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Full text of "History of Gallatin, Saline, Hamilton, Franklin and Williamson counties, Illinois, from the earliest time to the present : together with ... biographical sketches, notes, reminiscences, etc"

Gc 
977.3 

H622 
1356426 



GENEALOGY COLLECT ON 



ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC L|BRARY 



3 1833 00839 1895 



HISTOET 



Gallatlp/galln e, Hamlltofl, FranMln 
M Williamson Counties, 



ILLINOIS. 



From the Earliest Time to the Present; together with Suni^ry and 
Interesting Biographical Sketches, Notes, 

EE3IINISCENCES, EtC, EtC. 



ILLXJSTIE^J^TEID. 



Chicago : 
THE GOODSPEED PUBLISHING CO. 

1887. 



1356126 

PREFACE. 



OUE history of Gallatin, Saline, Hamilton, Franklin and Will- 
iamson Counties, after months of persistent, conscientious 
labor, is now completed. Every important field of research has 
been minutely scanned by those engaged in its preparation, and no 
subject of universal public value has been omitted save when pro- 
tracted effort failed to secure trustworthy results. The impossi- 
bility of ingrafting upon the pages of this volume the vast fund 
of the counties' historic information, and the proper omission of 
many valueless details have compelled the publishers to select 
such matter as are deemed of the greatest importance. Fully 
aware of our inability to furnish a perfect history from meagre 
public documents, inaccurate private correspondences, and num- 
berless conflicting traditions. We make no pretention of having 
prepared a work devoid of blemish. Through the courtesy and 
generous assistance met with everywhere, we have been 
enabled to rescue from oblivion the greater portion of important 
events that have transpired in past years. We feel assured that 
all thoughtful people in the counties, at present and in the future, 
will recognize and appreciate the importance of the undertaking 
and the great public benefit that has been accomplished. 

It will be observed that a dry statement of fact has been 
avoided, and that the rich romance of border incident has been 
woven with statistical details, thus forming an attractive and 
graphic narrative, and lending beauty to the mechanical execu- 
tion of the volume and additional value to it as a work for perusal. 
We claim superior excellence in the systematic manner of col- 
lecting material by workers in specialties, in the subdivision into 
topics, and in the ample and comprehensive index. We also, 
with pride, call the attention of the public to the superb mechani- 
cal execution of the volume. While we acknowledge the existence 
of unavoidable errors, we have prepared a work fully up to the 
standard of our promises, and as accurate and comprehensive as 
could be expected under the circumstances. 

THE PUBLISHEKS. 

July, 1887. 



CONTENTS. 



GALLATIN COUKTY. 

PAGE. 

Gallatin County 13 

Agricultural Association, The 51 

Ancient Salt Works 17 

Banks, Early and Other 98 

Bench and Bar 52 

Boundary Lines 42 

Bowlesville 124 

Business Men, The Present 110 

Circuit Court, The 67 

Church History 126 

Congressional r>istricts 44 

Constitutional Convention. Members of 46 

County yeat, Location of 63 

County Officers, IJst of 43 

Court, County Coiumissinners' 61 

"Egypt," Gen. Grant's Hui-se 91 

Eighteenth Regiment, Tlie 82 

Election Returns 48 

Equality 122 

Geology 14 

Incorporation of Shawneetown 106 

Indian Mounds 19 

Indian Troubles 2.3 

Jail, Building of the 55 

Land Office, The Ill 

Land Entries 25 

Leases of the Salt Works 20 

Levees, Construction of the 103 

Madison, Gallatin and Johnson 40 

Mayor and Other Officers 109 

Military History 78 

Michael Jones' Ride 47 

Murder Cases 36 

Murder Trials, The First 69 

Newspapers 113 

Omaha 119 

Railroad History 50 

Regulators and Vigilants 33 

Ridgway 117 

Roads and Ferries 57 

Salt Lands 21 

Saline Coal and Manufacturing Co 125 

School History 139 

Secret Societies 112 

Settlement, Early 22 

Shawneetown 92 

Shawneetown Schools 146 

Sixth Cavalry Regiment, The 87 

Slaves and Indentured Servants 31 

Soil and Natural Productions 16 

St. Clair and Randolph Counties 39 

Tavern Rates 55 

Topography 13 

Towns and Villages 114 

Twenty-ninth Infantry, The 84 

Wild Animals and Reptiles 38 

SALINE COUNTY. 

Saline County 149 

Agricultural B(jard 202 

Bolton 218 

Church History 224 

Circuit Court 188 



PAGE. 

Contraband Negroes no 

County Court, The 183 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church, The 230 

Davis, Cressa K 199 

Eldorado 

Election Returns I84 

F\arming, Primitive Methods of 157 

Galatia 2I6 

Geological Features 150 

Gregg, James M 199 

Hamburg 224 

Harrisburg 203 

Harrisburg, Incorporation of 213 

Harrisburg, Industries of 206 

Institute, Teachers 238 

Knights of the Golden Circle 173 

Laud Entries 152 

Lawyers, The Present 200 

Location and Boundary 149 

Logan, John A 167 

Methodist Churches, The 228 

Military History 181 

Morrillsville 223 

Necessities, Present 240 

Newspapers 208 

Officers, etc.. List of 160 

Organization of the County 158 

Presbyterian Church, The Hamburg 229 

Railroad History 200 

Raum, Green C 198 

Regiment, The Thirty-first 175 

Regiment, The Fifty-sixth 178 

Rileyville 223 

School History 233 

School Reports 235 

Secret Societies 208 

Social Brethren, The 231 

Soil and Natural Productions 151 

Sione Fort 217 

Texas Station 222 

Trials, Important 196 

West End 224 

HAMILTON COUNTY. 

Hamilton County 241 

Agricultural Board 311 

Banks 298 

Bar, The Present 288 

Belle City 311 

Black Hawk War 263 

Broughton 310 

Business, The Present 294 

Church History 322 

Circuit Court 283 

Company A, Fourteenth Regiment 268 

Company C, Fifty-sixth Regiment 269 

Company G, Fifty-sixth Regiment 269 

Company A, Eighty-seventh Regiment 270 
Company E, Eighty-seventh Regiment 271 
Company K, One Hundred and Tenth 

Regiment 272 

Company I, One Hundred and Thirty- 
first hegimeut 272 

Company I), Sixth Cavalry 272 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Company H, Sixth Cavalry 273 

Company K, Sixth Cavalry 274 

Constitutional Convention 260 

Crimes, Some Remarkable 289 

County Buildings, The First 277 

Countv Commissioners' Court 275 

County Officers 259 

Crops and Conditions, Early 256 

Crouch Township 249 

Dahlgren 3(i7 

Deeds, The First 255 

Early Settlers 244 

Election Returns 262 

Farmer's Mutual 312 

Geology 242 

Hamilton College 319 

Hotel Rates 278 

Hoodville 311 

Incorporation of McLeansboro 301 

Indian and Other Stories 250 

Institute Fund 321 

Land Entries, The First 252 

Legislature, Members of the 261 

Local Names 243 

Logansport 309 

Macedonia 310 

McLeansboro 292 

McElvain, John 287 

Mexican War 263 

Militarv History 262 

Mills..." 295 

Organization of the County 285 

Pioneer Times 251 

Piopolis 310 

Press, The 299 

Quota, War 264 

Raines, Henson G 274 

Regiment, Fortieth 264 

Schools 313 

Secret Societies 296 

Settlement 243 

Soil 212 

Teacher's Institute 320 

Thackeray 309 

Topography 241 

Townshend, James H 288 

Township Organization 282 

FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

Franklin County 335 

Agriculture, Commerce, etc 355 

Amusing Case, An 390 

"A Particular Spot" 363 

Assessment 1851 371 

Assessment 1886 372 

Bar, The Present 397 

Bench and Bar 390 

Benton 405 

Black Hawk War 394 

Board of Agriculture 356 

Business, The Present 410 

Cemetery, The Old 407 

Church History 422 

Circuit Court 383 

CircuifCourt Clerks 368 

Civil War, Records in 396 

Coroners, List of 370 

Commissioners Appointed 362 

County Commissioners' Court 374 

County Courts Established 377 

County, Division of the 359 

County Court Clerks 368 

Court House, The Present 367 

County Judges, List of 381 

Court, County Commissioners 361 

Crawford, JI. <' 393 

Customs, Early 343 

Decade of t!ie sixties 409 

Denning, William A 391 



PAGE. 

Duff, Andrew D 392 

Early Settlers 338 

Elders, List of Presiding 426 

Ewing 413 

Frankfort 412 

Geological Characteristics 336 

Important Trials 385 

Indian Tribes and Wild Animals 337 

Judges Circuit Court 369 

Land Entries 351 

Logan, John A 392 

MeCreary, Alexander 349 

Members of Commissioners' Court 375 

Mexican War 395 

Milling, Hunting, etc 344 

Nelson Richard 391 

New Mulkeytown 413 

Old Settlers' Reunion 349 

Organization of the County 358 

Parrish, William K 392 

Parrish, Town of 414 

"Poor Farm," The 367 

Population 374 

Productions 357 

Press, The 410 

Public Buildings 365 

Public School Funds 418 

Railroads, Land to 354 

Railroad Bonds 373 

Records, Destruction of Public 366 

Records of Circuit Court 384 

Remarkable Case 388 

Representatives 370 

Sale of Town Lots 364 

Scates, Walter B 390 

Schools 415 

Sheriffs 369 

Slavery 348 

Soil and Natural Products 336 

Societies, Secret 411 

State Attorneys 369 

Supervisors, Board of 382 

Surveyors 37u 

Taxation and Finance 370 

Thompsonville 414 

Township Organization 382 

Treasurers, List of. 369 

War Record, Summary 404 

Wolf Scalps— " Legal Tender" 371 

Williams, Judge 420 

WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

Williamson County 431 

Agriculture, Live Stock, etc 445 

Agricultural Society 448 

Allen, Willis 467 

Allen. V/. J 468 

"Articles of Faith" 516 

Assessment for 1880 400 

Attorneys, State 458 

Baiiibridge 509 

Bar, Present Members of the 470 

Bench. Bar and Noted Characters 467 

Black Hawk War 487 

Bonds, Railroads, etc 460 

Business Men, The Present 502 

Carlenville 507 

Christian Church, The 521 

Church History 515 

Circuit Court Clerks -158 

Civil War, Number of Men in nOO 

Company K, Eighteenth Inl't, I.'i'l-i )'J3 

Company E.Twenty-uiuth In!t l;.^t ... iii;; 

Company C, Thirty-fir^t Iiilt. lum ;',i::! 

Company E, Thirty-first Inlt. Rei,'t 41)4 

Company F, Thirtv-tirst Inft. Regt 494 

Company G, Thirty-tirst Inft. Regt 494 

Company H, Thirty-first Inft. Regt 494 

Company E, Fifty-sixth Inft. Regt 494 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Company I, Fifty-sixth Inft. Regt 494 

Company K, Sixtieth Inft. Regt 494 

Companv B, Eighty-tirsl Inft. Regt 494 

Company G, Eighty-first Inft. Regt 495 

Company H, Eighty-first Inft. Regt 495 

County Commissioner's Court 466 

County Seat, The 453 

County Court 451 

County Court Clerks 457 

Corder, Anderson P 469 

Cunningham, John M 470 

Early Settlers 436 

Equipping Soldiers for the South 490 

CTeologicaT Formations 432 

Guards, The Marion 499 

Incorporation of Marion 507 

Indebtedness of County 464 

Indian Occupants 434 

Ingersoll, Robt. G 470 

Judges, Circuit Court 458 

Land Entries -WO 

Location, Boundary and Topography.... 431 

Logan, John A 491 

Lots, Who Purchased 454 

Lowden, John T 470 

Marion •• 501 

Methodist Episcopal Church 519 

Mexican War 487 

Mining Operations 449 

Noted Crimes and Criminals 471 

Organization 450 

Pioneer Customs 443 

Pleading Guilty 485 

Population by Decades 465 

Press, The 506 

Presbvterian Church, The .- 522 

Products of the Farm 447 

Public Buildings 455 

Public Lands 444 

Railroad Lands 445 

Rebels, Two Illinois 493 

Reward, Offered 480 



PAGE. 

Record, Eighty-first Inft. Kegt 495 

Record, One Hundred and Ninth Inft. 

Regt 497 

Record, One Hundred and Twenty- 
Eighth Inft. Regt 498 

Schools 510 

Secession, Resolution Favoring 489 

Sherifis 458 

Societies, Secret 603 

Soil and Productions 433 

Taxation and Finance 459 

Vendetta, The Bloody 478 

Vendetta, First Murder in the 480 

HISTORICAL INDEX. 

Fran'Klin County 335 

Gallatin County 13 

Hamilton County 241 

Saline County 149 

Williamson County 431 

BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 

Franklin County 757 

Gallatin 525 

Hamilton 671 

Saline 591 

Williamson 845 

MAPS, PORTRAITS, ETC. 

Campbell, J. R 681-682 

Carter, Laban 865-866 

Chickamauga, Battle of 511-512 

Franklin, Battle of 461-462 

Fort Donelson, Battle of 29- 30 

Murfreesboro, Battle of 379-380 

Nashville, Battle of 211-212 

Ridgway, Thos. S 572-573 

Shiloh, Battle of 79- 80 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



GALLATIN COUNTY. 

PAGE. 

Barger, George D 525 

Barger, J. B 525 

Barnett, Joseph 52G 

Bishop, James M 527 

Boyd.W. J 527 

Boyd, John R ?28 

Burroughs, T. W. M 529 

Caldwell, A. G 530 

Combs, G. W 531 

Colvard, E. C 531 

Cook, Silas 532 

Crawford, John A 533 

Davenport, A. F 534 

Davis, Rev. R. M 534 

Drone, Joseph 536 

Dupler, Chas. E 537 

Duval, Notley 5,37 

Earnshaw, Henry 538 

Eddy, Lieut. J. M 538 

Edwards, Conrad 539 

Fillingin, Judge Ajax ')40 

Gates, J. B 541 

Gatewood, W. J 541 

Gill, Richard ,542 

Gross, Anthony 542 

Harrington, H 543 

Hargrave, Willis B 544 

Harsha, W. C. and B. R .544 

Hemphill, James H 545 

Hill, Henry 5^6 

Jones, Dr. M. S 516 

Kanady, Moses 547 

Kanady, Lieut. Wash 548 

Karcher, Victor 549 

Kinsall, D. M 55O 

Kinsall, Benjamin 551 

Kinsall, William M 552 

Lamb, R. A 532 

Lemen, Prof. C. J 55,3 

Logsdon, J. J 554 

Logsdon, J. E 555 

Loomis, William H 555 

McBane, Judge Angus M. L 556 

Mills, Edgar 557 

Millspaugh, R. L 558 



PAGE. 

Millspaugh, James W 559 

McGehee, F. M 560 

McGehee, W. S; 560 

McGehee, C. W .561. 

Jlcllrath, Dr. ,L T 562 

McLain, Franklin 562 

Mossman, F 563 

Moore, John S 564 

Moxley, Wm. T 565 

McMurchy, Peter 565 

Nolen, J. F 566 

Peeples, I. McKee 567 

Peeples, W. A 567 

Phillips, W. S 568 

Pool, M. M 568 

Potter, Geo. H 56» 

Rensmann, J. A 570 

Rich, Geo. W 571 

Richeson, John D 571 

RiJgway, Hon. Thos. S 572 

Roedell, Hon. Carl 574 

Sellers, F. H 575 

Speer, J. E 576 

Stiles, Capt. W. H 577 

Strickland, H. C 578 

Townshend, R. W 579 

Tromly, L. F 583 

Vineyard, Geo. J 584 

Wathen, John T 585 

Wilson, Aaron 586 

White, Ellen B 586 

Wiseheart, Samuel 587 

Wiseheart, R. J 587 

Youngblood, Hon. E. D 588 

Zinn, Christian 589 

SALINE COUNTY. 

Abney, Jesse 691 

Baker, John M 691 

Baker, Louis 593 

Baker, John 693 

Baker, William C .594 

Baker, Dr. Joseph R 595 

Berry, John B 595 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Berry, John M 59(5 

Blackman, Rev. W. S 596 

Blackman, Bennett L 599 

Bourland, W. W 599 

Bramlett, Eeuben GOO 

Burnett, W. K 601 

Butler, Joseph M 602 

Butler, J. J ; g03 

Cain, Oapt. T. J 603 

Cheaney, Dr. S. L 604 

Chenault, J. P 605 

Clark, A. S 606 

Clary, William D 607 

Clayton, G. W 607 

Curtner, John 608 

Davi.s, Robert H 609 

Durham, B. A 610 

Purham, A. VV Oil 

Dwyer, E. F 612 

Empson, G. J 613 

Empson, M. D 614 

Evans, W. H 615 

Ezell, W. D .".' 616 

Fox, M. M 616 

Furlong, W.P 617 

Gasaway, F. F 618 

Gold, Josiah 619 

Grace, J. H 620 

Gregg, Wm.M 620 

Gore, James 621 

Hall, W. H 622 

Heinmann, Otto 623 

Hodsdon, Prof. N. B 623 

Hudson, D. N. S 624 

Jobe, Prof. James E 625 

Jones, John J 62G 

Jones, Thos. A 627 

Karnes, A 628 

Karnes, J. G 629 

Kelly, Rev. M. B 630 

Kittinger, William M 631 

Lewis, J. S 632 

Limerick, George 633 

Lockwood, John M 034 

Lusk.T. AV 634 

Mace, (;. R 635 

Macklin, James . 636 

Mcllrath, R.J 637 

Marsh, R S 637 

Matthews, J. C 638 

Mick, Robert 639 

Mitchell, Dr. J. W 640 

Koleu, L. D 642 

Otey, Col. Clinton 643 

Pankey, W. H 644 

Porter, J. G 645 

Phillips, Hon. Boen 646 

Pickett, Francis M 647 

Rawlings, Dr. (i. B 648 

Renfro, Dr. J. W 650 



PAGE. 

Reynolds, Thos. Y 651 

Rose, J. W 6.52 

Rose, Dr. J. H 653 

Russell, J. M 654 

Scott, w. F ;.;■;;;■;;;; G54 

Scott, J. H 655 

Shaw, R. L G56 

Shook, W. H 657 

Sisk, A. J 658 

Skaggs, Col. C. P LSZ~''''Z'. 658 

Slatten, James C 659 

Thornberry, W. H 660 

Towle, J. W 661 

Travelstead, W. C 662 

Von Lieven, H. L 663 

Warfield, R. N 664 

Westbrook, David 665 

Westbrook, Richard 666 

Williford, Hon. S. F 667 

Wills, E. T 668 

Wilson, John H 668 

HAMILTON COUNTY. 

Anderson, Maj. J. T 671 

Atchisson, Hierom 672 

Asher A Ledbetter 673 

Atkinson, R. C 673 

Benson, V. S 675 

Berridge, Isaac G 676 

Biggerstaff, Silas 677 

Brown, James H 678 

Buck, W. W 678 

Burton, James M 679 

Campbell, Hon. J. R 680 

Carey, Ira B 684 

Cloud, A. G 685 

Cloud, C. G 685 

Coker, Capt. Joseph 686 

Coker, W. A 687 

Corn, John H 688 

Crouch, W. D 689 

Dale, John H 690 

Dale, Marion C 690 

Darnall, W. J 691 

Davis, W. C 692 

Davis, R 693 

Douglass, B. F 694 

Eswine, Louis 695 

Flannigan, Wm. R. & Co ,. 696 

Garrison, T. J 697 

Gates, Samuel E 698 

Gowdy, R. M 700 

Hale, L. J 701 

Hall, W. F 701 

Hall, H. W 702 

Hall, C. M 703 

Hamill, David 704 

Hamill, William 705 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Hanagan, David 705 

Hassett, Prof. J, J 706 

Henderson, N. C 707 

Hinkle, Hiram 707 

Hunt, John T 708 

Irvin, John E 709 

Johnson, W. B 710 

Johnson, Capt. C. A 710 

Johnson, John W 712 

Judd, John 712 

Kipp, Lieut. H. A. W 713 

Lane, J. H 714 

Lane, James 715 

Lee, John R 716 

Lyon, Dr. C. M 718 

McConnell, Will 718 

Mangis, G. W 719 

Marshall, Hon. S. S. 719 

Marshall, John W 723 

Meador, K. L 724 

McKinzie, A. S 725 

McGehee, Wm 7^6 

Mercer, I. N 727 

Miller, E. N 728 

Moore, A. R 729 

Morgan, P. W 730 

Moorman, J. P 731 

Neel, Dr. E. G 732 

Organ, Dr. John S 733 

Pake, Samuel J 7.34 

Pope, C. W 735 

Proudfit, Robert ; 736 

Proudfit, David 737 

Pulliam, A. H 738 

Rickcords, Wm 739 

Robinson, James E 740 

Standerfer, J. B 741 

Stelle, T. B 741 

Sullenger, A. T 742 

Suttle, John M 743 

Todd, Charles S 744 

Twigg, Squire James 745 

Upchurch, J. H 747 

Upton, John H 748 

Vaughn, Thos. B 749 

Walker, Leonidas 749 

Walters, Albert 750 

Weaver, Dr. C. B 751 

White, J. K. P 752 

Wilson, John H 753 

Wood, John J 754 

Young, Alvin A 755 

FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

Akin, James M 757 

Auten, L. R 758 

Bain, Daniel 759 

Barr, James S 760 

Biggs, C. C 761 



PAGE. 

Boyer,Wm. H 752 

Brown, WilliamG 752 

Browning, Levi 753 

Browning. Daniel M 755 

Brownlee, A. M jqq 

Burkill, James iqq 

Cantrell, T. B 757 

Cantrell, William S 768 

Carter, Dr. L.C 769 

Casey, E. H 770 

Clark, A. C 770 

Clinton, F. E 77X 

Cook, Braxton 772 

Crim Elder W.L '...' 773 

Crisp, A. J 774 

Croslin, Thomas 775 

Davis, Nehemiah 775 

Dimmick, M. B 777 

Dorris, S. H 773 

Durham, Dr. James A 773 

Durham, N. A 779 

Eskew, W. L 739 

Flannigan, R. H 731 

Frailey, D. W 731 

Hamilton, Dr. S 732 

Harrison, F. 734 

Harrison, T. P 735 

Harris, Dr. James T 735 

Hickman, Zachariah 736 

Hill, JohnP 787 

Hill, James B 737 

Hill, John W 733 

Hill, W. H 789 

Hudson, J.J 790 

Hutson, Ulysses 790 

Hutson, Dr. E. G 791 

Jones, H. K... 790 

Jones, W. R 793 

Jones, Allen 793 

Kelley, C. 794 

King, W. A 795 

King, Willis B 797 

Layman, Thos. J 797 

Link, J. B 793 

Link, R. R 793 

Link, T. J 799 

Mclntyre, Dr. A. J SOO 

Maddox, Prof. J.W 801 

Mallory, Overton R 802 

Marvel, Col. G. R 803 

Mason, James F 304 

Mitchell, J. G 805 

Mooneyham, Hon. F. M 806 

Mooneyham, Daniel 807 

Moure, John B 808 

Moore, Capt. Carroll 809 

Moyers, W.J.N 809 

^Mulkey, W. H 810 

Neal, Thomas 811 

Odum, Addison 812 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Orr, A. G 813 

Pearce, W. C 813 

Phillips, Hon. Peter 814 

Poindexter, Dr. R 815 

Rea, C. D 816 

Roberson, S. M., M. D 817 

Ross, George C 819 

Rotramel, Dr. E. M 820 

Rotramel, Dr. K. H 821 

Royall, James W 821 

St. Clair, John J 822 

Sims, George W 823 

Spiller, W. F 824 

Sullivan, John 824 

Summers, Ambrose 826 

Swain, Prof. R. D 826 

Swisher, Z. M 827 

Taylor, R. J 828 

Thompson, R 829 

Thornton, Dr. C. M 8.30 

Threlkeld, C. D 831 

Thurmond, W. H 831 

Turner, James B 832 

Vise, Rev. Hosea 834 

Ward, W. R 835 

Washburn, John, D.D 836 

Webb, L. M 838 

Whiffen, A. U 8.39 

Williams, W. H 840 

Willis, John 841 

Youngblood, F. M 842 

WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

Allen, Hon. Willis 845 

Allen, J. E 846 

Bainbridge, J. B 847 

Earth, David 818 

Baker, Dr. A. P 848 

■Baker, Dr. M. D 849 

Baker, M. L 850 

Baker, Dr. (i. J 851 

Benson, A. J 852 

Boles, S. C 853 

Bones, Thos 853 

Borton, Reuben 854 

Brandon, J. M 855 

Brewer, M.J 856 

Brown, Frank 857 

Brown, Dr. Curtis 858 

Brown, Capt. John 859 

Bulliner, E. H 860 , 

Burkhart, J. M 861 

Burnett, J. H 862 

Campbell, M. C 862 

Carter, Laban 863 

Chamness, Geo B 867 

Cline, A. L 868 

Connell, J. F 868 



PAGE. 

Creal, E. G 869 

Cripps, T. N 870 

Darrow, E. L 871 

Davis, Josiah 872 

Davis, G.W 872 

Davis, H. M 873 

Davis, B. F 874 

Davis, A. J 875 

Denison, E. L 875 

Denison.C. H 876 

Dunaway, Thos 877 

Dunaway, Samuel 877 

Duncan, W. W 878 

Duncan, John H 879 

Duncan, A. J 8S0 

Erwiu, J. W 881 

Eubanks, W. H... 881 

Felts, B. R 882 

Ferrell, Leander 834 

Ferrell, Levi 884 

Fly, Dr. J. J 885 

Follis, E. Peter 886 

Fowler, J. M 887 

Cioddard, L. A 889 

Goodall& Tippy 890 

Goodall, F. M 890 

Goodall, John 891 

(iraham, J.J 891 

Hammer, Isaac 893 

Harrison, D. R 894 

Hayton, Dr. James 895 

Hendrickson, Jesse 896 

Hendriekson, H 897 

Henshaw, G. A 898 

Herrin, Ephraim 898 

Hinchclilf, W. H 899 

Holland, Brice 900 

Holland, R. D 901 

Huddeston, John 902 

Hudgens, Lieut. Z 902 

Hunter, Rev. A 904 

Ingram, G. W 905 

Jackson, J. C 905 

Keeler, Thomas H 906 

Kennedy, C 907 

Kern, C. M 908 

La Master, Rev. G. W 909 

Lee, John C 911 

Lupfer, R. M 911 

McCall, W. R 912 

McCormick, W. C 913 

McDonald, M. M 914 

McNiel.W. J 915 

Mann, W. H 915 

Martin, W. J 916 

Mitchell, O. 917 

Mitchell, E. E 918 

Mitchell, J. C 919 

Moren, W. H 919 

Murrah, H. C 920 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



PAUE. 

Nelson, Giles 921 

Newton, John G 922 

North, A. H 923 

Odum, Rev. Martin 924 

Ogden, Henry 925 

Owen, A.N 926 

Palmer, A. M 927 

Parks, Charles 928 

Perrine, W. A 928 

Perry, Dr. W. H 930 

Perry, J. II 930 

Phillips, Henry 931 

Prindle, Scott 932 

Ralls, A. Luke 933 

Reeves, A. P 934 

Richart, Hugh M 935 

Ridgway,W.J 936 

Roberts, P. L 937 

Roberts, J. W 937 

Roberts, J. L 938 

Robertson, M. W 940 

1, J. L 941 



PAGE. 

Sizemore, W. E 942 

Smith, James W 943 

Sprague, Mrs. E. N 944 

Stein, Jacob 945 

Stewart, J. H 94G 

Thomas, Dr. G. W 946 

Thompson, S. D 947 

Thompson, James 948 

Tidwell, J. F 948 

Tregoning, W 949 

Turner, Elijah 950 

Walker, Irvin M 951 

Washburn, W. S 952 

Watson, Dr. A. D 953 

White, C. A , 954 

White, Amzi F 954 

White, N. S 955 

Winning, R 956 

Wolfe, J. L.,M. D 957 

Young, Judge G. W 958 

Zimmerman, F. C. and W. H 960 



GALLATIN COUNTY. 

LOCATION AND BOUNDARIES. 

/~^ ALLATIN COUNTY is situated iu the southeastern part of 
^-^ Illinois. It is bounded on the north by White County, on 
the east by Indiana and Kentucky, on the south by Hardin Coun- 
ty and on the west by Saline County. It contains 313.44: square 
miles or 200,002.41 acres. The length of the county from north 
to south is twenty-one miles; its extreme width nineteen miles, 
and its shortest width twelve miles, just below Shawneetown. 
The county, like all of the State of Illinois, is sectionized and 
divided into townships, of which there are nine, only one of which, 
Eagle Creek Township, in the southwest corner, is a congressional 
township. The streams are Saline River, which enters the county 
nearly two miles south of the northwest corner, and flowing in a 
south-southeasterly direction, enters the Ohio on the line between 
Gallatin and Hardin Counties; and numerous small creeks which 
flow into the Saline River from either side. In the northeastern 
part of the county are several bodies of water, as Big Fish Lake, 
Little Fish Lake, Woods Pond, Round Pond, Honey Moore Pond, 
Yellow Bank Slough, Mill Slough and Beaver Pond, and in the 
southeastern portion Big Lake. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

Generally speaking, the surface of the county is gently un- 
dulating. Nowhere do the hills rise more than about 250 feet 
above the general level, and the elevations rising to this altitude 
are in Eagle Creek Township along Eagle Creek. The most 
marked feature, however, in the topography of this county is a 
ridge named Gold Hill Ridge,* extending in an east and west 

* Named after Calvin Gold, an old settler, but previously called Moreland Hill, after Hazel 
Moreland. 



14 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

direction in the southern tier of sections in Township 9. This 
ridge attains an elevation of 342 feet above high water in the Ohio 
River, and as it approaches tlie Ohio, gradually descends until it 
is lost in the alluvial bottom lands back of Shawneetown. There 
is a low depression in Gold Hill Eidge at Island Riffle, in Section 
36, Township 9, Range 8 east of the principal meridian, where it is 
crossed by the Saline River. Coal Hill is the name of a short range 
of hills commencing in Section 4, Township 10, Range 9, and 
terminating on Section 8, Township 10, Range 9. In the vicinity 
of Bowlesville is another short range of hills lying to the north of 
Gold Hill and terminating near Equality, on the west side of the 
North Fork of the Saline. With the exception of the elevated 
narrow ridge, running nearly north and south along the road from 
Shawneetown to New Haven, terminating within three miles of 
the former place, the country north of the Gold Hill axis is with- 
out prominent hills. 

GEOLOGY — COALS AND KOCK STEATA. 

The rocks of Gold Hill Ridge belong to what is known in the 
geology of Illinois as the Chester Group, this group constituting 
the upper portion of the Subcarboniferous Period, the maximum 
thickness of which (the Chester Group) in Illinois is 800 feet, 
according to the State geologist's report. The most easterly ex- 
posure in Gallatin County is a little more than three miles west 
of Shawneetown, on Section 33, Township 9, Range 9 east. The 
following section of the rock was obtained: 

Feet. 

Covered slope to top of ridge 50 

Conglomerate with pebbles 50 

Irregular bedded sandstone 20 

Covered sandstone and shale 90 

Limestone with Archimides 55 

Covered to high water of the Ohio 40 

305 

The Chester limestone exposure near the base is for the most 



HISTOBY OF ILLINOIS. 15 

part a coarse, crystalline, gray rock, filled with small entrochites 
(the petrified arms of star fishes), the organic structure of which 
is almost obliterated by crystallization. It is remarkably poor in 
other fossils, only some badly preserved specimens of archimedes, 
and a few fragments of a small spirifer being found besides. 
This same limestone crops out also up the Saline River on Section 
27, Township 9, Range 8 east. Near this locality were the old 
salt works known as the "Nigger Works." Besides these two lo- 
calities, the only other place in Gallatin County where the Chester 
limestone outcrops is in the southwestern corner, near the corner 
of Pope and Hardin Counties. 

Above the Chester Group lie the coal measures proper of vari- 
ous and varying thickness and value, interspersed with sandstone, 
limestone, shale, fire clay, etc. The seams or veins of coal that 
exist in the general section of Illinois geology, are numbered 
from 1 to 10 inclusive. No. 1 being the lowest down, nearest the 
Chester limestone. Those that are worked in Gallatin County are 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. No. 1, half a mile above Sellers' pa- 
per-mill is ninety -five feet above low water, and at T. Rees & 
Co.'s mines it is 122 feet above. No. 2, the " four foot seam," is 
reached by a shaft on the Saline River, at the Independent Coal 
Company's mines, where it is four feet thick and of excellent 
quality for steam and manufacturing purposes. The space be- 
tween Nos. 1 and 2 is about 140 feet. No. 3 is not so good as 
No. 2, because of the presence of sulphur. No. 5 lies eighty 
to 100 feet above No. 4, and has been reached by boring on Ea- 
gle Creek in Section 13, Township 10, Range 8. It has furnished 
fuel for Ross' mill at Equality, about two miles southwest of 
which place it has been worked by drifting into the hill, and 
where it furnished fuel to evaporate the brine of the salt works 
under Castle & Temple. No. 5 is five feet thick. No. 6 two feet 
six inches, No. 7 four to seven feet, No. 8 two feet, and No. 9, 
consisting of shale and thin coal, three feet. No. 6 has not been 



16 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

worked of receut years. No. 7 outcrop on both sides of Coal Hill 
and lias been opened in various places. Coal was first mined in 
Gallatin County, about two miles from Equality, a little to the 
west of north, and hauled to that place over bad roads, it not 
being then known that every one could have a coal mine in his 
own door yard, if he so chose. 

Above the coal measures in the upper carboniferous is the 
quaternary formation, represented by the drift and loess deposits. 
The drift occupies the hills and ridges all over the county and is 
from ten to twenty feet thick. It is composed chiefly of yellow 
clay, and contains occasionally a granite or trappean boulder. 
The largest stranger of this kind in the county is about one and 
one-half feet long and one foot broad. The loess is from ten to 
forty feet thick and occupies the tops of the ridges from Shawnee- 
town to New Haven. This deposit contains an abundance of land 
and fresh water shells, belonging mostly to species now living in 
this State. 

There is an abundance of building stone all along the Gold 
Hill Bidge, along Eagle Creek and its tributaries, at Equality 
and at New Haven. A black septaria limestone is also found at 
Shawneetown, when the water in the Ohio River is low ; but it is 
obtainable in such limited quantities as to be of but little value 
in building. Quick-lime is derived from the Chester limestone in 
Gold Hill Ridge. Good brick clay is found in most parts of the 
county, and potters' clay, it is believed, may also be found. 

SOIL AND NATURAL PRODUCTIONS. 

The soil in the eastern part of the county is derived from the 
washing of the quaternary and carboniferous strata, and by in- 
undations of the Ohio. It is a sandy loam and is especially 
adapted to the raising of Indian corn. The other varieties of soil 
are the calcareous clay soil derived from the loess along the ridges 
between Shawneetown and the Little Wabash, which ranks next in 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 17 

fertility to the sandy loam of the river bottoms. The sedimentary 
clay loam along the main Saline and its principal tributary, the 
North Fork, which is compact and tenacious, and which in its na- 
tive state is not adapted to either extremely wet or extremely dry 
seasons, could be brought by a thorough system of under-drain- 
ing into a high state of cultivation; and the yellowish, grav- 
elly clay land in the northwestern part of the county is derived 
from the drift, as the former is derived mainly from the argil- 
laceous shales of the coal measures. This is particularly well 
adapted to the growth of all the cereals, grasses and clover. 

There is an abundance of timber in this county. In the river 
bottoms large black walnut, oak and hickory are its principal 
trees. By some of the ponds and sloughs and in the low wet 
lands post oak prevails. 

THE ANCIENT SALT WORKS. 

Besides the above mentioned valuable beds of mineral wealth 
and other natural resources with which the county is supplied, the 
salt springs have in the past been sources of great wealth, and 
have had much to do with shaping the character of the popula- 
tion, not only in Gallatin County, but also to a limited extent 
that of the southern part of Illinois. The streams are fed by 
numerous saline springs, and Saline River was named from the 
fact that its tributaries are thus fed. The only place, however, 
where profitable brine has been found in the county is on Sec- 
tion 19, Township 9, Range 8 east of the principal meridian, 
about a mile north of Equality and near the Half-moon Lick, a 
semi-circular excavation made long before the settlement of the 
country by white people, by buffaloes and other wild animals, 
which assembled here in vast herds to lick the salty earth. This 
remarkable excavation is in the shape of a horse shoe, and is fi'om 
twelve to sixteen feet deep. From point to point it is about 200 
yards, and from a line connecting the points to the toe, or back 



18 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

of the curve, 250 yards. Descending into this lick are still to be 
seen deeply trodden buffalo roads. The measurements here given 
were made by B. Temple. In the long ago when the present site 
of the salt works was an alluvial swamp, this locality was the 
favorite resort of the mammoth and the mastodon, for from time 
to time numerous bones of these extinct animals have here been 
found. After the retirement of the mammoth and the mastodon 
from this region, or after their extinction, these salt springs, 
according to tradition sustained by abundant evidence as to its 
truth, were extensively worked by the native Indians. The 
evaporating kettles used by them, a few entire, and innumerable 
fragments of broken ones, were found near the Negro Salt Well 
and the Half-moon Lick, when the brine first commenced to be 
evaporated in territorial times. These kettles were from three 
to four feet in diameter and were made of siliceous clay and 
pounded shells, and the innumerable fragments found over a 
large extent of territory and to considerable depths in the soil, 
suggest, if they do not prove, the prehistoric existence of an In- 
dian pottery manufactory at this locality, to which, in the light 
of recent investigations by George E. Sellers, who now is living 
at Bowlesville, extraordinary interest attaches as being the place 
where, through his investigations, the problem of the method of 
making this pottery has been solved, and the solution, though 
rather tardily, accepted by all the eminent archaeologists of the pre- 
sent day. They were made upon a mold of stones and clay in an 
inverted position, and polished smooth. From the laminated 
structure of the fragments, the clay and broken shell cement 
appear to have been put on this mold in layers, and every fresh 
layer firmly compressed upon the previous one until the desired 
thickness was obtained, when a thin layer or even a wash of river- 
silt or mud was applied, and lastly a cloth was wrapped around 
the whole. When it became necessary to remove the cloth a 
slight surface moistening would accomplish the object without 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 19 

injui'y, and the river-silt was sufficiently siliceous to become in 
process of time, when in contact with a body ot* lime cement, al- 
most as hard as the cement itself. That this river-silt was ap- 
plied for this purpose seems to be fully established by the fact 
that in no instance was there found this coating or any impression 
of the cloth on the bottoms of the kettles. The materials used 
in weaving this cloth were generally the fiber of bark, of flax, of 
hemp, of grass, etc., spun into thread of various sizes, or splin- 
ters of wood, twigs, roots, vines, porcupine quills, feathers and a 
variety of animal tissues, either plaited or in an untwisted state, 
the articles woven consisting of mats, nets, bags, plain cloths and 
entire garments, such as capes, belts and sandals. The kettles 
or vessels, when sufficiently dry to be lifted from the mold, were 
so lifted by means of wedges driven under the edges, thus per- 
mitting the drying process to proceed without cracking the ket- 
tles, which were then thoroughly sun-dried before being used. 
That they were not baked in the fire is clear from the fact that it 
would thus be impossible to bake them evenly, and that when so 
heated and moisture afterward applied to them, they crumble 
into dust by the slacking of the lime in the broken shells of 
which they are in part composed. 

INDIAN MOUNDS. 

Numerous mounds still exist along the ancient trail from 
near New Haven to the Negro Salt Well, and up and down the 
Saline Kiver on either side extending down into Hardin County. 
One mound in this latter series named Button's Mound, just below 
the line of Gallatin, is one of the most interesting in the State. 
It is oval in form, and has a flat top about 80 feet long by 35 
feet in width. The interesting feature of Button's Mound is 
this, that it was, when discovered, paved or covered with layers 
of stones all around its sides up to the truncated top, the layers 
forming terraces or steps, and the steps covered in such manner 



20 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

with smaller stones as to fill up the angles, and render the sloping 
sides of the mound smooth. Mounds are found built in the same 
manner in Mexico and Central America, which seems to indicate 
that this southern Illinois mound was erected by the same tribe 
or nation as were those in the countries farther south. The largest 
mound, however, in southern Illinois, is known as Boyd's Mound, 
situated nearly five miles north of Shawn eetown. This mound, 
otherwise known as Sugar Loaf mound, was visited at least as 
early as 1809 by Stephen Fields and James Fields. In 1855 its 
dimensions were taken and found to be: area of base four acres, 
and perpendicular height fifty-five feet. It is apparently filled 
with human skeletons, as pieces are constantly being taken out on 
the top and on the sides, suggesting the possibility of its having 
been built as an elevated sepulcher, increasing in height as the 
bodies of the dead were deposited upon it and covered up with 
earth, which appears to have been brought from a pond, now filling 
up, about three-fourths of a mile to the northward. The mound 
could not have been erected for an observatory, as there are hills 
to the south and southwest higher than the mound, and at no 
great distance; neither could it have been necessary to enable 
its builders to escape the overflow of the Ohio Eiver, for the same 
reason ; and there have been as yet no evidences found of its hav- 
ing been designed as a religious temple ; though when opened, as 
is now the intention of Squire William J. Boyd, what discoveries 
may be made within it is impossible to conjecture. 

GOVERNMENT LEASES OF THE SALT WORKS. 

How long the Indians worked the salt springs mentioned 
above is not known; but on the 12th of February, 1812, Congress 
set apart a tract of land six miles square to support the works, 
and leased the springs to Phillip Trammel, mentioned elsewhere as 
one of the first legislators from Gallatin County. The work was 
performed mostly by negroes from Kentucky and Tennessee, to 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 21 

which reference is made in the constitution of 1818, Article YI, 
Section 2, as follows: "No person bound to labor in any other 
State shall be hired to labor in this State, except within the tract 
reserved for the salt works near Shawneetown; nor even at that 
place for a longer period than one year at one time; nor shall it 
be allowed there after the year 1825, Any violation of this ar- 
ticle shall effect the emancipation of such person from liis obli- 
gation to service." Many of the negroes engaged at these salt 
works, by extra labor, saved money enough to buy their freedom, 
and were the progenitors of the large number that lived in Gal- 
latin and Saline Counties before the war. The salt manufac- 
tured here under the Government leases was sold at |5 per bushel, 
and found a ready market in Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Alabama and Missouri, It was transferred by keel boats up the 
Tennessee and Cumberland Kivers, and also up the Mississippi 
to St, Louis, 

SALT LANDS GRANTED TO THE STATE, 

At the time of the admission of Illinois into the Union, Con- 
gress gave these lands to the State, which continued the lease 
system until about 1840, the last lease being made to John 
Crenshaw, December 9, of that year, Mr. Crenshaw became a 
very wealthy man, and exercised large political influence in the 
southeastern portion of the State, After the establishment of 
salt works on the Kanawha River in Virginia, and at Pomeroy, 
Ohio, the mines in Gallatin County could no longer compete in 
the market. In 1847 the lands were sold, that portion contain- 
ing the salt wells being purchased by the school trustees of Town- 
ship 9, Range 9. In 1852 the lands were sold at public auction, 
and in 1854 Castle & Temple, the present proprietors, commenced 
to bore a new and deeper well, and began the manufacture of 
salt by an improved system which had its origin in France. The 
first brine was struck at a depth of 108 feet, and at 1,100 feet 



22 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

the boring stopped, the brine obtained marking 7.2*^ of Baume's 
saltometer, and requiring only seventy-five gallons to make a 
bushel of salt — fifty pounds. The State geologist believes that 
at this depth, 1,100 feet, the Chester limestone was struck, and 
that it forms the basis of the muriatiferous rocks in this part 
of the State. As late as 1870 it was no uncommon thing to see 
from three to four wagons, each drawn by from four to six mules, 
on the road from Equality to Shawneetown, laden with salt for 
the various markets in the South and West; but in 1873, in 
consequence of the panic, overproduction and ruinous prices, 
Castle & Temple closed the works, and on the same property en- 
gaged in mining and making coke. 

EARLY SETTLEMENT OF THE COUNTY. 

"When the first white man arrived in Gallatin County to 
make a permanent settlement the Indians occupied it only occa- 
sionally, and then only as a hunting-ground. This first white 
man was in all probability Michael Sprinkle, but where he came 
from can not be ascertained. He settled on the present site of 
Shawneetown, about the year 1800. He was a blacksmith and 
gunsmith, and for this and other reasons was a great favorite 
among the roaming bands of Indians, as well as with the early 
settlers as they came straggling in. He resided in Shawneetown 
until about 1814, when he moved about four miles into the 
country, on the poorest piece of land he could have found in the 
county, if to live on poor land had been his desire, but the loca- 
tion was chosen not on account of the sterility of the soil, but 
because of the existence there of a never failing spring. Among 
the early settlers were the following, most of whom were here 
previous to 1815: Jacob Barger, Samuel Hayes, Joseph Hayes, 
John Marshall, Michael Eobinson, Humphreys Leich, Stephen 
Fields, Thornton Tally, John Herrod, John Martin, Isaac Baldwin, 
Adrian Davenport, James Davenport, Michael Jones, Frederick 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 23 

Buck, William Akers, Andrew Slack, James M. Pettigrew, Abra- 
ham T. McCool, John Scroggins, O. C. Vallandigham, John 
Walden, Henry Ledbetter and Dr. John Raid. In the north- 
western part of the county there were a Mr. Dunn, Mr. Hurd, 
Abraham Armstrong, Allen Dugger, John Kinsall, Charles Ed- 
wards, Sr., John Edwards, Benjamin Kinsall, Sr., James Trous- 
dale and Mr. Orr. It is believed that the first settler on the 
present site of Omaha was a Mr. Perry. Zephrania Johns settled 
on the site of Omaha, in 1825. He sold his improvements to 
Rev. William Davis, who entered the land in 1833. The first 
post office in this region was at South Hampton, at the residence 
of David Keasler, the first postmaster. It was discontinued be- 
cause of the railroads passing on both sides of it. The first 
election was held at the house of John Kinsall where Moses 
Kinsall now resides, a short distance east of Omaha. 

TROUBLES WITH INDIANS. 

From 1812 to 1815, the settlers in Southern Illinois were much 
troubled by the Shawnee tribe of Indians. About that time a 
boy by the name of Maurice Hyde was^attacked in Reuben Beller s, 
by two Indians, which was at the time occupied by an old man 
and some children, left alone because of a gathering in the neigh- 
borhood. The children were out playing Indian, when these two 
Indians came up ; one of the boys gave the alarm, but Maurice 
thought it was only a pretended alarm, so was caught and car- 
ried away. The Indians were pursued by the rangers who cap- 
tured one of the Indians and took his scalp, and ran the other in- 
to the river who soon afterward died. Maurice was recovered 
and restored to his friends. 

Another incident was somewhat as follows: A portion of the 
Shawnee tribe, which was then living up the Wabash, came to 
Shawneetown, and there met a portion of another tribe, believed 
to have been the Kaskaskias, the main body of which was living 



24 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

near the Mississippi. Between these two tribes there had been 
some difficulty, and the chiefs of both these factions which met 
in Shawneetown, made a tour of the saloons and made earnest 
request of all not to sell to any of their warriors any fire water, 
knowing that if any of them should obtain fire water, trouble 
would be the result. All of the saloon-keepers complied with this 
reasonable request but one living in the south part of the town. 
At his establishment some of the Indians secured some whisky, 
the old feud was fanned into a flame, a quarrel and a fight en- 
sued, and one of the Shawnees was killed. The Kaskaskias 
engaged in the killing immediately sought safety in flight, and 
other members of the tribe, in order to appease the Shawnees, pro- 
posed to pursue the murderers, and bring one of them back dead 
or alive. In due course of time they returned with the head of 
the Kaskaskia who had struck the fatal blow and peace was re- 
stored. After being fed by the citizens of Shawneetown, until 
this affair was settled the Indians all took their departure, much 
to the relief of the white people. 

Still another was the following: Dr. John Eeid mentioned 
elsewhere as an early settler, father of Mrs. S. C. Eowan, still 
living on the old homestead about two miles north of Shaw- 
neetown in what was then known as Sugar Grove, at the age of 
eighty-two, was one day away from home, when a party of Indians 
called at the house. Alexander Beid was then an infant, and 
Mrs. Reid had him nicely dressed and lying in the cradle. One 
of the squaws had her dirty little pappoose strapped on her 
back, and all at once admiring little Alexander so neat and clean, 
exclaimed " me swap," and instantly made the exchange, and 
the party started off for their camp, on the ridge in town. Mrs. 
Keid being alone was helpless and was filled with astonishment 
and dismay. Dr. Reid soon came home and found his wife al- 
most crazed with grief at the loss of her babe. But he was a 
man of resources, and after soothing his wife, suggested that she 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 25 

scrub up the little red stranger, put some good, clean clothes on 
him, and take him into camp. Although it was an unpleasant 
task, it was the only course to pursue, so she polished up the little 
pappoose, put on a clean frock, combed out his straight black 
hair, and made him look like a new creature. She then shoul- 
dered him and took him into camp, and exhibited him to his 
surprised mother, who when she saw him looking so neat and clean 
at once proposed to swap back, which Mrs. Reid was only too glad 
to do. 

LAND ENTRIES. 

While quite a number of settlers came early into the county 
the land ©ffice was not opened at Shawneetown until 1814, and 
then no land entries^were made until July of that year. The follow- 
ing is a complete list of all the land entries made during the year 
1814, showing the names of many of the early settlers and the 
locations in the county which they preferred. So far as was learned 
from the entry book, the first entry was made on July 7, 1814, 
by John Black, of the northwest quarter of Section 19, Township 
10 south. Range 9 east; on the 19th of the month Jephthah 
Hardin entered the southwest quarter of Section 7, Township 9, 
Range 10; on the 21st of the month "Warren Buck entered the 
southeast quarter of Section 17, Township 9, Range 10 ; Thomas 
McGehee, the southwest quarter of Section 33, Township 9, Range 
9, and Jesse B. Thomas, the southwest quarter of Section 23, 
Township 9, Range 9. On the 25th, John Reid entered the north- 
east quarter of Section 19, Township 9, Range 10; Michael Jones, 
the southeast quarter of Section 19, Township 9, Range 10; and 
Archibald Roberts, the southeast quarter of Section 23, Township 
9, Range 9. On the 26th, M. Jones, the west half of Section 3, 
Township 10, Range 9, and Hazle Moreland, the southeast quar- 
ter of Section 34, Township 9, Range 9 ; on the 27th, Henry Boyer, 
the southeast quarter of Section 12, Township 9," Range 9, and on 



26 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

the 28th, Edward Farley, the northwest quarter of Section 19, 
Township 9, Eange 10. 

The entries in August were: on the 5th, Thomas Hayes, 
northwest quarter of Section 1, Township 8, Kange 9 ; on the 
10th, James Dillard southwest quarter of Section 14, Township 

9, Range 9 ; on the 19th, Lewis Kuykendall, southeast quarter 
of Section 5, Township 10, Range 9 ; on the 24th, George Patter- 
son, northeast quarter of Section 20, Township 7, Range 10, and 
Thomas M. Dorris, southeast quarter of Section 24, Township 
8, Range 9, and on the 25th, James Willis, northwest quar- 
ter of Section 33, Township 9, Range 9. 

The following are the entries made in September on the 1st : 
Stephen Clautau, southwest quarter of Section 5, Township 10, 
Range 9 ; on the 5th, "William McCay, northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 8, Township 9, Range 10 ; on the 9th, Thornton Talley, north- 
west quarter of Section 14, Township 9, Range 9 ; on the 10th, Mi- 
chael Sprinkle, southwest quarter of Section 8, Township 9, Range 

10, and on the 12th, Daniel McKinley, northeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 32, Township 9, Range 9. 

In October the following: On the 6th, James Morris, southeast 
quarter of Section 1, Township 8, Range 9; on the 10th, James 
M, Pettigrew, northeast quarter of Section 8, Township 9, Range 
10, and William Wheeler, southwest quarter of Section 9, Town- 
ship 10, Range 9; on the 12th, Isaac Hagan, northeast quarter 
of Section 9, Township 10, Range 9, and Merrel Willis, north- 
west quarter of Section 5, Township 10, Range 9 ; on the 14th, 
William Kelly, northwest quarter of Section 9, Township 9, 
Range 10; on the 15th, White Dawson & Brown, southeast, 
northeast and northwest quarters of Section 1, Township 10, 
Range 9, and John Forrester, northeast quarter of Section 2, 
Township 10, Range 9 ; on the 17th, John Willis, northeast quar- 
ter of Section 3, Township 10, Range 9, and Meredith K. Fisher, 
northwest quarter of Section 32, Township 9, Range 9, who had 



HISTOEY OF ILLINOIS. 27 

entered the southwest quarter of the same section on the 4th ; on 
the 18th, Littlepage Proctor, northwest quarter of Section 10, 
Township 10, Range 9; on the 19th, Cornelius Lafferty, south- 
west quarter of Section 35, Township 9, Range 9; on the '20th, 
Samuel Clark, southeast quarter of Section 2, Township 10, Range 
9; on the 23cl, Samuel Green, southwest quarter of Section 18, 
Township 9, Range 10 ; on the 25th, Baston Banewood, southeast 
quarter of Section 22, Township 9, Range 9 ; Samuel Clark, north- 
east quarter of Section 23, Township 9, Range 9, Annesley Clark, 
east half of the northeast quarter of Section 2, Township 8, Range 
9, and John Carter, southeast quarter of Section 13, Township 9, 
Range 9; on the 29th, Thomas Dawson, northwest quarter of 
Section 2, Township 10, Range 9 ; on the 31st, John Groves, 
northwest quarter of Section 29, Township 7, Range 10, and 
Joseph Scott, east half of the northeast quarter of Section 15, 
Township 9, Range 9. 

In November the following: On the 2d, Jerrett Trammel, 
southwest quarter of Section 19, Township 10, Range 9; on the 
4th, William Castles, east half of the northeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 13, Township 9, Range 9; on the 7th, Daniel McKinley, 
southeast quarter of section 29, Township 9, Range 9 ; on the 12th, 
Peter Baker, southeast quarter of section 9, Township 10, Range 
9 ; on the 14th, Warren Buck, east half of the southwest quarter 
of Section 15, Township 8, Range 10; Hazle Moreland, northwest 
^ quarter of Section 34, Township 9, Range 9, and James More- 
1 and, west half of the northeast quarter of Section 33, Township 
19,Range 9 ; on the 17th, James Weir, southwest quarter of Section 
5, Township 9, Range 10; Andrew Slack, southwest quarter of 
Section 4, Township 9, Range 10, and Edward Gattu, southwest 
quarter of Section 10, Township 10, Range 9 ; on the 22d, John 
Ewing, northeast quarter of Section 27, Township 9, Range 9 ; 
on the 25th, Frederick Buck, Section 22, Township 8, Range 10, 



28 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

and on the 26tli, Moses M. Rawlings, southeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 4, Township 10, Eange 9. 

The following are the entries for December : On the 3d, John 
Caldwell, west half of Section 19, Township 9, Range 10 ; Joseph 
M. Street, southeast quarter of Section 5, Township 9, Range 10; 
Samuel W. Kimberly, northwest quarter of Section 35, Township 
9, Range 9 ; on the 5th, Thomas M. Dorris, southwest quarter of 
Section 19, Township 8, Range 10; on the 8th, Stephen Fields, 
northeast quarter of Section 14, Township 9, Range 9 ; on the 14tli, 
Housan Fletcher, southwest quarter of Section 4, Township 10, 
Range 9; on the 29th, Jephthah Hardin, fractional Section 30, 
Township 9, Range 10, and on the 31st, George Sexton, southeast 
quarter of Section 36, Township 8, Range 10. 

In 1816 there were nearly twenty land entries made by dif- 
erent individuals, among them some of those whom we have al- 
ready enumerated Michael Jones, John Reid and Joseph M. 
Street. The latter entered two and a quarter sections on the 
25th of February: Sections 24 and 25, and the northeast quarter 
of Section 26, Township 9, Range 9. On the 12th of June, 
Thomas Sloo, Jr., entered most of Section 36, Township 9, Range 
9, on which Shawneetown is located; and Michael Robinson, on 
the 23d of September, entered the southwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 12 Township 9, Range 9. Some of those who made entries 
in 1817 were Robert Peeples, on May 22, the east half of the 
southeast quarter of Section 36, Township 7, Range 9; Rachael 
McGehee, December 18, the east half of the northwest quarter 
of Section 28, Township 9, Range 9, and R. Peeples and J. Kirk- 
patrick, January 11, the southwest quarter of Section 30, Town- 
ship 7, Range 10. In 1818 Ephraim Hubbard, on the 24th of 
April, entered the northwest quarter of Section 35, Township 8, 
Range 9, and Martin P. Frazier, on the 13th of May, entered the 
west half of Section 15, Township 10, Range 9. There were many 
other entries made,a list of which it is deemed unnecessary to give. 



^ffTT" 



BATTLE OF 

FORT DONELSON, 

Feb. 13-16, 







HISTOltY OF ILLINOIS. 31 

SLAVES AND INDENTURED SERVANTS. 

Most of the early settlers of this county came from some 
one of the Southern States: Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, and 
in some few instances from Georgia and Alabama, Many of 
those, but not all who came brought with them slaves, with tran- 
scripts of the evidence of ownership from the records of the coun- 
ties from which they emigrated, which transcripts were duly re- 
cored in Gallatin County. Some of those who brought slaves 
either upon or after arriving in the county, set them free, either 
in consideration of past faithful services, or of money. In this 
way large numbers of negroes and mulattoes of different degrees 
of darkness found themselves in southern Illinois, and resided 
here either as free persons, or as indentured servants, most of 
the time up to the breaking out of the war. The following is the 
form of indenture usually employed, and the one given is the 
first one upon the records in Gallatin County: 

This Indenture made and entered into this 5th day of July, 1814, between 
William Killis, mulatto man about the age of 25, and Joseph M. Street, both 
of Sliavvneetown, Gallatin County, in the Illinois Territory, witnesseth, that 
for and in consideration of $200, by the said Joseph to the said William in hand 
paid, the receipt whereof is hereby aciinowledged, the said William hath put, 
placed and bound himself to the said Joseph as a servant for the full term of 
four years from the date hereof, or, in other words, until the 5th day of July, 
1818, and the said Joseph agrees on his part to furnish the said William with 
everything proper for him, and the said William, on his part, agrees to act and 
demean himself in an orderly and proper manner in his capacity of servant. 

In testimony whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals the day and 
year above written. his 

William X Killis. 
Teat : mark. 

Thomas Posey. Joseph M. Street. 

Fayette Posey. 

Indentured servants always made their mark. The last record 
upon the books devoted to recording the movements and status of 
colored persons, was made September 1, 186'2, and had reference 
to Carolina Sanders, late slave of Gen. Pillow, of the Rebel Army. 
She was brought to Shawneetown on that day by James B. Tur- 
ner, and asserted her right to freedom under the confiscation act 



32 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

of the General Government. James B. Turner certified to the 
facts as asserted by Carolina, and gave bond to the county that 
she should not become a county charge. 

Because of the prejudices of many of the people then against 
the negro, and of their frequent attempts to steal them and sell 
them into slavery in the Southern States, great trouble frequently 
arose ; many cruelties and outrages upon their rights were per- 
petrated by persons, some of whom are still living, who would, 
with their present enlightened vieAvs of justice, crimson to the 
temples to see their names published in connection with the crimes 
they once thought it a duty to commit, but which names fre- 
quently appear on the records of the circuit court, in indict- 
ments for kidnaping. It was frequently necessary for a free 
negro to prove to the court that he was free. Following is the 
record of a case of this kind: 

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 11, 1839. 

Mary Smith, a woman of color, vs. Benjamin Lafferty and John Cook. 
This day came the phiiutifE by her attorneys, and the said defendants. The suit 
hath been brought by the plaintiff to establish her right and that of her children 
to freedom under the constitution and laws of the State. It was agreed by the 
defendants that she and they are free so far as they know or believe, and they 
consent that the said plaintiff may have judgment accordingly, and that each 
party shall pay their own costs. It is therefore considered by the court that the 
said plaintiff recover her freedom for herself and her said children as against 
the said defendants. 

Following is an illustration of the method of procedure when 
a negro could not prove his freedom to the court. 

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 1840. 

This day came into open court William Wilburn, a man of color, who pro- 
duced to the court the certificate of the sheriff of this county, whereby it is shown 
to the court here that the said William was legally committed to the custody of 
the said sheriff as a runaway; that the said William produced no certificate or 
other evidence of his freedom to the said sheriff within the time limited by law; 
he, the said William, was regularly hired out from month to month for the 
space of one year, notice according to law frequently given; and it further 
appearing tliat due notice by publication in a public newspaper printed in said 
State has been given by the said sheriff, as required by the second section of an 
act respecting free negroes, mulattoes, servants and slaves approved January 17, 



HISTORY or ILLINOIS. 33 

1829, and that no owner hath appeared to substantiate his claim to said negro 
within one year from his commitment aforesaid; whereupon the said William 
moved the court that it be certified that he be henceforth deemed a free person, 
unless he shall be lawfully claimed by a proper owner or owners, hereafter, and 
it is by the court ordered to be and it is hereby ordered accordingly. 

REGULATORS AND VIGILANTS. 

Excitement ran very liigli about 1840, and for a few years 
afterward about negroes living in the State. The excited state of 
feeling resulted in the organization of a body of men calling 
themselves "Regulators," whose purpose was to force all negroes 
without regard to age, sex or condition, to leave the county. This 
movement had its origin in the fact that some time previously 
John Crenshaw sold a family of negroes to a Mr, Kuykendall. 
This negro family consisted, it is believed, of indentured servants. 
Kuykendall ran the negroes out of the State, and as a result of 
this action by Kuykendall, both he and Crenshaw were indicted 
by the grand jury for kidnaping. At the term of court held 
early in 1842, Crenshaw was acquitted because the State's attorney 
could not prove that the negroes were taken out of the State, 
although it was well known to the community to be the case. It 
was asserted in connection- with this case that negroes were the 
best laborers in the county, that they were no more frequently 
guilty of crimes than white people, and that when guilty they 
were most certainly punished. Some time previously, Benjamin 
Hardin had been cruelly murdered, and it was attempted to show 
that the negroes had something to do with it, and while it was 
proved that the murder was committed by a negro, who was hired 
to commit the crime by another negro, yet it was believed then, 
and is now, by a large number of people, that a certain leading 
white man was the real instigator of the crime, yet, as the name 
of this leading business man was never connected with the case 
in law, it can not judiciously be connected with it in history. The 
murder of Hardin was characterized at the time as "the most 
wicked, the most cruel, the most cold-blooded and horrible ever 



34 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

committed in a civilized community — a murder so wanton, so de- 
liberately planned and executed, so foul and atrocious that the 
Almighty, in his wrath, smote the spot upon which it was per- 
petrated and the country all around, involving in one sheet of 
flame, the trees, the fences, the houses, the grass of the ravine — 
the very post from which the murdered man fell, covering the 
entire premises with the black drapery of mourning, which may 
be seen unto this day — a mark of the indignation of the Most 
High — a memento of the fate of the unfortunate Hardin." 

The writer of the above characterization, Samuel D. Marshall, 
was one of the ablest editors and lawyers that ever resided in 
Shawneetown. He was sufficiently rational and just to wish to see 
crime punished but at the same time not so unreasonable as to con- 
demn an entire race for the crimes of the individual ; hence his 
position was that of a defender and protector of the oppressed. 
Hence, also, it was that in his paper, the Illinois Repuhlican, he 
condemned the proceedings of the regulators as disgraceful and 
unjustifiable, "conspiring as they had done to drive all of the 
negroes out of the country, good and bad, lazy and industrious, 
old and young ; those who had property and those who had not — 
all must go, and with a notice of only a week. Here are a vast 
number of negroes, many of them honest, industrious and good 
citizens, forced to' sacrifice their lives or their property within 
seven days. No such procedure can ever be justified in a free 
country. Any combination which proposes to violate the laws of 
security in person and in property, guaranteed to all our citizens, 
white or black, which sets up its own arbitrary will in opposition 
to that of the people, subverts our form of government, and leads 
directly to anarchy and eventually to despotism." 

In the list of regulators were the names of many young men 
who were otherwise men of respectability and character ; but as a 
general thing the bands of regulators were composed of bad men, 
who wished to screen themselves from deserved punishment and 



1356428 

HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 35 

have some one else punislied for crimes of which they were 
guilty. The Illinois Republican argued forcibly that every man 
who loved liberty must adhere to law as the sheet anchor of his 
own security, as nowhere else, but in the law are liberty and 
security guaranteed. As instancing the character of the regulators 
the Republican recorded the fact that in March or April, 1842, 
several regulators went to the house of an old and inoffensive 
negro for the purpose of " regulating him," that is, of whipping 
and terrifying him. Among those thus visiting the old negro was 
a man named John Moore, otherwise known as "Leather Moore," 
because of his having been tried and convicted of stealing leather 
in Gallatin County. Most of the "boys" with whom Moore was 
when they arrived at the old negro's house, thought it would be 
a shame to whip the old man and left without doing so, notwith- 
standing that Moore was strongly in favor of the proceeding. 

A redoubtable corps of regulators made a raid into Shawnee- 
town, on Saturday, April 9, 1842, in battle array. The poor 
negroes heard of the coming of the corps in time, and soon were 
as scarce as squirrels on a windy day. Not a single woolly head 
was anywhere to be seen, and it was not long before the brave 
regulators began to fear that their honorable services were not in 
need at that particular time and place, and that they would have 
to be contented with the laurels of the past. Soon, however, 
first one and then another and finally several of the good citizens 
of the place began to take compassion upon tkem and addressed 
them thus: " Gentlemen regulators, we suppose you would be glad 
of a chance to regulate some negroes." "Yes, yes," they responded 
on all sides, and then from numerous persons in the town the 
invitation was extended to the brave and public-spirited citizens 
to go down to such and such houses, and "regulate" such negroes 
as were there to be found. But the invitations were universally 
declined for prudential reasons, and after one of their number 
made the following speech they left the town : "Gentlemen, we 



36 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

were merely passing through your town, and did not intend to 
stop. If you will drop the matter, we will." 

Such outrages, however, carried with them to a considerable 
extent their own antidote. Violent proceedings were revolting to 
the majority of the best men in the community, and unsustained 
by public sentiment must necessarily cease. All reflecting men 
soon began to regard the lawless assumption of power by indi- 
viduals as a direct blow at the liberties of all. But these did not 
cease without calling into existence a band of vigilants under the 
command of M. K. Lawler to operate against them, which band 
did noble work in aiding the negro to enjoy his liberties in the 
southeastern counties of Illinois, and the services of Capt. Law- 
ler and his men deserve a fitting tribute in the history of the 
times. 

In 1851 an attempted murder was developed in connection 
with a case of kidnaping. A Mrs. Prather, formerly from AVeak- 
ley County, Tenn., having emancipated her slaves, they removed 
to Gallatin County, To this county they were followed by par- 
ties from their former home, who conspired to arrest them as 
fugitive slaves. The United States District Court decided that 
the conspirators had no claim to the colored people. Connected 
with the conspirators was a man named Newton E. Wright, who 
had long been in the business of kidnaping, and who, while in 
Gallatin County, attempted to reclaim the Prather negroes as 
fugitives, formed the acquaintance of another notorious kid- 
naper, named Joe O'Neal of Hamilton County. With O'Neal 
was associated Abe Thomas, a disreputable character. After 
this attempt in Gallatin County O'Neal stole three children 
from an old negro in Hamilton County, named Scott, ran them 
off and sold them to Wright, partly on credit, who resold them 
at New Madrid to a man named Phillips. AVhen O'Neal's note 
matured he sent Thomas to collect it, telling him further that 
Wright had business with him for which he would be well paid. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 37 

Arriving at AVright's he agreed to kill a Dr. Swayne of Hicco, 
Tenn., for $150, who had sued Wright for $8,000. If Dr. Swayne 
could be killed, Wright could successfully defend the suit by 
means of nicely forged receipts. 

In May, 1850, a man calling himself Stewart rode up to the 
house of Dr. Swayne, with the request that he pay a professional 
visit to his father, who was sick a little distance from the Doc- 
tor's house. After proceeding some distance Stewart fell a little 
behind and shot the Doctor, the shot badly fracturing his arm. 
A cry of murder being raised, Stewart effected his escape, and 
every effort made failed to find the assassin. 

In the next year two citizens of White County, John and 
Shannon Eubanks, father and son, went to Tennessee with a lot 
of horses for sale. While in the neighborhood of Dr. Swayne' s 
they heard him relate the particulars of the attempt at his assas- 
sination and give a minute description of the attempted assas- 
sin. Shannon Eubanks knew the description applied to Abe 
Thomas, who was stopping at Joe O'Neal's in Hamilton County. 
Soon afterward Thomas was seized by some Tennesseans and 
taken to that State for trial.* 

The last effort to return fugitive slaves was made in the lat- 
ter part of 1862. It was reported that there was a fugitive from 
labor harbored at the house of Stephen E. Eowan, and a few 
pro-slavery men determined that he should be returned accord- 
ing to the Fugitive Slave Law. At that time the rebel 
forces had possession of that portion of Kentucky opposite 
Shawneetown, and they had made frequent threats to sack and 
burn the town, and for this reason the meeting was not harmo- 
nious, there being some present at the meeting bold enough to 
protest against the return of the fugitive to rebels in arms 
against the Government, and strong enough to prevent any at- 
tack upon Mr. Rowan, The fugitive, therefore, was never re- 
turned. 

*Froiu Davidson & Stuve's "History of Illinois." 



38 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

WILD ANIMALS AND REPTILES. 

Wolves for manj years infested the woods and made things 
very unpleasant for the early settlers. In order to get rid of 
them it was found necessary to make it to the interest of as 
many as possible to make an unrelenting war upon them. To 
this end an address was drawn up in the following words : 

To the wolf hunters of Gallatin County, 111.— April 23, 1846— We, the 
undersigned, agree to bind ourselves severally to pay to any person who may 
kill the old wolves in the districts of country in the following bounds. Begin- 
ning at the mouth of Big Eagle Creek, thence up same creek to Z. Malingly's, 
thence to White's Mill on the Saline, thence down the Saline to the beginning 
at the mouth of Big Eagle Creek, or if the wolves are started in the above 
bounds it matters not where they are killed, we the undersigned will pay the 
amounts annexed to our names for each and every old wolf, started in the above 
bounds, in good trade or cash on or before the 25th day of September next. 
Any person being a subscriber to this paper who may bring the scalps to the 
town of Equality on the 1st day of November next, and prove the boundary in 
which the wolf was started, or make affidavit to the same if required, shall be 
entitled to the amount of this subscription for each scalp so started and killed. 

subscribers' names and amounts. 

Benjamin White f 5 00 William Dorsey ^ 50 

Walter White 1 00 Thomas Dorsey 50 

I. D. Bemin 1 00 David Williams 50 

Nancy White 1 00 William Baldwin 1 00 

John Baker 50 Benjamin Seawell 50 

James Pruet 1 00 Philip Garrall 50 

John Dorsey 1 00 Caleb Baldwin 50 

John Williamson 1 00 James Willis 50 

William Black 1 00 James Dorsey 50 

Archibald Willis 1 00 Will G. Seawell 50 

Lewis Seawell 50 Edward Lenwell, Jr 50 

Francis Williams 50 Valentine Christian — 

The language of the above agreement is scarcely to be taken 
literally, for if it were intended precisely as written, the "start- 
ing and killing of wolf scalps '' within the bounds named would 
have been exceedingly profitable, more so probably than the kid- 
naping of free negroes, in Avhich too many of the inhabitants of 
southern Illinois and Kentucky were unjust enough to engage. 
According to the terms of the above agreement, each wolf scalp 
would bring to the hunter who should bring it in about $20, pro- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 39 

vided Valentine Christian intended to subscribe 50 cents with the 
rest, which is probable. It is said, however, by old settlers that 
the intention was to raise a fund out of which $1 should be paid 
for each wolf scalp, which is more likely than that each sub- 
scriber meant to promise to pay the amount annexed to his name 
for each wolf scalp brought in. 

Wolves, however, although the most numerous, were not the 
only wild animals in the woods which annoyed the early settlers 
and raided upon their stock. There were catamounts and pan- 
thers, for the scalps of the former of which 50 cents each was 
paid, and for those of the latter ^2 each. There were also plenty 
of black bears, but so far as the writer knows, no price was put 
upon them. Besides wild animals there were large numbers of 
snakes, poisonous as well as innocuous. Of the poisonous snakes 
there were rattlesnakes, water moccasins and copperheads. The 
water moccasins were of two kinds — black with red belly, and 
mottled-brown and yellow. Regarding the number of the various 
kinds of snakes, it used to be said that a man in clearing a piece 
of land could kill upon it snakes enough to fence it, and it 
may be that the term "snake-fence," as applied to the crooked 
rail fence, had its origin in this exaggeration. But strange as it 
may at first appear, notwithstanding the immense numbers of 
these poisonous reptiles, very few persons, if any, were bitten 
by them to death, not even by the copperhead, the most deadly 
of all. The explanation for this fact lies in the correlative fact 
that the early settlers were familiar with, and always had handy, 
the various efficacious Indian snake-bite remedies. 

THE ORGANIZATION OF ST. CLAIR AND RANDOLPH COUNTIES. 

In order clearly to perceive the position of Gallatin County, 
in the chronological order of the organization of the counties, it 
is necessary to present as briefly as may be the history of the 
organization of those counties older than this. When Gen. 



40 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

Arthur St. Clair, accompanied by Winthrop Sargent, arrived at 
Kaskaskia, March 5, 1790, the country comprising Illinois, 
extending as far northward as the mouth of Little Mackinaw 
Creek, on the Illinois Eiver, was organized into one county, and 
named St. Clair, in honor of the governor. This county was 
divided into three judicial districts, a court of common pleas 
established, and three judges appointed, and Cahokia became the 
county seat. Randolph County was next organized by William 
Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana Territory, February 3, 
1801, and embraced the territory within the following boundaries: 

Beginning on the Ohio River, at a place called the Great 
Cave, below the Saline Creek ; thence by a direct north line until 
it intersects an east and west line running from the Mississippi, 
through the Sink Hole Spring; thence along the said line to 
the Mississippi, thence down the Mississippi to the mouth of 
the Ohio, and up the same to the place of beginning. 

The territory remained thus divided until 1809, when the 
following proclamation was issued: 

Kaskaskia, April 28, 1809. 
A proclamation by Nathaniel Pope, secretary of the territory of Illinois, and 

exercising the government thereof. 

By virtue of tlie power vested in the governor for the prevention of crimes 
and injuries, and for the execution of process, civil and criminal, within the 
territory, I have thought proper to, and by this proclamation do, divide the 
Illinois Territory into two counties, to be called the county of St. Clair, and the 
county of Randolph. 

The county of Randolph shall include all that part of the Illinois Terri- 
tory lying south of the line dividing the counties of Randolph and St. Clair, as 
it existed under the government of the Indiana Territory, on the last day of 
February, 1809, and the county of St. Clair shall include all that part of the 
Territory which lies north of that line. 

Done at Kaskaskia, the 28th day of April, 1809, and of the Independence 
of the United States, the thirty-third. 

Nathaniel Pope. 

ORGANIZATION OF MADISON, GALLATIN AND JOHNSON COUNTIES. 

No other counties were organized then until September, 1812, 
when Madison, Gallatin and Johnson were called into existence 
by Gov. Edwards, by the following proclamation : 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 41 

By Ntnian Ed-wakds, Governor of the Territory of Illinois. 

Kaskaskia, September 14. 1812. 

A PROCLAMATION. 

By virtue of the powers vested in the governor of the territory, I do hereby 
lay off a county or district to be called the county of Madison, to be included 
within the following bounds: To begin on the Mississippi, to run with the 
second township line above Cahokia, east until it strilies the dividing line 
between the Illinois and Indiana Territories, thence with said dividing line to 
the line of Upper Canada, thence with said line to the Mississippi, and thence 
down the Mississippi to the beginning. I do appoint the house of Thomas 
Kirkpatrick to be the seat of justice of said county. 

I do also lay off a county or district to be called the county of Gallatin, 
to be bounded as follows: To begin at the mouth of Lusk Creek, on the Ohio, 
running up with said creek to Miles' Trace, thence along said trace to Big 
Muddy, thence up Big Muddy to its source, thence north to the line of St. 
Clair County, thence with said line to the Wabash, thence down the Wabash 
and Ohio to the beginning. And I do appoint Shawnee Town, to be the seat of 
justice of Gallatin County. 

And I do lay off a county or district to be called Johnson County to be 
bounded as follows: To begin at the mouth of Lusk Creek on the Ohio; 
thence with the line of Gallatin County to Big Muddy; thence down Big 
Muddy and the Mississippi to the mouth of the Ohio, and up the Ohio to the be- 
ginning. And I do appoint the house of John Bradshaw to be the seat of justice 
for Johnson County. 

Done at Kaskaskia the 14th day of September, 1812, and 
[seal] of the Independence of the United States the thirty- 

seveuth. 

By the Governor 

NiNiAN Edwards. 
Nathaniel Pope, 

Secretary. 

Gallatin County was named in honor of Albert Gallatin, a 
distinguished American statesman and Secretary of the Treasury 
under Jeiferson. The name was conferred upon the county, or 
at least suggested, by John Bradolette, register of the land office 
at Vincemies, and a countryman and admiring friend of Galla- 
tin, and not, as has been stated by certain historians, by John 
Caldwell, who was receiver of the land office at Shawneetown. * 
The county was reduced in size at various times. Franklin County 
was organized in 1818; White County in 1815; Hardin County 
in 1839, and Saline County in 1847, and finally made separate 
in 1852. 

*See biography of Albert Gallatin Caldwell. 



42 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

ADJUSTMENT OF BOUNDARY LINES. 

Althougli White County was organized, as just stated, in 1815, 
the boundary line between it and Gallatin County was not settled 
for many years. At the December term (1830) of the county 
commissioners court of Gallatin County, the surveyors of Galla- 
tin, White and Hamilton Counties were required to meet on the 
16th of August, 1831, to run and establish a line between said 
counties. They met according to this requirement, but could 
not determine the piece of ground upon which Boone's mill had 
stood. The south line of White County was once described in 
law as " beginning in the eye of the millstone in Boone's mill, 
in New Haven, " but when the surveyors arrived on the ground 
August 16, 1831, the mill had been removed, and of course after 
passing the act relative to the boundary. The surveyors, there- 
fore, had five citizens, viz. : John Groves, Eoswell H. Grant, 
Merritt Taylor, Samuel Dagley and Peter Slater, designate as 
nearly as practicable the point to commence from, which they did 
as follows: Beginning at a rock in the Little Wabash Eiver, 
from which a black oak twelve inches in diameter bears south 60*^ 
east, distant seventeen links; thence running due west, to the 
corner of White and Hamilton Counties on the Gallatin County 
line, fourteen miles distant. The survey was completed August 
23, 1831. The surveyors were David Stinson, of Gallatin 
Oounty; John Storms, of White County, and Enos T. Allen, of 
Hamilton County. 

On February 10, 1853, it was enacted by the Legislature that 
the section line running east and west, through the center of 
Township 7 south, in Ranges 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 east of the third 
principal meridian should constitute and stand for the county 
line dividing the two counties, Gallatin and White, for revenue 
and all other purposes ; said line to commence at the southwest 
corner of Section 18, Township 7 south, Range — east, and run 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 43 

thence due east along and with the section line to the Little 
Wabash Kiver. 

On February 28, 1854, the Legislature amended the last 
clause of the above section so as to make it read, "Said line shall 
commence at the southwest corner of Section 18, Township 7 
south, Kange — east, and shall run thence due east on said section 

line to the southwest corner of Section 17, Township 7 , Eange 

10 east, thence north to the northern line of said section in the 
center of the Little Wabash Eiver, and down that stream to its 
confluence with the Great Wabash River. 

LIST OF COUNTY OFFICERS. 

The county officers of Gallatin County have been as follows: 

Sheriffs. — Marmaduke S. Davenport, George Robinson, 
Ephraim Hubbard, Dr. Henry Boyers, John Lane, 1833; Thomas 
Tong, 1842; John T. Walters, 1848; Joseph B. Barger, 1850; 
Richard Richeson, 1853 ; Thomas Wilson, 1854; James Davenport, 
1855; James H. McMintry, 1857; John T. Walters, 1858; Parker 
B. Pillow, 1862; John M. Eddy, 1863; George B. Hick, 1865; W. 
L. Blackard, 1867; George B. Hick, 1869; Joel Cook, 1871; John 
Yost, 1875-80, inclusive; Robert J. Bruce, 1885-86, and J. F. 
Nolen, 1886 to the present time. 

CircuU Court Clerks. — Joseph M. Street, Leonard White, 
1828; John E. Hall, 1848-56, when murdered; James Daven- 
port, 1857-64; James R. Loomis, 1865-72; James W. Millspaugh, 
1873-76; Joseph F. Nolen, 1877-84; Robert L. Millspaugh, 
1885 to the present time (1887). 

Sfaies Aiiorneijs. — Under the constitution of 1848, the duties of 
States attorneys extended over an entire circuit, hence a complete 
list of those attorneys practicing in Gallatin County, while that 
system was in vogue, would not be easy to form or perhaps even 
desirable. Some of them were, however, as follows: William H. 
Stickney, Samuel S. Marshall, L. J. S. Turney, James Robinson, 



44 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

Thomas Smith, Milton Bartley, C. M. Damron and F. M. 
Youngblood. The latter gentleman served from 1869 to 1872, 
both years inclusive. Under the constitution of 1870 this officer's 
duties are limited to his own county. Since 1872 the following have 
been States attorneys of Gallatin County: William F. Crenshaw, 
1873-76; E. D. Youngblood, 1877-80; D. M. Kinsall, 1881 to the 
present time. 

Masters 171 Chancery. — The following is a partial list of these 
officers: William Hensley was appointed by Judge Duff, as also 
was Milton Bartley, who likewise served four years while Judge 
Tanner presided on this circuit, and Carl Roedel two years. 
Milton Bartley succeeded Carl Roedel, and served during the 
years 1878 and 1879 ; D. M. Kinsall then followed during the years 
1880 and 1881, in which latter year E. D. Youngblood was ap- 
pointed and still serves in that capacity. 

Clerks of the County Courts. — Joseph M. Street, Leonard 
White, Calvin Gold, John E. Hall, Joseph B. Barger, from 1856 
to 1882, and Silas Cook from 1882 to the present time. 

County Treasurers. — John G. Daimwood, William McCoy, 
Joseph Hayes, Eli Adams, Benjamin Rice, Benjamin Thomas, W. 
Burnett, William Siddall, John Williamson, John W. Trousdale, 
Benjamin Bruce, William L. Blackard, Arad R. McCabe, Joseph 
A. Lane, S. M. Smyth, and W. W. Mayhew, the latter elected in 
1886. 

CONGEESSIONAL DISTRICTS. 

From the organization of the State up to 1832, Illinois consti- 
tuted one Congressional District, of which of course Gallatin 
County formed a part, and John McLean, of Shawneetown was 
the representative during the first term of Congress after the 
admission of Illinois into the Union. In 1824, Hon. John 
McLean, was chosen to the United States Senate to fill out the 
unexpired term of Ninian Edwards. While in Washington Mr. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 45 

McLean acted as correspondent of the Shawneetown paper, the 
Illinois Gazette, and here is a specimen of his work: 

Senate Chamber, February 9, 1825. 
Sir — The votes for President are as follows: Mr. Adams, six, New England 
States, New York, Maryland, Ohio, Illinois, Missouri, and Kentucky. He is 
elected. The mail starts, I have time to write no more. Great God deliver us! 

John McLean. 

John McLean was again chosen to fill a vacancy in the United 
States Senate in 1829, that caused by the resignation of 
Jesse B. Thomas, but he died October 4, 1830. 

From 1832 to 1843 Gallatin County was in the First Con- 
gressional District, seventeen counties having been constituted 
the Second District in 1882, but appears not to have been repre- 
sented in either branch of Congress during that time. In 1843, 
under the new apportionment, the Second District was composed 
of Johnson, Pope, Hardin, Williamson, Gallatin, Franklin, Ham- 
ilton, White, Wabash, Edwards, Wayne, Jefferson, Marion and 
Massac, and John A. McClernand was elected to represent the 
district in Congress from 1843 to 1851. Samuel S. Marshall 
was representative from 1855 to 1859, and John A. Logan from 
1859 to 1863; William J. Allen (deceased) was elected in 1862, 
Samuel S. Marshall was again elected in 1864, and Green B. 
Raum in 1866. In 1868 John M. Crebs was elected, and aarain 
in 1870; in 1872 Samuel D. Marshall was elected. William B. 
Anderson then served one term when he was followed in 1877 by 
Hon. R. W. Townshend, who has been biennially elected ever 
since, and is a member of the L Congress. 

In 1852 the Ninth District was made to consist of the fol- 
lowing counties: Alexander, Pulaski, Massac, Union, Johnson, 
Pope, Hardin, Gallatin, Saline, Williamson, Jackson, Perry, 
Franklin, Hamilton, White, Wayne, Edwards and Wabash. 

In 1861 the Thirteenth District was composed of Alexander, 
Pulaski, Union, Johnson, Williamson, Jackson, Perry, Mas- 
sac, Pope, Hardin, Saline, Gallatin, White, Edwards and Wabash 
Counties. 



46 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

In 1872 the Nineteenth District was made to consist of 
Edwards, Franklin, Hamilton, Gallatin, Hardin, Jefferson, Rich- 
land, Saline, White, Wabash and Wayne Counties; and in 1881, 
when the State was divided into twenty congressional districts, 
the Nineteenth was composed of White, Hamilton, Gallatin, 
Saline, Hardin, Franklin, Jefferson, Marion and Clinton Counties. 

ELECTION EETUENS. 

Following are some election returns and political data with- 
out much attempt at systematic arrangement. Gallatin County 
was represented in the first territorial Legislature, which con- 
vened at Kaskaskia, November 25, 1812, by Benjamin Talbott as 
a member of the Council, and by Alexander Wilson and Philip 
Trammel in the House of Representatives. In the Second Ter- 
ritorial Legislature Benjamin Talbott was again a member of 
the Council, and Philip Trammel and Thomas C. Browne were 
members of the House. The Legislature convened November 
14, 1814, and passed an act incorporating Shawneetown. In 
the Third Territorial Legislature, which convened December 
2, 1816, Gallatin County was represented in the Council by 
Thomas C. Browne, and by whom in the House the writer did 
not learn. 

MEMBERS OF CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION, ETC. 

According to an act of Congress, passed April 18, 1818, the 
people of the Territory of Illinois elected delegates to a con- 
vention to form a State constitution, the convention to meet 
on the first Monday (the 3d) of August. Michael Jones, Leonard 
White and Adolphus F. Hubbard were members of the conven- 
tion from Gallatin County. This first constitution was adopted, 
not by the people, but by the convention that framed it. The 
First General Assembly of the State of Illinois convened Monday, 
October 5, 1818, and there Avere present from Gallatin County 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 47 

as member of the Senate, Michael Jones, and as members of the 
House of Bepresentatives, J, G. Daimwood, Adolphus F. Hub- 
bard, John Marshall and Samuel McClintock. The capital of 
the State was then at Kaskaskia; in 1820 it was removed to 
Vandalia, and when it was remov^ed to Springfield Shawneetown 
received one vote. The Second General Assembly convened at 
Vandalia, Tuesday, December 4, 1821, and upon the organiza- 
tion of the House John McLean was made spealker. When the 
second State government was inaugurated, Adolphus F. Hub- 
bard, of Gallatin County, presided over the Senate. Lieut. -Gov. 
Hubbard also presided over the Senate during the term com- 
mencing Monday, January 2, 1826, and John McLean was speaker 
of the House. During the term of the General Assembly which 
convened Monday, December 4, 1826, John A. McClernand 
was a member and also during the session which commenced 
Monday, December 1, 1828. The General Assembly which put 
in operation the famous internal improvement system convened 
December 15, 1836, and contained many members who after- 
ward attained to national distinction. During the session of 
1835 William J. Gate wood was senator from Gallatin County. 
He was a man of eminent ability and earnestly opposed legis- 
lation in favor of railroads. 

MICHAEL JONES' EIDE. 

Michael Jones was a member of the House of Kepresenta- 
tives. The session was to open on Monday morning, and Jones 
was still in ShaAvneetown when the sun was tAvo hours high 
on Sunday morning. At that time there were no railroads ; not 
even the ShaAvneetown & Alton had then been built, and it was a 
matter of grave doubt as to Avhether Jones could reach Vandalia, 
140 miles away, by the time of the opening of the Legislature 
Monday morning. Mr. Gate wood Avas anxiously looking all 
Sunday and late into Sunday night for Jones, but had to retire 



48 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

without the joyful sight of his Democratic features. Next morn- 
ing, however, when Mr. Gatewood went down to breakfast, whom 
should his eyes behold but Michael Jones, as calmly seated at 
the breakfast table as if he had enjoyed the best of a night's 
sleep on a feather bed. Mr. Jones had successfully made the 
entire distance by relays of horses, 140 miles in twenty-two hours. 

ELECTION RETURNS. 

In 1858 John A. Logan was elected to Congress by a vote of 
15,878 to 2,796 cast for David L. Phillips and 144 for William 
K. Parrish, and in 1860 John A. Logan was again elected by 
20,863 votes to 5,207 for David T. Linegar and 165 scattering. 
In the Constitutional Convention of 1862 Milton Bartley, a 
member from Gallatin County, received 4,290 votes for Congress- 
man to 9,497 for William J. Allen (Democrat). In 1864 Andrew 
J. Kuykendall (Eepubljcan) was elected to Congress by a vote of 
11,742 to 10,759 for William J. Allen (Democrat) and 57 for Mil- 
ton Bartley. In 1866 Green B. Kaum was elected by a vote of 13,- 
459 to 12,890 for William J. Allen, and was defeated in 1868 by a 
vote of 14,261 to 14,764 for John M. Crebs. In 1866 John A. 
Logan was candidate at large for Congress against T. Lyle Dick- 
ey receiving in Gallatin County 649 votes to 936 for Dickey. 
The Eebellion had made Logan a Republican, hence he was not 
so popular in Gallatin County. Logan's vote in the other coun- 
ties, the histories of which are in this volume, was in Saline County 
942 to Dickey's 988; Franklin County, 863 to Dickey's 1,049; 
Hamilton County, 602 to Dickey's 1,133, and Williamson County 
1,245 to Dickey's 1,197. Logan was, however, elected by a vote of 
203,045 to 147,038 cast for Dickey. In 1870 John M. Crebs was 
elected to Congress by a vote of 13,949 to 12,366 for David W. 
Munn (Republican). In 1872 Gallatin County was placed in the 
Nineteenth Congressional District and Samuel S. Marshall 
(Democrat) was elected to Congress over Green B. Raum by 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 49 

a vote of 13,297 to 11,282. In 1874 William B. Anderson 
(Greenbacker) was elected to Congress by a vote in the district 
of 8,293, Samuel S. Marshall receiving 7,556, and Green B. 
Eaum 5,485. At this election Gallatin County cast for Anderson 
753 votes, for Marshall 737, and for Eaum 400. In 1876 
Eichard W. Townsheud was elected by 12,720 votes to 8,558 for 
Edward Bonham (Eepublican) and 7,463 for W. B. Anderson. 
In 1878 Townshend's vote was 12,603 to 8,190 for Eobert Bell, 
and 2,847 for Seth F. Crews; in 1880 it was 18,021 to 14,561 
for C. W. Pavey (Eepublican) and 1,456 for Samuel Flan- 
nigan (Greenbacker); in 1882 it was 15,606 to 9,930 for 
George C. Eoss. In 1884 he was elected again by a vote of 
18,296 to 13,553 for Thomas S. Eidgway. In 1886 Mr. Town- 
shend was elected by a vote of 16,326 to 11,974 cast for Martin, 
Eepublican candidate. 

Other election returns limited strictly to Gallatin County 
have been as follows: In 1830 John Eeynolds for governor 
received 672 votes; William Kinney, 372; Zadock Casey, for 
lieutenant-governor received 668 ; E. B. Slocumb, 349 ; for the 
State Senate: Timothy Guard, 656; Michael Jones, 366; for rep- 
resentative: J. E. Watkins, 747; W. J. Gatewood, 670; Jephtha 
Hardin, 316; Benjamin White, 285; for Sheriff: M. S. Davenport, 
800; Harrison Wilson, 241. In 1840 Van Buren received 1,283 
votes for President; Harrison, 500. In 1842 Thomas Ford re- 
ceived 1,160 votes as candidate for governor; Joseph Duncan, 
441; for State senator Lane received 621; Leviston, 942; for 
representative John A. McClernand received 1,262 votes; 
Thomas S. Hick, 707 ; Flanders, 770; Stickney, 587; Elder, 578; 
Hopper, 338, and Eice, 373. In 1859 Thomas S. Hicks was again 
a member of the House from Gallatin County, James B. Turner 
in 1863, C. Burnett in 1869; in 1871 Simeon K. Gibson was a 
member of the Senate, and William G. Bowman in the House of 
Eepresentatives ; in 1873 J. E. Loomis was elected to the 



50 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

House, and J. M. Wasson in 1875. For governor in 1880 Gal- 
latin County cast for S. M. Cullom 1,052 votes, Lyman Trumbull 
1,567, and for A. J. Streeter (Greenbacker) 18. In 1882 the vote 
for the various officers was — Congress: Townshend, 1,555; Ross, 
986; State senator: Blanchard (Democrat) 1,448; Morris (Re- 
publican) 1,043; representatives: Bowman (Democrat) 2,358; 
Gregg (Democrat) 2,198 ;Boyer (Republican) 1,429 ; McCartney 
(Republican) 1,469; county judge: E. D. Youngblood (Demo- 
crat) 1,302; Milton Bartley (Independent Democrat) 700; 
Rhoades (Republican) 460; sheriff: Bruce (Democrat) 1,425; 
Yost (Republican) 1,077; clerk of the county court: Silas Cook, 
2,247, no opposition; treasurer: Mayhew (Democrat) 1,182; 
Smyth (Republican) 1,292. In 1886 the vote was as follows — 
State Treasurer: Ricker (Democrat) 1,579; Farmer (Republican) 
1,240; congressman: townshend (Democrat) 1,722; Martin (Re- 
publican) 1,015; State senator: Richeson (Democrat) 1,454; 
Yost (Republican) 1,273; county judge: Youngblood (Democrat) 
1,413; Bartley (Republican) 1,389; county clerk: Cook (Dem- 
ocrat) 1,671; Bailey (Republican) 1,142; sherifP: Hale (Dem- 
ocrat) 1,307; Nolen (Republican) 1,450; treasurer: Mayhew 
(Democrat) 1,433; Shaw (Republican) 1,392; county superin- 
tendent of schools: Proctor (Democrat) 1,511; Rodgers (Re- 
publican) 1,319; county commissioner: McLain (Democrat) 
1,531; Allyn (Republican) 1,237; surveyor: Smyth (Democrat) 
1,571; Smith (Republican) 1,268; for township organization, 
1,189; against township organization, 1,343; for hogs and sheep 
running at large, 1,979; against the same, 628. 

EAILEOAD HISTORY. 

There are two railroads running into Gallatin County, and 
terminating at Shawneetown, the Louisville & Nashville and the 
Ohio & Mississippi, both using the same track from Cypress 
Junction. In 1838 the road from Shawneetown to Alton was 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 51 

projected, and in 1840 John Crenshaw was awarded the contract 
on the section from Shawneetown and the grade was completed 
most of the way between Equality and Shawneetown. Afterward 
the Shawneetown and Eldorado Railway Company was char- 
tered, and to this road was granted the right of way, bridges, 
culverts, etc., of the old road which failed. In 1869 the St. 
Louis & Southeastern was chartered, and Joseph J. Castles be- 
came the owner of the Shawneetown & Eldorado Road from 
Shawneetown to Equality and gave that road to the St. Louis 
& Southeastern, and the county of Gallatin gave this latter 
company $100,000 in donation bonds and subscribed $100,000 
to its stock, paying for the same in bonds. In 1880 the road 
was changed to the Louisville & Nashville. 

What is now called the Shawneetown Branch of the Ohio & 
Mississippi Railroad was built under the superintendency of 
Hon. Thomas S. Ridgway. Chief Engineer Rice made the first 
survey in 1868, and a second survey was made in 1870. To 
this railroad, which extends to Beardstown, Cass County, a dis- 
tance of 226 miles, Gallatin County contributed $100,000 in 
bonds. Ten thousand dollars of the $200,000 has been paid, and 
the $190,000 remaining funded at 6 per cent interest. 

THE AGKICULTUKAL ASSOCIATION, 

Gallatin County Agricultural and Mechanical Association was 
incorporated under an act approved April 18, 1872. M. M. Pool, 
John D. Richeson and A. M. L. McBane were the commissioners 
to open subscription books to the stock of the association, the 
stock amounting to $4,000. A meeting was held August 31. 
1872, at which nine directors were elected and the foUoM'ing 
officers: President, M. M. Pool; vice-president, C. W. Mc- 
Gehee; secretary, A. M. L. McBane; treasurer, John D, Robin- 
son. The only changes in the officers since have been that in 
1874 John L. Robinson became secretary, and in 1886 George 



52 GALLATIN COUNTY. 



A. Lowe became treasurer. The association owns twenty-six 
acres of land in the edge of Shawneetown. It has held fifteen 
annual fairs, which have been largely attended by the farmers 
of the county, and have resulted in advancing all the various 
interests of the farming community; better stock, better farm 
machinery, improved methods of agriculture and superior re- 
sults as to variety and value of farm products, are noticeable on 
every hand. 

BENCH AND BAR. 

The common pleas court of Gallatin County held its first 
session in January, 1813, but the records commence in March of 
that year, and are as follows: 

" Pursuant to an act of the territorial Legislature passed at 
their last session, held at Kaskaskia on the 12th of Novem- 
ber, in the year 1812, 'regulating the time for holding the 
courts of common pleas in the several counties of said Territory 
and for other purposes,' the commission of his Excellency Ninian 
Edwards, governor of our said Territory, having been produced 
to Leonard White and Gabriel Greathouse, gentlemen, judges 
of our said court of common pleas for the county of Gallatin, 
by Joseph M. Street as clerk of said court of common pleas 
for the county of Gallatin in the Illinois Territory, and he having 
qualified as said clerk and entered into the ofiice bound with 
sufficient security, is duly constituted the clerk of said court, and 
on the 21st of March, 1813, being the fourth Monday in 
said month and the day appointed by the before recited act for 
holding the court of common pleas for the county of Gallatin 
aforesaid, the sheriff and clerk met at the house of Joseph M, 
Street in Shawanoe Town in the said county of Gallatin, and a 
sufficient number of judges not attending to constitute the court, 
the sheriff adjourned the same until to-morrow ; and now on the 
22d of March, 1813, a sufficient number of judges not attending, 
court is adjourned until to-morrow; and now on the 23d of 






HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 53 

March, 1813, a sufficient number of judges not attending, court 
is adjourned until court in course." 

This court met according to adjournment. May 24, 1813, at 
the house of Gabriel Greathouse in Shawanoe Town. " Present, 
the Honorable John C. Slocumb and Gabriel Greathouse, gentle- 
men." On this day it was ordered by the court that the pro- 
ceedings, had at a court of common pleas for this county, "on 
the fourth Monday in January last," and " on the 15th day of 
February, 1813, for a special purpose," present the above 
named judges, be entered of record as the proceedings of said 
court during the absence of Joseph M. Street, the clerk. 

At the January term of this court above referred to, the pro- 
ceedings, as disclosed by the records, consisted simply of the 
appointment of Benjamin R. Smith and Cornelius Lafferty over- 
seers of the poor for one year; and on February 15 the "special 
purpose" for which the court convened was that of the appoint- 
ment of Samuel Omelvaney commissioner to take a list of the 
taxable property in the county of Gallatin, and he was required 
to give an "office bond" for the faithful performance of his duties. 

On this same day the court, all of the judges being 
present, " Hon. J. C. Slocumb, Gabriel Greathouse and 
Leonard White, gentlemen," it was ordered that the following 
order of court of common pleas for the county of Randolph, in 
the Illinois Territory, made at the August term of said court in 
the year 1812, be renewed, and that Lewis Barker be entered in 
said order as one of the viewers instead of Col. Phillip Trammel. 
(Gallatin County Court of Common Pleas, May term, 1813, 
May 24) 

On the petition of a number of the inhabitants of Rock and 
Cave Township, praying for the establishment of a road from 
Barker's ferry at the Rock and Cave on the Ohio River, the nearest 
and best way to intersect the road from Kaskaskia to the United 
States Saline Springs at Francis Jourdan's; also for the establish- 



54 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

ment of a road from said Barker's ferry to the United States 
Saline Works; and it appearing to the said court that the proper 
proofs were produced to the said court of Randolph County at 
their aforesaid term, that the notices required by law were duly 
given, it is ordered that Lewis Barker, Phillip Coon and 
Isaac Casey be appointed viewers on the route from the ferry to 
the United States Saline AVorks and that Francis Jourdan, Joseph 
Jourdan and Chishem Estes be appointed viewers on the route 
from the ferry to Francis Jourdan's, which said viewers are 
directed to view and mark out several routes for said roads on 
the nearest and best way and as near as may be to the request 
of the petitioners. 

On the next day. May 25, the court met pursuant to ad- 
journment, present, Hons. Leonard White, John C. 
Slocumb and Gabriel Greathouse, gentlemen. The county was 
laid off into townships as follows: The bounds of the militia 
companies were constituted the boundaries of the several town- 
ships. Capt. Steel's boundary shall constitute one township to 
be known by the name of Granpier; Capt. McFarland's to con- 
stitute one township to be known by the name of Big Creek ; Capt. 
Barker's to constitute one township to be known by the name 
of Rock and Cave: the company lately commanded by Capt. 
Trousdale to constitute one township to be known by the name 
of Shawanoe; Capt. White's to constitute one township to be 
known by the name of Saline; Capt. Grove's to constitute one 
township to be known by the name of Pond; and Capt. Mc- 
Henry's to constitute one township to be known by the name 
of Prairie Township. 

The following persons were then appointed constables for the 
respective townships: for Big Creek, Leonard Harrison; for 
Granpier, John Jackson; for Rock and Cave, Asa Ledbetter; 
for Shawanoe, John Forrester; for Saline, Seth Hargrave; for 
Pond, Joshua Beggs; and for Prairie Township, Reuben Bell. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 55 

BUILDING OF THE JAIL. 

It was then ordered that a jail be built on the " publick 
square " in Shawanoe Town, and a "stray pen " established. The 
plan of the jail was as follows: "to consist of two stories, the 
first to be eight feet and the second seven feet high in the clear, 
to be built of good, sound white oak logs hewed to ten inches 
square, and put up with a dove-tail at the corners. The first 
story to be ten feet square in the clear, surrounded by another 
wall of the same description as the first, leaving a space of 
ten inches between the two walls, into which timbers of ten 
inches in thickness are to be dropped endwise and as close side 
to side as they can be placed. The second story to be at least 
thirteen feet, four inches square in the clear to be made by run- 
ning up the outer wall of the lower story perpendicularly to the 
height of seven feet, ten inches above the top of the first story; 
the floor of the first story, the floor of the second story, and the 
ceiling of the second story to be laid with good oak timbers ten 
inches in thickness let in with a shoulder upon the logs of the 
house." Other and minute particulars were prescribed as to the 
roof, the platform, the windows, doors, etc., but the above will 
serve to show the strength of this first criminals' rendezrv^ous of 
Gallatin County. Alexander Wilson, Michael Jones, Joseph M. 
Street, Cornelius Lafferty and Henry Oldham were appointed 
commissioners to contract for the building of the jail and the 
" stray pen." 

Phillip Coon was then appointed administrator upon the es- 
tate of George Coon (deceased), late of this county, and tavern 
rates were then fixed according to law, as follows: Breakfast, 
dinner and supper each, 25 cents ; lodging, 12^ cents ; horse to 
hay or fodder one night, 25 cents; oats or corn per gallon, 
12^ cents; whisky per one-half pint, 12i cents; peach brandy, 
25 cents; cherry bounce, 25 cents; French brandy, 50 cents; 
rum and tafia, 37^ cents; wine, 50 cents; gin, 25 cents; cider. 



56 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

per quart, 12^ cents ; cider royal, 25 cents ; strong beer, 25 cents, 
and small beer, 12^ cents. 

Hazle Morelaud was then granted a license to keep tavern 
at his house, "as it appeared to the court that he was a man of 
good moral character and would probably keep an orderly house." 
His license was $7, the fee to the clerk $1, and his bond was 
$300. Gabriel Greathouse and Thomas M. Dorris were each 
granted licenses to keep tavern, the amount paid in each case 
being 312, and the clerk's fee being $1. Jephtha Hardin was ad- 
mitted to practice law at this court, he having a certificate from 
two of the judges of the general court of the Territory, and was 
thus the first lawyer admitted to practice at this bar. 

The next day, May 26, all the honorable gentlemen of the court 
being present, it was ordered among other things, that the rates 
of taxation for the year 1813 should be: For negroes, $1 each; 
horses, 50 cents each; all the ferries on the Ohio River, $10 
each ; on the Saline, $5 each ; those on the Big Wabash, $4 each ; 
on the Little Wabash, $1 each, and that next above the mouth of 
the Saline Creek, $2. It was then ordered that the order of the 
common pleas court of Randolph County, establishing a road 
from the ferry at Shawanoe Town, to the United States Saline 
Salt Works, be renewed, and that John Robinson, Sr., be ap- 
pointed supervisor thereof from the Island Ripple to the said salt 
works, in the place of William Cheek, and that Hazle Moreland 
be appointed supervisor from the ferry in Shawanoe Town to the 
Island Ripple. Overseers of the poor were then appointed: 
in Prairie Township, John Hannah and Robert Lann ; in Gran- 
pier township, Isham Clay and Joseph Ritchy. It was then or- 
dered that stocks be erected for this county, and that their erec- 
tion be let at the same time and by the same persons as the jail 
and stray pen, " to be completed by the next term of this court." 
The next term of this court commenced September 27, 1813, 
present, the " Hon. John C. Slocumb and Gabriel Greathouse, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 57 

gentlemen." Charles Wilkins & Co. were granted a license to 
keep a tavern at the United States Saline Salt Works, by the 
payment of $12 to the county and $1 to the clerk. Belam May 
was licensed to keep a tavern at the Island Ripple, by the pay- 
ment of ^1, and John Davis to keep tavern at his house upon 
payment of $4 But the most important item of business trans- 
acted on this day had reference to the ferry at Shawneetown, and 
was as folllows: 

On motion of Alexander Wilson the following order, bond and certificate 
of the court of common pleas of Randolph Counly was spread upon the 
records: "Randolph County Court, December, 1810. — On the motion of Alex- 
ander Wilson, and satisfactory proof appearing to the court, it is ordered that 
the said Alexander Wilson be licensed and permitted to establish and keep a 
ferry across the Ohio River from the rocks near the upper end of Shawanoe Town 
and that he be allowed to charge the same rates of ferriage at the said ferry 
as is established for Fritz Holt's ferry across the Ohio, to-wit : 

For each wagon and team consisting of not more than 

four horses or oxen |1 50 

For each wagon and team consisting of not more than two 

horses or oxen 1 00 

Two-wheeled carriages, consisting of not more than two 

horses or oxen 75 

Man and horse 50 

Each person (children under seven excepted) 25 

Each horse, mare, mule or ass 25 

Each head of neat cattle 13i 

Each head of sheep or hogs 06i 

I, William C. Greenup, Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, of the County 
of Randolph, Illinois Territory, do hereby certify that the above is a true tran- 
script from the records of the late County Court of Randolph, now in my 
office, and that the above named Alexander Wilson hath filed in my office a 
bond for the faithful discharge of his duty as the keeper of said ferry condi- 
tioned as the law directs. Given under my hand and the seal of the said 
Court, etc., this 3d day of August, 1813, etc. 

William C. Greenup. 

On motion of James McFarland, made in court September 28, 
1813, and on the petition of a number of the inhabitants of Big 
Creek Township, praying for the establishment of a road from Mc- 
Farland's ferry to the United States Saline Salt Works, William 
Frizzell, Elias Jourdan, Peter Etter and Lewis Watkins were or- 
dered to mark out the several routes for said road upon the nearest 
and best way between the two points. The viewers at the last 



58 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

(May) term of court to mark out a road from Barker's ferry, at the 
rock and cave to the United States Saline Salt Works, made the 
following report: 

" Agreeable to an order of the court of common pleas of Galla- 
tin County, May term, 1813, to have a road viewed from Barker's 
ferry to the United States Saline, we, the viewers, Lewis Barker, 
Phillip Coon and Isaac Casey, did begin at the said ferry and review 
from thence to Nathaniel Armstrong's; thence across Harris Creek 
to a large spring; thence to cross Eagle Creek just above the 
forks, and thence to the United States Saline." Henry Led- 
better and John B. Stovall were appointed overseers of said 
road, with power to call out all the hands on each side of said 
road within six miles of it, to cut it out and keep it in repair. 
Henry Ledbetter from the Ohio to Harris Creek, and John B. 
Stovall from Harris Creek to the Saline. 

On the next day James McFarland was licensed to keep a ferry 
across the Ohio Eiver from where he resided on land belonging 
to the United States until the sale of said public lands, or 
other disposition by the United States, and Frederick Buck, 
Jonathan Hampton, Samuel Craig, Dennis Clay and John Rhe- 
burne Avere ordered to view and mark out a road from Rhe- 
burne's ferry, on the Wabash, to Shawanoe Town. The above 
is the sum and substance^f the business transacted by the Galla- 
tin County Court of Common Pleas during the first year of its 
existence, 1813. Its accomplishments during the subsequent 
years of its career must be more briefly noticed. 

This court convened again January 19, 1814; present, "Hon. 
John C. Slocumb and Leonard White, Gentlemen." Russell E. 
Heacock's motion to grant an order for a ferry across the Ohio 
River on his improvement was continued to the next term of 
court and then overruled. The office of attornev or counsel for 
the courts was created, and Jephtha Hardin appointed to the 
position at an annual salary of ^50. The road from McFar- 



HISTOEY OF ILLINOIS. 59 

land's ferry to the United States Saline Salt Works was established 
as follows: Beginning at McFarland's ferry; thence to Absalom 
Estes; thence to Nathan Clamhit's; thence to where Betty Pau- 
key lives on Big Creek; thence to Elias Jourdan's; thence to 
Lewis Watkins', taking the old road to Willis Hargrave's salt 
works. Prison bounds were established — a circle drawn at 200 
yards' distance from the common jail, so as to make the jail the 
center. The reviewers reported that they had viewed and marked 
the road from Rheburne's ferry, on the Wabash, to Shawanoe 
Town, to the best of their ability and knowledge, " the nearest 
and best way." Frederick Buck was appointed supervisor of 
this road, which was ordered to be cut sixteen feet wide, and 
fence viewers were appointed, three for each township. 

On the 2d of May, 1815, Willis Hargrave, by Russell E. 
Heacock, his attorney, asked the court for the privilege of estab- 
lishing a ferry in Shawanoe Town, opposite Lots Nos. 1210, 1211 
and 1212, and offered to prove by testimony the necessity of 
another ferry in Shawanoe Town, as a matter of public utility, 
but the court refused to hear the testimony, and also refused 
to hear proof that the petitioner had advertised according to law, 
"being themselves fully settled in the conviction that one 
ferry was enough to do all the ferrying there was to be done, as 
it was in their own knowledge." The court on the same day 
found it necessary to exercise its authority in another direction, 
by fining Jephtha Hardin, Thomas C. Browne, " for contempt 
offered this court." 

On the 5th of September, a number of citizens having pro- 
cured two lots in Shawanoe Town for the public square and for the 
erection of a courthouse and other public buildings. Lots No. 1113 
and 1114. Thomas Sloo, John Caldwell and Joseph M. Street were 
appointed commissioners to let the building of the courthouse. 
Taxes for 1815 were fixed as follows: On each horse, mare, mule 
or ass, 50 cents; on all neat cattle above three years, 10 cents; on 



60 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

every bond servant or slave, $1 ; on water and wind mills, houses 
in town, town lots, and mansions in the country of the value of 
$200, on each $100 of the value thereof, 30 cents; ferries on the 
Ohio River, $10, and on each of all other ferries, $5. 

This court met February 20, 1816, at the house of Charles 
Hill, in Shawanoe Town: present, Hons. Leonard White and 
John Marshall. On this day John McLean was admitted to prac- 
tice law. November 19, 1816, Stephen Hogg produced his com- 
mission from Gov. Ninian Edwards, as a judge of the Gallatin 
County Court. February 4, 1817, Hons. Stephen Hogg and 
Marmaduke S. Davenport held court. On November 23, 1818, 
the judges were Hons. John Marshall, John G. Daimwood 
and Andrew Wilkins. The next day there was present in ad- 
dition to the above honorable gentlemen, Erastus "Wheeler. 

A special term of this court was begun and held at the house 
of Samuel Hayes in Shawanoe Town, January 4, 1819; present, 
^'John Marshall, John G. Daimwood and Samuel Hayes, Esquires." 
The court adjourned to meet on the 6th instant, at the house of 
Ephraim Hubbard, to settle the accounts of the sheriff and clerk. 
The total amount due the county from Ephraim Hubbard, sheriff, 
was $1,508,831 all of which he paid, except $316. 56i for 
which he gave his note. The total amount due the county from 
Joseph M. Street, clerk, was $454, and it was found that the 
county was in his debt $57.50. A court was held April 19, 1819, 
at the house of Samuel Hayes; present, "Jacob Sexton, Samuel 
Hayes, William McCoy and John Forrester, Esquires." The 
court proceeded to" lay off the county into five townships or elec- 
tion districts, with judges of election, as follows: Rock and Cave 
Township, John Black, Asa Ledbetter, and Alexander McElroy ; 
Shawanoe Township, Cornelius Lafferty, Andrew Stark and Samuel 
Hayes; Cane Creek, John Groves, Joseph Riley, and Mr. 
Stout; Saline Township, William Burnett, Eli Adams, and Cole- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 61 

man Brown ; Monroe Township, Hankerson Eude, Hugh Rob 
inson, and Chism Estes. 

THE COUNTY COMMISSIONERS' COURT. 

This appears to have been the last official act of the old court 
of common pleas. It was succeeded by the county commis- 
sioners' court, Avhicli held its first meeting on June 7, 1819, 
at the house of Samuel Hayes in Shawanoe Town. Present, 
John Forrester, John Lane and Robert Peeples, Esqs. Joseph 
M. Street, as clerk of the court, gave bond in the sum of 
^1,000, with Cornelius LafPerty and Marmaduke S. Davenport 
as sureties. The first action of this new court was to appoint su- 
pervisors for the different roads: William McCoy, Brice Han- 
nah, Martin Hitchcock, Joseph Riley, Frederick Buck, Christo- 
pher Robinson, Michael Bartlett, Meredith Fisher and Moses 
Rawlings on the various roads already laid out. On the 9th of 
June Thomas A. Spilman was appointed deputy clerk of the 
county commissioners' court. Tavern rates and rates of ferriage 
were fixed for the year. Constables were appointed: James Beal 
for Monroe Township: Michael Robinson for Shawanoe; Joseph 
Riley for Cave, and Arthur G. Young for Saline Township. Isaac 
Baldwin, John Black, Neil Thompson and Alexander McElroy, 
reviewers appointed by the late county court, reported having 
laid out a road from Flinn's Ferry, on the Ohio River to the 
Saline tavern, and the court ordered that the road be established 
as a public highway. HugliMcConnell was appointed supervisor 
on this road from Flinn's Ferry to Powell's cabins; Isaiah L. 
Potts from Powell's cabins to include the crossing of Beaver 
Creek ; John Black from Beaver Creek to Eagle Creek, and Rob- 
ert Watson from Eagle Creek to its intersection with the road from 
Shawanoe Town to the Saline tavern. Supervisors were appointed 
for other roads and reviewers to mark out new roads, the par- 
ticulars of which would be burdensome to this volume. One 



62 - GALLATIN COUNTY. 

other item should not be omitted, and that is that billiard 
tables were taxed $150 each. 

A settlement was made March 11, 1820, with Marmaduke S. 
Davenport, sheriff of the county, the total amount due the 
county being $1,567,264; and also with John G. Daimwood, 
county treasurer, whose total collections for the year had been 
$1,628.20^. The next year, in June, a settlement was made with 
the sheriff, which showed that he had collected $1,34:8.50, taxes 
due for 1820. In March, 1822, the treasurer's statement showed 
that he had handled $641. 19|, but in 1823 the amount reached 
$2,564.97. Dr. AYilliam McCoy was treasurer in 1825; and in 
1826 Dr. Henry Boyer, sheriff, collected for the year previous, 
$2,070,214. 

In 1827, in pursuance of an act entitled " An act requiriug 
the county commissioners' court of Gallatin County to carry into 
effect an act entitled an act permanently to locate the seat of 
justice of Gallatin County," approved January 26, 1827, a 
county commissioners' court was held at the house of Emanuel 
Ensminger in the town of Equality, which was located and 
laid out under the provisions of said act, on the first Monday in 
March, 1827. The commissioners at that time were Andrew 
Slack, John Shearer and Charles Mick ; and on the 6th of March 
they ordered that the county treasurer pay Josiah Solomon 
$572,624 in specie, or its equivalent, for building a courthouse 
and jail. 

The first writ of ad quod damnum issued by this court was on 
March 10, 1837. Orval Sexton made application to the court to 
confirm him in a " mill seat" on the Big Slough, running through 
fractional Section 32, Township 9, Range 10 east. James Brad- 
ford appeared and informed the court that he expected to be 
injured by the overflowing of his lands should the "mill seat" 
be confirmed. The verdict of the jury upon the case was that 
the application to confirm the mill seat be overruled, and that 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 63 

he pay the costs. Mr. Sexton then applied for a new writ of ad 
quod damnum on his aforesaid land, to be near the mouth of 
Big Slongh, which was awarded him accordingly ; the jury, decid- 
ing that the health of the neighborhood would not be injuriously 
affected, and believing that the mill would be of great public 
utility, agreed that he might build a dam at the mouth of Big 
Slough. Harvey Green was permitted to build a mill dam on 
the Eunning Slough, Section 3, Township 9, Kange 10, and John 
Tanner on the Saline River, near the center of the northeast 
quarter of Section 19, Township 10, Range 5 east. 

In 1840 John Lane, Thomas Tong and Joseph Hayes were 
appointed commissioners to let to the lowest, responsible bidders 
the building of the new jail at Equality, the county seat having 
been removed there. The building was to be similar to that 
already described as having been erected at Shawneetown, ex- 
cept that it was larger, 20 feet, 4 inches square. Benjamin 
Lafferty took the contract to build it for |1,300. 

In 1843 it was ordered by this court that a poorhouse be 
established at the house of Turner Cook "for the purpose of 
trying the poorhouse plan of taking care of paupers for one year, 
to commence in March next," and an appropriation of |60 per 
annum was made for each pauper that should stay the full year. 

LOCATION OF COUNTY SEAT. 

The act establishing the county of Saline was approved Feb- 
ruary 25, 1847, and it was provided that in case the county 
of Saline was established in accordance therewith, elections 
should be held in the counties made by the division, on the 
first Saturday of September following for the location of the 
seats of justice for the two counties, and that previous to the 
election any number of voters not less than fifty, should nom- 
inate places to be voted for, and file their nominations in the 
office of the county commissioners' court. John E. Hall, and 



64 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

sixty-one others in Gallatin County, designated in writing, the 
northwest quarter of the southwest quarter of Section 5, Town- 
ship 9, Range 9 east, land owned by Washington Sherwood, as 
a proper place for the seat of justice of Gallatin County, and the 
nomination Avas filed in the county commissioners' court as re- 
quired by law, August 12, 1847. Eobert H. Morrow and 114 
others, in a similar manner, designated in writing and nominated 
as a proper place for the seat of justice, Lots Nos. 815 and 816 
in the town of Shawneetown, and this nomination was accom- 
panied with bond and security for the conveyance to the county 
of the title of said lots ; and these were the only places in nomina- 
tion for the county seat. The election for the choice of one 
of these places was held on the first Saturday of September, 
1847, and Daniel P. AVilbanks, clerk of the county commissioners' 
court, on the 10th of September, associated with himself Israel 
D, Towle and John T. Cook, justices of the peace, and they, as 
judges of the election, opened the poll books, compared the re- 
turns and certified to the result as being, that the place nominated 
by John E. Hall and sixty-one others had received 459 votes, 
while that nominated by Robert H. Morrow and 114 others, 
had received but twenty-one votes. Hence, on the popular vote, 
Shawneetown was beaten for the county seat. However, on the 
26th of October, 1847, Samuel D. Marshall made a motion in 
the circuit court for a rule upon the circuit court clerk, requiring 
him to forthwith remove the circuit court records to ShaAvnee- 
town, and in support of the motion produced a certificate of the 
clerk of county commissioners' court and two justices of the 
peace of Gallatin County, stating that Shawneetown had received 
a majority of the votes of said county for the seat of justice 
thereof, at an election by the people. At the same time Henry 
W. Moore produced against the motion, a certificate of entry ou 
the records of the county commissioner's court, of said county, 
signed by the same two justices of the peace, setting forth that a 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 65 

tract of land therein described, donated by Washington Sher- 
wood, had received the highest number of votes at the same elec- 
tion; and the motion of S. D. Marshall was disallowed. 

At the March term in 1848 of the county commissioners' court 
the following proceedings were had with reference to this matter : 
" The circuit court of Gallatin County at its last term, having de- 
cided that Shawneetown was then the seat of justice of said 
county,* thereupon ordering the books, records, etc., pertaining 
to the various county offices required by law to be kept at the seat 
of justice, to be removed to Shawneetown, which decision has 
been reversed by the supreme court of the State ; and this court, 
being now, as heretofore, likewise of the opinion that Shawneetown 
is not the legally elected seat of justice, and therefore concurring 
entirely, as bound to do, in the decision of reversal of the supreme 
court and acquiescing in the other decision of said circuit court 
remaining unreversed by which at its last term it refused to hold 
the same at Shawneetown, deciding to hold said term wherever it 
might find the records thereof remaining pursuant to the order 
of this court, and did accordingly hold said term at Equality, 
where the books, records, etc., now are, and where they should 
remain until the dispute concerning this matter shall be finally 
and conclusively adjudicated." And the sheriff was ordered to 
repair the courthouse and prepare it for the holding of the next 
term of court at Equality. A county commissioners' court was 
held at Equality, June 5, 184:8, but a regular term of this court 
was held at the office of Isaac Cooper in Shawneetown, September 
4, 1848. On the 8tli John Reynolds was requested to remove 
the records, books, and papers to Shawneetown, or his office would 
be declared vacant, and that after the 10th of September the 
room he occupied in the courthouse at Equality would be for 
rent. A similar notice was served on James Davenport, probate 
justice, and Calvin Gold, clerk of the county commissioners' court, 



*This decision was not found on the lecords. 



66 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

was authorized to rent a suitable building for tlie use of the cir- 
cuit and county courts and for other offices for one year. On 
October 3, 1848, James W. Trousdale, county treasurer, was or- 
dered to remove his office to Shawneetown or his office would be 
declared vacant, and Calvin Gold had entered into a contract with 
E. J. Durbin by which Durbin was to have the upper story of 
the depot ready for the occupancy of the courts by the 23d 
of October. The county clerk was then instructed to notify D. 
P. AVilbank, clerk of the circuit court, James Davenport, probate 
justice and John Eeynolds, recorder had leased and held ready 
suitable rooms for the public offices when applied for. 

Thus the contest waged for years, until at length the Legis- 
lature passed an " act to create the county of Gallatin out of 
Gallatin and Saline," and in the same act provided that the 
county seat should be permanently located at Equality. This 
act was to take effect on the fourth Monday in April, 1851. 
Samuel S. Marshall was then judge of the Twelfth Judicial Cir- 
cuit, of which Gallatin and Saline Counties formed parts. Under 
this law, consolidating the two counties, Judge Marshall refused 
to hold a term of court in Saline County. Thereupon William 
K. Stephenson, in the name of the people, made an application 
to the supreme court for a peremptory mandamus, ordering the 
judge to hold court in Saline County, and upon a hearing of the 
cause, a peremptory mandamus was granted, the decision of the 
supreme court being based upon the clause of the constitution 
reading: "No territory shall be added to any county without 
the consent of a majority of the voters of the county to which 
it is proposed to be added." The Legislature, therefore, in June, 
1852, passed an act amending the above act, providing for an 
election to be held on the first Monday in August, 1852, to test 
the question of reuniting the two counties and providing that 
if the election should result in favor of such reunion, then 
Equality should be the permanent county seat. However, the 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. b< 

election resulted in the permanent separation of the two counties. 
Under the constitution of 1848 the old county commissioners' 
court was superseded by the system of county judge and two as- 
sociate justices. The first judge under this arrangement was 
James Davenport, elected in 1849; the next was William E. 
Kohrer, elected in 1853; A. AV. Hamilton, 1857; K. P. Hinch, 
1859; William G. Bowman, 1861; Angus M. L. McBane, 1165; 
Milton Bartley, 1869-82, and E. D. Youngblood from 1882 
to the present time (1887). Under the constitution of 1870 
the above system was so changed that a county board was pro- 
vided for, to consist of three commissioners, to manage the county 
affairs. These commissioners have been, in 1873, John T. Wal- 
ters, Benjamin Kinsall and Thomas J. Tate; elected since, in 
1874, James T. Colbert; 1875, Edgar Mills and Eobert M. 
Trousdale; 1876, James T. Colbert and R McClain; 1879, E. 
M. Smith and Isaac Smith; 1880, Thomas B. Logsdon; 1881, J. 
A. Lane; 1882, Simon Reeder; 1883, W. C. Trusty; 1884, Henry 
Hill; 1885, Simon Reeder, and 1886, F. McClain. 

THE CIRCUIT COURT. 

The first term under the circuit court system held in Gal- 
latin County, so far as the records show, was convened at the house 
of Joseph M. Street, in Shawneetown, Monday, July 3, 1815, 
by the Hon. Stanley Griswold. This county was then in the 
Third Judicial Circuit; Jesse B. Thomas was judge in the First 
Circuit and William Sprigg in the Second. Judge Griswold 
gave notice that in the course of the term he would prepare a 
paper consenting to the above arrangement, but , remonstrating 
against the mode in which said arrangement was made, and saving 
himself from the effect of his present consent as a precedent to 
guide him in future allotments. Thomas C. Browne procured a 
commission from His Excellency Ninian Edwards, governor of 
the Territory, appointing the said Browne prosecuting attorney 



b» GALLATIN COUNTY. 

on behalf of the Territory to the district consisting of the 
counties of Edwards, Gallatin and Johnson, which commission, 
together with the endorsement of the governor, was recorded 
and Thomas E. Craig was empowered to administer the necessary 
oaths. 

The first case in the circuit court was that of William Ed- 
wards vs. Daniel Bridgeman, in detinue. On motion of the 
plaintiff a dedimus was awarded him to take the deposi- 
tion of William EdAvards, Sr., and Matthew AVest, to be read 
on the trial, and all further proceedings were continued to the 
next term of court. The second case was that of John Carter vs. 
William Cheek, on a debt; the third was that of the United 
States vs. Buzle Lee, John G. Wilson and Moses M. Eawlings, 
on a recognizance. On motion of the plaintiff's attorney a sch'e 
facias was issued against the said defendants, returnable at the 
next term of court. The fourth and last case for that day was 
that of Frederick Buck vs. John Walls. The defendant moved 
for leave to file a plea, which motion was agreed to and the case 
continued until the next term of court. The grand jury was ad- 
journed and the court adjourned until next day, July 4, when 
eight ordinary cases, such as for debt, trespass, etc., were dis- 
posed of. On July 5 there were ninety -three cases of various 
kinds and on the 6th only five, when court adjourned. 

A circuit court was held at the house of Thomas M. Dorris, 
in Shawanoe Town, July 1, 1816, by Hon. Thomas Towles, 
with the same judges as before on the First and Second Circuits. 
Judge Towles laid down rules for the government of the court in 
the trial of causes. The November term was held at the same 
place by the same judge, as also were those of 1817, The March 
term, 1818, was held at the house of William Harding by Judge 
Jephtha Hardin, as was also the July term. The May term, 1819, 
was held at the house of Samuel Hayes, in Shawanoe Town, 
by Hon. Thomas C. Browne. At this term William Badger, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 69 

William L. O. Ewing and Thomas A. Young were admitted to 
practice law. The October term was held at the house of Mar- 
maduke S. Davenport by Hon. William Wilson. Most of the 
cases at this term were "upon an indictment," sued out in the 
name of the United States. The May term, 1820, was held at 
the house of Peeples & Kirkpatrick, in Shawanoe Town, by Hon. 
Thomas C. Browne, as was the October term, the May term, 
1821, and the May and October terms, 1822. The April term, 
1823, was held at the house of Moses M. Kawlings by the same 
judge. At this term the principal case was that of the President 
and Directors of the Bank of Illinois vs. John Seebolt. Then 
followed a number of cases of assault and battery, one for riot, 
one for usurpation in office, for debt, for trespass, for non-attend- 
ance as a juror, for slander, etc. 

The first murder trial came on before Hon. Thomas C. 
Browne, judge of the Fourth Judicial Circuit, which then con- 
sisted of Franklin, Union, Johnson, Alexander, Pope, Jackson 
and Gallatin Counties, September 16, 1823. In this trial John 
Darr was tried for the murder of William Thomasou. The grand 
jury was composed of Isaac Hogan, Michael Jones, Gardner 
Morel and, Stephen Fields, Robert Harding, Thomas Akers, 
William Robinson, James Willis, Sr., Coleman Brown, William 
Forrester, James Logan, Robert Beale, William Wing, Andy 
Laughlin, Laban Robinson, Edward Shear wood, Townsend Can- 
non, David Gill and William Gardner, "good and lawful men of 
the county and circuit aforesaid." The substance of the indict- 
ment was that "John Darr, late of the county of Gallatin, not 
having the fear of God before his eyes, but being moved and 
seduced by the instigation of the Devil, on the 7th day of Sep- 
tember, 1823, with force and arms, feloniously, willfully and of 
his malice aforethought," made an assault upon William Thom- 
ason with a certain knife held in his right hand and did stab him 
in the right side to the depth of eight inches, of which wound 



70 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

William Tbomason instantly died. James Hall prosecuted for 
the State, The jury for the trial were James Fields, Alexander 
Barnhill, John McAlister, Boston Daimwood, Lowery Hay, 
Thomas Addison, John B. Shoemaker, James Stephenson, Zadock 
Aydelotte, Pleasant Tally, Spencer Ellis and James McGhee. The 
verdict of the jury was " We, the jury, find the defendant, John 
Darr, guilty of murder in the manner and form as he stands 
indicted." 

The next indictment for murder was found on the same day 
the above verdict was rendered, and was against Jordan Lacy. 
In this case the jury rendered a verdict of guilty of manslaugh- 
ter, and sentenced Lacy to imprisonment in the jail for one year, 
and to pay a fine of $500, and to stand committed until the fine 
was paid. Then followed a number of ordinary cases — slander, 
false imprisonment, trespass vi et arm is, assault and battery, re- 
plevin, scire facias, rape, etc. 

On March 14, 1825, the Hon. James Hall, judge of the Fourth 
Judicial Circuit, held court at the house of Richard Elliott 
in Shawanoe Town. Joseph M. Street was still clerk, bond 
$5,000; Henry Eddy, circuit attorney. An interesting case 
occurred at the July term (1825) of this court, in which the 
fictitious personages, John Doe and Richard Roe, were permitted 
to figure. It was that of "John Doe " vs. "Richard Roe;" 
Henry Eddy, attorney for the plaintiff, James Jones' date July, 

1825. This was a suit for ejectment against tenants in posses- 
sion of a farm, houses, etc., in the town of Shawnee, the tenants 
in possession being Henry Boyers, John Milne, John Reid 
and John Smothers. The suit was brought before Hon. James 
E. Wattles, judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit, and was contin- 
ued until the next term of the court, which convened March 8, 

1826. It was now heard by Hon. James Hall, judge of the 
Fourth Judicial Circuit. The same parties, as named above, were 
attached to answer John Doe of a plea whereupon they, the de- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 71 

f endants, with force and arms entered in five messuages, five barns 
and five outhouses and the lot and grant and one acre of land with 
the appurtenances situated and being in Shawneetown, etc. 
The case was again continued until the next term of court, held 
at Equality May 22, 1827, by Hon. Thomas C. Browne, defen- 
dants entered a plea of not guilty, and both parties to the suit 
"put themselves upon the country," McLean & Grundy for de- 
fendants and Hardin & Eddy for plaintiffs. "Whereupon plain- 
tiffs' attorney filed a notice in the following woids and figures to 
wit: 

Mr. McLeax, 

Sir: You are required to produce in the trial of the case of Doe vs. Henry 
Boyers et al., the certificate granted hy the register of the land oflSce at Shaw- 
neetown to John A. Wilson, assignee of the heirs of Alexander Wilson, deceased. 

Hardin & Eddt. 

Thereupon came the following jury: Joseph Eeynolds, 
William Mills, John Choisser, James Cairns, Robert Keith, 
Eobert Henderson, A. T. McCool, T. Guard, John Crenshaw, A. 
P. S. "Wight, John Seebolt and John Berry; but before the 
jury had time to render a verdict, the defendant filed a motion 
for a nonsuit, which being allowed, the court adjudged the costs 
against the plaintiff. 

On the 12th of September, 1825, James O. "Wattles sat as 
judge in consequence of Hon. James Hall being engaged in 
some of the cases before the couit. John Norman, John Frazier, 
John Lincoln, John B. Ellis, John Ellis and James Davis were 
found guilty of rioting, and fined ^15 each. Hon. James 
0. Wattles served until the close of the September term of 
that year, and on the second Monday of January, 1826, Hon. 
James Hall resumed his seat upon the bench. Hon. James 
O. Wattles presided again at the September term, 1826. at which 
term James Caldwell, a subject of the king of Great Britain, was 
naturalized, which was probably the first case in Gallatin 
County. The May term, 1827, was held at the courthouse in 
Equality, by Hon. Thomas C. Browne, Leonard White, clerk. 



72 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

An important case was that of the president and directors 
of the State Bank of Illinois vs. Hazle Moreland for the fore- 
closure of a mortgage. This action was commenced by scire 
facias in the Gallatin Circuit Court on a mortgage executed to 
plaintifPs and recorded according to law. The defendant de- 
murred to the scire facias, and judgment was rendered for the 
defendant. The case was then taken to the supreme court, Hon. 
William Wilson, chief justice; Theophilus W. Smith and 
Samuel D. Lockwood, associate justices. The supreme court 
quoted the 18th section of an act passed January 17, 1825, 
concerning judgments and executions as follows: 

If default be made in the payment of any sum of money secured by 
mortgage.on lands and tenements duly executed and recorded, and if the pay- 
ments be by installments and the last shall have become due, it shall be lawful 
for the mortgagee to sue out a writ of scire facias from the Clerk's office of the 
Circuit Court, in which the said mortgaged premises maybe situated on any part 
thereof. 

If language is comprehensive enough to authorize this pro- 
ceeding by scire facias, the Legislature certainly employed it in 
this statute, and the supreme court decided that the mortgagee 
was allowed to proceed by scire facias. The case was, therefore, 
remanded to the Gallatin Circuit Court, which at its May term 
1829, judged that the scire facias had been duly executed and 
that the plaintiff recover of the defendant $400, and that the 
southeast quarter of Section 34, Township 9, Range 9, be sold to 
satisfy the judgment. 

The State Bank won a similar suit against Harrison Wilson. Hou 
Thomas C. Browne presided in this circuit court from 1827 to 1834. 
April 6 Hon. Alexander F. Grant, judge of the Third Judi- 
cial Circuit, presided, holding that term ; Hon. Justin Harlan 
presided in October, and Judge Grant in November, 1835. April 
4, 1836, Judge Jephtha Hardin began a term of this court; on 
the 5th Thomas Pickering was indicted for selling cards and 
for playing cards; Stephen Blackman for keeping a gaming 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 73 

house, and Jacob Cummins for playing cards. Thomas Picker- 
ing was on the 20th of July acquitted of selling cards, and on 
the 25tli plead guilty of playing cards and gambling, and was 
fined 310. Hon. Walter B. Scates, held court at the April 
term, 1837, commencing April 3, and on the 8th Peter Hardin 
was found guilty of murder and sentenced to death. September 
23 Isom Franklin was found guilty of manslaughter and the 
court passed the following sentence: "You are to be remanded 
to jail, to be taken thence to the penitentiary at Alton, there to re- 
main two years and eleven calendar months at hard labor, and 
one calender month in solitary confinement, and to be fined $1." 
Hon. Walter B. Scates continued to preside in this court until 
1846, when he was succeeded by Hon. William A. Denning in 
1851, in Avhich year Hon. Samuel S. Marshall became judge 
of the Twelfth Judicial Circuit. The May term, 1851,. was held 
by Judge Marshall at the courthouse in Equality, and the Sep- 
tember term, 1851, at the courthouse in Shawneetown. About 
this time for a number of years, both before and after, there were 
numerous indictments against various parties for kidnaping, 
which crime may be found discussed in another place. A special 
term of this court was begun February 16, 1852, for the trial of 
chancery cases, Judge Samuel S. Marshall on the bench. At the 
October term of 1854, Hon. Downing Baugh presided. On 
the 30th of this month Sanford Browning was found guilty of 
manslaughter and sentenced to the penitentiary for seven years 
at hard labor. At this term also H. K. Starkey was sentenced 
to be hanged, but was acquitted at a new trial. At the June term 
of 1855, Hon. Downing Baugh also presided, but was succeeded 
in October, 1855, by Hon. Edwin Beecher. At the May term 
of 1857, Hon. Wesley Sloan was judge. At this term was 
commenced one of the most remarkable murder trials that have 
taken place in any country, remarkable because of the almost if 
not quite absolute lack of provocation, because of the high stand- 



74 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

ing of the murdered man, and of his family, and because of it be- 
ing one of the first of the kind, since numerous cases in which 
the insane plea of emotional insanity has^ resulted in a verdict 
of acquittal. The murdered man, John E. Hall, at the time clerk 
of the circuit court, was without a moment's warning shot in the 
back by Robert C. Sloo in 1856. The jury before whom the case 
was tried was as follows: Joseph Grayson, George McMurchy, 
Jesse Jenkins, William Hargrave, Sterling Edwards, Wesley 
Brown, Jesse Johnson, A. H. Cook, Bethuel Cook, William Will- 
iams, Andrew J. Cowan and Allen Robinett. Logan (John A.), 
Allen, Robinson and Posey were the attorneys for the people, 
and Davis, Swett, Crockett, Freeman and McCallen, for the de- 
fense. The verdict of the jury was as follows: "We, the jury, 
find the defendant not guilty," it was therefore " ordered and 
adjudged by the court, that the defendant, Robert C. Sloo, is not 
guilty of the charge alleged in the indictment in this case against 
him, and that he be discharged without day." Hon. Wes- 
ley Sloan continued to preside in this court until the May term, 
1867, and was succeeded at the October term by Hon. Andrew 
D. Daff. The circuit of which this county formed a part was 
changed to the Nineteenth in 1863, and to the Twenty-sixth in 
1867, and Judge Duff continued to preside until 1873. He was 
followed at the February term, 1874, by Hon. Tazewell B. 
Tanner, when the circuit became the Twenty-fourth. At the No- 
vember term, 1877, the circuit was changed to the Second, and 
Hon. James C. Allen presided in Gallatin County. At the 
March term of 1878, the judge was Hon. John H. Halley, and 
at the May term, Hon. James C. Allen ; at the November 
term, 1878, and the May term, 1879, Hon. T. B. Tanner; at 
the September term, 1879, and the February term, 1880, Hon. 
Chauncey S. Conger ; at the September term, 1880, Hon. 
William C. Jones; at the February term, 1881, the September 
term, 1881, the February and September terms, 1882, and the 



HISTOKY OF ILLINOIS. 75 

February term, 1883, Hon. Chauncey S. Conger; at the Sep- 
tember term, 1883, Hon. William C. Jones; at the February 
term, 1884, Hon. Thomas S. Casey; at the September term, 
1884, and the April term, 1885, Hon. Chauncey S. Conger; at 
the September term, 1885, and the February term, 1886, 
Hon. Carroll C. Boggs; at the September term, 1886, Hon. C. S. 
Conger; and the February term, 1887, Hon. Carroll C. Boggs. 
To give a complete list of the murder trials in this county 
would be unnecessary in a volume of this character, as they 
have been quite numerous, indicating a much more than ordinar- 
ily perturbed condition of society, lasting through a long series of 
years. The Aiken murder trial, however, can not be passed un- 
noticed. John Aiken killed Augustus Stewart in March, 1864, 
in White County, and was committed to jail at Carmi, but broke 
jail and was not captured until 1877, and then through the 
efforts of Thomas I. Porter, sheriff of White County, one of the 
quietest and most courageous of men. A change of venue was 
taken to Gallatin County, where the trial took place before 
the following jury: John B. Walters, John H. Crow, Will- 
iam Willis, Jasper Bowling, Thomas Frohock, Albert Hill, A. 
M. Hannah, James J. Williams, John M. Thomas, John Fitz- 
gibbon, William R. Tate and John Wilde. The verdict of the 
jury was as follows: "We, the jury, find the defendant guilty of 
murder and fix the punishment at death." A motion was made 
for a new trial, and on the hearing of that motion it was devel- 
oped that the jurors, before arriving at their verdict as recorded 
above, had all been in favor of finding him guilty of murder, but 
one of them was opposed to the infliction of the death penalty. 
As this one would not yield his opposition to this penalty, it was 
arranged that two members of the jury, the one opposed to hang- 
ing and another, unwilling to agree to anything else, should 
draw straws for a verdict, the long straw to win. The result of 
the drawing was that the juror unalterably in favor of hanging- 



76 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

drew the long straw, and hence the fixing by the jury of the 
death penalty. Upon the development of this fact, a new trial 
was granted, and the jury which had adopted the novel method 
recounted above of arriving at a verdict were punished as follows : 
the four engaged in the drawing of the straws, the one who pro- 
cured them, the one who held them and the two who drew them 
were fined, three of them being fined ^100 each, one of them 
^50 and the remainder of the jury were acquitted. 

Upon the second trial the following were the jury: John Es- 
kew, Samuel Simpkins, Thomas Martin, Richard Sweeney, Ed- 
ward Young, Moses McDonald, James A. Jones, William Clay- 
ton, George B. Stilly, Price Williams, Charles Mock and Thomas 
McKee. They brought in a verdict of guilty of murder and fixed 
the punishment at imprisonment in the penitentiary at hard labor 
for life. The accomplices of Aiken, Henry and Charles Glide 
have not been apprehended. 

Three men have been hanged for murder in Gallatin County, 
the first of which occurred before the State was admitted into the 
Union. In this case Martin Frazier was hanged for the murder 
of Mr. Dryden. Frazier had been on criminally intimate terms 
with Mrs. Dryden and it was because of this intimacy that Dry- 
den was killed. The murder was committed with an axe while 
Dryden was milking a cow. His body was buried under his 
smokehouse and such means as suggested themselves were tak- 
en by Mrs. Dryden to prevent the discovery of the body. At 
the expiration of about two weeks, during which time the entire 
community supposed he had voluntarily left the country never to 
return, his body was found under the smokehouse, some say by 
means of an old lady's dream, others through the observations 
of some boys who noticed an unusual number of flies going down 
through and coming up through the cracks in the smokehouse 
floor. Upon the discovery being made, Frazier, who had as- 
siduously assisted to find traces of the missing man, immediately 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 77 

started ou a full run for the woods, thus coufessiug himself the 
cause of Dryden's mysterious disappearance. Pursuit on foot 
and on horseback was promptly made by a number of citizens, 
who rode and ran rapidly toward the fords across Hardin Creek 
on the Saline mines road, and on the Tally's ferry road. Frazier 
made for the Big Bend between the two fords, but no one sup- 
posed it possible for him to escape because of the extremely soft 
nature of the sides and bottom of the creek, in which, as some have 
expressed it, "a mosquito would mire." Frazier ran with all 
possible speed toward a comparatively narrow place in the creek, 
where the banks on either side were high and dry, and to the sur- 
prise of all, made a running leap and cleared the creek, though 
the distance, as afterward measured, was a trifle over twenty-two 
feet from toe to heel. He then ran for a herd of cattle and, placing 
himself in a stooping posture on the opposite side of a large steer, 
endeavored thus covered to escape to a canebrake not far dis- 
tant, and would have succeeded but for the keen eyes of a boy 
who accompanied the pursuing party, and who remarked that 
" that old red steer, it seems to me, has too many fore legs." 
This led to a rapid chase by horsemen who succeeded in sur- 
rounding and capturing the fugitive, who was tried for the mur- 
der, convicted, sentenced to death and hanged. 

Two other hangings for murder are all that have occurred 
in the county, though a large number of murders have been 
committed. The last murder trial was that of James Switzer for 
the killing of John J. Eamsey, the trial occurring at the Feb- 
ruary term, 1887, of the circuit court, the accused being con- 
victed and sentenced to the penitentiary for twenty years. 

Some of the ablest attorneys furnished to the State of 
Illinois have been members of the Gallatin County bar. 
Among them may be mentioned Jephtha Hardin, the first one 
admitted to practice, as elseAvhere appears ; Henry Eddy, William 
J. Gatewood, S. D. Marshall, John A. McClernand; John Mc- 



78 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

Lean, one of the brightest minds of Illinois ; Thomas C. Browne, 
later one of the supreme judges of the State ; Russell E. Heacock, 
afterward a prominent lawyer of Chicago ; Elias Kent Kane, John 
A. Logan, Robert G. Ingersoll, A. G. Caldwell, and, occasionally, 
Abraham Lincoln. The present bar consists of E. D. Young- 
blood, Roedel & Sisson, Bowman & Pillow, Bartley & Son» 
Parrish Bros., D. M. Kinsall and R. W. Townshend, the latter 
member of Congress from the Nineteenth District. 

MILITARY HISTORY. 

For the Mexican war Illinois raised six regiments, a larger 
number than was raised in any other State. The Third Regi- 
ment was composed of ten companies, one of which was raised in 
Gallatin County. Of this company, Michael K. Lawler was 
captain, and Samuel D. Marshall, major. The Third Regi- 
ment was commanded by Col. Forman. Subsequently Capt. 
Michael K. Lawler raised a company of dragoons in Gallatin 
County. Thus Gallatin County performed her full share in the 
war for the annexation of Texas. 

When the slaveholders' Rebellion oroke out there was, in 
southern Illinois, a large number of people in favor of peace so 
long as there was any hope in their minds of preventing a disso- 
lution of the Union by peaceful measures; and besides these 
there was a large number of people who were so fully in sympa- 
thy with the Rebellion that they not only deprecated war upon 
the South to prevent secession being consummated, but they 
opposed the war with all their influence and even favored the 
secession of southern Illinois from the Union, and the union of 
its fortunes with those of the Southern States. This was owing 
to the fact that a large number of the early settlers were origi- 
nally from the Southern States, as has been shown elsewhere, and 
they and their descendants were generally, though not universally, 
admirers of the chivalry of the South, and of the peculiar institu- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 81" 

tion of slavery, and they were fully convinced that it was consti- 
tutional to destroy the Constitution, along with the Government 
of the Constitution, for the sake of the perpetuation of that pecul- 
iar institution; though, as was just intimated, there were South- 
ern men, some from Kentucky, some from Virginia, whose names 
might be given, who expressed the opinion to leaders in the South- 
ern movement, that the movement would not only fail, but that it 
would end in the death of slavery, in whose interest it was in 
part inaugurated. That southern Illinois did not join the South- 
ern Confederacy, or, at least attempt to do so, is due as much to 
the attitude and patriotism of John A. Logan, as to the efforts of 
any other man, and it was also due to his influence that many of 
the counties in southern Illinois should have assumed the appar- 
ently paradoxical position of being so largely in favor of seces- 
sion and yet, at the same time, furnishing so many soldiers to 
the Union Army as to avoid the drafts all through the war. 

In 1861 the entire number of persons in the county subject 
to military duty was 1,311:, and in 1862 it was 1,063, The quota 
of the county in 1861 was 214, and in 1862 it was 146. Under 
the calls for 700,000 men February 1, and March 14, 1864, it 
was 240, and under the call for 500,000 men July 18, 1864, it 
was 186. Prior to December 31, 1864, the entire quota of the 
county was, as enumerated above, 786, and the entire number 
furnished to the army by that time was 1,358, or 572 in excess 
of all calls. Prior to December 31, 1865, the entire quota of the 
county was 1,358, and the entire credit of the county 1,362, or just 
4 in excess of the number called for by the Government. In 
1865 the number of persons subject to military duty was 
1,343. 

The soldiers who thus volunteered were distributed in larger 
or smaller numbers among different regiments. Most of the 
soldiers who volunteered from this county joined the Eighteenth 
Infantry, the Twenty-ninth Infantry or the Sixth Cavalry, and 



82 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

it is deemed sufficient to present brief sketches of these regi- 
ments in this connection. 

THE EIGHTEENTH EEGIMENT. 

The Eighteenth Regiment was originally officered as follows: 
Colonel, Michael K. Lawler, of Gallatin County; lieutenant- 
colonel Thomas H. Burgess, of Duquoin; major, Samuel 
Eaton. Col. Lawler was mustered in June 30, 1861, and pro- 
moted to brigader-general April 14, 1863. He was brevetted 
brigadier-general November 29, 1862, and major-general March 
13, 1865. Henry S. Wilson, of Shawneetown, became major of 
this regiment June 11, 1863, succeeding Samuel B. Marks, of 
Anna, who was promoted lieutenant-colonel. Lewis Lambert 
was the first chaplain of this regiment and Mordecai B. Kelly 
the second. 

Company B of this regiment was raised almost wholly in 
Shawneetown. Its successive captains were Elias W. Jones, 
Henry S. Wilson and Cornelius C. Weaver; its first lieutenants, 
Cornelius C. Weaver and Charles M. Edwards, and its second 
lieutenants, William Scanland, Emri C. Watson, Charles M. Ed- 
wards and James Orr. Of the private soldiers who lost their lives 
in the service in various ways were the following: William 
O'Brien, drowned August 18, 1861 ; G. W. Coad, died of wounds 
April 1, 1862; Franklin Collard, died August 2, 1861; John M. 
Fish, died January 13, 1862; Martin Fogle, killed at Shiloh, 
April 6, 1862; Reivas W. Greer, died October 15, 1863; Henry 
Hewitt, killed at Shiloh; John Henson, killed at Fort Donel- 
son; Washington C. Jones, died March 29, 1862; John Kielbraid, 
died of wounds April 30, 1862; Elijah Morris, died at Elizabeth- 
town, 111. ; Hiram Noye, died at Mound City, September 20, 1861; 
Nathan L. Newell, killed at Fort Donelson; Solomon Stanton, 
died at Mound City, November 14, 1861; Jasper Whitney, killed 
by guard December 24, 1863; Charles H. Wilson, killed at Fort 
Donelson. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 83 

Company D was raised in various parts of southeastern Illi- 
nois, but partly in Gallatin, Saline and Williamson Counties. 
Its first captain was Joseph T. Cormick, of Centralia, and its sec- 
ond Patrick Lawler, of Shawn eetown. Its first lieutenants were 
Wimer Bedford, of Centralia; John G. Mansker and Chalon A. 
Towle, of Harrisburg ; Chalon A. Towlehad been second lieutenant, 
and previously sergeant. Daniel D. Mattice, of Harrisburg, was 
first sergeant. George W. Grant, of Crab Orchard, Williamson, 
County, died at Jackson, Tenn., May 25, 1863; Garland W. 
Shackleford, of Williamson County, died at Cairo, October 9, 1861. 

Company K, though mostly raised in Jackson County, had 
numerous members from Franklin and Gallatin Counties. 
Those from the latter county, who died in the service, were Lee 
Sullivan Harris, Eichard J. North of wounds March 20, 1862; 
William Kussell, killed at Fort Donelson. 

Briefly recited, the history of this regiment is as follows : It ren- 
dezvoused at Anna, Union Co., 111., May 16, 1861 ; on May 9 it was 
mustered into the State service for thirty days by U. S. Grant, 
and on the 28th of May was mustered into the United States serv- 
ice for three years, moved to Bird's Point, Mo., June 24, 1861, 
and remained there, mainly, until August 26, when it went to 
Mound City, III, to guard the building of gunboats; formed part 
of a command under Col. Oglesby sent to Bloomfield, Mo., to rout 
JefP. Thompson and his command, after performing various duties 
February 3, 1862, when it went with the expedition under Gen. 
Grant up the Tennessee River ; was among the first to enter Fort 
Henry, February '6. At the battle of Fort Donelson it lost 200 
men, killed and wounded — Col. Lawler, himself, being wounded ; 
went into camp at Pittsburg Landing March 23 ; participated in 
the battle of April 6, under command of Maj. Eaton, until he was 
wounded, and then under Capt. Brush, until he was twice wound- 
ed, and then under Capt. Anderson. Its loss was 75, 
killed, wounded and missing — Maj. Eaton died of his wound. It 



84 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

marched upon Corinth, and after the evacuation of that place, to 
Jackson, Tenn., from which place, as a base of operations, it did 
severe and valuable duty until May 30, 1863, when with General 
Kimball's division, it went to Memphis and thence to a position 
above Vicksburg, and up to Haine's Bluff, in the vicinity of which 
place it was occupied in assisting to prevent Johnston's army 
from raising the siege of Vicksburg, which lasted from May 18 
to July 4, 1863, when Gen. Pemberton surrendered the city to 
Gen. Grant. July 24, went up the Mississippi, landing at Hel- 
ena, Ark., on the 27th. Started from Helena, August 13, on the 
"Arkansas Expedition," and went into camp at DuvaU's Bluff, 
August 24, and on September 2 went to Brownsville after re- 
maining in Arkansas doing valiant service for the Union until 
May 28, 1864, when the term expired for those who had com- 
posed the regiment originally. All of these returned to Spring- 
field, III, for pay and discharge, while all the re-enlisted men 
and recruits were formed into companies, and on the 14th of 
April, 1865, the regiment was composed of two veteran compa- 
nies (B and C), one company (A) of three years' recruits, and 
seven companies of one year's recruits, assigned to it in March, 
1865. The regiment was mustered out at Little Eock, Ark., 
December 16, 1865, and arrived at Camp Butler, 111., on the 31st 
of the same month for pay and discharge. The entire number 
belonging to this regiment, rank and file, was 2,043. 

THE TWENTY-NINTH INFANTEY. 

The Twenty-ninth Infantry was raised largely in the counties 
the histories of which are in this volume. Its first colonel was 
James S. Eearden, of Shawneetown, and its second, Moses Bray- 
man, of Springfield. Charles M. Ferrill, of Elizabethtown, was 
its third colonel and Loren Kent, fourth. Its lieutenant-colonels 
were James E. Dunlap, of Jacksonville ; Charles M. Ferrill, Loren 
Kent, John A. Callicott, of Shawneetown, and Elijah P.Curtis; ma- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 00 

jors, Mason Brayman, John A. Callicott, Elijah P. Curtis, Eli W. 
Green, and adjutants, Aaron E. Stout, of Shawneetown, Loren 
Kent, Richard M. Bozenan, Golconda and Pleasant G. Waters. 

Company C was raised mainly in Gallatin County. John 
A. Callicott, Eli W. Green and Sanford B. Kannady were 
its successive captains; John M. Eddy, Thomas Eieling and 
Michael Hickey, first lieutenants, and Alfred De Witt, William 
Boswell and Sandford B. Kanady, second lieutenants. The 
non-commissioned ofiicers and private soldiers who lost their 
lives in this company were Serg. Marion McCool, of Shawnee- 
town, killed at Fort Donelson ; Corp. Charles E. Vinson, died at 
Mound City, February 28, 1862; Corp. Alexander Norton, died 
May 2, 1863 ; Corp. Elijah J. Timmins, died at Cairo, January, 
1862 ; Corporal John Fletcher, killed at Fort Donelson ; Jackson J. 
Mangrum, died October 19, 1861 ; John Belian, died at Vicksburg, 
October 13, 1863 ; James Bradshaw, killed at Fort Donelson ; Will- 
iam Bromley, died January, 1862; Edward Donley, died May 4, 
1863; George W. Dupont, died February, 1862; Anderson Eng- 
land, died May, 1862; William H. Frame, died June 5, 1864; 
George Hughes, killed at Fort Donelson; Jacob Long, died Oc- 
tober, 1861; Jesse L. Martin, killed at Fort Donelson; Robert 
Oskins, died October, 1861 ; George Farrell, died as prisoner of 
war, February 16, 1864; Alexander Seat, died at Vicksburg, 
December 7, 1863 ; Claiborne C. Vaught, died of wounds received 
atShiloh; Joseph White, died May 2,1863; Joseph Adkinson 
drowned near Memphis; Andrew J. Donovan, died December 11, 
1863; Andrew Pate, died as prisoner of war, February 16, 1864, 
and James J. White died at home. 

Company D was raised mostly in Gallatin County. Its cap- 
tains were John S. Whiting, of Equality ; James B. Hart and 
Eberlee P. H. Stone, both of New Haven. First lieutenants: 
James B. Hart; Benjamin F. Berry, of Indiana; Samuel Bagsley, 
of New Haven ; John F. McCartney, and Robert W. Sherrod, of 



86 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

Saline County. Second lieutenants: Eberlee P. H. Stone; Pink- 
ney B. Harris, of White County, and Augustus H. Melvin, of 
New Haven. The non-commissioned oiB&cers and private soldiers 
from Gallatin County, who laid down their lives in the service of 
the country, were Serg. William P. Davis, killed at Fort Donelsou ; 
Bogarth Wesley, died December 15, 1861; George K Crawford, 
died of wounds February 18, 1862; Edward Brown, died at 
Natchez, January 15, 1864; William E. Crawford, died at Yicks- 
burg, October 22, 1863 ; John B. Groves, died at St. Louis, March 
17, 1862; Isaac Lackins, died March 4, 1862, of wounds received 
at Fort Donelson ; Lewis Harvey, died at New Orleans, February 
8, 1865; James Eochell, killed at Fort Donelson; Daniel Gaddes, 
died at Natchez, December 18, 1863; Samuel Bagley, at New 
Haven. First lieutenant of this company was killed in battle 
April 29, 1863. 

The history of this regiment is briefly as follows: It was 
mustered into the service of the United States at Camp Butler, 
111., August 19, 1861, and was assigned to the brigade of Gen. 
John A. McClernand. After going to Bloomfield, Mo., under 
Col. E. J. Oglesby, it went into Kentucky under Brig-Gen. 
John A. McClernand in January, 1862. It participated in the 
battles of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, and afterward went to 
Savannah, Tenn., and was engaged in the battle of Pittsburg 
Landing, engaged in the siege of Corinth, and after arduous serv- 
ices in Tennessee and Mississippi, eight companies of the reg- 
iment were surrendered by Col. E. C. Murphy at Holly Springs, 
December 1, 1862, to the rebel general, Van Doru. The eight 
companies captured were paroled and sent to Benton Barracks, 
where they remained until July, 1863, when, being exchanged, 
thev returned to duty. The two other companies served in the 
Western Navy, and lost several men and one officer in running 
the batteries at Vicksburg and Grand Gulf. On the 19th of 
October, 1863, the One Hundred and Thirty -first Illinois was 



HISTOKY OF ILLINOIS. 87 

consolidated with the Twenty-ninth, and Lieut-Col. Kent Avas pro- 
moted colonel and placed in command of the regiment. The reg- 
iment re-enlisted in January, 1864, and after veteran furlough re- 
turned to duty in the field, serving at Natchez and Memphis, and 
afterward were sent to Paducah, Ky., to protect that State 
against rebel cavalry. In November, 1864, returned to Mem- 
phis ; went to Mobile, after taking part in the siege of Fort Mor- 
gan, and then to Galveston, Tex., arriving there July 1, 1865. 
After serving in Texas until November 6, 1865, it was mustered 
out of the service and reached Illinois in November on the 26th, 
and was paid and discharged November 28, 1865. 

Company D, of the Fifty-sixth Eegiment, was raised partly 
in this county. Its captains were David Slinger, of White 
County, and Sylvester R. Cone, of Gallatin County. Its first 
lieutenants were William F. Williams and Sylvester R. Cone, 
both of Gallatin, and Michael J. Dempsey, of White. Its second 
lieutenants were Cone and Dempsey. The non-commissioned 
officers and private soldiers of this county who died in the service 
were Corporal James Ayres, died in hospital ; George Covey, died 
April 12, 1862; Benjamin Hickman, died at Corinth, July 1, 1862; 
James P. Hall, died July 26, 1862; George McClellan, died 
July 26, 1862; Elihu Milligan, died April 5, 1862; Benjamin F. 
Young, died at Corinth, September 24, 1862. 

THE SIXTH CAVALRY REGIMENT. 

The Sixth Cavalry Regiment was raised mainly in Gallatin, 
Saline and Hamilton Counties. Its field and staff officers were, 
however, with the exception of Thomas G. S. Herod, from other 
counties. Herod was from Shawneetowii, and was major of the 
regiment from December 18, 1862, to November 2, 1863, when 
he was sentenced to the penitentiary for ten years for killing 
Lieut. -Col. Loomis in Memphis, Tenn. 

Company L of this regiment was raised mostly in Gallatin 



88 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

County. Its captains were Thomas G. S. Herod of Shawnee- 
town, Matbew H. Starr, Firth Charles worth, Wade W. McCoy 
of Shawneetown, and John J. Clark. First lieutenants, Benedict 
Crandle and Samuel A. Armstrong of Shawneetown, Mathew 
H. Starr, Firth Charlesworth, John W. Hughes, Wade W. Mc- 
Coy, Willibald Yehie, and John J. Clark. Second lieutenants, 
Henry Stout, Armstrong. Starr, Charlesworth and Hughes, as 
above, and Joseph A. Davenport. 

This regiment was organized at Camp Butler, November 19, 
1861, and moved to Shawneeton, November 25, 1861, remaining 
until February, 1862, when it moved to Paducah, Ky., and then 
to Columbus, Ky., where it was divided, five companies going to 
Trenton, Tenn., and five to Memphis, two going to Paducah and 
Bird's Point. During the summer of 1862 the detachments op- 
erated against guerrillas and were in several engagements at 
Dyersburg, Olive Branch and Coldwater. In the fall of 1862 
the regiment was reunited at Memphis, and moved with Sherman 
toward Grenada, Miss., and pursued Van Dorn after his raid upon 
Holly Springs, engaging him for seven consecutive days; went 
to La Grange in January, 1863. On March 29, was attacked 
while asleep, but got into position and repulsed the enemy ; Lieut. 
Wilson and eight men were killed during the engagement, and 
Lieuts. Baker and Anderson and twenty-nine men wounded. This 
regiment was in Grierson's famous raid through Mississippi and 
Louisiana. It operated under Banks at the siege of Port Hud- 
son, and after the surrender of the place July 9, embarked for 
Memphis. In West Tennessee it was in a number of engage- 
ments, one with Gen. Forrest at La Grange, and later at Moscow, 
Tenn., with the same forces. After a number of other engage- 
ments the regiment re-enlisted and returned home on veteran 
furlough. The veteran regiment participated in a large number 
of engagements, many of them battles, notably the battle of 
Nashville, December 13-15, 1864, and after the victory gained 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 89 

there pursued the fleeing rebels to Florence, Ala. After service 
in Alabama until November 5, 1865, it marched to Selma and was 
there mustered out of service, and was finally discharged at 
Springfield, 111., November 20, 1865. 

Company E, of the Fourteenth Cavalry, was raised largely in 
Gallatin County. Its captain was Benjamin Crandle; first lieu- 
tenant, George W. Evans; and second lieutenants, John Hahr, 
George C. Smith, William M. Duvall (of Shawneetown, not mus- 
tered, died in prison at Wilmington, N. C, March 12, 1865) and 
Robert P. Simmons. The Gallatin County private soldiers who 
died in the service were Henry Artman, died at Louisville, April 
10, 1864; Scott Await, died in rebel prison, Florence, S. C, Oc- 
tober 18, 1864; James Dailey, killed in battle at Camp Cetico, 
Tenn., May 27, 1864; Noah Friar, killed near Springfield, Tenn., 
December 9, 1864; Stephen Morgan, died at Glasgow, Ky., June 
6, 1863; William Eolemau, died at home, June 11, 1864. 

Company D, of the One Hundred and Twentieth Infantry, was 
raised mostly in Gallatin County. Its captains were Parker B. 
Pillow and Washington Canady, of Shawneetown. First lieu- 
tenant, Washington Canady, until promoted captain; and second 
lieutenant, Joshua D. Jennings, of Shawneetown. The non-com- 
missioned ofiicers and private soldiers who died in the service 
were Corporals John Davis, at Memphis, June 19, 1863 ; William 
H. McCool, killed at Guntown, Miss., June 10, 1864; Albert N. 
Sketo, died at Memphis, August 21, 18(]3, and Isaac Hogan, at 
Memphis, March 18, 1863. Private soldiers — Emriah J. Carter, 
at Memphis June 19, 1863; Jackson Crabtree, at Memphis, June 
19, 1863; ElishaC. Colbert, at Memphis, June 16, 1863; George 
AV. Greer, died in Andersonville prison, November 3, 1864, grave 
numbered 11778; Charles -M. Henry, at Lake Providence, July 
15, 1863; George W. Hargrave, at Memphis, August 18, 1863; 
Fountain E. Harpool, at Lake Providence, July 9, 1863 ; Jacob 
Rice, at Memphis, June 19, 18t')3; John Sherwood, at Memphis 



90 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

February 21, 1863; Edward Sherwood, June 12, 1863; Thomas 
Sanderson, killed at Greenville, Miss., May 11, 1863; William 
Thompson, died at Lake Providence, July 11, 1863; Alexander 
Thompson, at Memphis, November 20, 1862; Needham A. War- 
wick, in Andersonville prison, January 24, 1865, grave num- 
bered 12392; James H. Watson, died of wounds at Mobile, July 
12, 1864, while prisoner of war; William Brown, at Memphis, 
January 17, 1865; Alonzo Bennett, at Memphis, August 20, 
1865; John Hooker, at Memphis, February 8, 1863; George W. 
Owen, at Memphis, May 22, 1865; Carr Owen, in Andersonville 
prison, September 11, 1864, number of grave 8414. 

Company H, of this regiment, was raised in Gallatin, Saline 
and White Counties. Its captains were David M. Porter, of 
White County, and General F. M. Bean, of Gallatin County. 
First lieutenants, William Wallers, and James A. Trousdale, 
both of White County. Second lieutenants, William L. Black- 
ard and General F. M. Bean. The non-commissioned officers and 
private soldiers from Gallatin County who died in the service 
were Corporals Adam Mayhue, died at Memphis, March 12, 
1863, and Charles E. Eiley, at Memphis, January 26, 1863. 
Private soldiers: Joseph M. Bean, killed at Guntown, Miss., 
June 10, 1864; William C. Bean, died at Memphis, December 
11, 1862; Francis M. Dillard, at Memphis, April 2, 1864; George 
F. Garrett, at Lake Providence, July 12, 1863; Israel Harget, 
at Memphis, December 27, 1862; David W. Lewis, at Camp 
Butler, in 1862; William T. Pritchett, at Memphis, October 28, 
1863; John Yergel Mitchell, at Memphis, November 30, 1863. 

Company E, of the One Hundred and Thirty-first Infantry, 
was mostly from Gallatin County. Its captain was Cornelius 
W. Halley; first lieutenants, Amster B. Pate and Philip A. Pate, 
and second lieutenants, Sidney A. Pinney and Josiah Campbell. 
The company was mostly transferred to Company B of the con- 
solidated regiment. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 91 

Company G of this regiment was raised very largely at Equality. 
Its captain was Edward H. McCaleb, first lieutenant, John 
Dailey, both of Equality, and second lieutenant, James A. Peter 
of Metropolis. The company was mostly transferred to Company 
D of the consolidated regiment. 

The first annual reunion of the soldiers of Gallatin County 
was held September 14, 15 and 16, 1886. A large number of 
soldiers was present and the Gallatin County Veteran Association 
was formed. The ofiicers of this association are Col. John M. 
Bowling, of Equality, president; J. L. Boyd, of Shawneetown, 
vice-president; L. E. Quigley, of Omaha, secretary; W. P. 
Aldridge, New Haven, treasurer. The Mexican veterans present 
were John A. Callicott, Milton Bartley, Adam Stinson, G. W. 
Usselton, Charles A. Kaufman, G. H. W. Lawrence and "W. H. 
Blades. 

Gallatin County furnished three distinguished generals to the 
Union Army: Gen, M. K. Lawler, an excellent soldier; Gen. 
John A. McClernand, and Gen. James Harrison Wilson. 

GEN. grant's HORSE, "EGYPT." 

The following letter from Gen. Grant is worthy a place in the 

history of Gallatin County, and explains the transaction which 

it is desired to commemorate: 

Chattanooga, Tenn., December 11, 1863. 
0. Pool, Esq., 

Dear Sir: The very elegant horse presented to me by the citizens of Gallatin, 
Pope, Saline and Hamilton Counties, Illinois, reached me during the absence of 
Gen. Wilson (at Knoxville) who was commissioned to make the presentation in 
the name of the citizens of the above named counties. 

Permit me through you to thank them for their present which I accept as a 
token of their devotion to the cause of the Union, and as a very great compli- 
ment to me personally, as an agent of the loyal people in assisting in breaking 
down rebellion. 

Very truly your obedient servant, 

U. S. Grant, MaJ. Oen. U. S. A. 

This horse was christened "Egypt" by Gen. J. H. Wilson and 

others in honor of the people who presented him, and it was hoped 



92 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

by them that the horse, "Egypt," would become quite as famous 
as McDonald's "Selam." 

SHAWNEETOWN. 

Shawneetown, the county seat of Gallatin County, is situated 
on the Ohio Kiver, in longitude 88*^ 10', and latitude ST'^ 45', 
and is elevated 353 feet above the sea. It derives its name fi'om the 
Shawnee Indians, located here and in the vicinity from about 
1735 to about 1812 or 1815. It is one of the oldest places in the 
State, having contained a few scattered houses as early as 1804. It 
was first surveyed by the United States Government in 1810, in 
accordance with an act of Congress, and again in 1814. The first 
town plat was approved April 30, 1810, and the establishment of 
the land office in Shawneetown was approved February 21, 1812, 
but no land entries were made until July, 1814. Shawneetown 
was laid off and established as a kind of trading post for the salt 
works then being established along the Saline Biver "by a few 
squatters who always precede civilization." For a number of 
years salt-making proved a very profitable undertaking, and 
diffused activity and prosperity all around, and as a natural 
consequence Shawneetown acquired an importance which departed 
after the salt works were closed. 

Among the very early settlers in the place, after Michael 
Sprinkle, he being the first settler in the county and in Shawnee- 
town, were W. A. G. Posey, Dr. Alexander Posey, and Thomas 
L. Posey. Thomas Sloo, first register of the land office, and 
his sons, Thomas and John; Dr. A. B. Dake, Dr. Shannon, Dr. 
John Reid, John Marshall, Marmaduke S. Davenport, James 
Davenport, Moses M. Rawlings, Samuel Hayes, Solomon Hayes, 
Michael Jones, James M. Jones, Jacob Barger, Peter C. Seaton, 
Samuel Seaton, John Rohrer, John Shearer, Mrs. Fatima 
McClernand, mother of John A. McClernand; Michael Robinson, 
John C. Reeves, Alexander Wilson and his sons, John Hilton, 
John McLean, James S. Beaumont, Robert Peeples, father of 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 93 

John McKee Peeples ; James and Alexander Kirkpatrick, Joseph 
Logsdon and Joseph Reid. 

A word or two of comment about a few of these early settlers may 
not be out of place. Solomon Hayes was one of the innumerable 
army who have believed in their ability to discover perpetual 
motion ; but different from most of them finally arrived at the 
rational conclusion that he could not succeed without overcoming 
or neniralizing friction. With friction overcome he believed he 
could succeed. Jocob Barger settled on a farm just outside of 
Shawneetown, near the present roundhouse. John C. Reeves 
was cashier of the first bank established in Shawneetown, and 
used to sleep at night on top of barrels of silver in order to 
prevent its being stolen. He was the founder of the Congress- 
ional Globe. Alexander Wilson was the first to run a ferry across 
the Ohio River at Shawneetown. Dr. John Reid moved out of 
town and settled on the farm where now resides Mrs. S. C Rowan. 

Some of these, besides those mentioned above, moved out 
into the county and settled on farms. John Pool, father of Orval 
Pool, was also an early settler in Shawneetown, as was Joseph M. 
Street; Mrs. Catharine Shelby, a colored woman, whose husband 
was kidnaped during the times when " colored men had no right 
which white men were bound to respect," but who was rescued, 
came to Shawneetown in 1812 and is still living. John Marshall 
built the first brick house in Shawneetown; Moses M. Rawlings 
built the second, which was long known as the Rawlings House, 
still standing, and kept by Mr. Connor as a hotel. Robert Pee- 
ples built the third, also still standing, and occupied as a residence 
by the widow of John McRey Peeples, and standing just above 
E. F. Armstrong's hardware store on Main Street. Joshua Sexton 
and his son Orville were also among the early inhabitants of 
Shawneetown. 

Among the very early business men in Shawneetown were 
Weir & Vallandingham (O. C), afterward Mr. Vallandingham 



94 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

alone, who kept a general store ; for a short time a Mr. Patterson ; 
Peeples & Kirkpatrick kept a general store. The first blacksmith 
was Michael Sprinkle, elsewhere mentioned; Hiram "Walters 
was a blacksmith and wagon-maker, carrying on his trades where 
now stands Swafford Brothers' store, and Michael Kane also had 
a blacksmith shop between Hiram "Walters' establishment and the 

piyer. Tarleton kept a tavern in early days, down on the 

river bank, near where the present brick warehouse stands, origi- 
nally built for a depot by John Crenshaw. Thomas M. Dorris 
was also an early tavern-keeper, and John Milne was the first 
silversmith in the place. One of the most noted early settlers 
in Shawneetown was the widow, "Peggy" Logsdon, an excellent 
physician and midwife, to whose judgment and skill in the prac- 
tice of obstetrics all the other early physicians deferred. It Avas 
her custom to ride on horseback to visit her patients, and no 
weather was too severe for her to venture out, nor obstacle too 
great for her to overcome. She practiced across the Ohio Kiver 
in Kentucky as well as in Gallatin County, keeping a skiff in Avhich 
she rowed herself across in answer to calls, which she could distinctly 
hear from the other side when at her house on "Sandy Kidge," 
in the southern extremity of Shawneetown. One night after she 
had retired, a call came to her from the Kentucky shore. She 
answered back that she would be there as soon as she could dress 
and row across in her skiff. Going down to the river bank where 
her skiff was usually moored, she found it gone and not to be 
found, nor was any other in sight. She was, however, not to be 
daunted, so calling across again, she said she would be there as 
soon as she could swim the river. A log happened to be at 
hand with a short, stout limb standing perpendicularly in the air. 
Stripping off all her clothes, she tied them up tightly and sus- 
pended them upon the limb, then stepping into the water, she 
swam safely across, pushing the log before her. She had three 
sons (John, Joseph and Butler), and two daughters (Margaret and 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 95 

Nancy), and besides being an independent and hardy pioneer, she 
was a highly respected woman. 

Besides these there were other worthy citizens, and besides, an 
over abundant supply of those who gave to the place a bad reputa- 
tion for many years. Numerous early missionaries have left on 
record their recollections of Shawneetown. A Mr. Low, who was 
here in 1816, says: "Among its two or three hundred inhabitants 
not a single soul made any pretensions to religion. Their shock- 
ing profaneness was enough to make one afraid to walk the 
street; and those who on the Sabbath were not fighting and 
di'inking at the taverns and grog shops, were either hunting in 
the woods or trading behind their counters. A small audience 
gathered to hear the missionary preach, but a laborer might 
almost as soon expect to hear the stones cry out as to effect a 
revolution in the morals of the place." Thomas Lippincott was 
here in January, 1818, and says: "We found a village not very 
prepossessing, the houses with, one exception being set up on 
posts several feet from the earth," on account of the annual 
overflow. 

Mrs. Tillson was here nearly four years later, in November, 
1822. Eeferring to Shawneetown, she says: "Our hotel,* the 
only brick house in the place, made quite a commanding appear- 
ance from the river, towering as it did among the twenty, more or 
less, log cabins, and three or four box-looking frames. One or 
two of these were occupied as stores; one was a doctor's office; 
a lawyer's shingle graced the corner of one ; cakes and beer another. 
The hotel lost its significance, however, on entering its doors. 
The finish was of the cheapest kind, the plastering hanging loose 
from the walls, the floors carpetless, except with nature's carpet- 
ing — with that they were richly carpeted. The landlord was a 
whisky keg in the morning and a keg of whisky at night ; stupid 
and gruff in the morning, by noon could talk politics and abuse 

*The Rawlings' House. 



96 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

the yankees, and by sundown was brave for a fiwht. His wife 
kept herself in the kitchen; his daughters (one married and two 
single), performed the agreeable to strangers; the son-in-law, 
putting on the airs of a gentleman, presided at the table, carved 
the pork, dished out the cabbage, and talked big about his polit- 
ical friends. His wife, being his wife, he seemed to regard a 
notch above the other members of the family, and had her at his 
right hand at the table, where she sat with her long curls and 
her baby in her lap. Baby always seemed to be hungry while 
mamma was eating her dinner, and so little honey took dinner at 
the same time. Baby didn't have any tablecloth !— new manners 
to me." All of which serves to show the customs of the times — 
which, of course, still prevail in frontier places — and also the fas- 
tidiousness of the observer. 

Another incident which, however, happened somewhat earlier, 
shows the character of a portion of the people in a different 
phase. The great comet of 1811 spread consternation far and 
wide among the ignorant and superstitious, and it is related that 
when the first steamboat on the Ohio passed Shawneetown it was 
believed to be the comet — tail and all! If this be true, as it 
doubtless is, this first steamboat must have passed Shawnee- 
town very soon after the disappearance of the comet, or while it 
was below the horizon. 

Another incident in the early history of Shawneetown will 
always be remembered with pride and pleasure — the visit of 
Lafayette in 1825. It was on the 14th of May when the boat, 
bearing this great friend of the United States, came in sight of 
the town ; as it neared the landing a salute of twenty-four guns 
was fired. The people of the surrounding country had turned 
out en masse to greet the hero of the day. Two lines were formed 
from Kawlings' Hotel to the river, calico having been previously 
spread upon the ground, upon which the Frenchman was to walk. 
Between the lines the committee of reception, town officials and 



HISTOKY OF ILLINOIS. - 97 

other dignitaries, passed to the landing, received the nation's'" 
guest, and escorting him, returned to the hotel, and passed up again^ 
between the lines of silent, uncovered and reverent citizens. A 
large number of ladies was assembled at the door of the hotel,- 
where the party halted, and an address of welcome was delivered: 
by Judge James Hall. Lafayette replied in a voice tremulous 
with emotion, thanking the people for their gratitude and affec- 
tion. A collation was served, and a number of toasts were drunk 
appropriate to the occasion. During the festivities an affecting 
incident occurred, worthy of record because worthy of Lafayette 
A poor, and poorly clad. Frenchman stood at the door of the 
hotel, with his eyes resting on the General, but not venturing- 
to approach. At length the General himself caught sight of the 
tattered form of the old soldier, recognized him, and advanced 
to greet him with extended hands. They rushed into each other's 
arms, and thus stood for some time in an affectionate embrace. 
The old soldier had once served on the body guard of Gen. Lafay- 
ette in a time of danger, and had been the means of saving his 
life. After a few hours spent in pleasant converse, the General 
was conducted back to the steamer, where he reluctantly took an 
affectionate leave of his friends, a salute being tired at his de- 
parture as a lasting farewell. 

Shawneetown for a good many years continued to grow in 
size and importance, on account of its location on the Ohio Eiver, 
and the lack of railroads in the interior of the State. Followintr 
are the names of the principal business men of the place in 1842: 
Alexander Kirkpatrick, wholesale and retail dry goods ; E. H. 
Gatewood, wholesale and retail dry goods, groceries, hardware and 
commission merchant; John Marshall & Son, wholesale and retail 
dry goods ; John T. Jones, dry goods, groceries and hardware ; 
Jesse Kirkham, groceries, liquors, etc. ; J. C. Carter, groceries 
and liquors; S. N. Docker, druggist; Thomas Morris, wholesale 



98 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

and retail groceries; W. A. G. Posey, wholesale and retail dry- 
goods, groceries and hardware; W. A. Docker, wholesale and 
retail dry goods, groceries and hardware, and commission mer- 
chant. Henry Eddy and Samuel D. Marshall were then the lead- 
ing attorneys at law. 

EARLY AND OTHER BANKS. 

The first bank in the Territory of Illinois was established at 
Shawneetown, the act authorizing its establishment having been 
approved December 28, 1816. It was named the Bank of Illi- 
nois; its capital was not to exceed ^300,000, one-third of which 
was to remain open to be subscribed by the Legislature of the 
Territory or of the State, when the State should be formed. Its 
charter was to continue until January 1, 1837, and its title was 
the " President, Directors and Company of the Bank of Illinois." 
The directors were to be twelve in number, to be elected on the 
first Monday in January annually. The rate of interest received 
by the bank was not to exceed 6 per cent, and if the bank 
should refuse to redeem any of its bills in specie or to pay any of 
its depositors on demand, then such holder was authorized to re- 
ceive the amount due with interest at the rate of 12 per cent 
per annum from the time the demand was made. The bill was 
signed by Willis Hargrave, speaker 2^'>'o iempore of the House 
of Representatives and by Pierre Menard, president of the Leg- 
islative Council, and was approved by Ninian Edwards, gover- 
nor, on the date mentioned above. 

In 1823 or 1824 this bank suspended operations, and on the 
12th of February, 1835, an act was passed to extend the charter 
for twenty years from January 1, 1837, the name of the institu- 
tion to be the State Bank of Illinois at Shawneetown. This bill 
was approved by Joseph Duncan, governor. The first officers of 
the bank were John Marshall, president, and John Siddall, cashiei-. 



HISTOEY OF ILLINOIS. 99 

THE STATE BANK OF ILLINOIS. 

From a point of time somewhat earlier than this, to one con- 
siderably later, the State Bank of Illinois at Shawneetown was a 
principal figure in the history of the town. Upon the reco mmend- 
ation of Gov. Joseph Duncan, elected in 1834, the Legis- 
lature passed an act chartering a new State bank with a capital 
of $1,500,000, with the privilege of increasing the capital 
$1,000,000 more. Six branches were authorized, one of these at 
Shawneetown, was to be a revival in a certain sense of the old 
Territorial Bank at this place, which was the first bank in the 
Territory that had been in a state of suspension over twelve 
years. The capital of this bank was fixed at $300,000. By an 
act of March 4, 1837, the capital stock of this bank was author- 
ized to be increased $1,400,000; $1,000,000 being reserved for 
the State, and $400,000 for private subscription. The bank was 
to have nine directors, and was authorized to establish three 
branches, one at Jacksonville, one at Alton and one at Lawrence- 
ville, each to have such an amount of capital as the mother bank 
could safely supply. Upon an attempt to dispose of the State 
bonds it was found they could not be negotiated at par, hence the 
banks took the bonds at par, amounting to $2,665,000. The 
bank at Shawneetown sold its share, $900,000. Soon after this 
came the financial revulsion of 1837, and although the banks 
were solvent, they could not stand the drain of specie caused by 
the presentation of their notes, and hence were compelled to sus- 
pend. The charters of the banks provided that if suspension of 
specie payments was continued for more than sixty days together 
the charters would thereby be forfeited and the banks should go 
into liquidation. Hence, in order to avoid the common ruin in 
which the State and its splendid scheme of internal improvements 
would be involved by a destruction of the banks, the canal com- 
missioners urged the governor to convene the Legislature to 
legalize an indefinite suspension of specie payments. The Leg- 



100 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

islature met in special session July 10, 1837, and acted upon tlie 
governor's suggestion. The suspension was again made legal in 
1839, but without attempting to follow in detail the trials and 
troubles of the banks, it may be said that it was found impossi- 
ble even with the most assiduous pains and care to keep them 
on their feet. In February, 1842, the entire institution, with a 
circulation of $3,000,000 and upward, fell. With reference to 
the bank at Shawneetown, its condition in November, 1841, when 
the crisis was impending, is shown by the following statement 
published at that time, to enhance its credit by promoting con- 
fidence in its stability: 

Liabilities — State capital stock, $1,000,000; individual capital 
stock, $349,240; circulation, $1,309,996; United States Treasurer, 
$40; unclaimed dividends, $1,876.50; individual deposits, $70,- 
708. 2S; due other banks, $7,497.78; discounts, exchange, interest, 
etc., $29,259.61; surplus fund, $115,463.35; branch balance, $2,- 
317.59— total, $2,886,398.51. 

Resources — Bills discounted, $1,312,070.11 ; bills of exchange, 
$295,795.47; suspended debt, $101,085.92; Illinois bonds, $369,- 
998.68; Illinois scrip, $819.55; bank and insurance stock, $11,- 
900; due from other banks, $178,472.49; real estate, $83,336.74; 
incidental expenses, $7,428.34; cash (specie), $422,371.13; notes 
of other banks, $103,120— total, $2,886,398.51. 

This bank had loaned to the State in the first place $80,000, 
to complete the new State house at Springfield, and early in the 
autumn of 1839, upon the earnest solicitation of Gov. Carlin, 
and upon his solemn promise to deposit as a pledge of security, 
$500,000, in internal improvement securities, it had loaned to the 
commissioners of public works $200,000, in order to prevent a 
cessation of their improvements, otherwise unavoidable. The de- 
posit of the $500,000 security, however, was never made, neither 
was the $200,000 loan to the fund commissioners ever repaid, and 
as a consequence, although the directors had resolved to resume 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 101 

specie payments on the 15th of June, 1842, the bank finally col- 
lapsed during the same month with a circulation of somewhat 
over $1,300,000. The banks were compelled to go into liquida- 
tion in 1843. 

The real estate enumerated in the above statement as worth 
$83,336.74, consisted of a lot on the north corner Main and Main 
Cross Streets, in Shawneetown, and the bank building is still 
standing and now occupied by the First National Bank. This 
building was erected in 1839-40. It is a massive stone struc- 
ture, four stories high, with five massive corrugated, Doric 
columns in the front, built at a cost of $80,000. 

The directors of this bank for the year 1835 were as follows, 
appointed by the stockholders: E. H. Gatewood, Alexander 
Kirkpatrick, W. A. Docker, W. A. G. Posey, Timothy Guard, 
Daniel Wood, M. M. Kawlings, P. Eedmau, Henry Eddy, James 
C. Sloo and O. C. Valandingham. Appointed on behalf of the 
State: Porter Clay, David J. Baker, H. H. West, J. K. Dubois, 
William Linn, William Sim, James Duulap, E. B. Webb and 
Peter Butler. 

The bank building was- afterward sold to Joel A. Matteson, 
for $15,000, who, in 1853, started a bank under the free banking 
act, which was named the State Bank of Illinois, and had a capital 
stock of $500,000. E. E. Goodell, son-in-law of ex-Gov. Matte- 
son, was president of the bank, and A. B. Safford, cashier for 
four years, when upon going to Cairo, 111., he was succeeded by 
L.B. Leach. This bank was conducted by Mr.Leacli until the break- 
ing out of the war of the Rebellion, when it was closed, because 
of Gov. Matteson' s fears that southern Illinois would be overrun 
by the rebel hordes. From the same fears he sold the building 
to Thomas S. Ridgway, for the ridiculously small sum of $0,500, 
who bought it for a residence and has since occupied it as such, but 
in 1865 himself and partner, John McKee Peeples, decided to estab- 
lish The First National Bank of Shawneetown, and since then the 



102 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

building has been used for the business of this bank as well as for 
a residence. The capital stock of the bank was in the first place 
$200,000, with five stockholders as required by law, William D. 
Phile, George A. Kidgway and A. K. Lowe, each holding $2,000, 
while Mr. Ridgway and Mr. Peeples held the balance in equal 
shares. In 1878 the capital of the bank was reduced to $50,000, 
because of the unjust policy of the assessors, who insisted on as- 
sessing the capita] stock of the bank at its par value, while real 
estate was at the same time being assessed at from about 25 
to 33^ per cent of its cash value. Mr. Peeples remained 
president of this bank until his death in 1879, when Mr. Ridgway, 
who had been cashier from the organization of the bank, became 
president, and William D. Phile, who had been assistant cashier 
from the establishment of the bank, became cashier; and these 
two remain the ofiicers of the institution. The surplus fund 
is now $25,000, and the deposits range from $180,000 to 
$200,000. 

The Gallatin National Bank was established in February, 
1871, with a capital of $250,000, and with the following directors 
and ofiicers: Orval Pool, president; Henderson B. Powell, cashier; 
Dr. William M. Warford, John D. Richeson and Peter Smith, di- 
rectors. In June, 1871, Orval Pool died, and M. M. Pool, his son, 
was elected successor. At the same time Mr. Powell resigned as 
cashier and F. C. Crawford succeeded him. In 1872 Hon. R. W. 
Townshend was chosen vice-president of the ba nk, and upon the 
resignation of Mr. Crawford, became cashier. In 1874 the bank 
went into voluntary liquidation, because the county, although it had 
at one time agreed to reduce the assessed value of its capital stock 
25 per cent below its nominal value, yet receded from that 
position and insisted upon taxing the bank upon the face value of 
its stock. Upon closing out the affairs of the national bank, a 
private bank was organized under the firm name of M. M. Pool 
& Co. (the Co. being William B. Henshaw, of Union County, Ky.) 



HISTOKY OF ILLINOIS. 103 

This bank is still in existence, on Main Street, nearly opposite 
the First National Bank. 

THE FLOODS. 

Shawneetown has suffered very much from floods at various 
times, from its earliest days to within a few years of the present 
time, but these vexatious and destructive visitations have not yet 
succeeded in depopulating the place, Morris Birbeck, writing 
under date of August 2, 1817, in "Notes on a Journey in Amer- 
ica," thus refers to Shawneetown: " This place I account a 
phenomenon, evincing a pertinacious adhesion of the human 
animal to the spot where it has once fixed itself. As the lava 
of Mount ^tna can not dislodge this strange being from the 
cities which it has repeatedly ravaged by its eruptions, so the 
Ohio, with its annual overflow, is unable to wash away the inhabi- 
tants of Shawneetown. Here is the land office for the southeast 
district of Illinois, where I have just constituted myself a land 
owner by the payment of $720 as one-fourth of the purchase 
money for 1,44:0 acres. This, with a similar purchase made by 
Mr. Flower, is a part of a beautiful and rich prairie about six 
miles fi'om the Big, and the same distance from the Little 
Wabash." 

CONSTRUCTION OF THE LEVEES. 

These floods have been quite numerous, and sometimes rose 
to such a height that steamboats could navigate the streets. 
As the country became more generally denuded of its forests and 
more thoroughly and systematically drained, the floods kept ris- 
ing to greater and greater heights. It is deemed sufficient for 
this history to enumerate the principal floods and to give briefly 
some account of the later ones with the means employed to pro- 
tect the place. The first disastrous flood was in 1832 ; the next 
in 1847; then one in 1853, and next in 1858, more disastrous 
than any preceding; then again in 1859, when it became appar- 
ent that something must be done to protect the town from de- 



104 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

struction. Application was made to the Legislature for a charter 
with power to borrow money to build a levee. The charter was 
granted and the State agreed to grant aid in a sum equal to 
the State taxes of the city for twenty years equal to about 
$108,000. Work was commenced and a little done each year as 
money could be raised, until 1867, when the river again sub- 
merged the town, rising to the ridge poles of the smaller 
houses. Meetings were again held, the issue of additional bonds 
voted, the work put under contract and carried forward to comple- 
tion, until it was supposed the levee was ample to protect the 
town. A debt of $70,000 was incurred, and the State failed to 
fulfill its contract of a remission of taxes for twenty years, because 
of the decision by the supreme court in 1874, deciding the law 
unconstitutional. 

The old levee was built sufficiently high and strong, it was 
thought, to keep out the water for all future time, but on August 
12, 1875, the levee broke and the town was filled in four hours. 
The levee was afterward repaired and served as a protection until 
1882, when, on February 24, the levee broke at 5 o'clock A. M. 
and the water came to a level at 4 P. M. At its highest stage 
this time it was three and one-half feet deep inside E. F. Arm- 
strong's hardware store. The next year, however, was to witness 
a still higher flood. On the 15th of February, the water rose 
over the lower levee at 12 M., came to a level at 10 P. M., con- 
tinued to rise until the 25th, rose to the height of eight feet, two 
inches in Mr, Armstrong's store, filling the town to the depth of 
about fifteen feet on the average, carried away 108 houses, 
doing immense damage to the remainder. But in 1884 the water 
rose still higher than in 1883. This year the levee broke on 
February 12, at 8 A. M. ; the water came to a level at 10 P. M., 
and contiued to rise until February 28, when it was eight feet, 
four and one-half inches deep in Mr. Armstrong's store. This 
flood, the highest known, rose to a height of something over six- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 105 

ty-six feet above low-water mark, which was established in Octo- 
ber, 1856. The edge of the water was then 518 feet from the 
front wall of Hall's brick house, known as "Kawling's brick," to 
an iron peg set in the rock at the water's edge, a few feet below 
a direct angle fi-omthe north gable end of said house." In order 
to prevent, if possible, a repetition of such calamities as had befall- 
en the city three years in succession, it was determined to raise 
the levee one foot higher than the flood of 1884, and to this end 
a contract was made with the Ohio Mississippi Railway Com- 
pany, May 6, 1884. This was additional to, or in place of, a sim- 
ilar contract made in 1883 with the same company, and rendered 
necessary by the later and higher flood. According to the first 
contract $30,000 was to be paid for a certain amount of work, 
and by the latter one $29,000 more was agreed upon, $15,000 of 
which was guaranteed by Ridgway and Carroll, and $14,000 by 
the city. When completed the levee was four and one-half miles 
long, contained 400,000 cubic yards of earth, was twelve feet wide 
on top and had cost in the aggregate, including the old levee and 
the sewer, $200,000. The main trouble with the levee, as it 
stands, is that it is too steep on the outer side, and that the 
material of which it is constructed, contains too much sand, and 
is, therefore, without the best of covering by rip-rapping or 
otherwise, too liable to wash away. The following statement 
shows the total cost of the levee and sewer up to the present 
time: 

Work done under Norton & Hay den |60,000 

Work done on south levee 25,000 

Work done on repairs on levee up to 1883 10,000 

Work done on original contract in 1883 (for 200,000 cubic 

yards @ 15 cents) 30,000 

Work done on contract of 1884 29,000 

Tax for levee purposes since 1872 10,000 

Tax for levee previous to 1872 6,000 

Sewer, right of way and other exjiensos 20,000 

Total $190,000 



106 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

INCORPORATION OF THE TOWN. 

Previous to 1825 Shawneetown was a mere settlement, or 
unorganized village. In that year the trustees of Shawneetown 
became incorporated by an act of the General Assembly entitled 
"an act concerning Shawneetown," approved January 10, 1825, 
and by acts amendatory thereto. One of the most important 
cases tried in the Gallatin Circuit Court was in connection with 
this incorporation and may be mentioned here. It was entitled 
"Ryan vs. the trustees of Shawneetown," and was brought by 
Ebenezer Z. Ryan as assignee of the State Bank of Illinois at 
Shawneetown, for the recovery of money loaned to the trustees, 
for the purpose of paving the wharf with rock. The loan was 
agreed to August 28, 1837, and was for $20,000, secured by 
mortgage on certain town lots. Under this agreement large 
sums were advanced to the trustees, and finally on settlement a 
note was given the bank, signed by W. A. Docker, president, and 
attested by J. M. Jones, clerk, for $38,311.39, dated January 1, 
1841, and payable, "on or before the first day of January next." 
The trustees abandoned their charter, and organized iiuder Chap- 
ter XXV, of the revised statutes, and after this act the suit 
on the above note was brought in the circuit court, de- 
cided against the assignee, and was carried by him to the 
supreme court, by which the circuit court was sustained,* on the 
ground that more than $20,000 had been loaned by the bank, 
that it did not appear that the mortgage given was given to 
secure the money that was actually loaned, and that the trustees 
had no authority to borrow money. Previous to this, however, 
that is on the 19th of October, 1848, W. A. Docker paid his pro- 
portion, $6,282.10. 

On the 27th of February, 1847, an act was passed entitled 
"An act to incorporate the town of Shawneetown," under which 
the town was incorporated by the name of " The president and 

♦See " Illinois Reports," Vol. XIV, p. 20. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 107 

board o£ trustees of the town of Shawneetown," by which 
name they were granted perpetual succession. The boundaries of 
the town were to embrace "all in lots of said town as originally 
laid off by the United States survey upon the EiverOhio." Five 
trustees were to be elected annually on the first Monday, and 
all white male inhabitants over twenty-one years of age who had 
resided in the town three months, and who were qualified to vote 
for members of the General Assembly, were entitled to vote for 
the trustees, who could not borrow money without the consent of 
a majority of the legal voters of the town. The affairs of the 
town were conducted under this charter until 1861, when a new 
charter was obtained. As the records of the town government 
under these trustees could not be found, and as no one could re- 
member the names of the officers under the charter of 1847, a 
list of such officers is perforce omitted. The charter of 1861 
was approved by Gov. Richard Yates, February 22, that year. 
It was entitled " an act to incorporate the City of Shawneetown, 
and to change the name." Section 1 incorporated the inhabi- 
tants of the town of Shawneetown, by the name and style of the 
City of Shawneetown, unless the name be changed to Shawnee 
City. Section 2 fixed the limits and jurisdiction of the City of 
Shawneetown so as to include all that district of country situated 
in the county of Gallatin, embraced within the limits of the town of 
S hawneetown, according to the plat thereof, as may be embraced 
within a levee proposed to be built around said city. Section 4 
provided for the division of the city into two wards. The officers 
were to be a mayor, and two aldermen from each ward. All free 
white male inhabitants of the city, over twenty-one years of age, 
who had been residents six months, were to be legal voters. 

Article IX provided, that the inhabitants of the city of 
Shawneetown are hereby exempt from State tax for the period 
of twenty years from the adoption and passage of this act for the 
purpose of enabling the said inhabitants to levee the city to pre- 



108 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

vent its frequent or periodical inundation from the overflow of the 
banks of the Ohio and Wabash Rivers, within and adjacent to 
the said town; and the city council was authorized to levy a 
levee tax, which should be equivalent to the tax which would 
have inured to the State of Illinois, had the exemption from the 
State tax not been made. 

On the 29th of April, 1872, the salaries of the oflficers of 
the city were fixed as follows: Mayor, ^200; aldermen, $75 
each; city collector, 3 per cent on all taxes and assessments 
collected by him and paid into the treasury ; treasurer, city clerk 
and city attorney, each $100; city marshal, $200. 

On the 11th of November, 1871, an ordinance was passed 
providing for the issuance of bonds to the amount of $50,000, 
for the purpose of building the north and front divisions of a 
levee around the city, in pursuance of the act of 1861, incor- 
porating the city, and of a majority of the votes cast at an elec- 
tion legally held June 6, 1870, and on the 15tli of the same 
month an ordinance was passed providing for the issue of bonds 
to the amount of $25,000, iu favor of the St. Louis & South- 
eastern Railway Company, in payment of the city's subscrip- 
tion to the capital stock of the company to that extent. The 
boundaries of the city were fixed by ordinance, February 27, 
1872, as follows: Commencing in the northeast boundary line of 
the town, as originally laid out and surveyed at the line dividing 
Outlots Nos. 90 and 91, thence along said line to the line di- 
viding the States of Illinois and Kentucky; thence along said 
line dividing said States to a point opposite the middle of the 
street between Outlots No. 251 and No. 255, thence up 
that street until it intersects the line dividing Outlots Nos. 
87 and 94, thence along said line dividing Outlots Nos. 87 
and 94, to the beginning. 

On the 10th of April, 1872, an act was passed providing for 
the incorporation of cities and villages. Under this general act. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 109 

the mayor and city council, upon petition of the requisite num- 
ber of citizens, appointed May 22, 1874, the day of election to 
decide the question of incorporation under the law, which ques- 
tion was decided in the affirmative by a vote of 74 for, to 14 
against. An ordinance was then passed June 13, 1874, dividing 
the city into three wards instead of two. The First Ward con- 
tains all that part of the city north of Second North Cross 
Street; the Second Ward, all that part between Second North 
Cross Street and Main Cross Street, and the Third Ward, all that 
part of the city south of Main Cross Street. The number of 
aldermen was increased from four to six, thus increasing the ex- 
pense of maintaining the city government. Salaries were fixed 
June 29, as folloTvs: Mayor, $200; aldermen $3, for each meet- 
ing, but not to exceed $75, per annum; city attorney, $100; city 
clerk, $150; city treasurer, $100. An ordinance was then 
passed unanimously July 27, providing for the appointment by 
the council of a citj marshal. This ordinance remained in 
force until October 14, 1878, when it was provided by ordinance 
that the city marshal should thereafter be elected annually, thus 
placing the choice of the officer who should preserve order in 
the city, in the hands frequently of the disorderly elements of 
society. 

On the 17th of August, 1878, the city council deemed it 
prudent and indeed necessary to quarantine against yellow fever, 
and adopted regulations to the effect that no steamboat shovdd 
land between the mouth of the Saline Kiver and the mouth of 
the Big Wabash, on the Illinois side of the Ohio, which was 
supposed to have on board any passenger or freight from any 
place infected with yellow fever, and the same regulations were 
applied to all railroads coming into the city. 

Following is a list of the principal officers of the city since 
the adoption of the charter of 1801, Avith the date of election. 

Mayors: James S. Rearden, 1801; Matthew Hunter, 1802; 



110 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

George Beck, 1864; William G. Bowman, 1866; J. B. Turner, 
1867; J. W. Keclden, 1868; John A. Callicott, 1869; J. W. Red- 
den, 1871; John A. Callicott, 1872; H. O. Docker, 1873; A. K. 
Lowe, 1874; E. Mills, 1875; J. W. Millspaugh, 1880, and Carl 
Eoedel, 1885. 

Clerks: James Docker, 1861; James H. Hart, 1866; J. N. 
Wasson, 1866; C. G. Hughes, 1867; Carl Eoedel, 1871; J. B. 
Perry, 1874; John M. Coop, 1875; W. S. Hazen, 1878; A. C. 
Millspaugh, 1881; L. W. Goetzman, 1883, and A. C. Millspaugh, 
1885. 

Treasurers: James H. Hart, 1861; A. K. McCabe, 1871; H. 
C. Barger, 1874; J. H. Hart, 1875; John P. Hopper, 1883; L. 
H. Adams, 1885. 

Ciiy Aitorneys: John Olney, 1864; C. G. Hughes, 1871; 
Carl Roedel, 1871, elected to fill vacancy ; William L. Halley,1875 ; 
C. G. Hughes, 1876; W. T. Crenshaw, 1877; D. M. Kinsall, 
1879; D. O. Hause, 1881; W. T. Crenshaw, 1883; George W 
Pillow, 1885. 

The first directory of the city of Shawneetown was published 
by D. W. Lusk in 1872. According to that directory the princi- 
pal business men then in the city were the following : Dry goods, 
Docker & Peeples, Waggener & Mills, George A, Ridgway and 
John D. Richeson; groceries, Bechtold & Webber, Wilson Bros., 
Adam Baker, Waggener & Mills, Joseph Ulmsnider & Son, George 
A. Ridgway and John D. Richeson ; drug stores, Dr. J. W. Red- 
den ; marble yard, Gordon, Sterling & Greer ; carriage-makers, 
Joseph P. Hull and J. A. Quick ; butcher, James Litsey ; saddles 
and harness, John A. Callicott; clothing store, James H. Hart; 
hardware, cutlery and farm machinery, Richeson & Winner ; tai- 
lor, T. H. Sils; boots and shoes, Benjamin Hoelzle; cigars and 
tobacco, S. F. Herman; planing mill, Peeples & Karcher; car- 
penters, Karcher & Scanland; plasterer, Henry Scates; real es- 
tate, F, L. Rhoads; painter, W. J. Elwell; small fruits, A. Ells- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. Ill 

worth; commissiou merchant, J. C. Ketchum; wharf masters, 
Howell, Millspaugh & Co. ; attorneys at law, J, B. Turner, Bow- 
man & AVasson, Silas Ehoads, Alexander H. Rowan, Carl Roedel, 
Milton Bartley and B. F. Brockett. 

The present business interests of the town are conducted by 
the following individuals and firms: dry goods, groceries, etc., 
John D. Eicheson, Charles Carroll, A. M. L. McBane, A. K. 
Lowe's Sons, Swofford Bros., A, M. Lewis & Bro; groceries, Ja- 
cob Bechtold, Ambrose Erwein, Joseph F. Nolen, Lewis Weber, 
John Hopper, Goetzman Bros. ; hardware, E. F, Armstrong, Rob- 
inson Bros. ; dry goods and clothing, A. Mayer ; clothing and 
gents' furnishing goods, M. Lyon, James H. Hart; drug stores, 
E. Eherwine, W. A. Howell, Robinson Bros. ; harness and sad- 
dlery, J. A. Callicott & Son ; tailor, Mr. Gallagher ; blacksmiths, 
James A. Quick, Michael Golden, Charles Brozul and Burris; 
foundry and repair shop, A. D. Reddick; hotels. Riverside, Ger- 
mania, Connor House, Farmers' Hotel, Fissinger's Hotel; jewelers, 
Feehrer Bros. ; livery stables, Horace Martin, Smyth & Wise- 
heart, William J. Boyd ; steam flouring mill, McMurchy & Bahr, 
L. Rowan & Son; planing mill, Karcher & Scanland; lumber 
and shingles, Seelinger & McDonald; millineries. Miss Alice 
Eddy, Miss Jennie Hair; cigar-makers, S. F. Herman, William 

Gregg; physicians, E. C. Colvard, M. S. Jones, Jacob Fair, 

Cassidy, S. N. Docker ; dentist, A. H. Cole ; real estate and ab- 
stracts, John R. Boyd. 

Following is a list of the postmasters at Shawneetown : John 
Marshall, John Stickney, Pleasant L. Ward, Joseph B. Barger, 
Calvin Gold, John Edwards, Mrs. Edwards, A. M. Sargent, Mrs. 
Edwards, the second time, and the present incumbent, William L. 
Loomis, appointed in 1886. 

THE LAND OFFICE. 

The land office at this place was established by act of Con- 



112 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

gress February 21, 1812, and the commissions of the register and 
receiver were sent from the general land office at Washington, D. 
C, April 30, 1814, their duties to commence July 1, 1814. Fol- 
lowing are the names of the offices, and their periods of service: 

Registers: Thomas Sloo, from July 1, 1814, to June 8, 1829; 
James C. Sloo, from June 8, 1829, to August 17, 1849; Andrew 
McCallen, from August 17, 1849, to May 3, 1853; John M. Cun- 
ningham*, from May 3, 1853, to May 2, 1856. 

Eeceivers: John Caldwell, from July 1, 1814, to October 9, 
1835, when he died; Stephen K. Eowan, from October 30, 1835, 
to April 7, 1845; Braxton Parrish, from April 7, 1845, to July 
18, 1849; JohnN. Notson, from July 18, 1849, to May 3, 1853; 
Samuel K. Carey, from May 3, 1853, to December 20, 1854, and 
William L.' Caldwell, from February 12, 1855, to May 2, 1856. 

On May 2, 1856, the records of the office at Shawneetown were 
consolidated with the office at Springfield, 111., by direction of 
the Secretary of the Interior, under the provisions of Act of Con- 
gress, June 12, 1840, Section 2, and the terms of the officers 
ended, f 

SOCIETIES. 

' M. K. Lawler Post, No. 337, G. A. R., was mustered in at the 
courthouse, October 12, 1883, by Capt. J. H. Vaught, special 
mustering officer for southern Illinois. All of those mustered in 
were charter members. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union was organized 
June 2, 1885, by Mrs. Mary H. Villars, with thirty members. 
The first officers were : president, Mrs. Addie A. Long; vice-pres- 
idents, Mrs. Almira James, Presbyterian; Mrs. Jennie Brooks, 
Methodist; Mrs. Ira Tromley, Christian; Mrs. Eeubenacher, 
Catholic; corresponding secretary, Miss Mira Phile; recording 

♦Father of Miss Mary E. CunniBgham, who -was married to John A. Logan, at Shawneetown, 
Tuesday, November 27, 1855. 

tThe history of the Land OflSce was furnished by Hon. William A. J. Sparks, Commissioner 
of the Land Office at Washington, D. C. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 113 

secretary, Miss Eva Youngblood; treasurer, Mrs. Myra Lau- 
derbaugh. 

Gallatin Lodge, No. 1708, K. of H., was organized at Shaw- 
neetown, August 2, 1879. The officers were, Past Dictator, A. 
M. L. McBane; Dictator, T. H. Cossitt; Vice Dictator, L. H. 
Adams; Assistant Dictator, Carl Roedel; Reporter, James W. 
Millspaugh ; Financial Reporter, W. D. Phile ; Treasurer, D. L. G. 
Dupler; Chaplain, George H. Potter; Guide, Thomas J. Cooper; 
Guardian, J. R. Boyd; Sentinel, A. G. Richeson; Medical Exam- 
iner, J. T. Binkley. 

THE PRESS OF THE COUNTY. 

The first paper published in Shawneetown, and the second in 
Illinois, was the Illinois Eniigranf, later the Illinois Gazette 
established and published for several years by Henry Eddy. Mr. 
Eddy was an early Whig, an able man, and edited an excellent 
paper, and it is to be regretted that a detailed history of it could 
not be obtained. One of the interesting items in connection with 
its history, however, was the receipt of the following bill : 

Pittsburgh, June 25, 1819. 
Mess. Eddy & Kimmel, 

Bought of CRAMER & SPEAR, 

18 Reams No. 4 @ |4.50 $81 00 

3Reams " 5" 3.50 10 50 

IReara " 4 4 50 

$96 00 
Contra Cr., 

By 9^ doz. Deerskins @ $6 $57 00 

$39 00 
Received note @ 4 months for balance. 

Cramer & Spear. 

A large number of papers have been published in Shawnee- 
town, among them the Illinois Republican, a Whig paper by Sam- 
uel D. Marshall. A very able paper, the Southeni Illinoisan, 
was started by W. Edwards & Son, May 7, 1852, as a six- 



114 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

column folio Democratic paper, which so continued until the 
nomination of Bissell for governor, when it supported him for 
that position, and James Buchanan for the presidency. After 
the election of Buchanan it became wholly Kepublican, W. Ed- 
wards having retired from the paper during the campaign. In 
1860 it suspended publication, there not being sufficient demand 
for a Republican paper in southern Illinois. The Southern Illi- 
nois Advocate was published for a few months as a daily, tri- 
weekly and weekly by L. J. S. Turney, but not being sufficiently 
well supported it was discontinued. The Western Voice was 
published for some time, and continued as the Shawneetown Intel- 
ligencer, by W. H. McCracken & Co. The Shawneetown Mer- 
cury was published from 1860 to 1873, by D. W. Lusk, discon- 
tinued in 1873. The Shawnee Herald was started February 11, 
1876, by Francis M. Pickett, and continued until 1879. The 
present papers in Shawneetown are the Local Record, established 
December 1, 1877, by Conrad O. Edwards and still published by 
him as a Democratic paper, and the Shawnee Neios as continued 
from the Home News of some years since, and now edited and 
published as a Republican paper by L. F. Tromley. It is an 
able paper, is thoroughly devoted to the interests of Gallatin 
County and favors the principle of prohibition in the treatment 
of the liquor question. 

OTHER TOWNS AND VILLAGES. 

New Haven is situated in the northeast corner of the county, 
on the Little Wabash River. It claims to be the third oldest 
town in Illinois, and assuming that the town was started when 
Jonathan Boone* first settled there, the claim is doubtless correct. 
Jonathan Boone was a brother of Daniel Boone, the famous first 
settler of Kentucky. Jonathan Boone made an entry of land 
under date of August 24, 1814, as follows: Southeast quarter of 

*Not Joseph Boone as is published in the history of White County. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 115 

Section 17, Township 7 south, Kange 10 east of the third principal 
meridian. A stockade was erected on the bank of the Little 
Wabash, enclosing considerable land, and the enclosure, with its 
protections, was called Boone's Fort. He also built a mill not now 
in existence, but always referred to as Boone's Mill. The steam 
mill now in New Haven, mentioned hereafter, stands within the 
limits of the ancient stockade. An interesting land-mark stands 
close to the south end of this steam mill, in the shape of a stout 
and an umbrageous catalpa tree, the result of the growth of a rid- 
ing whip, carelessly stuck in the ground by one of Jonathan 
Boone's daughters, upon her return from a pleasure ride on 
horseback. Jonathan Boone came to this country in 1812, for 
in that year Samuel Dagley, Sr., moved to New Haven with his 
family of j&fteen children, being attracted there by family re- 
lationship, one of his sisters being the wife of Jonathan Boone. 
Mr, Boone remained in New Haven but a few years, possibly 
because he could not tolerate the refinements of advancing civil- 
ization, and so moved again into the wilderness — this time into 
the wilds of Arkansas, where he died at an advanced age. His 
successors in New Haven were Paddy Robinson and Roswell H. 
Grant, who bought his improvements and claim, and improved 
the water power. A survey of the town was made either by 
Robinson or Grant or both, the original plat consisting of 261 
lots, each 70 by 140 feet in size. It was laid out into regular 
streets running at right angles with each other, and those running 
nearest north and south, parallel with the Little Wabash. 
Water Street was 70 feet wide, the others 66. The principal 
street was Mill Street. In 1831 Shawn eetown parties pur- 
chased the town, and a second survey was made in 1835 or 1836, 
by Albert G. Caldwell; the name borne by the place was conferred 
in honor of New Haven, Conn., it is believed by Roswell H. Grant, 
who was from New England. This town has had three periods 
of activity and decay. During one of its active periods, lots sold 



116 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

for $500 that in ordinary times would not bring $100. In 1826 
Eoswell H. Grant was doing a flourishing business in the mer- 
cantile line, running a general store. Paddy Eobinson also 
carried on a flourishing business, but not so extensive as Grant's. 
In 1833 William Parks, from Franklin County, Tenn., and an 
Englishman, whose name is not now recalled, were keeping store, 
as also Gatewood and Kirkham of Shawneetown, and John Wood. 
There were two hotels, one kept by Hazle Moreland, the other by 
John Mervin, at the old Eobinson House. In 1850 the business 
men were Thomas S. Hick, Hinch & McDaniel, James Dagley, Jr., 
H. P. Powell and Mrs. John Sheridan. The blacksmiths were 
Henry Stone and John Ellis ; Hanmore & Gallagher, steam saw 
and grist-mill; in 1870, Hick & Hinch, Decker Bros., andAbshier 
& Stone, general stores, and Hunter & Keister, steam saw and grist- 
mill, besides a few others. In 1887 the following are the business 
houses: Dry goods, groceries, etc., George Luther, Maurice Feehrer 
and W. A. Brounnelhouse & Co. ; groceries, Matthias Epley ; 
confectionery, Sumners & Co.; drug stores. Dr. Matthias 
Epley & Co. and James H. Hess & Co. ; saloons, W. K. Flack 
and Charles Feehrer; blacksmiths, Theodore S. Smith and 
Henry White ; millinery, Mary Hanmore ; hotels, the Farley House, 
George W. Eobinson, W. S. Dale, Nathan Stephens, Joel H. 
Grady, and lawyer, W. S. Sumner. 

The Little Jim Eoller Mill was erected in 1886, by Porter 
(D. M.) and Winterberger (Alois); it is three stories high, in- 
cluding basement, and has five full sets of rollers for grinding 
wheat, and one set of buhrs for grinding corn. It is propelled 
by a thirty -horse power steam engine, and has a capacity of 45 
barrels of flour each twenty-four hours. 

The postoffice was established in 1820; some of the post- 
masters have been Col. Thomas S. Hick, John Wood, B. P. 
Hinch, Samuel Dagley, Thomas B. Hick, A. J. Surgery, W. P. 
Abshier, J. B. Hanmore, Victor Melvin, Lee Caruth, W. P. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 117 

Aldrich, Dr. I. M. Asbury, James O'Neill and the present incum- 
bent, Joseph E. O'Neill. 

New Haven Lodge, A. F. & A. M., No. 330, was organized 
many years ago. Its charter members and first officers were 
James Edwards, W. M. ; Sidney Primey, S. W. ; Jackson Abshier, 
J. W. ; James Melvin, S. D. ; E. W. Gaston, J. D. ; John H. 
Hughes and William Glasscock. 

New Haven has been incorporated twice, first in 1837 and 
the second time in 1873, under the general incorporation law 
approved April 10, 1872. The present board of trustees is com- 
posed of Leroy Hinch, president; J. P. Decker, James Dossett, 
George W. Gevney, Thomas A. Haley and Koley McFadden; 
Mathias Epley is treasurer; J. L. Greenlee, clerk; W. P. Ald- 
ridge, police magistrate, and W. S. Dale, village constable. The 
town contains about 400 inhabitants, and its present lack of 
prosperity is attributed by some to its saloons, but it is living in 
the memory of past, and in the hope of future glory, which will 
doubtless come after a railroad shall cross the Little Wabash at 
that point. 

F. L. Khoads Post, No. 586, G. A. P., was organized August 
7, 1886, by J. F. Nolen, assisted by members of M. K. Lawler 
Post. The officers were I. M. Asbury, Commander; W. P. Ald- 
ridge, S. V. C. ; G. W. Gerley, J. V. C. ; McDonald Kincade, Adj. ; 
AndreAv P. Smith, Q. M. ; P. P. Harris, Surg. ; J. C. Buttram, 
Chap. ; L. P. Cubbage, O. D. ; Alexander Mobley, O. G. ; Thomas 
Pool, S. M. ; Stephen Hendricks, Q. M. S. Twenty-three mem- 
bers united with the post. 

RIDGWAY. 

Ridgway is a flourishing village of about 400 inhabitants 
located on the Ohio & Mississippi Railway one and one-half miles 
northwest of the center of the county. The first merchant in 
the place was John Hamersly. who opened his store in 1S67. 



118 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

John Mcllrath was the second and about one year after he estab- 
lished himself in business, W. A. Dickey in 1870, bought Mr, 
Hamersly's goods and continued in business until 1886. The 
next business established was a family grocery and saloon by 
Charles Evans. Within the past year (1886) the place has very 
materially improved and merchants and others are now moving 
to Ridgway from the surrounding country and adjacent towns. 
The present business interests are being conducted by "VV. A. 
Peeples, dry goods, groceries, etc. ; J. L. Boyd, general mer- 
chandise; John Lunn & Son, dealers in furniture; M. J. Moore, 
harness and saddle manufacturer ; W. R. Rathbone, general mer- 
chandise (Mr. Rathbone, previous to establishing himself in 
business in Ridgway in 1876, had been engaged in the same bus- 
iness for ten years in Harrisburg, Saline County) ; W. H. Bow- 
ling, fancy groceries and queensware; Dr. F. F. Hanna, drugs, 
medicines and hardware ; Charles F. Barter, hardware ; Massey & 
Hemphill, confectionery, tobacco, cigars and country produce; 
Charles Swager, boots and shoes; B. F. Porter, livery, feed and 
sale stable. In August, 1886, W. W. Davidson established The 
Central Star, a newspaper independent in politics and " wide- 
awake to the interests of Gallatin County." There are three 
regular practicing physicians and one dentist. There are two 
blacksmith shops and one wood worker. A hotel was erected 
in 1881 by L. B. Cralley, the present proprietor. The town, 
which was named for Thomas Ridgway of Shawneetown, contains 
two churches, a Cumberland Presbyterian and a Catholic, both 
having large membership, and the Catholic a resident priest. 
The public school has two teachers and about 135 scholars. The 
Catholic school, which is supported by subscription, employs 
two teachers and has a large attendance. A flouring-mill was 
built in 1884, which is well equipped with the new roller pro- 
cess and has a capacity of 100 barrels of flour per day. 

The town was incorporated under the general law of 1872, in 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 119 

February, 1886, with bouudaries as follows: Commencing at a 
point one-fourth of a mile due east of the junction of Main and 
Division Streets, as originally laid out and recorded, in Section 
30, Township 8, Eange 9 east; thence running due soiith one- 
fourth of a mile; thence due west one-half a mile; thence due 
north one-half a mile ; thence due east one-half a mile, and thence 
due east to the beginning. Elections are held on the third 
Tuesday of April each year for the election of trustees and 
clerk. The police magistrate is elected for four years. The 
first president of the board of trustees was E. Mills, the second 
and present one W. S. Phillips. The first and only clerk was 
J. H. Hemphill ; the first and present treasurer, F. Y. Hannah ; 
constable, William W. Abbott, and police magistrate, John A, 
Crawford. The village attorney is W. S. Phillips. Spirituous 
liquors are not allowed to be sold or given away within the limits 
of the corporation. The population of the village is estimated at 
400 and is slowly but steadily increasing. 

The Central Star was started here by W. W. Davidson, Oc- 
tober 7, 1886. It is a seven-column folio paper, neutral in poli- 
tics and has already (March, 1887), acquired a circulation of 380 
copies each week. 

OMAHA. 

Omaha is situated on the Ohio & Mississippi Eailway, in the 
northeast corner of Section 27, Township 7, and Range 8 east, 
about eighteen miles from Shawneetown. It was laid out by 
Rev. E. M. Davis on part of his farm. The name was suggested 
by Henry Bearce, first baggage master on the St. Louis & South- 
eastern Railway, who had acted in the same capacity in Omaha, 
Neb. The first store in the place was J. C. Harrell's drug 
store, and the first dry goods store was established by Hall & 
Pemberton, of Saline County. The Omaha Flouring Mill was 
built by G. R. Pearce & Co. in 1878. In 1879 Mr. Pearce 



120 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

bought out the " Co.," Messrs. Porter and Eice, and sold a half 
interest to William Trusty. Soon afterward he sold the other 
half to Mr. Trusty, who then sold one-half to* E. A. West. In 

1881 Trusty & West sold the mill to Latimer & Bryant, and in 

1882 Mr. Bryant sold his interest to AY. F. Harrell. The mill 
has the latest improved machinery and is propelled by steam. 
Geo. A. Lutz established a stare factory, which was run about 
four years, giving employment to a large number of hands and 
requiring a large quantity of timber. It was blown up by a keg 
of powder igniting in the boiler, placed there by an incendiary, 
and was not rebuilt. Dr. J. C. Harrell was the first postmaster, 
and has been succeeded by M. M. Davis, E. M. Davis, Samuel 
Davis, H. P. Blackard, and Benjamin Kinsall. The first hotel 
was built by J. B. Latimer. L. E. Quigley built a fine hotel in 
1882 which is well fitted up and has excellent accommodations. 
Omaha has made rapid progress within the last few years, and 
hopes to be one of the most important inland towns in southern 
Illinois. 

Omaha Lodge, No. 723, A. F. & A. M., was chartered by the 
Grand Lodge of Illinois, at Chicago, October 7, 1874, with six- 
teen charter members. The present officers are James M. Gregg, 
W. M. ; C. E. Gallaway, S. W. ; H. P. Blackard, J. W. ; W. E. 
Gregg, Sec. ; J. H. Eandolph, Treas. ; L. L. McGehee, S. D. ; W. 
J. Crabtree, J. D. ; E. P. Caldwell, Tyler. 

Omaha Lodge, No. 183, A. O, U. W., was chartered May 10, 
1881, with twenty-one members. The first officers were J. C. 
Harrell, P. M. W. ; Thomas Martin, M. W. ; A. M. Blackard, 
Foreman; A. H. Blackard, Overseer; Edward Eice, Eecorder; 
M. M. Davis, Financier; M. H. Walters, Eeceiver; W. D. Pearce, 
Guide ; Peter Edwards, I. W. ; John Sarver, O. W. The present 
officers are V. A. Eau, P. M. W. ; H. L. Eodgers, M. W. ; A. H. 
Blackard, Eecorder; E. G. Eice, Financier; M. M. Davis, Ee- 
ceiver; W. AV. Thompson, Foreman; Daniel M. Keiser, Overseer; 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 121 

E. A. West, Guide ; Thomas Martin, I. W. ; Peter Edwards, O. W. 

The order of the Iron Hall was chartered August 13, 1886, 
with fifteen members, and the following officers: W. E. Terrell, 
Chief Justice; R. S. Kinsall, Vice- Justice; J. H. Wilson, 
Accountant; George T. Crabtree, Cashier; J. H. Blackard, Ad- 
juster; William Duckworth, Previtt; Solomon Duckworth, Her- 
ald; J. H. Utly, Watchman; J. S. Edwards, Videt. This order 
was established for life insurance purposes and sick benefits, fur- 
nishing as much as $1,000 insurance, and sick benefits in pro- 
portion to the amount of insurance carried. It is a branch of the 
Grand Lodge at Indianapolis, and is in a flourishing condition. 

Order of the Eastern Star was instituted April 7, 1886, with 
fourteen charter members. The elected officers are as follows: 
Miss Lulu S. Hall, W. M. ; Lewis M. Price, W\ P. ; Miss Clem- 
ma Latimer, A. M. ; Miss Jennie Davis, C. ; Miss Mary Harrell, 
A. C. ; Miss Mary Hall, Sec. ; M. A. Baker, Treas. The appointed 
officers are Miss Jennie Kinsall, Ada; Mrs. N. C. Gregg, Ruth; 
Miss Emma Gregg, Esther; Mrs. Mary Keasler, Martha; Miss 
Sonnie Crabtree, Electa ; H. P. Blackard, Warden ; W. E. Gregg, 
Sentinel; Rev. R. M. Davis, Chaplain. 

Omaha Lodge, No. 472, I. O. O. F., was instituted January 
20, 1872, with seven members, by the Gram Lodge at Chicago. 
Its first officers were W. G. Hunter, N. G. ; J. L. Garrett, Y. G. ; 
Thomas Bruce, Treas., and Charles Edwards, Sec. Its present 
officers are H. P. Caldwell, N. G. ; I. T. Trusty, Y. G. ; H. L. 
Rodgers, Sec, and David Hidger, Treas. 

Loren Kent Post, No. 523, G. A. R., at Omaha, was organized 
August 31, 1885, and up to February 1, 1886, had received sixty- 
eight members. 

Omaha has no lawyer. The first physician was Dr. J. C. Har- 
rell. The others have been James Porter, M. D. ; J. M. Asbury, 
M. D.; J. H. Moore, M. D. ; C. M. Hudgins, M. D.. and J. C. 
Hall, M. D. Following are the business firms now in Omaha: 



122 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

R. M. Davis & Sons, general merchandise; L. E. Quigley, pro- 
prietor of the Quigley House ; Dr. Eodgers, drugs ; Dr. J. C. Hall, 
drugs; W. C. Trusty, general store; — . McCauley, grocer; 
Thomas Hardy, hardware; S. B. Lewis & Co., grocers; E. S. Mc- 
Gehee, dry goods; Sterling Edwards, undertaker; W. F. Him- 
ple, grocer, and J. S. Dixon, dry goods. 

Cypress Junction is a very small place at the junction of the 
Louisville & Nashville Railroad with the Ohio & Mississippi 
Railroad. William Cremeens is the postmaster, and Charles 
Cremeens keeps a small store. There are two houses and a 
schoolhouse within about half a mile of the store. 

EQUALITY. 

Equality is situated on the Louisville & Nashville Railway, 

in the western part of the county. It was laid off in , its 

streets running at right angles with each other, its east and west 
streets running 20° south of east and north of west. The streets 
are named Jackson, Clinton, Benton and Tazewell, while those 
running north and south are named Rowan, Calhoun, Van Buren, 
McDufie and McAvery. One block was reserved for the church, 
bounded by Jackson, Benton, McDufie and McAvery ; one block 
and a half for the academy, bounded by Jackson, an alley be- 
tween Benton and Tazewell, and by Rowen and the village limits. 
There were in the original plat 162 lots, generally 60x180 feet, 
and the area of the plat was 105 acres. The first house was built 
mostly for an office for the salt works in the immediate vicinity. 
Samuel Ensminger, who lived about two miles below in the 
woods, moved in and opened a hotel, a store having been opened 
by Capt. John Lane, in his residence. Gen. Willis Hargrave, who 
obtained his title in the Black Hawk war, opened a hotel west of 
the old courthouse on Jackson Street. John Siddall built a large 
two-story frame house on the corner of Calhoun and Clinton 
Streets, and Allen Redman built a house on the corner of Cal- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 123 

houn street and the public square. It is stated tliat Joseph M. 
Street, as surveyor, laid off the town. Equality was the county 
seat of Gallatin County for a number of years, both before and 
after the separation of Saline, and as such was the residence of 
numerous notable men, among them being William J. Gatewood, 
Edward Jones and M. K. Lawyer, and the most distinguished 
lawyers in the State then practiced at its bar, as John A. Logan, 
R. G. Ingersoll, S. A. Douglas, and others. 

The business houses in Equality at the present time are the 
following: Dry goods and groceries, T. A. Davis, John W. 
Hales, A. F. Davenport, E. H. McCaleb, and C. W. Smith, who 
also keeps boots and shoes; drugs are kept by Dr. Isaac Bour- 
land and E. H. McCaleb. The blacksmiths are Christian Helm 
and William Davenport, and the New Hotel is kept by Mrs. J. 
W. Hales. The churches in the place are the Methodist, Epis- 
copal, Catholic, Missionary Baptist and Social Brethren. 

Equality has been incorporated at various times. A meeting 
was held at James Caldwell's April 9, 1831, There were present 
the president and clerk of a former meeting held in pursuance of 
anact of the General Assembly of February 12, 1831, who pro- 
duced the certificate of an election held April 4, 1831, that thir- 
ty-one votes had been cast for incorporation and none against it. 
At an election held on Saturday, March 9, 1833, Willis Hargrave, 
John Siddall, James Caldwell, Joseph L. Reynolds, and Leonard 
White were elected trustees. Willis Hargrave was chosen presi- 
dent and Allen Redman clerk and treasurer, and John Woods, 
constable. Following are some of the presidents of the board of 
trustees from time to time — Willis Hargrave in 1835 ; Leonard 
White, 1838; William Hick, 1841; S. K. Gibson, 1854. Under 
the general incorporation act of 1872, the first board of trustees 
was E. M. Wiederman, J. R. Hargrave, J, S. Bunker, E, B, Har- 
grave, John Donohue, William Davenport and J, AV. Clifton, the 
latter being president, and AV. H. Crawford, clerk. The subse- 



124 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

quent presidents have been P. H. McCaleb, 1874; James K. Har- 
grave, 1875; Joseph J. Castles, 1876; J. S. Greer, 1877-78; 
Joseph Cook, 1879; P. Siddall, 1880; William Davenport, 1881 
-82; J. W. Hale, 1883; C. E. Dupler, 1884; William Mclntire, 
1885; George W. Moore, 1886. 

The clerks have been E. D. Bailey, 1876; O. P. Spilman, 
1878; Joseph G. Bunker, 1879; B. F. Hine, 1883, and Joseph G. 
Bunker, 1885. 

The treasurers have been C. A. Caldwell, 1876-84; M. 
V. Baldwin, 1884, and John W. Hales, 1885 to the present time. 

The Gallatin Academy was established in Equality in 1836. Its 
board of trustees was William J. Gatewood, Timothy Guard, 
William Hick and George Livingston. It was taught in a build- 
ing erected for the Methodist Church, where Lucian Gordon now 
lives. It flourished for six or eight years and in it were taught 
the higher English branches and the classics, and its scholars 
came from quite a distance. Kev. Benjamin F. Spilman was the 
first teacher, and the later ones were a Mr. Mcllvane from Ken- 
tucky, John Dixon and John McCullogh, who was the last. 

BOWLESVILLE. 

Bowles ville is a small town at the end of the railroad running 
from Shawneetown to the old Bowlesville coal mine, not now in 
operation. The town was the result of the operation of the mine, 
and inhabited mainly by miners and their families. Mr. Bowles 
purchased the land here* in 1854 and in the same year the Western 
Mining Company, consisting of Mr. Bowles, Dr. Talbot and 
Thomas Logsdon, was formed and mining commenced. Dr. Tal- 
bot and Mr. Logsdon afterward sold out to Louisville parties, 
the name of the company remaining the same. Under this ar- 
rangement, however, very little coal was mined, and the land was 
permitted to be sold for taxes, Mr. Bowles buying it in and run- 
ning it himself. When the war stopped the operations of the 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. * 125 

coal mines in Kentucky this mine had the entire demand and 
transacted an immense business, as many as nine steamboats 
being at the landing at one time, and slack selling for 10 cents 
per bushel and coal for 25 cents. No screening was done at that 
time. Mr. Bowles made a great deal of money, but died soon 
after the war. The property was then sold to Philadelphia par- 
ties, who, after operating the mine seven or eight years, have since 
let them remain idle. Bowles ville at its greatest prosperity con- 
tained one store, a grist-mill, blacksmith shop, carpenter shop, 
machine shop, postoffice and about 350 people. It now contains 
about fifty inhabitants. F. H. Sellers is and has been the only 
postmaster of the town. 

THE SALINE COAL & MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 

Not far from Bowles ville lies the property of the Saline Coal 
& Manufacturing Company, a company incorporated under the 
laws of Illinois January 28, 1851, by Albert G. Caldwell, Joseph 
Bowles and their associates. These gentlemen assigned their 
interests to Hibbard Jewett, who associated with himself Joseph 
G. Castles, and they were granted power to organize. In 1854 
George E. Sellers became president of this company, which had 
among its stockholders such distinguished men as William B. 
Ogden, Thomas Corwin, Andrew H. Green (partner of Samuel 
J. Tilden), Gen. J. D. Webster, Eoscoe Conkling, M. Wood- 
ward and Joseph Alsop. The property of the company con- 
sisted of about 14,000 acres of land and included large areas 
of coal in Gallatin County and iron ore in Hardin County. It 
had a front of eighteen miles on the Saline River and it was 
the original design of the projector of the company to develop 
both minerals and establish an iron manufactory on the prop- 
erty, for which there would seem to be one of the finest opportuni- 
ties in the country. However, from various causes, nothing of 
importance beyond surveying the land and boring for coal, 
which was found in abundance, has been done. 



126 • GALLATIN COUNTY. 

VILLAGES. 

Besides the towns above named there are a few other places, 
not villages dignified with names, among them, Bartley, Black- 
burn, Buffalo, Country Hampton, Crawford, Hell's Half Acre, 
Lawler, Leamington, Overton, Eobinet, Seaville, South Hampton 
and Wabash. Irish Store, New Market and Elba have some pre- 
tentions to villages or towns. 

CHURCH HISTORY. 

Shaioneetown Presbyterian Church. — The first Presbyterian 
minister to visit the Illinois country was probably John Evans 
Finley, from Chester County, Penn., who arrived at Kaskaskia in 
1797. He remained, however, but a short time, retiring from 
fear of enrollment in the militia. The next missionaries to arrive 
in this country were John F. Schermerhorn and Samuel J. Mills, 
who were sent out by the Massachusetts & Connecticut Mis- 
sionary Society, and by local Bible societies. This was in the 
fall of 1812. In Illinois Territory there were then no Presby- 
terian nor Congregational ministers. Messrs. Schermerhorn and 
Mills touched at certain parts of the Territory, and went on down 
the Mississippi Eiver with Gen. Jackson to New Orleans. The 
next exploring missionary tour was undertaken in 181-1 by Samuel 
J. Mills and Daniel Smith, their expenses being borne by the 
Massachusetts Missionary Society, by the Philadelphia Bible 
Society and by the Assembly's committee of missions. From 
Cincinnati, Ohio, they passed through the southern portions of 
the Territories of Indiana and Illinois, and found only one Presby- 
terian minister in Indiana Territory — Eev. Samuel T. Scott, at 
Vincennes — and none in Illinois. On their way to St. Louis they 
passed through Shawneetown, where they found Judge Griswold, 
formerly from Connecticut; but they could not find a Bible nor a 
place in the Territory where a Bible could be obtained. On their 
return from St. Louis they again passed through Shawneetown, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 127 

and upon their second arrival in the place Judge Griswold in- 
formed them that an effort was being made to establish a Bible 
society for eastern Illinois. A certain citizen, presumably of 
Shawneetown, informed these pious missionaries that for the 
previous ten or fifteen years he had been trying to obtain a copy 
of the Bible, but up to the time of their visit without success. 
The missionaries recommended that fifty Bibles be sent to Shaw- 
neetown, and fifty also to St. Louis, and they expressed the 
opinion that it was of infinite importance that one missionary, at 
least, should be maintained in each of the Territories — Indiana, 
Illinois and Missouri. These zealous missionaries were greatly 
disappointed and somewhat painfully shocked to find that the 
Presbyterians in the Territory of Illinois, from the neglect of 
their Eastern brethren, had become Methodists and Baptists, 
and said: "In all this Territory there is not a single Presbyterian 
preacher, and when we arrived we learned that considerable 
districts had never seen one before. Already have the interests 
of orthodoxy and of vital godliness suffered an irretrievable loss." 
Soon after this, however, came a change; a Presbyterian 
Church was organized in what is now White County, and named 
the Church of Sharon — the first Presbyterian Church organized in 
the Territory of Illinois — in 1816, and probably in September, 
by Rev. James McCready, of Henderson, Ky. In this church 
building B. F. Spielman was ordained and installed its pastor in 
November, 1824. The next Presbyterian Church organized in 
the Territory was at Golconda, October 24, 1810. With these 
two churches — Sharon and Golconda — B. F. Spielman began his 
ministerial labors as a licentiate in 1823, connecting with them 
also other places in southeastern Illinois, among them Shawnee- 
town. It is believed he commenced his religious work in Shaw- 
neetown in December of that year, finding there upon his arrival 
but one member of the Presbyterian Church, and that one of 
course a woman — Mrs. Amira L. Marshall — and it was in her 



128 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

parlor that he preached his first sermon in the place. Shawnee- 
town, according to writers on that period of the history of the 
Territory, was one of the most unpromising points for ministerial 
labors in the United States. For a period of between two and 
three years Rev. Mr. Spilman could preach here not more than 
once a month, but at length in May, 1826, he succeeded in 
organizing a church, the first members of which were six or 
seven women — no men. The names of these women were Mrs. 
Amira L. Marshall and her two sisters, Mrs. Achsah Caldwell and 
Mrs. Hannah Gold, Mrs. Mary Oldenburgh, Mrs. Nancy Camp- 
bell, and Mrs. Dutton and her daughter. The first entry upon 
the records of the session was as follows: 

Shawneetown, November, 1837. 
The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered to the church for the 
first time by Rev. Benjamin F. Spilman, and the following persons were recog- 
nized as members: James De Wolf, Amira Marshall, Achsah Caldwell, Hannah 
Gold, Mary Oldenburg, Lydia Button, Sr., Lydia Dutton, Jr., Ann B. Spilman, 
Mary Campbell, Judith Castles. Mr. and Mrs. Thompson were considered as 
members but did not commune. Of the above named Amira Marshall, Hannah 
Gold, Mary Oldenburg, Judith Castles and Lydia Dutton, Jr., were received inlo 
communion for the first time. B. F. Spilman, Clerk. 

Mrs. Amira L. Marshall's house, in the parlor of which Mr. 
Spilman preached his first sermon in Shawneetown, stood and 
still stands on Front Street, a short distance below Mr. Charles 
Carroll's residence. The next place where religious services 
were regularly held was in one of the one-story frame houses 
known as Seabolt's Eow on the north side of Main Cross Street, 
where now stands Docker's Riverside Hotel." The room used 
was rented by four ladies: Mrs. Amira L. Marshall, Mrs. Kirk- 
patrick, Mrs. Campbell and Mrs. Ruddick. Various other places 
were used until at length Mrs. Marshall and Mrs. Campbell de- 
termined upon building a church. Mr. John Marshall headed 
the subscription list and soon the two ladies had collected 
$65, including their own subscriptions. Mr. Kirkpatrick 
donated a lot on the Mound on Market Street in the upper part 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 129 

of the town on which to build it, the deed of which was so written 
that the property should always remain in the possession of the 
Old School branch of the Presbyterian Church. At length, in 
1832, the church was completed, and "how truly grand it seemed! " 
It was of hewn logs and 20x30 feet in size. On the inside it had 
a gallery running across one end and along a part of the two 
sides, for the colored people. It cost about $800. But in time 
the old church was outgrown ; the town was improving, the streets 
were being paved, a splendid bank building was being erected, 
and the necessity had arisen for a more elegant church building, 
more centrally located. The result was the present brick church 
edifice, completed in May, 1842, at a cost of about $5,000. The 
parsonage stands on Main Street and commands from the upper 
story a fine view of the Ohio. It was purchased of E. J. Nichol- 
son for $2,062. 

The Eev. B. F. Spilman remained pastor of this church from 
December, 1823, to 184:5, when he temporarily retired. Rev. 
William G. Allen was pastor from 18-46 to 1848, and Rev. J. M. 
McCord from 1848 to 1851, on November 23 of which year Rev. 
Mr. Spilman returned, was installed in June, 1853, and remained 
until his death. May 3, 1859. He was succeeded by Rev. N. 
F. Tuck, who remained until August, 1860; Rev. Benjamin C. 
Swan from October, 1860, to the fall of 1862, when he became 
chaplain of the Thirteenth Regiment of Illinois Volunteers. He 
returned to the church as supply pastor November 16, 1863, was 
installed November 20, 1864, and remained until August 1, 1868. 
Rev. Charles C, Hart began his labors as pastor in October, was 
installed November 12, 1868, and remained until October 9, 
1871. Rev. A. R. Mathes Avas installed December 6, 1872, and 
remained until April, 1875, and was succeeded by Rev. J. M. 
Green, who was supply pastor until the beginning of 1878, and 
the present pastor. Rev. John McCurdy Robinson, took charge 
June 1, and was installed November 14, 1878. 



130 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

The following persons have been elders in this church : Wash- 
ington A. G. Posey, John Siddall, George W. Cajton, Alexander 
Kirkpatrick, John Kirkpatrick, William H. Stickney, John L. 
Campbell, Allen Redman, Matthew Hunter, Thomas S. Ridgway, 
John McKee Peeples, Robert Reid, George A. Ridgway, Joseph 
W. Redden, Benjamin F. Brockett, Henderson B. Powell, Carl 
Roedel and Dr. L. H. Adams. 

During the last year of Mr. Spilman's labor, seventy-seven 
persons joined his church. In April, 1870, there was a member- 
ship of 157; in 1878 there were 128, and at the present time 150. 
Large sums of money have been contributed by this church for 
benevolent and educational purposes, and their position upon the 
question of the morality of dancing is that " dancing, even in 
moderation and in private society, is not innocent." 

The presbytery of Saline was organized by the synod of Illi- 
nois (Old School), October 8, 1858, and included most of the 
southeastern part of the State, sixteen counties. At that time it 
had only four ministers and nine churches. This presbytery 
met at Shawneetown, April 5, 1860. John Mack was enrolled as 
a licentiate, examined and ordained, sine iiinlo, April 8. This 
presbytery, in 1870, became the presbytery of Cairo. 

The Presbyterian Church, of Saline Mines, was organized as 
a branch of Shawneetown Church, November 12, 1869, by Rev. 
C. C. Hart, pastor of Shawneetown Church, and three of the 
elders: J. M. Peeples, Matthew Hunter and Robert Reid. The 
Lord's Supper was administered and meetings continued, daily, 
for two weeks. On April 2, 1870, this branch church was or- 
ganized as an independent church; Robert Reid and Robert 
Wright were made elders, and the name at the beginning of this 
paragraph was chosen. Religious services were, for several 
years, held by the elders of the church, especially by Robert 
Reid. Services have continued until the present time by George 
H. Potter and Elder Robert Reid, the latter of whom was ordained 



HISTORY or ILLINOIS. 131 

to the ministry, in September, 1884:. A frame church building 
24x40 feet has been erected at a cost of about §700. It will 
seat about 175 persons. The Sunday-school consists of fifty 
scholars. Eev. Eobert Keid is superintendent and J. M. Proc- 
tor, assistant. 

Equality Presbyterian Church was organized May 26, 1832, 
by Eev. B. F. Spilman, and the church was under his care until 
1845. During his absence in Madison and Eandolph Counties, 
the church became somewhat reduced. On the 15th of Decem- 
ber, 1849, the following paper was adopted: 

" The undersigned members of the Presbyterian Church, at 
Equality, 111., having, in some way, lost all the records of the 
church, and being desirous still to continue the ordinance of 
God's house, do hereby agree to continue under the old style of 
the Equality Presbyterian Church, under the care of the pres- 
bytery of Kaskaskia. 

"William C. Campbell, John L. Campbell, Timothy Guard, 
Alexander Guard, Andrew Stephenson, Martha E. Guard, Emily 
Herritt, Sarah Brown, Sarah Crawford, Apphia Flanders, Deb- 
orah Flanders, Israel D. Towl, Abner Flanders, Sr., Samuel C. 
Elder, Elizabeth Hayes, Ann V. Campbell, Martha Siddall, Mary 
A. Eobinson, Mary Brown, Varanda J. White, Eliza Towl." 

Israel D. Towl is said to have been the first elder and the 
only male member of the congregation at the time of its organi- 
zation, but at that time there were ten female members. After 
the reorganization above recorded, the first elders were Israel D. 
Towl and John S. Campbell. Other elders have been as follows : 
C. C. Guard and J. S. Eobinson, J. W. Clifton, William C. Camp- 
bell, Ephraim Proctor, Alexander Guard, William H. McComb, 
William T. Grimes. 

Up to 1876 this church cannot be said to have prospered, the 
reason being frequent changes in the ministry. Among the 
ministers who have supplied have been Eev. John Mack in 1861, 



132 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

Eev. B. Leffler in 1862, Eev. J. B. McComb from March, 1868, 
to October, 1870, and Rev. John Branch in 1873. Several 
others preached occasionally, but none very long at a time. 
Abner Flanders in 1865 gave a parsonage, worth about ^500, to 
the church, and previous to the time mentioned above (1876), 
there had been connected with the organization more than 
150 persons.* 

Since 1876 the history of the church has been briefly as fol- 
lows: It has been served by Revs. R. C. Galbreath, B. C. Swan 
and Robert Reid, and arrangements are now being made to 
erect a church building. 

Eagle Creek Presbyterian Church is located on the Ford's 
road about one-half mile above Eagle Creek bridge, and eight 
miles south of Equality. It was started in 1875, by Elder 
George H. Potter, who preached there only once a month. The 
organization was efPected in June, 1876, with nineteen members. 
Since then Elder Potter and Rev. Robert Reid have alternated in 
preaching for this church. The membership is now forty-five. 
A church building was erected in 1878, 84x40 feet in size, which 
will seat 200 persons. It cost about $900. A. M. Gibson is the 
superintendent of the Sunday-school, which has forty scholars. 

The Palestine Cumberland Presbyterian Church was regu- 
larly organized December 25, 1852. This organization was the 
result of a movement commenced in 1848, when a few of the 
pioneers agreed to build a house of worship if Rev. R. M. 
Davis would agree to preach. This house of worship was a neat 
hewed-log structure, which served its purpose for forty years. 
The present large, well-furnished, frame building was erected in 
1868 at a cost of $3,000. Rev. R. M. Davis is the only pastor 
the church has ever had. The first elders were John Kinsell, 
Eli Price, Lewis West and Allen Dugger. The present church is 
situated on a portion of Rev. Mr. Davis' land, donated by him to 

*From Norton's History of the Presbyterian Church in Illinoia. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 133 

the organization, which has been remarkably prosperous, having 
received in all about 700 members into the fold, the present num- 
ber being 300. The Sunday-school was organized in 1851, with 
John Kinsall as superintendent. 

Hazel Eidge Cumberland Presbyterian Church was organized 
September 1, 1881, by Rev. R. M. Davis. The elders were L. 
Shain, J. B. Edwards and John Burns, and the number of orie- 
inal members was twelve. A house of worship was erected in 
1883, 30x50 feet in size, at a cost of $865. It was dedicated June 
8, 1884, by Rev. Mr. Davis. The present membership is seventy. 

Liberty Cumberland Presbyterian Church, three miles north- 
east of Ridgway, was organized in 1855 by Rev. Gen. F. M. 
Bean. It flourished until his death, since which time it has had 
but meager success. 

Concord Cumberland Presbyterian Church, two and one-half 
miles northwest of Ridgway, was organized in 1858, by Rev. Gen. 
F. M. Bean and M. Brown. After partially failing, it was reor- 
ganized by William E. Davis. It now has a supply of preaching 
and is doing very well. 

New Haven Cumberland Presbyterian Church was organized 
in 1866, a church building having beeen erected in 1865. Rev. 
R. M. Davis was pastor until 1869; Rev. M. Green became pas- 
tor in 1885. The first elders of this church were Andrew Mel- 
vin, Joseph L, Purvis and Benjamin T. Mize, and the first mem- 
bership amounted to twenty-five. In 1869 there were sixty 
members and at present there are forty. 

In early days there was a large congregation of this denom- 
ination on Eagle Creek. Rev. R. M. Davis preached for them 
about six years. It is now but a small congregation. There was 
also organized a church at Ringgold, six miles south of Shaw- 
neetown, about 1860, which has been ministered unto by a num- 
ber of preachers. The present minister is Rev. Mr. Fields, 
and the organization is just building a church. 



134 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

The first Cumberland Presbyterian Church in Gallatin County 
was organized, it is believed, by Joseph M. Street near Shawnee- 
town, but the exact date could not be learned. It was afterward 
moved to "Dillard's Place," near the present site of New Market, 
and then in 1830 moved to near the present site of Eidgway and 
there organized by Rev. David W. McLin as New Pleasant Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church. The place was known for some 
time as Crawford's Camp-ground before there were any church 
buildings in the county, except, possibly, at Shawneetown. At 
the time of this organization or rather reorganization, there were 
two ordained ministers in Gallatin County of this denomination 
— John Crawford and Benjamin F. Bruce — and one licentiate, 
John Bennett. The ruling elders of this New Pleasant Church 
were James Dillard, Sr., John V. Sherwood, Isaiah W. Petti- 
grew, John Murphy, Sr., John Alexander, James Fleming and 
Isaac N. Hannah. With their election the organization was com- 
pleted in September, 1830. 

Oak Grove Cumberland Presbyterian Church, located about 
half way between Omaha and New Haven, and nearly on the 
county line, was organized March 31, 1862, by Rev. R. M. Davis 
with twenty-eight members. A frame church building was 
erected in 1869, costing ^1,500. Its pastors have been Rev. R. 
M. Davis, Rev. Martin Brown, and the present pastor, Rev. Z. T. 
Walker, of Norris City. It is a large and flourishing organi- 
zation. 

The Methodist Churches. — The early ministers of this de- 
nomination in southern Illinois were mostly itinerants. In 1812 
this part of the Territory was embraced in a district extending 
from near Cairo, up the Ohio and Wabash Rivers to Mt. Carmel, 
and probably above this point and into Indiana, including several 
churches, with Peter Cartwright as presiding elder. Thomas S. 
Fills traveled a circuit embracing all of southern Illinois south 
of Mt. Vernon, including Equality, and it is believed, Shawnee- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 135 

town. The Carmi Circuit was formed in 1825, with Robert Delap 
as the preacher. In 1831 the Shawneetown Circuit was formed, 
embracing about the same territory as the Carmi Circuit. 
Charles Slocumb, an earnest and eloquent man, was the preach- 
er. He was again appointed to this circuit in 1833, with James 
Harsha as colleague. This year there were reported but five 
members, but this must have been a mistake, as in 1834 Slocumb 
and Harsha reported 555 members. In 1834 John Fok was ap- 
pointed to this circuit, and found John Crenshaw one of the main 
supporters of Methodism in this region. In 1835 G. W. Strib- 
ling was appointed to the circuit; in 1836, Isaac L. Barr and 
Christopher J. Houts, who returned 407 members; in 1837 Rev. 
Mr. Barr was apjwinted alone and returned 333 members; in 
L838 James Hadley reported 346; in 1839, Thomas C. Lopas, 
296, and in 1840, G. W. Stribling, 297. In 1841, when on cer- 
tain authority there were but two Methodists in Shawneetown, 
that place was made a station and George J. Barrett appointed 
to the charge. He was somewhat eccentric, but a fine speaker 
ind very popular. In 1842 he reported fifty members, and in 
1843, 100. Norris Hobart came in 1844, and had trouble about 
completing the church building commenced by Mr. Barrett. It 
was taken possession of under a mechanic's lien, but after some 
years was redeemed. Mr. Hobart returned forty-four members. 
From 1844 for several years Shawneetown ceased to be a station, 
but was instead placed in a circuit called Shawneetown, and 
James M. Massey and James F. Jaques appointed thereto. In 
1845 Joseph H. Hopkins was Massey' s colleague. In 184(5 
Robert Ridgeway and Daniel Fairbank were appointed, and in 
1847 Shawneetown was made a two weeks' circuit, Equality be- 
ing the other principal point, the preacher residing at Equality. 
Charles W. Munsell was appointed in 1847, and in 1848 he was 
succeeded by R. W. Travis, who had for his colleague Ephraim 
Joy. In 1850 the name of the circuit was changed to Equality, 



13G GALLATIN COUNTY. 

which name was continued for a number of years, that being the 
residence of the preacher. 

Shawneetown was again made a station in 1858, with Thomas 
M. Boyle as preacher, who was succeeded by J. A. Robinson, who 
was followed by Z. S. Clifford, who preached both at Shawnee- 
town and Equality for a number of years. B. R. Price lived at 
Equality and ministered at Shawneetown when the station was 
very weak. In 1868 F. L. Thompson was appointed; in 1870, 
W. J. Whitaker; in ISTl, Jesse^ P. Davis; in 1872, Ephraim 
Joy; in 1873, G. W. Farmer, and in 1874. J. ^Y. Van Cleve; in 
1876 J. B. Thompson was appointed and remained three years; 
in 1879, V. C. Evers; in 1881, Rev. Mr. Maneer; in 1882, Olin 
B. Rippetoe; in 1884, L. M. Flocken, and in 1886, Rev. J. E. 
Nickerson. The church building, damaged by the floods to the 
extent of ^500, has been repaired. 

The Bethlehem Methodist Episcopal Church was organized 
and a house of worship erected in 1868, the dedication of the 
building taking place February 15 of that year. At this time 
there was a membership of fifty. 

The New Haven Methodist Episcopal Church was started in 
1872. Among its pastors have been Revs. Mr. Fields, J. J. R. 
Reaf, C. W. Morris and A. W. Morris. The church is now in 
quite a flourishing condition. 

The Omaha Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 
1879. A building has been erected at a cost of $800, which was 
dedicated Sej^tember 16, 1882. At first there were twenty -five 
members. The pastors have been Revs. Mr. Hobbs, J. J. R. 
Reaf and C. W. Morris. 

The Catholic Church. — The first Catholic immigrant to Gal- 
latin County was John Lawler, who came from Ireland in 1830. 
The late famous M. K, LaAvler, a general in the Union Army 
during the war of the Rebellion, and Thomas Lawler, likewise a 
soldier, were his sons. A few more Irish families moved in soon 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 137 

after John Lawler and settled about half way between Shawnee- 
town and New Haven, the settlement being known for a long 
time as the Pond settlement, but is now known as Waltonboro. 
Here the first Catholic Chapel was built about 1848 or 1849. 
The families then residing there were the Lawlers, Maloneys, 
McGuires,Murphys, Keanes, Dalys, Walshes, and DufPys. The 
Doherty brothers mjved in a few years later. A new and stately 
frame church building, the largest now in Gallatin County, was 
erected in 1879. 

In Shawneetown several Catholic families, mainly of Irish 
nationality, located as early as 1840, and later a few German 
Catholics came in. All the Catholics here were attended by 
Kev. Father Durbin from the church of the Sacred Heart at 
Uniontown, Ky., who is still living. The first baptism recorded 
here was on November 16, 1842. Numerous other priests paid 
visits to Shawneetown in the following years. Since the erection 
of the church building at that place, about thirty years ago, there 
has always been a resident priest at Shawneetown. Among the 
first of these was Father Lewis Lambert, from 1860 to 1862. 
Father Lambert was a noted man and Catholics look with great 
pride upon his controversy, and other connections and contrasts, 
with another noted man. Col. Robert G. Ingersoll, who formerly 
was a resident and law student at Shawneetown. Father J. 
Eensmann, priest at Ridgway, says: " Lambert and Ingersoll two 
remarkable men. "We meet both in Shawneetown, the one a 
priest, the other a lawyer; we find them again on the same bat- 
tlefield, the one as an army chaplain, the other as a colonel, and 
a third time they come before the public on religious battle- 
ground. Father Lambert the defender of revealed truth. Col. In- 
gersoll its scoffer." Father Lambert was author of " Notes on 
Ingersoll " and other works. After him came to Shawneetown 
Father S. Wagner, 1862-67; Francis Mueller, 1867-70; 

Father Demminjr started the 



138 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

Catholic school named St. Mary's, the building for which was 
completed by his successor, J. Reusmann. On May 16, 1874, a 
meeting was held at the church of the Immaculate Conception 
to protest against the removal of Rev. Father Anton Demming, 
it being thought that no successor could take up his work where 
he laid it down and carry it on to success. But the protest was 
of no avail ; Father J. Rensmann remained with the church until 
October, 1879, when he was succeeded by Father Adam Leufgen, 
who remained one year, and was followed by Father William 
Krug, who remained until 1883. In this year trouble arose in 
St. Mary's School because in the fall three colored children of 
Catholic parents were admitted thereto. Rev. Mr. Krug, upon 
the breaking out of the trouble, wrote to Bishop Baltes at Alton 
for instructions, and the Bishop in reply directed that the rules 
of the Catholic Church, which make no difference on account of 
color or nationality, be sustained. As a consequence it became 
necessary to close the school, and Father Krug left Shawneetown 
for Morganfield, Ky. The sister teachers also left the town. 
This trouble over the admission of colored children to the school, 
coupled with the damage caused by the floods, has prevented 
the school from being reopened. After a brief pastorate of six 
months by Rev. Father Joseph Poston, the present pastor. Rev. 
Carl Eckert, took charge of the church in April, 1885. About 
thirty families are connected with the church of the Immaculate 
Conception. 

In the meantime a Catholic Church was built at Ridgway, 
where the Devons, Drones, Braziers, Moores, Kaufmans, 
Bowleses and Wathens were the first Catholics, about 1875. This 
congregation has enjoyed a more rapid growth than the others. 
In 1879 Rev. J. Rensmann was called from Shawneetown. In 
1883 a parochial school was built at Ridgway and taught by Sis- 
ters. The school has also grown strong, and a second teacher is 
needed therein. The number of families in the congregation is 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 139 

about seventy-two, and it is in contemplation to bnild a large 
brick church. 

In Equality a Catholic Church was built in 1881. The con- 
gregation, numbering about thirty families, is attended from 
Eidgway. 

The Social Brethren* have three churches in Gallatin County ; 
Green Valley Church, eight miles south of Equality, organized in 
1875 by Rev. Hiram T. Brannon, has at present sixty-four 
members. Their services, conducted in turn by the difPerent 
pastors of the denomination within the Southern Illinois Associa- 
tion, were held in the schoolhouse until 1887, when a church 
building was erected, 24x36 feet, at a cost of S500. Rocky Branch 
Church was organized in 1880, by Rev. Hiram T. Brannon. Its 
membership now is now fifty -five. This organization has a church 
building 24x36 feet in size, which cost $400, Equality Church 
of the Social Brethren was organized March 10, 1887, by Rev, 
Hiram T. Brannon, with ten members. The first meeting was 
held in the brick schoolhouse on the public square, where preach- 
ing is had once each month. 

SCHOOL HISTORY. 

Previous to the adoption of the common school law, which was 
approved in 1855, there were comparatively few public schools 
in Gallatin County, and those few were supported, of course, by 
private subscriptions. There were a few of these subscription 
schools in existence in 1820. The teachers were mostly foreign- 
ers who were prospecting through the western States and Terri- 
tories, and who taught school when and because out of funds. 
One of these early schools was taught in the vicinity of the pres- 
ent site of Omaha, by a colored man named Pros Robinson, 
about 1820. Sandy Trousdale taught on Sterling Edward's 
farm in 1826, The parents of the pupils usually paid at the rate 

*For origin of this denomination of Christians see Saline County. 



140 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

o£ 31 per month per scholar, the teacher requiring about eighteen 
scholars to make up the school. Sometimes when the required 
number of scholars could not be found, one or more of the pa- 
trons of the school would pay for one or more scholars with the 
privilege of adding pupils to the school until his subscription 
was full. The teacher generally paid $1.25 per week for board. 
In course of time settlers came in who were competent to teach, 
and they naturally superseded the peripatetic pedagogues, though 
it is not claimed that any very marked improvement in methods 
was the result, but a beneficial change was made in adding one 
term of school each year. Under the neAv arrangement one term 
was taught in summer and one in the winter — the former exclu- 
sively for the small children, the latter being attended also by 
the larger boys and girls. The first teacher in the southern part 
of the county, whose name can now be ascertained, was a Mr. 
Stephenson, who taught in about 1822 or 1823. The building 
used w^as a large one originally erected for a barn. Afterward a 
floor was laid in it, and it was used for a dwelling house, and 
then for a schoolhouse. It stood on high ground in the west 
part of Shawneetown. One of the early teachers of Shawnee- 
town should not be forgotten; he was an educated Irishman 
named John Cassidy, and is well remembered. He taught in 
about 1825 or 1826. John W. McClernand was one of his pupils 
as was Joseph B. Barger. Mr. Cassidy was a very irascible gen- 
tleman, as well as very learned; was very aristocratic in his feel- 
ings and hard to please, so much so that after the ladies of Shaw- 
neetown became familiar with these peculiarities none of them 
would take him to board. One other reason of his unpopularity 
with the ladies was that he would excuse no scholar's absence 
from school except upon the written request or explanation of 
the father, and the result of this animosity on the part of the la- 
dies was that Mr. Cassidy kept "bachelor's hall" during nine of 
the twelve or fifteen months of pedagogic sojourn in Shawnee- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 141 

town. During these nine months he taiight his scholars in a 
frame building standing on Main Street where now stands A. G. 
Eicheson's hardware store. For common scholars he charged S3 
per half year, while for those pursuing Latin his price was SI. 50 
per month. For truancy and failure to prepare lessons, punish- 
ment was not parsimonious, and was certain and severe. There 
was no compunction of conscience connected with it, and but little 
feeling, except on the part of the delinquent. The instrument of 
torture employed was a sole-leather strap about an inch and a 
half wide and three feet long. It had an exceedingly stimulating 
effect upon the student, and failure to prepare lessons was unusu- 
ally rare. In fact, it is doubtful whether better lessons have 
ever been learned since the departure of this model Irish peda- 
gogue. One remarkable thing about him was that notwithstand- 
ing his unpopularity with women, he was always popular with 
men. He was very intelligent, naturally sociable, had great con- 
versational powers, and could rule their sons. 

After he had sought other climes a building was erected on 
purpose for a schoolhouse, a description of which it seems nec- 
essary to preserve. It was built of little, black hickory logs, 
about 10 inches in diameter, and was 18x20 feet in size. The 
floor was made of puncheons, and the fire-place extended en- 
tirely across one end of the room. For want of bricks a 
kind of mortar was made of clay, with which the logs were 
plastered to a height sufficient to protect them from the blaze. 
Logs were placed upon the fire from twelve to fifteen feet long, 
no short wood being iised. For chimney there was nothing but 
a hole about three feet square, in the roof, directly over the fire- 
place, yet it is credibly related that this primitive chimney 
never smoked. For windows, holes about a foot square were cut 
in the walls, in each of which was fastened a piece of foolscap 
paper, greased. For desks upon which to write and lay their 
Webster's spelling books, boards were laid on pins driven into 



142 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

auger-holes bored into the walls, with a proper slant, and benches 
were made by splitting a log through the middle, and setting the 
half logs up on legs,driven into auger-holes bored into the rounding 
sides. These benches stood before the desks in such a position 
that to use the desks, the scholars sat with their faces to the 
wall. 

Other buildings were erected from time to time, as they were 
demanded, similar to, or varying from this, according to circum- 
stances and taste. It is typical, and no other of the kind need be 
described. The first teacher in this temple of learning was 
named Gregory. He ''boarded round" among his scholars who 
lived sufficiently near, but could not board with those who came 
six miles to school, as some of them did. For the balance of the 
time he paid as high as $1.25 per week for board and washing. 
The next teacher was James Stinson, afterward surveyor of Gal- 
latin County. As times improved, better schoolhouses were 
erected, and better educated teachers employed. In 1850, ac- 
cording to the United States census for that year, there were in 
the county twenty schools, with twenty teachers, and 896 scholars 
attending school. The public school fund amounted to $800, and 
other funds to $1,975. There was one school with an endow- 
ment of $60. The numbers of adult persons who could not read 
and write were, of whites — male, 232 ; female, 331 ; and of col- 
ored — males, 69 — females, 87; total, 719. The population was 
then as follows: White — male, 2,618; female, 2,477; colored — 
male, 153; female, 200; total population, 5,448. 

The public school fund mentioned above was derived from the 
sale of lands set apart for school purposes, under the celebrated 
ordinances of 1787, usually the sixteenth section in each town- 
ship, with occasionally other lands. Joseph Hayes was school 
commissioner, at least as early as 1834, for from June 1 of that 
year to March 1, 1836, he sold off 600 acres of land for $108.80. 
Up to March 15, 1838, he sold, in addition to the above, 1,360 



HISTOKY OF ILLINOIS. 143 

acres for |1,720. On June 7, 1841, the school fund on hand 
amounted to $1,G8U. Samuel Elder succeeded Joseph Hayes as 
school commissioner, and according to his report, made Septem- 
ber 7, 1844, he had paid out during the previous school year to 
the different townships $1,225.70^. The lowest amount paid to 
any teacher was $1.20^, and the highest amount $47.25i. The 
total number of scholars in the county then, Saline County not 
having been set off, was 5,977. On the 26th of April, 1840, the 
school commissioners of Gallatin and Saline Counties were or- 
dered to settle, and divide the school fund in accordance with the 
provisions of the act creating Saline County, each county to re- 
ceive an equal share of what was then on hand, and no dividend 
was to be made to that portion of the county which had been cu 
off from Gallatin and attached to Hardin County, containing, it 
was thought, 385 children, until the taxes in that portion of the 
county should be paid for 1846, except by the commissioners, 
and in that case the commissioners of the two counties of Galla- 
tin and Saline agree to pay an equal proportion of that fund. 

Some of the provisions of the law establishing the present 
common-school system were as follows: That a school commis- 
sioner should be elected for two years ; at that time he should re- 
port to the State superintendent each congressional township 
that was established a township for school purposes, and in each 
township there should be three trustees, and the townships were 
to be divided into school districts, each district to have three 
directors, also elected for two years. The State school fund was 
fixed at 20 cents on the $100, at which it remained until 
recently, when the law was so changed that a State common- 
school fund of $1,000,000 was established, the levy varying 
from year to year, according to the changes in the assessed value 
of property in the several counties, and the $1,000,000 thus 
raised is distributed to the several counties according to the 
number of school children in each county. In 1883 the State 



144 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

school tax in Gallatin County was 12 cents on the ^100; in 1885 
and 1886, it was 14 cents. 

The directors in each district are authorized by law to levy a 
tax according to the necessities of their district, but not in any 
one year to exceed 20 cents on each $100, except for building 
purposes, when 30 cents additional may be levied, but not more. 

With reference to the county superintendency in its various 
forms it may be stated that it was established in 1829, the officer 
then being known as the school commissioner of lands. In 1840 
this commissioner was required to distribute the school fund, 
and in 1841 he was first elected by the people. In 1845 it be- 
came a part of his duty to examine teachers, and in 1849 he was 
made an inspector of schools, but it was not until 1865 that he 
was known as county superintendent of schools. The following 
is believed to be a complete list of the school commissioners: 
Joseph Hayes, Samuel Elder, George W. Hise and Josiah E. 
Jackson, the latter of whom served from 1851 to 1864, and on 
the 6th of January, of this year, turned over the school fund 
amounting then to $1,076.83, to his successor, N. P. Holderby. 
During Mr. Holderby' s term as commissioner, the office of 
county superintendent was created, and he became the first super- 
intendent, serving from 1865 to 1874. Thomas J. Cooper suc- 
ceeded and served until 1881. H. P. Bozarth served during 1882, 
when Hugh C. Gregg was elected and was superintendent until 
1886, when the present incumbent, Thomas J. Proctor, was 
elected. 

The present condition of the schools is shown very nearly 
by the following facts and statistics taken from the superintend- 
ent's report for 1883. The total number of schools in the county 
was then fifty-six, in three districts of which they are graded: 
Kidgway, Omaha and Equality. The number of schoolhouses 
belonging to the county was in that year fifty-five, two of them 
brick, ten log and forty-three frame. About one-half of them 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 145 

are good schoolliouses and in good repair, while the rest are in- 
different or poor, and the apparatus is as yet inadequate to the 
necessities of the schools. In 1885 but one school was kept less 
than the constitutionally required time, 110 days; of the three 
graded schools, two were in session six months each and the 
other, nine months, and the ungraded schools were in session a 
trifle over six months on the average. The scholars enrolled in 
the graded schools numbered in one 65, in another 137, and in 
the third 373, a total of 575, and the number of teachers en- 
gaged in them was 11 — three males and eight females. In the 
ungraded schools there were 52 male teachers and 22 females. 
The total number of scholars between the ages of six and twenty- 
one, was, males, 2,119; females, 1,977, and the total number 
under twenty-one was, males, 3,296; females, 3,095, and the 
number between twelve and twenty-one, unable to read and write 
was, males, 52 ; females, 22. The highest wages paid any male 
teacher was ^111.10 per month, and the lowest 3^0, and the high- 
est monthly wages paid any female teacher was $52.85, and the 
lowest $25. The total amount of money paid to male teachers 
was $11,596.16, and to female teachers, $5,798. The amount of 
district tax levy was $19,691.17. The estimated value of school 
property was $11,510, value of apparatus $1,978, and of the 
libraries $75. The bonded debt of the county was $10,150. 

While the schools are in general making steady progress, yet 
it is evident to all that greater efficiency is desirable. One rea- 
son for the past inefficiency was doubtless the inadequate compen- 
sation of the superintendents. In 1882 the superintendent re- 
ceived but $218.15; in 1888 but $215.57; in 1881 but $806.10, and 
in 1885 but $309.31. Since then the office has become a salaried 
one, the salary now being $800 per year, and it is believed that 
it will have a tendency to attract men of greater ability and learn- 
ing to the position, 

o 



146 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

THE SHAWNEETOWN PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

The first school directors in District No. 1, the Shawneetown 
district, were A. B. Saiford, Kev. B. F. Spilman and Joseph B. 
Barger, and much credit is due, especially to Kev. B. F. Spilman^ 
for the establishment of the common-school system, and to all 
three of the directors for the successful initiation of the first free 
school in Shawneetown. A. D. Safford was its earnest and able 
advocate and main support. The first teachers were Dr. Mary 
E. Safford, now of Boston, Mass., and her sister, who performed 
noble duty for the schools. These schools were improved in their 
character from time to time, according to the ability and skill of 
the teachers employed, but were not systematically graded until 
1882. For many years they were taught in a frame building, 
near the corner of Market and Third North Cross Street, and 
until the completion of the brick building now in use. The prin- 
cipals of this school have been Daniel G. May in 1859; G. E. 
Smith, 1860-61; Edward Henry, 1862-63; David Smith, 1864- 
65; S. E. Willing, 1866; Kev. N. F. Tuck, 1867; Carl Koedel, 
1868; James M. Carter, 1869-70; James H. Brownlee, 1871-73; 
Warner Craig, 1874-76; F. E. Callicott, 1877; George L. Guy, 
1878-82, and C. J. Lemen, 1882 to the present time. 

In 1875 a proposition was submitted to bond the district to 
the amount of $20,000, for the purchase of a schoolhouse site and 
the erection of a new schoolhouse, which carried by a vote of 154 
for it to 35 against it ; but this proposition was never reduced to 
practice. Another proposition was submitted to the people, No- 
vember 15, 1881, which was to issue $10,000 to purchase a site 
with, and to erect a new school building. The site to be voted for 
or against, was described as lots 19 to 24 inclusive, in block 9, 
Pool's addition to Shawneetown. This location received 149 
votes to eight votes for all other locations, and the new school- 
house received 140 votes, and there were 34 votes against it. 
After the failure of a contract with R. H. Stanley, of McLeans- 



. HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 147 

boro, another contract was made with Peter Hyatt and Eicheson 
& Cromwell to build the schoolhouse for |9,985, and afterward 
$835 was added to the price, thus making the new buildino- cost 
about $11,000. This, added to the cost of the lots, $1,000, makes 
the cost of the school property $12,000, The clock was addi- 
tional, and cost $800. The building is two stories high above 
the basement, and the rooms, four on each floor, are so arranged 
that they receive light from three sides ; and each is capable of 
seating comfortably about fifty pupils. The school is divided 
into six grades, the lowest grade being numbered 1 and the 
highest 0. Each grade comprises one year's study. The 
total enrollment for the district is 450, of which 87 are colored 
pupils. During the last five years the schools have very mate- 
rially improved. In 1882 the percentage of attendance on enroll- 
ment was seventy-five; it is now from ninety to ninety-four. In 
1882 the number of cases of tardiness was 670; during the last 
year about forty. The teachers in the school for white children 
at the present time, 1887, are as follows: First grade. Miss 
Joanna Golden ; second. Miss Ida Sisson ; third, Miss Mary Hun- 
ter; fourth. Miss Jean Docker; fifth. Miss Alice Hunter, and 
sixth, C. J. Lemen. In . the sixth grade there are about forty 
pupils, and usually about one-half of them are pursuing higl^ 
school studies, as natural philosophy, physiology, zoology and 
botany, civil government, physical geography, rhetoric and 
algebra. No class in geometry has yet been formed. Thus far 
these studies have been introduced only so far as could be done 
without interfering with the regular grammar school course. 

RIDGWAY SCHOOLS. 

Kidgway has a new schoolhouse, built in the fall of 1880. It 

is a frame one-story building, with two rooms, and the school is 

divided into two grades, primary and principal, in each of which 

there are about eighty pupils. The first principal in this new 



148 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

building was W. S. Phillips in 1880. R. E. Brinkly was the 
principal teacher in 1881, 1882 and 1883, and the present prin- 
cipal, M. E. Fiilk, has taught since 1885. Miss Mollie Hamilton 
was assistant in 1885, and Miss Mary Wathen in 1886, and is the 
present assistant. 

OMAHA AND EQUALITY SCHOOLS. 

Omaha has a large two-story schoolhouse and has had a graded 
school since 187-1. The first principal was H. C. Bozarth, and 
he was succeeded by R. D. Kinsall, J. M. Kinsall, M. M. Robin- 
son, A. H. Kinsall, W. E. Terrell, H. P. Bozarth and W. E. Fer- 
rell, the latter of whom was assisted by Miss R. Martin. 

The school in Equality was organized under the common- 
school law almost immediately upon its approval. The first prin- 
cipal was John L. Howell and his assistant was Mrs. E. J. 
Humphrey. Mr. Howell retired at the end of his first year be- 
cause he had not the hardness of heart required to inflict the 
needed corporal punishment upon refi-actory pupils. He was 
succeeded by T. N. Stone, who remained but a part of the year 
1856, Mrs. Humphreys still assistant. Dwite Spafford became 
principal in October, 1856. Following are the names of the 
sw5ceeding principals: James Ewing, commencing in 1859; J. 
Webster Childs, April, 1860; A. H. Morford, November, 1861; 
James Conner, 1862; T. J. Heath, 1865; Sullivan N. Gibson, 
1868; C. F. Church, 1871; Oliver Edwards, 1872; T. L. Mc- 
Grath, 1873; D. O. Haws, 1874; W. L. Hall, 1877; H. L. 
Douglass, 1878; J. B. Ford, 1880; J. F. Cassidy, 1881; George 
Burlingame, 1883; A. C. Rodgers, present principal, 1885. 
The school is divided into three grades: primary, intermediate 
and grammar, taught respectively by Miss Winifred Holderly, 
daughter of Nathaniel Holderly ; Miss Alice M. Bailey and A. 
C. Rodgers. There are 70, 38 and 42 pupils in the three grades, 
respectively, commencing with the primary. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 149 



SALINE COUNTY. 

LOCATION, BOUNDARY AND SURFACE. 

SALINE COUNTY is in the southeastern corner of Illinois 
and is bounded on the north by Hamilton County, on the 
east by Gallatin County, on the south by Hardin and Pope 
Counties and on the west by Williamson and Franklin Counties. 
It is in the form of a parallelogram, being twenty-one miles from 
north to south and eighteen miles from east to west, thus con- 
taining 378 square miles or 241,920 acres. 

The surface of the county is somewhat hilly, more so than 
that of Gallatin County. Gold Hill Kidge extends beyond the 
limits of Gallatin County into Saline County, and forms a con- 
spicuous elevation in the southeastern part of this county. In 
Somerset Township this ridge is known there as Prospect Hill or 
Eagle Mountains. As determined by the barometer the height 
of these mountains above low water in the Saline Eiver is 590 
feet, and after crossing the low lands in the central southern por- 
tion of the county the same elevation again aj^pears in the south- 
western corner of the county near the village of Stone Fort. The 
middle, northern and western portions of the county, though gen- 
erally level, are broken by hills and ridges varying from ten to 
eighty feet above high water mark of the streams, " Crusoe's 
Island" in nearly the geographical center of the county, is about 
sixty feet high and is surmounted by the village of Harris- 
burg, the approaches to which are made of low levees. The 
principal water courses are the Saline, with its South and North 
Forks, and the Little Saline. These streams, as well as their 
small tributaries, have low banks and as a consequence the bot- 
tom lands are to a great extent overflowed in the rainy seasons. 



150 SALINE COUNTY. 

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES. 

The geology of this county is similar to that of Gallatin. The 
exposed portions of the Chester Group, according to the State 
geologist's report, are about 350 feet in thickness, as shown by 
the following section taken by him at Prospect Hill. 

Millstone grit 160 feet 

Covered space, sandstone? beloai^ing to the 

Chester Group 120 feet 

A.rchimedes limestone 3 " 

Green marly shale 20 " 

Gray limestone, ' ' Cave rock " 25 " 

Covered space 120 " 

Quartzose sandstone 20 " 

Cherty limestone 30 " 

Covered, sandstone? 20 " 357 " 

517 " 
Fossils are not found in this county, with the exception of a 
fragment of Archimedes associated with entrochites. In the 
limestone marked "cave rock, '.' in the above section, is a subter- 
ranean cavern which has acquired considerable notoriety. This 
cave has been explored to considerable distances in different 
directions, and must have been originally of great beauty, but 
many of the dependent stalactites have been rudely and ruth- 
lessly broken off by th e destructive hand of the exploring vandal. 
The millstone grit superimposed upon the Chester limestone 
lies at the base of the productive coal measures. This millstone 
is conglomerate composed mainly of a reddish brown sandstone? 
containing round pebbles of quartz. It appears at Prospect Hill 
and also in the southeastern and southwestern portions of the 
county in the vicinity of the Stone Fort, which is on Section 
34, Township 10, Eauge 5 east of the principal meridian. It is a 
massive pebbly sandstone from sixty to seventy feet thick. The 
Old Stone Fort is built upon the highest portion of the ridge, 
and contains from three to four acres. It appears to have been 
built by throwing together loose stones into a wall-heap without 
any attempt at order in their arrangement. This ancient fort was 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 151 

well protected on its south side by a perpeudicular wall of con- 
glomerate sixty to seventy feet thick on its exposed vertical face, 
and is in all probability one of those interesting monuments, so 
numerous throughout the entire Mississippi Yalley, to a race of 
men, the history of whose wars, of whose arts of peace, of whose 
conquests, of whose joys and sufferings and of whose final expul- 
sion and extinction can never pass beyond the stage of inference 
and conjecture. 

The coal in this county is represented by No. 5, Avhich is 
probably the lowest workable seam. It is nearly five feet thick 
and is opened on Section 24, Township 9, Kange 7 east, where it 
dips at the rate of seventy feet per mile. Coal No. 7 is found 
on Section 15, Township 9, Range 7 east, at Mr. Green's at a depth 
of about thirty feet. In sinking a well this vein was here found 
to be four feet thick. At Ingram's mine, about one and a half 
miles southeast of Harrisburg, on Section 22, Township 9, Range 
6, the vein is from five to six feet thick. While these are the 
principal seams of coal in this county, yet there are other veins 
of coal for a minute description of which the reader is referred to 
the State geologist's report. 

The copper found in Saline County evidently belongs to the 
drift period, hence it would be useless to attempt to find valuable 
mines of this mineral here; and although it is believed that salt 
was many years ago manufactured in paying quantities it is not 
now worked. There is an abundance of good limestone for build- 
ing purposes, but little valuable quick lime. There is good clay 
for fire brick, building brick and pottery, and plenty of good 
timber, the principal varieties being black walnut, white oak, 
cypress, hickory and poplar, on the uplands, while on the low 
lands grow the sweet gum, sassafras and mulberry. 

SOIL AND NATURAL PRODUCTIONS. 

The soils are similar to those of Gallatin County. Along the 



152 SALINE COUNTY. 

water courses is a black sandy loam and there are extensive tracts 
of post oak flats, the soil of which is of an ashen color, close, 
compact clay very tenacious and almost impervious to water, re- 
quiring proper ditching and underdraining before the full bene- 
fits can be obtained from its culture. Intermediate between these 
two varieties is what is known as the " gum soil," which also 
needs to be thoroughly drained before it can be in the best con- 
dition. Besides these three there is a good, strong soil, which 
occupies the greater portion of the county, known as the " drift 
soil," which on the highest points and on the low, rolling lands 
is from ten to twenty feet thick. This is particularly good for 
small grains and clover, but like some of the other varieties needs 
more or less draining. Tobacco is one of the staple products of 
this county, in 1875 5,500 acres having been devoted to this 
crop alone. 

SETTLEMENT AND LAND ENTEIES. 

Following is a list of the land entries in Saline County pre- 
vious to the admission of the State of Illinois into the Union. 
While it gives a few names of individuals who never lived in Sa- 
line County, and while there were early settlers whose names do 
not appear in the list, yet the names of most of the prominent 
early settlers are included. It will be observed that the first 
entry was made nearly two months later than the first entry in 
Gallatin County. Two entries were made on September 3, 1814, 
one by John Wren, the southeast quarter of Section 8, Township 
10, and Eange 7 east. This location, it will be observed, is the 
west end of the mountain in what is now Somerset Township, 
known now as Prospect Hill. The other entry on that day was 
by Hankerson Rude, the northwest quarter of Section 19, Town- 
ship 10, Range 7 east. On the 12tli of the same month Moses 
Garret entered the southwest quarter of Section 27, Township 
9, Range 5, and on the 14th Joseph Jordon entered the northeast 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 153 

quarter of Section 19, Township 10, Range 7 east. lu October 
there was but one entry made, and that by John Crenshaw of 
Gallatin County, the southeast quarter of Section 11, Township 
10, Range 7 east. In November there was one entry, by Jacob 
Carnes, on the 17th, the west half of the northeast quarter of 
Section 17, Township 8, Range 6, about a mile east of Raleigh; 
and on the 0th of December, 1814, there were two entries, one by 
Hampton Pankey, the southeast quarter of Section 28, Township 
9, Range 5 ; the other by John Pankey, the northwest quarter of 
Section 84, Township 9, Range 5, both quarter sections corner- 
ing on each other, and both but a short distance northwest of the 
present village of Morrillsville. 

The only entry made in 1815 was on September 13, by 
William Gasaway, the northwest quarter of Section 9, Township 
8, Range 0, a short distance northwest of the present town of 
Raleigh. 

Following are the entries made in 1816: January 1, Coleman 
Brown, southwest quarter of Section 17, Township 8, Range 7 ; 
March 18, John Brown, southeast quarter of Section 11, Township 
8, Range 6 ; May 8, David Grable, southwest quarter of Section 
1, Township 8, Range 0; July 2, Roger Jones, southwest quarter 
of Section 12, Township 10, Range 7, and November 23, Robert 
Watson, west half of the southeast quarter of Section 17, Town- 
ship 8, Range 0. 

In 1817 the following entries were made: January 13, David 
Grable, east half of soutlnvest quarter of Section 14, Township 8, 
Range 6; February 1, Thomas Brown, southeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 13, Township 8, Range G, and southeast quarter of Section 
14, Township 8, Range (3; February 0, Coleman Brown, east half 
of southeast quarter of Section 18, Township 8, Range 7, and 
February 18, Dowell Russell, west half of southeast quarter of 
Section 32, Townsliip 9, Range 5; November 15, Charles Mick, 
west half of northwest quarter of Section 9, Township 10, Range 



154 SALINE COUNTY. 

7, and November 26, Chester Bethel, southwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 32, Township 7, Eange 6; December 1, John Choisser, 
north Avest quarter of Section 13, Township 8, Kange G, and De- 
cember 19, Charles McLean, southeast quarter of Section 31, 
Township 10, Eange 5. 

Following is a list of the entries in 1818: January 22, Elisha 
Adams, east half of southeast quarter of Section 15, Township 8, 
Kange (3; February 2, Francis Jordan, east half of northeast 
quarter of Section 30, Township 7, Kange 5 ; March 16, Thomas 
Brown, northeast quarter of Section 13, Township 8, Kange 6 ; May 
18, William Strickland, northeast quarter of Section 36, Town- 
ship 8, Kange 5; May 21, Giles Taylor, northeast quarter of 
Section 12, Township 10, Kange 7 ; July 14, Thomas Gasaway, 
west half of southeast quarter of Section 2, Township 8, Kange 
5 ; July 20, Ezekiel Kyde, east half of northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 34, Township 34, Kange 6 ; August 21, Elisha Adams, west 
half of northwest quarter of Section 12, Township 8, Kange 5, 
and Benjamin Bramlet, west half of the southwest quarter of 
Section 9, Township 8, Kange 7; August 22, Thomas L. 
Harrill, west half of the southeast quarter of Section 11, 
Township 8, Kange 5; August 31, Thomas Brown, south- 
west quarter of Section 24, Township 8, Kange 6; Septem- 
ber 9, Coleman Brown, southeast quarter of Section 17, Township 

8, Kange 7 ; September 28, Zadock Aydolett, west half of the 
northeast quarter of Section 14, Township 10, Kange 7 ; October 
24, John K. McFarland, southeast quarter of Section 31, Town- 
ship 9, Range 6 ; October 27, Daniel Minor, east half of the north- 
west quarter of Section 2, Township 8, Kange 6 ; November 20, 
John Crenshaw, east half of the southeast quarter of Section 14, 
Township 10, Kange 7 ; * December 1, Thomas Cummings, west 
half of the northwest quarter of Section 20, Township 10, Kange 
7; December 4, Peter W. Grayson, northeast quarter of Section 
19, Township 9, Kange 6; December 7, William Cummings, west 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 155 

half of the southeast quarter of Section 12, Township 10, Eange 
7 ; December 8, Henry Con, east half of the southwest quarter 
of Section 15, Township 8, Eange 6; December 22, Joseph F. 
Atchison, east half of the southeast qiiarter of Section 4, Town- 
ship 8, Kange G; December 19, Eobert Mitchell, west half of the 
southwest quarter of Section 5, Township 10, Eange 6. 

In 1819 the following entries were made: January 27, Will- 
iam Crawford, east half of the northwest quarter of Section 15, 
Township 8, Eange 6 ; January 28, Eobert Mitchell, east half of 
the northwest quarter of Section 5, Township 10, Eange 6; 
February 26, John S. Young, west half of the southeast quarter 
of Section 7, Township 8, Eange 7; AjotI 14, Willis Strickland, 
east half of the southeast quarter of Section 25, Township 8, 
Eange 5 ; April 23, James McFarland, west half of the northeast 
quarter of Section 20, Township 10, Eange 6 ; May 31, Green D. 
Battle, northeast qiTarter of Section 10, Township 8, Eange 6; 
George A, West, west half of Section 12, Township 8, Eange 6 ; 
July 9, Eeuben Bramlet, west half of the northwest quarter of 
Section 25, Township 8, Eange 6 ; December 7, Stephen Stelley, 
northwest quarter of Section 14, Township 10, Eange 7. Thus 
it will be seen that 53 entries were made from Septembers, 1814, 
to December 7, 1819, comprising all that were made previous to 
1820. If one quarter section be allowed to each entry, which 
will not vary far from the truth, these fifty-three entries em- 
braced 8,480 acres of land, or nearly one and a third townships 
of the ten and one-half townships in the county. 

With reference to the taxation of lands it may be of interest 
to know that the rule was that all lands entered in 1844 became 
taxable in 1850; those entered in 1845, in 1851; those entered in 
1840, in 1852; those entered prior to February 19, 1847, in 1853, 
and those entered on or after February 19, 1847, became taxable 
at the date of entry. 

. Of John AVren, the first man mentioned above as having 



156 SALINE COUNTY. 

made a land entry nothing could be learned. Hankerson Rude 
came from Virginia, and his son, Alvis Rude, now lives on a farm 
about two miles from Independence. Zadock Aydolett was a 
Frenchman, who put up a horse mill for the grinding of corn. 
The millstones were made from the millstone grit in the moun- 
tain in Somerset Township, near which he lived, and they were 
propelled by means of wooden gear machinery, and a long sweep 
to which the horses were attached. When running to its full 
capacity this mill was capable of grinding two bushels of shelled 
corn per hour. Wheat flour was in the early days a great luxury, 
so much so that grades were not thought of. Charles Mick was 
one of those who, before wheat began to be raised in the country, 
were accustomed to go to Shawneetown or Golconda and buy two 
or three barrels at a time at about $4 per barrel. He and Hugh 
Lambert built the first schoolhouse in that part of the county in 
1823, a log one 14x16 feet in size with a fireplace outside the 
building and an opening in the end to permit a portion of the heat 
to come inside. This was because there was no way then of 
building a chimney. 

A careful study of the location of the land entries as given 
above will reveal the fact that the early settlers group themselves 
together in several localities or settlements. This was due to 
two main causes: first, because it was for the protection of their 
families against the Indians, and second in order to be above 
high water, as much of the county was then, much more than now, 
subject to overflow in the rainy season. There are four principal 
settlements to which people now look back as being the centers 
of interest, or it may be said four farms which are considered to 
have been the first farms opened up to cultivation. These- four 
farms were, first, Hankerson Rude's, in Township 10, Range 7 ; 
the second, Hampton Pankey's in Township 9, Range 5; the third, 
William Crawford's, in Township 8, Range 6, and the fourth, 
Francis Jordan's, in Township 7, Range 5. The first was in what 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 157 

is now Somerset Township, and a few miles southwest of the 
mountain; the secoud was in Douglass Township, about six miles 
west and two miles of Harrisburg ; the third was in the vicinity of 
Kaleigh and the fourth in the vicinity of Galatia. There was a 
blockhouse built on Hankerson Kude's farm, to which the sur- 
rounding settlers could retreat in case of danger, and then also 
one on Hampton Pankey's farm. There w^as also a settlement 
early in the vicinity of Eldorado, and one in Township 9, Range 
5, in Brushy Township, on or near Brushy Creek. A few of 
these settlers were Abner Abney, John Garner and a Mr. Carson. 
Though Indians were not^o numerous after the county became 
somewhat settled, yet until about 1840, and perhaps later, black 
bears continued to be killed in the thick woods. The methods of 
farming were for twenty or thirty years quite rude. The bar- 
share plow with a wooden mold board, which merely stirred or 
tickeled the earth to the depth of about two inches, was the only 
plow for quite a number of years. It was the one brought from 
the Southern States, many of the inhabitants coming from Vir- 
ginia, Tennessee and Kentucky, and being unfamiliar with any 
other kind ; but the soil was so fertile and productive that the 
absence of better farming implements was not so keenly felt as 
would now be the case. The next plow that came in was the 
Carey plow, which turned a furrow and was the first turning 
plow in this part of the country. Still later better plows came in, 
and in about 1855, the next year after the "dry year," as every 
one then and now living still remembers and designates 1854, 
deep plowing commenced, that is to the depth of from eight to 
ten inches. But in this as in all other parts of the country this 
innovation encountered deep-seated prejudices, which exclaimed 
to the innovators with gloomy forebodings and evil prophesy 
"That'll never do; you kaint raise kraps that way, you're only 
pizeniu' the land." But deep plowing in time removed these deep- 
seated prejudices, and even reclaimed a great deal of land that 



158 SALINE COUNTY. 

had been worn out, or exhausted by continual cropping and thin 
plowing, and had been abandoned without entry as worthless by 
those who made entries on other sections. Previous to the " dry 
year," threshing was mostly done with the flail, and the fanning 
or cleaning with a sheet, and what was not done in this way was 
done with a " ground hog " threshing machine, a machine which 
simply beat the wheat out of the straw, leaving the cleaning, or 
separation from the chaff to be performed with the fanning sheet, 
as when the threshing was done with the flail. It was customary 
in the early days before wheat became a staple crop, which it 
could not do before means of threshing and grinding were intro- 
troduced, to live principally on corn bread, corn meal and 
" Johnny cake" and milk through the week, and on Sunday to 
enjoy the luxuries of wheat flour, biscuit and coffee. It is stated 
that the first threshing machine which both threshed and cleaned 
w^heat was brought into the county in 1855, a year of exceedingly 
abundant crops, and it was this year, too, that the first two-horse 
wagon was brought into the county. The county was not then 
very thickly settled, as it is estimated that less than one-fourth 
of the land was entered in 1850. The methods of doing most 
things differed widely from those now in use. Women worked 
hard in the field along with the men, besides cooking for the 
family, carding, spinning and weaving fabrics from cotton, wool 
and flax, and making the clothing they, their husbands and 
their children wore, though buckskin breeches were not then so 
extremely rare. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY. 

"An act to divide the county of Gallatin, and to form out of 
the same the county of Sabine," was approved February 25, 184:7, 
and was in part and in substance as follows: 

Section 1. Be it enacted, etc., That the County of Gallatin shall be and the 
same is hereby divided into two parts bj' a line commencing at the southern ter 
minationof the line which divides the counties of Hamilton and White; thence 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 159 

running due south with the range line, through the present County of Gallatin 
to the Hardin County line, the eastern part to retain the name of Gallatin, and 
the western part to be called and known as the County of Saline. 

Sec. 3. The seat of justice for the said counties of Gallatin and Saline, 
respectively, shall be fixed by the legal voters thereof in the manner following, 
to wit: Any number of voters, not less than fifty, may nominate a .place, town 
or site, to be voted for as such seat of justice, by filing with the Clerk of the 
County Commissioners' Court of the County of Gallatin as now organized, 
twenty days before the day of voting, a written designation of the place, tract of 
land, or the name of the town proposed to be voted for, of which tract of land 
some one or more of the signers shall be the owner or owners in fee simple, free 
of incumbrance, the evidence of which shall be filed with the said clerk at the 
same time, and the election shall take place on the first Saturday of September 
next, at the several places of holding elections in said county respectively, for 
the selection of a county seat in each, the returns of which election shall be 
made to the said Clerk of the present County of Gallatin, who shall associate 
with himself two justices of the peace, and compare said returns, and make out 
and certify, under their hands, a statement of the votes which each place voted 
for in said counties respectively, shall have received, and the places in each hav- 
ing a majority of all the votes given, shall be the seats of justice of said counties 
respectively. 

Provision was made in this same section for another election 
in case this election should fail to settle the question of the 
county seat in either or both of the counties ; the clerk of the 
county commissioner's court of Gallatin County, with two 
justices of the peace, as before, to be the judges of the election. 
Section 3, provided for the donation of twenty acres to the county, 
by any individual upon whose farm the choice should fall for the 
location of the seat of justice. Section 4, for the election of a full 
complement of county officers in each county. Section 5, for the 
division of the debt of the county of Gallatin, between the two 
counties, in proportion to the taxable property of each. Section 
6, that all justices of the peace and other public officers should 
continue to hold their respective offices in the counties into which 
they might fall by the division. Section 7, that school funds of 
Gallatin should be divided according to the taxable property of 
each. Section 8, that in ease Equality should not be selected 
as the county seat of Gallatin County it should be the duty of 
the county commissioner's court of Gallatin County to sell the 
courthouse and other public buildings at public auction to the 



160 SALINE COUNTY. 

highest bidder, and to divide the net proceeds of such sale be- 
tween the two counties, upon the same principle as that es- 
tablished for the division of the debt and school fund. Section 
9, that the circuit courts of Saline County should be held on the 
Mondays following the court in Gallatin County, and that Saline 
County should vote for senators and representatives, the same as 
though it was a part of Gallatin County. Section 10, that the 
election, to decide the question as to the division of Gallatin 
County into two counties, should be held on the first Monday in 
August of that year; a majority of the votes cast to be decisive, 
and that in case such majority should be in favor of the division 
then the act was to take effect and be in full force, otherwise to 
be null and void, and Section 11 provided for contesting the 
validity of the election. 

LIST OF OFFICERS, ETC. 

After the organization of the county, itself, and the establish- 
ment of its courts, one of the first acts of the County Commission- 
ers' court was to divide the county into voting precincts. This 
was done December 7, 1847, as follows: Curran precinct, the 
judges of election in which were to be William P. Wilson, Wiley 
Pinnell and William Bourland, and the voting place to be at the 
house of John Elder, Ealeigh precinct, judges of election, A. 
Musgraves, George W. Burkhart and John M. Burnett, no voting 
place mentioned in the records. Saline precinct, judges, G, A. 
Pemberton, Albert Anderson and Henry Garner, voting place, 
Galatia, Stone Fort precinct, judges, Alsey Harris, Harrison 
Thompson and Thomas Hamilton, voting place, David Tanners. 
Monroe precinct, judges, P. Mitchell, Wilson Gaskins and James 
E. Ward, voting place, Thomas Pickings, Somerset precinct, 
judges, Jesse Kude, William G, Hutchinson and Jeremiah Vin- 
cent, voting place, at Robert Micks, 

The various countv officers have been as follows : Clerks of 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 163 

the county court — James M. Gaston, Hiram Burnett, R. N, War- 
field, 1855 to 1866; Thomas A. Jones, 1866 to 1873; Warner E, 
Burnett, 1873 to 1886; James H. Pearce, 1866, present incumbent 

Treasurers: Hiram Burnett, William P. PuUiam, John M, 
Bond, AY. G. Hutchinson, John M. Burnett, Jr., P. M. Pickett, 
G. L. Eubanks, John Edmonds, J. W. Hutchinson, S. B. Jones, 
P. Taylor. 

Sheriffs: John Howard, bond, $3,500; William Elder, bond, 
^6,200; T. J. Kain, 1853; J. M. Burnett, 1854; William Elder, 
1855; William Roark, 1857; Willis A. Stricklin, 1858; William 
G. Sloan, 1859; T. Y. Reynolds, 1860; William Burkhart, 1862 
(died, and John J. Jones was appointed to fill the vacancy) ; A. 
W. Durham, 1863; John J. Jones, 1865; S. S. Stricklin, 1867; 
William H. Pankey, 1868; William B. Jones, 1870; James A. 
Rice, 1873; John J. Jones, 1874; George E. Burnett, 1876; W. 
G. Sloan, 1878; Gregory J, Empson, 1880; William M. Gregg, 
1883; W. W. Largent, 1886, present incumbent. 

Circuit Court Clerks: Hiram Burnett, 1861; Thomas A. 
Jones, 1861 to 1865; Thomas Y. Reynolds, 1865 to 1869; 
Warner E. Burnett, 1869 to 1873 ; Sterne W. Forgy, 1873 to 
1876; John M. Gregg, 1876 to 1877; Thomas Y. Reynolds, 1877 
to 1885; W. H. Thornberry, 1885 to present time. 

Following is a list of the State Senators from Saline County: 
William H, Parish, a member of the Twenty-ninth General As- 
sembly, 1874-76, and of the Thirtieth General Assembly, 1876- 
78. Samuel L. Cheaney, member of the Thirty-first and Thirty- 
second General Assemblies, 1878-80, and 1880-82. 

Following is a list of the members of the Lower House of the 
State Legislature from Saline County: David J. Blackman, in 
the Sixteenth General Assembly, 1848-50; David B. Russell, 
Eighteenth General Assembly, 1852-54; William Elder, in the 
Twenty-second General Assembly, 1860-02; James Macklin, 
Twenty-fifth General Assembly, 1866-68 ; AVilliam Elder, Twen- 



164 SALINE COUNTY. 

ty-seventh General Assembly, 1870-72; John M. Gregg, Thir- 
ty-first General Assembly, 1878-80; James M. Gregg, Thirty- 
second and Thirty-third General Assemblies, 1880-82 and 
1882-84; W. G. Sloan, elected in 1886. 

Following are the names of the masters in chancery : Archibald 
Sloan, William Burkhart, Hiram Burnett, C. K. Davis, A. C. 
Duff, James M. Gregg, Boen Phillips, William M. Gregg, F. M. 
Pickett, present master. 

ELECTION KETURNS. 

Political statistics for the first twenty years of the county's 
history are difticult to obtain. In I860 the vote of Saline County 
was as follows: For Lincoln, 100; for Douglas, 1,338. In 1862 
the vote on State treasurer was for William Butler, Union, 93; 
for Alexander Starne, Democrat, 929. In 1864, at the presiden- 
tial election, Lincoln received 765 votes and McClellan, 818, and in 
1866, on congressman at large, John A. Logan received 942 
votes and T. Lyle Dickey, 988. In the presidential election of 
1868 Grant received 2,835 votes and Horatio Seymour, 1,913, 
and in 1872 Grant received 2,905 votes and Greeley 1,827. At 
the same election Richard J. Oglesby, candidate for governor, 
received 2,881 votes and Gustavus Koerner, 1,935. In 1874 the 
candidate of the Anti-Monopoly party for State treasurer, David 
Gore, received 921 votes and Thomas S. Ridgway, Republican 
candidate, received 491 and S. M. Etter, Anti-Monopoly candi- 
date for superintendent of public instruction, received 1,494 
votes, the Democratic party uniting upon him, while William B. 
Powell, the Republican candidate received 458, and Charles Car- 
roll the Democratic candidate for State treasurer received 564. 
For congressman, at the election in 1874, the vote stood for Green 
B. Raum, Republican, 423 ; William B. Anderson, Greenbacker, 
957, and for Samuel S. Marshall, Democrat, 612, and at this same 

election the Greenback candidate for sheriff, Jones received 

1,208 votes to 729 cast for Burnett, the Democratic can- 



HISTOKY OF ILLINOIS. 165 

didate. The vote on State senator for the Forty-seventh Sena- 
torial District stood, William H. Parish, Greenbacker, or " lude- 

pent Reformer," 923; Bowman, Democrat, 536; Er- 

win. Republican, 440, and as a result of the operation of the 
principle of minority representation, Wasson, Republican ; Smith, 
Greenbacker, and Nelson, Democrat, were elected members of 
the Lower House of the General Assembly. In 1876, the vote on 
governor stood, for Shelby M. CuUom, Republican, 959; for 
Lewis Steward, Democrat, 1,733; and on President, Hayes, 980; 
Tilden, 1,081; Peter Cooper, 641. For congressman, Edward 
Bonham, Republican, received 779 votes; R. W, Townshend, 
Democrat, 900, and William B. Anderson, Greenbacker, 998. In 
1878 the vote on State treasurer was, John C. Smith, Repub- 
lican, 970; Edward L. Cronkrite, Democrat, 956. In 1880 the 
presidential vote stood as follows : Garfield, 1,488; Hancock, 
1,608; Weaver, Greenbacker, 25. At this time the population of 
the county was 15,940, and the total vote on President, 3,121. 
The vote for governor this year was, for Shelby M. CuUom, 
1,496 ; Lyman Trumbull, 1,599. In 1882 the vote on State Treas- 
urer was for John C. Smith, Republican, 1,425; Alfred Orendorff, 
Democrat, 1,465, while for congressman, R. W. Townshend, Dem- 
ocrat, received 1,490 votes, and G. C. Ross, Republican, 1,405. 
In 1884 the vote for President was, James G. Blaine, 1,815; Cleve- 
land, 1,670; St. John, 26; for governor, Richard J. Oglesby, 
1,828; Carter Harrison, 1,680; for congressman, Thomas S. Ridg- 
way, 1808; Richard S. Townshend, 1,718. On Monday, June 1, 
1885, an election was held for judges of the First Judicial Circuit, 
resulting in Saline County, as follows: Baker, 1,331; Harker, 
1,346; McCartney, 1,312; Browning, 1,047; Crawford, 1,055, and 
Washburn, 984. On Tuesday, November 3, 1885, an election 
was held for county commissioners and coroner, which is here 
inserted in tabular form for the purpose of showing the present 
number of election precincts, and their political complexion at 



166 



SALINE COUNTY. 



tliat time; Westbrooks, Harris and Parks were the Eepublican 
candidates; Peninger, Ban and Greer, Democrats. 





COUNTY COMMISSIONERS. | 

1 


CORONER. 


PRECINCTS. 


1 


a 
1 


■i 


1 








55 
96 
95 
69 
94 

171 
73 

109 
57 

136 
77 
63 

162 

175 


83 

90 

111 

148 

102 

180 

170 

191 

67 

48 

82 

48 

45 

61 


55 

107 

93 

67 

95 

173 

75 

169 

90 

141 

75 

63 

153 

162 


85 

80 

111 

149 

103 

128 

170 

131 

38 

46 

85 

48 

52 

83 


56 

110 

95 

69 

95 

175 

74 

152 

79 

141 

79 

61 

155 

142 


83 


Eldorado 1 


77 




113 


T?nlpio-h 


146 


T.nncr Rranrh '. 


103 




129 




169 


Douglas 

Stooef ort 


142 
46 




45 




81 




47 




48 


Harrisburg 2 


70 




1435 


1376 


1518 


1309 


1513 


1299 







The last election in Saline County, and one to which great 
interest attaches, occurred on Tuesday, November 2, 1886. A 
portion of the returns of this election are also given in tabular 
form for the purpose of comparison with those of 1885: 





STATE TREASURER. 


CONGRESSMAN. 


COUNTY 


JUDGK. 


PRECINCTS. 


i 


1 


a 
1 


1 

r 


3 

.a 


i 

1 




81 
118 
113 
117 

98 
184 
106 
159 

90 
162 

96 
101 
199 
239 


128 

86 

141 

215 

140 

167 

183 

177 

53 

60 

99 

89 

70 

93 


79 
115 
107 
112 

98 
184 
106 
160 

86 
158 

94 
101 
196 
238 


128 

88 

142 

216 

141 

167 

183 

176 

56 

65 

101 

88 

72 

93 


66 
112 
116 

118 

97 

182 

99 

155 

89 

155 

100 

101 

184 

224 


13") 


Eldorado No 1 


87 




138 


Raleigh 


215 


Lon"' Brancli 


140 




176 


Brushy 

Douglas 


186 

178 




52 




66 


Soiuerset 


94 




89 


TTnrrinliiirP' N^O 1 .... 


81 


Harrisburg No. 2 


100 






Totals 


1863 


1701 


1834 


1716 


1798 


1732 







HI8T0RY OF ILLINOIS. 167 

The vote on State senator was, for John Yost, Republican, 
1,870; J. D. Eicheson, Democrat, 1,708. County Clerk, J. H. 
Pearce, Republican, 1,857; W. E. Burnett, Democrat, 1,713. 
Sheriff, W. W. Largent, Republican, 1,890; W. C. Baker, 
Democrat, 1,682; County Treasurer, P. Taylor, Republican, 
1,808; Alsey Harris, Democrat, 1,737. County superintendent 
of schools, James E. Jobe, Republican, 1,8-47; G. B. Parsons, 
Democrat, 1,708. County commissioner, J. L. Cain, Repub- 
lican, 1,906; Lewis Baker, Democrat, 1,665. The only Democrat 
oflBcer now in the county is John J. Parish, for State's attorney, 
elected in 1884 In the Forty-ninth Representative District the 
Republicans elected two representatives to the General Assembly, 
William G. Sloan and Simon S. Barger, and the Democrats one, 
J. F. Taylor. 

JOHN A. Logan's attitude toward secession. 
Closely allied with the political sentiments of a part of the 
people of this county, and the others whose history is to some 
extent depicted in this volume, at the time of the breaking out 
of the war of the Rebellion, or perhaps it would be better to say 
as the results of those political sentiments, were their actions with 
reference to the Avar itself, and with reference to the soldiers and 
the officers who entered the Union Army from southern Illinois. 
At the time of the raising of the first two companies in Saline 
County, which afterward became Companies B and G in the 
Thirty-first Illinois Regiment, it was learned that Hon. John 
A. Logan, member of Congress from the Ninth District, which 
then included Saline County, had returned from Washington with 
authority to raise a regiment for the Union Arnn^. These two com- 
panies for a time manifested an unwillingness to enter a regiment 
to be commanded by John A. Logan, because they actually thought 
they had reason to doubt his loyality to the cause which they had 
enlisted to defend. And as John A. Logan afterward became the 



168 SALINE COUNTY. 

most conspicuous figure in southern Illinois, at least with reference 
to the war, it is not only proper but it is the duty of this work to 
put in enduring form the truth as nearly as may be from the 
data or information now at hand. The charge has been made 
against him, and reiterated so frequently, that at that time he 
was in symjDathy with the Rebellion, that he even went so far as 
to lend his encouragement and assistance to the movement to 
separate southern Illinois from the rest of the State, and to unite 
the fortunes of this new State, of which the Ohio & Mississippi 
Railway was to be the northern boundary, with the Southern Con- 
federacy, and that he actually recruited a regiment, or at least a part 
of one, in southern Illinois for the rebel army. This charge has 
been so frequently and so long repeated that many persons either 
believe or aflfect to believe it even to the present day. That Gen. 
Logan never favored secession is amply proven by his speeches 
in Congress during the session previous to the inauguration of 
Mr. Lincoln as President of the United States, and it is deemed 
sufficient to refer the reader to them here, and this being admitted, 
as it must be, it naturally follows that without the boldest and 
most ridiculous inconsistency it would have been simply impossi- 
ble for him to recruit even one soldier for the rebel army. What 
Mr. Logan did between the adjournment of the Thirty-sixth Con- 
gress and the convening of the called session of the Thirty- 
seventh Congress which began its session at Washington, July 4, 
1861, was to hesitate or at least appear to hesitate as to his duty 
in the premises ; whether he should remain inactive or join the 
administration in the suppression of the Rebellion, which was to 
him to unite with a party he had always opposed — the Republican 
party. He blamed the Republican party for the course it had 
pursued during the previous January and February, in not, as he 
thought, having exhausted the proper measures for the prevention 
of the Rebellion, thus being largely to blame for the existence of 
the Rebellion, and could not resolve to unite with a party for the 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 169 

suppression of a rebellion which it had itself caused. He still 
believed in the possible efficacy of measures of conciliation, and 
could not consent to war until he was fully convinced that war or 
the disruption of the Union were the only alternatives. Then, 
too, he hesitated because he did not feel certain that his services 
as a Democrat would be acceptable to a Republican admin- 
istration. 

While in this uncertain state of mind as to his proper course 
he was frequently approached by politicians in southern Illinois, 
by those openly, or covertly in favor of the Rebellion, and by 
those in favor of its suppression. To none did he give a decided 
answer, and hence those who desired him to join the ranks of the 
secessionists in southern Illinois uniformly reported him to be of 
like faith with themselves, for the purpose of strengthening their 
cause before the people; while those who were in favor of the 
preservation of the Union, not receiving from him a decided 
answer to their queries as to his intentions, were themselves in 
doubt as to what to expect, but at length upon being assured that 
Mr. Lincoln wanted not only his assistance but also that of every 
Democrat, North and South, that he could get. and upon being re- 
monstrated with as to the mistake he was making in not assum- 
ing his rightful position as a leader of the people of his portion 
of the State, he finally gave the assurance that if, upon reaching 
Washington to take his seat in the extra session of Congress, he 
ahould become convinced that nothing could be done to prevent the 
breaking up of the Union but to suppress the Rebellion by force 
of arms, he would come home, raise a regiment and do his best 
to fight the rebellion to its death. After reaching his home at 
Marion, Williamson County, with the view of raising his regiment, 
it was but natural that he should encounter the doubts in the 
minds of loyal men that his own previous hesitancy had caused; 
but his character was well known to leading Union men, and they 
knew that when he once took his proper position in favor of the 



170 SALINE COUNTY. 

war that he would never flinch, and that he was implicitly to be 
trusted. Representations such as these being made to Companies 
B and G by men who knew Logan, and by men whom the sol- 
diers trusted, they no longer hesitated to join his regiment, es- 
pecially after hearing his speech delivered at Harrisburg, just 
after his return from Congress, in favor of the war for the Union. 
But those who at first reported him as in favor of the South- 
ern Cause have not ceased to reiterate the story, some of them 
doubtless in ignorance of the facts, and others perhaps as a pun- 
ishment for his conspicuous services as a Union soldier. 

CONTRABAND NEGROES. 

The prejudices of a portion of the people of Saline County to 
the- war and toward the negro, whom they could clearly see 
would in all probability be benefited by the success of the Union 
arms, is illustrated by their course with reference to the intro- 
duction of negro laborers into the county during the war. At 
first citizens, without respect to party, brought into different 
counties of southern Illinois contrabands, as laborers, because 
the absence from home of so many of the people in the army 
rendered labor scarce and dear. Reference to the history of 
Gallatin County will show the reader the course of James B. 
Turner, of Shawneetown, with reference to Carolina Sanders. 
James B. Turner was a Democrat, and other Democrats had 
taken this reasonable course to procure domestics and laborers. 
Among others who had brought in negroes was Dr. John W. 
Mitchell, known to be a strong Republican. He had imported 
two families of contrabands, and put them to work upon his 
farm. It was not long before every one in the surrounding 
country knew of the presence of these negroes, and their intro- 
duction was an outrage that many of the citizens could not per- 
mit to go unpunished. 

But Hon. William J. Allen and other leading members 



HISTORY or ILLINOIS. 171 

of the Democratic party who were opposed to the war, and who 
desired to carry the next election, determined that the fight must 
be made upon the negro question, and Mr. Allen, in company 
with Mr. Turner who was a candidate for the Legislature, visited 
Harrisburg for the purpose of advising their friends as to the 
line of action. On the 25th of October a meeting of the people 
was held in the courthouse at Harrisburg, at which the following 
resolutions were adopted: 

"At a mass meeting of the citizens of Saline County, 111., 
held in the courthouse, on the 25th day of October, 1862, the 
meeting was organized by electing J. W. Russell, Esq., presi- 
dent, and Jackson Dodd and Archibald Blackburn, secretaries. 
J. L. Riley, being called on, explained the object of the meeting 
to be to consult upon the propriety, or impropriety, of contra- 
band negroes being brought within the limits of Saline County, 
showing that it was an infringement upon State rights for them 
to be sent within the State, and bringing black labor in compe- 
tition with white labor. U]3on motion the chair appointed J. L. 
Riley, James B. Barker, David Stiff, John Ledford and David 
Roper, a committee to draft resolutions expressive of the sense 
of this meeting. After a short absence the committee returned 
and reported the following preambles and resolutions, through 
their chairman, J. L. Riley. 

Whereas, the constitution of Illinois prohibits negroes and mulattoes mi- 
grating to, and settling within, the State, and 

Whereas, the people of the State at a recent election re-endorsed the section 
containing said prohibition by over one hundred thousand majority, and 

Whereas, numerous hordes of contrabands have been sent within the limits 
of the State, which we regard as an infringement upon State rights, and 

Whereas, a number of said contrabands have been recently brought within 
the limits of Saline 'County, contrary to the wishes of a large majority of our 
citizens, therefore, 

Resohu'd, that we, the citizens of Saline County, in mass assembled, respect- 
fully ask that said contrabands be sent or taken without the limits of the 
county forthwith. 

Resolred, that if any other person has in contemplation to bring more of said 
contrabands into the county, we entreat such a one, in the name of the consti- 
tution and of humanity, to desist the thought at once. 



172 SALINE COUNTY. 

Resolved, that these proceedings be sigaed by the officers and published in 
the Harrisburg Chronicle. 

Upon motion the preambles and resolutions were adopted unanimously. 
Upon motion the meeting adjourned. 

James W. Russell, 
Jackson Dodd, ) o„, „./„,„•„„ President. 



Akchibald Blackburn. 



Secretaries. 



Of the committee on resolutions, James B, Barker, David 
Stiff and David Roper, and botli the secretaries of the meeting 
were unable to read or write. 

After the adoption of the resolutions the chairman of the 
meeting was requested to appoint a committee to wait upon Dr. 
Mitchell, who was upon his farm, and inform him of the action 
taken by the " citizens of Saline County in mass assembled " 
with reference to contrabands, and to inform him that he must 
" forthwith " remove said contrabands from the county or suffer 
the consequences. But it being well known to all that Dr. 
Mitchell was prepared for any emergency, no committee could be 
found with sufficient courage to notify him to remove the contra- 
bands. At length, after several attempts to secure a committee 
to perform this dangerous service had failed, one of the members 
who, however, was never in favor of the Rebellion, suggested that 
he believed Dr. Mitchell could read, that he could read print any 
way, and that if the resolutions were published it would be suffi- 
cient notification. Thus was the Gordian Knot of the situation 
severed and the meeting adjourned. 

But whether Dr. Mitchell ever read the printed notice or not, 
he did not remove the contrabands in accordance therewith, and a 
second meeting was held, a similar performance gone through 
with, and threats boldly made that if Dr. Mitchell did not remove 
the contrabands his life and property would be destroyed ; but the 
Doctor bravely stood his ground, and a second failure on the part 
of the brave resolvers was the result. This failure caused 
calmer counsels to prevail, and upon the convening of the circuit 
court he was indicted under the " black laws " of the State, and 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 173 

this indictment was not disposed of until the Constitution of 1870, 
from which the word "white" is omitted, came into effect, when 
the indictment was stricken from the docket. 

KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN CIRCLE. 

The Knights of the Goklen Circle were numerous and well 
organized in Saline County, and held secret meetings in the 
woods and other places to determine upon the proper measures of 
resistance to the prosecution of the war. A certain farmer in the 
northwest portion of the county, returning home late one night, 
discovered a number of them holding a meeting in his woods, with 
their lanterns hanging to the trees. Proceeding to his house he 
returned to their vicinity with his double barreled shot gun, both 
barrels loaded, and fired both barrels into their midst, causing the 
most lively scampering he had ever seen, thus breaking up their 
meetings in his woods. 

On another occasion a party of three Knights of the Golden 
Circle served notice upon Mr. L. J. Jobe, a Union soldier at 
home on furlough, wounded and sick, that he must leave the 
county within three days. Not heeding the notice, Mr. Jobe was 
visited by the three Knights who came to enforce their order. 
When they approached the house, Mr. Jobe, lying in bed and un- 
able to leave it, t old his wife to bring his gun and open the door, 
and then invited the brave Knights to carry their orders into ex- 
ecution, but here again, as in Dr. Mitchell's case, discretion 
proved the better part of valor, and Mr. Jobe was not molested 
further. 

But notwithstanding the strong feeling against the war, 
among a large portion of the citizens of the county, there was 
not, during the entire period of the war, any necessity for a draft. 
The following figures show the quotas and credits of the county 
at different times and the aggregates: The quota for 1861, was 257 ; 
for 1802, it was 176; under the call for 700,000 men 274; for 



174 SALINE COUNTY. 

500,000 it was 197; prior to December 31, 1861, the total quota 
of the county was 904, and the total credits at that time was 
1,273. On December 31, 1865, the total quota was 1,285, and 
the total credit was 1,280, and in 1865 the total number of per- 
sons in the county subject to military duty was 1,692. 

Following may be found brief sketches of the Fifty-sixth and 
Thirty-first Illinois Infantry Regiments : 

A sketch of the Twenty-ninth Infantry is given in Gallatin 
County. Company E of this regiment was raised mainly in 
Saline County. William H. Parish, of Raleigh, was the first 
captain of the company, but resigning October 26, 1861, he was 
succeeded by William W. Burnett, also of Raleigh. John Page 
Mitchell became captain after the death, April 6, 1862, of Capt. 
Burnett, and was succeeded in that office by Richard M. Burnett, 
of Saline County, January 21, 1865. 

The first lieutenants of the company were AYilliam Choisser, 
Richard M. Burnett and Sherbune H. W, Irwin, and the second 
lieutenants, William W. Burnett, Richard M. Burnett, Slierbune 
H. W. Irwin, John L. Roberts and John R. Irwin. The non- 
commissioned officers and private soldiers of this regiment who 
died or who were killed in the service and who belonged to 
Saline County were, Corporals — Joseph Bramlet, died at Vicks- 
burg, October 27, 1863; Halis Granville, died at Shawneetown, 
April 28, 1862. Privates — James Musgrave, died at home May 
3, 1862; Beal Bishop, died at Quincy, 111., June 8,1862; William 
J. Cowin, died at Keokuk, Iowa, of wounds, August 21, 1862; 
John Cottingham, died September 14, 1863 ; John T. Gates, died 
at Monterey, Teun., June 23, 1862; John T. Hutchinson, died at 
Nashville, Tenn., May 26, 1862; Daniel Jones, died of wounds at 
Mound City, 111., May 1, 1862; Francis M. Kittinger, killed at 
Shiloh; William Margrave, died of wounds, May 12, 1862; Dan- 
iel L. Miner, died January 28, 1862 ; William Tyler, killed at 
Fort Donelson; Allen Varnel, died January 31, 1862; William M. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 175 

Kittinger, died January 12, 1865; James M. Eoberts, died of 
wounds, April 20, 1862. 

THE THIETY-FIKST REGIMENT. 

The Thirty -first Infantry Regiment was recruited mainly in 
Saline, Franklin and Williamson Counties. Its rendezvous was 
at Camp Dunlap, Jacksonville, 111. It was organized at Cairo by 
John A. Logan, and there mustered into the United States serv- 
ice, September 18, 1861. John A. Logan was colonel of this reg- 
iment until promoted brigadier-general, March 21, 1862, when 
Lindorf Osborn became colonel, and resigned February 24, 1863. 
Edwin S. McCook became colonel February 24, 1863, resigned 
September 26, 1864, and was brevetted brigadier-general in 1865. 
Robert N. Pearson became colonel April 3, 1865, and was also 
brevetted brigadier-general in 1865, and was mustered out July 
19, 1865. The lieutenant-colonels were John H. White, of 
Marion, killed at Fort Donelson; Edwin S. McCook; John D. 
Reese, died of wounds, July 1, 1863; Robert N. Pearson and 
William B. Short. 

Company B was raised mainly in Saline County. Its cap- 
tains were Thomas J. Cain, Sterne W. Forgy and William W. 
Largent, the latter of whom served from April 8, 1863, to July 
19, 1865, when he was mustered out. The first lieutenants were 
Cressa K. Davis, Sterne W. Forgy, Joseph B. Kuykendall, Will- 
iam W, Largent, and William J. Dillard. Second lieutenants — 
Sterne W. Forgy, George W. Youngblood, Robert Lewis, Will- 
iam W. Largent, William Gaskins and John J. Dunn. George 
W. Youngblood died February 26, 1862, of wounds received at 
Fort Donelson. The privates who died in the service and who 
belonged in Saline County were Harmon Abney, killed at Fort 
Donelson; Benjamin H. Brown, died November 9, 1862; Edward 
F. Barnett, died of wounds, February 17, 1862; Calvin P. Crank, 
died June 14, 1862; Jonathan C. Cocherhan, died November 4, 



176 SALINE COUNTY. 

1862; John Carrier, died March 29, 1862; James Cassels, died 
January 13, 1862; William J. Dodds, died at Memphis, March 
22, 1863; James Ozment, died June 30, 1861; Irby Pankey, 
died at Lake Providence, March 5, 1863 ; James M. Pickering, 
killed near Vicksburg, May 23, 1863; James M. Eoper, died 
June 7, 1864; James K. Simonds, died April 15, 1864; John B. 
Yates, killed at Belmont, November 7, 1861; David M. Farthing, 
veteran, killed at Atlanta, July 21, 1864; John Dorris, died 
December 16, 1862; Joshua Medlin, died of wounds, March 1, 
1862; Thomas McNew, died of wounds, July 23, 1864; Harvey 
M. Eude, died November 8, 1861; John A. Kaney, died Novem- 
ber 9, 1863; Oliver G. Eandolph, died of wounds, August 11, 
1864; George M. Stucker, died February 14, 1863; James K. 
Spears, killed at Atlanta, July 22, 1864; Joseph W. Smith, died 
June 7, 1864; Samuel T. Willis, died of wounds, February 22' 
1862. 

Company G was also raised mainly in Saline County. 
Its captains were Willis A. Stricklin, Simpson S. Stricklin, and 
Monroe J. Potts. First lieutenants — Larkin M. Eiley, died Feb- 
ruary 25, 1862; Simpson S. Stricklin, Monroe J. Potts and Will- 
iam S. Blackman. Second lieutenants — Simpson S. Stricklin 
Benjamin Sisk, John W. Stricklin; Sergeant, Eobert A. Johnson, 
died June 7, 1862; Corporal, John B. Sewel, died March 14, 1863. 
The private soldiers who died or were killed were, Benjamin S. 
Bullington, died January 25, 1862; Henry Dillon, died February 
18, 1863; James J. Dickson, died November 3, 1861; James H. 
Estes, died of wounds received at Fort Donelson ; John W. Fur- 
gerson, killed at Fort Donelson; William Hewlet, died January 
13, 1862; Samuel Johnson, killed at Champion Hills; John B. 
Jennings, killed at Belmont; AVilliam Jackson, died October 17, 
1861; James E. Keith, died of wounds; James Mcllrath, killed at 
Fort Donelson; William J. Eoe, killed near Atlanta; William 
Tanner, died December 12, 1862; William C. Thomas, died April 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 177 

28, 1862; Kichard Thompson, killed at Fort Donelson; Aaron 
Owen, killed at Atlanta, July 22, 1864; James Boren, died March 
5, 1863; John F. Bell, died March 25, 1865; John N. Bronson, 
died of wounds, May 26, 1864; Charles Garris, died March 4, 
1863; Daniel S. Henderson, killed at Raymond, Miss., May 12, 
1863; Burrell Mills, died at Monterey, Tenn., June 10, 1862; 
Samuel Owen, died February 4, 1863; John Scott, died Septem- 
ber 17, 1863; James N. Wilkins, died February 28, 1863; Isaac 
J. White, died of wounds, July 22, 1864. 

The history of the Thirty-first Regiment is briefly as follows : 
After being mustered into the service, and with less than two 
months' drill, it took part in the battle of Belmont, Mo., Novem- 
ber 7, 1861, cutting its way into the rebel camp and with equal 
courage cutting its way oui. It was engaged in the battles of 
Fort Henry and of Fort Donelson, losing in this battle 260 men, 
killed and wounded. It was at Shiloh, in the siege of Corinth, 
and then went to Jackson, Tenn., remaining most of the summer 
of 1862. It was engaged in the skirmishes of Chewalla and 
Tuscumbia, and was with Gra^nt in the first campaign against 
Vicksburg, sometimes called the Okana expedition, and it was 
also with Grant during the campaign which resulted in the sur- 
render of Vicksburg, July 4, 1863, taking part in the battles of 
Thompson's Hill, Fort Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, Miss., and 
Champion Hills. Gen. Logan always encouraged his troops, and 
gave them the inspiring command at critical points in the battle. 
At this battle (Champion Hills), while McPherson, a brilliant 
soldier and cultured gentleman, encouraged them as they were about 
to spring forward in a bayonet charge against a two-column forma- 
tion over which waved the rebel flag by calling out to them: 
" Give 'em Jesse! " Logan called out with characteristic energy 
and emphasis: "Remember the blood of your fallen comrades! 
Give 'em hell, boys, give 'em hell! " The opposing battery was 
quickly captured and its guns turned upon the retreating foe. 



178 SALINE COUNTY. 

and as mauy prisoners captured as there were men in the char- 
ging brigade. The regiment took part in the long siege of 
Vicksburg and lost its brave Lieut. -Col. Reese, while planting 
the colors of the regiment upon the ramparts. The flag received 
153 bullets and the flag-staff was shot asunder four times. The 
brigade with which this regiment was classified marched first 
into the captured city. The regiment then went on the expedi- 
tion to Monroe, La., and at Black River, Miss., three-fourths of 
the men re-enlisted as veterans. The regiment was with Sher- 
man at Meridian, Miss., after which the veterans took their 
furlough. Returning to the front they marched to Rome, Ga., 
and joined Sherman at Ackworth Station; it was at Kenesaw, 
June 27, 1864, and in the battle of Atlanta, at Lovejoy Station 
and at Jonesboro, and marched with Sherman to the sea 
arriving at Savannah December 10, 18G4. Leaving Savannah 
January 4, 18G5, on the steamer '^Harvest Moon," the Thirty- 
first arrived at Beaufort, S. C, January 30. The march soon 
began through the Carolinas, and the regiment was at Benton- 
ville, the scene of the last great struggle of Johnston's army. 
It reached Goldsboro March 24, 1865, and Raleigh April 14, 
and was in Richmond May 9. It reached Alexandria May 19, 
and on the 24th, with faded uniforms but with martial tread and 
bearing, it participated in the grand review, the most imposing 
spectacle ever witnessed in Washington. When first organized 
the regiment numbered 1,130 men and received 700 recruits, the 
casualties numbered 1,128, and when discharged it numbered 25 
officers and 677 enlisted men. It had marched under Grant 
2,000 miles and under Sherman 2,075 miles, and was one of the 
best drilled regiments in the service. 

THE FIFTY-SIXTH REGIMENT. 

The Fifty- sixth Regiment of Infantry was raised in part in 
Saline County. Its first colonel was Robert Kirkham, of Shaw- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 179 

neetown, who resigned Jiine 26, 1862. William R. Brown suc- 
ceeded and resigned August 31, 1862. Green B. Raum was the 
third colonel and was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers 
February 24, 1865. John P. Hall, of Morganfield, Ky., suc- 
ceeded Col. Raum ; he was not mustered as colonel, but was 
mustered out as lieutenant-colonel August 12, 1865. The 
lieutenant-colonels of the regiment were William R. Brown, 
Green B. Raum, James F. Cooper and- John P. Hall. The 
majors were Green B. Raum, James F. Cooper, John P. Hall, 
Pinckney J. Welsh, James P. Flies and Samuel Atwell. 

Company E of this regiment was recruited in Saline, William- 
son and Gallatin Counties. Its captains were Henry T. Massey 
and William E. Webber, both of Gallatin. First lieutenants: 
Doddridge B. Grattan, William E. Webber, Josiah Joiner, and 
Hansford Dudley, all of Saline County. Second lieutenants : Will- 
iam E.Webber, Josiah Joiner,Elisha Dillon and William L.Burker. 
William E. Webber and Josiah Joiner were both lost on steamer 
" General Lyon," March 31, 1865, as were also Corporals John 
B. Morris, Perry Parker and Benjamin F. Blake and Musician 
Thomas B. Ritter. The private soldiers of this company, who 
belonged to this county who were lost on the " General Lyon," 
were William Adams, John C. Brown, Nelson E. Bristol, James 
K. Carrier, William W. Crapper, James A. Enscore, George W. 
Enscore, George W. Hazelwood, Miles Drury, Jesse M. Rollins, 
Calvin Stephens, Jacob Stratton, George W. Shrum, Albert Weir 
and Robert P. Towney. 

The history of the regiment is briefly as follows: It was 
composed of companies from Massac, Pope, Gallatin, Saline, 
Franklin, Hamilton, White and Wayne. It was mustered into 
the service of the United States at Camp Mather, near Shawnee- 
town, and immediately went to Paducah, Ky., by order of Gen. 
Grant, where it remained on guard duty until Gen. Halleck moved 
on Corinth, Miss., when it went up the Tennessee on steamboats, 



180 SALINE COUNTY, 

debarked at Hamburg Landing and joined in the siege. It re- 
mained in northern Mississippi most of the summer of 1862, its 
principal camp being near Corinth, in the hills of Clear Creek. 
On the 3d of October Price and Yan Dorn made an attack upon 
Corinth, which was defended by Gen. Rosecrans, and on the sec- 
ond day of the fight this regiment, with the Tenth Missouri, made 
a most gallant charge upon the rebels and retook ten pieces of 
artillery taken by the rebels in the earlier part of the day, drove 
the rebels from the works, repulsed reinforcements coming up to 
sustain Price, who thereupon immediately retired. For this 
splendid piece of work the two regiments received the thanks of 
Gen. Rosecrans in person. During the winter of 1862-63 the 
regiment was engaged in guarding the Memphis & Charles- 
ton Railroad. It was then in the first expedition against 
Vicksburg, joined the main army at Young's Point, and 
crossed the Mississippi below Grand Gulf, taking possession 
of that place May 2 ; was in the battle of Champion Hills, and 
made an assault on Yicksburg, May 22, 1863, and reinforced 
Gen. Logan when he blew up and assaulted Fort Hill. The regi- 
ment, as a part of the Fifteenth Army Corps, reached a position 
opposite Chattanooga November 23, and was engaged in the bat- 
tles of the 24th and 25th, under Gen. Sherman, on the north end of 
Missionary Ridge, and in this position had again the honor of de- 
feating victorious rebel troops and driving them back with heavy 
loss. After the successful battle of Missionary Ridge this regi- 
ment was assigned to garrison Whitesburg, the steamboat land- 
ing for Huntsville Ala. After the beginning of the great Atlanta 
campaign the Fifty-sixth was mainly engaged in guarding the 
lines of communication in the rear of the army, at Mud Creek, at 
Calhoun, Ga., at Adairsville and several smaller stations, and 
afterward acted a conspicuous part in the defense of Resaca, 
when Gen. Hood made his great movement northward, the army 
under Gen. Raum keeping at bay an enemy of more than five 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 181 

times their number. ,AVlien the " great march to the sea" began 
this regiment was a part of the brigade constituting the rear 
guard of the right wing, under Howard, witnessed the conflagra- 
tion at Atlanta, and was with the rest of the army at Savannah, 
December 23, 1864, and also participated in the battle of Ben- 
tonville. The non-veterans, their term of service having expired, 
were ordered home to be mustered out of service, and twelve offi- 
cers and 193 enlisted men embarked on the steamer " General 
Lyon," which, when off Cape Hatteras encountered a severe storm 
and caught fire, and about 500 persons met their death in the 
flames or in the sea. Twenty-eight were saved, of whom only 
five were enlisted men of this regiment; and thus, on March 31, 
1865, 200 men of the Fifty-sixth Eegiment perished. The re- 
mainder of the regiment took part in the great review of the 
army in Washington, and was mustered out of service August 12, 
1865. This regiment was engaged in nearly all of the great battles 
of the Western Army, never was in an unsuccessful battle, never 
was driven from a position, and never turned its back upon 
the enemy. On its flag-staff at Springfield on a silver plate are 
these words: ''Sub hoc signo vinces.^'' 

Company F, of the Sixth Cavalry, was raised in part in Saline 
County. Its captains were Cressa K. Davis, William G. Sloan 
and James H. Pierce, all of Saline County; first lieutenants, 
William G. Sloan, William H. Dove and William L. Mitchell, all 
of Saline County, and its second lieutenants, James A. Roark, G. 
W. Newell, avIio died at Harrisburg, April 29, 1864, James H. 
Pierce and Alexander Barnes. The private soldiers who died in 
the service belonging to Saline County were Granville P. Cook, 
died at Andersonville, August 6, 1864, his grave being numbered 
4879; Joshua H. Hardin, died at Memphis, July 17, 1864; New- 
ton Smith, died at Memphis, June 26, 1864; Frank Shuecraft, 
died at Montgomery, Ala., September 25, 1865. 

Company E, of the One Hundred and Tenth Infantry. Avas 



182 SALINE COUNTY. 

raised mainly in Saline County, Its captains were George E, 
Burnett and Willis A. Spiller, both of Raleigh; first lieutenants, 
Willis A. Spiller and Charles Burnett of Raleigh, and second 
lieutenants Charles Burnett and Richard J. Smith of Raleigh. 
The private soldiers who died in the service were James W. Ab- 
ney, died at Nashville, December 17, 1862; Josephus Grable, died 
January 21, 1863; Alexander Patterson, died December 6, 1862; 
Stephen Patterson, died January 14, 1863. 

Company F, of the One Hundred and Twentieth Infantry, was 
mainly from Saline County, William Roark was the only captain. 
First lieutenants, Benjamin H. Rice and John W. Fitts; second 
lieutenants, Zepheniah Phillips of Equality, and Abell O. Hill of 
Saline County ; corporals, John M. Ward, died at Corinth, Sep- 
tember 22, 1863 ; George W. Clark, at Memphis, April 26, 1865, 
and Lafayette D. Riley, at Lake Providence, La., July 9, 1868. 
The private soldiers who died were, William Black, at Memphis, 
April 14, 1864; James L. Banks, at Lake Providence, July 20, 
1863; Francis M. Bourland, at Memphis, December 30, 1863; 
Stephen F. Brothers, at Memphis, January 30, 1863; William 
Carter, at Memphis, January 23, 1863; Jackson Davis, at Mem- 
phis, January 22, 1863 ; George H. W. Davis, at Memphis, Janu- 
ary 23, 1863; Samuel M. Dallis, at Memphis, May 18, 1864; Will- 
iam Escue, at Lake Providence, July 12, 1863; George W. GuUey, 
at Memphis, November 17, 1863; James W. Horn, at Memphis, 
February 2, 1863; James A. Ingram, at Memphis, February 18, 
1863; Elijah Keith, at Memphis, August 30, 1863; Samuel Mcln- 
tire, at Memphis, March 30, 1864; John B. Ozment, at Memphis, 
April 18, 1863; John W. Shrum, at Lake Providence, July 5, 
1863; Henry Thurman, at Memphis, February 13, 1863; William 
W. Boiirland, at Memphis, March 23, 1864; Theodore Brown, at 
Memphis, May 2, 1865; James A. Inman, at Memphis, March 2, 
1863. 

Company K, of the One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Infantry, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 1S3 

was raised mostly in Saline County. Its captain was Jonah 
Pemberton, of Galatia ; first lieutenant, Samuel R. Upcliurch, of 
Gallatia, and second lieutenant, Samuel H. Pemberton, of Gallatia. 
These three officers were discharged April 4, 1863, and most of 
the noncommissioned officers and private soldiers transferred to 
the Ninth Infantry. 

THE COUNTY COURT. 

It will be -remembered that the act to separate Gallatin County 
into two counties was approved February 25, 1847. In the suc- 
ceeding fall the county commissioners' court met at the court- 
house in Raleigh on the 11th of October, 1847. Hon. David 
Upchurch and James Stricklin were the only commissioners 
present. James W. Gaston was appointed clerk of the court. 
Different names were proposed for the county seat, and after some 
consultation it was ordered by the court that it be known by the 
name of Raleigh, though what other names had been suggested 
the court records do not show. Archibald Sloan was then ap- 
pointed surveyor of the town of Raleigh, and was authorized to 
employ assistance in laying off the town. On the loth of Novem- 
ber the lots were to be offered for sale, ten per cent to be paid 
down and the balance to be paid in six, twelve and eighteen 
months; Lot No. 20 was to be reserved to build the jail upon. 

The next term of the court was held November 6, the same 
commissioners being present. James M. Gaston's bond as clerk 
was approved, as also that of Hiram Burnett as treasurer. Those 
who assisted Archibald Sloan in the survey of Raleigh were Will- 
iam St. C. Clark, Martin Kittinger and Israel W. Crawford, were or- 
dered to be paid, and Hannah A. Crawford was paid $2. 12 A for 
boarding the hands while engaged in the survey. William Carr, 
George Bond and William Stricklin were appointed to review, 
mark out and locate a county road from Raleigh to the notched 
trees on the line dividinoc the counties of Saline and Williamson. 



184 SALINE COUNTY. 

The next term of this court commenced December 6. A 
large number of lots had been sold, and the court ordered that 
the notes received for the deferred payments be turned over to 
the county treasurer. It would probably be undesirable to pre- 
sent a full list of these notes, though a few are introduced as 
illustrating the method pursued in disposing of the town lots pre- 
paratory to the building of a courthouse. James Baker and 
George Baker gave three notes, each for S12.33|, dated Novem- 
ber 16, 1817, and falling due in six, twelve and eighteen months 
respectively. William Burkhart and Martin Kittinger gave 
three notes of the same date and falling due in the same manner, 
each for $7.66f. A. Musgrave and Gason Mason similarly gave 
three notes each for for $5.33^, and also three other similar notes 
each for $5.58^. On December 7 it was ordered that a court- 
house be built according to the plan made out for the same, and 
Hiram Burnett and Archibald Sloan were appointed to make a 
contract for its construction, the courthouse to be paid for out of 
the sale of lots for that purpose. After the division of the county 
into voting precints, Jacob Smith was ordered to buy books for 
the use of the various county officers. 

Court next convened on January 28, 1848, and on this day its 
first business was to order that a writ of ad quod damnum be 
issued to the sheriff of the county for the purpose of summoning 
a jury to locate a mill site on the southwest quarter of Section 
15, Township 10, Range 6, on the premises of Stephen F. Mitchell 
for the use and benefit of said Mitchell, and on the 7th of March 
Mr. Mitchell was authorized to build a mill dam across the Saline 
River, nine feet high above low water mark. It will be observed 
that this mill dam was near the present site of Independence. 
John Howard, sheriff of the county, gave bond as collector of the 
revenue, in the sum of $3,500, and the county tax was fixed at 25 
cents on the $100. On March 8, 1848, the time of the court was 
mainly occupied in appointing supervisors for the various roads, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 185 

and on the 9tli overseers of the poor were appointed, one for each 
precinct. James M. Gaston, who had been engaged to build the 
courthouse and to have it finished by May 15, on the 10th of 
April prayed for an extension of the time in order to enable him 
to season the lumber, and the time was extended to August 
15. In December, 1848, the building of a jail was provided for, 
which was to have a stone foundation two feet thick, two feet to 
be below the surface of the ground and one foot above, and which 
was to be two stories high, sixteen feet square, and the walls to 
be of ten inches square timber. As an evidence of the budding 
of esthetic taste in this primitive community it should be ob- 
served that while the two feet of the foundation wall of this 
criminal's retreat was to be of " rough masonry," the one foot 
above ground was'required to be " hammer dressed." The court- 
house had been received and paid for at the June term. In 1849 
the commissioners were David Upchurch, James Stricklin and 
J. R. Norman. 

Under the constitution of 1848 the county commissioners' 
court was superseded by the system of county judge and two as- 
sociate justices. The first judge under this system, elected in 

1849, was Samuel Elder, and his associate justices were David 
Upchurch and James Stricklin. This county court served through 

1850. At the September term a petition was presented thereto, 
signed by William G. Malcom and 115 others, praying for an alter- 
ation in the State road, leading from Golconda to McLeans- 
boro, and it was ordered by the court that Daniel Mings? 
James P. Yandall and Archibald Sloan be appointed reviewers to 
view and relocate the State road, beginning at or near Joseph 
Wises, thence to Raleigh and thence to intersect the old State 
road, near the schoolhouse, near the residence of Henry Sim- 
mons. The report of these reviewers was approved December 
2, 1850. 

At the June term, 1853, of this court, which evidently looked 



186 SALINE COUNTY. 

upon Ealeigli as the permanent county seat, sealed proposals for 
a brick courthouse were invited (on June 9) to be submitted on 
Monday July 18, 1853, and James Stelle and Horatio R. Coffee 
were employed to make a full profile of the proposed new structure 
On July 18, when the bids were opened, it was found that Jarvis 
Pierce was the lowest bidder, and the contract was therefore 
awarded him for $5,500. The building was to be 36x4:0 
feet, two stories high, the first ten feet from stone work to 
ceiling, and the second twelve feet between floor and ceiling, the 
foundation to be of stone, and the walls of brick, the first story 
walls to be eighteen inches thick and the second fourteen inches 
thick. There was to be a portico on the south end, six feet wide 
supported by four stone columns. A common roof was to be sur- 
mounted by a cupola, and on March 11, 1854, the " old court- 
house," was ordered to be offered for sale on May 30, with the 
lot on which it stood. 

On the first Monday (7th) of November, 1853, an election re- 
sulted in the choice of Samuel Elder, county judge, and David 
Upchurch and Moses P. McGehee, associate justices. In 1855 
the court was the same except that James L. Kennedy had taken 
the place of David Upchurch. In 1856, Moses P. McGehee be- 
came county judge, and James L. Kennedy and James Stricklin, 
associate justices, and the June (1858) term of the county 
court convened at Harrisburg, the county seat having been 
chansred. The court then consisted of Moses P. McGehee, 
county judge, and James Stricklin and William Watkins, associ- 
ate justices. In March, 1859, the court ordered that Green B. 
Raum and William H. Parish, together with such other compe- 
tent person as they may select, be appointed commissioners for 
the county of Saline, to select sites upon which to erect a court- 
house and jail in the town of Harrisburg, and if necessary to 
negotiate for the purchase of the same, also to obtain plans and 
specifications for the buildings, and submit them to the court 



HISTOEY OF ILLINOIS. 187 

and when the plans were approved by the court to enter into a 
contract for the construction of the buildings, payment for which 
was to be made in county bonds, the issuance of which by the 
court had been authorized by the Legislature for the purpose of 
erecting county buildirgs. Sealed proposals were received July 
20, 1859, on the public square at Harrisburg, according to plans 
and specifications prepared by J. K. Frick & Co., architects, and 
the contract was awarded that day to John W. Mitchell and 
Robert Mick, for the sum of $15,440, the contract including the 
courthouse, jail and jailer's residence. The jail was completed 
and received August 4, 1860, and the courthouse, late in the year 
1860, or early in 1861, full settlement being made at the Decem- 
ber term of the court, 1861. The building is a two-story brick 
with four doric columns of brick encased in plaster in front, 
standing near together, and supporting the roof of a portico, in 
which two spiral iron staircases wind up to the circuit courtroom 
above. 

In 1861, the county court was composed of D. J. Blackmau, 
county judge, and Jacob Smith and William A. Harris, associ- 
ate justices. In 1865, Moses P. McGehee, was county judge, and 
William L. Mitchell and Hiram Burnett, associate justices, and 
in 1867 the same court presided. In 1869, Moses P. McGehee was 
county judge, and John D. Church and John W. Cox, associate 
justices. In 1873 Moses P. McGehee was still county judge, 
and William A. Harris and John W. Cox, associate justices. 
In the year 1873 the change provided for in the constitution of 
1870, with reference to the court, by which the county judge was 
made independent and the associate justices exchanged for the 
county commissioners, went into effect, and R. N. Warfield was 
elected county judge and served continuously until 1882. Owen 
Phillips was then elected and served four years, when he was 
succeeded in the fall of 1886 by the present judge, William H. 
Parish. 



188 SALINE COUNTY. 

The first board of county commissioners under the present 
constitution, who were elected in 1873, were William H. Pankey, 
William M. Simmons and Nelson Webber, who after being elect- 
ed, chose the three, two and one years' terms respectively, in the 
order named. In 1871 the commissioners were William H. 
Pankey, William M. Simmons and John A. Wilson; in 1875, 
William H. Pankey, John A. Wilson and Alexander Oliver; in 

1876, John A. Wilson, Parker Massey and Roswell Seten; in 

1877, Parker Massey, Robert Lewis and James A. Harris; in 
.1878, Robert Lewis, James A. Harris and Richard Westbrook; 
in 1879, James A. Harris, Richard Westbrook and John B. 
Berry; in 1880, John B. Berry, James A. Harris and Richard 
Westbrook; in 1881, the same; in 1882, Richard Westbrook, 
James A. Harris and William G. Frith; in 1883, the same; in 
1881, W. G. Frith, J. A. Harris and J. R. Baker; in 1885, J. R. 
Baker, J. W. Harris and Richard Westbrook, in 1886, J. L. 
Cain, J. R. Baker and Richard Westbrook. 

THE CIRCUIT COURT. 

The first term of the circuit court for Saline County was be- 
gun on Monday, June 5, 1848, at Raleigh, Hon. William A. 
Demning, judge. The first grand jury impaneled, consisted of 
John R. Norman, William Stricklin, John Rhine, C. B. Bramlet, 
Henry Garner, Albert A. Anderson, William Anderson, William 
Bourland, Jesse E. Rude, Samuel B. Crank, G. W. Hensley, Wilson 
Gaskins, Hermon Thompson, David Tanner, John Miller, James 
Hill and James Murray. The first case brought before the court 
was entitled " G. A. Pemberton, administrator of T. H. Spencer, de- 
ceased, vs. Logan Lynch, Appeal," and the entry in connection 
therewith reads as follows: " And now at this day came the parties 
by their attorneys; and the defendant by Parish, his attorney, 
moved the court to dismiss this appeal for want of bond. Upon 
argument, whereof it is ordered by the court that said motion 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 189 

be overruled, and leave granted to amend the appeal bond 
herein." 

The second case was entitled "Robert Watson vs. Joseph 
Hays, Appeal," the entry in connection with which being as fol- 
lows: "And now at this day come the parties by their attorneys, 
and the issue and proofs being submitted to the court, upon due 
consideration, whereof, it is ordered by the court that the plain- 
tiff recover of the defendant his debt of $6, together with his 
costs and charges in this behalf expended, to be taxed, and that 
execution issue therefor." 

The third case was entitled "Francis A. Ritchey vs. William 
B. Pemberton, Appeal." A motion Avas made by Allen, attorney 
for the defendant, to dismiss the suit, which was sustained by the 
court. The total number of cases of this kind before the court 
on this, its first day at Raleigh, was six. The next case, and the 
first suit for divorce in this court, was entitled " James Hender- 
son I's. Annis Henderson," the defendant being "ruled to an- 
swer by 9 o'clock to-morrow morning." Then came the case of 
Gilliam Harris and Samuel Neal, "administrators vs. Mary 
Hill et al.'''' for the sale of lands in chancery. The petitioners, 
by Allen, their solicitor, moved, and it was ordered on his motion 
by the court that W. K. Parish be appointed guardian ad lifem, 
for the infant defendant, whereon. Parish appeared and accepted 
the appointment, and in the next case, that of " Nathan Bramlet 
rs. Barbary Wyatt, Sarilda Pumphrey, et al.,^'' Parish moved, 
and it was ordered by the court on his motion, that Willis 
Allen "be appointed guardian ad litem, for the infant defendants 
herein, and that said attorney defendant answer by 9 o'clock to- 
morrow." The above was all of the business of the court on its 
first day. 

The next day, Tuesday, the first case was that of " G. N. 
Pemberton vs. Logan Lynch," the decision being in favor of the 
plaintiff for $13, costs and charges. Then came " The People vs. 



190 SALINE COUNTY. 

George W. Dew," on a recognizance to keep the peace, which 
case was dismissed at the defendant's cost. The case o£ " The 
People vs. Eobert C. Nelson, bastardy," was continued at the 
defendant's cost, and the divorce suit of James Henderson vs. 
Annis Henderson came on for legal adjudication, and the mar- 
riage was annulled, because Annis, on being "legally called, 
came not but made default." In case of Gilliam Harris and 
Samuel Neal vs. Mary Hill et al, court ordered and decreed 
that the real estate described in the petition be sold for the pur- 
poses therein set forth, and in that of Nathan Bramlet vs. Bar- 
bary Wyatt et al. the court ordered that the prayer of the peti- 
tion be granted and real estate mentioned, viz. : the southwest 
quarter of the northwest quarter of Section 23, and the west half 
of the northwest quarter of Section 26, of Township 8, Range 6, 
be partitioned so that the petitioner receive two-ninths thereof, 
and Archibald Sloan, James Baker and William Stricklin were 
appointed to carry the decree into effect. Then came four appeal 
cases and a suit for divorce by Absalom Paterson vs. Mary 
Paterson, and as Mary did not appear Absalom received his 
decree. Archibald Sloan was appointed master in chancery for 
Saline County, and after an indictment for larceny against James 
Fowler and Wylie Pumphrey, and one for assault against Phillip 
Peazle, court adjourned to convene next on November 6, 18 •48, 
the same judge being present and presiding. The following is 
the first list of petit jurors in Saline County: "William Carr, 
Wiley Pearce, James Swan, John Jones, Robert Johnson, James 
Laws, Daniel Jones, Ira Durham, William Stunson, Garner 
Stricklin, Miller Hale, Jacob Cummins, John S. Lambert, 
Thomas Pearson, Job Ingram, Howard Gaskins, Duncan Cotner, 
William Pankey, Samuel Strallstead, Spokely Vinson, Ransom 
Moore, Andrew J. Jones, Wiley Jones and William Crawford. 
At this term of the court Samuel S. Marshall was State's attor- 
ney. In the case of Phillip Teazle, indicted for an assault to 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 191 

inflict bodily injury, the jury found the defendant guilty, and 
fixed his punishment at one hour's imprisonment and a fine of §5, 
and that against Robert C. Nelson, bastardy, was dismissed by 
agreement at the defendant's costs. But little else was done 
except to place upon the docket some appeal cases, and one indict- 
ment against Mathew Brown for an assault to murder, the first 
that came before the court, which after being continued through 
many terms of court was dismissed; an indictment against Tar- 
leton Ellige for disturbing a religious congregation, and one 
against Jacob, John and Andrew for an assault to do bodily 
injury, in which case bail was fixed at $200 each, the court 
then adjourned. 

The next term commenced Monday, June 11, 18-19, Hon. 
William A. Denning, judge. Mathew Brown, indicted for an 
assault to murder, being solemnly called came not, and an alkis 
capias was issued to Hamilton County. This was rather a 
stormy term of the court, the number of causes for various kinds 
of crime being considerably larger than heretofore. A number 
of cases of gaming were tried, the verdicts in some being " not 
guilty," in others "guilty." An alias capias issued to Hardin 
County for Thomas Eubanks, not appearing on trial for gaming, 
while Riley Gaskins, who plead guilty, was fined S3 and costs. 
Sarah Miller, indicted for bigamy, not appearing to answer to the 
charge an alias capias was issued; a case of assault to murder 
was continued, as was that of Tarlton Elliger disturbing religious 
congregation; one against David Price, trespass vi et armis, 
because he was not ready for trial, and two divorces were granted, 
one to Sarah Miller from John C. Miller, who permitted the case 
to go against him by default, and one to John M. Grable from 
Mary C. Grable, who also " being solemnly called came not." 

At the November term, 1819, Hon. William A. Denning, 
judge, and F. M. Rawlings, State's attorney, a number of the old 
cases came up again and a few new ones, as "obstructing the 



192 SALINE COUNTY. 

public road;" " selling liquor without license," for which there 
was scarcely any excuse, as the price for license was then only 
^25 per year, and when Benjamin Thaxton plead guilty he was 
fined $10 and costs; "selling liquor on the Sabbath day," for 
which Kobert S. Stunson paid a fine of $10 and costs, and Nancy 
Boid received a decree of divorce from Robert A. Bold, who like 
his predecessors and many of his successor defendants in divorce 
suits, "being solemnly called came not." 

At the June term, 1850, Hon. William A. Denning was 
the judge, as also at the November term. Saline County was 
then in the Third Judicial Circuit. A number of divorce suits 
came on at this term: Elizabeth Waddle vs. John Waddle, C. K. 
Mick vs. Sarah Mick, and Thomas H. Walton vs. Sarah Walton, 
the plaintiff in each case receiving a decree, because the defend- 
ant though "solemnly called came not." At the September term, 
1851, the case against Carroll Stunson, assault to murder, which 
had been continued from court to court for about three years, was 
dismissed, as was that of Tarleton Ellige, for disturbing a religious 
congregation. A case of counterfeiting came on, one assumpsit 
case, one divorce suit, one larceny, one obstructing public high- 
way, and one for kidnaping, the latter against Jefferson King, 
the only case that was ever brought into the Saline Circuit Court, 
and which, after being continued from term to term for a number 
of years, was dismissed with the privilege of reinstating, but was 
never reinstated. 

At the May term, 1852, Hon. Samuel S. Marshall was the 
judge. Besides a few ordinary cases, there was one against Wal- 
lace A. Campbell for assault upon a woman, Campbell being sen- 
tenced to the penitentiary for twelve months, one day in solitary 
confinement and the balance of the time at hard labor. At the 
March term, 1853, Hon. Samuel S. Marshall, judge, Pleasant Eaton 
obtained a verdict against James B. Murray of $750, for slander, 
with costs and charges, and George Hollingsworth was sentenced to 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 193 

the penitentiary for one year for killing James HoUingswortli. At 
this time J. S. Eobinson was State's attorney. At the May term, 

1854, Hon. Samuel S. Marshall again presided in this court, 
but at the October term Hon. Downing S. Baugh Avas the 
judge, as also at the May term, 1855. At the October term, 

1855, Hon. Edwin Beecher was judge, as also in June and 
October, 1856. In June, 1857, Hon. Wesley Sloan, judge of 
the Nineteenth Judicial District, presided, as also in October, 
1857, March, June and November, 1858. At this time Thomas 
H. Smith was State's attorney. April 4, 1859, the circuit court 
first convened at Harrisburg, in the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, Hon. Willis Allen, judge. At the August term, 
1859, Hon. William J. Allen was the presiding judge, and 
also in April, 1860, at which time Edward V. Pierce was State's 
attorney. In 1860, judging from the number of indictments in 
the circuit court, society in Saline County was in an exceedingly 
perturbed condition. It was a time of great political excitement. 
The breaking out of the great Eebellion seemed to cast its shad- 
ows before, and many, if not the most, of the people in Saline 
County, were in sympathy with the Southern movement, while 
those who were true to the Union cause were as ardently devoted 
to their principles as were the Southern sympathizers to theirs. 
A mere enumeration of the cases on the court records will be suf- 
ficient to indicate the real condition of affairs. There were seven 
cases of assaults to murder, one of murder, one of tearing down 
advertisements, thirteen assaults to do bodily injury, ninety cases 
of selling liquor "by the small," two of passing counterfeit 
money, three of larceny, two for public indecency, one assault with 
deadly weapon, one of disturbing a worshiping congregation, 
eight of keeping tippling house open on Sunday, fifteen of gam- 
ing, one for keeping a gaming house, one for malicious mischief, 
one for disturbing a family at night, one for unlawful assembly, 
two for resisting an officer, one for incest, sixteen cases of attach- 



194 SALINE COUNTY. 

ment, one for bastardy, four for slander, five for divorces, twenty- 
five of assumpsit, three of trespass, two ejectment suits, one for 
betting on dice, two for riot — all of these at the April term, 
besides an almost unlimited number of cases of foreclosure of 
mortgage, most of these, however, by Green B. Raum, as drain- 
age commissioner, against persons owning swamp lands. 

In August, 1860, Hon. William J. Allen presided as 
judge and Edward P. Pierce was State's attorney. In April, 
1861, Hon. William J. Allen was judge and J. M. Clemeut- 
son State's attorney, while in August, 1861, Hon. Andrew D. 
Duff was judge, with the same State's attorney, as was the case 
in March, 1862. In August, 1862, no court was held because of 
the absence of the judge, and in March, 1863, Hon. Andrew 
D. Duff was judge, with A. P. Corder, State's attorney pro tern. 
In August, 1863, and March, 1864, Hon. Andrew D. Duff 
was judge, and J. M. Clemeutson, State's attorney, and in April 
and September, 1865, in April and September, 1866, and in 
April and September, 1867, this was the case. In March and 
October, 1868, Hon. Andrew D. Duff was judge and C. N. 
Damron, State's attorney. In March and September, 1869, in 
April and September, 1870, in April and September, 1871, and 
in April and September, 1872, Hon. Andrew D. Duff was 
judge and Francis M, Youngblood, State's attorney. In April, 
1873, Hon. Andrew D. Duff was judge and James M. Gregg, 
State's attorney. In May, 1874, Hon. M. C. Crawford was 
judge, and he continued to preside in Saline County Circuit 
Court until the July term, 1878, inclusive, when he was followed 
for the November term, 1878, by Hon. O. A. Harker. In 
May, 1879, Hon. M. C. Crawford presided again, and in Sep- 
tember, 1879, Hon. Daniel M. Browning presided and con- 
tinued so to do until and including the March term, 1881. At 
the September term, 1881, Hon. N. M. Laws presided, and 
Hon. O. A. Harker was then judge from the March term, 



HISTOllY OF ILLINOIS. 195 

1882, to the September term, 1884, both inclusive. Hon. David 
J. Baker was jndge at the November term, 1884, and then 
Hon. O. A. Harker during the March and September terms, 
1885, when he was followed by Hon. David J. Baker during 
the March and September terms, 1886, and the March term, 
1887. 

A. C. Duff was State's attorney during the May term, 1874, 
James M. Gregg, during the terms following until and including 
the September term, 1880. William V. Choisser, then, until, 
and including, the November term, 1884, and then John J. Par- 
ish, commencing with the March term, 1885, and continuing on 
until the present time. 

Causes ^elehre. — The first case tried by a jury in Saline 
County was one of the remarkable ones that occasionally occur in 
law. On the records of the circuit court it is entitled John 
Kelly vs. Isaac M. Johnson, and was brought up to this court 
from that of a justice of the peace, to test the ownership of a bull 
calf, and is hence remembered as the "bull calf case." It came 
on for trial on the first day of the first session of the court, June 
5, 1848, at Baleigh, and was decided on June 6. Kelly sued 
Johnson for the possession of the calf. Following are the names 
of the jury, the first jury in Saline County, before whom the case 
was tried: James Cummins, Joseph Easly, John B. Wilson, Wil- 
liam Crawford, William St. C. Clark, Andrew Benson, William D. 
Clary, JohnF. Upchurch, John Barns, Napoleon Choisser, James 
P. Yandell and Edward Hampton. All of them are dead but Will- 
iam D. Clary. One of the witnesses for the defense was a widow. 
It appears that the calf sued for was described as "a red bull 
calf, with a nick in one ear and a long tail," while the one in the 
possession of Johnson had no nick in its ear, and had a bob-tail. 
The widow, when asked how the calf with a bob-tail and no nick 
in either of its ears could be Kelly's calf, when his calf was de- 
scribed as having a nick in one ear and a long tail, woman-like, 



196 SALINE COUNTY. 

replied, that she " did not care, nick or no nick, tail or no tail, it 
was Kelly's calf." Whether npon the strength of such cogent 
reasoning or otherwise cannot be stated, but the verdict of the 
jury was: "We, the jury, find the defendant guilty, and assess 
the damages at |3.50," whereupon it was ordered by the court 
that the said plaintiff recover of the defendant his damages, 
aforesaid, together with his costs and charges in this behalf ex- 
pended to be taxed, and that execution issue therefor. The costs 
and charges in the case amounted to about $450, and Mr. John- 
son had to sell his eighty acre farm and his personal property 
to meet it, and was thereby financially ruined. The distinguished 
attorneys in this case were, for the plaintiff, William H. Stick- 
ney, W. K. Parish, and W. H. Parish, and for the defendant, 
Willis Allen, William J. Allen, Hugh B. Montgomery and Fran- 
cis M. Piawlings. 

IMPOETANT TRIALS. 

The principal murder trials have been the following: The 
Edwards trial, the Hollingsworth trial, the Barnett trial, the 
Keelin trial and the Pickering trial. James Barnett was tried 
for killing George Seete, in Somerset precinct, in 1866. He had 
three trials in all — two in Saline County, and one by change of 
venue, in Gallatin County. At his second trial he was sentenced 
to the penitentiary for fourteen years, and at his third trial the 
verdict was the same. In a few years Mr. Macklin, of Harris- 
burg, procured his pardon from Gov. Oglesby, on the 
ground of his old age, the expensiveness of his three trials and 
the sufficiency of the punishment he had already undergone. 

The Edwards trial occurred in 1853, Edwards being indicted 
for killing his stepchild, in Massac County, by kicking it out of 
the way. The kicking was alleged to have caused an injury to 
its spine of which it died. He was tried in Saline County, while 
John S. Kobinson was State's attorney, and who was assisted by 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 197 

John A. Logan. He was defended by Jedidiah Jack and Thomas 
G. C. Davis and acquitted. 

George Hollingsworth killed his father, James Hollingsworth, 
in 1854. He was tried in Saline County, John S. Kobinson being 
State's attorney. Hollingsworth was defended by Jedidiah Jack, 
Hugh B. Montgomery and William H. Parish, and was couTicted 
of manslaughter and sentenced to the penitentiary for one year. 

More interest attaches probably to the Pickering murder trial 
than to any other that has occurred in this county. William T. 
Pickering and his two sons, William and James, killed a young 

man named ■ Dawson, in 1871, while he was waiting upon a 

young lady. The trial came on at the September term of the 
court. William T. and William Pickering were denied bail, and 
James was admitted to bail in the sum of $2,000. F. M. Youne-- 

o 

blood was State's attorney, and the attorneys for the defense were 
Kaum & Christy and Davis & Harris. A change of venue as to 
the two denied bail was taken to Gallatin County in October, 1871, 
and the result of the trial there was that they were sentenced to 
the penitentiary during their natural lives. William T. Picker- 
ing has died, and William is serving out his sentence. James 
Pickering was finally tried in Saline County, in 1875, and was 
sentenced to fourteen years in the penitentiary. After servino- 
four years he was pardoned. 

Samuel Keelin killed William Meece, in Williamson County, 
in the spring of 1875 at a church gathering, because in a personal 
encounter some time previously Meece had given him a severe 
whipping. The attorneys for the defense were William J. Allen 
and C. K. Davis. The verdict of the jury was that Keelin Avas 
guilty, and fixed his punishment at imprisonment in the peniten- 
tiary during his natural life. He was pardoned out in 188G be- 
cause of being insane, which is thought to have been the case 
when the murder was committed. 

The most prominent members of the Saline County bar have 



198 SALINE COUNTY. 

been the following: Willis Allen, Hugh B. Montgomery, S. S. 
Hayes, Green B. Eaum, William K. Parish, Francis M. Bawl- 
ings, W. H. Moore, John McElvain, Thomas G. C. Davis, Jedi- 
diah Davis, John A. McClernand, Eobert Wingate, John A. Logan, 
Cressa K. Davis and James M. Gregg. Brief sketches of two or 
three of these, who were more particularly resident members of 
the bar, and who are either dead or practicing law elsewhere, are 
here introduced. 

Green B. Raum was born in Golconda about 1830. His 
father, John Raum, was a major in the Black Hawk war, and his 
mother was Mrs. Juliet C. Eaum, both of whom were most ardent 
patriots during the war of the Rebellion. Green B. Raum re- 
ceived an education in youth somewhat more limited than even 
that furnished by the common schools of the time, and studied 
law in the office of Hon. Wesley Sloan at Golconda. After 
his marriage to a Miss Field, of Golconda, he moved to Harris- 
burg, Saline County, where he remained in the practice of his 
profession, and in the performance of such duties as the people 
of the county saw fit to require of him, until the breaking out of 
the Rebellion. During this period of his life he did not exhibit 
remarkable brilliancy, but was noted more for his thoroughness 
in the law than for any other peculiarity. He was one of the first 
to raise his voice in defense of the Government in southern 
Illinois, making the first speech at Golconda in favor of the sup- 
pression of the Rebellion. He was, likewise, one of the first to 
volunteer his services as a soldier, his course in both respects 
having much to do with shaping public sentiment in favor of the 
war in this part of the State. He served with distinction through 
the war, passing the various grades of promotion from private to 
brigadier-general. He was wounded at Missionary Ridge, and after 
recovering and at the close of the war, he returned to the prac- 
tice of the law at Harrisburg, and together with Dr. John W. 
Mitchell, had much to do with securing the construction of the 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 199 

Cairo & Viucennes Kailway, in which project he lost most of his 
fortune, in consequence of which he moved onto a farm near Gol- 
conda, where he lived until his appointment, in 1876, by Presi- 
dent Hays as Commissioner of Internal Revenue, when he removed 
to Washington, D. C, where he has since resided. Eesigning 
his office as commissioner of internal revenue, in 1884. After 
his resignation he resumed the practice of the law in Washing- 
ton, where he has met with marked success. 

Cressa K. Davis was born in Daviess County, Ind. He re- 
ceived a limited education, but after arriving at manhood's estate, 
by his own industry and application, became a learned man. Ear- 
ly in life he removed to Shawn eetown, where, making a living by 
working at the carpenter's trade, he meanwhile studied law as a 
private student, and thus acquired a legal education. He was 
admitted to the bar in Gallatin County, but removed to Saline 
County in 1858, to enter upon the practice of his profession. He 
was scarcely ever caught reading a law book, and was highly dis- 
dainful of precedents and adjudged cases, but so fine was his in- 
herent sense of justice, and so strong was his logical faculty, and 
so certainly did he resolve everything to its underlying princi- 
ple, that he was one of the most famous and successful practition- 
ers ever at the bar of this county. Very few lawyers anywhere 
excelled him in the trial of every kind of case in the courts. He 
was strongest before a jury, where his strong common sense was 
most conspicuous, and withal he was one of the most charitable 
of men, this peculiar phase of his character rendering it impossi- 
ble for him to save the money he earned. During the war he 
was a sterling patriot, ever ready to urge and to lead men into 
the Union Army. He died in 1877. 

James M. Gregg was a native of Hamilton County and reared 
upon a farm. He was a son of Hon. Hugh Gregg. By his own 
industry, energy, natural endowments and perseverance he over- 
came all the obstacles that beset his pathway, and was admitted 



200 SALINE COUNTY. 

to the bar before his majority was attained. He was thoroughly 
imbued with the realization that thoroughness was the only royal 
road to success in his chosen profession ; and so fully familiarized 
himself with the facts and the law in every case entrusted to his 
care, that it was won, if won at all, before it came on for trial. 
These habits and traits of character rendered him a formidable 
opponent in any forum, and enabled him to win not only nearly 
all evenly balanced cases, but oftentimes to snatch victory from 
the very jaws of apparent defeat; and for these reasons his prac- 
tice so rapidly increased that he was much overworked, and this 
overwork for the last fifteen years of his life undoubtedly led to 
broken health and a premature grave. He died at La Junta, 
Colo., June 10, 1886, at the age of thirty-nine years, seven 
months and five days, widely known, highly honored and univer- 
sally sorrowed. 

Following is a list of the present bar of Saline County, with 
the dates of which they commenced practice in the county: Will- 
iam H. Parish, 1848; James Macklin, 1853; William M. Christy, 
1858; Boen Phillips, 1870; W. V. Choisser, 1875; William H. 
Boyer, 1878; John J. Parish, 1879; E. S. Marsh, 1881; A. M. 
Lewis, 1882; S. R Williford and William H. Parish, Jr., in 1883; 
W. F. Scott, 1884. At Eldorado, Francis M. Parish. 

RAILBOAD HISTORY. 

At the present time there are three railroads in Saline County : 
the Louisville & Nashville, formerly the St. Louis & Southeastern ; 
the Cairo & Vinceunes, and the Belleville & Eldorado. The 
former extends from Shawneetown to McLeansboro, upon 
which there is but one station, Eldorado, in Saline County. It 
enters the county near the southeast corner of Section 13, Town- 
ship 9, Range 7, and leaves it a short distance west of the 
northeast corner of Section 20, Township 7, Eange 7, the 
entire length within the county being about thirteen miles. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 201 

The Cairo & Vincennes extends diagonally through the county, 
entering it about half a mile south of the northeast corner, 
and leaving it about a mile north of the southwest corner at 
Bolton, the entire length of this road within the county being 
about twenty-eight and a half miles. The Belleville & Eldorado 
line extends from Eldorado northwestward to Benton and on to St. 
Louis. Its length within the county is about seventeen miles, 
making the total length of railroad in Saline County fifty-eight 
miles. All of these railroads have been built since 1870. The 
first action of the county looking toward the securing of the con- 
struction of railroads was an election held October 5, 1867, at 
which it was decided by the people to subscribe in bonds 
$100,000 to the capital stock of the Cairo & Vincennes Eailway 
Company, on certain conditions. Green B. Raum,presideut of this 
company entered into a contract with the county court, of which 
Moses P. McGehee, the judge, and W. L. Mitchell, one of the asso- 
ciate justices,both of whom signed the contract for the county, to the 
effect that there should be twenty-six miles of railroad more or less 
within the county, and that Harrisburg should be a pernament 
point on said road, that 350,000 in bonds should be issued to the 
company when the road was completed and cars running thereon 
to Harrisburg, and the other $50,000 when the road should bo 
built and cars running thereon the rest of the way through the 
county. This contract was signed in November, 1867, and the road 
was to be completed to Harrisburg within three years. Subse- 
quently an extension of time was granted for two additional years, 
and again subsequently the stock held by the county was pur- 
chased by the company, $100,000 in stock for $5,000 in bonds, 
so that the net donation of the county to the Cairo & Vincennes 
Bailway Company was $95,000, the interest on which was origi- 
nally eight per cent. 

A double railroad election was held in the county on Saturday, 
October 9, 1869, to decide on the subscription in bonds to the capi- 



202 SALINE COUNTY. 

tal stock of the St. Louis & Southeastern Eailway Company to 
the amount of ^25,000, and on the subscription of 875,000 in bonds 
to the capital stock of the Belleville & Eldorado Railway Com- 
pany, The first proposition was carried by a vote of 876 to 427, 
and the second by a vote of 888 to 428. Thus the bonds issued 
to the three railroads amount in the aggregate to $195,000. The 
entire series have been refunded at the rate of six per cent, thus 
making the annual interest on the entire railroad bonded indebt- 
edness $11,700. The railroad property in the county is appraised 
at $333,501, and the anual amount of taxes received from all these 
three railroad companies is $9,465.40, and it is estimated that the 
appreciation of value in property in the county is about fifty per 
cent for that lying within two or three miles of each side of each 
road, while that more remote has raised in value in a proportion- 
ately diminishing ratio. It is remarkable, however, that as yet 
no sinking fund has been established for the payment of the 
bonds as they fall due. 

The Saline County Agricultural Board was chartered June 6, 
1881. The incorporators were W. A. McHaney, W. R. Rathbone, 
De Witt C. Otey, W. P. Hallock, W. E. Burnett, W. M. Gregg 
and W. H. Howell. The organization of the board took place 
June 16, 1881, with the following as the principal officers: W. 
E. Burnett, president; Clem. Bundy, vice-president; F. M. Pickett, 
secretary; E. W. Wiedeman, treasurer; W. W. Largent, superin- 
tendent ; W. G. Sloan, marshal, and J. H. Mcllrath, chief of police. 
The board owns fifty-one acres of land, lying three-fourths of a 
mile north of Harrisburg, which is well fitted up with buildings, 
and has on its grounds an excellent half-mile race track. The 
present officers are W. G. Sloan, president; R. J. Mcllrath, G. 
E. Burnett and T. J. Cain, vice-presidents; W. A. McHaney, 
secretary ; J. M. Baker, treasurer ; W. E. Burnett, superintendent, 
and W. W. Largent, marshal. The property of the board is 
worth about $6,000. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 203 

HARRISBUEG, THE COUNTY SEAT. 

Harrisburg, the county seat of Saline County, was originally 
surveyed by A. Sloan, May 28, 1853, the proprietors o£ the town 
site being John Pankey, John Cain, James P. Yandell and James 
A. Harris. There were twenty acres in the original plan of the 
town; five acres being in the southwest quarter of Section 15, 
five being in the southwest quarter of the northwest quarter of 
Section 15, five acres in the southeast quarter of the northeast 
quarter of Section 16, and five acres in the northeast quarter of 
the southeast quarter of Section 16, Township 9, Eange 6. There 
were in the original plat but two streets: Main Street, running 
north and south on the section line, and Locust Street, running 
east and west on the half-section line. Since that time there 
have been numerous additions made, which it is not deemed 
necessary to particularly describe. Mitchell's revised plat con- 
tained the first addition. In this plat John W. Mitchell added 
forty lots, Nos. 1 to 40; James Feazel added four blocks, Nos. 
17 to 20, and Lewis West added two blocks, Nos. 21 and 22. 
The public square was known on this plat as Block No. 7. This 
plat was surveyed September 9, 1856, by M. D. Gillett. Wilson 
<fe Feazel's addition was made July 9, 1857, and was surveyed by 
Thomas A. Jones, deputy surveyor. Gaskin's addition was made 
September 10, 1858. Eailroad addition was made September 12, 
1873. Mitchell & Baker's division, George W. Gaskin's division 
and Morris' division of the railroad addition made November 
14, 1874, and other additions have been made since, so that now 
the corporation limits include 640 acres. 

At the time of the original survey, as given above, there was 
no one living on the twenty acres set apart for a town site. 
Though there were a few families living on the " island," to 
which some one had already given the name of " Crusoe's Is- 
land," from the fact that in those early days the elevated land 
upon which Harrisburg stands was frequently nearly, and oc- 



204 SALINE COUNTY. 

casionally entirely, surrounded by water, at those occasional times 
being a veritable island, and the name " Crusoe " was doubtless 
applied to it by some imaginative person familiar with De Foe's 
great fiction, Kobinson Crusoe. The original plat of the town 
was nearly all quite heavily timbered with oak and hickory mainly, 
and covered with an almost impenetrable hazel underbrush, and, 
although no one was living upon the original town site, there 
were a few families living on the island in the vicinity. To the 
southeastward was the farm of Thaddeus Gaskins, a member of 
the Gaskins family, one of the oldest families in the county. 
Lewis Dorris lived toward the southwest, James Feazel toward 
the west and Riley Gaskins toward the east, bearing slightly 
south. The selection of this particular spot for the location of 
a town came about something in this way. The county seat was 
at Raleigh, within six miles of the northern boundary line of the 
county, while the southern boundary line was about sixteen miles 
away. The people living in the southern part of the county de- 
termined therefore upon a movement which would, it was hoped, 
result in locating the county seat more centrally. This was in 
1852. Meetings were held to discuss the matter in the old 
Liberty Church, and committees were appointed to select a loca- 
tion, and at length, after rejecting one or two other places, 
Crusoe's Island was decided upon as the most eligible, all things 
considered. Four men were therefore chosen, each of whom was 
to buy five acres of land, and the twenty acres so purchased were 
to be and did become the town site of Harrisburg. Lots were 
sold at public auction in July, 1853. 

The first building on the original town site was a log house 
on the south side of the public square erected by James Feazel 
near where now stands the Harrisburg Bank, in which a grocery 
was opened and in which a man named Joseph Feazel was shortly 
afterward killed. Several persons commenced building in 185-1: 
Jo. Robinson where the postoffice now is, Jarvis Pierce on the 



HISTOKY OF ILLINOIS. 205 

southwest corner of Main and Locust Streets, Moses P. McGehee 
west of the public square. Dr. H. E. Pierce opened a hotel 
known as Pierce's Hotel. Jo. Robinson and Jarvis Pierce opened 
a small store on Pierce's corner in 1855. Dr. J. W. M itchell 
built the first store building east of the public square across 
Vine Street, where E. W. Wiedemann now is, in the fall of 1856 
and commenced selling goods. After Dr. Mitchell, came Lewis 
Eiley and a man named Hardin, who also, in company, opened a 
general store. V. Rathbone moved his drug store over from 
Raleigh in 1859. In the fall of 1858 Robert Mick and J. W. 
Mitchell formed a partnership and brought on a very large stock 
of goods. During this year Pierce & McGehee moved their saw 
mill down from the vicinity of Gallatia, the first steam saw mill 
in this part of the country. In 18G0 the business interests of 
Harrisburg included little besides those named above except a 
blacksmith shop, a tin and stove store and a wool-carding machine 
and cotton-gin. The population was about 500 and the town had 
also become the county seat, in accordance with an election held 
in 1857, but which was so close, there being only fifteen majority 
in favor of Harrisburg, that those who still desired that Raleigh 
should remain the county seat enjoined the removal and kept the 
case in the courts antil 1859, when the injunction was hired to 
be dismissed and the removal effected according to the majority 
vote as shown on the face of the returns. The building of the 
courthouse at Harrisburg is sufliciently set forth in the history 
of the county court. 

Since that time the town has continued slowly but steadily to 
grow, keeping pace with the improvement of the county, which 
during the last few years is becoming particularly noticeable. 
The business of the town is now in the hands of the following 
individuals and firms: General stores — Priester, Nyberg & Co., 
J. M. Baker & Co., Mitchell & Towle, Otey, Roberts & Co., D. 
K. Seten and A. Nyberg. Groceries — William Gaskins, S. F. 



206 SALINE COUNTY. 

Hart & Bro., Dorris & Pearce, E. W. Wiedemann, E. H. Church 
and J, S. Crank. Hardware — Seten & Son, and Ferguson & 
Wiedemann. Stoves and tinware — -C. A. Maltbj. Furniture — 
Seten & Son. Clothing — M. J. Schrader. Harness and Saddles 
W. T. Skaggs and T. C. Eichardson. Undertakers — John Pruett 
and Ferdinand Ledvina. Bakery and restaurant — C. W. Tate. 
Eestaurant — Thomas & Ganser. Drug stores — Gregg & Grace 
and W. P. Hallock. Lumber yard— G. K. Mitchell. Car- 
riage manufactory — W. S. Hibbetts. Livery stables — J. W. Mc- 
Cormick, Simpson Pierson & Co. and Boen Phillips. 

The erection of the flouring, lumber and planing-mill operated 
by J. W. Mitchell, was begun in 1868, first as a saw mill in an open 
shed, in which was sawed the lumber for the flouring-mill, which 
was completed in 1870. In this mill there are five run of stones 
and one set of rollers, the capacity of the mill being about 100 
barrels of flour in twenty-four hours. The machinery is propelled 
by a sixty horse-power engine. J. G. Porter was a partner with 
Dr. Mitchell until the spring of 1872, when he sold his interest 
to the Doctor and retired. 

The Pioneer Flouring Mills were removed from Gallatia soon 
after the town of Harrisburg was started. In 1873 they were 
purchased by E. F. and T. C. Dwyer, who, in 1881, put in two 
sets of rollers and other machinery at an expense of $10,000. 
Besides the two sets of rollers the mills have four run of buhrs, 
and the entire machinery is propelled by a sixty horse-power 
engine. The building is a three-story and basement frame, and 
the property is valued at from |12,000 to $15,000. 

The Saline Eoller Mills were erected by J. G. Porter in 1883. 
The building is 40x60 feet and four stories high, the first story 
being of brick, the other three frame. It has four sets of double 
rollers and three sets of buhrs. The machinery is propelled by 
a six;ty horse-power engine, and has a capacity of eighty barrels 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 207 

of flour per day, and 100 bushels of corn. The entire establish- 
ment is worth $15,000. 

Johnson & Ford's planing-mill was started in 1885 by the 
forming of a partnership between Mr. Johnson, who had for nine 
years carried on blacksmithing and wagon-making, and J. B. 
Ford. A lumber yard was opened by them soon afterward. 
Their machinery is propelled by a twelve horse-power engine, 
and has a capacity of about 5,000 feet of flooring and 8,000 feet 
of siding per day. They are also agents for all kinds of agricult- 
ural implements and mill machinery. 

C. A. Stuck & Son removed their planing-mill, scroll and 
turning machinery, from Danville to Harrisburg in January, 
1886. Their engine is of fifteen horse-power, and their planing- 
mill has a capacity of about 15,000 feet per day. 

A woolen-mill was built here in 188-4 by Norman & Fozard, 
the capital being furnished by private subscription. The mill 
was leased in 1886 and again in 1887 to Charles Paddock. It 
contains 360 spindles and six power looms, and manufactures 
yarns, blankets, cloths, flannels, etc., having a capacity of about 
$100 worth of goods per day. It also contains a set of custom 
cards for the convenience of the farming community. 

The Saline County Bank was started June 15, 1876, by 
Robert Mick, with a capital of $24,000, the location being near 
the northwest corner of the public square. C. E. Lewis was 
cashier of the bank until 1878, when he was followed by J. W. 
Bradshaw, who has been cashier up to the present time. The 
earnings of the bank have been permitted to accumulate until 
now the capital of the institution is nearly $50,000. 

The Bank of Harrisburg was started January 1, 1883, by J. 
M. Baker & William M. Warford, the latter of Elizabethtown, 
with a capital of $30,000. The location is in Baker's Block, near 
the southwest corner of the public square. Mr. Baker bought 
the interest of Mr. Warford August 1, 1885, since which time he 



208 SALINE COUNTY. 

has coudiicted the institution alone. During the first nine 
months S. T. Webber was cashier, since which time Charles P. 
Skaggs has filled that position. 

The Harrisburg Chronicle was started in 1859 by John F. 
Conover, as a six-column folio, and was conducted by him until 
1867. It was then conducted by Dr. J. F. Burks, until 1870, 
and again by Mr. Conover until 1873. when it was consolidated 
with the Saline County Register, and established by F. M. Pickett 
in 1869. The Chronicle was then conducted by Conover & Pickett 
until 1876, when J. W. Eichardson bought Mr. Picket's interest, 
and in the summer of the same year Mr. Conover' s also. Mr. 
Pickett bought the paper back in the fall of 1876, and in 1878 it 
became the property of the Harrisburg Printing Company. In 
1881 Mr. Pickett became sole proprietor again by purchase of 
the stock, and leased the paper for four years to Otey & Eichard- 
son. In August, 1885, Mr. Pickett resumed control of the paper 
and still retains it. The Chronicle is a Eepublican paper, be- 
coming so, after various changes, in 1878. 

The Saline County Democrat was started by C. S. Hayes, 
May 2, 1880. About June, 1882, it became the property of M. 
B. Friend, who changed the name to the Harrisburg Democrat, 
as it still remains. About November 1, 1885, it was purchased 
by the present proprietor, W. K. Burnett, who brought out his 
first number November 5. At the present time it is a six-column 
quarto paper, and always has been and is now Democratic. 

George Newell Post, No. 454, G. A. E., was organized June 
6, 1884, with thirty-eight members, and the following ofiicers: 
Com., F. M. Pickett; S. V. C, J. M. Barker; J. V. C, J. H. 
Pearce; Q. M., T. J. Cain; Adj., Eichard E. Oliver. The Post 
now numbers 186 members, and is oflicered as follows: T. A. 
Casto, Com. ; J. H. Cannon, S. Y. C. ; J. A. Burgner, J. V. C. ; 
F. M. Pickett, Q. M. ; J. H. Pearce, Adj. 

Arrow Lodge, No. 3&6, I. O. O. F., was instituted October 12, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 209 

1869. At the present time it has forty-two members and the fol- 
lowing officers : C. P. Skaggs, Eep. ; A. J. Greenhood, P. G. ; P. 
A. Johnson, N. G. ; William C. Ferrell, V. G. ; C. P. Skaggs, 
Sec. ; A. G. Page, Treas. 

Harrisbnrg Lodge, No. 187, A. O. U. W., was instituted June 
8, 1881, with thirty-five charter members. At this time it has 
sixty-eight members and the following officers ; M. A. Garrison, 
Dep. ; T. A. Casto, P. M. W. ; J. J. Parish, M. W. ; Noah Fea- 
zel. Foreman; C. C. Wilgus, Overseer; C. P. Skaggs, Eecorder 
and Treasurer. 

Harrisburg Legion, No. 51, S. K. of A. O. U. W., was insti- 
tuted May 14, 1885, with fifteen members. It now has twenty- 
two, and the following officers: A. Nyberg, P. C"; W. H. How- 
ell, C; W. W. Largent, V. C, J. H. Nyberg, Lt. C. ; C. P. 
Skaggs, Eecorder and Treasurer ; C. A. Priester, Eecording Treas- 
urer. 

Saline Camp, No, 33, S. of V., was organized January 1, 
1886, with sixteen members. It now has forty-seven, and of- 
ficers as follows : C. P. Skaggs, Past Capt. ; William Jobe, CajDt. ; 
W. K. Burnett, 1st Lt. ; George M. Miley,' 2d Lt. ; John C. 
Baker, 1st Serg. ; W. D. Miley, Q. M. S., A. D. McKinney, 
S. of G. This organization is auxiliary to the G. A. E. 

Women's Belief Corps was organized in June, 1886, and has 
about forty members. The president is Mrs. K. Pickett, secre- 
tary, Eosa Durham; treasurer, Jennie Fitzgerald. 

Harrisburg Lodge, No. 325, A. F. & A. M., was chartered 
October 5, 1859, with twelve members. The first officers were 
Green B. Eaum, W. M. ; M. P. McGehee, S. W. ; K N. Warfield, 
J. W. ; John W. Mitchell, Secretary. At the present time this 
lodge has seventy-two members, and the following officers: J. S. 
Ferguson, W. M. ; C. P. Skaggs, S. W. ; T. W. Hall, J. W. ; E. 
N. Warfield, Treasurer; W. A. McHaney, Secretary. It meets 
on the second Wednesdav night of each month, and notwith- 



210 SALINE COUNTY. 

standing that it suffered a loss by fire of ^1,000 in 1882, it is yet 
in a prosperous condition. 

Saline Chapter, No. 165, R. A. M., was chartered October 29, 
1875, with forty members and the following officers: Peter Rob- 
inson, H. P. ; W. G. Sloan, King ; W. A. McHaney, Scribe ; John 
M. Gregg, C. H. ; B. H. Rice, Treasurer, and S. W. Forzy, Sec- 
retary. At present it has sixty-eight members, and officers as 
follows: Peter Robinson, H. P.; C. P. Skaggs, King; Wilson 
Gaskins, Scribe ; R. N. Warfield, Treasurer, and W. A. McHaney, 
Secretary. The ChajDter meets on the third Wednesday nights 
of each month. 

Saline Covincil, W, D., received dispensation in October, 1886. 
Peter Robinson is the 111. G. M. ; W. A. McHaney, 111. G. M., 
and W. E. Burnett. 

Egypt Lodge, No. 1844, K. of H., was chartered October 17, 
1879, with twenty-three members. It has now twenty-six mem- 
bers, and the following officers : W. K. Burnett, P. D. ; W. I. Rey- 
nolds, D. ; E. A. Richardson, V. D. ; M.Miley, A. D. ; J. W. Richard- 
son, R. ; J. H. Grace, F. R. ; T. Y. Reynolds, T. ; N. Johnson, 0. 
The lodge meets twice each month. Since its organization it has 
had but four deaths, the policy in each case being ^2,000. It is a 
co-operative society, and as there is no class arrangement policies 
are always paid in full. 

The K. & L. of H. was organized April 9, 1880, with twenty 
members. Its present number is the same. Mrs. Kate Pickett, 
P. P. ; T. Y. Reynolds, P. ; Eliza J. Barter, V. P. ; F. M. Pickett, 
Sec. ; W. P. Hallock, Treas. The society meets twice per month 
and is beneficiary in its objects. 

Besides the above named secret societies there are the Iron 
Hall and the AV. C. T. U. 

The physicans of Harrisburg are the following : S. S. Cheaney, 
N. S. Hudson, J. H. Rose, J. W. Renfro, L. N. Parish, E. M. 
Provine, J. Mitchell and Y. Rathbone. 



— . BATTLK OF- 



NASHVILLE. 




HISTOEY OF ILLINOIS. 213 

INCOKPORATION OF THE TOWN. 

Harrisburg was incorporated by special charter approved Feb- 
ruary 21, 1861. The boundaries of the town as described in the char- 
ter included "the soutji west quarter of the northwest quarter, and 
the northwest quarter of the southwest quarter of Section 15, and 
the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter, and the northeast 
quarter of the southeast quarter of Section 16, in Township 9 
south, of Kange 6 east, and all additions that may hereafter be 
lade to said town." This charter provided for a board of trustees 
consisting of a president and four trustees to be chosen by the 
qualified voters, who should hold their offices for the term of one year, 
the elections to be held annually on the fourth Monday of March. 
The usual powers were conferred upon the board of trustees. An 
act amendatory to the original charter was approved March 26, 
1869, by which among other things it was provided that the 
boundaries of the town should include the west half of Section 15, 
and the east half of Section 16, Township 9, Range 6, east of the 
third principal meridian. The officers provided for by ordinance 
are a clerk, constable, treasurer, assessor, street commissioner and 
town attorney. Following is a list of the principal officers of the 
town since its incorporation: Previous to 1866, the records have 
been mislaid. 

Presidents of the board of trustees: John F. Conover, 1866; 
Robert Mick, 1867; John W. Mitchell, 1868-69; Moses P. Mc- 
Gehee, 1870; Green B. Raum, 1871; F. M. Pickett, 1872; John 
W. Mitchell, 1873-74; R. N. Warfield, 1875-77; F. M. Pickett, 
1878; S. W. Forgy, 1879; J. M. Baker, 1880; John W. Mitchell, 
1881; N. W. Largent, 1882; R. N. Warfield, 1883; J. M. Baker, 
1884; E. W. Wiedemann, 1885; A. W. Durham,1886; William H. 
Parish, Sr., 1887. 

Clerks: S. W. Forgy, 1866-67; John F. Conover, 1868-69; 
W. E. Burnett, 1870; F. M. Pickett, 1871; H. H. Harris, 1872; 
John M. Baker, 1873-74; L. B. Church, 1875; W. G. Sloan, 



214 SALINE COUNTY. 

1876-78; A. Nybery, 1879; F. M. Pickett, 1880; W. G. Sloau, 
1881; W. M. Gregg, 1882; S. W. Forgy, 1883; W. K. Burnett, 
1884-85; K N. Warfield, 1886-87. 

Treasurers: W. M. Christy, 1866-69; James Macklin. 1870; 
John M. Burnett, Jr., 1871; W. E. Burnett, 1872-74; W. G. 
Sloan, 1875-77; W. E. Burnett, 1878; H. H. Harris, 1879; J. 
W. Bradshaw, 1880; J. W. Towle, 1881-83; C. P. Skaggs, 
1884-87. 

The proposition to incorporate under the general law was lost 
on March 28, 1887, by 108 votes for it, to 165 against it, and the 
same time the vote in favor of licensing saloons was 152 to 121 
against it. The total voting population of Harrisburg is 320. 

Raleigh is located on Section 15, Township 8, Range 6. It 
was surveyed and platted by Archibald Sloan, as the following cer- 
tificate shows: "I, A. Sloan, surveyor in and for said county, do 
hereby certify that I have Plated and Surveyed a certain piece or 
parcle of ground, Being that Which have been donated to the coun- 
ty of Saline by Andrew Musgrave and Hannah A. Crawford, 
and ordered by County Commissioners' Court of said County 
to be plated and laid out in lots. A copy of said plan and survey 
is hereunto annext, described as folios:" 

The plat was divided into fifteen blocks, and the blocks so 
subdivided as to make in all forty-six lots. The center block 
was reserved for the " public square " and the streets were 
named with respect to this square. The one running east and 
west north of the square was named First North Street, and that 
south, First South Street, that east First East Street, and that 
west First West Street. These were all the streets the original 
plat contained. They were sixty-six feet wide, and the plat was 
certified to October 21, 1847. 

At the time of the survey no one was living there except A. 
Musgrave, Mrs. Crawford and A. Sloan. The first family to 
settle in the place was that of Alfred Aldrich from Posey Coun- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 215 

tj, Ind. Mr. Aldrich built him a little log house and kept 
therein a very small store. He died in the spring of 184:8. 
William H. Parish, a young attorney from Danville, 111., moved 
in on Saturday, April 8, 1848. The next settler was James 
Baker, who came in for the purpose of merchandising, and 
who built a little round log house, in which he opened a store. 
Then came William St. C. Clark in the summer of 1848. William 
Frizzell came in as a merchant in the fall of 1848, and erected 
a small frame building, the first in the town. Eobert S. Stinson 
came in 1849 and built the second frame house, and about this time 
came Mr. McElvaiu as a lawyer, and divided the practice with 
William H. Parish. Geo. W. Young came in the latter part of 
1849, and erected a log house, and also Dr. Thomas S. Mitchell. 
James M. Gaston was an early arrival as was Osborn Powell 
and Henry W. Goodrich both of these being blacksmiths. 

The town kept on growing until it ceased to be the county 
seat in 1859, when there were about 350 inhabitants. Eeligious 
services were conducted in the courthouse usually by the Meth- 
odists, but occasionally by the Baptists. A large log church be- 
longing to the Free- Will Baptists was about a mile away, to 
which large numbers frequently resorted. Since 1859 about 50 
have been added to the population. In 1859 the following were 
the business firms: Stinson (Robert S. ) & Parish (W. H. ), Mc- 
Mickle (M.) & Burnett (W. E.), Stinson (D. W.) & Spiller, 
and Thomas B. Vaughn. At the present time the following are 
the business firms: J. D. Fair, A. S. Clark, H. L. Burnett, and 
— Chenault. There are two large tobacco stemmeries, owned 
respectively by — Lusk, and Weber & Son, and a large tobacco 
factory owned by A. S. Clark. Among the postmasters have 
been Archibald Sloan, L. M. Riley, J. D. Fair, and H. L. Bur- 
nett, the latter the present incumbent. 



216 SALINE COUNTY. 

GALLATIA. 

Gallatia is situated on the northeast quarter of Section 11, 
and the northwest quarter of Section 12, Township 8, Kange 5, 
about five miles northwest of Kaleigh. It was originally the 
property of William J. Gatewood and David Upchurch. For some 
years during its early history the principal, if not the only busi- 
ness men in the place were J. & T. Choisser, but in 1848 Dr. H. 
R. Pierce and Moses P. McGehee were the principal merchants. 
In 1854 Oscar F. Irvin & John Kittinger established themselves 
in business there as a firm, and in 1857 or 1858, P. Massey & 
Co., the Co. being Stinson & Parish, of Raleigh. H, Weber & 
Son began business there in 1858, and have since amassed a large 
fortune, by industry and correct business methods. They now 
are merchants and settlers, and own a large tobacco stemmery 
and an elevator, besides several thousand acres of land. L. T. 
Karnes commenced business there in 1864. H. T. Massey in 
1865, and also C. P. Burnett. E. M. Hinckley came later, and J. 
W. C. Pemberton in 1880. The present business interests of the 
town are in the hands of ^Y. G. Anderson, H. Weber & Son and 
H. W. Pemberton, as dry goods merchants, and the groceries are 
conducted by F. A. Anderson, A. J. Cleveland & Son, Wiley, 
Griffin and T. F. Gasaway. The flouring-mill of H. Weber & 
Son is supplied with the latest improved roller machinery, and 
besides this mill there is one known as the Old Mill, run by John 
W. Karnes. There is a drug store owned by Carr, Abner & Co. 
The stemmery of H. Weber & Son is a very large brick building 
five stories high and 150x300 feet in size. From thirty to fifty 
stemmers are employed, and about 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco 
prepared for market annually. The business of Gallatia is very 
large, considering the size of the place, amounting to about 
$100,000 per year, and the population amounts only to about 900. 
The physicians are P. D. B. Grattan, J. C. D. Carr and William 
Clark, Jacob Smith having been the first in the place. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 217 

The town was incorporated in . The present board of 

trustees are P. D. B. Grattan, president, W. G. Frith, E. G. 
Welch, M. W. Pemberton; Charles Henderson, clerk; H. W. 
Pemberton, treasurer. 

Gallatia Lodge, No. 684, A. P. & A. M. was instituted in 1872. 
It now has thirty-six members, with officers as follows: J. C. D. 
Carr, W. M. ; J. P. Perguson, S. W. ; P. D. B. Grattan, J. W. ; J. 
R. Stricklin, Secretary, and A. J. Weber, Treasurer. 

Gallatia Lodge, No. 433, I. O. O. P. was instituted in 1870, 
with eight members. It now has forty-eight, and the following 
officers ; L A. Ritter, N. G. ; Lusk Bond, V. G. ; D. T. Upchurch, 
Treasurer and Representative, R. L. Encore, Secretary. 

Will Weber Post, No. 470, G. A. R. now has forty-eight mem- 
bers. Its first Commander was J. P. Perguson. The present 
Commander is E. M. Weber, and Adjt. William H. Edwards. 

There is also a Woman's Temperance Union and a children's 
Band of Hope in Gallatia, both of which are doing good work in 
cultivating public sentiment in favor of temperance. 

STONE FORT. 

The old village of this name was laid off on Jo Robinson's 
land. The survey and plat were made June 15, 1858, by T. A. 
Jones, deputy surveyor. It was on the southwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 82, Township 10, Range 5. There were in the original plat 
sixty-four lots, most of which were 50x150 feet in size, and the 
streets were eighty feet wide. At the time of the survey Jo 
Robinson's cypress-log house was the only one standing within 
the plat. It was built in 1831. The next house was also a log 
one built in 1858, by Oscar Pinnell. In 1859 J. M. Joiner built 
the next, a frame house two stories high, and John Stucker 
afterward Dr. Stucker, also built a frame house, one-story high, 
in 1859. The first store was opened there by Axel and Charles 
Nyberry that year, and one by Thomas Smith in 1860. After- 



218 SALINE COUNTY. 

ward a grocery was opened by a Mr. Fern. The town kept on 
growing until 1872, when it had about 150 inhabitants, and then, 
Bolton having become a railroad station on the Cairo & Vincennes 
Railway, most of the houses and business establishments were 
moved to the more fortunate location, the buildings being taken 
down and moved piecemeal. At the old village there was a two- 
story brick schoolhouse, in the upper story of which the F. & 
A. M. Lodge, No. 495, had their hall. The Seventh Day Bap- 
tists' had a frame church building also, which they still occupy 
on the old site. Besides these two buildings there now remain 
of the old village of Stone Fort only eight dwelling-houses, and 
the site itself has been reduced to farms. 

Bolton. — The town of Old Bolton, as it is now remembered 
was situated wholly in Williamson County. It was started in 
1847, and contained only three houses up to the establishment of 
the present town of Bolton. One of these belonged to David 
Buckner, one to J. M. Barber, Sr., and the other to Ira Keel. 
David Buckner was postmaster until his death in 1859. The im- 
portance of the office is sufficiently illustrated by the following 
incident. David Buckner and a few others were one day out 
jBshing, when one of the party, or some one passing, inquired if 
there was any mail matter in the office for him. The postmaster 
replied that he did not know but would see, so taking off his hat 
he looked over the letters that it contained and said, " No, there 
are none," and went on with his fishing. The house was occu- 
pied by Mr. Buckner's widow until 1861, when Wesley Tram- 
mell moved in and became postmaster, retaining the position until 
1864, when Elijah Cross was appointed by President Lincoln. In 
1865 the postoffice was abolished. The Wild Cat Bank of Bol- 
ton was established in 1858, and Elijah Cross was the cashier 
The funds were usually kept in a cigar box, and in 1859 a check 
on the bank for $12 was presented which the cashier could not 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 219 

redeem, having on hand only $(3.70, and the bank was shortly 
afterward moved away. 

The present town of Bjlton lies in both Saline and William- 
son Counties. It was platted by James W. Russell, the plat 
being filed for record October 29, 1872. The survey and plat 
were made at the request of J. Van Trammel, A. Vickers, B. S. 
Young and C. S. Blackman, the proprietors of the town site. 
The streets are laid out parallel with and perpendicular to the 
line of the Cairo & Vincennes Railway, 100 feet being reserved 
on either side of the road. The original survey divided the town 
plat into twenty-four blocks, and each block into four lots with the 
necessary streets and alleys, which are laid off an angle of very 
nearly 45*^ with the cardinal points. Those running northwest 
and southeast are named White Oak, Cedar, Chestnut, Walnut 
and Vine. 

The first business house erected in the new town was by 
Alexander Vickers. It was moved over from Stone Fort Village, 
and now stands with the name of J. W. Rose on the front. The 
second was erected by Smith & Son, and now has their name on 
the front. The third was erected by Harper & Norman, this as 
well as the second, being also moved over fi-om the old village of 
Stone Fort. The first new building was erected by W. H. Ridg- 
way, and all the above were devoted to dry goods, groceries, 
hardware and other goods. The first drug store was by Bozarth 
& Johnson. A schoolhouse was erected in 1873 and a grist-mill 
in 1874, the latter by Barton Pulley and his partner; it was 
brought over from the old town and rebuilt, and burned down in 
1884. In 1875 there were about 350 inhabitants in the place, 
now there are about 550 with the following business firms : Dry 
goods, groceries etc., J. W. Rose, Hancock & Henderson, M. A. 
Kelly, — Ridgway, Pulley Bros., Grace & Gregg, Pat Foley; 
groceries, — Hammock ; drug stores, Kelly & Hallock, Wm. A. 
C. Goe, W. G. Osborn;meat market, St. John; blacksmiths, 



220 SALINE COUNTY. 

William La Dean, — Toppes, P. TV. Ogden and F. M. Tanner; 
furniture store, J. H. Blackman; roller grist-mill, J. L. Ridgway; 
corn cracker, J. H. & N. S. McSparin; physicians, B. S. Young, 
B. F. St. John, W. G. Osborn, T. J. Osborn, Isaac Kelly, H. S. 
Goe; lawyers, Capt.J. H. McSparin (who moved into town in 
1882), T. W. Choisser, and Jacob Hayse. 

The Masonic Lodge, F. & A. M., No, 495, which moved over 
from Stone Fort, has now about sixty-five members. The officers 
are J. 0. B.Smith, W. M.; J. M. Joiner, S. W. ; W. M. Joiner, J. 
W. ; J. B. Blackman, Secretary, J. H. Blackman Treasurer. 

The I.O. O. F. Stone Fort Lodge — is in a flourishing condition. 
Its officers are Thomas A. Boran, N. G. ; J. W. Rose, V. G. ; 0. R. 
Hays, Conductor; J. H. Anderson,Warden; E. E. Pulley, Secretary 
and J. L. Ridgway, Treasurer. 

The postoffice here is named Stone Fort, as there was already 
a postoffice in Illinois named Bolton. The postmasters have been 
Alexander Vickers, appointed in 1873; C. S. Blackman, in 1877; 
J. L. Ridgway, in 1881, and J. W. Rose, in 1885. 

There is but one hotel, kept by Mrs. Nancy Tucker, and it was 
established in 1874. 

George AV. Youngblood Post, No. 514, G. A. R., was organized 
June 16, 1885 with G. W. Kelly, Commander and John Brandon, 
Adjutant. 

Besides the above mentioned towns, there are the following: 
Independence, surveyed at the request of Stephen F. Mitchell by 
A. Sloan, November 29, 1847; it is located on Section 15, Town- 
ship 10, Range 6. 

Saline City was surveyed by T. A. Jones, deputy surveyor, in 
1858, at the request of J. B. Maghee and Willie Prunell, pro- 
prietors. It is on Section 16, Township 8, Range 7, about one 
mile north of Eldorado. 

ELDORADO. 

Eldorado is located on Section 21, Township 8, Range 7, at 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 221 

the intersection of the Louisville & Nashville Railway with the 
Cairo & Vincennes Railway. The eastern extremity of the Belle- 
ville & Eldorado Railway, or the St. Lonis Short Line, as it is some- 
times called, is also here, giving the town exceptional railroad 
facilities. It was laid out in 1858 by Mayor William Elder and 
William Reed, and was originally named Eldoredo, partaking of 
the names of both its founders; and it is probable that the simi- 
larity of the original name to its present one gradually led to the 
change. It was incorporated in 1870 with the following board 
of trustees: William Elder, president; James S. Neal, W. L. 
Wiedemann, J. N. Elder, and G. L. Eubanks. The first post- 
master was Nathaniel Bramlet, the next J. W. Cox, then John W. 
Mathis and finally the present one, William Elder. The first 
merchant was Nathaniel Bramlet, and the next N. Webber, both 
of whom kept general stores. The business of the town now 
numbers about fifteen establishments as follows: Dry goods, etc., 
C. P. Burnett & Son, W. E. Mitchell, J. H. Musgrave, Newton 
Elder ; drugs, Mathis & Young, S. A. Whitley <fe Co. ; grocers, 
Dickerson & Mooneyham, W. J. Mathis, Byron Anthony, Skelton 
Westbrooks, Mrs. Mary King ; clothing, Thomas Mitchell; hard- 
ware, stoves and tin, E. O. Groves; harness, J. A. Hargraves; 
jeweler, Joseph McKinney ; foundry and machine shop, S.T.Weber ; 
eaw mills, T. J. Womack, — Miller; millinery, Mrs. Rebecca 
W^iedemann, Miss Hannegan; livery stables, J. H. Bramlet and 
— Womack ; hotels, Hargrave (kept by W. H. Breonecke), Union 
(kept by Mrs. Delia Mossman), the Duncan House (kept by James 
Duncan) ; blacksmith, John Mclntire; lumber yard, Levings Bros. 
( — Chitty, manager) ; spoke factory, J. J. Megel, who employs 
about twenty-five hands. In addition to the business of the place 
there are here six physicians, two lawyers, one graded school and 
two churches, which are very well supported. The town is 
pleasantly situated, is surrounded by a fine farming country, 
and is the shipping point for a large scope of country on account 



222 SALINE COUNTY. 

of the facility with which favorable rates can be obtained, and 
has a population of 700 people. 

N. W. Burnett Post, No. 527, G. A. E., was organized in the 
fall of 1885, W. L. Mitchell is Commander and J. H. Scott is Ad- 
jutant. 

Texas City was platted in 1859 by request of the proprietors, 
John W. Cox and Solomon Webster. It was located on both 
sides of the Southern Illinois Eailroad which was not con- 
structed, but which was succeeded about twelve years later by the 
Cairo & Yincennes Eailroad, now the Cairo, Vincennes & Chi- 
cago. It was located on the northeast quarter of the northeast 
quarter of Section 36, Township 7, Eange 7 east, and contained 
forty-six lots. The plat has since been vacated. 

Texas Station was platted by James W. Eussell, county sur- 
veyor, at the request of Larkin Stallings and E. H. Davis, pro- 
prietors. It is located on the southeast quarter of the southeast 
quarter of Section 26, the southwest quarter of the southwest 
quarter of Section 25, the northeast quarter of the northeast 
quarter of Section 35 and the northwest quarter of the northwest 
quarter of Section 36, Township 7, Eange 7 east, on both sides of 
the Cairo, Vincennes & Chicago Eailway, and is laid out so that 
the east and west streets run north 70*^ east, and the north and 
south streets run at right angles to the above. The first mer- 
chants were D. H. Harris and John Graham, the latter being the 
first postmaster. At the present time there are two stores, one 
kept by C. C. Karns, the other by J. B. Bain, who is also the 
postmaster, having succeeded Mr. Graham. There is also a tile 
and brick factory owned by Gram & Camp and which was started 
about three years ago, the products being used mainly in the 
vicinity — the tile for draining the land and the brick for building. 
The station at which there is as yet only a platform is named 
Texas City as is also the postoffice, and Texas Station contains 
about 100 inhabitants. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 223 

Morrillsville was surveyed and platted at the request of Will- 
iam H, Carrier, proprietor, by Benjamin D. Lewis, deputy sur- 
veyor, November 19, 1872. It is situated on the northwest 
quarter of the northwest quarter of Section 2, Township 2, Kange 
5. When platted it contained only the house of William H. 
Carrier, It was not long, however, before purchases of lots were 
made and houses erected by G. W. Carrier, William Bird, Wesley 
Adkinson, George Hawks, William Patterson, John Patterson and 
Thomas Burnett as well as others. The first business of any 
kind was a family grocery kept by J. E. Allen & Bro. Soon after- 
ward dry goods stores were opened by Pankey & Russell, William 
Bird, Frank Hatton, L. B. Parks & Son, J. M. Burnett and N. 
C. Carson, the latter, however, not until 1884. J. Harris & Son 
opened a drug store early in the history of the town. The present 
business men are : general stores, Hezekiah Thompson & Co., J. M. 
Eussell & Co., J. W. & J. Harris; drug store, J. Harris & Son; 
harness store, J. Lewis; grist-mills, Eussell <fe Biggars and Kin- 
chelow & Patterson. The postoffice is named Carrier's Mills. 
The postmasters since 1872 have been G. W. Burnett, 1873, and 
J. Harris, 1877, to present time. The town of Morrillsville con- 
tains about 240 inhabitants, and is a highly intelligent, social 
and prosperous community, being surrounded by an excellent 
agricultural country. There are three churches in the town, a 
Baptist, Methodist Episcopal and Quaker Church. 

Rileyville was surveyed by James W. Eussell at the request 
of Mrs. E. M. Riley, the proprietress. It is situated on the south- 
east quarter of the southeast quarter of Section 5, Township 8, 
Rauge 5, and is about four miles northwest of Gallatia . on the 
St. Louis Short Line Railway. It has two streets running 
nearly east and west named Oak and Main. Mrs. Riley's house 
was outside of the town plat. The first store opened near this 
place was by William Mitchell. J. R. and J. K. Woolard ran a 
saw mill here in an early day. The first store opened on the 



22-i SALINE COUNTY. 

town site was by W. F. Gill in 1877 or 1878. J. E. Woolard 
opened a store in 1882, and Mrs. Eiley, having sold her farm, 
opened a store in 1884, closing it in 1886, and going to Logan 
County, 111. G. W. Abney opened one in 1886, and G. W. Hause 
just outside of town. The first postmaster in this vicinity is be- 
lieved to have been L, M. Riley, who , having died in the army, 
was suceeded by his widow, Mrs. E. M. Riley, who retained the 
office until 1883, when A. M. Todd became postmaster, and has 
been succeeded by J. A. Morgan in 1884, J. R. Woolard in 1885 
and by A. M. Todd in 1886. The town contains a population of 
about eighty. 

West End was surveyed by James W. Russell at the request of 
Charles Jones, proprietor. It is on Section 30, Township 7, 
Range 5, and borders on Franklin County. 

Hamhiirg was surveyed and platted by James W. Russell at 
the request of Wesley Coffee and William Durham, proprietors, 
April 26, 1877. It is on the southwest quarter of the northwest 
quarter of Section 29, Township 7, Range 6. 

Besides these are Halltown, in the northwest corner of the 
county, Ledford, a station on the Cairo, Vincennes & Chicago 
Railway, about five miles southwest of Harrisburg, Mitchellsville, 
Red Banks, Red Bud and Somerset. 

CHURCH HISTORY. 

Most of the preaching done in the primitive days was by 
Methodist or Baptist preachers. One of the first of the Baptists, 
whose names are now recoverable, being Stephen Stelley, whom 
the reader will remember as being the last man to make a land 
entry in 1819. He was a " Hard-shell Baptist," and not a very 
learned man. Preaching was usually conducted in the log school- 
houses or in private houses, that is on ordinary occasions; but 
when the number of the settlers began to become large, log 
churches were erected for exclusively religious purposes, or in 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 225 

some instances, for religious and educational purposes combined. 
Camp meetings were frequent during the early days, held mainly 
by the Methodists, but these finally became unpopular in part, 
because it was so enormous a task for the women to prepare vict- 
uals for the crowds that would collect, and particularly as it be- 
came evident that a part attended wholly for the purpose of being 
fed. Protracted meetings were preferred by the Baptists, one of 
the churches in which they were held being about two miles west 
of Harrisburg, while a similar (log) church belonged to the 
Methodists about a mile farther west. 

As has been already stated, the Baptists were early on the 
ground in Saline County, when it was yet Gallatin County. One 
of the first churches organized, if not the first, was Liberty 
Church, situated about three miles from Harrisburg. This church 
was organized in 1832 or 1833. It is probable that this church, 
not long afterward, became a member of the Saline Association. 
In 1843 Liberty Church, as was very appropriate, considering 
her name, was identified with the Emancipation Baptists, and the 
membership was then forty-four. In 1845 she joined the Frank- 
lin Association, remaining in that connection over twenty years, 
but now belongs to the Big Saline. Elder W. D. Russell was 
pastor in 1880. This churcli practiced " foot-washing " for about 
forty years after its organization. 

Raleigh Church was organized as Union Church October 19, 
1837, with seven members. Elders Wilson, Henderson and John 
Shadowen were the presbytery. The new organization grew out 
of a division in the Old Bethel Creek Church, regarding foreign 
missions. In the Old BetheJ Church there were two parties, the 
mission party and the anti-mission party, and just previous to 
the division a Rev. Mr. Alcott visited the church and preached at 
the Saturday conference. On Sunday morning, it having been 
learned that Mr. Alcott was in favor of missions, the anti-mission 
party being in the majority refused to let him preach, whereupon 



226 SALINE COUNTY. 

the mission party left the church, being unable to remain with 
brethren who would not allow a visiting minister in good stand- 
ing to preach. Subsequently the majority excluded the minority 
from the church, and the mission party considering themselves 
unlawfully excluded, at once proceeded to organize a new church, 
which they named Union Church. The name was subsequently 
changed to Raleigh Church. Elder Wilson Henderson is believed 
to have been the first pastor. Elder M. J. Jones was pastor in 
1880. The membership is about 100. 

Macedonia Church is situated about eight miles south of Har- 
risburg, near Mitchellville. It was organized September 20, 
1847, with nine members. Elders William Terrell G. P. Keith 
and Edmund Vincent were the council. The church entered the 
Franklin Association in 1848, remaining therein until 1870, 
when she took a letter of dismissal to the Big Saline. Foot- 
washing was practiced in this church until about 1868, when it 
was discontinued. 

Eldorado Church, formerly Wol£ Creek, was organized in 
1850 with nine members, by Elders T. M. Vance, T. Hamilton 
and Edmund Vincent, all of whom held letters of dismissal from 
Union Church. It has a good house of worship and a strong 
congregation. The first pastor was Elder T. M. Vance. In 1880 
the pastor was Elder M. J. Jones. 

Little Saline Church was organized in July, 1851, with thir- 
teen members, near the old village of Stone Fort. It was con- 
solidated with Pleasant Valley Church in 1873, and formed the 
Stone Fort Church. 

New Hope Church was organized June 4, 1852, with thirteen 
members. It joined the Franklin Association in 1852, and re- 
mained a member until 1879, when it joined the Williamson 
Association. It is situated in the northwestern part of the 
county, in a good community, and is a strong organization with 
a good house of worship. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 227 

Bankston's Fork Church is located about six miles west of 
Harrisburg. It was organized in July, 1854, and was at first a 
member of the Franklin Association, though it subsequently 
joined the Big Saline. Josiali Williams was the first pastor, but 
Elder W. S. Blackman has been the pastor for several years. It 
practiced foot-washing for eighteen years. 

South America Church was organized July 16, 1858, with ten 
members. It is situated about eight miles west of Harris- 
burg. Elder G. W. Henderson was the first j^astor, though El- 
der W. S. Blackman has been pastor for some years. It has a 
good house of worship and a strong membership. Originally it 
was a member of the Franklin Association, but later it joined the 
Big Saline. It practiced foot-washing about nine years. 

Long Branch Church was organized in September, 1860, with 
forty-nine members. It is situated four miles northwest of Ra- 
leigh, in a good country and good community. It joined the 
Franklin Association in 1861. It has a good house of worship 
and a large congregation. This church has never practiced foot- 
washing. 

Gallatia Church was organized in August, 1861, with thirteen 
members. Elder John A. Rodman was pastor of this church for 
a number of years, and awakened considerable religious enthusi- 
asm, and a house of worship was partially erected, when the 
ardor of the brethren cooled down and it stood unfinished for a 
number of years. About 1880, Elder John A. Rodman returned 
to the pulpit and preached once a month as missionary of the 
Franklin Association. This church never practiced foot-washing. 
It is a strong church in a prosperous community. 

Pleasant Valley Church was organized in 1867, and entered 
the Franklin Association. It is situated near Halltown in the 
northwest part of the county. It had eight members originally, 
and in 1879 had forty-eight. 

Harrisburg Church was organized Saturday, February 15, 



228 SALINE COUNTY. 

1868, with ten members, the council consisting of T. Cook, Ran- 
som Moore, W. Huddleston, L. Stiff, T. Webb, I. Holland, E. 
Hampton, B. H. Rice, M. Keith and B. N. Johnson. The first 
pastor was Elder M. J. Jones. The church prospered until 1871, 
when a division came up on the Sabbath question Avhich was 
quite disastrous. It first joined the Big Saline Association, but 
in 1877 it joined the Franklin. Elder John Blanchard was pas- 
tor for a number of years previous to 1880, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Elder J. K. Trovillon, who remained until after the 
completion of the present elegant brick church edifice, in 1885, 
erected at a cost of about $10,000, entirely at the expense of 
Robert Mick, who presented it to the congregation, when Mr. 
Trovillon was succeeded by Elder C. H. Caldwell, of New Burn- 
side. This church has never practiced foot-washing. 

The Methodist Churches have been quite numerous in the 
county. One of the very first organized was the Ebenezer 
Methodist Episcopal Church, which was located about seven 
miles west of Harrisburg, but it has been suspended for a num- 
ber of years. Another was Briar Creek Methodist Episcopal 
Church, located about three miles due south of Harrisburg. It 
has also ceased to exist. Mount Pleasant and Mount Zion 
Churches have also been discontinued, as has the Sulphur Springs 
Methodist Episcopal Church, which, located about nine miles 
southeast of Harrisburg, was burned down in 1884. The fol- 
lowing Methodist Episcopal Churches are now in existence in 
Saline County: The Gallatia Methodist Episcopal Church, the 
Eldorado Church, Cottage Grove Church, AVesley Chapel, Car- 
rier's Mills Church, Mount Moriah Church, and the Harrisburg 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Preaching first commenced for 
this latter church in 1857, and until the erection of the present 
church building on Vine Street, the society worshiped in private 
houses, in the schoolhouse, in the courthouse, and in the Bap- 
tist Church building, as occasion or convenience required. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 229 

In 1864, Eev. Mr. Huggins was the pastor, who died in 
1865, and he was followed by Rev. Mr. Turning, who filled 
out his appointment. The succeeding ministers, with the years 
in which they commenced their labors have been as follows: 
Revs. L. A. Harper, 1865; — Young, 1866, appointed, completed 
by Rev. Bankston Parish; W. C. Roper, 1867; J. W. Cecil, 1868; 
B. A. P. Eaton, 1869; C. H. Farr, 1870; J. C. Green, 1871, time 
completed by G. W. Farmer; J. C. Reeder, 1872; W. A. Browder, 
1873; R. H. Manier, 1874; Rev. Mr. Garrett, 1875; J. R. Reef, 
1877; J. E. Rippetoe, 1879; J. W. Franklin, 1881; N. Crow, 
1882; J. W. Morris, 1883; E. Barnes, 1884, and R. D. Woodley, 
the present pastor, in 1885. 

The church building erected in 1871 on Vine Street is a neat 
frame one, originally 30x45 feet, since lengthened out about 
ten feet. It has a short steeple and cost about $1,200. The 
membership of the church is about eighty and of the Sunday- 
school, of which Dr. J. W. Renfro is superintendent, about 
seventy. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church South was established at 
Bolton in 1884. A church building was erected in 1886, a two- 
story frame costing about $350. It stands in Saline County. 
Rev. W. H. Nelson is the pastor. 

A Methodist Episcopal Church was established in 1873, but 
the membership moved away, and the building they erected is 
still standing unoccupied. 

The Harrisburg Presbyterian Church was organized Septem- 
ber 5, 1868, by Revs. John Huston and J. B. McComb. The 
original members were Israel D. Towle, Eliza Towle, William M. 
Christy, Catharine Christy, Dr. J. F. Burks, Sarah Burks. The 
stated supplies of this church have been Rev. G. B. McComb, 
1868-70, and again in 1876 ; Rev. John Huston about six months 
in 1870; Rev. John Branch, in 1873; Rev. William H. Rodgers, 
1878; Rev. R. C. Galbraith, parts of 1879-80; Rev. William S. 



230 SALINE COUNTY. 

Wilson, the winter of 1880-81; Elders Eobert Keid and G. H. 
Potter, in the winter of 1881-82. The present pastor, Eev. B. C. 
Swan was installed June 29, 1884. 

The elderri of this church have been as follows: Israel D. 
Towle, installed September 5, 1868 ; Dr. D. F. Burks, same time ; 
John H.Wilson, September 4, 1870; W. P. Hallock, June 4, 
1876; E. J. Mcllrath, same time; D. N. Anderson, April 7, 
1884; William M. Christy and E. S. Marsh, March 27, 1887. 

The deacons have been William M. Christy, September 4, 
1870; James L. Elder, same time; Joshua H. Grace and Eobert 
N. Wilson, March 27, 1887. 

The trustees have been William M. Christy, James L. Elder 
and D. N. Anderson, all elected April 10, 1882, and continued in 
ofl&ce ever since. 

On March 25, 1882, a committee was appointed consisting of 
W. P. Hallock, Mary Eobinson and J. H. Wilson, to select a lot 
upon which to build a church, the lot selected being No. 3, Block 
1, Mitchell's revised plat of Harrisburg, which was purchased at 
a cost of $178.65. On March 9, 1883, a building committee was 
appointed consisting of Dr..W. S. Swan, William M. Christy and 
Hiram Anderson, and a finance committee consisting of W. P. 
Hallock, James L. Elder and J. H. Wilson. The new church 
was commenced in 1883, and completed May 1, 1884. Its cost 
was, building, $2,210.50; bell, $205.32; furnishing, $289.35; 
total for lot and building, bell and furnishing $2,883.82. The 
church building was dedicated June 28, 1884, with no obligation 
resting upon it. The present membership of the church is seventy- 
six. D. N. Anderson is superintendent of the Sunday-school, 
which has upon its rolls a total of 125 including teachers, offi- 
cers and scholars. 

The Harrisburg Cumberland Presbyterian Church was organ- 
ized in 1858, with the following members: Dr. H. E. Pierce 
and wife, W. W. Peebles and wife, Chalon Towle, William 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 231 

Eiley and wife, and their daughter Mahala, Benjamin Bruce and 
wife and Lewis Bilej, besides several others whose names can 
not be recalled. The original membership was about thirty. 
Lewis Riley was the first minister. A large church building 
was erected on the corner of Vine and Church Streets, in 1859. 
It was a frame building about 40x60 feet. It was not com- 
pleted, but when about $1,000 had been expended upon it a 
hurricane came along in 1862, and leveled it with the ground. 
No church building has since been erected by this congrega- 
tion, it having held services instead in the old Baptist Church 
on the corner of Main and Church Streets. Since Rev. 
Lewis Riley, the ministers have been Revs. Benjamin Bruce, 
Mr. Young, D. B. Asher, C. W. Hutchinson, George W. 
Williams and Mr. Hudgins. No pastor is at present em- 
ployed, the congregation, which consists of about thirty-five 
members, preferring to wait until their contemplated church 

building shall have been erected, on Poplar and Streets. 

Weekly prayer meetings are held at the houses of the members. 

The other Cumberland Presbyterian Churches in Saline 
County are the following: One at Raleigh, one at Gallatia, one 
at Eldorado, the Nozzle School Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 
between Raleigh and Gallatia, and the Little Creek Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church, about a mile south of Gallatia. 

The Social Brethren. — This peculiar denomination of Chris- 
tians had its origin in Saline County August 29, 1867, in con- 
tentions which arose between members of various denominations 
with reference to certain points of doctrine; the questions being 
as to whether these disputed and controverted points were in ac- 
cordance with the Scripture. It being impossible for all to unite 
upon a decision, it became necessary for those who differed in opin- 
ion from the main body of the churches to which they belono-ed 
to withdraw their membership and to unite themselves too-ether in 
a new sect. The first meeting of these dissatisfied ones, who 



232 SALINE COUNTY. 

desired to promulgate tlie truth as it is found in the Word of 
God, was held on the date above given, Francis Wright, from the 
Methodist Episcopal Church South, being elected moderator; 
Hiram T. Brannon, from the Methodist Episcopal Church, clerk ; 
William J. C. Morrison, from the Presbyterian Church, and 
William Holt were also there, the latter moving that William J. 
C. Morrison and Hiram T, Brannon be ordained ministers of the 
church. These, therefore, were the first two ministers ordained 
by the Church of the Social Brethren. Business was then sus- 
pended for the purpose of listening to a sermon delivered by Rev. 
William J. C. Morrison, which was the first sermon delivered by 
an ordained minister of the Church of the Social Brethren. The 
text was the latter clause of St. John xix, 5. 

After the sermon was finished, the Organic Law of the Social 
Brethren was adopted. It provides that an organization may be 
established by a covenant body of five members — three males and 
two females — which organized body may call an ordained minister 
to constitute the church and to appoint a clerk for the church. 
After providing for the discipline of members who shall be filled 
with all unrighteousness, such as fornication, wickedness, covet- 
ousness, maliciousness, envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity, 
whispers, backbiting, hatred of God, despitefulness, pride, boast- 
ing, invention of evil things, disobedience to parents and the use 
of spirituous liquors to excess — the penalty being that if members 
guilty of such unrighteousness shall refuse to comply with the 
requirements of the church, they shall be expelled — a confession 
of faith was adopted expressing belief in the Trinity, that the 
Holy Scriptures contain all things necessary to salvation and that 
whatsoever is not read therein nor proved thereby is not required 
to be believed, that the Old Testament is not contrary to the 
New, that salvation is by the atonement of Christ, that bap- 
tism and the Lord's Supper are ordinances of Christ and that 
baptism may be by pouring, sprinkling or immersion, but that 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 23H 

none but true believers are proper subjects of baptism, and that 
ministers of God are called to preach the gospel and that only, 
and other less important doctrines. The Social Brethren disdain 
the idea of political preaching or anything else outside the 
gospel, and at all times stand ready to prove that other denomina- 
tions differing from them with respect to any of the articles of their 
confession of faith are not Scriptural. They lay great stress on 
the following features of their faith: baptism of believers only, 
preaching of the gospel only and non-belief in fatality. 

There are now three church organizations of this denomina- 
tion in Saline County: Pleasant Grove, organized in 1874, which 
now has a membership of ninety and a church building 30x40 
feet, which cost ^800; Mt. Pleasant No. 2, two miles northwest 
of Raleigh, organized in 1883, now having forty-four members, 
and the Raleigh Church, organized in 1884 with seven members 
and now having nineteen, but no property. These three churches 
with the three in Gallatin County and two in Pope County con- 
stitute the Southern Illinois Association of the Social Brethren. 
This association held its fourteenth annual session in October, 
1886, at Pleasant Grove Church in Saline County. Belonging 
to it there are now thirteen ministers, eleven licentiates and 
twelve exhorters. 

SCHOOL HISTORY. 

The schools in Saline County at an early day, like those in 
all new countries, were extremely primitive in their nature. One 
of the first schoolhouses erected has been described in the chap- 
ter on settlement. The first school taught therein commenced on 
August or September 1, 1823, and a three month's term was 
taught. No school was had in the winter mouths. Seven schol- 
ars attended this school, which was taught by a Mr. Taylor, 
father-in-law of John Crenshaw, who, though not a learned man, 
was yet capable of teaching the few scholars who attended, and 



234 SALINE COUNTY. 

because of having club feet was unable to labor as other men. 
He received $12 per month for that term of three months. A 
year later there was a larger and better school taught near where 
Thomas Gumming s lived, on Section 20, same township and 
range, somewhat over two miles to the southwest. There was 
also a school started in Township 9, Eange 5, about two miles 
west of Hampton Pankey's place. The little house built there 
was also of logs, but it had a chimney made of clay. One of the 
early teachers here was named Sloan, his first name being for- 
gotten. He taught likewise in the fall, the winter being too se- 
vere for the children to attend in schoolhouses which could not 
be kept warm. 

Among the early proceedings of the county commissioners' 
court of Saline County was the attempt to settle the school fund 
question. It was agreed by both the county commissioners' 
courts that the school fund which was on hand should be divided 
in accordance with the act of the Legislature of 1848, that is, 
that each county should receive an equal share, and that no di- 
vision was to be made to that portion of the county cut off from 
Gallatin, and attached to Hardin, and supposed to contain 385 
children, until the tax due from that portion should be paid. 
And it was agreed that Saline County should pay a certain bal- 
ance of $436 to Gallatin County, and that Gallatin County should 
pay such a portion to Saline of a certain fund as 249 is to 593, 
in orders on the treasurer of Gallatin County. 

At the time of the separation of Saline from Gallatin, Samuel 
Elder became school commissioner for Saline County. He re- 
mained in that position until 1856, when he was succeeded by V. 
Rathbone, who continued in the office until 1866, making his first 
report to the superintendent of public instruction, as school com- 
missioner, in 1857, for the year from October 1, 1856 to October 
1, 1857, and his last report to the superintendent of public in- 
struction, as county superintendent of schools. For purposes of 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 235 

comparison it is deemed advisable to introduce here the school 
statistics for 1850, taken from the United States census for that 
year. In 1850 there were fifteen schools, fifteen teachers, and 
410 pupils in attendance, while the enumeration of scholars was, 
males, 535; females, 407. The numbar of adults who could 
neither read nor write was 735 — males, 322; females, 413. The 
school fund amounted to $800, and from other sources there was 
on hand for the benefit of the schools $1,350. 

The first report of Mr. Eathbone, for the year ending 1857, 
showed that in the county there had been taught during the year 
forty-one schools, and that two of the townships made no re- 
turns. There were in attendance during the year 1,118 male pu- 
pils, and 1,075 female pupils. The number of white persons in 
the county under twenty-one was 4,067, while those between the 
ages of five and twenty-one were 2,168. The entire number of 
colored persons in the county under twenty-one was eighteen, 
and between five and twenty-one it was twelve. This report 
shows the remarkable fact therefore that there were more puplis 
in attendance upon the public schools by thirteen than there 
were school children in the county. The number of male teach- 
ers in the county was fifty-six, and of female teachers eight. 
The amount of the principal of the county school fund was 
$740.71, and of the township fund, $7,667.65. The amount paid 
for teachers' wages was $6,383.31, and the amount paid for build- 
ing, repairing and renting school property was $2,690.39. The 
number of acres of school lands sold during the year was 6,720, 
and the amount received therefor was $7,198. 

The next rejjort was made for the year ending October 1, 
1858. Keports had been received from all the townships — nine 
entire and three fractional. There were then 5S schools and the 
principal of the county school fund had been increased fi'om 
$740.71 to $6,740.71 by the sale of sAvamp lands, and the town- 
ship fund had become $8,321.75. The number of teachers em- 



286 SALINE COUNTY. 

ployed was 57 — males 41, females 16 — and there was paid out for 
teachers' wages ^7, 160, 89. In 1860 there were in attendance 
upon the schools, 2,013 pupils — males 1,056, females 957. The 
number of teachers was 50 — males 46, females 4. There were no 
schoolhouses of the first grade, but of the second grade there 
were 23, and of the third grade 15. Twenty-two of the schoolhouses 
were then made of logs, and five were frame buildings. There was 
one private school in the county, with 50 pupils, and the entire 
amount expended for school purposes was $6,952.45. 

In 1861 the number of teachers' certificates of the first grade is- 
sued was seven ; of the second grade five, and of the third grade one. 
In 1862, 22 certificates were issued to male applicants and 18 to 
females, six of which were of the first class, equally divided 
between the sexes. 

For the year 1865, the last year of Mr. Eathbone's incum- 
bency, and the first year of the county superintendency, the prin- 
cipal school statistics were as follows: There were 56 districts 
and 54 schools, in 48 of which there had been over six months' 
school. The whole number of white persons between six and 
twenty-one was 3,104, with no returns from the three half town- 
ships, and the number of colored children between six and twen- 
ty-one was 14. The entire number of scholars in attendance 
upon the public schools was 3,237. The number of schoolhouses 
was 52, four of which had been erected during the year. The num- 
ber of male teachers was 44, of females, 17, and the entire 
amount of wages paid to teachers was $8,993,75. 

Frederick F. Johnson became county superintendent in 1865, 
and made his first report in 1866. Forty-four teachers' certifi- 
cates were issued, eight of which were of the first grade. In 1868 
there were 57 issued, 16 of which were of the first grade- 
In 1870 the compensation for the county superintendent was 
$755.35, though for many subsequent years it has been much 
less. In that year there were two graded schools in the county; 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 237 

one in Township 8, Kange 6, the other in Township 9, Kange 6. 
There were there then 39 log schoolhouses, 18 frame ones and 
three brick. There were then 62 public schools, with 3,409 schol- 
ars; 1,843 males, and 1,566 females. The number of teachers 
was 74 — 64 males and 10 females — and the entire amount of 
wages paid them was $14,893.11. The value of school property- 
was $36,650.10. 

B. F. Hall became county superintendent of schools in 1873, 
and made his first report in 1874. In 1875 the amount paid for 
the erection of new schoolhouses was $2,225.86. There were 64 
schools in operation, and there were employed in them, 72 teach- 
ers — males 61, females 11 — who received for their wages, 
$14,525.55. There was then one graded school and one private 
school, the latter having 38 pupils. 

W. S. Blackman became superintendent in 1877, and re- 
ma,ined in office until 1881, making his last report for the year 
ending June 30, 1881. According to that report there were 68 
school districts, in each of which there was more than five months' 
school. There were then two graded schools, one in Town- 
ship 8, Range 5, the other in Township 8, Range 7. The num- 
ber of pupils in the graded school was males, 101; females, 107; 
and in the ungraded schools, males, 2,209; females, 1,793. The 
entire number of teachers was 79 — males, 67; females 12. 
Five schoolhouses were built during the year, and there were then 
4 of brick, 48 frame and 18 log ones. The male teachers in the 
ungraded schools received for their labors, $13,083.09; the 
females $711.15, while the male teachers in the graded schools 
received $675.78, and the females $127.30. The total amount 
paid out to teachers was thus $14,597.32. The value of school 
property was estimated at $32,952. 

George B. Parsons was elected superintendent of schools in 
1881 and remained in office until 1886, when he was succeeded 
by the present superintendent, James E. Jobe. The progress 



238 SALINE COUNTY. 

made in the schools, during the five years under Mr. Parsons, is 
shown by comparing his last report by the last made by Mr. 
Blackman. In 1886 the number of public schools had become 
72, four of which were graded. The enumeration was as follows: 
Persons in the county under twenty-one — males, 5,202; females, 
5,040. Scholars between six and twenty-one — males, 3,437; 
females, 3,246, The numbers enrolled in the graded schools were 
males, 435; females, 402; in the ungraded schools — males, 2,266; 
females, 1,959. The teachers in the graded schools numbered — 
males, 5; females, 9; in the ungraded schools — males, 66; females, 
8. The money paid to teachers in the graded schools amounted 
to, for the males, $1,732.45; females, 1,838.64; in the ungraded 
schools — males, $13,547.04; females, $1,264.75. There were 5 
brick schoolhouses, 60 frame and 7 log ones, and the school prop- 
erty was valued at $44,125.60. This is the summary of the most 
important facts exhibited by the last report of the county super- 
intendent. 

The means employed by the teachers of the county to increase 
and improve their qualifications for the performance of their im- 
portant duties, have been teachers' institutes and teachers' asso- 
ciations. The first institute held in the county was on Monday, 
April 2, 1886, at Harrisburg, and was conducted by J. E. Cheat- 
ham. About eight teachers were present. Dr. Z. M. Boyle 
lectured on "Education," and William Christy on "Teachers' 
Institutes." Considerable interest was manifested in this insti- 
tute because it was the first ever held in the county. The second 
was held during the Christmas holidays of the same year. The 
third was held October 1, 1867, at Harrisburg, and was conducted 
by the superintendent, Frederick F. Johnson. The fourth was at 
Harrisburg, commencing Monday, December 28, 1868, and last- 
ing three days, and was conducted by H. H. Harris, who con- 
ducted the next at Raleigh, commencing Monday, April 19, 1869. 
The sixth was held at Harrisburg, commencing Monday, Septem- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 239 

ber 20, 1869, lasting five days, and the seventh at Ealeigh, com- 
mencing Monday, December 6, 1869, and lasting also five days. 
The instructors at these two institutes were Prof. Loomis, of Har- 
risburg; H. H. Harris, of Raleigh, and Prof. Head, of Equality. 
During the year ending September 30, 1875, there was one in- 
stitute held, lasting five days, at which seventy-seven persons 
were present, and at which five lectures were delivered. In 1877 
there were three institutes, lasting twelve days in all. In 1878 
there were two institutes, one conducted by the county superin- 
tendent, the other by some other person. About thirty persons 
were in attendance, as it was the " bissy " season and bad weather, 
and up to that time the county had appropriated nothing for 
institutes. In 1881 there was one institute, at which thirty 
teachers were in attendance, and five public lectures were de- 
livered. In 1882 there were two institutes lasting twelve days, 
and twenty different teachers were present. In 1883 there was 
one institute at which there were present seventeen teachers, and 
two public lectures were delivered. In 1884 there was one insti- 
tute with thirty teachers in attendance; in 1885 there was one at 
which there were present fifty-five teachers, and in 1886 there 
was one institute at which there were present eighty-six persons. 
The first report of any " institute fund " was made in 1884, 
in which year there were two reports, one covering the period 
from July 1, 1883, to June 30, 1884, and the other covering the 
two months, July and August, 1884. The summary of the two 
reports was as follows: 

Amount received for first grade certificates from men.. .|11 00 
Amount " " " " " women 3 00 
Amount " for second grade certificates from men. 68 00 
Amount " " " " " " women 18 00 
Registration fees from others than teachers 17 00 

Total amount received $117 00 

Paid out for instruction $ 93 50 

Paid out for incidental expenses 23 50 

Total amount paid out $117 00 



240 SALINE COUNTY. 

The school at Bolton is graded, and is taught by J. C. B. 
Smith as principal, and J. K. Youngblood as assistant. The 
former has been engaged there three years, and is a graduate of 
the Southern Illinois Normal School. 

The school at Harrisburg was graded in 1863, being then 
divided into two grades. Since that time the principals of the 
school have been Mrs. W. E. Wiggs, 1863; H. Dulaney, 1864; 
Sada Pim, 1865; R. J. Hunt, 1866; B. C. Sewell, three months, 
1867; C. H. Lewis, three months, 1867; J. M. G. Carter, 1868; 
vacancy in the records; R. S. Marsh, 1876; records again at 
fault; W. I. Davis, 1880; A. W. Lewis, 1881; J. B. Ford, 1882 
and 1883; N. Hodsdon, 1884 and 1885; D. E. AVebb, 1886, present 
principal. The school is now divided into six grades, the highest 
being the regular grammar grade. 

The present necessities of the schools, it is believed by those 
most competent to judge, and the most deeply interested in their 
success, are the township system of school government and better 
qualified teachers. The township system would place all the 
schools in any congressional township under the management 
and control of three of the most intelligent men in the township, 
and thus result in abler and more uniform direction. Better 
teachers can be secured only by paying higher wages to those 
who present the highest grade certificates, and those thus em- 
ployed would be all the better able to still increase their abilities to 
perform their most responsible duties, in such manner as to com- 
mand the respect to which their noble profession entitles them. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 241 



HAMILTON COUNTY. 

HAMILTON COUNTY is situated in the southeastern por- 
tion of Illinois and is bounded on the north by Wayne 
County, on the east by White County, on the south by Saline 
County and on the west by Franklin and Jefferson Counties. It 
is in the form of a rectangular parallelogram, and is twenty-four 
miles from north to south and eighteen miles from east to west, 
thus containing 432 square miles or 276,480 acres. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

The surface of this county is generally rolling, and, with the 
exception of two or three small prairies, was originally covered 
mainly with timber. There are no streams of any considerable 
size in the county, the largest being the North Fork of the Saline 
Kiver, which has its origin in Section 8, Township 6, Range 7 
east, at the junction of Wheeler's Creek and Lake Creek, and runs 
southerly into Saline County. In the southwest portion is 
Rector Creek and in the west is Macedonia Creek, in the north 
are Auxier and Haw Creeks, the latter being a brauch of Skillet 
Fork, which intersects the extreme northeast corner of the 
county. A glance at the map shows that all these streams have 
their origin within the limits of the county and run to the four 
points of the compass, thus indicating that Hamilton County is 
more elevated than any of its immediate neighbors. The alluvial 
deposits are confined to the valleys of the small streams, and are 
generally less than a mile in width. The drift deposits in the 
uplands vary from ten to thirty feet in thickness, and consist of 
buff and yellow, gravelly clay, with small boulders interspersed 
from a few inches to a foot or more in diameter. Beneatb this 



242 . HAMILTON COUNTY. 

gravelly clay and hard pan of the drift are sometimes found 
stems and branches of trees in the ancient soil in which they 
grew. 



The rocks of this county belong to the upper coal measures, 
ranging from Coal No. 10 to No. 13, the rock strata being from 
150 to 200 feet in thickness, but the coal is seldom thick enough 
to work. In early days the coal on Hogg Prairie was worked to 
some extent by stripping to supply the blacksmiths, but upon 
opening up the thicker veins in Saline County, the work in 
Hamilton County was abandoned. Beneath this coal is a layer 
of limestone from thirty to forty feet in thickness. This is a 
fine, grained, grayish rock, turns yellowish drab upon exposure, 
and when burned yields a strong, dark colored lime. Sandstone 
is quarried southwest of McLeansboro for building purposes. 
It dresses easily and hardens on exposure. Clay suitable for 
brickmaking is abundant in every locality, as is also sand for 
mortar and cement. There are a few mineral springs in the 
county, one a mile and a half east of McLeansboro, one north of, 
and one in McLeansboro. 



Alluvium bottoms of various widths exist all along the main 
branch of North Fork and on some of the smaller streams. Here 
the soil is very rich, usually a sandy loam. The prairies are 
small and occupy the highlands between the sources of the 
streams. The soil is of medium quality and produces fair crops 
of oats, wheat, corn, grass, etc. The oak ridges have a thin soil 
with a stiff clay subsoil and require artificial stimulus or the 
plowing in of green crops to retain their productive qualities. 
Generally speaking this county compares favorably with other 
portions of southeastern Illinois. 



HISTOKY or ILLINOIS. 243 

LOCAL NAMES. 

It may be of interest to many to know that Rector Creek was 
so named from the fact that John Kector was killed near or in 
this creek by Indians, while engaged in the original survey of 
the country in 1805. The following entry on the field book of 
Saline County has reference to this murder: 

" John Eector died May 25, 1805, at the section corner of 
Sections 21, 22, 27 and 28 ; buried from this corner, south 62°, 
west 72 poles, small stone monument, stone quarry northwest, 
150 yards." This was in Township 7, Range 7. 

Moore's Prairie was so named from a man named Moore whose 
Christian name can not now be recalled, but who was killed by 
Indians. The same is the case as to Knight's Prairie. Hogg 
Prairie was named after the father of Samuel Hogg. Eel's 
Prairie is said to have been named after Eli Waller, though the 
connection is not obvious. Beaver Creek was named from the 
presence of large numbers of beavers in and near the creek. 
Allen Precinct was named after a Mr. Allen, it is now Twigg 
Township named after James Twigg. Griswold Precinct was 
named after Gilbert Griswold, it is now Flannigan Township 
named after a Mr. Flannigan. Shelton Precinct was named 
after Joseph Shelton, Crouch Precinct after Adam Crouch, and 
Mayberry Precinct after Frederick Mayberry. 

SETTLEMENT. 

It is not easy to state with certainty who was the first settler 
within the present limits of Hamilton County, but the following 
are among the names of the early settlers: David Upton, who lo- 
cated about six miles southwest of the present town of McLeans- 
boro, in 1816, on what is known as Knight's Prairie. Charles 
Heard came in a few weeks later from Rutherford County, Tenn., 
near Stone River, and purchased the improvements of David Up- 
ton, consisting mainly of a small log cabin. Mr. Heard brought 



244 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

with him his wife and five children — James M., John H., Charles 
H., Elizabeth and Polly. Other early settlers were John Bishop, 
John Hardister, William Hungate (the latter having a family of 
four or five children), Jacob CofPman, Gilbert Griswold, Samuel 
Hogg, John Townsend, Jacob Braden, Abrain Irvin ; John School- 
craft and his four sons, James, John, Hezekiah and Almon, and 
three daughters, Nancy, Margaret and Susan ; William Christ- 
opher, and Jesse Hardister; John Daily and his family of six 
sons and four daughters, viz. : Anderson, William, Vincent, John, 
Levi and Harvey, and Nancy, Jensie, Mary and Elizabeth 
(Nancy married Benjamin Hood, Jensie married Daniel Tolley, 
Mary married Job Standerfer, and Elizabeth married John Bond) ; 
Frederick Mayberry and his sons, Frederick, Jacob, George and 
Solomon; Samuel Biggerstaff and his sons, Hiram, Wesley and 
Alfred; William Hopson and Jesse Hopson, brothers; Eichard 
Smith and his sons, Samuel and John B. Smith; AVilliam B. Mc- 
Lean, brother of John McLean, of Shawneetown ; Freeman Mc- 
Kinney, brother-in-law of William B. McLean; Thomas Smith 
and Randolph Smith, each with a large family; Townsend Tarl- 
ton, one of the members of the first county commissioners' court ; 
Robert Witt ; Richard Lock and his sons, John, Jonas, William and 
Samuel; Mastin Bond, father of John Bond; Andrew Vance and 
family ; Adam Crouch ; John Buck, son of Frederick Buck, of Gal- 
latin County, and his sons, John and William; John Ray, John, 
James, Caleb and Matthew Ellis; Jesse C. LockAvood, brother of 
Judge Lockwood, of the Hlinois Supreme Court; Chester Carpen- 
ter, a Baptist preacher, and his son, Milton Carpenter, also a Bap- 
tist preacher, and afterward State treasurer ; Dr. Lorenzo Rathbone, 
and John Anderson, whose daughter married Dr. Rathbone ; Ga- 
briel and Edmund Warner : A. T. Sullenger, John Willis, Merrill 
Willis, Hardy C. Willis, Elijah Burriss; John Moore, father of 
Mrs. Charles Heard, and his sons, James, Alfred and Green ; Levi 
Wooldridge, in the southeastern part of the couutv, and John 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 247 

Wooldridge, near the present site of Hoodville; Job Standerfer, 
William Denny and James Lane, Sr., the latter coming into the 
county in 1818, from Sumner County, Tenn., with his family, 
consisting of his wife and sons, William, Leaven, Thomas, James, 
Jr., (afterward county judge), and L. B. Lane and daughters, Sa- 
die, Lavina, Elizabeth and Mary. Lewis Lane, another son of 
James Lane, Sr., came at the same time as the head of a family, 
bringing his wife, Mary, and two children, Joel P., and Eliza 
(who is now living as the widow of Lewis Prince, her second hus- 
band, the first having been a Mr. Biggerstaff. ) Mr. Grimes 
and his sons William and "Don," came in 1818, probably from 
Kentucky. John Biggerstaff, a brother of Samuel, was also an 
old settler, and a Mr. Billings and his sons, Henry and Wil- 
liam, came in 1817. Kobert Wilson, with his wife and daughter 
Eliza, came from Kentucky. William Allen and his sons, John 
and Jacob, and Thomas Garrison were also early pioneers. Some 
of those who settled in the northeast part of the county in early 
days were Mr. Rador, Adam Thompson and sons, William Por- 
ter, Hiram and Eli York (brothers from Kentucky), Thomas 
White and sons, Hugh and Thomas ; James Hopson, John Palmer, 
Michael Smithpeter; Langston Drew and his sons, John and Wil- 
liam, and daughters, Elizabeth, Frances and Nancy; Samuel 
Martin and wife and two sons, and two daughters, Lewis Thomas 
with his wife and two daughters, from White County, Tenn., Hiram 
Thomas, wife, and sons, and Mrs. Lewis F. Peter and Samuel, and 
two or three daughters, John Davis, Jesse Moore, from Tennessee, 
with his wife and four sons and four daughters; a Mr. Sexton 
and his son Harvey, Edward and William Compton, and LeAvis 
Thompson (who married a Sexton, and became very wealthy). In 
the southern part of the county were James Twigg, who came in 
1822, from Rutherford County, Tenn., after whom Twigg Town- 
ship was named, and who is still living at the age of eighty-three; 
Henry Hardister came as a young man; John Burnett and fam- 



248 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

ily, Isaac Johnson with a large family; Robert Johnson and his 
sons, John L. and G. W. ; Samuel Wilson and Charles and three 
daughters; Jacob Braden, in 1819, with five or sis sons; Jesse C. 
Lockwood, Charles Phelps, Gilbert Griswold; Richard Wal- 
ler, with wife, three sons and three daughters; John Smith with 
wife, three sons and three daughters ; John Douglass, from Ten- 
nessee, with wife and sons, James, Hezekiah and Hugh, and 
three or four daughters; " Hal" Webb, David Keazler; John and 
John S. Davis, from South Carolina; Mr. Young, with his wife; 
Hugh Gregg; Samuel Flannigan, with a large family; Uriah 
Odell and two brothers, and William, Charles and Christopher 
Hungate. Some of those in the vicinity of Knight's Prairie 
were Robert Page, from South Carolina, with three sons and some 
daughters, Capt. Hosea Vise and Nathaniel Harrison; Nimrod 
Shirley, with a large family; John Hall, grandfather of the pres- 
ent lawyer, John C. Hall, of McLeansboro; Richard Mauldiug, 
William James; William Lane, wife, two sons and three daugh- 
ters; Lewis Lane, grandfatherof Gov. Henry Warmoth, of Louis- 
iana, who was born in McLeansboro about the year 18-40; Mar- 
tin Kountz, John Griffey, John Shaddock; Robert Clark, wife, 
three sons and three daughters ; Thomas, Hiram and John Barker, 
from Kentucky; Samuel Beach, who afterward moved to Wayne 
County; William Hall, father of the present sheriff of the county; 
Elijah, John, William and Robert Kimsey, each with a large 
family; Jeremiah McNimmer, William P. Procter, David 
Procter, Reuben Procter, Isaac McBrown, and Hazel, Calvin, 
John, Henderson and Robert McBrown, Joseph Shelton, Nathan 
Garrison ; Mr. StuU, wife and son James, who is still living ; 
William Stearman, Martin Stearman, Mr. Lowery and son John 
Lowry, Elliott W. and Young S. Lowery, all from Tennessee; 
Hazel Cross and family. Pleasant Cross and family, Mr. White- 
well and family, Isaac Going and family; Thomas Burton and 
family, consisting of wife, four sons and five daughters; Reu- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 249 

ben Oglesby ; William Johnson, wife and two sons, Jesse and Eli ; 
Ephraim and Thomas Gates, both with families ; Philip Bearden 
and family ; a portion of the above in the northwest part of the 
county. Samuel McCoy and O. L. Cannon, from Ohio, settled in 
the vicinity of the present Dahlgren, and also Henry Kunyon and 
George Irvin, in 1822, in the same part of the county. A. M. 
Auxier settled in the northern part of the county, or in Wayne 
County. Auxier's Creek and Auxier's Prairie were named after 
him. His son, Benjamin Auxier is well remembered from a dif- 
ficulty he had with a man named Grant, occasioned by jealousy 
of the latter with reference to some wo man whose name is not to 
appear in this history. In connection with the affair Grant swore 
he would kill Auxier, and Auxier, wishing neither to be killed 
nor to kill Grant, caught him in the woods, bound him to a log 
with a strong withe across his neck, and put out both of his eyes. 
Crouch Township was named after Adam Crouch. In this 
township were the following as early pioneers: William Ellis, 
William Bowls, wife and three or four sons, John Warfield, wife 
and three sons and three or four daughters, all from Kentucky ; 
Jarrett Trammell, wife and sons, Nicholas and Philip; Francis 
Lasley, Phelan Woodruff, Charles Crissell, David Garrison, Sr., 
Abram Peer, Samuel Close and family, James Hall, Charles 
Tarter, Bobert Van Devener, Samuel Deets (first tailor in Mc- 
Leansboro), who came from Logan County, Ky. ; John Irvin 
(first hatter in McLeansboro) ; John White and family, from 
Tennessee; George Saltsman and family, Martin Sims, James 
Hunter, James and David Barnes ; Mr. Lakey, who lived on the 
"Jones tract," after whom Lakey' s Creek was named, and who 
was killed by his son-in-law; Moses and Abraham Hudson, An- 
drew Peck, Mason Morris, Edward Gatlin and Lofty Nichols 
(the latter lived near McLeansboro), William Vickers, Samuel 
Crouse, James Hughes, Thomas Howard, and several others 
whose names can not now be ascertained. The first white settler 



250 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

whoever he was, has left no posterity to perpetuate his name. 
George McKenzie is said to have settled here about 1810. 

Mastin Bond has been mentioned above as one of the ancient 
pioneers. His son, Richard Bond, related to Thompson B. Stelle 
the following incident relative to "Indian Charley," the last of 
the Shawnee Indians to leave the happy hunting grounds of this 
county. This Shawnee was a "medicine man" of great reputa- 
tion among his race. He lived on Opossum Creek, near Joseph 
Coker's farm, where he remained until 1823, about one year after 
his wife had gone away. He said he felt sad to leave his happy 
hunting grounds and the graves of his fathers, but that he be- 
lieved the Great Spirit had given the country to the " pale face," 
and he was, in that view of it, content to go. On the day before 
his departure he told Mastin Bond and John Dale of a great 
secret. There was a small herb growing in their midst that 
would ruin the country some day if it were not destroyed. There 
was a small patch of it in Eel's Prairie, on Big Creek, and one 
near Auxier's Pond, on Auxier's Creek. The noxious weed was 
known to all the Indian doctors, but its ravages had not then com- 
menced ; so the old pioneers lost an opportunity to know and to 
destroy the deadly "Milk Sick." 

The only other Indian story for which there is space in this 
sketch is one told in a short history of pioneer life in Hamilton 
County, by William Bryant. He says: "We left Mr. Ivy's place 
this morning, January 1, 1810," but he does not tell us where 
Mr. Ivy's place was. Prior, to leaving, however, there was a 
general hand-shaking all around, and the best wishes were be- 
stowed upon all. The squaw then put in. Drawing a couple of 
French pipes from her bosom, she filled them both with the dried 
leaves of the sumac, then lighted each with a live coal. She put 
the stem of one in her mouth, drew three whiffs of smoke and 
handed the other to Mr. Ivy, raising three of her fingers near his 
face saying, "Good heart, smoke." When he had taken three 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 251 

draws she lowered her lingers, took hold of his pipe and handed 
it to Mr. Bryant's uncle, going through the same performance, 
then offered the pipes to the married ladies, and so continued to 
all the company, but for the young people she filled the pipe with 
the pulverized leaves of the plant known as "Adam and Eve." 

There was a young couple present who wanied to get married 
and the squaw performed the ceremony in the following manner: 
Filling two pipes she handed one to each of the couple, and when 
each had taken three draws she had them change pipes and smoke 
them empty. She then laid both pipes on the ground, side by 
side and declared the couple man and wife. A grand march 
then followed with the squaw in the lead uttering tremendous 
yells. 

It was stated above that the first white settler in Hamilton 
County, whoever he was, left no posterity to keep his name alive 
after his demise. This was not, however, by any means gener- 
ally the case with the pioneers. Judge Thompson B. Stelle, in 
his historical sketch of the county elsewhere quoted from says: 

Our good old grandfathers were always proud when the day would come 
that they like Jacob of old could name their twelfth son Benjamin. This is 
illustrated by the story about the good old matron who when asked by a friend, 
how many children she had, replied that indeed she did not know, that she and 
the old man kept count until they had a dozen whopping boys and girls, but 
that since then they had paid no attention to the matter. 

In another place Judge Stelle says in substance: The mode 

of living in pioneer times was much different from what it is at 

the present time. Meal was made in a " hominy mortar," a 

block of wood with a hole burnt in one side into which they put 

the corn and crushed it with a pestal attached to a spring pole. 

After separating the coarse from the fine, the former was called 

hominy, and the latter fine meal. The fine meal was baked into 

bread for breakfast and the hominy boiled for dinner. The 

separation of the hominy from the fine meal was effected by 

means of a buckskin sieve, a piece of backskin stretched over a 

hoop, with holes punched through it with an awl. The common 



252 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

varieties of corn bread were " hoe cakes," " Johnny cakes," and 
" dodgers." A dodger was cooked by being roasted in hot ashes, 
a Johnny cake by placing the dough on a board near the fire, 
and when cooked on one side turned over and cooked on the 
other, and a hoe cake was cooked by placing the dough on a hoe 
which was placed on the fire and heated. The main reliance for 
flesh food was bear meat and venison. 

Buckskin was the most common article used in making 
wearing apparel. Buckskin " breeches " were usually worn by 
the men, and buckskin dresses by the women. Their natural 
charms were not set off, as are those of the young ladies of the 
present day by yard upon yard of ribbons, laces and flounces, 
and it is said of the pioneer women that they were courted as 
assiduously and as honestly, and were withal far more sensible 
than are their fair granddaughters, for they did not then court 
for pastime. 

Following is a list of the land entries made previous to the 
organization of the county, February 8, 1821 : 

In 1815 — John B. Stovall, February 13, the northwest quarter 
of Section 11, Township 7, Range 7, and William Watson, Novem- 
ber 7, the northwest quarter of Section 13, Township 7, Range 7. 

In 1816 — John Townsend, November 15, the northwest quar- 
ter of Section 31, Township 5, Range 6; William Hungate,* 
the southeast quarter of Section 15, Township 5, Range 5; John B. 
Stovall, November 19, the southeast quarter of Section 23, Town- 
ship 6, Range 7, and on December 28, the northwest quarter of 
Section 12, Township 7, Range 7. 

In 1817 — John Stone, January 31, the southwest quarter of 
Section 24, Township 6, Range 7 ; Ambrose Maulding, the east 
half of the northeast quarter of Section 13, Township 5, Range 
5, and W. Buck and A. Crouch, November 24, the southeast quar- 
ter of Section 28, Township 3, Range 6; William Wheeler, July 

*This name is spelled Hengate on the land entry bo®k, but old settlers and others eay It 
should be Hungate. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 253 

17, the west half of the northwest quarter of Section 20, Town- 
ship 5, Eange 7. 

In 1818 — Frederick Mayberry, January 3, the east half of the 
southeast quarter of Section 11, Township 7, Kange 7; Moses 
Shirley, February 13, the west half of the southeast quarter of 
Section 18, Township 5, Range 6; John Dale, the west half of 
the southwest quarter of Section 18, Township 5, Range 6; 
Samuel Hogg, February 19, the west half of the northeast quar- 
ter of Section 31, Township 5, Range 6; John Hardisty, March 
23, the west half of the northeast quarter of Section 35, Township 
5, Range 5 ; John Tanner, April 20, the east half of the northeast 
quarter of Section 1, Township 5, Range 7 ; Michael Jones, May 
5, the east half of the northwest quarter of Section 23, Township 5, 
Range 6; Thomas Sloo, Jr., May 11, the southwest quarter of 
Section 7, Township 5, Range 6 ; May 20, the northwest quarter 
of Section 3, Township 5, Range 6; the northeast quarter and the 
northwest quarter of Section 4, Township 5, Range 6 ; May 30, 
the southeast quarter of Section 33, Township 4, Range 6, and 
the west half of the southwest quarter of Section 34, Township 
4, Range 6 ; Martin Bond, May 20, the southwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 33, Township 4, Range 6; William Hungate; July 23, east 
half of the southwest quarter of Section 23, Township 5, Range 
5 ; Ralph Hatch, August 6, the west half of the northeast quar- 
ter of Section 18, Township 5, Range 6; Warner Buck, Jr., 
August 20, the east half of the southwest quarter of Section — , 
Township 3, Range 6 ; Eli Waller, August 21, the west half of 
the southwest quarter of Section — , Township 3, Range 6 ; Will- 
iam B. McLean, September 9, the northwest quarter of Section 
15, Township 5, Range 6, and W^illiam Wilson, the northwest 
quarter of Section 28, Township 5, Range 6; George Crissell, 
September 15, the southeast quarter of Section 4, Township 5, 
Range 6 ; John Marshall, September 21, the southeast quarter 
of Section 10, Township 5, Range 6; the southwest quarter of Sec- 



254 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

tion 11, Township 5, Range 6 ; the northwest quarter of Section 14, 
Township 5, Range 6, and the northeast quarter of Section 15, 
Township 5, Range 6 ; Henry B. Brockway, November 5, the south- 
west quarter of Section 19, Township 3, Range 7 ; November 13, 
the northwest quarter of Section 19, Township 3, Range 7; the 
northeast and the southeast quarters of Section 24, Township 3, 
Range 6; Gilbert Griswoki, November 19, the west half of the 
southwest quarter of Section 4, Township 7, Range 6 ; William 
Wheeler, November 13, the east half of the southwest quarter of 
Section 19, Township 5, Range 7 ; Merrill Willis, November 16, 
the west half of the northeast quarter of Section 19, Township 5, 
Range 7 ; Hiram Greathouse, the west half of the northeast quar- 
ter of Section 11, Township 7, Range 7; Warner Buck, Decem- 
ber 14, the west half of the northwest quarter of Section — , 
Township 3, Range 6; and Hardy Gatlin, December 14, the east 
half of the southeast quarter of Section 14, Township 5, Range 
6 ; Abner Lamden, September 9, the southeast quarter of Section 
36, Township 5, Range 7. 

In 1819 — William Hardisty, January 27, the east half of the 
southwest quarter of Section 35, Township 6, Range 7 ; Jesse 
Hiatt, February 4, the west half of the southwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 28, Township 5, Range 7; Samuel Garrison, February 17, 
the west half of the southeast quarter of Section 29, Township 3, 
Range 6; Daniel Powell, the southeast quarter of Section 25, 
Township 6, Range 7 ; John Winson, March 1, the west half of 
the northeast quarter of Section 12, Township 7, Range 6; 
Enness Maulding, April 3, the west half of the northwest quarter 
of Section 12, Township 5, Range 5; William B. Anderson, May 
11, the southwest quarter of Section 1, Township 6, Range 7; 
Frederick Mayberry, May 27, the east half of the southwest 
quarter of Section 14, Township 6, Range 7 ; John Moore, June 
1, the west half of the southwest quarter of Section 35, Township 
5, Range 5; George M. Tubman, September 1, the southwest 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 255 

quarter of Section 15, Township 5, Range 6; Robert M. Porter, 
September 8, the east half of the northeast quarter of Section 13, 
Township 5, Range 7 ; Elisha Gordon, September 10, the west 
half of the southeast quarter of Section 6, Township 5, Range 7 ; 
and Robert Anderson, December 2, the west half of the southwest 
quarter of Section 13, Township 5, Range 6. 

In 1820 there was but one entry made, and that by Peleg 
Sweet, on January 5 ; the east half of the northeast quarter of 
Section 8, Township 7, Range 6; and in 1821 there were but two 
entries made, one by Christopher Hardisty, March 24, the east 
half of the northwest quarter of Section 36, Township 6, Range 
7, and the other by Lewis Green, on December 6, the east half of 
the northwest quarter of Section 24, Township 4, Range 6. 

The first deed recorded in the book of deeds was on the 8th 
of April, 1825. This deed was made April 8, 1823, by William 
Watson, and transferred the ownership of the northwest quarter 
of Section 13, Township 7, Range 7, 160 acres, from the maker to 
John B. Stovall for ^100. The second deed on the record was 
made April 25, 1823, by Samuel Hogg, and transferred the 
ownership of the northwest quarter of Section 21, Township 6, 
Range 6, 160 acres, to John Townsend for $600. The third was 
made by William B. McLean, June 18, 1823, to the commision- 
ers of Hamilton County, "for the use of the county commissioners 
of Hamilton County and their successors in office, of a certain 
tract or parcel of land, known and distinguished on a plat or map 
of the town of McLeansboro; said land being located, twenty 
acres of it, by the commissioners appointed by the General Assem- 
bly to locate the county seat of Hamilton County, said tract or 
parcel of land containing forty acres, surveyed by Thoms Sloo, 
Jr., and return made of the same to the county commissioners' 
court of said county, and also lies in the lands sold at the Shaw- 
neetown District land office, being and lying on the northwest 
quarter of Section 15, Township 5, Range 6." The consideration 



256 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

in this case was mentioned as $1,000. A number of deeds then 
follow, made by the county commissioners' court, June 19, 1823, 
of lots in the town of McLeansboro, sold the day previous to vari- 
ous individuals, for a partial list of which see the history of 
McLeansboro. 

When these settlers began to come into the county, the coun- 
try was, as was stated in the description thereof, mostly covered 
with timber. Log cabins were the first residences, and their 
occupants had to go to Carmi for bread. The ever ready rifle or 
shotgun easily supplied them with a sufl&cient variety of meat — 
wild turkey, squirrels, bear, deer, as well as other kinds of game. 
The woods were also full of animals which would not serve as 
food, as wolves, against the ravages of which, as soon as domestic 
animals were introduced, it was necessary to furnish protection in 
the form of high rail fences, staked and ridered, for a wolf is not 
much more agile in the climbing of a high fence than a dog. 
There were also plenty of foxes, panthers and catamounts to prey 
upon the pigs and sheep. Upon dressing hogs it was customary 
to go to Gallatin County, near Equality, for salt, carrying it home 
on horseback. Then there was plenty of range, plenty of mast, 
so that horses, cattle, sheep and hogs were kept without expense. 
When crops began to be cultivated, there were no insects to 
wholly or partially destroy them, and previous to 1854, no 
drought of any consequence occurred. Crops were uniformly a 
success. It could then truly be said, " Whatsoever a man soweth 
that shall he also reap," and of this every man felt sure. The 
chinch-bug or weevil had not immigrated so far toward the west ; 
he was doubtless waiting until fully assured of the certainty of 
sustenance, and did not appear until the year 1862 or 1863, as 
nearly as can be ascertained ; hog cholera, though, arrived about 
ten or twelve years before. The people themselves were scarcely 
ever known to be sick much less to die.. Chills and fever were 
almost the only complaint, and for these the almost unfailing 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 257 

remedies, wahoo or Indian arrow-root, and wafer-ash, a small 
shrub, put into whisky, were always at hand to cure. The indus- 
tries, however, were but insufficiently represented. Blacksmiths 
were so scarce that many of the settlers were compelled to travel 
a distance of from four to five miles to have tempered, mended 
or repaired, a hoe, an ax or plow, and these implements were all 
home made, and that by artisans possessing little skill. From 
this and other causes, agriculture was also very rude; but for this 
primitive condition of agriculture and of the arts, nature made 
ample compensation by the above-mentioned absence of the ene- 
mies of crops and the bountiful productiveness of the soil. The 
yield of corn was usually from thirty to forty bushels to the acre. 
Rye, oats and hay were always certain. As the necessity for con- 
verting wheat into flour and corn into meal increased, horse mills 
and hand mills began to find their way into the county, the stones 
for which were quarried and dressed from the abundant millstone 
grit within the limits of the county. One of these mills had an 
excellent local reputation; Storey's Mill made as good wheat flour 
as could then anywhere be found. Some of the little corn crack- 
ers propelled by water-power are said to have been very industri- 
ous — they no sooner finished grinding one kernel of corn than 
they commenced upon another right away. But notwithstanding 
the small capacity of the early mills, the people managed 
to survive. There were not so many of them then as 
now, and as their numbers increased, their necessities and their 
facilities increased, at least, with equal pace. The first steam 
grist or flouring-mill, it is believed, was introduced in 1850, 
being built at McLeansboro, by Henry Wright. The second was 
by Jeptha Judd, and the third, a steam saw mill as well as 
flouring-mill, by a Mr. Wheeler. At first the " bar share plow " 
was the only one employed; then came the "Carey plow," the 
mold-board of which was about one-half wood, the other half of 
iron or steel, and at length the "diamond plow," a great improve- 



258 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

ment, invented by James Lane, for many years county judge, 
which served a useful purpose and which has been compelled to 
succumb only within the past few years, in fact some of them 
may be seen even unto this day. The wheat was for a long time 
threshed with flails or tread out with horses or with oxen upon 
the the threshing floor, and winnowed with a riddle and a sheet. 
Fanning-mills were looked upon as a great advance, and thresh- 
ing machines of the " ground-hog " style still a greater, which 
came in about 1857 or 1858. Later still, and still a great 
advance, came the separator and threshing machine combined, 
and finally horses were, for the most part, supplanted by untiring 
steam. Beyond this it seems undesirable and impossible to go. 
Though all gladly accept the improved and improving facilities 
which civilization brings, yet many, especially of the lingering 
pioneers, sincerely regret the change fro m the Arcadian simplic- 
ity of the pioneer life, to the greater complexity and heteroge- 
neousness, to the more cold, callous and stilted vanity and selfish- 
ness of the present day. Then all were upon the same plane, all 
were sympathetic, all were helpful; none knew what it was to 
want for friendship, for assistance and encouragement and atten- 
tion, whether in health or in distress ; all were neighbors, even 
to distances of ten or twelve miles away. Classes and castes 
founded upon wealth instead of upon worth, were then unknown, 
or the rare exception to the rule. 

OEGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY. 

An act forming a separate county out of the county of White, * 
was approved February 8, 1821, as follows: 

Section 1. Be it enacted, etc.. That all that tract of country within the 
following boundaries, to wit: Beginning at the southern line of Wayne County, 
on the line dividing Ranges 7 and 8 east, thence south with said range line to 
Gallatin County line; thence due west with said line eighteen miles to the 
eastern boundary of Franklin County; thence north to the Wayne County 
line, and thence east to the beginning, shall constitute a separate county to be 

♦White County was created December 9, 1816. 



HISTORY or ILLINOIS. 259 

called Hamilton; and for the purpose of fixing the permanent seat of justice 
therein the following persons are appointed commissioners, to wit: James Rat. 
cliff, Thomas F. Vaught, Joel Pace, Jesse B. Browne" and Samuel Leach, which 
said commissioners, or a majority of them (being duly sworn before some judge 
or justice of the peace in this State to faithfully take into view the convenience 
of the people and the eligibility of the place), shall meet on the first Tuesday in 
April next at the house of John Anderson, in said county, and proceed to exam- 
ine and determine on the place for the permanent seat of justice, and designate 
the same. 

Provided, the proprietor or proprietors of the land will give to the county, 
for the purpose of erecting public buildings, a quantity of land not less than 
twenty acres, to be laid out in lots and sold for that purpose, which place, fixed 
and determined upon, the said commissioners shall certify under their hands and 
seals and return the same to the next commissioners' court, in the county afore- 
said, which court shall cause an entry thereof to be made thereof in their books of 
record, and until the public buildings shall be erected, the courts shall be held 
at the house of John Anderson in said county. 

By the same act Hamilton County became a part of the Second 
Judicial Circuit. 

COUNTY OFFICEKS. 

Following are the names of the county court clerks: Jesse C. 
Lockwood, Daniel Marshall, John W. Marshall, Samuel A. Mar- 
tin, John W. Marshall (the second time), John J. Buck and 
John Judd, the present clerk. 

County Treasurers: Jesse C. Lockwood; Richard W. Smith; 
W. P. Sneed, 1857-59; Job Standerfer, 1859-61; John Bond, 
1861-63; E. W. Overstreet, 1865-67; Nathan Garrison, 1867-71; 
Thomas Anderson, 1871-73; John B. Standerfer, 1873-77; Joseph 
H. Upchurch, 1877-82; Leonard Bond, 1882-86, and John B. 
Standerfer, 1886 to present time. 

Circuit Court Clerks: Jesse C. Lockwood; J. P. Hardy; 
Joshua Shoemaker ; A. J. Alden ; G. W. Burton ; R. W, Towns • 
hend; S. S. Price, 1868-72; B. F. Gullic, a short time; Jonathan 
Starkey, 1872-76; Joshua Sneed, a few months, finished out 
Starkey'b term; B. F. Gullic, 1876-80; T. L. Lockhart, 1880-84; 
J. H. Upchurch, present clerk. 

Sheriffs: James Hall, Lewis Lane, Benjamin Hood, John 
Smith, William Maulding, Isaac Lasivell, James M. Lasater, 



260 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

John Bond, John A. Wilson, Milton Carpenter, E. M. Bowers, 
J. H. McDaniel, Jarrett Maulding, T. L. Lockhart, Mark Harper, 
John T. Barnett, J. M, Blades, John B. Standerfer, James 
Maulding and W. D. Crouch. 

Surveyors: Thomas Sloo, Jr., Enos T. Allen, Cloyd Crouch, 
Flavins J. Carpenter, John T. Anderson, John Webb, whose term 
was served ovit by his deputy, Andrew Laswell, John Judd and 
A. C. Barnett. 

State's attorneys: James Robinson, Thomas S. Casey and R. 
W. Townshend; County State's attorneys: L.J. Hale, John C. Ed- 
wards and Leonidas Walker, 

County superintendents of schools: Lorenzo Rathbone, Na- 
thaniel Harrelson, Hosea Vise, Leonidas Walker (during whose 
period of service the office was changed from school commissioner 
to county superintendent), George B. Robinson, John P. Stelle, 
R. G. Echols, Lafette Howard and Johnson H. Lane. 

CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTIONS, ETC. 

In the constitutional convention of 1847, Hamilton County 
was represented by James M. Lasater. In that of 18(32 Jeffer- 
son, Marion and Hamilton Counties were represented by H. K. 
S. Omelveny and T. B. Tanner. The constitution framed by this 
convention was rejected by the people. In the convention of 
1870, Wayne and Hamilton Counties were represented by Robert 
P. Hanna. Under the constitution of 1848, Hamilton County 
was in the Third Senatorial District with Jefferson, Wayne and 
Marion, and in the Sixth Representative District with the same 
counties. Under the apportionment of 1854, Hamilton County 
was in the Twenty -third Senatoral District with Williamson, 
Saline, Franklin and White, and in the Eighth Representative 
District with Jefferson and Marion. Under the apportionment 
of 1861, Hamilton was in the Second Senatorial District with 
Wabash, Edwards, Wayne, Clay, Richland, White and Lawrence, 



HISTOKY OF ILLINOIS. 261 

and in the Tenth Representative District with Wayne. Under 
the apportionment of 1870, Hamilton County was in the Second 
Senatorial District with Wabash, Edwards, Wayne, Clay, Rich- 
land, White and Lawrence, and in the Eleventh Representative 
District alone. Under the apportionment of 1872, Hamilton Coun- 
ty was in the Forty-sixth Senatorial District with Jefferson and 
White and in the same Representative District. 

MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATURE. 

Members of the State Senate from Hamilton County have 
been Thomas Sloo, Jr., of the Third General Assembly, 1822-24, 
and of the Fourth General Assembly, 1824-26 ; Ennis Maulding, 
of the Eighth General Assembly, 1832-34; Levin Lane of the 
Ninth General Assembly, 1834-36, and of the Tenth General 
Assembly 1836-38 ; Noah Johnson of the Eleventh General As- 
sembly 1838-40, and of the Twelfth General Assembly 1840-42; 
Robert A. D. Wilbanks, of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Gen- 
eral Assemblies, 1842-44 and 1844-46; William J. Stephenson, 
Fifteenth General Assembly 1846-48; J. B. Hardy, Sixteenth 
General Assembly, 1848-50; Hugh Gregg, Seventeenth General 
Assembly, 1850-52; and John C. Edwards of the Thirty-second 
and Thirty-third General Assemblies, 1880-82 and 1882-84. 

Members of the State House of Representatives from Hamil- 
ton County have been James Hall, 1826-30; John Davenport, 
1830-32; James Hall, 1832-34; Milton Carpenter 1834-42; 
William Brinkley, 1842-46; Noah Johnson, 1846-48; John A. 
Wilson, 1852-54 and 1856-58; JohQ McElvain, 1858-60; Cloyd 
Crouch, 1860-62; V. S. Benson, 1864-66; John Halley, 1868-70; 
Calvin Allen, 1870-72; Leonidas Walker and Robert Anderson, 
1872-74; Hiram W. Hall, 1874-76; Thomas Connelly, 1876-78; 
Charles M. Lyon, 1878-80; James R. Campbell, 1884 and 
1886-88. 

Samuel S. Marshall has been the only member of Congress 



262 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

from Hamilton County serving from 1855 to 1859, and from 
1865 to 1875, through seven Congresses, a period of fourteen 
years. 

ELECTION KETUENS. 

Having given above a tolerably complete list of the ofl&cers 
elected from Hamilton County, to local, State and National 
o£&ces, it is deemed sufficient now to present the vote of the 
different parties from time to time. In 1824 Henry Clay re- 
ceived three votes in this county, the immortal three casting them 
being Gilbert Griswold, Jesse E. Lockwood, and Charles Phelps. 
In 1828 these three and Abraham Isel thus voted. In 1836, 
Martin Van Buren, Democratic candidate for President, received 
265 votes, and William Henry Harrison, Whig candidate, 29. 
In 1840, William Henry Harrison received 126 votes to 557 cast 
for Van Buren. In 1844, James K. Polk received 373 votes and 
Henry Clay 125. In 1848 Lewis Cass received 478 votes and 
Zachary Taylor 125. In 1852, Franklin Pierce received 754 
votes and Winfield Scott 223. In 1856 James Buchanan received 
1,185 votes and Millard Fillmore 162, and John C. Fremont 9. 
In 1860, Stephen A. Douglas received 1,553 votes, Abraham 
Lincoln 102, and John Bell 99. In 1864, George B. McClellan 
received 1,145 votes and Abraham Lincoln 382. In 1868, Hora- 
tio Seymour received 1,284 and U. S. Grant 809. In 1872, 
Horace Greeley received 1,188 and U. S. Grant 875. In 1876, 
Samuel J. Tilden received 1,433 and E. B. Hayes 627. In 1880, 
Winfield S. Hancock received 1,760 and James A. Garfield 1,002, 
and J. B. Weaver 499. In 1884 Grover Cleveland received 
1,940 votes, James G. Blaine 1,316, Benjamin F. Butler 68, and 
John P. St. John 48— a total vote of 3,372. 

MILITARY HISTORY. 

Many of the citizens of Hamilton County have enlisted in the 
armies of their country. Following are the names of most of 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 263 

those who were soldiers iu the Black Hawk war: In 1832 there 
were two companies raised, Capt. James Hall commanded one, 
and Capt Arden Biggerstaff the other. Names o£ private soldiers 
were as follows: LeAvis Lane, Sneed White, Levin Lane, A. D. 
Grimes, Frederick Mayberry, William Gross, James M. Wilson, 
Elisha Everett, Elijah Everett, James Byrant, William Bryant, 
John Wheeler, Washington Wheeler, Jesse Moore, Samuel A. Mar- 
tin, Harvey Sexton, Adam Crouch, Samuel Mundy, Nicholas Tram- 
mell, Joseph Thorn asson, Wilce Williams, Joseph Shelton (who 
served as major part of the time), John Lowry, Jesse John- 
son, Milton Carpenter, Charles H. Heard, John H. Heard, Alfred 
Moore, Moses Shirley, Charles Hungate, Reuben Oglesby, 
William Fuller, James Schoolcraft and John Burnett. 

A large number w^ent to the Mexican war also in 18-16. One 
full company was raised in this county, commanded by Capt. J. 
P. Hardy; the first lieutenant was Charles Coker, second lieuten- 
ant, John J. Richey, and third lieutenant Warden Kountz. Fol- 
lowing are the names of most of the members of the company, 
which united with the Third Regiment under Col. Foreman: John 
Wright, B. F. Adams, Allen Lasater, William Gross, James 
Hughes, James Hardister, James Gibson, Daniel Gibson, Harri- 
son Mayberry and two of his brothers, John K. Shasteen, G. W, 
Burnett, Green Burnett, AVallace, Ewing and David Flannegan, 
Wesley W. Hall, Joseph H. Denny, William L. Stephens, James 
Lane, William Clark, John Frazier, John Mann, John McDaniel, 
Jacob Mayberry, Charles Atchinson, John C. Cross, James Ep- 
person, James Maulding, John Maulding, John B. Smith, S. H. 
T. Procter, Edward Trammell, Elijah Trammell, Elias Mundy, Cal- 
vin Shell, John Webb, John McBrowne, Dempsey Hood, Hiram 
Morris, Philip Trammell, James Lane, Jr., Joshua BiggerstafiP, 
John Durham, Jesse Johnson, Thomas Braden, and others whose 
names can not now be recalled. 

In the war of the Rebellion Hamilton County performed her 



264 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

full share of duty. Besides the numbers credited to her on her 
quotas considerable numbers of her citizens enlisted from other 
counties, which were offering large bounties, and thus those other 
counties received credit for soldiers who but for their preference 
in enlisting from bounty-paying counties Avould have swelled their 
own county's credit. However there was no draft in Hamilton 
County, and although there was much bitter feeling, much oppo- 
sition to the war, and numerous lodges of Knights of the Golden 
Circle organized within the county,having for their object resist- 
ance to the prosecution of an " unconstitutional war upon the 
South," yet at the present time numbers of those who participated 
in or sympathized with such movements, perceiving the incalcu- 
lable benefits resulting to the whole country from the suppression 
of the Eebellion, now deny that such movements and organizations 
meant anything but loyalty to the Government of the United 
States. 

The quota of Hamilton County for 1861 was 276; for 1862, 
189; under the call for 700,000 men, 276; under that for 500,000, 
206. The total quota prior to December 31, 1864 was 947, and 
the total credits, 1,216; the total quota prior to December 31, 
1865, was 1,293, and the total credits 1,226. In 1863 the first 
and second class enrollment was 1,226, and in 1864, 1,323. In 
1865 the number of persons subject to military duty was 1,431. 
It will be observed that Hamilton County fell behind her quota 
only 67. 

The men who entered the Union Army from Hamilton 
County were distributed among various regiments of infantry 
and cavalry. The history, in brief, of the Fortieth Regiment is 
here introduced: It was enlisted in the counties of Hamilton, 
Franklin, Wayne, White, Wabash, Marion, Fayette and Clay. On 
the 10th of August, 1861, the regiment, with ten companies, re- 
ported at Springfield, 111., and was mustered into the service of 
the United States for three years. The officers of the regiment 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. ' 265 

were then, Stephen G. Hicks, of Salem, Marion County, colonel; 
James W. Boothe, of Kinmundy, lieutenant-colonel; John B. 
Smith, of Hamilton County, major; Kigdon S. Barnhill, of Fair- 
field, adjutant; Albion F. Taylor, of Mt. Vernon, quartermaster; 
Richard Mussey, of Mt. Erie, chaplain. Rigdon S. Barnhill was 
promoted to be lieutenant-colonel January 13, 1863, and was 
killed in battle June 27, 1864. Of the non-commissioned staff 
officers, Samuel J. Winans, of Salem, was killed at Missionary 
Eidge, November 25, 1863. The regiment moved to Jefferson 
Barracks, Mo., August 13, 1861, remaining there until August 
30, when it went to Bird's Point, and thence to Paducah, Ky., 
September 8. Eight companies remained here doing guard duty 
during the winter, the other two, A and F, being detached on 
similar duty at Smithland, Ky. During the same winter Gen. 
E. A. Payne's brigade was formed out of the Twelfth, Fortieth 
and Forty -first Regiments, and in March of 1862, Col Hicks 
was placed in command of a brigade composed the Fortieth Illi- 
nois and Forty-sixth Ohio Regiments, and Morton's Battery, 
Lieut. -Col. Boothe taking command of the Fortieth. On the 10th 
of March these troops went up the Tennessee to Eastport, Ala., 
and not being able to effect a landing, in consequence of high 
water and rebel batteries, dropped down to Pittsburg Landing on 
the 17th. In the battle of Shiloh, in which the regiment was 
engaged, Col. Hicks was severely wounded, and the loss of 
the regiment was one commissioned officer killed and three 
wounded, and 42 men killed and 148 wounded. After the battle 
of Shiloh the regiment was moved to Corinth, and participated 
in the siege until the fall of the j^lace, and then went into camp 
at Memphis, November 26, 1862. After some desultory march- 
ing, it went into winter quarters at Davis' Mills, northern Mis- 
sissippi, and in the spring of 1863, after doing some scoutino- 
duty in the northern part of the State, stopped at Sneider's Bluff, 
in the rear of Vicksburg, where it remained until June 23, and 



266 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

then was with Sherman's army confronting Johnston's until 
Vicksburg fell. It was engaged in the battle of Jackson, Miss., 
July 16, and was complimented in public orders for gallant con- 
duct and bravery during the battle. After destroying railroads and 
bridges in and around Jackson, the regiment went into camp on 
Black River, in the rear of Vicksburg, and remained until Sep- 
tember 25. On this day the division to which the regiment be- 
longed became the Fourth Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, 
marched into Vicksburg and embarked for Memphis, whence it 
marched across the country to Chattanooga, reaching Brown's 
Ferry, two miles below Chattanooga, November 22, 1863. Five 
companies had been detached and mounted for scouting duty, 
while Companies A, C, E, I and G, under command of Maj. H. 
W. Hall, of Knights' Prairie, reached Brown's Ferry, and were 
placed in charge of a wagon train. Here at 10 P. M., November 
23, Maj. Hall was informed that the grand attack would begin in 
the morning. By means of a small boat the regiment crossed the 
Tennessee, and reached the main command at 1 o'clock A. M. of 
the 24th; at daylight crossed the Tennessee at the mouth of 
Chickamauga Creek, captured a high hill, and drove back the 
rebels in possession, placed a battery on its top and supported it 
through the night. At daylight on the morning of the 25th this 
regiment was deployed and under fire led the assaulting column 
on the rebel position on Missionary Ridge, drove in the enemy's 
pickets, scaled his works and lost several men inside. The ene- 
my being strongly reinforced, and the Fortieth not being sup- 
ported, was compelled to fall back under cover of the hill. A 
charge was then made upon the Fortieth, which was checked by 
a battery pouring a deadly fire into the advancing columns, and 
again the Fortieth was deployed and made an assault upon the 
rebel position, supported by the balance of the brigade. The 
support failing, the regiment was again at length compelled to with- 
draw. Of the five companies thus engaged, consisting of 130 men, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 207 

seven were killed and forty-four wounded, many of them mor- 
tally. After the winning of the great victory on Missionary Ridge, 
the Fortieth Regiment on the 26th pursued the retreating rebels 
and assisted in the capture of many prisoners, and on the 29th 
moved northward under Gen. Granger, to the relief of Burnside, 
at Knoxville. Returning from this expedition the regiment went 
into winter quarters at Scottsboro, Ala., where the scouting com- 
panies and the others were reunited. 

Here the Fortieth Regiment took the initiative in re-enlisting, 
spreading such enthusiasm in Gen. Ewing's division that not more 
than fifty men fitted for the veteran service failed to re-enlist, and 
on January 1, 1864, the Fortieth was mustered as a veteran regi- 
ment, with an aggregate strength of 443. Up to this time the 
losses in the regiment had been: deaths, 261; other casualities, 
196; discharged, 17; transferred, 6; missing and deserted, 17 — 
total, 497. The Veteran Regiment took a furlough of thirty days, 
and then started with Sherman's army on the great Atlanta cam- 
paign, with Lieut. -Col. Barnhill in command, but who was killed 
on Kenesaw, June 27, 1864. Maj. H. W. Hall, promoted lieuten- 
ant-colonel, then retained command until the close of the war. 
The regiment participated in all the battles resulting in the cap- 
ture of Atlanta. It was engaged in a severe battle on the Ball's 
Ferry road, July 28, 1864, and in another August 31. After 
hard marching in following Hood's army toward Chattanooga 
and into northern Alabama, the regiment returned to Atlanta and 
was engaged for a time in destroying railroads in and around the 
city. On the 16th of November, 1864, it started on the famous 
march through Georgia, and on the 22d with Walcott's brigade 
met the Georgia militia at Griswoldville, repulsed them twice 
and drove them back toward Macou. It reached Savannah, Ga., 
about December 10, into which it marched December 21. From 
Savannah the regiment marched to Thunderbolt, whence it went 
by water to Beaufort, S. C, and marched through South Carolina 



268 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

by way of Pocotaligo and Barnwell to Columbus. On the 13th 
of February, 1865, the regiment marched out of Columbus on the 
Waynesboro road, and crossed theWateree River at Dixon's Fer- 
ry on a ponton bridge, and entered Cheraw, in March, crossing 
the Great Pedee, March 5, and was in the battle of Bentonville, 
N. C, entering that city March 22. It marched into Goldsboro, 
March 24, remaining until April 10. On the 13th of April, when 
near Raleigh, the regiment heard of Lee's surrender, and on the 
next day entered Raleigh and went into camp on Beaver Dam 
Creek, remaining there until Gen, Johnston's army surrendered 
to Sherman April 29, 1865. After participating in the grand 
review, the r.egiment was mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 
24, 1865, and then went to Springfield, 111., where it was paid off 
and discharged. 

Company A, of the Fortieth Regiment, was raised mostly in 
Hamilton Comity. Its first captain was Hiram W. Hall of Knight's 
Prairie, who was promoted major and then lieutenant-colonel, and 
who commanded the regiment in all of its battles after Sliiloh. Its 
other captains were Benjamin W. Herrelson and Charles A. John- 
son, both of Knight's Prairie. Its first lieutenants were Flavius 
J. Carpenter, who enlisted July 25, 1861, was mustered August 
27, and resigned November 15, 1861. The others were Benjamin 
W. Herrelson, William B. Heard, Charles A. Johnson and Will- 
iam C. Moore. Its second lieutenants were Benjamin W. Herrel- 
son, John McLean, William B. Heard, Charles A. Johnson and 
Wilburn Anderson. Of the noncommissioned ofl&cers and pri- 
vate soldiers who were killed in battle or who died in the service 
were the following: Corporal John Miller, died of wounds at Chat- 
tanooga, November 25, 1863 ; Robert J. Atwood, killed at Mis- 
sionary Ridge, November 25, 1863; Alfred N. Banes, died at 
Memphis, February 4, 1864; William M. Cook, killed at Mission- 
ary Ridge, November 25, 1863; M.L.Hall, also killed in the 
same battle; William T. Banes,- killed at Kenesaw Mountain, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 269 

June 27, 1864: ; Aaron B. Johnson, killed near Atlanta, August 
4, 1864; Marcus Johnson, died at Helena, Ark., October 8, 1863. 

Company C, of the Fifty-sixth Eegiment, was recruited 
largely in Hamilton County. Its first captain, Pinkney J. Welsh, 
of Shawneetown, was promoted major, August 25, 1863, and then 
John E. Barker, of Hamilton County, until April 4, 1865. 
Its first lieutenants were James W. Flannigan, of Lane's Cross 
Koads; John E. Barker and John C. Lewis, both of Hamilton 
County, and Ausbraugh H. Rodgers, of Roland, "White County, 
Its second lieutenants were George O. Griggs, of Shawneetown; 
Ausbraugh H. Rodgers, of Roland; John C. Lewis and William 
J. Hinton, of these, John C. Lewis was lost on the steamer "Gen- 
eral Lyon," March 31, 1865. The noncommissioned officers and 
privates who were killed or died in the service of their country 
were the following: Serg. John Winemiller, died in Ander- 
sonville prison, August 7, 1864, grave number 4941. Corporals — 
G. W. Peeples, lost on steamer "General Lyon," March 31, 1865; 
William M. Reed, died at St. Louis, December 2, 1862; John B. 
Mezo, Goison Patterson and Perry Ashton, lost on the " General 
Lyon." Privates — Isaac C. Boyd, died at Shawneetown, March 
19, 1862; Aaron Hall, died at Jefferson Barracks, August 15, 
1862; Richard Heard and John Heard, lost on the "General 
Lyon;" John Hatley, died near Corinth, Miss., July 12, 1862; 
James M. Hamilton, died at Farmington, Miss., June 24, 1862, 
Isaac Johnson, lost on the " General Lyon," as also Albert E. 
Johnson, Thomas G. Mezo, Constant Mezo, James Murphy and 
Chester B. Shasteen. 

Company G, of the Fifty-sixth Regiment, was partially re- 
cruited in Hamilton County. Its captains were William Reavis, 
of McLeansboro, who resigned October 29, 1862; Edward Keffer, 
of Toulon, who was killed by a falling tree December 31, 1863, 
and Thomas S. Campbell, of Lovilla, who resigned June, 10, 
1864. Its first lieutenants were Thomas H. Edwards, of Mc- 



270 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

Leansboro; Edward Keffer, Thomas S. Campbell, Cyrus L. 
Goudy, of Sacramento, and George R. Frymire, of Enfield. 
Its second lieutenants were Edward Keffer, Thomas S. Campbell, 
Osmond C. Griswold and Samuel Larrels. Of these commissioned 
officers Cyrus L. Goudy was lost on the steamer "General Lyon." 
The noncommissioned officers and private soldiers belonging in 
Hamilton County who were killed or who died in the service, 
were the following: Sergt. Benjamin F. Steele, of McLeansboro, 
lost on the "General Lyon;" corporals, George W. Dougan 
and Wagoner, William Galligher, lost on the " General Lyon;" 
privates, George W. Arterberry, of Logansport; Orrin Belvin 
of McLeansboro; William D. Hood, of McLeansboro; Samuel 
A. Huff, of Logansport; John Harrawood, of McLeansboro; 
William F. Huff, of Logansport, James R. McC alley, of Mc- 
Leansboro; Elisha Miller, of Logansport; James L. Nations, of 
Logansport; Joseph Pierce, of Logansport; Robert H. Winder, 
of McLeansboro; William York, Leander Ray and Williams 
Ray, of Logansport; all lost on the steamer " General Lyon." 
Thomas Cook, died in Mississippi, September 6, 1862; Charles 
F. Huffstaller, died at Vicksburg, August 12, 1863; George T. 
Hensley, died at St. Louis, November 10, 1864; Austin R. Mc- 
Daniel, died at Paducah, Ky., August 13, 1862; William C. 
Matheny, died at Young's Point, La., May 4, 1863. 

Company A, of the Eighty-seventh Regiment, was recruited 
almost wholly in Hamilton County. Its captains were John An- 
derson and Warner P. Anderson, both of Hamilton County. Its 
first lieutenants were Robert L. Meador, Warner P. Anderson and 
Samuel B. Bond, and its second lieutenants, John W. Richardson 
and Warner P. Anderson. The noncommissioned officers and 
private soldiers who were killed or who died in the service were 
the following: First sergeant, William B. Carey, died August 7, 
1863; corporals, Edward D. Duncan, died at Shawneetown, Decem- 
ber 28, 1862; Spencer Green, died at Young's Point, La., May 27 5 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 271 

1863. Privates: John Brumley, died at Memphis, May 13, 1863; 
Henry Beachum, died at Vicksburg, July 1, 1863; Kobert H. 
Carey, killed at Wilson's Hill, La., April 7, 1864; Arabia M. 
Dailey, died at Vicksburg, July 31, 1863; William E. Echals, 
died of wounds at Helena, Ark., February 12, 1865; John J. 
Falkuer, died at Vicksburg, July 16, 1863; Archalus J. Gossage, 
died at New Orleans, September 5, 1863; Ebenezer Gage, died 
July 9, 1863; Winkfield Husley, died at St. Louis, August 6, 
1863; John C. Judd, died at Helena, Ark., May, 24, 1863; Will- 
iam L. Jones, died at Memphis, February 16, 1863; Work S. 
Jones, died at Memphis, March 16, 1863; John Pritchett, died 
of wounds at New Orleans, April 30, 1864; Eobert W. Phelps, 
died at Helena, Ark., April 20, 1865; Charles Swover, killed in 
Coahoma County, Miss., February 10, 1865; John W. Carr, died 
at Helena, Ark., May 29, 1865, and Joseph Henry Wadkins, 
drowned in the Ohio Eiver, August 30, 1862. 

Company E, of the Eighty-seventh Eegimeut, was also largely 
recruited in Hamilton County. Its captains were Milton Carpen- 
ter, who was mustered in September 22, 1862, and who resigned 
June 3, 1863; James H. Wright, who resigned February 8, 1865, 
and Hiram Angle, who was mustered out June 16, 1865. Its 
first lieutenants were James H. Wright, Theophilus L. Jones, 
and Hiram Angle and William Hungate, and second lieutenants : 
Theophilus L. Jones and Hiram Angle. The private soldiers, 
belonging to Hamilton County who were killed or who died in 
the service, were William Belvin, died at Shawneetown, February 
14, 1861 ; James H. Crabtree, died at Memphis, May 8, 1863 ; 
John Crisel, died at Memphis, February 14, 1863; James K. P. 
Dempsey, died while a prisoner, March 22, 1865, at Camp Tyler, 
Tex. ; William C. Forrister, died at Memphis, February 8, 1863; 
Benjamin Harper, died at Memphis, March 1, 1863; Benjamin 
Lowder, died at Shawneetown, February 5, 1863; Thomas H. 
Linn, died at home, April 3, 1865 ; John E. Eichardsou, died at 



272 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

St. Louis, October 7, 1863; Caleb C. Eichardson, died at St. 
Louis, October 8, 1863; Alexander Underwood, died at Mound 
City, February 16, 1863; William J. Williamson, died at St. 
Louis, July 18, 1863; Thomas Wakefield, died at Mound City, 
February 20, 1863; William Wright, died at Mound City, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1863; John C. Sefad, died at Memphis, March 28, 
1863. 

Company K, of the One Hundred and Tenth Eegiment, was 
recruited in Hamilton County. Its captains were Mark Harper, of 
Hamilton County, and afterward Robert A. Cameron, of Ashley. 
Its first lieutenants were James S. Wycough, of Franklin County, 
and then William R. Hester, of Hamilton County. Its second 
lieutenants were John T. Barnett, of Franklin County, and Will- 
iam R. Hester. This company was consolidated with Company 
B May 7, 1863. Privates Charles A. Anderson, of Hamilton 
County, died at Nashville, January 10, 1863, and Thomas H. 
Eaulston died December 12, 1862. 

Company I, of the One Hundred and Thirty-first Regiment, 
was raised mainly in this county. Its captain was David H. La- 
sater ; first lieutenant, Lewis L. Moore ; second lieutenants : James 
C. Lasater, who died February 16, 1863, and then Andrew W. 
Ray. Private John Huff of this company died December 5, 1862; 
David L. Martin died December 6, 1862, and Moses Morris died 
November 16, 1862. When on October 30, 1863, the One Hun- 
dred and Thirty-first and the Twenty-ninth Regiments were con- 
solidated this company became part of Company B in the 
consolidated regiment. 

A part of Company K, of the One Hundred and Thirty-first 
Eegiment, was also raised in Hamilton County. 

Company D, of the Sixth Cavalry, was raised largely in Ham- 
ilton County. Its captains were Hosea Vise and Joseph Coker, 
both of McLeansboro. Its first lieutenants were William L. 
Stephens, Joseph Coker, James H. Dailey, Louis V. Allen and 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 273 

John M. Boyd, all of McLeansboro, except Louis V. Allen, who 
was of Mi Vernon. Its second lieutenants were the same as the 
last four of the first lieutenants. The non-commissioned officers 
and private soldiers, who died or who were killed in the service, 
were Sergt. Sidney A. Boster, killed August 9, 1862; Corporal 
JohnS. Coker, died of wounds, September 12, 1862; privates: Will- 
iam Jones, died February 10, 1863; William Denny, died June 6, 
1862; George Brinkley, died June 12, 1863; Jesse Cravens, died 
October 6, 1863; Mudridge Hunt, died in prison at Richmond, 
Va., February, 19, 1865; W^illiam Hendrix, killed in battle, De- 
cember 4, 1863; John W. Johnson, died in April, 1862; Thomas 
Nation, died December 3, 1863; Jesse Oglesby, died October 4, 
1864; James A. Putnam, died August 16, 1863; David Eichard- 
son, died at Springfield; David L. Redparen, died February 11, 
1862; Larkin Smith, died February 25, 1863; Benjamin F. Boyd, 
died in Andersonville prison, September 20, 1864, grave 
number 9323; John L. Dial, killed at Hanover Creek, Miss., 
August 13, 1864; William Flint, died at Eastport, Miss., July 3, 
1865; James Phillips, deceased ; Thomas Putnam, died September 
20, 1865; Charles Steele, died at Gravelly Springs, Ala., February 
26, 1865. 

Company H, of this regiment, was also largely raised in this 
county. Its captains were John J. Eitchey, who resigned Janu- 
ary 21, 1863; Samuel L. Marshall, who died June 14, 1868; 
Daniel M. Maulding, who was mustered out January 9, 1865, and 
Samuel P. Maxey, of Olney, mustered out November 5, 1865. The 
first three were of McLeansboro. The first lieutenants were 
James M. Blades, Samuel L. Marshall, Daniel M. Maulding, 
John N. Wilson and Walter B. Maulding, all of McLeansboro; 
and the second lieutenants were Samuel L. Marshall, Daniel M. 
Maulding, John N. Wilson, Samuel P. Maxey, and John T- 
Wright, all of McLeansboro, except Samuel P. Maxey. Those who 
died or were killed in the service belonging in Hamilton County 



274 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

were John Stubbs, died May 20, 1863 ; Abner Dailej, died March 
17, 1862; Peter C. Durham, died February 12, 1864; Thomas 
Digby, died November 19, 1862; Francis M. Dugin, died March 
27, 1862; Elisha Goins, died February 9, 1864; Jonathan Man- 
ning, killed March 29, 1863; Arthur Nelson, died January 5, 
1864; Thomas Oliver, died February 28, 1863; Henry C. Echols, 
died at Memphis, July 25, 1864; John H. Mansley, died at Mur- 
freesboro, of wounds, December 22, 1864; Michael McCarty, 
killed at Nashville, December 15, 1864; John M. Asberry, 
November 14, 1864. 

Company K, of this regiment, was raised in Hamilton, Gallatin 
and Saline Counties. Its captains were Edward Dawes, of Rec- 
torville; Dorastus L. Grimes, of Saline County, and James M. 
Banes, of Hamilton County. Its first lieutenants were Jesse B. Wil- 
son, of Harrisburg; James M. Banes and Thomas W. H. Miller, of 
Cairo, and its second lieutenants, Cornelius Baker, of Harrisburg ; 
Dorastus L. Grimes, Thomas W. H. Miller and Eichard E. Oliver, 
of Saline County. Those who enlisted from Hamilton County 
who were killed or who died in the service were Allen D. Grimes, 
died January 4, 1862; William L. Campbell, died in 1864; 
James M. Miner, January 17, 1862; John Schoolcraft, died Jan- 
uary 12, 1862; James W. Mitchell, killed at Memphis, August 
21, 1864. 

With reference to those not lost at the time of the burning and 
sinking of the " General Lyon," it may be stated that most of them 
were picked up by the steamer " General Sedgwick;" Henson G. 
Baines and Lieut. Butler, however, instead of being picked up in 
this way, drifted on a cabin door four days without food or drink, 
and were at last picked up by a schooner by which they were left 
on an island where Lieut. Butler died. On this island Raines 
remained ten years, escaping in March, 1875, on the British 
man-of-war. " Vengeance." He was taken to London, England, and 
placed in Guy Hospital. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 275 

THE COUNTY COMMISSIONERS' COURT. 

This court met for the first time April 9, 1821, Following is 
the record of the proceedings of this first day : 

Pursuant to an act of the Legislature of the State of Illinois establishing a 
new county called Hamilton, Townsend Tarleton, one of the county commis- 
sioners of said county, called a special meeting, pursuant to law, by giving five 
days' notice to the other commissioners to meet at the house of John Anderson, 
in that county, on Monday at 12 o'clock, the 9th day of April, 1821. The com- 
missioners, severally appeared and produced their certificates signed by the 
judges of election, which certificates certified that they were duly elected county 
commissioners of Hamilton County; whereupon Jesse E. Lockwood, clerk of 
the circuit court of Hamilton County, administered to them severally the oaths 
required by law, whereupon a court was held in and for said county. 
Present the Honorables 

William Wheeler, 
Little Page Proctor, 
Townsend Tarlton, 

County Commissioners. 

The court then proceeded to the appointment of a clerk. Jesse 
C. Lockwood was nominated and elected, and soon afterward 
appeared and took the several oaths required by law. His se- 
curities or sureties were Samuel D. Lockwood, Enos T. Allen and 
George McKenzie. A report was then received from the com- 
missioners appointed by the General Assembly to fix upon the 
location of the seat of justice for Hamilton County. That report 
was in the following language: 

We, the undersigned commissioners, appointed by the General Assembly of 
the State of Illinois, do certify that we have fixed the seat of justice of said 
county on the land of William B. McLean on the northwest quarter of Section 
No. 15, in Township No. 5, Range No. 6, and that we have marked a black oak 
tree with the letter C, which is the center of the donation of twenty acres pro- 
posed to be given by said McLean to the said county, to be laid off in a square 
form, the lines to run north and south, east and west. Given under our hands 
and seals this 4th day of April, 1821. 

Samuel Leach. 

James Ratclifp. 

Joel Pace. 

The commissioners were then paid for their services in fixing 
the location of the county seat, as follows: James Ratcliff, 38 ; 
Joel Pace, $10, and Samuel Leach, 312. The court then ap- 



276 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

pointed Enos T. Allen magistrate in the place of Robert Wilson 
who refused to qualify. William Watson, William Hardister and 
John Stone were then appointed trustees of Section 16, Township 
7, Range 7 ; Hiram Greathouse and Christopher Hardister, over- 
seers of the poor, Township 7, Range 7, and Frederick Mayberr j, 
Sr., and Daniel Powell were appointed fence viewers for the same 
township and range. William W. Lane was appointed constable. 
William Wheeler was recommended to the General Assembly as 
a proper person to be appointed justice of the peace for the 
county and Richard W. Smith was appointed treasurer of the 
county. 

The following memorandum of an agreement between the 
county commissioners and William B. McLean was then read: 
" The said McLean agrees to add twenty acres of land to the 
donation before given, on the condition that the commissioners 
give him one-third of the proceeds of the sale of town lots, re- 
serving to the county the public square, the expense of laying off 
the lots and surveying the land to be paid out of the moneys 
arising from the sale of the lots before any division of the money 
takes place. All timber free to purchasers of lots for building 
for one year from the day of sale of said lots upon said quarter 
section iipon which the town is laid off, except what timber may 
be east of said town.'' 

It was then ordered by the court that the county seat be 
called McLeansboro. 

Thomas Sloo, Jr., the county surveyor, was then employed to 
survey the lots of the town of McLeansboro on or before the first 
day of June next, and it was ordered that the town lots of Mc- 
Leansboro be sold at auction to the highest bidder on the third 
Monday of June next (the 18th) on the following credit: one- 
fourth in six months and the balance in two years from the day 
of sale. A copy of this order was sent to the Shawneetown paper 
for publication. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 277 

The next meeting of the county commissioners' court was 
held April 23, 1821, at the house of John Anderson. William 
B. McLean, Moses Shirley and Daniel Burbanks were appointed 
trustees of Section 16, Township 5, Range 6, and Eobert Wil- 
son, Lewis Lane and David Procter of Section 16, Township 5, 
Range 7. It was then decided by the court that on the 1st day 
of May (Tuesday) they would let out the erection of the build- 
ing of the following description to the lowest bidder: The build- 
ing to be sixteen feet square, of " hughed logs on two sides," a 
good plank under-floor, with a good plank door and a lock and 
key, with one window containing twelve panes of glass, 8x10, the 
roof to be put on •' cabbin fashion," the " highth " from the 
under-floor to the joice to be eight feet, the door to be three feet 
wide and six feet three inches in length, the said house to be 
" chincked " and daubed and the corners to be " sawned down; " 
the house to be completed by the first Monday (the 4th) of June 
next. A strong pen was also ordered built. Jeremiah McNenar 
and Jeremiah Moore were overseers of the poor for the county. 

On Monday, June 4, the court next convened " at the county 
seat of Hamilton County, in the house built for that purpose." 
The first entry of the proceedings of this session was: " Pursuant 
to notice given for letting a building for the purpose of holding 
court, and for an oflice for the clerk of the county. Townsend 
Tarlton having bid $46, the commissioners let out the building 
to him, and agreed to pay him on the Jst day of December. 
Richard W. Smith then entered into bonds for the faithful per- 
formance of his duties as county treasurer. The following 
named persons were summoned to serve as petit jurors at the 
Circuit Court to be held in Hamilton County, on the third Monday 
in June next, viz. : Enniss Maulding, Jarrett Garner, Benjamin 
Ellis, Adam Crouch, Abraham Reis, Ichabod Mitchell, Henry 
Wheeler, Solomon Mayberry, John Stone, George McKenzie, 
Enos T. Allen, John Gore, Robert Moore, Moses Shirley, Richard 



278 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

C. F^^ller, Lemuel Miller, William B. McLean, John Lock, Hiram 
Greathouse, Theopliilus Sweet and John Anderson." 

John M. Smith then received license to sell liquors and all 
kinds of spirits by small measure on condition that said Smith 
give bonds and security, and pay $4 to the treasurer, and the 
fees of the clerk. He was authorized to sell whisky for 12^ 
cents per half-pint, and rum, gin and brandy at 37^ cents per 
half -pint. His license was good for one year. On the next day 
viewers were appointed to view a road commencing at the Galla- 
tin County line, and running from a road laid off by Elias Chajffen, 
through Gallatin County, and commencing at Section 13, Town- 
ship 7, Range 7, in Hamilton County, and running on the near- 
est and best ground to McLeansboro, thence to the county 
line in a direct line, as nearly as the ground will permit, toward 
Vandalia. The viewers of this road were John Ferguson, Henry 
Wheeler and Ennis Maulding. John Vance, Jr., was appointed 
surveyor of the road. Jarrett Garner was licensed to keep a tav- 
ern for one year at the house he then occupied, his prices for 
whisky to be 12^ cents per half-pint; rum, brandy, gin and 
wine 37^ cents per half-pint; for keeping a horse for one night, 
50 cents; a horse to hay, 25 cents; feeding a horse, 12^ cents; for 
a dinner, 37i cents; breakfast and supper, 25 cents; lodging, 12i 
cents. Mr. Garner paid $5 for his license. Taxes were then 
fixed as follows: for every |100 worth of horses, 37^ cents, and 
on every $100 worth of stock in trade, 50 cents. At the term of 
court commencing June 23, this order was rescinded and the taxes 
fixed as follows: on each $100 worth of personal property, 25 
cents. 

At the September term, 1821, the commissioners were still 
William Wheeler, Townsend Tarlton and Little Page Procter. 
The building of a jail was let out to William Hall for $780, to 
be completed by the first of the next September ; and the building 
of a courthouse was let on the same day to Benjamin Hood, for 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 281 

$379, to be completed, also, by the first day of the next Septem- 
ber. Mr. Hood agreed to take, in payment, the notes given to 
the county commissioners at the sale of lots in McLeansboro, and 
to accept them at his own risk. 

At the March term of the court, 1822, the commissioners 
were the same as above, but at the September term, following, 
they were Townsend Tarlton, John M. Smith and Enos T. Allen. 
At the September term, 1823, they were Enos T. Allen, Benja- 
min Hood and John M. Smith. At the September term, 1824, 
James Lane, Merrill Willis and Elam M. Knight. September 
term, 1826, James Lane, William Ellis and William Wheeler. 
September, 1827, the same; September, 1828, William Wheeler, 
John Tadlock and William Ellis; 1829, William Wheeler, Will- 
iam Ellis and James Lane; 1830, James Lane, Merril Willis 
and William Allen; 1831, the same; 1832, Adam Crouch, Isaac 
Hall and William Allen; 1833, the same; 1834, William Allen, 
Abraham Irvin and Charles Coker; 1835, the same; 1836 and 
1837, Adam Crouch, James Allen and Thomas Collenham ; 1838 
and 1839, Hardy C. Willis, John C. Smith and Arden Bigger- 
staff; 1840, John Smith, H. C. Smith and John M. Clark; 1841, 
Benjamin Hood, J. Mitchell and William Allen; 1842, the same; 
1843, J. Mitchell, Robert A. Gowdy and Benjamin Hood; 1844, 
Benjamin Hood, Eobert A. Gowdy and K, Edwards; 1845, Ben- 
jamin Hood, Eobert A. Gowdy and J. G. Millspaugh; 1846, J. 
G. Millspaugh, Benjamin Hood and John L. Johnson; 1847, the 
same; 1848, John L. Johnson, J. G. Millspaugh and Henry E. 
Williams. 

In 1849, under the constitution of 1848, the construction of 
this court was so changed as to be composed of one county judge 
and two associate justices. The first county judge was Robert 
Page, and his associates were Abraham Irvin and John L. John- 
son, and the court remained so constituted through the years 
1850-53. In 1853 James Lane became county judge 



282 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

and served four years, his associates being J. M. Heard and W. 
S. Malone. Lorenzo Goodridge became county judge in 1857, 
and served four years, his associates being James Douglass and 
William P. Sneed. In 1861, James Lane Avas again elected 
county judge, serving by re-election in 1865, until 1869. From 
1861 to 1865, his associate justices were J. M. Heard and Job 
Standerfer, and from 1865 to 1869, A. M. Sturman and Lewis L. 
Moore. In 1869 Thompson B. Stelle became county judge, with 
James M. Greenlee and Kobert H. Flannigan, associates. In 
1872 his associates were J. M. Greenlee and Nathan Garrison, 
and in 1873, under the constitution of 1870, the county judge 
and the commissioners' court became separate, and the judges 
since then have been Cloyd Crouch, 1873-82; Thomas M. 
Eckley, 1882-86, and the present incumbent, John C. Edwards. 
Under the present constitution the county commissioners have 
been E. M. Bowers, Alfred Braden and A. B. Welden, elected in 
1873, the three choosing the one, two and three year terms, re- 
spectively, as named. Those elected since then have been as 
follows: P. W. Morgan, in 1874; Albert Walters, in 1875; W. 
W. Buck, in 1876; H. R. Jones, 1877; John Webb, 1878; L B. 
€arey, 1879; John W. Davis, 1880; John Webb, 1881; W. E. 
Mansell, 1882; M. C. Hannagan, 1883; I. B. Carey, 1884; David 
G-arrison, 1885. 

After several defeats by diminishing majorities, the principal 
of " township organization " for Hamilton County, triumphed 
at the election of November 2, 1884, by a vote of 1,659 to 1,403. 
It went into operation in 1886. The townships into which the 
county is now divided are Dahlgren, which very nearly corre- 
sponds to the ancient Shelton Precinct; Crouch, very nearly to 
Crouch precinct; Beaver Creek, very nearly to Beaver Creek Pre- 
cinct; Knight's Prairie, very nearly to Knight's Prairie Precinct; 
McLeansboro, very nearly to Town Precinct ; Crook, nearly the 
same as Lasater Precinct; Flannigan, same as Flannigan Precinct; 



HISTOEY OF ILLINOIS. 283 

Twigg, the same as Allen Precinct, and Mayberry is nearly the 
same as the ancient Mayberry Precinct. Each township has a 
supervisor, town clerk, assessor, collector and three highway 
commissioners. 

The circuit court first convened at McLeansboro, June 18, 
1821, Hon. William Wilson, one of the justices of the supreme 
court of Illinois, and presiding judge of the Second Judicial Cir- 
cuit, presiding. Jesse C. Lockwood was appointed clerk, and 
presented certificates of his having taken all the oaths of office 
required. Samuel D. Lockwood was his security. James Hall 
was sheriff and James Lane, coroner. Following are the names 
of the grand jurors: Ralph Hatch, Merril Willis, John Dale, 
Robert Anderson, William Hungate, Hardy Gatlin, Anderson 
McLin, Robert Porter, Daniel Powell, Thomas Holaway, Willis 
Wheeler, Henry Webb, James Lasater, Jesse Hyatt, John Hard- 
ister, Eli Waller, John Griffith, Robert Miller and Adam 
Ritchey. This grand jury retired to consider presentments, and 
almost immediately returned and informed the court that they 
had found no indictments ! If this was indicative of anything, it 
was of an unusually peaceful condition of society. In point of 
fact, there was but little for any of the county officers to do then, 
as is shown by the fact of Jesse C. Lockwood holding five of the 
offices at one time, and besides performing all the duties of 
all these offices he kept a store, and to fill up his time he worked 
in the cornfield most of the time in the dull season. When a 
customer came in to purchase goods, or a citizen to transact busi- 
ness connected with any of his various offices, the customer or 
citizen would take Mr. Lockwood's place in the field while he put 
up the goods or transacted the official business. 

The second term of this court began November 19, 1821, 
Hon. William Wilson presiding. As at the June term, the grand 
jury informed the court that they had found no indictments. 
However, there was one suit brought — that of Samuel Handley 



284 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

VS. Harden Billings. It was moved and so ordered, that this suit 
be dismissed at the plaintiff's cost. 

The third term of the circuit court began June 2, 1822, 
Hon. William Wilson presiding. The first case at this term was 
that of Elisha Perkins vs. Ralph Hatch, which was dismissed by 
agreement, each party to pay his own costs, as was also the case 
of Jacob Coffman vs. Jarrett Garner; Garner, the appellant, to 
pay the costs of the suit in this court and Coffman in that below. 
There were a few other unimportant cases at this term — ten 
in all. 

The fourth term was held by the same judge, beginning No- 
vember 18, 1822. The first case was entitled the People vs. Red- 
man Perry and James Biaden ; on appeal from a justice of the peace, 
the judgment of the lower court being annulled, as was also the 
case in the People vs. Richmond Green and John Burton. The 
first case of debt was that of P. Redman & Co. vs. William B. 
McLean, resulting in a judgment against defendant by default. 
Among a number of other cases was one of John Hardister vs. 
Jarrett Garner, who, having filed a new bond, made plea that he 
was not an absconding debtor. Judgment with costs was ren- 
dered in his favor. Other cases were " on appeal," " in cove- 
nant," "assault and battery," etc. The first case of this kind was 
that of Gilbert Griswold vs. Thomas F. McKinney and William 
B. McLean. The defendants withdrew their plea, and confessed 
to the plaintiff's action to 6 cents damages and costs, for which 
judgment was rendered the plaintiff. There was one indictmei-t 
for riot, one for larceny and one for " trespass on the case." 

In connection with this first case of assault and battery it 
may not be amiss to record the lament of one of the county's his- 
torians* over the decline of the manly art of self defense and the 
substitution of other means of settling little disputes. He says: 
" They also had a ' stray pen ' in which they placed the runaway 

*Judge Thompson B. Stelle. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 285 

stock ; and it was also used for fighting exercises in which our 
ancestors occasionally tried their power of endurance and the 
strength of their muscle in a cool and friendly knock-down. It 
was a forum where all controversies were settled in a manly way 
by wager of battle and without the aid of lawyers, judges or 
juries. Whoever fought an honorable and manly fight was in no 
danger of being prosecuted, as this was then a recognized method 
of settling petty disputes and differences. It was cheaper fight- 
ing in those good old days, and not half so dangerous as it after- 
ward got to be when the cowardly practice of using clubs, rocks, 
knives and pistols came into vogue. After the knock-down was 
over, no difference which whipped, all hands would make friends 
and go in and have a drink all around. It had a tendency to 
develop the muscle and strengthen the nerve, and occasionally 
resulted in a black eye. It is certain that no improvement has 
been made in the manly science of pioneer fighting. Fighting 
should always be avoided when possible, but when human nature 
is overcome by a rude insult, from a cowardly braggart, there is 
nothing more effective in settling the ' bile ' on his stomach than 
a good old pioneer twenty-pounder knock-down." 

Hon. William Wilson presided in this court at the May and 
also at the October sessions, 1823. At the May session there 
were a few ordinary cases, none of them of any importance, as 
was also the case at the October term, with the exception of one 
indictment for murder against Jacob Coffman and William Hun- 
gate for killing a man named Taylor. Taylor was charged with 
being a thief, and the accusation was that they pursued and shot 
him. The jury in this first murder trial were Mastin Bond, 
Henry Crisell, John Anderson, Adam Grouch, Nicholas Tram- 
mell, Lawrence Stull, Jarrett Garner, Gilbert Griswold, John 
Richey, Anderson Richey, Daniel Burbanks and Ambrose 
Maulding. The verdict of the jury was, " We, the jury, find the 
defendants, Jacob Coffman and William Hungate, not guilty." 



286 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

Hon. Thomas C. Browne presided at the term commencing 
May 27, 1824. Beyond a large number of indictments for assault 
and battery there was little done at this term. Hon. William 
Wilson presided at the term commencing October 28, 1824. At 
the March term, 1825, Hon. James Hall, judge of the Fourth 
Judicial Circuit, presided. The first trial for perjury, and also 
the first for retailing whisky, came on at this term as also the first 
suit for divorce, that of Mary Hardister vs. Christopher Hardis- 
ter. Samuel HoUingsworth also sued for divorce from Rebecca 
Hollingsworth — both divorces being granted. At the term com- 
mencing September 26, 1825, Hon. James O. Wattles of the 
Fifth Judicial District presided in place of Judge James Hall of 
the Fourth. There were a number of indictments for assault and 
battery, indicating a change in public sentiment even in that 
early day from that when "after a friendly knock-down all hands 
would go in and take a drink and there was no danger of prose- 
cution." Then also came the first bastardy case, against Samuel 
Greathouse, which was continued, and the first indictment for 
adultery against Christopher Hardister and Margaret Greathouse, 
also continued. 

Hon. James Hall presided at both terms of 1826, commencing 
March 27, and September 26, respectively. Hon. Thomas C. 
Browne, judge of the Third Judicial Circuit, presided at the 
March term, 1827, and thence continuously twice each year until 
the September term inclusive of 1834. The first indictment for 
rape was found, at the March term of 1828, against William H. 
Grimes and continued until the March term, 1829, and then again 
continued and a bench warrant issued. At this term the first case 
of kidnaping occurred, which was continued until the next term, 
and then remanded back to White County. 

Hon. Alexander F. Grant presided at the March and Septem- 
ber terms, 1835, and Hon. Jephthah Hardin at the March and 
September terms, 1836. Hon. Walter B. Scates presided at each 



HISTOKY OF ILLINOIS. 287 

consecutive term of this court from the March term, 1837, to the 
August term, 1846, inclusive, and Hon, William A. Denning from 
the March term, 1847, to the August term, 1850, inclusive. Hon. 
Samuel S. Marshall presided from the May term, 1851, to the 
May term 1854, inclusive, and Hon. Downing Baugh during the 
October term, 1854 and the May term 1855, Hon. Edwin 
Beecher, judge of the Twelfth Judicial Circuit, then presided 
from the August term, 1855, to the May term 1861, inclusive, 
and Hon. Samuel S. Marshall from the October term, 1861, to 
the August term, 1864, inclusive. A special term was held in 
October, 1864, at which Hon, Silas L, Bryan presided, and 
another special term in December, 1864, at which Hon, Samuel 
S. Marshall presided. Hon, James M, Pollock was then judge 
of this court from the May term, 1865, to the March term, 1873, 
inclusive, and Hon. Tazewell B, Tanner from the beginning of 
the September term, 1873, to the close of the February term, 
1877; Hon. James C. Allen, at the September term, 1877; 
Hon. Tazewell B. Tanner, at the February term, 1878; Hon. 
James C. Allen, at the September term, 1878; Hon. M. C. 
Crawford at the February term, 1879; Hon. C. S, Conger, at the 
September term, 1879, and at the February term, 1880, and Hon. 
William C. Jones at the September term, 1880. Hon. C. S. Con- 
ger was then judge from the beginning of the February term, 
1881; until the close of the February term 1885; then Hon. Car- 
roll S. Boggs at the September term, 1885 and the February 
term, 1886; Hon. C. S. Conger at the September term, 1886, and 
Hon. Carroll S. Boggs at the February term, 1887, the last term 
so far held. 

John McElvain was one of the prominent members of the 
Hamilton County bar. He was born in Butler County, Penn., 
about 1825. Having received an academic education he came 
west as a school teacher, and taught school near Shawneetown in 
1846 or 1847. He commenced the practice of law in Benton, 



288 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

Franklin County, and removed to Ealeigh, Saline County, in the 
summer of 1848, and was thus the second lawyer to practice in 
that county. He removed to McLeansboro about 1856, and in 
1858 was elected a member of the Legislature, serving one term. 
Mr. McElvain was a good scholar and an estimable man. His 
talents rendered him especially strong before a jury rather than 
before a court. He was very energetic and industrious, and was 
considered by his esj)ecial admirers as the "prince of story 
tellers," and is now remembered generally as being second only, 
if at all, to Abraham Lincoln in this particular. Few men, if 
any, have ever had warmer friends than had John McElvain. 
He died in March, 1873, and Polk Lodge, A. F. & A. M., passed 
a series of resolutions of which the following is the most impor- 
tant: 

Resolved, That in the death of our deceased brother, we have lost a worthy 
and efficient Mason; one honored and respected among us, and one whose racant 
seat in our lodge room will ever remain to us as of the faithful and genial old 
pioneers of Freemasonry in Hamilton County, by whom it was so long and so 
acceptably occupied. 

James H. Townshend, a brother of R. W. Townshend, was 
another of Hamilton County's distinguished lawyers. He was 
a man of industry and strict attention to business, but was not 
fully developed when he died. He served his country in the 
army, and when he came out he was appointed to a clerkship in 
the treasury department at Washington, and while in that service 
graduated as a law student in Columbia College, when he resigned 
his position and entered upon the practice of the law at McLeans- 
boro, where he was rapidly rising to distinction at the time of his 
death. 

The present bar of Hamilton County is composed of the fol- 
lowing individuals and firms: Hamill & McElvain, Hall & 
Hogan, Lane & Webb, Wilson & Lasley, Leonidas Walker, T. M. 
Eckley, T. B. Stelle, James Lane and Joshua S. Sneed. 

On May 4, 1877, Greenville E. Farris shot and killed L'ish 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 289 

James Campbell, under the following circumstances: John C. 
Gray had a pen of corn on the farm of Farris which he had sold 
to Campbell, and on the day above named, Campbell went with 
his wagon and two boys to haul the corn away. While he was 
loading the corn Farris came across the field and shot him while 
he was in the corn pen, and immediately fled the country. On 
the 19th of November, 1878, Greenville E. Farris was assassin- 
ated in Arkansas while on his way back from Texas to that State. 
After being shot he was taken care of, while he lived, by J. G. 
and Julian Billingsley, and by them was buried. His assassin 
was soon afterward lynched and hanged to a tree until dead. 

George A. Eogers was burned to death in the calaboose March 
28, 1878. He could not be saved. He had taken a watch from 
S. D. Shunks, of Mt. Vernon, a short time before, and was under 
the influence of drink at the time of his incineration. A coroner's 
jury rendered a verdict in accordance with the facts. 

A man named Bennet killed his wife with the aid of a negro 
girl living at his house. Both Bennet and the negro girl were 
tried, separately, but both acquitted. It was, however, the 
general belief that one or the other committed the murder. F. 
M. Youngblood and C. S. Conger prosecuted the accused, and 
Judge S. S. Marshall was attorney for the defense. 

Some years since there was a family named Digby living 
south of McLeans])oro. Boarding in this family were two young 
men named Sinklar, both of whom wanted to marry Miss Digby, 
a very beautiful young lady, member of the Digby family. One 
night John Sinklar was murdered as he lay asleep in bed, and 
Henry Digby, who lived about a quarter of a mile away, was accused 
of the murder, arrested, tried and sentenced to the penitentiary 
for fourteen years on the strength of an ante-mortem statement 
by John Sinklar, that Henry Digby was the guilty man. Just 
before the expiration of his term of service his case was taken up 
on a writ of error to the supreme court, wbere the finding of the 



290 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

circuit court was reversed on the ground that the ante-mortem 
statement of the murdered man, not having been his dying state- 
ment, was not properly admitted as evidence. After Digby was 
released from the penitentiary a nolle prosequi was entered in 
the case. The true history of the case was that John Sinklar, 
the man who was murdered, was engaged to marry Miss Digby, 
and his brother, being determined to marry her, killed John; at 
least this is the general belief. When Digby came home for a 
new trial, this brother was in the penitentiary for the commission 
of another murder in Belle Rive, Jefferson County. 

But, perhaps, the most unjustifiable murder ever committed 
in Hamilton County was that of John Mann, which occurred 
February 19, 1886. John Mann was born near Dover, Teuu., 
August 29, 1823, and was a son of Elisha and Nancy (Hunter) 
Mann, who came from North Carolina to Hamilton County about 
1810, and there spent the remainder of their lives, the mother of 
John Mann dying just before the breaking out of the war, the 
father during the war. John Mann was married about 1850 to 
Miss Rachel Barker, daughter of John and Nancy Barker, and 
who died about 1877. He was married next to Miss Susan 
Tatum, daughter of William and Julia Tatum. He first located 
on a grant of land received for service in the Mexican war, where 
he lived until about 1860, when he moved onto the farm at pres- 
ent occupied by his family aboat four miles south of McLeans- 
boro, on Barker's Prairie, and where he was assassinated. While 
on his way from his home to another farm he owned about four 
miles south, and when he was about half way from the one to 
the other, he was waylaid and robbed, in a low, fiat, woody 
country, and his pockets found turned inside out. The murder 
was committed by three of his neighbors, whom he had saved 
from starvation in their childhood, named Hardeman, Marion and 
Schoolcraft, three brothers, with whom he had always been a 
close friend. He received four distinct wounds, two buckshot 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 291 

and two bullet wounds. His murderers are said to have been 
jealoiis of his success through life, as compared with their own, 
and had made threats, some time previous to the commission of 
the crime, that his career would soon be ended, and to facilitate 
their purpose they had some weeks before erected a kind of screen 
from public gaze, so that they might lie in ambush for him. un- 
observed, on a road which he frequently traveled in going from 
one farm to another. The criminals were soon brought to justice, 
and, upon conviction, were each sentenced to the penitentiary for 
twenty-five years. Mr. Mann, the victim of this heinous crime, 
was a self-made man and by his thrift, energy and good manage- 
ment had accumulated a handsome competency; he was widely 
known for his integrity, hospitality and benevolence, and left a 
host of friends. His widow and two children survive him. 

The following incident belongs to the political history of 
the county, but may, perhaps, not be inexcusably out of place 
here: During the campaign of 1823 Chester Carpenter and 
James Hall were the candidates for the Legislature, Hall being 
elected. William Hall, the father of James, entertained Chester 
Carpenter during the campaign. William Bryant, learning that 
Mr. Carpenter was afraid of ghosts, witches, hobgoblins, etc., de- 
termined to play a trick on the old man, and proceeded in the 
following manner: Carpenter had heard that a man had been 
murdered in the yard, and when the conversation turned upon the 
murder he became somewhat agitated, seeing which Bryant said, 
" Mr. Carpenter, about dark a bellowing cow goes jumping and 
bawling down the ravine in front of our door, and then she 
passes out of sight and we see her no more." 

The desired impression had been made. A yearling calf had 
been tamed, with a view to riding it, and was kept in the pasture 
in front of the house. The secret of the coming fun had been 
entrusted to the Hall family, and just about dark Bryant and the 
boy went to the pasture, caught the calf, tied a rope around its 



292 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

neck, and the boy got on its back. Bryant knew the calf would 
take for the house, and he placed a briar about four inches long 
under its tail and followed on behind. Away went the calf jump- 
ing, snorting and bellowing, with the boy holding on for dear 
life, and yelling at the top of his voice. Just then Mr. Carpenter 
stepped to the front of the house to see what was going on. The 
calf ran ei the door, and, coming in contact with the old gentle- 
man, knocked him down, knocked over the chairs and the supper 
table upon which a splendid supper had been spread. The calf 
got out of the house in some way, the boy went to a neighbor's 
to stay all night, and the old gentleman said he would not stay in 
that place for the worth of the United States. Soon after this he 
and Hall addressed the people of Knight's Prairie, and as may be 
imagined Hall told the story on the old gentleman with good 
effect. At that time there were but very few Whigs in the county, 
but the Democrats often voted for such Whig candidates as 
James Hall, Jesse C. Lockwood and Abram Irvin. 

m'leansboeo. 
McLeansboro was laid off in 1821, and is located on the 
northwest quarter of Section 15, Township 5, Eange 6. The 
original plat contained thirty-six blocks, four of which, in the 
center of the plat, were occupied by the public square. There 
were two principal streets ruuniug in each direction through the 
plat, north and south and east and west. Main and Market 
Streets, run east and west, and Jackson and Washington, north 
and south, the public square being bounded by these four streets, 
each of which is 66 feet wide, outside of these streets were two 
alleys running in each direction, each 14 feet wide, and all 
around the town was a border 33 feet wide. The lots were 84 
in number, each 60x180 feet. Tliomas Sloo, Jr., surveyed the 
town, June 2, 1821. The original plat contained twenty acres. 
Since then numerous additions have been made. Heard's first 



HISTOKY OF ILLINOIS. 293 

addition was made October 17, 1853, Marshall's first addition, 
February 6, 1851:; Dobyn's addition, January 25, 1862: Heard's 
second addition, February 14, 1862; Heard's third addition, 
February 8, 1868; Heard's fourth addition, January 2, 1872; 
Allen's addition, January 2, 1872; Marshall's second addition, 
November 1 and 2, 1877; Marshall's third addition, September 
10 and 11, 1873; Steele's addition, April 6, 1875; Allen's second 
addition, May 18, 1875, and Walker's addition, January 18, 
1876. 

The first house in McLeansboro was a log one built by Dr. 
William B. McLean, in the northeast corner of the town, just 
east of where Judge Marshall's present residence stands. The 
second was by Jarrett Garner, near the southeast corner of the 
public square. James Allen built the third, not far from Jarrett 
Garner's, and Samuel Dietz, the fourth near the northwest corner 
of the public square. All of these were of logs. The first 
frame house was built by Jesse C. Lockwood, the second by 
Daniel Marshal], and the third by Daniel Tolley, and it was a 
long time before any more frame houses were built. Benjamin 
Hood, the first house carpenter in the town, built that of Jesse C. 
Lockwood, and that of Daniel Marshall, Lockwood's house still 
stands at the rear of Lunus furniture store, near the southeast 
corner of the public square. Daniel Marshall bought the log 
house built by Jarrett Garner, and in it kept store for a number 
of years, though Jesse C. Lockwood's w^s the first store in the 
place; Randolph Smi4;h's, who also kept a tavern, the second, and 
Daniel Marshall's the third. Joseph Irvin was the first hatter 
in the town, and James Allen the first tanner. The first black- 
smith was either Solomon Collins or Robert Witt, Collin's shop 
was near the northeast corner of the square. The first wagon- 
maker was Samuel Patton, a brother-in-law of Collins. The 
first tailor was Samuel Dietz, and the first tinner was John S. 
Kinnear. The first physician was Dr. William B. McLean, the 



294 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

second Lorenzo Rathbone, who was an old school physician, a 
regular graduate of a New York college. The first resident 
attorney at law, licensed to practice, was Samuel S. Marshall. 
Charles H. and John H. Heard, brothers, commenced merchan- 
dising in about 1834, conducting their store about two years. 
Charles H. Heard commenced again in 1837, and followed the 
business until 1874, when he retired. The first school in Mc- 
Leansboro, in a building erected for school purposes, was taught 
by Theodore Scott, an old soldier of the war of 1812. The 
building in which he taught stood just north of Judge Mars- 
hall's present residence. The pottery-ware made in the town 
was by a Mr. Pike or McPike, in 1822 or 1823, the business 
however has since been abandoned. The first students sent to 
colleo-e from this place were Judge Marshall, to Princeton, Ky., 
and Judge Crouch, to McKendree College. 

The growth of McLeansboro has been slow but steady. 
Among the leading physicians of the place, have been, besides 
the first two already mentioned, Dr. Gregory, J. W. Hair, Samuel 
Gates, Richard D. Rathbone, V. Rathbone, A. De Foe, V. S. 
Benson, George Benson, Wilford Hall and C. M. Lyon. 

The present business houses are as follows: Dry goods and 
groceries — Dailey & Broth, J. E. Robinson, Asher & Ledbetter, 
L G. Berridge & Co., T. L. Lockhart, James Lockhart and A. A. 
Lasater; groceries — Ham. Longworth, William Still, Samuel 
Daily, Charles Lasater^ S. M. O'Neal, R. T. Meador and Frank 
Chapman; drug Stores — H. Johnson and Severs & Dale; 
clothing store — Moses Schuman; hardware stores — John H. 
Miller, Silas W. Heard and Adam Cully; furniture stores — 
John Lunn and Maulding & Braden ; agricultural implements — 
John Miller; lumber yards— Al. Hyatt and T. B. Wright; 
undertakers — John Lunn and Lee Smith ; harness and saddles — 
B. F. Bevis and Ayd; blacksmiths — T. L. Hunter, Will- 
iam Naughter and ■ Wetzer ; boot and shoe stores — Peter 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 295 

Carlin and Thomas Allen; book and news store — T. M. Puck- 
ett; ice dealer — -James M. Shoemaker; meat markets — John 
Redferren and D. Harris ; confectionery and ice cream — Thomas 
Echols; hotels — Sharp's Hotel, Calvin Sharp; St. James 
Hotel, Calvin Sharp. The City Hotel was destroyed by fire on 
May 1, 1887. Eestaurants — Gudge Beard, Mrs. Lockwood and 
William Procter; boarding houses — T. L. Gamble, J. Coger 
and B. F. Bevis; dentist — T. L, Gamble; millinery stores — 
Mrs. Daily and Mrs. Lockhart; marble cutters — J, C. Carner 
and A. T. Sullenger; livery stables — J. Pi. Campbell and 
Allen & Lyon. The population of the city is now from 1,600 to 
1,700. 

Following is a list of the postmasters: Jesse C. Lockwood, J. 
W. Marshall, J. A. Wilson, A. Irvin, Mrs. J. Meador, J. R. Sid- 
dall, T. J. Chapman, R. L. Meador, C. M. Lyon and J. W. Mar- 
shall, the present postmaster. 

Hamilton County Woolen Mills were erected by Hood & 
Bowers in 1862, at Hoodville, at a cost of $12,000, and were run 
by them until 1868, when the firm became Hood, Bowers & Co., 
by the admission of R. L. Meador to partnership. This firm 
continued until 1871, when Mr. Bowers sold out to Mr. Hood, 
and the firm became Hood & Meador, and so remained until 1875, 
when Mr. Meador sold out to Mr. Hood, who managed the mills 
until 1877, at which time Mr. Meador bought the entire estab- 
lishment, and has since been sole proprietor. In 1883 he moved 
the mills to McLeansboro. It is what is called a one-set mill, 
having a 180-spindle jack and seven looms. The mills have a 
capacity of 100 pounds of yarn per day, and 150 yards of cloth. 
The machinery is propelled by a thirty-six horse-power engine, 
and the entire establishment is worth about $8,000. 

The City Flouring Mills were built in 1875 by Coker & Guill, 
and put in operation August 1 of that year. The building is a fi-ame 
one, three stories high above the basement; 36x00 feet, and with 



296 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

the machinery cost about |36,000. In 1870 W. A. Coker, the 
present proprietor, bought out Mr, Guill. The mills have a capac- 
ity of 100 barrels of flour per day, and the machinery is run by 
a sixty-horse power engine. 

The People's Mills were erected in 1878 by C. H. Heard. 
The building is of brick, 48x52 feet in size, and three stories 
high above the basement. It cost about $22,000. There are in 
these mills four run of buhrs — three for wheat and one for corn — 
and the capacity is 100 barrels of flour per day. Mr. Heard is 
the proprietor of the mills, and the present lessee is William 
McConnell. 

Rice & Pape's Mill was built about 1867, and is located on 
Main Street, in the east part of town. It is a frame building, and 
consists of both grist and saw mill. The grist is now used mostly 
for grinding corn, and the sawing of lumber is the main business 
of the establishment. Its value is about $4,000. 

Polk Lodge, No. 137, A. F. & A. M., was chartered October 
5, 1853, with but a few members, as follows: E. B. Ames, Ben- 
jamin L. Wiley, Isaac R. Diller, J. L. Anderson, H, G. Reynolds 
and Lorenzo Rathbone. The present officers of the lodge are: 
R. A. Silliman, W. M. ; Jasper N. Meador, S. W. ; W. W. Hall, 
J. W. ; A. M. Wilson, Secretary and A. A. Hyatt, Treasurer. 

Hamilton Lodge, No. 191, I. O. O. P., was organized October 
17, 1856, with the following members: Marshall, M. Young, L. 
Rathbone, Charles Oilman, John W. O'Neal, Chester Carpenter 
and D. F. Asbury. The present officers of the lodge are T. M. 
Puckett, N. G. ; F. J. Smith, V. G. ; J. S. Sneed, P. S. ; John C. 
Asher, Treas. ; Joshua S. Sneed, Dist. Dept. G. M. ; Thomas H. 
Lambert, Rep. The present membership is forty. 

McLeansboro Lodge, No. 26, I. O. O. F., was chartered 
March 17, 1884, with seventeen members. Its first officers were 
P. L. McNabb, N. G. ; R. H. Stanley, V. G. ; A. C. Cully, Sec. ; 
W. R. Daniel, P. S. ; and T. B. Wright, Treas. Its present 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 297 

membership is thirty-nine, and its present officers are C. "VV. 
Freaze, N. G. ; John H. Smith, V. G. ; A. 0. Cully, Sec. and P. 
L. McNabb, Treas. 

McLeansboro Post, No. 483, G. A. R., was organized Septem- 
ber 13, 1884, with thirty-one charter members and mustered in by 
the special mustering officer, J. T. Vaught, of Enfield, 111. The 
following officers were elected: T. M. Eckley, Com.; J, T. Bar- 
nett, Sr. V. C. ; James Fields, Jr. V. C. ; A. De Foe, Chap.; 
Charles M. Lyon, Surg. ; A. A. Hyatt, O. D. ; J. M. Blades, Q. 
M. ; J. S. Wycough, O. G. ; and the following were appointed : J, 
N. Reeder, Adj. ; W. J. Boyd, Q. M. S., and J. M. Weldin, Sergt. 
Maj. The present membership is fifty-six, and the present offi- 
cers are: T. M. Eckley, Com.; H. A. ^Y. Kipp, Sr. V. C. ; J. W. 
Daily, Jr. V. C. ; Irvin C. Reeder, Chap. ; Charles M. Lyon, 
Surg. ; R. L. Meador, O. D. ; A. A. Hyatt, Q. M. ; J. M. Weldin, 
Adj., and J. M. Blades, Sergt. -Maj. 

Knights of Honor were organized February 14, 1878, by W. 
H. McCormick with sixteen charter members, as follows, the 
officers being included in the list: R. C. Robinson, A. D. ; W. R, 
Studebaker, P. D. ; W. I. Davis, V. D. ; W. C. Shaw, D. ; Thomas 
Sloan, W. B. Garner, W. R. Daniels, J. A. Baird, Lafayette 
Howard, J. F. Marshall, Milton Daily, T. L. Lockhart, J. P. 
Stelle, Arch. Faulkner, R. W. Glen and A. Longworth. 

McLeansboro Encampment, No. 74, I. O. O. F., was organ- 
ized and chartered in 1867. The charter members were Richard 
W. Townshend, William F. Scott, James Lane, William P. Bowers, 
John M. Howard, Henry W. White and Alexander J. Gunter. 
The present officers are: John J. Buck, C. P.; Felix A. Harvey, 
H. P. ; Dr. A. De Foe, Sen. W., and A. M. Gregg, Jr. W. ; Joshua 
S. Sneed, Scribe, Representative and Deputy. The present mem- 
bership is thirty. 

Besides the above there is a lodge of K. of P., of Royal 
Templars of Temperance, and order of the Eastern "Star. 



298 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

E. I. Tinkham & Co.'s bank was established at McLeausboro 
in September, 1855, with a capital of $500,000. Smith Tinkham 
was president and William Eickcords, cashier. Its circulation 
was secured by bonds of the State of Ohio, and when the bank 
went into liquidation in 1862 its circulation was all redeemed iu 
gold. 

The Bank of the Republic was established at McLeansboro in 
the fall of 1856 with a capital of $1,000,000. Charles H. Rock- 
well was president and John Rockwell, cashier. Its circulation 
was secured by bonds of the States of Virginia, Tennessee and 
North Carolftia, and when, in 1862, on account of the war it 
closed out its business its notes were redeemed at a various and 
heavy discount. 

Hamilton County Bank of anie helium days, like the other 
two named above, existed only a few years, from the spring of 
1855 to about 1862. Its circulation, however, being all based on 
bonds of Northern States, was all redeemed at par. 

Hamilton County Bank was started in 1871 by Chalon G. 
Cloud on the corner of Washington and Main Streets. Mr. 
Cloud conducted his business alone for some years, and then 
employed assistance as such became necessary. The bank 
remained in its original location until the completion of the 
present elegant brick building about seventy-five feet westward 
from the old building in 1881. This is simply a bank of dis- 
count and deposit. 

The cemetery southeast of the city was established early in 
1875. It was platted under the auspices of Hamilton Lodge, No. 
19, I. O. O. F. The title to the property was vested in the 
county of Hamilton for the use of the lodge. When a lot is 
purchased a certificate is issued under the seal of the lodge and 
another certificate is issued under the seal of the county clerk. 
At the time of the establishment of the cemetery the lodge was 
represented Uy J. M. Blades, J. J. Buck and A. DeFoe, and the 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 299 

county by A. G. Cloud and C. H. Heard. The committee on sur- 
veying was composed of T. M. Eckley and P. Eearden. The 
cemetery is very pleasantly situated and tastefully laid out and 
kept. 

The Press. The first printing done in Hamilton County 
was by James P. Stella, who made a wooden press and whittled 
out a font or two of type. A regular printing press was brought 
to the county in 1855, by James D. Moody, who in a few days 
after the arrival of the press, started the Hamilton News. The 
paper was 22x32 inches. In a short time A. J. Alden became 
the proprietor and changed the name to the HamiUon Sucker. 
Mr. Alden continued the publication of the Sucker until elected 
circuit court clerk in 1860, when he sold it to J. W. Meador, 
who changed the name to the HamiUon Express. It was not 
long before C. C. Carpenter became the proprietor, who pub- 
lished it under the name of the Hamilton Democrat. After a few 
months a tramp printer named Martin rented the establishment 
and gave the paper a classical name, The Vox Populi, but after a 
few issues it was suspended. After a short period of hibernation 
the office outfit was purchased, in 1864, by T. L. Lockhart & Co., 
and John P. Stelle became editor. Heretofore the paper had been 
Democratic, but under the editoria 1 management of Mr. Stelle it 
became a Kepublican paper, under the name of the Union Eagle. 
The circulation of the Eagle became larger than any of its pre- 
decessors, but, notwithstanding this, it was destined to be short 
lived, and in the spring of 1865 it was purchased by Judge Lorenzo 
Goodridge, and T. T. Wilson of Mount Vernon became the editor 
and business manager, and the paper again became Democratic, 
the name becoming the Hamilton Democrat. Mr. Wilson soon 
retired, and Judge Goodridge continued tlie publication of the 
paper on his own res[)onsibility with the aid of journeymen 
printers until his death. Shortly after this event T. B. Stelle 
became the proprietor, and then in about 1869 R. L. Brown, who 



300 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

changed the name to the McLeansboro Times. In 1872 George 
K. andJohn C. Edwards bought the Times, and ran it in the 
interest of Horace Greeley for the presidency. In the spring of 
1873 M, B. Friend purchased the establishment, and continued 
its publication until it was burned up in the conflagration which 
destroyed the buildings north of the public square, in the spring 
of 1874. During the following summer Mr. Friend, aided by 
donations, purchased the material of the Mount Vernon Statesman,. 
and in July, 1874, again bought out the Times, which has been 
published ever since with a few changes of proprietors: Mr. 
Friend sold it to J. E. & C. Campbell, October 10, 1878, and in 
May, 1883, C. Campbell sold his interest to J. E. Campbell, who 
has since been and is the sole proprietor. 

In December, 1870, John Coker purchased the Shawneetown 
Mercury, and moved the material to McLeansboro. The new 
paper started by him and John P. Stelle, under the firm name of 
Coker & Stelle, was named the Golden Era, the first number ap- 
pearing January 13, 1872. The Golden Era was Eepublican in 
politics, and at once reached a circulation of 500. In 1873 the 
proprietors were John P. Stelle and Mrs. Catharine Coker, and 
the firm name became Stelle & Coker. On January 15, 1874, W. 
W. Davisson bought an interest in the Era, and it was published 
under the firm name of Davisson & Stelle until March, 1878, when 
Stelle ceased to be known as a partner, and Davisson continued to 
manage it until 1884, when it was purchased by J. E. Campbell, 
proprietor of the Times, and ceased to exist January 3, 1884. 

The Christian Instructor was published in McLeansboro for 
a few months, commencing in January, 1872. It was edited by 
George P. Slade, a minister of the Christian Church, and C. E. 
Wolfe was one of the publishers. Its circulation reached 900, but 
it was soon moved to Jeffersonville, Wayne County. 

The Progressive Farmer, a monthly paper published from 
the office of the Golden Era, was issued for about a year. Its 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 301 

circulation reached about 2,000 copies. It was edited by James 
P. Stelle of Mobile, Ala., but was moved to Evansville, Ind. 

The Leader, was started in the fall of 1882, by Dr. C. M. 
Lyon and John Irvin, the first issue appearing November 9. 
Messrs. Lyon & Irvin purchased a neM^ press in St. Louis. The 
Leader is Eepublican in politics, and is still published by Lyon 
& Irvin. 

July 4, 1876, was celebrated in a befitting manner at McLeans- 
boro. The morning was ushered in by the firing of 100 guns, 
which was heard all over the county. By 9 o'clock the citizens 
were crowding into town. About the same time the Enfield 
Cornet Band arrived and was the admiration of the crowd. 
The Flannigan Precinct delegation came in GOO strong, in a 
driving storm of rain. After a time, however, the rain ceased 
to fall, and Col. H. W. Hall, Capt. L. W. Cremeens, and 
Lieuts. A. A. Lasater and John Coker rallied the soldiers in 
the public square. In the procession the soldiers of the Mexi- 
can war and the war of the Rebellion followed in the rear of the 
soldiers of the Black Hawk war and of the pioneer settlers, and 
marched to the fair grounds. About 6,000 people were present. 
Prayer was offered by Elder Calvin Allen; the Declaration of 
Independence was read by C. G. Cloud; poems were read by Mrs. 
Fannie M. Parker and Mrs. Emma J. Deitz; the oration of the day 
was delivered by Leonidas Walker ; and outlines of the history of 
Hamilton County, were read by Judge T. B. Stelle. The marshal 
of the day was Elzathan M. Bowers, and the president was 
Hon. Robertson S. Anderson. 

INCOEPORATION. 

An act was passed by the Legislature January 31, 1840 author- 
izing the incorporation of McLeansboro in the following language: 

Beit enacted, That the inhabitants of the town of McLeansboro, in Ham- 
ilton County, be, and they are hereby authorized to become, incorporated under 
the general incorporation law, notwithstanding that the town may not contain 



302 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

150 inhabitants: Provided that the corporators be cot compelled to work the 
public highways more than one-half mile from the center of the corporation. 

Under this special act an election was held at the courthouse in 
McLeansboro, October 22, 1842, for the purpose of ascertaining- 
whether the citizens of said town desired to become an incorporated 
town, with the following result: for the incorporation — Daniel Mar- 
shall, Joshua Shoemaker, J. H. Heard, J. S. Kinnear, H. F. R. 
Smith, J. A. Wilson, David Sharp, W. A. Thomas, J. C. Lockwood, 
James Hall, John W. O'Neal, William Brinkley, A. Potete and I. 
S. Warmouth. Against incorporation — none. 

The judges and clerk of the election signed the following cer- 
tificate : 

We, J. C. Lockwood, clerk, and James Hall and J. W. O'Neal, judges, cer- 
tify the foregoing is a true return of the election for and against the incorpora- 
tion of the town of McLeansboro this 22dday of October, 1842. 

James Hall, ) t,.^...o 
J. W. O'Neal, \ '^'"^^''- 
Attest : 
J. C. Lockwood, Clerk. 

The following was signed by J. Shoemaker, justice of the 
peace: 

STATE OF ILLINOIS, ) 
Hamilton County. i 

This day came James Hall and J. W. O'Neal, judges, 
and J. C. Lockwood, clerk of the election, who took the necessary oaths to 
perform their duties as clerk and judges of the election for the incorporation of 
the town of McLeansboro. 

James Hall, President. 
J. C. Lockwood, Cierk. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 22dday of October, 1842. 

J. Shoemaker, Justice of the peace. 

Another certificate was as follows : 

STATE OF ILLINOIS, [ 
Hamilton County. \ ^ 

I, D. Marshall, Clerk of the County Commis- 
sioners' Court of said county, certify the foregoing to be a true copy of the return 
made to me by Daniel Marshall, president, and James Hall, Charles H. Heard, 
J. C. Lockwood and R. A. Gowdy, Trustees of the Town of McLeansboro. 

In testimony whereof, I hereunto set my hand and seal this 6th day of 
December, 1842. 

D. Marshall, Clerk. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 303 

It was ordered by the county commissioners' court, that, the 
trustees of the corporation of the town of McLeansboro being 
elected, and the said incorporation and town being laid off by said 
trustees a quarter of a mile each way from the center of the public 
square, each road that comes into the said town of McLeansboro 
shall be worked by the citizens of said town as far as the corpora- 
tion limits extend and no farther, and the said trustees are hereby 
authorized to have the same measured and stakes set up for the 
purposes of ascertaining and marking the said distances of one 
quarter of a mile on each road so entering said incorporated town. 

A general law was passed February 10, 1849, entitled " An act 
to incorporate towns and cities." Under authority of this act an 
election was held in McLeansboro, January 26, 1856, for the pur- 
pose of determining upon the incorporation of the town. James 
M. Blades was appointed president of the meeting, and M. M. 
Toung, clerk. These two gentlemen, being sworn in by John S. 
Kinnear, Esq., as judges of the election, proceeded to open the 
polls for receiving the votes. Nineteen votes were cast — sixteen 
for and three against incorporation. This election not being sat- 
isfactory, another was held on March 8, 1856, at which Daniel F. 
Asbury, president of the meeting, and William L. Gooden, clerk, 
were the judges. Twenty-seven votes were cast — twenty-three for 
and four against incorporation. Upon the strength of this elec- 
tion the town elected a board of trustees, whose names could not 
certainly be ascertained. The following four names are both 
asserted and denied, by old citizens who ought to be able to 
remember, to have belonged to four of the members of the first 
board of trustees, under this incorporation: Dr. Thomas Sharp, 
John McElvain, Lemuel Powell and David Sharp. But, at any 
rate, the incorporation seems to have been an illegal one, for it 
was deemed necessary by the Legislature to pass the following 
act, which was approved Febuary 18, 1857: 



304 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

Be it enacted, etc., That Thomas Sharp, Nathaniel M. Martin, Lewis J. Mar- 
tin, Lemuel Powell and William L. Gooden be, and they are hereby declared to 
be, the lawfully organized board of the town of McLeausboro, in the county of 
Hamilton, under the provisions of Chapter 25, of the revised statutes, and the 
act approved February 10, 1849, entitled "An act to incorporate towns and cit- 
ies," and that all previous acts and proceedings of said board of trustees and of 
their predecessors be and they are hereby declared valid and binding, notwith- 
standing any informality in the organization of said board, provided the acts were 
otherwise lawful. 

By the same act John S. Kinnear was declared to be the law- 
fully authorized police magistrate. But whoever may have been 
the officers under this incorporation as thus legalized or what may 
have been their acts, it is impossible now to know as either 
through accident or design, some think the latter, the records 
have been lost or destroyed down to 1872, since which time a 
complete list of the officers can be given. In 1872 the trustees 
were V. S. Benson, T. B. Stelle, J. H. Wilson, J. W. Daily and 
E. H. Stanley. The officers were: president, T. B. Stelle; clerk, 
C. M. Lyon; treasurer, J. T. Marshall; constable, John K. La- 
sater; street commissioner, V. S. Benson; attorney, William 
Hamill. On the 16th of October, 1872, it was ordered that the 
corporation limits embrace one square mile of territory, begin- 
ning at a point one-half mile north of the center of the public 
square, and running thence east one-half mile ; thence south one 
mile; thence west one mile; thence north one mile, and thence 
east one-half mile to the beginning. 

In this connection, though out of chronological order, it may 
not be amiss to record the fact that the first survey of the plat of 
the town of McLeansboro failed to locate the town, further than 
to say that it was on the northwest quarter of Section 15, Town- 
ship 5, Range 6, and in future years trouble grew out of this want 
of definiteness. To remedy the difficulties that were occuring the 
Legislature passed an act which was approved February 15, 1855, 
authorizing the citizens of McLeansboro " to cause to be planted 
and fixed, under the directions of the county surveyor of Hamilton 
County, at the northwest corner of the lot known in the original 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 305 

survey and plan of said town as Lot No. 49, as said corner is now 
known and established, a good and substantial stone monument 
with suitable marks and inscriptions thereon for the future 
indentification thereof; and also a similar stone at each corner of 
the public square of said town as ascertained by a survey from 
said corner of Lot No. 49; and said stones so placed and estab- 
lished shall forever thereafter be preserved as permanent monu- 
ments, and shall be deemed and taken as proper starting points for 
any and all surveys in said town," etc. 

In 1873 T. B. Stelle was elected president of the board of 
trustees; C, M. Lyon, clerk, and John S. McGee, street commis- 
sioner. On August 12, 1873, a new board was elected, of which 
J. W. Daily was chosen president; C. M. Lyon, clerk, and J. M. 
Shoemaker, treasurer. On August 10, 1874, the question of organ- 
izing as a village under the general law was voted on with the 
following result: For organization 140, against 22. The trustees 
elected then were J. J. Powell, J. H. Wilson, W. W. Davisson, J. 
H. Daily, W. Daniels and A. W. Severs. This board elected J. 
J. Powell, president; T. M. Eckley, clerk, and E. L. Meador, 
treasurer. An election was then held April 20, 1875, at which 
William Hamill, P. L. McNabb, V. S. Benson, T. M. Eckley, 
William J, Tevis and E. L. Meador were elected trustees, and 
they chose V. S. Benson, president, and C. M. Lyon clerk. An- 
other election was held for trustees August 2, 1875, resulting in 
the choice of P. L. McNabb, William Hamill, V. S. Benson, J. 
W. Daily, A. J. Guill and S. Parkhurst. For the year ending 
April 20, 1876, Y. S. Benson was again elected president and C. 
M. Lyon, clerk. On April 18, 1876, the following board was 
elected: Lemuel Powell, J. H. Walcutt, John L. Blades, Oscar 
McGee, W. J. Smith and T. B. Wright; Lemuel Powell was 
elected president and W. E. Daniel, clerk. Since then the follow- 
ing have been the presidents and clerks of the board of trustees: 

Presidents— T. B, Wright, in 1877; L. J. Hale, 1878, T. M. 



306 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

Eckley, 1879; ,' 1880; John J. Buck, 1881; V. S. 

Benson, 1882-84; J. H. Wilson, 1885. 

Clerks— Joseph F. Marshall, 1877; Joseph N. Meador, 1878; 
W. A. McElvain, 1879; J. A. Siddall, 1880; Adam C. Cully, 
1881 and 1882; John C. Carner, 1883; William McConnell, 1884; 
C. L. Young, 1885. 

April 20, 1886, an election was held to determine the question 
of organization as a city under the general law, resulting in 184 
votes being cast for organization to 99 against it. April 26 a 
committee was appointed to lay off the city in three wards, but 
discharged on the 27th. On the 28th the city was divided into 
three wards, and it was on that day ordered that an election for 
mayor and two aldermen from each ward be held on May 20. 
P. L. McNabb was elected mayor, and aldermen were elected as 
follows: First Ward, J. E. Eobinson and William D. Richards; 
Second Ward, Thomas B. Allen and Stephen F. Cook ; Third Ward, 
W. E. Daniel and T. L. Hunter. The other officers under this 
first city organization were S. J. Lockwood, clerk ; W. McConnell, 
treasurer and Joshua L. Sneed, attorney. At the same time the 
question of licensing saloons within the corporate limits of the 
city was voted on, with the result of there being 125 votes in favor 
of license to 173 against it. Saloons, however, were licensed dur- 
ing the year ending April 19, 1887, because one of the council 
who was expected to refuse licenses was found after the election 
to favor granting them. 

At the election held April 19, 1887, for mayor and three 
alderman, one from each ward, the question of licensing saloons 
was the principal one at issue. Thompson B. Stelle represented 
the anti-license element, and received 176 votes for mayor; V. S. 
Benson represented those in favor of granting license, and 
received 99 votes for mayor. For clerk William T. Starkey 
received 261 votes, F. M. Harwood 18, and William V. Sterling 
10. For treasurer, William McConnell received 282 votes ; for city 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 307 

attorney, A. M. Wilson received 182, and James Lane 100. The 
aldermen elected were C. O. Sloan, A. A. Lasater and C. W. 
Eudaly, in the First, Second and Third Wards, respectively. 
Those holding over being J. E. Kobinson, S. F. Cook and W. E. 
Daniels, and Charles E. Coker was elected city marshal. 

DAHLGKEN. 

Dahlgren is situated on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, in 
the northwestern part of Hamilton County, eleven miles from 
McLeansboro. it began to be settled in December, 1870. It 
was the result of the building of the railroad, and was named in 
honor of Gen. Dahlgren, who at that time had, it is believed, an 
interest in the road. The town was originally built on land 
owned by Abel Kuykendall and A. M. Sturman. The first build- 
ing was erected by James Steell in 1870 for the purpose of sell- 
ing goods. Samuel M. Butler began selling dry goods in the 
same building about March, 1871, and continued in the same 
business until 1883. About the time the town was started 
Nathan Garrison established himself in the lumber business, and 
coupled with that the sale of agricultural implements. The first 
mill was built by A. M. Sturman & Sons in 1873, since which 
time they have been engaged in grinding wheat and corn. From 
1873 to 1883, they ran a saw mill in connection with the flouring 
mill. In May, 1871, James M. Burton erected the second store 
building in the place and commenced selling dry goods. Judge 
A. M. Sturman built the third, and John Halley the fourth, both 
of the latter also in 1871. James T. Speuce & Co. erected a 
stave factory, but after three years discontinued the business. 
The first hotel was built in 1871 by William Carman who con- 
tinued the proprietor about two years. In 1884, David Usry 
erected the first livery stable and since that time has, as a general 
thing, continued its management. The present business of 
the town consists of five dry goods stores conducted by A. M. 



308 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

Grigg, A. Aydt, John Halley, Samuel N. Hollowell and B. 
Brumbaugh ; groceries, Barney Wingett and James Monroe; hard- 
ware, Solomon Aydt ; drug store, J. Burton ; harness shop, Charles 
Aydt; furniture, Nathan Garrison, who also deals in grain, farm- 
ing implements, ties, etc. ; blacksmiths, George McMahon, Will- 
iam Hogue and George Sinks; hotel, David Usry; livery and feed 
stable, David Usry and George W. Kose; physicians, W. D. 
Karns, A. M. Brumbaugh and L. C. Morgan ; lawyers, Thomas 
Shipley and L. W. Cremeens; shoemakers, C. M. Brookins and 
W. B. Underwood. 

Dahlgren Lodge, No. 37, of the Order of Tonti, was chartered 
on August 28, 1886, with twenty-two charter members. The first 
ofl&cers were Past President, Ira A. Goodridge; President, A. M. 
Grigg ; Vice-President, Dr. A. M. Brumbaugh ; Secretary, George 
Miller; Treasurer, Mart. Sturman; Guard,LeAvis Shelton ; Sentinel, 
John C. Bowen ; Medical Examiner, Dr. L. C. Morgan. The pres- 
ent membership is thirty-seven, and the present officers 
are A. M. Grigg, President; James M. Burton, Vice-President; 
Ira A. Goodridge, Secretary; Mart. Sturman, Treasurer; 
Dr. A. M. Brumbaugh, Chaplain; Lafayette Sturman, Marshal; 
John K. Grigg, Guard ; John C. Bowen, Sentinel ; Dr. L. C. Mor- 
gan, Medical Examiner. The trustees are George Miller, Colum- 
bus S. Shelton and Dr. L. C. Morgan. Ira A. Goodridge is Dep- 
uty Supreme President of the general Order and has power to 
organize lodges. 

Local Branch, No. 124, Order of the Iron Hall, was chartered 
on September 12, 1882, with ten members. The first officers were 
James M. Burton, Past Chief Justice ; Ira A. Goodridge, Chief 
Justice ; W. M. Spencer, Vice- Justice ; E. A. Goodridge, Account- 
ant ; J. K. Knowles, Cashier ; W. D. Karns, Adjustor and Med- 
ical Examiner ; David Usry, Prelate ; C. F. Goodridge, Herald ; 
D. T. Kobinson, Watchman; C. M. Brookins, Vidette; J. M. Bur- 
ton, W. D. Karns, and David Usry, Trustees. The present mem- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 309 

bership is forty-two. There ha^'e been seven suspensions and 
one death. The present officers are W. E. Burton, Past Chief 
Justice; J. M. Burton, Chief Justice; C. M. Brookins, Vice- 
Justice ; W. D. Karns, Accountant and Medical Examiner ; Albert 
Sturman, Cashier; L. W. Cremeens, Adjustor; O. ^Y. Monroe, 
Prelate; J. M. Harris, Herald; G. W. McMahon, Watchman; 
John Irvin, Vidette ; W. R. Burton, J. H. Pace and G. W. Rose, 
Trustees. There has been paid out as sick benefits to members 
of this branch, ^3,280. The original charter members were 
James M. Burton, Ira A. Goodridge, William M. Spencer, E. A. 
Goodridge, J. R. Knowles, W. D. Karns, Daniel Usry, C. F. 
Goodridge, D. T. Robinson, and C. M. Brookins. 

Dahlgren Lodge, No. 486, I. O. O. P., was granted a charter 
on October 8, 1872. 

Thackeray is a small town on the Louisville & Nashville 
Railway, six miles east of McLeans boro. It is in the southwest 
quarter of the northeast corner of Section 5, Township 5, Range 
7, and was surveyed on October 6, 1871. It was named after the 
English novelist, William Makepeace Thackeray, by the railway 
company. The first merchant was David Hamill, who was also 
first postmaster. The present business comprises a general store 
kept by David Hamill, a grocery store by W. W. Buck & Co., a 
grocery and drug store by J. L. Millard, and blacksmith shops 
by J. N. Trout and A. W. Rankin. The physicians are Z. R. 
Millard and E. G. Neal. There are two churches, Missionary 
Roman Catholic and Methodist Episcopal, and a graded school. 
David Hamill is the present postmaster, Thackeray is head- 
quarters for two gangs of section hands on the Louisville & 
Nashville Railway, working fourteen men. The population of 
the place is 165. 

Logansport is located in Crook Township in the the southeast 
quarter of the northwest quarter of Section 10, Township 5, 
Range 7. It was surveyed June 15, 1857. Eli York was the 



310 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

first mercliant and Tilford Taylor the first saloonist. The post- 
office was established about ISGlwith John Hawthorn postmaster, 
who has retained the office ever since. The only business in the 
place for about fifteen years has been a "jug grocery." The 
town was laid off by William Logan Malone, and named Logans- 
port in his honor. 

Broughton lies in the northeast quarter of the northwest 
quarter of Section 8, and in the south half of the southwest quar- 
ter of Section 5, Township 7, Range 7. It was surveyed on May 
4, 1872. 

Jefferson City was platted June 4, 1857, and originally con- 
sisted of ten lots on each side of Main Street. There is 
nothing there now but an old brick house. 

New Loudon was surveyed May 15, 1857. Two or three 
houses are all there is now of the town. 

Rectorville was located on the northeast quarter of the north- 
west quarter of Section 17, Township 7, Range 7, and was sur- 
veyed February 25, 1857. It has since been vacated. 

Macedonia lies in Section 31, Township 5, Range 5, and 
was surveyed January 29, 1858, and is now a flourishing little 
village. 

Lovilla was located in the southwest quarter of the south- 
west quarter of Section 21, Township 4, Range 5, and was sur- 
veyed June 21, 1854. It was killed by the railroad avoiding it. 

Walpole is situated on Section 4, Township 7, Range 6, and 
was surveyed March 11, 1857, and is now a fine little trading 
point. 

Jamestown was situated in the southeast quarter of Section 
36, Township 5, Range 7. It was surveyed December 14, 1857, 
but has since died a natural death. 

Piopolis is located in the northwest quarter of the northeast 
quarter of Section 17, Township 4, Range 6. It was surveyed 
May 14, 1877, and named in honor of Pius IX. Here is the St. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 311 

John's Catholic Church, a store or two and the postoffice. St. 
John's Catholic Church building is the finest edifice in the 
county. 

Delafield is situated in the northwest quarter of the south- 
east quarter, and other adjacent quarters of Section 25, Town- 
ship 4, Range 5. It now consists of little else than a station on 
the railroad. 

Hoodville lies in the south half of the northeast quarter of 
Section 34, Township 5, Eange 6. It was surveyed September 

28, 1866. Hood's addition was afterward made to it, when it was 
thought the town would be of some importance. There is now 
a store kept by Epperson Bros., and a saw mill. J. W. Epper- 
son is postmaster. The population is now about fifty. 

Belle City, or Belle Prairie as it is otherwise called, was laid 
out in February, 1862. Main Street runs north and south, Mar- 
ket Avenue and St. Charles Avenue, east and west. In the origi- 
nal plat there were twenty -five lots, a part of them 60x120 feet, 
a part 60x180 feet and a few 120x213 feet. Lewis' addition 
was made April 22, 1863, and the town is now quite a flourish- 
ing little hamlet. 

THE AGRICULTURAL BOARD. 

Hamilton County Agricultural Board was incorporated July 

29, 1880, and organized July 31. In a certain sense it was the 
successor of the Hamilton County Agricultural Society, which 
was organized probably as early as 1870, but which was inopera- 
tive for a number of years previous to the incorporation of the 
agricultural board. The first officers of this board, elected in 
1880, were V. S. Benson, president; John J. Buck, vice-presi- 
dent; C. G. McCoy, treasurer; G. B. Wheeler, secretary; T. B. 
Stelle, marshal; P. L. McNabb, general superintendent, and M. 
C. Dale, chief of police. The board purchased the personal 
property of the old agricultural society, and besides, they own 



312 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

forty acres of land just west of McLeansboro, which they have 
fitted up with every necessary convenience. The capital stock 
of the board was originally ^2,500, divided into twenty-five 
shares. Since then an assessment has been made of $45 per 
share, and the cash value of the real estate and improvements is 
something over $10,000. The board has held seven annual 
fairs, at the last of which they paid out in premiums $1,312.50. 
The following have been the officers of this board since 1880: 

PresideMis— John J. Buck, 1881; W. A. Coker, 1882; J. 
H. Wilson, 1883-84; W. A. Coker, 1885; V. S. Benson, 1886. 

Vice-presidents— ^Y. A. Coker, 1881; James McGilly, 1882; 
W. A. Coker, 1883; C. G. McCoy, 1884; J. E. Campbell, 1885; 
J. J. Buck, 1886. 

Secretaries— G. B. Wheeler, 1881; W. A. McElvain, 1882; 
C. G. McCoy, 1883; T. B. Stelle, 1884; W. A. McElvain, 
1885-86. 

Treasurers— C. G. McCoy, 1881-82; John J. Buck, 1883 
-85, and T. B. Stelle, 1886. . 

aeneral Superintendents— T. B. Stelle, 1881; J. H. Wilson, 
1882; T. B. Stelle, 1883; V. S. Benson, 1884; J. H. Wilson, 
1885, and M. C. Dale, 1886. 

Marshals— \. S. Benson, 1881; T. B. Stelle, 1882; V. S. 
Benson, 1883; W. A. Coker, 1884; T. B. Stelle, 1885, and J. C. 
Edwards, 1886. 

Chiefs of Police— V. L. McNabb, 1881 ;G.B. Wheeler, 1882; 
J. R. Campbell, 1883-84; M. C. Dale, 1885, and J. S. Wycaugh, 
1886. 

farmers' mutual benefit association. 

The Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association was organized about 

January 1, 1887, and by April 1, 1887, there were thirteen lodges, 

with a membership of 569. These thirteen lodges belonging to 

Hamilton County with their secretaries are as follows: No. 57, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 313 

secretary, J. Darnell, Akin, Franklin County; No. 76, Charles 
Durham, Hammock; No. 8G, W. K. Burnett, Flint; No. 89, E. E. 
Binkley, Hoodville; No. 106, Sylvester DeWitt, Palo Alto; No. 
117, J. D. Lockwood, Braden; No. 127, John Irvin, Dahlgren; 
No. 184, J. E. Riggs, McLeansboro; No. 155, C. L. French, 
McLeansboro; No. 171, D. Daily, McLeansboro; No. 176, Colum- 
bus Curtis, Walpole ; No. 177, W. D. Snover, Palo Alto; No. 178,— 

. The Binder- of Marion is the official organ of the 

association. It has for its motto, " Bound to no party's arbitrary 
sway, but devoted to the interests of the F. M. B. A." 

SCHOOLS. 

The schools in Hamilton County were in primitive times like 
those of the other counties in this volume. They were subscrip- 
tion schools, and taught by men whose principal qualification for 
the position was their ability to govern the children by corporal 
punishment. There were many of them, at least, exceedingly 
generous in the application of the switch. The schoolhouses, 
one of the first of which was erected about three and a half miles 
east of McLeansboro, were of logs with dirt floors, with desks 
and benches arranged around the sides of the house, through 
which light was admitted by means of greased paper pasted or 
otherwise fastened in apertures cut through the logs. At first 
the sessions were held during the long days in summer, school 
commencing in the morning when the sun was about an hour 
high and closing within about an hour of sunset, an hour's inter- 
mission being allowed at noon. Long school days were then the 
rule, as if to give the pupil an opportunity to learn all that was 
possible, or to compel the teacher to fully earn his scant pay of 
^1.50 or $2 per term of six months for each scholar. The text- 
books used were Dilworth's spelling book, the English reader 
an arithmetic, and the Bible or New Testament ; writing of course 
was also taught, the ink used being made by boiling down maple 

19 



314 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

bark, and coloring the decoction with copperas; quill pens were 
the only ones in use. One of the first teachers Avas Nathan 
Jinney, from Virginia, and Dr. Glover came immediately, or soon 
after, who taught on the Ichabod Mitchell farm. Hardy C. 
"Willis was perhaps the third teacher in the county; he taught in 
various schools, and when the school lands began to be sold so 
as to furnish townships with school funds, the townships began 
to build liouses; and when the school tax was levied and began 
to be collected, the schools gradually changed from a private to 
a public nature. James Allen was the first school commissioner. 
From this time on the schools have been steadily but slowly 
improving, but then there were but very few educated teachers. 
The first educated teachers who came into the county were Joseph 
Fitzsimmons, from Pennsylvania, and J .1. McClintock, fi'om Ohio, 
and the first educated native teacher was George B. Robinson, who 
was afterward county superintendent for a number of years. The 
above, as well as the following, taught in the frame schoolhouse in 
McLeansboro, standing on Pearl Street near Market, before the 
present brick schoolhouse was erected : Rev. Mr. Cole, Leouidas 
Walker, Charles A. Heard, Prof. Harris, Mr. Hoyt, John Turren- 
iine and A. J. Walker. 

The first report of the school commissioner of Hamilton 
County now to be found was made to the State superintendent of 
public instruction for the year ending October 1, 1861, Accord- 
ino- to that report there were then fifty-seven schools in the 
county, and 2,975 scholars in attendance. Of this number 239 
were under six years of age. The number of male scholars was 
1,698, and of females, 1,357. The total number of white persons 
in the county under twenty-one years of age was 6,606. There 
were seveuty-tAVo teachers, sixty of whom were males. In fifty 
of the fifty-three school districts school had been taught more 
than six months. There were fifty-one schoolhouses in the 
countv. The highest monthly wages paid to any male teacher 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 315 

was $35, and the lowest $12; the highest monthly wages paid to 
any-female teacher was $25, and the lowest $10. The entire sum 
paid out for teachers' wages was $8,025.46. 

In 1864, the first year in which any record was made of the 
number of certificates granted, there were granted forty-eight 
certificates, eleven of which were of the first grade, twenty-nine of 
the second and eight of the third. The youngest teacher was 
seventeen years of age and the oldest fifty-five. 

In 1865, the first year of the county superintendency, Leoni- 
das Walker, who had been school commissioner for several years, 
was the superintendent. Following are the principal statistics 
contained in that report: There were still fifty-three school dis- 
tricts, but the number of schools had increased to fifty-nine, and 
in fifty -two of the districts school had been taught more than six 
months. In one only had there been no school. The entire 
number of white persons in the county under twenty-one years of 
age was 6,996, and the number between six and twenty-one was 
4,883. There was one graded school in the county, in Township 
7, Eange 5, and there were three private schools. The principal 
of the township school fund was $30,508.42, and the entire 
amount paid out as teachers' wages was 9,419.76. The highest 
monthly wages paid to any male teacher was $80, in Township 5, 
Eange 6 ; and the highest to any female teacher was $45, in 
Township 7, Range 7. During the year ending September 1, 
1865, there were granted sixty-nine certificates, seventeen of which 
were of the first class or grade, fifty of the second and two of the 
third. Fifty-one certificates were granted to male teachers and 
eighteen to females. 

G. B. Robinson became county superintendent in 1865, and 
his report made in 1866 was the first that took cognizance of the 
colored pupils as a separate class. There were in the county 
four colored persons under twenty-one years of age, three of 
whom were between six and twenty-one, which number was 



316 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

unchanged in 1867. In 1870 there were 7,851 white persons under 
twenty-one and fifteen colored. The whole number of white per- 
sons between six and twenty-one was 5,148, and of colored 
persons twelve. The number of school districts had increased to 
sixty; the number of male scholars in attendance was 2,392 and 
of females, 1,945. There were sixty-three male teachers and 
eleven females. The number of schoolhouses was sixty, of which 
thirty-four of them were of logs and twenty-six frame. The 
new schoolhouses built in 1870 cost |2,888.36. The amount paid 
out as wages to male teachers was $10,567.10 and to females 
$896.45. The value of the schoolhouses was $14,670, of the 
grounds $2,406, and the total value of school property in the 
county was $19,620. 

In 1880 there were in the county 9,351 persons under twenty- 
one years of age, and 6,494 between six and twenty-one. There 
were sixty- seven school districts and sixty-seven schools, one of 
which was graded." In this school there were 158 male and 168 
female pupils. In the ungraded schools there were 2,493 male 
and 2,174 female pupils. There were then forty-six frame school- 
houses, nineteen log ones and one brick in Township 5, Range 
6. Besides the above enumerated pupils, there were 129 in three 
private schools. The amount of wages paid to male teachers was 
$9,542.31, and to female teachers $2,416.18. The township 
school fund still remained at about $30,000, and the school prop- 
erty was valued at $28,749. 

Lafayette Howard became county superintendent in — -. 

His last report was made in 1886. From this report the follow- 
ino" statistics are obtained, showing the condition of the schools 
at the present time: The number of male persons in the county 
ander twenty-one years of age was 5,010, of females, 4,835; of 
males between six and twenty-one, 3,470, of females, 3,233. 
The number of ungraded schools was sixty-four, of graded schools 
six. The number of pupils in the latter was, males, 446, females, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 317 

434; in the former, males, 2,284, females 2,050. The number of 
male teachers in the graded schools was ten, females, six; in 
the ungraded ^schools, males fifty-eight, females, twenty. The 
total number of teachers in the county was ninety-four. The 
highest monthly wages paid any male teacher was $75, and the 
highest paid any female was $35 ; the total amount paid male 
teachers in the graded schools was $3,059, and in the ungraded 
schools, $10,565.82; female teachers in the graded schools, 
$1,451.15, and in the ungraded schools, $2,403.51. Thus the total 
sum paid out to teachers was $17,479.52, while the entire expen- 
diture on account of schools was $24,586.93. The number of 
schoolhouses was seventy — sixty-two frame, seven log and one 
brick. The value of all the scliool property in the county, in 
buildings, grounds, notes, bonds and cash, in 1886, was 
$29,389.67. 

The number of certificates issued during this year was to 
males, first grade 4, second grade, 35 ; to females, second grade, 19. 
Johnson Lane became county superintendent in the fall of 
1886. 

The following figures will show the compensation received by 
the county superintendent for certain years, statistics for other 
years unavailable: For 1870, $475.73; 1871, $678.58; 1872, 
$801.88 ; 1873, $814,18 ;"l883, $150 ; 1884, $300 ; 1885, $300 ; 1886, 
$944,95. The superintendent now receives a salary according 
to the following principle — $5, per day is allowed for visiting 
schools, and the number of days to be spent in this way is 
limited to 150 and $4 per day is allowed for oflice 
work, and the aggregate number of days spent in both 
visiting schools and ofiice work can not legally exceed 200 
each year. Besides this compensation a small commission is 
allowed on funds handled, so that the entire compensation does 
not vary much from $1,000, per annum. 

The school fund has not on the whole been managed to the best 



318 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

advantage. According to the report of the sale of swamp lands, 
made in 1863, there had been sold 70,310.72 acres of these lands 
for the aggregate sum of ^48,128.24, and there had been 
recovered from the Government of the United States for lands 
wrongfully sold $5,573.30, making the total receipts $53,750.54 
The expenses had been for recovering from the Government, 
$1,568.68, and for surveying and other public work connected with 
the swamp lands, $1,770.73, and there had been appropriated to 
the townships $14,400.35, leaving a balance on hand of $33,010.78. 
At the March term of the county court, 1858, it was reported 
that out of a balance of $53,218.68 there had been appro- 
priated to the nine whole townships $7,200, and to the six half 
townships $2,400, and there had been paid out for the jail $4,500, 
a total sum of $14,100, leaving a net balance of $39,118.68. 
In 1861 a report was made showing that this sum had shrunk to 
$12,576.61, secured by mortgages, but a part of which could not 
be collected, and "the deficiency was supposed to have been paid 
out in expenses." From the sale of the sixteenth sections $9,000 
was realized. At the present time the county fund consists of 
$450, and the township fund of $28,879.74. 

The first school in McLeansboro was taught in a log schoolhouse 
12x14 feet in size, standing not far east of the present depot. It 
had no floor, and the fire was built in one corner, the smoke 
escaping through a hole in the roof. Afterward there was a small 
house built near where Mrs. IJockwood lives, with a puncheon 
floor, a clapboard door and a greased paper window. Benches 
for seats were made of split saplings with legs driven into the 
rounded sides. When this house w^as no longer fit for use 
another was built back of the present location of Judge Marshall's 
barn. This also was of logs and lasted many years, but at length 
C. H. Heard, desiring to further the cause of education and to 
educate his own children at home, built the frame schoolhouse 
standing on Pearl Street near Market, at his own expense. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 319 

After the passage of the free school law the property was purchased 
by the town for |800. Two teachers were employed from that 
time forward until more were needed, and the school has since 
then been a graded school. In 1877 the contract for building 
the present brick schoolhouse in the southeast part of the city 
was let, and the cost of the house was about $9,000. A. J. Walker 
was the first principal in this new schoolhouse, and he has been 
succeeded by Milton Daily, Lafayette Howard, H. A. Ingram, J. 
P. Stelle, Julian L. Frohock, Johnson H. Lane and J. M. 
Biggerstaff. 

The Catholic school at Piopolis is sustained by voluntary con- 
tributions of the parishioners. It numbers in two grades eighty- 
nine pupils, and is the largest graded school in the county. It is 
in session ten months, and is sustained independently of the pub- 
lic school system because its supporters believe that religious 
and moral training should go hand-in-hand with the training of 
the intellect. 

HAMILTON COLLEGE. 

HcDmilton College was an institution of learning established 
at McLeansboro in 1874, from which much was expected, and 
from which much might have been realized had harmony pre- 
vailed in its couijcils. The president of its board of trustees was 
Judge S. S. Marshall, and its secretary was J. P. Stelle. The 
faculty consisted of Prof. W. I. Davis, president; Prof. J. F. 
Leslie, Mrs. W. I. Davis and Prof. M. W. Spencer. At the session 
beginning April 5, 1875, there were eighty students in attend- 
ance, and in both 187(3 and 1877 there was a large atttendance. 
The college used the upper story of the Methodist Church during 
its existence. In 1875 the institution was chartered, and a move- 
ment inaugurated looking to the erection of a college building. 
Land was offered to be donated both by Judge S. S. Marshall and 
C. H. Heard, but it was found impossible to agree upon which 
location to choose, and in 1880 all hopes of establishing the school 



320 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

on a permanent basis were abandoned. The first diplomas were 
issued in 1876 from the commercial department to B. F. Gullic, 
Columbus M. Hall and Arthur T. Secor. Others were granted by 
the teacher's department and also by the scientific department the 
same year. The last diploma was granted to J. B. Kinnear, July 
25, 1880, at which time the college closed. 

teachers' institutes. 

The first teachers' institute held in Hamilton county was at 
the Anderson schoolhouse, two miles southwest of McLeansboro. 
It continued only one day in August, 1868. There were twenty- 
five teachers present. John P. Stelle was the principal lecturer, 
his subject being "The Importance of Teachers' Institutes." The 
instructors at this institute were John Turrentine, C. "VV. Ander- 
son, James W. Jones, Wade Hungate and John P. Stelle. The 
second institute held in the county was at McLeansboro. It 
commenced on Friday, August 28, 1868, and continued two days. 
About fifteen teachers were present, and the lecturers were John 
Tvn-rentine, whose topic was "School Government," John P. 
Stelle and C. W. Anderson. The superintendent reported that as 
a general thing teachers did not appreciate the value and im- 
portance of institutes, which is not surprising as that was the first 
year they had had an opportunity of attending them. 

Subsequent superintendents have made very meager reports 
of institutes held since 1868. They have been as follows: J. P. 
Stelle organized township institutes in 1877, holding several in 
each township, himself, with several of the teachers, being the 
instructors. Lafayette Howard in 1883 held the county normal 
institute at McLeansboro, commencing July 10 and continuing six 
weeks. Mr. Howard, Prof. Alexander of Carbondale and J. G. 
Kirby of Hamilton County were the instructors. Twenty-four 
teachers were in regular attendance, each paying ^6 for the term's 
instruction. In 1881 the county normal institute commenced 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 321 

July 22, and continued four weeks. The instructors were Prof. 
S. H. "Ward of McLeansboro, Lafayette Howard and in penman- 
ship J. G. Wheeler. Eighty-four teachers were* in attendance. 
The institute commenced its session for 1885 on July 22, and 
c ontinued four weeks. The instructors were Prof. J. P. Stelle. 
Jesse Hardister and Lafayette Howard; and for 1886 it com- 
menced July 20,' with Profs. J. P. Stelle, Johnson H. Lane, Jesse 
Hardister, J. M. Biggerstaff and Lafayette Howard for instruc- 
tors. One hundred and thirty-six teachers were in attendance. 

INSTITUTE FUND. 

The county has as yet made no provision for an institute 
fund. The first fund of this kind of which there is any report 
was established in 1883, and the first report covers the period 
£rom July 1, 1883, to August 31, 1884. It is as follows: 

Received from first grade certificates issued to men $ 7 

Received " second " " " " " 83 

Received " '' " " " women 29 

Donated by the county superintendent 5 

Registration fees from non-liolders of certificates 36 

Total $160 

Paid out for instructors $135 

Incidental expenses 12 

Room rent 10 

Balance on hand 3 

Total $160 

The institute fund for 1885, was as follows: 

Received from men for first grade certificates $ 7 

Received " " "second " " 75 

Received "women" " " " 36 

Received " " "rejected 29 

Received " men " 40 

Total $187 

Paid conductors and instructors .$ 85 

Incidental expenses 48 

Balance on hand 54 

$187 



322 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

For 1886 the total receipts were ^136, and the expenses for 
instructors and conductors $72.50, and for incidental expenses 
$45, leaving a balance of $18, on hand. 

CHURCH HISTORY. 

It is generally believed that Ten Mile Church was the first 
one established in the county, and also that the first white person 
who died in the county was buried there. About the same time 
a Baptist Church was established at Old Village, in the southern 
part of the county, and it is a remarkable fact that at this Bap- 
tist Church, camp meetings, commencing about 1828, were there- 
after held for forty consecutive years. Robert Moore was the 
first preacher at Ten Mile Church, and the second was Chester 
Carpenter, who established another church near the "Wayne and 
Hamilton County line, about the time of the establishment of 
the church at Old Village. Concord Methodist Episcopal 
Church was also one of the pioneer churches, and among the 
pioneer ministers of the gospel were Archibald Harris, Scott 
Harrison (colored), David McLin, Thomas Files, Eev. Mr. Manns 
and Eev. Mr. Fox. Most of the preaching in the early day was at 
homes of the settlers, and was attended by congregations collected 
together from distances of from ten to twelve miles, and it is 
generally believed and frequently asserted that there was more 
real piety then in the community than now. 

Ten Mile Church was organized September 2, 1820, by Elders 
Wilson Henderson, John Wren and Chester Carpenter. It has 
nearly always been one of the largest churches in Hamilton, and 
Elder Hosea Vise has been its pastor for over twenty -five years. 

Beaver Creek Baptist Church was organized in 1844, under 
the labors of Elder Hosea Vise. In 1855 it had a membership 
of fifty-five, and that year united with the Franklin Association. 
In 1857 it united with the Fairfield Association. In 1875 the 
church was removed to Thackeray, and has since been known as 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 323 

the Thackeray Baptist Church. The membership is about 
seventy-five, and the pastor is Rev. Thomas A. Dulaney. The 
present church building cost about $800. 

Little Prairie Church was organized in the winter of 1844 
-45, under the preaching of Elder T. M. Vance, who began to 
preach there in June, 1843. This is now called Dahlgren 
Church, and belongs to the Fairfield Association. 

Antioch Church was organized in May, 1845, with the follow- 
ing membership: N. Harrelson, Thomas T. Hanks, John White- 
land, Nathaniel Vise, William B. Vise, James Matheny, Henry 
Whitehead, James AVhitehead, William Meadows, Elizabeth 
Hanks, Mary Edwar.ds, Sarah Matheny, Keziah Vise, Elizabeth 
Vise and Susannah Whitehead. Elder Hosea Vise was the first 
pastor, and served the church in that capacity over twenty-five 
years. A Sunday-school was organized in 1845. Antioch 
Church is one of the largest Baptist Churches in Hamilton 
County, having a membership of more than one hundred, and 
Rev. M. J. Jones is the present pastor. 

Blooming Grove Church was organized May 19, 1850, with 
twenty-two members. The council consisted of Elders Robert 
Lee, C. R. Pitman and R. Shirley. The deacon was J. W. 
Ingram. Elder Russell Shirley was the first pastor. This church 
is about three miles west of McLeansboro. It has sent out six 
ministers of the gospel. It practiced foot-washing two years, 
since which time the practice has been abandoned. The present 
membership is one hundred and sixty-five, and Rev. Labau Estes 
is the pastor. 

Union Baptist Church was organized November 23, 1870, by 
Elders C. Allen and C. Y. Allen. It is located ten miles west of 
McLeansboro. Elder C. Y. Allen was the first pastor and 
remained with the church seven years. It is the regular suc- 
cessor of the Union Church established in 1851 in a schoolhouse 
near where the present Union Church is located. This was 



324 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

organized by Elders S. A. Martin and W. P. Sneed. For some 
time it grew and prospered, but in 1867 its membership was 
reduced to twenty, and they agreed to dissolve. The present 
church is in a flourishing condition. 

McLeansboro Baptist Church is the successor of two other 
organizations of the same kind, both of which failed. It was 
organized February 13, 1872, by Eev. C. Allen and John A. 
Rodman with the following members: A. DeFoe. James H. 
Daily, James Braden, Elvira Howard and Julia Gray. On 
April 12, 1871, John C. Hall, A. DeFoe and Henderson Daily 
were appointed a committee to draft plans for a new church 
building. The building committee consisted of Jasper Boyd, 
J. H. Daily and T. B. Wright. A. A. Young, of Hoodville, took 
the contract to build the church for $2,250, and it was dedicated 
in 1876 by Rev. Mr. French. Since then its pastors have 
been Revs. C. Allen, John Rodman, W. H. Garner, Mr. Goodwin 
and the present pastor, Rev. Laban Estes. The present member- 
bership is about one hundred and sixty. T. B. Wright was the 
superintendent of the Sunday-school from 1883 to 1886, and the 
present superintendent is J. C. Asher. There are ten teachers 
and one hundred and seventy-five scholars. 

Hopewell Church was organized October 29, 1877, under the 
labors of Elder James King and six members^ — one male and five 
females. The council consisted of Elder James King, Deacon 
M. W. Fuller and J. W. Smith. Elder John W. Dillingham 
was the first pastor. In 1877 the membership increased to seven. 
This church is located on the State road, three miles east of 
McLeansboro. The present pastor is Rev. J. C. Elliott. 

Knight's Prairie Church is located seven and a half miles 
southwest of McLeansboro, It was organized about 1853. Its 
house of worship was blown down in 1886 and in the fall of the 
bame year a new frame church 30x40 feet was erected at a cost 
of about $700. The jDresent membership is about one hundred 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 325 

and sixty and the present pastor is Rev. Laban Estes. The Sun- 
day-school consists of about fifty scholars, and Huston Burnett 
is the superintendent. 

Hickory Hill Church was organized in March, 1861, with 
twelve members, Mr. James Twigg being the first upon the 
list. The presbytery consisted of A. H. Benson and John Grider. 
The church belongs .to the Fairfield Association. The first 
pastor was Rev. A. H. Benson. The first building used by 
this church was a log one erected in 1858, and this was super- 
seded in 1884 by a frame structure 30x50 feet in size, and worth 
about $1,000. The present membership is about one hundred 
and thirty, and the present pastor Rev. J. C. Elliott. 

New Hope Church was organized in 1859. Rev. John B, 
Smith was pastor of this church in all twenty-seven years. The 
present pastor is Rev. Thomas A. Dulaney, and the present 
membership one hundred and twenty. R. T. Webb is the super- 
intendent of the Sunday-school which consists of about forty 
scholars. 

The other Baptist Churches in Hamilton County are Belle 
City and New Liberty Churches. 

Concord Methodist Episcopal Church was among the earliest 
religious organizations in the county. It is located five miles 
east of McLeansboro and was established about 1830. A log 
house was built which was used until about 1860, when a new 
one was erected. The present frame church was erected in 1871. 
It is 36x40 feet in size and cost about $1,000. At this time the 
church has forty-five members, and Rev. J. A. Leatherman is the 
pastor. 

The first class organized in McLeansboro is said by some to 
have been as early as 1835, and the first preacher here to have 
been Isaac G. Barr. Both Mr. Barr and J. C. Houtse were circuit 
riders here in 1837 or 1838. Services were held in the school- 
house and in the courthouse for about twenty years. Rev. 



326 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

Simon Walker was also one of the early circuit riders, the cir- 
cuit then extending from Carlyle to Carmi. He was on this 
circuit for many years. About 1853 a church building was 
erected 40x60 feet in size at an expense of about $1,200, but in 
the spring of 1856 this edifice was destroyed by fire, and it 
again became necessary to have recourse to the courthouse, 
which they continued to use until 1870, when they erected the 
present two-stor}/ brick church on a lot presented to them by 
John S. Kinnear. The building committee consisted of R. L. 
Meador, E. E. Welborn, and John S. Kinnear. P. C. Eudaly 
contracted to erect the building Avhich is 46x80 feet in dimen- 
sions, and cost $8,000. It was dedicated in the spring of 1871 
by Rev. Mr. Bowen. The present membership of this church 
is about one hundred and fifty, and of the Sunday-school about 
two hundred. A. Longworth is the superintendent, and there are 
in the school eleven teachers. The pastors of this church have 
been Revs. Walker, Morris, Bayard, Caughlin, Thompson, 
Raven scroft, and Pender. 

Mary's Chapel (Methodist Episcopal) is located four miles 
•south of McLeansboro. It was started about 1851 or 1852. Serv- 
ices were held for a number of years in a schoolhouse. Its first 
six members were Thomas Edwards, Margaret Edwards, William 
and Mary Matheny, Eliza and Mary Carey. After the last of 
whom Ihe chapel was named. At the present time this organiza- 
tion has a church building similar to that of Concord Church. 
The membership is about one hundred, and Rev. J. A. Leather- 
man is the pastor. The Sunday-school of which Henry Madison 
is superintendent, has about sixty scholars. 

Thackeray Methodist Episcopal Church. was organized in the 
spring of 1880, with twelve members — C. G. Neel, Mrs. M. E. 
Neel, O. O. Walker, Mrs. Amanda J. Walker, F. A. Ferry, Mrs. 
Frances Ferry, P. G. Threlkel, Sylvester Nelson, Mrs. Mary 
Nelson, Miss Catharine Fuller, Miss C. A. Hamill, William A. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 327 

Phipps, Miss Nancy Malone and James Livingstone, Following 
are the names of the ministers of this church: Eev. W. A. Brow- 
der, Kev. W. T. Morris, Eev. J. H. Bennett, Eev. W. A. Porter 
and Eev. J. A. Leatherman. The church building was erected 
in 1883 at a cost of $723. It is 28x36 feet and has a seatinsr 
capacity of 250. The building committee were David Hamill, E. 
G. Neel and O. O. Walker. The present membership is about 
seventy-five, and the church is in a good condition. The Sun - 
day-school, of which David Hamil is superintendent, has about 
fifty-six scholars. 

Sulphur Springs Methodist Episcopal Church lies about two 
miles southeast of McLeansboro. It has no church building, but 
worships in the same building with the Baptists. The present 
membership is fifty-two, and Eev. J. A. Leatherman is the pastor. 
The Sunday-school, of which Milo Biggerstaff is superintendent, 
has about sixty scholars. 

Dale Methodist Episcopal Church was started in 1880. Hav- 
ing no church building, services are held in the schoolhouse. 
There are about forty-five members, and Eev. J. A. Leatherman is 
pastor. The Sunday-school, of which Eev. C. T. Douthit is 
superintendent, has about forty scholars. 

Oliver Methodist Episcopal Church lies about five miles 
southeast of McLeansboro. It was started in 1885, by Eev. Will- 
iam A. Porter, with fifteen members. They now have forty mem- 
bers, and a church building 24x36 feet, which cost them $500. 
The present pastor is Eev. J. A. Leatherman. 

Dahlgren Methodist Episcopal Church was organized as a 
class in 1872, by Eev. Mr. Caldwell, with fourteen members, and 
Eev. C. W. Morris was the originator and principal mover in the 
I)uilding of the new church which was erected in 1873, and dedi- 
cated on July 20, 1875, by Bishop Bowman of St. Louis. The 
pastors of this church have been Eev. Mr. Caldwell, in 
1872; Eev. C. W. Morris, 1873; Eev. J. N. Bostorff, 1874; T. 



328 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

N. Johnson, 1875; L. C. Cullon, 1876; C. C. Young, 1877; 
Arthur Sharp, 1878; Ollen Rippitoe, 1879; J. W. Fields, 1880; 
Rev. Mr. Franklin, 1881; J. W. Bain, 1882-83; Hardin Hutch- 
craft, 1884-85; J. T. Huffman, 1886-87. 

Josiah Allen, a deacon of the Missionary Baptist Church, 
organized the first Sunday-school in Hamilton County, and Mrs. 
Hosea Vise organized the first in the immediate neighborhood of 
Macedonia. 

The McLeansboro Cumberland Presbyterian Church was 
organized in 1822, by Rev. David W. Macklin from the Ander- 
son Presbytery, Kentucky, with six members. Rev. Mr. Macklin 
continued to preach a number of years, and was followed by 
Revs. Jesse Pearce, W. M. Hamilton, J. Alexander and William 
Davis. In 1837 the church became disorganized, but after some 
time it was reorganized by Revs. Milledge Miller and R. M. 
Davis. This was about 1850, and services were held in the 
courthouse, but soon transferred to Union Hall some distance 
out into the country. Here again the church became disorgan- 
ized, but in 1874 it was the second time reorganized by Rev. R. 
M. Davis, who continued as pastor for eight years. In 1875 A. 
T. SuUenger, A. M. Wilson, A. Weldon and a few others raised 
a subscription, and built their present church building on Market 
Street, near the depot, which was dedicated by Rev. Mr. Hogg. 
The building is 32x66 feet, and cost |3,000. Since the retire- 
ment of Rev. Mr. Davis, Rev. George W. Williams has been the 
pastor. The membership of the church is about seventy-five, and 
of the Sunday-school, of which A. M.Wilson is the superintendent, 
one hundred. 

West Union Cumberland Presbyterian Church is located in 
Beaver Creek Township. The building was erected in 1878, at a 
cost of $750, with a seating capacity of 800. The building com- 
mittee were William Land, J. F. McCord and R. W. Jordan. The 
original members were William Land and wife, Daniel Land, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 329 

Thomas Land and wife, J. F. McCord and wife, James and 
Mary Dryden, John F. M. Oliver and wife, Samuel Gowdy and 
wife, E. N. Miller, Ricliard Land and wife, John Fields and wife, 
Nancy Quals, R. W. Jordan and wife, William, Edward, Alexan- 
der and Miss Martha Jordan. The first minister was Eev. J 
M. Miller, and the present one Rev. C. W. Fields. The present 
membership of the church is fifty-four. 

On the 9th of February, 1880, Mrs. Mary A. Pake went to the 
home of Mrs. J. J. Beecher for the purpose of meeting there 
Rt. Rev. George F. Seymour. Her object was to solicit his 
assistance in the establishment of an Episcopal Church in 
McLeansboro, and to invite Rev, M. Stelle, of Cincinnati, to 
take charge of it. The Bishop suggested to the prospective mem- 
bers at McLeansboro to raise 3500 to pay a part of the salary of 
the rector. The sum of §200 was promptly subscribed and Rev. I. N. 
W. Irvine invited to take charge of the church. The services 
were held for a time in the hall of J. M. Shoemaker. The first 
members were Mr. and Mrs. William Rickcords, Mr. and Mrs. S, 
J. Pake, Miss Annie Jones, Miss Mary Jones, Mrs. John Darley 
and Mrs. J. M. Shoemaker. Charles H, Heard gave a lot July 
5, 1880, and under the supervision of AVilliam Rickcords, J. M, 
Shoemaker, C. G. McCoy, S, J. Pake and L. Powell, a church was 
built, the corner-stone being laid August 19, 1880, by Rt, 
Rev, George F, Seymour, The contract to build the church was 
let August 18, 1880, to W, S. Thompson, of Mount Vernon, and 
when completed it cost $10,000, The first sermon was preached 
in this building February 19, 1882, by Rev. R. B. Hoyt. The 
church is of brick with a short tower, and is quite an ornament 
to the town. It is even said to be the finest finished church edi- 
fice in southern Illinois. The rectors have been Revs. I. N. W. 
Irvine, R. B. Hoyt and C, B. Mee, the present incumbent. 

The First Christian Church of McLeansboro was organized 
February 9, 187(3 by Elder James T. Baker, with seventeen mem- 

20 



330 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

bers, as follows: John J. Buck, Dorcas Buck, George W. Gar- 
rison, George Lee, N. E. Gullic, E. H. Stanley, Sarah Drew, 
Nancy Drew, Eliza Dickson, Letha Etta Garrison, Delia Stanley, 
William H. Buck, Mary Lee, O. L. Hyatt, Flora Hyatt and 
Wesley Chelf. The first officers were as follows: Elders, John 
J. Buck and George W. Garrison ; deacons, P, L. Dickerson, N. 
K. Gullic and George Lee ; O. L. Hyatt, clerk and Wesley Chelf, 
treasurer. Services were held in the courthouse until 
their present church building was erected. The building com- 
mittee consisted of B. F. M. Pemberton, J. J. Buck and Oscar 
Lee, Liberal suscrij^tions were made by the citizens, and in 
June, 1880, the contract was let to George Haufman for Si, 365, 
The church is a frame building, standing at the corner of Main 
and East Border Streets, When completed about January 1, 
1881, it cost about 81,800, At the present time the church has 
110 members, and the Sunday-school, of which J, W, Jones is 
the superintendent, has about 120 scholars. The pastors have 
been T. W. Wall, D. Logan, G. W. Murl, George E. Flower, 
J. W. Higley, B. E, Gilbert, N. S. Haynes, J. S. Clements and 
J. P. Davis. 

The Church of God (Christian) is located in Beaver Creek 
Township. In August, 1854, it was organized, services being held 
in David Upton's barn. In March, 1855, a log church was erected 
at a cost of ^13. The first members were Jefferson Garrison and 
wife, Frances; Sarah Smithpeter, Alfred Drew, Eliza Lasater 
Jane Eeynolds, John W, Fry, William C. Davis, Lotta Jones, 
Vica Vavighn, Caleb Ellis, Sarah Farmer, Henry J. Williams, 
Nancy J. Drew and James E. Lee ; the elders were Alfred Drew 
and Caleb Ellis; deacons, James Drew and Jefferson Garrison; 
the first minister was Joseph Goodwin. In 1874 a church was 
erected at a cost of ^800, the building committee being M. E. 
Ellis, John Mason and W. W. Buck. The ministers since Mr. 
Goodwin, have been Samviel V. Williams, Alfred Drew, Joseph 



HI8T0EY OF ILLINOIS. 331 

Bayless, D. Logan and D. A. Hunter. The church is in a flour- 
ishing condition. 

The New White Oak Church (Christian) is located in Beaver 
Creek Township. It was organized in 1885, and a church build- 
ing erected at a cost of about $600. The building committee 
consisted of J. E. P. White, Edmond York, Henry Bailey, James 
Hobson and James Madcalf. The first minister was Eev. D. 
Logan and the next, Eev. Thomas Purvis. This church is also 
in a flourishing condition. 

Mt. Pleasant Christian Church was organized about the year 
1856 by Elder Moses Goodwin with about twenty-seven members, 
and the following officers : Elders, Alfred Drew and William I. 
Eichards; deacons, Jefferson Garrison aud James E. Lee. The 
organization was effected at the residence of Jefferson Garrison 
in Jefferson City. For some time the society met from house to 
house, but in the next year after the organization they erected a 
log church. A new church was built in the fall of 1873 and 
spring of 1874; the building is 36x50 feet and cost $1,200. The 
present membership is about 125. The present pastor is Eev. 
J. T. Purvis; the Sunday-school, of which Charles L. French is 
superintendent, has now about fifty scholars. 

Macedonia Christian Church was organized in 1886, with 
twenty-three members; as yet it has no church building. 

Liberty Christian Church was organized about thirty years 
ago, and has a building worth about $1,000. There are also two 
other Christian Churches in this county, namely, Broughtou and 
Walpole. 

Twenty-five German Catholics arrived at Piopolis from 
Baden, August 21, 1841. Soon after their arrival they united in 
one of their humble dwellings in private worship, according to the 
custom of the old church of the Apostles. The first priest to visit 
them, February 12, 1843, was Eev. Father Elisha J. Durbin, who 
resided at the chapel near Morganfield, Ky. Eev. Father Eoman 



332 HAMILTON COUNTY. 

Weinzopfeln came here May 16, 1845, from St. Wendel, Md. 
After 1849 tliis small congregation of Catholics was attended 
from Shawneetown, 111., by Fathers Fahy, McCabe and Walsh, 
and in 1858 by Father Fischer of St. Marie, Jasper Co., 111. The 
church property, forty acres, was bought in 1844; a block church 
was erected, which had to give place to a more spacious structure 
in 1857. The first bishop of Alton, Kt. Eev. H. D. Juncker, was 
here August 13, 1859, and appointed the Fathers of the Francis- 
can order at Teutopolis, Effingham County, to attend the place 
regularly. These pastors were Kev. P. Capistan, 1859-60; Kev. 
P. P. Ferdinand, 1860-61; Kev. P. Servatius, 1862; Eev. P. 
Kilian, 1863-64; Eev. Father Edward Herman, the first resident 
priest, 1864, who was succeeded in 1865 by Eev. Blasius Winter- 
halta, and in 1871 by Eev. Father John Neuhaus. In 1870 
the Sisters of the Precious Blood arrived from Baden, and started 
a parochial school, which has been kept up ever since. Until 
1876 the neighboring congregations of McLeansboro, Enfield, 
Carmi, and Mt. Yernon were supplied from this place and Mt. 
Vernon and McLeansboro, even until 1880. The congregation 
now numbers 562, but they are neither German nor Dutchmen, 
445 of them being native Americans. The new brick church 
measures as follows: tower and sanctuary included 118 feet long, 
it is 50 feet wide, height inside 41 feet, outside 51 feet, and to the 
top of the gilt cross 131 feet. The cost was $13,000, exclusive 
of the work done by the congregation. Eev, John N. Enzlberger 
is the present pastor. 

St. Clement's Eoman Catholic Church at McLeansboro is a 
body of Catholics originally worshiping about two miles west of 
McLeansboro on the McGilly farm, and afterward on the farm of 
Lawrence Paul about one-half mile east of McLeansboro. It 
then had about twenty-five members, and was attended from Piop- 
olis. It is now attended by Eev. H. J. Hazen, from Mt. Vernon, 
111. In 1884 this body erected a frame church building, worth 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. * 333 

about $2,000, in the eastern part of McLeansboro, when the 
membership was about 40. It is now 140, and arrangements are 
in progress to make an addition to the church at an expense of 
about $1,000. 

McLeansboro' Presbyterian Church was organized December 
16, 1867, by Eev. John Huston. Religious services had been 
conducted previously, however, to this time in McLeansboro, 
through the efforts of Elder Milton Eckley in 1866, who secured 
a visit to the town by Rev. John Crozier, who preached several 
times in the courthouse. The members of the church, organized 
by Rev. Mr. Huston, were Henry W. White, Joseph R. Siddall, 
John Parkhill, Martha Parkhill, Elizabeth Parkhill, Julia White, 
Sarah Parkhill and Rebecca H. Siddall. A church building was 
dedicated in April 1869, which cost $3,500. The ministers have 
been Rev. John Huston from the time of the organization until 
January 1, 1873; after him Rev. John Branch served the church 
several times, and in 1879 Rev. B. C. Swan became the pastor. 
This church was received into the Presbytery of Saline April 2, 
1868, and the presbytery met here April 22, 1869, Rev. B. C. 
Swan remained until the spring of 1884, and was followed by 
Rev. J. I. Campbell, who was stated supply during the summer. 
The pulpit was then vacant until February, 1886, when Rev. 
J. H. Stephenson, the present stated supply, began preaching. 
The membership of the church is now twenty-four. The Sunday- 
school has about sixty scholars and six teachers, and T. M. Eckley 
is the superintendent. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 335 



FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

LOCATION, BOUNDARY AND TOPOGRAPHY. 

FRANKLIN COUNTY is situated iu the center of the south- 
ern portion of Illinois, and, according to the Government 
survey, it embraces the territory of Townships 5, 6, and 7, south 
of the base line, in Ranges 1, 2, 3 and -4 east of the third princi- 
pal meridian, excepting that part of Townships 5 and 6 south, in 
Range 1 east, which lies west of Little Muddy River. It also 
includes that part of Township (3 south, in Range 1 west, which 
lies east of said river, containing about two sections. It is 
bounded on the north by Jefferson County, on the east by Ham- 
ilton and Saline Counties, on the south by Williamson County, 
and on the west by Jackson and Perry Counties. It is nearly in 
the form of a parallelogram, and averages twenty-three and a half 
miles from east to west, and eighteen from north to south, thus 
containing an area of 423 square miles or 270,720 acres. About 
one-fourth of its area was originally open prairie, and the rest 
heavily timbered. The prairies are mostly small, not more than 
two or three miles wide, and mostly flat. There are also wide 
belts of low, flat bottoms along all tlie main streams, and there is 
considerable rolling and hilly upland heavily timbered. The 
streams are Big Muddy and its tributaries, and Middle Fork and 
its tributaries, which drain nearly the entire couuty, with Little 
Muddy running along its western boundary line a distance of 
twelve miles or more, through Townships 5 and 6 South. The 
general direction of all these streams is toward the southwest, and 
although they furnish an abundant supply of water for stock, they 
are too sluggish to furnish any valuable water power. 



336 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS. 

The geological formations belong exclusively to the drift 
and the coal measures, and the coal measures here belong to the 
upper division of the coal formation. The drift deposits consist 
mainly of brown and yellow sandy clays containing gravel and 
small boulders, the largest of the boulders ranging from two to 
three feet in diameter. The average thickness of the drift clays 
is about thirty feet. Frankfort is situated on a hill nearly 100 
feet above the level of the surrounding country. The coal of 
Franklin County is of but little value, the seams being uniformly 
too thin for working, and there is no outcrop of stratified rocks 
in any of the deep gulleys that furrow the sides of the Frankfort 
hill. The drift clays are, however, much thicker here than in 
other portions of the county, their average thickness being about 
thirty feet. There is an abundance of sandstone suitable for 
building purposes, located mainly a few miles to the west, and 
particularly a few miles to the northwest of Benton. Coal No. 7 
is believed to underlie the county at a depth averaging from 
about 150 feet in the northern and western portions to about 500 
feet in the central and southern portions, too deep for profitable 
investment in mining operations at present. Limestone suitable 
for the kiln is found about two miles west of Frankfort, and is 
about eight feet thick. It has been quarried somewhat for 
building material. 

SOIL AND NATURAL PRODUCTS. 

There is great variety in the soils of this county, though all 
are at least of fair fertility. The bottom lands are low and sub- 
ject to overflow. The prairies are generally level and small, 
and are often surrounded by an area of post oak flats which 
have a poor, thin soil. The rolling timbered portions which are 
covered with a growth of oak and hickory, black walnut and elm, 
linden, wild cherry, honey locust, sassafras, etc., are the richest 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 337 

lands in the county, and will bear continued cultivation without 
the aid of artificial stimulants longer than any other uplands in 
this portion of the State. Originally the timber of the uplands 
were the oak in its varieties, ash, hickory, elm, black walnut, lin- 
den, wild cherry, honey locust, etc., while the bottom lands were 
covered with burr-oak, water-oak, hickory, elm, sweet gum, black 
gum, birch, soft maple, sycamore, etc. There has been an abun- 
dance of excellent timber for building or mechanical purposes, 
the supply of which is now almost exhausted. 

INDIAN TRIBES AND WILD ANIMALS. 

Prior to the beginning of the settlements of Franklin County 
the territory composing it had been for ages the home of the 
wild men of the forest — the Indians, known by the tribal names 
of Shawnees and Kaskaskias. The Shawnees occupied that sec- 
tion of country lying between the Wabash and the Big Muddy 
Kivers, and had their camping grounds near the Saline Kiver, 
and on the eastern border of Franklin County. The Kaskaskias 
occupied the territory lying between the Big Muddy and the 
Mississippi Rivers, and had their camping grounds on the Okaw 
and Beaucoup Rivers. Here, too, in the unbroken forest and 
open prairies wild animals, such as bears, wolves, panthers, wild 
cats, deer and other species, roamed at will, unless pursued and 
slain by the Indian hunter, when their flesh became his food and 
their skins his raiment. The forests, in consequence of their 
being annually burned over by the Indians, were void of under- 
brush and other rubbish, and in the summer months almost the 
entire surface had the appearance of a velvety lawn of natural 
grass bedecked with wild flowers, which made the vast and 
extended landscape a thing of gorgeous beauty. " These Indian 
tribes would occasionally trespass upon the hunting grounds of 
the other, from which quarrels ensued, and finally a battle, which 
was fought by agreement on the half-way ground in Town Mount 



338 PRANKLIN COUNTY. 

Prairie, about three miles below the present site of the town of 
Old Frankfort, about the year 1802. The Kaskaskias were under 
the command of their chief, John Du Quoin, then quite an old 
man, and a good friend to the whites. The Shawnees were com- 
manded by a chief of rather a treacherous nature, which, in all 
probability, was the cause of the fight. Although the battle- 
ground has been in cultivation a number of years, yet the marks 
are sufficient to locate it. The farm now occupied by Hezekiah 
Swafford, and the one occupied by the Dennings in Town Mount 
Prairie, are at the extremes of it, the main fight taking place a 
little south of Mr. Swafford' s residence." A very large number 
of the Kaskaskias were slain, the remainder falling back on the 
trail leading from Shawneetown to Kaskaskia to the Big Muddy 
Eiver. Here they were compelled to make a stand, while their 
women and children crossed over, and again lost heavily. Those 
who succeeded in crossing continued their retreat on the aforesaid 
trail, being hotly pursued by the enemy until they reached Little 
Muddy, where, in attempting to cross — the river being swollen — 
they were nearly all butchered, and the tribe almost annihilated. 
The Shawnees after that held undisputed sway, until the 
encroachments of the white settlers steadily and surely drove 
them across the Mississippi. 

EARLY SETTLERS AND SETTLEMENTS. 

In consequence of the difficulties that existed among the 
Indians, there were no settlers this side of Equality until the 
year 1804, when seven brothers by the name of Jordan, John 
and Willing Browning, Joseph Estes, and a man by the name of 
Barbrey, a brother-in-low to the Jordans, from Smith County, 
Tenn., located in this county, and built a fort and block-house 
where the residence of Judge William Elstun now stands. These 
settlers were all related. John Browning's mother was Mollie 
Jordan, sister to the seven Jordan brothers. John Browning 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 339 

was the father of James and Levi, who were well known to 
nearly all citizens of the county. The latter still survives and 
is a prominent merchant at Benton. Elias Jordan, the father of 
Moses, was one of the seven Jordans. William Browning died 
in 1817, From the time of the building of the fort until about 
the year 1815, little or no attempt was made to cultivate the soil, 
the settlers subsisting almost entirely upon game, honey and a 
little corn, which they, by close watching, succeeded in raising 
and preventing the Indians from stealing. While these early 
settlers were thus fortijQed, and in the year 1812, James Jordan 
and Mr. Barbrey, while out of the fort gathering wood, were 
fired upon by the Indians. Barbrey was killed and scalped. 
James Jordan was wounded in the leg. After obtaining re-en- 
forcements from Frank Jordan's fort, which was then located in 
what is now known as Williamson County, about three miles 
south of the first named fort, the whites started in pursuit of 
the Indians, and followed them as far as the Okaw River, but 
did not succeed in overtaking them. Barbrey was buried at the 
fort and his grave still remains near the residence of Judge 
William Elstun. This was the starting of the first graveyard 
in Franklin County.* 

The Jordan settlement was made in what is now Cave Town- 
ship. 

John Browning returned to Tennessee in 1805, and came 
back to this county in 1806, and lived about two years in Jor- 
dan's fort. About this date he guarded the mail for one or two 
years, between Shawneetown and Kaskaskia, and afterward assisted 
the government surveyors in the survey of the lands of the 
county. In 1820 he located on the Browning Hill farm, and 
subsequently became a prominent Baptist minister, and died 
June 13, 1857. James K. and William R. Browning, twin 
brothers, and sons of John Browning and wife, were the first 

•From the Centennial address delivered in Benton in 1876, by Judge W. H. Williams, the 
historical facts of which are by permission introduced into this history. 



340 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

white children born in the county. They were born December 
24, 1810, in the old Jordan fort. "As pioneers and set- 
tlers, few did more than John Browninor and his wife. Comino: 
here in 1804, they at once commenced to subdue the soil and 
raise children, becoming the parents of eighteen (three set of 
triplets — nine children at three births — and twins once). Two 
of the triplets, Joseph and Jonathan, lived to be middle aged 
men, and raised quite large families." Other early settlers of 
Cave Township were John McCreery with his family, and his 
son Alexander with his young wife, who came from Kentucky 
in 1817. The former settled in the place now known as the 
Fancy farm. Alexander McCreery brought his household and 
kitchen furniture along with him in a pair of saddle bags. He 
settled the farm now occupied by Judge Wm. Elstuu. Aaron 
Neal and his brother Moses, settled near the present site of 
Parrish, in 1812. Isaac Moberly, John Hall, Nathan Clampet, 
John W. Swafford, Nathaniel Jones, John Plasters, Wm. Jack- 
son, David Williams, James Isaacs, Thomas Lampley, J. L. 
Cantrell, John Harlow and Henry Yost, wei-e all early settlers in 
the southeastern part of the county. John Jones and his son 
John, and his son Wiley, the father of W. K. Jones, the ex- 
sheriff of Franklin County, came from Tennessee in 1830, and 
settled in Cave Township. 

The next settlement seems to have been made on Six Mile 
Prairie, in what is now Six Mile Township. In 181 1 Charles 
C. Humphreys, grandfather of W. J. N. Moyers the present county 
judge, came from Philadelphia and settled on this prairie. His 
nearest neighbor was then twelve miles away. In 1812 he kept 
a ferry across Big Muddy, above the present site of Blairsville. 
Subsequently, on account of the hostility of the Indians, he moved 
with his family to Kaskaskia, and when it became safe he returned 
to his farm on the prairie, where he lived until his death. He 
was undoubtedly the first settler in that portion of the coanty. 



HISTOEY OF ILLINOIS. 3J:1 

About the year 1818 others began to settle in that part of the 
county also, among whom was Gilbert Browning, who settled on Six 
Mile Prairie, and "Washington Campbell, who settled on the edge 
thereof, and near the county line on the west. Also Samuel 
Stacks, the Burnses,the Adkinses,the Kirkpatricks, Benjamin Pope, 
Beverly S. Minor, Solomon Snider, Eichard Sanderfur, Jonathan 
Dobbs and John Swain were among the early settlers in that por- 
tion of the county. From 1817 to 1823 peace generally prevailed in 
the county, except on Six Mile Prairie where the Indians con- 
tinued to harass and annoy the settlers, until they were ordered 
to leave, which they did, but returned annually to hunt until 
1832, after which they remained permanently away. 

The first settlers of Denning Township were David and John 
Dement, Nicholas, William and John Gassaway, S. M. Hubbard 
(father of George T. Hubbard, of Benton), Anderson P. Farris, 
Dyer Adams, James A. Deason, Dudley W. Duncan, Isaac Barber, 
John and James Dillard and Moses M. Bawling. The early set- 
tlers of Frankfort Township were Moses Garrett, Elijah Ewing and 
Thomas Roberts, who entered their lands in 181^, and William 
Farris, John Wren, John Crawford, Joshua Ewing and Ben. 
Rogers, who entered their lands in 1816-17. All of these per- 
sons probably settled several years previous to the entry of their 
lands at the land office. Other early settlers were Meshack 
Morris, Edward H. Ridgway, W. S. Duncan, Solomon and John 
Olark, Jeremiah Neal, Welden Manning, Tilmon B. Cantrell, 
Capt. A. J. Ice, Noan Avery, Margaret Towns and Mrs. Judge 
Osteen. 

The settlement of Eastern Township took place soon after 
the Jordan settlement was established, and some of its early 
settlers were William Neil, James, John and William M. Akin, 
John and Robert McLane, and the following at the dates annexd 
to their names, to wit: William B. Dillon, 1820; James Summers, 
1822; Rev. Ananias Elkins, about 1820; Christopher Ing, 1829; 



342 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

Rev. Braxton Parrish, 1821,and Elijah Estes, 1818 — the latter two 
coming from the Duck Eiver country in Tennessee. 

Herron Taylor and his wife, with their family of nine sons 
and one daughter, came from Wilson County, Tenn., in 1815, and 
settled in what is now Northern Township. Mr. Taylor was the 
father of EUsha Taylor, who was the father of Isham C. Taylor, 
now a resident of Benton. Lazarus and Eli Webb came from the 
Duck River country in Tennessee, and settled in that township, 
and entered land in 1816. About the same time Jacob Phillips, 
Jacob Clark, James Allen, James A. Hughes and Reuben Clark 
settled in that portion of the county. William Frizzell settled 
in an early day on the prairie which now bears his name, and was 
one of the first, if not the first settler in Ewing Township.* 
Joseph Estes settled in that part of the county about the same 
time, and John Page, in 1817. Benjamin Smith, some of the 
Ewings, Walter S. Aiken, Achilles D. Dollins, Abraham Rea, 
James Young, Michael Rawlings, Felix G. Gholson, John T. 
Knox, Daniel B. Thomas, Daniel Glover and Martin Wooley were 
early settlers in Benton Township. Also, Adam Clem, in 1830; 
James Whittington, in 1832, and William Mooneyham, in 1848, 
were settlers. 

Among the early settlers of Browning Township were John 
Hudson, Philip Brashears, A. U, Harrison, and the follow- 
ing, with dates of settlement annexed to their names, to wit: 
Carter Greenwood, 1818; Matilda Jones, 1818; Joseph Teferteller, 
1836. The Mulkeys, Barzilla and Levi Silkwood, George Tefer- 
teller," William Tinsley, John Kirkpatrick and Benjamin N. Har- 
rison were early settlers in Tyrone Township. Baker King 
settled in Goode Township in 1813, and Lewis Hillin, William 
A. Docker, Robert M. Galloway, Benjamin Goode, Adkins Green- 
wood, John Maccavoer and George W. Therdevant were early 
settlers of the northwestern part of the county. Nathaniel B., 

*Chamber)ain Hutsou settled on the same prairie in 1815. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 343 

and John M. Robinson, William Nicol and John Sandusky were 
early settlers in Barren Township. 

It will be observed that the first settlement of the county was 
made in the southeastern part thereof, and the settlements of 
the other localities have been given, as nearly as possible, 
in the order of their dates. The northwestern portion of the 
county had but few settlers until after 1880. " These settlers 
were all hardy and could endure almost anything. "Without any 
of the many appliances and inventions to which we are now accus- 
tomed, they lived and were happy. They raised their own flax, 
spun and wove it, and made it into such garments as they needed. 
Six yards of cloth were considered an extravagant amount to put 
into one dress, which for information of the ladies, we will say, 
was invariably made plain with but two widths in the skirt, the 
front one cut gored. The men wore hunting shirts, with buck- 
skin leggins and moccasins. They had no table ware, except 
pewter plates, and some of them worn through at the center ; did 
all their cooking with a skillet and lid, using their hunting 
knives at the table for all piirposes."* Their dwellings were rude 
log cabins, with the floor made of puncheons and the roof of clap- 
boards, and the old-fashioned open fireplace with its stick and 
mud chimney in one end. Their tables and stools were made of 
lumber, dressed with the ax and broad-ax, and their bedsteads, 
(like the " forked deer" bedsteads, as they were called in West 
Tennessee), were made in the corners of the room, by the use of 
only one post, the house logs furnishing a support for the other 
parts of the frame. On the frame thus constructed, rough btVrds 
or puncheons were placed, and their beds made thereon. When 
two-story cabins were erected, the upper room was usually reached 
by a ladder made of poles and rounds, and standing in the corner 
or at one side of the lower ro9m. Before horse mills were erected 
the settlers pounded their corn into meal in a morter. The mor- 

*Centennial speech of Judge Williams. 



344 " FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

ters were usually made by burning the center out of a large 
stump, until a cup or bowl was formed, and then scraping out the 
charred part of the wood until it was clean. In this the grain was 
pounded with a maul, which, to lessen the labor, was sometimes 
suspended to a " sweep " or spring-pole. The first horse mill in the 
county was erected at Jordan's Fort by Thomas Jordan about the 
year 1809-10. Soon thereafter one was erected on Crawford's Prai- 
rie by John Crawford, and another on Frizzell's Prairie by Wm. 
Frizzell, and later Jonathan Herron built a horse mill on Buck- 
ner Hill, and about 1838 John Browning built one on his farm 
on Browning Hill. The first water-power mills in the county 
were built in the year 1838, one on Big Muddy, at the Hillin's 
Ford, and another on Middle Fork, near Macedonia. And the 
first steam-power mill was erected by Augustus Adams, about 
the year 1850, on Hickman's Branch, one and a half miles south- 
west of Benton. 

MILLING, HUNTING, ETC. 

Before any mills were erected in the county, some of the 
settlers in the western part thereof went to Kaskaskia, a distance 
of forty miles or more, to get their milling done. For the want 
of roads, the grain was taken to the early mills entirely on horse- 
back, and some of the settlers went to the Kaskaskia Mills in the 
following novel manner: They would take three horses, ride one 
and strap six bushels of corn on each of the other two, and drive 
them in front. In this way they would get a grist of twelve 
bushels ground at once — enough to last a long time. When the 
horse mills were erected nearer at home, the proprietors made 
a rule to grind only two bushels at a time for each customer. All 
had to await their turn, consequently when a man went to a mill 
he often had to camp over night and wait until the next day for 
his turn. For many years the first settlers had no other bread 
except that made of corn meal. However, " their tables were 
well supplied with victuals ; venison and bear meat was plenty. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 347 

and with a hoe cake to sop in the gravy, they thought it was 
good enough for any one." AVihl game and wikl fowls of all kinds 
were abundant — the most valuable of the former being the deer, 
and of the latter the wild turkey. Wild honey, which the busy 
bees stored away in hollow trees, was also abundant. To give 
the reader an adequate idea of the great abundance of deer, it is 
related by reliable old citizens yet living, that from about the 
year 1830 to 1850 the farmers spent nearly all their time each 
year, after gathering their crops until the following spring, in 
hunting — not only for the pleasure, but also for the pecuniary 
profit. They killed the deer and carried the hides and " saddles " 
to market. After taking out the " saddles," the balance 
of the carcass, excepting sometimes a small portion used 
for home consumption, was thrown away. The " saddles," as 
they were called, consisted of the hams and loins, or in other 
words the hind quarters left together, and the average weight of 
each was from thirty to forty pounds. These were sold to 
the merchants of Benton, for from 40 to 75 cents each, 
or about 1^ cents per pound. And the hides with 
hair left on brought from 8 to 10 cents per pound, and with 
the hair shaved off, from 12 to 15 cents per pound. W. 
R. and L. Browning, who were then merchants in Benton, bought 
on some occasions as high as 1,000 pounds of hides in a single 
day, and at the same time two or three other merchants of the 
town were engaged in the same business. A like number of 
" saddles " of venison, excepting those consumed at home, were 
also sold in the market. 

About the year 1840 James Eubanks killed thirteen deer one 
morning before breakfast. This may seem incredible, but the 
proof has been furnished the writer, who, however, was not in- 
formed at what time Mr. Eubanks got his breakfast, but pre- 
sumes it was a little late. During the late fall and early winter 
months many hunters killed on an average as high as thirty deer 



348 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

per month. At the same time they did an extensive business in 
the fur trade— coon and mink being also very abundant. The 
home merchants hauled their deer hides, furs, vension and other 
game to St. Louis in wagons, where the same were sold or ex- 
changed for goods — the latter being l)rought home on the return 
trip. During the period above referred to, and prior thereto, and 
also for several years thereafter, the hunting was nearly all done 
in the manner called " still hunting," that is by individuals and 
without a pack of hounds. But about the year 1860 another 
method was adopted, that of organized companies with a pack 
of hounds, the hunters being mounted on horseback. Thus 
organized and equipped they would surround a large tract of 
country, taking care to place a number of their best marksmen 
on the trails where the deer were accustomed to travel, and 
where they would be most likely to try and make their escape, 
and then contract their line and travel toward the center. In 
this manner the deer and other animals would be corralled 
too-ether, and killed at the points where they attempted to break 
through the lines and make their escape. This method of hunt- 
ing soon thinned them out, and prevented their further breeding, 
and they have since become almost if not quite extinct. 

It may surprise some of the readers of this work to learn that 
slavery of the colored man once existed in the territory of which 
Franklin County is now composed. The following is the history 
pertaining thereto, as given by Judge Williams in his centennial 
speech: " Considerable commotion was exhibited over the adop- 
tion of the constitution, in consequence of that instrument pro- 
hibitino- slavery in the State. Nearly all of the first settlers 
were from the Southern States, and brought some few slaves with 
them. The Jordans, McCreerys, Crawfords, Clarks and a num- 
ber of others owned slaves in this county while Illinois was a 
Territory, and in that early day — 1810 to 1819 — the excitement 
upon the slavery question was intense. Their negroes were 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 349 

sometimes kidnaped, taken South and sold — sometimes taken 
East by means of the underground raih'oads and freed. When 
the State was admitted almost all of the negroes that then 
remained were taken to the Territory of Missouri and sold. Some 
were held there until the question of slavery was settled beyond 
controversy in this State, when many of them were brought back 
and manumitted as provided by law, among which were those 
owned by the McCreerys, Crawfords and Clarks. After the 
death of John McCreery, Alexander, his son, went to Missouri 
and brought an old negro woman that his father owned, and 
bought her husband, Eichmond Inge, out of slavery for $300, 
settled them upon eighty acres of land, which by frugality, 
economy and hard work they finally paid for, and are yet (1876) 
living upon it in Williamson County. Those negroes who were 
thus brought back generally remained with their former masters 
until they died." This humane and generous act of Alexander 
McCreery justly entitles him to a prominent place in history. 

OLD settlers' reunion. 

The first old settlers' reunion of Franklin County was held 
at the fair grounds in Benton, on Saturday, the 14th of August, 
1886. Hon. Peter Phillips was elected chairman and Hon. C. 
C. Payne, secretary. Speeches were made by Kevs. Hosea Vise, 
John Sullivan, T. P. Harrison and Carter Greenwood, Dr. Dur- 
ham, Dr. Hamilton, Hon. F. M. Youngblood, Hon. T. J. Lay- 
man and other old settlers. 

The following old settlers were present: 



350 



FEANKLIN COUNTY. 



Baker King 

Robert Taylor 

Jesse Taylor 

Peter Phillips, native 

John Page 

John Sullivan, native. . . 

John Kirkpatrick 

Matilda Jones 

Margaret Towns 

Carter Greenwood 

John Dillard 

James Dillard 

Levi Browning, native. 
Russell Webb, native. . . 

Wm. B. Dillon 

James Summers 

John Miller, native . . . 

Alex. Kirk, native 

Noan Avery 

James Eubanks, native . 
Isham Taylor, native . .. 
Poll y Adam s 



1813 
1815 
1815 
1817 
1817 
1817 
1818 
1818 
1818 
1818 
1819 
1819 
1820 
1821 
1820 
1822 
1822 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1826 
1827 



Mrs. Judge Osteeu 

Capt. A. J. Ice 

Christopher Ing 

Adam Clem 

James Whittington 

James Deason 

Wm. A. SwafEord, native. 

Nancy Bain 

Rev. Hosea Vise 

Joseph Tefertiller 

Wm. Mooneyham 

Jackson Mannering 

R. J. Thurston 

James Baily 

Pearl White 

James Burket 

Michael Boyer 

Joe. R. Marvel 

John Roundtree 

John Roberts 

Joseph McDonald 

Polly Ward 



1827 
1829 
1829 
1830 
1832 
1834 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1836 



1838 


62 


1840 


70 


1844 


71 


1845 


77 


1848 


60 


184!) 


64 


1854 


71 


1855 


82 



Age. 



The following officers were elected for the ensuing year, after 
which the meeting, which was attended by about 2,000 people, 
adjourned: President, Wm. A. Swafford; vice-presidents, W. J. 
Murphy, Warren McCreery, A. N. Manion, Michael Boyer, J. S. 
Webb, Joshua Mann, B. A. JefPreys, Isham Harrison, Jackson 
Mannering, Abner Eea, Levi Browning, L. D. Clayton. It will 
be seen from the foregoing that only a few of the really early 
settlers remained to attend this reunion. Their comrades of the 
early days, who shared with them the struggles and privations of 
pioneer life, have passed away from earth, and they, too, soon shall 
follow. They have lived to see the country develop, partially by 
their own efforts, from the savage barbarism of the past, to the 
beautiful, enlightened and Christianized country of the present. 
They have " fought a good fight," and may they reap a rich 
reward when time rolls them into eternity! There is a venerable 
couple living in Benton, Mr. Abel Ward and wife, Polly Ann, who 
settled in Franklin County in April, 1840. On the 7th of Febru- 
ary, 1887, this old couple met with their relatives and friends, and 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 351 

celebrated the sixty-eighth anniversary of their marriage, which 
took place in the year 1819. In the bonds of wedlock they have 
lived nearly three score and ten years. " Mrs. Hall, mother of Aunt 
Betsey Eogers, was one of the most noted women that ever lived 
in Franklin County, on account of her advanced age. She died 
about the year 1853, at the age of one hundred and eleven years. 
Her mental faculties were pretty well preserved to the last. She 
had done a great deal of hard labor during her life, and for sev- 
eral years prior to her death, kept her hands in motion as though 
she was spinning flax." 

LAND ENTRIES. 

The first settlers exercised "squatters' rights," and located 
iipon their lands before the public domain in this section of coun- 
try was surveyed and made subject to entry. The first entries 
of lands within the county were made in the year 1814. 

The settlement of the county was slow and grg-dual, as 
evidenced by the fact that only about one-half of the public lands 
were entered prior to the year 1850. In 1854 Congress passed 
the Gradation Act, known also as the "Bit Act," which reduced 
the price of the public lands in Illinois from $1.25 per acre to 
12^ cents (one bit). This act going into effect, a great rush 
was made in October of that year to the land office, then located 
at Shawneetown, by parties who immediately entered all the 
lands they could possibly pay for. In few years after this date 
most of the best lands subject to entry were taken up. 

The following is a list of the names of persons who made 
the first entries in each township and the years in which they 
were made: 



352 



FRANKLIN COUNTY, 



Congressional Townships. 



Date. Civil Townships. 



Sarah Galloway 

Lewis Hillin 

Wm. A. Docker. . . . 

LeviSilkwood 

John Kirkpalrick. . . 
John M. Mulkey. . . . 
Crawford Burns. . . . 

Benj. Pope 

Solomon Snider 

Jas. T. Akin 

John Sandusky 

Wm. Blauton 

A. U. Harrison 

John Browning 

Kinchling Odum. . . . 

Lewis Barker 

Francis Jordan 

David Dement 

Joseph Estes 

William Frizzell 

John Cox 

Achilles D. Dollins. 
John R Williams... 

Martin Wooley 

Moses Garrett 

Elijah Ewing 

Thomas Roberts. . . . 

Elijah Taylor 

Eli Webb 

Lazarus Webb 

Benjamin C. Fisher 
William Neil.. . . .. . 

James Akin 

Francis Jordan 

Isaac Moherly 

Alex McCreery 



Township 5 South, 
5 
5 



Range 1 East 



1831 
1833 
1833 
1831 
1831 
1833 
1829 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1831 
1833 
1817 
1819 
1819 
1815 
1816 
1816 
1818 
1818 
1818 
1828 
1836 
1836 
1814 
1814 
1814 
1815 
1816 
1816 
1814 
1818 
1830 
1814 
1814 
1815 



Goode 

Tyrone 

Six Mile 

Barren 

Browning 

Denning 

Ewing 

Benton 

Frankfort 

Northern 

Eastern 

Cave 



From the foregoing it appears that some of the first settlers 
occupied their lands a long time before acquiring title thereto by 
entering them at the land office and receiving patent-deed from 
the United States. For instance, Six Mile Township was settled 
as early as 1811, but no lands were entered there until 1829. 

Originally the title to all the lands of the Territory of Illinois 
vested in the United States, and not until after the public survey 
had been made, and a land office established, did the Government 
begin to part with its title to said lands. After the State was 
admitted into the Union, Congress passed several acts, donating 
to the State certain lands for specific purposes. The lands thus 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 353 

donated and situated iu Franklin County were classified as "school 
lands," "swamp lands" and "railroad lands." The school 
lands, which were donated for educational purposes, consisted of 
Section 16 in each congressional township, and there being twelve 
of these townships in the county, twelve sections or 7,680 acres 
were thus donated. According to an act of the General Assembly 
of the State, passed February 16, 1857, these lands were divided 
into lots of forty acres, and a value fixed on each by the school 
trustees of the townships, and were afterward sold by the county 
school commissioner, at the courthouse, after due notice to the 
public of the time and place of sale. They were sold at public out- 
cry to the highest bidder, provided his offer was not below the fixed 
value thereof. The proceeds of the sale of each section of land 
became a permanent fund, belonging to the township in which it 
was situated. This fund was to be loaned for the benefit of the 
common schools, the interest only to be appropriated each year. 
On the 28th of September, 1850, Congress passed a law grant- 
ing to each of the several States of the Union the swamp and 
overflowed lands remaining unsold and situated respectively 
therein, to enable the States to construct levees and drains to 
reclaim the said lands, and on the 22d of June, 1852, after said 
lands had been selected and patented to the State, the Legislature 
passed a law granting the same lands to the counties in which 
they were situated, " for the purpose of constructing the levees and 
draifis, and the balance of said lands, if any, after the same were 
reclaimed as aforesaid, to be distributed equally among the town- 
ships in each county, for the purpose of education, or the con- 
struction of roads and bridges, or to such other purposes as might 
be deemed expedient by the court or county judge." Under the 
foregoing provisions the first selection of swamp lands, amount- 
ing to 33,700 acres to which the county acquired title, was situ- 
ated in the several civil townships as they are now composed, as 
follows: Goode, 380 acres; Tyrone, 480 acres; Six Mile, 1,600 



354 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

acres; Barren 4,300 acres; Browning, 5,100 acres; Denning, 
4,600 acres; Ewing, 800 acres; Benton 5,040 acres; Frankfort, 
4,400 acres; Northern 4,000 acres; Eastern, 1,900 acres; Cave, 
920 acres. The foregoing did not include all the swamp lands of 
the county, consequently a second selection was made, consisting 
of 6,716 acres, thus making 40,410 acres in all, to which the 
county acquired title. The second selection was distributed in 
the several townships in about the same proportion as the first. 
On the IStli of September, 1852, the county court appointed 
Levi Browning, Esq., as drainage commissioner, whereupon he 
filed his official bond in the penal sum of ^10,000, conditioned 
for the faithful performance of his official duties, and took the 
oath of office. The swamp lands were surveyed and platted by 
Elijah T. Webb, the county suveyor, and in June, 1854, the court 
ordered the drainage commissioner to proceed, as the law directed, 
to sell said lands at the courthouse, and to continue the sale from 
day to day until all were sold. This duty was promptly and 
faithfully performed by Commissioner Browning, and on the 
8th of December, 1858, he filed his final report of sales, showing 
that he had sold the entire amount of said lands, at prices varing 
from 25 cents to $4. 25 per acre, and that the proceeds amounted in 
the aggregate to ^20,406.83. This amount was expended by said 
commissioner, under the direction of the county court, in construc- 
tng levees on Big Muddy and other streams in the county, and in 
constructing various drains for the purpose of reclaiming the said 
lands. A portion was also appropriated to improve the highways. 
An act of Congress, passed September 20, 1850, granted cer- 
tain portions of the public lands to the State of Illinois, for the 
purpose of constructing a railroad. And on the 10th of Febru- 
ary, 1851, the Legislature of the State passed an act incorporat- 
ing the Illinois Central Kailroad Company, and granted the 
same lands to it. By this means the said railroad company 
acquired title to 33,078 acres of land in Franklin County, distrib- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 355 

nted in the several civil townships of the west half of the 
county as follows: Goode, 7,255 acres; Tyrone, 8,802 acres; Six 
Mile, 6,709 acres; Barren, 3,447 acres; Browning, 3,166 acres; 
Denning, 3,699 acres. According to the grant, these lands were 
exempt from taxation, so long as they remained the property of 
the railroad company. All of these lands have been sold to indi- 
vidual purchasers, except about 10,000 acres, which the com- 
pany still retains, and which are exempt from taxation. 

AGRICULTURE, COMMERCE, ETC. 

Agriculture has always been the leading industry of the 
people of Franklin County. Being situated as it is on the divid- 
ing ridge between the Mississippi River on the west, and the 
"Wabash and the Ohio on the east, it has always been deprived of 
river, and until recently, of railroad communication, and having 
had no other facilities than wagons for transporting its commod- 
ities to city markets, the towns have remained small, and no 
considerable manufactories have been established. The first 
merchants of the county brought their goods in wagons from 
Shawneetown and Kaskaskia, and later their goods were brought 
principally from St. Louis. The venerable merchant of Benton, 
Mr. Levi Browning, relates that on one occasion, during the 
decade of the forties, he went to St. Louis for the mercantile 
firm of W. L. Browning & Co., with fourteen wagons, all laden 
with castor beans, which shows that the raising of this vegetable 
w' as an industry of the farmers of that period. Having sold the 
beans, he loaded part of the wagons with goods, and returned to 
Belleville, where he loaded the rest with flour, and then returned 
home with them. It cost 40 cents per hundred weight to thus 
convey produce to the city, and the same to bring merchandise 
therefrom. And he states that it costs nearly that price to get 
goods from St. Louis at the present time. 

In 1850, accordinof to the United States census, the number 



356 



FRANKLIN COUNTY. 



of acres of improved land within the county was 29,003, and of 
unimproved lands 50,304 and the population was only 5,681. 
These figures prove conclusively that during the first forty-six 
years after the settlement of the county began, it developed very 
slowly. The cash value of the farms in 1850 was $272,075, and 
of farming implements $26,984. To show, in a more compre- 
hensive way, the further development of the county pertaining 
to agriculture, stock raising, etc., the following valuable table of 
statistics is appended. 





1850 


1870 


1880 




1,909 

284 

2,005 

802 

3,425 

5,228 

21,719 

3,008 

19 

268,690 

24,833 


4,306 

1,482 
3,280 

577 

18,196 

25,490 

111,689 

5,195 

653,299 

222,426 

27,968 

■64,556 

4,835 

48,956 


4,844 


Mules and asses 


1 876 


Milk cows 

Working oxen 


3,401 

28 


Other cattle 


3.965 


Sheep 

Swine 


5.769 

38,685 


Bushels of wheat 


453,023 


Bushels of rye 


163 


Bushels of Indian corn 


1 049 554 


Bushels of oats 


130,702 


Bushels of potatoes 

Bushels of sweet potatoes 

Pounds of butter 


17,355 

4,828 
251,573 






4,209 


Pounds of wool ■; 




19,390 


Pounds of tobacco ... 


18,556 


98,672 







The value of the livestock was in 1850, $152,719; in 1880, 
$562,281. In 1880 there were 133,691 acres of improved 
land in the county, and the value of the farms was $2,662,000.76, 
and of farm implements $165,655, and the estimated value of all 
farm products sold, consumed, and on hand for the year 1879 
was $858,108. By a careful study of the foregoing statistics, 
questions of great importance will be suggested to the reader who 
desires to become informed concerning the laws of cause and effect, 
supply and demand, etc. The first column shows the develop- 
ment the county made in agriculture up to the year 1850, and 
the last column shows the further development up to 1880, and by 
comparing the figures of the second and third colums, the increase 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 357 

and decrease for the decade of the seventies is noted. Notice the 
decrease from 1850 to 1880 in working oxen. This is easily ac- 
counted for: the lands have been cleared, and the log heaps, for the 
making of which the oxen were so valuable, do not have to be made 
now. But the decrease in the number of sheep raised and the 
pounds of wool produced, from 1870 to 1880 presents a question 
of great importance, not so easily answered. Many other 
questions of great importance, to the farmer especially, are 
suggested by a comparison of these figures. 

Agriculture in Franklin County has not reached its highest 
development, for the reason that the lands have been cultivated 
too many years without a proper succession of crops, and with- 
out being fertilized. However, the raising of clover as a fertilizer 
has begun, and if persevered in it will bring grand results. 

THE FRANKLIN COUNTY AGRICULTURAL BOARD. 

This Board was organized in 1859. A tract of ten acres, 
lying south of and adjoining the town of Benton, was pur- 
chased from Abraham Eea and his wife, for the sum of SlOO, 
and a deed procured for the same, dated August 27, of that 
year. The board began to improve the grounds, and to fit 
it up for use, and held the first exhibition in the year 1863. 
Since that time " annual fairs " have been held. The grounds not 
being large enough another tract of land adjoining, containing 
six and thirteen one-hundreth acres, was purchased for the sum 
of $230, and a deed procured for the same dated April 17. 1879. 
The whole tract is now enclosed, and the buildings consist of a 
large floral hall, and an amphitheater recently erected and 
capable of seating 1,000 persons. There are sufficient stalls 
for horses and cattle, and pens for other stock; there is also a 
good well of water and three large cisterns. The race course has 
recently been improved at considerable expense. The board, in 
order to make these recent improvements, has been compelled to 



358 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

borrow money, and now owes a debt of about $2,500. The 
society has a valuable property, and gives good annual exhibi- 
tions, and always pays the premiums promptly. For the last two 
years a horse fair has been held in the month of June. The 
officers consist of a jDresident, vice-president, secretary and treas- 
urer, and also a board of twelve directors. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY. 

Franklin County was organized in accordance with an act of 
the Legislature of the Illinois Territory, approved January 2, 
1818. The following is a copy of the act, entitled, " An act form- 
ing a separate county out of Gallatin, White and the detached 
part of Jackson Counties. 

Section 1. Be it enact 'd by the Legislative Counciland House of Representa- 
tives of the Illinois Territory, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, 
That all that tract of country within the following boundaries to wit: Beginning 
at the corner of Townships 10 and 11, on the line between Ranges 4 and 5, 
thence north with said line thirty-six miles; thence west twenty-four miles, to 
the third principal meridian; thence south with the same to the line dividing 
Townships 10 and 11; thence east to the beginning, shall constitute a separate 
count}^ to be called Franklin. And for the purpose of fixing the permanent 
seat of justice for said county the following persons be appointed commissioners: 
Samuel Hay, Samuel Omelvany and Richard Maulding, which said com- 
missioners, or a majority of them, being duly sworn before some judge or justice 
of the peace, in this Territory, to faithfully take into view the situation of the 
settlements, with an eye to future population, the convenience and advantage 
of the people, and the eligibility of the place, shall meet on the third Monday of 
February next, at the house of Moses Garrett, in said county, and proceed to 
examine and determine on the place for the permanent seat of justice, and 
designate the same: Provided the proprietor or proprietors of the land shall give 
to the county, for the purpose of erecting public buildings, a quantity of land at 
the said place of not less than twenty acres, to be laid out in lots and sold for the 
above purpose. But should the said proprietor or proprietors refuse or neglect 
to make the donation aforesaid, then, and in that case it shall be the duty of 
the commissioners to fix on some other place for the seat of justice as con- 
venient and advantageous as may be to the inhabitants of said county, which 
place fixed and determined upon, the said commissioners shall certify under 
their hands and seals, and return the same to the next county court, in the 
county aforesaid, which said court shall cause an entry thereof to be made 
on their books of record, and until the public buildings may be erected, the 
courts shall be holden at the house of Moses Garrett in the county aforesaid. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. The commis- 
sioners aforesaid shall receive a compensation of two dollars each for every 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 359 

day that they may necessarily be employed in fixing the aforesaid seat of justice, 
to be paid out of the county levy by an order of the county court. 

Sec. 3. Be it further enacted by the author iti/ aforesaid, That whereas 
the counties of Gallatin, Edwards, White, Crawford and Franklin coinpose 
one district for the purpose of electing a member of the Legislative Council, the 
citizens of said county entitled to vote may, at any election for a member of the 
Legislative Council to represent said district, proceed to vote for such member, 
and it shall morever be the duty of the sheriff of said county, within ten days 
after the close of said election, to attend at the courthouse of the county of 
Gallatin, with a statement of the votes given in such county, to compare the 
polls of the respective counties, and join with the sheriffs of Gallatin, Edwards, 
Crawford and White Counties in making out and delivering to the persons duly 
elected a certificate thereof, and for a failure thereof he shall forfeit and pay 
the same penalties, and for the same purposes, that the sheriffs of Gallatin, 
Edwards, Crawford and White are subject. 

Sec. 4. Be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the 
citizens of the said Franklin County are hereby declared entitled in all respects 
to the same rights and privileges in the election of a delegate to Congress that 
are allowed by law to the other counties in this Territory, and all elections 
are to be held at the same time, and conducted in the same manner, as is pro- 
vided for other counties. 

Sec. 5. And it is further enacted, That the counties of Franklin and 
Jackson shall vote for one representative to the House of Representatives, at 
their respective seats of justice, at the time prescribed for holding such elections. 
And the sheriffs of said counties shall meet at the courthouse of Jackson 
County, within twenty days after such election, and make out a certificate, signed 
by both of said sheriffs, to the person duly elected, and if the said sheriffs shall 
fail to do the same they shall be fined and nay the sum of one hundred dollars 
for the use of the said counties, , recoverable by indictment, in the county in 
which such delinquent sheriff may reside. This act to take effect and be in 
force from and after the passage thereof. 

Geo. Fisher. 
Speaker of the House ofBepresentatires. 
Pierre Henard, 

President of the L. Council. 
Approved, January 3, 1818. 
NiNiAN Edwards. 

The territory described in this act included all of what is 

now Franklin and Williamson Coanties, excepting a small tract 

in Township 6 sputh, lying between Little Muddy River and 

the third principal meridian, which has since been attached 

to Franklin County. The first section of the foregoino- act 

required the commissioners appointed thereby to report their 

pj'oceedings pertaining to the location of the seat of justice to 

the county court, to be spread upon the records of said court 

but the records of said court, together with nearly all other 



360 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

county records, were subsequently destroyed by fire, and con- 
sequently it is impossible now to give full particulars con- 
cerning the organization of the county. It is evident, how- 
ever, that these commissioners did not permanently locate the 
seat of justice, for the reason that the General Assembly of 
the State of Illinois (which was admitted into the Union, De- 
cember 3, 1818), passed an act on the 1st of February, 1821, 
appointing Conrad Will, Isaac Casey, Samuel Omelvany, James 
Kirkpatrick and George R. Logan commissioners to estab- 
lish a permanent seat of justice in and for the county of 
Franklin, which said commissioners, after being duly sworn 
" to faithfully take into view the convenience of the people, 
the situation of the settlements, with an eye to the future popula- 
tion and eligibility of the place," were to meet on the first Mon- 
day in April, 1821, or within six days thereafter, at the house of 
William B. Perry in said county, and proceed to examine and 
determine ou the said seat of justice for said county and to desig- 
nate the same: Provided that the proprietor or proprietors of the 
land should give to the county, for the purpose of erecting public 
buildings, a quantity of land not less than twenty acres to be laid 
out in lots and sold for that purpose. And the act further pro- 
vided that until the public buildings were erected the courts 
should be held at the same places where they had previously been 
held. Accordingly these commissioners selected the site of the 
old town of Frankfort for the location of the permanent seat 
of justice. This site was then owned by Moses Garrett who 
donated and conveyed it to the county for the purposes aforesaid, 
and it accordingly became the permanent seat of justice. The 
town was surveyed by Lemuel Harrison, and in 1826, a dimin- 
utive courthouse and jail were built. Prior to this time the courts 
had been held and the public records kept at the house of Moses 
Garrett, about three miles east of Frankfort, and a portion of the 
time on the farm since occupied by the Denuings. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 361 

COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COURT. 

Among the first duties of the county commissioner's court, 
after completing the organization, and after the seat of justice 
became permanently established, was to appoint commissioners 
to locate and open up public roads, to connect the new county 
seat with other points in the then sparsely settled country. The 
old Indian trail from Shawneetown to St. Louis became what is 
now known as the Shawneetown and St. Louis road. A road 
was opened from Frankfort to Mount Vernon, the present county 
seat of Jefferson county, in 1823, under the supervision of the 
highway commissioners, Lemuel R. Harrison, Braxton Parrish 
and Andrew Harrison, over what was then considered a swamp. 
Other roads were located and opened up as fast as the settlers 
became able to perform the necessary labor. In February, 1821, 
Samuel McClintock was authorized by the Legislature to build a 
toll bridge across Little Muddy where the State road from Kas- 
kaskia to Shawneetown crosses it, and Lewis Barker and the 
said McClintock were authorized to build a toll bridge across 
Big Muddy at the point where said road crosses it. In 1835 the 
western boundary of the county was changed in accordance with 
an act of the General Assembly of the State, passed on the 6th 
of February of that year, which provided that Little Muddy 
Eiver should constitute the dividing line between Franklin and 
Perry Counties, in Townships 5 and 6 south, instead of the 
third principal meridian, which was formerly the dividing line. 
And in 1839 Franklin county was divided, and the county of Will- 
iamson established in accordance with the following act entitled 

An Act to Establish the Countt op Williamson. 

Section 1. Be it enacted bi/ the People of the State of Illinois represented 
in the General Assembl//, That it shall be lawful for the legal voters of the 
county of Franklin to meet at the respective places of holding elections in said 
county on the first Monday in August next, and vote for or against the divis- 
ion of said county; and if it shall appear, by the returns of the election afore- 
said, that a majority of all the votes given of said election shall be in favor of 
division the said county of Franklin shall be divided, and the following shall 



362 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

be the boundaries of a new county, to wit: Beginning at the northeast corner 
of township eight south, range four east of the third principal meridian; thence 
west with the said township line dividing townships seven and eight to the third 
principal meridian; thence south with the third principal meridian to the town- 
ship line dividing ten and eleven south; thence east with the said Township line 
to the line dividing ranges four and five east; thence north with the said Range 
line to the beginning, and which new county, so formed, shall be called Will- 
iamson. 

Sec. 2. The legal voters of the counties of Franklin and Williamson 
shall meet at their respective places, holding elections on the first Monday in 
September next, and proceed to elect county officers for each of said counties, 
which officers, when so elected, shall hold their respective offices until the next 
general election for such officers, and until their successors are elected and quali- 
fied: Provided, however, That this section shall not be so construed as to pre- 
vent any county commissioners, residing within the limits of the said new county, 
from serving out the time for which he was elected as a commissioner of the 
said county of Williamson. ****** 

By fiirtlier provisions of said act John Reid of Perry County, 
Noah Johnson, of Jefferson County, and Milton Carpenter, of 
Hamilton County were appointed commissioners to locate the 
seat of justice for Franklin County at the center thereof, or at 
some point the most eligible and nearest thereto, taking into view 
the convenience of the place, together with the advantages of the 
county to be derived from such location. They were to require 
from the owner or owners of such location a donation of at least 
twenty acres, on which to lay out a town and erect public build- 
ings. The act also provided that the county commissioners' court, 
and the circuit court within the county of Franklin, should be 
held at such place or places in the county as the county commis- 
sioners should designate, until the public buildings were erected. 

In compliance with the foregoing an election was held at the 
several voting places on the first Monday of August, 1839, and 
upon counting the votes cast it was found that a majority were 
in favor of the new county. Accordingly the commissioners 
appointed by said act to locate the seat of justice for the county of 
Franklin proceeded to the performance of their duties as provided 
by the law, and at the September term, 1839, of the county com- 
missioners' court, they filed their report in the words and figures 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 363 

STATE OP ILLINOIS, ) 

FRANKLIN COUNTY, \ 

We, Milton Carpenter, of Hamilton County; John 
Reid, of Perry County, and Noah Johnson, of Jefferson County, commis- 
sioners, appointed by an act of the General Assembly, approved February the 
28th, A. D., 1839, entitled " An Act to establish the county of Williamson," to 
select and permanently locate the seat of justice of Franklin coftnty, make the 
following report, to wit: That a majority of us met at the town of Frankfort, 
on Monday the 19th day of August, 1839, and on Tuesday the 20th, we proceeded 
to the house of Abraham Rea, in said count}', at which place we were joined by 
the third commissioner, and after being duly sworn by Lawson Thompson, Es- 
quire, an acting justice of the peace in and for said county, we proceeded to 
view the several different situations in and about the center of said county, 
and after such examination as the case required we selected and agreed 
upon (as a place suitable) a spot on the northeast fourth of the southwest 
quarter of section number eighteen in township six south, and range number 
three east of the third principal meridian in said county, on or near the summit 
of a mound or hill in the edge of the timber, and at the south end of Rawling's 
Prairie. 

And we further t<(nte, That we set up a stake at the root of a forked hickory 
tree on the said tract of land, which is said to be owned by one John Ewing and 
one Walter S. Akin— the said Ewing and Akin having agreed to give a donation 
of twenty acres of land. The center of said donation to be at or near the root of 
said tree and stake, and the bounds to be in such shape as the county commis- 
sioners shall hereafter order and direct, having due regard that said stake and 
the spot upon which the said forked hickory tree stands as the center of the 
public square, and we further state that we have permanently located the seat 
of justice of Franklin county in said State on the ground aforesaid, upon condi- 
tion that the owner or owners of said land shall make, out or cause to be made 
out, to the proper authorities of said county a good and sufficient general war- 
rantee deed to said donation of twenty acres, in such shape as the county commis- 
sioners shall direct, which donation is understood to be confined to the aforesaid 
quarter-quarter section. 

Given under our hands and seals this 21st day of August, A. D., 1839. 

Milton Carpenter, [seal. ] 
John Reid. [seal.] 

Noah Johnson. [seal.] 

To the County Commissioners of Franklin County. 

In accordance with ttiis report, title was acquired by the 
county of Franklin from the aforesaid John Ewing and Walter 
S. Akin, for twenty-two acres of land covering the particular 
"spot" on which the important "stake and forked hickory 
tree" was located, by donation and deed of conveyance dated 
September 8, 1839. Having thus acquired title to the land, 
the county commissioners proceeded to lay out a town thereon, 
and named it Benton. The town was surveyed and platted by 



364 



FRANKLIN COUNTY. 



H. W. Perry w]io was then county surveyor, and who annexed to 
the plat the following words to wit: 

September 30, 1839, surveyed for the county of Franklin 84 town lots in the 
town of Benton, situated on the S. E. fourth of the S. V/. quarter of Section 18, 
Township 6 Soigh, Eange 3 East; beginning at the quarter section corner on 
the soutli side of said Section; thence north 80 poles to a stone marked L. T. 1., 
thence as exhibited on the subjoined plat. 

H. W. Perry. S. F. C. 

Thomas Thompson, } chairmen. 

John Duff, f 

SALE OF TOWN LOTS. 

The county commissioners then proceeded to sell the town 
lots, to raise the necessary funds with which to erect public build- 
ings. The first sale of lots took place on the 28th day of 
October 1839, on which occasion thirty-three lots, including all of 
the most valuable ones, were sold for the aggregate sum of 
$2,620.(32. The following table shows to whom these lots were 
sold, and the price paid for each one. 



Names of Purchasers. 



John T. Knox 

Isaiah Harlow 

Matthew M. Cully... 

Solomon Clark 

John Molierly 

Benjamin Smith 

John Heflin 

Wm. R. Browning. 
Benjamin Smith. . . . 

Bowen Keith 

Wm. H. Hutson . . . . 

Solomon Clark 

John Moberly 

A. D. Williams 

Ephraim Taylor 

Isaiah Harlow 

Abraham Ilea.. . . . 
Edward Moberly. . . 



M. M. Cully 

E. J. Franklin 

AVm. S. Crawford. 
Augustus Adams. . . 
Wm. H. Gardner. . 

J. P. Thomas 

E. H. Eubanks. . . . 
Chester Carpenter. 

John Lanuias 

John Ilea 

A. B. Gardner. . . . 
T. J. Mansfield. . . 

John Lannias 

John Gunter , 



No. o 
Lot^. 
17 
18 
23 
24 
25 



$ 80 00 

60 00 

95 00 
200 00 
199 00 
110 00 

32 00 

90 00 

101 50 

51 00 

61 00 
151 00 
110 50 

62 00 
55 00 

160 00 
235 00 

96 00 
67 00 

40 00 
55 00 
50 00 
82 50 
71 50 
53 00 
50 00 
27 50 
12 00 

41 00 
50 00 
41 00 
16 00 
15 13 



HIBTORY OF ILLINOIS. 365 

Another sale of lots took place on tlie 21st and 22d of 
April, 1841, when twenty-one lots were sold for the aggregate 
sum of $509.62, and a further sale was made on the first Monday 
of June following, when eight lots were sold for the aggregate 
amount of $440.50, the total amount for which the lots were sold 
at these three sales being $3,645.12. 

At the March term, 1840, of the commissioners' court, it was 
ordered that the courts should continue to be held at Frankfort 
until further orders. About this time certain parties were 
protesting against the location of the new county seat. The 
contest, however, was settled, and the further orders given by 
way of an act of the General Assembly of the State, approved 
January 7, 1841, declaring "That from and after the first day of 
March, 1841, the seat of justice in and for the county of Franklin, 
shall be deemed, and held to be at the town of Benton." Ac- 
cordingly the removal was made, and the first term of the county 
commissioners' court held in the town of Benton was in March, 
1841, when there were present Abraham Rea, Benj. W. Pope and 
John Crawford, commissioners; S. M. Hubbard, clerk, and Wm. 
S. Crawford, sherifP. 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

The contract for building the first courthouse and also a 
clerk's office, in the town of Benton, was awarded to Augustus 
Adams, for $539.50, and the buildings were erected in the spring 
of 1841, and the balance of $255.33 remaining due on the 
contract, was allowed by the commissioners' court, at the June 
term of that year. This courthouse, which was a small frame 
building, stood on the public square until the building of the 
second courthouse was commenced, and then moved to the corner 
opposite to and north of the United Baptist Church, where it still 
stands, being now used as a dwelling-house. The first action of 
the court pertaining to the building of a more substantial and 
more commodious courthouse, was taken in March, 1842, when it 



366 FEANKLIN COUFTY. 

was ordered that a brick courthouse be erected in the town of 
Benton, and that the contract for the building of the same be 
awarded to the lowest bidder at the June term of the court in 
that year, the plans and specifications to be made known prior to 
that time. Accordingly the contract for the erection of all of the 
building, except the inside work, was awarded to Joseph T. 
Tucker. The building was constructed, and the county commis- 
sioners, at their December term, 1844, examined the same 
and found a deficiency in the roof about the chimneys, and 
other deficiencies, and thereupon retained |100 from the con- 
tractor to cover such deficiencies, and accepted the building. 
They then awarded the contract for the inside work to other 
parties. The building was completed in 1845, the whole costing 
about $3,000. It was a two-story brick structure, about 40 feet 
square, with the offices of the clerk of the county commissioners' 
court, and the clerk of the circuit court on the first floor, and 
the courtroom on the second. The building was erected for the 
contractor by Jarvis Pearce. 

DESTRUCTION OF PUBLIC RECORDS. 

On the night of the 18th of November, 1843, the afore- 
said clerk's office, which was built by Mr. Adams, was consumed 
by fire, and with it nearly all of the public records of the county 
were destroyed. After wafd the General Assembly of the State, 
by an act passed January 21, 1845, appointed Lemuel E. Harri- 
son, Walter S. Akin, and Samuel K. Casey, commissioners 
of a board of investigators, to restore the lost records of the 
county, at the expense of the State. Accordingly these com- 
missioners met in Benton on the 19th of May, 1845, and 
employed S. M. Hubbard as their secretary, and proceeded to the 
performance of their almost impossible duties. After the death 
of Mr. Hubbard, which occurred soon thereafter, they employed 
Wm. R. Browning as their secretary. They restored the 



HISTOKY OF ILLINOIS. 367 

records so far as it was in tlieir power, it being impossible to 
restore sucli records of courts and of Avritten instruments as were 
entirely wiped out of existence by the fire. Their efforts and 
work was limited to the restoration of the records of titles to real 
estate, and of instruments remaining in the hands of individuals. 
A call was made for all persons having deeds of conveyances, and 
other written instruments which had been recorded, and which 
were entitled to record, to reproduce them to the said board of 
investigators, to be re-entered of record. In this way many instru- 
ments came into their hands, and were thus restored to record. 
At the September term, 1845, of the commissioners' court, Wm. 
B. Browning, secretary of the said board of investigators, filed 
the following accounts for services, to wit: Lemuel R. Harrison, 
26 days, ^45.50; Walter S. Akin, 25 days, $43.75; Samuel K. 
Casey, 20 days, $35.00; S. M. Hubbard, 14 days, $24.50; Wm. 
R. BrowniDg, 10 days, $17.50. These accounts, after being veri- 
fied, were allowed by the court and ordered to be certified by the 
clerk, to the State auditor of public accounts at Springfield for 
payment. 

The contract for the building of the present courthouse was 
awarded in 1874 to John J. St. Clair, of Benton, for the sum of 
$23,750, which amount was afterward raised on account of certain 
changes in the plans and specifications to $24,000. The old court- 
house was sold to the said contractor for $125. He used some of 
the material of it in the construction of the new building, which 
is a substantial and quite ornamental two story brick structure, 
with halls and stairs, and the offices of the county court judge, 
county court clerk, circuit court clerk and county treasurer, with 
large fire-proof vaults for the public records, on the first floor, and 
the courtroom and jury rooms on the second; it is warmed by the 
use of stoves. 

The present " poor farm " consisting of 120 acres, and situated 
in Section 29, in Benton Township, about two miles southeast 



368 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

from Benton, was purchased by the county for $1,200, and 
a deed procured for the same from Tilman B. Cantrell and wife, 
dated December 3, 1861. The buildings on said farm are com- 
mon log houses, which are in a dilapidated condition. The 
county, however, is preparing to construct such buildings as the 
necessities of the case may require. At the present writing there 
are twenty-three paupers supported on the farm. Of these, three 
males and three females are insane, three women are blind, 
and one lady Mrs. Sarah Maddox is one hundred years old. 
The balance are middle aged persons and children. The average 
number of inmates of the poorhouse for the last six years has 
been about eighteen. Prior to the purchase of this farm, the 
dependent poor or paupers were farmed out by the year to citizens, 
who, for a stipulated price, became responsible for their care and 
support. 

PUBLIC OFFICERS. 

The following is a list of the public ofl&cers of the county, and 
dates of their terms of service, so far as it is possible to obtain, 
the same. Had all the records been fully made, and all been pre- 
served, the task of compiling a complete list of officers would 
have been comparatively easy. No records of the courts can now 
be found back of 1838, consequently the list back of that date 
must be incomplete. 

County court clerks — S. M. Hubbard, 1838, and subsequent 
thereto until his death, which occurred in 1845 ; then Wm. A. Den- 
ning and John Edgerly, each a short time during that year ; Samuel 
K. Casey, a portion of the year 1846; Wm. R. Browning, 1846 
-53; Thomas J. Mooneyham, 1853-57; James L. Dollins, 1857 
-61; Calvin M. Clark, 1861-73; E. Fitzgerrell, 1873-77 ; Charles 
A. Akin, 1877-82; T. P. Harrison, 1882-86 present incumbent 
and re-elected. 

Circuit court clerks— S. M. Hubbard, 1837-46; Wm. R. Brow- 
ning, 1846-53; Thomas J. Mooneyham, 1853-57; Lemuel R. Har- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 369 

rison, 1857-60; B. W. Martin, 1860-61; C. M. Clark, 1861-63; 
Wm. B. Kelley, 1863-64; Carroll Payne, 1864:-65; Jolm A. Rod- 
man, 1865-67; J. S. Barr, 1867-68 ;T. M. Mooneyham, 1868-76; 
Rob. H. Flannigan, 1876-80; James F. Mason, 1880-84; Wm. 
F. Spiller, 1884, present incumbent. 

Sheriffs — David Maxwell, who lived on Garrett's Prairie near 
Frankfort, was the first sheriff of the county, and was elected per- 
haps in 1820. He was followed by Thomas J. Mansfield and 
John Crawford, who held the office prior to 1836, then Willis 
Allen, 1836-38; Wm. S. Crawford, 1838-41; Benjamin Smith, 
1841-12; George W. Akin, 1842-48; Thomas J. Mansfield, 1848 
-49; Thomas J. Mooneyham, 1849-53; Lewis G. Payne, 1853-55; 
Wm. Mooneyham, 1855-57; James Swafford, 1857-59; AVm. 
Mooneyham, 1859-60; Marion D. Hodge, 1860-62; John Den- 
ning, 1862-64; Isaac Ward, 1864-66; M. D. Hodge, 1866-68; W. 
B. Denning, 1868-70; Carroll Moore 1870-72; Cyrus D. Means, 
1872-74; J. F. Mason, 1874-76; James M. Akin, 1876-78; W. D. 
Seber, 1878-80; Wm. R. Jones, 1880-86; John B. Moore, 1886, 
present incumbent. 

Treasurers — For the last eighteen years, J. M. Vancil, 1869- 
71; John W. Hill, 1871-73; T. AV. Sweet. 1873-77; A. C. Stall- 
cup,1877-82; S. W. Swain, 1882-86; J. A. Dollins, present incum- 
bent, elected in 1886. 

Circuit court judges — Walter B. Scates from 1837 and per- 
haps prior thereto until 1847; Wm. A. Denning, 1847-54; Wm. 
K. Parrish, 1854-59; AVm. J. Allen, 1859-61 ; Andrew D. Duff, 
1861-75; Monroe C. Crawford, 18 75-78; John Dougherty, 1878 
-79; Daniel M Browning, 1879-83; David J. Baker, 1883-85; 
D. M. Browning, David J. Baker, R. W. McCartney and O. A. 
Harker, have since presided alternately. 

State attorneys — Samuel Marshall, 1837-39; Wm. H. Stick- 
ney, 1839-41 ; Willis Allen, 1841-45 ; Wm. A. Denning, 1845-47 ; 
Samuel Marshall,1847-50; Wm. K. Parrish, 1850-53 ; M. C. Craw- 



370 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

ford, 1853-54; John A. Logan (late United States Senator), 1854 
-57; M. C. Crawford, 1857-59; Edward V. Pearce, 1859-61; J. M. 
Cleminson, 1801-63; A. P. Corder, 1863-64; C. N. Damron, 1804 
-69; F. M. Youngblood, 1869-72; W. W. Barr, 1872-77; W. J. N. 
Moyers, 1877-81; John A. Treece, 1881-85; Wm. S. Cantrell, the 
present incumbent since 1885. 

Coroners— A. H. Cook, 1876-78; John Mulkey, 1878-80; J. H. 
Fleeman, 1880-82; James J. Miller, 1882-83; John L. Ragland, 
present incumbent since 1883. 

Surveyors — The present surveyor of the county is Isaac R. 
Spillman, who was elected in 1883. His immediate predecessor 
was W. W. Whittington, who held the office several years, and his 
more remote predecessors, were Elisha T. Webb and Calvin M. 
Clark. 

The representatives to the Constitutional Convention of 1818, 
from Franklin County were Isham Harrison and Thomas Roberts. 
In 1886 Wm. Hoskinson, of Benton, Franklin County, and A. K. 
Vickars, of Johnson County, and Wm. H. Bundy, of Williamson 
County were elected to represent this senatorial district in the 
House of Representatives of the State Legislature. Hon. 
Wm. W. Hoskimson died while at his post of duty at Springj&eld, 
on the 25th of February, 1887. The district is represented in 
the State Senate at present by Hon. Daniel Hogan of Pulaski 
County. The Nineteenth Congressional District, which includes 
Franklin County, is now represented in the Congress of the 
United States by Hon. R. W. Townshend, of Shawneetown, who 
was first elected to that office in 1876. 

TAXATION AND FINANCES. 

During the early year of the existence of the county " the sheriff 
was ex-officio collector of the revenue, and handled the State and 
county taxes, which for the year 1825 was twenty cents on the 
hundred dollars. The farmers were not then burdened with taxa- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 371 

tion, and could readily exchange deer, bear and coon skins for 
tax receipts. The largest tax was a special assessment of two 
dollars on each white male inhabitant over the age of twenty- 
one years, made for the purpose of raising a fund for paying a 
premium then offered for wolf scalps. This assessment was dis- 
cretionary with the county commissioners, and by law, wolf 
scalps were receivable in payment for taxes. The persons 
liable to assessments invariably came forward and paid their 
poll taxes in 'legal tender' wolf scalps, and a number paid all 
their taxes in the same kind of "change." As time rolled on, and 
public buildings had to be erected, and highways and bridges 
constructed, and the labor and salaries of public servants 
increased, taxes had to be increased in proportion. However, it 
was many years before the taxable jjroperty of Franklin County, 
and the taxes assessed thereon, amounted to as much as some 
single townships do at the present time. The earliest tax dupli- 
cate that has been preserved is for the year 1851, which gives 
the following recapitulation : Total value of lands, $218,078 ; 
value of town lots, $18,217 ; personal property, $205,961; total 
taxable property, $442,256. Taxes assessed thereon as follows: 
State tax, $2,683.90; county tax, $1,788.27; total taxes, $4,472.17. 
The foregoing shows that the personal property was almost equal 
to the assessed value of the lands. Perhaps less than one-half 
of the lands had then been entered — the title to the balance still 
being in the hands of the general Government and of the State, 
and therefore not taxable. Between 1850 and 1860 about one-half 
of all the lauds of the county were entered, and made subject to 
taxation, and this, of course, greatly increased the taxable 
property. Coming down to the year 1870. the taxes are found 
to be as follows. 



372 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

State tax $ 7,878 17 

County tax 4,715 84 

Priucipal and interest tax on bonds 2,357 92 

Paupertax 1,768 44 

Special tax 8,842 21 

District school tax 14,061 33 

Total Taxes $39,623 81 

By comparing these figures it is found that of the whole 
amount of taxes charged, over one-third were for school pur- 
poses, and that the total amount when compared with the total 
taxes charged in 1851, is found to be eight times as large. 
The following table shows the total assessed value of all the 
taxable property in the county, and the total taxes charged 
thereon, as shown by the tax duplicates for the year 1886. 



TOWNSHIPS. 



Goode 

Tyrone.. . 
Six Mile 
Barren. . . . 
Browning. 
Denning... 

Ewing 

Benton. . . 
Frankfort 
Northern. , 
Eastern.. . 
Cave 



Totals 

Belleville & Eldorado Railroad taxes added. 
Grand total of taxes 



Total value of tax- Total taxes charged 
able property. thereon. 



$ 64,356 00 


$ 2,321 97 


106,412 00 


8.152 26 


97,774 00 


2,508 68 


83,382 00 


3,032 10 


98.167 00 


4,006 96 


93,253 00 


3.778 28 


127,113 00 


2,742 51 


232,976 00 


9,800 36 


196,305 00 


5,245 13 


101,693 00 


3,466 68 


95,299 00 


3,225 36 


142,130 00 


4,450 01 


$1,348,860 00 


1 47,730 30 




5,815 90 



$ 53,546 20 



The following is the official financial statement of the county 
for the fiscal year ending September 1, 1886. 



RECEIPTS. 

On county tax account $ 10,828 71 

On courthouse tax account 5,384 28 

On special tax account 7,689 80 

From William F. Spiller, excess of salary 261 40 

Total receipts $ 24, 164 19 

Assets — Balance due from town collector $ 475 00 

Liabilities — Judgments in the circuit court 3,298 37 



HISTORY or ILLINOIS. 373 

EXPENDITURES. 

J. A. Jones, U. S. District Clerk on judgments $7,338 65 

Paid balance of courthouse bonds 4,500 00 

Warrants to county judge 700 00 

County orders 7,577 51 

Jury certificates 3,695 90 

Treasurer's commissions 238 12 

Treasurers incidental expenses 19 21 

Total expenditures $24,069 39 

Balance to equal receipts 94 80 

EAILEOAD BONDS. 

A proposition to subscribe $200,000, to the stock of the 
Bellville & Eldorado Kailroad Company, upon condition that the 
company's road should be built through the county, and the work 
thereon commenced within nine months, and completed by the 
1st of June, 1872, was submitted to the people of the county, 
at an election held on the lltli of September, 1869, and car- 
ried. In February, 1871, the county board by an order extended 
the time for commencing the v>^ork on the road to January 
1, 1872, and its completion to January 1, 1874. The board of 
supervisors of the county, on the 13th of December, 1876, 
passed a resolution to issue the bonds to the extent of 
$150,000, which was accordingly done. The construction of 
the railroad was not begun until January, 1877, and it was not 
completed through the county until November 1, 1869. Subse- 
quently in the case of Franklin County vs. The Bellville 
& Eldorado Kailroad Company, tried before Judge Harlan, of 
the United States Circuit Court, at Chicago, a decision was 
rendered which virtually made void $50,000 of the said bonds; 
and in the case of Richard Richeson vs. The People ex rel 
Wm. R. Jones, tax collector, which was appealed to the supreme 
court of the State, the $100,000 of said bonds were declared void 
on the ground that the county board had no authority to extend 
the time of commencing and completing the road. This railroad, 
which is the only one in Franklin County, enters the county near 



374 FEANKLIN COUNTY. 

its southeast corner, and passes through it by way of Thomasville, 
Parrish, Smothersville, Benton, Buckner, Christopher and Mul- 
keytown, and crosses the west line of the county about midway 
between the northwest and southwest corners thereof. 

The following statement shows the population of Frank- 
lin County at the end of each decade of ten years, beginning with 
the year 1820, only two years after the organization: Year 1820, 
including territory of Williamson County, 1,763; 1830, 1,763; 
1840, 3,682; 1850, white 5,646, colored 35, total 5,681; 1860, 
white 9,367, colored 26, total 9,393; 1870, white 12,642, colored 
6, total 12,646; 1880, white 16,099, colored 30, total 16,129. 

Politically the county of Franklin has always been Democratic, 
and prior to the late civil war the Democratic party was over- 
whelmingly in the ascendency. During the war, and at the close 
thereof, the Eepublican party began, and has since gained in 
numbers, so that at the last State election, that of 1886, the 
Democratic majority was reduced to 191 votes. The vote of the 
<3ounty at the last three presidential elections stood as follows: 
1876— Tilden, 1,302; Hayes, 966. 1880— Hancock, 1,610; Gar- 
field, 1,286. 1884— Cleveland, 1,729, Blaine, 1,431. 

county-commissioners' courts. 
The first constitution of the State of Illinois, which was 
adopted on the 26th of August, 1818, provided that there 
should be elected in each county three county commissioners, 
for the purpose of transacting all county business, whose term 
of service, power and duties, should be regulated and defined by 
law. Subsequently the Legislature of the State provided for the 
election of said commissioners, and their organization as a court, 
and defined their numerous duties. The early records of the 
county having been destroyed, it is impossible to state who 
first composed this court for the county of Franklin, or to give 
a history in full of its early proceedings. The caption of the 



HISTOKY OF ILLINOIS. 375 

first record of this court which has been preserved reads as 
follows: "At a court of county commissioners, begun and held 
at the clerk's office December, 1838, present, the worshipful 
Fred. F. Duncan, Cyrus Campbell and John Crawford, commis- 
sioners; S. M. Hubbard, clerk, and Wm. S. Crawford, sheriff." 
The following is a list of county commissioners who composed 
this court from 1838 to 1849, at which time a change was made 
by law in its organization, viz.: Fred F. Duncan, 1838-39; 
Cyrus Campbell, 1838-39; John Crawford, 1839-42; Benj. W. 
Pope, 1839-42; John Dillon, 1839-40; Abraham Kea, 1840-44; 
Elijah Taylor, 1841-47; W. H. Eubanks, 1842-48; Carter 
Greenwood, 1844-46; Moses Neal, 1846-49; C. F. Mulkey, 
1847-49; Matthew Ing, 1848-49. On the 3d of March, 
1845, the General Assembly of the State passed an act per- 
taining to counties and county courts, providing that " each 
county which has heretofore been, or may hereafter be estab- 
lished in this State, according to the laws thereof, shall be a 
body politic and corporate, by the name and style of ' The county 

of , and by that name may sue and be sued, plead and 

be impleaded, defend and be defended against, in any court of 
record, either in law or equity, or other place where justice shall 
be administered.' " The said act also provided that " There shall 
remain as at present established, in each county of this State, 
and shall be established in each county hereafter created, a 
court of record, to be constituted, composed of three commis- 
sioners, elected by the people as hereinafter provided, to be 

styled the couniy commissioners' court of County." 

It further provided that there should be four sessions of the 
county commissioners' court held in each year at the usual place 
of holding courts, or at the office of the clerk, to commence on 
the first Mondays of March, June, September and December, 
and each to continue six days if the business should not be 
sooner completed; and that two commissioners should constitute 



376 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

a quorum to do business, and any one of said commissioners 
was empowered to call special sessions when urgent business 
required it. The county commissioners, under this act were each 
allowed $1.50 per day for each day they were necessarily em- 
ployed in the performance of their duties, and the one " who 
should be oldest in commission " was to preside at all meetings 
of the court. Prior to the enforcement of this act, the com- 
missioners' court had original and appellant jurisdiction over 
criminal proceedings, but now that power was taken away from 
it, and its duties were limited strictly to county business, and 
its jurisdiction thus defined by said act. 

Sec. 25. The said court shall have jmisdictibn throughout their respective 
counties, in all matters and things concerning the county revenue, and regulat- 
ing and imposing the county tax, and shall have power to grant license for 
ferries and for taverns, and all other licenses and things that may bring in a 
county revenue, and shall have jurisdiction in all cases of public roads, canals, 
turnpike roads and toll bridges, and v^^here law does not prohibit the said juris- 
diction of said courts; and shall have power and jurisdiction to issue all kinds 
of writs, warrants, process and proceedings by the clork, throughout the State, 
w-hich are necessary to the execution of the power and jurisdiction with which 
said courts are or may be vested by law. 

The county commissioners' court continued to transact the 
county business, until it Avas superseded by the county court 
in 1849, at which time it ceased to exist in Franklin County and 
the performance of its duties passed to the latter court. 

The new constitution of the State of Illinois, which was 
adopted by the Convention August 31, 1817, and ratified by the 
people March 6, 1848, and became effective from and after April 
1, of that year, provided in Article V, Section 17, that one 
county judge should be elected by the qualified voters of each 
county, who should hold his office for four years, and until 
his successor should be elected and qualified, and by Section 18, 
it provided that "The jurisdiction of said court should extend 
to all probate, and such other jurisdiction as the General 
Assembly might confer in civil cases, and such criminal cases, 
as might be prescribed by law, where the punishment was 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 377 

by fine only, not exceeding one Imndred dollars. And by Sec- 
tion 19 it was provided that the county judge, with such justices 
of the peace in each county as might be designated by law, 
should hold terms for the transaction of county business, and 
should perform such other duties as the General Assembly 
should prescribe. " In accordance with these provisions of the 
constitution, the General Assembly of the State, on the 12tli 
of February, 1849, passed an act with the following provisions. 

Section 1. That there shall be established in each of the counties in this 
State, now created and organized, or which may hereafter be created or organ- 
ized, a court of record to be styled " The County Court of County. " 

The said judges shall be elected on the Tuesday after the first Monday in 
November, 1849. and on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November, 
quadrennially, forever thereafter, by the qualified voters of the respective 
counties, and shall hold their offices for the term of four years, and until their 
successors are elected and qualified. 

The act further provided that at the same time of electing 

the judge of said court, a clerk thereof should be elected whose 

term of office should be the same. The powers and jurisdiction 

of this court were defined as follows: 

Sec. 13. The county court shall be and is hereby vested with all the powers 
and jurisdiction of the probate court, as now established by law, and appeals 
may be taken from, and writs of certiorari prosecuted upon, its judgments 
rendered under the powers conferred in this act, in the manner prescribed by 
law in the case of similar judgments rendered by the probate court. The 
county court shall have concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit court in hear- 
ing and determining all applications for the sale of real estate of deceased per- 
sons, for the payment of debts for said decedents, and shall make all orders 
and render all judgments on such applications that the circuit court might or 
could make or render in similar cases, and final process may issue as from 
the circuit court. 

Sec. 14. The county judge shall be a conservator of the peace, and shall have 
the same civil and criminal jurisdiction as the justices of the peace in this State; 
and shall have the same power and authority to preserve order in the court, and 
punish contempt offered the court while in session that the circuit court now 
possesses 

Sec. 15. The said judge, with two justices of the peace designated and pro- 
vided for, shall, in all cases, whatever, sit as a county court, have, exercise and 
possess all the powers, jurisdiction and authority heretofore conferred by law 
•on the county commissioners' court of this State, and shall sit for the transac- 
tion of county business on the fir.st Mondays of December, March, June and 
September, in every year, and shall continue open until the business before them 
is disposed of; and called or special terms, for the transaction of count}' bus- 



378 FEANKLIN COUNTY. 

iness, may be held, as now provided by law, for special terms of the countj^ 
commissioners' courts. The act also provided that justices of the peace should 
be elected at the same time that the countj^ judges were elected, and that the 
county court, with the county judge only presiding, should sit ou the first Mon- 
days of every month, except the months of December, March, June and Sep- 
tember, and on the third Mondays of said months. 

Thus it will be seen that the county court presided over by 
the county judge only, held twelve sessions in each year for the 
transaction of business coming within its jurisdiction, and that 
said court, when presided over by the county judge and two jus- 
tices of the peace, as associate judges, held four regular sessions 
in each year for the transaction of the county business coming 
within its jurisdiction. 

In accordance with the foregoing provisions, the officers 
elected in 1849, for the county court, were Andrew J. Duff, 
judge; W. R. Browning, clerk; and of the justices of the peace 
elected at the same time, Wilson Rea and B. Scarborough, were 
designated and became associates of the judge elect. These offi- 
cers, after being duly commissioned and qualified, met at the 
courthouse in Benton, on the first Monday of December, 1849, 
and opened the first term of this newly created court. The 
county court thus organized continued to perform its functions 
until 1872, when it was deprived of its jurisdiction over county 
business by reason of the adoption, by the county, of township 
organization. It continued, however, to hold its monthly ses- 
sions as provided for in the act creating it, but the quarterly 
sessions, formerly held by the judge and two associate justices, 
ceased to convene. On the 26th of March, 1874, the General 
Assembly of the State, passed "an act to extend the jurisdiction of 
county courts, and to provide for the practice thereof; to fix the 
time for holding the same, and to repeal an act therein named." 
This act provided that the county judge should be elected on the 
Tuesday after the first Monday in November, 1882, and every 
four years thereafter. The jurisdiction of the court was classified 
and defined as follows: Probate jurisdiction — "county courts 



—.BATTLE OF — 

MURFREESBORO. 




HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 381 

shall have jurisdiction in all matters of probate, settlement of 
estates of deceased persons, appointment of guardians and con- 
servators, and settlement of their accounts ; all matters relating 
to apprentices, proceedings for the collection of taxes and assess- 
ments, and in proceedings by executors, administrators, guard- 
ians and conservators for the sale of real estate for the purposes 
authorized by law, and such other jurisdiction as is or may be 
provided by law. All of which, except as hereinafter provided, 
shall be considered as probate matter, and be cognizable at the 
probate terms hereinafter mentioned. The probate terms of the 
county court, shall commence on the third Mondays of each 
month during the year, except the months provided in this act for 
the holding of law terms, and shall be always open for the 
granting of letters testamentary and guardianship, and for the 
transaction of probate business." 

Law jurisdiction — " The county court shall have concurrent 
jurisdiction with the circuit court in all that class of cases 
wherein justices of the peace now have or may hereafter have 
jurisdiction, where the amount claimed, or the value of the prop- 
erty in controversy, shall not exceed one thousand dollars, and 
concurrent jurisdiction in all cases of appeals from justices of 
the peace and police magistrates." The act provided that the 
law terms in Franklin County should be held on the third Mon- 
days of February and August in each year. 

LIST OF COUNTY JUDGES. 

The following is a list of the county judges of Franklin County 
from the organization of the county court in 1849 to the present 
writing, and of the associate justices from the same time down to 
1872: Judges— Andrew J. DuflP, 1849-53; John Duflf, 1853-57; 
Moses Neal, 1857; W. R. Browning, 1857-59; W. J. Dillon, 
1859-61; Walter S. Akin, 1861-62; John W. Hill, 1862-65; 
W. E. Smith, 1865-69; D. M. Browning, 1869-79; William H. 



382 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

Williams, 1879-86 ; W. J. N. Moyers, present incumbent, elected 
in 1886. Associate justices — Wilson Eea and B. Scarborough, 
1840-53; Andrew J. Ice and Carter Greenwood, 1853-57; John 
W. Hill, 1857-62; Lewis G. Payne, 1857-65; William Osteen, 
1861-65; Isham Harrison, 1865-69; J. M. Akin, 1865-72; G. 
G. Sweetin, 1869-72. 

TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATION AND BOARD OF SUPERVISORS. 

On the 7th of November, 1871, an election was held in the 
several voting precincts of the county, for the purpose of sub- 
mitting to the people the proposition of adopting township organ- 
ization, and upon counting the votes, it was found that 987 had 
been cast in favor of township organization and 520 against 
it, consequently township organization was adopted, and the 
county court appointed Calvin M. Clark, T. K. Means and J. W. 
McCreery commissioners to divide the county into civil town- 
ships. These gentlemen met and performed this duty, and filed 
their report Si the March term, 1872, of said court. They divided 
the county into civil townships, precisely as it is now divided, and 
o-ave to each the same name that it now bears, except Township 
7 south, Range 2 east, which they named Townmount instead of 
Denning, as it is now called. 

The first board of supervisors elected under the foregoing 
provisions met in special session at the courthouse, in Benton, on 
the 22d of April, 1872, when the following persons were 
enrolled as supervisors, viz.: John A. Walker, Samuel McClel- 
land, Caleb T. Mulkey, David Martin, Franklin L. Rea, William 
J. Murphy, Gilbert G. Sweetin, Isaac AVard, Mounteville Fitts, 
Peter Phillips, John H. Hogan and Jesse G. Mitchell. These 
supervisors organized for business by electing Gilbert G. Sweetin 
as chairman for the ensuing year. One of the first duties per- 
formed by them was to demand of their clerk a statement show- 
ing the financial condition of the county. On the following day. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 383 

said clerk filed such statement in the following words, to wit: 
Outstanding county bonds, $8,500, bearing 10 per cent interest, 
due in 1874; county orders, jury certificates and judges' war- 
rants, $948.17; total indebtedness, $9,448.17; revenue in the 
hands of treasurer and collector, $7,194. Since 1872, the town- 
ship organization of the county has been twice abolished, 
and county commissioners' courts re-established, but at the pres- 
ent writing, the county is, and for the last two years has been, 
under township organization, and the board of supervisors at 
present (February, 1877,) consists of the following named gen- 
tlemen, of the following named townships: J. M. Brayfield, of 
Goode; W. H. Mulkey,of Tyrone; Kobert Standerfur, of Six Mile; 
William Hutson, of Barren; John H. Hill, of Browning; W. J. 
Murphy, of Denning ; J. M. Darr, of Ewing ; T. M. Mooneyham, 
of Benton; William Saddler, of Frankfort; W. H. Boyer, of 
Northern; Thomas Sullivan, of Eastern, and W. A. Stewart, of 
Cave. The supervisors are elected annually at th^April elec- 
tions, and they organize themselves into a court by electing, at 
their first meeting in each year, one of their members as chair- 
man to preside during the year. Their jurisdiction is limited 
strictly to county business as has been heretofore defined. 

THE CIRCUIT COURT. 

The first term of the circuit court of Franklin County was 
held at Frankfort, the old county seat, soon after the organization 
of the county was completed, by Judge Samuel D. Lockwood, 
then a member of the supreme court. The latter court was 
then composed of five judges, who, after performing their duties 
on the supreme bench, would separate and hold the several 
circuits courts of the State, which were then but few in number. 
Judge Lockwood was succeeded by Judges Browne, Hardin and 
Scates, who presided over the court prior to the removal of the 
county seat. A list of their successors has been given elsewhere 



384 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

in this work. Judge Williams of Benton said, in his centennial 
address, in reference to early times: "In those days a meeting 
of the circuit court called the lawyers together from all parts of 
the State, some of them following the judges around the circuit, 
and coming to Frankfort from Kaskaskia, which was then the 
capital of the State. This practice continued for quite a number 
of years." The circuit court districts were then very large, and 
somewhat similar in size to the enormously large circuits over 
which some of the old " circuit riders" and missionaries of the 
Methodist Church used to ride. And these early lawyers, who 
traveled with the judges in their circuits, often had experiences 
somewhat like those of the old " circuit riders" of that church; 
their calling however was quite different. The State was origi- 
nally divided into nine judicial districts, and by an act of the 
Legislature, in 1841, the Third District was made to consist of 
Franklin, Jackson, Perry, Union, Williamson, Alexander, John- 
son, Jefferson and Mai'ion Counties. The State was redistricted 
under an act of the Legislature, passed in 1877, which changed 
the number of this district from the third to the first, and made 
it to consist of Franklin, Williamson, Jackson, Union, Alexander, 
Pulaski, Massac, Johnson, Pope, Hardin, and Saline Counties, 
and as provided by law, there are three judges elected within the 
district to preside and hold the courts in the several counties. 
The terms of this court are now held in Franklin County, begin- 
ning on the first Mondays of April and October in each year. 

The records of the circuit court, which have not been 
destroyed, begin with the March term, 1837, when Judge Walter 
B. Scates was presiding, and S. M. Hubbard clerk, and Willis 
Allen sheriff. The following is a list of the grand jurors 
selected for that term, viz. : James Eubanks, Austin Y. Kelly, 
Jonas Lance, Chas. Miller, Isham Tyner, Alfred J. James, 
Henry Staff, Fred. Duncan, James Berry, Wm. Arnold, Samuel 
Donoway, Elijah Spiller, Sr., Thomas E. Loudon, Wm. T. Davis, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 385 

Moses Oclum, Levi Stroud, Joseph SaDders, Robert Worth en, 
James Akin, James F. Chenoeth and Aaron Denning — the lat- 
ter being foreman of the jury. This jury was selected and served 
half a century ago, and all have since passed to that " unknown 
land from whence no traveler e'er returns." 

IMPORTANT TRIALS. 

The most important case tried in the circuit court of Franklin 
County, in an early day, was tried before Wm. A. Denning, judge, 
in 1847, and which grew out of the troubles in Massac County the 
preceding year. The citizens of that county had been annoyed 
for some time with a band of horse thieves, which they undertook 
to suppress by an organization, which they termed " Regulators." 
A counter-movement was at once made by a party calling them- 
selves " Flat Heads," and matters continued to grow from bad to 
worse, until a regular battle ensued. Such a state of anarchy 
prevailed that judges could not hold court in that county. 
George W. Akin, of this county, was appointed deputy United 
States marshal, and with about one hundred of the citizens of 
this county went down and arrested about fifty of the offenders, 
and brought them to Benton for trial. The Regulators under 
arrest were prosecuted by Richard Nelson, and defended by 
Hon, Walter B. Scates, Such was the zeal manifested by the 
respective attorneys that a quarrel ensued, and an attempt, on the 
part of Nelson, to take the life of Scates. It appears that after 
court had adjourned one day, hot words were passed between the 
attorneys, whereupon Nelson drew a pistol and fired at Scates, 
missing him. The friends of the parties interfered, and pre- 
vented further trouble.* On this occasion the prisoners were, for 
a while, under guard at the hotel, being in charge of Wm. Moon- 
eyham (a resident of Benton and still surviving), who was 
then acting as adjutant for the marshal, Mr. Akin. Hon. 

* Centennial speech of Williams. 



386 FKANKLIN COUNTY, 

Walter B. Scates called to see some of the Regulators who were 
his clients, and was refused admission by Mr. Mooneyham, who 
had orders from the marshal to admit no one, whereupon Scates 
declared that he would have a law passed permitting attorneys 
to visit their clients at any time and under all circumstances. He 
kept his promise and such a law was afterward passed. 

Another important case involving the question of forgery, and 
the title to a quarter section of land near the old town of Frank- 
fort, and which created a great deal of public excitement, and 
much contention between parties related to each other, was that 
of John W. Pry vs John Pry, Sr. The origin of this case, and 
the facts connected therewith, as developed by the pleadings, 
and the evidence produced thereon at the trial, are as follows : 
On the 13th of August, 1862, William Pry, the father of John 
W. Pry and the son of John Pry, Sr., enlisted as a soldier in the 
United States Army for three years, and about the 1st of May, 
1864, when he was with the army in the State of Georgia, he 
wrote to his father, at Frankfort, in this county, directing him to 
sell and convert into money certain personal property then in 
his possession, and belonging to the said William Pry, and to 
invest the proceeds thereof, together with about $50 then in his 
hands and belonging also to said William, in the southeast quar- 
ter of Section 19, Township 7 south, Range 3 east, in said county 
belonging to one Bailey Martin, and also directing him to have 
the deed of the land made jointly to the plaintifP, John W. Pry 
and Hamilton Pry, the latter being a minor son of John Pry, Sr., 
and brother of the said William. Accordingly the said John 
Pry, Sr., on the 5th of August, 186-1, purchased of the said Bailey 
Martin and wife the said quarter section of land, for the sum of 
1200, and paid for it with the proceeds of said personal proj)- 
erty, and the money then in his hands belonging to the said 
William, as stated above, and took a deed from the said Mar- 
tin and wife to John W. Pry, the plaintiff, and Hamilton Pry. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 387 

The deed was executed aud handed by these grantors to John 
Pry, Sr., to be kept by him for the use of the grantees therein 
named. John W. Pry was then an infant, about three years of 
age, and the said Hamilton, his uncle, about seventeen. In Sep- 
tember, 1864, Hamilton Pry died intestate, and without children 
or decendants of children, and soon after his death and before the 
aforesaid deed had been put on record, the said John Pry, Sr., 
erased the " W" in the plaintiff's name, and the name of Hamilton 
Pry altogether from the deed, thereby making it in form a deed to 
himself instead of to the aforesaid grantees, as originally written, 
and afterward on the 22d of August, 1871, he caused the same, in 
its altered form, to be put on record as a deed from the said Martin 
and wife to himself, and after William Pry returned from the army, 
and before the said deed was recorded, the said John Pry, Sr., con- 
veyed the west half of the said quarter section of land to the said 
Wm. Pry, by a quit-claim deed. He afterward conveyed por- 
tions of the east half of said quarter section of land to other par- 
ties, among whom was also the said William Pry and John Pry, 
Jr., another of his sons. The prayer of the plaintiff's complaint 
in this action was to have the original deed from Martin aud 
wife and the record thereof corrected, and the title to the said 
land confirmed in the said John W. Pry, and that all subsequent 
deeds from John Pry, Sr., be declared null and void, and set aside 
as clouds upon his, the plaintiff's, title. The decision of the 
lower court not being satisfactory, the case was appealed to the 
supreme court of the State, and an opinion rendered by that tri- 
bunal in favor of the plaintiff, which restored to him the legal 
and equitable title to his interest in said land, as originally con- 
veyed to him by the said Martin and Avife. It was claimed by 
the defendant, John Pry, Sr., that the erasures in said deed and 
the recording of it was done by him, with the consent and knowl- 
edge of William Pry, to enable him to convey the land, and not 
with fraudulent intent, and the fact that he did convey one half 



388 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

of the land to William Pry, who furnished the purchase money, 
would seem to support this theory of the case, but the supreme 
court thought otherwise. Be that as it may, this case fully illus- 
trates the danger of erasing portions of instruments after being 
executed, and before being recorded, whether with or without 
fraudulent intent. 

Perhaps the most remarkable case that was ever tried in 
Franklin County, and one wherein an innocent man became in 
danger, upon circumstantial evidence, of having to suffer the 
penalty for the crime of murder, was that of The People vs. 
David Williams. The facts of the case are as follows: The 
defendant, David Williams, and one — -McMahan were accustomed 
to associate together as " hail fellows well met," just before and 
at the close of the late civil war, and together they departed from 
the county, and after being absent for some time, returned, both 
with a considerable amount of money. It was sup230sed that they 
had, somewhere, enlisted in the army for large bounties, or per- 
haps had enlisted as substitutes for drafted men, from whom they 
received large sums of money, and then deserted, or "jumped 
the bounties " as the offense was then called. Soon after return- 
ing to the county McMahan became suddenly missing, and no one 
seemed to know any thing as to his whereabouts. But the last 
that was seen of him before his disappearance, he was in com- 
pany with the said David Williams, which fact caused suspicion 
to rest upon the latter. Afterward, about the first of the year 
1866, the remains of a human body were found about two miles 
southeast of Benton, on a top of a fallen tree, and were supposed 
to be the remains of McMahan. A coroner's inquest was held, 
and upon the verdict of the jury Williams was arrested and placed 
in jail to await trial. Soon thereafter he was taken out on a writ 
of habeas corpus and tried before Andrew J. Duff, then judge of 
the circuit court. He was prosecuted by Hon. T. J. Layman, and 
defended by Hon. F. M. Youngblood and Hon. Flannagan. The 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 389 

evidence was that the last seen of McMahan was in company 
with Williams, that he had several hundred dollars in his pos- 
session, and a pocket knife found with the remains was identified 
by witnesses as one belonging to McMahan, and the hair of the 
murdered man was red, and so was McMahan's, and certain teeth 
of the murdered man were removed, corresponding with the lost 
teeth of McMahan. There were also other circumstances proven, 
in corroboration of the foregoing. The people, through their 
attorney, Mr. Layman, were making a strong case on circumstan- 
tial evidence against the prisoner, which the people, including 
defendant's attorneys, thought amply sufficient to warrant the 
judge in remanding him back to jail, and sufficient also to secure 
his conviction on final trial. On the second day of the trial, when 
the evidence was nearly closed, and the guilt of the prisoner fully 
established in the minds of those who heard the evidence, the 
closing scene of the tragedy was enacted. Just at this critical 
moment the supposed murdered man, McMahan, deliberately, and 
to the great astonishment of all, walked into the courtroom. He 
was immediately indentified by a number of his former acquaint- 
ances, and also by the witnesses on whose testimony the case 
was being made against the prisoner. This, of course, put an 
end to all further proceedings against the prisoner, and he was 
set free. 

By way of explanation, it is proper to state that some person 
who knew the parties, and who knew of the prosecution of Will- 
iams, happened to be at the depot at Tamaroa, on the Illinois 
Central Railroad, and espied McMahan among the passengers on 
a train, and prevailed on him to get off and come at once to Ben- 
ton, to save the man that was being prosecuted for his murder. It 
was not publicly known who the murdered man was, biit from cer- 
tain incidents which came to light, he was supposed to have been a 
gambler, who had been killed by another gambler, in an old house 
on the south side of the street leading west from the public square, 



390 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

in Benton. This house being unoccupied at the time was a place 
of resort for gamblers. It was supposed that some strangers of 
that profession, had congregated there, and quarreled and killed 
one of their number, and carried him out and concealed him as 
before mentioned. 

The historical committee who prepared the centennial speech 
hereinbefore referred to, relates an amusing case as follows: 
"Justices of the peace in early days had rather an indefinite idea 
of the extent of their jurisdiction, but tried all cases upon their 
merits, and meted to the culprits such punishments as were 
pointed out by the statute. As an illustration of the speedy 
manner in which crime was punished, a good story is told by 
some of our old citizens, to the effect that a certain person was 
brought before a justice of the peace, living in the northern part 
of the county, charged with hog stealing. A jury was regularly 
impaneled to do justice to the accused, as well as the people of the 
State of Illinois, and who, after hearing the evidence, concluded 
the fellow was guilty, and returned their verdict accordingly, 
fixing his time in the penitentiary at one year, upon which ver- 
dict the justice of the peace rendered judgment, and sentenced 
the accused to the penitentiary for the term of one year. As soon 
as the constable heard the conclusion of the sentence, he proceeded 
to rig up a sled, upon which the prisoner was conveyed to Frank- 
fort, then the county seat, a distance of about twenty miles, on 
the way to the State's prison. Upon his arrival at Frankfort, 
the constable was convinced that the proceedings were irregular, 
and he turned his prisoner loose. " 

BENCH AND BAR. 

Among the first legal practitioners of the county was Hon. 
"Walter B. Scates. He was one of the early circuit court judges 
of this, then the third, judicial district, and served as such for a 
series of years. On the 15th of February, 1831, he was 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 391 

elected as one of the judges o£ the supreme court of the State^ 
and served as such until January 11, 1847, when he resigned. 
In 1853 he was again elected by the people to fill the vacancy on 
the supreme bench, occasioned by the resignation of Judge 
Lyman Trumbull. He afterward practised law in Chicago, 
where he died. He was one of the compilers and authors of the 
Statutes of Illinois, by Scates, Treat and Blackwell. 

Judge William A. Denning began the practice of law at 
Frankfort, the old county seat, about the year 1830, and moved 
to Benton soon after the seat of justice was moved thereto, and 
soon thereafter he was elected to the ofiice of prosecuting attor- 
ney, and was subsequently elected judge of the circuit court, and 
was also elected by the General Assembly as judge of the 
supreme court, in the place of Walter B. Scates, resigned, his 
commission dating January 19, 18-17. Meanwhile he presided 
over the Benton Circuit Court from 1817 to 1854. After com- 
pleting his term on the supreme bench he returned home to> 
Benton, and resumed his practice, which he continued until his 
death, which occurred August 14, 1856. He was large in stature, 
and had a fine personal appearance, and was an able judge and 
powerful advocate. 

Hon. Richard Nelson was a native of the Isle of Man, and 
when a young man he came to the house of S. M. Hubbard, who 
was then the clerk of the circuit court at Frankfort, riding on a 
poor old horse which theHubbards appropriately named " bones." 
He at once began the practice of law, and resided with Mr. Hub- 
bard for several years, during which time he rendered him some 
assistance in his office. He soon rose to eminence and became, 
it is said, the best chancery lawyer in southern Illinois, and when 
in his prime he had the credit of being the best judge of law 
in the county. He was tall, spare and commanding in appear- 
ance, and had an extensive practice extending through many coun,- 



392 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

ties in this part of the State. He afterward left the county, and 
died at Metropolis. 

Hon, William K. Parrish, son of Eev. Braxton Parrish who 
was one of the pioneer Methodist ministers, was born and reared 
in Franklin County, and began the practice of law, at Benton, 
about the year 1845. Though very young he soon developed so 
much ability, and became so proficient in his profession, that he 
succeeded Hon. William A. Denning as judge of the circuit court, 
and served in that capacity from 1854 to 1859. He was an able 
jurist, and was highly esteemed by all who knew him. He died 
April 22, 1861, aged only thirty-seven years, and his remains lie 
in the cemetery at Benton. 

Hon. Andrew D. Duff, who was the first county judge of 
Franklin County under the constitution of 1848, began the prac- 
tice of law in Benton, and subsequently became a profound law- 
yer and careful judge, and served on the bench of the circuit 
<;ourt from 18()1 to 1875 — fourteen years. He was a close student, 
and one of the few who developed all the talents that nature gave 
him. He is still living, at a very advanced age, and resides in 
Arizona. 

Hon. John A. Logan, the lawyer, soldier and statesman, was 
born February 9, 1826, at Murphysboro, Jackson Co. 111., when 
the State was in its infancy. He served in the Mexican war as a 
lieutenant of Company H, First Kegiment Illinois Volunteers. 
In 1849 he was elected to the office of county clerk of Jackson 
County, but soon resigned that position to enter the law depart- 
ment of the Louisville University, where in due time he gradu- 
ated with honor, and returned to Murphysboro, and began the 
practice of law in partnership with his uncle, Hon. Alex. M. 
Jenkins. In 1852 he was elected to represent Franklin and Jack- 
son Counties in the Illinois Legislature, for a period of two 
years, after which he was elected prosecuting attorney for the 
Third Judicial District, and performed the duties of that office 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 393 

from 1854 to 1857, during which time he resided at Benton and 
was a member of the Benton bar. The purpose of this sketch 
is mainly to speak of him as a citizen of this county, and a mem- 
ber of its bar. His history is too well known to need further 
mention here. He became eminent as a lawyer, able, brave, and 
heroic as a volunteer general of the army, and pre-eminently use- 
ful and brilliant as a statesman. He died at his residence, in the 
city of WashingtoUi on Sunday afternoon, December 26, 1886. 

Monroe C. Crawford was an excellent jury lawyer, and a man 
of good ability and of fine personal appearance, and was very pop- 
ular. He practiced for a series of years in Benton, and held the 
office of judge .of the circuit from 1875 to 1878. He is now the 
county judge of Union County. Edward V. Pierce practiced law 
in Benton from about the year 1853 to 1864, and developed such 
ability that for a portion of this time he stood at the head of the 
bar. He now resides at Du Quoin. Hugh Montgomery, Samuel 
K. Casey and others were, at different times, able representatives 
of the Benton bar. The following is a list of the names of the 
members of this bar at the present writing (March, 1887), with 
the dates of their beginning the practice, to wit: F. M. Young- 
blood, 1862; T. J. Layman, 1864; C. C. Payne, 1869; C. H. Lay- 
man, 1870; D. M. Browning, 1866; T. M. Mooneyham, 1866; W. 
H. Williams, 1867; E. H. Flannigan, 1871; W. S. Cantrell and 
W. J. N. Moyers, 1873; J. S. Smith and J. A. Treece, 1880; G. 
C. Boss, 1881; Isaac E. Spillman, 1883; A. C. Terhune, 1884; 
Aaron Neal, 1867. The bar of Franklin County has always been 
and is still distinguished for its ability. Of this list of attorneys 
the older ones in practice have become able and efficient, while 
the younger ones are making rapid advancements in the profes- 
sion. Hon. F. M. Youngblood has the reputation of being one of 
the best orators and best criminal lawyers in southern Illinois. 



394 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

THE BLACK HAWK WAR.- 

The county of Franklin has not been behind her sister coun- 
ties in helping to fight the battles of our common country. 
Among the early settlers were a few survivors of the war of the 
Eevolution, and also of the war of 1812-15. But the first mili- 
tary bodies, organized within the county for actual service, were 
those formed in 1832, for the purpose of participating in the war 
with the Indians, known as the Black Hawk war, which resulted 
in the defeat of the Indians, and their removal, by treaty, to lands 
beyond the Mississippi River. There were three companies 
raised and organized in this county (then including the territory 
of Williamson County) on that occasion, all of which joined the 
Second Illinois Regiment, and were mustered into the service of 
the United States for ninety days under the call of the governor 
of the State, made on the 15th of May, 1832. The members 
of these companies all being early settlers of the county, their 
names are hereby given in full. The first company consisted of 
captain, George P. Boyer; lieutenants, Jacob Phillips and Thomas 
P. Moore; sergeants, Thomas Adams, Jacob Clark and Edward 
Franklin; corporals, William Fleming, William Akins and 
Augustus Adams; bugler, William Whittington; privates, Benj. 
Adams, Thomas Bevers, James Bowling, Benj. Bowling, Heiu-y 
Bowyer, John Berry, Jacob Bailey, James Browning, William 
Clampet, Evan Cleveland, John Clark, Jesse Cleveland, Eeuben 
Clark, John P. Due, Vachel Dillingham, Absalom Estes, James 
Farris, Joseph Gifford, Thomas Hail, Moses Jordan, Elijah Jor- 
dan, James Jordan, Nathaniel Morgan, Aaron Neal, James Plas- 
ters, Abraham Eedburn, Garrett Robertson, A. W. Richardson, 
John Scribner, James and Noah Summers, James Schoolcraft, 
John Slater, Benj. and James Whittington, Benj. Williams, Wm. 
Ward and Joseph Western. 

The second company consisted of captain, William J. Stephen- 
son; lieutenant, TramelEwing; sergeants, John P. Maddox, Ander- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 395 

son p. Corder, Henry Hays and John T. Knox ; corporals, Thomas 
Province and Michael Eawlins; musician, Walter B. Scates;* 
privates, John Robbitt, Josiah B. Denning, Elisha Eubanks, 
Anderson P. Farris, Hez. and Robert Garrett, William Gass- 
away, Benj. F. Hickman, John Hays, William A. Hubbard, 
Lewis Hillen, Nat. Jones, Thomas Knox, Larkin Lynch, William 
P. Maddox, Andrew Miller, Moses Neal, Benj. W. Pope, Henry 
Rotramel, Andrew Robertson, Ezekiel Rawlings, Wilson Rea, 
Harvey Swafford, H. M. Silkwood and Benj. Talbot. 

The third company consisted of captain, Obediah West ; lieu- 
tenants, Robert West and Hugh Parks; sergeants, Wilie Scott 
and William Henry; corporal, Moses Odum; privates, James 
Browning, Pleasant Bradley, Wash. Beasley, Edward Franklin, 
Isaac Groves, Jabez Hooker, Augustus Henry, Giles Joiner, 
Henry Layman, Junior Meriditch, William Murphy, Albert Prov- 
ince, Thomas Pully, Samuel Parks, Richard Price, Andrew Price, 
William Rich, William Ran, Seth Roper, David H. Springs, 
Robert Worthen, John Ward, Dickson Ward, Robert Watson, 
Isaac Youngblood and Zach. George. These companies, after 
having served until hostilities ceased, were mustered out of serv- 
ice at Dixon Ferry, August 7, 1832, by Capt. Z. C. Palmer of 
the Sixth United States Infantry, upon the order of Maj.-Gen. 
Scott, commanding the Northwestern army. These pioneer soldiers 
have nearly all completed the battle of life, and gone to rest — 
the only ones now living, being Edward Franklin, Jesse Cleve- 
land, James Summers and Benj. Whittington of Capt. Boyer's 
company, and John T. Knox and Elisha Eubanks of Capt. 
Stephenson's company, 

THE WAR WITH MEXICO. 

The next war in which the citizens of Franklin County par- 
ticipated was that between the United States and Mexico, when 
Company K, of the Sixth Regiment of Illinois Volunteers, was 

♦Afterward judge of supreme court. 



396 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

raised at Benton, and mustered into the service with its regiment 
at Alton. 111. This regiment was organized at Alton by Col. 
James Collins, its commander, in the month of August, 1847, 
and was mustered into service for the term of " during the war 
with Mexico," and was mustered out at the same place in July, 
1848, after the close of said war. The commissioned officers of 
company K, were Capt. John Ewing, who died at Tampico, 
Mexico, October 3, 1847; James R. Pierce, who was elected 
captain, October 7, 1847, and died March 28, 1848, at Puebla; 
Thomas J. Mooneyham, who was elected captain from first 
lieutenant, in April, 1848 ; Daniel Mooneyham, who was 
elected first lieutenant April 4, 1848; Second Lieut. Will- 
iam P. Maddox, who died in Puebla March 28, 1848 ; and Will- 
iam Bates and John H. Mulkey, who were elected second 
lieutenants, April 4, 1848. The regiment of which this com- 
pany formed a part saw no actual service, except that of camp 
and garrison duties — the war was virtually over when it reached 
the field — its loss, however, by death from disease during its stay 
in Mexico, was very heavy. Company K at its organization had 
102 men including the officers ; thirteen of these were discharged 
in Mexico during the year, on account of disability caused by 
disease, and thirty-eight of them died there, thus leaving fifty- 
one — just one-half of their original number who returned home 
and were mustered out with the regiment. And of these the 
only ones that are known to be living at the present writing are : 
lieutenants, Daniel Mooneyham and John H. Mulkey ; sergeant, 
James S. Rotramel; musician, Elijah Rotramel; privates James 
Burkett, Andrew P. and Gassaway Elkins, A. R. Hamilton, 
Oliver C. Martin, Moses I. Maddox, William Pitchford and Ben- 
jamin H. Williams. 

THE WAR OF THE REBELLION. 

At the approach of the late civil war, it might have been sup- 
posed, from the fact that the citizens of Franklin County were 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 397 

mostly emigrants, or the descendants of emigrants from the 
Southern States, that they would naturally sympathize with the 
Southern cause, but the great number that enlisted to suppress 
the Eaballion proves tha contrary to have been trae. In the 
spring of 1861, when the music of the country was the shrill 
sound of the fife and the beat of the drum, and the " doo-s of 
war " were let loose, the excitement here, as well as elsewhere, ran 
high, and when the muster rolls were opened, men were eager to 
enlist and join the army for the preservation of the Union. In May. 
1861, the first company of soldiers, containing eighty-nine men, 
was organized at Benton, and on the 28th of that month it was 
mustered into the United States Army as Company C, of the 
Eighteenth Illinois Infantry, of which Michael K. Lawler, of 
Gallatin County, was the first colonel. The commissioned officers 
at date of muster were Capt. William S. Crawford and Lieuts. 
William J. Dillon and Andrew J. Ice. Capt. Crawford resio-ned 
October 20, 1861, and was succeeded in his office by First Lieut. 
William J. Dillon. The latter was killed while bravely command- 
ing his men in the battle of Shiloh, and Lieut. A. J. Ice was then 
promoted to the captaincy, and Sergt. John D. Denning to the 
office of second lieutentant. In addition to the foregoing company, 
forty-two Franklin County men enlisted, and were mustered into 
other companies of this regiment.* 

Another company, containing twenty-three men from Franklin 
County, and the balance from adjoining counties, was organized 
in Benton, in August, 1861, and mustered into the service on the 
18th of September following, as Company I, of the Thirty- 
first Illinois Infantry, of which John A. Logan was the first 
colonel. The first commissioned officers of this company were 
Capt. Edwin S. Cook of Pekin, First Lieut. John Mooneyham 
of Benton, and Second Lieut. Robert A. Bowman of Pekin. Lieut. 
Mooneyham resigned March 18, 1862. Carroll Moore of 

♦Regimental histories compiled from adjutant-general's report. 



398 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

Benton was made first sergeant at the organization of the com- 
pany, and by subsequent promotions became captain thereof. 
There were sixteen recruits who subsequently joined this com- 
pany from Franklin County, thus making thirty-nine in all who 
served in the company from this county. 

A company of cavalry was organized at Benton, in August, 
1861, and temporarily attached to the Thirty-first Infantry, but 
subsequently mustered into the service as Company C, of the 
Fifteenth Illinois Cavalry. The company contained at its organ- 
ization ninety-one Franklin County men and a few from adjoining 
counties. Its first commissioned officers were Capt. John J. Dol- 
lins, and Lieuts. Montreville Fitts and Oliver C. Martin. Capt. 
Dollins, in August, 1862, became the first colonel of the Eighty- 
first Illinois Infantry, and was killed at Fort Pemberton, 
Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. Lieut. Fitts became captain of Com- 
pany C, vice Dollins, promoted. Thirty-three recruits were after- 
ward added to this company from Franklin County, thus making 
in all 121 men. There were also four Franklin County men in 
Company E of this regiment. Another company of cavalry was 
organized at Benton in September, 1862, with seventy -two 
Franklin County men, and on the 15th of January, 1863, it was 
mustered into service as Company F, of the Fifteenth Illinois 
Cavalry. The company afterward received two recruits from 
Franklin County. The first commissioned officers of the com- 
pany were Capt. Joseph Adams, and Lieuts. George T. Hubbard 
and George W. Stewart, all of Benton. 

The companies that composed the Fifteenth Cavalry Eegi- 
ment were independent companies, attached to infantry regiments 
and acted as such. The regiments moved with the army from 
Cairo in the spring of 1862, up the Tennessee River to Fort Henry, 
where it disembarked, and was moving to the rear, when the fort 
was evacuated by the enemy, of which they took possession but re- 
mained there only a few days. It then moved under command of 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 399 

Gen. Grant to Fort Donelson, and afterward moved with the fleet 
up the Tennessee Eiver to Pittsburgh Landing, and participated in 
the battle of Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862. It then moved with the 
army to Corinth, Miss., which was evacuated by the enemy on 
the night of May 29, 1862. Subsequently it moved to Jackson, 
Tenn., where it was organized into Stewart's battalion, commanded 
by Col. Cornine. In the month of November it returned to Cor- 
inth, Miss., and in the spring of 1863 it was organized into the 
Fifteenth Regiment. George A. Bacon was commissioned colonel, 
and F. T. Gilbert, lieutenant-colonel. The regiment was in the 
command of Gen. G. M. Dodge, and scouted through the States of 
Mississippi, Alabama, Kentucky and Tennessee, until October, 
1863, when it went to Memphis, and from thence to Helena, Ark, 
where it arrived about the month of November, and then under 
command of Gen. Buford of Illinois it did post duty, and long 
and severe scouting through Arkansas and Mississippi. On the 
10th of August, 1861:, it was ordered to Springfield, 111., where it 
was mustered out on the 25th of August, 1864 The recruits, 
whose term of service had not expired, were consolidated with 
the Tenth Illinois Cavalry, and finally mustered out at San 
Antonio, Texas. 

Company A, of the Fortieth Illinois Infantry, was raised in 
Franklin and Hamilton Counties in July, 1861, and mustered 
into the service on the 10th of the following month. It contained 
only ten men from Franklin County. Company F of this regi- 
ment was raised in the eastern part of Franklin County in August, 
1861, and mustered into the service on the lOtli of that month. 
At the organization it contained fifty-two men of Franklin County, 
and subsequently received thirty-two recruits therefrom. The 
first commissioned officers of this company were Capt. Tilman 
Shirley, and Lieuts. Wm. T. Ingram, and Joseph Ing. Com- 
pany K, of the Forty-ninth Illinois Infantry, which was organ- 
ized in Jefferson County in October, 1861, contained nine men 



400 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

from Franklin County. (For sketch of the Fortieth Illinois, see 
Hamilton County.) 

Company I, of the Fifty-sixth, Illinois Infantry, was organized 
in December, 1861, with forty-four men from Franklin, and the 
balance from other counties. It was mustered into the service 
on the 27th of February, 1862. The first commissioned officers 
of the company were Capt. Wm. B. Dillon, and Lieuts. James 
M. Akens and Erastus M. Gates. Company E, of the same 
regiment, also had eight enlisted men from Franklin County. 
(See Saline County.) 

Company F, Sixty-third Illinois Infantry, raised in Franklin 
and adjoining counties in February, March and April, 1862, was 
mustered into the service on the 10th of the latter month. It 
contained thirty-two men from Franklin County. The first 
captain of this company was Joseph F. Lemen of Belleville, who 
was afterward promoted to the office of major, when Lieut. 
AVilliamson M. Davis of Mulkeytown became captain. The Sixty - 
third Illinois Infantry was organized at Camp Dubois, Anna, 
111., and mustered into the United States service April 10, 1862, 
with Francis Moro as colonel thereof. This regiment served in 
the States up and down the Mississippi Kiver, thence moved to 
Chattanooga, and participated in the battle of Missionary Ridge ; 
then returned to northern Alabama, and went into winter quar- 
ters at Huntsville, where on January 1, 1864, 272 men re-en- 
listed as veterans. In May following the regiment moved to 
Kingston, Ga., and guarded the railroad until November 11, 
when it was ordered to join Gen. Sherman, which it did, and 
with Sherman's army it marched from "Atlanta to the sea;" 
thence through the Carolinas to Richmond and Washington, 
and marched in the grand review at the latter city; thence to 
Louisville, where it was mustered out July 13, 1865. It 
traveled by rail 2,208 miles, by water 1,995 miles and marched 
2,250 miles, making the total distance traveled 6,453 miles. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 401 

Company B, Eighty-uiutli, Illinois Infantry, was organized at 
Frankfort in August, 18G2, and contained eighty-six men from 
Franklin County, and afterward received four recruits therefi'om, 
making ninety in all. The first commissioned officers were 
Capt. Travis O. Spencer, and Lieuts. Henry W. Smith and 
Horace W. Adams, all of Franklin County. This regiment was 
organized by the railroad companies of Illinois, at Chicago, in 
August, 1862, and was afterward assigned to the Sixth Brigade, 
Second Division, McCook's corps of BuelFs Army. The follow- 
ing is a list of battles in which the regiment was engaged during 
its term of service: Lawrenceburg and Perry ville, Ky., Murfrees- 
boro or Stone River, Liberty Gap, Chickamauga, Orchard Knob, 
Lookout Mountain, Missionary Eidge, Rocky Face, Resaca, Pick- 
ett's Mill, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, invest- 
ment of Atlanta, Jonesboro, Lovejoy's Station, Spring Hill, Frank- 
lin and Nashville. The regiment was mustered out of the United 
States service on the 10th of June 1865, near Nashville, Tenn., 
and was discharged at Camp Douglas, Chicago, on the 24th of 
June, 1865. It did excellent service, and sustained heavy losses 
in several engagements. 

Companies A, F and I, of the One Hundred and Tenth 
Illinois Infantry, were raised and organized at Benton in 
August, 1862, and Company K of the same regiment was 
raised at the same time from Franklin and adjoining coun- 
ties. A contained 89, F 81, I 85 and K 25 men, all from 
Franklin County, thus making 280 men which the county 
furnished for that regiment. Daniel Mooneyham of Benton 
was commissioned and served as major of the regiment. 
The first commissioned officers of Company A were Capt. Marion 
D. Hoge and Lieuts. Green M. Cantrell and William B. Denning; 
the first commissioned officers of Company F were Capt. 
Grayson De Witt and Lieuts. Carrol Payne and Jesse G. Payne ; 
the first commissioned officers of Company I were Capt. William L. 



402 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

Britton and Lieuts. William S. Bales and William W. McAmie, 
and the first commissioned officers of Company K were, Capt. 
Mark Harper, of Hamilton County, and Lieuts. James S.Wycougli 
and John T. Barnett, of Franklin County. Tlie One Hundred and 
Tenth Regiment of Illinois Infantry was organized at Anna, 
111., by Col. Thomas S. Casey, and mustered into the United 
States service September 11, 1862, by Capt. Washington, of the 
Sixteenth United States Infantry. On the 23d of said month 
it was ordered to Louisville, where it was assigned to the 
Nineteenth Brigade, Fourth Division, Army of the Ohio. On 
the 27th of the same month, it left Louisville with its command 
in pursuit of Bragg' s army, and first encountered the enemy in a 
skirmish at Danville, Ky., and successfully routed him. On the 
15th and 10th of October it was again engaged in a skirmish 
with the rear guard of Bragg' s army. It afterward moved with 
the army of Rosecrans to Nashville, where it encamped Novem- 
ber 7, 1862. On the 26th of December, it moved with the army 
toward Murfreesboro, and first encountered the enemy at 
Lavergne, and drove him back toward the former place. It 
participated in the battle of Murfreesboro exactly where the mon- 
ument to its (Hazen's) brigade now stands, and was highly com- 
plimented for its gallant services. In May, 1863, the regiment, 
being much reduced because of losses sustained in battle and 
otherwise, was consolidated into a battalion of four companies, 
and afterward it participated in the battles of Chickamauga, 
Missionary Eidge and the various engagements of the Atlanta 
campaign. It marched with Sherman from "Atlanta to the sea;" 
thence through the Carolinas, and thence to Washington, where 
it participated in the grand review, and where, on the 5th of 
June, 1865, it was mustered out of service. From there it moved 
by rail to Chicago, where, on the 15th of June, it received final 
payment and discharge. 

Company A, One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Illinois Infan- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 403 

try, was raised in Franklin and Williamson Counties, in Septem- 
ber, 1862, and contained fifty men from Franklin County. Its 
first commissioned ofiicers were Capt. William J. Moyers and 
Lieuts. Alex. McKoyall and Martin V. B. Deal, all of Franklin 
County. (For history of this regiment, see index of Williamson 
County. ) 

Company K, of the Thirteenth Illinois (consolidated) Cav- 
alry, contained forty-two men from Franklin County, and 
was mustered into the service February 12, 1864. The captain 
of this company was Henry W. Smith, of Benton, and the first 
lieutenant was John Scarborough, of Ewing. 

Company A, of the One Hundred and Thirty-sixth Illinois 
Infantry, was raised in Franklin and Perry Counties in May, 1864. 
George T. Hubbard, of Benton, was the first lieutenant of this com- 
pany, and Wm. T. Ingram, of Franklin County, was lieutenant- 
colonel of the regiment. The company contained thirty- eight men 
from this county. This regiment rendezvoused at Centralia, 111., 
and was mustered into the service for 100 days, June 1, 1864, with 
Frederick A. Johns as colonel thereof. It then moved to Columbus, 
Ky., where it remained doing garrison duty until September, and 
then marched to some other points, and returned again to Colum- 
bus; thence it moved to Cairo, and thence by rail to St. 
Louis, where the several companies were sent to man the forts 
around that city, and remained iu charge of the same until 
October 15. The regiment was then sent to Camp Butler, where 
on the 22d of the same month it was mustered out of the service. 
In October, 1864, a new company A was raised for the Twentieth 
Illinois Infantry, and sixteen men from Franklin County en- 
listed therein. The lieutenants of this new company, Kalph 
W. Marshall and Henry Van Dorn, were both from this 
county. 

Company H, of the One Hundred and Fifty-third Illinois 
Infantry, which was mustered into the service in February, 1865, 



404 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

and mustered out in September following, contained eleven men 
from Franklin County. 

Company K, Seventy-first Illinois Infantry, was organized in 
July,1862,in Franklin and adjoining counties. It contained twenty- 
four men from Franklin County. The commissioned officers were 
Capt. James Creed, of Benton, and lieutenants Flavins J. Car- 
penter and Absalom A. Lasater, of McLsansboro. Tiie regiment 
was mustered into the service for three months only, and Com- 
pany K served nearly all its time, guarding Big Muddy Bridge 
on the Illinois Central Railroad. It was mustered out October 
29, 1862. 

The following recapitulation of the foregoing chapter, which 
has been carefully compiled from the report of the adjutant-general 
of the State of Illinois gives the company and regiment, date of 
organization and the number of soldiers furnished in each, by the 
county of Franklin, for the United States Army during the 
civil war. 

Company C, Eighteenth Illinois Infantry, organized in May, 

1861, 89, recruits 42 ; Company I, Thirty-first Illinois Infantry, 
organized in August, 1861, 23, recruits 16; Company C, Fifteenth 
Illinois Cavalry, organized in August, 1861, 91, recruits 33; 
Company E, Fifteenth Illinois Cavalry, 4; Company F, Fifteenth 
Illinois Cavalry, organized in September, 1862, 72, reci'uits 2; 
Company A,Fortieth Illinois Infantry, organized in July, 1861, 10; 
Company F, Fortieth Illinois Infantry, organized in August, 1861, 
52, recruits 32; Company K, Forty-ninth Illinois Infantry, organ- 
ized in October, 1861, 9; Company I, Fifty-sixth Illinois Infantry, 
organized in December, 1861, 44; Company E, Fifty-sixth Ill- 
inois Infantry, organized in December, 1861, 8; Company F, 
Sixty-third Illinois Infantry, organized in February, 1862, 32; 
Company B, Eightv-ninth Illinois Infantry, organized in August, 

1862, 86, recruits 4; Company A, One Hundred and Tenth 
Illinois Infantry, organized in August, 1862, 89; Company F, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 405 

One Hundred and Tenth Illinois Infantry, organized in August, 
1862, 81; Company I, One Hundred and Tenth Illinois Infantry, 
organized in August, 1862, 85; Company K, One Hundred and 
Tenth Illinois Infantry, organized in August, 1862, 25 ; Company 
A, One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Illinois Infantry, organized 
in September, 1862, 50; Company K, Thirteenth Illinois Cavalry, 
organized in February, 1864, 42; Company A, One Hundred and 
Thirty-sixth Illinois Infantry, organized in May, 1864, 38; Com- 
pany H, One Hundred and Fifty-third Illinois Infantry, organ- 
ized in February, 1865, 11; Company A, Twentieth Illinois 
Infantry, organized in October, 1864, 16; Company K, Seventy- 
first Illinois Infantry, organized in July, 1862, 24 — total, 1,110. 
Although Franklin County as a whole manifested great loy- 
alty to the Union, as shown by the foregoing, a portion of her 
citizens, at the outbreak of the war, were in deep sympathy with 
the Southern cause, and a few of them actually went south and 
joined the Southern Army. 

BENTON. 

The origin of the town of Benton, which was established in 
1839, and the particulars pertaining thereto, has been given in 
the history of the location of the county seat. The original town 
has since been enlarged by the following additions: Akiu's 
addition, adjoining the original plat, on the north side of "West 
Street,* was surveyed in February, 1852, by Elijah T. Webb, 
for Walter S. Akin the owner thereof. It contains twenty lots 
which are now mostly occupied with residences. Denning's 
addition, lying on the east side of South Street, and both north 
and south of the railroad, contains sixteen lots each 98x130 feet. 
It was surveyed in January, 1854, by E. T. Webb for William 
A. Denning the proprietor thereof. Martin's and Ward's 
addition, adjoining the old town plat on the north side of East 

* In locating the additions to the town of Benton the streets leading each way from the 
center of the public square are designated North, East, South and West. 



406 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

Street, was surveyed in February, 1860, by Calvin M. Clark, for 
B. W. Martin and Isaac Ward. It contains thirteen lots of 
different sizes. Cantrell's addition, consisting of a large residence 
lot in the eastern part of the town, and on the north side of East 
Street, was surveyed in 1864 by E. T. Webb. Fountain's addi- 
tion adjoining the original town plat, and lying on the south side 
of East Street, contains four large lots one of which is occupied 
by the Eegular Baptist Church. It was surveyed in April, 1867, 
by E. T. Webb, for Henry C. Fountain, the owner thereof. Clark's 
addition contains three large residence lots south of Denning's 
addition, and east of South Street, and was surveyed in February, 
1873, by E. T. Webb for Calvin M. Clark. Southeast addition 
lying in the southeastern part of the town, between Church Street 
and Webster Avenue, was surveyed in May, 1877, by W. W. 
Whittington, for Stephen Burton the proprietor. It contains 
six lots of irregular size. Fountain's second addition, lying in 
the eastern part of the town, and between East and Church 
Streets, was surveyed in June, 1878, by W. W. Whittington, for 
Henry C. Fountain, It contains four large residence lots. 
Moore's and Hoblit's addition, lying south of Webster Avenue and 
east of Denning's addition, was surveyed in September, 1878, by 
W. W. Whittington for Carroll Moore and G. B. Hoblit. It 
contains twelve lots, each 75x133 feet, and five lots each 50k70, 
Turney's addition, the northwest corner of which is the southeast 
corner of B3nton corporation, was surveyed in October, 1878, by 
Walter S. Hawks, for Mrs. Elizabeth Turney and her husband. 
It contains sixty-four lots, for suburban residences outside of 
the corporation. McFall's addition, containing sixteen lots, lying 
west of North Street, and adjoining the old town plat, was 
surveyed in September, 1881, by W. W. Whittington, for W. W. 
McFall, the original owner thereof. Hoblit's addition, contain- 
ing ten lots, was surveyed in April, 1883, by Mr. AVhittington, 
for G. B. Hoblit, the proprietor. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 407 

All of these additions are partially, and some of them com- 
pletely, covered with residences. The business of the town is 
located mostly on the original town plat. 

The old cemetery, where the remains of many of the first 
citizens of Benton are now reposing, lies in the southwest part of 
the town, and from its appearance it seems to have been 
abandoned and neglected. The new cemetery contains about 
nineteen acres, and lies on the west side of South Street, and one- 
half mile south of the line of Benton corporation. It is owned, 
controlled and cared for by the officers of Benton Lodge, No. 
64, F. and A. M. and Charity Lodge, No. 284, L O. O. F. 

Going back to the origin of Benton, it is found that at the 
sale of the town lots, Abraham E,ea, manifested an anxiety to 
purchase Lot No. 38, it being the one on which the Arlington 
Hotel now stands. Water was then very scarce, there being no 
springs on the town site, and the anxiety of Mr. Rea to possess 
this lot led some to suppose that he had either found water, or 
knew that it could easily be obtained on the said lot; consequently 
the bidding for it was sharp, but Mr. Rea seemed determined 
to have it, and it was finally struck oif to him for the sum of 
$235, as shown under the head of " Sale of Lots," elsewhere in 
this work. Here the first improvement in the town, aside from 
the county buildings, was made by Mr. Rea, who erected thereon 
a round log house, 14x16 feet square, in which to keep a grocery. 
And soon thereafter Augustus Adams built a small log house, in 
which to keep a grocery, on the corner of Lot No. 25, where 
Hubbard Bros, are now doing business, and at the April term 
1842, of the county commissioners' court, it was ordered " that 
Abraham Rea, be licensed to retail spirituous liquors, and to 
keep a house of entertainment at the house of Abraham Rea, on 
Lot 38, in the town of Benton, for the space of twelve months 
from date." Mr. Rea gave bond in the sum of $100, conditioned 
to keep an orderly house, and paid $12 in county orders for his 



408 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

license. What kind of entertainment was to be given in a 
"round log cabin 14x16 feet square," may be a matter of con- 
jecture. It may be presumed, however, that it consisted of a 
lunch accompanied with spirituous liquors to "wash it down." 
At the same term of said court, license was granted to Augustus 
Adams " to retail spirituous liquors, and keep a house of enter- 
tainment at his house in Benton for twelve months from date." 
He also gave bond, but had to pay $25, in county orders for his 
license, more than double what Mr. Kea's license cost him. This 
may be accounted for, when the reader is informed that Mr. Rea 
was one of the county commissioners composing the court that 
granted the said licenses. These retailers of "spirits" each 
became the other's surety on the bonds. These houses of enter- 
tainment were the first two business houses in the town, but 
they were of very short duration. In those days it was thought 
that there was no harm in taking "a little wine for the stomach's 
sake." 

The next improvement in the town was a frame house built 
by J. T. Knox and W. S. Akin, on Lot No. ^'4, where Dr. Hutson's 
drug store now stands, and soon thereafter the said Knox and 
Akin and James Rodgers erected buildings extending from the 
aforesaid house eastward to the alley. These buildings covered 
the front of Lots 23 and 24, and were called the " "White Row." 
The first hotel in the town was erected and kept by Wm. R. 
Browning on the corner of Lot 39, which is west of the public 
square and north of West Street. And the next hotel was kept 
by James Rodgers, where the Arlington Hotel now stands, and 
on the site of the aforesaid house of entertainment, which was 
formerly kept by Mr, Rea, The prices then charged at these 
hotels or taverns were 10 cents per meal, and 25 cents for sup- 
per, lodging and breakfast. Corn bread was mostly used then, 
and the price of corn was from 50 to 75 cents per barrel of five 
bushels. About this time, or perhaps later, John Mobley kept 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 409 

a hotel where Mason's restaurant is now located on Lot No. 23. 
The first merchants of the town, aside from those who sold 
" groceries " and retailed spirituous liquors, were Akin and Knox, 
Wm. E. Browning, Tilman B. Cantrell and A. D. Wilbanks. 
The latter came some time during the forties, later than the 
others, and opened his store in a building on the Arlington 
House corner, with a stock of goods costing $1,000. This new 
store, with its new and large stock of goods, as it was then con- 
sidered, created considerable excitement, it being so much larger 
than the other stores. The growth of the town was gradual, 
and during the decade of the fifties, the merchants were Akin 
and Espey, Wm. H. Fountain, Ralph Elstun, Wm. R. and L. 
Browning, Jeff Mooneyham, J. T. Cook, John Ward, Daniel 
Mooneyham and John and Edward Mobley. In 1853, Wm. R. 
and L. Browning, built a saw mill where the Benton Mills now 
stand, and the latter mills were built by them in 1855. Soon 
thereafter they sold the saw mill and it was moved away. The 
origin of the Franklin Mills was a cotton-gin. These mills 
have reached their present excellence, by degrees. In connection 
with the cotton-gin, stones were put in for grinding corn, and 
afterward buhrs were put in for grinding wheat, and then the cot- 
ton-gin was abandoned. The building was enlarged from time 
to time, until it reached its present dimensions, and is now a 
first-class roller mill. 

During the decade of the sixties the merchants of Benton 
were R. Elstun & Son, William R. & L. Browning, Akin & Es- 
pey, William H. Fountain, Hogue & Cantrell, Mason & Rodman, 
S. J. Layman and Rea & Morris. Prior to the civil war Ben- 
ton had attained only about one-third of its present size, and 
prior to 1869 there was not a brick business house in the town. 
The St. Clair <fe Cantrell brick block on the north side of 
the public square, and the Ward & Moore Block on the south 
side thereof, were built in 1869, the Bank Block in 1881, the 



410 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

Hoskinson Block in 1883 and the Odd Fellows' Block in 1886. 
The business of the town now consists of the following 
liouses and business firms : Exchange Bank of Ward & Moore, 
established in 1876; dry goods and groceries — J. T. Chenault, 
W. T. Hampton, K. E. Hoskinson and J. G. Mitchell & Co. ; 
o-roceries — Swafford Bros., James Little, Hubbard Bros., 
Stallcup & Hill, A. H. Crosby; general stores — Priester & 
Sloan, L. Browning & Co. ; clothing — W. E. Browning & Co. ; 
millinery — M. E. Hutson, M. & M. Hubbard and Mrs. M. A. 
Mason; hardware — Fitzgerrell & Hudelson and St. Clair Bros. 
(the latter firm also runs a wagon factory) ; groceries and har- 
ness — George T. Hubbard & Co. ; harness, saddles and uphol- 
stery — A. D. Jackson ; drugs and books — Dr. E. G. Hutson and 
Webster Bros. ; hotels — Hudson, Arlington and Stine ; restau- 
rants — W. K. Mason and C, W. Webster; boots and shoes — John 
McCollum & Co.; billiard hall — J. S. Elder; bakery— Henry 
Uueppe; photographer and jeweler — J. G. Buchanan; insur- 
ance and abstract ofiice — J. F. Mason ; livery stables — Weston 
& Ells, H. A. Stratton and A. J. Crisp & Co. ; lumber yards — 
Ward, Moore & McFall, W. L. Eskew and A. T. McGuire ; car- 
riao-e factory — J. A. Daniel. In addition to the foregoing there 
are three blacksmith shops, two barber shops and some other 
industries. The physicians are Z. Hickman, A. G. Orr, J. P. 
BroAvn, J. A. Durham. Dr. N. Durham practices dentistry, and 
A. M. Brownlee is the present postmaster. 

THE PRESS. 

The press of the county consists of tha Benion Standard, which 
ivas established in the year 1849 by Tilman B. Cantrell, 
William A. Denning, Samuel K. Casey, William R. Browning 
and others. Its publication has been continuous ever since that 
date, during which time it has changed hands frequently. It is 
now a forty-eight column weekly newspaper, and is published by 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 411 

A. M. Brownlee, the editor and proprietor thereof. In politics it 
has always been Democratic. The Franklin County Chronicle is 
a twenty-eight column weekly newspaper and was established in 
1879 by John A. Wall. It is now published by J. S. Barr, Jr., its 
present editor and proprietor. In politics it is Republican. 

SOCIETIES. 

Benton Lodge, No. 64, F. & A. M., was organized in 1848 and 
received its charter from the Grand Lodge of Illinois, bearing 
date of October 5 of that year. Its charter members were Sam- 
uel K. Casey, W. M. ; George W. Akin, S. W. ; Walter S. Akin, 
J. W. ; Tilman B. Cantrell, Wm. A. Denning, W. S. Crawford, 
Eobert Yost and Isaac Mulkey. All of these brothers have 
passed on to that " undiscovered country, from whose bourne no 
traveler returns. " This lodge has now about seventy-five mem- 
bers, and is in a flourishing condition. 

Charity Lodge, No. 284, of the I. O. O. F. was organized in 
the year 1860, and received its charter from the Grand Lodge 
of the State, bearing the date of October of that year, Its charter 
members were Edward Kelfer, John McLane, Wm. E. Jackson, 
O. C. Griswold and James A. Durham. Its present membership 
is about sixty, and the lodge, also, is in good condition, having 
just moved into their new hall. 

The Odd Fellows also have an encampment in Benton, which 
was chartered October 12, 1875, with John W. Root, James Lit- 
tle, G. T. Hubbard, J. A. Durham, C. Glover, J. N. Welch, C. D. 
Threlkeld, I. E. Cole and T. M. Mooneyham as charter members. 
In connection with this order there is also Pearl Rebekah Degree 
Lodge, No. 125, which was chartered November 20, 1883. 

Benton Post, No. 341, G. A. R., was organized in 1883, with 
Geo. C. Ross, Chas. H. Layman, Carroll C. Payne, John Moon- 
eyham and twenty-one other comrades as cliarter members. It 
now contains about seventy-five members. 



412 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

Benton Lodge, No. 2000, K. of H., was organized 
in 1880, under their charter dated January 27, of that 
year. The charter members of this lodge were W. S. Cantrell, 
W. J. N. Moyers, J. S. Smith, C. C. Webster, J. T. Hinson, Sam- 
uel Eskew, H. A. Stratton, D. M. Collard, A. F. Hubbard, M. 
Holcomb, T. M. Mooneyham, E. G. Hutson, W. T. Hubbard, K. 
H. Flannigan, F. P. Trott and others. The present membership 
is about thirty. The churches and schools of Benton will be 
mentioned elsewhere in this work under their appropriate heads. 

FEANKFORT. 

The town of Frankfort is the oldest town in the county, and 
for its origin the reader is referred to the location of the first 
county seat. The first store in the county, was opened there by 
Dorris &, Elstun, and afterward Edward and John Mobley 
became merchants of the town. A castor-bean press was erected 
there in an early day by William & John Gardner, and by them 
the production of castor oil became extensive, and was a leading 
industry of the county. Solomon Clark was an early dealer at 
Frankfort in family groceries and liquors. After the seat of jus- 
tice was moved from there to Benton, the town ceased to grow. 
It now contains the general stores of Harrell, Clark & Jones, and 
of Thomas J. Crawford, and the family groceries of David Gar- 
land and of Sinks & Harrell, and a hardware store kept by St. 
Clair Bros. It has one hotel kept by M. L. Dimmick, two 
churches — Methodist and Baptist — and three physicians, Drs. K. 
H. and E. Eotramel and Dr. Harris. 

Old Mulkeytown is the next oldest town in the county, and like 
Frankfort, it was located on the old Indian trail leading from 
Shawneetown to Kaskaskia. It was originally laid out very 
irregularly, and in 1868 it was surveyed and platted by E. T. 
Webb, for the owners of the lots. It is located on Sections 28 
and 33, in Tyrone Township, and contains twenty-two lots. Dur- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 413 

ing the early existence of the county it was a place of consid- 
erable importance as a business town, but after the building of 
the Eldorado & Du Quoin Kailroad, which passes near it, and 
New Mulkeytown was established, it rapidly declined, and now 
contains only a few old residences. 

New Mulkeytown is situated on the railroad, and about one- 
half mile northwest of the old town. It was surveyed and plat- 
ted in December, 1879, by W. W. Whittington, for Isham Har- 
rison, the proprietor of the town site. The plat contains blocks 
A, B, C, D, E and F, each containing eight lots, making forty- 
eight in all. The business of the town consists of the general 
stores of E. J. Brown, J. I. Campbell and R. Swain; the 
drug stores of Dr. Davis and of C. D. Means; the harness 
shop of John Campbell, and the millinery store of his wife; 
also a grist and flouring-mill owned by Mericle & Harris. The 
town has a district graded school, which is very efficient, and 
one church, the Christian, with Rev. M. Renfro as pastor, 

EWING. 

Ewing, situated on the line between Sections 10 and 11, in 
Ewing Township, was established in the decade of the fifties 
by Richard Richeson, who was its first merchant, and who after- 
ward established the Ewing Woolen Mills, which are now owned 
and operated by J. B. Turner & Co. The village contains a good 
flouring-mill which was erected by the latter firm about the year 
1878. The operation of the aforesaid mills constitutes about all 
the business of the village. 

Ewing College is situated one mile south of Ewing, and on 
the line between Sections 14 and 15. in said township, was sur- 
veyed in April, 1875, by E. T. Webb for the owners of the town 
site, and a plat containing twenty-seven lots and the college 
grounds was entered of record. Some additions to the town have 
since been surveyed and recorded. The following is a list of the 



414 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

business and business firms of the town: General stores, Link 
Bros., Wiggs & Son, Webb Bros., Neff & Gill; drugs. Dr. C. 
O. Kelley; hardware, Dunbar & Casey. There is also a saw 
mill and corn-mill, and J. A. Sargent and others are completing 
a large roller flouring-mill. This town is noted for its college, of 
which mention is made elsewhere in this work. It also contains 
a district school and a Baptist Church. 

THOMPSONVILLE. 

Thompsonville is situated on the railroad in Cave Township, 
and was surveyed in June, 1878, by Walter S. Hawks, fcr Mary 
Waller and Richard Thompson, the owners of the town site. It 
contains eighty-six lots. The business consists of the general 
stores of Richard Thompson, who was the first merchant of the 
place, and Bowman Bros, and Raney & Sons. The latter firm and 
Richard Thompson buy, price and sell tobacco extensively. The 
family groceries are kept by John A. Gibbs and Moses Arms, 
a drug store by J. H. Essory & Son, and a milliner store by 
Mrs. Cartwright. There are also two hotels kept, respectively, by 
Mrs. M. J. Hamilton and John Morris. Thompson & Lasley 
have a saw mill and a roller grist-mill, and Edward Whitehead 
has a saw mill and corn -mill. In addition to the foregoing there 
are three blacksmith and wood shops, and two barber shops. The 
town contains a district school in two departments, and two 
church organizations — the Methodists and Baptists. The former 
society has a large church edifice which cost about $1,200, and 
the latter society worships in the schoolhouse. The physicians 
are M. D. L. Carter, S. Hamilton and Dr. McEntire ; Monroe 
Shaw is the postmaster. 

Parrish, situated on the raiload in Section 6, in Cave Town- 
ship, was surveyed in May, 1880, by W. W. Whittington, for T. 
J. Eubanks, and contains twenty-five lots. The first merchants 
of the place were Jones Bros, and Miller. The present merchants 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 415 

are John N. Miller, Fitts & Hudgins, Fuer & Joplin. There are 
;also three family groceries, one saloon (the only one in the 
county), one saw mill, one corn-mill, a district school and a Bap- 
tist Church. Smothersville, Buckner and Christopher are sta- 
tions on the railroad, and Osage is a small village in the south- 
west corner of the county. Postoffices and single stores are 
located at several other points throughout the county. 

The centennial historical committee of the county describes 
another town which never had an existence as follows: " In 1840 
Zadoc Casey conceived the idea of building a city in Franklin 
County, and employed a man by the name of Henry Perry as sur- 
veyor, and they surveyed out and laid ofif a town in Section 14, 
Township 5, Range 2, on Big Muddy, and called it Portland 
They made fine plats and maps of the city, showing the location 
of the most important buildings, the river, and streets leading to 
it ; and also showing that the city was located at the head of navi- 
gation of Big Muddy. They put the lots npon the market, and 
sold a good many of them to Eastern capitalists, realizing about 
$4,000 out of the speculation. Portland still lives upon our 
county records and in the memory of those who bought town lots, 
but nowhere else, occupied by crawfish, frogs and tadpoles." 

HISTORY OF THE SCHOOLS. 

During the early existence of Franklin County, education 
therein, was, as it necessarily has to be in all newly settled coun- 
tries, very much neglected. There were no free schools theu, 
and no schoolhouses, and the opportunities for the education of 
the children depended upon the individual efforts of their parents. 
One of the surviving pioneers of the county, Mr. William B. Dil- 
lon, says: "As soon as a neighborhood could furnish as mauy 
as fifteen or twenty scholars, the neighbors would select a situa- 
tion on which to build a schoolhouse, and collect together and 
put up a schoolhouse of round logs, covered with clapboards. 



416 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

and lay poles on top to keep the boards from being blown off. and 
split out puncheons with which to lay the floor, and cut a door- 
way, and a fireplace, the latter being six or eight feet wide, and 
for seats they cut poles, and split them open and bored holes in 
them at each end, in which they inserted legs of the proper length. 
The writing desks were made out of puncheons split out of logs, 
and the splinters hewn off with a chopping ax. The books used 
in the schools then were Webster's spelling book and McGuffy's 
first and second readers, and the more advanced scholars would 
have an arithmetic." The description of the primitive log school- 
house, as given by Mr. Dillon, is complete except that doors were 
hung in the places cut for them, and that huge fireplaces, with 
stick and mortar chimneys, were constructed in the places cut out 
therefor. Some schools were probably taught in the county, 
before Webster's spelling book and McGuffy's readers were 
published. In those days the old United States spelling 
book and the English readers were in use. From the date 
of the settlement until free schools were permanently estab- 
lished, the only institutions of learning in the county were private 
schools, generally known as "subscription schools." And the 
teachers of these schools were frequently so limited in education, 
that they would contract with the parents or guardians of the 
children " to teach spelling, reading, writing and arithmetic as 
far as the rule of three," but no farther on account of their own 
limited knowledge.* 

In 1841 an attempt was made by the General Assembly of 
the State to establish a system of free schools, by the enactment 
of a law entitled an '' act making provision for organizing and 
maintaining common schools." Subsequent acts pertaining to 
public education were passed in 1845, 1847 and 1849. The act 
of 1849 provided that the secretary of State should be ex officio 
State superintendent of common schools; that school commis- 

*The first schoolhouse in the county, was built in the Launias settlement in 182", and was 
afterward rebuilt in the Dillon settlement, both being in the eastern part of the county. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 417 

sioners should be elected in each county to sell the school lands, 
etc. ; that each congressional township, as surveyed and laid 
off by authority of the United States, should constitute a town- 
ship for school purposes; that the business of the township 
should be performed by three trustees to be elected by the peo- 
ple, and that a township treasurer also, should be elected to 
handle the township funds. The act also provided that the peo- 
ple of each school district should meet on the first Saturday in 
May, annually, and vote for or against a tax for school purposes. 
This, of course, left it optional with the people, many of whom 
had emigrated from States where free schools had never been 
established, and who carried with them their prejudices against 
the same. Consequently no adequate system of free schools 
could be established under these laws. The prejudices and 
objections of the people had to be overcome by the enactment 
of better and more imperative laws, which made it obligatory 
upon, and not simply optional Avith, the people to establish 
and maintain free schools. In February, 1857, the Legislature 
of the State passed a new act to establish and maintain a sys- 
tem of free schools, which provided for the election, by the 
people, of a State superintendent of public instruction, and 
for the election of county school commissioners, and the proper 
township school officers, for the establishment of school districts 
etc., and making it obligatory on the part of the officers to 
enforce the law. Then and not until then were the school 
laws of the State so enforced as to establish free schools in 
general. The laws were amended from time to time until 
1872, when another general act was passed for establishing 
and maintaining the pviblic schools on a still firmer basis, 
and which repealed all laws in conflict therewith. This act has 
since been amended, until the school system of the State has 
reached its present efficiency. 

The following statistics for the school year ending June 30, 



418 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

1886, will show the workings of the system in Franklin Comity 
at the present: Scholastic population, consisting of all children 
between the ages of six and twenty-one years — males, 3,136; 
females, 2,879; total, 6,015. Number of pupils enrolled in the 
schools — males, 2,621; females, 2,396; total, 5,057. This shows 
that a little over five-sixths of the scholastic population attend the 
free schools. There are seventy-two school districts in the 
county, and during the school year above referred to, schools 
were taught in each for 110 days or more, none less than that num- 
ber. There is one brick, sixty-six frame and six log school- 
houses in the county, and during the last year there were seven 
graded and sixty-five ungraded schools taught in the county. 
Number of teachers in graded schools: males, 10; females, 7. 
Number of teachers in ungraded schools: males, 64; females, 16; 
total number of teachers employed, 97. Average monthly wages 
paid. teachers: males, $35.54; females, $28.39. The total amount 
of funds received by the township treasurers of the county for 
the school year ending June 30, 1886, was $28,658.32. Of this 
amount, $16,519.06 was paid out to teachers, and $6,234.65 for 
fuel, new schoolhouses, repairs of schoolhouses, school furni- 
ture, principal and interest on bonds, and other necessary 
expenses, thus making the total expenditures for the year 
$22,753.71, and leaving the balance of $5,904.61 on hand for the 
beginning of the new year. 

PUBLIC SCHOOL FUNDS. 

It will be interesting to the general reader, and especially to 
the tax payer, to learn something about the public school funds, 
and the sources from whence they are obtained. While the 
greater amount, by far, is obtained from direct taxation, there is 
a considerable yearly income derived from permanent school 
funds, the principal of which is loaned by the State and local 
authorities, and the interest thereon collected and distributed 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 419 

annually for the benefit of the public schools. These permanent 
funds are denofninated as follows: "School fund proper, " being 
three per cent of the net proceeds of the sales of the public lauds 
in the State, less one-sixth part excepted for college fund, 
$613,362.96; "surplus revenue," which was received from the 
United States under an act of Congress, and made part of the com- 
mon school fund by an act of the Legislature in 1887, $885,592.82 ; 
" college fund," being the one-sixth part of the three per cent 
fund above mentioned, $156,613.32; "seminary fund," being 
the proceeds of the sales of the " seminary lands, " donated by 
Congress to the State for the founding and support of a State 
seminary, $59,838.72; "county school fund," created by an act 
of the Legislature in 1835, $159,875.49; "township funds" 
being the net proceeds of the sales of the sixteenth section in 
each congressional township of the State, the same having been 
donated to the State for common school purposes by act of Con- 
gress, in 1818, and of additions thereto, $5,084,264.21, to which 
add value of lands remaining unsold, estimated at $5,112,905.78, 
making the total of this fund equal to $10,197,169.99; "uni- 
versity fund," being proceeds of sales and value of unsold lands 
received by an act of Congress "donating public lands to several 
States and Territories which may provide colleges for the benefit 
of agriculture and the mechanic arts," passed in 1862, $526,930.24. 
The grand total of these funds belonging to the State amounts to 
the magnificent sum of $12,049,383.04. Though large as this 
may seem, it is very small in comparison with what it might have 
been if the law makers of the State had been wise enough to have 
kept the school lands out of market until a certain date, or until 
the counties or congressional townships had reached a certain 
population. But instead of doing this, the lands were put into 
the market at an early day, and sold for a merely nominal sum. 
To illustrate : Franklin County contains twelve sections of the 
congressional township school lands, amounting to 7,680 acres, 



420 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

all of wliicli have been sold for about $6,800,* or less than 
$1 per acre. Now, suppose these lands had not been sold until 
they would have brought at least $5 per acre, the county would 
have realized the sum of $38,400 instead of the small sum that it 
now controls. 

With the exception of Ewing College, of which mention will 
herafter be made, the county has never been distinguished for 
high schools. "In the year 1841 the Legislature incorporated 
the Benton Academy with Walter S. Akin, John Ewing, John 
P. Maddox, Zachariah Sullens, Thomas Thompson, John Edgerly, 
Benjamin Smith, Daniel D. Thomas, Abraham Eea, Wm. 
Browning, Abel Ward, Silas M. Williams, John K. Williams, 
Elijah Taylor, Moses Neal, John Dillon, Robert Towns, and 
Lemuel B. Harrison as trustees. They bought the lot upon 
which the Benton District School building now stands, and 
erected a two story frame upon it. But the academy did not 
prove a success, perhaps for the reason that the Legislature 
permitted everything taught in it but theology. The building 
was sold by the trustees, and became the property of the Benton 
School District. It in time gave way to a more stately edifice, 
which was erected in 1868. In 1841 an act was passed, by the 
Legislature of the State, incorporating a college at or within two 
miles of the residence of Alexander McCreery in this county, to 
be known as the 'Fancy Farm College' with Alexander McCreery, 
Henry Yost, Sion H. Mitchell, Richard Cantrell, Wm. Jones, 
Wm. Mitchell and John Roberts as trustees. The object of that 
incorporation, as stated in the act, was to promote science and 
literature. The school did not flourish, however, and nothing 
now remains of it but the name of 'Fancy Farm.' " 

CENTFNNIAL SPEECH OF JUDGE WILLIAMS. 

"Ewing College, situated at the pleasant and healthful 

* The amount reported as invested by the several townships in the county being 3^6,810.82, as 
per last report of the county superintendent of schools. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 421 

country village of that name, in Ewiug Township, was first 
opened as a select school in the spring of 1867, and was incor- 
porated as EAving High School on the 25th of the following 
December, and in 1874 it was changed to a college under its 
present name. It was made a Baptist college by a vote of the 
stockholders, in 1877. Prof. John Washburn, A. M., and D. D., 
has been its principal or president from its first organization to 
the present time, with the exception of four years when he was 
absent from the village, and R. R. Link, Esq., has always 
been its secretary. The school was first established in the country, 
and since then a village of some 300 inhabitants has sprung up 
around it. R. Richeson, John W. Hill, R. R. Link, Rev. E. T. 
Webb, W. A. King and John S. Webb were among its largest con- 
tributors and supporters in its infancy. The first of the bripk 
buildings of the college was a large and substantial two-story struct- 
ure erected in 1870. The college has been very successful, and 
students have been educated in it from all parts of southern 
Illinois, and from several other States, and the county has been 
brought into prominence by reason of having it located within 
its bounds. For the school year of 1884-85 there were 57 
pupils in the college department, and 98 in the academic 
department, being from the States of Illinois, Indiana, Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee. There were also twelve students in the 
commercial department, and 25 in the musical department, 
and the wliole number of students in attendance for the year 
were 107. The course of study is long and full, and includes 
an academic and collegiate department. The academic course 
extends through two years, and is prei)aratory to the collegiate. 
In the collegiate department there are two courses, a classical 
and a scientific ; the classical course extends through five years, 
the scientific through four, making the longer course seven 
years in all, the shorter six." The college is situated in a 
country village, which is surrounded with the best moral and 



422 FEANKLIN COUNTY. 

religious influences, and which is free from the many vices and 
temptations of the cities and larger towns where colleges are 
generally located. Another advantage greatly in its favor is the 
low rates at which board and lodging can be obtained, and the 
absence of temptations for the unnecessary expenditure of money. 
It is a most excellent place for students wishing to obtain a 
thorough education at the least possible expense. The present 
faculty consists of John Washburn, D. D., president, Latin, 
history and English literature; E. D. Swain, A. M., mathematics, 
and physical science ; John Richeson, A. M., Greek and mental 
science; John Washburn, D. D., academical department; depart- 
ment of music. Miss Alice Link ; commercial department, AV. C, 
Link, M. Accts. 

CHURCH HISTORY. 

The pioneer religious denominations of the county of Frank- 
lin, were the Methodist and Baptist. And in reference to the 
religion of the early settlers, the Centennial Historical Committee 
said, in 1876: " On religion they were more practical than theo- 
retical. Uncle Braxton Parrish told a story illustrative of that 
early day : He being a minister, was on his way to ' Fancy Farm ' 
to preach one Sunday morning, and in passing the residence of 
Alex. McCreery, caught him skinning three deer that he had 
killed that morning, and after Parrish got to his appointment and 
before service commenced, he was somewhat surprised to see 
Mack, as he was familiarly called, walk up and take his seat on a 
log, shaved clean and looking like a saint, ready to invite the 
minister home with him for dinner after the sermon. A Rev. 
Mr. Lock once held a camj)-meeting in what was then known as 
the Dillon settlement, and being from the East, was somewhat 
surprised to see the squatters come and take their seats, with 
their guns leaning over their shoulders and keeping their hats 
on, and after prayers remarked that it was expected of all who 
did not have sore heads to remove their hats, and the women to 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 423 

stop cooking during prayer. They were plain blunt men, relig- 
ious, and yet the sharp crack of a rifle on Sunday morning did 
not sound unharmonious to their ears. They were just such men 
as were required to open up this country. In his lecture to the 
citizens of this county, delivered a couple of years ago, Uncle 
Braxton Parrish told how, Avhen he gtarted to this country in the 
year 1821, being a young convert to religion, he carried his Bible 
under his arm, while his wife rode their only horse, carrying all 
upon it, he passed where Alex. McCreery was, and heard him tell 
his wife, that that fellow had better ad — n sight have a grubbing 
hoe on his shoulder, that it would look more like making a 
living. But he found the Bible a very fitting accompaniment to 
the hunting knife. Their first religious meetings were held in 
their houses, and their protracted meetings were held in the 
groves and known as camp-meetings, at which a good time was 
always had. * * They were not afraid to shout, and now and 
then, at the dead hour of midnight, some one would get religion, 
and the shouting would break out anew. These meetings were 
generally held in the fall, and would continue from two to four 
weeks. Their entire families went, taking their bedding and 
food, and doing their cooking as occasion demanded." 

The first two societies of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
organized in the county, were those now known as Liberty and 
Mount Etna — the former being located close to the southeast cor- 
ner of the county, and the latter a few miles farther north, in the 
Dillon settlement. Mount Etna was organized in 1822, and is 
said to have been the first organized society of that denomination 
within the county. Liberty was organized soon thereafter. These 
societies both erected church edifices about the year 1826. 
Among the early members of the Mount Etna Society were Rev. 
John Lauuius, Eddie Sullivan, the Summerses, and later Rev. Stan- 
ford Lig, Rev. John Sullivan and others. This society has always 
prospered, and has now nearly 100 members. Liberty is perhaps 



424 FEANKLIN COUNTY. 

the most noted of the pioneer Methodist Churches in the county. 
It grew out of the efforts of Rev. Braxton Parrish and other 
pioneer settlers, and among the early members thereof were S. 
H. Mitchell and wife (parents of Rev. J. G. Mitchell, now of 
Benton), Henry Yost and wife, John Waller and wife, and Alex- 
ander McCreery and wife. Although Mr. McCreery killed and 
skinned the deer on Sunday morning, it seems that through the 
efforts of the preacher who caught him in that violation of one 
of God's commands, and perhaps of other Christian settlers, he 
was soon brought within the fold. This church has always 
labored with zeal. Henry Yost, David Yost and J. G. Mitchell 
were local preachers produced by this society, and Rev. R. 
M. Carter, who has become an eminent minister, was converted in 
this church, and afterward licensed to preach therein. Among 
the prominent members of Liberty Church at present are Z. C. 
Mitchell, W. A. Stewart, Cyrus McCreery, Cyrus and Samuel 
Tate, Dr. R. Poigndexter, Col. Marvel and Judge Wm. Elstun 
and their families. It is the strongest church of that denomina- 
tion within the county, having a membership of about 150. From 
the nuclei of these two pioneer churches others of the same 
denomination were subsequently established throughout the 
county. A Methodist Episcopal society was organized at Ben- 
ton very soon after the town was established, and the church 
edifice was erected about the year 1851. The present member- 
ship is about 132. 

The following church societies belong to the Benton Circuit, 
viz. : Mount Etna, already mentioned ; Bethel, about four and a 
half miles southwest of Benton, with forty members; Frankfort, 
at the town of Frankfort, with seventy-six members; Shiloh, in 
Ewing Township, with sixty members; Crawford's Prairie, about 
eight miles southeast of Benton, with forty members; Pleasant 
Grove, on Gunn Prairie, with thirty members, and the society at 
the Flat Schoolhouse, about two and a half miles west of Benton , 



HISTOKY OF ILLINOIS. 425 

with seventeen members. The last three societies have no church 
edifices in which to worship, but utilize schoolhouses for that 
purpose. Liberty Church and the church at Thompsonville, the 
latter having about sixty members, belong to the Corinth Circuit. 
One or two church societies of this denomination, in the 
western part of the county, belong to the Du Quoin Circuit. 
Union Church, which is situated about two miles northeast of 
Ewing, and which has a membership of about fifty, belongs to 
the Spring Garden Circuit. There are perhaps twenty-five or 
more members of the Methodist Church residing in the county, 
who have not as yet united with any local society. Among the 
ordained pioneer ministers of this denomination, in Franklin 
County, were Kevs. James Patterson, John Dewe, Thomas Files 
and Samuel H. Thompson. Of the early local preachers, Rev. 
Braxton Parrish deserved especial mention. It is usually the 
case when ministers are ordained and sent into new countries by 
their church authorities, that they find upon their arrival the 
volunteer missionary, or missionaries, just such men as Rev. 
Parrish, have preceded them, and opened the way for their com- 
ing. Rev. Parrish came here when a young man, not as a pro- 
fessional minister, but for the purpose of becoming, as he did, a 
citizen. He finally settled upon and improved a farm near Ben- 
ton, where he lived and died. During President Polk's adminis- 
tration he was register of the land office at Shawneetown, to 
which place he moved for that purpose, and afterward returned 
to his home in this county. He preached extensively, and was an 
earnest worker in the Lord's vineyard, and lived beloved by all 
who knew hini, and still lives in their grateful memories. 

The following is a list of the presiding elders and preachers 
in charge of the Benton Circuit since 1852, when the Southern 
Illinois Conference was formed: 



426 FEANKLIN COUNTY. 

Date. Presiding Elders. Preachers in Charge. 

1852 J. I. Richardson E. Montgomery. 

1853 J. H. Hill James Knapp. 

1854 " G. W. Cullom. 

1855 " John Holt. 

1856 G. W. Robins J. T. Johnson. 

1857 " supplied. 

1858 J. A. Robinson John Thatcher. 

1859 J. H. Hill 

1860 " T.O.Spencer. 

1861 " 

1862 " T.N.Johnson. 

1863 J.W.Lowe Wm. B. Bruner. 

1864 " R. W. Laughliu. 

1865 Z. S. Clifford 

1886 " S. P. Groves. 

1867 " 

1868 B. R. Pierce J. I. Richardson. 

1869 " Supplied. 

1870 " Lafayette Casey. 

1871 " 

1872 L. C. English Asa Snell. 

1873 C. D. Lingentelter '. T. J. Davis. 

1874 " A. C. Flesher. 

1875 B. R. Pierce A. L. Downing. 

1876 " J.W.Flint. 

1877 " G.W.Wilson. 

1878 C. E. Cline John Laird. 

1879 " L. Gifford. 

1880 " E.M.Baxter. 

1881 C. Nash 

1882 " J.W.Mcintosh. 

1883 " J. W. Franklin. 

1884 '• J. R. Reef. 

1885 Wm. Wallis L.A.Harper 

1886 " 

The last presiding elder and preacher in charge still contin- 
ues (1887). The Methodist Episcopal Church has within the 
county about 840 members, and nine churches, valued at |9,000. 
Acknowledgements are due to Kev. J. G. Mitchell, of Benton, 
and to Eev. L. A. Harper, of the Benton Circuit, and others for 
information pertaining to the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
Franklin County. 

Returning now to the olden time when the county was " a 
howling wilderness,'' we find the Baptist Church, with its 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 427 

disciples, side by side with the Methodist Episcopal in estab- 
lishing Christianity where the ignorance and superstition of the 
Indian had recently and to some extent was still prevailing. 
Among the first religious societies organized in the county was 
the East Fork United Baptist Church, in what was then known 
as the Dillon settlement, and the Regular Baptist Church, in the 
Summers' settlement. These societies were organized early in the 
twenties. About the same time the Middle Fork Baptist Church, 
Northern Township, was established through the instrumentality 
of Rev. Chester Carpenter and others, and among its early mem- 
bers were Rev. Carpenter and wife, Eli Webb and wife, Lazarus 
Webb and wife, Richard Hill and wife and his father and mother, 
and John Manis and wife. Brother Manis afterward became a 
minister and preached in that church until his death, which 
occurred about the year 1843. Through the influence of Revs. 
Carpenter and Manis the membership of this church was greatly 
increased, and the Webb, Taylor and Page families nearly all 
became members thereof, and their decendants constitute a large 
proportion of the members at the present time. Mt. Pleasant 
Church, located about five miles west of Benton, was organized 
in the year 1829 with the following members: David Farris, 
Louisa Farris, James Eubanks, Cynthia Eubanks, John Bradley, 
Mumford Williams, John Sandusky, John Browning, Nancy 
Browning, W. R. Browning, Elizabeth Ann Browning, Polly 
King, Patsy Browning and Jane Browning. Elders Isaac Her- 
ring and Robert Moore were the presbytery. Liberty Baptist 
Church, which is about ten miles east of Benton, was organized 
in 1841, through the instrumentality of Elders. T. M. Vance and 
S. M, Williams. A large log house, 36x40 feet, was built, in 
which to worship, and it stood until a recent date. The early 
members of this church wei-e Daniel Ward and family, Jacob, 
Peter and David Phillips and their two sisters, James E. Stilly, 
the Lances and Millers. Elders Hosea Vise, T. M. Vance and S. 



428 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

M. Williams were the presbytery. The Benton Baptist Church 
was also organized in 1841, through the instrumentality of Elder 
T. M. Vance, who was its first pastor, and served the church as 
such for nineteen years. Among the original members of this 
church were Adam and Rachael Overturf, T. J. and Mildred 
Mansfield, Mrs. Chester Carpenter, Richard and Elizabeth David- 
son, Abel, Polly and James R. Ward, T. M. Vance, O. C. 
Wilkerson and Rachael and Elizabeth Wilkerson. The fine 
brick edifice now occupied by this society was completed in 1879. 
The pastors following Elder Vance were G. W. Allen, E. W. 
Overstreet, John A. Rodman, C. Allen, Bro. Washburn, W. P. 
Throgmorton, and the present pastor is W. B. Harmon. This is 
the strongest church in the county, the membership being 318. 

Pleasant Grove Baptist Church, located about five miles east 
of Frankfort, was organized in 1840 under the labors of Elders 
Wilfred and Hezekiah Ferrell. It was organized with twelve 
members, and now has a membership of 210. Among the older 
churches is that of New Salem, situated about six miles east of 
Benton. It was organized in 1842, and the council consisted o£ 
Elders T. M. Vance and Chester Carpenter. Knob Prairie Church 
situated a mile northwest of Akin, in Eastern Township, was 
organized in 1856, and its first pastor was James P. Sneed. 
Pleasant Hill Church, situated about three miles northward from 
Thompsonville, was organized in 1853, with eleven members. 
J. T. Williams was its first pastor. Ewing Church was organ- 
ized in 1851. The council consisted of Elders John Browning, 
J. R. Williams and S. M. Webb. The latter was the first pastor 
of the church. Horse Prairie Church, which is about twelve 
miles northwest of Benton, was organized in 1856. County 
Line Church, situated on the line between Franklin and William- 
son Counties, was organized in 1867, and has its membership in 
both counties. Its original membership was twenty-four. Town 
Mount Prairie Church, situated on the prairie of that name, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 429 

about eight miles from Benton, was organized in 1868 with 
thirteen members. 

The foregoing comprises nearly all of the early Baptist 
Churches within the county. The following is a list of the 
United Baptist Churches within the county at the present writing, 
with the number of members of each annexed, viz. : Benton, 
First, 318; Benton, Second, 127; Bethel, 80; County Line, with 
perhaps half of its membership in Williamson County, 175; 
Crawford's Prairie, 42; Ewing, 168; Frankfort, 29; Forest, 27; 
Horse Prairie, 87; Knob Prairie, 77; Liberty, 122 ;Mt. Pleasant, 
139; Mt. Zion, 107; New Salem, 50; Oak Grove, 72; Pleasant 
Hill, 100; Pleasant Grove, 210; Parrish, 83; Pleasant Valley, 88; 
Silvane, 76 ; Thompsonville, 48 ; Town Mt. Prairie, 98. This makes 
a total of over 2,000. These figures were furnished the Avi'iter by 
Elder Levi Browning, from the last minutes of the Franklin 
Association of the United Baptists. Aside from, and in addition 
thereto, there are other churches known as the Regular Baptists, 
and Free-Will Baptists. Salem Church, of the Regular Baptists 
at Benton, has a membership of 98. The Methodist Episcopal and 
the Baptist Churches have always been the leading religious de- 
nominations of the county. The Christian Church has, during the 
later years, been established in the county. This denomination 
has a church at New Mulkeytown, with Elder M. Renfro as pastor, 
and another on Horse Prairie, and one in the eastern part of the 
county. The church at New Mulkeytown has just closed a 
revival meeting, which has been instrumental in adding over one 
hundred to its membership. All or nearly all of the churches 
within the county, have had Sunday-schools connected with them 
ever since their organization. The Sunday-schools in the county 
are usually suspended during the continuance of bad roads in the 
winter season. 

For information pertaining to the United Baptist Churches 
the writer has consulted the " History of the Franklin Association" 



430 FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

edited by Eev. W. P. Throgmorton, and renders acknowledg- 
ments accordingly. And for general information, the thanks of 
the publishers of this work, are extended to the " Centennial His- 
torical Committee " of Franklin, and to the county officers, who 
have kindly given the writer access to the public records, to 
Uncle Levi Browning, George T. Hubbard, William and Daniel 
Mooneyham, and all others who have so kindly furnished infor- 
mation. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 431 



WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

LOCATION, BOUNDARY AND TOPOGRAPY. 

WILLIAMSON COUNTY lies in the southern portion of Illi- 
nois, on the dividing ridge between the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi Rivers, and between parallels 37® 30' and 38" north latitude. 
The meridian of the 89*^ of longitude west from Greenwich passes 
about three miles west of Marion. This line corresponds with 
the 12*^ of longitude west from Washington. The county is com- 
posed of Townships 8, 9 and 10 south, and Ranges 1, 2, 3 and 4 
east, and is, therefore, in the form of a rectangular parallelogram, 
twenty-four miles from east to west, and eighteen miles from 
north to south, thus containing 432 square miles, or 267,480 
acres. It is bounded on the north by Franklin County, on the 
east by Saline County, on the south by Johnson County, and on 
the west by Jackson County. 

In the north part of the county the surface is quite rolling 
and broken, hilly in some portions. The central part is gener- 
ally level, and the southern part, like the northern, somewhat 
hilly. There is, however, but little land in the county too much 
broken for successful cultivation, and the county ranks amoi^ 
the best in southern Illinois as an agricultural region. Origi- 
nally the surface was for the most part covered with a heavy 
growth of timber, but little of it was prairie ; but some of the broken 
lands, on account of their being but thinly timbered, were known 
as " oak openings." These oak openings have since then been 
covered with a heavy growth of young timber, the prairie fires 
no longer annually killing off the young sprouts as they spring 
up. There is a water-shed wliich begins near the northeast cor- 



432 WILLIAMSON COUNTY, 

ner of the county, between the headwaters of Badgley, Bank 
Lick and Pond Creeks, and extends southwestwardly to the village 
of Crab Orchard; thence in a more westerly direction to the 
northeast corner of Southern Township ; thence across said town- 
ship to the south line of Section 33, where it leaves the 
county. About one-third of the area of the county lies to the 
right of this water-shed, with a general slope toward the south- 
east, and is drained by Badgley, Bank Lick, Brushy, Eock and 
Saline Creeks, the waters of which flow into the Ohio River. 
The other two-thirds of the area of the county lies to the left of 
the water-shed with a general slope toward the northwest, and 
is drained by Pond Lake, and Crab Orchard Creeks, and Big 
Muddy River, the waters of which fljow into the Mississippi. 

GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS. 

The geological formations in this county belong to the qua- 
ternary and the lower coal measures. The former is represented 
by a series of brown and yellow clays, sometimes containing 
gravel and small boulders, and varying from twenty to forty feet 
in thickness. The hard pan of the drift deposits is not noticeable 
in this county, but the yellowish sand and gravelly clays rest 
directly upon the coal measures. At Bainbridge a seam of coal 
has been opened Avhich is about three feet thick, and is believed 
to be Coal No. 1 of the general section. In the bluff north of 
Bolton there are two seams that are believed to belong to Coals 
No. 2 and No. 3. The upper seam is from fifteen to eighteen 
inches thick, and the lower about three feet. About two miles 
below the bridge, on the road from Marion to Bolton, Coal No. 5 
is about two feet thick, the upper four inches of this seam being 
cannel coal. At Davidson's Mine, one and one- fourth miles south- 
east of Crab Orchard, there is a vein five and a half feet thick, 
which is overlaid by bituminous shale and a dark bluish gray im- 
pure limestone; and at Motsinger's Mine, one and a half miles. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 433 

west of Crab Orchard, the vein is five feet thick, with a roof of 
l)ituniiuous clay shale. Coal No. 8 lies below a layer of brown 
limestone, and outcrops about a mile and a half north of Mr. Ens- 
minger's, on the northeast quarter of Section 16. It has been 
mined by stripping in the valley of a small creek, and makes a 
very good blacksmith coal. Coal No. 9 is found south of Corinth, 
and is about two feet thick, and Coal No. 10, at Dr. Smith's old 
place south of Corinth, of a thickness not yet determined. The 
Carbondale Coal & Coke Company opened a mine near Carterville 
Station, and found No. 7 to be from eight to nine and a half feet 
thick of clean, bright, glistening coal — one of the finest mines in 
the State. This coal is quite free from pyrites, and cokes well. 
All the main coals of the general section are found in this county 
from No. 2 to No. 7 inclusive, and all but No. 4 recognized and 
examined, and their value is surpassed by few localities in the 
State. Nearly the entire northern part of the county is under- 
laid by No. 7, which is the thickest seam found in the State, and 
it is nowhere more than 200 feet below the surface, and generally 
■at a depth of only sixty feet. Taken in connection with No. 5, 
which is about 125 feet lower down, it constitutes a mine of 
almost inexhaustible wealth. The two veins together will yield 
not far from 10,000,000 tons to the square mile, and probably 
underlie about one-half of the entire area of the county. Good 
sandstone may be found in nearly every township. The brown 
sandstone found northeast of Marion and in the vicinity of Crab 
Orchard, dresses well and hardens on exposure. Of either lime 
or limonite there is too little for any practical purpose, but there 
is good brick clay on almost every farm. 
• 

SOIL AND NATURAL PRODUCTIONS. 

The poorest quality of soil is found in the post oak flats, and 
the next in order of richness is the oak ridges where black oak, 
white oak, and black jack mainly grow. These lands produce 



434 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

fair crops of wheat, oats and grass, and are excellent lands for 
fruit. Next in value come the small prairies and their surround- 
ing uplands, where the timber is oak, hickory, black walnut, elm, 
linden, wild cherry, honey locust, and sassafras. The soil hera 
is a dark clay loam with a yellowish clay subsoil, and produces 
good crops of corn, wheat, tobacco, castor beans, cotton, timothy 
and clover. 

THE INDIAN OCCUPANTS. 

Prior to the settlement of the territory of this county, it was, 
like the county in general, the home of the " red men of the 
forest, " of whom the reader will find an interesting sketch in the 
history of Franklin County. Two tribes occupied this portion of 
the territory of the State : the Shawnees on the east of Big Muddy 
Kiver, and the Kaskaskias on the west thereof; " The great 
Tecumsehwas chief of the Shawnee Indians, and at that time was 
preparing for war against Gov. Harrison, of Indiana Terri- 
tory; and while our Government was fighting England, Tecumseh 
left his tribe in 1811, and taking twelve of his warriors with 
him, started south to enlist the Creek Indians to join him. He 
passed through this county, coming into it from the northeast to 
Marion, where he struck tlie Kaskaskia trail. He followed it to 
the hill place and then on south. About a mile south of Marion 
he was met and talked to by John Phelps, who had been in the 
country but a short time, and he was frightened very badly. But 
Tecumseh was a humane Indian, and was never known to ill-treat 
or murder a prisoner. But the Shawuees were not all like 
Tecumseh, they were hated and dreaded by the whites, and were 
overwhelmed and obliterated by the relentless flow of the pale 
faces, and live only in memory and history. 

"The delightful valley of the Crab Orchard is replete with 
Indian history and reminiscences. The Kaskaskias, who were on 
friendly terms with the whites, continued to come to this county as 
late as 1828. They were sent out by Col. Manair, a trader of 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 435 

Kaskaskia, to hunt for furs, etc. They would come in the fall and 
camp on Big Muddy, Hurricane, Crab Orchard, Caplinger Ponds, 
and other streams. But these were Indians in whom the peculiar 
characteristics of the race had given place to some of the cour- 
tesies and confidences of civilized men. A very large number of 
them were camped at Bainbridge as late as 1813. James 
Maneece once visited this camp, and they had a large kettle of 
terrapins on boiling, making soup. They asked him to eat with 
them, but he declined. The Grain boys and others used to go to 
their camps on the Crab Orchard, and have fun with them. 
When they camped on Big Muddy, the white folks would go 
down regularly every Sunday to see them. An old Indian who 
came here for several years had a white wife by the name of 
Ellen, said to be very handsome. He would never leave her at 
the camp alone on Sunday, for fear the white boys would steal her. 
These hunters used to go quite often to farmers' houses for 
something to eat. In Northern Precinct they got so bad that the 
women were afraid to stay at home alone while they were loiter- 
ing around through the woods. The men banded together, and 
gave the Indians ten days' notice to leave the country. They 
produced the Governor's permit to hunt, but it was not honored. 
They left before the ten days were out, and were never seen in 
Northern Precinct again. John Eoberts, the Burnses and Eatliflfs 
were in the band." 

" Wigwams were still on Carl Grave's farm in 1820, and on 
Hugh Parks' as late as 1829 were traces of camps. But after 
1818, they never went into the eastern part of the county. They 
had a camp at a spring on the farm of J. S Neely, in 1817. Also 
on Indian Camp Creek in the Burns' settlement. A little south 
of the old station, near Pond Creek, are several Indian mounds ; 
they are piles of dirt thrown up two feet high, and twenty feet 
across to set the wigwams on to keep them dry. Many relics of 
the Indians have been found in this county."* 

•Quotations from Erwin'e History. 



436 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

Along with the wild man, buffaloes, bears, deer, elk, wolves, 
wild cats, raccoons, and all the smaller wild native animals of this 
region roamed about in the unbroken forests. The buffaloes 
became extinct soon after or about the beginning of this century, 
but their trails were perceptible for many years thereafter, and 
it is said that slight traces of them can be seen at the present 
writing. The bears were hunted and destroyed by the early 
Bettlers, and soon became extinct, and in like manner perished 
the wolves, which preyed upon the sheep and other domestic 
animals of the pioneers. The deer, although hunted and killed 
in almost countless numbers, did not become extinct until about 
the year 1860 or thereafter. All the larger and more savage 
animals became extinct many years ago, but the smaller ones, 
such as raccoons, ground hogs, rabbits, and squirrels, abound in 
considerable numbers yet. 

EARLY SETTLERS, ETC. 

The first white men known to have been in the territory of 
Williamson County were Col. George Rogers Clark and his 
soldiers, while on their march to Kaskaskia, in 1796. After leav- 
ing Fort Massac, in June of that year, this command, consisting 
of about 150 men, entered the territory of this county at or near 
the southeast corner thereof, and marched by way of Sarahville 
to the Thomas Hill place, and then, turning northward, passed a 
little west of the site of Marion, thence through Phelps and 
Herrin's Prairies, crossed the Big Muddy at or near the 
mouth of Pond Creek, and arrived at Kaskaskia, July 4, 1796. 
The first settlement in Franklin County was made in 1804, by 
the seven Jordan brothers and others, and very soon thereafter 
Frank Jordan settled in and built a fort in what is now Northern 
Precinct of this county. It was a stockade of timbers enclosing 
about an acre, and on the inside were a number of log cabins and 
a well. It was located about fifty yards from Pond Creek, and 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 487 

was afterward and is still known as the "Old Station." An 
Indian doctor, by the name of John Dunlap, lived in this fort. 
" He claimed to have been captured by the Indians when a boy 
and brought up by them to the practice of medicine. He lived a 
great many years and followed his profession, and always got his 
medicine out of the roots and herbs in the woods." Francis 
Jordan was undoubtedly the first settler in the territory of Will- 
iamson County, and those who followed him up to and including 
the year 1822, as given by Milo Erwin in his history of the 
county, settled at the following dates and places: In 1811, John 
Phelps, on Phelps Prairie ; Jay and McClure, at the Odum Ford ; 
Joseph and Thomas Grifiith, at Ward's Mill; Wm. Donald, on 
the Hill place ; John Maneece and his son James, on Phelps' 
Prairie. During this year these settlers and some living on the 
Cache, built a block-house on the John Davis place, west of 
Marion. It was built of hewed logs, was twenty feet square, 
was covered with slabs, and had port holes eight feet from the 
ground. They all went into this fort at night to sleep. A man 
by the name of Hibbins settled the west side of Herrin's Prairie 
during this year, but was compelled to leave it the next. 

In 1812, Flannery settled at the Flannery Springs, Richard 
Bankston on the Spiller farm north of Marion, and a few more 
at Jordan's fort. Eichard Ratcliff settled on the Roberts farm 
in Northern. In 1815. Nathan Arnett settled on the Hinchliff 
farm, and Abraham Piatt, William Doty and Nelson McDonald 
settled near him. Solomon Snider and James McDonald moved 
from Johnson County, and settled in Grassy Precinct. Demp- 
sey Odum settled on the F. C. Kirkham farm, Spencer Crain at 
Bainbridge and Aaron Youngblood on the Jacob Sanders place. 
In 1810, Joshua Tyner, Philip T. Russell and his three sons, 
and William Campbell settled on the Eight Mile Prairie, 
William Lindsey on the Samuel Russell place, and Jasper Crain 
•on the west side of the prairie. The latter moved the next year 



438 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

to Phelps' Prairie. In 1817 Ragsdall Rolliii settled on Phelps' 
Prairie, Isaac Herrin on the Stotlar place in Herrin's Prairie, 
Capt. David Springs on the Graves place. John Phelps moved 
to Union County, and John Roberts bought Ratcliff's improve- 
ments in Northern Precinct, and John Hooker, James Howe and 
a Mr. Worthen settled near him. In 1«18 Samuel K. Perkins 
settled on Herrin's Prairie, William Burns and five brothers in 
Northern Precinct, Major Lockaleer on the Burns place, George 
Davis on the Bell place, Dickenson Garrett a little south of the 
James Edwards place, Hezekiah Garrett on the Ben Eaton farm, 
and William Norris on Phelps' Prairie. Elijah Spiller bought 
out and settled on the Bankston farm. In 1819, David Herrin 
settled on Herrin's Prairie, which was named in honor of Isaac 
Herrin, its first permanent settler. Sion Mitchell, S. M. Mitch- 
ell and Moses Jones settled in Northern Precinct, William and 
Benjamin Spiller in the Spiller settlement, Abraham Tippy and 
his son John, a little south of Bainbridge; Sterling Hill at the 
Hill place, and the Simpkins brothers near thereby. 

The year 1820 is signalized by the settlement of Wadkins, 
and a negro, the latter being the first colored settler. Do well 
Russell settled on the Lewis Park's place, Mark Robinson on the 
Kid place, the Shultzes in Saline Precinct, James Stewart and 
his sons on the Pease farm. In 1821 David Corder settled the 
Erwin farm on the east, and George Davis on the west, and 
Maj. James Corder on the Stilly farm. In 1822 Hamilton Cor- 
der settled where he now lives, Charles Erwin on the farm where 
he lived and died, Hugh Parks on the Jack Thompson place and 
Daniel Mosely on the Furlong place. In 1823 William Camp- 
bell settled at the site of Blairsville, and Samuel Stacks in South- 
ern Precinct. 

These early settlers being scattered as they were, all over the 
county, had made but little impression on the face of the country 
prior to 1823. Like the Indians, they depended mostly on hun- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 439 

ting for their living. They never dreamed of living to see again 
a thickly populated community, and having imbibed the spirit 
of frontier civilization, with its attendant adventures, in a land 
where game and wild honey were abundant, they seemed content 
to live in their log cabins, surrounded only with a few acres of 
cleared land on which they raised corn and vegetables for the 
partial subsistance of their familes, and obtained their meat 
from the abundant game of the woods. After the year 1823, the 
settlement of the county increased more rapidly, though not with 
great rapidity, as will be observed by reference to the census of 
1840, the first one taken after the organization of the county, 
when the entire population was only 4,457. The early settlers of 
the county, were nearly all from the State of Tennessee, and con- 
sequently the most of them were either natives or the descendants 
of natives of the Carolinas or Virginia. The later settlers were 
also mostly from Tennessee, but many came from Kentucky, 
Ohio and other States. The' first settlers exercised squatter's 
rights, and settled upon the lands of their own choosing, mostly 
along the streams, or where a good spring of water could be found, 
feeling that their rights would never be infringed upon. Many 
of them did not enter their lands at the land office, and take a 
patent therefor from the Government, for a long time after the 
same became subject to entry. Perhaps some delayed acquiring 
title to avoid taxation, for so long as the title remained in the 
Government, the lands were not subject to taxation. The public 
lands were not made subject to entry until the year 1814, when 
Francis Jordan entered the first tract of laud in the county. 
Some of the early settlers never entered their lands to acquire 
title thereto, but sold their improvements to others, who afterward 
entered the lands and acquired the title. Those who sold their 
improvements, generally moved farther to the west, either pre- 
ferring to follow " the star of genial empire," as it moved west- 
ward, or believing that they could find a better land toward the 
settingr sun. 



440 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

EARLY LAND ENTRIES. 

The following lists, the names of nearly all who entered lands 
in each year, and in each congressional township, prior to the 
year 1840, are given, viz. : 

Township 8 south, Range 1 east: 1829, James S. Russell and 
Eichard Tiner; 1831, William Wilson; 1836, W^illiam T. Ryburn, 
John Stacks, Hannah Stacks and Isham Minor; 1837, Sarah 
Hinchcliff, Benjamin W. Thompson, Lewis Hogg, Willis Tiner, 
William B. Sanders, Joshua Tiner, Matthew N. Ryburn, Jacob 
Painter, William Nolen and Albert J. James; 1838, Thomas 
Burns, John D. Ryburn and James Mannering; 1839, Abraham 
North, John Woolsey, John N. and Bird T. Ryburn. 

Toivnship 9 south, Bang e 1 east: 1816, Nathan Arnell a Bap- 
tist preacher; 1817, Nathan Piatt and Wm. Lindsay; 1819, John 
Smith; 1827, Solomon Snider; 1831, Joseph Kershaw; 1832, Abra- 
ham North; 1833, Thomas Jones and Wm. T. Ryburn; 1835, 
Joseph Renshaw; 1836, Wm. C. Stover, James W. Ryburn, 
Samuel H. Ryburn, Peter Myers, Ephraim Snyder, and Jasper 
L Grain; 1837, Cyrus Campbell, Michael Snyder and George D. 
Gordon; 1838, Nancy Bainbridge. 

Toicn 10 south, Range 1 east: 1818, Solomon Snyder; 1831, 
John Smith; 1832, Spencer Crain and Oliver H. Wiley; 1834, 
Martin B. Spiller; 1836, Eli Hutson and Edwin Roach. 

Toicn 8 south. Range 2 east: 1816, Isaac Herrin ; 1818, Samuel 
K. Perkins; 1819, William R. Hines; 1829, David Herrin and 
Emanuel Hunter; 1831, Dudley W. Duncan and Benjamin 
Chitty; 1832, Josiah Dillard; 1833, William P. Duncan, Benja- 
min Spiller, James Duncan, Joseph Duncan, Roderick Reed, and 
Alexander and Jacob Arnett; 1836, Joseph K. Dillard, Robert 
Lipsey, Hardy W. Perry, Benjamin W. Thompson, Simeon Spil- 
ler, John W. Hoffman and Andrew Moak; 1837, William Har- 
vell, George Cox, Joel Childress, Fred F. Duncan and Andrew 
Sanders. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 441 

Town 9 south, Eange 2 east: 1817, John Nelson, who built 
the first shingle-roofed house in the county, it being on Phelps' 
Prairie, and the shingles being made by William Benson; 1818, 
Elijah Spiller, Ragsdall Rollin, John Pi. McFarland and John 
Norris; 1819, James Duncan, William Spiller and Sterling 
Hight; 1820, W. S. Duncan; 1829, James Wiley and Reuben 
Powell; 1833, William H. Duncan, Thomas H. Watson, Henry 
Robertson, James Sanders, Sil'as Gratton, Andrew Henry, Will- 
iam Norris, Austin Y. Kelley, Joseph Oglesby and John Ste- 
phens; 1836, Warrenton K. Spiller, Elbert C. Spiller, Allen 
Bainbridge, Thomas G. W. Murphy, William Benson, Noah 
Grain, Archibald C. Wagoner, Thomas Scurlock, John Davis, 
William Roberts and Charles Cagle; 1837, Samuel M. N. Dun- 
away, John Hundley, Samuel Aikman, James M. Campbell and 
Samuel Cripps; 1839, Giles Connell. 

Toivn 10 south, Range 2 east: 1833, Dickson Ward; 1886, 
Benjamin Mcintosh; 1837, Winfrey L. Grain; 1839, John M. 
Parks. Only a few entries were made in this township prior to 
the year 1850. 

Toimi 8 south, Range 3 east: 1830, Robert Worthen; 1833, 
Jacob Sanders; 1836, James Goddard; 1837, Pleasant L. Finney, 
William Pike, Jacob Hunter, George W. Binkley and Thomas 
Sanders; 1838, Robert Martin; 1839, Samuel Beasley. The 
remark above applies to this township also. 

Town 9 south. Range 3 east: 1816, James L. Cochran; 1817, 
Richard Bankston; 1819, George Davis; 1828, Samuel SwafPord; 
1833, William Groves, George Zachariah, James A. Parks, John 
D. Sanders, Elijah N. Spiller, Dempsey Odum, Timothy Feel 
and John Eaton ; 1836, Luke Simmons, Joseph Grisson, William 
Pulley, James Campbell, Benjamin Bell, Moses Spring, Joshua 
Motsinger, John N. Calvert, Joab Goodall, Aaron Alexander, 
John Bradley, James and William Ellis; 1837, Thomas Harris 
and Addison Reese; 1838, William Benson; 1839, Robert L. 



442 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

Pulley, Thomas Culbreath, William T. Davis, Nicholas B. Chen- 
oweth and Alfred Ferrell. 

Town 10 south. Range 3 east: 1810, Thomas Griffith; 1833, 
Oabrial Sanders, James Hill and Cutworth Harrison; 1836, 
Sterling Hill, Thomas Loudon and Henry H. Hudgens; 1838, 
Elias McDonald. Only a few tracts of land in this township 
were entered prior to 1850. 

Town 8 south, Range 4 eas/.-' 1814, Francis Jordan; 1819, 
Richard Eatcliif and Thomas Roberts; 1833, Isaiah Harlow; 
1836, David M. Logan, Matthew G. Martin, Enoch Newman and 
Wesley Yost; 1837, Levi Summers, George Whitley, AVilliam 
Francis, James Milligan, William A. Roberts, John S. Roberts 
and James R. Stewart. 

Town 9 south, Range 4 east: 1817, David Shultz: 1833, Hugh 
Parks and Elijah Mooneyham; 1836, David Scoby, Aaron 
Arnold, John Wright, Charles Erwin, Daniel Moseley and Wash- 
ington Beasley; 1839, William Ferrell and Philip T. Corder. 

Town 10 south, Range 4 east: 1818, Samuel Deason; 1820, 
James M. Daniel; 1836, John C. Parks, James Tanner, James 
Arnold and Elijah Mooneyham; 1837, John T. Davis, Samuel 
Wright and John E. Gibbs; 1838, John Wright and James New- 
ton; 1839, Thomas D. Davis. 

It will be observed that only a few scattering tracts of land in 
this county were entered prior to the year 1833, when a large 
number of entries was made, and that the largest number of 
entries made during any one year prior to 1840 was in the year 
1836. During the decade of the forties, but few entries were 
made. Only about one-fifth of all the land in the county was 
entered prior to the year 1850. And during the decade of the 
fifties, more than one-half of all the lands in the county was 
entered. After the gradation act was passed by Congress in 
1854, reducing the price of the public lands from $1.25 to 12-| 
cents per acre, they were entered very rapidly for a few years, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 443 

and until nearly all of the best quality was taken up. Those 
who made the entries, as mentioned in the foregoing lists, were 
all early settlers, nearly all of whom located in the townships 
where their lands were located. For further particulars con- 
cerning the early settlers, their disadvantages and iuconvenien- 
cies, and their manner of living, the reader is referred to this 
subject in the history of Franklin County, as given in this work. 

PIONEER CUSTOMS. 

The first contrivance for grinding the grain of the early set- 
tlers was the mortar, next the hand mills, and then the horse 
mills. The first one of the latter kind was erected in 1817 on 
the north side of Phelps' Prairie, by Ragsdale Rollins. The next 
one was built in the Burns settlement, in 1819, by William 
Burns, who also erected the first cotton-gin in the county daring 
the same year. The next cotton-gin was erected on the Dilliard 
farm, in 1825, b) Jonathan Herrin. "About that time the 
Burnses put up their mill, and Martin Duncan built one on the 
north edge of Phelps' Prairie. Burns had improved his mill so 
that by 1830 he could grind twenty-five bushels of corn a day, 
and his boys would take the meal on horseback to Equality, forty 
miles, and swap it for salt. In 1823, John Roberts put up a 
horse mill on his farm, and the same year John Lamb built a 
mill on Herrin's Prairie, which was afterward removed l)y Jas- 
per Grain to Phelps' Prairie. About the year 1825, George 
Davis put up a mill on the Erwin farm, and in a few years 
Stephen Stilly built one at his residence. Soon after this, 
McDonald built the first water mill on the Saline, in the Tanner 
settlement. The next was built by George Davis. Seven years 
later John Davis built the third, now known as the Sims mill. 
Still later, Stephen Blair put up a water mill on Big Muddy. In 
1838, William Ryburn built a good horse mill on the Eight Mile, 
and Yost built one in Marion. The first steam mill was built by 



444 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

Milton Mulkey, in Marion, in 1845. The next by Erwin and 
Furlong, in 1856, at Crab Orchard. In 1862, Herrins, Polk and 
Harrison built the Herrin's Prairie mill. In 1870, Mann and 
Edward built a large woolen manufactory. Now the county is 
well supplied with both saw and flouring-mills.*' * 

THE PUBLIC LANDS. 

The title to all the lands in the county was originally vested 
in the United States. But the school lands, swamp lands and 
railroad lands were donated and conveyed by the general Gov- 
ernment to the State for special purposes. The school lands to 
be sold, and the revenue arising from the sale thereof to consti- 
tute a permanent fund or principal to be loaned, and the annual 
interest collected thereon to be appropriated for the use of the 
common schools. The swamp lands were also to be sold and the 
revenue arising therefrom was to be used to drain and reclaim 
the same, and for other certain purposes. The revenue arising 
from the sale of the railroad lauds was to be appropriated to the 
building of a railroad. There being twelve congressional town- 
ships in Williamson County, and the sixteenth section of each 
one being school lands, there were 7,680 acres of such land sold 
in the county for the benefit of education, concerning which more 
will be said under the head of " schools." Thefollowing is a list 
showing the number of acres of swamp land in each congressional 
township of Williamson County, to wit: Township 8 south. Range 
1 east, 760 acres; Range 2 east, 2,480 acres; Eange 3 east, 560 
acres; Eange 4 east, 240 acres. Township 9 south, Eange 1 
east, 560 acres; Eange 2 east, 2.040 acres; Eange 3 east, 1,200 
acres; Eange 4, east, 320 acres. Township 10 south, Eange 1 
east, 360 acres; Eange 2 east, 240 acres: Eange 3 east, 1,480 
acres; Eange 4 east, 3,200 acres. Making a total of 13,440 
acres, all of which has been sold and a small portion of the pro- 



HISTORY or ILLINOIS. 445 

ceeds used to drain the land, the balance used by the county 
to defray the expense of constructing public buildings and other 
general expenses. It is not now possible to ascertain the amount 
of revenue, which the county received from the sale of these 
lands, on account of the manner in which the swamp land records 
have been kept, or rather — not kept. 

The railroad lands were granted by the State to the Illinois 
Central Railroad Company to assist in building that great central 
road, and by this means said company acquired title to 35,788 
acres in the west half of Williamson County, distributed in the 
several congressional townships as follows, to wit: In Township 
8 south. Range 1 east, 8,338 acres; Range 2 east, 2,129 acres. 
In Township 9 south. Range 1 east, 7,501 acres; Range 2 east, 
3,431 acres. In Township 10 south, Range 1 east, 9,643 acres ;^ 
Range 2 east, 4,746 acres. These lands were exempt from taxa- 
tion so long as they remained in the hands of the railroad com- 
pany. They have all been sold and conveyed to individual pur- 
chasers, except 4,520 acres which the company owns at the present 
writing and which is exempt from taxation. 

AGRICULTURE, LIVE STOCK, ETC. 

Some of the early setllers made agriculture their chief pur- 
suit, and hunted only as necessity required it to furnish their 
families with food, while it is said that a great majority of them 
made hunting their chief occupation. Consequently the latter 
class neglected to develop agriculture and thus increase their 
resources. Farming was then limited to the cultivation of a few 
acres of wheat and corn, mostly the latter, and a patch of vege- 
tables. Money was very scarce, and the manner in which the 
people lived made but little necessary. Guns and ammunition 
were necessary articles and were usually purchased at high prices, 
with trade at low prices. The price of everything requiring 
skilled labor to produce it was very high, while articles not 

27 



446 



WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 



requiring such labor in their production were very low. Hence 
the early settlers had but little of value to sell and no home 
markets in which to sell it. They raised cotton which they 
manufactured into clothing, and this was a staple crop prior to 
1840, when the cultivation of tobacco was begun. Cotton was 
raised extensively during the civil war, but when that struggle 
closed, and the people of the South began again to produce cotton 
for the markets, the farmers of AVilliamson County found it 
unprofitable, and therefore abandoned its production except to a 
very limited extent, a little still being produced. Corn, wheat, 
oats and tobacco are the principal crops now raised — the latter 
is the money crop and is cultivated very extensively. The farmers 
have recently turned their attention to the growing of the grasses 
and clover and the raising of live stock, which they find more 
profitable. 

Very little attention was paid to agriculture prior to 1840, and 
it developed slowly for many years thereafter. Live stock has 
been raised to a considerable extent, and the following table will 
show the number and kind of animals in the county at the several 
dates specified: 





1856. 


1860. " 


1865. 


1870. 


1880. 


Horses 


2.431 

156 

6,083 

6,193 

24,815 


2,621 
294 

7,220 

7,245 

23,240 


3,544 
568 

6,424 
20,539 
18,950 


5,129 

1,667 

5,063 

20 ,971 

30,281 


4,445 


]y[ules 


2,586 




6,695 


Sheep 

Hoffs 


8,068 
31,714 







To the observer who reasons from cause to effect, and who 
wishes to know how and why things about him increase and 
decrease, a study of the foregoing table will be interesting. It 
will be seen that the number of horses gradually increased in a 
fair ratio up to 1870, and then decreased during the next ten 
years. The reason for the decrease is seen in the next line, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 



447 



where the figures show an increase of 919 mules during these 
ten years, during which the farmers raised less horses and more 
mules. The number of cattle from 1860 to 1870 decreased, and 
then increased during the next ten years. The most alarming 
decrease is that of the number of sheep from 1870 to 1880. Here 
is a good question for free traders and protectionists to discuss, 
why this decrease. The following table will show the cereal, 
vegetable and other productions in the county, as giyen by the 
census of 1870 and 1880: 



Wheat 

Rye 

Corn •. . 

Oats 

Potatoes 

Sweet potatoes 

Hay 

Wool 

Tobacco 



1870. 



170,787 bus. 


339,943 bus. 


6.328 " 


254 " 


6.55,710 " 


1,058,661 " 


180,980 " 


78,639 " 


38,910 " 


24,689 " 




7,757 " 


3,059 tons 


5,494 tons 


88,910 lbs. 


27,844 lbs. 




753,904 " 



There is probably a larger increase in the production of 
tobacco than in any other commodity produced by the farmers 
of Williamson County. During the year 1886 there were 
2,823,215 pounds of this article purchased at and shipped from 
Marion. Some of it came from Franklin and Johnson Counties, 
but a like amount was hauled out of the county to other markets, 
so that the amount shipped from this point was just about equal 
to the quantity produced in the county. The following is a state- 
ment of the amount of produce, etc., shipped from Marion during 
the year 1886: Wheat, 115 car loads; flour, meal and feed, 
1,695,528 pounds; poultry, including some eggs, 348,140 lbs.; 
eggs, not including the foregoing, 45,335 lbs., or about 
22,665 dozens. And the live stock shipped from the same place 
during the same year, was as follows : Horses, 43 ; mules, 397 ; 
cattle, including calves, 1,072; sheep, 4,288; hogs 2,202. In 



448 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

regard to the live stock the shipments do not correctly show the 
number of animals sold in the county during that time, as many 
were sold and taken out of the county on foot. In addition to 
the foregoing there were large amounts of clover seed, dried 
apples, feathers, wool and other commodities shipped. 

THE WILLIAMSON COUNTY AGRICULTUEAL SOCIETY. 

This society was incorporated in 1856, and its name has 
since been changed to that of the Williamson County Agri- 
cultural Board. The first officers of the society were Willis. 
Allen, president; John H. White, secretary; James D. Pulley,, 
treasurer; and directors, John Goodall, J. H. Swindell, O. H. 
Pulley, E. M. Hundley and George Willard. These officers 
and M. C. Campbell, Geo. W. Binkley and J. M. Cunningham, 
bought of T. A. Aikman, ten acres of land on the west side of 
the corporate limits of Marion, and fitted the same up for the 
holding of annual exhibitions of the society. These gentle- 
men expended $50 for the land, and expended their own labor 
and money in fitting it up, and then donated the whole to the 
society, and to them the credit is due for inaugurating the 
society which has since proved a great success. Annual fairs' 
were held on this ground until after the commencement of the 
late war, and at the close thereof, the society sold this tracl to 
R. M. Hundley, and purchased of George C. Campbell, a tract 
containing twenty-eight acres, lying on the east side of the cor- 
porate limits of Marion, and about one mile from the public 
square. Here a beautiful fair ground has been fitted up in a 
natural grove, and ample buildings have been erected, and a race 
track has been made, which is said to be the best one in southern 
Illinois, and the whole in enclosed with a tight, high board 
fence. The amphitheater will seat about 1,000 persons. At the 
first exhibition, which was held in 1856, every man paying to the 
society $1 became a member thereof, and that is still the 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 449 

<;onclition of membership. Splendid annual exhibitions have 
-always been given by the society. The average attendance, as 
shown by the gate receipts for the year 1886, was, after the first 
<iay, from 5,000 to 8,000 persons; the receipts were about 
$3,100, and the expenses, including premiums, about 12,600. 
The surplus receipts above expenditures were paid on an old 
'debt which left only an amount between $50 and $100 and 
the interest thereon, as the total indebtedness of the society. 
The present officers are Dr. Charles H. Denison, president; 
Wm. F. Westbrook, vice-president ; W. H. Eubanks, secretary ; 
O. M. Kern, treasurer; and directors, O. S. Tippy, Shannon Hol- 
land, John H. Sanders, Thomas N. Cripps and Dr. Theo Hudson. 

MINING OPERATIONS. 

The mining of coal has become one of the leading industries 
of the county. About 1869 Laban Carter opened a coal mine 
one-half mile east of the present site of Carterville, and after- 
ward gave a lease of ninety-nine years to the Carbondale Coal 
Coke Company to mine the coal, on 120 acres adjoining the 
aforesaid town. The company entered into the lease in April, 
1872, and began operations in November following. They sank 
a shaft about sixty feet deep and from this and a " slope " which 
they are now working, they mine and ship from 300 to 400 tons of 
coal per day. The usual price when they ship it is from $2 to 
$3.50 per ton, and when sold at the mine $1 per ton. The coal 
of this vein is No. 7 and is the best steam and house coal in the 
State. This company employs about eighty -five hands at the 
present writing. In December, 1886, The Crystal City Plate 
Glass Company of Missouri opened a coal mine and sunk a 
shaft one and one-fourth miles north of the railroad and at a 
point about three miles northwest of Carterville. This shaft 
is about the same depth as the one at the latter place, and 
strikes the same vein. This company has about seventy-five 



450 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

men employed, and mines and ships about 300 tons of coal per day. 
About two miles north of Marion several mines have been 
opened by Messrs. Eeed, Spiller and Tippet. At this point 
the coal lies near the surface, and a large amount is bein^ 
mined to supply the local trade. W. W. Woods has opened a 
mine near Creal Springs, from which the local trade of that 
vicinity is supplied. At Crab Orchard and other points in the 
county, several mines have been opened, but for the want of 
railroad facilities, they have not as yet been worked to any 
considerable extent. The quantity of coal, mined during the 
year ending in July 1885, was 76,208 tons. For the last fiscal 
year no report has been made, but the quantity of coal mined in 
the county is greatly on the increase. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY. 

The territory now embraced in the county of Williamson, 
belonged to the county of Franklin, and composed the south half 
thereof from its organization until the year 1839, when it was cut 
off from that county and created into a new county in accordance 
with an act of the General Assembly of the State, entitled "An 
Act to establish the county of Williamson" approved Februarys 
28, 1839. The provisions of this act, providing for the division 
of Franklin County, and the establishing of Williamson County, 
is set forth in the history of Franklin County, to which the reader 
is referred. By said act, Calvin Bridges, of Union County,, 
Thornbury C. Anderson, of Gallatin County, and Jefferson Allen, 
of Jackson County, were appointed commissioners to locate the 
seat of justice for the county of Williamson. These commis- 
sioners were to meet at the town of Bainbridge, and after being 
qualified, to proceed to locate the said seat of justice, at or as near 
the center of the county as an eligible site, containing twenty 
acres, could be obtained by donation from the owner thereof. In 
accordance with said act the county of Franklin was divided, and 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 451 

the county of Williamson established, as fully set forth in the 
history of the former. In August, 1837, the commissioners ap- 
pointed to locate the seat of justice, met at Bainbridge on the 
third Monday of said month, and proceeded to select a site there- 
for. By further compliance with the act an election was held on 
the first Monday of September, 1839, for the purpose of electing 
county officers, and the returns thereof made to Wm. Norris, 
Sterling Hill and John T. Davis then acting as justices of the 
peace, who met at Bainbridge, made an abstract of the returns, 
and certified the same to the Secretary of State. At this election 
Sterling Hill and Frederick F. Duncan were elected county 
commissioners; John Bainbridge, clerk; John D. Sanders, 
sherifP, and John Davis, treasurer. Cyrus Campbell, who was one 
of the county commissioners of Franklin County before the divis- 
ion, now became by virtue of the act a commissioner of Will- 
iamson County. 

COUNTY COURT. 

On the 7th of October, 1839, these commissioners met at the 
house of William Benson, and organized the first county court 
ever held in Williamson County. They first cast lots for their 
different terms of service. Campbell drew the short term, one 
year; Hill the intermediate term, two years, and Duncan the long 
term, three years. John Bainbridge, clerk elect, gave the requi- 
site bonds and was qualified as clerk, county recorder and probate 
justice; and John D. Sanders gave the necessary bonds and 
was qualified as sheriff. On the next day the commissioners 
appointed to locate the seat of justice, submitted the following 
report of their proceedings. 

STATE OF ILLINOIS, } 
County op Williamson. ^ 

We, the commissioners appointed by an act of the Le/?islature of said State 
to locate the county seat of Williamson County, approved February 28. 1839, 
have agreed on the southwest corner of Section No. 18, in Township No. 9 
south, and of Range No. 3 east of the third principal meridian, and that we do 



452 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

further agree to name the site Mariou Given under our hands this 20th day of 
August, 1839. 

Calvin Bridges. 

Thornbury C.Anderson. 

Jefferson Allen. 

Title to this site was obtained for the county by a deed of 
gift dated August 20, 1839, from William Benson and Bethany 
his wife, for the west half of the southwest quarter of the south- 
west quarter of Section 18, in Township 9 south, and Range 3 
east, containing twenty acres. The court then allowed each of the 
commissioners who selected the site for the seat of justice, the 
sum of |12, and John S. McCracken was allowed $10 for printing 
hand bills and advertising the sale of the town lots. Wm. T. 
Turner was then appointed and qualified as county school com- 
missioner. John T. Davis, an acting justice of the peace, 
returned a fine of $8 which he had assessed to and collected from 
Thomas Culberth for an assault and battery committed on the 
body of Michael Shanks. This is the first criminal case recorded 
in the county. He also paid in $3 as a fine collected from John 
Harris for a similar offense. 

During this term the court divided the county into five elec- 
tion precincts and designated the place in each for holding the 
elections. Northern Precinct comprised the northeast part of 
the county, and the elections were to be held at the house of John 
S. Roberts. Saline Precinct comprises all the territory in the 
county south of Northern, and the elections were to be held at 
the house of John T. Davis. Town Precinct extended across the 
county, and lay west of the former two, and the elections were to 
be held at the house of William Benson. Grassy Precinct com- 
prised the southwestern portion of the county, and the elections 
were to be held at the house of O. H. Wiley. Fredonia Precinct 
comprised the northwestern portion of the county, and the elec- 
tions were to be held at the house of William T. Ryburn. 
Judges of the election were also appointed. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 453 

ROAD DISTRICTS. 

The court then laid the county out into twelve road districts, 
.-corresponding with the twelve congressional townships, anj 
appointed the supervisor of each, as follows: Township 8 south, 
Hange 1 east, Isham Tyner ; Range 2 east, Alfred Chitty ; Eange 
S east, John Gambrel ; Range 4 east, Enoch Newman. Township 
'19 south, Range 1 east, Michael Snider; Range 2 east, Samuel 
Aikman; Range 3 east, Wm. Hervey; Range 4 east, M. Camp- 
bell. Township 10 south, Range 1 east, Joel Hufstetler; Range 
2 east, Joab M. Perry; Range 3 east, John Gothard; Range 4 
«ast, John T. Damron. Viewers were also appointed to mark 
"and lay out certain roads. John Davis was then licensed to 
retail spirituous liquors at his house in the town of Marion for 
■one year, and his license cost him twenty-five dollars. The court 
then established the price at which liquors should be sold per the 
"lialf pint as follows: whisky, 12^ cents; brandy, rum, wine and 
•gin, each 18| cents; cider, per quart, 12| cents. It appears 
from the foregoing, that the first business enterprise of the town 
was the retailing of liquors. The county commissioners closed 
their first term by allowing themselves and their clerks $12.50 
'each for their five days' services, and $4 to John D. Sanders 
for four days' services as sheriff. 

THE COUNTY SEAT. 

The town of Marion was surveyed and platted in October, 
1839, by Henry W. Perry. The original plat contains the public 
•square, and one row of blocks surrounding it. These blocks 
ccontain from one to four lots each, making in all forty-seven lots. 
A special term of the county commissioner's court was held 
October 16, 1839, when Henry W. Perry was allowed the sum 
'of $12 for his services in surveying and platting the town; 
• and his assistants, James Henderson, Dempsey Odum, Archibald 
.T. Benson and E. N. Spiller, were each allowed $2 for their 



454- 



WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 



services. The sheriff was then ordered to sell the town lots on a 
credit of six, twelve and eighteen months, the purchaser giving 
bond with approved security. The sale of lots began on the 17th 
of November, 1839, and continued three days, during which time 
thirty-eight lots were sold to the persons and for the prices 
shown in the following tabular statement: 



Names of Purchasers. 



Samuel H. D. Ryburn 

Sterling Hill 

JohnT. Davis 

Wm. Benson 

Daniel R. Pulley 

Joab Goodall 

John T. and Thos. D. Davis. 

F. F. Duncan 

.John G. Sparks 

Denipsey Odum 

John Davis 

A. T. Benson . ... 

E. C. Spiller 

Wm. Benson 

Wm. I. Benson 

J. B. Freeman 

John D. Sanders 

John Davis 

Geo. W. Binkley 

John D. Sanders 

Henry Sanders. 



I W. K. Spiller. 
James Hill 



Elijah Mooueyham. 
Henry Robertson. . . 
John Simpson 



John 



"g. 



Sanders. 



Wm. Burns. . .. 

Junior Meredith. 

G. W. Binkley." 
Willis Allen 



Total $2409 50' 



Amount 


sold for. 


1 50 00' 


60 GO 


111 GO 


113 GG 


93 OG 


67 OG 


100 oa 


116 00 


78 00 


80 GO 


131 GO 


150 00 


114 GO 


102 GO 


161 25 


96 GO 


68 00 


70 50 


50 GO 


50 GO 


30 00 


31 50 


32 GO 


59 25- 


31 GO 


41 GO 


76 GO 


66 GO 


30 00 


15 00 


22 00 


36 00 


15 00 


37 00 


14 00 


30 GO 


23 GO- 



The sale of the lots was one of the first sources of revenue to 
the county, and the aggregate constituted a liberal sum with 
which to defray the cost of construction of the public buildings. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 455 

PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

The first buildings erected were a clerk's office and the jail. 
The former was built on the public square, early in 1840, by 
Gabrial Sanders, who took the contract to build it for ^108, and the 
first term of court was held in it beginning May 4, 1840. The jail, 
which was a log building, was erected in the same year by Squire 
Howell, for the sum of S370. It stood on Ijot No. 2, in Block No. 
5, of the original plat of the town. It stood until 1865 when the 
second jail was erected by R. M. Hundley, the contractor, for 
$9,000. This building was erected on Lot No. 2, in Block No. 5, 
in the original plat of the town, and its dimensions were 20x44 
feet square and two stories in height. The walls of the first story 
were made of brick, and were eighteen inches in thickness. The 
walls of the second story consisted of nine inches of brick on the 
outside, and of timbers squared 8x10 inches on the inside, the 
floor and ceiling being made of these timbers also. This build- 
ing stood until November, 1882, when it was consumed by fire. 
Since then the county has been without a jail. The prisoners 
are kept in the Perry County jail at Pinkneyville. John G. 
Sparks was the first jailor of Williamson County and received 37^ 
cents per day for keeping tlie prisoners. The first courthouse 
was built by John Paschal, and completed to the acceptance of 
the county commissioners in 1842. It was a two-story brick 
building, 40x40 feet, and stood on the public square, and cost the 
county about $3,500. This building was used until 1859, when 
it was removed. In 1858 a new courthouse was erected by R. 
Hundley, the contractor, on Lot No. 2, in Block No. 5, of the 
original plat of the town. This building was also a two-story 
brick structure, being about 50x70 feet square, with a hall and 
stairs, county offices and jury rooms, on the first floor, and the 
courtroom on the second. The contractor received $7,700 in 
county orders, bearing interest at eight per cent from date until 
paid, and $1,800 in cash from the swamp land fund, making 



456 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

$9,500 in all which he received for erecting the building. He 
was then paid $245 for painting it, and N. B. Calvert was paid 
$305 for furnishing the courtroom. On the 30th of May, 
1875, the whole structure was consumed by fire, together with 
all the buildings on the same square, the whole loss being about 
$25,000. In 1840, the organization of the county being com- 
pleted, Warrington K. Spiller was employed and paid the sum of 
$46 for copying the land records pertaining to the county 
from the old Franklin County records, and when the courthouse 
was burned in 1875, as above mentioned, the public records of 
the county were nearly all saved, and have been preserved in 
good order to the present time. 

Mr. Erwinsays in his history: "The courthouse was a plain 
brick building, without any parapets, turrets or ramparts. Many 
have been the scenes of revelry and romance within its courts. 
Its walls have resounded with the commotion of war-like prepara- 
tions, and the still poisonous breath of treason has been whispered 
in its precincts. Again, it has been the scene of festive occasions, 
where our native belles vied with each other in a perfect blaze 
of beauty." 

The lot on which the house stood was sold in June, 1875, for 
$1,775. Since the courthouse was destroyed the county has 
rented and occupied the rooms of the second story of the Goodall 
& Campbell Block, on Lot 3, in Block 13, of the old town plat, 
for the courtroom and public offices. For the first ten years, the 
annual rent paid by the county for the use of these rooms was 
$1,000, and since then the rent has been reduced to $800 per 
annum. At the November elections in 1875, a proposition to levy 
and collect an annual tax for five years, to raise a sum sufficient to 
build a new courthouse, was submitted to the people, by whom it 
was defeated. A proposition to lay and collect a special tax of 
35 cents on each $100 of taxable property within the county, for 
a period of three years to raise a sum sufficient to build a new 



HISTORY OF "ILLINOIS. 457 

courthouse, was submitted to the people at an election held 
November 2, 1886, and carried. Accordingly preparations are 
now being made for the construction of a brick courthouse on the 
center of the public square, at the estimated cost of $18,000: but 
no contracts have as yet been entered into. In 186-1, the county 
purchased from Hugh Lamaster and wife the east half and the 
southwest quarter of the northeast quarter of Section 12, in 
Township 9 south. Range 2 east, containing 120 acres, for the 
sum of 1900, and procured a deed for the same dated Sej^tember 
7, of that year. This farm was fitted up as a home for the poor 
of the county. In 1870 a one-story brick building, 18x80 feet, 
was erected thereon for the county, and the northeast quarter of 
said quarter section was sold by the county to W. J. Spiller for 
the sum of $362.50, and conveyed by deed dated September 23, 
of that year, the consideration being applied in payment of the 
cost of said building. A frame house of the same dimensions 
had previously been erected, and the cost of both buildings was 
about $2,500. These buildings are ample and comfortable, as an 
asylum for the paupers, who average about thirty in number 
from year to year, and who ate supported by the county at an 
average annual expense of $1,300 to $1,500. Prior to the pur- 
chase of this farm, the dependent poor were supported by appro- 
priations made by the county court, and in this manner a few are 
yet partially supported outside of the county poor asylum. 

COUNTY OFFICERS. 

The following is a list of county ofl&cers from the organiza- 
tion of the county down to the year 1887, with date of terms of 
service : 

County court clerks — John Bainbridge, 1839-40; Elijah Mcin- 
tosh, 1841; Thomas Davis, 1841-43; A. P. Corder, 1843-48; John 
White, 1848-52; John H. White, 1852-61; JohnM. Cunningham, 
1861-65; W. N. Mitchell, 1865-69; J. W. Samuels, 1869-78 ;W. 



458 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

H. Eiibanks, 1873-82; James C. Jackson, 1882-86; J. C. Mitchell, 
present incumbent, elected in 1886. 

Circuit court clerks — John Lowden, 1849-56 ; G. W. Goddard, 
1856-61; John M. Cunningham, 1861-68; J. W. Hartwell, 
1868-72; M. S. Strike, 1872-80; W. T. Davis, 1880-84; Hartwell 
Hendrickson, the present incumbent, elected in 1884. 

Sheriffs — John D. Sanders, 1839-42; John M. Cunningham, 
1842-44; Joel Huffstutler, 1846-48; John Goodall, 1850-52; 
James Marks, 1852-54; Joel Huffstutler, 1854-56; Jacob W. San- 
ders, 1856-58; Eichard T. McHaney, 1858-60; E. E. Hendrick- 
son, 1860-62; Lewis Spencer, 1862-64; E. M. Allen, 1864-66; 
George W. Sisney, 1866-68; Hardin Goodall, 1868-70; A. N. 
Owen, 1870-72; Z. Hudgens, 1872-74; N. E. Norris, 1874-76; 
Wilson J. Caplinger, 1876-78 ; James H. Duncan, 1878-80; John 
H. Burnett, present incumbent, elected in 1886. 

Circuit court judges — The first circuit court judge of Will- 
iamson County was Hon. AValter B, Scates, and his suc- 
cessors in that office have been as follows: Wm. A. Denning, 
1847-54; Wm. K. Parrish, 1854-59; Willis Allen, W. J. Allen, 

A. D. Duff, 1861-75; Monroe C. CraAvford, 1875-78, since which 
time Oliver A. Harker, Daniel M. Browning and E. W. McCart- 
ney have presided alternately. 

State attorneys — The State attorneys have been W. H. Stick- 
ney, Willis Allen, W. A. Denning, S. S. Marshall, F. M. Eaw- 
lins, W. K. Parrish, John A. Logan, M. C. Crawford, Edward 
V. Pierce, J. M. Cleminson, C. N. Damron, F. M. Youngblood, J. 

B. Calvert, J. D. F. Jennings, and after 1876, J. W. Hartwell, 
1876-80; W. W. Clemens, 1880-84; George W. Young, the pres- 
ent incumbent since 1884. Other county officers at the present 
writing are James H. Stewart, treasurer ; John H. Duncan, school 
superintendent; James Sellars, surveyor, and M. L. Baker, mas- 
ter in chancery. (For legislative and other officers see history of 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 459 

Franklin County, and for a list of county commissioners, county 
judges, and associates, see courts.) 

TAXATION AND FINANCES. 

Tlie taxable property of Williamson County in 1839, as taken 
from the records of Franklin County, was as follows: value of 
lands, 327,136; personal property, $139,410; total, $100,546. 
On this property 20 cents was levied on each $100 for State 
purposes, and 25 cents for county purposes, making in all 
$749.25. In 1840 the tax collector reported all collected 
except $18.01, which was delinquent; thus leaving $721.23 
as the amount collected, $325 of it belonging to the State and 
$400.23 to the county. By comparing the above figures it will 
be observed that, at that time, the personal property was valued 
at more than five times as much as all the lands in the county 
then subject to taxation. This can be accounted for by the fact 
that only a small portion of the public lands had then been entered 
and conveyed to individual purchasers. The manner in which 
the public records have been kept makes it impossible to give 
the annual increase of the taxable property of the county, but 
statements, at different periods, have been found sufficient to 
show how property and taxes have since increased. 

In 1856 the personal property of the county was valued, for 
the purpose of taxation, at $363,710, and the lands and lots at 
$629,004, making a total of $992,714. A large portion of the 
public lands had now been entered and made subject to taxation, 
and their assessed value was nearly double that of the personal 
property. The State tax charged thereon, including the State 
school tax, amounted to $7,059.53 and the county tax to $3,687.81, 
and the total for all purposes to $10,747.36. In 1860 (just 
before the civil war) the personal property of the county was 
assessed at $516,271 and the lands and lots at $794,977, making 
a total of $1,311,248; and the total taxes charged thereon were 



460 



WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 



$14,439.1-4. In 1865 (just at the close of the war) the personal 
property of the county was assessed at $537,923 and the lands: 
and lots at $926,132, making the total $1,464,055. And the State 
taxes charged thereon were $10,541.25; county, $14,640.55; the 
total for all purposes being $44,480.37. 

In 1880 the taxable property was assessed as follows: per- 
sonal property, $483,290; lands, $806,128; town lots, $87,928 r 
railroad track, $35,543; rolling stock, $12,747; total, $1,425,636. 
The taxes charged thereon were State, $2,993.44; State school, 
$1,995.63; military, $142.54; total for all purposes, $51,193.60. 
The following table shows the assessed value of all property ia 
the county and the total taxes charged thereon in each congres- 
sional township for the year 1886 together with the railroads and 
taxes thereon, and the grand totals. 



To-wn 
ship 
south. 



10 



10 



Bange 



10 
*M. S. 



Personal 
Property. 



$21,730 
54.032 
25,288 
31,476 
33,650 
34,539 
40.197 
28,533 
29,996 
34,943 
33,391 
25,542 
69,985 



$ 68,612 
100.892 
73,625 
84,060 
86,236 
70,410 
78,178 
90,636 
76,037 
81,328 
81,347 
78,508 
61,384 



23,127 



1,861 
■ 12,700 



Totals. $463,292 $1,031,253 
Carbondale & Shawneetown Railroad 
Cairo & Vincennes Railroad 



845 

9,229 

90,992 



$139,152 



Grand Totals. 



Total Taxable 
Property. 



$ 90,740 
178,041 
98,913 
115,536 
119,886 
104,949 
120,236 
119,169 
118,733 
116,271 
115,583 
113,279 
222,361 



$1,633,697 

54,248 

8,308 



$1,696,253 



$3,148 94 
5,861 86 

3.599 72 
3,405 05 
3,723 la 
3,982 35 
4,104 69- 
3,908 54 
5,067 88- 
4,877 55. 
4,329 IS 

3.600 66 
10,371 69 



$59,481 21 

1,642 72 

316 88 



$61,440 81 



RAILROADS, BONDS, ETC. 

An act of the General Assembly of the State, approved March 
7, ^ 1867, incorporated the Murphysboro & Shawneetown Eail- 
road Company, and a proposition to subscribe $100,000 to the 



♦Marion School District. 




Cavalry Ch, 



(-'oi-ps 



Lee's Oorps 



Confederate 
Caualry 



HISTOBY OF ILLINOIS. 463 

capital stock thereof was submitted to the people of the county 
at an election held November 3, 1868, which resulted in 1,779 
votes for and 108 against the subscription. On the 12th of 
December of that year the county court ordered that the sub- 
scription should be raised by issuing county bonds to run for 
twenty years at eight per cent interest per annum, the interest 
to be paid annually at the office of the county treasurer. The 
bonds were not to be issued until the road was completed and 
the cars running thereon from Carbondale to Marion; and if the 
road was not completed by the 1st of January, 1870, the sub- 
scription was to be void. At the same time the court entered 
into an agreement with Samuel Dunaway, president of said com- 
pany, to sell to the latter the entire amount of stock for the sum 
of $5,000, on the conditions expressed in the following order, 
to wit: 

Whereas, the County of Williamson has this dsLj subscribed $100,000 to 
the capital stock of the Murphysboro & Shawneetown Railroad Company, 

Now, therefore, for the purpose of securing the construction and early com- 
pletion of said road, that said county make and enter into agreement with the 
Murphysboro & Shawneetown Railroad Company, and that the said county, in 
and by said agreement, sell to said company the $100,000 stock. That the terms 
of said sale and agreement shall be in effect as follows: 

" That when the certificates of stock shall have been issued by said company 
to said county, the said county, after the said road shall have been completed, 
and within ten days after said railroad company shall have issued to said county, 
the certificates of stock for said $100,000, assign, transfer and set over to said 
company the certificates for said $100,000 stock so issued to said county, for the 
consideration of $5,000 to be paid to said county, at the time of said transfer and 
assignment, in the bonds of said county, issued to said company, in payment of 
the subscription." 

This contract seems to have been made without any authority 
by law, and without the knowledge and consent of the people by 
whom the bonds would have to be paid. It appears that an undue 
influence was brought to bear upon the court, and the officers 
composing it were led to believe that such a contract Avas neces- 
sary " for the purpose of securing the construction and early com- 
pletion of said road." An act of the Legislature approved March 



464 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

10, 1869, changed the name of the said railroad company, to that 
of the Carbondale & Shawneetown Kailroad Company. And on 
the 24th of December 1870, the county court made an order 
extending the time for the completion of said railroad, to January 
1, 1872. And at a special term of the court held November 7, 
1871, it was induced to sign the bonds, which it did, and placed 
them jnto the hands of "VV. N. Mitchell as trustee, who gave bond 
in the sum $100,000 for their delivery when called for. At 
the adjourned term of said court in December, 1871, the railroad 
being completed, the bonds were delivered to the company, and 
the certificates of stock for $100,000 received therefrom. And 
soon thereafter the certificates of stock were all surrendered to 
the company, except $10,000 which were retained to secure the 
building of the road to Crab Orchard. But the road has never 
been extended beyond Marion. The county applied the $5,000 
consideration for the certificates of stock in payment of interest 
on the bonds, and left the entire amount of bonds outstanding 
for the $100,000, which will not be due until the year 1891. 
Meanwhile the county is paying $8,000 annually as interest 
thereon. The length of the main track of the Carbondale & 
Shawneetown Railroad in Williamson County, is about thirteen 
miles, and that of the side tracks about two miles. It has 
stations at Marion, Bainbridge, Crainville, Carterville and Fre- 
donia. It is of great benefit to the county, but the people who 
contributed so liberally toward building it, have no controlling 
interest in it. They have one consolation however, that of 
taxing it annually, and thereby making it contribute some- 
thing toward paying the interest on the bonds. 

The Cairo & Vincennes Railroad crosses the southeast cor- 
ner of Williamson County, and has 9,652 feet of main track 
and 266 feet of side track therein. It has a station at New 
Stone Fort on the line between this and Saline Counties. 

The indebtedness of the county consists of the $100,000 of bonds 



HI8T0RY OF ILLINOIS. 



465 



above described; $6,000 of bridge and funded bonds, and about 
$59,000 in other claims, making a total of about $156,000 — the 
bonds only drawing interest. On the 18th of June, 1870, a vote 
was taken for or against subscribing $100,000 to the Belleville 
& Southern Illinois Railroad Company, resulting in favor of 
subscription. But the road was never constructed, no bonds 
were ever issued to raise the subscription, and thus the people 
did not have that additional burthen saddled upon them. 



POPULATION. 

The following table shows the population of Williamson 
County at the end of each decade of ten years, beginning with 
1840, the first year after the county was organized: 



YEAR 


POPULATION. 




WHITE. 


COLORED. 


TOTAL. 


1840 


7,149 
12,087 
17,223 
19,071 


67 
118 
106 
253 


4.457 

7,216 

12,205 

17.329 


1850 

I860 


1870 


1880 


19 324 







Prior to the civil war a large majority of the people had been 
Democratic. In 1844, it is said, there were four abolitionists in 
the county, and 300 Whigs, the balance of the voters being Demo- 
crats. In 1856, in the first presidential campaign in which the 
Republican party participated, Grifiin Garland made the first 
Republican speech in the county, and Col. Ben. L. Wiley, Repub- 
lican candidate for Congress, received forty-four votes in the 
county. The Republicans gradually increased in numbers, and 
during the war a great change in political sentiment took place, so 
that at the election, in 1865, after the soldiers returned liome, 
the Republican party carried the county for the first time; and 
since then it has been carried on different occasions by both 
parties. At the present writing the county ofiicers are all Repub- 
licans. 



466 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

COUNTY commissioners' COURT. 

The election of the ofl&cers, and the formation of the county 
commissioners' court of Williamson County, has been given in 
the previous chapter, and the law creating this court, the time 
of holding sessions, and its jurisdiction, has been fully set forth 
in previous pages of the history of Franklin County, and will not 
be repeated here. The following is a list of county commis- 
sioners composing this court from its formation in 1839 to 1849, 
when a change was made by law in its organization and duties^ 
viz.: Cyrus Campbell, 1839-41 ; Sterling Hill, 1839-41; Fred- 
erick F. Duncan, 1839-42; Joab Goodall, 1841-45; John N. Cal- 
vert, 1841-47 ; John T. Damron, 1842-45 ; Sterling Hill, 1845-49 ; 
Joel Norris, 1845-49; David Norman, 1847-49. In accord- 
ance with the constitution of 1848, the county commissioners' 
court ceased to exist in 1849, and the "county court," composed 
of a county judge and two associate justices, was required to 
meet on the first Mondays of December, March, June and Sep- 
tember of each year to transact the county business and to per- 
form all the duties of the former county commissioners' court. 
The county court, composed of the judge only, was to convene on 
the first Mondays of each month, except in the months of Decem- 
ber, March, June and September, and in those months on the third 
Mondays. This then made two courts under the name of " county 
court," the one composed of the judge only, and the other of the 
judge and two associates. These courts continued to perform^ 
their respective functions until another change was made, in 
1873, under the provisions of the constitution of 1872, when the 
court consisting of the judge and the two associates was abolished 
and the county commissioners' court as it now exists was organ- 
ized. The county court composed of the judge only continued 
and still continues to hold its monthly sessions. 

The following is a list of the names of the county judges wha 
have served since 1849: W. M. Eubanks, 1849-55; David 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 467 

Norman, 1855-65; J. W. Lewis, 1865-66; Jesse Bishop, 1866-69; 
James M. Spain, 1869-73 ; Jesse Bishop, 1873-77 ; George W. 
Young, 1877-82; James M. Washburn, 1882-86 ;W. W. Duncan, 
present incumbent, elected in 1886. The following is a list of 
the names of the associate justices who served as a part of the 
county court for the transaction of the coanty business from 
1849 to 1873: Jacob Norris and K. L. Pulley, 1849-57; 
Thomas Scurlock and Thomas D. Davis, 1857-61; John Brown, 
1861-62; Jonathan Norman, 1861-65; Thomas Scurlock, 
1862-65; Addison Reese, 1865-69 ;Wm. M. Hindman, 1865-69; 
John H. Manier and Bazzel Holland, 1869-73. The following is 
a list of the names of the county commissioners who served from 
1873 to the present writing.: M. S. Strike, 1873-76; C. M. 
Bidwell, 1873-78; K H. Wise, 1873-77; James P. Roberts, 
1876-79; John Scoby, 1877-83; Thos. J. Throgmorton, 1878-82; 
Hugh M. Eichart, 1879-83; Griffin J. Baker, 1882-85; R. Bor- 
ion, 1883-86; M. M. Chamness, 1883-85; J. F. Mayer, and H. 
H. Stanley, 1885, and B. F. Felts, 1886, present incumbents. 

CIRCUIT COURT. 

A list of the names of the judges and clerks of this court has 
been given in the preceding chapter. The early records thereof 
are missing; they were probably destroyed when the courthouse 
was burned. For further information concerning the courts, and 
the counties composing this judicial district, the reader is 
referred to the history of Franklin County. 

BENCH, BAR AND NOTED CHARACTERS. 

The first political leader in the territory composing William- 
son County was Thomas Roberts, who was a member of the consti- 
tutional convention of 1818, and in 1838 Willis Allen and Allen 
Bainbridge were elected to the Legislature on the question of a 
-division of Franklin County and the formation of Williamson. 



468 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

Willis Allen came to this State from the State of Tennessee, and 
finally settled in what is now Williamson County, and soon after 
its formation " he moved to Marion and bought three acres of 
land from Benson. It had a log cabin on it, in which he lived 
for some time. He was a man of considerable talent, great 
shrewdness and unbounded energy. He lived respected by all,, 
and idolized by his party. He went to Congress in 1852, again 
in 1854, served several terms in the Legislature, and died in 
1859, while holding court as circuit judge in Saline County. 
Allen was a sparely built man, erect, graceful, and of uncommon 
strength, agility and endurance. * * * jje waa 

frank, generous and confiding to a fault, and was more interested 
in doing a kindness to others, than serving himself. He was the 
father of Judge. W.J. Allen, and was the most powerful politi- 
cian in southern Illinois in his day." 

Concerning Judge W. J. Allen the Morning Monitor of 
Springfield, dated April 19, 1887, says: "Judge W. J. Allett 
received a telegram from Washington, D. C, yesterday afternoon 
announcing that President Cleveland had appointed him as. 
United States district judge for the Southern District of Illinois^ 
to fill the vacancy made by the death of Judge Samuel H. Treats 
* * * Judge Allen was born in Tennessee June 9^ 
1829, and with his father came to Williamson County in this 
State. * * * He received his education, principally, 

at a boarding-school superintended by B. G. Boot, near Tamaroa. 
At an early age he began reading law with his father, Willis Allen^ 
and afterward attended law school at the University of Louisville,, 
Ky. During the summer of 1850, he began the practice of law 
in Metropolis, and remained in that city until the spring of 1854 
when he removed to Marion, and in November of that year was 
elected to represent the district in the Legislature. In 1855- 
he was appointed United States district attorney for the South- 
ern District at the same time Judge Treat was appointed United 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 469 

States district judge, and held that position till 1859, when he 
resigned and was elected circuit judge the following year. He was 
a member of the constitutional convention in 1862, and was elected 
to Congress to succeed Gen. Logan. Being re-elected to Con- 
gress in 1862, he served till March 4, 1865. He was a member 
of the constitutional convention of 1870, serving as chairman of 
the committee on bill of rights and representing the present arti- 
cle of the constitution on that subject. Judge Allen has ever 
been regarded as an unswerving Democrat, and was a delegate to 
the national convention of 1860, at Charleston, S. C, as a strong 
supporter of Douglas. He was also a delegate to the national 
convention at New York in 1868, and at that of 1876 in St. 
Louis, being chairman of the Illinois delegation, and one of the 
strongest supporters of Tilden's nomination. He was an elector 
at large on the Tilden ticket in the same year, and was a dele- 
gate to the national convention at Chicago in 1884, at which 
time and place he warmly advocated the nomination of Cleveland, 
notwithstanding his cordial relation with and friendship for the 
late Vice-President Hendricks. When not holding public office 
Judge Allen has been actively engaged in the practice of law. 
He was several years the partner of Senator Logan, and was 
afterward the partner of Judge Mulkey, present member of the 
supreme bench of Illinois. At one time he was the law partner 
of Hon. S. P. Wheeler of Cairo. Judge Allen came to this city 
last June, and has since been associated with Messrs. C. C. and 
Stewart Brown." His partnership with Senator Logan was while 
he resided at Marion. 

" Anderson P. Corder was known in Franklin County as a 
school teacher. He came to Marion in 1840, and commenced the 
practice of law. He figured in politics until 1874, and was the 
most singular politician ever in the county. Sometimes he would 
rise in public estimation until he could have been elected to any 
office, then again sink beneath public contempt. He was in the 



470 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

State Senate one term, and held the position of master in chan- 
cery. He was not a profond thinker, but a witty, fluent speaker. 
From 1840 to 1850, he held almost despotic political influence. 
No man thought of running for office without his consent; but in 
later years he lived a hard, intemperate life, and not only lost his 
influence, but lost that respect which ought to attend a man of 
gray hairs. During the war he was an outspoken Southern 
sympathizer, but when invasion threatened this State, he drew 
his sword for defense." (Erwin's History.) He afterward moved 
to California where he was living at last accounts. 

John T. Lowden was a very prominent member of the Marion 
Bar, and in 1848 was a delegate to the constitutional convention 
from this county. In politics he was a Whig, and was a man of 
ability, both as a lawyer and politician. The family of which 
Eobert G. IngersoU was a member, came to this county about the 
year 1853, and the next year Robert and his brother Clarke were 
admitted to the bar at Marion. In 1856 they moved to Peoria — 
before Robert G. had developed his talents, and established his 
great renown. John M. Cunningham, the father-in-law of Sena- 
tor Logan, was a Democratic politician of considerable ability and 
was bitterly opposed to the Republican administration during the 
civil war. He was a prominent man during the organization of 
the county, and held several county offices thereafter. In 1869 
he was appointed provost-marshal, in Utah Territory, where he 
died in 1874 ; and his remains were brought back to Marion by his 
daugliter Mrs. Mary Logan. The present members of the Marion 
ar are W. W. Clemens, J. W. Hartwell, J. M. Washburn, Geo. 
W. Young, W. W. Duncan, L. D. Hartwell, Jerome B. Calvert, 
John W. Peebles, W. H. Warder, M. L. Baker, A. H. Billings 
and W. C. S. Rhea. The professional life of these honorable 
gentlemen is confined to the period of time ela])sed since the late 
war. Some of them are well established in the practice, while 
the younger ones are striving with fair prospects to gain ascen- 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 471 

dency. As a whole the bar averages well in ability, and com- 
pares favorably with that of other counties ; and when the mem- 
bers composing it have made their mark, and passed from the 
stage of action, the future historian will write their biographies. 

NOTED CRIMES AND CRIMINALS. 

The existence of the Williamson county courts and many of 
the officers connected therewith, as well as the courts and officers 
of the old county of which Williamson once formed a part, have 
already been recited, but the crimes, for the suppression and 
punishment of which these tribunals of justice have been created, 
are yet to be related. The task is an unpleasant one, but the 
historian, having "no friends to favor nor foes to punish," should 
endeavor to give the facts without prejudice and without unim- 
portant details and unnecessary comments. In general the greater 
crimes and incidents will only be mentioned. The reader, how- 
ever, will bear in mind that the taking of the life of one's fellow 
man is not always a crime, especially when the act of killing is 
an unavoidable accident or done in defense of one's own life or 
that of a near relative. 

In 1813 Thomas Griffee shot and killed an Indian, while both 
he and the Indian were trying to shoot a bear out of a treetop that 
stood where the old courthouse burned down in Marion. The fol- 
lowing year a man by the name of Elliott, partially colored, was 
working for Griffee, when a man by the name of John Hicks 
quarreled with, stabbed and killed him. Hicks then made 
his escape, and the next morning Griffee and John Phelps started 
in pursuit and captured him at the Odum Ford. They then took 
him to Kaskaskia, where the nearest justice of the peace resided, 
and he was there " whipped, cropped and branded," and then 
released. In 1818 the body of a man, supposed to have been 
murdered by the Indians, was found at the Stotlar place on Her- 
rin's Prairie. In 1821 Henry Parsons, in Kock Creek Precinct, shot 



472 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

aud killed an unknown hunter, and afterward gave as an excuse for 
the shooting that the Indians had murdered his father, in conse- 
quence of which he had resolved to kill every one of them he could 
find, and that he mistook this man for one of them. Parsons was 
a very bad man and made a business of lying around Davis' 
Prairie and killing Indians; and no one knew how many he 
killed to avenge his father's death. In 1823 he bought Parson 
Crouch's improvement on the Crab Orchard, and was to have 
possession as soon as convenient, but, becoming in a hurry, he 
notified Crouch to vacate the place by Saturday night. Crouch 
went to Equality that week, and upon his return, and when only 
a quarter of a mile from home, he was shot and killed by Parsons 
who then went to D. Odums and demanded a horse, which the 
latter, through fear, gave him, and he then left the country. The 
citizens collected and went in pursuit but failed to capture him>. 

In 1833 James Youngblood, while at a stone quarry on the 
Saline, was shot through the breast by Gideon Alexander wha 
was on the bluff above him. Alexander then ran to Youngblood, 
assisted him to his home, took care of him and paid his bills, and 
claimed that he saw nothing but a white spot through the foliage,. 
which he mistook for a deer's tail. Youngblood lived a few years 
and then died from the effects of the wound. 

"In 1841 Jeremiah Simmons got into a fight with J. G. Spark e 
in Marion. William Benson, constable, interfered and stopped 
it. Simmons then commenced on Benson. The latter started 
home, Simmons ran after him with his knife. Andrew Benson 
came up at the time, ran up to Simmons and asked him to stop. 
Simmons looked over his shoulder, saw who it was, and stabbed 
backward, striking him in the abdomen from which he died.'* 
Simmons made his escape, but was afterward arrested in Iowa- 
and brought back to Marion, where he was tried and acquitted. 
He was defended by Gen. Shields and Gen. McClernand. In 
1854 John Moseley and James Burnett quarreled over a dog-fight,. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 473 

and the former struck the latter on the head with a club and 
killed him. Moseley ran away but was captured in Missouri, 
brought back and tried and sentenced to six years in the peni- 
tentiary. After serving one year he was pardoned. In 1859 
George Ramsey and Jack Ward got into a quarrel about a horse 
race, which resulted in the shooting and killing of the latter by 
the former. Ramsey then ran away and has never been appre- 
hended. The same year John Furgerson, a youth, shot and 
killed Ellen Reed, with whom he claimed his father was too 
intimate. He then ran away, and after a few years returned 
home and died soon thereafter. Also the same year an unknown 
man was found hanging dead near the Crab Orchard, south of 
Marion. The facts of this matter never were made public. In 
1861 R. T. McHaney, living four miles east of Marion, shot and 
killed an unknown Irishman who had insulted his wife. He was 
tried and acquitted on the ground of defending his family. 

In 1862, Reuben Stocks, a soldier of the Seventy-eighth Illi- 
nois Infantry, while at his home on the Eight Mile, was called to 
his door one night, and there shot and killed by unknown parties 
who have never been discovered. The same year, when the One 
Hundred and Twenty-eighth Illinois Infantry was at Crab 
Orchard Bridge in Jackson County, Terry Crain and John Bur- 
bridge quarreled, and the former struck the latter on the head 
with a stone from the effects of which he died. In August, 1876, 
Crain was tried and sentenced to fifteen years in the peniten- 
tiary, but was released after serving two years. Also in the year 
1862, William Stacey stabbed and killed Henderson Tippy while 
they were bathing in the Crab Orchard near Marion. They were 
boys, and Stacey was tried and acquitted. In December of that 
year, an unknown party shot and killed James Baker in Bain- 
bridge Precinct. It was thought this was done because Baker 
was revealing the whereabouts of deserters from the army. In 
1863 James Emerson was killed by an unknown party, in the 



474 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

woods near Blairsville, -while bunting his horses. A gang of bad 
men known as the "Aikin gang," and supposed to have been 
composed of George Aikin and his son John, Allen and Charley 
Glide and others, infested the north part of the county in 1863, 
when and where several murders were committed, and many citi- 
zens robbed. "Dr. Bandy was taken out and whipped unmerci- 
fully, and George Cox was attacked in his house and fired on sev- 
eral times. This band soon got so large that it became unwieldy, 
and they got to stealing horses. Several of them were arrested, 
tried and bailed, and left the county. " James Cheneworth, was 
arrested and put under bail, and then left, forfeiting his bond, 
and moved to Nashville where he died. The same year, Daniel 
Robertson was killed in Lake Precinct, by some unknown parties 
in the disguise of soldiers, at the instance, it is believed, of this 
man Cheneworth. The same year James Stilly was killed with 
a hoe, in the hands of Ben Batts, in the field of the latter, where 
Stilly went and engaged him in a quarrel. Batts then ran away. 
Also in the same year, William Moulton was killed by un- 
known parties. Several persons were arrested and tried for 
this offense, but there being no evidence against them, they were 
acquitted. 

One morning in 1864, Samuel Moore was found dead, at the 
door of a saloon in Jeffersonville. A man by the name of 
Washum was tried for the offense and found "not guilty, " Dur- 
ing this year, Vincent Hinchcliff shot and killed James Prickett, 
a young lawyer of Grassy Precinct, at Blairsville. Prickett was 
appearing in a case against the administrator of William Hinch- 
cliff's estate, and he and Vincent got into a fight with the result 
above mentioned. Hinchcliff was tried and acquitted on the 
ground of self defense. On the 24th of March of that year, the 
Parkers and Jordans got into a difl&culty in Marion. Several 
shots were fired. Richard Parker was shot down by Richard Jor- 
dan, when William C. Parker, son of Richard, being at a distance, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 475 

ran to the assistance of his father, and shct and killed Jordan. 
Parker was put under bonds; and not being brought to trial, he 
remained in the county about two years, and then moved to Colo- 
rado. No forfeiture of his bond was ever taken. Returning to 
Franklin County in 1887, with his invalid wife, who died there, 
he was arrested and brought to trial at Marion, in April of that 
year, and acquitted on the ground of acting in defense of his 
father. He was ably prosecuted by Judge George W. Young and 
his associates, and defended by Judge William J, Allen, Hon. F. 
M. Youngblood and others. In 1865 Isham Canady was shot 
and killed in a drug store, on the west side of the public square 
in Marion, by J. H. Duncan, who was afterward tried and acquit- 
ted on the ground of self-defense. The same year Christopher 
Howard, a rebel sympathizer, was killed near Herrin's Prairie by 
some unknown party. In 1866 W. L. Burton and Samuel Mc- 
Mahan were both shot and killed, in a general political fight at 
Sulphur Springs. Dixon B. Ward was tried for the killing and 
acquitted, there being no evidence against him. 

In 1867 Horace Sims stabbed John Latta in the thigh while 
in a fight with him at Sims' Mills, on the Saline. Latta bled to 
death from the wound, and Sims was tried and acquitted on the 
ground of self-defense, he being on the under side when the cut- 
ting was done. During this year John Cheneworth was killed in 
the woods near his house in Herrin's Prairie, and was not found 
until several days thereafter. William Chitty and one of his 
sons were arrested for this murder, but released on account of 
there being no evidence against them. At the November election 
in 1868, in Grassy Precinct, AVm. Stanley was killed in a shoot- 
ing scrape between the Stanleys and Cashes. Isaiah Cash was 
accused of the crime, but the evidence was not sufficient to con- 
vict him. The same year a boy by the name of Rogers stabbed 
Charles McHaney, while in a fight with him, five miles east of 
Marion. He was acquitted on the ground of self-defense. Ou 



476 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

the 1st of December of that year William Barham, a young 
man said to be afflicted with lunacy, shot and killed Andrew J. 
Lowe in Marion. Barham was put in jail, from which he 
escaped in September, 1869. Five years later he was appre- 
hended in Tennessee, brought back to Marion, tried, found 
guilty of manslaughter, and sentenced to the penitentiary for 
one year. In 1860 Samuel Cover shot and killed Philip T. Cor- 
der in Marion, and was afterward tried and acquitted on the 
ground of self-defense. The same year George Mandrel, a 
lunatic in Northern Precinct, slew his father with an ax. In 
1870 Thomas P. White, a citizen of Herrin's Prairie, went one 
day to buy a yoke of oxen two miles from his home, and was 
seen returning by a neighbor, and has never been seen since. It 
is supposed that he was assassinated. 

In 1871 Martin G. Walker, living about seven miles northeast 
of Marion, was killed on his farm by a ruffian, who beat him on 
the head with a gun barrel. A neighbor by the name of John 
Owen was arrested for the crime, tried and sentenced to the peni- 
tentiary for twenty -five years, but was pardoned before his term 
expired. His son confessed on his death-bed that he committed 
the murder for which the father was being punished. The same 
year Frank Goodall killed Valentine Springhardt in a mill in 
Marion by striking him on the head with a large wrench. Goodall 
gave himself up, and was afterward tried and acquitted. In 
April, 1872, Isaac Vancil, an aged man living on the Big Muddy, 
was ordered to leave the country or suffer death ; but not obeying 
the order a band of ten men in the disguise of Kuklux went to 
his house on the night of the 2'2d, took him about a mile 
down the river, hung him, and left him hanging, where he 
was found the next morning. Several men were arrested for this 
crime and tried in Franklin County on change of venue from 
Williamson, but none were found guilty. The same year James 
Myers was shot while hauling wood near his house on the Eight 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 477 

Mile. His step-son, Samuel Tyner, was arrested for this offense 
and admitted to bail, and ran away before the death of Myers, 
which occurred soon thereafter. Tyner has never been appre- 
hended. In August, 1872, Eiehard Allison shot and killed Sam- 
uel Absher in Eock Creek Precinct. Allison ran away and has 
not been found. 

The following year Francis M. Wise and William Newton, of 
Saline, quarreled about a mule trade which they had made, when 
the former shot and killed the latter, and then made his escape 
and has never been arrested. " In 1874, Ho^-ace Carter shot and 
killed William Willeford, in Union Precinct, while attempting to 
arrest Eiehard Hilliard. Carter was a constable, with a writ, 
and was shooting at Hilliard, and accidently killed Williford." 
He was tried and sentenced to one year in the penitentiary. The 
judge, jury and citizens immediately sent a petition to the 
Governor, which secured his release aifter one hour's confinement 
in prison. The same year Dock Burnett and James Gibbs, two 
joung men, engaged in a fight seven miles south of Marion, and 
the former stabbed and killed the latter. Burnett then ran away 
and has never been apprehended. In September of the same 
year Stewart Culp, a citizen of the county, was shot and killed in 
his wagon while on his way home from De Soto. His murderer 
has never been discovered. Also the same year Samnel Keeling 
shot and killed William Meese in Northern Precinct. He was 
afterward arrested and tried in Saline County on a change of 
venue from Williamson, and sentenced to prison for life. The 
next homicide in the county was that of Capt. James B. Murray 
i' arion. Murray jiade an attack on Leander Ferrell. Sev- 
eral snots were fired, one of which was received by Murray caus- 
ing his death. Ferrell was tried in 1876, and acquitted on the 
ground of self defense. In the summer of 1876, John Kelley 
and Samuel Lipsy engaged in a fight at Carterville, and the for- 
mer stabbed the latter causing his death. Kelley was tried and 



478 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

sentenced to six years in the penitentiary. This brings the cata- 
logue of homicides and crimes down to the existence of what was 
known as the bloody Vendetta. 

THE BLOODY VENDETTA, 

The leading families connected with this affair were those of 
Capt. George W. Sisney, composed of himself and his sons Win- 
field S., John and George W., Jr. ; Capt. George Bulliner, 
composed of himself and sons David, John, Monroe, George J., 
and Emanuel; the Henderson family, composed of three 
brothers, William, Joseph W., and James, and some of their 
sons; also the Grain family, composed of George F., Noah W.,. 
Warren, Marshall T., and two cousins both named William J. 
Thomas Eussell, Vincent HinchcliflP and others, hereafter men- 
tioned, were also noted characters. It seems that the leaders of 
the two opposing forces in this terrible afPair were the Sisney 
and Bulliner families. The other characters were the friends and 
assistants respectively of these families. The first quarrel, how- 
ever, did not take place directly between these families, but it 
occurred over a game of cards between the Bulliners and Felix 
G. Henderson, on the 4th of July, 1868, in a saloon one and 
a half miles east of Carbondale, resulting in a fight in which 
Henderson was severely hurt. In September following three ricks 
of hay belonging to Bulliner were burned, and a few days later 
his cotton-gin containing many thousand pounds of cotton was 
also burned. Suspicion naturally rested upon Henderson, but it 
is generally believed that the real incendiary was a former e^^^v 
of Bulliner, from Tennessee. In 1872 Samuel Brethers raii» J9i 
a crop of oats on the farm of Capt. Sisney, adjoining the Bulli- 
ner farm, and without moving the crop away he sold it, after it 
was threshed, to Sisney to pay the rent, and also sold it to David 
Bulliner to pay a debt, and then Avent to Texas. Bulliner 
replevied the oats from Sisney, but got beat in the trial. This 



HI8T0RY OF ILLINOIS. 479 

was probably the beginning of the ill feeling between the Sis- 
ney and Bulliners. 

The following April David Bulliner went to Sisney's black- 
smith shop to settle with him, but they quarrelled about their 
accounts and Bulliner accused Sisney of " hard swearing " at the 
aforesaid trial about the oats, whereupon Sisney knocked him 
down with a shovel. Bulliner then went home and got his father, 
John Monroe, and a man by the name of Ward, and with them 
returned to Sisney's. The latter on seeing them coming retreated 
from the rear of his house with a Henry rifle in his hand. The 
Bulliner party fired on him and four shots took effect in his leg 
and thigh. At this instance Milton Black, who was working in a 
field near by, ran to the assistance of Sisney, and then the fight 
ended. The Bulliners and Black then carried Sisney to the house. 
" They were all indicted in September following, and the four 
Bulliners and Sisney each fined $100." In 1872, Thomas Bus- 
sell and John Bulliner were rival suitors of a young lady who 
finally preferred the attentions of the latter, and thus created 
enmity between these two parties. The next scene brings in the 
Grain family, who were friends of the Bulliners. In Novem- 
ber, 1872, Marshal T. Grain and John Sisney had a fight 
which resulted in a "drawn battle.'' And in December fol- 
lowing a quarrel occurred at Carterville, which created enmity 
between the Hendersons and Grains. The Grains being ene- 
mies of the Sisneys, the Hendersons now became allies of 
the Bulliners. In the same month the Garterville riot took 
place, which brought new characters to the arena. In this 
affair several knock-downs took place, but no one was killed. 
About twenty of the rioters were arrested on an information 
of the State Attorney, and at the February term, 1873, of the 
county court, they were all in Marion, but the information 
was squashed, and they all became free. 

The quarrel between the actors continued, but without serious 



480 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

results, until December 12, 1873, when Capt. George BuUiner 
started to Carbondale on horseback, on which occasion some of his 
enemies had concealed themselves by the wayside, and as he was 
riding along fired upon him from their ambush, shot him 
from his horse, and then made their escape. BuUiner was soon 
found and carried to the nearest house, his sons were notified, 
and John reached the place just in time to hear his father say, 
*'turn me over and let me die.'' On being turned over he imme- 
diately expired. This was the first murder in the Vendetta. On 
the night of March 27, 1874, Monroe and David BuUiner were on 
their way from church, and when about half a mile from home, 
were fired upon by concealed parties. They returned the 
fire and several shots were fired by both parties, one of which 
wounded Mrs. Stancel, who was also on her way from church, and 
from the effects of which she recovered. The last shot fired by 
the assassins struck David BuUiner in the back, which caused 
his death the next morning. Before dying he declared that 
Thomas Eussell and David Pleasant were his murderers. They 
were both arrested and brought to Marion for trial. The case 
against Pleasant was 7iolled, and he immediately left the country. 
Russell was tried, and for his defense he proved an alibi by five 
witnesses, and thus secured a release. A letter was sent to the 
sheriff from the State's attorney of Jackson County, to hold Rus- 
sell for the murder of George BuUiner, biit the letter was not 
received until Russeli had been released and taken his depart- 
ure. Years afterward Russell was arrested, and tried in Jackson 
County for the murder of BuUiner, and was sentenced to fifty 
years in the penitentiary. 

Soon after Russell was released from Marion in March, 1874, 
a band of persons, led by Vincent Hinchcliff, arrested Gordon 
Clifford alias "Texas Jack," and after treating him badly, 
brought him to Marion, and subjected him to a mock trial, and 
put him in jail, where he lay until October following, when he 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 481 

was indicted " for harboring fugitives from justice." He then 
gave bonds and left the country. On May 15, 1874, James Hen- 
derson was at work in his field, which was surrounded by a dense 
forest. There he lay down to rest with little Frank Jeffi-eys, 
whom he had watching around the field to notify him if any men 
were approaching. Three assassins, who had evaded the watchful- 
ness of the boy, were concealed behind a pile of logs, only a few 
steps from where Henderson and the boy were lying, and from 
this place of concealment they fired upon and shot him, and then 
fled. He was carried to his house where he lingered eight days 
and then died from the eflPects of his wounds. He charged that 
his murderers were James Norris, John Bulliner and Emanuel 
or Monroe Bulliner. Soon after his death his widow became a 
lunatic and died on the following New Year's day. The day after 
Henderson was shot, Jason Ditmore, who was plowing in his 
field, about a mile west of the Henderson place, was shot and five 
wounds inflicted on his person, from the effects of which he 
recovered, and then left the county. There was no accounting 
for this shooting, as he was not connected with the Vendetta. 
John Bulliner and James Norris were arrested August 25, 
1874, for the murder of Henderson. In October following Bul- 
liner was tried, and proved in his defense by four witnesses from 
Tennessee that he was in that State at the time Henderson was 
killed, and thus secured his acquittal. Soon after Ditmore was 
shot, John Rod saw a man fall down in the weeds in a field about 
one and a half miles northwest of Henderson's, and thinking that 
the man needed assistance, he started to his relief, and when 
about ten feet from him, the man rose and shot Rod through the 
thigh and then fled. 

On Sunday, October 4, 1874, Vincent Hinchcliff, a physician, 
was returning from a visit to a patient, and when about 250 
yards from his house he and his horse were both shot dead by 
assassins who were concealed behind the fence and under the 



482 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

bushes. Felix G. and Samuel Henderson were arrested and 
tried for this murder, but proved an alibi and were acquitted.. 
Suspicion has ever since rested upon Gordon Clifford alias 
" Texas Jack " and his brother as committing this murder, in 
retaliation for the ill treatment Gordon received from Hinchcliff 
as before stated. On the night of December 12, 1874, Capt. 
Sisney and George Hindman, a young relative, were both wounded 
by shots fired by assassins through a window where they were 
sitting in Sisney's House, In October, 1875, Field Henderson 
was tried for the murder of Hinchcliff. He proved in his defense, 
by fifteen witnesses, that they saw him near a church twelve 
miles away at the hour Hinchcliff was killed, and the case 
against him was then dismissed. On the night of October 23^ 
1874, a party of disguised men visited the house of Henry D. 
Carter, in Northern Precinct, and ordered him to leave the 
county within forty days, and then fired a number of shots into 
his house. A few days later another and larger party met at the 
County Line Church, and ordered six of the Carters to leave the 
county. Nothing further resulted from this affair. 

J. D. F. Jennings, the State's attorney during these trouble- 
some times, seems to have been a bad man, of whom Erwin says. 
in his history " that he defrauded the county of $900, and then 
ran away owing everybody. As a prosecutor, he was a regular 
sarcasm on justice, a great hideous burlesque, free from religious 
scruples, and ready to sail from any point of the compass," In 
April, 1875, the office was declared vacant, and in June, J. W. 
Hartwell was elected to fill the vacancy. On July 28, 1875,. 
Marshall Crain went to Carbondale, to which place George W. 
Sisney had previously moved, and about 9:30 o'clock that night 
shot through the window and killed George W. Sisney in his. 
own house. On the last day of the same month, the Crain 
boys and Samuel Music went to the store of William Spence 
about 10 o'clock at night. Marshall Crain called Spence up,, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 483 

and when asked who was there, he replied: " John Sisney, I want 
to get shrouding for a child." Spence, who was sleeping over 
his store, came down and went to the door, where Marshall shot 
and killed him. The assassins then separated and went home. 

" At the August special term, 1875, the county commissioners 
offered a reward of $1,000 for each of the murderers of David 
Bulliner, James Henderson, Vincent Hinchcliff and "William 
Spence. On the 9th of August the Governor issued a proclama- 
tion offering $400 reward for the arrest and conviction of each of 
the criminals referred to, and also the murderers of George 
W. Sisney and George Bulliner. On the 22d of August the 
Jackson County Court offered $400 reward for the murderers of 
Sisney and Bulliner." Effective measures were now being 
devised by good citizens, among whom James H. Duncan and 
Benj. F. Lowe should be mentioned. The latter acted in the 
capacity of a detective, in which he was very successful. He 
went to Cairo where he " trapped " Samuel Music and brought 
him to Marion September 10, and lodged him in jail. Here 
Music made a confession of the killing of Sisney and Spence, and 
implicated Wm. J. Crain, "Black Bill" Crain, Noah W. Crain, 
Samuel R. Crain, Marshall Crain, John Bulliner and Allen Baker. 
Writs were then issued for the arrest of these parties, and a posse 
of twenty men and the sheriff went to Crainville, William J. 
Crain (Big Jep), Noah W. Crain, Samuel R. Crain, " Black Bill " 
Crain, and John Bulliner were all arrested and brought to Marion, 
and placed under guard. Lowe then went to Du Quoin, and 
arrested Allen Baker, and brought him also to Marion the next 
morning. In a few days the prisoners were all put in jail. Music 
accused Bulliner, Baker, and Samuel E. Crain, with the miu'der 
of Sisney in Jackson County, and on the 15th, Sheriff Kimball 
came over and took them to that county where they were tried; 
Samuel R. Crain was released for want of evidence, and the 
others committed to jail. 



484 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

A special term of the Williamson County Court was convened^ 
and the State's attorney was authorized to employ counsel to assist 
him. Hon. W. J. Allen and Judge A. D. Duff were employed- 
This produced a revolution in public sentiment. On September 
16 the prisoners, except Music, were examined and committed 
to jail. Mr. Lowe then went to Arkansas, where he found and 
arrested Marshall Grain, and brought him to Jackson County^ 
where he was lodged in jail. On the 19th of September the 
Governor sent the sherifip of Williamson County 100 rifles by 
express. Two companies of militia were then formed, one at 
Marion and the other at Carbondale. The ofl&cers of the Marion 
company were Capt. J. V. Grider and Lieuts. William Hendrick-^ 
son and W. J. Pully. The officers of the Carbondale company 
were Capt. J. W. Landrum and Lieuts. William Do well and Wil- 
shire Bundy. John Bulliner and Allen Baker were tried at the 
October, term of the Jackson Circuit Court, and sentenced to 
twenty-five years in the penitentiary. 

"At the October session of the Williamson Circuit Court,, 
Music, ' Big Jep,' ' Black Bill,' ' Yaller Bill ' and Marshall 
were all indicted for the murder of Spence. Music's case was 
continued; Noah W. Crain, alias 'Yaller Bill,' was admitted to 
bail on motion; William J. Crain, alias 'Big Jep,' and William 
J. Crain, alias ' Black Bill,' prayed for a change of venue, and 
their case was sent to Alexander County. The indictment against 
' Yaller Bill ' was nolled at the April term, 187(3, On Tuesday,, 
October 19, 1875, Marshall T. Crain was arraigned and plead 
not guilty. He had no attorney, and the court appointed W. W. 
Clemens to defend him." The prisoner then withdrew his plea 
of not guilty, over the objections of his attorney, and plead guilty 
to the crime of murder as charged, and threw himself upon th& 
mercy of the Court. The Court then fully explained to the pris- 
oner all his rights, and had the indictment read again, and then^ 
asked him again if he was guilty, and he again pleaded guilty ; 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 485 

whereupon the court ordered the plea of guilty to be entered of 
record, and the case was continued until Thursday, when it was 
called, and a number of witnesses examined, and the guilt of the 
prisoner proved beyond all doubt. Judge Monroe C. Crawford 
then made some extended remarks concerning his great responsi- 
bility, and the importance of vindicating the law, and after warn- 
ing the prisoner to make his peace with God, he said: " The sen- 
tence of the Court is that the defendant be hanged by the neck 
until he is dead, within the walls of the prison, in the town of 
Marion, county of Williamson and State of Illinois, on the 21st 
day of January, A. D. 1876, between the hours of 10 o'clock in 
the morning and 2 o'clock in the afternoon of the same day. 
May God have mercy upon you." 

Grain was then taken back to jail, where he was strongly guarded 
by details from the militia. The next day he was taken before 
the grand jury, where he voluntarily confessed the facts concern- 
ing himself as related by Music. On the 21st of November, he 
was baptized according to the rights of the Christian Church. 
When the day of his execution came, and the people had thronged 
about the jail, and he had only a few more minutes to live, he 
stood at a window and addressed the multitude as follows: " Gen- 
tlemen: I must make a statement in regard to this matter. I 
feel it my duty to God and man to make it. I am guilty of kill- 
ing the two men. My punishment is just. I hope all of you will 
forgive me. I pray God will judge and prosper this country. 
Good bye to all." A few passages of Scripture were then read by 
the chaplain, a song was sung, and a prayer was offered to God. 
The doomed man was then placed upon the scaffold and prepared 
for the last struggle, and when asked if he had anything more to 
say, he replied, " I am the murderer of William Spence and 
George Sisney. That is all I have got to say." The time being 
up, the rope holding the platform was severed, and Marshall 
Thomas Grain was launched into eternity. 



486 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

On the 25tli of December, 1875, James Norris was arrested 
at a ball five miles southeast of Marion, and lodged in the Marion 
jail, and on the 31st of the same mouth " Big Jep" and " Black 
Bill" were taken to Cairo for trial. The case was called January 
28, 1876. The defendants were sentenced to the penitentiary 
for twenty years. They were prosecuted by Allen and Duff, and 
defended by Clemens, Calvert and Linegar. At the April term, 
1876, of the Williamson Circuit Court, James Norris was tried 
for the murder of James Henderson, and sentenced to serve 
eighteen years in the penitentiary. Samuel Music was tried at 
the same term for being accessory to the murders of Spence and 
Sisney, and sentenced to serve fourteen years in State's prison. 
And also at the same time Samuel K. Crain was indicted and 
arrested as accessory to the murder of Spence, but being ill with 
consumption his case was continued, and he placed under bonds 
of $5,000. He died soon thereafter. This ends the narrative 
concerning the " Bloody Vendetta," but three more homicides 
have yet to be recorded. On the 11th of May, 1880, John Eus- 
sell, brother of Thomas, of Vendetta fame, and Henry Stocks, 
who were close neighbors, had a difficulty over a trifling matter, 
and met one day on the road about a mile and a half from Carter- 
ville, when Russell shot and killed Stocks. Russell ran away, 
but was afterward brought back to Marion, where he was tried 
and acquitted. Following this affair, Bennett Stotlar was shot 
and killed at Carterville by Thomas Hudgens, acting marshal 
thereof. The action of Hudgens in this matter seemed to be so 
justifiable that he was never indicted. At the April term, 1887, 
of the Williamson Circuit Court, an indictment was found 
against David Skidmore and his sister, Hannah Carter, for the 
shooting and killing of Willie Ford at Creal Springs. The 
indictment charges that the shooting took place on the 7th 
of January, 1887, and that Ford died the next day in conse- 
quence thereof. Skidmore is in jail awaiting trial, and the 
sister, having a very young child, has not been arrested. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 487 

Williamson County has a long record of crimes committed 
therein, but since the days of the "Vendetta" a general peace 
has been restored, and at present writing the surviving members 
of the families connected with tliat affair are all on friendly 
terms. The spirit of revenge has been subdued, and past offenses 
forgiven. The people have suffered much on account of the bad 
men who happened to be among them. Without doubt there 
was a time when justice was not fairly administered. The pleas 
of alibi, and self-defense, have no doubt cleared criminals who 
ought to have been severely punished. This seems evident from 
the fact that when the State began to prosecute with vigor, 
through the instrumentality of such attorneys as Hartwell, Allen 
and Duff, and the people determined to bring criminals to justice, 
the commission of crime suddenly ceased in a very great meas- 
ure. It is true three homicides have taken place since that time, 
but with a few exceptions Williamson County has always been a 
safe place for those who were not disposed to be quarrelsome. 
The good people of the county have been slandered and vilified 
by the papers far and near, on account of their misfortunes. But 
the dark cloud has passed away, and the light of a brighter day 
is shining, and a good feeling among the people everywhere pre- 
vails. Williamson is as safe a county in which to live as any 
other county in the United States. 

THE BLACK HAWK WAR. 

The first war in which any of the citizens of the territory now 
<)omposing Williamson County, participated, was the Black Hawk 
war of 1832. And for information pertaining thereto the reader 
is referred to the history of Franklin County. 

THE MEXICAN WAR. 

The next war in which citizens of this county participated was 
that between the United States and Mexico, when Company B, of 



488 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

the First Regiment, Illinois Volunteers was raised in Williamson 
and adjoining counties. This company contained with the offi- 
cers eighty-two men. The officers were: Captain, J. M. Cunning- 
ham ; first lieutenants, Benj. F. Furlong, who resigned March 6, 
1848, and was succeeded by First Sergt. Wm. M. Eubanks, who 
had served as first sergeant from enrollment; second lieutenants, 
Robert M. Hundley and Daniel B. Pulley; sergeants. Miles A. 
Dillard, Joseph W. Benson, Larkin M. Riley and Augustus M. 
Henry; corporals, John G. Boles, George Q. North, Silas M. 
Calvert and Wm. D. Durham. Seven members of this company 
were discharged during the service, and eleven died of disease. 
The company was mustered into the service at Alton, 111., on the 
28th of May, 1847, and was mustered out October 11, 1848, at the 
same place. The regiment was organized in June, 1847, at Alton, 
with E. W. B. Newby as a colonel thereof, and was mustered into 
the service for the term of "during the war with Mexico." The 
war being closed, it was mustered out in October, 1848. 

THE CIVIL WAR. 

Prior to and at the election of Abraham Lincoln, to the pres- 
idency of the United States, the people of Williamson County 
were intensely Democratic, there being only about 100 Repub- 
licans in the county in 1860, This was then the home of John 
A. Logan, who was a stanch Douglas Democrat, and very much 
opposed to the election of Lincoln. But after the inauguration 
many of the Democrats, as well as the Republicans, accepted and 
acted under the advice of Stephen A. Douglas, to sustain and sup- 
port the new administration. Still there remained such a bitter 
feeling against the Republican party and its newly installed offi- 
cers that, upon the approach of war, it grew into an open and 
outspoken sympathy for the Southern cause ; and when the reader 
takes into consideration the fact that the people of this county 
were nearly all emigrants, or the children of emigrants, from. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 489 

Southern States, where their near and dear relatives were still 
residing, he will deem it no great wonder that such were their 
sympathies. This sympathy for the South increased and inten- 
sified until the secession of southern Illinois was openly advocated, 
and finally attempted Soon after the fall of Fort Sumter a 
number of the " leading spirits " of the secession movement got 
together and called a public meeting, to pass ordinances of seces- 
sion. Meanwhile they appointed a committee to draft resol- 
utions and to report the same to the public meeting. The call 
was made for the people to assemble at the courthouse in Marion, 
on Monday, April 15, 1861 " to provide for the public safety." 
In accordance therewith a large number of persons assembled, 
and the meeting was called to order, and James D. Manier elected 
president, G. W. Goddard, James M. Washburn, Henry C. 
Hopper, John M. Cunningham and Wm. K. Scurlock were ap- 
pointed a committee to draft resolutions expressive of the feel- 
ings of the people. This committee reported the resolutions 
already prepared by the committee first mentioned, and they were 
passed with only one dissenting vote, that of A. T. Benson. 
The resolutions were as follows: 

Resolved, That we, the citizens of Williamson County, firmly believing^ 
from the distracted condition of our county, the same being brought about by 
the elevation to power of a strictly sectional party, the coercive policy of which 
toward the seceded States will drive all the border slave States from the Fed- 
eral Union, and cause them to join the Southern Confederacy, 

Renolved, That, in that event, the interests of the citizens of southern Illi- 
nois imperatively demanus at their hands a division of the State, we hereby 
pledge ourselves to use all means in our power to effect the same, and attach 
ourselves to the Southern Confederacy, 

Resolved, That, in our opinion, it is the duty of the present administration 
to withdraw all the troops of the Federal Government that may be stationed in 
Southern forts, and acknowledge the independence of the Southern Confederacy, 
believing that such a course would be calculated to restore peace and harmony to 
our distracted country. 

Resolved, That in view of the fact that it is probable that the present gov- 
ernor of the State of Illinois will call upon the citizens of the same to take up 
arms for the purpose of subjugating the people of the South, we hereby enter 
our protest against such a course, and, as loyal citizens, will refuse, frown 
down and forever oppose the same. 



490 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

The most glaring inconsistency in the action of the persons 
who composed this meeting was to pass ordinances of secession 
from their own government, and in the same to declare them- 
selves "loyal citizens." They must have meant loyalty to the 
Southern Confederacy. By the next morning the news of the 
action of this meeting had readied Gen. Prentiss, who was then 
in command of the Federal troops at Cairo. The citizens of 
Carbondale, becoming alarmed at the probable results, sent J. 
M. Campbell to Marion to request the people to revoke the reso- 
• lutions, and thus avert a war which otherwise would undoubtedly 
be brought to their own doors. Much excitement prevailed, and 
a meeting was called instanter to repeal the resolutions. This 
meeting was not composed of the same persons who were in the 
meeting of the 15th. Hon. W. J. Allen was called upon to 
deliver an address, which he did, and advised the repeal of the 
resolutions. Accordingly the resolutions were repealed, and A. 
T. Benson was appointed to present a copy of the proceedings of 
the meeting to Gen. Prentiss. Upon arriving at Cairo Mr. Ben- 
son found the General reading a copy of the resolutions of seces- 
sion. He then presented the General with the copy of pro- 
ceedings of the meeting which repealed the resolutions, whereupon 
the General replied: " I am glad to see them. The resolutions 
of secession would have caused your folks trouble, but now I 
hope all will be right." The parties, however, who attended 
the first meeting contended that the resolutions of secession 
were not repealed, and still retained their sympathy for the 
Southern cause, and called the citizens again to assemble on the 
27tli of the same month, which they did, when a meeting 
was called to order and a motion made to " seize the money in 
the hands of the sheriff to defray the expenses of arming and 
equipping soldiers for the Southern Army." But this meeting, 
unlike the first, had an element in it loyal to the Government, 
and the motion was lost and the meeting broke up in disorder. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 491 

When the war closed, and Geii, Logan returned home and 
again entered the field of politics, some of his enemies outside 
of Williamson County reported that he (Logan) was present 
and participated in the meeting of the 15th of April, 1861, when 
the secession resolutions were passed, and that he also enlisted 
men and encouraged others to enlist for the Southern Army. At 
the time these resolutions were passed Gen. Logan was not in 
the county, and both of these charges were so utterly false, 
and have been so thoroughly refuted by Logan's political ene- 
mies, as well as by his friends, that no extended mention of the 
matter need be made here, except to insert the following state- 
ment made by citizens of good reputation, of Marion, William- 
son County, at that time: 

Marion, Williamson County, III., October 17, 1866. 
We, the undersigned, are politically opposed to Mr. Logan. Part of us 
have been in the Southern Army, in Capt. Thorndike Brook's company, and 
have returned since the Rebellion. Being acquainted with all the facts in the 
case, we make the following statement: Having noticed in the newspapers, 
particularly in the Cairo Democrat, an article charging Gen. Logan with having 
participated in a meeting held in Marion in April, 1861, for the purpose of taking 
into consideration the expediency of attaching southern Illinois to the South- 
ern Confederacy, in the event of said confederacy being formed, and also charg- 
ing Gen. Logan with having endorsed the resolutions of that meeting, and, fur- 
ther, that Gen. Logan furnished means and encouragement to persons to leave 
Illinois and join the Southern Confederacy, etc., we hereby pronounce all of 
said charges untrue. Gen. Logan not being in Marion at the time, nor having 
any knowledge of persons leaving here (Marion) at the time for the Southern 
Army, all statements to the contrary notwithstanding. 

J. M. Cunningham. 

W. R. Tinker. 

R. J. Pullet. 

G. C. Campbell. 

Joshua Lowe. 

George W. Lowe. 

B. F. Lowe. 

J. D. Manier, who was president of the meeting of April 15, 
1861, D. R. Pulley, William Cook, and others well acquainted 
with the facts, made written statements similar in substance to 
the above, refuting the false charges. 

In the spring of 1861 a company of Federal soldiers was sta- 



492 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

tioned at the bridge where the Illinois Central Kailroad crosses 
the Big Muddy. This increased the anxiety and excitement of 
the Southern sympathizers, who finally concluded that the bridge 
should be destroyed to prevent the Government from sending 
troops and munitions of war to the South. Thorndike Brooks 
and Harvey Hayes, of Marion, assumed the leadership in this 
movement. Runners were sent out in May, 1861, to notify the 
people, a great number of whom assembled armed with shot guns 
and rifles, and proceeded to a point about five miles from the 
aforesaid bridge, where they went into camp for the night. Dur- 
ing this night Campbell's battery from Ottawa passed over the 
road, and dropped off at the bridge two field pieces and men 
enough to man them. The soldiers put the guns into position 
for use. The next morning the army of citizens assembled for 
the destruction of the bridge, sent out a party to reconnoitre 
and "take in the situation." This party approached near enough 
to the bridge to see the brass cannons glistening in the sun, 
then returned to camp and reported, and then the army of would- 
be-bridge-destroyers, melted away like a June frost, and by night 
nothing was to be seen of them; thus ended the attack on 
the bridge. On the 24th of May, 1801, Brooks and Hayes, 
disgusted with their former success, resolved to raise a com- 
pany of soldiers, take it South and join the Rebel Army. 
They sent men out to recruit, with orders to assemble the 
next day at the Delaware Crossing of the Saline, a few miles 
south of Marion. Accordingly by the next evening about 
thirty-five men assembled at the appointed place. They then 
started on foot for Dixie Land, receiving a few recruits by the 
way, and finally arrived at Maytield, Ky., where they joined 
a Tennessee regiment, and served during the war in Gen. 
Cheatham's command. Brooks was promoted to the office of 
lieutenant- colonel. 

The excitement continued with some uninteresting episodes, 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 493 

until John A. Logan, then representing tliis district in Congress, 
was called to meet that body in the special session commencing 
July 4, 1861. After returning from Congress, and on the 3d 
of September, Logan made his first speech in the county to 
encourage men to enlist and organize a regiment to assist the 
Government in suppressing the Eebellion. Here in the midst of 
Southern sympathy, and of intense excitement and danger of 
personal injury he boldly advocated the cause of the Union, and 
at once began the work of organizing a regiment. His first 
effort was crowned with success, as many enlisted immediately 
after he closed his speech. Political excitement continued to 
increase, and became so intense toward the latter part of the 
year, that P. H. Lang, the postmaster of Marion became so 
alarmed on account of threats of personal injury that he moved 
the postoffice to Bainbridge, where it was kept a few weeks, and 
then returned, on promise of protection, to Marion. 

The first men who enlisted into the Federal Army from this 
county were those who joined Company K, of the Eighteenth 
Regiment Illinois Infantry. This company was organized in 
Jackson County in May, 1861, with Daniel H. Brush as captain 
thereof. The commissioned officers were all from that county, 
but the company contained fourteen men from Williamson. Com- 
pany E, Twenty-ninth Illinois Infantry, was organized in August, 
1861, and recruited from Williamson and other counties. At its 
organization it contained seventeen men from Williamson County, 
and afterward received twelve recruits therefrom, making twenty- 
nine in all. For a sketch of the services of the foregoing regi- 
ments see history of Gallatin County. Company C, Thirty-first 
Illinois Infantry, was organized at Marion in August, 1861, and 
with the officers and men it contained 102 members. The com- 
missioned officers were: Caplain, Wm. A. Looney, who resigned 
June 3, 1862, and was succeeded by Capt. George W. Goddard, 
who Avas discharged October 19, 1864, he being succeeded by 



494 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

Capt S. C. Mooneyham, who was mustered out with the regi-- 
ment on July 19, 1865 ; first lieutenant, Daniel R. Pulley, who 
resigned August 13, 1863, and was succeeded by Fred. B. Merri- 
man, who was mustered out in April, 1865, being succeeded by 
Wm. S. Morris, who was mustered out with the regiment; 
second lieutenant, John H. White, who was promoted to the 
office of lieutenant-colonel, and was succeeded in the office of 
lieutenant by James M. Askew. The latter resigned December 
18, 1862, and was succeeded by S. C. Mooneyham, who was after- 
ward promoted captain, and succeeded as lieutenant by Allen H. 
Wilson, who was not mustered as lieutenant, but was mustered 
out with his regiment as a sergeant. The company received 
thirty-one recruits from Williamson County during its term of 
service. Company E, of the Thirty-first Regiment, was recruited 
in Williamson and other counties in August, 1861, and contained 
twenty -nine men from Williamson County, and afterward re- 
ceived three recruits therefrom. Company F, of the same regi- 
ment, had seventeen men from this county, and received three 
recruits therefrom. Company G, of the same regiment, subse- 
quently received five recruits from this county. Company H, of 
the same regiment, was organized in September, 1861, and con- 
tained seventeen men from Williamson County, and afterward 
received two recruits therefrom. (For a sketch of the services of 
this regiment see Saline County. ) 

Company E, Fifty-sixth Illinois Infantry, was raised in Saline 
and other counties in October and November, 1861, and contained 
twenty-one men from Williamson County, and subsequently re- 
ceived one recruit therefrom. Company I of the same regiment 
also contained twelve Williamson County men. (See Saline 
County.) Company K, Sixtieth Illinois Infantry, raised in John- 
son and other counties, in October and November, 1861, con- 
tained ten men from Williamson County. Company E, Eighty- 
first Illinois Infantry, was raised in Williamson and Jackson 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 495- 

counties in August, 1862, and contained thirty-one men from the- 
former county. The commissioned officers of this company were 
Capt. Marmaduke F. Smith, of Marion, who resigned February 
5, 1863, and was succeeded by Lieut. John P. Reese, of Jones- 
boro. The latter was succeeded as first lieutenant by Second 
Lieut. David R. Sanders, of Marion, and he was succeeded as 
second lieutenant by John Lamar, of Jonesboro. Company G of 
the same regiment was organized at Fredonia in August, 1862, 
and contained seventy-one men from Williamson County, and 
afterward received six recruits therefrom. The first commis- 
sioned officers of this company were captain, George W. Sisney, 
and lieutenants, William W. Russell and William L. Farmer. 
Capt. Sisney resigned August 3, 1863, and was succeeded by 
Edwin Fozzard. Lieut. Russell resigned February 28, 1863, and 
was succeeded by Lieut. Farmer, who was killed in battle. May 
22, 1863. Henry C. McCulloch was commissioned second lieu- 
tenant. May 22, 1863, and promoted to first lieutenant, August 8, 
1863. Company H of this regiment was raised in August, 1862, 
and contained eighty-three men from Williamson County, and 
afterward received ten recruits therefrom. The commissioned 
officers of this company from Williamson County were: First 
lieutenant, William A. Stewart, of Marion, who resigned December 
5, 1862, and second lieutenant, James V. Price, of Marion, who 
resigned January 28, 1863. 

The Eighty-first Illinois Infantry was recruited from Perry, 
Jackson, Williamson, Union, Pulaski and Alexander Counties, 
and was mustered into the service at Anna, August 26, 1862, with 
the following field and staff officers, viz. : James J. Dollins, of 
Benton, colonel; Franklin Campbell, of Du Quoin, lieutenant- 
colonel, and Andrew W. Rogers, of Carbondale, major. Soon 
after its organization, the regiment joined Grant's army, at Hum- 
boldt, Tenn., where it arrived November 1, 1862, and then moved 
to Abbey ville, Miss., and then to Memphis, where it arrived Jan- 



496 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

uary 19, 1863. It then moved to Lake Providence, where it 
arrived February 23, 1863, and remained there until April 17 
following. On the 21st a call for volunteers was made to run the 
Vicksburg and Grand Gulf batteries, with seven common trans- 
ports loaded with supplies for the army. From the Eighty-first 
Capt. George W. Sisney and Private George W. Winfield of Com- 
pany G ; Edward Hoxsey, of Company K ; Uriah Butler, William 
T. Green, Eli J. Lewis and Frank Mayo, all of Company I, were 
accepted. Capt. Sisney was assigned the command of the trans- 
port " Horizon," and carried her through safely, but somewhat 
disabled. One boat, the " Tigress," was sunk befor'e passing the 
Grand Gulf batteries. The regiment crossed the Mississippi 
at Bruinsburg, May 1, and went thence to Port Gibson, and par- 
ticipated in that battle in the division commanded by Gen. Logan ; 
was in the battle of Raymond, May 12, and helped to capture 
Jackson, Miss., May 14, and Champion Hill, May 16, and was at 
Black Eiver bridge on the 17th. It engaged in the siege of 
Yicksburg, and on the 22d assaulted the enemy's works, losing 
eleven killed and ninety-six wounded, including Col. J. J. Dollins, 
killed. October 16 it was in the battle of Brownsville, Miss,, 
and then returned to Vicksburg, whence it departed March 9, 
1864, to participate in the Red River campaign, in which it met 
with considerable loss, and arrived at the mouth of Red River 
May 21 on its return to Vicksburg, where it arrived May 24. It 
was in the battle of Gun town, Miss., June 10, 1864, where it lost 
nine men killed, eighteen wounded and 126 prisoners, out of a 
total of 371 men. Of the number captured six were line officers, 
who were placed under the fire of the Union batteries at Charles- 
ton, S. C, and the enlisted men confined in the Andersonville 
prison. In August, 1864, the regiment moved to Duvall's Bluff, 
where it broke camp September 17, and marched in pursuit of 
Gen. Price on his last raid into Missouri. It arrived at Warrens- 
burg, Mo., October 25, and remained there until November 8, and 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 497 

then moved via St. Louis to Nashville, Tenn., under Gen. A. J. 
Smith. 

It participated in the battle of Nasliville December 15 and 
16, 1864, and then went in pursuit of Hood's army to Eastport, 
Tenn. ; thence to Corinth, Miss. ; thence via New Orleans to Mo- 
bile; held the advance in the investment of Spanish Fort; 
opened the fire March 27, 1865, and continued under fire 
from that date until the close of the siege on the 8th of April, 
when the works were captured by a charge, the Eighty-first being 
the second regiment inside the enemy's works, capturing eighty- 
three prisoners and losing six men killed and fourteen wounded. 
The regiment then moved to Montgomery, Ala., where it remained 
until ordered home by way of Meridian and Vicksburg, and ar- 
rived at Chicago August 5, 1865, where it was mustered out of 
the service. The total enlisted men mustered into the regiment 
was 1,144; 54 were killed or died of wounds, 287 died of dis- 
ease, 274 resigned or were discharged, and 529 were mustered 
out at Chicago. A splendid regiment with a noble record. 

Company D, One Hundred and Ninth Illinois Infantry, organ- 
ized in August, 1862, contained six men, and Company H, of the 
same regiment, two men from Williamson County. Company 
C, One Hundred and Tenth Illinois Infantry, was organized at 
Marion in August, 1862, and contained sixty-four men of this 
county. The first commissioned officers were Capt. Francis M. 
Norman, who resigned November 26, 1862; First Lieut. Richard 
T. McHaney, who resigned December 19, 1862, and Second 
Lieut. James L. Parks, who was promoted first lieutenant De- 
cember 19, 1862, and captain November 26, 1863, and died after- 
ward. George M. Burnett, of Marion, became second lieutenant 
March 30, 1863. For regimental sketch see Franklin County. 
Company G, One Hundred and Twentieth Illinois Infantry, was 
raised in Pope, Johnson and Williamson Counties, in August, 
1862, and contained twenty-nine men from this county. The 



498 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

only commissioned officer from tliis county was Second Lient. 
Wm. J. Hall, who was promoted from sergeant June 22, 1862^ 
and dismissed from the service December 20, 1864 

THE ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-EIGHTH REGIMENT. 

Company A, One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Illinois 
Infantry was organized in September, 1862, and contained thirty- 
two men from Williamson County. The first commissioned 
officers of this company were all from Franklin County. Com- 
pany B, of the same regiment, contained thirty-six men from 
Williamson County, and the commissioned officers were all from 
Jeffersonville. Company C, of the same regiment, contained 
forty-seven men from Williamson County, and the commissioned 
officers were: Captain, Jefferson J. Allen; first lieutenant, Hugert 
H. Harrison, who resigned December 25, 1862; his successor was 
John A. Ensminger, promoted from second lieutenant. Com- 
pany D, same regiment, contained seventy-seven men from this 
county. The commissioned officers were : Captain, John Brown y 
lieutenants. Seaborn A. Walker and Jaspel' V. Crain. Company 
E, same regiment, contained seventy-three men from Williamson 
County. The commissioned officers were: Captain, Joel H. 
Swindell ; lieutenants Zachariah Hudgins and Addison Reese, all 
of Marion, Company F, same regiment, contained forty-five 
men from Williamson County. The commissioned officers were: 
Captain, Robert M. Allen, of Marion ; first lieutenant, Wadell W. 
Williams, of Sulphur Springs; second lieutenant, Martin W. 
Robertson, of Marion. Company G, same regiment, contained 
sixty-six men from Williamson County, and the commissioned 
officers were: Captain, Wm. Huffstutler; lieutenants, Jesse A. 
Mcintosh and Noah E. Norris. Company H, same regiment, 
contained forty-four men from this county. The commissioned 
officers of the latter company were : Captain, Aaron A. Bell ; lieu- 
tenants, Wm. L. Stilley and Joseph B. Fuller, all of Attila. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 499 

Company I, same regiment, contained twenty-five men from 
Williamson County. The commissioned officers were: Captain, 
Wm. A. Fry, of Marion; lieutenants, Wm. M. Cooper, of Chapin, 
and Wylie H. Hall, of Keynoldsburg. 

According to the foregoing Williamson County furnished 
445 men for this regiment, which for certain reasons retained its 
organization only a few months. It originally contained 860 
men, and in less than five months, the number was reduced to 
161, in consequence of which the war department, by a special 
order dated Cairo, 111., April 1, 1863, and signed by L. Thomas, 
adjutant-general, discharged all of the officers of the regiment 
except First Lieuts. W. A. Lemma and Wm. M. Cooper and 
Assistant Surg. George W. French, under whom the remaining 
men of the regiment Avere mostly consolidated with the Ninth 
Illinois Infantry. The One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Eegi- 
ment rendezvoused at Marion, and then went to Springfield and 
organized with Robt. M. Hundley as colonel, and James D. Pul- 
ley as lieutenant-colonel. Archibald T. Benson was made chaplain. 
Being promised their uniforms upon reaching Springfield, the 
men went there very thinly clad. The disloyality of the officers 
was suspected by the agents of the Government, and the men did 
not receive their uniforms until about a month after reaching 
Springfield. Meanwhile they suffered very much on account of 
the cold weather, and began to desert. The regiment was then 
moved to Cairo, and kept there over winter with the result above 
stated. Many of the deserters were arrested and put into the 
Thirty-first and other regiments where they made good soldiers. 
Had the regiment been promptly clothed, and sent immediately 
to the front it would probably have done excellent service, and 
made a good record. 

THE MARION GUARDS. 

This company was organized in October, 1875, with fifty men. 
The first officers were Capt. James V. Grider and Lieuts. 



500 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

Wm. Henclrickson and D. A. Davis, The company was reorgan- 
ized under the present militia laws of the State in August, 1877, 
with the same number of men, with Capt. J. V. Grider and Lieuts. 
Wm. H. Bundy and George W. Bock as the officers thereof. 
The next set of officers were Capt. Brice Holland and Lieuts. 
J. E. Little and E. E. Mitchell. The latter resigned after 
serving about two years and was succeeded by John P. Moore. 
The present officers are Capt. W. S. AVashburn and Lieuts. 
W. H. Bentley and Joseph Fozzard. James F. Connell, first 
lieutenant, and T. J. Helton, second lieutenant, have served as 
such to fill vacancies. The guards are mustered as Company M, 
Eighth Kegiment, Second Brigade, Illinois National Guard. 
They were called in the spring of 1886 to guard property in East 
St. Louis during the strike of that period. They were there in 
service fifteen days and had no trouble. They meet at the State 
Camping Ground (Camp Lincoln) every year in August for the 
purpose of receiving instruction. Capt. Holland was promoted 
in July, 1886, to the office of major of the regiment. Capt. 
Washburn served as quartermaster of the Ninth and Eleventh 
Regiments for eight years prior to being elected captain of the 
guards. 

The following condensed recapitulation shows the number of 
Williamson County men mustered into the United States service 
during the late civil war, the same having been carefully com- 
piled from the official reports: Company K, Eighteenth Eegi- 
ment, 14 men; Company E, Twenty-ninth Regiment, 29 men; 
Company C, Thirty-first Regiment, 133 men; Company E, same 
regiment, 32 men ; Company F, same, 20 men ; Company G, same, 
five men ; Company H, same, two men ; Company E, Fifty-sixth. 
Regiment, 26 men; Company I, same regiment, 12 men; Com- 
pany K, Sixtieth Regiment, 10 men ; Company E, Eighty-first 
Regiment, 31 men; Company G, same regiment, 77 men; Com- 
pany H, same, 93 men; Companies D and H, One Hundred and 



HISTOKY OF ILLINOIS. 501 

Ninth Eegiment, 8 men; Company C, One Hundred and Tenth 
Regiment, 64 men; Company G, same regiment, 29 men; One 
Hundred and Twenty-eighth Regiment, 445 men, making a grand 
total of 1,030. It has been asserted that the county sent about 
2,000 men into the army, and it may be claimed that the sum- 
mary of the foregoing recapitulation is too small, but any and all 
persons making such claims are respectfully referred to the ofl&- 
cial reports. 

MARION, THE COUNTY SEAT. 

Williamson County, on account of its rural location and its 
former inadequate facilities for transportation, has no large 
towns. Marion, the county seat, is the largest. The origin of 
this town has been fully given elsewhere in this work. At the 
first term of the county commissioners' court, held in October, 
1839, John Davis was granted a license "to retail spirituous 
liquors at his house in the town of Marion." The house referred 
to was a log cabin which Davis erected before the town was sur- 
veyed, and which was the first business house in the town. 
When the survey was made this house was found to stand on the 
public square, and consequently had to be moved. The first store 
in Marion was put up by Joshua Mulkey in 1840, and the next 
by Robert Hopper. At the March term, 1841, of the county 
commissioners' court, James McFarland and Sterling Hill were 
both granted license to sell spirituous liquors at their houses in 
Marion ; and thus two more such business houses were added to 
the place. Mr. Hill was one of the county commissioners. D. 
L. Pulley put up a grocery on the Westbrook corner, and J. sD. 
Pulley built "Our House" on the west side. John Sparks put up 
a hat shop on the northeast corner. In 1842 Allen Bainbridge 
built the Western Exchange, a brick building on the corner 
where Goodall & Campbell's store now stands. In early days 
the term grocery was used to denote a place where liquors were 
sold, and by some persons it is still used in that sense; but in 



502 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

this work it is used to denote a place where groceries and pro- 
visions are sold, according to its proper definition. The price of a 
license to sell liquors in the early days was $25, but at pres- 
ent it is from $500 to $1,000. 

In 1845 Marion had increased until it had the following mer- 
chants, viz. : Spiller & Campbell, Eobert T. Hopper, H. L. Bow- 
yer and Allen Bainbridge. Saloon keepers. Sterling Hill and 
William Dillard. The same year Milton Mulkey built the first 
steam (frame) mill in the county, where the Edwards' Mills now 
stand. He sold to Hooper & Phelps, who rebuilt it in 1847 and 
1848. John M. Edwards purchased it about the year 1857, and 
afterward his son, Charles M. Edwards, and A. J. Mann rebuilt 
the mill, this time with brick, and later they built the woolen 
mills attached thereto as they now stand. The property is now 
owned by J. D, Edwards & Co., who recently put rollers in 
the flouring-mill. In the woolen-mill they manufacture jeans, 
linseys, tweeds, flannels, blankets, yarns, satinets, cassimeres, 
etc., of as good a quality as are produced anywhere in the United 
States. They consume about 150 pounds of wool per day. The 
flouring-mills are operated under a lease by Messrs. Prindle & 
Borton, who are doing a very successful business. In 1845 
there were two or three blacksmith shops in Marion, and Allen 
Bainbridge manufactured tobacco in the house now used as a 
grocery, at the northwest corner of the public square. From 
1845 up to the beginning of the late war^ the following gentle- 
men and firms were engaged at different periods in the mercan- 
tile business of Marion, viz. : Campbell & McCown, Goodall, 
Pulley & Thorn, John D. Sanders & Son, Henry Sanders, 
Hundley & Lewis, Lewis & Erwin, Young & Kern, S. W. Dun- 
away & Son and Goddard & Bainbridge. 

The present merchants and business men of the town are as 
follows: Exchange Bank, L. A. Goddard, banker; dry goods 
— F. M. Westbrook & Co., Thomas Dunaway, J. B. Bainbridge, 



HIHTORY OF ILLINOIS. 503 

Ooodall & Tippy, W. H. Eubanks, Pillow, Campbell & Bro., 
J. M. Burkhart; groceries — Goodall & Adams, A, L. Cline, 
Davis & Gent, N. G. Keid, Pillow, Campbell & Co., Barham & 
Duncan, J. W. Barham & Co., Noah Cash & Co., H. M, Parks; 
-drugs — J. A. Benson, John Cline, W. M. Washburn; hard- 
ware — H. M. Parks, Fitzgerrell & Bro. ; millinery — Mrs. Shan- 
non Holland, Mrs. M. L. Moore; harness — Mr. Little; livery 
stables — Holland & Carter, Flem. Gent; farm implements — 
William Phillips, Samuel Chandler, H. M. Parks; hotels — 
Simmons House, Grand Central, Pulley House, Reynolds House, 
dine House. In addition to the foregoing there are several board- 
ing houses. Tobacco warehouses — Goodall & Tippy, F. M. West- 
brook & Son, John Gullege; furniture and coffins — Duncan & 
Jackson; postmaster — R. D. Holland. The town also contains 
several blacksmith and wood work shops, three butcher shops, 
two barber shops, and the new and well established photograph 
and picture gallery of W. W. Wilder. The town also contains 
the Marion Roller Mills, being a large three-story brick build- 
ing, which was erected in 1883 by the present proprietors, Wm. 
Aikman & Co. The building and the ground on which it stands 
cost about ^5,000, and the mill machinery $12,000. The capac- 
ity of this mill is 125 barrels of flour per day. Marion contains 
four churches, viz. : Methodist Episcopal, Methodist Church 
South, Christian and Baptist ; also a new and large brick school- 
house. The physicians are E. L. Denison, AY. H. Bentley, 
•George W. Evans, A. N. Lodge and Dr. Casey. 

SOCIETIES. 

The Williamson County Medical Association was organized 
in May, 1875, by Drs. H. V. Ferrell, S. H. Bundy and A. N. 
Lodge. The officers are W. H. Bentley, president; M. M. Mc- 
Donald, vice-president; A. N. Lodge, secretary, and H, V. Fer_ 
rell, treasurer. The association has seventeen members at present, 
•and it meets bi-monthly at Marion. 



504 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

Fellowship Lodge of A. R & A. M., No. 89, was chartered 
October 8, • 1850, with James Askew, W. M. ; Willis Allen, 
S. W. ; J. H. Campbell, J. W. and other brothers as charter mem- 
bers. At the present writing the lodge has about sixty members, 
and the officers are W. L. Benson, W. M. ; J. W. Evans, S. W. ; 
Joseph Fozard, J. W. ; AV. S. Washburn, Secretary, and Jas. M. 
Burkhart, Treasurer. The lodge owns the hall where it meets,, 
is in good working order and in good financial condition. 

Marion Chapter, No. 100, was chartered October 5, 1866. Its 
charter members were C. M. Edwards, P. H. P. ; J. S. Rice, 
King; A. B. Scurlock, Scribe; William R. Hall, Secretary, and 
M. W. Robertson, Treasurer. The present membership is about 
forty -five, and it is also in good working order and in good finan- 
cial condition. 

Williamson Lodge, I. O. O. F., No. 392, was chartered 
October 12, 1869, with S. W. S. Fribble, John O. Bag- 
well, James N. Jenison, Pierce L. Jenison and David M. Fligor 
as charter members. The present membership is about sixty- 
five, and the officers are E. E. Mitchell, N. G. ; H. H. Coffer, V. 
G. ; G. W. Yound, Secretary and W. L. Benson, Treasurer. The 
Lodge is active and has over $1,200 in its treasury. 

Benevolent Encampment, No. 171, of I. O. 0. F. was chartered' 
October 10, 1876, with George W. Young, W. H. Eubanks, D. 
A. Davis, J. V. Grider and others as charter members. Its pres- 
ent membership is about forty. 

Marion Lodge, No. 1944, K. of H., was chartered January 5, 
1880, with W. H. Eubanks, J. H. Duncan, M. C. Campbell, M. 
R. Hopper, Z. Hudgens, M. Cantor and others as charter mem- 
bers. The present membership is about forty. 

Egyptian Lodge, No. 325, K. & L. of H., was chartered 
June 1, 1880, with J. M. Burkhart, M. C. Campbell and wife,. 
Thomas Dunaway and wife, Elijah Spiller and wife, and others as. 
charter members. It has a membership of thirty. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 505 

Marion Post, No. 319, G. A. R., was chartered August 2, 
1883, with L. D. Hartwell, P. M. Parker, William Eex, J. P. 
Copeland and others to the number of fifteen as charter members. 
It has about thirty-five members, and is in a fair condition 
financially and otherwise. 

The Marion Building & Loan Association was incorporated, 
in March, 1887, with a capital stock of $50,000. The officers 
are L. A. Goddard, president; J. W. Westbrook, vice-president; 
E. E. Mitchell, secretary, and H. T. Goddard, treasurer. The 
board of directors are W. H. Eubanks, H. C. Mitchell, J. M. 
Burkhart, A. J. Benson, J. C. Mitchell, J. B. Bainbridge, J. W. 
Westbrook, L. W. Goddard and AV. H. Warder, the latter alsa 
being attorney for the association. As soon as the books were 
opened all the stock was subscribed, and applications made for 
more. By the end of the present year the association will prob- 
ably increase the capital stock to $250,000, and confine all loans- 
and improvements to the county. 

In regard to other secret societies, taking in the whole county, 
Milo Erwin, in his history, says: 

" In 1862 the Golden Circle reached a membership of over 
800, and in 1864 the Union League numbered 1,200. In 1872, 
the Kuklux numbered 135 members; but that same year they 
were broken up, and did not meet again until 1874, when a few 
of them formed a klan in the west side of the county. The 
Grange was introduced in 1874, and has since spread rapidly 
among our farmers." Since the above was written, the Grange 
has been supplanted by the Farmers' Mutual Benefit Association, 
which is now very strong in the county. In August, 1862, when 
the Golden Circle was exerting a very bad influence, A. D. Duff, 
W. J. Allen, A. P. Corder, John Clemison and A. C. Nelson were 
all arrested by United States officers, and taken first to Cairo, 
and thence to Washington, where they were confined about three 
months in the old Capitol prison. Tliey were charged with 



506 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

belonging to the Golden Circle and of making rebel speeches, 
both of which charges they denied, and after being confined as 
above stated they were released without trial. 

THE PEESS. 

W. H. Wileford brought the first printing press to the county 
about the year 1838, and upon the organization of the county, 
and for years thereafter, he did all the ofl&cial printing. In 1850 
he established and published the Literary Moniior a few miles 
southeast of Marion. The Marion Inielligencer, a Democratic 
paper was established at Marion in 1854; the Democraiic Orgayi 
in 1860, and the Mario7i Siar in 1866. The first Kepublican 
paper, Our Flag, was published in 1866; the following year the 
Old Flag, a Democratic paper was published, and the next year 
(1868) The People'' s Friend, a Democratic paper, came out. 
Then in 1872 the Williamson County Progress, Eepublican, was 
published; in 1873 the Farmers'' Advocate, Independent, came 
out; the following year it was merged into the Marion Democrat, 
and the next year (1875) into the Egyptian Press, which is still 
being published, at present by the stanch Democrat J. F. Con- 
nell. It is a large thirty-two- column newspaper, ably edited, 
and well sustained by the people of Williamson County. The 
Marion Monitor, Eepublican, was published in 1874, and in Feb- 
ruary, 1887, its name was changed to TJie Leader, which is now 
published by The Leader Printing Company, and edited by Khea 
and Mitchell — the latter being deputy county clerk, and an offi- 
cer in several societies above noticed. J. P. Copeland, an 
ex-Federal soldier and officer, is the foreman of the printing depart- 
ment. The Leader is a forty- eight-column Republican newspa- 
per, ably edited, and is well patronized by the people of the 
county. The Independent was published a few months during 
1886 by T. J. Helton. The Binder was established in Novem- 
ber, 1886 in the interest of the Farmers' Mutual Benefit Associ- 
ation. It is ably editerl by A. M. Palmer. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 507 

9 

INCORPORATION OF MARION. 

Marion was first iEcorporated in 1851, and was reincorpor- 
ated in 1856, and again in 1865, and in 1873 it was incorporated 
as a city under the general law of the State. The present officers 
are Brice Holland, mayor; Ed. J. Mitchell, clerk; Shannon Hol- 
land, treasurer; J. V. Grider, marshal; J. F. Connell, police 
magistrate; L. D. Hartwell, attorney; and Aldermen R. Borton, 
Ed. Gallagher, Joseph Fozard, S. S. Ireland, J. L. Adams and 
D. A. Davis. Marion has not been infested with saloons for 
several years last past, but arrangements are now being made 
to open them, and before this reaches the reader they will prob- 
ably be in operation. Marion contains from 1,200 to 1,500 
inhabitants. 

CARTERVILLE. 

Carterville, situated on the railroad eight miles from Marion, 
was established in 1872 on land owned by George McNeaL, who 
laid the town out. The original town was surveyed and 
platted by William Bundy. Mr. McNeal, the proprietor, then 
lived in a log cabin outside of. the original plat. Robert Warren 
and V. B. Harris built the first residences in the town, and Ben- 
jamin F. Tranbarger was the first merchant. He put up his 
building and commenced merchandising in 1873. Frank Chap- 
man and James Reid opened the second store, and John Herrin 
and R. D. Harrison the third. The railroad station was built in 
1873. Laban Carter, as has been stated, had previously opened 
a coal mine half a mile east of the village, and it was upon his 
suggestion that Mr. McNeal laid out the same, which he named 
in honor of Mr. Carter. In consequence of the coal business 
which has developed there, the village has had a rapid growth, 
and at the present writing has the following merchants and 
business houses: General stores — Ellis & Bro., Spiller & 
Walker, F. C. Zimmerman & Bro. ; dry goods and millinery, 
James Powell; gents' furnishing goods, Isaac Hammer; milli- 



■508 WILLIAMSON COUNTY, 

nery, Mrs. James Thompson; boot and shoe shop, Jacob Shark; 
harness, boots and shoes, George Lofland; hardware, Emily 
White; furniture and coffins. Miles Bell; drugs, Dr. J. Price, 
Hampton & Co. ; dry goods and groceries, W. Sizemore & Co. ; 
groceries, Charles Owen, Charles Cash; broom factory, Benja- 
min F. Tranbarger; hotels, Matthews House, Hill House. In 
addition to the above there are three saloons, one barber shop, 
four blacksmith shops and other industries. There are two 
•church edifices, Methodist Episcopal and Presbyterian. The 
Baptists, Christians and Cumberland Presbyterians also have 
church organizations but no buildings. The physicians are H. 
V. Terrell, J. W. Fain, H. Perry, A. D. Watson, J. Price and 
Dr. Vick. The lawyers are James M. Washburn and A. Billings. 
There is also a large schoolhouse containing four rooms, in 
which a good school is sustained six months in the year with 
public funds, and from ten to twelve weeks by private subscrip- 
tion. The village has about 1,000 inhabitants. Crainville is 
located so close to Carterville that it might appropriately be 
termed a suburb thereof. It contains two stores, kept respect- 
ively by Benjamin Norton and Columbus Crain, and one grist 
and flouring-mill, 

Carterville has a lodge of the I. O. O. F. and also Carter- 
ville Post, No. 237, G. A. E., which was charted in 1881, and has 
now a membership of thirty-eight. The charter members were 
J. E. Ledbetter, Daniel Perrine, Bennet H. Stotlar, Wm. H. 
Allen, Peter Smith, Jas. H. Donohoo, Philip Sprague, K. W. 
Warren, H. G. Price, A. B. Blankenship, W. S. Nichols, T. N. 
Impson, C. M. Wagoner, J. D. Beasley, W, J. Dowell, Thos. E. 
Stearns, T. C. White, Milton Black, J. M. Shaw, Thomas G. 
Matthews, George Wright, Hugh M. Richards, G. W. Cox and 
J. F. Stearns. Of these and other comrades who joined after- 
ward the following have since died, viz. : Stotlar, Donohoo Wes- 
son, Tallev and Walston. 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 509 

BAINBRIDGE. 

This is the oldest village in the county, and the first store 
in the county was kept there as early as 1818 by a Mr. Kipp. 
It was formerly a place of considerable business, but it now con- 
tains only four dwelling-houses. Jeffersonville, situated seven 
miles north of Marion, contains four stores, a postoffice, tobacco 
warehouse, saw and grist-mills and some mechanic shops. Cor- 
inth is a village of about the same size in the northeast part of 
the county. Crab Orchard, situated a few miles east of Marion, 
was established in 1851. The first store was kept by Norman 
& Erwin. The saw and grist-mills were built by Furlong and 
Erwin in 1854. The same year Hiram McClaskey, the present 
blacksmith, opened his shop. The postofiice was established in 
1855, with Kobert Erwin as postmaster. The merchants of the 
present are: General stores — L. C. Parks & Co., Allen Brewer 
& Co. and Thomas Bones; groceries — Smith & Co., McDonald 
& Caplinger and Matthew Campbell; drugs — E. S. Peebles; 
furniture — McDonald & Ferrell ; harness, boots and shoes — 
J. S. Fry; grist-mill — Crossley & Sons; millinery — Miss 
N'ancy Corder; tobacco factories — Parks & Co. and Allen 
Brewer & Co. ; postmaster, John Farris. Creal Springs is situ- 
ated about ten miles southeast of Marion. The medicinal qualities 
of the waters of the mineral springs at that place, were discov- 
ered in 1881, and the first house was erected there in November 
1882. The village was established on the lands of Edward G. 
Creal. Health and pleasure seekers at once flocked to the place, 
and put up small residences. The village now contains three 
general stores, two dry goods stores, one drug and one hardware 
store, one flour and feed store, two livery stables, mechanic shops, 
etc., also two churches — Methodist Episcopal and Baptist, a good 
seminary of learning, two hotels and several boarding-houses. 
It is destined to be a favorite summer resort. 



510 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

HISTORY OF THE SCHOOLS. 

But very little attention was paid to education in Williamson 
County prior to the year 1840. A few subscription schools had 
been taught by teachers who were able only to teach reading, 
spelling, writing, and the fundamental rules of arithmetic. Ib 
1840 a school of a higher grade was established at Bainbridge 
by Prof. Bugg. He was succeeded by Eev. Nehemiab 
Hunt, who taught a few terms and then moved to Marion. He- 
was a Presbyterian, of which further mention will be made in the- 
next chapter. In 1841 a graded school was established at 
Marion, and soon thereafter a frame schoolhouse was erected in. 
the northwestern part of town, not far from the site of the present 
school building. Wm. Richie was the first, or among the first 
teachers. He was succeeded by Wm. Scurlock and wife, and they 
by Rev. Nehemiah Hunt formerly of the Bainbridge school. 
These schools were sustained for a number of years, and until 
they were supplanted by the free schools. Wm. T. Turner was 
appointed the first school commissioner of the county, and at ther 
June term, 1840, of the county commissioners' court, he reported 
that he had received from S. H. Mitchell, the school commis- 
sioner of Franklin County, the sum of $850.60 as a part of the 
school fund belonging to Williamson County, after it was cut off 
from the former couijty, and at the September term following 
he reported $966.25 as received from the same source. Henry 
W. Perry succeeded Turner as school commissioner, and at the 
March term, 1841, of said court, he reported $2,062.72 in notes as 
received from his predecessor. This amount belonged to the 
permanent school fund, the principal of which was loaned out^ 
and the interest only appropriated to the support of the schools. 
Of this amount $578 was designated as belonging to Town & 
south, Range 4 east, and $350 to Town 9 south. Range 3 east, 
thus leaving a balance of $1,134.72, which the report designated 
as belonging to the county school fund. The sixteenth section in 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 513 

each congressional township, was donated, as heretofore stated, 
for the support of schools ; and there were twelve sections of that 
number in this county, all of which were sold to create a perma- 
nent fund to belong to each township respectively; but the 
records, as they have been preserved, fail to show how much 
money was realized from the sale of these lands. Some portions 
of this fund have been lost by means of loaning it without sufficient 
security. The permanent school fund of each congressional- 
township, at the present writing is as follows, to wit : Township 
8 south, Kange 1 east, $2,176.80; Kange 2 east, $994.12; Range 
3 east, $486.72; Range 4 east, $670.87. Township 9 south, 
Range 1 east, $830.50; Range 2 east, $1,059; Range 3 east, 
$675.30; Range 4 east, $679.30; Township 10 south, Range 1 
east, $351; Range 2 east, $485.45; Range 3 east, $418; 
Range 4 east, $333.33, making a total of this fund in the county 
of $9,250.39. The funds derived from the sale of the school 
lands are embraced in the forgoing amounts; and here again is 
shown the great mistake of selling the. school lands before any 
thing more than a mere nominal price could be obtained for them. 
Under the free school system, the public schools of William- 
son County have gradually increased and improved until it can 
be truthfully said that they are second to none in southern Illi- 
nois. To show their present condition, the following statistics 
are taken from the last report of the county school superintend- 
ent: Scholastic population — males 4,163, females 3,703, total, 
7,866; number of pupils enrolled in the schools — males 3,338, 
females 2,975, total, 6,313. This shows that over 80 per cent of 
the scholastic population attend the free schools, which is a 
pretty good showing though not as good as it ought to be. 
According to" the report there are ninety-three ungraded and five 
graded free schools in the county, making ninety -eight in all. 
There were seven male and eight female teachers employed in the 
graded schools, and seventy-three male and thirty-one female 



514 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

eachers employed in the ungraded schools, making the total 
number of teachers employed, 119. There are six log, ninety- 
one frame and two brick schoolhouses in the county, ninety-nine 
in all. The highest average monthly wages paid teachers, 
according to said report, was males $48.65, females $32.73. 
This shows that male teachers are held much higher in the esti- 
mation of the people of Williamson County than female teachers 
are, but it does not show nor prove that they are better educators. 
Can there be any reason why a woman should not be paid as 
much for the same amount and quality of service as a man ? The 
report further shows that the amount of money earned during the 
year by the male teachers was $14,836.28, and by the female 
teachers, $5,555.30, total, $20,391.58; and that the estimated 
value of school property in the county, including libraries and 
school apparatus, was $44,027. The receipts of school funds for 
the year were $39,046.76, and the expenditures $28,374.14, leav- 
ing a balance on hand of $10,672.62. 

In November, 1886, the large, commodious and picturesque 
schoolhouse of Marion was completed. It is a fine two- story 
brick structure, 60x69 feet, with a vestibule 12x24 feet. On the 
first floor are four large schoolrooms, the vestibule, hall and 
stairs; and on the second floor there is a recitation room in the 
vestibule, and a large hall over the one beneath, in one end of 
which are cloakrooms. On the west side of this hall are two 
more schoolrooms, of the same size as those beneath them, and 
on the east side the whole space is occupied in one large room 
for the school of the principal. The whole building is warmed 
by the use of Boyington's Improved Heaters, there beiug one in 
each room and two in the principal's room. The main building 
is covered with tin and the vestibule with slate. The building 
cost $9,700, and it was constructed and finished in modern archi- 
tectural style and beauty. It stands in the northwest part of the 
city, and is an ornament to the same. It is well furnished, well 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 515 

ventilated and well lighted, and the citizens of the Marion School 
District may well be proud of it. Another fact worthy of men- 
tion is the excellent school now being taught in this building 
by Prof. B. F. Kizer and his able corps of assistants, viz. : Miss 
Ettie Lang, Mr. George Powell, Miss Mollie Tyner, Miss Maggie 
Jackson, Miss Josie Scurlock and Miss Gertrude Warder. A 
high school department has recently been established in the 
school. The other graded schools of the county are located at 
Carterville, Grab Orchard, Creal Springs and Stone Fort, and are 
aU doing good work. Taken as a whole, the free schools of the 
county, under the supervision of Supt. John H. Duncan, are 
doing an excellent work for the young people of this generation, 
but there is room, and always will be room, for greater improve- 
ment. 

There is another institution of learning in the county not 
connected with the free school system, and that is the seminary 
at Creal Springs, which was established in 1884: by Mr. H. C. 
Murrah and his wife. Mr. Murrah built the seminary building 
at his own expense, and Mrs. Murrah has been the principal of 
the school ever since it was organized. There are about sixty- 
five pupils in attendance at the present writing. The academy is 
well sustained, and has a reputation of doing good work in the 
cause of education. 

CHURCH HISTORY. 

The first church in the county was built on the Sanders farm 
in 1819, and the next, Eich Grove, was built on Herrin's Prairie 
in 1820. In 1823 the families of Davis, Corder and Parks erected 
a log church, a little north of the Mayes farm. In 1824 the 
Methodists built a church in Northern Precinct. The first church 
on the Eight Mile was built in 1836. The pioneer churches of 
the county were the Methodists and Baptists. About the year 
1835 considerable dissension arose among the Baptists of south- 
ern Illinois on .doctrinal points. Some were in favor of mis- 



516 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

sionary work, and others opposed to it. In consequence of thig 
difference, a division of the church took place in 1839, when Mount 
Zion Church, now called Davis Prairie, was formed by seceders 
from old Bethlehem Church. The churches had been requested 
to say whether they would "fellowship the Baptist Board of For- 
eign Missions and its various branches." And in May, 1839, the 
Bethlehem Church decided the question in the negative, where- 
upon the minority withdrew and organized the aforesaid Mount 
Zion Church, and in July of the same year adopted the following 
"Articles of Faith:" 

1. We believe in tiie one only true and living God, the Father, the Word, 
and the Holy Ghost. 

2. We believe in the impotency of man, and that it is utterly impossible 
for him of his own free will, to recover himself from that state. 

3. That God so loved the world, that He gave His Son to die— who tasted 
death for every man, that whosoever believeth in Him, should not perish but 
have everlasting life. 

4. We believe in the doctrine of election and reprobation as it is written 
in the Scriptures. 

5. That all true believers in Christ are liept by the power of God, through 
faith unto salvation. 

6. We believe that baptism is an ordinance of God's house, and is performed 
in no other way but by immersion; and that none are legal administrators, but 
such as have been called by the church, and have come under the imposition of 
the hands of a presbytery. 

7. We believe that the sacrament of the Lord's Supper is also an ordinance 
of God's house, and that none have a right thereto but such as have been bap- 
tized, and come into union with us. 

8. We believe that the washing of the saints' feet is a duty, and that it 
should be kept up in the house of God. 

9. We believe that the Gospel of Christ is to be preached to all nations, 
and that Christ's church is the means by which this is to be eflEected. 

The names of the members of this new church were Wilfred 
Ferrell, Hezakiah Ferrell, Martha J. Ferrell, Timothy Teal, Eliza- 
beth Teal, Abraham Keaster, Polly Keaster, Lewis Keaster, 
Polly Leathers, Edmund Jones, Anna Eich, Drury A. Moseley, 
Salina Corder, Manning Campbell, Maria Campbell and Lorenzo 
D. Hartwell. Unity Church in Williamson County stood to the 
decision of the Bethlehem Church. Mount Zion Church sent 
delegates to the Salem Association of the United Baptists asking 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 517 

for membership, and was received. The United or Missionary 
Baptist Church increased, while the Eegular or Non-Missionary 
Church decreased, so that nearly all the Baptists of this county 
now belong to the United Baptist Church. Bethlehem Church, 
which is about four miles east of Marion, and another one about 
five miles northwest of Marion, still adheres to the old doctrine. 
Unity Church, above referred to, was organized about the year 
1830, with about ten members. They erected a log house in 
which to worship, which stood until it was consumed by fire 
during the war. The church was then disbanded, and the 
members joined other churches. 

The pastorate of Mount Zion Church was filled nearly all the 
time up to 1860 by one or the other of the Ferrells, who were 
ordained ministers at the organization thereof. They were 
followed by D. G. Young, John Gould and others. Among the 
first Baptist ministers of the county, were Rev. Charles Lee, who 
organized Bethlehem Church about the year 1830, also Revs. 
John Maddox, Bailey Adams and Isaac Herrin. 

The Marion Baptist Church was organized in August, 1865. 
Elders Wm. Terrell, David Butler and W. B. Chamness were the 
council, and Elder David Butler was the first pastor. The orig- 
inal members of this church were Isaac McCoy, Thomas Carter, 
John Jenkins, Wm. Wagoner, Selinda A. McCoy, Louisa Carter, 
Susan Wagoner, Mary Jenkins, Agnes Jenkins, Louisa Pitts, 
Melinda Hargett, Mary Moore, Margaret Ireland, Adaline Ben- 
nett, Isabella Marshock, Elizabeth Tinker, Ellen McElvoy, 
Nancy A. Morris and Maria Penninger. The church has forty- 
nine members at present, and 208 members have been enrolled 
on its books from first to last during its existence. Elder W. B. 
Wester, is the present pastor. 

Hurricane Baptist Church, eight miles west of Marion, was 
organised about the year 1840, with the following members, viz. : 
Sarah Nolen, Matthew M. and Hester Walker, Elizabeth C. 



518 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

Walker, "W. J. Walker, J, V. Grain, Alice Grain, Cyrus, Hannah 
and Mary Gampbell, Mary Reeves, and Isaac and Mary Perry. 
Elders James McGowan and D. S. Grain were the council. 
Elder McGowan, was the first pastor. 

Goal Bank Springs Ghurch, situated in the southeastern 
part of the county, is the outgrowth of Indian Gamp and Rock 
Creek Churches, which consolidated in 1865. It was organized 
with about 100 members. Elder Wm. Terrell, was its first pastor. 
In 1873 a new church was organized under the name of Indian 
Camp, the members of which came mostly from Goal Bank 
Springs Ghurch. 

Herrin's Prairie Ghurch is situated on Herrin's Prairie, about 
ten miles northwest of Marion. It was first an arm of Hurricane 
Church, which was extended in February, 1865, and in December 
of that year the church was organized with T. B. Warren and 
D. G. Young as council. The original members were twenty- 
seven in number. Eld. Warren was the first pastor. The 
church has now a membership of about eighty -five. 

Shiloh Church located near Corinth in Northern Precinct, was 
organized in October, 1866, with a membership of fifteen. I. N. 
Hester, R. C. Keele and J. M. C. Foster were the presbytery; 
Elder R. C. Keele was the first pastor. It has a membership of 
fifty-seven. Grab Orchard Ghurch, located about five miles, 
southwest of Marion, was organized under the name of Grassy 
Greek in August, 1850, about five miles west of where it 
now stands. Elders Wm. Ferrell, D. S. Grain, and M. M. 
Walker were the council. The original members were fifteen 
in number, and the membership is now reported at 127. 

Lake Greek Ghurch, located five miles north of Marion, was 
organized in 1852 with seventeen members. Elders J. M. 
Shadowin and Joseph T. Williams were the council, and the 
latter the first pastor. The membership of this church is reported 
at eighty -four. Bainbridge Church was organized in May, 1865, 



HISTOEY OF ILLINOIS. 519 

with thirteen members. Elders T. W. Chamness, D. S. Grain and 
W. B. Chamness and Deacons Peter Milner and Henry Frey 
were the council, and Elder T. W. Chamness, first pastor. Will- 
iam's Prairie Church located about nine miles northeast of Marion, 
was organized in 1861, Its present membership is reported at 
113. In addition to the foregoing Baptist Churches others of 
the same denomination are reported as follows : Antioch, member- 
ship forty-one ; Carterville, membership twenty-five ; Center, 
membership sixty-five ; Cana, membership sixty-one ; Creal 
Springs, membership forty-one ; Fairview, membership fifty ; 
Grassy Creek, membership sixty-six ; Palestine, membership 
eighty-five; Providence, membership fifty-six. All of these 
churches sustain Sunday-schools. 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

For a list of the presiding elders of this church for the 
Mount Vernon District, of which Williamson and Franklin 
Counties are a part, and for information pertaining to its 
early history, the reader is referred to the history of the 
latter county. The Methodist Episcopal Church in Marion 
was organized soon after the town was established, and in 1845 
the members thereof built what was called the " Sweet Gum 
Church," which was so named because of its being built entirely 
out of sweet gum logs. The society worshiped in this house 
until about the year 1859, when the present brick edifice was 
erected. This church was organized by Rev. Williams, one of 
the pioneer Christian workers of this part of the State. Among 
the original members of it were Thomas Cox, William Benson, 
Hugh La Master, Mary Ann La Master, William Chism and wife, 
and John McCoy and wife. Nearly or quite all of the original 
members of this society have finished their work on earth, and 
gone to receive their rewards. Rev. G. W. La Master, who is 
still living at an advanced age a few miles northwest of Marion, 



520 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

united with this society in 1848. Rev. H. A. Doty is the present 
pastor, and, since September, 1884, he has organized three other 
societies, viz. : Schoharie, with forty members ; Bethlehem, with 
twenty-three members, and County Line with twenty-one 
members. Perry's Church, three miles northwest of Marion, 
with a membership of sixty, and the Schoharie Church, are 
connected with the Marion charge. Marion Church has a 
membership of 100, thus making 200 members in the several 
societies of this charge. The pastor. Rev. Doty, is a native 
of Union County, 111,, and has been in the ministry nine 
years, in the Mount Yernon District, southern Illinois Con- 
ference. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church at Carterville was organized 
since that village was established ; a good edifice has been erected, 
and Rev. J. R. Reef of Carbondale is the present pastor. The 
Methodist Episcopal Church edifice at Crab Orchard was built in 
1878 ; Rev. C. E. Cline was the first pastor of the society, and 
Rev. J. B. Kenshaw the present one. Other churches of this 
denomination within the county, are Spring Grove, east of Crab 
Orchard; Pleasant Grove, about three miles north thereof; 
Union Grove, about seven miles east of Marion; Corinth, in 
Northern Precinct; Creal Springs, and perhaps others. The 
Methodist Episcopal Churches in the country have an average 
membership of about sixty-five, and all have Sunday-schools 
connected with them, L. A. Goddard is superintendent of the 
Sunday-school of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Marion. 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH SOUTH. 

During the latter part of the late civil war the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South was established at Marion, under the 
labors of an evangelist, and Rev. William Finley became the first 
pastor thereof. The church has been supplied regularly with a 
minister ever since by the Illinois Conference of the Methodist 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 521 

Episcopal Church South, Rev. T. T. Kendrick beiug the present 
pastor. The original members of this church were John Edwards 
and wife, and their son C. M. Edwards, Lovina Cook, Jeremiah 
Rice and wife, James Hudgepeth and wife, S. S. Tick and wife 
and others. The present church edifice was completed in 1872, 
-costing with the lot about $1,000. A Sunday-school was organ- 
ized soon after the organization of the church, J. N. Moore is 
the present superintendent. The present membership is about 
eighty-five, and the society has a comfortable parsonage property 
valued at $800. Fountain Methodist Episcopal Church South 
was organized in 1878 or 1879, and Rev. William Finley was 
its first pastor. It is located about seven miles south of Marion. 
Alex. C. Nelson and wife, James Simmons and wife, Scott Sim- 
mons and wife, George W. Moak and wife, James S. Hudgens 
and others were original members. A good Sunday-school is 
also sustained by this church. Rev. T. T. Kendrick is the pas- 
tor. It has now 130 members. Stone Fort Methodist Episcopal 
Ohurch South was organized in 1885 by Rev, W. H. Nelson, 
Dr. Osborn and wife. Dr. Goe and wife and Mrs. G. W. Rose 
were among its original members. The present membership is 
about eighty-five. This church has increased rapidly and its 
church property is valued at $1,100. Rev, T. T. Kendrick is 
the pastor. This church also supports a good Sunday-school. 
The foregoing three churches constitute the Marion Circuit in 
the Ashley District of the Illinois Conference. There seems to be 
a growing demand for the extension of the Methodist Episcopal 
Ohurch South. 

The Christian Church in Marion was organized soon after 
the town was located, perhaps in 1843, by Elders Bristow and 
Hayes, who were the pioneer ministers of this church in this 
■county, although they were not residents. Joab and Nancy 
Goodall, John and Pliebe Pulley, Davis and others were among 
the first members. The ministers of this church have been 



522 WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

Archibald T. Benson, Samuel Nowland, Isaac Mulkey, Banteau, 

Crim, W. H. Bowels, Matthew Wilson, John A, Williams, 

Trimbell and J. J. Jones. The present membership is about 
seventy-five. The present brick church was erected in 1877, at 
a cost of about $4,000. Shiloh Christian Church, three miles 
south of Marion, was organized about 1862, and at present writ- 
ing its membership numbers about sixty. Elder Crim is the 
pastor. Serilda Christian Church, located ten miles south of 
Marion, was organized about the year 1877, and has now about 
forty members. Eight Mile Prairie Christian Church was 
organized about the year 1846, by Elders A. T. Benson and 
Ulysses Heap, Avith about sixty members. The present member- 
ship is about one hundred. Carterville Christian Church was 
organized recently, and has a membership of about forty, but no 
church edifice. Herrin's Prairie Christian Church was organ- 
ized about the year 1864, and has now forty members. Beaver 
Pond and Oak Grove Christian Church was organized during 
the latter part of the sixties, and now has about one hundred mem- 
bers. Jeffersonville Christian Church was organized prior ta- 
1870 by Elder M. F. Wilson. It now has about fifty members, 
and Elder Crim preaches for them. Purges School-house con- 
gregation, recently organized, has about twenty-five members, 
and Elder Crim also preaches for them. There are scattering 
members of this church denomination all over the county, who 
are not members of any particular organization. Good Sunday- 
schools are maintained by all the Christian Churches, and during 
the last few years an increased interest has been manifested in 
Sunday-school work by all the churches in the county. Williamt 
H. Warder is the superintendent of the Sunday-school of the 
Christian Church in Marion. 

A Presbyterian Church (of the new school) was organized m 
Marion in August, 1845, by Eevs. W. Chamberlin and Willis- 
ton Jones. The following are the names of the original mem— 



HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 523 

bers: Samuel Aikman, Henrietta Aikmaii, William Aikman, 
Maria E. Aikman, Eliab Aikman, Lewis Calvert, Mary Cox, 
Louisa Cox and Margaret McMurray. A church was erected 
during the ministry of Eev. Nehemiah Hunt, who took charge in 
1848. His successors were Revs. John W. McCord, John 
Ingersoll, Hillery Patrick and Charles G. Selleck — the latter 
after the war. The building erected under the administration 
of Rev. Hunt was taken down in 1870, and the materials were 
sold to the Cumberland Presbyterians, who used them in erect- 
ing a church of their own four miles east of town. The lot, 
which had been donated by Rev. Hunt, was sold for $205, and 
the money sent to him at his home in Sterling Center, Minn. 
When the church was sold as above mentioned the organization 
was dissolved, and the members united with other denominations. 
The Cumberland Presbyterians above referred to organized 
their church four miles east of Marion, in 1867, under the labors 
of Rev. L. G. Simpson, The original members were Rev. L. G. 
Simpson and wife, Rev. J. N. Calvert, William May and wife, 
O. G. Campbell, J. L. Calvert and Clementine Parks, all of 
whom, so far as known, are living at the present, except Rev. J. 
N. Calvert. The present membership numbers thirty, and Rev. 
J. L. Hudgens is the present pastor. The Presbyterians have 
an organization and church edifice at Carterville, and the Cum- 
berland Presbyterians also have an organization there, but no 
edifice. 

In the preparation of the history of Williamson County the 
writer has consulted the works of Milo Erwin and Rev. Throg- 
morton, and acknowledges information and extracts taken there- 
from. Acknowledgements are also due to the county officera 
for the privilege of consulting their records and for information 
given by them, and to all others who have kindly furnished val- 
uable information for this work. 



BIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX. 525 



GALLATIN COUNTY. 

George D. Barger. 
George D. Barger, a pioneer and farmer, was born in Shawnee- 
town in 1832. He is the youngest of seven children of Jacob and 
Elizabeth (Seaton) Barger. The father, of German origin and 
born in Pennsylvania, was the son of Geo. Barger, Sr. He went 
to Breckenridge County when a young man, and learned the car- 
penter's trade. He married in 1809. And after 1815 he was a 
farmer and carpenter of Shawneetown, and died in 1847. The 
mother was born in Kentucky in 1787, and died in 1860. She 
was a member of the Regular Baptist Church. Educated at 
Shawneetown, our subject, in 1854, was married to Lucy E., daugh- 
ter of Henry C. and Ann Floyd of Union County, Ky., where she 
was born in 1830. Four of their seven children are living: Jos. 
T., Lucy G., Maud E. and Nathaniel B. After 1865 he moved 
from near Shawneetown to his present fine farm of eighty acres in 
Section 22, four and one-half miles from that city. Always a 
Democrat, he first voted for Buchanan. He and his wife are 
members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

J. B. Barger. 
J. B. Barger, farmer, was born in Breckenridge County, Ky., 
February 2, 1814, one of seven children — two living — of Jacob 
and Elizabeth (Seaton) Barger. The father, born in Pennsyl- 
vania in 1784, was the son of Geo. Barger, of Germany, who, on 
account of religious persecution, became a pioneer of Brecken- 
ridge County, Ky. The father was poorly educated, and married 
in 1809, and in 1815 came to Shawneetown, when, after several 



526 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

years as carpenter, be spent the remainder of his life as a farmer. 
He was a trustee of Shawneetown for some time, and died in 
1847. The mother, a native of Kentucky, was born in 1787 and 
died in 1800, a member of the Baptist Church. She was a half 
sister of Gen. McClernand, and her mother was an early pioneer 
of Gallatin County. Our subject was educated at Shawneetown, 
and engaged as clerk and in fiat-boating. In March, 1834, he 
married Louisa M., a daughter of John Carter, who was born in 
Kentucky about 1814. She died in 1861, a member of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Two of their seven children are 
living: George and Jacob. In 1847 President Polk commis- 
sioned him as postmaster at Shawneetown, and in 1850 he was 
elected sheriff, serving two years, and also some time as 
deputy. From . 1854 to 1856 he was bookkeeper of the State 
Bank of Illinois. In 1856 he was elected county clerk, which 
position he held for twenty-six years, at the end of which 
time the citizens presented him, as a recognition of his faith- 
fulness, a gold headed cane. Since his official life closed he 
has lived in retirement. He has always been a Democrat, and 
is a Mason and a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
Besides town real estate, he owns the old homestead of 258 acres. 

Joseph Barnett. 
Joseph Barnett, farmer and stock dealer, was born in 1843, 
in Gallatin County, 111., one of six children of Zadok and 
Malinda (Choat) Barnett. The father, a farmer, born about 
1809 in Tennessee, came to Gallatin County when a young 
man, and afterward owned 240 acres on part of which our subject 
now lives, and remained until his death in 1859. The mother, 
born in 1809 in Gallatin County, died in 1851, Our subject 
owns 120 acres of fine land. In 1868 he was married to Sid- 
ney A., daughter of Thomas and Lutitia Patton, and born in 
1848 in Hardin County, 111. She died in Gallatin County, 



BIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX. 527 

111.. April 2, 1870. Their five cliildreu are Albert C, Mary 
A., Sarah J., Mellie M. and John T. In October, 18G1, enlist- 
ing in Company F, Sixth Illinois Yolunteer Cavalry, he was, 
on account of disability, honorably discharged in April, 1862. 
He is a Republican, and his wife is a member of the Cumber- 
land Presbyterian Church. 

James M. Bishop. 
James M. Bishop, postmaster, was born in Saline County, 
April 4, 1842. the son of William and Mary (Davis) Bishop, 
natives respectively of Tennessee and Virginia, and both in their 
•eighty-fifth year. They have been among the esteemed citizens 
of Saline County for over a half century. Reared to manhood 
on his father's farm, and with a common school training, our sub- 
ject, in August, 1861, enlisted in Company E, Third Illinois Cav- 
alry, serving as bugler until the close of the war. He was 
wounded at Pea Ridge, and fought at Cotton Plant, Ark., 
Vicksburg, Jackson, then on to New Orleans, to Shreveport, La., 
■on the Red River expedition under Gen. A. J. Smith, at Memphis 
when Forrest raided there, and finally was mustered out at Spring- 
field, 111. He then farmed near Eldorado untill879 when he came 
to Ridgway where he has been engaged in selling agricultural 
implements. He is an unswerving Democrat in politics, and for 
two years was constable. February 17, 1887, he was appointed 
to his present position of postmaster at Ridgway, by President 
Cleveland, and is giving satisfaction. November 18, 1861, he 
married Eliza J. Margrave, a native of Saline County. Mr. Bishop 
is a Mason and a member of the G. A. R. He and his wife 
are members of the Missionary Baptist Church, and among the 
best citizens of Ridgway. 

W. J. Boyd. 
W. J. Boyd, farmer and a pioneer, was Iwrn in Mason County. 
Ky., about 1823, a son of J. and L. C. (Bailey) Boyd. The 



528 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

father, of Irish origin, was born in Kentucky in 1794, a son of 
Archibald Boyd, a native of Harper's Ferry. Archibald was a 
soldier of the Revolution, and a pioneer of Kentucky, where he 
served as sheriff of Louis County many years. The father was 
reared in Mason and Louis Counties, and married in 1819. In 
1837 he removed to Gallatin County and resumed his work of 
brick-laying. He died in 1846. The mother, born in Summit 
County, Md., in 1796, died December 5,1857. She was a daugh- 
ter of Bowdoin Bailey, a soldier of the war of 1812, in the commis- 
sary department, and one of the "Baltimore Blues." Returning- 
to Kentucky in 1815, he then went to White County, III, in 
1826. Our subject was limited in school advantages, and in 1847 
married Jane, daughter of James and Margaret Bradford, and 
born in Ireland. Two of their six children are living: Rebecca^ 
wife of James Rice (deceased) and Laura C. He was then liv- 
ing in New Haven, engaged in the tanning, saddlery and harness 
business. With the exception of the years from 1874 to 1885 in 
Shawneetown in a livery and feed stable in connection with the 
Riverside Hotel, he has, since 1853, resided on his present farm 
which he carved out of the early wilderness. It has 240 acres 
besides which he has another farm aggregating in all about 370 
acres, and town property in addition. He has served for about 
twenty -two years, since 1846, as justice of the peace, in Asbury 
Precinct, and in his present home, beginning in 1854 in the 
then Wabash Precinct. He is one of the few now living who 
were citizens of the county in early life. He is a Democrat, 
first voting for Polk. He is a Mason. His parents were Pres- 
byterians, and his grandfather an elder who organized the church 
at Cabin Creek, Louis Co., Ky. 

John R. Boyd. 
John R. Boyd, abstractor of titles, and real estate and insur- 
ance agent, was born in Gallatin County in 1848, the eldest o£ 



BIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX. 529 

nine children of Thompson and Martha (Langford) Boyd. The 
father, of Scotch-Irish origin, and born in Maysville, Ky., in 
1820, was a son of John Boyd, a native of Ohio, and a brick- 
mason and plasterer by trade. Thompson went to Illinois with 
his parents when a young man, and in 1847 married in White 
County, and spent his life in the northeastern part of Gallatin 
County as a farmer and plasterer, and an esteemed and respected 
citizen. He was postmaster at Cottonwood from its establish- 
ment until his death, since which time it has been under the 
charge of Mrs. Boyd. Our subject, educated in the home 
schools, began the j^lasterers' trade at thirteen, under his 
father's instruction. He taught for eight years after his- 
twentieth year, and farmed during his vacations. October 
7, 1869, he married Virginia, daughter of Jonathan B. and 
Catherine Dagley, of White County, where she was born in 
1849. Their children are Samuel O., Thannie, Arthur L., 
Thompson, Jr., and Ethel. In 1875 he was elected county treas- 
urer and assessor, and re-elected in 1877, during which terms he 
made his present abstracts. He has since also been engaged 
successfully in real estate. He is a Democrat, and first voted for 
Seymour. He is a Mason, a Knight of Honor, and is a promi- 
nent member of the Presbyterian Church. Altogether he owns 
about 3,300 acres — 120 in Polk, and the rest in Gallatin and 
White Counties — one of the largest land owners in the county. 

T. W. M. Burroughs. 
T. W. M. Burroughs, farmer, was born in Union County, 
Ky., in 1831, one of three children of George and Martha 
(Coleman) Burroughs. The father, born in Maryland in 1793, 
and a farmer, after his marriage moved to Union County. In 
1838 he came to Gallatin County, and for six years carried on a 
woodyard. He served several years as justice. The mother, 
born about 1796, died in Union County about 1837. Beginning 



530 GALLATIN COUNTY. 

life as a poor boy, in 1866 he became the owner of his present 
improved farm of 120 acres. In 1850 he married Martha J., 
daughter of William and Mary F. Baldwin, and born in 1834 in 
Gallatin County. Their nine children are George, Mary, Will- 
iam H., Martha E., Caroline D., Charles R., Victoria, Emily N. 
and James M. In September, 1862, enlisting as orderly sergeant 
in Company D, One Hundred and Twentieth Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry, he was, among others, actively engaged at the siege of 
Vicksburg, and honorably discharged in September, 1865. Politi- 
cally a Republican, his first vote was for Scott, in 1852. He and 
his wife are members of the Presbyterian Church. 

Albekt Gallatin Caldwell. 
Albert Gallatin Caldwell (deceased), attorney at law, was 
born in 1817, in Shawneetown, the son of John Caldwell, a native 
of Brownsville, Penn., and who married Sarah, a daughter of 
John Badollet, a Frenchman. The latter and Albert Gallatin 
(not our subject) were schoolmates together in Geneva, Switzer- 
land, the former coming to America in 1786 and the latter in 
1780, both locating in Pennsylvania. In 1802 Gallatin was Sec- 
retary of the Treasury under Thomas Jefferson, and secured 
Badollet's appointment as register of the land office at Vincennes, 
Ind., and John Caldwell obtained the same office at Shawnee- 
town. Badollet's privilege of naming the fourth county in Illi- 
nois Territory, resulted in this county having its present name, 
Gallatin, in honor of his old friend and schoolmate. John Cald- 
well died in 1835. His children are Eliza, wife of Alexander 
Kirkpatrick; John B., teller of the State Bank at Shawneetown 
for a time and afterward a farmer, who died in 1856; our sub- 
ject; William L. (deceased), a Shawneetown merchant; Margaret, 
widow of John Caldwell of Indianapolis, and Martha, who lives 
with the last mentioned sister. Our subject was educated in Shaw- 
neetown. In 1841 he married Eleanor, daughter of Joseph Cas- 



BIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX. 531 

tie of Philadelphia, and born in 1822 in the latter place. Their 
children are Charles, and Sarah, wife of George Eidgway. Mr. 
Caldwell was one of the leading members of the county bar, and 
an eloquent speaker. In 1850 he Avas elected to represent his 
•county in the Legislature, and the following year he died, pass- 
ing