henderson, on the way to Fort Eidgely, they met 
Charles Nelson, and, on consultation, decided to go 
to St. Peter, where they were to report to Colonel 
Sibley, by way of Norwegian Grove. Securing 
the services of Nelson, John Fadden, and one or 
two others, familiar to the country, they set out 
for the Grove. 

Captain Chittenden, in a letter to the "New 
Haven Palladium," written soon after, says: 

" The prairie was magnificent, but quite desert- 
ed. Sometimes a dog stared at us as we jjassed; 
but even the bnites seemed conscious of a terrible 
calamity. At 2 o'clock we reached the Grove, 
which surrounded a lake. The farms were in a fine 
state of cultivation; and, strange to say, although 
the houses were in ruins, the grain stacks were un- 
touched. Beapers stood in the field as the men 
had left them. Cows wandered over the israiries 
in search of their masters. Nelson led the way to 
tha spot where he had been overtaken in attempt- 
ing to escape with his wife and children. We 
found his wagon; the ground was strewn with ar- 
ticles of apparel, Ms wife's bonnet, boxes, yarn, in 
fact everything they had hastily gathered up. But 
the wife and boys were gone. Her he had seen 
them murder, but the children had nm into the 
corn-field. He had also secreted a woman and 
child under a hay -stack. We went and turned it 
over; they were gone. I then so arranged the 
troops that, by marching abreast, we made a 
thorough search of the corn-field. No clue to his 
boys could be found. Passing the still bumiag 
embers of his neighbor's dwellings, we came to 
Nelson's own, the only one still standing. * * * 
The heart-broken man closed the gate, and turned 
away without a tear; then simply asked Sergeant 
Thompson when he thought it would be safe to 
return. I must confess that, accustomed as I am 
to scenes of horror, the tears would come." 

The troops, taking Nelson with them, proceeded 
to St. Peter, where he found the dead body of his 
wife, which had been carried there by some of liis 
neighbors, and his children, alive. They had fled 



tbrough the com, and escaped from their savage 

Jacob Mauerle bad taken bis family down to 
St. Peter, and returned on Friday to bis bouse, 
in West Newton. He bad tied some clothing 
in a bundle, and started for the fort, when be 
was shot and scalped, some eighty rods from the 

The two Applebaum's were evidently fleeing to 
St. Peter, when overtaken by the Indians and 

Felix Smith had escaped to Fort Bidgely, and 
on Wednesday forenoon went out to bis bouse, 
some three miles away. The Indians attacked the 
fort that afternoon, and be was killed in endeavor- 
ing to get back into that post. 

Small parties of Indians scoured the country be- 
tween Fort Ridgely, St. Peter, and Henderson, 
during the first week o£ the massacre, driving away 
cattle and burning buildings, w-itbin twelve miles 
of the first-named place. The Swan Lake House 
was laid in ashes. A scouting party of six savages 
was seen by General M. B. Stone, upon tlie blufT, 
in sight of the town of St. Peter, on Friday, the 
22d day of August, the very day they were making 
their most furious and detennined assault upon 
Fort Bidgely. 

This scouting party had, doubtless, been de- 
tached from the main force besieging that post, 
and sent forward, under the delusion that the fort 
must fall into their hands, to reconnoiter, and re- 
port to Little Crow the condition of the j)lace, and 
the ability of the people to defend themselves. 
But they failed to take Fort Eidgely, and, on the 
22d, their scouts saw a large body of troops, under 
Colonel Sibley, enter St. Peter. 









At Big Stone Lake, in what is now Big Stone 
county, were four trading bouses, Wm. H. Forbes, 
Daily, Pratt & Co.. and Kathan Myrick. The liahi- 
tues of these Indian trading houses, as usual, wore 
mostly half-breeds, natives of the country. The 

store of Daily, Pratt k Co. was in charge of Mr. 
Ryder of St. Paul. On the 21st of August, four 
of these men at work cutting hay, unsuspicious of 
danger, were suddenly attacked and all murdered, 
except Anton Mauderfield; while one half-breed, 
at the store, Baptiste Gubeau, was taken prisoner, 
and was informed that be would be killed that 
night. But Gubeau succeeded in escaping from 
their grasp, and making his way to the lake. His 
escape was a wonderful feat, bound as be was, as 
to bis bands, pursued by yelling demons determ- 
ined on his death. But, ahead of all his pursuers, he 
reached the lake, and dashing into the reeds on the 
margin, was hid from the sight of his disappointed 
pursuers. Wading noiselessly into the water, until 
his head alone was above the water, he remained 
perfectly still for some time. The water soon 
loosened the rawhide on his wrists, so that they 
were easily removed. The Indians sought for him 
in vain; and as the shades of night gathered around 
lum, he came out of his hiding place, crossed the 
foot of the lake and struck out for the Upper 
Mississippi. He finally reached St. Cloud. Here 
be was mistaken for an Indi;in spy, and threatened 
with death, but was finally saved by the interposi- 
tion of a gentleman who knew him. 

The other employes at the lake were all killed 
except Manderfield, who secreted himself while his 
comrades were being murdered. Manderfield, in 
his escape, when near Lac qui Parle, was met by 
Joseph Laframboise, who had gone thither to ob- 
tain his sister Julia, then a captive there. Man- 
derfield received from Larramboise proper direc- 
tions, and finally reached Fort Eidgely in safety. 

Lake Shetek. — This beautiful lake of quiet 
water, some six miles long and two broad, is situ- 
ated about seventy miles west of New Ulm, in the 
county of Murray. Here a little commimity of 
some fifty persons were residing far out on our 
frontier, the nearest settlement being the Big Cot- 
tonwood. The families and persons located here 
were: John Eastlick and wife, Charles Hatch, 
Phineas B. Ilurd and wife, John Wright, Wm. J. 
Duly and wife, H. W. Smith, Aaron Myers, Mr. 
Everett and wife, Thomas Ireland and wife, Koch 
and wife; these witb their several families, and six 
single men, Wm. James, Edgar Bently, John 
Voight, E. G. Cook, and John F. and Daniel 
Burns, the latter residing alone on a claim at Wal- 
nut Grove, some distance from the lake, consti- 
tuted the entire population of Lake Shetek settle- 
ment, in Miirray county. 



On the 20th of August some twenty Sioux In- 
dians rode up to the house of Mr. Hurd. Mr. 
Hurd himself had left home for the Missouri river 
on the 2d day of June previous. Ten of these In- 
dians entered the house, talked and smoked their 
pipes while Mrs. Hurd was getting breakfast. Mr. 
Voight, the work-hand, while waiting for break- 
fast, took up the babe, as it awoke and cried, and 
walked with it out in the yard in front of the door. 
No sooner had he left the house than an Indian 
took his gun and deliberately shot him dead near 
the door. Mrs. Hurd was amazed, at the infernal 
deed, as these Indians had always been kindly 
treated, and often fed at her table. She ran to 
the fallen man to raise him up and look after the 
safety of her child. To her utter horror, one of 
the miscreants intercepted her, telling her to leave 
at once and go to the settlements across the prairie. 
She was refused the privilege of dressing her 
naked children, and was compelled to turn awaj 
from her ruined home, to commence her wandering 
over an almost trackless waste, without food, and 
almost -without raiment, for either herself or little 

These Indians proceeded from the house of Mr. 
Hurd to that of Mr. Andrew Koch, whom they 
shot, and plundered the house of its contents. 
Mrs. Koch was compelled to get up the oxen and 
hitch them to the wagon, and drive them, at the 
dii'ection of her captors, into the Indian country. 
In this way she traveled ten days. She was the 
captive of White Lodge, an old and ugly chief of 
one of the ujiper bands. As the course was tow- 
ards the Missouri river, Mrs. Koch refused to go 
farther in that direction. The old chief threatened 
to shoot her if she did not drive on. Making a 
virtue of necessity she reluctantly obeyed. Soon 
after she was required to carry the vagabond's 
gun. Watching her opportunity she destroyed 
the explosive quality of the cap, and dampened 
the powder in the tiibe, leaving the gim to appear- 
ance all right. Soon afterward she again refused 
to go any farther in that direction. Again the 
old scoundrel threatened her with She in- 
stantly bared her bosom and dared him to fire. 
He aimed his gun at her breast and essayed to 
fire, but the gun refused to take part in the work 
of death. The superstitious savage, supposing 
she bore a charmed life, lowered his gun, and 
asked which way she wishsd to go. She pointed 
toward the settlements. In this direction the 
teams were turned. They reached the neighbor- 

hood of the Upper Agency in ten days after leav- 
ing Lake Shetek, about the time of the arrival of 
the troops under Colonel Sibley in the vicinity of 
Wood Lake and Yellow Medicine. White Lodge 
did not like the looks of things around Wood 
Lake, and left, moving off in an opposite direction 
for greater- safety. Mrs. Koch was finally rescued 
at Camp Release, after wading or swimming the 
Minnesota river ten times in company with a 
friendly squaw. 

At Lake Shetek, the settlers were soon all gath- 
ered at the house of John Wright, prepared for 
defense. They were, however, induced by the ap- 
parently friendly persuasion of the Indians to 
abandon the house, and move towards the slough 
for better safety. The Indians commenced firing 
upon the retreating party. The whites returned 
the fire as they ran. Mrs. Eastlick was wounded 
in the heel, Mr. Duly's oldest son and daughter 
were shot through the shoulder, and Mrs. Ireland's 
youngest child was shot through the leg, while 
rimning to the slough. Mr. Hatch, Mr. Everett, 
Mr. Eastlick, Mrs. Eastlick, Mrs. Everett, and sev- 
eral children were shot. The Indians now told 
the women to come out of the slough, and they 
would not kill them or the children, if they woidd 
come out. They went out to them with the children, 
when they shot Mrs. Everett, Mrs. Smith, and Mrs. 
Ireland dead, and killed some of the children. 
Mrs. Eastlick was shot and left on the field, sup- 
posed to be dead, but she finally escaped, and two 
of her children, Merton and Johnny. Her inter- 
esting narrative will be found in the large work, 
from which this abridgment is made up. Mrs. 
Julia A. Wright, and Mrs. Duly, and the two chil- 
dren of Mrs. Wright, and two of the children of 
Mrs. Duly were taken captive. Some of these 
were taken by the followers of Little Crow to the 
Missouri river, and were subsequently ransomed 
at Fort Pierre, by Major Galpin. All the men ex- 
cept Mr. Eastlick, being only wounded, escaped 
to the settlements. The brothers Burns remained 
on their claim, and were not molested. One 
sneaking Indian coming near them paid the for- 
feit with his life. 

Spirit Lake. — On or about the 25th day of 
August, 1862, the "Annuity Sioux Indians" made 
their appearance at Sfiirit Lake, the scene of the 
terrible Inkpaduta massacre of 1857. The inhab- 
itants fled in dismay from their homes; and the 
savages, after plundering the dwelUngs of the set- 



tiers, completed their fiendish work by setting fire 
to the country. 

Dakota Tebbitobt. — Portions of Dakota Ter- 
ritory were visited by the Sioux in 1862. At 
Sious Falls City the following murders were com- 
mitted by the Sioux Indians on tho 25th of Au- 
gust: Mr. Joseph B. and ]Mr. M. Amidon, father 
and son, were found dead in a com- field, near 
which they had been making hay. The son was 
shot with both balls and arrows, the father with 
balls only. Their bodies lay some ten rods apart. 
On the morning of the 2Gth, about fifteen Indians, 
supposed to be Sioux, attacked the camp of sol- 
diers at that place. They were followed, but 
eluded the vigilant pursuit of our soldiers and es- 
caped. The families, some ten in number, were 
removed to Yankton, the capital, sixty-five miles 
distant. This removal took place before the mur- 
ders at Lake Shetek were known at Sioux Falls 
Citv, The mail carrier who carried the news from 
New Ulm had not yet arrived at Sioux Falls, on 
his return trip. He had, on his outward trip, 
found Mrs. EastUck on the prairie, near Shetek, 
and carried her to the house of Mr. Bro^vn, on the 

In one week after the murders at the Falls, one- 
half of the inhabitants of the Missouri slope had 
fled to Sioux City, Iowa, six miles below the mouth 
of the Big Sioux. 

The Murder of Amos Huggins. — Amos Hug- 
gins (in the language of Kev. S. B. Kiggs, in his 
late work, 1880, entitled "Mary and I,") "was the 
eldest child of Alexander G. Huggins, who had 
accompanied Dr. Williamson to the Sioux coun- 
try in 1835. Amos was born in Ohio, and was at 
this time (1862) over thirty years old. He was 
married, and two children blessed their home, 
which for some time before the outbreak had been 
at Lao qui Parle, near where the town of that 
name now stands. It was then an Indian village 
and planting place, the principal man being Wa- 
kanmane — Spirit Walker, or Walking Spirit. It 
the people of the village had been at home Mr. 
Huggins and his family, which inchided Miss 
Julia Laframboise, who was also a teacher in the 
employ of the Government, would have been sate. 
But in the absence of Spirit Walker's people three 
Indian men came — two of them from the Lower 
Sioux Agency — and killed Mr. Huggins, and took 
from the house such things as they wanted." pp. 

This apology for the conduct of Christian In- 

dians towards the missionaries and their assistants, 
who had laljored among them since 1835 up to 
1862, a jjoriod of twenty-seven years, shows a 
truly Christian spirit on the part of the Eev. S. K. 
Kiggs; but it is scarcely satisfactory to the general 
reader that the Christian Indians were entirely in- 
nocent of all blame in the great massacre of 1862. 


Occurrences previous to the attack on the 
town op new ulm — the attack by indians 


On the 18th of August, the day of the outbreak, 
a volunteer recruiting party for the Union army 
went out from New Ulm. Some eight miles west 
of that place several dead bodies were found on 
the road. The party turned back toward the town, 
and, to the surprise of all, were fired upon by In- 
dians in ambush, killing several of their party. 
Another paity leaving New Ulm for the Lower 
Agency, when seven miles above the town some 
fifty Indians near the road fired upon them, killing 
three of men. This party returned to town. 
One of these parties had seen, near the Cotton- 
wood, Indians kUl a man on a stack of grain, and 
some others in the field. The people of the sur- 
rounding country fled for their lives into the town, 
leiiving, some of them, portions of their families 
killed at their homes or on the way to some place 
of safety. 

During the 18th and 19th of August the In- 
dians overran the country, burning buildings and 
driving off the stock from the farms. 

The people had no arms fit for use, and were 
perfectly panic-stricken and helpless. But the 
news of the outbreak had reached St. Peter, and at 
about one o'clock of August 19th, T. B. Thompson, 
James Hughes, Charles Wetherell, Samuel Coflin, 
Merrick Dickinson, H. Cay wood, A. M. Bean, James 
Parker, Andrew Friend, Henry and Frederick Otto, 
C. A. Stein, E. G. Covey, Frank Kennedy, Thomas 
and GriiBn Williams, and the Hon. Henry A. Swift, 
afterwards made Governor of Minnesota, by opera- 
tion of the organic law, and William G. Hayden, 
organized themselves into a company, by the elec- 
tion of A. M. BeaU; Captain, and Samuel Coffin, 
Lieutenant, and took up position at New Ulm, in 
the defense of that beleaguered place. They at once 
ad\ auced ujjou the Indians, who were pi.sted behind 



the houses in the outer portions of the place. By 
this opportune arrival the savage foe were held in 
check. These were soon joined by another arrival 
from St. Peter: L. M. Bordman, J. B. Trogdon, J. 
K. Moore, Horace Austin (since Governor), P. M. 
Bean, James Homer, Jacob and Philijj Stetzer, 
William Wilkinson, Lewis Patch, S. A. Buell, and 
Henry Snyder, all mounted, as well as a few from 
the surrounding country. 

By the time these several parties had arrived, 
the savages had retired, after burning five build- 
ings on the outskirts of the town. In the first 
battle several were killed, one Miss Paula of the 
place, standing on the sidewalk opposite the Da- 
kota House. The enemy's loss is not known. 

Ou the same evening Hon. Charles E. Flandran, 
at the head of about one hundred and twenty-five 
men, volunteers from St. Peter and vicinity, en- 
tered the town; and reinforcements continued to 
arrive from Blankato, Le Sueur, and other points, 
untQ Thursday, the 21st, when about three hun- 
dred and twenty-live armed men were in New Ulm, 
under the command of Judge Flandrau. Cap- 
tain Bierbauer, at the head of one hundred men, 
from Mankato, arrived and participated in the de- 
fense of the place. 

Some rude barricades around a few of the 
houses in the center of the village, fitted up by 
means of wagons, boxes and waste lumber, par- 
tially protected the volunteer soldiery operating 
now under a chosen leader. 

On Saturday, the 22d, the commandant sent 
aci'oss the river seventy-five of his men to dislodge 
some Indians intent on burning buildings and 
grain and hay stacks. First Lieutenant William 
Huey, of Traverse des Sioux, commanded this 
force. This- officer, on reaching the opposite 
shore, discovered a large body of Indians in ad- 
vance of him; and in attempting to return was 
completely intercepted by large bodies of Indians 
on each side of the river. There was Ijiit one way 
of escape, and that was to retreat to the company 
of E. St. Julien Cox, known to be approaching 
from the direction of St. Peter. This force, thus 
cut off, returned with the command of Captain E. 
St. Julien Cox; and with this increased force of 
one hiuidred and seventy-five. Captain Cox soon 
after entered the town to the relief of both citizens 
and soldiers. 

The Imlians at the siege of New Ulm, at t' p 
time <). the princija) attack before the arrival (.: Cox, weie estimated at about five i.un i. , 

coming from the direction of the Lower Agency. 
The movement is thus described by Judge Flan- 

"Their advance upon the sloping prairie in the 
bright sTinlight was a very fine spectacle, and to 
such inexperienced soldiers as we all were, intense- 
ly exciting. When within about one mile of us 
the mass began to expand like a fan, and increas- 
ing in the velocity of its approach, continued 
this movement until within about double rifle-shot, 
when it covered our entire front. Then the sav- 
ages uttered a terrific yell and came down upon 
us like the' wind. I had stationed myself at a 
point in the rear where communication could be 
had with me easily, and awaited the first discharge 
with great anxiety, as it seemed to me that to 
yield was certain destruction, as the enemies would 
rush into the town and drive all before them. The 
yell unsettled the men a little, and just before the 
rifles began to crack they fell back along the whole 
line, and committed the error of passing the outer 
houses without taking possession of them, a mis- 
take which the Indians immediately took advan- 
tage of by themselves occupying them in squads 
of two, three and up to ten. They poured into 
us a sharp and rapid fire as we fell back, and 
opened from the houses in every direction. Sev- 
eral of us rode up to the hill, endeavoring to rally 
the men, and with good effect, as they gave three 
cheers and sallied out of the various houses they' 
had retreated to, and checked the advance effect- 
ually. The firing from both sides then became 
general, sharp and rapid, and it got to be a regu- 
lar Indian .skirmish, in which every man did his 
own work after his own fashion. The Indians had 
now got into the rear of our men, and nearly on 
all sides of them, and the fire of the enemy was 
becoming very galling, as they had possession of 
a large number of buildings." 

Fight at the Wind-Mill. — Rev. B. G. Coffin, 
of Mankato, George B. Stewart, of Le Sueur, and 
J. B. Trogdon, of Nicollet, and thirteen others, 
fought their way to the wind-mill. This they 
held during the battle, their unerring shots tel 
ing fearfully upon the savages, and finally forcing 
them to retire. At night these brave men set fire 
to the buildiDg, and then retreated within the bar- 
ricades, in the vicinity of the Dakota House. 
During the firing from this mill a most determined 
and • btin.ite figlit was kept up from the brick 
Hi f. where Governor Swift was stationed, 
.■ d most fatally upon the foe, and from 



this point many an Indian fell before the deadly 
aim of the true men stationed there. 

Captain William B. Dodd. — When the attack 
was made upon the place the Indians had suc- 
ceeded in reaching the Lower Town. The wind 
was favoring them, as tlie smoke of burning build- 
ings was carried into the main portion of the town, 
behind which they were advancing. "Captain 
William B. Dodd, of St. Peter, seeing the move- 
ment from that quarter, supposed the expected re- 
inforcements were in from that direction. He 
made at once a superhuman elTort, almost, to en- 
courage the coming troops to force the Indian 
line and gain admittance into the town. He had 
gone about seventy-five yards outside the lines, 
when the Indians from buildings on either side of 
the street poured a full volley into the horse and 
rider. The Captain received three balls near his 
heart, wheeled his horse, and riding within twenty- 
five yards of our lines fell from his horse, and was, 
assisted to walk into a house, where in a few mo- 
ments he died, 'the noblest Roman of them all.' 
He dictated a short message to his wife, and re- 
marked that he liad discharged his duty and was 
ready to die. No man fought more courageously, 
or died more nobly. Let his virtues be forever re- 
membered. He was a hero of the truest type!" 
— St. Peter Statesman. 

At the stage of the battle in which Captain 
Dodd was killed, several others also were either 
killed or wounded. Captain Saunders, a Baptist 
minister of Le Svieur, was wounded, with miiny 
others. Howell Houghton, an old settler, was 
killed. The contest was continued until dark, 
when the enemy began to carry off their dead and 
wounded. In the morning of the next day (Sun- 
day) a feeble firing was kept up for several hours 
by the sullen and retiring foe. The battle of New 
Ulm had been fought, and the whites were masters 
of the field; but at what a fearful price! The 
dead and dying and wounded filled the buildings 
left standing, and this l^eautiful and entoiprising 
German town, which on Monday morning con- 
tained over two hundred buildings, had been laid 
in ashes, only some twenty-five houses remaining 
to mark the spot where New Ulm once stood. 

On Sunday afternoon, Captain Cox's command, 
one hundred and fifty volunteers from Nicollet, 
Sibley and Le Sueur, armed with Austrian rifles, 
shot-guns and hunting rifles arrived. The Indians 
retreated, and returned no more to make battle 
with the forces at New Ulm. 

But strange battle field. The Indians deserted 
it on Sunday, and on Monday the successful de- 
fenders also retire from a place they dare uot at- 
tempt to hold! The town was evacuated. All 
the women and children, and wounded men, 
making one hundred and fifty-three wagon loads, 
while a considerable number composed the com- 
pany on /oot. AH these moved with the command 
of Judge riandrau towards Mankato. 

The loss to our forces in this engagement was 
ten killed, and about fifty wounded. The lots of the 
enemy is unknown, but must have been heavy, as 
ten of their dead were found on the field of battle, 
which they bad been unable to remove. 

We might fill volumes with incidents, and mi- 
raculous escapes from death, but our limits abso- 
lutely forbid their introduction in this abridge- 
ment. The reader must consult the larger work 
for these details. The escape of Governor Swift, 
riandrau and Bird, and J. B. Trogdon and D. G. 
Shellaek and others from perilous positions, are 
among the many exciting incidents of the siege of 
New Ulm. 

Omitting the story of John W. Young, of won- 
derful interest, we refer briefly to the weightier 
matters of this sad chapter, and conclude the same 
by the relation of one short chapter. 


During the siege of New Ulm, two expeditions 
were sent out from that place toward the settle- 
ments on the Big Cottonwood, and although not 
really forming a part of the operations of a de- 
fensive character at that place, are yet so connect- 
ed with them that we give them here. 

On Thursday morning, the 21st of August, a 
party went out on the road to Leavenworth for the 
purpose of burying the dead, aiding the wounded 
and bringing them in, should they find any, and 
to act as a scouting party. They went out some 
eight miles, found and buried several bodies, and 
returned to New Ulm, at night, without seeing 
c'.ny Indians. 

On Friday, the 22d, another party of one hun- 
dred and forty men, under command of Captain 
George M. Tousley, started for the purpose of res- 
cuing a party of eleven persons, women and child- 
ren, who, a refugee informed the commandant, 
were hiding in a ravine out toward Leavenwortli. 
Accompanying this party were Drs. A. W. Daniels, 
of St. Peter, and Ayer, of Le Sueur. 

On the way out, the cannonading at Fort 
Ridgely was distinctly beard by them, and then 



Dr. Daniels, who had resided among the Sioux 
several years as a physician to the lower bands, 
had, for the first time, some conception of the ex- 
tent and magnitude of the outbreak. 

As the main object of the expedition had alrea- 
dy been accomplished — i. e., the rescue of the wo- 
men and children — Dr. Daniels urged a return to 
New Ulm. The question was submitted to the 
company, and they decided to go on, and proceed- 
ed to within four miles of Leavenworth, the de- 
sign being to go to that place, remain there all 
night, bury the dead next day, and return. 

It was now nearly night; the cannonading at 
the fort could still be heard; Indian spies were, 
undoubtedly, watching them; only about one 
hundred armed men were left in the town, and 
from his intimate knowledge of the Indian char- 
acter. Dr. Daniels was convinced that the safety of 
their force, as well as New "Dim itself, required 
their immediate return. 

A halt was called, and this view of the case was 
presented to the men by Drs. Daniels, Ayer, and 
Mayo. A vote was again taken, and it was deci- 
ded to return. The return march commenced at 
about sundown, and at one o'clock a. m. they re- 
entered the village. 

Ealph Thomas, who resided on the Big Cotton- 
wood, in the county of Brown, had gone with 
many of his neighbors, on Monday, the 18th of 
August, into New Ulm tor safety, while William 
Carroll and some others residing further iip the 
river, in Leavenworth, had gone to the same place 
to ascertain whether the rumors they had heard 
of an uprising among the Sioux were trae. Mr. 
Thomas makes the following statement of the do- 
ings of this little party, and its subsequent fate: 

" There were eight of us on horseback, and the 
balance of the party were in three wagons. We 
had gone about a mile when we met a German 
going into New Ubn, who said he saw Indians at 
my place skinning a heifer, and that they drove 
him off, chasing him with spears. He had come 
from near Leavenworth. We kept on to my place, 
near which we met John Thomas and Almon Par- 
ker, who had remained the night before in a grove 
of timber, one and a half miles from my place. 
About eight o'clock the evening before, they had 
seen a party of ten or twelve Indians, mounted on 
ponies, coming toward them, who chased them into 
the grove, the savages passing on to the right, 
leaving them alone. They stated to us that they 
had seen Indians that morning traveling over the 

prairie southward. We stopped at my place and 
fed our horses. While the horses were eating, I 
called for three or four men to go with me to the 
nearest houses, to see what had become of the peo- 
ple. We went first to the house of Mr. Mey, where 
we found him and his family lying around the 
house, to all appearance dead. We also found 
here Joseph Emery and a Mr. Heuyer, also appa- 
rently dead. We had been here some five minutes 
viewing the scene, when one of the children, a girl 
of seven years, rose up from the ground and com- 
menced crying piteously. I took her in my arms, 
and told the other men to examine the other bodies 
and see if there were not more of them alive. 
They found two others, a twin boy and girl about 
two years old; all the rest were dead. 

" We next proceeded to the house of Mr. George 
Eaeser, and found the bodies of himself and wife 
lying near the house by a stack of grain. We 
went into the house and found their child, eighteen 
months old, ahve, trying to get water out of the 
pail. We then went back to my place, and sent 
John Thomas and Mr. Parker with an ox-team to 
New Ulm with these chOdren. Mr. Mey's three 
children were wounded with blows of a tomahawk 
on the head; the other child was uninjured. We 
then went on toward Leavenworth, seeing neither 
Indians nor whites, until we arrived at the house 
of Mr. Seaman, near which we found an old gen- 
tleman named Riant concealed in a slough among 
the tall grass. He stated to us that a party of 
whites with him had been chased and fired upon 
by a party of Indians. It consisted of himself, 
Luther Whiton, George W. Covill and wife, Mrs. 
Covin's son, Mrs. Hough and child, Mr. Van Guil- 
der and wife and two children, and Mr. Van Guil- 
der's mother. AH these Mr. Eiant said had scat- 
tered over the prairie. We remained about two 
hours, hunting for the party, and not finding 
them, turned back toward New Ulm, taking Mr. 
Riant with us. We proceeded down opposite my 
place, where we separated, eleven going down on 
one side of the Big Cottonwood, to Mr. Tuttle's 
place, and seven of us proceeded down on the 
other, or north side of the stream. The design 
was to meet again at Mr. Tiitjle's house, and all 
go back to New Ulm together; but when we ar- 
rived at Tuttle's, they had gone on to town with- 
out waiting for us, and we followed. When near 
Mr. Hibbard's place we met Mr. .Takes going west. 
He said that he had been within a mile of New 
Ulm, and saw the other men of our jiarty. He 



ftiitUpr in'oi-med us that he saw grjiin-staeks and 
sh. ds on lire at that distance from the place. 

" When -we came to the burning stacks we halted 
to look for Indians. Our comrades were half an 
Jiour ahead of us. When they got in sight of the 
town, one of them, Mr. Hinton, rode up on an ele- 
vation, where he could overlook the place, and saw 
Indians, and the town on fire in several places. He 
went back and told tliem that the Indians had at- 
tacked the town, and that he did not consider it 
safe for them to try to get in, and proposed cross- 
ing the Cottonwood, and going toward the Man- 
kato road, and entering town on that side. His 
proposition was opposed by several of the party, 
who thought him frightened at the sight of half a 
dozen Indians. They asked him how many he had 
seen. He said some forty. They came up and 
looked, but could see but three or four Indians. 
Mr. Carroll told them they had better go on, and, 
if opposed, out their way through. He told Hin- 
ton t« lead, and they would follow. They passed 
down the hill, and met with no opposition until 
they came to a slough, half a mile from the town. 
Here two Indians, standing on a large stone by the 
side of the road, leveled their double-barreled 
guns at Mr. Hinton. He drew his revolver, placed 
it between his horse's ears, and made for them. 
The balance of the company followed. The Indi- 
ans retired to cover without firing a shot, and the 
company kept on iintil they had crossed the slough, 
when the savages, who were lying in ambush, 
arose from the grass, and firing upon them, killed 
five of their number, viz. : William Carroll, Almond 
Loomis, Mr. Lamb, Mr. Riant, and a Norwegian, 
and chased the balance into the town. 

"We came on about half an hour afterward, and 
passing down the hill, crossed the same slough, 
and unconsciims of danger, approached the fatal 
spot, when about one hundred and fifty savr.ges 
sprang up out of the grass and fired upon us, 
killing five horses and six men. My own horse 
was shot through the body, close to my leg, killing 
him instantly. My feet were out of the stirrups in 
a moment, and I sprang to the ground, striking 
on my hands and feet. I dropped my gun, jump- 
ed up, and ran. An Indian, close behind, dis- 
charged the contents of both barrels of a shot-gun 
at me. The charge tore up the ground at my feet, 
throwing dirt all around me as I ran. I made my 
way into town on foot as fast as I could go. No 
other of our party cscajjcd; all the rest were 
killed. Beinforcements fiom St. Peter came to 

the relitf of the place in about half an hour after 
I got in, and the Indians soon after retired." 





On Monday morning, the 18th of August, 1862, 
at about 9 o'clock, a messenger arrived at Fort 
Kidgely, from the Lower Sioux Agency, bringing 
the startling news that the Indians were massacre- 
ing the whites at that place. Captain John S. 
Marsh, of Company B, Fifth Eegiment Minnesota 
Volunteer Infantry, then in command, immediately 
dispatched mefscngers after Lieutenant Shcehan, 
of Company C, of the same regiment, wl.o had left 
that post on the morning before, with a detach- 
ment of his company, for Fort Eipley, on the 
Upper Mississipi, and Major T. J. Galbraith, Sioux 
Agent, who had akso left tl.e fort at the same time 
with fifty men, afterwards known as the Een- 
vUle Rangers, for Fort Snelling, urging them to 
return to Fort Eiilgely with all possible dispatch, 
as there were then in the fort only Company B, 
numbering about seventy-five or eighty men. Tl.e 
gallant captain then took a detachment of forty- 
six men, and accompanied by Interpreter Quinn, 
immediately started for the scone of blood, distant 
twelve mOes. Thoy made a very rapid march. 
When within about four miles of the ferry, op- 
posite the Agency, they met the ferryman, Mr. 
Martelle, who informed Captain Marsh that the In- 
dians were in considerable force, and wore mur- 
dering all the people, and advised hira to return. 
He replied that he was there to protect and defend 
the frontier, and he should do so if it was in his 
power, and gave the order "Forward !" Between 
this point and the river they passed nine dead 
bodies on or near the road. Arriving near the 
ferry the company was halted, and Corporal 
Ezekiel Rose was sent forward to examine the ferry, 
and see if all was right. The captain and inter- 
preter were mounted on mules, the men were on 
foot, and formed in two ranks in the road, near 
the ferry-house, a few rods from the banks of the 
river. The corporal had taken a pail with him to 
the river, and returned, reporting the ferry all 
right, bringing with him water for the exhausted 
and thirsty men. 



lu the meantime an Indian bad made liis ap- 
pearance on the opposite bank, and calling to 
Quiun, urged them to come across, telling him all 
was right on that side. The suspicions of the cap- 
tain were at once aroused, and he ordered the men 
to remain in their places, and not to move on to 
the boat until he could ascertain whether the In- 
dians were in ajubush in the ravines on the ojipo- 
site shore. The men were in the act of drinking, 
when the savage on the opposite side, seeing they 
were not going to cross at once, fired his gun, as a 
signal, when instantly there arose out of the grass 
and brush, all around them, some four or five hun- 
dred warriors, who i3oured a terrifio volley upon 
the devoted band. The aged interpreter fell from 
his mule, pierced by over twenty balls. The cap- 
tain's mule fell dead, but he himself sprang to the 
ground unhai med. Several of the men fell at this 
first fire. The testimony of the survivors of this 
sanguinary engagement is, that "their brave com- 
mander was as cool and collected as if on dress pa- 
rade. They retreated down the stream about a 
mile and a half, fighting their way inch by inch, 
when it was discovered that a body of Indians, 
taking advantage of the fact that there was a bend 
in the river, had gone across and gained the bank 
below them. 

The heroic little band was already reduced to 
about one-half its original number. To cut their 
way through this large number of Indians was 
impossible. Their only hope now was to cross the 
river to the reservation, as there app)eared to be no 
Indians on that shore, retreat do^vn that side and 
recross at the fort. The river was supposed to be 
fordable where they were, and, accordingly, Capt. 
Marsh gave the order to cross. Taking his sword 
in one hand and his revolver in the other, accom- 
panied by his men, he waded out into the stream. 
It was very soon ascertained that they must swim, 
when these who could not do so returned to the 
shore and hid in the grass as best they could, 
while those who could, dropped their arms and 
struck out for the opposite side. Among these 
latter was Capt. Marsh. When near the opposite 
shore he was struck by a ball, and immediately 
sank, but arose again to the surface, and grasped 
the shoulder of a man at his side, but the garment 
gave way in his grasp, and he again sank, this 
time to i-lse no more. 

Thirteen of the men reached the bank in safety, 
a ;d returned to the fort that night. Those of 

them who were unable to cross remained in the 
grass and bushes until night, when they made 
their way, also, to the fort or settlements. Some 
of them were badly wounded, and were out two or 
three days before they got in. Two weeks after 
ward, Josiah F-. Marsh, brother of the caj.- 
tain, with a mounted escort of thirty men — l.i.- 
old neighbors from Fillmore county — made search 
for his body, but without success. On the day 
before and the day after this search, as was sub- 
sequently ascertained, two hundred Indians were 
scouting along the river, upon the the very ground 
over which these thirty men passed, in their fruit- 
less search for the remains of theii- dead brother 
and friend. Two weeks later another search was 
made with boats along the river, and this time the 
search was successful. His body was discovered 
a mile and a half below where he was killed, under 
the roots of a tree standing at the water's edge. 
His remains were borne by his sorrowing com- 
panions to Fort Ridgely, and deposited in the 
military burial-ground at that place. 

This gallant uiBoer demands more than a pass- 
ing notice. When the Southern rebellion broke 
out, in 1861, John S. Marsh was residing in FUl- 
more county, Minnesota. A company was re- 
cruited in his neighborhood, designed for the gal- 
lant 1st Minnesota, of which he was made first 
lieutenant. Before, however, this company reach- 
ed Fort Snelling, the place of rendezvous, the reg- 
iment was lull, and it was disbanded. The patri- 
otic fire still burned in the soul of young Marsh. 
Going to La Crosse, he volimteered as a primte in 
the 2d Wisconsin regiment, and served some ten 
months in the ranks. In the following winter his 
brother, J. F. Marsh, assisted in raising a com- 
pany in Fillmore countj', of which John S. was 
elected first lieutenant, and he was therefore trans- 
ferred, by order of the Secretary of War, to his 
company, and arrived at St. Paul about the 12th 
of March, 1862. In the meantime. Captain Gere 
was promoted to major, and on the 2ith Lieuten- 
ant Marsh was promoted to the captaincy of his 
company, and ordered to report at Fort Ridgely 
and take command of that important frontier post. 
Captain Marsh at once repaired to his post of 
duty, where he remained in command imtil the 
fatal encounter of the 18th terminated both his 
usefulness and life. He was a brave and accom- 
plished soldier, and a noble man, 

'Niino knew him but to love him, 
None named him but to praise." 




Foiled in their attack on New Ulm by the 
timely arrival of reinforcements under Flandrau, 
the Indians turned their attention toward Fort 
Ridgely, eighteen miles north-west. On Wednes- 
day, at three o'clock P. M., the 20th of August, 
they suddenly appeared in great force at that 
post, and at once commenced a furious assault 
upon it. The fort is situated on the edge of the 
prairie, about half a mile from the Minnesota river, 
a timbered bottom intervening, and a wooded ra- 
vine running up out of the bottom around two 
sides of the fort, and within about twenty rods of 
the buildings, affording shelter for an enemy on 
three sides, within easy rifle or musket range. 

The first Icnowledge the garrison had of the 
presence of the foe was given by a volley from the 
rapine, which drove in the pickets. The men were 
instantly formed, by order of Lieutenant Sheehan, 
in line of battle, on the parade-ground inside the 
works. Two men, Mark M. Grear, of Company 
C, and William Goode, of Company B, fell at the 
first fire of the concealed foe, after the line was 
formed; the former was instantly killed, the latter 
badly ■wounded, both being shot in the head. 
Robert Baker, a citizen, who had escaped from the