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Volame II — Page 

71 line 28 for Sir Thomas, read Sir Patrick, 
128 Note 2, for A. read G. 
216 — 3 1, for paioxism, read paroxysm. 
297 — 1 1> for batallion, read battalion, 
378 Note for relicts, read relics. 
383 line 34, jror hoplessuess, read hopelessness. 
404 line 14, for was believed, read was still beliered 
468 — 26, for im poster, read impostor. 
47*5 — 18, for principles, read principals, 
487 — 2, for have, read has. 




Internal condition of Galloway... Its appearance changed.:. 
Moral condition of the inhabitants improved. ..Physical comfort 3 
not much encreased. ...Husbandry ... Traffic... .Fish exported 
...Abbot of New Abbey apprehended on account of his at- 
tachment to Popery... Mr Welsh, previously minister of Kirk- 
cudhiight, tried... Had married Knox's daughter ..Banished... 
Gavin" Hamilton appointed Bishop of Galloway... The King 
confers upon Hamilton the Abbeys of Dundrennan and Tong- 
land, the Priory of Whithorn, and the Monastery of Glenluce, 
together with their property, revenues, and churches... The 
Bishop of Galloway summoned to England to he oidained by 
English Bishops... Commission couits... The Earls of Cassillis 
and Wigtown, the Bishop of Galloway, &c, commissioners... 

Lord Maxwell kills Sir James Johnston Is executed 

Bishop Hamilton dies, and is succeeded in the see of Galloway, 
by William Cowper... Stranraer made a royal Burgh, and formed 
into a parish, in the reign of Charles I... Aiticles of Perth pecu- 
liarly disagreeable to the people of Galloway ..Cowper dies... 
Andrew Lamb translated to the see of Galloway.. Robert, Lord 
Maxwell, created Earl of Nithsdalc.Sir Alexander Stewart, 
Lord Garlies, created Earl of Galloway... The Earl of Nithsdale 
sent down to Scotland to hold a meeting of the Estates... Sir 
John Gordon created Viscount of Kenmure, and Sir Robert 
Maclelhm receives the title of Lord Kirkcudbright.. .Charter to 
New Galloway... Kirkcudbright obtains a new charter... Alex, 
ander Gordon of Earlston banished to Montrose... The Magis- 
trates of Kirkcudbright ordered by the Bishop of Galloway to bo 
confined in Wigtown jail, for refusing to imprison their pastor 


...Rutherford minister of Anwotli... Banished to Aberdeen. ..His 
brother ordered to remove from Kirkcudbright. ..Sydeserff, 
Bishop of Galloway, attacked by the populace... Again attacked 
at Stirling... SOLEMN League and Covenant... Livingston 
goes with copies of the Covenant to London. ..Rutherford re- 
turns to Anwoth...Mr Livingston appointed to Stranraer, and 
Mr John Maclellan to Kiikcudbright.,.The Bishop of Galloway 
accused before the assembly ...Deposed and -excommunicated... 
A new arrangement of Presbyteries... Mr Rutherford enjoined 
to go to St. Andrews... The Scots gain the battle of Nuwburn 

The troops from Galloway distinguish themselves.. ..The 

Bishopric of Galloway, with its property, granted to the Uni. 
versity of Glasgow... Meeting of Divines at Westminster... The 
Earl of Cassillis, Mr Rutherford, &c., from Scotland... Over- 
tures respecting witchcraft. ..Lord Kirkcudbright's regiment at- 
tacked... Lord Kirkcudbright's regiment in the battle of Philips. 
Laugh... James Agnew its Lieutenant. Colonel. 

CHAPTER II. p. 93. 

The Earl of Cassillis one of the commissioners to Charles ll. 
...The Earl of Cassillis and Mr Livingston, with several others, 
sent to Charles at Breda... Gentlemen of Galloway and some 
Other places raise a body of horse. ...Protesters... Lord Ken- 
mure joins an insurrection against the authority of Cromwell... 
His castle taken... Cromwell dies and his son succeeds him; but 
toon resigns the office... Charles recalled. 

CHAPTER HI. p. Ill, 

Rutherford's Lex Rex ordered to be burned... Earl of Cassil. 
lis withdraws from parliament... Rutherford's death... The Earl 
ol Galloway, in name of his Sovereign, dissolves a meeting of 
the Synod of Galloway.... Mr James Dairy mple of Stair no- 
minated a judge of the Court of Session. ..James Hamilton ap- 
pointed to the. see of Galloway ...Consecrated in Westminster 
Abbey... Tiials for Witchcraft.,.. People of Galloway fined... 
Patronage restored... Recusant ministers removed from their 
p nishes... Mr Wylie ordered to be apprehended... a regular prst 
between Galloway and Ireland established... Perish churches- 
lie in a neglected state. ..First conventicle at Corsack.. Riots in 
Kirkcudbright and Kiikpatrick Iiongtay...The Earl of Gallo- 
way and other commissioners proceed to Kirkcudbright, and 
inquire into the particulars of the outrage... (.'all before them 
Lord Kirkcudbright and several others... Lord Kirkcudbright 
cured a prisoner to Edinburgh... Commissioners at Irongray... 
Send William Arnot a prisonei to Edinburgh... Mr Gordon of 


Eailston's troubles commence... Fines exacted for non confor. 
mity by Sir James Turner. ...The people maltreated by the 
soldiers.... William Gordon of Earlston banished... Individuals 
publicly whipped on account of their religious opinions. 

CHAPTER IV. p. 157. 

Rising at Dairy... The insurgents march to Dumfries... 
Colonel Wallace chosen commander... Hold a council of war 
at , Ochiltree... The Covenant renewed at Lanark... The Co. 
venanters defeated at Rullion. green. ..Major John M'Culloch 
of Barholm, captain Andrew Arnot, and the Gordons of Knock, 
brex. brought to trial and executed... Some of theii heads sent 
to Kirkcudbright for exposure, and their hands to Lanark... 
Mr Neilson of Coisack tortured. ..Executed. ..Sir William Ban- 
nantine and a party of soldiers harass Galloway... Estates for. 
feited...Bond of peace... Few in Galloway sign it... An Indulg- 
ence... Curates attacked... A severe act of Parliament. ..Ministers 
wJio officiate at conventicles subject themselves to the punish, 
ment of death. ..Conventicle at Irongray...The Sheriffs in GaL 
loway obliged to grant deputations to Graham of Claverhouse 
and others... Aichbishop Sharpe assassinated... Attendance upon 
conventicles declared treason. ..Graham of Claverhouse defeated 
by the Covenanters, at Drumclog... Battle of Bothwell. Bridge 
....Galloway men defend the bridge... Insurgents defeated... Mr 
Gordon of Earlston killed. ..Claverhouse marches into Galloway, 
and forces many of the inhabitants to forsake their homes... 
Mary Gordon of Roberton, experiences harsh treatment... Estates 
in Galloway forfeited and moveable effects seized ..A court 
at New-Galloway... The Cameronians formed into a society... 
Halketon executed in a cruel manner... The Earl of Nithsdale 
declines the Test, and is deprived of the Stewardship of Kirk. 
cudbright...Sir Andrew Agnew deprived of his office, and is 
succeeded, as sheriff, by Graham of Claverhouse... Hei on of Kir. 
ouchtree and Dalrymple of Stair fined. ..Gordon of Earlston 
apprehended... Ordered by the King to Le tortured... Cornet 
Graham opens a couit at Balma^hie, and Sir Robert Grierson, 
another at Dairy, for ptessing the Test upon the inhabitants... 
Thomas Lidderdale of St Mary's Isle holds a court at Twyn. 
holm for the same purpose. .A similar couit held in Kirkcudbright 
...Sentences ordered to be executed three hours after being pass. 

ed The Cameronians dreadfully persecuted... The Apologetical 

Declaration ..Officers of the army empowered to kill the Came- 
ronians i'i the fields... The Indulgence withdrawn... Men shot at 
Auchencloy ..Two of the party carried prisoners to Kirkcud. 
bright and executed... A woman of 73 years of age belonging 
to Garsephairn scourged in Dumfries... The Oath of Abjuration 
gives rise to much suffering.. ,Johu Uallume tried and executed 


at Kirkcudbright,... The Curate of Carsephairn killed... Men 
shot at Lochinkit...Tworaen hanged near the church of Irongray 
...Five surprised on the hill of Kirkconnel, and shot. ..Two 
women drowned at Wigtown ..Three men executed at Wigtown 

...Gilbert and William Mihoy tortured and banished A 

protestation given to Mr Renwick, at Kirkmabreck... Sir John 
Dalrymple appointed Lord Advocate.... Toleration to dissenters 

granted Mr Renwick executed... The Prince of Orange lands 

...The crown of Scotland settled on William and Mary... Sir 
John Dalrymple and two others deputed to administer the oaths 
to the new Sovereigns... Sir Andrew Agnew restored to the 
office of Sheriff. 

CHAPTER V. p. 294. 

Episcopal clersry insulted. ..Meeting of Presbyterian ministers 
at Minnigaff... William's fleet windhound in the bay of Kirkcud- 
bright, and afterwards takes shelter in Lochryan.. The massacre 
of Glencoe recommended by the Master of Stair... William dies, 
and is succeeded by Anne, daughter of James VII... The Rever. 
end John Macmillan of Balmaghie deposed ..Mr M'Kie appointed 
minister, but ill used by the inhabitants... The Union of Scotland 
and England proposed ..Condemned by the people... The treaty 
of Union completed... Scotch money abolished ..Regular posts 
established... Domestic condition of Galloway... Houses still bad 
...Furniture rude...Fuod coarse... Dress homely and ungraceful 
...Agricultural implements awkward. ..Education at a low ebb 
...The people superstitious. ..Roads bad. 

CHAPTER VI. p 347. 

The Union advantageous... Discontent. ..Patronage restored 
....Anne dies and George I. succeeds... The Eail of Stair sent 
ambassador to France... Preparations for a Rebellion by the 
Earl of Mair, the Earl of Nithsdale, and Viscount Kenmure.... 
The people prep ire for sell' defence, and are provided with arms 
and ammunition... Sanquhar fixed to be the place of rendezvous 
for the inhabitants of the southern distiict...The Earl of Marr 
raises the Standard of rebellion ...Stair prevents stores of war 
from being sent from France to the Rebels. ..Viscount Kenmure 
obtains the supreme command of the Rebels in the south... 
Intends to take Dumfries... The fencible men of the Stewartry 
assemble at Leaths-moor... Well armed volunteers flock to Dnni- 
fries for its defence, from the parishes of Galloway .. A company 
of foot from Kirkcudbright.. .Lord Kenmure marches from 
Moffat to take Dumfries. ..Preparations made for a vigorous 
defence.. ..The ministers of the Synod of Galloway agree to 




State of crime, . . • » i . . 1 

Extracts from Pitcairn's Trials, .... 4 

Tradition respecting the family of Kenmuic, . . 6 

Charters of New I nd Kirkcudbright, . . 9 

en of Fullerton's Turtle Bove, .... 15 

Assassination of John M'Knaught, .... 17 
Articles of Ci pitulation when Kenmure castle 

besieged by Cromwell's soli .... 19 

Letter in Wodi'ow from a gentleman in Gall; . 21 

Lines on visiting the Castle of Thrieve ... 23 
Account of the Covenanters in Galloway, after their 

defeat at Both 25 

First meeting of the Synod of Galloway, after the 

Revolution, 28 

The Commission granted by the Privy Council 

for the trial of Elspeth M'Ewen, and Mary 

Millar, alleged of Witchcraft. . . , .37 

Trials of Janet M'Rohcrt and Jean M'Murray ; , 40 
A Biographical sketch of Sir Robert Maxwell of 

Orchardton, &c 44 

An Account of Smugglers in Galloway, ... 55 

History of the M' Adams, of Watei head, « . . GO 

Relics in the possession of Mr Train, • . . G3 

Population of tl.e Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, , , 73 

Do. of \ :re, , i , , , To 




Having concluded James's reign in Scotland,, 
it may be necessary for the purpose of elucidating 
the remaining part of this history, to take a cur- 
sory view of the internal state of Galloway at this 

The external aspect of the district had now un- 
dergone a complete change. From the continued 
waste of timber, the woods had almost totally dis- 
appeared. To such a degree had they been destroy- 
ed in the southern division of the kingdom at least, 
that Parliament interfered in the year 1535, and 
enjoined new woods to be planted. 1 The destruc- 

1 That " freeholders cause their tenants to plant woods, trees, 
and hedges, and sow broom in convenient places. Act, Jame» II. 
Pari. 14 Cap. 80. 

Ratified, — and that every man having an hundred pound Land 
of new extent whereon there is no wood, plant wood and make 
kedge* and haiuing extending to three Aikera, and that th»y 


tion of forests led to the extermination of such wild 
and ferocious animals as were wont to prowl 
through the wood.-. • upon their prey. The 

wild boar, once common, was now scarcely to be 
seen, and of the wolves, which were at one time 
numerous and dangerous, i'ew remained.! 

The condition of the inhabitants of Galloway, 
had considerably improved. Many causes con- 
spired t:> this effect. Law had already 
assumed considerable vigour, and both the pro- 
perty and persons of individuals were held more 
I. The execution of justice had become more 
certain, and the chance of escape or pardon con- 
siderably diminished. The Courts of Session and 
Justiciary had powerfully contributed to produce 
this salutary change, not only in Galloway, but 
also in the whole of Scotland. 2 

The reformation of religion had likewise been 
peculiarly effective in advancing the welfare of 
the people. By the overthrow of the Papal Church 
a great number of haughty, tyrannical, and pro- 
fligate clerical Lords, had been removed from public 
view, who, by bad example, corrupted the minds of 
the people ; and an ameliorated system of morality 
had been introduced. The people were now ac- 
quainted with their real interest. The Presbyte- 

cause tlieir tenants to plant for every merit land a tree under the 
pain often founds to be paid by every laird that failzies. Act 
Jam s V., par] 1 . 4 Cap. 10. 

Ratified',— and that wilful destroyers and cutters of growand 
trees be punished to death as thieves." Act James VI, Pari. 
11 Can 83. 

1 ' That the Sheriff and Bailie hunt the woolf thiice in the 
yeir betwixt St. Murk's day and Lambes, and that the country 
ris with them for that end." Act James VI., Pari.. 14. ^..e*. 
L5S1 ) 

2 Scott.. 


rian ministers instead of assisting in the oppression 
of the lower ranks were their true friends, — in 
health or sickness, — in prosperity or adversity, — 
in freedom or in slavery. The reformed clergy 
were the bulwarks from which they derived their 
protection; the fountain from which they imbibed 
their information ; the source from which they drew 
their consolation; the models after which they form- 
ed their characters ; the venerated instructors of 
their childhood ; and the steady props of their de- 
clining years: in short the i " lights of the world, — 
the salt of the earth." 

The introduction of the art of printing had like- 
wise contributed powerfully to enlighten the minds, 
and consequently to improve the condition, of 
the inhabitants of Galloway. Never perhaps was 
an engine discovered so powerful for good or evil 
as the press. But at this period it was employ- 
ed only in labours of beneficence — in diffusing 
through the land, knowledge, truth, and wisdom. 
Before the art of printing had been discovered, 
books were rare and so valuable, that the utmost 
care was taken to prevent their abstraction from the 
houses of their possessors. Even in baronial castles 
there were generally only one or two volumes, 
which, being chained to a table in the hall, lay for 
thej)erusal of those who could read them. Books 
were also chained in churches and universities to 
prevent their removal; being sometimes attached to 
the desks, and sometimes to the shelves, which sup- 
ported them. 

The clergy of the ancient establishment had 
been much disposed to keep the people in a state 
of mental darkness; but the reformed clergy seiz- 
ed every opportunity to diffuse the light of "know- 


ledge amongst all classes of the community. — 
They read and explained the scriptures in public, 
catechised children in the churches, instilling into 
their minds the principles of the Christian Faith, 
and inculcated upon them the advantages of re- 
ligious and moral rectitude. 

Along with their improvement in knowledge, 
the inhabitants of Scotland in general, and Gallo 
way in particular, became more gentle in their 
manners, more humble in their deportment, mora 
humane in their sentiments, more just in their in- 
tercourse with others, more affectionate to their 
friends, less vindictive to their enemies.l In short, 
by that mode of moral and religious culture to 
which the expanding intellect was early subjected, 
a new intelligence was created, and a new benig- 
nity called forth, which were rendered permanently 
productive. The arm of the law was, no doubt, 
often and necessarily stretched out to punish crime, 
but the offences had generally assumed somewhat 
of a mollified aspect. 2 

Though the moral condition of the people had 
undergone a marked improvement, 3 yet their phy- 
sical comforts were not very materially augmented. 

1 Scott. 

2 For the state of crime in Galloway fiom the beginning tt 
the reign of Mary, until James's accession to the English crowi^ 
see Appendix (P.) 

S "Certainly Galloway," says William Lithcrow, the celebrated 
traveller, who visited it not long after this date, "is become 
more civil of late, than any maritime country bordering with 
the Western Sea. The nobility, and gentry, are as courteous, 
and every way generously disposed, as either discretion would 
wish or honour command. 1 found here in diver3 roadway 
inns, as >;ood cheer, hospitality, and serviceable attendance, a* 
though 1 had been ingiafied in Lombardy, or Naples." Lithgow's 
June 1 .**!! Year's Travels. Eleventh Edition. 


The buildings in towns were still but mean, and the 
cottages rude and incommodious. The windows 
were yet but holes, sometimes closed with boards 
moving on clumsy hinges, sometimes stuffed with 
straw, and sometimes rilled with turf. The cot- 
tages rarely contained more than one apartment; 
and a part of it was generally occupied by a do- 
mestic animal. The Reformation had razed or 
dilapidated the monasteries; at least it had reduced 
the sacred edifices to a state from which they were 
progressively to fall into ruins. 1 But the destruc- 

I Perhaps the monasteries of Galloway, from the protection 
afforded to them by Fiord Maxwell and other powerful pro. 
prietors, suffered less at the time of the Reformation than those 
of many other place?. Indeed some of them, such as the Abbey 
of Luce, sustained no injury. Of this monastery the New Sta- 
tistical Account thus speaks. 

"It was founded in t he year 1190, and was after waYds inha. 
bited by monks of the Cistertian order. From the ruins, which 
cover a whole acre of ground, and from some of its walls, which 
are still standing, it appears to have been a very magnificent 
and extensive building. Nearly a century after other monaster. 
ies had Leen destroyed in Scotland, the Abbey of Luce remain- 
ed almost in an entire state ; for so late as 1646, it is mention- 
ed in the Records of the Presbytery of Stranraer as having sus- 
tained little injury. The Chapter-House, as it is called, still re- 
mains entire, — a small apartment on the eastern side of the square,. 
the roof of which is supported by a strong pillar, diverging at 
the top into eight arches, and terminating in the surrounding 
walls. The centres of the arches aie ornamented with various 
figures curiously cut out in white freestone." 

New Staiisttcal Account. 

The Abbey of Dundrennan likewise remained entire, and con. 
tained its usual inmates when Mary visited it, before embarking 
for England. When the monks, however, were at last under 
the necessity of forsaking their old habitation, we are told they 
collected the most valuable of their effects, and retired on board 
of a vessel at Buinfoot, which they had procured for transporting 
them to Fiance. The vessel sailed from the creek where 
Mary had em harked ; but a storm suddenly came on and the ill- 
feted bark, with her passengers and the whole we.dth of the 
magnificent Abbey, went to the bottom of the sea. It has 
keen said, however, by some, that thg vessel reached France ia 


tion of tlic religious houses now tended to produce 
improvements in rural districts, both in the dwellings 
of the smaller proprietors, and in the embellishment 
of barons' stately castles. The scattered treasures 
of religious houses, with their furniture and building 
materials, imparted new notions of domestic accom- 
modation and internal comfort. The stately castle of 
Kirkcudbright, belonging to the opulent and power- 
ful Laird of Bombie, was erected, as previously 
mentioned, in 1532. This castle seems to have 
been built more for the comfortable accommodation 
of its inmates than as a place of defence; and it exhi- 
bits not only a specimen of the edifices which were 
constructed at this period, but displays in plain cha- 
racters the advanced state of the district in tran- 
quillity and security. 

The husbandry of Galloway was now chiefly 
pastoral. Galloway was one of the principal wool 
districts of Scotland, and much of its produce was 
sent to the burgh of Dumfries to be made into broad 

safety, and tliat the records of the monastery arc still in exist- 
ence. A report d'M' prevailed that they had been offered for 
sale to the Right Honourable Robert Cutlar Fergusson. We 
used the freedom of wiitii:^ to this gentleman, to ascertain if the 
report rested on any '/nod giounds, but he stated in reply " I am 
not in possession of any paper or other information respecting 
the Abbey of Dundrennan, which can be of any use to you, in 
the preparing of your Work on the History of Galloway," 

Some old i iple say that the Abbey of Dundrennan was 
burned, and others that it fell gradually to decay. The fol- 
lowing facts seem to confirm the former opinion. About two 
years ago the mouldering walls received some slight repairs to 
prolong the duration ol their existence; and in the course of the 
operations the workmen found it necessary occasionally to dig 
down to some depth. Aftei iemo\ irfaee, they often 

came to a substance re shes, which contained pieces of 

, parts of which had been < iq a state of 

fusion. curious relics which had been buried for ages 

weiei! bt to light: they will be taken notice of in their 

proper place. 


cloth, for the manufacture of which this town had 
obtained much celebrity. In some parts of the in- 
terior of Galloway even at this time, woollen stuffs 
began to be manufactured on a small scale.l The 
district was still famous for its fleet and handsome 
breed of horses. 

The agriculture of this province of Scotland was 
at present in a wretched state. It raised almost no 
wheat, but what little it raised was of such a quality 
as not to remunerate the husbandman for his toil : in- 
deed, the crops soon degenerated into nothing else 
than empty chaff and straw. Laws were enacted to 
encourage, or rather to enforce, the culture of wheat, 
but they proved unavailing.- Most of the flour used 
in Scotland was imported from England. Oats were 
the principal article of crop in the southern parts of 
the kingdom. The potato, although introduced into 
Britain by Sir Walter Raleigh, had not yet reached 
Galloway. Ploughs continued still to be generally 
drawn by oxen, and were so ponderous that some- 
times eight cattle were yoked to one plough. The 
old Roman plough still remained in use. 

1 The native breed of sheep was small and white faced 

Litbgow, who visited the distiict in 1628, praises the flavour of 
the m itton and the quality of the wool, which lie considered as 
Dot inferior to that of Spain. " Nay," he continues "the Ca- 
:ver a better lustre, or a softer gripe than I 
have touched in Galloway ou the sheep's back." (Litho-ow's 

The rents of farms ivcre paid in corn and provisions, 
(Fletcl II 8.) and tithes were constantly levied or demand 

able in kind, but of all the wheat paid at the Reformation as men. 
tionedby Keith, none was paid either to the Bishop of Gallo 
way, to i of Dundrennan, to the Abbey ol Salseat, to the 

priory of Whitbern, or to the Abbey oi Crossregual, which is a 
proof l. was not cultivated in Galloway, otherwise the 

clergy would have claimed a portion of it." (Wallace's State of 
Scotland. Edinburgh Edition, 1785. page 25. 


Internal traffic was principally carried on at fairs 
and maikets. Fairs were once held on holidays, and 
even on Sundays, hut by the unwearied exertions of 
the Presbyterian clergy after the Reformation, the 
days appointed for fairs were changed. 1 The goods 
to be exposed for sale were conveyed in cars, in 
sledges, in carts of wicker work, on the backs of 
horses, or on the shoulders of pedlars; and the va- 
rious articles of merchandise were exposed to the 
view of the public, on stands, in booths, or tents. 
The King's officers exacted duties from those who 
Bold at fairs, for the protection they received, and for 
the privilege they enjoyed of gaining advantage to 
themselves by their intercourse with the King's sub- 
jects. Markets were among the rights of burghs, 
and generally occurred weekly, but Sunday markets 
were abolished after the Reformatio. The market 
day being the only time of traffic within burghs, on 
that day people from the country brought in their 
produce to supply the inhabitants of the town with 
such commodities as were in daily use, and bought 
such articles from the merchants of the burgh as 
they required in the country. Pedlars also travel- 
led through the rural districts, and both sold and 
bought various small articles ; thus saving the coun- 
try-people the trouble of repairing weekly to towns. 
The tollbooth of royal burghs was originally the 
booth in which the public officers collected the 
toll, or duty.- In remote districts, barter was com- 
mon among the inhabitants. 

1 "It was enacted. "That no fairs bo holden on holydnysi 
6ut on the morn after." Act, James III, Pari. 5, Cap. 34. (i «. 

2 "It was enacted that at fairs the Sheriff should only haw 
the best Ox or Cow or un ridden Horse brought to sale." (Act 
James II, Pail. 13 Cap. 59.) 


Fish of different kinds was exported from Gallo- 
way in considerable quantities. The rivers afford- 
ed excellent salmon in great abundance. Trout 
of various sorts was easily taken in the rivers and 
lakes, whilst the pike and perch were numerous in 
many places. At the lower end of the lake of Ken, 
in the parish of Crossmichael, was a place long 
famous for the abundance of eels which it furnished 
for exportation. 

At this period the Scots were extremely anxious 
to obtain gold or silver in exchange for the articles 
which they exported. Laws, indeed, existed in the 
reign of James I., compelling exporters to bring 
home with them, a certain quantity of the precious 
metals for the goods they had carried away. The 
coins of England, Flanders, and France, were cur- 
rent in Scotland, as well as its domestic coinage. 
Silver, in the reign of Queen Mary, was about ten 
times as valuable as it is at present; or, in other 
words, the same quantity of it would have purchased 
ten times as much of the necessaries of life. 

Not very long previous to this time, as we have al- 
ready seen, the smaller barons, or inferior vassals of 
the crown, were, in a great measure, relieved from 
what they considered an onerous duty, namely, their 
attendance in Parliament. The burgesses alone, 
holding not as individuals, but as a body, were al- 
lowed to appear by one or two representatives, or 
commissioners, for each burgh. At first all freehold- 
ers, whose annual income did not exceed a hundred 

"That in Fairs, Parliament times, or general Councils, grea$ 
Constables of Castles, Sheriffs, or Baillies of Burghs, use no ex- 
tortion by taking from poor folks for loads or burdens what they 
call fees, under pain of being punished at the king's will," Jamee 
6, Parliament 5. Cap. 33. 

vol, it B 


marks, obtained permission to give their attendance 
by procurators, unless specially summoned; and one 
procurator might appear for as many as chose to en- 
trust him with a procuratory power. At last, during 
the reign of James VI., in the year 1587, it was 
finally settled by law, that for the future, two commis- 
sioners should be elected for every shire, to repre- 
sent the smaller barons in Parliament.! The whole 
of the Parliamentary body sat in the same hall, and 
the Ring presided, or, in his absence, the chancellor, 
who, at first, seems to have been merely his secre- 
tary. At this period the alienation of land did not 
necessarily imply the alienation of the title which 
it originally had conferred. A commoner, in pur- 
chasing, or even in succeeding to an estate which 
had been erected into a lordship, did not become 
noble, or acquire a right to sit in parliament. All 
he acquired, was a title to vote for a representative, 
or to be chosen one himself. 2 


After the accession of James to the English 

1 Their charges to he defrayed by those who were relieved 
from attending, and subsequently a stated sum was allowed. " It 
being just that those who shall attend his Majesty and the ser. 
% ice of the kingdom iu parliament, have due allowances for their 
res. His Majesty doth therefore with the advice of his 
of parliament statute, enact, declare, modify, and ap. 
point five pounds Scots, height shillings and fourpence sterling,) 
o*' daily allowance to every commissioner from any shire, includ- 
ing the first and last days of parliament, together with eight 
for their coining, and as much for their returning- to the 
siiires of Caithness and Sutherland, and proportionally at nearer 
listances, and that the whole, free holders, heritors, and life. 
centers holding of the King and Prince, shall according to the 
proportion of their lands and rents lving within the shire, be li. 
able and obliged, in the payment of such allowance." Acts Pari, 
1641. Chap, xyiii. — 1661, Chap. xxxv. 

2 Lord Fountainhall's Decisions. — Case of the East ofSuther. 
land. jr. Earl of Crawford. 


throne, on the death of Queen Elizabeth, he ex- 
hibited, in the opinion of many, an undue attach- 
ment to his former subjects. His power of grati- 
fying his Scottish friends, was now much augment- 
ed, and he showered benefits upon them with a 
liberal hand. The King's proceedings in this re- 
spect were viewed by the English nation, not only 
with extreme jealousy, but even with undisguised 
envy, open resentment, and avowed hostility. — 
At this period, James endeavoured to effect a union 
of the two kingdoms, and, likewise, a union of the 
two churches of England and Scotland ; but natu- 
ral prejudices were still too strong to permit these 
intended measures to be carried into execution, 

A party now existed in England, known by the 
designation of puritans, who were dissatisfied with 
the hierarchy, and looked upon the mode of worship 
which was then practised in Scotland, as much 
more consonant to reason and the Divine will. — 
James, as head of the English Church, viewed this 
party with displeasure and uneasiness, considering 
them the votaries, not merely of ecclesiastical, but 
likewise of civil liberty, and the enemies of the just 
prerogatives of his crown. Scotland, he thought, 
set before those zealots a dangerous example, which 
might have a powerful effect in spreading their 
principles, and encouraging new efforts to dimi- 
nish the power of the Sovereign, and to obtain an 
entire change in the ecclesiastical polity of the na- 
tion. James, therefore, determined to remodel the 
Church of Scotland, and thus ultimately suppress 
Presbyterian turbulence. The English clergy- 
encouraged him in the design of assimilating the 
two churches, as a step towards uniting the twa> 


kingdoms. 1 His Scottish courtiers and other nobles, 
since his elevation to the English throne, and great 
accession of patronage and power, seemed more 
ready to accommodate their religion to the views of 
the Sovereign, and James concluded from their ob- 
sequiousness, or at least supineness, that he might 
proceed with safety. Several insidious encroach- 
ments had already been made on the independence 
of the Scottish Church; and the King to gain over at 
least a part of the clergy, embraced every suitable 
opportunity to encrease the revenue and exalt the 
dignity of the bishops. He, therefore, evaded the 
urgent and reiterated solicitations of the Presby- 
terian ministers, that they might be allowed to 
meet in their General Assembly. At last, many 
of the clergy becoming irritated at the various de- 
lays and disappointments, representatives from nine 
presbyteries ventured to assemble at Aberdeen in 
160-j, without the royal authority. This was view- 
ed as an act of rebellion, and the leaders were seiz- 
ed; but having declined the jurisdiction of the Privy 
Council, they were thrown into close confinement. 
In the end of August, Lord Cranston, captain 
of the guard, apprehended Gilbert Brown, Abbot 
of New-Abbey,2 vvho had been complained against 

1 Cook. 

2 " Sir Robeit Spottiswood, second son of the archbishop of 
that name, seems now to have got a grant of this abbey. He sne- 
eeeded his celebrated father as a Lord of Session in 1622, under 
the title of Lord New. Abbey. He was in 1633 elected presL 

i- nt "t the court ; but, on the triumph of piesbytery in 1G37, 
In- ceased to exercise that office. He joined the maiquis of 
Montrose ; and v-as apprehended near Philiphaugh, in August 
1645. He was tried for treason, by a committee of parliament, 
and found guilty. He was beheaded at the market cross of St. 
Andrews, 20th January 1646. (Memoirs of Ma Life, prefixed to 
his Piarlics of the Law of Scotland, edited in 1706, by his grand- 
eon, Mr John Spottiswood,. advocate.") Murray. 


by the General Assembly, on account of his ar- 
dent attachment to Popery and exertions in its 
behalf. The people of the country rose in his de- 
fence. He was first sent to Blackness, but, in 
a few days, he was conveyed to Edinburgh castle a 
and liberally supported there at the King's ex- 
pense until he could be conveniently removed 
from the kingdom. 

The contumacious ministers were brought to trial 
before the High Court of Justiciary. Six of their 
number were found guilty of treason, but instead 
of being condemned to suffer death, they had their 
punishment commuted into banishment from Scot- 
land for life. John Welsh, at one time minister 
of Kirkcudbright, but now of Ayr, was among the 
number of the prosecuted. He suffered a long 
imprisonment at Blackness before he was sent in- 
to banishment. The fate of these undaunted and 
conscientious ministers excited the sympathy of the 
people, and a great multitude resorted to the shore 
at Leith, at the unseasonable hour of two in the 
morning, to witness their departure, and bid them 
a final and affectionate adieu. Welsh offered up 
a most fervent and impressive prayer on the melan- 
choly occasion ; and after singing the 23d Psalm s 
the ministers tore themselves away from their sor- 
rowing friends, many of whom they were destined 
never again to meet in this world. The people 
became much affected, and ardently implored a 
blessing on the heads of their faithful pastors. 

While Mr Welsh was in Kirkcudbright, he 
married the daughter of John Knox, the celebrat- 
ed reformer. This woman seems to have pos- 
sessed much of her father's unflinching firmness 
and ardent spirit. Instead of abandoning herself 


to useless sorrow or unavailing despair, she attend- 
ed her husband on every trying occasion, animat- 
ing him on the day of his trial, and often cheering 
him during - his tedious confinement. She blessed 
God that her husband had both acted and suffered 
in the cause of Christ. ' 

So much had fc the hands of Government been 
now strengthened, that these proceedings against 
the clergy raised no commotion in the nation. — 
By this bold stroke the King's authority over the 
refractory Church was considerably augmented. — 

1 Life of Welsh Murray. 

" There is a life of Mr John Welsh, printed in 4to, 1703. from 
which we learn that ' he was born a gentleman, his hither being 
Laird of Collieston, in Nithisdale.' When a stripling, he fre- 
quently eloped from school, and joined the. thieves on the Eng- 
lish border; but at college he became a sincere convert to piety. 
He was first of all minister at Selkirk ; he married Elizabeth 
Knox, daughter of the Reformer, and heiress to no small share 
of her father's spirit, by whom he had three sons. The eldest, 
a doctor of medicine, was killed in the Low Countries, the second 
peiished at sea, and the third was Josias, minister at Temple 
Patrick, in Ireland, commonly called the Cock of the Conscience 
by the people of that country, because of his extraordinary 
awakening and rousing gift." 

So miraculous a person was Welsh, that he is said to have 
been seen, while at prayer, surrounded by a heavenly light ; but 
a9 this was at night, and in a garden, it is probable that there 
were glow worms on the bushes. 'He would many times retire 
to the church of Ayr. which was at some distance from the town, 
and there spend the whole night in prayer; for he used to allow 
his affections full expressions, and prayed not only with an aud- 
ible, but sometimes a loud voice ; nor did he irk in that society 
[tire of that place,] all night over, which hath, it may be, oc- 
casioned the contemptible slander of some malicious enemies, 
who were so bold as to call him no less than a wizard. Mr 
Welsh's preaching," continues his biographer, ' was spiritual 
and searching ; his utterance tender and moving ; he did not 
much insist upon scholastick purposes; he made no show of his 
learning. I heard one of his hearers, who was afterwards mi- 
nister of Moorkirk, in Kyle, say that no man could hardly hear 

him, and forbear weeping, his conveyance was so affecting." 

(Note to Kirkton's HLtory of the Church of Scotland.) 


Me perceived the advantage he had gained, and 
determined to proceed in his favourite' undertaking. 
Eight of the most zealous ministers were summon- 
ed to London, for the ostensible purpose of assist- 
ing at a conference to establish the peace of the 
Church,! but in reality that he might take ad- 
vantage of their absence for accomplishing those 
measures which their activity and interference 
would otherwise be sure to thwart. In a Parlia- 
ment afterwards assembled at Perth, it was ordained 
that the bishops should be restored to their former 
Episcopal estates, — so far as these were yet belong- 
ing: to the crown,— to their rncient honours and 
jurisdiction, to their seats in Parliament, and to 
their rights of rank and precedency.2 Chapters, 
which had been abolished, were again erected. 3 — 
In vain did the ministers who were most hostile 
to prelacy oppose these enactments by every means 

1 Calderwood. 

2 " The second Act of this Parliament concerneth the restr„ 
tution of the State ot Bishops to their ancient, and accustomed 
Honours, Dignities Prerogatives, Privileges, Livings, Lands, 
Tithes, Rents, Thirds, and Estates, as the samine was in this re- 
formed Kirk most amply and free, at any time before the Act 
of Annexation, that the persons, provided to the Bishoprics, may 
freely and peacenbly enjoy and possesse the Honours, Dignities, 
Prerogatives, Privileges competent to them or to their Estate, 
since the Reformation, and all Towers, Fortalices, Lands, Kirks, 
Tithes, Rents, two part Thirds, Patronages, and rights what- 
somever, belonging to the Bishopiics; they alwayes intertain. 
ing the Ministers, serving the cure at the Kirks of their Bishop 
rics, upon the readiest of their thirds, according to the ordi- 
narie Assignations made, or reasonably to be made thereanent." 


3 Calderwood After the re-establishment of Episcopacy, the 

parson of Penninghame was constituted archdeacon of Galloway 
and first member of the Bishop's Chapter. In the Chapter were 
likewise the Parsons of Crossmichael, Twynholm, Kirkcud- 
bright. Dairy, and Borgue. The church of the priory at Whit- 
horn wa6 the cathedral and chaptei-house. 


in their power. The barons, afraid of offending' 
theirpowerful Sovereign, became either luke-warm, 
or obedient to his wishes. Even the new honours 
and emoluments which were to be distributed a- 
inong the clergy, had a powerful effect in silenc- 
ing the remonstrances, and swaying the judg- 
ment of many members of the Presbyterian Church, 
who might otherwise have steadily opposed every 
innovation, which the monarch desired to intro- 
duce. The bishops endeavoured by their su- 
perior influence and wealth, gradually to reduce 
the Presbyteries to the subordinate relation of 
chapters in the Episcopal Church. A party of firm 
Presbyterians withstood the pretensions of the pre- 
lates, but flattery, promises, or fear, at last pre- 
vailed ; and before the termination of the year 
1:610, the Presbyterian constitution of the Church 
of Scotland was subverted or completely chang- 
ed. 1 

In the year 1606, the King promoted Gavin Ha- 
milton to the Bishopric of Galloway after it had 
been vacant for thirty years. Before this period 
the revenues of the see had been almost ruined by 
alienations, grants for life, and pensions. Spottis- 
wood states that the revenue of the Bishopric of Gal- 
loway " was so dilapidated, that it scarcely was re- 
membered to have been." James, therefore, from 

1 The Assembly which sat at Glasgow in 1610 conferred ad- 
ditional powers upon the bishops, and declared the King to be 
the Supreme Governor and head of the Church. The Earl of 
Wigtown, the Bishop of Galloway, the Barons of Drumlanrig 
and Bombie, with the following ministers from the Stewartry ; 
John Aikman, William Hamilton. Robert Glendinning, aDd 
James Donaldson; and from Wigtownshire, James Adamson, 
John Watson, and George Kinnaird, sat in this assembly. It3 
acts were subsequently ratified in Parliameut with some omis- 
sions suggested by the King. 


his zeal for upholding the dignity of the bishops, in 
the course of a few years conferred upon Hamil- 
ton, the Abbey of Dundrennan, 1 the Abbey of 
Tongland,'- the Priory of Whithorn,^ and the 
monastery of Glenluce, 4 with all their churches, 
property, and revenues. 5 

Three prelates were summoned to London by 
James, in 1610, to accept of ordination by the Eng- 
lish bishops. Two of them were Hamilton of Gal- 
loway, and Lamb of Brechin, afterwards likewise 
Bishop of Galloway. Having thus received conse- 
cration in England, they were qualified to impart 

1 " The Kin? acquired the whole property of this abhey, by 
the act of general annexation, 1587. Gavin Hamilton, who was 
consecrated bishop of Galloway, in 1606, obtained a grant under 
the privy seal, of the abbey of Dundiainan, with the property 
and revenues." Caledonia. 

2 " When the bishopric of Galloway was re-established, and 
Gavin Hamilton was appointed bishop, in 1606, the Kinggiant- 
ed to him, and his successors, the abbey of Tongland, with all its 
kirks, and revenues; reserving to Melville, the commendator, the 
benefit of the grauts before stated, during his life : He died, in 
1613, when the abbey, and its revenues, went to the bishop of 
Galloway, who continued to enjoy the whole till episcopacy was 
overthrown." Caledonia. 

3 In 1604, Alexander Stewart was served heir to his father 
as bailie of Whithorn. " The whole property of this priory was 
vested in the king by the General Annexatiou Act, in 1587; 
and it was afterwards granted, by king James, to the bishop of 
Galloway, in 1606, when it was annexed to the revenues of that 
see. It was transferred to the university of Glasgow, in 1641 ; 
but was restored to the bishopric of Galloway, in 1661 ; and it 
continued to belong to that see till the final abolition of epis- 
copacy, in 1689." Caledonia. 

4" The whole property of the monastery of Glenluce was 
vested in the king, by the general Annexation Act, in 1587 ; 
and it was granted by King James, in 1602, to Mr Lawrence 
Gordon, the Commendator of Glenluce, a sou of Alexander Gor- 
don, the bishop of Galloway." Caledonia. 

5 " At the epoch of the Revolution, which is, also, the epoch 
of the abolition of episcopacy, the amount of the rental of the 
bishopric of Galloway, including the priory of WhitherD_, and' 



suitable ordination to such Scottish ministers, as 
should be advanced to vacant sees. When the 
faithful Presbyterian clergy saw individuals, whom 
thev considered as apostates and inferiors in every 
thiii"- that exalts the human character, loaded with 
honours and emoluments, their indignation became 

the abbeys of Tunglaud and Glenhice, stood thus : 

Scots Money*. 
£02(4 8 4 
The deductions ... 629 13 4 

The net rent - - - £5634 15 

This was larger than anv other bishopric in Scotland at that 
epoch, and was only exceeded by the two archbishoprics of Saint- 
Andrew*, and Glasgow. 

Bv the abolition of episcopacy, in 1689. the whole of this re- 
venue was vested in the crown, with the patronage of more than 
twenty churches. Besides all these, there, formerly belonged 
to the bishopric of Galloway, the patronage and teinds, of two 
parishes in the Isle of .Man; but these were lost, when the 
bishopric was suppressed by the grand rebellion, and were not 
recovered at the restoration " 

The churches which belonged to the see, were, — " 1. Whit- 
horn; 2. Sorbie; with the kirks of Kirkmaiden, and of Crng. 
sleton, which had been annexed thereto ; 3. Glasserton, with 
the church of Kirkmaiden, annexed thereto ; 4. Jlochrum ; 
5. Gleuluee; 6. Inch; 7- Stranraer; 8, Leswalt ; 9. the church- 
es of Toskerton, and Clashant, annexed to Stonykirk ; and 
which were all in Wigtonshire; 10. Minnigaff; 11. Tongland ; 
12 Carsphairn; 13. Borgue, with the churches of Senwick, and 
Kirkandrews annexed thereto; 14. Girthon; 16. Trequeer, these 
are in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright; 16. • Kilmodan, alias 
Glendaruel, in Ars ; 17. Kirkmiohael, in Carrick, Ayr- 

shire; 18 Dumfries; 19. Closeburn ; 'JO Trailflat, annexed to 
Tinwald; 21. Drumgree, annexed to Johnston; "J2. Staple. 
gordon, annexed to Langholm; these last live are, in Dumfries- 
shire." Caledonia. 

* " For the information of the English reader it may not be 
improper to mention that Scotch was to sterling money in the 
proportion of 1 to 12. A penny Scots was the twelfth part 
of a penny sterling. A penny sterling was a shilling Scots, and 
one shilling and eightpenee sterling, made a Scotch pound " 
(See Ruddiman's Preface to Aiuleisons Diploinata.) 


fierce and ungovernable. The new bishops, be- 
sides, soon began to provoke both the clergy and 
laity by their haughtiness, insolence, and tyranny ; 
and they alarmed many powerful families by hint- 
ing at the resumption of the alienated possessions 
of the Church. These circumstances afforded some 
check to James's ecclesiastical innovations, and 
became the germs of potent agencies — the seeds of 
mighty events which were destined one day to over- 
shadow the land with their blighting influence. 

During the same year, two Courts of High-Com- 
mission were instituted by James, which struck at 
the foundation of liberty. They were composed 
chiefly of bishops or their friends ; and an Arch- 
bishop presided, five members being a quorum of 
each court. They were authorised to call before 
them all persons who had been offenders either 
in life or religion, and to proceed to their trial. 
These arbitrary tribunals had power to excom- 
municate, to fine, or to imprison all such as 
subjected themselves to their displeasure. In 
cases of contumacy the Privy Council was com- 
manded to employ the whole force of its autho- 
rity — all the engines of government, — in executing 
their sentences. By these detestable courts, a 
system of tyrannical and jealous inspection was 
maintained, which powerfully tended to annihilate 
all confidence among men, — all the comforts and 
pleasures of social intercourse. The Earls of 
Cassillis and Wigtown, the Bishop of Gallowav, 
James Halliday, commissary of Dumfries, and 
Thomas Ramsay, minister there, with several 
others, were commissioners in the province of Glas- 
gow, or southern division of Scotland. The two 
Commission-Courts were subsequently united, and. 


Cowper Bishop of Galloway was appointed one of 
the members of this judicatory.! 

In the year 1613, an event took place which 
created some sensation both in Galloway and 
Dumfries-shire. After the battle of Dryfe-Sands, 
the Johnstons and the Maxwells, with their de- 
pendents, had lived in a state of bloody feud 
and mortal enmity. The friends of the parties, 
for their own personal comfort, had frequently 
endeavoured to effect a reconciliation between 
them, and suggested, or rather urged, the pro- 
priety of an amicable meeting of the chiefs, for 
the purpose of fully adjusting their private differ- 
ences. At length Lord John Maxwell, son of the 
nobleman who had fallen at Dryfe Sands, 2 and Sir 
James Johnston, with Sir Robert Maxwell of Or- 
chardton, as a common friend, and two attendants, 
met near Sheildhill in the parish of Tinwald. Dur- 
ing their conversation the attendants quarrelled; and 
whilst Sir James was in the act of separating them, 
Lord Maxwell came behind him, and shot him in 
the back with two bullets. The offender, being at 
length apprehended, was committed to the castle of 
Edinburgh, from which he succeeded in making 
his escape, liis Lordship now took refuge abroad^ 

1 Calderwood. 

2 Young Maxwell had been in the battle. 

3 " He escaped," says Mr Cunningham, " to France, and as 
he set his foot on shipboard, the old minstrel supposes that ho 
uttered his memorable Goodnight." 

" Adieu, Dumfries, my proper place, 

But and Caerlaverock lair ; 
Adieu, my castle of the Thrieve, 

Wi' a' my buildings there : 
Adieu, Lochmaben's gates sae fair, 

And Langholm holm, where birk3 there be;. 
Adieu, my ladye and only joy ! 

For, trust me, I may not stay with thee." 


where he remained until 1612, when he ventured 
to return home. But having found himself expos- 
ed to many dangers in Scotland, he resolved to re- 
pair to Sweden as a place of safety. Immediately 
before his embarkation, his kinsman, the Earl of 
Caithness, prevailed upon him to abandon his 
purpose, and take shelter in Castle-Sinclair. The 
Earl, however, basely violated the laws of hospi- 
tality, by causing his servants to seize the unfor- 
tunate nobleman, and deliver him into the hands 
of his enemies. By this treacherous act, Lord 
Caithness expected to ingratiate himself with the 
Sovereign. Lord Maxwell was brought to trial, 
condemned, and, on the 11th of May, beheaded at 
the cross of Edinburgh. 

Thus perished upon the scaffold, the hereditary 
sheriff of the Stewartry. He died in the profes- 
sion of the Roman Catholic faith, and exhibited 
much piety and penitence before his death. He 
expressed an earnest hope that the King would 
not punish his family for his individual offences; 
and, after entreating forgivenness from the "Laird 
of Johnstone, his mother, grandmother, and freindis, 
and acknowledging the wrong and harm done to 
them," we are told "that he retired by himself near 
the block, and made his prayers to God, which be- 
ing ended, he took leave of his friendis and of the 
bailies of the town, and suffering his eyes to be 
covered with an handkerchief, offered his head to 
the axe, and suffered death on the 21st of May at 
four o'clock in the afternoon."! 

1 Continuation of Buchanan's History. — Scott, — Historical 
Tales of the Scottish Wars, &c. 


Bishop Hamilton^ died in 1614 and was succeeded 
in the bishopric of Galloway by William Cowper, 2 
Minister of Perth, who for many years had been a 
zealous Presbyterian and a determined enemy to 
Episcopacy, in every form. But he seems not to 

1 Of Gavin Hamilton Calderwood thus speaks. 

Mr Gawi'n Hamiltoun, forsaking his Pastoral Charge at the 
Kirk of Hammiltoun, was not content with the Bishopric of 
Galloway, as it had of old annexed unto it the Abbacie of Tung- 
land ; but procured also a new annexation of other two Bene- 
fices, the Abbacie of Glenluce. and Priorie of Whittherne. Sel- 
donie did he_ preach. It was requested by the Ministers, : n 
the last Diocesan Synod, which he had before his death, to 
betake him to a particular charge and Preach, lie confessed his 
offence in not-preaching, but refused to undertake a particular 
Charge, When some regrated to him the grosse corruptions, 
which proceeded from their Estate, and the tear of grosser. He 
acknowledged there was just cause to fear, saying, ye count these 
corruptions great, but who liveth, shall see grower than these. 
When Mr Gilbert Pouer, a brother of the Ministry in Galloway, 
modestly refused a carouse offered by him, he abused him in 
presence of other Ministers, plucking his hat from his head in 
his furie, and casting it upon the ground. He dispensed with 
the marriage of a Gentleman in Galloway, named Niven Agnew 
of Mai-, having his first Wife alive; notwithstanding that the 
Brethien of the Ministry in open Synod opponed unto it, as a 
perillous preparative, tending to the overthrow of Discipline, in 
that rude Diocie, and to open a door to Adulterers. When the 
marriage of his daughter upon Campbel Bishop of Argile, was- 
solemnized in the Abbay of Glenluce, where he keeped his re- 
sidence for the time, he vomited like a beast at the banquet 

He died with little sense." 

2 " Mr William Couper who succeeded to him, was not content 
with that clustering together of Benefices, which his predecessors 
had purchased, but laboured for an annexation of the Cbappel 
Royal to his former Benefices. After he had accepted the Bishop, 
ric, he set forth an Apologie in print, to purge himself of Covet- 
ousucss and Ambition, and gave Reasons wherefore he changed 
his minde. But he was so vexed with answers, that he cast some 
of them in the fire, and would not look upon them. Yet Mr 
David Home of Godscroft pressed him with a reply to his an- 
swer. Whereupon Mr Couper set forth his Dicaiologie, answer- 
ing only to such Passages as pleased him. Whereupon Mr 
David wiote an ample rejoinder ; which was never printed, Be.. 
cause the Gentleman wanted the coinmoditie of the Presse 


have been fortified against the attacks of temptation ; 
and accordingly, in 1608, we find him sitting as a 
member of a packed assembly, and also concurring 
with the Episcopal party in all the measures that 
were agitated by the Government. 1 

An act was passed by the Assembly which met at 
Aberdeen, in 1616, for drawing up and perfecting, 
or reviving and publishing a Liturgy and new Con- 
fession of Faith for the Episcopal Church of Scot- 
land. Several learned divines, the chief of whom 
was the Bishop of Galloway, were selected to ac- 
complish this important work. 2 

Though Assemblies were still sometimes called 
under the royal sanction ; yet the bishops, having 
succeeded in establishing; a High Commission- 
Court, intended ultimately to suppress this su- 
preme judicatory of the Church, in which Scot- 
land seemed to delight. 3 

In 1617, James <c out of his salmond-like de- 
sire," 4 resolved to visit Scotland, after an absence 

None was more forward in the purer times against the state of 
Bishops : None now more frank lor the corruptions of the time. 
After he had gotten the Bishopric, he maketh not residence in 
Galloway, but in the foot of the Cannongate, that he might be 
near to the Clrappel Royal, where he preached as Dean, neglect- 
ing his Diocie, where he ought to have preached as a Bishop, if 
his office had been lawful." Calderwood. 

1 Calderwood. 

2 See Dr T. Murray's Literary History of Galloway, 2nd 
Ed. p. 44. 

3 "It was enacted by the secret council which met at Edin 
burgh on 10th December 1616: ''That the bishops in their seve 
ral visitations should, with the consent of the heiitors and ma- 
jority of the parishioners have the power of planting a school in 
each parish, and stenting every plough! and for the maintenance of 
the same, which was raiified by the Act Chailes I. Pari 1. chap. 

4 These were his own words. It is well known that the 
salmon pays a periodical visit to its native river. 



of fourteen years. He accordingly issued or- 
ders, that every preparation should be made for 
the due reception of himself and his court at 
the palace of Iiolyrood-house ; and that the so- 
lemn service of the Church of England might be 
properly performed, he sent down carpenters from 
London, to repair the royal chapel, and erect 
in it gilt statues of the apostles. 1 A report that 
images were to be introduced was widely circu- 
lated and believed; and the people, viewing this 
as the first step towards the re-establishment of 
Popery, became uneasy or alarmed. The Bi- 
shop of Galloway, dean of the chapel royal, being 
deeply interested in the tranquillity of the coun- 
try, wrote to the Sovereign, and succeeded in 
dissuading him from his obnoxious design. James 
returned to England by the way of Dumfries, 
where he attended Divine service, and heard a ser- 
mon preached by the Bishop of Galloway .2 

Before this period, Stranraer had been a burgh 
of barony, but it was now created a royal burgh by 
a charter, 3 dated the 27th of July, 1617. Owing, 
however, to the hostility of the town of Wigtown, it 
was not enrolled among the royal burghs of Scot- 
land until a much later period. In the beginning 

1 Caldcrwood. Aikraan's Continuation of Buchanan. 

2 Caledonia. 

3 " There is a copy of this chaiter in the Pari. Report, 1793, 
which was reprinted, in 1819. The parliament of 1633 lefused 
to confirm that charter, owing to the solicitations of the burgh 
of Wilton. Acta Pail. v. 53. They had not representatives 
in parliament, during Charles I.'s reign, nor in that of Charles 
II. It is not among the royal burghs assessed, in 1667, 1678; 
or in 1690 : Yet, was it enrolled as a Royal burgh, before Sym- 
son wrote his account of Galloway in 1684: when he said 
" Stranraver is a royal burgh lately enrolled." It is but a little 
town, yet, is it indifferently well built." Caledonia. 


of the reign of Charles I., the town of Stranraer was 
formed into a distinct parish. 

On the arbitrary mandate of the King, the 
bishops celebrated the festival of Christmas in 
their respective cathedrals. The Bishop of Gallo- 
way, however, officiated, as dean, in the Royal 
chapel of Holyrood-house ; and the walls of that 
ancient building once more re-echoed to the sound 
of both vocal and instrumental music. Orders 
were given, that all the servants of the crown, at the 
following Easter, should receive the sacrament 
kneeling ; and the ordinance was administered to 
them in that posture by the Bishop of Galloway, 
who, before his elevation to the honour of a mitre ? . 
as Calderwood informs us, was displeased if request- 
ed to partake of a " Christmas pie." 1 

The bishops, aware of the reverence with which 
the General Assembly was beheld, and consequent- 
ly sensible of the influence which the sanction of 
this judicatory of the Church would impart to their 
measures, strenuously urged the King to permit 
one to be called. With some hesitation and re- 
luctance, his consent was given, and the Assembly 
met at Perth on the 25th of August 1618. This 
venerable court was required by his Majesty to 
authorise and adopt certain innovations, afterwards 
known by the name of " The five articles of 
Perth." As they were particularly disagreeable 
to the people of Galloway we shall insert them. — 

1. Kneeling at the Sacrament, 2. Private Com- 
munion, 3. Private Baptism, 4. Confirmation of 
Children, 5. Observation of holidays. The Assem- 
bly felt overawed by the satellites of the court, 

1 Calderwood, 


and the articles were carried by a considerable 
majority. Some of the hostile ministers were 
threatened in private by their bishops with depo- 
sition. The Bishop of Galloway severely repre- 
manded Mr James Simpson, minister of Tongland, 
and Mr Thomas Provan, minister of Leswalt, for 
voting according* to the dictates of their conscience, 
and the instructions of their presbyteries. 1 

The articles of Perth were sanctioned in Par- 
liament by a majority of twenty-seven.' 2 So en- 
raged were the people of Edinburgh, that they 
would not view the Parliamentary procession ; and 
the outcry against the articles through the south of 
Scotland was tremendous. 

Cowper, Bishop of Galloway, died in Edinburgh, 
on the 15th of February, 1619, at the age of fifty- 
one. The calumny heaped upon him by his enemies, 
it is thought, proved the primary cause of his death. 3 

1 Calderwood. 

2 The Earls of Wigtown and Nithsdale, Lords Garlies and 
Sanquhar, John Carser, commissioner for Dumfries, and John 
Turner for Wigtown, voted in support of the articles. David 
Arnot of Barcaple, commissioner for Kirkcudbright, voted a. 
gainst them. (Calderwood.) 

3 Calderwood, who entertained strong prejudices against the 
bishops, and whose observations respecting individuals must be 
received with caution, thus speaks. 

" Upon the sixteenth of Februarie, Mr William Couper 
Bishop of Galloway departed this life, in the Canongate. He 
had never abilitie to go up to the pulpit after his Christmas Ser. 
nion. His ordinar residence was in the Canongate near the Chap, 
pel Royal, whereof he was Dean. When he went to his Diocie, 
ami that was once in two years, he behaved himself very impe. 
riously. He abused and upbraided that reverend preacher Mr 
Robert Glendinninsr, Minister at Kirkcudbright, for opponing to 
the exacting of the Kirk penalties by his Commissaries. He ex- 
ceeded all bounds, in abasing Mr David Pollock Minister at 
Glenluce. He thrust in upon the Parish of Girthon Mr Alex- 
ander Fiissel, the Parishioners and all the Ministers of the Dio- 
cie oppouiug. The n;ii!i was so ignorant, that be proceeded to 


He was buried in the new Greyfriars' church-yard, 
where his monument is still to be seen. His fu- 
neral was attended by the members of the privy 
council and the magistrates of Edinburgh, besides 
a great number of other individuals in public sta- 

That Cowper was both an amiable and pious man 
can hardly be denied ; for, though he changed his 

the Ministration of the Sacrament without a blessing, whereby 
many of the people absented themselves fiom the table, as pro- 
famed by him, and yet he carried a grudge at some or the Breth. 
ren for opponing. He desired the Presbyterie of Kirkcud- 
bright, to grant a dispensation to James Lidderdail of He, to 
detain in his companie the woman, with w! ora he had lyen 
in fornication. He set a tack of the Parsonage and Vicar- 
age of the Abbacie of Glenluce to his brother Andrew Conper, 
who disponed the right of the tack to John Crawfurd of Skel- 
douu, son in law to the said Bishop. It is thought, that if just 
calculation were made of the Commoditie extorted liy him through 
his Diocie, by advice of his two covetous counsellors, Andrew 
Couper his Brother and John Gilmour writer in Edinburgh, for 
his use and theiis, by racking of rents, getting of grassoms set- 
ting of Tacks of tithes, and other like means it would surmount 
the summe of an hundreth thousand merks if not an hundreth 
thousand pounds. The people there curse his memorie, and for 
his sake view all the new start-up Bishops as fruitful to the coun- 
try and serving only to suck out the substance of mens Estates. 
He disponed two Kirks of the Chappel Royal, Kirk-kinner and 
Kirkcowan both benefices of cure, to his Brother Andrew.. — . 
So the Pastors serving the cure were debarred from their stipends, 
the possessors refusing to make payment because of the said An. 
dtew his Arrestments. He was not content with the benefices 
his predecessors had clustered, till he got the Deanrie of the Chap- 
pell Royal annexed to them before or at his entrie. Not long 
before his departure he admitted to the Ministery his servant Mr 
Scot in his bed chamber at his bed side. It is reported that ho 
cried often before his death, when his Conscience was stirring, 
a fallen star, a fallen star: But he became more senselesse, 
would follow or answer the word of others, and then fall off 
incontinent from any spiritual purpose. If his end had been gra- 
cious and comfortable, there had been a loud report made of it. 
His corps was carried to Gray friers, with sound of trumpets, 
upon the eighteenth of Februar. The Bishop of St Andrews 
made the funeral Sermon in Gray frier Kirk of Edinburgh." — 



opinions on religious subjects, and espoused the 
cause of Episcopacy, yet, he is said by impartial 
observers, always to have exhibited a laudable 
moderation, and an undeviating attachment to the 
best interests of Christianity. In alluding, on his 
death bed, to his ministrations in Galloway, he 
thus expresses himself. " In this my calling how 
I have walked and what my care was to advance 
the gospel there, I trust I shall not, nor yet do 
want witnesses." 

Andrew Lamb, Bishop of Brechin, was now 
translated to the see of Galloway. He had accom- 
panied James to London, when taking possession of 
the English throne, and, also, as previously noticed, 
had received consecration there some years after- 
wards. Immoderately hostile to the cause of Pres- 
bytery, and destitute of toleration, he was a fit mem- 
ber of the High Commission-Court : never was 
this man known to show mercy to the suffering 

Robert, Lord Maxwell, in 1620, was created Earl 
of Nithsdale, with the precedency of his father's 
rank as of Earl of Morton ; and he took his place 
accordingly in the Parliament of 1621. Having 
been in great favour with his Sovereign, he had 
been rehabilitated and put in possession of his 
brother's estates in 16 18, and had obtained charters 
under the great seal of additional lands, both in that 
and the following year.l 

Welsh, after fourteen years exile in France, lost 
his health : and his native air was recommended 

1 He got charters under the Great Seal. " Roberto Comiti do 
Nithsdale, Eskdale, et Earliel, of the lands and earldom of Niths- 
dale, the Lands, Lordships, and Baronies of Mearns, and many- 
others in the years 1021 and 1622." 


as affording the only chance of recovery. By power- 
ful intercession he was allowed to come to Lon- 
don, but to every solicitation for permission to visit 
Scotland, James remained inexorable.! He ex- 
pired in the English capital in 1622, after having 
languished for a short time. 

Sir Alexander Stewart, who had been created 
Lord Garlies, — on the 2nd of September, 1607, 
was, in 1623, raised to the dignity of Earl of 
Galloway, his descent from the illustrious family 
of Lennox being assigned as the principal reason 
for raising him to the peerage. 2 

James, whose inattention to the feelings and 
wishes of the people of the Lowlands of Scotland, 
had created so much religious contention, died on 
the 29th of March, 1625, in the fifty-ninth year 

1 "Mrs. Welsh, by means of some of her mother's relations at 
court, obtained access to James, and petitioned him to grant this 
liberty to her husband. The following singular conversation 
took place on that occasion. His majesty asked her who was 
her father, she replied, ' Mr Knox.' ' Knox and Welsh,' ex. 
claimed he, ' the devil never made such a match as that.' 'It g 
ritrht like, Sir,' said she, 'for we never spiered [asked] his ad- 
vice.' He asked her how many children her father had left, and 
if they were lads or lasses. She said three, and they were all 
lasses. ' God he thanked !' cried the king, lifting up both his 
hands, ' for an thev had been three lads, I had never bruiked, 
[possessed] my three kingdoms in peace.' She again urged her 
request, that he would give her husband his native air. ' Give 
him his native air ! Give him the devil,' replied the king 'Give 
that to vour hungry courtiers,' said she, offended at his profane. 
ness. He told her at last, that if she would persuade her hus- 
band to submit to the bishops, he would allow him to return to 
Scotland. Mrs Welsh, lifting up her apron, and holding it to- 
wards the kin',', replied, in the true spirit of her father, ' Please 
your majesty, I'd rather kep his head there.''* M'Crie's Life of 
Knox, vol. ii. p. 274. 

2 Crawfurd. 

* I would rather receive his head there, when severed from his 
body by the executioner. 


of his age. His character displayed a strange 
combination of extreme contrarieties, as may be 
easily perceived from the whole tenor of his 
life. In him were strikingly blended, wisdom 
and folly 1 learning and ignorance, pride and mean- 
ness, prodigality and parsimony, 2 severity and le- 
nity, piety and profanity, 3 obstinacy and facility, 
virtue and vice. His manners were coarse and un- 

1 Sully called him " the wisest fool in Christendom." 

2 The following is a copy of one of the royal invitation cards 
to his daughters's baptism, the entertainment appears to have 
been apic nic. " Right trusty fi iend, we greet you well. Having 
appointed the baptism of our dearest daughter to be here at 
Halyrood-house, upon Sunday, the fifteenth day of Apiil next, 
in such honourable manner as that action craveth, we have there- 
fore thought good right effectually to request and desire you to 
send us such offerings and presents against thai day as is best then 
in season, and convenient ior that action, as you regard our ho. 
nour, and will merit our special thanks. So not doubting to 
find your greater willingness to pleasure us herein, since you are 
to be' invited to take part of your own good cheer; we commit 
vou to God. From Halyrood house, this tenth day of Febru. 
ary, 159^." JAMES R. 

Right trusty Friend, the Laird of } Arnot's Hist, of Ediub. 
Balfour, Bethune Elder." } cua P- !i - P- 15 - 

3 Notwithstanding James, during the latter period of his 
rei°Ti, inculcated the maxim " No bishop no King," and de- 
clared that "presbytery and monarchy agreed as well as God and 
the devil." (Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History) ; yet " in a 
General Assembly held at Edinburgh, in the year 1590, this 
prince is known to have made the following public declaration: 
"I praise God that 1 was born in the time of the light of the 
gospel, and in such a place as to be the king of the sincerest (i. 
e. purest) kirk in the world. The kirk of Geneva keep 
pasche and yule fi. e. Easter and Christmas.) "What have they 
for them? They have no institution. As for our neighbour 
kirk of England, their service is an evil said mass in Euglish ; 
thev want nothing of the mass but the liftings (i. e. the de- 
ration of the host.) I charge you, my good ministers, doctors, 
elders, nobles, gentlemen, and barons, to stand to your purity, 
and to exhort your people to do the same; and I, forsooth as 
long as I brook my life, shall do the same. (Calderwood'i 
History of the Church of Scotland, p. 256. 


dignified. His person was of the middle size, and 
when not deformed by dress, not unhandsome.* 
His eyes being large and rolling, often put stran- 
gers out of countenance by their uncouth gaze. — 
The extreme size of his tongue made him speak as 
if his mouth were full, and when he drank, he 
looked as if he were eating, and the liquid always 
ran into the vessel from both sides of his tongue. 2 
He lived unrespected and died unlamented. 

1 His doublets being quilted that they might be stiletto proof, 
gave him the appearance of great rotundity. 

2 Balfom. — Scott's Fortunes of Nigel. — Aikman's Continu- 
ation of Buchanan. 


" Sir Robert Maclellan was served heir to his father, Sir 
Thomas Maclellan of Bombie, on 5th July 1608, had charters 
of the lands of Culcaigries, &c , 4th August 1610, of Twiname, 
28th June and of Cross, 11th September 1616. He was one of 
the gentlemen of the Bedchamber to King James VI." 

"John Bothwell whose father had been Bishop of Orknev, ob- 
tained a " Charter and Patent beating date at Whitehall 20th 
of December 1607, erecting Totas et integras terras et Baroni- 
am de Dunrod, nee non Terras de Mikle et Little Kirklands 
jacent in Senescliallntu de Kiikcudbright, in unam liberam Ba- 
roniam et Regalitatem." Crawfctrd's Peerage. 

Lord Herries got several charters "inter 1608 et 1612." 

Sir Robert Gordon, son and heir of Sir John Gordon of Loch- 
lnvar, had " charters of Wester Barcapill, Kirkconnell, and 
Blackmark 2d June 1615, and of the baiony of Eailstoun, 27th 
July 1620, all these lands lying in the Stewartry of Kirkcud- 
Iwight. He had a grant of the barony of Galloway in Nova 
Scotia in America, 8th November 1621." Historical Ac- 
count of the House of Kenmure. 

"On the 13th December, 1613, Sir Robert Gordon of Lochin. 
var obtained a Remission under the Great Seal, for the slaugh- 
ter of Richard Irving, and for burning the houses of Gratney. 
hill, Wamphray, Lockeibie, Reidball, and Lanriggs, confininc 
contrary to Law sundry gentlemen, murder of James Gordon 
his servant,* adultery with Janet M'Adam, deforcing the King' 8 

* Balfour states in allusion to this event, " In Junij, this 
jzeire, the King commands his adwocat criruinalley to persew Sr 



James left no children but Charles who suc- 
ceeded him, and one daughter. Charles ascended 
the British throne in a season of difficulty. Many 
of his subjects were puritans,! and a large propor- 
tion of the people of England still continued ca- 
tholics, all of whom were anxious to subvert the 
established religion. England, besides, through 
the narrow policy of James, had lost much of her 
influence with foreign powers. The ancient re- 
venues of the crown had been almost entirely alien- 
ated and were no longer adequate to defray the 
ordinary expenses of a court, or maintain the mag- 
nificence of the English government even in the 
eyes of foreign powers. 

From the first, Charles was unpopular in Eng- 
land ; but the Scots had heard some vague reports 
concerning his piety and moderation, which em- 
boldened them to send Mr Robert Scott, minister 

messenger who summoned him for these crimes, and obliging him 
to eat and swallow his warrant." (Records of the family of 

At this time Minnigaff was the Burgh of the barony of Larg, 
and belonged to the Gordons of Lochinvar. 

For a more particular account of the state of crime in the 
district see Appendix (Q.) 

1 See Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History. 

Robert Gordon of Lochinwarre, for killing off hes auen seruaDt, 
of quhom he was too jelous, as beinng too familiar with his ladey, 
(wich by all was esteimed a most wicked calumney,) and only 
by him forged to staine the honor of his auen ladey, to the end 
he might emptey his auen bed, to giue ane other roume, of lesse 
worthe then her, of quhom he wold haua beine most willingly 
reed offe. Balfouk. 

Lady Lochinvar obtained a divorce and married Lord Lou. 
don. (Records of the family of Kenmure.) 


at Glasgow, to supplicate for a redress of ecclesias- 
tical grievances, and particularly for relief from the 
observance of the Fire Articles of Perth. He gave 
an unfavourable answer ; for the youthful monarch 
was determined to maintain, in religious affairs, 
whatever regulations, policy had urged his father 
to introduce; and, lest any misunderstanding should 
exist, he issued a proclamation ordering all per- 
sons to be severely punished, who had the audacity 
to disturb the peace of the country, by circulating 
false reports, that his Majesty intended to make any 
alterations in the government of the Church. In 
England he became involved in disputes with his 
Parliament, which had shewn no very compliant 
spirit in his father's reign. 

The Earl of Nithsdale was subsequently sent 
down to Scotland to hold a meeting of the Estates, 
and obtain their consent to the resumption of the 
property of the Church, which had been divided 
among the leading nobles of the land, during the 
two last reigns. Though many of the greater barons 
had offered no resistance to the re-introduction of 
ceremonies, yet they became alarmed and refractory 
when they understood the King's intention of de- 
priving them of possessions, to which they con- 
sidered they had even a prescriptive right. A 
formidable opposition immediately presented it- 
self, and a dissolution of the convention became 
indispensable to dispel the gathering storm. The 
measure was abandoned, but a modified arran«-e- 
ment respecting Church property, was soon ef- 
fected by royal commissioners. The King also 
fostered a spirit of discontent amongst the nobility, 
by removing from official situations, a number ot 
the old servants of the crown, and elevating the 

f?OL. 11 C 


bishops to civil dignities. Many of the judges 
of the Court of Session were dismissed to make 
loom for others; and, for the purpose of augment- 
ing the splendour of the Church, several of the 
bishops were admitted into the new Privy Council 
and other offices of honour and importance. 

Charles, after having reigned nearly ten years 
on no very amicable terms with his English Parlia- 
ment and subjects, resolved to visit Scotland, the 
land of his fathers; and magnificent preparations 
were made for his reception. Pie entered Edin- 
burgh by the West Port, on the 15th of June, 1G38, 
amidst much show and pomp. A few days after 
bis arrival in the Scottish metropolis, he was 
crowned by the Archbishop of St. Andrews ; but 
the effect of this august ceremony was destroyed by 
the introduction of observances, which the people 
abhorred as absurd imitations of Romish super- 
stitions. The bishops were splendidly arrayed in 
blue silk embroidered robes. The Archbishop of 
( rlasgow, who refused to exhibit himself in the 
theatrical apparel assigned to him, was unceremo- 
niously pushed from his station near the King, 
and the obsequious John Maxwell,! Bishop of 
Ross, put in his place, by the intolerant Laud, 
afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury. 

1 Cool-:, — "John JMa^ pi '.', Bj ':<>;> of Ro?s, waj a son of . '• e 

I of Cavens in'Nithsdale, [parish of Kirkbean and St'ew. 

aVtry of Kirkcudbiisrbt.] He studied at St. Andrews, and, 

bred to tbe church, first obtained the parish of Murthlack, 

and was afterwards appointed to be one of the ministers of Ed- 

eniered warmly into tbe designs of Charles I. 

Laud with regard to the .church government 

pointed a privy councillor, and promoted 

i . the bishoprick oi Ross in 1633. On the 4th December that 

year he took his seat as an extraordinary Lord in place of the 

ggrl ,, . i : ; .'. • afterwards appointed a commission. 


The introduction of an altar gave great offence, 
and called forth some severe remarks even from the 
friends of the court. On the altar were placed 
two books, or objects resembling books, with two 
chandeliers, two unlighted wax tapers, and an 

er of the exchequer, and aimed, although unsuccessfully, at the 
office of treasurer, then in the possession of the Earl of Tra- 
quair. The Bishop of Ross was one of the chief promoters of 
the Service.Book and Scottish Liturgy, in the composition of 
which he had also a considerable share. During the tumulte 
which ensued on the promulgation of that obnoxious ritual, al- 
though not actually maltreated, he was greatly alumed, and re- 
pairing to London gave his advice there in lavour of coercive 
measures. The king having been forced to permit the meeting 
of the General Assembly in October 1638, the bishop was again 
sent to London on the part of his fellow prelates, to devise 
measures for their common safety ; and he is supposed to have 
drawn up the declinator of the Assembly'sauthonty, which was 
afterwards lodged on the part of the bishops. This pleading 
however proved unavailing, and like the rest of his brethren of 
the episcopal bench, the Bishop of Ross, was on the 10th De- 
cember 1638, deposed and excommunicated ou the ground, 
"that beside the breach of the caveats, he was a public reader 
of the liturgy in his house and cathedral; that he was a bower 
at the altar, a wearer of the cap and rochet, a deposer of godly 
ministers, an admitter of fornicators to the communion, a com. 
panion to papists, an usual player of cards on sabbath, and once, 
on communion day : that he had often given absolution to per- 
sons in distress, consecrated deacons, robbed his vassals of 
above 40,000 merks, kept fasts each Friday, journeyed ordin- 
arily on Sabbath, and that he had been a chief decliner of the 
Assembly, and a prime instrument of all the troubles which be. 
fel both church and state.' He was in the following year de- 
clared an incendiary and an enemy to his country by the es- 
tates, but was notwithstanding this promoted by Charles to the 
bishopiick of Killala in Ireland ou the I2th October 1640 — 
On the breaking out of the Irish rebellion in the following year, 
Bishop Maxwell was turned out of his house, plundered of his 
goods, and left by the rebels naked and wounded. The kindness 
of the Earl of Thomond, however, enabled him to reach Dublin, 
where he preached for some time He joined Charles I. at 
Oxford in 1043, and according to Baillie, was the King's ordi- 
nary preacher there. He had formerly attempted to support 
the royal cause by a pamphl st entitled, Sacro.sancta Regia 
Majestas, aud this he now followed up by u violent attack 


empty silver basin. At the back of the altar hung 
a piece of rich tapestry on which a crucifix was em- 
broidered ; and as often as the officiating bishops 
passed it, they bent the knee, and made obeisance 
to this " symbol of idolatry." 1 The coronation ser- 
mon was preached by Laud ; and it strongly incul- 
cated complete conformity between the Churches 
of England and Scotland in their rites and govern- 

Soon after the coronation, Charles assembled a 
Parliament, and, by his presence alone, possessed 
a powerful influence over its deliberations. The 
enactments of this Parliament contributed in no 
small degree to obliterate the line of demarcation 
between the two Churches of Scotland and Eng- 
land, and to impart the full sanction of law to Pre- 
lacy, with all those formalities of worship which had 
been gradually introduced. 

In this Parliament the whole proceedings re- 
specting the ancient property of the Church, and 
the stipends of the clergy were confirmed. A me- 
morable and salutary law was also passed securing 
the erection of a Parochial School in each of the 
parishes of Scotland. This beneficial project had 
been agitated, as already mentioned, by the fram- 
ers of the First Book of Discipline ; and amidst 

upon piesbytery in another pamphlet called Issachar's Burden. 

He was appointed to the episcopal see of Tuam on the 30th 

>, but did not enjoy his prefei moil long, having been 

tound dead in hisstudy on the 14th February 1646, a few hours 

ived intelligence of some disaster to the roval 

aich was supposed to have occasioned his death. 

Burnet states him to have been a man very extraordinary, if an 

unmeasured ambition had not much defaced his other great 

abilities and excellent qualities." College of Justice. 

1 Spalding's Travels iu Scotland. — Aikman's Continuation 
of Buchanan. 


all the severe ecclesiastical struggles that had taken 
place, both the General Assembly and the Privy- 
Council had laudably endeavoured with unwearied 
activity to promote a proper system of education. 1 

To conciliate the favour of his northern subjects, 
the King, about this time, dealt out honours with a 
liberal hand. Fifty four knights were dubbed on 
various occasions, during his residence in Scotland; 
and to perpetuate the remembrance of his visit to 
the place of his birth, or do honour to his coro- 
nation, he created one marquis, ten earls, two 
viscounts, and eight lords. Sir John Gordon 
was created Viscount of Kenmure and Lord Loch- 
invar," 2 Sir Robert Maclellan was raised to the 
peerage, by the title of Lord Kirkcudbright, 3 Vis- 
count Sanquhar was advanced to the honour of 
Earl of Dumfries, Viscount Drumlanrig was cre- 
ated Earl of Queensberry, and Sir James Johnston 
was raised to the dignity of Lord Johnston,* The 
King also erected a number of royal burghs. 

in 1629, Sir John Gordon of Lochinvar had 
obtained a charter from Charles, dated the 15th of 
January, erecting a part of his lands, with the 
houses and buildings thereon,^ into a royal burgh 

1 Murray's Collections of Acts of Parliament. — Cook. 

2 Sir John Gordon was created Viscount of Kenmure, on the 
8th of May, 1633; the title being granted to him and his 
heirs male. See Appendix (R.) 

3 Sir Robert Maclellan of Bomhie, having been made a knight 
by Jame VI., was, as a farther mark of hh Sovereign's peculiar 
favour, appointed one of the gentlemen of his bed-chamber. — 
King Charles continued Sir Robert in the same office, and rais- 
ed him to the rank of Baronet. By letters patent, dated 26th 
May 1633, he preferred him to the peerage by the title of Lord 

4 IJalfour. 

5 Thought to have been St. John's Clauchan, Dairy, 


to be cabled the Burgh of Galloway. He had also 
obtained another charter under the great seal, dated 
the 19th November, 1630, for changing the site of 
the intended new burgh, and fixing the lands of 
Roddings as a more convenient situation. This 
charter was ratified by act of Parliament in June 
1633. Against its ratification a protest being 
taken by the Magistrates of Kirkcudbright, their 
rights were reserved. 'Hie Corporation of the 
new town was to consist of a provost, four bailies, 
a dean of guild, a treasurer, and twelve councillors. 
Its patron, however, died before his design of build- 
ing the Burgh of Galloway could be fully carried 
into execution ; and New Galloway, as it was aiter- 
wards popularly called, has continued since that 
period, but an inconsiderable village. 1 

Before leaving Scotland, Charles granted a new 
charter to the town of Kirkcudbright. This deed, 
which is dated the 20th of July, 1633, created the 
present Corporation, consisting of a provost, two 
bailies, a treasurer, and thirteen councillors. 

The King, about the same period, to shew his 
attachment to Episcopacy, founded the bishopric of 
Edinburgh, and appointed the church of St. Giles, 
to be the cathedral. Forbes, a man of considerable 
learning, but suspected of partiality to the Popish 
relitrion was nominated to the new see. 2 He ob- 

1 See Appendix (S.) 

2 The Abbev of New-Abbey, with its revenue?, which had 
been vested in the King, by the annexation act, was granted 
bv him to Sir Robert Spottiswood and Sir John Hay, in 
1624. They were prevailed upon to resign the Abbey in 1633, 
and Charles granted it to the new Bishop of Edinburgh". The 
Bshop also received the churches of Buittle, Crossmichaei 
Kirkpatrick.Durham, TJrr, New. Abbey, and Balmaghie. 

Though the church if Baftnagbie, with all its lands and reve- 


taineJ precedency of the Bishop of Galloway who 
previously ranked next to the Archbishops. 

Charles returned to England, not particularly 
gratified with his journey. He had failed to mo- 
del the Church according to the ideas of Arch- 
bishop Laud ; and though he had obtained from 
Parliament! an unusually large supply, yet he had 

nues, was granted to the Bishop of the see of Edinburgh, yet the' 
M"Ghies of Balmaghie maintained their right to the patron- 
age of it, under a charter obtained from JamesVI., in 1606; 
(Keith. Acta Pari.) 

1 Viscount Kenmure at first attended this Parliament, but not 
wishing to disoblige the King, who had raised him to higii 
honours, by voting according to the dictates of his conscience, 
he feigned indisposition and returned home. He died about a 
3 T ear afterwards, and on his death bed felt the most pungent re. 
morse for this dereliction of duty. " I have found," he said 
" the weight of the wrath of God for not giving testimony for 
the Lord my God, when I had occasion- once in mv life at the 
last Parliament, for which fault how fierce have 1 found the 
wrath of the Lord! my. soul hath raged and roared; I have been 
grieved at the remembrance of it. ** For ail the world, I 
would not do as I have done.' 

" The circumstances connected with the death of this noble- 
man," says Dr. Murray, " must not be passed over in silence 3 
both as they are illustrative of the triumph of faith in an emi- 
nent Christian, aud throw light on the character of the subject 
of this narrative." 

"Rutherford had accidentally come to Kenmure Castle at the 
time his Lordship's disease was beginning to assume an alarm- 
ing aspect ; aud, on being entreated to remain, attended him 
till his death, which took place about a fortnight afterwards. 
v l2lh Sept. 1634.) Kenmure rejoiced at the arrival, at so in- 
teresting a conjuncture, of a clergyman whom he loved so much, 
and in whose lelisfious services and conferences he had former- 
ly taken such delight; and he immediately introduced the sub- 
ject of his apprehended dissolution. ' I never dreamt,' says he ; 
' that death had such a terrible, austere, and gloomy counten- 
ance. I dare not die ; howbeit, I know I must die." The min- 
ister proceeded with great earnestness and judgment, to rhow 
him the sources whence his feai of death took its rise, and to un- 
fold to him the principles and views which, under such circum- 
stances, the Gospel inculcates and requires. And notwithstand- 
ing some doubts and misgivings, which Rutherford succeeded 


encountered a firm and unflinching opposition in 
the accomplishment of some of his designs, and 
hence he perceived that the nobles were still ac- 
tuated by a vigorous patriotism. 

Every new appointment in the Scottish Church- 
was made with a view to exalt Episcopacy and de- 
grade Presbytery. Nothing but a perfect confor- 
mity between the two Churches, would satisfy 
Laud, who had gained a complete mastery over the 
King's mind in ecclesiastical affairs. To prevent 
religious discussion, or detect disguised hostility, 
the bishops obtained a warrant from the King, 
to erect in each diocese an inquisitorial court, su- 
bordinate, but similar to that of the High-Commis- 
sion, and possessing the same fatal power of prac- 

most effectually in removing, and the interference of a clergy- 
man of less sound views, he accomplished such a happy reforma- 
tion in the sentiments and hopes of this nobleman, that his death 
has everleeu regarded as conspicuously that of the righteous." 

" A few minutas before his departure, Rutherford asked him if 
he should pray. He turned his eyes to the pastor, not being 
able to speak. lathe time of that last prayer, he was observ- 
ed joyfully smiling, and looking up with a glorious look. * * * 
The expiring of his breath, the ceasing of the motion of his 
pulse, corresponded exactly with the Amen of the prayer, — and 
so he died sweetly and holily, and his end was peace." 

" Rutherford lamented ths death of his patron in an elegiac 
poem written in Latin ; and, in 1G49, he published The last and 
Heavenly Speeches, and Glorious Departure, of John Viscount 
Kcnmure;* a work from which the foregoing particulars are ob- 
tained, and which contains a minute and interesting detail of 
the conferences which Rutherford held with that nobleman, on 
the most important of all subjects, — death and salvation. The 
narrative is in every point of view most striking; it is given in 
language distinguished alike for simplicity and pathos; and the 
discussions which it embraces, are allied more to heaven than 
to earth, exciting emotions of a character peculiarly solemn and 
sacred." Murray. 

* See Dr. Murray's Edition of this little work. 


tising tyranny, injustice, and oppression. Thomas 
Sydserff, Bishop of Brechin, who had been pro- 
moted to the see of Galloway on the death of Bi- 
shop Lamb, which took place in 1634, in virtue of 
the King's warrant, now, exercised his authority 
within the diocese with unrelenting severity. 1 

Alexander Gordon of Earlston, having opposed 
the settlement of a minister, who was peculiarly 
unacceptable to the people of the parish, received 
a summons from the Bishop of Galloway to appear 
before the diocesan Commission-Court; and failing 
to obey, he was fined in absence by this oppressive 
tribunal, and banished to Montrose. Although he 
had the superintendence of Lord Kenmure's es- 
tates, and Lord Lorn, one of Kenmure's tutors, 
requested a remission of the sentence of banish- 
ment, yet the Bishop remained inexorable. 

Nearly at the same time, Robert Glenclinning, 
minister of Kirkcudbright, was deprived of his liv ■ 
ing by the same oppressive court, because he would 
not conform to recent innovation, nor admit into his 
pulpit, one of the minions of the Bishop. The 
Magistrates of the burgh, adhering to their minis- 
ter, continued to attend his church and listen to his 
sermons. The Bishop issued a warrant for his in- 
carceration; but his own son, who was one of the 
bailies, refused to imprison his venerable father, 
who had reached the advanced age of 79 years. 
This conduct gave great offence ; and both he and 
the rest of the Magistrates were ordered to be con- 
fined in Wigtown jail ; the warrant of this eccle- 
siastical dignitary being sufficient for the purpose.^ 

1 Burnet's History of his own time?, p. 31. 

2 Aikm;in. — It is said in the Life of Mr John Welsh, thai 
-*hile he w as minister of Kirkcudbright, he met a young man c* .- 


This act of oppression was speedily followed by the 
deposition of William Dalgleish, minister of the 
parish of Kirkmabreck, also for non-conformity. 

While the King was in Scotland, the subject of 
a Liturgy was agitated; and to make the conformity 
between the two nations complete, the introduction 
of the English Prayer-book was proposed ; but the 
Scottish prelates, sufficiently accommodating in 
every other respect, opposed its adoption, because 
they considered that it would be acknowledging 
the superiority of the English hierarchy. Observ- 
ing their firmness, the King and Laud conceded 
their request of having a national Prayer-book; 
and to the Bishops of Oumblane and Ross was 
committed the task of composing it. 

Preparatory to the introduction of the Liturgy, 
the Canons were issued, in 1C36, by an order under 
the great seal from his Majesty, enjoining their strict 
observance by all the dignitaries of the Church 
of Scotland. They were compiled by Sydserff, 
Bishop of Galloway, with the Bishops of Ross, 
Dumblane, and Aberdeen, and printed at Aber- 
deen. Afterwards they were circulated among the 
clergy for their information and direction. 

The Canons themselves were not less repugnant 
to the principles of the true Presbyterians, than 
the mode of their promulgation. Since the Re- 
formation, no form of church polity had been per- 

tentatiously decorated wit] Idi lsilv«rlace. The young man's 

name was Robert G'endi I he had but lecently come 

from Lis travels bim to go home and 

change his apparel and betake i::i: idy, for be was, dcs. 

tined to be his su< lessor in the i al Kirkcudbright 

"S$ hen Mr Welsh got a call to Ayr. Mr Glendinning was ap- 
pointed to the vacant church. PeiLaps the prediction itself pro- 
duced its fulfilment. 


raanently introduced without the concurrence of 
at least a nominal General Assembly ; but in this 
instance, the King alone, by his royal supremacy, 
and without even the shadow of authority from the 
supreme ecclesiastical court, confirmed the Book of 
Canons and commanded its universal adoption. — 
The Canons affirmed the King's supremacy, to im- 
pugn which was to incur the penalty of excommu- 
nication — a penalty that involved in its civil con- 
sequences confiscation and outlawry. The office 
of bishop was protected from challenge by a si- 
milar penalty. The same severe punishment 
was attached to the condemnation of the Book of 
Common-prayer, although not yet published. — 
The Canons prohibited extemporary prayer. — 
The ceremonies to be observed at the sacraments 
of Baptism and the Lord's Supper, and during 
Divine Worship, were minutely described. Mi- 
nisters were to hold no private meetings for ex- 
pounding the scriptures, and no ecclesiastical busi- 
ness was to be discussed except in bishops' courts. 
No preacher, without leave of the Bishop, was to 
condemn the doctrines taught by another in the 
same, or any adjacent church ; the Canons also or- 
dained that no person should teach either a public 
or private school, without Episcopal licence. Nor 
did they allow any sentence of excommunication 
to be pronounced, or absolution given by any pres 
bytery. In short, they consigned the whole com 
mand of the Church into the hands of the bishops* 
and laid the religion of the country prostrate at the 
foot of the throne. 1 

Jn June 1636, Samuel Rutherford, minister of, 

1 Cook. 


Anwoth, 1 was summoned by Sydserff, Bishop of Gal- 
loway, before the High Court of Commission, and 

] This celebrated individual was born in the year 1600, in 
the parish of Nisbet, now annexed to C railing. From the New- 
Statistical Account of the parish of darling, we leain "that the 
old people in Nisbet remember the gable end of the house in 
which Samuel Rutherford was born and brought up. It was re- 
! with peculiar honour as associated with the memory of 
so great and good a man, and was permitted to stand as long as 
it could hang together. Nor is it long since there were living 
in the village, two old women, Jane and Isabella Rutherford, 
who claimed relationship to their eminent ancestor. Rutherford 
is one of the most ancient names in the barony." 

His father is supposed to have been a respectable farmer. He 
had at least two brothers, one a schoolmaster in Kirkcudbright, 
and another an officer in the Dutch service. In 1621, he took 
of Master of Arts, and two years afterwards was ap- 
pointed by comparative trial professor of Humanity in the uni- 
versity of E linburgh. lie, however, soon resigned his office, and, 
sometime afterwards, through the influence of Gordon of Ken- 
mure, who with his pious lady, sister to the famous Marquis of 
Argvlc. resided at Rusco, was appointed minister of Anwoth. — 
As Anwoth was not until this time a separate parish, a new 
church was erected for him. Both the church and the house in 
which he lived remained entire until 1828. The house has been 
completely removed, but the wails of the church still exist, and 
the pulpit in which he preached has been preserved, and con- 
tinues to be viewed with much interest. A place in the vicinity 
of the old habitation is still designated " Rutherford's Walk." 
His stipend in Anwoth amounted to 200 marks Scots, or about 
£11 sterling annually. 

Rutherford whilst in Anwoth discharged the duties of his 
sacred office with almost incredible zeal and industry. His 
people, a 5 he tells us, were the objects cf his "tears, cares, fears, 
and prayers." 

Nor were his labours confined to his own flock, for many from 
adjoining parishes waited upon his ministrations ; and he was 
often called upon to preach, and sometimes to dispense the 
sacrament in the neighbouring churches; some of the sermons 
preached on such occasions are yet extant. But his services 
were not confined to the lower orders of Society. An intimate 
Christian connection subsisted between him and people of the 
highest rank, with whom he kept up a constant friendly inter- 
course. Many of his letters to Viscountess Kenmure, Marion 
M'Knaught, wife of William Fulleiton, provost of Kirkcudbright, 
&c, have been preserved and evince his ardour and piety. 


accused of non-conformity, of preaching against the 
Five Articles of Perth, and of writing a book against 
the Jesuits and Armenians. He appeared before 
the tribunal, but refused to recognise the titles of 
the bishops, or acknowledge their right and com- 
petency to judge of his professional conduct or reli- 
gious principles. The result of his trial was unfa- 
vourable, although Lord Lorn, afterwards the cele- 
brated Marquis of Argyle, used every exertion in his 
behalf. Rutherford was on the 27th of July deposed 
and prohibited, under pain of rebellion, from exer- 
cising his clerical functions in any part of Scotland. 
Being" also ordained to confine himself during the 
King's pleasure, within the limits of the town of 
Aberdeen, he was thus altogether separated from 
his admiring flock. Mr Rutherford proceeded to 
his place of banishment ; and, on the 7th of Septem- 
ber, 1637, he wrote thus to his old friend Marion 
M*Knaus:ht, wife of the Provost of Kirkcud- 
bright. — " I know the Lord will do for your town. 
I hear the bishop (Sydserff) is afraid to come a- 
mongst you, for so it is spoken in this town, and 
many here rejoice now to pen a supplication to 
the council for bringing me home to my place 
(Anwoth,) * * * See if you can procure three or 
four hundred in the country (Galloway) noblemen, 
gentlemen, countrymen, and citizens to subscribe it; 
the more the better. It may affright the Bishop, but 
by law no advantage can be taken against you for 
it; I have not time to write to Carletoun and Knok- 
brex, but I would you did speak to them in it. * * * 
There are some blossomings of Christ's Kingdom 
in this town ; (Aberdeen,) the smoke is rising and 
the ministers are raging, but I lihe a rumbling and 
a roarinq devil best. * * * We have been all over- 


feared, and that gave the towns the confidence to 
shut me out of Galloway. 1 

In November, 1636 Mr Rutherford's brother, 
Schoolmaster of Kirkcudbright, being a non-con- 
formist, and, as bishop Sydserff alleged, a great 
fomenter of opposition to conformity in that place, 
was summoned before the High Commission, and 
commanded to resign his charge immediately, and 
to remove from Kirkcudbright betwixt and the 
term of Whitsunday.^ 

James VI. had extorted from one Assembly 
its reluctant acquiescence in the introduction of a 
Liturgy, though, owing to the fears of the bi- 
shops, and the perturbed state of the kingdom, 
the measure was relinquished. 3 But now a new 
Liturgy, or book of the form of prayers and lessons 
from the scriptures to be used in public worship, 
having been completed and revised by Laud and 
some of the English prelates, it was finally deter- 
mined that it should be enforced, at every hazard, 
upon the people of Scotland, 

The King, accordingly, issued a proclamation, 4 
by which he required all his subjects, both ecclesias- 
tical and civil, " to conform themselves to the said 
form of public worship," and he commanded all 
in authority to take particular care that his orders 
were duly obeyed. He also concluded the procla- 
mation with an injunction that every parish should 
be furnished with two copies of the Liturgy before 
Easter. 5 Although there occurred no open tumult 

1 Rutherford's Letters, Part III, Epistle xxxix 

2 Row ap. Stevenson, vol. 1, p. 151. 

3 Cook. 

4 The proclamation was brought from court by the Bi^hqp 
of Ross. 

5 Cook, &c. 


after the publication of this proclamation, yet there 
existed much secret irritation, for in the estimation 
of many, the new service was only Popery in dis- 
guise. A powerful faction was immediately form- 
ed to resist the mandate of the Sovereign; and a 
report, which roused the people almost to a state 
of madness, became current, that the Liturgy was 
nothing but a translation of the mass, which Laud 
and the bishops had conspired to introduce. 

The bishops now took steps to enforce the pro- 
clamation, and to fulfil, in particular, that part of it 
which required each parish to purchase two copies 
of the Service-book. 1 Galloway had long been 
peculiarly the arena of religious animosities, and the 
Bishop, on this occasion, again resorted to his dio- 
cesan court. Its violent and tyrannical proceedings 
encreased the popular fermentation which they 
were intended to suppress. Though most of the 
other bishops did not employ the same means to 
effect the desired object, yet they showed a firm 
determination that it should be accomplished. 

The opposition, however, to the new ritual 
dailv encreased. Its contents were made the sub- 
ject of both much public and private discussion; 
publications well suited to rouse the people to a 
state of furious resistance being widely circulated 
and judiciously diffused. The day fixed for com- 
mencing the new mode of worship was allowed to 
pass, and some of the more sanguine began to hope 
that the design might be abandoned. But they 
were soon undeceived, for a positive order was is- 

1 The Bishop of Galloway purchased the number of these 
books required for his diocese, "but the most part would .have 
none of them." (Stevenson, vo j [ p, 1 77-J 


sued by the court, that the Scottish Liturgy was to 
be read in all the churches on the 23d of July. 1 
The mandate was announced from the pulpits on 
the previous Sabbath ; only one minister, Mr 
Andrew Ramsay, steadily refusing to publish it. 
During the week, the town was kept in a state 
of perpetual agitation; and, on Sunday, the 23d of 
July, 1637, the dangerous, — the memorable expe- 
riment was really made. Vast numbers of the 
inhabitants resorted to the cathedral church of St. 
Giles, where the Lord Chancellor, Lords of the 
Privy Council, Lords of Session, Magistrates of 
the city, and several of the Bishops had taken their 
seats. The congregation remained quiet until the 
Dean opened the Liturgy and began to read, when 
an old woman, named Jenny Geddes, moved by a 
sudden impulse of pious indignation, exclaimed 
with much vehemence, — " Villain, daurst thou 
say mass at my lug ?" and threw the stool on 
which she had been sitting at his head. The 
women who sat near her followed her example, 
and a universal confusion ensued. The Bishop 
of Edinburgh, hoping to appease the fury of 
the congregation, ascended the pulpit, and en- 
treated them to reflect on the sanctity of the place, 
and their duty to their Sovereign ; but his address 
only tended to stimulate their fury and enhance 
the outrage. The Magistrates succeeded in esta- 
blishing temporary order; and the Dean resumed 
his ungracious duty; but the rioters who had been 
excluded from the church, raised loud cries of "A 
Pope ! A Pope ! Antichrist ! Pull him down ! 
Stone him !" At the same time they broke the win- 

1 Cook. 


dows and knocked at the doors, evidently with the 
intention of proceeding to the utmost extremity, 
The service terminated amidst uproar and conster- 
nation. The bishops left the church, and were fol- 
lowed by the people, who, in the most insulting 
language, accused them of being the promulgators 
of Popery and slavery. Different parts of the city 
exhibited scenes nearly similar; and, wherever the 
Liturgy was attempted to be read, the clergymen 
who officiated on the occasion were forced to desist* 

Next day Edinburgh continued in a state of com- 
motion, and, in consequence of the tumults, was 
laid under an Episcopal interdict, and no preaching 
or prayer allowed in it by the mighty ecclesiastics of 
Scotland ; as if it were better to have no public 
worship, than have a species of worship which was 
not consonant to their clerical notions: thus the 
form of religious service appeared in their eyes of 
more importance than the service itself. 

Remonstrances against the use of the Liturgy or 
Service-book, were presented to the council ; and, 
to appease the supplicants, an order was given to 
suspend the reading of it until new instructions 
should be received from his Majesty, or the royal 
will farther ascertained on the subject. 

The King had still an opportunity of retracing 
his steps without dishonour, but he lost it for ever. 
He returned a haughty and reproachful answer to 
the representations of the council, and ordered the 
new service to be immediately resumed. Regard- 
less of the chartered privileges of the burghs of 
Scotland, he commanded them to elect no persons 
as their magistrates, who would not strictly conform 
to the prescribed mode of worship. 

When the import of this injudicious letter to the 


council was made public, the people were still far 
from desponding. They embodied their numerous 
petitions into one joint supplication, praying that 
they might have an opportunity of stating their com- 
plaints, and assigning their reasons for disapproving 
of the obnoxious service before it was finally en- 
forced. The general supplication was transmitted 
by the Duke of Lennox, who was requested by the 
council to explain to his Majesty the difficulties 
with which they were surrounded, and to request 
particular instructions for their direction. 

The King's answer being expected on the 18th 
of October, the leaders of the supplicants request- 
ed a full attendance of their friends in Edinburgh, 
on the day which the Privy Council had appointed 
to meet for its reception. The call was attended to, 
and deputations of gentlemen, ministers, and burgh- 
ers, assembled in the capital from all the southern 
counties of Scotland. Commissioners likewise from 
the different parishes attended to deliberate on the 
measures now to be adopted for the welfare of the 
people. The malcontents met in three separate 
bodies, namely, the noblemen, gentlemen, and mi- 
nisters ; but they all joined in passing a strong de- 
claration against the obnoxious books. 

To prevent division, a paper was also prepared 
and industriously circulated through the kingdom, 
that all who were averse to the late innovations 
might sign it, and pledge themselves to assist in 
such measures as the leaders should consider ne- 
cessary for advancing the cause of religious li- 
berty, l 

During these proceedings, Edinburgh continued 

1 Gook, ic. 


the scene of most disgraceful violence. The popu- 
lace besieged the council chamber where the Ma- 
gistrates had assembled, and with much vehemence 
demanded that they should join in a petition against 
the hated Service-book. Resistance would have 
been fatal; and they made the concessions required. 
Elated with success, the crowd were dispersing, 
when their attention was attracted by Sydserff, Bi- 
shop of Galloway. This individual had rendered 
himself peculiarly obnoxious to popular vengeance 
by unmitigated severity and ecclesiastical tyranny 
in his own diocese. It was, besides, currently re- 
ported, and indeed it had been publicly asserted se- 
veral years before by the Earl of Dumfries, that 
he wore a crucifix of gold below his coat. — 
As soon as he was recognised, the crowd sa- 
luted him with loud and appalling execrations ; 
and the women, from verbal abuse, proceeded to lay 
violent hands upon the terrified object of their re- 
sentment. They were proceeding to tear off his 
coat, that they might detect, if possible, the con- 
cealed image, when some gentlemen, partly by ex- 
postulation, and partly by force, effected his res- 
cue ; or rather, by occupying the attention of his 
assailants, allowed him to escape to the hall where 
the Privy Council had assembled. The fury of the 
mob now became unbounded ; and blockading the 
council-house, they demanded, with the most alarm- 
ing menaces, that he should be delivered up to their 
vengeance. The Earls of Wigtown and Traquair, 
with their followers, hastened to his relief, but 
having gained admission into the room, they soon 
found themselves in a perilous situation, for both 
the number and fury of the mob soon alarmingly 
encreased. In this critical emergency, the Privy 


Council determined to send for some of the noble- 
men who had shewn a decided hostility to the 
Service-book, and requested them to use their in- 
fluence in appeasing the people. The popular 
Lords immediately despatched some of their num- 
ber to escort the imprisoned council safely to their 
homes; and these beloved noblemen were received 
by the people with the most unequivocal marks of 
respect : nor was the slightest insult offered to any 
of the hated individuals while under their protec- 
tion. At their solicitation the people quietly re- 
tired to their houses. 1 In the meantime, the Bishop 
of Galloway escaped privately to Dalkeith the seat 
of the Lord Treasurer, but was soon afterwards 
assailed in another quarter. 

After attending: a meeting of the secret coun- 
cil at Stirling, on the 20th of February, 1638, 
Sydserff was so hotly attacked by the populace of 
Stirling, that the Magistrates found it difficult to 
relieve him. On his return through Falkirk, the 
wives railed against him, and pelted him with 
stones, for which conduct some of them were pun- 
ished ; and when he again reached Dalkeith he met 
with the like hard usage; so that the poor bishop 
was glad to become a kind of recluse, and showed 
but little desire of martyrdom. - 

The Presbyterians, after various proceedings, 
permanently formed what was denominated Tables, 
representing the different classes of individuals, who 
were united in defence of the Church. The first 
Tabie consisted of nobility; the second, of gentle- 
men ; the third, of ministers; and the fourth, of 

1 Aikman — Cook. — Guthrie, &<\ 
2 Stevenson's History oi Cliurch and State, v. ii b. iii. 


burgesses. In these bodies, which consisted of the 
most respected and most influential persons of 
their orders, every measure for the general welfare 
was discussed. A general Table, comprising re- 
presentatives from the four subordinate Tables, re- 
ceived their suggestions, and ultimately decided up- 
on necessary measures. 1 

The power of this body almost superseded the 
royal authority ; for, being possessed of the entire 
confidence of a great majority of the people, and 
venerated as the champions and guardians of pure 
religion and civil liberty, they were implicitly 

The great object of the leaders of the disaffected 
was to keep alive the flame of religious enthusiasm, 
which had been so successfully kindled, and so 
widely spread. The means which they devised 
for this purpose, were admirably conceived and 
extensively efficacious. 

The preceding reign had exhibited the precedent 
of a covenant or bond, entered into by the people 
of Scotland, for the maintenance of the true re- 
ligion. James himself had signed this obligation. 
Similar bonds had been executed, at earlier periods, 
by particular nobles for their mutual protection 
and the advancement of their views. In imitation, 
therefore, of these and other examples, the Tables 
resolved that the people should engage in a So- 
lemn League and Covenant, steadfastly to ad- 
here to each other, and to persevere in their en- 
deavours at every risk, until their religious freedom 
should be achieved. 

1 Baillies Letters and Journals, &c. — Burnet's Memoirs. 



A new Covenant was no sooner suggested than 
it was prepared and eagerly signed, by vast num- 
bers of all classes of the community. The original 
copy of this Bond, or Covenant, subscribed at Edin- 
burgh on the 28th of February, 1638, was written 
on a large sheet of parchment, measuring four feet 
in length, and three feet eight inches in breadth. 
So crowded were the names on both sides, that no 
space was left even on the margin for a single sig- 
nature ; and, it appears, so eager had the Presby- 
terians been to affix their names, that when little 
room remained, they shortened the signatures; some 
inserting only the initial letters, and those so close, 
•as to render it a difficult task to ascertain the num- 
ber of subscribers. 1 Many signed it with their own 
blood, whilst tears bedewed their cheeks. This me- 

1 Maitlancl's History of Edinburgh. 

" After much deliberation," says a recent historian, " and 
the reconcilement of many scruples of conscience and diffi- 
culties among the various classes of Piesbyterians, this ela. 
boiate and solemn compact and vow was publicly promul- 
gated, and, for the first time, sworn in Edinburgh, on the 
28th of February, 1638 * An immense concourse of spectator* 
assembled in the Greyfriars* church and church-yard, at an 
early hour, on tbe morning of tbat day ; and at two o'clock, 
Rothes and Loudon of the nobility, Henderson and Dick- 
son of the clergy, and Johnston, their legal adviser, arrived 
with the Covenant ready for signatures. Henderson began the 
solemnities of the day with prayer, and Loudon followed in an 
oration of great courage and power ; after which, about four 

* "Both Mr Laing and Dr Cook say it was the 1st of March, 
(on tbe authority, perhaps of Guthrie and StevensonJ but 
Rothes' Relation, and the minutes of the subsequent Assembly, 
shew that it was in February. It is much to be regretted that 
Burnet, Baillie, and other chroniclers, and oven later historians, 
are not sufficiently attentive to dates; and this carelessness in 
chronology often occasions great perplexity, aud lead; to much 
confusion of events in their narratives." 


morable deed' was drawn by Alexander Hender- 
son, a clergyman, and Archibald Johnston, — after- 
wards Lord Warriston — an advocate. The people 
of Galloway emulated the piety and ardour of the 
inhabitants of the metropolis, and rejoiced to appear 
in the character of Covenanters. 

o'clock, the Earl of Sutherland was the first to step forward and 
inscribe his name on the Covenant ; and he was immediately 
followed by Sir Andrew Murray, a minister at Abdy in Fife, 
and all who were within the church ; after which it was laid 
out on a flat gravestone in the church-yard, and signed, till the 
parchment was full, by persons of all ranks, sexes, and ages, with 
uplifted hands, and consecrated by solemn invocations to heaven, 
and with such demonstrations of enthusiasm as it is difficult, in 
these latter times, to imagine. It was a day, as piously and elo- 
quently described by Henderson, in which the people in multi- 
tudes offered themselves to the service of Heaven ' like the dew 
drops in the morning* — ' wherein the arm of the Lord was re- 
vealed' — and ' the Princes of the people assembled to swear al- 
legiance to the King of kings." (Records of the Kirk of Scot- 

I To exhibit the contradictory opinions which succeeding 
authors have formed of this great instrument of Scottish inde- 
pendence, we shall give a quotation from a woik entitled Mon- 
trose and the Covenanters, by Mark Napier, Esq., Advocate. 
" The Covenant, that bond of faction and banner of rebellion, 
is inseparable from the name of Montrose, not only because 
eventually he fell. a sacrifice in the vain attempt to save his King 
and country ft om its desolating effects, but because he was a- 
mongst the foremost to sign it, and, for a brief space, supported 
it in council and enforced it in the field. Some of the original 
editions of the Covenants are yet preserved in the Advocates' 
'Library, among the crowded signatures attached to these sad 
memorials of national turbulence, and human vanity and folly, 
appears the name of Monti ose. conspicuous both from its fore- 
most place, and the characteristic boldness of the autograph 

Were this bond what some would have imagined it to be, a pa- 
triotic and holy expression of unanimous feeling in all who sign- 
ed it, — a feeling for the preservation of their Religion and Li- 
berties, — had Charles I. really entertained the determined pur. 
pose, against the " Independency" of Scotland, which the Co- 
venant is by some supposed to have met, then, however illegal 
in itself, and though leading to worse evils than it professed t<? 
cure, all who signed il in that good faith and feeling might veli. 
be excused." 


At this time Mr John Livingston, 1 afterwards 
one of the ministers of Galloway, was despatched 
to London with several copies of the Covenant and 
letters to some of the principal courtiers belonging 
to both Scotland and England. He had not been 

1 John Livingston was born in 1(103, in the parish of Mony- 
brack, or Kilsyth, of which his father was minister. Having 
become a probationer of the Church of Scotland, he preached 
bis first sermon in his father's pulpit in 1625. In April 162G, 
he visited Galloway at the request of Sir Robert Gordon of 
Lochinvar, " in reference" he says himself " to a call to the 
parish of Anwoth, which at that time was not a parish by itself, 
but a part'of another pai ish ; neither had it a church builded ; they 
offered before August next, to have it disjoined, and a church 
builded and a stipend settled, and desired that I would stay 
there in the meantime ; I was not willing to stay at that time, 
there being no appearance that I could preach in the mean time ; 
therefore they desired, that if they got these things performed 
before August, that upon a call I would return thereunto ; I con- 
descended, but some difficulties coming in the way, they got not 
these things so soon done, and therefore in harvest first I bark- 
ened to a call of Tirpichen ; but thereafter the Lord provided a 
<>-reat deal better for them, for they got that worthy servant of 
Jesus Christ, Mr Samuel Rutherford, whose praise is in fill the 
Reformed Churches ; and I observed afterwards, that several 
parishes whereunto I had a motion of a call and was hindered, 
either by obstruction from the Bishops, or thereafter refused to 
be transported by the General Assembly, yet these parishes 
were far better provided; For Leith got Mr David Forrest, 
again Kirkcaldy got Mr Robert Douglas, Glasgow got precious 
Mr James Durham, Antrum in Ireland got Mr Archibald Fer. 
"usson, Newtoun there got Mr John Greg, and Killinchie there 
got Mr Michael Bruce. But at that short time I was in Gal- 
loway I got acquaintance with my Lord Kenmure and his re- 
ligious Lady, "ud several worthy experienced Christians as 
Alexander Gordon of Earlstoun, Alexander Gordon of Knock- 
"ray, Alexander Gordon of Knockbrex, John his brother, ami 
Alexander Gordon of Garlurk, John Gordon of Barskeoch, the 
Laird of Carleton, Fullerton,* John M'Adam and Christian 

* John Fullerton of Carleton, Borgue, published a religious 
Tjook, partly prose and partly verse, entitled the Turtle Dove, 
For a specimen see Appendix (T.) 


long in the metropolis until the Marquis of Hamil- 
ton, sent him information, that he had heard the 
King say, "he [Livingston] was come, but he 
would put a pair of fetters about his feet." Alarmed 
at this intelligence, Livingston bought a horse and 

M*Adam of Waterhead, Marion M'Naughtf in Kirkcudbright, 
and several others, for I preached at a Communion in Borgue, 
where were many good people that came out of Kirkcud 1 
and was at some private meetings with some of the foremention. 

ed in Garlurk, and in Airds, where Earlstoun then dwelt." 

Despairing of a living in Scotland, in 1630, through the kindness 
of Viscount Clanniboy, he obtained the charge of the parish of 
Killinchie in the north of Ireland. Among his clerical brethren 
in this district, were Josias Welsh, son of John Welsh, and 
John Maclellan, afterwards the well known and in 
minister of Kirkcudbright. From Ireland he was comp 
remove, owing to the hostility of the Bishop of Down. Whilst 
on a visit to the Earl of Cassillis in Ayrshire, he recei I s 
call to Stranraer, and was inducted minister of that parish on 
the 5th of July, 1633. Of Stranraer, he thus sneaks; " When I 
came first to Stranrawer, some of the folks of this town desired 
to come to our house, to be present at eur family exeicise : 
thereafter I propounded that, I would rather choose every 
morning to go to the church, and so each morning the bell 
ringing we convened, and after two or three verses of a p^alra 
sung, and a short prayer, some portion of scripture was rend 
and explained, only so long as an half. hour glass ran, and then 
closed with prayer. The whole parish was within the bounds 
of a little town. The people were very tractable and respect. 
ful, and no doubt had I taken pains, and believed as I ought to 
have done, more fruit would have appeared anion" them. I 
was sometimes well satisfied and refreshed, being with some of 
them on ther death-bed," He was married to the sister o! ' 
Maclellan's wife. Of his marriage he gives the following cu 
account. " LnJune 1635, the Lord was graciously plea 
bless me with my wife, who how well accomplished every via 

f This lady, much celebrated for her piety, was the dan 
of the Laird of Kilquhanidy, and wife of William Fiillerton, 
Frovost of Ivii kcudbright. Her mother was Margaret Gor- 
don, sister to Lord Kenmure. Hei father, John M'Knaught, 
must have bi en the individual slain at (Jailing wark, by Thi 
and John Maxwell, in 1612, 

The particulars of this assassination may be found in th 
pcndix (V.) 



hastened home. Lest he should be taken, he avoid- 
ed the main thoroughfare, and travelled by St. 
Albans and the western road. At Lanark and 
other places, he happened to be present when the 

and how faithful a yoak-fellow, I desire to leave to the memory of 
others. She was the eldest daughter of Bartholomew Fleeming, 
merchant in Edinburgh, of most worthy memory. 1 had seen 
herhefore several times in Scotland, and heard the testimony of 
many, of her gracious dispositions, yet I was for nine months 
seeking, as I could, direction from God anent that business, dur- 
ing which time, I did not offer to speak to her, wlio I believed 
had not vet heard any thing of the matter, only for want of 
i harness in my mind, although I was twice or thrice in the 
house, and saw her frequently at communions and public meet- 
ings, and it is like I might have been longer in such darkness, ex- 
cept the Lord had presented me an occasion of our confer. 
ring together ; for in November 1634, when I was going to the 
Friday meeting at Antrum, I met with her and some others go. 
iu" - thither, and propounded to them bv the way, to confer on a 
text whereupon I was to preach the day after at Antrum, where- 
in I found her conference so judicious and spiritual, that 1 took 
that tor some answer of my prayer to have my mind cleared, and 
blamed myself that I had not before taken occasion to confer with 
her. Four or five days after I propounded the matter to her, 
and desired hex to think upon it ; and after a week or two I 
went to her mother's house, and being alone with her desiring 
her answer I went to prayer, and urged her to pray, which at last 
she did; and in that time, I got abundance of clearness, that it 
was the Lord's mind, that I should marry her, and then pro- 
pounded the matter more fully to her mother. And albeit I was 
mllv cleared, 1 may truly say it was above a month before I got 
, ire affection to her, although she was for personal indue, 
ments bevond many of her equals, and I got it not till I obtained 
it bv prayer. But thereafter 1 had great difficulty !o moderate 
it. " In summer 1635, her mother and she went to Scotland, and 
1 followed, because on both sides we were to have consent of 
friends in Scotland. We were married by my father in the 
West Kirk of Edinburgh, June 23d, 1635, and although some 
told me some days before, that Spottiswood, who was then 
Chancellor of Scotland, had given orders to a macer to appre- 
hend me, our marriage was very solemn and countenanced with 
the presence of a good number of Religious friends, among whom 
was also the Earl of Wigtoun and his son my Lord Fleeming, 
in the house of her uncle John Fleming, who did as great a duty 
3^ if she had been bis own daughter." 


Covenant was read and sworn to ; and he asserted, 
that lie never, except on one occasion,' witnessed 
so much fervent piety and enthusiastic unanimity. 
He beheld, he declared, thousands of people lift- 
ing up their hands to heaven, whilst the tears fell 
from their eyes, and blessing God for this manifes- 
tation of his favour, this harbinger of the triumph 
of his cause2 

The Covenanters, now confident in their own 
strength, began to make strenuous preparations to 
accomplish their designs, even by force' of arms. 
The King, — who was already surrounded by a host 
of difficulties, arising from his extravagant notion 
of the royal prerogative, and the unreasonable de- 
mands of his English subjects — empowered the 
Marquis of Hamilton to make numerous and im- 
portant concessions'. These he anxiously pressed 
the Covenanters to accept; but his efforts were 
vain. Dissension had proceeded too far to be at 
once allayed ; irritation had vegetated too long to 
be easily eradicated : and, though Hamilton com- 
municated to his Sovereign, that negotiation was al- 
most hopeless ; yet he advised him, in the interim, 
to with-hold the sword ; and he hastened to Lon- 
don to acquaint Charles with the true temper and 
views of his covenanting subjects. 

When Hamilton was about to return to Scot- 
land, the King directed him, for the present, to 
grant any thing rather than hasten the crisis of a 
civil war. 3 

1 Perhaps during his sermon at the Kirk of Shots, on the 
Monday after a communion Sabbath, when 500 people are said to 
have been converted. 

2 The Scots Worthies. 

3 Burnet's Memoirs of the Duke of Hamilton, 


In the meantime, the Covenanters were maturing 
their plans, and pursuing their designs with a wis- 
dom and an energy well suited to insure success. 
They invited their friends home from foreign mi- 
litary service to fight their own country's battles ; 
and every expedient was artfully employed to pro- 
cure money and arms. 

After an absence of a year and a half, Mr Ru- 
therford returned to his charge at Anwoth, and 
several ministers who had come over from Ireland 
were settled in vacant congregations. Mr John 
Livingston was appointed to Stranraer, Mr James 
Hamilton was settled at Dumfries, and Mr John 
Maclellan at Kirkcudbright. Mr Robert Blair 
also was nominated colleague to Mr William 
Annan at Ayr.* 

On Hamilton's arrival in Scotland, the Cove- 
nanters, from the prosperous state of their affairs, 
rose in their demands. The perplexed Marquis a- 
gain had recourse to the Sovereign for new instruc- 
tions, and was desired to make new concessions. — 
He, accordingly, as a most valuable boon to the vo- 
taries of the Covenant, summoned an Assembly of 
the Church to meet at Glasgow, on the 21st of 
November, 1688. 

The Covenanters looked forward to the meet- 
ing of the Assembly with the utmost anxiety, and 
were unremitting in their exertions to obtain 
the election of men, in whose zeal and integrity 
they could place implicit trust. Secret instruc- 
tions were issued from the Tables to the several 
presbyteries how they should act ; and a decided 

1 Stevenson's History of the Church and State of Scotland, 
Edit, Edinburgh, 1754, v ii b. 11. chap. i. 


majority friendly to their schemes was returned. 1 
Their next step was to proceed against the 
bishops, and to insist that the Commissioner, im- 
mediately after the meeting of the Assembly, should 
bring them to the bar. Hamilton refused to accede 
to this request; and the Covenanters presented a 
complaint against the "pretended archbishops and 
bishops within the realm," to the presbytery of 
Edinburgh, who referred the accusation to the 

© 7 

General Assembly. 

This conduct cannot be too severely reprobated; 
for the bishops had been lawfully constituted the 
rulers of the Church ; and their office and titles had 
been recognised by successive Assemblies. Besides, 
all of them could not have been guilty of exer- 
cising over the clergy unwarrantable and tyrannical 
authority ; nor had all of them promulgated erro- 
neous doctrines, or indulged in degrading vices.— 
We cannot justify the conduct of their accusers, 
except upon the ground that " might is right.'" 

The bishops, as an ultimate expedient, resolved 
to decline the jurisdiction of the Assembly and to 
maintain that it had been illegally convened. 

For some days after its meeting, the Marquis 
of Hamilton, his Majesty's Commissioner, sanction- 
ed the transactions of the reverend court by his 
presence ; but at length, displeased with its pro- 
ceedings, he, in his Sovereign's name, dissolved this 
unsubmissive ecclesiastical body and ordered the 
members to disperse. Notwithstanding this per- 
emptory command of the King's representative, 
they declared that, as a legally constituted Assem- 
bly, they would continue to meet until they had ac- 

1 Burnet's Memoirs. — Guthrie's Memoirs. — Cook, &c. 


complisliecl such an arrangement of the affairs of the 
Church as circumstances imperiously required. 

In consequence of this determination, the con- 
tumacious members regularly continued their sit- 
tings; and they passed a number of acts, by which 
they restored the Church to the state in which it 
was when James made his first attempts to subvert 
the Presbyterian form of ecclesiastical government. 
Condemning the Assemblies by which Episcopacy 
had been sanctioned, they annulled their proceed- 
ings ; reprobated the Liturgy, the Canons, and 
the High-Court of Commission ; and degraded the 
archbishops and bishops, deposing, and even ex- 
communicating a great majority of their number. 
The obnoxious Articles of Perth were also rescinded 
and expunged.' A few days after the meeting of 
the Assembly, Mr Samuel Rutherford and the 
Laird of Earlston were objected to, as being under 
the censure of the High Commission-court; but 
having proved the injustice of the proceedings 
which had been instituted against them, and their 
own innocence, they were acknowledged as pro- 
perly qualified members. 2 

The same day, the Bishop of Galloway's accusa- 
tion was read before the Assembly, but he failed 
to attend. His procurator, D. Hamilton, was thrice 
called, but he likewise did not appear. The Bishop 
was accused of Popery, &c, and, upon the 7th 
of December, deposed and excommunicated by the 
-unceremonious decision of the Assembly- 3 Max- 

I Balfom. — Lanig's Scotland. 

- Records of the Kirk of Scotland. 

3 " Then were the Articles that were approven a<^niust Me 
Thomas Sydserff, pretendit Bishop of Galloway, given in ; and 
it \v;:s sufficiently proven and notour to the whole Assembly 
that be was guilt ie of the breach of the Caveats, besyde maa-/ 


well, Bishop of Ross, was also deposed and ex- 
communicated. 1 Commissions were granted by 
the Assembly for holding- courts at Kirkcudbright 
and some other places. A supplication was present- 
ed by the people of Carsephairn, for assistance to 
enable them to pay their minister. The application 
being referred to a committee, of which the Earl 
of Cassillis was a member, 2 they made their report 

poyntes of Poprie and Arminianisme, and many grosse personall 
faults." Records of the Kirk of Scotland. 

Stevenson mentions, that after the Service Book and the 
Book of Canons had been foimally condemned, Lord Montgom- 
ery, in name, of the complainers against the bishops, urged that 
their accusations might be heard. Whereupon it was agreed that 
the complaint against Mr Thomas Sydserff, Bishop of Galloway, 
should be first considered, and he having been called by an offi. 
cer, th ■ lil el against him was read. The charges against him 
were, "That he had taught Arminian tenets; that he kepta cru- 
cifix in his closet, and defended the use of it by his own example ; 
that he, at his own hand, had indicted two anniversary fasts in 
his diocesan Synod ; that he had compelled the ministeis to re- 
ceive the sacrament of the Lord's Supper kneeling; that he had 
deposed, and piocuved the banishment of some of the most e- 
minent of the ministry for nonconformity; that he had fined and 
confined several gentlemen for no better reason ; that he had em- 
braced excommunicated Papists andpiefeired more love to them 
than to puritans ; that he had condemned the exercise of family 
prayer ; and that he was an open profaner of the Sabbath, by buy- 
ing horses on that day and doing other secular affairs. All which 
having been proven against him he was deposed and excommnni- 
cated." (Stevenson, vol. ii. b. 2. cap iii.) 

1 " The provost of Dumfries said — That when he was in their 
tonne on the Sabbath day, they expected his comeing to the 
kirk, and layd cushions for him ; yet he came not, but went to 
an excommunicat Papist's house, and stayed all day." Records 
of the Kirk of Scotland. 

2 " Then there was a Supplication presentit in name of tha 
Kiik of Carsfairne, which church lyes in a very desolat wilder- 
nes, containing.500 communicants, It was buildedby some gen- 
tlemen to their great expenses, oi.Iy out of love to the salvation 
of the soules of a number of barbarous ignorant people, who heir, 
tofoir hes lived without the knowledge of God, their children 
unbaptized, their deid unburied, and could find no way for gett. 
ing men'.ainance to a minister but to betake them to the sympai. 


on the following day, and recommended that aid 
should be afforded,! by a collection at every church 
south of the Tay, to provide a stipend for the mi- 

On the last day of this Assembly's sitting, a re- 
quest was made by the Commissioner for Aber- 
deen, that the famous Mr Rutherford might be 

thizing of zealousness as the Assembly would think expedient. 

My Lord Cassiles said — Their cace is veiie considerable, and 
deserves helpe. The cace of their soules is verie dangerous, 
15 or 16 myles from a church ; and now, since God lies 
given them the benefite of a kirk, 1 think verilie a very little 
helpe of the Presbiteries of the kingdom would give them a com. 
petent meanes for a minister, especiallie seeing they have alread- 
ie provydit something themselves. Records of the Kirk of 

1 " Dec. 17th. After calling upon the name of God, those 
who were appoyntedto meit about the Kirk of Carsfairne, de- 
claired that they had mett and taken consideration of the estate 
of the kirk; and, finding that the pairties that possesses the 
teynds cannot be moved to give provision , we thinke it expedient 
they be helped ane uther way , aud becaus we thinke it expedi- 
ent that the whole kingdome be not troubled with it; therefore 
we thinke the bounds of this syde of Tay, including Fyfe and 
Forthe, will be sufficient." Records of the Kirk of Scot- 

" The parish of Carsefairn comprehends an extensive tract 
of rugged country, in the northern part of the Stewaitry. It 
was only formed, about the innovating times of 1640, by detach- 
ing from Dairy, the district lying between the Ken and the 
Deugh, and from the parish of Kells, tire district lying westward, 
from the Deugh to the shire of Ayr, and to Polmaddyburn on 
the south. It obtained the singular name of Carsefairn, from the 
site of the church upon an extensive flat, lyiug on the east bank 
of the Der.jfh. This had long been the name of the place; Carse- 
fairn, signifying, in the Celtic language, the swampy ground, 
where alders grow." 

"In 1639, the General Assembly made a reference to the 
parliament, desiring that the kirk of Carsefairn might be erect- 
ed into a parish kirk, and dismembered, from Dairy ; and this 
was referred by the parliament, to the commission to be granted, 
for augmentation of stipends, and plantation of kirks." 

"By a charter granted, to Robert Grierson of Lag, in 1671, 
and ratified in parliament in 1672, the village near the church 


translated from Anwoth to the chair of Divinity in 
the new college of that town. In answer to this 
application, Mr Rutherford made the following 
remarks. " My ministrie and the exercise of it is 
subject in the Lord to this Honourable Assemblie. 
But I trust in God this Assemblie will never take 
from me my pastorall charge ; for there is a woe 
unto me if I preach not the Gospell, and I know 
not who can goe betwixt me and that woe. If I 
do not preach the Gospeli, I verilie thinke the 
High Commission did not nor could not doe no 
worse not- that unto me; and therefore, he desyrit 
if there were any such thing" as that in their mynclg, 
they would not iutertaine such thoughts; for he 
said he would be content to suffer prisonmenf, 
banishment, &c, but never lay downe his minis- 

" The Moderatour answered —'He was glad that 
his reasons were so weake '; and after much rea- 
soning to and fro, it was referred to the Commis- 
sion at Edinburgh." 

This Assembly also made 'a new and more con- 
venient arrangement of presbyteries and synods. — 
The river Urr was fixed as the line of demarcation 
between the two presbyteries of Kirkcudbright and 
Dumfries, and the synods of Galloway and Dum- 
fries. The eight parishes in the east of Wigtown- 
shire, with the parishes of Minnigaff and Kirkma- 
breck, in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, were 
formed into a presbytery, the town of Wigtown to 

of Carsefairn was created a free burgh of the barony to be .called 
the Kiiktonn, with power to elect bailies and other officers, to 
build a tolbooth, and a cross, to create burgisses, and to bold a 
wookly market and two annual lairs. Acta fail viii. I5'J." — 



be its seat. The nine parishes in the west of Wig- 
town-shire, with the parishes of Colmoncll and 
Ballantrae, were formed into the presbytery of 
Stranraer. These two presbyteries, with that of 
Kirkcudbright, comprised the synod of Galloway: 
this arrangement still continues. Having in this 
manner effaced almost every vestige of Episcopacy, 
the court dissolved itself.' 

Among the clergymen from Galloway 2 who at- 
tended this famous Assembly, were Samuel Ruther- 
ford of Anwoth, and John Livingston of Stran- 
raer. Both Rutherford and Livingston zealously 
acquiesced in the bold measures then adopted, 
Rutherford beins: one of the select committee for 

1 Printed Acts of General Assembly, 1638. Burnets Me. 
moiis, &c. 

2 Ministers of Assembly. Presbytery of Dumfries. 
" Mr lames Hamiltoun minister of Dumfries. 

M. William Makjore minister at Caerlaverock. 
M. Alexander Trail minister at Locliroytoim. 

Iohn Chaiteris younger of Amesfield, Elder. 

lohn Irving, late Provost of Dumfries. 
Piesb. of Kirkcinlbright. 
M. Samuel Rutherford minister at Anweth. 
M. William Dalglitdi minister at Kirkmabreck, 
M Iohn Maclelland minister at Kirkcubtight. 

Alexander Gordoun of Earlstoun, Elder. 

William Glendinning, Provost of Kirkcudbright. 

Robert Gordoun of Kiiockbrex, burgess of New.Galloway. 
Presb. of Wigtoun. 
M. Andrew Anderson minister at Kirkinner. 
M. Andrew Lawder minister at Whithorne. 

Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, Elder. 

Alexander Makghie, burgesse of Wigtoun. 
Presb. cf Stranrawer, 
M. Iohn Levingstoun minister at Stranrawer. 
M lames Blair minister at Portmonigomerie. [Portpatrick.] 
M. Alexander Turnbull minis' er at Kirkmaden. 

Robert Adair of Kinhilt, Eliler. 

lames Glover, Cleik of Straurawer." Recobds or the 

Kiuk of Scotland. 


the consideration of ecclesiastical grievances. — 
The Earls of Galloway, Wigtown, and Dum- 
fries, sat in this Assembly, as long as the com- 
missioners attended. The King's authority hav- 
ing been thus set at open defiance, no alterna- 
tive remained, but to decide the contest by a 
recourse to arms. A Presbyterian convention 
of deputies that assembled at Edinburgh chose a 
committee vigorously to prepare for war. Levies 
were ordered fiom every county and burgh, and 
martial expeditions undertaken against all who pre- 
pared to rise in arms in support of the royal au- 
thority. The committee also ordered that every 
fourth man should be levied ; that every company 
should consist of one hundred men, whereof forty 
were to be pike-men and the rest musqueteers; that 
each parish should provide such a number of war- 
like implements as the committee might direct for 
the service : and, that no shire might want due 
notice of danger, it was thought fit that beacons 
should be set up in all public places. 

The portentous clouds of civil commotion had 
now gathered thick in the south where the Papists 
were lifting their heads. The Lords Nithsdale and 
Herries, with their followers and a party of English 
from Carlisle, were expected to join the Marquis 
of Douglas, who was arming his friends in the south 
of > cotland. The Earls of Galloway, Dumfries, and 
Queensberry, being also suspected of indulging a 
wish to join the opposition, Lord Johnston attacked 
the castle of Caerlaverock, but did not succeed : the 
mansion was strong and well supplied, and lay so 
near England, that it could be easily relieved. 
To repair this repulse, he went to Dumfries and 
seized the houses of such as were not friendly 


to tlie Presbyterian cause ; so that all the inha- 
bitants either submitted or fled to England.! The 
Covenanters likewise seized the castles of Edin- 
burgh and Dumbarton, the town of Dalkeith, and 
some other places. 2 

Many unpropitious circumstances conspired to 
retard or enfeeble Charles's warlike preparations. 
At last in the month of April, 1639, with an army 
of about twenty thousand men, he pioceeded to the 
confines ot Scotland. The vacillating Marquis of 
Hamilton, had already entered the Frith of Forth 
with a fleet of more than twenty ships of war ; but, 
lured by the falacious hopes of effecting a pacifica- 
tion without bloodshed, and paralysed by his con- 
stitutional indecision, he employed the armament 
under his command in no bold or efficient enter- 

Alexander Leslie, afterwards Earl of Leven, 
commander in chief of the Scottish forces, encamp- 
ed his whole army, consisting of about twenty-five 
thousand men in a strong position on Dunse-Law, 3 
for the purpose of intercepting the English, under 
the King in person, when they should make any 
attempt to advance. Charles soon lost confidence 
in his troops, for he observed their hearts were es- 

1 Stevenson, vol. iii. b. 2. cap, iv. 

2 Baillie Laing. 

3 " Their camp was a spectacle not less interesting to the 
military, thai) edifying to the devout Their co.ours were in- 
scribed i own anil covenant of Christ ; the soldiers were 
summoned by drun s to sermon, and their tents resounded at 
dawn and sunset, with psalms and prayers But the clergy were 
instrumental in pi iscipllnej and the dangerous emula- 
tion ot the uol ili' j essed by the discretion of Lesly their 

al; an unlet: r ol fortune, oi an advanced age, a 

■diminutive size, and a distorted person, but prudent, vigilant, en- 
terprizing, and expert in war.'' Laing'b History of Scotland. 


iranged from his cause, and that they were careless 
ofsuccess;! he was, therefore, disposed to negotiate. 
The Presbyterian army being undisciplined and 
presumptuous, their leaders were afraid least the 
effervescence of their ardour might subside after the 
first onset, and felt not unwilling to listen to terms. 
Commissioners were immediately appointed on both 
sides to negotiate a treaty. The business was soon 
accomplished, and they agreed that an Assembly 
should be called, and a Parliament summoned for 
adjusting a final settlement of the affairs of Scot- 
land. The days on which they were to meet for 
the despatch of business were expressly fixed, and 
both parties dispersed their armies. For this en- 
terprise Galloway furnished more than its propor- 
tionate number of combatants. 

The Assembly, as originally fixed, met on the 
12th of August, 1639, the Earl of Traquair being 
deputed as King's commissioner. By it the Solemn 
League and Covenant was renewed; the abolition 
of Episcopacy sanctioned; all the acts of the Co- 
venanters justified; and, in short, the whole pro- 
ceedings of the late Assembly virtually ratified. 2 
To this Assembly applications were made both by 
Edinburgh and St. Andrews, that Mr Rutherford 
might be removed from the parish of Anwoth, and 
settled in the ministry in one of these towns. — ■ 
After much reasoning, the court, by a very con- 
siderable plurality of votes, ordained him to go to 
St. Andrews, as colleague to Mr Robert Blair, and 
to give such assistance in the University as his time 
would allow. 3 

1 Laing. 

2 Acts of Assembly. — Burnet's Memoirs Hume. 

3 " The Toui.o of Edinburgh, and the Toune ai.d Colli 



On the 31st of the same month, Parliament as- 
sembled. In it were the Earls of Wigtown, Gal- 
loway, Cassillis, Queensberry, and Annandale ; the 
Lords Kirkcudbright and Johnston ; the Lairds of 
Larg and Kinhilt, as representatives of Wigtown- 
shire ; William Glendinning, Commissioner of 
the burgh of Kirkcudbright, Robert Gordon, 
Commissioner of New Galloway, Patrick Ahan- 
nay, or Hannay, Commissioner of Wigtown, and 
oTohn Irving, Commissioner of Dumfries. Tra- 
quair presided as the representative of royalty. — 
Like the General Assembly it was composed al- 
most entirely of the zealous friends of the Co- 
venant, who soon exhibited the fixed determina- 
tion of considerably diminishing the royal authority, 
and placing the civil, as well as the ecclesiastical 
government of the country entirely in the hands of 
their own party. Charles and his friends perceiv- 
ed, as they thought, the dangerous tendency 
of their aims, and gave Traquair orders to pro- 
rogue the Parliament. The flame of discontent 
was instantly re-kindled, and raged with encreasing 
violence. A momentous civil war appeared in- 
evitable, and the Covenanters lost no time in 
preparing for it. They called ail the noblemen, 
gentlemen, and popular ministers, to assemble in 
Edinburgh, and decide upon the measures that 

of St. Andiewes having presented supplications for the transpor- 
tation of Mr Samuell Rutherford from Anvvith to each of them, 
after many contestations and altercations, and the reading of 
the re isons of Aberdeene and Edinburgh, andansweisto each of 
them from other, and the reading of Mr Samuells ovvne reasons 
■for not transportation at all from Anwith, the said Mr Samuel), 
by the farr greatest of the voices of the Assembly was ordained 
to go to St. Andrewes to serve in the ministerie, and make such 
helpes in the Colledge as God shall affooid him abilitie for." — , 
Records of the Kirk of Scotland 


were necessary for its vigorous prosecution. At 
this meeting it was resolved to raise an army, col- 
lect contributions, and fortify all the places of 
strength, which could possibly be obtained. In 
the gaining of supplies they were particularly suc- 
cessful. Ladies surrendered their money, their 
precious ornaments, and their plate ; the nobility 
granted bonds on their lands; and merchants, who 
had accumulated wealth, willingly expended it in 
the cause of religion. 1 Agreeably to the orders of 
the 18th of May, 1639, Colonel Monro, who had 
been sent to Dumfries with a part of the first raised 
levy to train the militia in that country, and to sup- 
press the insurrection of the malcontents, collected 
as many forces in the shires of Dumfries, Wigtown, 
and Kirkcudbright, as could be spared, and march- 
ing eastward through Annandale, Liddisdale, and 
Tiviotdale, joined the army which had assembled' 
at Dunse.2 This army did not wait until the King 
invaded Scotland ; they boldly entered England, 
gained the battle of Newborn, on the 28th of Au- 
gust, and took Newcastle, when Charles yielded 
to the terms proposed by the Covenanters. The 
troops commanded by Sir Patrick M'Ghie of Gal- 
loway, were particularly distinguished. They pur- 
sued the English with great success, and made 
every man a prisoner who had the courage to abide 
at his post; but in this engagement Sir Thomas 
lost his only son, a brave aspiring youth. 3 

Many noblemen had raised soldiers for the de- 
fence of their country. The Earl of Cassillis com- 
manded au entire regiment of his dependants in- 

1 Cook. 

2 Stevenson, vol. lib. 2. cap. iv. 

3 Stevensoa, vol. iii, b. 3. cap. v, 


this battle. By the appointment of the presbytery r 
Mr Livingston of Stranraer, officiated as its chap- 
lain, and was present with the army at Newburn. 1 

1 We sliall give Mr Livingston's own nocount of the expedi- 
tion. " I was sent out by the Presbytrie in the year 1G40. le- 
go with the Earl of Cassids regiment, when our army went to 
Newcastle. Our army lay a while at Chusely.wood, ^i mile or 
two from Dunce, till the rest of the si my came up. 1 had there 
a little trench teat, and abed hung between two Leager.Chists, 
and having lain several nights with my cloaths on ; I being 
wearied with want of sleep, lit! ly one night with my cloaths 
■ .. I hal -. : [hi was rery co-U, antl > .-.'-• '. slei ; 
wc ,. o2 cna , so that 'a. ■ ■ . - i to stir any 

part of my body, and 1 bad much aloe, with the help of my man 
and my to ji L oa my cloaths. 1 caused them to 
put me on my horse, and went to Dunce, and lay down in a bed, 
.,:: i caused them to give me into the bed, a big lin-stoup lull of 
water, whereby a sweat was procure! ; so that before night 1 
w;.s able to rise and put on my cloaths. When the whole army 
was come up, it was found that there was want of powder and of 
bread. The biskat being spoyled, and the cloalli to be huts to 
the souldiers, this produce! some fears that the expedition might 
lie delayed for that year. One day when the committee of Es. 
md General officeis, and some ministers were met in the 
of Dune, and were at prayer, and consulting what to do, 
i of the Guards comes and knocks rudely at the door of 
the room where we were; and told theie was treachery discover. 
el, for he going to a big cellar in the bottom of the house seek- 
ing for some other thing, had found a great many barrels of 
powder which be apprehended was intended to blow us all up. 
After search, it was found that the powder had been laid in there 
the year before, when the army depaited from Duuce-Law after 
the pacificatibr, and bad been forgotten; therefore having found 
powder, the Earls of Rothes and Lowdon, Mr Alexander Hen- 
derson, and Mr Archibald Johnstone, were sent to Edinburgh, 
and within a few days, brought as much meal and cloath to the 
souldiers, by the gift of well-affected people there, as sufficed 
the whole Army. The 20th of August 1040, the army matched 
into England, and eight days thereafter, some little opposition be- 
ing made by the English army, they passed the Tine at Newburn, 
and had Newcastle rendered to them, and alter two petitions to 
the King, followed the treaty at Ripon, and thereafter the Parlia- 
ment of England in November following, where the large tieaty 
was concluded. It was laid upon me by the Presbytrie of the 
army, to diaw up a Narration of what happened in that skir- 
mish, when we passed at Newburn, which 1 did in a paper 


Charles visited Scotland in 1641, and held a 
Parliament. The business proceeded with much 
rapidity, but he felt himself compelled to look 
helplessly on while his authority was contemned, 
his prerogatives annihilated, his wishes slighted, 
his sovereignty denied, the monarchial constitu- 
tion almost destroyed, and all the proceedings of 
the late insurrection sanctioned by the stamp of 
law. The King at this time made a grant of the 

out of that I saw or heard from others, by the help of the Leu., 
tenant General: it was very refreshful to remark, that after we 
came to a quarter at night, there was nothing to be heard al- 
most through the whole aimy, but singing of Psalms, Prayer, 
and reading of Scripture, by the Souldiers in their several huts s 
and as I was informed, there was much more the year before, 
when the army lay at Dunce-Law. And indeed in all our meet., 
ings and consultings, both within doors and without in the fields, 
always the nearer the beginning, there was so much the more 
dependance upon God, and more tenderness in worship and 
walking, but through process of time we still declined more and 
more. That day we came to Newburn, the General and some 
others stepped aside to lladdon on the wall; where old Mistress 
Fiunik came out and met us, and burst out and said, And is it 
so that Jesus Christ will not come to England for reforming of 
Abuses, but with an Army of 22000 men at his back? In Novem- 
ber 1640, I returned back to Stranrawer, all the rest of the pa. 
lishes of the country had before that, contributed Money to send 
to buy cloaths for the boldiers whom they sent out. This was 
not done in Stianrawer, by reason of my absence. We had sent 
out our 4th fensible men, viz. 15 men ; the town was but little 
and poor : all the yearly rent, was estimated to 2000 merks Scots 
out of which a part of the ministers stipend was to be paid, but 
the Fail of Carols paied a great pai t of it. On the Sunday morn. 
ing after I came home one came to me to enquire if I had any 
v/ord to the army, he being to go the Monday or Tuesday 
following. Therelore at our meeting in the Church on that 
Saturday I propounded unto them the condition of the army, 
and desired that they would prepare their Contribution to be 
given to morrow after Sermon, at which time we got 45 pound 
iterlin^, whereof we sent 15 pound sterling to our own souldiers, 
and 15 to Captain Ellis company who were all Ireland men, and 
*o had no parish in Scotland to provide for them, and 15 to the 
Commissar General to Le distributed by publick order. 

Life of Livingston 


bishopric of Galloway, with its whole property, to 
the University of Glasgow, deducting a stipend 
for its Cathedral ; and the grant was ratified by 
Parliament, the Bishop of Galloway protesting 
in vain. 5 The Kails of Galloway, Wigtown, 
and Cassillis, Viscount Kenmure, and Lord Kirk- 
cudbright; with Gordon, Laird of Earlston, from 
the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright; the Lairds of 
Kinhilt, and Merton, from Wigtownshire; and Sir 
Robert Grier, or Grierson, of Lagg, and Sir John 
Charters of Enisfield from Dumfries, attended this 

iment; Commissioners from the burghs of 
Kirkcudbright, Wigtown, Whithorn, and New 

> way, were also present. Lord Kirkcudbright 
permission from the House to return home 
for eight days, on account of his lady's indisposi- 
tion. The King submitted to the Estates a list of 
those whom he had nominated Privy Councillors. 
This roll comprised the names of the Earls of Cas- 
sillis, Wigtown, Galloway, and Dumfries ; but the 
names of the two latter noblemen were expunged 
by Parliament.2 

] ])v tins grant the Abbeys of Tongland and Glenluce, and 

the Priory of Whithorn, went to the University, with the 

Churches of Cruggleton, "Whithorn, GIa9serton, Kirkmaiden, 

me, Inch, Clashant, Toskerton. or Kirk- 

riue, Old and New Luce, and Leswalt. 

— The following are some of the less important 
proceedings of the Parliament. 

*' The presbyterey of Vigtons supplicatione to the gei 
assembler recommendit to the house this day, 5th August, anent 
the roytts and villanies done by Thomas Mack.Gie, ane infamous- 
banished notarey." 

' Ti les ordaines the Earle of Galloway 

to-apptehend and produce him before the pari: aganist the 17th 
day of Agust instant, as he will be anssueiable to the house." 

" This day, (19th August,) in fare of parliament, the Ducko 
of Lennox and Earl o'.' Annandaill did subscriue the coue. 


After the return of Charles to England, he felt 
himself under the disagreeable necessity of calling 
another English Parliament; and from that hour, it 
may be said, he was no longer King of Britain. — 
The enemies of royalty wrenched from him con- 

nant, band, and othe, and the Earles of Galloway and Drumfries, 
the olhe." 

" August 24th. The president, in name of the housse, thanks 
the Earle of Galloway, for producing the false notarey Mack-Gie, 
quhom they sent to the common jayle.'' 

" Sept. 10th. The toune of Vigtons bill against the Earle 
of Gall way, containing one poynt of treisone and 8 of oppres- 
sions, read in the house." 

" The Earle of Galloways anssuers to their complaint read." 

" The toune of Vigtons replayes to the Earles anssuers read," 

"The house ordaines the toune of Vigtons replayes to be giuen 
to the Eaile of Galloway to be adwyssed with ; and he to giue 
in his duj ! ■ to them one Thursday nixt ; and the housse or- 
daines b.;..i parties to citt ther wittnes, hinc inde, the one to 
prone tin ill, and the ether his exeeptioue, against the 23d 

day of this instant." 

,; MCulloche of Myrtone and diuers others, ther bill of com- 
plaint against the Earle of Galloway to the King and pari: con- 
taining diuers poynts of oppression, bloodshed and depreda- 

" The Earle of Gallowayes anssuers to the bill read, and Myr- 
tone lies gottene them to anssuer; aud the King and pari: or 
uaines Itlyrtoirto sumond his wittnes for piobatione of hes com- 
plaint, aganist the 23d day of this instant." 

" Sept. 16th. The Eurle of Anuaudaill, Lordes Jhonstone 
and Kiicubright. with the Lairdes of Lage and Enisfeild, are 
enacted in the bookes of pail : this day, to saue the countrey 
skaithless of the gaiisone of Carleill ; aud Colonell Cochrans 
regiment, which lay at Drumfreis, is this day ordained by the 
to retire thither, and the countrey ordained to giue 
them 4 days prauiant for ther march thitherwaid." 

" Sept. 24th. Petitione of Villiam Cuninghame of Pottone, 
aganist the Earle of Galloway, for imprissoning of him till he 
almost stained, being the Kinges free leige, and for vther poynts 
of oppressione, humblie crauing the housses vanant for citaiione 
of vittues." 

The E. of Gallowayes anssuers to this complaint read in the 
house, and a vrarrant granted to the petitioner for citatioue of his 
wittnes aganist the 7 of October. 

The housse ordaines a committee of 4 of each estait, and 3 of 


cession after concession, without leaving him even 
the semblance of authority. While Charles was 
reduced to a state of helpless prostration, they 
extruded the English bishops from their seats in 
parliament, and sent the primate Laud to perish on 
the scaffold. The pitiable condition of the King 
called around him his faithful subjects ; and he 
reared the royal standard at Nottingham. The 
contest proceeded and final victory hung in sus- 

During the progress of this unnatural struggle, 
the Scots remained but inactive spectators of the 
storm, which, by their example and exhortations, 
they had been instrumental in raising. The Par- 
liamentary party, however, in the year 1643, sent 
down an embassy to Scotland, to demand a supply 
of troops according to a former treaty between the 
two Parliaments. 1 

A Scottish army was sent to Ireland for the os- 
tensible purpose of subduing the Irish Catholics; 
but in reality for preventing Charles from drawing 
assistance from that country; and Munro, its com- 
mander, frustrated some schemes which had been 
formed for bringing a large Irish force into Britain 
to aid the royal cause. 2 

eache to be a coram, fot examinatione of the toune of Vigtones 
•,*rittnes aganist the Earle of Galloway." 

" Oct. 1. The toune of Vigtons complaint aganist the Earle 
of Galloway debait this afteraoone, and both parties admitted 
to haue ther aduocates aganist Tuesday uixt, in the afteruoune, 
wich dav the bousse appoynts for tbis bussines." 

" All the ten seuerall bills of complaint, exhibit to the house 
aganist Alexander, Earle of Galloway, ar submitted by bis Ma- 
jesties mediatione to tuo of eache estait ; and the Lord Cbaiu 
celour or president of the parliament to be ouersman." Balfot i< , 

1 Laing. 

2. Chambers History of the Irish Rebellion, &c„ 


Divines now met at Westminster under the au- 
thority of the refractory Parliament, for the pur- 
pose of settling the form of worship, and system of 
doctrines by which the Churches of south and north 
Britain were to be moulded to a complete uni- 
formity. Eight Commissioners from the General 
Assembly of Scotland, of whom the Karl of Cassilis 
was one, attended to assist in their deliberations. 
Mr Rutherford, professor of theology at St. An- 
drews was also one of the Commissioners ; and the 
iviiieii i-e took i:i the various discussions 
raised Ins reputation and extended his celebrity. — 
" Sundry times" says Mr Baillie, "Mr Liutherford 
spoke exceedingly well.'' "Mr Rutherford in par- 
ticular," says Mr Reid, " took his full share in the 
debates which were carried on there, displaying 
much learning and knowledge, even of the Ra- 
binuical writers, and combating on some occasions 
the eminently learned Lightfoot with vigour and 
success." When the business was finished in 1G 17, 
the thanks of the Assembly were given to the 
Scottish Commissioners for their valuable assist- 
ance. During his residence in London, Mi- 
ll a herford preached a sermon before the Lords 
on a day appointed for solemn humiliation, and 
received the thanks of the House. The sermon 
was printed. 1 Robert M'Ward, a native of Glen- 

1 ". he sermon was preached before the House of Lords on 

the 25th of June, 1C45, "being a clay appointed for 

s 1 .:..: and public humiliation.-" To give such of oui readers 

. not have si en any oi .Mr Rutherford's works, some idea 

oi his iert a short extract from it. 

•• Fourthly, all of ua generally faile in the Lad husbaudiDg of 
time, wee are a dying ere wee know for what end we live ; ima- 
ginea master sent his servant to a great citie with a written 
gaper coutaii isscsof great concernment, having allotted 

to him the space cf ten 3 to dispatch them all, should 


luce, 1 who subsequently attained some celebrity, 

heefor the space of the first nine hours fall a drinking with his 
drunken companions, and goe up and downe to behold all the 
novelties of the citie, he should break trust ; Alas! is not this 
world like a great Exchange? our paper containeth the busiaesse 
of a great kingdome up above, the honoui and glory of our Lord, 
our redemption through Christ, a treaty for everlasting peace ; 
the time of infancy and childhood slippeth over, and wee know 
not the end of our creation. * * * Wee goe through the 
Exchange to buy frothy honour, rotten pleasure, and when the 
lust hour is come, wee scarce read our masters paper, we barter 
one nothing-creature with another : alas! it is but a poore reck- 
oning that a naturall man can make, who can say no more at 
his death, but 1 have eaten, drunken, sleeped, waked, dreamed 
and sinned, for the space of sixtie or seventie yeaies, and that is 
all. * * * Within a few generations then shall bee a Par- 
liament of othei faces, a new geneiation of ether men in the Cit- 
ies, Houses, Assemble s, wee are now in, and wee a company of 
night visions shall flie away, and our places shall know us no 
more. * * * Imagine that our spirit o:ice entered within 
the line of eternitie could but stay up beside the Moonc, and 
looke downe and behold us children sweating and running for 
our beloved shadowes of Lands, Fields, Flocks, Castles, Towers, 
Crownes, Sceptres, Gold, Money, hee should wondei that reason 
is so blear-eyed as to hunt dreames and toyes Judge righteously, 
give faire justice to Christ, doe good while it is to day, consider 
Hie afteruoone of a declining suune, within few houres wee are 
plunged in the bosome and wombe of eternitie, and cannot re. 
turi.e Lacke againe. Lord teach us to number our dayes." 

Die Iovis 26. Iunii, 1045. 

" It : .s this day ordered by the Lords in Parliament assembled, 
That Mr Kutherfurd who preached yesterday befme the Lords 
in Parliament, in the Abbey church Westminster, is hereby 
thanked for the great paines he tooko in his >aid sermon ; ind is 
desired to print and publish the same, which is to bee priuted 
onely by authority under his owue hand. 

To the Gentleman Usher or his Iohn Brown Cler. 

Deputie to be delivered to the Parliamentorum. 

said Mr Rutherfurd. 

I appoint Andrew Crooke, to print this Sermon. 

Samuel Riitheiurd." 

1 " Old Luce, and New Luce parishes were formerly compre- 
hended in one extensive parish, called, Glenluce. The parish 
church, and the abbey of Glenluce stood on the eastern bank of 
the river Luce, in a pleasant valley, called Glenluce, from the ri- 
rer and Yale. The church, with all its revenues, belonged tc- 


attended him as his private secretary and amanu- 

The same General Assembly that had exhibited 
so much sound judgment in their choice of able 
Commissioners to repair to England, displayed a 
melancholy instance of the deplorable superstition 
and prejudice whieh then prevailed among all 
ranks of the community. Several overtures with 
respect to witchcraft and charming were presented 
and gravely approved of.2 Ministers had been or- 

the abbot and monks of Glenluce, who were proprietors of this 

extensive district, over which they had a regality jurisdiction 

In the parish of Glenluce, there were formerly two chapels, which 
also belonged to the same abbot and monks. One of them was 
dedicated to the Virgin Mai v, arid was called our Lady's Chapel; 
the other, which was dedicated to Jesus Christ, was called, 
Christ's Chapel, and Kirk.Chiist. This last was ruinous, when 
Symson wrote, in 1684. It stood near to the sea coast, between 
Balcarrie and Schinneruess; which is now called Sunnyness; and 
the adjacent creek is still called the bay of Kirk Christ." 


1 " The Rev. Robert M'Ward, an eminent clergyman, and 
theological and controversial writer during the reigns of Charles 
I. and Charles II., was a native of this parish. He studied at St 
Andrews ; and afterwards acted as amanuensis and private se- 
cretary to the celebrated Samuel Rutherford, while the latter was 
in London as a member of the Westminster Assembly of Divines. 
M'Ward successively held several high offices. He was elected, 
Professor of humanity in Salvator's college, St Andrews, in 
1050; Professor of Philosophy in the University of Glasgow in 
1653; and one of the ministers of that city in 1656. He was 
the editor of Rutherford's Letters, which were first published in 
Rotterdam in 1664. His other works were, • The poor Man's 
Cap of Cold Water;' ' The True Non-Conformist;' ' Banders 
Disbanded ; ' A Testimony against paying of Cess to the Per- 
secutors ; ' Earnest Contending^ for the Faith,' and other publi- 
cations, :ill of which were long popular in this country. About 
seventy of his letters, addressed to friends in Scotland, chiefly a- 
gainst the Indulgence, have been preserved by Wodrow, and con. 
tain much biographical and other curious information." 

Murray's Lit. Hist. 2d edit, 
For more information respecting Mr M'Ward, we beg leave 
to refer the reader to the Literary History of Galloway. 

2 " Upon the regret of the extraordinary multiplying of 


dained by previous Assemblies to be careful in 
detecting "charmers, witches, and other such a- 
..b users of the people," and to urge that the acts 
against them should be put in force. An act was 
also passed against meetings of persons at night for 
the purpose of reading the scriptures and joining in 
prayer, particularly in the south and west of Scot- 
land, where the practice had become very general, 
and had given so much offence to many of the clergy, 
that in some presbyteries prayer meetings had been 
totally suppressed, particularly in that of Stirling, 
where Mr Henry Guthrie, afterwards Bishop of 
Dunkeld, was minister. In the Assembly, he 
spoke against such meetings with great vehemence, 
and was joined by several other ministers who all 
denounced those who countenanced them, "where- 
upon one of the Commissioners from Galloway, 
vented himself particularly against Mr Samuel 
Rutherford of Anwoth, Mr John Livingston of 
Stranraer, aud Mr Maclellan of Kirkcudbright, as 
great encouragers of these meetings within their 
bounds. Upon this, a great heat, noise, and con- 
fusion arose in the assembly. The Earl of Sea- 
forth, an eloquent man, took part with the accusers ; 
but many of the rest could not bear to hear good 
people run down at that rate without trial." 

Mr John Maclellan craved that a committee 
might be appointed to inquire into the disorders 
complained of. At this the clamour and noise be- 
came shameful and unbounded ; the moderator had 
neither weight in his discourse, nor dexterity in 

-vvitclips, above thirty being burnt in Fife in a few months, a 
committee was appointed to think on that sin, the way to search 
and cure it. The Scots of Ireland did petition for supply of 
roiuiaters, and were well heard." 

Heccuds of the Kirk of Scotland 


guiding" the argument, so every one was allowed 
to say what he chose. Neither side was favour- 
able to Mr Maclellan's motion. Most of his 
friends were afraid of marring- the peace of the 
Church by too strict a scrutiny ; and the opposers 
of private meetings were disposed to be content if 
they could obtain a resolution condemning them in. 

Mr Guthrie, however, succeeded in getting an 
act passed respecting family worship, ordaining: 

1st. "That Family worship be performed by those 
of one family only, and not of different families," 

2d. "That reading prayers is lawful where none 
in the family can express themselves properly ex- 

3d. " That none be permitted to explain the 
scriptures, but ministers and expectants approved 
of by the presbytery."! 

Much assiduous zeal was at this time displayed 
by many of the clergy in the discharge of the in- 
human duty of bringing witches to condign punish- 
ment. 2 

1 Stevenson, vol. iii. b. 3. cap. V. 

2 Mr Sample was some time Minister of Carsephairn i 

Being present when a neighbouring clergyman was distributing 
tokens to his congregation, before the administration of the sa- 
crament, he suddenly exclaimed, while the minister was reaching 
one to a woman ; " Hold yonr hand, she hath gotten too many- 
tokens already ; she is a witch." It is said the woman was 
not suspected, though she afterwards confessed her guilt, and was 
put to death. Another instance of gross superstition, mental 
aberration, or arrogant imposition, was displayed about the same 
time by the same clergyman. It is mentioned in his life, that 
he was particularly successful svith his people on sacramental 

occasions, and that the devil envied his success very much. 

On one occasion, in particular, before administering the Lord's 
Supper, when he had been peculiarly fortunate in lousing their 
devotional feelings, he informed them that the devii was partieiiv. 


At this superstitious period, the reality of sorcery, 
or witchcraft was never for a moment called in ques- 
tion. Those who had the misfortune to be viewed as 
guilty of it, were accounted the votaries of Satan ; 
and the means by which he had gained an ascen- 
dency over them were seriously narrated in evi- 
dence. To be suspected was generally sufficient 
to subject the object of suspicion to punishment; 
and even the unhappy beings themselves, some- 
times from mental delusion, temporary derange- 
ment, or permanent insanity, owned their imaginary 
crimes, and acknowledged the justice of the sen- 
tence which hurried them to a painful, a cruel, and 
an unpitied death. Completely to secure the des- 
tined victims of a lamentable superstition, laws 
were gravely enacted, that, after their apprehension, 

latly irritated on account of their "good work," and that he was 
afraid Satan would be permitted to raise a storm, or "speat of rain," 
with the intention of drowning- some of them : " but," said he, 
''it shall not be in his power to drown any of you." On Monday, 
accordingly, the river was very laige, and when the congrega- 
tion were dispersing, they beheld with amazement a map dress, 
ed in black, enter the water a little above them. This rash indi- 
vidual soon lost his footing and was cairied away by the stream, 
floating upon his back, and waving his hands apparently for assist- 
ance. The people, having procured a rope, ran and threw it to 
him , and he seized it ; but though ten or twelve men were hold- 
ing it; yet, it is said, they were in danger of being all drawn into 
the river and drowned. Mr Semple, who was looking on, cried 
out immediately ;" Quit the rope, and let him go: I see who 
he is; it is the devil." It is added, that every inquiry was made 
to discover if anv person in that quarter had been drowned, but 
nose was heard of; and the deluded people were therefore more 
aud more convinced that the peison whom they had seen in the 
water wa3 the devil. Thus through the superstitions and per- 
nicious influence of one man, did a congregation of Christian 
worshippers, with the means of assistance within their power, 
look calmly on, while a fellow creature, who was peiiahing in 
the flood, solicited their aid. What blind infatuation, what in- 
tellectual degradation! (Life of John Semple.— Scot* 
Worthies, &c) 


they were to be carefully watched by " discreet" 
persons;" for they often endeavoured to escape by 
suicide, from the brutal insult, the unrelenting 1 tor- 
ture, and the excruciating' death, which no proofs 
of innocence could enable them to avert. I It is 
pleasant to reflect that the benign rays of ge- 
nuine religion and rational education have dispel- 
led from the human mind those dark mists which 
concealed the existence of errors so prolific of e- 
normities, so productive of horrors, so diffusive of 

The Earl of Montrose had at first espoused the 
cause of the Covenant, but, afterwards becoming- 
dissatisfied with the conduct of its adherents, he 
was gained over by the King. He, therefore, now 
prepared, by some bold and irresistible enterprise, 
to reduce Scotland to a state of obedience to its 
lawful Sovereign ; but the timid counsels of Ha- ' 
milton prevailed with Charles, and the bold pro- 
posals of Montrose were rejected. 

Upon the promise of the English Parliament to 
reduce Episcopacy, to receive the Covenant, and to • 
maintain, or pay the Scottish forces, an auxiliary 
army of eighteen thousand infantry and three thou- ' 
sand cavalry was sent into England in 1644,2 to 
raise the drooping cause of the Parliamentary fac- 
tion : the Scots thus became parties in the war. 

1 Punted Acts of Assembly. 

2 In the Scottish Parliament which assembled in 1044, were 
the Earl of Cassillis and Lord Kirkcudbright; Sir Robert Griersoa 
of Lagg, and James Douglas of Mousewald from Dumfries shire j 
William Grierson of'Bargatton from the Stewaitry of Kirk. 
cudbright ; Junes M'Dowall of Uai thland and Andrew Agnew 
of Lochnaw, from Wigtownshire ; John Crosbie from the town 
of Kirkcudbright, and Patiick Hannay from the burgh of Wig- 
town : Whithorn, and New Galloway had no commissioners 

Its proceedings throw some light on the condition of Gallowav, 


When General Leslie, (now Earl of Leven,} its 
commander, had reached Morpeth, he remained 
five days in that place in order to refresh his 
troops. He then advanced upon Newcastle, which 
he summoned to surrender. The Marquis, of 
Newcastle, one of the King's friends, had thrown 
himself into the town, and by his presence and 
language invigorated the minds of the defend- 
ers. A resolute defiance was returned to the 
summons, and the suburbs were set on fire as a 
proof of their determination. After the flames 
had raged for two days, a sortie was made on 
two regiments commanded by Lord Kirkcudbright 
and Lord Balg-onie. The Scots at first were 
thrown into some confusion and began to give 

On Tuesday the 2 of July ; " The housse ordained commis- 
sions and letters of intercoaiuning to be directed against them 
that are tugitiues, and wer cited to the committee of Drumfreis, 
in the rebellion e of the southe. 

The housse ordaines Jardine, the Lord Harries seiuant, to be 
proceidit aganist by way of dittay. 

The housse ordaines Dauid Wallace to be sett at liberty, and 
Thomas Brune lykwayes, 

Roger Lindesaye3 man to be proceidit aganist, by way 
of dittay. 

The housse ordaines a committee of 3 of cache estait, to tray 
the Earle of Hartfell, the Laird of Hempsefeild, and prouest of 
Drumfreis." — 

On Monday 22nd July ; " The housse, in respecte of the re- 
bellione of Robert, Earle of Nidisdaill and hes deputtes, quho are 
Steuarts of Kircubright, none being ther nou to administer jus- 
tice to hes Majesties leidges ; auisandum till to morrow." 

On Thursday 25th July; " The housse makes and creettes 
[creates] the Lord Kircubright, steuart of that steuartrey, and 
grantes him a commissione to iudure till the nixt triennial par- 
liament wotted [voted] and past," 

Saturday the 27th July; " The proucst of Dumfreis enlarged 
under the paine of 5,000 merkes, and he ordained to pay hes 
jynne of 10,000 merkes befor hes inlargement." 

The Maxswolls that wer comitted 2 dayes befor war also in. 
;arged, and confynnd one catione." Balfour. 


way. Some English forces were despatched to in- - 
tercept their retreat, or attack them in the rear ; 
but they were suddenly checked, by finding that 
the Scottish regiments had countermarched, and 
were presenting a firm and determined front. — - 
When Colonel Brandling, the English commander, 
observed this, he rode out in front of his soldiers, 
and, in the attitude of defiance flourished his pistol 
Lieutenant Elliot accepted the challenge. Both 
fired and missed, and they were preparing to en- 
counter sword in hand, when Brandling's horse 
stumbled, and ere he could recover his seat, his an- 
tagonist pushed him to the ground and made him 
prisoner. His men, discouraged by the fate of their 
commander, took to flight, and left the Scots the 
honour of the victory.! 

Charles at last empowered the Earl of Mon- 
trose to take up arms against the Scottish Cove- 
nanters ; and he raised the royal standard at Dum- 
fries. 2 

This heroic chief hurried on from victory to vic- 
tory, until he had defeated his enemies in no fewer 
than six battles. Being, however, suddenly attacked 
at Philiphaugh, near Selkirk, on the 13th of Sep- 
tember, 1645, by Major General David Leslie, with 
a superior force, he was totally routed, but effect 
ed his escape, with about one hundred and^fifty fol- 
lowers, to Athole.3 In this battle, John, third Lord 
Kirkcudbright, commanded a regiment which he had 
raised at his own expense, chiefly among his numer- 
ous tenants in Galloway. James Agnew was Lieu- 

1 Aikman. 

2 Clarendon's History of the Irish Rehellion, &c Laing. 

3 Some yeais afterwards he was taken prisoner and executed 
in b mean, vindictive, and cruel manner, (Napier, &c.) 


tenant Colonel ; and Sir Andrew Agnew afterwards 
obtained an order of the Scottish Parliament for 
payment of 3750 marks as his brother's share of 
15,000 marks, which were awarded out of the 
forfeited estate; of Lord I Terries, to Lord Kirk- 
cudbright's regiment for their bravery and valuable 
services at the victory of Philiphaugh.l Several 
of the most distinguished prisoners taken in this 
battle, were ordered by Parliament to be executed/ 2 

1 In 1648, John Maclellan of Borgue, succeeded to the title 
of Lord Kirkcudbright. He : property to a vast ex- 
tent in Galloway. He was a zealous Presbyterian and a vio- 
lent opponent of Cromwell and the Independents. He raised 
at his own expense, from among his vassals and tenants a regi- 
ment of foot,* who fought so bravely at the battle of Philip- 
hangh, on loth September, lfi45, that as a reward for their 
good services on that day, tlic Scottish Parliament awarded 
them 15,000 marks, out of the forfeited estate of Lord Hemes. f 
Loid Kirkcudbright proceeded subsequently with his regiment 
to Ireland, but at Lissnegarvy in Ulster, on 6th December, 
1619, they were attacked by the Parliamentary forces anil nearly 
cut off. J Mr John Govans was chaplain to the regiment. The 
expense incurred by his Lordsh'p during the civil wars, involved 
him in much d bt. For the sum then expended he was never 
remum s being seized by his creditors, he 
was reduced to a slate of comparative indigence. 

John Fleming eldest son of the Earl of Wigtown, was like- 
wise in this battle. Having joined Montrose when he first took 
-,ip arms in behalf of Charles, Tie never deserted his cause until 
the defi '>.. after which he was obliged to flee to 

the Highlands, and thei : himself until his friends could 

compound for his 

2 Parliament according to adjournment, had met on the 7'h pf 
January .1645. The Earls of Cassillis and Galloway, Lord 
Kirkcudbright, Provost Glendinning of Kirkcudbright, the Laird 
of Cardoness, commissioner for the Stewartry, Agnew, sheriff of 
"Wigtown, and Patrick Hannay, weie members. 

In the Recosdsare the following entries. 

Monday the 27th day of January *' The house, befor they did 

* Forsyth's Beauties of Scotland vol. ii. p. 381. 
f Acts of Parliament, vi. p. 53. 

\ Sir James Wares Gesta Hibernorum, Dublin Edit. I705_ 
p, 18?. 


The result of this battle produced in the minds 
of the people of Galloway the most lively emotions 
of gratitude and delight. 1 

euter to the reading of Sir Robert Spottiswoods processe, did 
repell the defenses giuen in by him anent quaiters, quoad eum ; 
only the Earles of Cassillis and Dumfermliue craued pardon of 
the house, tlint they were not cleir in that poynt"" 

Saturday the 15th Feb; "Acte ratifinng seuerall donations 
and mortifications of lies Maiesties, of certaine bischuprickes 
and chuiche laudes, to the vniversities of St. Andrewes, Edin. 
hrughe, Aberdeine and Glasgow, wotted and past." 

Friday 21st February; "Mr Johne Fletcher remitted to furd. 
or trayell, and lies depositions wer imediately therafter read in 
the housse, ;. . t Ogilueyes cschape. In thesse depositions he 
attacked the ides Carnegy, St. Claire, and Kircubiight. — 
Item, That the Laird of Hempsfill and the Prouest of Dumfreis, 
ther process to be examined and report therof made to the 

"The petitione exhibitt to the housse by James Maxswoll, sone 
to the forefalted Erie of Nidisdeall, desyring to be set at libertie 
and to have the arayrs for hismentinence payed." 

"The housse ordaned him to be sett at libertie, on catione for 
hes good behaviour in tymes coming." 

"The housse lykunyes oidaines the farenamd persones fyned, 
and ordained to find caution by the committee of process, to doe 
the same befor the first of March, utherwayes to enter their bo- 
die within the toubuth of Edinbrughe, and ther first surties to 
stand till this be don ; as aiso the housse aloues the comittee 
of process," 

Saturday the 1st of March ; " The housse remits Mr Jo: Cor- 
ser of Drumfreis backe againe to the committe of proces to be 
furder tiayi d." 

Item. "That the Laird of Garthland be sent with instruc- 
tions to Generall Maior Munro to lrland." 

On the i-th of March, Parliament was proiogued until the 
id Tuesday of July. 

Parliament met attbe time appointed, and, having sat a U-\v 
! Stirling, it adjourned. It again met at Perth on the 24th 
of July. 

Monday the 4th August ; " A draught of a letter read in the 
housse to the Englische commissioners, desyring them to stay at 
Beruick till they did heir from the pari: in respecte of the lag- 
ing plauge of pestilence in Edinbrughe, and diuers places els„ 
quher in the countrcy, and the present adiorning of the parlia- 

1 Acta, Pari. — Caledonia Heron, 


In the summer of 1615, a grievous pestilence 
desolated the south of Scotland and prevented " 
the Estates from assembling in Edinburgh. 1 

] The housse ordanes, since that it pleasscd God to call the • 
Laird of Craigies off of the pest: quho was lodged in the shriffe 
clercks housse, Mr Patrick Maxswoll, that thesse that are with- 
in the said housse shall interre him in a remott place of the or. 
dinarey huiiall place ot the touue." 
Owing to the prevalence of the plague the house soon adjourned. 
Parliament again met at St Andrews on 26th November. 
The following are some of its proceedings. Monday the 1st 
of December ; " One of eache essait this day sent by the housse 
to the commissioners of the kirke, to craue that eache day in • 
the pari: housse they may haue at prayers at 8 in the morning, 
a poitione of scripture exponded, wicli exercisse is to indure the 
6pace of halffe anc houre." 

The Members sent were 
Kob: Bar: 

Earle of Cassiles. Laird of Garthland. 

Bur : 
Mr Ro : Barclay. 
Friday 5th December ; " A remonstrance from the commis- 
sioners of the geneiall assembley to the heigh courte of pari: for 
justice vpone delinquents and malignants, quho hes shed the blood 
of ther brethren, &c. read. 

Four petitions and remonstrances of the same nature, and for 
justice to be execut one malignants, delinquents, &c. exhibit to 
the housse this afternoone, from the prowinciall assembleys and 
shyres of Fyffe, Drumfreis, Mers, Teuiotdaile, and Galloway. 1 ' 
Monday 8th December ; "The estaits oHanes Commissarey 
Leuingstone to give to the Ladey Harries for this zeir, in re- 
specte of her necessities, 2000 meikes." 

Monday 15th; "The housse orders Colonell Steuarts regiment 
to marche to Arbrothe. 

Orders to Vis: Kenrnurcs regiment to marche to Montrosse. 

20th December ; "The estates grants a comissione of justicia- 

rey to certane persons, to tray the bchauior of the comissarey of 

Kircubright, and some others insolent persons quho had impriss. 

oned the magistrats of the said toune." 

Tuesday 23d December; "The housse ordanes the Iiische- 
prissoners takin at and after Philiphaughe, in all the prissons of 
the kiivdome, especially in the prissons of Selkirke, Jedbrughe, 
Glaso-ou, Dumbartane, and Perth, to be execut without aney 
assyse or processe, conforme to the trettey betuix both king- 
domes, past in acte." 

Friday 26th of December; "The Earle of Cassiles chossen pre- 


These transactions had extended over a space 
of nearly four years, during which period the 
war had been carried on so successfully for the 
English Parliament, and so disastrously for Charles, 
that at last he was left with scarcely an army to 
protect his person. 

The clouds of adversity at length completely clos- 
ed around the unfortunate Charles ; and, in the 
midst of his misfortunes, he formed the desperate 
resolution of delivering himself into the hands of 
the Scottish army. The Scots received the fallen 
Sovereign — who came disguised as a postilion, — 
with much outward respect; and it is not improbable, 
if he had agreed to accept the Solemn League and 
Covenant, all Scotland would have espoused his 
cause ; but this course neither his conscience nor his 
honour would allow him to pursue. The Scottish 
forces had a long arrear of pay due to them by the 
English Government. Upon receiving two hun- 
dred thousand pounds, the person of Charles was 
delivered up by the Scots to Commissioners from 
the English Parliament, and they marched home. 
Discontent now began to prevail among the Eng- 
lish soldiers, and Cromwell, Ireton, and Fleet- 
wood, officers of high rank and influence, secretly 
encouraged their mutinous disposition. The army 
at last determined to shake off the power of the 
Parliament, and to gain possession of the King's 

sident this flay, in iespccte of the absence of the. Earle ^f Crau. 
furd and Lindsay." 

Friday, 30th Jan. 1640 ; "The housse this day agane assumes 
tin- debait anent the dectione of the committee ofestaits during 
the interuall betuix sessions of pail: and by vvoyces make3 
chcysse of 12 of cache esfait." 

This committee included Lord Kirkcudbright, the Laird of 
Garthland, aud William Gleudiuuing, Provost of Kirkcudbright. 


person. These objects were accordingly effected, 
and Charles endeavoured to gratify 'he principal of- 
ficers by liberal promises. To Cromwell he offered 
the garter, a peerage, and the chief command of the 
army ; to Ireton, the lieutenancy of Ireland. 1 Con- 
cessions and promises were now too late. The un- 
fortunate monarch was accused of treason2 against 
the people of England, before a court consisting of 
a hundred and fifty-three persons, chosen from the 
army, the Parliament, aud such of the citizens of 
London as were friendly to a change of govern- 
ment from a monarchy to a republic. Charles dis- 
owned the authority of this self constituted tri- 
bunal. All his efforts were vain; he was in the 
hands of his enemies. Sentence of death being 

1 Russel's Modern Europe. 

2 "While the solicitor, Mr Cooke, was commencing to read the 
accusation, the king wishing to stop him, tapped him on the shoul. 
der with his staff, the silver head of which fell off; and one of his 
attendants having stooped to lift it, it l oiled away to the place 
where the king stood, and he had to lift it himself. This was con- 
sideied as a fatal omen ; so apt are superstitious minds to pre- 
dict fatal consequences from trifles, and to overlook their own 
misconduct, the surest augury of all misfortune. This ridiculous 
propensity to receive as oracles accidental circumstances, which 
could have no rational connexion with future events, was very 
prevalent in Charles' court, and their love for the marvellous 
produced or invented many strange coincidences. Among those 
of apocryphal authority, is the stoiy of a large cake of wax 
which Charles had always set in a silver basin to burn in his- 
chamber during the night ; it went out, and the Earl of Lindsay, 
who slept in the chamber as his attendant, observed it. but durst 
not rise to relight it, lest he should awaken his majesty; he 
then fell asleep; but when he awoke, to his astonishment tha 
lamp wa3 burning brightly! He mentioned the circumstance to 
the king, who told him he also had observed it, and considered 
it as a prognostic of God's power and mercy towards him or his, 
that although he was at that time so eclipsed, he or they might 
shine out bright again ! Alas ! lor the omen ! — the taper of his 
f.tmily was re lighted; but it was only to blaze for a moment, 
and then be extinguished for ever" Aikman. 


pronounced, he was executed in front of his own 
palace. 1 At the tragic spectacle the populace burst 

1 Some month? previous to the execution of Charles, an abor. 
tive attempt was marie by the moderate party in Scotland, to 
effect his release, or an amelioration of his condition. The Duke 
of Hamilton eagerly exerted himself in the cause of the unfortu- 
nate Sovereign, by endeavouring to revive loyalty in the breasts 
of the people. He so far prevailed as to gain a majority of Par- 
liament to coincide in his views. Commissioners were appointed 
to treat v. ith the King, who bound himself to confirm by act 
of Parliament the Covenant, and to establish the Presbyterian 
polity. This treaty is known by the name of the ''Engage- 
ment ;" it met with violent opposition from the clergy, who 
were extravagant in their demands, and thought that Charles 
should acknowledge himself their abject slave. At length, 
however, Parliament decided to raise an army, and the com- 
mand of it was given to the Duke of Hamilton. It proceeded 
to England, but was defeated at Preston, and the Duke made 
prisoner. A curious account is given in Patrick Walker's Life 
of John Semple, of the proceedings of some of the depraved 
soldiers, on their march through Carsephairn to join it, and the 
prophetic visions of this gifted minister. 

" The soldiers of some Scots Regiments in the year 1648, in 
their March through Caisepheru for Preston in England, to the 
Duke's Engagement (as it was called) being informed, that the 
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was to be administrated there 
the next Lord's Day, went and put iheir horses in the Kirk and 
also went to the Manse, and destroyed the Communion Ele- 
ments in a very profane manner. Mr Semple being from home 

at that time, complained next day to the commanding officer 

In his complaint he represented the vileness of such au action so 
pathetically, that it made a great impression on the foresaid per- 
son, who not only regretted what was done, but punished the 
most guilty, and gave money liberally forfurnishing the elements 
again. After which Mr Semple said with great concern of spi- 
rit to the foresaid officer, he was sorry for the errand he was °-o- 
ing, for he would not prosper, the profanity of their Army 
would ruin them. And all may sep, that many were the com- 
plaints of the .General Assembly, in their faithful warnings in 
these times, of the sins and snares of that unlawful En^a^ement 
and great wickedness of that army going to England; tiieir great 
Profanity of the Sabbath, and abusing women comiti"- from or- 
dinances, and many other ways. After the news came to Caise- 
pheru, that the duke's army was near Preston, Mr Semple being 
in company with several Gentlemen, went out of their company 
far about the space of an hour. When he returned they asked 
him where he had been; he took up the lap of his night-gown 


into tears, while the soldiers shouted in triumph. 
Thus perished Charles I., on the 30th of January 

and said I have gotten the Duke's Head there, ye will hear that 
the cavalier? ar i routed and that their General will lose his head; 
all which came to pass, as the history of these times declare." 

1 Parliament sat down on the 4th of January this year. On 
the first day of the Session, Mr John Livingston preached be- 
fore the House. His text was I. Chronicles, xxix. chapter, and 
last clause of the 5th verse. 

"And who then is willing to consecrate his service this day 
unto the Lord." 

Friday, 5th January ; " This day a letter from the Scotts 
commissioners, E. Lothean, Chisley, Glendining, from London, 
red in the housse, shewing the grate attentione of affaires ther, 
and hou that abone 1(. : members of the Housse of Comons wer 
extrudit the housse by the blasphemous armey; as also how the 
comittey of the armey had resolued to putt the Kings Maiestie 
to the tryall of a counsaill of wane, and ther to judge him as 
a prissoner of wane : Lykwayes they desyred the parliament 
wold giue them spiedey instructions how to carey themselues in 
so difficult a bussines, not knowing to quhome to applay them- 

Fourteen instructions were prepared by a committee of Par- 
liament, assisted by six ministers, including Mr Rutherford. The 
following are a few of the instructions, 

" That your applications L-e so conceaued, that they giue no 
occassione of offence." 

"That nothinge proceid from you justifying the Kinges pro- 
ceidinges and actiones." 

" Nothinge wich may import ane breache, ore giue, or be a 
ground, or seide of a new vane." 

" If they proceid and pronunce sentence against the King, 
that you enter your disent and protest ; that this kingdome may 
be free of all the desolatione, miserey and bloodshed, that inevi- 
tablie vill follow therwpone, without offring in your ressone, that 
princes ar eximed from triall of Justice." 

" To prosecute your last instructions, anent the couenant, 
and aganist tolleratione." 

" To shew that the Kinges last consessions are not satisfac. 
torey to ws in poynt of religion." 

9th March, J649; "The parliament," (says Balfour, who lived 
at the time,) " passed a most strange acte this mounthe, abolish- 
ing the patronages of kirkes, wich pertined to laymen since 
cuer Christianity was planted in Scotland. Francis, Earle of 




The Scottish people had almost unanimously 
protested against the fatal proceedings respecting 
the captive King-; and the Commissioners from 
Scotland, the Earl of Lothian, Sir John Cheisley, 

Balcleuche ; and soem others, protested aganist this acte as 
vrangous, and all togider derogatorey to the just rights of the 
nobility and gentrey of the kingdome of Scotland, and so de- 
parted the pari : housse." 

Farther, to exhibit the state of Galloway and the rest of 
Scotland at this period, we give the following extract irom Bal. 
four's Annals. 

" Many witches were apprehendit, and commissions being- 
giuen by Parliament and the counsel! for their tryell, they 
were execut. in the shyres of FyfFe, Perth, Stirling, Lin. 

lithgow, Edinburghe, Haddintone, Mersse, and Peibles, &c. 

I Mayselue did see, on the 20 of Julij, this zeire, in one af. 
teinoone, commissions seuerally directed by the parliament 
for traying and burning of 27 witches, women, and three men 
and boyes ; ther depositions wer publickly read in face of par- 
liament, before the house would wotte to the presidents 
subscriuing of the acte for the cleike issewing of these com- 
missions ; Lykwayes diuers commissions wer giuen by the 
Lordes of Nouember and December, this same zeire, 
for traying and burning of witches ; ther depositions wer read 
amongst the wich ther was one that confessed that she had beiu 
of lait at a meitting with the deuill, at wich ther wer aboue 500 
witches present. So far had that wicked enimy of mankind pre. 
wailled, by his illussions and practisses, one these poore wretch- 
ed miserable sou Ba li/our. 

Members of this Parliament connected with Galloway; the 
Eail of CaSsillis, Lord Kirkcudbright, William Griersonof Bar. 
gatton, Sir Robert Adair of I -I i : 1 1 1 i 1 1 , Andrew Agnew of Loch. 
uaw, William Glendinning, Piovost.of Kirkcudbright. 


and William Glendinning had been instructed 
strenuously to interpose their influence with Fair- 
fax and Cromwell to avert the impending stroke ; 
but their efforts were vain. 

The Covenanters, feeling indignant that the Eng- 
lish, had disregarded their remonstrances in behalf 
of their Sovereign, and that the independents, now 
in possession of the Government, had been faith- 
less to the Solemn League and Covenant, declared 
for young Charles, and were disposed to take up 
arms in support of their own ideas of loyalty. 

Charles, II., accordingly, was proclaimed King of 
Scotland with the usual formalities ; but it was de- 
clared, before he could be admitted to the exercise of 
royal authority, he should satisfy the nation regard^ 
ing his religious principles and guarantee the safety 
of the Presbyterian Church. A deputation from 
the Estates and the Church was despatched to the 
Hague, to lay before him the conditions upon 
which he would be admitted to the royal office. 1 
The Earl of Cassillis was one of the Commission- 
ers. 2 

Upon their arrival in Holland, they waited upon 
the King, and communicated to him their instruc- 
tions. He received them politely, and though wil- 
ling to catch at any twig, for the support of his 
falling fortunes, he, for a while, hesitated to acqui- 

1 Cook. 

2 " At this tyme, the Earle of Lothean. Sr Jo: Chisley, 
Villiam Glendining, and Mr Itohert Blare, minister of St An. 
drewes, commissioners for the kingdome of Scotland, in England, 
hauing receiued orders to goe for Holland to the King, and be. 
ing at Giauesend to embarcke, they wer arrested by a troupe of 
Cromwells hoisse, by wan ant from that blasphemous armey, 
and vicked parliament." Balfour. 

They were aftei wards sent to Berwick, in the custody of £ 
£roop of cavalry, and left upon the road. 


esce in their proposal. The same high ideas of 
prerogative that had ruined the father were cherish- 
ed by the son. He disliked the rigid morals 
of his Scottish subjects ; and their Presbyterian 
principles ill agreed with his licentious notions, or 
with that partiality to the Popish faith which the 
influence of his mother had imperceptibly induced 
him to entertain. Charles, therefore, determined 
not to commit himself; and the deputation returned 
from the Hague, without being able to communi- 
cate any satisfactory information respecting the 
intentions of the young King.l 

Charles, afterwards perceiving that Scotland was 
the only part of all his dominions in which he could 
hope for success in regaining his lost crown, sent a 
messenger to Parliament, stating his readiness to 
consent to every reasonable proposition, and fixing 
Breda as the place of meeting, for conducting the 
proposed treaty. The Earls of Cassillis and Lo- 
thian, with several other persons, among whom was 
Mr Livingston, were sent to Breda.2 Charles re- 
luctantly agreed to the terms proposed, after having 
vainly endeavoured to obtain some relaxation of 
the demands of the Commissioners. Livingston 
did not fail to discover his oscillating principles and 
dissolute levity. When at last the King agreed to 
subscribe the Solemn League and Covenant, 
which he was requested to do before they suffered 
him to land,3 Livingston presided and delivered a 
sermon on the occasion. But, being previously 

1 Cook — Baillie's Letters. — Scott. 

2 ' The commissioners had a warrant with them, under the 
grate teall of Scotland, to borrow three hundredth thousand 
pound, to giue the King, if so it wer he and they accorded , 
wherwayes to giue him no money at all." Balfour, 

3 Laing, &c. 


convinced of Charles's insincerity, lie had consented 
to officiate with much reluctance, strenuously insist- 
ing that the solemn obligation should not be admi- 
nistered, until the Prince should exhibit at least 
some manifestation of a change of principles and 
conduct. That this clergyman's suspicions were 
correct, appeared afterwards from the whole tenor 
of Charles's life.l 

Charles II., who had set sail for Scotland to take 
possession of a tottering throne, and reign over an 
uncongenial people, ai rived in his northern domi- 
nions on the 16th of June, 1650. 

The English had not been inattentive spec- 
tators of the negotiation with the exiled Sove- 
reign ; and the Scots watched the proceedings 
of their neighbours with unceasing assiduity. — 
Both prepared for hostilities, but the Scots were the 
more reluctant to begin the war. The English 
council of state, however, to anticipate the pos- 
sibility of an attack, determined to march an 
army into Scotland, and Cromwell was appoint- 
ed to the chief command. With sixteen thousand 
veteran soldiers, he soon penetrated into the heart 
of the country. The ministers of religion en- 
deavoured to rouse the people against the Sec- 
taries, as they were called ; but notwithstanding 
the impending danger, the Government continued 
actively engaged in searching after witches, whole 
villages being proscribed.2 

1 Cook. — Murray. - Crookshanks' Church History. 

2 Wednesday 22nd May; " The house appoynts a committee 
to tray the depositions of 54 witches, with pouer to the said 
committee to giue out comissions for the furder trayell, exami- 
nation^, and executione ; as also to thinke vpone a constant 
cpursse and commissione for that effecte heirafter, and to report." 



The military strength of the Lowlands now as- 
sembled round the capital.' The King himself 
having joined the army, issued a degrading procla- 
mation, or declaration, which had been put into his 
hands. In this declaration, he acknowledged the 
sins of his father, his own wicked life, and the crime 
of sending Montrose against his subjects in Scot- 
land. Light and thoughtless as the King was, he 
read it with horror, and fervently implored that some 
of the harshest expressions might be expunged or 
softened.' 2 

Cromwell at length used every endeavour to 
bring the Scottish army to battle, but without suc- 
cess, and he was forced to retreat. The situation 
of the English forces now became critical, and 
their general determined to withdraw into Eng- 
land. Leslie,^ the Scottish commander, left his 
encampment for the purpose of intercepting the 
English army. Moving by a shorter line than 

1 vC Parliament ordains the Committee of Dispatches to con. 
sider of the General of the Artilirizes papers, and to giue orders 
to Thomas Macbirney for transporting of the grate canon [pro. 
bably Mons Meg,] and amunitione from Drumfreis thither." 

" A list of the proportions of horse and footte to be sent cut 
by eache shyre ; to the first leuie." 

Footte. Horsse, 

Drumfreis 450 146 

Wigton and-Kirkcudbright, [Galloway] 450 130 

2 Cook. 

3 " The Lord Generall Lesley, in a shoite diseouisse, for his 
age and other reasons, layes doune his place at the parliaments 
feette ; and so remoued himselue out of the housse. 

The housse hauing takin to ther serious consideration the 
Lord Generalls proposition and dimissione, ordanes the L. Pre- 
sident to tell his Excellence, that they gratly blissed God, with 
all thankfulness to his diwyne Maiestie, for his happey carriage 
in his former conducte of ther armies, and intreatts him still to 
continevv in his charge ; and since he had so able a deput, (men 
ing the L. Generall Dauid Lesley) they wold haue a caire to lay 
no more vpon him then he should be able to wndergoe, and bis 


Cromwell, who was obliged to keep near his 
fleet, he took possession of the skirts of Lam- 
mermoor, a ridge of hills terminating in the sea, 
near the town of Dunbar. These hills abound- 
ed with difficult passes, which he strongly occupied, 
and determined to wait the attack of the enemy. — 
Cromwell was reduced to a state of much perplex- 
ity. He began to think of shipping his infantry, 
and endeavouring to cut his way, with his cavalry, 
through the enemies line. At this critical period, 
the prudence of the Scottish general was counter- 
acted by the rashness of the army. Urged on by 
the preachers who attended it in great numbers, 
the soldiers became importunate for battle, and 
Leslie, unable to withstand the outcry of the fana- 
tics, descended into the plain. When Cromwell 
was first informed of the movement of the Scottish 
forces, he exclaimed, " Now hath God delivered 
them into my hands." The English general was 
not deceived ; his charges were irresistible : the 
Scottish army lately so confident and presumptuous, 
was soon scattered in unutterable confusion ; and 
the victorious troops, having seized the baggage and 
artillery of their enemies, advanced and took pos- 
session of Edinburgh and Leith without resistance. 
In this battle, which was fought on the 3d of Sep- 
tember, 16."j0, three thousand were slain, and nine 
thousand made prisoners: the rest fled and were dis- 
persed through the country. The levies from the 
southern and eastern counties suffered much in this 
destructive defeat ; and in those parts a general 

<*rate aire might comport with. In this not a contrarey wotte, 
tot Gler.dining of Gelston, one of the commissioners ol Victor- 
shyrv, [Kirkcudbright] a phanatick fellow, made from the dung. 

hill by medling with the publickesseruiee." C\Lfouu. 


consternation prevailed. A new Scottish army, 
however, was soon mustered, which sat down in a 
strongly fortified camp at Torwood, and Cromwell 
found their position too strong to be attacked. 

Immediately after the defeat at Dunbar, the 
gentlemen of Galloway, Ayrshire, Renfrewshire, 
and Dumfries-shire, entered into an association for 
the defence of their religious principles, and en- 
gaged to raise a body of horse. Strachan and 
Kerr, who had distinguished themselves in the 
north against Montrose, were invited to take the 
command. The ministers zealously supported 
the exertions of the heritors, and a body of effec- 
tive cavalry amounting to nearly four thousand 
men, was assembled in a very short time. Strachan, 
who had been reclaimed by the independents in 
his youth from dissolute habits, possessed still a 
strong bias in favour of his old friends. He had, 
likewise, served in the Parliamentary army in Eng- 
land, and his principles were rather hostile to mon- 
archy. He had, therefore, early joined with the 
more rigid party of the Presbyterians, who were a- 
verse to the recall of Charles, until they saw, at least 
some substantial tokens of his honesty, sincerity, 
aud firmness, or some probability of maintaining 
peace with England or being ?ble to contend 
with that country on grounds purely national and in- 
trinsically just. When he went to the west country 
-he found the clergy more ready to sacrifice the 
cause of the King, — in whom they could not place 
any confidence, — than the welfare and stability of 
the Church. Though they viewed the indepen- 
dents with no friendly eye, yet they dreaded the 
malignants, as the royalists were called, and were 
ready to abandon the claims of Charles upon the 


crown, provided the English commonwealth would 
engage not to interfere in their domestic con- 
cerns. 1 

Cromwell advanced towards Glasgow with the 
greater part of his force, and the gathering army in 
the west retired to Dumfries. 2 The five associat- 
ed counties gave in a remonstrance 3 to the commit- 
tee of Estates, in which they represented the treaty 
that had been entered into with the King, as high- 
ly criminal ; enumerated the frequent and flagrant 
instances of his Majesty's duplicity since his com- 
mission to the Marquis of Montrose ; enjoined the 
dismissal of his ministers, — Argyle and Lowden ; 
urged the new modelling of the state ; and demand- 
ed that the King ought to be suspended from the 
government until he should exhibit more sincere 
proofs of repentance. This remonstrance, after 
some hesitation, was condemned by the committee 

1 Aikman. &c. 

2 Laing. 

3 The following is the preamble of the remonstrance. 

" To the Rt Honorable tbe committee of Estaits, tbe humble 
Remonstrance of the^Gentlemen, Commanders, and Minis. 
ters, attending the forces in the west. 

17 October, 1650. 
Althoughe wee do not judge of the wndertakings of the Lords 
people by the successe, and be not shaken by the dissipating of 
our armey, nor brought in question our causse, zet we thinke 
ourselues, and all the people of this land, called by thesse late 
dispensations to searche and tray our wayes ; wee doe therefor 
esteeme it our deutie (quhill wee are aboute- to adwenture our 
lives aganis the enemy, as prewidence shall giue oppoitunitie) 
freelie and faithfullie to make our thoughts knowcn to your Lops ; 
concerning the causses and lemedies of the Lords indignation 
wich hath gone out against his people, quherin wee supposse we 
need not insist upon the lait sins contained in the lait causses of 
the fast, published by the Commissioners of the Kirke, relating 
to the couducte and carriage of our armie and other thinges, 
bot wee shall speike to that wich most directlie concerns your 
JLops." Balfour. 


of Parliament. 1 The western army was after- 
wards defeated and dispersed. 

At this time a division took place in the Church, 
which produced an unfavourable effect on the 
welfare of the country. The King had often 
expressed his regret, that his own particular 
friends were incapacitated frcm serving in his 
armies, and had often urged the necessity, or, at 
least the propriety of repealing the ret which dis- 
qualified " malignants" from defending their coun- 
try. 2 The prevailing party at last adopted his sug- 
gestions, and an act of indemnity was passed. 3 But 
in a matter of so much importance, the concurrence 
of the Church was absolutely necessary. The Com- 
mission of the General Assembly, being solicited 
to express its approbation, after much discussion 
and opposition, entered into a resolution that 
all who gave evidence of repentance of that part of 
their conduct which had excluded them from places 
of power and trust, might now be employed. A- 
gainst this temperate resolution, as well as against 

1 "The Kinges Maiestie and estaits of pai-liamcnt deelarsthe 
assocj'atione iu the west to be woyde, and discharges aney suche 
associatione in tyme coming." Balfour. 

2 Balfour when speaking of this act, states that " the Coruittee 
of Parliament for purging the armey, did meitt this 2, 3 and 5 
dayes of Agust ; Chey acted nothing against the enimy, bot purg- 
ed out the armey aboue 80 commanders. The ministers in all 
places preched incessantly for this purging, oheuing if that comit- 
tee did not proceid, the consequences that wold follow wold 
certainly proue lamentable and destiuctiue, and wold vndoubt- 
edly multiplie Gods judgments vpone the land and armey." 

3 " Ordicd that the severall bodies meitt at 3 in the after. 
noone, to consider of the remonstrance giuen in by the commis- 
sioners of the General Assemb : and also how larre incapacities 
that disables men may be taken offe, and men admitted to fight 
for defence of the countrey aganist the comon enimy ; and to 
treat anent the prowious adwysses concerning England, and for 
this effecte to haue a conference with the Cornmissioneis of the 
General Assewbly at ( J houres to morrow." Balfour. 


the repeal of the Act of Classes,! many of the most 
violent or rigid of the ministers loudly exclaimed. 
The General Assembly confirmed the resolution, 
and a protest was taken against the lawfulness of 
the Assembly. 2 All who joined in this protest were 
called Protesters, and the others, who adhered to the 
resolution and were by far the most numerous party, 
received the appellation of Resolutioners, or Reso- 
lutionists. The list of Protesters included the fol- 
lowing names; Lord Kirkcudbright, Samuel Ru- 
therford, John Livingston, John Maclellan, 2 Adam 
Kae, [BorguejyThomas Wylie, [Kirkcudbright,] 
John Semple, Quentin M'Adam, Alexander Gor- 
don, Captain Andrew Arnot. The people of Gallo- 
way in general warmly concurred in the protest. — 
Samuel Rutherford, John Livingston, Thomas 
Wylie, and some other ministers, with Lord Kirk- 
cudbright and Alexander Gordon of Knockgray, 
elders, were appointed to present it. 3 

1 The Act of Classes was particularly subversive of the king's 
personal independence. 

2 John Maclellan, who wrote an account of Galloway, died 
soon after this evenfe; he had continued minister at Kirkcudbright, 
for nearly twelve years. A little before his death he composed 
the subjoined epitaph on himself. 

" Come, stingless death, have o'er, lo ! here's my pass. 
In blood character'd, by his hand who was,. 
And is, and shall be. Jordan, cut thy stream, 
Make channels dry. I bear my Father's name 
Stampt on my brow. I'm ravish'd with my crown : 
I shine so bright, down with all glory, down, 
That world can give. I see the peeiless port, 
The golden street, the blessed soul's resort ; 
The tree of life, floods gushing fiom the throne, 
Call me to joys. Begone, short woes, begone, 
I lived to dip, but now I die to live, 
1 do enjoy more than I did believe. 
The promise me unto possession sends, 
Faith in fruition, hope in having, ends," 

3 Whig Pamphlets. 


The situation of the main Scottish army under 
Charles, now became precarious in the extreme; and 
he formed the bold resolution of marching into 
England, where he hoped to find adherents. The 
English militia under Lambert, formed in his front, 
and Cromwell followed closely in his rear. A 
battle ensued, and the Scots were totally defeated 
at Worcester in September 1651. Charles after 
beholding the ruin of his cause fled from the field, 
and subsequently escaped from England, having 
passed through a part of the hostile army in disguise. 
For the space of eight years, he wandered from 
court to court, a poor, despised, and often insulted 
adventurer, in pursuit of kingdoms, which in all 
probability he was never to obtain. 

Oliver Cromwell now obtained the supreme 
power of the state under the title of Lord Protec- 
tor of the Republics of Great Britain and Ireland : 
and he appointed judges for Scotland, who ad- 
ministered the law with much impartiality ; but the 
taxation imposed by his government upon the im- 
poverished country was extremely oppressive. 

An insurrection against the authority of the 
usurper, took place in 1653. The Earls of Glen- 
cairn and Balcarras retired into the Highlands, and 
induced several of the clans to take up arms in 
the royal cause. They were joined by Lord Ken- 
mure, — whose castle had been seized by the inde- 
pendents, 1 — and some other noblemen, with a con- 

1 " The Viscounts of Kenmure have been compelled to leave 
their romantic residence on more occasions than one. 

Nortb from the Peak of ' Lowran,' a mountain torrent de. 
Bcends fiom the heights. Heie the masonry of nature hae 
formed two walls of rock ; and between these walls of rock 
sweeps the mountain stream. That to the south is nearly thirty 
Jeet high, and overhung with mountain. ash, eglantine, and 


siderable number of young and spirited gentlemen, 
who were anxious to shake off a foreign yoke. — 
Their numbers amounted to upwards of 5,000 men, 
but Glencairn wanted ability and energy for con- 

pvickly evergreens. That on the north is somewhat lower but 
more overhung with birches, eglantine, and spreading ash. And 
much more wood, at one time, had spread thickly around. 

Betwixt the north rock and the torrent there is space for a 
rustic seat ; and on an oaken chair in this dell have ' Kenmure's 
lords' sat down ! 

Here did Robert, the fourth Viscount Kenmure, conceal him. 
self from his enemies. From his attachment to the Stuart fa- 
mily, after the death of Charles the First, his estates were for. 
feited by the parliament, and a price was set on his head by 
Oliver Cromwell. 

When the Viscount heard of the troops of Cromwell being on 
their way to his castle, he took horse and rode away through 
the rocky hills to the west. He wandered, for some time among 
the locks which overhang the Dee; but being informed that Eng- 
lish scouts were in pursuit of him, he deemed it safest to re- 
sort to some place of hiding; and the glen of ' Lowran' he chose 
for his retreat. 

A massive oak grew at hand. He caused the trunk to be 
sawn into the shape of a chair. The bottom was of one solid 
piece. The back was solid also. He set it in this sequestered 
ravine, and the brawling torrent swept by his feet ! 

On the thiid day, the Viscount ventured to steal out from bis 
hiding place. He stepped backwards a few paces ; and, Blessed 
Heaven! what did he behold? He saw his beautiful castle all 
wrapt in flames ! The sight was distracting. He threw himself 
on the heath. He prayed to God — ' that the rule of Cromwell 
might be short.' 

His romantic residence was indeed in flames. The troops of 
Oliver, after plundering and carousing, were so irritated at not 
being able to apprehend the baron, that, in wantonness and 
wickedness, they set fire to his castle ! 

"What could Lord Robert now achieve ? His residence was 
burnt — his lands were forfeited — and even a reward was offered 
for his head ! Some menials, who knew of his retreat, provided 
him victuals, and k^pt watch around, lie returned to his me- 
lancholy den, and he continued there, till he was certain that 
the troops of Cromwell bad evacuated his roofless walls! 

I -:■ walls had now no refuge for him. After 
wandering for some time in sight of the ruins, he went farther 
to the south. Foi he had lauds in the neighbourhood of the 
castle of Threave. 


ducting the enterprise, and their situation became 
desperate. The Protector, still insecure in his do- 
mination, felt alarmed lest the insurrection might 
prove the prelude of commotions in England, and 
proposed an indemnity to the hostile chiefs. The 
offer being accepted by Kenmure 1 and several of the 
rebellious Lords, the army became so much weak- 

Thus, in about 20 years after the attainment of the peerage, 
the predicted* burning of Kenmure Castle took place. 

Lord Robert, however, outlived the vengeful usurper. And 
one year after the restoration of Charles the Second, he died at 
Greenlaw, in 1661, near the fort of the Threave. 

The ' oaken chair' remained, however, in the 'Lowran Glen.' 
It remained, indeed, till a succeeding Viscount sat down upon it 
again in solitary concealment !" Unique Traditions, chieflV 
connected with the West and South of Scotland. 

Such k the traditionary account of the capture -cf Kenmure 
castle ; and, like traditions in general, it is partly true and partly 
false. By a paper containing the articles or capitulation, kindly 
furnished to us by the Rev. James Maitland, minister of Kells, a 
gentleman who is intimately connected with the noble family of 
lv nmure, it appears that the Viscount himself was in the 
castle when attacked, and that the agreement made concerning it 
was signed by his Lordship. It is probable that the castle held 
out for some time, and did not surrender until it became unten- 
able. Grose in his Antiquities mentions that; " in digo-in°- lately 
near the foot of the mount on which the castle stands, a great 
number of cannon balls were discovered, some forty-eight, and 
others six pounders. " It is likewise probable that Cromwell's 
men held the castle for a considerable period, and perhaps^ at 
last, incensed by Kenmure's hostile proceedings, set it on fire 
and left it. ' v See Appendix W.) 

1 " Viscount Kenmure was very conspicuous as a loyalist in the 
great civil war; he commanded a party of horse, and it was 
looked upon as not the worst point of his military character or 
rather discipline, that he constantly carried a large cask of 
brandy at the head of the corps for the use of his men, which 
cask, says an old historian, was well known to the whole army, 
by the merry appellation of Kenmure's Drum." 

Chambers Picture of Scotland, vol. i, p. 206. 

* See Life of John Semple 


ened by the defection, that it was easily dispersed 
on the 26th of July, 1651. At this time Crom- 
well's forces in Scotland amounted to 18,000 men ; 
but, subsequently, his military establishment was 
reduced to 9,000, twenty-eight garrisons being 
maintained in the forts which he had constructed, 
or in the castles which he had seized. 

The celebrated Monk having succeeded in re- 
ducing the ancient kingdom of Scotland to the mean 
state of an English province, the country enjoyed 
peace, if not freedom. Divisions, however, still 
pervaded the Church; and Cromwell prohibited 
General Assemblies. 1 But though he set bounds to 
the licence which the clergy had taken in interfer- 
ing with the affairs of state, he encouraged them in 
the discharge of their sacred duties. Acting on 
maxims of complete toleration, he allowed none to 
molest the people in the performance of their re- 
ligious services. 2 

1 " The people of Scotland were now governed by English 
jaws, and their kirk and kirkmen entitely subdued to the obedi- 
ence of the state, with reference to their Synods and Assemblies. 
The Highlanders, however, by the advantage of their situation, 
and the haidiness of that people, made frequent incursions, in 
the night, into the English quarters aud killed many of the sol- 
diers, but stole more or their horses; and, wheTe there was most 
appearance of peace and subjection, if any of the soldiers went 
singly, in the night or in the day, they were usually knocked on 

the head, and no inquiry could discover the malefactors." 

Clarendon's History of the Civil Wars of England. vol. vii. 
Book xiv. 

•2 Cook, kc It is stated by Mr George Sinclair, Professor 

. : Philosophy in the College of Glasgow, that a strong sensation 
was created in Glenluce and its neighbourhood, in 1655, by a 
supernatural visitant (called the Devil of Glenluce,) that fre- 
quented the house of Gilbert Campbell, a weaver. It sometimes 
threw stones with much violence and in considerable quantities, 
into the doors, windows, and down the chimney of the house. 
This malicious spirit often destroyed his work during the night, 


The protesting- ministers now became more rigid 
in their conduct and more morose in their devo- 
tions. The manner in which they performed pub- 
lic worship was adapted to convey the impression, 
that they were peculiarly favoured with commu- 
nications from the Spirit, and were the chosen de- 
positories of the Divine will. To inspire religious 
awe or horror, they even changed the natural 
tone of the human voice, and declaimed with much 
fervour against the corruptions of the judicatories 
of the Church.* Their enmity to Charles form- 
ed a bond of union between the Protesters and 
the commonwealth ; and the friends of the Pro- 
tector listened to their representations, and grant- 
ed their requests. When a few Scotch clergymen 
were called by Cromwell to London, Mr Living- 
ston, one of their number, requested that the Pro- 
tector would relieve some of his countrymen from 
the heavy fines which had been imposed upon 
them, and which they were unable to pay. Crom- 
well himself would have yielded to his solicitations ; 
but the council refused to accede to the proposal. 2 

and prevented his family from sleeping, by removing the blanket*, 
&c. The "foul fi'^nd" also displayed its learning in spouting 
Latin ; and, in arguing with the minuter, it quoted many texts of 
scriptuie. On some occasions it set the house on fire and beat 
the inmates. Gilbert at last applied to the synod, which met 
in October, 1655 ; but " the Devil of Glenluce" was too power- 
ful or too cunning for the clerical phalanx ; for it still carried 
on its mischievous pranks. At last, however, it disappeared 
and left the weaver a quiet habitation. 

1 Cook. 

2 While at London, Mr Livingston preached before the Pro- 
tector. In his prayer he mentioned the King, which highly in- 
censed some of his hearers; but Cromwell, who knew Mr Living, 
ston's great influence in Scotland, 6aid; " Let him alone, he is a 
good man, and what are we poor men in comparison of the- 
Kings of England." 


The Protesters interfered also with the nomination 
of clergymen, and objected to all who were not 
of their party. Indeed, they ultimately obtained 
the patronage of a majority of livings. But they 
went farther than mere interference with the ap- 
pointment of pastors ; they also ejected incum- 
bents whose moral conduct was beyond suspicion. 

The Protector died on the 3d of September, 
165S, in the 60th year of his age. 

During this period, of religious distraction the 
trade of Galloway seems to liave been in a deplo- 
rable state. The fine wool of the district, one of 
its principal productions, was bought up by stran- 
gers, and yielded great profit to them, when sold 
abroad. 1 Swine, which once ran wild in the woods, 
and afterwards were reared with considerable care 
by the inhabitants, had now much decreased in 
number. The whole excise of Kirkcudbright and 
Wigtown, in 1656, was let to Andrew Houston 
for £570. 2 At this period, the Custom-house port 
of Ayr, included the whole coast of Galloway, 
Kyle, and Carrick, " places," as Tucker says in his 
report to the English government " fuller of moors 
and mosses than of good towns and people ; the 
same being in many parts not planted, and all of. 
it void of trading, except Ayr, Kirkcudbright, and 
Dumfries." " There is" he continues, " a creek 
at the foot of the water of Fleet not worth the nam- 
ing : As for Kirkcudbright, it is a pretty town and 
one of the best ports on this side of Scotland, 
where there are a few, (and these very poor,) mer- 

1 Caledonia, &c. 

2 John Maclellan's Account, [Minister of Kirkcudbright.]— 
Caledonia See Litbgow's Nineteen Years' Travels, 


chants, or pedlars rather, trading for Ireland. Some 
small boats come from England with salt and coals." 
Galloway at this time had no shipping-. Dur- 
ing the thirty years immediately preceding this 
epoch, the state of the district seems to have retro- 
graded with rapid strides. William Lithgow, 
the celebrated traveller, who visited it in 1628, 
drew, as may be remembered, a much more fa- 
vourable picture of Galloway. There is every 
reason to believe that the inhabitants of this part of 
the country, were, in the 13th century much more- 
numerous than at the period we are now con- 
sidering ; for towns or villages are mentioned 
in old charters which afterwards ceased to ex- 
ist. Traces of many ancient habitations are 
to be seen in places where there is not now a 
single house. Domestic feuds and foreign wars, 
in which devastation was the great aim of hosti- 
lity ; religious quarrels which engaged the whole 
thoughts, feeling-, and energies ot the contend- 
ing parties; political disputation which left no 
leisure for industry, produced famine, with its con- 
stant attendant, pestilence; and thus the 17th cen* 
tury beheld depopulation carried to the utmost point 
of depression. l So uncertain was the tenure of 
property about this time, that farms were sold for 
two years' purchase. 

Richard Cromwell, having succeeded his father 
as Lord Protector, soon demitted the dangerous 
office,^ and Charles II. was recalled. He entered 

1 Caledonia. 

2 Richard Cromwell lived to a considerable age, "His curiosity 
once led him to the House of Peers, where be stood below tin 
bar, looking around him, and making observations on the alter- 
ations which he saw. A person who heard a decent-looking i ,'■' 


London on the 23th of May, 1660, amidst the joy- 
ous acclamations of the people. But the school 
of adversity had not been to him a school of wis- 
dom ; for never did Prince use subjects with more 
base ingratitude than he did the best friends of the 
monarchy, — the constitutional supporters of his 
throne in Scotland. 

man speaking in this way, said to him civilly ; ' It i« probably a 
long while, sir, since you have been in this house?' — 'Not since 
lsat in that chair,' answered the old gentleman, pointing to the 
throne, on which he had been, indeed, seated as sovereign, when 
more than fifty years before, he received the addi esses of both 
Houses of Parliament, on his succeeding to his father in the su. 
preme power." Scott. 




No monarch ever ascended a throne under 
brighter auspices than Charles II. The same de- 
lirium of joy that had suddenly seized the people of. 
England, also diffused itself amongst the inhabitants 
of almost every district of Scotland. Immediately 
after the King's arrival, numbers of Scottish expec- 
tants of royal favour flocked to London for the pur- 
pose of gaining some interest at court, or laying 
before his Majesty their services or their sufferings. 
The Church, sufficiently alive to its own interest, 
had James Sharpe, minister of Crail, already 
in London, to act as its representative. This 
clergyman soon perceived that the Presbyterian 
religion stood little chance of being permanently 
established in Scotland. 1 The talented Earl of 
Lauderdale, indeed, who had both done and suffered 
much in the cause of Charles, strenuously advised 
the Sovereign to indulge his northern subjects in 
the undisturbed exercise of their favourite form of 
worship. But, though the King had accepted, and 
sworn to, the Solemn League and Covenant; he 
recollected with disgust the degradation and rigor- 
ous treatmeut to which he had been subjected by 
the Presbyterian clergy, who had used him more 

1 Scott, &c. 


like a slave than a Sovereign. He, therefore, hated 
Presbytery in his heart, and considered it as pe- 
culiarly unsuitable for being " the religion of a 
gentleman." Some of the cavaliers strongly com- 
bated the opinion of Lauderdale, and blamed the 
Presbyterians, as the authors of the past troubles, 
and the death of his lamented father, the late 
King. Charles at length came to the determi- 
nation of rooting out Presbytery from every part 
of his dominions at the present favourable op- 
portunity — the present season of loyalty and sub- 
mission. The King sent Lord Middleton to 
Scotland, as commissioner to the Scottish Parlia- 
ment and viceroy of the kingdom. Middleton who 
had risen from the ranks, — having been a pikeman 
in Colonel Hepburn's regiment in France, — pos- 
sessed nearly all the bad qualities usually inciden- 
tal to a soldier of fortune. He was attached to no 
religion himself, 1 and he became the willing instru- 
ment of enforcing any that his master might choose 
to prescribe. 

Lauderdale, who knew from the temper of 
Charles, the immense advantage of being near his 
person, sought and obtained the office of secretary 
for Scotland, which required his residence in Lon- 

At this early period, the feelings and sentiments 
of the Government began to be apparent. An 
order was issued for effacing some monumental in- 
scriptions, and for burning Rutherford's Lex, Rex 2 
by the hands of the common executioner. 

1 Aikman. — Burnet. — Kirkton's secret and true History of 
the Chuich of Scotland. 

2 The Law and the King ; a work defining the prerogatives 
of the Pricce, and the lights of the people. 


Middleton entered Scotland in royal state, and 
the nobility contended with mean obsequiousness 
in offering abject homage to this unworthy repre- 
sentative of their Sovereign. His sumptuous mode 
of living was no less remarkable for its magnifi- 
cence and splendour, than its riot and debauchery ; 
and while the people beheld with wonder the novel 
spectacle of a court, they also bewailed its profli- 
gacy. No open discontent, however, displayed 
itself; for the great body of the nation was labour- 
ing under a paroxism of loyalty; and even the most 
rigid were inclined to survey the vices of their 
rulers, through a softening medium, or at least with 
no keenly scrutinizing eye. 

On the 1st of January, 1661, Parliament sat 
down with much pomp and formality. It was 
numerously attended ; and, although the majority of 
the members had been Covenanters,, or the sons of 
Covenanters, never did a more compliant body 
assemble ; all being zealous to distinguish them- 
selves by a species of ultra-loyalty which seemed 
studious of nothing but the gratification of the 
royal will. The oath of allegiance, which was ad- 
ministered to the members, declared the King's 
supremacy over "all persons, and in all cases." The 
Earl of Cassillis and the Laird of Kilbirnie alone 
refused to take it, unless they were allowed to li- 
mit the King's supremacy to civil affairs ; and this 
concession being refused, they withdrew from the 
house, the only safe course they could pursue. 

Instead of the monthly assessments of Cromwell, 
it was enacted by Parliament, that the sum of 
£4.0,000 should be granted to the King during his. 
life, for the purpose of maintaining the public tran- 
quillity, and restoring the prerogatives of the 


crown. Of this sum £8,000 was to be raised by 
a duty on foreign commodities, and £32,000 by an 
excise on articles manufactured within the king- 
dom. The proportion to be paid by the Sheriff- 
dom of Wigtown and the burghs which it contained, 
was fixed at £204 12s.; and by the Stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, with its burghs, the sum of £348. 
Commissioners were appointed for the collection 
of the imposts. 1 

In the meantime all the sensual enjoyments of 
festive carousal and unblushing licentiousness en- 
gaged the attention of Middleton and his coadju- 
tors; and they bestowed but little care on regulat- 
ing those measures which were to fall under the 
consideration of the Legislature. The gloomy and 
austere virtues of the Covenanters were to be dis- 


I The Commissioners were, James, Earl of Galloway; Alexan- 
der, Lord Gailies; Andrew Agnew, appearand of Lochnaw ; 
Thomas Dunbar, of Muchrum ; Patrick Macdowall, of Logan ; 
Wm. Stewart,Jof Castlestewart ; Uchtred Macdowall, of Freuch ; 
William Gordon, of Craichlaw ; Sir Jas. Dalrymple, of Stair ; 
David Dunbar, of Baldoon; Alexander Maculloch, of Ardwell ; 
John Murray, of Broughton; John Stewart, ofEgerness; Geo. 
Stewart, of Tonderghie ; John Maculloch, of Myiton. 


Robert Earl of Nithsdale; James, Earl of Galloway ; Robert, 
Viscount Kenmure : Alexander, Lord Garlies, John, Lord Her. 
ries ; John, Lord Kirkcudbright; Sir James Murray, of Barber, 
ton ; William Maxwell, of Kirkhouse ; Alexander Spotswood, 
of Sweetheart ; Roger Goi don, of Traquhan ; William Gordon, 
of Shirmers ; William Gordon, of Earlston ; Robert Maxwell, 
of Orchardton ; William Maclelland, of Collin ; George Max- 
well, of Munches ; Alexander Macghie, of Balmaghie ; William 
Grierson, of Bargatton ; John Carson, of Sennick : Gilbert 
Brown, of Kempletown ; John Dunbar, of Machirmore : John 
Muir, tutor, of Cassincarie; Andrew Herron, of Kirrouchtrie ; 
John Ewart, of Mulloch : and the Provost and Bailies of Kirk- 
cudbright, and the Provost of New Galloway, for the time 
being. — Act Charles II. Sec. i. Cap. xiv. 


countenanced and superseded by a courtly exhibi- 
tion of elegant vices. Indecorous levity and loose 
habits were to dispel from the world of fashion, the 
starched demeanour and the precise morals of the 
rigid Presbyterians. Accordingly, when Parlia- 
ment daily met, many of the members were under 
the influence of wine ; and, in some instances, they 
were even obliged to adjourn, because the Royal 
Commissioner, from excessive intoxication, had be- 
come unable to preside. 1 By one sweeping resolu- 
tion, the Scottish Parliament, in its jovial mood, an- 
nulled every statute or ordinance that had been 
made by the Governors of Scotland since the begin- 
ning of the civil wars. On the day before the Act 
Rescissory, — as this enactment was called, — was 
passed, Mr Rutherford died. The Parliament 
was to have had an indictment against this good 
man laid before it ; and when every person knew 
that he lay upon his death-bed, this vindictive 
court sent a citation for his appearance, to answer 
a charge of high treason. But he was called be- 
fore a higher and more merciful tribunal.2 

Upon the 22d of February, an act was passed, 

1 Laing, 8cc. 

2 Scots Worthies, &c. 


" What tongue ! what pen, or skill of men 
Can famous Rutherford commend! 
His learning justly rais'd his fame — 
True goodness did adorn his name, 
lie did converse with things ahove, 
Acquainted with Emmanuel's love. 
Most otthodox he was and sound, 
And many errors did confound. 
For Zion's King and Zion's cause, 
And So i land's covenanted laws, 
Most constantly he did contend, 
Until his time was at an end. 


prohibiting on pain of imprisonment, the influx of 
all kinds of persons from Ireland, who did not bring 
with them certificates of their loyal and peaceable 
conduct, from the "Lords Chief Justices, Privy- 
Council, or Mayors of the towns in which they had 
resided." This act, which was ordered to be pub- 
lished at Glasgow, Ayr, Wigtown, and Kirkcud- 
bright, seems to have been made to prevent the 
zealous Presbyterians of the north of Ireland from 
withdrawing into Scotland to escape the fury of 
the Irish prelates, who had begun to treat Pres- 
byterian dissenters with much severity. 

By a subsequent statute, the whole system of 
Presbyterian Church government was virtually a- 
bolished, 1 and Episcopacy, so hateful to the great 
body of the nation, rashly and inconsiderately sub- 
stituted. James Sharpe, whom the clergy had sent 
to London, betrayed the cause he had been employ- 

At last he wan to full fruition 

Of that which he had seen in vision." 

The best of men do not escape the shafts of calumny, Swift 
represents Rutherford as "half knave, half fool ;" and Balfour 
draws his character in the following words. 

" Mr Samuell Rutherfurd, altho lousse in hes youthe, he 
beine from his first begining a auorne enimy to monarchey, as 
hes writings testifie ; a hatter of all men not of hes opinion, and 
one who is neuer so lightlie offendit, but he is unreconcileable ; 
woyd of mercey and charity, although a teacher of both to 

A monument is about to be erected to his memory, near the 
site of his ancient dwelling in the parish of Anwoth. Dr. Cook, 
of Belfast, preached a sermon not far from the place of the in- 
tended erection, on the 9th of September, 1838, when a collec- 
tion, amounting to .£51 6s. was made for the purpose. 

1 Historians mention that the Solemn League and Covenant 
was burned, with much parade, at Linlithgow, on the 29th of 
May, 1G61, being the King's birth-day; while a fountain, in the 
centre of the town, ran plentifully with French and Spanish, 
l wines, for two or three hours, to the great joy of the inhabitants 


edtoadvocat3, and, as tlie reward of bis apostacy, 
was nominated Archbishop of St Andrews, and Pri- 
mate of Scotland. 

These unjust and precipitate measures did not 
pass unnoticed. In April, the Synod of Gallo- 
way met to petition Parliament against Episcopacy, 
and in favour of the liberties of the Church. But 
during their proceedings, the Earl of Galloway 
made his appearance, and, in the name of the So- 
vereign, dissolved the meeting. The moderator, 
Mr Park, minister of Stranraer, modestly, but 
firmly protested against this incroachment upon 
the privileges of a judicatory of the Church. — 
All the other members followed his example, and 
protested against this interference on the part of a 
civil magistrate, as an illegal act; nor would the 
ministers disperse until the moderator had prayed, 
and regularly dissolved the meeting.! 

It is wonderful, however, that changes so violent 
did not call forth more furious opposition. Many 
circumstances contributed to allay the general fer- 
mentation. By the recall of Charles, Scotland was 
relieved from the domination of England ; her own 
Parliament was restored ; the nobility and gentry 
were freed from the officious interference of the 
more illiberal and sanctimonious of the clergy, in 
domestic affairs. The people, also, received a- 
musement from processions and exhibitions, ac- 
companied by largesses and plentiful distributions 
of liquor. Thus, in the plenitude of their tumul- 
tuous joy, many for a while forgot the objects of 
their fondest attachment. 2 

1 Wodrow. 

2 Sir Wnlter Scott observes, " I cannot help mentioning ae 

vol. n. I 


The people of Whithorn complained to this 
Parliament, that their town had been " altogether 
depauperated by the quarterings of three troops of 
English horse," and an act was passed authorising 
the Magistrates to raise voluntary contributions, 
within the "sheriffdoms of Galloway, Nithsdale, 
Teviotdale, and Lanark," to relieve them from the 
burden which had been thus imposed.! 

As an appropriate conclusion to the proceedings 
of the first Parliament of Charles's reign, Archi- 
bald, Marquis of Argyle, who had distinguished 
himself as the ardent friend of the Covenanters and 
the enemy of the loyalists, was brought to trial and 
condemned. In the beginning of May, witnesses 
were examined against him. Among the witnesses 
we find John, Lord Kirkcudbright, John Carson ; 
Provost of Kirkcudbright, and William Grierson 
of Bargatton. 2 The Marquis received his sentence 
with composure, and displayed much Christian 
fortitude on the approach of death. Mr Guthrie, 
a clergyman, accused of framing or promoting 
the western remonstrance, was, likewise, ordered 
to be executed. Some other leaders of the Pres- 
byterians suffered about the same time ; and their 
executions evinced to the people of Galloway 
what they had to expect from the new Govern- 

remarkable, that on the 23d April, 1661, Jenny Geddes, the very 
woman who had given the first signal if civil broil, by throwing 
her stool at the Dean of Edinburgh's head, when he read the 
service-book on the memorable 23d July, 1637, showed her con. 
version to loyalty by contributing the mateiials of her green. 
stall, her baskets, shelves, forms, and even her own wicker.chair, 
to augment a honefire kindled in honour of his Majesty's coro- 
nation, and the proceedings of his parliament.^ 

1 Acta Pari. — Caledonia. 

2 Wodrow. 


Parliament adjourned on the 12th of July, and 
the government of Scotland was vested in a Privy- 
Council. This Council being formed, the members 
met at Holyrood-house on the 13th of July. Dur- 
ing the intervals of Parliament it possessed all the 
executive power, and assumed little less than Parlia- 
mentary authority ; it also acted as a court of Jus- 
tice. The Earl of Glencairn filled the office of 
Chancellor. Mr James Dalrymple of Staii, was ap- 
pointed, nearly at the same time, a judge of the 
Court of Session ;l and the Earl of Cassillis was 
named an extraordinary Lord. 

I The first that used the surname of Dalrymple, was Adam 
de Dalrymple, who possessed the barony of Dalrymple in Ayr- 
shire, The family subsequently obtained the barony of Stair, 
which lay near to Dalrymple. The individual mentioned in the 
text, was born in May, 1619. His father having died while hs. 
was very young, he was brought up under the care of his mother, 
who gave him an excellent education. At a proper aire ho went 
to the University of Glasgow, where he distinguished himself in 
his philosophical studies, and took the degree of A. M, Ha 
afterwards entered the army, and obtained the command of 
a company of foot ; but the chair of Philosophy falling vacan\ 
he was solicited by some of the professors to become a cand - 
date, and ho succeeded in obtaining the appointment, Mr 
Dalrymple then betook himself to the study of the Civil Law, 
and, in 1648, pas-ed as an advocate. In 1649, from his great 
leputation, he was named secretary to the Commissioners 
who went to Breda ; and thus the rising lawyer had an oppor- 
tunity of being known to the King, who always spoke of 
him with much kindness. His reputation continued to en. 
crease, and Mr Dalrymple was appointed by General Monk, 
wiih the consent of Cromwell's council, one of the supreme 
judges of Scotland. After the Restoration, Mr Dalrymple weni 
up to London with the Earl of Cassillis to congratulate the King 
on the happy event, and Charles created him a Knight. He 
also nominated him one of the senators of the College of Justice, 
when that justiciary was re-established in 1661. In 1670, when 
a treaty was contemplated for uniting the kingdoms of Scotland 
and England, Sir James Dalrymple of Stair, was appointed 
;i commissioner, and when Sir John Gilmour resigned the 
office of Lord President, bis Majesty conferred the honourable 


It was not till after the session of Parliament had 
finished its business, that the King- finally and open- 
ly declared to the Privy Council his resolution of 
new modelling the Church of Scotland. The Coun- 
cil approved of the King's determination, and a pro- 
clamation was immediately issued announcing the 
restoration of the Bishops. Of all the ancient pre- 
lates, Sydserff, l formerly Bishop of Galloway, alone 
remained. He was re-appointed, and to a better 
benefice, the see of Orkney. One Bishop, how- 
ever, being insufficient to consecrate the whole of 
the new prelates, a commission was issued to some 
of the English clergy to consecrate those who had 
been nominated to Scottish bishoprics, namely 
Sharpe, Leighton, and Fairfoul, with Hamilton, 
who had been advanced to the see of Galloway."- 
The ceremony was performed in Westminster 

office upon him. In 1G8I, Lord President Dalrymple re- 
presented Wigtownshire iu the Scottish Parliament. From his 
attachment to the Presbyterian cause, however, he felt himself 
compelled to relinquish his high office and retire to the continent, 
Whilst he was abroad, he was pursued for high treason; but the 
evidence being- inconclusive he was acquitted. In 1G88, Sir 
James Dalrymple came over with the Piince ol Orange, and was 
afterwards restored to the office of Lord President, and raised 
to the Peerage by the title of Viscount Stair. During the 
leigns of Charlie Il„ James VII., and William III, Sir James 
Dalrymple and his ion obtained considerable property in Wig. 
townshire, particularly in the barony ol Glenluce, which formed 
one of his second titles: the burgh of Suanraer also afforded 
him anothei title. 

1 It may here be remarked, that Thomas Sydserff, son of the 
Bishop of Galloway, was the tiisl who printed a Newspaper in 
Scotland. Ihe paper entitled "The Mirc.irius Culedonius" 
was published weekly, but was of short duration. The first 
number appealed on the J 1st of December, liJGO, the last on ihe 
22ml of March following." Annals of Edinelrgii 

- A. kman Laing. — The churches which had been bestowed" 

q.i the University of Glasgow, were now resloied to the Bishop. 
ric of Galloway. 


Abbey,in the most splendid and imposing manner ; 
and it was followed by a magnificent entertainment. 
The newly appointed bishops returned to Scotland 
in great state, and, on the 7th of May, 1662, entered 
Edinburgh, attended by a numerous cavalcade. — 
The magistrates received them in their robes; while 
the sound of trumpets proclaimed to the inhabitants 
of the metropolis, the arrival of their honoured pas- 
tors. The Bishop of Galloway, brother to Lord Bel- 
haven, was previously minister of Cambusnethan. 
His talents were accounted every way ordinary; but 
he was remarkable, it is said by Wodrow, for his 
cunning and time-serving temper. The two arch- 
bishops in the magnificent dress of their order im- 
parted Episcopal ordination to the ministers who 
had been nominated to the other sees. The whole 
aggregated amount of the bishops' revenues did 
not, at this time, exceed £5,000, sterling. I 

In consequence of the incroachments upon the 
rights of the Church, and the prohibitions issued 
by the Privy Council against the assembling of 
synods, or petitioning for redress of grievances, 
the presbytery of Kirkcudbright, some months 
prior to the return of the bishops, had sent two of 
their number, " Mr John Duncan, minister of Ber- 
wick, and Mr James Bugloss, minister at Cross- 
michael," to Edinburgh; but their modest and well 
drawn petition was disregarded ; and, though they 
asked nothing but a fair hearing, this was denied. 
The presbytery had also taken under consideration 
the form of an address to Parliament, written by 
the Rev. Mr Wylie, minister of Kirkcudbright; but 
no opportunity was given for presenting it. 

1 Wodrow. — Some of them had not above £250. 


About tliis period vast numbers of commissions 
were granted by the Privy Council, to gentlemen 
in every shire, and almost in every parish, to try per- 
sons accused of witchcraft, many of whom were exe- 
cuted. Government perhaps instituted these pro- 
ceedings to gratify the Presbyterians, or to afford 
them some solatium for the loss of their favourite 
form of Church polity. The Episcopalians never 
took delight, in similar prosecutions; and hence the 
responsibility of such cruelties could not be attached 
to them. When the unfortunate wretches denied 
their guilt, they were subjected to " the torture," 
to extort from them a nominal confession. A per- 
son, named James Welsh, confessed himself guilty 
of the crime of witchcrait, before the presbytery 
of Kirkcudbright ; but the justices refused to put 
Lira upon his trial, because he was a minor when he 
acknowledged his guilt, and had retracted his extra- 
judicial confession ; but on the 17th of April, 1662, 
they ordered him to be scourged and put in the 
correction house, having so grossly "prevaricated, 
and delated so many honest persons "* 

On the day after the arrival of the bishops, the 
second session of Parliament commenced. All the 
statutes in favour of Episcopacy were renewed, 
and those sanctioning presbytery rescinded. The 
bishops were restored to their ancient temporal 
and spiritual rights in their full extent, untrammel- 
led by any judicatory of the Church. As soon as 
the act for their restoration had almost unanimously 
passed, they were invited by a deputation of Par- 
liament to resume their seats in the national assem- 

I Sir George Mackenzie's Criminal Laws and Customs of 


bly, which they did on the right hand of the com- 
missioner, among the Earls. 1 

The National Covenant and Solemn League and 
Covenant were then declared unlawful ; and the 
acts of assembly approving of them abrogated as 
seditions. The use of all language, written or oral, 
whether uttered in " preaching or praying," which 
had a tendency to create dislike to the King's supre- 
macy in ecclesiastical affairs, or hostility to the 
Episcopal form of Church government, was also 
ordered to be punished as seditious and unlawful, 
An act of indemnity was finally passed by this 
Parliament, but it was clogged with an act of ex- 
ceptions, or rather an act of fines. The reason 
assigned for this measure was, " that the fines 
therein imposed might be given for the relief of 
the King's good subjects who had suffered in the 
late troubles." The Parliament appointed a com- 
mittee for selecting the persons to be fined, and the 
sum which each individual was to pay. These 
fines amounted to upwards of one million of pounds 
Scots, or eighty-four thousand pounds sterling.2 

1 Kind let Loose Naphtali. — Aikman, S:c. 

2 A list of individuals fined in Galloway, in the sums fixed to 
their names. 

"Colouel William Stewart, G001. Sir Andrew A^new, sheriff 

of Galloway, 6001. Gordon of Grange, 1,8001. M' 

Culloch, younyer of Ardwall, 1,2001. John Cathcart of Gennocli, 
2,0001, Francis Hay of Hareho'.m, 1,0001. Patrick Agnew of 
Sheuchan, 1,2001 Patrick Agnew of Wigg, 2,0001. Gilbeit 
Neilson ol Cattrcathie, 1,S001. Patrick M'Ghie of Largie, 2601. 
William M'Kieffock, collector of Wigtownshire, 3,0001. George 
Campbell, captain-lieutenant to Sir Robert Adaii, 0001. Alex- 
ander Kennedy of Gillespie, 4801. James Johnston in Stranraer,' 
0001. John Baillie of Litledoueraclet, 3601. Alexander Baillie of 

Meikleton, 3601. M'Dowall of Crechen, 3001. John iV 

lJougal of Crechan, 6l01. Alexander A^new of Ci;.ch, 0001 

Martin M'Obie of Penninghame, 60 Jl, William M'Guffock, 


Middleton and his dependants expected to ob- 
tain all the money thus levied. The persons con- 
tained in the Act of Fines were, generally speaking, 
individuals of the strictest morals and most exem- 
plary piety. No charge could be brought against 

3,6001. Stuart, baiiie of Wigtowji, 3G01. Cantrair. late 

provost of Wigtown, 1.2001. William M'Ghie of Magdallen, 3601 

Ramsay of Bogho'use, 4001. John M'Culloch in Glen, 4001. 

Patrick Agnew of Galdnoch, 1,0001, Thomas Boyd of Kirkland, 
3601. Alexander Martin in Stranraer, 6001. Patrick Kennedy 
theie, 3601. John Machans, tanner there, 6001 Gilbert Adair 
there, 3601. David Dunbar of Calden, 4,8001. John Gordon, 
merchant in Stranraer, 2401. JoIpj M'Dougal there, 2401. — 
William M'Culling there, 2401. John Adair of Littlegennocb, 
6001. Alexander Crawford tutor of Herymen, 3601. William 
Gordon of Barnsallie, 3601. John Hannah in Gramme, 4801. — 

William M'Dugal in ELilroe, 1,0001. Ttissel, burgess of 

Wigtown, 3601. Adam M'Rie, late provost of Wigtown, 1 .0001. 
Stuart of Fintalloch, 1,0001. James Mackitiick in Kirk- 
maiden, 3601. Michael Milrae in Stonykirk, 6001. James Mac- 
naught in Portpatrick, 3601. Nevin Agucw in Clodhouse, 2401. 

Agnew in Kilconquhar, 2401. John Macmaister in Kirkcum, 

3601. John Macguieston in the Inch, 3f 01. Andrew Agnew of 

Park, 3601. Patrick Hannah in Gas, 3601. Mackinlenie in 

Darmenew, 3001. Gilbert Macricker in Knockeclbay, 3601. John 

Macilvain in Milboch, 3601 Mackinnen of Glenhill, 3601. 

Mackinnen of Glenbitten. 3601. Kennedy of Barthangan, 

2401. Edward Lawrie in Derward, 2401. Mr William Clelaud 
in Shelaud, 240 . Thomas Macmoran there, 3601. John Pater- 
son there, 3601. Mackinnen in Polpiudoir, 2401." 


"Major Maculloch of Barholm, 8001. Robert Kirk of Kildane, 
3601. Robert Howison, subcollector, 2401. Alexander Gordon 
of Knockgray, elder and vouBge.r, 1-01. William Whitehead of 
Millhouse. 3601. John Carson of Senwick 1 200!. David An. ft 
in Barcaple, 3601. Mr William Goidon of Earlston, 3,5001. 
John Gordon of Rusco, 2,4001. John Turner in Ardwell, 3601. 

Gordon of Ttaquair 2,4001. John Fullerton of Carleton, 

1,0001. John Macartney in Blaikit, 6001. John Gordon in Wa- 
terside, 6001. Gordon of Ballechston, 3001. James Logan 

of Hills, 1,0001. Logan of Bogtie, 4i01. Patrick Ewing of 

Anchenskeoch, 1,0001. John Maxwell of Milton, 8001. Laird of 
Deadeoch, 6001. William Gordon of Midtown, 2401. Robert 
Stuart of Mungohill, 1,0001. Archibald Stuart of Killyreuse, 
1,0001. John Thomson of Hardholm. 2401, John Brown of 


tliem, but that they were Presbyterians, and had 
submitted to their conquerors, when no other al- 
ternative was in their power. But fully as many 
were inserted in the list from private pique as on 
public grounds. 

By this Parliament an act was also passed for 

Muiilieadstou, 3601. Brown of Lochill, 3601. Alexander Gor- 
don of Culvcnnan, 6001. John Lindsay of Fairgirth, 6001. John 
Aitken of Auchinhay, 3601. William Gordon of Shirmers, 6001. 

James Chalmers of Wateiside, 6001. Heron of Kiirouchtree 

6001. William Gordon of Roberton, 3601. William Corsan there, 
2401. John Logan in Enrick, 2401. William Glendiuiiing of 
Curroch, 6601. William M'CuIloch of Ardwell, 6001. Robert 
M'Lellan of Bargattan, 3601. Alexander Mackie, merchant in 
Kirkcudbright 2001, Alexander M Lellan, merchant there, 2001. 
Alexander M'Lellan, maltman there 2801. William Telfer, in 

Dunrod, 3001. Gibson of Brocklorh, 3601. John Stewart 

of Shambellv, 6001. David Gordon of Glenladie, 6001. Alexan- 
der Gordon or" Auchincairn, 2001. Laird Martin, 2401. William 
Goidon of Mcniboe, 2801. John Wilson of Corsock, 6001. Robert 
M'CuIloch of Auchiularie, 2401. Comet Alexander M'Ghie of 

Balguwn, 4801. Edward Cairns of Tons, 2401. Corsan in 

Duudrennari, 2001. James Logan of Bogue 6001. John M'Michan 
of Airds, 3601. John M'Millan of Brocklock, 3601. John Cannon 
of Murdochwood, 3601. Robert Gordon of Grange, 2,4001.— 
John Gnc-rson tbeie, 6001. Robert Gibson in the parish ofKells, 
3601 Edward Gordon of Barmart, 4801. Alexander Cairns of 
Diillipaiish, 4801. James Glendinning of Mochrum, 4801. James 

Neilson of Ervie 3601. Grierson, son of Bargattan, 6001. 

Martin in Dullaid, 3601. William Glendinning of Logan, 

Robeit Gaa, there, 3601. James Wilson in Clairbrane, 2401 

Alexander Livingston of Quintinespie, 3601. Robert Corsan in 
TS'etlier Rerwick, 3601. James Black of Parbrest, 2401. Patrick 

Corsan of Cude, 0U01. John Ilerries of Logan, 3601. Telfer 

of Harecleugh, 1,8(01. James Thomson of Ingleston, 1,0001 

Hubert M'Lellan of Balnagown, 2401. Captain Robert Gordon 

of Barhanow, 24U1* Goidon of Gategill, 3001. 

Bugbie in Comrie, 2401 Edwaid Clauchlane in Castlegower, 
2401. John M'Gill in Gall, 2401. John Cannon in Guffockland, 
2401 John Hamilton in the Muirof Kirkpatiick, 2401. Thomas 
Neilson of Knockwhawock, 2401. William Goidon of Mac- 
kartnie, 2401 James Goidon of Killnelnarie, 2401. John Welsh 
of Skair, 2401. James Smith of Drnmlaw, 2401. Robert Newall 
in Kiuhary.e, 2401. William Maxwell in Nelher.rait, 6001." 


restoring patronage. In the year 1649, patronage 
had been abolished, and the choice of pastors vest- 
ed in the people. Parliament now enacted that 
all ministers who had been inducted since that 
period had no legal right to their benefices, and 
that they could not be retained in their office un- 
less they should obtain regular presentations from 
the lawful patrons, and collation from the bishops 
of their dioceses. Four months were allowed them 
for this purpose. 1 

This act was artfully framed for extorting an 
acknowledgment of the spiritual powers of the 
bishops from the Presbyterian incumbents, and for 
identifying their interests with the Episcopalian 
establishment. In some parts of the country, the 
statute was either complied with, or the bishops 
connived at the neglect. But in Galloway, the 
ministers scorned from interested views to recog- 
nize that hated Episcopacy which they had sworn 
to eradicate. In the whole Archbishopric of Glas- 
gow, indeed, the most determined resistance was 
displayed ; and, after the time specified had elapsed, 
the Archbishop represented to Government the 
absolute necessity of vigorous measures. 2 

Middleton, willing to ingratiate himself with the 
Sovereign, cheerfully complied with the solicita- 
tions of Archbishop Fairfoul, and called a council 
to assemble, on the 4th of October, at Glasgow, 

1 Naphtali Cook. — Aikman. — Crook shank. 

2 We give the following extract from Naphtali published in 
16G7. ''This is the wickedness and violence of accursed prela- 
cy, which though it hath diffused itself over the whole land, and 
left no corner thereof untouched, yet as the west hath been more 
grievously thereby oppressed and afflicted, so poor Galloway in 
a manner hath been the point in which all its malice and tyranny 
hath heen concentred." Naphiali. 


where he then was on a tour. The council took 
under their consideration, as far as men in a state 
of perpetual intoxication could do, 1 what steps 
ought to be taken for overcoming 1 this daring and ob- 
stinate opposition. Force was the only remedy 
that occurred to these abandoned rulers; and an act, 
or order of council, was passed which prohibited 
and discharged all ministers who had contravened 
the act of Parliament respecting benefices, from 
exercising any part of their pastoral duties in their 
respective parishes ; their parishes were declared 
vacant; and the recusant ministers commanded, 
before the 1st of November, to remove, with 
their families, beyond the bounds of the Presby- 
teries in which they resided.2 

The people were also prohibited under severe pe- 
nalties from waiting on their ministry. After these 
proceedings two acts of Council were agreed to, 
one against Mr Donald Cargill, ordering him and 
his family to remove, with all their effects, to the 
north side of the Tay, with " certification, that if 
he be found to contravene, and be seen on this 
side of Tay, he shall be apprehended, imprisoned, 
and proceeded against as a seditious person." " In 
the Council books," says Wodrow, "follows the 
like act made against Thomas Wylie, minister at 
Kirkcudbright, who had deserted his flock, and con- 
travened the foresaid acts of parliament, which was to 
be intimated to him personally, or at his dwelling- 

1 It is said, that in Glasgow" the members of the Privy 
Council exhibited scenes ot unhallowed mirth and degiading li- 
centiousness, even beyond the daring of common profligates. — 
One member only, Sir James Lockhart of Lee, was sobea 
when the act of council was parsed. 
2 Wodrow. — Cook. — Aikman. 


bouse, or at the market cross of Kirkcudbright, or 
parish church where he lived." From Glasgow, 
Midtlleton went through Ayr, Wigtown, Kirk- 
cudbright, and Dumfries, to observe the effect of 
the Council's order ; and, in October, he returned 
to Holyrood-house, having found the people very 
much exasperated. 1 

Middleton no doubt imagined that the severity 
of this and other enactments would compel submis- 
sion ; for he never could imagine that men for 
conscience' sake, would continue in nonconformity, 
and thus forfeit their station, incomes, and homes, 
and throw themselves on the wide world : he, 
therefore, determined to enforce the law with the 
utmost rigour. To his amazement, however, near- 
ly three hundred and fifty ministers, principally in 
the south and west, rather than belie their opinions, 
or disavow their religious tenets, voluntarily re- 
signed their livings. Driven fiom their houses, 
and deprived of their stipends, these poor men 
wandered from place to place, exhibiting to their 
sympathizing congregations a firmness of prin- 
ciple and heroic contempt of suffering, which doubly 
endeared them to their late flocks, who, at the 
same time, entertained an invincible hatred to their 
successors, and an unrestrained detestation of the 
Church polity which had to be enforced by such 
iniquity. 2 

1 Heron Laing. — Cook. — Aikman. 

2 A roll of ministers I o were nonconformists in Galloway, 
and were banished, turru I out of their parishes, or confined. 

Those marked with R. were alive at the revolution : those 
marked with A. we d by the act of council at Glasgow 1 

1\362 ; those m .'. were confined to their parishes; 

those marker , th P e outed by particular sentences from 


In the meantime, many of the most popular 
and eminent of the Presbyterian ministers who 
had refused to take the oath of supremacy, were 
summoned to Edinburgh by the Council, and 
there detained until they gave security that they 
would leave the kingdom and remain in exile. — 
Livingstone, whose age and moderation, — for he 
condemned the proceedings of the violent section 
of the Church, — should have ensured better treat- 
parliament or council ; and those marked S, were outed by the 
diocesan synod." 


Ministers in Galloway . 
Messrs John Welsh of Irongray, G. Robeit Paton of Ter. 
regies, G.R. John Blackadder of Traquair, G. Anthony Murray 
of Kirkbean, G. William Mean of Lochrutton, G. R. Alexander 
Smith of Col vend, G. Gabriel Semple of Kirkpatrick Durham, 
G. R. George Gladstones of Urr, C. James Maxwell of Kirk. 
gunzeon C. 


Presbytery of Kirkcudbright. 

Messrs Thomas Wyhe of Kirkcudbright, P. Thomas Warner 
of Balmaclellan, G. R. Adam Kay (or Kae) of Borgue. John 
Semple of Carsephairn. John Cant of Kells, R. John Duncan 

of Rerwick and Dundrennan. John Willde of Twynhohn. 

Adam Allison of Balmaghie. John Mean of Anwoth. James 
Fergusson of Kelton. James Bugloss of Crossmichael. William 
Erskine of Girthon, R. Thomas Thomson of Parton. Samuel 
Arnot of Tongland. Robert Fergusson of Buittle. John M' 
Michan of Dairy. 

Presbytery of Wigtown. 

Messrs. Archibald Hamilton of Wigtown, R. Geoige Waugh 
of Kirkitmer, R. Alexander Ross of Kirkcowan William 

Maitland of Whithorn. Alexander Feigusson of Mochrum. 

William Maxwell of Minnigaff, Patrick Peacock of Kiikma. 
breck R. One list adds, Robert Ritchie of Sorbie. 
Presbytery of Stranraer, 

Messrs. James Lawrie of Stonykirk. R. John Park of Stran 
raer. James Bell of Kirkcolm, R. Thomas Kennedy of Kirk- 
maiden, R. John Macbroom of Portpatrick. James Wilson oi 
Inch. Alexander Peden of New Glenluce. One list adds Johr 
Dick of Old Luce." 

VOL. H, i.' 


merit was among them ; but lie obtained per- 
mission to remain in Scotland for a short time, 
until he could arrange his private affairs. He, how- 
ever, was cautioned by Middieton against privately 
preaching- in houses or churches. He sought an 
asylum in Holland. The name of Mr Wylie, 
minister of Kirkcudbright, was also in the list of the 

Mr Wylie and the other ministers of the pres- 
bytery of Kirkcudbright had given great offence to 
the Privy Council, by occasionally assembling, 
notwithstanding the act made against the meeting 
of presbyteries. 1 Indeed, in the whole of the south 
of Scotland, Mr Wylie was the individual most 
obnoxious to the Government; and he early forsaw 
they would wreak upon him the full measure of 
their vengeance. He had, therefore, become ex- 
tremely anxious during the summer to have the 
sacrament of the Supper dispensed to his people be- 
fore his troubles should commence. The Lord lent 
a favourable ear to this good man's prayers; and on 
the 8th of June was peaceably accomplished the first 
day's administration of the sacrament in Kirkcud- 
bright ; for so many generally came forward to the 
communion table, not only from his own parish, but 
also from other congregations, that they could not 
all be accommodated in one day. After sermon on 
Monday, he received a letter from Edinburgh, in- 
timating that the whole presbytery would be called 
to appear before the Privy Council, for holding 
Presbyterial meetings, which had been strictly pro- 
hibited.. This information gave him much un- 
easiness, yet he resolved to persevere in his de- 

1 Crookshauk, 


termination of continuing next Lord's day to dis- 
pense the sacrament to those who had not partici- 
pated. On the Friday he received certain infor- 
mation, that only himself and four others, namely, 
Messrs Robert Fergusson, Adam Kay, John M< 
Michan, and John Wilkie, were soon to be sent 
for by a party of soldiers. Still he resolved, if 
possible, to proceed with the intended solemnity ; 
and, during Saturday, Sunday, and a part of Mon- 
day, he remained undisturbed. On Monday after- 
noon, however, when at dinner, he suddenly receiv- 
ed information that the party were to be in town 
that night to apprehend himself, and deliver letters 
to the four other clergymen. The ministers who 
had assisted at the sacrament, now advised him 
to remove to a place of security. At 12 o'clock on 
Tuesday, the party arrived, and along with one of 
the magistrates, instantly proceeded to his house, 
every corner of which they searched with great 
care. Mr Wylie, however, had departed previously 
to their arrival, and was travelling by the most un- 
frequented roads to Edinburgh. After reaching the 
metropolis, he discovered his danger, and resolved 
to withdraw from the capital, that he might seek 
safety in concealment. He left Edinburgh undis- 
covered, and wandered up and down unobserved 
until Saturday the 28th of June, 1662, when he 
came within a short distance of the place of his re- 
sidence, and learned that orders had been left with 
the magistrates of Kirkcudbright, to seize him as 
soon as he should return home. 

lie remained in concealment during the whole 
month of July ; but having heard that the ministers 
who had been called to Edinburgh by letters, had not 
been harshly used, he resolved to send his wife to the 


metropolis with a supplication, and aiso a vindication 
of his conduct. Mrs Wylie returned from Edinburgh 
in tiie course of a few weeks, and acquainted him 
that she had had three interviews with the Commis- 
sioner; that his Grace had offered to guarantee her 
husband's life under his own hand; and that, as the 
other four ministers had been allowed to go home 
and visit their families for a month, on condition 
that they would refrain from preaching and return 
to Edinburgh, he agreed to grant Mr Wylie the 
same indulgence : but, at the same time, he pro- 
hibited him from going near the town of Kirkcud- 
bright. By the intercession of Lord Kenmure this 
restriction was taken off, and he returned to his 
house on the 20th of September, a little before the 
meeting of the Privy Council at Glasgow. 

When Mr Wylie and the other ministers repair- 
ed to Edinburgh, in obedience to the injunction laid 
upon them, the Commissioner was on his tour, and 
they returned to Galloway. On the 21st of Octo- 
ber, the Earl of Middleton came to Kirkcudbright, 
and Mr Wylie waited upon him. Some conversa- 
tion took place, and the Commissioner, as a friend, 
advised him, to remove, with his family, as soon as 
possible, from his parish ; for unfavourable reports 
were current respecting him, and would be so, 
while he remained in Kirkcudbright or the west 
of Scotland. His Grace promised, at the same 
time, to use his utmost endeavour to obtain from 
the Council permission for him to reside in Scot- 
land, and on the south side of the Forth. He 
likewise desired this obnoxious minister to bring his 
family to Lothian, and he would see what could be 
done in his behalf. 

In the end of November, Mr Wylie removed 


his household to Leith, during the time of a severe 
frost. When in Edinburgh, he found his name 
included in the list of those who were to have the 
oath of supremacy tendered to them, and who were 
to be banished upon their refusal. Again he waited 
upon the Commissioner, who stopped the citation, 
but insisted upon his taking the oath. This Mr 
Wylie agreed to do, with the understanding, or 
explanation, that the King's supremacy only related 
to civil affairs, and did not include spiritual au- 
thority. The Commissioner would admit of no 
reservation, but dismissed him with the assurance 
of his good wishes ; saying, at the same time, " Mr 
Wylie, I shall give you time enough to think upon 

In the end of 1662, a regular post between 
Scotland and Ireland, though only once a week? 
was established at Portpatrick.2 The Earl of New- 

1 Wodrow — Taken from Mr Wylie's papers, in which he gives 
an account ot hi* sufferings. 

Crookshank mentions that Lady Cochrane had used her in. 
flueiice iu Mr Wylie's behalf. 

2 Cook. Puitpatrick derived its name from the Irish Saint 

Patrick. The new Statistical Account mentions, that a famous 
story respecting the Saint, used to be current in the district, 
namely, that he crossed the channel at one stride, and left the 
mark of his foot on a rock. The impression which he then made 
on the stone was long pointed out ; but it has been removed in 
the construction of the harbour. This superstition is pro ably 
connected with the origin of the name of the harbour. Port*. 
patrick was long a place of small importance. It was included 
in the barony o! Portree, which belonged to Adair, of Kinhilt. 
In the reign ol James VI., the barony passed into the possession 
of 11uj ! , Montgomery, Viscount of Ardes, who got the village 
erected into a burgh of barony about the year 16'28, when he at. 

; to change its name to Portmontgomei y. About the 
same time a church was built in the burgh, which, with a por- 
tion of the adjacent distiict, formerly called the black quarter 
of the Inch, was formed into a parish. The name Portmont. 
gomery, however, was soon forgotten. In the reign of Charles 


burgh returned from Ireland on the 18th of De- 
cember, after having made the arrangement. — 
From the records of the Privy Council, it appears, 
that Robert Mein, who was Post-Master General, 
received £200 for the purpose of building a vessel 
to convey the mail between Portpatrick and Don- 
aghadee. Sixpence was then charged as the post- 
age of a letter between Scotland and Ireland* — 
In the previous year, Richard Murray, Esq., of 
Broughton, obtained an act of Parliament for erect- 
ing a bridge at Gatehouse, over the Fleet, on the 
road between Dumfries and Portpatrick. The act 
empowered him to levy a pontage for defraying the 
expense of building and keeping the bridge in re- 
pair. 1 

Many of the most influential and worthy of the 
old ministers, in thebeginning of 1663, were fixed 
upon, in order to be compelled either to acknow- 
ledge the bishops or to be sent out of the country; 
and the attacks made upon them were designed to 
frighten the recusant ministers into submission and 

The feelings of the people were also outrag- 
ed by their almost total destitution of religious 
instruction. Parish churches, through the south- 
ern and western divisions of the kingdom, lay 
in a neglected and deserted state ; and, in pro- 
portion to the brightness of the spiritual light which 

II., the burgh, patronage of the parish, and the contiguous estate, 
which, instead of Portree, now received the appellation of Dun. 
skey, from the castle, passed into the hands of John Blair, 
minister of the parish, and ancestor of Sir David Hunter Blair, 
of Dunskey. The harbour of Portpatrick ki its natural state, 
was a mere inlet betwei u two ridges of rocks. Gieat exertions, 
however, have been used at different times to improve this im- 
portant harbour. 

1 The breadth of this bridge was 11 feet, including parapets. 


they had formerly enjoyed, the people lamented 
the sudden darkness by which they were surround- 
ed. In many parts of Galloway they had to 
travel twenty miles before they could get the word 
of God preached unto them, or obtain any of that 
spiritual manna which had once fallen in such abun- 
dance '''around their tents." Multitudes flocked 
to all the older ministers, whom the recent acts had 
not yet banished from their churches. 1 Those 
who were unable to reach such churches, frequent- 
ed the family worship or religious exercises of the 
younger ministers; and, even when they could not 
obtain accommodation in the houses, they eagerly 
listened at doors or windows. Gabriel Semple, late 
minister of Kirkpatrick-Durham, after being ejected 
from his parish, took up his residence in the house 
of Mr Neilson of Corsack. Though he had been 
separated from his loving congregation, he consid- 
ered himself bound on every suitable occasion to 
perform the duties incumbent upon him as a minis- 
ter of religion. He, accordingly, preached in Cor- 
sack house, and numbers of anxious Christians 
resorted thither to wait on his ministrations. When 
accommodation could not be afforded them in the 
house, they retired into the garden ; and when it, 
too, became insufficient to contain the increasing 
congregation, they assembled in a field. This, it 
is said, was the first field meeting or conventicle- 
in Scotland, and the example was soon followed in 
various parts of the country. 3 

1 Crookshank — Wodrow — Laing, &c. 

2 The word conventicle at first was applied to any meeting 
of worshippers not assembled in a church. 

3 Wodrow — Munay. 


Owing to the severity of Government and the 
uncompromising principles of the Presbyterian 
ministers, almost all the pulpits in Galloway and 
the western districts of Scotland had at last become 
vacant. The prelates were reduced to great diffi- 
culties in finding individuals at all suitable, from 
their influence or acquirements, to supply the pla- 
ces, or discharge the sacred duties, of the exiled 
pastors. Numbers of half-educated young men 
were suddenly called from the north of Scotland and 
appointed curates — the word used in North-Britain 
for parish ministers. These raw youths were devoid 
alike of piety, experience, and learning. A gen- 
tleman belonging to the north of Scotland is re- 
ported to have cursed the scruples of the Presby- 
terian clergy, because, since they had abandoned 
their livings, it was impossible, he said, to procure 
boys to herd cattle — all the young men having 
become curates. 1 The great majority of the Scot- 
tish Episcopal clergy, whether we consider their 
talents, their erudition, or their morals, were infi- 
nitely inferior to their predecessors ; and, as 
preachers, they were often truly contemptible. — 
Their best recommendations to benefices were pli- 
ability and obsequiousness, — their most acceptable 
services, truckling servility and a grovelling obe- 
dience to the will of their superiors.'- 

The people in all places of Galloway beheld, with 
much repugnance and irritation, the introduction 
of the curates. In the town of Kirkcudbright, and 
in the parish of Kirkpatrick-Irongray serious riots 
took place.3 In the month of May, Glencairn, the 

1 AVodrow— Scott. 

2 Burnet- Cook — Wodrow — Naphtali — Crooks'iank — Laing. 

3 The celebrated John Welsh s grandson was Presbyterian 
minister of the parish. 


Chancellor, wrote to the magistrates of Kirkcud- 
bright, commanding them to discover the individu- 
als who had been engaged in the riot, and to order 
their appearance before the Privy Council. They 
were, likewise, commanded to produce the husbands, 
fathers, and masters of such women as had been 
concerned in the seditious tumult. In consequence 
of this injunction, there appeared before the 
Council, Adam Gumquhen, John Halliday, John 
M'Staffen, Alexander Maclean, John Carson, and 
Alexander M'Kay, inhabitants of Kirkcudbright, 
who, when examined, denied that they had taken 
any part in the tumult. M'Staffen and Maclean 
were ordained to find caution for the production of 
their wives, and the rest were sent to prison, until 
their wives, who had been engaged in creating the 
disturbance, appeared before the Privy Council. 

But the Council, in their great zeal, were un- 
willing to admit of delay or evasion; and, finding 
there were no acting magistrates in Kirkcudbright, 
they appointed a Committee to proceed to the 
south and make the most searching inquiry into 
the particulars of this contempt of authority. To 
guard against all opposition, they were accompanied 
by a military force. The Commissioners were, the 
Earls of Linlithgow, Galloway, and Annandale; 
Lord Drumlanrig ; and Sir John Wauchope, of 

These Commissioners, accordingly, met at Kirk- 
cudbright, on the 25th of May, 1663, and called 
before them such persons as had been engaged in 
the riot; namely, John, Lord Kirkcudbright; John 
Carson, of Senwick ; and John Ewart ; with Agnes 
Maxwell, and about thirty-two women, generally 
widows and servants. After examining a number 


of witnesses, they found that Lord Kirkcudbright, 
even from his own confession, had opposed the 
introduction of the curate, and had also refused to 
quell the insurrection. They, therefore, ordered 
him to be carried a prisoner to Edinburgh by a mili- 
tary guard. They also ordained John Carson, late 
Provost of Kirkcudbright, to be carried a prisoner 
to Edinburgh, who, when along with Lord Kirk- 
cudbright, had refused to assist in restoring order. 

The Commissioners next found, that, JohaEwart 
had been chosen provost of tiie burgh, at the last e- 
lection, and had refused to accept of the office : they, 
therefore, declared him the chief cause of the disor- 
ganization of the magistracy ; and, as he had, like- 
wise, declined to give his advice in reducing the tu- 
mult, on the ground he was no councillor, they or- 
dained him to be carried a prisoner to Edinburgh. 

A new election of magistrates and councillors 
for the burgh of Kirkcudbright was next ordered 
by the Commissioners. The magistrates chosen 
were, William Ewart, Provost; John Newall and 
Robert Glendinning, Bailies; and John Living- 
stone, Treasurer. They all accepted in terms of 
law, and signed a bond for the faithful discharge 
of their duty.l This bond was subscribed before 
the whole of the inhabitants, in the presence of the 
Commissioners, and delivered to these functionaries. 

1 " And they signed a bond in their own name, and of the haill 
inhabitants of the place, binding and obliging them, and ilk one 
ot them, conjunctly and seveiallv. during their public trust, that 
they and all their inhabitants within their public liberties, should 
from the day and date thereof behave themselves loyally and 
peaceably, ami in all things conform to his majesty's laws made 
and to be made, both in civil ami ecclesiastical affairs; and that 
they should with all diligence execute any commands that are 
or should be directed to them, during the said time, that flow 
from any authority derived from the sacred majesty of our dread 


After hearing further depositions and confes- 
sions, they ascertained that Agnes Maxwell, Chris- 
tian M'Cavers, Jean Rome, Marion Brown, and 
Janet Big-lam had been most active in the outrage, 
and ordained them to be carried prisoners to Edin- 
burgh, to answer before the Privy Council for the 
crime laid to their charge. They also ordained 
" Bessie Lawrie" and thirteen others, accessories, 
to be imprisoned until they found caution, under 
the penalty of a hundred pounds sterling each, to 
appear before the Privy Council. Helen Cracken 
and some others were ordered to be apprehended 
by the sheriff of Wigtown, and imprisoned by the 
magistrates of Kirkcudbright. 

The Commissioners next proceeded to Kirkpat- 
rick-Irongray, and called before them William Ar- 
not, of Littlepark, George Ronnie, of Beoch, and 
several other persons, said to have been implicated 
in the disturbance. After taking the deposition of 
witnesses, they found that William Arnot had held 
several meetings before the tumult, for the purpose 
of opposing the admission of Mr Bernard vSanderson 
to the church and parish of Irongray ; and that, 
when requested by the individuals who went to 
serve the edict, to hold the women off them, lie 
declared he neither could, nor would do it ; and 
that he afterwards drew his sword, and, putting his 

sovereign : as also, that they should protect the lord bishop of 
Galloway, and the minister of their burgh, who should be estab- 
lished there, and any other ministers that are or shall be estab. 
lish'ed by authority ; and lhat they should fulfil all the above par- 
ticulars, under the penalty of eighteen thousand merks Scots, to 
be paid by them, or any of them, within a month after they shall 
be declared guilty by the lords of his majesty's privy council. 
Which was subscribed in our presence, and the presence of the 
community of the said burgh, and delivered to us." 


back against the church door, said, " Let me see 
who will place a minister here this day." They, 
therefore, ordered him to be conveyed to Edinburgh 
in the custody of a party of soldiers. George Rome 
was declared an accomplice, because he had been 
present, and had not assisted in overcoming the 
opposition. He was ordered to find security to a 
large amount for appearing before the Council 
when called. 1 

The heritors of the parish, in consequence of the 
riot, were required to grant a bond, similar to that 
given at Kirkcudbright ; and the whole of the mili- 
tary were ordered to live with the inhabitants, at 
free quarters, until the following Monday. 

The Commissioners having given in their re- 
port,— dated 30th of May, 1663,— to the Privy 
Council, the men from Kirkcudbright, who had 
appeared for their wives, after finding caution for 
their good behaviour, were set at liberty. 

On the 13th of August, the Privy Council gave 
the following deliverance on the report of the Com- 
missioners : — " The lords having considered the se- 
veral petitions of the prisoners from Kirkcudbright 
and lrongray, and the report of the commissioners 
sent to that country, do find John Carson of Sen wick, 
John Ewart, late provost of Kirkcudbright, and 
William Arnot of Littlepark in lrongray, to have 
been most guilty of the abuses and disorders there 
and fine John Carson in the sum of eight thousand 
merks, and the said William Arnot in the sum of five 
thousand merks : and them to find caution before 
they depart from prison, to pay the said sums to 
Lis majesty's exchequer betwixt and Martinmas 

I WoJrow. 


r.ext, with certification if they fail, they shall be 
banished out of the kingdom : and ordain and 
command the said William Arnot, betwixt and the 
25th of October next to come, to make public ac- 
knowledgment of his offences two several Sabbaths 
at the kirk of Irongray before that congregation. 1 
Likeas the said lords do banish the said John Euart 
forth of this realm for his offence, and ordain and 
command him forth of the same betwixt and this 
day twenty days, not to be seen therein at any time 
hereafter, without license from his majesty or the 
council, at his highest peril. 

" ' And the said lords finding Agnes Maxwell, 
Marion Brown, Jean Rennie, Christian M 'Cavers* 
and Janet Biglam, to have been most active in the 
said tumult, do ordain them, betwixt and the 15th 
day of September next to come, to stand two sev- 
eral market days at the market-cross of Kirkcud- 

1 Such is the punishment which was inflicted upon the rioters 
at Irongray. That the outrage was of a serious and aggravated 
nature, appears from the Memoirs of Mr Blackader, ejected 
minister of Troqueer, written by himself. In giving an account 
of this transaction, he says, " A party, with some messengers, 
was sent to intimate, that the said Mr Bernard was to enter that 
kirk for their ordinar. Some women of the parish, ('headed by 
e>ne Margaret Smith,) hearing thereof, placed themselves in the 
kirk-yard, and furnished themselves with their ordinary weapons 
of stones, whereof they gathered store : and when the messen- 
gers and party of rascalls, with swords and pistols, came, the 
women so maintained their ground, defending themselves under 
the kirk-dyke, that after a hot skirmish, the curate, messengerr, 
and party of soldiers, net presuming to enter, did at length take 
themselves to retreat, with the honourable blae marks they had 
got at the conflict. One of the parishioners drew his sword, 
set his back to the kirk-door, and said, 'Let me see who will 
place a minister here this day.' The said Margaret was brought 
prisoner to Edinburgh, and banished to Barbadoes. But, whei?. 
before the managers, she told her tale so innocently, that they 
saw not fit to execute the sentence." 


bright, ilk day for the space of two hours, with a 
paper on their face, bearing their fault to be for 
contempt of his majesty's authority, and raising a 
tumult in the said town ; and ordain them before 
they depart out of prison, to enact themselves in 
the books of council, to give obedience to this ; 
and the magistrates of Kirkcudbright to execute 
the sentence ; and if they fail or delay so to do» 
that they cause whip them through the said town, 
and banish them forth of the same, and the liberties 
thereof.'" I 

John Ewart. John Carson, and William Arnot 5 
upon petitioning the Council, obtained some miti- 
gation of their sentences. 

When the Commissioners were at Kirkcud- 
bright, the hardships of Mr. Gordon, of Earlston, 
commenced. They knew Mr Gordon's attach- 
ment to Presbyterian principles, and were de- 
sirous either to bring him to sanction the ordina- 
tion of an episcopal minister at Dairy — of which 
parish he was patron — or, upon his refusal, to sub- 
ject him to punishment. They, accordingly, wrote 
to him, to cause Mr George Henry's edict to be 
served, and to countenance and encourage the new 
minister in the prosecution of his duty. 2 With 

1 Wodrow. 

2 . " Kirkcudbright, 21st May, 1668. 
" Sir, 

'• We doubt not but you heard, that the lords of his majesty's 
privy council have commissioned us to come to this country, as 
to take course with the seditious tumult laised iu this place so 
to do every thins that may contribute to the settling of' the peace 
here, and to be assisting to the bishop for the planting of other va- 
cant churches, by the withdrawing of the respective ministers: 
and finding the church of Dairy to be one ol those, and that the 
bishop hath presented au actual minister, Mr George Henry, fit 
u ;id qualified for the charge, new being, according to the act of 


the injunction contained in the letter, Earlston 
refused *to comply, and he was cited before the 
Council. 1 

The natural consequences of these arbitrary pro- 
ceeding's were dissatisfaction and irritation. The 
people withdrew in great numbers from their par- 
ish churches, and treated their curates with dis- 
respect. They sought out their former preach- 
ers; and, in despite of the injunctions of Govern- 
ment, eagerly begged and received their valued 
ministrations. Those private meetings, named con- 
venticles, were at first held, as we have formerly 
observed, in houses, barns, or other buildings. — - 
But such meetings, when numerously attended, 
as they came to be, were sure to be detected, and 
rudely dispersed by the intrusion of enraged peace 
officers or licentious soldiers, who sometimes plun- 
dered the men of their money, and the women of 
their cloaks or plaids. To guard against sucli 
dangerous interruptions, the Presbyterian worship- 
pers in Galloway had recourse to an expedient 
suggested by the wild and inaccessible nature of 

parliament, fallen into hit hand, jure dsvoluto, and that the gjen- 
tietnan is to come to your parish this Sabbath n«xt to preach 
to the people, and that you are a person of special interest 
there ; according to the power and trust committed to us, we do 
require you to cause his edict to he served, and the congregation 
cenvone, and to countenance him so as he he encouraged to 
prosecute his ministry ia that place. In doing whereof, as you 
will witness your respect to authority, so ohlige us to remain, 
" Sir, 
" Your loving friends and servants, 
*' Linlithgow, Annandale, 
Galloway, Diutmlanerk." 

Womiuw's History of the Sufferings of the Church. 
1 Mr. Wo, how obtained his information from original papers 
sent him by Earlston's grandchild. 


the country : they held their meetings in solitary 
and mountainous districts, where it was difficult 
to discover, or dangerous to assail them, unless- 
the attacking party were wary, skilful, and nu- 
merous. I 

The Privy Council, however, doubled their ex- 
ertions to overawe and suppress the whole body of 
the nonconformists. But the violence of their 
proceedings attracted the notice of the English 
administration ; and Middleton, through the en- 
mity of Lauderdale, whom he had tried to ruin, 
lost the favour of his master. He was deprived of 
his high office in Scotland, and sent, as governor 
of Tangier, into honourable exile. There, he- 
soon lost that life, which he had exposed in so many 
battles, by a fall down a staircase. His arm was 
broken ; and the bone, protruding through the 
flesh, pierced his side. This brought on a mortifi- 
cation which caused his death. The people of 
Galloway, or rather the inhabitants of all Scotland, 
viewed his miserable end as a striking manifesta- 
tion of the Divine displeasure — as a sure indication 
of Heaven's resentment — for the sufferings he had 
caused to the servants of God. 2 

Lauderdale succeeded to his power — for to him 
was transferred the chief management of Scottish 
affairs. The Earl of Rothes, through the recom- 
mendation of Lauderdale, having, in June, been ap- 
pointed Commissioner to the Parliament about to 
commence its sittings, and Lord Treasurer of Scot- 
land., came down with his patron to Edinburgh. He 

1 Scott— Cook, &c. 

2 The Scots Worthies— YVodrow 


was a man entirely devoted to the interest, and sub- 
servient to the will, of his powerful friend. 1 

The Earl of Lauderdale had once been a Co- 
venanter. It may not be uninteresting- to mention, 
that his appearance was ungainly — being- a big-, 
coarse man, with shaggy red hair, vulgar features, 
and a tongue too large for his mouth. But he 
possessed sense, wit, and learning in no ordinary 
degree. Me clearly perceived that the measures 
lately adopted were more calculated to defeat, than 
advance the objects which the King* had in view. 
But he knew he could not long retain his power, 
unless he acted in unison with Sharpe, the Primate 
of Scotland, and the other bishops, at whose insti- 
gation many of the most tyrannical proceedings had 
been eagerly recommended. 

Parliament sat down on the 18th of June, 1663, 1 
and its chief object was to strengthen the ecclesias- 
tical government;, and crush opposition to its dic- 
tates. The ministers, who refused to conform, 
had been treated with unexampled severity ; and 
now it was judged requisite to devise such laws as 
would place the people at the mercy of rulers, who, 
in their zeal for prelacy, regarded not the iniquity 
of the means, provided they could obtain the end 
desired. An act was soon passed, which, after re- 
newing- many former acts for augmenting- ecclesi- 
astical authority, thus proceeded : — " His Majesty, 
with the advice and consent of his estates in par- 
liament, doth hereby statute, ordain, and declare, 
that all and every such person and persons, who 
shall hereafter ordinarily and wilfully withdraw 
and absent themselves from the ordinary meetings 

1 Burnet. — Kirkton, &c. 


of divine worship in their own parish church on the 
Lord's day, whether upon account of Popery or 
other disaffection to the present government of the 
church, shall thereby incur the pains and penalties 
underwritten, viz. Each nobleman, gentleman, and 
heritor, the loss of a fourth part of each year's rent 
in which they shall be accused and convicted, and 
every yeoman, tenant, or farmer, the loss of such 
a proportion of their moveables as his Majesty's 
council should think fit, not exceeding a fourth part 
thereof; and every burgess to lose the liberty of 
merchandizing, trading, and all other privileges 
within borough, and a fourth part of their move- 
ables." 1 In addition to the authority for exacting 
these penalties, the Council received the power of 
inflicting corporal punishment upon transgressors 
of the act. 2 

On the 3d of October, Parliament was dissolved, 
and the Scottish Government commenced its career 
of unparalleled severity. 

In Galloway, the people had peculiarly exhibit- 
ed their decided attachment to Presbytery ; and, 
for the purpose of compelling them to attend the 
parish churches, we find, on the 13th of October, 

1 By the parliament begun at Edinburgh 18th June, 1663, an 
offer was made to the King of 20,000 foot soldiers and 2,000 
cavalry — the officers and Rute-Masters to be nominated by his 
Majesty; which being accepted, this force was raised by ballot, 
throughout the kingdom. The quota for Galloway was 800 
infantry and 88 horsemen — armed and provided with provisions 
for 40 days — Acts Charles II, sec. iii, cap. xxvi. 

By the same parliament, the annual proportion of the Excise, 
raised throughout the kingdom, was " statuted and ordained 
to be," 

For Wigtownshire £271 12 

For the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright 460 

2 Cook, — Wodrow. — Acts of Parliament — Hind Let Loose. 


that the Lords of the Privy Council "gave order and 
warrant to George, earl of Linlithgow, with all 
conveniency to cause so many of the six foot com- 
panies under his command to march to Kirkcud- 
bright, as with the foot there already, may make 
up the number of eightscore footmen with their offi- 
cers, and to quarter there till further order." Sir 
James Turner had been appointed to the command 
of the whole troops in the south of Scotland ; and, 
as he had once been a zealous covenanter, he now 
wished to show his attachment to Episcopacy by 
his rigour in imposing and levying fines, and en- 
couraging the infliction of all other kinds of severe 
penalties, to produce compliance. Sir James had 
been a soldier of fortune, and he is often represent- 
ed as a man of a fierce and dissolute character ; but 
he was sometimes forced to exceed his inclinations, 
to please the Bishop of Galloway, who was severe 
and cruel in all his proceedings.! 

The Privy Council now entrusted to the bishops 
and their subordinates, the duty of compelling sub- 
mission. The power which the soldiers possess* 
ed of imposing and exacting fines, proved the 
foundation of the most grievous oppressions. In 
cases of nonconformity, the processes were short 
and arbitrary. The curates made complaints to 
the officers, or even to private sentinels. The sol- 
dier, being the only judge, generally pronounced 
sentence without either calling witnesses or making 
any further inquiry ; and he then proceeded to exe- 
cute his own sentence, which he did the more 
effectually, that the whole or part of the money fre- 
quently went into his own pocket. Often, the fine 

1 Wodrow. — Crook>hank Kirkton. — Hind Let Loose. 


thus exacted far exceeded the sum authorised by the 
Government. Large contributions were thus raised 
in Galloway — the soldiers conducting themselves 
as if they had possession of an enemy's country. 
Their oppressions, under the nominal sanction of law> 
were altogether incredible. When a poor tenant 
was unable to pay his heavy fine, soldiers were sent 
to live, free of expense, in his house, until he had, per- 
haps, cleared off six times the amount of the appoint- 
ed exaction : and, in this manner, some were totally 
ruined. When poor families became unable any 
longer to support the soldiers quartered upon them, 
their goods were seized and sold for a trifle. The dis- 
solute military knew they were the instruments of 
punishment, and would be backed by authority ; 
and, in their quarters, they gave full licence to then- 
insolence and brutality. Modest females were in- 
sulted or maltreated ; family worship ridiculed or 
interrupted; and all the decencies of domestic life 
mocked or outraged. They beat multitudes, 
and cruelly dragged them to prison, or to church, 
with eqm'l violence. By such usage, hundreds of 
poor families were dispersed, and reduced to un- 
heard-of sufferings. 1 

In order to facilitate the harsh and destructive 
work of the military, curates, in most parishes, 
formed a list of the names of their congregations, 
that the soldiers might visit the various houses, 
and ascertain the principles of the inmates. After 
sermon, such rolls were generally called from the 
pulpits, and the names of all absentees given unto 
the soldiers, that the individuals might be fined, 
as deserters of the church.'- 

1 Lain/ — Crookshank, 

2 Wodrow, &c. 


Another species of oppression was exercised in 
some places, where old Presbyterian ministers} 
either by connivance or interest, were allowed to 
perform their clerical duties. Such ministers had 
always very crowded auditories. The bishops and 
their underlines felt chagrined at the exhibition of 
this preference, and issued ordeis to the military to 
visit their churches, and levy fines from all who at- 
tended from other congregations. The soldiers ge- 
nerally sat carousing in some public-house, until 
Divine worship had nearly concluded, and then took 
their station at the church door or church-yard gate; 
and, causing the people to pass out slowly and sing- 
ly, interrogated them, upon oath, if they belonged 
to the parish. If they could not answer in the affir- 
mative, even though no curate had been placed 
in their own parish, and the church was vacant, they 
were fined, and what they possessed was immediately 
taken from them. If they had brought no money 
with them, or less than the fine, their bibles, coats, 
or plaids were seized and carried off. The soldiers 
were often seen, on the Lord's Day, returning from 
Presbyterian churches, loaded with spoil, as if they 
had been coming from plundering a captured city, 
or stripping the slain of a vanquished army. 1 

Sometimes, the abandoned military would even 
penetrate into the bosom of a church, during pub- 
lic worship, and, with dreadful imprecations, inter- 
rupt the service ; or, perhaps, take this opportunity 
of apprehending some of the congregation, and 
carrying them off to prison. Notwithstanding 
these and similar outrages, the people durst not 
complain ; or, rather, they were compelled to at- 

1 Wodrow — Crookshank. 


test they had been treated with tenderness and 
forbearance. 1 

On the 29th of September, 1663, Sydeserff, 
formerly bishop of Galloway, died at Edinburgh. 
Mr William Annand preached his funeral sermon, 
in which he descanted, with much parade, on the 
family, birth, piety, learning, travels, and suffer- 
ings for the Gospel's sake, of the deceased prelate. 

Notwithstanding the numerous hardships of the 
oppressed Presbyterians, fcharpe proceeded to 
London, and represented to the King, that the 
leniency of the Privy Council had materially injur- 
ed the cause of Episcopacy and encouraged insub- 

His representations had the desired effect ; for 
Charles, by a Commission, dated 16th of July, 
1664, erected a court to supersede, in some mea- 
sure, the power of the .Privy Council, in ecclesias- 
tical matters. All the prelates were nominated 
members of this infamous court ; and the commis- 
sioners received orders rigorously to execute the 
laws already in being, and were " authorized to do 
and execute what they should think necessary anil 
convenient for his Majesty's service, for prevent- 
ing and suppressing schism and separation, for 
planting vacant churches, and for procuring reve- 
rence, submission, and obedience to the ecclesias- 
tical government established by law." Tbe Com- 
mission empowered the court to meet on the first 
Wednesday in March. 

In the meantime, the Council displayed their 
vigilance by passing an act against Mr Gordon, of 
Earlston. This act narrated "that they had consid- 

} Wo dro .v. 


ered several accusations exhibited against Mr 
Gordon of Earlstoun, for keeping of private meet- 
ings and conventicles, contrary to the laws and acts 
of parliament, with his own judicial confession that 
he had been at three several conventicles, where 
Mr Gabriel Semple, a deposed minister, did preach, 
viz. one in Corsack wood, and the other two in the 
wood of Airds, at which there were great numbers 
of people ; and that he did hear Mr Robert Paton, 
a deposed minister, expound a text of scripture, 
and perform other acts of worship in his mother's 
house; and that Mr Thomas Thomson, another 
deposed minister, did lecture in his own house to 
his family on a Sabbath-day ; and that, being re- 
quired to enact himself to abstain from all such 
meetings in time coming, and to live peaceably 
and orderly conform to law, he refused to do the 
same. They did therefore order the said Mr Wil- 
liam Gordon of Earlstoun to be banished, and to 

depart forth of the kingdom within a month 

and not return under pain of death, and that he 
enact himself to live peaceably and orderly during 
the said month, under pain of ten thousand pounds, 
or otherways to enter his person in prison. 5 ' 

Whilst the execrable Commission-Court existed, 
no man was safe ; for the laws ceased to protect. 
Idle accusations were eagerly received, and the hap- 
piness and security of domestic life completely des- 
troyed. During its domination, numbers were pun- 
ished with the wanton inhumanity, which atrocious 
crimes could not have justified. Many were crowded 
in unwholesome prisons, and afterwards transported 
to Barbadocs: even the young and unoffending were 
often whipped through the public streets.! One 

1 Wodrow, &c. 

f i5& HISTORY 

particular instance of its barbarous severity we shall 
here record. Mr Alexander Smith, minister of 
Colvend, when turned out of his living, took 
up his residence at Leith. This individual was 
called before the terrific court, and accused of 
keeping conventicles ; or, in other words, preach- 
ing in his own house. His examination was 
interrupted in a singular manner. In answer- 
ing some questions which Archbishop Sharpe put 
to him, he did not give the haughty prelate his 
title, but called him only " Sir." The Earl of 
Rothes asked him, if he knew the individual to 
whom he spoke. Mr Smith answered — " Yes, 
my Lord, I do : I speak to Mr James Sharpe, once 
a fellow minister." This answer gave great of- 
fence ; and Mr Smith was ordered to be put in 
irons, and imprisoned in a dismal place, called the 
" Thieves' Hole," where he had for his sole com- 
panion a furious lunatic. In this frightful dungeon 
he continued for some time — until the respect and 
kindness of the inhabitants of Edinburgh made the 
bishops ashamed of the harsh step they had taken, 
and he was removed to another apartment in the 
prison, where, from the cruel treatment he 
had received, he became so much indisposed, that 
his life was despaired of. Such was their deadly 
enmity, that they would not liberate him even for 
a few days. By their sentence, he was afterwards 
banished to one of the Shetland Islands, where he 
lived, for many years, in a very uncomfortable sit- 
uation, and in a state of great destitution. Num- 
bers at this period fled to Ireland. 

At length the lay-members were ashamed of this 
tribunal's cruelty, and the nobility who had ob- 
served its proceedings became disgusted. Leigh- 


ton, Archbishop of Glasgow, expressed to his 
Majesty a wish to resign his see, in consequence 
of the numerous acts of barbarity committed by the 
Commission-Court, and orders were given in 1665, * 
for its abolition. 

But the unhappy Presbyterians still continued 
to suffer in Galloway from the fury of the military, 
who were, at length, by impunity or encouragement 
rendered truly ferocious. The district had now be- 
come a perfect wilderness; proprietors had been forc- 
ed to abandon their houses and lurk in mountains, 
woods, or mosses ; their cattle had been destroyed, 
their crops wasted, their furniture burned, and their 
dwellings plundered. 2 The patience of the people, 

1 It was agreed by the Convention of Estates, which met at 
Edinbuigh, on the 4th August, 1665, that a voluntary tax of 
thiity shillings on the pound land, of old extent, throughout the 
kingdom, should be raised for the use of the King, to be continu- 
ed annually, for five years. 

Acts Charles II, Pari. 1665, cap. I. 
The sums raised by the burghs of Galloway were — 
Burgh of Kirkcudbright .... £96 
Burgh of Wigtown ...... 84 

Burgh of Whithorn 24 

Burgh of New Galloway .... 6 

Ibid. cap. 1 1 . 
This statement is curious, as shewing the relative importance 
of the towns named, at that peiiod. 

2 We quote the following from Naphtali : — " And first, at 
three several inroads which the Souldiers made into that Coun- 
trey, in the Years I663 ; 1665, and 1666, they exacted from the 
•People there, for adhereing to their old faithful Ministers, and 
not submitting to the Ministry of those whom the Prelates vio. 
lently obtruded upon them, the Summes of Money underwrit- 
ten, viz. : — 

Lib. s. d. 
From 49 Families in the Parish of Carsphairn ... 4864 17 

From 43 Families in the Parish of Dalray 9577 16 8 

From 49 Families in Balmaclelland 6430 10 

From 9 Families in Balmacghie 425 11 8 

From 2 or 3 Families in Tui.gland 166 12-0 

vol. 11. M. 


became at last completely exhausted. The scenes 
of tyranny, violence, and brutality which they had 
daily witnessed, goaded them on to madness ; and 
they unadvisedly and prematurely had recourse to 
arms. 1 

Perhaps, it may be considered by some individ- 
uals, that, in delineating the numerous trials and 
sufferings of the Covenanters, we have not given a 
fair and impartial narrative of facts. Though we 

From some poor persons in Tuynham 81 4 

From 20 Families in Borg 2026 17 4 

From 9 poor Families in Girton 525 10 4 

Fiom some poor Families in Anwith 733 6 4 

From 34 inconsideiable Families in Kirkpatrick- 

Durham 2235 16 

From some few Families in Kiikmabrek 563 6 

From 3 Families in Monygaff 600 

From 18 Families in Kirkcudbright 2580 

From 37 poor Families in Lochruton, notwith- 
standing they wanted a Curate 2080 

From 12 poor Families in Tiaquair 756 10 

From Kells Parish 466 13 4 

Fiom Corsemichall Parish 1666 13 4 

From 24 Families in Parton Paiish 2838 9 4 

Fiom 42 Families in Iiongray 3362 18 8 

Summa [Scots] 41982 12 0* 
Scottish money was abolished, as a circulating medium, by the 
Articles of the Union, But the valued rent of land, and, in 
many places, feu duties, ministers' stipends, schoolmasters' sala- 
ries, and other parochial burdens, are still reckoned by the pound 
or maik Scots, though paid in Sterling money. 


1 penny or doyt ^ 

2 pennies 1 bodle £ 

2 bodies 1 plack or groat £ 

3 placks 1 bawbee \ 

12 pennies ,.. 1 shilling 1 

20 shillings 1 pound 20 

33 shillings and 4 pennies .. 1 mark * 13 

18 marks or 12 pounds £1 Steiling 

1 Hind Let Loose. 


certainly view the transactions of the period with 
Presbyterian eyes, and are duly impressed with a 
sense of the excellence of our ecclesiastical in- 
institutions; yet, as we have drawn our facts from 
authentic records and official registers, which can- 
not be corrupted, our statement must be sub- 
stantially correct ; for — ■** Uteres scrlptcs manent" 
We do not, however, entirely exculpate the Cove- 
nanters, nor altogether approve of many of their 
measures. They, no doubt, on some occasions, 
exhibited both intolerance and vindictiveness; and 
were seduced, by fanatical excitement or religious 
enthusiasm, into the commission of acts which, per- 
haps, their cooler reason might have condemned. 
But they were roused into a state of frenzied re- 
gardlessness by the unbounded arrogance, wanton 
insults, and cruel oppressions of their heartless per- 
secutors. We admit, they were sometimes un- 
reasonably rigid and stubbornly pertinacious about 
seeming trifles; but they acted according to the 
dictates of their conscience, their notions of mo- 
rality, and their own religious tenets : and 
they considered, that, by steadily persevering in the 
noble course they had commenced, they were se- 
curing the esteem of men and the approbation of 
Heaven. To their unflinching firmness, it must be 
remembered, Scotland is, perhaps, indebted for 
both her civil and religious freedom. They taught 
the world a useful lesson. By their noble struggle, 

They stemmed the torrent of a downward age 
To slavery prone. 

Their resistance was not viewed by the nation as 
rebellion : it was considered as opposition to foreign 
domination ; — for if Charles had been King of 


Scotland alone, he would have been compelled to 
yield to the wishes of his people. 

To prove that both the outlines are correct, 
and the picture itself is not too highly colour- 
ed, we insert, id the Appendix, a letter from an im- 
partial and observing gentleman of Galloway, writ- 
ten at the time. I 

1 Sea Appendix (X.} 




On Tuesday, the I3th day of November, 1666, 
four houseless countrymen, after suffering much 
cold, hunger, and fatigue, from their unfortunate 
condition, repaired to the village of Dairy,! called 
St. John's Clauchan, in Galloway, to procure some 
refreshment. At a little distance from the village, 
they met a small party of soldiers, driving before 
them a number of people, in order to force them to 
thrash some corn which had been taken, for the 
payment of a fine, from a poor old man, of the 
name of Grier, who had fled. Such a sight gave 
much uneasiness to the four wandering Presbyteri- 
ans ; but they passed on, without speaking to the 

1 Dalry, the King's field : so called from a great battle 
thought to have been fought here between the Scots and Danes, 
in which the Danes weie defeated, with the loss of their king, 
who is said to lie interred beneath the Standing Stone, in Dol. 
arran Holm. One of the old lairds of the Holm made excava- 
tions about this stone: where he found an antique sword, which 
was preserved in the family till of late years, when it unac- 
countably disappeared . Upon the neighbouring heights of Gren. 
nan, pieces of swords have been found ; the remains of a coat 
of mail were discovered, when making a ditch; and, about 70 
years ago, bits of rusty armour, &c, were frequently turned up 
by the plough, on Dolairan Holm. Some state that one of the 
countrymen was Maclellan of Uaricobe. 


soldiers, and arrived at the village. When they 
were taking some refreshment there, 1 informa- 
tion reached them that the poor old man hud been 
seized, and that the soldiers, having taken him 
to his house, were using him in a most barbar- 
ous and inhuman manner. They resolved, there- 
fore, to use their utmost endeavours to relief their 
aged fellow sufferer : and, going to the house, they 
earnestly entreated the persecuting soldiers to de- 
sist from their barbarities. These ministers of 
oppression, however, refused to forbear, and high 
words ensued ; upon which, they drew their 
swords, and severely wounded two of the country- 
men. One of the assailed immediately discharg- 
ed a pistol — which contained no bullet but a piece of 
a tobacco pipe — and hurt one of the soldiers. This 
encounter ended in the defeat of the military, who 
are said to have been only three or four, and the 
old man was delivered from their power. The 
countrymen now reflected that the die was cast — 
that they had passed the Rubicoyi — and would be 
accounted rebels. They, therefore, determined, 
if possible, to secure their safety by precautionary 
measures of defence. Understanding there were 
about a dozen soldiers in another part of the same 
parish ; and, fearing lest these agents of authority 
should obtain intelligence of the event, the coun- 
trymen resolved, with the assistance of a few of the 
peasantry who had joined their party, to take them 

1 The house in which they sat is still standing, but was par. 
tially iebuilt a few years ago ; it was called Midtown; John Gor- 
don then occupied it, as a kind of tavern. Mr Train says, 
"My friend, Mr John M'Oulloch of New Galloway, kindly pro. 
cured, from the proprietor, for me, one of the old rafters, of 
which I intend to raake some articles of virtu," 


next morning by surprise. When the soldiers 
were unexpectedly attacked, they all surrendered 
their arms, except one man who resisted, and was 
killed. 1 

The people of this part of Galloway now saw 
they had nothing to hope from forbearance. They 
knew, from the character of Sir James Turner, 
who was at Dumfries — only 18 miles distant — that 
he would soon inflict upon them terrible vengeance; 
and they determined to use every exertion in or- 
der to prevent it. Mr Maclellan, of Barscobe, Mr 
Neilson, of Corsack, and some other gentlemen, 
who knew all would be viewed as alike guilty, hav- 
ing collected about 50 horsemen and a few persons 
on foot, joined the men who had overcome the 
military ; and, on the 15th of November, march- 
ed straight to Dumfries. There they surprised 
Sir James Turner in his chamber, in Bailie Finnie's 
house, and seized the money which had been trans- 
mitted from Edinburgh, to pay the troops, and 
the proceeds of the fines recently levied : 2 they also 
made him prisoner, and afterwards disarmed his 
men — without injuring any of them, except one 
man, who, making violent resistance, was se- 
verely wounded. They then went to the cross 
and drank the king's health. From the almost 
universal discontent, it was thought the rising 
would immediately become general ; yet, while 
they remained in Galloway, only about three or 
four hundred joined the insurgents, and none of 

1 Kirkton, &c. 

2 The money is said to have been entrusted to a stranger, 
styled Captain Uiay. who decamped the succeeding night and 
carried it all off with him. 


them persons of sufficient influence to command 
prompt or implicit obedience. 1 

When the news of the commotion first reached 
Edinburgh, Rothes was in London, and Sharpe, 
President of the Council, acted as the head of the 
executive government. He instantly summoned 
a Council to assemble ; and the scale of their prepa- 
rations exhibited the extent of their fears. Sharpe 
issued his warlike injunctions, and General Dalziel 
who had the command of the army, was ordered to 
Glasgow, whence, after levying more forces, he was 
to march to whatever place the danger might seem 
most threatening.2 AH the noblemen in the south 

1 Kirkton. — Naphtali. — Wodtow — Aikman, &c. For more 
particulars, sec Symson's preface to Tripatriarcliicon, p. 214, 

2 " He ("Dalziel) was bred up very hardy from his youth, 
both in diet and clothing. He never wore boots, nor above one 
coat, which was close to his body, with close sleeves, like those 
we call jockey.coats. He never wore a peruke, nor did he shave 
his beard since the murder of K. Charles I. In my time, his 
head was bald, which he covered only with a beaver hat, the 
brim of which was not above three inches broad. His beard was 
white and bushy, and yet reached down almost to his girdle. He 
usually went to London once or twice a year, and then only to 
kiss the king's hand, who had a great esteem for his worth and 
valour. His unusual dress and figure, when he was in London, 
never failed to draw after him a great crowd of boys and other 
young people, who constantly attended at his lodgings, and fol- 
lowed him with huzzas as he went to court, or returned from it. 
As he was a man of humour, he would always thank them for 
their civilities, when he left them at the door to go to the king, 
and let them know exactly at what hour he intended to return 
to his lodgings. "When the king walked in the park, attended 
by some of his courtiers, and Dalziel in company, the same 
crowds would always be alter him, showing their admiration of 
his beard and dress, so that the king could hardly pass on for the 
crowd ; upon which His majesty bid the devil take Dalziel, for 
bringing such a rabble of boys together, to have their guts 
squeezed out, while they gaped at his long beard and antic habit, 
requesting him, at the same time, (as Dalziel expressed it,) to 
shave and dress like other christians, to keep the poor bairns out 
of danger. All this could never prevail on him to part with his 


and west were directed to hold themselves in readi- 
ness to join the royal forces. The commands of 
the Primate created some dissatisfaction among the 
haughty nobles ; and they often sarcastically asked, 
if there was no one, in such an emergency, to issue 
orders to them but a priest. 1 The guards were 
doubled, and all the fencible men enrolled for the 
defence of the capital. Many other precautionary 
measures were adopted. 

In the meantime, the Presbyterians of Edin- 
burgh deliberated about affording the rebels assist- 
ance ; and Colonel Wallace, Mr Welsh, late of Iron- 
gray, and several others, resolved to proceed im- 
mediately to join them. They found their insur- 
gent friends at the bridge of Doon, in Ayrshire. — 
At Ochiltree, Colonel Wallace was chosen com- 
mander, and the Whigs, as they were called^ 
for the first time assumed the form of a regu- 
lar army. 2 Here they held their first council of war ; 
and, after application to God for direction, they re- 
solved to march towards Edinburgh. Upon Friday, 
they reached Cumnock ; when they got accounts 
that some men, who were coming to join them, had 
been intercepted by the Duke of Hamilton. After 

beard ; but yet, in compliance with his majesty, he went once 
to court in the very height of the fashion ; but as soon as tha 
king, and those about him, had laughed sufficiently at the strange 
figure he made, he ie-assumed his usual habit, to the great joy 
of the boys, who had not discovered him in his court dress.'' — 
(Capt. Crichton's Memoirs.) 

Dalziel had served in the Russian wars, and was a man of a 
fierce and passionate temper. He once acted so unmanly, as to 
strike a helpless prisoner on the face, with the hilt of his dagger, 
till the blood sprung from the wound, for calling him " a Mus. 
covian beast that roasted men." 

1 Kirkton, &c. 

2 Ciookshank Kirkton. 


receiving this intelligence, their little array march- 
ed from Cumnock, the same evening-, to Muir- 
kirk, during; a heavy rain, and through a long and 
deep moor, in a dark November night. Great 
were the hardships they now'suffered. They were 
as completely drenched as if they had been dragged 
through a river; and yet, the greater part of them, 
wet and fatigued as they were, had to take up their 
night's lodging in the cold church : nor could any 
food be procured that night. 

On Saturday they marched to Douglas, on their 
way to Lanark. Here, it was debated, in a coun- 
cil of war, whether they should disperse, or con- 
tinue in arms; but it was determined to proceed 
with their undertaking. At this place, a proposal 
was made to put Sir James Turner — who was 
still carried with them as a prisoner — to death ; but 
it was rejected, with a humanity which does great 
credit to the council. 1 

On Sabbath morning, they marched towards 
Lanark. The two sons of Mr Gordon, of Knock- 
brex, in Borgue, with some additional men from 
Galloway, now overtook them, and signified, that 
no more assistance was to be expected from that 
quarter. The same night, they reached Lanark ; 
and, after some arrangements, intimated to the in- 
habitants their intention of renewing the Covenant 
next day. In the morning, the alarming accounts 
reached them that General Dalziel was within a 
few miles of the town, and some urged the expedi- 
ency of delaying the renewal of the Covenant — 
but their proposal was overruled; and, having 
placed sentinels and sent out scouts, the solemn 

1 Kirkton, &c. 


work commenced in two places. Numbers of the 
people became much affected by the imposing 1 cere- 
mony, and joined the army. It was now more nu- 
merous than at any other time ; for it amounted, it 
is believed, to nearly three thousand men — with a 
deficiency, however, of officers and arms. 

As soon as the insurgents had finished the so- 
lemnity, they left Lanark. General Dalziel reach- 
ed it a little after they had evacuated the place. 
The Covenanters had now little time to deliberate : 
entertaining some hopes of assistance from West 
Lothian and the city of Edinburgh, they resolved 
to march eastward, with the design of reaching 
Bathgate that night. A worse step could hardly 
have been taken, since it was advancing into hos- 
tile ground ; at Bathgate there were no friends 
to meet them, and Edinburgh was completely se- 
cured against their admission. Besides, they had 
to travel to Bathgate by one of the worst roads in 
Scotland — over an almost impassible moor. They 
did not reach it till some hours after day-light had 
disappeared; and, during their whole march, the rain 
fell in torrents. Here, there was no suitable accom- 
modation to be procured, for men wet and spent 
with fatigue. About eleven at night, they became 
alarmed by the report of the near approach of the 
enemy ; and, at twelve, they were obliged to resume 
their march. On the Tuesday morning, at New- 
Bridge, they presented the appearance of a wretch- 
ed, worn-out, motly crowd, rather than an army. 
During this dreadful night, nearly half of their 
number had disappeared — being either worn out 
with hunger and fatigue or enervated by despair. 

When they reached Collington, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Edinburgh, hope forsook them entirely; 


and they perceived, in ihe strong colours of vivid 
reality, the fatal rashness and deplorable folly 
of their vain crusade. 1 Upon the arrival of 

1 Extract from " The Whigs' Supplication :" a Poem, by 
Samuel Colvil.— Edinburgh, 171 1 :— 

" Right well do I the time remember, 

It was in Januar or December, 

When I did see the out-law Whigs, 

Lie stattered up and down the rigs. 

Some had hogger*, some straw boots, 

Some legs uncovered, some no coats ; 

Some had halberts, some had durhs, 

Some had crooked swords, like Turks' ; 

Some had slings, and some had flails, 

Knit with eel and oxen tails ; 

Some had spears, and some had pikes; 

Some had spades which delved dykes. 

Some had fiery peats for matches ; 

Some had guns, with rusty ratches ; 

Some had bows, but wanted arrows:' 

Some bad pistols without marrows ; 

Some had the coulter of a plough ; 

Some scythes both men and horse to hough 

And some with a Lochaber ax, 

Resolved to give Dahell his paiks. 

Some had cross-bows ; some were slingers , 

Some had only knives and whingers; 

But most of all, believe who lists; 

Had nought to fight with but their fists. 

They had no colours to display ; 

They wanted order and array ; 

Their officers and motion-teachers 

Were very few, beside their preachers. " t 

For martial music, every day 

They used oft to sing and pray; 

Which hearts them more, when danger comes, 

Than others' trumpets and their drums. 

With such provisions as they had, 

They were so stout, or else so mad, 

As to petition once again ; 

And if the issue proved in vain, 

They were resolved, with one accord, 

To fight the battles of the Lord." 

Pages 4, 5„ 


Lawrie of Blackwood and the laird of Barskim- 
ming, who brought them Dalziel's promise of a 
cessation of arms till next day, they agreed to ne- 
gotiate, and sent a letter to the general. To this 
communication no answer was returned; and Col- 
onel Wallace, placing little faith in the truce which 
had been proposed, meditated a retreat by the way 
of Biggar. From Collington, passing the east end 
of the Pentland hills, they marched to a place call- 
ed Ilullion-Green. Colonel Wallace now drew up 
the worn-out remains of his dispirited army, which 
scarcely amounted to nine hundred men — not with 
the intention of fighting, but for the purpose of 
inspecting the companies and preventing deser- 
tion ; or, perhaps, in secret hopes of effecting some 
species of accommodation — of procuring, by a show 
of opposition, some reasonable terms. 

The day (Wednesday) was now far advanced, 
when the Covenanters perceived a body of horse 
coming from the west, by a pass through the moun- 
tains. The hopes of the insurgents now re- 
vived ; for they fondly persuaded themselves that 
the horsemen whom they saw were the expected 
party from West Lothian. But they were soon 
undeceived ; the standards and kettle-drums which 
the approaching cavalry possessed, clearly demon- 
strating that they were the vanguard of Dalziel's 
troops, who -had learned, at the village of Currie, 
the situation of the Covenanters, and had moved 
eastward, by a road through the hills, to bring them 
to battle.' 

A clear frost had succeeded a severe fall of 
snow; and Colonel Wallace waited the approach 

1 Scott— Crookshank, &c. 


of the enemy on the back of a long hill, running 
north and south — low on the south end, but high 
on the north. On the south were placed some 
gentlemen of Galloway, on horseback, commanded 
by Maclellan of Barscobe. Those who were on 
foot took their station in the centre ; and on the 
right were placed the greater part of the cavalry, 
under Major Learmont. The position of the in- 
surgents was so well chosen, that, before Dalziel 
made any movement, he surveyed it for some time. 
At last, he sent about fifty horse to attack the 
Covenanters who were on the lowest extremity of 
the hill. Wallace, observing this, despatched a 
similar number, under Captain Arnot. They met 
in the hollow; and, after exchanging shots, came 
to close combat. The assailants were forced to 
retire in confusion. Dalziel next ordered a charge 
upon the cavalry commanded by Major Learmont, 

which was also unsuccessful — his men being oblig- 
es o 

ed to retire. He next advanced, about sunset, 
with the whole of his troops, to make a third at- 
tack ; when the feeble centre of his opponents gave 
way, and could never again rally. The slaughter 
in the battle was not considerable; nor did many 
fall in the flight — night having soon concealed the 
fugitives. Besides, the cavalry, that were sent to 
pursue, being generally gentlemen, pitied their 
suffering countrymen. About fifty were killed, 
and one hundred and fifty taken prisoners.l Few 

1 On a monumental stone at Rullion.Green. in the Pentland 
Hills, are these words : — " Here and near this plare lie about 
fifty true covenanted Piesbyterians, who were killed in their own 
innocent self-defence, and in defence of the covenanted work of 
the Reformation, by Thomas Dalziel, of Binns, upon the 28th 
<>f Nov. 1666. Rev. xii, ii. Erected September 28, 1735.— 
•'Joud of Witnesses. Edit. 1769, p. 447. 


of Dalziel's men fell, but a considerable number 
were wounded. This battle was fought on the 
28th of November, 1666.1 Colonel Wallace es- 
caped to Holland, and never returned to his native 
country. 2 

Seldom are the sufferings in the field, during 
civil commotions, so deplorable or heart-rending as 
the severities which ensue. Freed from his alarm, 
the Primate now retaliated with cruel vengeance- 
The prisoners were conveyed to Edinburgh, and 
thrown into Haddo's Hole,3 to await their destiny \ 
a few only of the leaders, intended for immediate 
punishment, being favoured with the superior ac- 
commodation of the tolbooth. 

To render the lives of those who had escaped as 
insecure and uncomfortable as possible, a severe 
proclamation against them appeared on the 4th of 
December. 4 

1 In the session of parliament of this year, the following acts 
were passed relating to Galloway : — An act in favour of the town 
of Wigtown, concerning a bridge — Ratification in favour of the 
burgh of Wigtown — An act for changing the days and diets of 
the fairs of the town of Whithorn — and an act fur building a 

meal market in the town of Dumfries Acts of Charles II. 

Table of uupriuted Acts, p. 36. 

2 Kirktoii. — Aikman, — Laing. - Wodrow.— Bennet. — Crook- 
shank — Scott Naphtali. 

3 A part of the High Church of Edinburgh: so denominated 
from Sir John Gordon, of Haddo, who was there confined, pre- 
vious to his execution, in the ieign of king Charles I. 

■i Proclamation discharging the receipt of the rebels, 
December 4th, 1666. 

Charles, by the grace of God, King of Scotland, England, 
France, and Ireland, defender oi the faith, to all and sundry our 
lieges and loving subjects whom these presents do or may con. 
cern, greeting : forasmuch as, upon the first notice given to our 
privy council, of the rising and gathering of these disloyal and 
seditious persons in the west, who have of late appeared in arms, 
in a desperate and avowed rebellion against us, our government, 
and laws, we declare them to be traitors, and discharge all our 


Orders were given to Nisbit of Dirleton, 
then the King's advocate, by the Privy Coun- 
cil, of which Sharpe was president; to bring 
to trial, as the first bloody sacrifice, eleven 

subjects to assist, reset, supply, or correspond with any of them, 
under the pain of treason : and the said rebels and traitors being 
now, by the blessing of God upon our forces, subdued, dissipated, 
and scatteied, and such of them as were not either killed or 
taken in the field, being lurking in the country ; and we being 
unwilling that anv of our good subjects should be ensnared or 
brought in trouble by them, have therefore, by the advice of 
our pi ivy council, thought fit again hereby to discharge and in. 
ti i bit all our subjects, tl at none of them offer or presume to bar. 
hour, reset, supply, or correspond, hide or conceal, the peisons 

of Colonel James Wallace, major Learmont, Maxwell of 

Monrief younger, Maclellan of Barscob, Gordon of 

Parbreck, Maclellan of Balmagachan. Cannon of 

Burnshalloch younger, Cannon of Bailey younger, 

Cannon of Mordirgget younger, Welsh of Skar, 

Welsh of Ccruley, Gordon of Gamy in Kells, Robert 

Chalmers brother to Gadgrith, Henry Grier of Balmaclcllan, 
David Scott in Irongray* John Gordon in Midton of Dairy, Wil. 
liam Gordon there, John Macuaught there, Robert and Gill ert 

Cannons there, Gordon of Bar elder in Kirkpatrick. 

Durham, Patrick Macnaught in Cumnock, John Macuaught his 

son, Gordon of Holm younger, Demp-ter of 

Carridow, Grier of Dalgoner, of Sundiwall, Ran>< / 

in the Mains of Arniston, John Hutchison in Newbottle, 

Row chaplain to Scotstarbet, Patrick Liston in Calder, William 
Liston his son, James Wilkie in the Mains of Cliftonhall, the 
laird of Caldwell, the goodman cf Caldwell, the laird of Kers. 

land, the laird of Bedlandcunningham, Porter field of 

Quarrelton, Alexander Porter field his brother, Lockhart 

of Wicketshaw, Trail, son to Mr Robert Trail, David 

Poe in Pokelly, Mr Gabriel Semple, John Serople, Mr John 
Guthrie, Mr John Welsh. Mr Samuel Anio f , Mr James Smith, 
Mr Alexander Pedeu,* Mr Orr, Mr William Veitch, Mr 

* This was the celebrated Alexander Peden, who afterwards 
made a great figure both as a preacher and a prophet. The 
account of his life and predictions was long a book much reiid by 
the common people of Galloway. Peden was bom in the parish 
of Sorn, in Ayrshire. After finishing his academical course of 
study he was settled minister of New Glenluce, in Galloway,. 


of the prisoners ; in which number were included 
Major John M'Culloch of Barholm, a much res- 
pected and reverend old gentleman, Captain An- 
drew Arnot, and two youthful brothers, the Gor-» 

Patton. Mr Cruikshanks, Mr Gabriel Maxwell, 

Mr John Cars tails, Mr James Mitchell, Mr William Forsyth, 
or any others who concurred or joined in the late rebellion, or 
who, upon the account thereof, have appeared in arms in any part 
of that our kingdom ; but that they pursue them as the worst of 
traitors, and present and deliver such of them as they shall have 
within their power, to the lords of our privy council, the sheriff 
of the county, or the magistrates of the next adjacent buigh 
royal, to be by them made forthcoming- to law: ceitifying all 
such as shall be found to fail in their duty herein, they shall be 
esteemed and punished as favourers of the said rebellion, and as 
persons accessary to, and guilty of the same. And to the end, 
all our good subjects may have timeous notice hereof, we do or. 
dain these presents to be forthwith printed, and published at the 
market crosses of Edinburgh, Ayr, Lanark, Glasgow, Irvine, 
Wigtown, Kirkcudbright, Dumfries, and remnent market crosses 
of our said kingdom : and we do recommend to the right rever- 
end our aichbiskops and bishops, to give orders that this our 
proclamation be with all possible diligence read on the Lord's 
day, in all the churches within their several dioceses. Given at 
Edinburgh, the fourth day of December, and of our reign the 
eighteenth year, one thousand six hundred and sixty. six. — Wod. 


where he continued about the space of three years, until he was 
ejected by the intolerance of the times. When about to de- 
part from the parish, he preached a sfl-raon, which produced a 
great effect upon his sorrowing congregation. Often was he 
interrupted by their loud lamentations, and often had he to en- 
treat them to be composed. He continued preaching until night ; 
and, when he took leave of his flock, he assured them they would 
never see his face in that place again. When he left the pulpit, 
he closed the door, and, knocking three times upon it with the 
bible, he repeated, three times over, these words — " 1 arrest 
thee, in my masters name, that none ever enter thee, but such 
as come i:i by the door, as I have done." The puJpit was not 
again u^eil till after the Revolution, when a minister of the 
Presbyterian persuasion entered it. About the beginning of the 
year 1666, a proclamation had been issued against him; and, 
upon his not appearing, he was declared a lebel. He joined the 
party that were defeated at Peutland, but left them at the Clyde. 


dons of Knockbrex. The tiial took place in the 
toll)OOth of Edinburgh, before Sir John Hume, of 
Kenton, Justice-Clerk, a zealot for Episcopacy, and 
William Murray, Justice-Depute ; and the plead- 
ings were Ion;-.;' and ingenious. The prisoners being 
found guiltj\ by a jury, were sentenced to be execut- 
ed at Edinburgh, on the 7th of December, and their 
heads and right arms cut off, and disposed of as the 
Council should think fit. The heads of Major 
M'Culloch, John Gordon of Knockbrex, and Rob- 
ert Gordon, his brother, were commanded to be 
sent to Kirkcudbright, for exposure on the princi- 
pal gate of that burgh ; and their bodies to be buri- 
ed by the magistrates of Edinburgh in such places 
as were usually assigned to traitors. The hands of all 
the prisoners weie ordered to be sent to Lanark, — 
where the Covenant had been taken with uplifted 
hands, — and affixed on the public ports of that 
town. 1 

Before proceeding to the scaffold, the condemned 
subscribed a joint testimony, which may be found in 
Naphtali. 2 At the place of execution, they be- 
haved with great firmness and resignation. When 
the two Gordons were thrown off the ladder, it is 

1 WooJiow — Crookshank — Kiikton — Samson's Riddle. 

" EnJem die. — The lords of his majesty's privy council or- 
dain the right arms (if major M'Culloch, John Gordon of Knock. 
breck, and his brother Robert ; J;>hn Parker, walker, Gavin 
Hamilton, James Hamilton, Christopher Strang, John Ross in 
Mauchlin, John Shiels, tenant to Sir Geoige Maxwell, and cap. 
tain Arnot. who are to be executed the morrow as traitors, to be 
cut off by the magistrates of Edinburgh to be sent to the magn. 
trates of Lanark, which they ordain them to affix upon the pub- 
lic ports of that town, being the place where they took the co. 
Tenant." — Acts of Council. Wodrow, 

2 A full account of their trial may be seen in Samson's 


said, they mutually clasped each other in their arms, 
and thus expired. 1 The two young gentlemen 
were much beloved — being eminently distinguish- 
ed for their piety, worth, and talents. The family 
was afterwards dreadfully harassed. 2 

Mr M'Cullocli had suffered much before the in- 
surrection. Several soldiers had been quartered 
on him for thirty days; and besides their provisions, 
he had to pay each of them eight pence a day : he 
had likewise been heavily fined, both by Middle- 
ton's Parliament and Sir James Turner. After 
his execution, his son was seized and kept in pri- 
son during a whole year. 

Scarcely had the grave closed on these unfortu- 
nate victims, when the Lord Advocate was or- 
dered to bring other five of the prisoners to trial.3 
This number comprehended Mr Neilson of Cor- 
sack,4 and John Gordon, belonging to Irongray. 

On the 4th of December, Mr Neilson, was taken 
before the Privy Council, when he frankly confess- 
ed he had been engaged in the late treasonable 
rising. The Council, impressed with the idea that 
there had been a settled plan of rebellion, were 
anxious to extort from some of the leaders a con- 
fession of its reality, partly to justify the proceed- 
ings they had instituted, and partly to evince and 
justify the necessity of the course of severity they 
intended to pursue. When questioned, Mr Neilson 
denied all know ledge of the existence of any organ- 
ized conspiracy ; and an instrument of torture, call- 

1 Wodrow. 

2 Wodrow — Crookshuuk, 

3 Wodrow. 

4 Mi Nesbit, in liis Heraldry, states, that, according to " com. 
moa tradition, three brothers of the sirname of Oncal, cama 


ed the boot,} which had not been used in Scotland 
for many years, was immediately produced for the 
purpose of extorting a confession. 

This diabolical engine, consisted of four pieces 
of strong narrow boards, nailed together and hoop- 
od with iron. Into this case the accused put his 
leg, and wedges being introduced by the strokes of 
a mallet, the limb was compressed or crushed- in 
such a manner, as to cause the most excruciating 
pain. After the boot was removed, the leg often 
exhibited the most shocking appearance of mangled 
deformity. 3 

The cries of Mr Neilson during the period of 
his insupportable sufferings, were truly distressing ; 
but they produced no effect upon the monsters by 
whom he was surrounded. How could the pro- 
fessors of a religion, whose essence is benignity — 
the ministers of a compassionate and merciful Sa- 
viour, sanction such fiendish inflictions. 

Only six days after this inhuman usage, Mr 
Neilson was brought to trial, and sentenced to be 
hanged at the cross of Edinburgh, on the 14th of 

from Ireland to Scotland, in the reign of Robert the Bruce, 
where they got lands for their valour, and their issue changed 
their name a little, from Oneal to Neilson ; for Oneal and M'. 
Neil are the same with Neilson. For the antiquity of this fam- 
ily, I have seen a precept granted by James Lindsey of Forgirth, 
to infeft John Neilson and his wife Isabel Gordon, in the hinds 
of Corsack in Galloway, in the year 1439. Also a charter of 
confirmation of the lauds of Corsack, of the date 20th of July, 
1444. by Sir John Forrester of Corstorphin, to Fergus NeiLon, 
son and heir to John Neilson of Corsack." 

1 '• Heav'n keeps a record of the Sixty-six • 
Boots, thumbkins, gibbets, were in fashion then, 
Loid, never let us see such days again." 

Cloud of Witnesses, p. 443. 

2 The marrow, by the driving in of the wedges, often spouted 
out of the bones. — Hind Let Loose. Part second. 

3 Wodrow. — Aikman. — Crookskauk, 


December. Sir James Turner endeavoured to 
save him, because, from true feelings of huma- 
nity, he had been instrumental in preserving the 
life of Sir James, his inveterate enemy. Mr Dal- 
gleish, curate of his parish, however, aware of 
Turner's merciful intentions, applied to the bishops; 
and, representing Mr Neilson as the very ringleader 
of the disaffected, urged the necessity of his exe- 
cution, for the sake of example and the establish- 
ment of peace. This representation had more 
weight than Sir James's interference, and Mr 
Neilson suffered on the appointed day. His testi- 
mony also is given in Naphtaii and Samson's 

As if the torture and execution of Mr Neilson 
had not sufficiently satiated the vengeance of his 
cruel persecutors : immediately after his death, 
when his inconsolable lady was in Edinburgh^ 
Maxwell, of Milton, with thirty men, came to his 
house under the cover of legal authority, and turn- 
ing out his family into the open fields, carried off 
whatever they thought fit. 1 

Before Mr Neilson had taken up arms against a 
tyrannical and oppressive government, every species 
of injury that malignity could devise, every ex- 
tremity ot cruelty that vindictive hatred could con- 
trive, every degrading insult that rancour could in- 
vent, had been heaped upon him. He had been 
exorbitantly fined and imprisoned ; he had been 
forced to leave his home, and sojourn in moors and 
mountains ; soldiers had been quartered upon him 
till the stock of his provisions completely failed ; his 
wife and children had been turned out to the mer- 

1 Wodrow. — Crooks!. ank. 


cy of the elements ; his tenants had been obliged 
to furnish the military with provisions, until their 
cattle were all driven to Glasgow and sold, and 
themselves ruined. All these injuries were inflicted 
upon him because he would not conform to Epis- 
copacy, and regularly listen to the preaching of a 
curate, despicable alike for the laxity of his morals, 
and the meanness of his abilities. 

Other executions of the oppressed Covenanters 
took place at Ayr, 1 Irvine, and Dumfries, and oc- 

1 The prisoners tried at Ayr were, " John Grier, in Fairmark. 
land : John Graharae, servant to John Gordone, in Midtoun of 
Old Clachane; James Smith, in Old Clachane ; Alexander M'- 
Millane,* in Montdrochate ; George Macartney, in Blackct ;"}■ 
John Shorte, in the parish of Dairy : Cornelius Anderson, tay. 
lor, in Ayr. James Blackwood, servant to John Brown, in Fin. 

* " 1 have given before" says Nesbit, " the Arms of M'Mil. 
Ian, out of the old Book of Blazons; but since, I have met with 
the old writs of Andrew M'Millan of Arndarach, in the Barony 
of Earlstoun, amongst which I find his Seal of Arms appended 
to a Right of Reversion in the year 1569. I find by their writs, 
they have been in Galloway in the Reign of King Robert III." 

f Macartney ofLochUrr. The Macartneys are said to be descend, 
ed from Donough Macarthy, younger son of the ancient and war. 
1 ke Irish family of Macarthy More. In the beginning of the 
14th century, their son Donough for Daniel^, having served 
Edward de Bruce in Ireland, went, after the battle of Dundalk, 
to king Robert de Bruce, in Scotland, whom he also served in 
his wars, and from whom he obtained a grant of lands in Argyle. 
shire. His descendants, being dispossessed of their lands, remov- 
ed into Galloway, and, with their bow and sword, acquired the 
lands of Locli Urr, Macartney, and others. In their castle of 
Loch Urr, Sir Christopher Scaton, brother. in law to Bruce, was 
taken by the English, in 1306, (being betrayed by one M'Nab,) 
and carried to Dumfries, where he was executed. This family 
soon spread into several branches, in the barony of Crossmichael 
— the greater part of which they held in feu from the college 
of Lincluden, till the Reformation, when the Viscount Kenmure 
obtained, from the Crown, a grant of the superiority and property 
of the said college. The family divided into three principal 
branches, viz. Meickle Leaths (Buittle), Auchenleck (Rerwick). 


currences happened, at this time, which vividly 
portrayed the condemnatory feelings, and excit- 
ed indignation in the minds, of even the most 
callous, despised, and obdurate of society. The 
executioner of Ayr, from an unwillingness to im- 
brue his hands in what he considered innocent blood, 
fled from the town; and after the utmost exertion on 
the part of the authorities, no substitute could be 
found to perform the hateful work. William 

nick parish ; William Welsh, in the parish of Kirkpatrick ; John 
M'Coul, son to John M'Coul, in Carsfairne; James Murehead, 
in the parish of Irongray." Robert Glendynning.J bailie of 
Kirkcudbright, and John Maxwell, of Milton, were of the jury, 
— Samson's Riddle. 

and Blacket (Urr). From that of Blacket was descended Gen. 
eral Macartney, (1729.) and also the celebrated Earl Macait. 
ney ; and from Auchenleck is descended Alexander Macartney, 
Esq., of Bailocco, '^Rerwick.) 

% Robert Glendynning was probably descended from the Glen, 
dynnings of Paiton. Of this family Nesbit thus speaks. "Sir 
Simon Glendoning of That ilk, a famous and brave Country- 
man, got from Archibald, Earl of Douglass and Galloway the 
lands of Withim.Glencorss, and several others, as appears by the 
Charters of the Family, with the Bailliary of the Regality of 
Eskdale : He had for his Wife Mary LTouglass, Daughter to the 
said Earl. His Son and Successor was Sir Simeon Glendoning, 
Father of Bartholomew Glendoning, Father of John, as by an 
account which I had from the present representor of the family ; 
and that the Family resided at Partoun in the Stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright; from which afterwards they took the Designation 
from the lands of Partoun. And their Descent runs thus: — 

Which John, was Father of Ninian, who married Janet Dun. 
bar; their Son John married a Daughter of Gordon of Lochin„ 
Tar, who had Issue Alexander, married to a Daughter of Gordon 
of Troquhan ; and their Son was Robert, who had for Wife a 
Daughter of Maxwel Lord Hei ries ; and their Son John, was 
succeeded by his Son Robert of Partoun, who married Agnea 
Herries of the family of Mabie, and with her he had only a 
Daughter Agnes Glendoning Heiress of Partoun, who was mar. 
tied to James Murray of Conheath, who takes upon him the 
Name and Arms of Glendoning, and has issue a Son RoberS 
Glendoning" ^Nesmt's Heraldry, 


Sutherland, hangman at Irvine, was sent for, and 
forcibly conveyed to Ayr; but he peremptorily re- 
fused to become the instrument of legal murder. 
He was put in the stocks, and threatened with the 
boot; but he still persisted in his refusal. Being 
next tied to a stake, soldiers were placed before 
him, to load their muskets, apparently for the pur- 
pose of shooting him ; but, even when the guns 
were pointed at his person, he remained immov- 
able. One of the condemned, Cornelius Ander- 
son, was next offered his life, if he would execute 
the sentence upon the other culprits ; and, with 
much difficulty, he consented. But, when the day 
of execution arrived, he exhibited symptoms of re- 
tracting his consent. The Provost, however, kept 
him partially intoxicated with brandy, and the sen- 
tence was carried into effect. Having, also, been 
compelled to hang the two men who suffered at 
Irvine, his conscience so tormented him, that, in a 
few days, he died in misery and distraction.' 

Soon after the battle of Rullion-Green, Sir 
William Bannantyne was sent into Galloway, with 
a considerable party of soldiers; and his atrocities, 
particularly in the parishes near the place where 
the insurrection had its origin, were truly appalling. 
Rapes, murders, and robberies continued to be 
committed daily, with impunity ; for complaints 
only aggravated the miseries of the inhabitants. 
The most unfounded suspicion was accounted sat- 
isfactory evidence — no exculpatory proof being 
admitted. Examinations were conducted in pri- 
vate, and torture inflicted. One David M'GilL2 in 

1 Woodrow — Croekshank. 
2 The JU'Gills weie an ancient family in Galloway. 

OF GAT. LOW AY. 1 J 7.7 

the 'parish of Balmaclellan, escaped from the myr- 
midons of persecution, by disguising himself in 
woman's apparel ; but dreadful was their revenge 
on his poor wife, whom they accused of being ac- 
cessory to his escape. Having bound her, they 
put burning matches between her fingers, and thus 
kept her in a state of inexpressible torment for 
some hours. The woman became almost frantic; 
and, after losing one of her hands, died in the 
course of a few days. The house of Mr Gordon 
of Earlston, and those of some other gentlemen 
were turned into garrisons; and whoever were ac- 
cused of nonconformity, or of being absent from 
church, were visited by the worthy champions of 
Episcopacy, in sufficient numbers to effect their 
utter ruin by spoliation. Terrified at those ap- 
palling outrages, some of the people began to yield 
a hollow and reluctant obedience ; and the clergy, 
observing this, rather encouraged than restrained 
the soldiers in their enormities. 

This winter of severe persecution compelled 
many of the most opulent of the Whigs 2 to with- 
draw from the storm, and either take shelter in 
seclusion and concealment, or retire to foreign 

1 Wodrow. 

2 It may not be uninteresting to the curious reader to see 
Crookshank's derivation of the word "Whig:" — "The poor 
honest people, by way of ridicule, were called Whigs, from wigg, 
the thin part of milk, which they were forced to drink in their 
wanderings. Bishop Burnet gives another origin of this name ; 
he says, that, in the south-west counties of Scotland, there 
is scarcely corn enough to serve out the year, and therefore 
people repair to Leith to buy the stores that come from the 
north. And from a word whisrgam, used in driving tln?ir horses, 
all that drove were called Whiggamoies, and shorter, 'The 
Whigs,' which . ' 'ecamc the name of all the patrons df 

vol. 11. O 


lands. It was a maxim in Scottish law, that 
no person could be tried in absence ; yet, in the 
time of domestic dissention, so feeble are positive 
enactments in restraining a corrupt or severe bench, 
that the Court of Justiciary tried, and condemned 
to be executed as rebels, when apprehended, 
twenty-two of the absentees, accused of being im- 
plicated in the Dairy insurrection : tbe court 
ordered their property to be confiscated. 1 The 
forfeited estates were shared among the officers of 
the army and the officers of state. These proceed- 
ings of the judges were sanctioned by Parliament, 
and their powers enlarged. 2 

The estates of other gentlemen who had been 
concerned in the late rising, were also forfeited, and 
their families much oppressed. The sufferings of 
the family of Roberton, in Borgue, deserve to be 

John Gordon of Lagmore, with his brother-in- 
law, William Gordon of Roberton, had joined 
the insurgents who were defeated at Pentland, 
and the latter was killed in the combat. His 
loss was severely felt by his aged father — who had 
no more sons — and by the whole district in which 
he lived. John Gordon being severely wound- 
ed, lost much blood ; and, having lain some nights 

1 Tn tins number there were from Gallowav, Maclellan of 
Earsabe, Mr John Welsh, Jobs Maxwell of Monreith yonnger, 
Maclellan of I3arn agachan, Mr Gabriel Simple, Mr Alex- 
ander Peden, and Mr William Veiteh. \Ac\s oi Charles II, 
cap. xii.) In a list of ratifications and acts passed this session, 
is a protestation by the Earl oi Nithsdale, that the foifieiture of 
Maclellan of Barmagachan should not prejudge biro. There is 
also a ratification in favour of Thomas liovd of l'ci.kil. in the 
paiish of MinnigafF. 

2 Wodrow 


in the fields after the battle, when he reached 
home, he was so worn out with fatigue and debility, 
that, in a few days, he died ; thus escaping the 
persecuting fury of his enemies, who had threaten- 
ed to bring him to Edinburgh on a litter. Great 
were the hardships of Mary Gordon of Roberton, 
after the death of her husband and brother; chiefly 
occasioned by the instigations and representations 
of Mr Patrick Swinton, the curate of the parish. 1 

After the battle of Pentland, Robert Lennox, of 
Plunton, in the parish of Borgue, — a descendant 
of the ducal family of that name, and now repre- 
sented by Alexander Murray, Esq., of Brough- 
ton^ — sustained very heavy losses. His estate, 
worth two thousand marks yearly, with a good 
house upon it, was torn from him ; whilst he him- 

1 Wodrow. 

2 Murray ." Murray of Broughton, an old Family in the 

Shire of Wigtown, is said to have settled there some time after 
the factions and divisions fell out among the families of that 
name in the Shiro of Murray ; whereby many of them left that 
country, and scattered themselves through several, shires of 
Scotland, of which this family is the only one of the name that 
settled there : as several other ancient families have settled in 
the south of which immediately. 

" Alexander Murray of Broughton, a Member of Parliament 
for the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, is the lineal representative 
of the said family, whose gieat grand-father, George Murray of 
Broughton, was gentleman of the bed-chamber to King James 
VI, and for his good services had several lands, of considerable 
value, in Ireland, with divers superiorities in Scotland, given him 
by his Majesty ; among which are all the St. John's lands, in 
the shire of Wigtoun, us appeal's by a charter, under the great 
seal, to the said George Murray, anno 1602, and the retour of 
the said Alexander thereon. The arms of the family have for- 
merly been the Murray's arms only ; but now they are quartered 
with these of Lennox of Calley, as marrying the heiress thereof; 
which Lennox of Calley had formerly married the heiiess of Sir 
John Stewart of Girthton, whose arms are composed of the 
Stewards and Lennoxes." Nisbet's Heraldry. 


sell* \\as compelled to flee to England, where lie 
remained three years, a wanderer and outcast 
from his native land. At length, he went over; 
with his wife and family, to Ireland, and com- 
menced trafficking. Fortune proved kind to 
lain, and he amassed some property. Having 
been active in procuring the settlement of a 
Presbyterian minister in the place where he resid- 
ed, he incurred the displeasure of the Bishop and 
his satellites. They excommunicated him ; and 
contrived to deprive him, in various ways, of up- 
wards of four hundred and thirty pounds Sterling. 
He afterwards went over to Scotland, with some 
faint hopes of recovering his lands; but he was 
thrown into prison, and, by cruel treatment, brought 
to the point of death. Until the revolution, he 
was forced to live almost on charity. Thomas 
Lennox was also imprisoned, and suffered peculiar 
hardships. 1 

At last, in 1667, the eyes of the nation began to 
be opened to the surrounding horrors and devasta- 
tion, which seemed tending to some fearful crisis. 
The political state of England — the Dutch war — 
and the severe measures in Scotland to enforce 
conformity — had produced so much irritation, that 
the King — thoughtless and unprincipled as he was 
— saw the necessity of checking men who had so 
inordinately abused the authority with which they 
were entrusted, and of soothing the exasperated 
feelings of a people, from whose convulsive commo- 
tions his family had suffered so much trouble. From 
these considerations, and the various representa- 

i Ciookshank, &c, 


tions of the enemies of violent measures, Charles 
resolved to place the administration of Scottish 
affairs into other hands. The Primate, Sharpe, was 
ordered to withdraw from the government; and 
Lauderdale, Tweeddale, Sir Robert Murray, and 
the Earl of Kincardine, were placed at the head of 
affairs, who, for their direction and support in matters 
relating to the Church, took into their confidence 
the gentle-minded Leighton, Bishop of Dunkeld.l 
The Earl of Rothes was removed from the office 
of Commissioner, but continued in that of Chan- 
cellor ; and it was determined to try — for a time, 
at least — the effect of lenient measures, and to 
interrupt the unseemly severities sanctioned by 
the Privy Council. The bishops, afraid of the loss 
of their influence and the supremacy of their 
church, strenuously advocated coercive measures ; 
but other counsels prevailed; and the army was 
ordered to be disbanded. This decisive step very 
much displeased the Archbishop of Glasgovv, who 
said, " Now that the army is disbanded, the Gospel 
will go out of the diocese." 

About this time, an event occurred, which, in 
the eyes of the multitude, strongly displayed the 
judgments of God against the oppressors of his 
people. David M'Bryar, an heritor in the parish 
of Irongray, and at one time a Member of Parlia- 
ment, having become a violent persecutor, accused 
Mr John Welsh, his parish minister, of preaching 
treason. From that period, Providence seemed to 
frown upon him ; and, in the course of some years, 
he was involved in many difficulties. In daily 
dread of being incarcerated for debt, he lurked, in 

1 Heron's History of Scotland, vol. v, p. 612. 


retirement among his tenants. When in this 
state, he was met by one Gordon, also a violent 
Episcopalian and a persecutor, who, observing him 
melancholy and dejected, concluded that he was a 
Whig, and required him to go, as a suspected per- 
son, to Dumfries. M'Bryar, afiaid of imprison- 
ment, refused, without assigning any reason. This 
confirmed the suspicions of Gordon, who drew his 
sword, and endeavoured to force him to proceed. 
M'Bryar, either resisting or attempting to escape, 
was run through ihe body, and died on the spot. 
The homicide made no secret of the meritorious 
act he had performed;. but, when the people saw the 
body, they told him he had killed a man as loyal 
as himself. Gordon, being seized, was carried to 
Dumfries, there condemned, and executed the fol- 
lowing days.' 

It now became a subject of consideration in the 
Privy Council, how the peace of the country could 
be preserved, without the agency of the army. 
A bond of peace was proposed, requiring only obe- 
dience to civil magistrates; or, in other words, the 
preservation of the public tranquillity. This sugges- 
tion was adopted and transmitted to the King, who 
approved of the measure, and gave orders, that all 
who had been engaged in the late insurrection 
should, upon granting the prescribed security, re- 
ceive a free pardon — with the exception of some in- 
dividuals peculiarly obnoxious to the Government. 
Many, however, who viewed this bond as implying 
an acknowledgment of the ecclesiastical institutions 
sanctioned by law, refused to be benefited by the 
King's proclamation of indemnity. The excep- 

1 Wodrov. — Kirktoa, 


tions from the indemnity amounted to about sixty- 
individuals. 1 Few in Galloway, signed this bond ; 
and those who refused were ordered to be appre- 
hended: numbers of them were afterwards banish* 

Proceedings were now instituted against Sir 
James Turner and Sir William Bannantyne, on 
account of their misconduct and illegal acts, in the 
south of Scotland. 

The Council granted a commission to the 
Earl of Nithsdale, Lord Kenmure, the Laird of 
Cruigdarroch,3 and some others, to inquire into the 

1 The names are inserted in a note to 'Wodrow's History, 
— vol. ii, p. 36. 

2 An Act of Council appointed "the Master of Hemes, the 

Shei iff of Galloway, the Laird of Baldoon,* Maxwell of 

Munches, Maxwell of Woodhead," for the sheriffdom of 

Wigtown and Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, to receive the bond 
for keeping the peace. 

3 Nisbet mentions, that, from charters which he has seen, the 
Fergussous ot Craigdairoch must be of very old standing in the 
parish of Glencairn and sheriffdom of Dumfries. The late Right 
Honourable Robert Cutlar Fergusson was also a proprietor in 
Galloway, and represented the Stewartry in parliament. 

* In the reign of David II., Patrick, Earl of March, obtained 
the barony of Mochrum, and the lands of Gleukens in Galloway. 
From him descended the Dunbars, of Baldoon. "They continu- 
ed in possession of this valuable estate, till the end of the 17th 
century ; when Mary the granddaughter, and heiress, of Sir 
David Dunbar of Baldoon, carried it, by marriage, to Lord 
Basil Hamilton, the sixth son of William, and Anue, the Duke, 
and Duchess, of Hamilton. Dunbar Hamilton of Baldoon, the 
grandson of Lord B;isil Hamilton and his wife Maiy Dunbar, 
succeeded to the earldom of Selkirk, in 174 1." Caledonia. 

Camden states, that James, first Duke of Hamilton, dying with, 
out male issue, his daughter Anna succeeded to the title. She 
married " that stately person," the Earl of Selkirk, afterwards 
Duke of Hamilton. They had seven sons. The first was Earl of 
Arran, the second died in France, and the third became Eailof 
Selkiik. The sixth Lord Basil, married .Mrs Mary Dunbar, 
Heiress to Sir David Dunlar of Baldoon, in Wigtownshire. 


conduct of Sir James Turner ; and, after obtaining 
every information, they gave in their report, on the 
20th of February, 1668, that many illegal exactions 
had been made, and disorders committed, in the 
Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. This report being 
submitted to the King, Sir James was ordered to 
be dismissed from his Majesty's service.! 

Sir William Bannantyne, who was accused of 
more grievous outrages than Sir James Turner, 
was fined in £300 Sterling, and banished from 
Scotland : he afterwards proceeded to the Low 
Countries, and was killed at the siege of Grave.2 

But, though the influence of the Church party 
had been considerably diminished, yet the King 
expressed his unalterable determination to support 
Episcopacy, and to silence opposition. His Majes- 
ty, accordingly, strenuously urged the Council to 
clear the country of such seditious ministers as 
kept conventicles — declaring, that he viewed them 
as the greatest disturbers of the public peace. In 
consequence of this injunction, many of the Pres- 
byterian clergy were severely harassed ; but the 
people seemed willing to submit to any sacrifice ra- 
ther than forsake their respected pastors.3 

These proceedings led to the consideration of 
a remedy for the growing evil ; and the Earl of 
Tweeddale suggested the propriety of granting an 
Indulgence to the more moderate and respectable 
of the ejected ministers, or to those who had given 
least offence to the Government by their disobe- 
dience. This plan of pacification was mentioned 

1 Crookshank, — KirktoD, &c. 

2 Kirkton. 

3 Cook, &c. 


to some of the individuals particularly interested, 
and it received their approbation ; but at this time 
an accident occurred, which afforded a handle for 
affixing a stigma on the whole Presbyterian party. 

On the afternoon of the 11th of July, 1668, 
Archbishop Slutrpe, having entered his carriage, 
was fired at by an assassin, of the name of Mitchell, 
a Presbyterian preacher. The ball shattered the 
arm of the Bishop of Orkney, who was entering 
after him. The man instantly fled; but his fea- 
tures had made such an impression upon the mind 
of Sharpe, that, some years afterwards, he was re- 
cognised by the Archbishop, and executed. The 
adherents of Episcopacy took advantage of this un- 
happy incident to descant on the folly and danger of 
granting concessions to men, who, to satiate their 
revenge, or advance the interest of their party, would 
set at defiance every law, human and Divine. 

Keen inquiry was instantly instituted, and the 
most rigorous measures adopted for apprehending 
the culprit. The Privy Council offered a reward 
of two thousand marks to any person who could 
discover the assassin, and three thousand to the 
individual that should apprehend him. The ma- 
gistrates of Edinburgh commanded the city gates 
to be shut, and gave strict orders that no suspici- 
ous persons should be allowed to pass : the consta- 
bles, in the meantime, were sent to search every 
house where there was the least chance of his being- 
concealed, or any of his associates found.' 

Though the metropolis was full of the proscribed 
Covenanters, — for many resorted to it as a place of 
comparative safety, — yet none of them were appre- 

1 Kirkton. — Laing. — Aikman, &c. 


hended : many made almost miraculous escapes. 
Mr. Maxwell, of Monreith — one of the most 
influential landed gentlemen of the party — had 
been excepted from the indemnity. He was in 
Edinburgh when the search commenced ; but being 
little acquainted with private families in the city, he 
came, in great trepidation, to his landlord, Nichol 
Moffat, stabler, in the Horse VVynd, and begged he 
would hide him. Nichol answered, that his house 
was one of the most unsafe places of concealment 
in Edinburgh ; but — pointing to an empty hogs- 
head, used for holding oatmeal— he told Mr Max- 
well, if he chose to risk his safety in that place, he 
was welcome to enter. Monreith, in this season 
of extreme danger, gladly accepted any shelter 
that even offered a single chance of escape : and, 
having entered the barrel, he caused the landlord 
to cover it with the lid. Not long after, a consta- 
ble, with some soldiers, arrived, and inquired if 
there were any Whigs in the house. Nichol told 
him, in a careless manner, he might look. This 
seeming indifference, on the part of the landlord, 
deceived the party; and, being thirsty, they sat 
down to drink some ale which they had ordered. 
While thus engaged, they began to talk of the 
fruitlessness of their search, notwithstanding the 
great number of Whigs at that time in the city; — 
" and, perhaps,'' says one of them, " there are 
some near us." " Yes," added another, knocking 
violently on the barrel, " probably there is one 
even in this hogshead." The reply was laughed 
at as an excellent joke, and the party withdrew, 
without any further examination ; when Mr Max- 
well was released from his perilous confinement — 
after tasting almost the bitterness of death. 1 
1 Wodrow — Kirkton — Burnet. 


Towards the end of July, Mr John Wilkie, for- 
merly minister of Twynholm, was brought before 
a committee of the Council; and, on the 29th of the 
same month before the Council itself. To give the 
reader a view of the methods taken by the rulers of 
the country, in order to detect supposed criminality, 
we give, in a note, a part of his examination.! Mr 
Wilkie was ordered to be confined in the town of 
Cupar, in Angus. Being unable to travel to that 
place, owing to his age and infirmity, he was re- 
tained in prison. In September, he petitioned the 
Council that he might be allowed to reside at Mof- 
fat, for the sake of his health. They granted his 
request, but ordered him to confine himself to that 
town and ten miles round it. He was subsequently 
confined in Musselburgh. 

1 "I was interrogated" says Mr Wilkie, " by my lord advocate, 
What is your name, sir ? I answered, My lord, my name is Mr 
John Wilkie. Q. Where were you minister? A. In the parish of 
Twynam. in the presbytery of Kirkcudbright. Q. What is your 
wife's name? A. Ann Rae, daughter to Mr Adam Rae, minister 
at Halywood. Q. What countrywoman is she? A. A Nithsdale 
woman, Q. How long since vou came to Edinburgh ? A. 
Two years bygone in April. Q, What brought you here? A. 
To consult the doctors aneut my health, with whom 1 have been 
droggiug and dressing ever since I came here. Q. But how 
could you come to Edinburgh, express contrary to the law, without 
liberty obtained ? to which 1 answered nothing, but waved the 
question, and cast in another discourse. My lord advocate asked 
me, if I knew who shot the bishop ? I answered I knew not, 
and did presently depone upon oath, that I neither shot him, nor 
knew who shot him. He asked me if I knew any of those west 
country rebels, especially major Learmont, Barscob, Mardrogate, 
young Munrieff, Baimagachan, Mr John Welsh, Cornley. I 
answered, I know them all, for they were my old acquaintances. 
Then he asked, if I had seen them since the fight? I anwered, 
I had seen them all ; for being my acquaintances, they came to 
visit me on my supposed death-bed. He asked, if I knew where 
Learmont did now quarter? A I knew not at all, Q. Where 
Baimaghachan is now? A I suppose he be not in Scotland. 
Q. Do you know the proper name of one that goes under the 


The strong feelings of abhorrence and irritation, 
which the attempt upon the life of Sharpe had cre- 
ated, gradually subsided, and the Government again 
took into their consideration the deferred scheme 
of Indulgence. A letter soon after arrived from 
the King, (in the middle of July, 1669,) empower- 
ing the Council to restore as many of the deposed 
ministers as had behaved orderly, to their parishes, 
if vacant, or to appoint them to such vacant parishes 
as should be assigned to them by the patrons. The 
restored ministers, however, were strictly enjoined 
not to admit to their communion persons from other 
parishes, nor to do anything to entice people from 
neighbouring churches. They were also strictly pro- 
hibited from preaching political or seditious ser- 
mons, under the pain of whatever punishment it 
might be found necessary to inflict. To encour- 

name of James Small ? A. I am not much acquaint with the 
man ; but seeing your lordship urgeth me, I think tlie business 
is not tanti as to conceal it : for ought I know his name is Mr 
James Mitchel. Q. Is he a minister ? A. I allege not. Q. 
What age is be of? A. I never inquired. Q. What colour 
of hair hath he ? A. It is hard to know, seeing ye all wear peri, 
wigs. Q, What colour is his periwig ? A. I think it may be 
the colour of that (pointing to Hugh Stevenson's, sub-cleik). 
Q. Do you keep conventicles ? A. I am not able, by reason of 
sere and long continued sickness ; but I use, when I have health, 
to exercise in my own family both Sabbath and week-day. Q. 
What time take you on the Sabbath ? A. Betwixt sermons, 
beoinning at half-past twelve, and continuing so long as I am 
able. Q. Admit you any to your family. exercise ? A. I in- 
vite none, 1 debar none. Q. It «eems you are clear to admit any 
that come ? A. Yes, my lord, you should be welcome, and the 
archbishop of St Andrews should not be debarred. Q, Good, 
sooth, Mr Wilkie, you would go four miles about, in that case, 
to visit a friend. A. No, my lord, I would find him within less 
than half a mile. Your lordship remembers of a story betwixt 
my lord Scone, and an honest old minister, who alleged that in 
everv text he found my lord Scone. Upon this, I fell a little 
faint' and weary with standing, and they caused set in a seat to 


age conformity, it was further stated, that all 
ministers who took collation from the bishops were 
to be put in possession of the whole emoluments of 
their benefices ; while those who declined to take 
this step were to be put in possession, only of the 
manses and glebes, and to depend upon their hearers 
alone for subsistence. In the conclusion of the let- 
ter, the King- instructed the Privy Council, that, 
as all reasonable inducements to hold conventicles 
had now been removed, whoever should preach 
without permission, or attend at illegal meetings, 
were to be prosecuted with the utmost rigour, as 
contemners of his Majesty's authority. 2 

In consequence of this letter, the Lords of the 
Privy Council, on the 27th of July, 1669, nomin- 
ated a number of Presbyterian clergymen to vacant 
churches. Robert Park was appointed to Stran- 
raer, his former parish. ;3 William Maitland, late 

1 About this time. Mr. Wylie obtained his freedom, upon 
granting a bond for his appearance when summoned. Several 
other ministers were set at liberty. 

2 Cook — Crookshank, &c. 

3 An event now took place which strongly marked the partial- 
ity of the Privy Council to the interests of the Episcopalian 
clergy. To prevent the return of Mr Park to Stranraer, the 
Bishop of Galloway admitted one Nasmith to that church, three 
days after Mr Park had been indulged by the Council. The 
inhabitants of the whole parish, with entire unanimity, refused 
to give any countenance to Mr Nasmith, and closely adhered to 
their former minister. The Bishop brought the matter before 
the Council, and they unjustly determined in favour of Mr 

" This worthy person" [Mr Park], says Wodrow, " was a man 
of great solidity, very sufficient learning, and is the author of the 
treatise upon Patronage, so well known in this church. The 
book was published, and, as I am informed, considerably enlarged 
by his son, Mr Robert Park, clerk to the general assembly 
after the revolution." 


: 190 HISTORY 

minister at Whithorn, to Beath : John Cant, to 
Kells, andJohn M'Micban, to Dairy — their former 
parishes J 

This Indulgence was well conceived, and exhib- 
ited much of the true spirit of toleration. It secur- 
ed to the whole Presbyterians the important pri- 
vilege of worshipping God according to the un- 
bending dictates of their conscience ; whilst no- 
thing was required from the restored ministers 
unreasonable in itself, or unseemly in its conse- 
quences. The individuals who accepted of it, ac- 
cordingly, were generally men distinguished for 
their sound sense, solid learning, and rational 

The Indulgence did not, however, prove satisfac- 
tory- The Bishops viewed it with hostility, because 
it might ultimately undermine the foundation of 
their Church. It had, besides, flowed solely from 
the King, without the consent of the prelates ; and, 
according to the precedent now established, his 
Majesty might not only make inroads upon the 
Episcopal Church, but, if he felt so inclined, doom 
it to destruction. Though the Indulgence was re- 
ceived, at first, by the Presbyterians, as a boon, 
yet the loudest clamours were soon raised against 
it. The indulged ministers, with much prudence 
and caution, avoided, in their sermons, every topic 
which coidd generate dissention,and confined them- 
selves to the far more dignified and useful dufy of 
inculcating the Divine truths and moral precepts of 
religion, — thus endeavouring to enlarge the under- 
standings, renovate tlie hearts, and calm the 
feelings, of their hearers, and, consequently, ren- 



der tliem both better' theologians and better men. 
To a great m tjority of Covenanters, this mode 
of preaching - was absolutely disagreeable. Accus- 
tomed, as they had been, to violent political 
discussions, managed with all the venom of ran- 
corous party-spirit, their taste had been vitiated, 
their intellect distorted, and their passions in- 
flamed : ami hence the most important instruc- 
tions, dressed in the decency of sober reason, were 
disrelished or despised. Though the indulged 

r o ct 

ministers had great congregations at first, they 
were afterwards contemned by the more fanatical 
Presbyterians, who sneeringly designated them 
" the King's curates," or malignantly denominated 
them "dumb dogs." Too many of the excluded 
ministers uucandidly added fuel to the flame of po- 
pular discontent; and, — sometimes, by malicious 
representations — at other times, by perverted in- 
fluence, — drew away from the indulged preachers a' 
great part of their hearers. Conventicles came 
to be eagerly sought after, and anxiously attended ; 
whilst the preachers took care to administer to the 
depraved taste of their hearers, by introducing such 
controversial discussions as were palatable to their 
enthusiasm, their prejudices, or their bigotry. In 
pursuing this course, the Presbyterian ministers 
exhibited a melancholy want of candour, discretion, 
and | ion; for they plainly exhibited their 

decided enmity to toleration, and proved to the 
world, that, unless they got everything, they 
would h.ive nothing — that they wished either to 
be the dominant, or the persecuted party. 

But hatred to Episcopacy kept pace with the 
increasing hostility to the Indulgence; for, about 
this period, two serious attacks were made up- 


on curates in Galloway. »The Privy Council 
took the matter into consideration, and, first, cit- 
ed all who had been accessory to the " horrid 
insolence" committed upon the person of Mr John 
How, minister of Balmaclellan, to appear in Edin- 
burgh, " to hear and see themselves fined, ac- 
cording to the Acts of Council." Mr Row's 
complaint stated, that three persons entered his 
house, in female attire, about nine o'clock at 
night ; and, after taking him out of his bed and 
beating him, broke open his trunks, presses, &c, 
and carried away whatever they thought proper. 
Thomas Warner, James Grier of Milmark, (his 
father-in-law,) Gordon of Holm, Gordon of Gor- 
donstown, John Carson, 1 and James Chalmers, 
heritors in Balmaclellan, were charged with the 
commission of this assault. The notice given for 
them to appear being short, they could not obey 
the citation. They were, therefore, found guilty 
in their absence, and decerned to pay Mr Row 

1 The surname and family of Corsan or Carson "have it 
handed down from age to age, that the first of their ancestors, in 
Scotland, was an Italian Gentlemen of the Corsini Family, who 
came into this realm with an Abhot of Newabbey, or Dulce Cor, 
in Galloway, about the Year 1280. 

Among many other instances that might be given of this an- 
cient name and family of Corsanes, appearing from authentick 
Vouchers, this is one, Sir Alexander Corsane is witness to a 
Charter granted by Archibald, called the Grim or austere Earl 
of Douglas, to S.r John Steuatt Laird of Cry ton of the Lands 
of Callie; tho' the charter is without date, yet it must necesari. 
ly have been before the year 1400, when the granter of that 
charter died." Nisbf.t's Heraldry. 

The principal family of Coisan. was designed of Glen ; but 
Marion, daughter and only child of Sir Robert Cotsan, of Glen, 
having married Sir Robert Gordon, he assumed the title. By 
the death of his elder brother Sir Alexander Gordon of Lochin. 
vary who fell in the battle of Floddeo, in 1504, Sir Robert ac- 
quired his property and title. Of Mai ion Corsan, descended 
lineally the barons r>f Lochinvar and Viscounts of Kenniure. 


one thousand two hundred pounds Scots. As soon 
as these individuals could, they repaired to Edin- 
burgh, and appeared before the Council — offering 
to stand their trial : and, though nothing- could be 
proved against them, they were ordained to pay 
the fine. Row had been the instrument of many 
severities ; and he afterwards appeared in his true 
character, by apostatizing to Popery. 

The Council next took up the case of Mr John 
Lyon, minister at Urr. He complained, that three 
persons, in disguise, had entered his house — drag- 
ged his wife out of it — and, after searching for 
himself, had carried away whatever they thought 
proper. The Council ordered reparation to be 
made, and decerned the parish to pay to him six 
hundred pounds. They also issued letters of cita- 
tion against John Smith, alleged to be concerned 
in the assault. 1 

A parl'ament was called to meet in October 
1669, and the Earl of Lauderdale came clown as 
Commissioner. In November, an act was passed, 
explanatory or declaratory of the supreme power 
inherent in the crown, in all ecclesiastical cases 
and over all persons, to justify the late Indulgence, 
and to prevent the bishops from thwarting the 
measures of Government. 2 

This act laid religion prostrate at the foot of the 
throne ; for, in virtue of it, the King could not 
only re-model the church, according to his will, but 
even introduce Popery itself. Both Presbyterians 
and Episcopalians perceived its dangerous tenden- 
cy, and secretly condemned it, as inconsistent with- 

1 Crookshauk — Wodrow 
'2 Cook, &c. 


a free constitution. No lengthened period was 
allowed to elapse, before the King exercised the 
power which it bestowed upon him, by dismissing 
the Archbishop of Glasgow from his see, of which 
Galloway formed no inconsiderable part. He was 
succeeded by the moderate and amiable Leighton. 

This prelate rendered himself entitled to the 
gratitude and veneration of the enlightened part of 
the community, by proposing, in 1670, a scheme 
of accommodation, judicious in itself, and highly 
favourable to the Presbyterians. This scheme was 
well adapted to unite both parties in one establish- 
ment, without giving a great preponderance to 
either, or requiring any sacrifice of principle. 
Thus, at the price of concessions, which, in reality, 
left the bishops no great deal more than their 
titles and their rank, harmony was resolved to be 
purchased by the Government. Sharpe, with many 
of the clergy, reprobated the scheme, as an artful 
mode of constructing Presbytery on the ruins of 
the Hierarchy. A conference took place with the 
Presbyterian ministers, on the 9th of August, 
1670 ; but, uncharitably suspecting a design to en- 
snare them, they rejected the scheme of concilia- 
tion. In coming to this determination, none can 
accuse them of acting from selfish considerations ; 
tor, had they acquiesced in the proposal, almost the 
whole of the ejected clergy would have been ulti- 
mately restored to their churches. 

This refusal, however, produced an unfavour- 
able effect on the Presbyterian cause. Prior to 
this, its advocates had been regarded with feelings 
of pity and respect ; but now, they were viewed by 
many, as obstinate enthusiasts, or ambitious de- 
magogues whom nothing but absolute authority 


would satisfy. Sharpe and the uncompromising 
bishops rejoiced at the rejection of the proffered 
boon ; and took advantage of their conduct, to 
urge the inutility or inefficiency of concessions to 
men so deplorably bigoted or unreasonably ob- 
stinate. 1 

After the virtual failure of the Indulgence, field- 
conventicles had rapidly increased. The most im- 
portant and celebrated one that took place at this 
time, was the conventicle at Beath-hill, in the parish 
ot D umferm line, in Fife — kept by Mr John Black- 
ader, formerly minister of Troqueer,' 2 and Mr John 
Dickson. On Saturday afternoon, the people began 

1 Burnet 

2 Mr Blackader was ejected from Troqueer by the Glasgow 
Act " Accordingly," says Dr. Crichton, in his Memoirs of the 
Rev. John Blackader, "leaving Tiocjueer on Saturday, he rode 
tii Caitloch in Glencairn. to seek a residence beyond the bounds 
of his presbytery. Nest day the soldiers attacked the manse in 
qui st of him, and behaved with great insolence to his wife and 
young family. One of his sons, then a child, narrates, with 
much simplicity, what happened on this occasion : — " ' A party 
of the King's life guard of horse, called Blew.l enders, came from 
Dumfries tu Troqueer to search for and apprehend my father, 
but found him not, for what occasion I know not : whether he 

beyond the set day for transporting himself and numerous 
family of small ehildren ten miles from his parish church; or 
1m cause he was ol the number of those who refused to observe 
the "29th of May, So soon as the above party entered the close, 
and came into the house, with cursing, sweaiing, and damning, 
w#, that wire ih" children, were frightened out of our little wits 
aud ran up > : ans, and I among them ; who, when I heard them 
all roaiing in the room below, like so many breathing devils, I 
h.ei the childish curiosity to gel down upon my belly, and peep 

i .i hole in the tloor above them, lo see what monsters 
of creatures they were; and it seems they weie monsters 
indeed for cruelty ; foi <>ne of them perceiving what I was doing 
immediately drew his sword, and thrust it up, with all his force, 
where 1 was peeping, so that the mark ol the point was scarce an 
inch from the hole, though no thanks to the murdering ruffian, 
who designed to run it up through my eye. Immediately after, 
we were lorced to pack up, bag aud baggatch, and to remove to 


to assemble, and many lay on the hill during the 
night; whilst others — amongst whom was Bar- 
scobe, with nine or ten individuals from Galloway 
— found lodging in the neighbourhood. On Sun- 
day, during public worship, a Lieutenant of mili- 
tia, with two or three attendants, came up on horse- 
kick, and made a considerable disturbance — for the 
purpose, it is thought, of interrupting the service 
and dispersing the people. Two of the congrega- 
tion — Barscobe and a young man — stepping up to 
him, seized his horse's bridle, and, presenting a pis- 
tol, told him, he would be shot if he did not remain 
silent. Mr Blackader, afraid of the fatal conse- 
quences of this altercation, left the tent, and inter- 
fered between the incensed parties. At the entreaty 
of the minister, 1 he was allowed to depart, without 

Glencairn, ten miles fiom Troqueer. "We who were tlie children 
were put into cadgers' creel*,* where one of us cried out coming 
throw the Brigend of Dumfries, ' I'm iianish't, I'm banisli't:' — 
One happened to ask, 'Who has banish't ye my bairn?' he 
answered, ' Byte the sheep has Iianish't me.' ' f 

1 Sir James Turner severely harassed that part of the country 
in which Mr Blackader resided, and used every exertion to appre- 
hend the deposed minister, who was accused ut "dangerous and 
unlawful practices." He therefore resolved to remove his family 
from Glencairn to Edinburgh. " On this occasion" " observes 
Dr Crichton, " he met with one of those ' singular casts of provi- 
dence,' which he had frequently to remark in the course of his life. 
The very day of his departure, Turner had orders from the bi- 

* "This homely conveyance supplied the place of more elegant 

equipage. * Landaus, barouches, and tilburies, there were none 

in those days.' Creels appear to have been used on similar oc. 
casions. ; When the messenger came to his house (Mr Dunbar, 
minister at Ayr.) the second time, all that Mi George said was 
to his wife to provide the creels again ; fur the former time, the 
children being youDg, they behoved to carry them away in creels 
upon horseback." — Living, Man. Characteristics." Ckichton. 

f Sufferings of Mr Blackaddcr, MSS. Adv. Lib, 


injury. For attending- this conventicle, some were 
severely fined — some imprisoned and put in irons 
— and a few, who refused to give evidence, were 

shop of Galloway to apprehend him. His second son, then a 
buy of ten years old, gives the following minute but artless nar- 
rative of what passed : — " ' About this time, (Ihe end of winter 
1665-6,) Turner, and a party of sodgers from Galloway, came 
to search for my father, who had gone to Edinburgh, to seek a. 
bout where he might live in safety. These rascally ruffians be. 
sett our house round, about two o'clock in the morning ; then 
gave the cry, ' Daron'd wliigs, open the door.' Upon which we 
all got up, young and old, excepting my sister, with the nurse 
and the child at her breast, (now Colonel Blackader, deputy. 
governoi of Stilling Castle.) When they came in, ihe fire was 
gone out: they roared out again, ' Light a candle immediately, 
and on with a fire quickly, or els we'l roast nurse and bairn and 
all in the tire, and make a biaw bleeze.' When the candle was 
lighted, they drew out their swoids, and went to the stools and 
chairs, and clove them down, to make the fire withall ; and they 
made me hold the candle to them, trembling all along, and fear, 
ing every moment to be thrown quick into ihe fire. Then they 
went to search the house for my father, running their swords 
down throw the beds and bedclothes; and among the rest they 
came where my sister was, then a child, and as yet fast asleep, 
and with their swoids stabbed down throw the bed where she 
was Ivinsr, crying, ' Come out, rebell dcg.' They made narrow 
search tor him in all corners of the house, ransacking presses, 
chests, and flesh 6tands Then they went and threw down ail 
his books from the press upon the floor, and caused poor me hold 
the candle all this while, till they had examined his books ; and 
all they thought whiggish as they termed it, and brave judges 
I hey were ! they put into a great horse creel, and took away. — 
(among which were a number of written sermons, and some print- 
ed pamphlets ) Then they ordered one of their fellow-ruffians, to 
climb up to the hen baalks, wheie the cocks and hens were; and 
as they come to one, threw about its neck, and then down to the 
floor vvi't ; and so on till they had destroyed them all. Then 
they went to the meat-ambry, and took out what was there : 
then to the meal and beef- barrels, and left little or nothing there. 
All this I was an eye-witness to, trembling and shivering all 
the while, having nothing but my short shirt upon me. So soon as 
1 was relieved of my otiVe, I begins to think, if possible, of 
making my. escape, rather than to be burnt quick, as I thought 
and they threatened. 1 goes to the door, where there was a sen- 
try on evety Bide, standing with their swords drawn : lor watches 
were set round to prevent escape. 1 approached nearer and 


banished from the kingdom. 1 — The frequenters of 
field or hill preaching were culled ' ; hill-folk." 

In the meantime, parliament passed a severe 
and memorable act against conventicles, now much 
on the increase. The ministers who officiated at 
such meetings, according to this statute, subjected 
themselves to the punishment of death; and severe 
penalties were denounced against all who attended 
conventicles.- The youthful Earl of Cassillis alone, 
to his immortal honour, possessed sufficient public 
spirit and personal intrepidity to vote against the 

nearer, by small decrees, making as if I were playing myself. 
At last, I gets out there, making still as if 1 were playing, till I 
fame to the gate of the house ; then, with all the little speed I 
had, (looking behind me, now and then, to see if they were par. 
suing after me,") 1 ran the length of 1 alt' a mile in the dark night, 
raked to the shirt. I got to a neighbouring toune, called the 
Brigend of Mennihyvie ; where thinking to creep into some 
house to save my life, I found all the doors shut, and the people 
sleeping. Upon which I went to the cross of the toune. and got 
up to the uppermost step of it ; and there I sat me down, and 
fell fast asleep till the morning Between five and six, a door 
opens, and an old woman comes out ; and seeing a white thing 
upon the cross, comes near it ; and when she found it was a 
little boy, cryes out, * Jesus, save us 1 — what art thou ?' With 
that 1 awaked, and answered her, ' I am Mr Blackadder's son.' 
— 'O my puir bairn ! what brought thee here?' — I answeis, 
' There's a hantle of fearful men, with read coats, has brunt all 
our house, my breether and sister, and all the family.' — ' () puir 
thing,' (says she,) ' come in and lye down in my warm bed:' — - 
which I did; and it was the sweetest bed that 1 ever met with." 

1 Memoirs of the Rev. John Blackader.- — .W'odrow. 

2 We statute and declare, that whosoever, without ]icenc« 
and authority, shall preach or pray at any meeting in the fields, 
or in any house, where there be more persons than the house 
contains, so as them he without the doors, (which is 

j declared to be a field conventicle,) shall be punished with 
death ; and any of his Majesty's subjects seizing oi seeming such 
persons shall, in every instance, receive a reward of 500 marks. 

The Sheriffs and Stewarts t-> be allowed to themselves all 

fines imposed by them on persons below the rank of an heritoi, 
foi attending house conventicles, — Acts Chailes 11, Parliament 1 
1670, cap. v. 


act. Leighton did not hear of it until it was pass- 
ed, and then he remonstrated with the Earl of 
Tweeddale, on the inhumanity of it; but Tweed- 
dale excused it, on the flimsy pretext, that it was 
not intended to be put into execution. During the 
session of parliament of 1670, other severe laws 
against Presbyterians were enacted.! 

For some time, few events worth mentioning 
took place in Galloway. We may mention, how- 
ever, that, in 1670, Sir Charles Erskine, Lord 
Lyon, obtained, from the Lords of the Treasury, 
a commission which empowered him to take pos- 
sesion of the forfeited estates, in Galloway and 
Dumfries-shire, of those who had been concerned 
in the rebellion of 1666. Though Mr. George 
M'Cartney, of Blacket, had neither been engaged 
in the insurrection nor his property forfeited, yet 
he suffered much. His father had been severely 
fined by Middleton's parliament, and died in Kirk- 
cudbright jail. The son was now carried prisoner 
to Edinburgh, because he would not compound 
for his estate. Being detained in prison for nearly 
six years, his property was seized and his lands 
laid waste. I lis losses, at this time, are said to have 
amounted to £9827 16s. 

Prior to 1672, the importation of corn and cat- 
tle, from Ireland into this country, had been pro- 
hibited; but the measures used for preventing this 
species of commerce being found ineffectual, the 
prohibitory laws were extended by the parliament 
which sat down at Edinburgh on the 22d of June, 
of that year. 2 

1 Crookshank. Cook, &c. 

2 The act states, that " larjn quantities of victual and cattle 
having been imported from li eland, and sold to the prejudie« 


A second indulgence was granted on the 3d of 
September, and an Act of Council framed con- 
taining rules lor the observance of the indulged.! 
As none of the indulged ministers, however, ob- 
served, as a solemnity, the 29th of May — the anni- 
versary of the Restoration — their conduct afforded 
another handle for oppressing the Presbyterians. 

Mr Peden,' 2 late minister of New Luce, was ap- 

of corns and cattle raised and reared in this country, and much 
money having been unwarrantably carried out of the realm, for 
the payment of the same ; it is statuted and ordained, that all 
heritors, wadsetters, and life. renters, within the shires of Air 
and Wigton and within the Stewarttie of Kirkcudbright, having 
land on the sea-coast, and the magistrates of the burghs of Stran. 
rawer, Whithorn, Wigton, Kirkcudbright, and Dumfries, give 
bonds that neither they nor any of their tenants dwelling on 
their lands, nor any of the inhabitants dwelling within the said 
burghs, import or'reset any sort of victual or cattle from Ire. 
land, uuder the pain of twelve hundred pounds Scots. And 
power is given to seize for the use of the King all vessels carry- 
ing such prohibited cattle or victual, found in any port, loch, 
creek, or river, between Lochryan and Dumfries. — Acts Charles 
II, Parliament 1 672, cap. iii. 

1 The Indulged in Galloway, were "Caisphairn, masters John 
Semple and William Erskine. Kells, Mr Cant, Mr George 
Wauch. Dalrv, with Mr John Macmichan, Mr Thomas Thom- 
son. Balmaclellan, masters James Lawrie and Thomas Vernor, 
in place of John Ross, when he shall be transported to Stony- 
kirk." Crookshank. 

2 Mr Peden was detained on the Bass till 1678, when he was 
sentenced, with sixty mere, to be banished to America. At 
London, the captain of the vessel, designed to convey them to 
America, would not receive them on board, and he was set at 
liberty. After much wandering, he came at last to his brother'* 
house, in the palish of Sorn. Here he caused a cave to be dug 
■under a willow which concealed the mouth of it. His enemies 
n-ot notice of his arrival and searched his brother's house, but 
could not find him. At last he left the cave and entered his 
brother's house. This hiding place had been discovered and was 
searched soon after his retreat. In about forty-eight hours after 
he went to his brother's honse he expired, being rathei more than 
eixtv years of age. His corpse was lifted forty days after his 
interment, and buried at the foot of the gallows, at Cumnock. 
( Wodrow.) 

Mr Peden made many narrow escapes. The following is a 


prehended, in June, 1673, by Major Cockburn, in 
the house of Hugh Fergusson, of Knockdow- 
Both Mr Peden and Mr Fergusson were carried 
prisoners to Edinburgh. Mr Peden was accused 
of being engaged in the insurrection which ended 
at Pentland, as well as of keeping conventicles ; and 
he was ordered to be transported to the prison of the 
Bass. The Council appointed fifty pounds Sterling 
to be paid to Major Cockburn, for apprehending 
him — twenty-five of which were to be distributed 
among his soldiers, according to their merit. They 
also fined Mr Fergusson in a thousand marks, for 
sheltering Mr Peden, and for being present at a 

The insolence of Lauderdale, and the violence 
of his administration, at last exasperated even 
his former adherents against him, and inspired 
many of the nobility with the wish to wrest from 
his grasp the government of the kingdom. — - 
But, even though the King admitted that this 
powerful Earl had acted tyrannically, all the 
efforts of his enemies to supersede him proved 
abortive. During the season of his uncertain te- 
nure of royal favour, Lauderdale endeavoured to re- 
gain his lost popularity : and, although proceed- 
ings against the Presbyterians were not entirely 
suspended, yet he evinced so much lenity, that 
many of them felt highly gratified ; whilst the 

short extract from one of his sermons. 

" You that are people of God, be not too forward upon 
suffering, except ye be sure that He call you to it : O, saith Pe. 
ter, Master, I will die for thee. Peter was too forward : Stay 
man, says Christ, till once 1 bid thee ; and I trow Peter got the 
braid of his back, to learn him more wit in the time to come."— 
Sermon, by the Rev, Alexander Peden. K-I&KTON, 

70L. II. Q 


Episcopalian clergy began to apprehend the des- 
truction of their Church. 

Their fears proved unfounded: for, no sooner did 
lie escape from the hazardous predicament in 
which he had been placed, than, incensed at the 
obstinacy and daring of the Covenanters, he con- 
certed measures for chastising them with redoubled 
severity. Fie, accordingly, summoned a number 
of both the clergy and laity, to appear before the 
Council, for holding conventicles, or being pre- 
sent at such unlawful meetings. Fully aware of 
the painful results which would accrue from their 
attendance before the Council, they failed to ap- 
pear, and letters of intercommuning were issued 
against them. The object of these letters was, to 
prevent all communication between the individuals 
to whom they were addressed and even their 
nearest friends. Those who sheltered or in any 
way assisted such persons, were accounted partici- 
pators in their guilt, and liable to the same punish- 
ment. Every man was thus placed at the mercy 
of his secret enemies, and might be exposed, through 
private malice, to the vengeance of an arbitrary 
and unprincipled Government. 1 

Now scenes of heart-rending misery everywhere 
presented themselves. Reflecting on the dangers 
to which they were exposed, by the inquisitorial 
proceedings of Lauderdale and his minions, multi- 
tudes left their homes, and retired into caves or 
similar places of uncomfortable seclusion : whilst 
others wandered through the kingdom, in destitution 
and disguise. Even their desertion of home was 
looked upon as a proof of their disaffection ; and 

1 Cook — Wodrow. 


twelve of the houses belonging to the nobility were 
seized and converted into garrisons — the troops plac- 
ed in them being empowered to proceed, with military 
execution, against all who were looked upon by 
despotic rulers as deserving of insult and oppres- 
sion. In consequence of these enormities, many 
of the Presbyterian ministers felt themselves oblig- 
ed to leave Scotland ; and such of them as could 
not effect their escape, were apprehended and sent 
to the solitary rock of the Bass, or committed to 
different prisons. 

The tyranny of Lauderdale exasperated the 
nobles ; and even at this time, it is said, a corres- 
pondence was opened with the young Prince of 

The people, encouraged by the countenance of 
their superiors, became bolder in frequenting con 
venticles, and committing other acts of insubordi- 
nation. They perambulated the country in armed- 
bands, and bade defiance to those who endeavoured 
to prevent them from worshipping their Creator in 
the manner most agreeable to their conscience. 

The romantic and perilous nature of this species 
of worship possessed charms to the enterprising 3 
the bold, and the young ; and there were many 
whom even idleness and the love of change impell- 
ed rather to wander through the country, as " the 
lifeguard of some outlawed preacher," than remain 
at any useful employment during the week, and 
listen, on the Sabbath, to the cold morality, or luke- 
warm doctrines of an indulged or Episcopalian 
clergyman. Besides, hearing the Gospel, under 
circumstances so exciting and dangerous, shed a 
solemnity over those imposing assemblies, which 
were held in the wild and lonely moor, in the se- 

304 HI3TOR7 

questered glen, or in the romantic recesses of soma 
cloud-covered mountain, perhaps under the canopy 
of night, and amidst the howling of the wintry 
storm J 

The bishops, who possessed great influence in 
the Council, beheld with much uneasiness and in- 
dignation the increasing hostility to Episcopacy, 
and, therefore, insisted that more vigorous mea- 
sures should be adopted for suppressing convent- 
icles, and punishing the refractory. A plan was 
consequently adopted, unjust in itself, and harassing 
in its consequences. It was resolved, that proprie- 
tors of land in the west — where conventicles were 
most common — should be required to sign an obli- 
gation that they and their families, domestics, de- 
pendents, and tenants, should neither assemble at 
conventicles, nor afford encouragement and protec- 
tion to those who frequented them. Some even of 
the friends of the Established Church refused to 
take upon them this extensive responsibility. The 
conduct of others, they declared, in many cases, 
was beyond their control; and hence, while their 
own deportment was correct, and in strict conform- 
ity to the laws of the country, they might be pun- 
ished as transgressors or delinquents. In this di- 
lemma, they resolved to remonstrate; but their 
resistance proved unavailing; for Lauderdale swore, 
with unbridled fury, that he would compel them all 
to sign the bonds, and that he would either sup- 
press conventicles or ruin the country. 

To secure obedience to the will of Government, 

1 Scott — Aikman. — On such occasions the sacrament of bap- 
tism was often administered. Tradition sa\>, that in one night, 
Mr Varner baptised twenty children in the Carpal lurn. The 
pool is still called the Ilulij Lirai. 


a Commission was granted by the Council on the 7th 
of August, 1677,1 to several noblemen and gentle- 
men, to whom very full powers were given, for put- 
ting the laws against conventicles and other disor- 
ders into execution. Richard Murray, of Brough- 
ton, was nominated for the Stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright and Sheriffdom of Wigtown. The Com- 
missioners were to receive a part of the fines, and 
they had the power of appointing as many substi- 
tutes as they might think necessary for the proper 
discharge of their duties. 

At this distracted period, both parties attributed 
the measures of their enemies to the malevolent 
suggestions of Satan. But the plan adopted by 
Lauderdale, to be revenged on the landhold- 
ers, who refused to grant the proposed bonds, 
seemed really to indicate the influence of an 
evil spirit. He caused, in 1678, not only a body 
of the guards and militia, with all their implements 
of war, to march into the unyielding district, but 
Ire also gave up the west country to be pillaged by 
six thousand rapacious Highland soldiers, unaccus- 
tomed alike to the manners and language of civil- 
ized life. These wild mountaineers, commanded 

1 " During this year, Newton Stewart was made a burgh of 
barony by Charles II, as appears by a charter, dated 1st July J 677. 
Its propi ietor and founder, William Stewart of Castle Stewart ob- 
tained the right of holding here a weekly market, and two annual 
fairs, though it then consisted of only a few houses. Owing to its 
commodious situation Newton. Ste wait has increased, during re- 
cent times, to be the most populous town, in Wigtonshire, ex- 
cepting alone the Lurgh of Stranraer. By an act of parliament, 
in 1096, the days of holding the weekly market, and the annual 
fairs were changed, from Friday to Wednesday. Acta Pari." 

'• .\i;wtoii-Stewart stands on the western bank of the Cree ; 
where various roads meet, in order to lind a passage between 
WJgton and Kirkcudbright," Caledonia. 


by their own chiefs, and clad in a strange garb;, 
spread consternation and desolation wherever they 
approached. The clans themselves were surprised 
at the object of their visit; for, instead of fight- 
ino-, they found they had only to live at free 
quarters amongst an unoffending, a quiet, and 
unresisting people, and indulge in every species of 
plunder and aggression. Having received a ge- 
neral licence, they carried off every portable ar- 
ticle from the houses of the inhabitants, and even 
stopped travellers on the highway, and robbed 
them of their wearing apparel. 1 

The country was amazed at this awful visitation. 
But the gentlemen who refused to grant the bonds 
were subjected to another species of oppression. 
Under a writ of lawburrows^ they were compelled 
to find surety to keep the peace, that is, to prevent 
the attendance at conventicles of all with whom 
they were connected. 

Notwithstanding the various devices of the Go- 
vernment, illegal meetings still continued to exist. 

1 Wodrow. 

2 " Lawbuirows, from burgh; or borgh, or borrow, our old 
word for caution, surety, pledge ; and meaning, security given 
to do nothing contrary to law " — Hutcheson's Justice, vol. i, p, 
402. " The competency of using this writ, in the case of ma. 
gistrates and communities, may have suggested, but can neither 
excuse nor palliate the issuing of it at the suit of the sovereign 
against his suljeets. Even at a period w hen public and private 
rights were wantonly violated by a system of tyranny and op- 
pression, this perversion of law. and degradation of the royal 
prerogative and majesty, scarcely appealed less ridiculous than 
at present, when the king and his people are reciprocally secure 
by the legal establishment of civil and religious liberty." — lb. 
p. 489. Sir George Mackenzie rendered the thing still more 
ridiculous by his grave defence of it, under the argument, that 
6< there was no more surety to be found" for the king " than the 
ordinary surety of lawburrows," &c. See his Vindication of 
Charles II. Works, vol. i. p. 3-45 — Wodbow. 


On the 7th of March, 1678, Henry Muir, Com- 
missary Clerk at Kirkcudbright, was libelled far 
being present at conventicles, in the preceding 
year, when Mr John Welsh, Mr Gabriel Semple ? 
and Mr Samuel Arnot preached, and for corres- 
ponding with them. The defender acknowledged 
he had once attended a field meeting, and heard 
Mr Arnot preach, but denied all correspondence 
with any of the rebellious ministers. Through the 
intercession of John Paterson, I Bishop of Galloway, 
he was dismissed by the Council without punish- 
ment. On the 28th of May, the Bishop of Gal- 
loway got a dispensation from the King to reside 
beyond the bounds of his diocese. 2 

1 " John Paterson. son to John Paterson, sometime 
bishop of Ross, was first minister at Ellon in the shire of 
Abeideen, and afterwards minister of the and 
dean of the city of Edit burgh : he was preferred by the interest of 
the Duke of Lauderdale to the see of Galloway, 23d October, 
1674. Here he sat until the 29th ..larch, 1679, when he was 
translated to the see of Edinburgh. — He was succeeded by Ar- 
thur Ross, bishop of Argyle, who was translated to Galloway 
on the 5th September, 1679. But ou the 15th of October, the 
same year, when he had been only a month bishop of this see, 
he was re-translated to the see of Glasgow." — Keith. 

Iu 1687. Paterson was advanced to the Archiepiscopal see of 
Glasgow, where he continued till the Revolution. He died on 
the 8th of December 1708. 

2 The dispensation alluded to in the text is given by Wod- 
row : — "Whereas none of our archbishops or bishops may lawfully 
keep their ordinary residence without the bounds of their diocese 
respective, unless they have our royal dispensation, warrant, 
and license to that effect those are, that ill regard John bishop 
of Galloway is not provided in a complete manse or dwelling, 
house in the diocese of Galloway, and for the better promoving 
of our service in the church, to allow and authorize the said 
bishop to live in or near the cities of Edinburgh or Glasgow, or 
in any other convenient place, where he may be able to attend 
the public affairs of the church. With whose residence in the 
dloeese of Galloway, we, by virtue of our royal supremacy in 
causes ecclesiastical, do by these presents dispense, as well with 


During this summer, a conventicle of extraordi- 
nary magnitude was held in Galloway. That the 
reader may have a complete idea of such religions 
assemblies, we insert an excellent account of it 
from Blackader's Memoirs. " On Sabbath morn- 
ing early the congregation sat down on Skeoch- 
hill,i in Irongray, about seven miles above Dum- 

the time past preceding the date hereof, as for the time to come, 
during our royal pleasure; any canon ot the church, or acts of 
parliaments, enjoining residence, notwithstanding. And we 
strictly require all our subjects, church. officers, and others, never 
to quarrel or call in question the said John bishop of Galloway, 
during the continuance of this our royal dispensation and license, 
as they will answer to us at their peril. Given at our court at 
Whitehall, May 28th, 1678, and of our reign the 30th year," 
By his Majesty's command, 

1 We give the following note from the able pen of Dr Crichton : 
— " Skeoch.hill is the highest land on the moors of Irongray, 
and commands a very picturesque and extensive view ; and, what 
is of much greater interest, it still contains the sacramental ta. 
bles constructed and used on this occasion, as described by Mr 
Blackader, the most perfect specimen, perhaps the only one of 
the kind, to be found tin Scotland. They are known in the 
south country, and spoken of with no small reverence, under the 
name of the Communion Stones ; and, though it may appear 
singular, this curious relic of the Covenanters' times has suffered 
no dilapidation or derangement in the lapse of so many years. 
Each stone lies in the exact order, and occupies the identical 
spot, in which it was originally placed ; and though the moors ' 
have since been inclosed and fences erected in the immediate 
neighbourhood, no sacrilegious hand has ventured to remove 
one of them or alter its position. They consist of four rows of 
flat, irregular blocks of stone, disposed in straight lines and form- 
ing four equal parallelograms, resembling long tables, with a 
space between for the accommodation of the elders. Each row 
contains about thirty seats, so that a hundred and twenty people 
might communicate at the same time. At one end there is a 
circular pile of stones about four feet in height, whereon the 
sacred elements were laid, and where the minister must have 
stood in dispensing the ordinance and exhorting the people. In 
front of this, and close behind the opposite end of the table, rises 
a smooth green brae, answering well the purposes of a gallery, as 
it is quite within the compass of a moderate voice. No situs. 


fries. The meeting- was very numerous, greater 
than at East-Nishet, being more gentlemen and 
strangers from far and near. Mr Arnot, late min- 
ister of Tongland, lectured in the morning, and Mr 
Welsh preached and broke up the action, which 
was his ordinar. There were two long tables? 
longer than at East-Nisbet, and more communi- 
cants. The rest of the ministers exhorted, and 
took their turn at the table service. Mr Dickson 
preached in the afternoon. The whole was closed 
in the evening without disturbance. It was a 
cloudy and gloomy day, the sky lowering and often 
threatening showers ; but the heavy clouds did not 
break, but retained their moisture, as it were to 
accommodate the work : For, ere the people got 
to their houses and quarters, there fell a great rain, 
which that night waxed the waters, and most of 
them had to pass through both the Cairn and the 
" The Earl of Nithsdale, 1 a papist, and Sir Rob- 

tion indeed can be conceived more happily adapted for the occa. 
sion. The spot lies in a small valley, or bosom of the hill„ 
secured on all hands fiom observation or intrusion ; while the 
sentinels could be so posted, almost within hearing of the ser- 
mon, as to command the surrounding', country on ev«ry side for 
many miles. The whole of the scenery is interesting, and the 
mind of the visitor is inspired with no ordinary emotions as he 
treads the ground once hallowed by the presence of so many 
pious men, and the performance of the most solemn of our religi- 
ous rites. Everything carries the impress of reverence and so. 
lemnity. There is a strong religious awe in contemplating this 
sequestered spot, and the rude altars on which our iorefathers 
offered their sacrifice ; and this feeling is increased by the recol- 
lection that time has spared entire those venerable relics of their 
piety. — that no baud has dared to violate the hoary monuments 
of their mountain worship " 

1 John, seventh Lord Hemes, upon the death of Robert. 
second Earl of fJifchsdale, without issue, succeeded to hi3 estate 
and baronies, in the year 1677, being next heir male. He mar.. 

J10 HIST0R7 

ert Dalzell of Glenae, a great enemy to these 
meetings, had some of their ill-set domesticks 
there, who waited on, and heard till the time of 
the afternoon sermon, and then slipt away. At 
the time of dismissing, there arose a cry and alarm 
that the dragoons were approaching, whereupon the 
Clydesdale men instantly took to horse and formed. 
The gentlemen of Galloway and Nithsdale took no 
posture of defence at first, as they did not intend it 
until they saw imminent hazard. But seeing the 
motions of the Clydesdale men, they thought it 
necessary to do the like. Gordon, the laird of 
Earlston, who had been a captain in the former 
wars, now drew up a large troop of Galloway 
horse. Another gentleman of Nithsdale, who had 
also been a captain of horse, mustered up a troop 
of cavalry from the holms of Kirkmahoe, and about 
the Nith. Four or five companies of foot, v/ith their 
officers, were ready equipped for action ; and all 
this was done in the twinkling of an eye, for the 
people were willing and resolute. Videttes and 
single horsemen were despatched to various quar- 
ters, to keep a good look out. The report brought 
in was, that they had only heard a rumour of them 
being: in the country, but could not inform them- 
selves of any being near at hand, or any stir in that 
immediate neighbourhood. After remaining in 
that defensive posture for three hours, the body of 
the people dispersed to their quarters, each accom™ 

lied Elizabeth, second daughter of Sir Robert Gordon, of Loeh. 
invar, ancestor of Lord Viscount Kenrnure, by whom he had a 
son, Robert, fourth Eail of Nithsdale, who succeeded bim, and 
married Lady Lncy, daughter of William Marquis of Douglas, 
by whom he had a son, William, his heir, and a daughter, Lady 
Mary Maxwell, manied to Charles Earl of Traquair. He died 
in the year 1695 


panied with a guard of foot and horse. In houses, 
barns, and empty places most of then) got accom- 
modated, in a sort of way, within a mile or 
two's distance. They had mostly provided 
themselves both for board and lodging, and the 
ministers were hospitably received at houses. The 
night was rainy, but watches were set notwith- 
standing. As a point of prudence, no intimation 
was given where the Monday's meeting was to be 
kept : this was not generally known except to the 
ministers. The tent was next day erected on an- 
other hill-side near the head of the parish, three 
or four miles from the place of the Sabbath meet- 
ing. The people seemed nothing diminished in 
numbers on account of the alarm, or the unpropi- 
tious state of the weather. 1 The horse and foot, as 
usual, drew round about the congregation, the 
horse being outermost. Mr Blackader closed this 
day from Heb. xiii, 1, Let brotherly love continue ; 
and, notwithstanding the alarm, he continued three 
weeks preaching up and down in that country.''2 
When the Highlanders, loaded with booty, had 
returned to their hills, they were replaced by five 
thousand additional troops. One portion of the 
army were appointed to traverse the country, and 
harass such of the inhabitants as refused to con- 
form. Another portion were placed in garrisons, 
at Lanark, Ayr, Kirkcudbright, Dumfries, and 
Glasgow. They received strict orders to search 

1 It was supposed that more than three thousand attended on 
the Sabbath, most of whom communicated. 

•2 On the following Sunday, Mr Blackader and Mr Welsh 
collected a threat multitude on Dalskairth.hill, and again, on tbe 
succeeding Sunday at Glengabber, in Holywood A little there. 
after, Mr Welsh kept another communion near Kirkcudbright. 


for and pursue all who frequented field-meetings, 
and to kill all who resisted. They were likewise 
ordered to imprison, to deliver up to magistrates, 
or to send to the Council, all whom they appre- 
hended. These garrisons were the source of much 
trouble to the surounding inhabitants. Terrible 
outrages were committed : they paid no respect 
either to life or property. When their horses — 
for they were empowered to seize horses — could 
not use the corn which fell in their way, they often 
threw it into the rivers, and sometimes burned it. 

New judges were also appointed. As the prin- 
cipal sheriffs had been considered remiss in the dis- 
charge of their duties, the Council nominated 
sheriff-deputes, in a considerable number of coun- 
ties, and directed a deputation to be given them. 
In Wigtownshire, Sir Andrew Agnew granted a 
deputation to the Lairds of Lagg, Claverhouse, 
and Earlshall ; and the Earl of Nithsdale, as stew- 
art of the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, granted a 
like deputation to Captain John Paterson, Claver- 
house, and Earlshall. The powers ot the sheriff- 
deputes were ample and their order strict ; they 
were also constituted justices of the peace. The 
vexatious annoyances of perverted law were thus 
incalculably increased. The merciless despotism, 
both military and legal, now exercised, whilst it 
aroused the people to a state of madness, awakened 
also a cool, a deadly, and a determined spirit of ven- 
geance and retaliation. Several of the overbear- 
ing soldiers were deliberately murdered, and the 
Episcopalian clergy felt themselves deserted, hated, 
and attacked. 

On the 6th of January, 1679, Mr Thomas War- 

OF GALLOWAY. 213, 1 one of the indulged ministers, was cited be- 
fore the Privy Council, where a libel was produced 
against him, for being present at house and field 
conventicles, for officiating at such unlawful assem- 
blies, and for holding conversation with intercom- 
muned persons. Pie did not appear ; and, on the 
18th of February, the Council passed the follow- 
ing act : — " The lords of his majesty's privy 
council considering, that Mr Thomas Warner, 
late minister at Balmaclellan, is declared fugitive 
for his declared contumacy, in not compearing 
before them on the 16th of January last, to have 
answered at the instance of his majesty's advocate, 
for preaching in the fields with Mr John Welsh, 
communing and corresponding with him and other 
traitors and intercommuned persons, with other 
disorders of that nature; the parishioners of Bal- 
maclellan are discharged to pay to the said Mr 
Thomas Warner any of the stipend this year, or 
in time coming, till they receive further orders ; 
and appoint the solicitor to acquaint the parish- 

Several gentlemen of Galloway were cited to 
appear, about the same time, before the Privy 
Council ; namely, Gordon of Earlston, Gordon of 
Holm, Gordon of Overbar, Neilson of Corsack, 
George M'Cartney of Blaicket, Maxwell of Hills, 
Hay of Park, Macdoual of Freuch, Macdoual 
of Kirouchtree, James Johnston, late Provost of 

Stranraer, William Spittle at Port, Johnston, 

collector there, Mr William Cathcart, and John 

1 Mr Warner, or Varner, died in 1716, and was the last of 

the Presbyterian ministers who had been ordained before th£ 

Restoration. He was interred in the church-yard of Balma-.. 
clellan. A stone still marks the spot. 



Inglis, commissary at Kirkcudbright. They, too, 
were accused of being present at conventicles, and 
holding communication with intercommuned per- 
sons ; and, failing to appear, they were " denounc- 
ed, and put to the horn." John Inglis, the last 
mentioned individual, was further ordered to be 
deprived of his office, and the Bishop of Galloway 
received instructions to fill the vacancy ; but this 
Prelate was afterwards allowed to repone him or 
not, as he should think proper. 

The Council, on the 2d of April, 1679, again 
called before them a considerable number of in- 
dividuals in the south, for nonconformity ; namely* 

Gordon of Craighlaw, younger, and his spouse, 

Gordon of Culvennan, Macghie of Drum buy, 
Ramsay of Boghouse, Dame Stuart, Castle- 
Stuart, Macghie laird of Larg, Heron of Little- 
park, Dunbar younger of Machermore, Archibald 
Stuart of Causeyend, Anthony Heron in Wigg 
and his spouse, Stuart of Tonderghie, Macghie in 

Penninghame, Macmillanin Craigwell, Stuart 

of Ravenstoun, brother to the earl of Galloway, 

and Dame Dunbar, his lady, and the Provost 

of Wigtown. All these failed to appear, and were 

As Sharpe was pre-eminent in dignity, he was 
also accounted pre-eminent in guilt. Many of the 
Presbyterians could not persuade themselves that 
Lauderdale was the author of the merciless enormi- 
ties they beheld. Of almost all the severer mea- 
sures, the odium still continued to rest upon the 
Archbishop of St. Andrew's ; and none can deny 
that he deserved, at least, a portion of that odium. 
One attempt upon his life had proved unsuccessful ; 
but the rage of his enemies had been suppressed, — 


not extinguished. In Galloway, his name had long 
been peculiarly abhorred by the people ; but he 
was beyond the sphere of their vengeance, though 
not of their enmity. A severe retribution, how- 
ever, at last overtook him, though in a manner 
ever to be deplored. 

A person of the name of Carmichael, once a 
merchant in Edinburgh, and a magistrate of that 
city, was employed by Sharpe for the suppression 
of conventicles, and similar public purposes, with- 
in his diocese. By cunning, vigilance,and cruelty, 
he had recommended himself to his master — not s 
however, without incurring the deadly hatred of 
the inhabitants of Fife. The exasperation which 
his inhumanity had excited, induced a party of 
nine individuals, generally small proprietors in the 
district^ to form the resolution of either terrifying 
him, by severe castigation, to such a degree, as to 
force him to leave the country, or of depriving him 
of the power to inflict misery, by putting him 
to death. On the 3d of May, he had gone out to 
hunt, and upon receiving this intelligence they de- 
termined to waylay him on his return ; but Car- 
michael, having been apprised of their design, 
eluded their observation, and got safe home. — 
Disappointed of meeting the object of their ven- 
geance, they were about to separate, when they 
suddenly received information that Archbishop 
Sharpe, who had been attending a Council, was ap« 
proaching from Ceres, in his coach, and would 
soon pass. They all agreed that the opportunity 
now offered, for ridding the world of a blood-thirsty 
tyrant, and the Church of Christ of an implacable 
foe, was the palpable intervention of Heaven; and, 
misled by their superstitious enthusiasm, tbey view- 


eel the appearance of the Archbishop at such an 
hour, and under such circumstances, as a sure in- 
dication of the will of Providence, that they them- 
selves were to be the favoured instruments of 
inflicting the merited punishment. After offering 
up a prayer to the Deity for direction, they chose 
Hackston of Rathillet, a gentleman of family and 
fortune, for their leader. He declined the guilty 
honour; and John Balfour of Kinloch, named 
Burleigh, the brother-in-law of Hackston, immedi- 
ately said — " Gentlemen, follow me." They then 
set off in pursuit of the carriage, which had reached 
a desolate heath, named Magus-moor. When 
they had approached within a short distance of the 
coach, they fired their carabines, and loudly vocif- 
erated — " Judas, be taken." The coachman drove 
fast, but he was soon overtaken. The assassins 
then struck the postilion from his seat — cut the 
traces of the vehicle — and disarmed the servant^ 
who offered some resistance. They next went to 
the door of the coach, and found the Archbishop, 
with his eldest daughter, seated within. After 
ordering him to come out, lest they should injure 
the lady — which he refused — two of the assassins 
held the muzzles of their pieces almost to his breast, 
and discharged them. In their trepidation and 
fury, they failed to inflict a mortal wound; but, 
being fully satisfied they had despatched him, they 
were in the act of departing, when his terrified 
daughter, upon looking at her father, exclaimed, in 
a paroxism of joy, "O! there is life yet !" The 
assassins overhearing this exclamation, turned, and 
were about to drag him from the coach, when he 
came out, and begged for mercy. He was now 
pressed to pray, and told, as he had never shown 


mercy, he could not expect it. One of the party, 
more tender-hearted than the rest, said, " Spare 
his grey hairs ;" but nothing could mollify their 
hearts, or move them from their desperate pur- 
pose. The earnest entreaties of the aged fa- 
ther — the piercing cries and agonizing looks of 
the frantic daughter — were alike unavailing. Even 
that heroic devotion which induced her to present 
her person to the murderers, as her father's shield, 
and thus sacrifice her own life in protecting the life 
of her beloved parent, could not kindle in their 
cold hearts one spark of pity. They discharged 
another shower of shot upon him, and he immedi- 
ately fell, apparently lifeless, at their feet. While 
he lay on the ground, one of them pricked him 
with his sword, and he raised himself a little. The 
assailants, like many of their party, imagining that 
the persecutors were so leagued with Satan as to 
be invulnerable by any kind of shot, except silver 
bullets, 1 drew their swords, and brutally despatched 

1 It was believed by the Covenanters, that, at the battle of 
Pentland, the bullets were seen like hailstones rebounding from 
the buff coat and boots of General Dalziel. 

We subjoin, as a curiosity, one of Dalziel's letters, addressed 
to the Earl of Linlithgow : — 

" Kilmarnock, 3d March, (16)80. 

" My Lord ; I intend to haue the hoil dragouns and sum hoirs 
on the 16 at night, at Drumeleuton and Muneygrass, so that if 
vour Lordship have no inteliens, that may requir ihe Antisepa- 
tion of youi pairte. delay till than for I heue inteliens on your 
Marche, the moir-t of tham ar fleid that is of anay noit, so that 
if your Lordship send in spayes befoir your pairtie moue it vil 
not be a miss. Your Lordship's 

" Erie of Linlithgow, Servant, 

these." T. Dalziel." 

From the original in the possession of James A. Maconochie, 
Esq., advocate. The spelling, which is singularly vicious, even 
for that period, has been carefully preserved, — Analecta Scotica, 


him — having mangled his body with many ghastly 

Thus fell, but by a detestable deed, an individ- 
ual who had been the cause of much misery to Pres- 
byterian Galloway. It is a fact, almost beyond 
dispute, that, if Sharpe had not deserted the cause 
of Ids party, the introduction of Episcopacy would 
never have been attempted after the Restoration ; 
and, hence, many regarded his death as a righteous 
judgment of God upon a perfidious apostate — an 
unsparing persecutor. The homicides, therefore, 
were not viewed as murderers, by the more fanati- 
cal of the Presbyterians, but esteemed and vener- 
ated as the chosen instruments of Heaven, for 
achieving the deliverance of a suffering people. 

This bloody tragedy was performed about noon, 
and on a public road, notwithstanding soldiers were 
stationed on every hand, within a very few miles 
of the place. The accomplishment of the atrocious 
murder occupied nearly the space of three-quarters 
of an hour; and — though many shots must have 
been tired, and parties of cavalry were continually 
patrolling the country — yet, the assassins kept 
together till night, and effected their escape, 
— having, before their dispersion, returned thanks 
to God, in prayer, for his providential assistance, 
and for restraining their enemies in the season of 
their exertions and danger. 

Every effort was immediately made by the in- 
censed Scottish Government, to apprehend the 
murderers of the Archbishop of St. Andrews, and, 
if possible, to prevent, by new rigours, every as- 
semblage of armed Covenanters. Attendance upon, 

1 Laing — Aikmar. — Crookshank — Scott, &c. 


conventicles was declared treason; and the com- 
manding officers, having obtained additional troops 
received strict orders to adopt the most rigorous 
and bloody measures for producing conformity. I 

These increasing severities soon produced a 
crisis. Previously to this, conventicles, except on 
some particular occasions, had not been very nu- 
merously attended, and, consequently, had attract- 
ed but ii; tie general observation, and made but 
little noise, beyond their immediate vicinity ; but 
now, it was found absolutely necessary by the 
Presbyterians, to concentrate their meetings, as 
also to assemble in arms for self-defence, and in 
considerable numbers for mutual protection. In 
proceeding to, and returning from, conventicles, 
they were also well armed, and kept together in 
large bodies. The soldiers became less forward in 
their attacks, and seldom ventured so near as to 
fire with effect upon the unoffending worshippers, 
or to have an opportunity of seizing any of them 
and dragging them to prison. When the accounts 
of such formidable meetings reached the metropo- 
lis, the Government resolved to make further ex- 
ertions. The Covenanters soon found it dangerous 
to disperse, and began to keep in parties during 
the week ; whilst they inflamed each other's minds 
by their individual complaints, and roused each 
other's courage by their animating declamation. — 
At length, the ill-used Presbyterians found it 
necessary, for further security, to unite all their 
religious meetings into one great central con- 
venticle, sometimes appointed to convene in one 
place, sometimes in another — all being resolved to 

1 Wodrow — Laing. 


defend themselves, if attacked. Both the number 
and ardour of the Conventiclers — as they have been 
sometimes termed — now wonderfully increased. — 
Some of the leading individuals who had been en- 
gaged in effecting the death of Sharpe, having made 
their way to the west of Scotland, were endea- 
vouring to produce a general insurrection, by rous- 
ing the passions of their friends. The Covenanters 
saw, from the extensive preparations which the 
Government had commenced against them, the 
necessity of uniting into one permanent and effec- 
tive body, to repel aggression by force of arms- 
They, accordingly, agreed to publish to the world 
their Testimony to the Truth, and their protesta- 
tion against both the sins and defections of the 
times. This public appearance was made for the 
purpose of strengthening their cause, by prevail- 
ing upon others to join them, when they set up 
openly against the iniquities of the times. 

On the 20th of May — the anniversary of the 
Restoration, which was ordered to be kept as a 
holiday — a party of nearly a hundred Covenanters 
came to Rutherglen, and, after extinguishing the 
bonfires, with which the day was celebrated, they 
burned all the Acts of Parliament or Council which 
they considered prejudicial to their interest. They 
then publicly read, and affixed upon the cross, a 
copy of their declaration. 

Graham of Claverhouse, afterwards created Vis- 
count of Dundee, 1 was at this time a commander of 

1 The character of Graham of Claverhouse is thus drawn by 
one who must he held as at least not over partial to the Cove- 
nanters : — " The severity of his character, as well as the higher 
attributes of undaunted and enterprising valour, which even his 
enemies were compelled to admit, lay concealed under an exte. 
rior which seemed adapted to the court or saloon rather than 


one of the newly levied troops. As lie had shown 
much activity in suppressing con venticles, he re- 
ceived instructions to march, with a few of the forces, 
upon Saturday the Slst of May, in quest of those 
who had been engaged in the late guilty act of 
open defiance. In addition to his own corps, he 
had two troops of cavalry and some infantry under 
his command in this expedition. 

At Hamilton, he seized King, one of the most 
popular of the preachers, and a few others, whom 
he bound and drove before him. He then proceed- 
ed to Hare Law, 1 an eminence near Loudon-hill, 
where a conventicle was appointed to be held. 
Public worship had commenced, when intelligence 
reached them that Claverhouse and his soldiers 
were rapidly approaching. All who had arms drew 
out from the rest, and resolved to advance and meet 
rheir enemies, that they might prevent the services 
of the day from being interrupted. Their number 
amounted to about two hundred and forty men ; 
and although undisciplined, they charged with so 
much impetuosity, bravery, and steadiness, that the 

the field. The gentleness and gaiety of expression which reigned 
in his features seemed to inspire his actions and gestures; and, 
on the whole, he was generally esteemed at first sight rather 
qualified to be the votary of pleasure than of ambition. But 
under this soft exterior was hidden a spirit unbounded in daring 
and in aspiring, vet cautious and prudent as that of Machiavel 
himself. Profound in politics, and embued of course with that 
disregard of individual rights which its intrigues usually gener- 
ate, this leader was cool and collected in danger, fierce and ar- 
dent in pursuing success, careless of death himself, and ruthless 
in inflicting it upon others. Such are the characters formed in 
times of cml discord, when the highest qualities, perverted by 
party spirit, and inflamed bv habitual opposition, are too often 
combined with vicei and excesses which deprive them at once o-- 
'.lieir merit and of their lustre." — ScoTX. 
1 Tales of the Scottish Wars. 


King's forces were put to flight — leaving thirty- 
six of their number dead on the field. This en- 
counter took place at Drumclog-. 

Elated by this success, and the growing strength 
of their party — for numbers were now joining them 
from Galloway and Nithsdale — they extended their 
views. Hamilton, a man of much zeal but slender 
abilities, assumed the supreme command. They 
made an attack upon the city of Glasgow, but 
without success. Discord soon began to prevail in 
this heterogeneous mass. The moderate Presby- 
terians were willing to acknowledge the King's 
government, and required only freedom of con- 
science ; but a set of furious zealots madly chose 
the present critical juncture for declaring, they 
would hold no fellowship with those who tolerated 
Prelacy in any form, or compromised the cause 
of Presbytery by listening to ministers who preach- 
ed by indulgence.! 

The preachers also disagreed among themselves. 
Mr John Welsh headed the moderate, or — as it was 
denominated by its adversaries — the Erastian,- par- 
ty ; while Donald Cargill, and some other minis- 
ters, advocated the opinions of that class wha 
attempted impossibilities, or aimed at what nothing 
short of a miracle could have accomplished. These 
reverend champions preached against each other in 
their respective congregations with much acrimo- 
ny, and voted on different sides in their councils 

1 Scott, &c. 

2 From Erastus, a German theologian, who held that (he 
pastoral office was only persuasive, and that clergymen should 
be restricted to their ministerial duties, — the power of inflicting 
censure or punishment of any kind, whether for civil or religious - 
offences, being reserved to the magistrate: 


of -war — madly endeavouring to counteract, as far 
as possible, the general plan of operations, because 
proposed by their personal opponents. 

While the insurgents thus wasted their valuable 
time in frivolous, fruitless, and distracting quar- 
rels, the Privy Council were actively and unremit- 
tingly engaged in collecting troops. When the 
news of the insurrection reached London, the 
King, — who condescended to take the trouble of 
thinking for himself, — despatched into Scotland 
his natural son, the Duke of Monmouth and Buc- 
cleugh, who was to assume the chief command, and 
to be immediately followed by a large body of the 
royal guards. This young nobleman — his father's 
favourite — was much admired for the beauty of his 
person and the amiableness of his dispositions.! He 
had previously married the rich heiress of Buccleugh, 
and their descendants still enjoy the large estates 
which they possessed. Monmouth, naturally hu- 
mane, felt much disposed to listen to the grievances 
of men, who, he thought, had been harshly treated, 
and who were still suffering under dreadful oppres- 
sion. He arrived in Edinburgh on the 13th of June ; 
and, being admitted a Privy Councillor, depart- 
ed to assume the command of the royal army. The 
Covenanters still remained inactive, and had made 
no preparations, by improving discipline, procur- 
ing arms, providing ammunition, or collecting 
provisions, for the tremendous contest in which 
they were to be engaged. 

1 " He was brave, generous, affable, and extremely handsome : 
constant in his friendships, just to his word, and an utter enemy 
to all cruelty. He was easy in his nature, and fond of popular 
applause, which led him in&ensibly into all his misfortunes." — 
VI LI. wood. 


On the 21st of June, the alarming intelligence 
reached them that the Duke of Monmouth was 
advancing, with a numerous and well-disciplined 
army. This information, however, did not recall 
them to a sense of their danger and duty. They 
held a council, indeed, but it was only to engage 
in furious discussion on Church polemics, virulent 
recrimination, or galling invective. At length, 
Rathillet put an end to their frivolous and injuri- 
ous harangues, by declaring that his sword was un- 
sheathed, not only against the curates, but like- 
wise against those who accepted the Indulgence ; 
and, having thus thrown down the gauntlet before 
his moderate associates, he left the council, accom- 
panied by all who were actuated by similar prin- 

When this defection of the violent leaders from 
the general council of war, left the moderate 
party to follow the dictates of their own judg- 
ment, they submissively drew up a supplica- 
tion to the Duke of Monmouth, in which they 
represented the intolerable grievances under which 
they had long laboured, and offered, instead of de- 
ciding the dispute by arms, to leave the whole 
snbject of controversy to be settled by a free Par- 
liament and an unbiassed General Assembly. 1 

1 Particulars of a conference between Mr Robert Hamilton, 
•who commanded the Covenanters at the battle of Drumclog, and 
the leaders of the Galloway men, on the evening before the bat. 
tie of Bothwell Bridge. — Subsequently communicated by Mr 
Hamilton, from Leewarden, in Frieslaud, in a letter, addressed 
to the General Meeting of the Covenanters at Frierminin. 

" On the day before the defeat at Bothwell, I and the officerg 
hearing that the Galloway gentlemen were come up to join with 
the army ; and being informed that they were of Mr Welsh's 
and Mr Hume's judgment, namely, that a petition should be pre- 
sented to the Duke of Monmouth, we called a council of war, 


Two of their number — with Mr Welsh, in 
^disguise — proeeeded c to the Duke with their petition. 

His Grace intimated to them, that he could not 
enter into any arrangement, nor grant terms, 
until they had laid down their arms : he added, 
however, he would intercede with the King in 
their behalf, provided they made an unconditional 

where we might determine that rone should be admitted to join 
with us, but such as were found straight in the cause, as now 
stated amongst us. When we were set there, the Galloway 
gentlemen came in upon us, with their ministers, undcsired and 
uncalled for. I, in the name of the rest, gave them a short ac. 
count of how the cause was slated, and how that neither officers 
nor soldiers were to be admitted without joining us therein. 

" These gentlemen told us, positively, that they would not ad- 
here to such a cause, nor join with us therein ; but pressed that 
the officers might be changed, and new ones brought in, and 
such a way laid down, as all that would join with them might 
be brought in, and that bye.gones should be bye gones, or, at 
least, laid aside, until the General Assembly and a parliament 
were got. 

" Whereupon, I rose, and entered my protestation against 
them, being backed by some others, and declaring that I durst 
not venture my life, and the lives of the Lord's people, with 
such a company, and in such a cause : whereupon 1 parted im- 
mediately from them, and some of the officers with me. But 
two of the gentlemeu from Galloway Ciime after us, and begged 
us to return ; assuring us, we should have all satisfaction ; upon 
which, I and my friends did return. This was on Saturday 
night : and before the break of day on Sabbath morning, we 
were attacked by the enemy at BothwelKBridge 

After the break at Bothwell, these persons and many others, 
sat down in the oldClachan of Dairy, in Galloway, and plotted 
to take away my life, for contending with Mr Welsh and these 
gentlemen he brought with him. They wrote a letter to some 
that were with me, that, if they kept my company, they should 
cause that the country should neither afford them meat, diink, 
nor any manner of quarters ; but, if they would disown me, they 
should be honourably entertained." — Faithful Contendings 
Displayed : collected and transcribed from Original Documents, 
bv John Howie, of Lochgoin. Glasgow edition, 1708 — pp. 1 1*3, 


surrender. I When tliey received tliis unfavour- 
able answer, both parties came to the determination 
of fighting'. 

The Presbyterian troops — which did not, on the 
whole, exceed five thousand men' 2 — took up a 
strong position, on the south side of the Clyde ; 
but they were much inferior, in every respect, to 
the royal army, whose ranks comprised ten thou- 
sand well-appointed soldiers. The river being 
scarcely fordable . in any place, a body of about 
three hundred Kippen and Galloway men — for 
a great many had come from Galloway 3 — were 
appointed to defend Bothwell-Bridge, by which 
alone the stream could be crossed at that place. 
This bridge was high and narrow, with a portal, or 
gateway, in the middle, which the insurgents 
strongly barricaded. 4 In spite of all the attempts 

1 Laing, kc. 

2 .Some accounts State, that .the rebel army amounded to 
eight thousand men. 

3 Wodrow — Ivirkton. 

4 "The old and celebrated bridge orer the Clyde at Bothwell, 
which has been long an obiect of intense interest, was then very 
different from what it at present appears It was a long narrow 
bridge of four arches, about one hundred and twenty feet in 
length ; and the breadth., exclusive of the parapet, was only 
twelve feet. It was paved with round unhewn stones, lesem- 
hling the ancient Roman roads in this country. In the centre 
it was foititied by a gateway, as was often the case in those 
times with bridges, and a man resided in a small house at one 
extremity to attend to the passage acioss. This yateway tosb 
from the pier nearest the south east bank, and the keeper's house 
stood at the other extremity — the house also serving as a kind 
of inn or travellers' rest, affording, as is often naively depicted on 
tiie sign-boards of country publics at the present time, entertuin. 

. f - man and horse. Thtee-fourths of the bridge were left 
unprotected by the gateway upon that side from which any an- 
noyance might proceed. Such was the far-famed Bothwell 
Br'idtre in 1679, and such it continued till 1^26, although th« 
gate-way jcate, and the hostelry of the warden of the bridge. 


of the Royalists, this important pass was bravely 
defended for about two hours, by Rathillet and 
the Covenanters, when their ammunition began to 
fail. They then despatched a messenger to Ham- 
ilton, their commander-in-chief, imploring him 
either to supply them with more ammunition, or 
send troops, fresh and properly provided, for con- 
tinuing the defence. Instead of complying with 
their wishes, lie gave orders that they were to quit 
the bridge, and retire to the main body of the 
armv. These brave men obeyed the command of 
their superior with much reluctance and with heavy 
hearis — for they considered, that their only chance 
of success depended upon the opposition which 
could be given in that quarter. 

The Duke now commanded the whole army to 
pass the bridge, and draw up, behind the cannon; 
on the south side. Hamilton made no attempt to 
attack them during this movement. When Cap- 
tain Weir, of Greenridge, saw a body of the royal 
forces forming on the south side of the river, he 
wheeled about his troop, and, being joined by a 
Galloway party, commanded by Captain M'CuI- 
loch, proceeded to attack the enemy. Hamil- 
ton, perceiving their intention, immediately rode 
up to Weir, and said, " What do you mean, Cap- 
tain? Will you murder these men?" Weir 
answered, he thought he could give a good account 
of some horse that had crossed the river — especfc 
ally ; s they were only forming. When Hamilton 

had linen Ion',' removed, when, during the summer of the year 
now mentioned, twenty two feet were added to t lie original 
breadth of twelve on the upper side, and thus, depriving it of 
nearly all its former features, it was converted into a Imial and 
level stincture corresponding to the excellent roads with which 
it is connected." — Historical Tales of the Scottish Wars, 


found that the Captain's men remained resolute, 
he addressed the Galloway troop ; and, by magni- 
fying \hc difficulties and dangers they would have 
to encounter, prevailed with them to give up 
the enterprise — and Captain Weir was thus oblig- 
ed to retire. 1 The royal artillery now began to 
play upon the insurgent cavalry on the left. They 
were thrown into confusion, and made a retrograde 
movement — either for the purpose of avoiding the 
enemy's shot, or of retiring from the conflict. A 
general panic immediately pervaded the whole 
cavalry, and Hamilton, with about sixteen hun- 
dred men on horse-back, fled from the field. The 
King's forces, seeing the Covenanters in this un- 
protected state, advanced rapidly upon their ranks; 
and they stood a few minutes, in a state of impo- 
tent and distracted indecision, — without, as Burnet 
says, " the courage to fight, the sense to flee, or 
the prudence to submit." At length, when the 
horse and Highlanders were on the point of charg- 
ing their line, they gave way, without resistance : 
about twelve hundred surrendered prisoners of 
war. Almost all the horse escaped; and many of 
those on foot found a temporary security in the 
woods and banks of the rivers. Notwithstanding 
the humane disposition, and merciful intentions, of 
the Duke of Monmouth, about four hundred were 
killed after the battle. This slaughter happened 
principally through the activity of Claverhouse 
and his men, who were burning with the desire of 
revenge, owing to their recent defeat at Drumclo^.'- 

1 Wodrow. 

2 Crookshank. — Scott — .Wodrow. — Laing Kirktou — Hind 

Let Loose, &c. 


Both the English dragoons and Scottish Highland- 
ers behaved with much cruelty. 

Mr Gordon of Earlston, ignorant of the fate 
of his friends, was on li is way to join tho insur- 
gents; but a party of English cavalry met him, 
and put him to death. 1 His family, perhaps the 

1 Earlston was buried in Glassfjrd Hunch yard. A pillar 
■without an inscription was raised over Lis grave 

When Mr Gordon had collected some friends to join the insur- 
gent army, and was passing the castle ot Thrieve !)•' thus address- 
ed them: — '"Gentlemen, i was the man that commanded the 
party which took this castle from the late king, who had in it 
two hundred of the name of M ixwell, of whom the greatest part 
being Papists, we put then; all to the sword, and demolished the 
castle as you see it, and now (tho&gh an old man) I take up 
arms against the son, whom 1 hope to s^e go the same way that 
his father went; for we can never put trust in a covenant- 
breaker ; so, gentlemen, your cause is good — you need not fear 
to fight against a forsworn king." — (Rye. house plot.) Before 
the castle was taken by Gordon, King Charles I. addressed the 
following letter to the E^rl of Nithsdale, the governor: — 
" Chailes R. 

"Right trusty and well-belovei cousin and councillor, we 
greet you well. Understanding by this bearer, that although 
you were agreed with those that have beleagured you in Car- 
javerock upon honourable terms, for your coming forth and ren- 
dering thereof, yet thai those conditions aie not valid until such 
time as they be ratified by those that have made themselves 
members of the great Committee in Edinburgh, and fearing that 
your enemies there will not give way to your coining forth upon, 
such good terms, we are therefore graciously pleased, and by 
thesv presents do permit and give you leave to take such condi- 
tions as yon can get, whereby the lives and liberties of yourself, 
your family, and those that are with you, may be preserved : 
and in case they should urge the surrender of our castle of 
Thrieve, which hitherto you have so well defended, ' s and we wish 
vou were able to do so still,) our gracious pleasure is, that you 
do rather quit the same unto them ; which, if so, the necessity 
lequire you to do on the best and most honourable terms you 
can, rather than hazard the safety of your own person, and those 
with you ; and in such case this shall be your warrant and 
discharge. Given at our court at York, the 15th day of Sep- 
tember, in the sixteenth year of our reign, 1640, — Grose's ' 
Antiquities of Scotland. 

See Appendix (Y) 


first in Galloway that had given countenance to- 
the Apostles of the Reformation, still continued 
distinguished for their piety and independence. I 
His son, Alexander, was in the action, and narrowly 
escaped being- taken. When passing through 
Hamilton, one of his former tenants recognized 
him, and requested him to dismount : he followed 
the advice so seasonably given, and, having got 
into the house, put on female apparel. In this 
disguise, he betook himself to the simple oc- 
cupation of rocking a cradle, and thus passed un- 
noticed by his enemies. 2 As if the death of 
Earlston had not been a sufficient expiation for 
his rebellious conduct, his lady's jointure was seiz- 
ed — h er house again plundered— and her children 
carried off. This battle was fought on the 22d of 
June, 1679. 

Immediately after the defeat at Bothwell- 
Bridge, a number of the leading men of the insur- 
gent army fled first into Galloway. Here, they 
expected that the whole inhabitants would rise in 
arms ; but, after having traversed the country for 
some time — generally sleeping in the fields — they 
received intelligence of the approach of Claver- 
house, and left the district to find safety in another 
quarter. 3 

On the 26th of June, the Privy Council issued 
a proclamation, discharging all persons from assist- 
ing, resetting, or corresponding with, any of the 
rebels, under pain of treason. Amongst the de- 

1 Si John Gordon of Earlston, Bart., whose beautiful man- 
sion is situated in the paiish of Borgue, now represents the 

2 Ciookshank. — Wodrow, &c. 

3 Russell's Account Kiikton. 

See Appendix (Z) 


nounced were, Maclellan of Barscobe, Gordon of 
Earlston, and M'Douall of Freuch ; with Stewart 
of Ravenstoneand Stewart of Castle- Stewart, bro- 
thers to the Earl of Galloway. The Earl's bro- 
thers subsequently made it appear, to the satisfaction 
of the Council, that they had not been engaged in 
the rebellion. I 

After the battle the prisoners were generally con- 
veyed to Edinburgh, and placed in the Grayfriars' 

Proclamation against rebels, June 26th, 1679. 
5 "Charles, by the grace of God, king of Great Britain, France 
and Ireland, defender of the faith : to all and sundry our lieges 
and subjects, whom these presents do or may concern, greeting. 
Forasmuch as, upon the first notice given to oui privy council 
of the iisirrg and gathering of these disloyal and seditious per. 
sons in the west, who have of late appeared in arms in a despe. 
rate and avowed rebellion against us, our government and laws, 
we did declare them to be traitors, and discharged all our sub. 
jects to assist, reset, supply, or correspond with any of them, 
under the pain of treason : and the said lebels and traitors, being 
now (by the blessing of God upon our forces) subdued, dissipat. 
ed, and scattered ; and such of them as wer.e not either killed or 
taken in the field, being either retired secretly to their own 
homes and houses, expecting shelter and protection from the re. 
spective heritors, in whose lands they dwell, or lurking in the 
country ; and we, being unwilling any of our good subjects 
should be ensnared, or brought into trouble by them, have there, 
fore, with advice of our privy council, thought fit, again to dis. 
charge and prohibit all our subjects, men or women, that none 
of them offer or presume to harbour, reset, supply, correspond 
with, hide or conceal the persons of M'Clellan of liarscob, Gor. 
dons of Earlston elder and younger, M'Douall oi Freugh, the 
iaird of Ravenstone brother lo the Earl of Galloway, the laird 
cf Castle. stewart brother to the said earl, Cannon of Mardrogat, 
Mr Samuel Arnot, Mr Gabriel Semple, Mr John Welsh, Gordon 
of Craichley, &c, or any others who concurred or joined in the 
late rebellion, or who, upon the account thereof, have appeared 
in arms in any part of this our kingdom. And to the end all 
our good subjects may have timeous notice hereof, We do or. 
dain these piesents to be forthwith printed, and published at 
the market crosses of Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Stirling, Lanark, 
Ayr, Ruther len, Glasgow, Irvine, Wigton, Kirkcudbright, 
Dumfries, Cowpar in Fife, Jedburgh, Perth, &c. 

Alex. Gibson, ('!. Seer. Concilii. 


church-yard. In this enclosure, which wag sur- 
rounded by sentinels, they were forced to lie on 
the cold ground, in the open air, and without almost 
any protection from the wind and rain. Each man, 
at first, received Lis daily allowance of a loaf of 
coarse bread, weighing four ounces, and a little 
ale ; but, after the Duke of Monmouth left Edin- 
burgh, the ale was discontinued, and water given 
in its stead. 

In the meantime, Graham of Claverhouse march- 
ed into Galloway, with some English dragoons 
and several troops of Scottish cavalry, and, peram- 
bulating the whole district, forced, by his harsh 
conduct, the terrified inhabitants to desert their 
homes, and seek safety in flight. During the ab- 
sence of the men, their property suffered much. 
Their helpless wives and children were maltreated 
— their houses plundered — their horses seized — ■ 
and every thing valuable carried away. At this 
time, Mary Gordon of Roberton experienced much 
savage treatment. At first, the soldiers pillaged 
her house, and seized her cattle ; but, they a- 
gain returned, and, having apprehended herself 
and her only son John — then a boy — with two 
of her servants, conveyed them to prison. Her 
two servants were subsequently transported to A- 
merica ; while she and her son languished in con- 
finement for a considerable time.' On her account, 
Iter tenants, too, were grievously and wantonly 
oppressed. One of them, in particular, of the name 
of Sproat was plundered and afterwards fined in 
£20, merely for speaking to his son, who had fought 
at the. battle of Bothwcll Bridge. In the parish 

1 Ciooksliank. — "Wodrow. 


of Carsephairn, the large sum of £50 was wrung 
from a poor widow, because some of her enemies 
alleged, that her servant had been engaged in the 
unfortunate insurrection.! 

When the prisoners had been kept a short time 
in custody the Privy Council resolved, in conse- 
quence of instructions from the King, that such of 
the less guilty of the rebels as would sign a bond, 
obliging themselves not to take up arms against 
his Majesty or his authority, should be set at liberty. 
The great majority subscribed the bond, and ob- 
tained their liberation : but about four hundred 
refused, and were detained in their uncomfortable 
place of confinement. Amongst the number who 
rejected the bond, was Andrew Sword, weaver, in 
the parish of Borgue. When questioned, he re- 
fused to acknowledge the late insurrection, a rebel- 
lion, or the assassination of Archbishop Sharpe, a 
murder. This individual, along with some others, 
was removed to the tolbooth of Edinburgh, and in- 
dicted to take his trial before the High Court of 
Justiciary. Here, he judicially confessed he had 
been taken in arms ; and, the bond being again 
offered to him, he declined to subscribe it. — 
The jury found him guilty, in terms of his own 
confession; and the judge sentenced him and 
four others to be hanged at Magus-Moor, where 
the Archbishop of St. Andrews had been murdered : 
their bodies were ordered to be hung in chains. This 
sentence was carried into execution ; and Andrew 
Sword declared, on the scaffold, that he was entirely 
innocent of the death of Sharpe, having never, to 
his knowledge, even seen a bishop. After singing 

1 Wodrow 


the 34th Psalm, he blessed God for preserving him 
from signing- the " ensnaring bond," and bade fare- 
well to all sublunary objects. The bodies of the 
whole five were, at first, suspended in chains, ac- 
cording to their sentence ; but, being afterwards 
allowed to be interred, in a field near Magus- 
Moor, a grave-stone, with a suitable inscription,! 
was erected over their remains, in October, 1738. 

The Duke of York, Charles's brother, having 
arrived in Edinburgh, on the 24th of November, 
was admitted a Privy Councillor, without taking the 
usual oaths. He came to Scotland to supersede 
Lauderdale in the government; and though, at 
first, he assumed the garb of moderation, yet, at a 
subsequent period, he exhibited acts of severity 
which completely eclipsed the merciless deeds of 
his predecessor. 

In 1680,2 Government used the armed rising at 

1 The following is a copy of the inscription : 

'Cause we at Bothwell did appear, 

Perjurious oaths refused to swear ; 

'Cause we Christ's cause would not condemn, 

We weie sentenced to death by men, 

"Who raged against us in such fury, 

Our dead Lodies they did not bury ; 

But up on poles did hing us high, 

Triumphs ot Babel's victory. 

Our liven we fear'd not to the death 

Kut'constant proved to the last bieath. 
"When the grave *totie was set up, in October, 1738, the chains 
were taken out of their graves, and some of their bones and 
clothes were found uudecayed — 49 years alter their death " 

Cloud of Witnesses 
As the epitaphs of the martyrs were generally composed by 
illiterate country people, the diction is sometimes harsh, and the 
metre unharmonious.- 

2 " James Aitkins, or Aiken, was translated from the see of 
Moray to that of Galloway, 6th February, 1G80, with dispeusa. 


Bothwell Bridge as a pretence for oppressing the 
people of all ranks, who refused to conform to Epis- 
copacy. The landed proprietors of Galloway ap- 
pear the first who were visited with the penalties 
of the law. On the 18th of February, Patrick M<- 
Doual of Freugh, Mr William Ferguson of Kait- 
lock, William Gordon, elder, and Alexander Gor- 
don, younger, of Earlston, James Gordon, young- 
er, of Craichlaw, William Gordon of Culvennan, 

Patrick Dunbar of Machermore, and M'Ghie 

of Laro-, were called before the Justiciary Court s 
and hired witnesses having deposed to their acces- 
sion to the rebellion, they were, in consequence, 
found guilty, and ordered to be executed, when 
taken, and their property confiscated to his Ma- 
jesty's use. Mr Gordon of Earlston had been killed 
after the action, but the prosecution was conducted 
against him, that his estates m\A\t be forfeited. 

Another criminal process was commenced in 
June, 1680, against the following gentlemen, for 
being accessory to the rebellion ; namely, John 
Bell of Whiteside, John Gibson of Auchinchyne, 
Gibson younger of Ingliston, Gordon of Dundeugh, 
Grier of Dalgoner, Smith of Kilroy, M'Clellan of 
Barmagachan, Thomas Bogle of Bogles-hole, 
Baird, younger of Dungeon-hill, Gordon of Craig, 
Lennox of lrelandton, Gordon of Barharrow, John 

tion («ays Wood in his Athen. Oxon.) to reside at Edinburgh ; 
because it was thought unreasonable to oblige a reverend prelate 
of his vears to live among such a rebellious and turbulent people 
as thoee of that diocese were, &c. He so carefully governed this 
diocese, partly by his letters to the synod, presbyteries, and sin. 
gie ministers, partly by a journey he made thither, that, had he 
resided in the place, better order and discipline could scarce he 
expected. He was very zealous in opposing the taking off the 
penal laws. He died at Edinburgh, of au apoplexy, 28th Octo- 
ber 1687, aged 74 years." — Keith, 


Fullarton of Auchinhay, David M'Culloch, son to 
Ardwell, William Whitehead of Mill ho use, John 
Welsh of Cornley, Neilson of Corsack, Robert 
Maclellan of Barscobe, Samuel Maclellan, his bro- 
ther, Fullarton of Nether-mill, George Macartney 
of Blaicket, Gordon of Garrerie, Gordon of Knock- 
gray, Herron of Little-park, Gordon of Holm, 
Gordon of Overbar, John M'Naught of Culfad, 
Murdoch, alias Laird Murdoch, and John Binning 
of Dalvennan. Cannon of Mardrogat, who had 
been gained over by the Government, appeared as 
a witness against nearly all of them. The verdict 
of the jury declared them guilty of the crime libel- 
led; and, though none of them were present, the 
court pronounced the ordinary sentence — forfeiture 
of life and property. The estates of some other 
landed proprietors in Galloway were also declared 
confiscated at this period. 

Graham of Claverhouse received a commission 
from the Privy Council, to seize the moveable 
effects of all in Galloway, who had been engaged 
in the insurrection, or had fled from the iron grasp 
of the law. His brother, Cornet Graham, and some 
others, were deputed by him to perform this duty, 
who visited almost every parish, and made the 
strictest inquiry respecting the Bothwell- Bridge 
insurrection, as well as regarding every species of 
nonconformity. In particular, a court was held 
at New Galloway, by Cornet Graham, when all 
between the ages of sixteen and sixty were ordered 
to appear, under the severest penalties, and declare, 
upon oath, how many conventicles they had attend- 
ed — what clergymen had preached — who had been 
present — and whose children had been baptized. 
These courts proved the source of much trouble 
and loss to the people of the district. 


In consequence of those rigours, and the perse- 
cuting activity of the prying curates, l in the sou- 
thern districts of Scotland, the Episcopalian clergy 
became extremely obnoxious to popular hosti- 
lity; and, to ameliorate their condition, the King 
issued the following instructions to the Privy 
Council : — " Seeing we are informed, that the re- 
gular ministers in Galloway, and some other western 
places, are exposed to great danger, from the fury 
of some blind zealots among whom they serve, and 
that even the necessaries of life, and the help of 
servants and mechanics, are denied unto them for 
their money, you are, in a most particular manner, 
to consider their present case, and to consult their 
protection, and the security of their persons in the 
best manner, and to see that the sheriffs, justices, 
and other magistrates be careful to have them de- 
fended and secured in their persons and goods, and 
the necessaries for living furnished and supplied 
unto them at the usual and ordinary rates of the 
country, to the end that they may be effectually 
relieved, and that our ancient kingdom may be 
vindicated from any just imputation of so great and 
barbarous inhumanity. Given at our court at 
Windsor castle, the 14th day of May, 1680, and 
of our reign the 32d year. By his Majesty's com- 
mand, "Lauderdale." 

From the moment an Indulgence was granted to 
a portion of the Presbyterian clergy, discontent 
and division made their appearance amongst? the 
Covenanters. The preachers who had not been able 
to obtain toleration, and also those who declined to 
accept of it, v/ere generally regarded as adhering 

] Wodrow, 
TOL u. T 


most strictly to the cause for winch the people had 
Struggled and suffered, during the long period of 
civil contention ; and many of the most violent of 
the ministers asserted, or, at least, insinuated, that 
their more yielding brethren had forsaken their 
former principles, and degenerated into the state 
of abject renegades. The moderate Presbyterians 
professed perfect loyalty to their sovereign ; but 
the intemperate party now began openly to avow, 
that little reverence was due to the person or 
authority of a monarch, who had invaded their 
rights, and outraged their feelings, by a series of 
unparalleled persecutions. At the head of this 
class, were Cargill and two brothers of the name of 
Cameron, from whom the sect derived the name of 
•Camcronians. The issue of the late unfortunate 
insurrection, with the severities by which it had 
been succeeded, confirmed their opinions, and in- 
duced them to form themselves into a distinct socie- 
ty and renounce their allegiance. A paper was 
accordingly framed, containing their sentimentsand 
intentions, but it fell into the hands of their enemies. 
A considerable party of them, however, repaired 
to the little burgh of Sanquhar; and, on the 22d. 
of June, 1680, they read a declaration, in which they 
affirmed, that the King, by his tyranny and perjury, 
had forfeited all right to the crown ; and that they 
would continue to use every endeavour to dethrone 
him, as a usurper, and carry on interminable war 
against all his adherents. 

A violent proclamation immediately appeared, 
denouncing the leaders of this infatuated band, and 
offering a reward for their apprehension. Parties 
of soldiers were sent through the country in quest 
of the traitors; and, under the pretence of disco- 


vering tliem, nil whom they suspected of having- been 
at Both well, or even of nonconformity, were severe- 
ly harassed, and the whole country almost depopulat- 
ed. A band of Cameronians, consisting- of about 
sixty individuals, being- overtaken at Airsmoss, by 
Bruce of Earlshall, were attacked ; but, though 
they defended themselves with much bravery, they 
sustained a defeat. Mr Richard Cameron was kill- 
ed, and Hackston of Rathillet taken prisoner, who 
suffered death by the hands of the executioner, 
under circumstances of vindictive and appalling 
inhumanity. 1 

This encounter afforded a pretext for shedding 
more blood. On the 4th of August, John Mal- 
colm, from the parish of Dairy, in Galloway, was 
brought to trial, before the Court of Justiciary, 
and sentenced to be executed in the Grassmarket, 
for be'uvr en^a-red in the encounter at Airsmoss. 
The sentence was carried into execution, and he 
confessed he had been in arms at Bothwell-Bridge. 2 

1 To exhibit to the reader a true picture of the unrelenting 
barbarity and fiendish malignity of the times, we shall here intro- 
duce Wodiow's description of the execution : — " The sentence 
was executed with great solemnity and seventy, though he was 
a gentleman of good descent, excellent parts, and remarkable 
piety, and his body terribly mangled, and he dying of his wounds. 
After his hands were cut off, whieh he endured with great firm, 
ness and patience, he was drawn up to the top of the gallows 
with a pulley, and, when choked a little, let down alive within 
l's reach, who opened his breast with a knife, and 
pulled out his heart, which moved on the scaffold. Then the 
itioner stuck his knife in it, carried it about the sta^e, and 
I it 10 the spectators, crying, * This is the heart of a 
traitor.' And then the rest of the sentence was executed." 

'2 11 is dying Testimony may be seen in the Cloud of Witnes 
ses, in which these singular expressions occur. 

" The cause of my coming here this day, is because I was 
id with the poor persecuted handful. * * The Lord de- 
termined me to join myself to that party, I who have lived a 


►Strict search was now made for the followers of 
Cameron — particularly in the parishes of Carse- 
pliairn and Dairy, where all who were suspected of 
viewing their principles with a favourable eye be- 
came the objects of violent persecution. Robert 
Cannon of Mardrogat, from his local knowledge, 
was extremely serviceable to the military. He had 
been at Pentland, but he afterwards apostatized, 
and became the blood-thirsty enemy of his former- 

In the month of December, the Privy Council 
ordered a garrison, consisting of thirty horsemen, 
to be placed in the castle of Viscount Kenmure. 
Another garrison was appointed to be settled in 
the house of Freugh, in Wigtonshire. Garrisons 
were placed in particular mansions, for the double 
purpose of punishing proprietors suspected of dis- 
affection, and overawing the surrounding popula- 
tion. The Council now endeavoured to obtain a 
pardon for William Gordon of Culvennan, who 
had been implicated in the late rebellion. 1 

The Duke of York, 2 exasperated at some popu- 
lar exhibitions against Popery, completely threw off 
the flimsy guise of moderation, in the beginning of 
1681, and Galloway became more and more the seat 

stranger to him all mv days. O wonderful love ! O wonder a^ 
the matchless acts of the Lord's condescendence' and incompre- 
hensible ways with me ! that he has made choice of such a poor 
Ji ail pickle of dust as I am; * * to give my testimony to his 
work, cause, and interest and has passed by the eminent, wise, 
and prudent in the land, and has made choice of such a feckless 
nothing as I am, but blessed be his glorious name." 

1 Crook shank. 

•J When the Duke of York returned to Edinburgh, after vis. 
iting his brother the great cannon, Mons-Me_ r , which was fifed 
on the occasion, burst : this was looked upon as an uuluck} 


of military courts. Cornet Graham held one at Dairy, 
and acted in a very harsh and arbitrary manner. An- 
other court, of a similar nature, was held at Kirkcud- 
bright, by Grierson of Laggand Thomas Lidderdale 
of St. Mary's Isle, who fined many persons for 
crimes, of which they were found guilty only through 
the unfair instrumentality of their judges. 1 Numbers 
of people, summoned as witnesses from the coun- 
try, were forced to attend week after week, to the 
great loss of their time and injury to their business. 
Mr Blackader was apprehended at this time, and 
examined before a committee of the Council . 
They at last sent him to the Bass, where he re- 
mained until his death, which happened about five 
years afterwards. 2 

] Wodrow. 

2 On a tomb-stone erected to the memory of Mr Biackader> 
at North Berwick, is this inscription : — 

Here lies the body of Mr John Blackader, minister of the Gos 
pel at Troqueer, in Galloway, who died on the Bass, after 
five years' imprisonment, anno Dom., 1685. and of his age- 
sixty-three years. 

Blest John, for Jesus' sake, in Patmos bound. 
His prison Bethel, Patmos Pisgah found; 
So the blest John on yonder lock confin'd, 
His body suffer 'd, but no chains could bind 
His heay'n aspiring soul: while day by day, 
As from mount Pisgah's top he did survey 
The promis'd land, and yiew'd the crown by faith 
Laid up for those who faithful are till death : 
Grace forrn'd him in the Christian hero's mould, 
Meek in his own concerns, in's Master's bold, 
Passions to reason chain'd, prudence did lead, 
Zeal waim'd his breast, and reason cool'd his head. 
FiV'' years on the bare rock, yet sweet abode. 
He Enoch like enjoy'd, and walk'd with God; 
Till, by long living on this heavenly food, 
His soui by love grew up, too great, too good 
To be confin'd in jail, or flesh, and blood : 
Heath broke his fetters, off then swift he fled 
Frooi sin and sorrow, and by angels led, 


In April, a new and severe proclamation appear- 
ed against conventicles, though Mr Cargill was the 
only remaining clergyman who ventured to call or 
countenance such meetings.! This pious individual 
was soon apprehended, and publicly executed as a 
traitor. When brought to the scaffold, he said, 
" This is the sweetest and most glorious day that 
ever my eyes beheld ;" and, when he set his foot 
upon the ladder, he added, " The Lord knows, I 
go up this ladder with less fear and perturbation 
of mind than ever I entered the pulpit to preach." 
The drums beat, to prevent his words from being 
heard by the multitude : whilst praying, lie was 
turned over by the executioner. 

The Scottish parliament, after an interval of 
nine years, sat down on the 28th of July, 1681 — 
the day after the execution. 

This parliament passed several acts, none of which 
proved acceptable to the people of Scotland. But 
the act which attracted most public attention was 
the Test. The bill was brought in on the 31st of 
August ; and, though it contained matters requir- 
ing the most serious and mature deliberation, it 
was passed, by a majority of seven, at one sitting. 
It ordained, that all individuals filling public situa- 
tions, or those whom the Government suspected 
of disaffection, should be required to take an oath, 
(somewhat contradictory in itself,) which virtually 
obliged them quietly to submit to oppression — 
implicitly to acquiesce, even in the overthrow of 

Enter'd the mausinns of eternal joy. 

Blest soul ! thy warfare's o'er ; praise, love, enjoy : 

His dust here rests till Jesus come again, 

Ev'n so, bless'd Jesus ! come, come, Lord ! Amen. 

Cloud of Witnesses. 
1 Hinl Let Loose. 


the Protestant faith, — and cordially sanction any 
measure the sovereign might wish to accomplish. 
This oath was viewed as the evidence of loyalty 
— the open avowal of passive obedience. 

When the Test Act was seriously examined, 
many even of the Episcopalians felt extremely dis- 
satisfied with the propositions which it contained. 
Paterson, Bishop of Edinburgh, however, drew up 
a modifying explanation, which was immediately 
converted into an Act of Council. Although this 
explanation tended, in some measure, to remove 
the formidable opposition which it had encounteredj 
yet nearly eighty of the most enlightened of the 
Episcopalian clergy retained their original opini- 
ons concerning it; and, being deprived of their 
benefices, took up their residence in England. 

The lay part of the community showed equal 
aversion to the prescribed Test. The Earl of Ar- 
gyle refused to take the oath, without a qualifica- 
tion, and would have suffered death on that account, 
had he not escaped : he joined the Earl of Stair 
and Fletcher of Saltoun, in Holland — to which 
country they had fled from the deplorable despotism 
which existed in their own land. The Earl of Niths- 
d:de refused to take the Test, and was deprived of his 
office. He was succeeded, as Stewart of Kirkcud- 
bright, by Lord Livingstone and Sir Robert Max- 
well. Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw likewise 
declined the Test, and was succeeded, as heritable 
Sheriff of Wigtown, by Graham of Claverhouse. 
Viscount Kenmure, being deprived, for the same 
reason, of the heritable regality of Tongland, was 
succeeded by Graham of Claverhouse : and, the 
Earl of Galloway, for refusing to take the oath, 


was divested of the regality of Whithorn : the 
Earl of Queensberry became his successor. 

On the 27th of January, 1682, Graham of Claver- 
house arrived in Galloway to execute some military 
orders, which he had received from Government. 
He obtained permission, for this purpose, to make 
use of the mansion belonging- to Sir John Dalrym- 
ple, and the house in Kirkcudbright possessed by 
•Sir Robert Maxwell. I On the 30th of January, he 
received a commission to call before him such per- 
sons, in the shires of Wigtown and Dumfries, and 
the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, as deserted the 
public ordinances in their parish churches, frequent- 
ed field conventicles, or committed similar disor- 
orders, " to the scandal of religion and contempt 
of the Government."^ 

Robert Maclellan of Barscobe, Major Lear- 
mont, and some others, who had been tried in their 
absence and condemned, were apprehended, and 
ordered to be executed at Edinburgh, on Wednes- 
day the 12th day of April. Interest, however, 
being used in their behalf, their lives were spared. 
Barscobe, it is said, made some concessions, and 
was afterwards of service to Government. Lear- 
mont was sent to the Bass. 

In September, a party of soldiers repaired to 
Kirkcudbright, to obtain possession, for Lord Liv- 
ingstone, of the forfeited estates which had been 
granted to him. Claverhouse's troopers, in a 
few weeks, took up their residence at Kenmure 3 

1 A house thought to be the same, is still standing near the 

2 Wodrow. 

3 The following is a literal copy of Claverhouse's letter to 
Lord Kenmure on this occasion : — 

" My Lord, — It is a good tyme since the last Chancelor wrot 


To exhibit the transactions of the soldiers in their 
true light, we shall here insert an order given 
to a sergeant in Kirkcudbright, by Thomas Lid- 
derdale of St. Mary's Isle : — " Sergeant Percie, 
in obedience to my Lord Livingstone's commands 
to me, you are hereby ordered to go with your fif- 
teen dragoons, presently under your comn.and, 
and quarter them proportionally, as you think con- 
venient, upon the pretended heritors of Macartney, 
and tenants thereof, the pretended heritors and pos- 
sessors of Bar, (with glaisters pertaining thereunto,) 
ay and while they come into Kirkcudbright to me, 
and take tacks oi the haill foremen tioned lands 
from me, in the name of George Lord Livingstone, 
donatar of the same : and not only find caution for 
the yearly rent thereof in time coming, but also 
make payment of all bye-gones, preceding the term 
of Whitsunday last, from Both well. You are to 
exact free quarter during your abode, and, if need 
be, to take what you stand in need of for your pro- 
vision from them, without prejudice to any other* 
You are also to dispossess and remove the Lady 
Holm, younger, forth of the lands of Macartney, 

to your Lordship, by order of Counceli to make raid and void 
your house of Kenmur, for to receive a garrison : and when 1 
cam into this contry som moneths agoe, it was then in debeat 
wither or not the garison should enter, but it was put af at my 
Lord treasurer's deseir, and my undertaking to secur the contry 
from rebelles without it; but this sumerthe councell thought fit 
to give me new orders about it. Wherefor, my Lord, I expect 
your Lords, will remove what you think not fit to leave there, 
for the yarison must be in by the first of November. I expect 
your Loide's answer, and am, 

my Lord, 

Newton, the '21 your most humble 

of October. Servant, 

J. Graha". 

" Fur the Viscount Kenmure." 


and to cause some of your party to possess the same 
till farther orders. And you are not to remove 
from any of your quarters, till such time as you 
receive my order of new for that eifect. Subscrib- 
ed, for warrant, at Kirkcudbright, the 23d day of 
October, 1GB2. 

" Tho. Lklderdale." 

In December, a considerable number of gentle- 
men belonging to Galloway were cited to appear 
before the Justiciary Court, for being engaged in 
the Bothwell insurrection, that their heritable pro- 
perty might be seized and disposed of by the Go- 
vernment. Failing to attend and answer to the 
charge brought against them by his Majesty's ad- 
vocate, several witnesses were examined, for the 
sake of form, who deposed, that they had seen them 
in arms at different places. The jury returned a 
verdict finding them all guilty ; when the Lords 
adjudged William Grierson of Crochmore, James 
Welsh of Little Clowdon, John Brown, heritor in 
Newton, Henry M ; Culloch of Barholm, Halliday 
of Mayfield, Mr Thomas Warner, l sometime min- 
ister of Balmaclellan, George Gordon, second son to 
the Laird of Holm, Alexander M'Naught, young- 
er of Overton, Anthony M'Kie of Glencuird, Mr 
Samuel Arnot, late minister of Tongland, James 
Crighton of Hole of Balwhassie, Hare of Orroland, 
Alexander Hunter of Colwhassen, Andrew Mar- 
tin of Little Ellies, Alexander M'Kie of Drum- 
buy, and Fullarton of Senwick, to be executed to 
death, when apprehended, and " appoint their 
names, fame, and memory to be extinct." Alex- 

I Mr Warner's name appears in history in different forms ; 
viz., Warner, Vainer, and Vernor. 


ander M'Kie of Drumbuy and Anthony M'Kie 
of Glencaird, already in custody, were ordered 
co be executed at the cross of Edinburgh. None 
of them, however, suffered death. I 

Andrew Heron of Kirouchtree was called before 
the Council in January, 1683, for conversing with 
his son and son-in-law, who had been implicated 
in the Bothwell insurrection; but, feeling ashamed 
to take away his life, they fined him in five thous- 
and marks — which sum he was compelled to pay. 

In February, the Council deprived Sir John 
Dalrymple of Stair of his bailiery of Glenluce — 
fined him in £500 Sterling — and ordered him to 
be confined in the Castle of Edinburgh till payment 
was made. Nothing appears to warrant this 

During the months of March and April, Colonel 
Graham was extremely active in endeavouring to 
discover the followers of Mr Cameron ; and vast 
multitudes, in many parts of the kingdom, were 
under the - necessity of leaving their houses and 
concealing themselves. As many had retired into 
the mountainous parts of Galloway, the searches 
which the military made there, became extremely 
vexatious to the people of the country. Often, 
they suddenly visited a house, during the night; 
and, if any person was observed to withdraw, the 
unseasonable intruders rifled the dwelling of what- 
ever suited their taste. Spies were retained and 
paid by the military, to give information concern- 
ing the haunts of the wanderers. One John Gib, 

1 During this year, William Graham was shot, while endea- 
vouring to escape from his mother's house, by a party of Claver- 
Boldiera ; he was interred in the church-yard of Kclls, 
and a -tunc placed upon his grave. 

'2 Wodrow — Crookshank. 

248 HISTORY , 

became very serviceable, in this respect, to Cla- 
verhouse, in Carsephairn and some of the neigh- 
bouring parishes. lie travelled through the coun- 
try, selling little books and sermons, and pretended 
friendship to the sufferers ; but they afterwards 
detected and exposed him as an impostor. 

On the 12th of Mry, David Graham was ap- 
pointed joint sheriff of Wigtownshire with his bro- 
ther, John Graham of Claverhouse. Their powers 
were extensive. 1 

Alexander Gordon of Earlston, who had made 
so singular an escape after the battle of Bothwell, 
was apprehended, on the last of May or first of 
June, at Newcastle, on his way to Holland, to vin- 
dicate his party from some aspersions that had been 
cast upon them. He had been joined with his 
brother-in-law, Robert Hamilton, in a commission 
from one of the general meetings of the societies 
of Covenanters, to repair to Holland, that he might 
represent the circumstances of those people to 
the Reformed Churches. 2 

1 Caledonia. 

2 The Test Act had given much offence to many in the 
south of Scotland, and they resolved to oppose it by every means 
in their power, Meetings for that and other purposes were held 
over the country, which formed themselves into permanent so- 

It was resolved, that a correspondence should run 
circular through the whole societies of the nation, every fourteen 
days, or at least every month. 

When there were several societies in a shire, it was resolved 
that they were to endeavour to keep a correspondence among 
themselves, by one or two persons sent from each society in the 
shire, to a place and at a time appointed, especially, presently 
before, and presently after every general meeting, for the pur. 
pose of determining matters of importance. 

It was fixed that every quarter of a year there should be a 
general meeting of persons, to be called commissioners, sent from 
all the societies in the different shires. 

The first general meeting was hold at, in the 


Antecedent to this, a pretended conspiracy liad 
been discovered, called the Ryehouse Plot, tor the 
purpose, it was represented, of assassinating the 
King- and the Duke of York. When Earlston, 
with his servant, Edward Atkins, was apprehended, 

parish of Lesmahago, in Clydesdale, on 15th December, IG81. 
The second general meeting was held at Priest-hill, in the parish 
of Muirkirk of Kyle, and the third at Ayr, on 15th March, 1682 
at which Alexander Gordon of EaHstoun was one of the Com. 
missioners from Galloway. It was determined that the honour 
able Alexander Gordon of Earlston, should be sent ''Commission 
ate" to foreign nations, to represent the low state of the Reform- 
ed Church in Scotland, — arid that money to defray the expenses 
of that mission should be forthwith collected and foi warded to 

Although this resolution was in pursuance of one made in the 
former meeting at Logan-house, that the Commissioners there 
.should seek advice from their societies, about sending some a. 
broad to the reformed churches, for making known to them the sad 
stale of the Church in Scotland ; yet the appointment of Earlston 
was strongly opposed on the ground of his not being a proper 
•person to manage matters of such importance. Sir Andrew 
Young protested against the appointment, and was joined by 
the representatives of several societies in Clydesdale, and Te- 
viotdale, who raised great contention, both by "ivord and write," 
which caused the matter to be deferred till the next general 
meeting at Fala linn, in the- parish of Tweedsmuir, in Tweeddale, 
on the 15th June, 1682. The debate there became so hot, re- 
specting Earlstou's going abroad, between the one party and the 
pther, that they separated — the one party going to one part of 
the field, and the other party to another. However, those 
who adhered to the resolution alter wards drew together, and 

•approved of what had been done at the former meeting 

Money was accordingly collected and sent to Edinburgh, to 
defray the charges of Earlston when he was abroad. He there, 
fore set out by way of London for the Netherlands. 

At the next general meeting held at Edinburgh, on the 1 1th of 
August, 1682, it was judged proper that the honourable Alexander 
Gordon, of Earlston, should be desired to settle his affairs abroad, 
and to deliver his commission into the hands of his much honoured 
brother, Robert Hamilton,* which was opposed : but it was 

*" Robert Hamilton was brother to the laird of Preston. Co 
whose sister Earlston was married. 



on board a ship bound for Holland, lest his papers 
should be seized by his enemies, he threw them 
into the sea. But this act being- observed, they 
were picked up, and both he and his attendant 
removed to Newgate. 1 The Government expected 
great discoveries from the seizure of Earlston's 
papers, but they unfolded nothing- of any import- 
ance. His servant was afterwards condemned and 
executed for merely conversing, or holding inter- 
course, with Earlston. 

Mr Gordon was sent to Scotland, and his pro- 
cess before the Justiciary occupied but a short 
time. As he had previously been condemned, 
they now only appointed a day for his execu- 

fmallv agreed, that Earlston and Hamilton should be conjunct, 
of which Mr James Renwick was appointed to apprise them. 
Their station appears to have been at Leewarden in Friesland. 

"i his appointment was very agreeable to Earlston, as Mr 
Hamilton had been there longer than he had, and of coarse, had 
more experience and was very active " in piocuring help for the 
suffering friends at home, from the bauds of strangers." 

At a General Meeting, 14th February, 1683, it was resolved 
that Earlston should be called home, in regard th;it several 
weighty affairs railed for his presence ni the next general ineet- 
intr, which was to be held at Carntable on the 2nd of May fol- 

Earlston attended the general meeting accordingly, and 
gave a lull account of his diligence abroad, aud they weie 
so satisfied with all his proceedings, that " it was resolved, that 
a conjunct commission should be drawn, including Alexander 
Gordon, and Robert Hamilton, that they might go further abroad 
to give information of the state of the Reformed Church in Scot- 

This commission being drawn up, wns, with other papers, de- 
livered to Earlston, who forthwith set cut for Newcastle, where 
he embarked for Holland ; but as parsing Tyne-Moutb, some 
waiters came on board, and upon being challenged by them, 
Earlston afraid of the seizure of his papers, threw the box con- 
tainrng them over-board, which not sinking as he expected, was 
t^iken, and he himself made prisoner. (Faithful Coutendings 

1 Crookshank, &c. 


tion, and he was ordered to be beheaded at the 
cross of Edinburgh, on the 28th of September. 
As the Privy Council had been disappointed in 
making any discoveries from Earlston's papers, 
they endeavoured to extort some information from 
himself by torture ; but, doubting the legality of 
torturing a person under sentence of death, his 
Majesty's advocate was applied to for advice.— 
The answer of this officer was, that no man 
could be tortured upon interrogatories relating 
to the crime for which he was about to suffer ; 
but that any one might be tortured concerning 
crimes committed after his condemnation. Accord- 
ingly, on the 25th of September, Mr Gordon was 
examined; but, as he had declared he would be 
ingenuous and communicative, the instrument of 
torture was only placed beside him, not applied. 
No particulars respecting the conspiracy were 
elicited ; for, indeed, he knew nothing of the 
matter. He admitted that there had been confer- 
ences amongst the well-wishers of their country, a- 
bout the proper methods of rescuing it from slavery ; 
but nothing had ever been mentioned of assassi- 
nating the King or the Duke of York; no scheme 
of a plot had been fixed on ; no preparations made; 
no arms or horses purchased ; and no individuals 
appointed to execute any plans against the King or 

In consequence of a letter from the King, Earl- 
.ston was subsequently ordered to be tortured ; 
but, when the Council were about to put him into 
the boot, he became so dreadfully and ungovern- 
ably furious as to frighten the whole court. — 
Physicians being called in, pronounced him de- 
ranged, and advised that he should be sent to the 


castle, for the benefit of a change of air. In. about 
eight days lie recovered, and, through the interest 
of the Duke of Gordon — a sincere friend — his life 
was preserved. After being reprieved from time 
to time, he was at last sent to the Bass, where, in 
company with his excellent lady. 1 he sometimes, 
enjoyed mure, and sometimes less liberty, until the 
Revolution restored him to society. 

During this year, several individuals were ap- 
pointed by royal proclamation to hold courts, and 
press the Test upon all whom they suspected of 
disaffection. Cornet Graham opened a court at 
Balmaghie. and the people of that and the neigh- 
bouring parishes received orders to meet in the 
church, where he treated them with much rudeness 
and severity. If by cross-examination any thing 
could be extorted from them, they were harshly 
used, and upon refusing to take the Test, im- 
prisoned or banished. Sir Robert Grierson, Laird 
of Lagg, held a court at the Old Ciauchan of 
Dairy, and tyrannically forced many to take, or 
even renew the oath. 

Thomas Lidderdale of St. Mary's Isle, held a 
court in Twynholm, and acted likewise in a severe 
and arbitrary manner. He visited the house of an 
old man apparently in a dying condition, and having 

1 "Janet Hamilton, daughter of Sir Thomas Hamilton of 
Preston, was born ]2lh June, 1653, mairied 1 I th November 
lj676, to Alexander, afterwards Sir Alexander Gordon of Earl. 
ston, Bart , the worthy representative of a family long- distin- 
guished for its patriotic struggles in the cause- ot civil and religi- 
ous liberty, and dipd 27th February, 1 i>:*T- She shared the per- 
secutions of hei husband at home and abroad. Her character, 
has been eulogized by th il historian of the Church of 

Scotland (Wodrow), and I : religious meditations in the soli- 
tary dungeons of the BaSshjive beei frequently republished under 
the title of ' Lndy Eat lston's Soli '"— Anderson's History 

•i the Ham ikons. 


accused him of absenting himself from the parish 
church, required him to take the Test. The poor 
man refused, and the soldiers drove away his cow, 
and threatened to carry himself to prison. A sim- 
ilar court sat in Kirkcudbright. 

The year 1684, was a period of unexampled cruel- 
ty and blood. This year and the following, from 
the judicial murders and horrid assassinations, be- 
came afterwards distinguished by the appellation of 
the killing-time. The fines wore exorbitant; and the 
curates, in many instances, acted more like the emis- 
saries of Satan than the servants of Christ. At a 
court held in Kirkcudbright, Mr Colin Dalgieish, 
the curate, performed a very unfeeling and partial 
part. James Martin was fined in a thousand pounds 
Scots, for his wife's absence from church ; which, 
being unable to pay, he was thrown into prison, 
where, from bad usage, close confinement, and 
mental dejection, he soon died. 

On the 3d of January, a Justiciary Commission 
was issued, conferring on James Alexander, sheriff- 
depute of Dumfries, the eldest bailie of the town 
of Dumfries, Thomas Lid l-.u\la!e, stewart-depute 
of Kirkcudbright, David Graham, Bruce of Abbots- 
hall, Cornet William Graham, and Captain Stra- 
chan, the power of capitally trying and judging 
such persons in Kirkcudbright. Wigtown, Dum- 
fries, and An nan dale, as had been engaged in -the 
late rebellion — had treasonably justified the same 
— -or disowned the authority of the sovereign. 
They farther received powers to hold courts when 
and where they pleased, and execute justice upon 
the guilty. Heritors were exempted from their 

The Council ordained, bv an act of the 23d of 


July, tliat, when any person by their order should be 
put to the torture, both the boot and the thumb- 
kins,' called "a now invention," were to be applied' 

Courts continued to be frequently bold by the 
commissioners. O.te was opened by the Laird of 
Lagg, in the church of Carsephairn, and Mr Peter 
Pierson, the curate, zealously assisted. At this 
time, the insolence of the soldiers became un- 
bounded. A barbarous aet of Council was made 
in August, ordering all sentences of death to be exe- 
cuted three hours after bein^ passed. An act was 
likewise framed, constituting* the owning' of the 
Covenant — the refusing to declare Bothwell insur- 
rection a rebellion, — or the declining to call the 
Primate's death a murder, a capital offence. 

The south of Scotland now presented a miser- 
able aspect. But the ancient followers of Mr 
Cargill, who had united into a society and made 
choice of Mr Renwickfor their minister, were, in 
a peculiar manner, exposed to the vindictive fury 
of the Government. Sea-ports were shut up, to 
prevent their escape from the kingdom — they were 
hunted, like beasts of prey, by the meiciless sol- 
diers — the whole population were sworn to inform 
against them, and prohibited '\ >m affording them 
any sustenance or shelter — secret spies were hired 
to discover their lurking places, and detect those 

1 l; The Council nr<> n i in calling the tbumbkins 'a 

new invention ;' thev are th the thumbscrews which 

were found on board th ■ armada; specimens of which 

are shown in the Tower < London. Wodrdw. 

" This instnimenl te and parallel hori. 
zontal bars, with a ham '. which moved the upper 
bar towards the lower one, i unfortunate anti- 
digits that might be i 1 . i given by this 
instrument was sn excj - • bore all other 
torture, failed to bear this." Chambers' Journal. 


wild seemed disposed to alleviate their miseries — 
thev were removed beyond the pale of the law — 
and no terms were to be allowed them, until they 
should renounce their principles, and outrage their 
conscience, by taking such oaths as they considered 
would involve them in the guilt of perjury. 

Driven to despair, they, at last, rashly published 
a manifesto against their ruthless oppressors. It 
is generally known by the name of Apologelical De- 
claration. This paper, composed by Mr Ren wick, 
was calculated to work upon the fears of their ene- 
mies, In it they abjured Charles Stewart, as a 
heartless tyrant, and announced their determination 
to treat, as enemies to God, all who openly shed 
their blood, or endeavoured by secret information 
to promote their extirpation. This Declaration, 
which produced a strong sensation through the 
whole country, they affixed, during the night, to 
many of the church doors and some of the market 

This fruitless act of hostility roused the murder 
ous fury of the Government, and the assassination 
of two soldiers of the guards, 1 by persons unknown 
and never discovered, called forth an order of 
Council, which virtually enjoined a general mas- 
sacre of the party to whom their death was attri- 

The following is the act of the Privy Council, 
by which the military were empowered to kill the 
Cameronians in the fields, without the formality of 
any legal proceedings. " The lords of his majesty's 
privy-council do hereby ordain any person who 
owns, or will not disown the late treasonable de- 

1 A sentinel was killed about this time at the door of the 
tolbooth of Kirkcudbiijl.t. 

256 HlSTORTi 

claration upon oath, whether they have arms or not, 
to be immediately put to death ; this being always 
done in presence of two witnesses, and the person 
or persons having commission to that effect." The 
Commissioners here spoken of, were the olficers of 
the army, and even the common soldiers took a 
general licence from this inhuman act. 

On the second of December, 1684, the indulged 
ministers were compelled to grant a bond, not to 
exercise any of the duties of the pastoral office in 
Scotland; those who refused to comply being cast 
into prison. 

Numbers in the meantime, were indicted for 
owning, or rather refusing to disown, the Apolo- 
getical Declaration. James Graham, Tailor in the 
parish of Crossmichael, in Galloway, was seized on 
the highway by Colonel Graham of Claverhouse and 
a party of soldiers. Having nothing to lay to his 
charge, they searched his person and found a bible 
in his possession. This was looked upon as a sure 
indication of disloyalty ; and, hurrying him from 
place to place, because he would not answer their 
questions in a satisfactory manner, they put him in 
irons at Dumfries. He was at last taken to Edin- 
burgh, condemned, and executed, merely for de- 
clining to give an opinion concerning the Declara- 

Claverhouse, lately admitted a privy- councillor, 
displayed at this time, in Galloway, extraordinary 
zeal in the revolting service of the Government. — 
On the 18th of December, he came with a party 
to the river Dee, and surprised six of the destitute 
wanderers, in a place called Auchincloy, in the 
parish of Girthon. Here he ordered Robert Fer- 
gusson, John M'Michan, Robert Stewart, and 


John Grier, or Grierson, to be instantly shot. The 
bodies of three of them were afterwards carried off 
and buried at Dairy, by their friends, which irritat- 
ed Claverhouse so much, that he despatched some 
of his soldiers to disinter the bloody corpses, and 
they continued exposed during several days; James 
M'Michan's body being' suspended from a tree. 1 
Robert Fergusson was interred on the spot where 
he fell.- William Hunter and Robert Smith, 

1 Wodrow — Crookshank. 

"A tombstone in the church. yard of Dairy points out the 
place where the remains of two of them are deposited : it bears 
the following inscription :" — . 

■• Here Lyeth Robert Stewart, (Son to Major Stewart of 
Ardoch,) and John Grierson, who were mwrlhered by Grahiime 
of Claverhouse, Anno 1684, for their adherence to Scotland's 
Reformation and Covenants, National and Solemn League.' 
" Behold! Behold! a stone's here forced to cry, 
• Come see two martyrs, under me that ly' 
At water of Dee, they ta'en were by the hands 
Of cruel Claverhouse, and's bloody hands: 
No sooner had he done this lion id thing, 
But's forc'd to cry ' Stewart's soul in heav'n doth sing!' 
Yet, strange ! His rage pursued even such when dead, 
And in the tombs of their ancestors laid — 
Causing then corps be rals'dout ot the same, 
Discharging in church-yard to bury them; 
All this they did; — 'cause they would not perjure, 
Our Covenants and Reformation pure: — 
Because like faithful martyrs for to die, 
They rather chose, than treacherously comply 
With cursed Prelacie, the Nation's bane. — 

And with indulgenci ■, our church's stain 

Perjured Intelligencers were so rife, — 

Shew'd their curs'd Loyalty — to take their life." 

2 A humble tombstone marks his grave with this inscription. 
Here lyes Robert Ferguson, who was surprized and instantly 

shot to death on this place, by Graham of Claverhouse, for his 
adherence to Scotland's reformation, Covenants national and 
solemn League. 

A monument which cost about £50 was lately erected at the 
place where they fell. The height of it is 30 feet 2 inches. It 


were carried* prisoners to Kirkcudbright, where 
a jury was called, and the empty forms of a 

is square and built of granite. The Rev. Robert Jeffrey, minister 
of the parish, preached an impressive sermon at Auchincloy, on i\it 
16th of August, 1835, when n collection was madefi>r defraying 
the expense of the laudable undertaking. Speaking of the Co- 

ters, t b « • ilev. gentleman eloquently said ; " We must as. 
with them in their secret meetings, nnd join in their 

jgjvitigs, and have fellowship with their prayers, an^ listen 
to the glowing-, conscience-moving, find heart. stirring exhorta- 
tions of their gifted and beloved pastors; and when base inform- 
er.-, employed by .-till baser officials of government, had led the 
blood hounds of the Council to their retteats, and these, the fit 
instruments of such masters, had butchered some, apprehended 
others, and dispersed the rest, we must accompany the fugitives 
to the desert, seldom tiodden bv the human foot, and where they 
might well have supposed thov should be undisturbed by any 
in the human form, We must visit them ' in dens and 
( aves of the earth, in weariness and painfnlnees, in watchings oi 
ten, i;i hunger and thirst, in fastings often, i.i cold and nakedness.' 
We must, as in the tiagedy acted on Oixh very wild, a cental y 
and a half ago, — see them surrounded by their implacable foes, 
and the circle gradually contracting till no opening is left for es- 
cape, and the prey is taken. We must behold part of the fre- 
quently unarmed and unresisting servants of Chri-i, put to death 
on the spot, without even the forms ot what was impiously called 
I i.v, and another porti..:i of them bound and carried off with the 
view of being tiied by a summary process, to which was given 
the name of judicial procedure, and murdered legally. We 
must follow the latter to the judicatory, where the brutal ad- 
ministrators of justice might scowl and blaspheme, but not in. 
spite fear; where the trimming, mercenary public prosecutor 
might brow beat and' threaten, but not ruffle the composure of 
innocence, where torture might extort the groan of I 
anguish, but not the confession of guilt, for it existed not ; where 
the limbs weie crushed, but the spirit remaiued unbroken : and 
from the Gabbatha I them 

in their trial to the Scottish Golgotha, rejoicing that 'they 
were counted worthy to suffei shai ame;' interrupted 

in their last acts of devotion by a barbarous soldiery; sealing 
their testimony with then blood, and dyi( g in the sustaining 
conviction, that the Lord wnuld yet arise and have mercy on 
Zion, ami that the time to favour her, yea, the set time, would 
assuredly come." 

inscription os the new eton:.. 
In memory of the martyrs, R. Fergusson, J. M'Michan, R. 


trial gone through. As a matter of course, 
they were both found guilty, and sentenced to be 
first hanged and afterwards beheaded. During 
their confinement, they were not allowed to 
write even to their relations. When on the scaf- 
fold, the sound of drums prevented their words 
from being heard by the sympathizing spectators. 
They were buried in the church-yard of Kirkcud- 
bright, and a stone still marks the spot where their 
mutilated remains rest in peace. l Two others found 
in their company at Auchencloy, fortunately made 
their escape. The soldiers who were engaged in 
the pursuit, got notice that the objects of their 
vengeance had sought refuge in a house at no 
great distance. But their cruel hopes were dis- 

Stuart. and J. Grierson, who fell on this spot, 18th December, 
1684 ,1'rom a collection made here,on the lfcitli August, 1835, and 
the profits of a sermon afterward* published ; preached on that 
day by the Rev. R, Jeffrey, of Girthon. Daniel, iii. 17. 8 
1 Upon a grave stone lying on the corpse of William Hunter 
ami Robert Smith, who were sentenced and hanged at Kirk- 
cudbright, anno 1684, by Captain Douglas, Graham of Claver. 
house, and Captain Bruce. 

This monument shall show posterity, 
Two headless martyrs under it do ly 
By bloody Graham were taken and surpris'd, 
Brought to this town, and afterwards were siz'd ; 
By unjust law were sentenced to die. 
Them first they hnng'd, then headed cruelly. 
Captains Douglas, Bruce, Graham of Claverhouse, 
Were these that caused them to be handled thus : 
And when they were unto the gibbet come, 
To slop their speech, they did beat Dp the drum, 
And all because they would not comply 
With Indulgence, and bloody Prelacy. 
In face of cruel Bruce, Douglas, and Graham, 
They did maintain, That Christ was Lord supreme 
And boldly owned both the covenants, 
At Kirkcudbright thus ended these two saints. 
To render them intelligible, we have corrected the orthc. 
graphy of some words in the inscriptions. 


appointed, for when they readied the place where 
they expected to find the trembling fugitives, they 
received information that the poor men had never 
sat down, and had almost instantly departed. — 
Enraged at this account, they took the inmates 
prisoners and burned the house to the ground. 
These severities, it is thought, were occasioned, 
in some measure, by an event which had recently 
occurred at Kirkcudbright; the Cameronians had 
effected the rescue of some of their brethren, from 
the bloody fangs of their cruel persecutors. 

Many were the other awful penalties inflicted at 
this time upon the people of Galloway. It would 
expand this work much beyond the limits originally 
assigned to it, to particularize but half of the 
diabolical acts this year committed. We cannot, 
however, refrain from mentioning one or two in- 
stances more of wanton barbarity. The son of 
an old woman of 73, in the parish of Carsephairn, 
had been cited, in 1680, for hearing Mr Cameron, 
but he failed to appear and was intercommuned. 
Her house was then pillaged ; and at this time 
the soldiers returned, but not finding the son, they 
carried the mother to Dumfries. There they offer 
ed her the Test, which, through the persuasion of 
her friends, she was on the point of taking ; but they 
insisted farther upon her to swear that she would 
never speak to her son again. With this proposi 
tion she would not comply, and upon the next 
market day she was scourged through the town of 
Dumfries. To such an extent did they carry their 
enmity, that, before they consented to her liber- 
ation, they forced her to pay two hundred marks. 

On the 30th day of December, a proclamation 
.was issued against the Apologetical Declaration, 


which commanded all the inhabitants of the country 
to abjure it, or in other words, to swear that they ab- 
horred, renounced, and disowned it. This was 
known by the designation of the Abjuration 
Oath. Upon taking it, they were entitled to a 
certificate of loyalty which enabled them to pass 
unmolested through the kingdom. This oath gave 
rise to much suffering. 

John Carson of Balmangan, in the parish of 
Borgue, had been imprisoned and fined for refusing 
the bond ; and his lady was now, likewise, imprison- 
ed by Colonel Douglas, and indicted for refusing 
the oath of abjuration. It was currently reported 
and also believed, that her judges intended to drown 
her within the sea-mark, at the ferry of the town of 
Kirkcudbright. At length, however, the King's 
death, put a stop to the proceedings against her. 

The beginning of 1685 presented a dismal pros- 
pect to the inhabitants of Galloway. This unfor- 
tunate district of Scotland was now treated as if 
it had been a revolted province. It was over-ruu 
and possessed by a soldiery composed of the very 
dregs of the people; for the army had become the 
great recipient of the profligate, the reckless, and 
the sanguinary. No place afforded an asylum from 
the intrusion of these infamous agents of destruction 
—these messengers of death. Sequestered caves 
of the mountains, and hidden dens of the forest, 
escaped not the eager search and keen inspection of 
such blood-hounds. The poor man's house was 
not his castle of defence ; and even innocence 
of life, coupled with inoffensiveness of demeanour, 
yielded no protection against their tyrannical visits. 
Mutual confidence among the people became al- 
most annihilated, and man shunned the society 
vol.. ii. W 


of man, as if a destructive pestilence pervaded 
the land, spreading in all quarters its deadly poison. 
Multitudes were murdered every month, without 
the tedious formality of a trial; for inter arma silent 
leges. Hanging, shooting - , drowning - , torturing, 
and cutting off the ears, were works of constant 
recurrence. Some >vere sent to Jamaica and sold 
as slaves, whilst others were immured in unwhole- 
some dungeons, where watchful soldiers stood in 
endless succession to keep them from sleeping.) 
The highway and the desert, the fruitful field, and 
the barren moor, were alike subject to danger. 
At this period the abjuration oath was violent- 
ly pressed upon people of every sex and age. — 
Captain Strachan, who commanded the garrison in 
Earlston, by his inhumanity, forced many of the 
inhabitants of Dairy and other parishes, to leave 
their homes and become houseless wanderers. — 
The Laird of Lagg and Captain Douglas displayed 
much activity and severity at this melancholy pe- 
riod. Douglas unmercifully harassed the parish 
of Twynholm. A small tenant there was com- 
pelled, after much cruel treatment, to take the oath 
of abjuration, and afterwards the soldiers hurried 
him to a neighbouring parish, in order to assist 
them in discovering the fugitives. Upon the road 
they met a poor man who would not be prevailed 
upon to answer their questions or take the hat- 
ed oath : he was instantly ordered to be shot. — 
The other countryman earnestly entreated Captain 
Douglas to examine him farther before they des- 
patched him ; or, at least, to give him a little time 
lo prepare for eternity; but, instead of granting this 

1 Hind Let Loose, — Part ii. Sufferings of the Last Period. 
p. 199. 


reasonable request, they beat and otherwise abused 
the tender-hearted suppliant so much, that he died 
in a short time. A party of soldiers, about this 
time, made dreadful havoc in Crossmichael ; having 
seized many of the inhabitants, amongst whom 
were several women, they conveyed them to prison, 
and sent some of them to the plantations. They, 
also, burned many articles of furniture and imple- 
ments of husbandry. 

Lieutenant Livingston, with a party of dragoons, 
committed many depredations and acts of barbarity 
in the parish of Tongland. The soldiers made 
strict search for all who would be inclined to re- 
fuse the oath. A lad about 18 years of age, 
named John Hallume, perceived at some distance 
this party traversing the country, and stepped aside 
from the path on which he was walking, that he 
might not be met by such a banditti. They ob- 
served his movement and immediately pursued him, 
Without asking a single question, they fired upon 
him and wounded him : he was again barbarously- 
wounded on the head by a sword. They then 
carried him a prisoner to Kirkcudbright, where 
they ordered him to take the abjuration oath. Up- 
on his refusal, a jury of soldiers being called, 
found him guilty, and he was executed in the 
usual manner. His body was interred in the 
church-yard of Kirkcudbright. 1 Every person that 
endeavoured to evade the scrutinizing observation 
of those rapacious and regardless ruffians, was con- 

1 Wodrow. — A small stone points out his grave with the fol. 
lowing inscription. 

Here lyes John Hallume, who was wounded in his taking, 
and by unjust law sentenced to lie hanged. All this done by 
Captain Douglas, for his adherence to Scotland's Reformation 
Covenants nationall and Solemn League. 1GS5. 


sidered as confessedly guilty, and instantly butcher- 
ed. When William Auchinleck, who had accom- 
panied a friend during a part of his journey to Ire- 
land, was returning- on horse-back to the place of his 
residence in the parish of Buittle, he unfortunate- 
ly met a company of Douglas's foot, coming 
from Kirkcudbright. Afraid lest they should 
seize his horse, he rode from them to a safe dis- 
tance, whilst they continued calling upon him to 
stop. Taking a circuitous path, he got past them 
without receiving any injury, and pursued his jour- 
ney until he came to the inn at Carlingwark; when 
imagining he was beyond their reach, he partook 
of a little refreshment, still sitting on horse-back. 
But some of the soldiers who had proceeded by a 
shorter road, came upon him, while in the act of 
drinking a little ale, and shot him upon the spot. 
This man was a conformist, and had complied with 
the injunctions of the Government in every par- 

A boy, who happened to be at the inn, was in 
the act of mounting his horse, to proceed with 
Auchenleck, but, upon hearing the report of the 
guns, it became frightened and threw him. The 
soldiers came up, and without asking a single 
question, put him to death, and afterwards took his 
horse and what money he possessed. 1 

Mr Pierson, curate of Carsephairn, having given 
great offence to the surrounding country, by his 
overbearing conduct, was universally detested. He 
had been a notorious informer, and promoter of perse- 
cution, as well as a bold, surly, and ill-natured man. 
After the Apologetical Declaration appeared, many 

1 Wodrow. 


of the most unpopular of the Episcopal clergy had 
sought safety in retirement. Some time previous 
to this, a few individuals had entered into a combi- 
nation, to compel him to give a solemn promise, 
under his hand, that he would desist from pursuing 
violent courses against the Whigs. Two of their 
number went to his house, and, after gaining ad- 
mission, communicated to him the purport of their 
visit. He immediately armed himself with a sword 
and pistol ; and then placed himself between them 
and the door, to prevent their escape. Two of 
their associates who were armed, being within hear- 
ing of what passed, knocked at the door s and when 
Pierson w< r s preparing to attack them, they shot him 
dead. This fatal act was said to be done in self de- 
fence. On the 17th of January, the Council com- 
manded the parish of Carsephairn to be prosecuted 
for the murder of their minister; and, on the same 
day, the inhabitants of Anwoth were ordered like- 
wise to be prosecuted by the Advocate, for some 
affronts they had offered their curate. 

So little sacred were the lives of individuals held 
during this awful period, that the soldiers often in- 
dulged, not only in single murders, but in whole- 
sale massacres. On the 23rd of January, James 
Dun, Robert Dun, Alexander M'Aulay, Thomas 
Stevenson, John M'Cleod, and John Stevenson, 
whilst engaged in prayer at Caldons, in the parish 
of Minnigaff, were surprised by Colonel James 
Douglas, Lieutenant Livingston, and Cornet Dou- 
glas, with a party of soldiers, and immediately 
shot I 

1 " There is a small monumental stone in the farm of Caldons 
near the House of the Hill in Wigtownshire, which is highly ve- 
nerated as being the first erected to the memory of several reli- 


On the 6th of February, King Charles II. died, 
and was succeeded by his brother James VII., pre- 
viously Duke of York. Being a professed Roman 
Catholic, he never took the coronation oath, which 
secured the maintenance of the Protestant religion. 


Notwithstanding the death of Charles, the work 
of murder still proceeded. Captain Bruce having 
surprised six Presbyterians in a field at Lochin- 
kit-moor, in Kirkpatrick-Durham, on the 19th of 
February, ordered William Heron, John Gordon, 
William Stewart, and John Wallace, to be shot on 
the spot. 1 Alexander M'llobin, or M'Ubio, and 
Edward Gordon, were carried to the bridge of Urr, 
where Lagg was administering the abjuration oath. 
Bruce proposed to try them by a jury, but Lagg 
objected. Next day they were conveyed to a place 
near the church of Irongray, and hanged upon an 
oak tree, 2 according to his orders. When the 
executioner asked forgivenness, M'Robin said, 

gious persons who fell at that place in defence of theii religious 
tenets. " Waverly Novels, vol. ix, p. 232. 

The late Rev. Gavin Rowatt, of Whithorn, preached a 
sermon at Caldons, and a collection was made for erecting anew 
monument to the memory ot the martyrs. The place is close to 
Loch-Troul, betwixt Minnigaff and the hordeis ol Ayrshire. It 
is a very wild and romantic spot. 

Inscription on the new stone, 

In memory of six martyrs who suffered at this spot for their 
attachment to the covenanted cause of Christ in Scotland, 
January 23d, 1C85. 

Erected by the Voluntary Contribution of the Congregation 
who waited on the ministrations of the Rev. Gavin Rowatt of 
Whithorn. Lord's day, August 19lh, 1827. 

1 A grave-stone has been erected to the memory of those 
persons in the moor of Lochinkit. The gravestoue is surround- 
ed by a wall, and planted with trees all round between the mo. 
nument and that fence. 

2 Tradition reports that the tree never bore leaves afterwards. 


" Poor man, I forgive thee and all men ; thou hast 
a miserable calling upon earth." 1 

In the end or February, Sir Robert Grierson of 
Lagg, who commanded a party of cavalry, sur- 
prised John Bell, of Whiteside, David Halliday, 
portioner of Mayfield, Andrew M'Kobert, James 
Clement, and Robert Lennox, of Irelandton,- 
upon the hill of Kirkconnel, in the parish of Tong- 
land, and notwithstanding their earnest entreaties, 
barbarously killed them : he would not allow their 
bodies to be buried. Mr Bell was the only son of 

1 " From a collection made after an impressive sermon preach- 
ed at the spot in 1832 by the Rev. G Burnside, now, (1840.) 
Minister of Urr, the graves of these martyrs, Edward Gordon 
and Alexander M' Cubbin, have been surrounded by a hand. 
some enclosure of stone. 

It may be here observed that a monument in the church- 
yard of Irongray, erected to the memory of Helen Walker, by 
Sir Walter 8cott, bears the following inscription. 

This stone was erected by the author of Waverly to the me. 

mory of Helen Walker, who died in the year of God, 1791 

This humble individual practised in real life the virtues with 
which fiction has invested the imaginary character of Jeannie 
Dean* ; refusing the slightest departure from veracity, even to 
save the life of a sister, she nevertheless showed her kindness 
and fortitude, in rescuing her fiom the severity of the law, at 
tne expense of personal exertions which the time rendered as diL 
ticult as the motive was laudable. Respect the grave of pover. 
ty when combined with love of truth and dear affection. 

2 Inscriptions on their tombstones, 

Fpon the grave-stone in the church. yard of Anwoth, lying 
on the coipse of John Bell of Whiteside, who was most bar- 
barously shot to death at the command of Douglas of Morton, 
and Giierson ol Lagg, in the parish of Tongland in Galloway 
anno [665. 

This monument shall tell posterity, 

That blessed Bell of Whiteside heie doth ly ; 

\V ho at command of bloody Lagg was shot; 

A murder strange which should not be forgot. 

Douglas of Morton did him quar teis give ; 

Yet cruel Lagg would not let him survive. 

This martyr sought some time to recommed 

His soul to God, before his days did cud ; 


the heiress of Whiteside. After the death of his 
father, the lady married Viscount Kenmure. — 
Lagg knew Mr Bell well, yet, he peremptorily 

The tvrant said, ' What devil! ye ve pray d enough 

These long seven years, on mountain and in cleugh. 

So instantly caus'd him with other four, 

Be shot to death upon Kirkconnel muir. 

So thus did end the lives of these brave saints, 

For their adhering to the covenants. 

Epitaph upon the grave-stone in the churchyard of Balm a- 
ghie, upon the corpse of David Halliday, portioner, of M iy field, 
shot by the Laird DfLagg, February KiS.5, and of David Halli. 
dav in Glengap, shot by tlie Laird of Lagg and the Earl of An- 
nandale in the same year 168.5. 

Beneath this stone two David Ilallidays 

Do ly, whose souls now sing their Master's praise. 

To know, if curious passengers desire, 

For what, by whom, and how they did expire? 

They did oppose this nation's perjury, 

Nor could they join with lordly prelacy. 

Indulgence favours fiom Christ's enemies 

Quench not their zeal : this monument then cries, 

These are the causes, not to be forgot, 

Why they by Lagg so wickedly were shot 

One name, one cause, one grave, one heaven to tye 

Their soul to one God eternally. 

Inscription on the grave stone of Andrew M ; Robert, in Twyn. 
holm chinch yard. 

Here lyes Andrew M'Robert, who was surprised and shot to 
death in the parish of Tongland, by Grier of Lairg, for his ad- 
herence to Scotland's Reformation, Covenants National and So- 
lemn League. IGSj. 

Inscription on the old grave stone at Kirkconnel Moor. 
Here lyes James Clement, who was surprised and shot to death 
on this place bv Grier of Lag for his adherence to Scotlands 
Reformation, Covenants National and Solemn League. 

Part of the Inscription on the new monument. 
In testimony of the feelings of the present generation, on the 
1 1 th of September, 1831, about ten thousand persons assembled 
here, and after hearing an excellent sermon, preached by the 
Rev. John Osborne, from Psalms lxxiv. verse 22nd, contributed 
a fund, for the erection of this monument, to the memory of 
these maityrs. (Alexander Murray, Esq. of Broughton, having 
handsomely given the ground,) four of whom were carried to 


refused to give him one quarter of an hour to pre- 
pare for his solemn change. " What" ! cried he, 
with an oath, "have you not had time enough for 
preparation since Both well?" A short time after 
tins diabolical deed, Viscount Kenmure upbraided 
Grierson for his detestable cruelty, particularly, for 
not allowing the body of his murdered relation to 
be interred. Lagg rudely answered with au oath, 
"Take him if you will and salt him in your beef 
barrel." The Viscount, provoked beyond bounds, 
drew his sword and would have run it through 
the body of the murderer, had not Claverhouse in- 
terfered, and saved the life of this sanguinary per- 

At this gloomy period, Mr Peden had been shel- 
tered for some time at Priesthill, in the house of 
John Brown, by profession a carrier. On the 
morning of the 1st of May, this celebrated indi- 
vidual took leave of his host and wife, repeating, 
" Poor woman, a fearful morning — a dark and misty 
morning." These words were afterwards consider- 

their respective burying places ; but James Clement, being a 
stranger, was interred in this spot. 

Death broke their fetters, off then straight they tied, 
From sin and sorrow ; and, by angels led, 
Enter'd the mat sions of eternal joy; 
Blest souls your warfare'3 done praise lore enjoy. 

Robert Lennox's tombstone stands against the east gable of 
the old church ofGiithon, at the entrance to Mr Murray's tomb, 
which is under the chuich. It has this Inscription. 

Within this tomb lyes the corpse of Robert Lennox some time 
in Irelandtoun, who was shot to death by Grier of Lagg, in the 
paroch of Toungland, for his adherence to Scotland's reforma- 
tion, covenants national and solemn League, 1685. 

1 The place where Kenmure, Claverhouse, and Lagg, met, was 
on the street, at the door of an inn, opposite to the house at pre- 
sent possessed by William Ireland, Esq., of Barbey. Part of 
the walls of the inn are still standing, the house having been but 
lately unroofed. 


ed prophetical ; and, for the purpose of exhibiting 
the callous atrocity of Claverhouse in its true colours, 
and the magnanimous fortitude of the Christian 
sufferers, we shall give a short narrative of this 
melancholy transaction. After Mr Peden's de- 
parture, John Brown, — usually called the Christian 
carrier, — went to the fields with a spade in his hand ; 
but being suddenly surrounded by a party of horse 
under the command of Colonel Graham, he was 
brought back to his own house. Although, in ge- 
neral, the prisoner had an impediment in his speech ; 
yet, at this trying hour, his demeanour was so 
composed, and his utterance so firm, that Claver- 
house inquired whether he had been a preacher, 
and was answered in the negative. " If you have 
not preached," said the tyrant, " muckle have you 
prayed in your time." But betake yourself now to 
your prayers for the last time, for you shall die 
immediately. When the destined victim had 
finished his devotions, Claverhouse desired him 
to bid farewell to his wife, who was standing 
near with an infant in her arms. Brown turn- 
ing towards her, and taking her by the hand, 
calmly told her that now the hour which he 
had mentioned when he first asked her to marry 
him, was come. The poor woman answered with 
some firmness, "In this cause I am willing to resign 
you." " Then I have nothing to do but to die," he 
replied, "and I thank God I have not been unpre- 
pared to meet death for some years." Graham then 
gave the fatal order, and he was shot dead by a party 
of six soldiers, at the end of his own house. 1 Though 

1 It has been said that the soldiers were so struck with the 
good man's prayers, they refused to obey the dreadful order, 
and Claverhouse became the executioner, by shooting hiin with 
his pistol. 


his poor wife was a woman of no great strength of 
nerve, and used to sicken at the sight of blood, yet 
she witnessed the dreadful scene without fainting 
or distraction ; but as she afterwards mentioned, 
her eyes dazzled when the carabines were fired 9 
and she lost sight of every surrounding object. — 
While the bleeding corpse lay before her, Claver- 
house said, " Woman, what do you think of your 
husband now?" "I ever thought much of him," was 
her answer, " and more now than ever." " It were 
but justice" said the murderer, " to lay thee beside 
him." " I doubt not" she replied, " if you were per- 
mitted, your cruelty would carry you that length ; 
but how will you answer for this morning's work ?" 
"To man I can be answerable" said the hard hearted 
destroyer, " and I shall take Heaven in my own 
hand." He then mounted his horse, and left her 
in a solitary part of the country with the dead body 
of her husband lying beside her, and her fatherless 
infant in her arms. She placed the child on the 
ground, tied up the corpse's shattered head, stretch- 
ed the lifeless limbs, and, covering the body with 
her plaid, sat down and wept over it. Mr Peden's 
words at parting, were viewed by many as appli- 
cable to this calamitous and tragic event. 1 

History hardly furnishes a parallel in barbarity, 
to an execution which took place near the town of 
Wigtown, on the 11th of May, 1685. The two 
women who innocently suffered death at this time, 
were Margaret M'Lauchlan and Margaret Wilson. 
Gilbert Wilson, Margaret's father, lived in Glen- 
vernoch, belonging to the Laird of Castle-Stewart, 
and was an Episcopalian : her mother also regularly 
attended the parish church. Their children, how- 

1 Crookskank —Scott, — Life of Pcden. Pcden married them. 


ever, possessed a strong bias in favour of Presby- 
terian principles, and could not be induced to 
wait on the ministrations of the Episcopal incum- 
bent : they were, therefore, obliged to retire, and, 
like others, seek refuge in caves, mosses, and moun- 
tains, from the unfeeling agents of persecution. — 
In the meantime their parents were enjoined at 
their peril, not to harbour, assist, nor even see their 
children, without informing against them. Griev- 
ous fines were exacted from them for the supposed 
delinquencies of their offspring, which reduced 
them from a state of affluence, nearly to that of 
complete poverty. 

Upon the death of the King, some apparent miti- 
gation of Presbyterian sufferings had taken place ; 
and Margaret Wilson, with her sister Agnes, ven- 
tured to the town of Wigtown, to see her friends. 
But they were betrayed by one Patrick Stewart, 
who brought a party to apprehend them. As if 
these youthful sufferers — for Margaret was only 
18, and Agnes 13 years of age, — had been heinous 
malefactors, their persecutors thrust them into a 
place called the thieves'-hole ; but they were af- 
terwards removed to an apartment in which a 
woman, named Margaret M'Lauchlan, was con- 
fined. This iudividual was the widow of John 
Millikan, wright, in Drumjargan, in the parish 
of Kirkinner, and had been long remarkable for 
her discretion, integrity, and piety. She would 
take none of the oaths imposed by the Govern- 
ment, — now pressed upon women as well as 
men ; neither would she desist from hearing the 
Presbyterian ministers when an opportunity pre- 
sented itself, nor from assisting her suffering ac- 
quaintances. For these offences she had been 


seized and dragged to jail, where she was treated 
with much inhumanity. With this respectable 
widow, the two young sisters were brought to trial, 
before Sir Robert Grierson of Lagg, David Graham, 
Sheriff of Wigtownshire, Major Windram, Captain 
Strachan, and Provost Coltran. The prisoners 
were indicted in the usual form, for attending field 
conventicles, and for being in the rebellion at 
Bothwell-Bridge and Airsmoss, — though none of 
them had ever been within many miles of such 

The jury brought them in guilty, and they were 
sentenced to be tied to stakes within the tide-mark, 
in the water of Blednoch, near Wigtown, until 
they should be drowned by the return of the tide. l 
They heard their doom with much composure. — 
Ashamed of putting the sentence into effect against 
the youngest, the judges delayed her execution. 
On the appointed day, (the 11th of May,) Margaret 
M'Lauchlan and Margaret Wilson were convey- 
ed by Major Windram and a guard of soldiers to 
the place of execution. A numerous assemblage 
of spectators accompanied them, to witness the 
melancholy scene. The old woman's stake was 
placed at a considerable distance beyond that 
of the other, and much nearer the bed of the river, 
that her death migh terrify the younger prisoner, 
and induce her to solicit mercy, take the oaths, 
and comply with all the conditions upon which par- 
don could be granted. The water gradually over- 
flowed her aged fellow-sufferer, who, being pressed 
down by the halbert of one of the town officers s 

I Wodrow. — Crook«hank Session. Book of Kirkinnej 

Session. Book of Peuuinghame. — Lain''. 


soon expired. 1 While she was struggling in the 
pangs of death, some one asked Margaret Wilson 
what she thought of the horrid spectacle. She 
.answered, " What do I see but Christ in one of 
his members wrestling there !" While this youth- 
ful martyr was at the stake, she sung a psalm, read 
a chapter, 2 and prayed with much composure, 
earnestness, and feeling. The water overflowed 
her while in the act of devotion. But before the 
vital spark was altogether extinguished, the attend- 
ants held her out of the water until she had re- 
covered and was able to speak. Being then asked 
by Major Windram's orders, if she would pray for 
the King. She replied, she wished the salvation 
of all men, and the damnation of none. One of the 
spectators, who was deeply affected by the appalling 
and heart-rending sight, said, " Dear Margaret, O 
say God save the King ! say God save the King !" 
She answered, "God save him if he will, for I desire 
his salvation." Some of her relations instantly call- 
ed out to Major Windram, " Sir, she hath said it." 
The Major approached her and commanded her to 
take the abjuration oath, or return to the stake. — 
Most deliberately she said " I will not, lam one of 
Christ's children." She was instantly thrust into 
the water and perished.3 Agnes got out of prison 

1 It is popularly believed in the district, that the descendants of 
the officer, hud a malformation of their hands and feet, throuah 
the course of many generations, as a punishment for the act. 

2 She sung a part of the 25th psalm, and read the 8th chapter 
.of the Epistle to the Romans. 

3 "A strange story is told at Wigtou in regard to this unhappy- 
affair. One of the most active persons at the execution was, 
it seems, the town officer of Wigton, who when the girl was rais, 
ui out of the water, and refused to save her life, by simply sav- 
ing, '' God save the King," took his halbert, and pressing her 
.down again into the water, exclaimed with savage glee, *' Tak 
anither drink my hearty," Heaven for this, is said to have afflic. 


by her father's intercession at Edinburgh, and 
granting a bond for her appearance. 1 

ted him with an intolerable anil unquencheable thirst, insomuch 
that he never after durst ventuie abroad without carrying along 
with him a large jar full of water, wherewithal to gratify his un. 
natural appetite. As he crawled about with this extraordinary 
load, people used to pass him by with silent horror, for although 
this misfortune might have been the result of disease, it was in 
that superstitious age universally believed to be a manifestation of 
divine vengeance." Chambers' Picture of Scotland, vol. i, p. 274 

These female martyrs were interred in Wigtown church-yard, 
a stone with this inscription is in the wall of the church. 

" Here lyes Margaret Lachlane, who was by unjust law sen- 
tenced to die by Lagg, Strachan, Winrame, and Grame, and 
tyed to a stake within the flood for her adherence to Scotland's 
Reformation, Covenants national and Solemn League, Aged 63. 

" Here lyes Margaret Wilson, daughter to Gilbert Wilson ia 
Glenvernoch, who was drowned, anno 1685." 

" Let earth and stone still witness bear, 

There lyes a virgine martyre here, 

Murther'd for owning Christ supreme, 

Head of his Church and no more crime : 

But not abjuring Presbytery, 

And her not owning Prelacy. 

They her condemned by unjust law ; 

Of Heaven nor Hell they stood no awe. 

Within the sea tyed to a stake ; 

She suffered for Christ Jesus sake. 

The actors of this cruel crime 

Was Lagg, Strachan, Winram, and Graham e. 

Neither young years, nor yet old age, 

Could stop the fury of their rage." 
" Besides several other Mai tyrs stones, the churchyard of 
Wigton contains a number of monuments remarkable for their 
antiquity. It is a peculiarity, however, common to all Galloway, 
that the burial grounds contain more ancient tombstones than 
are to be found any where else in Scotland. Many are found 
perfectly legible and entire, though bearing date from the seven, 
teenth, the sixteenth, and even the fifteenth centuries, although 
exposed all that time to the open air." Chambers' Picture of 
Scotland, vol. i, p. '274, 

1 We extract the following, from the Minutes of the Kirk Ses- 
sion of Penninghame, dated 1685. 

" Moreover it hath been observed in the paroch by intelligent 
people, that there were two setts of people who could not evite 


About this time, William Johnston, gardener to 
the Laird of Fintidloch, John Milroy, chapman, 
residing at Fintalloch, George Walker, servant in 
Kirkaulay, were apprehended by a party of soldiers 
whom Major Windram had despatched from Wig- 
town. William Johnston had previously conformed 
to prelacy and taken the Test. But, after the oath 
had been administered to him, he deeply deplored 
the step which he had taken, and remorse soon 
produced mental dejection, with a serious ap- 

the stroke of the law in those tymes, 1st. People that were rich 
against whom the Officers and Souldiers, the Sheriff and his at. 
tendants watched all occasions to reach them, if it had been but 
their seeing one of the flying people on their way, if they raised 
not the hue and cry to apprehend him, the substance and goods 
of such were at the mercy of the law, and bribes of large extent 
they behoved to give to bring them off, and this gave ane open 
door to rapine and depredations, fitt waters for such fishers. 2nd. 
The pious and conscientious people, whom the souldiers, Sheriffs, 
and their attendants, were oblidged to prosecute to the outmost, 
(though several of them had no great inclination to such violent 
measures,) and that to commend them to the Government for 
preservation of their places and promotion, over whom the 
Clergy in the bounds had a watchful eye, giving constant infor- 
mation to the Bishops, who had a great hand in the government, 
and were capable to do service to those who were serviceable to 
them, one instance whereof is this, : The late Duke of Queens- 
berry coming into Galloway, to pay a visit to the Earl and 
Countess of Galloway, the said Duke's Sister, he attended ser- 
mon in Penninghame, where Mr Colhcun the Episcopal incumbent ; 
chused for his Theme. Proverbs xvii II. 'Ane evil man seeketh 
only Rebellion, therefore a cruel messenger shall be sent against 
him.' People believed that his subject and discourse was levelled 
to applaud the Duke's measures, and to excit him to more 
violent methods against the poor persecuted people, but missed 
of his design, for the said Duke took it extrameiie, ill that he 
should be constructed by the Picacher or others, to merit the 
character of crueltie." (Session Book of Peuningh^meJ 

It is said that Thomas Wilson endeavoured to relieve his 
sisters from confinement, but did not succeed. He kept himself 
in concealment till the Revolution, when he entered the army 
and served King William in Flanders. He saved some money, 
and was at last enabled to take and stock the farm which his fa- 
ther had possessed. 


prehension respecting the salvation of his soul. 
He next deserted the parish church ; and the cu- 
rate having informed against him, he was obliged 
to leave his own house and become a destitute 
wanderer. He joined the other two, and they 
kept together in close concealment. They made 
many remarkable escapes before they were ap- 
prehended and brought before Major Windram, 
who put several interrogatories to them, some of 
which they declined to answer- After ihey had 
absolutely refused to join in hearing the Episcopal 
minister, he ordered them to be hanged without 
the formality of a trial. The sentence was execut- 
ed at Wigtown, the very day after their apprehen- 
sion. 1 

On the 13th of June, two regiments of soldiers 
arrived in New-Galloway, and, separating into se- 
veral divisions, proceeded in different directions and 
ravaged the country. 

Wherever Claverliouse came, he set most vigor- 
ously to work. He was accustomed to place 

1 Wodrow. — Crookshnnk — Session-Book of Penninghame. 

They were buried in Wigtown church-yard. The inscription 
on their monument i- subjoined. 

" Here lys Willi. m Johngton, John Milroy, and George 
Walker, who was, without sentence of law, hanged by Major 
Winram, for their adherence to Scotland's reformation, cove- 
nants, national and tolemn league, 1C85." 

At this time there were none sufficiently powerful to repress, 
or even mitigate the spirit of persecution that prevailed in Wig. 
townshiie. The author of Caledonia informs us, that " in Au- 
gust 1G82, ensued a violent conflict, before the pi ivy council, be- 
tween Captain John Giaham, of, and Sir John 
Dalrymple. the younger, of Stair, advocate, aud bairie of the re- 
gality of Glenluce. Here, were two of the ablest men in Scot- 
Ian I, at issue, upon Claverhouse's charge against Dalrymple, that 
he had endeavoured to lessen his authority, as sheriff of Wigtown, 
In February, 1689, the Piivy Council decided this question, by 
praising Cla^erhouse., and puu'shing Dalrymple," Caledonu. 


his horse upon the eminences in small parties, and 
send his foot to the bogs and mosses in the lower 
grounds, where cavalry could not act. He parcel- 
led the country into divisions of six or eight miles 
square. In each division all the inhabitants, with- 
out distinction of age or sex, being collected into 
one place, were interrogated individually on va- 
rious subjects, and particularly if they owned the 
Duke of York to be King. If the answer was 
in the affirmative, he made them take an oath, 
that, under all circumstances, they would sup- 
port their Sovereign and never take up arms against 
him. Next he inquired if they had taken the ab- 
juration oath, and sometimes he caused those whom 
he suspected to renew it. The people were sur- 
rounded all this time by soldiers, with their guns 
loaded, who threatened to shoot all who refused to 
comply and promise to give prompt information 
against persons of doubtful loyalty. For the pur- 
pose of extracting information, the children were 
terrified and questioned apart. 1 

In the month of July, the Council commanded 
numbers to be banished to the plantations, and 
some of them to have one of their ears cut off. — • 
Amon£ these ordered to be banished, were Gilbert 
and William Milroy, in the parish of Penninghame.2 
As their sufferings are somewhat peculiar/although 
their lives were not so, we shall insert a short account 
of them. When they found that they could not 
take the abjuration oath, they absconded for the 
safety of their persons, and took with them a younger 
brother. The military visited their houses, seized 

1 Wodrow. 

cion Rook of Pennin<rhame. — Wodrow, 


the two elder brothers, who had returned home, 
tortured Gilbert's wife with lighted matches put 
between her fingers, and carried off their property. 
Eighty full grown black cattle, with many young 
ones, nearly five hundred sheep, and eight horses, 
some of them of considerable value, were taken from 
them : their crop was likewise destroyed. The two 
brothers were carried to Minnigaff and examined by 
the Earl of Hume, They declined to answer some 
of his interrogatories and suffered torture. At last, 
being removed to Edinburgh, they refused to take 
the oaths, and were sentenced to have their ears 
cut off, and to be banished for ten years. After 
their sentence they were incarcerated in the " iron 
house," when the ears of all the prisoners confined 
in the same place were cut off, except Gilbert 
Milroy's. When the surgeon came to him, he ap- 
peared so faint and weak, that after the scissors 
were about his ear, he was passed by as a dying 
man. A little after this, the prisoners in the iron 
house were put on board a vessel at Newhaven, 
and thrust into the hold : their number amounted 
to a hundred and ninety. They were fettered to- 
gether two and two ; and, from the hardships they 
sustained during their long voyage of three months 
and three days, thirty-two of them died. Evans, 
the master of the vessel, used them most cruelly. — 
After landing in Jamaiea, the prisoners were sold as 
slaves, and death soon relieved many of them from 
their oppressive bondage. But Gilbert Milroy sur- 
vived his sufferings and was set at liberty by the 
Revolution. He returned to his wife and friends, 
and became a useful member of the Kirk-session of 
the parish of Kirkcowan. He was alive in 1710. 
Mr Maclellan of Burmagachan was banished a- 


bout this time to America: three of his children 
went with him. When he landed he was so weak- 
ened by the hardships of the voyage, that three 
men had to carry him out of the vessel. Having 
gradually recovered, he purchased a plantation at 
"Woodbridge, in New Jersey. Here Barmagachan 
continued until June 1689, when he received ac- 
counts of the favourable change which had taken 
place in the affairs of Britain, and determined to 
return to his native country. The voyage proved 
prosperous; but, when near the coast of England, 
the vessel being taken by a French ship of war, all 
on board were carried prisoners to Nantz. While 
in France he experienced much unfeeling treat- 
ment ; but at length, an exchange of prisoners took 
place, and he got home to his own house on the 
last day of October 1691, in a very indifferent state 
of health. After his return, he regained possession 
of his own lands. 

During this year of blood, besides the assassina- 
tions already mentioned, David M'Whan, or M'- 
Quhan, was shot by Colonel James Douglas's orders 
at New-Galloway, and buried in Kells church-yard. '• 

1 Inscription on the grave-stone. " Here lyes David M*. 
Quhan, who being sick of a fever was taken out of his bed, and 
carried to Newtown of Galloway, and next day most cruelly and 
unjustly shot to death by command of Lieutenant general .iiimw 
Douglas, brother to the Duke of Qoeensberry, for his adherence 
to Scotland's reformation and Solemn League." 1685. 

Here are two disparities, Wodrow calls this martyr An- 
drew, whereas on the grave stone he is called David; Douglas is- 
called Lieutenant Colonel by Wodrow, but on the grave, atone 
he is styled Lieutenant General. 

Crookshanks in his Church History also calls this person An. 
drew, and says he suffered on the hill of Knockdavie, in the \ ii 
cinity of New.Galloway, which is confirmed by tradition. — 
" Some people pretend to show his blood on the rock," Trot. 
ter"s Lowran Castle, p. 155. 


Captain Douglas commanded Mowatt, a Tailor, to 
be killed between the Creeand the Dec, whose re- 
mains were consigned to the church-yard of the pa- 
rish in which he fell : he also ordered Robert M { - 
Quhae, or M'Whae, to be shot in his own garden 
in the parish of Borgue ; his body was interred 
in Kirkandrews church-yard. 1 George Short, and 
David Halliday in Glengap, fell about the same 
time by the orders of Lagg, 2 and were buried in 
Balmaghie church-yard. Alexander Lin, was 


1 Here lyes Robert M'Whae who was barbarously shot to death 
by Captain Douglas in this paroch for his adherence to Scot, 
land's Reformation, covenants national and Solemn League. 1685. 

2 The name of Grierson of Lagg stands at the top of the list 
of those who have been handed down to execration for their cold 
blooded assassinations of unarmed and unresisting individuals in 
Galloway. Many of the cruelties committed by the Laird of 
Lagg have been lecorded in a mock lamentation of the Prince of 
Darkness, from the twenty. first Edition of which Poem the fol- 
lowing lines are extracted. 

What fatal news is this I hearl 

On earth who shall my standard bear? 

For Lag, who was my champion brave, 

Is dead, and now laid in his grave. 

The want of him is a great grief; 

He was my manager and chief, 

He boie my image on his Lrow, 

My service he did still avow. 

He had no other Dietie, 

But this world, the flesh, and me ; 

Unto us be did homage pay, 

And did us worship every day. 

In Galloway he was well known, 

His great exploits in it were shown, 

He was my general in that place ; 

He did the presbyterians chace : 

Thro' moss, and moor, and many a hag, 

They were pursued by my friend Lag. 

He many a saint pur»u'd to death; 

He feared neither hell nor wrath. 

His conscience was so cauteriz'd, 

He refus'd nothing that I pleas'd : 


also shot at Craigmodie in the parish of Kirk- 
cowan, and Shire of Wigtown. 1 

During the year 1686, the general persecution of 

For which he's had my kindness still, 

Since ho his labour.* did fulfill, 

Any who rend the Scriptures through, 

I'm sure they'll find but very few 

Of my best friends that's mentioned there, 

That could with Grior of Lag compare. 

Sir Robert Grierson outlived the persecution nearly half a 
century. He died 23 December, 1733: it is supposed his 
Elegy was written long before the time of his demise. 


I Here lies the body of Alexander Lin, who wasjsurprised and 
instantly shot to death on this place, by Lieutenant General 
Drumm'ond, for his adhoronre to Scotland's Reformation, Cove- 
nants national and Solemn League. 1685. 

In 1827, a new stone was erected on the spot, containing the 
old inscription, with this addition beneath, 
Erected in 1827. 

Tn consequence of a sermon preached on this spot, by the Rev. 
"William Symington of Stranraer. 

Contend for the Faith. 

The tombstone stands in a bleak, romantic spot. It 19 so 
remote a place, that nothing but the hottest spirit of persecution 
could have pursued its victims into such a wild. It was matter 
of surprise, that a congregation could bo collected thoie to hear 
sermon. Yet, says an eye witness, wo had a large and most at. 
tentivo audience, people having gathered from a wide circle of the 
surrounding country. It was with great difficulty that Dr. 
Symington could find his way to the spot on the Sabbath morn- 
ing ; but as ho approached it, ho perceived people streaming to. 
wards it from all quarters. A temporary pulpit was erected near 
the martyr's grave. The- audience listened with much pleasure, 
to a long and moving discourse, from Jude 3 An old elder from 
Ayrshire, officiated as precentor, and gave M plaintive martyrs 
worthy of the name," in as great perfection as ever it was chanted 
in the days of other years.* 

* Dr Symington was nearly 20 years pastor to the Reformed 
Presbyterian congregation of Stranraer, having been ordained 
August, 18th, 1819, and having continued there till June 23d, 
1839, when he was translated to Glasgow. 


the Presbyterians began to abate- This originated, 
perhaps, not so much from an encreasing spirit of le- 
nity, as from a diminution of the field of persecution. 
Most of the Presbyterian preachers were either 
dead or banished ; and the influential gentlemen 
who had favoured their cause, generally shared 
their fate. Many of the common people, again, 
had been despatched either by judicial murder or 
wanton assassination ; while those who survived the 
destructive times, had been transported to a foreign 
land, shut up in prisons, or had reluctantly conform- 
ed to Episcopacy. Mr Renwick and his adherents 
were now almost the sole remaining objects of the 
vengeance of Government. But the King's desire 
to repeal the penal statutes against the Roman 
Catholics, powerfully tended to mitigate the rigours 
of persecution. He considered it would exhibit an 
undue partiality to one class of dissenters, if he 
persecuted the Presbyterians and befriended the 
Papists. The spirit of cruelty, however, still pre- 
vailed, and many instances of vindictive severity 

On the 26th of January, — as before stated in a 
note, — Mr Alexander Peden died, and was buried 
in the church-yard of Auchinleck. As he himself 
is said to have foretold, a troop of dragoons came 
about forty days after his interment, and, having 
lifted his body, carried it to Cumnock, a distance of 
about two miles, and buried it at the foot of the 
gallows. Mr Peden always spoke bitterly of Mr 
Renwick, but tliey were at last reconciled. 

Parliament sat down on the 29th of April, and 

the King's letter was read wherein he says, " We 

considered the trouble that many are put to 

daily, by prosecutions before our judges, or the 


hazard that they lie under, for their accession to 
the late rebellions ; and to show the world (even 
our greatest enemies themselves) that mercy is our 
inclination, and severity what is by their wicked- 
ness extorted from us, we have sent down to be 
passed in your "presence, our full and ample indem- 
nity, for all crimes committed against our royal 
person and authority : and whilst we show these 
acts of mercy to the enemies of our person, crown, 
and royal dignity, we cannot be unmindful of others 
our innocent subjects, those of the Roman Catho- 
lic religion, who have, with the hazard of their 
lives and fortunes, been always assistant to the 
crown, in the worst of rebellions and usurpations, 
though they lay under discouragements hardly to 
be named : them we do heartily recommend to your 
care, to the end, that as they have given good ex- 
perience of their true loyalty and peaceable beha- 
viour, so, by your assistance, they may have the 
protection of our laws, and that security under our 
government, which others of our subjects have, not 
suffering them to lie under obligations which their 
religion cannot admit of. By doing whereof, you 
will give a demonstration of the duty and affection 
you have for us, and do us most acceptable service. 
This love we expect you will show to your breth- 
ren, as you see we are an indulgent father to you 

In compliance with the wishes of the King, the 
draught of an act was prepared and submitted to 
Parliament. The Archbishop of Glasgow opposed 
it with some timidity ; Atkins, Bishop of Galloway, 
and Br.;ce, Bishop of Dunkeld, opposed it resolutely 
and openly. But the greater number of the bishops 
acceded to the King's intentions, particularly 


Paterson, bishop of Edinburgh. The measure, 
however, was abandoned and the Parliament pro- 
rogued. The Archbishop of Glasgow and the 
bishop of Dunkeld were both deprived of their 
sees, by the express order of the King, who felt 
highly indignant at their opposition to the court. I 
Though Mr Renwick v/as now deserted and con- 
demned by many of his adherents, yet he continued 
to perform the duties of the ministry. But as he 
travelled through Galloway, a protestation was 
given to him at Kirkmabreck, during the month 
of November, 1686, in the name of all the profes- 
sors of Presbyterian principles between the Dee 
and the Cree. The following is the tenour of this 
curious document. 

*• We underscribers, — considering the woful 
effects of division, — especially among ourselves,— 
proceeding partly from some paying cess, hearing 
curates, taking the late abjuration-oath, and partly 
from others condemning these things, and adhering 
to the late declaration on the church-doors — and to 
Mr J. Renwick, without the consent and appro- 
bation of the remnant godly and faithful ministers 
— we do hereby refer and submit ourselves, in all 
these, to an assembly of faithful ministers and 
elders, — the only competent judges of such debate- 
able principles and practices, — and promising, on, 
the one hand to give satisfaction to the church, — 
as we shall be found guilty of any thing done bv 
us to the scandal of our dear brethren ; and, on the 

1 " About this time, one Rombold was executed for treason, 
and to terrify the Whigs, the quarters of his mangled body were 
fixed up in conspicuous situations at the towns of Glasgow, Jed. 
burgh, Dumfries, and New-Galloway" (Heron's History of 
Scotland, vol. v. p. 178) 

vol.. ii. Y 


other, to forbear to join with Mr J. Renwick, 
till his ordination be seen and approved of by a 
competent number of the faithful ministers of the 
church of Scotland, — and are willing, upon his sub- 
mission to his brethren, to receive him into our 
bosom; — but if he, at the desire of strangers, or 
any of our brethren dividing- from us, intrude him- 
self on our labours, till we have the mind of 
faithful ministers, we will protest against all such 
dealing, as horrid and abominable usurpation. — 
Subscribed, in the name of the whole, by William 

Mr Renwick read this paper to an assemblage 
of people in the fields, and exhorted all who had 
concurred in it to retract, and those who had not, 
to declare their innocence. On the 9th of De- 
cember, a reward of £100 Sterling was offered 

1 The protestation wa3 afterwards presented to the General 
Meeting at Wanlock, on the 22nd of December, 1686, when 
Mr Renwick thus replied. — " Where can ye have a more faithful 
decision, than cur Assembly has t;iven by their acts, according 
to the word of God. As for the paying of cess, does not the Act 
of the General Assembly of 17th June, 1-646, Session 14th, for 
censuring compilers with the enemies of the kiik and kingdom, 
sufficiently determine the same. As for hearing the Curates, do 
not our Covenants ^National and Solemn League convii cingly 
condemn the same. As for the abjuration oath, does not the 
act of the Assembly 28th June, 1648, Session 14th, against all 
oaths and bonds :n the common" cause, without consent of the 
Chinch clearly decide the same; if these tilings be now debate. 
able principles, all the actings and sufferings that have been thene 
tweuty. six years and more, may be brought in debate, and the 
justness thereof questioned. 

Ye irivein your paper subscribed by a faithful and creditable 
man, William M' Hutchinson, in name of that place in the Stew. 
artry of Galloway, betwixt the Cree and the Dee, whereby you 
have done an injury to some conscientious sufferers and owners of 
the truth in that place, who do abominate your deed, and also to 
youi selves in your designation so comprehensive, as to exclude 
none, neither papists nor malignants who reside theie." (Faith, 
ful Contendings.) 


for the production of his person dead or alive; for 
almost the whole resentment of Government was 
directed against this clergyman and his followers. 

Sir John Dalrymple, notwithstanding his fa- 
ther's disgrace, was admitted Lord Advocate, on 
the 1st of February, 1687; and, soon after this, the 
criminal process which had been instituted against 
his father, Sir James Dalrymple, for harbouring 
rebels was abandoned, or rather a remission ob- 
tained. The King now granted a toleration to 
dissenters, namely, to moderate Presbyterians, 
Quakers, and Roman Catholics; and, in July, he 
published in Scotland, an extensive indulgence, 
allowing complete liberty of conscience ; but field 
conventicles continued to be strictly prohibited! — 
This indulgence the generality of Presbyterian 
ministers accepted, and many of them returned: 
from foreign countries. 

The ministers having met in Edinburgh, agreed, 
in general, to accept this proffered toleration, anil vot- 
ed an address of thanks to the King. Mr Renwick, 
however, and his followers rejected it; they consider- 
ed it as flowing from a polluted source, — as granted, 
they said, by a Sovereign who was not bound to keep 
faith with heretics. The Rev. Patrick Warner, of 
whom we have already spoken, received a call about 
this time from the magistrates and inhabitants of 
the town of Irvine. When Mr Warner was about 
to leave Holland, the Countess of Sutherland wait- 
ed on the Princess of Orange ; and, informing her 
of his intended departure, inquired, if her High- 
ness hail any commands for Scotland. This ex- 
cellent Princess replied, " That the best service 
he and those of his character could <lo to her, was to 
be earnest in their prayers to God in her behalf, 


that slie might be kept firm and faithful to the true 
reformed religion ; that she knew his principles 
were not in all things agreeable to what she had 
been educated and brought up in ; but she assured 
him, she had a sincere love and kindness to all true 
protestants, and heartily wished, that a way might 
be fallen upon to make up their differences, and re- 
concile them among themselves. And she added, 
"notwithstanding our differences in some things, yet 
I have a tender sympathy with them, and am griev- 
ed for the severities that have been used toward 
that poor persecuted people in Scotland, for their 
adhering to their principles, which they thought 
themselves in conscience obliged to do, by virtue 
of their covenant ; and were it in my power to re- 
medy it, I would, and could never consent to any 
persecution on that head." She, likewise, intimated 
a wish, that Mr Warner would wait upon her hus- 
band at the Hague, before he left the country. Mr 
Warner complied, and gained access to the Prince, 
in a large gallery.' Though he had not the least 
knowledge of his Highness' design upon England, 
yet he viewed him and his Princess as, at that time, 
standing nearest to the British crown. After Mr 
Warner had kissed the Prince's hand, he mentioned 
to his Highness, that he was on the point of return- 
ing to Scotland, to resume his ministrations there, 
and he had considered it his duty to wait upon his 
Highness, to inquire if there were any services he 
could do for him in that country. The Prince re- 
plied, " He understood he was called home upon 
the liberty lately granted there; but," said he, " I 

1 The Prince of Orange was military chief of the Dutch Re. 


can assure you that liberty is not granted from any 
favour or kindness to you, or your party, but 
from favour to Papists, and to divide yon among 
yourselves ; yet, I think, you may be so wise as to 
take the good of it, and prevent the evil designed ; 
and instead of dividing, come to a better harmony 
among yourselves, when you have liberty to see 
one another, and meet freely together." Mr 
Warner observed, "he heartily wished it might 
be so, and for his part, he should not be wanting 
in his endeavours to make it so." And he took the 
libei ty of adding " we are, indeed, a poor persecut- 
ed people, and have none under God to look to for 
help and relief but your Royal Highness and your 
Princess, on account of your near relation to the 
crown." To this the Prince was pleased to an- 
swer, " I was educated a protestant, and I hope to 
continue one ; and I assure you, if ever it be in my 
power, I shall make the presbyterian church-go- 
vernment, the established church-government of 
that nation ; and of this you may likewise as- 
sure your friends, as in prudence you shall find 
convenient; and, because my wife has not been so 
bred, you may possibly be jealous of her, yet I can 
give you the same assurances of her, as for myself." 
In 1688, Mr Renwick was apprehended in 
Edinburgh, and being brought to trial, received 
sentence of death. Though, during this dismal pe- 
riod, none had spoken or acted with more boldness 
than this clergyman, yet none experienced greater 
lenity. Bishop . Paterson often visited him, and 
offered to obtain a reprieve if he would petition 
for it ; but he obstinately refused. The Bishop 
said, " Will you kill yourself with your own 
hands, seeing you may have your life on so easy 


terms ? " Sir John Dalrymple, the Lord Advo- 
cate, and some of the tolerated ministers, conversed 
with him, but all was in vain. He went to the 
place of execution with cheerfulness and composure, 
attended by an immense crowd of spectators. — 
"When on the scaffold, he declared that the day of 
his execution was a day he had long wished for, 
and blessed the Lord for honouring him with the 
crown of martyrdom. Mr Renwick had only com- 
pleted the 26th year of his age when he perished, 
the last of the martyrs, by the hands of the execu- 

The King's endeavours to establish Popery as 
the national religion, became every day more and 
more apparent. Heedless of the pitfalls and 
precipices which lay in his way, he still continu- 
ed to pursue with unabated ardour this glimmer- 
ing and deceitful light. His eyes became blind to 
the political horizon which presented a lowering 

1 " A neat stone monument, (25 feet in height, by 10 at the 
base,) to the memory of Mr Renwick, has been lately erected, 
near the village of Minuyhive, Dumfriesshire, and within the 
limits of the ancient farm of Knees, at no great distance from 
the remains of the old farm house where, tradition says, the 
martvr was born. It, stands on an eminence, from which it may 
he seen at the distance of several miles, down the glen in which 
the village of Minuyhive is situated, as well as at a considerable 
distance in other directions. The inscription on the monument 
is as follows : 'In memory of the late Rev. James Renwick, 
the last wiio Buffered death for attachment to the covenanted 
cause of Christ, in Scotland. Born near this spot, 15th Febru- 
ary, 1662; and executed at the grass market, Edinburgh, 17th 
Feb. 1G88. The righteous shall be in everlasting remembrance. 
(Psalm cxii. 6.) Erected by subscription, MDCCCXXVI1I.' 
The late James Hastings, Esq gave a donation of the ground. 
The subscription, amounting to about lUU/. sterling, was collect- 
ed at large, from Christians of all denominations; and the gen- 
tleman who took the most active part in suggesting, and carry- 
ing through, the undertaking, was the Rev. Gavin Rowatt, mi- 
nistei of the reformed presbyterian congregation, at Whithorn." 



and threatening aspect, and his ears remained 
shut to the first portentous sounds of the distant 
thunder. At last, however, when the storm did 
burst over his head, he was appalled, and retraced 
some of his rash, despotic, and fatal steps ; but, 
when the news of the dispersion of the Prince's 
fleet reached him, he resumed his composure, and 
desisted from all farther redress of grievances. — 
After William had repaired his damages, he put 
to sea a second time, on the 1st of November, 1688, 
and landed at Torbay, on the 5th, with about 
14,000 men, the wind having almost miraculously 
favoured him during his passage. 

The Scottish Council almost immediately began 
to change the course of their proceedings and the 
tone of their speech. A proclamation was issued on 
the 24th of December, stating^, that serious appre- 
hensions were entertained through the kingdom, 
that the Roman Catholics had risen in arms in 
Galloway, and that Papists from England and 
Ireland were preparing to join them, to the great 
danger of the Protestant religion and the peace 
of the kingdom. 1 They, therefore, ordered the 

1 Copy of a letter written to Crawford of Jordanhill, about 
the time of the Revolution, and addressed "For the Laird of 
Jordanhill, in haist, haist." 
Sir, Paisley, 21st December, 1688. 

This night, yr came to this place ane express, signifying that 
some Irishes have lauded at Kirkcudbright and burnt the toune; 
and, as is reported, are marching towards Ayre. Wherefore, lor 
tliu Bafety oj the Shyrp, and all concerned yr- iu, ye are desyred 
by ;ill in this place, to be here to.morrow to consider what ia htt 
to be done, — where ye shall be attended by 

Your most humble servant, Jo. Irving. 

Thir news are just now confirmed, wherefore fail not, for they 
are burning and destroying as they come along ; and, in the 
mean tyme, acquaint your vassals and tenants to be in readL 
ness, and bring tueiu all along with you. 


Protestant inhabitants to put themselves in a state 
of defence for securing their religion ; and heritors 
were called upon to assemble at the head burghs of 
their respective shires, and place themselves under 
the command of persons named in the proclama- 
tion. The heritors of Wigtown were to be com- 
manded by M'Douall of Logan, and those of the 
Stewartry of Kirkcudbright by Viscount Ken- 
mure. This was the last order of the Privy Council 
of Scotland, that had long acted so sanguinary a 
part in the hey-day of their power. 

On the 11th of December, the King retired, 
and the Prince of Orange! was requested by the 
nobility to procure them a free Parliament. Jame< 
soon withdrew into France, thus abdicating, or ra- 
ther leaving the throne vacant, and the convention 
(for not having been called by royal authority, it 
could not be called a parliament,) offered the crown 
to the Prince and Princess of Orange, which they 
accepted, and were proclaimed King and Queen. 

The Scottish conventions also, declared the 
throne vacant, and a bill was brought in which 
settled the crown on William and Mary. Sir 
John Dalrymple, with two others, were deputed' 
to present it, and administer the oath to their 
new Sovereigns. This Convention of estates was- 
afterwards changed into a parliament which abo- 
lished prelacy, and settled the Presbyterian go- 
vernment of the Church of Scotland. The people 
of Galloway warmly concurred in the change of 
Government, and as a reward of their zeal, the 

1 The Prince of Orange was James's son-in-law, having mar. 
ried his eldest daughter, the Princess Mary. 

2 Earlston was a commissioner to this Convention. (Faithful 


convention of estates, restored Sir Andrew Agnew 
of Lochnaw, to the hereditary office of sheriff of 
Wigtownshire. 1 

I It will be remembered he had been deposed from his office 
owing to his principles, and the countenance which he gave to 
field Conventicles ; tor the rulers of the land could not tolerate 
such conduct. He, therefore, became a marked man, and upon 
refusing to take the test was superseded. 




The Episcopal clergy, who had been the au- 
thors in the south of much of the sufferings of 
the inhabitants, now began to feel the effects of re- 
taliation. They were insulted and carried round 
their parishes in mock processions; while the peo- 
ple violently upbraided them for their cruel conduct, 
and prohibited them from preaching: such scenes 
often closed with the burning of their gowns or 
effigies. Though these excesses were seriously to 
be lamented and severely to be reprobated; how 
innocent do they appear when put in the balance 
against the heart-rending barbarities — the wanton 
atrocities— the diabolical inhumanities, — which the 
Episcopalians had perpetrated. But, though some 
incidental ebullitions of popular resentment were 
exhibited ; yet, in the hour of triumph, the very 
men who had been harassed with every species of 
outrage, disgraced not themselves' by inflicting up- 
on their oppressors any personal violence, or by 
committing any sanguinary murders. 

John Gordon, Bishop of Galloway, 1 now retired 

1 John Gordon was the last I3i=hop of Galloway. He suc- 
ceeded James Atkins, who died at a very advanced a^e, in 1687. 
Gordon was consecrated at Glasgow, in February 1688, and in 


into France, and the first meeting of the Presby- 
terian clergymen within the bounds of the Synod 
of Galloway, took place at Minnigaff, on the 14th 
of May, 1689. Few of the ministers who had pos- 
sessed parochial charges before the Restoration were 
present; but a number of preachers from Ireland 
attended the meeting, who afterwards received ap- 
pointments to vacant parishes. Several ecclesiasti- 
cal matters fell under their consideration.! 

It was not, however, until the second session of 
Parliament, that the affairs of the Church were 
thoroughly regulated. Parliament then enacted 9 
that the Presbyterian ministers who had been eject- 
ed from their livings since 1661, were to be restor- 
ed immediately to the discharge of their clerical 
duties and to receive their salaries. The first Ge- 

the end of that year he rethed from Britain into France, where 
he continued to reside until his death.* At the epoch of the Re. 
volution, the clear rental oi the bishopric of Galloway, amounted 
to £5,634 15s. Od. Scots. This was only exceeded by the reve- 
nues of the two Archbishops. 

1 For a List of the members, and the minutes of the first meet- 
ing of the embryo synod of Galloway, after the Revolution see 
Appendix (Aa) 


* St Ninian was consecrated, 450 Octa, Pecthelmus, 

730,— Frethewaldus, 764 Pictuinus, 776.— Ethelbertus, 777. 

— Radvulf, 790 Christianus, 1154 John, 1189 — Walter, 

1209,— Gilbert, 1235.— Henry, 1255 Thomas, 1296 — Simon, 

1*21 Henry, 1334 Michael, 1357 Adam, 1359— Thomas, 

1362— Andrew, 1308.— Elisaeus, 1405 Thomas, 1415. — 

Alexander, 1426. — Thomas Spence, or Spens 1451 Niuian, 

1450.— George Vans, 1489 James Bethune, 1508 — David 

Arnot, 1509 Henry, 1526 Andrew Durie, 1541. 


Alexander Gordon, 1558— Gavin Hamilton, 1606. — William 

Coupar, 161- Andrew Lamb, 1619 Thomas Sydeserf, 1634. 

James Hamilton, 1661. — John Paterson, 1674 — Arthur Rois.. 
1679— James Atkins, 1680,— John Gordon, 1688. 


neral Assembly was fixed to meet in October, 
1690, and the members of church courts were de- 
clared to be Presbyterian ejected ministers, and 
such ministers and elders as they should afterwards 
admit. An act was also passed abolishing patron- 
age and the King's supremacy. 

With respect to the Episcopal clergy, they re- 
ceived permission to retain their livings upon con- 
ditions as moderate as were consistent with the 
existence of a Presbyterian Establishment. But 
few availed themselves of this permission ; for they 
were led to believe, or at least to hope, that the new- 
ly Established Church was built upon an insecure 
foundation, and consequently, in a short time, would 
tumble to the ground. They, therefore, refrained 
from entering or approaching an unsubstantial 
structure, which might be overturned by some sud- 
den political blast and bury them in its ruins 

They knew the King was partial to Episcopacy, 
and they fondly conceived, that, by withholding 
their support from the Presbyterian Church, they 
would hasten its destruction. Notwithstanding, 
however, the Episcopal clergy in general, rejected 
the favourable terms now offered, yet, not a few of 
them were permitted, without incorporating with 
the judicatories of the Establishment, to retain 
their benefices unmolested, to the end of their 
lives. 1 

The Papists, the great body of the Episcopal 
clergy, and the northern clans, still favoured, either 
openly or secretly, the cause of the fugitive monarch. 
Graham of Claverhouse, now Viscount Dundee? 
had retired to the Highlands, to assemble an army 

1 Cook, &c 


for asserting the rights of King James. He soon 
mustered a force consisting of two thousand five 
hundred men, 1 among whom were some officers 
cf rank. Dundee descended with his troops to- 
wards the Lowlands. Mackay was sent to op- 
pose him, and an engagement took place near the 
pass of Killiecrankie, in Athole, on the 17th of June, 
1889. Viscount Kenmure, who had raised some men 
to support the Revolution Government, was the first 
that entered and cleared the frightful pass of Kil- 
liecrankie, with his batallion. His men stood their 
ground for some time in the battle, but felt themselves 
at last obliged to give way. Victory had declared 
in favour of Dundee, when he was mortally wound- 
ed by a random shot. 2 His fall produced such a pa- 
ralyzing effect upon his heroic followers, that this 
triumph was productive of no permanent advantage. 
Mackay, whojiad retreated to Stirling, collected 
his dispersed troops, and the Highland army 
was by degrees overawed and annihilated. 3 Thus 
fell at Killiecrankie, an individual who had inflict- 
ed much misery on the inhabitants of Galloway. 4 

1 Laing. 

2 " Claverhouse's sword." (says Sir Walter Scott, in 1802,) 
"a straight cut-and-thiust blade, is in the possession of Loid 
Woodhouselee, and the buff coat which he wore at the 1 attle of 
Killiecrankie, having the fatal shot-hole under the arm. pit of it, 
is preserved in Pennycuick house, the seat of Sir George Clerk, 
Bart." — Border 3rmstrel$y, vol. ii. p. 245. 

3 Major General Cannon, from Galloway, distinguished him. 
self in this battle, and, after the fall of Dundee, took the com- 
mand. In Kennedy's Latin song he is styled Cauonicus Gallo. 
vidiensis. (Lockart's Life of Scott J 

4 " A kind of prescience in a Scottish clergyman, Mr Michael 
Bruce, very nearly approaching the second sight, is described 
thus. On the day of the battle of Killicranky, he preached in. 
Anworth, and in his preface before his prayer, according to his 
UBual way of expressing himself, lie began to this purpose.— . 



The people of Ireland, from various causes, still 
continued attached to the government of James. 
Talbot, Lord Tyrconnel, a Roman Catholic, was 
his Lieutenant at the time of the Revolution. By 
his advice, James sailed from France to Ireland, 
with about five thousand men and a considerably 
sum of money, as well as stores, that he had received 
from Lewis, the French King ; and he soon found 
himself at the head of an army of nearly 40,000 
men. An Irish Parliament granted him supplies, 
and he expected to be immediately in a condition 
to invade either Scotland or England. 

William, who did not remain ignorant of the un- 
favourable state of his affairs in the sister Island, de- 
spatched the Duke of Scliomberg, an officer of great 
talents, to oppose James. This general felt him- 
self compelled to act on the defensive; but the King 
soon followed with such an accession, of forces, as 
raised the army in Ireland to the number of 36,000 
men. While on his passage, his fleet continu- 
ed for some time wind bound in the bay of Kirk- 
cudbright. He erected a strong battery 1 on the 
eastern shore, probably for the purpose of com- 
manding the entrance of the bay, and preventing an 
enemy from invading that part of his dominions. — 
William's fleet also took shelter in Loch-Ryan. 

e Some of vou will say, what r.ense minister? What neuse about 
(.'hirers, who has done so much mischief in this country. That 
man set up to he a young Montrose, hut as the Lord liveth, he 
<»hall he cut short this Jay. 15e not affray ed,' added he ; ' J see them 
scattered and flying', and as the Loid liveth, and sends this mes- 
.. _•■• by rue, Claverhouse. shall no longer he a terror to Gou'a 
■ >ople, — this day I see him killed — lying a corpse.' — That veiv 
day about the same time, he was actually killed." (Wodiow's 
Analecta, vol. iii. p. 57 vol. v. p. 224.) 

1 Statittical Account, &e Some traces of it are still obberv- 


The battle of the Boyne followed, 1 where James 
suffered a complete defeat ; and, giving up all for 
lost, he fled on board a French vessel which awaited 
his orders. 

Scotland was, at this time, far from being in astate 
of perfect tranquillity. Many were disappointed in 
William's Government, and, impelled by the bitter- 
ness of resentment, threw themselves into the arms 
of the Jacobite party. Rumours of plots, invasions, 
and disasters now filled the kingdom. Extreme dis- 
order prevailed among the Highland clans ; and, 
under the pretence of acknowledging their allegi- 
ance to an absent Sovereign, they, in reality, pro- 
claimed a species of wild independence. To suppress 
their licentiousness, became, consequently, an object 
of paramount importance to the Scottish rulers — 
The refractory clans were required by royal procla- 
mation, to lay down their arms' 2 before the expira- 
tion of a stated time, and to take the appointed oath 
of allegiance to the new Sovereign. On these 

1 Part of the English troops passed through Galloway, on their 
way to Ireland. Jean Walker who died at Carltngwark on 14ih 
August, 1790. in the 108th year of her age, being sworn in a lav/ 
suit of considerable importance, three years before her death, q?.xq 
a deposition surprisingly distinct. When asked by the commie. 
sioner in the proof, if she saw any part of King William's Cavalry 
on theii way to Ireland in the year 1689, she replied that " she 
did not see them, but on coming to the Haugh of Urr, soon after 
the Dragoons had left it. she saw on a piece of the Holmland, 
near the spot where the biidge now stands, the place where war 
horses had been fed, and several poor people scraping up the 
remains of the black oats which the horses had left," (Scots 
Magazine for January 1791, p. 48.) 

2 " It is a singular circumstance that so late as the last year 
of the reign of King William III, fiiearms had not come into 
general use in the Scottish army ; The old corps called the Scote 
Royals, at that time commanded by the Earl of Orkney, wore 
heavy Steel Caps, and used bows and arrows with broad-swordg 
and target 9." (Scots Magazine for January, 1791, p. 16,) 


conditions indemnity for the past was offered. As 
a farther inducement to yield obedience, twelve or 
fifteen thousand pounds Sterling were intrusted to 
the Karl of Breadalbane, to be distributed among, 
those chieftains who should be willing to comply with 
the prescribed conditions. Suspicions prevailed that 
Breadalbane had acted partially in the distribution 
of this money, and it was even alleged that he had 
secreted a considerable part of it for his own private 
use. The chieftains, therefore, became irritated, and 
delayed to satisfy the eager wishes of the Govern- 
ment, by accepting the proffered indemnity. Twice 
was the term of grace prolonged, till, eventually, 
the 31st of December, 1691, was fixed as the last 
day of grace. One by one, the chieftains at length 
gave in their formal, though, perhaps, reluctant sub- 
mission ; and it was reported they did so by the di- 
rection of James himself, who desired them to yield 
to a power which they could not resist. It has beeu 
said, that the obedience of the clans disappointed 
the expectations and deranged the plans of Sir 
John Dalrymple, Master of Stair, who confidently 
anticipated that some of the more rebellious of the 
tribes would hold out until the appointed period of 
mercy had expired. The Master of Stair, having 
been raised from the office of King's advocate to 
that of secretary of state, had become warmly 
j iterested in the stability of William's government ; 
and, besides, being the friend of Breadalbane, he 
felt exasperated at the rebellious conduct of the 
Highland chieftains, and wished to inflict upon 
some of them exemplary chastisement, that the rest 
might be awed into submission. One solitary in- 
stance of contumacy presented itself, by which he 
could gratify his resentment. 


A feud had long existed between the Mae- 
donalds and Campbells. To the Campbells, or de- 
pendents of Breadalbane, the Macdonalds of Glen- 
coe were particularly hateful. The chieftain of 
Glencoe, aware of Breadalbane's hostility, present- 
ed himself, in the end of December, before Colonel 
Hill, commander of the garrison of Fort- William, 
to take the prescribed oath ; but Hill had no power 
to administer it, being a military, and not a civil 
officer. Moved, however, by the entreaties of the 
old man, he gave him a letter to the sheriff of 
Argyleshire, requesting this magistrate to receive 
" the lost sheep, and, though late, admit him to the 
benefit of the indemnity." The terrified chieftain 
hastened to Inverary; but, owing to a very heavy 
fall of snow, the roads, at that time, always bad s 
were rendered almost impassable, which unfortu- 
nate occurrence prevented him from reaching the 
end of his journey until some days after the mo- 
mentous 1st of January, 1692. As he had not 
complied with the terms upon which the amnesty 
was offered, the sheriff at first refused to take 
his oath ; but, after considering the lamentable pre- 
dicament in which Macdonald had been placed, he 
yielded to the solicitations and tears of the unfortu- 
nate chieftain, and administered the oath of allegi- 
ance, which he forwarded by express to the Privy 
Council, with a full detail of the circumstances 
which had occasioned the delay. 1 

The document was concealed from the King by 
the advice of Viscount Stair, President of the Court 
of Session : it is even thought that the sheriff's 
letter was never laid before the council. The 

1 Laing, &c 


Master of Stair and Lord Breadalbane represented 
to William, the Macdonalds of Glencoe, as a law- 
less banditti, living only by rapine and murder, 
hostile to all social order, and disloyal to their So- 
vereign. They also stated to the King, that the 
only way of subduing this perfidious and law- 
less people, would be to adopt the ancient mode of 
punishment, practised in the Highlands, for sup- 
pressing cruelties ; namely, to pursue them to ex- 
termination with fire and sword. The fate of the 
Macdonalds was quickly sealed ; and, an order be^ 
ing obtained from the King, bearing his own sig- 
nature, which put them into the hands of their impla- 
cable enemies, Captain Campbell of Glenlyon re- 
ceived from Dalrymple instructions, that far ex- 
ceeded in severity the King's orders, to repair to 
the valley of Glencoe, for the purpose of executing 
the fatal mandate. 

Glenlyon's party was met by the chief's two sons, 
who demanded whether they came as friends or ene- 
mies. The officer replied, that they came as friends. 
They were then kindly received and continu- 
ed to reside among the unsuspecting Macdonalds, 
for fourteen or fifteen days, during which period, 
mirth and.- festivity reigned throughout the vale. 
The officers were hospitably entertained in the 
houses of the chiefs, and the soldiers found comfort- 
able homes among the rest of the clan. The 
Master of Stair's letters to the military commanders 
concerning the execution of the fatal design, dis- 
played the deep and savage interest which he per- 
sonally took in the diabolical transaction. " They 
must be all slaughtered," he said, " and the man- 
ner of execution must be sure, secret, and effec- 


On the 12th of February, 1692, Captain Camp- 
bell received from Major Duncanson, his command- 
ing - officer, the following - order, which proves him the 
willing instrument of the inhuman secretary. "You 
are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, and put 
all to the sword under seventy. You are to have 
especial care that the old fox and his cubs do on no 
account escape your hands : you are to secure all 
the avenues, that no man escape. This you are to 
put in execution at four in the morning precisely, 
and by that time, or very shortly after, I will strive 
to be at you with a stronger party. But if I do not 
come to you at four, you are not to tarry for me, 
but fall on. This is by the King's special com- 
mand, for the good and safety of the country, that 
these miscreants be cut off root and branch. See 
that this be put into execution without either fear 
or favour, else you may expeet to be treated as not 
true to the King or Government, nor a man fit to 
carry a commission in the King's service. Ex- 
pecting that you will not fail in the fulfilling here- 
of, as you love yourself, I subscribe these with 
my hand" Robert Duncanson. 

The order reached him almost immediately after 
it was written, and next morning about four o'clock 
the work of slaughter commenced. The chieftain's 
house was beset by a party of the soldiers, and he 
himself shot as he rose from his bed to receive 
them as friends, and order refreshments. His aged 
wife was next stripped, the rings being torn from her 
fingers by the teeth of the barbarous soldiers : she 
died distracted next day.l Several others were 
killed in the same house. Glencoe's two sons, be- 

1 Laing, &c. 


ing awakened by an olil domestic, when the mur- 
derous proceedings commenced, fled. As they 
passed through the glen, their ears were assailed 
on every quarter, by the reports of the musketry, 
the fiendish shouts of the military butchers, the 
piercing cries of the wounded, and the agonizing 
groans of the dying. The two brothers, by their per- 
fect knowledge of the locality, effected their escape. 
The savage executioners proceeded in their bloody 
work without remorse or interruption. One of the 
chiefs requested to be shot in the open air: they 
complied with his wish ; bur,, when the soldiers were 
presenting their muskets, the undaunted Macdonald 
threw his plaid over their faces, and escaped un- 
hurt. A poor child, only five or six years of age, 
clung to the knees of Glenlyon, and, entreating this 
officer to spare his life, offered to become his servant 
for ever. Glenlyon was moved, but Captain Drum- 
mond came up, and brutally stabbed the poor boy 
with his dirk. The murderers proceeded in their 
work of death with frenzied zeal, neither age nor 
sex escaping their desolating fury. But the a- 
larm soon became general, and the half naked in- 
habitants fled to the mountains, where, overcome by 
fatigue and cold, many perished in the wreaths of 
snow. 1 The snow, however, which was the cause 
of destruction to some, proved the means of safety 
to others,' for it prevented Major Duncanson, with 
about 400 men, from seizing the passes of the 
glen at the time he proposed. Instead of reaching 
Glencoe, at four o'clock in the morning, he did not 
arrive until eleven. When the reinforcement 
reached Glencoe, they found no Macdonalds alive? 

1 Laing, &c. 


but an old man of eighty, whom they barbarously 
put to death. After burning such houses as re-*- 
mained, they collected the property of the murder- 
ed tribe, which they conveyed to Fort William, and 
drove off no fewei than twelve hundred cattle, be- 
sides an immense number of sheep and goats. 1 

This deed of appalling cruelty sullied the fair 
fame. of William, and created a lowering indignation 
throughout the country, which tended to sap the* 
foundation, not only of his popularity, but even of his 
government. In Galloway, where William's reign 
had been hailed as the harbinger of tranquillity, mo-^ 
deration, and prosperity, the atrocious massacre was 
viewed with horror, and condemned in no measured 
terms. The people deeply lamented that the Master 
of Stair, its reputed author, was so intimately con- 
nected with their district, and listened with repug- 
nance to his hated name. So violent and unbound- 
ed was the general detestation, that Dalrymple, for 
some time, durst scarcely appear in public, or ven- 
ture, on the death of his father, Viscount Stair, to 
take his seat in the national assembly ; yet, when 
the flood of popular indignation was at its height, 
he remained unmoved, and, in some of his letters, 
seemed to lament that the execution had not been, 
more completely accomplished. 

The public voice for an inquiry, at length be- 
came so loud, that it was dangerous altogether to 
disregard it ; and a royal commissienwas at last 
reluctantly granted to investigate the particulars of 
this odious affair. In their report, the com- 
missioners stigmatized the deed as a barbarous mur- 
der, and denounced Stair as the deviser or insti- 

1 Scott, &c. . 


gator of it. 1 The secretary was sub-cqnently dis- 
missed from his office ; but none of the inferior 
agents or perpetrators were otherwise punished 
than by the general detestation of their contempora- 
ries, and the certainty of the execration of posterity. 

Proceedings in Parliament nt this time 

1 June 23'rJ,. " Moved that the commission for inquiring into 
the slaughter of the Glenco men. may give an account to the 
house of their procedure in the said affair " 

" William Colti an commissioner for the Burgh of Wigtoun 
excused, in respect of his ir disposition." 

24 "Several members insisting to have the report of the com. 
mission for inquiring into the slaughter of the, layed 
before the Parliament. 

" Then the report from the commission for inquiring into the 
slaughter of the Glenco men, read, with the depositions of the 
witnesses, the King's instructions, and the master of Stair's let- 
ters for instructing the said report. 

"After hearing the said report, it was voted nemine contra, 
diccnte, that his Majesty's instructions of the 11th and 16th 
dayes of January, 1692, touching the Highland rebels, who did 
not accept in due time of the benefit of his indemnitie, did con. 
tain a warrand for mercy, to all without exception, who should 
offer to take the oath of Allegiance ,and come in upon mercy, 
chough the first day of January, 1692, prefixt by the proclnma- 
tion of indemnitie was past, and that therefore these instructions 
contained no warrand for the execution of the, 
made in February thereafter. 

"Then the question stated and voted, if the execution and 
slaughter of the in February 1692, as it is represen- 
ted to the Parliament, be a murder or not, and earned in the 

" Moved, that since the parliament has found it a murder, that 
it may be inquired into, who were the occasion of it, and the 
persons guilty and committers of it, and what way and manner 
they should be prosecute, and after some debate thereon, the 
method of the said prosecution delayed, aud resolved that this 
house will again take the same under their consideration, first o.n 
Wednesday next ; and the master of Stair's letters ordered to be 
put in the clerks hands, and any of the members allowed inspec. 
tion thereof. 

" Then the master of Stair's Letters, with the king's instruc- 
tions to Sir Thomas Livingston and Colonel Hill, and the 4th 
Article, of the opinion of the commission relating to the master 
©f Stairs, were read, and after some debate, the question wat 


The Revolution Government was still far from 
being firmly established among the Scots, and a dis- 
solution of Parliament would have infallibly devolv- 
ed the legislative power upon the Jacobites, or ad- 
herents of James. The following noblemen and 
gentlemen may be considered as representing the 
interests of Galloway in King William's important 
Parliament. The Earls of Galloway, Cassillis, 1 and 
Wigtown, and Viscounts Kenmure and Stair, with 
Lord Kirkcudbright sat as peers. Hugh de GufTock 
of Rusco and Patrick Dunbar of Machermore re- 
presented the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. Sir 
Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw and William M*- 
Dowall of Garthland were the representatives of 
Wigtownshire. The Commissioners for the burghs 

stated, whether the master of Stairs Letters do exceed the king's 
iostiuctious towards the killing and destruction of the Gleuco 
men, or not, and carried in the affirmative, 

" The president of parliament represented, that there was a 
print dispersed, intituled, information for the master of Stair, 
reflecting on the commission for inquiring into the slaughter of 
the Glenco men, and arraigning a vote of parliament ; and there, 
fore moved that it may be inquired who was the author of it, 
and that both he and the same print may be censured. 

Mr Hugh Dalrymple, brother to the master of Stair, and a 
member of parliament, acknowledged himself to be the author, 
and gave an account of his mistakes ; protesting that he therein 
intended no reflection on the commission, and that the paper was 
written before the vote past in parliameut, though printed and 
spread thereafter. 

Resolved, that first the author and then the print be censured 
and Mr Hugh was ordered to ask his Grace and the Parliament's 
pardon, which he did again, declaring, that what was offensive 
in the paper had happened through mistake." (Records of 


During this Parliament a dispute took place between the 
Eails of Galloway and Lothian respecting precedency, It was 
settled in favour of the Earl of Galloway. 

1 The Earl of Cassillis was named a Privy Councillor on the 
1st of May, 1G89, and was cou.-tituted one of the Com mission era 
of the Treasury. 


comprised John Ewart, Kirkcudbright, — Hugh 
Dalrymple, New-Galloway, — William Coltran, 
Wigtown, — Patrick Murdock, Whithorn, — and 
Sir Patrick Murray, Stranraer. This Parliament 
continued until the end of William's reign. 1 

The King died on the 28th of March, 1702, and 
Anne, only Protestant surviving daughter of James 
VII., succeeded him.- 

A new Parliament assembled in the beginning of 
May, 1703. 3 Notwithstanding the violent opposi- 
tion of the Jacobites and Episcopalians, the Pres- 
byterian Establishment obtained the sanction of the 

1 Camden, &c. 

2 Laing. 

Proceedings in Parliament. 

3 '• The contraverted election of the Stewartrie of Kirkcud- 
bright, betwixt Palgown and Cumlodden called, and their Pro. 
curators being heard upon the objections against the legality of 
the meeting, after some debate thereupon, it was put to the 
vote. Sustain tbe objections founded upon the want of a due 
Intimation to the Barons and freeholders of the Stewartrie, or 
repell, and carried repell : And having proceeded to the other 
objections, the same were repelled without a vole." 

*' Moved, that this day being appointed for discussing the 
contraverted election of the Stewartrie of Kirkcudbright, be. 
twixt Palgown and Cumlodden, the Parliament would now pro- 
ceed to the consideration thereof, and the samen being called, 
and parties Procurators allowed to be heard, it was objected by 
the Procuiators for Palgown, that the protestations taken by 
Cumlodden against Palgown's electors at the time of the election, 
were not legal, iu regard these protestations bear not that there 
were instruments taken thereupon in the terms of the Act of 
parliament 1G81, made anent election of Commissioners to the 
Parliament ; and after reasoning thereupon, it was put to the 
yote. Sustain the objection made against the protestations taken 
by Cumlodden, or not ; and carried sustain the objection." 

" Thereafter Cumlodden withdrew his commission, whereupon 
Palgown was allowed to have his vote in Parliament." 

Minutes of the Scottish Parliament, 


Soon after the beginning of Queen Anne's 
reign, an event occurred which produced a con- 
siderable sensation in a large portion of Gallo* 
way. The Rev. John Macmillan, at one time 
chaplain to tire Laird of B rough ton, was no soon- 
er ordained in the. parish of Baimaghie, than he 
began to exhibit strong marks of attachment to the 
more rigid of the Presbyterian principles, and dissa- 
tisfaction with the proceedings of the Church of 
Scotland's judicatories, from which he declared he 
would withdraw. In the month of July, 1 703, this 
clergyman, in concert with two other members of 
the Presbytery of Kirkcudbright, namely, Mr Reid 
of Carsephairn, and Mr Tod of Buittle, present- 
ed a paper to that ecclesiastical body containing a 
statement of grievances, and praying for redress- 
they then left the court. The Presbytery having 
taken it into their consideration, appointed the Rev. 
Messrs Warner, of Balmaclellan — Telfer, of Rer- 
wick — Cameron, of Kirkcudbright — Boyd, of Dai- 
ry — Ewart, of Kells — and Monteith, of Borgue, to 
answer it. After the answer had been received and 
approved of by the Presbytery, the three ministers 
gave in a " protestation against all the corruptions, 
defections, errors, and mismanagements in the 
Church government of Scotland, as then establish- 
ed :" they also condemned the oath of allegiance to 
the Queen. Some farther proceedings having 
taken place respecting Mr Macmillan, the Presby- 
tery records thus proceed. " All which being con- 
sidered, and the presbytery being desirous to be 
as condescending as they can, for peace-sake, do 
pass all bygone differences and misbehaviours of 
said John Macmillan, declaring that if he behave 
tol. ii. Aa 


not orderly for the future, but shall be* turbulent 
and divisive, that then all former things now pass- 
ed from shall be revived and he censured for them, 
with such new offences as shall be found just." — 
Mr Macmillan, still continuing in acts of insub- 
ordination, was served with a libel ; but he de- 
clined the jurisdiction of the Presbytery, " and 
appealed to the first free and lawfully constituted 
General Assembly of the Church." The Pres- 
bytery took Mr Macmillan's libel into consider- 
ation, and found nearly all the articles proved, or 
substantiated. The court then proceeded to 
depose him,l which sentence was ratified by 
the Commission and General Assembly of the 
Church. Two ministers, Mr Monteith, of Borgue, 
and Mr Hay, of Anwoth, were appointed to preach 
at Balmaghie, and declare the church vacant; but 

1 "29th December, 1703 All which things lieing seriously 
and maturely considered, the Presbytery ami corresponding 
brethren having before their eyes the glory of God, the good 
and edification of the chuicli, the peace and union thereof, the 
remolding and preventing of schism and other evils, the pre. 
scrvation of the covenanted work of Reformation and exonera- 
tion of their own consciences; after ayain solemn callin lt on 
God for direction and countenance by two of the brethren 
nominated by them, do put the matter to the vote suspend or 
the said Mr John M'Millan, minister of Balmagbie, and it 
Wfl8 carried by an unanimous vote depose, upon the grounds above 
written ; ami therefore tiie Presbytery and corresponding breth- 
ren foresaid did and hereby do in the nams ot the Loid Jesus 
Christ, the only kiinr and bead of the church, according to the 
ministerial power'they have received from him, simpliciter de- 
pose the said Mr Johu MacMillan from the sacred office of the 

" The Reverend Mr James Monteith Minister at Borgue, and 
Mr Thomas Hay Minister at Anwoth, are by vote appointed to 
repair to the kirk of Balmnghie upon Sabbath come eight days, 
and preach, and Mr Monteith to intimate this sentence and de- 
clare the Kirk vacant. (Records of the Presbytery of Kiik- 


being denied admission by the populace into the 
sacred edifice, I Mr Monteith intimated the sen- 
tence of the Presbytery on the road, and declared 
the church of Balmaghie vacant. He next repaired 
to " the Place of Balmaghie" where he preached 
to such persons as were present, and again intimat- 
ed the sentence of deposition. Mr Macmillari offi- 
ciated that day in the church. The deposed clergy- 
man still continued to perform all the duties of the 
ministry^ in the parish of Balmaghie, keeping 
possession of both church and manse. 

1 ''22nd February, 1704, As to the affair of Balmaghie, Mr 
Monteith reports that ho went towards the Kirk of Balmaghie, 
according to appointment, and James Gordon, Town Clerk, of 
Kirkcudbright, notary public, together with some witnesses, and 
that as be was riding towards the Kirk, there came from the 
kirkyard, about twenty or thirty men who refused to let him go 
farther, and actually stopped them, by laying hold on the fore- 
most hoise's bridle/whereupon Mr Monteith finding he was vio. 
lently withstood in going to the kirk, did take out his commis- 
sion "from the presbytery, and iead it to litem, and did intimate 
the presbytery's sentence of deposition against Mr John Mac. 
millau, and declared the kirk vacant ; whereupon he asked and 
took instruments iu the bauds" of the notary public, above men- 

2 The following extract from the Records of the Town 
Council of Kirkcudbright, proves this. 

" Convened within the Council house, the twenty. fourth day of 
September, 1707 years, Captain Heugh Fullerton, provost, James 
Gordoun of Campbelltoun, and James M Colm, late provosts ; 
Samuel Eivart,present baillie, James M'Quhan, youngest baillie, 
John Murray, John Kirkpatrick, and John Thomson, late baillies ; 
Nichol Donaldson, present treasurer, Rodger Gordoune, phiscall, 
David M'Lellan, late treasurer, John Halliduy, John Hostein, 
Adam Donaldson, and David Liddtrdaill cf Tons." 

" The supplication underwritten was presented by Charles 
Livingston, glover, and the same being read in presence of the 
magistrates and councill they ordained the samen to be record- 
ed in the couit books of the said burgh, of which supplication 
the tenor follows. 

ONTO The Right Honourable, the Provost, baillies, and 
town councill of the burgh of Kirkcudbright. The humble sup . 
plication of me, Charles Livingstone, glover, burgess there, 


On the 12th of October, 1710, Mr William 
M'Kie, was ordained minister of Balmaghie,! in 
the town of Kirkcudbright. Notwithstanding this 
appointment, such was the spirit of the times and 
the powerlessness of the laws, that Mr Macmillan 

Humbly Sheweth — 

That whereas in the month of February last, as wns 
known to the most part of your Wisdoms, that I was manied 
by Mr John Macmillan, minister of Balmaghie, and for which 
you were pleased to fine your supplicant in the soum of live 
hundereth merk scots money, as for the irregularity thereof, 
which indeed I doe deserve, in going con tr air with the acta of 
assembly, and acts of the presbytery of Kirkcudbright ; but true 
it is, that I have not wherewith to pay the said fyne, although 
I should goe and sell all the haill interest that I have, ami con- 
sidering at the time the scarcitie of money, it would be impos- 
sible to me to raise money for the pay of the twentieth part 
thereof, far less to make payment to your Wisdoms' thre. 
sauier of such a great soum as you were pleased to fyne me 
in. Therefore may it please your Honours to take the premises 
to your serious consideration, and grant me a discharge of the 
said fyne. In regard that there was severall in my case and con- 
dition since the revolution, and whatever they were fyned in, it 
was the pleasure of your Honours' ptedecessours to discharge 
them thereof, and never did exact any thing, therefore so I am 
very hopeful that you will not make me an example to others, 
■who have ever lived here from my infancie, free of any thing 
worth the noticing or censuring till that of my marriago, and 
your Honours answer, &c. 

Eodem Die. 

The Magistrates and Councill having considered the petition 
and desire yroff and the petitioners circumstances and condition, 
grant the desire of the bill and remitt the foresaid fyne of five 
hundereth merks altogether, and freis the petitioner thereof." 

1 " 8th November, 1709. This day a petition was presented 
by some of the parishioners of Balmaghie, in favour of Mr 
William M'Kie, to be their minister in room of Mr John Mac- 

" 13th December, 1709. Appointment made for moderating 
in a call to Mr William M'Kie. 

17th January, 1710. Mr William Clerk reports that he did 
supply at Balmaghie, and conform to appointment, he did make 
intimation that there were two brethren appointed to moderate 
in a call, to Mr William M'Kie, and desired the heritors, eldeiF, 
and others to attend. 

" Mr Andrew Cameron reports, that he was on his journey 


retained possession of the church, manse, and 
glebe, 1 for about fifteen years after his deposition, 
though various attempts were made to remove 

to Balmaghie, and was the length of Barnboarrl, but was tnrned 
back again by Mr Macmillan's adherents, and so could not 
preach there conform to appointment. Mr Falconet of Kel- 
ton, also reported, that he went to Balmaghie, and did moderate 
in a call to Mr William M'Kie, to be their minister. 

" This day a protestation was presented by Hugh Mitchell, 
and others, protesting against the settlement of any other man 
to be minister in Balmaghie, except Mr John Macmillan, which 
protestation being read, they ordered the same to be kept in 
retentis, and appointed Mr Andrew Cameron to draw up an- 
swers and present them to the next presbytery. 

" A petition was also presented, [signed by 87 heads of fa- 
milies,] craving that Mr Macmillan might be reponed to the 
ministry at Balmaghie, which being read, they ordered the 
same to be kept in retentis, and appointed Mr Cameron to draw 
up an answer thereto. 

"21st February, 1710. Call to Mr M'Kie sustained.' 'Mr 
Andrew Cameron reported, that he had drawn up answers to 
the protestation and petition given in on last day, which being 
read, were approven and ordered to be kept in retentis with the 
protestation and petition." 

" 12th October. 1710. (The day of Mr M'Kie's Ordination ) 

" On which day Mr Macmillan gave in a paper which he 
craved might be read and recorded, thereupon took instruments, 
and before reading, the presbytery thought fit to give it to a 
committee of their number to consider whether it ought to be 
read or not, and he apprehending that the presbytery refused to 
read the same, thereupon, likewise, took instruments in the 
clerk's hands and so went off, though he was desired seveial times 
to stay till it should be read, which was accordingly done, and 
verbal answers made thereto, but did i«ot allow the same to be 
recorded, in regard they did not sustain it either as a legal or 
orderly protest, seeing he therein terms himself present minister 
of Balmaghie, and asserts his relation to that people, whereas, 
he is deposed, and his relation thereby dissolved. 

" Same day Mr M'Kie was ordained minister of Balmaghie." 

Presbytery Records. 

1 " Whon some of Mr M'Kie's adherents went to plough the 
glebe for his behoof, those of his competitor rose up against them, 
cut the reins in pieces, turned the horses adrift, and threw the 
ploughshare into the adjoining lake. Some threatened violence 
to the minister's person. An infuriated female actuallyattempted 
the execution of it, and would probably have effected hei purpose, 


him.l So much were the people of the parish in- 
censed at the proceedings against their beloved 
minister, that they violently attacked Mr M'Kie, 
and treated him with much inhumanity, wound- 

had he uot interposed his hand between his throat and a reaping 
sickle with which she was armed. His fingers were cut to the 
bone. The glove which he wore was carefully preserved, as a 
memorial of the providential escape he had made. Another wo- 
man who was present, exclaimed, *SShed no Mood,' and her advice 
was followed It was lemaiked by the country people, that the 
intending assassin never prospered afterward, and that by her 
own hand she terminated a life which she felt herself unable to 
endure." Siatistical Account. 

1 " 1st May, 1711. This day the presbytery taking under 
their consideration the present circumstances of the parish of 
Balmaghie, did appoint that a petition be drawn up to the 
Lords of Justiciary, representing the said circumstances of the 
said parish, that they may take some effectual measures for sup. 
pressing the s.iid disorders, and putting the present minister, Mr 
William M'Kie, in peaceable possession of kirk and manse ; and 
the draft of a petition to that effect was brought in, which being 
read was approven, and a copy thereof to be kept in retentis 
and Mr William Falconer was chosen to go to Dumfries, to pie- 
sent the same to the Lords of Justiciary ; and fur the more 
speedy and effectual removing of the said disorders, a represen. 
tation was drawn up, read, and approven, to be sent to the (Je- 
neral Assembly fur their concurrence. 

" 17ih October, 1711. Messrs Andrew Cameron. William 
Falconer, William M'Kie, report, that conform to appointment, 
thev attended the circuit of Dumfries and presented to the 
Lord Justice Clerk sitting in judgment, the presbytery's repre- 
sentation concerning the disorders in Balmaghie; the which be- 
ing considered by him, he did recommend to, and appoint the 
StewartDepute and Justices uf the Peace, within the Stewartry 
of Kirkcudbright, to give the presbytery, or any in their name, 
peaceable possession of the kirk and manse of Balmaghie, and 
to enquire iuto the crimes and riots mentioned in the presbytery's 
representation, and to give up the names of the persons with 
the list of habile witnesses to the clerk of Justiciary, tliat they 
may bo indicted and accused before the next circuit. 

" 30th October, 171 1. The presbytery having considered the 
extract of the Lord Justice Clerk, his act, with reference to 
the parish of Balmaghie, appoint Messrs James Monteith, and 
Andrew Ewart to repair to the quarter sessions and present the 

" 31st October. Messrs Monteith and Ewait report thai 


ing his person and tearing his clothes. 1 Mr Mac- 
millan, at last, voluntarily abandoned the church 
and left the parish. During all this time, the lawful 

they went to the quarter sessions and presented the extract of 
the'act of the Lord Justice Clerk, with reference to the parish 
of Balmaghie, as also the extract of the act against Lagg, recom- 
mending to the judges that he might not sit as a justice of the 
peace, he being excommunicated; but there being only three of 
the justices present, and the Stewart Depute absent, they delay- 
ed to make answer to their next meeting. Prksbyteby Re. 

I " 15th December, 1713, This day a delation was made, 
that Mr William M'Kie, minister of the gospel at Balraaghie, 
has been most inhumanly and barbarously treated, abused, 
wounded, and beaten, and had his clothes torn by a rabble of the 
irregular people in that parish, upon Wednesday last, being the 
9lh of this current. The presbytery taking this affair to their 
consideration, did appoint Messrs William Falconer, and Robert 
Gordon of Crossmichael, to write and send a letter to Cardiness, 
who is now in Edinburgh, representing the affair to him, and 
desiting him to give an account thereof to my Lord Justice 
Clerk and the Queen's Solicitor. 

" 20th January, 1714. Messrs Falconer and Gordon report 
that they drew up an information of the inhuman carriage of the 
iriegular people of Balmaghie, towards Mr William M'Kie, 
their minister, there, and wrote thereanent to Cardiness ; Mr 
Falconer also reports that he got an answer from Nicol Spence, 
sub-clerk, to the General Assembly, concerning what was done 
in it, which was produced coram, and it being read, the presly. 
tery did write to the moderator of the General Assembly, and to 
Cardiness and Barclay, who are now at Edinburgh, ai.d sent 
them the doubles of the information, desiring that they may use 
their endeavours with those to whom it is competent to redress 
these disorders, and pi event the like in time coming. 

" 16th Feb 1716. Mr Falconer reports, that he received an an- 
swer from the procurators of the Church, bearing that endea- 
vours have been used to get my Lord Justice Clerk his answer, 
before whom the representation of the irregularities committed 
in Balmaghie, against Mr William M'Kie, were laid, and he gave 
it as his opinion, that the Judge Ordinary, *or Justices of the 
Peace, should get an information of the abuses committed a. 
giinst the said Mr William M'Kie timeously, and be required 
to put the actors on the Porteous roll, in order to theii beiug 
prosecute before the circuit in May next. The piesbytery tak- 
ing this affaii into their consideration, did appoint Mr Gordon, 
to give a double of the said information to James Gordon of 


incumbent officiated in a barn, or in the open air, 
to those who were disposed to attend bis ministra- 
tions. 1 

Caropbelton, clerk to the Justices of the Peace, and Mr Mait- 
land, to give another double to Robert Maxwell of Hazlefield, 
Stewart Substitute, and to require them to the effect foresaid. 

"16th March, 1714. Mr Gordon and Mr Maitland, [of 
Tongland,] report that they gave informations concerning the 
irregular people of !>almaghie, both to Campbeltown and Hazle- 
rield, and required of them that they might be put on the Por. 
teous roll, which they promised should be done. 

" 5th April. 1715. Mr M'Kie, representing that the disorders 
in Balicaghie, still continue, and that Mr Macmillan still exer. 
ciseth all the parts of the ministerial work there, as if lie was not 
deposed from that sacred office, and, that hitherto, nothing had 
been got done effectually to suppress and redress such disorders 
and insolences, though application hath been made again and 
agaiu to the Lords of the justiciaiy, and likewise representing, 
that by some means or other, William Murdoch and other of his 
accomplices in the barbarous riot committed by him and them 
against himself were not prosecute conform to law" and infor- 
mation given in against him and them to the Lords, at the last 
circuit at Dumfries, alledging that the blame thereof is partly 
owing to Mains Lindsay, Stewart Depute, who hath not accord- 
ing to his warrant, and promise, there apprehended and secured 
the persons of the said William Murdoch, and his accomplices. 
Theiefore the presbytery, in the first place, appoints Messrs 
Falconer, Gordon, and M'Kie, to draw up a letter to Mains, de- 
siring him to put the foresaid order in execution, certifying him 
if he fail so to do, that the presbytery willieckon themselves 
obliged to represent him to the justiciary for his neglect." 

Presbytery Records. 

1 "At length, after the struggle in the parish had continued a- 
bout 12 [15] years, Mr M'Millan retired voluntarily, and became 
an itinerant preacher, and fourfder of the sect of the M'Millan. 
ites, or modern Cameronians,* who assume the designation of 

* This is scaicely correct: Mr M'Millan conformed to the 
Cameronians, n<ft the Cameronians to him. 

" The Cameronians then and still call themselves ' The sitf. 
fering remnant and true Pi csbyterian Church of Christ'. In the 
year 17-13, Mr M'Millan was joined by Mr Thomas Naitne, late 
mini>ter of Abbotshall, who had separated fiom the ancient 
piesbytery, whereupon they erected a presbytery of theii own 
under the name of the Jlefoimed Presbytery, and licensed and 

OF ALLOY/ AY. 317 

At this epoch numerous misunderstanding* 
existed between England and Scotland, and the 
minds of the people were filled with national 
animosity. A warfare of mutual recrimination and 
hostile legislation had already commenced, which 
exhibited every symptom of producing a crisis — 
in all probability, a bloody, an unnatural, and a 
lengthened war. To prevent such a catastrophe, 
a treaty of Union was proposed between the 
two nations, and commissioners from each, to 
effect this salutary object, were nominated by the 
Queen. They met at the Cockpit in London, 

the Reformed Presbytery. By prudent conduct and ministerial 
faithfulness, Mr M'Kie entirely overcame the aversion of his 
people, and lived long among them respected and useful. Some 
indeed retained, and some still retain, a predeliction for princi- 
ples, in defence of which they have considered their fathers as 
having suffered unjustly. But oi' the dissenters in Scotland in 
general, it may with truth be said, that they are as industrious 
and as peaceable members of society, as theii fellow subjects who 
belong to the established Church. Perfect unanimity on specu. 
lative points is never to be expected, and attempts to produce it 
!>y the application of force, are both foolish and unjust. The 
policy which extends toleration to all who invade not the rights 
of therr neighbour, is worthy of an enlightened age, and its wis- 
dom and utility are justified by the experience of man." 

Statistical Account. 

ordained such as adhered to their tenets and all whom they 
thought otherwise qualified for the Ministry. The distin- 
guishing principle of this sect which bears the name of its founder, 
i* that no obedience or subjection is due to the king, government, 
or inferior magistrates, because they do not adhere to the 
covenant, and because in their opinion, they want the qualifica- 
tions required by scripture and the covenants, one of which i?, 
that the king should be a native of the kingdom over which he 
reigas Deut. xvii. 13. Hence they do not pray for the king, 
nor take the benefit of the courts of law — Mr M'Millan died at 
Uroomhill in the parish of Bothwell, on 1st December 1753, in 
lire 84th year of his age.'' 

[See Scots Magazine for December, 1753. — ] 


on the 16th of April, 1706. The Earl of Stairl was 
one of the ablest of the commissioners for Scotland ; 
his brother, Sir Hugh Dalrymple, Lord President 
of the Court of Session, was also one of this select 

I " Sir John Dalrvmple, afterwards Earl of Stair, eldest son 
of Lord President Slair, by Margaret, dau rhter of James Ross of 
Balnei), was born about 1648, and admitted Advocate on the 28th 
February, 1672. He rose to considerable eminence in the profes- 
sion, and was appointed one of the counsel for Argyle in 1681. 
On the flight of his father to Holland, Sir John became an ob. 
ject of persecution to those in power, tiien extiemely enraged at 
his father's having escaped their vengeance. He was, in 1682, 
committed to the Castle of Edinburgh, and fined £.500, on the 
pretence that he had, as heritable bailie of the regality of Glen, 
luce, interfered with the jurisdiction of the sheriff of Galloway, 
and amerciated his own and his father's tenants too low, for at. 
tending conventicles. Having refused to give some evidence re. 
quired by his enemies against the Earl of Aberdeen, late chan- 
cellor, he was in September 1684, again seized, and conducted to 
the tolbooth of Edinburgh, under circumstances of great indigni. 
ty. After suffering a close imprisonment of three months, be 
was liberated in December, but still confined to the burgh of 
Edinburgh and ten miles around if, until the month of January, 
I'680. Hv then found means to make his peace at Court, and on 
the removal of Sir Geoige Mackenzie, succeeded him as Lord 
Advocate iu February 1687. This situation lie held nearly 
twelve months, and was then nominated successor to Sir James 
Foulis of Coliuton, both as Justice-Clerk, and as an ordinary 
Lord, taking his seat as a judge of the Couit of Session on 
the 28th February 1688. Though in office at the Revolution, 
he entered heartily into that measure, and was a member of the 
convention Parliament, in which he was appointed one of the 
three commissioners deputed to convey the offer of the crown to 
William and Mary. He was re. appointed Lord Advocate in 
1690, and advanced to be one of the principal Secretaries of 
State in the following year. This place he retained until 1695, 
when he was driven from office by the issue of the parliamentary 
inquiries into the massacre of Glenco, in the blame of which he 
boie so great a share. He succeeded his father in 1695, but 
durst not take hi- seat in Parliament for several years afterwards. 
He was created Earl of Stair 8th April 1703 : appointed one of 
the commissioners for the treaty of Union in 1705, and contribut- 
ed greatly by his dexterity to the accomplishment of that measure. 
He died suddenly on the 8th January 1707, after having that dajj 
debated with great energy in favour of the 22nd article of the 
Union. The character of this nobleman has been most unfavour- 



number. 1 The commissioners kept their proceed- 
ings a profound secret until they had terminat- 
ed their labours and subscribed the articles. As soon 

ably drawn by his contemporaries, who, though they allow him 
to have been possessed of transcendant talents, describe him as 
utterly unprincipled, sanguinary and remorseless." 

College of Justice 

1 The judges of the Court of Session had each only £200 a 
year before the Union. Afterwards their Salaries were raised 
to £500. 

" Sir Hugh Dalrymple of North. Bei wick, Baronet, President, 
third son of Viscount Stair, and of Margaret, eldest daughter 
of James Ross of Balniel, was admitted advocate 23d February, 
1677, and afterwards constituted one of the commissaries of 
Edinburgh*, on tbe resignation of his brother, Sir James. He 
was chosen Dean of the faculty of Advocates, in place of Sir 
James Stewart, Lord Advocate, 1 1th January !695, and held 
that office till his elevation to the bench. King William creat- 
ed him a Barcnct, 29lh April 1098: and the same year, by a 
letter dated 17th March, nominated him President of the Court 
of Session, which office had been vacant since the death of his fa- 
ther in 1695. The Lords having met, on the 29th March, to take 
the King's letter into consideration, they determined to delay the 
ndinissson till June, 'theordinar time of Session,' that then it 
may be more solemn, and that they would acquaint his Majesty 
that the nomination was very acceptable to them. 

When the Court met on the 1st of June, they elected Lord 
Mersington to sit as President, until the nomination of Sir Hugh 
Dalrymple should be confirmed. A question arose as to the 
mode of admission, whether he should be tried according to the 
Act passed in 1074 for trying the Lords of Session, or admit him 
without trial ? It was contented that the act ordaining the Lords 
of Session to sit three days in the outer house could have no re- 
ference to the President, whose duty never led him at any time 
to be there : and also, that his letter of appointment differed 
from theirs, which nominates him President without specifying 
a trial, while the other letters of nomination bear these words, 
" presents the person nominated to be tried." After consider- 
able discussion, however, it was carried by a plurality that he 
should undergo his trials in the outer house, in the same manner 
as the other judges. Accordingly upon going through the usual 
probation, he was admitted, took the oaths and his seat a9 Pre- 
sident of the Court of Session, on the 7th of June 1698. He 
-^presented the Burgh of New. Galloway in Parliament from 
"09<; to 1702, and North Berwick from 1703 till the Union, of 
hich he was a steady supporter." College of Justice. 


as the particulars transpired, popular indignation 
arose to an unprecedented height. The Scottish 
Parliament met in October ; and the severity of 
the weather alone prevented the people from repair- 
ing to Edinburgh, and dissolving a slavish legisla- 
ture. The materials of discontent had been widely- 
kindled, and seemed read)'' to burst forth into one 
stupendous flame of desolating resentment. But the 
people wanted suitable leaders; and circumstances 
occurred which rendered nugatory the designs of 
the disaffected. Had the Pretender now arrived, 
serious consequences might have ensued. The fer- 
ment was afterwards in some measure 'allayed, 
but not removed ; though the exertions of the peo- 
ple evaporated in futile opposition. Unavailing 
petitions poured into Parliament from all quarters 
against the treaty of Union. On the 12th of No- 
vember, 1706, the Magistrates, Town-councillors, 
and other inhabitants of the burgh of Kirkcud- 
bright petitioned Parliament against sanctioning an 
incorporating Union with England in the terms of 
the articles; and, on the 18th of the same month, 
the barons, freeholders, and yeomen, within the 
Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, likewise petitioned 
Parliament to the same effect. Addresses against 
the Union were presented on the 3rd of December, 
from the four parishes of Glenkens and the burgh of 
New-Galloway.' A similar address was present- 

1 " To his Grace her Majesty's High Commissioner, and the 
Right Honourable the Estates of Parliament ; the humble ad. 
dress of the Magistrates, Town Council, Burgesses, and Inhabi- 
tants of the Burgh of New.Galloway. 

We the Magistiates, Town-Council, Burgesses, and Inhabi 
tants of the said Burgh of New.Galloway, under-subscribing, 
having seen the articles of the> Union agreed upon by tlie Cotruf* 
missioners nominate in the behalf of the kingdom of ScotlandfH| 
and the commissioners nominate in behalf of the kingdom of Eng- 


ed from a body of people in the south and western 
counties of Scotland, signed by Mr John Hep- 
burn, 1 minister of Urr, a strict Presbyterian, and 
the friend of Mr Macmillan, with seven other in- 
land, in which they have agreed that Scotland and England be 
united in one kingdom ; and that the United Kingdom be repre- 
sented by one and the same parliament ; and seeing it does evi- 
dently appear to us. that such an incorporating Union as is con- 
tained in the said articles is contrary to the Honour, Fundamen- 
tal Laws, Constitution of this kingdom, and claim of rights, by 
which our liberty and presbyterian government in the church aie 
Becured ; and also contrary to the birth-iight of the peers and 
rights and privileges of the barons, free-holders, and burghs of 
the kingdom ; and that the same is destructive to the true inter- 
est of the nation 

Therefore, we humbly beseech your Grace and honourable es. 
tates, and do confidently expect that ye. will not allow of any such 
incorporating Union ; but that yje will support and presei ve the 
Sovereignty and Independency ot this Independent kingdom and 
the rights and privileges of Parliament, which have been so vali- 
antly maintained by our heroic ancestors for the space of near 
two thousand yoars; that thesame may be transmitted to succeed- 
ing generations as it has been conveyed to us ; for we are resolv- 
ed to defend and support our crown and independent Sovereign, 
ty with our lives and fortunes conform to tha established law* 
of this nation." 

The other petitions were in the same style, and often in nearly 
the same words. 

1 The author of Plain Reasons for Presbyterians Dissent- 
ing from the Revolution Church in Scotland, says, "I find 
Anno 1694, in the very second Assembly, there be several pro- 
cesses against the Reverend Mr John Hepburn (though I approve 
him not in all things) for many zealous appearance he made a. 
gainst the publick defections from, and in favours of our cove- 
nanted Reformation, by them termed walking disorderly, and not 
submitting to the judicatoiies of this church, in the exercise of 
his Ministry, In the 1 1th act of that Assembly the very act in 
which they make the curates formula, and instruct their com- 
mission to take in these creatures upon subscribing the same, &c. 
as above, they, as it were with the same breath, instruct the 
same commission to prosecute the said Mr John Hepburn. I 
own this is the way of the world, to put out an honest man, and 
in a knave. I find, in the 27th act of Assembly, 1G9G, Mr 
Hepburn is suspended from the exercise of his Ministry for the 
fofftaid cause, and the same to be intimated in all the parish 
Churches of several Synods. 

▼ol. ii. Bb 


dividuals. The convention of royal burghs also 
remonstrated against the Union. 1 These addres- 

] In pursuance of the foresaid process, the Church applied to 
the rivil magistrate, to apprehend Mr Ilophuni ; and according. 
ly he was incarcerate in Edinburgh Tolbooth ; from which, 
upon the account of his preaching to people, out at the windows, 
he was transported to the Castle of Stirling, and there baned up 
from access to people, or of people to him, for some con-iderable 
time ; after long imprisonment, I find, from the 7th act of As. 
sembly, 1705, that they deposed him fur his strenuous adher- 
ence uirto the covenanted Reformation, which the Church in act 
foresaid, falsely and wickedly, as would seem, call a continued 
tract, of erroneous, seditious, and divisive doctrines, and schis- 
matic courses, wherein they say, he is obstinate, refusing to be 
reclaimed.." t • 

I The convention of royal burghs petitioned against the 
measure ; the petition was signed by Sir Samuel Maclellan, chief 
magistrate of Edinburgh, descended from the noble family of 
Kirkcudbright. A book was at this time dedicated to him en- 
titled '' Hugonis Grotii, de Jure Belli ac Pacts. l.i!>rtirvm III. 
Compendium, Annotationibits ct Commentariis Sell 
turn. In Usum Studiosce Juvcrdutis Academirc I^dinensis. Edin- 
burgh, 1707," It bears the following inscription. 


" D Samueli M'Clellan Equiti Aurato, qui recto per Filios a 

Parentibus ducto Stemmate, ab Antiqua & Nobili M'Clellan- 

orum Baronum Fani-Cudberti Famiiia, Genus trahit ; Uibis 

Edinburgh Consuli Magnifico August issimaa Renins a Cons>iliis." 

William Maclellan of Borness, on the death of the tilth l,<>nl* 

Kirkcudbright in 1730, assumed the title and voted at several 

elections of Scotch Peers. At the general election of 1741, 

James Madeline, eldest son of the then deceased Sir Samuel 

;i, late Provo-t of Edinburgh, entered a protest against 

William's vote. ]5oth he and James were present and voted as 

Lord Kirkcudbright. At the election of 1742, William protest- 

,iist the other's vote, because James had L'iren in to his 

.- a petition, " setting forth that he could make it appear 

by authentic documents, that he was the nearest heir male ex- 

* This nobleman appears to have resided in Kirkcudbright, 
for we find from ;iie Records of the Town Council, that he often 
took pieces of land. &c, or became security for other tenants. 
His signature " Kirkcudbright," still appears in the Burgh 
Books. Is has been said by some old people, that he was so 
much i educed in circumstances, as to keen a small inn «t 
this time, for a livelihood. 


ses, however, were totally disregarded ; for Go- 
vernment had determined to carry the measure at 
every hazard. 

and dignity or gain reerage, unci uiereiure uumuij i-»"j""o ""'^ 
his Majesty might be pleased to direct an enquiry to be made in- 
to his, the said petitioner's right to the said dignity or peerage, 

isting, to Sir Robert Maclellan of Bombie, first Loid Kirkcud- 
bright and that thereby he had undoubted right to the honour 
Bud dignity of said Peerage, and therefore humbly praying that 

in sank manner as to his Majesty should seem proper; in cor 
pliauce with which petition, Lis Majesty by a reference dated at 
Whitehall, 28th April, 173d, directed the" Lord Advocate, and 
Solicitor General for Scotland, to consider of the said petition 
and report their opinion, what might bo fitting for his Majesty 
to do therein. That the said James Maclellan having presented 
t i-3 above petition and reference thereon to the Lord Advocate 
and Solicitor General for Scotland, together with certain docu- 
ments in writing, for instructing his being ihu nearest heir male 
to the first Lord Kirkcudbright, that they might determine 
thereon, and leport their opinion to his Majesty ; they, the said 
Lord Advocate and Solicitor, by report bearing, that upon due 
consideration had of the said writings laid before thorn by the 
laid James Maclellan, certified to his Majesty, that ho th 
James Maclellan had not made good tha allegation in his said pe. 
tition, to wit, that ha was nearest heir existing to Robert, first 
Lord Kirkcudbright, and in consequence, his claim to the pee - 
fell to the ground." William afterwards coutioued for some l 
to vote, as Lord Kirkcudbright. His second son, an officer in the 
army, obtained the title. Alter his father's death, he presented a 
petition to his Majesty "claiming the title, honour, and dignity of 
Lord Kirkcudbright, and praying his Majesty to declare and esta- 
blish his right and title to the said honour and dignitiy of Lord 
Kirkcudbright." This petition being referred to the House of 
Lords, it was resolved, 3d May, 177-3, that the petitioner, John 
Maclellan hud right to the title, honour, and dignity, of Lord Kirk- 
cudbright, claimed by his petition ; his Lordship was 14th May, 

1773, presented to the King at St. James's, and most graciously 
received. He had a company in the 30th legimentof Foot", 

1774, and exchanged it for a Lieutenancy in the 3rd regiment 
of Foot Guar!", 1770. He obtained a company in that regiment 
with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, 1784, and rotited from 
the service 1789. Ilia Lordship died in Hereford Street, Lon- 
don, 24th December, 1801, in the 73d year of his ago, having 
married Miss Banneiman of Hampshire — and by her (who died in 
Manchester square London, I5lh June, 1807,) bad issue viz : — 
1st. Sliolto Henry, eighth Lord Kirkcudbright, 2nd, Honourable 
Camden Gray Maclellan, born 20th April, 1774, an officer in tbo 


The sum of twenty thousand pounds from the 
English exchequer was expended in promoting the 
Union, and large gratuities were granted to many 
noblemen and gentlemen to purchase their support, 
diminish their opposition, or disarm their hostility. 
In the list of the bribed are Mr Stewart, of Castle- 
Stewart, who received £300, and Mr Coltran, Pro- 
vost of Wigtown, who obtained the sum of £25: 
some noblemen, were, besides, promised British 
peerages. 1 

Though the ministry commanded a majority in 
Parliament, the popular voice almost universally con- 
demned the measure as subversive of the honour, the 
independence, and the welfare of Scotland; and the 
promoters of the Union became every clay more and 
more obnoxious to general detestation. In Edin- 
burgh, the Lord Commissioner was hooted or pelted, 
wherever he appeard. The house of Provost John- 
ston was assailed, his doors were broken open, and 
his windows destroyed.'- Stair, the able and zealous 
advocate of the measure,— a nobleman whose ser- 
vices were invaluable to the Government,— brought 
down upon his head the united execrations of tha 
majority of his countrymen, and was commonly 
known at this time by the popular nickname of the 

2nd, or Coldstream regiment of Foot Guards, in which he had 
the commission of Ensign, 1792, Lieutenant 1794, and quitted 
the service 1803. 3rd, Daughter, Honourable Elizabeth Mac. 
lellan, born 18th Apii!, 1709, married 21st May, 1795, to 
Finlay Fergnsson Esq., of Hinde street. Sbolto Henry, eighth 
Lord Kirkcudbright born 15th August, 177b succeeded his fa- 
ther iu 180.1. (Wood's Peeiage.) 

Upon his death the title became dormant. The late Rev. 
John Maclellan, minister of Kelton, considered himself the right- 
ful heir. 

1 De Foe's History of the Union. — Laing. — Heron. — Stru, 
ther's History of Scotland. 

2 Heron. — Scctt. 


:r Curse of Scotland."! The whole " treaters," or 
those friendly to the treaty, were generally called 
traitors, and viewed as such. 2 

Serious disturbances occurred in various places ; 
and the articles of the Union, with the names of the 
Commissioners, were burned in the town of Dum- 
fries, by a pretty numerous party of the disaffected 
from the surrounding country.3 A riot of an alarm- 
ing 1 nature likewise took place in the town of Kirk- 
cudbright. 4 

The following noblemen and gentlemen, besides 
some others connected with Galloway, approved in 
Parliamentofthe first article of the Union. The Earl 
of Galloway, the Earl of Stair, William Stewart of 
Castle-Stewart, John Stewart of Sorbie, William 
Maxwell of Cardoness, Sir David Dalrymple, Sir 
Hugh Dalrymple, and William Coltran. Whilst 
the Earl of Wigtown and Alexander Mackie, of 
Palgown, pursued an opposite course. The act 
ratifying the treaty of Union received the support 
of the following individuals ; William Stewart, 
of Castle-Stewart, John Stewart, of Sorbie, Sir 
David Dalrymple, and Sir Hugh Dalrymple. — 
The members who disapproved of the act, were 
the Earls of Wigtown and Galloway, William 
Maxwell, of Cardoness, and Alexander M'Kie, of 
Palgown. 5 

On the 8th of January, 1707, the Earl of Stair 
died suddenly, and his son took his seat in Parlia- 
ment in his father's stead : he was subsequently 

1 Scftt. — Struthers. 

2 Do Foe, &c 

.'5 Laiog — Heron De Foe, &c. 

4 Annals of Queen Anne 

j Minutes of the Scottish Parliamen t. 


chosen to represent the nobility in the Parliament 
of Great Britain.! 

The whole treaty of Union without any amend- 
ment receiver! the sanction of the English Par- 
liament; and the Queen, with much satisfaction,, 
added the royal assent. The Scottish Parliament^ 
after settling some matters of minor importance;, 
was dissolved on the 23th of April, 1707, never 
more to be assembled. 

The individuals first nominated to represent Scot- 
land in the British Senate were selected by the 
Scottish Parliament from their own body. Instead 
of nine, the province of Galloway, exclusive of the 
town of Kirkcudbright, had to send, at the first 
general election, only three representatives to the 
British Parliament. Those sent were, Lieutenant 
Colonel John Stewart, of Livingston, for the Stew- 
artry of Kirkcudbright; the Honourable John Stew- 
art, of Sorbie, for the Shire of Wigtown ; William 
Cochran, Esq., of Kilmarnock, for the Wigtown 
district of Burghs : William Johnston, Esq., re- 
presented Kirkcudbright, in the Dumfries dis- 
trict of Burghs. 2 That the Union might be com- 
plete, the privy council of Scotland was abro- 
gated ; and, in some measure to supply its place. 
Justices of the Peace, an institution though pre- 
viously attempted, yet never fully introduced, were 
appointed. The Lords of Justiciary received 
orders to make circuits twice in the year. Scotch 
money being abolished, the English currency was 

1 De Foe. 

2 Miege's State of Great Britain and Ireland, second edition,. 
2711. — De Foe's Hhtory of the Union. 




. 132080 



. 96856 



. 142180 



. 40000 




substituted.' Regular posts were also established, 
which tended to diffuse intelligence and promote 

1 The total Amount of J\foney brought, into the Bank of Scot- 
land, at the Union, in the year 1 707. 

Of foreign silver money- 
Milled Scotish coins . 
Coins struck by hammer 
JjmglLh milled coin 

Sum total of all these . . 411117 10 00 

" And this sum, no doubt, made up by far the greatest part of 
the silver coined money current in Scotland at that time; but 
it was not to be expected that the whole money of that kind 
could be brought into the bank ; for the folly of a few misers, 
or the fear that people might have of losing their money, or va- 
rious other dangers and accidents, prevented many of the old 
Scotch coins fiom being brought in ; a great part of these the 
goldsmiths, in after times, consumed by melting them down ; 
some of them have been exported to foreign countries ; a few 
are yet in private hands. No certain rule can be found, where, 
by to determine the precise quantity of gold coins in Scotland 
at that time ; however, there are a few which seem to convince 
us, that there was as great plenty of that as of silver, (balan- 
cing the price of each ) What principally makes for this o. 
pinion is, a few acts of the Mint of Scotland, which I have had 
occassion to see : these are what were made out from 16th De- 
cember, 1602 to 19th July, 1606; and again, from 20th Sep. 
tember 1611 to 14th April 1613; for it appears from these, 
that there was coined in Scotland, in these different periods, 51 
stone, 1 1 pounds, 9 ounces, 23 penney weights, 16 grains of gold 
bullion; but of silver, five hundred and ninety-six stone, seven 
pounds, thirteen ounces, twenty-three penny-weights, twelve 
grains weight. By this means, according to the way of count- 
ing in those days, there were issued about £39,72-6 sterling ; but 
of silver only £38,172 sterling; so that the gold coins struck 
in these years exceeded the silver in £1554 sterling value — 
I do not deny that this rule is liable to errors ; but we have 
none more certain for the present, and we here only seek for 
probability. From what has been said, we may be allowed to 
conjecture, without much absurdity, that the sum total of tie 
money over all Scotland, at the time of the Union in 1707, both 
gold and silver, amounted to a sum not les3 than nine hundred 
thousand pounds sterling." (Account of Scotch Money and 
Coins. ) 


Before concluding this chapter, wc shall give a 
brief account of the internal state of Galloway 
about this period. 

For some time previous to the end of the seven- 
teenth century, and the beginning of the eighteenth, 
the internal condition of Galloway was miserable 
in the extreme. Alternately the persecuted and 
the persecutors, the oppressed and the oppressors, 
banished from their breasts all the charities and 
sympathies of humanity; and, in their stead, fos- 
tered some of the most noxious and hideous pas- 
sions that poison and deform society. Attach- 
ment to certain forms of worship too often ex- 
tinguished Christian feeling; and, though men 
possessed religion ; yet, it is to be lamented, that 
in many instances it was a kind of spurious re- 
ligion, which exhibited itself in robes of blood, or 
appeared in the unseemly garb of a sanctimonious 
intolerance : it was religion without benevolence, 
— the essence of Christianity ; it was religion, but 
destitute of its soul — its vivifying principle ; it 
was religion without morality. 1 

The feverish insecurity, the prying jealousy, and 
the deadly antipathies which prevailed, produced up- 
on society, the most dismal and benumbing effects, 
and civilization retrograded with rapid strides. — 
Political and ecclesiastical dissensions entirely en- 
grossed the mental energies of the nation, and every 

1 The following oxtiart, with very many othersof a similar 
uature which might be quoted from various records proves this. 
•2oth April, 1703. — " John M'Kitrick and Marjory Hallum, 
appeared in the habit of sackcloth before the congi elation on this 
day, he for the tenth time, and she for the ninth, and acknow- 
ledged their guilt of the sin of adultry with one another, and 
were rebuked for the same," (Extracted fiom the Session 
Book of Twynholm.) 


sober measure, no matter how admirably calculat- 
ed to promote either general or particular advan- 
tage, was slightingly overlooked, amidst the excite- 
ment of party rancour or personal animosity. How, 
indeed, could the people improve their circum- 
stances or ameliorate their condition at such a period 
of dubiety and dismay,* During the Persecution, 

] In 1697, Sir Godfrey M'Gullecb, who had squandered and sold 
his estates, was beheaded at the cross of Edinburgh. " la those 
distracted times," says the New Statistical Account of Wigtown- 
shire, " private property was not in many cases secure. Sir 
Godfrey and a person of the name of Gordon, claimed the estate of 
Cavdoaesa, in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, The furmci had 
possession ; and tho latter lived at Bushybield, in the neighbour. 
hood. They were persona! enemies to each other; and Sir God. 
frey having coma to Bushybield to assist in removing some cattle 
that had been poinded, and having thus met Gordon, discharged 
n loaded gun at him, and inflicted wounds which afterwards prov- 
ed fatal. Sir Godfrey fled to England, but having afterwards 
returned to Scotland, he was apprehended in a church on a Sun- 
day in Edinuuigh, while attending public worship. At the end 
of the service a gentleman from Galloway, who was present, and 
who, it is said, hud a pecuniajy interest in the death of M'Culloch, 
cried out with an air of authority, " Shut the doors,— there's 
B murderer in the house!" Sir Godfrey was thus apprehended ;. 
ui ' having been tiied, was executed on the 26th of March, 
1697." New Statistical Account. 

We give his last speech, which we have pri.i ted from the 
original in his own hand writing, kindly furnished to us by James 
Murray M'Culloch, Esq. of Ardwull. 

'.' I am brought here, good people, to give satisfaction to jus- 
tice, for the daughter of William Gordon designed of Gardiness; 
and, therefore, I an obliged as a dying man, to give a faithful 
and true account of that matter. 

" I do declare, in the sight of God, I had no design against his 
life, nor did I expect to see him when I came where the accident 
happened. I came there contrair to my inclination, being pres- 
sed by these two persons, who were the principal witnesses a- 
gainst me, (they declaring he was not out of his bed,) that I 
might relieve their goods he had poinded. 1 do freely forgive 
them, and pray heartily that Uod may forgive them for bring, 
ing me to this place. 

" When I was in England, I was oft times urged by several 
persona, who declaiod they had commission from Castk- Stewart 


it would have been often considered little short 
of madness for men to sow, what in all probability 
they would never reap, or sedulously to cultivate 
fields for raising crops, to be trampled and de- 
stroyed by bands of armed desperadoes. It ap- 

n:iil his Lady, (now the pursuers Tor my blood,) that I might 
givo up the papeis of these lands <*f < 'ardinesa ; whereupon they 
promised not only a piece of money, but also to concur tot pro. 
curing me a remission j and I nave been several times since in 
the countrio where the misfortune happened) and where they 
lived, hut never troubled by any of them; although, now, after 

they hfivo got themselves secured in these hinds without me, they 
have been Very active in the pursuit, until at last they Imvo got 
me brought to this place. 

■'1 do acknowledge my sentence is just, and do not repine, 
for albeit it was only a single wound in the legg, by 11 shot of 
small haif, which was neither Intended, nor could lie foreseen to 
be deadly; yet I do believe, that Go;! In his justice, has suffered 
me to fall in timt miserable accident, for which I am now to suf- 
fer, because of my many other great and grievous unrepontcd sin-'. 
I do, therefore, heartily forgive my judges, accusers, witnesses, 
and all others, who have now, or at any time injured me, as I 
wisli to be forgiven. 

•' I recommend my wife and poor children, to the protection 
of Almighty God, who doth take rave of, and provides for the 
widow and fatherless , and pray that God may slir up and 
enable their friends and mine, to be careful of them. 

" I have been branded as being ri Unman Catholkk, which I 
altogether disown, and declare, as the words of a dying man, who 
am instantly to make my appearance before the great tribunal 
of the (/real God, that I die in the true Reformed Protestant Re- 
ligion, renouncing all righteousness of my own, or any others, 
relying only upon the merits of Christ Jesus, through whose blood 
I hope to he saved, and who, I truit, will not only bo my judge, 
but also Advocate with the rmher for my redemption, 

11 Now, dear spectators, as my last request, again and again I 
earnestly desire and begg, the assistance of your feivent prayers, 
that although I stand hoie condemned by man, I may be absolv- 
ed before the tribunal of the Great God; that in place of this 
scaffold I may enjoy a throne of glory ; that this violent death 
may bring me to a life of glorious lest, eternal in the Heavens ; 
and that in place of these spectators, I may be accompanied 
with an innumerable company of saints and angels, singing Hal. 
le'ujah, to the Great King, to all eternity. 

" Now, O Lord, remember me with that love thou bearest to 


peared in the eyes of many unavailing to labour in 
tending and augmenting their flocks, since in an 
hour their stock of cattle might be removed far be- 
yond their reach by the agents of despotism. It was 
useless for them to enlarge their dwellings, or multi- 
ply their conveniences, since they might soon be- 
come helpless fugitives, destitute of a habitation to 
shelter them from the cold. What value could they 
set on precarious property, or riches, that might 
hourly "take wings and fly away." I Existence itself 

thine own ; O visit me with thy salvation, that I may see the 
good of thy chosen ones, and may glory in thine inheritance. — 
Lord Je&us ! purge me from all my sins, and from this of blood- 
guiltiness; — wash me in thy own blood. Great are my iniqui- 
ties, but greater are the mercies of God ! O let me bo amongst 
the number of those for whom Christ died 1 lie thou my advocate 
with tie father ! Into thy bauds I recommend my spirit. Come, 
Lad Jesus ! come, and receive my soul. Amen." 
Sic Subscribitur, 

Sir Godfrey M'Culioch. 
1 " To such a state of wretchedness," says the author of Ca- 
ledonia, " was Galloway reduced by the successive alternations 
of misfortunes and follies, that farms, which now let for £200 
I, at the close of the seventeenth centuiy, rent free, 
merely on paying the public burdens." Some estates were sold 
lor two years' purchase. 

" In thi' end of the seventeenth century the landholders of the 
parishes of Dunrod and Galtway, which had been annexed to 
Kirkcudbright about 1663. opposed an augmentation of stipend, 
on the ground that these parishes could not afford it, they being 
;. mere waste." (Statistical Account.) 

The valuable fishery on the Dee, at Tongland, which late- 
ly brought Mr Murray a rent of JE705, was let in 1725, at £& 
ir. (Statistical Account.) 
In 1734, the lent of the Tongland fisheries appears from 
the following receipt to have been £25 

"Received by me, Mary Viscountess of Kenmure, from 
William Gordon of Campbellton, and John Henderson, now and 
formerly, twenty. rive pound sterling, as the rent of the fishing 
ol Tongland, fiom Martinmas 1733, to Martinmas 1734, and 
discharge the same; all accounts for fish received by me being 
allowed, as witness my hand at Clauchan of Tongland the 25 tU 
day <t October, 1734." 

(Signed,) Mary Kenmure. 


was held by so slender a tenure, that men became 
prodigal of life, vnA regardless of death. The world 
was not their friend, nor were the world's laws, and 
hence, they entertained no extravagant attachment 
to evanescent wealth. The gibbet and the dungeon, 
in this state of anarchy or oppression, lost their 
terrors, especially when the sufferers conceived 
a crown of martyrdom might be obtained. The 
vengeance of the law was despised when men 
perceived that the enthusiastic admiration of their 
friends, the rapturous approbation of the public, a 
deathless fame, and a glorious immortality, could be 
purchased by tenacity of purpose, and unflinching 
firmness in the hour of trial. The very nature, the 
very publicity, the very notoriety of punishment, 
sometimes becomes an incitement to crime ; and the 
admirers of Episcopacy showed but little knowledge 
of human nature in pushing severity to such an ex- 
treme. Severity, as well as lenity, invites to insub- 
ordination ; and, though a nation will bear a certain 
pressure from the superincumbent weight of power, 
yet, when overloaded, it will at last relieve itself by 
some great effort, — some irresistible concentration 
of its own inherent elasticity. 

During the last portion of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and the first part of the eighteenth, the do- 
mestic condition of the inhabitants of Galloway 

"Account of Fish sold to Hugh Crockat by John Henderson, 
August 1739. 

July. 8 Fish at I5d. each 

August. 2 Fish 

September. 3 Grilses, 5d, each 
September. 2 Fish. .... 
November. 1 Fish. .... 


s. d. 


1 6 

1 3 


1 3 

17 0" 


was deplorably wretched. Their houses in general 
were miserable hovels, built of stone and turf; or 
stone, with mud or clay, used instead of mortar : l 
they were poorly covered with straw and turf, and 
when it rained, the water penetrated through the 
insufficient and sooty covering, dyeing every thing 
upon which it fell, a dingy colour. The houses 
generally had two openings, one on each side, as 
substitutes for windows. On whatever part of the 
house the wind blew, the hole in that quarter was 
kept shut with straw, fern, or tattered pieces of old 
garments. These windows, at an early age, as al- 
ready mentioned, served likewise the purposes of 
chimneys, and allowed the dense smoke, with 
which the habitation was always filled, partially to 
escape : a hole remained in the roof for the same 
purpose. The inhabitants kept their cows, in 
winter, tied to stakes in the end of their dwelling 
Louses; and all entered at the same door; there 
being often no partition between the various in- 
mates of a cottage. 2 

1 Some little lime was at tkis time made from shells, burned 
with peat. 

2 In IG92, the Convention of Royal Burghs in Scotland, ap- 
pointed Commissioners to visit the various burghs. These com. 
missioners put several queries to the magistrates of each bur-'h^ 
and to shew the value of houses at this period, we shall quote 
the report made by the magistrates of Whithorn, 27th April 
1692, ' 

"1. It is answered that their comon good extends only to 
121ib. Scots, or thereby, and that their debt will amount to 

" 2 That they have no mortificationes. 

" -i That they have a sufficient harbour of their own if they 
had any trade. 

. " 4 That they have no treasurer's books, having soe small a 
comon good, and that they are not used to pay any ecqueis nor 
k.jow they what it would extend to. 

" 5 That they have no forraigne trade, and that their inland 
vol 11. Cc * 


The furniture of this period was of the rudest 
and meanest kind : many families had no bed- 
steads, or standing beds, but slept covered with 
coarse blankets, on straw or heath, laid upon 
the floor. They seldom had even a single chair 
in their dwellings, but used stools or stones for 
seats. Their dishes were made of wood ; and, at 
meals, they all ate out of one dish, which, being 
seldom washed, soon became thickly coated with 
the remains of former viands. Each person had a 

trade is most inconsiderable, being a small retaill of goods they 
bringfiom Air or Dumfreise ; their wine, seek, and brandie is 
8oe inconsiderable that they cannot condescend on it, and that 
they vent, and consume ten Lithgow bolls of malt weekly. 

" 6 That they have neither ship, bark, or boat belonging, to 
them in rearaird of the poverty of their inhabitants. 

" 7 That they are not owners or pairtners of any ships or 
barkes belonging either to burghs royal], of regalitie, or baronie, 
and are not concerned in trade with unfree burghs. 

" 8 That their cess is payed by stent on the inhabitants. 

■" 9 That they pay no pairt of the ministers stipends, and 
that their schoolmaster and till other their puLlict servants are 
payed by a tax on themselves 

" 10 That all their publiet works are maintained by a stent 
on themselves 

"li That the most pairt of their houses are inhabited by 
their respective heretors, and that they have no stranger inhabi- 
tants, and that the rents of their houses are twixt fyfteen pownd 
and twenty shillings Scots, many whereof an- ruinous. 

" 12 That they have two yearly fails, each one of one dayes 
containvvance, and that they have no we( it, the ens. 

ol iltii fairs are a paii t of their comrm good, and see 
reel ''iied in answer to the first article. 

'• 13 That there are no burghs of barrony or regalitie lyeing 
neai thi'in or prejudicial! to them. 

" 14 That their fynee which are casuall are most inconsider- 

" This is the Invv accompt of the state and condition of the 
said burgh, in answer to the above wryttine Instructi*>nes yiven 
np upon oath by the sauW magistrates ai d towne clerk, under 
subscryveing at the place forsaid, to the saids VUitois, day and 
dait forsaid. Sic subscribitur, Adam Dunlop, provost ; Jo. 
M'Candish, baillie; Harie Donaldsone, Laillie ; William M*. 
Candish, "VA illiam Gowane, elk." 


short hafted spoon, made of horn, which, after be- 
ing used, he put into his pocket, or hung by his side : 
this spoon was called a munn, They had nei- 
ther knives nor forks, but used their fingers as sub- 

The food of the common people consisted of the 
meanest and coarsest materials, besides being dirty 
and ill cooked. Those lived comfortably who could 
obtain a sufficient supply of " brose, porridge, and 
soioens" perhaps made of meagre grain, dried in 
pots, and ground in querns, with greens, or kail, oc- 
casionally boiled in salt and water. They seldom or 
never tasted animal food except the carcases of such 
beasts as died either from starvation or disease ; it 
was a rare thing to slaughter even an old ewe for 
winter provision. The common people, had, as 
yet, acquired no luxuries except tobacco, though 
the higher classes possessed a few. 1 Their chief 

1 Report made by the Magistrates of Wigtown, to the Com- 
missioners of the Convention of Royal Burghs, 26th April, ! 692. 

'' 1. As to the first article, it is answered that their comon 
eood will extend, comunibus annis, to the sowmeof 693 lib I3ss. 
4d., and that their debts amounts to the sowme of 2,6.31 lib. 
13,-s. 41. 

" 2. That they have no mottificationes belonging to them. 

" 3 That in any occasion they have of trade, thty make use 
of their own foot of their water for their harbour. 

" 4 That they are no ways concerned therein. 

" 5. That they have produced their threasurer's and Town 
court books for fyve preceding years, and that theii ecqueis, 
with theii clerks and other dewes, amounts to 29 lib. 6ss 8d. 

" 6. That they have no foriaigne trade, and that their inland 
trade 'u verie inconsiderable, and all they have is a retail! of 
goodes, which they biing from Glasgow, Air, and Dumfreise, 
'.he value wherof will amount to 100 lib. sterling yearly, or 
therby ; and that they have not vented to their knowledge above 
French wine these fyve years bygone, ami that they 
.'cut about a hogshead of seek and a butt ot brand! e yearlie ; 
and that they cousum about fourteen bolls of malt, Linlithgow 
measour, weekly. 

'• 7 That there are neither ship, lark, cr boat belonging to 
i, as having uo outland trade or convenient port. 

336 • HISTORY 

drink was fermented whey which they kept in 
barrels, sometimes for a whole year, or a kind of 
ale which is said to have been still manufactured 
from heather. Tea, at this time, was perhaps not 
altogether unknown in Galloway ; but, being sold 
at thirty shillings a pound", it was far beyond the 
reach of the generality of the inhabitants. James 
1!., when Duke of York, felt particularly de- 
sirous to recommend himself to the Scotch no- 

" 8 tbey are not owners or partners of any ships, barks, 
or boats belonging either to burghs royall, of regality, or barrouie, 
or concerned any maner of way in matter of trade with uufieo 

" 9 That their cess is payed by a yearly tax on the inhabi- 
tants, heretors of their tenements, and borrow aikers and their 

" 10 That they pay to their minister 300 lib. yearly out of 
their comon good ; and that the schoolmaster, and all other their 
publict servants, have yearly payed him out of the same 168 lib. 
and no other ways. 

" 1 1 That their church, tolbooth, and all other their publict 
works, Commissionars' charges to the Parliament, and borrowes, 
are all payed out of their comon good. 

" 12 That the most of their houses are inhabited by their re- 
spective heretors to whom they belong, and that the most pahfc 
of the rest are either waist or ruinous; and that they have no 
stranger inhabitants ; and that the rent of their houses is twixt 
twenty.four pounds and twenty shillings Scots yearly. 

" 13 That they have four yearly fairs, the customes whereof 
are a pairt of their comon good, and soe stated in the answer to 
the first article, and that they have no weekly mercat. 

" 14 That they have only one burgh of barrouie within six 
myles of them, called MinnigofF, whose trade they reckon incon* 
sideiable, and hath only prejudged them as to their weekly mar. 

" \b That they have some easuall comon good by their fines 
or moit cloathes whereon they cannot condescend. 

This is the trew accompt of the state and condition of the said 
burgh of Wigetoun, in an answer to the above written instruc 
tiones, as it is given up by the saids magistral es and town clerk, 
under subsciyveing, upon oath, to the saids Visitors, day and 
date foresaid. Sic subscribitur, William Cochrane, provost; 
Jo Laffeisie. baillie; Simon Gulline, baillie ; Alexander Camp, 
bell, clerk." 


bility, and gave entertainments at which tea con- 
stituted the favourite beverage : it had thus been 
introduced into Scotland, at this period, and might 
have reached Galloway some years afterwards. — • 
The use of tobacco had already become very pre- 
valent in the district. 

The dress of the inhabitants remained peculi- 
arly homely and ungraceful. The men wore kelt, or 
waulked plaiding coats, made of a mixture of black 
and white wool, in its natural state, which gave 
the cloth a mottled appearance. 1 Their hose were 
formed of pieces of white plaiding sewed together; 
and they wore rude single soled shoes. Both 
shoemakers and tailors travelled from house to 
house, in search of employment, carrying with 
them the implements of their art. Their bonnets, 
or woollen caps, which they procured from Kil- 
marnock,' 2 were black or blue ; for none had hats 

I SymsOD says that the rural inhabitants manufactured more 
cloth than they requited, and sold the surplus at the fairs of 
Wigtown and other places. 

Fairs were numerous. One was held yearly in the church- 
yard of Kirkandrews, in the modern parish of Borgue. It last- 
ed only a few hours ; hut people flocked to it in great numbers. 

port made by the Magistrates of Stranraer, to the Com- 
missioners of the Convention of Royal Burghs, "27th day of 
April, 1692. 

" 1 It is answered that their comon good amounts to, yearly, 
143 lib. I6ss. 81. and that their debts amount to two thousand 
sad five hundredth, marks of principal 1 , the annual rent whereof 
is payed by a tax on the inhabitants. 

" 2 That they have no mortificationes belonging to them 

" 4 That they have a sufficient harbour of their own if they 
had any trade. 

" j Thiit they have no threasnrer's books, in iegaird their 
comon good is soe inconsiderable, and that they have produced 
their court bookes to the saides Visitors for instructing their 
roups, as in answer to the first article, and that their ecquei--, 
with clerks and other dewes, amount to twenty pounds Scots. 
rhat they have no foiraigne trade, and that their inland 
trade is most inconsiderable, and they rela.ll goodes they bring 



except the lairds, or landed proprietors. In church 
they took off their bonnets during the time of 
prayer and praise only, and when the minister was 
pronouncing the blessing. In general, neither men 

from Glasgow, Air, Greenock, and Kilmarnock, from which 
last they buy only knives and bonnets, &c , and that they will 
sell about sea ven hundredth sheep skius which ihey vent to the 
nearest royall bUTgbs, and buyes the same in the country, and 
that they have vented these fyve yeares bygone about a hall 
tunn of wine, three last years whereof they have sold none, and 
that they vent about half a hogshead of seek and a butt of 
brandie yeaily, and that they consum about ten bolls of malt, 
Lithfifow measour, weekly. 

" 7 That they have no ships, barks, or ferry boats, only four 
small boats they used to imploy in their herring- fishing, since 
toe decay whereof they have lyen useless, and that they have 
no trade for shipping, the inhabitants being poor. 

" S That they are not owners nor paiitneis of any ships cr 
■ barks belonging to burghs royall, of regalitie, or barrouie, nor 
are they concerned in matter of trade with unfree burghs. 
" 9 That their cess is payed by a tax on their inhabitants. 
" 10 That they pay yeaily to their minister four hundredth 
marks and four bolls of meall, for which their inhabitants are 
taxed and that the schoolmaster aud precentor hath two hund- 
redth marks yeirly out of their comon good, and that all other 
their public servants are payed by a taxation on their inhabit 
t ints. 

" 1 1 That ail their publict works, Commissioners' charges 
to Parliament and Conventiones, aud others contained in the- 
said article are all payed aud maiutainit by a tax ou their inha- 

" 12 That the two paiits of the tenements of the town be- 
longs to heretors in the countrey, and that the rent of their 
houses will extend twixt thretie pound and fouitie shiilinges 
Scots, and that they have no stranger inhabitants. 
" 1 J That they have no casuall cor.-.on good. 
;l \3 That they have two ycailie fairs, each of one daycs 
coutainwance, aud that they (have) a weekly flesh niercat from 
the rii ^t of November to the liist of January, and no longer, and. 
that the customes of both are a pairt of their comon good, and 
soe stated in answer toihe first article. 

•« 14 That they have only one bur^h of barronie, within 
precinct, called Poitpatrick, which does no wayes prejudge them 
as having no trade. 

This is the trew accompt of the state and conditione of the 
said burgh of Stranraer, iu answer to the above written instruc- 


nor women wore shoes in summer ; nor, indeed, 
at any time except during the period of frost or 
snow ; and their children got none until they could 
go to church. Shirts they scarcely knew, and those 
used were made of coarse woollen, and seldom 
washed : a long period elapsed before linen shirts 
came into general use. 

The women dressed awkwardly, in coarse plaid- 
ing, or drugget gowns, formed in the most uncouth 
manner. Farmers' wives displayed toys of coarse 
linen when they went from home : in their own 
houses, the head-dress was a toy of plaiding. — - 
When young girls went to church, fairs, or mar- 
kets, they wore linen mutches, or caps, with a few 
plaits above their foreheads : at home they went 
bareheaded, and had their hair snooded back on the 
crown of their heads with a string, used like a 

The agricultural operations of the district were 
uncommonly awkward, and the whole rural pro- 
ceedings stupid and inefficient. Farmers often 
yoked both oxen and horses in the same plough, 
perhaps four of the former and two of the latter. 
When no oxen were used, they placed four horses 
a-breast ; and one person was always required to 
hold the plough, and another to drive the cattle. — 
The clumsy ponderous instrument then in use, ex- 
hausted the half starved animals in dragging it, be- 
sides performing its work in a very imperfect man 
ner : for a man had to assist with a fork in regu- 
lating the depth of the furrow. The furrows, be- 

tions, a9 it is given up upon oath by the saides magistrals and. 
towne cleik, day and dait foresaid. Witness their subscription 
of thir presents. Sic subset ibitur Patrick Paterson, provost; 
Patiick Keuuedie, baillie ; John Hervie, baillie; S. Paterson, 


sides, were not parallel, nor were the ridges of 
equal size. The harrows also were ill constructed 
and light, and, instead of iron, contained wooden 
teeth, which hud been hardened near the fire, 
or in the smoke. At this time there was not a 
cart to be seen; manure being carried out to the 
field on cars, or in creels fastened together and sus- 
pended over a horse's back. The women also 
carried out manure on their backs in creels of a 
smaller size. These creels were filled by the men, 
and afterwards placed by them on the shoulders 
of the women. This state of things resembled the 
condition of savage society, where all the ordinary 
drudgery of life is performed by females. 

Corn and hay were conveyed home in trusses en 
horses' backs, and peats in sacks, or creels. Heatlu r 
was often cut on the hills for firing, and carried 
away to a considerable distance. 

In spring, horses and oxen became so lean and 
weak from want of sufficient food, that they often fell 
down in the draught. Soon after the beginning 
of the eighteenth century, a considerable extent 
of land was cultivated, but it yielded poor re- 
turns for the labour bestowed upon it. The soil 
had become completely exhausted, four or five 
crops being often taken in successive seasons, with- 
out applying any manure to recruit its energies or 
nourish vegetation. In dry seasons the corn was 
so short that it could scarcely be cut or collected in 
harvest. The farmers sowed nothing but poor gray 
oats, which yielded little meal, and that of a dark 
colour : their wretched land, however, would bear 
no other kind of grain. Galloway did not now pro- 
duce as much food as served its inhabitants ; and, in 
unfavourable seasons, they were reduced almost to a 


state of absolute starvation. They were frequently, 
compelled to gather the leaves of herbs, and boil 
them with a handful of meal, to appease their 
hunger, or save their lives. No wheat now grew 
in the district; and, indeed., it was considered that 
the land would not produce it. Nothing but gray 
corn was to be seen, except perhaps a little bear 
or big, with some white oats, in gentlemen's crofts, 
and in some small portions of land, called Infields, or 
Bear-Feys, which were constantly in crop, and re- 
ceived all the manure of the farm. 

The price of cattle continued very low, for they 
were generally in a miserable condition. Spring 
often found them reduced to such a state of debility, 
that, when they lay down, they could not rise with- 
out assistance; and they frequently fell into mosses,, 
or bogs, and quagmires, from which they could not 
extricate themselves. Neighbours had to be called, 
therefore, to assist each other in dragging their 
cows and horses out of marshes or moss holes ; and, 
before the poor animals were observed they often 

The skins of fallen cattle were cut up into 
stripes and used as cords for agricultural purposes, 
or tanned with heather and willow bark, and manu- 
factured into a kind of imperfect leather for do- 
mestic uses. 1 During the summer months, or while 
the corn was upon the ground, cattle required to be 
constantly tended day and night. The inhabitants 
had turf folds into which they put them dur- 
ing the heat of the day, and also at night, to prevent 
them from destroying the corn. One or two per- 
sons watched the fold, sometimes sleeping in the 

1 Symson gives an account of their mode of tanning. 


open air, wrapt in blankets, and sometimes under 
stakes placed like the roof of a house, and covered 
with turf, to protect them from the rain. Both 
men and women, from the hardy manner in which 
their parents had reared them, were more robust 
and vigorous than at present ; and not subject to 
many diseases which now prevail ; though the aver- 
age duration of human life was then much shorter. 

Farms had no march fences, and a single one was 
generally let in runrigg among a number of tenants. 
The division of the produce, in proportion to each 
person's share, occasioned, in many cases, violent 
quarrels and lasting animosities. 

Saddles and bridles had not yet come into 
common use. People rode to church or market 
on brechams, or pillions, while they placed halters, 
commonly made of hair, on the horses' heads. — 
Shoes they put only on their fore feet, so that 
horses were but half shod. 

Education, at this epoch, was at a very low 
ebb. Few of the common people could read 
even the Bible ; but the precentor in each con- 
gregation read the scriptures in the church before 
the minister appeared. The lower classes were 
strongly tainted with superstition, the offspring of 
ignorance; they firmly believed in ghosts, fairies,, 
and witches ; the ghosts often appearing to them 
in the night. To preserve themselves and 
their cattle from the malevolent operations of 
witches 1 and evil spirits, they used absurd charms 

1 In 1698, a woman, named Elspeth M'Ewen, was brought 
to trial for witchcraft. Elspeth lived in a solitary house in tl a 
farm of Cubbox, called Bogha', As appears from the evidence 
of two gentlemen who visited her in the jail of Kirkcudbright 
she was a person of superior education. Still, however, her 
neighbour were tormented with her, atid every calamity that 


and incantations. They frequently saw the 
devil and wrestled with him, particularly dur- 
ing devotional exercises or religious meditation. — 
To preserve their cattle from the baneful ef- 
fects of witchcraft, they fixed pieces of mountain 
ash above their stakes, or even tied some of it in the 
bushy part of cows' tails. They also believed 
in benevolent spirits, known by the appellation 
of brownies, that wandered about in the night, and 
performed various parts of the domestic labours of 
the credulous inhabitants. These superstitious 
opinions had a considerable effect in influencing 
their conduct and moulding their character. 

The people of Galloway had now no candles to 
afford them proper light during the long nights of 

befel themselves or their cattle was attributed to Elspeth's witch- 
ciait. If a cow fell ill, it was Elspeth's doing. It was, also, 
currently reported and believed, that if eggs weie wanted at 
New-Galloway, application had only to be made to the old wife 
o/ Bogha', and the market was well supplied. But the worst 
cantrip that she played on the wights of Balmaclellan was the 
following. — She Lad a pin in the kipple.loot, and when she pleas- 
ed, could, by taking out thai pin, draw milk from her neighbours' 
cows. At length complaint was made to the Session, and the 
beadel, M'Lambroch, was sent off with the minister's mare to 

her to the Session. Elspeth, after expressing great won. 

this usage from the minister, consented to go. Tradition 

Blati s. that the mare was dreadfully frightened, and, at a rising 

bill near the manse, since called the "Bluidy Biae," sweat 

neat drops of blood. After undergoing an examination, she 

nt off to Kirkcudbright, and confined there for ahout two 
years. Her imprisonment was rendered so wretched by her tor- 
mentors, that the raise) abe woman implored them to terminate 
a life so full of suffering. She was condemned, taken fiom 
prison, and burnt to death in the neighbourhood of Kirkcud- 
bright. See, in the Appendix (Bb), the Commission granted by 
the Privy Council for l.< r trial. 

, Daliy, October 1.3, 1C!»T. Given for aliment- 
,'Kouii, alledged of witchcraft in prison, iiOl 0100 : ' 
bow the kind of evidence upon which women were con- 
victed of witchcraft, we give in the Appendix (Cc) the trials of 
Janet M'Kobert, in Kirkcudbright, and Jean M'Murray, in 
Twnyholm, before the Kirk-Sessions. 


ranter ; and, consequently, they were apt to be mis- 
led by illusive appearances, or to consider the phan- 
toms of their own creation, as realities : during fa- 
mily worship only, a ruffy was lighted. Razors 
had not yet come into general use ; but for the sake 
of appearing decent in church on Sunday, men 
clipped their beards with scissors on Saturday night. 

Roads still continued in a neglected and wretch- 
ed condition: they were, indeed, but tracts in a state 
of nature. Scarcely a bridge existed in the whole 

In the year 1695, the clergy and other inhabi- 
tants of Galloway, having experienced great incon- 
venience from the want of a bridge over the river 
Dee, which, in winter, became often unfordable 
from the rapidity of the stream, applied to the Earl 
of Galloway, Viscount Kenmure, and some other 
influential noblemen, to use their utmost endea- 
vours, that an act of the Privy Council of Scotland 
might be procured, authorizing a contribution to 
be made through the nation for accomplishing this 
important purpose. When the noblemen had failed 
to obtain this act, the Synod of Galloway took 
the matter into their own hands, and ordered a 
collection to be made from house to house in every 
parish within their jurisdiction. As soon as a suf- 
ficient sum was realized, a bridge was built under 
the superintendence of the clergy, between Clat- 
teringshaws, and Craignell. 1 So much did the 

1 "31st January, 1703. The Synod's act for a voluntary con. 
tribution for the erecting and upholding of a bridge upon the 
Water of Dee, between the Clatterii.g.shaws and Craignell, was 
r:*ad before the congregation. The minister and elders to make 
the collection from house to house in the parish. The collec 
fciou amounted to 6 lib, 4s. Scots," (Records of the Kirk. 
Session of Twynholm.) 



people feel the want of bridges that Quintin M c - 
Lurg, a tailor, whose earnings are said never t© 
have exceeded four pence a day, built one of two 
fciches, at his own expense, over the burn of Pol- 
harrow. 1 Galloway had at this period no foreign 
trade, 2 and consequently no shipping. One small 

1 Statistical Account. 

2 Report made by the Magistrate" of Kirkcudbright, to the 
Commissioners of the Convention of Royal Burghs, 25th day o'f 
April, 1692. 

" 1 It is answered that their comon good will amount com. 
mtm'ibus annis, to the so'wme of 880 lib., Scots, and that their 
debt will extend to 2,560 lib., besides 183 lib. of their borrow 
dewes, and that they contiact yearly 300 lib. £ss. more than 
their comon good will defray. 

•' 2 That they have two mortificationes, ane of 9,000 marks, 
and ane other of 500 marks of principal!, whereof is payed for 
the poor's use according to the will of the mortifier, and no wayes 
iraployed for ease of their burgh. 

" 3 That they have a harbour of their own. 

" 4 That they have produced their towne books, whereby 
their comon good is found as in the first article, and that their 
ecquies, with clerk's dewes and other casualties, extend com. 
'multibus annis, to the sowme of 17 lib. 6as. '8d., conform to their 

" 5 That they have no forraigne trade, and that their inland 
trade is verie inconsiderable. All they have they brin" - from 
Leith, Dumfreise, and other free burghs, ou horseback, and that 
they will consume about ane hogshead of seek and brandie yearly, 
which they bring from Dumfreise, and they consume weekly- 
nine Lithgow bolls of malt. 

" 6 That they have no forraigne trade, and that they have 
neither ship nor bark, but only two ferry boats, which are sett 
yearly, and stated in the answer to the first article as a pairt of 
their comon good, but that they have a small boat of eight 
tunns, newly bought, for carrieing their coals, but she hath 
*ever as yet been imployed. 

' 7 That they are no owners nor pairtners of any ships belong, 
ing either to burghs royall, of regalty, or barronie, and that they 
have no trade with unfree burghs. 

" 8 That their cess is payed by a tax on their inhabitants 
and heritors, and that their riding money is payed out of the 
comon good. 

li 9 That they pay to their minister yearly, out of the comdh 
"VOL. II. Dd 


boat only, of eight tons burden, for bringing coals, 
belonged to Kirkcudbright. 

good, 183 lib., the rest of his stipend being payed out of the 
Landward parish, and that the schoolmaster, and all other their 
publict setvantes, have 290 lib. yeaily out of the comon good. 

" 10 That their whole church, and all other their publict 
works are sustained and upholden out of the comon good. 

"11 That the most pairt of their houses are inhabit- 
ed and possesst by the respective heretors, and all the rest 
aither waist or ruinous, and that more than the half ; and that 
each boll of beat's sowing of their borrow aikers payes twenty, 
riyjie shillings yearly. 

" 12 That they have only ane yearly fair of one dayes con. 
tinnance, the custume whereof will be about three pounds Scot*, 
and a weekly fair. And both the customes are a pairt of their 
comon good, and soe stated in a answer to the first article. 

" 13 As to the thirteenth article, its answered that they 
have onlv two burghs of baronie and regality within their pre- 
cinct, viz:, Mouygaff and Prestoun, both inconsiderable as to 
their trade. 

This is the trew accompt of the state and condition of the 
said burgh of Kirkcudbright, in answer to the above written 
instructions, given up by the magistrates and town clerk ot the 
said burgh, upon oath, underscnveing, dav and date foresaid, — 
Sic subscribitur Jo. Ewart, provost : John Macghie, baillie, 
George Meek, baillie: Jo. GordoD, clerk. 




That the Union lm3 been of paramount advan- 
tage to both nations cannot now be denied, though 
the terms agreed upon were undoubtedly much 
less favourable to Scotland than to England. — 
This measure, indeed, may be considered as the 
harbinger of that dawn of improvement and civiliza- 
tion which soon after appeared, gradually bright- 
ening more and more into meridian splendour. 
To produce immediate and lasting beneficial effects, 
all inter-national leagues should be based on liberal 
and equitable principles. The corrupt means and 
unfair proceedings by which this paction was accom- 
plished, materially retarded the advantages which 
it was -well fitted to yield. The Union, or rather 
the terms granted by England to the weaker state 
were universally deprecated; and a feeling of hos- 
tility now originated towards that nation, which 
it would have been impossible to repress. The 
people of Scotland looked upon their country, 
which had maintained its independence under the 
most unfavourable circumstances for nearly two 
thousand years, as for ever degraded from its 1 
rank among the nations of Europe; nay, they 
were maddened to think that its honoured name 


would soon he obliterated from the list of sove- 
reign states. Its ancient, influential, and proud 
nobility, grievously felt the insignificance of their 
apparent power — tlie inanity of their rank ; they 
felt themselves, indeed, reduced to the humili- 
ating condition of provincial lordlings, without 
the influence of statesmen, andtlestitute of a direct 
voice in the legislature of a kingdom whose laws tljey 
had formerly moulded according to their absolute 
pleasure. The inferior barons, or gentry, shared 
their humiliation, and discovered, when too late, 
how little weight the paltry number of their repre- 
sentatives could have in the British House of Com- 
mons. 1 They, therefore, lived in retirement upon 
their estates, with envy and resentment rankling in 
their breasts, impatiently waiting for a favourable 
opportunity of shaking off their galling yoke, and 
asserting their ancient independence. The fears of 
the clergy were sensitively awakened for the perma- 
nence of the Presbyterian Establishment 2 They 
considered, from the composition of the British le- 
gislature that Episcopacy would ultimately prevail. 
The Scottish lawyers and merchants felt grievances 
in the Union peculiar to themselves ; whilst the 
tradesmen of Edinburgh and other towns, suf- 
fered from the absence of the opulent families that 
went to reside in London, as the seat of Parlia- 
ment, and the capital of the kingdom. Money be- 
came scarce, from the rents of lands being drained 
to the metropolis, in order to support new and en- 
creasing expenses. Both the internal and exter- 
nal traffic of the country languished in hopeless 

1 160 Commoners sat in the Scottish Parliament, and 14a, 

2 Scott Lairnr. 


inactivity, and the nation seemed hastening to the 
brink of destruction. 

At this season of universal discontent an indi- 
vidual of the name of Hooke arrived as a kind of 
private ambassador from the King of France and 
the Pretender, son of James VII., and brother to 
Anne, Queen of Britain. This emissary was receiv- 
ed with transports of joy; for even the Cameronians 
exulted in the prospects of a rebellion. Hooke 
announced that young James intended speedily 
to visit Scotland, and place himself at the head of 
his hereditary subjects. This youthful Prince had 
derived from nature a prepossessing appearance. 
His figure was tall and handsome, his countenance 
open and engaging, and his manners affable and 
courteous. He was also good humoured, kind, and 
tractable ; but he wanted those qualities and talents 
which are necessary either to gain or retain a 
kingdom. When his unfortunate father lay upon 
his death bed, he sent for Louis XIV., King of 
France, and, in a very affecting manner, consigned 
the care of his destitute family to that monarch, 
who, overcome by the pathos of the scene, declared 
openly his resolution of recognising the title of 
James's son to the throne of Britain ; thus giving, 
in a moment of enthusiastic magnanimity, a pro- 
mise which he had reason to repent, from his in- 
ability to perform it. 

The French King immediately resolved upon 
an effort to place the House of Stewart in their lost 
dominions, and take the chance of the general dis- 
content in Scotland for seating the Pretender on the 
ancient throne of his ancestors. He, accordingly, 
determined to send into Scotland the heir of its 
former kings, with an army of five or six thousand 



men. When the Chevalier de St. George, an 
appellation applied to the Pretender, was on the 
point of embarking at Dunkirk for Scotland,l 
lie was seized with measles, and found himself 
unable to proceed in the enterprise. This un- 
toward accident not only, retarded the expedition, 
but immediately made it public. Britain was al- 
together unprepared for such an invasion. The 
or-eater p^rt of the English army had repaired to 
the Continent; and, in Scotland there were not 
above two thousand five hundred regular troops, 
who, as they were Scots and strongly imbued 
with the spirit of their countrymen, could not be 

The only resource that England possesesd, con- 
sisted in the superiority of her navy. With the ut- 
most difficulty a fleet of forty sail of the line was col- 
lected, and it appeared before Dunkirk ; but being 
afterwards driven from the French coast by a storm, 
the blockaded squadron took advantage of its ab- 
sence, and, on the 17th of March, 1708, put out to 
sea. The wind became contrary, and they were 
driven into the roadstead, called Newport-pit, 
where they were detained two days.' 2 At last they 

1 Three place? were proposed for bis landing, Edinburgh, 
Kirkcudbright, ;ind Montrose "Kirkcudbright was recommend 
ed as in thomidst of tbe Presbyterians, and in the neighbourhood 
of those shires capable of furnishing the greatest number of 
horses, within reach of their friends in the north of England, and 
not fai distant from Ireland, whence they might reasonably ex- 
pect very material assistance. The passage too, it was added, 
Irom Brest to this place wns short and easy, and the landing 
here would be pecuhaily gratifying to the Presbyterians. — 
The chevalier's principal friend-, however, did not think it ad. 
visable for him to put himself into theii hands. At the same time, 

they left it entirely to his own judgement and conveniency, which 

of the three he might ad< pt " 


2 Struthers, &c. 


arrived in the entrance of the Frith of Forth, and 
sailed up, as high as the point of Crail, where they 
Anchored with the intention of proceeding next day 
to Leith or its vicinity, where the Pretender and 
the troops could be landed in safety. 

In the meantime, they fired guns, as signals to 
their friends on the shore, but no return was made. 
At length five guns were heard in the direction of 
the mouth of the Frith, which announced the ar- 
rival of admiral Sir George Byng.with the English 
fleet . 

The following morning exhibited to the French 
admiral, the superiority of the hostile fleet, which 
was now advancing up the Frith, evidently with 
the intention of intercepting his escape. The 
Pretender and his attendants wished to be put on 
shore at the ancient castle of Wemyss, on the Fife 
coast: but the admiral refused to acquiesce in hfs 
proposal. Many of the English vessels, which had 
been long at sea, were rather heavy sailers, and 
before Byng could muster his scattered ships, the 
French admiral effected his escape, and ultimately 
returned to Dunkirk, without landing the Preten- 
der or any of his troops on the Scottish coast. 

This expedition created a strong sensation in 
the minds of men in the south of Scotland, tanta- 
lizing the hopes of some, and rousing the fears of 
others. While the French fleet was known to be 
at sea, the depression of the few friends of the Go 
vernment continued extreme; and the great ma 
jority of the people lamented the failure of the en- 
terprise, as the loss of an opportunity, that would 
never return, for establishing their national inde- 
pendence. 1 

1 Scott, &c, 


The sentiments of Queen Anne, respecting the 
two great parties in the nation, had undergone an ap- 
parent change. She had now almost entirely with- 
drawn her countenance from the Whigs, and bestow- 
ed it upon the Tories, and even upon such as were 
supposed to be sincere Jacobites. It was thought, 
indeed, that she secretly favoured the views of her 
brother upon the crown ; and many said, that to- 
wards the end of her reign, she had had more than 
one interview with him in her own closet. In 
1710, she took the opportunity of dismissing the 
Whig administration from office, and dissolving 
Parliament. The Tory ministry promised impar- 
tial justice to Scotland. A motion was made in 
the House of Peers after the new Parliament had 
assembled in 1713, for a dissolution of the Union. 
The division was so close, that the Lords reject- 
ed the motion by the narrow majority of four. — 
Thus was the permanence of a Union, which had 
only existed six years, put into the utmost jeopardy. 

To render the clergy of the Church of Scotland 
less connected with the people, and more depend- 
ent on the aristocracy, amongst whom the senti- 
ments of Jacobitism chiefly predominated, an act 
was passed, through the influence of the Tory ad- 
ministration, for the restoration of patronage in 
Scotland, or in other words, for reinstating lay 
patrons in their ancient rights. When the Pres- 
bytery of Kirkcudbright! heard of the measure, 
they instructed their Commissioner to the General 

1 la 1711, it was proposed to form a new Presbytery in Gal. 
loway, to be called tbe Presbytery of New Galloway. The 
General Assembly took the subject into consideration, but as 
the majority of the Presbytery of Kirkcudbright opposed the 
change, the measure was abandoned. 


Assembly to entreat that venerable body, that they 
would use their utmost endeavour to prevent any 
change in the late mode of appointing- clergymen 
to vacant churches. 1 

Whether this act has been of advantage or dis- 
adi'antage to Galloway, we do not consider it with- 
in our province to determine. Both the modes of 
appointment generally advocated have their peculiar 
merits and demerits. Were ministers elected 
solely by the popular voice, preachers would be 
too apt to prepare their discourses, more with the 
view of humouring prejudices, flattering vanity,' 
or pampering bigotry, than instructing the igno- 
rant, reproving the vicious, or exposing the hypo- 
critical. Besides, by this arrangement, the natural 
order of things seems. to be reversed ; the scholar, 
in. one sense, . becomes the master, the pupil, the 
instructor; in short, the man of knowledge be- 
comes the abject slave of the illiterate. But the 
vulgar taste is often captivated more by superficial 
attainments and showy, though unsubstantial ac- 
quirements, than by genuine talents, sound sense, 
cultivated taste, and solid erudition ; and, hence, 
mere pulpit adventurers,— individuals, who have 
gained an ephemeral celebrity, — generally succeed 
in the clerical struggle, though it might be foreseen 
that they would subsequently sink into the low- 
est, or least efficient class of pastors. Until the 
people are better educated, it would be danger- 

] Presbytery Records " That the Assembly move for this 

church's being freed from the grievance of men's not having ac- 
cess to be legally settled in the ministry of the congregation, 
but by the presentation of a Patron. That being most undeni- 
ably contrair to the principles of the Church established by the 
Union, as aa essential and fundamental article thereof." 


ous, in many cases, to entrust the appointment of 
clergymen entirely to numbers. 

But the power possessed by individual patrons 
of appointing ministers, is often attended with 
perhaps as serious and pernicious circumstances as 
popular election. Livings are frequently obtained 
by mean obsequiousness and abject servility ; whilst 
all regard for general esteem, or popular favour, is 
completely despised. 

In Galloway, as well as in many other places, 
church preferment was, at one time, disposed of in 
an unseemly manner. The pastoral office became 
degraded by indecent appointments. Churches 
were openly exposed in the great bazaar of political 
traffic, and sold to the highest electoral bidder. 

The General Assembly has adopted a plan for 
remedying these grievances; but the cure, to say the 
least, is as bad as the disease. By the Veto Act, 
the ignorant, the prejudiced, the factious, the disaf- 
fected, are enabled to place a professional stigma on? 
the character of the ablest, the best, and most use- 
ful of men. Some other measure is still required. 
Perhaps, for the election of every minister, commis- 
sioners should be appointed, in certain proportions, 
by the patron, the heritors, and the people, with 
whom candidates ought not to be allowed to come 
in contact. It is but fair and reasonable, however,, 
that men should have something to say in the 
choice of those who are to be their instructors, 
their guides, their comforters, and their friends. 

While the Tories, or as they may be really call- 
ed, the Jacobites, basked in the meridian sunshine 
of power, the Queen suddenly died. This un- 
expected occurrence blasted their darling pros- 
pects, and placed them in a state of almost hopeless- 


destitution. As the succession to the throne had 
been settled by act of Parliament on the House of 
Hanover, the Tories did not venture to incur the 
guilt of high treason by opposing the accession of 
King George ; and thus, after the Queen's death, 
they remained confused and dejected, eagerly 
watching the progress of events which they could 
neither obstruct nor control. 


Parliament recognized the title of King George ; 
and a ministry was installed that had the discern- 
ment to appoint the Earl of Stair ambassador to 
France This eminent man, equally distinguished 
for his talents in the cabinet and the field, possess- 
ed an almost miraculous power of deciphering the 
true characters of men, and of gaining information 
respecting the hidden springs of action — the real 
sources of events. 

This distinguished statesman and warrior was 
the second son of the first Earl — of him who had 
displayed so much talent in support of the Union, 
and who died during the dependence of the treaty. 
A calamity of a truly melancholy nature, of which his 
second son, John, proved the innocent author, had 
previously occurred in this family. While amus- 
ing himself with fire-arms, he was so unfortunate as 
to shoot his elder brother, who instantly expired. 
The ill-fated youth was exiled from his father's 
mansion, as an object too hideous to be looked up- 
on by the disconsolate family. The clergyman 
to whose care he was committed, happening to be 
a nice discriminator of character, soon discovered 
the mental energies of his talented ward ; and, at 
last, by earnest intercessions, favourable repre- 
sentations, and unceasing solicitations, procured 


the restoration of his interesting pupil to the fa- 
mily whose chief ornament he was one day destiny 
ed to become. After the reconciliation had been 
effected, the youth entered the army, and having 
distinguished himself in the wars of the Duke 
of Marlborough, rose in rank in proportion to the 
military reputation he had acquired. After the de- 
mise ot Queen Anne, the new Sovereign appointed 
him a Privy Councillor, a Lord of the bedchamber, 
and, in the absence of the Duke of Argyle, com- 
mander of the forces in Scotland. The Earl of Stair, 
as before noticed, was almost immediately after, 
sent as ambassador extraordinary to the French 
Court, where his amazing sagacity, unwearied vi- 
gilance, and unrivalled accuteness, enabled him in 
every case to penetrate the veil of concealment in 
which the most secret intrigues of the Pretender's 
friends were shrouded from the eye of men of 
ordinary discernment. Thus, though the court of 
France secretly favoured the views of the Jaco- 
bites, it was so narrowly watched and morally over- 
awed by the English ambassador, that public re- 
gard to faith and its own character, prevented it 
from openly countenancing any hostile interfer- 
ence in the affairs of Great Britain. It may 
be likewise mentioned here, that Lord Stair's per- 
fect knowledge of good breeding proved of essen- 
tial service to him as a diplomatist in a country 
where politeness had been long viewed almost as a 
science, and enabled him to retain the favour of those 
with whom he treated, even when the subjects un- 
der discussion were by no means palatable to the 
Sovereign and his ministers. In short, it was mainly 
owing to the vigilance, activity, and address of Lord 
Stair, that George I., at this critical period, succeed- 


ed in securing the neutrality of France, and conse- 
quently the safety of his British throne. 1 George I. 
landed at Greenwich on the 17th of September 
1714. Both parties in the state seemed disposed 
to welcome him as their rightful Sovereign ; but he 
threw himself into the arms of the Whigs, who had 
always remained the steady adherents of his inter- 
est ; and he seemed, at the same time, rather dispos- 
ed to aid them in plans of vindictive retaliation upon 
their opponents, whom he had some reason to view 
as his own personal enemies, and the friends of his 
rival. Many of the most influential and dis- 
tinguished of the Tories were threatened with 
prosecutions, and the whole party became alarmed 
for their personal safety and the security of their 
property. They, therefore, listened to the counsels 
-of the most desperate of the Jacobites ; and, though 
the minds of men had undergone a considerable 
change regarding political subjects, they still re- 
solved not to submit to irretrievable ruin without 
making one effort to save themselves. 

To effect a rising in Scotland was looked upon 
as the most eligible step preparatory to a general 
insurrection through the whole of Britain ; and the 
Jacobites viewed the Earl of Marr as the person 
best qualified to put their design into execution. 
The Earl had been repulsed in his advances to the 
new Sovereign, and consequently considered his 
ruin as resolved upon. Accordingly, in the begin- 
ning of August, 1715, he set sail in a coal-sloop, at- 
tended by Major-general Hamilton and Colonel 
J lay. all in a state of complete disguise. 

1 "Voltaire iccouls the admiration of Louis XIV. at Lord 
"Stair's tact in at once entering the royal carriage, when his Ma- 
jesty, who stood beside it, bade him do so, without hesitating tt 
take precedence of the Sovereign." Scott, 

-vol. ii Ee 


Marr repaired to his own estates of Braemar, in 
Aberdeenshire ; and, as desperate resolutions are 
most readily adopted by large assemblies, he called 
a meeting of the Highland chiefs attached to his 
principles, and the other principal adherents of the 
exiled family. This assemblage was convened 
on the 26th of August, under pretext of a great 
huntino- match. Among the individuals of dis- 
tinction, were the Earl of Nithsdale, 1 and Visc- 
ount Kenmure. 2 Marr, addressed the council in 
an eloquent speech, which produced a powerful ef- 
fect on the high spirited men by whom he was 
surrounded. He declared his intention of raising 
the standard of James III., and of hazarding his 
life and fortune in so just a cause. It was agreed 
that all should return homo and raise what forces 
they could collect before the 3rd of September, 
on which day they were to assemble at Aboyne, 

1 In 1704, William, the la=t Earl of Nitbwlule, sold the lands 
and fishings which belonged to the castle of Thneve, but re- 
tained the fortress with the perquisites accruing from it. About 
tl>e same time the office of Steward of the Stewartry of Kirk. 
end bright pa«sed into the hands of the Marquis of Annandale, 
who obtained from Queen Anne, in 1707, a charter of eonfirma. 
tion. Symson states, that, in 1684, the Steward held bis courts 
in the burgh of Kirkcudbright, and his Deputy dispensed ju3ti< e 
at Loehrutton, for the district that lies betwce.i the Uir and the 

:2 Rae's History of the Rebellion Struthers. — ?eotf. 

The Rev. Peter Rae, was minister of Kii kconnel in 
iiiie. He was considered an eminent philosopher auj 
astronomer, as will as a learned divine. Besides sonic mall 
tracts on divinity, he published, in 17i> s , a valuable History of 
'the Rebellion, executed with much minute fidelity, and contain, 
ing many important and curious facts, that would have I een 
otheiwise lost to posterity. Concerning his History .Mr Rae 
thus speaks. '" That I have said So much for Galloway and 
Nithsdale, may admit of an easy apology; since none that has 
heretofore writ on the late rebellion^ has so much as noticed 
them." The work was printed at Dumfries, by Robert Rae, 
who was the only pi inter at that time in the south of Scotland. 


in Aberdeen -shire, and there settle their plan of 
operations and their manner of taking the field. 1 

In the meantime, Government made what pre- 
parations they could to meet the threatened insur- 
rection. The irritalion occasioned by the Union 
had in some measure subsided, and the minds of 
the inhabitants of Scotland had begun to be alarmed 
by the dangers which they apprehended from a Po- 
pish Sovereign. The promise of the Earl of Marr 
to dissolve the Union now produced little effect. 
The expostulations of the Presbyterian clergy, who 
dreaded a counter-revolution, and who, consequent- 
ly, exerted themselves in the cause of George I. 9 
were much more efficacious ; and volunteer* from 
various parts of Scotland stepped forward in what 
they considered the support of Protestant ascend- 
ency. • 

Sometime previous to this, various gentlemen 
well affected to a Protestant Government, hud 
made preparations for self defence in case the 
Pretender's agents should succeed by their inces- 
sant instigations to raise a rebellion. Colonel 
William Maxwell, of Cardoness, Thomas Gordon, 
of Earlston, with many other influential proprie- 
tors in Galloway, and Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick, of 
Closeburn, Alexander Fergusson, of Craigdarroch, 
with other gentlemen in Nithsdale, had raised con- 
siderable sums of money ; and, having provided 
arms and ammunition, they took care to see the 
people instructed in military exercises. Many 
parishes in both districts assembled regularly to 

1 The following list of some of the Chiefs connected with GaL 
15 way, with the numher of men they could raise in 1715, is ex. 

Iracted from the Gentleman's Magazine for Septemher 1745 

Annandale, 500,— Nithsdale, 300,— Wigloun,300,— Dumfries 
Carnwath, 300,— Keiunure, 300. 

U60 insToitr 

accustom themselves to the use of fire-arms, un- 
der tlie specious pretence of shooting- for a prize.! 
In these arrangements, -the ministers of religion 
within the bounds warmly concurred. 

Every precaution was taken to prevent the cor- 
ruption of the people by Jacobite emissaries. — 
Guanls were placed on the most important parts 
of the roads, to observe the appearance of strangers, 
prevent seditious communications, and detect im- 
proper correspondence by letters or otherwise. 

Major Aikman repaired into Galloway, — a place 
at this time which commanded particular attention, 
— to inspect the several bodies of volunteers, to 
examine the state of the country, and to assist 
the loyal party in their various preparations for 
defence. «In the beginning of September, this 
officer, accompanied by Gordon,, of Earlston, 
reviewed the fencible men in the upper district 
of Nithsdale, on Marjory Moor. This review, 
the dissenters from the Church of Scotland did 
not attend. The Major held a meeting of the 
principal friends of the Government at Closer 
burn, to concert measures of defence. Here 
it was unanimously agreed, that the men in each 
parish should be formed into companies, who were 
to choose proper officers, and that they should 
meet for military exercise twice or thrice in the 
week. It was, likewise, settled that upon the first 
notice of the Pretender's landing in Kirkcud- 
bright,- Loch ry an j or any other place in the south 
of Scotland, Sanquhar, should be the general 
rendezvous for the inhabitants of the district. Di- 
rections were also issued, that upon the Chevalier's 

1 Rne. 

2. That Kirkcudbright was the place at one time coatemplat- 


arrival, cattle were to be driven from the coasts, 
horses removed, and provisions carried into the 
interior, to prevent them from being of use to 
the enemy. Various other precautionary regu- 
lations were formed. As none of the people of 
Scotland showed a more indefatigable zeal in 
the cause of their King, country, and religion, than 
the inhabitants of Galloway, these directions would 
have been rigorously observed, had occasions oc- 
curred, circumstances allowed, or necessity re- 

The Earl of Marr, having received about a hun- 

ed fully appear? ; for ia fi memorial presented by Lesley,* to the 
court of St. GermaiiJS; but evidently intended for that of Ver- 
sailles, is the following statement. " If the bank of England 
fails, I believe there is no doubt, that the confederates will not 
be able to carry on the wai, and then his most Christipfl majesty 

will have a safe game to play, without l tinning any iisk 

Troops" he adds " aie daily draughted, to be sent out of the 
kingdom, so that few will be left to make opposition, and there 
are severals in the army, who have discovered their disposition 
of returning to their duty towards theii king, if they found the 
opportunity. They aie preparing fleets to be sent to the Me- 
diterranean and elsewhere, so that the few ships uhich will re- 
main to guard the channel, cannot hinder the passage fiom Brest 
to Kirkcudbright, especially if an alarm is given from Dunkirk 
aud other parts." ' 

* "Lesley was a coadjutor with Sage in fabricating that mass 
of ribaldry which inundated the country on the -back of the 
revolution, and he exemplified the candour of his character bv 
the following account of presbytery and of presby terians •;— - 
'It has been an old observation, that wherever presbytery was 
established, there withcial't and adultery have been particularly 
rampant. As one said of Scotland, in the days of presbytery, 
they burn all the old women for witches, * * * * * * 
The Records of the stools of repentance in Scotland would asto. 
nish you, where such multitudes of men and women come daily 
to make their show for adultery and fornication, that it has al- 
most ceased to he a shame !" Stkutueus' History or 



dred thoirand pounds, and collected together a 
considerable number of men, raised the standard 
of rebellion, 1 at Castletown of Brae mar, and, on 
the 6th of September, 1715, proclaimed the Pre- 
tender, King of Scotland, England, and Ireland. 

When James's standard was first erected, the 
wind blew off the gilded ball on the top, which 
event the superstitions highbinders construed in- 
to an unfavourable omen of the success of their 

The Pretender's adherents afterwards proclaimed 
him in various parts of Scotland. In the mean- 
time, military training proceeded in Galloway with 
great diligence and success. Some of the parishes 
were able to send out upwards of a hundred effec- 
tive and well armed men, who had been carefully in- 
structed in military discipline and in the use of arm?, 
by Colonel Maxwell, of Cardoness, Mr Gordon, of 
Earlston, Captain Fullarton, of Carleton, John 
Gordon, of Liigmore, captain of the fencible men 
in the parish of Borgue, John Carson, of Ba!= 
mangan, and other individuals of zealous loyalty in 
their respective localities. We may, likewise, add, 
that. Ephrairn Maclellan, of Barinagachan, Hugh 
Bkir, of Dunrod, David Blair, of Borgue, James 
Gordon, in Lagmore, parish of Kells, John Kirk- 

1 " The standard was blue, having on one side the Scottish 
arms wrought in gold, ou the oth?r the thistle a>:d ancient mot- 
to Nenio me impune lacesset, and underneath ' No Union. ' The 
pendants of white ribbon were inscribed, the one, 'For our wrong 
ed King and oppitsscd country,' and the other, 'For our live* 
and liberties." Scott. 

A banner somewhat similar, presented to the Galloway men, 
who went out with Kenmure, and under which they fought at 
P/eston is now (1840,) in the possession of Sir John Gordon, 
of EarUton, a lineal descendant of that ancient House, 


patrick, in Baldoon, were also particularly ac- 
tive in the present emergency. I 

A royal camp had been formed in the park of 
Stirling;, for the double purpose of securing its im- 
portant castle as well as the bridge across the Forth, 
the only passage by which the rebels could, at 
this advanced season of the year, penetrate into 
the southern division of Scotland. The forces at 
first posted at Stirling, did not much exceed 1,500 
men, but the Government made every exertion in 
its power to encrease their number. 

The Earl of Marr proceeded by slow marches 
towards the Lowlands, and the town of Perth was 
secured by the insurgent Jacobites. The Duke of 
Argyle repaired to Stirling, and assumed the com- 
mand of the royal army, now amounting to 1840 
men ; but no opportunity occurred of regaining 
Perth. The rebel army had already increased, it 
has been said, to the number of ten or. twelve 
thousand men ;'- but Marr's scanty knowledge of 
military affairs, prevented him from duly availing 
himself of his superior forces. 

About this time the friends of the Pretender had 
procured for his service several ships of war, and 
were openly loading them with arms, ammunition, 
and other military stores, in some of the French 
ports. Nearly two thousand officers and soldiers, 
who had volunteered their services in the cause of 
the Pretender, were ready to embark. But, by the 
firm representations of the Earl of Stair to the 
French Government, the arms, ammunition, and 
other stores of war were ordered to be again taken.. 

1 Rae. 

2 Rae, tic. 


on shore, and the design was happily frustrated , 
though arms and ammunition, in small quantities, 
found their way into Scotland from France. 

The news of the preparations in the French 
ports and the rising in the north, had inspired the 
Jacobites in every quarter with fresh courage. In 
the south of Scotland there were, besides other 
Jacobites, many Roman Catholic families who 
looked upon James II., as having relinquished 
his kingdom for the sake of that religion to which 
they were sincerely attached. They, therefore, 
considered themselves bound by the most sacred ties, 
to espouse the interests of his injured family, and 
were thus prepared to embark in any undertaking 
to advance his cause. Amongst the number, was 
the Earl of Nithsdale, combining in his person the 
representation of the noble families of Herries and 
Maxwell. This individual might naturally be 
considered as the head of the Jacobite party; but, 
being a Roman Catholic, it was not judged pru- 
dent to bring him forward as the chief leader of 
the enterprise ; and Viscount Kenmure, a man of 
sound sense, modest demeanour, unbending re- 
solution, and sterling worth, but altogether un- 
acquainted with military affairs, obtained the su- 
preme command. 

This respected nobleman, having received a com- 
mission from Marr to head the Pretender's friends 
in the south of Scotland, assembled his adherents; 1 

1 When, according to tradition, the Viscount left Kenmure 
castle in the prosecution of his dangeious undertaking, he ex- 
perienced great difficulty in getting upon horseback. His fa. 
vourite charger, which had been always as gentle as a lamb, refiis . 
ed to allow him to mount into the saddle. Being twice baffled 
in his attempt, his heroic lady thus addressed him. " Go op, 
:ny Lord; go on; you are in a good cause; a faint hvari never 


and, in concert with the other dissatisfied landhold- 
ers in Galloway, Nithsdale, and Annandale, form- 
ed the sudden resolution of making a powerful ef- 
fort to gain possession of the important town of 
Dumfries. The designs of the rebels transpired. 
On the 8th of October, one of the bailies received 
a letter from a country-man, informing him of the 
intended attack; and, on the 11th, early in the 
morning, an express arrived from the Lord Justice 
Clerk with the following letter, addressed to Mr 
Robert Corbet, Provost of Dumfries. — • 

Sir, Edinburgh, October, 8th 1715. 

" Having good information that there is a 
design framed of rising in Rebellion in the youth- 
em parts, against His Majesty and the Govern- 
ment, I sen.l this express to advise you thereof; 
that you may be upon your guard : For, by what 

won a fair Lady." Kenmure, though rather disheartened by 
this un favourable omen, renewed his efforts, and, being at last 
•uccessful in gaining his scat, proceeded on his journey. 

We give here a few lines ft the well known song, composed 
on Kenmure's departute from his castle. 

Kenmure's on an' awa, "Willie, 

Kenmure's on an' awa; — 
An' Kenmure's lord is the bonniest loid "■: 

That evei Gallowa' saw. 

Success to Kenmure's band, Willie, 

Success to Kenmure's band ; 
There was never a heart that feared a Whig, . 

E're rade by Kenmure's hand. 

Foi Kenmure's lads are men, Willie, 

For Kenmure's lads are men; 
Their hearts an' swords are metal true, 

An' that their faes shall ken ! 

Here's Kenmure's, health in wine, Willie, 

Here's Kenmure's health in wine 1 
There ne'er was a coward o' Kenmure's bludfy . 

Is'or yet o' Gordon's line. Cbomek's Songs, 


I can rely upon, their first attempt is to be sudden- 
ly made upon your town. I heartily wish you 
may escape their intended visit. I am, S;r, 

Your well-wisher and humble servant, 
An. .Cock burn." 

The Marquis of Annandale,! having been ap- 
pointed Lord Lieutenant of the county of Dum- 
fries and Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, nominated 
Alexander Murray, of Broughton, Thomas Gordon, 
of Earlston, William Muir, of Cassencarrie, Pa- 
trick Heron, of Heron, Robert Johnston, of Kelton, 
Nathaniel Gordon, of Carlcton, Adam Craik, of 
Arbigland, and Robert Maxwell, of Hills, De- 
puty-Lieutenants for the Stewartry of K irkcud- 

His Lordship sent orders to the Steward-Depute 
of Kirkcudbright, to convene, on the llth of Oc- 
tober, at Leaths-Moor, near the present town of 
Castle-Douglas, all the fencible men within his 
jurisdiction, with their best horses and arms, and to 
cause intimation to be made to that effect in the 
parish churches within the Stewartry. 

The 12th of October was the day first fixed for 
the capture of Dumfries. On the night of the 1 1th, 
Lords Kenmure and Carnwath, having received 
information of some arms which ^ir William John- 
ston had lodged in Brade- Chapel, for the use of 
his servants, broke into the building and seized 

1 This family obtained the title of Lord Johnston from 
Charles I. on the 20th of January, 1G33, and subsequently the 
title of Earl of Hartfell, which Charles II changed into that of 
Annandale. The Karl of Annandale was created Marquis of 
Annandale in 1701. This nobleman was Secretary of state to 
Queen Anne, but opposed the Union. He died in 17'2l : the 
title is now dormant, but there are various claimants. 

(Nisbet's Heraldry. — Peerage of Scotland. ) 


them to arm his followers. They then marched 
off to Moffat, for the purpose of meeting the Earl 
of Winton and a pjrty of Lothian gentlemen, 
with their servants, wl.a amounted to about seven- 
ty, l 

When the Provost of Dumfries received the 
Lord Justice Clerk's letter, he called together the 
other magistrates and some of the principal inha- 
bitants, to consult what was to be done on such an 
emergency, and they determined, as there was a 
meeting that day of armed men at Leaths-Moor, 
to send a deputation and solicit their assistance in 
the defence of a town, of so much importance to 
the Government at that critical juncture. 

When the gentlemen from Dumfries arrived at 
the place of rendezvous, they found the Deputy- 
Lieutenants and several other leading individuals 
there ; but the mass of the people had returned 
home. At the time when the Steward- Depute, Mr 
Lindsay, of Mains, had given orders for calling this 
meeting, he did not require the people to bring hor- 
ses or arms. Accordingly, though more than 5,000 
men had assembled, very few -were armed. The 
Deputy-Lieutenants felt highly offended ; but 
Lindsay alledged that the Lord Lieutenant's inti- 
mation to him did not bear that horses and arms were 
to be brought to Leaths-Moor. That he asserted 
a direct falsehood was generally known ; and, be- 
ing urged to produce the order, he excused himself 
by saying he had left it at home. This conduct on 
his part confirmed the truth of a report which pre- 
vailed, that he was acting in concert with the rebels. 
When the Marquis of Annandale came to Dum- 
fries, he deprived Lindsay of his office, and it was 

1 Stiullicis — Rue. — Aikrann, 


then ascertained, tliat though he had acted several 
years as Steward- Depute of Kirkcudbright, he had 
never taken the oath to Government. 

Soon after the Dumfries gentlemen had appeared 
at Leatli9-Moor and communicated the contents of 
the Lord Justice Clerk's letter, expresses were 
sent off to different parts of the country, directing 
the fencible men, properly equipped, to repair to 
Dumfries next day. The Deputy-Lieutenants 
themselves, with nearly fifty other gentlemen, 
then set off to assist in the defence of that town. 

When it was publicly known that the rebels in- 
tended to attack Dumfries, vast numbers of well 
armed volunteers flocked into the place from many 
of the parishes of Galloway, headed in some in- 
stances by their minister.' So enthusiastic had 
the people become in the royal cause, that, on the 
very next day, Captain Fullarton, late Provost of 
Kirkcudbright, Mr Samuel Ewart, and Sergeant 
Currie, set out from that town with a company of foot 
under their command ; and, though the roads prov- 
ed exceedingly bad, they reached Dumfries that 
night. Lord Kenmure, who had collected a party 
of about a hundred and fifty horse, marched from 
Moffat, on the 13th of October, with the design of 
occupying Dumfries. At two o'clock, the party 
had advanced within a mile and a half of the burgh, 
in full confidence that in a few hours it would be 
in their possession. But their eyes were soon 
opened to the true state of matters ; for James Rob- 
son, servant to a gentleman whose son was with 
the rebels, informed them that the place was full 
of armed men, who seemed determined to make a 
desperate resistance. Kenmure, now aware of his 

X Aitman. — Rae. 


mistake and the folly of his expectations, stopped 
short in his career, and held a consultation with the 
Jacobite gentlemen, whether or not they should 
postpone the enterprise until their numbers had 
increased. 1 

As soon as the enemy appeared within sight 
of the town, the Magistrates and Lord Lieutenant 2 
made every possible preparation for a vigorous 
defence. All the avenues were barricaded, roads 
stopped, entrenchments cast up, the guards reinforc- 
ed, and the townsmen placed in the most suitable 
posture for making a successful resistance. When 
it was generally known within the town, that the 
Rebels had made a halt, the defenders felt disap- 
pointed, and, with much zeal aftd courage, offered 
to march out and encounter them in the field, or 
harass them in their retreat. The Rebels retired 
that night to Lochmaben ; and the people with- 
in Dumfries became eager to surprise them early 
next morning in their quarters, when unprepared 
for an attack. The Lord Lieutenant, however, 
did not judge it expedient to allow them to pro- 
ceed, lest a town of paramount importance to the 
Government, should be left unprotected by the 
defeat of its defenders, and might thus fall in- 
to the hands of the insurgents, by the capture of 
which, they would become masters of the whole 
south of Scotland. 

When the Rebels entered Lochmaben, they pro- 
claimed the Pretender. Here it is said a singular 
occurrence happened. The inhabitants, to make 
room for the horses of the intruders, put all their 

1 Rae History of the Highlands, &c. 

2 John, Eurl of Stair, was Lord Lieutenant of Wigtownshire 
at this time. 

rot. ii. Ff 


own cattle into a field. During the night, the 
animals broke loose, and some of them made their 
way home. A little before day-break, a towns- 
man found some of the strayed cattle in his garden, 
and immediately called upon his dog, named Help. 
The sentinels, hearing this cry and imagining that 
a party from Dumfries had attacked some of their 
number, gave the alarm to their comrades, who 
sallied out from their quarters in great confusion :i 
this unexpected call to arms spread amongst them 
general consternation. Sudden and unexamined 
danger is generally magnified by the imagina- 
tion : some of the insurgents who could not in- 
stantly procure thefr horses fled on foot; others of 
them cut their boots that they might more quickly 
get them on, to flee from the impending danger. — 
The alarm continued unbounded until the mis- 
take was discovered. At Lochmaben the in- 
surgents took Mr Paterson, one of the Magistrates 
of Dumfries, Mr Hunter, a surgeon, and Mr 
Johnston, postmaster of that town, prisoners. — 
These gentlemen had been sent to reconnoitre the 
enemy. They were used civilly and dismissed as 
soon as the Town had set at liberty three suspected 
Jacobites who had been previously incarcerated. 2 

On the 14th the Rebels marched to Ecclefechan,- 
where Sir Patrick Maxwell of Springkell, with a- 
bout fourteen men on horseback, joined them. On 
the 15th they reached Langholm, when their 
number had increased to 180 cavalry. From this 
place they proceeded to Hawick, and proclaimed 
the Pretender. They left Hawick on the 17th, and 

1 Rae. 

2 Cbailes' trans actions in Scotland, in the years 1715-16. 
Stirling Edition, 1817. p. 207. 


marched to Jedburgh : here, like wise, they pro- 
claimed him. On the 18th they entered England. 

In Northumberland and Cumberland the Tories 
had risen in behalf of James under the Earl of 
Derwentwater, connected by birth with the exiled 
family ; but Thomas Forster, member of Parlia- 
ment for the county of Northumberland, assumed 
the chief command. Their party amounted to 300 
cavalry; but they were not able to embody any in- 
fantry ; for, though many offered to join them, 
their services could not be accepted, because the 
insurgent gentlemen wanted the money necessary 
to pay such volunteers, and arms to equip them. 

About this time the Synod of Galloway met; and 
a proposal was made and unanimously agreed to, 
that each of the Brethren should contribute £3 
Sterling, or procure an armed man, and furnish 
him with forty days' pay, for the defence of their 
religion and country. Some of the elders and 
other gentlemen present, resolved to follow the 
loyal example set by the clergy, and also furnish 
armed men for the service of the Government. 1 

Forster and his followers having resolved to 
unite with Viscount Kenmure and the Scottish 
gentlemen, the two bodies of Jacobite insurgents 
met at Rothbury on the 19th of October, and sur- 
veyed each other's military state with mingled hope 
and apprehension. The Scots were well mounted 
and excellently armed, though but poorly discip- 
lined. The English gentlemen, on the other hand, 
were mounted on light blood horses, better fitted 
for flight than battle. They were also indifferent™ 
ly armed, many of them being without cither 
swords or pistols. 

1 Synod Book of Galloway, 


The motions of the united forces were now re- 
gulated by the intelligence, that a detachment from 
Marr's army, under Brigadier M'lntosh,' had 
been sent across the Forth, tor the purpose of join- 
ing them. The two bodies, according to a previ- 
ous arrangement, met at Kelso. Next day being 
Sunday, Ken mure, who had the chief command, 
ordered Divine service to be performed in the 
great church of Kelso. Mr Buxton read prayers, 
and Mr Patten, the historian of the Rebellion, 
preached from Deut, xxi. 17. "The right of the 
first born is his." " All the lords," says Patten, 
"that were, protestants, with avast multitude of 
people, attended ; and it was very agreeable to see 
how decently and reverendly, the very common 
Highlanders behaved and answered the respon- 
ses, according to the rubrick, to the shame of 
many that pretended to more polite breeding. In 
the afternoon Mr William Irwine, a Scots cler- 
gyman and nonjuror, read prayers, and preached 
a sermon, full of exhortations to his hearers, to be 
zealous and steady in the cause. He had former- 
ly preached the same sermon in the Highlands of 
Scotland, to the Lord Viscount Dnndee and his 
men, when they were in arms against King Wil- 
liam, a little before the battle of Killycranky." — 

The united army now amounted to 600 cavalry 
and 1400 infantry. The chiefs, at the request of 
Lord Kenmure, held a general council to deter- 
mine on their future movements. Two lines of 
conduct might have been pursued by the Rebels, 
one of which was advocated by the Scottish, and 
the other by the English leaders. The plan of 

I So called from having been a Brigadier in the French ser- 


operations recommended by the Scottish gentle- 
men, was, to march along the western border 
until they joined Marr's army, and, in their pro- 
gress, seize the valuable towns of Dumfries, Ayr, 
and Glasgow, all of which were important, as afford- 
ing abundant supplies, as well as being excellent 
stations for promoting their ulterior designs. In 
putting this plan into execution, they anticipated, 
as they said, no resistance which their increased 
strength would not enable them immediately to 
overcome. They strenuously urged, besides, thai 
with Marr's very superior army in the front, and 
their own forces in the rear, Argyle, with all his* 
abilities, would not find himself capable to maintain 
his present position at Stirling, and that he might 
probably soon be compelled entirely to abandon 
Scotland, and leave it in possession of Marr. 

This mode of procedure presented numerous ad- 
vantages; it would have concentrated the rebel forc- 
es, which, in a state of separation, were checked or 
paralysed ; nor was there, in reality, any party in the 
field, of sufficient strength to prevent this junction. 
Notwithstanding the evident recommendations, stat- 
ed by the Scottish commanders in favour of their 
views, the English officers insisted on marching into 
England, and making it the scene of their military a- 
ehievements. Even this plan of operations, if proper- 
ly executed, might have been attended with success. 
But, instead of acting with promptitude and vigour, 
they wasted valuable time in empty debate; and 
thus the Northumbrian gentlemen lost the oppor- 
tunity of becoming masters of their native province; 
for, while they were deliberating, General Carperv- 
ter, who commanded for the Government a small 
party of about a thousand men, haying receive'" 


reinforcements an I refreshed his soldiers, previous-" 
ly much exhausted by fatigue, advanced toWooler, 
and was in a condition to give them battle. 

The English officers now insisted on another 
scheme, by which England would still be made the 
arena of their exertions. They proposed to march 
westward through Scotland, and, having- eluded a 
battle with Carpenter, suddenly to turn southward 
into Lancashire, where, they affirmed, their friends, 
to the number of 20,000 men, were ready to sup- 
port them : they could then, they said, be in a con- 
dition to proceed to London. 1 

The arguments of their southern allies did not 
convince the Scottish gentlemen ; and the High- 
landers opeidy declared they would not enter 
England. In this state of conflicting opinions and 
noisy altercation, the only decision that the com- 
manders could come to, was, to march westward 
along the border, which movement would equally 
advance their progress, whether they should ulti- 
mately proceed to the west of Scotland, or pene- 
trate into Lancashire in England. 2 

When the Magistrates of Dumfries and some of 
the Deputy- Lieutenants of the surrounding dis- 
tricts beard of the junction of the Rebels at Kelso, 
they sent off expresses to their friends in Galloway 
and Nithsdale, desiring them to inform the people 
of the present danger, and bring them, without de- 
lay, properly armed to Dumfries. In a short time 
the defenders of the place were reinforced by 2,000 
volunteers, all zealous in the royal cause. Many 
friends of the Jacobites still lurked within the bur^ • . 

I Scott. 
ajRae Scott, 


and several at temps were made to burn It. On the 
27th of October a Jacobite gentleman visited vari- 
ous quarters of this loyal town, declaring to the 
people that it must either surrender, or they would 
be all put to the sword. He was taken into custody, 
however, and committed to prison. Next morn- 
ing the council met, and issued the following 

" Whereas some persons, disaffected to his Ma- 
jesty's person and government, have raised and 
spread a false and groundless report that the town 
would surrender, we do hereby declare to all con- 
cerned that we have no such design, but are firm- 
ly resolved to make a vigorous resistance if the 
enemy attack us, and we hope that none believe 
such malicious stories, artfully contrived by the 
enemy." 1 

All their attempts, however, proved abortive, 
through the vigilance and activity of the authorities 
of the place. As many of the inhabitants had 
not procured arms, the Magistrates and council 
purchased a hundred scythes, and, having fixed 
them upon poles, or shafts, delivered them to such 
of the people as were least accustomed to the use 
of fire-arms. These scythemen they placed at 
the barricades and in the trenches. Officers, who 
had been sent by the Duke of Argyle from Glas- 
gow, 2 at the request of the Marquis of Annandale, 
to train the militia, gave directions for fortifying 

1 Charles p. 307. 

2 In the beginning of October, Colonel William Maxwell, of 
Cardoness, was sent to take the military command of the city 
of Glasgow at this critical juncture. By his directions the 
avenues within the lines were fortified, and a great number of 
guns mounted at proper places. His conduct, as governor of 
Glasgow, gave complete satisfaction both to the authorities and 
the inhabitants — (llae.) 


the place ; and every thing was clone that the short- 
ness of the time would permit, to put it into a per- 
fect state of defence. 1 

1 " To return to Dumfries" says Rae, " The half pay officers 
whom his grace the Duke of Argyle, at the desire of the MarquU 
of Annandale, had sent from Glasgow to train the Militia within 
hie Lieutenancy, being come to Dumfries, by the 24th of October, 
many hands were set on svork to entrench and foitify the Town. 
All the gates and rvenues were built up with stone, except the 
bridge and Lochmaben gate, A line was drawn from the river 
to the Churchyard (which was strongly fortified on the east 
and north quarters) and from thence through the meadow and 
grounds to the highway, without Lochmaben gate : and on tlie 
other side of the same, it ran east, turning round towards tha 
N West and then to the S. East Corner of the Christall Chap- 
pel, making a covered way, in form of a half moon and Bastion, 
From the South West Corner of the same chappel, another line 
was drawn somewhat parallel to the former, for the safety and 
Conveniency of the men, in case the enemy shouid form, ou the 
fields 'twist that and the Loreburn, which was also entrenched 
and made fit for service. The Inclosure, or Meadows 'twixt 
that and the highway leading to the Towuhead, which was built 
np with stone, as above, was sufficiently fortified, by a strong 
trench on the inside of the hedge : and on the other side of the- 
same highway (at the Moat) betwixt it and the river, another 
trench was cast up, inform of a bastion. But these trendies 
could not be got finished that week. 

Upon Sunday, October 30th, the rebels marched fiom Ha- 
wick to Langholme, about the same time general Carpenter en- 
tered Jedburgh. That same forenoon ab^ut nine o'clock, The 
Provost of Dumfries and deputy Lieutenants having received an 
express from the borders, informing 'em of the enemy's march to 
Hawick the night before, they ordered a bank to be beat, and in- 
timation to be made to the workmen (who had scrupled to work 
oa the Lord's day) to repair to the trenches immediately with 
suitable instruments for carrying on that vvtr'c, which they did 
accoidiuglj'. The wrights cut down several trees in the church- 
yard in time of sermon, and clave them for stakes to secure a 
dam through the Milburn, to cause the water flow up to fill 
that part of the trenches, and to stop the passage of the en- 
emie's horses through the meadows: the Masons threw down 
the east gavel of the old Chappell, which was then a fine Arch, 
and levelled the same, and the back wall to a convenient height 
for placing of firelocks thereon; the stones being drawn down 
to the highway, a redoubt was built to cover the entry ; and 
several other necessary precautions were taken, to put the town 
in condition to resist them effectually." Rae. 


When the Rebels arrived at Langholm, they 
sent off a party of 400 horse, commanded by the Earl 
of Carnwath, to block up Dumfries, until the main 
body should come up, regularly to attack it. 1 As 
soon as this movement became known in the town, 
intimation was given both to townsmen and strang- 
ers, that they were instantly to appear in arms at 
the moat. The Rev. Pur Hepburn, with about 
320 of his adherents, was at this time about three 
miles from Dumfries, in the parish of Kirkmahoe, 
and Bailie Gilchrist, along with the Laird of Bar- 
gaily, was sent to request their assistance. 

As soon as the messengers reached Kirkmahoe, 
Mr Hepburn and his little band marched towards 
Dumfries, but they refused to enter it. The Pro- 
vost, with some other gentlemen visited them at 
Corbelly Hill, on the Galloway side of the Nith, and 
offered them any post they might choose within the 
town ; when they putinto his hand an unsigned paper 
asserting that " They had no freedom in their 
consciences to fight in defence of the constitution of 
Church and State, as established since the sinful 
Union." They mentioned, however, the terms 
upon which they would enter the town and join in 
its defence; but as many of the conditions were of 
a political and general nature, the Provost had no 
authority to enter into any such a compact. Mr 
Hepburn and his party continued in their position, 
and were supplied with necessaries by the inhabi- 
tants. 2 

1 Patten's llisloiy oPthe Rebellion. 

2 The Reverend John Hepburn, from the grave stone of his 
s'.-U'r in law in the churchyard of Urr, appears to have come 
from the North ; and he is supposed to have been a native of 
Forfarshire. He was privately ordained to the office of the 
Ministry in London, and is supposed to have commenced his 


The citizens, in the meantime, and others with- 
in Dumfries, having repaired to the moat accord- 
ing to their instructions, were speedily ordered to 
their respective posts ; and a party of 200 men, with 
three pieces of cannon, were placed in the centre 
of the town to reinforce the defenders at the place 
where the attack might be made. Even the mi- 
nisters of religion, in arms, conducted their people 
to the trenches, and exhibited the most praiseworthy 
determination, personally to defend the place to 
the last extremity : surgeons also attended at the 
stations assigned them. The Magistrates provided 
ammunition and necessaries; and all the inhabi- 
tants seemeil zealous to distinguish themselves in de- 
fence of their homes. During the night of the 31st 
of October, they remained under arms, although it 
rained heavily. Next day an express arrived from 
Rowcan, affirming that the enemy had advanced 
to Tortliorwald, and were consequently within 

ministerial labours in Urr about tbe year 1680. He took an 
active part in suppressing the rebellion of 1715, in the south of 
Scotland. Being acquainted with military tactics, he trained 
the parishioners on Halmyre.hill, a short distance from the 
church, to the art of war, that thus they might be able to resist 
the Pretender and his adherents. A drum and some other 
martial articles that belonged to him, ate now in the possession 
of Dr. Mundell, rector of Wallace Hall Academy. Mr Hepburn 
continued to reside among his parishioners rill his death, 
which took place in April, 17'^4 ; being upwards of 70 years of 

Dr Mundell is Mr Hepburn's great-grandson. The mi. 
nistcr's drum, or rather the frame of it, which he possesses, is 
of a larger size than the modern drum, and has been richly or- 
namented; it has a crown on one side surmounted by a Scots 
thistle, with a wreath of flowcis on the other. He has also 
one of the drumsticks ; it is finely formed and made of mahogany 
wood. The Doctor, has likewise his ancestor's sword, a wry 
formidable claymore, the basket of the hilt being of polished steel 
and lined with purple velvet : he has a few other relicts of hk 


three miles of Dumfries, but this proved a false 
alarm. 1 

After the Rebels had left Ecclefechan, on their 
way to Dumfries, they received a letter from some 
of their friends within the burgh, giving them an'ac- 
curate account of the state of it, and the feelings of 
the inhabitants. This letter was sent off by ex- 
press to Lord Kenmure ; and the party waited for 
orders respecting their future destination. The 
main body had moved two miles from Langholm, 
on their march to Dumfries, when the express 
reached them ; but both the Scottish horse and 
foot felt anxious to continue their march. The 
English, however, opposed this course, and insisted 
once more on advancing into England. Their 
vehemence in debate prevailed, and the insurgents 
commenced their march for Longtown, in Cumber- 
land. The Highlanders refused to proceed, and 
upwards of 400 of them separated from the army, 
with the intention of returning to their own coun- 
try .2 Many of this body were afterwards taken 
prisoners. From Longtown the insurgents ad- 
ranced to Brampton, where Mr Forster produced 
his commission for acting as general in England. 
They then continued their march, and arrived at 
Lancaster on the 7th of November, which place 
they entered without opposition, and collected the 
public revenues, having proclaimed the Pretender 
in the towns through which they had passed. — 
At Lancaster some of their friends made their 
appearance, but on the road to that place, few 
had joined thorn. 

The Magistrates of Dumfries, upon receiving 

1 Charles p 308. 

2 Patten, &c. 


intelligence of the enemy's retreat, permitted the 
gentlemen and people of Galloway to return home, 
and the town was left to the care of its own inha- 
bitants. Each man was allowed either sixpence or 
eightpencea day, during his residence in the place. 
The fortifications, however, were carried on until 
the defeat of the Rebels at Preston. 1 

At Lancaster the insurgents proclaimed the Pre- 
tender, collected as usual the public money, car- 
ried off six pieces of cannon from a ship in the 
harbour, and resolved to proceed to Preston ; de- 
signing to possess themselves of Warrington-bridge 
and the town of Manchester, where they expected 
a great augmentation of strength. By the posses- ' 
sion of Warrington-bridge, they thought the larg^e 
and rich town of Liverpool would be cut off from 
relief, and thus at last fall into their hands. 

For this purpose they moved from Lancaster on 
the 9th of November; and the day being rainy, only 
their'cavalry reached Preston that night, from which 
station some military had retired at their approach. 
Next day their infantry entered the place, and 
marched to the cross, where they proclaimed King 
James. Here many gentlemen, — all Roman Ca- 
tholics, — with their adherents, joined them ; and 
they made preparation for prosecuting their ulte- 
rior designs. But the unexpected intelligence of 
the advance of his Majesty's forces effectually stop- 
ped their career. 2 

Major-General Willis, who commanded in Che- 
shire, had issued orders to several regiments, chiefly 
cavalry, in the neighbouring counties, to meet him 
at Warrington-bridge, on the 10th of November 

1 Rao. 

2 Patten. 


where he intended to place himself at tlieir head, 
and prevent, if possible, the approach of the Rebels 
to Manchester. Willis, at the same time, had en- 
tered into communication with General Carpenter, 
who had perseveringly followed the footsteps of 
the insurgents from Northumberland, and was now 
advancing close upon them. Forster had at this time 
only a choice of difficulties, namely, either to dispute 
with General Willis, the passage of the river 
BJbble, which covers Preston, or remain within 
the place and defend it, with such protection as an 
open town could afford, after a few hours prepa- 
ration for defence. The first had its advantages ; 
but the Jacobite leader determined on the second, 
a#d adopted vigorous measures for maintaining 
the town. Four barricades were hastily erected : 
the gentlemen volunteers were drawn up in the 
church-yard, under the command of Viscount Ken- 
mure and the Earls of Nithsdale, Derwentwater, 
and Winton. The Earl of Derwentwater, strip- 
ped to the waist, zealously laboured with his own 
hands at the works, and encouraged the men by 
his example, his liberality, and his words, speedily 
to complete them. 

General Willis, having minutely surveyed the 
defences, determined on an attack. 

On Saturday, the 1,2th of November, the barri- 
cades were fiercely assailed, but as fiercely defend- 
ed ; and. although the insurgents preserved the ad- 
vantage in every attack, still it was evident that 
thus cooped up as they were, in the streets of a town 
already set on fire in some places, and with few 
men to extend their large circle of defence, no- 
thing but a miracle could preserve them from final 

''OL. II. Gg 


On the following day the situation of the be- 
sieged became still more desperate. General Car- 
penter came up, and, by effectually completing the 
blockade of the town, rendered the fate of the Re- 
bels indubitable. 

At this period of peril and dejection, the differ- 
ent characters of the unfortunate insurgents be- 
came prominently conspicuous, The English 
gentlemen began to think of the means of saving 
themselves, and the possibility of returning to their 
valued enjoyments ; while the Scottish warriors de- 
clared their determination to sally out sword in 
hand, and die in the field of honour, rather than hold 
their lives on the dishonourable tenure of a base 
submission. 1 • 

Pushed to the last extremity, the Rebels were 
at last obliged to surrender without obtaining any 
other terms than a promise, that they would not 
immediately be put to the sword. 

The Rebels in Preston, when the town was first 
besieged, amounted to more than 4,000, though 
only 1468 fell into the hands of the enemy. Of 
these, upwards of a thousand had come from Scot- 
land, and amongst them were the Earl of Nithsdale, 
Viscount Kenmure, Mr Basil Hamilton,^ of Bal- 
doon, lieutenant of Kenmure's troop of horse. — 
William Grierson, of Lagg, Gilbert Grierson, his 
brother, Walter Riddel, of Glenriddel, John Max- 
well, of Steilston, Edmund Maxwell, of Carnsal- 
loch, Robert Maclellan, of Barscobe, William 

1 Patten. 

2 Mr Hamilton, ancestor of the present Earl of Selkirk was 
a very promising young man, and displayed much courage and 
jahility in the unfortunate conflict at Preston. He was several 
times Provost of Kirkcudbright. His son succeeded, in 1744. 
to the Earldom of Selkirk. 


Maxwell, of Munches, George Maxwell, his bro- 
ther, Charles Maxwell, of Cowhill, and Andrew 
Cassie, of Kirkhouse. 

The victors treated the prisoners with much ri- 
gour, some of them being shot by martial law, 
and many sent to the plantations in America. 

The captives of rank or distinction were order- 
ed to be carried to London, which they reached on 
the 9th of December. On approaching the capital 
their arms were pinioned with cords, like those of 
the basest criminals. They were not allowed to hold 
the bridles of their horses, each man's horse being 
led by a private soldier. At Highgate they were 
met by a large body of horse grenadiers and foot 
guards, accompanied by a party of citizens, who 
shouted in an opprobrious manner, as an example 
to the mob. In this state of mock triumph they 
were conducted through the streets of the metro- 
polis, amidst insult and scurrilous abuse. After 
this mean and spiteful exhibition, they were lodg- 
ed in different places of confinement. 

At the very time when Preston was taken by the 
royal forces, the Earl of Man* sustained a defeat, or 
what was tantamount to a defeat, at Sheriff-muir, 
near Stirling; and thus the Pretender's affairs sud- 
denly became truly desperate. Men of discern- 
ment now saw the inevitable ruin of the under- 
taking, but as the Earl of Marr, before the battle 
of Sheriff- Muir, had invited the Chevalier de St. 
George to come to Scotland, and put himself a| 
the head of the insurgent army, he felt anxious to 
keep his forces together. Notwithstanding all his 
exertions, the army daily wasted away by constant 
desertions, occasioned by the utter hoplessness of> 
ultimate success. 


On t!.e 22nd of December, the Pretender arriv- 
ed at Peterhead; but, though his presence occasion- 
ed a temporary enthusiasm, yet it could not now 
save his cause from certain destruction. James was 
soon obliged tu flee to the continent, and the re- 
mains of the rebel army dispersed to seek safety a- 
mongst their native glens and mountains. 

The capital error in this ill conducted insurrec- 
tion seems to have been committed by Marr. In- 
stead of sending M'Intosh with a part of his fol- 
lowers to meet the southern Rebels, he should have 
dashed across the Forth with his whole army, — 
which he could have done without opposition, — and 
after taking Edinburgh, burst into England with 
his fifteen or sixteen thousand men. Such a course, 
in all probability, would have put him in possession 
of the kingdom in a much shorter period than his 
most sanguine expectations could have anticipated.! 

Those noblemen who had stood forward as the 
leaders of the Rebellion were now called upon to 
answer for their crimes. 

On the 10th of January, 1716, the Commons of 
Great Britain, exhibited articles of impeachment 
of high treason against the Earl of Nithsdale, Vis- 
count Kenmure, and some other peers. Being 
brought to the bar of the House of Lords, and 
copies of the articles furnished to them, they were 
allowed several days to prepare their answers. — 
Gn the day appointed for trial, they were again 
brought from the tower .and produced at the bar, 
when they all pleaded guilty; but made some 
statements in extenuation of their guilt. The 
9th of February was fixed as the day on which 

1 Strutliei ; 


they were to receive their sentence. On that day 
they were conveyed, in the usual manner, to the 
bar of the court, formed in Westminster- Hall, 
with an axe carried before them ; and, being asked 
by the Lord High Steward, why judgment should 
not pass upon them according to law, they all made 
short speeches, in which they acknowledged their 
guilt, begged the Lords and Commons to intercede 
in their behalf with his Majesty, and promised fu- 
ture obedience. The Lord High Steward, in a so- 
lemn manner, then pronounced sentence of death, 
and they were removed from the bar. 1 Their 
friends subsequently made many intercessions in 
their behalf; and on the 22nd of February, the 
House of Lords presented an address to his Ma- 
jesty, entreating him to extend the royal clemency 
to the condemned lords; to which the King return- 
ed the following answer : " That on this and all 
other occasions, he would do what he thought 
most consistent with the dignity of his crown and 
the safety of his people." 

1 "And now, my lords, added he, nothing remains but thai 
I pronounce upon you, (and so/ry am I that it falls to my lot to 
do it,) that terrible sentence, the same that is usually given *. 
gainst the meanest offender in like circumstances. The most 
ignominious and painful paitsof it are usually remitted, through 
the clemency of the crown, to persons of your quality ; but the 
law in this case, being blind to all distinctions of persons, 
requhes I should pronounce the sentence adjudged by thi» 
court, which is, that you, James, Earl of Derwentwater, Will, 
iam, Lord Widdrington, William, Eail of Nithsdale, Robert, 
Earl of Carnuath, William, Viscount Kenmure, William, Loid 
Nairn, and every one of you, return to the prison of the Tower 
from which you came, thence you must be drawn to the place 
of execution, when there you must be hanged by the neck, not 
till you be dead, for you must be cut down alive, then your Low. 
c!s taken out and burnt before your faces, your heads must be 
levered fiom your bodies, and your bodies divided into four 
C|i artera, to be at the king's disposal, and God Almighty ha 
n.oiciful to your souls." 



On the following 1 day, an order of the privy 
council was given for the execution of the Earl of 
Derwentwater, the Earl of Nithsdale, and Vis- 
count Kenmure. Soon after the Earl of Niths- 
dale had received the fatal notice, that he was to 
die next morning-, he made his escape from the 
tower in the following manner. 

As soon as the amiable and excellent Countess 
of Nithsdale had heard of her husband's committal 
to the tower, she set off for London. 1' The*weather 
was so severe and the roads so bad, that even the 
post could not travel. Nevertheless she took horses, 
and perseveringly continuing her harassing jour- 
ney, at last arrived, without any accident, in the 
metropolis. Having made all the exertions she 
could in her husband's behalf, she waited up- 
on the King - , who received her coldly, and who, 
when she threw herself on her knees before him, 
spurned her from him, and with much rudeness, de- 
nied her petition. She then formed the resolution 
of endeavouring to effect his escape. She obtained 
admittance to the tower with two female attendants, 
on the night before his execution ; one bringing 

1 We give from *• The Remains of Nithsdale and Galloway 
Songs" the last stanzas of the lament for the "Earl of Nithsdale," 
It seems to have been composed afler hie committal to the toner. 
" Our ladie flow do nought now but wipe ay her een, 
Her heart's like to loup the gowd la«*e o' liei gown, 
She has busked on her £>ay deeding an's aff lor Lon'on town, 
An' has wi' her a the heaits o' the countiie rouu*. 
By the hud o' the l«if — ' y the rising o' the flower, 
'Side the sang o' the Li ids whare some burn tottles owre, 
I'll wander awa there an' bit; a wee bit bower, 
For to keep my gray head frae the drap o' the shower. 
An' ay I'll sit an mane till my blude slops wi' eild, 
For ijithsdale's honnie lord, wiia waslauldest o' the bauld, 
O that 1 were wi' him in death's gory lauld, 
O had 1 but the iron on, whilk bauds him sae cauld !" 


on her person a double suit of female apparel. As 
soon as this individual had entered the Earl's a- 
partmentand had been relieved of her second dress, 
she was ostensibly despatched on a message of im- 
portance. The other female, being then allowed to 
enter the chamber, (for only two were allowed 
to be present at once,) gave her own clothes to the 
Earl of Nithsdale, who evinced some unwillingness 
to put them on, and dressed herself in those which, 
by the double dress, had been provided for her. — 
This lady, the Earl was to personate ; and to render 
the resemblance as complete as possible, his eye- 
brows and face were painted the same colour as 
hers. A wig, or head dress, was also procured for 
him exactly resembling the female's hair. Muffled 
fn a riding hood, and holding a handkerchief to his 
eyes, as if he had been weeping at taking farewell 
of the condemned lord, the Countess led him out. 
The guards opened the doors, and he passed all the 
sentinels in safety. The Countess returned up 
stairs, and, going back to the Earl's room, talked as 
if he had still been with her, sometimes even imi- 
tating his voice and answering his questions. All 
suspicions were thus lulled asleep until his Lordship 
had reached a place of safety. The Countess, 
at last, having with a loud voice, apparently bid 
good night to her condemned husband, and having 
promised to return as early in the morning as she 
could be admitted, left the tower. • Lord Nithsdale 
escaped to France, and died at Rome, in 1744. 

1 The Countess of Nithsdale's letter to her sister. 
Lady Nilbsdale in her letter thus proceeds. " When I left 
the dutchess, I .vent to a house which Evans had found out for 
ii. c, and where Bhe promised to acquaint me where ray lord was 

She got thither some lew minutes after me, and told uie, that 
when. she had seen him secure, she went in seaiclj of Mr Mills / 


On the 24th of February, 1716, the Earl of 
Derwentwater and Viscount Kenmure were be- 
headed on Tower- Hill : they both appeared on 
the scaffold with calm intrepidity, Derwentwater 
made a speech and retracted his confession of 
guilt. Lord Kenmure made no speech, but 
left a letter 1 in which he asserted his loyalty to 

who, by the time had recovered himself from his astonishment ; 
that he had returned to her house, where she had found him ; 
and that he had removed my lord from the fust place, where 
she had desired him to wait, to tha house of a poor woman, 
directly opposite to the guard house. She had hut one small 
room up one pair of stairs, aud a very small hed in it- We 
threw ourselves upon the bed, that we might not be heard walk- 
ing up and down. She left us a bottle ol wine and some bread, 
and Mrs Mills brought us some more in her pocket the nest day. 
We subsisted on this provision from Thursday till Saturday 
night, when Mrs Mills came and conducted my lord to the Ve« 
netian ambassador's. We did not communicate the affair to his 
excellency; but one of his servants concealed him in his own 
room till Wednesday, on which day the ambassador's coach and 
six was to go down to Dover to meet his brother. My lord put 
on a livery, and went down in the retinue, without the least 
suspicion, to Dover, where Mr Mitchell, (which was the name 
of the ambassador's servant) hired a small vessel, and immedi* 
atelv set sail for Calais. The passage was so remarkably shoit 
that the captain threw out this reflection, that the wind could 
not have served better if his passengers, had been flying for their 
lives, little thinking it to be really the case. Mr Mitchell might 
have eisily returned, without being suspected of having been 
concerned in my lord's escape, but my lord seemed inclined to 
have him continue with him, which he did, and has at preseut a 
good place under our young master." 

I The Dying Declaration of William, Viscount Kenmure, 
who was beheaded in London, on account of the part he took in 
the Rebellion of 171-5, copied from the original manuscript, 
in the possession of Mrs Bellamy, (sister to the present Lord 
Kenmure,) by the Rev. James Maitland, of Kells, 14th October 

"It having pleased the Almighty God to call me now to 
sutler a violent death, I adore the Divine Majesty, and cheer, 
fully resign my soul and body to his hands, whose mercy is over 
all his works. It is my very great comfort that he has enabled 
me to hope through the merits, and by the blood of Jesus Christ, 
he will so puriiie me how that I perish not eternally — I die n 


the Pretender, and declared that he was heartily 
sorry for disowning- his principles in his address to 
the House of Lords ; he declared at the same time* 
that he had lived and would die in the profession 
of the Protestant Religion. 1 Both died greatly la- 

piotestant of the church of England, and do Horn irsy heart for. 
give all my enemies. 

I thank God I cannot accuse myself of the sin of rebellion, 
however, some people may, by a mistaken notion, think me guil- 
ty of it, for all I did upon alaite occassione, and my only desiro 
ever was to contribute my small endeavours towards 
tablishing my rightful sovereign, and the constitution of my 
countrie ta their divine rights and legal settlement; and, by plead- 
ing guilty I meant no more than ane acknowledgement of my 
having been in armes (and not having Leea bred to the law) had 
no notion of my thereby giving my assent to any other thing 
contained in that charge. 

' I take God to witness before whom I am very soon to appear, 
that I never had any desire to favour or to intioduce popery, 
and have been all along fully satisfied that the king has given 
all the moral security for the church of England, that is possible 
for him in his circumstances. I owne 1 submitted myselfe to 
the Duik of Brunswick, justly expecting that humanity would 
have induced him to give me my life, which if he had done 1 
^hs resolved for the future to have lived peaceably and to hare 
still retained a grateful remembrance of so great a favour, and 
I am satisfied the king would never have desired me to have 
been active for him after, liut the caise is other ways, 1 pray 
God forgive those who thiist after blood; had we been all put to 
the sword immediately upon our surrender, it might bare 
borne the construction of being done in the heatt and fury of 
passion, but now 1 am to die in cold blood, 1 pray God it be not 
imputed to them." 

May Almighty God testore injured right and peace and truth 
Mid may he in mercy receive my soull. 


" This letter wns written on the day preceding that on which 
he Buffered." (Transactions in Scotland in the years 171-5-16, 
p. 421, Sliding Edition, I8I7-) 

1 "M ' df Kcnmuro, succeeded his father, 

in 1698 ; he sol op the standard o( the Pretender at Lochmaben, 

12th October 171-j, ai 'I had the chief comn and of the rebel forces 

in the south of Scotland, although too mild and calm for such a 

He was a grave full aged gentleman ; of a singular good 

i ; of great experience in political business; but of little 

rching with the rebels into 


mented by their friends, dependants, and neigh- 
bours. Their titles were forfeited ; many more 
were executed, and numbers sent to the planta- 
tions in America. The Earl of Wigtown and 
several other individuals who had been taken into 
custody as suspected persons, were set at liberty. 

The estates of the individuals convicted of 
high treason were declared forfeited to the crown, 
The revenue of the whole at this distracted period, 

England, lie was taken at Preston, 13th November, the same year, 
and tried before the house of Lords, 19th January, 1716. He 
delivered his answers to the articles of impeachment viva voce, 
but pled guilty. On the 19th of February he was sentenced to be 
axecuted, and was beheaded on Towerhill 24th Febiuary 171*3. 
He was attended to the scaffold, by his son and other friends 
and two clergymen. His Lordship shewed great firmness in his 
last moments." 

Historical account of the house of Kenjiube_ 

Lord Kenmure had married Miss Marv Dalziell, only sister 
of the Earl of Carnwatb, who was also engaged in the Rebellion : 
she was a woman of great spirit and determination. Immedi- 
ately after the execution of her husband, she hasted down to 
Kenmure castle, and secured the principal papers belonging to 
the family. When the estate was exposed to sale, the kiudness 
of some friends enabled her to purchase it. She managed the 
property with so much judgment and economy, that when her 
son Robert arrived at majority, she delivered it to him free of 
anv debt, reserving but a small annuity to herself. She surviv- 
ed her lamented husband (jl years Her death took place, at 
Terrenes, on the 16th August, 1776. 

Robert, her eldest son, died unmarried, and John, the second 
son, succeeded to the estate : he was an officer in the army, 

John, again, was succeeded by his second son, John Gordon 
of Kenmure, also an officer in the army. In 1780. he was 
elected member of Parliament for the Stewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright, but the election was afterwards declared void. Being 
again returned, lie was found not duly elected. At the general 
election of 1784, he was a tlSrd time elected, but vacated his 
seat in !7S6 The forfeited titles were restored to him in July, 
1824, by act of Parliament. Since this work went to the press 
the aged and much resptcted Viscount Kenmure has paid the 
debt of nature: he died in London on the 21st September, 
1840, in the 91st year of his age, and is succeeded by his nephew 
Adam Gordon. Esq. an officer in the Royal Navy. 


scarcely amounted to £30,000 yearly, 1 though the 
properties had belonged to nearly forty families. A 
company in London purchased them from Govern- 

) "The following is the rental of the forfeited estates in Gal- 
loway, &c, taken by the surveyor upon the oaths of the several 

Estate of William, late Earl of Nithsdale. 
Money, rent payable in money, • . £749 10 10 

Barley, 16 bolls, 2 firlots, Nithsdale measure, about 

44 bolls ordinary measure, 10s. 5d. per boll, 22 18 4 

Oatmeal, 18 bolls, 1 peck, 2 lippies, Nithsdale mea- 
sure, 41 bolls 2 pecks, ordinary measure, at ditto 
per boll, ...... 20 8 5 

Multure Skill', 13 pecks, Nithsdale measure about 2 

bolls, 1 fiilot. 2 pecks, ordinary measure, . 13 11 

Capons, 41, at 7d. each, — Hens, '347, at 5d each 8 8 6 

Chickens. 55. at 2d. each ... 092 

Casting Peats, at Id. per dozen loads . 13 6 

£803 2 8 
Estate of William, late Viscount of Kenmure. 

Money, rent payable in money, . . £538 8 4 

Barley, 31 bolls, at 10s. 5d. per boll . 16 2 11 

Oats, 32 bolls Oatmeal, 11, at do. . 22 7 1 1 

Wethers, 26, at 5s. per wether Capons, 61, at 7d. 8 5 7 

Hens, 101, at 5d. each — Chickens, 668, at 2d. 7 13 5 
Butter, 29 stone, at 4s. 5d. —Tallow, 5 stone, at 

4i5d 7 10 2 

Lamb, 1, at 16 

£600 9 
Estate of William Grier,junr. late ofLagg, 
Money, rent payable in money . . £424 15 

Estate of Mr Basil Hamilton, late ofBaldoon. 
Money, rent payable in money . . £1225 12 8 

Bailey, 127 bolls, 2 firlots, 2 pecks, at 13s lOd. 

per boll ..... 

Malt, 2 bolls, at do, per boll 
Oats, 244 bolls, i firlofc, at do. 

Capons, 138, at 8d. each Hens, 12 at Sd. each 

Chickens, 636, at 2d. each 

Tallow, 1 stone, at .... 

88 5 


1 7 


168 18 


4 17 

5 6 



£1494 11 



merit, but their affairs falling- into disorder, the es- 
tates were afterward exposed to sale and bought by 
the friends of their late proprietors, at very moder- 
ate prices. Thus ended a rebellion founded on false 
views of loyalty and mistaken notions of national 
advantage. The great majority of the people re- 
joiced in its failure. The Synod of Galloway and 
some other public bodies congratulated his Majesty 
on the overthrow of the Rebels and the establish- 
ment of tranquillity. 




As this work has already extended to an unex- 
pected length, we must endeavour to confine 
ourselves to as narrow a compass as the narration 
of the facts belonging to the remaining portion 
of it will admit, brevity being now a primary ob- 

When the storm of rebellion had completely 
subsided into a calm, various agricultural and other 
kinds of improvements began to appear. The 
proprietors of Galloway soon perceived, from the 
rapid rise of rents in nearly every other quarter, 
that their own system of management must be 
erroneous, the rents of the richest land being here 
trifling, when compared with those of other parts of 
Scotland. There seemed to them no way of reme- 
dying the evil, or of introducing an improved mode 
of husbandry, so long as their estates lay undivided. 
From time immemo^al the farmers had possessed 
a right of pasturage, in common, on the whole 
property of their landlord, each having in general 
only one portion of land which he kept constantly 
in a state of tillage, around his cottage. The price 
of cattle had now somewhat advanced, and it war 

^tol. u Hh 


found profitable to rear them. To erect march 
and sub-division dykes' by which the labour of 
tending cattle might be abridged and the size of 

farms increased, called forth the most strenuous 
exertions of many proprietors. But this judi- 
cious procedure did not coincide with the wishes, 
the prejudices, or the interests of the smaller tenants 
and cottars, who intuitively foresaw in this p 
the instability of the tenure by which they held 
their patches of land. Seldom has a general im- 
provement taken place without producing indivi- 
dual disadvantage. The worst anticipations of the 
peasantry were realized. At Whitsunday 1723, 
many of the proprietors of the Stewartry, had parti- 
ally completed the enclosure of their grounds, for 
the purpose of stocking them with black cattle; and 
numerous were the instances in which five, seven 
and even sixteen families, upon an estate, were forc- 
ed from their homes and the homes of their fore- 
fathers, to make room for one occupant, whose su- 
perior skill or wealth enabled him to take the whole 
land thus vacated, at an advanced rent.- Such of the 
ejected families as possessed the means, emigrated 
to America and other places ; but such as had 
neither the inclination nor the funds necessary for 
enabling them to remove, remained at home, in a 
state of painful destitution, and vainly endeavoured 
to counteract the beneficial operations of the lords 
of the soil. The general ^inual rendezvous of 

1 Sir Thomas Gordon of Earls ton, is raid to have been the 
first who built sU ne fences in Galloway. (Caledonia.) 

2 "The jacobitc proprietors" according to Mr Aikman, "urg- 
ed on the plan with their usual intention of producing misery and 
discontent. ' One landloid cast out thirteen families upon the 
22nd May instant, who were lying by the dyke sides; they were not 
allowed to erect any shelter or coveiing at the dyke sides to pre, 



the people of Galloway was at this time at Ivelton- 
hill, where a fair was held; and here was first 
suggested the plan (which was fully matured dur 
kig the following winter,) of "levelling," or de- 
molishing the obnoxious fences. 

seive their little ones from the injury of the cold;' * there is no 
less than twenty-eight plough stills of arable ground parked round' 
Kirkcudbright, within six or seven miles in breadth or length. 
And where complaints of this usage have been made to some of 
them, [the proprietors] they answered : Drive them iuto the sea ; 
or let them go abroad to the plantations; or let them go to Hell.* 
Surely this is no less than oppiessiou, punishment, and persecu- 
tion, from our native country, at the pleasure and for the private 
interest of some men. — (An Account of the Reasons of some Peo- 
ple in Galloway, their Meeting &c.) When we recollect that 
these people, or their fathers, had been the strength and the stay of 
the protestant interest, that they had suffered so severely for 
their adherence to the religion of their country, while their land- 
lords had been persecutors, and were Jacobites, — it is impossible 
not to sympathize in their disappointment, when we see them, at 
the end of the struggle, when they expected to sit at peace every 
man under his own vine and fig. tree, turned houseless to the ele- 
ments, to beg or to steal as they best might, and if we cannot 
approve, we scarcely can condemn the disorderly couduct ot 
men driven almost to despair." 

* A rude ballad, called the " Levellers' Lines," was long popu- 
lar in Galloway. We give a few verses of it. 

A generation like to this 

Did nevei man behold, 

Imeiiii our gfeat and mighty men 

Wbo covetous aie of gold. 

Solomon could not well approve 

The practice of their lives, 

To oppress and to keep down the poor, 

Their actions cut like kuives. 

Among great men where shall ye find 

A Godly man like Job, 

lie made the widows' heart to sing, 

But our lairds make them sob. 

It is the duty of great men 

The poor folks to defend, 

But. worldly interest moves our lairds^ 

They miud another end, 


The people of both the Stewartry and Wig- 
townshire met in parishes ; and the parishes of 
Twynholm, Tongland, Kelton, and Crossmichael , 
seem first to have taken the field, and to have formed 
the nucleus of the gathering mass. They assem- 
bled at Furberliggat, about a mile from the place 
where the town of Castle Douglas now stands; and 
that no time might be lost, they instantly prepared 
to commence operations upon the march dyke of the 
estate of Kelton. Mr Johnston, the proprietor, 
with the Rev. Mr Falconer, soon appeared, and 
earnestly requested the party to spare the fence, 
for it was the only one upon the estate. The Laird 

They from the hungry take the sheaf 

And of them corn do crave, 

They turn them out to ly in fields 

Nor house nor shelter have. 

The woid says, rob ye not the poor 

Nor widow in distress, 

Or else your wives shall widows be, 

Your children fathetless. 

For they that strain the poor man's right 

Of either lands or foo^, 

The lord says he'll debar their souls 

From any spiritual good. 

They aie more forward to thrust out 

Poor people from their land, 

Than Israel was the heathen folks 

When -Moses did command. 

The lords and lairds they drive us out 

From maillings where we dwell, 

The poor man says " Where shall we go ? ' 

The rich says "Goto hell." 

These words they spoke in jest and mocks, 

But ly their works we know, 

That if they have their herds and flocks, 

The-y care not where we go. 

Agaiaet (he poor they still prevail 
Witli all their wicked works, 
And will enclose both moor and dale 
And turn cornfields to parks. 


told them he had not dispossessed a single tenant 
or cottar, and solemnly declared that not one of 
them should be ejected during his life. Mr John- 
ston's address, seconded by the authority and elo- 
quence of the minister of the parish, prevailed, and 
the dyke was allowed to stand: it still remains 
on the west side of the old road leading from 
Castle Douglas to RonehotiseJ Few monuments 
of their forbearance were left in the Stewartry.2 

They had not proceeded far until their num- 
bers prodigiously increased by fresh arrivals from 
other parishes, for during their progress through 
Kelton, Buittle, Rerwick, and Kirkcudbright, they 
amounted to upwards of live hundred. 3 Having di- 
vided themselves into companies of about fifty men, 
they appointed a person of suitable age or influ- 
ence to each, as commander, whom they styled 
captain. The mode of their operations was this : 
they arranged themselves in companies along the ill- 
fated fence ; and, their instruments of destruction 
being applied to it, at the word of command, it was 
overthrown with shouts of exultation that might 
have been heard at the distance of several miles.* 

1 Mr Smith says in his agricultural survey of Galloway, ''■ In 
the farm of Robot ton, in the parish of Boryue,. are dykes 
built before the time of the levellers, which escaped their rava- 
ges, and still remain (autly good fences. A dyke of still older 
date is to be seen in the lands of Baldoon, being the march be. 
twcen the farms of Balfern and Stevvarton, built by Lord Basil 
Hamilton, about the end of the seventeenth century. But the 
dykes most woithy of notice are on the lands of Palgown in 
MinnigafF, which appear first to have suggested the idea of in. 
closing moor farms.'' Smith's survey of Galloway. 

2 G las Weekly Visitor. 
8 Caledonia, &C 

4 " Each man was furnished with a strong kent, (or piece of 
wood.) from 6 to 8 feet in length, which he fixed into the dyke 
at the approved distance from the foundation, and from his 
neighbour. After having ascertained that all was ready, th© 


When the Levellers reached the top of Raeberry- 
hill, they gave themselves a short respite from their 
labours ; but, as all the rustic youth of the district 
had assembled in one place, they could not long 
remain inactive, and many of the more volatile and 
agile of the party, spent the time in wrestling and 
other gymnastic amusements. 

From Raeberry, they proceeded in a westerly 
direction to the burgh of Kirkcudbright, where 
they are said to have exposed, by public auction, at 
the market cross, some black cattle, which they had 
taken from the parks of Netherlaw and other places. 

The authorities and proprietors quickly rose with 
their officers, servants, and dependants, to dis- 
perse, if possible, this destructive and unlawful as- 
semblage ; but they were not of sufficient force to 
encounter the rioters, and they made application for 
xnilitarv assistance. Some troops of dragoons were 
dispatched from Dumfries, Ayr, and even Edin- 
burgh, to assist in terminating the disorder and ap- 
prehending the delinquents.! 

Many skirmishes took place, in one of which a 

captain bawled out, " Ow'r wi't boys," — and ow'r accordingly, 
it tumbled, with a shout that might have been heard at the dis. 
tance of miles. Ca^ii-F.douglas Weekly Visitor. 

Mr Maxwell who saw tliPin, says " ihey were furnished with 
pitchforks, gavellocks and spades, with which they levelled the 
dikes of Barheailzie and Munches near Dalbeaty." 

1 When the Dragoons were sent into Galloway to suppress 
tie Levellers, Major O'Niel, or M'Niel, had Lbe principal com. 
m;nd. Some of the landed proprietors and other gentlemen in 
the district, found gnat fault '.villi this officer, and said he was 
not severe enough, hut shewed 100 much lenity to the destroying 
insrrgents ; to which the Major made answer: " When 1 was 
sent here in command of the troops my instructions were to sup- 
press rebellious moLs, instead of which i find an oppressed, per. 
secut?d, suffering people, committing son e ii regularities ; and I 
think it below the dignity of any of his Majesty's field officers to 
act severely to such a people." 


man of the name of M'Crabin, who resided in 
Dunjop, in the parish of Tongland, got his ear cut 
off by the sabre of one of the dragoons. 1 Much 
blood might have been shed, had not the military, 
under Major M'Neil, behaved with admirable 
coolness and moderation. 

The Levellers likewise exhibited much courage 
and coolness. On their route from Kirkcudbright, 
through the parish of Tongland, they knew that 
their motions were strictly watched by a party of 
dragoons, in company with a number of gentlemen 
whom the encreasing danger had roused into exer- 
tion and called unto one place. The insurgents pro- 
ceeded along the east side of the small river Tarff, 2 
and took up a position on the braes of Culquhn, 
nearly opposite to Barcaple, where the military 
were stationed. The Levellers having held a con- 
sultation, arranged themselves in order of battle, 
and seemed prepared to make a desperate stand. 
The counsels of their opponents were divided : 
some proposed that they should immediately cross 
the river and attack the insurgents, while others 
wished to spare the effusion of blood and try the 
effect of negociation. Mr Heron, of Kirouchtree, 
who had been in the army, was present with the 
gentlemen of the district, and dissuaded them from 

! The dragoon was said to be Andrew Gemmel afterwards 
the fem "is Gaberlunzie, who was the prototype of Eadie Ochil- 
tree, I he Blue gown Beggar, celebrated by Sir Waller Scott, in 
the Antiquary. 

2 " Of all the tributaries of the Dee, the most considerable, 
next to the Ken, is the Tarff, which falls into the Dee about a 
mile and a half above Kirkcudbright. As the tide flows into 
the Tarff, it is navigable by vessels of fifty tons, for a mile up lo 
its lower bridge. The Tarff, like other rivers of the same name, 
derives its appellation from an ancient superstition, which sup- 
poses, that some waters were haunted by an apparition ia the 


their rash design. He plainly informed them, that, 
from the appearance of the insurgents, he was con- 
vinced they numbered among them individuals well 
skilled in military affairs ; and he entreated his 
friends not to hazard an encounter which might 
prove dishonourable to themselves and disastrous to 
the country. Mr Heron's experience added weight 
to his representations. A flag of truce, accompanied 
by several gentlemen and ministers, repaired to the 
position of the outlaws. This judicious step produc- 
ed the desired effect; for, after some fair promises had 
been made, the country people partially dispersed, 
and never again mustered in numbers so formidable 
and overbearing. The last remains of these de- 
luded men were defeated at Duchrae, in the parish 
of Balmaghie. The commanding officer of the mili- 
tary party behaved on this occasion with great 
lenity, and prohibited his men from using their 
swords, unless in self defence. The prisoners, a- 
mounting to upwards of 200 men, he marched to 
Kirkcudbright; but many of them were allowed 
to make their escape upon the road thither. 1 

form of a Bull which is called in the Gaelic, Tarv uisge, the 
water bull : Hence this stream was named by the Gaelic people 
Avon Tarv, the bull river." Caledonia 

The Tarff is now much smaller than it formerly was, a part 
of its walets being directed into another channel. 

1 Mr Maxwell, after staling thediffereot kinds ofpunishment 
which were inflicted on the insurgents, thus proceeds "At 
this period, justice was not very properly administered : for, a 
respectable man of the name ol rty who lived iu 

Balmaghie parish, was concerned in the mob, and on his being 
brought to trial, one of the justices admired a handsome Gallo. 
wav which he roue, and the justice told him, if he would uive 
him the Galloway, he would effect his acquittal, which he ac. 
cordingly did. This misfortune, with what happened the Missis, 
sippi Company in the year 1 7"20, did most generally distress 
this quarter of the kingdom." (Report of the Stewurtry of 
Kirkcudbright Agricultural Society.) 


Mr Heron had been right in his conjecture, for, 
exclusive of many of the disbanded soldiers of in- 
ferior note, the ranks of the Levellers were dig- 
nified by the presence of the celebrated Gipsy- 
chief, the redoubted William Marshall, 1 who had 

1 Two bands of Gipsies, at this time, and for some years 
afterwards, infested the district, and occasioned great loss to the 
inhabitants, by constantly committing all sorts of depredations. 
One of them.' headed by Isaac Miller, acted as fortune-tellers, 
tinkers, and manufacturers of horn spoons; but they lived chiefly 
by theft. The other commanded by William Baillie, repre- 
sented themselves as horse-dealers: but they were in reality 
horse- stealers and robbers. William Marshall, commonly called 
Billy Marshall, belonged to the fiist mentioned party ; but 
having killed his chief, at Maybole,* who he considered was in 
terms of too much intimacy with his wife or mistress, BiHy 
entered the army. He afterwards returned, however, and 
followed his former calling. 

" Billy Marshall's account of himself (as given in Blackwood's 
Magazine,) was this : he was born in or aLout the year 1666; 
but he might have been mistaken as to the exact year of his 
birth: however, the fact never was doubted of his having been a 
private soldier in the army of King William, at the battle of 
the Boyne. It is also well known, that he was a private in 
tome of the British regiments, which served under the great 
Duke of Marlborough in Germany, about the year 1705. But 
at this period Billy's military career in the service of his 
country ended. About this time he went to his command. 
ing- officer, one of the M'Guffngs of Ruscoe, a very old family in 
Galloway, and asked him if he had any commands for his native 
country ; being asked if there was any opportunity, he replied, 
yes; he was going to Keltonhill fair, having for some years made 
it a rule never to be absent. His officer knowing his man, 
thought it needless to take any very strong measure to hinder 
him, and Billy was at Keltonhill accordingly. 

" Now Billy's destinies placed him in a high sphere ; it was a. 
b'.ut this period, that either elective]} 7 or by usurpation, he was 
placed at the bead of that mighty people in the south-west, 
whom he governed with equal prudence and talent for the long 
space of eighty or ninety years. Some of his admirers assert, 
that he was of royal am entry, and that he succeeded by the laws 
of hereditary succession ; but no regular annals of Billy s house 
were kept, and oial tradition and testimony weigli heavily a-. 

* Life of Janiea Allan, 


been in the army : he died in Kirkcudbright, on 

gainst this assertion'. From any research T h tve been able to 
nfake," says the writer in the ' ongly disposed 

to think, that in this crisis oi h Kail had been 

no better than Julius Caesar, vex Cromwell, 

Hyder Ally, or Napoleon Bonap>ri.e: — i do not moan to say 
that he waded through as much blood as some of those, to 
Beat himself on a throne, or to g"a<p at the diadem and 
iceptre ; but it was shrewdly suspected, that Billy Marshall' 
had stained his character and his hands with human blood. 
His predecessor died very suddenly. It never was supposed 
by his own hand, and he was buried as privately about the' 
foot of Cairnsmuir, Craig.Nelder, or the Corse of Slakes, 
without the ceremony, or perhaps, more properly speaking, the 
benefit of a precognition being taken, or an inquest held by a 
coroner's jury. During this long reign he and his followers 
were not outdone in their exploits by any of the colonies of Kirk- 
Yftholm, Hornrliff, Spital, or Lorhmaben." 

We insert the copy of a curious document which we have in 
our possession : viz: — an extract from the trial of some of those 
vagrants before the Quarter Sessions, for the Slewartry of Kirk- 

" You, John Johnstone," [better known in Galloway, by 
the name of Jock Johnston,] "James Campbell, Christian Ker, 
Margaret and Isabell Marshalls, now prisoners within the tol- 
booth of Kirkcudbright, as vagrants, gipsies, and sorners, are 
indicted and accused before the quarter sessions for the Stewar. 
try of Kirkcudbright, at the instance of the procurator. fiscal), as 
being vagrant people of no certain residence, guilty of theft, 
pickery, and sorners and oppressors of the country, and so 
common nausennces, and therefore ought to be punished in terms 
of the acts of parliament made against sorners, vagrants, Egyp- 
tians, &c. Quarter sessions Kirkcudbright, seventh of Maixh, 
1732. Campbell acknowledges thf.t he has no certain place of 
residence, but goes up and down the country making spoons and 
mending pans. Johnstone acknowledges that he has no certain 
place of residence, but goes up and down the country the same 
way as Campbell. Margaret and Isabell Marshalls alledge they 
live in the parish of Stratown, but cannot condescend upon tha 
name of the place, and the whcle four acknowledge they parsed 
the boat of T.-nglaud Sundays night last, and stayed in a wast 
house near the Grenny foid all night, and that they lodged in a 
barn in the park of Balgreedan near- John Clears, on Mondays 
night and the two men acknowledge that they kept two durks or 
hangers that they had for defending of their persons (Signed,) 
Geo, Gordon, J. P. J. Eodem Die. The Justices of peace 
having advised the indictment and judicial acknowledgements of 


tlie 28th of November, 1792, at the advanced age 
of 120 years. 1 

After the suppression of these disorders, many of 
the ringleaders were brought to trial, and some 
were fined or imprisoned, and others banished to 
the plantations. This foolish rising materially 
tended to retard the progress of improvement in 
the south of Scotland- 2 

the within named vagrants, they find they are persons of no cer- 
tain residence, nor of any lawful! employments, i n! that they are 
such persons as by the law ai d for Egyptians, vagrant?, 

and sorners, and therefore tl of peace ordain them to be 

burnt on the chi I of the common hang. 

man, and thereafter to be sev< rally whipped on their naked 
shoulders, from one end of the Bridge-end of Dumfries to the 
other by the hangman, and that upon the fifteen dayofMaicb. 
instant, and all this upon the charge of the Stewartry which the 
collector of supply is herel to disburse and after said 

punishment is inflicted the said variants are hereby banished 
.out of this Stewartry for ever, with certification, if ever they 
be found ii; this Stewartry thereafter, that they shall be imprison, 
.ed six months and whipped once a month, and thereafter burnt 
on the cheeks of new. (Signed,) Geo. Gordon, J. P. J. And 
the quail recommend and comitt to John Neilson of 

Chappell, William Coupland of Colliestoun, John Dalyell of 
Fairgirth, or any one of them to see the before sentence pu^ 
into lawful execution, (Signed,) Geo. Gordon, J. P. J, 
Extiacted by William Gordon, clerk." 

John Johnstone, was afterwards hanged for murder, at Dum- 
fries; being a very powerful man, the magistrates found great 
.difficulty in putting his sffffence into execution. He is said to 
have taken hold of, and broken the rope by which he was to be 
suspended, and to have leaped from the scaffold. Before he 
could be secured his right arm was broken. After much exer- 
tion the executioner succeeded in throwing him off. 

1 He was a native of the parish of Kirkmichael, in Ayrshire, 
where he w&s, in i U | n bability born about the yeai I G7 1 . (See 
Scots Magazine for 1792, pp. 621. ,622.) 

lie subsisted in his extreme old aye, by a pension from Dun- 
bar, Earl of Selkirk. Lord Daer attended his funeral as chief 
mourner, to the church yard of Kirkcudbright, andlaid his head 
in the '.nave, where his simple monument is still shewn, decorat- 
ed with a scutcheon suitably blazoned with two tops' hours, aud 
two large spoons. 
.". The Genera] Assembly of the Church of Scotland cocde.raae.ft 


In 1725, potatoes were first introduced in- 
to Galloway, or at least into the Stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, by William Hyland, from Ire- 
land. This new species of food being accounted 
a luxury, few potatoes were used in the district 
for some time; for Hyland regularly carried his 
whole crop to Edinburgh, where he sold them in 
pounds and even ounces. 

At this period, there was perhaps not one baker 
in Galloway. Only one resided in the town of 
Dumfries, and he baked half-penny baps, or rolls, of 
coarse flour, which he carried in baskets to the fairs 
of Urr, Kirkpatrick, &c, where they met with a 
ready sale. No wheat at this time grew in the 
district, and it was believed that the ground would 
not produce it. Even so late as the year 1735, no 
mill existed in the south of Scotland for grinding 
this sort of grain. 1 The first flour mill was built at 

the tumultuous proceedings of the Levellers, and ordained an 
act or warning, to be read from all the pulpits near Kirkcud- 
bright. The feelings, however, of the people were generally in 
their favour, and the Jacobites seized this as a favourable oppor- 
tunity for fomenting discontent, and destroying the credit of 
Ihe Government. 

In this judicious warning the people are entreated, " as 
they have regard to the commands of God, the eternal salvation 
of their souls, as well as the safety of their bodies and families, 
that they desist from such practices in time coming, and live 
quietly and orderly, in submission to the laws of the land, and 
to their rulers, who are the ordinance of God, and particularly 
in loyalty and obedience to our protestant sovereign king George i 
and all ministers are admonished in their sermons, prayers, or 
private conversation, to beware of auy expressions that may 
aeem in the least to justify such practices, or to alleviate the 
guilt of them, or that may be interpreted to import that any- 
sufficient ground or occasion has been given to commit .such 
abuses. And it is recommended to the gentlemen who have 
been injured by these irregu'ar practices, to use the greatest ten- 
derness towards a misled, poor people, in order to reduce them 
no their duty." STRUTHiiRS. 

•1 Mr Maxwell's letter. 


Cluden, in the parish of Holywood, some years 
after this date. 

Still there was a great deficiency of bridges, 1 and 
the state of the roads had been but little ameliorat- 
ed. 2 The clergy felt interested in the facility of 
internal communication, and the S)'nod of Gallo- 
way, in the year 1728, raised contributions which. 

1 " Gt enny-ford old Bridge, generally called the Bridge of Dee„ 
Tonglanri old Bridge, and Bridge.lord-Bridge, over the Black 
Water of Dee, were contracted for by Anthony M'Kie, of 
Netherlavv, and John Neilson, of Corsock, with the Commission- 
ers of Supply of the Stewartry of Kirkcudhtight, on the 22od 
December, 1737. They cost £ J, 000. William Beck, operative 
mason, built the three bridges." Records of the Commis- 

sioners of Supply. 

The bridge at Newton-Stewart, which first connected Wig. 
townshire and the Stewartry of Kiikcudbiigut was erected in 
1745, at the joint expense of the two counties. It cost £750 
sterling. John Douglas, architect. This bridge was swept 
away by a flood, about the year 1810. The erection of the pre. 
sent bridge across the Cree at Newton. Stewart, was commenc- 
ed in the summer of 1813, and built of native granite, chiefly 
from the moots of Minnigaff, at a cost of £6,000, by Mr Kenneth 
Mathison of Inverness, who brought masons from Aberdeenshire 
for that purpose, they being more tunning in the art of splitting 
and squaring granite, than the craftsmen of Galloway were at 
that time. Air Mathison subsequently built the bridge across 
the Ken at New.Galloway, the bridge over the Black Water of 
Dee at Duchrae, the Pier at Stranraer, the Quay at Port Nes- 
sock, and the Harlour of Kirkcudbright. 

2 The following extracts from the Records of the Commis. 
sioners of Supply for the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, exhibit 
in a clear point of view, the state of the roads at this period. 

2nd, June, 1733. The Commissioners of Supply, hereby ap- 
propriate £13 " towards cutting of rocks and making roads 
through quagmires, in the road leading from Goatend- [near 
Gatehouse] to the Ferritoun of Cree, which now io impassable 
for carriages." 

22nd, December, 1737. " The Commissioners resolve to ex- 
ecute the laws for repairing of highways ay and until the road 
from Kirkcudbright to Newgalloway, bo made passable for tra- 
vel lers, wheel-carts, and carriages." 

vol, n. li 


enabled them to erect bridges over the Stincher, 
the Doon, and the Bladenoch.' 

Cattle still continued of small value. Mr Maxwell, 
mentions in his letter to Mr Herries, of Spotts, that 
he saw, in 173(>, five score of five-year-old Gallo- 
way cattle, reared at the Netherlaw, and in excellent 
condition, sold to an Englishman at two pounds 
twelve shillings and sixpence each. The low 
state of rents enabled tenants to graze cattle at 
two shillings and sixpence a head, per annum. No 
lime was yet imported into Galloway for im- 
proving land, and very little for building purposes. 
A great part of what the people used as mortar, 
was made from shells, and often carried to a con- 
siderable distance. When they first brought lime 
from England to the south of Scotland, they car- 
ried it in dry- ware casks. 

The price of labour remained very low. Even 
so late as the year 1749, labourers, we are inform- 
ed, had only sixpence a day, and the best masons 
one shilling. 2 

In 1741, grain was so scarce and dear, that the 
Magistrates of Kirkcudbright, to prevent the in^ 
habitants from starving, procured from Wales, 
two cargoes of oats, which they sold at a some- 
what reduced price. 3 

Nothing had yet been done by the Government 
to heal the painful wounds which the civil war of 
1715 had left behind it; and the Jacobites still 
cherished the fondest hopes of placing the Stewart 
family on the throne of their forefathers. But, from 
numerous causes, the disaffected in Britain had long 

1 Recorrla of the Synod of Galloway. 

2Mi Maxwell's letter — Jlollance hou£8 wa§ built jit this 

3 Town-Council Records, 


ceased to have confidence in the presonal exer- 
tions of the Chevalier de St. George; anil they now 
placed their whole reliance on the spirit, talents, 
and activity of his eldest son, Charles Edward, who 
styled himself Prince of Wales, a young man of 
prepossessing appearance, engaging manners, and 
acknowledged bravery. 

In the month of August, 1744., John Murray, 
of Broughton, son of Sir David Murray, repaired 
to Paris from Scotland, to inform Charles of the 
unanimous opinion of his friends, that an invasion of 
Britain would have a fortunate issue, provided 
the Prince could obtain 6,000 auxiliary troops, 
1,000 stand of arms, and £3,000. Charles replied, 
that, even without foreign assistance, he was deter- 
imned to appear in Scotland, and take his chance 
of success 

Murray was immediately sent back to Scotland 
with commissions signed by Charles, as Regent for 
James VIII., to various adherents of the Preten- 
der's cause. At a meeting of the Jacobites in 
Edinburgh, the Prince's declaration to their mes- 
senger excited regret, anxiety, and surprise ; and 
they agreed to send Murray into the Highlands;, 
that he might meet him, and dissuade him from so 
desperate an undertaking. The young Chevalier, 
however, did not appear, and after Mr Murray hail, 
waited a month for the Adventurer's arrival ; he re 
turned to his seat in Peebles-shire, imagining that 
Charles had relinquished the rash design. 

But Charles Edward was determined to perse- 
vere in the enterprise ; and he embarked in a fri- 
gate, or sloop of war, attended by a very slender 
retinue, with all the money and arms he could pro- 
vide for the conquest of Britain. Having landed 


at Moidart on the 25th of July, 1745, with some 
individuals as his suite, he sent messengers to sum- 
mon the clans to meet him in arms at Glenfinnan, 
on the 19th of August, where the Pretender's stan- 
dard was to be erected. The Prince's friends in 
the Lowlands also received notice of his arrival.' 

Charles, accompanied by a few of the M 'Donalds, 
repaired to the wild and sequestered vale of Glen- 
finnan, on the day appointed ; but no one appeared 
to receive him ; and having waited for two hours in 
anxious expectation, with the whole country around 
in its original loneliness, he began to despair of 
any rising in his favour. Lochiel, however, at 
last appeared with about 700 Camerons ; and, after 
the party had swelled to upwards of 1,000 by fresh 
arrivals, the Marquis of Tullibardine unfurled 
the standard of rebellion : the number of the in- 
surgents now daily increased. 2 

The report of this insurrection soon reached 
Edinburgh, and Sir John Cope, commander-in-chief 
of the troops in Scotland, which did not amount to 
above three thousand men, resolved to set out in 

1 Mr Robert Chambers' History of the Rebellion. 

The Edinburgh Evening Courant, of the 10th ol September, 
1745, makes this announcement. 

" There are letters from Dumfries yesterday morning, 
dated the 7th instant advising, that there is not the least stir 
there, but every thing is as quiet and peaceable as usual; that 
the Erakinites (friends of the Earl of Man) have been stocking 

themselves w'th aims, and got a standard made for them 

And ns these letters mention nothing of any cannonading bcirg 
heard on the coast there, 'tis believed the story told with respect 
thereto, must be groundless." 

We may mention as a curious fact, that the Courant at this 
period was of the iollowing dimensions 1 6^ inches in length, and 
1 1 inches in breadth, It rs now 39 inches in length and 25£ 
io breadth. 

2 Chambers, &c. 


quest of the Adventurer, and crush the rebellion 
in its origin. 

Charles and Cope simultaneously commenced 
their inarch to bring on a decisive battle; but, up- 
on approaching the Rebels, Sir John declined to 
engage, and drew off his men towards Inverness. 
The Pretender now formed the determination of 
proceeding to the capital of Scotland, and seizin ->- 
it before General Cope could arrive for its de- 
fence. Upon the approach of the Rebels towards 
Edinburgh, Colonel Gardener and his dragoons, 
who, alongst with another regiment, had been left 
for the protection of the Lowlands, retired, and 
much alarm, anxiety, and confusion, prevailed in 
the city. 1 

Charles having summoned the town to surren- 
der, the Council, on the 16th of September, 
deputed three of the Magistrates and the Conven- 
er of the trades, to repair to the camp of the Re- 
bels, at hlateford, and request their commander, that 

1 ** When the Highland army advanced to Kirkliston on 
their march to Edinburgh, 1745. it was recollected that the 
house of Newliston, lying near the camp of the Highlanders', had 
been built by the Secretary, Lord Stair, who was so deeply im- 
plicated in the massaoe of Glencoe; it was also remembered, 
that the grandson oi tin? murdered Glencoe was in the Highland 
camp, at the head of his clan regiment ; it was, therefore, to be 
apprehended that they would commit some violence ou the house 
of Newliston, and as this would be highly piejndicial to the re- 
putation of the Chevalier's army, it was proposed lo pi, ice a 
guard for the purpose of preventing it. Glencoe heard this pro- 
posal, and demanded an audience of the Prince. " It is right, 1 ' 
he said, ' that a guard should be placed upon the house of New. 
liston, but that guard must be furnished by the MacDonalds of 
Glencoe; if they are not thought worthy of this trust, they 
cannot be lit to bear arms in your Royal Highness's cause, and 
1 niu^i, of course, withdraw them from your standard." The 
claim of the high-spirited chief was necessarily admitted, ami 
the MacDonalds ol Glencoe mounted guard on the house of 
NewlijKon; noi was there the least article deranged or destroyed." 



hostilities might not commence until the people 
should deliberate ou an answer to the Prince's 

Scarcely had the messengers departed, when the 
Lord Provost received intelligence that Sir John 
Cope and his army had arrived off Dunbar in 
transports from Aberdeen. The deputation re- 
turned about ten o'clock at night, with an answer, 
that his Royal Highness would allow the Magis- 
trates and Council, until two o'clock in the morning', 
to resolve on the course they might consider it their 
duty to pursue. 

At two o'clock* a second deputation left the city 
in a hackney coach, to make another application 
for delay until the citizens could be consulted. To 
this request, Charles positively refused to accede ; 
and the messengers were peremptorily ordered to 
depart. The coach which conveyed them entered 
the city by the West Port; and, after it had reach- 
ed the High Street, the deputation left it in or- 
dei to deliver the Pretender's answer to the Magis- 
trates. The coachman, with his vehicle, then pro- 
ceeded to his place of residence and stables, in the 
Canongate, beyond the walls. As he was known 
to the porters, or sentinels, at the gate, called the 
Netherbow-porr, they opened it for the purpose 
of allowing him to pass. Lochiel and some other 
chiefs, accompanied by about eight hundred of 
their followers, had marched round the city unob- 
served with the design of attempting an entrance 
in that quarter, either by force or stratagem. — 
The gate was no sooner opened to allow egress 
to the coach than the Highlanders rushed in, and, 
having disarmed the city-guard, took possession of 
the town. 


During the forenoon the Chevalier entered the 
long deserted palace of his ancestors, 1 and, at mid- 
day his father was proclaimed at the cross of Edin- 
burgh, amidst a great concourse of spectators. 

The occupation of the capital inspired the adher- 
ents of the young Adventurer with additional 
courage and devotion to his cause.* It also put 
them in possession of some substantial advantages, 
namely, additional forces, arms, and accoutrements. 

1 His appearance on that occassion is thus described. " The 
figure aud presence of Charles Stuart was not ill suited to hi* 
lofty preten.-ions. He was in the prime of youth, tall, and haud- 
some, of a fair complexion ; he had a light coloured periwig, 
with his own hair combed over the front: "he wore the highland 
dress, that is a tartan short coat, without the plaid, a blue bonnet 
on his head, and on his breast the star of the oider of St. Andrew 
The Jacobites were charmed with his appearance, and compared 
him to Robert the Bruce, whom they said he resembled in his 
figuie, as in his features The Whigs looked upon him with 
other eyes; they observed that even in that triumphant hour, 
when he was about to enter the palace of his fathers, the air of 
his countenance was languid and melancholy; that he looked like 
a gentleman and a man of fashion, but not like a hero or a conj 
queror." — Hist, of the Rebellion, chap. v. 

Mr Nicholson, the publisher of this History, h;.s in his pos 
session an original miniature portrait of Prince Charles Edward 
Stewart, taken in Fiance, pievious to his departure for .Britain, 
and set in a small, though handsome gold ring. It is surprising 
how exactly the likeness of the Prince corresponds with the de. 
BCription here given of him : The star of the order of St. 
Andrew is on the back of the ring. 

This curious relic 01 the Pretender was taken fiom his own 
finger and presented to M'Honald, a Highland chief. After the 
failure of the enterprise; this chief and bis family fled to the 
continent. About fifty years afterwards, whilst M'Honald's 
daughter resided in Moscow, by no means in affluent circum 
stances, William Smith, Esq., mei chant, a native of Edinburgh, 
induced her to sell the ring, by offering her a tempting price for 
it. Mr Nicholson, in 1627, became Mr Smith's son-in-law. 
when the old gentleman presented to the husband of hit only 
daughter, the interesting nng, alter having had it in his posses- 
sion tor about forty years. Uuth the likeness itself aud the ex. 
edition of the paiuling are jsaid by qualified judges to be ad. 


In the meantime, Sir John Cope, at the head of 
nearly 3,000 men, marched from Dunbar to Had- 
dington, on his advance to Edinburgh. Upon re- 
ceiving information of this movement, Charles 
Edward formed the determination of proceeding 
eastward to meet the royal army and give it battle. 

Cope took"up his station in a level tract of land, 
then in stubble, of about a mile in length, and 
three quarters of a mile in breadth, extending from 
the grounds of Seaton castle on the east, to Preston 
on the west, the north being bounded by the sea, 
and the south by a deep morass, intersected by 
ditches which ran along the acclivity on which the 
village of Tranent stands. When the Rebels 
made their appearance on this acclivity, Sir John 
Cope drew up his trOops in order of battle, with 
his infantry in the centre, and a regiment of dra- 
goons, on each flank: on the right were some pieces 
of artillery. Night came on, and the Highlanders 
lay down to rest in a field of peas, which had been 
cut and made into small ricks, where they enjoyed 
the most profound repose. The Prince himself slept 
with a bunch of peas-straw beneath his head. The 
Royal troops reclined upon their arms. Both ar- 
mies were nearly equal in numbers. Early in the 
morning, the Highland forces, under the direction 
of a guide, descended by a neglected pathway from 
the height, and formed on the plain. After offer- 
ing up a short prayer, the Highlanders pulled their 
bonnets over their brows, and, upon receiving a 
signal, ran forward with a hideous yell, each clan in 
the form of a wedge. Having discharged their 
muskets, they threw them from their hands and 
rushed on to close combat with their swords. The 
onset was terrible. The royal dragoons were panic- 


Struck and fled. Their example was soon follow- 
ed by the infantry ; and the Adventurer gained a 
complete victory. Every thing that belonged to 
the regular army fell into the hands of the victors. 

About four hundred of the royalists were slain 
and nearly two thousand made prisoners. Among 
the killed was Captain John Stewart, of Physgill, 1 
Wigtownshire, whose remains were interred in 
Prestonpans church yard, where a grave-stone wai 
erected to his memory. 

After the battle of Preston, or, as it is often call- 
ed, Prestonpans, there was not a place in Scotland, 
except the castles of Edinburgh and Stirling, that 
durst disavow the sovereignty of Charles Edward ; 
and, in Galloway, the utmost uneasiness prevailed 
respecting the probable result of this hitherto suc- 
cessful invasion. They dreaded a visit from a host 
of wild and ferocious mountaineers, and trembled 
for the safety of their lives, their property, and their 

1 Gazette History of the Rebellion Captain Stewart bej 

longed to Lascelles's regimeut of toot, amounting to 570 men. 

2 Letter from a Magistrate of Dumfries — It thus proceed* : 
'• Jt gives the greatest pain to all true friends of theii country 

to hear, we in Scotland are eveiy where, thro' England, 
exclaimed against as enemies, and disloyal to that government 
under which wc have so long lived happy : A charge equally 
ciuel and unjust. We are more to be pitied than deserving 
to be thus arraigned ; and even a suspicion of this kind should 
not be easily admitted, as tending, at this critical juncture. 
to weaken our hands in both nations. But that you may 
have some notion of the situation of things with us, and the 
temper of the people, it may be necessary to give you a detail 
of the rise and progress ofoui misfortunes. 

When it was fiist lumoured, that the Pretender's son wai 
landed in the Highlands, the disaffected party every where 
laughed at tin; thing, and turned into lidicule all those that 
seemed to believe it. but when it could be no longer concealed, 
they still talked of it its a ridiculous enterprise, that would como 
to nothing, and by every art endeavoured to lull the country 


The news of this victory infused fresh spirit in- 
to the Jacobites in every quarter, and induced 
many who had determined to remain neutral, to 
join the standard of rebellion. The Pretender's 
army consequently received every day fresh ac- 
cessions of strength. Mr Maxwell, of Kirkconnel, 
in Galloway, now joined it. 

asleep, and rendor every body secure or indifffltent. Geneuil 
Cope was sent against the rebels, while yet in the Highland!, 
with all the troops then in Scotland who took his route by 
Inverness, (though much about) aa the safest, and with a view 
to be joined by some of the well affected clans, and some com. 
panies of foot there. The rebels informed of this, inarched over 
the mountains at nights, and were in possession of Perth, before 
we imagined they were near us, and were now above two thousand. 

At Dumfries and in this county, we took an exact account of 
the effective men and arms, that they might be in readiness to 
rise, upon the first warning ; and writing to Edinburgh, were 
answered by the people in power there, that they were glad to 
hear of the steadiness and loyalty of the people ; but had receiv. 
ed no instructions from the government : Which, when they 
did, we should be acquainted with. So far as 1 can judge, tl e 
same spirit which you take notice of in 1715, was, with propir 
encouragement and suppoit, ready to have been exerted at this 
time; numbers being still alive in all the places you mention, 
who ventured themselves and their all in the same cause. 

But would you know the truth of tl e matter ? This unhappy 
affair was represented still as a trifle; and the rebels as a con. 
temptible mob; that would be easily subdued. It was thought 
ueedless to appoint lieulei ants or raise the militia; the 6,000 
Dutch troops being thought sufficient, with our own, to quell 
this spurt of dissaffection. 

We were sensible enough of the danger coming fast upon us, • 
and the whole country was eager to be in arm3. But every 
body was sa over prudent, that no body would take upon hiai 
to head us without a warrant from the king or regency. 

Sir John Cope landed from the North at Dunbar, the day 
after Edinburgh was betrayed Five days after, his whole army 
was cut off, or taken prisoners, except the dragoons who ran a. 
way, and left poor Gat diner to be murdeiedat his post : and 
the day after Cope's defeat, the Dutch lauded at Berwick. All 
which, put together, frum his first going to the north, presents 
us with a train of the most unlucky incidents, scarce to be paral- 
The rebels were now absolutely masters of Scotland ; our 


The new forces were organized as speedily as 
possible. Two troops of liorse being appointed 
the Prince's guards, the command of one of them 
was consigned to Lord Elcho, and that of the other, 
offered to the deceased Lord Kenmure's son, who 
declined espousing the cause of the Stewarts, for 
which his father had died on the scaffold. 

When the Chevalier had received all the sup- 
plies he expected, he intimated to his council, that 
lie intended to march to Newcastle, and give battle 
to General Wade, who had collected an English 
army at that place. 

On the Slst of October, the Pretender marched 
out of Edinburgh at the head of his guards, and 
his forces, hastening from different quarters, ren- 
dezvoused at Dalkeith. Here his army was sepa- 
rated into two divisions, one of which took the 
western road to Cai lisle. When they reached 

hands were,. at the beginning?,, tied np ; and they might, when 
they pleased, have cut all our throats. 

All this country is now enraged or discouraged ; and the 
moie so, as they must remain idle spectators of their country's 
ruin, without having it in their power to prevent it, or help 

All our towns are laid un^er heavy contributions. There is 
no law, no tunic, no money; and we are new entitely at the 
mercy of those who measure all right by the length of their 
sword. And yet the people remain unmoved, and are no way 
determined by this rash adventurer ; regarding as nothing all 
his success, promises, threatening*, and boastings, The cler^v of 
Scotland are thundering against popery, rebellion, and arbitrary 
power, and publishing seasonable warnings. 

The rebels are about 8,000; but suffer by desertions; which 
are still made np by move joining them from the Highlands. 
A I out 1 ; 200 of these are of the low country in and about Edin. 
burgh only. Though a great many gentlemen and some no. 
bility are with them, yet none of them, except one 01 two are 
men of capacity, interest, or fortune: few of them have any thing 

to lose Without an invasion they are undone; and the 

taking of Edinburgh will bring them sooner to destruction." 

Gentleman's Magazine for 17-Jo. 


Lockerby, owing to the badness of the road, they 
were necessitated to leave behind a considerable 
portion of their baggage and tents, which a party 
of the inhabitants of Dumfries seized and carried 

The town and castle of Carlisle having capitu- 
lated, the Prince made a triumphal entry into the 
place, and immediately sent a detachment under 
Lochiel to Dumfries, to reclaim the baggage, or to 
demand £2,000 from the inhabitants in its stead. 
Before he reached the town, however, he was re- 
called. 1 

Though the Rebel army was now reduced by 
desertion to 4,400 men, the Prince formed the de- 
terminaton of making an attempt to seize London, 
by marching rapidly to it by the Lancashire road. 
On the 2 1st of November, his army left Carlisle, 
after placing a garrison in the citadel, and Charles 
pushed on to Derby, within one hundred and 
twenty-seven miles of London, where he learned 
that no fewer than three English armies were pre- 
paring to surround and attack him : the King him- 
self, besides, had resolved to take the field in per- 
son, accompanied by Field- Marshal Stair, as com- 
mander in chief of the forces in the south. A 
council of war which was called, strongly urged upon 
the Prince the necessity of returning to Scotland. 
Charles gave an unwilling consent, and, upon the 
6th of December, the dispirited Rebels commenced 
their retreat. Having arrived at Carlisle on the 
19th of the same month, and having reinforced their 
garrison, they proceeded on their march next day. 
After crossing the Esk, they separated into two di- 

1 Charles's Transactions in Scotland in the years 1745.46 
Leilh Edit. 1817. p. 143. 


Visions, and one body readied Annan, the other 
Ecclefeclian on the same day, 

On the 21st, the Duke of Cumberland invested 
Carlisle, and stationed the heroic Sir Andrew 
AgneWjl at the sally port, with 300 men under his 
command, to prevent any of the garrison from 
escaping by tliat outlet. On the 30th, Carlisle sur- 
rendered, and the defenders were made prisoners. 

Lord Elcho, alongst with 400 or 500 of the Re- 
bels, were sent by the Pretender from Annan to 
Dumfries, and the rest of the same division soon 
followed : the other division went by Moffat. The 
Prince himself, attended by the French ambas- 
sador, the Duke of Perth, Lord Pitsligo, Lochiel, 
Clanronald, Glengary, and some other chiefs, pass- 
ed through Dumfries. The militia and volunteers 
in that quarter, had taken up arms during the 
absence of the Highland host in England; but, 
upon the return of the Rebels, they felt little in- 
clination to venture an attack. 

The hostility of Dumfries to the Jacobite cause 
had manifested itself, not only in 1715, but more 
recently in seizing the Pretender's baggage as he 
marched into England ; and it was determined to 
inflict exemplary vengeance on this loyal burgh. — ■ 
Two thousand pounds in mono}'', and one thousand 
pairs of shoes were, therefore, demanded. Upwards 
of one thousand pounds of the sum were paid 
down; and, when the Rebels hurriedly evacuated 
Dumfries on the 23rd, they carried ofT Mr Crosbie 
and Mr Walter Riddel, as securities for the pay- 
ment of the remaining part of the exaction.2 

1 Sir Andrew Agnew was accounted one of the bravest men 
that ever belonged to the British array. (Chambers.) 

2 History of tho Rebellion. 
vol. ii. Kk 


Whilst the insurgents remained in Dumfries, 
they lived at free quarters and committed many 
outrages, robbing - a number of individuals, plunder- 
ing several houses, and carrying off all the arms 
and ammunition they could find. They demanded 
contributions from the neighbouring towns, 1 and 

1 Merchant's History of the Rebellion. — Struthers, &c. A 
contribution was demanded from Kirkcudbright, but we believe 
it was not paid. 

" The clans marched into it as into a town where they ex- 
pected resistance, or, at least, no kindly reception .'; and on an 
idiot being observed with a gun in his hand behind a gravestone 
in the churchyard, which they apprehended he was about to firo 
upon them, it was with the greatest difficulty that the poor 
creature's life was spared. The Prince took up his lodging in 
what was then the best house in the town, being that which is 

now the Commercial Inn, near the centre of the market place 

lie had ordered the citizens to contribute the sum of £2,000 for 
Irs use, with a thousand pair of shoes : some of his men adding, 
that they might consider it well that their town was not laid in 
ashes. Within the last three years, an aged female lived in 
Edinburgh, who recollected the occupation of Dumfries by the 
Highland amiv, being then seventeen years of age. She lived 
opposite to the Prince's lodging, and frequently saw him. In 
her father's house several of the men were quaitercd, and it was. 
her recollection that they gieatly lamented the course which 
they had taken, and feared the issue of the expedition. The 
proprietor of the house occupied by the Prince was a Mr Richard 
Lowlhian, a non-juror and proprietor of StaffoM-Hall in Cum. 
beiland. Though well affected to the Prince's cause, he judged 
it prudent not to appear in his company, and yet neither did lie 
wish to offend him by the appearance of deliberately going out 
of his way. The expedient he adopted in this dilemma was one 
highly chaiactcristic of the time — he got himself filled so ex- 
tremely drunk, that his being kept back from the company of 
his guest was only a matter of decency. His wife, who could 
not well be taxed with treason, did the honours of the house 
without scruple: and some other Jacobite ladies, paiticidarly 
those of the attainted house of Carnwath, came forward to grace 
his court. When the writer was at Dumfries in 1838, he saw 
in the possession of a private family, one of a set of table napkins 
of the most beautiful damask, resembling the firest satin, which 
the ladies Dalzell had taken to grace the UiUe of the Prince. 
and which they had kept ever after with a care due to the most 
:orecious relics. The drawing room in which Charles received 


did much damage in the surrounding country, by 
seizing horses and every thing they stood in need 
of. The loss sustained by the burgh was suppos- 
ed to exceed £1,000, whilst that done in the adja- 
cent country was estimated at a much larger sum. 1 
When they suddenly left Dumfries, which they 
did upon hearing a report that the Duke of Cum- 
berland had reached Annan, they commanded the 
towns-people to send after them the baggage which 
they could not remove, assuring them at the same 

company is a rery handsome one, panelled all round with Corinth, 
ian pilasters, the capitals of which are touched with dim gold. 
He was sitting here at supper with his officers and other friends 
when he was told that a messenger had arrived with intelligence 
respecting the enemy. One M'Ghie, a painter in Dumfries, and 
a friend of the insurgents, had been imposed upon at Aunan, 
with the false news that the Duke of Cumberland had already 
taken Carlisle, and was advancing to Dumfries. Charles receiv- 
ed this intell gence in anothei room, and soon after returned to 
his friends with a countenance manifestly dejected. The con- 
sequence was, that he hurriedly left the town next day, with 
only £1 100 of the £20C0, but carrying the provost and another 
gentleman as security for the payment of the remainder. Mrs 
Lowthian received from him as a token of regard, a pair of 
leather gloves, so extremely fine that they could be drawn through 
her ring. These, as well as the bed he had slept on, were care- 
fully preserved by the family, and are still in existeuce." 

Chambers' History of the Rebellion. 
1 " The provost of Dumfries, a gentleman of family named 
Corsan, who had showed himself a staunch adherent of the Go. 
veinment, was menaced with the destruction of his house and 
property. It is not very long since the late Mrs MacCulloch of 
Ardwell, daughter of provost Corsan, told your Grandfather 
(says Sir Walter Scott,) that she remembered well, when a 
child of six years old, being taken out of her father's house, as 
if it was to be instantly burnt. Too young to be sensible of the 
r, she asked the Highland officer, who held her in his 
arms, to shew her the Pretender, which the good-natured Gael 
did under condition that little Mist. Corsan was in future to call 
him the Prince. Neither did they carry their threats into 
execution against the provost or his mansion. Scott's Tales 
of a Grandfather. 


time, if they injured any of the stragglers, the 
hostages would be put to death. 1 

The Prince's army now marched to Glasgow, 
and afterwards obtained a victory at Falkirk. The 
news of this fresh defeat of the royal forces spread 
general consternation through all the south of Scot- 

The insurgents, however, did not derive much 
advantage from their victory, for they soon found 
themselves under the necessity of retreating to- 
wards the Highlands. The Duke of Cumberland 
followed their footsteps, and arrived at Perth oa 
the 26th of February. For the purpose of refresh- 
ing his troops after their long and fatiguing 
marches, and of gaining information respecting the 
novel kind of warfare in which he was engaged, 
the Duke despatched from this town Sir Andrew 
Agnew, with 500 of his own men and 100 of the 
Campbells, under his command, to take possession 
of the castle of Blair in Athole, and some other posts* 
A second party, under Lieutenant Leighton, was 
sent to castle Menzies, on the other side of Tay- 
Bridge. These garrisons were intended to prevent 
the Rebels from drawing reinforcements from the 
districts which more particularly favoured their 

In the meantime the Prince established his head 
quarters at Inverness; and here he commanded 
the various divisions to concentrate; whilst the 
Duke of Cumberland fixed his head quarters at 

Lord George Murray, a Rebel commander, now 
formed the design of surprising the posts in Athole. 

1 His-tory of the Rebellion. 


The detachment destined for this enterprise was 
commanded by Lord George himself, and consisted 
of 700 men. About twilight in the evening of the 
16th of March, they set out from Dalwhinnie, and 
reached Dalnaspiddel about midnight, where their 
leader addressed them in a speech of some length, in 
which he explained to them the nature of the service 
they would be called upon to perform. Under 
the cover of darkness, he informed them, they were 
simultaneously to surprise and annihilate all the 
military posts in Athole, whether composed of 
regular soldiers, or the Campbells of Argyle. They 
were then divided into a number of small parties, 
corresponding to the number of stations to be at- 
tacked, and received instructions to re-assemble at 
the bridge of Bruar, within two miles of the castle 
of Blair before day break. The parties set out 
with great spirit and eagerness in an expedition 
which had for its object the relief of their country 
from military occupation and foreign rapacity. 

Lord George, Macpherson of Cluny, and a few 
elderly gentlemen, attended only by twenty-five 
men, proceeded to the bridge in order to await the 
return of the detachments. Befoie day-break, thirty 
posts were carried. At Lude, — occupied by a party 
of the 21st regiment, or Scots Fusileers, of which 
Sir Andrew Agnew was lieutenant colonel — the sen- 
tinel being killed the rest were made prisoners. But 
a' Blair Inn, where the officers lodged, the resist- 
ance was more vigorous, determined, and success- 
ful ; for the whole of those undaunted gentlemen ef- 
fected their retreat to Blair Castle. Upon their ar- 
rival, Sir Andrew Agnew ordered the garrison in- 
stantly to arm, and left the fort that he might 
surprise the assailants. Early in the morning be- 

4,22" HISTORY 

fore any of the parties had arrived, a Highlander 
from the town of Blair hastened to the bridge of 
Bruar, and gave information of Sir Andrew's ap- 
proach. Though Lord George and Cluny wore 
accompanied I y very few men, yet they had with 
them all the colours and pipers belonging to the ab- 
sent parties. Lord George had but a moment for 
reflection. " If I quit my post" said his Lordship, 
"all the detachments I have sent out will, as they 
arrive, fall into the hands of the enemy," Haviinr 
'jL anxiously looked around, he observed an unfinished 
turf dyke of some length, intended as a fence, which 
intersected, or ran along a field near the bridge. — ■ 
He instantly placed his companions behind it at 
some distance from each other, to render their ap- 
pearance more formidable. Fie also stationed the 
colours in the centre, and ordered the pipers to 
commence their martial music the moment they 
saw the royalists approach on the road from Blair. 
Just as the sun bpgan to appear above the ho- 
rizon, Sir Andrew, with his regiment, came in 
sight. At this instant they were saluted by one loud 
blast of the bagpipes; whilst the Highlanders drew 
their swords and waved them above their heads, 
as if in the act of giving orders. Sir Andrew, 
who was near sighted, being deceived by this false 
display, wheeled his men about and returned t® the 

Soon after this occurrence, the victorious parties 
arrived with 300 prisoners. Encouraged by this suc- 
cess, Lord George followed his opponents, and sud- 
denly invested the castle of Blair. It was an ir- 
iegular building of great size and strength; for 
its walls were seven feet thick ; and it had long 
been used as the principal mansion of the noble 


family of Athole. But as Agnew did not antici- 
pate a siege, it was ill supplied with provisions, 
having little else than cheese and bread for the use 
of the men, and a small quantity of food for the horses. 
Within the house was a well which supplied the in- 
mates with water. Their whole ammunition a- 
mounted to only sixteen rounds of ball cartridges 
for each soldier. The Governor, however, was a 
man of the most determined courage, and used every 
precaution to defend the place to the last extremity. 
The garrison were placed under proper officers in 
the different apartments, and received instructions 
to be sparing of their shot, except in cases of actual 
necessity. Their daily allowance consisted of a 
pound of biscuit, a quarter of a pound of cheese, 
and a bottle of water for each man. 

On the morning following the commencement 
of the siege, Lord George, who knew the Gover- 
nor's irritable temper, jocularly sent him a written 
summons by a handsome Highland girl, to surren- 
der the castle. The young officers relished the 
joke, and prevailed upon a superannuated lieu- 
tenant, who did not feel his situation at all comfor- 
table, to hand it to the Governor. Sir Andrew, 
flew into a violent passion on hearing it read, 
and threatened to shoot any person who should 
bring a similar message. The girl, overhearing 
his furious language, was glad to get away, and 
to carry back the summons to her employers who 
were much diverted by her report. 

As Lord George possessed only two small pieces 
of artillery which did little damage, 1 and the site of 

1 " Lord George Murray," says Sir Walter Scott, " formed 
a close blockade ot the place, and tired with his Highland marks 
men upon all who showed themselves at 1^10 windows of the 


the castle was too rocky to be easily undermined, 
he had no hopes of reducing the place but by fa- 
mine. The Governor, however, was determined 
not to capitulate, but to force his way through the 
besiegers, and, if possible, gain the King's troops 
at Castle Menzics. 

Before making this desperate attempt Sir Andrew 
resolved to acquaint the Earl of Crawford, of his 
destitute situation. For this purpose he despatched 
Wilson, the Duke of Athole's gardener, to Dunkel 1. 
Wilson got out of the castle unperceivcil, but as he 
proceeded on horseback along the avenue that led 
to the high road, he was fired upon by the Rebels. 
Next day the soldiers observed a Highlander 

tower, or upon the battlements. And here, a3 in this motley 
world, that which is ridiculous is often intermixed with what is 
deeply serious, I may tell you an anecdote of a ludicrous nat ire. 
" Sir Andrew Agnew, famous in Scottish tradition, was a 
soldier of the old military school, severe in discipline, stiff and 
formal iu mannets, brave to the last degree, but somewhat of aa 
humourist, upon whom his young officers were occasionally 
templed to play tricks, not entirely consistent with the respect 
due to then commandant. At the siege of Blair, some of the 
young wags had obtained an old uniform coat of the excellent 
Sir Andrew, which having stuffed with straw, they placed in a 
small window of a turret, with a spy glass in the hand,, as if in 
the act of reconnoitring the besiegers. This apparition did not 
escape the hawk's eyes of the Highlanders, who continued to 
pour their fire upon the turret window without producing any 
adequate effect. The best deerstalkers of Athole and B.iden. 
och persevered, nevertheless, and wasted, as will easily he bejiev. 
ed, their ammunition in vain on this impassible commander. — 
At length Sir Andrew himself became cutious to know what 
could possibly induce so constant a fire upon that particular 
point of the castle. He made some enquiry, and discovered the- 
trick which had been plavcd. His own head being as insensible 
to a jest of any kind as his peruke had proved to the balls of the 
Highlanders, he placed the contumacious wags under arrest, 
and threatened to proceed against them still more seriously ; 
and would certainly have done so, but by gor-d fortune for them, 
the blockade was raised after the garrison had suffered the ex- 
tremity of famine." Scott's History or Scotland. 


mounted on the horse which the messenger had 
rode, and it was concluded he had either been kill- 
ed or taken prisoner. Still, however, Sir Andrew 
entertained no thoughts of surrendering, though his 
prospects were by no means cheering. But, in this 
season of anxiety, the girl, previously mentioned, 
suddenly returned and brought the welcome intel- 
ligence that the Highlanders had departed for Dal- 
nacardoch and Badenoch. The Governor, how- 
ever, dreaded a stratagem, and would allow no 
relaxation of discipline, until the Earl of Crawford, 
arrived with some cavalry on the 2nd of April. 
The garrison being drawn out to receive his Lord- 
ship, their eccentric commander thus addressed 
him. " My Lord, I am glad to see you, but you 
have been very dilatory : we can give you nothing 
to eat." Lord Crawford then invited Sir Andrew, 
and his officers to dine with him in a summer- 
house which stood in the garden, where they made 
a hearty repast. They now learned that Wilson's 
horse had thrown him when the firing commenced, 
and that he had performed the journey on foot. — 

The Duke of Cumberland left Aberdeen on the 
8th of April, with the intention of moving to In- 
verness, near which town it was understood the 
Prince intended to make a stand. 

Charles having received unfavourable accounts 
from France, and finding his troops mutinous for 
want of pay, determined to risk an action. He 
accordingly drew out his men on a moor about 
five miles from Inverness, generally known by the 
name of Cuiloden, to which place it was near. On 
the night of the 14th, the Highlanders lay on their 
arms and were next day drawn up in order of battle 
with their front towards the east. Lord Elcho, 


was sent early in the morning to reconnoitre the 
royal army, which had encamped near the town of 
Nairne. His Lordship returned about noon, inti- 
mating that the Duke of Cumberland's troops had 
no appearance of designing 1 to move that day. 

On the morning' of the 16th, about eight o'clock, 
the Prince received unexpected information from a 
horse patrol, that the enemy was approaching, and 
not far off. The Highland officers endeavoured to 
collect their men, who had widely dispersed in search 
of provisions, and about two thousand of them were 
absent during the battle which ensued. Had they 
been at their post, the armies would have been 
nearly equal. Neither side appeared discouraged, 
though the Highlanders were much fatigued by 
their harassing and fruitless march during the pre- 
ceding night, that they might surprise the English 
in their camp. As the royal army approached, their 
artillery produced a destructive effect upon the 
Rebel ranks; but the King's forces suffered little 
from the artillery of the Rebels, which was ill 
served. The cannonading lasted for about an hour. 
The clans at length became impatient ; and, having 
thrown their muskets away, they rushed upon the 
enemy sword in hand. 13y the force of this fu- 
rious charge, they broke through the first line of the 
royal army, of which Sir Andrew Agnew's regi- 
ment composed a part ; but they were received by 
the second line with so destructive a fire, that the 
most of them shrunk back. The few that pressed 
forward were bayoneted by their antagonists. A 
complete victory was soon gained by the Duke of 
Cumberland, notwithstanding the Highland officers 
did every thing in their power to rally the disorder- 
ed clans. A part, however, of their second line 


marched off the field in regular order, with their 
pipes playing and colours displayed. The loss of 
the Rebels in this decisive battle was most severe, 
and many were cruelly slaughtered after the de- 

The Prince retreated from the field with a con- 
siderable body of horse, but he soon dismissed the 
greater part of them, and retained around his person 
only a few Irish officers, on whose fidelity he could 
place complete reliance. A reward of £30,000 
was offered for the seizure of his person. After 
wandering about in daily hazard of being taken, 
until the 20th of September, he embarked, alongst 
with about a hundred of his adherents, in two 
French frigates, and landed at Morlaix in Brittany, 
on the 29th of the same month. 1 Mr Maxwell, of 
Kirkconnel, had escaped to France, in the month 
of May. 

1 History of the Rebellion Aikman Scott Struthers 

Chambers, &c. 

Charles Edward visiter! Britain in I7C0. When George II., 
heard of the circumstance he said to Loid Holderness, secretary 
of state, " We shall do nothing to him: when he is weary of 
England he will go abroad." He came over again in 1760, to 
witness the coronation of George III., but he excited no atten- 
tion. In 17S4, he became seriously indisposed and never re- 
covered his health : he died of apoplexy and palsy, at Rome, 
on the 31st of January, 1788, in the 68th year of his age. He 
left only one natural daughter. His brother, Cardinal Duke of 
York, the last of the unhappy dynasty of the Stewarts, exphed 
at Rome, in the month of June, 1807, having been allowed f'j; 
some years, by George 111., a yearly pension of j£4,0'jU 





An act was passed, in 1747, for abolishing, in 
Scotland, hereditary jurisdiction — the last remains 
of the feudal system. This statute appointed com- 
pensation to be given to the various proprietors of 
those judicial rights,! which from the impurity or 

! 1 The Court of Session was appointed to fix the sums which 

each of the claimants was to receive. The following were those 

received by the Galloway proprietors. 

" Cassilis, John Kennedy, 

Baillie of the bailliery of Cat rick, 

Baillie over the lands of Monkland of Melrose, 

Baillie of the bishop of Galloway's lands on the 

water of Cree, 
Baillie of the lordship or i-egality of Glenluce, 
Lord of the regality of Cross. Raguel in Carrick, 1,000 
Keeper of the castle of Lochloon, 

Reduced to ... £1,800. 

Nitkedale, William Maxwell. 
Lord of the regality of Terregles, 
Baillie over the lands of the abbacy of Holy wood, 

Do. monastery of Sweetheart, 

Do, do. Dundrennan, ... 

Do. do. Tungland, 

Do. provostry of Lincluden. 

Reduced to .., £523 4 1 





, 1,000 








£6, GOO 



partiality of decisions had long been the means of 
perverting justice, and sustaining oppression. The 
local administration of the law was now vested in 
Sheriff-Deputes, so called from their being deput- 
ed by the crown to discharge the judicial functions 
of the hereditary judges. Alexander Bos well, of 

Galloway, Alexander Stewart, 

Baillie cf regality of the priory of Whithorn, £3,000 

Steward of the Stewartry of Garlies, ... 2,000 
Bailliery and regality over the Islands of 

Barray, kc, iu Orkney, 1,000 



Reduced to ... L321 6 

Selkirk, Dunbar Hamilton. 
Baillie of the regality of Crawfurd John, ... L2.000 6 
Baillie of the baillery cf Crawfurd-Douglas, 1,500 


Stair, John Dalrymple„ 

Baillie of the lordship and regality of Glenluce, L2,000 

Baillie over the lands of Inch, &c 1,000 

Lord of regality over the temple lands of Philip. 

ston, ... 100 

Privilege of regality over the lands of Breastmill 100 

Reduced to ... L450 

Henrietta, Countess Dowager of Hopeton. 
Steward of the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, L5,000 

This claim was made with consent of (her 

father) the Marquis of Annandale, and #ts 

granted. L5,000 

Agnew, Andrew of Lochnaw, 

Sheriff of the shire of Wigtown, ... ... L5,000 

Baillie of the bailliery of Laswade, ... £1,000 

Constable of the castle of Lochnaw, ... 1,000 

Reduced to ... L4,000 



Auchinleck, was the first Sheriff- Depute cf Wig- 
townshire, after the passing of this salutary act. — 
For the discharge of the duties of his office, he re- 
ceived a yearly salary of £150: he afterwards rose 
to the bench, and took the title of Lord Aucliinleck. i 
The first Steward-Depute of the Stewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright, was Thomas Miller of Glenlce, advocate. 

Birnie, Bioomhill. 
Privilege of legality over his lands of Altnor- 

ness, in Kirkcudbright Stewartry, ... L400 


Conic. Keltonhill. 
33 k i 1 1 i c over his lam's of Keltonhill, &c, in 

Kirkcudbright Stewartry, from Nitbsdale, L100 


Goldie, Alexander, writer to the signet. 

Privilege of regality over his lands of Airdress, 

Lc, in Kirkcudbright Stewartry, ... LSI 1 


Hathorn, Castlewigg. 
B^illiery and justiciary over the baronage of 
Bushy, ..' ... Ll.OOO G 


Maxwell, Preston, his representatives. 
Privilege of regality over the barony of Preston; 

by progress from the family of Nithsdale, L.800 


Wilson, Kclton. 

Br.illicry over his lands of Kelton, &c, in Kiik. 

cudbrWht Stewartrw ... ... ... L2C0 

Rejected. • 

1 "Alexander Boswell of Auchinleck, eldest son of James 
11 of Auchinleck, advocate, and abeth limce, 

daughter of Alexander, second Eavl of Kincardine, was ad- 
mitted advocate 29th December 1 729. He was- appointed 
Sheriff-Depute of the county of Wigtown in tb< year 17-'?, 
but resigned that office in 17^0. On the resignation at 
David Erskiqe of Dun, he was elevated to the bench, and tork 
Lis seat 15th February 1754, as lord Auchinleck, and on the 
death of Hew Dalrymple of Dnrmmore, was also nominated a 
Lord of Justiciary, 22nd July the following year. He resigned 


His office in every respect was the same as that of 
the Sheriff-Deputes, and he received a similar sala- 
ry of £150. Mr Miller subsequently ascended 
to the top of his profession, having become Lord 
President of the* Court of Session in 1738. He 
left a baronetcy to his family, 1 and his son also 
rose to the bench as Lord Glenlee, and long dis- 
charged the duties of a judge, with honour to him- 
self and advantage to the public. 2 

the latter appointment in 1730, but retained the former till his 
death; which took place on the 25th August, 1782, in the 
seventy.sixth year of his age." College of Justice. 

Succeeding Sheriff-Deputes of Wigtownshire. 
Thomas Dundas, — A.Sp. Gordon, — John B. Maitland, — 
James Walker, the present Sheriff-Depute. 

1 -Sir Thomas Miller of Barskimming and Glenlee, Baronet, 
Lord President, second son of William Miller, writer to the 
signet, wa> born on the 3rd of November 17'7, and admitted 
advocate 21st February 1 74 2. He was constituted Steward 
Depute of Kirkcudbiight in 1743, and the same year elected 
joiTit principal clerk of the city of Glasgow. He resigned his 
office as sheriff in 1755, at which period he was named So. 
iicitor *f Excise. On the 17th March 1759, he succeeded 
Andiew Pringle of Alemore as Solicitor General ; on the 30th. 
of April, the following year, was appointed Lord Advocate in 
the room of Mr Dundasof Arnistou ; and in 1761 returned as 
member of Parliament for the burgh of Dumfries. On the 
death of Sir Gilbert Elliot of Minto, he was promoted to be 
Lord Justice Clerk, I4lh June 170G ' In these high stations,* 
says Mr Hume, (now Baron Hume) ' he fully justified the choice 
that had been made of him, arid soon, by his scrupulous attend- 
ance on the Court and assiduous labour in the dispatch of busi- 
ness gained a high place in the esteem and confidence of the 
public, as a man deeply impressed with the importance of his 
duties, and actuated jjy a warm and sieady zeal conscientiously 
to discharge them.' He received the farther honour of being 
d to the President's chair, on the deatli of Robert Dundas 
of Arniston, loth January 1783, and on the I9th February fol- 
lowing, ! a baronet; but lived to enjoy these dignities 
for a very short period, his death having occurred on the 27lh 
September I' College of Jo 

2 "Sir William Miller of Glenlee, Baronet, son of Sir Thomas 
Miller of Glenlee, Lord President, was admitted a member of 
the Faculty of Advocates on the 9th of August, 1777, and on 


The magistrates of royal burghs were allowed 
to possess, within the limits of their respective roy- 
alties, concurrent jurisdiction with the King's she- 
riffs. 1 The commissaries were also allowed to re- 
tain their authority. 

t!i of Alexander Mutiny of Hendeiland, was promoted to 
the bench, and took ihe scat which ho ttill occupies as Lord 
Glenlee, 23rd May 1795." College of JUSTICE. 

Sir William has lately resigned his high olHce. 

1 Stewarts of the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. 

" 1734. September 16lh. Commission by the most noble, 
the Maiquis of Annandale, &c , heritable Stewart of Kirkcud- 
bright, to John Henderson of I5roadholm, as Stewart Depute. 

October 8th. Commission by Mr Heudeisoir, to John 
Dalziel, Esq , as Stewart Substitute. 

1743, October 13. Commission by the Marquis of Annan. 
dale, to Sir James Johnston of Westerhall, a3 Stewait Depute. 

1744, January 19th. Commission by Sir James Johnston, 
to the said John Dalziel and John Goldie, of Craigmuie, con- 
junct Stewart Substitutes. 

1748, March 18th. His Majesty's Royal Sign Manual, no. 
mir.ates Mr Thomas Miller, Adyocate. Stewart Depute. 

1748, May 27th. The two last named Substitutes continued. 

1756, June 1 1th. Fiom this time, it may be stated, courts 
were held on Fridays only, instead of Tuesdays and Fiidays. 

1756, September 10th. His Majesty's Ro'yal Sign Manual 
nominating Mr David Ross, Advocate, Stewart Depute, in 
room and stead of Mr Miller resigned. 

1756, November 16th. The said John Da'ziel and John 
Goldie re-appointed Substitutes. 

17C4. Febiuary 23d. His Majesty's Royal Sign Manual, no. 
miuating the Honourable Alexander Gordon, Advocate, in 
room of Mi Ross.* 

•"Alexander Gordon of Rockville, third son of William, 
second Earl of Aberdeen, by Lady Anne Gordon, daughter of 
Alexander, secoi.d Diike of Gordon, was born about 1739, and 
admitted advocate 7th August 1759. lie was appointed Stew, 
aid Depute of Kirkcudbright in 1704, elevated to the bench on 
the death of David Dalrymple ofWesthall, and took his seat 
1st Juiv 1784, on which occassion he a Mimed the title of Lord 
Rockville, from an estate which he had purchased in the county 
of Haddington ' He adorned the bench (says Douglas) by the 
dignified manliness of his appeurance, and poMshed urbanity c4? 
Lis manners;' he died at Ed.'ab urgh 12th March 1792." 


Bands of lawless depredators called gipsies, or 
tinkers, still continued to infest the country, and 
harass the inhabitants by their insolence, their 
threats, and their robberies. The new Steward- 
Depute determined to put a stop to such disgrace- 
ful practices, and free the district from those 
dangerous vagrants. As an example to others of 
similar dishonest habits, he ordered three of a party, 
one man and two women, to be brought to trial on 

May 4th. Commission by the Honourable Mr Gordon, in 
favour of said John Dalziel, and Robert Nasmyth, Provost of 
Kirkcudbright, as Substitutes. 

1772, October 22nd Ditto by ditto, in favour of James 
Lawrie, of Bartisoul, as Stewart Substitute. 

1777, January, I. Ditto by ditto in favour of said William 
Lawrie, Collector of Customs. 

1784, June 7th. His Majesty's Royal Sign Manual nomi. 
nating Alexander Got don, Esn„ (afterwards Sir Alexander 
Gordon, Knight,) as Stewart Depute. 

1 780. March 10th. Commission by the Stewart Depute, in. 
favour of Walter Sloan Lawrie Cutlar, of Redcasth', as Stewart 

1 792, June 22nd. Ditto by ditto, in favour of James Gordon, 
student at law, his eldest son. 

1803, August 2. William Ireland, Writer — Provost of 
Kirkcudbright, — appointed Stewart Substitute. 

1830. November 9th. Alexander Wood, Esq., Advocate by 
His Majesty's Royal Si^n Manual, appointed Stewart Depute, 
who nominated th< j said William Ireland, his Substitute. 

1840, April 30th. Mr Ireland resigns his office of Stewart 
Substitute, and James Welsh. Esq., Advocate, is appointed 

* Soon after Mr Ireland's retirement from the office of 
Steward Substitute, which he had meritoriously filled for the 
long period of 37 years, the landed proprietors of the Stewartry, 
procurators before the Stewart Court, and other friends, as an 
expression of their approbation of his judicial services, and their 
high sense of his personal worth, presented to him a hand, 
some table service of plate, and a magnificent salver, bear. 
iti'_r a suitable inscription. On this occasion, John Herries 
MaxweU, Esq., of Munshes, addressed Mr Ireland in a speech, 
ahko judicious, complimentary, and eloquent, to which Mr 
Ireland made a feeling, modest, and an impressive reply., 


the 31st of May, 1750. The prisoners. Henry 
Greig, Margaret Stewart, and Anne Gibson I gave 
in on the clay of trial, by their procurator, Roger 
Martin, a petition to the Steward, acknowledg- 
ing some parts of the crimes charged against 
them in the indictment, and stating, " that, in order 
to save the court from farther trouble, they were 
willing to subject themselves to transportation to 

1 Anno Gibson is mentioned by one of the witnesses as the 
" daaghtei of William Marshall the Gipsy and robber, who had 
long harassed Gallon-ay. " 

" A correspondent, (says the editor of Blackwood's Mag. 
azioe,) " has lately sent us the following anecdote of Billy 
Marshall, derived as he informs us, from 'Black Matthew 
Marshall,' grandson of the said chieftain : — Marshall's gang- 
had long held possession of a large cove or cavern in the 
high grounds of Gaimsmuir in Galloway, where they usu- 
ally deposited their plunder and sometimes resided secure 
from the officers of the law, as no one durst venture to 
molest the tribe in that retired subterraneous situation. It 
1 appened that two Highland pipers, strangers to the country, 
were travelling that way; and falling in by chance with this 
cove, they entered it to shelter themselves fr< m the weather, 
and resolved to rest theie during the night. They found pretty 
goi d quarters, but observed some very suspicious furniture in 
the Cove, which indicated the profession and character of its 
absent inhabitants. They had not remained lontr till they were 
alarmed by the voices of a numerous band advancing to its en. 
trance. The pipers expected nothing but death from the ruth, 
less gypsies. One of them however, being a man of some 
presence of mind, called to his neighbour instantly to fill his bags 
(doing the same himself,) and to strike up a pibroch with all his ' 
might and main. Both pipes accordingly at once commenced a 
most tremendous onset, the cove with all its echoes pealing hack 
the ' Pibroch of Donuil Dhg' or such like. At this very un- 
expected and terrific reception, — the yelling of the bagpipes, 
issuing from the bowels of the earth, just at the moment the 
gypsies entered the cove, — Billy Marshall with all his band, 
precipitately fled in the greatest consternation, and from that 
night never again would go near their favourite haunt, believ~ 
ing that the blrst they had heard proceeded from the devil or 
some of his agents. The pipers next morning prosecuted their 
journey in safety, carrying with them the spolia optima of the 
redoubted Billy and the cktn Marshall." 


any of his Majesty's plantations, never to return." 
The petition having been openly read, the "pro- 
curator Fiscal (Mr Miller,) consented to the prayer 
of it " so far as concerned Margaret Stevvait and 
Anne Gibson. But so far as concerned Henry 
Greig, alias John Wilson, he refused his consent 
thereto ; looking upon it as inconsistent with his 
duty to enter into any compromise with so great a 

The judge having found " the libel relevant, pro- 
ceeded to name fifteen persons to pass upon the as- 
sise of the said Henry Greig, alias John Wilson. "I 

After the public prosecutor had concluded his- 
evidence, the jury retired, and next day returned 
a verdict unanimously finding the prisoner guilty 
of the crimes laid to his charge, namely * theft, 
robbery, and housebreaking.' " The Steward De- 
pute then decerned and adjudged the said Henry 
Greig, alias John Wilson, to be taken, upon Fri- 
day the sixth day of July next to come, from the 
tolbooth of Kirkcudbright to the ordinary place of 
execution of the said burgh, and there between the 
hours of two and four of the clock of the afternoon, 
to be hanged by the neck on a gibbet until he 
should be dead, and ordained all his moveable goods 
and gear to be escheat and inbrought to his ma- 
jesties use, which was pronounced for doom."2 


1 Patrick Heron, of Heron, — George Moore, ofCassencarry, 

Edward Cairns, of Girdstingwood, — Rodger Cutlar of Orraland, 

— John .M'Cullocii, Merchant, Kirkcudbright, — Hugh Alison, 

of Dunjop,— David Carrie, of Newlaw, — William Copland, of 

Gregory. — David Telfer, late provost of Kirkcudbright. 

Robert Carmont, merchant, Kirkcudbright, — John Freeland, 

Merchant in Kirkcudbright, Thomas Bean, of Auchenhay, 

Thomas Telfer, of Town head, — James M'Nish, merchant in 
Kirkcudbright. — Thomaa Kerr, mason, there. Crimihai 

Records for the Stewartry or Kirkcudbright, 

2 Criminal Records. 


Some difficulty subsequently existed, respecting 
the execution of the sentence. John Newall, styl- 
ed the " Common Whipper of the town and Stew- 
artry," at first refused to bang the culprit. 1 A 
question next arose whether it was the duty of the 
Magistrates of the burgh or the Steward of the 
Stewartry, to procure an executioner; but as the 
day on which the sentence was to be carried into 
effect drew near, the Town Council resolved to 
treat with the Magistrates of Dumfries for their 
executioner.'- 2 John Newall, however, was at last 

1 June 5th, 1 750. " The said day the Magistrates and 
Council recommend to baillie Freeland, with all possible dili. 
gence in his own prudent way, to cause apprehend the person 
of Jchn Newall, and to incarcerate him within the tolbooth of 
Kirkcudbright, there to remain till he be treated and agreed 
with by the Magistrates and Council, for pitting in execution 
the sentence of the Stewart Depute, against Henry Greig, 
tinker, and thereafter to continue therein till the execu'ion of 
said sentence he performed." Roger Martin, J. P. C. 

Town Council Records. 

2 •' Eo die; Baillie Martin, further represented to the court. 
cil, that by sentence of the Stewart of this Stewartry, the first 
of June current, Henry Greig, alias John Wilson, present pri. 
soner within this prison, is to be hanged till he he dead, at 
the ordinary place of execution, in this burgh, upon Friday, 
the 6th day of July next, and that John Newall, the com. 
mon whipper of this town and Stewartry, being imprisoned 
agreeable to last act of Council, refuses to act as executioner, 
theiefore desires the Council to concert on proper measures for 
getting an executioner, aud erecting a gibbe-t, which being con- 
sidered by the Council they arc at an uncertainty whether the 
town are by law or custom hound to find executioners for the 
Sheriff's sentence ; but the time of the execution drawing nigh 
which must nut be disappointed, therefore, the Magistrates and 
Council do hereby authorize and empower Mr John Freeland 
one of the Magistrates, to 20 to Dumfries sometime in next 
week, with his conveniency, and there to treat with the Magis- 
trates aud their executioner, to procure the executions coming 
up here in order to execute the sentence before mentioned, aud 
that upon such terms as he can a^iee with them, whereof and 
all his expences, he is to he relieved by the town of Kirkcud- 
bright ; but declaring alwise that this town finding an execu- 
tioner for the Sheriff's sentence, for this turn shall not be led 


induced to undertake the duty. The expense of 
the execution was defrayed by the Magistrates. — 
Greig behaved very penitently on the scaffold. 
Owing to the notoriety of his character, a vast 
multitude attended to witness the dismal spectacle, 
James Murray, Esquire, of Broughton, held the 
office of Provost of Kirkcudbright at this time. 

In 1756, a new war having broken out between 
England and France, M. Thurot, with three fri- 
gates, visited Carrickfergus in a hostile manner, on 
the 21st of February, 1760, and landed about 1,000 
men. The French forces soon gained possession 
of the castle and town of Carrickfergus by capitu- 
lation. But as the Magistrates did not furnish the 
necessary provisions to the French, they plundered 

into a precedent for the future, in case upon counsel had, it be 
found they aie neither bound by law or practice to find execu- 
tioners on such occasions. Roger Martin, J. P. C John 
Freeland." Town Council Records. 

"26th June. The said day John Newall, whipper, being 
called before the Council, he did and hereby does accept of the 
office of executioner far this town and county, of all corporal 
fnd capital punishments to be inflicted upon ciiminals by the 
Magistrates, Sheiiff, and Justices of the Peace, for which office 
the Magistrates and Council engage to pay him yearly hence- 
forth the sum of twenty pound Scots, besides finding him in a 
house and a yard rent free ;. and paiticn.aily, the said John 
Newall, becomes hereby bound to execute the Stewart Deputes 
sentence, upon Henry Greig, alias John Wilson, upon the 6th 
day of July next to come ; for which execution, besides the 
•alary aforesaid, the Magistrates and Council engage to pay him 
five pounds five shillings sterling, and the Magistrates and 
Council hereby declare, that the above salary, house and yard, 
with the five pounds five shillings, is by and attourany salary or 
ether encouragement he has from the Commissioners of the 
Land Tax for this Stewartry, or may hereafter be provided in by 
then), and ordains the Treasurer to pay him at the rate of four 
pence per day since he was incarcerate, till he be again set at. 
liberty. J.N. Roger Mai tin, J. P. C. 

John Freeland." 
Town Council Records.. 


the place. They also made a demand upon the 
town of Belfast, for fifty hogsheads of claret, thirty 
pipes of brandy, twenty-five tons of bread, and two 
tons of onions. The principal inhabitants endea- 
voured to furnish the materials as fast as they could 
be procured ; but out of ten carts that were sent 
from Belfast, only two arrived in safety, the rest 
being seized by the militia. The enemy, however, 
obtained considerable booty at Carrickfergus. Be- 
fore Thurot sailed, he captured a brig which was 
coming into the harbour out of which he took fifty 
hogsheads of su^ar. The French Commodore 
having been so successful in Ireland, intended, as 
lias been surmised, to pay a visit to Whitehaven, 
Liverpool, and some other towns on the English 
coast. He was, however, disappointed in his de- 
sign of conquest, for three English ships under tie 
command of Captain Elliot, brought him to action 
not far from the coast of Galloway, and captured 
the whole of the French vessels. 1 A great num- 

1 Wo insert Captain Elliot's letter to Mr Clevland, dated the 
29th Februaiy, 1700. at Ramsay Bay. 

•' to acquaint llie light honourable my lords commis. 
sioi.cis of the Admiralty, that on the 24th instant I received in. 
formation at Kiusale, fiom his grace the Lord Lieutenant of ire- 
land, that there were three ships of the enemy's at Carrickfergus. 
The same morning I sailed with his majesty's mder 

my command, togethei with the Pallas and Brilliant, in quest of 
them. I made the entrance of Carrickfergus, on the evening 
ot the 26th, hut could nor get i", the win 1 being contraiy, and 
very bad weather. On t',.<> 28lh =.t four in the morning we got 
si^-lit of them, and gavi < . About 1 got -\> alo 

Isle of Man) and in a few minutes 
after, the action became general, and lasted about an hour and 
wben they ;.i! three stiuck their colours. They are, the 
Marshal Bellisle'ol 4 i guns, and 545 men, M. Thurot, command. 
er, who is killed : the La Blonde o! 32 guns and 400 men, com- 
manded by captain La Kayce; and the Terpsichoi 
and 300 men, commanded hy captain Desrauaudais. 1 put in- 
to this road to repair the ships, which are all much disabled hi 


ber of the inhabitants of the district witnessed the 
engagement from the shore. The report of the 
guns was heard at a considerable distance ; and, in 
some places along the coast, preparations were made 
to prevent the landing of the enemy. Many dead 
bodies for some days after the action, were cast 
upon the coast. ! 

thnir masts at <1 rigging, the Marshal Bellisle in particular, which 
lost her boltsprit, mizen roast, and main yaid, in the action; 
and it was with great difficulty we prevented her sinking 

It is with the irreatest pleasure I acquaint their lordships, that 
the officers and men of his majesty's ships behaved remarkably 
well on this occasion. 

I shall use the greatest despatch in getting the ships refittfd 
•;rpose returning to Plymouth, or some other port in 
nd as scon as possible, if I do not receive their loidship's 
directions before the ships are got ready. 

Inclosed is an account of the killed and wounded on board his 
Majesty's ships. 

I am, &c. 

John Elliot. 
In his majesty's ships killed and wounded, 

iEc.lus 4 15 

Pallas 1 5 

Brilliant : 11 

N. B, I find it impossible to ascertain the number of the 
enemy killed and wounded ; but by the best accounts I can get, 
they amount to about 300. 

house of commons of Ireland, being informed of this hap. 
int. voted that the thanks of that house be given to the 
captains Elliot. Clements, and Logie, for the great service they 
bad done the nation by their biaveiy on this occasion. They 
were likewise presented by the mayor, sheriffs, and common 
il of the city of Coik, with the freedom of that city in 
siivei boxes 

Imperial London Magazine for March, 17^0. 
1 We have again to acknowledge our obligation to Mr Train 
for the following interesting 1< I 

" Though the engagement in which Commodore Thurot losfc 
his life en 28th F< bi ■ ry, I "CO. has been described by histori- 
ans, and though tiny ; '■[ : urn' that lie fell early in the action, 
none of * hem seem to have b( en aware of Ms corpse having been 
' lalloway, and that he was buried in 
the <.ld Kirk. yard of Kirkmaiden, — a small neglected cemetery 
near the village of Monreith, 


During the spring of 1778, the coast of Gallo- 
way was again hostily visited by the celebrated sea 
captain, Paul Jones, a native of Kirk bean, in the 
Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. lie was the young- 

I have conversed with old people who hehcM the action he. 
tween Elliot and Thurot, and who confirmed the following par- 
ticulars communicated to me by the Reverend James Black, 
late Minister of the parish of Fenninghame, who himself wit- 
nessed the engagement from a cliff overhanging the sea, and 
who followed Thurot's coipse to the grave. 

The French ships were at anchor near the offing at the en- 
trance of the bay of Luce, when Elliots squadron bore down and 
attempted to embay them. But the French commander instant- 
ly weighed anchor and stood out to sea in the direction of the 
Isle of Man. Ere he had sailed a league from the Scottish 
coast, however, he was overtaken by the English Squadron, 
when a brisk running fire commenced which was maintained on 
both sides with great spirit for a considerable time ; the French 
commander at length struck his colours and both squadrons bore 
away towards the Isle of Man. 

Every consecutive tide for several days after the battle cast a 
number of corpses ashore between the point of Eagerness and 
the Burrow .Head. Anion" the last thrown up by the influx of 
the sea, was that of the French Commodoie, whose remains 
were easily distinguished from the others by the silk velvet 
carpet in which lie was sewed up. Some historians say he was 
thrown overboard by mistake ; but from the circumstance of his 
having been thus sewed up in his cabin carpet I think that un- 
likely. It appeared that he had been dressed in his full uniform 
when the engagement commenced, as his remains weie decked 
with all the insigna of his rank as a naval officer. He was iden, 
tifted most particularly by the letters on his linen and by a 
silver tobacco box with his name in full engraved on the lid. 

The body of this gallant young seaman was removed from 
the beach to the house of a lespectable person in the vicinity, 
who acting under the direction of Sir William Maxwell of Mon- 
reith, the lord of the manor, invited all the yeomen in the 
neighbouihnnd to the funeral of this distinguished individual, 
and Sir William performed the part of chief mourner himself 
by laying his head in the grave. 

The carpet in which the remains of Thuiot were inclosed 
was for a long time kept at Monreith House, and my informant 
supposed it to be their still. The tobacco box was presented 
by Sir william Maxwell to the victorious Elliot, in whose 
family perhaps it is yet an heir loom Thurot'3 watch fell 
iota the hands of one of Sir William's domestics, and was lately 


est surviving son of John Paul, gardener to Mr 
Craik, of Arbigland, and of Jean M'Duff, daugh- 
ter of a small farmer in the parish of New- Abbey. 
His eldest brother, William, who appears to have 
been a man of enterprise and ability, went abroad 
when young, and settled in Virginia. 

John Paul's residence near the Solway, seems 
early to have inspired his son with a strong predilec- 
tion for a sea life. According to the traditions of 
his family, the boy was often seen when a #ere 
child, launching his miniature boat, and issuing his 
commands to his imaginary crew, with dignity and 

As the maritime profession was his decided 

in the possession of a person in Castle Douglas. 

How these circumstances so honourable to Sir William Max. 
well, and so interesting to the historian, as filling up a blank in 
the history of that period, did not find their way into the public 
Journals of the day, is a question which I rm unable to solve.— 
It is true that the farmers in that 1 emote quarter of Galloway 
had theu little intercourse beyond the boundary of their own 
small district ; even Sir William Maxwell dees not seem to 
have taken such an enlarged view of the subject as might have 
been expected. He defrayed :ertainly the funeral charges, but 
there is no monumental stone to point out the spot where the 
remains of the brave Thurot are laid, 

On visiting the Old Kirk-yard of Kirkmaiden a few years ago, 
I could not find any person who could pomt out Thurot's grave, 
except one old man who came for that purpose from some dis- 
tance, and I thought even he acted with uncertainty. It mov- 
ed me much when I reflected, that he whoso name struck terror 
into all the seaports of Great Britai Ian I, whose defeat 

was celebrated with all the rejoicings that could be manifested 
fer the most important vie ory, and whose name will go 
to posterity with the re] i :pid ior, should 

thus be laid in a remote cornei ol the island \ threatened 

to lay waste, without the spot bei where his 

remains have crumbled to dus 

According to the Sen', >, Thurot 

was only twenty-seven \ size, weH 

, had lively bl id was hu- 

mane, frank, and affable." 



choice, his parents sent him, at the age of twelve, 
to be bound as an apprentice to Mr Younger, of 
Whitehaven. In this respectable gentleman, who 
was engaged in the American trade, he found a 
kind and an attentive master. 

Young Paul's education, at the parish school of 
Kirkbean, terminated with his first departure from 
his paternal roof; but he had the good sense and 
ambition to devote a portion of his time to private 
fctucW; and he always eagerly seized every favour- 
able opportunity for cultivating his understanding 
p.nd encreasing his professional acquirements. Hid 
first voyage was made to America, in the Friendship 
of Whitehaven. Whilst the vessel remained in 
port, the young sailor resided in the house of his bro- 
ther, William, and studied navigation, with some 
other branches of maritime knowledge. By his 
excellent conduct and surpassing intelligence, 
lie soon gained the esteem and confidence of 
his master, who promised to exert his influence 
and interest in promoting young Paul's advance- 
ment. Mr Younger's affairs, however, became 
embarrassed, aiid he was rendered unable to per- 
form his promise ; but he did all in his power for 
his youthful apprentice, by giving up his inden- 
tures, and recommending him as a valuable and 
promising young man. Paul, though still but a 
boy, next obtained the situation of third mate of the 
King George of Whitehaven, engaged in the 
slave trade. In 1763, though only nineteen, he 
was appointed chief mate of the brig Two Friends, 
a vessel engaged in the same abominable traffic. — 
He became at length disgusted with the enormi- 
ties of this diabolical trade and abandoned it. He 
r.ow took a passage home on board the John of 


Kirkcudbright, Captain Macadam, commander. — ■ 
On this voyage, both the master and mate died 
of fever; and, as there was no one on board 
capable of navigating the vessel, he assumed the 
command and brought her safe to Kirkcudbright, 
— her destined harbour. As a reward for his 
valuable services, Currie, Beck, and Company, 
the owners, appointed him master and super- 
cargo. Whilst in this vessel, he was acci#ed 
of punishing Mungo Maxwell, the carpenter, so 
severely, that he died soon after : he was conse- 
quently committed to the jail of Kirkcudbright. 
This calumny, however, was clearly refuted by 
the most satisfactory affidavits, 1 Maxwell having 
died of fever. The firm, was soon dissolved, and 
the vessel sold. 2 

1 " James Eastment, mariner, and late master of the Barco. 
lona packet, maketh oath, and saith, That Mungo Maxwell, car- 
penter, formerly on board the John, Captain John Paul, master, 
came in good health on boaid his, this deponent's said vessel, - 
then lying in Great Rockley Bay, in the island of Tobago, a, 
bout the middle of the month of June, in the year one thousand- 
seven hundred and seventy, in the capacity of a carpenter, afore- 
said ; that he acted as such in every respect in perfect health 
for some days alter he came on board this deponent's said vessel, 
the Barcelona packet ; after which he was taken ill of a fever 
and lowi^s of spirits, which continued for four or five days, 
when he died on board the said vessel, during her passage from 
Tobago to Antigua, And this deponent further saith, that he 
never heard the said Mungo Maxwell complain of having re- 
ceived any ill usage from the said Captain John Paul ; but that 
he, this deponent, verily believes the said Mungo Maxwell's 
death was occasioned by a fever and lowness of spirits, as a. 
foresaid, and not by or through any other cause or causes what- 
soever. " James Eastment, 
" Sworn at the Mansion* House, London, 

th;s 30th of January, IJ73, before me, 
James Townsend, Mayor." 

2 The following certificate shows that he gave perfect satis- 
faction to his employers whilst he sailed out of tho port of 


Not long after this period, John Paul obtained 
the command of the Betsy of London, a West 
India ship; and, having engaged in commercial spe- 
culation, he remained Cor some time amongst the 
islands. In 1773, he repaired to Virginia, for the 
purpose of arranging the affairs of his brother, 
William, who had died intestate, and without a 
family. About this time he assumed the name of 

i he American Revolution called him from his 
retirement. He was now twenty eight years of 
age, vigorous, active, and ambitious. The cause 
of the colonies appeared to him the cause of jus- 
tice, freedom, and humanity. 

Under the united influence of many powerful 
motives, Paul Jones entered the American ser- 
vice. Though he had not been educated for na- 
val command in ships of war, he had often sail- 
ed in armed vessels, and had received an excellent 
training as a practical seaman ; his services were, 
therefore, eagerly accepted !>y the young republic 
of America. From this date he owned no other 

In organizing their infant navy, Congress ap- 
pointed three classes of lieutenants, and Jones was 
placed at the head of the first class. His first 
commission was dated the 7th of December, 1775. 
He was assigned to the Alfred ; and, on board 

" These do certify to whom it may concern, that the bearer 
Captain John Pai I, i of a vessel railed 

the John, in our employ in '■ during winch 

time he approved liimseJ » as i naviga- 

tor and supercargo ; but ;.s our ; m is Ived, the 

vessel was sold, and ofc our employ, all ac. 

counts between him and Iv adjusted, — 

Certified at Kirkcudbright this 1 771. 

" CjnaiE, Beck, & Co," 


of that vessel he hoisted with his own hand the 
starry flag of America, being the first time it was 
displayed — a flag which he afterwards bravely de- 
fended in many seas. J 

On the 9th of May, 1777, Jones was ordered by 
Congress to proceed to France, having in his pos- 
session an order to the American Commissioners 
at Paris, to invest him with the command of a 
fine ship, as a reward of his zeal, and the signal 
eervices he had performed in vessels of little force. 2 
Jones now sailed for Europe in high spirits, in 
command of the Ranger of 18 guns, and captured 
two brigs on the voyage, with valuable cargoes 
of fruit and wine. 

On the 10th of April, 1778, Captain Jones 
sailed from Brest, on that cruise which afterwards 
became so celebrated from its reckless daring. — 
We shall give part of the account in his own words. 

" I sailed from Brest the 10th of April ; my 
plan was extensive, I therefore did not at the bej 

1 Memoirs of Paul Jones, in two volumes, &c. 

2 The intelligence was convoyed to Mr Jones, in the follow- 
ing letter. 

In Marine Committee. 

" Philadelphia, May 9th, 1777. 
•' John Paul Jones, Esq. 
" Sin, 

" Congress have thought proper to authorise the Secret 
Committee to employ you on a voyage in the Amphitrite, from 
Portsmouth to Carolina and France, where it is expected you 
will be provided with a frigate ; and as your present commission 
is for the command of a particular ship, we now send you a new 
one, whereby you are appointed a captain in our navy, aud of 
course may command any ship in the service to which you are 
particularly ordered. You are to obey the orders of the Setiefc 
Committee, and we are, Sir, &c. 

(Signed) " John Hancock. 

" Rob. Morius, 
*' Wm. Whipple." 


ginning wish to encumber myself with prisoners. 
On the 14th I took a Brigantine between Scilly 
and Cape Clour, bound for Ostend, with a cargo 
of flax-seed for Ireland — sunk her and proceeded 
into St George's Channel. 

" On the 17th I took the Ship Lord Chatham, 
bound from London to Dublin, with a cargo con- 
sisting of porter, and a variety of merchandise. — 
and almost within sight of her porl : this ship I 
manned and ordered for Brest. 

" Towards the evening of the day following 
the weather had a promising appearance, and, 
the wind being favourable, I stood over from the 
Isle of Man with an intention to make a descent 
at Whitehaven ; at ten I was off the harbour with 
a party of volunteers, and had every thing in 
readiness to land ; but before eleven the wind 
greatly increased and shifted, so as to blow directly 
upon the shore ; the sea increased of course, and 
it became impossible to effect a landing. This o- 
bliged me to carryall possible sail so as to clear the 
land, and to await a more favourable opportunity. 

" On the 18th in Glentinebay, [probably Glen- 
lucebay.] on the south coast of Scotland, I met 
with a revenue wherry ; it being the common prac- 
tice of these vessels to board merchant ships, the 
Hanger then having no external appearance of 
war, it was expected that this rover would have 
come alongside : 1 was however, mistaken, for 
though the men were at their quarters, yet this 
vessel out-sailed the Ranger, and got clear in spite 
of a severe cannonade. 

" The next morning, off the Mull of Galloway, 
I found myself so near a Scotch coasting schooner, 
loaded with barley, that I could not avoid sinking 


her. Understanding that there were ten or twelve 
sail of merchant ships, besides a Tender brigan- 
tine, with a number of impressed men on board, 
at anchor in Lochryan, in Scotland, I thought this 
an enterprise worthy my attention ; but the wind, 
which at the first would have served equally well 
to have sailed in or out of the Loch, shifted in a 
hard squall, so as to blow almost directly in, with 
an appearance of bad weather. I was therefore 
obliged to abandon my project. 

" Seeing a cutter off the lee-bow steering for 
the Clyde, I gave chase, in hopes of cutting her 
off; but finding my endeavours ineffectual, I pur- 
sued no farther than the rock of Ailsa. In the 
evening I fell in with a sloop from Dublin, which 
I sunk, to prevent intelligence. 

" The next day, the 21st, being near Carrick- 
fergus, a fishing boat came off, which I detained. 
I saw a ship at anchor in the road, which I was 
informed by the fishermen was the British ship-of 
war Drake, of twenty guns. I determined to 
attack her in the night ; my plan was to overlay 
her cable, and to fall upon her bow, so as to have 
all her decks open and exposed to our m usque try, 
&c; at the same time, it was my intention to have 
secured the enemy by grapplings, so that, had 
they cut their cables, they would not thereby 
have attained an advantage. The wind was high, 
and unfortunately the anchor was not let go so 
soon as the order was given, so that the Ranger 
was brought to upon the enemy's quarter at the 
distance of half a cable's length. We had made 
no warlike appearance, of course had given no 
alarm : this detei mined me to cut immediately, 
which might appear as if the cable had parted, and 


at the same time enable me, after making a tack 
out of the Loch, to return with the same prospect 
of advantage, which I had at the first. I was 
however, prevented from returning, as I with dif- 
ficulty weathered the light house on the lee side 
of the Loch, and as the gale increased. The 
weather now became so very stormy and severe, 
and the sea ran so high, that I was obliged to take 
shelter under the south shore of Scotland. 

" The 22nd introduced fair weather, though 
the three kingdoms were as far as the eye could 
reach covered with snow. I now resolved once 
more to attempt Whitehaven ; but the wind be- 
came very light, so that the ship would not in 
proper time approach so near as I had intended. 
At midnight I left the ship with two boats, and 
thirty one volunteers, when we reached the outer 
pier, the day began to dawn ; I would not however 
abandon my enterpri-e, but despatched one boat 
under the direction of Mr Hill and Lieutenant 
Wallingsford, with the necessary combustibles to 
set fire to the shipping in the north side of the 
harbour, while I went with the other party, to 
attempt the south side. I was successful in scal- 
ing the walls and spiking up all the cannon on 
the first fort ; finding the sentinels shut up in the 
guard house, they were secured without being 
hurt. Having fixed sentinels, I now took with 
me one man only, (Mr Green,) and spiked up all 
the cannon on the southern fort, distant from the 
other a quarter of a mile. 

" On my return from this business, I naturally 
expected to see the fire of the ships on the north 
side, as well as to find my own party with every 
thing in readiness to set fire to the shipping on 


the south ; instead of this, I found the boat under 
the direction of Mr Hill and Mr Wallingsford re- 
turned, and the party in some confusion, their 
light having burnt out at the instant when it be- 
came necessary, 

" By the strangest fatality my own party were 
in the same situation, the candles being all burnt 
out. The day too came on apace, yet I would by 
no means retreat while any hopes of success re- 
mained Having again placed sentinels, a light 
was obtained at a house disjoined from the town, 
and fire was kindled in the steerage of a large ship, 
which was surrounded by at least an hundred 
and fifty others, chiefly from two to four hundred 
tons burthen, and lying side by side, aground, un- 
surrounded by the water. 

" There were, besides, from seventy to an 
hundred large ships, in the north arm of the har- 
bour, aground, clear of the water, and divided 
from the rest only by a stone pier of a ship's height 
I should have kindled fires in other places if the 
time had permitted ; as it did not, our care was 
to prevent the one kindled from being easily ex- 
languished. After some search, a barrel of tac 
was found, and poured into the flames, which now 
ascended, from all the hatchways. The inhabi- 
tants began to appear in thousands, and individu- 
als ran hastily towards us. I stood between them 
and the ship on fire, with a pistol in my hand, and 
ordered them to retire, which they did with pre- 
cipitation. The flames had already caught the 
rigging, and began to ascend the main-mast; the 
sun was a full hour's march above the horizon, 
and as sleep no longer ruled the world, it was time 
to retire- »V\ e re-embarked without opposition, 


having released a number of prisoners, as our 
boats could not carry them. After all my people 
had embarked, I stood upon the pier for a consid- 
erable space, yet no person advanced ; I saw all 
the eminences round the town covered with the 
amazed inhabitants. 

" When we had rowed to a considerable dis- 
tance from the shore, the English began to run in 
vast numbers to their forts ; their disappointment 
may easily be imagined when they found, I sup- 
pose at least thirty heavy cannon (the instruments 
of their vengeance) rendered useless. At length 
however, they began to fire, having as I apprehend, 
either brought down ship's guns, or used one or 
two cannon that lay on the beach at the foot of 
the walls dismounted, and which had not been 
spiked. They fired with no direction, and the 
shot falling short of the boats, instead of doing us 
any damage, afforded some diversion, which my 
people could not help showing, by discharging 
their pistols, &c. in return of the salute. 

" Had it been possible to have landed a few 
hours sooner, success would have been complete; 
not a single ship out of more than two hundred 
could possibly have escaped, and all the world 
would not have been able to St!ve the town; what 
was done, however, is sufficient to show that not 
all their boasted navy can protect their own coasts, 
and that the scenes of distress which they have 
occasioned in America may soon be brought home 
to their own doors. One of my people was missing, 
and must, I fear, have fallen into the enemy's 
hands, after our departure. I was pleased that in 
this business we neither killed nor wounded. I 
brought off three prisoners as a sample." 


After the attack on Whitehaven, the Ranger 
sailed across the Solway Frith, and anchored at 
the moutli of the Dee, about five miles from the 
town of Kirkcudbright. Having selected a party 
of his crew, to the number of fifteen, with his two 
lieutenants, Simpson and Wallingsford, Paul Jones 
immediately proceeded in the long boat to St. 
Mary's Isle, the seat of the Earl of Selkirk. — 
Upon their landing, two men were left in charge 
of the boat, and the rest of the party, well armed, 
set out without delay for Lord Selkirk's mansion. 
After leaving the beach, they came to some labour- 
ers, of whom they inquired if the Earl was at 
home; but, being answered in the negative, Jones 
gave orders that his men were immediately to re- 
turn to the boat. Observing, however, in their 
looks, some dissatisfaction, after a few words be- 
tween himself and his officers, he commanded the 
party to repair to Lord Selkirk's house and de- 
mand the silver plate ; he then returned to the 
shore. On their way, the party met with two female 
servants, who confirmed the previous information 
respecting his Lordship's absence. When the 
party reached the house, they surrounded it on all 
sides to prevent communication, and two men 
were detained as prisoners in the vicinity of 
the building. Lieutenant Simpson then inquired 
for the Countess of Selkirk, and was shown into 
the parlour, Wallingsford remained at the outer 
door. The Countess was still in the drawing 
room where she had breakfasted with her family. 
Simpson, who considered her Ladyship as dilatory 
in coming down, desired one of the servants to 
inform her, that he had business of peculiar im , 
portance immediately to transact, and was de- 


sirous instantly to see her ; she then made her 
appearance. Her Ladyship supposing him to be 
connected with some press-gang, said, " She was 
sorry he intended to take away her men-servants 
as she had but few of them." He informed her, 
however, that he wished to see the Earl of Selkirk, 
but as he understood his Lordship was in England, 
he had been ordered by his commanding officer, 
Captain Jones, to demand her silver plate. Lady 
Selkirk replied, that his request should be complied 
with. For the purpose of intimidation, Simpson 
represented to the Countess, in the blackest co- 
lours, the damage which his men had done at 
Whitehaven, a few hours before. Feeling herself 
somewhat overcome by the danger of her situation, 
Lady Selkirk called for a glass of water, and 
anxiously inquired of the officer, if any thing was in 
tended against herself; but he assured her that she 
should receive no personal injury. She then desir- 
ed her footman to hand to Lieutenant Simpson the 
inventory of the plate. When this officer, accom- 
panied by the Countess and another lady, proceed- 
ed to the pantry, where it was kept, he glanced over 
the paper, and although there were several articles 
mentioned in it, which were not presented to him, 
he took no notice of the omissions, and only asked 
for the silver teapot, which, when brought, being 
rather small and old fashioned, did not seem to 
meet his expectations. Aliss Elliot, at that time, 
on a visit to St. Mary's Isle, jocularly remarked, 
that there were plenty of china ones in the house. 
Simpson, however, became irritated and said, — 
" None of your go-hys, madam, the house, together 
with all that is in it, was lately in your possession, 
but remember it is now in mine." 


The table spoons once belonged to the Honour- 
able Basil Hamilton, father-in-law to the Coun- 
tess; and her Ladyship earnestly entreated the 
Lieutenant to return her one of them, which 
she might retain as a memorial of her departed 
friend. This modest request was not complied 
with. The plate was now put into linen bags and 
consigned to the charge of two men who stood as 
sentinels at the south door. 1 The Countess then 
solicited the lieutenant to give her a receipt for 
the articles he had obtained ; but he replied, " It 
was not necessary." Before their departure she 
asked the officers, (for Wallingsford had previously 
entered the house,) if they would take a glass of 
wine. After expressing their thanks, they re- 
spectfully drank her Ladyship's health. The men 
also received wine; but, as they did not wish 
to consume time, they carried it away in the 
bottles, saying, " Sailors seldom drink out of 
glasses." One of the servants inquired if they 
were going to Kirkcudbright; Simpson, who was 
coming out of the house, replied, " Yes, we shall 
speedily reduce it to ashes." The party, however, 
lost no time in regaining their boat, and were soon 
out of the reach of danger. This daring robbery, 
committed in the face of day, and within one mile 
of the county town, did not occupy above three 

] Mr Robert Malcolmson, Kirkcudbright, to whose MS, ac 
count of this transaction we are indebted for much of the pre- 
ceding curious and accurate information respecting this visit to 
St. Mary's Isle, says " The plate, besides, being inconsiderable 
in quantity, was very old. All the new and more valuable hap. • 
pened to be in Edinburgh." Mr Malcolmson has devoted much, 
time and attention in collecting minute and valuable facts, con- 
cerning that affair ; but we are sorry our limits will not allow 
us to bo more particular in our narration. 
vol. 11. Nn 

,■£54 HISTORY 

quarters of an hour in the execution. In this en- 
terprise much moderation was certainly displayed ; 
for none of the patry entered the house except the 
two officers, and although each of the ladies had a 
gold watch, no hint was given that such articles 
would be acceptable : the injunctions of the com- 
mander seem to have been strictly obeyed. I 

During this trying scene, the amiable Countess 
of Selkirk displayed much firmness and dignity. 
Instead of shunning danger, she never quitted the 
spoilers whilst they remained within her walls; 
and, after their departure, she followed them at a 
little distance till she saw them leave the shore. — 
Her Ladyship, it has been said, was anxious to 
have a personal interview with Captain Jones him- 
self, that she might learn from his own lips the 
motives which had prompted the commission of so 
strange a robbery. 

In the afternoon, the Countess paid a visit to a 
friend's house in Kirkcudbright; but no entreaties 
could prevail upon her to remain there during the 

When the Ranger first appeared in the mouth 
of the Dee, it was universally believed both in the 
town and neighbourhood of Kirkcudbright, that 
fche had arrived for the purpose of impressing sea- 
men ; and the place was soon deserted by nearly 
all the able bodied mariners at that time in it. — 
But when the people understood that Paul Jones 
had landed at St. Mary's Isle, and robbed the 

1 Lieutenant Simpson, throughout the transaction, assumed 
the airs of a person of consequence ; he was tall and well formed, 
and spoke with a commanding tone of voice. Mr Malcolmson 
says he was the soil of an innkeeper in Dumfries. Wallfpgsford, 

, who was mild, unassuming, and handsome, — was a natire of 

Ireland ; he fell in the tnga^emeut next 'Jay. 


house of their noble benefactor, they were seized 
with fury and resentment. About twelve or four- 
teen men, kaving?*armed themselves as well as 
they could, hurried to the spot; but the ene- 
my had departed. They saw the Ranger's boafc, 
however, near the end of her voyage. 

It may be considered a fortunate circumstance, 
that these brave men did not meet with the 
plunderers ; for, as Jones's party were well armed 
and accustomed to deeds of desperate daring, it is 
probable that not one of the assailants would have 
returned with the tidings of their defeat. 

An impression afterwards prevailed, that Jones 
intended to pay a second visit to St. Mary's Isle, 
and likewise to the town of Kirkcudbright. Mr 
Lawrie, collector of the customs, set off in a cart 
to the country, carrying with him the custom- 
house books, and every thing valuable which he 
had in his possession. Some of the shopkeepers 
pulled down their signs, and also fled with such of 
their effects as they could carry away. 

Late in the afternoon, the town drummer beat 
to arms, and a promiscuous band assembled at the 
cross, from whom were selected forty-three able- 
bodied men, all armed, who marched down to St* 
Mary's Isle in military order. They took with 
them two four pounders belonging to the brig 
Peggy,' which then lay in the harbour, from which 
her crew had fled in the morning : these guns 
were committed to the charge of John Grant, mas- 

1 The crew of the Peggy had fled from the town in the early- 
part of the day ; Lut having afterwards learned the true state of 
affairs they returned and assisted in conveying the guns to St. 
Mary's Isle. One of the sailors got his leg broken by the burst. 
ing of a blunderbuss, near the old Jail ; uo other accident oc- 
curred on this memorable day. 


ter and owner of a small coasting vessel. This 
man liad been in the army and was present at the 
taking of Quebec, in the year 1759.' 

On the approach of night, the defenders of St. 
Mary's Isle kindled a large fire, for the double 
purpose of warming themselves and alarming the 
enemy. 2 In the course of the night the Countess 
of Selkirk, and some other generous individuals, 
regaled the heroic band with ale and spirits, beef 
and bread. After midnight, the sound of oars was 
supposed to be heard in the river. Immediately the 
drum beat to arms, and some of the defenders de- 
clared they saw at a considerable distance from the 
shore, a dark object which they believed to be the 
Ranger's long boat. Firing instantly commenced, 
and much powder and many bullets were wasted 
on the jutting point of a rock, which the receding 
tide had every moment rendered more apparent, 
and of increased magnitude. 

Many instances of desertion had previously oc- 
curred ; for the armed party did not at this time 
much exceed the half of its original number. One 
man who had been sent to the town for an additional 
supply of ammunition, gave a new alarm by report- 
ing that Jones had again landed. Immediately the 
streets presented a scene of bustle and confusion : 
numbers of both sexes were seen running about, 
pale with terror, and dreadfully agitated. Messen- 
gers, however, soon brought other accounts which 
allayed the general alarm. Next morning the 
staunch guardians of St. Mary's Isle returned to 

1 Mr Malcolmson's MS. account. 

2 Some men from the town also lighted fires on the Torrs y 
shore, near the place where the vessel had anchored. 


the town, and were joyfully welcomed by the in- 
habitants. 1 

Next day an engagement took place between 
the Drake, mounting twenty guns, and the Rang- 

1 Mr Malcolmson, when speaking of the sources of his in- 
formation, says 

" I have had the pleasure of conversing not only with several 
of those who marched down to the Isle, on the memorable 23d 
of April, 177S ; but also with three aged female acquaintances 
who were then in the service of the Earl of Selkirk. The fe. 
males alluded to, are all now grandmothers, and they have 
borne through life unimpeachable characters ; their relation of 
what took p]ace in the house, is entitled to the fullest credit. A3 
might be expected from the long period of years that has elaps- 
ed since Jones landed on the coast, they do not entirely agree 
on some points of minor importance ; but with regard to those 
particulars which posterity will be anxious to know, their ae» 
counts are unvarying and satisfactory." 

We give the following account of this transaction from the 
Scots Magazine, for April, 1778, p. 215. ■ 

" Dumfries, April 24. Yesterday afternoon an express ar. 
rived from Kirkcudbright with accounts that an American pri. 
vateer of 20 guns, had landed near St Mary's Isle, and that a 
party from her had plundered Lord Selkirk's house. Mrs Wood, 
lady of the late governor of the Isle of Man, had gone two or 
three days ago on a visit to Lady Selkirk, and leturned here 
last night. She informed me that they are nil well and in good 
spirits, and says, that yesterday morning between 10 and 11 
a servant brought word that a press-gang had landed near the 
house, Presently between thirty and forty armed men came 
up; all of them planted themselves lound the house, except three 
who entered each with a horse. pistol at his side and with bay- 
onets fixed. They demanded to see the lady of the house, and 
upon her appearing, told her with a mixture of rudeness and 
civility, who they were, and that all the plate must be deliver- 
ed to them, Lady Selkirk behaved with great composure and 
presence of mind. She soon directed her plate to be delivered, 
with which, without doing any other damage, or asking for 
watches, jewels, or any thing else, (which is odd,) the gentle. 
men made off. There is reason to think, that there were some 
people among them acquainted with persons and places, and in 
particular one fellow supposed to have been a waiter at an Inn 
in Kirkcudbright. The leader of the party who was not the 
captain of the vessel told that his intention was to have seized 
Lord Selkirk, who was then in London, that two other privateers 
were at hand, and that they had been at Whitehaven, whore 


er, in which the latter was victorious. " On the 
morning of the 24th," says Jones, "I was again off 
Carrickfergus, and would have gone in, had I not 
seen the Drake preparing to come out; the tide 
was unfavourable, so that the Drake worked out 
but slowly ; at length she weathered the point, 
and having led her out to about mid-channel, I 
suffered her to come within hail, the Drake hoist- 
ed English colours, and at the same instant the 
Ameiican stars were displayed on board of the 
Ranger ; the sun was now little more than an hour 
from setting ; it was therefore time to begin, the 
Drake being rather astern. I ordered the helm 
up and gave her the first broadside; the ac- 
tion was warm, close, and obstinate ; it lasted an 
hour and five minutes, when the enemy called for 
quarters, her fore and main-top-sail yards being 
both cut away, and down on the cap ; the fore- 
top-gallant-yard and mizen-gaff both hanging up 
and down along the mast; the second ensign 
which they had hoisted shot away, and hanging 
over the quarter gallery, in the water; the jib shot 
away, and hanging into the water ; her sails and 
rigging entirely cut to pieces, her masts and yards 
all wounded, and her hull also very much galled. 

" I lost only Lieutenant Wallingsford and one 
seaman (John Dongal) killed, and six wounded, 
among whom are the gunner, (Mr Falls,) and 
Mr Powers, a midshipman, who lost h's arm. — 
One of the wounded (Nathaniel Wills) is since 
dead ; the rest will recover. 

they had burnt some vessels, but did not get done what they 
intended. "When the affair was ended, Lady Selkirk with her 
family and visitors left the house." 

Lady Selkirk subsequently removed to Greenlaw house in the 
parish of Cro36michat4. 


'"" The loss of the enemy in killed and wound- 
ed was far greater. All the prisoners allow that 
they came out with a number not less than an 
hundred and sixty men, and many of them a&= 
firm that the}'- amounted to an hundred and ninety 
the medium may perhaps be the most exact ac- 
count, and by that it will appear that they lost in 
killed and wounded forty-two men. 

" The captain and lieutenant were among the 
wounded ; the former, having received a musket- 
ball in the head the minute before they called for 
quarters, lived and was sensible for some time 
after my people boarded the prize ; the lieuten- 
ant survived two days. They were buried with 
the honours due to their rank, and with the re- 
spect due to their memory." 

On the 8th of May, Captain Jones returned to 
Brest-Roads, having been absent twenty-eight 
days. The first leisure hours which he had at his 
disposal, he employed in writing his celebrated 
letter to the Countess of Selkirk, I promising to 
return the plate. 

"Ranger, Brest, 8th May, 1778. 

1 " Madam, 

" It cannot be too much lamented, that in the profession of 
■arms, the officer of fine feelings andi-eal sensibility should be 
under the necessity of winking at any action of persons under 
his command which his heart cannot approve ; but the reflec- 
tion is doubly severe, when he finds himself obliged, in appear, 
ance, to countenance such acts by his authority. 

'• This hard case was miue, when, on the 23d of April last, 
I landed on St Mary's Isle. Knowing Lord Selkirk's interest 
with the King, and esteeming, as I do, his private character, I 
wished to make him the happy instrument of alleviating the 
horrors of hopeless captivity, when the brave aie overpowered 
and made prisoners of war. 

" It was, perhaps, foitunate for you, Madam, that he was 
from home ; for it was my intention to have taken him oc. 

•vol. n. Oo 


In September, 1779, Commodore Jones, having 
under his command three vessels, entered the Frith 
of Forth, with the intention of seizing or destroy- 
ing the shipping in the harbour of Leith. A severe 

hoard the Ranger, and to have detained him, until, through his 
means, a general and fair exchange of prisoners, as well in 
Europe as in America, had been effected. When I was inform- 
ed by some men whom I met at landing, that his Lordship was 
absent, I walked lack to my boat, determined to leave the 
island. By the way, however, some officers, who were with me, 
could not forbear expressing their discontent, observing that, 
in America, uo delicacy was shown by the English, who took 
away all sorts of moveable property, setting fire, not ouly to 
towns and to the houses of the rich, without distinction, but 
not even sparing the wretched hamlets and milch cows <>f the 
poor and helpless, at the approach of an inclement winter. — 
That party had been with me the same morning at White 
some complaisance, therefore, was their due, 1 had hut a mo. 
roent to think how I might gratify them, and at the same time 
do your Ladyship the least injury. I charged the officers 
to permit none of the seamen to enter the house, or to hurt 
any thing about it ; to treat you, Madam, with the utmost re- 
spect ; to accept of the plate which was offered ; and to come 
away without making a search, or demanding any thing else— 
"I am induced to believe that I was punctually obeyed, 
since I cm informed that the plate which they brought away is 
far short of the quantity expressed in the inventory which 
accompanied it. I have gratified my men ; and, when the plate 
is sold, I shall become the purchaser, and will gratify my own 
feelings by restoring it to you by such conveyance as you shall 
please to direct. 

" Had the Earl been on board the Ranger the following 
evening, he would have seen the awful pomp and dreadful car. 
nnge of a sea engagement; both affording ample subject for the 
pencil as well as "melancholy reflection for the contemplative 
mind, Humanity starts lack from such scenes of honor, and 
cannot sufficiently" execrate the vile promoters of this detestable 

• For they, 'twas they, unsheathed the ruthless blade, 
' And Heaven shall ask the havoc it has made.' 
" The British ship of war Drake, mounting twenty guns, 
with more than her full complement of officers and men, was 
our opponent. The ships met, and the advantage 
with great fortitude on each side for an houi and four m 
when the gallant commander of tie Drake fell 


gale of wind, however, forced him to change his 
course, after he had endeavoured, in vain, for some 
time, to withstand its violence ; he was, therefore, 
obliged to abandon the enterprise, 

dared in favour of the Ranger. The amiable lieutenant lay 
mortally wounded, besides near forty of the inferior o3icers and 
crew killed and wounded, — a melancholy demonstration of the 
uncertainty of human prospects, and of the sad reverse of for. 
tune which an hour cau produce. I buried them in a spacious 
grave, with the honours due to the memoiy of the br*ve, 

" Tnough I have drawn my sword in the present generous 
struggle for the rights of men, yet I am not in arms as an A- 
merican, nor am I in pursuit of riches. My fortune is liberal 
enough, having no wife nor family, and having lived long enough 
to know that riches cannot ensure happiness I profess myself 
a citizen of the world, totally unfettered by the little, mean dis- 
tinctions of climate or of country, which diminish the benevo. 
lence of the heart, and set bounds to philanthropy. Before 
this war began I had at the early time of life withdrawn from 
the sea service in favour of 'calm contemplation and poetic ease', 
I have sacrificed not only my favourite scheme of life, but. the 
softer affection;, of the heart and 'my prospects of domestic hap. 
piness, and I am ready to sacrifice my life also with cheerfulness 
if that forfeiture could restore peace and good will among man- 

" As the feelings of your gentle bosom cannot but be conge, 
nial with mi'ie, let me entreat you, Madam, to use your persua- 
sive ait with your husband's to endeavour to stop this cruel and 
destructive war, in which Britain can never succeed. Heaven 
can never couutenauce the barbarous and unmanly practice of 
the Britons in America, which savages would blush at. and 
which, if not discontinued, will soon be retaliated on Britain by 
a justly enraged people. Should you fail in this, (tor I am 
persuaded that you will attempt it, and who can resist the 
power of such an advocate ?_) your endeavours to effect a gene- 
ral exchange of prisoners will be an act of humanity which will 
afford you golden feelings on a death bed. 

•• 1 hope this cruel contest will soon be closed; but should it 
continue, 1 wage no war with the fair. 1 acknowledge their 
force, and bend before it with submission. Let not, theiefore, 
the amiable countess of Selkirk regard me as an enemy ; 1 am 
ambitious of her esteem and friendship, and would do any thing 
itent with my duly, to merit it. 

•• The honour of a line from your hand in answer to this will 
lay me under a singular obligation; and if I can render you 


Paul Jones fulfilled the promise which he had 
made to Lady Selkirk, by purchasing her plate 
at a great price ; but it was some years before he 
could get it conveyed to her. At last, however, 
he found means to send it from L'Orient to Calais, 
and at length it reached her Ladyship in safety.l 

After the restoration of the plate, the Earl of 
Selkirk wrote a letter acknowledging the receipt 
of it. 2 This letter must have afforded much grati- 
fication to Commodore Jones. 

any acceptable service in France or elsewhere, I hope yon see 
into my character so far as to command me without the least 
grain of ,resei ve. 

" I wish to know exactly the behaviour of my people, as I 
am determined to punish them if they have exceeded their 
liberty. I have the honour to be, with much esteem, and with 
profound respect, Madam, &c. &c. 

John Paul Jones" 
" To the Countess of Selkirk." 

1 " When the plate was returned, some years afterwards," 
says Mr Malcolmson, " the tea pot was discovered to contain tea 
leaves, supposed to be the same which were used by the Countess 
and family on the morning of the memorable 23d April. 

" The above curions fact was communicated to me, by Mr 
Peter Black, innkeeper Kirkcudbright, who, when body ser- 
vant to the Earl, unpacked the silver plate in question," 

11 London, 4th August, 1785. 

2 Sir, 

•' I received the letter you wrote me at the time you sent 
off my plate, in order for lestoiing it. Had I known where to 
direct a letter to you at the time it arrived in Scotland, I 
would have then wrote to you ; but not knowing it, nor finding 
that any of my acquaintance at Edinburgh knew it, I was 
obliged to delay writing till I came here, when, by means of a 
gentleman connected with America, I was told Mr Le Grand 
was your banker at Paris, and would take proper care of a letter 
for you ; therefore I enclose this to him. 

" Notwithstanding all the precautions you took for the easy 
and uninteirupted conveyance of the plate, yet it met with con. 
siderable delays, first at Calais, next at Dover, then at London. 
However, it at last arrived in Dumfries, and I dare say, quite 
safe, though as yet I have not seen it, being then at Edinburgh. 
I intended to have put an article in the newspapers about your 


This celebrated Gallovidian afterwards rose to 
the rank of Rear-Admiral in the Russian service. 
He died in France on the 18th of July, 1792; 
and the national assembly went into mourning, 
and sent a deputation of their members to at- 
tend bis funeral. 1 His relations went to that coun- 
try and obtained his property. The Americans 
hold his name in much respect, 2 considering him 

having returned it; but before I was informed of its being ar- 
rived, some of your friends, I suppose, had put it in the Dum- 
fries newspaper, whence it was immediately copied into the 
Edinburgh papers, and thence into the London ones. 

" Since that time I nave mentioned it to many people of 
fashion, and, on all occasions. Sir, both now and formerly, I 
hare done you the justice to tell, that you made an offer of re- 
turning the plate very soon after your return to Brest ; and al- 
though you yourself were not at my house, but remained at the 
shore with your boat, that yet you had your officers and men 
in such extraordinary good discipline, that you having given 
them the strictest orders to behave well, to do no injury of any 
kind, to make no search, but only to bring off what plate was 
given them ; that in reality they did exactly as ordered, and that 
not one man offered to stir from Ids post, on the outside of the 
house, nor entered the doors, nor said an uncivil word; that 
the two officers stood not a quarter of a hour in the parlour 
and butler's pantry while the butler got the plate together ; 
behaved politely, and asked for nothing but the plate, and 
instantly marched their men off in regular order; and that 
both officers and men behaved in all respects so well, that it 
would have done credit to the best disciplined troops whatever. 
Some of the English newspapers at that time having put in 
confused accounts of your expelition to Whitehaven and Scot- 
land, I ordered a proper one of what happened in Scotland to 
be put in the London newspapers, by a gentleman who was then 
at mv house, by which the g >od conduct and civil behaviour of 
vour'officers and men were done justice to, and attributed to 
your orders, and the good discipline you maintained over your 

'• I am, Sir, vour most humble servant, 

" Selkirk." 

1 Scot* Magazine for July, 1792, &c. 

Before his death he erected a tombstone over his father's 
grave in the church yard of Kirkbean. 

2 We have received the following communication from the 


as the father of their prized navy. His happened 
to be the first American flag that was saluted by 
ships of war belonging to any of the European 
powers. 1 

Towards the end of the 18th century, a sect of 
religious enthusiasts settled near Crocketford, in 
the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright : the founder of 

Rev. Thomas Grierson, minister of Kirkbean. D. H. Craik, 
Esq,, of Arbigland, verbally communicated to us the same facta. 

" Lieutenant Pinkham, of the American navy, in passing 
Arbigland, in a steamer, in 1831, was shewn the ruins of 
the cottage in which Paul Jones was born and brought up. — 
Mr Pinkhara is a man of enthusiastic feelings towards his 
country, and that service in which he is employed. He 
was accordingly delighted with the information, and as soon 
as he' reached Dumfries, he procured an introductory letter to 
Mr Craik, from Mr M'Diarmid*, Editor of the " Courier. ' Iia. 
mediately after, he waited upon Mr Craik, and earnestly en- 
treated him for permission to re-build the cottage. To this Mr 
Craik readiljtngreed. Upon which Mr Pinkham left £25 with 
Mr M'Diarmid, for the above purpose, with a promise of farther 
remittances from America, if required. The rebuilding was 
soon set a going, and the cottage is now, with some additional 
aid from Mr Craik, very neat, substantial, and comfortable. It 
is tenanted by the widow of a fisherman, and islet for bathing 
quarters every season at a moderate rate. 

' Mr Pinkham 's devotion to the memory of the 'Father of 
the American Navy,' as he termed Paul Jones, may he partly 
estimated when it is stated that the sum he left was nearly his 
all. At all events it occasioned him to prosecute the greater 
part of his travels in Scotland on foot, and repeatedly to sleep 
in the o^eu air, in the fields, in Older to avoid the expense of 

" He is a stout built hard looking man, we should think, aboui 
forty years of age. His information on vaiious subjects is ex- 
tensive, and his love of poetry very gieat. He seemed parti, 
cularly devoted to the works of Burns and Scott, and repeated 
parts of- them with much spirit and good taste. We found him 
upon the whol^ a very agreeable man, and an excellent speci- 
men of an American seaman." • 

I " Mr Cooper, the celebrated American noyelist, and Allan 
Cunningham, have both chosen Paul Jones as the hero of ro. 
mances, very different in character, but equally admirable each 
in its peculiar style." Memoirs or Paul Joses. 


this sect was an illiterate, though clever woman, of 
the name of Birch an. 

Mr White, Relief minis-ter at Irvine, having 
gone to the neighbourhood of Glasgow, in 1783, 
to assist at a sacrament, Mrs Buchan attended 
the church in which he officiated, that she might 
have an opportunity of hearing him. Being cap- 
tivated by his mode of preaching, she wrote a 
letter to him. expressing the great satisfaction she 
had received from his discourse, pronouncing him 
the only cletgyman who had ever " spoken to her 
heart," and requesting permission to pay him a visit 
at Irvine, that she might farther profit by his in- 
structions, and be fully confirmed in the faith. Mf 
White showed the letter to some of his hearers, 
who were pleased with her extraordinary zeal; and, 
accordingly, she was invited to Irvine. Upon her 
arrival, she received a kind and even a passionate 
welcome. Religion was now her only subject of 
conversation, and she went from house to house 
hearing prayers, 1 explaining the scriptures, an- 
swering questions, declaring the end of the world 
at hand, and proclaiming that it was the duty 
of every individual to abandon the concerns of 
time and prepare for the reception of Christ. — 
Her extravagant principles and mad presumption, 
at length, alarmed some of the more moderate of Mr 
White's congregation, and he was requested to 
dismiss her as a dangerous fanatic. This he refused 

I " She exhorted, but she did not pray, because she blasphem- 
ously gave herself out to be the Spirit of God, that is, the third 
person of'the Godhead, or, in other words, the Holy Ghost," 

The Buchanuks from First 10 Last, chap. iii. in MS. 
by our friend Mr Train, whoso original documents on tbjp 
subject extend to upwards of 450 pages, 


to do, and having openly avowed her opinions in 
their full extent, a complaint was made to the pres- 
bytery- who subsequently thought proper to depose 
him. Still a number of even the more wealthy por- 
tion of his flock adhered to their pastor, and he con- 
tinued to preach to them from a tent in the field;!, 
and subsequently in his own house. Thus a 
distinct sect was form-d ; and the deluded mem- 
bers c r it frequently held meetings during the 
night, in which the pretended prophetess indulg- 
ed in the most blasphemous reveries, asserting 
that she was the woman spoken of in the 12th chap- 
ter of the Revelations, and that Mr White was the 
man child she had brought forth, who was to rale 
all nations with a rod of iron Such meetings, 
where both common sense and decency were grossly 
outraged, soon attracted the notice, and called forth 
the indignation, of the public. The exasperated 
populace assembled and surrounded Mr White's 
house in which they had assembled, broke the 
windows, destroyed furniture, drew the old witch 
wife, as they called Mrs Buchan, through the 
street, almost in a state of nudity, and would have 
proceeded to acts of still greater violence, had not 
the authorities interfered and dispersed the mob. 
An application was at length made in the proper 
quarter, to have her apprehended as a blasphemer 
and disturber of the public peace. The magistrates, 
however, thought it more prudent to dismiss her 
from the town ; and, though they sent a party 
to escort her to some distance, in order to pro- 
tect her from the popular fury, yet she again sus- 
tained both insult and abuse. She remained at Kil- 
maurs during the first night, and was joined in the 
morning by Mr White, with about forty of his ad- 


herents. The whole party then proceeded to 
Mauchline, singing hymns on the road ; thence to 
Cumnock; and afterwards to Closeburn, in Dum- 
fries-shire. Some old people are said still to re- 
member the strange procession " on their way to 
the New Jerusalem." Mrs Buchan, arrayed in a 
scarlet cloak, along with the deposed minister and 
a few of her superior dupes, was seated in a cart ; 
whilst the remainder of the company — many of 
them handsome young men and women — followed 
on foot. They settled in a place since called 
Buchan- Ha', on the farm of New-Cample, in the 
parish of Closeburn, where they built a small house. 
The Buchanites, like some other sects, gave up their 
private property, and held every thing in com- 
mon, or, as belonging to their whole community. 
One of their tenets by which numbers were at- 
tracted, was, that her followers would be trans- 
lated to heaven without undergoing dissolution, 
or tasting of death. It is truly astonishing how 
long both she and her adherents were actuated 
by this absurd delusion. On two early occasions 
solemn preparations were made for their ascent, 
but still though the attempt proved unsuccessful, 
she kept alive their expectations by devising some 
excuse for each failure, or declaring that it pro- 
ceeded in a great measure from their want of faith. 

At length a total abstinence from food for forty 
days was deemed necessary to prepare those who 
expected to meet the Lord in the clouds at his 
second coming, which great event Mother Buchan 
declared to be at hand. But even the most ro- 
bust and zealous in the cause, broke down in 
undergoing this severe ordeal. 

The people of Closeburn now rose against the 


Buchanitcs, broke the door and windows of their 
house, and maltreated them, as the inhabitants of 
Irvine had done some years before; — and, in the 
course of a few months, this unhappy sect was ba- 
nished from Dumfries-shire by the constituted au- 

From Cioseburn they renmved to Tarbreoch, 
in Kirkpatrick-Durham, Galloway, in the year 
1787. Here Mr White, called by his flock, 
Friend, or Father White, preached regularly, and 
some of the country people often went and listen- 
ed to his sermons. Their next place of residence 
was in the large farm of Auchengibbert, in the 
parish of Urr, to which they removed in May. — 
Solemn preparations were soon made on the top 
of Auchengibbert-hillj for the final ascent into 
heaven of this infatuated people. Platforms are 
said to have been erected upon which they sta- 
tioned themselves in eager expectation of the 
long looked for consummation ; but after wait- 
ing for a considerable time, these visionary en- 
thusiasts were doomed to experience another 
disappointment, which shook the faith of some, 
and depressed the spirits of others. Still Mother 
Buchan was not deserted or condemned by them 
as an imposter, although a few began to with- 
draw from her society.- This extraordinary wo- 
man lived till March 1791. Before her death 3 

1 The Buchankes from First to Last — Chap. iv. 

2 An account at the Buchanitcs, published in the Castle- 
Douglas Miscellany, by Jasper Aimstiong, who had much in- 
tercourse with them. 

3 '' Years passed on without any remarkable occurrence, till 
t'le spring of 1791, when, a r ter several days of indisposition, 

Luckie plainly foresaw that in spite of her predictions, the cer- 
tain fate of mortality was fast approaching her. and she called 


sue expressed full confidence in being carried 
to the regions of bliss without suffering the 
pangs of dissolution, and warned her followers not 
to be deceived by appearances, for though she 
might seem dead to ordinary eyes, her state would 
be only that of suspended animation. They ac- 
cordingly kept her corpse until it began to putrify ; 
when the neighbours complained, and her body 
was supposed to be committed tc the earthy near the 
house. Many of her dupes, however, believed 
that she would rise from the grave and again join 
them in their journey heavenward. After her 
death, a considerable number of her deluded ad- 
herents, ashamed of their credulity, dispersed into 
different quarters. Mr White emigrated with up- 
wards of thirty of them, to America, where he 
died many years ago. 

The number of the true believers in Mother 
Buchan's divine mission in Galloway was now 
reduced to twelve. This remnant took the farm 
of Larg-hill,l in the same parish, where they 
remained till 1808. They were looked upon by 

her people around her, telling them that owing- to treir want 
of faith, she was under the necessity of taking a journey to 
Paradise, to get matters arranged in their behalf; and would 
return at the end of nine days, or happening to be detained be- 
yond that period, they might expect her at the end of as 
many years, and failing that time, fifty years would elapse be. 
r return. She then exhorted them to be faithful to 
their profession, to speak the truth, to be industrious and rich, 
and having the good things of this life, to be charitable to the 
poor, to give medicine to the sick, and to be kind, friendly, and 
obliging to all; after giving salutary advice?, which have been 
always strictly attended to, in a short time, the famous Luckie 
Bochan breathed her last, about twelve years after she com- 
menced her public career." Castle Douglas Miscellany. 
1 That they held their goods in common, appears from this 
inscription upon tl 'The People of Larg-hill." Ai 

first it wan " Meicy'g property. 


their neighbours as an industrious, frugal, harmless, 
and benevolent people. Some of the men employ- 
ed their time in agricultural pursuits, whilst others, 
who had been originally wheel-wrights, found 
employment in making spinning wheels, and 
check-reels, — then common, — for the manufacture 
of which they were very celebrated. .The ge- 
nerality of the women found occupation in spinning 
linen yarn for the opulent families of the surround- 
ing country. 1 

In 1800, the remainder of the sect, then much 
thinned, — for marriage was prohibited, — feued 
some plots of land beside Crocketford, on the estate 
of Little Marvvhirn, in Kirkpatrick Durham, and 
built several good houses. They erected one in 
1806, of two stories, where Andrew Innes, the 
sole survivor of the party, now resides. 2 Mrs 
Buchan, whose maiden name was Elspeth Simpson, 
was born at Banff, in the year 1738. The last of 
her votaries still expects her second coming. 

1 " They were the first that introduced the two handed 
wheels into Galloway, in the use of which the Buchanite 
women were unmatched. For nearly forty years they spun 
flax to the fineness of from seven to twelve dozen to the pound, 
which has heen woven, and made into " Sunday sarks," and 
worn by most of the nobility and gentry in the Stewartry, 
There were likewise several joiners and tinsmiths among them, 
who were all kept busily employed, so that Auchengibbert ap- 
peared the very emporium of industry." Castle Douglas 

2 When the present military road between Dumfries and 
Castle Douglas, was first opened in the year 1800, the Buchau- 
ites feued teveral lots of ground at Crocketford, for houses and 
gardens; on one of which they built, in 1802, the first house in 
the village, which up to the present time has been occupied as 
the principal inn of that thriving little place, containing now 
upwards of two hundred inhabitants. At a more recent period, 
the Buchanites built several other houses there, so that they 
have in realitv been the founders of the village of Crocketford, 
(The Buchanites from First to Last' Chap, v.) 


Galloway, in 18S9, was visited by an appalling 
nurricane, — a hurricane of unprecedented magni- 
tude, whether in ancient or modern times. The 
frightful storm of 1500, from all that can now be 
learned, must have fallen far short of it in vio- 
lence; and the storm which occurred in January, 
1739, exactly a hundred years before the late 
tempest, did not nearly equal it in terrific fury. 

The hurricane commenced at ten o'clock on 
Sunday night, the 6th of January, when the wind 
was nearly due south. About one o'clock on Mon- 
day morning, the wind veered round to the west; 
and, how alarming soever the gales were before the 
•ehanofe, it now blew with redoubled violence. The 
elements, indeed, seemed convulsed. The air ap- 
peared to have assumed the density and force of 
water, and one aerial wave roiled on after another, 
with increased velocity, as if determined to sweep all 
before it, and to finish the work of destruction which 
had been previously commenced. The walls of the 
strongest houses tottered on their base ; the houses 
themselves vibrated, as if the solid earth were shaken 
by an earthquake ; chimneys yielded to the blast 
and were precipitated to the ground ; windows were 
forced from their casements and carried into the 
interior of apartments; roofs were stripped, whilst 
slates, cans, and bricks, flew like dust through the 
air, and often alighted at a great distance from their 
original position. Shock succeeded shock with 
deafening noise during the whole night; and, in 
the awful intervals between the gathering blasts, 
the angry demon of the storm seemed to utter, at 
a distance, wailing sounds of indescribable horror. 
Amidst the general havock, some people in distrac- 
tion forsook their beds, and endeavoured to find 

■VOL. Hj Pp 

472 tISTORY 

safety in cellars or the lower apartments of their 
dwellings, whilst others fled from their falling ha- 

Morning presented such a scene as had never 
before been witnessed in Galloway ; roofless houses 
" robbed of their fair proportion" and streets 
covered with their fallen wreck ; whole acres of 
valuable plantations blown down ; giant trees that 
had braved the storms of a hundred years pros- 
trated, with tons of earth or rock adhering to their 
roots ; vessels driven on shore ; small boats carried 
out of the water, and dashed to pieces upon the 
ground ; hay and corn stacks which had been 
blown into the air, widely dispersed over the adja- 
cent fields ; paling levelled ; and garden, as well as 
other walls 1 completely overturned. In short, every 
light substance at all exposed, had been removed 
or destroyed. For a great part of the day, the 
wind continued; but about three o'clock it almost 
totally subsided, as if worn out with its tremendous 
exertions, to spread horror, death, and devastation, 
through a terrified land, 2 

1 About twenty feet of solid masonry fell from tbe Abbey of 

2 Tlie Dumfries and Gallouay Cornier, mentions, tbat "the 
tide on Sunday rose lo an .unusual height long before the 
began, and from this circumstance, combined with the extraor- 
dinary ocillations of the barometer, we infer " says the en- 
lightened Editor," tbat aeiial influences have been al work with 
the laws of which we aTe but little acquainted. At half past 
ten on Sunday moiniiig, the glass stood at 29 4^ 10; at the 
same hour at night, it was 28 G£ 10; and at a quarter past 
five en Monday morning, it stood at 27 2-10. From tbe 
appeal ance of the surface of the column at that hour, when 
it was a»ain ascending, it must have been the tenth of an inch 

iower at least. On refer) ing to the Register for December 
ast, it will be found that the lowest point was 28 2.10, which 
nt Liverpool was accounted very remarkable." 


Having now finished the historical portion of 
this work, we shall take a short view of the inter- 
nal state of Galloway, during the period included 
in the last chapter. 

After the suppression of the Rebellion, in 1746, 
the condition of the district began materially to 
improve; the laws being more vigorously adminis- 
tered, property was rendered more secure and va- 
luable. The great work of enclosing now went 
on with much rapidity, and the advantages which 
accrued from it were generally felt and acknow- 
ledged.! To these we may add the benefits which 
were derived from the use of ealcarious manures. 
So early as 1730, shell marl had been discover- 
ed in Galloway. Some gentlemen who had visit- 
ed Ireland, and seen the beneficial effects of it, 
employed a person from that country to examine 
the Galloway bogs. The knowledge and ex- 
perience of this individual, soon enabled him to 
find this valuable substance in a great number of 
different places. 

The great luxuriance of the crops obtained by 
this manure, gradually spread its reputation, and, 
at length, created much eagerness to procure it.* 2 
The farmers, however, from their ignorance of sci- 
entific principles applied it injudiciously. Delight- 
ed with the artificial fertility of the land, they con- 
tinued to crop it, sometimes ten, or even twelve suc- 
cessive seasons, without being aware that the ten- 
dency cf the manure was to exhaust, as well as sti- 

1 " The Galloway dike, or most approved form of the dry 
stone wall, owes its name to the circumstance of its having been 
originally introduced into use in Galloway." 

Sia John Sinclair's Agricultural Report^ 

2 Smith's Agricultural Survey of Galloway. 


mulate; and tliey became astonished that a fresh 
application of the substance produced no renewal of 
exuberance. " It was at length discovered," says 
Mr Smith, "that no permanent benefit could be 
derived from I lie use of marl without moderation in 
the subsequent cropping." Proprietors now impos- 
ed restrictions on their tenants, allowing them to 
take no more than three successive crops after the 
application of calcarious substances. They also 
prohibited them from breaking up pasture lands, 
until they had been six, and in some cases nine 
3'ears in grass. 

The use of marl was followed by the application 
of sea shells and lime. The lime was imported 
from Cumberland, and was used in those localities 
where neither marl nor shells could be found. The 
benefits derived from it have been important in 
nearly all parts of the district. 

This system long continued to prevail in Gallo- 
way. But without the agency of green crops or 
fallow properly manured, it was impossible to pre- 
vent the ground from sinking into a condition ap- 
proximating to its original state ; though certainly 
by the use of calcarious substances, the farmer had 
been enabled to pulverize the soil, to banish from 
his fields heath, fern, &c, and to raise, in their 
stead, crops of corn or grass, more nutritious and 
verdant. Still, however, while the land continued 
to be periodically impoverished and exhausted, 
neither the corn nor grass could attain any great 
Juxuriancy of growth. 

Mr Craik of Arbigland was the first agricultu- 
rist who devised ami introduced a decidedly im- 
proved system of husbandry. This gentleman died 
in 1798, at the age of S5. All his contemporaries 


aoree in representing him as an individual who 
possessed great originality and strength of intel- 

About the year 1750, his attention was directed 
to agriculture, by Mr Tail's publication on the sub- 
ject. After following, for some years, the directions 
of that author, he relinquished h's theoretical re- 
finements, and applied himself to the substantial 
improvement of land, by suitable enclosing and 
draining, by effectual fallows, and by thejudicious 
application of calcarious substances. He intro- 
duced properly constructed implements of hus- 
bandry, and commenced the practice of ploughing 
with two horses. 1 Mr Craik knew the value of 
putrescent manure, and was most careful in collect- 
ing it. " He retained, "'says Mr Smith, " the prac- 
tice of drilling turnips and beans, and introduced 
them with sown grasses into the rotations of hus- 
bandry, which he prescribed to the tenants on his 
estate, when under his vigilant superintendence, 
a system of excellent agriculture was regularly 
established, while all the neighbouring country re- 
mained under the most barbarous management.'* 
Mr Craik's example was not entirely lost on so- 
ciety ; for many gentlemen in the neighbourhood 
of Dumfries, zealously carried on improvements 
on the model he had exhibited. The facility of 
credit afforded by the Ayr Bank, — established un- 
der the designation of "Douglas, Heron, and Co.," 
with a capital of £150,000, — which commenced its 
operations in 1760, and finally stopped payment in 

1 Mr Andrew Brown who died lately in Kirkcudbiight, at 
the advanced age of 82, mentioned to the author, that he was 
the first individual who ploughed with only two horses, in 
the paiiah of Twynholm. 


August 1T73,' 1 gave a consideral le impetus to the 
progress of cultivation. Many individuals of 
property and education now became enthusiastic 
agriculturists. Upon the farm of Terregles, in 
particular, Mr Dalzell. practised a very superior 
mode of cultivation. The influence of such ex- 
amples was forcibly felt by the tenantry in the dis- 
trict adjoining the Nith; but the improved system 
of tillage here established did not extertd through 
much of Galloway, Various attempts, however, 
were soon made to introduce the new mode of hus- 
bandry into other parts of the Stewartry. Dun- 
bar, Earl of Selkirk, '- the friend of Mr Craik, 

1 The following were the pr : n»ipnl Shareholders in Gr.J!o\v;;y 
with their respective sh,.r's; they were all peisonaily re=pon. 
sible, however, for the whole debts of the bunk. 
" Patrick Heron, Esq of Heron. . . £1000 

Patrick Gord< n Esq of King-grange. . . 500 

David Carrie of Newlaw. . . . 1500 

Alexander Gordon of Gieenlaw. . . 1000 

H«gb Logan of Logan. . . . 1000 

John Newall ofjBarskeoch. . .500 

Sir Robert Maxwell of Orchardton Bart.* . 500 

Mr Alexander Ross at Balkail . . . 500 

John Berk, Merchant in Kirkcudbright. . 500 

John Kilpatricfc Merchant there. ... . 500 

Darid Bean of Meiklefurt! . . 500 

Francis Grietsoo ol Marwhirii, „ . . 500 

James Macadam of Waterhead ... 500 

And.- Merchant in Kirkcudb; . 500 

James Maxwell of Barnclei . . . 500 

Robert Maxwell, E a q. of Cai . . . 1000 

Qnir.tin Macadam, in Barbeth. . . , 1000 

Thomas Maxwell ol Drumpark 500 

Alexander Hughan, Merchant in Creetown. . . 500 

David Thomson of Ingliston." .... 1000 

* AJBiographical sketch of this gentleman will be found in the 
Appeudix (Dd) 

£ '* The Earldom of Selkiik devolved on Dunbar Hamilton, 
4th Earl, in 1744. He resumed the r.ame of Douglas, and 
married .Mis? Helen Hamilton, grand daughter of the sixth Eail 
of Haddington, by whom he had i= s ue, Sholto Basil who died 


having witnessed this gentleman's efficient ma- 
nagement of his property, wished to adopt the 
same practice on his own estates in the vicinity of 
Kirkcudbright. With this view his Lordship in- 
duced captain Ewart, a gentleman of Mr Craik's 
school, to take a large farm from him at a low 
rent. But this, like other experiments of the kind, 
almost completely failed; and, during the extreme 
depression of the country after the close of the A- 
merican war, the beneficial effects of Mr Craik's 
exertions had almost disappeared even on the banks 
of the Nith. 

" It is a remarkable circumstance," observes Mr 
Smith, "and well deserving the attention of the 
students of political economy, that the excellent 
examples of husbandry which Galloway has pro- 
duced at an early date should have effected so 
little change in the general practice of the farmer. 
The husbandry of Mr Craik, Mr Dalzell, and some 
of their cotemporaries, was not inferior, in the most 
essential points, to that of Mr Dawson of Frogden 
and other fathers of the husbandry of Berwickshire 
and Teviotdale ; yet what a difference in the sub- 
sequent progress of improvement in these different 

This may have arisen from various causes. 

The farmers of Galloway had not been long in 

younji- : Basil William who died Nov. 5th, 1794 : John who died 
Aug. 6th 1797: Dunbar who died Nov. 179d : Alexander who 
died at Gaudaloupe in 1794: Thomas: Isabella: Helen who 
married Nov. thh, I79G Sir James Hall, Baronet, and had 
issue: Mary: Elizabeth: Catharine. His Lordship died May 
24th, 1799, when he was succeeded by his son Thomas, who 
died at Pau, in the south of France, lc?20 " Peerage. 

None of this numerous family now survive, except Lady 
Catherine Hulket. 


possession of large farms, and consequently had not 
accumulated sufficient capital. Whenever, there- 
fore, immediate profit did not present itself, the 
cultivation of the soil proceeded «vith languor and 

Bad roads, by preventing internal communica- 
tion, were also one great cause of retarding im- 
provement. 1 Circumstances, likewise, peculiar to 
the district, tended to produce the same unfavour- 
able effect. 

The vicinity of Galloway to the Isle of Man, 
which still retained its independency, presented 
strong temptation to the inhabitants of the south 
of Scotland, to engage in the contraband trade. — 
Many of the farmers within a moderate distance 
of the coast, from the profit which it yielded, and 
the excitement which it created, eagerly lent them- 
selves as agents, and even principles, in this hate- 
ful traffic, alike subversive of morality and indus- 
try. No sooner was a lugger known to be up- 

1 About the year 1760, the Military Road between Dumfries 
and Port Patiick was formed. Prior to this period, ihe road 
thtough Galloway to Ireland, was at times almost impassable 
for carriages and carts. Old people state, that this useful 
work was effected through the interest of Lord Hillsborough. 
His Lordship, it is said, Leing on his way from Ireland to Lon. 
don, was overtaken on the Corse of Sluk^s by a storm, when 
be and those who were with him, owing to the badness of the 
load, found it impossible to proceed, and had to remain in their 
carriages during the night. When he reached London, he stated 
the circumstance to the English Government, who sent military 
patties from various quarters to make a new road. In 1800, 
the line of this road was changed in many places, and the road 
itself much improved. 

•' The great road," says Chambers, ''through this Stewartry, 
from Dumfries to Newton. Stewart, las been altered, and very 
much improved, in its direction ; so as U avoid the heights, and 
shorten the distance, nearly 14 in 4C miles. This new line of 
road was opened, in September, 1807; and tolls have been eg. 
labliahed, for its support throughout." 


on the coast, than ploughs were unyoked, and both 
masters and servants hurried to the point of debar- 
kation, each furnished with a loaded whip, or some 
other weapon. A couple of kegs were then swung 
across each horse's back ; and thus equipped, the 
cavalcade moved along in so formidable an array, 
as to set even military parties at defiance. In 
this manner they would often penetrate into the 
very heart of Ayrshire, without once resting on 
their journey. 1 In these unlawful expeditions, 
some of their best horses frequently perished, and 
by such licentious and fatiguing exertions, the 
morals, health, and usefulness of the peasantry 
were much impaired. Sometimes even the har- 
vest labour was forsaken for the service of the 
smuggler, while habits of intemperance and reck- 
lessness were contracted, which the removal of the 
cause failed to correct. 

Another impediment to the advancement of til- 
lage had its origin in what may be termed, with- 

] Extract of a letter from Bnrr in C&rrick, April 20lh. 

" On Thursday last, at mid-day, in contempt of all autho- 
rity civil and military, tbeie marched through this parish a 
land ot smugglers, consisting of 100 men, and upwards of 150 
horses, all loaded with tea, except twelve that weie loaded with 

spirits They went northward towards Dalmellingtoun, where 

I am told they arrived the said evening. There irate upwards of 
200 of them when they left Glenluce iu Galloway, but fifty of 
them had taken another road; they had been all loaded at Glen. 
luce-hay, fiom three smuggling vessels; hut the vessels being 
distuibed, went for the coast of Ireland to land the rest of their 
cargoes. This band was attacked near Glenluce by a party of 
the military, and some excise-officers in the neigbourhood ; but 
the military, cousisting of a sergeant and sixteen men, were de- 
feated, got theii firelocks all broke, and many of themselves 
much butt, bui no lives were lost in the engagement." 

Edinburgh Weekl? Magazine, for 1771. 

Farther information on this subject, furnished to us by our 
indefatigab e and obliging friend, Mr Tiain, may be found in 
the Appendix (,LV) 


out a paradox, one of the chief advantages of the 
district. Galloway has been long distinguished 
for its breed of cattle, of which its inhabitants are 
justly proud. l The preference which was ge- 
nerally given to animals of this breed in the Eng- 
lish market, induced both proprietors and farmers 
to devote their attention principally to the rearing 
and feeding of black cattle,- which were sold to 
dealers, who, unfortunately, often bought on spe- 
culation, and granted bills in payment of the price : 
they then removed them into England, where they 
re-sold them, sometimes with gain and sometimes 
with loss. The manner of cattle dealing practised 
in Galloway, has been often fearfully ruinous to 
the best interests of the district. Were the histo- 
ry of South- Droving > as it is called, and the failures 

I "This variety takes its name from the province of Galloway, 
which includes the counties cf Kirkcudbright and Wigtown, 
where it is reared in the greatest pel lection. It lias also spread 
over the greater part of the adjoining county of Dumfries, and 
is to be found in most of the otner counties of Scotland. The 
cattle of Angus or Fotfarshire seem nearly allied to the Gallo- 
ways. ' It is alleged not to be more than seventy or eighty 
years [now about 1 10J since the Galloways were all horned, 
and very much the same, in external appearance and character, 
with the breed of black cattle which prevailed over the west 
of Scotland at that period, and which still abound in pet lection, 
the largest sized ones in Argyleshire, and the smaller in tha 
Isle of Skye. The Galloway cattle, at the time alluded to, 
were coupled with some hornless bi ';!?, of a sort which do not 
seem now to be accurately known, but which weie then brought 
from Cumberland; the effects of which crossing were thought to 
be the general loss of horns in the former, and the ei largement 
of their size. The continuance of a hornless sort being kept up 
by selecting only such for breeding, or pel haps i y other means, 
as by the practice of eradicating with the knife the horns in 
their very young -tat''."' (.Coventry on Live Stock, p. 28 ) 
Sm John Sinclair's Agi'.icultuual Rtroai. 
2 The late Earl ul Galloway and the late Mr Murray, of 
Broughton, b. slowed much care in improving their breed of 


ivhich have arisen from it during the last eighty 
j ears, with the sums lost to farmers and graziers, 
i iid before the public, the extent of the evil would 
'ppear almost incredible, and force us to wonder 
ow a system so monstrous could be so long suf- 
^red to exist. 
There is every reason to believe, likewise, that 
lough the Ayr Bank at first gave an impulse to 
(ricultural improvement, it ultimately proved un- 
vourable to it. The facility with which credit 
as obtained promoted speculation and disregard 
■ economy ; and, when supplies for prosecuting 
:eir plans could no longer be obtained, owing to 
e Bank's stopping payment, many agriculturists 
ere involved in ruin, and a certain discredit was 
ought upon all innovations. 1 
About the year 1786, the spirit of amelioration 
gan to revive,^nd the Earl of Selkirk, a man of 
1 enlightened mind and benevolent dispositions, 
'came desirous to effect various extensive im- 
rovements upon his estates both in Wigtownshire 
nd the Stewartry. His Lordship's advanced age. 
owever, prevented him from engaging personally 
i the business ; and, by a generous and merited 
ct of confidence, he transferred the management 
f his landed property to his eldest son, the ce- 
■brated Basil William, Lord Daer. 
Wc cannot name this amiable and youthful 
obleman without remarking, that his genuine 
'istinction did not arise from the accidents of 
ank, influence, and fortune. He belonged to 
he aristocracy of nature — to the peerage of in- 
tellect; for, if his useful and valuable life had 

1 Smith's Agricultural Survey of Galloway. 


been spared, the magnitude and buoyancy of bis 
talents would have raised him to eminence, 1 
and the South of Scotland to unexampled pro- 
sperity. We do not remember this truly great 
and good man, who, during his short and philan- 
thropic career, gained the esteem, commanded the 
admiration, and riveted to himself the hearts of 
all by whom he was surrounded; but well we 
remember, that in our boyhood, his name was never 
mentioned in the town of Kirkcudbright, with- 
out emotions of the liveliest enthusiasm and vener- 
ation. He set an example that has been wide- 
ly followed, and the district in which he resided 
will long reap the fruits of his disinterested la- 
bours. 2 

1 " According to the law as it then existed, the oldest son of a 
Scots peer could not, like those of the Ena^sh or Irish nobility, 
have a seat in the Commons House ofparlrament. This disabi- 
lity he regarded as absurd and unjust ; and he made an attempt 
to get it removed. He formally claimed his right to he put on 
the roll of freeholders iu the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, and a 
majority of the electors having supported that claim, the mi- 
nority, instead of acquiescing, carried the question before the 
Court of Session. That judicatory, and subsequently tie House 
of Lords, reversed the decision to which the electors had come, 
and continued the disability of which he so justly complained." 

Murray's Literary History of Galloway, 

2 "Lord Daer was aware that even the best cultivated lands 
were succcptible of great amelioration, and afforded ample scope 
for the exercise of agricultural skill. Having made himself 
master of the state of his father's affairs, and having resolved to 
dispose of the barony of Baldoon, the nature of this sale is so 
honouiable to his Lordship's abilities, that we cannot resist 
mentioning it. The lands were sold to the late Earl of Gallo. 
way for a price founded on a rental of £5,000 ; and it was far. 
ther stipulated that Lord Daer should retain a Jease of the es- 
tate for ten years, at a rent of £7,000 per annum ; that at the 
expiration of that time, the lands were to be valued by arbiters 
mutually chosen ; and that Lord GaHoway should pay twenty- 
five years purchase of the full surplus valued rent above £5,000. 
This negotiation was concluded about the year 1793. Unfor- 
tunately, the enlightened improvements and experiments whict 


Lord Daer continued to turn his powerful mind 
to the study of rural economy in all its branches, 
and displayed much ability and perseverance in the 
execution of his plans. His talents, however, 
were not confined to the management of his 
father's estate ; they were also exerted in the pro- 
motion of every measure of public utility. The for- 
mation of proper roads,! the erection of convenient 
bridges, 2 as the precursors of other improvements, 
commanded a considerable portion of his anxious 
attention. By his liberality, judgment, and in- 

Lord Daer contemplated, he was not destined to live to super, 
intend. But every thin? he had suggested was, so far as was 
possible, carried into effect. Not only was the sum, realized 
from the estate by skilful management, soon found sufficient to 
meet the payment of rent ; but on the termination of the lease, 
the value of the property was ascertained to have been enhanced 
in so surprising a degree, that Lord Galloway had to pay an ad- 
ditional sum of no lea* than £125,000! This result was not 
more honourable to the penetration and talents of Lord Daer, 
than the mode in which tlBmoney was disposed of is honourable 
to the benevolence and liberality of his brother, Thomas, Earl 
of Selkirk, the subject of this sketch. It was not till about the 
year 1806 that the transaction in question was finally adjusted. 
At that time Lord Selkirk had four sisters alive, to whom he 
was warmly attached ; and instead of appropriating the lar^e 
sum in question to his own use, dividing it into five shares, he 
presented a share to each of his sisters, and only retained the 
remaining one for himself." Morray's Literary History 
of Galloway. 

1 Mr Macadam, a native of Galloway, effected a complete 
revolution and wonderful improvement in the art of road-mak- 
ing, by covering the surface of roads with several inches of stone? ; 
broken into small pieces. From him the process has received 
the name of macadamizing. This benefactor of his country lies 
interred in Carsephairn church-yard. 

2 " Of all the bridges lately built in this Stewartry, the most 
important one is that ovqj the Dee, at Tongland, which consists 
of a magnificent arch, of 110 feet span, with three small arches 
on each side. This useful bridge was founded, in March, 1804; 
opened for passen^eis in November, 1800; and completely, 
finished, in May, 1808, at the expence of 7,350/. Caledoni*. 

vol. II. Qrj 


fluence, lie introduced a taste among proprietors 
for erecting better farm houses, with suitable 
offices, and for laying out ornamental plantations.! 
Prior to Lord Daer's improvements the scenery 
around Kirkcudbright was naked in the extreme. 
The change which has been effected in the ap- 
pearance of the surrounding country can only be 
conceived by those who have seen it in both 

From the Stewartry, agricultural amelioration 
travelled westward into Wigtown-shire. Both 
the Earls of Galloway and Stair, 2 bestowed much 

1 " The late Tail," says Mr Fmilb, who wrote in 1813, "had 
executed only a small part of the plan when, in the year 1786, 
he transferred the management of his estate to liis ton, Lord 
Daer, who immediately made the most judicious arrangements 
for carrying on this branch of his improvements. The c!-lar.e 
was mest accurately surveyed, and all the ground intended to be 
planted marked out. Perceiving, tlatt many advantages would 
arise horn raising the plants upon thFspel, be formed a nurseiy 
of about twenty acres, which was very speedily :-tccked with 
plants suited to the soil and climate. A portion of the ground 
previously marked out, varying in extent according to circum- 
stances, was then enclosed and planted annually; beginning 
with the grounds most contiguous to St. Maiy's Isle, nnd gradu- 
ally extending to the remoter parts of the estate. This mode of 
proceeding, has been steadily pursued for upwards of twenty 
years, and the plan has been now nearly completed by tLe pre. 
»ent Earl." 

[The nobleman here mentioned was the accomplished fa. 
the* of the present Earl of Selkirk ] 

Mr Aguew, of Castlewigg, began to plant forest trees on 
his e&tate about the year 17--. 

2 The Earl of Galloway, we are informed by Mr Chalmers, 
" was urged by a strong desire to improve the estate of his fa. 
theis His practice was, to take his own hand f; rm after 
farm ; to inclose with stone dykes ; an* v. bile he was en j loyed, 
in this useful manner, he caused lime, and sea shell?, to be 
spread on the surface, there to remain till the inclosing should 
he finished. His Lordship undertook no more of ploughing, 
than was si fficient to errplcy his horses and servants, when not 
fed in carrying stones. His first ere p was oats; his se-cer,d 
tolatces tnd turnips; and the third vw.s barley, with grass 


time and attention in improving their estates. — ■ 
From their example, the minor proprietors profit- 
ed, and a better system of tillage began generally 
to prevail. 

But it was not until about the year 1790, 
when the products of the soil had risen in value, 
that the farmers of Galloway set themselves 
seriously to work to put the theoretical knowledge 
they had been induced to acquire into practice. 
The memorable years of 1800 and 1801 had the 
effect of giving a fresh stimulus to exertion. 
Grain at this epoch rose to a higher price than had, 
perhaps, been previously known, and the value of 
catcle was considerably enhanced. The breeding 
and feeding of swine became also an object of un- 
seeds. After his Lordship's farms were thus inclosed and 
svstemized, he let the farms, upon a nineteen years' lease, at a 
considerable advance of rent." 

"By the influence and example of the late Earl of Stair," 
says the Old Statistical Account, "the Inch has undergone a 
total alteration. It is but justice to remark, that this noble and 
worthy personage, was the great promoter of improvement in 
this part of the country. As he possessed skill and ability, so 
he acted on an extensive scale. He procured proper implements 
of husbandry, — paired and burnt mossy grounds, — divuled and 
inclosed his lands, — drained swamps and marshes, — made excel, 
lent roads, — tore up large tracks of barren ground, — ^and im. 
ported lime in great quantities both from England and Ireland. 
Hence what formerly produced only heath, soon yielded rich 
crops of corn. The people beheld the beneficial 'elfects of his 
meliorations. They were roused from indolence and inactivity. 
Ignorance and idleness soon vanished, and labour and industry 
occupied theii place. As a specimen of the excellent elfects of 
his Lordship's improvements, a farm which, preceding 1790, 
was let for the sum o» L.7. 2s. 6d., now rents at L.195; and aru 
other, previous to the same date, was rented at L.48. 4s. 81., 
and i? now let at L.245. The same nobleman lound his estate 
in this parish, not only in a great measure barren, but also 
naked, lie therefore clothed and adorned it with large pi inta. 
tions of trees. During the space of twenty years, he planted 
annually, at an average, at least 20,000 trjes, chielly Scots firs, 
>me larix, ash, beech, &c," 


remitting attention. Rents themselves were very 
moderate, and several of the leases had but re- 
cently commenced. 

This combination of favourable circumstances 
was not neglected by many of the Galloway 
farmers. Capital accumulated in their hands, and 
the Banks willingly lent their assistance to men 
now placed in favourable circumstances. The 
consequence was a marked improvement in the 
husbandry of the district; lime, marl,' sea-shells, 
and sea-weed, were applied with judgment ;- pota- 
toes were extensivcly[cultivated ; the breed of black 
cattle and sheep was improved ; thrashing ma- 
chines were erected ; offices enlarged; fences multi- 
plied ; in short, the whole rural economy of Gallo- 
way was ameliorated, or rather, placed on a new 
footing. The prospect of the agriculturist con- 
tinued to brighten, until the conclusion of the 
French war put an end to what may be termed 
the artificial prices of rural produce, and the pro- 
fits of the farmer were totally annihilated or 
vastly diminished. In despite, however, of the 
distressing effects which a transition from the ex- 

1 " Shell marl of excellent quality," observes the author of 
Caledonia, " has been found, in every part of this Stevvartry, 
within twelve miles of the Sol way ; but none in the high country 
has been discovered. The upper country is supplied with marl, 
by means of the Dee and Ken, ftnd a canal from the Dee to 
the Carlingwark. The people are indebted for this great im. 
provement to Mr Gordon, of Greenlaw, the Stewart of Kirk- 
cudbright, who not only encouraged the draining of the Car. 
lingwark-loch, for its mar] ; but, at his own expence, made a 
canal three miles long to join the Dee; and al»o constructed 
a number of boats, some whereof carry 400 solid feet of marl. 
The minister of Tongland, however, says, that the late John 
Dalzcll, of Barncrosli was the first, who discovered, and used 
"■hell marl." 
2 F cr some time previous to this, marl had fallen into disuse. 


citement of war to the languor of peace, and 
'other untoward circumstances, have produced on 
the tenantry of Galloway, it is cheering to think, 
that the state of agriculture has continued to ad- 
vance. Many landlords merit praise for the 
liberal part they have acted to their tenants in 
cancelling arrears of rent, and affording to the 
industrious every reasonable encouragement. 

The improvements lately made in the agricul- 
tural system of Galloway appear chiefly to consist 
in a better management of drill husbandry, parti- 
cularly with respect to turnips ; a more strict 
adherence to alternate crops; more scientific modes 
of manuring, fencing, and draining ;l and the more 
general use of better implements. These changes 
in the practice of husbandry have rendered the soil 
so much more productive, that it is said to yield a- 
bout twice as much food as it did at a distance of 
time not exceeding sixty years. 9 

1 Tile draining has been lately introduced. 

2 Corn exported from Kirkcudbiight, and entered in the 
Customhouse, about the middle of last century. 

15th March, 1747 8, "20 bags catmeal, 5 bags oatmeal seeds, 
8 bags dressed barley, 20 bushels ground malt, entered for 

11th November, 1747, 4200 pound weight of dressed barley, 
eiilered for Whitehaven. 

6th January 1748 '), 1 100 bushels bear, entered for Liverpool. 

2nd February 1748 9, 24 bags oatmeal, 7 bags bailey entered 
for Whitehaven. 

18th February 1748 9 30 bags oatmeal, entered for Whi'e- 
bav n. 

24th April 1749, 40 bolls oatmeal, 6 bolls malt, entered for 

1st May 1749, 10 bolls oatmeal, 1 boll seeds, entered for 

I8th June 1750, 10 bolls oatmeal, entered for Whitehaven. 

4lh June 1754, 4 cwt. hulled barley, entered for Whitehaven, 

1st February 1757, 2 bolls oatmeal, entered for Whitehaven. 

3d December 1759, 33 cwt. made barley, entered for Liver- 


Potato crops, indeed, for a considerable period, 
Lad been tolerably attended to, but the cultivation 
of turnips had been either neglected or wretchedly 
managed. For some time past, however, every 
successive season has displayed an increased extent 
of this valuable root; while, in many instances, the 
excellence of the crop is the best proof of its 
proper treatment. 

For promoting the growth of this crop, bone 
dust has been resorted to with wonderful success. 1 
The feeding of sheep upon turnips is now become 
general ; and the practice is profitable, for its 
effects are perceptible both in the quantity and 

1 1th December 1760, 50 Winchester bushels oats, 160 stones 
o*tmeal, entered for Cumberland 

]6th March 1761, 1347 bushels oats, entered for Liverpool. 

22nd May 1761, 150 quarters oats, 40 stones oatmeal, enter. 
ei for Whitehaven. 

27th May 1761, 800 Winchester bushels oats, 800 cwt. hul- 
led barley, entered for Whitehaven, 

1 " Bones, which have now become a very important manure, 
are composed of earthy salts, chiefly phosphate of lime, with a* 
little carbonate of lime, phosphate of magnesia, and about one- 
half of decomposable animal matter. Those of fat young 
animals are allowed to be the best. They are less benefi- 
cial fcr clay lands than for light soils, and less efficacious in 
wet than in dry seasons. In the improved districts of Scot- 
land, bone-dust is coming into very general use as a manure 
for turnips, and mills for crushing bones are general in many 
parts of the country. There has been no improvement in 
Scottish agriculture so universally adopted as that of applying 
bone. dust to land intended for the production of turnips, and it 
seems better qualified than any manure hitherto tried for bring- 
ing waste land into cultivation. ■ 3t is light, and can be ca r ted 
to a great distance at liltlo expense, one waggon load of 100 
bushels being found nearly equal to 40 cart loads of farm yard 
manure. It is asserted by some, that its efficacy remains dur- 
ing the whole rotation and even after it. On pastoral farms 
it will be found exceedingly useful ; as, raising a better crop of 
turnips, it will greatly improve the condition of the stork." 

(From " A Treatise on Agriculture and Dairy Husbandry, by . 
J, Jackson, Penicuik.") 


quality of the grain afterwards raised upon the 
land. In the management of black cattle the 
farmers of Galloway certainly excel. Their 
breed, in many respects, is not inferior to any in 
the island. 1 There is in the pastures of even in- 
ferior land here a nourishing kindliness not pos- 
sessed by the richer grain soils of the eastern 
parts of Scotland ; and to this quality, with the 
general mildness of the climate, may probably be 
attributed the superiority of the beef of Galloway 
cattle. Whether the breed of Galloways has im- 
proved of late, or not, is a question we are not 
competent to decide ; but that the purest and best 
specimens are to be found in the Stewartry, is 
generally allowed. 

The fattening of cattle by house feeding has 
not yet become general, but it is rapidly gaining 
ground, "and is practised with a success not sur- 
passed in any other quarter of the kingdom. The 
specimens which have been produced at the High- 
land Society's Cattle Shows were always of so fine 
a description as to attract universal admiration. 

The farmers, however, seem generally disposed 
to prefer consuming their turnips by sheep upon 

! " A true Galloway bullock He is straight and broad in 

the Lack, and noarlv level from the head to the rump, closely 
compacted between the shoulder and ribs, and also betwixt the 
ribs and the loins — broad at the loins, not however with hooked 
bones or projecting knobs ; so that when viewed above, the 
whole body appears beautifully rounded, like the longitudinal 
section of a roller. He is long in the quartets but not bioad in 
the twist. He is deep in the chest, short in the leg, and mo- 
derately fine in the bone — clean in the chop and in the neck 

Ilia head is of a moderate size, with large rough ears, and full, 
but not prominent eyes, or heavy eye. brows, so that he has a 
calm, though determined look. His well proportioned form is 
clothed with a loose aud mellow fakin, adorned with long soft 
glossy hair." Smith 


the ground, rather than by oxen in the house. 
Considering- the general state of the soil, there is, 
perhaps, wisdom in the practice; for, until the 
land be enriched to a certain extent, the re- 
moval of even a portion of the crop of turnips is 
followed by detrimental consequences, leaving; the 
ground little ameliorated.! 

Of late the farmers of the district h'ave found 
great facility in obtaining markets for their fat 
stock. Steam vessels ply regularly between the 
ports of Galloway and Liverpool ; and there is 
also a constant communication maintained between 
Galloway, and both Ireland and Glasgow. The 
beneficial effects of these arrangements are power- 
fully felt by the agricultural and mercantile in- 
terests of the South of Scotland. Goods can 
sometimes be conveyed from Manchester to near- 
ly the centre of Galloway in a day ;'2 and travel- 
lers, on some occasions, leave London after break- 
fast on one day, and breakfast the next in Kirk- 
cudbright. It is to be hoped that a railroad touch- 
ing on Dumfries, or passing through the district, 

1 For some of the preceding information, we own our obli- 
gation to Mr Madellan, lately farmer in Glentoo, now agricul- 
tural overseer to the Duke of Leinster, Ireland. 

2 The Countess of Gall Avay steamer, built in 1835, which 
plies regulaily between Kirkcudbright and Liverpool, and Wig. 
town or Garliestown and Liverpool, under the command of 
Captain Broadfoot, has been uncommonly successful. Attempts 
are ht present in progress for raising funds to purchase a vessel 
of a larger size and more power, that she might generally 
perform her voyasres in ten hours. Though the measure would 
prove an advantageous one to the landed interest of Galloway, 
the sum required for such a purpose has not yet been raised. — 
The first steamer that appeared in the Dee, was the "Rob 
Roy, ' in the year 1820, and it was during this year, that the 
" Highland Chieftain" steam vessel first visited Stranraer. — 
The Countess of Galloway made her first voyage to Kirkcud. 
bright, in September 1835, 


may vet be formed, and prove the source of more 
extended intercourse. 1 

During the period mentioned in this chapter, 
the trade of Galloway has amazingly increased. 2 
Formerly, every article required by the inhabi- 
tants, except goods of the most ordinary descrip- 
tion, was sent for from some of the large towns 
at a considerable distance ; but now the towns of 
the district afford all the necessaries, and many 
of the elegancies of life. 3 

1 " In 1S02," says Mr Chalmers, "an act of parliament was 
passed, (or making a navigable cana!, from the port of Kirk- 
cudbright to the boat. pool of Dairy, in Glenken. 42 Geo. III. 
ch. 1 14. This canal will carry navigation through the centie of 
the Stewartry, into the high country, a space of twenty three 
miles." [The canal was never made.] 

2 " In J 692, Kirkcudbright had only 1 boat of • 8 tons 

In 1792, — — 28 vessels of 1053 tons 

In 1801, — 37 vessels of 1648 tons 

In 1818, — 44 vessels of 1902 tons 

In 1840, — 54 vessels of 2069 tons 

When the register of shipping was established, in 1788 there 

were fouud to be In Stranraer, 18 vessels, of 1011 tons 

In Portpatrick, 7 vessels, of 260 tons 

In Wigtown, 27 vessels, of 1019 tons 

The total, in the shire 52 2290 

In IS01, — In Stranraer, 44 vessels of 1732 tons 

In Portpatrick, 5 vessels of 210 tons 
In Wigtown, 25 vessels of 984 tons 

The total, in the shire, 74 2926 

In 1818— In Stranraer, 52 vessels of 2684 tons 

In Port Patrick, 4 vessels of 190 tons 

In Wigtown, 43 vessels of 1886 tons 

In 1840 — In Stranraer & Portpatiick 34 vessels, of 2053 tons 

In Wigtown, 64 vessels, of 4 172 tons 

J 97 10,985 

3 " The whole excise duties of Kirkcudbright and Wigtown. 


The facilities for the advancement of trade have 
kept pace with its progress. Harbours have been 
improved, lighthouses erected,! and beacons or 
buoys placed in suitable situations for the safety 
of navigation. 

Since the Rebellion of 1745, the people of 
Galloway have made very considerable progress 
in the path of knowledge and intelligence. 2 Edu- 
cation has become generally diffused, it being a 
rare thing to find a native adult, who cannot both 
read and write. The children of the poor are en- 

d tiring the year 1G5G, were leased to Andrew Houston for 
•£•37". At that epoch, the custom house port of Ayr, it eluded 
the whole coast ol Kyle, Cnrrick, and Galloway." (The Rev. 
John Maclcllan's Description of Galloway.) Caledonia. 

From an official document printed last year, we see that the 
present annual excise revenue of Galloway, amounts to about 

1 There are light houses on the point of Saturness, in the 
parish of Kirkbean : on the Mull of Galloway, in Kirkmaiden ; 
at Poripatrick harbour; on Corsewall point, in Kirkcolm. — 

By the exertions of the late and pieseet members for tho 
Stewartry, (Mr Fergusson, of Craigdarroch, and Mr Murray, of 
Broughton,) a ligthouse is about to be built on the island of 
Little Ross, at the mouth of the Dee. 

2 Notwithstanding the growing intelligence of the inhabitants 
of Galloway, Mr Robert Gordon, the Procurator Fiscal of the 
Stewartry, consideied himself called upon, in 1805, to bring to 
trial a woman of the name of Jane Maxwell, wham he accused of 
" pretending to exercise witchcraft, sorcery, inchantment, and 
conjuration, and undertaking to tell fortunes."' The evidence 
exhibited numerous melancholy instances of profanity, effrontery, 
and imposition on the one part, and of extreme credulity, sim- 
plicity, and delusion on the other. She w; 5 1. und guilty by the 
jury; and the Steward Depute " Decerned and adjudged the said 
Jane Maxwell, to be carried hack from the bar, to the tolbooth 
of Kirkcudbright, and to be imprisoned therein for the space of 
one whole year fiom that date, without bail or mainprise; a.;d 
once iu every quarter ol the said year, to stand openly upon a 
market day in the jugs, or pillosy, at the market cross of tho 
burgh of Kirkcudbright, foi the space of one hour; and ordained 
the Magistrates of Kirkcudbright, to see the sentence carried 
into execution." The sentence was rigidly executed. 


eourag-ed to attend schools, sometimes free of ex- 
pense, and thus the mind is laid open to correct 
moral and religious impressions. The extensive 
circulation of Chambers's Edinburgh Journal and 
other cheap periodical publications, has, at the 
same time, had a powerful influence in removing 
prejudices and enlightening the minds of the peo- 

Twenty-six years ago there was only one printing 
press in Galloway. At present there are no fewer 
than eight generally in operation. One newspaper 
is printed at Stranraer, namely, the Galloway 
Register. This paper frequently contains very 
interesting matter : it first appeared as a literary 

By the general improvements of the district, the 
health of the inhabitants has been considerably 

The draining of marshes and mosses, the erec- 
tion of more spacious and better ventilated houses, 
the more comfortable clothing and nutritious diet 
now used, and the greater attention to clean- 
liness, have banished several diseases, — such as 
the ague, — which formerly prevailed to a painful 
degree. It is true, the ultimate boundary of 
human life has not been extended;' but its a- 

1 We give from Caledonia, the following instances of 
longevity in the Stcwartry, piiorto 1804. ''William Marshall, a 
tinker, died in Kirkcudbright, on the 28th of November, 1792, 
in the 120th year of his age: A woman died, in the same 
town, during 1803, aged 103. In the parish of Urr, with- 
in fifteen years, preceding 1792, several per. sons died at 100. 
and upwards; and among these was Peter Buchanan, who 
died in 17;-3. aged 115. In Balmaghie parish, died a wo. 
man, aged 113, about the year 1774. In 1790, a woman 
dj-jd at Castle I ed 107. In 1790, another wo. 

man, died in Kirkpatrick Durham, aged 108. And a man was 
living at Dairy, iu 1792, at the age of 100." 


verage duration lias been materially augment- 
ed. From this state of things the population of 
Galloway is yearly encreasingi notwithstanding 
the constant, and by no means inconsiderable 
stream of emigration, caused by the removal of its 
youth to more extended fields of enterprise.2 Many 
of these spirited and enlightened Gallovidians 
reflect much credit ontheir native district ; whilst 
some of them return to enrich the places of their 
birth, by the ample fruits of their succesful ex- 

The chief immigration into the province is from 
Ireland. Much of the ordinary labour of the district 
is performed by native Irish and their descendants. 

1 Population of Galloway, at various periods. 

1755. 1791. 1801. 1811. 1821. 1831. 
87,671. 47,881. 5'2,129. 60,575. 72,143. 76,848. 

2 There are so many individuals connected witli Galloway in 
the city of Glasgow, that they have formed themselves into a 

•society, called " The Glasgow Galloway Brotherly Society," 
which has done much good in affording relief to many of its mem. 
bers. All memhers must be connected with Galloway, either 
by bi-tb> residence, or marriage, and must have been born in 
Scotland. They pay a small sum according to their age, as 
entry money, and six shillings yearly iu quaiterly payments; 
and when unable to do any work from accident or ill health, 
they draw from its funds, from three to five shillings weekly, 
and their friends at their death receive forty shillings in name of 
funeral money. In this way upwaids of £100 are paid away 

Many individuals residing in both Glasgow a.ul Galloway have 
become free members, by paying a sum at once, in lieu of entry 
money and quarter accounts, who scaicely ever have oc. 
casion to draw from its funds. This has tended materially to 
increase the capital ; and during the early stage of the society, 
when its members were young and not drawing largely from 
it, the funds accumulated so as to enable the members to pur. 
chase two small properties in the suburbs of Glasgow. The 
citv having extended of late years towards one of them, its value 
has been so much enhanced, that the stock of the society is now 
estimated at £1,500. There are nearly 300 members, and it« 
affairs are managed by a preses, treasurer, twelve masters, a 
doctor, secretary, and an officer elected annually. 


For many general and local benefits, Galloway 
lias been peculiarly indebted to agricultural so- 
cieties, and other kinds of associations, which have 
from time to time been formed. These so- 
cieties, by propagating knowledge, encouraging 
emulation, rewarding industry, and uniting their 
resources, have accelerated improvement in no 
ordinary degree. Kirkcudbright, the principal 
town of the Stewartry, has always shown a laud- 
able anxiety to be the foremost in the career of im- 
provement. In 1763, water was brought, in lead- 
en pipes, into the town for the use of the inha- 
bitants, from springs at the distance of half a mile. 
The expense, which amounted to upwards of £440 
sterling, was defrayed partly from the Burgh funds, 
and partly from private subscriptions.* 

In 1777, the principal inhabitants of the town, 
and many of the gentlemen of the surrounding 
country, established a library in Kirkcudbright. — 
The books were selected with much judgment; 
and, for many years, all the new publications of 
merit were obtained. Of late its affairs have not 
been so prosperous. 

Two building Societies were formed in Kirk- 
cudbright, one in 1808, and the other in 1810. — 
They erected 112 houses, which have added much 

1 St. Cuthbeit's- Lodge in the town of Kirkcudbright, gave 
five guineas for this important purpose. There were about 200 

The following inscription, on a rnaible tablet, was placed afc 
the main cistern. 

This fount, ■•ot Riclics, Life supplies, 
Ait j r 'iv< what Natuieheie deuies; 
Posterity must surely bliss, 
Saint Cuthbert's 6ons who purchased Tb'r. 
Water introduced 23d March, 17oJ 


to the comfort and convenience of the inhabitants. 
Each member contributed, at fixed periods, certain 
sums, which were yearly expended in building 
new houses. These houses were disposed of by lot ; 
and the individuals who received them, had each to 
pay a rent to the society, equal to the interest of 
the sum laid out on his property. When all the 
members had obtained houses, the rents and con- 
tributions ceased, and the societies were dissolved. 
Some members who possessed two or more shares, 
employed the whole sums allowed by the society in 
Luilding one habitation. 

On the 8th of May, 1815, the foundation stones 
of the jail and the new Academy,! were laid. The 
jail, which was built at the joint expense of the 
Burgh and County, is a large structure, and cost 
£4,277 16s. It is not well arranged for the pre- 
sent mode of prison discipline, as the cells are 
generally roomy and too few to admit of the suf- 
ficient separation of prisoners. It is to be enlarged 
and to undergo some changes. 

The Academy consists of three class rooms of 
spacious dimensions. Two of them are 45 feet 

1 The old academy, or school, stood on the site of the present 
jail. Previous to 1766, the school-house of Kiikcudbright con- 
sisted of only one apartment ; but at that period a new school of 
one story was built, which contained two rooms, each 24 fees 
Ion" 1 , and 17^ feet broad, at a cost of £109 5s. Before the 
Jiouse was finished a petition was given in to the Town Coun- 
cil, by the members of St. Cuthbert's Lodge, "praying for a 
feu of the upper part of the school house," for erecting a room, 
in which they might holdtheit meetings. The feu was granted 
at an annual feu. duty of twenty shillings Scots, [twenty pence 
sterling.] The Magistrates obtained possession of this apart, 
ment (which they used as a third class room ) when the new 
Mason. Lodge was erected in Ca3tle street. The old academy 
•was pulled down to make room for the new Jail. (CouncU 
Records^ — 


in length, and contain nine large windows each. 
Kirkcudbright has long been famed for its educa- 
tional advantages. 1 The Academy has about an acre 
of ground belonging to it for the use of the scholars, 
The site of the building, with the play ground, was 
presented to the Burgh by the late Earl of Sel- 
kirk. The expense of its erection was in part 
defrayed by subscription: it cost £1,129. 

A new church was lately built for the parish of 
Kirkcudbright. It is certainly the most elegant 
in the south of Scotland. About £7,000 were laid 
out on this edifice, which can contain a congrega- 
tion of upwards of 1,500 individuals. The Town 
possesses nearly two thirds of the building; but its 
funds were saved to a considerable amount by 
private donations. 

In 1838, the first Gas Company in Galloway- 
was formed by the inhabitants of Kirkcudbright, 
and the streets, shops, and private houses, are now 
well lighted.2 The work cost £1,500. Gas has 

l John Cuninghame, Esq., Advocate, (now Lord Cuning- 
hame,) as one of the Commissioners appointed by the King, for 
inquiring into the state of municipal corporations in Scotland, 

visited the Academy of Kirkcudbright, 26th September, 1833 

In his report the Commissioner thus expresses himself. 

" The Magistrates have little Patronage, except the appoint- 
ment of their own clerk ; chamberlain, and suboidinate officers. 

'" They also choose the teachers of the School. The attend- 
ance of scholars at the academy, the good order and appearance 
of the school rooms, and the apparent proficiency of the scholars 
sufficiently attest that the Magistrates have been very judi- 
cious and successful in the exercise of this part of their patron- 

2 Kirkcudbright was not the first place in Galloway in which 
gas was burned. It was, at an earlier period, introduced into tha 
burgh of Maxwellton, by pipes from Dumfries 

Maxwellton was made a burgh of barony in 1810. It 
is under the government of a provost, two bailies, and four 

Cattle-Douglas was constituted a burgh of barony in 1700. 


been lately introduced into the town of Stranraer. 

It obtained a new and enlarged charter in 1829. The Council 
consists of ten members,— a provost, two bailies, and seven 

Gatehouse of Fleet was erected into a burgh of barony, by a 
charter dated 30th June, 1795, It is governed by a provost, 
two bailies, and four Councillors. 

See Appendix (Ff) and (Gg) 




Note P. — Vol. ii.— Page 4. 


" January 11th, 1542.3. John Maknacht of Kilquharmit'e, 
(being then at the horn,) found surety to underly the law, at 
the next Justice-aire of Kirkcud'oryght, for art and part of the 
cruel slaughter, of William Sinclair, of Auchinfranko. (April 
17, 1543.) Andrew Herys, brother of William, Lord Herys, be. 
came surety for his appearance to answer for the said crime. 

[There is a tradition yet extant, that the murder of a Sinclair, 
■was perpetrated in the farm of Nether-place, in the parish of 
Urr; and the small field where the fatal deed was committed, 
still bears the name of Sinclair's yard. Andrew Herries, here 
mentioned, resided at Nether- place,] 

'• May 14th, 1557. Alexander Stewart of Garlies, John 
Dunbar of Mochrame, John Gordoune of Barskeoche, John M*. 
Culloche of Torhouse, John Jardane of Apilgerth, Robert 
Moffet senior and junior, of Grautoune, Thomas Moffet of 
Knock, Robert Johnnstouue of Coittis, and John Crevchtoun 
Tutour of Sanchare, found caution to underly the law at the 
next aire of Dumfries, for abiding from the Queen's army 
ordained to convene at Lochmaben stane, &c. 

" John Gordoun of Lochinvar, Mur