(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The history of Great Britain, under the house of Stuart"

J- H ] 



HISTORY 



O I 



GREAT BRITAIN 



I N I) L R T 11 h 



H O U S E of S T U A R T. 



T II E 



HISTORY 



O F 



GREAT BRITAIN, 



UNDER THE 



HOUSE of STUART. 



V o L. I. 



CONTAINING 



The Ra^^ns of Jx^MES L and CHARLES I 

By DAVID II U M E, Efq; 

The S i:. C O N D L. D I T I O N Co:;cac.l 

L () N D () N : 

I'-.itcd lor A. Ml',', \K, in t!ij ^:r..M i. 



CONTENTS. 



J A M E S I, 



c II A r. I. 



tia:io}:s. R . ; ^fi^^b's cc ;/// :ri uy . /I.:/fr 

mcnt. Pciict -i^-itb Sriiiii. 









I'.l C I 



c; 11 A r. II. 

d'.y.l^yii'.h"' cor.'frracy, ./ j .:'.. i.-iii>it . 1 '::: i.iv::cn ^.' 

p-uiintis. A parltiiiiicni. Death o. li.c li\'>:ch Kr 

^!atc cf Irdd u!. 

c II A r. HI. 

I)c\itl> cf PriK-c lh').yy. Marvui-c i.f ibc PyiucCii L. -.:.'.// 

Ri.c oj Sci}ic/',it . II', ,)uiyi'ij ^r . O :'(/.-.'.';. /" k 

7/hrfc'/. R:jj cf Butkiii^hcin!. G:;^^^-/,,;/;y /.:; ;;...; 

S CO I, and. 



I 



1 ) 



C II A P. IV. 

//:s (Wt'yu.'io'!. /; /fr; cc'/;. '; 



:y Jf^al:cr Rii!:'r^b's cspcdiHoi.- 

Roh cf tb PalUmatc. AV^5.;.///6//j :/// >p.::^i. ./ 

P,at:,:. R:.! of Bu.uK. a:- ;/-/ /:.::.:;: K.k- r.-.d r.r 

' . 'ii . ; .' ; ; ,- ' '.j .' >. ' ; lO ;;/ yii : /i^. 

C II A P. V. 

\V^!://i.;.\/;.\> :.-.'.' /-r^.irc: iv tbc ;;,..;;../,; .;'.>:' /'. ' /'...;..':,;/'. f 

:r,ba:. 7 '/.'.. v'i /c/.r;;,;v ;.. .^prr^i. M.-y:: -:,:..r. P 

-::,: . /C:'/.-;-;; ./ Ry:,:.:. A/'//;/^:- iv^b .\ .. ;;. R 

M:Ksrd:r< c:rcd:.:^y. R-'.::b ' : i .' Rr . // - 



c> v/ '^ V . vj ^' i 



vi CONTENTS. 



APPENDIX, 

Crcil government of England during this period. Ecdefmjiical government.^ ^ 

Manners. Finances. 'Navy. Commerce.' '^ ManufaSiures,^ > Colo- 

r,ies. Learning and arts, io6 



CHARLES I. 

CHAP. I. 

A prrli anient at Wefiminfter. At Oxford, Naval expedition againjl Spain. > 

Second parliament. Impeachment of Buckingham. -Violent meafures of the 

conn. PP^ar 'u:iih France.^ Expedition to the ifle of Rhe, lo^ 

CHAP. II. 

'^lird parliament. Petition cf right. Prorogation. Death of 

Bu.,kingkam. New feffion of parliament. T'onnage and poundage. 

Arminianifm . Diffolution of the parliament. i^y 

C H A P. III. 

P(ai-e iviih France. Peace vfilh Spam.' State of the court and jniniflry. 

Character of the ^^icen. Siraffcrd. Laud. Innovations 

tn the church. Irregular levies of money. Severities in the flar-chamher 

cii^l hi A:) coainiijlion. -^^Ship-mon-'y. F'rial of Ilanwden. 185 

C II A P. IV. 

Dhtcntt^ts :.-i S.ctlav.d. Iiirod-.u.kn cf the canons and liturgy. // tumuli 

a! IAAujA. lie cc\:cnant. -/l general ajfcmbly. Epifcopacy 

aAlA.cd. - Ji''a-\ >7 ycclfLaiio:'. Renewal of the iiar. 

/'//,- '1 [.yfjh pcvKa-ucn!. l^ilJA'tiCH Difccnicnts in England. Rout 

at At :;:..'/'.'. :'/V..7v at Rfl'cn Great council oj' the peers. 210 

CHAP. 



C () X 1" E N^ T S. 
C II .\ P. \ 

M:c!in^^ of the I^r.j r,.y!u--un>!. :^ !r::f r.! < :.[ I.-, { ,;;;--. . .'.^-} . ' ,; /, 
l>.i):Kfy. (-yrii! uidb'rify f/ th: C'..m ; 7- '' " . '. 

I'sc,!'t:'.n 'A t:!)\:f.! J. Ul'^b ccmuLl^.:,: a.:d _\:r r. r.' - ..' ': ,- 

CHAP. VI, 

Sctt'c-ntcnt of SrotlcDul. C nfiracy lu Jytlar.J. f>: wirsJ::': a'j ' ;. " . ^.- 

MiCtiiig of the E):g!:''h par. iV/icnt. 7':< rc::.c.' jh<n.,: . Liu..-:, y 

in:pi\uhyiii}:t cj' tic : f ops. J. .uf.itic:: <; i'.:'j.Vc n:Lh.- a:. . .; 

C II A P. \'II. 

Cci}:nriicc)::ci!!: (f -.i.c ik':' z.\:r. y.,i:i' c^ p.irtic-. n. :/.'.': '.;' /..'^.'.'. - 

A'f r-: ''^/''''' '^^ Ox^ci-.l. -i'lt^cy::^ c^ iir rcyurls r: tl.: z: :. .,,; 

y-:::.':. Of ' l.-upl.- n. (\t RL:i^i.:.y.iy-d'.:i.K. 1'.. . . ' li.: . 

tit nor. I. l' E [^'.nid. S.lcii:}! ':<.i^:iC ih:J c :,\:j/ij:!t. -///;.;.^ ' ... 

>:.r: cf L.Lmd. 

C II A P. \'III. 

L,r::frn of t!:-: Scotch. Br.ti'c of Ah:yjic;i-}iyor. ..://.' '/ C; ; 

l:.ff''x\< forces dtjdrmcd. ^cccrid i^.tt!: cf d>cz:-c^ :<)_.. ]<: .:/.././.'.;, 

ihr nufpouioits. -Se/'-d y\i':7 ordiiuuhc. f-iJ!rf:x, (d :;y.\d.' ; 

UsI/yiii^-'. Exccui:oii rf I .du.i. 

C 11 A P. IX. 

Alor.'.y'^lt s 'i:i:dj\cs. dhc ncvj >,.'..:! of the .:y;}!\. /.',;/.., .\.- ./;. . , 

ynidcy of Er:jtd. dhe i::fi . .;_,;(./<,.',_; /';; /..a, E: .../ ./ .\1 ,.; : . - 

ELE.:fuiji[uii dji' n-s. d:n'^ [^^ct.. the d.oi.b ^11 \ ..;(. / .; ' ;' 

A',;;^ uid^cycd up 'y ih-c i~.y.E:. 

K \\ \ 



Vil 



-""- - Q 



VIU 



CONTENTS, 



CHAP. X. 



'Hhe army march agninjl the 

The King flies to the ifle 

Invafton from Scotland. The treaty 

The civil war and invajion reprepd.- The King feized again 

The hcnfe [urged. -^Tbe King's trial.'- ^ And e>:ecutiQn.''--^And 



Mutiny of the array. "The King feized by Joyce.- 

tarliainent. The army fuh due the 'parliament. 

of Wight.' Second civil war.- 

cf Newport, 
hy the army.' 
charaLfe". 







T 1 1 ] 



r n I 



HISTORY 



--^ '' S^^^^ .^ ^ ',. '^f ^^r ^ >^^ ^ ,. .r- V " ''' ^ 



O F 



GREAT BRITAIN. 



J AMES I. 



C II A P. 1. 

I'.!r',Jiicir-,n. y,i:iliSi firj tr.:}!lluTi','iS. Sttilc cf Ii.ur'h-. 

jcyciicc. A parliiiiiur.: . iVi.'ic' ;.'.','' ^[-ain. 






1 1 r. crown (;F l\nfj,l.jn.l was n.wr I'Tairniitrctl from faii.cr to fon witli 
r:r.M!:cr tr.ir.qiiil'ity, \\\m\ it p.-.iT d \xo\\\ v.\c la!r,:!y (jf T'uclor to tluu of 
Stiir-it. DiiiinL; tlic w'r.olc xCirVi kA I'.li/.abL':!:, t!^.c eyes c i' ir.rn had 



been cinMluycvl in i -aivv. (1 f.^r liKC-.rfori .:\\\ w'.l:; *. '..; .':.; m.i.lc t!u^ 

T p . L" of Iap death niore i:v,:;kUi.ite, th.rj nj. geared i-.or.o b;:L t!:.' K!.r; o: Scor- 

ian.l, who -Gi.ld advance any iull chiini or [K'.ici^ho:-! to :h; rhr.'nc. I 1.; \'. as t'u- 

ir'car-f'iaiuifon oi Manr.irtt, (.klcll d.ui.'^'.tcr ot ] Icniv ^'11. n:' \ \:yy.\ the failure 

^': ail t::c iiiai lin;', hi-i hcrcehtai'y ri^y^t rcniain.'d i;n'y;L'ilio:-!..i'lc. li t!;e ic- 

. , 'n (,1 M ;rv (^.ccn c t Scots, andi tiic ()thcr yo. ii;.!iv '-. c> ;uir.v\.\i agai.iil f,: r, 

.1 ti^rr^i.,: a :v coni'dcrai-ic obilaci./ t') i.cr l^iCCc'lnoo ; t'.c !c ( bivdio:;-, b, in ^ 

iitay I ; rl.jnai, had no j hicc with "C^-^wc. to i.cr Ion. M. n ah ; t nnfb" ; ;h 

':.. tiio' the tide, derived !ioin blood, !'ad been bc^]uenri}- \ ioiat..! drc;- -'-c 

,1. W ' "^ - -^ 



2 H I S T O R Y o F G R E A T B R i T A J N. 

CKr.r. T. Norman conqucfl, fuca licences hac' prcceeded more from force or intrigue, tlian 
^^''^' from any deliberate maxims of government. The lineal heir had ftill in the end 
prevailed ; and both his exclufion and refcorarion had been commonly attended 
with fuch convLiUions, as v/ere fufiicient to warn all prudent men not lightly tc 
oive way to fuch irregularities. W the vvill of i-icnry \ III. authorifed by act ol 
parliament, had tacitely excluded the Scottifn line j the tyranny and caprices of 
that m.onarch i:'.d rendered his memory fo odious, tliat a fettlement of this na- 
ture, undup-:orted by any jull reaiGu, had no authority with the people. QtJeen 
Elizabeth too, witli her dying breath,, had recognized the undoubted title of her 
kinfman James -, and tlie v, hole nation leemed to difpofe themfelves with joy and 
olcafjre for his r^vxr-tion. I'h.o' born ap.d educated amidll a foreign and hoftile 
i:.eo':le, men hop.d, trom his character oi moderation and wifdom, that lie would 
f-n': brace the maxims of an Englifli monarch ; and the prudent forefavv greater ad- 
vantages, refuking from an union Vvith Scotland, than difadvant.iges trom k:b- 
mitting to a prince of that nation. The alacrity, with which the Englifli looked 
towards the fuccclibr, had appeared fo evident to Elizabeth, tliat, concurring 
Vv ith other caufes, it afilxi;ed her with the deepeft melancholy , and that wife Prin- 
cefs, whofe penetration ^,nd experience had given her the greatefl infight into hu- 
man aifair.s h.ad not yet fufiiciently weighed the ingratitude of courtiers, and le- 
vity of the people. 

As viclory abroad, and tranquillity at home, had ever attended this Qj.ieen, flie 
left the nation in fuch flourifiiing circumifances, that her fucceifor pofifjfTcd every 
advantage, except that of conrparifon with her iliufcrious nam/C, v/licn h.e mount- 
r-.l tr- :'<-- ed t'-.e throne of England. Tiie King's journey from Edinburgh to London im- 
'''^"' n";ei.;iatciy ailbrdcd to ttic inquifltive fi;)mc circumi^bmces oi comparifon, whicli 
even the natural partiality in favour of their new fovereign, could not interpret to 
his advani'age. As he pafild along, all ranks cf men ilocked about hiir, from 
CN'cry q'larier , allured by intereft or curiohty. Great were the rejoicings, and 
loud and liearLy the acclamations which refour.deci from all fidci ; and every one 
couid '-.n^iembu' how tlie affability and popularity of their Queen difplayed them- 
felves, anfid'il fueli coneourie and exultation of her f-ibjccJls. But James, tho' fo- 
ciabk and familiar v/itli his friends and ccurtier'=, hated ti.e buille of a mixt mui- 
titL;f.e , ar.d tho' f^r from diOiking f'attrry, yet was lie {fill ion.der of tranquillity 
and cafe. Me therefore ifiued a '^r^x-iaination, forbidding this great refort of peo- 
ple, under [;-retence of the fearcity ol provifions, and other inconveniencics, which 
v.ould neceilarlly attend it. 

iiE was not, iiowever, ii-.;.iilib!e to the great overfiovr of affection, v,r,ich ap- 
peared in his pew l::i/J'.cls j and bung himkdf of :in ai]\;a.ionate temper, he feems 

to 



1 A M ] 






: 



'. h :- I. 



i: ".o t!v kin^iJ.o!^^ ii/ ii coni: liU' i [<; ii.i\' bcilo..c ! k:.: ^'.ul'.O' J (jn nu Lis t}i.;:i 
'! 7 " j~C'!lc.i>'. I: (^* i-.p. l'.ii/.tb:tii's tru^.iiity v: iio.'Vjj;.-, ;' i ^^ jl^ >>.. ui ir.or.w, 
h.i.l i\:cii lunrc-riy rrp::itd a:, ic bf-2 i:i !Vj-.v to !^:: va:i:':.i an: cl^ejnx-J ; A...1 
i\\]\- r-M' v:-- kr.wb!-', tiiac l!ij KiiKs by hi^ !av;!'i a;:;" \ rcn: :ti:!C cj;i::';r::.'^ o: 
. ':.u; Mib'd or obiiginr;: l': c pcrloiis, (;:i \\!.';rn I.l; b.!^ ;'.v;,i rbc .i. 'I'libs 
( , , ....,!- b.\.VTii; ;b common, tisat tli::y v>' 12 f:o ki'-^T niarbs ol (.;::l:n.i; o ^ 
;.:,- b^;ii[; diilnbiircJ, widioi:: ciioicc or cit iibcra::o:\ to [;crlo;^s, L::ibni/.\ .-. to w.c 
( liiKc, wciv ri-2,.irticJ more as t!.j [:rco:s oi raciiitv aiul i;^.;).!-:ia::::-c, ti;a:i ui a .y 
lictcrminei.! triciuiniip or c'lc.m. 

,\ p:i!^p;::;ail^: was afiixcci to St. PaiilV, i:i \\\.;c!: a:i art was p!-on;:!^ri :o be 
tai.;j,';t, verv iijc^fbiry to alTill irail ir.cir.oiic-, i.i rcta:::;;^^ ^'^" '''^^^-^ '-' t'^, i^.w 
Nclbity. 

\Vi. may }':Lti;n:e, tliat th;: lm;:blli w u;bi haw thro'vn Icb [^b:mj on b:c!v.: ./s 
b..b;:'. ;:i U!bj\sii'.[; t.:vtnjr-, !uul thclb ba':i connn'.d (ii:;i(.'\ ro '!i. ;; ( v. .- i;a- 
:.(..;, .iii:l h~\^ nut bccm !ha:-c*d our, in t(X) i:n.'(]ual jn\. portion", to bis obi :bb' b:-?. 
[..:r--, V.I10, rlrcj' bi> wbuic r.i:::, was more gobbnl ["^y tcin; cr and inci:n.i:i :i 
;'v the riii^s (;i p^iiri.al prinicnre, bab broirjit vbbi iiim rrcat ni;m- 
' r (;: his bcotcli conrti/rs ; s\ !io!c in^pati n^r av/A importnnity were apr, in :v..\:\ / 
J arbiLiibirs, to innpolc cjn the ca'y natme o' t'.'.cir nMfur, ar.d extort ta\-o.r5. o: 
winch, it is natural to imagine, !b:s b'.:'p;'i!n ;u' '.eN v.oiikl vei"y lo iln' c>.:mplain. 
'i i-e k)uk.- of 1 .cnox, tb.e I'.arl ot bbir, b/.e 1 ,orb I iu:r,e, i or.: KinI /Is, S.r ( ifor.^t; 
1 I me, S crerary b' b'brblone, were innnecba^eiv a..b!ev; ro bie 1 n bnli pr -ry coun- 
cil. y-]r (icoriie 1 lumc, whoiVi he crr;itL-.: I .ui or n,:r.bar, was lu.s b;e:!ared ia- 
voLuure a'^ bsr:^ as rluit N(bben:an b\'ed ; uui v. .ts t'^e v. ii'll a:) i !11(j1l \nrtu )U^^ 
r'u/ t'lC 1; .hi i'O'Ati lui, c 1 ab I'/.o c wiicun liie kuv^ e\'er !vu"!i;;\d \\ .:'.\ bu." bi- 
,. :u I lav, ibn^ie time a:':.r, wa^ created Xblrouut b . and ':\{.i\ I ar! 

(/ L ariu'^j, and not an immenie fortune ir^ m the erown ; ail vbbJi In inen: in 
a iplencbd and conrtiy manner. Ram'.iy obunned b:e':*ie u\ li.ni o; ! lokb-i-;:e!^ \ 
an 1 imar/ others, beirp; railed, cm a ludwi^n, to tie; !npb-iL e..\a:n)n, (.n.na a,.\i, 
'y t!i! ir inluience, tiiat envy, vdneli na: 
1 r u p V-. 

\: m..b, liov,\ A'cr, be owned, in i'.nb: : it jamc, te .: . .-.;: am 
' ' kivt o'iiees in t.;e iutnds (n I'.i:.' li etlb :]\'/\\\^ 

' .. .\\ coiH-erns both ic^re^^rn an ! ci.nm ilicn to 



', Seeretary Cecil, created 0:.' 



[': abii.dl a" :ka 
.. 0, ami irnlbnl tbc crnd:.-: m 
bb i:ydibi !u' '-bt'. An^ e 
,: 1. :, \bli ount Lra:.born., 



4 HISTORY OF GREATBRITAIN. 

Ciiap. I, and Earl of Salifcury, wms always regarded as his prime miniiler and ciiiefcoun- 
'"^^* fellor. Tho' the capacity and penetration of this miniiler were iufficiently knowr,., 
his favour with the King created great furprize on the acceffion oi that nionarch. 
Cecil was ion ot the fainous Jkirlcigh, whole merits tovvards his iovereign and his 
cour;try were great, but whole name was naturally odious to Jam.es , as the declar- 
ed cncm.y cF his mother, and the chief caufe of her tragical death, by feme e.iceni- 
cd the great fcain in tlie briglit anna's oi" Elizabeth. Ele himfelf, as well as his 
father, had rio;xi at the head of the court- faction, which oppofed the grcatnefs 
of the Earl of Eflcx, and which, alluled by the imprudence or rather frenzy of 
th-.t iavcuiitc, at laft brought him to the fjaffold. The people, hy whom the 
Earl was infinitely beloved, relented the conduci; of ids enemies ; but James (lili 
more, who I. ad mair.taincd :i fecret correfpondmcc with Effex, and regarded him 
as a zcalou: partizan for the fuccefhon in tlie lioufe of Stuart. Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh, Lord Grey, Lord Cobham., Cecil's aiTociates,. feit immediately the effects 
of th^Ic prcjuuices of their mafler, and were dilmifled from their employments: 
But Cecil, who poffelTcd all the art and cunning of a courtier, a:; well as many 
of tlie talents of a great ftarefman, had found tlie means of making his peace v^'ith 
Jam.es ; and, unknovrn both to Elizabeth ai-sd all th.e other minificrs, had entered 
into a fecrct commicrce with t!:c fucccfibr, during the latter years of the Queen's 
ad mini lira: ion. 

Tt'E c.ipacity of James and hi-; miniilers Ip. negotiation was :m;mcdiatcly put to 
trial, on the appearance of anjbafiadors from almoQ: all the princes and ftates of 
Europe, in order to congratulate the King on his acceiTion to the throne, and to 
form w::;i him new treaties and alliances, BtHde m^niflers from Venice, Den- 
m.ari;, the Palatinate , Henry Erederic of Naffau, a.Tiibd by Barncveic the Penh- 
onarv of jrlolland, re^-.rcfentcd the ilatc;; cl" the United Provinces. Arembe: ^'- wai 
fent by Archduke Albert; and Taxis was cxpe6lcd in a little time from Spain. 
i3ut he who excited moft the attention of the }:!ublic, both on account of his own 

/i.rj-c. merit and that of his maflcr, was the Marquefs of Rofni, afterwards Duke of 
Sully, primiC minipLcr and iavourite of Henry IV. of Erance. 

...:rfEj- Wkf.x the dominions oi the houfe of Aufiria devolved on Philip II. all Eu- 
rojM: was ftrucl: with terror -, ltd zhc power of a family, which had been raifed by 
fort'rnc, fiiouid now be carried to an immeafurable height, by the vvifdom and con- 
d.ua Cl this monarch. But never were apprehcnfions found in tlie evcnit to be 
iru}Yt grcufidiefs. Slow without prudence, amibitious without enterprize, fallc 
without deceiving anybody, a;.d re.nned Vvithout any tru.e judgment ; fuch was 
tile cliarafter of Ph!,i{^>, and fuch the charaftcr, which, during his life-time and af- 
:er his death, he imnrcfild on the SpaniHi councils. Revolted or depopulated 

provinces 



J A - 



I. 



ru)vl;,ct.-s, (.I'u ri::T.tv\: or ;;,(.,<;.. r.t i,....t jiiai.t-, v.cr. iric ;[:t:n.;^.i..' , v. ..;c;i [I: .:. 

>'' .i iin , V. , ..:^ i.,,. ivni .li, \v...> ' ...u .. .' : ': .'". ! >:i",c: .-^ ^ ,:. ...icc t-t ii'c 

;. . ..; to : ;;: !.i:: -,.,i.'iM-; ; be:.! / ; /c-: ; .. L , ; :\>.!i. :. .! 1 . icrn.M- 



tb.iLch.: i. :..;..::.,::. ., . ^ :1 - .b..r .V.. ; .,:. -.1:;, 

' ^r^'. !t 



: ;..: 


(Jl 


: ^ : IV, 1 


,1 


;^. :b;n-. 


.;l 


M . ^f ir'" 1 


,' 



a ill licicnt: ca ,.;,;: 



lo t .: >M .;n;:;i v-c.::... ::i. wr.i.ijs :. i:|\;:i; 



: '-r,-- '\ ! ,- k:. 



cliw ;;(;t ; .re :'. : .:, v.'. .i ..^ ; :c :\ ! J, I v i;::; ii-..;...:.r, .: . .'a;: ...' v. :-.i 



c. ;iiunvi:ion wi'li \\: :, lii. Ln 



1 .V.'', .i:.\ =, 



,1 ',.,-;. , '.,. 



ci',;: to .:t:.v .. ::.J . vi:!l...i;: u(>:;::.^:>. :.s (.;; c\-;;v i .! , . :.t' (.;':;. ' .. ; '\uro;:.;n: 

.V... : ;. ; l':>^ p-unon i :\:.A 
> .i- . r,::.l.:-d [i- lb':, 



Cf 



ual !) ibich v.ifl (. MrcrM!/c . 'll.c I'^w.- oi pc 



i[ \\\;s bi' j-.cubcir f, !i;:ity, i!;.iL t'.c c(}:;-:::,^u,:-, .- ,; t!i .:: 

o'--.bi, \v!;;.!i n\.:.j n.^!,;::'!: to b;:i^, ! il^j b'^ b_ il c;.__^: , . ;:b\'an:.i_,cciiS to i.'s 

T:;, brcncb .;nib.:i]bbv>r, tb^rboiv, v.\i^ c.bi/cb tc; ;b .:;: :;o::'. ib.Ib cxr; :b^ .; 
abi::;. a:'.-.; lo ctji^^cic v, i:ii J.i.^cs tbc iiij.in^ o: ^ i'.j'.-;vbi:-; ..^r b ;: :.:,:. c: b;c I ..::_! 



own.L- : N(M" V..;. ibis o'^;j:i ..i:ii_i^.il'..: v- :', o..: i:^, ...: 



1 :-.f K' 



a 



.-;(;!'( 11 s ,Xv'.l...;n to tUc tiu\:n o. l . ]^ ;:..., .. u; .:^:. :c : ;,lc! \ l. y Itron.; I. 
\\ :ib i\ <,.:rJ lo t'l;: ic'.'()i: or 1 1: _; I .(,\\' L 0'...u. :i.> j a:,.,: bci'^y .bv.,.-,:- (..\:i ;i..J ;.;i- 
llIc ', cxcep: who . i.!c;i.\i.;'v!y ;\ l.b\ . .: to cb:J>.:,.bb', iic b :l:, o.i r:.:.. : *,vv.b.. :.i, 
!:()!ic lo t.ir .1^ to ijilw to tbv 1 "li..:;-.! i\\c b j::c ::,:!.., i;, .i u: i\.:.\s. I'o: !..r. :;\; c*:: - 



N c:"b(.l nio!C '.Vi'.'iV \\ii!i hi-. b,;,^!;i"!"i HKiiii! i> .iik! co.. 
ni.iu to li Mt rcpiibbc lo ilror^:, :i;;b tli.ir c>; b:b : 
: lilhtJ, ih.;t b- v.\iS o' b'icd to ibcrbb c to j-;>b: ,, !..; 



;o::;\. i. 



..: lo C!..;- 

.1 c : . b i : . -. 



1, cv.n V, !ic:i c: t;,:",.:oi ^, is r^lp.c.ibic r:; i : .;;c in .i :v.o:\ , \ \c []\. re :, : 



ccJ Wiiii Ro'.ibi to lui';. ort iLvtccIv ti.c b.aic: 



'bi 



(.,1 1 ;Mn:c i i .1 i..i.--,r V r.i!.;;cl . niKi i.:e'!|;a;r IPil . 
r i 1 iiialb. r. Til. .i.'liJo o! tlic ti-c.ity \vc:\ lev ...:b : 
tbc two Kiiji:> fi-f ibb ui'ow ii-.c niifch to lt\y,- ;..:, 
:r;c! Hioi.lb i,!-:beii:.inb ivnbt to [\\c Di.icii tl:;' :..' 
t':'j p.-iy ( 1 :\\ ['c toiw s : Til..: tbc wiub.- hi:u li: :b : 
I'Mnc.-, b.ittl-tti.j liiii-a tf it llioibb !TclLbi..:c,i 



.. .o:;e.:: v. :::i : . K:;,^^ 

b '-,ri: to ti^: u- 

, i.-. i. \...> .; r. b, iluit 

b. ^^ ": ee.in.i l^iii.b;:, 

i :'.;; " ;i V( .ir ;.:r 

Ki:;^ c; 

.:- .. .: '- .ii.c by !b;^ to 



rv!.;.,'. ..;u: i..^. . ;:\, : ^ ;i.: Kir . /,: .,/; ..'.' ;',., .. 



6 HISTORY OF G Tv E A T B Pv I T A I N, 

Zha-o. r. Queen Kiizabetb. And if the Spaniard attacked either of the Princes, they agreed 

^ '"^^' to afi'll each other ; Hepry with a force of ten thoufand, James vvitli that of fix 

tl-oiifand u:c'^. This. trea:y, one of the v.. ifed and mofl eGiiiiable concluded by 

James, diiring the whole courfe of his reign, was more the work of the Prince 

himielf, than any of his minihers. 

M-h'tcon- Amidst the grean tranquilhcy, both foreign and domeilic, with which the na- 
--; tion was bleft', nothing coukl be more furprifing than the difcovcry of a confpiracy 

to fubverc the government, and to fix on the throne of Eiigland Arabella Stuarr, 
a near relation of the King, and defcended equally from Flenry YIP Every thing 
remains Pill myP^TOus in this conlpiracy; and hin-ory can give lis no clue to un- 
ravel it. \Yation and Clarke, two catholic prieO:?^ were accuied of the plot : 
Lord Grey, a puritan : P.ord Cob'iam, a thoughtlefs man, cf no nxt principle : 
And Sir Walter Raleigh, Pifpefled to be of that philofbphical le;^, who were then 
extremely rare in England, and who have fince received the appciiation o^ frec- 
tbhikprs. I'ogethcr with tj-iele, Mr. Broke, brother to Lord Cobham, SirGrifEn 
Markiiam, ^P^ Conlcy, Sir Edward Parham. What cement could unite men of 
fuch difcordant principcs in fo dangerous a conVoination , v;hat end they pro- 
pofed, or w'lat means ipropcrtioticd to an undertaking oi this nature, has never yen 
been expiaii'Cd, and cannot eaiily be im.agined. As Raleigh, Grey, and Cobham 
were conrcvrAiy believed, aftt^r the Qiiccn's death, to have oppofed proclaimin<^- 
the King, till conditions niould be made with him ; they were, upon that, as well 
as otlier accounts, cxtreniely obnoxious to the court and niiniitry ; and people 
V, ere apt, at firil, to iuliyecl, tiiat tlic plot was m.erely a contrivance of Secretarv 
<.'.ec;!, to get rid of Ids old confederates, now become Ids moP inveterate enemies. 
P-ut tlve ctjnlcPion, as well as tiial of the crimina's, put the m.atter beyond all 
ciou'jt. And tlio' no one couhl find any marks of a concerted enterprize, it ap- 
peared, th; t men of furious and ambitious fpirits, meeting frcqucnily together, 
and behaving all the world dd'contentcd like themieives, had entertained very cri- 
minal proj' CIS, an;i ln=d ev; n ei.tcred, fomc cf t';cm at Icail, into a co:'refpondence 
witli Arcuiberg, tiie French amibafiador, in order to give diPurbancc to the new 
Icttlemcnt. 

Tfia two prk lis* andBrokep were executed; Cobham, Grey, and rvPirkham 
were pardoned:]:, alPa" tlicy had laid th.eir h.cads upon the block. iPdcigli tv^o v.'as 
reprieved, not pardoned ; ajy.i lie remained in confinement many ytars aiterv,ai-..!.s. 

I r apncars from Sully's Memo;:T, tliat IPdeigli iecrelly cnered his U-x'.cl:, to 
the Prencli apibafiluior ;, a;;vl we may thence prefiime, that, me^tiiig w;;', .^ re- 
pulle from that (quarter, he had recourfe, for th.e fame unv/arrantable p.iri-ofe;-- 

to 
* November 29. \ December:. ] D-.c:;:.!. cr o. 



] A M i: ^- f. 



to il'.c VlciV.lPn ir.\i:''ii\.^v. >uch a coit;: cuir.: v. c ,i:c ::).'.' v:.:. 



',: .1 . 



".'. , o,.: .: 



i,,uli DC coiiicli^ii, t.uu, o!i i..s ti'Mi, tlu'ic ;!|',-CMr.;; r.u ; ro' , i.i :..:,. i;a;;: _\;^. :i. 
iiur indcru ai.y ciiLLi::.:: ::,^ . v-iiicii (.(jmI.1 julLiy i.is (.\':..'.'jr.'.\).>.i\^::. ii; \v.. . 
:jccI..:^J bv L't..l)h.:ni ..1 ;..-, :;i .i li.dck-n ii: ui pAlV.^'w, upc :i l.t-.i::;.^, Li..: K.lc:;'';, 
\si..:i cx.inin.vJ, Ii.aI poi;;tc'J (;i;C K;;!;!: circiiinlii:! ::, hv uii:c!i C'.l !. :u'- ::l.;.: 
!i,:j,;i: b.j l.i:.^\Nii Ui.d alL.ri.i'ncd. i iiii u^ci;!.ili>;w C'c-iih.ini :\::'^y\:d::\ r.. :.-..ci'.;.: ; 
a^.u : io:'. .<;Lcr, rc!;r.ici,-.:d liis rct:r.ict.uiij;i. \ct, ii_ on .i.c wri[:;-n cv..;;;;v.c M tuis 
:'., i . V, ;::i.lV, a nhin Oi nu i:',;i(;i.r nor un.ic^: iLii: .i:::^. an i l.j c iKiad.:: .rv in h:-. 
L'_:l:./: ...;<) ; FiOt contror.tjd with ]\a!(.i|.;i) -, nor li.| p.-itcu i^v rriV Cv.:.C:.ri ;;,l; ti: - 
ci.ii.dancc ; v.as {...>.: g''^ -^ n:;an, coiurary to aii l.w and c-q.iii:/, lL..;.d :: i:.^:y b. 
i!;. :,.,v. J ii^ [\inv^ was a: iliat tniu cxtan^ciy c,,nM;s ;n b"i.::!ane; ; d.-.^A cv;tv 
]::"i.i!i \va p!':..:^.! Co 3i\'c IviUcncc ayaniil tiic caj ;:ai tniiny o: i.d -x, ::.(. !a\-L..: ;. 
ci :'.ic ; cw;.l-j. 

^;n b!.d'.va-d ClIli", tb^ :an-;oi;s LiwvL-r, ti^cn aforn;"- ;_'.: . b nj ina.:. d Liic c ;l.:.; 
f r :hc crL;V.n, n::tl t'lrcw cut on Ra!c:;_;h Inch ^;io;> abu -, :, . in.-v cj dccnnd a 
grca; rcibcb' n, n, t cn!v on his own n-ii-n-i ry, bii: cv^n, in ! '-.v.l- Cvj-^, on :. . 
iran-'cr'o '.,: tiiat a^.. ']';.. 'tor, monllcr, \'i[^cr, and Ipiticr of licii, a:c ir.z 'crin: , 
whicli he cn'iploys acainll one ot the nvjil; dbnbini:-, incn > ! tlie i^i. y,.h;n^ \...j 
V.-.S unv.cr trnd lor iiic and loitinie, and who dcicndcd inn:. cii wi[:i Inr.iiii;..; 
icnv.. tf, clo.rnencc- an.d courncj. 



"i'\::: i:-^\' i^rc^j irion oi tliC Kii^g w'as (ntlr,!/ rccji'di!';^ to Ids heart'- con':: :. 
lie was novr en;; ij'.'ed in di.cacni:.;, ma^;ldci"iabv to an aiicnddy ui Ci\:n.s Ci n 
ci.r.nn.^ poinrs o: :a;t;i [i\v.l cidciciinc, and in rec^ iv in^-; tlic ap; danL: ( \ the: bo . 
men i or liii iL;per:oi' z^ai and !> .n ninu. The i\ i;_:u'i:;, d; :...: baw'. . n :h c!:in \. n 
..: d trj rnritan- b.i.i ind^c .d idni to t.ol a i(,nhrcncc at i bnnpron^o.'^n: r, under 
j :; "cncc o; Innlini^ cxpc brrts, \. :.'. Ii tcM^^i^iu r-. . onule bo:n ;rr:i:- .. 

'idnd lb;. ll\-.r;tic. : . 
I' ; '/, V. .oi ^.^nnns n.-Cj a'r- rl to inc [ncci n\; ipn it oi i;,v c.ukci ; ,:n(M.'.cM- 
t ^. . ini : i;a . [) r.v.i-j. indncntc on tb.- [ nritan-,, v. im wci'c en.. ur.ir-;cw I'',- iha: Ip:- 
I t. : .at no b n. tin.n l^vcii li,.n \vi ^ and liity ei>rn,vn: n oi bi.it p.o'v ib^n ; a 
'o bi 1\. 1.: <;n [.: .ii.cciiion ; and n>..iiy mtac Ic ni d \'. nb.c : -) .: ' .cm 



ctli tv;Aai\ s tli..' i:.n]:oii^s ii.ul nincn w^.n-v. -m-A [.:.\' 

1 ,> 



i 

to .:. b.i 



an noynb tii.it j.nnes, iiavin.j, icc.;vcd In- 

; p:i.;.'icd .i;i atracbn.ciit to t':c chnrcii v 

, , 1 



.t ,i; n .1 



. , \ vl . o 

did n t '.:^.-jv/ 



r.n.v^'.n" oi i.i niAi, c:nut'v.l ,.n,.nnn p..r.Oin ; n 
li.ciii n'(ji'j ; .. b'cb,!- : ; . .mi c nc(;nr,,;;"nn i t. Ib.t i : b: ^ i.nno.i li.nl 

' on y i^;. ,i':;. 'j'ii. n.oic i.c bn. \.- ti:c ptn it.inir.d <. ;:-:-.tv, the; 

i . -' ''- ' '' :cnL.iI.',d ii, ibeir ::^^ti.h br,d ten a \ i dent 

turn 



niSTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



v:in tG.'-ar.;s republicanifm, and a zealous attachment to civil liberty; principles 
i:':.r;]y a'^i.d to that r?i-^,'oi:s cnthufiafm, with which they v/cre acluated. He 
lv\| ic-iT^K tiKit bcii-g ir.oilly perlljns of low birth and menn education, the fame 
Jolty ' rercnnons, wldch attcxicd. them in their familiar addrcfles to their Maker, 
oi v,\.o!v; irxy believed themfclvcs the pecuUar favourites, induced them to ufe 
the utrno'l freedoms v/":th their earthly fovereign. In both capacities, of monarch 
L-p. ; of theolo^dan, !^.e had experienced the little coniplaifance, which they v/ere 
dirp.ofc.i to f :o\v him -, v/hi!if they controuled his commands, cifputed his te- 
nets, and to Ids face, before the v/holc people, cenfured his condud- and beha- 
viour, li he liad fjbmictrd to the indignity of courting their favour, he trea- 
iurcd up the ilron er rclcntment againft them, and was determined to make tlicm 
iecl, in their turn, the weight of his authority. Tho' he had often met witli re- 
fidai^ce anci faaiun aiid obllinacy in the Sc' tch nobility, he retained no ill-will to 
t'lat order ; or rather fnowcd them favour and kindnefs in England, beyond 
wiiat rcaibn and f(:)und policy could well juftify : Bi^t the afcendant, which the 
pieibyteriaii clergy had afidmed over him, was v/hat his monarcliical pride could 
never thoroughly digcib. 

]-iz dreaded likev.iie the popularity, which attended this order of men in both 
kingdonn'^. As ufekfs aulleritics and fcli-denial are imagined, in many religions, 
t) r- n.'er us accepU'ble to a bc'icvoknt Lking, who created us folely for happinefs, 
j.i:!-;.;, rcinnrked, th..: tl.e ruidc ievcrity of theic clergymen and of thc'r whole feet 
\: : ] gi\'cn t":v:m. in tlio eyes of the multitude, the appearance of fandlity and vir- 
r..- Sl:(m.;:1v u.clined himklf to mirth and wine and fports of all kinds, he ap- 
r;xl..-i;dv -^ their cenfi;re tor Ids manner of hfe, free and diiengagcd. And, being 
i:v.:S avo'.fe, frc-/.;i temper as .veil as pjlicy, to thefcccol puritans, lie was refolved, 
;,'po!lib!e, to prevent i:5 further growth in England. 

Ti : it v.m tiic ciiar,;:5u:r of James's councils, throughout his whole rcip-n, 
i',...t they V. . re ivn-- Vv^if.^ and equitable, in tiieir end.^ than prudent and political, 
in the u'.wn;.-. T'-n' jufily fenfhde, that no part of civil adndnidration required 
grcJt: r care or a ;dcer judgment than the conduef of religious parties, whole va- 
rious n;crilule:, ah^eliju, ai.d antipatlfics, liive io mighty an influence on public af- 
h.ad ne-r p:M"re;vc(h tlrit in the larne proportion as this praciica! knowlege 



.u;> ; 



I,, 



of thieh;:;y is recjuikie, the h^eculative refincmenf^ in it are mean, aiid even dan- 
grrous in a mtn'ieiTh. Lv cni; ri.ig zealouflv into frivolous dif[ni cs, James gave 
ilum aii.-li (.1 i;r.p';rt:.:ire anf' ci-.-ri-hty, v h.kli tiicy rou.ld ivot othcivvife liavc ;ic- 
quire 1 ; ami hcing ' ,:illf inliiLd In the cpiarrt!, he could no longer Iiavc recourse 
ro ccnten^p:: a:. 1 ;i hcu'e, tlyMini; p;':pcr u.cthod oi apreaflng ir. 'idicchurrh of 
E/fdandhal nor \et ahanuoned the I'p^id d.cliines c! grace i^nd predeidnatlon : 

'ihe 



JAMES I. 



The purlt.in; !ud not yet totUly fcpiratcd t'lcnifclvcs from tlie clu.rr!i, .inrop'n- 
Iv rc:;v;.LKiccd epilcoj)Ky. 1 'lo' the U;ii;t oi th.c p:ir:i.s v.ms coni'iJ.cvX'Dly (.iii.c- 
rcnt, the only aj[\irc;it lulijcas ot (iilpiitc were cop.- criu;,:.', the ciu:., in biptiia'!, 
th^iii^.12; in marria^^', tiie ule oi the iMipiice, ar.i'. the bussing at the h:\mc ot ;e- 
Tus. Tlvjfe Wvfe the nii^h'y qviiruois, v.hi.h v.mc lo'.enni.' agitated in the co - 
ferencc at I larnpcon-CDiirt hctv-.cen lome 'oilliup, ar.d C--i\ni \\\ ^ !e:-t^yn'-..i c;'. :/., 

\nf It-, n ' -inil l.vii" !cK'('r< (il f i Ti;;- !ri i- ii-ru i ,n flip firli v r!-, . Lmu' ni-,l '-. c 



t 



one hand, and lome ieaciers ui tiie pL;;.:an p-aiLy on the oth.ri ilw k':n^. ar.d lus 

'unij.iain of a ;\:rLiaI and u;.i'.ur 




,....._.., -. -. j.-,-.,.^ ... ,, 

is to be receive.! with <_;,icat linVitatiun-,, No I] , . ,,. ...^...^ , 

in their turn, were very hber.l of their praiies towards tl^c royal difpur -.i.t v an I 
the Are'.ibiPnop of Canterbury l.iid, that ii':d::ib:c.ij lis dA:-.',\ />;/.. /;; !'.r >- 
cid! r<J: i.:::cc cf Cjcd\< fpirit. A few alterations ii^i tlie liturgy \wreagi\e.l to, .i;:,l 
botii parties Kparated with nuitual diihuistaeiion. 

It had freqi:ently been the practice of pi.ritanical cIer;Tvni'^n t ) '[o'r.\^ ^; ;/ \\zv 
certain aileniblics, whicli tiiey called Jyoj bnyiugs , wive.e a'.r r.'..i:eiv, as v.rr. . j i--- 
tr.e fpirit, they dilplaycd t'.eir j)ioiiS zeal \\ prayeis a;:d e:.!v-: tatio ", ;. ' ra:f: I 
their own entliufLdrn, as wd! as tiut (.f their audi, nee, to the i-i^^l^.j!: pircl-:. f.. :\ 



t':at fecial ccnta;^';on, whicli i;.is lo n' 
i'.um tl'.v nVvi":'.;.!; emulation, w 
S'..v h dai'igcroub l..eietn--s !i.i'-i ' 
^^- e 'i.'v.xace rnovcvl lii Ki 



o.:y an mdu 



rn lui'pr.fiAl by I 
w.v. 



(.. 



-] t::iL' jack f.r. : J oni (.'. 



:, ior t:..ir re 
Will i: J i y-A 



ti'iais cd 



t\ 1 



. e ;/v/5 ;c;'. 


/ 


; /. . 




y .:Ja WW. 


.' ti. 


e poi,;;i il 


e 


;. !;.' '. . i.. ^- .. ..e anvj;:;'- v ' 


' ,i 1 


:s p u'd's. 




; 1 ; iv y.l '.. .: . . . y, in v. li:^ . . 




. s di : 1'.-: 


d. 


i.i,.i fnow^.i l^irc nKMv i/u 


;: oi 


iii-c: :y y. 




.. ^ia;iS. d'iie [:arlian:ent: v/a^ 

>,L. 1. 


r. ^v, 


re. iy to . 
C 





C'np !. 



10 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chr.p. T. account of the ph-gue, which had broke out in London, and raged to fiich a de- 
'''""^' gree, that 30^000 peribns are connputed to have died of it in a year; tho' the 
City contained at tliat time only about 150,000 inhabitants. 

The fpeech, which, the King made on opening the parliament, difpLiys fully 
liis charadcr, and proves liim to have polleffcd more knowlege and greater parts 
than prudence or any juil: il-nfe of decorum and propriety. Tho' few writings of 
that age furpafs this fpeech either in fbyle or ni;irter; it v/ants that mjjeflic bre- 
vity and relerve, which becomes a king in his a.idreires to the grait council of 
the nation. It contains, however, a very rcm.arkabl? ftroke of candor, where he 
ConFciTes his too great facility in yielding to the follicitations of f litors : A faiilr, 
which he promifes to corred, but which adhered to him, and diftrefled him, dur- 
ing the whole courfe of his reign. 

The {irpL bufincfs in which the commons were engaged, was of the utrnofl' 
importance to the prefervation of their privileges ; and neither temper nor refo^ 
Jution were '.vjn:"ng in their condutft of it. 

In former periods of the Engllfli government, the houfe of commons were of 
fo fmall weight in the balance of the conftitution, that little aitcnt''on had been gi- 
ven, either by the crown, the people, or the houfe itfelf, to the choice and con- 
tinuance of the members. It had been ufual, after parliaments were prolonged 
beyond one feflion, for the chancellor to exert a difcretionary authority, of ixTu- 
ing new writs to fupply the place of any members, whom he judged incapable 
of attending, either on account of their employment, their ficknefs, or other im- 
pediment. This pra6lice gave that miniller, and confequently the prince, an un- 
limited power of garbling at pleafure the reprefentatives of the nation ; yet fo 
little jealoufy had it created, that the commons, of tliemfelves, without any court- 
influence or intrigue, and contrary to fome former votes of their own, connrmscd 
it in the twenty third of Elizabeth*. At that time, tho' fomi' menibers, v;hofe 
place had been fuppliui m account of ficknel's, having now recovered tlicir health, 
appeare>l in the houfe, and claimed their feat , fuch was the authority of t;ie chan- 
cellor, that merely out of refpect to him, his fentcnce v/as a.lhcrcd to, and th.c new 
members were continu d in their places. Here a mou dangerous prerogative w.is 
conlerred on t!:e crovvn : Uv.i to fliow th.e genius of t'nat age, or rather the channels 
in \\hic!i power then ran, the crown [iit very little value on tliis authority-, info- 
much, t!i.;t tv.o tluy.s aftuward^., tr.e clK-.ncellor, of h.imfelf, rtfigned it back to the 
con-,n:u:is. and gave them power to i ;dge of a particular vacncy in th..ir houfe. 
And when the (juc'lion, cor,ccrning the chanCL-llor's new writs, was again broiifrf^t 
on the car^ ct tov/ards the end of the fefilon, the commons weie fo little terriiicd at 

th 

* ]i urn. j-m;a;y 19, i^fo. 



J A M i: SI. II 

the precedent, that, tlio' th'.y rc-a,!n.ittcu fame c 1.1 irr2iW.,c:<, wliofc il-ars Ii.-.I bjc.i C'"^?- 
vacated, on accuu.it ol iliz^liZ inJiipornicjruS y^t tl-iy c^i.Tniiicl t';c th..inccilor'.s fca- "^'" 
tcnci-, in inllanccs where tlic dillcn-ipcr apiKar^..! d.u:.';. ruJs ai;d indrahic *. Nor 
did they [)rocecd any tarihcr, in vindication (jf tliJr ^:rivi'.ei;ci, riian to vore, //.:/ 
dui i>:^ the f:U:-:-^ rj /-(.t..\.;/.v;,7, there uj ii^!^ .;.' n}y; .';;;.-, :) ::;;/ ^c ou: f,r li:' 
cbc&'Dig cr yc::'.ri::ng cny r,:cml'c;\ ZLUbcut tic liaryii':: 'J' tl: l:u'c. \.\ F.l:/a'~e:Ii's 
reig:i, \vc may remark, and tlie pjii^ns preceding, Jli];o,v^ ot [ arliamcr.t urn.i'!y 
coniir.ii.d not abo\-e tliL- twch'th part lb long a^ the vacaiior.s : a:.d d..:;;-.g th-j lat- 
ter, t!.e chancellor'^ power, it he pleaLd to exert ir, was fl.ill 1;;::, by iliis vote, 
as unlimited aiid unrcllraincd as ever. 

In- a fuhleqiient parliament, the ablolute authiority of the Qi.:en v.r.s cwrrcd 
in a n'.ann.r flill more open ; and began i(;r tl:c full tinve to give ahirm to t!ie 
coninions. New v.rits having b.en ililied by the chancellor, \\\\-ja tl.er^' was 
no vacancy, and a controvcrfy ariflng upon tliat ir.Ci.lciit , ti>e Q^..Ln fir.t a mcl- 
f.ige to the hoL.Te, intorniing the.n, that it was impertinent for tlivm to ch\J in 
I'lIcIi matters. Tii-le cjueflions, flie Lid, belonged only to tl.e c'-ar.C'.h'<;r ; and 
file lud appointed him to coider with thj judges, in order to little all dil'putes 
\vich regard to eleclions. The commons had the courage, a few days aiter, to 
vot'-, " I'iiat it v.-as a moft perilous ju^cedent, \vl;ere tv.'o knights of a county 
'' were duly elected, if any new writ fl^ould ifluc out for a fecoTid election, v.ith- 
* out order of the houfe itfelf ; that the difculTIng and a. "judging of t'd^ and 
" fuch l.kc diiTerenccs belonged only to the houfe \ and that there Ikould be no 
*' mefiage lent to the Lord chancellor, not fo much as to enquire what l;e liad 
" done in the matter, becaule it was conceived to be a rii..t:er derogatory to tlvj 
*' power ar,d privilege oi tb.e houfe '." I'hi- is the n.^ofi conf;.!eral;le, aiul al- 
n'lOll only inllance of parlianventary libcr:y, wlilch cc.ur?, du:ing tlic reign of 
that Princefs. 

Ol- r[..\v, ,, wlietlier on account of deb:s cr ciimcs, had been declared by the 
iuh'es i, i:icapaMe of a fc.it in the houie, where they mull themlelves be law- 
'ivers B..t this o; inivn (jt tlie iudirxs IkkI lecn Jre^'uentlv over-ru'ech I fine!, 
l.owever, in tlie cale oi Wiughan , who was que!l;oned fo;- an outlawry, :har, 
having l)roved all f.is d.eb^s tv; have ben c ntraetecl l<jr liMJtilhij^ and to have 
been, nv)ll of them, honelliy co;r youiuh'tl, I:e v.as allowed, on account oi thefc 
favourable circundlai^-v', ilid to k. cp h;s leat : Whieh }d.uidy fippoles, that, 
oiherwife, it would f.ave Leeii v.ic.ite,', on account ol the outlawry. 



W:i::^ 



\ I. 



IVFuc , , 1 I^iJ. 



.; til,. I ..: : .:.), ; ,. . v;.a.r. 

C .: ir.ir.k 



lb: 



12 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chan. I. When James fummoncd this parliament, he iiTued a proclamation * ; where 
among many general advices, which, like a kind tutor, he beftowcd on his peo- 
ple, he ftriftly charges them not to chufe any outlaw for their reprefentative. 

And lie adds ; If any perfon t^ke upo-i him the 'place cf knight^ citizen^ or hurgefs, 
not being duly elected^ c.ccordi-ig to the Iczvs and Jlatiites in that behalf provided^ a'ui 
according to the purport, efc^f, and true meaning cf this our proclamation, then e-'jery 
perf'-f c^fer.ding, to be fi:::d or iuiprifoncd for the fame. A proclamation here wa[; 
pla'iiiy put on the fame footing with a law, and that in fo deli-aie a point as the 
light of elec'Lioiis : Moft alarming circumfLance?, had there not been reafon to be- 
lieve, that thiis nieafure, being enterid into fo early in the King's reign, pro- 
ceeded more from precipitation and milhke, than from any ferious dcflgn of iii- 
va::ing tlve privileges ot his parliament +. 

Sir Francis Goodv.'in v/as chofen member for the county of Bucks; and his 
retur'i, as ufual, was made into chancery. The chancellor, pronouncing him 
r.n cutlav;, vacated his fear, and ifflied writs for a newelediion. Sir John For- 
tifcue was chofen in his place by the county : But the firfl acl of the houfe was 
to reverfe the chancellor's fentence, and refliore Sir Francis to his feat. At the 
King's iniligation, the lords dcfired a conference on this fubjecl ; but were abfo- 
lutely refufcd by the com.miOns, as the queftion regarded entirely their ov/n pri- 
vileges. They agreed, however, to make a remonftrance to the King by the mouth 
of their f^?caker ; where they maintained, that, tho' the returns v/cre by form 
made into chancery, yet the fole right of judging with regard to elections belong- 
ed to the houfe itfelf, not to the chancellor. James was not fatisfied, and ordered 
a conference between the houfe and the judges, whole opinion in this cafe was op- 
pofite to that of the commons. This conference, he laid, he commanded as an 
chjclute king J ; an epithet v;e are apt to imagine, not very grat.ful to Eng'illi 

ears, 

nvjcli conteiled, tlic King mi^Iit think tiie vote of the Iloufc no Liw, and ri:;-l;t cucj:^! his own dcci- 
fiori of mc;rc weight than tiicirs. V.'c m;iy n'lb iuppoil;, that he was not :ic|ua:!;:c.; \;iLii this vot:\ 
f^u;?;! i.'i.'ab.fi in her k;0'j:'. to iicr hill: fariianun; c:'.;i S naoJ of their aii'.itting c.uiaws, and re- 
p;-_',i;i, :..at c -..-hift cf liie liouic as a great z.yjAc. 
* ..:i. I ;, \''. - \. 

' J'he till!:, ef oi;:';/ te!': t;:, that it v.as a maxiin of James, th.^t no Ihinee in tie f.f year cf his 
rc'-:;: fa.ahl \ :.' ' ": v.\y. co;.;if er..bic lai Jcr;a:<iag. A nrrcini vcvy r^^aijaa' Se u\ ].....:, r;,: i vcrw f-i.aifc 
t ) hi. c -.a.i... J, 1: \::.i tiaiia \v,.:.MJt-..r. 'ii:C h^ii;:/, \, iti; N;l;ic;\ l:e dep iri_l . aa t^.^ p; eteiif on i^ 

f-.' a e ;;'.::: h -' !, er ro' ai - ::-xj: i[A\-: iaiiitet;, ioul i ii d a i ira. -sa-.tii^a ^vcv 'la. a aeen e.a^. ;aia- 



fd 



of Lcrn^a to 



J A M E S T. i^, 

car?, but one to which thry had alrc.vJy been r^r;V:\vv..i: a-^cu ' ,:r. :; ^:'-- 

mourii of K!iz.ibcrh *. Uc iulcia', '!/..:: a': li:- '^:'.- '.^.v :..,v ..',;- ,: - . 

j^>'::):f, c:i:.l I.G cd they i:'':::'.l )::' t::f': il. };) r.y . : . . . ;i \'::.'ii.\\::/ . 

her c.:nc!i..l, ic is cc;-i.:i!i, ih.it P; inilo h.ul .ili.j ci.r.i t ;.i^.', a:> : 

re'.Ltn'rp: [-riocii'lc o; !:cr courLi;;i"s a:id nMi':llcrs, aivJ :';_ I,.'.. ,;-,:_ 

nirtr..tiL'n. 

T;: (cmir.ons were in h^mc p'jr[L-xitv. Their eves \s\!;- r/j,v o'"j;.cJ, a:;J 
th.v \:,w t!ic conlcqiu'nces of that p-jwer, v. hich li.iJ. Ixmi ;:iili.-;r d \ x il.j tii./i- 
ccl:, r, :;r.d to whiJi t'uir jirc,!tce;"!bi-s h.ad, in Uyv.v ii^lLi:: -fs, i^h::.!!.- !"iib';-::;;-(!. 
r.\' !l:s ccurfc, fiiid a nicmbcr, //;' f)\'r r^-fia' cf tic k ;/;;/(; .v ../'t;; <:::,, , -J 
}::;.' fia:! i: cl::j\}i lut fii b as fi..:'' fc: 'c the Kr:^ CK.i l'.hk::'. L I //<, // ;\ ^;.', 
v::tb fcrt'itiidc^ undcyjhi u::k^, and JiK-iri:i\ f :': to ;;;.;;,/.:;- 6;/r ;^r;:v.V.;j. -Jh]: ci'i- 
7:ct I: ccu/yiicd a'! a,};tcr.p! in us^ La! n::yi!;: a hudntcK'nec : ^' cur ii-.wi'jn r:--J.::-> 
i^blth cur d-:cr:or: b.:\:c '.cH ::s, a-.'d -lidb'.- .7 :s /;/,; and f: [cr us tj /;.;;;;',.;.' /^ ':. 
foficrll-:, ?\\vyd\\.i i.iid, 'I lis /nr: :,s .a..:d a cj'jo w .irraiiio t'-j':::' c:'' fi' ./ 
yIcban.i''L}-,?.dd.-A .i ti;ird, m/'/;j c'::';;, J/;;,r r./.V.; /\;/ .V.;;7. //.'. ri/; V,/; ;^ ''::'., 

be/)':.ds- ''''y j''dd'-^^''-> L'- ""'J-' p'''''j'^':-> >-'^d '' ' i'--' --^'^y (^ /''-'': ' 

ccr:: ! J !. is ['!.d}i 'ya'jitj':^ 'isbs. I. cr I'.i cb.ijusiy cr farii^an ):! cnuj-. io i... . . 

N < : wi r:isrAx:M';(: thii w.rc'.r..! !-';"!: ot ii'x':tv, \s'iiii.:i n'l',.- . ;,i 

the coir.nion-, t^i-';r i.'.-. t.-rcr.:e 1(K' !:i..; lly was !) [jrcx"^ iii.it ili;\' ., ^ , '. ,. 
committee to con;cr V, iili the jiivl^i'S buor,' tlie \^\yy.\ -:v-l c.n.iie;!. 'I'l :\ d..i 
CjUellion ot' law b.-j^an to ap^x\;r, i:i J.;nus'.-. eyes, a little ir.o:e J.....!:;t. \ \\\:.n '. e 
had hitiierto ima[i;ined it ; an.l in (jider to bri:;^ ;dn::cil (.." with h,m.- h( :\ -;.r, i.c 



c -. r. 



14 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap T. propofed, that both Goodwin and Fortefcue fliould be fet aHde, and a writ be iflTued, 

"''''''' by warrant of the houfe, for a new election. The commons embraced this expe- 

cliL^i:: ; but in Wica a manner, t'lat, while tlicy fliowed their regard for the King, 

they ftCLirtd, for the future, tb.e free pcfTeilion of their feats, and the right, which 

they claimed, of judging fo!e!y in their OAn ele^lions and returns. 

A PowfTv like th;s, fo elTentia] to the exercife of all their other powers, themfelves 
fo eiTential to public liberty, cannot fairly be deemed an encroachment in the com- 
mons ; but muft be regarded as an inherent privilege, happily relcued from that 
ambiguity, which the negligence of fome lormer parliaments had thrown upon it. 

At the fame time, the comm.ons, in the cafe of Sir Tnomas Shirley, efba- 
bli filed their power of puniPnii^g, as well the perfons at whofe fuit any member is 
arrefted, as tlic oHiccrs, who cither arafc or detain him. Their averting of this 
privilc-ge admits of the fame reHcilion. 

About this period, the minds of mien, throughout all Europe, but efpecialh/ 
in England, feem to have undergone a general, but infenffnle revolution. Tho* 
letters had been revived in the preceding age, they had been little cultivated be- 
yond the limits of the college-, nor had they, till now, begun to fpread them- 
felves, in any degree, among men of the world, Arts, both mechanical and h"be- 
ral, v/ere every day receiving great improvements. Navigation had extended itfelf 
over the whole globe. Travelling was fecure and agreeable. And the "Tneral 
fyRem of politics, in Europe, was become more enlarged and comprehenfive. 

In confequence of this univerfal fermentation, the ideas of men enlarged them- 
felves on all fides; and the fevcral conftituent parts of the gothic governments, 
v.'hich Icx-m to have lain aileep for fo many ages, began, every wliere, to operate 
and encroach on each other. On the continent, where the neceffity of difcipline 
had begot mercenary armies, the prince commonly eftablifhed an unlimited au- 
thority, and overpowered, by force or intrigue, the liberties of the people. In 
England, the love ot freedom, which, unlefs checked, llouriflies extremely in all 
liberal natures, acquired new force, and was regulated by more enlarged viev/s, 
fuitable to that cultivated undcrftinding, wliich became, every day, more common, 
among men of birth and education. A familiar acquaintance with the precious 
remains of anti'juity excited in every generous brcafl a pafTion for a limited conflitu- 
tion, and beg'jt an emulation ol thole marily virtues, which thcGreef; and Roman 
authors by furh animating examples, as well as pathetic cxprelTions, recommend 
to us. The fevcre tho' popular goviTumcnt of E'izalxth had conlined this rhlnp- 
fpirit within very narrov/ bounds : I'ut vvhen a new and a foreign family fucceeded 
to the throne, and a prince lefs dreaded and lefs below d ; fymptoms immediately 
appeared of a more free and independent genius in the nition. 

Hap-. 



J A M i: S I. 



^5 



HArpiLV this, VAnc.-' poflclTcd iicitliL-r i\uY. i-jnc cr.uc'.ty to perrcive r!-.c a!::ra- *- 
tio.-), r.o:- !u:Ik cut art :i:v.i vigour to clirck :t ii. :> r.'.r'y a,;v.;nccs. J..i!o',!s uT rc',',i!, 
1 .;:.;.!; Cvvnlcio'..^ oi l;; '! ;'c: 1 kuI auLhonry, 1.: l.a.i cK.ib.iilii-J \\i:..i.i I.i-, ov. n 
n".;:..i a 'y :C'..'. .:':v.: ', . . :-n (;i a'il'j!i::c (.^jwiirv. ;,^, v. !.'^:; :c\v of !.:;> i\A] .is, !,'j 
b'li'.vc ', :;::.; n :.- '...: 'r./t.ns an.i ;cbc!<, wo.;l,: nvi';': .::v.' ^:rii^;l^ to .; !;..;:. C?:i 
V hic:i-ev;;, I: :j :.c ^ .i.i i.'- c yc<;, cv 'v thiiv: r ( .:;ji;rrccl to c;.. oi;ra^:c 1.;^ | rr'uw.t.- s. 
V.'ii ^ h C'.'.v -Ml-.. .. \'- i:!i iiic f':Iijr !;. r..-.:irary ;o\\ ;t;, !.- o! I-A.roj)c, l.c !;i. i- 

MI1. ^ !:.:', a- lij bvj: t..- 1 ::ii:; ra'.!:, i.c was i:i:i:!c.l to c:r: il !-r.T'\; .i:'. .-^ ; :.oc 

I V '.vh i'. ii ao:hoi;: 



..ic'.y i.'.trotl'uccd I-y tlicni, aiul ilij ir.;.i:arv lu:as 



a-i i'.; ; .:" cc 



1. In ! 



v.ii,A.\ ., I at ; oAxr, a,.i:(/U i.o- 



i;;^i!tcJ, v.ii'ci^ Ii.i.! b:tn c:.jrri;c i i r :,b a'c a c^tury. t ''y xl.A'y d..::::'j^ ti.c 1:.'l' 
r:-j,i)., h- a;Vr.'\Ll lwlv!y to royal ^ :r:Ii a d ti:!- ; not to t!; ; r^clv-!^", a-;d iyi:ir o: 
th- n:unarc!is, nor to tli coMj:i!.diir.-> ot ih/ times. l'.\-cn tlu o;- ( a:],.[], \:W\ ii 
Irj '/.a.! il:i,';/Lc; v.idi in S.i tiaiul, c.k cH:rayc(.l hiai ilili i.uLlur in ins ia\(.'.irl:c no- 
tions ; vilu'.v lie there I vx, that th.c !a.r,c rcl.;lai-,cc, \vi,;cl-i (:y o'cci regal aorliorit'.", 
violated all hr.v and f;r.!er, and hkuIc v. av, eit'icr ior tlic j-ava.^c-. of a h.irb.i:-ous ;-,o- 
bhbv, or 'or the iTiure i tolerable inloicncj ot" H.;;:;,)i.> pr.ach'.rs. In iiis 'va ;-i 
r.vrfon, th.erelore, he ihou^ht all legal power to be centered, l:y an l-creditary 
ar.d a d:\iiic ri.oit: And this opiniion might ha\'e pro'e^d d.ing'To :s, it not fatai, 
to h! e:tv , had r.ot tlic firmneCs oF the perruafion, and its le.n'iing eviden':-'-, 
induced h;ni to trinl ib'ely tf) hi-, right, witliout malwnig the Iniaheil prcilioa 
c'.:'.ier ot" torce er pjlit'c^ in order to l"iip[-.0!t ir. 

Src:i Nvere th.e opj ohtc dirpofition'^ of parhiment anul rri..C", a: \h: c nr.menrc- 
n;en: of the S^ottdh line ; dih ohtion' jidl b.ginihng to r::id and :j a; n-Mr in the 
\ .. lian'er^t, bo: 'd-.o:o'.:ohly cdabhihed and openly avo'A\d o i th^- y.nt el :he ;:rin . 

'ih.:^ !' iri: :.:'.d jnngn^ent ot" ti.e 'I'-nte cf cornmons ayp. !re !, n : o,n.- m '-- 
ien.c ot" t'lcr own [mI-. negec, 'n:t .h;"o in :';eir endeav(>inn thoh a: ih:^ tim , ni 
^.l;-, to ir .-trade ireni thule ! h ' 'hi % v/hieh the i^i.hi exerted pr.rogarivc, a- d 
even, i; ^hii re.peil, the id-had y 1 t- rnniy oi I'di/d^eth. had iny>o:".d no '. 

Jam:.. Inal an. a v, cl In, o\'.n a^nnad, c.d! d in nil th.- i^v.:y, vj;)^ I aren:^ ; r 
nv^npoins, v .a h h...l bv.n - .^-1 by hi- pred . -h)-, and .hi, f - : ' - - 
trenvdy everv :"poh'Sw. d , n.dndr^-: }5nc t!ie ex bob. 

[-..a n-d ; .n^ud..r 1' .' . , : ..(yy.'y, ' y wlneh nhr ',.'.. 
t' at t' ' hi .n ', w.i'^ bi'o., h- i:oo b." ban b. <. a i. '.'.' r > n,n , . .d ,\][ 

p.-. l^A^L id lui..:e in.po . nv,n:' hi : n. on erne vo;s twr e. . ...;.. . . t > a b" ' '. n:- 
'- .larv advantage ol" t'ie ioo:--'nn. d'h !b (Mmnanies th-'' ar ::;,'bb-c- ; b i^ d 



! ) i.ii". t.nit Ine w ., oie ( onv: 
i; 1 .r::}::\ ; anu ii a- ear^, tlia: the ( nin in*^ (O ['. 



\'e..; 



M 1/0 



die thol; ot ad the bin d mi bell le \ie. 



ievcio'on ti.^. 



i6 HISTORY OP GREAT BRITAIN. 

C -p- T Nay, the whole trade of London was confined to about '.oo citizens, who were 
'^^"'' eafiiy enabled, by combining among themfelves, to fix whatever price they pleafcd 
bo:h to the exports and im[orts of the nation. 1 he committee, appointed toex- 
am.ine this enormous ^.rievance, the greatt ft wlii^'h wt- read of in Enghfli ftory, in- 
P:ii on it as a fad well known and avowed, hov\ ever contrary to the pr^fent received 
opininn, that fnipping and Teamen had fenfihly decayed during all the preceding 
reign*. And tho' nor.ii'ng be more com.mon, than complaints of the decay of com- 
merce, even during the moft flouriihing periods , yet is this a confequence which 
might naturally reiult from fuch arbitrary eftablifhments, at a time when the trade of 
all the other nations of Europe, except that of Scotland, enjoyed full liberty and 
indulgence. 

"While the commons were thus attempting to give liberty to the trading pare 
cf the nation, they alio endeavoured to free the landed intereft from the burthen 
cf wardships, and to remove thofe remains of the feudal tenures, under Vv^hich the 
nation ftill laboured. A juft regard v/as fhown to the crown in the whole conduct 
of this afi^air ; nor was the remedy, fought for, confidered as a matter of right 
but merely of grace and favour. The profit, which the King reaped both from 
v;ards and from refpite of homage, was eftimated ; and it was propofed to com- 
pound for thcfe prerogatives by afccureand independent revenue. But after fome 
debates in tlie houfe, and fome conferences with the lords, the affair was found 
to contain more dilUculties than could eafiiy, at that tim.e, be lurmounted j and 
it was not then brought to any conclufion. 

The fame fats attended an attempt of a like nature, to free the nation from 
the burthen of purveyance , an old prerogative in the crov/n, by which the ofH- 
cers of tfie hourhold v/erc empowered to take, without confent of the owner's 
provifi'jns lor tiie King's family, and carts and horfes for the removal of his bao-- 
gage, upon paying a certain ftatcd price for them. This prerogative had been 
much abufed by tlic purveyors ; and the commons fliewed fome intention to offer 
the King iliLy fnoufand pounds a-year for the abolition of it. 

AxcTiiKii r.liair oi zhc utmoft confequence was brought before this parliament 
where the commons fnev/ed a greater fpirit of independence than any truejudi^- 
nv; nt of national intereft. Tlie union of the two kingdoms was very zealoufiy, 
aiid cvcii impatiently urged by the King. He jultly regarded it as the peculiar 
f^lieity o! his reigii, thai he hael termi/.ated the bloody animofities of thcle hoffile 
nations, and liad reduced the vvliole ifland und._r one empire ; enjoying tranquillity 
within iticll, and ileurity from all foreign invafion. lie hoped, tliat, while his 

fubjecls 

"' A remonriiTJicc fiowi tVc '!'rir;i:y-l',')iifo, in 1602, fiiv-, that ;n .1 Ke.Ic above twi.'vc years after i -j;"^, 
tfi-; i\i\yi;\r.v;aK\ luniilu;;- <:,': :.: nic.i i;i ]:'i-h;;!d (kc;.y;: ' iJvu.tniuiyC, y.ut. Aiic^^.icy's happy future 
ila.c vf i'.v;h.iK!, w iz '. f:-.;.a b;r ;..;.:ii-> Cc^jlar'b coUccibiis, 



JAMES I. 17 

fubjccbs of both kingdoms reBedcd on pad: tiiiafters, befidcs regardi g 1.1s prrion Chip. I 



as infinitely precious, they would cnteiuin tlic Trongelt ciJlfL* ot le..ur::.g liivni- 
fclves againft the return ai like calamities, by a thorourj) Ln.ori o. la..s, pa-i^a- 
mci'.tj and privileges. He confidercd not, tlu: tl.is very rLrieflioa uprratc/i, .:j 
yet, in a contrary manner, on me::'s prtj.idictS, an.l l.c^c >uivc that ni..t,ial iiutr.-.l 
between the nation^, wliicli liad bven carried to the hwglie.l extremity, ci.d i.q..:r- 
ed time to allay it. The more urgent the King apjx-a;ft.i i;: pru;. ,...:;. _^ lo .i; lA 
a meaflire, the more backward was the J'.ngliili [ a: li.ia.eni: in ew.e .ni;-.^.^ \v;-.;i 
him ; while they alcribed Ins exceliive zeal to that partiality, i;i iav^..r 01 ..::, an- 
tient fubjecls, of which, they tliought, that, on other occafiOM?, tiiey l;ad :c... ,.1 lo 
co:"n[)lain. Their comp'aifance for the King, theretore, cruii.d diem r.u :a.t!,er 
than to appoint torty-iour Knglilh to meet witii tnirty-oi-e Seu:ca conKi,i.i'..^;,.;s, 
in order to deliberate concerning the terms of an union i but uit'-.ouc a.iy ] j:\\i- 
of maki::g advances towards the en.a!)lifhmcnt ot it. 

The fame fpirit of independence, and perhaps not better luJgment, nj)pe:ued 
in the houfe of commons, when thcqueilion oi hipply was brou-^^lit betoic tiiem, 
by fome members, who were attached to the court. In vain was it urged, that, 
tho' the King received a fupply, which had been voted to Liizaieth, and wjiich 
liad not been colJc(5led before her death; yet he found ic burt .ened wiiii .1 tiebc 
coiUracled by the Qiieen, equal to the full amount of it : That peace wa> nut yec 
thoroughly concluded with Spain, and that Ireland was ilill cxpcnfiVe to i.im : 
That on iiis journey from Scotland, amidll fuch an imm. nfe concourfe of j)eop!e, 
and on that of the Queen and royal family, he had expei.ded cunfidtra/Ie fums: 
And that, as the courtiers had looked for greater libeiaiities irom tiie i'rince on 
his acccflion, and had impoled on his generous nature , i) the Prince, m ins turn, 
would exp (51, at the beginning, fome mark of duty and attaciuiient from h\<, peo- 
ple, and fome confideration ot his necefiities. No impreHion was ir.avie on the 
houfe of comnions by thele topics ; and the m.ijority ap[).ared fully determined 
to refule all fupply. 'I'he burthen oi the governmer.t, at that [ime, lay furpri- 
iingly light u[)on the people : And that very reafoii, which to us, at tiiis linlance, 
may feem a motive tor gcnerofity, was the real caulc why t!ie parliament was, o;i 
all occafions, i^o remarkably frugal and refervcd. I hey were not, as yet, accus- 
tomed to open their purLs in lb liberal a manner as tlieir lucccilbrs, in order to 
lupply the wants oi their fo\'ereig;i j and the Imallell demand, however requifite, 
appeared in their eyes unrcalonab!c and exorbitant. 

In- order to cover a difippointment, which mi^;ht bear a Iv.d conflruction both at 
lion^e and abroad, James lent a mefiige to t'oe ivule, where iie told them, lii.it lie 
defne.l no lupply ; and he was very iorv.ard in reiL.iing v, ;iat was never ofiereu him. 
Soon alter, he prorogued tl;c parliament, not witiiouc difcoN-cring, in his Ipeecli, .: 

Vol. I. D ^ viiil-j 



lO-u. 



i8 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Clmp. I. vifible marks of diiTati sf action. Even fo early in his reign, he faw reafon to make 
^^'^^' public complaints of the reliefs and encroaching fpiric of the puritanical party, 
and of the malevolence, with which they endeavoured to infpire the commons. 
Fcacc with Tnis fummer, the peace with Spain was finally concluded, and was Hgned by the 

iKhAuffufc. Spanifli minifters at London, In the conferences, preparatory to this treaty, the 
nations were found to have fo few claims on each other, that, except on account of 
the fupport given by England to the low country provinces, the v/ar might appear 
to have been continued more on account of perfonal animofity between Philip and 
Elizabeth, than any contrariety of political intereds between their fubjeds. Some 
articles in the treaty, which feem prejudicial to the Dutch commonweakh, were never 
executed by the King j and as the Spaniards made no complaints on that head, it 
appeared, that, by lecret agreement, thefe articles were underftood in a different fenfe 
from what they feem naturally to bear. TheConftable of Caftile came into Eng- 
land to ratify the peace ; and on the part of England, the Earl of Hartford v/as fent 
into the Low Countries for the fame purpofe, and the Earl of Nottingham, Lord 
high admiral, into Spain. The train of the latter was numerous and fplendid ; and 
the Spaniards, it is faid, were extremely fjrprifed, when they beheid the blooming 
countenances and graceful appearance of the Englilli, whom their bigotry, inflamed 
by the priefls, had reprefented as fo many moniters and infernal demons. 

Tho' England, by means of her naval force, v/as perfedlly fecure, during the 
latter years of the Spanifli war, James fhewed an extreme impatience to put an 
end to hoftilities ; and foon after his accelTion, before any terms of peace were 
concerted, or even propofed by Spain, he recalled all the letters of marque* which 
had been granted by Qiiten Elizabeth. The Archduke Albert had made fome 
advances of a like nature-]-, which invited the King to take this friendly ftep. But 
what is remarkable-, in James's proclamation for that purpofe, he ])lamly fuppofes, 
that, as he had himfelf, while king of Scotland, always lived in amity with Spain, 
peace was attached to his perfon, and that merely by his acceilion to the crown 
of Enc^land, without any articles of treaty or agreement, he had ended the war 
between the kingdoms. This ignorance of the law of nations may appear furpri- 
iing in a Prince, who was thirty-fix years of age, and who had reigned from his 
infancy, did v,c not confider, that a king of Scotland, who lives in cloie friendfhip 
with England, has few tranfaftions to manage with foreign princes, and has little 
opportunlry of acquiring experience. Unhappily for James, his timidity, his pre- 
judices, his indolence, his love of amufement, j:articularly of hunting, to which 
he was extremely addi<5tcd, ever prevented him from making any progrcfs in the 
knowledge or prac5tice of foreign politics, and in a little time diminiflied that re- 
gard, wh ch all the neighbouring nations had paid to England, during the rcigrv 
of his predectfilr. C H A F, 

z.'jd of June, 1603. -'i C:Qi\i Aiinal. Lib. !<:> 



JAMES I. i9 



C 11 A P. 11. 

Gun-pcii'dcr co'.ffiracy. A pjrllani-ii. T^iucc hct^'.inxt Spain an.! 

the United rro-vinccs. A piiriiiuncnt. DaV.b of the I-)\fiJ' 

Kn.'g . Ar/nin icinifni . Sftitc of h eland. 

W\'. come now to relate an event, one of the moft memorable, v/b.ich hillory c.. .-, \\ 
has conveyed to pollcrity, and containing at once a fin^^ular proof botli of ''-! 
the (Ircngth and wcaknefs of the human mind ; its widell departure froni morals, 
and its mofl Itcady attachment to rehgious prejudices. *Ti; the Gun-poirdry-trca- 
fon of which I fpeak -, a fail: as certain as it appears incredible, 

1'he Roman catholics had cx[-)e:lcd great favour and indulgence on the acccf- nn-.-p.-.v. 
fion of James, both as he was defcendcd from Mary, who had facriticed her life ^' "'''"'' 
to their caufe, and as he himfelf, in iiis early youth, was believed to have fliown 
fomc partiality towards them ; which nothing, they thought, but intercft and ne- 
ceflity had fince retrained. ' I'is pretended, that he had even entered into poli- 
tivc enp:\gements to tolerate their religion, fo foon as he fliou'd mount the throne 
of li-ngLind , whether their credulity had interpreted in this fenle fome obliging 
cxprelfions of the King, or that he had employed fuch an artifice, in order to ren- 
der them favourable to his title. Very foon they difcovered their millake ; and 
v/erc at once furpriled and enraged to find James, on all occafions, exprcfs his in- 
tention or executing Ibictly the laws cnafted agalnft them, and of perlevering in 
a!! the rijorous mealurts ot Elizabeth. Catefby, a gentleman of good parts and 
of an ai'itier.t lamily, firlt thought of a moft extraordinary method of revenge ; 
and he opened lii^ intention to Piercy, a defcendant ot t!ie illuftrious houfc 
c ! X( r!::,u:i.berh::u;. In one of their converfations with regard to the diftrell con- 
c i:! )\\ (;f tJK- catholics, Piercy having broke into a fally of palTlon, and men- 
tioned t!i- r-iyaninating the King -, Catefby took the opportunity of revealing to 
liii!i a nobler and m.ore cxtenfive plun of treafon, which not only included a liire 
cxcejtion et vengeance, but alfordeil fome hopes of relloring the catholic religion 
in i-,ng!ar.d. In vain, laid !".e, would you put an end to the King's life: He 
has chiL'ren, v.ho would lucceed both to his crown and to his maxims ot govern- 
ir,c;ir. In vaiii would you extinf';uirh the whole royal family : '\'\\t nobility, the 
[V"tiy, th.c parliament are all intccled with the fame herefy, and could raife to 
the throne another j rince and another family, wlio, bcfides their liatred to our 
rel'^;ijn, would be aniniated witli 'evenge for the tragical death of their })redc- 

n 2 celTors. 



20 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN, 

Chsp. I'- cefTors. To ferve any good purpofe, we mufl deflroy, at one blow, the King, 
iter. j|-jg j-Qyal family, the lords, the commons; and bury all our enemies in one com- 
mon ruin. Haupily, they are all afiembled on the firft meeting of the Parlia- 
ment , and afford us the opportunity of glorious and ufeful vengeance. Great 
preparations will not be requifite. A few of us, combining, may rcn a miiie 
below the hall, in vvhich they meet, and choofing the very moment when the; 
King harangues bota houfes, conilgn over to deib-U(5t:ion thcfe determined foes 
to all piety and religion. Mean while, we ourfelves Handing aloof, fafe and un- 
fujpecledj Hiall triumph in being the infuriiments of divine wrath, and fliall be- 
hold with pleafure thofe ilicriiegious walls, in which were pafb the e,u.6ls for pro- 
fcribing our church and butchering her children, toft into a thouiaiid fragnients ; 
v;hilc their impious inhabitants, meditating perliaps fiiil new profecutions againft 
us, pafs from Rames above to flames below, there for ever to endure the torments 
due to their offences *. 

PiERCY was charmed with this project of Catefby , and they agreed to com- 
municate the matter to a few more, and among the reft to Thomas Winter, 
whom they fent over to Flanders, in queft of Fawkes, an officer in the Spanifh 
fervice, with whofe zeal and courage they were all thoroughly acquainted. V/hen 
they inlifted a new confpirator, in order to bind him to fecrecy, they always, 
together with an oath, employed the facrament, the moft facred rite of tlieir re- 
ligion : And 'tis remarkac^le, that no one of thefe pi:;us devotees ever entertain- 
ed the leafl compunction with regard to the cruel maffacre, which they projedt- 
ed, of Vv'hatcver was great and eminent in the nation. Some of thern only were 
ftartled by the reflection, that of neceffity many catholics muft be prefent ; as 
fpedators or attendants on the King, or as having feats in the houfe of peers : 
But Tefmond, a jefuit, and Garnet, fuperior of that order in England, removed 
thefe fcruples, and fhowed them how the interefts of religion required, that the 
innocent ffiould here be facrificed with the guilty. 

All this paiTed in the fpring and fummer of the year 1604-, when the con- 
fpirators a!fo hired a houfe in Piercy's name, adjoining to that in which the par- 
liament v/as to aiTemble. Toward'; the end of that year they began their opera- 
tions. I'hat they might be lefs interrupted, and give leis fufpicion to the ncigh- 
bourb.ood, they carried 'va ftore of provifions with them, and never defilltd from 
their luhjur. Obfcinatc to thar puipofe, and confirmed by paffion, by princi- 
ple, a.d by mutual cxli'^rt;ition, tiiey little feared death in com})arifon of a (.Vif- 
ajipointmcnt ; and having provided arms, together with the inftruments o! their 
svork, they rciolved there to perifh in cafe of a difcovery. Their perfeverance ad- 
vanced 

* i:tatc Tiicb, vol i. 



J A M E S I. 2 1 

anced the work*, and ihcy foon piiTced the wal', t.-.f' (.' rce ^ .ir 's in i!/ i. , ^ , 
but on approuchifig the oihcr fi.ic, thcv wer.- lumcuhat l^iMlc.; vsith. !;r.i ;;', .i 
noifc. which they knew nor how to acrount lor. U|"'i i:H|ui!v, tl.rv i.r.i, 
that it came ffom ti.e v.u;'.c b;.-tow the htnile of h>rd-> , thic a id i^h'-.m.: Is 

had LKen kept t'lCre-, and :hac, as the coals were lellhi;^ oii, the va'-,!t wc'. j. \-- 
let to the hirheli: bidder. The opporaiPiiry was imnuc'.i.itilv liij ; -, t'i.- phu* 
hired by Picrcy i thirty-fix barrels of powder lodged in it , thv v. ;i; j- covcT.d 
up wit.'i laggots ant! b:l!ers-, thr doors of the cellar boldly tlungop.-n :, ;;::;! evc;y 
body admitted, as it it contained nothing dan'!;rrous. 

CoNTiDrsT of fuccels, they now h^gan to look forwarJ, and to ;^I,'.:- i\\c 
r'.malning p.irt ol th.eir prc'iect. Th.e King, the Qiicen, Prirc i ie'-'.rv, v.r-y: , 1 
c-xpeftcd to be prclcnt at tl;e opening oftlv- parlianietit. The iJuk , b: r aion 
of his tender age, would be abllnt; and it w.is refo'vtrd, that Piercv' !h(M.!.i Jci/'* 
him, or allairmarc h.im. The Princrfs IilizabLih, a child !ik'-\\!'e, v.M^ kep.: at 
J,ord Har!ingC(>a*s lioule in Warwickfliire , aiui Sir KvcrarJ i)!gi ", l\<-.okv. r.cj.. 
Grant, b.ing let inro tlij coni. iracy, engage^! r^) alTenible th.eir i.-; r.ds L.dr 
pretence ot a f.unrir.g-match, and iliziiig that Princefs, imn.cd.iaruy r^i ; vi^^\..-r^ 
h'.'v C^^L'-n. vSo tranlported were t'nev with rage againil tlieir advc-rl.irit . aI^'. ; j 
charmed with tiie prolpecl of revenge, that tl.ev forgot all iwv o: their own i.i'cry ; 
antl rriill:ii)g to the gneral confuHon, which mud rekilt .--on^ la ; 'e-:'^e'wtLd a 
blow, th?y forelaw i,or, tiuit the furv of t'ie pcop'le, now u"''-"11r incci . v -.nv au- 
thority, m.ull have turned a<:-ainfl tiiem, and wou'd pobably l^ave l..:iai-.d it.cif, 
by an uni\erfil niafVacre of t.ie catholics. 

Ihn. (kiv, fo !o;',g wiilied for, now app''oached, on '^ rhe pai'liaircn: w.:s 

appoinred uj a!km' 'e. T:.j e':e.:dful k'Ci\ . '.lio' comnn. :' 1 to ab '.-crAcnty 
perlo: s, !:,k1 been re!ig'' i.ll)- kept, d'jr:i-,r2; the Ipacc of ne^. .'. vear anJ. a I'.a't. 
No ri'ir.cji ;e, n p-i^v, i\n i^.u' of puiifn.iiei^r, no hi>pc ^A reward, 1: h a^ y '. in- 
duced: .:i"i/ (. p.c ' o:,i. naLvjr, cit.h.r to araiiclon the cnt rj'ii/e, or m.iki- a diicowry 
of it. Tie hu!y t;,ry h.ad rxtiiigui:":' Ji in [h/ir bieatl every "cl-.tr :r,ofi\'e ; and. 
ir was ..n i;: ;/c-' ;( n at lad, pioc: 'IVg (', !,[!_. from thele very bi' v.rt; tl ; k ju- 
dices ar.J. p.u t;.;'.i:ics, wh.ic:'. L\V!.\] i\\-j r .:;un. 

Tkn i.hi\s bJure tf.e m'::t:rg o! il. ; ar'Ki:v,eiir, Lord Mi ntc r.p.!, , .i c.'J'.oh'c, 
(on to 1 -urd Mt il y, r,er:s '-,1 lae i<f .o v, ::ig ktr. r, v. h:di h.;d bti v. c.r iwyc} :o Irs 
ferv;i; r bv an i,;.k;.wAii hai.u. ,\/v I.orJ^ On: c^ t'.r r r, //.,, :: ' ::r 

fy:.:ds, I l.v: a u:r-- f yio ^-^rj^^:..!.:!. V -.;\ '^' . / :; " .' - . :>:::- 

(i'-.' ii-:. :}).:.}; L:i:c C-}:. rrcj L- ':.!. :!: lie ::/'_''; ..,:;.{;';(/;:/ 

(' ( s: V 



22 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C::\p. II. c:<Tec^ I be cz-eiit in fafety. For; tho' there he no appearance of any Jiir, yet I fay^ they 
^^"'''"' ivill receive a terrible hlow^ this parliament^ and yet they JJoall not fee ivho hurts 
them. This council is 7iot to be contemned^ becaufe it may do you good^ and can do you. 
no harm : For the danger is pafi, as foon as you have burned the letter. And 1 hope 
God mil give you the grace to make good ufe of it^ to whofe holy protetlion I com- 
mend you. 

Monte AG LE knew not what to make of this letter , and tho' inclined to think 
it a foolifh attempt to frighten and ridicule him, he judged it fafeil to carry it to 
Lord Salifbury, fecretary of ftate. Tho' Salifbury too was inclii.ed to give little 
attention to it, he thought proper to lay it before the King, who came to town a 
few days after. To the King, it appeared not fo light a matter ; and from the 
ferious earnefl: ftyle of the leiter, he conje6lured, that it implied fomething 
very dangerous and important. A terrible blow and yet the authors concealed, a 
danger io fudden and yet Co great, thefe circumftances feemed all to denote fome 
contrivance by gun-gowder j and it was thought advifable to infpedt all the vaults 
below the houfes of parliament. This care belonged to the earl of Suffolk, Lord 
chamberlain ; who purpofely delayed the fearch, till the day before the meeting of 
the parliam.ent. He remarked thofe great piles of wood and faggots, which lay in 
the vault under the upper houfe , and he cad his eye upon Fawkes, who flood in a 
dark corner, and pafTed himfelf for Piercy's fervant. That daring and determined 
courage, which fo much diftinguifhed this confpirator, even among thofe heroes 
in villany, was fully painted in his countenance, and was not palfed unnoticed by 
the Lord chamberlain. Such a quantity alfo of fuel, for the ufe of one who lived 
fo little in town as Piercy, appeared a little extraordinary 5 and upon comparing 
all circumftances, it was refolved that a more thorow infpedion fhould be made. 
About midnight, Sir Thomas Knevet, a juftice of peace, was fent with proper 
attendants , and before the door of the vault, finding Fawkes, who had juft finifhed 
all his preparations, he immediately feizcd him, and turning over the faggots, 
difcovered the powder. The matches and every thing proper for fetting fire to 
the train were taken in Fawkes's pocket ; Vv'ho finding his guiit now apparent, and 
feeing no refuge but in boldnefs and defpair, expreifed the utmofl regret, that he 
had loft the opportunity of firing the powder at once, and of fweetening his own 
death by that of his enemies. Before the council, he difplayed the fame intrepid 
firmnefs, mixt even with fcorn and difdain , refunng to difcover his accomplices, 
and fliewing no concern but for the iaikire of the enterprize. This obllioacy 
lafted for two or three days : But being confined to the Tower, left to rcHe6t on 
his guilt and danger, and the rack being juft flioun to him -, his courage, fatigued 
2 with 



J A M E S I. 23 

with (o long an effort, and unfupporttcl by hor^e or foe cty, ai lad failed him , a::d *-"-''^r- -I^- 
he made a lull diicowry ui a.l the confpirator'. ^^'^' 

Cati.';rv, Mercy, and the other crimii^als, wl-.o were in London ; tr.o' thcv had 
heard of the ahirm taken at the letter fe;;C to Montca^lr, tho' tlicy liad licard iA 
the lord chamberlain's fearch ; yet were relolvcti to perfill to the utmotl, a:,d r.cvcr 
aband.on their hopes of luccefs *. But at hi(l, heariiiy; t!i..t I'av. kt.,s was arreiUd, 
they hurricl away to Warwickddr. i v,i',erc Sir I^verard. D:. i^, niakin^i, account 
that fuccc!,-. had attended his corfederatcs, was alre.uiy in arms in order to fri/c t!ic 
princefs lihzabcth. She had elcapcd into Coventry ; and they were ohiiLi^ed to jaic 
thcmfclvcs on their defence againll the country, who were raifed from ail (Quar- 
ters, and armed, by the flieriffs. The confpirators, with ail ti.eir atcendar.ts, 
never exceeded tiie number ol eighty pcrlons-, and being iurroundcd on c\-ery 
fide, could no longer entertain hopes, either of efcaping or prevaiiii-.!:. 1 lavin:"^ 
therefore confefTed themfelves, and received abfoluti- n, they boldly prepared lur 
death, and refolved to fell their lives as tlear as [vjHible to the al]a;!.i:;t^. Ikit 
even this miferable confolation was (.'enied them. Some of tlieir powder took fi:c, 
and difabled them tor defence. The p.eople ruflicd in u[)on them. Tu rev aiul 
Catelhy were killed with one iliot. l^igby, Rookwood, Winter, andi otliers Ivwv^ 
taken prifor.ers, were tried, conteflcd their guilt, and died, as well as Ciarner, bv the 
h.'.nds of the executioner. 

Neither had the defperate fortune of the confpirators urged t'.em to i.'ds en- 
terprize, nor had the former profiigacy of their lives [M'cparcd them i.r fo j^ueac a 
crime. Before th.it auv'acious attempt, their conduct leems, in genera!, ro be liab!;: 
to no renrcach. Catelby's cliaracler i;ad entitled him to fuch regard, t!iat Rook- 
wood and Digby were leductd by their implicite trull in Iils ludgmerit -, an ; they 
declared, that, from the niotive alone ol ir iendlhip to him, they were ready, ( n any 
occafon, to have lacrilicvd tlieir lives. Digby himilli was a> higlily eileem.d a:;d 
beloved as any n^.an in ba gl.uul , aiul h.' had b.en j articularly honuurcJ. v.itli tf.e 
goo i opinion of Qiicen 1 ".li/.abeth. ''I'was bigotted /.eal .done, the ir.oll ab urd of 
prejudices malq..ed with r^alon, the moil cniEinal ut pall'.oiiS co\ cred wi:h the 

a; [^e.irar.cc 

^mn- liiili'MHii ha\c iir/a:-!.-,i;.', :' .'.r re Kin'a haJ fecn't intillii'onec cf :hc ei': (.-... ;i .. .nr.i! ['.t:.: 
tlic Ic'.un t ) M iUta.;'c w.i \-.io:f i". .u- iliicdion, in firucr to cilu.ini mo t.-i-Ac ot j ii-.t tr".r:on in Ja- 
tovt-rii)'.^ t'lK' nl'a. lull the l-;:.<)\si; t iOt> ictiui- til.^ luppohlioii. I iiat liti.r. Lc i:.; e .i\;noi.r, [.\.k.(.\i 
(;!, iu;''lu i'.,it;;; .'.'.ly hav.; ;.'iv(.-n ur. a'arni to the (.omi'.iato' , una n-...Jc i/.cni ^o:.;'.,c ;;nir i.l.,ip>.-. 
r.v,- \ ai: 111" liic lau'l ch.ainLt;l.i:n ''u;.M.t tu laaj'ia'i t!ic l.iir.c iticOl. !ii lla'r;, '.i . j^;c^.:.-, th.^a i.o 
ti.):!v *"... ^ a.;ri.;ud ur (.'Kjuiic^i afic, t".- l>';-.i>- (!.i\ ", till I'av. 'ci'.s cia-ovi icU thrir .,.;iii. . V,\' :;iav 
ii.hr, lio-Acvcr, trom a Kttcr m \'-'M\'.i-tHr"i Mtinoriuls vil ii. tliac S..lilbarv's i'.ij;ae!t. ltd tlic i\i:M- 
1:1 '\i C"!'.jt.'Clarc'-, and that t.^c :iu....' :: , I. ice ;'..ia;Uul cOjrti!.!', ga\ i hi:) inalicr liic p:..aL tl tiic uhelu 
daa-vuv. 



24 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Cnao. TI. appearance of duty, which feduced them into meafures, that were fatal to them- 
^^"^" felves, and had fo nearly proved fatal to their country. 

The Lords Mordaunt and Stiirton, two catliolics, were fined, the former 10,000 
pounds, the latter 4000, by the ftar-chamber i becaufe their abfence from parlia- 
ment had begot a fufpicion of their being made acquainted with the confpiracy* 
The Earl or Northumberland was fmed 30,000 pounds, and detained feveral years 
prifoner in the Tower ; becaufe, among other grounds of fufp'cion, he had admit- 
ted Piercy into the number oi gentlemen penfioners, without his taking the requi- 
fite oaihs. Thefe fentences may be thought fomewhat arbitrary : But fuch was 
the nature of all proceedings in the liar chamber. 

The King, in his fpeech to the parliam.ent, obf;rved, that, tho' religion had en- 
gaged the confpirators in fo crinunal an attempt, yet ought we not to involve all 
the Roman catholics in the fame guilt, or fuppofe them equally difpofed to commit 
fuch enormous barbarities. Many holy men, he faid, and our anceftors among the 
reft, had been feduced to concur with that church in her fcholaftic dodlrines j who 
yet had never admitted her fed itious principles, concerning the Pope's pov/er of 
detlironing kings, or fandlitying aflaffination. The wrath of heaven is de- 
nounced againft crimes, but innocent error may obtain its favour ; and nothing 
can be more hateful than the uncharitablenefs of puritans, who condemn alike to 
eternal torments, even the moftinoffenfive profelytes to popery. For his part, he 
added, that confpiracy, however atrocious, (hould never alter, in the leaft, his plan 
of government : While with one hand he punifhed guilt ; widi ths other, he would 
{fill fupport and protect innocence. After this fpeech, he prorogued the parlia- 
ment, till the 2 2d of January. 

1606. The moderation, and, I may fay, magnanimity, of the King, immediately after 

fo narrov/ an efcape from a moft deteftable confpiracy, was no way agreeable to his 
fjbjccls. Their animofity againft popery, even before this provocation, hadrifen 
to a great pitch , and it had perhaps been more prudent in James, by a little diffimu- 
lation, to have coniormed himfclf to it. His theological learning, confirmed by 
dir[v.itation, had happily fixed his judgment in the proteftant faith; yet was his heart 
a little byafied by the allurements of Rome, and he had been extremely pleafed, if the 
making fome advances could have effected anunion with that antient mother-church. 
Pie ftrove to abate the acrimony of his own fubjccSls againft the religion of their 
fathers: He became himfelf the objecSf of their diffidence and averfion. What- 
ever meafures he embraced ^ in Scotland to introduce prelacy, in England to inforce 
the authority of the prefent church, and fupport its rites and ceremonies ; were in- 
terpreted as fo many fieps towards popery, and were reprcfentcd by the fanatical 

puritans 



J AMES I. 2; 

};u:iM:^.3 ;"'.3 fvnif'toms of ul(;!.:try .".n.! ll:; LTilition. I.jiorar.r ol zhc con!l-qi:f-;-.cc-, 
(;; ;;;r.'. lii':, lo l.icriikv to p iHiits hi ^ 1 ;!> iK.aiicii, \N ::.l!i he c.Jh a h:s Lt';.;^ionvC, 
h? |;:r:cvc:\c! \i\ the Ihn^- :::c.il'i;r.'s a:ivt ;;..ve tru.i. ai.tl [ir;;!crnicnt, iilnvxl 1:: h.- 
h:, ;;::... tu h:i i.M:!ujhc :i:ui [norc-llan!. luh^'jci-^, Ai.u n::Lh[i;; h:- pc; !':', ;is \\c!l 
..s i.is ''.'' ' o^w;ou> to ihc ciuirch ol K' :ik-, t/..!:! th /, <; J-.hz..h. :!i, ;.. !':\i- 

c:l;.:1;v :;-.;OL.r()t tlicjlc hivs, whith Ii.ivl b<j; n cn.u Ll\; a :ai:i;i. t.;,.t t ;;i;: >. ii, 

a;:.i V. hhh .'. .:j !o acTcp:.\' le to his bi^'-tcJ k.hj.c:^. ih.c tlic cnl.:s or' iii:;c 
th. . h th lih.cb b-ca:rjc r.ot wry Ici^.iibk;, till tov.arh.s v.\j CL'ii.i.hiun or' 

A ; tih- tia";(\ Jani. s Ic.ms to have ['olV llhJ, in lon:e t'c \cc, the alh ch:( n-; 
^vlh (n \n> l\n:;h:a IuI'jlCLs, and in a p:\tty hi:;!i tb^re;', then- t.lhcm anh rc;, n\ . 
J i;:;:c:to th^ir c\;i;:j\initb were chiehy Icvcll.h aran.ll ins t( o ;;rcat un.b .; . v :;i 
his ea!"!v i. i^nthiiip^ ; a cn.hirv, wiiivli, ha.l it [v.ni attended v. i:h mor-c.;Cun. :v\\ 
I'.vj \'-\\: 'Aunlh \\AVc cxculch, and the cand:i.i woidv; e\en, j vnAn s, have a;^ ianh- 
ed. i ii> pait^, vdii>.n v/eie r-jt dc;^ icahb-, :\i'.d h ^ li\i\:\v, % v.nneh v,'..- r^r.ar, 
he in ; 11 n i '.V (.\ro!h'd by id-^ ion: tin ^ and :'o\'. nnnni, anei in.: \n [ tricni in the rra- 
n.: i.r anv .ieiiea'e anan':^, lor wldnii !;e was m^bt, radcd a \'e!-v iinji i>h-.i 

(.: ,1.,., n: tiij \'.(rld; no" v, a , it always thro' ihut'rv (,r ndhetritv, tin;: hn in.- 
C'd\ed tile titie u! tin levonn SoionKni. Arepitt, wl^:cii v, a- Ind .cr]\ ibr. a.ini:;: 
ti'n-, t n.e, o! hi bdni; ali-lbnat^c:, xni inly ilrn^ h a ijivat c^^i^lUrn^.tmn imo .di i r- 
, ni.n. 1 nj eonm^t^ns ai!.j ain::; d, tiiis 1 111;!!, 1 . nievdnt of dv ir exntdAv 
irn^^ n!t\- i and ^rnnitc ; him an .nd of ti:i\e Inbii ne-> and iix d;:. ndn-, v/':./., !^.[- 
b:.n:A^ Idicni bn.l in ti:e iio.A A nhni.t anv.^tn:t to abnnt n.nr ' ' ^ i 

V ,,...i?; : And n;r on<.c t..e l-.m ; and ; .n-.,an: .ni: ; .n" : d in n 
I,.;n; n.r. 1 '.'. !iatn:vd \\.n n tn. c.iLhone> L;n:.n to i^j.n" i,; n. ,, .. 
L h; mne, an a ' h:i ...ai \\.\..: \.\ tn ey.i wl h.s jn . , .,n 

: : v,a^- payAdn in h). ; -; an.! tn. hvn ;, p ' . ' 
; s (M n. ' n:, :... ! :.'.. e,. .y , 

.. : 1 t ; ,, a \- , , in; n ihi . 

i ' ) . ... 



26 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chan. II. at that time contented to copy fervikly the laboured and romantic inventions of 
her foiuhern neighbour. 

Thf. chief affair which was tranfacted next feiTion, was the intended union of the 
NoveinberiS.two kingdoms. Nothing couki exceed the King's paffion and zeal for this noble 
enterprize, but the parliament's prejudice and reludance againft it. There remain, 
two excellent fpeeches in favour of the union, which deferve to be compared toge- 
ther ; that of the King, and that of Sir Francis Bacon. Thofe, who aifcdl in every 
thing fuch an extreme contempt for James, will be furprifcd to find, that his dif- 
courfe, both for good reafoning and eloquent compofition, approaches very near that 
of a man, who was undoubtedly, at that time, one of the grcateft geniuies of 
Europe. A few trivial indifcretions and indecorum.s may be faid to cliarafterize 
the harangue of the monarch, and mark it for his own. And in general, fo 
open and avowed a declaration in favour of a meafure, where he had taken no 
care, by any precaution or intrigue, to enfurc fuccefs, may fafely be pronoun- 
ced a very great indifcretion. But the art of managing parliaments, by pri- 
vate interefc or cabal, being found hitherto of little ufe or neceffity, was not, 
as yet, become a part of EngliOi politics. In the common courfe of affairs, 
government could be conduced without their afllifance ; and when their con- 
currence became requifite to the meafures of the crov/n, it was, generally fpeak- 
ing, except in times of great faction and difcontent, obtained without much 
difficulty. 

The King's influence feems to have rendered the Scotch parliament very cor- 
dial in all the fteps, wdiich they took towards the union. Tho' the advan- 
tages, which Scotland might hope from that micafure, were more conllderable , 
yet were the objections too, v/ith regard to that kingdom, more ftrlking and 
obvious. The benefit, which mufb iiave rcfulted to England, both by acccffioii 
of ftrcngth and fecurity, was not defpicablc j and as the Englildi W'. re, by far, 
the greater nation, and poff.ffed the kat of government, the obieetio;;S, either 
from honour or jealoufy, could not reaibnably Iiave any place amrng them. The 
Englidi parliament indeed feem to have been iV/aycd merely by the vulgar mo- 
tive of national antipathy. And they ])erniled fj obflinately in th^jir preiudicec, 
that all the efixjrts lor a thorow union and incc-vporadon, end, cl only in thj ab(;- 
lition ot the hoili'e laws, formerly cn-^cked [}ctwc;:!i the '^in-^do:n,:. 

S-;-ii: p;-ec![)itant fleps, which t!;e Ki.':';, a liLtie afd. "i" 
ken, in ord^r to promote his favomk'j )r;jjec::, l;ad b.cn i 
ra:'re iiij-ry than krvice. From his own authorky., he '^d 
Kinp; ol (rc:ac lhii:.dn ^ and hn.d quartered the a;-;:;3 of Sco 
*: ,:5dand, in all ccdns, Iku^-, and enii'nis. And he had c;;f' 
8 



ec-ek 


it^n, had ta. 


re ob 


krVvHJ to do 


lumeJ 


i ..:G tide of 


Lr.d "' 


^ddi thok of 



J A M F. 5 I. 

i,> .';: .^ i' ' i.itlwn, that all t'u)!":, v. \n, ;i;[;_r tlv ur.ion of tlv- cro'.vns, 
! c !: r;i l;i cicl.jr l^i: ;; (im, v.vU-, u.v i'::r. idl^a .:!(,):;, n.it^.' .ih/cJ i, 
'i',,;s . .: ric'j v'l!'. l'.;(^n, ar.J, iiccurti:/,;:^ t ) tiu' it.!i.iT cjI thc^iC ti'iu-s, luU' 

u- 1).:!.. 



i' 



i\ \\' :..'; c:i 1)()l1i ii.!cs. 'I'iic Km;; \^.l^ ih,- ilin:j : [' 

\v._:^ .' i'o i-.nd^:. t!ic [ropic ti^'Ji\-:urc t'l,- ; . ;:c, v.c vau'X l\: : ',!., t:..:r 

t'.j ! .- ,' ^.'I'HV rciiJes v:!i;(. .'y in iiij [tu^cc, .u;.1 i^.i: ;h.\c ; ; L.i..r ..:- 

l^n-,I' . : .:!;jr orJaincd to ;ii!ul with n^o:,-)' aix.i a.ivici, t',^:ii i,/u vi v.::h 

;i:-.\- r ... ;;^^ or .u-Livc })')\v-, rs in tlic !.:()VcriiniciU. ': . , i.r,\> li.'.L .a 

i.i . ; j.ij...;;n > 0:1 ti;:s li.b^\:t, i'.ii! a.l oil .r LO,:,iii'jn:vc.:^:!. '^ h ..:..i\'.:^^ on-, , .- 

' /, (.'' / //.'/.' /'v i'- ...;- p/Wi'.u /il , J'c/' ^y/.^/c" iiu! '. Ci'. i : IS u.iWi.'.: .. ;,;,\.; ;,, 
c ''s^ (i'\i i/.cy /.'/.' J L /' f t'fUit.y cut ciiiii::,:. or ! nj.p'j! i:}'\\ cJiii /;,,' /S' /'.c'/^v i-.i.i' 
C'.:' -iix ill'. i-\' f'.V.V;':/;, (?;./ Lcrliini 'p:r,-jns tc Iv.'jc \::,rs c /v //; //.;/ {.:,.';, v, (:>:.i 
tLc !:kc\, ti.j'e ivrc i: ,y ^jlI curi-ns fi\i},.cs, 'ivhich cf }:c.fj;'.:x J., frc/up:-. : .: .'..;j 
p/'i L. ::'/:!, iv :.'/t'-; C/' .7 /;::; .;.':'.', tQ p^i.i.ii i./.\. ^.vt.'.,' ti.^iii: Llul :''. /.'.. '..//\ /;;.., (,;- 

[/::- > c :-'.';., ;;.7^:T;.'.' 'ir /";.;.' ^ /A;' /:::';.;/,;./;; J /;/;(' ;;.:;;r;'.;.' <:>;.;,/; ..-.' ; :_',.\h 
(._ . .. .jUijCfii^:, :s [j:.:,ii (i::u iK.ui:' t}i:rc J ,i imi. \ I:-.: //./. :s 

;; v;;;, /:./ ;rr.;; }:.-:::}<:. It %vo:.!t.l ll^m iroin tliis r(j.i!o:ii;:..:, tiia: t;ic 1,; a c;! an 
/:; ,.; .T.-, !:}>:::-d n^cnarciiy, ti;/ inipli irely U;rp'jlcJ in many pL;!^;^- tr.'..;- 
a:Li'):v-, luci r..'V.:r, .;.s yet, b. en cxpi\l. iy luii^iv.J, by ay L'.r.^iiih lav.wr ur 
poliii' ian, 

I\x;-;:rr tlv? ob.nn.icy of the pari. anient with I'c:-; nxl to t!i-; i:;i!0-:, nnd an 



n,,. K 



-,):,. ,1 



atten^pt ('n tlu- l\nr'; - ccc. ,,..U;i.'al 1 n-!.v...:;un. n^oiL c: tii w ni^- r ::.-, v^..:n.; 
tlii , t inun, wc!\: lahiCicntiy tt !pe_-;:! a:.J c.')i;_;:p:; ; t!i / lIi. y li. ! li:;. '/,\ ; a 
vifplant 1, ii;% ainl a car.i^.l ..tLcr/n /n to'.v.,:- .^ p-L.bn^' :.oo.l a:; '. y'.'.::: ..[ ..',',r .. 
'lb' \'utc-) alio ot l!.'j conmitM, lliow, r!:,.t tiiat 1. -'.l.- con'..;...h a !..;:::.;;; ; 
]^i!ritans, w:uj iiui acquiri'd Jieat autho: ;:y ani :;:; m ii:, a;. a \',!.o : _^ i^, j- 
V, :ri i\' i^>:oU' pr.]ad:.LS wl ;v t 'n:"iiu.a'!y lL;:y:^>.l..;;j i';a<, n. rj l.:;.;b!c ro a 
popular tlian a rnoiuir hi. al tii.ni ot i_^o\v!'iinvn:. h'.;.- iM:..:'ai aj^.i::^- ;or 
ru!j, ma. !i- th" c oninion^ ivnc! a wi! :nj ear to iwiy v' .:. i, ^. i:x!i t^n.ied :o 
:ii:L;ment then' puw^r and iiwhiCiiec. 



.\ I'rTir!')^ vvM"- rr(A\h in the l^'i'he : ; a nv 'X' n >;,n:-:( 
.'.li ji ) Mill reculants and an a'\.' 



' r /^ laws 



;:h t;:. 1.- iv, > point , w l':c c tp. db.' ',;:i,^ .\ p: 



. ilC K' 



e d r.o i. 



'!' 



.rrnei" ni cat m . 
;. a In-.a.ho! : : 



t;;at tn'i n:ea'ii:c o: t... Kn\.;, \' 



;;:.a ov nn:nv 



sB PIISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap II. particularly during the reign of Elizabeth. Kad the houfe been always difpof- 
^^' ' ed to make the precedents of that reign the rule of their conduft, they needed 
never have had any difference with any of their monarchs. 

5ih of June. TiiE complaints of Spanifh depredat'ons were very loud among the Englifh 
merchants. The lower houfe fcnt a meffage to the lords, defiring a conference 
^vith them, in order to their prefent'ng a joint petition to the King on that fub- 
jcct. The lords took fome time to deUberate on this mefilige j bccaufe, they 
faid. tlie m.atter was zve'ghty and rare. It probably occurred to them, at firft-, 
tliat the parliament's interpofing in alfairs of ftate would appear unufual and 
extraordinary. And to iliow, that in this fentiment they were not guided by 
court influence; after they had deliberated, they agreed to the conference. When 
all bufineis was finifhed, the King prorogued the parliament. 

/thof Julv. About this time, there was an infurreftion of the country people in Nor- 
, thamptonniire, headed by one Reynolvls, a man of low condition. I'hey went 

about dcftroying inclof^ures ; but carefully avoided the committing any other out- 
rage. This infurrcv^lion was cafily fupprcffed, and, the' great lenity was ufed to- 
wards the infurgents, yet were fome of the ringleaders puniflied. The chief 
caufe of that trivial commotion feems to have been, of irfelf, far from trivid. 
It was become the common pradice in England to difufe tillage, and throw the 
land into inclofures for the fake of pafbure. By this means, the kingdom was 
depopulated, or at leaft, prevented from increafing fo much in people, as mi^Tht 
have been expected from the daily increafe of induflry and commerce. 



i6?9. 



^()z?^. Next year prefents us nothing memorable : Bur in the fprlng of the fubfe- 

quent, after a long negotiation, was concluded, by a truce of twelve years, that 
war, which, for near half a century, had been carried on with fuch lury, be- 
Truccbct'.vixttween Spain and tlie fbates of the United Provinces. Never contefl feemed, at 
O Vd r'^'o^'^ firft, more unequal : Never conteft was finiflicd v/ith more honour to the weaker 
vincc.-. party. On the fide of Spain Vv'ere numbers, riches, authority, difcipline: On 

the fide of the revolted provinces were found the attachment to liberty and the 
cr.thufiafm of religion. By her naval enterprizes tlie republic mainta'ned her 
armies-, and joining peaceful induftry to pjilitary valour, ih.c v/as enabled, by 
her own lorce, to fupjxjrt herfelf, and gradually rely lefs on thofe nei^Jibourinrj; 
princes, wlio, from jealoufy to Spain, v.vre at fird' pronr.)tcd to encouiT.gc her 
revolt. l->ong had the ])ride of that nionarchy prevailed over her interell, and 
prevented her from hearkening to any terms of accommodation v/ith li-r rebel- 
lious fubjecfs. But finding all intercourfe cut ofY between h.:r provinces by 
the maritime force of the ftates, flie at ialf agreed to treat witli them as a 



J A M ESI. 



29 



tree nco'^le, aivl fulcp.in.v to rcno,::-.cc :ui Ci.u:n .::i.i preteri j:n CJ t.i::r 1 /.> ' ' '' ^ 
icLMity. 

Til : s c'mi- f jyoint: l\-ii"iir '-^:\c. r; iiiiei-l, t!-' trc.'v v. .-.- c.\r;iy Nr()i)i;:it to .1 co:icIi;r;i;n, " 
under the io;:it ni.di.itio.i an.i ;^;LJa;-.i;.rc'i! o: 1- iM:H':- aivi I\' .^.i: d. All i\i':v\^ : 

clililrci^it WLfc the k-iitinicnts v. liivjii t!ic il.itc:-, ds v.'v 1 as .:.[ ]\:::\)- c, ciucrr.iii; ,! 
oi' tl^j I'liiu.s, wiKi \vt re t!v/ni. Itl.^miiiv and \::' .i.r, tlie cli;;-: c i; . j-ri^ii'ic: -, 
ul-ich nroeiM-c rciJir.i anvjii,' loici^n ii.it'ons, II^)::^- as cc.::ij ;c : u:]y ::. il 
t!..v wtre cic-lcLLiv.' i;i Jair.'-^. in a UMitciny: (-1 O/: 1'"m.:';.1i ni na:\,!:, 1 i...: , 
r :::- to have i.d.l^d a c(>:;lL'c;-.:' let! i;r (.- oi ;.\M'1:;v a:v,; ..w i'IIm;:, v, li:. !: v. : j 
1. :ti. rents al:(;;_:;t!i r \. iLiuji.t :;.u;KlaL:<:n. Jani.sv.as n :i.e:iy j:,.l ..i;^: ;..:; :n 
:.][ trawla.lions \v;Lh his ahu-s ^ b';: it ;-;y;).a:-> !;\-n"! the i'^ji.UjTS ci tliu.e ::.. 
t!;it caJi liiie u.enKu him partial L)'.va:\is tii -ir ahwrlary, a:\l lanei.e, ti^a: ..: 
haj c tti'e-l into Ih.r.t n-e l:n\- a ainl! liiin. >o \.r.\.' i y!;ry hav. n-. n in:h/: 
h;.hr'nj:,t^ t.t ti.eir ce.vn ah ;ir^ ; anh h; h..:v , i-.;:i h [':...: cntn'e n,a.:;',h; v ahi . - 
cJ in' t'.e Ivin:;: u! h.n h;:.h ! 



'ih: 



rcerr., wiii^ii Ja'V..^ itju!-: lii 



revelers t.._- c arc;- 

t ; 



.: ) r, iLn. 



ccciaTi.u.-, particularly tho:e cj; pai aaniLnt, t.ia 1: oIl interi h:;.^__ .1 
A IU--.V Lilicin V. a-. !:' id tlh^ I r.np, ; ti.e Kinij, kih ch hcyes 01 recc;\hn:i il;[ i v ; th-j 
ro;iinioi.s. ch cireuu'i !ei'ibiiv_!, iii cX'.a iht.ait je'cia.'^ attreca i he h..ii 1 i a >ai;i :>u!"v, n av 
created trealurer un tiie ti. at ii ci the hhni ot l^aa^t, laih i^pen tiu Ki:v:'s nee. hi:i , 



j'ril 'o the I'eers, ti;: a to a eoiKinittee ol tn.' lo'.'-a r h ,tde. 
av(ji i..bl e::yenv!.>, in ia, yotha^ lii,: ;ia\-y, aiil ii; L 
tiun in Iteiai.h : I 1 ; r: aiL:o,.e.! tluae nun^arwva- Cv^ia: 
!i',.- : Lo nanat.nn, mm- hiinl h, \>\- li.: <^..vn, , :,d . : 
He oblirv-d, t'lat (^..en I'iii a/vhi. li;./ a h. ' , 
ia-y r , ; ' , in li-; y,ar. ;a- . . 



an V w CKi i,,e i.n- 



30 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C'ro. II. at-,1 ,^ J3,_jj- not to (liock the King with an abfolute refufiil, they granted him one 
fubfidy and one fifteenth j which would fcarce amount to :i hundred thoufand 
pounds. And Jumes received the mortification of difcovering, in vain, all his 
wants, and of b.p;o;in2; aid of fubiecls, who had no reafonable indulgence nor 
confideration for him. 

Among the many caufes of difguft and quarrel, v;hich now, daily and una- 
voidably, multiplied between Prince and parliament, this article of money is to be 
regarded as none of the Icaft confiderab! ..-. After the d;fcovery and conquefl of 
the Weft-Indies, gold and filver became every day more pbntiiui in England, as 
well as in the refu of Europe ; and the price of ail commodities and provifions 
rofe to a pitch beyond what had ever been known, llnce the decknfion of the Ro- 
man empire. As the revenue of the crown rofe not in proportion *, the Prince 
wa^ infenfibly reduced to povcity amidft tlie general riches of his fubjecls, and 
required additional funds, in order to l'up')ort the fame magnificence and force, 
which had been maintained by former monarchs. But v/hile money thus flowed 
into England, v/e may obferve, that, at the fame time, and probably from that 
very caufe, art and irduftry of all kinds received a mighty increafj ; and elegance 
in every enjoyment of life became better knovv'n, and more cultivated among all 
ranks of people. The King's fervants, both civil and military, liis courtiers, his 
miniilers, demanded more ample fupplies from, the impoveriflied Prince, and were 
not contented with the lame fimpllcity of living, which had fatisfied their an- 
cefcors. The Prince himfelf began to regard an increafe of pomp and fiilendor 
as requifite to fuop-rt the dignity of his character, and to preferve the fame fupe- 
riority above his fubjeds, winch his prcdecciiors liad enjoyed. Some equality too, 
and proportion to the other Ibvcreif^iis of Europe, it was natural for him to de- 
fire , and as they had univerfal'y enlarged their revenue and multiphed their taxes 
the King o[ i'aigUiPid deeded it reafonable, that his fubiecfts, v^dio Vv'cre gcnerahy 
richer than tlieirs, fliouki bear Vvdch patience fome additional burliiens and im- 
pohtioriS. 

UKiiAJ'PiL, v for the King, thofe very rich.es, v/ith the increafing knowlep-e 
of the r-ge, br. d o;)pofite ler.rim.ei.ts in Ins llibjecfLS , and begetting a fpirit 
oi tr.edom an.d ir.dei^endcnce, dilpoicd ciiem to pay little regard, ei"iier to the 
eritre.itlcs or nv:;naccs of rlieir ibvcreign. Wlhle tiie barons poflviTed their for- 
mer in~;nien;c propcity and exrcniive lurildidions, they were apt, on evci-y dii- 
guif, to enchinger tlie n^iOnareli, and throw t've vvh.oie govennr.ent into cosifn- 
lion : Ikit t'lis vcvy coniufion oiten, in i:s turn, proved favourable to the mo- 

' narcii, 

* Tc'-lJc:; ti:'"' r;rcr;t c;ir-r;U;fin of the crown bncl , the r.c firi-n-rcn;:, never inrr-r;^;J, anil wic olhcr 
\:.-:^ V, cic J,t cu ;cr'., IvL.ij, va:A at a 'jjciH uiid j. ; :;ii:c, iialc or no:'.:.:^'- al>o\ c t!iC o'.i rcat. 



JAMES I. 



3^ 



vV.. rl 



nir.-n, aa.l m.i;l;: tl:.e iu:i j:^ a^ i:n L.-v-ir :o ii:.r, in ur ;c:- : ^ r '-r.t i.\; ;i 



. r-rl i'v; , ; " 



cummrrC'-- 



cc h.i.: i!irov,n ::; 1m' ! 






tlic llcuation ot al: .;; s .i.,u li;;.- (.lilj^'i-'iv);.-, ol iw.-.i [\.-....c i.,!^ j/;'^- ul an-; ic 
r.L;iibr plan ot lu-c;:y ; a;v* t:;c l.iws wert: :).: J. : j^'^i^' ^ I: .;i/ l^y t!.c ..l:!:'': ir/ 
o' t'lc luvcr.'i;^:!. AiaI !;!i(/ in 'Iwi ;n:crva!, a*:.-;- l!ic .'; i,;;.- (>l the ^'.-rr--, a::.l 
bcfuiv tlu- p:o;)!c had yet c\[;L;i: need i:\A\- hn-c ', thj j i'K.ccs aiihnicd an .>; /I^i- 
t.ait [^ov. .r, and li.id almfjll; ann;hi!a:jd t'.r ccnlliti.ti'.in inidcr L.c w.i.d^t ( ' :h/'r 
J : Lrcv^aii'v".' ; 1^) lo n a- i'.\^ cc ;n:n^;n, r.;covv':v-l lioni t:h;.ir ijL:i.-r.:v, 'he, Ten lo 
h-v,-- bc.n aihjnilh.d at tlij danycr, a-:d were rjl()h,\d i > !lia;e h.c::y by d:;.. .- 
barriers, than Lwlr .MicelloT:, h.ul hid^erti; jncr. ivled :or it, 

IIa!) Jan:es ponidvd a very r: dd iViaiadry, he nd^;!i: !:a-.e ward.d oidrdd, tr'- 
f- ljn-;ev,-:;at hmyxr i and v, adin.'; [Mr nriy idr a ia'.ain\ddj(,p^ u: t::.nd / d.arc.^ e 
iv:A CiK hia r., Venae, n'iydc Inive K . in\ d i c v x:^. nd>'e andun ic, , \'. !.n !i v, as i; an..- 
nnf cd tj him, (;n d.e cnher hand, had t:M e^ y.:\:.,:\^ b.en ia,edn:d :. aa: v,ad; 
inwre '^er'A-rodry an : !dn.;..e.-> l<)\. ...\U \.'.\c\v idnxa, thay n.i^^h: r b.Liv i;..\'- 
turned his neeeilkies to yood aceon..t, and ha\M brib.d him to dvpirtyeace- 
ably ironi the nioil dangerous articles cd his prerogative. Bat !i ' \v.;^ a loreign.-, 
and i.^norar.t of t'le art^ o[ popadarity ; tl;.y vaere lum'ed by r. li.;ious prd. .dnecs, 
arid te'Meions (d tlieir monav : And, in thi;, (iruatlon, it is no v.ajin'.er, t'n.it, dm in,,; 
this vdiole reign, v,-e idaree find an interval ul mutual conidlence and Irdndddp be- 
tween prince and parlianicnt. 

Tna Ivii\L', bv rn> pr rogative ah)ne, had, fome vear^ hMa-re, altered all [':.: 
CLiflom^, and cdabhmed ne.v imyo'dions on ainunl (, v.ry ha:d m n;erc!:.ma:.- . 
'1 die preced^ii: ior hj dangaroti- an eXM\me ol p'>".'ar urnj a. .dna verv ;.>... .t 
nor \'ery numeaiais. Cd.e in the r, ]_n ui dbiry, another in tha ' a^ynaiam u: 
IdnM'Mth, N'.M.' die hired thit co.d'l he tonind Ihn, .a^ the innciadon- i^ t'../- 
tv. o (Ju(\ ns la.d bcMi ad al ^ng lndni::rad lo, aad ...d contma, d to ha iv' d. d ; d: 
i-r\r. : ' > thaia.v a hind < ! i.\'j'..['!i ai:d and i .ntv on ta:. cn.edir.n, v. :a' h \'. ; 



j.iiig-, oi 1 a 

loie dia, . .'ad 



)::: iit ta) d^e eonll 



n nMav ill 



on: I s' 



in ... ' 



i,al .o t,.en- 



rea ; a. a1 la, at 



;M'.a; a t.;..: t a 

t - .-, . r ' r ' - 

I '>-:> ^ , 

;a; ant.M dy n; ..\ ..\:A 
.o.! t . tda !o-,a; vi ! 



a. 1 ... ...I 



:^i to t:.. 



.L a n . 



^2 i. Jl J. O i, V/ i 'i. J. O t VJ Iv .-y xi i JiJ IV i J. XT. i i"-^ . 

Cii.-;i. II. i",,,,,,^ not pjLOgeihv" unplaullbic, was certainly the moll; exceptionable of any, in 
vvliich he was eiv-agtci during his wiiole rtign. They obfcrvcd, Tu'al the re-fcns 
of that praline hnght he extended much fariher^ e-ven to the utter nan of the anii- 
iv.t liberty of the kirigdom^ and the fubjeUs' right of prope'ly in their lands and 
goods. The' exnrefiy forbid by the King to touch his prerogative, they pafTed a 
bill abohaiing t'lefe impofitions ; which v/as reiecled by the houfe of lords. 

Im anotlier addrefs to the Kin,, ti-cy objcftcd to the practice of borrowing upon 
privy (eals, and dcfirec, that the llibjccl.- H^oind not be forced to lend money to 
liis Maiefcy, nor give a rcafon for their rtfufaK Some murmurs likcwile were thrown 
out in tiie houle againft a new monopoiy of the licence of wines. \i mufb be con- 
feiled, that forced loans and monopolies were cilablhhed S'^ m^ny and recent prece- 
dents ; tho' diiunetrical'y oppofite to all tlie principles of a free government*. 

Tn'E houfe likcwife diicovered Ibme difcontent againft the King's proclamations. 
James told them, '^Ijat tho'' he 'u::eU kneiv^ by the cc^ylitution and policy cf the kingdom, 
that proclamations zuere not cf equal force ivith la-z-js ; yet he thought it a duty incirm- 
bent on hini^ and a poiver infeparahly annexed to the crown., to refrain and prevent 
fiich rnifch'efs and inconi:eniences as he fa\v grci-:ing on the ft ate. again]} 'Ujh'ich no cer- 
tain Unv was extant., and which might tend to the great detr-nnent of the fahjeti., if 
there fiould be no remedy pro-iidcd till the meeting of a parliament. And this prero- 
gative^ he adds, our progenitors have^ as wed in antlent aslate^ times., tifed and enjoyed. 
The intervals between felnons, v/e may obferve, were frequently fj long as to ren- 
der it requifite for a prince to interpofe by his prerogative; and it was an ellablifli- 
cd maxim among the lawyers, that all tiie proclam.ations of a king were abrr.o^a- 
ted by his d.atli. But u'hit the authority could be, which bound tlie fubieits, and 
yet v;as in'ericr to tiie authority of laws, feems inexplicable by any maxims of rea- 
ii;n or politics : And in tins ipdlance, as in m;ir.y f)thers, it is eafy to lee, \\.)\w I'nin- 

tcih'.iL-'je 

* Wi fi!;d \]^': KiiH';*s :inf\;o'- in ^Vin^vood's Mcmcrials. " To the tliird r^iid [bu-th (iianieh- t'Kit it 

" ni';:!;i b'- i^^ni; tu arrv.l: th:; Ki.vj/s 'icvjv.wti, vvith.'iU leave, v.v.X \\i.\l no ina;i iJi:;i'U! h^ in!" -m-J t) 

' ; .; brc'T"''" prcc >K .";!' r^r ::;'i(|';itv ;o !h--!\pri:n ihoic uc;:^a 
' J':i>. n i' I ;.i t'.v 'i::v r-'i \['t.'\'^\-?'^or c!"'::rvi;r; ;-'i^'rc;:, or pc.' 
' ,':t..i !^ ii J) '-vnc:;; ;;i I'uA Cf.iii;;.u':\'.c;.IuK v.'ie:.: :v;i.;\.i.:. ii. 



A.i: 


no mail iji:;uh! 


' i C 1 


)': uj an nniwei 


lie 


;,"1--Acd :;ot <f 


t :; : 




i.c ; 


:ii:-;.-..i ci ..il t; 


!Ki ;; 


: c ': .; i: ::;. / 



r.:-. a;: 



-n, i:C 



J A M I-. S 1. 



" 4 
J3 



.lb!:", by conti- ''^- 11. 
I 1 ?. 



lUJcJ iUAjUiiiiio.i.s or c.:cro.Kii'r.rr,:<, r^ c:l.iblilh ic o:i iix: r:-,.;^\p!js o! liberty. 

l'i'C\ the Icttlc'inir.: ui [lie rx-:' riii-uio:;, t'-.-ii: cx:cii!'r.'L- ;\m:-..-Ii o! powt-r, \v'-.:rh 
iTga:\is ccclc!].\'!icai :-:i.;'t.TS, bci:i^ riicn witliojt an ^'wr.-r, 'c.'ii-ijJ co bclor^i; to 
the iiril occL;{)icr ; a;ui I k'l^ry laiicd jiot iinnvjdi.itiv.- to i.i/..' i:, ar.-i to cxcrt ir 
tvcn to the i.nikjll (.le_;ice or tyranir,'. Tlic poli.ii'.on or it was con:i.u;ecl wit.'i 
I'\i\varcl ; an.l iwovcre.l by lui/a'-erh ; aiui that aii'ibirioiis I'lir.ceN was ;o re- 
mar!-;ablv ijalous of this ilower (;! hji" ci"ov. .i, that ibc L:'.\Tc;y irp; :;r,aiK:cJ. t'v: 
jKi; ii.ui^cMt, ifthcv ever [TeluiKJ^ to iiUciTiiCi-Uiie lii :h i / i'na:'c:>i a;..l they v.cie 
1 ) f)'. c:--awecl by lier ;u:th,orit\', as to lubniit, .ir.J. to aik par.ion (jii t'ldl- o;a: .lijr.s. 
1> .t Jaiiics's }Mriianit:Ms were niL.c'a IcI^ oblevniit ::-. 'i i:/v vcr.t ;:-.\l to i; t '..p 
tiuar eyes, aiui to Cor.lki r tliis prci-';_;ati\'e. TiN"/ lii :re law a '.'ery \a:,j: p:o\ .nee 
i.'I t;o\'ci"r.[rieiit, p^ollJleil by tlic Kii-.;!; alone, a:-.o r, \l-: coniir, uii-cateJ wit.i tihe 
parliamei;:. I'liey were ienilble, tliat tin:, [ v<)V\r.:c adn:i[:ed n j: oi anv txa_: 
bouni.!ary or clrcumrerijiion. 'I liey had iJr, tluit tiie Ron-an p.oi-.'ntb, in {brnv;r 
n^L's, LP.Jer pretence oi reli^rjvjn, w.;-; firatkially inakii,^^ aib'ariC.s to i:l.-rp tn.e \\:;o!e 
c:\'i! power. '1 iuy dreaded iHi! niore danL:croiis confeOjUcnces lio.n I'l'.i- el.ini:s 
(j; f.e!!" (jwn I A'ere;n,n, who rel'iJied an'.on^ tl'iem, and. wI;o, in nianv odr.r 
reljxdr-, pofu-i'Ved luch unlimited antliority. Tiu y ti'iereiorc d.eni.di it abljlu '.y 
re(];jllre to eircnmle; ibe tliis branch ot prerc.iz ;ti\'e ; arid aeeord:n.;'\-, in t;ie {;-- 
eedin:'; flfilo"!, they palled a bill arriiidl the ell.iblilnm. n: o; any cc^ lehallleal t a- 
r.';;-.s witlioiit con'/c::: oi parlhmvjnt. Bat ti^.e houle or Icjrds, as is niaa!, de.e:\.Ld 
the barriers oi il.e tln'oiie, and rei.eUvl i!ie Ixl!. 

Ix till-, llillon, tlie eoir.mons ccMUenr. d tl.enifelws with rcir.o;;llr:.t:nj: a;-.;ain:l. 
r''e j roceeding^ ot the l:.:l' (-j//;,-;;,..;; r:;;;.'. It required no j:reat penetration tj 
ite the exrrenie ea:'i^-/r to liberty, ariiin;; i:\ m hn-pe dheretionarv j\jvv. rs in a re- 



o'.-ernmcnt. lint J.m'es, as wao n,i:iii-.d, re;. 



:--dtlu-.iTh 



.i:\o:] (,; t.;e coiv.- 



l^r-r, '-,-' l"-n;'S'.- 



no:-,. 1 lu wa^, prol.\in:y Imnole, t!:at, re:;>'es tin- preat cimnnntion ot hs a-:- 
t'. :/v, nvKv,' incon\'cn:encles nuiil neeenarhy nklt Ironi the abuhdini:; a! 
poA'er oi Lies ii.it.n'e in e\\ rv ira.p l". ra:e , and tliat the iau^, were tfivv ewr ; > 
< arefoh)' iran^id and ehped^d, eoiih: not poill ox- j :'.'\nde .^paind .I'i eontinit;::- 
( ie- nvach le:-, wliere they ii.iii rn.t, aN \et, a:: o.ud a i.:!beii.nt tiepr.e ot aeei.- 
: -lev .oul rehr.en'.e.t. 



\] V th.e bn'.inelV, which c'nelly oeeu[^'^.i tiie 



^ '.'wnv^r,-^, dobro ;.;,;,, lenion, 



in,;,-. 



art) it ion ot ward.ibnj 



o:rvev.;:o"e ; i rerO: 



\'. h.. li ii..d. bee 



re or le':, tOuched on, e\ery n ;bon, dmio; the v. !;oe' ikpn (^i Jan:e-. I;i 

I i.s a,", iir, the c (ariir.on,^ cnipiov..! the prober ;n .noj, \'d;:e:i n.isj^ht intide th;.n\ 

;o IncecK : They oiieied ti^e Kin;: a letded re\: m;;; a^ an eouivaki.t :or t!ie [ov,- 

0-, \'. oicn he dioulvi pa;t v, ith j and tne Kn';, was v. .1 Inp to luabien to tern";^ 

'^ o!.. I I: eVlt'T 



3.:. HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

After much ciiipute, he ofTcred to give up thefe prerogatives for 2Co,ooo pouncia 
a-year, which they agreed to confer on him : And notlrlng rernii.ined, towards 
ciofing the bargain, but that the comnions fliould determine the tune's, from whicli 
this fum fnould be levied. This ieiiicn was too far advanced to bring fo difficuic 
a in.viter to u lull conciulion ; and tho' the paruament met again, towards the end 
ol the year, and refumed the queilion, they v;ere never able to terminate an aftair, 
whicli they fecn";t:d fo intent upon. The journals of that feffion are lofl: ^ and as 
the hifcorians of tliat age arc very negligent in relating pa liamentary affairs, of 
wiiofe importance they were not furiiciently apprifed, we know not exactly the 
reaf()n or this fai'i^re. it only appears, that the King was cxtTemely diffitisfied 
vifh 'h;- co;:duci. of t.l:e parlia;T;enr, zv\'<\ foon aiterwar^is diflolved it. This was his 
niff parliare.cnt, and it lat near ievcn years. 

In the n^inft of all iheie attacks, iomc more, fc)n"ie lefs violent, on royal ['rerc- 
gative, the Kiiig dilblaycd, a:^ openly as ever, all his exalted notions of mrnarchy 
v^v^d. the authoiity of princes. Ev^nia a Ipeech to the pariiameni, where he begged 
lOY fiiCDiV, and where he Hioukl naturallv liave uied every art to ingratiate hirnleif 
vrith that aikmbK-; he exprcecd himieli'in tncle terms; " I conclude, then, the 
*' point, toucik: g the power or king^, widi thi? axiom of divinity, that, as to dii~ 
' pure, eZ?.:/ Gcd ^iii^y d\ is blah hcn^iy^ but, "i-d.uit God \::iU'^ that divines may 
-' la-tidiy aiid do ordiiandy ddgu^e and diieuis; io is it [edition in lubiecls to 
^- C'A.^wc, V. hat a kingn-av do in ti:e height of his povcr. Bar k:fl kinns will 
' e^ar be wiiiing to declare v.]iat they v,i'l do, if they vvili nox incia- the cu:!e cf 
'' G\,^. I viil not be content, that my power be diAvUted upon ; but I ik.di ever 
'' n-c wiiiing to make ti;e rcalon appear of my doi'gs, and rule my actions accord- 
- ing to ;-g,- la -va-,." Noiwiildbindnig the great extent ot preroc;aiive in that a ;e, 
:h::l exyt' diaas vvoidd prebabiV pive ibme oRbnce. but we may obkrve, that, 
:. > the f^ingk daipntim! was mere ikeeedative than pra.Aical, io the indenendenev 
:'. '.'\v coainio;;-: w v:, at this time, tiie contrary 3 and, tiicd Itroiigly luppoited by 
ia";; preient iiraaL^on a.. Vv"ell as dhpudtion, was too n^w and recent to be as \xi 
hjai.ded on fe!!^' naLaaa! nrinciide^; and e.pinions 'd 






,vaic!iiK' i.Laei'];^'] i: ]e'' : :':: ''.--^ :ii :~'a: .'I 'o :'ic C!\'>Mi of leiv 

' ;'a.o ;.: cc :X>cr,: Oi^ ' .. , \- :"; u!' 'a' :v.\\ na:-" lii^ :;..o.".s Ok rc.o, tor v;.-. '.iiiuli.^ >{.:: to ]\'.~, u,')- 






' uaact ; ct it !'-. i;. J ^.- )(:. .. r c ''..;> ,^, ; hu:r ..a l^. . 



A Mrs I. 



and t.(ji:^i in .n i' :i v:v' :.; ;. ; . 

;.u ; t';'i c ::r;:;\ -, \. . i ,.. i,,. . , ..,.., ^.. ._ .. 

t';c ; ^ ' ".\ .1 I', riow u .:^ :.: to I , 

:'i:"..", '.. i.'j i...i.iU\i.i .ic o:"jCC ii:'^ (,v.:'i i.;^' :.;, : i.: .: 






.Hi. s ; .1 r:( .i...r . '. . '. 



L.i..: a 



^j\.i::, V. ,1 . ti,^' iLi..:L (m .. 



c. : '. ^s :;i a ; o'.\-:i.l >;aJ inl,;:a:j, i;r:..c\. 



u.. , 



. _1. 1- ..11 av 



:,.;,..". c. a::.::.-.::"i^ ni:; e,.c;ry, a:: : \v; o v ,. 

or :.-.. c..:io:i. \''' :;'i h: c^-a-;^;. r;;jp"':- 

c>. a; a: :-.r l(;:::a yLa;> ; aia.! i::,..: i.iaratj; i '--- ^, 

:i .a p'^ c::i.J, :.: :i^;..- a:. . (.:i:^.i" .:'._, iiaj AalLiaai. ;^a .a' .ivis L- 

J , ..: !(,):-n:K:..l\c :>; 1 -..: aa.. 

;, I .a,_;ia!.J, t!i.- an.iyaihy tJ ih. (:a:lu:!a iwi /a 1 a a" 
(.-.caLj aaw ion:a ol t!:c la/, s, \'. laca !:au I' i. a U). a: c; !\ in.a 



36 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chsp. IL pofe than to keep thefc religionifts in awe, began now to be executed v'ith greater 
rigour and feverity. 

i6n. Tho' James's timidity and indolence fixed l^im, during mofl of his reign, in a 

very prudent inattention to foreign affairs, there happened, this year, an event in 
Armmianiun. ^jj.Qpg ^p jjj^]^ mighty confequence as to rouze him from his lethargy, and fum- 
mon up all his zeal and enterprize. A profeilbr of divinity, named Vorftius, the 
difciple of Arminius, was called from a German to a Dutch univerfity , and as he 
differed from his Britannic Majefty in fome nice queftions concerning the intimate 
effence and fecret decrees of God, he was confidered as a dangerous rival in fcho- 
laftic fame, and was, at laft, obliged to yield to the legions of that royal do6lor, 
whofe fyllogifms he might have refuted or eluded. If vigour was wanting in 
other incidents of James's reign, here he behaved even with haughtincfs and in- 
folence ; and the ftates v/ere obliged, after feveral rcmonfirances, to deprive Vor- 
ffius of his chair, and to banifli him their dominions. The King carried no far- 
ther his perfecutions againfl: that profelfor ; tho' he had very chai'itably hinted to 
the ftates, That, as to the burning Vorjlius for his hlafphemies and atheifm^ he- left 
them to their cmn chrifiian 'uoifdom i hut furely never heietic better deferred the 
flames. It is to be remarked, that, at this period, all over Europe, except in Hol- 
land alone, the pradice of burning heretics ftill prevailc-d, even in proteftant coun- 
tries ; and inftances were not wanting in England, during the reign of James. 
The Dutch themfelves were, at Lift, by ftate-intrigue, and the tyranny of Prince 
Maurice, forced from their rational and humane maxims ; and the perfecuting 
bigots, a little after this time, ilgnalized their power by the death of the virtuous 
Barnevelt, and the imprilonment of the virtuous and learned Grotius. The fcho- 
lailic contrcverfies about free-will, and grace, and predeftination, begot thcfe vio- 
lent convulfior.s. 

In tracing the colierence among the fyftems of modern theology, we maay obfervc,, 
that the doctrine of abfolute ciecrees has ever been intimately connected with the 
enthufiaftic fpirit , as that doftrine aftbrds the higheft fubjecl of joy, triumph, and 
iecurity, to the fuppoled elect, and exalts them, by infinite degrees, above the reft' 
of mankind. All the firft reformers adopted thefe principles ; and the JanfeniRs 
too, a fanatical iect jn France, not to mention the Mahometans in Afia, have 
ever embraced them. As the Lutheran eftabliflimcnts v/ere fubjccted to epif o- 
pa! iuriidiftion, their enrhufiaftic genius gradually decayed, and men had Icifureto 
lurceive tiie ubfurdity of fuppofing God to punifh, by infinite torments, what he 
himftlf, from ail eternity, had unchangeably decreed. The King, tho' at this 
limC; his Culvinifiic education had nvctced him- in the doctrine of abfolute de- 

crecs. 



J A M E S I. 37 

crccs, yet, biir.g a zealous p.irtizan oi fj ikc-p.icy, was inlLTifibly innja^' 'i, tov.arJs Cr-p II. 

t!ic tn.l o{ his reign, to i.ivour ilic milJcr tliculogy ot Aniiirius. l'.vc;i la lo '^"' 

grc.t .1 dojior, tlic genius ot tlvj rdi Jon prevailed over i:s Ijn-rulativc tciictb ; 

ar.d \\i[li hiin, th^ ul:olc ciergy grad'jally dropped t!.c nK^re rmid j~:i!Kit)'.es of 

;d};oiiitc rei:r('l\;t!' .;i ar.d uneondiriona! ilicrces. Sonic luji'e v.as, at li;!!, n^ad.e 

;'u>ii.it rr.elc iniKJvaiions ; I)i:t being diowned in iIjc I'.n'v o! i.uiiwi.s andi(.i\'il 

uars, wlr.cii liieceei^led, tb.e leliolallic argumenis n"uk';c ar. infigniiiean: ti;;urc aniidil 

ti:j;e vioiei.t ciiiputcs about civil an.d ceclefiallical poN".cr, v.iib v.l.u..; tlie iiation 

Wai agitat-'d. Aiul upon the reilorati(jn, the clunv!i, tiio' llie lH!i ret.n .eol 1; jr o'J 

il.hA I iicions and aiticlc.-. ot taith, was futindi to l^.ve t(;tally ch.ingcd. her Ip.eL.hi- 

tr.'e dv)ariiie>, and to ha\'e enibraced tenetN move luitable t') the genius ot l\':v dil- 

cipline and wcrlhip, witi^out i[s being pcdiible to ah'gn the prceile pLiiwd, inv, h:',di 

l:\c al[e:at;',;n v:as p.roduecd. 

It may be worth ob!ervin,g, tl'.ar, about thus tini", Jan'.cs frum his g;eat dcihj 
to promote toiitroverlial d;\nnity, cre:'.ed a coiie[:c at Clieiiei tor the eiu/rtain.- 
ment o; twentv perion'^, v.'a,; Hio^dd be eiuirelv e.'npluyed in retuiing tl.c pai-i;-,, 
andt puritans. Ail t e i:;-.r:s ot thic great Lhicon (.(.uld not proeure :.n ellablidi- 
iriei:t tur t'ie cultivation oi r.atural plii'olop-h.y : h'.ven to this day, r.u loaeiy l;.\^ 
been mrdtuted tor the pij'.iiliing and fixing our hip.gu.ige. 'L'liC o ly enccairage- 
n',ei:r, vddJi the lovereign in h n.J.and 1ul-> ev. r i',iven to any th;;,g, that ii.;^ ti.j 
appearance o! iLience, wa^ this !lHjrcdi\'ed etlabihiiment ot jan:e< ; an n.i';;L;:ren 
qiiite lliperduous coididering tlie uahupj^y pi-;;;-en(iijn, v. ;n^;:, a: tiiat :;n;e, l\) 
urdvertallv t^olVeiHd the nat'.on lur pidennical div.n.iiv. 

X i. 



To corduler Janus in a more a.iva!Uag:ou> lig'it, v,e n:i.!l :.d-e a 
a-i tlie legin.itor ot Irehu.-i , and mod d tiie in:ir,utio:i-, v. hie.'i '_ [\.\^ ;;.i: 
the tivin/nig thai kindon\ being iin::i;ed a:\.ut: this pei;(ui, :: in.;y n,i 
in'.oror.; r ic^ ::i\'e {(nr.v a^ e> '..lU (;t iheni, 1 h: irL.[u.nilv boa:l.s < ; d." r. 
irent lit IrelanLl ^s his nianer; i.ce^ auA it w:d appear, open inip.iry, rli.^t 
nicv, m tins parth ular, \'. ,e n.ot a.li(\;ether witlioi.t found,. .t:on. 



\-;ev.- ea ann i 



va- 



A; rti; th.- lubha'ii)n ot Ireland bv bd:/abetii, the tn.'re Cr.:]':^u.: talh d:i' re- 



mailed-; to tiv:!;/e ti;e banbar(ais iniiabitar.t.N, to r;ai ncde th.nii :;' la." 
dui'rv, ami to r( nch i" I'nn- lu'>ieciit.n durab.K: .uid, uia!i..i to tin laov.n, ei 



:.u\i. 



amcs 



ivocuahd in tiii^ v-oih bv a lieddv, r 



ennnir, nnvl u en d- 



;ian; an.l. 



m 



1... a.. 



ipaac v: nnie yea'v-, a curwnig lo Sa- ]{)':r.\ Da^na, li: made greiier adwiaae^ 
tov..>:d^ tie; rocrnnKuMi (! tn.it h ng hnn, than \,.:.\ be-ai ma.e ni th-. a ic '.ca:-, 
aimh lu.l ela; :ed fnice tiie conquetl 'Aaj lidl a':emp'aJ. 

Ir 



- o 






Ch 



It v.a:^ r;-'-.-l:v]ny rcquUxto r^boH^li the Iriih cuItD:::^^ which ilipplicd the place 
ofhuvs, n-:'! \:;.;:;!'! were c.uciih c.::; to ::ce,i U:.>t people for ever in a itate of barba- 

Bv the /h':,v;;' \\'r (! Cuil'/ir. no crh"e. hGv:'ev?r enormou?, was piininictl with 



.:.;;ii, hvA. 



or Df 



!,v,u>.,Ji'y !T:ui::\ vVi;i::i \:y: levied upon the ciiminiih 



:\-er i'"iei: v/rs ;uro;'.Cvi \c,i \n tij's n.ir.:-:-': \ a.xi eacii man, accominf; to 



nt rare c^r vahse, afiixe J to i^in^, v,'hieh, it any one was vviiUng to 
: f .a: the enhnh.annp ins enentp. This rate v/as called his cr/i'. 
en :::ir nvl.tih hirzviiiian;^; heinij, Lord deputy, told Maquire, that he was to 
-d a (beri'Tii^to rcr;uao:-a:i, v;]\\r':\. a httlc 'jeiore, had been made a county, and 



T'jv. he nec.h:> 



ch-d f) 



::>' jhcr;]i\ 'hd Maquire, /I'.?// he zvckcme to me 



' 'A-. 



'::. /p/i/v-/':?;-./, / /j criCv .r :L!j -price of his head v ikat^ if my p)Giic 
C'ti i: '-f] I '"';: ' T '''" -v/.v-^v ;pv://; /yVr^ CQuniy. As for oppredlon, extortion, and 
lith-^T ircf^ri'"es i'- h::ie ^^erethey re^^ardcd, that no penalty was alhvcd to t!;em, 
a!':d ro rcdre;s !;;] \':,':'-:i c^jences coidd ev;:r be obtained. 

T^ t c hc;r^ of ;7r?'^^;'^'-/;::/; and t'h'/yFpv -.vrre attended with the fame abflirdity 
1:- ri-;e dir.d^unon of pro,.rity. ! eon tli- dc^th of any peribn, his land, by tiie 
..ei.cm e'" (-^vehoi-de, v.-::s divl::i.d an^scnt; ad the males cf the fcpt or family, 
roth badard a;o' h-^idm-te : Ai f, after partition made, if any of the fept died, 
hif; t oidon v/as i,ot ihared cut an^ong his \ov.%-, but the chieftain, at his difcrc- 
rO..' . vc-7/: :. a ne .0 partiiioii (A al! the lands, belonging to that iept, and pave every 
000 i:it ih.irc, I : 00 ntao, by realbn of this ctolcm, enjoyed the fixed property 
f^f any land; to buiid, to plant, to indole, to cultivate, to improve, would have 
been f) mocii t;d hb-or. 

'jhih cliiedaiiis and the Taidfs, too' drawn from the principal families, were 
:0)t h;oedi'ai-y, but were eutbhiiied by eledtlon, or more properly f[7eaking, by 
ibrce and vioicnce. Their authority was abiolute ; and, notwithuanding that 
ciot-dn lands \vc:re afi'i[pied t<) the cfhce, its chief proiit rcfidted from exabtions, 
dues, afibflhients, ror wideh there v^'as no fixed law, and vd-iich were levied at plea- 
lure. 1 lence ari.;le tlott con^iiion bye-v;ord among the Irifl:, '^Ibnl they d-weU zvcft- 
ivii-'i! of ihc iazv^ i.-h'ih Job h'r;:}id ti:e ri':r cf tic Barro'VJ : Meaning the coun- 
Liv, wlicre the Ifnghdi inhabited, and wh'ch extended not beyond the compals of 
i\vei:ty ndle^, lying in the neighbourhood ot Dublin, 

Arroo abolifliinn; th^fe Iriin cudonts, and hibfiitiitinT^; Kngliili law iii their 
photo ; Jafites, having talten all the n nves under rA- pt-ot^eiion, and (b;(larLd 
them rre^ clriz -ns, [uoe^eded to govern them l^' '^\ regtdar adiitinidratioo, military 
a- vo d as ciNOi. 






JAMES I. 



7( 



9 



A li.ni .icnr ;irn:y v ,;, :n.^ln:.;'nj.!, i:^ c::il:p''ne 'nlj:c'c.! nn.l !ts -'a- rr-ri'^iiv- 
ccJ f.o:n )M"i;';'.iiul, m or.'vr r^ !..'- t':i; fiv.::c:^ ffi in ; ;f;. :: ^: ii'.i:.; ri.j t ;..,:;-., 
;i- li i.l \\c:\ liiu.r ::i In: \\ i,. ;i O ; ;i.i::i" ra:!^u :i;i i:;i'..rrt\-::'. ;i, a 



ir..!licJ, o; ; wi]'. 



'r M 1- ..i ' ..... 



; (. ; ;.iu s a:,.: 



s :.,e ;r,.:i ;; -l i i^cn i ::r.': 






I,; i.,r i\ li;^, a'Ai t,:j l-iv.\ \, ::.. p . m, ':.'!; \:o 
A t( ii'in .uo:i (.1 a'l jr:'..uc clLuc' -.'.a t. v 



;? .[' 



.ors I'.V;. IV , I.. ::i ri 



. , V. ;.i( ii A;. : CL . 
.L.m, .:i,'.i a'! . 

'I:;;: -..l.Ac ! - 
IV. ' A-, a c^:iira;v,- \', ,. . 
li..: ( ,:::Ar: : '1 ..c j^;'' ; 
' ) a!"r!;> : 'i 

I U/'m C.r: .. ; :...: 
ai;.I il':' c-.-;. ^ ., .:.;:..: : 



')."i t;',-. r t 



.( ... 1 



t\\ 



hr-. -1. 



40 H I S T O R Y F G R E A T B R I T A 1 N. 



\6iz 
yovembcr 6" 



CHAP. III. 

Death of Frince Henry, Marriage of the Fyinccfs Elizabeth ^ivitb th^ 

Falatine. Fife of Corner fct. His marriage. O'-oerbury poifon- 

ed. Fall of So??ierfet. Rife of Buckingham, Cautionary towns 

delivered. Affairs of Scotland. 

THIS year the fudden death of Henry, Prince of Wales, diiTufi-d an univerfal 
grief thro' the nation. Tho' youth and royal birth, both cf them ftrono- 
Death of allurements, prepofiefs men mightily in favour of the early age of all princes ; 
Pnncc Henry. 'j-i3 ^jj-j-j peculiar fondnefs, that hiflorians mention Henry : And, in every refpeft, 
his merit feems to have been extraordinary. He had not reached his eighteenth 
year, and he poff;lled already more dignity in his behaviour, and com.manded 
n:iore refpecl, than his father with all his age, learning, and experience. Neither 
liis high fortune, nor his youtli, had feduced him into any irregular plealures : 
Bufinefs and am.bition feem to have been his fole pafTion, His inclination, as well 
as excrcife=, were intirely martial. The French ambaffador, coming to take leave 
of him, and aik his commands for France, found him employed in the exercife of the 
pike , Tell your Kifig, faid he, in "what occupation you left me ingaged*. Fie haa con- 
ceived great afftdion andeftecm for the brave Sir Walter Raleigh. It was his faying, 
^ure no king but my father would keep fuch a bird in a cage. Fie feems, indeed, to 
have nourilTied too violent a contempt for the King, on account of his pedantry 
and pufiUanimity , and by that means, ftruck in v^ith the reftltfs and martial fpirit 
of the F^nglifli nation. Had he lived, he had probably promoted the glory, per- 
haps not the felicity, of his people. The unhappy prepoirefllon, v.-Jiich men com- 
monly entertain in favour of ambition, courage, enterprize, and other v.'arlike 
virtues, ingages generous natures, who always love fame, into fuch purfuits, as 
deftroy their own peace, and that of the rell of mankind. 

Violent reports were propagated, as if Henry hnd been carried off by poiibn , 
but the [jhyficians, on opening his body, found no fymptoms to confirm fucti an 

opinion. 

* Tlie French mrna:c-i lir.J gi'. en parlxu'^ir nrd( r, tn h:,, miniilcrs to ciilti\-atc tie Prince's fricnd- 
iiiip ; who mull l";,oii, \\a\ he, h<ivc chitf authority in h'-nglanc!, where the king and queen arc held in ]io 
iut!e cliimation. Sec Dtp, a',, lu 'ocU>i<\ 



J A M ESI. 



4J 



onii^.ion. The bokl and rriniinal iiKiiiL'nlty o; men's tor:;':.? an.! pens fj^ircd not C :-. Iir. 
even tl'.c Kin[2;on t'uit: orcAiiun. Ikjt ili.ic pr:nv\\ tIi.nM:uT Icn-s- to ii.ivj i li'cd 
iMtli'T in the extreme (jf la.i.itv and liunianity, t!.an m t! at el eiLielty ar.J vio- 
L-ncc. I lis intl'..i!4 nee to 1 lein-y was |.;rcat, an^i ; rli.q i impM.'d.r.i, hy r/^'n'^ 
him a very larize a.:id independent f ttlem-iit, eVv_n in lu e.iriy Vw'atli. 



'J'n;: n-,an iaj!,- (jf t!ie Prince's, ldi/.d:eth, \dih !'';-cdu !c, C: id 5\. i' l\d.:tine, 



v.a> ;;:n';...l lome t:me a;tcr tne c:^a:n (/. t 



i-\\\.\ I ) U.iil.M'C 



tii.LMiJ, wiiien aruie on that me!a;x!ioly c\e:.:. Ih.t t!n, m::i!..;., t!. j' ed, - i'^;,;^,^. , , ; 
l^rat -d w:l1i [;reat joy anJ teilivity, prcjve.i, it!fi% a \'cry uniiap; y e\'cnt to 
t!ie Kinii, as we 1 as to his lon-iivlaw, an i lia.l id C()nlequcnce^ en tiie r.-piitatu^n ''..;.- .f 
and fortunes of b .th. 'Ihc I'.lei-Lor, tru'.lir.g to lo _Lire.it an alhariCe, cri<i;aij;ed in j ';' '';''_'^'^-' 
c n.terpri/es Lx-ycn.i liis llrength : An 1 thiC King, not idpportinfj; Inm in li is (.1:1- v. ..:..;..:. 
t:e:s, 1 ll e:ui;e'v, in t'.ie end oi hh ]i:e, what rem.dn.d or tiic afieeLions arid ''' 
elieem cjI hn-i own lu. je^JLi. 

I'd.-eti'T (.hnrin,;;; llii'i'Mi^ (;[ parliimciU, t^.ie Indory of tiiis reign may mo-'c pro- 
peily b-c e..i!cvl tl^e hillsjry oi t'le co'.-rt than t'wit oi t!u" nation. A mod inter- I..:'.- n- >^. 
(it;: , r,' ' \-, i^^^, l(ir !o:ue ye.iis, ingageci tlii; a:t:ntio:i (d the co^.tt : It wa. ^^^--' 
tav(ji:r;:e, ..n.l or.e b.:o\'ed by J.inies with lo pr^'Iiile :;:vj uidindted an alicciion, 
..> d't no roo:n Ijr aiiy rival or comp.'titor. .\l-0'Jt t'le end cd' ih: \e.:r icj , 
i\ .'. rt Lane, a youtii cd twe:ity years of age, and oi a g )u.i family i.-. .Srotland, 
aiiived in l.ondeai, a rer h.ivin^'; ipalietl Ion. . time in Ids travels. Ail Ins natural 
aceon^[''.i!nn;e:'.ts confided i:i good loc'hs : dvli Ids ajquircv! . biiitics, in a:i eafy air 
and gra.elul (iv m.anran-. lie lia.; leitu's ot" recommendation to lus Cturitrym.in 
loi'd 1 L'.\' i a:ui t'.at No'dem.m r.o looixr cill lii-- e\e u[)on i'.;:n,than lie (.iiJLOver. vi 
talents, kni'eitnt to eiititle ii::n ir,";m.;di itely to nMh--.' .i g^r-. at figure in tiee p.ovein- 



nv;;t. ;\;-; in 



o; the Kniid^ I'.dliv)!! lo 



1 l> 



)r \-ou:n, ;nu: Lva.itv, aiu; ext. nor app-ear- 
:;n ; , h i;..a!iL\.i how m.rter^ nngiit i-e lo .lodilied, that this n v.- ohicct dv aild nndtc 
the !!io!e- d nnpreldo:! up ^n liim. \\ itlinut mentieiniiig Iiim .it court, lie alii ;n- 
ed fi.n th.' on: , at .i m.itJi ol tniing, oi pielendng to the King ins laieider 
aed d.'v;i-"j a .1 hoj^-d tli.it he wouid .ittieu; t!i a[:e;i;i.)n o, d.st nvjnai'eli. 1 er- 
t::n_' p'o'..:.; h.^-. er.fee to Ins d.lig!i, by .i::i iiuif.n:, win ii he;- , at l;;-ll, a 
e nuenv a'^ (..:. Wfeei Caiie w.is ad'.'.nie;:ig t) (.xeeute lil^ ( f'LS-, Ins unruly 
h :i.' idng; Inm, and i r.f.e his hg i:i die l\nd' p:.;le;n\'. Jann s ;ipproachetI 
e : ', ..ndc.en ;n: 1 e-ve .nid aliee; : n ..; )f' u.\ i'..: l:.,!;t (;f iiis be.iur ,' 

^ ..: : . f y ..:' dd. 1 le hnn:if ,, .utn- the t:!:n:g, j aid him a \ If' 
: ' . d.inifj;-, a:nl i-.turne,, irccnaend'.' du:;:; ; in ; e enincm.nr. '['::: ;.!;:ior.inee 



42 HISTORY OF G Pv E A T B Pv I T A I N. 

Cbnp. III. ^.ndi fimplicity cf the boy finiilied the conqueft, begun by hi? exterior graces ar.d 
^' accompiiOTments. Other princes have been fond of chufmg tlicir favourites from 
amoDg the iov/er ranks of their fub^ects, and have repofed thenifelves on tiiem vitli 
the more unreferveci confidence and affection, that the objeci has been beholch^n 
to their bounty tor every honour and arqiiintion : James was deHrcns, that his 
favourite fiiould alfo derive from him al! his ferife, experience, and kno ViCije. 
Highly conceited of his ov.'n wiiciom, he plealed himfelf with tnc. fancy, that tlii s 
raw youth, by his ielions and infrructionr, would, in a little time, be equal to his 
fa.geft miniiicrs, and be iniiiatcci inro aii the, profound myderies of r.overnmenr, on 
whi^;h he iet fo high a '^^.iiue. And as this kind oF creation vvas n^cre perfectly his 
G',vn work than any otner, he fjems to have indulged an iinhrnited fon:.'nef;:. ior 
his n'iinion, beyond even tiiat v hicii he bore to his own chikiren. He f on kniaht- 
cd him, created him Vifcount Rochefber, gave him the garter, brc^ur-ht him into 
the privy council, and, tho' at firft with.out aHigning hdm any [)articu!ar oHljc, 
bc.LcrvVcd on him the fupreme diredlio.i of all his burinefs and pulitical conc;;ri;S. 
Suitable to this rapid advancement in conlidence and honour, were the richcf^ 
heaped upon the needy tavourice ; and while Salifbury an.d all the v/ifeil minif- 
ters could fcarce find expedients fufHcient to keep in motion the o'crburthened 
machine of government, James, with unfparing hand, loaded v.dtii treafures this 
imVnifieant and ufclefs mureant. 

It is faid, that the King lound his pupil fo ill educated, as to be ignorant even 
of the i owe ft rudmients of the Latin tongue; and tha: the nionarch, laying afidc 
tl;e fceptrc, took the birch into his royal hand, and inftruc^bed him in the prin- 
ciples of g-ammar. During the intervals ol this noble occupation, ai.fiirs ol ilste 
would be introduced ; and the flriphng, by the aicendant v/hicli he hdCi accjuired 
was now enabled to replay in political, wliat lie had received in grairimaticai i'u 
iirufrion. Such fccne-, and fuch incidents, arc the more ridiculous, tho' the 
lels onious, that the pallion of James feems not to have contained in it any thing 
triininal or iingitious. eiiilery chei'g'-s hcrl'df v/iilmgly with a reiation of tlu: 
great cienies, or tiie great virtues e)i mankind ; but ihe appears to hii! from ii. r 
(ipinicy, V hm ue^eliicated lo civ /.I! on iiien irivoious evei^ts and ignoble pcr- 
i )..:ig'.s. 

T-ir. f-:iv^\\vil^ wiS nor, at nrn, fy inn,:---:!: :e'--l vd[h adv^meernent, as n^t '"O be 
fenibie ()[ bi'; ow;) i^,r:;ran'e "ed nexpvri 'nvC. 1 'e had reetunle to the ehifbinec 
an,! anviee oi' a brie '.] ; ;.. '< ne was ni'we c\i\\..nc in Ins e'lO', e, th;ni is ulu;d 
v,et:; i'ueii i^vn'ened mir.icj'':. Li Sir ib.ceiv^; Over' -[ivy he mi.t wm'i a jud clous 
and iineere eoue.b ieie \eho, b i:b r.y; all !; ^p: % 'A ids own j^^v !b.n:ent on that oi' 
ihe voue,g iavc>ui-i:e, cnde-iV^jured to inibil iie:o inm ri;e prineiplis or pru.iciKe ;^nd 

(in'.recicH]. 



J A M i: S I. 43 



v,i>ic.i ni 



:,,!, 



c ar'-iul 1.;^ !'. ;iL:i cicwi'ii >n : i!v fi-j 



'" I ' '" 



rcnrc; 



i.j; I .c }-.:i 



lo iorg .1^ i..' w.r- co::t,-n; ;.l t. . Iv- mini ;>y ( ''.- i ,. , ' , :; .:: ,Iv r* in'ci , li- c:/' v- 



'I'o con^i'lc.u t':.j :r. ill. re oi (o::r:!y !^ r-j-i.^-i' , i.m, ..;',: \v:i-. \\--.t!r'; '-.,: a k;n i 
n^i:lrL-l> ; .A\.\, \\\:-^vc ^i^;,!l fo:i::y c i.f'irr.i! v.:'li ,; j tlu' [' .a.s d. vo'.t'i ..i..i 
b-".:'.::v, tins rircuin '..iice C(^Li!w i..;" he ;'::"!'i\,!r to .:!! . I)..', i: ...- h- :c i': 'i 
th- r.i\-i)uri:t; in. L v.'i-li thir ro'J;, c^n wiii^'i ;!! ':;. h'.-:.;;-, w.if v.- '' ' ' 
v.!i:c;i ['lun^^cci i.;;ii forc\\r i:.:o ;t;i .il^yl- o' i:.i..:iv.', [^''i^ - - J'-- 

Xo lu; :".iT !i 1.1 J.inK^ n (;,::, L.l :!m- i!;:-. ::e (;i !-'..;^'.i;:,:, i\\\i\ ]:::.-.:-::: ' 
II rriL';K!ihi;M; r rh.' u-!(::T.,::.v. taini;-- of I lov.aiCl a:.;l ] )jv. : ci.x, v,vo I..; i 
{i::lVrCvi tor th ir ;;t:.ichn:-i:t to liu- caulc of Mary .;::.! to ! i- cr.'.;-;. 1 ia\-; :.; i';- 
lloivJ ycjunf!; 1 I'^x to hii biood aiul dijiiitv, a:ul CiJiiicr.Cw w. : :'.:'.:^ .1 S.,;;.- \ 
;hi : N; ;:';. iinyo;;! oil tss'o brotiKT^ .A tiu- hui::j ol Xorlu b, b" ibu ''it :!.v' :.i:"- 
t';. r t \-:.Aii'::' oi i;n;tiiii^ tliJc taoiiHj^ by tlic niarria ;c u: b'./cx v. ith i . ' . I''ra:;. -; 
1] /.'. ar', oaiii^btr to tbe bairl ol Sulio!b. bi;c was on!v t!:!:tcc:";, b.- b^u t, . :i 



,n..! 



"m"-'-! ill i;M nM 



\c...s (/i ayr i and it wa' tho'-Lvit proyc-r, ti 1 butli Ih ,ii A atL.uo tr.c ay,.- o: yi 



.ivci- 



I . 



tv, t ;..L be l]iO'..b; <i;o abri a.i, aiiil pa'o 1 );r.c tin 
b ') I-ni:land a:trr iou;- wars abllncc, and was jbr.yXl to bnb 'bs Cc nnuns b, ; .r 
l.bi in lire ol b'janry, and [ioblbbd o: tb^' io\0' am! adnbrao. n o: tba w:.* 'j >. , ,.; :. 
Ibit, when tb.r bfnd ayi-rcMcbcd, and rlaimcd fb.^ ivi\nb'y ^ of a lu:d\ind, b' n-- : 
witii H'.tibng bnt hnryton^s ot avtinb.n and ebi;;n;i, and a ilar i\:nl.b i ! an' , .:- 
t!).r bimbi.n itic-. 1 Ic ajn !:."d to liir parrn'-, w'u) Ciorlrain ; V.jv : > a;:.-nd '.:'.; 
into t be conntrv, and to partabe cd bis ;\ d : I^ Jl n -dd:n; nrnb; O'.': rn. nn' Iwv ; ;- 
' " .: nnel'^ and oblbnan\- ; andibenid rrWe tr nil ins nd^', vbtiicn: i . ." d 
t. nnn:i il I b alnrj>. I )in nbed widi re-n^ rat.' ; id, ni.ns. ;,> -t i n' n. ;:-'-'i" 
pnrnn:, an 1 I- j arad.iii; Innn.ii lioni i.^r, t:ic;nvtn rdi a! an.i- n^d ': rc-'..viv.., ') 
ber own wbl and oiu' anm. 

Si - ; ((/ incls and avn'n'.ni in I .ady bdbnv cv^'i: n r v ' ' 



n) 



nn.otin r < 
i ,\ in ir 



a: o.irnc na ; ( 
-.' V. ( n tna : 



44 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. TIL union between them w:is not intlre and indiiiolLible. And the lover, as well as- 
'^^'^' his mi{lrcr=5 was impatient, till their miitual ardour fliould be crowned with mar- 
ri ge. 

So monientous an affair could not be concluded witb.out confrdtin^^ OverbiirVj, 
with whom Rochefter was accudomed to (hare all his feciets. While that faitli- 
fai friend had confidered his patron's attachment to the Countcfs of Eiiex nier-^- 
]y as an affair of gallantry, he had favoured its progrefs -, and it was partly owing 
to tlie ingenious and paffionate letters, which he diclated, tliiit Rocheifer had met 
with fuch fuccefs in his addrelTes. Like an experienced courtier, he thought, that 
a conquefc of this n.iture would throw a lullre on the youthful favourite, and would 
tend ffill further to endear him to James, who v/as charmed to hear of the amours 
of his court, and liilened with attention to every tale of gallantry. But great 
was O. erburv's alarm, when Rochefter mentioned his deli2:n of marrying the 
Countefs , and he ufed every method to diffuade his friend from fo foolifli an at- 
tempt. He reprefenred, how invidious, howdidicult an enterprize it was to pro- 
ci-ire her a divorce from her hufband : How dangerous, how fnamefui, to take into 
liis own bed a proPdgate woman, who, being married to a young nobleman of the 
firfb rank, had not fcrupled to proflitute her character, and to bellow favours on the 
objed: of a capricious and momentary paffion. And, in the zeal of friendfliipy. 
he went fo far as to threaten Rochefter, that he would feparate liimfelf for ever from, 
him, if he could fo far forget his honour and his intereft as to profecute the in- 
tended marriage. 

KociiE TER iiad the weaknefs to reveal this converfation to the Countefs of Ff- 
fex j and when her rage and fury broke out againft Cverbury, he had alfo the 
weaknels to enter into !kt vindictive projects, and to fwear vengeance againic \\Vj 
f:iend, tor the utmoll inilance, vdiich he could receive, of his faithful friendHup. 
home contrivance was requiiice for the execution oi their purpofe- Ivoehcfter ad- 
dreffed l^iiirffclr to the King , and after complaining, that his own indulgence to 
Cverbury liid begot in hini a degree of arrogance, wliich was extremely difagree- 
able, ire \ rocured a commiffion lor his embaOy to RuHia ; which he reprefcnted 
as a retreat lor iris fdcnd, borii proiitable and hr^nourable. When conlidted by 
Overbur}', Ire carne!lly diff.:aded him from accepting this offer, aiid took on him- 
lelf the ta:k of lati^iying t!;;: King, 1'' he Ihould be any way diipleafed with the 
retufah 'i"o t're I.'!.-; -g^i S he ag;:,ravr.ted tlic infjlence of Cverbury's condueif, 
wl.and obiaii.e.i a war:.::::; for comn^nting Inm to tl^e Tower, which Jairies intended 
a> a night pj;,hhi:..'nt for his ^i;;!>';.;c:;.'nce. 'i'ire lieutenant of the 'I'ower was a 
creatuieo: Koch: fl . r'>, a;.o !-ad h.tcly bjcn put into the oifjce for tiris verypurpole: 
lie confirmed Ovcrb.iry io ib icily, that the unhappy pnlbaer was debarred from the 

fiaiit 



III 



I. 



': :> 



L !!. 



a . 
a;. 
l'-. 

cr V. ;. : 

L ..:/.:. 

1 .: 



- ( . i'^ ' ^, 1- "^ !>-.:.: : > .i t;;v rrc 

. . :..- () )::. ..; ; \ i ;.-. a:\.\\:,.\ \. ::...:.'. ',:, -w 

1 j ai... V'x \...- V, ... ^., :.) : -\'i,..: .. _ ' , 

I.. .^, V, i:.i ; '. \- ,! : ; ['.j Luu;.:.;<, hj \s-..s 

-. . :. , ... ..- V. .. 5 :.o: IvMilMj o\ i: \\':\\\ w ;.i:\l t j a::v 

;;.K.i:i, 1.: !..r ..: - '.->:, U i-. l.iui, aytJi;.^.; ^i:^:- was i"uL[l;ti;:cd un.icr 

; bv 'J.^L.. : i;i ...j.i,. ., .tnd li jk orr^jd l-y ihc rid ijl.I- vis (r.'i;io.i c: . ..^ !:::;[ ;o:i 
; -::':, t'l ;;:;::c;;.v o; eliw^rce was ilu;c.i b, :v.\ , .: t!:c 1 '..! ol I-'iL x ,;;;. i \\.-^. 
':,. S\. -', I' ci\r.'.'ii the lcaiKi.;I(i'..b iit-iu', tl;j iv r^"-, luh^iroi. . Il .1 ::: !...;>' 

. . . . . ^ L . . . J U . 



V,.' ;.; 



, . .iS r.w:- !>, c tliis l.icccis, tlic Co'-.iitcls or So;":c;-;;C \\ns y.ir. L\:i -'::[}, 
:'.: . '..] r''.ir-Ii:r l..i:.iCc li^r vcvci]_\c on C)v.ib.:ry , ;;:..: .'i.- ^ :i n^y.i i^ r i_,."- 

\v:'l a-, \\j: unclj, t!ij barl ;>: Norili.inipr.'.'i, i:i :!ij aTj^ :,,.. s vb.\::i u! 
!;::n u.i Ii-,:!-c:'y by pv;:l.)n. 1 i'.:.:lcl> a[C:;i-;; r^ v. . : ;\'-;:ct.::. .: h v v.j,;k 
; bur, a: !..:!, l!i, y [j,a\-L- bim c;:ie i ) l>.b.b n a; id \! ;:.:.:, b.a: :bj b, :: : : :rs 
; .iri-'.r to (.Very (jive, v.iio appro. .cl'.e.i liim. \\i< \:::^:':\'i.:z \\:.- b ::r:.b 

tb.' <^''-L.vc\\ prcci; ;:a:i()ii ; a:i.l, tli'/ a ll.'oiv^ k,:' ; :.;:\ \.:.:vx..i .'j'r: r.> - 



^ :i 



r;:;- ; uL .u', tr.c iLil prout or t.-e 



\N .1.^ 



1 s: 



!..:,b ...r.-ilrc; b- (!' (\-cT!-;ry incrvabd < r bepu: tbe L..p;.: ,;:, 

.,: W.b . :.ab .: :, e..;;i,.! ( b' by p^ ;:.:, i'.;; I:;:!. ; . ^\ n:'::b-:, 

:,' :. :'.'.. :... ^ .::..; i..:.- v. u. : \^ .. n.i.eii \^.'.\:-':. ii .",...: a : ^^ , 

: \:\ b.i- vljkb.. . art, tb.:t, bui ::;.; t'le io'..rl.- ol :r.v- n:;)'.*;. 

. I ,:;v>:- :. .... i a't: :;,;: ! by iv,.\v b'i' i..^ ,:::.!iai-; . , , : :, 

. ..L i:; \o _^ ....: .1 1.. ../.w: ; b'... Coi;' 1 ;: be :: . 

i ' '^ ]:: . : ' . ; (,"...;, ii.rrc;' . ' i i '. b ' > - 



t.,.;: I. 



T.t 



4.6 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



cis^:^ ill. 



The nblcLi miniller whom James ever pofiefied, the Earl of SaHfbury, was 
cad * : S:Hr;Ik, a man oF fiender capacity, had fucceeded him in his office : And 
it was now his talk to iupply, froin an exhaufted treafury, the profufion of James 
and his youiv:; favourite. The tit's of bar:.'net, invented by Saliibury, v/as fold; 
and two hundred patents or' iliat fpec'es of knighthood, were difpofed of for fo 
many tluAifand pounds : Eacri rani: of nobiHty had alfo its price affixed to it: 
J rivy feals were circulated to tiie vain: of 20c, ooo pounds: iknevolences were 
exacted to the amount of 52,000 pounds : x\nd fome nionopolies, of no 
great value, v^^crc erected. But ail tiicfe expedients proved infufiicient to fup- 
ply the King's necefiities. However fmall the hopes of fuccefs, a new parlia- 
ment mud be fummoned, arid t!iis dangerous expedient, for fuch it was now be- 
coine, cnce more be put to trial. 

Ui]j\. V7[iEN the commons were alTtmbled, they difcovered an extraordinary al irm, 

of Aril, on account of t'ne rumour, which was fpread abroad concerning undertakers. It 
. .|;.,^^.j^^_\vas reported, tint leveral pL-rfons, attached to tlie King, had entered into a con- 
federacy ; and having laid a re;-,u!ar plan for the new eiei:ions, hud diftributed 
their intereft all over Kngland, and had undertaken to fccure a majority for the 
court. So ignorant v/ere the commons, that they knew not this incident to be 
the firil infailio'e fymptom of any regular or eftabliihcd liberty. Had they been 
contented to io'Iow the maxim.-; of their pr.deceiTors, who, as the Earl of Salif- 
bury laid to the laft parliament, never, but thrice in fix i^undreu years, reTufLd 
a kK)p!y ; they needed not dread, that the crown Ihould ever intereft itfelf in their 
elections. Formerly, the Kings even infiftcd, that tone of their houffiold fnould 
ever be elecled meu'ibers ; aiid, tho' the charter was after ^vards declared void 
Heriry VI. from l]is great favour to the city of York, coiiferred a peculiar privi- 
lege on its citizens, tliat tiiey fliould be exemptee. trom this trouble "h. 'Tis wej] 
knO'.vn, th,at, in antierit times, a feat in the houfe bei.ig conhd.. red as a burthen, 
attended neiilier witli horujur nor profit, it was requifite [or thv counties and bur- 
rotigris to pay fees to their re.irefentatives. About this time, a feat began to be 
re;.';arded ns an lionour, arid the country-gentlemen contended for it ; r.';o' the 
pre.ctice (n levyi ig w; ges for tlie parham nt men was not aIto:;etlier dilcontinued. 
It wa:, not till long air^rward'^, when liberty was thore/wdy cihibh'hed, .\nd popu- 
lar af.l rn'ries entered ii'ito every b anch of j'ublic bufinels, that t!ve inembrrs bc- 
g:in to Y<\i\ profit to lionour, and the cro'.vn found itnecefrary to diifribute air.ong 
the:n ail the conhderabie onices oi tlie kin^i-lom. 



i^tliof May I'. J 2. -f Ci^kc's iihii-.utcs pra't t. c';;ip. i. of clKirlcr:. of cxciivnion. 



T A M E S I. 



47 



Si) iicc'c n<.ill or fj I'niaV ir/.Mii^ h.:,! the co'.iic'.'j/s, in J,.mcs's rr'^:r., :or \r.'. -. 
g!!i_5 c\ M:'>ns, t!:.i: ill:- lu ..; ( ! roa:nioiis llu>v.c.; r.i'i.cr a K ron ;.-r {.'.:': 
ci iil'c::v ::uin u:c iu: r-'/i; .^ ^ .^m.I i..!l' ,u! ui ccc:'.:.^, ;.: ^n t:.c I;;.;..,; S -;: ;;.; ; Iv, 
n> ur;.v : l-\- :'ic Ki,i ; .;i.w c.c ii-:i)i.l, r , ci.cv idiir. ..r'!. r l'..:::c-,; :. :, .c 



v.!"i: h ha! h .'ii broat ii^v! !.i:: ;ar!,. inLir, an.i ciil,Ji.,:.\i ii::, > 



[)'. : oi 



] A'vi,-.:^ ',:::. Ci.\\oiv,> :.i'.S: i:i:j ciirion^, iiy the nicrc au'l.i-: r;. (,! :i> ; :\i >. .!:i\-'. 
'J'isic ;;!.;:!-, taat, in t!;.-ir ciciMtos on t!i:s lu.-; .1, l!;c l-'.:-: i's Irc.^c.:])' 
|! . ... .1 [.;\^\i.;ci.r, tli;' I \a'ir;Ic o: a'! I'l.- (km-t lic;x\'i:irv n;.;.;.;i\ i;> :;i 

I. , nc;ra\i jvuLi/'i'a!'! v iliv kin^^-i-i ( f I-V.ukc .KkI S^ .;.; ; n -; .. 

r. i;,:. : ; ;;.L. bv t '.c h i; ;, Liclur ailIi U:r| : i/c u;- i;A:::!:..i:; n. i !.. ; 

h ; ) :Iv on;- .:i..- [;a: :y . ciii;cr cont. nt. d th::nilc!v.s v, itli cIj. ._.::..;:'., ' ; 

I.; t!i. inicri:;cj, (,:' ciiiy a':' .d tiic triitii tji the obiervation. 



.; a 1 ;' 1 t- 



menib ; :n ['>.i:\.:. ::\ hir h' .r O.vcn, cvc;. in ar.!,i;i::L; a^ainll th/ in:;;-:::. ;. , 
wr V tr.i hv.'.' c:b^\'...:, ;;. ir :!.- ini::^ ol h'n-^biiKl w.i- c::i.li.(-\i \>.:::i :.-. .i:::j,!c ;:;.. .; 
;ujd p;\ ;\)g-i:i\'c a^ ;:::\ i :":nc e in C:irill-:n ij\n ' . l'.\: ni:ij:;-(j:i tn (;:,:;. :;', 
w.; ir.-;- w'\ :;', t:i' ivcj. Kii , i:i ti:.i: .i|je, hn::c in:::.i n-.!:..:no c.i hj.::. ; .:...i 
ii:'j 1 . .-/.I;; v.cic -(n.ii. .! o; ii::b- ni(ji\-. 

Ti . r'}n:: K):.s an^ lie! t<) t]:e icix's ior a coni'.!"' nee %vitii re2^ird m [b:- c: -a- it . 
'' \ Ipe. chf.l tbjbilb;;^e I,!nc.(;In, rr.'e 'i;:^.; on ti.e !ov,e;- ii ;;... 

.. ;.. , . .\:.ui'.);i ; ;:;i,l :.ie 1\ :: ; I'i/ci t!,e n-; .!::!:'i:[\ (;i u:i]b'\-h :_; i::rr : 
!;, wit') ;;r m: i.i;: ; ' .' :i-, ;i :m: :;.:::~!.:ir, \-.!rLn h.i:l ln)''.:i lo {i.\.i,i;^. ! 
</! i\ :;e:;e!.::: T h;- : .:ei ' ^ .e '. ;, v. ::i;out con^nurncaiin e, in rtLinei, ti.e ! 



. . .J iJ Hi ... 

:;. n :o . e <A :: 



J.l V 

i u !., 



:;: n f,: ibe (bJ 



I i cirbieJ ]/.< rcl, iifr.erir lo lar a c .. :i r^ 
. , vb.) ii b be. :i t!.e !iv);' i.);-.va:\i in ;!. : 

: . : . 1 e 1 . e .. , . , . . t > I ! ; t . . -> . i : <. n ' . , 

-. <.r ti..- .: : . , 1 ' : ; . 

r rver .:b rb^:.' i.b. i :^v-s 
eir-, !;;;..., ,ie ; - 
'-/. t.'e:i:' , :: .;[ , 
: !..i: rb:-! . .: : : . 
i.r..i[ 1 on bc.bi b obe 

;:c n.w io:-,ii ol ^ : : : l : 



' 1 



I . I ;. 



! . t: ' e- 'e: : e : ! .:v iv,i ,i ( ce,bii.b. ul :'.. . 
. . 'lAit tibv V. bwb' i\ e^.i, I:.; ic ;i;'j L-a:-^ , . 
..'.L L ) i,;- ! ;: :, L:,.iL b.: , V, .: -. b. 

.. _ - .e b ' : , :, :b :e. l)..ir,- b; ' ,' 



48 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Ciap I!I. j.j^2 lilcrheft fentiments of iiberty. which the commons contented themfelves to 
hear with filence and leeming approbation , and the King, informed of thefe 
harangues, concluded the whole houfe to be infected with the fame principles, and 
to be engaged in a combination againft his prerogative. The King, on the 
other hand, tho' he valued himfelf extremely on his king-craft, and was not 
altogether incapable of difTimulat on, feems to have been very little endued v/itli 
the gift of fccrecy ; but openly, at his table, in all companies, inculcated thof- 
moiKirtiiical tenets, v/hich he had fo Rrongly imbibed. Berore a num.erous au- 
dience, he had expreiled himfelf wich great difparagement of the common law 
of England, and had given the preiercnce, in the ftrongeft terms, to the civ:! 
law : And for this indifcretion he found himfelf obliged to apologize, in. a fpeech 
to the former parliament. As a fpecimen of his ufual liberty ot talk, we may me;> 
tion a Rory, tho' it palled fome time afterwards, which we meet with in I'ne llCc 
of Waller, and which that poet ufed frequently to repeat. When Waller wa-. 
young, he had tho curioiity to go to court ; and he flood in the circle, and fiw 
James dine ; v/hcre, among other company, there fat at table two bilhops, Neile 
an J Andrews. I'he King propofed aloud this queftion. Whether he might not 
tike his fubje6ls money, when he needed it, without all this formality of parliament? 
?Neile rcpiied, Cod forl/id you //jo:ild /ict : for you ere the breath of our noftrils, An- 
drews declined anfwering, and faici, lie was not ll;ilied -n parliamentary ca'fes : 
Eut upon the King's urging liim, and faying he would admit of no cvafion, the bi- 
iliop replied very pleahmtiy : Why thcn^ I think your Majcjiy may i-ery lavjfully 
take my hrctlier NeiL's money : Icr l.c ojjers it. 

'^'^5* The favourite had hitherto efcaped the inquiry of iuftice ; but lie had not cf- 

Somerrct's caped that Hill voice, which cd.n make itfelf be heard amidfc all the hurry and 
'-^^' flattery of a court, and aftoni Hies the criminal with a ji;ll repr^k^itation of his 

moft fccrct enormities. Conlcious of t'le murder of his friend, Som.erfet received 
fmall confoK.tion from the enjoyments of love, or die utmofl kindnefs and in- 
(.lulgence of his fovereign. 'i\\c graces of hig youth gradually difippearec', the 
gaiety of his manners v/as obfcured, his j^ohrenLfs and oblighig behaviour were 
changed into fullennefs and fiknce. And the King, v/hofe affecfions iiad been 
engaged by thefe fuperfichd accompliflimcrits, began to ellrange himfelf from a 
rnan, wlio no longer contributed i--; h.is amulhment. 

The fagacious courtiers ohicrved t'le lirll lymptoms of th's alienation: Sq- 
merlet's enemies leiz-d the o: ,^orLuiiitv, and o.iered a i^ew niinion to tiie K:iig. 
George Vil'icrs, a yjL;;.h. .)i one a:id twenty, youn<:;er l)roLher of a ^^ood lamily, 
returned at lids time from his travels, and was rcmi'ked lor tlic aJs'antages of a 

hanuk^m- 



JAMES I. 



49 



Iiandion^,? perlo:i, rrcntccl air, and fafli; Pii'- !e a;-p.irc!. A: a co:riCJ.y, h: w.:!? j -jr- 
poloy pl.ic.t! :L.i! i:: ]:i:\.. :.% tvt-', ."i.c! n:".nicc!ia:vi)- cii^^ ^;;.l : ;^ aitci;!: -;i, a::J, -ii :!.c 
la?re i!,lta:u, :Lc aiU-.':i)ii o: r;:a: m ;ia:\!;. .\llian..\l o; i. .-!...!. i/ii at'a lirrc;;:, 



;ji.iii.; ' . : . > I ) :::<. i.::\\ \:\ 






i,A. w;c):ric Lra:ij;(T , ^ ..i .^ cm; . 
%'K"c, \\ .'; 'r.jiit: I-- i.i.i.^ to 1,: ii.c ic. 

Oiii'^C OM 

b.- lii ci^rn,. a:!. :;;:<' lO i.:-/ t ::.;..;, ii wo::: 1 a_;v::- to a..:;:.L !.i:n :,-M'- :<; ; ;; : ... 
l .-.c (y, [) wa> i!ra':;:dia:; A' >-or' (.h! to ^ but llu-, uti; i:iv> v. :;.,', t'.c cxt. :::: i.j 
'. !i;.;:i u\i: Kin^^ car; ::>: t!. ;. a: rac. :;:! it-, re: .;.!, a: iiiMl, r ) !.i;.i . cr r ck;: u-'^a;..' 
r - I'.u- new [Ulilo:!. I: \v..s n:,: till ti'.trrucu by Abl^r, Archb;!h;'p i Cai;: .- 
!H;rv, a dc.ci;: pr(.l..:c, a::vi (;:,c nu:;"Ii yrnuLbcc-i .^:::'.ll Sotrcrlc", th..t (b,- u^i.' ! 
( 0;k'.-1cc[u1 to ob^'ge !icr bibl^aiAl, by albi y;; this Mvc-w- (ji b;:n. Ai:ti tli^ Kin:,, 
t'linbin::;; iiow tliat al ayyv.iran ; s v.c;\- iLiby la'/cJ, no ioi'^rr co;.!lr.!::r.d !i:^ a: - 
1^ :i;M, bu: imiiiedlatviy be:";)v.cd tl;c o.bcj of cu^i bc.r.r ^n \ ou'^; N'ibiv;',. 

'liiK v.IhjIc Cf'iirt: wire t:'.ro,>.n iiUo pa:[i'_s b, cwccn tliC t'AO [n,;n:or> ^ ub; : 
fi.)!'!!-: en ' \'oiii\ b to ab\'an e il'iC rib;.:^ 'ortin,C'< nt \ bn. rs, a:-.; u'lliers b: e:r; A :z 
lakT to a.;:,e:e lo tl^c ebabblli^b ereeb^ ^ : Soine:!' :. Tbe Kin- bin;lll', b:vnbb 
bct.vrc:i incb,,,.t.on a;vb deeornm, i::cr. ab\i t!)c d'.;t.!n an.d anibn^uitv oi t'lc 
C0L:rL;;-i^ ; aiui t!i: Hern jealoiif; ot tlu obi tavoinite, wbo leii.lld evcrv ad\-a;:co 
( ': :i ie;;b:b.ip l:'o:r. lbs ;iva', be:.5ot yerpetii.b. c]. aire b be:v..':i ili 'ir Icvnr.d |m:-- 
ti/.in^. bbar tlic cblcwvciy (d btjirici let's [-^ui't 1:1 tbc iivarbi,':- ( i Over'/ar',-, at 
lail cb.'t i .'.d tiie cor.troverly, and < xpcded Imn to t::c nnn .n'.bl ;,;;"a:r>y wIul.. ii-j 
lo well ir.ebitLcb , 



Av ap-'tl-iCcars's jTiinice, v 



.' 



en cn";yIoyed. in ir, .ibi:-\; i:p t!: 



!\U !::.; 1. bred to Ibi:lbn.;i;, b. l: m to ta!b v; : v ii\c!y (d" tin- \'. ^.'^'e 1.. : c t ; ..:.A 
e .,;b [: n \,i'X r.inie to ti:c i- ai s ot 'I'r, :nbab tli:' bi:i _' e:n.oy i;^ bn- ! , ,-, C\ :n- 
ib,- :d^ nv.n';^, n' Ival; !i Wn.woo^l fc ; tarv oi ib-te, \'.a^ ;:; A ..:.d 

. 'a* i ' db-; luaj imn^^-diat' 'y ro J.nvv. i j.e Ki;: ;. a'ar::: ' 
1 ':. :i ; ;u r:wOi;- L',n:'' in a r.- ^.a v, bom be b.;d a ',: ;'' -d n '. . 
:- 1 d". a:d C. b , !.,,id (b A bdbc-, .ind ear . 'd ^ : eo::v: ". 

. n i.nd u., .1 ,.d ierni.ny. i bis ;. ;unei:o:^ w i'- ex ; 

: : .u r.b..,o V a:.;i ,jvc:a:v : lie v, ,(d- ! .by;-;;,tii i i r:'.dr w a'- e..ic ii.be A 

'I . v' 1, ,.A- L. ;.nwi..!s Si, J. iw i bbv.s, b. i.te. ant: oI t,.e '1A\'. > r, b:a:b-.i:. , ' '. 
"A: A!b:;n ;, v,.a"e;bd tbed ..w.] Ctaid :T::ed: >-un, i lit a: A iii , ( 'u,, : 

- ninui n^abty : Nui tiian^^ ti ids diMtii, a biilc beluie, bavi bi\ a 
; ..' .. bbc Ate. " 



IL 



H 



50 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

ClK-r. I;T. It may not be unworthy of remark, that Coke, in the trial of Mrs. Turner, 
' ''^' told her, that fl^iC was guilty of the feven deadly fins : She was a whore, a bawd, 
a forcerer, a witch, a papift, a felon, and a murderer. And what may more fur- 
prize us. Bacon, then attorney-general, took care to obferve, that poifoning v/as 
a popifli trick. Such were the bigotted prejudices which prevailed in this age: 
Foifoning was not, of itf.-lf, lufficiently odious, if it was not repreknted as a branch 
of popery. Stowe tells us, that, when the King came to NewcaPcle, on his fird 
entry into England, he gave liberty to all the pri Toners, except thofe confined for 
treafon, murder, and papiilry. When one confides s thele circiim(]::nccs, that fu- 
rious bigotry of the catholics, which broke out into the gunpowder confpiracy, ap- 
pears the lefs furprizing. 

All the accomi)jices in Ovcibury's murder received the puniOimcnt due to 
their crime : But the King beflov/cd a pardon on the principals, Somcrfct and the 
Countefs. It muft be confeffed, that James's fortitude had been highly laudable, 
had he perfifted in his firft intention of configning over to fevcre juflice all the 
crimiinals : But let us dill beware of blaming him too harn;iiy, if, en the approach 
of the fatal hour, he fcrupled to deliver into the hands of the executioner, pLifons 
whom he had once favoured v;ith his mofi: tender afte6lions. To foftcn therio-our 
of their fdtc, after fome years imprifonment, he reflored them their liberty, and 
conferred on them a penfion, with which they retired, and languiflied out old ao-e 
in infamy and obfcurity. Their guilty loves were turned into the moft deadly 
hatred -, and they palled many years together in the fame houfe, without any en- 
tercourfe or correfpondence. 

Several hidorians, in relating thefe events, have infilled much on the dilli- 
mulaticn of J.ur.es's behaviour, when he delivered Sumerfet into the iiancic {> the 
chief juiiice-, on the infoient menaces of that criminal-, on his p; r!,n:pt,'.>ry refufiil 
to fcand a trial , and on tlie extreme anxiety of the King during the '. hole progrcfs 
oi this afi?'air. Allowing all tiiefe circumitances to be true, of v/luch icjme are 
fufpicious, if not palpably fiifc, the gre^.t remains of tcnderncfs, wiiich James Rill 
felt fur Somerfct, may, p.^rhaps, be fufririent to accoui.t for tliem. That tavciirite 
was high- fpirited ; and reiuiute rather to peiifh tiian live under \\vc infaniy to 
which he wasexpoled. James was fennble th:itthe pard(;ning f> g"'-t a cnmiiia!, 
v,hich w.^s ol itkli invidious, wo;:id became iii!! more un^ 0:)Lihv. his obitii.ate 
and Ia;bborn bt!iavi(.ur on iiist.ial il.oukl augm;-nt the jUibilc ;.,;t.. cl againli him. 
At leaft, the un elei vcd co; fi^cncc. in v, hich the King had '.u\ :.-d his fiv umc 
for levcral years, mig'it; render Sc-meilet mafler ; f !o many i.erets, that it is iiu- 
pofiible, witho.it farrh.cr i^g'^.t, to ahign ti^.e particular cauie ot that fuperiority, 
ijv^;t:ared io nnicii to aiiunKi. 

The 



J A M K S I. :i 

Tn;, r.'.l of .SomcrftT, and hs iMi.ir.Ti.r.: [lo'.v. cc^i.rr, opcr.cJ C.-: w.'y :or <^ 
\'ii;icrs ('.' v. ov.i z iiv az (.j-rs. i) t!.:- :.,!i h.i.:!.: t)l !.nu;;r, (-: i;' nour^, am: ci iic'r.c-. p ', 
I Livl Jiiit c'-'s ; I'lioM Ih\ m :-('Vt', ;ir ' [ly c;in:;".^n j'l.i.s o; j-: '^t 'c;:c;-, the ijM. c (.A :. 
C:.j'-L<M!; ; \',( '..!.! h .v'L- ;U' ,:ci.L-w \'i'.ic!> to hi- ;\ ! lu;-, a;;,! i, ,- jil v,c !i !,.;\r coiU; ;.t- 
C'J or.c c)i his a ;v: .i:ui i..,i,iiv ; I'.wr w. iiM a;Vv' o.j', v.Iio \, .i^ i.o; c: ii'.c.ih'y av.ll. re, 
hav- nnuli cii.r..: A tlu- !d!.j;;.hi';tv ' f' r;.-' K::-:_,''s la ^: :r. a:T;;.k-:iv nr. Ik.t li.ch 
n.i\'a:,.i.-:i.r::: v. .1 :ar inkiid to tl,; U';;',::e v.'.:,!i 1,- i;;t.;,ch '. i r i::s i.i\'ui;:i';c. 
1., till c.a.n, (! a ic-v y, ars h^ cc.-.:, (i ii :ii \'\[c^;i,:ii \ i!.;c; - h ai:, M .i\;u, f;, and 
Diil.i o: l]L;chin_,ha::-:, h \^.\t (d thj lAa'U-:-, n:.ilL r el ih'.- l;o:if, clnci ].:\\\:c :n 
Fvic, w.irvicii ut tlic cir.c]'.;-- {"< rr^;, m.ii'i r (Ttlic L!t;'> !" r.t li cji'^'cr, I' cv-Mid cd 
Wc!lir:-rd-r, roi:d.dd:( / W ina.oi', a::,; i/aa h:;::i ada ,i;-..: (r i n^iaa.'. J lis-y,- 
ta^r (.'t iKud t'.c lidj ( r' Coiiniels ot H;i^ Idaii'ui.!! : Hi^ '^ readier v. a* ere. ted \d;'- 
c;aa;t i^ahccki and a nan'cTcv.,- train la n :.;> :ahi'aj:,o v. i aa- .;:i {a..i:c,i ii*; into 
crctiii ;uid aurhorltv. And ['u:i i..-j iund P;a::vC, wLdj ha n.ta-nt to iday tha :u- 
toi" to hi.s lavoai lie, ar^d to tr.an idnn tn^ \i\ t\\V- ;ail'>5 (.t |aai.ian.ca arid }''o'a:;c.% 
tooh an ihi ilii'dc iriC'dKxl, h)- 'oaJnaa:; inni \d;'i jaaaiaKiifa aaiJ. cxurlacirit hoa-oar.^, 
tu rci"jd.; r hiini, for (.scr, ra;]], nrjai^aian.r, arid inlol.au. 

A yoon^; ndnion to grarily \si:!i ^ dcafl.ra, a niccfi'toio fan^ily to fiipply v. da j 
riJacs, uia-. (.a;tai'[):a7,c.s too L;,raat for the caiip'y c\a h-.qraa- oi Ja:rajs. In order to 
('^r.i'n a httic moncv, tlic c.:r,:ior.arv towns n:uil he dcl!\e;a-d, op to t'a-a Dutcli , 
a ir.e.;rare wia.ch Ii'.sbecn re\ere!y h-hinxai l-y alniod ail i'/rdoiiaais ; and^ I ra.ay 
\-en!:in"c to afdn^i. thau, th/.d i: n:all ;x' C)V.ne.l Icnvjvdia: in-pdidc, it h.a: beeii can- 
Idrcd nuali bevond its real we:;;!:: an { importance. 

\V!!i:. (dj^a ; n h.li/ahetli advaii'ed n^caiey fca- the lappivt o: t'.e :n:aat lei^tdi- 
]:r ; '-taide^ tiij \aev.- u\ leciaina hcrlhii a^^dall t!;e caodatan: pouaa" ai^d andd- 
tion oi Sp.an, !be d:d r^h rwd the ; rolpe^. oi le diTain icn:eat ; and d:e ti^o: C(^nha,n- 
ra iato her laad^ t::c t!a-e:; i[:ip : : a.t naT:^!"!".;. ( t h'iainh.p, ti; idalh-, and \\.\rMrc- C:.-.-: 
Id s as ;;!..' cs lor tia- na_),av vda.'i was d.e lo la ;-. I.Aa.'a nt ta the re- ^' '' 
(. (drcnis c'a.hiiaon ( t tia- ll.ites '^a' a ;r(ad that th.- d.-'T iaoahl 1 , :r no inM" ( , 
.,:\d !hi: hi; ai^.ted, ti.ar, i; e\ar h'a:.dana naa'e p . .a e \v t!i >p.an, Ine i;a;v ].\ ; .ly 
the ti(;.;; s vdiivii :;a:;a: a-,a,i th .!i- i.aarc-n ^ *. I: .:ppea:s t\o:n J nth \ hta';>, 
tiait die i;,a;v ii .w txj (v: ' a \a.a v ta :.,... er.dd,- a 'an n; n( (a t..e d. iu, c \a'n at: 
a t;n:e \'da n Janie-'f r\d: (pa r ^. , s in to era la ' oiah r, tttati tlia u..!', eadultaadde 
; aiy '^'^^'''^- ihs riiani.at laai ca.a r paa'-'ial h:a^ : ?.K.di naaa- v. ; re tliev i n- 
1 : '. in t'a laipt^ I^v ha- p't ant 1 /ia-latc 1 e-aaii'.'ai. la :...^ 11 aaiati(ai 

ti.: '. ciapioved Caion, d.eir ma.-der, whu oal r. 1 the K'aa, a iitti ' aho\'e tae tia.d 

i{ ;. (w 



52 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. III. of the money, which was due to b.im, and which amounted in the wliole to about 
^"^ 700,000 pounds. It occurred to James, that the pay of the garrifons was fo bur- 
thenfome on his flender revenue, tliat very lirge arrears were owing th'^m, and 
they were ready to mutiny for want of fubfuLence ; that, fince the King's accel- 
fion, above 300,000 pounds had been expcnced for tlieir fupporr, and there ap- 
peared no end of thefe charg;;S ; that by the firiclefc computation the thiid of the 
ium, paid him prelcntly, was much r^rcferable to the wiiole payabb- ten years af- 
ter ; that the ftates, truiting to his i aciiic maxims, as v/ell as the clofe union or 
interefc and afieciion v/iih his people, v/ere no ways anxious h-r the recovery ot" 
thele places, and mioiht allow them to lye lonf^ in his hands, ii iull pavm'iK was 
inHiied vn ; that this union was really fo intimates that no rcafmable mealures 
for mutual Juppoit would L:e wanting from thr Dutch, cvtn tho' freed froni ti^.e 
dependance of thefe garrifons , and tliar the exchcqi;er of the rej^ub'ic was at pre- 
fent very low, infomuch th.at they found dimcuhy, now that the a;ds oi" brancc 
were withdrav/n, to miaintain themifelves in that jyjfture of defence, v/hich v/as re- 
quihte during the truce v/ith Spam. Thefe reafons, tog-.thir with his i..r.-_;enc 
wants, induced the King to accept of Caron's offer ; and he evacuated the caution- 
^thof jun:. ary tov/ns, wlvch he'd the ftates in total fubieclion, a'.id winch an ambitious and 
entcrprizing prii^.ce would have regarded as liis m,o:l: valuable pofkirions. This 
is the date of the full liberty of the Dutch comm.onv/ealth. 

1617. When the crown of b.ngland devolved on Jam.es, 't might have been forefecn 

by the Scotch nation, that the ir/dependance of their kingdiCm, tlie objecl, for 
which tlicir anccllors had flicJ fuch an ocean of blood, v;ould novv be utterly loff ; 
r:[)d tliat, if both ftates perfevercd in maintaining feparatc laws and parliaments, 
the weaker \\ould fbel m re fenfibly the fubjvdtion, than if it h.-d been totally 
i'.;bdued by force of arm^. But thele views did not generally occur. The clory 
o: havirg given a lovcrcign to their pow^riul enemy, the advantages of pre!l:T;t 
pe .cc aiiu trarqtiibltv, the riches acouircd from the munilicence (;[ th i'- mafier ; 
theij confi.bra' ; ;ns bcurul liieir dunlul obeJbnce to a I'rince, vho dailv gu'c 
Uich fjnHble prools of his friendmip and partialiiy rov;ar^:!s t'lrm. Never had the 
author. ty ol any kii^g, who r- fiJe ; a'liong th' n^, b;"..n lb nrmly ;-n:a!",li1iLd as was 
tl.a: ol Jan^cs, even \,h{n abbnt; ad as tbe a.ln.iniftration haM been hith:;TO 
( Cyiu'.. bcci w\U\ gr at o-clerand trancmihrv, the:e hai b^'iipen^d !V) occurrence to 
viraw tbi:i:er curat;;.::::!.;]. 3t,t tins lb:a:;: :, t'^e King \\as i- [olv. il to pay a 
'.in: (; !;i- ;"at:-.-e cou;:rry, in orcbr ro r ;;:_w 1,1; :i:iti''nL Iri. nd']!;; s and conncx- 
io;',s. a-.d f; ;--::v; luce rb ;t cba::^-e or tCe'clKbieal cblcipi;:.e a;)d g(;vernrncnt, on 
V. bieli i,';^ :;',i;.d ^\ ;;s exti'Lin'by I;.:.;:. 'Ih^ i'..':n: tbie: p-ii;;-^, vbiich the King 

l^i-o- (;!-! 



A Fairs (i 
Sec:]:;i:.b 



J A M E S I. 



f; 



}T()j^';!'\l to nccoiTij lilli by W.s j.'L.rney to Scotla:\', w.rc nu- '_ :;'ari';ir.; c: :; . 
.i'.;t:':oi ;;v, tiic clL-b!;!!,;.;.' a los c rcino'.i s la j :.;;; c Uwril,;:^, a;..l C.c i::.;. 

i^ ; 'tis an (''M".;v.;:: ;;i, l'...-;:;!/!! -d li/ a!i i;ilV\-y, .r .! by VAr.-.c iv.:-- :'.\:.n 
ll-;.i!: .-. jaii^^v .1:. 1 :;i^ l'.:.c:-ii")r, t!i .t tiic re!: ':',';i^ ij-:- ;r, v. Iv :i ::.:,'. !:!:-, \, 
:...['a. ;, :.:..:; i;i ::: l--!::"":;r !-, 1, " !;;a' i;;".:l aii.i iiri.iri (;':"t '. '.. ; .'.:.C. i';..'. ;:. 
o: - 11; o.; '//(."iv"', cli >_:5 ccjii li'- ):v! b 1> to t.;: :r !>.:.(' r. ( ii: l> :!i. 1.1 1 , 

: ti;-c i:.:^ib::;> e (it i^owrnir/nt. .A ifi: cl: .;i, v, !.:.'. ;r. '..-, a: o v , 
: . , .:\-c- ot b'.iTc ay .i; :l Il.vIi lo'.'ci\ ;^i":s a^ b;j!.['y .i;:;---.\ra i:. 

" ' "' 'i :ii ,;:: c;,:.t; ; . : 



:\ 



lor b;;;Ii, as b. ii-y; en.. 



J lail 1:1 tl-i 

W'i . . rn:i ;i K.!:i(;:i \v .M"i. i'llt 1, i/.cJ wit!, that / /a! :i;!' r -ioi-;- ' ,-.. 
l;.v.' i: ', .la c-i 1 .1 Ii c:Au:'m'- : i.':\:\\'\ t'la tunc, has biicc jaa/. L\i lo ;.i !..:.; , , 
C(ai;c(| .t ;k^ - ; t!;c jaa .lobars, aiu.iiii. y t) tlvani'. :\ ';. a c:..;": . :a la b' la, 
to bi ; ;""yb ''^ or a. al .!-c .!, :.i:baii.aJ a'l bil"; action t.) :i;a b a ::a..i ;\b. r t 
cliuri ii, i V V, b. a . :b ir ,. a \ at; r.\ \- cac paiiai':; b aaa co:a !i b i : , ; . 
ol b b abi. , lU) 1, ay; T ibbl^rcb a-- lacivb, \\a:. < ib:;T .. ; : 

by' - :. [ab.bw: , orl../.b by i:x n\..x : p-'..a 1 bal b.i'a;.,. .aai ^. 
n'ia!!.;,;, aiiar :v:a.!uy aaapib..ti.a;s, uas by a. t oi j .a ii.aiiaat, aaa: a ' : 
cr()V.;i. 1 !.a jaLui:^^, b;,\-.:\cia aiib a'bH)ts n:ain:a;i. ab tbcb' ta:i:^..;..o a. . 
tita;-^ aiiJ {\\.w i-a:s i.i [a.:a. i:a( at ^ aa b tbo' br iraa v,a:a bare tiira'; c b 
V. ibi la. bb.bl aa! titi _ , b,a . , >iv!^, ii(K'.v;t!u!ai:bi;-!-: its i: u; a at ; r>.a, ai , i ) 
I . lu '.,:ry, v..:s iob !l y i to \\- raj-ra:aa:.b iv tb(/:j ; aba..! !o:b . i. 
b.t s o; tiia bia:';'o;ii. \ : aiuiy fiia.y'b ' , t:..- i\ia.% .: . 
r i ti.j tiuoaa ( :" lb: ba,.vb b 1 i a. a aaa J haii, ; .1 i,, b a .-.,;: o'. ^a' ' . : 

:t i,wai tb^ ..1 aa .. b.aw . ! a/ :ra':t ot [;:; y., a . 

i tbu' ..1:^.. i- b V. it; iaa:a. jaacai;'!';:!^, 111 < ... : 

ta.iia^^'a; ti; in, t' ib :.bi 'a .v. yiaat ^ a oi, l!i: ir a : 

t .a . , .. :o LiJ . - <- . ^ ^ I .. . L. . ,, . ^ , .;. I ^ . . ....1 a. . 1 ...I a . "- ( i a 



aa, t... 



A I - 



54 HISTORY of GREAT B R I T A I N. 

C'uiD. III. What rendered the King's aim more appearenr, were the endeavours, whicb^ 
at the fame tirrie, he uied to introduce into Scotland fome of the ceremonies of the 
church of I'"ng]and : The reft, it was eaiily forefeen, would foon follow. The 
fire of c'cvotion, excited by novelty, and inflamed by oppofition, had fo poiTeffed 
the minds of the Scotch reformers, that all rites and ornaments, and even order 
of worfiiip, were difdainiuily rejeded as ufelefs burthens-, retarding the imagina- 
tion in its rapturous extafie:., and cramping the operations of that diviiie fj-irit, by 
which tiicy fuppofed thcn^.ieivcs to be animated. A mode of vorfhip was efta- 
bliilied, the moft nak^d and more fimple imaginable ; one that borrov/.d nothing 
from the fenfes ; but repofed itfelf intirely on the coi*\tcm[ laiion of that divine 
eficiKe, which dilcovcrs iileif to the undcrllanding on'y. 'i his fpecies of devo- 
tion, (o worthy cf the fupreme Being, but Co litile fuir^ble to h^j "ai iVailc_,\ was 
obferved to occafion great ^Ufliurbances in the breaft, and in many refpeCts to con- 
found all rational principles oi conduff and behaviour. The mincb iliaini::g for 
thtfe extraordinary raptures, reaching them by fliort g!ance.% finidng again under 
its own weaknefs, rejecting all exterior aid of pomp and ceremiony, was fo occu- 
pied in this inward life, that it fled from every intercourfc of fociety, and from 
every fweet or chcarful am.ufrment, v,'hich could foften or humanize the charac- 
ter. It was obvious to all difccrning eyes, and had not efcapvd the King's, that 
by the prevalence of fanaticifm, a gloomy and fullen diipofition eftablifhed itfelf 
among the people ; a fpirir, obhinate and dangerous; independent and diforder- 
ly , animated equally with a contempt of authority, and a hatred to every other 
mode of religion, particularly to thie catholic. In order to meilovv thefe humours, 
fames endeavoured to infuie a fnall ti; d:ure of ceremony into the national wor- 
fliip, and to introduce fuch rites as might, in fome degree, occupy the nnnd, and 
])leafe the fenfes, v/ithout departing too far from that fimplic'iry, by whi^di the re- 
format'on was dillinguifned. I'he finer arts too, tho' flill rude in tiv.fe northern 
kinf^doms, were crnplo) ed to adorn the churches ; and the King's chappel, in 
v;hich an organ Vv'as i:re;d:ed, and fome piclures and ftatues difplayed, was p'-o- 
pofcd as a model lo tlie refl or the nation, But mufic v/as grating to liie pr.ju- 
cdccd ear:, of the Scotch clergv ; Icu'pture and j^ainting appeared indrumi.,,LS of 
idolatrv ; the furpilce was a rag of ropery ; and each morion or gedure, pref^ribcd 
by the liturgy, was a fiep towards th.ii ipndrual I'abylon, fo much tiie o'dr.l; cf 
their r.orror and avcrflon, Every 'hd-ig was deemed inipious, but tr^eir own :nyf- 
tical comments on the Icripturcs, whic'i tisey idolized, and w'loie ea;.crn |-rophe- 
tic fiyie they cm^doyed in every common occurrence of Hie. 

It will not he ncceiTary to give a particular account ot tlie ccrenionieS; winch 
the Kip'^ wab fj ii^tcnt to eflablidi. Such inflituiioiiS, for a time, ar: ifieemcd, 

eid.er 



J A M E S I. 



55 



either too divin'^ to have proceeded froni any other hcing than the fupreme Cre.i- Chrp. 111. 
tor (f t!iL* ur.ivc;!'', or t^ o di.ib^jliLa! to h:\vc b- , n c'crived irom other tl:;..! nn in- 
fernal tiriiK);!. Ij." IV fn-iv:- i^ I'.t' mo.lc ; tl^e ( c^^T-^verlv ,.!l, t!i.i.. t!;:'y are v.va- 
vcr:..''v tlireo\ Lre^'. t > b: ( i t") little ;:nporr.rH"c as le ir. j t ) !'; ir:; iitif^p.ed '.vi-}-. (l;-/* 
j/rv .;'n: ll ti.e t^r.;;:-. ;!> ci.r.:' o! iv::naM tran!.:. li'^i.'.. Ic i^ h re ll.f:-. i'-i:*: [m re- 
I.Mr'., th.;- v..: !;:es intro;'..cc:! bv Ja- t-s r ai-.'c ; t!ie k;v Je-;-; at the :ii;-;-a:rei:', 
jeawrr Ci.; - :r,\.:\\0]\ yT\v:\: b,irlil!ii, co-.:ir.r,ar'K.'n ( t cl'iii.ii/r., ariJ tiv; (/Mi-iv.iixe* 
Cm C:r:!!:nis a:\J (;:.ier !.ll;va's. 'i !^.-.e cm" n-..).::e- u nc a'tfrwani- l^!e),^:1 'v 
tie iMir- u; t!.c a;ti',!c; Oi Pert;!, from t!:e ^ !acj \\I;ere t'ley \,\:c ratiiicJ bv the 

U' .C . . . V. 

A ec:-;:'.)r::::ry < ,: c\'':\-'\-.c and worll:;;- b:tv.-ecii the QAV.-rch.s (/b":v:Iand a:,.l 
S..,.a;:, \. ..' a- ] 'n.-V aia\ lie nc\-. r c r.,1 1 ;.o; e to c [bi'-li!a. b^it bv i::;t 

p.-(' ; ,. .: !:' u: ::;- (jwn aiitiv litv in a!! ce.'l Ib,;^:r;I ca'abs^ and 

nc. ,....' I Tiiv to ti;.- rrajiiLe as \vel! as r:anc!'-!;'s (;: liie 'av!'- 



:I coj-ts ; tj^ntd t: e ' i "Avr ( ! ..'rnouru::;:; :.>:- 



byreiii.i ci. ... i :. -. : li.i 
C ni;]v.:ni a'io :; an ' t!ni: t' ;it(---^c", beibltstlie Iniritn..! ccail^cji^fnces liij ^';-.! to 
ft- 'o-.v Ir.rn ii, \v>;s attend d v. itii in;n^e.::ate (.!\ 'ts of ti.e n: :\ in-; ort.int i a- 
ture. '\ l\c [ :r.'.n , x.(;n:,[nn!ncared was ihinai d b\- every < ne a^ [;r('t.;n:- ai^d ;ni- 
j ! n,s i and ia> \\h(j!e ella:., (.Inrav; \,\> hie- inx", and aii id- iv.ijW.v.) e>-, ;';r ,\'t:r, 
\v> re i aiebcvi to tin: cio'vn Nca- wer.- the [a-ejniratury iha^s, rccudltr i-;.-:c r in- 
id-.n;:^ tins !e:;tr..(:e, fwrmal or r..:idar, in p/O' ortii)n to the v.eiub: '., ,:. W a:\- 
oi;v aeeiifer, \. idmut bnnnions vdrhnit :ria', anv t. ec!;. [;a'li. a! t;;.n:, !.,/'evcr i - 
leri. :", ^.n:.-Lin:ts prvtend.d. in a k.nni arv nu:n:..r, to p'on'\.,.e.- a l-ntt. n^ e 'I 
cxci^ninnanicaiK-n, lor any cau.en iwA a^:ai:.!l an.y perli^n, e\nai t.// n.e .;ve n yC 
\'. in.;:, r.c bwia'/s ci ilnn pn i idled (jn. Ad, bv tin , n:ea:.-^. t'ln \vi :\ r. in:v i ! 
I'n; najnilunn), dn>' '.itln-nt I'J (n\!fr, ^^n;'- n trodnaLd in:-.) tiv; Isin^n'nn.. 

ijn r di ci; r^S' cunti nted !;ot r'.ci:i!" 1\ '- ;. idi die nniiimr. d nir;In;e:;'a:, \'. ai^ h 



;x. ; V ned i.\ lecieii ube ,.1 ni AC^r : 1 ia-) adanxd a e. ..: aa.d [ out r 



a a 



rnai ana, ni an 



1 -I, 



ar.d c \nai 



n>, irn'. 



) a 



f> a ,!;r: 



n ' ,v,^' r.:-'- 



t^An.i 



n.M..e.a-i! :... r:o:i a dituai^ ana nnn: tn;- 
. ' t. .\:,.'.', , s, \.-. at 1') i :r ', n\ a iirnv): 
\ ; 'n' : n ; iv' - // d.v (Jn; n .a-i,.dand 
i ' if ' . ci :i' 1\ ' ''s iu a;a v. 

,1 iie li'.'d daa.- \. !' !^ ; .'/ 



a.i'.cd ) aail " r n ^ ;i e; vn i. onrr ": 
; .;ina', I a ....h ae 'a a^ .u .^.led, 



56 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chi' III. a civil nature. The church adopted his caufe. They raifed a fedition in Edin- 
'''" burgh*. The King, during fome time, was in the hands of the enraged popu- 
] .cc , and it was not vvirhovit courage, as well as dexterity, triat he was able to 
^xiricace him'.elf. A fev/ days aiterwards, a miniftcr, preaching in the principal 
church of that capita), laid, that the King was pofTeflld with a devil ; and, that 
one devil being expelled, leven worfe had entered in his pJace, I'o whicli he 
added, thar the fubjeils might lawfully rile, and take the fword out of his hand. 
Scarce, even during the darkeil nght of papal fuperfti.ion, are there fuun fuch 
in;ianC':s of prieiVly encroachments, as the annals ot Scotland prefent to u. during 
that peiiud. 

ViV thtfe extravagant ftretches of pov;er, and by the patient c<;ndu6t of James, 
the church began to lofe ground, even before the King's accefilon to the throne of 
England : But no iooner had that event taken place, tiian he made the Scotch clergy 
ieniibie, that he was become the fovereign of a gieat kingdom, which he governed 
v/iih great authority- Tho' formerly he would have thought himfelf happy to 
luive made a lair partition with them of the civil and ecclefiaffical auihority, he 
v/as now refolved to exert a fupreme jurifdicl'ion in church as well as ftate, and to 
]}iit an end to their fcditious pradices. An afiembly had been fummoned at Aber- 
deen r ; but, on account of his journey to London, he prorogued it to the year 
iollovving. Some of the clergy, difavowing his ecclefiaftical fupremacy, met at 
the time lirfi: appointed, notv/ithftanding his prohibition. He threw them into 
priibn. Such of theni as fubmitted, and acknowlcged their error, he pardoned. 
'Ilie rcil" he brought to their trial. They vvcre condemned for high treaion. 
He gave tl.em then- lives-, butbaniilied them the kingdom. Six of them fuffered 
tills penalty. 

TfiE general afiembly was iifterv/ards induced t to acknowlege the King's au- 
thority in fiimm(3ningecc!cfiaiVical courts, and to fubmit to the jurifdiction and vi- 
fitation of tlie biihopjs. I'.ven their favourite Icntence of cxconununication was 
declared iiivalld, Hide's confirmed by the ordinary. Tlie King recommended to 
tliC prefl") teii.s the members, whom they fiiould ckfttothis aikm'cly ; and every 
tliiiig was c(;'idueted in it withi little ap. earance of choice and liberty. 

Bv his own prerogari\e likewi:., -hicli he Icems to have ftretclied on this oc- 
caTK.n, the King eredcd ;: cc urt (f idgh comtniifion , in imitation oi tliat cfta- 
bliili.Ld In 1 ng.and. : ne bifliops and a few ot the clergy, who had been fum- 
moned t(>ge:hcr, willingly ackp-owkged this court ; and it proceeded inmiediately 
upon bufincfs, as il it^ authority iiad been grounded on the full conknt of the 
whole leg! fia lure. 

But 

* iftliDcc. i^'jO. i July, i(ic.[. I 6lji of June, 1610. J^thoFFeb. ^<:io. 



.1 or u:V, 



J A M E S I. 57 

BcT James referved the finil blow for the time when he fhoulJ himft-lf yr: \ ^-v i^'- 
vific to Scotland. I le propofcd ro the Parliciir.fnr, which was then nlir^h'rd, ^ ,..' ' . ., 
that they fhould enadl, that, '* v^hatevcr his Majcfly fhould deternVn^e in thccx- 
'" tcrnal government ot the church, with the content ot the archbi(ho;i?, bil}i )ps 
" and JL competent number ot the minillry, fhould h:ivc the force ot :i law." 
Wluit number Ihould be deemed competent was not determined : Ant; thMr 
nomination was left intircly to the King : So that h:s ecclefia.iical autiiority, had 
this bill pafled, would have been eftablifhed in its full extent. SonK- ot thc 
clergy protefted. They apprehended, they laid, that the purity of ti.cr church, 
would, by means of this new authority, be polluted with the whole rites an! li- 
turgy of the church of England. James, dreading clamour and oppoHtion, 
dropped the a(5t, which had already palled the lords of articles , and aHlrtcd, that 
the inherent prerogative of the crown contained more power than was rec(jgni/.Ld 
by this bill. Some time after, he called, at St. Andrews, a meeting ot the bilho; :s 
and thirty fix of the mod eminent clergy. 1 Ic there declared h:s relblutiun of 
exerting his prerogative, and of eftablilhing, by his own authority, the few cere- 
monies which he had recommended to them. They entreated him ratlicr to tum- 
mon a general alTembly, and to procure their content. Hie King afking, ll'i'a: njJHv- 
ance he might have of the aJJ'embys confent \ they anfwered. That they faw no rea- 
fon to the contrary, and knew that the aflcmbly would yield to any reafonablc de- 
mand of his Majefty. But if it fall cut ether -xifc^ faid the King, and my demand 
berefufed; my dijfcnlty foall be the greater : And ivhen 1 f?all ufe my authority in 
eflablijhing the cercmo)::i\., th^y zv: II call tne tyrant and pcrjecut or. All crving out, 
that none could be fo mad ; I\'t cspirioice^ laid the King, /c//.- wr, :hat it may 
readily happen. Thercfcre, Ui:!cfs 1 be made jure^ I n-iH not give zcay to an afje-nbls. 
Galloway, one of the miniifcrs, faying, that the Archbifliop ot St. Andrews 
would aniwer for them, the Archbiflio]) refufed : For that he had been deceived 
by them, and ii.id lu.'Ticiently cx])ericnced their breach ot proniilc. 'i'hen laid 
Galloway, If' yc:rr .\[.:;rly :v:l! tnrl mr, / m'.-.V .(;;_ ;.:\t 'or thcfu. 'I'iie King con- 
tented i and an allenVjly was funimoned on tlie 2 th ot November enluir^.L^. 

Ylt tins .illl-mbly, V, hiel^i niet alter tlu' Kiivi's dej.art'.ire Irom Scotland, elu- 
ded all li;s ap'p'.i. atit;!;^ ; v.u-A it was nut till tlie liiblcvjiicnt y ar, tl.at iic uasable 
to procure a \'()te lor ret'.i'.'ii-i^ Ins ccrenionies. Avx\ tliro' cvc'iv llcj) (*t ti,is ai- 
l.iir, in tl:e [:arr;an'!ent as well as in all l\v: L'civjral alilinblies. t..c- ii.:t;o;i baiaved 
(')e utmoil reii.'-tancc tt; all thele innu'ea:;u:is ; an.d n th;:i;_; lu.c J.1!1k-s'.s imp -rtu- 
i/:tv ai,d authuTuv liid exto;tcd a l.cir.ii g ('Ji^.lent, v.hic.i wa, belied by the ir.w.iiu 
er.tinients oi all ranks oi p-cop!e. 1 .ven the t.jv.-, ^jWv \\.\')\\\ rcM-iou^ p!\ -.- 

\or. f. I c".. -^ 



Ch:ip. Ill 
lOiy. 



58 HISTORY OF GPvEAT BRITAIN. 

dires were not prevalent, thought the national honour facrificed by a fervile 
iinitarion of the modes of worfhip, praclifcd in England. And evjry prudent 
man agreed in condemning the meallires of the King, who, by an ill-timed zeai 
lor inlignificant ceremonies, had betrayed, tho' in iin oppofite manner, equal 
narrovvnefs of mind, with the perfons, whom he treated with fuch contempt. 
It was judged, that, had not thefe dangerous humours been irritated by oppofi- 
t!on ; had they been allowed peaceably to evaporate -, they would at lait have. 
lubfiJetl within the limits of law and civil authority. And as all fanatical reli- 
gions naturally circumicribe, to very narrow bounds, the numbers and riches of 
the ecclefiaitics j no fooner is their firfl fire fpent, than they lofe the mioft dan- 
gerous part of their credit over the people, and leave them under the natural, 
and beneficent influence of their civil and moral oblio;ations. 

At the fame time, that James fhocked, in fo violent a manner, the religious 
principles of his Scotch fubjeds, he a6led in oppofition to thofe of his Englifh. 
He had obferved, in his progrefs thro' England, that a judaical obfervance of 
the Sunday, chiefly by means of the puritans, was, every day, gaining ground 
throughout the kingdom, and that the people, under pretence of religion, were, 
contrary to former pra6lice, debarred from fuch fports and recreations, as con- 
tributed both to their health and their amufement. Feilivals, which in other 
nations and ages, are partly dedicated to public worfliip, partly to mirth and fo~ 
ciety, were here totally appropriated to the offices of religion, and ferved to 
nouriOi thofe fullen and gloomy contemplations, to which the people were, of 
themfelves, io unfortunately fubjed. The King falfely concluded, that it would 
be eafy to infufc chearfulnefs into this dark fpirit of devotion. Me iffued a. 
proclamation to al!ov/ and encourage, after divine fervice, all kinds of lawful 
games and exercifes ; and by his authority, he endeavoured to give fandlion to. 
A prafticc, which his fubjefts regarded as the utmoll profanenef^- and impiety. 



C II A F, 



TAMES 1. 



59 



C II A P. IV. 



Sir Jf'dJ.'rr Ralri^b's cxpcdit:':}:. Jl:s c went ion. InjurrrFll 



B<-J:cin:a. 



yl piirVuvihiit. 



Lcfs of the Pulut'Diiitc. Nrc'ofiij!/: 



ns 



'A .V 



Part! 



I " ' 



::cs 



Full of Bacon. Rupture hct~c 



Kir^ (Uid pdrliiiJiL'Jit. Prctcjhition cf 'J.e comnr.ih 



AT the time when Sir Waiicr K.i'.ciij^h \v..s firll confined to the To.vcr, \v.^: 
violent and haiiglity temper had rendvixvl hini the nioll u; popui ir v.Ww \.\ 
Jinghmd, and his condemnation was chielly (nving to that pubhe udium, '..nf-.r 
which he laboured. During the thirteeii years imprilonmenr, v.h'eh \\z luncrtd, 
tl'.e lentimcnts ot the nation were much changed with regaid to liim. Men had 
leilure to retlccL on the hardlliip, not to lay, injullue ui his kntence \ t'.ey pitied 
his active arid entcrprizing Ipnit, which languillied in t!vj rigOL'rs ul corniik-nici.: , 
tliey were llruc'k wi'h the extenfu'e genius ot the man, wiio, ben^.g e. incite. I 
nmidll nava! and military cnterpri/.es, had iLn-pailld in the purfuits oi Hterature, 
even thofe ot the moll reclule and iedentary lives ; and tluy adim;i-cJ \\\> li. bro- 
ken m.agnaniniity, wliicii, at his age and under his circumllaixe.--, ciuid. c ;,'', .ig: 
hmi to undertake and execute lo great a work as his Inilury ot the v.oild. To 
increaie theie tavourabJe dil'iioiitions, on which lie built t!ie hopes oi Ir.o ;;b(.;;v, 
he Iprea'i the report oi" a golden mine, which he had ddcover.d in uuia;;a, and 
wjueh was luflicient, according to his re{)relentation, not only to inrieh aii t'.ie 
atlventurtrs, but to aliord immente trcalures to t!ic nac;un. The Knig nave Iil- 
t!e ciedit t(; thelie mighty pr^ miles , boc!\ becauie lie bel.eveJ, tliat no l.;eli n^ie.e, 
a-i th.it dckribed, uas any where in nature, and becauie h.e con!:dered Kaiei.di 
as a ir.e.n (jt del; ere.te loilLUies, whole buhnels it we^s, bv any rn e.:;.-, to p.(\ u;"e 
ius tretdom, and, to re-inlLite liimleh in crvciit ar.d aut!'i')rity. r;i'..,'.v;.i.:, \\ ,\\ - 
evci", t'.iat he had a'reeed.y up-d^r one iLi!;ieient {^umilimret, lie releil d h:m lic-nj 
uucr -, and \\\\a\ 1.;s \\\\\v.\. oi tli go!d,en nnne had. e;'.;i ,ed :i-'.',!'i:'.:d.e> lo 

\'c \\ -VA permililon to w\ 



rhc 



lUr 'Ci.ite witn !i;ni, t.e.' KiPig : 
.K t:,; ;; tU i;: e, c Milcrr' d o;i i ' 
y l(d;;.ircd, he iLd ; 
e..e.,enc; , \s h.n i,e was 



X a A\;,:u;e, a;^;, 
adveiri::cTs. Tl^o' 

:.::. ll.ne . e .- 



6d HISTORY or GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. IV. declared himfelf ftill diffident of Raleigh's defigns; and he intended, he faid, to* 
referve the former fentence, as a check upon his future behaviour. 

Raleigh well knew, that it was far from the King*s purpofe to invade any of 
the Spanifh fettlements : He therefore firmly denied, that Spain had planted any 
colonies on that part of the coaft, where his mine lay. When the ambafliador o& 
that nation, the famous Gondomar, alarmed at his preparations, carried com- 
plaints to the King i Raleigh flill protefted the innocence of his intentions : And- 
James aflured Gondomar, that he durft not form any hoftile attempt, and that 
he fhould pay with his head for fo audacious an enterprize. But the minifter 
wifely concluding, that twelve armed veffels were not fitted out without fome 
purpofe of invafion, conveyed the intelligence to the court of Madrid, who im- 
mediately gave orders for arming and fortifying all their fettlements, particularly, 
thofe along the coaft of Guiana. 

When the courage and avarice of the Spaniards and Portuguefe had difcovered 
fo many new worlds, they were refolved to fhew themfelves fuperior to the bar- 
barous heathens, whom they invaded, not only in arts and arms, but alfo in the 
juftice of the quarrel : They applied to Alexander VI. who then filled the pa- 
pal chair -, and he generoufly beftowed on the Spaniards the whole wefttrn, and 
on the Portuguefe the whole eaftern part of the globe. The more fcAjpuIous 
proteftants, who acknowledged not the authority of the Roman pontifi\, eftablifh- 
ed the firft difcovery as the foundation of their title ; and if a pyrate or fea-ad- 
venturer of their nation had but eredled a flick or flone on the coaft, as a memo- 
rial of his taking pofTefllon, they concluded the whole continent to belong to 
them, and thought themfelves incitled to expel or exterminate, as ufurpers, the 
antient pofTefTors and inhabitants. It was in this manner, that Sir Walter Raleigh, 
about twenty- three years before, had acquired to the crown of England a claim 
to the continent of Guiana, a region as large as the half of Europe ; and tho' 
he had, immediately after, left the coaft, he yet pretended, that the Englifh title 
remained certain and indefeazable. But it had happened in the mean time, that 
the Spaniards, not knowing or not acknowledging this imaginary claim, had ta, 
ken poffefTion of a part of Guiana, had formed a fcttlement on the river Oro- 
nooko, had built a little town called St. Thomas, and were there working fome 
mines of fmall value. 

To this place, Raleigh dire6lly bent his courfe ; and remaining, himfelf, at 
the mouth of the river v\ith five of the largeft fhips, he fent up the reft to St. 
Thomas, under rl.e command of his fon. and of captain Keymis, a perfon in- 
tire'y devoted to him. The Spaniards, who had expeded this invafion, fired Oq 
the Englifli at their landing, were repulfed, and puifued into the town. Young 

4 Pvaleigh, 



J A M E S I. 6i 

Raicigh, to encourage his men, called out, That this u-as tie true mine^ and >wns ^"Jt ^"^ 
but fouls looked for any other \ and advancing upon the Spaniards, received a (hot, ' '"* 
of which he iinmcdutely expired. This difmayed not Keyinis and the others. 
They carried on the attack, got poiTcfTion of the town, which they altcrwards 
let on fire ; and found not in it any thing of value. 

Raleigh did not pretend, that he had himfclf fecn the mine, which he had en- 
gaged fo many people to go in queft ot : It was Keyniis, he Liid, w+io had for- 
merly difcovcred it, and had brought him that lump of ore, which promifcd k.ch 
immcnfe treafures. Yet Keymis, who owneJ, that he was within two 1iol:s 
march of the place, refufcd, under tiic moll ablurd pretences, to take any ctlec- 
tual ftep towards the finding it , and he returned immediately to Ralcigli, witli 
the melancholy news of his Ion's death, an.l the ill fucccfs of the entcrpriz:^. 
Senfible to reproach, and dreading punifhment tor his behaviour, Keymis, in de- 
fpair, retired into his cabbin, and put an end to his own life. 

The other adventurers now concluded that they were deceived by Raleigli ; 
that he never had known of any luch mine as he pretended to go in learch of; 
that his intention had ever been to plunder St. Themas , an.l iiaving encouraged 
his company by the Ipoils of that place, to have tlience proceeded to the invafion 
of the other Spanifla fettlements ; that he expelled to repair his ru'ned lortur.es by 
fuch daring enterprizcs ; and that he trullcd to the money he Ihould acquire, for 
making his peace with England-, or it that view tailed him, that he pr-pofed to 
retire into fome other country, where his riches would leaire his retreat. 

The fmall acquifitions, gained by the lp(>il ol St. I'liomas, difeourai^cd Ra- 
leigh's companions from entering ir.to thele vicw^ ; tho' there were many cir- 
cumifances in the treaty between the t\v(; na'ions, which invi:cd tliem to engni^c 
in luch a pyratical war againil the Spai.iar.is. 

When England made peace with Spain, the ei:am:!e ot Henry I\\ was imi- 
tated, who, at tlie treaty of VerviriS, liiKli.ig a diliit iJty i.i aiijuding alUjUe- 
liioiis with regard to t!ie Indian trade, had a^reeJ. tcj pals over that aiticie i:i toial 
filence. The Spaniard?, havii^g, all along, pu'Tiilud Jevuc etli:is ,ip;ai:ifl rliC 
intercourle ot any European nation with their eolo:iics, iiiterj^rcre.i this I'llen. e 1:1 
lieir own favour, anJ. confidered ic as a tacit acqwK iecr.ee ot b n ' m.i 1:1 liie v[\.\- 
l)liihed lawi ot Spain. 1 lie r.nglifii, on tiie C(jiin ,: y, pr. i nUed, ii, ir, as rh y 
had never bvcn exch.ded by any treaty *roin con"i:r..Tce witii a:,v p..rr ol the Km ; 
(-1 Spain's dominions, it was iliil as Ki\v:al tor liiMii to tia/ie nitli h's l-::i.nvn's 
in cilIv, r Indies, as with i'.is I,uro(_ean te:iir(;:'i s. In. co..., -un i:ee o; innb air.l*'- 
gni'V, many ailvcnaners from Ei.i^lan.; lailcd to tiie .'>_. ...la Inu'.ics, .i;,.l r, cC 
\\i:h levere piuiiilhuient, when cai;;^ht , .;s \\\ y, on ihe ^^-liier l:a:iv!, ci.en r.r'-. ,. 



62 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chnp. IV. and, when fuperior in power, forced a trade with the inhabitants, and refifted, 
nay fometimcs plundered, the Spanifh governors. Violences of this nature 
\vhich had been carried to a great height on both fides, it was agreed to bury in 
total oblivion -, bccaufe of the difficulty, v/hich was found, of remedying them, 
upon any fixed principles. 

But as tliere appeared a great difference between private adventurers in fino-Ie 
fhips, and a Ceet ading under a royal conTmiiTion , Raleigh's companions thoucrht 
it faftfl to return immediately to England, and carry him along with them to 
;inrvvcr for his conc'ucb. Tis pretended, that he employed many artifices 
firil to engage them to attack the Spanilh fettlements, and failing of that, to 
make his efcape into France : But all thefc proving unfuccefsful, he was delivered 
into the King's hands, and ftridlly examined, as well as his fellow-adventurers be- 
fore tlic privy council. I'he council found no difficulty in pronouncing, that thic 
ioniier fufpicions, with regard to Raleigh's intentions, had been well grounded ; 
that hiC h.id abufed the King in the reprefentations which he had made of his pro- 
jcfted adventure ; that he had a6led in an oflrenfive and hoftile manner againfc his 
Maicdy's allies; and tb.at he had wilfully burned and defcroyed a town belontdnf^' 
to the King of Spain. He might have been tried either by common law for this vio- 
lence and pyracy, or by martial law for breach of orders : But it was an eftablifhcd 
principle among thofe of the long robe, that, as he lay under an adual attainder for 
high treafbn, he could not be brought to a new trial for any other crime. To fa- 
tisfy.. therefore, the court of Spain, who raifed the loudefl complaints againft him, 
the King made ufc of that power which he had purpofely referved in his own hand, 
and figncd the warrant for his execution upon the former fentence *. 

Si r 

* Some of the facts, in this narration, which fcem to condemn Raleigli, are taken from the King's 

dech;ration, vvliich hi-iiig publiflicd by authority, when the fails were recent, being cxtrafted from 
examination^, before the privy council, and fubfcribed by fix counfellors, among whom was Abbot 
Archbilhop of Canterbury, a preL-^.te no way complaifant to the court, mull be allowed to have great 
v.'ei;MU, or ratlier to be of undoubted credit. Yet the moll material fails are confirmed cither by 
the naraic andj rea.'(.;i oi the tijin;:-;, or bv Sir Walter's own apology and his Icttcis. l"he King'.^ \in- 
tiicatioii i~, in the Ihi.le^an i;;ii;cel:r'.y, \''oh 3. No. 2. 

1. T;!- ;)H fe.".'. . t.) be an inipio';ab:i:M , that ilie Spaniards, v.'ho knew nothing of Raleiglrs prc- 
tcfided ininc, f!r;'-ild have built a town, in ih wide a coall within tliree miles of it. Tlie clianccs are 
f.tr(,n- 'v .'n^ainft iuth a fijppofition : A;!.! it i ' more r.atural to tliink, that tlie \iew of plundering 
ti^e to'\,-, \:d i::ni thitJier, than that cf v.o]i;ing a n;ine. 2. No fach mine is there ("ound to this day, 
; R:.!'. i::!! 'v.'. fr:t fouiid no iuir.c, andi ir fad lie plundered and burned a Spanilh to.va. !s it not 
v; v:'^i.:'^ . *!:.'ic'"'re, that th.: I ;t:cr >vas hi . intci.tion : How can tlie iccrct-. of his hreail: be rca- 
;-.( i f)\i;.h!eas tu cc:!r.:erp'j;fe .ert..iii f .cl? ? 4. He confelibs, in his letter to ].ord Carevv, that 



J A >.! E S I. 



63 



Si;i VValccr R.ilv-i 'h, fnuiiny his ! ;:.- ii.fvit.i!^' , colicJ-oJ ail l.is rcuira;:-" : AnA '--''' 
tho' hj luid lornv r!\ m;,dc !!. d; :n sny :r/;.i.i .11 ci:i(;-s, I'.a'i as !-,i.Mvnij- n-jac'iu-'s, 
fic'^neis Hik; .1 Naii.f. ^. ; K.i.i>.MU-s, in i-rvlvr ro protr.i:: h\ tx n iiiarion. an>l pr >- 
cure his cfcap-j ; he ^.o^v i\ '.uivcci to .'. t his [Jirt wiJ.i h, .I'/c-ry and i--lok;:u'fi. 
V;j .; ,V. ;;/>;, ..A, i.j laui, /.;/ .; 'i;^ J 6;-- .; <. . .' ; u hen h ; iJr the c.i,:;.; ul ;!i-: 
aK, by v,h,;i.!i h^' w;.- 10 bo jcIk'.'.J.J. 11;.^ harariij,ue to tiu pe.i !e was c.;ltn a:i I 



D-. ;:;:.;. t'.c- .1 ;:., i;J.r :ii:ii ij'l: i'.;!. c:;;:m..i!: ^. Hi C(.:!;:n ;"). :::...<; ,;... 
ll :t!- 1)11 . 1 ..L):i:'t j'.'.li'acJ Iv,- r.iv.^c .iikI Irirlviu.]-. ill!:. .'.);;. u.r--. ^^'^^ i: n >: t';-.- :i; .-cvi,'..- 
c.' ' r.'c: ; d;L:.:! ..ri: wii .1 colli p.);il-i]l\! l)y Sp.i;r ir.i r f^. 11:, (\J-;- :n k ;...: . v , . 
h;;n i;n I'u- MS-cr, ;ir' c mti'.Ui.l i'l b.i o.'.:i :i;-m'. > r\-, aiiJ {rom them it a;-p,M:-, u...i i.: r. 
u : -!:nT;j;.bl ) :h;- th. S,vi; i i.d w -ild :.'.;:. '..':i 1 u )d]-\ o-m<.!c tlic K: -li.h I.i: .'i:!:, :....! ; 
I ':. iiiicrtions t!:cic:bu', w t u- li..lt;U' t'; >::n the l-^"Mnnii'.;. -. \^';th(nit r:r\('...::> n, ..: .1 .\ . : 
at a ciill.incc. Lj ' :. c 1~ Win: . t-itKr- to iii'loJ- c liic ^.-...i rJ- firm t!ui: ov^ :i :...-. C .: 
cntc:pr:7.c bj ir.cic hoi'?? .\v..\, cr):.!K'.ciin:_>^ tlu- S'..!u..i.!. a- .-.llir- to ;:u' r. .t; :!, i .!, 
cntt-rprizc !v nvr^- criniii; ! " \^^:1 he no: ;!;- ;iL^:;r^ :!"^r, f.\Ti ti.n" i: fho..! 1 \.j '.: v.c ;'...[ :' 
arii; i]:xd ir.^on his men a; laiulijv/ : 'Ti- 1> ; 1, In- l^il'c.i i'i:L-- or t i;r haru'c' 1 1 r ;i.. .;. ; : 



lirlu a :ii.:;t';r 



I c::-:: t > ;mc :\! 



', a',,! in his apo'(>;y, he -.uii.J ! 



' 1/ !, 



eM..f ."; :i ,,:ie 



.1 ;o 



u\;:u- excrviil.i i'\- :iic S;\i:;iau!- n^ainit othc-i L'>i!:,xK:ie- )t ; :;.;li:"'i::!en. 'I'ht't\' ..: ;..>:'^ :trcv! i 
the ani'vi^vit-.' oi ;he treatv he:v.c.-:i the r;it:M>. A-' 1 hi-^ rhoa. that t!io' tlu !e 1:1; ' ; ;';::.-'. !. 
ibn^ :r the Kini^'j dechiriiic; war a:^.ii:i:l :hni rati';", ti- v ev a! ! iie-. er ei/i''e Ka'' h^:! tfdivlae 
and, vv:tlinjt ar\' cnniinini !i, or conrrarv t .) hi- civ i:!;;::"' a, to ; \ ...le 'h ^pai'li :e:tle:ar ' . 
p:e:c'-,h indeed :.,.:: j-e.ice .va :,jver raide v.it'i "pain i.i tiie If. 'le- : A m-nl a- iari :'(>: a ' 
chief hLi:t, \\ii!^ii tiie Sp.aasrvh. ctniK! reive lioa. lia'-iao I v...i, ii. the Ii;d:e- ; a!i,l 'lie'.' !,i . er v^ 
ha\e mad reaee .\t ,.I', ii' 'lo'tihtiei 1...: i'-ai ddi t) i car M.U'e.l o:\ t:u ) lertie.^ei:;-. !' . 
;i;.Meenu ;.t, llie i.:.;;!;!'.. vw re eidi aiiov.e i [- ;a. ; . ;ie.' i'U.i.ii c'.eii .ilt/r t'le tr;, .;v ei pe . r. , 
ii.id aiio iven a' I n, ed Ui i..: a^e tile p.i .:.". I j;;;. ...;!,> , .le ir' ..tv iia i i)e^'; a 
\>. iale ti.e Spai.iar.i . u e:e lad e \p llv! .0 liie tail i.:A\:;.'(d e. .-a 

t . it ew.:ii;:-. ;. radih.Av: :. w.:-: -o.!, i- ,; ..ta.n t' a a: LxIaK.t. .-. \i 

'; . .u vi.a.I .11. L , aad l..ian:;r;.i tu a. 



\t die ^!....n : > :ae :ir.. 



\'. II'.' \'-. .1, :: ra)t l,.al I.elwrc t .e \ i.:^ \.:M 
}s...'uild> foree ij ae'<ie . ! . ed. ' ii lefed 
thf p.i\'.aa ot' \'. lia li "-ja ;a , a :v.. ..'- i 

tl'.eie coii.'elhe:: , \.ide!i I ;...\e he:.' h- 
r.it ;!.i'. ai: 1 w rd h: nd : i ' 

lij'cn hrn w iti. a y . >: .'e' : , , ; 

he ir.\ai .cd any p..:; n* :'.e '/ r." 
t I [-iiuuier. I z. i ; ..^h,.i .'.!, 
la.t (Milv ih.U t:.e:e .'. a^ liiaie o;( :..i : 
pi e.iai'a, a ! and.-t ,i iii ; i". \\ ( ..1 ; ,' 
: liiaed (. \ e; , iniap la .atead ha.i : i I,. 
d.-e a t ph...d'. ,.:i laipo.i.ae .,, :., : . . 
d. , ieaiv; La.t ;. d.,,..ict or ;..,.. T c- , .. 



. ii.r.' '.eat. 



h" e. 



... e knev., 
.e:i I'lvieN'l.. 
I ; V- .ii ; fl 



1 1. ' 



64 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN, 

Chip. IV. eloquent; and he endeavoured to revenge hinfifelf, and to load his enemies with 

the public hatred, by ftrong afleverations of fads, which, to fay the leaft, may 

Oclober 29. be efteemed very doubtful. With the utmoft indifference, he laid his head up- 

j^^lgj^j^'s gjj. on the block, and received the fatal blow. And in his death, there appeared 

ccution. the fame great, but ill-regulated mind, which, during his life, had difplayed 

itfelf in all his condufl and behaviour. 

Nq 

ginary. This was eafily done from the Spanifh mines ; and he feems to have been chiefly diC- 
pleafed at Keymis for not attempting it. Such a view was a premeditated apology to cover his cheat. 
15. The King in his declaration imputes it to Raleigh, that as foon as he was at fea, he immediately fell 
into fuch uncertain and doubtful talk of his mine, and faid, that it would be fufEcient if he brought 
home a bafketful of ore. From the circumftance laft mentioned, it appears, that this imputation 
was not without reafon. 16. There are many other circumftances of great weight in the King's de- 
claration, that Raleigh, when he fell down to Plymouth, took no pioneers along with him, which he 
always declared to be his intention ; that he was no-way provided of inftrumcnts for working a mine, 
but had a fufficient flock of warlike ftores ; that young Raleigh, in attacking the Spaniards, employ- 
ed the words, which, in the narration, I have put into his mouth ; that the mine was moveable, and 
Ihifted as he faw convenient : Not to mention many other public fafts which prove him to be highly 
criminal againft his companions as well as his country. Howel in his letters fays, that there lived in 
London, in 1645, an officer, a man of honour, who aflerted, that he heard young Raleigh fpeak 
thefe words. Vol. 2. Letter 63. That was a time, when there was no interetl in maintaining fuch 
a fad. 17. Raleigh's account of his firft voyage to Guiana proves him to have been a man capable 
of the moll extravagant credulity or moil impudent impoflure. So ridiculous are the {lories which 
he tells of the Inca's chimerical empire in the midil of Guiana ; the rich city of el Dorado, or Manao, 
two day's journey in length, and fhining with gold and filver ; the old Peruvian prophecies in favour 
cf the Englifh, who, he fays, were exprefly named as tlie deliverers of that country, long before 
;jny European had ever touched there; the Amazons or republic of women ; and in general, the 
will and incredible riches, v/hich he faw on that continent, where no body has yet found any trea- 
furcs. This whole narration is a proof, that he was extremely defedlive either in folid underlland* 
j'.cr, or morals, or both. No man's charafter indeed feems ever to have been carried to fuch ex- 
ticrnss as Raleigh's, by the oppofite paffions of envy and pity. In the former part of his life* 
v/i^iCn lie wa:. active and livcvl in the world, and was probably bell known, he was the objedl of uni- 
veriai hatred and dcLcilatlon throughout England ; in tiie latter part, wlien fliut up in priibn, he be- 
came, much more unreafcnably, the object of crrcat love and admiration. 

.\ s to the circumltacces of the narrutioii, that Raleigh's pardon was rcfufed him, that his former 
KMitcnce was pur];ofcly keju in force againllhim, and that he went out under thefe expiefi conditions- 
rlvcv may be fupportei by tiic foilov. inp; authorities, i. 'J'lic King's word and that of fix psivvccun- 
mlior.s, \vi:0 alllrm it for facl. 2. 'i'hc nature of the thing. If no fufpicion had been cntertaiiied of 
lib int..T.ri()r.s, a parilon would nc\-cr have been refull-d to a man to whom authority was cntrufied. 
3. 1 hi words of t!ic coniniilllon id'cU", where he is funply lliled cir V/ahcr Raleigh, and not faithful 
^aJ -jjillichvcd, according to ihe ufual and never fuling flile on fuch occaf.ons. ,\. In ail the let- 
ups, 



J A M 1 



r: 1 



'V ;i..v. ;..;.. I. .^; . 

r.c c.i V !n..:i i.i t.. 

. : , . L u: >, V. !i:, h i!:,' ki: ;i. \'. .i . . 



('i 



-jj tnr- i': ;::x\l an c:\ ,:cjn, wi.ich w.is j'Cv !;.:; :o :>!' 



r (-.; i-"i'..iKir or '^bain, to o-j r.iv'i.iio: 



K 



^i'Ci-. \'..i-) ]j \\cii '-.wuv,!!, il.^/ >^j\i:;; 1..a1 io.j..... 



66 HISTORY of G R E A T B R I T A I N. 

Chap. 1\'. of governing, in the mod important tranfadions, this monarch, fo little celebrat- 
' ''' ed for politics or prudence. During the life of Henry, the King of Spain had 
(iioppcd fome hints of bellowing on that Prince his elded daughter, whon> he 
a^tcruards difpofcd of to the young King of France, Lewis XIII. At that time, 
the view of the Spaniards was to engage James into a neutrality with regard to 
the fucceiuon of C'.eves, which was difputed between the proteftant and popifli 
line: But the bait did not then take ; and James, in confcquence of his alliance 
with the Dutch, and Henry IV. of France, marched* 4000 men, under the 
command of Sir Edward Cecil, v^ho joined thefe two powers, and put the Mar- 
quefs of Brandenburgh and the Palatine of Newbourg, in polTeiTion of that dutchy. 
GoNDOMAR was, at this time, the Spanifli ambafTador in E'ngland ; a man 
whofe flattery was the more artful, becaufe covered with the appearance of frank- 
refs and fmcerity j whofe politics v/ere the more dangerous, becaufe difguifecl 
under the mafque of mirth and pleafantry. He now made offer of the fecond 
daughter of Spain to Prince Charles ; and, that he might render the temptation 
irrefiftible to the necefTitous monarch, he gave hopes of an immenfe fortune, whicit 
fnould attend the Princefs. The court of Spain, tho' determined to contract no 
alliance with a heretic, entered into negotiations with James, which they artfully 
protratfled, and, amidft every difappointment, ftill redoubled his hopes of fuccefs. 
'I'he tranfaclions in Germany, lb important to the Auftrian greatnefs, became^ 
every day, a new motive for this duplicity of condu6l. 
Ijinii-rcctions [^ ^\^-^^ great revolution of manners, which happened during the fixteenth and 
the feventeenth centuries, the only nations, who had the honourable, tho' often 
melancholy advantage, of making an effort for their expiring privileges, v^'erc fuch. 
as, together with the principles ot civil liberty, were animated with a zeal for reli- 
gious parties and opinions. Befides the irrefiftible force of mercenary armies, the- 
i-',uropean princes poflliTed this advantage, that they were defccnded from the an- 
iient royal families ; that they continued the fame appellations of magitlrates, the 
fan^.e appearance of civil government -, and reft rainingthemfelvcs by all the forms of 
legal adminiilration, could infenfibly impofe the yoke on their unguarded fubietTrs. 
Even the German nations, who formerly broke the Roman chains, and reffored 
liberty to mankind, now loft their own liberty, and faw with grief the abiolute 
authority of tlieir piinccs firmly eftabliftied amOiigfl them. In their circumflan- 
ces, norbiing but a pious zeal, v.hich diiregards all motives (.f human prudence, 
.ould Iiave made them entertain hopes of preferving any longer thofe privi}e<^es, 
whieli ihcir anceftors, thro' fo many ages, had tranfmittcd to them. 

As 



111 Bohcmic 



J A M E S I. 67 

As the houfr of Auilria, thrciit^'.o. c all l.;-:- c>::- .mIvc^ ilon-in-.c:-.', r.,ivi c: r ^l-nr>. IV' 
ir.adf rclisj,in tb.e j)rc-Lci;ct: o! their uli.i , .\:;o;.-,, t!v y i''>'-'-' ""'- 1 v.;['i r I.:'. ;:'.' " : 
a hkc [principle i ;i!ui tliC i';ulioiic r(.-i:j,ion, ...^ i.Ii..ii, L.i.i tMiijcJ ;:;-^.: < :i i..^ :. ..: 
of ir.onarcliy ; the {rokftaiU, on th.'.t ul li[x:ty. 'i hv ll it'v^ <>\ I> IiC:v;i, :..i.:- ; 
taken arms aj^ainll liic l.n'.jKror Maihias, co..:;iU.;.l tiuir il". o!c ..;:.'.;. .il ii.s ;... - 
cclTor I'Vrdinaiici, anJ clainied t'lc oblcrv.incc ut .*.ii t'.w cduLs (...a, '.t..: in Mvo^.r 'i; 
the new icIiL;:on, together vsith tlie reilur.iiion en Lhcir a;.t:ii[ ;.iv.i a:;.! t uiiih- 
tvition. The neighbouring |)rincipaht!cs, Sihiia, Mora"! I, l.L.iatia, A.. ;i.i, even 
the kingdom of Hungary, took pare in the (.juarieii an.: tlirui.:!:..;,.:: a! i'.: :..- 
populous and martial provinces, the fpiric or dilcord dv.d uv i! war hjid i.;n.-cr! .:''/ 
dilTurcd itfeii". 

pEiiDiNAXD II. who poflcfied more vigour and a!):';iry, tl-.o' 1:0: nvjie Ic '// i'... 
arid moderation, than arc ulual with the AuQrian princes, llronyly armed iiini- 
fclf for the recovery of his authority , and befides enjployii-g tl.e ali'r.laiiCe o! !-.;s 
fubjeclj, who protelled the antient rehgion, hie engageci on i.ib Ikie a j/jw r!ul al- 
liance oi t'ne neighbouring potentates. All the cathoHc princes ol the e:i":p/i;e !".a i 
embraced his delence ; even Saxony, th.e nioll powerful ot t!ie pruteu.;;.:: : Po- 
land had declared itfelt in his favour , and, above al!, the Span":!]! muni:\:li, 
deemir.g hii own interell clolely connected with that ot t!ie youi^.ger brancii ot 
his tamily, prepared powerful luccours from Italy, and trom tlie 1 .ow Cuuntru.- , 
un;i he alio advanced large funis lor the fupport ot Ferddnand and of t!;e catl-.u^ic 
rehgion. 

Tfi: flates of Bohemia, ahirmed with thcfe mighty jm\ parativ.>ns, begar. aifo to 
fu'licit ioreign ali'illance ; and, togetlu r witii that lu; port, w;:ich tl'.e/ cbMin.d 
irom the evaiigelieal union in dermany, thev endeavo'jiid to ellabi;!]i c.r.:'.e.\;..n..'; 
\viti\ greater princes. '1 Ik y call tlicir eyes on l-iwl-ri', h !e::wr oi i'ai.itir.c 
'1 hv V C(^r.ikA'redi, that, be'idjs tiiC power oi his o^^ n ll,;te, v. iii^ii wa> conf^icM' le, 
he \-. as !on-;n-:aw to t!;e Km:; (;i 1 ngland, and iir; !k w to I'; ;;:^'e Ma. .rc^-, !. .;e 
a:,t;,o:i*y .'. a^ becc^mc ahn(-ll ablu;i,rc- in tl;e I i.ired riMvii.c. - . 'i':.ey !. .; ^ d, 
th..: hi le 1 r:;:(H -, n:'/.'(,d ly ti.e co: neeho:;^ oi bl od, a> v. /I ..^ :^'.' r:.e ti tf 
t: ;; n^ir iv.' <;} r^ii.O'ai, v.ooid !a:.(.'rell tiienre \'es ;n aii ti:e :u.:.. .j^ ^ ; 1. ' 
a..d W(u,!d jton'.ote h.s . re.it:i( i-^. i '.y t';e: e:ore i;ai ;e laa' a :. 
ca(/".\ii, V. h;;.;i !:''.' I <'i:l'de:' d a^- ehv : i\'e ; a:.^! tiie '. ( a' " I'a a . ; , a . 
a.i.'iio--, wit (a.t e> a.li.iin;:; e:;!a r J.in:a- L ; M.iara e, \". i. _^ . . 

l.ae, ::: - ' 1 a'' 'v aerei 'ed liie od r. aaa m..i\!ied aii ;:i: :o.v. ::\'.j ['> i.^:a .. . . 



68 II I S T O R Y OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 

Clv'.p \y. The news of thef- events no fooner reached England, than the whole kingdoni 
^' ^^' was on (i;e to engage in the quarrel, '-^carce v/js the ardour greater, with which 
all the ilates of Euro;-.e, In former age , flew to refcue the holy land from the do- 
minion of inhdciS. I'he nation, at that time, were fmcerely attached to the blood 
of their monarch, and they conHdered their connection with the Palatine, who had 
married a daughter ot England, as very ciofe and intimate. And, wljen tliey 
heard of catholics carrying on wars and perlecuiions againil proteftants, they 
thought their own intereft moll: deeply concerned, and regarded their neutrality 
as a bafe deiertion of the caufe of God, and of his holy religioii. In fuch a quar- 
re-, tliey would gladly have n-.arched to the oppoiite extremity of Europe, have 
p'unged themfelves into a chaos of German politic?, and have expended ah the 
biocd a:;d treaflire of the nation, by maintaining a conted: with the whole houie 
ol- Auih-ia, a: the very time, and in the very place, where it was the moil potent, 
and almoi: irrenllible. 

But Jam:s, bcTides that he had too little enterprize for fuch vafi: undertakinf^;^ 
was retrained by another motive, which had a mighty influence over him. He 
refufed to patronize the revolt of fubjeffts againfl their fovcreign. Erom the very 
fitil: he denied to his fon-in-law, the tirle of the King of Bohemia : He forbad him 
to be prayed for in the churches under that appellation : And tlio' he owned, thac 
he had no-wife examined the pretenfions, privileges, and ccnflitution of the re- 
volted ftates ; fo exalted v/as his idea of tfiC rights of kings, th.at he concluded 
fubiefls mufi ever be in the wrong, when they [food i 1 opgofrLion to t.'ioie, wi-o 
had acquired or aiUin:ed that niiijeffic title. TIu;s, even in mcalures, fuuntkd en 
true politics, J mies intermixed lb many naerow prfjui.dc; s, :s loll him ail his au- 
thority, and expoled hirn to the imputation Oi vvea':;;tis en.} of error. 

!-:c. Mean: while, afkurs every vdiere h.in::-n':d to a criCi^^. E^rdina-d levi^^d a r:,,f^htv 

fl ;'Te under t!":e command oi the Duke of Bavaria an' t'le C'unt: c' ^J;;:q::oy ; ^nd 
advanced u[^;n his eiicmy in B(diemi). In thcLovv Countries^ Spinola collected a 
^c'eran arn^y o: llnrty thoufand men. ^'' hen I'.dmonds, the Kin'.^'? rend,^:: at; 
ik-uiTjls, rnad^; re noniiranccs to the Archduke kdbcrt, he was anf-crcd, :i.".t -k;; 
orders l'.:r this arn";.mr, lit 'i.a! been tranhniLtcd to 'kinohi fi'om kk drid, a-,d tluu ke 
ak;nc ].]] w tl^e iecret intcntioi-iS of it. k;d;:o!a ;:gain tokl tiie nkni.'.:r, th :[; hk 
Older:, vere kill f nl^-d ; an^l tliat, if kaimonds would acrompany ki'n in hii 
maicli to C(iike::;z, he would tlicre open them, and gi .e Iki"; :.Ai k::ida.:ri:;n, [;; 
w:s moie ealy to I..e his iiKcnrion, than to prcv-nt ks luccik, khv'ok at one 
time, it v; i. , ..iiown in Ihighiud, that kreeleric, being oefeaied in k:e g:eai -nd de 
cifive b^tk.: i'' i'l gy;", had bed v/iki his ianiiiy u.io liofanj; a.: : :':.:/. kpincia 



J A M i: S I. 



/ ,. 



'^\^ Tlll'il V[>()'A 111- IVi!.Ui;v . .. , i:.: :;" .' ..:.'; I. ". 

];.;:;,;: ui t:if r.;u.'i'., .i.i.l lior.i i;,.c , 

Iv.- [iic iM -U.' .- ; 1 ' '-. ^ , .- . , 

.'1, \^ i.t a t;,(. '/ \< ' ,, . 

r,., ;- ; i v.-:^ ...i..r u :; i:i (. i : :;;.r,-.'. i :. ; t 

! '' w.us CM I..C c'v.r l;:,cni , iIk/ ;';:ic- .-'-.c t-- 






1 ^ 



: - ... , ^ n i.::r.i..! 



a. ..I 



1 '^^' 



.... : : ::.. ijr^.;- .idv..h.\' w;\>,;:q .-,: -, lu,. . . : 

o; , .- ;: iT :i :.:;.'.!>. ar, ( .m: ,.w (,:i .ir ki ii a ^::.lan'\', \M...M \..i v ::.." 

.:]\ D-vm , \\;:';(; :: .:ir; L:). ^. (- !.;.w:;; ; :'.a: a 1 

i!' j'li iK^i t'u' ! c.i: . ; I ., k.. ^ I ' -. 1. 



o HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Chap. IV, attended with fuch difficulties, that all his art of negotiation would fcarce be able 
^''"" to furmount them j much lefs, that that match could in good politics be depend- 
ed on, as the means of procuring fuch extraordinary advantages. His unwarlike 
difpofition, increafed by age, rivetted him dill fafter in his errors, and determined 
him to feek the relloration of his fon in law, by remonflrances and entreaties, by 
arguments and embalTics, lather than by blood and violence. And the fame defe6t 
of courage, which held him in awe of foreign nations, made him likewife afraid 
of fliocking the prejudices of his own fubjecls, and kept him from openly avowino- 
the meafures, which he was determined to purfue. Or perhaps, he hoped to turn 
thefe prejudices to account; and, by their means, engage his people to furnifli 
him with fupplies, of which their exceinve frugality had hitherto made them fo 
fparing and referved. 

\ ParjuiTicnt. He iirft tried the expedient of a benevolence or free-gift from individuals, pre- 
tending the urgency of the cafe, which would not allow leifure for any other mea- 
fure : But the jealoufy of liberty was now rouzed, and the nation regarded thefe 
pretended benevolences as real violences, contrary to law and pernicious to free- 
dom, however authorized by antient precedent. A parliament was found to be 
the only refource, v/hich could furnifh any large fupplies ; and writs were accord- 
ingly illued for fummoning that great council of the nation. 



iGzi. 



This pirliament is remarkable for being the epoch, in which were firfl: regu- 

icthof Tun" '^^^y foi'med, tho' without acquiring thefe denominations, the parties of Court 
;^nd Country; parties, which have ever fince continued, and which, while 
they often threaten the total diflblution of the government, are the real caufes of 
irs permanent life and vigour. In tlie antient Gothic conilitution, of wliich the 
Knglifli partook with other European nations, there was a mixture, not of autho- 
rity and liberty, which we have iince enjoyed in this ifland, and v.'hich now fub- 
fiil unilormly together; but of authority and anarchy, which perpetually fnocked 
with e.ich. otiier, and wliich t ok place altern.ite'y, according as circumilances 
were more or lefs favourable to citiier of rhcm. A parliament, comuoftd of bar- 
'buriaP;!^, himrnoiitd from tlvcir !: Ids a:vJ forrefcs, uninflrudetl by (ludy, convcr- 
fition, or tra'.'ci ; ignorant of their own laws and iiifcory, and unacquainted w^ith 
th.c [iruation of all foreign naiions ; a p:irli:imcnt ca.ied [^'ccariouHy by the Kine, 
a;ui diiTblN'L'd at l;!^ pleaiure ; fi:tin9, a few days, dt.batiiig a few points prepared 
U)\- clum, and wliofe mcmbi^is were imi)atient to raurn to rhcir own callles, where 
alone thy were grcar, uml to the cha-' e, v.'hich was their favouiite ani'.ilement : 
.Siiih. a rar iair.cn: was very li'tle fitted to enter in':o a difcu!>-on of all the qucf- 
tions of g')\'crnment, and to Ihaie, in a regular manner, the legal ad;i-,i;u[lrati(.n. 
4 f'he 



JAMES I. 



71 



Thp nimc, tiic authority of &x l-.;;i;^ al^-K- appeared, in the common coiirfc of n p.!\' 
govcrnrr.ci.r ; in cxtraordiivirv (nicr cncis h- aniin-el, ui:a (li!! Ixtter rca'.on, 
tr,c lol;- c!i region , ihc in^p^ricU awA u.ntt.: -.riCw \.iv.< lc:r, in cv-ry r!i!iur. a Ijti- 
nide (.>t i:it(. Tj^r^tarion , a-. 'I wlien tlie ciui.s, [)urlLic : by tb,c niOiia-c h, \".cre, in 
"encra!, aricahlc to h:^ l!-'':ca>, httic Lruplc or ivalvjlv was ciU(.rtaii:cJ, v.-it;i 
retiard to the rcgui.iiitv (-1 tlic ivx.\i:<. During; the re;L',n oi an able, h-rtunat", 
or po'-uiar priiiCi , no nicn'.ber o' ciri;. r iiuul,-, nvj^h IcN wi t:;c hnvvr, d..i\\ ii,:nlv 
oi entering; in:o a lurnv.d p^ir:,, in cppollt on to '.he ('(.nrt ; lii.cc the . ifiuii/'. a 
ot th-, par!ian-,cnt nniil, in a i;-\v dav?, k'avc Iv.m U:p:utcct' d, to the \'cn;;e r.c-j (A 
his lo\\rti^^, and to tliofc llretciu-s ol prcrogatiw, \v!i:eh v.c;c then To ciihy 
HKu!', in order to purdli an obi-.oxious (jb",ci. DurTig an lh; upu ar ard, wr .h 
reign, the current conrr.unly ra 



n !o !l:(N\;^ aL^ainll the i]V-.;narcli t!.at i.unc c:i.: i 



m ll 



, ) 



inhil thLnil".d\'e^ :n the coiirc-party ; w ii the | rni^re wj.s .,b!e to i^-g-'ij- ar.v C'.::- 
Ilderable bartons on hia hde, tiu- q allien was dvxi.icd wirii arn^ in tlie h.id, i.ot 
by ciebates (^r arLy-iiv.LiUi in a l;-;ia'e or .nUniMy. -\:d. iipon tiie v, ho!f, t..i- l\,: -i 
circumll.mce, w!a.!i, djieni; ^nr:e:.t tinges, raani d t!;.- prince in any ie^:al form (;; 
adminidration, waj, [hit th- r.v^'id, by tlic nature <,i li.e :t.v,d.d tenures, rcn-.in^ed 
fliil in tiie handb ol lh>- b.'^i,;ci.5 -, ar.d tiii> irrep^u'.n' .ir.d dan[_;ti(> s c'.iee'k i.a^i n,..cn 
n^ore indi.eece th.m t!ie re_:,i.i'..i- and n^.th^-.h. al lind's ol di ia- ^ ,.::u CvOill;tLit;wn. 
As t!;e nation conid nor !c con:p d^ed. it v/as r^qmiit,, diat e^:^^ pe'dic ir.v.\:^rc 
of confcqncnce, parti:. /la'iy l'.\.:i o: ievyii^ ncv, tax.s, fnou.di Lea", to..- adopted, 
by coHKi.on conlei.t ;'.:;(.'. .'.ppro'.\iL'.on. 

'J'm;: 'TH-ires of the l.oiile oi 'Idxha-, partly by the v;;;o::r (f th. ;r adndnn" ri- 
liijn, partie bv t;,e concn; rcnce cd lavcura'de i i.Tun;:lancrs ''^'^- leen ,d):c f' c ihi- 
bh!h a mcjie m^idar lydim o: [rovivi :r.c:.z -, bi.t t!i;ydr '.v t:u' co: diri;::.!--; lo 
near to th-li'- 'hn', ti'^ din: mi,! a d e:-:r: ; n.; ! I'lr .i.dv \:v: oi ; h.- pai . :an:enr. biai: 
l^na^e becan,e, i.. a -r^..: i:e:.'w, t r er;: .a < I r^-ya v.di .a'd \'a...:.u: Cq p h- 
t;.jn v.oaAl have ix^a W'[\'\'. '. as .iIj^cil"- v.: rcbciaiai: A;.a cw:. ivapa^i, t'.e 
H'nd danp'TOL.h a! tu ,;, m \% n., .; ninowiiion'- ( ,,i;;i! be 1 e ii:[io..aced, l..\.: aaa ;:r.d, 
in th. (..a:', ot a iev/ \ e ae , a/ar hwiai a!t'_ raacaa. lH/ni tee .u.t;.iaa\' al^.nc ol 
tie; I(.\a" eiaa i a ; ..ri.aa-' nt \s e : ra tlita; h.e ri^ .d r ) i.oncjar ard pia \ r.i eat : 
'1 he fa'aa o; jaip. a' aa:m;,e aad c; . ava.e waia- lauadti^aued ana aa!saov.a : 
An 1 tied t .a'- a,,cna .y ba. ji'-aa'vid auila}!n:'/, and reaia.;d ; . ;\ d;-ae rl 
nada,.a; ha.-. aa a I Ah /V, i ._, bp,- ;:,,;.- \-. ilv i;a nd \'s aeai :i\ .: ', i a 'an tiait 



r ; ; p,;-, ;n-.^ n i.:< e e wa i ^at .a:d 
a .- -.aai: :ht ni.a jn:.:; c-l : ;)\ ; ; i 



Wd.a: 
a V, s 



a :, n:\. a, to ad.. .a 



1 a {)-: a. a \' 
1 XV ' 



t ' 



a c. .a:.; una a: 



.'iaa \v:,e;, exu- ,. : ^ a,..: v li 



i.^'Xb (.. V I. a 



72 II I S T O R Y or GREAT BRIT A I N. 

C'nn. i\'. rec;, the i^-ince nc dc J not to follcit votes in parliament, either for the making 
-'- h'-.v; r-r im: ciirr^ taxi-s, boih of which were now become reqihlite for public in- 
tLi'ch ar.d nrcici'vation. 

I'me ihccritv (;F inchvidLiai?. fij nccefiary to the liberty of popular councils, was 
tcta'iv unknown in t!:a;- age. And as no dcfpotic princes, fcarce even tlie eallern 
tviar.ts f'-^'t; iiiorely witiioiu tlie concurrence of f^me afTemblies, which fd:ply 
bot'i ::dvict and ai:thnri':v ; hrtle, but a mercenaiy force. Icems then to have been 

V ai;t!n;>; towards the eilabiillmicnt cA a fimple monarchy in England. I1ie 
trd'iiia, iho' n'lore kwonrah^e to iep;a' authority, than the feudal inllicutions, was 
n-iucii inierior, in th'S reipcet, to ddciplined armies; and if it did not preferve 
hbcriy to uv people, it prtlcr\'ed, at ieail, the power, if ever the inclination fliould 
arifL\ o: rcCcAering if. 

]]vr k) low, at tiiat time, ran the inclination towards liberty, that I:lizab>:th, 
t'u; laH; of ihac arbirrarv line, he/klf no ieis arbitrary, was yet the moU ren^w^n- 
i\\ and mo;L popular of :.ll the Icvereigns, who had filleJ the throne of Eng- 
la.'Ki. Ir was n:itiiral for J:;mrs to rake the government as he found ic, and to 
j'uriue her mcaiurcs, winch he heard lo mu^di applauded ; nor did his pcnetra- 
li'jn extend lb f;r as to diihover, that neith-r ids circumuanccs nor his characler 
could iupport ib ext'-nhve a:i auiivjrir;,-, blis narrow revenues and httle rru;iaii[y 
begin now to render him CLpcndeni on his people, even in the ordinary courie 
of ..dnhnihradon : 'i'heir increadng knowk'ge !.!!ic-ove;ed to th;;m that advantage, 

V hie'i thjy had obtained; and made them f/nfib'e of the inedimable value of 
c'lvW libertv. And as he polkl]ed too little dignity to command refpeef, and too 
much good-nature to imprtis tear, a new fj^irit diicoeered itlelf every day in the 
p:ni!ament ; and a par;y, jealous ot a Iree conilitut'on, were regularly formed in 
i:'i-^ hoihe 0! con;n"ions. 

E':r ne'twiihf anhing t!;e e advantag^-?, a:qui.\d to libertv; lb eAtenfive was 
ruv, ; au:ho;iiy, and U; drmlv e;bddi;n d in a!l its parts, that 'tis prob.f_de tiie pa- 
ii\i:[s (.:; lii.^t age v/oikl have dclpdred oi ew:r reh ing ir, had thev i^ot been 
\\:iy..]Mi.<.J\ by rEi^g.Ais m., Lives, which in^dre a covra_^c, unk!rn:ovn[..ble by ai-y 
hLV!:::n (f)^W'e. 

dhiL lame rhiance, v iikh has e"?r p'-ev.vhd Iv tvixr idrnE pov,\-r and ccvie- 
fvdie lautinnitv, v.s n(;w fA w edvM: 'hc-d y\ I h^fv\.,,c! ; '^ 






'^''\ n l'^,- r-l .vrv in f 



c ('!^;-^^y 111 iv,-j iv ;,.: g rvm.na:::; ana i!nvv.-,v rs - " f:-' -n n 
n, h.ei.h' it..! the dc'itive (n an mn'e; rvv.i fi..bn!h!h)n a:;d e"ni:h:n; lo 



(..\h vgd'ha'e. d'iie <:'vius ( , '^.c. ehurci^ 'm '' jv'davd, !( !-divh:v t-. mo. 
cat to ce:'^:''W x ~, '."v:\.,.rj rv d to a d;v.i'. p' 



] A M i: S I. 



::.;: i.' :i '.'.or J, i' ^ r-H:::"- v to :';: t.:n:'' i\;;' : :1 n'c-n o. :..c culiuixs, f.;: . . i 



'v^^r y '.][ \] ; ':rt!r :.;\'C(Ii:m i\j t" . ; ' :. 

' '.: I', 1 .,. - ...iiL.'i.iiin ; 1-oKl, cl ^. , 

::. s f) ;u;w[i: l;.-:-i .l:!ic.'!:i tc: c:- ; ;;...! i:.v !:, . 
, ..';..s .I'ul ci<:ic;i:jt, t':.j '..:iv.c \\bj::v, v.!;i,;:i': y.;t:u.. 

.;-> a;...l c\":;i:cs. J Avr llnCv- the liiii o,;^;;!i <: t>, ;: 1..., i 
, .ji or l\:,/ .'xiii a- \\-i; .:^ of J-i v,c , /^. ; .;,. ; ..\ ' : :: . ' - :,, 



!vA\- 



) ! ;:; a .'!;..'.- L-nt , ;;:. 



tiiC opi.u :i> i..\' ii.iaIk^ nv);.i ;;; 






i ' 



'/ 



...;: jiit.iry ( v ;.t.(j;i, a:;iXj^i '..c /c-i.on-inat;' :i (.1 yii ;::.: ;, tj i:^ ;:::r.;/'j ;,: ^ ; [.;j 
: .ii__, i:s ni.; .t.;:.s w :1 in;j,K at;oj):jd t!:i^ i,!va, v. ..!^:. v, ,.-, 1; ).:..'/.;;:;. r ..-, tt; t!:,:;:, 
a.;.; . lii.il (,()!. :(.^;!u;cci tlicir cat.L' \v:;li that i/i t;.^ { .uriof v.r ci>l . i: , _ v.zw l li..s 
'.'. Li' : :. ' ^- r. i! a ,,: cclL i;..;' .^ ai !a.. .io;,s i\' ulari v iw;':;"; il ; ,.n ; t. , ..i a : .:.r (;: ['.^ 
;..i: ai, ti.a-h,'.; that a_ic, laainin;- ilia :i^'y twv..::\!-- laa.-t; .;! ( ..: a-. .:^a...-h ;, {[ ^, 
i^an: oi civ'I hj.rty ^jaiaah)- rtviwa iruai its i :aari;v, an;l rv ,....., c; :r^ i-;. 
,.;( ::i ...h-.:at", rii.ai wiiiiai i: readied iii a'a .:<,'. aaia^': than h:> oi,:, ic h v r ' - 
cn!a- -! ii-> hvn:hnh^n aver tiia i_.,rcatch [wiz o; 'ha h.n^,-!. :u. 

In thia pa;a:.i;yca:-, h<a.\cvar, it na ;1 ' r ov, a- ", rhvna- ay a ar .h .a 
b.-t ai.ty ana 11,: ^n ti.c ; a o: tha raana n,^ . a,' h 

to li.cnhvc e\''a\- t.^ia,;, in o.a: . t.> nnaataia a , i 
ja"ia.c.-. 1 ivy v.'oa,h ...i . a ) : ' a '^ an ' / : 

h:i y.., v.huh !;.,h a . . . ' 

ya:.nna-a:oi ; , ';! t .it ; 

b.,t, hv th , ; 



74 II I S T O Pv Y OF G Pv E A T B R I T A I N. 

Ch:.p. J\ . XiiE iair.e pcrfons had alio procured a patent, which tliey iharcd with Sn' 
Kdward Vtlliers, brotlicr to Biickhif^ham, for the folc iDakino; of .eold aivd lilver 
thread and lace, and had obtained very extraordinary powers for preventing any 
rivalfliip in thefe manufadlures : Tfiey were armed with authority to fearcli 
for all goods, which might ir.tcrfere wdih their patent ; and even to punifli, at 
their own will and difcretion, the makers, importers, and venders of fucli com- 
modities. Many had grievoiifly futfered by this exorbitant jurifdiftion -, and 
the lace, which had becii manufailured by the patentees, v/as found univerfaily 
to be adulterated, and to be conipofed more of cooper than of the precious OiC- 
tals. 

These grievances the commons reprcfcnted to the King ; and they met with 
a very gracious and very cordial reception. He fe.emed even thankful for the 
information given him ; and declared himffdf afnamcd, th.it fuch abufcs, un- 
knowingly to him, had crept into his admiinifbration. " I afllire you," faid he, 
*' had I before heard thefe things complained of, I would have done the office 
" of a juft king, and out of parliament have punifhed them, as feverely, and 
'' peradvcnture more, than you now intend to do." A fentcnce was paR for the 
punifliment of Michel, and Mompeflbn. It was executed on r.he former. The latter 
broke prifon and efcaped. Villicrs was, at that time, fent purpofely on a foreigQ 
employment , and his guilt being lefs enormous or lefs apparent than that of the 
others, he was eafily protefted by the credit of his brother, Buckingham. 

ExcouRAGED by this fuccefs, the commons car'ried their fcrutiny, and ftill 
with a rcfpedful hand, into other abufes of great importance. The feals were, 
at that time, in the keeping of the celebrated Bficon, createci Yifcount St. Al- 
bans ; a man univerfaily admired for the greatn-fs ot his genius, and beloved 
for the courteoufnefs and humanity of his beiiavior.r. FIc was the great orna- 
ment of his ac;e and nation; and nouifht was vvantifu?; to render him t;-,e orna- 
ment of human nature irfeh'^, but that flrei^.gth ot mind, which mig'it cijcck 
his intemp';ra:e dc-fire of preferment, that could add noihlng to iiis dignity^ 
and reftrain Ids profufe inclination to expence, that could be requifite neither for 
his !io;:our nor entertainment. His want of oeconom.y and liis indulgence to icr- 
vants had involved him in necenities j an.l, in order to fuppiy his prodir.y.jiry, 
he had been tempted to take bribes, and that in a very open n^annee, iron: (ui- 
tors in chancery. 'I'is pretended, that, notwiihftandnig tins eucrmous aJvule, 
he liad (kd, in the leat of juilice, preierved the intcgiity of a lue^^e, and had 
;^:iven juk d: c'-e^s againft thefe very }:ierions, from whom he h .d rceeived the 
wages ol :nkp.:i;y. Complaints rcie the louder on that aer<n!r.:, and at kid reach- 
ed t'e: lionie of commons, who lent vv) an imncachaiCnt a.e, nnil; Idm to 



J aeon's u 



e n e 



JAM i: S L 



/ :> 



T!v: cl'.i-.rci!cr, conlcious of [;'..iir, u j'rc-c;r;>i t'.u vc^.c^wzc: of iiis iuJ^j^ , :\r.A 
Ci/<!c.ivoL;i\\;, by a rer., fui ;'.\'()u .il. Z'l lI\: r :':;c Ci/.)'.ul.^rA oi a I'.rictv r ,n, ,.'/). 
'I'l.c l(;i\!s ;:.l";!U\l l:\ :\ |\i: :;. i.!.:r (.cm-n'on ci 11 l.!^ (:(.rr,:;.r! j:is. 1 1/ ..c l:..c-v.- 
j.v.l.^h's to 'c i-. ^ : i: .;: .1 !ji t!;c i u\\ >; c;i:r:. _; \.\c ;\ ;. 
inc.ip.ibL- ';i .:. y o:;..-f, j-i.ue, or c:r-.: y:n :.c ^ a:..l : 
m.'.!:, c:- Lu:n2 v. i:!,::! tlij vcr^c oi liu- c .L;iC. 



1 :i 



: .;; L.^ i-: ;;i i .i;:.i. 



'l.ii-. .: 



l-;;.rcncc, diwi.'.lul C(j a ;r..'.:; (.: ^1C^ 1c;-.;;.m irv lu 



v:vc : 



fivj v.^Ti , and b.'in^; rtlciicd, i.i .i !;:"!l' t::rt.-, f; mi ti'.c 'l'r,\. .-, , 



liu-, ycz u b;-ck;-:i, luj^portcd icklt dn.idi: i.. 



wl d t i; :u.::;l.u;cc- an.: a c! 



!' :: t, and !iu lu os: ;n .Kcrary i^ri.iii. .:n i' , ^,' ..:_.; n .'.'c m :l;c :.\- ;.;n !: (jr \'. - . -.- 
ncill'S be lu;^:oLLcn or ovc; l(;'j.;cd by [:;jdc;nrv. In tcji.liil.r.iL ;n o! b;^ i;:va' 
m.rit, t'nc Knii^ rcmtt'^d his Inn.', r.s wed as ail ilie oriuT | arcs (;i Ir. , kn:L'.:c\\ 
cjnierfcd on hini a lar^^e j-cniinn ot i ' - o j'onr.ds a y. ar. and cm; loved e\'erv 
cxj^edient to ai!e\da:.- ti^e v-niLrn: o! bi, rn:e and :v.\^:ov:^i::: ~. A:\'\ ihat i;;ca: 
[ h.io:l'i "^ea, at Lil, ajlvnov-nt^ed widi re^:--.r, tlur be Inid loo Ion'; nefdeaLtd cl.c 
true anibiliun oi a line genini, ; and bv | lungin;^ into bnbne;'^ and ali.iir-^, \\h cli 
reqnire nvaaii leij capaci:y, bn: ^i;-eater drnineld oi" ndn.b tinin liie i^inildLs of 
La;n:n^, b..d e;.y nied hini;.ii to U.cii a lievons cabin^itic-. 

To:. con:n:oi-s dad enr.rt.dned die biea, tlia: tliey were tlic gre:t patrons of 
ti;e t^-ople, JLi\d ti.a: ti.e i^er.is o: all [onevanees n:idl ^M'oaceJ iroiii tnem; and 
to tins |n include tluy were ( 'neny bjiud ;en for t!ic r.[';ard .nu! cjnd.ieradDn (>: 
the puibe. la tbe ex.eulion oi tins o.iiee, tiiey r.ow kept: tii.ir e.n.^ opeii ro 
ton-jp'ainti (;i e\'ery kind ; and tbey carried ti;eir relearches in:o nn::;y i;rievai\ns 
wldtii, tiio' f 1 !;o pi-e.^L i:i;por; nice, coi.bi no: be toi;ei;;d, uid.on: ;;;;:ib'.- a:- 
ieelisn:; tile lvl"^5 ami in-, ^n::ill.r^. d ii: p:-erogati\'e i.;.:ned, c... ii rnon:e:::, to 
beinvan.el; tiie Kme,'s andnnnry, in i. v ^ry ardcie, v. a- di;pn:.d ; an.l ja:n ,^, 
^'dio \'. a;. \'.n'::"ij; to corrjet ti:e >d'..l.s ol his powc/, ce^nl ! i.--: i.dn:nt t ) i:a'.\; 



,'-,n-,-,K 



, .\:.d iiad, a- v.n, bronirbt r.o co;i::c:cr I'v 
ennio:^ td : ivo oj, r'::. Ived, n::der | :\t n.e (d liic a.' 

1. a 



) a h: . e.n;- 



76 H I S T O P. Y o F GREAT B Pv I T A I N. 

Ch'cp.W. their proceedings , and h.f fent them word, that he was dctcrmiivrd, in a very 
^^"'* iictle time, to adjourn thein till next winter. The commons made appiic..rion 
to the lords, and deiired them to join in a petition for delaying the ac^journ- 
ment ; which was rcfufed by the upper houfe. The King rcgard.:d ti^is prcj-dt 
of a joint petition as an attempt to force him from his meafur( s : Hl thai^k':d 
the peers for their retufal to concur in it, and told them, that, if it was t-ieir 
defire, he would delay the adjoiirnment, but would not io hir comply wiih ihe 
requeft of the lower houK;. And tlius, in thefe great nation;d ada;rs, the h;irie 
peevifnnefs, which, in private altercations, often raifcs a quarrel irom the fmal- 
led beginnings, produced a mutual coldneis and difguu: betv/an the King and 
tile commons. 

During the recefs of parliament, the King ufcd every meafure to render him* 
felf popular v/it!i tliC nation, and to appeafe the rifing ill humor of their repre. 
fentativcs. He had voluntarily ofl'isrcd to the parliament to circumteribe his own 
prerogative, and to abrogate his power of granting all moropolies ior ihe future. 
lie nosv recalled all the patents of that kind, and rcdreiTed every article of grie- 
vance, to the number ot thirty- (even, which had ever b.en complained of in the 
houfe of commons. But he gained not the end, wdiich he propofed. The dif- 
gufl, vvhich had appeared at parting, could not fo fuddmiy be dijpel.'ed. He 
had likev/ife been fo imprudent ai to commit to prifon Sir Kdvvin Sandys, and Mr, 
Seiden, witliout any known caufe, befides their activity and visiour. iji difcharo-- 
ing their duty as members or parliament. And above all, tlie tranfactions in 
Germany were f.fiicient, when joined to the King's cautions, negotiarioiis, and 
delays, to inflame thatjealouly of honour and religion, vdiic!"! prevailed thi'oegh- 
out the nation. I'his lummer, tiie ban of the empire was pu'duhcd agai;.!! the 
Elector Palaiine ; and the execution of it vas committed to ti:e Duke cf ijavj. 
ria. Idle upp.r Paiatinate wa?, in a little time, conquered by that prince, and 
meafures were taking in the em[)irc for b^dlowing on iiim ti^e e'eeiorai (hgei'y, of 
which tlie Ikdatine was defpoiled. Frederic now lived with his numerous fami- 
ly, in poverty and dJltrels, either in Holland, or at Sedan with his uncle tlie 
Duke of Boiiiilon. And throughout ail the new conqueils, iii bctii tiie Pa- 
latinate:; as weil as in Bohemia, At'linda, Kuhitia ; the ; regr-l'. cl; v:,c /'udkian 
arms was dillinguiihed by rigours and I'jVcriLie-, exerciLd ag:,;nit the M' eiedbr^ 
cF ilie reformed religion. 

Ti.E zeal of the commons imnTedkitely moved then], nn-n iheii- -'';mb'ingj 

*'''''' ''''^' to tale^ ail t'vie tranlaetions into confderation. They l.enned a re;o jeiiranccj 

Viidcii tiiey intended to carry to the King, 'i'hey lepreienc.dj ,;:. ii.e enor- 

;r'.ce'; 



I A M E S I. 



ov:': ( r i!. 



vM 



' 1 



: .. [;. i'.u:'i;;c, a:.; ;m.....:,:;:i i: I^; :.j;vc (t ar;r..; 

1, . ; i.c M'ai 1 '.i:'jC ()t I.> l^a : i.r '.- :" .i ;i ; ;"o:-m.i::: ; ,' 



,1.' 



: ) I , c 



A . , ; . , ; 



:;! t,.:, .i^ .: t; li.-, t..i' i.'' '.;..! .'ii^s aLia; .\i ..C u.^v.' ..!j l,:,- \\.. \ ;. 
xi.r- di ^i;. )'. cr.wiii i^r i 1,1-; f. :..:! u.-, a::.; : .^i..-: n"f,i;..r; :-, !.\= ! .':'. 
R,.:;,.,h i\ a^,i-a, a:i . hi^ ..::.:Li::r :.:. Lj C.c ^^yl.^.a a^ : , , 
j ri ail:.! iiiaiiXi !.. !i av.^.ry a /. .:,.La_ ji. l-.,: v. a..t n:^;.L u; 
t!Ki;- 1'.. :"i: :i i;v.-.;iiaa (;l !as i:\ :-\ ,.i\\ c, aa.i [aea- ; :\U' l!! :^:, a .. 
a.Aa:^', lc ^'aw: la aaa','a;, i a ia,!i ::. a^La aaa~, a- 'arl i. -.a r 1 ..-a 
to 1- l.a^-'- 1 .'^ 'v : ^ 'a- aaia ^: -a at aa i ti a , a .a > ; v.. *'':.:- 
a: ta.iL t; : . .' a.a ai: : : \ 

: ,' (.. L .a a- , . . : . , , . ' . > ' . " 



ri. 



78 n I S T O Pv y OF G Pv E A T B P. I T A I N. 

This Tiolenl lct.:er, in which th" King, tha' he here imitated former pre- 
ceduv.s oi Elizabedi, may be Lhouj:ht not to have afted altogether on the de- 
fenfive, had the e'Tcci:, which migrit naturally have been expefted from it: The 
commons were erJlarned, not terriiicd. Conicious of their own popularity, and 
oF t!ie bent of the nation towards a v/ar with tlie catliolics abroad, and the pcr- 
frcurion of popery at liome, th/y httle dreaded the menaces of a prince, who 
v.'as unfLipporred by mihtary force, and whofe gentle temper would, of \ik\^^ fo 
foon dilarm his feverity. I'l a new rcmonftrance, therefore, they flill inHfced 
0:1 their former rcnionhrance and advice ; and they maintained, tho' in refped- 
ful terms, that they were inticled to interpofe Vvith their councii in all matters of 
p:ovcrnmeni: ; tiuit it was their antient and undoubted right, and an inheritance 
tiaidhiitted to them fioiia th-ir ancellors to pofil'fs intire [reedom of fpeech in 
trieir debates of public bufinefs ; and that, if any member abufed this liberty, it 
belonged to the houfe alone, who vvcre v/itneffes of his offence, 10 inflicl a pro- 
per ceni'ire upon 1dm. 

S o viperous an anfwer was no way calculated to appeafe the King. 'Tis faid, 
when tl)e approach of the committee, vd:o v/ere to prefent it, was notified to 
1dm, he ordered tv/elve chairs to be brought : For that there were fo many kings 
a conVmf.^ His anfwer was ipromot and fharp. He told the houfe, that their 
repnonfhance was more like a denunciation of v/ar than an addrefs of dutiful fub- 
jec;s \ tliat tlieir pretenfion to inquire into ail ftate-ah^airs, vdthout exception, 
was llich a plenipotcnce as none of their anceftors, even during the reign of the 
wcakefi: princes, ha;l ever pretended to , that public tranfactions depended on a 
complication of views and intelligence, vdih which they were intirely unacquaint- 
ed ; that they could not befer fhow their wikiom, as well as duty, than by keep- 
ing within tiicir proper ' uditre ; and that in any bunnels, which depended on his 
pr;-r';ga'ive, tiiey liad no title to interpofe with their advice, except when he was 
pleak'i to dvfic it. And he concluded with thete mcntorabie words; And tho'' 
zvc ca':}':t cUt,\:) cf your JlUc^ in '};:cn!:':Gi:in^ yciir anthnt and undcublcd right: and inhc- 
vi:ancc^ Inl 'v: mid rail cr hii^-sc "sijhjd, :l::l y: bed fcid^ thet yyir p-i-::d:gcj ivcrc de- 

io"s and ns 'for the n'Cjff of ilcui y-yrcvj 

7 



cyrr., ^,:d yjrndd::icf 



I 



as t -//'( 



an in'.'crila) 


2C^: 




'. contain yoh 




i-jes '. 


I prycr-vc ; 






-, cs /; tr: 


' Ci 


'-jc C-: 



'hin f::r ynn/s 

J 



] A ^: ! s I. 



79 



Thi-. o "n p'C'crui' :i o: ti.c Kli.^ 



.r.,T\ v;. 



of cu:"i^:r-:.i. 'i'li' y 1 :\. :li- :r t;:'c i ) c\-v;-y p.i . il;- 

conil.icrc-', a*: L;il\ ;: very pr. t .in'/.o. h i:i; '.t 

l..kl .i;r.:.i.:y a'^:!".-.! it. 'I'.icv tlioi-;',!: ;^:- ;^ :, i . 

rrc:cni;::a c J J ; . : iii;<.'n 'I'Ikv tiM:r u >i i ro: '.. 

1 .- 



1^ :; v.;l'i :]\ : 



:uv lu::.: .ni oi i, . ;h .i. ,.; 



.: a,Ar:n to r., h'~'... 
. by :.!-.:-. -..! r!: 

l-,i:..r,:y t , < ;>; 



an ' c ,u;;cil. An.l ti.cv ..:Kr:' J, V 









. . i '<, I. '... 



Tiii: Kin;-, ii~if(;:';njvl cf t'..:ij iii'/rcaf'nf^ h .u^ .i: 



ti : 'I'oun. s ;:. i \z hoi.." 



i \: to town. lie W.:.Z \-:MiV:Cv.rx\\- '.nv th.- ;o:!i-::.il-b(jj!; c^l :'.: (\.::.:-;i 
.nd, \vi['i i'.i: ()'.v:i iui.d, !;! ^r,* t'-v C'':.uc:', ii;: to:\- m.: I'.v.^ p,(/:i.-!! "i n ; 



,, 1 






c.':\r,rcJ h''; ;c.i;'j:.s to b,- ii'.irrrc,; m rii? ccj',;:^.; ^ 
lA', he laid, WKii t!:;' p:;)t:ll.K;on oi t;i. Kj-.wt lij^'e ; on ;utik.:;: c! :!;" n:.:n- 
ivT >.i Ir^mirg it, ai v.-ii .> ( i :';e :r:\'tL'-, wi...!; ;: c;.,: :, /:;,.!. I: w.:-^ n.-:, .,!:;;- 
oullv y ^v.b a- .1 bvc '. :.;, a;.v! :'^ :i t!;iM iv/.le ; a:..! :' v. ..> lx; r :.! :;, l...;; -. 
iier.ii .\:,C\ a!:i'):_U' l,> :cr , s, a., iiv^ht I, rw- lor a io;;;.An'.):i t''; ti.e .lu ;!. ; '..^:\rxj^.^ 
('ai:i>, a;,; t > i.i-j ;:;c;l uiuv.tia-aiu.Aic ulurj a:i i-,-; uy;,ii h;> [.:.r> :: i:i',\'. 

'i';' i: :-!:e!.:'n_ ot rh Aioulc :;,; A: h-i'/c [ ro\-cd clanj,; roi..- af:cr ;.> vi' A :;r a b;-^a; b. 
Ti V.-.1, no io'^gcr 1 oHii^lc, u ;,bc w^^w \\c\c i . Ii.;Ai a t.!K|v;\, tc '?a:\'\\ .i::v h'.S:..i': 
i be Ki.'^, tii-iei .:'L', p;- .(."(^ [':.-:A tiie ['ariuinv, i^r, a,ui loiii a::.r cliib !;_;' ;i iv.- j -u- 
cbiniation j vb.ere l.c .b:o ;::abe a;i apjij^y lo tiie [i.i be iti A; o v. bAe co:;. ;... 

'ill.. 



8o II I S T O R Y o F G R E AT B R I T A I N. 



lLi2] . 



Tiie leading membtTs of the houfe, 5?ir Edward G;kc and Sir Robert PriiHp^, 
\w vv commitrcd to []\c Tov/er : ScUien, Pym, and Mallory to other prifc)ns. As 
a l!j.d-!rer runiihineiii, Sir Diid;.-'/ Digues, Sir Thoma', Crew, Sir Nathaniel 
]vi(h. Sir ]:S:)i:- rcrrot. io!!:;d \[\ comnuilion wii'i ot'iijrs, were lent to Ireland, in 
order to i:x^ cute il;m? [)j'l:i'Js. The Kinf, at tl^at tiir-e, enjoyed, at Icafl; excr- 
ciled, t;:" I'rrrooative oi' ernidoviiir:?; anv man, even wiLhciit his conienr, in any 
branch of piibiie Icrxiee. 

Sir Jc;hn Savilie, a noweri'ul niaPi in the lioufe of commons, and a zealous 
oi^pone.-t oF the cotnt, was mad : comptroller of tiie hoj(ho!c', a privy counfellor, 
and foon aiter, a barcn. l"h;s event is memorable; as bein.o- the firfl: inllance, 
perliap', in tiie whole Infiory of England, of any iving's advancin^^ a man, on 
accouiit of [jarliau'entary intcrell", and or oppontion to Ids nieaAires. However 
irr guiar thii pra;:"iicc, it will be regard- d by [^olitleai reaK)ners, as one of the moll: 
early aiui n-:o(l infallible lymptoms of a regular edablilhui hberty. 

I'm; King having thus, v^dth fa rafii and indiicrcet a hand, torn off that ih- 
cred \-Lil, which hitherto covered the E'-glidi conffirution, and v/hicli threw an 
obfcurity upon it, fo advantageous to royal prerogativ'e ; every man began to in- 
didge himielf in political rcaionings and inquiiies ; and the iame faction, which 
commenced in paniament, were pro[~agated throughout the nat on. In va'n, did 
James, by rcdterated proeiamaLions toibid tlie dil^eurnng of Hate afiairs. 
Suc'i [-]-.) lamarions, ii' tiicy had aiiy cheer, 'i. rved rathLr to inflame the curiontv 
of ti^e public. And in every circle or ioeiervj the late tranUictions became the 
f^u:^iect of argument and debate. 

All hiilory, (i\}0. the partizans of t'^c court, as well as the hiOiory of England, 
jui^hy the King's pcmtion wltii regard to tne ot'gin of popular privil ges ; and 
tvi ry reaf:juabie man mint allow, that, as monarchy is the moil limple form of go- 
v.rnnau.t, it inufl: hifl: have occurred to rude and UiiudruEed maiU<ii-:d, I'he 
c.t';":' cc;:njdie.it:_d au,! artiuclal additions were th lLicec:lu\ e invention ot ibvereims 
^:^.^ irgidators j or, li they w.re ob:rU'.led on tlie prince by (editious kd^j els, tiKir 
origui mtiil a[)|}v;ar, on tiiat account, llili more j-)rccarious and unhivour..b!e. in 
]'i;;g'aud, the auriiori'v of the Kiag, in all th,: exterior h;rms o!^ gu'.-ernn-:ei,t ai'd 
in I'le common Uy ;e (U law, aj^pe. I's tot.dly abio'ute and fjvereigu : ncu- -foes the 



re.d iVirit oi tlie cunh;:utK;n, as it lias ever (ul o^ureu itleji \i\ ;)rae..e;u i a 
l]:;ot e! t!u ie aopeara'iees. 'i'i;e levdiam.n: is created Iw his wiii : [/ hi 



uuca 



e./ in, ,. h; !C 
>\v-\\. .. ;s ,ij. ,-. .ii ,.. -jc, rhu' at ti;,- chile oi' bu'di iunU:s, wi i.h gives 



u 



J o an iou 



n; ijeu y 01 tee m ;ua:-en ;een-.s lo 
Li, who has expohd hinleir to 

rove! 



J A M L 



I. 



loyai inCi^nation, can prcj-c;:^ to iiv.' v.;:.i i.;:.:y .:\ :.;c \:i::y^:oiu :, i.^.r can he *- T- 
c \Mi i -.ivc i:, a.i:(>ic:;:i 4 Iv. '.iw, w IiI.ol;: iiiu < > ... ..i i-; :.i. i,:.i:icr. li :i nj.;L;i- 
TiM:.', i .\',r :-;.j.; v. ; . y .wcr an i l^.!.;:.' ;, 1;.o..a! i.;. ;..l.i' i.:^ .;u::iunty a-^ 

ia.i\.l, .;:k! r.'j^uiS: '.. . . .is i;u- :n:u:;:ud t,. ,...i'.\:;, ii : : /,_l^n:;t :i> n-ay hc.ir a 

^:rv i.ivo::r..!'l: (i.^. : .). V-Jr, a!! j a ;::.^ I.: iii :.; /^: :. .::..'. j lonb IiuLi<.is, \'-c 

n.cJ !.(>: b- h. .:;.; , r^a: l.^ Kinv llr.ir.._..:r, v. : . ;.c.l ! y M:n.,., 

:>L.n-.i, an.: th/ i.;:: lc!.: r -cJ :c^^;.l..:u..= c: ..n:n]n;:y, in ...l': n.v/, in :!icL rul- 
Icis .mJ inv;..:n:r.v tiniici, Ic en:; "cyLvi by tiv Knn; ; 1 l':;^\i. o. S^.I^lvi'- arc n^: 
rancc! .i^lj.j lii.i: qu.n::y, i!. ." n.^.n^ bni ni innb.nn. nr. 'i i,c i.nnc Inunl b- rc- 
)]..: an.l dricrtn^c i> iV:'.: n..^ :u c'l^n- ; :n.,"c. 'i'iij' u- inJulyci v.\ ni :n t'lv. :ivi- 
L.;v^ (.jflayin,; bc:ci\' bini i!;cir .n^n^.;!;' ^ ricvnncj.^, v.iL!i v.ln.'i b.^y a:c rnj)[-o:<.J 
to l:c ^'cll acqmbnicb, iln; u-arran:^ njc mJr boib !nirn'b;n iiiLo i.uh [nu\ni.-c ,.i 
;;,,o\-ernrncj,t. Am;, :j c\'jry iiAi^io^.s L>:annn.r, b n:nil a^ jvas', ' 'in..: i. j 
' lines oi bnty arc .;s nv...!i ir..n;j_,iebL-b by a n;o:\' inbcpuki.nt an.: !..^ ;el|.! .l- 
'* kil cx^ru!^ u. a^bn^';,n.bij,i.^' ^^uwcr^, as by tbc ulnrpaiiuu ol Uicli ^s aiv n.w 
'^ a.-.J uiui!ua!." 

Tii.. luvc:s orbb.rry, tbrnujiiout tix nation, realbncd afccr a vc;v Jii;b:\-nr nnm- 
ner. ' lis in ^a:n, laib bxy, tlnit tbe Kiny; trac'. s up the bagli.li f!o\ c; nn: ;iir to b:> 
liril ori:::n, in o'b.ir to rcn.-clent tiic pri\n!(.-n;cs ca parnanicnt a^ J.-j-; nc:ci,t .in',1 p:.- 
c.irioi.s : 1 i".c [)rc!cription and piMJticc cit lo manv ayes n',u!l, loii:^ vw this [inns 
liaw given a lariCt:un to tniclc albt-mbiics, c\'cn tiic/ tliey b.id b cii c;c:n\-.\! lioi-n 
an cnnt^in n(>t n";o:n' tiignineb, tlian tliat ul.ich he allbnis rh.nn. 1: t ,c wriLL^n ro- 
C'nxih oi tliC b,nj.!i:b n,.biyn, a:, alilrtcd, reprdcnr | ... ii.ini! n: to haw a;nnn 'loni 
llie C(jnlVnL c)i n.o: arciis ^ t;;c piincipb-s c;t lunr.n; natm" , vb-^n v,;- rra.v:. \e:.n 
n^cni a ben biniicr, nmb llvjw lis^ th .t ir ':a;-cln. tin nvl Iws owe ab tinir.n.t! ')- 
: .:y to tile \nbnnt.:ry In'mbinon of the p.un . bn:, jn laci, i ) .n;- '.-.ni '' b: ,.i], 
\-.'-.'::) the b'.n^^iiln :_ov^;-:in;ent was ..ito;,:. nn .' n, annbA.v! i:': ::}' / : \\ _: : ,^ 
^ o. t:.!j nainm haw, at anv p.i;n;nL. . ' . ! 

'. u ': . n:n lorcc or bon'rlfi ' n ";:, 

. : bnb in tin- bvi,-, , ;, ' nn-, .nn' in r"n- : --^ ( ' 



82 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. IV. fords little occafion, or no occafion, of complaint. However moderate the exer- 

^^^** cife of his prerogative, however exaft his obfervance of the laws and conftitution 5 

" If he founds his authority on arbitrary and dangerous principles, 'tis requifite 

** to watch him with equal care, and tooppofe him with equal vigour, as if he had 

" indulged himfelf in all the excefTes of cruelty and tyranny." 

Amidst all thefe difputes, the wife and moderate in the nation endeavoured to 
preferve, as much aspofTibie, an equitable neutrality between the oppofite parties , 
and the more they refleded on the courfe of public affairs, the greater difficulty they 
found of fixing juft fentiments with regard to them. On the one hand, they re- 
garded the very rife of oppofite parties as a happy prognoftic of the eftablifhment: 
of liberty ; nor could they ever expe6l to enjoy, in a mixed government, fo inva- 
luable a bleffing, without fuffering that inconvenience, which, in fuch govern- 
ments, has ever attended it. But, when they confidered, on the other hand, the 
neceffary aims and purfuits of both parties, they were Itruck with apprehenfion of 
the confequences, and could difcover no feafible plan of accommodation between 
them. From long pradice, the crown was now pofTelTed of fo exorbitant a pre- 
rogative, that it was not fufficient for liberty to remain on the defenfive, or endea- 
vour to fecure the little ground, which was left her : It was become requifite to 
carry on an offenfive war, and to circumfcribe, within more narrow, as well as more 
exadl bounds, the authority of the fovereign. Upon fuch provocation, it could 
not but happen, that the prince, however juft and moderate, would endeavour to 
reprefs his opponents ; and, as he flood upon the very brink of arbitrary power, 
it was to be feared, that he would, haftily and unknowingly, pafs thofe limits, 
which were not precifely marked by the conftitution. The turbulent government 
of England, ever fluftuating between privilege and prerogative, would afford a va- 
riety of precedents, which might be pleaded on both fides. In fuch delicate quef- 
tions, the people muft be divided : The arms of the ftate were ftill in their hands : 
A civil war muft enfue; a civil war, where no party or both parties would juftly 
bear the blame, and where the good and virtuous would fcarce know what vows to 
form, were it not that liberty, fo neceffary to the perfedion of human fociety, 
would be fufficient to byafs their affedions towards the fide of its defenders. 



CHAP. 



.itl')- 



J A xM E S I. ?} 



CHAP. V. 

Nrgot'uiticus ivith regard to the marriage and the VdJa^lnate. Cl\ira:hr 

of Buckingham. Prince's journey to Spain. Marriage treaty 

hrokoi. A parliament. Return of Briilo!. Rupture liith 

Spain. Treaty li'ith France. Mansfeldf s expedition.. Death 

of the King. His chara^er. 

TO wrcft the Palatinate from the hands of the Emperor and the Duke of Bi- 
varia, muft always have been regarded as a very dilHciilt tafk for tlie power of 
V.ngland, conduced by fuch an unwarlike prince as James : It was plainly miponi- 
blc, while the breach continued between him and the commons. liic King's ne- N-.-, 
"otiations, therefore, had thev been manaizcd with ever fo "reat dcxtcritv, niull now'":'"'' '^'-''' 
carry lefs weight with them , and it was eafy to elude all his applications. Whennni t;ic \'x\.\- 
Lord Digby, his ambalTiidor to the Emperor, had dcfircd a ccfiation of hollili- ^''''^ 
tics, he was remitted to tlie Duke of Bavaria, who commanded the Auflrian ar- 
ir.ics. The Duke of Bavaria told him, that it was entirely luperiluous to form 
any treaty for that purpo!'c. IhjV-.lities arc already ,:eafed., faid lie ; aud I dcub: not 
but I Jlsall be able to prrecnt tlclr revreal., by keeping firm f'djefif-i^r.cfih-: Palatinate^ 
t'.il a final (i;:^rc:iiicnt jhall he concluded bctivcen the contc-ullng part:es. Notwithfland- 
ing this infulr, James endeavoured to rellim.- with thcEmpiror a treaty of accom- 
mod.atioii ; and he opened t!ie negotiations at IjiulTeLs, under the mediation of the 
Archduke Al'.XMt, and, alter his death, wliieh li ;ppened about this time, under 
l\\?x ot t'\e Ip.lanta : When the conicrences v,\ r.- entered upon, it was Joun.d, 
t'la: t'-.e j^'.wers ol thefe princes to deteririr.e in the controvcrly, weic not fuili- 
c ,::.:: r^ r lat: f uu.ry. Seluv.u'C/.enbourij;, the im, erial miniller, was expected at 
1 .o.'idon ; .'.nt; it v,\i- hoj ci!, that he would idling more ample authority : I lis conv 
rvju'lloij re: iTed entirely to rlie neg(j[iatio;i ar BrulVels. It was not difHcuk lor 
th'.' Kir.g to perceive, lii.ic iii^ app!;i\..:;(;i!s v.-ere {un-po'ely eluded by tlie Empe- 
lor-, bi.it as he \\m\ no elioiee- wl ..ny o:'l,er exj.edient, and it herried tlie iiUerJi 
oi his Ion- iii-hiw to ke.-}) alive In-^ | r* L. nf.on^, he was llili Lonterit d [o to'Jow 
l-cr.inaiid tiiT'/ all his flii!'- an! cvMiiuns. Nur w:is lie cnLnelN- (.lilcour.'.ged, 
ee',n when i':.e mv e.i.d di'.: .u. I\.i'iil (jn, by t!:c indu r.ee, 'c>v rather anthoi ;:y or 
t'..e har.pc'.or, liiu* e^^r.trary lo '.'..e- ivo'.'.'.aion oi >.:\ij: y and all th.e relormed, 

M .' ' ;..it 



84 HISTORY ox^ G R E A T B R I T A I N. 

Chap. V. had transfefrcd the eieclora] dignity from the Palatine to the Duke of Ba- 

ibzz. 

vana. 

ivIr.AN vvhiie, the efforts made by Frederic for the recovery of his dominions 
were- vigorous. 1 hree armies were levied in Germany by his authority, under 
three commanders, Duke Chriftian ofBrunfvvick, the Prince of Badcn-Dourlach, 
and Count Mansieldt. The tv/o former generals were defeated by Count Tilly and 
the Imperialitb : The third, tho' much inferior in force to his enemies, ftill 
maintained the war ; but v/ich no great fuppHes of money either from the Palatine 
or the King of England. It was chiefly by pillage and free quarters in the Pa- 
latinate, that he fubfiftcd his army. As the Aufrrians were regularly paid, they 
were kept in more exad difcipiine -, and James became juflly apprehenfive, lefl 
fo unequal a conteft, befides ravaging the Palatine's hereditary dominions, Vv^ould 
end in the total alienation of the people from their antient fovereign, by whom 
they were plundered, and in an attachment to their new mafters, by whom they 
Vv'ere prottfted. Pie therefore wifely perfuaded his fon in-law to difarm, under 
colour of duty and fubmiffion to the Emperor: And accordingly, Mansfeldt was 
difmijTed from the Palatine's fervice ; and that famous general withdrew his army 
into the Low Countries, and there received a commiflion from the ftates of the 
United Provinces, 

To fncw how little account v.-as made of James's negotiations abroad, there is a 
pleafantry v.'hich is mentioned by all hiftorians, and which, for that reafon, fhali 
have place here. Pi a farce, adted at BrufTels, a courier v.'as introduced carrying 
the doleful news, that the Palatinate would foon be wrefted from the houfe of Au- 
ftria , fo po'.verful v;ere the fuccour?., Vvhich, from all quarters, were haflening to 
the relief (.1 rlie d-jfijoil d Eiecto,- : 'Plie King of Denmark had agreed to contribute 
to his afriltance a hundred thoul^nd pickled herrings, the Dutch a hundred thou- 
fand butter- boxes, and tlie K'lr.-x of i'jii:dand a hundred thoufand ambaffulois. On 
ctiier occafions, he v/as painted v/ith a fc:abbard, but without a fword ; or with a 
fworJ, v/Iiiih no Lo !y could draw, tho' feveral were pulling at it. 

Pr was not from his negotiations v/ith tlie Thnpcror or the Duke of Bavaria, that 
James expiccled any fuceefs in his prober of reftoring the P'alatine : IPs eyes 
were entirely turned to'.varcis .Spain ; arid if lie could efTecluate his foil's marriage 
v;itii the Infanta, he doubted not, aher fo intiiiiate a conjondtion, but that this 
oth.er po/uit could eafdy he obtained. The negotiations of that court being natu- 
rally ddaiory, it was not t \{v 'or a ;;i"in^'e oi' lo little penetration in bufincis, to 
diniiiguiil) wiitrher t'le dlfiicuki s, wiiich oc^airred, were real or ell^cled ; and 
he was h.rprizcd, alt r ne':;ot:aiing five y.^ars an ib fimple a drmand, th it he 
was not n^o;e a.^vaneed il.an at L!:e jegn:!';..g. Toe d.iponlaiion of Rome was 

requifite 



JAM ]: ; I. 



^ :> 



:. .:..: 1 \. ;l.i a : 



icqMUCc lor l..t rr; in ,.i::c o! i;; 

iLCuio ol IX t..;\: :;;:; .;;: j :.M;i.,r.*, (;r i ! ; i v. .t . ' ... : 

CI C'_/"Ci-.i!iw^-; c:.i;:e._, 1;;^ ..rii;:..'^ iro:.i t!..- i' :.;': o: i .. ..'.-..J,. 

Is c.vcvr 'O rcn:ovc a 1 o!:-:! .cic^ J.i!nc> Ti p.i:.!.v : h;.;'^,', ;". ,,. ... ;i i v..;: .N 
nrcd K.-rlo. ih'iilol, as ;::s anrviirulo.- :> Vl.Y.i^) W . \. lu; ^. ..i ia:c!y :".:.. ccJ::. 
t'arlu r iiuh^ c rowii uf Spain. ! I Iccr.-:;}' cnn'-'y^d Cia_:c a.- i.^ a_: w: ..: ]' o.:.- ; 
iMivi'n"; i;:at t'lj v'incrcncc o; vc'a'/-.'.\\ v. m tiu' pri:u";[)al, i: r.-.Z \u'.^ :.:<]]-.' : 
''z:.yK\^d :hc rrarri.i^", he I'dob/cti to iu!:_n tLat (,^;!.-. il(y:i a^ nv..v ii .. 
1 K ill"ii;'(! piK^lic ()i\;.-/s tor c!:lv-aar.;;.-^; ali ; p ;h r-Jiiian's, v.ho\'. -:; ;;i;^ .. 
.::-! it was daily apprchciul.xl, t::,;: '.? ihoiuu i.ro tl, lor t'lj ti;! 
t;ie penal laws cnaccecl at';a!:iil: t'u in. I or t!;:s \\ \\ i'o opp .i 
ot his krivcts i-C to :k ; arj to .;po!o-i/e ; a\\\] \\ c/cn ;.n.l.- 
10 hi"; grca: z 'al !<a- t':.- ;\ lorn^-d r^i\ion. i ic !; : ! l\i:\ n 
Ik' laid, to .lii fort'i;!;!! p inC'. .s ior l(;ir.j ii,d;:'^x ;.< ; to i'.:.' t! 
anel he was llill anlwci.d :^v (-1 ijCLi' ins d!.-ii',\d i.inn [!.j i.;- .i.V' . r:. i 
hnvs a[^ainil tathoiic^. And in.lc^d, it ndph: proS^'vy ovni:r 'o h:n:, td.:, ;. 
cxtrcnaty o; rcd;j;;uus /cai v. as ever to adat.- .ini..); ;, ida l!i; i ! i.n: 1 ^. , >- e i.; . 
mull begin; ar.d n.tlii.g w(Add h: nvn-c J. inonr.n Ic !l; 1 :nd,;nd, d.an to '. 
Ic.i the way in lenti!"!!, nts lo wi;e and n:o 'e.-aie. 

No J- onlv the red;dous puritans inmnrnrLd at d." U'!er,;dn =; ir. id, 
i lie ].,VfA'^ (d ci'.nl iibj-iy ".ere a!.irnn.vl .:* h) in-.[ rr:. .: a.\ v 
io;:a:ive. Idjt an'o: .; orlxa' ^ia: g roi.s :,rL:Ld oN., d. ,.,'. 
V, re, at that tini , ptdl" fie : (;! rli diip.-n' : , 

na.ii: ; i a d( e of xcieii.n''; it. 1j Jnds, t! o' i.. n , .d ; . . 
v.as t!icn ^ ;: d.'nint, tl:e prince n dnrin^; 'or:.' ' : 

ndi;a:ion oj cat'ejii.o a, a ri"i..iln:c em.. .:: ; n 



nr , : : ; v 
::e to li.e 



11 ^n _; , 
; n ...., I 



86 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Cli;ip. V. gratulate the King on the entire completion of all his views and projefts. A 
'''"" daughter of Spain, whom he reprefents as extremely accomplifhed, would foon, he 
faid, arrive in England, and bring with her an immenfe fortune of two millions*, 
a ium four times greater than Spain had ever before given with any princefs. But 
what was of more importance to the King's honour and happinefs, Briftol confi-* 
dered this match as an infallible prognoftic of the Palatine's reftoration ; nor would 
rhiiip, lie thought, ever have bellowed his fifter and fo large a fortune, under the 
profpect of entering, next day, into a vi^ar with England. So exa6t was his intel- 
ligence, that the moil iecret councils of the Spaniards, he boafts, had never efcap- 
cd him , and he found that they had, all along, confidered the marriage of the In- 
fanta and the reititution of the Palatinate as meafures clofely connected, or altoge- 
tlier infeparablc. However little calculated James's charader to extort fo vail a 
conceflion ^ however improper the meafures which he had purfued for obtaining 
tiiat end ; the ambaOador could not withfiand the plain evidence of fads, by which 
Philip now demonftrated his fincerity. Perhaps too, like a wife man, he confider- 
ed, that reafons of (late, which are fuppofed folely to influence the councils of mo- 
narchs, are not always tiie motives which there predominate ; that the milder views 
ot gratitude, honour, friendfhip, generofity, are frequently able, among princes as 
well as private perfons, to counterballance thefe felhfli ccnfiderations j that the 
luftice and m,oderat4on of James had been {o confpicuous in all thefe tranfadtions, 
his reliance on Spain, his confidence in her friendfhip, that he had, at lafl, obtain- 
ed the cordial alliance of that nation, fo celebrated for honour and fidelity. Or 
if politics mud flill be fuppofed the ruling motive of all public meafures, the ma- 
riiime power of England was fo great, the Spanifh dominions fo divided, as might 
well induce the council of Philip to think, that a fincere friendfhip with the ma- 
ilers of the fea could not be purchafed by too many conceflions. And as James, 
during fo many years, had been allured and feduced by hopes and proteftations, his 
people enraged by delays and difappointmcnts ; it would probably occur, that there 
v;as now no medium left between the moft inveterate hatred and the moft inti- 
mate alliance betwixt the nations. Not to mention, that, as a new fpirit began 
about this time to animate the councils of Prance, the friendfhip of England be- 
came evtry day more neceflary to thegrcatnefs and fecurity ofthe Spanifh monarchy. 
All meafures being, therefore, agreed between the parties, nought was wantino- 
but the difpenfation from Rome, which might be confidered as a mere formality. 
The King, juftified by fuccefs, now exulted in his pacific councils, and boaflcd of 

his 

* It nppears b.y Cuckiiu'Tiam's nni riitivc, tLat tlicfc ;\von:il!ions were of pieces cf efoht, nnd )r,ade 
'-oo,-.;oy oouiid^ -[ci']lr^ : A \cry nrcat fjtn, and alinoil ecnial to all the fums whicii tiie parliameiu, 
.i.TiiiL', the vvfiok t'.Mjric 'jf thi , it'i;,;',;, !,;ii hitLcj to hcilowtJ oi) the King. 



J A M ESI. 87 

his fuperior fai^acity and pcnetr.ition ; when all tlu-fc flattering prol'p els were hiafled ^"''^^- ^' 
by the temerity of a man, wh.oni lie had tondly exalted, from a private condition 
to be the banc oi hinilelf, ut h:s fair.ily, and of his people. 

Ever fince the iall of Somerfct, Buckingham had governed, wiTli an imcon- _ ^^-.^ 
troled Iway, both the court ar.d nation-, ajul could Janus'^ eves have been j '" '.'y^i' ' 
opened, he had now full opportunity of ob!ervii',g ho.v u:. fit his favourite \\. is 
for the high ftation to wh ch he was raifed. Some accomj^Iilhnuius of a courtier 
he polTefTed : Of every talent of a miniiler h.e was utterly devoid. I lea. 1 ).;' 
in his pafllons, and incapable equally of prudence a:id of didiniul-itior. : Sin; re 
Jfrom violence rather than candor ; Lxpcnfive from [)rolufion mor.- t'lan L;e:icr(j!i!:v : 
A warm friend, a furious enemv ; but v.itliout ay choice or difcernnient i;i ri- 
ther : With thefe Cjualities he had early and quickly mounted to the hiigh;.il ra:.'; , 
and partook at once of t!ic infolence which attends a fortune newly acquired, ai.,l 
the impetuofity which, bclor.gs to perfoni born in high flations, and unacciuaiiiLcd 
with oppofition. 

Among thofe, wlio had experienced the arrogance of this overgrown favoinice, 
the Prince of Wales himfelf had not been entirely fparcd , and a great cu'Jnjl-, r. 
not an enmity, had, for that reafon, taken place between tlicm. b^i^ kiilghan^ de- 
firous of an opportunity, which might conned: him with the Printe and ovcrcon.c 
his averfion, and at the fame time envious of the great credit acquired by Brilio! ).i 
the Spanifh negotiation, bethouglit himleif of an i xpeJnent, by whiuli li- might, a: 
once, gratify both thefe inclinations. 1 Ic reprelented to Charles i l-i* I'^rluns o: hi.i 
exalted flation were peculiarly unfortunate in th.eir irjaritagCj tlic ciiiet eiicum. 
(lance in life i and commonly received into tlieir arms a b.id.e, unk;-.o\\n to rlien], 
to whom they were unknown -, not endeared by lympathy, no: ob!i.:ed by Lr\-ices; 
wooed by treaties alone, by negoriatior.s, by p(ji:tica! intereiN : 'I'h.it how- 
ever accompli Hied the Infanta, (he nv.;!l ibil ccjididcr licr'.elf a.s a mvlar.tho'y 
vicftim of (late, and could not tuit think v, :th averiion of that day wlun !lie v. as to 
enter the bed of a llranger , and palling mlo a lorcigpi country and a new tan"ii!v, 
bid adieu for ever to her father's houfe a;.d to :.f r r.aiivc land : Ti. u ic w.i'^ in :;.-! 
Prince's power to loften ail tliele rigours, an;l lay luch an ohbg.uion o . ,'ier, .;- wouM 
attach the mofl indifierint tern: er, as would uarm t'-.e c Idcli :i\\\\:i(-'A^ : i iiat Iiis 
journey to iMadrid v.'ould be an uiiexpeded gailant^y, vdnc!! W(.i,!d et]i!al ail the 
fictioiv; of S[)aiiifh romance, and fuitn g ti.e aniorous a:,d cntc rpi i/n^.g c iiaracti. r oi 
th-ir n.u;()i., nniil imme.'.iately introduce b.im to tb.e Pi iirc.y uiuiu' t'-.e ai',r(.c.ib:e t:..'.- 
ra^ter o" ; otid lovcr ar.d daring advciUurer : j'iwit tiie negot;at:o;:b \siti, re/..: I 

4 to 






li 1 o 1 KJ i'v i i l> K ::. A i b iL i i r^ 1 x\* 



C' -n. '\'. to t'-e PaLtin;;lc, wliich h:A hiiheito 1 :nguiil:ied in the hands of miniilers, would 
^""'3' quickly b_ I- ::i;i::;i:^.i b;/ lu i:.iif;; ious an ngenr, feconded by the n:cdiarion and 
ii.::;-ib-s ol i!'.e grarciid In..u:ia : 1 hat tlie Spanilh generonty; moved by that 
i.;iC;,-:::7i; l:Mi\;ll ;.::d coniid:nrc, would iiinke conccfI:ons beyond v;hat could be 
e;<^;cc^.d Ji-,n: j;ohtical vi..\vs ;;nd connde;-:^ti';;'ns : And that he vvoidd quickly 
};::!), n to t';e ^koo; v/kh th? nlory oI Lavdnjj; rc-ePa' hiked the unhappy Palatioe, 
by i\\:i kro^' cnx^'prize, whkh piocurcd hio; i!:c aiibiLione .old the pcnbn of the 

7'ri;: n::!:d ofihe yoon;.!; Prince, reilete "v.iL:i candor, was inflamed by thefe 
r,;e:K-:-oi;s and romar.'ic ideas. 11q agreed to m ke application to the King ror his 
;-])prub.:lio;i. 'i ^ ey cbole the moment of his kindek and mofl: jovial humour; 
arid moi'C by tlic eariieftnek vvdkcii tiiey e>q:rciTed, than by tr.e force of their rea- 
iu;-., they obtained a haky and unguarded confent to their undertaking. And 
h.;\':::g cnra^^cd his j^romik to keep their purpoie iecret, they left him, in order 
to make p;'ai)arations for their lourney. 

No k-oner was the King alone, than his temper, more timorous than languine, 
fuggeked \'ery dirk rent vicv/s of the master, and I'eprcknted every diiHcuky and 
dangi;r wr.ich could occur. He reikctedj thai, however the world might pardon 
tills iail/ ol youth in the Prince, tliey would never forgive himfeif, who, at his 
ye;.r^, and aiicr his e;:perience, could entri.ft h:s only Ion, the h,dr of his crown, 
t;:e prop ol his age, to tiiC d;icrci:;;n ol toreigners, without k3 much as providinp' 
V.'.'j. ;ruk kcuriiy cd a laie conduct in hisiavour : That, if the Spani:h monarch was 
ii icere i;i hi. [>!of..nions, a fhvv mondis muil {kkili the treaty of marriage, and 
L'.i g the ki;.:nta iiUo Knglau 1 ; if he was not lincere, the folly w^as kill more 
ey,:egiou5 or comnktting the [ rince into his hands: 'kjiat Philip, when pollektd of 
i ^ 1!: valuable a pied^'c, nkgiit v.ed rik in his demands, and inipoie harder condi- 
i:. iis o{ treaty : kuvu f.atth. temerity of tlks enterpa-ize v/as fo apparent, that the 
.^.-1.:, h()".e cr prciperou?, CAiid never juftiiy it j :d\d if dilakrous, it would ren- 
der lkn;:ieh inkunous to kis jcoo.e, and rklicuJous to all t^'O'^eritv. 

'PoRMexTEo \:\:.h thek reikckons, ih kx)n as the Prince and Buckingham 
rturnvd k.r tbcir dilparrlv.?, he infurme ; them C/f all the reak^n < whicii Inid de- 
t ;;':;',;::id \i\rc\ to ( .: :nge ni;. reiw;u.ion ; and he begged them to dehit from io kjolkh 
..,; a..v._:::.. r.. k ne i/nnce rcce:Veo the ckappoititnient with iorrowkd kibnkmon 
;.!i.i ;;,;,: tears : P ^k-ngh mi pref.iixd to i^eak in an imperious tone, wPich he 
]\i,C e-.'e: v;:;oj;f^;.ced to be i;ic\\de;;t o^'er 'k.^ too eafy ni.iker. I k' tuld bim, that 
:iO bo 'y, ior tf e :o':uie, voAild bkitve any thing he laid, vd, en he r. traeted ib 
ioe.; t./: ;oT;n.if.-, U) fdoiuky gi',en ; tiiat he ikainiy bikero' d tie:; ^kaiep- of le- 
iO.i.ti'-O t' ] ;e.^. V. ,.. ./^en .0. ...i.vt b.'Lav li o; nia v/orb, ni eon" ro.e , eie;;^ k,e mat- 

u r 



J A M E S 



I. 



S9 



tcr to (o^^: r.iili!, v.-lio Imd fiirr/ifl^.;- 



. 1 



ir.ol; 



all;<2'cl, and he clou'^tc 



n'> 



but iic (!i ji.! ! \:.'\:.i' 



i;n.)w 






been -, and tliat: if !k- r.ccdc 1 from v,i-..it: be h.ui } i(j:i.i:cJ,, ir v,^..;d be lac','. .1 liiiv/:)- 
liLiation to the I'rin.e, ubo b.aci n>')v.' let h:s bieii t uj)o:i t:-c lourr.ey, alter iris i\Li- 
jclly's aj)j;rob.ui' n, that Ive could r.tver i'jv.y. it, nor lo;L^:ve any man who had 
been the caule ot it, 

Ti;.-: Kini; wir'i great carneRncb, ioi tifiedi b;. ir:.iny oatii' , ir,a''.e bi>> ap I .':'> , 
bv tlepy::'ij;, tb.a: he had commur.icated tbie ni..tter i.jdny nvi'i ; m..\ I'n-.iJin:^ lr:n- 
feit afiViied, as well by tlie boilleroub nnportLHiities (A lji:(d:i:.L;l.a:,-i, : V.y the \sa!:ii 
cpitrc uies or' ids fun, v, liole a[)pHcMtions had hitlKTCc-, o:i (/.iver (.ccaiiuri.s b.- ;i 
a'.wavi dutilLd, never earncll -, he h.id again the weabn l;. to ailei.t to t'p.e>:- \ i;:;)u:.d 
'.ijUiTiev. It was agreed, that Sir Francis Cwttini;:on aior.e, ti;e Piiiicebs ltcr.;:a:v 
;ind bdidyndon Porter, gentleiiian ot his bed-chani'ner, Ihould aeconij any t/.er.i , 
and the tornicr being at cliac time in the anti-chamber, iie was imn-.ediateiy tahed 
in by the King's order. 

JAMC-, told Cottington, that h.c had always been an liOnedc man, an 1 tlierf.':;;e 
h.' was now to trull him in an afia r oi tlie higlicd im[X)::a.;ce, wiuJi iie was ;ujr, 
ii{)on iiis lile, to dilclole to any nian wiiate\-er. " Cottington, avided lie, li^ie 
" ii babv Charles and Stenny" '^tbicle lidiculous appellations he lUlially gave to tlie. 
i'r; vje and Bwckineham' " v, lio h.ive a great mind to go poll iiuo >[)ain, and 1 tcii 
" home the Inianta: 'Ihcy v.iil liave but two niL^re m tluir comj-aay, a.nd h.a\'c 



' cholen vou tc/r one. What tinnk vou or the lournev 



Sir I ranciN, wh 



v.as a prudeiU man, ar.d h.ad. relided lonve y.ars in Spain a> the K::ig\s loz r.r^ v/as 
llruck with all the (obvious (jbieciions to !l:c;i an entei'pri/.e, an.di !cri;p!ed. r.. i :> 
ileclare them. 'I'i-.e l^mg threw inmfelt up^m his Ixd., aiul crv.d, /.'..'.'. /r :':s 
I cr-; and ted iiito ne^' p.^riioii and i;mentaiion, c-::-n:~i!a;nir.g t-.ai he wa.s undoPie, 
a:id Hiuuld iole I aby Cliarlvs. 

'I'ii.. Ihi.ue Ihwved by his C()':nt iiar.ce, tliat \\- " ^ ..^r-, ....,.', ,1; 
C'()'ting'()n\ d'lcC'in ! 

Ihni. l'i:e Kin :, he t.:!d l.'.iv., alhed i.mi un!v oI tne : ja:a,;'V .: 
cd tra\-e!li- g ; particulars, ot'wiuch he niiglu b. .i Cw:r\ \ : ' 
r^).id lo c)iL,nb\' p'j'l ; in;t that lie, wi:hout b.a.ig c.i.icd : 
ti '11 t'^ gi\ e lub a.;\'i^e upon n^att*,!--, oi iiate .Uid .igaiud .\\ 1. 
i > g as !,. ii'/^d. A t.i'Kilind cK.ier re: i'o:.'J:, 
.,:[() a n-'W agony on iviuih ul a Ic'vain. v. d 
..;. :.i;ii iioneidv. L.i[.,n w!;:l;i he 1 .;d v, ,'d . 



i-, exr.-em_:v (.nil.in-.i cl 
[)va: Ihici-vHig aim L-ax);^.e intn .ui o; en p;:'".oa 



t p I. 



"' 5 



/: .;;, . V 



N 



90 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chnp, V. mere, than I told you before he was called in. However, after all this pafilon on 

^ ^^' both fides, James renewed his conient -, and proper directions were given for the 

journey. Nor was he now at any lofs to difcover, that the whole intrigue was 

originally contrived by Buckingham, as well as purfued violeiitly by his fpirit 

and impetuofity. 

These circumftances, which fo well charaflerize the perfons, feem to have 
been related by Cottington to Lord Clarendon, from whom they are here tran- 
fcribed j and tho' minute, are not undefcrving of a place in hiftory. 

The Prince and Buckingham, Vv'ith their two attendants, and Sir Richard Gra- 
ham, mafter of horfe to Buckingham, paficd difguifed and undifcovered thro' 
France -, and they even ventured into a court-ball at Paris, where Charles faw the 
Princef? Henrietta, whom he afterwards efp'oufed, and who was, at that time, in the 
, ^,, , bloom of youth and beauty. In eleven days after their departure from London, 

7tU0f Alarch. , a,ti-i ^ r 111 nri- 

they arrived at Madrid ; and furprized every body by a Itep fo little ufual among 
great princes. The Spanifh monarch immediately paid Charles a vifit, expreffed 
the utmofl gratitude for the confidence repofed in him, and made warm protef- 
tations of a correfpondcnt confidence and friendfhip. By the moft ftudied civi- 
,^, . . lities, he Ihowed the refpeft, which he bore his royal p;uefl:. He gave him a ol- 

The Pi'.nce s . . j >-> o c 

journey to den key, which opened all his apartments, that the Prince might, without any 
Spam. introdudion, have accefs to him at all hours : He took the left hand of him on 

every occafion, except in the apartments affigncd to Charles ; for there, he faid, the 
Prince was at home : Charles was introduced into the palace with the fame pomp 
and ceremony v/hich attend the kings of Spain on their coronation : The council 
received public orders to obey him as the King himfelf : All the prifons of Spain 
were thrown open, and all the prifoners received their freedom, as if the eventj. 
the mofb honourable and moft fortunate, had happened to the monarchy : And 
every fumptuary law with regard to apparel was fufpended during his refidencein 
Spain. The Infanta, however, was only fhown to her lover in public ; the Spa- 
nifh ideas of decency being fo iliid:, as not to allow of any more intercourfe, till 
the arrival of the difpenfation. 

The point of honour was carried fo far by that generous people, that no at- 
tempt was maxle, on account ot the advantage, which they had acquired, of im- 
pofing any harder conditions of treaty : Their pious zeal only prompted them, on 
one occafion, to defire more concefhons in the religious articles i but, on the op- 
pofition of Briftol, accompanied with fomc reproaches, they immediately defifted. 
The Pope, however, hearing of the Prince's arrival in Madrid, tacked fome new 
claufcs to the dWpenfation ; and it became requifitc to tranfmit the articles to 
J oiidon, that the King might tliere ratify them. This treaty, which was made 

public, 



T A M r: s 



I. 



91 



pub'.ir, confiPicd of fcver.il iirriclcs, chi'..^, rc[:.\T^'.::[i ['.-.c cxcT^.ff of ti-.e caihohc ^' c- '^ 
religion by tlu* liit.int.i an.! lur larr.iiy. Notliiii;^ couLl iwiloiKibiy be toiind lavilc * ' "* 
with, cxc.M-Jt one ;i!C!cii', wIi'Ti,- tiic Iviri:: pron/nlc.l, tlr.-r I'v clui/aT, Ihoulci bv! 
educarcJi by t!;c rrincd , lili ten years ot aL',e. i liis eomii'ion couiJ not be ii'>- 
filletl on, but with a vi w ot iValjr. r;^ t'ivir ni:.'u;s with e.iiii'j! c prejudices v an.i 
iho* To tctuier .:n .ig;- Icenu-d h[tie lufvcj tii?;e y[ t!ie(.Kc\.i.\il c.n-ij, yet the I'ln^.e 
rcalun, v. In.h nuule tlie Pcjpe i.-lerc tii..c a tielc, flKj'.iid iiave iiiJ.ii^cd i'r.c K)n<^ 
t'j re J- 1 it. 



j1l-i:m s t!ie public treaty, tlicrc were feparate arti les pivar-'y hvorn to 



to !n: 



:)eii 11 iav>s e.: 



eai 



t;ic K ; :: , where he prcniil (. 
to proLiire a re{)eal oi t'.cni in pariianicn:, ..i:d to .^ra::: a tol(.r..::e;. :.;r tiie cxcr- 
cife ot the catholic reli[i,ion in j riw/tC liuu'.s, (j;eat irejrnuir , ue ir.ay bciicve, 
would have arilen againll rhele arLiele^, had ilv.y ben rn kL- i<.iio\\n to the [^vibiic i 
fince we lind it to have b.en iinputeii a-^ an e- orinous crime to the IMnce, [liat, 
havin;^ received, about this time, a very civil letter tiom tlie i'o^e, lie wa^ n> 
lluced to return a very civil aniwer *. 

IMe AN while Cjregory W. who granted the dilpmhuion, dieJ. ; and I'rb.m \'1II. 
was chofen in i.is place. Upon this event, the nuncio refuted to deiiv.r the ilil- 
penliition, [ill it (hould be ren'.wed by Lb ban; aiAl that crafty pontitl" delayed th.e 
leidin^ a new ditpenlation, in hopes, that, dminij; the Prince's refklence in S|)ain, 
it^me expedient miu,ht be f.illen ui on to op,era:c Ins converiion. 1 he K\r[T oi 
F, gland, as wtli as tlie Prince, became imp.iticnr. On the iirll" hint, Charles 
obtained pe million to returr. , a:.d Fi.i.ip grace^i his departure w it!i ail tine cir- 
cumlla.ces of elaborate civiliry and ret'pe r, wliich iiad a'ten^led h:> arrival, 1 le 
eve- er ct\\\ a pillar, on tlie Iput v.here th y fej aiau\!, as a mo:,urn>nt (A niuruai 
fneiid.'Pip : and the I'rince, h.aving lwv;i"n to ilie olilervame of a.l t;ie .n'iiclcs en- 
tiled on hi^ jeurney, a'ui em'eir!;eJ. en l^.oar.i I'.e i'n^ l:.!"i tleet at Sr. An.'c vo. 

Th;. character of Cliarics C(wr[^.l^ 1.I e-t ilvCei.cy, rei'/ive, nvHleih-, l" br;erv ^ 
virtiics lo teitable to the man^Ti'rs i>r the Spaniards ; t'le u-vparallele.! con iilenc, 
whiJi he had rpol-. J. i;i ti.e-.r ne.io:-, ; th.e rivr.antic g^allai.trv, wlr.eh he hid iTa- 
(ftiled towards their p.rip.icis ; ;i!l theie circumtl mces, i^eiced to In-; vou'di .\nA a- 
greeable ligui'e, IkkI en>iear.d Inm to the wiiole co.ii t (j: M.uiriJ, a:ul :-,,id iiriprelied 
the moll tavoui-.ible iviLM'^ o; Inm. Bur, in tive l.irr.e [iroporii ;n , tiuit tlie i'rince 
wa-, be!e\cd aed e:!een:ed, w as Hu; lxe-p!iam .\ ipit^d a:ui hate.!. J lis beiia\-i()nr, 
comj.cjled ot l-ngl;!h faniiilnity an'.i i ri'iich vi\'.\cirv , Ivis laiiic^ of paiiein, hi-. 1;:- 

.i!i.nvs, 1:'.-- arr(JL;ar,r, i!r.'.Kti;'c/.:s 



decent iiuedijms v.;th tlie Prince, ins d:libluce p 
tenv er, winch h.- nciti.er ccui-', r.ov cared to dilg'. 
mud ot t;i-m, be elleen:ed no wh.ere, butrotlK' '^: 

R.iil.v. I lei, \ ' ! I r 



rp:.ili:ies ni^e tii 
Js weic ti.e cb'! 



I. (.lU .cl, 

en pe- 



92 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. V. cLiliar averfion. They could not conceal their furprize, that fuch a youth 
^' could intrude into a negotiation, now condufted to a period, by lb accomplifl-ied 
a minifler as Briftol, and could afiume to himfelf all the merit of it. They la- 
mented the Infanta's fate, who muft be approached by a man, whofe ten-crity 
feemed to refped: no laws, divine or human. And when they obfcrved, that he 
had the imprudence to infult the Conde Duke of Olivarez, their prime minifler , 
every one, who was ambitious of paying court to the Spanifli, became defirous of 
fhowing a contempt for the Engiifh favourite. 

The Duke of Buckingham told Olivarez, that his own attachment to the Spa- 
nifn nation and to the King of Spain was extreme ; that he would contribute to 
every mcafure, Vy'hich would cement the fricnddiip between England and them -, 
and that his peculiar ambition would be to facilitate the Prince's marriage with the 
Infanta. But, he added, v. ith a fincerity, equally infolent and indifcreet, fi^ilb 
regard to you, Sir^ in particular^ you mujl not confJer me as your friend, hut mufl 
ever expe.^ from me all poffibk enmity and oppofdion. The Conde Duke replied, 
with a becoming dignity, that he very willingly accepted of what was prolerred 
him : And on thefe terms the favourircs parted. 

Buckingham, fenfible how odious he was become to the Spaniards, and 
dreading -the influence, which that nation would naturally acquire after the arrival 
of the Intanta, refolvcd to employ all his credit, in order to pi event the marriage. 
By what arguments he could engage the Prince to offer fuch an infult to the Spa- 
nilh nation, from whom he had met with fuch generous treatment ; by what co- 
lours he could difguife the ingratitude, and imprudence of fuch a meafure ; 
thefc are totally unknown to us. It only appears, that his impetuous and domi- 
neering charaftcr had acquired, v/hat it ever after maintained, a total afcendant 
over U\z gentle and modeft temper of Charles ; and, when the Prince left Ma- 
drid, he was firmly determined,, notwithftanding all his profeillons, to break off 
the treaty with Spain. 

It is not likely, that Buckingham p:'evai!ed fo eafily with James to abandon a 
project, wiiich, during fo many years, had been the object of all his wiuies, and 
which he had now unexpectedly conJu6ted to a happy period. A rupture witli 
Spam, the lofs of two millions, were profpefls little agreeable to this pacific and 
indiL^tnt monarch : Bat finding; his on'y fon bent ao;ainll a match, which had al- 
ways been oppofed by his jx-ople and his parliament, he yielded to difficulties, 
which he had nor courage nor ftreiifMn of mind iullicient to refill". T]]e Prince, 
therelor., and Euckinpjiam, on their arrival at London, alfumcd intirely the di- 
red'oa of thi; neg','i;ition j and it was tludr t'lHi-ich, to led; for pretences by 
wh'ci: they couki \u--:\: a rolcur to tiieir intended violation of treaty. 

.1 tio 



I A M E S I. 



9^ 



Th(/ ihc fcilicudo:; oi ihc l\iLir cic: \\x.\ rw.v iv^n c ..i..!:- a i v ja:nes ;is .: 
n.itural or i.cccfi'.iry co.ilcOjUjr.^'i- o: U:V . ; .:;.;; ,. :..ir..e, ;.-. !:,.J. .il.vays tuibid !i;s 
niinalcrs fjiiiiill on ic ..c a p;\;'in;::..i. > ait. J u^ C.^: (.(:\(\:.''a.:\ (>: ih^ :v.:.ri::i-'-- 
trcacv. lie C(K. .:.'..:. J, t>...: c!:ri[ ju:;k!. .il :\- u .. !.v>\ :;.nr;-'v in the l^.^.p/^isci ti.e 
1 .i-n|cror anu tlic i )ul<.'- o: Havfiri.i ; :\:a\ u\:\: ':: '.s.is i.o !;;n (! :n the Kin^^ o! >pai:.'i, 
powir, by a i"::_'/:- llrfkc 'A hi^ pen, to iclurc it to tlv.- :\-.i\t:'\t pr"pr:tto:-. 1 ;!(* 
flria a!I:an:'j ol ."^pain svith tlicll- }.: ii.l'l woiilci cni;aL!c i'l.ilip, lit- thou::,:it, o 
iblt'jn lO i'"a::rrca'nle a tlL'niaiul by cwvy art of n- "/)'; ition ; aiul .'"inr.v ar^: . : <;, n.i.v. , 
(;t n.^ciT.tv, be a.'i-.ll A., bcti^rc luc!! an importa:.: p.ji.-,: cuL.'..i ';x' clVc lua-.L^,, It 
was li.tficicnt, in James's opinion, il the Spania-J-.' iintciity c u/J, tor t'lvj \ ;.; :/., 
t^e arccriaincd ; an'.l, dreading farther delays of the ir.arri.ige, lo \:''M[ v.hh;..l ! , 
r.e was leluh-cd to tru^l :hc I'ahiiine's bull r.i"toration to th.e event or iL.t.ire vv.an- 
Liis and deliberations. 

This wliole ;y!l:em of politics, IV.ickinghani nov.' revcrT'di , and !'.e over:.:::> 
e.i everv fnppchcion, ti'xn v.iiic.h tne treaty iiad iiitl;erto been cor.dacce.;. ihn- 
llol received orhers w:.: t. deiiS'e:- tiie pr^'Xy, whicli liad been ;-!: In ins in...h^. :. r 
to hnidi tiie marria-e, thi tiic full i Jtittition (;i the Pahitniate. l*hhip nnder ',<; \ 
lih.-i b.nquaL^e. lie inv.l b.e!i acquainted, with tlie di:^uft received by Buekn^y.. ..; , 
:nui deen^iiiL^ h:.ni a man, capahle oi lac'-iricin^:^, to his own ungovern.able pa::: . 
t':-: L:rea:eit in:erefi.o oi ids mader ai^d ot !iis ce)u;.' rv, he f.ad expected, tliat the i..".- 
' ';. ':.<.]i:d cred.L ot tliat hivoinnte wouki be employed, to en,d)roil tlic twu nat; c.;. 
r'eternfn'.edi, hjOv,-c\-cr, to bnrow t!ie bian.ie or tlie ru-.'lure mtirely on tliC l:.:i;':;;'.])^ 
h. d:_ ivered ;n:.> }J^id^d^ h.n'i a \vri:te;i proniile, bv win.hi he bou:;vi hi:i:Ie . f' 
!-rocure 'J'\c rciloration of the i'aiatn'ie, eitlier by ["erlv.a.ht)n, or by evcrv c/d.er pol- " 
iin'e meatus- a:;d, ^^!lfn he found that that conccllion pave no li>ri>M^t :.-;:, I, (;r- 
dered tiiC Lnnmta to i;iv ali'Ch' tlie title ot Ihancelb ct \\.de>^, di\'\ [> vlrop. h.r i': ..viy 
(f d/.e bn^L^hlii kinL;^ui;v-n -'-''^ ' iliuiknj^^ lliat fu.:!) rafn iA>un. n-^ .i.-, r.i^w ^:.,\ c: ;.- 
'"d r'-',e court ot b>i '^'./.nJ v/ouid not d.op .it the bre.i^h (! tr..i:v, i;e orJ.ereJ. ; re- 
]-:r.io:.s lor \s ar ininiedhately to be m,.de tliroup,lioL:t ad hib d,ond;.ien>. 



.-. V. 



Id:;:, Janxs, havin:-, bv ;"ne.i:.s, ii;? xplica 



ble irom ad t!^ rui- ^ r \\ iirics, id: 



I '(-rrd 



, 1 ) ;:t ar .ui h'nioui"..bie e::d, the in.uri..;'^e cd hiis Ion .i:vd tiie rt 'd'lr.uion c-t 
, f^:id:i la'v, iaikdatiaii ol i\ .-. [kh'^ oie, by means (.qu..hy un.u\'.-u:.:ai. e. 
I'i i', d.'d tiic ! :c;. ,.::::,', .uie.idy uled by iJuv !^;nph.;m, v,e!\ l.udkiendy in- 
,:i(_'..', b jdi hyi' h::n:^ .: .i:id 1 ,r tlic nation ^ it v. a-- r i:un::e, ( i e lie c o^hd tnly 

i..- pu-. w! , to en^pi ;v arL:..c.s llni :i;ore lh.::^:e;ul A..d .;i;iioiiour.ib:c. 



.t.i ^-ra:;-, v. a. (jiMp^e.i tj ' o:.Cvrt new n'.eaiure^ \ a:\\ 
.', I. 'J eii'.-'.uai ivCp ijl a:".y i.in,. t.ou.i.i ^.c i....^ . 



94 



HISTORY OF GREAT B R I T A I Is'. 



Chap. V. The benevolence, which, during the interval, had been r'lgoroufly exacfted for tlie 
^^^"'' recovery of the Palatinate, tho' levied for fo popular an end, had procured the 

A parliam:nt.Ki(ig lefs money than ill-will from his fubjefts *. Whatever difcouragements, 
therefore, he might receive from his bad agreement with iormer parliaments, there 
was a neceffity of fummoning once more this afll-mbly ; and, it might be hoped, 
that the Spanifh alliance, which gave fuch umbrage, being abandoned, the com- 

loih of Feb. nions would now be better fatisfied with the King's adminillration. In his fpeech 
to the houfes, James dropped fome hints of the caufes ot complaint which he had 
againft Spain ; and he graciouQy condefcended to afl<: the parliament's advice, which 
he had ever before rejected, with regard to the condu6t ot fo important an affair 
as his fon's marriage. Buckingham delivered, to a committee of lords and com- 
mons, a lopg narrative, which he pretended to be true and compleat, of every ilep 
taken in the negotiations vv'ith Philip : But partly by the fuppreflion of fome fadts, 
partly by the falfe colouring laid on others, this narrative was calculated intirely to 
jnillead the parliament, and to throw on the court of Spain the reproach of arti- 
lice and infmcerity. He faid, that, after many years negotiation, the King found 
not himfelf any nearer his purpofe 5 and that Briftol had never brought the treaty 
beyond general profeffions and declarations : That the Prince, doubting the good 
intentions of Spain, refolved at laft to cake a journey to Madrid, and put the mat- 
ter to the utmoil trial : That he there found fuch artificial dealing as made him 
conclude all the ftcps taken towards the marriage to be falfe and deceitful : That 
the reftitution of the Palatinate, which had ever been regarded by the King as an 
I elfcntial preliminary, was not ferioufly intended by Spain : And that, after endur- 

ing much ill-ufage, the Prince was obliged to return to England, without any 
hopes, either of obtaining the Infanta, or of reitoring the Elector Palatine. 

Thii narrative, which, confidering the importance of the occafion, and the 
folemnity of that aflembly, to which it v^as delivered, dcferves great blame, was 
yet vouched for truth by the Prince of Wales, who was prefent ; and the King 
hinifelf lent it, indiredly, his authority, by telling the parliament, that it 
was by his order Buckingham laid the whole affair before them. The condudl 
of thefe princes it is difficult fully to excufe. 'Tis in vain to plead the youth 
and inexperience of Charles ; unlefs his inexperience and youth, as is proba- 
ble, 

* To (how by what vjoicnt meafiirc, \.\h benevolence was raifed, Johnflcne tells us, in his Rerum 
Jirlta)!':!Ci'>-u;!i hijr rin, that Barnes, a cid/en of London, was tho firil who rcfufeJ to contribate any 
tlnn:; ; \\yo\ w'alOr., tlic tieafurer lent him word, that he 'null immediately prepare himfelf to carry 
by poil a difpatch into Ireland. The ciiizcn was glad to make his peace by p^iying a hundred pounds ; 
5iui no one d'.trll afterwardi, rtfufj the benevolence required. 



J A M ESI. 95 

bic *, if not certain, really led him iiito error, and niacij Iiim fwallow a'i t:;c (.-A- ^ 'F '^ 
ficies of Buckingham. .\nd., tlio' li'.c Kir;^^ w.;, hcvc '/jrrl'j '. ire iii !'> own ir.. a- "'' 

furcs by thi im;xtuoiiLy ot o'Jiers ; i t)thinL^ Ir/jLild h.ue iiiduc.d him to pru.li- 
tute iiis character, and V(nich t'le imjjoilurcs, ac Icall, l.Lie c(jlounn,. '^j ol hi> la- 
vourice, of wli c!i lie had fo good rcalbn to er.trriain a lofi/icion. 

Bl-ckin(;h.\m's narrative, however artiiicialiy dilguil.-d, contaiiicd ycc f) 
many contradictory circuirdlances as were fulIiLient to oj:ep. tiie cy;s ui a!l rea- 
ron.:ble men i but it concurred lb well with i!ie paflioLs an ! prri',.!ic:s ot li.j 
parliament, that no fcruple was ni.uie ot immediately adoptiiK^, ic. Cliarrn^.i wic'i 
l;avmj_5 obtained at lall the opportunity, fo long willied for, ol :;(/:nf^ to war with 
pajiills, they httlc thought of tuturc conlcquences ; but in": mediately .idviied 
the King to break off both treaties with Spain, as well that which regarded tlie- 
irarriage, as t!:at tor the rcilitution ot the Palatinate. 'J'he peop-!e, ever greedy 
of war, till they IlilVer by ir, difplaycd their triunipli at thcfe vioL-n:: m.eafures by 
public bonetires and rejokings, and [)y infults on tb.e Sjianiik mini.lcri. Back- 
ingliam was row th.- lavourite ol tlie p-ubl:c and of tiiC parliament. Mir lid- 
v/ard Coke, in the h oule of commons, cah'ed him tlie Saviour or the natiun. 
Every place refour.ded \sith his prailcs. And he hiirdc.i, intoxicatedi by a [X)pu- 
hiritv, which he enjoyed lo little time, and which he fo little deferved, violated 
all duty to his indulgent mailer, and entered into cabals with the puritan meni- 
bcrs, wlu) had, ever op[X)fed the royal authority. I le even cncouiaged fchenics 
:or abolinhr.g the oid.r ot biihops, ai.d felling the dean and cliapter lands, in or- 
der to deiray the cxpcnccs ot a SpardHi war. And tlie King, tho' Ive llill enter- 
tained [)rojects h)r temporizing, arid for forming an accommodation with Sj)ain, 
was fo bijrne down by the torrent of j)opular prejudices, c>nductcl and incrcafed 
by Huckingliam, that he was at lall obliged, in a Ipeedi to pailiamcnt, to declare 
in favour ot hotlile meailires, if they would engage to lupport hitn. Ddubtsof 
their finccrity in this rt I'peet -, doubts which the event fliowed not to be ill ground- 
ed ; had probably been one caufe of his former pacific and dilatory mealures. 

I:: 

'riic nwnur.i ihc IMi-cc cml-arkot! .it St. Ainlcio'.-, he i-.ld, to tl-.ofc uhow: iu'm, t!u;t !: u."- fcl!v 
in the Sp::ni..ui-. to ulc li;;n lo ill, ami ..How ii;:n to I'.ep.-irt ; .\ pi'ot" ti:.-'.: t::e I">.i!.e ie.J r.i.i-.lc i-.iin 
I c':c\-c thc\- uerc ;i:rir.ccii' in the e'i.;ir "i tlic ni;uii;i_^c aiu! t'le P;.!..tie..;te : 1 '^i , :; t > h:- i\.'';-t;on iii 
('/".c rclpcei:, it h.i.i been .iito-'^c'tl'.er ur;e\e.pt:on.il)!i- ; Kei'i.ie , h:e,l ;\e. the 1': li'.ee be!;, ve ! ;heS:\:- 
ie:;r.! to be ;ni:nc-re, he had no ii-aien to qu.Mrel with thun ; tlvC H.e ';:nt;h..iti h:..! itaep.-.e , 
t!ieracre, that Lh,.rk- hitiilelt" niu:l h.ive eeui dceciveJ. T'.e n::i':;p'!e(l liekr. :, o\' ;':e ee. r:-!:..::i--. 
tho" t'tev ru'olc t;o:n aeciJcn', atroiJiiig Ci;e'eint;ha:n a p!;eea:bie piete.x; '.jr ci: :. i' '''e ^pve re, > ' 
if 111. I.-. ;:.. 



g6 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. Y. In his fpcech on this cccaflon, the King began with lamenting his misfortune, 
' ^^' that, having fo long valued himfelf on the epithet of the pacific monarch, he 
fhould now, in his old age, be obliged to exchange the blefTings of peace for the 
inevitable calamities of war. He reprefentcd to them the immenfe and continued 
expence, requifite for niilitary armaments -, and befides fupplies, from time to 
time, as they (hould become nectrffary, he demanded a vote of fix fubfidies and 
twelve fifteenths, as a proper flock before the commencement of hoftilities. He 
told them of his intolerable debts and burthens, chieny contrafted by the fums re- 
mitted to the Palarine*; but he added, that he did not infift on any fupply for his 
own relief, and that it was fufficient for him, if the honour and fecurity of the 
public were provided for. To remove ail fufpicion., he, v/ho had ever (Irenu- 
OLifly maintained his prerogative, and even extended it into fome doubtful points, 
now made a moll imprudent concefiion, of which the confequences might have 
proved fatal to royal authority : He voluntarily offered, that the money voted fhould 
be paid into a committee of parliament, and fhould be iffued by them, without 
being iiitrufted to his management. The commons willingly accepted of this 
concefiion, fo unprecedented in an En_ililh monarch ; they voted him only three 
fubfidies and three fifteenths f ; and they took no notice of the complaints, which 
he made of his own wants and neceffities. 

Advaxtage was alfo taken of the prefent good agreement between the King 
and parliament, in order to pafs the bill againft monopolies, which had formerly 
been encouraged by the King, but which had failed by the rupture betv/een him 
and the lafl. houfe of commons. This bill was conceived in fuch terms as to ren- 
der it merely declarative , and all monopolies were condemned, as contrary to 
law aiKl to the known liberties of the people. It v/as there fuppofed, that every 
fLbiccl or England had intire power to difpofe of his ov/n actions, provided he 
tl'id no injury to any of his fcHow fubjecls ; and th.it no prerogative of the King, 
no I'ower of any meigiilrate, nothing bi)t the authority alone oi^ laws, could re- 
ifrain tliat unlimited freedom. The full profecution of this noble principle in'o 

all 



*' Am )!!' ot'ior {v^^e^nears, iis moi^noiv, a inm of oo^oco poane:, borrowc;! from tlic JUng of 
D^\;;.i; ec. L^it. vAiii: i,. mcr- cxt; :r.; .i:,/';-;, the* treafii-ci-, iii orJer lo iLovV luj, owa good icr- 
vIl.-., ;.( u;1 t-,/ liiC pa.'ijji:;-: :i, tl..it, h h. s eoiii; i/ancc, 63/. ^o pound-, liail bf; n ia\cd on the lieaJ 
oiexcaa.:;- in ih; iViU; icn ittcj to th j 1 .de ;.;atc. 'i'liij it'.'Uis vci)' c\tracirda,ai-y, a(:r is Jt con- 
ccivc.l)!'.' WiK'ic; i.-,- ki..^ coui. prr;:ar-.' \IiJa vail Tims a,, -.viaid rccjUirc a iii;n !o c^rcat to be paid 
in cxciia mj. f ivai i .c ..'aec, bw',,^vcr, it apivai's^ tlia!. tiic King liud been f.a- ^.(nn ncncCang liie 
i'^tcrcdi ;! iii': a..gb: r aad fb:, iu I:: ,.. 
-i Lc!j Uuin 'c ::.-. CO njuiiJj. 



J A M E S I. 97 

nil Ir^ neceHiry confcqucnccs, La?, at lall, iliro' many contdis, proJi'.ceJ rh.it fni- C).ap. V 
gular ar-.;i ha])j)y govcrnaiciir, whicii .u prelcnt wc cnjcjy *. *^"^* 

The houll- ot cominoiiS aiiu corroborated, by a ncv/ [)r.'ccdent, t!ic imporcar.t 
pov.cr of im{ca.hn"!cnr, whicli, two years before, t!i"y h.id exercn'ed, in tiij cafe 
ofCiianccilor Bacon, and wliieh had lain dormant ior more ti-.an a c-jntury bclore, 
except when tl:cy I'crvcd as inftruments ot royal vengeance. 1 i-.c h'.arl o}' M:d. 
d!c(cx h.idi been raif.tl by Buckingham's intcrell, from tl-.c rank (A a 1 .ond.on mer- 
r'lart, to be 1 /:i\! hig'i treafurcr ot" England i and, iy liis aaivity ar.d a.kirclV, 
lecm' d no: unwortliy of that preferment. I5iir, having incurred the tiiiplealure of 
his p.r.ion, by rcrL:[)iing or reiufing Ibme di^mands of money, during tiie Prince's 
reii.kr.ce in Spain, that favourite vowed revenge, av.d employed all his credic 
among the commons ro procure an impeachment of the treafurer. Tlij King was 
extremely diiTiui-.ficd witli this meafure, and propheficd to the Prince and Duke, 
tliat tliey would live to have ti.eir fill of parliamentary profecutions. In a Ipeech 
10 t!ie parliamcnr, !.c endeavoured to apologize for Middlcfex, and to ibftcn the 
nccufation agaiiiil i.irn. The charge, however, was fli!! maintained by the com- 
mons ; :.n^ t';L- trcaf.irer was found guilty by the peers, tho' the mildcmeanors prov- 
ed agai;-, I"!: him, v.cre neither numerous nor im[)ortant. The accej^ing two pre- 
fents, ot five hur.dred p.ounds a-piecc, for the pall'ingtwo patents, was the article of 
gicaieil wcigh.t. His fei.tencc was t<> he fined 5(^000 pounds for the King's ule, 
a:k; to fuher al! tlic other penalties iornKrly intlicted iip.on Bacon. The fine was 
afterward.s ren)ittcd by th.c Prince, when he mounted the throne. 

This fcfhon, an add.rel"; was alio made, very difagreeible to the King, craving 
th.e levere execution or the laws agamft catholics. His anlwer was gracious and 
I. ondefcending i tho' lic declared againll p.eri'ecution i as being an improper mea- 

\'oL. I. O lure 

* \l'^\: !;:i!:; tl'.i- rr:- :; !c li ul ]-r_'\ t'1l\1, iluiir.rf nnv foriTifr p'^'ioj o( :1k' F.npjiili p^ovcnmcnt. pir- 
i, ci. !.:!'. J..;: ::';; '-'uc !;;:' ;c''.',ri, -.vlhcli \v.i_. ccrt.iii.K not lo p'/rK-ot .i inodi'l vt li!'c;tv :^^ Umwc v,r::crs 
\\cnild n.-;Tflint i:, uiil caU'.v appear troin many pallagCi lu th'- !;;ilorv of that reign. I'.ut the ideas of 
i;ici; NvcTC nr.x ii '. li iii;;\i, tl,!i.:;'_ a'xuit t v> rn; v , ou . ofai;c:t'a' an.! pcaccia'i aJ:ii.'ni;lra:;>.iii. 'J'ii? 
<.'.:-ini()i,' , tl'..)' l-iiiR- , <'! hiiii!^':, ;.:..! irc.llcj all patrutj ot l:K>Ilopol;c^, ucrc i:oi coiitci-.ti\l without 
y ! I'.v ,', aiiV.l t!;','r.i, M.,i a '> i! a ;.:. I.av f o ; uliicti wa-. i^aimng .1 grt-at point, ai'.J tilat)!i:].;ng piai'.- 
I ... l-.i, '. crv f.i'.cr. I a'olc to hhct.' ; I^at :\)c: were c.xtrniu'lv i^ratctul, when I'.li/.abcth, up^a: petition, 

;:er h.avin;; once rcfule 1 tl'.eii :e;p.'.'.:i.) leca'leJ. a few ot the moil oj^j^eii-.ve patents ; ar.J miploycd 

a;e loothir.g exprelhon, towar,! . .i.eni. 
1 i' paila.nui.t ir'.'i la:e!v ic.Mnn, a iicn thr%- coi.K :.'"e.', in t!ie le". ei.tli <-; '..irK' , that r,c a'loucd 
t'.'.-n-i ni ore Heekloni ot clel>ate, ti'..ui ever v.;'., ii.a..!"/,\l Iv a:i\ c! ia ] :cJtvei"oi. . Hi. inJiil^eni.r in 
t' a- pa; ticul '.;, joinni to hi.. (.-alV teii'.per, wa^ prC)') ib'v cne e.u.ie ol the grciit pouer aliunuai by the 
cf'nr.n ^:: . Manlieui (!e la ll'.ale! ie ;;: hi- i.!:i"p..te:a: , \ ^''.. : J^ .; v;, Jiii;j;;on the iibcity of Ipeetii in 
]^\<: ho'.;'.e ol coir.iuoii a. a :.e'.v pr.i.'t:(,r. 



98 HISTORY d f GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. V. fure for thi fupprefuon of any religion \ according to the received maxim, That 



;62. 



the blood cj the martyrs was the feed of the church. He alfo condemned an intire 
indulo-ence of the cathoUcs -, and Teemed to reprefent a middle courfe, as the mod 
humane and mofl politic. He went fo far as even to affirm, with an oath, that 
he never had entertained any thought of granting a toleration to thefe religionifts. 
Perhaps, the libertv of exercifing their religion in private houfes, which he had 
fecretly agreed to in the Spanifh treaty, he did not eftcem deferving that name i 
and it was probably by means of this evafion, he imagined, tho' falfely, that he 
^<thofMay. had faved his honour. After all thefe tranilictions, the parliament was prorogued 
by the King, who let fall fomiC hints, tho' in gentle terms, of the fenfe, which he 
entertained, of their unkindnefs, in not fupplying his ncceffities. 

James, unable to refifl: fo (Irong a combination as that of his people, his par- 
liament, his fon, and his favourite, had been compelled to embrace meafures, for 
which, from temper as well as judgment, he had ever entertained a mofl; fettled 
averfion. Tho' he dilTemblcd his refentment, he began to eftrange himfeif from 
Buckingham, to whom he afcribed all thofe violent councils, and whom he confi- 
dered as the author, both of the Prince's journey into Spain, and of the breach 
of the marriage-treaty. The arrival of Briftol, he impatiently longed for j and 
it was by the afiillance of that minifter, whofe wifdom he refpected, and whofe 
views he approved, that he hoped, in tin:ie, to extricate himfeif from his prefent 
difficulties. 
Return of DuRiNG the Prince's abode in Spain, that able negotiator had ever oppofed, 

Eriiiol. lYid* unfuccelsfuUy, to the impetuous meafures, fuggcfted by Buckingham, his own 

wife and well -tempered councils. After Charles's departure, upon the firft appear- 
ance of a change of refolution, he ftill interpofed his advice, and ilrenuoufly in- 
filled on the fmcerity of the Spaniards in the conduft of the treaty, as wel) as the 
advantages, which hngland muft reap from the completion of it. Enraged to 
find, that his fuccefsful and fl<.ilful labours ffiould be rendered abortive by the le- 
vities and caprices of an infolent minion, he would underfland no hints ; and no- 
thing but exprefs orders from his mafter could engage him to make that demand, 
which, he v/as fenfible, would put a final period to the treaty. He was not, there- 
fore, fu.''prized to hear, that Buckingham had declared himfeif his open enemy, 
and both before the council and parliament, had thrown out many fcandalous re- 
flexions againft him. Upon the firft order, he prepared for leaving Madrid ; 
and he was conduced to the King of Spain and the Conde Duke, in order to ful- 
fil the ceremonial of his departure. 

Philip, by the mouth of his minifter, exprelTed much regret, that Briftol's 
fcrvices fhould meet with fo unworthy a reward, and that his enemies fhould fo 

far 



J A M ESI. 99 

f.ir hnv: prevailed n^ toinfufc prcjuiliccs i: to his trailer ar.d h-s country af;a:nil .\ C'.\^. V. 

ir.ir i:Vr, \vr ) h.iJ lo t' ithiu.ly c'onv liis duty to loth. 1 Ii- cntic.tcd him to lix '' 

W,s abode in Spaii', rathiT tVian cxpolc iiimldf to t'.\- i.v.fjratc maiicc of hi^ riv.d 

arul thiC ur.govcrna'ole iury ot the [-cople. I \c o.Vrc i iiuii cvL-ry a(jvan:a|:;c of 

raid-c and tortiine, to lotten the rigors ot 'M.Viilimcnt , an 1, l-rtl Iiis h.onoiir lliould 

tiifilr by the (.'.cfcrtion ot his native counrry, the nionaicli iromif' d to confer all 

t!ie!e a.;var,r:v.;es \vi[h a pubHc declaration, than they wt re bellowed nicrely for 

}i\< il 'e!iry t(j the trull: committed to h.im. Ant! h.e acMed, thit he eileenud luch 

a contluct of importance to his own fervice , that all lus miniilers, obfcrving his 

regard to \ irtue even in a Uranger, might be the more animated to exert their tidc- 

\'::y tow.uds fo generous a mafler. 

TiiH Marl of Rriffol, while he cxprcfll-d th.e utn-iofi gratitude for tliis princely 
ofier, thought hinifelf oblige 1 to decline the acceptar.ce of it. lie laid., that no- 
thing would more confirm all the calumnies ot his enemies tlian his renuiiiing a: 
Madrid, and his receiving; honour and {)reterment from his catholic Majefly -, that: 
the higheil dignity ol the Srianifli monarch.y, however valued, would be but an 
unequal compenlation tor the lofs of his honour, which he mull facriliee to th.c 
obtaining it , that he trulled to his own innocence for protedion againil all the 
fury of popular prejudice , and that his malkr was fo jull and gracious, that, how- 
c^er he might, tor a linie, be feduced by calumny, he would furely atlbrd him 
an opi^crtunity of defePid.ing himlelf, and would in the end refliore him to his fa- 
vour and good op/ini(Mi. 

So magnanimous an anfwer in.creafed the cflecm which Philip had conceived of 
the ambaflador. That [irince begged him, at leall, to acccjH of a prclenc of io,c\'v-> 
ducat?, uhich might be re(]uifjte lor his lupport, till he could dil]i[)ate the preju- 
dices contracled againll him -, and he promifed, that t'.is compliai'.ce fnould fur 
ever remain a tecret to all the world, ar.d lluuild never ccnr.e to tiie knowlege of 
his miller. ll:irc is cue pcrfo::, rephed the [generous 1 ", ng 1 i Ih man, -::/':? ;;;.7_,./ ;;. - 
(,''<'/;.'/) kno'ji' it : He is the Earl i-f Brijld, li'ho \v:./ dytainiy rcjca: :t '.o the K:>:^ cf 
Kyg:a}:J. 

NoTiiiNT, could be of greater confequence to Buckingham, than to keej) 
Rrillol at a dillance both from the King and the parliament ; iell the po^ser of 
truth, enforced by lo powerlul a fpeaker, fliould open fcenes, wiiich were but luf- 
pefled by the fornicr, and of which the latter had as yet entertained no manner 
of jealouly. He applied th.eretorc to James, wliofe weaknels diiguifed to Iu:r,lelf 
under the appearance of finenc and ditlimulation, w.is now become ablolutdy in- 
curable. A warrant for fending Brillol to the Tower was illued imujediately 

O 1 upon 



100 IIISTOrvY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. V. npon his arrival in England , and tho' he was foon releafcd from that connne- 
^^^^' ment, yet orders were carried him from the King, to retire to his country feat, 
and to abftain from all attendance on par]ian:ient. He obeyed , but loudly de- 
manded an opportunity of jullifying himfeif, and of laying his whole conduct be- 
fore his marter. On all occafions, he protefted his innocence, and threw on his 
enemy the blame ot every mifcarriage. Buckingham, and, at his inlligation, the 
Prince, declared, that they would be reconciled to Briftol, if he would but ac- 
knowlege his errors and ill conduct : But the fpirited Nobleman, jealous of his 
honour, refufed to buy favour at fo high a price. James had the equity to fay, 
that the infilling on that condition was a ftrain of unexampled tyranny : But 
Buckingham fcrupled not to affert, with the utmoft prefumption, that neither the 
King, the Prince, nor himfeif were, as yet, fatisficd of Briftol's innocence. 

While the attachment of the Prince to Buckingham, while the timidity of 
James, or the fhame of changing his favourite, kept the whole court in awe i 
the Spanifli ambalTador, Inoijfa, endeavoured to open the King's eyes, and to 
cure his fears by inftilling greater fears into him. Fie privately flipt into his 
hand a paper, and gave liim a fignal to read it alone. He there told him, that he was 
as much a prifoner at London as ever Francis I. was at Madrid , that the Prince 
and Buckingham had confpircd together, and had the v/hole court at their deva- 
tion ; that cabals among the popular leaders in parliament v>'ere carrying on to the 
extreme prejudice of his authority -, that the project v. as to confine h'liu to feme 
of his hunting feats, and to commit the whole adminiftration of aifairs to the 
management of Charles , and that it was requifite for him, by one vigorous effort, 
to vindicate his liberty, and to punifli thofe who had fo long and fo much abufsd 
his goodnefs and facility. 

V/hat credit James gave to this reprefentation does not appear. He only dis- 
covered fome faint fymptoms, which he inflantly retracted, of diflatisfadtion with 
':'"'P''''''^ '''''-'^ Buckingham. All his public meafures, and all the alliances, into which he en- 
tered, were founded on the fyflem of enmity to the Auflrian fam.ily, and of war 
to be carried on for the recovery of the Palatinate. 

The ftates of the United Provinces, at this time, were governed by Maurice; 
and that afpiring prince, ftnfible that his credit would languifh during peace, had, 
on the expiration ol the tvv'elve years truce, renewed the war with the Spanifh mo- 
narchy. His great capacity in the military art v/ould have compenlated for the 
inkrioriry cf !;is forces, had not rhe Spanifh armies been commanded by Spinola, 
a general equaily renov.'ned for condud", and more celebrated tor enterprize and ac- 
tivity. In fuch a iituation, nothing could be more welcome to the republic than 

the 



J A M E S I. 



ici 



tlij j-rc'pea of a rj|-Mre l\:v, _! J.'.nics ;ir,J [b.c- ca:;io!:J King-, nn.! t!r. y n.itrcr;*.! 
liicii.l. Ivci, as wj\l ii(Kii :.:. ;..-.a.r.i! i.'iijii ui iiK.f'.lU lK-:wt\;i t";c:n .lud ]. ; 1 i; ', 
as t.Cnil the il/iAi, li.^c (n ' C l !rk;;C Cu!'.] '.llKUirc, !:'.,.[ J-^'A t. Tl i.l L,.co'.;rs woi.'.J 
locn ni.ii'ch lu t!.t:r r-.u,. .'U'Lctr^iiiiy,!)', ai'. arni) (;t fix [!.(ji.l.i:;i.l :iu-;i v.. is .'cvltd 
ill I-'.ii^!.i!iJ., a. a! lc.il lA'cr !..t.o I Icjil.iiiil, cuiiMr.aiv.l \i bv :c!jr vo:;::!^ X>. " 'jnic'i, 
l\illx, Oxii^ni, ''nii!Mn:;)ron, aiul \\'iiIoL:L;hby, wi^o w^^iv .ri.b.ii.^:, > (;f . ilbn- 
puiilii:::-; t!-. !..;l.\-cs ;a !o i ojv.lar a auu^', and o. acqulii;:^^ :r.'.\'::.:ri ixycviCi.CC 
LI. tier lo iCi/iW;. (.-.; a tapM'.n a. Maurice. 

I 1- ir.iiM'.r icalo:'a'.}!y have bcci) cxpccU-tl, th.at, as rc!iu,ioL:s /.;1 '-... 1 rr.-u'e tlic 
rciovcry ot ih.c I'aucmatc appear a pi.intot luch va;i i.'npurrar.cr \:\ l.ry'.^l^^:, ric' 
fame c-flcct nu.ll have b .n protli.ccd i:: I-'rancc, by tl'.c loicc :rcrc!v of yo'i- 






ideraiiuris. \\':hi!c thiac pr.:-.cipaV:ry vvr. 



t:cal \-;c\vs aiui cunf 

of tlic houlc ot Aulliia, tlic b'rtiuh d' :ir.;,i;,r,.s \vc:c b.rrc-'.r. ..cd en .:.. .his 
by the puflchions or one or t!ic o:!;er b;anc!i ol tini: an"ih;:!on> ;.n:";' ;, and 
ndglit be in'.'ad.e.i by huiK-iicir lor^e- !:oni ewi-y n'..ar:ji\ h co;:.- :.ied :hv K:r.:\ 
of '-"riirce :':'.er.^': ^re ro i^rcveriC ti.e jxnice.dile clbh^lilh.ir.er.t o: :':.e b.nv.-'. lur la 
h:.= nj\s- c' n ^-.i-ds ; an.: :('[!: bv tiie 'ituatinn and g';'.-:'r ;:i)\'.cr ( ; in^ ibire. he- 
v.nis better enah'eh ih.in j.::r^- ro i;i\e luecour to the .iillr,:(Vn Pa...in;e. Vja: dio' 
ti.v.e v-'AS '..caned no: Innns, nnr Carchinil i<iel;eheu, v.hoin)v ' erran t) aeqnire 
an aleendan: '.r. :he Iheneh eonrt ; dnit iriniiUr w.is (.'ccerndnen to p.;ve L!;e w.nv' ler 
in? ent< rpih/.cb by hnil Inbd.h.ni; t'le I h:gonot.s and thence to [)roce.d.. by niatnie 
Lonneiis to hiUndoh- th.e iioulh of \nilria. 'I'he [^roli^ect, hov.ever, ol a ronjunc- 
t!on wii'n b'.nghnnhi was i re'entiy em'^niCeJ, and all imaginable eneonra ^em.n: wa-; 
gn.-en tv) ev^;-y ^n-opof.d 'Ijr conciiiabnin, a marriage between Charles an.di [lie ihn.- 
ce!'^ 1 leniictta. 

r>o;\vn: ;;"^TANniNG r'^e fi-'nllb'e experience, wludi James ndghc Inue ac- 
(p.n;ci.!, oi tlie i.nlnrm.oiintalile an:n atiiy cnrerr..ni'. d by his luhiects ag.nrni ;.d 
alh.mce 'a ith cat'.iu'.ics, In; iVnl j'erb \'c:'ed in the opinion, that Ins Ion wonlu nc 
denr.: !._o, hv rcceivnvi; nit:) !ns bci.i .1 p iiicch^ nf !els than mya! evrracticvi. AKct 
the rn; .v. re, there!o:e. v.h-h >p.nn, nothing lemaiiied but .\n ailianc^e w i;Ii bramei 
?<-Ad [() l'; L ci'urt he iiv.n .-'i.ir'.iv .i- [I'nen inialeli. 'I'lv lame alluixnnent^ ini^l 
not iiei'e pi.ice. win ii ha^l h) nng entangled him in the Spaniili ncL^ 'ti-itiun : 
IT.e pjrbn.n ;; nniL.i a. is nuiiii inierior ; an. J. t',e [eaceah-le leibuMtifMi c! th.e bhi- 
larine c<;u' ! r.o^. th- .: be - -j-vtcd. But jam, . v/as afraid, hnl his ihn Ibon'd he 
alt'Agcb.ir hi. ,npoi; t h 't .1 l^i ide ; and tlirreicne, as loin as thethnllian Kirg 
ik-.i n.hvh, n.r the in.iiuur ^.. hio i.-./a n, ilu' \\i::v: t. rins winch ha i lieen grm:/ ; to 
the V ,iii,oiiL, he was prevailed -..ith to eomp'v. ;\iid as th.e I'rin.ce, dmnng !..- 
abohe ni ^pan:, had gr/eu a veib.d pi^.nnie :o ailuw the Infanta the ed^c..:iv.n it 

1.'. ; 



102 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C!-.ap. V. her children till the age of thirteen, this article was here Inferted in the treaty *, 
^'''^"'^' and to that imprudence is generally imputed the prefent diftrelfed condition of his 
pofterity. The court of England, however, it mud be confefTed, always pretend- 
ed, even in their memorials to the French court, that all the favourable conditions, 
granted to the catholics, were inferred in the marriage treaty merely to pleafe the 
Pope, and that their UricSt execution, by an agreement with France, was fecretly 
difpenfed with *. 

As much as the conclufion of the marriage treaty was acceptable to the King, 
as much were all the military enterprizes difagreeable, both from the extreme dif- 
ficulty of the undertaking, in which he was engaged, and from his own incapacity 
for fuch a fcene of adtion. 

DuRivG the Spanifli negotiation, Heidelberg and Manheim had been taken 
by the imperial forces; and Frankendale, tho' the garrifon was entirely Englifli, 
was clofely befieged by them. Upon re-iterated remonftrances from James, Spain 
interpofed, and procured a fufpenfion of arms during eighteen months. But as 
Frankendale was the only place of Frederic's antient dominions, which conti- 
nued in his hands, Ferdinand, being defirous of withdrawing his forces from the 
Palatinate, and of leaving that ftate in fecurity, was unwilhng, that fo important 
a fortrefs fhould remain in the pofTelTion of the enemy. To compound all diffe- 
rences, it was agreed to fequeftrate it in the Infanta's hands as a neutral perfon 
upon condition, that, after the expiration of the truce, it fiiould be delivered to 
Frederic i tho' peace fliould not, at that time, be concluded between him and 
Ferdinand. After the unexpefted rupture with Sprain, the Infanta, when James 
demanded the execution of the treaty, offered him peaceable pofffffion of Fran- 
kendale, and even promifed a fafe condud for the garrifon thro' the SpaniOi 
Netherlands : But there was fome territory of the empire interpofed between her 
ftate and the Palatinate ; and for paffage over that territory, no terms were ftipu- 
lated. By this chicane, which certainly had not been employed, if amity with 
Spain had been preferved, the l^alatinc was totally difpoffelfed of all his patrimo- 
nial dominions. 

The 

* Rymer, torn, xvlii. p. 224. 'T'ls certain, that the young Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles II. 
iiad proteflant governors from his early infancy; firll the Earl of Newcalllc, then the Marquis of 
Heitford. 'J he King, in his memorial to foreign churches after the commencement of tlie civil wars, 
infills on liis care in educating his cliildren in the protellant religion, as a proof that he was no way- 
inclined to tlic catiiolic. Rufhworth, vol. v. p. 752. It can fcarcc, therefore, be qucltioned, but this 
irtick-, wliicli has fo odd an appearance, was inferted only to amufe the Pope, and was never intended 
by cither narty to be executed. 



JAMES 



I. 



1-3 



Ch 



The I'Tn^lifli naiion, however, aiu! jair.Ls's v.ariikc cour.c'I, v.e;e r. t ciif- 
cvi.id-> i.\. It uab (li.l I" tiiii.::,tcl to rc-cc'iuji.cr t!.^- P.i'..:'uut'- : a li.uc 'y.r<: \r. t! r y 
ri'.i, ll ot (icnr.anv, }> j!''-.!" <! (r.:.riiy by tliC I'm; CKjr :!:id lj.iv;iri.i, 1i.:tov.ik;ci.1 ^'. 
bv p'jt'.nt t.r.-nacs ^^k! li.z ciY liom ail coninumication v.rJi I.rglariJ. C"our,c 
Mar.s.'cliit was taLcn ii.Lo pay ; arui a:; l.r.i^.i.]-! army ot i 2,. ;d fo ,: and 2co 
l-.orlc was Ic\' c.i by a gciK-ral i)rel> throL.i^iiOut tiic '..iii..'d(jn'i. nLir!;..^; [j.c nct^o- 
tianion wie'i I'r :..c, vail proinil-.s had. I ccn irai.;c-, ilio' in i;'j:Kr.d itr.'V.'-, y :;yj 
l-'rcn.ii ni!n;dry i lUvt ():.ly- tlr-: a Lcc p.^n"iL;c flujuld Iv j,;:-..;^:-^ ihv I- n-::!]i 
troop-, n'..c alio tl>at powLriiil TucccAn's (hoL:':d j ;in ilicni in tl'.cir ni^r^'a toward, 
tlic I-*a!atlna:c. In I'.n^land, all t'nclc proteiiions were hallily ir.rcrprcccd to be 
pjiUive cngagemcr.ts. 'l\\c troop?, under Mansichii's coiVimand, were embatl-;- 
cd a: Dover i but upoii lailing over to Calais, iui.nd no orders vit arrived for Tcf 
tiicir admili'on. Atc.T waidng in vain lor Idme time, tliry v>cre obli_;eJ. to f.iil 
towards Zealand , vdvjre r-o p:o;~er ir^caiiires wM'e yet concerted "ur tl..:r il'dem- 
larkation , and lonie icri ple^ arofe a-r.on:; the Hates on account cr :l:e .^.i\\.\:\; ol 
prfjvifioi s. Mean u c.i'e, a pdb.iential liiltemper crept in anion;; the i'n^ln]; 
\:vccs, L) :o:;;i CO: ped L:p in narrow veflels. J ].:lf tr.e arrr.v died v.liileon bo.iid-, 
and tile o::\vv hall', Vn -ahened. by fickncls, aj^peared too Iniall a boJ.y to n.arch in- 
to tlie Pahuinate. And tlius end.edi this ill-cop.certcd andi IruitLls exped.ition -, tl'.e 
(-nly dnaller, vvhicli happened to b nj^land, during the prolperoiis and p^ivhic rcii^pi 
(1 janies. 

'I'll \T reign was now drawing towards a conchifion. With peace, fo fuc- 
ceblnlly cu'tivatcd, and io p.ih.(;nately lovcd by this monarch, his lilc ..llo 
terminated. Tliis Ipring, he v. a le;/.ed with a tertian ague , and, when en- 
couraged by his courtiers with tlie common [Toveib, that this ddllemper, during 
that lealon, was heaUh lor a k'n.g, lie nulled, tiiat the prove: b was meant ot 
a young kin.g. Alter iome fits, lie hjund him. ell extremely v. eahencd, ant! 1 :it 
for t!ie Prince, wliom lie exhorte^! to bear a tender afllction ior his wife, l)ut to 
prclerve a eonllancy in religion ; to protc/t tiiC church ot Pnghmd ; and to ex- 
tend his care tov.ards t!ie un!ia(^pv iami'y ot the i'ahitme. Willi decency an.l 
CGur.tr;.-, he p'cpared himlelt tor his end ; a:.d lie expired on the 27th of March, p^. 
alter a icign over b.ngland ot tweniv twu vears aiid a tew diy^ ; andi in the fifty '^''' 
ninth year oi Ids age. iiis reign over Scotland was almoll; of equal duration with 
his hie. 

No prince, lo little entcrprizing and fo inotrcnfr/e, was tver lb much cxp-ofed n;. 
to the oppofite extreme,*; ot calumny and Hattery, ot lat\re aiul {ianep';yi ic. And 
the taiitions, which began in his time, being llill toiuniu.d, have made hi., clia- 
rader be us much dilputcd to this day, as is c(jnjn'i0nly tl:at ot princes wh(- are our 

; cci't ni- 



1C4 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Cl.ar. ^^ contemporaries. Many virtues, however, it muft be owned, lie was pofTefied of; ^ 
'^^^"" but no one of tliem pure, or free from the contagion of the neighbouring vices. 
His o^enerofity bordered on profufion, his learning on pedantry, his pacific difpofition 
on pufillanimity, his wifdom on cunning, his friendihip on light fancy and boyifh 
fondnefs. While he imagined, that he was only maintaining his ov;n authority, 
he may [^erhaps be fufpe6led, in fome of his af'.ions, and dill more of his preten- 
fions, to have encroached on the liberties of his people : While he endeavoured, 
by an cxa6l neutrality, to acquire the good will of all his neighbours, he was able 
to preferve fully the efleem and regard of none. His capacity was confiderable J 
but fitter to difcourfe on genera! maxims than to conduct; any intricate bufinefs : 
His intentions were juft; but more adapted to the condufl of private life, than 
to the government of kingdoms. Aukward in his ptrfon, and ungainly, in his 
manners, he was ill qualified to command refpect ; partial and undifcerning in his 
affedions, he v/as little fitted to acquire ger.eral love. Of a feeble tem.pe; more 
than of a frail judgment : Expofcd to our ridicule from his vanity, but exempt 
from our hatred by his freedom from pride and arrogance. And upon the whole, 
it may be pronounced of his charader, that all his qualities v;ere fullied with weak- 
nefs, and embcllifhed by humanity. Political courage he certainly was devoid 
of; and from thence chiefly is derived the ftrong prejudice which prevails againft 
his perfonal bravery : An inference, however, which muR be owned, from gene- 
ral experience, to be extremely fallacious. 

He was only once married, to Anne of Denmark, who died on the 3d of 
March, 16.^, in the forty fifch year of her age -, a woman eminent neitlier for 
her vices nor lier virtues. She loved exoenfive amufements and lliows ; but 
poffeiTed no tafie in her pleafures, A great comet appeared about the time of her 
deatl"! ; and the vulgar ertcemed it che torerunner ol that eveiit. So confiderable 
in their eyes are even tlic moft infignificant princes. 

He left only one lun, Charles, then in the twenty fikh year of lus age; and 
one daughter, Elizabetli, married to tl^e Kleelor Palatine. She was n<2;ed twenty 
nine years. Thole alone remained of fix legitimate children born to him. He 
never had any illegitimate , and he never dilcovired any tendency, even the 
fmallefl, toward:, a pafhon lor any miifrefs. 

Thi: Archbifhops of Canterbury during tins reign v/cre, Whytgifr, who died 
in 1604; Bancroft, in 1610; Abbot, who furvived the King. The chancel- 
lors, Lord Ellefmore, who refigned in 1617 ; Bacon was firif Lord keeper till 
1619, then was created chancellor, and was difplaced in 162 1; Williams, 
bifhop of Lincoln was created Lord keeper in his place. The high treafurers were 
the Earl of Dorfet: who died in 1609J the Earl of Saliibury, in 1612-, the Eari 

oi 



J A M E 



I. 



10 



, of Suffolk (\ncd and difplaced for brib-jry in i 6 i S , I -or J ManciwUlc, rcfigncd ^'-'^P ^" 
in 1621 -, I:^.arl ot .Nlid..!!-!' x, diiplacccl in i(.-<-, the l-'.arl of M.iriboroug'n li;c- '^" 

ccccicd. TIk' I -ord aJ.niir.Ls were, tiie l-',url o: NotrMK;han-), \s!-.o rtfiiiiicd in 
161S; chc iar!, afterwards IXike ot Biickiniiham. 1 '-.c fccrctar'ics ot Hare 
were t'lc l-"arl of Salul-ury, Sir Ralph \N iiiwoov!, Nanton, C.dverc, Lord Con- 
way, Sir Albcrti.s Moreton. 

The ni'.nihers vA' t'nc houfe of lord.s, in tlie firil [Mrliament ({' this rciizn, be- 
fidc the bdhop.s '*^'<^'rc Icvcnty cii^iic temporal p.cers. The nutnb^r-s in c.e I'-rl^ 
parliament ot' Charles were ninety fe\'cn. Conleqiicndy Jan^'S, di;rir,^ tha: p - 
riodi, created nineteen new peerages above th.ole that expired. 

The houle of CA)mmon?, in tlie Ilrll parliament or this reign, confifle.l of four 
I'.undred anil fixty leven members. .Ir appcii'-, t a: four burroug'is revived tluir 
cliartcrs, v.hii.h they luul tornvcrly i^fglcct'.d. And as ihe tarit pailiamer,!: of 
Charles conflllcd of four hu:u!red and ninety tuur niem.ber?, we may infer tliac 
James erected ten new burroughs. 



Vcf T. 



Al'Pl NPIX 



io6 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



APPENDIX 

T O T H E 

Reign of JAMES 1/ 

Civil government of Engla?td during this period.^- 'Ecclejiajlical govern- 
ment, Manners. Finances. Navy. ' Commerce, Maim- 

faBurei.' Colonies. ^hearning and arts. 



I 



c 



T may not be improper, at this period, to make a paufe ; and, departing a 

little from the hiftorical ftyle, take a fjrvey of the ftate of the kingdom, with 

regard to government, manners, finances, arms, trade, learning. Where a juft 

notion is not formed of thefe particulars, hiflory can be very little inftrudlive, 

and often will not be intelligible. 

We may fafely pronounce, that the Englifh government, at the acceffion of the 
j^^pjj^j^ ^j^'^'Scottifli line, was much more arbitrary, than it is at prefent, the prerogative more 
hud. unlimited, the liberties of the fubjeft lefs accurately defined and fecured. With- 

out mentioning other particulars, the counts alone of high commiflion and ftar- 
chamber were fufficient to lay the whole kingdom at the mercy of the prince. 

The court of high commiflion had been ereclcd by Elizabeth, in confequencecf 
an a6l of pailiament, paflcd at the beginning of her reign : By this adl:, it was 
thouglit proper, during the great revolution of religion, to arm thefovereign with 
full powers, in order to difcourage and fupprefs oppofition. All appeals from the 
inferior ecclefiaftical courts v/ere carried before the high commiiTion ; and, of con- 
fequence, the whole lile and doctrine of the clergy lay diredlly under its infpeflion. 
}i.very breach of the acl of uniformity, every refinal of the ceremonies, was 
cognizable in this court; and, during the reign of Elizabeth, had been pu- 
niflicd by deprivation, by fines, confifcations, and imprifonment. James contented 

Inm- 

' TJ;i;, li:;bry (-f cnc houfc of S-iiart v/a^ wriuc!. and pih.l^fliccl by the autlici' I , Pmc I'lc In:!^!^' of li.c 
i"-ci;ic cf 'T'i'.Jm'. Hence it linnpens tliat f(;mc p.".;I;iger, particuiariy ia the pielem .'ippeiidix, n^iy ieeni 
tn i:e rcpciiiioiis { vUiat \.\\, f):irerly c!c';\"cri;J in liic rc'^'i d* i/'Ii/ancth. Tlie aMliior, in crcicr V^ 
ii.jy\^c thJ5 o^ioaio'i. has cancelled Ibnic I'C-.'-' pairi^j^e^ in t'lc f;)re^''ir:!'; cl^artci. 



JAMES I. 



IC7 



himfclf with the gentler penalty of i.'cprivation ; nr)r was that pun'.fh.T.cnc ::C]^:- 
ed with riL^our on every o-lliulcr '. All th.c c.up.olics too weic li.;bl: to b- ju- 
niOied by this court:, it uv:y cx-rcil"\l any aci (j1 tlicir icI::',io:i, or were .\n\- \:.iw 
2aive in rendin[_^ ..broad tli.ir el.iuhcn or otiicr relaii-vr,.-, to receive that ediwi- 
tion, which they eojld not j-rocure them ifi tlieii" own cfAiatrv. l\)}'ini pri.l^. 
were thrown into pnfon, ar.d nVi^ihc be dJivcrcd over to tr.c liA, wl.ivli p.niil^id 
thcin with death ; tho' tliat Severity had b.en Ijwrinidy excr i.cd by I.nzaccth, 
and never a'nvjil by James. In lliorr, tliat liberty ol conlc:e:,LC, v,Ii;.!\ wc (o 
h'ghlv and lb julUy value at [)rclcnt, was totally lupj^elled -, and no cwreile ot 
any religion, but the tllabiinKd, was permitted throughout tlie kingdon:. .\:;y 
\/ord or wri:in!_;, which tended toward-, heivly or khilm or Icd/uion, wa^^ pu;-,'.!]:- 
ahle by the hiidi comniifluhncrs or ain' tliree of t'-.eiu : 1 ..cy alor.e w;rc ii..!:',b 
what exprefl'ions had th.it triuhjncy : They proceeded notbv in!ormatiun, bi.t u:; :\ 
rumour, fulpieion, or a-, corcir-[_!; to tb.eir own l.ir.cy : 'J'b.ey avlmii.iilcre : an c/.;:ii, 
by which th,e p.uty cited before t'c.em, wa-, boun.l to anf.vcr an.' liu.ftion, ul.ich 
fliouLl be propo;;ndcd t(; I'.im : Whoever rcluie.i tliis oat!"., t!io' undvr |;re:e!'.ce tii.it 
he mi[.^ht ti.ereby be bro..g'it t.) accuie himllif or his dearell inend, w.is punilh- 
:ib!e by Impr-lonment : And in fliort, an inquihtorial tribunal, with all its terrors 
aiv.i inii-iuities, was crecte 1 in the ki:,gdom. h'ull dilcretionarv 'fowcrs were be- 
llowed with regard to the incpjiry, trial, lentencc, and |:ena;ty inilicled ; cxcejt- 
ing only that corporal punifliments were rellrained by that pateiu of the prii.ce, 
wliich ereded that court, not by tlie act oi parliament, which empowered l.'m. 
By reafon of the uiicertain limits, which Separate ecclefiarrical from ci\il ca'.lcs, 
all acculations ot adultery and incell were tried by the court oi h.igh con^mifi^e-n , 
and every ccj.T.pIaint of wi\-es ag.iinil their hulhards was tlicre cx.nr.ir.ed ..:;d dil- 
ruiled-;. Laider like p'et'.nces, every caule, wh.icli reivirdcd. CL;'.'.>.ie,:ce, ti. it :?; 
^very caufe, could have been brought uiuler t;.eir iurildiction. 

Bi'T there was a luiTxient realon, whv t'.e k':;-.^: would imr bj lodcitcus to 
ilr.tt !i ir.e iia-ildK lion of" tliis cot.rt : The Itar-c h.aml^' r | '!";!]- d t'-.e l.ime au- 
n)ority in civil matteis i .md its method.^ of pioeet.;i:ig were i(ji.ai'\' arb'tr.ivy 
and unlur.ited. 'J'hr oi'ip/m of t'li.^ court w.i> derived iium t;.e ivcii remc^te .".;). 
tiqui'y , thcj', 'tis pretended, that its po\N'er Ikui b^cn ir.il c.'.ri.-.d to fe' u'Te,;'. 
licight by 1 lenry \'II. In ail times, however. 'r;s co;.!efleJ, it Cm^V' d. .e.iiiio- 
iry; andi at no time was its .lUti^ority circumrc;ibe!, or nv, tl.o.l t'l i lotcu!:;:' ; 
.;iect.d, bv any pr. elie kiw or ll.iti.te. 



.'.* I'l.- v". :'.N ir.!. ; n. 
'\ i:ic;: \...l btcn il. ; ; . . 



!; . i:;t:, i -.'in. .\' 



io5 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

/^ppencix. We have had already, or fhall have fufHcient occafion, during the courfe of this 
hillory, to mention the difpenfing power, the power of imprifonment, of exail- 
ing forced loans * and benevolence, of prefTing and quartering foldiers, of alter- 
ing the cuftoms, of eredfcing monopolies. Thefe branches of power, if not di- 
redly oppofite to the principles of all free government, muft, at leaft, be acknow- 
leged dellruftive to freedom in a monarchial conftirution , where an eternal jea- 
loufy muft be preferved againft the fovereign, and no difcretionary powers muft 
ever be entrufted to him, by which any fubjecL can be afiecled. The kings of 
England, however, had almoft conftantly exercifed th.efe powers ; and if, on any 
Qccafion, the prince had been obliged to fubmit to laws enabled againft them, he 
had ever, in practice, eluded theie laws, and returned to the fame arbitrary ad- 
miniilrat:on. During a w^hole century before the acceffion of James, the regal 
authority, in almoft all thefe particulars, had never once been called in queftion. 

We may alfo obferve, that the principles in general, which prevailed during 
that agp, were fo favourable to monarchy, that they beftowed on it an authority 
almoft abfolute and unlimited, facred and indefeizable. 

The meetings of parliament were fo precarious , their feftions fo fhort, compared 
to the vacations ; that, when men's eyes were turned upwards in learch of fove- 
reign power, the prince alone was apt to ftrike them as the only permanent magi- 
grate, invefted with the whole majeft-y and authority of the ftate. The great 
complaifance too of parliaments, during fo long a period, had extremely degraded 
and obfcured thofe aflemblies ; and as all inftances of oppofttion to prerogatii^e muft 
have been drawn from a remote age, they were unknown to a great many, and had 
the lefs authority even with thofe, who were acquainted with them. Thefe exam- 
ples, befi;les, of liberty, had commonly been accompanied with fuch circumftances 
of violence, convulfion, civil war., and diforder, that they prefented but a difa- 
greeable idea to the inquifitive part of the people, and aftbrded fmall inducement 
to renew fuch difmal fcencs. By a great many, thererore, monarchy, fimple and 
unmixed, was conceived to be the government of England , and thofe popular 
aifcmblies were fuppofed to form only the ornament of the fabric, without beino- 
in any degree, eftential to its being and exiilence i". I'he prerogative of the crown 

was 

' Dui-rp^ the :w ; !ait ccnluric:;, mo ici^j^n haJ piifTcJ without {((inc forced loans from ilv: fubjcft. 

' " Monarchic.-./' ace, 'liiig to Sir \^ alter Ra-cir/h, " arc of t.vo fort-;, toiu-'iiiio; t'.u'ir power or 
'' autiioiiiy, -/.',, !. I..',it!.-f, w''.c:v tho V, h(;:c puw'jr of ordcriiip^- all Ilatc-m.-utf rs, both in pc.ce and 
" NW.r, C.o-ji, h,' law an:! cultom appj'it .in to the prince, as in tJic Knplilh f in;p;r.ri ; uhcrc the 
" y;;i.cc hah ti;:: pcvcr to make lu'.'. -, le.i<;i'f ':nd war; to crcite niaeiil .it' - ; to pardon liie ; of 
" ar-pea,, :'<-. 1 hs;'. to 'd-.c a coiitentivctu to ;hc other :\u:rxci, tliey iiavc a. iiitVra.;;e hi makinc; laus, 
'' \'ct t.\ei ad-jer. . th; r-.w^e's pleaiinc and ji.'rja'dvc will,- z Limited or redraincd, that hath no 

'-' frdi 



JAMES I. 1:9 

v.-as rcprcfentcJ by lawyers as fometliing real and durable ; lik'-' tho'.e ctern.;! ^f- 
fcnces ot the fchoo!^, which no ti;r,t; nor force coi.Id a'.t^r. Tlu lancajn ot rc'.:- 

L;,;or.i 

' fi:ll power in ail liic r-- t- niK* matter- of l-.u.;. n> I'lc miii: ,ry 1:1 .; , r'l,.: ii t!; no: :':. \ ;. ; ( 
* in t':ne 01" rv;: c, a :;:c in.ii;;ng oi" hwi, ^'.. liac iii w.ir oi:l; , .i. t:.c r.v:n:;ir. l.:;:^ . ." .' 

Aiui .. l:[-!v' ..,:, " ':; (Ncrv ji;ll fl-.tc, lii:iit.' p:;:t ft" tiic :^n\ iTn:i:;-:;: i , > . . ,.. ' . ' i 

; til.- p" )>!., ;. iti a kin:' '0:11, a \;)i:i' aiu! Uir:",:;^ l- ni iiia'.:;,^ \.\.\ ; ;i';u l ).:! 
' , :i-, i':f th'j I'l.ii:;-.- be ;.;.^"at, ai:J liic p::i.cj t.'iivc! !) l: 'r;o.v .'.^':' ( : ... :..: .. ; , \: 

; .,i\\ may U- propo-iKici 10 a p.irIia::H":i, tiiat t'lc t .\ 'r^.^\ /.-: to a.;.. : ..:: -w 

- -y ;< ,; _-. So c ; r.it.:t;ii: ,^ niui ib:iic piou.^v!:: :^ , iii ji;.;.i.i..l ni.:::i.-;> ni.. . , i:: . -.i 

= , , : -.cin. 1 liv \x.:\ '.1, !(:'-, Icci:;:; .Ii.ci:i!jiv>.' t'> he in 1..1 n:;. .'1 cr r..?:' <: :i- .i :. . . :... 
" t:iJ il. U" o:- t;(n crr.i'U-nt." 'liiii \. .:y d! rcioiuiig diiicr- liii'f tr.':;! [';..'. nl i!;e k;: _, '..:, 
..;.:, \i tl;j :m:..;L.'C^ c: liie pr^iliuine .1 a*; ni.i:;LT, ot gr;icc .uul i!,.!a'i;i:' c^-, in- :(.- [':.::i i : i::. . .; ... . 
'I'i- !eirn:.-;ai;'e, :iia: Raii^^i; \s ..> ihuij.!.: to lc->ii ir.\'.,.i>' ;:io | i.i i:.,!!;^,.! part;., v.^..-. .::.:.. ..A.: .^ 
t.iic;c rOiituH. . Bjt iJ^-a. ut go\cr:inici': c!:.'.:;gc ir.u.a i:i c :]::.:(. r.t >..nv. . 

R.ilc;i;ii": ifit.imer, t^ (;:i t::; \\:.-A :v:c \\\.\ more opc.Iy ov. r.-^c.i, \\\ \\'. P - ; -' ' :'.:':.- , 

,1 \'.ori; !..)* ['u'.:i.:;.'- i ::.\ ::'.:c: I.: Jl.;;'i, '1 .. v .]].[ '^ac li.tA^ .-n ;i c .'Uiticr cr C'-:;. : . : .: cnuii- 

f . iuiJ.c o; J V- ;vc, \si.o ;cr:ele.:tj l!:c piitiiot p;.::\ , ai-d ilcii- .Jr tl:c in '.c:! .( .'s:. ct ..:':'., v. ::i^'i 
lix 'in.ipic; <f t'i It at;c \.-.)uIJ b(.ar. il:,c :> a [\:.ia;;c ('! 11 ; " ( ':, .' 1 . 1 '1 .: \:':: .'\ '.- .'. : : iy 
'" VA-j k':r-;-. v-'.'.':\ uic i.d.x.: ct ii.. pi!\ ,::c cr p: ^ y n :ii;cil, i d:.r.<j b .' t"..- i. . - 

' / / ;; (-. A::.; liy wiulj p-iA,T o ;t J( :. .n p,.r';an;c::t l)ac b\ ;ki- l.i.::;' -..; .a . . . .: : .\..:- 
*' l..i:e it !:.:, mv Lord : 'I'r..: Vr.cc c.LitL^ do i):;i a.i\ ill- ..> the pr i. -.- i' ...Ail >! 'i; ; \>, ': ii ;,d- 
' \i e, i: the i-.:r.^ c.iibiuCc, it bccoinvj tile kin^'j o\v,i ^ct ia ti.e uiie, aii.l tiie H.ii't;h law in ti.c 
' oti.er, CS\." 

The l".:i.l o{ CI:ac, iii a p:i\a:e lettor to liij ron-i;i-Iase Sir 'I'iionti V.'e::t'An';h, a<:a\-.."ra' Ta:! 
cf S:!.:t:'.i:-J, thu e\p:.iie. hii;:l.-l:i, " W'e !i\e ii::.;er a 1 : .to ,::r.e-.yi\\ ::.;.:.: :, v>.i.e'e ! 
' labiiiit to ^ix .:,u /::.'' lie !poi:e fioin li;- own, ;:i;.i ail i.:- .-.; i :io' , c : i ' i - i- 
fin^ie i!.;h(::^e ot poser, v/Iu^h a km.:; ot !.';dai:d i!i\;i;t ;.ot, ..t :i;a: ::.:: 
r.rce:;it%' "f expediency : 1 he e >i;:,r::;.ii;:e alo::e or i; ^ip.iei't jj;' .'t;!: ki 

:T:!'.d t pro'.e d..i::pe!\)ii-", for vs.int of o.^.c to li::', :t :,. ' !' ;, .;..: ...i! . ! 

ot' ^. h. re ,'. a^ wrote in the li, li yt ,.!(: vii.:: It ,\ ;vi-; ; :.\..'.^ .. :.:'. 
lenin- ('t ti;e p(v. crnnie.:t, not :'\: I iw : ; ni.- < f : r 

\\ 'z. ['ro;n ;.::ot!u-r lett'.-r it: ti'. I .:r. , , 

ti-ni. ; :.;i'.:::i d ti.e pf)'.'.er it' ! ;: ; 'i: 
'] hi- aer o'ity ti.-; uu:!.! e .ert in loti.- 
f.j do -r ot" liiat ti.,; ;. to I.-', T . (-ve \. ;. . I I >; ,., \ ; 
' >.\ en. ::::. t uj ..ed i!:';e tra.l mtiie >.;., t:.,-i t^ii: 
)_..::vr;a ;'..h.-..e , of I'.^h a i.:od a: v. ..'.:: 

! li.oe I. At nut u itli ;.n\ 1 n.d':", w:: , 

.'. \s i..n'- t le .-"' ph- i. . ' 



no HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Appendix, gion, was, by divines, called in aid , and the Monarch of heaven was fiippofed 
to be interefted in fupporting the authority of his earthly vicegerent. And tho" 
thefe dodrines were perhaps more openly inculcated and more ftrenuoufly infilled 
on during the reign of the Stuarts, they were not then invented ; and were only 
found more neceffary at that period, by reafon of the oppjfite dodrines, which 
bega?i to be promulgated by the puritanical party*. 

In confequence of thefe exalted ideas of kingly authority, the prerogative, be- 
fide the inllances of jurifdiftion, founded on precedent, was, by many, fuppofed 
to poffefs an inexhauftible fund of latent powers, which might be exerted on any 
emergence, ia every government, neceffity, when real, fuperfedes all laws, and 
levels all limitations : But, in the Englifh government, convenience alone was 
conceived to authorize any extraordinary a6l of regal power, and to render it ob- 
ligatory on the people. Hence the flrid obedience required to proclamations, 
during all periods of the Englifh hiftory ; and, if Jamts has incurred blame on. 
account of his edicts, 'tis only becaufe he multiplied them at a time, when they 
began to be lefs regarded, not becaufe he firft aiTumed that exercife of authority. 
Of his maxims in a parallel cafe, the following is a pretty remarkable inftance. 

QUEEKT 

.tnonly cnnvafTed. The flrongeft teftimony, whicK I remember from a writer of James's age, in fa- 
vour of Fjiglifh liberty, is in Cardinal Bcntivoglio, a foreigner, who nientions the Enqlifh govern- 
Tnent as fmiilar to that of the low-country provinces under their princes, rather than to that of France 
()v Spain. Englifhmen were not fo fenfible that their prince was limited , becaufe they were fenfible, 
that no individual had any full fecurity againft a ftrctch of prerogative : But foreigners, by compari- 
son, could perceive, that theil- ilretches, from cuftom or other caufes, were, at that time, lefs frequent 
in England thaa in other monarchies. Philip de Comines too remarked the Englifh conftitiition, to 
he more popular, in his time, than that of France. 

'"' Paifive obedience is expref ly and zcaloul!) inculcated in the homilies, compofed and pabliilied 
i)V author! tv, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The convocation, which miCt in the very firll year 
of the Kliig's reign, voted as high mojiarchical principles as are contained in the decrees of the uni- 
verfity of Oxford, voted during the rule of tlic torics. 1 hefe principles, fo far from being eReemed 
a novelty, introduced by King James's influv-nce, palled fo fmoochly, that no hiilorian has taken no- 
tice of tlicrn : They were never the fubjcd of controvcrfy, or difpute, or difcourfe ; and it is only 
by means of bifliop Overall's Convocation-book, printed near 70 years after, that we are acquainted 
v-'ith thrrn. Would Juirie-:, v/ho was fo cautious, and even timid, have ventured to begin his reign 
vviih a bold firoke, wliicii would have given juli ground of jealoufy to his fubje>:Vi ? It appears, from 
:':.: mcnarcii'b Jjafdicon Doron, written while he was in Scotland, that the republican ideas of the origin 
ot power Irom the people were, at that tune, e'acemed puritanical novelties. The patriarchal fchemc, 
"tis reinarkalfle, i; inculcated in thofe \oic-, ot the convocation prcfervcd by Overall ; nor was Filmer 
the j'iri'. ir.venter of thole ribfurd notions. lnt(j liow many fliapes liave political rcafonings been turn- 
ed, in order to avo'd ;in obvious, hut, it feems, too homely a tiuth ? 'Fhe patriarchal icheme is non- 
leiife. "1 he o, i;Mnal cor.tr.ft is oppofcd by experience:. Men arc unwilling to confefs, that all go- 
vernment is origin:. ;iy deiiv^d fiom violciice, uiurpation or injulUcc, kuiClilicd by Umc, and fonic-- 
i.ii:\c? by fi;enii;:g iirper.Cs.L CjV.ki^l. 



J A M E S I. IT! 

Queen Elizabeth had appf)intcJ ccnK-nifTa-ncr", far zh'? infpc-ftion of piifon", " ' '' 
and had bellowed ontliem full difcrt'tit.Mi.iry powers toadjuil all /.itvjreiicos b.'C,v<.c > 
prifoners and their creditf^rs, to comroi. '.d d bts ;-n 1 ro rnve iilvrry to I'l./li 
debtors as they found honell, and incapable- of ma'/in^^ u;!! paymrnr. I'lcn-i r'-.' 
uncertain and undefined nature of the English con(li:r.ii^:% do-bt^^ ^V^-^nL^ i-^p "' 
many, that this commiilion Nsas contrary to la// , and ic \va, rcprcf". ai^ed. in ti'.:.t 
lio-ht to James, lie forbore thcrciorc to renew t',:c cotrjr.l V;'>n, v. 1 li,? r:!tcen:!i 
ot his reign ; when complaints role to high, wir'i regard t(^ t'.e a^ii'js rracLiljd 
III prifons, that he thought himlcif obliged to overcome iiis lertip!e% ;.:'.i lo a-,- 
point new commill'ioners, invefled with the lame diicrecionary pr.v.rs, v, ;.:cl\ 
iili/.abeth had formerly conferred *. 

Uro\' the wdiol'S we mull conceive that monarc'iy, on the :\ccc{Tr-n of t!.- 
IiOLifc of Stuart, was poflefTed of a very extenfive aiiniority : An a'.;[!:rjn:\ , in z'.\- 
judgment of all, not exactly limited ; in the judgment of lo:r,c, rx: I::i,;:a',lc. 
But, at the fame tinic, this authority was foun 'ed merely on tb.c < pinu-n. (,! tl.c 
p;eopie, influenced by ancient prccedcn: and exam;:!;. Ic was not ll:p.,v.>rt.d ei:her 
by money or by ioree of" arms. And, lor that reafon, we need not we,:,d.er, tliat 
the princes of that line were fo extremely jealous of ti'icir prerogative , bcir.g 
fenfil^Ie, that, when thole claims were ravilhed from them, t!iey pollJilJ. no n':!u- 
cncc, by which they could maintain their dignity. By the changes, which have 
fince been introduced, the liberty ami independence-! of individuals has becii r^n- 
dcrcd much more full, intirc, and fecure ; that of the public more ur.certain 
aiki precarious. 

W'l have had occafion to remark, in fo many iiiHances t!ic b'gt^rry, wl::ch Feci :;." .J 
prevailed in that age, that we can look for no toleration among i!ie d,;!;. rer-t lefts. '''' 
'i'wo arians, under t!ie tide of heretics, were puiiillied with fire duri g 'In:^ pe- 
riod , and no one reign, fincc tl^e reformation, liad b.en Iree Irom i;he bar'oari- 
ties. Stowe fays, that thcle arhms were ohered tlieir rardon at tlie llahe, ii rh v 
AouKi nierit it by a reca;.: iticn. A madman, v. h.o ealei hirniV., ti.e 11-;'/ 
^Tiioil, wa^. vi.hour anv iin'uig' ncc for his lr;n/y, CK)n.\::\yr. ' hv Li:e i,i';^.-; of 
l.ite!i;i(.!d to the lan-.e i.uniihnv.n:. 'i'wcnty p:/a:v'!> a n-.');-:!;, 'ly '.iw. vt)'.i,i be 
'.A'ied from every 0!M', wIkj frc(]i,ented no! ti^e ellai^ ihe.i v.ori'^ip. 1 ../> iig;-:\;i:3 
'.r.v, howiver, Iiad o::e in.iuigcnt ( he.ie, t;Mt ihe : :, s cxa. ' ' '. ' ' : :,Aejcd 
t'.eo tliird , (;i tiic yearly inr(j!-!;e oi t!;e p i!on. I: \\:.A ': ' :: / \' '-.. :".] 

tj iiihjw ti'.ofe p^'' a!tie> to run on n^r leve;-.:! vea;" ; ::nd i ) ..\ . 
) i,!ie iitte!' nan ol ha Ii e.itholie-, as h..d in u,ied i.e.' . .: , . 



ovc;n.:)'.:.u 



112 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Appendix, more humane in this, as in every other refpeft. The puritans formed a fedl, 
which fecretly lurked in the church, but pretended not to any feparate worfhip 
or difcipline. An attempt of that kind would have been regarded as the moft 
unpardonable enormity. 

The Hberty of the prefs was incompatible with fuch maxims and fuch principles 
of government, and was therefore quite unknown in that age. Befides employ- 
ing the two terrible courts of ftar-chamber and hi-h-commmifTion, whofe power 
was unlimited ; Queen Elizabeth exerted her authority by reftraints upon the 
prefs. She pafled a decree in her court of ftar-chamber, that is, by her own 
will and pleafure, forbidding any book to be printed in any place but in Lon- 
don, Oxford, and Cambridge * : And another, in which fhe prohibited, under 
fevere penalties, the publifhing any book or pamphlet againfi the form or mean- 
ing of any rejlraint or ordinance^ contained or to he contained, in any ft at lit e or laws 
of this realm, or in any injimSlion made or fet forth by her Majefly or her privy coun- 
cilt or againft the true ferfe or ineaning of any letters -patent, commiffions or prohi- 
bitions under the great feal of E7igland\, James extended the fame penalties to 
the importing !uch books from abroad J. And to render thofe edicSls more 
effeftual, he afterwards prohibited the printing any book without a permiffion 
from the Archbifhop of Canterbury, the Archbifhop of York, the bifliop of 
London, or the vice chancellor of one of the univerfitieSj or of fome perfon ap- 
pointed by them . 

The manners of the nation were agreeable to the monarchical government, 
Manners. which prevailed , and contained not that ftrange mixture, which, at prefent, di- 
ftinguifnes England from all other countries. Such violent extremes were then 
unknown, of induftry and debauchery, frugality and profufion, civility and ruf- 
ticity, fanaticifm and fcepticifm. Candour, fincerity, modefty are the only qua- 
lities, which the Englifh of that age poflefTed in common with the prefent. 

High pride of family then prevailed ; and it was by a dignity and ftatelinefs 
of behaviour, that the gentry and nobility diftinguifhed thernfelves from the com- 
mon people. Great riches, acquired by commerce, were more rare, and had not, 
as yet, been able to confound all ranks of men, and render money the chief foun- 
dation of diftinftion. Much ceremony took place in the common intercourfe of 
life, and little familiarity was indulged by the great. The advantages, which 
refult from opulence, are fo folid and real, that thofe poffelFed of them need not 
dread the near approaches of their inferiors. The dillindions of birth and title, 

being 

* 2Sth of Eliz. See Ra'c-trjals : Sir Rob. Kni^htlcy, vol, 7. edit. 1. f Rymcr, tcm. xvii, 

p. 522. \ IJ, 2 bid. LL p. 616. 



JAMES I. ,,3 

being more empty and imaginary, foon van Hi u^^oii f.imiliar accefs and ac- ^'^iT-^i^ -' 
quaintance. 

The txp-nces of the great confilU'd in pomp and fliow and .1 numerous retinue, 
rather than in convenience and true pkaluri', I'hc 1 irl of Nottingham, in his 
cmbafTy to Spain, was attended wi:h r^oo [:L'r('^ns : 1 he I'.il ui 1 Ijrttord, in that 
to BrulTcIs, carried jCv) gentlemen along with lu;i]. 

Civil honours, which novv hold the iirft plajc, were, at that time, fubordi- 
nate to the military. The young gentry and nobility were t'ond of difunguilhing 
themlelves by arms. The tury oi duels too prevailed more than at any time be- 
fore or fince. This was the turn, that the romantic chivalry, for wh;ch thj na- 
tujn was formerly fo renowned, had lately taken. 

Liberty of commerce between the lexcs was indulged ; but without any liccn- 
tioufnefs of manners. The court was very little an exception to this obfervation. 
James had rather entertained an averfion and contempt lor the females , nor were 
thofe young courtiers, of whom he was fo fond, able to break thro' the eflabhllied 
manners of the nation. 

TirE country life prevails at prefent in England beyond any nation of Europe, 
except Poland ; but it was then mucli more generally embraced by all tiie gentry. 
The increafe ot arts, ple.ifures, and iocial commerce, was juft beginning to pro- 
duce an inclination for the Ibfter and more civilized Hie of the city. Janies dif- 
couraged, a3 much as [^ollible, elds alteration of manners. " Me was uoiit to be 
*' very earnefl," as Lord Bacon tells us, " with the country- gentlemen to go from 
" i>ondon to their country- leats. And lometimcs he would fay tlrns to t!.e:r. : 
'' CAv;/.'c7/7j';;, .-;/ Lcn.loi^ yen arc Lkc ^iips in a ;h:, iJ.i.b l/:c:v .ikc ':otl.:n^ , lu:,:/: 
" ycur coic}ity:-r::iii!ViS^ )c:i iVt-c jkcji.ips ir: a rl'Vc'r,-iji:ii> /^;,v jkc ;^/c.:: ff.:>:j^;''.'" 

Me was r.ot contented \%i;!i rejifoet and cxho: t.uijn. A3 Queen Elizabeth 
'nid pcrreived, with reg'et, tlie i:.(.;., al:' (! 1 or.dem, ami had reltiain.ed al! j-.ew 
hun(.;!P.!:s by proclamation-, Jan-.es, \vh:) IojiaI tiiartlKl.- eJ.icls were no: exaftlv 
o'.'ey(J, ifetiucntly renewal il/'iv. , tiu)* a llii.t exea:t;un leeir.b iii'l i)\\.\\'^ [\::\ 
wanting. I\e iterated proclanuuiu:ij r.e .iilo iu'ncd, m i:r.ita.::j:: o: ;.:.- pruljceiio:- ; 
containing levcie menaces r.g.nnil tl:e gcntrv, who in.wl in. r . n. ;. Ti.i'; 
policy is contrary to that, winch has ever in en p^muniiL^i I y a.il ^Tn^n-, ''. inj '. nnud 
r!ic increak- of tb.cir auth.ority. Tcj .I'iure the n.ci'^iiity t > cnn;; , r-. , :, ::,e t'neni 
iin ex[r nlive plcMkires or enipicv/pnerif;, V. I/kIi ^ n'rnnre t'ni; ; ;;.n.. , lomcreal.' 
h.ir lnkie(?lion to m niilers by att nid.nuc , to wca.'.en ti..ii- .n..t';..r.;y in ;i.,- jn\)- 
vinc^ s by abfence : Thefe have been t';e rominon. a'; .n nnr.u y govc:r.n"i;n-.:. 

\'en.. I. ( ) r>-^ 



114 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Appendix. But James had no money to fupport a fplendid court, or beflow on a numerous 
retinue of gentry and nobility. He thought too, that, by their living together, 
they became more fenfible of their own ftrength, and were apt to indulge too cu- 
rious refearches into matters or government. To remedy the prefent evil, he v^^as 
defirous of difperfing them into their country feats j where, he hoped, they would 
hear a more fubmilnve reverence to his authority, and receive lefs fupport from 
each other. But the contrary eiiecl foon followed. The riches, amaffed, during 
tiicir rcfidence at home, rendered them independant. The influence, acquired by 
hofpitality, made them formidable. They would not be led by the court : They 
could not be driven : And thus the fyftem of the Englifh government received a 
total and a fudden alteration in the courfe of lefs than forty years. 

The firll rife of commiercc and the arts had contributed, in preceding reio-ns, 
to fcatter thofe immenfe fortunes of the barons, which rendered them, fo formidable 
both to king and people. Tiie farther progrefs of thefe advantages began, durino- 
this reign, to ruin the fmall proprietors of land * j and, by both events, the gentry, 
or that rank which compofed the houfe of commons, enlarged their power and 
authority. The early in-provements in luxury were feized by the greater nobles, 
whofe fortunes, placing them above frugality, or even calculation, were foon dif- 
fipated in expenfive pleafures. Thefe improvements reached at laft all men of 
property ; and thofe of llender fortunes, who, at that time, were often men of fa- 
mily, imntating thofe of a rank immediately above them, reduced themfelves to 
poverty. Their lands, coming to fale, fwelled the eftate of thofe, who poiTefTed 
riches fufiicient for the fafliionable expences i but who were not exempted from 
fome care and attention ro their domeftic oeconomy. 

The gentry alfo of that age were engaged in no expence, except that of coun- 
try hofpitality. No taxes were levied, no wars waged, no attendance at court 
expefted, no bribery or profufion required at elections f. Could human nature 
ever reach happinefs, the condition of the Englilli gentry, under fo mild and be- 
nign a prince, might merit that appellation. 
Tuianccs. The condition of the King's revenue, as it flood in 1617, is thus ftated t. 

Of crown lan:i^, 80,000 pounds a year , by cuRoms and new impofitions, near 
190,000; by wards and ether various branches of revenue, bcfide purveyance, 

iSo,oco 

C.bb:.h, n, 224. f.ili edit. 

t Mc n fc'-'in then to have been ambitious of reprefeatlng the counties, but carclefi of the biirrou'^l;,';. 
A feat, in the i'.oufc was, in itfeh^, of fir.rJ.l iinportancc : Hut tiic former became a point of l-,o;io;jr 
aiiicn^^- the gctitlemcn. Journ, ic. Feb. 1620. Town?, which had formerly ncglcdcd tlicir riffht. of 
f.iidiiig nunihcis, ivjw '>..';';in to chiini it. for.rn. 26. I'eb. 1623. 

t S.^e ;.b!(.act, or biui declai'auon of liis Majdly's revenue, with the allignations and defalcations 
upon the f.*ine. 



J A M E S I. 115 

iSo,oGO. The whole amounting; to 450,^00. The Kin[',*s ordinary di:liir;'c- Ap;>' 
ments, by the Dmc accou.ic, is kwJ. to txccw! this lum t'^i: ty i\\ thoiil.inJ. poin-.Js *. 
All tliC extraordinary (linis, wIv.la he had railed by ll.hfidi.'S, loans, file ofl'.r.ds, 
lale of the title oi baronet, money paid by the liatcs 21 d I y t!u- K;n.; of France, 
benevolences, ire. were, in the whole, about two rr.iilion^., two ivjiulred thaulaini 
pounds, (^i whii.h tl:e l.Jc oi laii.is alVord.cd hjvcn b.Ljndredi and tcvcir.y iivctiiou- 
land pouials. The extraordii'.ary dilliiaien-.ent.s of the King anioun:cb; to tv. o mil- 
lions i bcfide above tour hundred thoufand pounds given in ["refents. l';f)n rhc 
whole, a lufiicient rcafon appears, partly Ironi r.eceliary exrences, partly from 
wa::t of OL'Conomy, why the King, even early in his reign, v.-as very d:eply in- 
volved in debt, and found great dillicuhy to rjp;:ort t!ie govern, nie;.:. 

Farmers, not commillioners, levied th.e cullonis. It feems, indeed, requifi:?, 
that the former metliod fl^.ould always be tried before the latter ; tho' a preferab!- 
one. \Vhcn men's own interelt is coPicerned, tliey fall upon an hundred expedi- 
ents to prevent fraud in the merchants-, an.d thele the public nuy alterwards in-;i- 
tute, in ellablifliing proper rules lor its olllcers. 

'i'iiE cuffoms were fuppolld to amount to fivc/^T rr;;.'. of the value, and were 
levied upon exports, as well as imp^orts. Na^, the impofition v^on exports, by 
James's arbitrary additions, is laid to aniount to twenty five /rr .v/.Y. This prac- 
tice, fo hurtful to indullry, prevails fliU in h ranee, Spain, and moll countries of 
Furope. The cuflom.s in icrj4., yielded 127,000 poun.d.^ a-year ; : Ti'.ey roie to 
Ko,oco })0unds towards the er.d ot the reign J. 

FvTLRinsi dnniing tliis reign, was never below eight /cv uw/ ; An indication, of 
the great profits arid Imall {.rogrcfs of comtiieree. 

All th.e extraorc'.inary liippiies granted by t'le j)arranK'nr, during t'vs wliolc 
reif^n, aniounted not to more than ('j.j,o0(3 pou,.ds ; v, !rch, divided air.ong twer;ty 
one years, m.akc-s ',^0,000 pounbis a-ve.u'. I do not ineludie thofe iupp'i-s, aniount- 
ii-cr to ^00,0 ';0 pound , wi.ien were g'".en the Kinig by Ins lall pn'n-'n,.nn.e::t. I'liele 
v.n're paid in to iln ir c n^milh ;ners ; .nn! tbe cxpene;; of :::e Spandh .var v,n,'.b J 
i e mucl\ nu)re than kilncient lu cxinmil t!;eni. 'lli-: inilredbd Innn'v 0: ti.j I'a- 
latine was a great burtb.en on Jaii^^s, {inrnig part oi ii:<^ reign. Ti:e Ivnni. :: n^ulL 
be owned, poi^biled no: Irugaliiy. pre;; 01 ti'nied to the ixtien;e narr.>wn ; oi in> 
revenue. Splendid equipages, hov.\-.\ ;, !.. did not afbe.;;-, n'^r I'-'k'v r.n'nnnrn, 
TiOr a luxurious table, r.or p.mdigal n^diULli^s. I li'. bi, b.un ' ' n e not ibnvn- 
ri'.ous ; tho' the bani|ue:ting-'un.le nv^iii. r.or be torgut, a. ,1 u'o inricn!, \v'i,e!i 
dioes honour to his reign, ilunnng was Ins chief annnui. nn.eir., t;ie (,::e.'peil y]-.:- 



( > 



" '1 iic (AtT, \va,^ ri-;;r.!.!'v t',:c.e. r, 
t b).:!n. .: i ol" M.iy, r. w..). 



ii6 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. | 



Appendix, fure in which a king can indulge hinifelf. His expences were the efTedls of libe- 
rality, rather than of luxury. 

One day, 'tis faid, while he was (landing amidft fomc of h/is courtiers, a por- 
ter palTed by, loaded with money, which he was carrying to the treafury. The 
King obferved, that Rich, afterwards Earl of Holland, one of his handfome agree- 
able favourites, whifpered fomewhat to one {landing near him. Upon enquiry, 
he found, that Rich had faid, How happy ivould that money make me I Without 
hefitation, James bellowed it all upon him, tho' it amounted to 3000 pound?. 
He added. Ton think your f elf 'very happy in ohtainiyig [0 large a fiim \ but I am more 
happy ^ in having an opportunity of obliging a iiwrthy man, zvhom I love. The gene- 
rofity of James was more the refult of a benign humour or light fancy than of rea- 
fon or judgment. The objects of it were fuch as could render themfelves agree- 
able to him in his loofe hours ; not fuch as were endowed with great merit, or 
^vho poflefled talents or popularity, which could flrengthen his intcrefl with the 
people. 

Subsidies and fifteenths are frequently mentioned by hiflorians , but nei- 
ther the amount of thefe taxes, nor the method of impofing them, have been wtII 
explained. It appears, that the fifteenths formerly correfponded to the name, and 
were that proportionable part of the moveables*. But a valuation being made, 
during the reign of Edward III. that valuation was always adhered to, and each 
town paid unalterably a particular fum, which tliil/ themfelves afTefied upon the 
inhabitants. The fame tax in corporate towns was called a tenth ; probably, be- 
caufe there it was, at firft, a tenth of the moveables. The v/hole amount of a 
tenth and fifteenth thro' the kingdom, or a fifteenth, as it is often more concifely 
called, was about 29,000 pounds -[. The amount of a fubfidy was not invari- 
able, like that of a fifteenth. In the eighth of Elizabeth, a fubfidy amounted to 
120,000 pounds: In the fortieth, it was not above 78,000 J. It afterv/ards fell 
to 70, coo , and was continually decreafing jl. The reafon is eafily colleded from 
the method of levying it. We may learn from the fubfidy bills **, that one fub- 
fidy was given for four (hillings in the pound on land, and two fliillings and eigiit 
pence on moveables throughout the counties ; a confiderabletax, had it been Ilridly 
levied. But this was only the antient (late of a fubfidy. During the reign of 
James, there was not paid the fiftieth part of that fum. The tax was fo far per- 
fonal, that a man paid only in the county where he lived, tho' he fiiould polfcfs 
tfhates in other counties > and the affefTors formed a loofe eftimation of his pro- 
perty, 

* Coke Inll. book iv. cnp. ] . Of fifteens, quinzins. [ Kl. fiibfidics temporary. 

X Jouin. u July if- 10. \\ Coke's Inlt. book iv, chap. i. Subfidics temporary, 

** See lUuutcs at large. 



J A M E 



I. 



-'7 



ptrty, and rated him accordingly. To [)rercrvc, liO'.vcvcr, fuine rule in tlv: efti- AppcnJv. 

m.irion, it fccms to h ive bxn tlic p:a5'.icc: to keep .m eye to lomiL-r all' iTinciits, and 

to rare every man according as ins anccllor.s, or nu ii cr Ijc'i an cllinMrvd pro- 

jXTty, were accullon-ieJ. to pay. This v.as a luincicnt rc>i!on, v.l.y ri'bfid'.cs cou'd 

not increalc, nutwidillamiirg the great ii.crealc ot money ..:;vi ri!e (A re:.:'.. Vut 

tliere Uah an evit-'ent r^alon, wiiy t'ney continually decreaied. 'i'i.e l.ivi air, as 

is natural to luppjle, ran aKva\-s a<'ainil the cro-.vn , el[ieria.ly chiring tlx- l..:-er 

cnJ. 01 I-.ii/..roeLn, wiien lublidics became nunKTous and Ireq'jent, aiK* ;I-.c Turns 

levied, were confiderable. '1 he allinbrs, tho' accullomed to iiave an eye to:crmcr 

<'lli!r.arions, were nor bound to oblerve any liich rule , but niijht rate anew 

any p; rlbn, according to his p'relenL income. When rents idi, or parts or an 

fiiate were luld oi", the proprietor was lure to reprelent thele I'-liV, and obtain a 

dinV:nAi:ion ot his lubfidy , but where rents role, ov new lands were purc!.a'-\', nc 

k-j t his own fecrer, and. [aid: no more than tc^rmerly. The advatitage, tii rctore 

or every ciiange was tak;-n a:^ainfl tb.e crown ; and t!// crown co..; ! obtain the 

advantage oi none. Av.d t>; make the matter worfe, t.'i>,' alterations, svhicli iiap- 

j.en:\i id property during this age were, in general, u.nfavourable to tlie crown. 

TIk- Imal! pr )prietors, or twenty pound men, went continually to de^ay -, and 

\\hc-a t!i;ir ellates w^eie fwa lowed up by a greater, the new purchailr ir.crealed 

rut his lublldy. So luoie ind.eed i^ tiie whole metliOvl of rating lubfidie?, that tiie 

wo der was not how tiie tax IhouLi contnvually dnr-unriii luit how it y. elded any 

v-vcnuQ a: ail. It became a: lail lo iiiequal an ; unceiTain, tiiat tiie parliament was 

-djl'g-d to change it lor a land tax. 

The price ot corn, dindng tliis reign, and by confequcnce, that of tiic other 
ivecelTaries of lite, was no lower, or was rather higher, thoii at prek'nt. Hv .i 
^)rocianiation of James, efbablilliiiig p'ublic magazines, whenever wlie.it tell b-Jow 
tlnrty twt) ll^illings a quarter, rye below eigliteen, barley below lixtcen, the coni- 
miirioners were emp.owered to p.ir.d-iale corn tor the magazines*. Tlude prices 
then are to be regarded as luw tlio' tliey would pals t( r high by our prc- 
lent ekimation. i he bell wo d, during the greatell part oi Jam,es's reign, \\as 
at thirty three fliiliings a tod : At preknt, it is not above two thirds or t!iat va- 
lue , tiio' It is to be j relunvd, tliat our exports in wookn goods are coidider.ibly 
increafed. Idie liner manulaclures too. by the progrefs or art and iiuk.dry, have 
been kept pretty near at tlie Ia:i e v;due, it they have not rather dimindlievi, not- 
withilanding tlic great increalc oi m.M.ey. In .Sh.i!<.elpe.ir, the hoilels tells l-'allkifT, 
that the fliirts five bou'dit him v.ere d..)ii.uid .:t ei.dit Ihiilings a yard , a very In^eh 
T'ticc at this d.ay, even luppoling, wha: ib n^-. t probabJe, tiiaC the b.ll holi.u^d at th.it 

tin:c 

Rynic;-, torn. ,\vii. p. ^ , 



ii8 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Appendix, time was equal In goodnefs to the befl which can now he purchafed. In like man- 
ner, a yard of velvet, about the middle of Elizabeth's reign, was valued at two 
and twenty lliillings *". I have not been able by any inquiry to learn tl)e common 
price of butcher meat during the reign of James : But as bread is the chief article of 
food, and its price regulates that of every thing elfc, we may prefume, that cattle 
bore a high value as well as corn. Befides, we mud confider, that the general 
turn of that age, which no lav/s could prevent, was the converting arable land into 
pafture : A certain proof that the latter was found more profitable, and confe- 
quently that all butcher meat, as well as bread, v/as confiderably higher than at 
prefent. We have a regulation of the market with regard to poultry and fome 
other articles, very early in Charles Vs reign -f- ; and the prices are high. A tur- 
key cock four fhillings and fixpence, a turkey hen three IhilHngs, a pheafantcock 
fix fliillings, a pheafant hen five fliillings, a partridge one fliiliing, a goofe two 
fhillings, a capon two and fixpence, a pullet one and fixpence, a rabbit eight 
pence, a dozen of pigeons fix fhillings. We mufb confider, that London at pre- 
fent is more than three times the bulk it was at that time. A circumftance, 
which much increafes the price of poultry and of every thing that cannot conve- 
niently be brought from a diflance. The chief difference in cxpence between that 
age and the prefent confifts in the imaginary wants of men, which have fince ex- 
tremely multiplied. Thefe are the principal reafons, why James's revenue would 
go farther than the fame money in our time ; tho' the difference is not fo great as 
is ufually imagined. 

The public was entirely free from the great danger and expence of a ftanding 
army. While James was vaunting his divine vicegerency, and boaRing of an al- 
molt unlimited prerogative, he poffelfed not fo much as a fingle regiment of guards 
to maintain his extenfive claims : A fufficient proof, tliat he fincerely believed his 
pretenfions to be well grounded, and a flrong prefumption, that they v/ere at leaft 
built on what were then deemed plaufible arguments. The militia of England, 
amounting to 160,000 men:}:, were the fole defence of thekingdom. 'Tis pretended, 
that they were kept in very good order during this reign . The city of London pro- 
cured officers, who had ferved abroad, and who taught the trained bands their excr- 
cifes in artillery garden -, a pradice, which had been difcontinued fince 15S8. All 
the counties of England, in emulation of the ca])ital, were fond of fiiowing a well 
ordered and well appointed militia. The natural propenfity of men towards mili- 
tary fliows and exercifcs will always be fufiicient, with a little attention of the fove- 



* See a conipcnclium or dialogue inferted in the Memoirs of Wool. chap. 23. f Rymer torn. 

xix. p. 5 1 I . I Journ. i. March 162-;. Stowc. See alfo Sir Walter Raleigh of the prero- 

gatives of parliament, and Johulloni liiil. lib. 18. 



JAMES I. 1,5 

rcign, to excire nnd fupport this fpiric in any natifin. The very boy?, at this time, Appendix. 
i;i niiniickry of thrir elders, inlilU-d th'.'mfclves voluntarily into companies, elected 
olicers, and praclifcd th difcipline, of which the niodcls were every day cxpo- 
fd. to ti'.rir view *. Sir Kd.ward Harwood, in a nun^onal compofed at the 
bcginnin^r of the f:h!cqi;enc reign, lays, that Kin^land v.i, fo un; luvidcd of 
h )rll-s 1;: for v.v:, that i ^^o men could not p<j!]ibly be nicnuurd throughout the 
who!- k:;'j^;v!om ". At prefc;;t, th- h;\ed ol li';rfes is fo nK.c'Mmprovcd, t!uc 
ahr.i,d a!! tiiofe cniployed, cither lor the [)!ouijh, v,-ag;^;on, or co^ch, wouLi befit 
for tiiat purj^ole. 

'I'l;:: diford.T- of Irclind obliged James to keep up fonie forces tliee, nnd put 
\\\'^^ to a great expence. The common pay ot a private man in ti>c inhMirv wa^ 
ti^Iu pence a day, a lieutenant two iliilluii^s, an teifign eii^l-itee;; pen^e ;. i lie 
armies in I'.urope were not r.c.u" fo numerous, during that age ; and tl-.e private 
m '.n, we may obil rve, were drawn horn a better raeii-; than at preien:, and ap- 
I roaching nearer to tluit ot tlie o.eicers '. 

In t'e.e year i .;S ^ there wis a general review n\'u!e of all the men in Fno-- 
land capable ( f bearing arm.^ -, a'v.i tiiele were lound to ainount to 1,172000 
men, ae.e'i\:';e.g to Raleigh . It ;s impofTible to warrant ti'.e exactnefs of tliis 
c^nrutation ; o: ratlicr, we may tairly {)refLime it to be f mewiiat inaccurate. 
I;i.: :! it a;.rr(<aLlied near the truth, Kngianci has probably, lie.ce t!iat time, in- 
creased. !r,u; '. in populouiiiel'^-. The growth vA London, in ric!;es and beautv, as 
v. ii as lUKT.bers of inhal;::ants, has been pro.iigicru-. From r -e.s it doubleil 
every forty yeai's * * ; .uvd conlequently in lOio, i: co:uaincdi iujr tlnie- .is many 
iidiabitai'ts, as at the be;j.,;nning ot tb.e ceiitury. It l'..".s ever iv en tire v.e.:-.:e:- of 
all the trade in the kmgcom , and almoll the oiily towri wiilcii ..ffords fo.ietvand 
an-.ulement. TiiC affection, uluvh the Mn.glilh bc.ir u a cvuiitry life, makes the 
p.rovnv'-Kd towns be little frequented by the gentry. Not'niig but tiie aiiuieir.enti 
of the capital, wliich is fav. urrd by the rcHdence wi I'-.e uie.g, by Ix'iiig ::',e feat 
(,r e, v i.M, .nt, and of all ilie courts ot jullicc, ca;! pT^vad over their paflion ibr 
tb.L:;- rural v:;las. 

l.o>:noN, at this time, was almoft intirely bui't o! wo.;.], ar.vi in ceery e- 
r:e/t, v.'as certai:div a very ugly city. I'iic riari of Aruridel tinl in';i!j.u .d 
tiie practice oi brick buildings '; ; . 



Ti:. 



St^vc. (- 111 -IK" H:',r!'v:"i nii;'(-c!!:'.iiv, vfl. iv. p. 

1 ' ' ;';' , (' ! i:T v. .:rr iii!l or ;i ' ; 'icr r;rik. Tl 

;, 1 . ;;-\nt <it" lrc!:nu!, h.'.l lor li;. p.iv ut" h... .::. 

.;,.[ tour p:iu c- .1 il.'.v, tor hi, I;ill.\^l.^ t\">n ;'. 

. ^,. ,!e ,^v \c V, i;,i! ;n ;i a\.'., :! .'. J.!v. Si' 1 'y : 



120 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN, 

Appendix. The navy of England was eftcemed very formidable in Elizabeth's time, yet 
it confifted only of thirty three fhips befides pinnaces * : And the largeft of thefe 

Navy. would not equal our fourth rates at prefent. Raleigh advifes never to build a {hip 

of war above 600 tuns-f. James was not negligent of the navy. In five years, 
preceding 1623, he built ten new fhips, and expended fifty thoufand pounds a 
year on the fleet, befide the value of thirty fix thoufand pounds in timber, which 
he annually gave from the royal forefts J. The largeft fliip that ever had come 
from the Englifh docks, was built during this reign. She was only 1400 tuns, 
and carried fixty four guns ||. The merchant fhips, in cafes of neccfTity, were 
converted inftantly into Ihips of war. 

Comtwerce. Every fefTioa of parliament, during this whole reign, we meet with grievous 
lamentations of the decay of trade and the growth of popery : Such violent pro- 
penfity have men to complain of the prefent times, and to entertain difcontents 
againft their fortune and condition. The King himfelf was deceived by thefe po- 
pular complaints, and was at a lofs to account for the total want of money, which 
he heard fo much exaggerated . It may however be affirmed, that, during no 
preceding period of Englifli hiftory, was there a more fenfible increafe, than 
during the reign of this monarch, of all the advantage's, which diftinguifh a 
fiourifhing people. Not only the peace which he maintained, was favourable to 
induftry and commerce : His turn of mind inclined him to promote the peaceful 
arts : And trade being as yet in its infancy, all additions to it muft have been the 
more evident to every eye, which was not blinded by melancholy prejudices * *. 

By 

* Coke's inft book iv. cliap. i. Confukatlon in parliament for the navy. 

f- By Raleigh's account, in his difcourfe of the firft invention of Ihipping, the fleet in the twenty 
fourth of the Q^ee.i, confifted only of thirteen fliips, and were augmented afterwards eleven. lie 
piobably reckoned fonie pinnaces, which Coke called fiiips. 

'I Journ. 1 ith of March 1623. Sir William Monfon makes the number amount only to lu'ne nc<v 
fhips. p. 7.53. 11 Stowe. Ryr.ier, torn. xvii. p. 41:^. 

** That of the honeft hillorian Stowe feems not to ha\'e been of this number. '' Tlie g"-at blef- 
*' fings of God, fays he, thro' increafe of wealth in the common fubjecls of thij land, efpccialiy upon 
*' the citizens of London ; fuch within men's memory, and chiefly within thefe few years oi' peace, 
" that, exc<pt thc:e were now due mention ot fome fort made thereof, it would in time to come 
'' be held incredible, tjc." In another place, ' Amongll the manifold tokens and figns of the in- 
" nite bltfiiiigs of Almighty Ciod bellowed upon this kingdom, by the wondrous and merciful efta- 
'' blirriiu'.r of peace within ourielves, an 1 the full benefit of concord w-ith all chriillan nations, and 
'' otherh : Of all which graces let no man dare to prcfume he can fpcak too much ; whereof in truth 
" there can never be enough faid, neither was there ever any people lefs confideratc and lefo thank- 
'' ful than at this time, being not willing to endure tivc memory of their prcf;ut happinefe, 

" as 



J A M E S I. 121 

By an account*, whi. h fcenvs juwiciou<^ ar, i accurate, it appears, that ail tlv Ap-cr. ;.s. 
fcamen, employed in t!ic merchant icrvicc, amountctl ro i odoo men, which jio- 
ba'oly txcccds not tlic fixtli part of tiicir prclcrit nuirilx-r. ^ir I homas Overb'jvy 
favs, that the Dutch poficjlVcd three times m(jrc lhi[^pini; ti.an the l.n^iifh, but 
that their fliips were o\ inferior burden to thofc of the larter . Sir \Vi!!:am 
Monlbn computed tiie LngHfli naval power to be little or nothing inferior to the 
Dutch +. 

A catalogue of the manufaclurcs, for which the Knglilh were then eminent, M.ir.Lr..d.:e' 
would appear very contemptible, in comparilon of thole, which Hounlh among 
them at prefent. Almoft all the more elaborate and curious arts were only culti- 
vated abroad, ])articu;arly in Italy. Ship-building and toundmg or irun-cannc.n 
were the fole, in which the Knglifh excelled. 1 hey Teem, indeed, to have poflcf- 
fed alone the Iccret of the latter , and great complaints were made every parlia- 
n.ent againft the exportation of Knglifh ordnance. 

NiN'E tenths of the commerce of the kingdom confifled in woolen goods;!. 
Wool, liowever, was allowed to be exported, till tlie 19th of tlic King. Irs e.x* 
portation was then forbid by proclamation -, tho* that cdi:l was never l^riiftly ex- 
ecuted. Moll of the cloth was exported raw, and was dyed and drefltd by the 
Dutch ; who gained, 'tis pretended, 730,000 pounds a-year by this manufacture 
A prohibition, illlied by the King, to export cloth in that condition, had fucceedtd 
fo ill, during one year, by the refufal ol the Dutch to buy the drclVed cloth, 
th.it great murmurs arofe againft it ; and this mcafure was retracted by the King, 
and complained of by the nation, as if it had been the mofl- impolitic in the world. 
It fecms indeed to have been {Mcmature. 

In- fo little credit was the fine I'.nglilli cloth even .it honic, th.it tl-;e King was 
obliged to feek expeilients, by wliich he mi.;'i: engine the people of tafliion to wear 
ii '*. T!i.'- manufaclure of line linnen was t(^t.i!Iy unknov.n in tb.e kingdom ^-^. 

Vni. I. U Thi: 

^ " :n I'r.c .r'^-.K-]'..] i, r-....n. nf ^onirn Tic :.:;J l'-..t':c thrw'out ;!'; k;:v iii^n c^'C.lt buil iine -t" 
* T-.a'. (l.r.v ar..i hv i^ri'. .itc ni ' ii;.: : , tiiL- !i--pc(>]/i:"> of ri:i-j , t'i\\n , av.A .:'!'.(;.<, holl.io Utc 
" ii-.,li;c riii'lr :.:.-'. ! ; iv'o;i :-..':'.:: c: !..:r .-I'lii coillv luii.(iui;^s ;. - xs cli v,-i'Jiin tl.J c:tv et J.oiuio.. 

'I'hc f.:.'.'- irr:tM!-i:, t':c ll,.ri:^.L:. ;;i;u. \o!. :.;. 

: Na-..,1 'l'-:-:.. p. ;:,;. ;, :. 



122 n I S T O R Y OF GREAT B R I T A I N, 

Appendix. 'j-HE company of merchant-adventurers, by their patent, poflefTed the {oh 
conia^erce of woolen goods, tho' the ftaple commodity of the nation. An at- 
tempt, made during the reign of Elizabeth, to lay open this important trade, had 
been attended with bad confeqiiences for a time, by a confpiracy of the merchant- 
adventurers, not to make any purchaf^s of cloth ; and the Queen immediately 
rcdored them their patent. 

ThcY were groundlefs fears of a like accident, that enflaved the nation to- 
thofe exclufive companies, which confined fo much every branch of commerce 
and induftry. The parliament, however, annulled, in the third of the King, 
the patent of the Spanifh company ; and the trade to Spain, which was, at firtt, 
very infignificant, foon becam.e the moft confiderable in the kingdom. 'Tis 
flrange, that they were not thence encouraged to abolifn all the other companies, 
and that they went no farther than obliging them to enlarge their bottom, and to 
facilitate the entrance of new adventurers. 

A board of trade was erefted by the King in 1622 *. One of the reafons, 
affigned in the commiflion, is to renicdy the low price of wools, which begot 
complaints of the decay of the woolen manufadory. 'Tis more probable, however 
that this fall of prices proceeded from the increafe of v^ool. The King like- 
ways recommends it to the commifnoners to inquire and examine, whether a 
greater freedom of trade and an exemption from the reftraintof exclufive compa- 
nies, would not be beneficial. Men were then fettered by their own preju- 
dices , and the King was juftly afraid of embracing a bold meafure, the confequences 
of which might be uncertain. The digefling of a navigation-ad, of a like nature 
with the famous one executed afterwards by the republican parliament, is Jikeways 
recommended to the commifHoners. The arbitrary powers, then commonly affumed 
i:iy t'lC privy council, appear evidently thro' the whole tenor of the commiffion, 

'Till: f.lk manufadure had no footing in England : But, by James's diredion> 
nuiibcrry-trces were planted, and filk-worms introduced f. The climate feems 
:.verfc to the execution of this projed. 

(ikr: -INLAND is thought to have been difcovered during this reign ; and the 
v.hale-nihery was carried on with great fuccefs .- But the induftry of the Dutch, in 
f: >.e Gi' ail oj^pofidon, foon deprived the Englifh of this fource of riches. A com- 
pany was crtCLed for the difcovcry of the north-well pafiage ; and many fruitlefs 
:.iv_ v, ; V L-.'- mcidc for that purpofe, [n fuch noble projeds, defpair ought never 
to h-s c..\:v.'.:~x\\^ till tile abiblute impolfibility of fuccefs be fully afcertained. 

1'he p,i.fn;[f;': to the Eafl- Indies had been opened to the EngliHi during the reign 
of iji,'..i'"/:t;i ', i.jt the tradiC to thofe parts ol the worki was not entirely eilablifhed, 
t,': l:-:. :t;^.:. \\h':ni' j- l':?.u India-cumpaiiy received a new patent, enlirged their 

4 (lock 



J A M E S I. 



! ." 



(lo^kto i5(?o,oco poundb ", tua! .-U'.! o-x k v 



jr/.u, tiKV built a \'c;\-i o{ i2-;or..n, tl.c l.'.r; 
h.iJ cvir known. S:;c v.\;,s up.iui tiina:-, an J. ; 



T.I' 



- o;i 



Ih 



' i > 



.A.vcn:.ir 



J- v.T'. V !;. In i o : i , 

r..inv.: i:\c f \'.t.i! cn^ 

vi.'iorv cv-T 

n ; ;i I V v- 1. ' ' 

guilty ol ^:t'i: i;, juries toward- tb-c l'"r,g!ifii, in cxj-c!/!:':; n:a:r, 

1^, , ;.-,T^ f'w.ir 1, r r '/>rn/i->re 1^ i i r rli/>(^ \; will -^-^ vi- > |- 



u la.u,.- iii'i' of ti.c con^pany, aflllud ly a^ ., ..... 

a<'c:iu-nts with a fcjuaJ.ron of 1\ rtu^'icfe, a;.d g.i.kAl a cow 'a: 

iurccs ir.uch Ijpcri T. During the full juing ye-^s t!.'j l);.:i;i c ; 
1. ,.i- ._. ... .,..;.., ,...1. ,1,.. i.\-^i;n, ;.> .^.-...., . r,-.,,.. ... 



o; tn :r 



a ; r^.; i 



and elcllro) ir.g tiicir kttlcincnts : But ihcfc vio!c:u";;b wc: j 

fpiriL by ciiccourtof Lr.ghnd. A naval torcc v as d^i.-ppd i.r.d r thj 1 :>.ri of 

Oxford's and lay in wait for the return o; tn.c Dutch I ..!l I; c'i i f; t r V>\ <: x 



(Jxrord r, ana lay in wait lor cnc return o; in.c i^uccn i ..;li;c.;i ;. t r i.\ : ;i- 
lo.n of crofs winds, Oxford tailed of his purpofc, ar.d the Dut^'.i I'l.ipK-d. .S^n^ 
tunc after, onj l"hip, full of riches was ta!:en by \'iCL'-.ubn.irai Mirwin .^nd i' 
\va^. ilipulatcd by the Dutch to pay 70,000 pounds to tlu I'.nglbn con.pa-y, in r ::- 
fidcration of the injuries, which that company liad fu.Terui t. B t rcit'-.er tins 
Ai'-ulat'.on, nor the fear ol reprisals, nor t'lC Ibnlc of tf.a: i.-ivn.d !.!-, whici! f..'^- 
fifled between r'ngbuu: and the Hates, could reilrain tl^- avidity of tl^.c L/u-(.!i 
company, or render tiicm ec]uitab!e in their pi(Kccdi.,;;s tow.ir.'.s the.r ai!:-;s. In.;- 
patbnt to b.ave Ible poflelnon ot the Ipice-trad.e, which tlu 1 rglid-i ihcn flMrc.i 
widith.m, tliey allumed a jurifdiction over a factory of the latUT in t!;v iibin.; of 
Ambovna j and under very i 1 probable, and even ablurd pretcntes, fei/.ed .il! :h,- 
f,-'.cb;rs with their {anv.llcs and \ utthcm to death wirh the nioll in'u.niani tv.^r'urei,. 
Tids difnial news arrived \\\ I-'.r.gland at th.e titr-e, wlien janies, by t!:e [ reiu.;:ee< 
ol his ib.bjcrjis and t:ie intr'-gues oi Ids tavonte, wastor.i-d ;r.to a bieach v.-.tii 
SpaiPi i and he was obliged, liUer loir.c reir.uiilrances, t<; a^\;ui.l.c bn. rid- i ,d g_ 
r.ity Irrwn a Hate, wh'jle .dllance was now beee^nie ne^ebary to h;m. " I'i,. reiv,.ub- 
a:,le, that the liation, alnujil wi'di.ait a nvara}Ui', fubm;t[ed to tb.b'; i; u.-y f: .ni 
the.;- [--roteuant cerilederaUa i ar. i..jury, wlueh, l\;,i.!e.-> tlic Ikt;!. cncrn::- 



tv c;! me a^' ; n, v. .is ot nu;. h 
t'r.ofe wldch tf.iy w\ie I ) iin^ ,:' 
Wbi \ i" c' '''" ' '-' ' 



cb (. I > r nil, ort.iure w) national in 't i . il, t!..i;i .dj 
nc L(/ ri. 1 nt ;i' ir. ibe lui'.-!e (d Auilna. 

ued ,' I'ende; ^ :i-,e reign (ji J.un s ineniorai le, i;- the c niniene.. n:ent 
of the b.ngii;]; C'dunis ni .Xfiu.iea :, Cv);on!es e.bibiidied on b;e nubivd '.^\):\r:: 
thatlnii b e.i knwwii in .i;.v .1 : or naLi('n. 'i'be Sp-ui.irds, b>:\ 
covtreisot tiier.ev. wt;bb inin ebn.u !y too!-, p-j.'eilbn o! [in. 
there; ai^b i v ri:(: aibin.n.nt o: ri at 



t. 



wiiich di,v 
1 . n' 



y ri:(: aibna .n. nt o: 
:).'. n ("(>nr.'i'',' a- v. eii a.s b.i.u 
w br'v ' i a\dvlit , .1:, : \- / ' 



iTeeK.i.s rni:--, 
r;.i^'-, ti,,y v.e:j 
1 til V C en:n.e- , > 



adv.r.f^r..r m b., le u.- 



1 / e ' 



wbi 

."0..1L 



. t 1 1 , 



124 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Appendix, glefted, Vv'hich reaches from St. Auguftine to Cape Breton, and which lies in all 
the temperate climates, is watered by noble rivers, and offers a fertile foil, but no- 
thing more, to the induftrious planter. Peopled gradually from England by the 
necefiltovis and indigent, who, at home, increafed neither wealth nor populoufnefs, 
the colonies, which were planted along that trafl, have promoted the naviga- 
tion, encouraged the induftry, and even multiplied the inhabitants of their mo- 
ther-country. The fpirit of independency, which was reviving in England, here 
ihone forth in its full luftre, and received nev/ accelTion of force from the afpi- 
r';ngchara<fler of thofe, who, being difcontented with the eftablifhed church and 
monarchy, had fought for freedom amidft thofe favage defarts. 

Queen Elizabeth had done little more than given a name to the continent 
of Virginia ; and after planting one feeble colony, which quickly decayed, 
that country was intirely abandoned. But when peace put an end to the war. 
like enterprizes againft Spain, and left ambitious fpirits no hopes of making 
any longer fuch quick advances towards honour and fortune, the nation began to 
fccond the pacific intentions of its monarch, and to feek a furer, tho' flower 
expedient, for acquiring riches and glory. In 1 606, Newport carried over ^ 
colony and began a fettlement ; which the company, erefled by patent for that 
purpofe in London and Briftol, took care to fupply with yearly recruits of pro- 
vifions, utcnfils, and new inhabitants. About 1609, Argal difcovered a more 
diredl and fhorter palTage to Virginia, and left the trad of the ancient naviga- 
tors, who had firfl direfled their courfe fouthwards to the tropic, failed weft- 
ward by means of the trade-winds, and then turned northward, till they reach- 
ed the EngliHi fettlements. The fame year, five hundred perfons under Sir 
Tiiornas Gates and Sir George Somers were embarked for Virginia. Somers's 
flvip, meeting with a ttmpeft, v/as driven into Bermudas, and laid the founda- 
tion of a fettlement in thofe iflands. Lord Dclawar afterwards undertook the 
government of the Englifli colonies : But notwlthftanding all his care, fecond- 
ea bv fupplies from James, and by money raifed from the firft lottery ever known 
in the kingdom, fuch difficulties attended the fettlement of thefe countries, that, 
in 1614, there were not alive more than 400 men, of all that had been fent thi- 
ther. After fjpplying themfclves witii provifions more immediately requifite 
for the fupport of life, the new planters began the cultivating tobacco j and 
]am:s notv/itliilanding his antipathy to that drug, gave them permiiTiOn to enter 
!l in Lillian! , and he prohibited all importation from Spain*. By degrees, new 
coloriiis were rfrabli^ned in that continent, and gave new names to the places 
v.i.er" 'I'c/ fetri'.J, f.avif-.g tf.at o{~ Virginia to the province firft planted. The 
if'and of B?.;ba..'of:. v.\is alio planted in this reign. 

Spicu- 



J A M E S I. 12-5' 

Sprcur.ATivE reafonerf:, diirin^r th.it age, raited n\-iny ohj'.^"' :/ to t'lO Ap;cndx. 
pianriin'; thoie rcmcjte colonics , and foretold, tlur, after draiiiinp, t'l', ir niothc- 
counrrv of inha'.MtantF, they would foon fliake oh her yc>!cc, and trcv't. an ir.- 
dependent povcrnnvnt in America: But time hasihov. -, that the viiws, 
tertained bv thole \s!k) encouraged luch generous under:. ikir.L;^, \\\:c iroi.- 'Mt: 
and folid. A nVild government and grer.t naval forre have piclcrvcd, vaA iray 
lonc> nre-fcrve tlie dominion ot b'.n<2;'iand over her cohjni; 5. Ar.d. kith advaiuaLe 
have con-mrrce and navigation reap.d from tlulr cfiahlifl'iment-', th .t ir.ore :i'..-n 
a fourth of the I'.nglifh ihipp/ing is at prefent com-puted to be cniployed in ca:rv;,ii!; 
on the traffic v/ith th,e American fettiemcrits. 

AcRicriTiRL was antieiitlv very im;\r:c\-L in I'".n^^Iand. Ti.c ki '.c^cn 
tranfitions, fo often mentioned by luflori.iiis, tr; m rfic lowell to t!ic hifj^hell 
])rices of grain, and the prodigious inequ.ilicy of its value in diliercnt year-;, are 
iufficient proof?, that the pro. luce depended iniirely on the JLafon, and that art 
had, as yet, done nothing to fence againfl tlic inpiries of the heavens. Durirg 
this reign, coniiderabic improvements were niacic, as in moil art?, fo in thisi 
the moll beneficial of any. A numerous catalogue might be formed of books 
and pamphlets, treating of hulbandry, \shich were wrote about this vjvx. 
'i"he nation, howevi r, was flill dependant on foreigners tor daily bread ; and 
tho' Its exportation of grain now form? a confiderable branch ci its commerce, 
iiotwithllanding its increafe ol people, there was, at that time, a regular im.port 
from the Baltic as well as from brancci and if ever it ilopped, the bad cor.fe- 
tjuences were very fenfibly felt by the nation. Sir Walter Raleigh in his obler- 
vatiop.s compute?, that two niiilons went out at one ti:ve lor corn. It w,is nt)t 
till tr.e fifth of b.lr/.abeth, that the ex[^ortarion of cc^rn iiati ever bt m allc>Aed 1,1 
b.ngiaiul :, and Canuien oblerve?, that agr:cultLiie, from tli..L moiuej.t, received 
new life and vigour. 

'I'm. endeavours ol" Jan:es, (r m(M'e jToperly freaking, thofe ot tlv,' nation, 
fur the promotion ol trade, were actciide'l wilIi greater kicccN tii.in :..uk' for t!;e 
t ncour.igenient of learning. 'i ho' the ag,e v.\;^ bv no :r.ear,s ikili'.ute ot e;r.'.- 
nent writer?, a verv ba ! tafte in g. r^r.;! [re'/.ul. d durii.g tl.ar pe: : .).; ; and ti.e 
n^.onareh liimlell wa.'^ not a little iniected wiff. ir. 

On' tiie c vigin of letti r:-. :ii!U)n!; the (i:e.k'-. 'l.c i""- r.'.:.-, o: - o S :'!:-,d iTa- 
to.s, as might naturallv bctxp eU'd, \v.v> t!illi;i'-;u:'1ie ! bv a:i a:r:,.ble km- kcirv . l. 
v.hicli, whatever ruder, e:s iv.-.w Vrr-tln^;? ;;:i' od it, 1 lo i/' d to e\;i e;s t!^c 
g' nuu.c movements (<f in'ure and pallion, t':;r the ; (^ ,m )!Ui.^:iS p: (k i'ed o! it, 
:-:.ill fur e\ei- a- p.'ar Valuable to tiiC diic^inirg j;a;: ot mankiod. Ti^e i\\.\r\i::\ 

\'^- ur .^ 



126 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Appendix, figures of circourfe, the pointed antithefls, the unnatural conctit, the jingle of 
words ; fuch falfe ornaments are not employed by early writers ; not becaufe they 
were rej-cled, but becaufe tliey icarce ever occurred to them. An cafy, unfor- 
ced firain of fentiment runs thro' their compofitions; tho* at the fame time we 
i))jy obferve, that, amidil the moii elegant fimplicity of thought and exprefTion, 
one is fometimes furprifcd ro meet with a poor conceit, which had prefented it- 
felf Uiifought for, and which the author had not acquired critical obfervation 
enough to condemn*. A bad tade feizes with avidity thefe frivolous beauties, 
and even perhaps a good tafte, 'ere furfeited by theni : They multiply every 
day more ai^d more, in the fafnlonable compodtions : Nature and good fenfe 
are neg'ecled : Laboured ornaments, ftudied and admired : And a total degene- 
racy of flyle and language prepares the way tor barbarifm and ignorance. Hence 
tlie Afiatic manner was found to depart fo much from the fimple purity of Athens : 
i Icnce that tinfel eloquence, which is obfervable in many of the Roman wri- 
ters, from which Cicero himfelf is not vvholly exempted, and which fo much 
prevails in Ovid, Seneca, Lucan, Martial, and the Plinys. 

On the revival of letters, when the judgment of the public is, as yet, raw 
and unformed, this ial'e glider catches the eye, and leaves no room, either in 
eloquence or poetry, for the durable beauties of folid fenfe and lively paffion. 
Th'2 reigning genius is then diametrically oppofite to that which prevails on the 
fiill origin of arts. The Italian writers, 'tis evident, even the moil celebrated, 
have not reached the proper fimplicity of though.t and compofition , and in Pe- 
trarch, TalTo, Guarini, frivolous witticifms and forced conceits are but too pre- 
dDHiip.ant. I'he period, during which letters were cultivated in Italy, was fo 
fnOiL as fcarce to allow Icifure for correcting this adulterated relilli. 

TiiE more early French writers are liable to the fame reproach. Voiture, 
Balzac, even CorneiUe, have too much afiecSted thole ambitious ornaments, of 
v/nieh the Italians in general, and the lealt pure of the antients, fupplied them 
v/iih f J many moci Is. And it was not till late, that obfervation and refledion 
gave rife to a more natural turn of tliouglit and compofition among that elegant 
people. 

A 



}T,ice=;, one of Oetjipus's fons, means in the origin;iI tthu-Jj rjuarrdUK'y. \\\ 

'X tlie two brotlKTs, in yErchylus, So^ilioclcs, and EuripiJcs tiiis conceit is 

narkahk', th t fo nr-'ir :i cc^niuulr'.un could not be rc-i:.:i:vxi l.y ar.v of thefe 

cclLbrRtr..! f>r t! , i' Li:'- rnd huii'iicity. What (ouM Sh,.:;.,;ycar jiavc done 

l.is '':',-'''';.? 'v;^; -,','/,;, !: )i ai'in.r' :.!,i. Many iiniii.ir iiuf.^c^s will or-cur to 



The ramc rf Polyrdce^;, one of Oedif 

tl.t ah:T' itions bctw:xf 
<. .vr'sr. cd ; an 1 'd' renia 
ti.rtc 

'' rt/y; -,','/,;, i:ii a!'i(i.r':.!,i. Many hniii.ir i.Mf.:;c^s will o-cur to 
clcarn-d. 'd^i w-!! '..rnvn, diat Adl; ,t'.- h-.its very f,';:odly of p-i-, divide., tlicui iiuo fjvcral 



cd t^'cni to oiat )i--. 



J A M K S T. 127 

A like clura^cr m:\y b cxC":.' ! [ ) t'-^ H: ;1 I '\ l;"! wrirr^ ; f::'. ;i 'V :- 
rifliccl {i.irin^ the reign of I ';.m'? :'i .i;\* J. :-;:(-, ;- i c-in 'i!. ! :>, ;i!c.:v .:, . 
i,e.ir"lnji, en i:^ icviwil, in rhis i*":,r: ', w.is .i'tl:- ' ;: ;;, !", ;::" i. ;:;;.::_'..:::: '^ 
whicli !C Wore .k r'^e tm^r of it> J ^- ly .;[vong t' r: : Iv :;..i.. . A ;-', 

what: m .17 her'.!;irx.l As a iTii^to ri:n , the l":-:-!;;h wnr-is v.- ;<: i^ ''' '- 
OTcat (genius b; lore they were eiv.bj.',! wir'i any (.!e<;r''.' ;f t i'.'' ;; i h : :':.r 
means r.ive a !;ir,.! of fandion. to tlvj!e torrecl t/.rr,-. ;i:;.i k.-tT: ; , v. :,;:'; r..--,' 
io nmcli :iP/e.tei.l. Tiuir ciiilcr'ed C()ncep:i.)';s a^e :\:in] :<\'. . . ; 

of mind, t'^at we admire t!ie imiginati)!!, v;hi:'\ p:-'!.ine\-d t'a:n ; .: . ::..._ . .,:, 
A'e b!ame t;:e want of -ud^^nienr, v.-!^i;h i;ave ilit ni ;. hniftanr^ 'jA _;:;r n: > 
an cxac: critic:! m (if tlie wn^Ts (H thac a^;e would c. \'l oi:r in'^^e::: p.:;: 
A l"hort character of t!ic molf eirdnenr, delivered .'. ith the fu.-.e ;V.e.'..v'\ v. ;-.hh 
liillory exerciks over k;i\:;^ .:nd min',:ler':, nw, nor be ::n' rojer. 'lh,en.::- 
onal pre: olieinons, wliic'i p:e\Mi!, may perhaps reiide: the l-b::::er 'hcry ne: r:;e 
lead: perilous tor an ..uthnr. 

If Sliaheipea;e be c^'nl^idered n?; a M/.n', 1 r)rn in a. rude ?.-, :\::-. cdi.c.n^ 1 
in the loWv.:t main-iei', wiihout any in:lrL:ci.;o:i, ei:her horn the -..Lihl t,r T v.\ 
books, he may b: re^virded. as a {)rodd::y : 11 reyr( fentetl a> a re-,:-, ca- .d. ^c cf 
fundnnnii a ; rop; r entertainirent to a refi:-.edi '.r intcllh;ei.t aud;,.:-..e, v. .'n.ud.t 
abate lo:r.ewduL of this enloi'^y. In hn^ ccmpcM'icicms, we re;:tr, th.it :t at 
irregularities, and even hMriCtin'.cs ablurdirle^ fi^ nhl Kj {iec]ue;:il-. ddo:" '.;. the 
anin:a:ed a::d palihjnate leenes intrrmi:<t \\ hh ihem ^ n:id at the :" :;^e t;[i.e, v, c, 
perhaps avimire t!ie nujire th(;!e be.iuties, o'ac.^oun: c\ :':.[: h; i;-g ; .:' .-uu;' d- 1 
with lut h deh:>rnnt:e?. A llriliing pcc.dia::ry (t lenrhre.r, al>;: d t.^ a '':- 
i,;ular chara...r, he lVcq':cn:)y hits, a- it w.-: hy inipirari'^n ; h:;: a : :. d-'c 
propriety ot thou^aht he can;; >:, h)r any t "^e, i;p!u' d. hx.r\-. . :l.Lu- 

ref;'-,e '-x; rcdhaj^ as w;ll as delci iptiuns, . c Anul ;n hhii ; !^ .t h - :i \,.::i we 
1l, .V ..:hvr ha" continu--d juii:y o:' hni . vit;/ ^! dn'i.M.i, '''- - ;.; .;, r.nj a 
of all theatih d .at a:.d i';.duA, hov.car n^ati n d a d.' ., , a-l:ai;e.'. 
the i'p d i:or lathe/ th.ni the ;':',d>r, v e ca - ivoie ivavh.v v:-.'.[\ rhni th..i 



4 
want ot t.dh', v.\]\di cdt' :i paw.ds ni la- :, 

onl V :,y i;i:;r\ad-^, to the in ad;a:i"tv: o. pen:.:-. .> . 

ciaaaiiilv p'd'^eiled, and (av: t.-nrniAcl ;\j'..d'v '.'ith i 

bu-, he o -pht to 1:,- en 1 a' ap.*;.)., h. ..' 

ad'.' ::.:.ip'::; .donv; hjr th: .Ktann: p; an :.\ad.nee ;i n 

rn , '-.n tcn'.n:i a : :'p:e:(ni, t!i it w , : : < , 

V . . ;'-;n..s; in the l.nne mainn ; as !i u . . , 

cou:n (.: their ::.hn d:*': !>..norL:oin.d anvl :;i d;.n , ,:. . 



' . ! V , 



128 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Appcnoix. Johnson poflclTed all the learning, which was wanting to Shakefpeare, 
and wanted all the genius, of which the other was poflclTed. Both of them 
were equally deficient in talle and elegance, in harmony and correftnefs. A 
fervile copift of the antients, Johnfon tranflated into bad Englifh, the beautiful 
padages of the Greek and Roman authors, without accommodating them to the 
manners of his age and country. His merit has been totally echpfed by that of 
Shakefpeare, whofe rude genius prevailed over the rude art of his cotempo- 
rary. The Engliili theatre has ever fince taken a ftrong tindure of Shakefpeare's 
ipirit and character , and thence it has proceeded, that the nation have under- 
gone, from all their neighbours, the reproach of barbarifm, from which their 
many valuable productions in other parts ot learning, would otherwife have 
exempted them. Johnfon had a j-^enfion of a hundred merks from the King, 
which Charks afterwards augmented to a hundred pounds. He died in 1637 
aged 6i, 

Fairfax has tranflated TafTo with an elegance and cafe, and, at the fame 
time, with an exaftnefs, which, for that age, are furprifing. Each line in the 
original is faithfully rendered by a correfpondent line in the tranflation. Harring- 
ton's tranflation of Arioflo is not likewife without its merit. 'Tis to be re- 
gretted, thatthefe poets Ihould have imitated the Italians in their (lanza, which 
has a proHxity and uniformity in it, that difpleafes in long performances. They 
had otlicrways, as well as Spencer, who went before them, contributed much 
to the polifhing and refining the Engliili verification. 

Lv Donne's fatyres, when carefully infpefted, there appear fome flafhes of 
wit and n^genuity i but thele totally fuflfocated and buried by the harfliefl: and 
m:olt uncouth expreffion, which is any where to be met with. 

If the poetry of the Englifh was fo rude and imperfect during that age, we 
may rcafonably expeft, that their profc would be liable to ftill greater objedti- 
oni;. TJ-^o' the k/^er appears the more eafy, as it is the more natural method of 
(ompofitjon ; it has ever in practice been found the more rare and difficult.; and 
tlitre fcarc-:: is an inftance, in any language, that it has reached a degree of per- 
fection, before the refinemient of poetical numbers and exprclTion. Englifh profe, 
during the reign of James, was wrote with little regard to the rules of gram- 
mar, and with a total difregard of the elegance and harmony of the period. 
Stufied with Latin fentences and citations, it likewife imitated thole inverfions, 
v.'ivich, however forcible and graceful in the antient languages, are iiitirely con- 
trary to the idiom of theEnglifli. I fhall indeed venture to affirm, that, what- 
. VL.r uncouth phrafes and expreflions occur in old books, they were owing 

chiefly 



JAMES 1. 



179 



cuitily to t'.vj uniorn^C'u t.i:;c '^; t.;e r.;...v-r , a:.. ::i'.: i:: ,\n^.\\ , . . - 
inc courts ot l\!:/.i!)vLi .:.. \ j.i:ii ?, was \L-;y li':.; d:;;:. ..::..' 
iri\[ \vit!i at prcivnt ii; ^'.u.l (:;j:i,[Mny. C): i'.\:. 0,1:.';:^ i'. 
j"j)ccches, wi.ivli ai\; i..i;:;.. i:; t'. [).:rii.rT:.';Mry jol;:-:u:! , :.:..: v. .,;_i ;. ; : ; j:: .: . 
fo oiipoHtc to tliJ l,.l\;iirtJ or.itu;; , ljc:n t>. 1 , ; :",.":l;...; y: :.i -. ..;. ! '..:: : .,..::' 
not pru*.U;::;oi"is (-: t'^.t aijc, whi^ii, b..n-j Wi.: . , 

by prwfclK;^.:, iet.i:n a \cry iKU'.:a! n^a.iu^T, .ukI r^.r/ y^.\\: . :.!, 01 i.;c 

la:;',aa-c, wiuc:: prevailed a;no:::; irv;: ol t';-j v.-. !'_!. I u:...'. ^ ..::;.., bw'lv r;;';-- 
tiun S.r j(Jui Davis's ilii^ovcf) , 'l'hro;;n:jri;.n'o a::.! N;:\'i!- ' r;,t r^. 

'i .:L iircat glory ol iitciatiirc in ti;i^ il"I..'.(i, tiLii\n:^ t".c ;:'. n <[ J ;!::;-, -; ., 
mv I /)rd Bacon. Moil ot hi> {)ii ioiiiuiijes ucic L(;;i.'.) /.c.i 1.1 L.r...^ :!.>' ...^ 
j:v;iiclicd Dcither tlu- fle<_;ariCc < i that, ikjt oflii.i n..:ivc t( ;K'\i -. Il v. \ co.if.i^-i- 
tiu: variety of talents ciilj^laycJ by this man-, as a jubiir ||)_.'...ti, a ;, .,.;! ol ';^:- 
flnds, a wit, a courtier, a com[. anion, an ai.tKo/, a [...:.!-;!'>:!;;.: ^ i.:; i^ ; i:;.;- 
tiic objCciL (jf great aJniiiatio;;. ll \'.c conlLl-jr I'.nii :r,c;\iy -.i -n ..-..'..,;..] 
J lniuU)[>hcr, tlic l'L!,b.t, in wriiw^li wc view Inni at [r..e.,t, lii^' vjry c... 
lie wa.-^ yet Hiieri'j:' to !n^ coccmporary Cialiiaeo, pcr;ia;.s e\ 'n lo Kc: ..-. i, .- 
ton pointeJ on: at a tlillancc the roaJ to trne [)hi!olophy : GaiiLeo both pon.".n 
it out to other.., and made, himlelr, conll ierable advance-, in 1:. 'iV.e L.\_:- 
liTntnan was ignorant ot geonietry : The Idorentine revived tlnit l..;er,.e, c::- 
fLikd in it, and was the iirli, wiio applied it, toget!:cr wiiii L\\)ir::v.,:.:, :.j ...i- 
ti.ra! philolo;^hy. I'lie lornier rejected, with the moll poiiti\'C di'.Liain, tiie !'. liein 
o; Co[\"rnicus: 'idie latter iortided it with new proois, (.'criv-.d, be*th ironj i. .- 
ion ar.d the icnles. Bacon's flyle is lliii'and rig.d : His wi[, liio' eiien Ik \. '....:::, 
is lon"ietimcs unnatural and far-ietclit ; and lie lecms to be the (.r:i^\:\.,[ ^>; -du .e 
jv.i.it^d hmdics and long-i]5un a!!e>^ories, whiMi f) n.u 'n d.:d;..:in;]; :!.. !.:::,_ 
jilli aut'iors : G.dilaeo is a !i\'ely and a;j;:-eeable, th >' 1 n\'vdia: a : r-'dc ..;.. 
But iL.iiy, iu)t united in any linp^le i:,oV(. rnnxnt, anvl 'rrhaps laii'iie ! wdh t!.. - 
litvraw' glorv, which i: ha- pdi'-ird botli in andcnr ard pm\1._-:a ;:-::es h.:s :^ > 
nunli neglected the ri ncv.vn, vdiieh it has acouired by pi'^bi^; biiih to :" / 
man. 1 hat national 1^ iri', wineii prevails am inr; tli: by.^d.n, a:: ; ,. ' : 
t!inr preat happ'nel:, i-^ the caule, why t'ley beltow on ad t!. ir v : 
; , and Bacon amon;j; tl:e re!^ U;ch [ ;a;;'o, and acclannc' . ,.,. 
v: p aiiai and excedlv,'. lie d\'.\\ in i );,", in ti'c ' : \ : 



me re. 



o. Iv.w..: .,n .-5 ...n'y;y cm n ue ti 



-, ' l^>^, 



Kaonnca. icar.nnp, w.iICa con.pi.le tiie l;..' 
wln'n he comes lo ihe cj;e:i->. and K' n.an ller^ , .' 



130 HISTORY OF GPvEAT BRITAIN. 

Appendix, rewarded. Raleigh Is the befl: model of that anticnt flyle, which fome writers 
would affccft to revive at preient. Pie was beheaded in 1618, aged 66 years. 

Camdex's hillory of Qiieen Elizabeth may be efteemed good compofition, 
both lor the flyle and the ^matter. It is v;rote with fimplicity of expreffion, 
very rare in that age, and Vvith a regard to truth. It would not perhaps be too 
much to affirm, that it is among the befl: hiflorical produtlions, Vv'hich have 
yet been compoied by any Englilhman. 'Tis well known, that the Enghfli have 
not much excelled in that kind of literature. He died in 161 8, aged 72 
years. 

We Ihall mention the King himfelf at the end of thefe Englifh writers ; be- 
caufe that is his place, when confidered as an author. It may fafdy be affirm- 
ed, that the mediocrity of James's talent in literature, joined to the great change 
in national taile, is the chief caufe of that contempt, under v/hich his memory 
labours, and which is often carried, by party-writers, to a great extreme. 'Tis 
remarkable, how different from ours were the fentiments of the antients with 
regard to learning. Of the firit twenty Roman emperors, counting from Caefar 
to Severus, above the half were authors ; and tho' few of them feem to have 
been eminent in that profeffion, it is always remarked to their praife, that, by 
their example, they encouraged literature, Not to mention Germanicus, and 
his daughter, Agrippina, perfons fo nearly allied to the throne, the greater part 
of the claffic writers, whofe works remain, were men of the higheft quality. 
As every human advantage is attended with inconveniences, the change of men's 
ideas in this particular may probably he afcribed to the invention of printing; 
v/hich has rendered books fo common, that men even of flendcr fortunes can 
have acce fs to them. 

That James v/as but a midling writer may be allowed : That he was a con- 
temptible one can by no means be admitted. Whoever will read his Bafilicon 
Dorcn, particularly the two lail books, the true law of free monarchies, his an- 
fwer to Cardinal Perron, and ahnoft all his fpeeches and meffages to parlia- 
ment, v,':ll co; fefs him to have pollefled no mean genius. If he wrote concern- 
in;^ wittiies and apparitions , who, in tiiat age, did not admit the reality of 
tluic: fu^icious beings ? If h.e has con-pcfed a commentary on the Revelations, 
and proved the Pope to be Antichrifl; may not a fimilar reproach be extended 
to the famous Napier j and c. en to Newton, at a time when learning was 
iinich n^orc a^lvanced than during the rugn of James.? From the grofihefs of 
its lhp^l^lUlon, we m,ay inlcr the ignorance of aa age i but never Ihould pro- 
nounce 



I A M E S I. 



i ;i 



nounre concerning tho fully of aii iiv.l;'.M>.i!, f;oni i.i', :; '.r./'':i. -; :-'>'^:.'. ,: rr;jr = 
coi-.Trratcil v.uh 'J.'.c a;v..cMr.i!:cc ci ic!:i.^i.>ri. 

Si .Ml :i fiipcrioiity (.iu the purfiiiLS of l::::r.-t;i;rc p'j/^!^; :^:)Ove -very <''\r - - 
(';pa:!on, tli.it cv-;i 1k', wiio a'liias \)\r. ^ !!.. inn-! ;'v :n t' ;":n, nv. r;r- t:/ 
])rc:-cnnnciKc ;l'^;^c^ thu!':: who ;vrel the molt \:) t\:f r' .-.u: ;; ;.: j \-:.ij:;- n-,, 
iff^iOiiS. Th- lp:';ih;'r o: thJ hwMlV is C:j='iv:;');:!" a;-! c:y.:::r::' w : : , rr :',. ;,,. 
!.:!V';.;eof his M .; lly we Huw ..'s\>iy:. ihi.i k.yxriur tj t!:.;: * :^ ;, 

f.'v;y p:ii h Illicit durhi:'; t'lis y'^^i/^'^- 

]-.v,R\ h iciK\-, as v.- 1! ,;s polite liter-Uurc, niii!l b.- c viP-le.-.,! a^ i^ ;: 
i: , i,:!.incy. Schohiilic ieari.in.; .iiid pul-'iin..: :1 n'^iii:'/ r:^:!i\:_: {..: ; 
a!! trii? knowlege. Sir Iluu-y Savil't-', in the rreipiible of thi^ ('ce.', I 
... iiiiiexcd a hiiary tu ilic !!:.ithc::"i rieii] iinJi aiironoinica! proiehors i;i ;.}\,';_.. 
hiy% that c;conietry Vv'as alnioli toi.ii'y ahiiultJiK'J ai;u unknown m 1; n.^hi.; ; '. 
'I iic bell learnln;2, of that a^^e v-a-; iIk' (Indy oi tlvj aniients. Ca!'.uf).n, crini.n- 
!or thi'^ hnowlege, was invi-.d over Ironi irance by Ja:ncs, and i .; \j..,-..^(..: h\ 
a penfion of 300 a-ycar, as v.ed as by ( jiurch pretci-nvencs -. '1 ii^ :.iir. .lj. .\n- 
t'Miio di Donnnii, Archbifliop oi Spalaio, no d ipirable phi'ulbrlier, can:e lu^- 
w::') into I'.n.^hmd, and atlbrdied (i^reat triunvph to the; nation, by t!ie:: ga:n'i.<', 
[J confider-ib!'3 a profeb/te from the papiils. Ijiit the niorrification fjilov/cd 
io'/A af-er For the Arclibifliop, tho' advanced 10 lonie ceclcfiallica! pretcrmer,:s , 
received not encouragement, fullicient to fatisfy liis ambition, and madj liis e; 
ra-v; ;nio Italy, wlicre, fooa after, he died in conf.ncmen.c. 

* Rvine: tons. xvii. p. 217, f JJ, y 7>i. ji 14 p -j, 



I II r. 



1 H E 

HISTORY 

O F 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

C H A K I. E S I. 

CHAP. I. 

/! ^(''liammt a' IVcjlminftcr, At Oxford.^' K.rjjl cxpcditicn ri^ui/.J 

vy. .;'_; SccoUil parliament, Impeachment cj Buckingham. 

r:.i:nt ):rjl}ircs 'f the coio't . JTar lieith Fra>.\e. ExpeJiti:?: t? 



.: y 1\L. 



N' O foonci- had Charles taken inro his hands the icIiT^ of _; )\-cinn'icr.t, 
tl...p. \\v Ir.o-.vcd .in impaticiv;.- to allcirdok- the i^rcat (.\)L;ncil t)I tlie na- ,_ 
t:L':i , :.;,.; \:i v: uidi uja.ily, tt;rt'u: l.hc (.>[ dirpa:cli, Iia\c ca'Ld. lo.'-cdv. r 

t'.L- ;.i::v par!:. indent, \v!uc:i h.;d i'lt u;u! rliJarhcr, and uhicl; ! iv, a: t'ui: t:n:r, 
v.uC.-r. rfwru^'.ii. :!. Ik.' hcin^!; toid, tiia: t'd-. ni..d\;rc \v )'_;!d .rvv.n- u::u u.;', ;,; 
iifL.ijd \s';i:s ivT 'dii! iL.i^Kin.nnn; a :.cv.- pariianu;nt 01^ L'lc ";Ii c: M.-.v ; a:v: i' v..;- 
not v.n!u)UL r'::.';jr, z'a.s th.- a.;-:\'al (,i tliL lkn;vc.'- I L'nrirrr.i, \-.'y:-i i.- !:.; : 
t !;;,;;. !.d hyj^r.Xv', <./)!". ' d Imn ;;, i c' ;\' hv rrp,. wi pri);-. ni' : s ''; n" n'v i. , 
t,d:i.;.nd:tc :,:h (d jn:., \v;.,n t! -y aid n' Idid a: ^^'c-' - . ' ; ^ n- :-c d;-:n:; 
^: i : iic!?. '1 i.c }(;n:i:; I'l ;.._, iniLAp ; :c;. ad and ! . : 

;il. :n.' pra.lls ^u'.l caiei: -, \v;:!: -.vni:!! he ::ad . .. . i-vl, v. d.. ., . 



134- HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN.- 

Chap. I. curing the rupture v/ith the houfe of Auftrla. And befides that he laboured under 
^^'^' great necefntics, he haftened v/ith alacrity to a period, when he might receive the 
mod undoubted teftimonies ol the dutiful attachment of his fubjefts. His dif- 
courfe to the parhament was full of fimpHcity and cordiality. He lightly men- 
tioned the occafion, which he had for fupply. He employed no intrigue to influ- 
ence the luffrages of the members. Fie would not even allow the ofBcers of the 
crown, who had feats in the houfe, to mention any particular fum, which might 
be expefted by him. Secure of the auedions oi the commons, he was refolved, 
liuit their bounty fnould be intirely their own deed , iinailied, unfollicited j the 
genuine fruit of fmcere confidence and regard. 

The houfe of commons accordingly took into confidcration the bufinefs of 
fupply. They knevv', that all the money, granted by the laft parliament, had 
been expended on naval and military armaments , and that great anticipations were 
likewife made on the revenues of the crown. They were not ignorant, that Charles 
v.-as loaded with a large debt, contrafted by his father, who had borrowed money, 
both from his own fubjedls and from foreign princjs. They had learned by expe- 
rience, that the public revenues could with difficulty maintain the dignity of the 
crovv-n, even under the ordinary charges of government. They were fenfiblc, 
that the prefent v/ar v/as, very lately, the rcfult of their own importunate appli- 
cati ns and entreaties, and that they had folemnly engaged to fupport their fove- 
reign in the management of it. They vve-e acquainted with the difficulty of mi- 
litary enterprizes, du'eded againfi the whole houfe of Auiiria ; againfu the King 
of Spain, pofTefled of the greatefr riches and moll extenfivc dominions of any 
[^lince in Europe ; againft the Emperor Ferdinand, hitherto the moft fortunate 
monarch of his age, w'ho had fubdued and aftoniflied Germany by the rapidity of 
his vidories. Deep imprefiions, they faw, mud be made by tl:e F^nglifli fword, 
and a vigorous offenfive war be wiged againft thefe mighty potentates, 'ere they 
v/ould refign a principality, which they had nov7 fully fubdued, and which they 
held in fecure poilciTion, by its budng furrounded with all th.eir other territories. 

T o anfwer, tiiereibre, ail thefe great and important ends ; to fatisfy their 
young King in the firft requcft, which he made them ; to j^rove tlicir fenfc of 
the many royal virtues, particularly occonomy, Vvith which Charles was endued; 
the houfe of commons, conducted by the wifeft and ableft fenators, that had ever 
iiourifhed in E.ngland ; thought proper to confer on the King a fiipply of two 
fubfidies, amounting to 1 12,000 pounds '', 

l"ii!s mcafure, which difcovers rather a cruel mockery of Charles, than any le- 
rious defign ot fupporting him, appears fo extraordinary, when confidered in alj 

its 

'* A Ju1\'^..:y \V2:: row lallc!', to al^oiit ; 6, coo pounds. Cabbala, p. ::4. fi;;lt;d<r. 



C II A R L E S I. 



i3S 



KS cir 



;irC'/n:aMnce<, t:'..U i: ivv;:Mlly l.i-;i:ir^:v- i:p our a'rj-.tio.";, I'ui r.M s an ]:: 



q!..iry ccin. :ri:i!-!_; t:: c.u;' J- .r .^ C;);-.!iu c, i::ij'rvcc.l :r : : in an i-'ng!i!h ^a, I. 



u^r.-r,-,' M- 

W;:-r % \;~, rri !\.^!c. .:!! i:..'i:.':vc ! nv tiu; I'imi': ir :.';':; ai;c] ! w . ; 'ar- 
fd f^-:a:'v ['._T t;'':c rcat.n. \N'c (lial!, rh- i\-!./rc, :;:-:(j.;l!i i. air; li.c t: i,;:i, 



' r i< ;-.- :u [-: doi:br.a', bi:; f.^leMi a::.! hl-ssai: ayaa^H t!:- Dahc of Ii,;rk- -;- 
! :a: Ii.i.: a s;:-ca: inllucnce wich many. So va;l and r-ipid a !orti n , Ij li::!e in:- 
I :.', , co.,M nor tad to txcirc pnblij envy-, an.l, 'lowcver m^ai's ha'rcd n -'^c 
haw b:-n< lufja^nd d t.v a rr.oii.-nr, while rhj DalieN condiii.c le-jni' d. to I'r.i'atV 
tr.-:\r i-afia):: .\-m.\ their pr; jiidi^cs, it \va; impoflwdc for Inm hav; ro } r: ! r\'r ti.e af- 
ftv'iuais ('f the [>.opIe. 1 lis inhaer.ee over t!:e mod.;lly ct Char'.s exceeded even 
th.'.t V. !h. A hv h.ad acqihned; ov. r the weahnel's oi jan'.es , nac v.as aiiy j-alh:c 
meaha'v civuia'.'aed b..t bv !.:; co,.:dLd an.l direction. \{\> ini:a.i.oas r-.ar: cr 
j^ronip-ed !hm to raile h;dd-ady, to the IhL^'-.iTl: tLv,.ti n, his ha:'rr(.-^ ar : ee- 
p-nh.n:^-: .And, upon ti.e Ic.hl oevafion o: dih ieal^a'e, ;:e :i;re'.v :h:n": i' .-. " 
\\i:!i eq .a! laiy .i:x\ violenre. Iin: iaeahle in his liatred ; Shd-vie in i.is !rivn ;:1.:. :- 
Ad IV.::: v, -. re eiti'.er re[-;.irdvd ..s has en. nV:es or d.ie.ihed [^):-n to h.. ei.e ...ee. 
'1 'a.e \vi.'d,e power c;t tl.e '.dnpdo.ni w.is :-[:.\''i ed by hii^ n:;..:iabie hand v.'ihe he 
:- :h (n;',roihil the inrire eoniidence of lii-- in.hler, a..d i;t.ld, invelleh m in^ iin. 
:.he pvMon, t'le nirhl conhdera' !e (driees oi die croNNn, 

I lov.e.vra t;;e id !inn:( ar o: t!ie cjn^ni )n> r.d^d:t ;:ave beu^ increafed ' . :h: ': 

f(ahid' aa^ti.ar, v.e are n. : to h.i,pv.h- t!v:m tl;e hile n:-,::vc--. I i;e i.th ; - 

ivei.t < t fan")'--, anudil ail tiair :uy an! feAi\ Iry, !; i piven i.an a L.- _ '/ \ : :/ 
(hq r> pi: non'.d to la . djn: i!:d .Uu. tv) lie (^eeahon. .And, as e ^ ; y h ... :e r.:- 

iron-, V iaeii was ele^i; d darin.^ kaTv ;.ea;-, !a'^ee;d.d to ... d.e : . .. d 

r; incq le^ of their piedeeedia - ; w . ., ^_ >: r .da v to aecan.t ir: t!e> o: .i..i.;e', : . a:i 

tlv "ene:ai n'L...::on (a t..e h;a 'd a d>,i ..er th.it w hnle a, ia.'d, il , .:, 

circmnllaaCLS, which ..tten le ; li i- aiMi;ed..U:' i. > ;.j-.: .t.aa. 

'iho; iia^on v.'.re very i;:d ae^v..l avel, at \.]\.\i [ia.e, 'o [':. ,, :, 

an.i had never op i\:d tia :; ; -aae^, \a .ai ; .! i^., : . ' h . : '.a- 
i-i:-n. 1 Iai;it^, nuaa' ;h ni r'e.lon, we :;..d, i . e'. a .. '[ 

pian. i| ie (;t inanhaah la :ia , \ a-.v nvev. h,- ; ../ i ..^'' ' i.e. a..i.;, 

I. nU he eonilder. d as a lo: 'o the ^v n-p d'lu- p-e e.. ... : :. ..v,q.^d hy t...i:,.:, 
v.u^. hi i;oC aue'nient their aL.nr.er la d^e hiiae ';:.- 



176 HISTORY OF GPv EAT ERTTAIR 



J) 



1(jZ: 



Ci'.np, I. The piiritanicil partv, tho' difguifed, had a very great authority over the 
king/iom , and many cF t'le leaders among the commons had fccretly embraced 
the rigid tenets oF that fed. All thcfs were difgurced with the court, both by 
the prevalence of the principles of civil liberty, eflential to their party, and on 
account of the reftra;nt, under which they were held by the eflablifhed hierarchy. 
In order to fortify himfclf againft the refentm.ent of James, Buckingham had af- 
fected popularity, and entered into tlie cabals of the puritans : But, being fecuie 
of the confidence of Charles, he had fince abandoned that party ; and, on that 
account, v/as the more expofed to their hatred and refentment. Tho' the reli- 
gious fchemes of many of the puritans, when explained, appear pretty fri- 
volous, we arc not thence to imagine, that they v/ere purfued by none but per- 
ibiis of weak underflanding. Some men of the greatefl parts and mod exten- 
five knowledge, whom th nation, at that time, produced, could not enjoy any 
peace of mind ; becaufe obliged to hear prayers offered up to the Divinity, by a 
prieft, covered widi a white linncn veflment. 

The match with France, and the articles in favour of catholics, which v/ere 
fujpecred to be in the treaty, were likewife caufes of difguft to this whole par- 
ty : Tho' it muft be remarked, that the alliance with that crown was infinitely 
lefs obnoxious to the proteftants, and lefs favourable to the catholics, than that 
formerly projefted with Spain, and was therefore received rather witli pleafure 
than difTatisfaction. 

To all thefe caufes we mud yet add another of confiderable moment. The 
houfc of common?, we may obferve, were almoft intirely governed by a fet of 
men of the moft uncommon capacity and the largeft views : Men, who were 
nov\/ formed into a regular party, and united, as well by fixed aims and projefts, 
as by the hardlkip?, Vv'hich fome of them had undergone in profccution 
of them. Among thefe we may mention the names of Sir Edward Coke, Sir 
Edwin Sandys, Sir llobert PluHps, Sir Francis Seymour, Sir Dudley Dio-"-es, Sir 
John f'Lllior, Sir Tf.omas Wentworth, Mr. Selden, Mr. Pym. Animated with a 
warm regard to liberty, thefe men fiv/, with regret, an unbounded power exer- 
cifed by the crov/n, and were refolvcd to feize the opportunity, which the Kino's 
neccjTitiis offered tficm, of reducing the prerogative witliin more reafonable com- 
pais. Tho' their anccflors had bHndiy given way to pradices and precedents favour- 
able to kingly power, and hid been able, notwitliflanding, to preferve fome fmall 
remain- Oi liberty; it would be impoHible, they thought, when all thefe pretenfi- 
onr, were methodized and profecuted by the increafing knowledge of the age, to 
maintiin any H^iadow of popular government, in oppofition to fuch unlimited 
r;udior^ty in the fovcreign. It was ncccllary to fix a choice : Either to abandon in- 
tirely 



C II A R I. ]: S I. 



:;:;/ t;: pnvi; f-jcs CI Lii:- ;-c ;. , c:" ro ::, :!? t.i:-' 

i ;-: : ro [i: ir :vv\ ' -t'.-i;vc, v. / :m.l cxlj;-: :..; . 
i.'-'!:v. '1' - nw:. :;. y c.l.Lir.d -;;_;- :.: a:,.: 
10. ^ . , 'i' ! ;,'.^nc t ; ;c:;.:j \ii\ [ !:.:> v .: ' 



- \ 









1 ;cv .r^a;:".it ai. .:v.'.i 



1 -' . > ' 



0:11 (.::; ' lanoii-, g: r!^:- n.;M:\', t.i.it j''.j\.'.i;- ! 



Vi '.', ho'.vc\'CT r.itiir.il ..II ilijiv: Icntirr nts iwi'.'.h: r:--*\.ir t.) 

I :., ,:b/-d i:: i..v()..roi'i:;.-l\,!..-, v. bom be h -cl :.-.-.:ra io bi-'b, 
I." ;;^ b:' < y.i'.--\ iV-t: C()ii-v:L.,r l.ij c.ii b- ()i !> :.;b !-:i .;:i a [ r 
:b'.': . ;^. :-,b vb;. 'i t;;e v> .ir, v !b I^ -^i^i v Licnilci'/c-, !'.ib :' > c.ir:: 
..: ; . . ( -.r.':i:CA:\ [::] b. !";:'! < f b: ':r biW-yc' 



t::J CO 



n ::i t. 






i-:S HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

CL^p. T, that he Icems even unv/illiiio; Co impute it to the con";mons : An;', th'.' he was 

.'""Vt ? obh-ed CO adiourn tlie nariiament bv reaibn of the p]aa:ue, wiwcb.. li: that time, 

r r . ' raaed in London v he i-nmcdiately re-aiicmb'ed thLni at Ordord arn n^ide a new 
liC of jiug. -' .' ... 

atcen)pt to gaui from tiicm lome fLipphcs in fach an urgent neceliuy, 

Parhament at Charles no^v fbund lihiifelf obh^ved to d part fiOm tiiat dciicary, which he 
had formerly maintained. By hinif^u ov liis miniiler?, he entered into a particu- 
iar dc:ail, both o[ the aihanccs, whi^:h i:e had forrrK.d, and of the mihtary ope- 
ration?, whicli he hid projeaed. Ih^ told the pai]i:uDent, That, by a promifb 
of fubiidies, he had engage i tliC King of Dc'nmark to take part in the war ; that 
that monarch intended to enter Germany by the norrh, and to animate thofe 
princes, who impatiently longed [o'l an opporniniry of aflerting the liberty of the- 
empire; that Mansfeldt had undertaken to penCirate with an li,ng.ifli army into 
the ralatinate, and by that qi;arter to rouze t'lC members of" the evangelical uni- 
on ; cliat the ilates mull be luuported in tiie unequal vv'arfarc, wnich tliey main- 
tain, d with Spain i that no lefs a fum than 700,000 pounds a-yrar had been 
found, by computation, rcquiHte lor all thefe purpoies ; that the maaintenance of 
the fleet and tlie delenee of Ireland denKinded an annual exoence of 400,000 
pounds ; that he himfeif had already exhauflzed and anticipated, in the public 
Service, his whole revenue, and had Icarce left fufncient for the daily fubfiftcnce 
of himfj'jf and of his family ; t'lat, on liis accefilon tc the crov/n, he found a 
debt of above 300,000 pounds, contracted by his father, in fupport of the Pa- 
latine ; and that, while Prince of Wales, he had himfeif, contracted debts notwith- 
ftanding his great frugality, to the amount of 100,000 pounds, which he had ex- 
pended intirely on naval and military'armamenrs. Aftei- ment'oning all thefe fad'S^ 
ihe King even condefcendcd to ufe entreaties. He laid, that tills requtft was 
the lirff, which he had ever made them : that he v/as young and ir tl^.e connrience- 
ment of his reign , and, if he now met with kind and dutiiiil irfage, it v;ould en- 
dear to him the ufe of parliaments, and v^'ould, for ever, preferve an intire har- 
mony b.tween him and Ihs people. 

To thcie reafbns the comn-^ons remained inexorable, Notwithdanding tha'; 
the King's mcafures, on t;K: fuppofition of a foreign war, which they had conflandy 
demanded, v/jre altn-gctlur unexceptionable, t'ley obilinately rttiikd z'Ay inrtrnrr 
afrin.an.ce. Some members, favourable to the court, having innfLd on ;in addi- 
tion of tv-,0 firteenths to the fornner iupply, even trn.s jdttance was denied ;; 
tho' it was knn'vn, that a ileet and army were lying at Forthiiouih, in great wnn: 
of pp.y an ! jn-ovihons. Befides all tlie'.r other motives, the hou.'e of commons had 
mad(; a new (hfcnvtry, which enOamcd them extremely ?gainft the court and 
again.ft the Duke of Buckingham. 



A R 1 I. : I. 



i '>') 






I rl 









r. r 



1 



-1. 



! ,, , 1 .,^ : .. , ' 



:k; ..-r t:i!. , ...;-;: - , tli.m ^. 
. r: J :.:\:,- r,-.i-^::on !;;:i,v: :n^-i,.:: 
. .- ...-:. :-^ :".-o-.^ Ih!,!:;::j';--n, i.e. 
'... '. -.^''\ '\..i\Z .\'Jil:i jvi'iy 21 ) 'J \\\y....i r. .' '. , !. .. .r, 

. [....: ; ;'.iv'c ii.iJ l^cc.i coiic u ck\ -^ctwci-'n :;"c i ;\:u; k;; : 
: . . . .,.'.:,. i.iin in !;is ; urpol^^. \Vi.e:i '-.'.::) :.::'...'. .: I ~; ; ., ::, 
I.. . .- : ; . ccc.v:.^. Sir l-Lrdi-.m,: . ^,'.:--:-^, v.'.:j . on-:^;:;.':.l 

i... . . . ^5 

\v;V:!-, h.'i '.c L'.rc/ and rcLi.rncd to I '.ivj.mvi. A'.'i i-:c o:l\'er- :.:\.\ 
i: <)' c;- l]^!j:j, n:)t\v;th:l.;i; !ing ;;:'c:ii; '.ii" rs m.;.!-' t!.r:n ';/ t':? 1 re 
(.;;,i:.''v LJlrLL.!. One L'lnn.r a!'-:',' [':\!Vr:V'-! c!r:y r ,v..;:- k : ' K::'- 
r: nv^ion ; a:,u he was a;: rwartN 'Jne.l in c'vir. " a -. ... . 



1 , . 1. ,, 



al 



i :..: ..::\-, win^'i In i; rian^ h.:\v t.ik.n :o !\;o.\l i. 
1 ; 



w ;:..!: vicaliiTe t' c ne.V: \. .:', r.c-iwJ ny [:;; w'l 



.^' ..'.. L \' ;::i :ii; , . 

,i i^v :c : -in an . 
... .; \' .; , iLa,ii ,' ..) 



.! c; t. 






* " ' "" 


,1 >. .. , . ..... ^ : . 




- P .i;i;".. ^ 


1 '^ 


i.lnaa .'en .,.:.: . . 



,. ... ' 1 .. 



... .::'!C*, 



. L .... J \ 



140 H I S T O Pv y OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 

Cl-np. I. Frencli fieet. employed againft the inhabitants of Rochelie , that the Spariifii 
'""^* monarch, lenflbls of the ihme confequf^nce-s, fjcrctiy fupported the protcflants i'l 
Franc:: j and that all princes liad ever ihcriiiced, to reafons of (late, the irterell 
cf ihcir rchi^ion in foreijyn countries'. Ail thcle obvious conGderations had no 
i.i i'jcnce. Great murmurs and difcontents ilill prevailed in parliament. The 
Ji:- .')noa:., tivj' tliey h.id no grour.d of complaint ar^ainfl; th.e French Court, 
v,-i;^ t:iOi:v;!!t to be as much intitled to aillfrancc fVom h^no-land, as if ihey had 
trd.ji arms in defence of t!;e:r liberties and rehgion againfl the perlecuting rage 
of il::; cadiolics. And it plainly ap[)ears, from this incident, as well as from 
niany oih^rs, that, of all European nations, the BriLifli were, at that time, and 
till Eng after, the mofb under Vaz influence of that religious ipirit, vvhich tends 
rather to inflame bigotry than cncreafe peace and mutual charily. 

On' t'lis occafion, the commons renewed tlieir eternal complaints againfb tlie 
growth of popery, v/hich was ever the chief of their grievance?, and now their 
only one. They demanded a flricl execution of the penal h\ws againfl; the ca- 
thiolics, and remonfcrated againft fome late pardons vvhich liad been granted to 
priefts. They attacked Montague, o::e of the King's chaplains, on account of a 
moderate book, which he had lately compoied, and v/h'ch, to their great dif- 
gufi, faved virtuous catholics, as well as other chriftians, from eternal torments. 
Charles gave them a gracious and a compliant anfvvcr to all tiieir remonflrances, 
J-Je was, however, in his h.eart, extremely averfe to thefe furious mcafures. Tho' 
n. determined protefcant, by princip'e as well as inclination, he hid entert:iined 
!:a violent horror agaii.ll popery \ and a little humanity, he thought, was due 
by the nation to the rehgion of their anceff:ors. 7'hat degree of liberty, which 
i. now indulged to catholics, tho' a party much more obnoxious than du'-in'^ the 
r..ign of the Stuarts \ it Unie.i neither witii Charks's flntiments, nor the humour 
oi- the age, to al'ov/ tliem. An abatement of the more rigorous laws was all lie 
inren;Ed j and his engagements with France, notwithftanding that their regular exe- 
cution iic;d ]:ever been propokd nor expected, required of him fbme indulgence. 
Uut f.) uniortunate v.'as th:.; Prince, that no n:;ca]ure, embraced during his whoie 
icign, wa-. ever attended \\''x\\ more indiipipy and more Etal conlequences. 

'Yv'.v. < xtreme rage agjinft pop.rv was a kfe characleriftic of puritanifn. Tn's 
]:Oufj of ccjmmons dik-overrd other infal'ible iympton-s of the prevaknce of that 
iurty. 'F' ey pt'titioncd the i^ng lor replacing kich ;,ble cl/rgy as had betn hl.nced 
!;:r v/ n i (.r coniormity to the ccrenvinies. 'I'h'.y rFo enatftcvl laws for ti^e uriet 
i bf rvawe ot .^unfay, w!ii: h ihz puritans ahef^cd to cdl the S;b':ath, and whn:h 
tb-/ h:ncbii.,d by the moll melancholy indolence. "Ids to be lemarlved, th it t!;e 



dill 



c :r A II L i: s r. 



I Ai 






1 f:r. K 



' ! ',.r ' 






' ; i ' ; 



, ,1. '.v,;-', .i: :.,,i: t; 



.1 , ,- '.. 



1 N\ :m .1 c:\. 



' r. l.vi :i tor t 
:-v/.v:.!:y ():-c:- 
.. :, Ircv.,:^ ' 
,L . o; 1 , . ;v 

r' 



i.r. 



1- ::-:h.r 



' 1 / 



. t 



p.r:i 



[ ) 






342 III5T0RY OF GREAT BRITAINo 

Chip. L elected members. But this intention, b^ing fa evident, rather put the com- 
mens i"orc upon their guard. Know of prtriots flill rcmaine:; i) ketp up 
the iil hnmonr of the houfe ; and men needed but little in{rru6f;on or rheto- 
ric to reecmmend to Lii.ni praciices, wlhcli increafed their own importance and 
conridt.raiion. TiiC v/eakneis of th.e court alio could not more evidently appear, 
than i;y its being reduce. i to (o incfl"ef.u.d an expedient, in order to obtain an 
influence over the commons. 

The views, thereiorc, of the hif: -arllament were immediately adopted ; as if 

;-bun!y C>. tjie lan:e men had been every where e;ee>ed, and no time had intervened iinee their 
laii; meeting. Vv'hen the Kir-^; Is^d be'orc the houle his necefilties, and a&ed for 
lupply, they immjdiai:ely voted him three lubfidies and three fifteenths -, and thu' 
they afterwards addied one fubndy more, tlie fum was iitile proportioned to the 
.qreatnefs of the occanon. and iil fitted to uroruote thofe views of fucccfs and slorv, 
for which the young Prince, in his firil ep.terurize, fo ardently longed. But this 
circu;mifance was not the molt dilagreeabie one. The fupp'y was only voted by 
the commoi:s. l"he palfing that vote into a lav/ was relerved till the end of tl-.e 
fefiion. A condition was tiiereby maJ.e, in a very undifguifed m.anner, with tlicir 
fovereign. Under pretence of redrefiing grievances, which, during this Iliorc 
reir:;n, could not be very numerous -, they were to proceed in regulating and con- 
trouiing every part of geyvcrnment, wdfich diibleafed them And, if the King either 
cut them ihort in this undertaking, or refufed compliance with their demands, he 
m.uft lay his account with tlie want of all fupply. Great diffatisf action was 
cxprefkd by Charles with a method of treatment, which he deemed fo harfli and 
iindutifui: But his urgent neceffities obliged him to fubmit ; and he waited with 
patience, cbferving to what fide they would turn themfelves. 

::, ^,.;.i IhiF. I>.d;e of Buckingham, form.erly ebnoxious to the j^ublic, became every 

,/ ''^'^' '>' cay n;(>re odiou;-, by the iymptoms which appeare.', both of his v ant of temper 
and prudence, and of tlie uncontroulcd afcendiant, which he had acquired over his 
mafier *. Ihvo vioh:nt attacks he was obliged this fLlllon to fuftain j one ircm 
the Karl of Briftol, anothrr from tiie lioufe of commons. 

As long a. Tames lived, Brifcol, fccure ci" the concealed favorer of that mo- 
r.arch, l^id ex[)refled all duty and obedience; in expedtation, that an opporLuniry 
^vou!d oiler of re-infiatli^g himlcif in his iormcr credit and autliorit/. Kven afrtr 

Charles's 

* !i:s crc^Mi witli t^^r: kinn; ha 1 r^!\-cn lii-ji fi-ich i;-.nLic;-:(e, rlint he hail in k'T, ih-^n t,v:: uv pi :.-:;.:, 
%;) ^;ro;.iL'S. 'J kc car! <_i LcictAcr in ip J ha.I ouCJ :c.: .;c..'.^3 D'l.wc , p, 3 ,i. 



C II A R r> E S I. 



I-"^ 



C^. ' ' ;":i' ..'IT, ! J o.\: :;.;-.; rv r. 1 .c li; ni;:'-ii: to th . K':; ,'<.;.:( r !v:r. ,in- 

iu' ;:ril ') J\' 'i"' '' '^ !: ::::ofi (*: !.;:!..:'-; t li;-;^"! a. ' i r..i'! , 

;u d w'm , V. ! . . ' ' r, li..- 1:1^; ;..i\: ! 



rr, 



) .. 






1 



\\.v \A'.Vic:)Z \v:i>- iL.:r,iv.'i:u\'. L m; 



L.i i 1\- ki:' t ) I'll ..'. 



i: ; /(.; : ^, [.'.:r. ! o \\ r % . < \^ v... )n...i"v, 

' .1 .n\ ';_ .i U' l\\: iW)iik- oi !;ji\!i b ; |'.' ;:: :\ ; a:::] tr..VL\' lia.r :' -vl (kii- 

..1 lI.c lv::'_, ! .r '.iMai I: >; w ' i: V. : , :,, u .. :>:ir!.\-:-u t^..' iw:,:!: i! 
\, . 'T V. .1^ k-;u i;::r ; '-at .:. c taia .aa.- ! \. ;l!i a iiLta; Ifa;": t!:e J /aa! a'/ |\ aa l '. . 
nv, a an a.invia .: !aai, i;i t!i/ ka _;'s aaa'.a, r,) a'^.a: laaa^a a- a-; pa:...;a. ar. 
'1 i-i. Ll: r i^aO: ^aia.a)a,! to ta !,):.<, a...l a.\.d a.iviaa a..., : - -aa . c.l i;, a^ 
(i;\uait.- a a:u.aioa. i !a- ka; ','^ [a'' > ,:i' ; ; ;a v.',.:- waa aaiv.ai, a. a la . I a ;' ;;_ 
la-; i"..;t. lkaaa k. J at . ,- la- aaa ,; !i.a.;a. la, (.a \ 'y;<var, \. .:.a'; t!;t' a^.-a: ^..-.o- 
n / /a ! ai at^aaia , C laa'ic;, i^iakiwl '.i., a:: :aa v ;-a.:a; to ta-.:.r aa ..^aa.l.aio;! 
(1 .a.k t:a,i.an aa^aiai, laa^ Ir.' waa; (^i la crania la a, Ijai!'.)! aaj;:-.;.a. u :',..:/..- 
ia:;liia-! ;a h aa crca.;;:i. 'i'a-:' {'i u !',> tie.taica (j. lama- 1 aa a aa. aa.tioa or tia: 1 .:':c 
bw.i'i rcaaai ; ; aaJ iiy^:c:\'icv \\\i]\ I.'iac cm-' anal icitcr^ ::i.\ extiar, L(a.a:i ; t':: k.i! ;i 
ana n:otl .laLiicntic accoiait 01 .iil liia nca^c aitujia, w :ih taa !iaa!a ci A:ak i.a 1- : an 
thj \v!a/a, taa :.;...: ini' raaca^aa ti t!a/ Pa!.:- cviaLatly a;-;ca-s .tnu la. !v. av u. 
h'-': i:;v , .\-'r: \':U- 'iVoi^s 1 Ivir ir v.iii:':' 'v' ('i "iaa't to Cikii^L ti.^ana' aa\'...LMai, 



.liac ; iHiuas ; bat it woalu ba 



v-aa^a ai ta:; a'-a- ot ir.c auv, ci^aici ha :.!''an:o '. a caanj ; nn..:! i-a- a. a..; 
!ani t > i.: [ a..':' oi !a:ai tr.alian 

'i'a:, inija ac ;an;:n: ol tl.a a )annoas \v.:s ik'! \ i . (.\iia ,":aa <; r > :' Dn'. 
it c;U:na'aa kaa ..a'v' ([ I .,. aa '. a /.-ny. !'. . . . 

i:.;a , ' ' '-'] 1^ ": A- ^ '' ' t;, ::: o. i 



ai ill t, 






' I 



....In -i:.. 



1026, 



144 HISTORY OF GREATBRITAIN. 

CIu'p. I. never canie to a full determination ; fo that it is difficult for ns to give a decifive 
opinion v. ith r^ gard to tlicfe ariicles : But it muil be confeiHid, that the Duke's 
aU'vver, in thcie ;)arL!Cuhirs, as in all the reft, is ib clear and fatisfaclory, that it 
is impofTi'. ic to rcfuu- our aflent to it. His taulcs and blemiflies were, in many 
rcfpefts. vcrv crcat : but rnnacitv and avarice v.'cre vices, v/ith vvdiich he v/-as in- 
tircly unacquninted. 

' I'ls remarkable, that the comnKMu, tho' fo ^:uch at a lof. to find articles of 
charge againft Buckingham, never adopted Briftol's acculation, or impeached the 
Duke for his condusfl in the SpanlHi treaty, the moll blatneable circumftance ? f 
his vvhole life. He had reafon to believe the Spaniards fmcere in their profef- 
fions ; yet, in order to gratity his private palilons, he had hurried his mailer 
and his ccun'ry hito a war p.rnicious to the intereils of both. But fo rivetted 
throughout tire nation were the prejudices with regard to Spanifh deceit and 
fihnood, that very few of the commons feeni, as yet, to have been convinced, 
t'lat they had been fi'duced by Bucki; gh:im's narrative : A certain proof, that a 
difcovery of this nature was not, as is imagined by feverai hiftorians, the caufe 
of fo fudden and furprizmg a variatio-i in the meafurcs of the parliament*. 

While th.c coiumons were thus warmly engaged againft Buci-:ingham, the 
King fe:-m d d-firous of embracing every opportunity, by v/hich he could exprefs 
a cor.tempt and difrcgard lor them. No one was, at that tinie, fu!ficient!y fenfible 
of the c-reac wci:rht, which the commons bore in the balance of the conftitution. 

The 

" Ey a ?pcc, ,li of ^ir 5;ino;i D'Ev/cs, in the flift yrnr oi' lIt^ long p:irii:;ri-:cnr, it clearly appears, 
taai the nra^a .jC-j;- ;;;iu, cv,,l to that ii:rv, b:;a:i rirpiri)- hihraclad in tlic traiehauO'i ct' v!aj Spahhi 
II - ,hah')n, a:ae '....1 Lch v:'-.: ih:; conrt ( f r,:a'h.d t'> \. .vc ]w-:n alto-c;; -; ;a.^"::^aia; hi ah th ir -^o- 
:.ah.:is. Yv"h a: :'a.!h;j aa^a tisai: uip!^r/l;:'a>i, hah vhav to blaia:; cith'.'i' the l'-\Mc c: aachh-o'i a;} 
+a.' th^h' coaha ., oa ;oa t. <; ir!:vati\-a aCiivar-h ta uic aa Ihi'ucait ? Tiiis i/i :i ca'h'al hi.:':, nnh oio^t 
to t>a w.h atta a.h t:\ .- .':>.^:,':-> ia_.:au i.; Ja ^-.ahoa, \hh. :h p. 5h,h Thj aah:aa or hiharhiu or 
I'v r a^; au nrna : ta: ^a;:; a:-,y oi: ihia ha;paaah, iaiyjo ha a-, as a caafj ch i,hhpa: hi the ;^ahi,Lii:aa:. 
'^.hlh;ha ha, p. ;. Oihy .ay-, h.;.t tha vlia^a.-.,-:, ba^-a f:o ihihfhl, i.?:!i if h a iro: }'f: ;; :/: h':/ra '. -y h > ;, 
)-0t aca 1 iha' pa- ih; a:oah, ::.'. rh '::.! ':.::. -.';.:;: r j iy;.:J: ah: h;::'://} ,::.<J:: A i:^ .x r-^r-f -_::]}, 
h.a'i-)! a::./aot aa;aa..ch ! aiah aa .a.a a ha , th.t caaa h' I'acy' hU diha.aj.vi tha r_/::^ ,-, 

T aa i:c : a i a^t pa,a Jia, , hiali iat.a.tiwn : \-h t!\aa.a;-' a. ia.;;,ai to hah:.:, ti ,. thh a!a-aa ''a\ ra~ 
hi . . i^.a- h.:h a a a -u-h ,..':^ (w : h! aoa^lat. :;. "^ h ' ._\. ',. t ]' .h (aa- .i a" a.! !.: t ha ra.hf " h . 



C II A R L E S I. 



^-^o" 



Tlie hillory of F.ngl.r'd ha^l ncv.r hir!i','rto allorJ.rJ v.\ inll.vi:.*, wli-re anv r;re;ic 
Tiiovemcnt or revolution h.ul j-ruCceJi. tl ti\.!n liic Iow.t iicuil.*. An.l ;u thvir r.ir.'x 
b(Jt;h conCidcrccl i'l a b'^iy aiul as iiuiiviJi;.iLs wa-, l)ut r'.ic kcoivi in the i;ii'Li.:')m ; 
nothing Lis tli.m fatal experience coiikl enga.;e li-.e l-.n^l:lh princes tj pay a i.i.;c 
regarti to the incl:nations ot tluu tonnicl.ijie alicnibly. 

Tin: l''..nl ot" Sufroik, chancellor ot ihc univenity > .*" CainbiiJge, dying about 
this time, IJajknigham, tho' lying imd.er ini|).ac;iir.jnr, vvasyr, bv n.e.i.iS of 
co'jrt ir.cerell, chulen in his place. Tlie co nmon-5 relente.i arai Ioli..'v C(j;r;j.! lin- 
ed of thi. atiVont ; and the more to enrage them, the Kmg hnnleir wrote a let- 
ter to tiie uiiiverfity, extolling the Duke, and giving theni tliar.ks fur hi:, elcc- 
t;un. 

Tiii, Lord keeper, in tlie King's name, commanded the honie cxr^:'. " ^ ' -> 
meddle with Ids mi;dller and lervanc, Ikirkingham , and ordered f!i- n n li 

in a few days, t!ie bill, wluch they h.\d begun lor the rL.biidies, 3.nd to m .ke 'ome 
addition to tliem ; otlierwife they mull, txpic-'t to fit no lo!;.''er. And thu' tk' e 
harlh commands u'ere endeavc.ur.d to b.e exjlamed and n:olln:ed, a lew il.;vs af- 
terwards, by a I'pecch ot Buckipgham, they tailed not to k.\\c a very dila^ree- 
aule imprellion bJiind them. 

Besides a more llately ftyle, which Charles, in general, afreclcd to this par- 
liament, than to the lall, he went to tar, m a mefiagc, as to tlireaten the commons, 
tliac it they did not turnidi him v.'itli lupplies, he would be obliged to trv >'\-j 
ccio::::<. This language was fufficiently clear : Vet, left any anibir^'.itv Ih.o'.k I 
remain. Sir Dudley Carleton, vice chamberlain, took cire to cxpk:ki 1:. '' [ 
" pray you confider," laid he, " what thde luw councils arc or m.av be. I ::,:r 
" to declare t'lole that I conceive. In all ch.rillian ki:;gdi',>m?, v(,'j know, tli-.t 
" parliaments V.-'. re in ufe antiently, by which thole kingdiOms \\e'e ''overnid. ia 
*' a moll; tlourifliing manner , until the ir.O-'archs began to [::v- ,v t'-e;r ow.i 
" llrcngth, and lleing tlie turlvdent fpkiic or tiKir pa!i'an:ert<:, at k';-g:n :'^. "v, 
" by kttl',' a;-.tl kt:le, b gan to Hand on tl;eir prero'iatives an.d at kkl i^ver^irjw 

' the parliaments tkroug'iout Chrillenck)m, exc-pt h re onlv wit'i u-. 

" L.et u . be ( areiul iheii to prelerve tiie King's good opnion o! p^ i: ;: 'rie:^:s, 
" which b:ing(, th iuch hapi)'nels to this nation, and. ir.J.ts u-. envied <.' .-.li o;!i.-rs, 
'' wh'.le th re is this liv.ete.:-! ^ bet.vcen li;.^ Maiefty and tlie c -.-nnioi^ , leil" we 
'' loie tlie rejvjte oi a tree people h) our turbuk, ncv in p n liaiv.enr." 'i l.ele i:n- 
prude:;t luggcfLions rather gave v.arr.in.g th.in ib-uek irrror, .V rree lious li- 
berty, ilie comnions thought, wdiicli w.is to k.e j;rt';..rvL'd liy urkinii'ed ci)^,-!- 
pav:a:.c.', was no lib rty at ail. And it v. a> n.:"'ik.r',, -..kile yet in tkeir {^)v . ", 
t.u ive..re Lkt: coniliiucion by kick ur. uv-ikle ba:i;CiS, thac no K:;:': or nk, 

^'e.. I. U ^ ?ko.kJ 



f ^ 



-3. 



146 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Ch?.p. I. fliould ever, for the future, dare to fpeak fuch a language to any parliament, or 
even to entertain fuch a projc(5t againfl them. 

Tv/o members of the houfe, Sir Dudley Digges and Sir John i-'.'jiot, who had 
been employed as managers of the impeachment againft the Duke, vvcre thrown 
into prifon. The commons immediately declared, that they Vvould proceed no 
farther upon bufinefs till they had fatisfacVion in theii* privileges. Cliarles alleged 
as the reafon of this violent meafure, certain feditious expreiTions, which, he faid, 
had, in their accufation of the Duke, dropped from thcfe members. Upon in- 
quiry, it appeared, that no fuch expreflions had been ufed. The members were 
releafed , and the King reaped no farther benefit from this attempt than to ex- 
afperate the houfe .ftill farther, and to fhow fome degree of precipitancy and in- 
difcrction. 

Moved by this example, the houfe of peers were roufed from their inactivity ; 
and claimed liberty for the Earl of Arundel, who had been lately confined in the 
Tower. After many fruitlefs evafions, the King, tho' fomewhat ungracefully, 
was at laft obliged to comply. And in this incident, it fufEciently appeared, 
that the lords, however little inclined to popular courfes, were not wanting in a 
juft fenfe of their own dignity. 

The ill humour of the commons, thus wantonly irritated by the court, and find- 
ing no gratification in the legal impeachment of Buckingham, fought other ma- 
terials, on which it might exert itfelf. The never failing cry of popery here ferved 
them in (lead. They again claimed the execution of the penal laws againfl ca- 
tholics ; and they prefented to the King a lift of pe^fons, entruiled with offices, 
moft of them infignificant, who were either convi6led or fufpefted recufants. In 
this particular, they had, perhaps, fome reafon to blame the King's conducf . 
He had promifed to the laft houfe of commons a redrefs of this religious grie- 
vance : But he was apt, in imitation of his father, to imagine, that the parliament, 
when they failed of fupplying his necefiities, had, on thtir parr, freed him from 
the obligation of a ftrid: performance. A new odium, likewife, by thefe repre- 
lentations, was attempted to be thrown upon Buckingham. His mother, who 
had great influence over him, was a profeHed catholic ; hU wife was not free 
from fufpicion : And the indulgence given to catholics, v;as of courfe fuppofed 
to proceed intirely from his credit and authority. 

'Tis remarkable, that perfccution was here chiefly pufhed on hy laymen ; and 
that the church was v/illing to have granted more liberty than would be allowed 
by the commons. The reconciling dodrincs likewife ol Montague failed not anew 
to meet with fevcre cenfures from that zealous aftembly. 

r 
.J 



C 11 A R L E S I. 147 

The next attack, made by the commons, had it prcvAiied, would have prov- ^'i^^p ' 
ed decifive. They were preparing a remonllrance ;i[;;iinil u\<i levying of ton- 
nage and poundage without confent ot parliament. '1 his article, togr:hcr witli 
the new impolkions laid on merehandi/.c by J.imcs, conllituted r.ear a hair of the 
crown revenues ; and by depriving the King ot thcTe refource , they would have 
reduced him to total lubjcclion and dependance. While t!iey retained kich a 
pledg', berries the Fupply already promiied, they were lure that n^^hing 
could be retull'd them. 'J'hu' they could fix no legal crime upon tlie Duke, 
they i-Jllly regarded him as a very unable and even dangero.is miniiler , and 
they intended to prefent a petition, which would then have been equivalent to a 
c(.mmand, for his removal from his Majefty's perfon and councils. 

The King was alarmed at the yoke, which he law prepared tor him. Buckin^r- 
!iam's great guilt, he thought, was the being his friend and lavouritc. All {\\c 
other complaints againtt him were mere pretences. A little before, he was the 
idol of the people. No new crime had llnce been difcovered. After tlie moft 
diligent inquiry, prompted by the greatell malice, the fmalleft appearance of 
guilt could not be fixed upon him. What idea, he afked, mutl all mankind 
entertain ol liis honour, Ihould he facritice his innocent friend to pecuniary con- 
liderations ? What t'arther authority would he retain in the nation, were he ca- 
pable, in the beginning of his reign, to give, in fo fignal an inftancc, fuch mat- 
ter ot trium[i!i to his enemies, and dilcouragement to his adherents ? To-dav, 
the commons pretended to wrcll his minitler from him. To-morrow, they 
would attack Ibmc branch of his prerogative. By their rcmonflrances and pro- 
miles and proteflations, they had engaged the crown in a war. So Ibon as they 
law a retreat in-.polkble, without waiting for new incidents, witiiour co\'er!ng 
themfelves with n.w pretence?, they immediately defertcd him, and refuled him 
cul reafunably lupply. It was evident, that tliey dcfired nothiiiL^ lo much as to 
lee him plunged in inex;ricable c'llHculties, of which they intended to take ad- 
vantage. '[ o l;;eh d.eej) perfidy, to fuch unbounded ufurpations, it w.;S necef- 
fary to oppole a jToper firmnefs and relolution. And any extrmiity w.;S preier- 
able to the eoritempt of fu'jects, to the infults of mean adverfarie?. 

Prom:'!!::; by t'lefe motives, Charles v,-as determined imniediately to diHoIve 
the parlianient. \\'hen thi-. refolution was known, the lujule ol peers, vJh)lc! 
co:n[ liant beliaviuur intit'ed them to lome authority with luni, civdeavouredi to 
irue:Mi,le , and tliey petitioned him, that he would allow the parliament to fit 
!oiv.e :in-ie lunger. No: a moment longer^ cried tlie King Iialldy , and h.e feon a: 
( r .:.^'..d thi<, fellioii by a dillblution. 

U 2 Af 



ia8 history of great BRITAIN. 



Chap. I. j\s this meaflire was forefecn, the commons took care to finifii and difperfe 

their remonftrance, which they intended as a juftification of their conduft to the 
15 oi June. ppQp]g, The King likewife, on his part, pubhilied a declaration, where he gave 
the reafons of his difagreement with the parhament, and of their fudden diflb- 
jution, before they had time to conclude any one a6l. Thefe papers furniflied 
the partizans on both fides with ample matter of apology or of recrimination. 
But all impartial nun judged, " Tbal the commons, tho' they had not violated 
" any law, yet, by tlicir unpliablenefs and independence, were infenfibly chang- 
" .ing, perhaps improving, the fpirit and genius, while they prefervcd the forms, 
" of the conltitution : And tha^ the King was afting altogether without any 
*' p'an , running on in a road, furrounded, on all fides, with the ir^oft danger- 
" OU3 precipices, and concerting no proper meafures, either for fubmitting to 
*' the obftinacy of the commons, or for fubduing it." 

After a breach with the parliamiCnt, which feemed fo difficult to repair, the 
only rational council, which Charles could purfue, was immediately to conclude 
a peace with Spain, and to render himfelf, as far as poffible, independent of his 
pe p L, vvho diicovered fo little inclination to fupport him, or rather who feem 
to have lonnt^C' a determined refolution to abridge his authority. Nothing could 
be mjrc ta^y in the execution than this meafure, nor more agreeable to his own 
and to national intereft : But befides the treaties and engagements, which he had 
entered into with ilolland and with Denmark, the King's thoughts were, at this 
time, inti'.ely averfe to pacific councils. There are two circumftances in Charles's 
charadler, feemingly incompatible, which attended him during the whole courfe 
of his reign, and were in part the caufe of all his misfortunes : He was very 
fi;eddy and even obftinate in his purpofe ; and he was eafily governed, by reafon 
of his facility, and of his deference to men, much inferior to himfelf both in 
morals and underftanding. His great ends he inflexibly mairitained : But, the 
means of attaining them, lie readily received from his minifters and favourites ; 
tho' not always fortunate in his choice. The furious, impetuous Buckingham, 
inflamed with a defire of revenge for injuries, which he himfelf had committed, 
and animrited with a love for glory, wldch he had not talents to merit, had, at 
this time, notwithftanding his profufe, licentious life, acquired an invincibie af- 
cendant over the virtuous and gentle temper of the King. 
Viflcnt rr.ca- The ?iezv coi'.ncils, v/hich Charles had mentioned to the parliament, were now 
uiu\s oi tric ^Q ]ja. tried, in order to fuj^ply his neccffities. Had he poiTefie,d any military 
force, on which he could dcj end, 'tis not improbable, that he had., at once, ta- 
ken off the mafix, and governed without any regard to parliamentary privileges : 
So high an idea had he received of kingly prerogative, and fo contemptible a 

notica 



toiirt. 



CHARLES I. 



i-i9 



re lion of t::e i".:i,h's of tiiolc popiihir iillcir.Ml.s, I'loni v.l.uh, h: \\ rv r..\'':r.: v 
til. I: 'r, i:o Ii.ul nut wirli luch i.l i.Ki;'/-. i^i-^ ''i^ ar:rv w.i: :::': j/vi.d, i.i ; aij, 
a;ui w.-rL- tliluj li::/ ; ; no v. ih- lii, r .jI" lo tlij ni'!:ri,i, v.!..; ,, , re niLirli vr.iA\: n.:- 
u: r.).is, ;i'h' n'.I.i \mt.', ia .: j^ri'.i: iii.-.iiurc, ii.:wcr liu! i .:.:c;u . ^,1 ;!u- ;,fvU;:::".'- 
i; iulciin-n. h ! . a- ;; luni, tiiciviorc, t ) j r(K"L\:i L.i..:; uilv, ,i:; 1 'o cowr i^o 
Ciurrpr:/, >- i;.. ., :.u- [ v-l ncc ot aiuivnt j i\-cc.:.i;ts, v,;w^l;, Co;.:;.::;;::::; thi- : :\.i: 
;r.:!!i.): i V co;':::;,o:;ly ci.;()ytJ by !;> pi-c^lcJeh'.:;-, c^juiJ no. bj \v. ,;;::, . r > I,.::i. 

A c ;:Ti:v.in; >:\ w.is t pciilv !:;rant:cil to co;:";[:oii:^! \v:t;i tbc caiii' !' s i ''C 
for A d\\i"-ii\di:<.)i\ \\i:h :!ij \cnd\ Li\s>, cj^.i^t^J ;U.u:,ll liu!;-!. IjV I .. t:._ . . - :, 
i;." ,'\iii!;b :'a ni\'.d lis coltlrs, ai^d ^ratiiic*.! lii;, inciiii .tiua oi [ii^'i: ::, ':.:...:. ^^a.lc 
totii-lc ic bj,;o:ri:b; : ]]v,z \\c couLl r.ct rc.i.'iiy have c :r:j'!oyc(l ai'.y l:M;'.!.h ct 
}: .io.^l:l\c, v..i:ch \v(?..bi Inivc bc'.:i iv.orc cl.ia^rciM: b', or wtud h.r, c .;:-;. ai\d 
rooi'c L'Xccp:l():M'^b' to ibis protjilint ti.'-'jeds. 

From tb,c i;o!r.i/.v, be b.ci'irc.i albnuincc : i''ro:"n tb.e city, he rcnyji'Lu a loan o! 
K c/^oo p.oiK'.J.-. I'l'.c b):'iriCr coiUr.butcJ llowly : IL.: ir.c i.r.ter, covering 
lb ;Tirb\'. s u:ibcr ir.i:iy pretences :\:\A cxci.bs, g-ve hi;:: at bul a ibit be:ii.:!. 

I\ oi\ler to t c]i::p a ileet, a G:K :i^..'io!i, by ( rber ot t!;e c.,'L.:ici!, Wa:^ i::.n!c 
to all the ni-^r;:i:'!:e to'.vns ; and each ot t:.e:n \v.:S !"eq:.i;eJ, with tbe a!i;iLi:v. e ot 
the abiacc::t a)i::iii.s, to ar;n b3 m.ir^.y vefiels, a> \\\rc a;^poii-,t. J^ tlieni. '] ,.e 
city ot Loiu'.un was rated at twenty iliii s. Tibs is tiv: f.: it api^ea!-a;-.ce, :n C ii.;rb^'s 
reign, ot Inip-mon.y ; a taxation, v. liich b;.d once been n-nip-oievi by b in'al-. tii, 
but which aiterwards, wlien caiTievl :omc iieps lai'tlier, by Ca-rie;, created lucli 
viole.-.t dafLOiitents. 

Or n^me, b).nsv.erc required: To otlier'^, t!-,e way ot b.ne\-u! :;ce wa^ p'o- 
poled : Metlicxb-, lapp.orted. i'\' piecid.crits, bat aiwa\.N !:ivi.!.oa;> e\t;i Hi r;i-.es 
ir.orc tab:riilb\'e an.l co:T![)liant. bi t'r,e nioit abl^iate ^' 'Ver;nnen:s, K:.;i expe- 
ci;ents woidd be re^ar.ied as irregnl.a" a;;d d.;orderlv. 

TiiLsi: cotii^ci's tor I'app.ly were co;Kb:jttel witli f.-nic modi ration ; tnlnc'. s 
a:'i"!Ved, that a irreat battle was to^.^iir, '.v.-twce:"; u\: I\:;i:i;ol J ieiraiarl-v and C'Ma;.t 



'I'n'v, the in'p. ;-ia' gen-rai; v.l-ie;-e the \^jv\vi'r was t-'.dlv c!--'b-ated, Wor v 
now, ini(jre :;i..;i cw;., beea:i:e reqiniite, m order to v^-.).\. ii> jv'eat a bv .-. . ;,i 
tiie allia;re, ad to h;' i' eT a p:i;.f;% \ , a ) \'.-a^ b; :K'ail7 related [n C a !;!.:, 
n:-id w!v) had i-)een c:i ia;e d 1:1 rl:e v.\a\ cintaiv bv t.e lani 'ue-, li -,.lv ;Mti.i;; , ;ij; i 
pia :ia;es ca tl^e i lag ill 1 n,o;.arJi. .^ :::r 'iare deb'vi a;..)a. an a. l o: c. an. al \v,;s 
pafied, in:p.a:in:r, tliat, a^ the orqea -y (.1 adla:s avhintted :U't liie --av of p.a-- 
baa e, t, tl'e ir.';'} tp.eds', u^ad, ;a:d c-a^vea: !.t !la^; d ot iiipalyv...s 'v a 
L- .a. i... .:. l.oAX !;oni the la^- ::, acc'^^.d:; ' .. e \" :. :a,a-! v.a:- ajiijbd ':.': 



150 HISTOP.Y OF GREAT B R I T x^ I N. 

Cliap. I. rolls of the laft fiibfidy. That precife fum was required, which each would have 
^^^'^'' paid had the vote of four fubfidies been pafTed into a law : But care was taken 
to inform the people, that the fums exaded were not to be called fubfidies but 
loans. Had any doubt remained, that forced loans were a violation of liberty, 
and muft, by necelTary confequence, render all parliaments fuperfluous ; this was 
the proper expedient for opening the eyes of the whole nation. 

The commifTioners, appointed to levy thefe loans, among other articles of fe- 
cret inltrudion, were enjoined, " If any fhall refufe to lend, and Ihall make 
*' delays or excufes, and perfift in his obftinacy, that they examine him upon 
*' oath, whether he has been dealt with to deny or refufe to lend, or make an 
" excufe for not lending ? Who has dealt with him, and what fpeeches or per- 
" fuafions were ufed to that purpofe } And that they fliall alfo charge every fuch 
*'^ perfon, in his Majefty's name, upon his allegiance, not to difclofe to anyone, 
" what his anfwer was." So violent an inquifitorial power, fo impradlicable an 
attempt at fecrecy, were the objeds of indignation, and even in fome degree of 
ridicule. 

That religious prejudices might fupport civil authority, fermons were preach- 
ed by Sibthorpe and Manwaring, in favour of the general loan ; and the court 
very induftrioufly fpread them over the kingdom. Pallive obedience was there 
recommended in its full extent, the whole authority of the ftate was reprefented 
as belonging to the king alone, and all limitations of laws and conftitutions were 
reie(5ted as feditious and impious. So openly was this do6lrine efpoufed by the 
King, that Archbifhop Abbot, a popular and virtuous prelate, becaufe he would 
not licence Sibthorpe's fermon, was banifhed from London, and confined to one 
of his country-feats. Abbot's principles of liberty, and his oppofition to Buck- 
ingham, had always rendered him very ungracious at court, and had acquired 
him the chara6ler of a puritan. For 'tis remarkable, that that party made the 
privileges of the nation as much a part of their religion, as the church-party 
did the prerogatives of the crown ; and nothing tended farther to recommend 
among the people, who always take opinions in the lump, the whole fyftem 
and principles of the former fe6l. The King foon found, by fatal experience, 
that this engine of religion, which, with fo little neceflity, was introduced into 
politics, falling under more fortunate management, was played with the mod ter- 
rible fuccefs againft him. 

While the King, infligated by anger and necefTity, thus employed the v/ho!e 
extent of his pre ogative, the fpirit of the people was far from being fubdued. 
Throughout all England, many refufcd thefe loans, and fome were even adive 

in 



C II A R L F S I. 



I o 



In encourng-ng their neighbours to infi.l upon their common r:p;;Us ar. 1 pr/.- 
Jv':^--. By w.:iTant ot the cojncil, thcfc were thrown into pri on. Moil vA t;hc::i 
\v:t!i patience l..hmi:t:-(.i to conlincment, or .ij|;''i J hy petition in the Ki.i.:, 
\. !-.o comnu^n! ,' rcle.itcd t'lcni. l-'ive gentle.-ren a!ui;e, .^;r 1 1; ^ni.is IXiiiv.-', S.r 
J..'!.:-, Cor'' :, ^ r W'.ii'er l:',.irl, Sir ]()\w\ I Ievcni:-^^!Kin^ :i .J ^ir l\lmo'. I 1 l.nr.l-)- 
cl n, n.ul '",\r.t cno'.;g'i, at their own lia/.ud an^i expence, todct.n.l the })..bi.c 
I:'xt::l' , aiiJ. to demand relcalement, not as a favour tron^ tl;e cmiir, Iv.-r ;-.s t'.'ir 
d'..:-, h: I'ij i.t.ws o! ih.ir country. No p.irtieidir caiife was a.'i-i'^n ^ (jf t u't 
conKT :ri;r.t. I'iie fpecial command alone ot the Kui^;; and councd v.a, i,',-.ad.;.d. 
/\nvi [)v Luv, it was alllrted, this was not fufticient r^alon for reii;!:;;^ ba.l or 
r.!^ ,:!cm_ nt to t'le prituners. 

Tms qu.llif^n was bro'jj^!:: to a io!emn trial, before the ki-^g's ben.h; and \ 
tliL- wliole kin;;.!oiri was attentive to tiie ilfue ot a eaufe, w'.iicli was ot much 
great. r coiifcipucnce tlian tlv.- event ot many battle?. 

B\- t;-.e de'wtes on this lubjecl:, it appeared, beyond* controverfy, to the 
n.it^yn, t':r.r tf.eir ar.celu.rs liad been fo jealous of perfonal liberty, a:, tu f aire 
it a-airr.l ar'-;trary power in the crown, by fix * lev^.-rrd llatutes ar.d bv an ar- 
tk!e-^oi tl'ie Li.<LAT CiiA ;rri:R itlelt, the moll 1,4c re 1 foundation ot tiu- Iv.vs 
and coniiitution. But the king^ of England, who had not been .ib!c to pre\-ent 
t" e enacting thele laws, had iufficient authority, when t'ne tide of iib /rty v,.:s 
Iper.:, to hindrr their rep^ular execution -, and they deemed it fuperlluous to attempt 
th.e !t;rmal rep.eal ot llarutes, which tl'ey found fo many expedier,:-. and pretences 
to elude. Turbulent and, fcditious times frequently occurred, when the f/t'Vrv 
of the people abiolutely required the continemcnt cd factious le.id.eri ; m.,\ [y 
th.e genius of t!ie old C(;n(litution, the {)nnce, ot h'mlcit, was ai^eulK/ni d ro 
affume every branch ot prerogative, v.-hieh was found necefirtry tor tlie pref 1 e 1 
tiun ot public peace and ot his own auth(;rity. b.xpedi.nrv, at otliCr timts, 
v.ould cover itl- It und.er tf.e aj'p^earance ot necilllty , and, in proportion a^ pre- 
cedents ir.u'rii'lied, tr.e will aior.e iA tire t'over ig^n v.-as lullicient to l..pply tl:;- 
place ot expediency, ot winJi he coidlituted himlelf the t(de jtidge. 'i'hu' re- 
bellious lu!|ects hadl irccjueniiv, in the open tield, relilled tlie Ki:;.',".s authori:; ; 
no pcrlt)n fad b 'vn !ound lo haidy, while conlinecl ar.d at nurcv, r;.s to let iu-:. 
Itlt in op;[)olitio:i to Jeg.t! po'.'.'er, waA to claim the prt;tei!'tion ot tiir \.\\\-> ..:.d co:i- 



C -. I. 



llitu'io!), apaiPiil t!ie will 0: the Icnereign. !t v. 
o; liberty wa-. ui,l\-erf;hy eldijled, vdieii the [iri 



n(.t till tills a:V'. ".' h;n ti^e f^ -rir 
ipLs ot go\'e; >.:r.er.t w^re ner.rd/ 

reduce .; 



' I ' .". 



'? 



2-- Fu'. 



^i I.Jw. 111. e^]-. ~. 1 I'ich. ii. cu. 



1 :.. 



Ci..w 



152 HISTORY OF GREAT B R I T A hN. 

Cbap. L reduced to a fyflem, that thefe five gentlemen above-mentioned, by a noble ef- 



lb2J 



fort, ventured, in this national caufe, to bring the qucftion to a final determination, 
And the King was adonifiied to obferve, that a power, exercifed by his predecef- 
fors almoft without interruption, was found, upon trial, to be direftiy oppofite 
to the clearefl: laws, and fupported by few or no undoubted precedents in courts 
of judicature. Thef had fcarcely, in any inftance, refufed bail upon the com- 
mitments by fpecial command of the king j becaufe the perfons committed had 
ftldom or never dared to demand it. 

Sir Randolf Crew, Lord chief juilice, had been difplaced, as unfit for thepur- 
pofes of the court : Sir Nicholas Hyde, efteemed more obfequious, had obtain- 
ed that high office : Yet the judges, by his diredion, went no farther than to re- 
mand the gentlemen to their prifons, and refufe the bail, which was offered, 
fleathe, the attorney-general, infifted, that the court fhould enter a general judg- 
ment, that no bail could be granted, upon a commitment by the King or coun- 
cil : But the judges wifely declined complying. The nation, they favv, were al- 
ready, to the lad degree, exafperated. In the prefent difpofition of men's mind% 
univerfal complaints prevailed, as if the kingdom were reduced to flavery. And 
the moft invidious prerogative of the crown, it was faid, that of imprilbning the 
fubjeft, is here, openly, and folemnly, and in numerous inftances, exercifed for 
the moft invidious purpofe ; in order to extort loans, or rather fubfidies, with- 
out confent of parliament. 

But this was not the only hardfhip, of which the nation then found reafon 
to complain. The army, which had made the fruitlefs expedition to Cadiz, 
were difperfed throughout the kingdom ; and money was levied upon the coun- 
ties, for the payment of their quarters. 

The foldiers were billetted upon private houfes, contrary to cuflom, which 
required, that, in all ordinary cafe?, they fhould be quartered in inns and public 
houfes. 

Those, who had refufed or delayed the loan, were fure to be loaded with a 
greater number of thefe dangerous and diforderly guefts. 

Many too, oF low condition, who had fliown a refradory difpofition, were 
prcffed into the fcrvice, and iniiHed in the fleet or army. Sir Peter Hayman, %r 
the fame realbn, was difpatched into the Palatinate : Glanville, an eminent law- 
yer, had been obliged, durhig the former interval of parliament, to accept of 
an office in the navy. 

The foluiers, il'-paid and undifciplined, committed many crimes and outrages ; 
nd increafcd extremely tlie public difcontents. I'o prevent thefe diforders, mar- 
tial lav/, fo requifite to the fupport of difcipline, was exercifed upon the foldiers. 

By 



CHARLES I. 153 

By a contradI(filon, which is very natural, when the people are cxafperated, the ^-^P- ^ 
outrages of the army were complained ot ; the remedy was tliought ftill more '^'''' 
intolerable. 'Iho* the expediency, if we are nor racher to fay, the nccefnty, of 
martial law, had iormerly been deemed, of itlll!, a fufficient ground for ella- 
blifhing it , men, now become more jealous ot llberry, and more refined rea- 
foncrs in qucftions of government, regarded, as illegal and arbitrary, every cx- 
ercife of authority, which was not fupported by cxprcfs llatute, or uninterrupttd 
precedent. 

It may fafcly be afHrmcd, that, except a few courtiers or ccclefi.illics, all 
men were dilpleafed with this high exertion ot prerog.ui\e, an^l this new jpir;: (,f 
aJ.minillration. 'Iho' antient jirccedeiits were [)lead.d, in favour oi the King's 
n">eafures , a great difierence, upon comparilon, w,!s oble: ved bctweeii tlie caies. 
Acts of power, however irregular, might caluaily and at nicervals, be exercUed 
by a prince, for the lake of dilpatJi or expediency ; and yet liberty lliil kibiili, 
in fome tolerable degree, under his adminiltration. But where all thefe were 
reduced into a lyflem, were exerted without interruption, were Ihidioully fou^du 
for, in order to lupply tlie place of laws, and iubdue llie refraclory I'pirit of th.e 
nation ; it was necelVary to find fome Ipeecly reme.iy, or finally to abandon, ail 
hopes of prelerving the freedom of the conllitution. Nor could moderate men 
clleem tlK' provocation, which the King had received, tho' great, lutlicient to 
warrant all thefe violent mealures. Tlie commons, as yet, had no way invaded 
his authority : 'J'hey had only cxerciled, as befl pleafed tliem, tiicir own [)rivi- 
leces. Was he exc; fable, becaule, from one houie of parliament, he had nxr 
with haiHi and unhii.d treatment, to m.akc, in revenge, an iavafion on ilic 
ri<"'!us aiul liberties of th.e whole nation ? 

Br r gruU was at this time the lurprizc of all men, when Ciiarles ba:?ed in 
every attempt agaii^ifl the Auflrian domiiiior.s, enibroiled v/itli liis own ilibiects, 
wrifupplitd witli any trealure bur whit lie ( xtorted by the iFiofl invidious anj 
iViofl fi.ipgero'.is niea!ures -, as if the half of I'.urope, now his enemy, was r.ot 
ruilicient lor tlie ixeieile of n^a'itary pro'.Vvfs; wantonly attacked hranee, tlie '^'' r -. . 
other great kingdom in his neighbouiliojd, and engaged at once in war agairll ' '"' "' 
thole two powers, v.hofe interelf w.-.s hitherto ellc.med fo inconip.inMe, t'lat 
th.cy could never, it was thouglu, agree lithr in tlie fime friendlliips or enir.i- 
tu;-. All authentic memoirs, both foreign and doincllic, aferibe to Biicking- 
lia-v.'s cour.cils this war with France, and reprefent him, as actuated !iy motive*:, 
wi.icli wfAild appear incredible, were we not luilicicr.Hy ac^^uaiiucd with the c\ 
tr.'ir.e violence and temerity ot his char.u'ler. 

^'UL. I. X Ti. 



; (" 2 7 



154 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

hap. T. The three great monarchies of Europe were at this time ruled by young 
princes, Philip, Eouis, and Charles, who were nearly of the fame age, and who 
had refigned the government of themfelves and of their kingdoms to their crea- 
tures and minifters, Oiivarcz, Richelieu, and Buckingham. The people, whom 
the moderate temper or nanow genius of their princes, would have allowed to 
remain for ever in tranquillity, were flrongly agitated by the emulation and jea- 
loufy of the minifters. Above all, the towering fpirit of Richelieu, incapable 
of reft, prcmifed an aclive age, and gave indications of great revokitions through- 
out all b.urope. 

I'l-iis man had no fooner, by fupplenefs and intrigue, got pofiefilon of the 
reins of government, than he formed, at once, three mighty {/rcjeds ; to fub- 
due the turbulent fpirits of the great, to reduce the r^^bellious hugonots, and to 
curb the encroaching power of the houfe of Auftria. Undaunted and impla- 
cable, prudent and active ; no oppofition of the French princes or nobles could 
withftand his vengeance, no cabals could efcape his penetration. His fovereign 
himfelf, he held in fubjedion, while he exalted the throne. The people, v/hile 
they loft their liberties, acquired, by means of his adminiftrarion, learning, or- 
der, difcipline, and renown. That confufed and inaccurate genius of govern- 
ment, which France partook in common with other European kingdoms, he 
changed into a fimple monarchy ; at the very time, when the incapacity of Buck- 
ingham encouraged the free Ipirit of the commons to cftablifh in England a re- 
grlarfyftem q( iihuiy. 

Hov/EVER unequal the comparifon between thefe minifters, Buckingham had 
entertained a migluy jealoufy againft Richelieu ; a jealoufy not founded on rival- 
fhip of power and politics, but of love and gallantry , where the Duke was as 
much fuperior to the Cardinal, as he was inferior in every other particular. 

At tf.e timi', v/hcn Charles married by proxy the Princefs Henrietta, the Duke 
of Buckingha'n was difpatched into France, in order to grace the nuptials, and- 
conduct the new Queen into Engknd. Theeycs of the whole French court were 
diredtd by ruriofity towards that man, who had enjoyed the unlimited favour of 
twofucceftlve monarchs, and who, from a private ftation, had mounted, in the 
earlicft youth, to the abfolute government of three kingdoms. The extreme 
beauty of his perfon, the graccfulnefs or his air, the fplendor of Iiis equipage, his 
fine tafte in drefs, feftivals, and carroufcls, correfponded to the prep';rreir!ons, en- 
tertained in his favour : The aftability of his beliaviour, the gaiety of his manners, 
the magnif'cence of his expence, increafed ftill farther the gen- ral admiration;, 
'^hich was paid him. All bufinefs being already concerted, the time was intirely 



C II A R L i: S I. 



155 



f|'-,nt in rViirih ;ir.d ci.rcrt.iixmi.i t; , ;',;-.;], c!i;r:!;; tliofo 1] !l';x':J k\nc5, a.-v.' r.[; 
tli.u gay ptOj)!c, tb.c I'ul^-.- luuiid l.iiiilcl: in a !i:i..i[:w;i, v.\.c- I,c \\as jK-i:,-^''.y 
qwA,i!i..ci CO tx^cl. V).ii I.1-. [;:^MC lutwls at I'.uli j ^ll^'cd a-> I.r.;! as i.;^ i);ii t 
laiiurc at M.i.li:^i. iMicoura^uci by tirj lii.ili.s ct ii. lm.:'', \\c v arcJ. eo c.iry !..b 
air.bicioi-is aJiJirtiil> to tiic (^uten licikli ; ar.ii he ta;L.l :i >: to iiuk.* iii;):;- ;b).i 
Oil a b.tart n )i ur.^i:i|K)kd to tl:c tCi.dcr pafiior.s. 'i'iiat ait.i.r.ir.fp.t, a: I:-;.!, i;; .'. ' 
ni;:..l, w!.;i.;i .ij^'.). ar:- fo CeiK'i us, and is lo d.ing;MOLi<>, lc.in> to h.iv;- o.'-n en 'jU- 
la:; d by the I imctl; and tiie Diibc |MelL![iKd. lo iar on Ir^r ;] )A j^:\tC:.~, ti. it, 
a!:.;- h'::- dcpaitme, !:c lee:."'./ ictin-ced \.)y(y\ lomc pretcn.e, ard, j a;. :r,,;, a v..;t 
Uj til..' (^ieen, nsus cinmilied \'.i:h a re[:!!X)o:, v.-in^li lavojrcd nun''." ui iviri-hv :,-. tiMn 

1;.: oi^MAiiON' o; tins c<nTc !!{ iid..i:cc was ! on Ca;";iv.d ro Ri.l'iciieJ. 'i i:e 
vigiUni'e ol chat iTiinKler was hcie lart'-.cr ro../.cb; by jealouly. I ie tcjo, cbb.iLT 
Iroin varary or j")ii is, biad VL^itinwi to i ay his add.ic!bes to cr.e (^c\n. BiiC i 
pricll, pail midcij age, ui a levere char.icter, ar.b. ( ccnpied. in the iiKnl txtenfiv;- 
puii'S ot ambition o; ven-ieaiice, was bat an un.(]L;al mateli in that dented, tor 
a yc.ung coin-tier, mtifely tiilpoLd ti; g,.ne':y and galbiiury. Tlie C'ardirail's dil- 
ap,-on;rir,ei,t llrungly inchr.ed Idtn to comuer-v, uik the amorous pro;e^Ts ol \v.^ 
rivab \\ bii n tl'.-j Diikc was making preparations lor a rew en.'ballV to I'aris, r 
nKira:ze was feni him irom L,ou:s, tliat he mull nor think ot Ickh a iourriev. In 
a ron".ar.tic palTlon, he Iwore, 77'.;.' /.': ^icuL! Jcr tJ:: I'^tccu^ :n l['.:c cf (:.'! /f'.'c fc::-:r 
of lriv:cc , and, trom that njo:r.e;-.t, he was determined to engage l:~ngbind in a 
war with that kingdom. 

Ml- tiill took advantage of fomc (]Uarre!?, exciicd by t'n.e (^!.:cen ol J-'n.g- 
land's attendants j aiid he perluaded C harles to diririiii-, at once, an h,T Ineneh 
f( r\'arits, contrary to the articles of the marriage-treaty. He ei^.cour;ged tl',.- 
I-":i:''ilh ll'iips of war and p^rivateers to iVi/.e NTi;e!s beh)nging to I-ien,!i mer- 
chnus j an.d //(/"' !a- ioithwith condemned as prize.-, by ;i 1 -nteiice cjI tl.c court ol 
adnrnnnbtv. I>nt tindlii'.g, th.it all tlieie ir.iuries produce! on!y rem nidlra: >;es ard 
fn.b ifiies, or at moll repri/.ds, on the p.irt ot 1 r.mce , Ix- lelolved. to lecoiul t!ie 
intrigue', ot t!ie l.)nke ot Sou', i/.e, ar.d to undertake at o:v:e a niili'-ary exyedrdon 
ag;bmll tliar nation. 

Soi r.iz r, wl;o, wi:h his brot'n.er, the Duke of R l-.an, was the leader (J ti-.c 
lu:gonot taftion, wa'; at that tinie m I .ondon, and lironpiy Iciii^ited L Ihu-ies tn 
rinbr.u e live [n'oteLiion oi thele diilrehed religior.iti . lb. repretented, 'J'lnir, 
a'.fr the inhf.bitants ol UocbieMc: had been repi'i lied b-v 'be < 'innbnv.d k]u.id.i'c)..s oi 
i'ngland and Holland, alter peace was coiantiJed w.tli t!".e lM\nKh Kin.': under 

X 2 C b.nk/' 



t-..r. I. 
10:7. 



156 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. I. Charles's mediation, the ambitious Cardinal was ftill meditating the defl:rii6tion of 
''' the hugonots ; that preparations were filently making in every province of France 
for the fupprefllon of their religion ; that forts were erefted in order to bridle Ro- 
chelle, the moft confiderable bulwark of the proteftants ; that the reformed in 
France caft their eyes on Charles as the head of their faith, and confidered him as 
a prince engaged by intereft, as well as inclination, to fupport them j that, as long 
as their party fubfifted, Charles might rely on their obedience, as much as on 
that of his own fubjeds ; but, if their liberties were once ravifhed from them, the 
power of France, freed from this impediment, would foon become formidable to 
England, and to all the neighbouring nations. 

Tho' Charles probably bore but fmall favour to the hugonots, who fo much re- 
fembied the puritans, in difcipline and worfhip, in religion and politics ; he yet 
allowed himfelf to be gained by thefe arguments, inforced by the foUicitations of 
Buckingham. A fleet of an hundred fail, and an army of 7000 men, were fitted 
out for the invafion of France, and both of them entrufted to the command of 
the Duke, who was altogether unacquainted both with land and fea-fervice. The 
9tnof July, fleet appeared before Rochelle : But fo ill-concerted were the Duke's meafures, 
Expediton to that the inhabitants of the city fhut their gates, and refufed to admit allies, of 
t;:e ule of v/hofe coming they were not previouily informed. All his military operations 
fhowed equal incapacity and inexperience. Inftead of attacking Oleron, a fertile 
ifland and defencelefs, he bent his courfe to the ifle of Rhe, which was well garri- 
foned and fortified : Having landed his m,en, tho' with fome lofs, he followed not 
the blow, but allowed loiras, the French governor, five days refpite ; during 
which St. Martin was vidlualed and provided for a fiege : He left behind him the 
fmall fort of Prie, which could at lirll have made no manner of refiftance : Tho' 
refolved to (larve St. Martin, he guarded the fea negligently, and allowed provi- 
fions and ammunition to be thrown into it: Defpairing to reduce it by famine, 
he attacked it v/ithout having made any breach, and raflily threw away the lives 
of the foldiers : Having found, that a French army had ftolen over in fmall di- 
vifions, and had landed at Frie, the fort, which he had, at iirft overlooked, he 
i'^thof Odo- began to think of a retreat ; but made it fo unfkilfully, that it was equivalent to 
a total rout : He was the laft, of the whole army, that embarked ; and he re- 
turned to England, having lofl two thirds of his land-forces j totally difcredited 
both as an admiral and a general; and bringing no praife with him, but that vul- 
[li\r one of courage and perfonal bravery. 

The Duke of Rohan, who had taken arms as foon as Buckingham appeared 
upon the coaff, difcovered the dangerous fpirit of the fed, without being able to 

do 



CHARLES I. 



^S7 



do any mifchicf : The iiuiabirnnts of Rochellf, who had, at 1 aft, been induced to C^^p. I. 
join themfelves to the l.nphlh, hallened the vj^ngeancc of their mafter, exhaufled 
their provifiors in furp'vlni^ th' ir alhes, and were threatened with an immediate 
fiege. Suc.'i ucrct!.: fruits ot" Buckingham's expedition ngainft France. 



C II A P. II. 

Third parlui'uOit. Petition of right. Prorcgalio?!. Death cj 

Buckingham. AVtc jefiioji of parliament. l^cnnage and poundagr. 

Ar-ni'iinuifm. Dijjchiticn of the parliament. 

Til r. K 1-. V..IS rcafon to apprcliend fome diforder or ir^fiirredion from the 
dirLo;itc;it>, v>hich prevailed among the pcop'c. Their liberties, they 
beiievevi, v. i:\: r.iVillied from them-, illegal taxes extorted j their commerce, 
which had ii.cc with a fevere check Irom tlvj Spanilli, was totally annihilated by 
the French war ; thofe military honour?, tranfmitted to them from their ancci- 
tor?, haJ. received a grievous iLiin, by two unfuccefsful and ill-conducted expe- 
ditions i fcarcc an illuflrious family but m.ourned, from the lall of them, the 
K)fs of a fun or bn-ther , [-rcater calamities were dreaded from the war with tliefe 
powerful moFiarchies, concurring with the internal diforders, unJ.cr which the 
nation laboured. And thetj ills were afcrib^cl, not to the rctractory difpoltion 
of the two former parliaments to whicli tlivy v. ere partly owing ; but luleiy to 
C-'hailes's obflinacy, in atlhering to tlie couniels of I'uekingliam ; a nian no wife 
li.titled, by his buth, age, lervices or n^erlt, to t!;.it u.n.imited cui. licence, re- 
pofcd in him. 'i"o be iaeriiiced to the interell, poiiev, and ambition of the great, 
is io much tlie common lot of t;ic [ eopie, that they n\iv :;p[.ear unrcaiuaable, 
who would pretend to complain (>t it : But to be tlie \ictim of tl^e tr.vo'ous 
gallantry ot a favourite, and of ids boyilli caiJr.ccs, fiemeJ. tlu. Ji.: ect of } ecu- 
11. ;r indignatio"'. 

Is' this fituation, it may be ir'.igintJ, tlie Kinr; ;.:,d t:;i Duke ^lieaJed, abo'.'C 
all things the aflembling a {larh.iir.eiit : Bus i'- h't'k' f rc.'glit iia;! they poiTefled 
Ml tlieir enterprizing llhemes, that they iound tii. :v ! 1 vci i.iuivr aw aLs-^Aite nc- 
cellity of embracing that expedient. 'I'he n:ui.cy LvieJ, or ra:her ex:^>rreJ. ua- 
dcr pretence of prerogative, had cunie m vuy djv.iy, an.d f.ad left luJ. ilM.u- 

irju: 



Mar^h v. 



158 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN, 

C",..p. II. mour in the n?non, that it appeared dangerous to renew the experiment. 
The abfoiute necelllty oi fupply, it vvas hoped, would engage the commons to 
forget all pad i juiies ; and, having experienced the ill eftecfls of former obfii- 
nacy, they would probably affemble with a refolution of making fome reafun- 
able compliances. I'he more to foften them, it vvas concerted, by Sir Robert 
Cotton's advice, that Buckingham fhould be the firfi perfon, who propofed in 
council the callinc^ a nev/ parliament. Havin<2: laid in this flock of miCrit. 
he expeded, that all his former milclemeanors would be overlooked and for-- 
Third Par- given, and that, inflcad of a tyrant and oppreffor, he fhould be regarded as the 
firfi patriot in the nation. 

I'he views of the popular leaders 'were much more judicious and profound. 
When the commons alfembled, they appeared to be men of the fame independent 
fpirit with their predeceffors, and pollefred of fuch riches, that their property 
was computed to furpafs three times that of the houfe of peers ; they were de- 
puted by burroughs and counties, inflamed, all of them, by the late violations 
of liberty ; many of the members themfelves had been call into prifon, and 
had fuffered by the meafures of the court ; yet, notwitl-flanding all thefc circumr- 
fiances, which might prompt them to embrace violent refolutions, they entered 
vipon bufincfs vyith p.rfeft temper and decorum. They confidered, that the 
King, d fgufted at thefe popular afiemblies, and little prepoffelTed in favour of 
their privileges, wanted but a fair p;retencc of breaking with them, and would 
feizc the firft opportunity ofiered by any incident or undutiful behaviour of the 
members. He fairly told them, in his firft fpeech, that, " If they fhould not 
" do their duties, in contributing to the neccOities of the ftate, he muft, in dif- 
*' charge of his confcicnce, ufe thofe other means, which God had put into his 
" hands, in order to fave that which the follies of fome particular men may 
*' otherwife put in danger. Take not this for a threatening," added the King, 
*' for I fcorn to threaten any but my equals ; but as an admonition from him, 
** who, by nature and duty, has m.oO; care of your prefervation and profperity." 
The Lord keeper, by the King's diredion, fubjoined, " This way ot parlia- 
*' mentary fupplies, as Ifis Majefly told you, he hath chofcn, not as the only 
*' way, but as the fitteft , not becaufc he is deflirute of others, but becaufe it 
" is moil agreeable to the goodnefs of his own moil gracious di'poficion, and to 
" the defire and weal of his people. If this be def rred, necelzlty and the fword 
" of the enem.y make way to th^ others. Remember his Majcily's admonition ; 
" I fay, remember it." From thefe avowed maxims, the commons forefaw, 
that, if the Icall handle was afforded, the Kitig would immediately diffolve them, 
and thenceforward deem himfcifjuuilied for violating, in a manner Hill more 

5 ^pe^-^ 



C II A R L E 5 I. 



1 ;q 



open, all the ant'ent forms of the cor.ftitiuio:i. Xo rciiH-Jy could then be lookc; 
li>r, b.'t from i:'.:i)! re ctiop.s :i:xi civil war, cf v.iiich t't:- illlie would be cxcrenv Iv 
uiuci ra'iM, ;u,'i ViWw..\ ;:ui!U in all cvt-ius, piovr iiv.nit y (. .I'aniicous to rhc' w!;r > 
[^.a:io:i. To CO ;',:': tl.u l.j'j dilori-lcrs iii tli' auiiii:.;;.; .it;(jn rccjuirrd \otr.e r.-x 
iuvs, w'li.'i V,'..'', i.w t',0',:br, ap^vj.ir h.irfh ro a ] ;i;,rc, I'o r:;;ip.K:urcd (I !.:s 
pr r(V>.'r;v_* -, ;'.:.. i it; w.i, r^quifitc tu 'rnip -r, by t!-.c d' i rnrv a:i 1 nvodcra:. on or 
t;',cir tic' >.i\ . li'.c ri<;'i;r, wiiicli :r.ull r.cj li'irily ut'cnJi t:;L\r i.r:,-:;r.!na:i(jn<^. 
No:'..ir", c.'.:i ^.'' i:> a !,:;';hcr ide.i o: the r.ipacicv o: thol-j :r.^l^, w'/.i) lov. ^v) d-.d 
t'l ^oii.ir, ;:i5', ..lid oi rlij ;;rc:ic authoiicv, which ''yy l;.ivl aciju;:-;:,), ch-.n l:;c 
ro.-:Vi'.', :; :ud cx^e.-tii.;^; lo juJiiious a:id To diillcult a ph". oi opcr.itio.:', 

'I'm:: dcccr.cv, hiowcw r, whicli t':c popuL;r leaders had jTcrcribcM tot'ien:- 
fclws, a d rc>.oi:i:r-eiK!. d to otiu'is, hiMdvrcd th?m i.(>t I'oiri r.ial<.ing t!,c loiuhlt 
iind moll vi:_;o;'ous comr/iaipts at^aiiilt tlic [nij'.'ar.i cs, likIlt wliicli th;; r.a'iJij ih.id 
JarLiy labo.irLd. S:r r'r.irci^ S'.'V.iioiir laid, '* i'..;s is t:ic i'jvut council of t,.c 
'' king'oir., an; iu'.c wlt'i cu':.iin[\-, d r.uc !'..ic only, his Mai'-llv ir.av f '_, ai 
' in a ti'uc rdais, rhc lire vi r'l; kingdom. \\ c a:c ail ca'l^d i.iti^cr bv his 
' wri:-, io o:\;fr lo [i:vc him l.ut!^:ul courhl ; lucli as iiiav Hand widi h;s i:,o. 
'- K(*ur : Ar.A th:^ wc iiu.il tio \\;:'x)UC lh;:rcrv'. V/c arc ,:il lent l,::i:.r bv the 
^' [>'jo;-':c, in (.lucr to dcli\'ir tiuir ]\aI ;:i i. wmccs : .-Vno ilws we nudi. do v, ilI^ouc 
*' ic.;r. i-ct i.s r'.oi a-L lii^c C.ur.by ;:.s"b jU-^g j^, who, \y.'iii.-n tlieir a})p'ruba[^ >n \'. a.s 
" dcm..:id:\l by tlu- piincc to K ;;:e .il'-al nu-hnc, la:!, that, 'I . / :lcri' ::.is ,: 
^' ::;/;.:;. ;>;;:, / '< I\r'!.:-: a:/.7> -;,.;/'//...'o:: . ../ f ::,7 :.;.':' .:kJ pli.iju c\ Tliis \v..s 
'' bale i] t:ciV, iiil' r tor ( ur reproof th.:n t .u" inViciL;' n -, and ;is tear, io flarrerv, 
' ta'.vcth away the luti'V-r.ei::. for my p;irt, I ih.a;i liiun bctii ; and Ipe.ih ir.v 
' mind w;:ii ai muc!i out}*, a:^ any num, to h:;i ninj llv, wiihoLit ::ep!(.c:u, ; [lie 

p ..Oii*. . 

'' Iju r how can \\c cyrf'Ts cur afit^iion^, vdii'.e \\r retain our 'jv'~ ; or !":-eak 



Chip. II. 
11 ;:. 



ol ;;;;\ ui'f, till wc i-. .:;./ w 



^ r>. r- 



we !:avj a.:v i 



to :,:ve. ih r, it lus Ma- 



ti :. 1 , ,., 



y cc rei !ii-iuc l1 to la:-:- v,\..d h-' v.ill, we.a; :]ci.\\ we gi'.e r 



' i u;. r ttuo Ik.'Ii u-en d.)n _ a[) !.i:;tn hv ilic bi, ^cinii "\ lo.vlie;-, a r::h:!^ 

*' now:,^- ;iOvai'r.:!p(H;:. to the rvU';'"'^ Ic: . net", a..d a IvuMle;; fo the tonuiionsve . :h : 

' i> ; tiie i;n['r.l( 'i,m< t;: )t re ik u.^n i . r r ''d.:: '. !;>:!, w!:c, ii r'.ev i.a . ilu'u. 

^' 'he co-::rary :or i .u\ !.ad b.e:i aN ! lat.^e ;' e a-i t;!-; : re Cim^ u: tn.it < j;, ; ^-iPv,- 

'^ nu ,.lu:e. i o e^)i ::,[. n ant e thele ; r ': :n,:'^, l^at . r n^ t ' < ; .i. ,. .1 in tn- 

' pni: ;r, 'r r.e ':ei 1 raud, that ./., :,. : h . - . . . i;, t 

*' Ndi :\ pieae;:!. r , lo; I .he tlicu" ow n c.inr ':> , a:ii' t n: n i;.:!);. .r : :h.' nnvii ^ \". e l;e 



v/ v,i.nn<_^ LUty arc to cxclnu^^e a pocu ^or;:^iL::v c lor ,\ ;.i:l:L'i r.v 



il: 



i6o HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chan. TI. c j^E^ J niull confefs, is no good fubjefl, who would not, willingly and cheer- 
" fully* lay down his life, when that facrifice may promote the intercfts of his 
* fovereign and the good of the commonwealth. But he is not a good fubjed, 
*' he is a flave, who will allow his goods to be taken from him againft his will, 
" and his liberty againft the laws of the kingdom. By oppofing thefe praftices, 
*' we Ihall but tread in the fteps of our forefathers, who ftill preferred the public 
" before their private intereft, nay, before their very lives. It will in us be a wrono- 
" done to ourfelves, to our pofterities, to our confciences, if we forego this claim 
*' and pretenfion." 

*' I read of a cuftom," faid Sir Robert Philips, *' among the old Romans, that, 
" once every year, they held a folemn feftival, at which their flaves had liberty, 
*' without exception, to fpeak what they pleafed, in order to eafe their afflided 
" minds ; and, on the conclufion of the feftival, the (laves feverally returned to 
" their former fervitudes. 

" This inftitution may, with fome diftinflion, well fet forth our prefent ftate 
" and condition. After the revolution of fome time, and the grievous fufterance 
*' of many violent oppreflions, we have now, at laft, as thofe flaves, obtained, 
'* for a day, fome liberty of fpeech : But fhall not, I truft, be hereafter flaves : 
*' For we are born free. Yet, what new illegal burthens our eftates and per- 
" fons have groaned under, my heart yearns to think cf, my tongue falters to 
" utter. 

*' The grievances, by which we are opprefl^ed, I draw under two heads ; a6ls 
" of power againft law, and the judgments of lawyers againft our liberty." 

Having mentioned three illegal judgments, pafled within his memory; that 
by which the Scotch, born after James's acceflion, were admitted to all the pri- 
vileges of Englifti fubjeds ; that by which the new impofitions had been warrant- 
ed ; and the laft, by which arbitrary imprifonments were authorized ; he thus 
proceeded. 

'' I CAN live, tho' another, who has no right, be put to live along v/ith me ; 
** nay, I can live, tho' burthened with impofitions, beyond what at prefent I la- 
" bour under : But to have my liberty, which is the foul of my life, raviflied 
" from me ; to have my perfon pent up in a jail, without relief by law, and to 

" be fo adjudged, O ! improvident anceftors I O ! unwife forefathers ! to 

*' be fo curious in providing for the quiet pofl^eftion of our lands and the liberties 
" of parliament j and, at the fame time, to neglect our perfonal liberty, and let 
" us lie in prifon, and that during pleafure, without redrefs or remedy ! If this 
^' be law, why do we talk of liberties ^ Why trouble ourfelves with difputes a- 

*' bout 



CHARLES I. 



iGi 



*' bout a confilcution, franciiill?, piopcrcy of ^ooJs, aiid tiiC i:kc : W'l.u :r..iy Lr.-.p. i; 
'' any min call his ov.ii, ii r.;j- i:,c iib'j:ry in [..^ j:LT!"un ' ' "' 

" 1 am woary oi crcaciiiijj; tiielc way^ ; ;uKi ti.ciT ore coiiCluLi;: fo hive a Icicc^ 
'" ccm:r-!Ct '., :a uiJ.tr lo Iraiirj a p'.L:n'.;i tu his /.L'.;-.!'.y i<-:' icvii- i^ ot tiic c oy- 
" prcriion:^. Av.d il;is p.'litioii bciroi; read, c\.;n,;.icd, a:.d .lyyr.jvjjJ, ni.iy be cb-- 
" ji\'crcvi ro cb.c Kiii^^i oi wh(;lc ^rado.is .i:...vrr v. c ii.iv :. y c^'... ro .!( ..bt, t/;r 
' b.clKc^ bciri;_; lo rcaloii.iblc, our inrciUio;is lo i .yal, a;i.! ihe ir.ii.i.LT lu j..:.i._b, 
" Nc:bicr iicc.i uc tear, tiiu ti^:^ i-, th^; cr:;ic..l i ar..,.;ii: :.:, a; .!.;s b.;';i i..iiiu,- 
' .;^b 1 ; ill,.: tiiib :s away Lu (.bll: avuiur; : I)i::..1;j:. om-IiIn'cs ui ^ i.-'pyy i\\\.v. 
'' 'I !; n !h..li the Kiny, as he eah:^ l;s hi> [iieac cooi.^h, iiiiJ Uc I.:- irv.c Loj;,ch. 
' .ii.J. I V. a i.b iii> y^otui ccLiriCil." 

'1;:!. lan;e [op'ics ueic iaivirccd b\ ^^u 'riK);i;.;-> W ir.iw ..iih. Aiier n";ci;:;w;> 
:;,j.;; i :\>|..eLo:s diiS iil iVjiiullers oi llace. " i IaMv," la\: ii , ' /..i'.'e iriiro.iL.c^d 
' a privy eucMV :1, ia\i.]uay^, at oiwe, liu'lyli les ui ai. aatiea: i^overanienc i 
tieiLioy aiii ah iibeuv ^ in^.p, iloaaitj; Li> UiLi.outbubi or b^'ab:. Ir.-^v !i.;\ . tike;i 

" fro.ai Ui \\':m: !a.b; I lay : huicb, wiiac liave t.-.ey bjii l,s : II; [ear;ag up 

'' t'.ic r;ji.;t> o: ail pr* [ vrry, they have tak.ii Ironi us (.v.i-y n:ea..> ol luypiviiM:; 
' I.'...- Ivi..':, a;.Ji or air^iatMiia;; cLai.,i\L.> by voiiiiitary pToots oi our b:u:v a:id 
" a:t^.<.,nr,Lat touaru iaai. 

To i;-.'- ir,..biii;: \v''-.olc all tli !e iM.aclu'.s I 11m'.: ay: !v rr.vlbi:'-, ar-.J, to ail 
' ih; ;. clui-aL-, lla.ll ;::o; oi.nd a ;c:^:,\iv. l!v < ae ana liie l.aa;; tiaa::, have tli;- 
:. a , .aai b e j-- opi; i^vva iiu:t, .iaa in la.- aui:.' aai.l b;, \' i'c eiatJ. W'c a-i^tl 
" . a.b;earc: Wan: Nls. :aaa : No: C.).:-.ati a% b;:..L aaa vita! ib''-:t;e^; 
'' ['. !c-i,.U'iva,^ li.j haA.-, ciai'.;eb ly caa- :.\: c!b:> ; iy a ri:a/ l\ . a a ibaap 
' uaaa b,. a,, a;..' Uv; ! taa:ica;s :pa ;: .a i 1 ' ba'j . , . ; - la A a 1 

' (a.a ' V. a liiab^ lii^ a V. .a. to iaaa.k apai;a:-'a:^ No: ( -aa' .a a; t ^ .a c ir . a. ir 
''' \ I b ;-;b; 1- :a ba" b- 'a a b- ;ab ; layi,. !:" v, cab^.,- a .1 
<' b . :: V. bi iv ia,, a.. ' i a. I ..: i:s :.'j\ .r, ti:.:'?- 



a 1 



s'. a. . , v'. . . 

- '.a a L^ 



i62 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

c hnp. IT. this concciTiOn. The Duke's approbation tod was mentioned by Secretary Coke j 

^^'~^' but the conjundion of a fubjed with thiC fovereign was ill received by the houle. 

Tho* dirguitcd wiih the King, the jca!oufy, whic'i they felt for his honour, was 

rTiOre feiiiible than that, which his unbounded confidence in the Duke would 

allo-.Y ev.n liimfclf to erjtertain. 

Thc fupp'y, tho' voted, was not, as yet, paiTi^d into a law -, and the commons 
refolved to employ tlie interval, in providing Tome barriers to their rights and li- 
berties, fo lately violated. They knew, that t.'ieir own vote, declaring the ille- 
gality of the former meafures, had not, of itil-If, fufficient authority to fecure the 
conflitution againft all future invafion. Some act to that purpofc mufl receive 
the fan-'iiion of the whole legiflature ; and they appointed a committee to prepare 
the model of fo important a law. By coikfting into one eftort all the dangerous 
and oppreffive claims of his prerogative, Charles had cxpofed them to the hazard 
of one alTault ; and had farther, by prefenting a nearer view of the confeqncnces 
attending them, rouzed the independent genius of the commons. Forced loans, 
benevolences, taxes witliout confent of parliament, arbitrary imprifonments, bil- 
letting foldiers, martial lav/; thefe were the grievances complained of, and againft 
thefe an eternal remedy was to be provided. The commons pretended not, as 
they affirmed, to any unufual powers or privileges : They aim^ed only at fecuring 
thoie tranftnitted them from their anceftors : And their law they refolved to call 
Fctiton of a pTjT;0N OF RiGPiTj as implying that it contained a corroboration or expla- 
nation of the antient conflitution, not any infringement of royal prerogative, or 
acqu'.iition of new liberties. 

AVhile the committee was emp'oyed in framing the petition of right, the fa- 
vor r^rs of cuch party, botli in [::ariiam.ent and throughout the nation, w'erc en- 
gag: d in difput>.s about tiiis bill, which, in al! likelihood, was to form a menio- 
rabie aera in the Kiighlli government. 

'I'll \T I'v: rtjtutcs, fiid the rar':izans of the commons, which fecure En^lin-i 

liberty, ar: not bccun^e ob'oietc, ;ipj;ears hence, tliat the Kn:^lifh have ever been 

{;-:, :.::.] 1; ivc ever bi.cn governed by lav/ and a li;nired conilitution. Privileges 

be:. e,r, vb::;th are fuii'i.lebi 0.1 the GRr..\i- Chart-.r, mud alwav.-. rennain 



II 



m 



m !o,T.', i:;ea:;.e Ci-.riveci ircvi] a :oaree ( t jH.ver taihng autlionty ; regnxled in ail 
a 'C , as .i;e n oil ficrrd contraci betveen ki!;g and peopbj. Such ari"cntion was 
v:!bi r - t" } c: ar:er Ly 01. r rM.croej anceduiT, that tlu-y got the co.birmarion of 
i. 1:. i- .a"-: \ ibii'y lcve:..I lai.es ; a:.d ^vtn Ibcured it by a 1 iw, winch feems in 
t!;e c:^.^an;. n \u>: r.cb'a.bb'. 'J liey n<i-;i-d, /'''/?/ )io JJciuic^-iVL'Ll) il'iAildhc rJtcr- 



r.^^rl-Ji: to i:-:y '.vtlclc cf that cl\:rlci\ [hcu'd c::./ /'.eiv a-iy force 
\i\\ rcg;u'd to ib-it important ariicle, Vvhieh Iccures j)"rfonai 

libei'tv 1 



C II A R L E S I. 



if.; 



iib.Tty ; io (at fi-oni atrc:Ti;::i:K;, .it .i:v; :i:w?, .;. v i... ,.ii infi'njcrrcnr oT ;: ; I'w Ca.p U. 

luivj Lo;To!;c;r.uca i: by !ix iL.u.v^, and [v.: i: o.iC o: ..'1 i!-;'..-^": a:.^i c nt: .\\r y. 

Il in practice ii h.is t':c;.n b.Mi wi/i.;:^ ', .uv.i- c.m i:i\ it!...\: u: r..';:: ; 

nor c.iii ..!^y i'il^--^' ^t K".:^il pr.vci^ bj (.!;: i'.-Lii irom i .'j;-, ,;::.i ki; .'ticj. I'..: i.^.. 

iuWycsi-. i\:'.j Lo ; Lriun.i! liberty is n.'t towndc.i o.ily u:\ .i:u:-::', .:;.! [hc.tfurt;, i!v 

Jiiorc Lcrc-i !.:v, s ; h is coiiiiraiLvl by tl;e \v!;';lj ' NAi.n> , . :',. -Vi-]- -. I 

coniuii.iicn. A ii"::c iiiuiuircliy, i:i v. i.icii c\\i',- \iiJ.<.\ . 

co':.:i'..i]\:[:o:\ ; .:.'.d 'ub rctjLiiliL.-, v. wc;c ti;c b,\s>, ..!];. ,'i pi.x'i.^- 

a;.N;; , i!i_ \\aic, l\]:.i it iikc-Aile lociirc ill;: iii b [)j:u:.i!iCL' o. . 

1: .; ,-, (.bbAviWC coi.Id bj in.uie i^ :bib pa; li.u!.;; , i: \-, .ix- bcrt r 

]i,. Oi" prupciiy to liic arbiir.uy v.i.i o[ ti'.c p-'iliic.- -, iwu-w,/ 

ib.;:._;;- (.nliic, tri-ni ibat Cviiccblon, t.) tb.- biv. ,. a;ib to li.j p:;\-., 

'i'u !:.:'(.i'.\- (/i bis blc a iv.Aw nut c aub-in:: d oo ;.:;, b'i!,al t::.b an 

cxciLilc oi tyranny, a^ nu;;l at on c Ih.^.b tb^ na^.r.b iu.nia ..... ..n,l 

tuiv.cy an abn'tTi tbici._^!i ihc wbdj C;.aiin"itau'. ...i:n. 1 o c . . :\::.[,'-, u.:- 

tan^', bcbbcs i's bang a mull atruaioas sb>b.nac, cxpw..--; tiia ! . .o ,. i.aii t^j 

t'la iirpiaati n ol avari^f and rapaciiy, tliat it v. iii I :.^.o:u ba ..::.. apt. d in .my 
<::sb!;/c^! go\'crn.r.cnt. Bat coniinan^int, tl-u' a Icis Ihabir^, :i) i.^ bis ic\vrc a 
]vani:rariLi;r ; nor i.-^ t'a.jra any Ipnir, (o i.acai and n.d.cpan.dcnt. a^ r -: to be L:" be 
by t!ic ion.g continiiaiicc v\ tiic (iiciu an-d n'.plorioui l..b;ei n:.:,s ta a pib. 1 ..c 
pov.ai- ot' imprilonnicnt, t!;cfeio:a, b. iaj,; tbc n^ioll nataral a.;a p. -tv.nt carina o: 
ar'atra-y gow laim n:, it i:. .ibajjut.'y n c. iib.y ta remove it ;;\.ai a p,overna:enr, 
V. i.:i.i\ ii liac and ic^^ ib 

'Ibii. p..r:i/. ;n:> oi tiic court realonc.'. ait^r a c' '.area ir.ai'ai.T. 'iba' traa ra!a 
o: government, l.ad tiuy, d.iian'!; any puao.', \- ti.a: t > ubiai: :!;. pe.,p!;', i.oni 
iia:e imm. niorail, bave been aicudoia.vi, a :J {) v,an,.i C: 
prompt (b-;ev::eaca. A pra.t.ae, wiiieii h:.^ vwv Kr..A. b..ar :. 
['...y liave ;".iai aa! brar i innan:e/abb' jaa a.: at-, ii:-, an ai 
a b ;.^ ; to d..u v, i.ii ii attends n;a:aa:b ^..a i\\a \u.:n :.::: 
n. J,, lay 1. ; 1 . in \aan dt) t'.L' la'.', .e:- tbba b.!- \i a^ a 
caa n.. \a r i e .. .' y ".o d 1 y o^ p, '[; e a.aa:": ^ 1 ,.t r.v]aaa > t . . 

bd^ i..ibpr.'bac', tb'y n Abae tiia'mod . da bd' d mi 

;.ad cvea, 1 y a; . ;*'b:- : a ;. ,j',aa c, i-.a n ::\ ( t ::.. b . : 

i:.; ; V. oi.' ,1 ra; :a \\ a' .a, i > ' 

1.,- ' '. : d ;. i\a d l."om .A ^ ' . .. 

d a 'b^ir 1 a' at i'at :i\.ir. 



n.aara a.' pay a 
a aad (a \\ bxai 
:a:y v. aii tluaii 
t.v! ilataie, adA 



.... 1 .. 1 a 



i64 HISTORY of G R E x\ T BRITAIN. 

C\r-^. 'T. either fron- the violence o^ f:.6[\or., or the inexpcrl':nce of (Qr^:.'.ez and princes; it 
'^^^' cannot be more cn-ecluilly abrorr:ued, than by ci train of contri'ry prccidents, 
which prove, t;).;ir, from common ciMilent, it has tacit'y been let afide, as incon- 
venient ai^d impracl:cab!e. Sucli h :s been the calh with aii thole ftatutes cnacled 
' duriniy turbulent ti res, in order to confirm royal prerogative, and cramp the Ib- 
vereiojn in Ids protection of tlie public, and his execution ot the laws. But above 
all the branches ol' prerogative, that v/hich is mod ncccflary to be preferved, is 
te.e -.ovvcr of imprifonment. Faclion and diicrontent, like difeafes, frequently arife 
in every political body; and, during thefe diforders, 'tis by the falutary excrcife 
alone of this difcretionary power, that rebellions and civil wars can be prevented. 
To circunifcribe this power, is to deibroy its nature: Entirely to abrogate it, is 
impraclicable ; and the atten;pt itfelf muft prove dangerous, if not pernicious to 
the public. T!ie lupreme magiftrate, in critical and turbulent times, Vvdl! never, 
conformable either to prudence or duty, allow the flate to perifli, v/hile there 
remains a remedy, which, however irregular, it is flill in his power to apply. 
And if, moved by a regard to public good, he employs any exercife of power, 
condem.ned by recent and exprefs ftatute ; how greedily, in fuch dangerous times, 
will fadious leaders feize fuch a pretence of throv/iiig on Ids government the im- 
putation of tyranny and defpotifm ? Were the alternative quite necefiary, it were 
iurely much b.';tt'.T for human ibciety to be deftitute of liberty ihan to be deprived 
of government. 

Impartial reafoners will confefs, that tfiis fubicft is not, on both fides, with- 
out its diilicuities. Where a general and rigid la.v is enafted againft arbitrary 
imprifonments, it vyould appear, that government cannot, in times of ledition and 
faftion, be conducted but by tem[)orary fuipenfions of the law-, ard llich an ex- 
pedient, during the age of Charles, was never though.t of, T!ie meetings of par- 
liamerit were too precarious, and their determinations mig!u be too dilatory, to 
fcrve in cafes of urgent necefiity. Nor was it then conceived, that the authority 
of th.efe ; ffcmblies w-as ever to become fb abfolute, that the prince miiil alwa)'S 
conform himfelf to it, and coifid ncvfr have any occafion to guard againfl lbe:r 
practices, as well as agair.ll tliofc of ins other fubj-cl-s. 

Tho' the houle of lords v;cre not inienfbleto tlie realbns urged in favour of the 
jMVicnfions of th.e commons, they dcem.ed tlie arguments, jde.ided in. favour of 
t!ie crown, flill more cogent and conv'ncinjjr. That a'le;nb!y fcems, duiino- this 
wro!e jvjiod, to have acied, in tive nL'.in, a r.afonable arid a moderate [)art ; and 
if their byals inclined a little too muci;, as is natural, to the fide of monarch'-, 
ihcy v.erc tar from entertaining any dcfign of facrificing to arbitnn-y v/il! tlie 
liberties and privileges of the nation. Afidcy, the King's fcrjeant, having af- 

ferted. 



CHARLES I. 



!'.- 



j-'v.' H.:;^ I^ 'o:v t:;- I'-^r^. th,u I'l: K' ''^ r:v:'' !onv tini^^ ?'Ov ; 



ic .:<; wc'.i ;; . ['V 



I'.:. ', 



t '1 



li^ \!i..tr!y c>>'i':r:" :?>. , ! v. - i^r r. !i'.i*''l S.:t i ' 

] ' ' C: \' p ;' '" . t'r !; ;^ ' : ' ! J .1 !\ .:: i-t ( :: : .'O, v. ., . 'i 



'..' i' .\:i.:c-, a:; i I'v U'.: 'vnr-r ( : tii .;:!:,::: ci.!- 



:i' . ..:,,; ,.:. ^ ' r ri.t- i.iiivi, vw/v :.i: ; j. ;i.;s a li'" :.::iv ::.;! I'-r'^'vrv ;: in- i^ocN, 
;;::.: .! : i;;-;- '.:irin:.il li' trty of l,ir^ j- r!:>n ; ih.it h\> r:\pc-i'/ a:;i; i pcirv arc ;;< cn- 
t:i-;- .." jT'.Mcr.r :is (.!i;ri;\' a- y fori^^vr [tri. il o\ li.c- L'i-!:';rn [\.\'ci"r rr.cnt ; i' .i: i:i 
:'! (.aiiuron c.;!; . tl;- r','rn:(;n law (iii!:l^t r'> ''e 'I^c iLwuiarJ of j;: c\ t ..v, ,;v.-- : 
* .\iul ill (.\'.l;, t!'..ir, lo!" t'":c !-:ciir:ry c^t l.i.s ALiitity'^ p rion, t'.c ;'/.:.. ra: liL-tv o-r 
' ill- p.ioi.-, or L.(' wuLMh^e g;o\'e:'n'rt nt i.r t'lc k;:i5;^:'. ::";, i!:c K;:"^; !iia!. :!;%! 
' iwll c'.v.^-, iwT i.-:! n- (>: !l,i:v', to i.r; ;-;lon or icitra::! ai;\' n"i,i:/s [^vrlo:-; ; !-.: 
' , .. ::. ;.:i..::..! pi.x ioiil'v to .!,c!ar.-, :luu u ;:'.in a , . ;;:: ., . ;/ ::;rc, !.. :h..;. a:: i 
' \. ; ' cx II'!-: :!;/ taulv! ct t!-c c nwr!';i:in: or u;;:. :::, l::'..-.v iicw^iwl o; |-;c.i.:!, 
' a:\l oj rii a ca^i J io ;.x, rri!;'.;, u ill lcM\'c:- rlv r: ii oner i-"i':;r;j^;;.;:clv t: > b>r rri.J 
^' ,', ^ [.\i\.\ to til ( "11^1 1 0:1 !a.v o: ti:- la; ci." 

A;' (;:"! -ii: ! - i ^ '' . "~; ''';'-' '"^ ' ^^i-' i^^''^'^ to rcron^y ;:.!. in a c :;'r- 
r^''A-c, ti:: o';:ii (^! a [';!:io^ t) ti; iujiilr (Ji (.-oirn'ons. 'ri:c : ;. 'a*"., a^ \'. . 
(.: oi.br, lord Mj \v^>\\] .;, i, '.'.v:i j : i:'c :; I. ^, v. a-, :K>r <. x:rvtrc iy i::;; :^!: in iih , ; . i. 
caii-iio a::,l t'.c io.ir :\ u v: v t in iv co:n.-i c\.], tiiat: ti.c !' :' :' ^--'-'i-.ni , 
l:;:;inii:'a noniiin^ .nnl tii.it t!.c Li^'cr clai.'j i-;t ri.c::- 1;'\-; ti 
. . 'l':.'.- : yvrcv'.. ''.:', tin n'' ra, v. 

,ni o! a ; rn ;-;, ^^iac . Hioi.l.i contain c:n-: ii . ; 

. i-i: to ; ;.i'iic l:.n- o:n. 

i'i:: ;\!a ; roo' ' cai:', Uc ti,; c n'c -n rri"; c.f '!' 
f :1V:- \!, :..inv' (^i ti:- t i]:o:i. to 1 i'.n- i 



: r '.' o I t : V tin 



ta ans t:i t..;- ! 



roan , iinniM [\: in a i o:. ia^ ;v a i-opatn/a. li 
::: :. n t' . n- \.v :in(m, i.e 1; ;n a i'.- ^ a , 
''....'.. o\v, V. i.'-'ln r ti:' ' 

; :c- : \\'iani | -(;:::;:. i. i. ..': ,_ 
1 .-. a !. :['. I \ J- '. V' a n.a.a \:\ :as (.'. . 



i66 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. II. Secretary Coke, who delivered tins memige, after feme preamble, and fome 
'"""' apology for pad grievances, proceeded in tliis manner. " When means were de- 
" nied his Majelty, being a young king and newly come to the crown, which he 
'' found engaged in a war ; vhat cou'd we exped: in fuch neceffitics ? His Ma- 
** jelly has called this parliament to make up the breach : His Majcfty affures 
" us, that we iliall not have like cauie to complain : He alfures us, that the 
" laws fliail be eftabliilied. What can we dehre more? The important point 
" is, that v/e provide for poilerity, and prevent the like pravStices for the future. 
" Were not the fame means provided by them before us ? Can we do more ? 
" W'e ftand at prefent on the confines between the liberty of the fubje6t and the 
*' prerogatives of the King. I hope, that we fliall not pretend to add any thing 
" for ourfelves, in order to deprefs him. I will nor. divine : Yet I think, that, 
" in fuch pretenfions, we fliall find difhculty with the King -, nay, perhaps, v/ith 
" the lords. For my part, I fhall not, as councellor to his Majefly, deliver any 
^'- opinion, whicli I v/ill not openly declare and juftify, here, or at the council- 
' board. Will we, in this necelTity, ftrive to bring ourfelves into a better con- 
" dition and greater liberty than our fathers enjoyed, and reduce the crown to a 
" worfe than ever ? I dare not advife his Majefty to give way to fuch meafures. 
" What we now defire, if it be no innovation, is all contained in thofe adls and 
" ftatutes ; and v/hatever more we fhall add is a diminution to the King's power, 
" and an accellion to our ov/n. We deal Vv'ith a \'i\k and valiant prince, who 
" hath a fword in his hand for our good -, and thi ; good cannot be attained wirh- 
*' out power. Do not think, that, by parliamentary debates, or even by claufcs 
*' of ftatutes, we can make that to be unlav.'ful, which, by experience, we h.ave 
' found to be derived from neceifity, and from a neceffiry fo urgent, chat it ad- 

" mits not of remedy from any law. And I befeech yow to confider, wiie- 

" ther tliofe, who have been in the fame place, wi^dch I nov/ occupy, have not 
" freely given warrants for commitment \ and yet, no doubt, been entertained, 
*' nor any con5[ilaint made by the fubjecl." 

Urox tfiis lp.'cch tiiere arofe a great debate in the hou,'e. T\Tany rc:ifons were 
a-new urged on bDth f]d(:s : But, Sir Tl;omas Wentworih c'of.'d tlic debat.% by 
faying, " 'i'hat never iioule of [)aii!ament, io far as rcgar.xu tl:cmk'j\'es, truded 
" more than th.; ):;rekm to the roochvJs cf their kinric : B::t wj a-e aii.bidous," 
faid he, " that his iVL'j'jily's gc\,dne!s may remain to polleriiv, and we are ac- 
" countable lor a public trull. There hath been a public \eoletiwn (.[ ti;e laws by 
" the King's miniilcrs ; and notiiing can f.tisfy the nati n bu: .1 public re' ar^- 
" tion. Our defii-c ro vinbicate t'le fabJLCL's right by bill, v, iii ceuT/ u: no far- 
'^' ther that what is contained in iorn:icr laws, widi lomc n^iobJb ] roviHori fer in- 
2 " flrud'oe. 



C II A R L E S I. 



167 



*' llriiai-,'n, |^ ;; lo, ;r,a:',rf, .u. ] t \; , irion." I i\;-> cu:-.:.Uiiv.-d fu nu;ch t!ie fer.n- 

T:::: k . ' .-. ^ \': !, v. .. i;-': i!:il ()i:r.i;;c !. i>y ;i:vjt!iM- mcHai'; -, ' <^ ^;t<'ii"l''t' 1 

t(i c!!'.-/; t r!;L- ' o:/:'i .i>'> 1 : oni tli ;;r {n;i pole, !! tl.cTi' a(l<.n')vvI.-[;'-(l pall en r-, 
; ; 1, :'i.r, ii rci!t( :, t', rv flio .id b no M:11 c ;iil'; (/ f- :i-' l.;inr. Ai>l 



(. i,.ip. li 



., ^- 1 



;'.".'. c 



:]:on ah.;v.- 



a v./vi: (-! two 1! 'M .t'r : 



r.d \ 'A; 






DC IV [ 



: ^...L t!;r, , to CO v.lMt 1-, ti: lor :'-.rni!rl'.-- ^, 1: ;].'! [. I'.i-ir ov.i; 

' : ,"' ():; a !l;b!vqiic:;t (k:.;1;..!i, iic alkc.l :', :r, ' \\ i:y c!vn;..iu: ^ x, l.uia- 
' i; :. , ;! ;. (/J cioubt not the jv.i |(,i ir.anc.- ol ti. ll.ifi.r s .::j.;o . l. liicir 
*' t:ii,- nKa:,i'i;- i .a^I marlons wiJi !i'/,uJ an vi\(.i\>d '.:^,r[.l v. -i t!:c ;.:, :ajga- 
" t:V'.'. An<! It may well be laiJ, Wliar ;i,\-d a ii- w i ;\v io(.::.:;nn an o,J. , it" 
' vou reyoL- conbd.-ncc in the i.icc;,;:arioiA, \^!;ic!i his Ma; lly n^ uk- to botii 
'' ho-..;e-.'' Tiic tru:!i is, the i^reat cliarter and :h:- o! 1 llatt-'c- -.s' re l;.:iiucn:iy 
clear in favo';:" ot ii xrty : I!u: as ai! ':::: oi b n :\..]\:\, li .d ever, 1.1 c-sles ot i:c- 
cc;]"i!:v ( r t"-:; ed: -ih y, l^een aeculb-niecb at iiU' r\-.d-, to ( lu 'e tl: m ; an i as C'iia: ies, 
in a i.\)r.)[ iie.i'nKJ (;i miL.i'.ces i...; !a"e''/ \no!a:; l1 ti'.'.ir. , &.': con^n",cr.'> ;i;d;'e.i ic 
re;y.n::ic to en-^(. a new Idw, \shi^l\ nii'/i.t not ! e cki 'ied ct violated, b, ariy in.- 
tiiqnetati'jn, i oiiIiri;ct:on, or con:rar. precedent. Nor was it Kiibeient, t!;ev 
tli ii.d'% -'- ^'- ^"--''d^ [ :'<j:idb\! to ret vrn ;..:o the way oi" hi> yr. (he, ilcrx M; ^ 
I rcviecedbrs, m aii tini ;-, i:.:d eni -ved, a: lead, exet^ lid, too \r\wh didieti n..ry 
pov/.r ; and b_.- h:> r.cent a' u.e o: ir, t'.j v,J;oie v,orh,i lud re.no to lee t;;e :.e- 
ceddy oi' i -:\ly re^enehinj it. 

Sin b.d.^.nd Cwde i.r e on ihi- occaJl n, v,dd; ti e a;y ro; ..tii-n ol t:;e ^^!.oie 
hoii'e, '' ^^dlS ir e\-e: kn(y.-. n, tin;' ': in;.d woMis v; :e a Udikn nt n.ln i.:^: , n !( r 
" r -: ti. idar ';r:e\n..n e^ ? \\ ,.> e\'er .1 '/ed ai d. v '.nniiion f : ti:e iv.. ti: . v- ' ; d ; : the 



o . ; . , 1 n 1 '. V . ' ' . 

n. na..:. ? "l" 



: re.ne; ::. . n:. 



i\ 



'' I, i 



5 .... 

. di; !:. 



o >i !). Ol. ni oi I 
' \ \,-. n a ;\n 



t. r 



:. h. WLnt 1.. :.u- ..i to in...s.e .1 y 



11. 



i68 HISTORY of C Pv E A T B R I T A I N, 

" That iieither he nor his piivy council fiiall or will, at any time hcreafcer, com- 
" mil ui- coirjmiir.d to piiton, or othcrways relirain, any man ior not lending 
"'' nion-^v, cr lor any otht-r caiik, wliicii, in his confcience, he tn^;ught noc to 
' concern ti;c public good, and the iatety of king and people." And he farthtr 
dLc!ari:d, ' That he never would be guilty of lb b?.k an action as to pretend any 
'' caulc, of vvhofe truth he was noc fully fatisiied." Bui this promile, tho' in- 
lorccd to the commons by the recommendation of tlie upper houfe, made no more 
im^ireiTion than all tlie tormer meliages. 

Among the other evafions of the Kin?-, we may reckon the propofal of the 
hcule of peers, to kibjoin, to the intende.i petition of Jight, the following 
cla'jfe, " We humbly prefent this petition to your IVlajeRy, not only with a 
'' care of prefeiving our own liberties, but wir.h due regard to leave intirc 
*' that fovsr.i^n -^oivcr^ witli which your Majefty is trullcd tor the protection, 
*' fafety, and happinels of your people." Lcis penetration, than what vv-as pof- 
Jeffed by the leaders of the houfe of commons, could eafily difcover how captious 
this claufe v/as, and how much it was calculated to elude the whole force of the 
petition. 

These obllacles, therefore, being furmounted, tlie retition of right paued 
the commons, anJ was fent to the upper houfe *. The peers, who were pro- 
bably 

' Ti::.' r ''/'/:;.' /.r n^' in ^rrat imljcrl :U!:,\ that u.::e ihall har gl-ve it at !c!i jb . J-J'Li;r,b';,' ilievv unto 
oar So\ciLi!yn I,':\--l '.].: K^np;, llie lort'a i|.:i'ituril auci t^iii[H;i.ii, :\nd comniO;i.. in ^--ailianicnt ;,."!>;::- 
bicd, 'i !i:;L, \va';\':.: i; \, dcclaicvl and tiiavlcJ, Ly a lU.Li.lc in,.'ic ia tKo liav: of t!;c rj!'<; ^ of i'-:"^; 
Ld'A'a'J I. conKuT.Iy a.i'ca ^:i'f::t;;'}! a: !<i''p:^:o tin a.; rcdi-hh, iiiat :u) t.:lla :;a <. " a:a iln!i bo h'A or 
J'r.icJ i)v t':c k: ^g or iii.^ ii>;:-;, iii tids realm, withnui: tiic im-^o.I- \\a!! a;a.; a'ant ol ilia aacab iir^^ ;, bi- 
tiiOj)j, carL, haiamj, kiMghi;, baia^Ci^j::, aiid other the n-.cnrcn oi liic coniuioradts of ii.ij rw.'m ; 
And, b)- authoii:/ cd" naria.uKut lu-ldaa in tac live aiai tn-endjlh year A ihe x^.\ -n olai ia^ j\da- s'. 11.. 
It i-. deabna^d .nui en.a,djd, d'iia;, iVoai d^cnceforta, no yaikMi ilieLiid be co::^:ci:ea t^ mabe any 
!^,.i : ; to 'aa K;a-'^ a;>;aind lb. v>il!, bar;. -aib fiich loans v/era a;nnuil reabia, ana tba b-antlnie of the 
laud : -And, by otber la'.v^ i.t tbi> realm, it is providad, tbat none fliould be enarj,;eJ be a:i'.- eljaaj^e 
or in'p;;btlon e;blaJ a i)e',ei oienee, or b\ iaeh like chai-r^e : \' \ which the baintes berc:re nierA cnied, 
and otnar t!ia a'):;a la\'r^ an;l iL.iatas oi bd^ realm, year bbj.^ls ba'.c inherit 'J tbi; (i^ei^.a;. biat 
ibey fbtaalJ. not ol- eoiapai^d to eo:.tri'.}iUe to a.,y tav, t.lbae, abi, C;. oilier dive charge n.tie.by 
contm'ai eanient ni ; arb.nne.''. 

if. 'ba i^aarlbalafb, r.f 1 ;te c^bei-s e^-mar^non- abc'da.! lo baaarv comiaifirners in baa ; ! connii a:, 
wi'h !n!ba;.;ti")a5, have ibbe.l ; \y; nie.ajs -.'.'.er'of '.oiir pt- ]de h o'c l^ta a :.; nr.eis ba^:. :)bcnd)a.\;, 
;;nd recpnied t ) lend c^ri bn iainis <A n'on^y mita \ can- " i, id-.y, an. I la.ny ^>b ti.em, apan their ra- 
f.did lo to d-a h..\e laid an oath adndaiaered in;i ; b.em a it \-. ..r;..at..b e I . tar b.^a-; (.' flatL;\:. -b 
thi.) realm, aad laa.-e been LO.dlrained to bec^ane ; nan.! t ; n..b.e a; jjc raa'.f a :., ^bae att. n. an .a' b-. 
fore your pdvy cnuiiail, an b in other pbtca;, ai 1 i^tb: ; - (b Oi.aa, ba'.a; 1 , a t:;. ;e o' a n.ij r L): e , 
confined, anJ. funJry oih.r vra-.s molebtd and dibniieteb. : ibnd a; <\i.. other cbar^,x.~ iia\ebe.n bad 



C II A R L i: S I. 



>6.; 



b ably' well p'e.iicd in llcivr, t!i:ir ail t:..-ir iniii^.it.iti^v^s I:,ui h\-ii elr. lc',1 bv r'lc ^ 
commons, (]i:ickly j.iilv-i the pciiii^n v;!":!!'.;.: ariv ir..i:cr:.;I .;l:/:-.-.';!;n ; Ar.A noO.vr ." 
bat t'lc rov.il all^nt w.i^ w.MUin^r to j;'w :t t'.e lore-- (,; a !a'.'.-. Ttx l\:ii:'; :\rco:\'.- 
ingly came to t!rj i'.iri.lc ct ^ccib , Ici.t i^ril.c Lo:y,:r. ..:'.> i ;;n '. bc.:v^ Icatc.i in ;\ . 

c!-.i:;- 






C, M 


l.-vfia. 


..V be t.:] 


'' 1 < 


\' .)J V, 


..iru\vd 1. 



' V"--- 



r.f- v-.:-.-:j::. T. 



\ . A." 






170 HI ST OPvY OF GREAT BRIT A IN. 

Ch;;r. II. chair of ftate, the petition was read to him. Great was now the aftonilhment of 
' " * all men, when, inftead of the uiual concife, and clear form, by which a bill is 
either confirmed or rejected, Charles faid, in anfwer to the petition, " The King 
'' willeth, that right be done according to the laws and cuftoms of the realm, and 
" that the ftatutes be put in due execution , that his fubje6LS may have no caufe 
" to complain ot any wrong or opprcflion, contrary to their juft rights and li- 
" berties, to the prefcrvation whereof he holds himfelf in confcience as muclt 
" obliged as of his own prerogative." 

It is furprizing, that Charles, v/ho had feen (o many inflances of the jealoufy 
of the commons, v^ho had himfelf fo much rouzed that jealoufy by his frequent 
cvafive mefiages during this kffion, could imagine, that they would remain fatisBed 
With an anfwer fo vague and undetermined. It was evident, that the unufuai 
form alone of the anfwer mufi excite their attention y that the difappointment mufc 

inflame 

Jentli, by tlie fame laws and iLitutes alfo they might, and by no other ought, to h.ave been judged 
and cecuted : 

iX. A)jd alfo fundry grievous ofienders, by colour thereof claiming an exemption, have efcaped 
s; c punilLmcnts due to them by the laws and flatutes of this your realm, by rcafon that divers 
of' your ofiicers and minillcrs of jufiice have unjuftly refufed or forborn to proceed againfl fuch of- 
iciioe.'E, accovdirig to the fame laws and datutes, upon pretence that the faid offenders were punilhable 
only by martial lav/, and by authority of fuch commiffions as aforefaid : Which commiffions, and 
;'!! otiier of like n:iturc, are wholly and direftly contrary to the faid laws and Itatutes of this your 
J calm; : 

X, Tlicy do thercfcrc humbly pray your molt excellent MajefLy, That no man hereafter be com- 
pjled to make or }i-!d any gift, loan, benevolence, tax, or fuch like charge, without common 
confent, by act of arliament : And that none be called to make anfwer, or take fuch oath, or to 
give attendance, cr be confined, or othcrvvays molelled or difouieted concerning the fame, or for re- 
b.i.'.l thereof: And that no freeman, in any fuch manner as is before-mentioned, be imprifoncd or 
detained : And tliac your Ivlajelcy would be pleafed to remove tlie faid foldiers and mariners, and 
tiiat your people may not be fo burilicr.cd in time to come : And tliat the aforefaid commiifiions, 
ior piocecding by ma-tir.l law, may be revoked and annulled : And that hereafter no commilTions 
cF like nature may nTue forth, to any pcrfon or pcrfons v/hatfoever, to be executed as aforefaid, 
icft, b)' cnlcur of tl;em, any of your IVIajc!T\'s fubjcds be delb-oyed., or put to death, contrary to the 
laws and iVanchife of the land. 

XL All v.'l;ich tiicy moil humbly pray of your iirn:l excellent Majoly, as their rights and liberties, 
according to the laws and ibitutcsof tin:? icalm : And that your Majefly would alfo voucluafe to de- 
clare, Tliat the awards, doings and proceedings to tr.e prejudice of your people, in any of the pre- 
mifll^, fliall not be dravrn hereafter iiuo confcqucnce or example : And diat your jMajeily would be. 
.dfo grarioLiily pleafed, for the further cnmffirt and fafety of your people, to declare your royal will 
,".nd pleafare, 'J'liat, in the things a.iorefaid, all your ofiicers and minifters fhall ferve you according 
to tlic laws and itatutes of this realm, as they tendijr the honour of your Majclly, and the prof(:7erity 
iA' tliii kingdom, ^'r;.', 17 Car. ccp- IX. 



C II A U L r .S T. 



l''I 



i.;.;amc tiu ir nnpcr ; aiul t'i.;t tliiTrfi :r : v.i'. nccrdirv, n" ti." jvnrion {\f:rf'.l f) 
bc.ir ha!\i oi\ r(;y.ii [nx-rog.uivc, i ) c(>-n * '.i;!y to Iwm" !;X','.l rA()]\::]o:), <:':'' <:: 
[^racciuily to coirj^'y v.'ich ir, or C(ni:M!;-c/.if"Iy to rc'fci ir. 

I r binr'pencc!, a> nv.;,;!-;t Iiavc iK\- i ti>:\llv. n. 'J"!..- co[r,:r.o:~,s rciurr^-.'l in \' ; / 
ii!-hi:ni<K.r, I'ui.iiiy, wi.cii iim'^.lC tiilj^^f'tiMi, t'uii- /.,;! a\\\ -.iImv.IV !'t :-:v;;jj: , 
and thc-ir cnm:ry .i.M'nll t'lc uiifon^ii-ir^: c.iiiu)!; <, r .:i cx:ri-ir;!v Iv ;!;, I^-: I'xy 
l;.u! .ilrc.iJv, in tlic b^'j_ii.ining of c'v l:;i/)n, [^-ciLrrc.i ro r!:c K!:-- t!' i- v :i;i': i 
ct !-cl:,^!o:;, .iik! ImlI r cciv;:.! a latistactory an wcr i ilio'tluv cxynL;'', l!..i: :!.: 
cxt\"i:L:!,>;i o: c'r/j laws a::!;aiiiil: {\i|:ills \vo'.::J., t'-r tivj !'..Ci.:r, 1 r i/j [v,c ;; ex..:) ;;_! 
liu: ., :!.a:i tlicy had lii-lu-rto tound it. To yivc ver,: tj tlxr prLlcnc ind.:.^;i.i:. ..;, 
livv-v :c.i, v,i[h tlicir utnioll torcc, on Dr. Manwariy.r. 

'l"i!i:;u: is nc;:hi::::, which tends more ro cxci.! , ir no:: t) :ullii\", t:..- ex- 
trenic rigour ot th.e commons ttr.sMrds Lh.irle^, t!~.an iii^ oycn cn.v;i;r.'.;: ;:,;.: .\:\ 1 
avowal or fuch general {irini.i| le^ as w-. re a'.tojjetiicr l:^co:Vi!M::Me ui:n a i: i i - d 
_';overiHr,ent. Manwarini^ had j)rcae'n'.d a krmon, which t!ie comin',o:> hjur.d, 
iijKjn in 'iiirv, to be nrint d i^y Ijiecial command I'rom t'^.e K'n:^ , and, wh.:i. trds 
Ici^rjn w.i-. looked into, itconta.n.d doctrines InbvernN-e ot ,i!l civil '.dxriy. I: 
taiig'.u, Idiat, th.o' pro[;crty was c-omnr.oiiiy k)d:',ed in t;:e iLhjecl, y.r, wl-.en;\-e:- 
any exigency required lupply, ail properly v.as t:-a!>;errcd to tli.- kin.i; ; t'i.i: 
t'r.e ce*n;cnt ot parh.amer.t was not recHiifnc ior t!-,e ii-npohtion ot" taxe> , awS '.':.::. 
tr.r d.ivinc 1 iws re>.]uired compliance with ewrv demand, however irregular, w'vcii 
tiie p/rince Ihou'.d make upon hiis fuhject-,. l-'or thele t'o.lrMiCs, tire con-imons im- 
peached Manwaring hcftjre t'^.e pecr*^, Idie fentence, pronounced upon hm:, 
was, '1 liat he Ihou'd be l;rip'r;!knedi durin;-^ tl;e plealure o! tlie lioi.Te, he dne ! a thou- 
land pounds to t!ic King, n-.alve li.l.ivddhvi :\o 1 acl:nowh'<Tetri(. r.r ior !v,s (^';. :' e. he 
iulpended diurir.g tlu'ce \ears, he iiiianilde ( t h.okiin':: :ui}' ecck!,a'.l:/.d d..p^,.;:y uf 
frular (-Ihce, a!\l tliat his book 1 > caikd ::i and burnt. 

Ir n\iy !> worth noriie, t'u;:, v.o ik:.n- r v as t'^e h-d'on ended, than il.lo nrin, 
:o ' nby ila'M-eeabk: t hoth iisu; -, received .\ \.v.\\ )\\, .:;.d v/a - r. u" : ;d l > a 
dvmg (<i c 'n!:d/ra!-)le wdue. Sonie v. ..r - a'ter, !;e w .v r^.n.'d t.) iv.:- I , i; 

"^r. Afudi. li i!:e re; ubhian 1; nit (yf the ^omnicns m/ e .f d. ' ;. .^id .' 

:dde bound -, tlie n^on.u-chxa! Ipi;!:: o: ihc ;ourt ; thi la:* i, "- ' .a 

M h, t Uvk-d ibd larr;\.r t(; augirLn: the firmer. V; 1 ih , o 

d ere.,d;eied, and du' ;.;il n;edn.m wa^graduanv d..v;' d 

; OM Man.v.ning, tiu' houle ot Coninu ii^ p:\), ed,' I i .. : ^ ~ . . 

lk,:i kin::,;;am, vduj*: : an^ie, ludurlo, t',;v \\:A . .^ riU' t n; . : 

/,, d.d tiie K;n lend i:n.n-i a nu-ire; , in v, M ,, ,.. i ).d dueo, r.a' :' 

d;- . nj.. a con^hii'jii a:..i d ."- ', '' -' '': ] ' "a\A v.'J. : : .;- 



172 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



C ' U. on new bufinefs, nor cafe any afperfions on his government and minifi.ry. The* 
^^~ the court: endeavoured to explain and foften the mefiage by a fubfcqucnt mci- 
h^c , as Charles Vv'as apt hallily to correcl any hafty ftep, whicii lie rad taken j 
it ierved rather to inflame than appeafe the commons : As it the n'ierhod of 
their proceeding had here been prefcribed to them. It was 'oreieen, that a gieaC 
tempeit was ready to burfi: on the Duke ; and in order to divert it, tiie King 
thought proper, upon a joint apphca'ion of the lords and commons, to endea- 
vour the giving them iatisfaction, with regard to the pecition of right. He came, 
therefore, to the houfe of peers, and pronouneing the ufual iorm or words. Lei 
it le lavj as is dcjircd, gave lull fanclion and authority to the petition. I'ire ac- 
chnmatioijS, with which the iioufe refounded, and the univeriai joy ditFufed ovei' 
the naiion, fnowed how much tliis petition had been the oe^ed: of all men's vows 
and expectations. 

It may be affirmed, without any exaggeration, that the King's afient to ths 
petition of right produced fuch a change in tl)e government, as was almoil equi- 
valent to a revolution ; and by circumferibing, in fo many articles, the royal 
prerogative, gave addi'donal fecurity to the liberties of the fubjeci:. Yet were 
the commons far from being fatisfied v/iih this important concefhon. Their ill 
humour had been fo much irritated by the King's frequent evafions and delays,, 
that it could not be prefently appeafed by an afient, which he allowed to be fo 
ungracefully extorted from him. Perhaps too, the popular leaders, implacable 
and artful, faw the opportunity favourable -, and turning againft the King thofc 
very weapons, with which he had furniflied them, refolved to purfue the victory, 
The bill, however, for five fubfidies, which had been formerly voted, im.medi- 
ately pafiTed the houfe , becaufe the granting that fupply v/as, in a mani.er, ta- 
citely contrafled for, upon the royal afient to the petition \ and had iaith been here 
violated, no fartlv.r confldence could have fubfifted between King and parnamcnt. 
leaving made tliis conc'lTion, the commons continued to carry their fcrutiny in- 
to every p^rt oi governn-.ent. In fome particulars, t'leir induliry was laudable :. 
in fom(, it WcS iialile to cenfure. 

A little alter writs were ifilied for fummoning this parliam.ent, a commifilon 
h.ad been granted to -ir Tiiomas Coventry, L^ord keeper, the Earl or Marlbo- 
rough', In'jh treaiurei-, the k'ar! of Manchefier, Lord prefident of the council, 
tlie I'"arl of Wwrcefier, rrivy fjnl, the Duke of Buckingham, high admiral, and 
all tr.c '-onfiderable officers ot tliC crown, in the whole thirty three. By this 
commifhon, winch., from the number of perfons named in it, could be no lecret, 
the co.mmilTioners v. re empov/ered to meet, and to concert among themfelves the 
methoe.s of levying moriey by impofitions, or othcrwife ^ IVbcre form at-d ci,-- 



CHARLES r. 



I~ 



c:rnihv\-;', :\^ c\'[>i"clT-.'i ;;. :[-.: rctr. rr, l"o. 



' . s, \' .,,^ .\ ii . : '.: : ... J I :;:;. . . 

I'r.ji) ; a;;.! V. >. :\ ,:.').'. j-.b ,'.'[-' /..^. i'.\ .Z:]. I.. ,.'.. /: .! ! i ;, 

p:^; ";:!. :- b/ c \!.i-^';iu iv a: i'irr.:; y, a: J i':' .'.i < ' '.' v v: ... , . . 

wail';: : . i^ .V 111 t:::- i.L:;i r'i^s .in.! ' : i > ' , 

c';-;- t < I ..;.^ .. ..:.:;;..i::<: ^ k r:i- ;n li;;: :.% .iw.l ::-.r.;, r: tiu'in ::::):._ .i:. ;. 1 :.; ' : 
\^ : !.,:' U'ci r j L\' l--\':L\i, i:, ou! r r > In:'; wir t.. i :> .. >: ii/ ;;;:: . : ,- 
*... . Lio' L/C i; J u'..r Lcn.N \ i-:v :./ir/> i n: i.;;- i.. \i .i j'/'"; !-./. i . ,. 
ii> k ii'Ui:c ( I '!a- t!' ; ^;i i I \-i, iv I '.( , c h. ; n: > : A'.d !, j rv^.-U,. , i...c!\', i /' : 
!'c ; r. /;ia; i.: ir -;rK,..:-y <; ;i , t . ;! : v.!,:,^- ;:,.:; :. 1: n :;\ h ' 
onrc-n;;!, rl..it I'.c is: ;; w.:^ i'^ :.[ n :'u, r'; ' 1; !;..!, : > v ^r ,, :' , :.i . .. :.. , 
o/'' -i^" .:L.,i' p: :m('.; (-; ."/i-; .:::/.; !;;. ; r. r .;;.;. K:.: ..c '.;,.. :.;.. ;;. 
iluAilu !i.:'.--.: b.c:. L::ii^ i , r!...:, ['. . [.()./;!; ! c : .. ./.;;,.: /- i;^ ' 
a'L! iiv.ts ill *' ;- .1 ::";! to t './ r:;i, " 1; :i iu - : ihc ;...:: :;, ii.i;::, \:, uv: c c, : (;\ c 
ii.^i:/ ly !;-..::iL ;^ i .i;.J l!i.i: c'.-j h':,,'.cT l:c 1 ;\- .^ .\i i.y .'. :y :;i; > c-t i'; v:-i ;.; , ;;% 
v-iiic he ]/i(i io .;::!c r/.il [/)\vcr lo \\:?.\i\ cIkm in t:;.ir 'jicc.i i;r:...::' ::, \. :.!i 
nvMX' lar.tl \iolciX/ nuilt :!i^y ilv 0L;r, v. hen ar.y vxl.c.lwi u- cj: ;'..; io i^!. .": 
ii:cii"i to ti'./ir r.:ieii!Ml ../Liun. 

'Ihii; comiroiis ncx: I'ciumcJ th.ir Ci^L.TC (/ J^.ci.inu'i.i:/'-^ (^.:i.:i.., a:;,! 
t) !ia\i,n.r. A-\i\i.\\ v.lit.nv. ti^cv were ;;"n: hi/aMe. 'li:.v ./.re., to \\.[...[ .\ :/ 
;i:(jnllraiuv l) L::e Kry, in v.iu,ii t'lcy recMyia.i.ivecl .hi : ./i -/.h ri'.\/:/..- ..:.{ 
n^iisioituii/"-', .mh cn^it: /c: no tii/L.n~.tl.:nc/, v. in h c\H.!h i/n'er i.v '^ :/. / J/' i- 
i.illr.uion ci/'[)./.h)/- and cxhoi.-:, I ii/ i n/ nih/n^ ^ih. . ' , 1/h, 

anvn/.tvh '.') im h!- r:..!n a t'h,//ui'):i, !i.;:; .ih lo U( .;, , , ... . ; .. ^i 

c j/(;..: t.; i/ . M ' h-\ .!a1 > : ^ /: e . .../:'/ ./, /' : : > ' : : - >- 
p L : i hr',' to/.-- 1/ 'in / C-1 l.i'. \/t '!..' . / ' , / ; . . h'i )\/ - :/ . : , . ,.!,: 

liie |;i iihcn ' : ii^.hic Ic nv, r ) hav ' i i^: : . n\ .v : 1 i.v'y ivv:,- 

iu>neu the tl/. .iy (ji rr.i ./. h,e u .;//v ,. i : . t. a; v ui:. j:..i :>; L : ./' . ;a ; / : 



, .i/.w ,1 



f/r;/// ..(;ihe, t...iC lur .. n'\ i i ; new inv 

'-' ' ' ' -' i:. ihih.-ol lUii ihnyii .m. i/isi\n/'/ 

//.\ h//r ;') e n.!-:es, th:;., i .:/.; to '!/ .x 



>" 



w iC)...y tu me 1 . c\../ : 
./. c v.-.i^, 'yer. aj , i/.^r the ie 



iV ,.,. 



li-ei'-;* a/;nr'/-/,- (-1 L:.e I .,^' ct, rh' le were yivl/r'.-/ I /; :r. ./. in n^oll oi tnc rro- 
t/;:i:i/ns and renijini/'.in/c j o; ih.i: a'/, an .n.e.-e*.l Ci\ ;..; . anJ ^nhnn.i.un / 



174 HISTORY of G R E x\ T B R I T A I N. 

Ci: ;>. U. It v/23 not widiout good grounds, tliat the commons was fo fierce and afluni- 
P^. p',^,-:,4 J^''g- 1 Ho' they had already granted the King the fupply of nve fubfidies, they 
fill! retained a pl.^dge in th.eir hands, v/hich, they thought, enfured them fuccefs 
in all their applications. Tonnage and poundage had not yet been granted by 
parliament 5 and the commons had artfully, this feffion, concealed their intention 
of invading that branch of revenue, till the royal afient had been obtained to 
the peticion of right, which they juftly efteemed of fuch importance. They then 
openly rffirted, that the levying tonnage and poundage without confent of par- 
liaiiicnt, was a palpable violation of all the antient liberties of the people, and an 
open infringmcnt of the petition of riglit, fo lately granted. The King, in order 
to prevent the finifliing and prefenting this renionfcrance, came fuddenly to the 
zO^icfjwnc parliament, znd ended this feirion by a prorogation. 

Being freed, for fome time, from the embarrallment of this aflemibly, Charles 
began to look towards foreign Vv'ars, where all his efiorts were equally unfuccefs- 
ful, a in his domcftic government. Hie Earl of Denbigh, brother-in-lav/ to 
Buckingliam, was difpatched to the relief of Rochelle, now clofely btfieged by 
land, and threatened with a blockade by fea : But he returned without effecling 
any thing , and having declined to attack the eneniy's fleet, he brought on the 
Hr.gliili arms the imputation, either of cowardice or ill condu6l. In order to re- 
pair this diikonour, the Duke went to Portfmouth, where he had prepared a con- 
fiderable fleet and arm^y, on which ail the fubfidies, given by parliament, had been 
expended. This fupply had very much difappointed the King's expeclations. 
The fime mutinous ipirit, which prevailed in the houfe of commons, had dif- 
iuled itfelf over the nation ; and the commilTioners, appointed for making the 
afK-ffments, had connived at ah frauds, wliich might diminifh the fupply, and 
reduce the crown to ilil' greater necclTities, This national difcontent, communi- 
cated to a def[)erate cnthuhafi:, foon broke out in an event, which may be confidcr- 
ed a'; very remarl:ab!e. 

Tf;::ii:-; v^ as one kclton, of a good family, but of an ardent, melancholic tem- 
i.au iervcd under the Duke, :n the fiation ol lieutenant. His captain 
led in tlie retre.^t at the fie of Rhc, Felton hud follicited for the corn- 
id v,h..n deappchir.d, ^k: riu'cw up his comminion, and retired in dilcon- 
1 t've aimy. \*. '.;!ie i rival, refentnient was boiling in his fullcn, unfoci- 
d, he keaid ilv: ,,atic^n icfcnin i with complaints againfl: ti^c Duke; and 
: 1 1.-' i; :!,(. ;.L: '.. .e of the commons, in wldch his enemy was repre- 
i: :c,''eo; ever) n-iional grievance, and as the great enemy of the pub- 
ii;e lis leee'icilm iariiier niilamed ti^e'e vindictive rcfleclions ; and he 
li.-.t '.''. weuk! do heaicn ucc^i, table ierviee. iu at one b'o'i', he difpa-clied 

this 



r- 


:r, w 


11 


b. 


:ing 


Iv 


I 


any ; 




t^ 


ntf 


(.) 


r. 


ble r 


I'ii 


i, 


e i . , ^^ 


'X 


1' 


/nteci 


1 ^ 
1 i 



c II A R r. F s r. 



!" 



/ 3 



ti.is c].i:^g.ru:is Rv to r.vj;'()ii niul ro !;: ; lAii.t: y. I' '-. t!.^ >.'.;;!; \:j .. , ! 
Iccruiy .1.1 i\ cd vU l\);t;iroi,rIi, at ti.v lairc ;i::^- \. ;[;i :!ic 1 )i,\r, :::;.: v, .r,!;. .. . . . 

.in (^pportui'ity o: (.-iu-.;';!" 1,:-, !\-(; :v p'-.i'i :)!j. 

Br^ixivf.!: \ M ha ' Ih (.'"! c'l^: :::; J in ( v,'- ila':. ti v. ;:'. .,.'-!.. :: : (/ 
<.: lulcm.n , .i!ul .1 JitV -nv-o o! .V;-,t!:iK /-^ h.n;.-;-', .... ; , :',, , :': ,' i. . ,- 

viL.ctv' 1 w itli ( ;y,[";r ..ikI (.Icw IK '., h.iJ ir>t*i.(cl .'.'irc < t!.. ,.'., lii'-.-.t '.., p.- 
i iii.itiviiS a :,i !.\'c'v cxcrLi' lis o; '. wi^r, i;i v.'. ':[] i'..it i a'' ,' ri' ;: i'.,! ; '';: 
t\iif:li'h, a:v ..['[ to ind'.i'[i:: t!u :i"i!.lvf^. ['.\. > ... r.a'^n , ,'.!, t'^:: 
in,!^.- (.ii'cv.- tov.a;Js i\:c tii.'>r; a::d i:; tli ,r {-alia /, tii!;.:;i:!; l,:,'.!^!l [ , ', ': v> 
,r 'I':.( ;ivis 1 r\.ir, a cc U)i:.-i in U\c a;i;,\', i.c w .-, ( :. i'...- liai \:i. f-\ r .. ' ;, ,- 
i::.i^\ fhoul.lvr, iliL;c'v v.yo'A i::^ br.a ' \\::!ia !.;,::c. N'-iiiu-'it tt' ,'::' ;. i 
%.u!\!; tlian 7/:; \-.-.".:.-'v /.;.> .w. .':.;' ;;,::, in tl:. i..;i:c n:;.n:jnt, p.iliii:;_'; otit t:.. k;.'i'.-, 
he la-cathccl h:. lail. 



Xt) man h,;:^ li'iii th.e^ Ji-.w, r.or r',c ;;cr,.i:';, v. i.o ; ivc it ; .n.t i:i t, 



cv.. rv oiR' Il- 



ls o'.vii L():,u uiurc ; ..::.\ .Ui ,::;(-'- a, t a.it ll:^ c)\:\\'.-jv ii.i.; i.^ 



.. .if \ 



conin'ht'. vl hy the hVc::c;i [t^ [ui; nxa^ v. !^(,:.- .m: -v t;.: v' dl \a,; l- I.i,: '- 

\.hiic ll.L'.i woitl. had not bccii i::u\!-ilou.', h\' li.^ ' ^ .l;a.i^;"^. 

rtvtr^H", thiy had in.tantly bicn pat to ticata, h.u! t!..-.- : c: bc: .^ ;'.\c.; by \..r.:c 

oi" n-iorc tcni[vr and rad^^u'KMU, who, t!u/ tlk-y lai : taic am".: ^ pnaai ; i t'.;v.: 

guilt, thout^iit proper to rcllrvc tiKni ior a iiidicial trial a:d t .:.:nda..*i..:i. 

Ni.Aa the cioor, there wa:- found a hat, in tiia iidl 'e (,; .\!.:-h s'..:.i 1. wci .. 
paper, CO!. taming lour or iiw :;nes ot th.it ranioiiilranee ot tlie i '.^ni:!;!):- -. v.!.: / 
declared l!i;chi: ^aham an i. n;a"ny to the l.'aLi.h aii ^ aad uiah ; tac.e '../ w .> .. 
llioit Ci.a'L.l ;t;on (m- at:aav t to'.\ai'Li> a p;a\' r. it \'.a; c.du'.' cuac.;a,-, i. .r 
this hat L.Ion;:^.i to tiic aihiinn : iiut the euhcultv did reaaeee . ; .'-'" :[.: 



cu.ii !i " i-^>r tne wri^r:: e:Iee\'e;c;; v 



f '1 .. 



.\i\: ; 



a: d ^^.! 



iL \v..- v.y.: r.U to oe.:. ".!, t .it 
wit a at a i.at. 






i..r eneu .!, n. t t^ 



la tae, li.,::-y, a n^.a; .. :: :; a' a i.at v. a I.ta ^v 
the t,'';.a C ;:- ( a.; cn.t, // / , a- :' ' . 



lau^. to aik, /' 
iurita:s inin,: aau. 



. , .n V v: 
a ; i i n 1 "., ! i 



V. :i Iv. . :d^ : C 



rate, (^e. en led a:,.! [ :< :v . .rd idni : i le hia.: jd, \.'/]. f ;-. .,;:,. . . 
che,.! tullv t\, oled hii ;.. .,d t(j the fword ;a the nv d eaa:e; a ; : 
iaii .1 liald: n i.icria. e to di ir ame r, r.ida. rt aia be i\.. : '^-.v; :; : t. 
tire, whicii he ka'.w in..!l I'l c;\i>.li d up ai hiai. 

1 II. v.a^ n^w heo-.vn to he t!..U 1 edea, v, h ; had :' rve.l i.i the .u 
ca:i:cd n.:^ a pia. ..te room- i: \'- a\ ihua^;,h[ i r*. . er lo tar to .al;.nd 



176 II ISr O R Y OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 

him, tliat Duckingnam Vv'as only grievoufly wounded, but not without liopes of 
recovery. Fclcon fmiled, and told them, that the Duke, he knew full well, had 
rciccived a blow, which had terminated all their hopes. When alked, at whoio 
inlligation he had performed that horrid deed ? He anfwered, that tliey needed 
iiot to troubk* themfelves in that inquiry , that no man living had credit enough 
with him to have difpofed him to fuch an adion -, that he had not even entrust- 
ed liis purpofe to any one; that the refolution proceeded only from himfelf and 
the impulfe ol his own confcijnce ; and that his motives v/ouid appear, if his hat 
v/as found : For that, believing he would perifli in the attempt, he had there taken 
care to explain ihem. 

VVpiEx tiie King v/as informed of t!/:s afiifiination, lie received the news in 
public with an unmoved and undiiturbed countenance j and the courtiers, who 
fiudi.d his looks, conckided, that kcretly he was not difpleafed to be rid of a 
D.iniiler, fo gener.JIy odious to the nation. But Charles's commaiid of himfeli: 
pro.'ecded intirely irom the gravity and cnmp'.fure of his temper. i~Ie v/as iiill, 
as iiiLich as ever, art.'.ched to his favourite , and, during his whole life, he re- 
tained an alfcc'tion for Buckingham's friends, and a prejudice againft Ids enemic-?. 
Me urged tuo, that keiton fhould be put to the quefiion, in order to extort from 
hini a di'covery of liis accomplices : But the judges declared, that, tho' that 
|.rac.:icc had been formerly very ukial, it was altogether illegal. So much more 
txacl reafbners, with icgard to law, had t''cy become, from the jealous icruple* 
oi the lioule of comtr.ons. 

^I^A^; v, lule the dikrcis of Rochelie had rilen to the utniofl: extremity, 
Th.\t \\iCi. gciiiiiS oi Richc'i^u, which made him form the greatell cnter-jrizes, 
jca hi. 11 to atteirpi their cxccutioi', by mea::s et]ua!ly great and cxtraorciinary. 
\n order U) deprive ivcc'iclie of ali luccour, he liad dared to ;:r(;iea; tlie throwin- 
cro!;, the harbour a mo'e oi a mile's cx:cni In that I}oi!i'e;ors ocean ; and having 
exee^ tid his pi( i^.et, he : ow h(dd the to^A'n cloltiy blockaded 0:1 ad fides. ']"hc 
iidiuhiran'j, t!;o' i)rcikd with the greatcll; ligours of faiikne, Hill rcfiikd to fub- 



'C.'iC^ 



n Li. 



d'.t^^y by tiie bdi;i;es oi t'^eir zeaious preat !-crs, partly by 
, 1 ah^ib-iiice (roiii bi:;;dai:d. Alter liuekinghambi deatli, liie coii- 
:c t and ar.riV was ce.aieir'.'d on ti;e biail of iaa(i.,by ; wi;o, arri- 
:h;)e Ib;cht !!;, iii^-'.c i^:\\r .:.iz.:irir-.^ :o brcidv taro' tiie mjie, and ibrcj lbs 
i tii-' .;,".'.;! : ikit by u.e d(da\s (ji ti' i',;;gd!k, that v.'.'.vk v. as non- lidiv 

da; e to kaa.:.;'bT ..i (dfiaa-):-, -jvcr. in iia';t oi' tie ;v;.'kni adndrak 
a.: ; er" :' . ' a^ iy:x\ ''^.en d'at t^p la ti.e tcwr, ^.o:, ;) aioi.e birvived the 
i vj-'. , .....i.e. V. bielj tiicy l.a : tnder.yane, 

This 



CHARLES I, 



^77 



Tills win tlic firH: nccelTary {\cp tov.arJs the prrfpcrlty of Francp. Forci;;n Cr^T TL 
crieniics, as wcU as tioir.fiiic taclio."'--, 1 .-in-' cic} iivc.i ot th^^ rclourcf, that kirf^. 
u .-ni b.f'an nov/ tc; Hit.-- { rrli in rs :"..;,' 1^ Icr.ii'^r. F.v a P.cvhlv prr>fVrution of 
V. iIl- oKuis l'"t':i oi v.ar a^J pen cy, it ;-.r.ic"uaiIy j^.MVfi ,i:i ai-'-ndi'ic (V/cr the ri- 
val pow; r o\ ^p,a:.i , aiu! every on!"- c. the Ihirc, an.i every l.ct, \v?*;v rc.'i.ced 
: > pay l..hiv,i!ii)a to tliL* law; 1 aiirh.o! i". (if tlvj rt)verci';n. 'ib.c viitorv, ho'.*.-- 
c'vei-, over til : iui!^^ -nots wa-., at mil:, jaiII:. J in- t':ic l''iciicli Km:; w-rli j^-eat iiiodc- 
r;.'.i()n. A to! ranon was lU'ii v\)iini: j'.'J. to 'l/jm -, riic only avoAcd aiui o;>e:"i to- 
j'jra'i.jii, v;;iic!i, at th.at time, wa^ [^laatc.l in any ! uropcari l--ir,<^'.lon^ 



r 'c iailurc of an cntcrprize, in whic'a t!ic l-'.nglilh nation, from religious iVn"*.- l^^. 
p-a:i]v, fo much i.Ucrtlbj.i chemlclves, couIlI not but c;i'r,inilh the King's authority 
-I the parli.ia-cnt cUiring the approachi;^;j; k-lfion : I'jt the vtuvimons, when :i\- " I-f-'^! 
len'.bicJ, fouii.l many otlv.r C'.ules ot coinph.ir.t. Buckiiigliam'- cyi.li: i anci ( iia- X-.-. : '- 
racbr. wit'e. lom. ha.i allor.ijtl a leafjii, with otliers a -pret-nce, to: J.iijjnre-u ac, .rn'l ; - 'i 
pu'.^lic n"iea:u:"e- : Bat a'rer ins (ba'.ii, there v/aiitcJ :k>[ ive-.v reaior.s aru: new pre- 
tcr.ces tor perual i.hilat;s:acL.on. Maiiwarini;'s ; anion ar,d j :ometi_n wer.-. 
tak :a noiice (--. : Sibchor[)c anj Corin<;, tuo clcrirymen, \\h.), tor hke realoas 
were eqi' iliv (.li!a_. Tveab'.e to tiie c<;iriiT!ons, !nid niec w;t:i e:;uai I./zc^ur tr. m t!ie 
Khij3 : Mofita^ue, wlio .'.ad beui cei:liired fur rr.od.eraiion to t'le catiKdu s, tlw' 
j^reatelt ol crimes, had been created \ i!hop ot Chdclicller. They toiTrdi, iihew;!'', 
v![Hjn inquiry, tiiat all t!.e ;o, :e- o' t!ie j-'-L.tioa cd ri!!,!ir, wi:;c;i were ddpetie,., 
haJ, by tli.' KiPi;;'s oroei", aaee.'Xedi to th.eni tiK ilrll aalwer, widcli iiad. p:\'ca :> 
little la:is;aaiea to t'ae C;:riiir,y:.i : An e::')jdden^ o: C harle--, by w!dch iie eneea- 
voe.red tt) jciniade trie pe q^le, t'l.it h.e hid riovw;e receded tioai re,- loier.er 
cLiiir.s arid, pretehhon,', and: th.at h'= [;rerop;a:ive wa^ )e: entire. S/id^n alio u.ai- 
pLened la t .e I^oule, tliar one S.iW;^; , loet/arv eo :'::: ; etitioa o: r;.:,ht, I'.vl been 
pumlh.ed wit!) tiie oo oi his ceus, bv a ddicrete^n.;! y (.r aibir.'ary ;e"te::ce o: iac 
P>.ar-c;.a:ii'.:er. S-) apt were tliev, on ti.e.r part, to I^.ret Ii the petition into fucli 
''onlecuLriCes as niiL^!it t!ep".\-e []:: crov,:i ot [cweis, v.'acli, ironi imir.; morial 
cu'lona, w.'.e li:ppoled in!ier:nt in .'. 

Rci' t'".e ^^re.i' artic'^', on '.ciicli t'le 'e.Tii/' of co.reaions broke W!t!i d:e King, j-, ;,,.,,,. 
aivl \vi,itl\ tinally cieat.'d in C'irrles a dl:''!i';ll U) .dil [ arbainents, wa;3 'Ii-ir t iaim r ''"'^ap'-. 
wiLh reii.rd to tcr.:ia.;e and. pound. aye. C;. tin.^ occaiion, tlierelore, it :s r.ece!- 
tarv tn ^ive an acecrart cf t'".e contrw\''. : ';'. 

Tii: doty of tonr,.-.:^e ard poui^dae,-, in nor,' anti'. nil tini.>, I'.ad been (~oni 
mo;.i) a tenij^^rary point c; b.e pai ii^oo-n: , bet ii had i\enconn:..w c. 
5 iennyM. aiid all the luccceding priiues duim^zhie, m order to cnabie :.i;.in 

Vol. I. A a t>. 



178 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

chrp. If, iQ maintain a naval force for the proteclion of the kingdom. I'he necefiity of 
''^'^" levyin-:^ this duty had been fo apparent, thar. each king had ever cic/imed it from 
the moment of his accefficn , and the firO: parliament of each reign had ever by 
vote, conferred on the prince Vv'hat they found him already in pofTerfion of. Agree- 
able to the inaccurate genius of the old conftitution, this abufe, however con- 
riderabl:/, had never been perceived nor remedied ; tho' nothing could have been 
eafier than for the parliament to have prevented it. By granting this duty to 
each prince, during his own life, and, for a year alter his deceafe, to the fuc- 
cefTor, all inconveniences had been obviated -, and yet the duty had never, for a 
moment, been levied vvitliout proper authority. But contrivances of that nature 
were not thought of during thofe rude ages : And as fo complicated and jealous 
a governrnjcnt as the Englifii cannot fubful without many fuch refinements ; it is 
eafy to fee, how favourable every inaccuracy muft formerly have proved to royal 
authority, which, on all emergencies, was obliged to fupply, by difcretionary 
power, the great deficiency of the lav/s. 

During that fhort interval, which elapfed, between Charles's accefTion and 
his firft parliament, he had follov;ed the example of his predeceflbrs ; and riO fault 
was found with his conducl in this particular. But what was moil remarkable 
in the proceedings of thar houfe of commons, and what proved beyond contro- 
verfy, th^at tliey had ferioi:fly formed a plan for reducing their prince to depen- 
dance, was, tiiat, inilcad of granting this fupply during the King's life, as it had 
been enjoyed by ail his immediate predecefl^^rs, they voted it only tor a year ; 
and, after that Hiould be elapfed, rclerved to themfelves the power ot renewing or 
refuting the f-imc conceilicn. But the houfe of peers, who fiw/ tint this duty 
was now become more neceifary than ever to fjpply the growing neceiiitics of tlie 
crcvn, and who did not approve of this encroaching fnirit of the comrnOiiS, rejected 
the bill -, and ti;e difiblution of that parliament followed fo foon. afier, tinii r,o at- 
rc:r:pt ic.ms to have been n'lade for the obtaining tonnage and [)oundagc in any 
crhc:r iorm '*". 

C;:ARi.L.., inv;:n v;h;ie, continued ftiil to levy thefc duties by his own autfo- 
!::y ; ^ind ti^e nation was lo accuflomed to thij exvriion en rova! i^owcr, tin: no 



f 



h^ 



j'\. :.il"r;!-:ed hy Sir Plii'ij '.'/.u-a iclc., fn- \.]u^ u-vSwA n-.:':iUM-^ of ;,'-c coninion?, i,, t'u!: 

.niu; t!ine, v'crc rclL'h:;.; 10 ^vi ;>:, 'ho /c-v inir'oij Ji^in'^ I;ii;l rn liy j:;;r:'-.. 'i '^olc were 
;,.;:;.;:;:i'.:.: bo.h of r ;(i.uj .:':.l : r-rT -i:;-- ; iu\ v/hal-r iScy v,:"n-J have tlic/c r.oz,, 
; ir ;.,i i.i i;;-,;.: lic;,:, y.y^y :]ny: ,v i(ji.i-v.:::.ni, ;.; t ii;!. '.'he J-.i:i;j, it Icci:: >, and llic 
; i.c:! :. I to ti,:il tiicni ; no: t") :i'^;l jf a r ve--iK- o,u\: ;VcCl/!iJU^, wliiih retL.ipj they 
.;c;u ..... L:!.- . L,l to 'e'' rc-vji'iLijiiriieJ :.'', i!;. c-'.c ^czi::.''. 



C II 



I, K . I. 



79 



rjruri. \-. ." . . : .. : '-:. ;...::: . ... w'^:;./l: ; .> i., l}jt: ti:c luc-'r-edli^p; p.ir'ia- 
niciK L-'i ::cc! il.: 1. : :/ - i : . cu . 1 .;i c kivkohs :i:.K!;: t ^trr? luni',' iir|. tu\. .:r>!s 
tied .r::;:.j it li'v^.., i j : . :-.V;'j aiul po'ii.J. ' ., '... .- . iv.': of p.irl:.:n-;cnr, 

anci i:;iv (^'-v ^i i.Kii i::: ;,!:io:i oi ^;:;;p^ };:: ; li:!. tij'it^c, i.) or'.'.'r r.j 

(\t'..it i:'i,';"ii [ . . -.1 t 11 !;" ;:.-. oi tlii' iroil i:i-'| (jrM:;: i:.iii.;c. Hut Lr..):'--, 
A.i'^ roi V ^ ; CiiSy c.i:iH\i to c.fv \\i:.i'i^'c \ nw \ t;u- alv::'~t c'!:^)'dri';;: [ 
i!..;' '.i:!;.! ;.:;:, .o uijo'/j rc...:.u, pii: .i;i cnJ, lor t!. t:;r>;, ro tncir i.uii,:r 

'li.. :.-!!. Avi:-- i:it^r.\i', hf.'.ccn tlie f-co:'! i nn;! f!i!: .1 p i^;!vv^':^^ \v.is ('il'- 
tM::-;..;:'' .! y lo m:iny c>:tr.ioru:;i.i:-v excrtioir; c: rr rci^^-Uivc, t:Mt n';;n h.u! !:- 
t!- K ;/',;, e To atrnul to t!is anair of tonnage niu! poi:ru'a::c, ^^li.Ic t!ic abi;!c o; 
power :ri til,: crown mi^'lu kein to be of a ir. ore (li'jnira!^!e nat;:re. Ij::t afr; r 
the coromon?, cIv.riiM-'; t!ie prece.'er.: fefriop, haJ. resv.'ieci a'l rhefe ;;ric\Mnc--. !v, 
means ot tlni;- pet;t:on oi li^'jn, v, hith v as bLCorr;e fo neC'. iV.iry ; t!v;y atrerwariU 
|ac)'.ccJecl to take t:.;s mart r into co.efiJeratrin, nr. 1 t'.ev ftiov, ev! tl:c la;r.e in- 
tention, :i. ioTiiieile, or txae.inj;. in r, ti;rn for tie-prant of tl'.is reven:.e, \'ery lar;.':" 
ronij ii.Mices (/i th- j-art ot tf.e crown. 'I'f.c'r fLKlu.n ['crrguien piewnteJ. :!;.:ri 
f'.we.i b; i:)!^it',j7 th;ir pTt tfrJion.s to a !l:'.1 co:.cIiif;o:i. 

\\'!i::\ C n::r!e; opened this ill-'on., lie had foreleen, tliat tlie fm^e coiUroveny 
\Vi iifd ari.'e ; and f.e therefore to k ca.re, veiy eady, an^.or.^; re..i:-,v iniid a:.d. :e- 
( (.nrdin:'- exjMed^ons to iiko: ni ti:e con^'i;ons, " 'i Iiat he hid no: t.d.en liule 
" dude-, as app.rtaiidnLi to hi, liercditary [e'ei'o^ative ; lut ih:.: ;r c\er was, a;;d 
" III!! i:^, his nieanin;,^ to enh;v iluen as a [:,;;t of h:-- p^epie : And tiisr, ii lie 
*' had Idti.erto lc\d-,d tonna;o' di\d poanda^^e, h.' pre::nded to pdli'y h n::,ii cedy 
' by t'v,; neeelkty (d lb dcdrp, i:(.): hy a,,y r;^d:t, vde.di i^e addn:evi." Tins 
("ivernkyn, wldc'i proba'oK- j roeeeded i;oni ti^e hvina;'.-) ir.oder.ile tenij-ir, i: , .v 



! !V' ::^ ti.e in.; ,d;e oi lk.e'-.i:ad;ans'^ \do!ei:: eonsva's nd.d.t !^.i\ 



1 



nmv :;s I. A'. r:i- v en'':; an i: iv) o:;.er vii\\\ :,.an taa: (d a; cat. a. .an, taeir 



o''. n 



iV.A-.j ^. li..: t,, / earn, d t.e u' 



:.o;.- n:,.e., In 



Incy 



dilk'd, ;.. .1 n' c' dsrv p!einnin.n-y, tk..C tin: K:np ll; yJl on^c c:nd 1, ded.l f;\.ni 



La 



\ ^ 



,! \':' h' d .t: ' ; ait i' \'. Ineli tli '/ 'Acre ;o i dv.: into et- n ;, r.ni n. Iav. !,.r 
1 



'1 



re.,c);"'' Inni i' n.e ; nun :i i ! a i .w :.ne, (,1 wan . n i ! 
':'. Ike I :" 1 , tk .t ik s ex::, nn' ri_;(.nr ha.l n v.;- ' : 
- ,.:al ni.e.y olndna^i j rej,..: 
\*. . r C'IIk ; ie.'.loii^, 1 ck 
'a '.'.'' '' :nn^ a., nn;;'.L 

^ . ,_. , and rk ..: y 

...y c^.ia.nny Win kl eat cak ad tin: 

- . .: a !,e.v 



. n'.ney .n- 

. :v :., n to- 

i.itta'- 

-i.i. -, T an 



; ; ;r. c 
' i 



' ; 



iSo HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. II. new Irrpofitioiis, v/hich Mary and Elizabeth, but efpecially J irr/ s, had levied, 

^^''^' and wiv'.jpi tormed no defpicabie pare of the public revenue , and they openly 

declared, that th-y had, at prefent, many important pretenfion'', chieflv with re* 

crard to re.igion ; and if compliance was refufed, no lupply mud be expeded 

from the commons. 

It is eafy to fee in what an inextricable labyrinth Charles was now involved. 
By his ovvn concelTion?, by the principles of the Engliili government, and by the 
form oi every bill, whi^h h d granted this duty, tonnage and poundage was de- 
rived entirely from the free gift o\ the people ; and, by confequence, might be 
withdrawn at their pleafure. If uiireafonable in their reluial, they flill refufed 
noth ng but what was their own. if public neceiT.ry required thi'i fupply, it alfo 
required the King's compliance with thofc conditions, which were the price of ac- 
quiring it. Tho' the motive of granting it had been the enabling the King to 
guard tiie feas ; it did not follow, that, becaufe he guarded the feas. he was there- 
lore entitled to this revenue, without any farther formality i fince the people had 
iliil rtferved to themfelves the rih,ht of judging how far that fervice merited fucb 
a fupply. But Charles, notv/ithllanding his public declaration, was far from 
aiTenting to this conclufion, in its full extent. The plain confequence, he faw, of 
all thefe rigours, and refinements, and inferences, was, that he, without any 
pubhc necefilty, and without any default of his own, muft, of a fudden, even 
from his accelTion, become a magiftrate of a very different nature from any of 
his pridcceflbrs, and mull fall into a total dependance on fubjedfts, over v/honi 
former kings, efpeciaily thofe immediately precedingj had exercifed an author 
fity alm;;ft unlimited. Entangled in a chain of confequences, which he could not 
eafily break, he was inclined to go higher, and lather deny the firft principle^ 
than admit of conclufions, which to him appeared fo abfurd and unreafonable. 
Agreeable to the ideas hitherto entertained both by natives and foreigners, the mO' 
jnarch he efteemed the efTence and foul of the Englifh government; and whatever. 
other power pretended to annihilate or even abridge the royal authority, muft ne- 
ceffarily, he thought, either in its nature or exercife, be deemed no better than 
an iifurpation. Willing to preferve the antient harmony of the conflitution, he. 
had ever intended to comply, as far as he caji7y could, with the antient forms of 
adminiftration : Bat when thcfe forms appeared to him, by the inveterate obfti- 
nacy of th^^ commons, to have no other tendency than to difturb that harmony, 
and to introduce a new conflitution ; he concluded, that, in thi^ violent fituation, 
what was fubordinate muft ntceffarily yield to what was principal, and the pri- 
vileges of the people, for a time, give place to royal prerogative. From the 
rank of a monarch to be degraded into a Have of his infolent fubjeds, feemec. 



CHARLES I. 



iSr 



v.h;:ii u 



V,, ;., 



of all :ndign!r"e, ll\c gr-arell , and n 'th:nf!;, i[i his juclgmcnc, could cxcctxl the ^ 
h-:ni;!iiM'i;i ,r"t i; :;:.'; U:cli ;i ft.:-, In.L rhc n-:r.r;n -1^ (jf t.nnc'v tub:rir[::i!^ to 
it, A it'ioii: :r;'.i^inj: loii.c clio: :j fj pr-.Lrvc the .Uithority rr^iiilin t':d to hi:n hv 
his Y'\ '"'k"!.'! fiui '"; 

'I'fi )' t/., ! V. c.:r !.;s r T:, ."'lion^ p.iid rrli^liif i^ns ixfi^f.- tli" jaiv in":fnt .'i(T.-m- 
b\d, lie ;d .1; t ;n-;M)ci^i,r- ly bic.;!; witii tt) 'r, lipon t'. z;:- cicl.iy cA \'oi:;..^ i';":i^ 
rid- !.! Y>'v. M-' t!i(^u|_:hr, tiuit he couki batcr Jvill;:y any ilron"; n-.ialurc-, 
u:v:i..i 'nc niuhr aitcrwards be I'b iij di to take, i! he a!lo\vfd tliein to carr-, to 
the utmoit exrrcniirv, their att .eks '.i;~f)n h:^ jjov- rnn":e:it and j rerc-f^uivc. llr 
corj'C!-.:ed himlll', for t!,e prtlent, \\il!i Ud icit:;;^; th:! lioufc by iner'.igcs a .^1 
i})CeC(K'S. But tiiC cuirimoi'is, ii-iUid, oi l;ear!.en:ri^ to hdb iud:-i::utv^:.i, yy^.- 
ceeded to carry tiieir cenforial Icrutiny ir.to his mi.n.i'^eir.ent ot leiiv : 
th.e oidy gri'-v/.r.ee, to wldcii they had not, as yet, by their j e'.::;on e; ; 
piiiti a Uidkier.t ren.iedy. 

br was not | cn^.i k-, tluit thi^ century, 1") iertile in rc!i^;iou5 fek'.s a::.! th^'purcs 
could e-ci;:e the eon'roverby ee^ncernin^ fatal.lni an.d k'ee v, dk v.-.'deii, being 
cieejke nii(.rnun[_Ied, botii .\:.h p! i!>;lo;diy an.d tiKclo_;y, had, in aU aj;es, tlifowfi 
every leiiool and (Very church iiito kic ii inextricable d<nibr and perpk'xitv. Ti'.e 
fiVi\ reformers in b',ngbTnd, a.'^ in f ther Ktiropcaii couiuries, havi em'Taced t!ie moll 
ri'.'.d ten.cts cl p'eckdlinaci^^n and abfcdute ck'crees iii;d r,adi fom|()!ed, u'on tiuic 
Ivd' r,i, all rn.e artick'3 ol their reiiij,:ous creed. But t'n,.-k- princi, k's ha\nr,;j uieC 
with ( p'i'orition irvMi Armii.ius and 'i:s l^*_d:uies, the conrro^'erfy \v.i> Ikon, brwi:':!i: 
into this iHand, and be[T;an here ro dikule itieh. The Arminians findini'; n^iorc 
cncourar^ement Ironi tiie lu[KTlV!tious Ipiric of tlie ciuirch tii an from t'le fan.itieirm 
( {" the puritan.s, graduady in.corporated themfeivcs wit.h ti'ie former; and I'cir.e of 
that iecl, by the indiil^ence oi J:unes and Char!; s Inul attained tn.e hiL;lu-il ofli- 
ces ami preferments m the hierarchv. But their iLiCcels wit'i the public had. not 
been akoLietlv. T ar.b.veialdc to tivit vvliuh tlu-y met wnh in the c Iiu'r( h and r]-,c 
cou;r. ']'lirough(-ut the natioi:, thev Ibil biyun.ier k-e reproach of' ;rno\atiC'n 
'inci herely. ddie ccmmons udw Irvkdedl .uj^ankl tlu-ni ku'ir torn^idalde CLnlkrc.^, 
andl n^iadc tliem t!ie ohjec.s of dady invective and d;c':amat.on. J l.eir p:otec 
tors were lligmabr/ed , their tenets cain'afled , th-.-ir \-:ews repreh n;ed ..- u.u .: r- 
uus arid pennciou,^. To nr.pnrti.d ipeciators kirek', il any U;t!: luid b.en, ..: rin-t 
time, in b.nghind, it mu i ha'.-e piven great enrerta-nn, r,:, t. k . a j oj.u^.^ 
u^knd^K, enl]ani(d v.;:!i tact. on and enthnli.u'm, pretend. : > I.arude ouc:kion>, f,:- 
wh'.k.-. trie greatebi p;.ik)loj!;crs, in tiu- trur.quulitv cf ret.uu., ;;^di r.;.ver k.tn.uty 
leCii able to Hrid any latietaCtory lolutior. . 



h.ip Ik 



i-;.: 



182 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C]i.i:i- 11. Amidst that complication of difputes, in Vvhlch men were involved, v.'c m:;'/ 
obierve, that the appeUation, fiiritan^ fiood for three parties, v/hicb, tho' coir.- 
monly united tog^tlier, were yet aCluated by very difi'erent views arid motives. 
There v/cre the p'ditical puritans, who maintained the highePc principles oi civil 
liberty ; tiie puritans in dilcipline, who were averfe to the ceremonies and epifco- 
pal government oi the church , and the doilrinai puritans, who rigidly deiended 
the i[)ecuhitive fyRem of the firfl: reformers. In oppollLion to ali theie, P.ood, tlie 
court-party, the hierarchv, and the arminians -, only vvith tliis dirdnction, tliat 
ilie latter lecl, being introduced a few years bcl'ore, did nor, as yet, comprehend 
ali thofe who were favourable to the church and to n^.onarchy. But as the contro- 
verfies, on every fubjed", grew daily warmer, men united themfelves more inti- 
mately v/ith their hdcnds, and leparatcd themfelves wider from their antagonifts i 
and the diilindlion gradually became quite uniform and regular. 

I'lJis houfe of commons, which, like all the preceding ones, during the reigns 
of James and Charles, and even of Elizabeth, had been mnch governed by the 
puritanical party, thought, that they could not better ferve their caufe, than by 
ftigmatizing and. punifning the arminian feCt, which, introducing an innovation 
in the church, were the leaft favoured and lead powerful of all their antagonifts. 
From this meafure, it v/as eafily forefeen, that, befides gratifying the animofity of 
the dc6trinal puritans, both the puritans in difcipline and thofe in politics would 
reap confiderable advantages. Laud, Neile, ]N4ontague, and other bifnops, who 
were the chief fupporters of cpifcopal government, and the moft zealous parti- 
zans of t'-e difcipline and ceremonies of the church, were all fuppofed to be tainted 
with armiinianiim. The fame men and their dlfciplcs were the ftrenuous preachers 
ol paflive obedience and of entire fubmilTion to prmces ; and if thefe could once 
be cenlured, and be ex[;el!ed the church and court, it was concIud:cd, that the 
cccl'jfiaftical hierarchy would receive a mortal blow, the ceremonies be Icfs rigidly 
infilled on, ai^.d the King, deprived of his mod f.uthful friends, be obliged to 
abate thole high claims of prerogative, on which at preferit he infified. 

Bl'T Charles, befides a view of the political confcquences, which mufc refult 
from a cf^mpliaiice with fjch prctenlion'^, was Uron.gly determinet', from princi- 
ples of piety and confcience, to o^-yofe thei^T. Neither the dliTipation ir.cieier.t to 
yout'r. nor the pleafurcs attendinj; a Idgii fortune, had been able to prevent this 
virtu'His Prir.ce from em.braeing r'le melt fincere fentimcnt^ Oi religion ; and that 
character, v, hich, in that reliydoir^ r.:;;?, ouL^ht to have been ol infinite a:i\'antao-e to 
hiin, proved, iii the end, the chie! eaufo of his ruin. : Merely, becaufe :!-!e religion, 
adopted by liinn, was not of that precife m.ode and fee!:, vvlnch began to prevail 
among hi:^ iubj _ei.s. His piety, tho' remote from [.oi'ery, had a tine'ture of fu- 

pe:{lii;:on 



C II A R L i: S I. 



1^; 



perdition in it ; anJ, brin:^ avcrll- to cliv floomy hiric oft':;' pi!r;:a::s ^''-i'^ i' Y''-^' 
feiT-cd iiy r!i.m n<^ t-:; l:n^.; tu\v..:\!-, tl.c al3<;:i;:i..;ii set -di.i:. hiii^ 1 .i'..: ii:o \\ . 
ur-KM't'. ;..;!:/, y uc'.j .;: c'^i :'. jii-;at .ilcx'i^'.i.^t owr hirii : A;.i'. ;i .I'l thoIc p:"c!.i\- 
llruclv at by t'r.L- c;;. i-.o ^, v.ci'c k r; ni'L\l a^ Li-. c;,:-,-'' fi;f;.ils anJ. niotl :.'.'.'..!'' 
coiirci- IS ; ii.-v..'. : L 1 )I'.\\i r.ot to ciil-.i'ii a; li (,.;!:.j:.', im' l.;;ii::\:, by a':M.".Jo,..;'. 
tlicni to i\:: i\'.:::::])cnt oi his ciH'w^ivs. Be; i^ tv' .Jy i;:.'i:" )V:i' d f-l in:iiMr- 
lo.\'c. ;::i.i tin.'::..: a rchajLory, ituli'^L-adam l;-;i:t: to prcvw! an. .;;.: t'; ' r"-; ': 
th.' n/;;l loiiJ Ik.Ii, oi h:s a^itluriiy, ;,j [!io'..[;!:t, o ::lillc.! in d- L.; ; .rt. . 
b.L' i\\\.-iv(.\l tro:ri the bii-.T>irchy. 



C .-. 11 






vivrcs (>! t.ic ( omiTion';, v.l.IJi arc r; 



:r. 1 :o t:':^ :: 



, i : ' " 



,)'" 



C'j\i\ 1j early \o:nr 1/aik. of that cnr l.i.iiallic i'wc, wlrcii a;:u^^ .;;.:. l.;t tiij \.\^ 
ration in con'jbull on. One l\oiif- n^.^le iilc ol an i :in':on, \ I. I . tfo' \\ r .' ! 
inwiar, Icmis to !ia\-c b:c'n bjr:-ov.(.J ironi 'I;- v ritlni:-. oi I.'. :\'. U.^^on. ' i: 
*' H; :n n^cct a i!i',^ alu; -," la:.! he, ' :h- .:o >; :; t-,a;;.', th/:;iv.; 1j .;c:\v : ^ 
*' naiL.i'e : H';:, i: r'.e ;;o<j; have iiis maiU-r wi'.!. him. he v,;!' t t iiju.ii i;...- n^a; 
' i:-oin \\h;)ni i,e ;'.d be'.uie. 'i'iiis fnov/.s, t;;.;t low;;- n.r.i :? ^, b ; - Iv. . ' 1 
'" i.:i he:\ enere.-.e m couiM::' a. ti llr, n<^tii ; and cu't.^i; ' 
\'. ;.!. cyn^!ny';te:iC\', ::-. a kim.! o! C'nv.:;-( tent ti\a:ii:'e. A., [..i.. . ...e ^ c.;:.b!, i 

' :;::n t;i..t be! evcs i and whei'e .^1 thi;:^s aie rolhb'e, the.^ i.. a h::.-i > : ^ ;'..,. 
' I ' :.nev. \"> he ;;.; ore, l^t it be the '.;naninioUi ecMilent and i'c!w!ur;',n o. i ..' 
'' t - ne.ke a wav .;;.d cc}\'vnant i/en^: lAnechn'tii to h( ]J h,;l cj;n' (k.u ... i . 
;:'" /.!'-\ ; a:.:; ti.eii ill. ill \v^ i:er.eelortii exrect \vi:!i c.i':.i:iuy I.appiiieib ;;i :' : 



{ 



i;.it 



;. . '" :v." : i , ..: taat t;n;e, .<'..:. ni n";. ot no a . nn: m [:.: r .:: : , 
d in i..e:e ol'\U, . a . c.';: ; \ .. .,::>:] < : '.;.,, w !.(,, i. ... i t:-' ', ' r- a ' 

' 1 > am. .hi,'- to o' f. 1 '.a: the !:;d v.,; .:.; ot i\ .-., :an.::;e.i! ;;yy u:' : 

'. x.\^l:-/ t!' in.-: c hai .;etia. 

. ' ' ' .tes c- n' . ; nin.'; t'-nn^'- aed {unn.d.iye w ; nt i .:nd in 
: . i . .:. -.d or :-.:.: 'n. !i .d ' : ' , i f,e o:d, ;- ol the 



1 )-. 



n .r-n;n,- !-- -.vlL.t 



i i e : od-, ' ; li 



. n.at 
1 f..;- 



t 

li.yy ) t. 
-I . 



s ^4 HISTORY OF G "R E A T BRITAIN. 

Chap. II. him and the commons. Mention was made in the houfe of impeaching Sir 
^'^~^' Richard Wefton, Lord treafurer -, and the King began to entertain thoughts of 
finifl-iing the feffion by a difToiution. 

Sill John Eiiiot [ramed a remontlrance againft levying tonnage and poun- 
dage without conlent of parliament, and offered it to the clerk to read. It was 
refufed. He read it himlelf. The queftion being then called for, the fpeaker, 
Sir John Finch, faid, Tbai he had a command from the King to adjourn^ end to put 
no quefiion. Upon which he rofe and left the chair. The whole houfe was in an 
lipro.ir. The fpeaker was piiflied back into tlie chair, and forcibly held in it by 
Hollis and Valeniine, till a fliort remonftrance v/as framed, and was pafTed by ac- 
cLimation rather than by vote. Papifts and arminians were there declared capital 
enemies to the commonweakh. Thofe, who levied tonnage and poundage, were 
branded Vv'ich the fmie epiehet. And even the merchants, Vv'ho lliouki voluntarily 
pay thele duties, v/ere denominated betrayers of Englifn liberty, and public ene- 
mies. The doors being locked, the gentleman ufher of tr.e houie of lords, who 
was fent by the King, could get no admittance, till this remondrance was finifnec. 
By the King's order, he took the mace from the t'ab'e, which ended their pro- 
D.'iViair-n ofcecdings. And a few days afterwards, the parliament was diliblved. 

The difcontents of the nation ran extremely high, on account of this violent 
rupture between the King and piirliament. Thefe difcontents Charles inflamed by 
his affectation of a feverity, which lie liad not po'^cr, nor, probably, inclination, 
to carry to extremity. Sir IVliles Mobart, Sir Peter Hey man, Selden, Coriton, 
Long, Strode, were commiLted to p'ifon, on acco:int of the lafl: tumult, which 
was called fedition. With great difHcuky, and alter feveral delays, they were 
releafed j and the lav/ was generally fuppofed to be wjeiled, in order to pro:ong 
their nnprifonment. Su* John l:',i]iot, Hoilis, and ^'aientine, v.'ere fumn^iOned 
to their trial in tlie king's bench, for feditious fpeeches and behaviour in parlia- 
ment i \-::Z refuhiig to anfwer before an inferior court for their conducft, as mem- 
bers ol a luptrior, they v/ere condemned to imprifonment during the King's 
pleafure, to find fureties for their good behaviour, and to be fi;y:d, the t -;) former 
i thoufand pounds a-piece, the kutcr five hundred. Thi:, flr.tenee, procured by 
the infkience of tie crown, ferved only to fliow the King's difregard to tlie pri- 
vileges of pailiamcnt, and to acquire an immee.fe ilock of pojHilarity to i!ie ilif- 
fcrers, v.ho had fo bravely, in opp'jficion to arbitrary powe:, deiende.' the liber- 
ties of the!.- native country, Tue commoiis of h'.ngland, tlv)' an immenfe body, 
an>.l [;olTelfe'.i r.f ihe greatell part of the national property, v.ere naturally fomewhat 
defcncekfs ; ':eraufe of tl;eh- pcrfonal equality and their v/ant of leaders: But tiie 
King's f";^'-''/, it rhefe (Pegal profccutions deicrvc the na:i;ej here pointed out 

leaders 



riicr. r. 
r^Iai-^h I 



C II A R L I 



I. 



1S5 



i;:'.uiers to tl.c;n, uho'.c rclci.trv.ciit \v..s cii.^uivju, ^r.d svholc courage was ao way ^'-^r ^^ 



Cjuntcii, by the Inrt'ilr.j^s wl.:;li :I.,-y luJ iinc'crgonc in lo honourable a caur.-. 

i iilj\T^ r,Io:y in tlicir ij'icrings, thac t^cy wouL! no: 



So iv,i;c!i (.'.J t 
C' ni'clcx'nd even 



o i>rt 



};vtiLion 10 tiiC ivir.^, ex; rcfun;:; their I'.rro^v to: 



h:iv;ng olLi'idrd !;'::r.. Tlicy i;!M!-.irnouily rcfulcu to find lurches for thc;r ;^;ooci 
beh.u'iom- , ;:'ui .';!.!. lini'J lo accept (jF tlelivern:ice (;) lucli c.ify tein: . X.iy, 
I loliis v.a-. :o inJ.ull 1 .'uS tt) or.finuj !iis aieritorioLis di'.lr^li, tli.u wher. o..e olTcrcd 
lu bail liim, he uou'.d net yield to the ru'.c of court, ai^d be hin^iMf boi:ntl 
villi his rrieiu!. Fven I -ong, who had actually found furetics in tb.e chief jufli- 
cc^ cl-.amb.r, dechired in court, that his f.;reti"s fiiould no longer continue. Yet 
bcciufe Sir John bdliot liappened to die, \vhile in cuilody, a great clamour was 
railed againft the adminillration ; and he was univcrfally regarded as a martyr to 
the liberties of England. 



C II A P 



III. 



vljlys. Cburdcfcr cf the >;^f' 'cn. Sli-afflrd. 



Stdti' cf the cciirt cVhi mi- 
LuuJ. In- 



7:o'Ji!trJis III the cburcb. Irre^uuir le'-jjes of jw.iicx. ^rj critics 

in tl\' jlar-chivnhc)- mid high cofiimijjion. Ship-nioncy. Irial 

of lidinhdcji. 



TI J b^. R b'. now op^ns to us a new Iccric. Charles, naturally ddguflcd with 
parliaments, was refolded, not to c.d! any more, till he iliould fee greater 
indicatioiis ot acon^jdiant dilpolition in tlie nation. 1 bivir.g lull iiis great tavou- 
rite, Ikickin^;ha:n, he became his ov.n mmiller; anvi never a!ccrv,ardiS rt.j;oled 
in ariy one luch un.imired cuntid.ence. As iic chiefly ioUows lu^ owngemus anel 
c;r|:i>:ltioii, hib me.dLnc.', arc henceiorth lels rafli and hully ; tho' the general te- 
iH;r ot liis aLhr/iiiiIlration lUil war.ts lomewhat ot being entirely legal, and more 
ot being cniiiely prudent. 

\Vi; Iball endeavour to exhibit a \\vX idea oi the events, which followed for 
fome years; To tar as they regard iorcir.n alrairs, the llatc o\ the court, ct^vA the 
g')vcrnment ot the nation. The incidents arc n.i'dier nun:erous liorilluilrious; but 



I':;. 



Vol.. \. 



13 b 



tl-.e 



i86 II I S T O 11 Y OF GREAT B RIT Al N. 

Ch?p. III. the kn(iv>']egc of them is ncrelTary for undcrftanding the fubfcqiient tranfadlions, 
^ ^'^^' which are fo memorable. 

CfiARLES, CiCllitLite of ail fupply, was obliged from neccfTity to embrace a mea- 
furc, whieh ouglit to iiave been the refuit of reafon and found policy : Ke made 
peace with the two crowns, againil: whom he had hitherto waged a war, fo iinne- 
ceiTary and fo inglorious. Notwithllanding the diftracced and helulefs condition 
of England, no attempt was made, either by France or Spain, to invade their 
enemy i nor did tliey entertain any farther projeft than to defeiKl themfeh'es 
agair.rt the feeble and ill concerted expeditions of that kingdon^. Pleafed that 
the jealoufies and quarrels between King and parliament had difarmed fo formi- 
dable a power, they carefully avoided any cnterprize, which might rouze ei- 
ther the terror or anger of the Englifli, and difpofe tlicm to domefcic union and 
fubmiffion. The endeavours to regain the .Q;ood will of the na*icn was carried 
fo far by the king oi Spain, that lie generouQy releafed and fent liome all the 
Englifn Dtifcners, taken in the expedition againfb Cadiz. The example v/as 
Peace v.i;":>. inritatcd bv France, after the retreat of the En2;lifh from the ifle of Rhc. When 
.^'/"'^^ princes were in fuch difpofitions, and had fo few pretenfions on each other, it 
Arril j.t. cou'd not be dinicidt to conclude a peace. Tlie treaty was iirfl: figned with 
France. The fuuation oi the King's affairs did not entitle him to demand any 
conditions for ii>e liugonots, and thiCy v/ere abandoned to the will of their 
163c. fovereign. Peace w;is afterwards concluded wiih Spain ; where no conditions 
T\ \:.r. ;,cr -. v.crc p.zMh m iavour of tlie Palatine, except that Spain promifed in general to 
ufe lisr good, offices tor his relioration. The influence of thefe two wars on do- 
}n.,ilic Uifair;, arid on liie dilpofitions ot King and people, was of tlie utmoil 
( ..niiequenee : iiiii i c^ akeration v/as made by them on the foreign interefts of iht 
k'ngdom. 

Ne.TTiiNG iVirrc h.^[Mjv can be imagined thin the fituation, in wliich England 
then flood with rega'-d to forei?7,n affairs, FTn'ope was divided [between tiie rival 
famines ol Bourbon and Auilria, whofe oppofite interefts, and llill more, tlieir 
n"i'.:rup/i ie.dcu'ies, fecured the tranquillity of this ifland. Their forces '.vet-- fo 
!;ar;y counterp.jizcd, that no apprcheniions were entertained of any eveiir. "v,\ cii 
c-yild fuddenly difturb the ballance of power between them. The Sp--d;>; mo- 
!. rch, deemed the mofl: powerfid, lay at greatefl: diftance -, and the {Mign'];, by tii,-: 
\.:.'. r-, ;;; :';!. j]ed the adva::tage of being engaged by political motives, ::-ito a mo^'C 
ii id'.v/eu'd.on nnd confederacy wirh the neighbouring potentate. The difnerfl: fitu- 
a':>)n ol :i'-: .Sjr.ni!''. cio^niifions rend',j\'d, the naval power of England very formidable 
to them, M'^.d Kept ihat empire in eontiriu ;! deper.dance. France, more vigorous and 
n.crc CGH'] :d:;Wa>-; everyday, lilingin priicy and ciicipiinei andreached -^tlaft an 

equality 



C II A 11 L R S I. 



117 



equality c^fpowcr uita i'.\r h.. ^o ol '.uih.a : i> .[ ii ; ; ;\); 'el^, fi'/.v ar.J .' r.uij.il, <-'' ^ 
left it P/.ii i;"i t!vj }) AVer ui 1 p.jI.u , ', .1 i;:iv'y ::/.c;, /..i'l, to .iiccK iier !u;;ci. 
oriry. A^l! ti.i::> C ii.ir! -, ..>;;'.! ;.- :,ivj a\- .'.! A a.! i'llk i^tT >;:^ ^vi:;l ':i-o.'..! 
(libj^'As wns ;:i a iki: I'i :i 10 !^:.A;: iiinilul ' Ci-.."Vt! .v. i r;. ;]>.!. 1" J b.-(V,:y 
power i:'. I'".',;:'Oj)C- , ;iivJ, \'. :;..: li.i- U.'.iV' ever i:r;cc i c ;: ..:'-;;:;c.i by t'^c p:;i',cc'. 
o!" t'lis ::l.i:.;i, !.: ( :M .i^'uT l^e a'tiw v.-itli cii mi^: ,-, n. :, :.'. u:t!i U curi'y. 

A :.'L.'.aii:v v. s cr/.'.r.-c: d by tiie King; aiul cb..i!:;.!; t'.e reft o! 1,;^ rei'j:!";, 
he ; :i:i:^ [ ) b:v.e iittlj r'L;a:xk\i lorcign aiuirs tXifp: fj ;.:r .;: ' v. .1 - c-.::,:.!^^;!, 
by !:' p.c.'jr a:.-l by tricn Ilv.p for hi'^ filler and t!:c Pabifiii'-, to c:.,: av^ur t!.j ;to- 
C';:'n<: I'orriC r:,-'.;.-! I'v-r th '.r unhappy farr.ily. lie joined Ivs p,' ..! i..^\.- i<) [;;>,;' 
ot l-'iancc, ar,.i n^iL^iatcd a pcicc between t!ie Ku::;^ of ?-.v .'.en anv! IN/.i. ', .; 
liop.e^ ofcrg.i^jing tive torn^er f.) enibr.ire the proteciHKi c . th,' cpp-reifed ; i .a _ 
11 i:::'v in t!ie empire. Tb.is was t!ic lan-.ed. Guila\i:^, wl.v/i. be:;):e ^ :.i..-. \- 
c n.'ed bv the wilUI poliey, made him, in a bttie ihr-, the m,.:l di!]i--u!:]:' ,' 
n:onarcli of r!",e a':;-^ an-! rend.vrc'.i b.> cour.try, fo::r,cr'v '.r.hiijv. -i :.rA n-.:'.v:: 
I'd, of ;;reat wei[:'u in th.e balhii.te cr Iu:rope. To en."oi:r.^>.y- a;..l .>.:ell !.;::i .- 
hi<^ rr(M,etai i;;\-.iiion ot (iermanv, C !iar!e> a^'yeed. to {.::ri::'; .'.irni v.-:'.'; r.x ':. ,i.- 
lai-id m.n ; bi.t ti;at he miij^ht prelerve r!';- a";-earan.-e ( t neii'raiiry, !:.- pmiIj .::' 



1 tl 



M ,;-:-ue!s o;' 1 la:!;iit. n's ii ime. a P')bh :^i,:n allied ritlie crown. I 



I ,,,,;! 



ror-i rriterevl ir.:(> an cn:^-iyement widi Cluflavu- ; and i;i::'.t'.:ig tliele tru'.r s in b ;i'';- 
hmd ai,d ^Lo:!..nd at Ciiar!w:"- e:qvncc, he 'anded ihcn: in t'le i-iibe. 'I'l^e d.v;!:'. , 
[ attie (>: 1 .cijdic v/as kn;;du b'cn air.-'- ; vdy:e the c - .dud- o: Td'v n ! ti'e \- 
lour ot the impcri.dhU, we.e overcome bv the Tni eri<T c(VKl'.e"r ot (i-ulavu.s :^r.^ 
li.e luperior v..hiur ot the S.v de--. ANdiat rema ned. ot this hero's ble was on ' ci'.- 
tinued leries (.1 \'ie'o;'\, lor wliich he u as le!-- beiv iden t" fortiuie, t'n.-.n to :' ['i 
le; 'oiial e!,d' V. nn n's, \siuvh he cie:i\'cd licn^ na:ure .;::d :rom ;ndui!:v. Tha' 
r .'.! r)ro"relh cd ro, (]"(,:', vdii'h we !o niu^'i ahi^iiie m aetiui'" i ;!!or\-, \'.a^ 
he,e re! .w. ! m m'vl^T.i anna!-; and with-ut t! a: en''e, 'o v!.-!i, ':: forni:i- 
a;:e:, it had c'er been owine. Mihiarv n itit -e, were I'ot -.'v.y (Mv;a:eed aain 
;\n ur.dilViphi. '! e:,d un'.\.uhk" r.'>p;!e; nor l".ero:s let in o:^!\ i";::on to c.)\^a.r'. 
The veteran tr'^op'^ ot beidi.-,a!id, contUicted bv t!v.^ nujil ec !e'-:ared LyMu-ra!^ ./. 
the e;:-, v.ere i eiled i[i iv. ry eixoun^u-, ant! ad ( lernianx' w ;< owr run i 1 a.i ui- 
i;u:', i v the \i^u .'.ou Smu". I! t ' .' i:i:- cxriei.'rv'inarv ,i:-.J v.w:\\ :\ \ :de 
le;^. ; ; h\ ally, Charles laue.l ot ti;e purpol"-, b r v. !ii, h 1: tiMnvd dw ailiae. cv 
I ii.ll.iVL.';, : hited bv p;oh'eri;v, beL;-Ui to t^ rm luore ev niiv pi.e 

:. , :::.\ in t:.ein<^ (jern;anv !r'.jm tiie vo'o" ( 1' ! e:dinw ", h- ivtevc' d : > 

u. e ;: r ) Luv c.u^.i under i.^ (,>'. n. ! I i ; ' : ' \\ \\ :. ' t'al ' .ae ) i . 
' rui'-'- day except ui^ cond;li'^;i. , w iueii V. \dvi . ; t h;.n b, : '.id n; . < 

1; b 



i88 H I S T O R y F G R E A T B R rr A 1 N. 

Chap. III. And thus the negotiation was protrafted ; till the battle of Liitzen, v/here the 
^"^3' Swedifh monarch periihed in the midft cf a compleat vidlory, which he obtained 
over his enemies. 

We have carried on thefe tranfadions a few years beyond the prefent period, 
that we might not be obliged to return to tliem -, nor be henceforth interrupted 
in our account of Charles's court and kingdoms. 

State cf the When we confider Charles, as prefiding in his court, as aflbciated with his fa- 
court and ,, . . ,.^ , . . , ^ r -1 1 1 J 

ininiftr/. ^^^Y-> It IS Gimcuit to miaginc a cnaracter, at once more reipccitaDie ana more ami- 
bie. A kind hufoand, an indulgent father, a gentle mafter, a (ledfail friend -, 
to all thefe eulogies, his conduct in private life fully intltled him. As a monarch 
too, in the exterior qualities he excelled ; in t!ie effential, he was not deieflive. 
His addrefs and manner, tho' perhaps inclining a little towards ftatelinefs and 
formality, in the main correfponded to his high rank, and gave grace to that 
referve and gravity, which were natural to him. The moderation and equity, 
which fhone forth in his temper, feemed to fecure him againfb rafh and danger- 
ous enterprizes : The good fenfe, which he difplayed in his difcourfe and con- 
verfation, feemed to warrant his fuccefs in every reafonable undertaking. Other 
endowments likewife he enjoyed, v/hich, in a private gentleman, would have 
been highly ornamental, and which, in a great monarch, might have proved 
extremely ufeful to his people. He was pofTellcd of an excellent tafte in all the 
fine arts -, and the love of painting was, in fome degree, his favourite pafiion. 
Learned beyond what is common in princes, he was a good judge of writing in 
others, and poffeired, himfclf, no mean talent in compofition. In any other age, 
or nation, this monarch had been fecure of a profperous and a happy reign. 
But the high idea of his own authority, with which he had been imbued, made 
him incapable of giving way to the fpirit of liberty, which began to prevail 
among his fubjeds. His politics were not fupported with fueh vigour and 
forefight as might enable him to fubdue their privileges, and maintain his pre- 
rogative at the high pitch, to which it had been raifed. And above all, the fpi- 
rit of entliufiafm, being univerfally diffufed over the nation, difappointed all tlic 
\ lews of human prudence, and dilUnbed the operation of every motive, v.hich 
ufually influence locicty. 

B'JT the misfortunes, produced by thefe caufes, were yet remote. Charf's 

now cnjovetl himfelf in iht ftdl exercife of his authority, in a focial intcrcourfe 

with his friends and courtiers, and in a moderate ufe of thofe pleafures, which he 

moft nfre^lc'd. 

C' -it:*, r of After tlie dLath of Buckingham, who had fomewhat alienated Charles from 

iLi, *^..Lcn, the Queen, fnc is to be confidered as his chief friend and favourite. That ruflic 

contempt 



C H A R L r- S I. 1^9 

contemp: 'of tli: Mir fcx, \vi;ith J.i:r,i'> afil-dc ', .::;J. wi.j, !i, IxuKinir.;^ I'r.crr. from ^''^?- I'^-- 

his cu'Jir, m-dc ic rcL-nibk- more .i i.i.v i-r aa cxLlMiiL;', t!^.;in l\\c I .i' oi .i :v(\it; 

priiic-, was vcrv v.;,:c o\ :!i (.liipofu: -. (j: tliij rr.on.u'eli. B.z th'>' tuli uf coni- 

jilaii .ncc to the 'aIi-'c llw, C;.arlcs rclcivctl aii Iii- jMliio.-i ! r t'.c <^cen, to 

svli.ini he .ut.i'.lRxi i.inV.clf with unlhal.cn iiJ.elity ar.ci coniuifiKc. By licr kn'.'c 

and rpirit, as v.ch as by her beauty, lli',- jull il.J. tr.,- lon'J.r.cls of her luifbaivl , 

tho' It is a.i.nvc.!, that, being lonicwha: ot a [aii'.onatc tenij cr, flic }.;eLi; itate.i 

hini i.'Ko r.ailv aPid imprudent couiudls. Mer rvi;^yon hl;ev.-iic, :o w/ica iL?* 

was nuich ..'.'icted, murt: be regartieci as a gcat niisfortunc ^ fiLce ic augniei-.t-.d 

tiic jealoiify, v, inch prevailed aga:nil the court, and cn[;,iged h.r to \ ro<.i.rc, i^r 

the catholics, lome iiidulgcnces, which were geikrally diilalleiid to tiie natio;:. 

In- triC tormer fituation of the Kni^Hdi govcfnnier.t, wh.cn t!ie fovciL-iLin w..,, 
in a {Teat niealure, indepcndeiit oi his fubiccts, t!)c k-ing choie h.is minillers 
cither from perlbnal favour, or trom an opinion o: ti.eir .".biilcy-, wirdur..: anv re- 
gard :o theii- i)ai i:a".";.n:ary i;uei\ll or talents. It lias iince i-cen t!,c maxim of 
];rincis wherc-ever pojVvila;' Icad.eis encroach tcuj tr.i.c 'i on ;oya! ai.:li'.)ri:y, [o con- 
fer otiiccs on t'r.cni ; ni (.xp-eclation, tliat tliey v,:d aUerv.ai'd.s Ixcjaie iiiore care- 
iul rvjt to diniinilli that p.ower, wliicli ha> become tlKir own. I'iuMc politics 
v.ere no.v en. braced by Charles ; a kirc proof, tiiat a i<ic\-cz luvoli.tion had 
h,ap[;encd m tlie conititution, and had r.eceliitated the prince :o a.ioj t r..w 
H'iaxnris ot gow rr.nicnt. But u\c views or the King were, at thi.-^ tnr.e, lo re- 
mote from thole ct the purirans, tliat th.e leaders, whom lie gained, icit, irom 
tiiat mome.nt, all interelt with their ['arty, ::nd were tvtn pi;r!ued as traiLors 
^vith implacable h.itred Am.] re!entme;.t. This was the c.ile with S r 'I'h, ni.is m,.;';.:J. 
Wentv.orth, wlioni t'.ie King created, fnil a baror,, tlie:i a vi.lonr.r, M\d ..;ut- 
wards l.ail ol StraUord ; macie hi.n prelider.t ( f tl'.e conned oi Vwd., and 1 .^ d. 
depi.ty 01 Ireland. ; an.d regarelevl liim :'.s !iis clr.ei nv.nliler a;.d coui.lelli.r. 
liv I'. -> eir.ii-.ent talents and abdities, StraHord n'.eiitcd ali the coniid.nee, whi^Ii 
the kiiv^ !( jn.led m him: llis ch.iraeLer v, a.'j llately and ai.llcre ; ir./re iltted. 
to proeme elle. m dian love: llis Udeht;/ to iiis nuiiler w.is unlh.d.e.; , hi.: 
as he no'A emp'ioyed all his conn^il-^ to luppcMt t'.e prero :.:riee. v.I.it'i .'.e h.ad 
iorm. rly bent adl iii-^ c'nd.eavt)urs to d.immilli, his vi:t'>..e leem.b not t. lia ^' bee:i 
i;uii'Jiy p'^.re, bur to h.xvr been lu'eeptibie oi llrong imjMeir.o:> ivorA p:i\-.::e m- 
r^reil .uui an;bldo:i. Sn- Diiddey Dii^g.s was, alvnit th.e l..:r,e ri;r,e, cie.::c ' ma- 
iler (>t the rolls : Nov, attorniy-gerieral : LattlettKi, ioilicito;--.,, nc ral. A.l tlnl'e 
liad b.een hkewifc parli.'.mcnta:-y leaders i ani were men very cnv.iU'nc iiwiuir 
t-rotelTion. 

! V 



190 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. HI, In all ecclefiailical affairs, and even in many civil, Laud, bifiiop of L.ondoii, 

r '1 '^"' had o-rcat influence on the Kin":. This man was virtuous ; ir feveritv of man- 
Laud, f . '^ 

Eers alone and abftinence from pleafure could dcferve that name. Fie v.as learn- 
ed, if polemical knowlege could intitle him to that praife. He was difintereftcd 
but v/ith unceafing induflry he ftudied to exalt the prieftly and prelatica! charac- 
ter, which was his own. His zeal Vv'as unrelenting m the caufe of religion ; that 
is, in impofing, by the molt rigorous meafures, his own tenets and pious cere- 
monies on the obRinate puritans, who had profanely dared to oppofe him. In 
profecuticn of his holy purpofes, he overlooked every liUtnan confideration ; or, 
in other words, the heat and indifcretion of his temper made him neglect the 
views of prudence and rules of good manners. He was, in this ref eel, happy, 
that all his enemies were alfo imagined by him the declared enemies to ioyaity 
and true piety, and that every exercife of his reveng-r, by tliat mean'^, became i;i 
hi? eyes a merit and a virtue. This v/as the m.an, who acquired fo gie it an afccn- 
dant over Charles, and v'ho led him, by the facility of his temper, -r.to a con- 
duel, v/hich proved fo fatal to himfelf and to his kingdoms. 
In:-o;aticn5in The humour of the nation ran, at that time, into the extrem.e cpnofite to 
luc c. uivii. fupcrriltion , and it was with difficulty, that the antient ceremonies, to which 
men had been accuftomed, and which had been fanfliiied by the praciice of the 
fyvd reformers, could be retained in 'Jivine fervire : Yet v/as tl-iis the ti.me, which 
I.aud cliofe for the introduction of new ceremonies and obfervances, Befides 
that thefe were fur e to diipleafe as innovations, there lay, in the orhhon of the 
public, another very forcible objection againft them. Laud and the other pre- 
late?, v/ho embraced his meafures, were generally well in(buci:ed in f crcd anti- 
quity, and had adopte.l all thofe religious fentiments, v/hich prevailed during the 
fourth and filth centuries -, when the chriflian church, as is v/ei! kno\/n, was 
already funk into thofe fuperftitions, which were afterwards continued and 
augmented by the j)olicy of Rome, The revival, therefore, of the ideas and 
practices of that age could not fail of giving the Englilli faith and iiturgy fbme 
refemblancc to the cathiolic fuperftition, which the kingdom in general, 
and thiC puritans in particular, held in the greateft horror and detefLation. Men 
'.iilo were apt to think, that, without fome fccret purpofe, fhcli infigniucant ob- 
iervanccs v.ould not be impofed with fuch unrelenting zeal on the refractory 
Iririt of the nation , and that Laud.'s Lheme was to lead the Knghfh, by gra- 
dual f;c;-s, back to th.e religion or their anceftors. I'hcy confitleicd not, that the 
very infigniiicancy of thele cercmoii'.s recommended theni to the fupcruitious 
prelate, ar.d made them appear the more peculiarly fac.'-ed and religious, that 
th.y could lervc no otlicr pu.fpofe. Nor was tiiC refembh'.nce to the Romifn 

ntua' 



C IT A R L r. ^ T. 



I c I 






I.,.,. 



rii'ircr. ; a:i ;r ;( ,1 .t;( :;, ..liu!i tr.cv ici^.i; !, (,/ . 



', -.o t, 



So opii!'; v.c;c- ll'.,!,- rci.-ts c!|)Oi;k'.!, tiia: :../. oi..'. :!, c.i^ i^.r-jr.!' A ri;i 
l!c\-;\l r'f c'lircii c)t i' ng; :ii i to b,- rc-i.KM". ^, i .! i.io Kom;!}! i'-p-r.l,' i 
r(v:-r :, :"(r!K itlci! chtc: i.iin:\i lu)|>^s '1 ; Li.i:[;i:;;= lis .lu:'; ;.[-; ;;i t 
: '. :\- -{) \ni:.\\\\\ I .mlW r. >^J i:.r(M,t. j:,s, .m oi: :r w ;i tv. :.' 

. : : : li.inlc!:, TL:: _/^;;, ; .-/. .//; t-:...: :::.'.: I. ;, .. . :: . ': .. 

.\ i >:::: laJv, c:.i'.;.j,htLT o( -Ave i .arl ot IXvorilr.i J, ii.iv';'.;; P.i:-;)C\1 
Was w.kf..; by i ...Lid ti.c re.iloiis (./! hvr C' 'i;'."C; !i'):i. "/; i^vc"'-. i.iui :b 

/ /'.;/; /y //-.M (.-'./ J L/'c::- '. i ;iC nu;.iii;::.; ^>i :,;:s c:.;-:\-:^1 ri b. 

i-c'plirci, fpr -;., (7;-.;. ; jv /;/..;. './i./i ,;/,, . '.;.' ; 

;oi\\ in o'Ji'r:: pr'i:.' ;< !c':-:p tVY::..7;', //l'..:'.\;. 
rci;b 1, tb ic. lI.i/ 1 ..:: 1 t;. ;.r,cvl i.i-c rbj a; ;vb.i:. ..:;. : ; ^ .', tb.-^.j; 
j;i:;;'u;i v..v., li;;/ w :\ iv-l . (.It^j^ivc, \ lL lUv \d:\ v v .''.: ;.!-.' '^i '.'.\.- K :: 

..:',,j jMoIcjui'.d rvi;~(.':L' was i-v^.O. . ,1 :o ih.- ;..c.:'cL.':ai cii.;r r, :. 

;-...;;bjii i\.]iiiicii t(; tin: iiccbs .1;^! c \M\L^1 (.b i\ iitJ^;^. .i.^b Cri::..;. ., ib^ ! 
.. ;b cci.iiicny w.r: alr..'ju 1 i:; \-.\j:ib.:\ ..;;b :'..: :.jrc l.iy^v.:.: ^ . 

; -~, nica:^. a.id vcibiui.tj. - ....c, b...'.io:-c, lb:, b..- j.. 

. \.bc.c, aii^r.^;, Lb- puii.:ns . . ' '... : , . ' ^ b.rc 



. : r., I , 
' br'i" . ;;i 
:^ rtb, ;, . 
i'a:;s b.-- 
; (1 : 1 : 1 - 
!^ ;.h:,d : 



J . ::;;:., o ^' 



r^)- 



As a ip ciiii.M Oi tli: IV w t\:-j::, (,:.:, - : " 
;: Ci lb': i;a!>{);i, it; may i.ot be a.': ..- :,) 
'.<:', if;, : in tiic coiius r..tioii r .S:. v ..L;.^ 
, . ;,; !^i.,i y ;;a! lea., vial a;;d o:..-iKl-. 

( )'. b.v i'bb' , '- ay: (1 u.ii [o Lii:; vv f b *.'(: 
, , '\';.', . .' I I'. /'..: ii . 'J.] u' --/".*, //Is./ /'.'t' v.'/v, 
t::-: d.tj'.;rs ol ib^- >liur(.!i Ibw O;), :i, aivbi i.i- 
';:.;\;, v,i!:ii c',;-, tii.v..:'.b a'lb ari;> txyai 



/ , 



) liij air. \\ ..> 
, , .; -a b.', b. bo'.^;.l :.. 



.1, r; I jai. 



K'^,0. 



192 HISTORY OF GREAT B 11 I T A I N. 

Chap. Iir, pfalrns : And then I'aid a form of prayer, which conc'uded vvich t'.efd words: 
IJ'^e (or.fccrcitc this cbi.rcb, cud feparatcit unto thee as holy ground^ iiot to he -profaned 
any more to cc'inriion ufcs. 

After this, the billiop, ftand'ng near the comrra)nion-tabIe, folemnly pro- 
nounced many imprecations upon fuch as fliould afterwards poHute that holy 
ph^cc by mufters of foldiers, or keeping in it profane hiw-courts, or carrying 
burriicns thro' it. On the conc'ufion of every curie, he: bowed towards tb.e eail, 
arid cried, het all the people fay^ amen. 

The imprecations being all fo pioufly finifhed, there were poured out a num- 
ber of blelfmgs upon fuch as had any hand in traming and building that facred 
and beautiful edifice, and on fuch as had given, or fhould hereafter give toir, any 
chalices, plate, ornaments, or utenfiis. At every benediction, he, in like man- 
ner, bowed towards the eaib, and cried, Let all the people fay ^ ar.un. 

The fermon fucceeded ; after which, the bifhop confecratcd and adminiftred 
the facrameiit in the following manner : 

As he approached the communion-table, he made many lowly reverences : 
And coming up to that part of the table, where the bread and wine lay, he bow- 
ed feven times. After the reading of many prayers, he approached the facra- 
mental elements and gently lifted up the corner of the napkin, in whi h the bread 
^vas laid. When he beheld the bread, he fuddenly let fall the napkin, flc^w back 
a ftep or two, bowed three feveral times towards the bread j then he drev/ near 
again, and opened the napkin, and bowed as before. 

Next, he laid his hand on the cup, which had a cover upon it, and was full 
of v/ine. He let go the cup, fell back, and bowed thrice toward it. Pie ap- 
proached again ; and lilting up the cover, peeped into the cup. Seeing the 
wine, he let fall the cover, (tarted back, and bowed as before. Then lie received 
the ficrament, and gave it to others. And many prayers being faid, the folem- 
nity of the confecration ended. The walls and floor and roof of the fabric were 
then fuppofcd to be fufficiently holy. 

Orders v/cre given, and rigoroufly infilled on, that the communion-table 
fhould be removed from the middle of the area, where it hitherto Hood in all 
churches, except in catliedrals. It was placed in the ea(l end, railed in, and de- 
rominated an Altar ; as the clergyman, v. ho officiated, received comm.only the 
appellation of Priest. 'Tis not cafy to imagine the difcontents, excited by this 
innovation, and the fufpicions, which it gave rife to. 

The kncelirg at the altar, and the ufmg of copes, a f|:ecies of embroidered 
veftment, in adminiflering the facrament, was alio known to be a great objed of 

fcandal. 



C II A R L ! S I. 



10 



VJ 



km "ai, a beinp; popifh praCiic. s : V, :z tiu- ()|)p*..';:io:i :.\\'..^v iiu'icir' ;, t'.K.ii C- 
aba:;'-.' f. - /..-a! <;! tl.c- prelate, lor t::.; i:i:rtK!i,CLion (>* Liiclv.- t .:; nu.irji-. 

A; I, !^i:-;Js (4 (.r;-;.rni n', p .r- itulat !v pLti.rc^, w re nc> i:.::-/ ;<;: 1>:'\ ort:: :; 
t'^it mrciMnicil eiw :!> n, \vh,!(ii w.v, pr<)j>'>lci.l tcj br r.;i.v\: ..:[ (.t r;.!;- 

<:' HI : l)wf as flick- na ; t-.^.-n lo mi:c!i crv/'bivrd by tiir cii'..-. i i.: ;.-';:".'. r.n'/l h.i'.l 
<;'-'-'vM r'! m 1 ) rr/jcii ;i:pLTili::(j:',, (. r v.i,at tlu' [;uiii.i!i-i < ... '. ;,:../ '.:;. -, i: \\a> 
i .nt/yib'.c t') ir.tro.iiicc thcin i..to l',n_iiini cliUniu'-, v.;c';(a;C c>:. ; iv.j:^ 

c;c[vjr.il n'L.rmiirs :\:\d complaints. 1''.;' i..u:cl, jjciI". . li (4 j i '.;!<[ , 



i:i. 






i;;Kd ill h^ jnjrpofe, aiui \v.:\J.^ Ibvcra! aucmpt^ t v.ar;!': a,;:;;.::. 
ir.vTi'LS. .^.;:r.c ot the picliirc-, irirrocliic-d by liim, v.^rcabo it '.,:.,:. i.:,. :: b, ,. r. , 
to bv Lb.L- verv lame, which might be met with in the m.il^-boob. i , . ' : 

too, tiiat eternal coibolatien ot all pioi.s catlioiics, r.P.d terror to all ;o:.i;-. pr - 
'.'..iian'-S was i^.o: iorgot on this occalbji"!. 

Ir was nvacii remarked, that SheriRivl, t!v- recorber of "abb '-r)-, was trbd i:\ 
the itar-ei';ambcr, ior luubiii; c..re!ei>ly b-roivC, \sith 1.:-. can^, kn.. L:rac';.b [ ..ne-. 
o: pair.ted glai^, wiu'e b.e r?,ave orders lor rrpair:n[^^ u.l: v,::k uv.:^ c-: .'^t. b b.n.or.^b.-. 
clv-ircli i:i tl'.a: c.;v. lie was b:-!ed :c j pcninb.^, r.r.'.cj\e,l iio'ii lb- o.bb'v-, c( n- 
deir.ned to rr.abe a \ '.bbic ;ickno\\ Icreir.eiit, and be 'o'air, 1 tobi- i^ocd be;'..i\bo'..r. 

Nor crby Ibcli ot tb.c clergy, as neglected in oblerv.- c v-ry crcnvj' y, were 



bed anb d 



ri\'-d by tile high con^minion-cc-v.rt : Oaths were, b'. n any 



ti-.j bbliop-, impoled on t'u- s. burclw. artien-i ; and tl;ey tvcre bvorn t ; b-. hue :'.::y 
o.:e, w 1^) acted c:.<ntrary to tlie ecclelialln.b canons. Si.c!, a nuab.re, ti.o' p-.;e- 
ti:.ddL.;iig the reign of b ii/ab.tii, g,.ee n:ii:^h obbne. ; as r. lendbng t .j ne.;b\- 
mc I'ra.tiee ol tiie ivoniibi iiupnidr n. 

'i'o iho'.v the greater alien. it on Ir .i^i tb;' chnrch:% r. n):n;.b ab^r 



I :.:. 



teriann:. del, 1 .awd abvii: d, that 



e o;:li; nn,- ann 



wo; bii:^ a tb. 



J ei;n 



b-.' niv o!e ! (jn the baigbb: r gnn^ ni-. .;nv. tr.id:rg eomp.i.n : ai-roa b Ab ' 
f t tb ; 1 n.t 11 nnl W allonn eong-i-ga": ,a--. w a\: connr.n.b nl u> .itn/nd :be c' 
eb.n'Lh; .n.vi inb-bg-n^e V, as gr.;.. led to nnne a"t^r tie: >b bben o; tbj :': 
/t n>. S . ,b;n:wr.- t 'o, the i\in^.,"i an.b.ubib rat ibir: , b.ii cnnbr^to 
! inb;.!! iion: ibe *. . n.nunno.i i i ib:- bug^e.^^t-. b wn n" 

I bi:^'.e tb:h C' n.b.^t, n(;t only b. a..; :t ..- c iUner n: ' 
! ;- 'en e. .,n-r:-., it \':\\ tb u'^.vn ti. . . .....:.,. ( : b 



; ;L';,xt (d I a- in, in_, b;:. ^ 






194 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. III. vv'ith reafon, that the impartiality was altogether confined to the orders, and that 
'^^' the execution of them was only meant againft the calvlnifts. 

In return for Charles's indulgence towards the church, Laud and his followers 
took, care to magnify, on every occafion, the regal authority, and to treaty. 
with the utmoH: difdain or debellation, all pr.ritanical prctenfions to a free and 
independent conftitution. But while thefe prelates were fo liberal in raifing the 
crown at tiie expence of public iibfrty, they made no fcrupie oF incroaching, 
themfelves, on the royal rights tiie moil incontLitable , in order to exalt the 
hierarchy, and procure to their own order dominion and independance. All 
the docfciines, which the Romifli church had borrowed from fome of the fa- 
thers, and which freed the fpiritual from fubordination to the civil power, were 
nov/ adopted by the church of England, and interwoven with her political and 
reli'^ious tenets. A divine and apodolical charter Vv^as infifled on, preferably 
to a legal and parliamentary one : The facerdoral character was magniiicd as ia- 
cred and indefeizable : All right to fpiritual authority, or even to private judg- 
ment in fpiritual fubjc6ls, was refufcd to profane laymen : Ecclefiafiical courts 
were held by the b^fnops in their own name, without any notice taken of the 
King's authority : And Charles, tho' extremely jealous of every claim in popu- 
lar aiiemblics fcemed ratfiCr to encourage, than reprefs, thofe encroachments in 
his clergy. Ilaviiig ftit fome fenfible inconveiiiences from the independent fpi- 
nt of parliaments, he attached himlelf intirely to thofc. v/ho profeiled a devoied 
obe.iiep.ce to his crown and perfon ^ nor did he fcjrefee. that the ecclefiafiical pov/- 
er^ v/')ich he exalted, not admitting of any i^recife boundary, miglit in time be- 
cop.ye mure dangerous to public peace, aiuj no lefs iatal to royal prerogative, than 
tiie other. 

So early as the coronation. Laud was the perfon, according to general opi- 
i\\on, who introduced a novelty, which, tho' overlooked by Charles, made a 
de"o iir.preiuou on many of ti:e byeftanders. Alter the ufual ceremonies, thefe 
words v.-ere recited to the King : '- Stand and hold falf, from henceforth, the 
'' p,lace, to which you have b -en heir by tlic fuccefficn of your forefathers, be-- 
" Infz r.ov/ dcliveied to you by the authority of Almighty (jod, aixl by the 
' hand:, oi us aiid all tlie bifliops and iervants of God.. And, as you fee the 
" clerL^y to come nearer the altar than others, fo remember, that, in all places 
" coiivenient, you give them greater Iionour ; that the Mediator of (iod and man 
* may eft.-blirh you on the kmgly throne, to be a mediator betwixt t!ie clergy 
" and tlie laity ^ and that you may reign for ever v/itli Jekis Chrift, th.e King of 
*' kings, ar/J Lord of lordo." 

A The 



C II A R L E S I. 195 

The principle?, which exalted prcrof^ative, wc:-? nor cr-^crraine-J bv ('ne K; .', '-? '' 
merely as lotc aiul a<^rceab.c to hi-, icv,m1 eirs : Tiiey wcr- ail> pL:r i:-. v.^.:. 
during all the tiir.c, that he rw'.Ld witluj'.ir pailiament'^. '11: / Ir'.if!;'.! .ir.J. vcyw- 
iar in his expeivcs h-j w.micd trioney tor tiic li; p'):r i,: .^ov rr.;r. ;)r -, ;;,>. i..- . 
vied it, either bv tlie revival ot obloletc la.vs, (;r by \i -';:;'>:. , l.;:r./ m to ('', 
ioiue more d;li^:.:iled, ot rl;c pri\:!eg"s nt t!v !\u:un. 'll.u' Iiurr.;::e .!,] :.:': 
in his temper, lu iravc way to leveriiies in the llar-( !iamb'Cr a:-.d iv.^'i LC.v.vr. iivi, 
whic'n lecm'. d reqiiilice, in ordjr lu Jii{KM3:r ilie pr/l'-'n': ir.ocic! o: a.iniii;:!l:-a::!;:', 
and rcpr.fs the riiing Ipirit ot liberty throtighiout the k!n::do!r,. I '; d-r t!^. :' : .v) 
hcad.s, may be reduced all t!ic r'-markable tranlactiur. or liiis reii^n, iiiiin.'; rrr, 
years: I*\<r, in peaccab e andi prolperou- time?, v. Iv.'re a n^-iitrai'iy ::; : re:.-; r.l- 
fairOs oblerved, icarce any t!iin:i; is remarkable, b,;: v. ':..>,: i-, m ; n..- .: :'-, 
blamed or blamicable. And, Ictl tlie hope (j'l rcli;: or pi\)l',\ t;>.n ir.m y:.:'..i- 
ment mir;ht encour/t<;e (jpjoiit; >n, Ch.arles ifib-d a psoeia:r.. ::.),:, ;:i v, j . :i h: d 
cktrcd, '' 'I'hai, wlicreas i^r itvei-al ill tncb, t!ie Ca '.:;;.; .ja:;! or a p.>r'.: : rr,'. 
" i> i;ivo!(-eJ. ; th(/ his Majellv h.^^ 11. own, I v (r.q'jenr nue"::.;^ v. I'w \\\ j .i- 
'' J le, hib love to the uIl- (d pariiaiv.eiits : YvZ tiie h;t;- aboie h.av;r^i U): ['. c y.r. 
*' lint, d;i\'en liim un\M!i:;,;iiy cot ot that c oile ; h: v,i 1 acro'.;:': :r : T'.' p- 
" tion lor anv one to prei^aibe to !iim any time i'r th.' e.t dn-; that a;!^m' Iv." 
'ITi:s \va^ ger.erally conllrucv! as a d( chir.rd.on, that, danin.-: '.li ^ \\\::\ r.j .n'.ore 
parli.micnti v.ere intLndcd to be lon^ir, 'Oed:. :\uk\ c\-cr\- n^..a;;.:j o: the K- j 
coniirniedj a lolpiLi'-n, lo dilagm >ible to tliC ger.e;\d;tv o't the ; .\ [ h'. 

'I"(;nn Af;r. ar.d pound. ige were eop.^'r.u.d [0 be ie\ led bv dive royal ;i,:''' th'. ' ' ' 
alone. 'J he tornxr arbiirarv inv-o|i:ioi,s w.ie llid exaeted. b \ ; ;i nev ::v u- 
litiuns v/ere hild on ;e\-i"ial kii-.d.^ (.1 meiclian.diee. 

'Inr. couvan-luarA- cdhcers reci i\'edi ord.ers fre'ir. t'e,- r(v.i;^ll t ' .;-.t.!' ;;.;e a. y 
h(>:'!e, voir;, lioule, or cc'llar i to lea; eh aev mm. d. or c 1: 11; a J :a . : . ah .0. . ..\ 
\. 1 a; w r i lu d :.,i;!i cm the j aym.eu (d coll on >. 

Is or. ':''[- to ex. rede th mil tia, ,n";d he. j^ th '^i in : . 

bv an ed.:r vA the c n:^ih v.- e, aliened in .1 ee:: ... ..e o : : ; .. ...; 

a nndU-r-ir.al'e;-, .:; p'oi:-.: d. I.>rth.at lerviee. 

C .: i o.rr io:s- weeo.Mi'v 1;^ o!e v,'idi ieen!.::;t", a ' ' , " , ' 

' ' ^ ' ' ' : o '^ ' die i ;. vuu.e, ]',.;. . .0 a., d. . : : . . e . . ; 

v.. .1 .1 .e > 
> nron \ ,! ,in\i U'l' c n"j eu' i.i , \ .. ' '. 

..(.:< 1. v,i.\ e :.: . ' . i . 

C e .^ 'Jh,i : L 



196 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. III. There was a law of Edward II. *, That whoever was poiTelTed of twenty 
^ pounds a-year in land, fliould be obhged, when fummoned, to appear and to re- 
ceive the order of knighthood. Twenty pounds, at that time, partly by tic 
change of denomination, partly by that in the value of money, were equivalent 
to 200 in the fixteenth and feventeenth century , and it Teemed jull, that the 
King fliould not infift firiclly on the ietter of the law, and oblige people of 
fo fmall revenue to accept of that expenfive honour. Edward VI. f, and Queen 
Elizabeth J, who had both of them made ufe of this expedient for raifing money, 
had fummoned only thofe pofleired of forty pounds a-year and upwards to receive 
knighthood, or compound for their negled: ; and Charles imitated their example, 
in granting the fame indulgence. Commiflloners were appointed for fixing the 
rates of compofition -, and inftrufbions were given to thcfe comm-iluoners, not to 
accept of a lefs Turn than would have been due by the perfon, upon a tax of three 
fubfidics and a half. Nothing proves more plainly, how ill difpofed the people 
were to the meafures of the crown, than to obferve that they loudly complained 
of an expedient founded on pofitive- ftatute, and warranted by fuch recent prece- 
dents. 1 he law was pretended to be obfolete ; tho' only one reign had inter- 
vened fince the laft execution of it. 

Scveriiie.-cf Barnard, leclurer of St. Sepulchres, London, had this exprelTion in his 
t;.eii..r-i:!am-pj.^y^j. bf^fyj-^ fcrmon ; Lord, open the eyes of the ^lee-as Majefty, that fbe may fee 
Jeftis Cby/f, zvhcm fje has pierced zvith her infidelity^ fuperftition, and idolatry. He 
was qucftioned in the high commifTion court ; but, upon his fubmiffion, difmified. 
Lcighton, who had wrote libels againft the King, the Q^ieen, the bifhops, and the 
whole adminiflration, was condemned by a very fevere, if not a cruel, fentence ; 
hut the execution of it was fufpended for fomc time, in expectation of his fub- 
rniiTion . All the feverities, indeed, of this reign, were exercifcd againft thofe, 
vvivo triumphed in their fufferings, who courted perfecution, and braved autho- 
r:t".' : Ai-d, upon that account, their puniiliment may be deemed the more jufl, 
\)ur x\\'.z Id's prudent. To liavc ncglcded them intircly, had it been confiftent 
wirii order and public fafcty, had been the wifcTi- meafurc, wluch could have bec-ii 
ciiibrac d , as perhaps, it had been the moft fevere punilbment, which could have 
Ixen inflided on thele zealots. 



h 



! ' . ', j 



Im order to gratify the clergy with a magnificent fabric, fubfcriptions we fel- 
on foot, for the repairing and rebuilding St. Paul's , and the King, by his coun- 
tenance and exaiuple, encouiaged this laudable undertaking. By order of the 

privy 

'^ S.iatuthm ,'f ?n:i:fi(u5. \ Rymec, torn. xv. p. 12;. % ^^' 493) S'^^- 

i Kcnnct's coBjpltai hiilory. 



CHARLES I. 



' 7 



privy cou:-ci!, Sr. (ji'cgory's chi:iv!i was ;c:T'()vr.,!, nr, y^ \r.iyc:\\n^cr.: t^ t'.'.c r:o'.^f: 
or cxc lui; iz; .\iw\ be lutit vi:^i!; ll.c c.\{x.]ia\. >>:])' ! .:''> .:n ! Iliiris !:'... '..ij 
were pi.l.cil I'cnvn ; .:xl cuin^^-i.!.;:; cj:i w.:s m. ..;!; t ; t'",- j in r.:--<). -,. ,\^ t', re w ,j 
n:) iinme.'i.ire p:\..l, e:: (;I aiT :nb!i;iL; a p.:i!:.in-).-;,:, I.:e;i .;. : i : j iv.v. r ;.i :h:- K;.,.; 
beeatr,e n cel]'.:'V , -tiid i;i no turir^.r a^r wou'.J. c'le p'-cj)': l:,.\-c e..:ei t-ii:.c.l a' v 
lcrii;.)!e wi:h ieja;\i lo tliciii. k nr.iil be rein.ii'l.cvi, th .l tiie j ur'i.i:: . w.;e cx 
trctr.flv a'eerl: to 0.\c railing this or;ia:v:en: lo t'.e La^,i:..l. h l i\\a;rcJ, .^. ti::/ 
}ret r.tii -!, c>: {lojMlh luiicrllition. 

.\n- oifice wa- cr cleJ for the Icaling of c;u\;s : A i.cw tax, v. liieh, of Ite!;. v.a^ 
lia'ele to r.o obic:;i:)n; but was or the molt clan2;.:ol;^, con'u'ucnce, wi.ei. co;i- 
fidcred as arbitrary and ^,le^^ll. 

MoNoivjr iF.s were revived; :\r. oporefTiVc nieth.o ! of IcN'ving taxes, beina; i.n- 
liniited a^ well as de(lrLi-'ii\'e of indulfiy. J'iie lail pai ii.inient of J.ii^^es, which 
abolillied nionopobies, had left a wry equitable exce;;'.iu'i in las'our of new i.u'en- 
tio'^s , and luid.-r pretext of thele, and of ereciiiii/ new cun-!p..ii:es a:\l cc^nura- 
tioPiS, was tins .[,ri,-vance now renewed. The manutaclure oi lo.'.p was s-jve;-: tj 
a C')!rpa: V, v.r.n j-aid a fum tor their patent 1 .e;'.:i-.er, ie.'r, .nui m.inv other een:- 
:r,cd.iLi-S, ewn dov.n to linnen rai^s, were like'vvi!e p'..t ur.der rellri^ih^ns. 

'Tis .^fnrnK'd. bv Clareiiduii, th,at U) little beneHt was r-.;j)ed i:<.y.\\ th.ele ;';\)- 
i'..~:-, that (f .'eo.>,()o pou:"ids Ie^ led from the peop! , leai'.e i -^ ^ e.-or,e ;;:: b.j 
Kin:'".-- coi"ier<. I ho' we oii'^ht not to lulpct tlie iioble Inlloria:-. or e x.-.p.p :-.::.t)r.s 
to t'le tbll"ad\-.\nta;:,' of Charles's nv.-alures ; thi'^ faji, it rnu'.i. be u '. r.ed, ;'.p:-e.:rj 
incrcdib'e. '1 he ]':mc aotiior adi,.s, tiiat t!ic Knit's intei:t;iKn v.\;s to te-uii I,:.-, 
fubjecfts ho.v unth.ir'ty a tliiip!; it V.MS to refulc rca;bnab!e li;p;\:e- to t!^e ^ro.'.-;!. 
An in'.rrudent j ro;eeL I to ofVeiul a whole iv.i.iiori, uixl.r tiie view or j ',:;::. ]-.n-.c ;;t , 
and to iione, bv aeis of violence, to br.ak t'le-r reir/.ctory !. i;;:^, v.\:\:-^[.i bcl y. 
I c-(Teired ot any lo^'ees i > prevent leii.oir.ce. 



lo:d bj -n Ind ercA d, .d'ter a re'^elhe^n, ! -,' a pate:,t fr,.,;. 



r.A'iivo: paili i:;:.nt ; a::d tin- cX(:\:;e of ; \\:r. 



H'nry \ I!!, ^^-h ^ 

like noiny (th;rs, w.i^ iovli.' ped [<> ili.it .;; fvrr.iry nx'i.ar.ii. I li.it e(.i:;;' o fn;vl 
k;n'.!; i;eted chlelly .;s a crmiiiial court; but, bJl 'c> ftcve nnowiti' wo-, introduced 
bv janics, C'luu'les thouizht pi-oper, h-nv.- tur;e a:te!- Wei.t .m r:h v.as nuule prtlo 
t'.i I'.r, t'l extend, its j owers, :.:a\ to [^ive it a l.ir!' civi! rMioie'oon, and that, in 
ionie rt IpeCts ddcretionary. 'Tis nt/t nnpro' al !e, duK the !\; p,'N i. tentu)n wa^ 
onlv to j ;e\-ent inc^nven; /n ies, whlcii aro.e io m the b iipoop e\'ery ca, !e, *r( ni 
th'- n-.O'll d/illant parts of the Itu-ip lorn, u'.'o \\\ d. rieib. r-'u'.ll : Hut t'-e . (u.:, 
r^uence, ni tlK' niean tiir.e, of" this nicaluie, \'.a^ tl.e pv.ttu.a all the noahcin co;.;;- 

tie; 



uj^ H i S T O R Y OF GREAT BRIT A I N. 

Chip. III. ties out of the proteflion of ordinary law, and the -fubje<5ling them to an ainho- 
'63?'- fij-y fomewhat arbitrary. Some irregular a6ls of that council were, this year, 
complained oi. 

i633. The court of ftar chamber extended very far its authority ; and it was matter 

of complaint, that it encroached upon the jurifdiftion of the other courts ; im- 
pofing heavy fines and inflicling fevere punifhment, beyond the ufual courfe oi' 
iufticr. Sir David Foulis was fined 5000 pounds, chiefly becaufe he had dif- 
fuaded a friend from compounding with the commifTioners of knighthood. 

pRYNN'E, a barrifter of Lincoln's-Inn, had v/rote an enormou'] quarto of a 
thoufand pages, which he called FliJlriG-Maftyx. Its profefTed pur. ofe was to de- 
cry ftage-plays, comedies, interludes, mufic, dancing-, but the ,thor likewife 
took occafion to declaim againft hunting, public feflivals, Chir . :-ias-keeping, 
bonefires, and May-poles. His zeal againft all thefe levities, he 3.^^, was firft 
moved, by obferving, that plays fold better than the chciceft ferrrio .0, and that 
they were frequently printed on finer paper than the Bible ilfelf. Leildes, that 
the players were often papifts, and defperately wicked ; the play-houlcs, he af- 
firms, are Satan's chapels, the play- haunters little better than incarnate devils, and 
fo many Heps in a dance, fo many paces to hell. The chief crime of Nero he 
I'eprcfents to have been, his frequenLirig and a6ling of plays; and thofe, who no- 
bly confpired his drath, were principally moved to it, as he affirms, by their in- 
dignation at that enormity. 'I'he rtil of his thoufand pages were of a like drain. 
lie had obtained a licence from Archbin-:op's Abbot's chaplain ; yet was he in- 
dicted in the ftar- chamber as a libeller. It was thought Ibmevv'hat hard, that 
general inveclivcs againft plays fhould be interpreted into fatyrcS againft the King 
an.d ()i;een, merely becaufe they frequented thefe amufements, and becaufe the 
Qi_ieen fcmecimcs acled a part in paftorals and interludes, which were reprefented 
at court. The author, it mwft he owned, had, in plainer terms, blamed the hier- 
arc'-iy, the innovations in religious worfi:iip, and tlie new fupcrrtitions, introduced 
by Laud , :.nu this probably, together with the obftinacy of his behaviour be- 
iore the liar- chamber, v/as t!iC realon whiy his fentence was fo fevere. He was 
condemned to be put irom \h.z bar ; to ftand on the pi'lury in two p.laces, Weft- 
n~ii lifter and C lie anfidc -, to iofc both his cars, one m e;ich place ; to pay 5000 
poi;'.;(l;, fine to the King , and to be impriloned during life. 

'I'll IS fame Prynne v/as a great heio among the puritans ; and it \wis chiefly with 
a view to no./;riiV tliat feet, that, ilio'ofan iioiiOLirable protelTi n, lie v^as condemn- 
ed by liie [lar-ehamber to fo ignominious a pup.inimciiC. 'I ht- ti;Oruiigli-paced 
puritans were ciiftinguiftiable by tlie fournefs an;l aufterity of their manners, and 

by 



CHARLES I. 199 

by tl'.'.ir rivcrfi.'ii to a!! plr.iPjre niui ri)r''Tv. To inn're t'r.fm ulth l\tt'ri,u- 
m .Mr v'.'.i- t' rtaiiily, [: ,:\) {ov rii.-ir own id\ir. aivi il\.u ur ;Iic pub];*:, a wiy l^u :\- 
bl'i i:,rc;U!''n in rlic ^. .r. t , b^;:, \vi;t'c!-.;T [ i ,'i;i;r^, !";-;, an J j^n! p,s, wrrc j :\); ;r 
cK' cciij.'.t- t(M" liKiC 1 'J- -Mc, in.iv vKiniit o; iu^iL: i^Jiii;.::. 

Ano nr. ! cxpcJ.! nr, uliicli tlic Kiii;.^ tri'.-ci, in orJ-T to i'.n,,! i :u^'r:^:In-.-is inro 
the iKUu:!.'.: li-jvwiP n, \s.is nut in cii nv.;rc '.'.... c :s:ul. II'- r. i.';v,c 1 ].:> !.;:;. -i's 
eJi~t I r ,u.o'.v:nj, Ip":!:- and rccrtfitions (jn S'.,;Ai.;v to I'vuii .i~ ^ '.i.Jr .\ ;.a'.:.ic 
W).-:hi:-i .lu! li^ w.J^tc i Ins prcKM.ini.itiun !< : tha; [-oT, (;; toh'- p^'.^.,.. ic.:.l 
b.-tn i.cy,v aii'Jr ^l;vn:.c Icivict^. 1 lu>U-, \'!u)\\;! jun lUii-ii .uiv .n:' I'v:, ic- 
h;l-J . b. lI; -liCc, and vvcic [unnHicJ by i^-'^j^^diun or ticjii ivatio!^ 'J'nc- dm". ; n c:: 
b^i:v.\cii t\^J L-.'ts \v, re 'rl'-rc liiiikiL-nby !.'r .U; :.:v::,^, i'n:c.!bi:y :l. \\;Jl;: 
tlicni in't'ir [iy t'iclc* iin.'cn::*>ns. 

So'.r enc i; rage n :(.!.: and pr()tc-::cn, v, '.i !, r'lc K:.,,: a:%; '!v; ' .n ;' :; i'.-^ to 
\va:^t>, c !uirv h-a!cs. bi': -a!v',a;;d (>:': -r l;c.r!ui ivlli* .d- (*: :a.- ^ i^nn.-.n : .c^pv-, 
V.MC tl.,' ob'i cCj oI nkc Ic.nul .1 cj l i,- ;^l,' :'a::^, 

Tin^ y ,;:, t na::-. m.u!;- a ;':ar..;y i: -o < ::'. :h\ -:tnd-d '-; id^ ; ;:-. in 
ord. r [cj la '' ; .. p. r: .nnent r i ;.';, a -.d : . : / ; . . !n> c;.:- a . , , 

Til- a,; :,:y aa 1 nrry o: b:n ha-a: -- :!v.d:a ...a (ai; a-, a-. v.:- aba- .id 
dura a ... re!; a to th Iva ;;. a;ul di iho -dai^ !::a:n d :; i. aod.;; an.! ,a^;i:d ) 
aabi .'d r. "^x) cav; ( oidd l^ a.a' ;d'yc;a;^l, haa.^ x: :;or a: ^aa.; aa,va-, i ..,: L. !' 
d: ; , ' a n^- u. re a[aa'':a; 'ma-. 

(.;a: v.;aci a;::Lm in :\aaa.l>^; ritdmlr-.- - d^a a. an-, vdad. {' .'- Kaa:t:a:''- 
aciad ;a :\i. p.an nn;.:, a. .'.sbd'im t! a oaanan,- I aaa inj j ';. , t.) j : .h ara ..a - 
rho;'d\ ;o:" o.a' i i.,_z; c a li.dats ot ; 1 r.'vn;ia. Tac a- i ;).ni,d., C wa...*.- :(';.;- 
lition .naUnilmultv. TiaMiraad:u! lur^ '!,' a ".', as d. far;- n aa'- <_-; -a ;t.av.;^- 
jrchvpd- d, \\ nn ionia raal>j:i, tiai:, nnaCr laniaai o: t'as ',r.'.a :: v.-aid bx a aa 
n.t; ) a. d aaaa-^j, dv-ai:. 'id/:' ' ' ' , avd, tdar ;,a. yr '-'-.itiv^' nnnd a 

bn-:! J a a- a :.a ; '-... r (ji la ..ri'd-: -adamd: m:::, 'a.al ,va, c: ,. 

:r.c: : d bn ! :; taa. v. ;: ::::a- r.f i ,,: ,..a.::na. . :.,;.v;l U) i- / 

crd ^. .-..'^- ' tnj l'.:a:non ;.: . , , a ;. 

' -a. ! \ :a av al'^r i\.:- K;n^/-, , . ' la dand, i.e ' ' < ! A'v!,!- a a 

Abb nd- daa:n : And, v. a;.'Ka ai ;.a.a : . .ai; ; r,- . da:: d an;, v a ii.^ ' !-.a a:a- , 
b. ' ' :a>, b;,' tai ,. a a.> n 1 i .a_am a 'a v, .a-, a- :: -.,]'.' a ' nn . i. a' - 

b-. . .,.aa,.a wa.i -ra.i:;: ;. a. a', aad :o . -^ra-aia ;., .... ^a.^can^an < ' 

da a . ' 

! aainad tac ;n;na; r'.c of la ad n b/t i.^> f . . j a. a , aia!, ai'ra' .1 

y . adand's da..rh, !ud a,:'rad c:.ja^ d :o , ;aa_ :... Kay; to :.. br t!...- 

p;a!..m b..... d^^h ira.^lniar, Jaxon v,ao a ^/.ii-n of {-.-^M n.Im.ny. n.-dd,: 



L;..o.!ir, 
! . ; . 



200 H I S T O R Y OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 

Cliap. III. ai-jQ humanity, and endued with a good underftandlng : Yet did this lad promo. 
'^' tion rive o-eneral uifconter.t. His birth and cliarafter were too ob feu re for a man 
ra fjd to one of the fiighefi: ofFices of the crown. And the clergy, it was thought, 
were already too much elat-.^d by loirner infrances of the King's attachment to 
them, and needed not this farther encouragement to ailume dominion over the 
laity. The puritans, hkewife, were much diflatiiiied with Juxon, notwithftand- 
ing all his eminent virtues j becaufe he was a lover of profane field-fports and 
hunting. 



5034. 



Sfhp-mon'ey was now introduced. The firft writs of this kind had been only 
directed to feaport-towns : But fhip-moncy was at this time levied on the whole 
kingdom ; and each county was rated at a particular fum, which was afterwards 
fpraoney. aflelTed upon individuals. The amount of th.e whole tax was very moderate, lit- 
tle exceeding 200,000 pounds -, it was Icvyed upon the people with juftice 
and equality , and this money was intirely expended upon the navy, to the great 
honour and advantage of the king 'iom : Yet all t'lefe circumftances could not re- 
concile the people to the inipoficion. It was intirely arbitrary : By the fame right, 
any other tax miglit be impofed : And men eileeme-: a powerful fieet, tho' very 
deilreable, both for the credit and fecurity of the kingdom, bur an unequal recom- 
pcnce for their libLrties, which were thus facrificed to the ob uini g it. 

ExGLAXD, it muft be ov*'ncd, was, in this reipecf, very unhappy in its prefent 
firuation, that tiie King had entertained a very different idea of the conuitution, 
irom that wlii.h began^ in general, to prevail among liis fubjefts. He did not 
regard the privileges of the people as fo facred and inviolable, that nothing but 
tlic moH: extreme necefiity couid j^^ftify an inlringeme,u of tb.em. He conlider- 
cd him'elf as the fupreme magiftrate, to v.'hofe care heaven, by Ifis birth-right, 
had committed his pecjple, whole duty it v/as to provide for their fecurity and 
h.api'in.fs, and who was vefbed with very anvide difcretionary powers for that ia- 
.lurary purpofe. If the obfervance of t!ie antier.t laws and cufloms v/as confjf- 
tenr with the prefent cor.vcnierice of t;overnment, he thought himfe'f obli.qe.i to 
."M:r.r;'y v;it!-i that rule; as i!ie (uf-ell, the iafen.-, 2A-)d what procured the nioft 
|'r')n";pt and wiiiing ubeci;en:e. Y>i:i when a chai^ge of circumilances, eljiecially 
:^ d;.r!V:;d trom the obii;in;Ky or the jx'o/ie, refj'.iired a new plan of adniiniura- 
lieii ; national privikgcs, he il:(jui;hr, hkik; yicid to llipreme powc r ; nor couid 
ar y order oi the fbite (^pj^olc a; y r:; lit to the will of th'; h)vere';5:n, d;refled to the 
;_:!,;d o; the p:,l lie. 'ihar t'lcle ijriiiei;:! ;:; o' gON'^rnnient were derived irom the 
i.:,i.orui tci.'ir ol ti:e V.\v:i.Ah law.;. \i wovhi !;e laHi to afrirm. Thj i'uftu :;t;no- 
;;u:-:re of che eoi.!l;:i,:;un, the in;-). ;.:;: !u..i:our e-l t!:e De^^pi \ and the variety 
<^ of 



C II A R L i: S I. 



201 



of events li'-^'i no Jo:.^^t, \n c./\\c:'Z .\ii.^, p:o.:'.:ccd !r.i;-y cxceptior^ a!\d c n- *^ 

tr.i iiCtiwHs. Ti^v-I ' ('''.'- r\'-^" i^'io a!')-.c in .y ri." (. l'.ib,.i]:(;'-i {;n b'jiii i: ir-', ;-!.:/ i:.e 
ap'v aiM!;C(. s v. ;; Il:;\ : . ' : l'. r^':' in KivtAir '>: ti . 'v;:-:^ r(j aj (.1' .;'/;; !c-r h s ti I- 
lowin^ lliJi ii-,.;/..:; s ai:.! ;''.;/ [ i.>.:.- li) rrv ii-i. 1 : ; !;) r:\-. .;-(... u:xl r t:.:^ rx- 
orMc.inr im''':' > -' . 'v 'o r'r, L-r :.'. ( :':Hj;iLi(;:ij no: oiiiy ( xci.l.ib!;-, but h:iiciubr.', 
ill rl'.c J'CO|'!l'. 

S)-.!:; \iV -, l.'il b;;':i cn.i.u-.!, ilLirii: ; t!:c r.-i.^n oi' I Icnry \'II. :^;;i:r,ll ticpcj-L;- 
l.iti n, (;; t!. (.i-nwrtiii;; .ir.ibic laiitU into p.illurc. liv a licc-c;: cr t!u' ibu- 
cii 'wubc!', >!: -Aiulioiu' Koj.rr \s\is iiii-.'il 40J ^ {.ouiiJ^ lur sn oiVcncc* c;! t.'.ib n;i- 
tui\.'. Ti.'-^ I'.vcic L-nU'iicc was iiitcnd-d ro Ltrrily otlv.rs i:.to compt^lcio.. , an.i 
abiAi- ^.i.'^jo pouncU were levied by that cX[:'jdicnr. 1 ,ik.- coii'poliiior.s, or hi 
c!'.:a. ' "t them, heavy lines, v/cre required lor ciiLroachnici.ts on tlie Kiii.i's U^v- 
rell , \\ nole bo':ndis by decreL-s, e!l(.cn^,ed arbitra-v, were exL.-nd.\l n-!i;c:i bc- 
yo!;d v.liat was i;lurd. Tlie bomuK or one lurrelr, tiiar oi Kci l-.in^i-.j.ni, ultc i:i- 
creaied troni fix ir.iies to fixty '. 'I'r.e lame hanKjiir, w'r.ch ma ,e [I:.- ]:eo; !e re- 
i'lde to th:,' k;ni; voluntary lupplics, dilpoled them, with nv-ch better realon, to 
mui'uuir aizaiiill thvle irregular methods ot taxation. 

]V1(;RI.L^ was fined 10, ceo pounds i^^'f i'e\"ilirfr, clrdlePL-ii:^!;, r.i-.vi itr;!::r.rr, in 
the court (-f \\ ..irehall. Sir George '1 heobald, one oi the Ki:"._:"s krwi-.:?. Tliis 
fine v>a:i tnoULdit exorbit.uit , but wliCdier it was c^ ':r!['Ound.e(.:, asw.isurual ni 
fn: ^ in-,pol'-d. by t!ie llar-( dianibcr, we are not infornied. 

Ai.nn^oN had. reported], th.it the Arehbiiliop of "^'ork !iad incurred t'v K ::.;;'-, 
di'p!eafurc, by afking a limited toleration to live c.tlioiics, and r.n ailov/nn' e to 
build f)nie churches tor the exercile of their religion. For this ibuuN/r a- .lind []/: 
ArciibiHin'p, he wa'^ cond.emn.'. d m the ilar c'lamber to be finedl 1 . ."^ p')un :-, to be 
ccnrimirted [<> prifon, to be bound to Ifis good beruivicjur duri: g lie, t(j Iv v.inp- 
];cd, and to be let on tiiC pill(,ry at WellnfmlUr, aixi in tliree other tov, :,s in l'.n:i,- 
l.-.r.d. KohMPi-S wlifj had. ''e;-n an accon-jpiite in the guilt, wa., co:ivlem:-.ed by a 
llr.t.r.cc iqually lev. re. Such events are r.ith.cr to be coiinderev' as r.iie ;uni de- 
tached inib.r.cts. c o!!(.ct' di by the Icwre Icruriny oi hilloriar.s, tlvip a^ prt;o;'- ot 
th'.' prevailing genius oi t'.ve Ki:;g\ adniiniiiranon. Andi it i-^ a',!i; ^crta n, f'-.at: 
lca:-;dal , gamll the gTat, t!io' l-;C.(jm prol CLited. .'.t p-rclent, li, huwe\er, in tlvj eve 
ot t'-.e h.w, a great crinie, and. r^.l^je^ts tiie of:end(.r to N'cry hea'. y }x."..f t;^'^. 



~ ] 



Cm Mu.rs hadt in^.itated the c\.'.m| !e of b'.li/.iberh and, Jan ^, and. h.ad. idue-l 
pr'iAamations forbldiding thee la; d;d g nt'.eir.en and the .'.'d'i'v to live "div :.i 
j ,or:(,'.('n, and orderinig them to rvtir.- to their e^ju.T.rv- Uat.-. 



r di'ijb. diit: ce to 



Vll. I. 



I) 



Sfir. fl'^i'l's !cn 



:W..i-, v> ; ;i. :v 1 I 



202 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. III. this edicl, many were indifted by the attorney-general, and were fined in the flar- 
^'^^^' chamber. This occalioned difcontents, and the fentences were complained of, as 
illeo-aL But if proclamations had authority, of which no body pretended to 
doubt', muft they not be put in execution ? In no inftance, I mufc confefs, does 
it more evidently appear, what confufed and uncertain ideas were, during that 
age, entertained concerning the Knglifa conilitution. 

Ray, having exported fuller's earth, contrary to the King's proclamation, 
was, befides the piilory, condemned in the ftar-chamber to a fine of 2000 pounds. 
Like lines were levied on I'erry, Em^an. and others, for difobeying a proclama- 
tion, which forbad the exportation of gold. In order to account for the fubfe- 
quent convuifions, even thefc incidents are not to be overlooked, as frivolous or 
contemptible. Such fe verities as thefe were afterwards magnified into the greateft 
enormities. 

There remains a proclamation of this year, prohibiting hackney coaches to 
fiand in the fcreet. \^'e are told, that there were not above twenty coaches of 
that kind in London. There are, at prefent, near a thoufand. 

16-5. The efil-cls of fhip-money began now to appear. A formidable fieet of fixty 

fail, tl^.e greatefi, which Emgland had ever known, was equipped under the Earl 
of Nonhumberiand, who had orders to attack tlie herring-buffes of the Dutch, 
v.hich hiked in v/hat were called the Britifh feas. The Dutch were content to 
]uy 30,000 pounds for a licence during this year. They openly denied, hov/ever, 
this claim of dominion in the feas, beyond the friths, bays, and fliores ; and ic 
may be queRioned whether the laws of nations Warrant any farther pretentions. 

This year the Fving fent a fquadron againft Sallee ; and with the afiiftance of 
tl^e Emperor ol Morocco, deftroyed that receptacle of pyrates, by whom the 
1:.; gliili comm.erce and even the Englifh coalls had been long infeited. This 
imall exploit was of confequence, and the utmoft that could be expeded from a 
prince, who had no army nor revenue , and who had not been able, witlioi't em- 
p'.oying tiic moil difficult and even dangerous expedients, to equip ri lleet, and 
tiiercby provide, in fome degree, for the reputation and fafety of his kingdoms, 

., _ BcRTON a divine, and Baflwick a phyfician, v/ere tried in the fiar-ch.amber 

for fcditiovis and fchifmatieal libels, and were condemned to the fiime punilliment 
v.l.'i^Vi had been inflicted on Erynne. Prynne himfelf was tried for a new offence ; 
.1 -.d, t'gth:r\vith another fii;e of 5000 pounds, was condemined to lofe what 
leniainvd of liis ears. Befides, tliat thefe writers had attacked, with great feve- 
nty, and even an intenipcrate zeal, the ceremonies, rites, and government of the 

ciiurch i 



C n A Pv L E S I. 



-C3 



churcli ; the very p.nlwc:-, v.!.:l1; l!;;;,- ::v:c in [o r]-.e rr/,;rr, were fo FlII ofrr;-":- ^~ '^' 
I" ic, :in 1 ot in\\-;:ivi's ..:::ill r!.c j r>!.il, -, ilhU ir; !..v. y; ; od! 1 !:' j::r\-.::!, i 

thy nv.nui lI'.ci!' rrcuiV.on, lmvc j_"t,cimi (lifc-T;- -, >. 

a!.-("; !:\-, V. iili u hich tiiry !i.;;crccl, iiuTc.i!cd il :;1 t.ii I.. ;;:,...,:: .:." ;....". 

The Icvciir',' (/'. liu- il.!i'-i'h hTibcr, whi'.'h was :^ n iwWy .'.' r:'. '. : > i . .' r".-..- - 
cli:] til;:ic:i, v, .;s, jLrii.ips, in itldi, lV;nicv. Iiat ; !.i.r,ca!^/ ; . :.: v/:,. !..^' r .'! /. :> 
Us a-:;-c:\r cnc-rnious, who enjoy, in in nin.o'l !.(:it',n!'-, r>,,u i;'^-j::y o: t:.f | :* . , 
uhne'n is lb r.cccCiarv in (^'erv n-.onarchy, con!ir.-:ci hv i; m1 iinn.ra'. .n^ \] .: .is 
thj!c hni::a::<M"is were no: regularly iix.d cinrin;^ i!:? ai;- (^f Ci:ir;c-, nf.ra:.^:':v 
tin:.- hc:orc i lo wa^ tiic trccdon") ot l] ecch iota!!)- unhnov,;-, an.! w i; <; ::...;/ 
d/eny- ci, as wcli aMxIi^ioiis toleration, i!-con"!;\itib'e \si::i a!l . ; ! :-;)\\ : :vr..:-.r. 



r.^c ncr nation, am.nn:.!; tlic niodicms, ii.-cl l- 



n ex.rn: !;: ( ; 



L'cnce : Aiul it Iccms uni-.-alonaiilc to iucii^ (^r c!:c n/.'a;'.'i" 'S c:r.!::"arcJ liji i. .>; 
one p'jri'vJ, l^y tlie nn.axinih v.iiich prewii' in anotiicr. 

Im .'.T('N" \:\ !;i> IvH^k, \-. h:crc fa- Coniphiip.c*! v\ inri'-'.\:t!or:s. r^','nt:.;nc.; .ii-o:'..: 
c{]:z-TS,':'- V .\L^':i.\\:\\\c:':v.(iUl.\y h.i i iv:c>A ajv^ ^intcd ; ra:a!:,.:d th,:t :::- :adv,a^ 
o;\a;Cv; to I:- tc!ehratC(,l v, iiliont anv lern^on-^. \'\\c int. n: ;;):;, a- i^' \ r.-[_n.l: n, : \ 
that !/.'Vc!'v wa% by tli i-x.ifP[)!c or a tail \\'.{\:ci:z !. rn^on-, :> !..; ;' c.s a'i [hr 
\\\\:n.e'."tiav's I'jc*i!re> in f ,onv!on. 'I'is oble: w.Me, tr.at t'; cn'.n\li o: K :v.-: a 1 
that oi bhi^'Kin !, hc::;.r, boLli ot thrni, lowr^^: I, i :n and .;ci\':v ny an : c;- , 
are n^tne inrnvin to prayi r tlian pre :< 'nn;'; ^ w ;nij t!ie j nr:: ;n:e.:: b:ni!;.'-, n*.;..) 
i\iu\^ that the Ltt^.r n^thod cd a'h'ivis, bcn,<:; dii'iae,, to a nnn:t r,n.- ainn n^ e 
preient a::d viiiblc, is moie iidlan^ii-;^; and a;n:n.un:;';, hav,' aiwa^^ r^nn'd..! ir .; 
thechi;! part u\ d:\n;';c lcr\'ict'. Sii>;h eiicnnidaiyL -, t\'/J ndnine, i: nniy nc" ! 
inipro'-cr to tranlnn; tvj pcd'mity ; that iIaIV, u ho a:.' c.n:jns c: :r..r:.-.j; t'v- 

ImiuiA' cj! tiic iiinnai n"n:.d, niav rcnnar'.-v, ho'-''' la;- i:-, L\'.r.n . , 

cid in (iidcrent an' ^. 

(;:: ;-.\!\ /?,A.r. had e:-e51,d tlu'n^Llvcs into a ioei.'y :\>-: [ .,,; ; ^ : ., ..-.- 
propriad' n^, and tra-n t -rriny t'u ni to t!;e c ;:urc!i ; and p:\'a: In n ( :n-- /' ,1 
bicn b_,y .cath> d to tin- iu.i' 'y ti.i- r!., ! pnrp(^'ef. I'nrKv.a-; 
'h;- (ni -; nle '.vldidi th;-.- rn ul:- o: t' r:;- Ui:n!'-, \';as 'o , ,a!dnM ! . : 

d I lab!/ c!nn-i h; ; n^ n, vd;o. -.'. n in/..: -n i::"; 'n'-- ^.tcd to i ; . . .... . 

I loy. d tinnn.c-iv':-' t :.d; ; Iv in ; :'.-,u Idiv: and in :. ; a n- ;!:.. n,- (: ; 
I , nid 'ucdc c are, by a n.cre.;, vdndi wa> p ;.l : i d:j ^ s 

V as ninch crnni i.nned (-1, to ..Ii.'hin th: idjic ty, .m ; n) n ' \ 
V, n, howcv; r, lliii o'Mdrvci', dnn, tlni.nnhnit r r i . ' ' .: 1 ^n.n 



1 . , ; \ 



.d'v .d:Au-d; and fn 



) u 



204 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. lU. fclves with reading prayers and homilies to the people, commonly received the 

^ ^^' reproachful appellation of di^mb dogs. 

The puritans, reftrained in England, fhipped themfelves off for America, and 
laid thtre the foundations of a government, which poffeifcd all the liberty, both 
civil and religious, of which they found themfelves deprived in their native 
country. But their enemies, unwilling that they fhould any where enjoy eafe 
and contentment, and dreading, perhaps, the dangerous confequences of fo dif- 
affeled a colony, prevailed with the King to iffue a proclamation, debarring 
thcfe devotees accefs even into thofe inhofpitable defarts. Eight fhips, lying in 
the Thames, and ready to fail, were flayed by order of council -, and in thefe 
vv^ere embarked Sir Arthur Flazelrig, John Hambden, and Oliver Cromwel *, who 
had refolved for ever to abandon their native country, and fly to the other extre- 
mity of the globe -, where they might enjoy lectures and difcourfes of any length 
or form which pleafed them. The King had afterwards full leizure to repent 
this exercife of his authority. 

The bifhop of Norwich, by rigorouHy infixing on uniformity, had baniflied 
many induilrious tradefmen from that city, and chaced them into Holland. The 
Dutch began to be more Intent on commerce than on orthodoxy ; and thought 
that uleiul arts and obedience to the laws formed a good citizen -, tho' attended 
with errors in fubjecis, where it is not allowable for human nature to expecl any po- 
fitive truth or certainty. 

Complaints about this time were made, that the petition of right was, in 
feme inftances, violated, and that, upon a commitment by the King and council, 
bail or releafement had been rcfufed to Jennings, Pargiter, and Danvers. 

Yv'iLLiAMS, bifhop of Lincoln, a man of great fpirit and learning, a very po- 
pular prelate, and who had been Lord keeper, was fined ic,ooo pounds, com- 
mitted to the Tower during the King's pleafure, and fufpended rrom his office. 
Tl::s fevere fentence was founded on very frivolous pretences, and was more af- 
cribid to Laud's vengeance, than to any guilt of the bifhop. Laud, however, 
had owed his firft promotion entirely to the good offices of that prelate with King 
James. But fo implacable was the haughty primate, that he raifed up a new pro- 
fecuiion againft Williams, on the ftrangcft pretence imaginable. In order to levy 
t!i(' f nc, fomc officers had been fent to fcize all the furniture and books of his 
i.pLCop.;l r;ilace of I-incoln , and in rummaging the houfe, they founJ in a cor- 
ner feme neglected letters, v/hich had been thrown by, as ufelefs. Thefe letters 
were wrote by one Ofbaldifione, a fchoolmafter, and were directed to Williams. 
Tvlcr.ticn was there m^de of a link great man -, and in another pafl^ige, the fame 

perfoii 

* i.I.eJicr'o lllilory of Nc'v f.iirl.'.i'.vl bock i. Durfunle. Eatc?. 



CHARLES I. 2C(J 

perlon was denoiriiri.ucd r. ^:::lc ui\'.:>:. Dy ii.fcrc-iiccs and conllruciions, thcfc 
e[Mthct^ were npp'icd lo ! /lud , .uul on no b'.::cr tuuiuiation was \Vi ji.imb tried 
anew, as h.ivln..'; received iLan.l.iIous Ictr^rs, a:;d not d lloveiin.-,'; that: {)rivate 
C{^rrc/[;ondiCncc. I- or th:-. t'iicr.ce, another ivr.v o\ ScC) pouiui^ was levied on 
hini bv a lu.tvrce o: tr.e liar-chamber: Ofna!d;;lor.e was l;l-:ewilc brought to 
trial, a:. 1 condj.T.ned to a fire ot r,,' x; jounds, .md to have b.;s ears nailed to tlic* 
pillLTV b'.Iure his own Ici-.ocd. 1 L laved bdndelf ly lb:;:it ; ar.d lett a note in hia 
ll'.;,'v, wl'.cre bi'j faki, " Ti.at \\c was gone beyond. Canterbury." 

i'liis;. ini(]uitous prolecunons oi Wiliian.s l.'-.'ni to be the motl violent mca- 
Uire, purli'.cd. by t;ie court tiiiring tiie tin.ic that the ule ot parliaments v.-a-> iul"- 
i\ ,'.cd.. V.'i'.bams was a man who biad b.en indebted lor ail his tortunc to ii..: 
tavf)i;r of Jan:es ; but h.iving quaiTcled, h.ll. witli Buckingham, tlicn with Laud, 
h: th.ew himlelr into t!ic country jMity-, and witiigriat tirmncfs an/, vigour op- 
I'cjledi all tbiC nvjalurcs of the king, A creature ot r!ie court to become its ob- 
llinate enemv, a bi'ho;) to countenance jniritans , tliclc circunillancc-^ e.Kcited in- 
c'.:gp. ;tiMi, and. engage. d the n^.inilleii in thcle levcre mcalures. Not to mention, 
whar lonie v/ritvrs rel.ite, t'.:at, bctiM'e tb.e leiuence was pronounced .igainll him, 
A\i.'.;,i ,!S v.eis offer. d a pardon upon his lubnfiiiion, wiucli he retulcvi to m.f.;e. 
'I'i.e court V. as apt to think, tliat fo retractory a Ipirit mull by any cxpednni be 
brv>k:n .iP.d lubdued, 

L: a former t:ial, wliicli Williams tinderwcr.t, (for thefe were nut the iii'il) 
tbcTv- was n"ie!-it;o:u-d, in Court, a ilor;.', which, as it dileovers the genius ot p.'.r- 
Lc,-, may b' wortli reclti;:g. Sir Joim Lambe, urging him to pru'ecu'e t'le 
-yjiiMr.s, tp.e p.relarc atk:d, what lort ot jv,-ople tliele lame purit.n-.s v/ere ? S:;- 
JoiHi repli', d, " i liar to :!:e world tb.ev leeiricd to be IlicIi .i-, v, -jii'd i".jt Iv.c.ir, 
" wliore, r.;)r be d.ruidv , I ut they would lye, cozen, ar.d. d.eceive : That they 
^' V. o.frd tre.Hiently h.ear two lerm.ons a-d^y, a';d repeat tlifm too, ar.d that fome- 
" t::res t: ev v.(,uld uil all d.iy lonp."' '1 h:>, char,.c:er nu.;l be conceixeii to be 
ia'vncal i but \et, it m iv be aiiov.ed, that tl.at Icel was more averle t' fuch 
irregularities as [5rocced. irom tiu- excels or paiety and j^i-eafure, te.an to tl.oie 
cnoi'mities, wh;rl\ are tiKMr.oll dcliruetive ot Iceiety. '1 f.e Icrnv r wei'e (.pj^n- 
fite to the Very genius and i[)irit ot ilicir r iip-,on ^ the latter wcf' oidv .i tisUw- 
!V-e!k<)n (>! i:> pvecepr.^ : And it xsas not iluk^uk lor a gk.>:r-y i nihul;.:!! to con- 
vince lunV.e'.f, tb.at a llriet oblerwince of the oi^.e v.ould .:t:t.,ne i* r ...ey \-:<,l.;Lic;i 
of tl-e other. 

In H .; % Lord treafurer Porthmd ha-d inndedi wlrh tlie \-intP/:rs, tiiat they il-.o..kl 
fnbm;: t>i .i t.,v ot .i \ ennv a-(;uarr, ep jn all the v. Ine v.a: Ji they letaded. Bp tlii^ 
propotal they utterlv reluf.d. In o:d..r to [ unilh tlKu:!, a decree k.dden!_. , y :.':. 



Ch.-.p. III. 

1 ; :-. 



$o6 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN, 

Ch'^p. ni, out enquiry or examination, pailcd in the ftar-ch amber, prohibiting them to fell 
^''^'^' or drefs viccuals in their hoiifes. Two years after, they were qiieftioned for 
breach of this decree j and in order to avoid punifbment, they agreed to lend 
the King fix thoiifand pounds. Being threatened, during the Ribfcquent years, 
with fines and profecutions, they at laft compounded the matter, and ilibmitted 
to pay half the duty, which was at firil demanded of them. It required little 
forefight to perceive, that the King's right of ilTuing proclamations m.ufl, if pro- 
fccuted, draw on a power of taxation. 

LiLBURNE was accufed before the ftar-chamber, of publifhing and difperfing 
feditious pamphlets. He was ordered to be examined ; but refufed to take the 
oath, ufual in that court, that he would anfwer interrogatories, by which he 
might be led to accufe himfelf. For this contempt, as it was interpreted, he was 
condemned to be whipped, pilloried, and imprifoned. While he was whipped at 
the cart, and flood on the pillory, he liarangued the populace, and declaimed vio- 
lently againft the tyranny ol biOiops, From his pockets alfo he fcattered pam- 
phlets, laid to be feditious , becaule, I fuppoie, they attacked the hierarchy. 
The flar-chamber, who were fitting at that very time, ordered him immediately 
to be gagged. He ceafL:d not however, tho' both gagged and pilloried, to flamp 
with his foot and geHiculate, in order to fiiow the people, that, if he had it in 
his power, he would iiiil harangue th.m. I'his behaviour gave frefii provoca- 
tion to the iTar-chamber -, and they condemned him to be impriibned in a dun- 
geon, and to be loaded witli irons. It was found very difiicuic to break the fipi- 
rits of men, who placed boch then' honour and their ccjulciencc in lulicring. 

The jealoufy or the church appeared in anotlier inftance leis tragical. Archy, 
the King's fool, who, by Ins ofiice, had tfiC privili'ge of jefting on liis mafcer, 
and the whole court, happened unluckily to try liis wit upon Laud, vvlio was 
too facred a perfon to be played wiih. News having arrived from Scotland of 
the firil commotions excited by the liturgy, Archy, leeing the primate pafs by, 
called to him, IVho^s fccl^ ncic, r.iy Lord ^ For this oltence, Archy was ordered, 
by k-ntence of the council, to h.ave his coat pulled over his head, and to be dif- 
niifild the King's lervice. 

H;;re is another in fiance of that rigorous fubiedllon, in v/hich all men were 
held by Laud. Some young g. r-tlcnicn of Ldncohj's-inn, heatc^d by their cut.;?, 
having drank confufion to ihe Arcidoiil-soo, were, at Ins iniligation, cl:ed bJore 
the llar-chnmber. Tiiey apidied to the ]^arl of Dorlct io; protLCcion. fJ^D:) 
hears iv:!;:c['s ngninfi yen? (aid Dorkt. One of ihc drazvers^ they replied. Where 
dldhcjlard^ ivbc-i you zvcrc faypcfcd to drink this health? fi.ibioined tiie Farh lie 
'i>jas at the door, they rQ])[\i::\^ going out cj the room. Tujh I cried he ; the dra-vjer 
.1 ''w*?; 



CHARLES I. 



-07 



(ifiil ir.J Jc.'^oic :..: s ^ : . " : : ;.y.i I - :. .k::.: ilr ..ijl ;:;.:'. 'J :.i') l.;;-: l.p; , id 
the y()i..n[]; gcniljiii n w'a'a .. p.t-v.- iiklIiou (.t (.ivir. . : A::.! LviiVj; ad\ilL\: by lh;l.t 
to bciKUc Willi [Mc.L hM:i,i,:rv an.i I'jbnilii". -n t' tir; [ririi.itc ^ c!:e n'.o.iciiy ol 
th';ir c.uTia^^c, ti.c i. . /MKiy it ti.c.r ap'>!.j.;/, \v;::i tl.c [:.;::-u;i.i :; (;i i!..i[ n^.Mc 
LorJ, \.W-\ ill ir. irwm a;iy ievcrjr }:jr-ii]i:r..r.: 'Ji.iii .1 rcpru'-t a::J. ac.r.ciiir::;), 
v,\i\\ \\\\\. \\ ih:y w.rc tliiiniiilJ. 

'V:\\^ vc.ir, jo'm I liirb.Ln c'jk rvcdiy acq::;rcJ, by bi l-,liit a;id cour.u", i.::!- T:',.l 
vtr/.! ;;'j;*:.i.i: i:\' tl;i'vA:L';!.<-'-:[ the; twUion, aiid ii.;> ii^crac-J iiixac i'c;i'nv:i \\\\\\ ;:.,;lj- 
r'i'iV lor lAC boid Ibmd, which \\c maj;c, in dc:c:-.'cot t!vj l.iv.s a..;l li .-'h.L-i ut 
b;-. c;):::':ry. Ad r the biyi!"!!; on oi !hi[)-n":onL\-, C 'harl;s, in or.br 10 0;:.c,L;r.::;^ 
all 00; i;riL:oP., h.;d ;ropol',d l\v: qiicdion to iW.: ;,.;d.cs , ' \\'!;.:!xt, m a l.:\c 
'' ol i..CLiiitv, for \.\\z I'cicncc 01 ti^e Iv n:;.!om, Iic n:Pv'^ i'^^' inh' /ic l\v.i r..x.;- 
' tin-;; aiKl V, hjb:::;- b ; was not lol jU(.i;j,et;! tl^c na ;b:y:'' i':.^-:.' ^.nardn.n:, 
of b.v; anh Idi.'i ty K| In vl, v. i:n jnxat (-(vnij/.nla... v , ' !.;.:: in a r.^.l- ( b n.\c; - 
*' lltv be nii^;'i: inip^ij linit ta\a:njn, an. I l:: :: h. v..n, b;.c Knh.e e. die ne;d]i:yd' 
Mr. i b nd^ dn bad b.^n raten at twen:y ibiinn:!,^ ior ..\\ Ld.ne, vdiidi he [-^[^ in 
tiieeoL; :. (: Ijne.vin^.. Mn : 'it: nr':.\i::nd; (.nn^; t^n^ v.^.a;e.l ./;.n..nwi ti^j 
]L.b[;^--, in;-\. n!,.i..n n:_; t!;e ^reat jM^'.er, an.i lo^/edn^s ri.n runs n.a:dnn^ o: the 
Cfwwn, n(;tAi: hbn.vnin; ti.,: liLti: pr^h eat (;: re iei Wuiw padiaii^^au ; be rcd>!\\d, 
radi:r ti. an tniiciy In'n.nt to I'j ihe:.-,.! an inipoii::' n, to tdu.d a !: ._;..! jn.dhen- 
tion, and .xnola hniileil to a!l t!;e inch !n i:i'>n ol b.e con;:. Tiie ca;e v.a.> ar- 



III. 



.1 V .... i 



n; taelve da;..-, in t'le ( nel;cv;.:,n--c!:an"!' 



bin.;!and ; an. 1 tiie nation re;iar.bJ, v, nil tne utn:i .1 .nnn.f.-, c\-ery > n 
ol tin;, ce;.:braL..i triab I'iie t \-, i;t \.-..:) eanly ior. ^en : Ib^t the |n ;n. 1, i, , ,.:. 1 
realdnin^-, aiid beiiaviunr ob ail tlu p.irties, en.; :_ ed in tii.::i.b, v,ereni;,.n 
can\Mib;d ani.1 cnqinre ; i:,to \ .mh i.otlin;^, e.ahh t.qn.h tne nn, ..nr ; .n^l V) ti:e o.ic 
bbe, (.>nn;'i the hat;e.l, v, hieii aLien.bd d.e otii.!'. 

1 i- wa-. in'n'b bv I bunbdnd couiAn!, ih a: tlu- \ !^a en ne.ehit'.- va^ in \..\a in- 
t:'n i.n\ .1 in:o .1 trhd o; iav^ once it v. ;s d;c nature (;i n. e^nitv to .h nhi .,h 
hnA-, a:u", !-, iin-', :.!bbh- \n;.;e!ne, to . i.iwi'r ad t'le v,,.i:.rr .n..; n:.-; e .n d .^ ; h 
t:e< ( h irnni.ni ti . ie:y. Net f. iy ri:.' 1 , inv e, m (..hsra t : : :r. !n:n . ;, cn- 
t nij^ul bofn t'ne oi\ii ..n y rnd.^ ol an.ni r..;! ration : .\h. < 
i :, and any mhivihi.al n:av coiilnd t...' pu'hn- 
..1 n ; .;^ btnation !. n.dib s hnn to t n''jM>'r. lb,: f j : ' a .n ;,;.... , 

\ > '..iaar.ii.ns to evrry coninunhtw .in or.'in .r\- .. > ',.;- 

. .t j inL.eii !.:, a h^'.eid^e, vdn^li i^ n:.:.iv -....:. 



2o8 HISTORY OF G Pv E A T B R I T A 1 N. 

Chap III. Where tlie peril is urgent and extreme, it will be palpable to every member of 
tlie fociety -, and tho' all antient rules of government are in that cafe abrogated, 
men will readily, of themfelvcs, fubmit to that irregular authority, which is 
exerted for their prefervacion. But what is there in common between fuch fup- 
poHtions, and the prelent condition of the nation ? England enjoys a profound 
peace with ail her neighbours : And what is more, all her neighbours are engaged 
in furious and bloody wars among themfelvcs,' and by their mutual enmities far- 
ther enfure her tranquillity. The very writs themfelvcs, which are iflued for the 
levying of fhip-money, contradict the fuppofition of neceffity, and pretend only, 
that the feas are infefted with pyrates ; a flight and temporary inconvenience, 
which may well wait a legal fupply from parliament. The writs likevvlfe allow 
feveral months for equipping the fliips ; which proves a very calm and delibe- 
rate fpecies of neceffity, and one that admits of delay much b-vond the forty 
days requifite for fummoning that aflembly. 'Tis ftrange too, that n " extrem.e 
neceffity, which is always apparent, and ufually comes to a fudden criiis, f-iOuld 
now have continued, without interruption, for near four years, and fliould have 
remained, during fo long a time, invifible to the whole kingdom. And as to the 
pretenfion, that the King is fole judge of the neceffity ; what is this, but to fub- 
je6l all the privileges of the nation to his arbitrary will and pleafure ? To expect 
that the public will be convinced by fuch reafoning, muft aggravate the general 
indignation ; by adding, to violence againft men's perfons and their property, fo 
cruel a mockery of their underftanding. 

In moft national debates, tho' the reafons may not be equally ballanced, yet are 
there commonly fome plaufible topics, which may be pleaded even in favour of 
the weaker fide ; fo complicated are all human affairs, and fo uncertain the views, 
which give rife to every public meafure: But it mufl be conftffed, that, in the prelent 
cafe, no legal topics of any weight can be thrown into the oppofite fcale. The 
impofiticn of ffiip-money, is apparently one of the moft dangerous invafions of 
national privileges, not only which Charles was ever g^-dlty of, but which the 
moft arbitrary princes in England, fince any liberty had been afcertained to the 
people, had ever ventured upon*. In vain were precedents of antient writs pro- 
duced: Thefe writs, when examined, were only found to require the fea-ports, 
fonutimes at their own charge, fometimes at the charge of the counties, to fend 
their ffiips for the defence of the nation. Even the prerogative, Vv'hich empow- 
ered the crown to iffue fuch writs, was abolifiied, and its excrcife almoft entirely 
difcontinued, from the time of Edward III. and all the authority, v/hich remained 

or 

^* It muil, however, be allowed, tliat Queen Eliz.abctli ordered the fca-ports to fit out fliips at their 
rv.-ii expciKC during the time of the Spaiiifli invafion. Monjons Kauai Trash. 



C II A R L K S 1. 



ZZi) 



Oi v.\;, a;iJr\v.ii\: ; cxcrci:.u, was to j rci^ iMi's into ilu pu' i:j icrvici-, to h: y :; \ 

lor i V :'ic! puhiiv: *. II > '.' u: ';: \v re th^-lc [ !\cc..li!;t-> ;;'.j::i ;i pjv.cr rA :,:'." ::\- 
Tiiy ()b:i;^'iig t!. ; _');:, .i: i:i.ii- o.vii ciKiry;-, to b^.iLl ::c'a' Uw >, to vi^Jlij.:. .:-(.! 
i ay c!-.-m, \'n i!.: ri.i\:c ; ii.u', t<j turni;^ nio:u-y to ii.c Ci.-v, ;. i,,; tii.u j ur; kc r 
\\ ;;a: ;.-^'.;ii:v c;:;i^t .i..Mi;iil t..i: l.ir:ii>,-r c\';'i.;i, :i (;! i!;: ^ '...:n, ( r ;u:ai: li. em 
J 'ovii/ ' ; .;:!. ; :y..:": ;l^s tii. ju.oi:/ i::o:;cy, !o !. vlc! ? i ...; : .x c; !:ecc!i;:y 
V. (; '' . t.;x.ti,.n .. ; V.-- il as [li.it (^: liii' :. .: v ; ;.;^! :: v...,-, 

i;. y 1 -J kii.:i,do;n ];-; a l;:i: v.\o:\ v.\,: w ' ' . ' > .\ 

....;ij,i.:v r'l.in a^ j i-rlcn:. .Ai^d it h. h ;i,..:-. , ,..>.i ;,,..:;, ^ 

;: -,., , \\\\:.i h.i5 hiccirc (H i'.aiional iacKyr \N liac ...:.. .;:\- i;, i::: r, 
Lm>. a: > ; tj;-, to t!ic Itariitcs, ::ii;: to liiat \ci y [ cntK';! (i n.; '.:, \..i\di\:\i\.- 



(jj:a;;,:i: 'v: i\- t;;.i' t.: riKi, for \\.\\<.\ 'wi ha,! ' > '.i--:\ y^^..[.\ \i:\\:\^.j. li:-- i..!.:-,- 



.!;,i->u.i.:: il.ci.o,- 



c were r>!i./iw ;r";i"i ;. ir 



.^vl..:i:j ie.,iir..; 



o: t!: iian:;. r, :^J\^lllc'l tlv.ir :.!i,i-:y v.\;s cx:-! J. 'i'n.lj naii, .,.u u..elt'' :;,; 
\v.:'(: ca:v.a.l':d in cwry C":i:;'a;.y ; ..:;.; tlv w.ow t!,e;.' v, l ; .' . x.;::v..l,', t:,c ::: :; 
f. :le;.:y t:;.l i: a_ ;car to nianv, i'mi: li'^Tty was tC'M'lv i. .Iwcr'e,'. a:.,i 
a:i i.:^i.i!l:al .:::d ar' itr.iry autlu'ii: txcr;;!-d (j\\ r t'lc I.i'-/ :o-i\ ^ :a'.';:"!i rr:::. - 
j\e^, t:. ",' I lit!, coiu'.:rii\! w:"!! i::-:" ] :'a ' 
tj t i\-:! '..L. !-[:( Ml ; i;:: i:!r';j'^ taxe- w . :. 1'; 
a:ri t'.c w h';!e i'';:'.:^ c;! t!ie na'i'.n, fa:.'::'.: 



; ere';:' ':::.\ -v.y :;,-. 
:t-i !n- a:'x:;-ar- :::k'':v 



'V ic) ir..iiiv .av. 



' 1 



:ir( ha:"' : bv tl- b!.). d ,> 



now biy TT'.:[Mre a: :!:- \l\Z oi t'.j iiv ;:> '). W 

tioii.,' !n-!iil'rv c.crc Ic! tl^c co:ii;n.r.:j aaJ (>y:'::i 

V i . I. ' i'- 



2IO HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chr.n III. vantage was temporary, and due alone, not to any encouragement given by tjie 
'^"' crown, but to the fpirit of the Englifli, the remains of their antient freedom. 
What tho'the perfonal charafter of the King, amidft all his mifguided councils, 
might merit indulgence, or even praife ? He was but one man ; and the privi- 
leges of the nation, the inheritance of millions, were too valuable to be facriliccd 
to his prejudices and miflmkes. Such, or more fevere, were the fcntiments pro- 
moted by a great party in the nation : No excule on the King's part, or allevia- 
tion, however reaionable, could be hearkened to or admitted : And to redrefs 
thefe grievances, a pariiamient was impatiently longed for ; or any othTcr incident, 
however calamitous, which might fccure the people againfl: thofe oppreiTions, 
which they felt, or the greater ills, which they apprehended, from the combined 
encroachments of church and ftate. 



CHAP. IV. 

DiJcojife72ts in Scothmd. hiti^odiiBion of the canons, and liturgy. ui 

tumidt at Edinburgh. 'The cc'jcnant. /I general affemhh. 

Epifcopacy ahoUfoed. IVar. A pacification. Re?2e'wal of the 

r^ar.-- Fourth Englifj parliament, DiJ^clution. Difconte?iis 

in E?tgla?id. Rout at Ncwkirn. Treaty at Rippon, Great 

council of the peers. 



\ '.. ; -. 



TH E grievances, under which the Engiifa laboured, when conndered iu 
themfelves, without regard to the coiilfiLUtion, fcarce deferve the name ^ 
nor were they cither burthenfome on the people's properties, or any way fnocking 
to the natural humanity of mankind. Even the taxation ct fhip-money, inde- 
pendent of the confcquences, was rather an adv^ntiige to tue pubiic-, by the ju- 
dicious ufe, v^hich the King made of the money, levied by that expedient. And 
tho' it was juftly apprehended, that fuch precedents., if patientiy fubrnitted to, 
v.'Ould end in a totr.l di.'.'fe of parliaments, and in the eftablifliment of arbitrary 
aiithority , Charles dreaded no o[)pofition from the people, who are not com*- 
monly much aiTectcd u'itli confcquences, and re/.uire fome firiking motive, to 
en(.\;v7e them into a refinance of eftabliHicd government. Aii ecc'efiaftical af- 
fiiirs were fettled by law and uninterrupted precedent ; and tlic church was be- 
come a confiderablc barrier to the power, both legal arid i-tgal, of the crown* 
!''cace too, induilry, commerce, opulence ; nay, even juitice and Icniry ct ad- 

fiviiidration. 



CHARLES I. 



Z 1 I 



m'liillration, notwr.hil.iiulini^ Hiir.c iVw cxcci):;oriS : .\il tiic:l* wzxz C'.V'V:- \ b, ^^ 
trie {).'0|'lei and cv, ry o:iic.- 'jlciru-,;_!; of jj; ;VLT;::n.Ti:, (.;: (.;)C ii'-Tcy, or r.i: .-r '. 
prcleii: cxcrcilc cjI lib,i:v aiid its piopcr rwiriry, I: l'..:":ii--l ; :c.bi\ !c, r!;f niur,:, 
t'.u: air'airs [r.i^^iu Iw.-i.'; l;.ivc contiiuicti (i:i i!.o i'.imc ;wi::r,; in r.ri.:I.:iiJ, lud :: 
ivj: Iv^cn lor the neighbourhood ot Sccthvui \ a rou:/, ry rv,'Tj t'.irb:;lL':it, aivi 
icl.i c! if: olid tj rub;n':i;i')n and ob-d;cn';j. Ii was \:.v:.\ il'. : . j t!ir cop.inv )iio:i<^ 
i;:-il arot;; ; and 'cis therctore time lur us to return ti.i'd.cr, a:u; to ijive :.\\ ..ccoun: 
o: t'.'.e fituation ot tiiat country- 

Vwo' the pacitic, and not unll^iiftd povcinn-.C!-: rf ] \'.v/\ an! t!": yi ..' 
ihuriry, whiehlic ha; acquired, h.id nuicli allavc d t .e L :.ds :.\v.' 'V:- :'..: 
i/.rn;!:-,s, and haJ ellabhihed law and order t!i:oi;y/>(y.c t'..- 1v!'.l;''.'j:iv, t", : 
biiicy were dill poiiciu-d ot the cidei power and indi.i ; LC(A\r t'.e yv.;;>'e. 'J' .c r 
i-ropiTty was very cxtenfive ; tlicir Ivrcitirv jur.ld;':: ijris ar.d t!iclr t.-ud.d ^ - 
r.iires incrca!"jd tlicir authori'-y \ and tin; r/.tachinciit ' : the y -nfiv to t!.e ir. _. d 
oi tandhes cilabiidied a kind ot v.dmuar" ler\ntude v.\- d : t':. ch. iit iins. []:,'.?. 
that lon'i^ abl;[';Cj liad n^Aicli loulened tlie Ivinp;',-. co:;::; :.'>;n v. idi t!;v :.u'.-n::.-, who 
;e!"idv.d chieriy a: th.en- cotintrv leat- ; I'l^v were, ni '..ner.d, a: tins tin^.e, ti'.o' 
\v<}\Vi id.ht ca:d- -^j v^ry much dili^ufled witii the cot. it. Ch.iih,, ircni tl:e ra- 
f.nal rietv or luyerdition or hiitvmp.!-, was extrcn.'.-ly a'.ta> .';.d to t/.c ;-clI'. :i- 
aides : And a^ it i^^ i^atural lor men to pjriuade tl:eniLlvj<, t!iat tii-dr ;'::e:i !. 



;s vd:t'n t'.;en' n'.el:na:ion ; ho li ul c'.labliiliLd it ;is a iix-vd i 



ni ( 



je, to iiiCi^'Je the yiAver ar.d, aur;;odity ot tlnit oixlv r. d !i { ; v-;a^'-, 



anioi'.y, i-.j cnr^:,v-, t;.c c.er.: 



t!: ;:..-,i'>'', ei^.d)!:lncd riL^ularity and thiu'din; 
cu!cat-:.i o^vdience anil lo;.a!tv am;>n ; the j-eopu- : .\v.^, :.> th .r i.ind ol nim '.\:. 1 
no i''j:arat.- audioiitv, ai^h no t'ejviuhnici.- but on tlie vr-.)} a \ i . r ': A p .wt-r, ii 
wonhl teem, miyju, with tlu' y.c.itrd laicty, be e:-.truib.l \\\ t!.''r li n.d^. M.nv,' 
ci d^c I r^hnc-, theretorc, he r.nlcd tc;tiicch'Li dp.d:n'< (. i';- ll ite : S- ', 
\, /->. ^ A; e ,bil]u)p o! br. .\ndrew';, wa ; ( i\ .n. tl t:h niciAw- : N:.; ci" tlu' ihdv''^- 
we/re I !;vv c K:nti ilors : Ih.e Infdop lA Kols aJyired to t;:" od"c.' (d tr;,:;.,;- r . 
Son.'ie ot" the i r-'Iairs poiTJli d phiec- in the rxJn,.tj\;er : ,\:,d. it v,.is ev^.i -.h; . . 
voured ro rc'.nve t'-e !:,ll iihliiution ot tlie co!b,"e (>l 'n."'/, ,n-, 1 to i':\w 
b'-wCvii tiiC ('';""'. an i hutv dn- \\hi()U' nidi'Miivc ;n:'!v " \ '.'.:' \ 



\s-,nin wrrc v-lu-nrn, oy \ \r (iinicn, ai'.^i '../,. a tne . in'n 
\\\'.\\ i.hnd)h: rno.cdy, d:b n .cd r!ie haunhtv nobilir'.-, \,!;\ d> 
iv) n;ucn n.ip.r.yr ii; rjiii-. a, id (.|u,.hty :o :nis new (jr''.';' o: n 
to \\\\}'. dnn,!elvcM iidciDr in [;o.vrr and nidtiinc. In' ; .' 
onn^n ; and heyot a jcaionlv, bli. th,- ijdnoph di:-, , . 

bad bi.cn pnhiucd by the nobAs, d;<;u!d a';:in be end 



nnv'.vi. 



212 HISTORY OF GREAT BRIT A I N. 

Ch'p. IV. a rnofl: ufeful and benencent hw, the Impropriations had already been ravidied 
" ' from the great nicn : Power had been given to afiign, to the inipovcriilied clergy, 
competent livings trom the tythes ot each pariih : And what remained, the pro- 
prietor of tlie land was im.powered to purchafe a: a low valuation. The King 
likewife, vvarranteu by antient law and nraiUce, had declared for a general re- 
fumption of all crown-lands, alienated by his predcceffors ; and tho' he took 
no ilep towards the execution or this prqjecl, the very pretenlion to fuch power 
had excited jtaioufy and diicc<ntent. 

Notwithstanding the tender regard, which Charles bore to the whole 
church, he had l.een able in Scotland, to acquire only tl^e aftedion of the fupe- 
rior rank among the clergy. The miniders, in general, equrJIed, if not exceed- 
ed the nobility, in their prejudices againft the court, againfl; the prelates, and 
againil epilcopal authority. Tho' the eilablifhment of tlie iderarchy n^dglic 
feem advantiiigeous to the inferior clergy, both as it ercded dignities, to which 
all of them miglit afpire, and as it beftowed a lullre on the whole body, and 
allured m.en of family into it ; thefe views had no influence on the Scotch eccle- 
fiadics. ill tlie preilnt dilpofition of meii's minds, there was another circum- 
fiance, which drew coniideration, and counter-ballanced power and riches, the 
ufual ioundations of ddlinction among men ; and that was, the fervour of piety, 
and the rhctoi ic, however barbarous, of religious lectures and dilcourfes. Check- 
ed by tlie prelates in the licence of preaching, the clergy regarded epifcopai ju- 
rifdiclion both as a tyranny and an ulurpation, and maintained a parity among 
ecciefiaftics to be a divine priv:iege, wdilch no human lav/ could alter or infringe. 
~vVhi!e i\:ch ideas pievailed, the moft moderate exercife of authoritv would have 
given difguft ; much m.orc, that extenfive power, which the King's indulgence 
encouraged tiie prelates to affume. The jurifdittion of preibyteries, lynods, and 
ether deniocraiical courts was, in a manner, aboliflied by ih.e biihops ; and the 
general aficmbiy itfelf liad not been fummoned for feveral years. A new oath 
wao :^;bitrariiy exacted of intrants, by which they l\vore to obierve tiie articles 
oF I^'erih, and lubrnit to the liturgy and canons. And in a word, tiiQ whole fyf- 
te:n of ciiurch gcAcnirnciit, during a courfe of thirty years, had been clianged by 
meae.s of the inno'eaLlons introduced by James and Charles. 

Tni: people, under tlie inducriCe of the nobility and clergy, coukl net f,d] to 
parrake of the dilcontents, which prevailed among thefe tw'o orders; andi where 
real f'/ounds of comj)laint were wanting, they greedily laid hokl oi n-naginary, 
Tiic ic,n^e horror againfl {)operv, ^eith which the )Fngli!h puritans were polI^::Ted5 
was obfervabie among the populace in Scotland j and anrong thefe, who were 
rncie uneuklvarcd and uncivilized, Icemcd ratiier to be inhumed into a higher 



c ir A R L i: s r. 



-i; 



v,(;ri];:ii, !.\! i.. : ' 



'..(4 v:"\\'.o~., v.]..'\ y:.v.\\'.-': v. :;!Mhj crv.': 



., 1 



t ) Ij.ci.v c: [.,'; I' 






- as ir;. J a - , 
.1 VA .!'. c !uiri: .' 1j i.i;,;- 
i'^; xvrUi; :. . 1 .::v, i:.;; iijiiiu! L;o:i, a :--;c :i- 
.. '.' vciV :'' c : :i\'K\v <>:- (:v.:.\\]:v:.^., :^.:y ' '.. ^- : 
ot Li.i: f ; i' i;v. ilcry <>t in:.p.i'y, v,-;i:c:i, tion-it'^j ^ ::.(-:. r.;;: -nv-:.: o. -^-K 
a:id :!.? I\;]v-; s ^''"'' to c^-;: .-rca-l t^iC i:a::(^i. 'i Ir- l^-v, iiu-.wV..:A ;,^, v. ; 
J..:r , !:.Ki in.ivi.-, wl-;-:- con!ki. iv\i as ;: c:\ira:ivLi tw tl.i^ ;_:.. ad tic,,/;. ; a;i : 
i.iri:;cr al'.;!' .ti.nv-, ./tca/r:- d In' CariL^. v, . I'c rcyix k ii^cJ .;^ a { !.aa dj. !..: . 
( : ';;> ii:i:j:;:i' ;.. 1 .1:0' t!.^ \s !; j:c c (;ur.e t : tia - rvi,;.i, i/;:./::^! h .d ;:. ; : ; 
vj, la n,)*li !-.ir^^ Ujnr, t:, an taii :j;:' .'a. ,..,.;> apyr^iiva^ua, wiv. ., . ,. 
ii.uaii indi.dry, was lopa^ .t d, and \\/J.\ lu n'.^;a!i ;::-.diaav, wa-. L;::.a:._.a 
ad ra:d-vS c^I 111. a. 

Am:/m- td. i.' ('a',";ro';^ C'.vn ''ai::: ^ aadrvr/rs oi' re!! d ^.^ .;:. .-/.... , 
(!\al and l .aaciaidiaal ;aa\di.; s v i t!:c a idan \v\-:'/ in; .j n!.d, an.: >'. .:':\ ,.::/ : 
lua, na: :o ac alu ^:vd:/i" :rcv Ir aii in\nid(.ni. 

7d;:: cda'didrn nr ot th - :a;;d -con:ndinnn bv J nrt.' , v. it :;oat aav aadua 



n 



d : -^ :r 



roaid!. ra',!e cncrcarlnn/nc en" t;n- lao.'.n:, and ar 



;d a:-'d:rarv oi ad conrrs bv a n^cidod ca-nad 



'.' (.an "a 



tra'.a A!! tlic lb ;~b :>j-.vards d:a l;td- ai-i^nr (l" cjaicc-naav innl 1 :d 
w-'d; coni" a: O: n.nai area:: : 'Iliaaridl sea IV;:!! wcv^ c indaiiLd m 



(' , 



V.w K'.:)s bad ol^nra.d a t'^tauaad rir:iica*'^n f ! wr: (.ad.-da, 



R r .,!i r! 



iiav'n: : na: an tiia.a iav;s Inal l^ls an^iana'v \.;'n [a- a 



1 .a 



kncjwn to da\-a pnnd L>;..'ra;n- :-) t!a' Idada' a:t v.::\ < i 
b. ar, aiai v-caa di r: a!:ry axt' ;a.-d b-; bn- ;n daairy a..d 
\ar;aaa. '1 ia* n:^.n -, bov. :'\'r^ vda(,!i ;o'!^ 
;- o- - ;'a'a ' 'a an.-at, \'.a ra ii " . 



d lan-L 



(4 lin- 



I 1 A . 1 n 
1 ,,.- I . 



racia (.v'^.. ' 



H 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Chap. IV. fome grounds for denying the authority of all their acls. Charles, fenfible, that 
^'"'^'^' an extorted confent, attended with fuch invidious circumflances, v/ould rather be 
prejudical to his meaiures, had intirely laid afide the ufe of aflemblies, and was 
refolved, in conjunction with the billiops, to govern the church by an authority, 
to which he thought hinifclf fully intitled, and which he believed abfolutely un- 
controuhible. 

The King's great aim was to compleat the work, fo happily begun by his fa- 
ther ; to eftablifli difcipline upon a regular fyfl:em of canons, to introduce a litur- 
gy into public worflTip, and to render the ecclefiaftical government of all his 
kingdoms intir(.;ly reguh^r;ind uniform. Some views of policy might move hini 
to this Lindertaking : But the chief motives were derived from miilaken princi- 
ples of zeal and conrci...nce. 
I :t;'oju' "tiou 1"he canons lor etlablifiiing ecclefiaflical jurif.iiflion v/erc promulgated in 
nvl ii:uav- " ^^'25'-> ''^^d were received by tlie nation, tho' without much appearing oppofi- 
tlon, yet with great inward apprehenfion and difcontent. Men felt difplcafure, 
at feeing the royal authority fo highly exalted by them, and rcj^refented as abfo- 
lute and uncontroulable. They faw thefc fpeculative principles reduced to [prac- 
tice, and a v.'hcle body of ecciefiaflical lav;s eftabiiked, witliout any previous 
coiVfent either of church or irate : They dreaded, that, by a parity of reafon, like 
arbitrary authority, from like pretences and principles, ^vouid be afTumed in civil 
matters: They remarked, that tlie delicate boundaries, which feparate church 
and riare, were already palTed, and many civil ordinances efcabiifricd by the ca- 
noi^iS, under pretext of ecclenailical inftitutions : And they were apt to deride 
thj ne<iligcnce, with wliich the!e important edicts had been compiled ; when tucy 
found, t:iat the r.ew liturgy or fervice-book v/a-; every where, unv!er fevere pe- 
nalties, cnjoyned by them, tho' it had not yet been compofed or p.ubliined. It 
was, however, loon expeded ; and in the reception of ir, as the jx^Oj le are al- 
ways moll aaceTied by wliat is external and expofed to the fenics, it was appre- 
her.ded, that the chief diinculty v.'ould confik 

l"ii:: liturgy, wliich the King, from his ow^n autliority, impofed on Scoiland, 
was copied iroin that of Mngknd : But leli a lervile iivdtatloa nug'it lliock the 
pride of his antlcnt ki:igdoni, a very few alteration--, in order to lave aj.-ipearan- 
cis weie made in it , and in tliat fliapc it was tranihiitted to the biTnops ar 
k din'-i.rgh. But the Scotch had univerially cnrertaipcd a notion, that, tho' 
]'.c\:?< and worldly glory liad km fiared out to tlieni wicn a qxiiiog hand, they 
co'ild b'.ail or fpiriuial treafures more abundant aiid m.ore geniiine, than were 
crijoyvd by any nation under heaven. k,V(,n th.ir louthern neighbours, they 
rljOiight, tho' kparated from Rome, ftill reiaiiicd a great tinclure of the primi- 
tive 



C II A R L r. 



i. 



lis 






live y 

ioir.c ids l!V)'.v ..'Kl cn.O' (:. ;.*.-. . ^lic.;' } :i"'..> 

ag.iir.ll. it, v\r:\ (,u;,ii...-' .\; .,: : .; ; iv/.j^'.i :i, , ; . , 

tivf, whi; :i \...^ i ..;.! t.^ ;t.;:u..i.v.. i.to >l. 1.1..^; .i.. : . .i' 

Ami as ia: \^r/ icv, ..;.c:..::')iv., ul.; .. c.;i!:.; ;.:;!: .: :!:. ;., ., ..;; ^ :.^>.:; i ; 
l'.,!^!!;:!, iicnuc! : ,< .i: ^ rv;.;v'!\ rcMicr il." i!i.ct.i:;c cl Lit.-;;..: pic .-..^ . ; v.... ci. 
cuniU.in.'j V. .1^ c.j^iv.iJi a:i UwJo;.b;c\! c.....; ;i!.U. .:i l\ lv^iv .: !i i^; .::, Wii!. ".!,:cii 

K.\s . TR- ;v. T v..!^, by proLla;r:U:w;!, :;;-;o;:U;-! fur :;.i' iirll rca-'i:. ; ( ; '.;: l'.:- 
vu;c i;i Ia!:!: JL;:x;h : l]i.[ in o:\!vr to ;.;<i.:v; iKorc !;.r: ly oi ;iicii"s c;:.;- ;;;:, ; ; ., ':.,' 
c-ji.::ci'. delayed t!vj riKittcr, ti.l ri.c z^.i it jiny-, a,.(.i f!:^y twn ; .u'c nwc . j, 
tivj Si;tv.lay l\.;oiv, oi their ii.t :;''.u:i to co;ii:i"ic:.:c the r.Ic ot t.'-.c- i.cw I.i:.r"v. 
As no (jor.hd arable jyir;r(:rr.s ot (.'...^j.-.teiit a; jr.irc.', liicy th-oi;i;hr, [;;.;:i:..v 
nii^hr la;c'!y j ro^Lcd in their j u;-^ o.c ; a::h ^.c < : dii;[:!y, in the uil;..i': a! Lhui\!i 
ot ^t. (i\lv-, tiiC hc..:i (>: l,hii,b ryl;. c'lT.iyeh ..\ !::s ;.::;\icc, h^^an the .v!\:v. ; 
l\)ii billuv- iii:..!-::, a:vh n^any oi l:.c \ ;i\'y ll/.::.c\. h. ;...: ; n .'-..t. B..: r.u We:.-: 
had tiic ch.;n opciicvl tlie l^'-oh, t!n:i a ]Vlli'.:.rv^ : he ha..!-.:! 1.:', :::. i[ oi 
t^ieni \.-v);r(ii, cia: j.in^': th\ jr h.i;;.; , ei..r.,i :^. and i.r\i,,^: o:.t, . .' ; /. ' ./ / 7:' ,' 
i;;;; ;. /; ; :" .' j::-:c I:.:.! rahed ;\iJi a tiin::dL, th it i: w.;^ i:n[oIihhe t-. jri,:;.d '. .:h 
thele;".ue, d'i;e biH;' ;i^ n-; .lin;:-^]; the ;:ih; 't, \:\ ovdvr to ay: u.ie '.:. \-:>-^i' 

[ ..e c(^, .:"..;> v.\ ; c i;.:.h:^,; : .\:u: :: \' .> wn.i 



hiee, liad a hwol thruw ii ..t !.:.i^ 

dnhc. i!ty, t!i.it the tna^ydia^v v.\ re ah.e, 

r.j 'xy.l t'ie r.;' bh', a;,d to llr.r ta: Cck's .:-a;:.h 'i.e:-'. 

Ilhi C(j:;t;:ii:ed Witaowt: StoiA:. \'. ere I.;; i . ;, ,.: :^;e Lh..;;r 

vdup tiie !cr\hee v.a.s Uivie.', t .e h;h: . _ oi;,. ..-.:;:e, v..:-; 

\y e;eay;d t!ie h.^A's (a t!; ' ;i;;-;;_ d ,^l. h . 

! '. ,1 K . ' '' ' 



;.e:;iei;:v. 



i.y 1 . to:.e, 
:.e r..:-;hL, h. v.r.-:r, 

:,,.h-d. a:.d :.a r. v. - 

^ r.id 



].<::.' d at '.. lb- exc-. wiv 

: h i ' : a V. Ml. 



I 

(.A, r ; .y;d.i ( 

the i 



,a : IVA n i:-i': .. . y 

i " i..a> v.. , ^ ^ ^ , 

he ^^:^^^, nndti-i: ^ . ' 

r , he ayy ahd a::.: i .ti^ . h 
ill hi. iai^Miwii-i (d l:Ti[.>.h:::; 
. :; "di.r .n taeir [:". j...hcei .' 



.:, t. ..: 

e \". ; ' h 1 



, V; t :ai ' !' 
atA .1 c>: 



"'i i 



2i6 . HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN, 

Cliap. IV. burc'h, in order to oppofe the introduction of fo liated a novelty. It was not 
'^i^o'-ca long before they broke out into the moft violent dilbrder. The bifliop of Gal- 
loway was attacked in the ftreets, and chaced into the chamber, where the privy 
council was fitting. The council itielf was befieged and violently attacked : 
The town-council met w^ith the fame fate : And nothing could have faved the 
lives of all of them, but their applicarion to fome popular lords, v>/ho pro- 
tected them, and diipcrled the multitude. In this fedition, the a6lors w'ere of 
fome better condition than in the tormer i tlio' no body of rank ieemed, as yetj 
to countenance them. 

All men, liowever, began to unite and to encourage each other, in oppofition 
to the religious innovations, ir.troduced into the kingdom. Petitions to the 
council were figned and prefented by perfons or the highelf quality : I'he women 
took party, and, as is ufual, v/ith great violeiice : The clergy, every where, 
loudly declaimed againft popery and the liturgy, which they reprcfented as the 
fame : The pulpits refounded with vehement invectives againft antichrifc : And 
the populace, who firfl: oppoled the fervice, was olten compared to Balaam's afs, an 
animal, in itfelf, ftupid and fenfelefs, but whofe mouth had been opened by the 
Lord, to the admiration of the whole world. In fhort, fanaticifm mingling with 
faftion, private intereft with the fpirit of liberty, fymptoms appeared, on all 
hands, of the moft dangerous infurredion and diforder. 

The prim;ate, a man of v/ifdom and moderation, who was all along averfe to 
the introduction of the liturgy, reprefented to the King the ftate of the nation : 
The Earl ot Traquaire, Lord treafurer, let out for London, in order to lay the 
matter m.ore iul!y before him : Every circum.ftance, whether the condition of Eng- 
land or of Scotland v/as conlidercd, fliould have engaged him to defift from io 
hazardous an attempt : Yet vv'as Charles inflexible. In his uhole conduct of this 
affair, there apr^cared no marks of the good fcnfe, vvih which he was undoubtedly 
endovv'ed : A lively inftance of that f]3ecies of char;i6ter, fo trcquicntly to be met 
iviih-, where tlierc are found parts and judgment in every dilcourfe and opinion ; 
in manv aeiion^, i;viiieretion and imprudence. Men's views of things are the 
reiult of their undcrilandii^g alone : Their condu(ft is regulated by tlteir under- 
fianding, their temi),;r, anci their pahions. 

'' To i(j vi^}lent a coii.Liiiation of a wliolc kingdom, Charles had nothing; to 

' '" ~" ' ""* (;ppc;!e ret a ;,roclam-il!(jn ; iii vdiici; he [xirdoncd ull p-ifi c^ienccs, and exhoitcd 

th- i,e(.i k to be more obedi.-nt !or the !i;ture, rnd to iubmit peaceably to tiie uie 

(,f tiK; liiu gy. 'i his procku.ation ',vas in!k;:jtly ci;eounte;-ed willi a public pro- 

I.ikii^;', p:e:vnled by i.l-!C E:',rl ol llun^e aiid Lord Lbyleley : And this was 

tliC 



C II A R L E S I. 



217 



t'lC fvA\ time, that m:n of quality i:;ul npiiearccl in any violcnc acl: of oppof::': -).i. ^ ' i' '' 

But this provca a crilis. 'i'!>c inlurn.-.Liun, whiuii lud Ix'cii .iJv.ir.c;;).], by a ^:r.i. '' '"*' 

dual aiid llow pr()fj,rcls I'^osv b!.'./,v\i out at or.c\-. No dwnJi-r, !;'jwcvlt, ,it:(j:\i- 

e;i ic. On ti:. ti;:;r!M:-v, a w w ( :\\c\ i:rn.cwii: !y :, h | !.;:.. Id: t.ib'c^ a^ 

ihcy WLTc cill'tl, wcvj iwrircd in 1-Ai:nburu;n. Onu Lo;nlib\l o! i:obi.;iy, ano- 

l!. T o: 5;'ntr\-, a iW.A o: niii.ill-': s, a towiili o: b'.;:-^Lli" j. 'I'iu t.;b'e (/: 

:::;, trv v..;^ (.'::\-'.Lljd i; to ma:iy luboi\iinatc tabic-, ac>:oi\i ;._.; i) tlun: Ciii". rcnr 

cj..n:;^s. In t!.:j handj ol tli. toi:r t.iblc-, th, v.;:.j!c .v^l'W'i: .'\ o: I'.-i ].'.:\^:.m 

V. ..., ; '.ac^-.i. Orders v.crc iiri.cJ. by tlr^ir, ar.J cv:_rv ^'^'r.jvc tbi'v.J, \..:'.. b.i-.' ..:- 

i : it I'j ^>,'ar::v. Ar.d anion'.'; tbic Ibil ac:^ oi il'.cu" i:uvcv:::\.c:\Z w..^ il.c r;o '.::- 

"...iW L\ tl'.e Co"/ LN'AN i". 

'l'i::5 Unions covcn.-r,t coiifilled fnil of a rcni:ncia:iv.'n oi p:;pcrv, foiar.Lrb, 1 i-.-.v . -nuu. 



-V J.nriCS m hii, youth, aiid ccjiv.po'vti 01 man.y k'ivcjLi'v c?, nct.d to n;- 



( ..-,. : }>, I _ ^ 

!b.n"ic the n^nui^ t^: men a!_!,.hnll their ich(j\v crcatnrc^, v.iuMn hca\'cn inio rn'o.n.d 
t'.iCPn to i.:-.-!;:li :\:\d tj iv)\'c. Thtno ;.K!owcd a bon..; ol unon., Ir,- \',h:j;i :[\z 
Ju'^lc:H)c:s !jb!:.;-'d thvnnvlw- to rel.il rJ ._v^^^'^ innovarioi^s -^'i- t) ocl.nJ ca !i 
(j;;i.r a .ah it ..h o: p.^f.tion \n Iiatc\'cr : And al! this, ioi the i;:eitLr l,!^. v ; ^ n. d, 
and. the i.;r,-.'.:cr hon.onr ap,d a.'.\'a::tag * o! tlieir kin^ ar.d d untrv. .\i! r.-n,'..-; 
and conhniwn'^, ad a,:,{'s and 1 x s, iloel-L.d to the ! .blenption o: thi; c\,\\!i.ii;: : 
Few, in til ir ind[:ni i.r, dil..[vn"ovLd ol it ; and Cu'.l lev., r da:ed (jp:n.:v to e-.-n- 
(I:-n:n it, dhie K n.;\ nnnilu r:. and cei;n!cih'is t!ie:n:el\n-s v.\re, ni_.ttn i':vni, 
k;/.-a bv t"ie ;, n.ral cc.nta^dj:'. .\nd w i:- bnt rcbJ - to ( i _>.!, and r:-.h: >. -, t^) 
th'ir t :;an-:y, :: u :< tlnn-^hi, v. ^nld v. d:di avv th^-n,' Iw^s lo :n lij nd.na:' . a. .A 
b.pi'.e- ^ . -' = 0. 

TiiC t.e.a i.eiot;^, tl.e crnel, tlie nnrc'enihn; I'in'ip, a - ; 

*; v:'i\^ of a "^ivni' h ni jnnition, v.a-^ I'/are !y, dn'inn- '']' n 

l-md in I :n- I ,n .V I. i;a;nr;' b u u!i r";: .:- c!. t, ; ndn d : .f/, ; , , v. ' 
'- leciijii.-. inh ;, ihv- iiiniiane C inn ie-, attended v. 

J';::, ixin;; h. ",an ro aj.pielien 1 die en ie'.ju n.;-. I ! ' ' 

1 la-V:n:(n,, .- e nihi )ner, v, n!i andn): n v to rr'-at v.-i th-- 11 

i:- ;i..;; d ; :n ( - e/ ;. ant t ) ' ) . Tc nonneed and reraded : And h- . , 

ins piart he had :na.i \';iy la"ida:t-ry coneadijn,, w'hw '.. 
' e in:;!:s and 'he iitnr y, tdl, in a nnr and l;i;d wav, th 
..ed lo to mi.dv_i t'l: ie:;h eonnnidion, tintt it he ;,.n n > 

:h'd cts. Sn.h e,einral c'l lar.n;. n> e;)M!d n. t ' i . 

, 1 ;". ro rliwic \\ ho canaed ;i) ntn.h !nnh. : t!.n:- , 

n ti,,mlllves ihconded !y ti.e eaai ot t! 
.'.-..A ieo!'lc wire ad'.ndded in a ra:nu!tn. ; .. ' .: i , ' 



2i8 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. IV. Charles poilcficd no regular forces in either of his kingdoms. And the difcon- 
* ^ ' tents in England, tho' fecret, were believed fo violent, that the King, it was 
thouehr, would find it very difiicult to employ in fuch a caufe the power of that 
nation. The more, therelbre, the popular leaders in Scotland confidered their 
fituation, the lefs apprehenfions did they entertain ct royal power, and the more 
rigoroufly did they infii-f on intire fatisfaflion. In anfwer to Hamilton's demand 
of renouncing the covenant, they plainly told him, that they would fooner re- 
nounce their baptifm : And the miniilers invited the commiffioner himjfeif to fub- 
fcribe it ; by informing him, " With what peace and comfort it had filled the 
" hearts of all God's people ; what refolutions and beginnings of reformation of 
'* manners were fenfibiy perceived in all parts of the nation, above any m.eafure 
" they had ever before found or could have expe^^ed , how great glory the 
" Lord had received thereby ; and what conlidcnce they had, that God would 
*' make Scotland a blefiTed kingdom." 

Hamilton returned to London : Made another fruiilcfs journey, with new 
conceiTions, to Edinburgh : Returned again to London -, and v/as immediately- 
fent back with ftill more fatisfadory conccffions. The King was now willing 
i7thofScp= intirely to abolifli the canons, the liturgy, and the high commiffion-court . He- 
was even refolved to limit extremely the power of the bifhops, and was content, 
if, on any terms, he could retain that order in the church of Scotland. And to 
enfure all thefe gracious ofil-rs, he gave Hamilton authority to fummon firfc an 
fifi^embly, then a parliament, where every national grievance might be redrefied 
and remedied. Thefe fuccefiive conceffions of the King, v^/hich yet came ftili 
fliort of the rifing demands of the malecontents, difcovered his own weaknefs, 
encouraged their infolence, and gave no fatisfaCfion. The offer, however, of an 
ifiembly and a parliament, in which they expected to be intirely mafters, was 
very willingly embraced by all the covenanters. 

Charuis, perceiving what advantage his enemies had reaped from their cove- 
nant, refolved to have a covenant on his fide ; and he ordered one to be drawn 
up for that pui-pofc. It confifted of the i^ime violent renunciation of popery 
above -mentioned i which, tho' the King did not approve of it, he thoiight it fafeft 
to adopt, in order to remove all the fufpicions, entertained againfl him. As the 
covenanters, in their bond oi mutual defence againft all oppofition, had been care- 
ful not to except the King , Charles had formed a bond, which was annexed to 
this renunciation, and whicli exprclll-d the fubfcribers duty and loyalty to his Ma- 
jcfty. ik.t th.e covenai,ters, perceiving, tliat this new covenant was only meant 
to weaken anil divide thcm^ received it with the utmull Icorn and detefiation. 

And 



C II A R L K b I. 



^9 



And without ciclay, tliey {^roccctlci to t'lJ rn-.Ali:!-..; the f.;t';:c afK-rr.b"-,-, f;o:':i ^ 
wh.ich k;c!i great ;itehic\-cir.c-[Ub were c.\j-,.,c\i. 

The gon;u5 (<t tii.it rLh-io:i, wliich prcvai!.-! in >.o:'.iivi, .1:1.1 v.;!;.!'., cv;-:-. ' 
(J.iy, was lccTc::y i'; .lining ^^round in iMrjl md, w.i, :.i:- :: .^^ l^c^u'.c:i^.\l^.''^ d.'jirrcn.e ' 
and lubmiiiion to ihc ccclcliitlics, niiTcly as ll;cii : O. i.ii'.r, by ;.(n.ri;h;ng m 
cvcrv iiuhNuki.il, tlic higlicll r.ij'tin-C' ar.d cxtaf: s oi i'.. virion, it C(.nl;Lratc-!, in 
a man;:.r, every nuiisidual, ar.d, in hi^ ov. n c}c^\ b.'ilovs^d .1 .ini-a.L-r -n hi.m. 
nvjcii k-[:iTior t ) what ioiT/.s anJ ccrcm;}ni:jus in.:i:'j:;. r.^ cnii.l ul.ne cori:.T. 
'1 he cler^^iv cl Scotland, t'e.o' luLh rumnlt v-ms cXv.iteJ; .ibnut rci:jio'.;^ v.'oril.ip 
and di!i ipiine, were both poor, and in laiad n.nr.ber- ; nor are th.y, ni [[.: 
ral, tt) be conruiertd, at leall in the beginn/np;, :-.i ti.e ringlea.'ers oi tli.: irdi- 
t:i_'n, Wiiich was railed on tlieir act 01::;:. On t!;e contrary, tb.e Ki;:y, -y^^rc- 
liending, from i'cvcra! inftance.s, which occinT.';b a iyirit u:' moderation i.i that 
o:\:er, reluived to dnnnnecr intirJv ia ti;e aliinibA', v, iiicn v.'as Innimoned, and 
ro iuirry en t!;-; ecc!eli.iilics by th- tame unio'-.s zea':, with v. liiel; th_y were tiicni- 
icives t;an portCv!, 

I: \:.\,'. b en i;(l;.i!, before tl'.e eil.ibhnimei.t of piebicy, for Cu.;* pnlbyterv 
to lend to t'e anlnibi'c, befnies two or tl^ree n'/miilLi'.-^, *.)ive bvv-Cjn'.ir.ilHonei' i 
an!, .:s a'i tlie bnrroug',s an 1 lunvernti.s lent bkeu lie cunim!lii,;ncr:, ti;: 1 .y- 
n^jnn.n-, in tinit ecc eb.nlna! CuinT, very ixai iy tc^nail.d t'n: ec^ijliadn- . N :;t 
o iv :i.^-) indiu.vion, w:.:' li Jan^es apprehenb\'e o! /ei! in [i.j la;ty. ini.l .;n.^n.n;\i, 
wa- ;.(y,v r. -.nx'cvi b;,' tl.c cov'en.interh : Th.v alio n:n\,dnccd .;n n;nj v.,:ion, v n "i 
Lrv.'d i-b. l.irdiJi- to r.din.' t'le clergv to lu'-'iecti.'n. Bv an ednt ot t e table-, 
V, Iiolj ai;li'.nr;:y v.;is lu{;renie, an elder, fron.i e.ich {Mridi. \\'.'.- u.\iere-l to a:- 
i- 1: ; tl:e ])reli)Vterv, and to u;'.e liis vete in tiie choice b(;:!i o: ri; con'imnben-rs 
and nnnilleis who Ihoibd be di[):.ted to tlie aliemblv. As ;: i :.:>t inn..I i- r ih: 
ndnille;-, \'.i;oa:e | ^c in tbe lid <;; c.n ^bdates, to c 1 :nn a W)::, tl:e u .;o.e ; bc- 
t' 'n>, b;- tb .' nnan', kd nito tl. I^a ds ui tb: l.iirv : 1 lie niod kn-.o..i u! all 
rar.ks v.; re cliolen ; .Anltlie iriore to o\-er;iv,e the eier.y., a n.w ..e. ;ce was 
lalli n i:[^: n, <>! (lii.bng, O; c\'er\- conimibbnivr, fojr or ir/e biy-.ilkko- -, \'.i;o, 
tbio' bucy Cwi-bi li i\e n > \ ute, \ it iv. i;bt i;:ter[!eie v. ith tbe/c co-n':'. 1 .nnl .'.utb..'- 
i-itv in t!:,- alknb iy. 

Tiii: ahend:ilv n.ct :.t ( il .Ig' .w : '\r.\ belld^ s an innnlte conconrf (>i people,;!.; 
z\\ the iiobbiiy anb. y ii[;y ol any tannly (-t mterel! w.vc \ r. ( :n, eib.er as nie:!!- 
l^'-: .>, alndbrs, or Ije^tatmN; aid it v/a^ a: ;- :: e' ;, t' e b.tion-, :,b:cn I'v 

the c(n.'ei.anters, couI^IIkic niett \'. ;:!i no iinr- > . .:. A n:nn d. t' r- 

iin.'KUiwn iian bci r. entcicd ipito, u\ i.ttrlv .. . y i a:-.b; .i - .1 p;r- 

parativc to it, ifitrc wa:^ laid b;wiv,ie the \ r.jkyti : v o! JLC.m.nrgb., anb. ijlennniy 

1" f a' ' ' read 



220 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. IV. read in all the churches of the kingdom, an accufatlon againft the bifhops, as 
^^'^^' guilty, ail of then>, of herefy, fimony, bribery, perjury, cheating, inceft, adul-- 
tery, fornication, corrimon fwearing, drunkennefs, gaming, breach of the fab- 
bath, and every other crime, which had occurred to the accufers. The bifliop^ 
lent a pronell:, declining tlic ajti^.oricy of the afiembly ; the commifTioner too 
protefted againlf that courts as ij legally conflituted and elected -, and, in his Ma- 
t'fly's name, diflblved it. 'I his m.eafure was forefeen, and little regarded. 1 he 
court flili continued to fit, and to fnifli their bufinefs. The whole acts ofanembly, 
/iiice the accefiion of James to the crown ot England, were, upon pretty reafon- 
able grounds, declared null and invalid. The ads of parliament, which afFedted 
ecclefiaftical affairs, were fuppofed, on that very account, to have no manner of 
Epifconacy authority. And thus epifcopacy, the high-comimiflion, the articles of Perth, 
abohihcd. jj-,^ canons ^'^-d the liturgy, were abol fhed and declared unlawful : And the 
whole fabric, which James and Charles, in a long courfe of years, had been 
rearing with fo much care and policy, fell at once to the ground. I'he cove- 
nant likewife was ordered to be figned by every one, under pain of excommu- 
nication. 

The independence of the eccleffaflical upon the civil power was the old pref-- 
byterian principle, which had been zealoufly adopted at the reformation, ani 
which, tho' James and Charles had obliged the church publicly to difclaim it, 
iiad fecretly been adhered to by all ranks of people. It was commonly afl<.ed; 
whether Chrift or the King was fupcrior : And as the anfwer feem.ed obvious,, 
it was inferred, that the alTeir.bly, being Chrift's council, was fuperior, hi 
all fpiritual matters, to the parliament, which was only the King's. But as 
the covenanters were fenfible, th^t this confequence, tho' it feemed to them 
irrefragable, would not be afiented to by the Xing ; it became requifite to main- 
'-'")9- tain their religious tenets by military force, and not to trufc intirciy to fuper- 
natural aiTiftance, of which, however, tliey held themfelves well aiTured. They 
c-aft their eyes on all fides, abroad and a: r.ome, whcnce-cvcr they could cxpedc 
iiny aid or fu pport. 

After France and Ilolland had entered into a league againft Spain^ and 
framed a treaty of partition, by which they were to co.'-iquer and to divide be- 
tv.'cen tiiem the low-country-provinces, bj~,gljnd was invited to prefervc a neu- 
traliry between the contending parries, wfiile the French and Du^ch Hiould at- 
tack the mar:tin-.c towns of I'landers. But the King replied to d'Fdtrades, the 
Frencfj ambalfador, who opened the propofai, that he had a fquadron ready,, 
and V'/ould crofs ti)c feas, if neceffary, with an army of 15,000 men, in or- 
iler to prevent tliefc projecled conqucfls. This anfv/er, which proves, that 

Charles 3 



CHARLES I. 



221 



Charles t!iO' he cxprL-fT'd hi? mind witli an i;r,priu'.rnt c.in(.!or, hi.v.i r.t hll, 
ac(|i;irtci a ju'l i^ic.i ol n.icioii.il iiitcrcll, irric.Ucci cxrrc-n'.c'y Ciuiinal Ri.i^.ciicu ; 
a;id ia rcvc-n:je, tli.it policic an.i fiitcrpr /. i;;.-; iniiiillcr c.irciuiiy Io;r.cii:c-ci tl;e: 
lirll conin-;(;[i'/.s i:i Scotland, nn i Iccictly lui'ilicd ti'.c c-ovci^uinrcr^ wnh 
rncinc'v and ar;r;>, ia or. cr to ka;iiy iiv.-::i in tiijir (ipi^ofiiion ai^;a:nrt tlv.ir 
iUN'cr, i'Mi. 

I'll- :!' ; cliiif r^fource oi t''.c Scirch nialccon!"- nr?, \va< in t!i: n'.Klve?, and in 
Tlif-r o'.vn vii^;our and ahi!i[\'. No rt-j^uiar c11;;;)!iI]k d. eominonwcair'i ccu.d tak-,: 
iiilLr ni.alLircs, (^r (.x.cu'c t'.un v.ith [/^rearer [:r(;n'.j)tiu.di(.', tlian cul tiii-i umuil- 
T'.iOJS conibmario::, i.'.ilanK'd \sitii biL,-.i.ry io: r('!i;;ious tiiilrs, .'.nil !. .1110:1 \s;'!i- 
( i:[ a rca'oiiablj objccL. i i:c \siu;!c k!i:!;doni swh, in a nianncr, -;i.!a[:r.- ; , :.d 
t'lc m.-n or prcatc'l ability, io./A ac juir- d. t!i:! aiCi'iuiant, which ti.c;r t.r .'-.-ni- 
tcr.iL (-PiablAi tl-.Lni to i.i..i:,::;;n. 'i b.c b'.arl ot ,\r..:v:c, ti^.o' h-: icn^; fcerii^-ci to 
t in[)or;.:o, h;'.d., ;i: ].;il, cir,b;.;vCvl t'lC cu\'cnant i anil bic b^an^c ti'.c ciii^i ic.d.cr 
Oi th.it pii'ty : A m.;n cqiiaiiy \uy[ !j and inilcxiiiic, c.i.. :;-);.;- and dcicrndncd, 
ani.! cntnviy (;ca.i.;cd to ni.h.c a li^L.ic duiing a lacLici:^ and ti.rb. cent j\ riud. 
'I'iic biaris or' l\t.d.,s. Ca ; b-, Au)ntn)!c, l.otlua;!, tiic 1 .o:d> .Li:;d.,.y, 1 .ci;don. 
Wild", il.tltr.crir.o, d;ihn^uu!icd tiicniLiv .s ni t;:.;! par:v. Ma.-.v .sc.,:i.:i cliic. rb 
\...<l a..j' iwd i\[ :.tat;on in die (icrnian war^ par::ci;'.i: iv under (jull.ivus ; and 
tliclc \s\.c in\';tcd over to ahiil tlicir cui.ntry iii ;:cr prcibi.t n^Cifiity. The coni- 
iiund V. .is c-ntiiidcd to i -ul\', a loidier (i cxrcri^ncc and a hi::v. buret-- \".erc 
rc^ub.rly iniillcd ai;d cilcijdined. .'irn^s v, ^r. CL'n:ndi]icned and iniyorted \vu:u 
lo:ei;;n comitiics. A tew cadj^s, wlindi bAin.icd to tiic Kini;, be;-; nn'n\,\nd d 
ot \'idtuals, aninuin;tu)n, and [^arrnic^.s, wcr;j Iwon l.i/e.i. A:,di i\:: wiiecc 
coLiiitry, cxce;;t a Inia!! i)art, where ti.e ^darcnels (.; 1 b.n;ticv b.hi a. ' 






innt.cy l.nl a ..:: ret! to 
;i.e IxHii';, beinL; in the covcnan.tcrs bi,ind,,s w..s, in. a \e:y !::"d.c t.:r,e, \ v.: nito a 
tob'.d.^'e pofllU'c ot deteiu. c. 

ddi.. lortii'iCiticns ot Iv idi were begnn a;ul cardcn e^n u itii jrrc..: ra|i..iry. 
Ibelible.s tnc in.n:i(;r lort, and thole uiio lal^. ;u:ed n r [m\ , ineitbnijle nnnd.^-. r- c: 
\-o,i.n'.C{-rs c\'en nobieiiien and penticar.en, j i;t then' n^n..! to ti".e 'o:h, ..'.d 
t'eeirco ti^c intul ab|eCL employ, rent to 1 c Lii.nnldd '~v t!ic \.n'.. :i:y cj: tin ^ :.:..;. 
VV'( men too, cA ranlv m\A ccnJ.ition, ier:^ tbnn', ti.e deiivac, ei; tnen- nc, .. n.c 
c.iH (nn.'^i ot their clnnnntv;', w^rc iirternnind'.d \\ it.i tiic iuw.h r..bid, , ;,. , ^ ,:- 
I n d, < n tl^c ir t]\onldcrs r'l: inblnlli, lecpinitc nn' coini; icidn:; i' -... 

\\ :. nnnl nf.t omit anotl'.er a .X'.harv oi die co\'e:nnr. . , -n ' 



b:e or.e , a prop!iet'/ls, v. ii-) \'.\;,s niLkli loi'owcvi .nni .; ' 
p'.r. 1 ler name wab iMicl'cliun, a wonnni rn'.l oi ^^ 



mn 



lie , . .1; 



i> ;iC'.r-. '5 i\,'!..iu .::. 



222 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. IV. partly religious -, and inflamed wiih a zealous concern for the ecclefiaftlcal difci- 
^'^^^' pline of the preibyterians. Ghe fpoke only at certain times, and had often inter- 
ruptions of days and weeks : But when ilie begin to renew her ccftafies, warn- 
ing of the happy event was conveyed over the whole country, thoufands crowd- 
ed about her houfe, and every v^oid, which rn(i uttered, was received with vene- 
ration, as the moft facred oracles. The covenant v/as her perpetual theme. 
The true, genyine covenant, flie faid, was ratified in iieaven : The King's cove- 
nant v/as an invention of Satan : When fne fpoke of Chrift, flie commonly 
called him by the name of the covenanting Jefus. Rollo, a popular preacher, 
and zealous covenanter, v^'as her great favourite ; and payed her, on his part, no 
lefs veneration. Being defired by the fpedators to pray with her, and fpeak to 
her, he anfwered ; ** That he durft not, and that it wovikl be ill manners in him 
*' to fpeak, while his mafler Chrifb was fpeaking in her *." 

Charles had agreed to reduce epifcopal authority fo much, that it would no 
longer have been of any fervlce to fupport the crown , and this facri5ce of hi.": 
own interefl he was willing to make, in order to obtain^public peace and tran- 
quillity. But he could not confent entirely to aboiifh an order, which he cfteem- 
ed as elTentlal to the beincc of a chriftian church, as liis fcotch fubiefts thought 
it incompatible with that facred inilitntion. I'he narrovvnefs ot mind, if we 
would be impartial, we muft either blime or excufe equally on both fides , and 
thereby anticipate, by a little refledion, that judgmenc, v/hich time, by intro- 
ducing new fubjefts of controvcrfy, v;ill undoubtedly render quite familiar to 
pofccrity. 

So great was Charles's averfion to violent and fangulnary m.eafure?, and fo 
flrong his affe(5lion to his native kingdom, that, it is probable, th.e conteft in 
his breaft would be nearly equal between thcfc laudable paiTions, and his attach- 
ment to the hierarchy. The latter afieftion, liowever, prevailed for the time, 
and made him haftcn thofe military preparations, which he had projcded for 
fubduing the refractory fpirit of the Scotch nailon. By regular oeconomy, he 
had not only payed all tiic debts con tracfed during the Spanifli and French wars i 
but had amailed a fum of 200,000 pounds, which he rcfervcd for any fudden 
exigency. The Qiiecn had great intcreft with the catholics, both from the lyrn- 
pathy of religion, and from the f.ivou:-3 and indulgences, which flie had been alile 
to procuie them. Siie now employed her credit, and perfuaded them, that it was 
reafonable to give large contributions as a mark of their duty to the King, 
during this urgvTit neccfiity. A ccniiderable fupply v.'as gained by this means-, to 
the great Icandal of the puritans, who were mightily offended at feeing the King 

,on 
* King'o dccLuaticti at large j Burnet's Memoirs of HijmiUon. 



C II A R ]. L S 



:^n (ucli f^ood t^;-.i:s w'.i'a tlic ] i: iii^ .: .: :r. i::c ', v.. a: ct!.^rs H.oi.ld give v,!;.;: 

C-;i ^Ri,:'!'s li,v: V..1'- :':-.: \.'- c- a:.. I v.:-:;!li:;- :. 1 I ., i:^; j-;;:.- l.;:^,!- 

f'orc s o;^ !^o :;\1, i c c;u/i;:l . .1 :t f.) ci; M i:\ ;.:;;- ,: 1 la ::::!' ..:, v/..) '\ .d urj.v- to 
i.iil to zhc liii'i ol I'\):t;i, am! o c.i.'.j a (.i;'.'fi .;>./. ..i t... lo:..: < t t'.c iiui'vc^:;- 
t^'ius. All a!-:ny v. as k-\-ici ('f i:c.:r 2 -, ^ ; t'j ,:, an.l al^jv- _; .: h'.;;^, a:.' 
w.is pur 'ui ' r tlic ca;nmaii;i oi 'Jk- l\a;i oi .\.\.. >'.c!, ,; N' ''i:.r.i:i (,t ::rcat u- 
n!i!\, b;.: iclc'^r.itvw ne;t!icr !i'r niilitaiy nor }'!. ::v.i! a' i'lti s. i :. 1 ..;:i.; 
I'li^x, a n:.:u ol' ilr.:t lioi^our, ai-;.! cxti\:i:c!y i oj-v.! ^r, (.';. cciaily a;-!> :y- t!i; i.^!- 
J:cry, was apyo;.;!!.'.! licufnaiit- yen. i\tl : 'J'iicl.;;. ol 1 I(;!!.in . v. a > i-^L-;-..'!..; u: 



^ .' IV 



t;\- iivir!/. I'iiJ K'n;'; himlc!;" j : c\i tl.c a/niv, a:.d i.j li:n^ 

OI lMij,!a.i,i to a^r^iui Iwiv.. T;-- wIkjIc had t!ic a;^-; .:rancc (^t d i^ 

latii' r tiiat (d :i niihtaiy arm :n:;:i: i a;ul i;i t'l;-^ i^Liation, carryi:;^ inorL lli /.v 

i'a.:'.\ Tiwl :c;;\j w't'i ir, ti\c camy arr:\-cJ a: Ikrv.icl:. 

I'w. S. >fch arniv was a^ numerous a-; t;:.ir of tiic kin:'^, b..' i:';^-:or in i. a'.'a!- 



Ci/Ur:, ' y-i o: .-i-i; 



::: iyunvvl and lii armed, wer- animated, a. v-cd by d^j natiouJ av.rd n :-> b n;:- 
. ..d and ['.y. dread (d b^eondn.^ a province to ti;;ir od! en nn /, a^, ! . an un!'.n'- 
:u:a' i- i.rvcur ot re'i^'on. d he pu'pt? had cxtrnnciy addled [lie o'-n e;"^ in 
, : :'-!'-ds, and had :!iundered out anatln^mas urnn .d; t!r !e :: / ::.;./ ;; ; 
r' Lord ('/\i:-: t !'.: '^r^^lfy. 1'et in prudent v-^ie d.e 'cadv:'^ cf :!nj 
,.duLLi:n; n's dnu t!;ev innredniteb.' 1' nt wry Inbmidiw nieirrn-i to the ivi.n:^ 
u,n .;a".-ed .ea\e to be adinnted :, a treaty. 

Cn.\Fr:.s !niev.y t'nit t!ie [oi-ce of ii;e Cwveri Uit^rs \va^ uonndi rablj. tddr :_ i- 
iti. hi^;'i, tlnn'z.al l^rions ; and a'- tlnv .'(.:- n^-t yet daun:e ; I v any id f-an^n, 
ij re...on..br-- t rms couK! le exn>;\U'tl tioni diem.. \\di!i rey.n'i thar^: ne to a 
reanr, ; rcat uidieuitie-i 0'LUir;;d cm bodi !idi, . >Iuitii.; iie lubndt to tlie pr.rnn- 



nn . e rx; una u to tnen- re- 
m ,mm m 



lo la .: .. am .,o: n\n v 
1 '..] 



!;o; ,('1 t..'' nn..;a <n.t. :,tm, Dciio-.-i ma.t t.,'.' m 
!nd^. n^ p' - yu!n"e m, kn n a I i. iv V. ouh! I^ : 

vcr; huei,, and \\ ti. nuie., diiheudv, . ^-'r-'-^'/ i^iann 

timr he mud (.'nj-.^ t, i>..r e\-('i- .nter, to r ta n, ,;. tliat !nr:vhin\ n , 
appcaia e-- ol n:a;-;;ty. dim:, rait invn, in'...:.'; jno\'',d, !v,- ij n ., 
ri.e m yon ,.m- ot hiw ..iv.\ j ;e!-.<.; m\ a, > '.id u rum :) '!.: t.-;-- 
nals : 1 he paca' 'rr^ v/on!'.! i t .'n tin ir in..atu .nn\ n^ ; d. m , 
n\t-d ;y ]ud'i-r, '.'-annd n uo;.un/nj no mi.er .. ni, d'. , tiian n.at 
! nn.d to dw.i in'_cr (-\n;" ill m. 1 nn 'and .h: ) it w . . -^ : n 



nnn ;ie ;w e'..n an (.-nani! . 
V 'dil;^an ann [ tnitanie.d 



n .,.;\niin - 1 V ..,, 



en; :^tn . '.' n.^ nnr.e le^ n:en. 



t>.) 



224 HISTORY OF GREAT B R I T x\ iR 

Chap. IV. ^Q attain the fame indulgence. To advance fo far, without bringing the rebels to 
^ * a total fubmifilon, at lead to reafonable concefi'ions, was to promlfe them, in all 
future time, an impunity for rebellion. 

On the other hand, Charles confidered, that Scotland was never before, under 
any of his anceftors, fo united, and fo animated in its own delence ; and yet 
had often been able to foil or elu -e the force of England, combined heartily in 
one caufl^ and enured by long praclice to the ufe of arms. How much greater 
difficulty would he find, 2.1 pref^nt, to fubdue by violence a people, endamed 
with religious prejudices ; v/hile he could only oppois to them a nation, ener- 
vated by long peace, and lukewarm in his fervicc ; or what was more to be 
feared, many of them engaged in the fame party with the enemy. Should the 
war be only protrafted beyond a fummer ; (and who could expedt to finifli it in 
that period ^) his treafure would fail him, and, for fupply, he mull have recourfe 
to an Englifli parliament, whom, by fata! experience, he had ever found more 
ready to encroach on the prerogatives, than to aid the neceffities, of the crown. 
And what if he receive a defeat from the rebel army ? I'his mislortune vv-as far 
from impoiiible. They were engaged in a national caufe, and flrongly actuated 
by miftaken principles. His army was retained entirely by pay, and looked 
on the quarrel with the fame indifference, which naturally belongs to mercenary 
troops, without pofTcfrmg the difcipline, by which fuch troops are commonly d>- 
ftinguiriied. And the confequcnces of a delcar, while Scotland v;as enraged 
and England difcontenied, v/ere fo dreadful, that no motive fliould pcrluade him 
to venture it. 

It 'h evident, that Charles, by mift.iken and ovcrfights, had broup;ht himdif 
I'o l\:ch a fitiiaiioii, that, v/hacever Hde he embraced, his errors muiL be danrrer- 
oi;s: Xo woixler, therefore, he was in great perplexity. But lie did infinitely 
\v(jrfe, than embrace the word party : For. properly fj)eakin;2;, he embraced no 
])arty at all. He concluded a fudden pacincanon, in wliich it was flipulated, Thac 
he fliould withdraw his fleet and arniy ; tha', within eight and forty lioiirs, the 
Scotch fliould difmifs their forces -, that the King's forts fliouId be reflored to 
him , his authority acknowleged , and a general affcmbly and a parJiament be 
immediately fummoned, in order to comnofc all difiiM'cnces. What v/ere the 
rcnfojis^ wliich engaged the King to admit fuch ilrange articles of j>Lace, it s in 
vain to eiiq'aire : For there could be none. Idie caitfcs of that evci.t may adnd: 
of a more eafy explication. 

Till, rnalccontents had been very iriduflrious, in rep^refcnting to the Engli;];^ 
the grievaiH-es, uixler which Scotland laboured, and the ill councils, v/iiich liad 
been lug\.'eiLcd to their fovcreign. Their liberties, they fiid, were invaJcd : 

Trie 



CHARLES I. 



225 



T;-.^ frero2;ativcs of rlic crown cxtenJctl beyond .ili fonrcr p;::c(.I'.nc : Lij^Ml CW n. IV. 
courcs crcct-.d : Ti'.c hiT;i:T!iy cxiil'ctl at tlic LXj:!tji\cc (.1 natl'-n..! privilct;:'; : ''"''^ 
Av.d 10 nuny v.2w In; ;Tir;:;on.i irUKxlucil l)y the l.:i'; ',ikv t\ : .ir,!ti..il j-rJat-.s, .ij 
bt.';;oC .1 ]'.\\\ lu'i-; :.,'!!, t';.i: a pro;vi,L u.i^ lc;ii>iil"Iy tv;!nv.i k.T i'.:^ uO iratiun o: 
("..|);ry. i h.- Ki;^^/^ Lo;xii..>'.u, l.riiy, i:i >t.(;tla;..', !.;! !,e :i. i.i ..\-:v ' .L'__,, cv 
( ( i t in .:il ii'Iiih::::!; tl'i- cJc!cL.vlic.iI ca::'.:>, more !/ m1 .i;.,i i..:! i:;. .';.;, r!i.ii;i 
] .i::;\i.".>! , y c \-.as [!. rj k..h a i'/;i;. r.;' i . !c!i/ l,.;;. ^- in tl;c vjo.r. !..:. :- wt lotii 
;.:i^ l.j:"!;^, L;..: t!ie K-'^'i;)! ic.ulily :;fLiU.d to all th/ rL':)r(;:;;;:..:> 5 'jf (iir 
'^'-'i-!i n^aij,- i;;[i':";i " , M\.: b.'r.^wd i\].\<: nation lo hav.- b-\ :i di :v. ;;, i y (v |>;ci^ 
, .. ) L..- vilI:..: coi!!x;is v.l.:(li tlvy had cih'ira^.d. S; ! ir, ...:(:;:, 
:. om o. i'i.i; 'a:!!;:-;^ t: ; llcund l'i^ Iviii;!; ;;i h;l) luiiM'; t!;c i:cc I'm:.:-, v.: ', ; .>>:> r. ;: ; 
:;.'y raiii i- : Incd tiM: u'.liap. y pco' 1 , v. ho h.:d Iv m red::, d to 'i; -li ;:: wa- 
::vs: A;;d they tlr '.::;!,r, t':.it the ex ni| h' ot ll:. ii nciid.oo-.r^, a, v.v.i .:^ :', :r 



.^, 1 . O 



:. or. i : ne: '. > 



.\:\\\\a[\l.:, :id^!;r. Ion. e ::::-, he advaiit.u;. oi:s tu 1 :o!a:id, a:^d 
;ecov-^r, by a \ ij,oro,.o (.1:j;t, her \-! ;hurd I.ias a:,d lbv::o . Tl^j :""::rv a., i 
i^obilit;, , 'A .0, V. ,:..o.:: a:cj::;-:::!:i: to th e- lirt, v, ;:!ioL.t co::::::.-;:d im i' . .4 ::;; v, 
attended i.i :;-e;: n;;ndvr^ the l'" ' '^^ '-on-^ ...-,.:.',. r-:-.-: .,,,,1 ,,,.... ,^, ,,..,1 



.ed 



.;h ea;n-, f-.e/dy lb;/: 



'.! :oiv a:.t;;o!!ty t) t.uie lev ti.iun:- : A u:rear, \'e: ." .i::.j 1. .no.irao.e, \s;-:.e.i 
tb: ! arl o!" lljdanb, u iiii a co:dibcrablj detaciim.n: (d the hb;^ ;di Dr^e-, h ; 1 
rn.ibe bAorc a deta^: vr.cvx o: the Seo'.!:, caubd \\.\ tbeie !. .n'lv.i:. ^ tu bi.i/j i:;> 
.'t u::ee : A;:d t!ie K;!i::, wiiole dwirajler was :,o: k.d'eiei^b .' \:_,r:-.:. nor d ^;- 
d\e, a;:b \\\\~i was ay:, !.\ ni b.:..:i:ty, to en-bra. e la.dv c-...;,.b-, :...:. e.bv 
adliu.d to a nAa:..re, w!i;Ji v.a^ r^ : 'n^nA'abed '^v ab .d\a.: b;:-;^, ..:. , u ib^ !i 



1 .v.;i..rea b;b natL.r.i. |:.reabj;i t;r,'.a:\;o c.c re' 
!.,.,^l.:r.. 

CbiA;- !.;,-, ha\bn!j; lo far ad\-an:cd in pacd'e :...,.. 
re!b!i.t:on, t.^ b-.'-'e j :abeca-e . thc:n, a'.d .; .'o: 1..' .v.'.V. 



1 . ) .',:. J 



^ :,^^:0,M.,!:y 

a V t. .. \..\\ > n . 



, I a: e a .:v.eoaat (.= 



tntiwn, ue;naa-.e.l ay :i.e aia-na.y .a.,: ' aa.aa ^ ;i 
inenv.ad bob.;. 

a, v,,,:.b: b .ve i^li.; : hd eaaba :i 
Jar, i:. \ ed, b 

(oncedlei;" , : ^ t,.e eaaon-, :..e ..z r. . 

artlei'/s la beia.! ; b-.c .1..0 to abobbi b'.j oaler :;,, 
i J / boi.ib,- eo .L nd; -b i^:'' tins ^ . n, <-:bv n '.\ ; . 
.d.,.:i he eoaid nnp ; ( n ha, d:l, eb:;' n .a'd i n 
'..: ian iat.::t;un(a :d.'a!;f: tavo. .;-.._ e ^ o::.; 
,, . d, wb;.h n. ha.. . . .; ; ,\e.d ca:e .:.; .eb 
' ,:. I. \, , 



.. 1 , ., -. , 1 , .. . -; , . 

..... .....X; .-...1 . .e.t.n.oa , 

\\\\' b- Ibaainb a.u'on. >o 



: d tin;, p;.;n, th.it be .:^;aa\b ao: ( :bv to (ciaim; In: torni; r 

lu i ..di a. nvi nb n. .a;d da- 

; . b . r v,n,J. ne b.d 

e ... I \ ' . . ' ^ . '.r:\^ e. 



22b HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. IV. ft^lf to advance. The aiTembly, when ic met, payed not due deference to the- 
^.a^-'ift^i-th King's prepoiTefllons, but gave full indulgence to their own. They voted epif- 
copacy to be unlawful in the church ot Scotland : He v/as v/il!ing to allow ic 
contrary to the confcitutions of that church. They fligmatifed the liturgy and 
canons, as popilh : He agreed fimply to abolifli them. They denominated ths 
high commiiT:on, tyranny : He was content to fet it afide. The parliament, 
whicii fat aft-r the ajicmbly, advanced pretenfions, which tended to diminifli thu' 
civii power of the monarch , and what probably affefted Charles much more, 
tlicy v.ere proceeding to ratify the a6ts of affcmbly, when, by the King's infiruc 
tioiiS, Traquaire, the commiiiioner, jTorogued them. And on account of thefe 
v.\i:ienc"e'.;. claims, vdiich might eafily liave been forefeen, was the war renewed j with great 
advantages on the fide of the covenanters, and difadvantages on that of the 

Ki::g. 

No fooncr had Charles concluded the pacification without conditions, than the 
r.ccefl'ity of his affairs, and his want of money, obliged him to difl^and his army -, 
and, as they had been held together folely by mercenary views, it v/as not 
polTible, without great trouble, and expence, and lofs of time, again to afiem- 
ble them. The more prudent covenanters had concluded, that their pretenfions 
being fo contrary to the interefl, and ftill more to the inclinations, of the King, 
it was likely, that tf.ey would again be obliged to fupport their caufe by arms ; 
and they were therefore careful, in uifmifTing their troops, to prcferve nothins^ 
but the appearance of a pacific dilpofition. The ofli.cf rs had orders to be ready 
on the firll fummons : 1 he foldiers were warned not to think the nation fecura 
from an Englifli invafion : And the religious zeal, which animated all ranks 
of men, made them immediately fiy to their ftancards, fo foon as trie trumpei; 
was founded by their fpiritual and temporal leaders. The credit, which, in 
their laft expedition, they had acquired, by obliging their fovereign to depart 
rom all his pretenfions, gave courage to every one, in undertakng this new 
(jnterprize. 

.640. TiTE King, With great difficulty, made Hi 1ft to draw together an army : But 

ibon found, that, all fivings being gone, and great d;:brs contraded, iiis reve- 
nues v;ould be infufEcicnt to fuppoit them. An Englifii pailiament, therefore, 
April i3th. formerly fo unkind and intraftable, mufl now, after above eleven years intermif- 
(ion, lifter trying many irregular methods of taxation, alter multiplied difo-yfts 
pLiiaafent! given to the pMjriranical party, be fummoned to aflemble, amidft the mofl: pref- 
f ng nccdTitics of the crown, 

Tiii 



C IT A Pv L E S T. 227 

The Earl oFTraquaire, liad in:('icc[tcJ. a letter, v.rote to the King of Fr.'.r.cc ^"^^-T ''''- 
by the Scotch malccunrcnts -, an.l Ivk! conveyctl this letter to the Kir.^. Chu % 
partly repenting oi the lari!,e concclli )!i.s v.hlcii he had maile to t!ie S ot( h, par:- 
fy clilguded at th ir trelli ir.roleiKe-. ar.ii [M\t;-n:! in'>, lei/.;! tiu< opj orturiity ^.5 
breakine witli tr.em. I le had th.ro'.Mi ii.ro t'.e 'loAer, tiv- 1 .orJ i. -..d. ).i, c-.-n- 
ndiyoiier from tlK* co\-enan'.er^ ; one (;i ir.e p^iioir^ v.I;j h;.vl (::^';;\i die tj-calop.- 
a'.'le letter : And he unw laid the ma::er beture t!ve pari-.anv/r,:, v.r.i m he lioped 
Tt; i.'dhime by the rclentniciit, and alarm by tlic dan^^r, (1 Lhi~ .1; ; iieati.in t ) .1 
iore:;j;[i power. By the nioiiLli 01 tli;: I -urd krepcr, f-ie.vii, he Ci:. o'.m, d. his 
v.i!;:s, and informed them, that he had been able to affen-.blc liis .vvr.-, an.d to 
f'-bldt them, not by any revenue whieh he pofiellld, biit by m-.-ar..') ui a !a:-j,c 
ce'-it of above 300,000 [:)GLnKi';, wlhe'i he had coi.lrafleJ, ar.d lor v.i.lLJi he 
h id given fecurity upon the crown-l.mds. I le repn'.f.iited. That it v,m> neeel- 
)ary to LM-.:nt fupplics t(>r tlie immediate and urgent demarais oJ l.i^ n.iiitary .;r- 
ma:r.cn:> : Miat the fealon was far adivanced, tlie time {^re.iju , anii n ;".: of 1: 
nuitl be 1 .1 in tiehberaticjn : '1 hat tlvj' his cofVers v.-.re t ::-p:y, t'lev [':a.l r.o'' 
been ex'.;;.u;led. by ur.nv'ceilary j oi^iip, or lu;rip:uo..s ' uiid.in::;-, or any ')'.;. ,r i;i:.d 
o: n:agn:ne'. nee : 'i'nat v.-iiatev. r fupplies ha.i b^en levied irorn h's l..'v-,:s, ',.o'l 
be.n eniph)ved ior their adv.int.H^e and pre'e- v.ition, and :;ke vaj^ e'- r:::;-.:^ o. - 
01 t!;e cM'ih^ and gathered into a clond, had lalle:^ in hvee: ..nd r. Irelldn.; ll^;.'.; - 
cr.'. (;n tlic fame i:eh;> t;(jm wivieh they fi.id, at fnil, b; er. .xli-f: d : d /.a: t',. -' 
l.e delired iuc:i ini;r;-d.a e aln;l,;nee as nd;!,'it prcv.ir, lor th,- t:.-:; , a t<>: .1 d:f- 
o.d.r in the gov.ri^m ;::, he v..l^ tar i."'n ;i: v in:.'::'; )ii (/. ; r '., '": : 'I - : 
tlieir ri/'i: t>. incpnre in: ) tl;- ibi'e o: i!;: hn.^, : .n, an.lf.ic." 
L')r the red:e: o: d; ir gr;e\',.n;.\ d : d iiat a:. i\::::'.\ :. \- y ... 

lho'.:I ; be aliei'w.ird . aho\v> d tlk-m I.-r I'l t pur, . :, ; d : ' ', 

hi: hi';; '., .1 ] .f n: a- t!.- .-: . ''' 1 r ue u d j : y : 
c .if :e [' ) ,:f ' u 'u, thvin ag .i . u.::t vd ,t; r, w !. n t'..y, f . . > 

, ' ;,; , r buliuJ , had tdi- f. .1! n, I /en i, u' mi: ;:.:,. ,: 



; , i , , i. I , 


e ; u. - \ 


.If ( 


1 lieh:u.; i..u 


; t .'. 


;Le pu- 


- " [/ 


ant h: ;; 


, ;:, : 


h: h ginnuv; 


(d I 


h ieili 


..r c:^^ 


(llLl. ' 




. :-.\ Ui 1uj;u 


U . ' 1. 


^^:v.]^c: 


:\\ ly c ; 


;eun,.',.. 




l.opieli., 




:.rA !f 


1 


: , I 

: .. "1 i . . . 


!y,, a: 


U ;..: il ,. V, 




1 


r 

I I'v- 


: iU- e a:K 

:., Ih, 


l,a:l. 

auhbf 


a:ii_:.t. 

d.ele t<,,: 







l.itn t: 

; , . a \''. 



uy t,;e eeur.: ',..0U) c 



228 HISTOPvY OF GREx\T BPvITAIN. 

Ch.ip. IV. dangers and hardfi.ips, had made to them -3 the minds of men, throughout the 
*^'^^'' nation, had taken kich a turn as to afcribe every honour to the refractory oppo- 
ilrs of the King and the minifters. Thefe were the only patriots, the only lovers 
ct their countr/, the only heroes, and, perhaps too, tlie only true chriftians. 
A reafonab'e compliance v/ith the court, was flaviQi dependance -, a regard to tiic 
King, rervlle f.titrcry ; a confidence in his promifes, fiiameful prollitution. I'lii;] 
ge;ieral caft of thouglit, which ha?, more or lefs, prevailird in England, during 
near a century and a half, and which has been the caufe of much good and 
much ill in public affairs, never predominated more than during the reign of 
Charles. The prefent houfe of commoiis, being compofcd intirely of country-^ 
gentlemen, who came into parliamimt witli all their native prejudices about them, 
could not fail to contain a majority of thefe itubborn patriots. 

Affairs hkev,'ife, by means of the Scotch infurreccion, and the general dif- 
contents in England, were drawing fo near a crifis, that the leaders of the hou e, 
fagacious and penetrating, began to forefee the confcquences, and to hope, that 
the time, fo long wifned tor, was now come, when royal authority muft fall into a 
total fL.bordination to popular affcmblies, and when public liberty muft accjuire 
a full afcendant. By reducing the crown to necefllties, they had hitherto foundy 
that the King had been pulhed into violent councils, v;hich had ferved extremely 
the purcofes of ids adverliarics : And by multiplying thefe necclTities, it was fore- 
feen, that his prerogative, undermined on all fides, nuifc, at lafr, be overthrown,, 
and be no longer dangerous to the privileges of the people. '\Yi;!atever, therefore^ 
tended to compofe the differences between King and parliament, and to preferve 
the governmjent uniformly in its prefent channel, v/as zealouay oppofed by th.efc 
popular leaders ; and their paft condutft and fufferings gave them credit fuiTicient 
to efft(St all their purpofes. 

'Tis the fituation which decides chiefly of the fortunes and characters of men. 
The King, it muft be o^'ned, tho' praifeworthy in many refpecls, was not endowed 
With that mafterly genius, which might enable him to obfcrve, in their infancy,, 
the changes that arofe in national manners, and know how to accommodate ids 
tondud to them. lie had not perceived, that his beft policy was not, by oppo- 
fition, much lefs by invafions and encroachments, to enrage the republican fpirit 
ot' the people ; but that lie ought, by gently departing from fome branches of 
his he:edi;ary authoiity, to endeavour, as far as polTible, to preferve tlic rcil 
irom the inroads of his jealous fubjecis. Still tenacicAis of his prerogative, he 
found, that he could not preferve the old claims of the crown without affuming 
new ones : A principle fimilar to that which many of his fubjecis fcem to have 
iormed with regard to the liberties of the people. 

Tnr 



C II A R L i: S i. 229 

realoiiS. inlh-ad (.t tcil^':;.; iu,:,^c o; 1:1 Ki: s;'s c^rT;;;ia:.::.' '..:.\':^'.: i:i- "-'v .'v.!; K.b- 
it:^:s, or his ap(.;u ;ir:ons tur !,.;;;! v, t:Ut.'rn.l i:;;:T:c.::ac iy :_v.i::cc:i :..:A 

a (jCicli, wl'ic'i 1^- :n ;^",.i^Ie i:!i--:n (^-^ th ir L."'':r, was mi.. .1 :vo:c ;.fa; !.v..t. J :\ 
ii: m t'::\r v !ilc:) trc L^-r.i koe;Tr i:.ul ^.;v!:vrrc : :':\v\r\ n t!ie :: ;;::j t.;: r*;;-::- 1 v :;\_ . 
'll.c k;!-ic:: ot l'ry;;:.\ !iaran.:..i- Iw^, b- vn :'.i.'\ i;;i:!y ex; ,. :;-.-, .' .: j ; : , ( \.-; 
<;avt; an aC(Oii;.t u: a!! ti^c (iricwwxc . iiv..;;M:.a: y in :l:c c:.:.rcn, nor^- rta. ;.. t^.j 
iiarc. d: v,-!iic!i t!ic nation, at va:.z tnne, lo iMK.iy con^;!a:;H-v'. 1 nr hu ;c [;t- 
f'ln \vi:h cxan^ininr; t!^? b.iiaviuur ci t!ir iycak.rr t!:c lull dy o: l";c' :o'~nxr |ar- 
i;..n.v:-t ; wiu:, he rftullil, on account o: th: Kin^;''- c> nin":a:Ai, :;) r.:: t!.f (\, ' 
ri -n : Air: tnc-y ucclarcrci i: a bi'cac!) o; p'isnl ;.;('. r!;i-y j loccc: v! next :,j tn- 
cy.'rc into t'lc in:piii(j';n v,,t ami prol^ ."ui i^n t-t ^ i" J>^i.n IJ.i-t. li ..i>, ..;..; \'.i- 
i;-.*;ns : 'll\': a'iair c;t Jhiy-n:onL\' v/.v- oan\'..i:'\i : And i ivn:::..i : .' v^t (>: in- 
<jini'y u as fu::- t 'icvi on a:i i,..nii:. ( i ; ;; wn'.Ci ; v. i . c" r:-. niari',' ( I.ni.vi nnci^r :i;:\ j 
!.ca;s ; ti.'.lv \' i'ii w^ a\: n, tiic |-r;v .icyvs ol n.n ,:.nin-nr, ri: : ..ri-y::- {/. t';.- 
i..i icrt, an.l inli. ion. ] n- t\i..y, I't-inij; a ia ::^ and mc x:.;;n:i :i .l- n.id 1 ; cnccl, 
J ;; lied ti..:n a.;ain i^>: !. ; iv ; and iindin''- hi- n^vihi:;" inc;:l-.: ,..: , !-. ( an;c to 
t...- !i n:c ^'1 ye'eTf;, and dc red tindr ^cod o!!'CCS v. i.ii :i;c cn^nn. n*^. '1 ... y-,rs 
\'n:'e \'i;'\- .^nd'dv' o; t!:c Knn;*- nr^-'.nt niccliine:.; ; and tin^nniit, tinit lnnnii:s tn 
lids f ccai.,n, ci.;;ti:r, botii in ;\\.^;n ar^dni dvcmry, to Lru 1\ !o;c [:;ric'.nn:Lcs. '[.-.jy 
i ::Lnn;d to rc-yr^ n nt tiiji;- ;.'n;c uf ti.:- n;.nt.r to tin' ccnin\)n^ ; bnt ti.eir i- tvT- 
' . iiion ciid hann. '1 in' ((niniKnis I.ad a'-.\a\- ci.nnv d. as ti^iir inindi.ir r:\ \' .:.'f, 
rnv jj;rantn:^; h.ni'iiC' ; ai^d, tin/ tiic p"c rs had Lion? i^o t.n'th.r t':.ni t ..c;n-y ad- 
v.a;, tiicy in":n^cciiatL!y tliouyhc {m)j-LT t ; ro:c ;o untd^.d an.l n..n;n' cdcin.d an 
ir.t':^yoiit]cni to bv a breach Cii |:ivi!c':i,c. C iia: ic-f , m cn^i-r tv) ly'.-..: I'r.^ ir.:.::::: nf 
b.y;dv to ton-,e ilK.c, ioliici:nd :h; hovild v.idi njw r; cdiy ' r And nndim,, tini: 
\ ..: end;. -is cn r!i;-)-tn,onc\- rnu'? f-;icac .d.-rn'; ami di:nn:: ; innxim :-,:o:n:in.; ti.:-]\ 
nmt h, r;c\'CT n :t:n i^ni to nnd. a coninmt :t;\nnn:' en :', l.,:.t ;di t n- nn :.c\ le 
V !.d h,.d 'xn n r-.nn. a' iy, \vi:ii (;tn;T iniMt Inin , cxy. nntd on tny.i; ;in;.^ ti:r : 
h'.Mio'.v wnnt b.) nn' .i to odd' th.t ni nuirviy to a'ndidi tb..;t nn,"-ni.t.i 'n, i^*.' a.nv ...' 
v.nicni tnc oon^nnn.s di nid tidnh yri.jxr to : inlcnt to :..nn Ia :rtn:n, !.v ni. .! 
(.dy t(;r ins mo- nt mx: li'dcb, a Inypiy ol iwni m In! i;m-:n ;dv, at '-'. , ] - . 

.n..: ti.at y..\\.. .: :i\ ti.'nc \na!'- ; l)nt, at t:;r bnnc tone, i.e i t ti.rn: ivnco.'.n 'i...t, 
tonidiernuj; the ;:tn.;ti'n. ot ins anan-, a titiiv v,onid In- e(]n:\ndn.t to a * . 
1 ..c Kn,^:, tn-^" tiie in.n(;rnv \v,;s a:dnll i.mi, m\'L!" \\ ..'. nn ^n:n^.^ .., .n.v 
........ ol eon,-n:on^ , ..,.d t!ic deb-.tc wa.s carried en .'or t- o ^-.i-:, v. .ti-, rie. t /e.d 

anil waiint;> on b'^ti; h.'.cb. 

Ir 



230 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Clmp. IV. It was urged by the partlzans of the court, That the happiefl occafion, wlilch 
'*^'^^' the fondeft v/iihes could lliggefl, was now prefented, of compofing all difgufts 
.and jealoufics between King and people, and of reconciling their fovereign, for 
ever, to the ufe of parhamrnts. That if they, on their part, laid afide all enor- 
mous claims and pretenfions, and provided, in a reafonable manner, for the pub- 
lic necefTities ; they needed entertain no fufpicion of any inlatiable ambition or 
illegal ufurpation in the crown. That tho' due regard had not always been paid, 
during this reign, to the rights of the people, yet no invafion of them had been 
altogether deliberate and voluntary ; much lefs, the refult of wanton tyranny and 
injufcice ; and ftill lefs, of a formed dcfign to fubvert the confiitution. That to 
repofe a reafcjnable confidence in the King, and generoufiy fupply his prefent 
wants, which proceeded neither from prodigahty nor mifconduil:, v/ould be the 
true way to gain on his generous nature, and to extort, by a gentle violence, 
fuch concelFions as were requifite for the eftabhlhment of pubnc liberty. That 
he had promifed, not only on the word of a prince, but alfo on that of a gen- 
tleman (the expre.Tion which he had been pleafed to ufej that, after the fupply 
was granted, the parliament fhould ftill have liberty to continue their delibera- 
tions : Could' it be fufpeded, that any man, any prince, much lefs fuch a one, 
whofe word v/r.s, as yet, facred and inviolate, would, for fo fmall a motive, forfeit 
his honour, and, v/ith it, all future truft and confidence, by breaking a pro mi fe, 
fo public and fo folemn ? That even if the parliament fhould be deceived in re- 
poiing th's confidence in him, they neither loft any thing, nor incurred any 
danger ; Ihice it was evidently necefiliry, for the fecurity of p^ublic peace, to 
fup',)ly him with money, in order to fupprels the Scotch rebellion. I'hac he had 
fo fir f nted his firfl: demands to their prejudices, diat he only afkcd a ilippiy for 
a few month?, and v.as willing, after fb fliort a truft, to fal rgain into depcn- 
dance, and to trull them for Ins farther fjpjxjrt and fubiiflence. Hiat if he 
now leemed to dcfire Ibmeilfing farther, he alio made them, in return, a conr- 
Hderable ofibr, and was willing, for the future, to depend on them fur a revenue, 
which v;as quite requifite for public honour and fecurity. That tlie nature of 
the Knglifli conRitution fiippoled a mutual confidence between king and parlia- 
ment : And if they fliould refufe it on their part, cfpccially with circumilances 
ot Ibch outrage aiid indignity , what could be expected but a total diflolution of 
froverr.nicrit, and violent factions, followed by the moft cLingeroiis eonvulfions 
aiid lilt- iline dif ;rders ? 

!:. o; petition to tliele arguments, it v/as urged by the j-nalccontcrit party, 'J'lr.it 
trie coiiit had difcovered, on then- ilJe, but few fymptoms of that .mutual trufe 
and coniiJciiCCj to which they now fo kindly invited the commons. TiMt e'cvcn 



ycarc 



c II A R L r 5 r. 



'1 1 f 



yfars inrerminion or p.irl'.imcr:-, i'.: 'mwzvi. \.\.'.J.\ v. .:> r ) ; c n/.::-,^'. i:-. t!-.'" wlr. 'c *- 
Kn^'ifli uH'mIs v,-.:^ a lutncivi;' :n/io.i'. . i ! t'l i'M!'j;.iy cntc: r.:!ncJ .r; .,i.;' the 
] ei>;.!.' ; or r.:t';c;- c^; drl-.i,:!- ti riinxi ; -r r!.- Ji.:~; 'cIloh (>: ali t::c:r l:l''i.r:: s ar,! 
[rivLc.'C-. '1 :l.: :!,c tVi:;;:icr> !i:i.:!.: \'.c'! jl a: :.'cen':y ^ r,; :' lw:. ^1 a--; . 
jii.ic .!, [;' a i:,();i ![.:>;;;(': Kriu- i'-i\ i. ; i !:: nr '.!'!'.: z, ' ::i ' : vi b a. ;.. .; 
n'.i-aki c, !;;; V, i;A ii C:K V had t(;ir,:-.\\; ,<) \ -!.;: a:i av;i:..:i. .. a:; ;ii.i i..:; 

(j! a:i ! i-.j.ih I aMaiKCi.t. '1 a..: iw.; ;:c^'c!ii'v, l.o.vc. tr, w..- :::;!,. i>c; iai, 

ii; _ . ...1: .A:a1 il t!;a la:rj ;';r:L v.;;:Cc-, t\c:' ii.uiK .! a:v.'c.\;', L.:u:vr \v:iu:\ 

v:.. :.\v.r.\ i:lX; iabour^J, l^a.: p.:'i.!.d tia: Sc^Lii t.; ^xTciniut. s ; v,..- ;:r:q.i- 

i.:,-, :ii .::!.;: I. ivjilh llaA.M ii;'.;,^ [jiiar (,.'. n i. !a.i;a , by nij'-.a :^ ; ^ o:; :b. r 

\a,!ia^^; y nci^;bb;)Lirs ? 'I'ba: I'.v: , a. ::-:,: rra:i:cc; ()t pai !;a'-nt:;:> '/.ai tu l; va 
Liia-jv.aiCcs the I'lvc.dancy (.1 bay; iy ; a:. 1 t'a: tbis orbar, lo ca' . : ..bv obi, :-\ i 
bv i\iJ\i anccllors, uas loan^b. a oa a b',ia:y nbiarca: ;n tlia c. ..b.:..:.^ ;, w \ 
was rivvcr air-.a-j^'i'tavl a-, : y ; a, tiaub;. . .b'b- : v a (.: b;.' i :-"::.a: :c\a a i.^:a la..: 
a 1 laicu^a, vba !i i: ib bavii i.j b.bJ, baria.i, ti : . .> iba a.cil I .vaa; a '^^ to b! .;:; , 
ccalJ ia;r. :a.ajniaa)a j rab :k ,-, bj bip.iirb :; m, v.!a;a :a. b i; .'x:i\..\\^ :.:.' 



W 



K.as ivr [.../\^\^m ..aU l\ ja .;a a ,.;>! 



r.a. .v'a. ^a- ' 



. :a a '.ai..af.. 
.liaa, t.a.:. ai 



:- 1 a, ,a : taa v.-[,-:v.i ( ccaUi ai lor lay- \- ; w a, a :t p .a,.v a^ ; 
o'.bar to a..iia. a. : at.r.a'j loi' t.a.^ tu^-.c, aa.; t > l.b.iiac tba eo:r. aa.La..'^, jyriat ', 
::^a: l.;- ': b>aa:cc b.,.. baan c:ra l.)\ab. '1 aat tba v,rbi la" ci.^:a^.w': \'.c:'C ;b..... 
f..i !v ai t!u' *.v a.tLT ; .a.b il t!.a ::ic^tia,; at t^.a yaiaaan. at ..ab la : ; ..:"| ol-i',- .(.,.: 
b_.;V^b, tib lo acr t.!:c ta.:r iriaua a^innt ol Ka!i:.a ", d^ -ia.:;Li;i, :!. ra :,.aa b,,,; 
Laarc ibb'^l^.^t tu !>.a.'a labrcllab a!l nabunal :;:aa\aix.s, aab t.^ laa. v iia. _^. .t b 
alLar\v.;rtis tj an l aa;ra,..Lu.ai ca tlia Kai.y-- cxaalion lor lay; .a J a.;: ...\i.,:^ .i- 
tiaii cb 1.) c,rw!b an artila' uaN t^) (n^;.iy,a tiia Cuninu ns, i....,'.i" \ : :: .: a (, 
[]\:\ ta \boiatc tac rca,. ..ar cabar c I ^aa i.an^v: : ; aab a ;a^ a .,: i. : : ...: . 



. . I.e. . 



cb.bbbu;:. 



a 



y uro \ aa... ai. ala: a-- v. aL.iv' 



;aiaa.t, la :c aai a\a:iaabaa, co;....l aa 
a oi^vt' ; . b ba')-a. a.,-y ;, a tax>:aon, tiia ir/j.\ a...^b 

(.a' a;. luU: , \. ... 1 .-..vi r'. Lia in .aa. la iya, b.a a iiii^'Obai ap ;, t a. 
i\\,::^ by ba^ a, ay '.<>v thr laambaai ot ba.t bia\', tba caannv,a> ',. 
s r. ra.av boiatv, [-y u b;ah it bad b. ^a iaviavl ; ( r, ;u b.a: 

ia.cat f^a- a,.'. a..^iaa, n, v. pa-'cnbai;b oi a b!-.a nataiv, in licy.i . .i ; , , 
; ' aa' oa'- .on..ita;ns. 

la.'.'.was, aaiaa. to !o ira'aiv tx a;.iaai> of ill raair. 
.-.a. L.a aj-a.it.r liUiab.r: I'at to niaivi' t'a.a n.,.f. r v- ;:a ' 
a ;:it II V, t bd tb c laiaons u K!:oat any autia ; av :r .' : , 1\ 
b;: 'b a; LM(b\a labiidieb Wotbd be aicaj t(.d a; ,, i\^-w;r.a(...^^ ,; 



232 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. TV- of fhip-money. This alTertion, proceeding from the indifcretion, if we are 
*''''f^' not rather to call it, the treachery cf Vane, difpleafed the houfe, by Ihowing 
a ftiffncfsand rigidity in the King, which, in a claim {o ill grounded, was deem- 
ed inexcufable. We are informed likewife, that fume men, who were thought 
to undcrftand the ftate of the nation, affirmed in the houfe, that tlie amount 
of twelve fubfidies was a greater fum than could be founol in all England. Such 
were the happy ignorance and inexperience of thofe times, with regard to 
taxes ! 

The King was in great doubt and perplexity. He faw, that his friends in 
the houfe, were out-numbered by his enemies, and that the fame councils were 
flill prevalent, which had ever bred fuch oppofition and didurbance. Infiead 
of hoping, that any fupply would be given him, to carry on war againft the 
Scotch, whom the majority of the houle regarded as their beft friends and firmeft 
allies ', he expedled every day, tb-at they would prefent him an a.ldreis for mak- 
ing peace with thofe rebels. And if the houfe met again, a vote, he was in- 
formed, would certainly pafs to blafb his revenue of Hiip-money-, and thereby 
renew all the oppofition, which, with fo m.uch difficulty, he had furmounted, in 
levying that taxation. Where great evils lie on all (ides, it is very difficult to 
follow the beft councils ; nor is it any wonder, that the King, whcfe capa- 
city was not equal to ficuations of fuch extreme delicacy, ihould haftily fiave 
DlfTcluticn. formed and executed a refolution of diiToIving this parliament: A meafure, how- 
ever of which he foon after repented, and which, the fibfequcnt events, more 
than any convincing reafon, inclined every one to condemn. The laft parlia- 
miit, which had ended with fuch rigour and violence, had yet, at firfc, covered 
their intentions with a greater ap[-earance oi n:ioderaLion than this parliament had 
hitherto alTlmicd, 

A\' abrupt and violent difiblution mufl necclTarily excite great difcontents 
amoi:g the pcnp'e, who uiiiaily put mtire confidence in their rcpreftntatives, and 
expect from them the rcdrcfs of all grievances. As if there v/ere not already 
fulHcient grou.nds or complaint, the King perfevcrcd flill in thofe councils, vvhic.-, 
from experience, he might liave been (enfible, were fo dangerous and un])opu- 
lar. Beilafis and Sir John llotham were lummoned before the council ; and re- 
fuf.P.f^ to give any account cf tlvi^ir condu6t in parliament, were comndtred to 
prifon. All the petitions and ccnqduints, which r.r.d been fent to the comim/ittce 
of religion, were demanded irom. Crew, chairman to that comn-ntLee ; and on 
his refi^ful to deliver tlicm, he v.as lent to the Tower, 'j'he f^udi^js and, even the 
pockets cf the I'lari of Warwick and J_.ord Broke, bclore the expiration of prj- 
Vileg.*, were (earched, in expectation of finding trealoaable paiers. 'J hcfe acts 
7 cf 



C II A Pv L }l S I. 



^ J" ^ 



of autlioriry were iriteiprcri J, v.i:ii lon-.i' iipicarance of rcaior., to be iiivaf: ^n; ^ 
on t!ic' rii^lus t)t lur.ional ali'-ni!)!K-.^. ij.,r i\,c Kir.^.^, alter i]\c iiril j.rovocicnn, 
v.'hich he mcc wirii, vxwv i\!;:llLcJ kili;e:-.:n!y livj j:l'.iU.;c.s o: t'h-j pariiamcp.r , 
anJ, by liis eNi-.n^-j-lc, he faiihcr conliriiicd tr.c:r rclulutio;:, v,!-cn t;-/-y ihouKl ^( 
quire [ owcr, to \-.v, \...c Liifrt-gard to the prer(v;atiw^ oi' tiic- cr>;v. '.. 

Tiio' tlu' : .u ramrr,r V. as ciino'.\'cJ, tlie c-c^nvo.-.uicn wa-: li;'.! .ii!-/.V'.\! to Cr ; 
a |M-a::ic''', ol which, lir-je the r^-lormatio!!, there w; re h^'.;r icw i;i:'a:i c-. *, a:id 
which wa^, h r t'lat reak):^ I'uj;; olcJ by nia;;v to b' iir.iivhar. H:!i Ic-- i-raiit; ;.' 
to tiu- Kiiij; a lu!)ply lioin the Ij iritiiahly, .a.d Iraniiiij^-, irati) c.ii.o;i', the ro.\ 
Vv)ca:iu;!, jealous c>i like innovations with thole, wliivhhad tah',n p!aec i.i S,- : 
LiPid, impoh/d ..n C)atl\ on the cler^',y, and tlie rT-H-iuatcs in the i.i;.i\eriit:e-, iv,- 
which every one fwore to maintair. the eilaLhllied j^iovcrnir.enr ul t!ie chjicli by 
archbilhops bilhoj s, deans, ch.ipters, ^."\-. 'i'l'icle lU-ps in the p-rcfcnr dllcon- 
tented. humour of t!ie nation, were conimonly decnv dl ihc_;al ; becau'c r.ot ra 
tihcd by conlent oi [urrianienr, in whom al! autl.oricy was luppolrd lo be cen- 
tered. And nothing, bdides, couhl aiVord <_2,reatcr matter ol ndi^ule, t!un an 
oath, which co:.tair.edl an cl t'.itcrd in the niidli: (n it. 

TiiL peop.Ie, u ho grnerallv a'diorrcd tl'.c Con-eocation as nvi^h as the:y adored D'T,-- 
the parliamLnr, could Icarce he kep-t trom inluklr.g and: abuhi'.g t;-.is adcmbly ; "= 
v,v\a k'.e Kir;g was obhged. to kt guards, in order to protect thicni. Aw attack 
too \sas made during the nighr upon La'.:d, in his pahiee oi 1 and)vrl:, bv a'pove 
r-.z.o pcrloi^iS , aiid lie foupid it lucelhiiy to toitil v Idirile':! tor hi.sdeien.e. A 
iriultitude ol tv>cj tlioiiland lectaric^ entvu\l St. I'.iuik, wliere tlie h. .d- comnemiioii 
ti;ci^ lat , tore d.cjwn all the bench.LS :, e.p.d ciic.i out, .\d :..'. ;.', ;/:/ /k;:,/!' ,.<]:}:: j:.n. 
All t'.K'le inilances oi dilcont nt were pi'elagc, ol loir.e [',;e.it re\cdi.te ;! ^ I:ad 
tile court j'Oiielied iuhkient Ikill to d.ilcern the d.ang. r, or k-di ;e::: : e.v:;- tj pro- 
vide ag.pMl it. 

In- this dilpol.tion of nicn's ndnuls it w - in v.. in, tb.a: tl;e !\:pg idiued. a 



" i\ 



tk^karation, i.i tnakr to coinnuLC 
ol tiil!(d\;pi_', th.e lali parhanunt. 



coj .e K.\ lae nei.c-::.rv, \. .ncii h' i.iv under^ 
\z chiet topic, en \vii:^ii he inhd.-i, wa>, 



liiat th.,- coninions inntattd the \\-A c\a:npie (-: .hi th U' pred. .'ello - u 



years, m n'.a..:Pi.; Cuntn.u.U cncrwacnn^ent^ la .e.s au'e.o::"., :\\ ^-.w'..: :\. \ lua 
who'c ad.niavnirat.on .ip.lI C(jPii.iu.i, in ehlcu'lh-g ceery t u'cmvnkip.^e c ; \ ..bl.^ go- 

hir.r Pwiir -inil . I nU'a^-k.-^; \'.:di th.Uwing iur 

lundy^ 



vcrn:;-.enr, a:ai m in.n- i::ku\.L oarg-uiin..'; an 
W 1.. \. ^ W li 



,' .e .u::^ V. 



\'-'.\ . I I . V lu 



234 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C]i?p. IV. fupply ; as if nothing ought to be given him but what he fliould purchafe, citlier 
^'''^' by quilling loinnv/hat of his royal prerogative, or by diminifhing and ledrning 
hiis ilandirg revcniie, Thefe praclices, he laid, were contrary to t'le maxims 
of tl'eir naceHors i and thefe pradiccs were totally incompatible virh mo- 
narchy '\ 

Jllr 

* Ii taufi be confefieci, liiat the King here touched upon that circiiinflas.ce In the Ivij^Hfl; confliiu- 
t'cu, vv]-:;!i it ii moll difhcu!':, or ratlier altogether ininofiiblc, to regulate by hiw,, ancl v,'hh;h ynuil 
b'^ govci.icit h\ certain delicate ideas of propi-iely and decency, rather than bv any cxatii ride or p'-e- 
icripii^n. To deny the parh amen t ahi right of rernonftrathig againd what they eUcem giievance::, 
\vere to leducc that aaenably to a total indgnificancy, and to deprive the people of ever)- advan^a^e, 
which they could reap from popular counciis. To complain or the pailiamerit's employing the power 
of taxation, as the means of extorting conceiuons from tlieir fovcre'gn, veere to expccl, that they 
would intirely difarm. themklves, and renounce the fole expedient, provided by die confiitudcn, for 
enfuring to the kingdom a jufc and legal adminillration. In all periods of Englifli ftory, there oc- 
cnr iniuinces of their remionftrating with their princes in the freed manner, and of their refuhng fup- 
ply, when difguucd with a:iy circumftance of public conduct. 'Tis, however, certain, that this power, 
tho' effential to parliaments, may eafdy be abufed, as v.ell by the frequency and minutenefs of their 
remondranccs, as by their ir.lrufion into every part of the king's councils and deterndnations. Under 
colour of advice, they may give difguifed ordeis ; and in comphrirdng of grievances, they may draw 
to themfelves every power of go\'ernment. Whatever meafure is embraced, v/ithout confulting thern, 
J, lay te pronounced an oj^prtdioa of the people ; and till conedled, they may refufe the m.od necef- 
i::rv fupplies to their indigent iovcreign. From the very nature of tins parliamentary liberty, 'tis evi- 
dc::t; d at it mull be left unbounded by lav*' : For who can forete", now fequcndy grievances may oc- 
.-.ur, or ',\hat part of admiriiuration may be affected by them ? From* th.e jiaturc too of the human 
t'Vane, it nr,ay be cxpeTed, thit this liberty would be exerted in its full extent, and no branch of au- 
d'-.oritv be allowed to icmaui unmol died i;; due hands of the prince : For, will iJic v/eak limitations of 
^ei'foci. and decorum he fudicicnl to u drain ]uin;an ambition, v/]}ich fb frequently breaks thrc' all the 
mil lii^lions of law and jullice ? 

"Bs.-i liere I', v olnervaMe, th:'t ihc v 'fd'Hii of the Fr;pdfli ronflitution, or ratlier, tbc concurrence 
_,( ;;.:,!/.' --rs ha> pro\:v'cd, in dim: ent periods, ccrta'n irregular checks to this privilege of parlia- 
r.:ent, a"d ihe;-.by mmntai.ieJ, in icnie tolerable meafure, the dignity and authority of the crown. 

I:, ;:r :i-a,ie .t cor.fiituuon. before the l-eg:nning of the fe^-entcenth centurv, the meetinos of par, 
da:-u-.t \.e:c rrecarious and vrere not iicquent. The ieid'nis were very dicrt ; and the member^ liad 
:'., f'dm/, -idler to get acciiamted ',\itii each cdier, oi- with juiblic bunnefi:. The ignciaiice of tlie 
.;, pule men m^'re iubmiaive to that auchcnln-, whicii governed them. And above all, the large 
cen,elas oi' d;e c:x;wn, ^'.Itli the d::;!! ex;;cnce of g n-cinnicnt during that period, rendeiod the 
rriaec a'moit :iidepenc.ent, and :.,ugi;t the parliameiU t) prcferve a great fubmifdon and dutv to- 



vv ^. 



':: (..ir i)r- lent conJo:u::nn, itvo; ar~aii:ents, vvlnLU ]:avc rc!vT;cd govcrnmerti, every where, as 
v.';;; a- in l.dunri, much more burtn. liitnui- dnm foimedy, have t:n\\vn into tiie iiands of the crown 
the (iiq^old of a very iarfr- i-v' nnc, a.al ha\ ^ enabled ilia kirig, i y the private intered and ambition 
oi' the tiicnnjcro, to rcfaam the pabiic in;c;cd and anTiiion of the boly. W;}ilv the oppodtion, (for 

we 



C II A R L K S I. 

Tiii: Kii\:^ ciili[-pc/i:-.CL\; c: j-.u ii.iiri^-iu-iry lujfKi.js, v. a> cjiigcJ i j Iwv^ r"-' :; , 
to other cxpv.;;L\;rs, \\\vi\a:{u :..;j,!v ii;:> ;r;;vi;l ik.\a-. ;":;:=. i":;c fC'.Ici-.ii' . . 
lubfiviic:, Lrwd l:;:n i,i !o;;:. li.-.ul ; .i:.d i[ !c. :;;-d biiL ii.M, I'l.ir ilr: c!c^;v llvji.J 
c():u;ibi::c to a v..'.r, \.:-.:^!i wa ., in a i^rc.u nu.ili.rc, ot tli'.ir ov.n r.i:!in!_^. IT: 
boiTowcJ iv.hy.cy t;.).i his miiiilu-rs a:n.l CuUiiiLi.- ^ ;i;iJ a> ir.;.' !i v.- ,^ 'r.c t ciovc.i 
a:i:(;n^ t!ic[]i, ch.it above ,. o.u; .) po.Mu!- \vc;e 11' i. iib;-.. ;;i a ; \\ v'uvi : I'lv/ 
notli!;!,; Lirciv iti':!i.l be nv)rc cliKu^:ccab! to a j.r;::,;e, i.hiu: el-..; i:\', rhiii i< 
be a [\.:Lhen (in h;s tricn^!;-, inltca>i o: b i..!_!, a ll.j port t') t'.cin. >j:y,c a:f:rn^;.'- 
\',ere a.-.be to.v.irhs iu:i h;.; a luan lro;n the c:L./::i3i bw ill!! iTi^hr! !v,- ::.r 
\: a:z uI libeitv, wliie'i was r.ow bcLo;i,e tiiicoiiOjUcrabie. A h/an *,,,;' ;.j,o.j 
j uunJ.s \v..> extoited ironi the Spaiiilh nui chianr-, v.!i ) liad bi.:!h ;;i i.i ti.e buv, , : , 
cx| oib.: to the atrcnipts of the Kini;-. Co.'t a:).! ( i;ii.:iicl-:r.):'. -y n r tiie loh;,,;^ 
\v.i5 levied on tiie counties- aii antient pr.w'.iee, bi.t ib|:p,,M.v! to t;e ab.d;llv.d b^. 
the pent'i n iA ri^jhr. AH the j:e[:|er \v.:. b(a:^,ht iron-; t;v b'ail-I;iJ:a-v omra; v 
upon tr.ul, and fold, at ^^rcat difcotm:, lor leaJy n\oney. A Ic'a.nie v, as yvo- 

l.(;:Ai 



v.; nu;;: ;;!! I.^imj ><i: opp k;;< n, oj-ca or ililj^iKive) (.iiiice.-i^Hi :o ;:;,.\v i.-vcr-. br.i!^:'! i^f.^.in. 
L.uaLT li.. c:\-!; /..i.lc u: j\.i 1 :.i:u;. :::, llij cuiKt.fi' ruk-;-.i.- :i [ ..: . lo tiic da.iol.I t: t:i"i.M\v;i . 
:c-.-..' ! . : ..;;'.c, I : )' wi:;,.i..;:.c 1 i t it .:;.:;c;a ].y.vc: , ii:!I ;.:..::a.!;;. .i vl-c v^c'.;!.: ;:; :._ 



'. i:;.L:i. >; in:'.'::.--J, a: .1 i.:;!(Ut t:;-; !..:>. 1-. ; .:: t > 'c.. ;;. ;.;: 
...:i;'y. f.\c; y c- jv-Ji -nt, i:;\l b-. !,:iu ...: ! (.i..:'r, r 



236 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN, 

Chap. IV. pofed for coining 2 or 300,000 pounds of bate money. Such were the extremi- 

'^^' ties to which Charles was reduced. The ireHi dilTiciilties, which, amidft tlie pre- 

fent diftrelTcs, were, every day, raifed, with regard to the payment of fliip-money, 

obliged him to exert continual acls of authority, augmented extremv.ly the dif- 

contents of the people, and increafed his indigence and nccefiltles. 

The prefent expedients, however, enabled the King, tho' with great difficulty* 
to march his army, confifting of 10,000 foot and 2000 liorfe. The Earl of Nor- 
thumberland was appointed general : I'he Ear] of Strafibrd, who w^as called over 
from Ireland, lieutenant-general: I ^ord Cor, Vv'ay, general of the horfe. Avery 
fmall fleet was thought fufficient to ferve the p-urpofes of this expedition. 

So great are the elfcds of zeal and unanimity, that the Scotch army, tho' fome- 
what fuperior, were fooner ready than the King's , and advanced to the borders of 
England. To engage them to proceed, befides their general knowlcge of the fe- 
cret difcontents of that kingdom, Lord Saville had forged a letter, in the name of 
fix noblemen, the moft confiderable of England, in which the Scotch were in- 
vited to affift their neighbours, in procuring a rcdrefs of their grievances. Not- 
vvithftanding thefe warlike preparations and hoftile attempts, the covenanters ffill 
:cr>. ofAuG-. preferved the mod pacific and moll fubmiflive language j and entered England, 
as they laid, with no other view, than to obtain accefs to the King's prefcncc-, 
and lay their humble petition at his royal feet. At Newburn upon Tyne, they 
were oppofcd by a detachment of 4500 men under Conway, who feemed relo- 
iute to difpute with them tlie paflage of the river. The Scotch firft entreated 
them, with great civility, not to flop them in their march to their gracious fove- 
.^.^thofAiio reign , and then attacked them with great bravery, killed feveral, and chaced the 
^^^''^;''' ''^^' reit from their ground. Such a panic feized the whole Englifl:) army, that the 
forces at Nevvcafllc fled immediately to Durham -, and not yet thinking them- 
i"-jlves fafe, they deferred that town, and retreated into Yorkfhire. 

Ti!" Scotch took pofTcfilon of NcwcaRle , and tho' fufficiently elated with 
their viiftory, they prefcrved exa:!" difcipiine, and perfevered in their refolution 
of paying ior every thing, in order to maintain dill the appearance of an amicable 
:orrefpondenre with England. They alfo difpitchcd meffengers to the King, 
who v/as arrived at York ; and they took care, after the advantage, which they 
had obtained, to redouble their expre'iloiis of loyalty, duty, and fubmidion 
to Ids perion, and even made apologies, full of forrow and contrition, tor their 
]:\tc victory. 

Chaki.es was in a very diftrclfed fit.iation. The nation v/as univerfally and 
highly discontented 'I'hc army \\?i'i dilcuuraged, and began likewife to be dif- 

con- 



CHARLES I. 



"37 



conrcr.'-cd, !m/Ii from tlic vnr.::\'.:.on of i^ neral c!:fj;i:ll, ar.d as .:n cxcuiV lo: 
tlinr tn .bva.iv:()iir, V. Iiu :w!;'-y \vc ic Jcii:cKis (t i.- iclciri:^!!; r.;[!.cr as v,.i;;: oi 
will cli.'.n ot (\)'ji-a c zn i'\:.\\.i. The trcaUiiv t'-u \\..v (j ;:c cxIi.'.u'.V c', ar.u cvc;:y 
tXjcJiciit ! r .1 I'lp-iv h.Ki bvr:^. ir.:\\ lo ihc lift-nnoll, \o cv-.-iit h.^ci h.i|-|vj:rj, 
ln;c wi'...!: :r.:.:;i: !. ivc been lorciVrii .'.'> nctcir.iry, or :.t ! all, very prub.ib c i ycC 
Inch \va- r':;- Kill's ficuation, tluit ik) pr(j\ ;lion coi.lJ, be nude, i.ur was even 
any re: .l:.:\v\\ taken, af^amll l\i( !i ar; cxi!_:cncv. 

!; (;:\br to prcver.t t!ic aclv.mce ot t!v.- S\o:c!i uj^on b'n";, t!;e Kin:: afrred ro a 
trciry, j.nvi nani.cl fixtecn l-".iM:;iirii noblemeii, v.ho n^cc \'.it'n eievrn '-votii ; om- ' 
rr.ilTioriers at Kippon. The I'larls ot 1 leitlore!, Bu!;n;\i, Sah:;.v.,rv, NWirwich, 
l-.:Vex, i lonand, Bnilol, and Berk'lbire, tfie L(;rds Kimbelton, \\ harto:i, IXi: ("- 
more, P.'.get, Broke, Saviile. P.iulet, and Howard ( t" l';^rh-, \\ere cho!e:i by the 
King ; all ot them popular nien, and conI'c(]uent!y liipp'jled no-wh'j avcrle to t::e 
Scotch invafion, nor uiiacccptab'e to that natuMi. 

An- addrefs arrived trom tb.e city ot' London, petitioning for a parlian'.en: ; t;".e 
great point, to which all men's prc-jecls at tliis t;mc tcn.'ed. 'I'welvc N /.-ienien 
preTcnted a petition to the lanie purp <ie. But the Kir.g cor.tenteii !,;m:e!; with 
lunmie'r/ir.g a great council ot the peers to "^'ork , a rne h'ure, which had lorir.erly 
been taken iir calcs ol ludden emergency, but wliicl:, at preleiir, could lervc 
no mar.r.er ol pLirjiofc. J'erhaps tlie King, w iio drcad.c d, above all thing-, ti.c 
houlc ol coir.mons, a:.d v. i-,o expected no fupply iicrA] tlieni on ai.y reaionabic 
term?, tlK;ughr, rluu, in Ins prefent iirg( nt dillrefles lie nvght be enabled to 
levy I'.iblalies by the aiitiiority ot tlie peers aloi'.e. Bnt tiie empl(/\ing, lo io;-,;:, 
a plea ot neCeOitv, v-hieh u as very diibmt aiui dciibr::!', lendcred it i;npoih>\e 
tor him to avail !r.:ri!eit ol a necellltv, wliicli v.,;s nov, at iall beconic real, ureter.:, 
and ii"ie\'itable. 

Bv N^ rt'numberlai'a'I's Ir. kncfs, tiie coirim.ir.d (.i' t:.e army liad devolvcvi on 
'^trafVord. '1 hat Nobleman poiieiied m(>re vig(;i;r oi n..p...: il\.\r. tr.e Ki;,.;; or any 
(jI the cocncih He ad\iird Charles ratiur to ['wt ail :.> luu.ird, than Uil^ndt to 
Inch c.nv,-f).:hy terirs .^s o>(,re .ikely t(. he ini{ o'evi vnpon inrn. 'i i.e IoIn, uniaiPi d 
at New'rur::, he laid, v.; :.,.t)r;u:L r.c 1 , a.iC, tho' a ; anit- had, : r t,.e time, 
iei/ed the aririV, tliat Was iiot;ii,.g, lliaci^,-; among r.ew lev'ied tri,.)p^; ar.d te.e 
Scotch, being m th !anie (undition, w./.Id, no do;. or, be liab!--, m t!ie;r turn, 
to a hkc accideiit. His opimcm, thcre!or<-, v,as, tieit i!.e Iv;: g lh.:uid piiih tor- 
ward, and a'taek the bi^ot^m, an. bli.g &.. .ilh.;r ;o a v; ;ii. !v deciiiiin aiul, it 
?\Lr ;.) i.Mh.e,. I Islu:, notm g \\(;;ie cooid oJai h.n,, ;. .^n v.!i.;r, Iron^ in- mr^'i- 
'. ;tv, he ^^(nh ' eeita;n;v ie e:<!^o:id to. 1 o lie "" '.--'''' calv it would 1 . lu exe- 
ii.tc this project, he orueied an ehu;mt to Le n:..d,e v., loiv.e !.]i.aK>.rs ol i:.v C-.(.L. I^ 



:.e.^ r 

1 , J. 



238 HISTORY OF GREAT B R I T A I N, 

Chap. lA'. and he gained an a.lvantiags over them. No cefiation of arms had, as yet, been 
^'"^* agreed to, during the treaty at Rippon ; yet great clamour prevailed, on account 
of this a61: of hoilility. And vv^hea it v/as knov/n, that the officer, who con- 
ducted the attack, was a papill, a violent outcry was raifed againft the King, for 
employing that hated ^^iCx.^ in the murder of his proteftant fubjeds. 

It may be wortiiy of remark, tliat feveral mutinies had arifen among the 
Engiiih ttoops, wbicn marching to join the army , and fome officers had been 
murdered, merely on the fufpicion of their being papifts. The petition of right 
had aboliClicd all courts-martial -, and by an inconvenience, which naturally at- 
tended the plan, as yet, n^;w and unformed, of regular and rigid liberty, it was 
found abfolutely impoffible for the generals to govern the army, by all the au- 
thority, which the ICing could legally confer upon them. The lawyers had de- 
clared, that martial law could not be exercifed, except in the very prefence of 
an enemy -, and becaufe it had been found requifite to execute a mutineer, the 
generals thought it advifeable, for their fafety, to apply for a pardon from the 
crov/n. This weaknefs, hov/ever, was carefully concealed from the army ; and 
Lord Conway faid, that, if any lawyer was fo imprudent as to difcovcr the fecret 
to the foldiers, it would be neceilary inftantly to refute him, and to hang the lawyer 
himfelf, by fentence of a court-martial. 

An army new levied, undifciplined, frightened, feditlous, ill-paid, and go- 
verned by no proper authority, was very unhc for v/ithflanding a viftorious 
and high-lpiiited enemy, and retaining in fubjcclion a difcontented and zealous 
nation , 
-^S of ScD. Charli:s, in defpair of being able to ilem the torrent, at lad refolvcd to yield 
to it : And as he torefaw, that the great council of the peers would advife him 
GrcT.'. courxil to Call a parliament, he told them, in his firtl fpeech, that he had already taken 
oitncpjcio. ^j^^j. i-efoJLition. He informed them likewife, that the Queen, in a letter, which 
flic had wrote to I:im, had very earneftly recommended that meafiire. This 
good Prince, who v/as extremely attached to his conlorc, and who paffionately 
wilhed to render i.cr [)0pular in the nation, iorgot not, anddft ail his diRreis, the 
intcrell cd iiis domeilic tenderncfs. 

In order t ) liibfift both armies (for the King was obliged, in order to fave the 
northern couniles, to pay his enendes) Charles wrote to the city, djiring a loan 
ot 20O5OOO jiounds. raid the lords commiffioncrs lor the tre;iiy, whofe autho- 
rity was now miich greater than that oi their Joveieign, joined in the fame requeft. 
So low v/r.s this Prince already fallen, in the eyes of his own Uibjefts! 

As niany diffjculties occurred in the negotiation w:th tlv:' Scotch, it v^as prc- 
pofed to traniier the treaty from Kippon to London A [^i-opolul willingly em- 
bra cec! 



CHAR L E S I. 



-39 



hr.i:.\i ':, ; . :; Sjotc'-, w'im \v r- :i --.v lure ol tr^-.i-'n:^ '.virii ;i.;va:ir.v;", in :\ 
\". hcr\: tlic Ki; :., rt v : ,-1 .', would !'c', ::i a iVir,::.:, .1 : ';:.;;. r, i > t! " " 



;\' 



^ I 



c II A i\ y. 

: . ._., ,, .-',-A,';j[ /'.;/:. //:./;/. .S;;-.,;"'; ./ .,./ Lr:... . .. 

i :>.J: .:>.J /: '/J/u:/:^ Jlw G/v..-/ <;::!'.:}::: 7 /'. . . . 

'!'.: I'ij'.opi i:!:i:iL:i!. Tanuigc ciiJ /';;.. '.'.m;^;'. 7 /.':,'.,'.;'. / /;;'.'. 

Stn/f/crSs trldl. lliil oj' ,:ff,i:;iJ:-/-. / .\cV.'///: v '/ >';;.;- 

/oril. ll!^b-iC'}:-/::i'-'.:: ir:J //,:r-i[\::/:j.r c:!::^: iLl.i. K. :/ ' :. - 

^ 11 I'. cMiilts (<r clJjuil, whiili, r r above tliirtv w.u", i-.a!, cvcrv (:.:v, ;\'::i 
A iiii.::'!^!} irf: 'ii ! .:::i.v;'.', vfc liow ionic to toll ni.iti;:-;*} , and t;ii\-.;::^n?d 
tlu; kiiijvloni v,;:!i t n-c !';:-(.aL P'. \n)'i;ti'i!i or ic-nvinnun. Tlu- uncertain .^nd un- 
clciKU'd !i:'nr^ c: pr( rn;i;.::: v'c and [nnsn'.'i^r had Ixcn caycriv I'lljUiiid dina: , '':a: 
^'d: '!'- ^ eriod j a^'e! in e\n ry ccnii o\-< rl\' he twcrii {nnni'e and i t cn'c, t:.c i]nL-ni. n, 
.cr liouViLd, 'uid ,.h.-. avs W \\ d/cid.d hy caJi par:;/, in tawjU;- ol it. (Avn 
j.L:.ni;ons, '1';) inh'lv n''i\^\l h\- i !,c ajvv arani'c (d niv fliry, t;;c Kin.; :..; i 
t\'cn ai:dnvd pr/ATr-;, inofMiinadhh,- v.i:'i rhc prinvipliso' 1 nn: .i !n'Vc:nr'':c'nr, 
and had r.ndrrc! ;: nni oiiddc i(n- h.; n~;<nl /caN-n- lard/m. r:n::ciy t^ '^n;n.- 
hnis c(>ndurr, exccj ' ! \- r'"ni^ fo otiiiJir-, t:.,.: r:u-,- v". ' m ni.;n' rtudi, in I'lC { ;c- 
lent dilp* li:uMi oi nv^n": mnn^, ti. nni tn.c, tlnni ap:n nn, n.c ;;.!-cTal <^.'.\._o.:.^-m, 
'i i:r)lc inn' t lii[): orts ( ! ; u'nin .nitlnnnv, law and : ^ h 'KH!, !.atl ;.L:v, nn, h\- tin" 
md^ ). \:\ 1 c \\\\ hainn' fit iwdn;'> and prelates, lod nu.i \\ < r ;!n n" nn;..en^c uviv 
I . ( r ratiiiT, n..w, .: ,. .t n,ea;uia, i^^nva (i\nr tn [..e la^.t' ul i.ciri:;, 
and ,:.n.. : i/eii t;u- Ipn ;[ o: cp; -n' itJi anv! iciieiiion. I h^ ntdnhtv, ln-.c\s i t , v. !i n. 
ti. !\;:j,:.a.; no :ne,n.s e^. r n..n,L' iv ini:n s and nrctt. imen'-. niita'n t*' :;;en- 
ranh, ha 1 heen lei/ (l\'.un t.ic pfanmd .lil^iauent, an.l unuari'. t:i:n.v t!j;nn- 
|ii'/ i,,tM t'a; IfaKn vdm li [)en ni alii'.idv t^o niULii (o } n'p^ : :e;.na- >.nni.^lc 
in ; nic ( m i(;adnnenrs, vvnxn n..d b e.. nn.dn by r\n,nn ann .p , nxi. enter- 
' n ) palcnnv (j1 tin: e, :i ]A.r.^^ \\ uiz ent;:; saUs io: i .. .; . n nn.un (. . 
: , liad ever h.' n ( ( '. :n .1 - nii :'.:. .p ; (. .n a: ^ : i . -n- nix ^d, anv! na 1.. 
> n, I t-j ; ', n . a:) ni; n.t. ; t: .. n.!.. [ m., . c ,! ; . : a. n , . e.kWj..; >. i 

ra; ^ vn Lu. ^.uU;l m.d^ . . . . . ; 



240 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. V, fupply : Their union with the popular party in England brought great accefTion 
^ ''^' of authority to the latter ; The near profped of fuccefs rouzed all the latent mur- 
murs and pretenfions of the nation, which had hitherto been held in fuch violent 
conftraint : And the torrent of general inclination and opinion ran fo ftrong 
againil the court, that the King was in no fituation to refufe any reafonable pre- 
tenfions of the popular leaders, either for defining or limiting the powers of his 
prerogative. Even many exorbitant claims, in the prefent fituation, would pro- 
bably be made, and muft neceflarily be complied with. 

The triumph of the m.alecontents over the church was not yet fo immediate or 
certain. Tho' ihe political and religious puritans mutually lent afllftance to each 
other, there were many who joined the former, and yet declined all manner of 
connexion with the latter. The hierarchy had been eflablifhed in England ever 
fince the reformation : The Romifli church, in all ages, had carefully maintained 
that form of ecclefiaiiical government : The antient fathers too bore tellimony to 
epifcopal jurifdidion : And tho' parity may feem at firft to have had place among 
chriftian paftors, the period, during which it prevailed, was fo fhort, that few 
undifputed traces of it remained in hiftory. The bifhops and their more zealous 
partizans inferred thence the divine indefeizable right of prelacy : Others regard- 
ed that inftitution as venerable and ufeful : And, if the love of novelty led fome 
to adopt the new rites and difcipline of the puritans , the reverence to antiquity 
retained many in their attachment to the liturgy and government of the church.- 
It behoved, therefore, the zealous innovators in parliament, to proceed with 
fome caution and refcrve. By promoting all meafures, which reduced the exor- 
bitant powers of the crown, they hoped to difarm the King, whom theyjuftly 
regarded, from principle, inclination, and policy, to be the determined patron 
of the hierarchy. By declaiming againft the fuppofed encroachments and tyran- 
ny of the prelates, they endeavoured to carry the nation, from a hatred of their 
perfons, to an oppofition againft their office and charatler. And v/hen men 
were inliflied in party, it would not be difficult, they thought, to lead them by 
degrees into many meafures, for which they formerly entertained the greateft 
averfion. Tho' the new fcitaries compofed nor, at firft, the majority of the na- 
tion, they v/ere inflamed, as is ufual among innovators, with extreme zeal for 
their opinions. Their unfurmountable }:)aflicn, difguifed to themfelves, as well 
as to others, under the appearance of holy fervours, was well qualified to make 
profelites, and to fcize the minds of the ignorant multitude. And one furious 
enthufiaft was able, by his a6'tive induftry, to furniount the indolent cf?jrts of 
many fobcr and reafonable antagonifts. 

Wj-IEN 



C 11 .\ ]l L 



i. 



2 ; I 



\.o.;.Lr, L\:: ..In: . .. . 
t >;.> ['J ; :v , . 



v.- 1 , t > 



... , \v ..c:'; :: \' ... . . 
!j' .i'v " ]u.'. i/A I .(.:::'-..- 

....:...; (1 pi.:;.: J .:.i..;. :-, ^o:...: :: 
. ; V i'..'i :, !l:: i;:..i;il:':v.J : 



oi ^:^.l..Oll.: v;.\: c(.;.. 
:-: :, v-li: i. !: 



. . . J I. . 



1.. 



i j : ; - i ' ; i n 



242 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chr.p. V. , enemy, being general of the king's forces, had there the chief command and 
'^''^''- authority. 

Strafford, firfS: as deputy, then as Lord lieutenant, had governed Ireland 
. during eight years with great vigilance, aclivity, and prudence, but with very 
little popuKu'iry. In a nation lO averfe to the Englilli government and religion, 
thefe very virtues v/ere fufiicient to draw on him the public hatred. The man- 
ners too and charader ot this great man, tho' to all full of courtefy, and to 
his friends full of affedion, were, at bottom, haughty, rigid, and fevere. His 
authority and influence, during the time of his govcrnmait, had been unliniit- 
ed , but no fooner did adverfity feize him, than the concealed averfion of the 
nation blazd up at once, and the IriHi parliament ufcd every expedient to ag- 
gravate the charge againft him. 

The univerfal difcontent, which prevailed in England againft the court, was 
all pointed towards the earl of Strafford , tho' without any particular reafon, bu: 
becaufe he was the miniRer of ftate, whom the King mcft favoured and mod 
trufled. His extradion was honourable, his paternal fortune confiderable : Yet 
envy attended his fudden and great elevation. And his former afibciates in po- 
pular councils, finding, that he owed his advancement to the defertion of their 
caule, reprefented him as the great apoftate of the commonwealth, whom it be- 
hoved them to facrifice, as a vidim to public juftlce. 

Strafford, fenfible of the load of popular prejudiceSj under which he la- 
boured, would gladly have deciined attendance on the parliament ; and he beg.:cd 
tlie King's permifilon to withdraw himfelf to his government of Ireland, or at 
leaft to re,nain at the head of the army in YorkPnire ^ v.'here many opportunities^ 
he hoped, would offer, by reafon of his diltance, to elude the attacks oi his 
enemies. But Charles, who had intire confidence in the liarl's capacity, tliought, 
that his councils would be extremely ufcful, during the critical ftiTion, Vvhich ap- 
proached. And when Strafford ffiil infirted on the danger of apiearing am id ft 
Ix) many enraged enemies, the King, little apprehenfive, that his own authority was 
lo fuddcnly to expire, promifed him protedion, and afllired him, that not a hair 
of his head fhould be touched by the parliament, 
nth of Nov. No fooner was Strafford's arrival known, than a concerted attack was made 
unon him in the houfe of commons. Pym, in a long, ftudiei difcourfc, divi- 
ded into many heads after his m.anncr, enumerated all the grievances, under 
which the nation laboured , and, from a complicaiion of fuch onprefTions, in- 
ferred, that a deliberate plan had been formed of changing iiiirely the frame of 
goveniment, a;;d fubveiting the antient laws and liberties of the kingdom. 

Could 



CHARLES I. 



241 



Couli! any thi r^, he (a'd, incr :;ir,- c::r iridi.^p.ition ag.iir.fi fo en'*^rmo'J5 ^[\] cri- 
iiiiiKil a priiircl, It vv; u ,i :r to liiul, tli.U, ilwrin;; 'I'..- rci-'.n (/f t:ij bc\\ c. ^ r;;'.r-s, 
the con!li:i.;ti ):i lii.i bv.-ii ciHi.;'.f':rc\'. by tlu- \V(;::1 m! fi^i-.n^crs, a:.-.! ti'.at th-; v';r ~ 
tu'js v^^t t!ic lvi;v; ii.:,i iu-cii ( Jik-c.I liy wi.l^.J an;' }.r;n;(:ous cou.'V-i'?. We nv.ll' 
inqwi'e, aJiJcl iic!, iron v.h.it loiinL.iii tlu!. w.ucis (;1 b'^-jriic;'. i.ow , aOvl ifK>' 
lioLibc c.s niany evil tounlcllors v/: 1 Lc lojiVvi to h.ivc c.)nLr:h;::.\l tii Mr t-ruica- 
vo'jrs, yet is [I'.f'rc o;.c, v.li) cji.'.llciv^ s tlic ini.'.ir.cj'.is j :c-t !nii:> :v c, vs.^i wh." 
bv iv.s coura:;-, ciucrn; r/?, a;r,l ci!).-.. ity, i in:;'.!. J ro il;c I'l'it ;;.!,>: arnon-; 
t.;!c iict: avers 01 their coJiUiy. 11 k ;s t!;c I.a.!t;t .MraHorJ, \:c..:rr.:ii^: d: Ire 
i.iil, ar,.i pr.iidciu ol t!ic co:.n:;i ut Y(.r;:, wla;, in bv,*li |)Ia'v:c.>, ar.d 11 all 
o:/.cr pr.jvincj^, where lic has b;cp. entrullcil wiih au/noriiv, h.as rallcJ. .i.r .j- 
nior.ur.i^nts of ryrupaiy, ar/.i \v!l. ap. ear, troni a lurvcy o! Iw. s.l\ov.:>, to b-j t,u' 
chici" prcKinr.cr or c^e: y aibitrary i.oii;-.ci'. S..)ni-.' i:.lLinc?j ol iriipcrious rxpr '- 
J;o.;s, as \v.:!i as acuon,", were lmvcii bv J*\:'n-, ^^ ho airirwar-vls ciucr-d ;;.: > ^ 
nv>rc pCiiona! atcac!-: o: t!iat AiinilU-r, a;^J !.iurj,.\-oured S)CX.'o;j h:s v,;:.>;j ch.i- 
ra^ujr ..n 1 nM.u-.::rs. 'i lie auil.'re ^:cnbis i t ^^lr itlbrd, ov:..iipu\l in b\e p.ir!u,:s 
t'l a!:ib;[i;M"!, \'\A no: r.i^'icrc.! his Irca ; c.l^o. ,;*ii.er ii^ac^ebii'e ^j me : n.:.-r p.i:- 
bo.ii, or ijcmL.: h.ni !r','ni bv c!o:..i..i in (>i ih;- lai; , ai;d i.i biic i...rj:i .!._<, 
v. 'i.n l!,.j irr ^jv.l.iri:: s ol i)!:-a:;:rj v.'::^ n^ore reproa :,! .1 tlian ti.e :rc^:: od.ori 
Ciii^.vj.^, li.^'l-j v.ea'invbl :; were tr;oi;;:ht \\\,T:'ny ot b.. n^. >; n:ent:;v', c\i, to.,^i-.jf 
\\i:h Ins rrca;o;';, bviwre lo grcar an nill-n.biv. And ri nn the uii'b', bn' ora- 
tor conciiid.d, th.it: :: l;^ijn.:;\i to the hnol to provide a r^niivdv [ ropo. l; nn.ib.e 
t-j t'i^ d;le.:lb, A::d I ) 1 r 'V.nC the larclier n^dein. :s, ;niby to '-j appreiiLnKled Ironi 
ti.e nid.ience, wlnJi tnnj iv.Aii in.d acquired over t'le incabn'Ci and coLinciis ol 
their roverci;_n. 

S(< John. Clc)t'.vo:r!\y an Iiini f^entlenian. Sir ])'.\:) I b.thani (: Yorkddr?^ 
and. many o[b,,r.s entered nito t!n ianie to; ns; And auer le'.eral i.nnr.-, Ipe/it :;i 
liitter invediw, vdn.cn ti'.e c'c. n^ v-ere lc eh.d, ni (.rdcr to prevciu all (.'nlnowry 
ot 'duir [^nrp-ole ; 1: wa.-^ niovid, i;-. coide'pen.e ot t!\e rvl-diition lecmb.y take;i, 
that Scraib rd llhAdndi n-n.n;edniLeiy be impc.ici.ed ol hipli tiealon. bi\is nv.tu>iA 
was reCvnved wili^ i;,.i-re l.d app: d).i:n;n ; n^r v.n.- there, in all i::e debate, 0!;c 
perfon, wiio cdbere.i to ll p thn to:r(nU by an.y ttl'LnriOny i'"' i.t"o'nr o! t'.je ba'i'-i 
conduct, l.onl Id.iisiar.d alor.e, ti.o' hno- i'. to be h;- r.v.rr./, iiiodciby Cebnxvl 
tiie hcrnle to c nfKler, \vi,ctliLr it would r.ot better lu:t ti.e p;-.i\ ity ol th.cir jno- 
C(\din:;s hi ["I to ciijell, by a cnmi-nittee, many of ti.wd' ; ari:enlars, whirh hid 
be^ 1^ meniiun.d, bi to;c tliey ftrit no an aecu'.uion ap^.dnnl ini:!. It was irn^en.u- 
onily anlwertd by l'yn% Tiiat bich a d lay nd'Oit prub.on.y blrill all tlieir hopci-', 
and put it out 01 tlieir pjwcr to proceed .my laither in liic prjlCvULion : i hat 



CI .in. V. 






244 HISTORY cf GR-EAT BRITAIN. 

Ch-:.i. ^^ v.'hcn Strafford fhould learn, that fo many of his enormities were dilcovcrcdv Ii's 
*'"'" confcicnce would dictate his condemnation -, and fo great was his po^vcr and cre- 
dit, he wou'd inimcdiaiely procure the diriblution" of the parHament, or attempt 
iome other deh:cratc meauire for his own prefervation : I'liat the commons 
\vcre oniy acculers, notjudi^es; and it was il-e province of the peers to deter- 
mine, wheti-er fuch a compiieation of enormous crimes, in one perfon, did not 
amount to the highefl; crime known by the law. V/ithout faither debate, tiie 
accufation was voted : r'ym was choftn to carry up the impeachment : jX'Iof;; of 
the houfe accompanied him on fo a;!/eeab!e an errand : And Strafford, who had 
iufi entered the houfe cf peers, and v.lio little' expecc-d fo luiffy a profecution, 
was immediately, upon this general charge, ordered into cuilody with feveral 
fymptoms of violent prejudice in his judges, as well as in his prokcutors. 
'.:*! ;.n- Ix the inquiry concernirig grievances and the ceiifure cf paft meafures, Laud 

.'CJicu. cQijjci not long elcape the fevere fcrutiny of the commons ; wf;0 were led too, in 
tlieir accufation of chat prelate, as well by their prejudices againfl: his whole or- 
der, as by O.t extrem.e antipathy, which his intemperate ze.il had drawn uoon 
him. After a dehceration, wdiich fcarce lafted halt an hour, an impeachment fo" 
hig'i treaion was refolved on againfb this fubject, the firft, both in rank and in 
favour, throughout the kingdom. Tho' this incident, confiderirvg the example 
of Strafford's impeachment and tlie prefent difpofition of the nation and parlia- 
ment, needed be no furprize to him ; yet v/as he betrayed into fome paffion, 
v/i":en the accufation was prefented. '2'be ccrii:,icns ikemjdv^s, lie faid, iho" his ac~ 
ciifers^ did nct tdiivc him guilly of tlo crime^ zvith ivhicb they charged Um : An 
inuifcretion, v/hich, next day, upon more mature deliberation, he defired leave 
to retract \ but [o little iavourable were the peers, that they refukd him this ad- 
vantage or indulgei.ce. Laud was immediately, upon this genera] charge, \-z- 
cjuefLersd liom parliament, and committed to cuilcdy. 

The ca, ita; artiek, infliled on againil thcki two great men, was the defisr 
wni h the commons kippolcd to have been f(>rmed for fiibverting the laws and 
coiiilitution Ci Kngln:ui, and introducing arbitrary and unlimited authoritv into 
the ivUigdcm. Ol all the king's minikers, no one was Jo obiioxions in this re- 
]])( et as the Lord i^eeper, rinch. ITe it was, who, being Ipcaker in tlie Kina"; 
third parliament, iiad lelc the chair, and rciiiled to put the queficn, vlicn cr- 
dcreU by t..e houle. The cxtrajuilicial opinion of the judges in the ca'e oi f!::p- 
moncy had been procured by ins intrigues, pcrhianons, and even nienaccs. [v, 
ail unpojAihnr r.nd illegal miCafures, lie was ever mofl aedive ; ar,d he was even 
believed to nave dt clared pu^diekly, that while he was keepers an o-der cf the 
council IhoLiid always v/ith him be equivalent to a law. I'o appeaic the rinn? 



c 



'' r 



i: s I, 



V.-. :.:.;;;:, ;o: : 



iC-AO. 



2^46 HISTORY OP GREAT BRITAIN. 

C'.ap.V. the perfons who had aiTumed them, declared J^/i;7jM^/f. This term was newly 
come into vogue, and expreired a degree and fpecies of guilt, not exactly known nor 
afcertained. In confequence of that determination, many of the nobility and prime 
gentry of the nation, while only exerting, as they juftly thought, the lawful rights 
of maclftracy, unexpe<ftedly iound themfelves involved in the crime of delinquency. 
And the commons reaped tliis multiplied advantage by their vote : They difarm- 
ed the crov/n , they eltablilhtid the maxim.s of rigid law and liberty; and they 
fpread the terror of their own authority. 

The writs for fliip money had been dircclcd to the fiierifFs, who v/ere requi- 
red, and even obliged under itvQfp. penalties, to adefs the fum^s upon individuals, 
and to levy tliem by their authority : Yet were all the iheriffs, and all thofe em- 
ployed in that illegal fervice, voted by a very rigorous fentence, to be delin- 
quents. The King, by the maxims ot law, could do no wrong : His minifters 
and fervants, of whatever degree, in cafe of any violation of the conilitution, 
w^re alone culpable. 

All the farmers and orTicers of the cuPcoms, who had been employed, during 
To many years, in levying tonnage and poundage and the new impofitions, were 
likewife declared criminal, and were afterwards glad to compound for a pardon 
by paying a ti:ie ot 150,000 pounds. 

Every difcretionary or arbitrary fentence of tlie ftar-chamber and high com-* 
miiTion ; courts, v.hich, from their very confticution, were arbitrary ; underwent 
a kvere fcrutiny : And all thofe, who had any hand in fuch f;:'ntences, were voted 
to be liable to the penalties of law. No minifter of the King, no member of 
the council, but what found himifelf expofed by this determ.ination. 

The judges, who had given their votes againft Klambden in the trial of fliip^ 
money, were accufed before the peers, and obliged to find fecurity for their ap- 
pearance. Berkeley, one of the judges of the king's bench, was fcizcd by order of 
the houfe, even when fitting in his tribunal ; and all men faw with aflonifhment 
the irrefift-ible authority of their jurifdidion. 

Tiir: fariCiion ol the lords and comtnons, as well as that of the King, was 
declared neciiary tor the conlirmariun of all ecclefiaitical canons : And this iud<T- 
ment, it mufl be confelkd, however rcaionable, at leaft ufeful, it would have 
been difficult to jurdfy by any precedent*. But the prefent was no time for 

qucftion 
* An aa of parliament, 25 Hon. vm. cf.p. ic. allowed the convocition with the Xin-^'s confcnt 
to make canons. By the famous aft of rubuuilioa to that Prince, the clergy bounJ thcinfflves to 
enadl no cmons witlioiit. the King's confcnt. The paill.iment was never mentioned nor thought ot*. 
Sucli pretcailoni .ia the commoub advanced at pr;lsi;t, would, in a.iy former age, have been deemed 
l\r$ v.yz ufurpr.uons. 



C II A R L E S I. 247 

qiieHion or tli'piite. T'.at c'ccii- m, which :.ho'.!rnvc; all !c[:'n.i:;ve power exec;-: C :.,-.?. V 
ti'i.it o: j).ir!ii:ri(.-tir, \v\;s rccu.:!"::.- 1 -r conv Ic.iri:.:^ th.c i/jw j '.in ot ]'.hc-;:v, ar.J ^ "^^ 
rt;:.:cr! j^ i: q.-ic i:[.;;o-iii aiui i;. !'.c:iiai!Ln!. .\^;r(,ll a'i t'.c be. '.;^ (;! bi:;-'^', 
an ! ihc nic!l cj:,!kbra^lc (/ th^- inicricjr clc::;;/, v.h') l:.u! vt : '.\ ::. t';.- i..:c co:. 
V()C.:t:-.:i, tui:nd t!:c;-::!clv(.s cxpulcJ, by thclj new p:i;,c:- 1-- , lu ti.c in. ^ ..::.;.. ,. 
ct tb b..(H!: :.cy. 

'bill, in-ir liiipoj^.bir of .I'l C !;.ir'- s's irc.i!i:rc% I'r pm.:\ \r:]-''.':' . ' 
vy r.ibv;-, an.! Cvcn, cxcrpm.; llrp n:on:rv, I'lC nu/l illv.'ab ; 

n . ..' : J.!' s lu lotiiuby abu'.iilrjvl, a:r:r I'c i:cT.irc\l ciu'cav'.L.: -, by a : : .. : 
(/I I .V b.mHTiC. S nnb.^ oi t'bs L.nii.^y; y i;.calj!\\ t .c Kn.- I^.k', (: ...::..;.:, 
rc\a..:, burini^ ihc cini;' C)t bi^ lir.l cxpcJibon a:ia;nil bccb.ii'.b iii..nv r.; ibcb- 
Cl:\:-i.c-av-^ pa:cn^, a;.d i!;.- vv'.l w re i^i;w an:i:ln!at;d by aa::.:;r!:v (,: : ariii* 
jiif.U, and every one CGnce;ncd in ibcni d^-ciared delin ::; i^tb. Tb'j CL:y\v.v:\^ 
tarried lu tar rbeu' l! tdtarion (: bds ' di i.-^ n^e.b.r.', tba: ib?v ,n;bn--,: a p/'. .r 
\s hi ii iiad :e;:'n"; any b:.:i b !.: )m pra-:bcd*,and exp lb! ail b.-;- n;"nd^-:^, w'y.j 
v.erc n'';nc;, cbn:s (,r proj ::oro : An arinicc, by wbiali, b.iine:. in n-ca.in^;; tbc.r 
C)V.n "-ivnept', d:ev \vn'.d-ei\ed ib.i larbur tiiC v;tv l.nail par;v. v. in^ii I'.w K ::::' 
i- :_:> :[- r:i^.:.:'A in b;c h''a e. Mbnn:a;. , a nr'tu; i.n;s na.nop. iid. v: b.:vi:..: .... 
lci.,n nin-.bi: wid^t f r. I'n.: pirty, was diil allowed za !nn-p in- ba::. l.\ 
;..! 1 : i. (bciiv inb'-b '.I tiicti.n-', no deb iv :\.!j ot C.:.ii'\(x\ wa-, o''ir'.- n aa.i 
I. '.n.::^^' bn :i:er V. .; lay^urd b tii.i'i b.c ade.;;on:^ and a;ta J;ir: nt ( : ', ,.r':e; 
rd;n' p.db.n;s v.e:-; t'o n-nh iieated f^ b- in.nbe.l wibi any i;.d.n: ..';:: 
),.b,Le, wbicn i^r'.-c., .nds b. popuiar as t:,n;e pn-lm d by 1!;;^ h ale c-t C-n.- 
iiic ns. 

liii. wbob lijvereipn pt^wrr b^bu"; tbn^. in a manne;-, rran: :.ana d ro :!. : :v,- 
raniS a!v! ti\e y^a rim.'-n% w;du)iiC any ieen mp \ nb : en in' lin^ad.:- :. 

in a rr.nnvn:, f:o;-n a iiiunircny, a.nio.L .n^.o.i..:tn to a \ ..re den,^ ; lac 

pc- ubn ie:.b';:-s bended V, ibn.p, tor ion;e t iiic, to b.'^'-nul liivir a.:i\e \\: :.v. 
aiai rn e n: -inbite I'.eir antbn; ;:v, 'ere tbcy p;(^:ncni.d t(^ any \ i(;ict^t exein n: .f 
jt I'.vi,!"^' (i.-v wotiiictd bav.e new haianpi.e (ii ; ,nl sni-'-n.acs Tie d::^d..- 
tion ot lotni-n- ibvnnaticn-, v-as nnnher vr.]ivv\\:c. : d i.e ;:aiv-..i v ct bi ; . :v i ,<,.- 
z. (i : Ami lin'abie t(' bif ti'ue 1; i:n: ot nee p';\ ernna. nt. aa < y,al invb'-- a* e:, v- ,? 
rx. ited, bv UK- view ol a viobilrd eonllitat.on, as by b.e i.v-ni^ei <: c.c r:,(jlt 
fTi )rni(:a!S tyra.'inv. 

Nov/ w.n tlie tin-iC, wdien p/enias an.d capaditv or ali i-and, -, trrc'd. fro:r. tbc 
rcl'^ran-t; ot autiioiity, and nonnlbed by unbunndtd in.; ^i a .d piejecis, bepn: ;. 

t xe, t 

(1. ,'('." I:i\" i* w:;- !.iit;r;-'y t.cv : I lit tl.cic arc iv;;;c .:v'a;..:t: c: .: i.. n.c. :^._ :: >.: i. ....:. a;. 
iJ'i'AS'.. [ . ^'/.. 3*;-. 



243 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAI 1h. 

C'r'--p.V. exert thc'Tiillv'cs, and be diilingulmeJ by the public. Then was celcbri^ted iht 
'"" f-igaciiy ol I'yrn, move iKted for ulc than ornament ; matured, not ch!ll-:d, by 
his advanced age and long experience : 'I'hcn was diiplaycd the migtity ambition 
cf Harnbden, laughr difguife, not moderation, from former conllrair.t ; fupporc- 
cd by courage, condudted by prudence, embeiiiined by modeily ; but whetiier 
icuniUd i-i a .eve of powiT or zeal fov liberty, is ilill, from his untimely end, 
bit doub^iiid and uncertain : Idien too were kiiown tlie dark, ardent, and dan- 
gerotis ch:ira>:l:er oi St. Jolm; tiie impetuous ibirit of [joliis, violent and Cncerc, 
open and intire in ids ennnLics and in his iViendihips ; ti:e enthuiiadic genius oi 
young Vane, extravagant in tlie end?:, which he purfia. d, figacious and pro- 
iound in the means, vvhicii he employed ; incl'ed by the appearances of religion, 
negligent cl t!;e dudes of moradty. 

oc^ lictle a]3jlogy vcuid be received for pall meafiires, lb contagious the gene- 
ral d- idt oi tdic^ntenr, that even men oi" the moil moderate tempers, and ttie 
nion: aitaclied to the church and mcnarci)y, exerted themlelvcs wich thj u:mod 
vigonr in the redrefs or grievances, and in prolccuting the authors oF tl^em. 'I'he 
livJly and anin}aLed i^^gby diiplaycd his eloquence on this occaflon, the firm and 
undai;nted Caj)^, the modeib and candid Palmer. Li this life too of patriot-rov- 
adds are iound the vii tnoiis name) ol Idyde and Falkland. Tho' in their uki- 
mate views and intentioiis tlule ni-n diiiered widely fiom the former; in their 
prcic.it actions and diicourk'g an intire concurrence and unanimity was ob- 
ieivcd. 

Bv the daily hurargues and invcvdivcs againfl: illegal uRn'pations, not only tlic 
hoide of conu-:ons h,L:a:n-.d themklves widi the Idghcii: animohty towards tiie 
ccnrt : dhiC n3tion caug'.t new fire irom t:ie ])opular leaders, and fecmcd [.o-v 
to iiave made the ikd dif'ovcry ol the many difjrders ol the government. Wiiiie 
the 1 :\v, in many indances^ fbemed to be violated, t'^ey went no lartiier than 
fonie f cret and cadi"; murniur^ , but moupted up into rage and fury, as loon as 
;he cc.:udn:udon was reiloi-cd to its iormer inrrgrity and vig ur, Idic cat)itai el- 
ptCKify, being the fat o; padiamenr, was higjiiy animated with tiie d-ir't of 
.mutiny a!-;d (hii'i.ilcdvn. I'umidts were daily rad.d ; ieditious afdm-bhes eii- 
courage.l i an.l cvr'-y man, negleding his own budnef^, was wholly intent on 
{lie dclence (d' liberty and relig'on. ily dro-^gnr contagion, the |)(;pui.:r aide- 
tie-i^s were cemmunica^ed irom bredl to bread, ir. tin;) p^aee oi genera! rendez- 
rou: an.l iO: iety. 

I.. . [.... , gUv S Ol i:i..:\.Or]'^ , .J.J i,_c p..:.'u : w:,U HiiCi 0,1 't.jei.l, KC-t ai:Ve 

rlie ^;-e-..vn'v:'.t^ eg:nn!l tiiC King's adnn;d.;ra;; an. d'ne p^-f -'t , fedv^rcd over 

to 



CHARLES 1. 



^9 



to puritanical prc.ichers and Icfturcrs, w'aom the commons arbitrarily (.-cticd .:i all ' i.-"- ' 
the confiJcrablo churjiies, rcfoundeJ with faction and fanaticii'm. Vcn;jcan^c '.va> ' ' " 
fully t.i!;en tor tli.i: lo.i;-; filcncc aiid conllrain:, in u h:c!i, by t'-.j iji'icritv o: 
Laud and t'r.c h;;',h cor.imi!ri(Mi, ihclc p:c.i hers h.ad Lvcn rcta;:ie'.!. 'I'lic prci'-, 
ireed iiv>m ..11 h-.:r or rellrvc, iVarmcd w:th |/rudu:!.io;i>, d,i :^;.*ro..5 bv th::r \t- 
liitiou^ /c'.il ar.J. Cal.ipnny, m^'i'^ c'un by a;iy <\\:. nr ( iv-.-ccwCc v-m c* mr'x't on. 
Noile And Uiry, i ant and hy[)ucrily, torrr.ed t';c lulc r/iC'oiic, v,i.!,!i, d..;r::, i'.\., 
tunv..;t t)l v'.riuu:^ prt-iudiceb a:ul [Mlllons, could b- h.c.ird rr ..ttcr.d.vi t). 

Ti--.: It'Vcre le;ir(.-nc'', uliich h.\d ben executed, a^'^iiiif" I'rvr.ne, Baii.v'e, a;-,d 
Burt'^n, nuw lliltlred a levilal troni parl;;inxT.t. T'r.jle h'jcheis, tar h-o:n !x'i.;. , 
c.ir.x-d by the rigorous punillmienrs. whicli tlvjy liad u.'.d.er^;jn.-, Ilvwed Ibil j. 
cirpolitio:! of repoaiin-'; their (jfience ; aiui the iv.iaiiai.i were a;ra'.d, left 
new faryres ihould iifue iruni their piifons, and in;hi:i-.e ihil f.ir:lier tiie 
prevailing; (.iifcun.cnt?. By an crder, th.ercloie, o! tlie council, they i.a.i be. m 
rem';ved to reniote prilons , Billwic to ^^e!l!y, Pryri.ie to Jerley, I^urto.n tj 
Gujrnrc-v , all accc Is to th.em was denieJ. , ami the uf^ of bou!s.s. and. cf pe,i> 
ink andi paper, was reluled them. TJ-.e ientencc tor thefe ad.vi.t!0;\.l pu;-,'!]rne:us 
wa.s imnx'diatcly rcverlctl by the comnions : Lven the iirfl lenter.ce, up va exa- 
mination, was declared dlega! \ and the judp^e?, v.dio palled i:, were rr.lere ' : ) 
make r^'paratlon to t!ie iuiiertrs. Wd'^en t;;e priloners hniJ.ed in lvn,p!a..d, tl.jy 
wcic ru'civvdi ;ir.d cntert.nnetl uiih the hipliell ilenioe.llr.itlui.s c'l aliVv:: xa, sser^ 
attended ul:h a mi^htv conikicncc ot compaiiy, (lien- cliarii^s were home v.ini 
p,reat nia!:niiiee;u c, and lil^-ral prchaits bi.'llc)V.\.d ontl'.Lm, On tli.'ir a;-jnT'aeh 
to any tO'Wn, the whole iiduib;rant>. crowded to r^e. i\-e th.n% a:id v,-v\:o:\::d tl'.cir 
rccc[>tion \v;th diouts a.nd acclam.itlon'^. 1 le.ir tr.iiii ib.d 'Ir.cre.ikd, e.s t'-.^y Jrcw 
near to Lor,;'on. Several niihs trom the c;:y, tn /.e.ilots 'i th.,;r; ..rrv m. : :I;,'ni 
i:\ ^reat multitudes and attended their tr;u:nphal e.;:r.u-Je : B .:pl> w.-re > .ir- 
iled in fin tunv.druous proccih.<;n ; tfie ro.iLl^ ilrov.cd v,:ti; r:',.\ve;>-, .ir.d anih::*. 
the hir.heil cXLilt.aions (jl ii.)v, were internrn le 1 h ud. M'.d viru ;;.: niv.'Cv'.ws 
ae;a;nll tlie p; elates, who ha! ll)e;..el!y j- rlvciiti..! lueh po.hy p.i'onip <. rh- 
u:ore i':n ^bh theh- n:en v.tii', il:C nie:\' :enh'-h- w.v^ tin- m:...: up :; !v;y.i' ..,:[' ). 
nry, ^..d tl..- n;orv- d..::: rous v. .i , the 1. uitc'i dn: ii^CLn n ana n....:nv, wh. h 
It d\ cvA'er-.d amon.; ihe pr j'le. 

] ;i.:;raN i:, I .^'l hton, an.ifv.e-', c-ne, who h.id Iv ( ;i ..,;:.h-J t'.r ]\":. 
hi Ci - durin[^ the pr- Ci'.enr iuin,i;,iilr.ii:on, :io\\ nrv;^-; ' , ' e y, :n, i '., . 

vher;r '. damapc-> (ju tlic juu;'. '^ .uni minnl r> ! ' ..,;.. 

\ onlv the : r'-tr;,t eii. .>li- >^ 1 ct \\r\\v: . . p', : ' 

;. ; : .\ ', '. : eth;..l ui h.ui : . a-, i w..; d ; 



250 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

:h'p. V. of popular difcontent. Petitions to parliament were drawn, craving redrefs 
^'^'^'^" afyainft particular grievances \ and when a fufficient number of fubfcriptions were 
procured, the petitions were prefentcd to the commons, and immediately pub- 
lifhed. Ihefe petitions became fecret bonds of airociaticn amsong the fubfcribers, 
and fbemed to give undoubted fandtion and authority to the complaintSj which 
they contained. 

'Tis pretended by hiftorians favourable to the royal caufe*, and even afferted 
by the King himfelf in a declaration-]-, that a moll difmgenuous or rather crimi- 
nal praflice prevailed, in conducting many of thefe addreffes. A petition was 
firft iramed -, moderate, reafonable, fuch as men of character willingly fubfcrlbed. 
The names were afterwards torn off, and affixed to another petition, which 
ferved better the purpofes of the popular faction. We may judge of the wnid 
fury, which prevailed throughout the nation, v,'hcn fo fcandalous an impoflurca 
which affeded fuch numbers of people, could be openly pradtifed, without draw- 
ing infamy and ruin upon the managers. 

So many grievances were offered, both by the members, and by petitions 
without doors, that the houfe was divided into above forty committees, charg- 
ed, each of them, with the examination of fome particular violation of law and 
liberty, which had been complained of. Bcfides the general committees of reli- 
gion, trade, privileges, laws ; many fubdivifions of thefe were framed, and a 
ftridl fcrutiny was every where carried on. ''Tis to be remarked, that, before the 
beginning of this century, when the parliament affumed lefs influence and autho- 
jiiv, complaints of grievances were ufually prefented to the houfe, by any mem- 
bers, who had had particular opportunity of obferving them. Thefe general 
committees, which were a kind of inquififorial court?, had not then been eftablifh- 
ed ; and we find, that the King, in a former declaration J, complains loudly of 
this innovation, fo little favourable to royal authority. But never was ^o mudi 
tnultiplied, as at prefent, the ufe of thefe committees; and the commons, tho* 
ihcy themfelvcs were the greateft innovators, em.ployed the ufual artifice of com- 
plaining againll innovations, and pretending to recover the antient and eftabliPned 
'overnment. 

TRO-M the reports of their committees, the houfe daily paffed votes, which 
mortified and ailonifhcd the court, and enflamed and animated the nation. Ship- 
nioney was declared illegal and arbitrary ; the fentence againft Hambden cancel- 
led; the court of York abohfhed ; compofitions oi knighthood ftigmatized ; the 
er.krgement of the foreils condemned j patents for monopolies annulled ; and 
every late mcafure of the adminitlration treated with reproach and obloquy, lb 

day, 

* Dui^dalc, C.Ui:cr.(.'cii, | Hufb, Coll. p. 536. ;t Publilhed on difiblving the third 

^r:;a:.UL:,-. 



CHARLES I. 



-: : f 



day, a fentence of the (lar-chanibir was cxclalmccl ag.iir.ll : To ii-.o.iow, a dc- ^ -? ^ 
cree of tlie high cominifTion. I-"\-cry difcrcLJonaiy act of fj.:i:!l was ri'p:Ci'."^.:r 1 ' 
as arbitrary an.i tviam ica! : And th;- general iritt-rci-.cc wa- l^.i i !:,.Ai',ca:cJ. i'., 
a formed dcfign h.'.d been Li'kl to fabvcrt tl;e who'.c law-. a:;d ror:ii.:..:;on ti i' * 
kingdom. 

From ncccfntv, t!;c King rcni.^incv' Ci\i\:c',y [y-SLvr i'- ': .; :.'i t'^Jt* viovi:' 
operanor.s, 'l'!ic t,\v f-iv.;nt,,, v.lio cor.:::-,i;cd faichfi.! to l-..;r, v-'i^.- f / .! \vim 
nllor.in^.m.ent at t'r.e v.v.rxl nrogrcls macU- bv c'u; co:r.nv.j:-s in > ov r .. :; 1 -- 
rip.-, an'J. v.tfc g'.ad, by their inaciivc a::J, ir.(.!]'cr,fivc bv!,a\ic-.r, to cv^:::; 
im; unirv. The torrent rifing to fo cltcail:'.;! a'-d iiiicxprJ'.cJ a lie;'.;:.:, ^.l- -.i-. 
lc;-/ed all t'-.ofc, who, from intermit or habit-, were ir.'Al atr.x'itd 'o r.-.onar.i'.v 
And as tor thofe, who ir.aintained t!icir di.ty to tiie Kir-r, HKr-iv ironi ti:c;r re- 
gard to the con'dtution, they fccmed, by their c>'ncL;:rc:.ce, to iwt'.l tl'.at iir^r. 
dation, which began ah-eady to t:t:U:ge every tiling. ' You !:ave taken t!ic wly '. 
" niaciiine of g'n'ernment in piece.-," faid Charles in a dileourlc to i'.ic pariia- 
nient -, " a practice frccjiient widi Ikilful artiils, \v!;en tlvey cieiirc lo cl-.ir tiic 
*' wlx-els lr(;ni any rull, which niay have grown upo:i tiv/m. 'J"he engine, " con- 
tinued 1". , " n-,av ag,.:iin be reilored to its former life and nioti(n>, p.-()V:dcd it be 
*' p'.it nil eiuire ; fo a=> not a j in of it be wenuin^;." But tliis was iar from the 
intentio:; of tliC commoiv-. 'J'he machi'-.e, tivy tlioug'ic \\i:\\ Ijrr.c realo;,, was 
encL'.mbercd wich man.y wIkcN and: fprin-xs, winch rcMr^icd! and i rolled i:< c-peia- 
tiop.s, ;ind ciciboycd its utility. 1 la; j;y ' had ti.ev [eoeeed.cd. wit!) modera- 
tion, ;:n ! in en curitei'tccl, in tf.eir prcleiit |deniti:de o! power, to remo\'c i'^^:'.\ 
p.arr-^ o:dv as irn dit ]-dliy be deen'.ed hip'rd.uou- nnd i:;v ngru> >.;<. 

I\ order to n^ainrain that high ai.;t!.o:i:v wlucli tliev h.ui a.'cjuired, t!;e e -m- 
rr;oi;s, b Hdes c"onicn. lading and (^\' r.iw ;'g t !-:eir op--' meU'-, n;dgv-d :t i'e.p.dite to 



'^" .--i; d 'OS puritans to vd.ole addlai^^e and go )d odx^ - tiu-y w; :c a!rea 'y lb 
1, ' 



in!j ire c^ura;^^^' into the;r Ir;enc!s :u,d ac:;;c:cnt- ; \ .u-t:e.,!.ir!y into t! e Se> t. :;, and 

t!ie 

rnticli ;:. n.o.t' 'n. 

N(j f ;o:'! r 'Acre the Scw'^'i nvulers ot t;;e iiu/tlu ; n cetnitie; , th.m t'tev ].i A 
afide tlien" ;h ;1 prufeldons, v. h:c ii tin , lian not ::.. to u.ppu: t, i. p.v- 

ing tor c V; ry tidng ; .uid in (.rder ro p: e\-en: the d .' ... .^e' ' -hn.d.r 
.\:\.\ l.-ee cjua:te: s. t e i.oeet:-y ec n!. nte.l to .d^e e.e ;a r ...'...v ^ te^n ( i 

V-,0 I ();,nd>, a d.iy, in f.d. of du'u- h.:dd.n..n 'ih;e ; .nh..: : .,-, that t h: 

reieve tiie nfiitli ;n t nun::^s i.xnn lo ;:;heV' \: , ,. > , .; jerd to :\:: .: \..:y 

'o t..e h. (Jteli, a-. v.\ il .., to the' "h -n^-.-; ... ' ' ' v.- h' ' 

hv;e'.; too djv.'y \ui lo urge;,: ,.-, . . n.enc , , .. 



KMO. 



252 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

CK-^.p. V. zens upon the fecurity of particular members. Two fubfidies, a very fmall 
fum *, were at full voted; and as the intention of this fupply was to indemnify 
the members, who, by their private, had fupported pubUc credit, this pretence 
was immediately laid hold of, and the m.oney was ordered to be paid, not into 
the treafury, but into commilTioners appointed by parliament : A practice, which, 
as it ciimiiiiihed the autliority of the crown, v/as very wilhngly embraced, and 
was afterwards continued by the commons, with regard to every branch of reve- 
nue which they granted the King. The invafion of the Scotch had evidently 
been the caufe of affem-bling the parliament : The prefence of their armiy re- 
duced the King to that total fubjeclion in which he was now held : The com.- 
mons, for this reafon, very openly profeffed their intention of retaining thefe 
invaders till all their enemies fliould be fupprefled, and all their purpofes effeded. 
We cannot yet [pare the Scotch, faid Strode plainly in the houfe -, the fons of Zerviah 
are jlill too Jlrong for iis : An allufion to a paffage of the fcripture, according to 
the m,ode of that age. Eighty thoufand pounds a- month was requifite for the 
fubfiflence of the two armies ; a fum much greater than the kingdom had ever 
been accuftomed, in any former period, to pay to the public. And tho' feveral 
fubfidies, together with a poll-tax, were, from time to time, voted to anfwer the 
charge \ the commons took care liill to be in debt, in or Jer to render the con- 
tinuance of the feinon the more neceffary. 

The Scotch being fuch ufcful allies to the malecontent party in England, no 
wonder they were courted with the molt unlimited complaifance and the mod im- 
portant i'ervices. The King, in his firlt fpeech, having called them rebels.^ ob- 
f.rved, that he had given great orUnce to the parliament i and he was imme- 
diately obliged to foftcn, and even retract that expreiTion. The Scotch com- 
miflioncrSj of whom the moil coniiderable were the Earl of Rothes and Lord 
Louden, found every advantage in conducing their treaty , and yet made no 
hafte in bringing it to an iffue. I'hey v'ere lodged in the city, and kept an inti- 
mate correfpondtnce, as well with the magiitrates, who were extremely difaffect- 
ed, as with tlie popular leaders in both houfes. St. Antholinc's church was af- 
figncd them for their devotions ; and their chaplains, here, began openly to prac- 
tifc the prtfbyttrian form of worfliip, which, except in foreign lauguages, had 
nfver hitherto been allowed any indulgence or toleration. So violent was the 
jjeneial prop.nfity tov/ards tliis new religion, that multitudes of all ranks crowd- 
ed into the church. Thofe, v/ho were fo happy as to Bnd accefs early in the 
morninp;, kept their places the whole day : 'I'hofe, who were excluded, clung 
to tlie doors or windows, in hopes of catching, at leall, fome dittant murmurs or 

broken 

* It appears, tiiat a i^\j^\<l-j was now Ikllcn to rc.cco pounds. 



CHARLES I. 



.^ J 



broken phrafes of the holy rhetoric. All the cloquciirc of parlia:r,Lr.r, r.f),v well 
rciincd noni j)cchiiury, ariimatcd v.i:li ti.c Ipirit ot hl^-rry, and c.ipMoyc i in 
iucii importan: iiucrcils, was not attended t.; vvicli k:d\ i:sr..ti.il'>!c avu'.itv, .-.s 
were dicle Icetarcs delivered witli ridiculo'js cant, and a provii-.^ia! accc:u, {..!i 
oi bar'.va: ii'ni and ut ignorance. 

Tin: mod citecUial expedient for p.iyin.g C'>i.;t to t;-.-: z:a!o;:- Sc/,.!! v,.., to 
promote t!iC prcihytcrian dirciplir:e and worfld,' ti-.ro.. .l^ei;: I ::.:'.a:-,^; ; a:..l t ) 
this innovadon, the popular leaders among t'.ie con-imo:'.s as wcii ..^ il'.eir moll 
devoted parti/.'.ns v.crc, of thtmlllves, rutFkiently ip.clined. '1 i.c j i.iiM.'-.ca! 
party, whole progrels, tiio' Iccret, had h.itherto been gradual in t!ie k:;.:;.i',!n, 
taking atlvan'age ot the prelent dilorders, began orenly to pvoiels tluir : net^, 
aiui to make turioViS attacks on the tllabldhed religior^ The [M'ev.d- nee ( ; i\..:i 
iect in the parliament difcovercj itlel', from t'le bvginninL;, by inler.lib'.e, h::: d.- 
ciiive rvm[itom';. Marlliall and EurnUs, two puritanical ek r.uyn.c^n, \v; re c'.M,!,n 
to prcacli before thcn% and entertained them, with difcourfes Icveii l.oi.is in length. 
k being the cuitom oi tb.e houfe always to take the f.icrament bef .re th-y ciuered 
upon biifincfs, they ordered, as a necclbary prelimiiary, tiiat tlie communis a t ible 
fliould be rcnioved tvum tiic eall e:,di oi M. Margaiet',, into ti^e ir.kidle ot liie area. 
l"hc name of the ''piritu.i! ^..Is was ccnimcniy lelt out m arts ot juiriianiei.t , ar.d 
t'-iC lav.b rail in name ol t!ie king, k.rc.s, .nul conimons. Tlie cierk ol the i.;[)er 
hoi::e, in reading b.ik;, tiiii^d iv.s b.:*.!; o-n tlie bench (jI bilhops ; nor '.' ,.~ .. 
inlolence ever taken notice o:. On a c'.a; .ij pointedi ;or a l.jlen.n tall .ind Imnn- 
liation, tl'.j v.'hoie or :eis or tcn'poral [kxi^, contrary to ivirmer practice, in g i.i ', 
to ce.ur>.li, t(Jok place ot the Ij.i: itu.i': -, a:, J. ti.e Lord, .^j'cr.^cr remarked, that L!;e 
hun'iiiianon, that day, fLcmed. cu:;:i;ieu a.u.e to tlic p'relar^ .. 

b'.vcRV mcetir.g ol the c> nimons pr'.CiLieed lome ^'e!^eme;lt haran:'i:e aga r.ll . 
the ulurpatioi'is ot the bilhors, agair.ft le,'- ii:g!i C(;mmiri,on, .'gal.ni tt'.e lite con- 
vocation, ag iin!l trie new ce.non: . So diigviiiedi \'.ere all iuvcr^ ol c.vd l.be;ry 



at the i.b.v:ii UK'S [promoted, by tne ei'.igy, tnat ine 
out c-en;i cul ; and no diilireiio:!, .it bil' 



t I 



; eai 



,< 



eetween 'uc.i 



to r^nre!-. :hc Lxorbitaiicci ^A tne eieraieev, and lucii 
annihilate cplleopal jiMaidi.ti n. Ineonraged by the!, 
petit iuns againll the choiLii ^. eie !:,-:r.cd m d.Jierent part.-^ i. 
[);thet ol tiic ignoi"a:it an * v:eioi> prit H I'.ood was comn:oni\ 



iav..;r.bl- 



tne '.-.in: 



rece.N'Cvl \'. h:i- 
a- d. hr.d . illy 
'e.: terallv to 
ear.m \^-, 
en. 'll.c 



nvni, addicted to the etl.a>hihed. e.iup i:: 
in. j-.nej'-.d. , tluring that . ge, k^.n :" 
ently kained and examphu-y. /vii .;.1>' 
tv.clvc ck; ;'.\ men to the comnv.itce oi 



(>: 



lo 



n 



n i 
tliu' I 



,.\vc 



- y- 



, I. 



o i 



a:e .U 
V v.. 

lenvled t 



bed '.I > .;!. eli'.n\ 
.rp,.^.dck;-. 
pxk:. 
.., pM 



en 



V I 

1 ! 



Chip. V. 
r -.o. 



254 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chip. V. many hundreds of the puritanical perfuafion. But what made moft noife was 
* '*'' the city petition for a total alteration of church government ; a petition, to 
which 15,000 fubfcriptions were annexed, and which was prefented by Alder- 
man Pennington, the city-member. 'Tis remarkable, that, among the many 
ecclefiaftical abufes, there complained of, an allowance, given by the licencers 
of books, to publifh a trandation of Ovid's Art of Love, is not forgot by thefe 
ruftic cenfors. 

Notwithstanding the favourable difpofition of the people, the leaders in 
the houfe refolved to proceed with caution. They introduced a bill for prohi- 
biting all clergymen the exercife of any civil office. As a confequence, the 
billiops were to be deprived of their feats in the houfe of peers; a meafure not unac- 
ceptable to the zealous friends of liberty, who obferved, with regret, the devoted 
attachment of that order to the will of the monarch. But when this bill was ' 
prefented to the peers, it was rejefted by a great majority : The firft check which 
the commons had received in their popular career, and a prognoftic of what they 
might afterwards exped from the upper houfe, whofe inclinations and intereft 
could never be totally feparated from the throne. But to (how how little they 
were difcouraged, the puritans immediately brought in another bill for the total 
abolition of epifcopacy -, tho' they thought proper to let that bill fleep at prefent, 
in expectation of a more favourable opportunity for reviving it. 

AiMON'G other adls of regal, executive power, which the commons were every 
day affuming, they iffued orders for the demolifhing all images, altars, crucifixes. 
The zealous Sir Robert Harley, to whom the execution of thefe orders was com- 
mitted, removed all crofTes even out of ftreets and markets -, and from his 
abhorrence to that fuperftitious figure, would not any where allow two pieces of 
wood or ftone to lie over each other at right angles. 

The Bifiiop of Ely and other clergymen were attacked on account of innova- 
tions. Cozens, v/ho had long been obnoxious, was expofed to new cenfures. 
This prrfon, who v/as dean of Peterborough, was extremely zealous for ecclefi- 
afl:ical ceremonies : And fo far from permitting the communicants to break the 
facramental bread with their fingers ; a privilege on which tlie puritans very 
llrcnuoufly infixed ; he would not fo much as allow it to be cut with an ordinary 
houfhold inftrumcnt. A confecrated knife muft perform that f.icred office, and 
mud never afterwards be profaned by any vulgar fervice. 

Cc/.EXs hkewife was accufed of having faid, The Ki'ig has no more authority in 
caitfiajl'cnl matters^ than the hoy ivho ruhi my hcrfe's hcds. The expreiTion was 
violent : But 'tis certain, that all thofc high churchujen, who were fo induflrious 

in 



CHARLES I. 



2C 



:>3 



in reducing the laity to lubmilTion, were cxtretiiely toiivl of tiicir own ]^riv;! ij^r% ^' "T- '^' 
and inJcnendcncy, and were dcfirous of exempting the miirc from all l..b:rct;u;i ' ' 

to I lie cio.vn. 

A coniir.irtc-e \v.is eiriltd ry t!;c common? a^. a c* urr (j( ]:-<n:\(]v( n i::>o:i the 
clcr^v, :,r.'.i Aas conur.uii.y dei'jominatecl tlic cf>iMni::LL' o: i .'?,' .7/ ;.;;;/ ;.rT. 
'1 Kv [ o.::ic!.!;.s ariion^ tlic comn'.ons were a;-; i./xd vj I'.r ujcm ::.i: "r(.::v:- (.rtl'.s 
pu!' it ;or ^iLii.imj, ti.c people ; tliC Ivn^o:^ ui ;. cTr|^:.d .1 . -cal 

c:crjj;y ; m\.: bjili ol tb.cm knew, tluic ihj clt.':l>liiht.i iiuvcTiinu-;,: coi.i^i be ovar- 
ii. :\/.v;i by oblcrvliig ihivily ih-c priiuiplcs o! jull.cc, f.j'uicy, or ciciiv.ncv. i he 
piece ir.^E, tiicrclorc, of tliis JamoDS Lonin.;iC(.e, u 'iicii con:ii,ii;tl it r Ic^cial 
years, were, to the lall c'egree, cruel and aibitrary, ;.iui riiade ciuadl;.; ii ;\oc 
LolIi on tl-.c church and the iini\'eiriLiLS. 'i'li-y bt<i,...". v. itii iiar..!];::!,;, nr.} ri;'.;n- 
ing, and moieiling the clergy i .;nd Ci.ded v.iiii lcc.:e!:! in'j; ar.ci (:ec:inn ilicm. 
In order to loin cor/.-.meiy Co crii.;:y, th.y ga'. e the iuff.rerri [lu cpitiu-te!" :\c^<i- 
^'j.i.7j, and ende^.voiired to render ti^eni as odio..^ a; il.ey v,ei\ mil.rab!.. 'I'iie 
utmcil '.ice, huwever, wiwcli tiiey could re^-ruacii to a great par: of ti.ein, v.cre, 
bov.i. g ;iL l!:.- r.ame C)' JlI'^.s j lacing the communion- tabli- :;-. tlic ea;., :..iaing 
t:.e King's o:\\ rs tor Ipurts on Suiiday, and oilier pra^u^cs, uln.Ii the e:;aci:i]icd 
govcrn:v,er,:, buih in eiiurcii dnd llaee, had liri.ily ennjiiud. tl'.cni. 

I i- may bj wortli txlerving, t'lac al the hillonan-, who \i\w\ near r!,ar .ire, 
or \sh.it j-'eih.-i^ is mure c'eciiive, all authors, v. ho have talu.ihy m.ale iiie:.iiun .i 
tliole [Aibiic tra.il.idions, ilhl reprellnt the civil dilorders and convuiliuiis aigio- 
Cv. cling ir m religious contrvjverly, and conlider tiie [ olirica; diiputcs ..b )u: p;\\; r 
^xnd liberty .iS inincly !ubordn..ite to t!ic urher. 'lis true, l;ad (lie K-:)::, btcn 
able to ablbnn irom all invabon (1 nation, d privilci-e-, it lo nor }.':c b.i.bi;-, iliaL 
tlie p-uritauo e\'cr cuuld have acquired Inch autliority rts to overturn the ulio'.c 
ccnitiiution : "I'et to entire v.a. tl'.e lu' jccLion iiiro w;/n.ji Llnnie^ wa^ no'.'.' :.:l.en, 
that, ir th.e woui d liad. lu t Ixcn poilo:.ed by the imi.iion (d th'oIcgicai initre^l, 
it mull i..i\'e aJnr.itte*.; 01 .1 \'ery '.w'y renv.dy. D'lule o! parii.U'uents, in"jj::n\,n- 
ment a;.d i \\ .'Icution of nienubers, ihip-ir-oney, an arb::r.:ry an.d ibegal aJ.nuni- 



(Iratiejn ; tbel/ v.ere iouJ'y con'piuin.d ol 



but t;-,e glilvance^, \N!nc!i tcn.icd 
chiedv to tnibime the \\.r lauicnt and 'nation, cljeciall)- the latter, v, -re, the !ur- 
j lice, the rail- ]dacLd aluut ti.e abar, the bo^ s exacted on an; u.ach ng 1:, tbe 
bLuri.:V, the i r.ach of t!:C la'x^atii, (nd)roibered co; . s l.i^'- n-:\c\vi^. tlie ule of 
t; ( rn,:^ in mirrnig'-, uud oi the crols in bap'Um. C). .:L.<.;n;t cl tiale, v.c;rc 
no:h jarti'-?> ((mtentul ro tlncr.v ilie g'-)vernm;-nr into i.:^]\ \ioicnt cor.vulllon- ; 
UaI to ti^.e dilgra-ce of that a^e ai'.d oi tins illand, it rn..;l be aekr.owleged, that 
2 ^ the 



256 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap.V. tbediforders in Scotland intirely, and thofe in England moflly, proceeded from 
^ '''^' fo mean and contemptible an organ *. 

Some pcrfons, partial to the leaders, who now defended -public liberty, have 
ventured to put them in ballance with the moft illuftrious characters of antiquity ; 
and mention the names of Pym, Hambden, Vane, as a juft parallel to thofe of 
Cato, Brutus, Caflius. Profound capacity, indeed, undaunted courage, extenfive 
entcrprize ; in thefe particulars, perhaps the Roman do not much furpafs the 
Englifh patriots : But what a difference, when the difcourfe, condu6t, conver- 
fation, and private as well as public behaviour, of both are infpeded ? Compare 
only one circumftance, and confider its coniequences. The leizure of thofe no- 
ble aniients were totally employed in the lludy of Grecian eloquence and philofo- 
phy ; in the cultivation of polite letters and civilized fociety : The whole dif- 
courfe and language of the moderns were polluted with myfterious jargon, and 
full of the loweft and moll vulgar hypocrify. 

The lav/s, as they flood at prefent, protedled the church ; but they expofed 
the catholics to the utmoft rage of the puritans -, and thefe unhappy religioniils, 
fo obnoxious to the prevailing fed, could not hope to remain long unmolefted. 
The voluntary contribution, which they had made, in order to afTill the King 
in his war againft the Scotch covenanters, was inquired into, and reprefented as 
the greatefl enormity. By an addrefs from the commons, all officers of that re- 
ligion were removed from the army, and application was made to the King for 
feizing tv/o thirds of recufants' lands ; a proportion to which, by law, he was 
intitled, but which he had always allowed them to poflefs upon very eafy compo- 
fitions. The fevere and bloody laws againft priefts were infilled on : And one 
Goodman, a jefuit, who was found in prifon, was condemned to a capital punifli- 
rnent. Charles however, agreeable to his ufual principles, fcrtipled to fign the 
v^arrant for his execution , and the commons expreffed great refentment on 
that occafion. There remains a very fingular petition of Goodman, beg- 
ging to be hanged, rather than prove a fource of contention between 
the King and his people. He efcaped with his life , but it feems more pro- 
bable, that he was overlooked, amidll affairs of greater confequence, than that 
fuch unrelenting hatred would be foftcned by any confidcration ol" his courage and 
generofity. 

For 

* Lcicl Clarendon fays, that the parlia-r i-ntary part}- ucre not agreed abdut tlu rr.tirc abolition of 
epifcopacy : I'licy v.crc only the root a.':.-/ I rcii'ih irxn, as tlicy v/crc calkcl, \\ ho iirfMlcJ on that nieafure. 
But thofe wlio wcic willing to retain blfliop;-, infilled on reducing their authority to a low ebb ; as well 
as on abolifiiing the ceremonies of worQiip and veihnents of tlie clergy, 'i'hc controverfv, thcicrorc, 
betwcenlhc particb wai alinoil wliolly tlicological, and that of the moit frivoioui and ridiciuous kind. 



CHARLES r. 



257 



I'.'j^. 



For fomc years, Con, a Scotchman, afterwards, Rofetti, an Italian, had op.ri- '^^^r- "^ 
ly refidcd at London, and trc-ijucntcd the court, as veiled with a commiflion trom 
the Pope, 'ihe (Queen's /cal, and her authority witii her hulband, lud been eh-; 
Ciulc ot this iniprudcnc , lo oti. nfivc to the nanon. Hut tb.e Ij irjt ot b gotry 
now role too liigli to permit any lonj;er luch indL.igeni.ci,. 

MAyw\f>P, a jutlicc ot peace, havmp; been wounded, when en'.ployed in the 
exercile or hs ofbce, by one James ^ catliolic ma.lm.in, this enornv.rv w.is afcri- 
bed t'> the po;)cry, no: to tiie tVen/.y ot the alfjlli.! , anii great aii-ns lo/ed t!ie 
nanon and parliament. An univcrlal confpiracy ot the j^api^U was luppo'.cd to 
h i\e taken place , and every man, lor iome days, imagined, that he Iiad alAcrii 
ar Ins tliroat. Tho' lome {)errons of tarn ly and di!lin:tion were fl;!i attached to 
[he catholic hiixTllition ; 'cis certain, tha- t!ie nvimb.TS ot tii.it led ciid notcom- 
}^olc the lortiefh }):irt oi t!'.e nation: And t'r.c Irequc.u pa::;c5, to w.'.ich rr.en^ 
durir.g this ['ciod, were Ij Ijb.cct, on acc- ui^.t or" tiie cathu!ic<, wcr- lefs tiie et- 
lecLs ot le.i'.-, t!:an ot extreme rage and aveiiion, entcrtair.cJ >r:,ii:.ll th-ir. 

I'm: (^:ec:i Mother ot France, liaving txen iorced into b i;,i!]'. mT.t by forne 
court-imri.^ucs, liad retired into l'',n;;!:ir.d. ^ and. expected flic'tvr, anv!,:ll her pie- 
Icnc did:v:i"--s. in t;:e domiiiions ot her t:.iu;:Ii:cr a:.l i'^n in-!.i\v. Hur, th-/ (li- 
hcliaved :n tiie moii; inufieniive mn-nur, liie wa, inlL!:e.', by t!ie p'j,.uiace on ae- 
CGU!'.: ot l.er religion ; and was even tiirea'.er,ed \vi:!i worte ti\at:nent. 'i'!ie harl 
ot I loiiand. Lord hentenaru of M:d(.ih lev, hi ul ordered a liundred miii'.jueteer^ 
to 'uard iier-, but tiin.ii;,g, that tiu-y had nr.bi'-ed i.'^e l.m.e \ re'ULiices wr,!i th..; 
relt ot tiuir country-ir.ei), and were very unwiii:ng!y employed. v.\ Ij.l'a a I'ervire, 
he laid the cale bctore the hou'.- ot [veers : For the Kir.g's authority v.-.;<; n')\v ir.tireiy 
anniliilated. 1 le r.prefented th.c indign-ty (^1 ti'.e a::ion, tl'.at lo gr'-at a i*r:u- 
cefs, moiiier to the Knig o: J-'rance, and to tlie (^:eens oi Spain and I'",ng!and, 
n^.ould be a'lVontcd by the b.ile mul-itude. He obterved t!ie u'.d.eithle rcpioadi, 
which would tall upon th.e nation, it that unfortun ire (V.; en ibouKi lutier any 
\i >lence iVoin the mitgu'id.ed zeai of tiu' tpcople. 1 le urg-d t'le iacreci righ's of 
hol-'italitv, due to e\-e!-y one, n"; ;cii nic;re to a pei l(.:i m delreS, t^t Ij h.i.-h a 
i.uik, Nvith wiiom tlie ne.'ie-n v.,l^ io nearly CMini cied. 1 ne pee;,; ilur.::-!;: j .o- 
er to conimuiivate tire matter tcj ilie coinnior.s v.hole auti;i_;M:v ()\ er ti-,- je)- 
e'e wa,. ablul te. 'i'ne co;v,nion- agreed to tii neediicy ol [ r '?e,:i g ;lie <^ie-'\ 
Mother; bi,' .it tiiC l..me tuiu- deeted, tlia": ilu n:ig'ir be.i: ": d :> d. j .:r[ t:.c 
) ;ie;do;"i"i ; '" lor tiie t:u:eimg tliule je-douii ^ ni tiu- iie.u rs (;i i.:-, M.e-'d , \ we'i- 
.il'uted fub;\L'., oecaiioiicd In' lon'.e ui- i;,!' rufiieir- .:'. .: 'ii.t (^.1 cr.Vs p: r- 



d '-' il 



..,.a 



pip;d-5 tu i;c; lie-..; ', and by t'-e i.tl- ai.d 



1. J. 1 



5 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Cli.ip. V " praflice of the ieiolatry of the niafs and txercife of other fuperflidous fervices 
, *64' a Qf ii^Q Romifn church, to the great fcandal of true religion." 

Charles, in the former part of his reign, had endeavoured to overcome the 
intraflable and encroiching fpirit of the common?, by a perfevcrance in his own 
meafures, by a ftately dignity of behaviour, and by maintaining, at their utmoil 
height, and even ftrctching beyond former precedent, the rights of his preroga- 
tive. Finding by experience how unfuccefsful thofe meafures had proved, and 
obferving the low condition, to which he was now reduced, he refolvtd to alter 
his whole condud, and to regain the confidence of his people, by pliablenefs, by 
concflTions, and by a total conformity to their inclinations and prejudices. He 
confidered not, that the true rule of government, in (o difficult a fituation, 
as that, in which, Irom the beginning ot his reign, he was placed, confifted, 
neither in fteddinefs nor in facility, but in fuch a judicious mixture of both, as 
would exaftly fuic the prefent circum fiances of the nation, and the particular 
pretenfions of his opponents. And, it may fafely be averred, that this new 
extreme, into which the King, for v/ant of proper council or fupport, was 
lallen, became equally dangerous to the conditution, and pernicious to public 
peace, as the other, in which he had, fo long and fo unfortunately, perfevered. 
Tonnnge and Th pretenfions with regard to tonnage and poundage were revived, and with 
poundage, certain afilirance of fuccefs, by the commons. The levying thefe duties, as 
form.erly, without confent of parliament, and even increafing them at pleafure, 
v/as fuch an incongruity in a free conflitution, where the people, by their funda- 
mental privileges, cannot be taxed but by their own confent, as could no longer 
be endured by thefe jealous patrons of liberty. In the preamble, therefore, to 
the bill, where the commons granted thefe duties to the King, they took care, 
in the llrongeft and mod pofitive terms, to aflert their own right of bellowing 
tills gift, and to divell the crown of all independent title of affuming it. And 
that they might increafe, or rather finally fix, the intire dependance and fubje- 
6tion of the King, they voted thefe duties only for two months; and afterwards, 
from time to time, renewed their grant for very fliort periods*. Charles, in 
order to fhovv, that he entertaii.ed no intention ever again to feparate himfelf 
from his parliament, paiTed this important bill, without any fcruple or hefi- 
ration. 

With 

* It was an inftfuftion given by the houfe to the committee, which framed one of thefe bills, to 
lake care, tl at thj rates upon tlic home-commodities may be as light as poflible ; and upon foreirn 
commodities as heavy as trade will bear: A proof, that the Xiature of commerce began now to be uu- 
ierIlooJ. jouiu. i June 1641. 



CHARLES I. 



2i7 



With regiid to the bill tor trlotin'ul parlianuiiis, I,c rn.i.li-* a !it.!o Ji;;'; i.!-y. 
By .III Qui llatutc, p:il]"j(.l <.lurin:; the rci:^n oi I'-JwaiJ HI. ic \u.\ b.;;u ci'.,il;v.:, 
tliU!: parliainenrs lh .ul>.l he held oiu'C every ye.'.!-, or niuic !rcquc;r.!y, ii n;\;.!].:) . 
B'Jt as no proviiiun had bL'cn made in e.ile ol tai!>.:re, J-;.'. i;o pnccile nieilio 1 
puinred O'JC tor exec uuon i this ll.iti.te h.:vi l>.cii ( iHniJ.eicJ. tiui;.!,- .is a L,e cr^! 
deel.ira:'; j:i, aiiJl was i.iilpenicd \v t!i at plcalLue. '1 he deleft w as ti;jjviij,; l^. tl:o.o 
vui^i'a.t -J a:ri(.):-S \\\\) now alilinird ihe reins oi ;.;(/. j::.:r,j.i'. h v. .;. er..::*'.*.', 
tivac u c':e 'Jia!:ceil(j:-, v. ho was hi ll bound u;;J.er levere pviiakies la. .'-J to iH^.c 
writs bv tlie cm: J ot September in every third ye ir, any tv.e'.ve ur n-.ore o; th-j 
p -.r- I'n.o .ui be c-n;)ov.\red to eX'Tt th.is auti'.o'iLy : Ii: de:auiC(,,t tiie peers, i:.:^ 
:]ut;;;\, n.ay(r^, bayluii, cr'f. fliould liiminon t'ne voters : .\,k1 i,- L!...r Lbia..;:, 
tl'.e \-oterb clirmle! es lh )..id .'luet: :\rid proceeJ t) v.\j e'....*L;i';i u; nv/n.jer.^, in t.'c 

ia;::e niai.ncr as li writs i^a.l b.en reL;i.:.;;!y i;li--d Irom t .e cr..w,-. N,,r (..;.! 1 
the pariian^e.;"", a;t,;- ic was ajlen.ble', le a/'oL.rn^v!, p'o:Ojj;'.eJ, or biiiuiveJ, 
\\ itiiuat t!..::r ov;;-! coini.r.r, uurin^ t:ie b .'.ee (jI n:ty .'.ays. Ey t'.:.5 ;..., lw::;e t f 
llie noblell a d in ;l v..l>..ab!e i"r.ro.;a!iV( s oi bx crov.n \>.(.-re ritr. ;",.!..d i LuL 
at t!ie lan-j.' tim , r.ot'i;;.^^ cuuid be rr.w:e reOjUiliCe than luJi a ilatate, J.);- eoni- 
plea'.UK'; .i re^'-ihu' p'a.i (;r hiw and bbritv. A l',r.ac reh,^L.r,^e to aibv.n.b!e paiiia- 
ments mult be expected in ti'.e Kir.:; ; wr.ere tlyele alie;rib!:..>, .is oi bite, elbihi.ili 
ic as a nuxim to carry their Ibruciny ir.'o every part o; '^:'j\\:]\:r..n:. D.nin;"^ 
loiig nuernnlnons ol p.U'liamcnt, griewmees a' d abales a.y.'e -ab'e to reeer.t t.\p:_- 
rience, would natm-aliy creep in i and it wo.Ai e'. e;-, bi.. r:e n.^eJ^n-y !or r'v: 
Kin;; and council to exert a preac eilcic tionary n:.t;:o:;ty, an ', h'v .;. is f.f Ibit^-, 
llipp'y, in every eni.r^zence, the !e_; bat:".'e y:\--\:\ \\\:. :e !".\-t.:i ; v..is {o unvcr- 
tain and [)recar'.(ju. CiiuiL>, ii.idin.:, b..vit e.n'.h;,',,', Ie;s v,\;.;! . .;'.:->i'y Ins par- 
llamer.t: anil jxople, at l.ill p,ave his ..;~i.nt to 'bb.s !;.!, v, h. t n j .wd..eLd lb gre.ic 
an innovatioii m t!:e eonlbtut.o:!. Neb :nii bianbi \\ere ::. 1 ::::.[ ,,\:v. !^y octii 
houie.. (iicac !,:o:eiii[^ were expre.b d 'v/'ii iii ;!;. v .t;. ..::d bn^ :..;;'.: ^ut tl^e n,*- 
tion. /viidi ir.iy/.it}' prolelb.ons v.ere, e'.e:/ v..i-.:e. iv.a, e ..; itia ...;. a:,.! nni'u.d 
returns et Ibp^ iy .n.d conl:den.:e. 'bins ct)ne. In n (K t!;e ivuij,, i: n,.dl i;e (jwa- 
ed, was n'K i,;tn\-'.y \'o!u!-.r,i: y : It v,-..s c; a nr.ture toe' n.;: . it.ii.r : ) b' vo'Lur.irv. 
'I'iie lole iniji; ;:v.e, v. in.Ii ins pa: ti/ no u ere intib .i to dra.e Iren the bdnnn- 
b 'ns, !b tra;d. y nntde to pr. h :;: :: eeibty, w:i,, t!;a: : - I. . ; i .. . jin.:,:.i 

ne'A' [d ai ol , ,o\ eiani-enr, ai-.i, 1 a" biet.it.ne, was rel.d; .:, by cwiy .......li/enLa , 

to ae(]uire the eun!;de:K"e and aiieen.ji^.s ol h.s peo^ '... 

Cm .Mu.i.s tliotiph", tliat w'nir conccliion^, v.ere niaoe to ;..: j.,b'.e wer.- <: 
little conli\]M';ru-e, il no <_y-at!lications we:-' b.tlo .'.! i o:\ t'-e i.nlivl '.L.r.!s, v !.,> 
b..d acquired thj d;:ev:tion ot public ecu;:. :1s a:-d d.tci m;,;a:;i. n^. A *: . : -t 






2^o HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Cliap. V. minifters, as well as of meafures, was, therefore, refolved on. In one day feveral 
^"' new privy counfellors were fworn-, the Earls of Hertford, Bedford, Effex, Briftol ; 
the Lords Say, Saville, Kimbolton : Within a few days after, was admirted the 
F.arl of Warwic. All thefe Noblemen were of the popular parly ; and fome of 
thetn afterwards, when matters were pufhed to extremity by the commons, pro- 
ved the greateft fupport of monarchy. 

TuxoN, bifhop of London, who had never defired the treafurer's ftaff, no\v 
rarrietlly foHicited for leave to refign it, and retire to the care of that turbule!^,: 
dioccfe, which was committed to him. The king gave his afient , and it is re- 
markable, that, during all the fevere inquiries, carried on againfl: the condufl of 
mdnifters and prelates, the mild and prudent virtues of this man, wlio bore both 
thefe invidious charac5lers, remained unmolefted. It was intended, that Bedford, 
a popular man, of great authority, as well as wifdom and moderation, fnould 
fucceed Juxon : But that Nobleman, very unfortunately both for King aiul peo- 
ple, died about this very time. By fome promotions, place was made for St. 
Jolin, who was created follicitor-gcneral. Holiis was to be made fecretary of 
Hate, in phice of Windebank, who had fied : Pym, chancellor of the exchequer, 
in place of Lord Coitington, who had refigned : Lord Say, mafter c.f the wards, 
in place of the fame Nobleman : The Earl of EfTex, governor j and Hambden, 
tutor to the Prince. 

What retarded the execution oF thefe projected changes, was the difficulty of 
f.tl tying all thole, who, from th.ir activity and authority in parliament, had 
pretcnfions for ofnces, and who had it ftill in their power to embarrafs and difbrels 
the public meafures. Their alTociates too in popularity, v;hom the King intend- 
ed to diflinguifh by his favours, were unwilling to undergo tlie reproach of hav- 
ing driven a feparate bargain, and of facrificing, to their own ambitious views 
the caufe of the nation. And as they were fenfible, that they muft owe their 
preferment entirely to their weight and confideration in parliament, they were, moffc 
of them, refolved ftill to adhere to that affembly, and both to promote its autho- 
rity, and to prefervc their own credit in it. On all occafions, they had no other 
advice to give the King, than to allow himfelf to be directed by his great coun- 
cil , or in other words, to refign himfelf pafTively to their guidance and govern- 
ment. And Charles found, that, inftcad of acquiring friends, by the honours 
and offices which he fhould bellow, he would only arm his enemies with more 
power to hurt him. 

The end, on which the King was mod Intent in changing miniflers, was to 
fave the life of the earl of Strafford, and to mollify, by thefe indulgences, the 

r>u:c 



CHARLES I. 26! 

r.ige of his moft furious proll-ceirors. But fo !iir;h w.i!; that Nob!emin*s rfput.u'.on ^ ^'.>- y 

for experience hi^aI (Mj\}ci'y, th.ii: all du- i:ew courJcIirrs a:ul in:t.nd'jcl ir.ir.i'.'rrs 

{ l.iiiUy r.i\v tiia: ii \\c v'/\\y\\ t!;cir ve.if e.uicc, !;: n;:il rrti.r:-. i-.t^i t.ivcur ar/.i ..u- 

til .!!''/ ; a:^l r'lcv rc-;-.ii\!^d :\i^ drai'i as th. on'v ) .uritN', v. !.;.:. thry c(iu!u !;a\'?, 

bcth ^or t.':e elt.i''!:']i:r,vr.r ( t' tlu-ir 'prrllr.t j-owc", wi} iv: \\.cci'.\ in th-ir i.utlit-r 

I'.rcri-;-;,? s. 1 !;. \:r,[\ .:^'.\:\w:i:, tIicrc!oiv, was -:ih.\! u:: v. ::':\ ih,- v.inv. :^ '. . r ; ' 

a. a; a;:(.r i^-iu.; an., lo'^rnii ;u" ras a::o;iS, v.a-> ;\(). .::'.[ tt; a ti;i.i :i:a.-. 

I".' M nvi -.Ti.!.'. a 'ht Sr'-a:iu!u \v.;s !r-(n.cil ;>..! Iroin j-ar'i.;:-:;: rr, ..rcl cm;:":--,' -i 
la.- i'l-'Ac , a t',\i:ni::!.;: 01 ihirrtc:i v.;t;- tlu.lcn I'V [!:_ 1 )-.v;r '...;:V, ,;: 
f.i \w'] tlu- ofii.'c (;r preparin:; a i li.:r- -^;i;::'!: :ii::\ 'J inK', >::':] i.- .1 ;^..l 
I' i-arrtc'it 1 )r:l% were vci: .! wi:': :. \\:.vv.\- 'o ^ xan-iiiK' all w ir::vi'---, <...!! tr 
t '. r ; pa-: r, a; id l.; ; a:r,' n:^a;is < : ;.. u:: \\ \'. i:!i ;';-.:ird to ivw rare o: tl;e 1 a: ."s 
b. !ia\'iour audi L''j:id.u.-L'. .\I[. 1" 1 );!;. cral aiivl i.ii;"uund.' lI a;i :;a',i, :!;:;', n, t x ; - 
cilcvi by liich j'owcr!iii aiv.i iuv.d.ai'a'.iK' c:-. niics , a iw.m niidl liivc b:cii%"tr;, (,...- 
t:ous or vcrv in'ioce.'it, r,c: U) a'iord., diL.riiiL^ ti'.c wiiulc cciirlj or ii!.- i;;e, Icir.c 
niaeter or ac^'ul. .t;on a_;ai.'.:i: I.::n. 

Tni.^ comiTv.tt, c. In- (.'/rcvii' a ir'aii Iv):h iiou:.-;, t >cd-; ::n o.\'\\ (>' !--c:-er'.' -, .1 
J ra^jlijc Very lanilua', aiiil wixJi i;avo r'.cm t'.c- apiwirai^cc ot c;s-:!:-:ra';or^. 
tiiaii iTiinill ;-s ot juliicc. \)..t tiie i.-t/;itK);i (.r tli;-, lli:c:::;S, wa ') :t::.' : .1 
HiOrc dirriailc tur t!ie b'arl to t^'ud.- I'^ar Lai\ !i, ov prep.;]- ;(; \\\s ] !^:d_;:!e:). 

App'h-acion wns made Co tiie L'l:.', tlia: iiC woa'd ado.v ti;;-, <.\i:v,:vl':: r > rx:- 
miiia pr:vy CfJLinkl'ors v,.t!i i-;.-!X.;:d ^) up::w(a> deliver, d .;: t';.- b^a;,!. 
Cciiion, wiiicii Ciurles uiv.vari:v ni ..ic, a.d '.\;;;.Ii r!;c la rio! aii lai,!;h i . ! :r^- 
tua! coi^hdcixa, troui t!ic dclibcr.i';'.;;i . (: c ..n,ii; \s;ie;,' i wi'.' ii aa :: !l.:'- 
jvjed to have ciuire freedom, uiLl.oi.t l.ar (,: ;..:..; ; :...::';:v..-:,: a:;d ; ,cp a ,-, 
ot propollng any txpcdi.nr, (]ae;liL:a;-;j; a:,y c ; ;:i:,.', i.; :' .^ p.: ':: :; a:.ya;aM- 
zntnc. 

Smi (7Cor:!;e Ratciinc, th Karl's \::'\:v..::c .:da.d a:: : e():;:: ;.;.t, v. as a.eukd o'. 
lii^h trcalon, 1. nt tor from Ireland, .i . ! c aiin i't; .! :o c Itj;- t :,dudv. A r,.) (.li.i:." 
ever app'/ared or was p'-olc-cuted ;;^ a: \\ \:'\:\\ r \ in..-- ilib^e t ) r'wc a n'o'c- > Ii a : 
tabic intc'pretatiOii to ih;:> iiiealdre. ;'.;' a : ' . ,; ' ' v ii.:;i-,dcd r^ ,.e- 

prive Stratbord, hi his j rebnt c'aa , > . . '. '" il tiii^iid, v,!;c> 

was moll enabled, by his tellnr :. , . ;! . ., , (, ' ':..- pa:i\):d:< 

conduct and behaviour. 

Whun intelligence arrived ia 1. 1 : >,; :' 'a : : : ^:;-id'o;d's n;;n, the 
Irdh houle ot comn^ons, rlio' t!-:a\ 'a,a.i \ a : , a d aar/. ij i ra.'!-s on 

his adiniiullratiuri, crncred li.'io .;'. r;l!.;i. Lv.uav.:,^ a^ .;;.;l Inir., ami j : -pared 



262 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Cl.np. V. a reprelentation of the miferable flate into which, by his mifcondud, they fup- 
'^"''""' pofed the kingdom to be fallen. They fent over a committee into England to 
aliift in the proiecution of their unfortunate governor-, and by intimations from 
this committee, who entered into c'ofe confederacy with the popular leaders in 
England, was every meafure of the Irith parliament governed and dlrecfted. Im- 
peachments, which were never profecuted, were carried up againft Sir Richard 
Bolton, the chancellor. Sir Gerard Louther, chief juftice, and Bramhall, bifhop 
of Derry. This ftep, which was an exadl counter- part to the proceedings in 
England, ferved alfo the fame purpofes : It deprived the King of the minifters, 
whom he moft trufted , it difcouraged and terrified ail the other minifters j and 
it prevented thole perfons, who vvere beft acquainted with Strafford's counciis, 
from sivins evidence in his favour before the EnGclifh Darliament. 

j^,, J Tpie blfiiops, being forbid by the antient canons to aiTifl in any trial for life, 

and being unwilling, by aiiy oppofition, to irritate the commons, who were al- 
ready much prejudiced aL';ainn: them, thougiit proper, of tliemfelves, to with- 
draw. The commons alio voted, that the new created peers ought to have no 
voice in this trial , b.caufe the accufadon being agreed to, wliile they were com- 
moners, their confent to it was implied with that of all the commons of England. 
Notwithftanding this decifion, which was meant only to deprive Strafford of fo 
many friends, the Eord Seymour, and fom.e others, ftill continued to keep their 
feat; nor was their right to it any farther queflioned. 

T o bcRow a greater folemnity on this important trial, fcaffolds were eredled 
in Weftminfter-hail i where both houfes fat, th- one as accufers, the other as 
judges. Befides the chair of ftate, a clofe gallery was prepared for the King and 
Qi_iecn, Vv'ho attended during the whole trial. 

An accufir.ion, carried on by the united effort of tliree kingdom?, againft 
one man, unprotected by power, unaffiffed by cruncil, difcountenanced by au- 
tliority, was Ikely to prove a very unequal conLefc : I'et fuch was the capacity, 
genius, prefence of mind, difpJaycd by this magnanimous ilatefman, that, while 
argument and rcafon and l.r.v had any place, he obtained an undifputed viclory. 
And he periQied at laf!:, overwnelmed and ftill unfubdued, by the undifguifed 
violence of his fierce and unrelenting antagoniils. 
i^..,v.2. "-^HE articles of impeachment againft Strafford are twenty eight in number ; 

and regard his conduft, as prefident of the cour.cil of York, as deputy or lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, as counfellor or commander in England. But tho' four 
nionihs were employed by the managers in framing the accufation, and all Straf- 
ford's 



CHARLES I. 



263 



fold's anfweis Were extemporary; it appears from ((^irpariiun, not or.'.y t' .'.: I.r 
w.is tree ircni tf>'. criirit- of trcilon, ot v, hicii i\k-u- 1^ iiot ll^.c Icill app-Mr .r.cf, i.;>t. 
(iiac h: conui-vl, ni..kirig al.uA.iiicc fc>;- l-.w.uKiii i..iHnii:;c^, cxpuicJ lu !.. a Ic'.i.- 
(v.:u[iii)', V. as i.iiiOLc ill, aiui cvvr. !a:uiai\';. 

Tiif po\vi':s()' (!;c iv.;itiK"ni cGL.T.t i'i, \v!.:!'j li? was j^rvfi.icr.t, j-.a-. !<c'(m cv 
r-;n.l< c', i'V file 1-:: 'i 1:. ru-ii -fis lcv()::d v,'..\i '.o'aV.vv.y h.;.i b.^n jyraLl: c; : 
iJu*- t'.ac c( an htUK', ac hril, i:.ll rutcd by a llr.t^ii o: ruy..! picro:,a:.vf, ;: i,.-; 
bf' II u!l:.:1 lor ti::/ prince to \'ary i.;i i:i;L:u."ii');i- ; aa ! the iir:^^vil .'.:!,.. ;;v, (.;.::i- 
nv. c.l CO it, was alccir^^-Llr^r as b-[:\! as the riioli iiv.J; laiL- an.l iv, ill \:.r..-x.:. N ; 
v.,'.'- 1: rtat'iriab/lc t-j co.-ciL.clc, tlia: >.rra!rj:fl l,a,l i.ic;l aay art to pro.are ii.i,::- c .\- 
tci.lV.'c p'jv.cr^; (i.cc lie ncvor cwcc lat r.^^ prcli i. i;t, nar tXcrJiled . i.e a^i ti -u- 
nii':'LiOi^, alter iiC was mvc;"Lu u 'h ['..': aM'io:it\', iu iiii.di co:Tip\i:;-;e.; o,. 

I\ t'li r,v,\arM(i;e;^r ot Iie'aa^', In^ alii.;;; ilratioii ii..v! bc( 11 i(y ...'. \:\-;:::^^':vc 
of lii^ niall;\ wacrvl:, an>l ti. i cl i\v: :i.;-;eci^, conaairted to !/- cs,.-. .\ !..;.' 
citbt he h.ul paved (dV: i le hia,! 'e.t a con:u;erab:e bin in tl'.e eXclKcair : The le- 
veiuKs, w'r.'.eh b. tcre hc. er .ml-vered t::. cnar^rs ot po\'ern:r.en:, w..c i.cv/ 
?a::ed. to be ajiial to tli.ai : A Ini.di ibu: ir.^r armv, ioriVieriy Ke:t in ;.oordtr, 
>vas ai.'^niciitedi ar.d was g-jverried bv t:ie iikxI txiJt idu-:rdriC : d.r.d. a ;;;. it 
f(.rcc w.is ib.crc railed aiul paid, lor the 1^;^ port ot tlie i\in_,'s autiionty r.j_:aiaiL 
tlv-' Sajtdi covenanters. 

In'/'ISTry, and all tlie arts of peace, were inrrcdiircvi an-r-;.; tl.at fa.va.f^c 
pe.'ple : 1 i;e (liipidiiij oi bie kin^^doni aL;p,:T;e::ted a lundred-Iold : Ti^e cid1c:ns 
tripitd \.y,xin t!ie iame rato. : 'J he ex, oris ooa de in vaii.e to ti;. imp.; rts : y\ \- 
iiutadtiirj-S particidai ly tliat ot bnnitii, iiui od/jced a;i-i pr;vir.)ted : d\:,"d'L,i:.::\-, 
I V means o; I'r.c li.r.gblh and Seotch \ hii,r..tion-, prada.d./.- aLl\ ..r-^i:\; : 'i :\.- ; :o- 
rellan.t re!::r'()n cncoL:ra;:ed, v.ith.oiic tlu- pea k ciiiion (,: i.:il.t r.ren: v: t:.e ^.r.ht :^,-. 

'idir 1^ r;ii;:^s ot aut!v):!tv he hat! cnb ^ru'd \v;di-nt o\ ei drain. :-.j t'eni. Di!. 
<rctK)n.i:'V aet- ot lurdvii^tio.-;, indvcd, lie had o::'.-n exerted, bv '''^'' ^; conits- 
inartia', bd!-.':ni; icddiers decudng caule> i;; on i aper-ret;ti n^ i elorj twe ^O'a::'::]^ 
illuin^; p.oe:aniation>, :v:.d pnnilhini^ tiieir intra^ti^.n. Ib.t dilc: etion.;' v A.:':\c: itv, 
dunnr that ;'!:e. w.is iduady exeruled evi, n m b.np^d'.r.d. \:\ Irelar..:, ir\\..s::.d 
more reipnbte, a;-i^o!;:; a v. ild j e'tple, not yet t!ior(A'. ddv bd^ 'ucd, .:'.c:: t t;,t; 
relii^ion and n'anner^ e^l du ir n ncuarors laady, on a!, o.^a;; n . t^ r' apl: into 
rebellion and dilorder. \\ dn'c tiie inana.;rrs ol the co:!':n \:)l.<\, every 

n (^nun.t, tiuit the eiepiity's cont'iUJL lb. .ild be eXunanev! Ly; ti.e ,.ne o. t.--\: lav/ 
an.l b \e:e piiiu'.ples ; lie iij); ealed Ib.d to t e j la^ti'^e c : .-.: '^ rn.ier e'.ij ..tie>, .-...d 
to the uneoniroulable nec-elbity ot his l:ti.at,.>;i. 

'^ o preat wa- hi^ art ot n-iana^nni; tbctlon-, and b.idAnen p partiv . t.n.t ';e 
had, e ."a;;ed tlic l.db. i,arliaa:icnt to vote wdiatcv; ; v..v^ rx^^ediiv, Ikk.. \ '^''..c 



-P. V 



264 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chtip. V. payment of former debts, and for fupport of the new levied army ; nor had he 
'''*^' ever been reduced to the illegal expedients, pradifed in England, for the fupply 
of public necefllcies. No imputation of rapacity could juftly lie againft his ad- 
miniftration. Some inftances of imperious expreffions and even adions may be 
met with. The cafe of Lord Mountnorris, of all rhofe colledled with fo much 
induftry, is the moil flagrant and the leaft excufable. 

It had been reported at the table of the Lord chancellor Loftus, that one of 
the deputy's attendants, a relation of Mountnorris, in moving a ilool, had fore- 
ly hurt his mailer's foot, v/ho was at that time afflifted with the gout. Perhaps, 
faid Mountnorris, who was prefent at table, zV icas done in revenge cf thi^t public 
affront, zvh'ich iny Lord deputy formerly put upon me: But I have a brother, 
WHO v^ouLD NOT HAVE TAKEN SUCH A REVENGE. Thjs cafual, and feeminii^ly 
innocent, at lead very ambiguous, exprelFion was reported to Strattbrd ; who, on 
pretence that Mountnorris was an officer, ordered him to be tried by a court- 
martial for mutiny and fcdition againif his general. The ccurt, which confined 
oi tlie chief ofiicers of the army, found the crime to be capital, and condemned 
that Nobleman to lofe his head. 

In vain did Strafford plead in his own defence againft this article of impeach- 
w.trx^ That the lentence aga'nft Mountnorris was the deed, and that too unani- 
mous, of the court, not the acl of the deiHity , that he ipoke not to a member 
of the court, nor voted in the caufe, but fat uncovered as a party \ and then im- 
mediately withdrew, to leave them to their freedom \ that fenfible of the iniquity 
of the feiitence, he procured his Majefliy's free pardon to Mountnorris ; that he 
dfl not even keep that Nobleman a moment in fufpence with regard to his fate but 
inftantly told him, that he himfelf would fooner \d{t his right hand than execute 
fuch a fcntence, nor was his lordfh'p's life in any manner of danc^^er; and that 
upon the whole, the only hardihip, wJiich Mountnorris fullered, was in'jprifonment 
during two days, after v/hic'i his liberty Vv^as rcdored him. In vain did Strafford's 
friends add, as a further apology, that Mountnorris was a man of an infamous 
character, who p;yed court, by the lowell adulation, to all deputies, while ore- 
fent i and blackened their charaeter, by the viieit calumnies, when recalled : And 
that Strafford, exp.ecling like treatment, had u!ed this expedient for no otlier pur- 
pofe than to lubdue the petulant fpirit of the man. Thefe excufes alleviate the (mile j 
but tiiere ftiil remains enougli to prove, that tlie mind of the deputy, tho' preat 
r^nd firm, had been not a little debauched by the riot of abfolute power, and un- 
controuled authority. 

\Vni;Ni Strafford was called over into Iingland, he found every thino- fallinfr 
into fuch confufion, by the open rebellion of the Scotch, and the fecret difcontents 
ci the Lngliflij that, if he had counfcllcd or executed any violent mealure, he 

might 



C II / ;i I, S J. 



Jii:n ; ;incl t!>c \s!.(.!j a;:^..i..,: lI !.;^ :.:.:!:, (.;.:: 



or ;ic iv.o'l l:;-.iu:;w,.i c 






;>:p:c. ;>)::' , w:,;, li, ..;:.i;:l [i,^]\ il. ipcrarc cxticn, ;[!.<:, 



niij ;: .:i;:<; ii iv.u ::..LC o; i;c.i..;i, h.ivl unhi'-^i,^ 



If 



;i\iwo:\l :5 



.;!Oi(^;y w.^s i.i l:l: n;.!;i, K) 1.;:;^;..,. i , ul.t-;. ^ L.-:-J t> 



i . 'I... ..: i!;j \s;u.>lc t(/^;cii:L-:", .i;^! I'cj; ii.J L:;- :;.'j u:..:i>j:i (ji i.:^ '^ t;'.\:;V.., :! 
i.,.v; :i.;-. ()i . ill l;.xus ottii;;!:, the :.:\v o. I'll :!..:..! h\' V, :;.::-:-(.:: !'. ' . 



, c:.ihiL-c] til-it;^: t/t-wlon^ b:.:.!!..!. (;:i i!.,.: i"i '. i: v. .i: 



.: n^o r.v-: 



::.J to ] ruLcJt Luv: 1:.. ;.: 
i^/ :':c l.::i'()i.s Il.iL..:.- o: 



;;_; i;iiL t::j v: -.c .lj ('! t::L'. ..:,_; a...! cj: ,.:-, i:,;:;;::,! -. 



uNv.::-: III. .:; 



\i.<\ LWiy (,:;; ; l;;:'..;, L:.....- K..;. ;i - ;:>. i.^c./ v:;; ;', 



:u(' 



]]..: v..::i r-;j::.; : . l . 






.' ;:.! a;l iirai iiv to i:;:!".,.:..^^ i: ;.,: : _ ' 

a:! I :\v ; and i:;.di,r r!\t^:i:>: v\ t...i. ';::.: i;d r.y, i. \\;;-s a ;..::,.L" [::_ [-d 

c.;i'-:!!.:- ' :or tl.c Lc.:' ;:\- o:' iibcrtv, v,\;:-ii h.J cwv b.vn cnaa;d b-,- an I.:u''i;h 



L:: 

t'; . 



\^cc.:,ci tr.aU'n, t,:ia:)Vj:\' . ;v tiiC i\ nv::o'>. 



mas; i) 



. . ; .1 cl T'"^^''^ '" ^'- -' 



nr. 'Jd.y 



V ' c.r 



266 HISTORY of GREAT B R I F A I N. 

*' and try w^ by maxims unheard of, till the very rnomcnt of ;he profFCiiticn. 
"^ if I laii on ehe Thames, and Ipiit my velfel on an anchor-. In rc/c ihac 02 no 
" buoy t.o iiWc WLirning, the party fhall pay me damag. s : Bur, if the anciio; 
'' be marked out, then is the firiking on it at my own perih Whcc is the 
"^ mJrk fci: upon this crime ? Where is the tck. n by wliich I fhould dlf ov-r 
" it? Ii has lain concralcd under water , and no h.uman prudence, iso h-'mru 
-' in;: cctV'-e ccuid fave nic from the deifrudtion, witli which I am ;: c.v;fc: r 
'^ d;:.^at;:Kd. 

" Jr IS now lull two hundred and fijity years iince treafbns were c -anco ^ 
'' and fo long has it been, finre any man was touched to this extei:', upon 
" this crime, before myfeif. We have lived, my lords, happ'ly lO ouribb/es at 
*' home ; we have lived glorioufly abroad, to the world : Let us be content with 
" what our fathers have left us : Let rot our ambitio i carry us to be more 
** learned tiian they were, in thefe killing and dtftrucftive arts. Great wifdoni 
" it will be in vour lordfhips, and jufb providence, for yourfei/eSj for your pof- 
" terlties, for the whole kingdom, to caft from you, into the fire, th^fe bloody 
* and my fterious voiur.es of arbitrary and conflrucftivc trcafons, as the primitiv^e 
" chrjtians did t!.eir books of curious arts, and betake yourfdves to the plain 
" Icrter of the il.njre, ^vh!ch tells you where tlic crime k-. and points out to you 
' the pat:i, by which you may avoid it ! 

" Let ls i'.ot, to our own deflruftion, awake thofe fiecping lion-, by rattling 
^' UV' a c:'mp;iny ol" old records, which have lain, for fo many ages, by the wall, 
" fore/cticn and iirgltded. To all my afiiiclioas, add not this, my lords, the 
'' mofi- ievere of any; th:it I, for my oth.r fins, not for my trealbns, be the 
' m..ar;S of introducing a precedent, fo pernicious to tiie laws and liberties of my 
'" native coui^itry. 

'' Uo'v^vLP. th.fe gentlemen at the bar fay, they f)eak for tl^.e common- 
" wealtl) , a:d '.Ivy bv-l-icve fo : Yet, under favour, it is I who in this particular, 
" Ci>-\.: ijv the C'on::vionwcakh. Precedents, like thu-fe endeavoured to be efta- 
' blilhed .^gairnl nv, 'null dvx.w along i\icn inconveniences and miieries, that, 
' in a tcvv y<ii'S '^ne k;;-,gc;om will bf^ in tiiC cci-j 'ition, exprefi'ed in a fb.itute 
" ('f M'.nry I\' ; anJ no man Oiall kvA.w by tliat rule to govern his woidj and 

*' k'.ii'o.^L n' t, my lort"., .'"'I'cukii's iiifurmountable upon minificrs of flate, 
" i^or cntah!': th' m iroui !e:v:.'; -.vi'!) cheLrf;;lnef; their king and country, i^ 
' y,;_. .y.:.::.\./j them, and ui.-ier '.ich k:verc penakies, by every grain, by every 
'' lliili V, Jrdit ; -iv: *criitii:y v,!!! be intokrable. 'I'iie pubhc affairs of tlio 
"' kingk'.-^ I'V.iQ: b^ .v;t ..a:le-. :;-.' no wiie man, wlu) has any honour or for- 

" tunc 



C Ii A R i. ]. - I. 



U) .. k', V.iw 



IV : Ti 



r -, 



-. ( (':, ; 



< i.: ';v.r t '. rn... > . i .u;:,;i. .'.:.: :. , . v r . . . '.\ 

" ;,:,,, .; . : "' i-'i ...' tra-: ;i.: ! 'v c: ni; J, i I. -:!,!', ^ .. .r '/ .... . 

" ,'.:.!. ivi.i: A :..! N'' !.[!; Ljat: : ii-Juun ~ i!wci;i ll:.;,! It :.,;i;: 

'' r^-[' 'c ;: i".;. li;!:c'i i_r'"^..:-- Jcr .i:.d ccj:.ik;(.;..c, iii the.irn:- c : .. .\,.: 

" v: I . :' -c.'' 

r/ .,/.V; A. i.M, \.'i..i'.^A:e \v;tli hi- uluai c.i:u:. , . -, . J 

_AA- , -, '- :V_.;rA ,; ; ..f, r, :: -v :.:: :;; ::'..;7, , - "A. ', , ... . .::> 

{:.. . ;//./:?:'. V-.' -./J /,.;;",;, <; = ./ ;^v.'Aw; -c'.';rr ,;, . .:,.; ...: 

: . ,iJ. >x.c.\>:: pry ]>i; hk ' . ' : 

'I : '; .., .'6 i':i::jr^c </../ /^./ v. h is ;\-i.i .r.^.i! .,'. i...;, i!i; ...:A.- 
i:.:.. '. ^ -. -rAlc- liiiiil'A i;itl.i.l UMins, v.as hii.^lcii ch..;,;: ::. i;: :i..;: c< ;r 
vr . \. A. . ''iukicr' >i l!ic in^j (.-iiAi;!;; ..: n;^:/.!'. tlik ulIcml..:..!' ! .\\'^[[v,..'.\. 
'1 A . Lil r [; .m'l clvji Mice Li;h\' ci!:Iitvcn (.!.'. . . 'iA: ni.in.i.f: -^ ^. .:.'.!: A; ! - 
Ycr.ii .;r'iA-. ;.nv.:!:', 'lu tn, .;'-i.i .;r::Kkc.! th-- [ri:o:A; \'. ;:Ii .:li l./: ...;._,!:' f liU- 
tAjn" .', v'.:t:i X- i!^< '.\Arp a ,;cr o: f',.", ,'-,v-, ^-.i.'. al. :'.c .i fiii'.;. . (: '.:;; ;"^'j'..- 
r.u:<; :. >"m'~' .A v.-.:^ jl) i^ i ; ijt.,.;. .^icii ^:..':v-;c l- .;' ; -.^w: U)\\.v.j.' [..<, 
p-ic:!! 1 iwrrra't" ciu-nv ^. ; .:v oi^in-();:s, th* >.()(cA ::,a:(. ;:, :':c I;:;"!-! | ,ir/.;:i-;cn:. 
Ha t(;o!v ' :.\\ : ' "I'V li '.i' ; ' .-. on c-.u'i .",[ Aa, to r(-C(AraL i.invca : \ii lie 
alone, \'.i':: r. .ni k ..'', n.\ , \CmC.-^\-; an.': lu::rii.,[v ^^';;^ r.rtrav l.s ,:iul v-.^^di;;-, 
nvule li;cli a '\-\ r.- c ''-.'J : . iv; - lav, : i.n|'0'"'a A-, b_,- a It^^il prulcci. lu);i, 
cvfr l;> (m M .1 a .i- ' - : .a 

Br llic 'l.-a:'! : ro > in^j-or^.* . a lua/k < : ["'a;!:y to ha !rf: u;';- 

at'ca praJ l.y :i-v 'A '" ' ^r.a ..a.,a i: v. Ik.Aa^ lie. !;raai [.^"-ii;,, 

ai .1 aurlioiA'." ( : :a:K a ' . . a. ' a, . .a :..A i.av (.a ' 'i-' ; a^;^'.!.;!- kaJca- ., .k; 

j:i la. ;= ^A. i , .,,.kaa'. i\a,i'u.;.'a !v j :-.- a;v. ;;y .::i :^Ci:i:l it- , (' 

t'"';w;ii;; . , laa": \ aav .lav, . " ^ ^' 'i^. . . .r-d i'yni, li.a 

r.;i ; oiKa: . laivia:^ a. -.-J ka:^.uti^ to inva(.!c lavaa \ 



258 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

C-'r:^. V. bill cf ;inii:u1vr was thcreu);e brought ii.to the lov\'er houil; immediattiV ail:er 
^^M'- finishing thefe pleadings ; and preparatory to it, a new proof of tlie Earl's guiin 
was produced, in order to remove fuch Icruples as might be enrertairitd vniii rc' 
gard to a method of proceeding, lb unufual and irregular. 

Sri i :cnry Vane, lecretary, had taken do'^^n Ibnic rotes of a debate in couiudl, 
after the diflblution of the laft parliament ; and being at a diuance, he had lenr 
the keys of his cabinet, as was pretended, to his ;on, Sir Henry, in order to (earch 
for Ibme papers, which were neeelliry for compleating a mnrriagc-lettiement. 
Young ''v'anc, ialHng upon this paper of notes, deemed the matter of the utmofi: 
conicquence ; and inmiediate^y communicated it to Pym, w.;0 now proJiiced the 
]nper before the houfe of conmions. 1'hc quefllon behjrc tlic council v/as ; 0/- 
jcyijl^c cr dcf.njlvi i^ar wiib the Scotch. The King propofi'S tliis dle'culty, ' Etit 
"' iiow can 1 underuike ofTenhve war if I have no more money?'' Tlic anf,ver 
afjribed to Gtralfbrd was in thelc words. " Borrow of the city a huedred thou- 
" fmd pounds : Go en vigoroufly to levy fi^ip money. Your Majefly having 
" tried the aireftions of your people, you are abfolved and hjofe Irom all ru'es 
" of government, and may do what power will admit. Yciu- Majcfcy, fiaving 
*- tried all ways, fiiah be aequicted before God and man. And you have an army 
^' in Ireknd, whieii you may employ to reduce this kingdon) to ohediuice i 
" For I am conndent the Scotch cannot hold out live months." I'h.re follow- 
ed fomc councils of Laud and Cottingtcn, equally violent, v/ith regard to the 
king's being abiolved irom all rules of government. 

'ihns j-aper, with all the circumilances of its difzovery and communication, 
was preten.i^d to beeciuivaknt to two witnefws, and to be an unanfwerable {)roof 
ol ti:0'e pi rnicious councils of Straffia'd, which tend.d to tlic Aibvcrfion of the 
iawa and conilitution. Bt.t it was re^ bed by Strailbrd and his friends, 'i hat old 
\hme \ras his mod inveterate and declared enen)y ; and if the fecretary h'mfelf, 
as v,as by hir mofh probable, lud willingly delivered to iiis f()n this paper of notes, 
to be con.in-:un:cat-d to b'ynn, tliis implied iucli a breach of oaths and of truftas 
rend-red \..:v. toraib; unwcnliy of all credit, '.bhat the fecrctary's dLpofition wa3 
at firil execcduigly dubious : b^jjon tsvo examisiations, he could not remember any 
\v:,d\ v/ords : ] v^ai the tinrd t:n;e, hi; teliin^ony was not [)oi]tive, biit inq)orted 
only, that Strar.ord bad !p(d:- iuch or iuehdike W(.rds : And words n;ay be very 
likv' in b;a!;.,b and dihijr mu h in bide ; nor ought the lives (^f men to depend 
upoii grammatical crid..ii;iis of any cxpredions, much lei% of tludi: dciivered by 
tb.e ip' aber -^vitivj.t pn meditation, :vm comrciitted by the hicarer, lor aiiy time, 
r.(Avever fio-r, to tlie uncertain record, or mrn:ory. 'biair, m tlie prefent cafe, 
cinnging T/v; //;-./:;;; into 'I'bat Uirdcm, a very dight alteration' the biarl's 

dilcourbi 



.::'.).;: 



C II A II L i: S I. 



1 ... I 



' ) 



w 1 :\ . 
t! . 

I'. ,. 

I.' A' . 



,.; i;.c ; 



t.:i' 






:r. . ;,i 



: ill.' .. : ; 



L' i > 1.. 
I 



In 



.'J ; ;' M'o.c C' :.:;l;!:3 \ L. '. i 



268 HISTORY or; GREAT BRITAIN. 

bill of ait^ind^r, were parted up under ti">e tinle of Slr^fjj-a/^i-^j a':d l':iray2rs of 
their cci:>i'.ry, ThelV were expofed i;c all rhe infiilts ot ihe ungovernable multi- 
tude, V' fen any of tlie ioitls paiic;d, rhc ioud cry o',' Juftice i;g inil Straiford 
iekiur.dcf in th^ri: ears : Aiicl luch as werv- udp'^dtKd ot {rkadiliip to that ob;:(;Xi- 
(^.::; niii;.: vt-, were flirc to meet with nimaccs, not ur;:Ccon)panica with -- :..;.> 
toiiis oi the ni)il dcfpirrate refciutions in thr- turioas pupuiacr. 

Co\::'LAiNTS in the houlc of cc;n:;iions b^di.g made agahiP: the a.; vinh-r. -;-;;; -,; 
the moil iiagrant breach ot privilc<;{c, i\^e: ru'ii-g /n^, n'bers, by rlKir u'f;fiid roof- 
;v is ard inditf-rence, fijowcd pi.n;jyj dial the LO;u.aar tun-:vdts v7tre Ixg: c^ifi- 
j.',r-e.daf' to thciii. But a new di{c:ovLry, made aboui tids time, '^2r:^.\ .0 u:ij.v- 
(.very &Avir', into llili L^reatcr fiaiiie and combuflion. 

SoMi' principal ofiicers, Piercy, Jcrmyn, Oneab , Goring, Wilinoi:, Poi-- 
iard, A'hburnham, partly attached to the court, parr:-, f ;u:uft;ed with rh" par- 
liament, had formed a plan of engaging into the Kip'^'s -'.rvice r'.t if;.- . ;^ ar- 
my, whom they obferved to be difpleafed at fome mar;;? of p.reierence .'.vl.: by 
the commons to the Scotch. For tliis piirpofe, tliey entered ineo a;i ii.io ii- 
tioii, took an oath of fecrecy, and kept a clofe correfpondenet with io'^-it of the 
K.ing's fervants. The form of a petition to tlie King and ariiament w^as con- 
certed ; and it was propofed to get this petition fubfcnbed by the arniy. The 
petitioners there reprelent the great and unexampled concefhons made by the 
King for the fecurity of public peace and liberty ; the endleis demands of cer- 
tain infatiable and turbulent fpirits, whom nothing lefs will cor;teor than a total 
fubveriiun of the antient conftitution ; the frequent tumults, vrhich thefe fac- 
tious ma'iecontents had excited, and which endangered the liberty of parliament. 
To prevent thefe mifchiets, the army ofFeied to come up and guard th\t af- 
fembly. " So fhali the nation," as they exprefs thcmfelves in tne conclufion, 
" not only be vindicated from precedent innovations, but be fecured from the 
" future, which are threatened, and which are likely to produce more danger 
" ous ctTecls tiuin the former." The draught ot this petiiiori beii-g conveyed 
to the King, lie was prevaikd on, fomewhat imprudently, to ccunterfign it 
liimfclf, as a mark ot lh.s approbation. But as feveral difficulties occurred, 
tile projeet was laid afide two months before any public difcovcry v/as made 
of it. 

I r was Goring, who betrayed the fccet to the popular lead/rs. The alarm may 
eaiily be imagined, which this intelligence conveyed. Petitions from the mili- 
tary to tlie civd poA'cr are always looleed on as difguifed, or rather undifguilecl 
cmmand^ , and ai"^ of a nature widely ditVerent froM petitioiiS, prefented by 
..'. other rank oi men. Pym opened the matter in liic iKe.'fe. On the firit 

intitr.ation 



C II A L 1. K S J. 



:(,; 



intinrui n df ;i tli:'. :)\\ rv, P-crc . 
yo:..! J a. '1 .n !r 



.cr ' ()(.;.. 



I ;()../ . , No. tiiu'ii^ 1 i i;:il. 
it V. a- ic. i!i!.cl ;;^ a new 



- . ; ! J ; I , A ; ! . ^ . . . ^ \ . - 

:c Mc h(;i..:c. i .: ; , ".. :.-[. .i !, ::. , : ;. 

. (ji .cLifLV; .1.: .: [.,:, c ;i\ii:"!;:'.i.\ (. !i,;.' 
:;n, ai.ci \Niii:.v., m all :;u;r ex .ii;:!; :; ;, 



lo C(j.i\\'v nvjic (]i)K.-.; 'I..- rc.-cr .ir.d ;miij_:;. .tion ar this p'uc, ti.c cor. . . ..; 
\\j:'.v:, rhat ;i {TOLL'latic.i (nouKl i^e fuz;.: J by a i the :nt.-n:bcrs. Ir .- ; .: i - 
to t!v ioi\:s, ar.i ;:[4nci.' by all l! c'.c ii, CAVcpr .Soui'i.;nn:t(yn ..nJ. l\(:':'..r:s. 
Orders wcrj ii'\cn by the c;';r:-n(;oV .;i-:;e, \wt;.OLit; o[;:er ai, ;::;>: -v, t:^\: ;c 
fliould l-e tubiLii:.; I'y' th;' U'h'^lj ;.a[iun. 1 lie i i()tcll.;:!uii \v.:s in ulrb \\ :'. 
inofienfive .r.d cw.i y.:\]^ru.,: ,v\ an.; v.-oriCa:ii, J. notliir.g b .t yencrai . . ; ia- 
ratiuns, tliac tiie kiblen -l.". \'. .i::.! v. ;>.:k: t:;.:r r ;;i;ion and libvrcics. Ik.: i: 
tendci! to u-jLieaie i!.-.- |'i.i\;b.' i\i;,i. , a/.d nin'v.aLed., v,!ut was nujre e.\|\; l'^ y 
dL\ !arcd ni li.e pre.in.bie, t:.a: dec biJ-'niL^s were now e\[)ol;v! :o ch; ut;r.c:l 
pern. 

Ai.\ M w ;'e evei'v day f.;ivcn o; new cop.i{nrac! s : In l.ai'.c.dinre, rr.-;.' 
riV.i/.i:^.di ul pauills were i:,ac;i.rn}.i C(\^e[her : S^-eret n"!ee:nn^,< were l:e!d b-y 
rheni ; '. .iv; ; /nni urider i^KAind ni ^uirey : Tlney biad ei'-iercd nuo a {dor to blow 
i.j; In, ; ir ^'^V^ gnnpowtier, ni -ud r ru dr./wn tlic vity ' : Provifions o.' arm- 
were n'..:l.niL:J.' 'Vond lea: SomeLnnes Irai-.ee, luniecinie^ Dennnirk., w.;b tor.r.ni!, 
liid'^n, a^ibiii :ne bing oni : .And t!ie pop.ibiCe, who aic a!wi\s tcrni:ed u::h 
j reien.e, a:nl emMg^d wnii diilant danger-, were llili lart'ner amniaied m t:)/b- d.. 
nnir :s oi n.dicv anainil i!ie inilor'nin^te ^rr.db-rd. 

V Ki'ig came to t'ne l-.onle o! l.a\::.: Aiul tn.n' i;c expred', d his rei' In:';. :\ 
'.;:. i-'.e (jd.ered tlv./di ar:y n^unry, ::r\\ : ,. ;.i ; lo employ Sir i. lore! \n ?. ; 
[',.. o: rnbiie b. dnus ; i;e i ro!, fied In nn ; ly d.iIari>Med u r Ii regard t.i 

tbr ;, ' n n'"-'nie(.s ' ' trea!'. !i, :.:, itn cinit .l v n.i neibuxci his tlidbniltv, m g!\n .', 
hi- ain nr tn the b: i (ji .n'ain.l^r. '1 l;e ecninn. ^in-. toi.iv lire, aim eo'eLi u a incn ', 
o; j ;r,nv;:'' tor ti : Knig lo tai'.e notice o: JiV biii, d^peiiding b.;i)i-;- tne l.nv.'.j. 
Lhai :e^ 'nd ixt [ n.ive, tiniL his afMcdin'.enit !; Stran rA wa^ r.he (.Iv.et n:wn,->c 
c 1 tin- bill ; .nc. t n.t:, ti.e [v^ '-'''^ p'ocjis !:e '^av: (;r anxb/.r. c- : :.: ier :. is nn- 
nni.'., vn-- ni' re n. vn d^.e ..id i.e reiid.r ! is d^lbn. 'ui:) 

Aa / '* ' .:: ; eers had cvnbintiv artende ' :-rr.nnM., tria! ; bnt !ne!i aj-- 
preii n::0. ...-. '^ic ..>i(,; i.uneel on aceo.mt <': i.'.e g . ..;.,. , ilna ' . : g. - 



272 HISTORY OF GPvEAT BRITAIN. 

five v/cre preltnt when the bill of attainder was brought into the hoiife. Yet 
of thefe, nineteen had the courage to vote againft it : A certain proof, that, 
if intire freedom had been allowed, the bill had been rejected by a great ma- 
jority. 

In carrying up the bill to the lords, St. John, the folicltor-general, advanced 
two topics, well fuited to the fury of the times , that, tho' the teftimony againft 
StralTord v.'cre njt clear, yet, in this way of bill, private fatisfaftion to each man's 
confcience was fulUcienr, even lliould no evidence at all be produced , and that 
the harl had no tide to plesid law, becaufe he had broke the law. It is true, 
added he, w^e give law to hares arid deer ; for they are beaus of chace : But it 
was never accounted cither cruel or unfair, to deiiroy foxes or wolves, where- 
ever they can be iound-, tor they are beads of prey. 

Afir popular violence had prevailed over the lords, the fame batteries were 
next appHed to force the Pling's aiient. I'he populace flocked about Whitehall, 
and accompanied their demand of juilice with the loudeft clamours and mod 
open mcn:ices. Rumors of conipiracics againft the parliament were anew f]:!read 
cbioad : Invahons and iniurred^ons talked of: And the v/hole nation was railed 
i\::o fuch a iermcnc, as threatened fome great and imminent convulfion. On 
v\!i;chever li.ie the Kii^g cad; ids eyes, he law no reiburce nor fecurity. All his 
f:r\T,rts, conlulting their own fakty, rather than their mafber's hono^ir, declined 
iat^irpc^Hng with their advice between him and his parliament. The Queen, ter- 
yVA'::d with t\:G appearance cl' lo mighty a danger, and bearing formerly no good- 
V ill ro Strahijrd, was in teavs. and prcfild Idm to iatisfy his people, in this de- 
maa: ,:, widen, it v;^:, hopid, v/oukl fina ly content them. Juxon aloiie, whole 
courage va;^ nut inferior to hiS other virtues, ventured to advile lum, k, m his 
caaieienee, he did r,ot app'ovc cl the bill, by no means to afilnt to it. 



he.:ri:.p- of tlie Ki:ars irreiolution and anxktv, ten;; a vcrv 



t^a :diu:.-\- !:..';)! 1 'e wro:.,' a letier, in which he intrcutf ci the Ku;g^ tor the 
f.lu' o: [}..'.:/.': p..a\a to [K.t ?.r. ca',d to his unrortui-.ate, however innocent lue. end 
to (y i^ L t!: : !...vv.; a:'us laoiple hv vraoti!^;- th: m that rcqueu, lorvldch tiie/ 
\"':'ed) un a.;a,; le. '' i.\r\.]/' ad ka; l:<:', '-trv conlent wail more a.:gi;t 
' y( u ^0 (ioa r^aa a': k.e w,..hl c:,:\ do b.dk;as. To a vdldog man tl.ve is eo 
' ii,a g,a .kid a-, iy ' k ;";: ^jj- u , ' p,;-i\e ;di tie \. arid vkrli a caliunels and 
" na;;.a;!-, ol ioiik:.: u;;//;a:;aeat t) n.v (a'k.d_a;a ic.d : : ( , S v, :' yvu, I 



a.ay 



C II A R L n S I. 



:'3 



hi-^cs of hh cnc[v.\.-^y :^n^ c*!):' n'\r,<j, f:..i: n.i'io'-ir, u\c li^-ur "n*:^" of ilyc. 'o-.v,r, 
\'..ii :p.ii:"rly i!:\'o:c,! Co iIk* J) ij '.'.ir p.^rf/ , !.' alv,o!Li'.-!y ,:ctj).i;r'j J (A cv.r elcap- 
i 1'; i!ic irii!: pl;L\i li.'.i'.'ur-, \.'.:ii wli.c !i h.- w.i-^ lwiv v.lv.-rc! i.-.viror.r'i. \'n r 
ir/..'h: allribj t'.-.i^ il.pio a r.ublc ciuji'C (>t ;''.;';!': rcil-'.'v.i^,, n^t: i;nworLU' tr.-: 
,;jca: min! ol St:M!"!oi\l ; ii tl-.c- nicirLirc, wi.i h h: ailvfr'!, Iiad lo': bn::\ i;i '.!i* 
evcnr, as p. riiii. lo'.j , lo \\\- malUr, as it was iinni-iliarfly i val to liinv" ': '. 

Ai IT'- t!ic moll violent anxiety an.: tloubt, Clnrlr;, at liH, <:ran-- a coni- 
nV;;]".oP. t > i ur nob'.eiiicn to Lziv- tiit- roya! allrnt, in hi- nitnc, to rb.': h\'.\ l'"...\:- 
t.-iin,:; bii:r.ll'lf, jTobably, in, tim, cxcreniity ot (iiilicls, tlia', a:, ncitiivr In.^ \\\.\ 
C'):,icr.:ed to the (.'.eeJ, n .-r was his hand imnv.diatcly en(;.i:;eJ in it, he v. .n, tin; 
more tree from al! tlie guilt, w!r...!\ a'teaibd it. 'I'h.ele ronKr.illionc:'; h.e err.- 
] (!wer.d, at th.e lame tini-,e, to nive alien: to tlie bill, whicii rer.de;c\: t.'n.- ; ar 
Ini.T.ent p; r[x-tnah 

I'jiE commons from ; obey, mnnre th,in from necefnty, hai em.br. ::<ni tbecv- 
pedien.t of pv'.vn-j;^ tb.e two ..rmic^ by boiio'^ inn, m.oney ir.mi iac eirv ; an,d';i.: 
bjan thev b..'.d r;-; ayed alt.rwarb.s by taxes, levied npon t'le peopLn Tn.e ci:;/.e:.j, 
<;b;er (jI L!iem1ei\'es (-r by li.i!i^ llion, bi:;an to (la:r ch;ncn!r:e:i with ren;i:\; to 
,. lartlier loan, wln.c'i was dem/.nded. We ir.al.e r.o ftrup'.e o: iri.iMnn; tl:c [nn- 
ininicn.t, lani tb.e\', Wv^re we certain, tlnit the par.ianivnit v.n.o [o conbiu.e tnl o^n..- 
re. ;-.vmen: : I'nt, in th.e ['rJen.t prteaiions btnation Oi all airs, what Incnbuv >. . i 
b .'i c.n us loi" our mon: y .' ]n orb.vi' to obvniie this (bi^n'ilon. a bill \^as !iiJ- 
t.enlv bronL^ht into the Iv nle, and p.nud v. n!i [;rc..t unanin, i:y and rapidity, r'n^t 
ti;e pariianienit ll^.oubi not be chnb^lved, prorogued, lUir a.i;. onned>, \n i:lion.t tin ;r 
( wni ^onnbnit. It w;.^ huirien in like m niiur thro' tiie liwnle c i jxnn- ; an.d \'. ,;9 
r.::an:lv carried to ti:e Knig lor his alienr. CI;arIes in ^''^ a;:c)--v i^! r'n:, 
br.amn;% v.Vtd remorle, lor b!:ran.ord\ d.oom, pereei\'ed. I'.ot, t'lat lin^onnr L):i; \.a.> 



-..,_ \- 



n.ore ;..:al conlequencc to hi3 an:.ieiri:y ; anc 



1 ,. :,'. 



: ) .'. e r c : 






: ti'ic j '. .i!;r \<... '.c: , ;:; ^'oic:- : ' '\:: iuc; : 
..a 1 ) t 1 i' 1.' 1, ['.. . . .: 

.].:.'. .1 \.;r.' i.t Icll.: / ;.:. , ...:.. i . i..^ 
\:i :;ii-;. , ! i..i.!i.u tt : : ; :,i.:, .^: ',\]i r> t:;.- 
i : :i re. :.. > t a i.i ..i I. .v. :. !: li ::u 



1 W 



iC. !. 



274 HISTORY OF G Pv E A T BRITAIN. 

e:;e[r.ies perpetual,, r.s it v/as already iincon'iroulable. In comparifon of tliC bill 
cf attair.e'e'-, by which he deemed himielF an acconiplice in his friend's nlurd^-r 
this concePxion made no figure in his eyes '^~' : A circumfiance, which, if it lef- 
lens GUI- idea ci" his rtlc-ijiion or penctrationj fcrves to prove the integrity of his 
hijart and tlie goodnefs of his difpofition. It is indeed certain, that flrono; corn- 
puHLlion for his confent to StrafFoi-d's execution attended this unforruna:e Prince 
GCiiing all the remainder of his Ihe i and even at Ids own fatal end, the memo- 
rv cf this guilt, with great forrovv and remorle, recurred upon him. All men 
vc-re fo fc-nfible of tlie extreme violence, which was done hiim, that he fuffered 
r::ie Ici'z, both in character and intereft, from this unhappy meafurc ; and, tho' 
he abandoned his befc friend, yet was lie ftill able to preferve, in fornc deoreej 
t'eiC attaclimsnt of all his adherents. 

Secretary Carlcton was lent by the King to inform Strafford of the fxnal re- 
folution, which neceflity had extorted from him. The Earl feemed furprifetl, 
and ilarting up, exclaimed in the words of the fcripture, Pul 7wi your truft in 
frinccs nor in the Jons of men : For in them there is no fahaiicn. He was foon 
able, however, to colled his courage ; and he prepared for fuffering the fatal (t^A- 
tence. Only three days interval was allowed him. The King, who made a new 
effort in his behalf, and fent, by the hands of the young Prince, a letter ad- 
dreffed to the peer>, in which he entreated them to confer with the comm.ons 
libout a mitigation of Strafford's fentence, and begged at leafl: for fome delav^ 
was refufed in both requefts, 
r.v.-!riitr.ri cf Straffcrd, in paffing from his apartment to Towerhill, where the fcaffold 
itiaircid. v^'as ereded, flopped under Laud's windows, with whom he had long lived in 
intimate friend'liip J and entreated the affiftance cf his prayers, in tiiofe awful 
iiioments, which v/ere approaching : The aged prirate diffolved in tears ; and 
having pronoi;nccd, v.'ith a broken voice, a tender blefilng on his departing 
friend, funk intet the arms of his attendants. Strafford, lldl fuj-.erior to hi;; 
fate, marched on v.dth an elated countenance, and with an air even <,)X <^reater 
dignity, tiiaei v/hat ufually attended him. He wanted that confe.'laiion, v/hich 
commonly fupjorts thole, v;ho perilli by the itioiic of iejuftice and 0:'prefiion ; 



iic.uli-r '-' T''" no !nn;HV a ?i-r!'^'l !:hii iwo inoi.t!: : ,-\! J d:- th;:.t b;-:i::c;i 'u.;, rr. }: t^;;/; i:,er ui' tuc r\-- 
vcnvc, ::i:J th:' -ovcrnrncwt c^uM .:ot po:-ie!y 'nl^dii \\n;.c:.c i: ; li {['rvr:.'. i Uvjilly hi -jvc jxnver 0: 
the p.'.-ir.;!:-! :>:-.: to tc.i^jnue tl'.c.'nfclvci a.-, l^jvg; as tlicy p]i-a!c\l. 7'his inaccd vv,:, uu-j in the ordii.a;-'/ 
a(ln-!:r!!-n.ti<;;'i of <(,, c]T:;r:(-nt : But on tl)c approacii:-^ ;o\^ an;:, a cIn ii var, wImcIi vstu, not then fore 
[ten, it hai t -cn of; i.at con*cquc'ncc to t!,c Kin;.r 10 i-.i.c rjl-intj the ri^^iit < f clhToKuion, and to 
Lavv tailorca .r:y c-..:: c:;trciairy, rathjr llian allow the continuance cf the pa:rl;araci;t. 



C II A R L E S I. <.;^' 

f lo was PiOt biioycJ 'jp by r,iory, iv)r by t.'i:" ar.c-":;on r.c- cotr.yaiV.o:! of cl\c ip;- '-^ 
v\.it;i".-. : Vcc iil^ iniiv.l, crc:l ar.d u;Ki.'.u!U<,-', Icr.i.iJ rclOwrc-.-s \v;:!',in itlci., ar. i 
ma:nt:;ii::c.i I's i ;iS:\.!.c;i \:o[i.:\:,:^, a:^;.;.^ [!.; t rr.^r- <;! 'l,-2t!i, and rlic ::i- 
L:nnhant c x'.'rauoiis ol his mi'-'.idcd t;:-n;:r^, 1 T . ^:.:c ).;:-W! 0:1 tlic l:.!!":".) J 
was li.!l l:" il.cjn-y a:i.l cuura.ic, " lie :..:;..:,'' 1. i .'..1, ' t'r,.\t t!',e omt-n wa 
' bad I ur t; ':.:- i:.c.ii(.iLd rc'ii.riiianon ol i'..: l"..::c, t'.ac :: i . :. :r,.-p.cjd \vi:;i lIk' 
" ihctluii^g 01 !:i:v.ccnc blood." ]Ia\;:!:; bid a l..d a.dci t; hi^ b,-ot::cr and 
idonds, who attv'ivdcd !iim, and hii\:nj, h ;.: a b'.'J.r..-:; Co !d, iiCiFcr rc'^iclo:)^-, 
v.ho were ablci.t i " And nov. ,"' hdd hr, ' I !ia\ c ni.^d d.nc ' One ilrok- w hi maker 
*' m\ wi:c a widow, my d.car ciihd.rcn tarhcrh-ls, tbpin.c nv; : '-or r,Tv..r;ts of ri'.cnn 
* indulgent niallcr, and Icpararc m^- bom my a:';l^V:on:.:j brod-. :: a;,d ah rr. / 
'' friend', ' But let (ic;d be to you and th.eni ad in ail '" Cioir.:; co d, robe and 
l.r.pare Idmlldf for th^- hliil, " I tliand: (.,d," ihid !-.e, " th.at 1 an^. r, j way 
*' afraid ot" dcatli, r.or am d.an~ited v, irdi apiv terror^ , b./. d.o as e:i arruhy lay 
** down my head at tln^ w.r.c, a. ev.r I d\ 1 v. hen [ *''''d) '^'-' ''^i'^-b'" \Nb!:;i on.: 
bIo^v was a period put to Ins Idc In' t::e executioner. 

'I'urs periHud, in tlie .; ,i\\ y.-ai" (;f his age, t'.e !a:r,o'.i=; Ibirl (jf S'fii-adord* 
one of the mod cnVmenr p rlon:":,;es, v, lio h.:s ap{::.U'edi ini I'.n.gl.uKh Tlio' i'.is 
death was louddy demanded a- a l.itidaciion to luibee, an,d: .1,1 at(jn-eme ,t tor d;* 
many violatif>ns ol the coniUiution , it n^iy laUv be adb'nn.ed, tl:./: tl.e h :i _ 
ten.ce, by whieh he iell, was an enornntv :_;;'cater i\.:ii\ ii;e woill oi [l.cle, v.h,>.i 
his inipajable eniniics prolecurevl v. idi lo r/.utli c rued, in.d.ul' rv. The pccphj 
In r|-':ir \\\:i^:^ had totally ndllakcn the prop.-;- o ]..l .d tinlr r. lbn:n;e:::. 
Ad d:L' n rcfbti '^, or, more properly lj^..iMng, the di :\':lbes. Ir; vd.i,;; th : 
K;. g had been induced to ufe vdoleiu ex; edde,. ts lor raldn;: ir. >:v . , .'..':.' c' : - 
.'' ol n-ieaiui-cs, prrcecbi^t to Strnllbrhds hivour ; .\.\\ \i th ;. .: > ! : : : : 1 
-n ' ; d, h -, ar lead , was intlrvly innoecnt. blvcn b.> '!, \ ':,_<'. .: ex , .1;,.* ^ r - n: 

., , V, i^i, h oeeaho'.e 1 d;e eomphiin:, th.;' the eo; di';.:. . :. 
. vn, all '.'! th'-m, ro-.dueie i, in hir a- ajipeare,', widi n:: !.. v .j n-. : ; al' ' 
an. e. A!;d wdi,::^v, r hi-^ i^risnite a I vice ndi'ht be ' , rhi^ lal :a \' r" rn n ' . . 



;.-l, o:^ n an.'.l [^ubhhlv, to inculcate in the Kin;d> p-'.e::;e, tnir, 
fv:'a''^: n e"!];:-; (.-vir o: \':i^'\\ th.e lover. i;;n to violate tn.e : -'.-, th - 1 
to be pr.-.ctil'. d. V, ;:h { xtr nu: rcierv/-, and, as loon .i^ p- "h 
be m.i K- to th.e e.oidiV/LULijn, tor any in;uiv, which it n i: . 

<;..,n:v':'*>'.s prfcedeius, dV.c hill p.irhlan't. lU a.iter th.- 
Id o; .ittaindc! i and even a lew wcil:- after >tiah' : . 

N n .' 



. ;: m lueii 
I -vc. I,-d t-hc 



. -Lcr.t.v v.^' rrrrv '.^ r.r.vt-.iry coi;i-.c,.. 
\ci.i;. p.C:. vh^jc i.c Ice::;. :v) v.'.?.\ 



276 HISTORY OF G Pv E A T BRITAIN. 

Chr.". V. p.ii-liament remitted to his children the more fevere confequences of his fcntence: 
"*'* As if confcious of the violence, with v/hich the profecution had been condufted. 
I .V Vain did Charles expect, as a return for fo many inftances of unbounded 
co:n[)liunce; thai; the parliament would at lafc fnow him ibme indulgence, and would 
cordially fall into that unanimity, to which, at the expence of his own power, 
iWid of his friend's life, lie fo earneftly courted them. All his concefTions were 
poifoned by their fufpicion of his infmcerity ; and the fuppofed attemipt to engage 
tiiC army againfc them, ferved with many as a confirmation of this jealoufy. It 
was natural for the King to feek fome refource, while all the world feemed to de- 
fert him, or combine againft him ; and this probably was the utmoft of that em- 
bryo-fcheme, which was formed with regard to the army. But the popular lead- 
ers flill infilled, that a defperate plot was laid to bring up the forces immediately, 
and ofTer violence to the parliament : A defign of wliich Piercy's evidence ac- 
quits the King, and which the near neighbourhood of the Scotch army feem.s to 
render abfoiutely impraclicable *. By means, however, of thefe fufpicions, v^^as 
the fame implacable ipirit flill kept alive ; and the commons, without giving the 
King any fatisfadion in the fettlement of his revenue, proceeded to carry their 
inroadr, witli great vigour, into his now defencelefs prerogative. 

H:<^a-com- Tjjz two ruling paOions of this parliament, were zeal for liberty, and an a- 
iTiiCion and verfion to the church of England-, and to both of thefe, nothing could appear 
l:i c-i/ mere exceptionable, than the court of high-commiffion, whofe inftitution render- 
ed it ir.tireJy arbitrary, and alTigned to it the defence of the ecclefiaflical efta- 
blirnment. The ftar-chamber alfo was a court, which exerted very high difcre- 
tiomry pov/ers ; and had no precife rule or limit, either with regard to the cau- 
ils, which came under its Jurifdidtion, or the decifions, Vv'hich it formed, A bill 
tnaninioufiy pafled the houfes, to abolifii thefe two courts -, and in them, to an- 
nihiiate the principal and molt dangercjs articles of the King's prerogative. By 
the fame bill, the jurifdidlion of the council was regulated, and its authority 
.ab;idged. Charles hefitated before he gave his affent. But finding, that he had 
<: c.r.e too far to retrear,, and that he poiieiTed no refource in cafe of a rupture, he 
i.r. iafi afrixed the royal fandion to thefe excellent bills. But to fliow the parlia- 
n,tnr, that l;e was fulliCiently apprije.l of die ixmportance of his grant, lie ob- 

Icrvcd 

"* T';t ;>:('< (ft of lr'nr':i'<:' u;- tlic .iriny to LoniL)ii, accnrJing co i'ic:cy, wa.^- pvonoi'cd 10 the King;; 
but he rc'icctcd it as foolJOi : iiccaulc the Scotch, who vvcrc: in armi.., anJ lying in their neighbourhood, 
inul't i)c at I.or.Jicn a;. Icon ;'.s the F.ngUili army. Tld;. rcafou is fo folid and convincing, that it Icavci 
ur, room to C'-i&^t cT the veracity of I'iercy': eviJence ; and confequcntly acquit., tl:j King of tlus ter- 
nUc i'ht of hiingiiig v.^, \:,c lamy., which made fueh a noifc at that time, a:)d was a pretence for Co 
many ViOlencts. 



nar- 



C II A R L E S I. 



^"7 



fr-rs-cd to r!.c:-n, t:;.i: t'.'jl^: iv.v [\.\:l'':-, a!:";c^.', i;i a <;:'f^^t mcal.r?, tlic :i.;:i- '-'r-'^ 
c!.i:r.'.;:ual laws, cccl'.T:..rii- .;'...:..'. civli, v. l,:c!i ir.any ot h.'. ;.rcJ.cC'>,r;urs !iw cf'-.i- 
blillra!. 

Ijv rcmovi;^ >; tac ll..r-c!;.in-:':-r, rhc KiiM^'s j ow-r (,f b:r;c!:np; !:.C pe(;;.!-^ ly 
Lis 'M"0clam,:t':(;:r , w.is Intiirccilv abohfhcd ^ a:i '. that important brar.i ;i o; { rcru- 
(^ativc, t') il'.uivi lyiiib:.! uf arbitrary [ DW-r, a:^d iinintvla/ib!;: i-' a l!n,.tcci et:;- 
ibtLiiion, bciiv^ at Kill rcniowci, ie't :!vj fyllcm of govcrnmer.c rr.or; ny.i[/.[-r^: 
:\r.d unilorm. The ilar-chamber alone \v.,g accultoivicd to paiv.fli iiiiraJiior..^. ut 
th.c kin:;' cdi^s : But as iiO courts ol jutiicatiire now rcniaincJ, cX-c-; i t!-,^;c ia 
\Vtllmiriftvr-hall, wirich take cognizance only ot con-,mon and llatutc kr.v, :i:j 
kini^ may thenceforth illue ])roelamation.s but no n.an is bound to ob;'v t!..;r.. 
It mvill", ht)\vev r, be conicfRti, th.it the experiment here n-.au-j by tlie pariian-.cn;, 
was not a little ralli and avlvciuurou-. Xo p^vcmnxiit, at that time, a; ]-f.:i.-d 
in the vv-i;rld, nor is periiap^^ to be found in the records ct" any hillory, v. Ii c'-. li.b- 
filled withcAit li^.e mixture of lonie arbitrary autiic ruv, coirnnittcJ. tf; l>.n:e n^a- 
giilrate , and i: mi^iii: reaiun.ably. l^etiir-.-nanJi, a; pe..r ('o.drJi.l, uh.cii-.cr ki.niaa 
lociety C(juld ever arrive at tiiat :b.:e oi pei:e:tiwn, a- to iuppo:: itxni' v;.;!! no 
other controul, tlian tl".e general and rigidi maxims of law .-.nd c.cp,.irv. Ik.: t'.-j 
parliament jullly thou^lit, that tr.e kin.g was too emineir. a maiiiih.ite to be :;. .ti- 
ed with dilerctionary ['ower, v.'hicli 1,-. !:'i!i'/i:[ L> eafiiy C'.n a; to th.- ktlli :;ei'on or 
liberty. .\nd in the eve::t :: Iv.s b^^n fou:\', ti'.at, ti;o' !on".e iiK'oLvenien.ics 
arlie trcni the mwAini o; av.h^'rin:: knctly to law, yt the advant \;es to nn.eh c\-ct- 
b.klaiKe tiiem, as iliouk! ren.k ; the r^n^;Mh iv^r ev. r praiJul 'a t'le nu mory ut 
ihur ar.cellors, who, -dt-r r^p.^it^.d contelts, ul k;:t eliabklhjd tl;at i,c-l k pr'n. - 
ciplc. 

At the requeit of the pailk^n^; r,:. CihirlL':. ;nke.;d of the : attnts ilnrin . ;>ka- 
lure, ;:avo all tlie judg'-s pa:cn: c_k.;;!\; tlxn' ;v'<^^ kckavioui': A cireum!: m^.? 
of t!'.!' preatelt moment: io\\\'.\'.- ke v.ir th.v:r in.k [-"riknaA , a.nd bar::;i^ tin' 
cr.trane.- ot aibtrary power in. ' :;.e c,;a:n-..; v LL^uita {-t r.ik.i.ature. 

'Ikii. nia'"!'iU'-. Court, whi' . ' /: ( ' j:' ii-\:r.<r ft (jk;knir.\' woi'ds a..d v.w^; p, : 
thouuht lutiu ietikv limit::.! by k.v, ".a- a.o, ior t; at ri.al :i, a''(;k!];ed. k'le 



l:ani.ary eourt,>, vknch exeiaa;; 
k.k J (jb;.-CL!on, ii.a;.i v. lm: a 



a CVL-: tne i:rr\(. 
1 !:e .;b:)kkon ( 



in,; .;a.\,- : j a 
ei/ar.c;l o' the 



: <>-::\\ and the ccnni.il O: Waiv-- ,. ! u\'.ed ;:om ti.e l.niy principi-:. 'I'iie antho- 
liiv v)i tkf tkik (it tl;.' mar!..-, vk.o ii...l .: pemrai y Ip; :it'n cVir tke \vf:/krs 
and meaun-es throu A' n: ik. kinploni, '.-. :: n.der:- d to :'^-c nniyoi's, IIk-iiA 
a'.d orUH.arv niauiUr.r.es. 



l> 



27S HISTORY OF G P. E A T B P. I T A I N. 

t ''- ''' 1m fi-iort, If we take a furvey of the tranfadions of this memorable pavllament^ 
' "^ ' cjunng the firft period of their operations-, we fliall find, that, excepting Straf- 
ford's attainder, which was a complication of cruel iniquity, their merits, in 
other refpedls, lb much overballance their miflakes, as tointitle them to very am- 
ple praifcs from all lovers of liberty. Not only former complaints were remedi- 
ed and grievances redreffed : Great provifion, for the future, was made by excellent 
laws againft the return of like complaints. And ir the ineanr^, by which they 
obtained fuch mighty advantage?, favour often of artifi:c, fometimes of violence ^ 
it is to be confidered, that revolutions of government cannot be eff (fled by the 
mere force of argument and rcafoning : And that factions being once excited, men 
ran neither fa firmly regulate the tempers cf others, nor their own, as to enlure 
themfelves againR all exorbitancies. 

The parliament now came to a paufc. The King had promifed his Scotch 
fubje6ls, that he would this fummer pay them a vifit in order to fettle their go- 
vernment ; and tho' the Englifii parliament was very importunate with him, that he 
fliould lay afide that journey, they could not prevail with him fo much as to delay it. 
As he mufc necefTarily in his journey have pafled thro' the troops of both nations, the 
S;a of Aurr. ^^'^ii^"ions feem to have entertained great jealoufy on that account, and to have now 
Jving's jour- hurried on, as much as they formerly delayed, the difbanding the armies. The 
laiid.^^^' arrears therefore of the Scotch, were intirely paid them ; and thofe of the Englifh, 
in part. The Scotch returned home, and the Englifli were fcparated into their 
feveral counties, and difrnilTed. 
n.;. of Sept. After this, tlie parliament adjourned to the 20th of Oflober; and a com- 
mittee of both hcuk s, a thing altogether unprecedented, was appointed to fie during 
the recefs, with very ample povv^ers. Pym was appointed chairman of the com- 
inittee of the lower houfe. Farther attempts were made by the parliament, 
while it fat, and even by the commons alone, for alTuming fovereign executive 
powers, and pubiifliing their ordinances, as they called them, inftejd of laws. 
TiiC con:n-iittee too, on their parts, were ready to imitate this example. 

A fir.aii committee of both houfes were appointed to attend the King into 
Scotland, in order, as it was pretended, to fee that the articles of pacincation 
were executed ; but really to be fpies upon him, and extend (till farther the ideas 
or parliamentary authority, as well as cclipfe tlie majelly of the King. The 
i'.ari of Bedibrd, Lord Eloward, Sir Philip Stapleton, Sir William Armyne, 
iiennes, and liambden, were the perfons chofen. 

En-di.avours were ufed, before Charles's departure, to have a protedor of 
the kingdom appointed, with a power to pals laws without iiaving recourfe to 

I the 



C II A R I. r '^^ T. 

' ; : . iO":rv, or to i':.c ci. 



c--) 



t'le Kin^. S>o liccle roi';:ir ; \v;.s no'./ ; . ' 
cui^liitu'ijii o: t,i;s k'r; ; 0:1"'. 

Amip-t tiio ;':;at v.Kifty (T a::'..;t , 
Wf ha\'c a!iiv',!l c v :'!.!.'. : 
Priruf or Or.ui.ie. 1 he ki.v; co: ; .. '. i 
Lis intcn'- )'is to the |\v l:;i:rc:i!:, v.^;) i 
'rh''> \v.;^ :hc Lomn^cii^tiwu;: (! t!;.- tf.;;.. ..i''^;is wirii i.,c l.Miniv <; c 
C j[!nc:ti(ms, wliich y-'-v altcrwa:.::, wCr^ivhci \\\ih t::e mrul !;. 
c;'.i.r-es, bo:h tj the h'.i^Jotn a;id i!^-; ho^i:j ci :!:;:a::. 



1 Via i..' Ai.irv 

:.. - :i'..::.rc : v. ; :-' ;.r ( (.;: .-.. 



C II A P. M. 



Ru'ilns cj: b- :b /.< 

tion of ihc frjc vionK 



J /. : I i 



bnpii'cbinnii c/ .'L' hl/.J\. .\i 

-Tii'P.ii.ts. K.}'/:' ;..:i-.i- i.:/;... ;.- 



T 



Arrhcs i:i Tcrk. Vri^yrr.ti'jus Jor cr::l ^.:,iir. 

Ill' Scotch, v.!:o ;-r.l b-j^.-.n tii.T.- fatal corc.rnotions th.oir^/it, \\\T. r.'--, 
had h:ii ': ' 1 a ^ c: y pcriliuiis i;n,', rl.d-iii-:^, inich t:) t'u'ir p'-L!":t :i:k1 rc;i;- 



t :;:::\ lk(id- :' 
t'vclvcmo I'n. "' 

-: ' ,cr.^ \<:)\. ' - 
: .:\'\ v/crc c:c: 
t, . T;^ \vi_"rc ar; : // 
h.cvv. ur ar.d ,\i\M;if 
tjr:r , ^i k ii'^^^' ^ 
i'l aii c';:.: 
li n : -\.l l:i- . 
'; ''] : A;,d v. 

Jr '-!" 1"; ; . 



[':.: voi'y.] zl.c::: ior lying in g^')d (jiiar:cr= du:!:: - :. 

; .^rliamjnt iu : co;.*jrrccl on rhiiM a i r T ; : < t 

b;-. ihcriy air{l..nce : fn the arriilc? <\ [ a, ::i( ./:-; , 

; '-' en good l\ibuc:s; an! th.;r n.;!-.:v : :;; ,',- 



!o ; 



Z'S ca;cuiat(.v! a-ul 
./ M.Lhcr the cii.:!r: 
, -'. .Tc (;rdc.\'', h',- a \- 
' L'^a.d\i!:i\'.: 
. ; i\ ll; a^iijn c-i ; ;.i . 
' .--d than ad tlu-. 
. ; .:.:\ . h d '.::.: 1 . 
..::c. '.! , o\ C.-.v.v [\ -. 



X.. 1 r ;.:s M.- ;;'.-.. 

;.:! :i.-."c;cirr:. [h.h ; 

hanv ::r, r.) ;. re ;d 



w- . L. \) -w) - i> o 1- J iu p:-ah 

{. :; L .id .lOiiL . . ,, d.... 



C]:i 



2S0 HISTORY OF GRE AT B ?v 1 T A I N. 

" Charle?, dcfpoi'ed in Iinglan.;! of a coi^fiderable part of his authority, and 

' ''' dreading iu;l farther cncroachm^ncs upon him, arrived in Sc^^tland, with an in- 

' ^''" tcaiion of abdicating aiinoil entiruly the finail fliarc of power, which tber,^ 

remair.ed to hiiTi, and of giving fi^li farisfaflion, if poffible, to his reftlefs 

-;nu -r ^^,u,;^Af-g jrj ^{i^z kingdom. 

T'lE lords of articles were an antient inflitution In the Scotch parliament, 
Th"v v/ere conn.itur.'jd after this manner. The lords chofs eight bifliops : The 
bifliops tieclcd eigh: lords ; Thcf^ Hxteen named eight commiffioners of coun- 
ties, and eight burgcfks : And without the previous confent of the thirty two, 
who were dtrnominared lords of artich-?, no motion could be made in the par- 
iiament. As the biil.ops v/ere intirely devoted to the court, it is evident, that 
all tlic lords of articles, by necellary confequence, depended on the king's 
iiommation 5 and the prince, befides one negative after pafTing the bills thro' 
tiie parliament, polit-ffed indirectly another before their introduction j a prero- 
gative of much greater confequence than the former. The bench of bifhops 
being nov/ abolifhed, the pariiament v/ifely laid hold of the opportunity, and 
totally fet afice the lords of articles : And till this important point was ob- 
t.:in;'d, the nation, properly fpeaking, could not be faid to enjoy any rcgular 
irce^oni. 

' 1:^ remaskable, that, notwithftanding thli inftitution, which had no pa- 
railel m England, tiie royal authority was always ellcem.ed much lower in Scot- 
lind than in the lorrner kingdom. Bacon reprefents it as one advantage to be 
cxo^\:L':d trom the union, that the too extentive prero,Q;ative of Eno:land would 
be abridged by tlie example of Scotland^ and the too narrow prerogative of Scot- 
land be enlarged from imitation of England. The Englilih were, at that time, 
a civilized people, and obedient to the laws : But among the Scotch, it was of 
little confequence, how the laws were framed, or by whom voted -, while tho 
exorbitant ariftocracy had it fo much in their power to prevent their regular exe- 
cution. 

TijE peers and commons formed only one houfe in the Scotch parliament: 
And as it had been the pradfice of James, continued by Charles, to grace EngliOi 
gentlemen with Scotch titles , the whole determinations of parliament, it was to 
be Icarcd, would in time depend upon the prince, by means ot thefc votes of 
foreignerF, who had no intcrell nor concern in the nation. It was therefore a 
la.v, dcierving great approbation, that no man fliould be capable of being creat- 
ed a Scotch peer, who pofleiTed not 10,000 merks (above -co pounds) of an- 



nual rent in the kin^^dom. 



D' 



A LAV,' 



C II A R L E SI. 2<?i 

A law for triennial parliaments was 1 kcwilc palTcd ; and ic was ordained, tliir Chip. \'l. 
the lall act ot cvciy parl'amcnt fiiould Lv co a^iponit il.e tnnc antl place for IvSA- ''*" 
jn;^ tr.e parliamenc next enluing. 

The King was deprived ot that power, formerly cxorci led, of uVuing procla- 
mations, which enjoined obedience, undir the pcnal:y ut trealon : A p-erogative, 
which invclled Inm with the whole legilla:i\e authority, cvea in matteri of the 
ii!:^:.ell con!equ.-nco. 

So tar was laudable : But the mofl fatal blow r,i\-en Co royal autiior:rv, and 
vvUar, in a manner, dethroned the Prince, was the article, th.at no member ut ti.e 
privy council, in whofe hands, during t'le Kirg's abienec. tiie w:u:).e aJn-nn;ilra- 
t:(;n lav, no oflicer of ilate, none of the judges, lliould be apjKHnted hue by ad.- 
vice ai-.d approbation of [)arliament. C'liailes even agreed to derrivc, of their 
leats, four judges who had adhered to his interells ^ and the;r [)!ace was fupp'i/d 
by others more agreeable to the ruling party. Several ol the covenanters were alfj 
Iworn of the privy council. And all the niiidlter.-, oi flare, counfe'lors, and 
judges, were, by lav/, to hold their places during liie cr good, bel^avi'j'.ir. 

Tur. King, whi'e in Scotland, cop.h.rriied hin:!elf entir !y to r'.e (.ila'-blb.ed 
c'uirch ; and aHilled at the long prayers nfid long.'r f.rnion'^, v.;:'n wh.leii t':e 
p,rcfl'^vteriins endeavoured to reg;ile h.im. 1 le bellowed peiiflc'ii^ ain! {\cft rn-.e;U5 
on f I- nfbrlon, Gillefpy, and otiier j^o^Hilar preicliers ; anSi p;-acVi:l\! ewrv art ^) 
f)"t'n, if pot Co gain, his grcatcll enemies. The bail c^t .Argvle v..;? cre..:e/. a 
tv.arn';?!'^, Lord l.oudon an earl, L'd]( y was di^^.nihcd with t';e title ol b'.ul ei 
f,-'.\n. Uis friends, he was obliged, fix^ t'lc pre lent, to fi^gltcc ai^.J ov.ib)' k : 
S')!iv of r-rm were difguilcd : Aiul lils enemies were I'iOt recof.cilcd ; but ..f.;;j- 
ed .:!I l.iS carciies and favours to artifice and r.ecc'iirv, 

\p'.\].v. and Ilannlron, being ic.zed widi a:! :'ppreh;'n:ln;\ rr.i! or CO-;;;' r*" , 
. ; [: !.>;! ()! Cra-Jord and o'ber. mr.nJe.i :> aillifiinar then', le:: : . ' 

v^'. ;>' 1'. Idenlv, and reti.-ed n;to t.;e country : Iju: up ::! invra'; i;i a-, i ..:: 

-. '::(_, .:] a k v/ d lys. 'lii; , e\ciir, w ':il1. iiid ;u n lu r . at.Ie n -r i;..' i [...! .. . 

n -r pi.i'i o!:", nor co:nequenee, was cr,:r.r,)<):)'.v den':y :. 'd tl.' , 
Ib.t ill.)' t' !:> e\'e:.t ha i no rdecL inSco'la:.di % h .: w.i> ;; r ex: , , 
\- b i! ^^ idi c;;;)il vV..r':/; . in j'lngian','. 'In' I, jbbb j atb.nrv .t, . . ., . . 

rbb-d, Ix-in; ^'. :i.:--g to awaben tb :[ ei;- leb. ten>ler;.d^ b ./>:' : . . . ., 

.,.a:e'y twok the abi: ni ; as it ibe nnd;y,;..i::t->, lo ::,; y . ;-fv,:g's; ;;r.', 

, ; i . : a pi 't a: once t.) n;in\bT m iii a:.d ab ! b: 

. . .],'. \'.i], tixr^b.)re, to ! .fb x, v bcnn the Kn g ^ ... '.., ;^ ., . . 

,i ; ui.vl he urvcied a guard to .ute: 1 t...:.., 

'-.. 1. O u J . 



82 HISTORY OF GPvEAT BRITAIN. 



202 



Crap. VI But while the King was employed in pacifying the commotions in Scotland, 
'' ' and Vv-as preparing to return to England, in order to apply himfelf to the lame fa- 
lutarv work in that kingdom , he received news of a dangerous rebellion broke 
out in Ireland, \^iLh circumftances of the utmoft horror, bioodflied, and devaila- 
tion. On every fide, this unfortunate Prince was purfued with murmurs, diicon- 
tenr, faction, and civil wars ; and ihe fire, from all quarters, even by the mod 
mdeoepident accidents, at once blazed up about him. 

The great plan of James, in the adminiilration of Ireland, continued by 
Charles, was, by juftice and peace, to reconcile that turbulent people to the au- 
thority of laws, and, introducing art and induftry among them, to cure that floth 
and barbaiifm to which they had ever been fubjeCu. In order to ferve both 
thefe purpofes, and, at the fame time, fecure the dominion of Ireland to the Eng- 
lidi crown, great colonies of Britifn had been carried over, and, being inter- 
mixed with the Irifli, had every where introduced a new face of things into that 
country. During a peace of near forty years, the inveterate quarrels between 
the nations feemed, in a great meafure, to be obliterated ; and tho' much of the 
landed property, forfeited by rebellion, had been conferred on the new planters, a 
more than equal return had been made, by their infiruding the natives in tillage, 
building, manufadures, and all the civilized arts of life. This had been the 
courfe of things during the fuccefTive adminiilrations of Chichefter, Grandifon, 
Falkland, and, above all, of Straitord. Under the government of this laft no- 
bleman, tl:e paciFxC plans, now come to greater maturity, and forwarded by his 
vigour and induHry, feemed to have operated with full fuccefs, and to have be- 
ilov/ed, at laft, on that lavage country, the face of an European fettlement. 

Ai'TEii Strafford fell a victim to popular rage, the humours, excited in Ireland 
by that great event, could not fuddenly be compofed, but continued to produce 
the preateft innovations in the c-overnment. 

The Britifh proteflants tranfplanted into Ireland, having, every moment, be- 
fore their eyes ail the horrors of popery, had naturally been carried into the op- 
pofite ext;c:re, and had univerfally adopted the highefi: principles and pradlices 
cf the puritans. Monarchy, as well as the hierarchy, was become odious to 
tliem ', and evtry m'':thod of limitirig the authority of the crown, and detachino; 
rliC'r.klvcs from t';e k!n.7^ of England, was gre?dily adopted and i^urfued. They 
ccnf'.dcred i.or, thai, as they Tarcc compofed the fixth part of the people, and 
were fccrcily )bn';xious to the anricnt inliabitants ; their only method of fup- 
porting tiicn.lvl'.es v/as by maintaining royal authority, and prefervinp- a o-reat 
dependauct en tlicir motlier- country. 1 he Enghlh commons likewife, in their 
furious profccutlL-n ol Strairbrd, had overlooked ti-c mf;(l obvious confcquences j 

and. 



C IT A R J, i: S I. 



2^^: 



Cr-I, -liilc tluy ;. -imputed to l.ii-n, as aci'iii;, wcry (jilv r.iioiury n. 



<.ri-::h ; C\;r. V!. 



'- i' 



' y . '.'. < 1 



' ' ; 



y \v..:l.i .'..jr.L* i; 



coi;i.i be retain^,: 1:1 L.b;cCL;on. A:a1 lo lliun^ \..is t!.c ^^iriciM li>r p-^vui ; ';! 
\crnnicnr i.i ;.il tl.j Liir^c king icnis, tluit tl.c r:v.;l clLibbH- /.! ;:. :.;:,, of i'- bey 
v.'crj cvci'y v.l\-j:-c ab.'.riJAiiicd, in oiclcr to ^r..b..y tLb-i ruiiiij yw'':^.-. 

C:f\';.i:,s i;r..;b!e to reiiil, iiaJ bvcn c.bbgc.l lo y.^Id to n.c 1;;:1:, .i" 11 u\z 
S.-Gt^'i a^v! bj^i^b.n p.irli.in.cnts ; aa>l l(.ii::d too, t;:a: tbc;;- c:;/;-(..i . . :b,I 
ro.j i;i |^ro['ortion to bis conccliloio. 'I'boi^ l..bi;b!.-i;, wbiv^ii ib. :... jiw s b.iJ 
vot;d, til y reduced, by a iublcquciu vot.', to a io.iitli [\i:r ; 'i'.'.J c.yj;: .,: b;g!i 
c.jrr,:riil]lo:i was (.'.CLcrndncd to be a j^rievance : t\JarLi.tl biv/ ib,ol..bij.i : 1 ..: ;u- 
nluiaion ol ti.e councd ani.biilatcd : iTtcian^atx;;^ aw.l a>_ls o. il i:c d .buj i of 
r.o aii'Lhority : Lvtry otjIlt or iidlitLition, wliich die.Tr! ,!'jd o:\ mv;.'.i::bv, w.., :.-.- 
vaded i and the Prince v/au dcfpoibd cf .dl his prtiOj^ ;;;vl, v, biu..: t'.; j !ja;l 
irecext Ol ar.v vio'c;:ce or d.c<i;abrv in hi:^ ad.i.biiilrarioii. 

The {lan.d::_; ar:i-y of Ircbmd was i;iual!y aboLC 5v:ro ir.::\ ; b:.: in or.!,r :o 
afllil the K.i:!:; in rupprclilnL:, the Scorcli covenanters, Si.r.:;:brd lia.i rai.ld ~b;.-,o 
iiiore, and iia.l in^orporaicdi witii them a t'ijuland nvjn, cirav.n l:-,:rn ti:? o,d 
army , a nC'.edbry ex[)cdienc for befiowii^.j; oid.cr a;-d cbi^ijAnvj <.:'.\ liie r.:\\ b:vi;.-l 
ii.ddier.-. '1 i:e [:ri\Mte men in t!b:, army w.nv whoby ca:lioi:c ; in.: ti^e o;"^"ive;::, 
bobii comnbiil'ion and r.on-connrdli'ion, were p:o:eilarjrs, r.nd co:/.d e:Ki:ciy b. J.-- 
y.^wCx^l on by Ciuiles. Tlie Ln^ibh con-n^uns enter:ain.d l':j [;re..i::l ap- .i--n- 
i\'ons on accoinu oi tni:^ arniiy \ a;;;.! ire\er cc.iled {v)ii:_;:n; y, i:.e K;;-^:, ibi i'.e 
agreed to break ic: Nor would ihey coment to ar.y propoials :or ai:^:r.vr.b',j, il-c 
llaPiding army to yooo men i a number v. b:^h ibe King ji;d^ed rc(.^-..ib:j : .: rj- 
Jaifiing Irebmd in obedience. 

Cii.'.r.i.rs, tliinking it dangeroii, that Svoor* PiCn, acculU.nvjb. Cj ibd::i..', and 
U'air.ed to the u!e of aimv:, llvjidd b; dMljierfrd air.ong a ww. .; l.i tm-b-nivTit ai-d 
unl^ttied, aL;reed \\\i\\ ti.e b; ain;Ii andxilliid'U- to lni\e ti.;m tran.n.n :ed i::j 
Idanders, and inled iii bis nuber\ ier\-ice. 'I'bc lingblli C'^n^nion:-, ::;; :-jK,,!.\e, 
tlut regular bo.des of troops, dd^ipiincii in tiie Low Co'-nniv .-, v. '.bd j: /.e 
llbl m^re dangerous, n;o\sedlome averiion to tins cxicdici:: , an,! b.. f\;n : :c- 
t'.'jced liis al! jwanc e to -;0.;o riven. But wiicri ti.e Spanii.irbs Ii..b: In^b. \\.\[ !,ir 
tr.nilpoitir.g theie troops -nul the nven wi-re re.niv l./r em.b..: i..i'..c.; , ti..' tun.;- 
, , , wnninr, to ihow liieir j-.ower, .ind r.i;t d;l[bi..'.lLd. v,ib; .i;i (;>;!):[. ;;n"y (d C'.no- 
:.i \ and allronting ti.e Kin[5, prondnred every one ir.^ni :;n" ' i, veb.ii ior b. i: 

; w'.vz. And thns the pr^jcvd, l^rnud l^y Ci.a;ie , o. : ^ :... ^L\.i;.:ry i;o;:i 

c - . : en.. V. as linuortunatcly dilappointed. 

o o 2 b , . 



14;, 



2?4 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



ip. 



i:i ijcuum. 



The old Irifn catholics remarked all the^e falfc fteps of the Engiini, and re- 
^"^^* foivcd to take advantage of them. Tho' their animofity againft that nation, foi' 
v^ant of an occafion to cxcrc itfelf, fecmed to be extinguifhed, it was or.ly com- 
po'ed into a temporary and deceitful tranquillity. Their intcrefts, both with re- 
<^ard to prefer ty and to religion^ fecretly ftimulatcd them to a revolt. No indi- 
vidual of any fcpt, according to the antient cuftoms, had the property of any 
-'rti'ticular c'late , bur as the v.'hole fcpt had a title to a whole territory, they ig- 
norantiv preferred this barbarous community before the more fecure and narrower 
poffcriions alTigned them by the EngliQi. An indulgence, amounting aimod to a 
toleration, had been given the catholic religion : But fo long as the churches and 
the ecclefriltical revenues v/ere kept from the priefls, and ihey were obliged to 
endure the neighbourhood of profane heretics , being themfelves difcontented, 
they endeavoured continually to retard any cordial reconcilement betv/een the 
En^'^iilh and tiie Irifh nations. 
Conicirricy There v.'as a gentleman, called Roger More, who, tho' of a narrow fortune, 

was defcended from a very antient Irifh family, and was much celebrated among 
his countrymen for valour and capacity. This man firft formed the projeft of 
cxpelUng the Englifii, and ailerting the independency of his native country. He 
fecretly went from cheiftain to cheiftain, and rouzed up every latent principle of 
difconttnt. Tie maintained a clofe correfpondence with Lord Maguire and Sir 
Phelim Oneale, the moft powerful of the old Irifh. By converfation, by letters, 
by his emifTaries, he rcprefented to his countrymen the motives of a revolt. He 
obferved to them. That, by the rebellion of the Scotch and fadirions of the Eno-- 
lifn, the King's authority in Britain was reduced to fo low a eondieion, that he 
never could exert himfelf with any vigour, in maintaining the Englifh dLminion 
over Ireland j that the catholics, in the Irifh houfe of commons, afiifled by the 
protcflants, had fo diminifhed the royal prerogative and the power of the lieu- 
tenant, as would much facilitate the conducting, to its defired effe6l, any confpi- 
rary or combination, vv^hich could be formed ; that the Scotch, having fo fuc- 
cefsfully tlirown off depcndance on the crown of England, and afl'umed the go- 
vernment into their own hands, had fet an example to the Irifli, who had fo 
ir.r.ch greater opprelTions to complain of; thiat tfie Englifn planters, wlio had ex- 
];elled them their pollelhons, fupprciTed their religion, and bereaved th.m of their 
liberiics, were but a handful in comparilon of the natives ; that tney lived in the 
n.oU fupiiiC frcurity, intcrfperfed with their numerous enemies, [ruffing to the 
proteeiion of a fir.ull army, which was itftlf Icuttered in inconndciabie divifions 
throughout ihc whole kingdom ; that a great body of men, difciplined by the o-o- 



vernment. 



C II A R L E S T. 2^; 

vcrnrt'cnt, were now tlirown '.cykc, m.-] wrrc rcrxlv for a; v '\a:'.:' .^^ or ci.\ ctmv c:> 
tcrpriz.^ , ch:U tho' tlv- cu'ioii/s h u! :;['.'.; ro r-ijcvc!, in loir,- tol.T.ibic n-ira!..re, 
t!ic cxcrcilc ot ilijir r(.\'.^i n, f.-o.-ii iht' n-.o ' r-r/.o'^. ff r'.c:r indvilii-'nt [;;;. v.c, 
t!icy rn;'!l Iiencc*(;r:'i ex -'-\^ i'mt t!:c ['-v.rnnv ' , '> f r;r;tii!acd pv 'niicr 
HKixni'^ ;;!:,l CjI'kt jm'iik:' !cs ; that the j-v;:it.i[;:c .\\ ] _u ,: i'^^ nt, ha\'l:-"- at ia!l Ij,;- 
clued tluir l".)\vri i.~^n, w(. .!J, no d(;,:'.r, lo ;";;>!: .;s '.vv :.a:i c ;::ul:Ja:cd tl.i-ir au- 
tiioi'iv, cxtf-ncl t'.K'ir a!v.iy.r;oii.> crtvrrri/. s to Irci.i;: ', a-u". make tl:-j ci/d-.uiics i:i 
tluit i^ing.'.oni tccl [he lame furicuis {vrl.. cutioii, to v.hicii t':;cir iircr.r-.ri :n J.!:;--- 
l.vrd were at prclciu cxpolcd , and that a revolt in ih: IiiTn, tcn.!i;i'' (.ly to vm- 
d;-M!c tiit'ir native hh^rty againfl tl.c vi(;!L';.c(: o'l ior.i[:n invaders, coidd TiC'/Lr, at 
any time, be deemed rcbelhon -, mucli Icfs diii-iiyr^ ti.e rr.'fcnc cu: .''jlio;-..-, v,\,r.i 
tlx'ir prince was, in a manner, a j riloiur, a;:t' (b;d;er.ce r.-a/.l lL'[\'.iJ. r .: : > 
him, but to thofe, wlio ;i;.d traiterjufly uluri^-.l lii, 1..v.Tj1 aii'-iio. ity. 

Bv thcfc confKleratior.;-, More engagedi a!: 'die h,-ads oh the na'dvc Irilli i.-.V) 
t'ne conlp.iracy. Idie I-.nf;Iini of'riic rrde, as tl/-y v.cie c.iic.I, (.r the c!d lir.;.'!:!":! 
jda!U(rs, b'.ina; all cathoHcs, it w.is h.o; vC, v.-ou'd afterward.; ]o'n tiu ur-v, v.h'Ln 
rellured clicir reliv^ion to its an'ici.t fj-l-.Tidor a.-.di a;;thiori:y. 'i'i.c ;:.re.-.::wi, w.,^, 
tliar, by Sir PheHm OPiCalc and the otiier con'pirators, an irdurrccti. n (houhl be 
begun on one day, throug!;OUt the provii'.cvs, a:";di all tlie bjiglilh II tdcnuT.ts Ic 
attaclv d ; and t'nat, on the very lame day, I/.rd Mai^ dre ar.d Kogcr ^h)^c 
llioulcl furprize t':e caflle of Dublin. Tl'.e com.mcnrcmcnt id t'us rcviltthey 
f.xjd c:\ the approacli of winrer ; tliat th.re ndght be mo-:- didlculrv in tr..n- 
rporti;.g fo'rces from Iv'fr'arid. SLiccour.^ to tliendclvcs a:vd Idrp.jits of am",- th.tv 
cxp-'ficd fri.m 1'.:::\lc, in c -n'equ nee c^f a prc^ndib nia 'e them by Cifdiud 
Rii-hcii.-u. An 1 n^.iny Irdli odxers, wl;o ibrvcd in :he S| aid'li troop-, io-d :v^-\ 
nnarances (d' th: ;r C( ncurre,.ce, (o Icon as tlxy j'.w an ii-kuTi. vTi;: n cnt^:\d u.\. . i^y 
thoi: cit!;oh:- l\\r'r.n. !^^^-w>, vdue'i, evtrvd.iv, arrived ::. 't: I'.rrl:::.:, ct the 
fury,':.:prchedby ;!.o eon.:- k;-, apu:dl ah pipld-, !t:;-k :V. ih :-,- into the Ir lb 
nar^)n, a-dl-.th h:i:o,da'-"d the con!": iraous to ^ x-^eure tl.to l.;:al pi ry, i . and 
<\avo t:";Tu ado: ' ! !o)^ e^ ; i t!:e Cfv.rurrt'nco ' f their (c:u:urymcn. 

S; ( !' : : . oh:-- to a :o vol: v.-as t:i!ir-o\-erid in .11 the b. '\ th.ir It u a^ d> en":ed 
i;:oo rhhov, a^ i-; v/.i^ d i:oo TwU". to (.oOio.;. the ! -te'e: to r:.A':. loooh ; o.o ['..r. 
app; :n:';' diy dree.- o-gh, i:or lied anv ("'" v; v ' 'oi - r :r.. h- :o tee ooo-c-n - 
!oenr. dhi King, i '. ee \ h \.\ n; - :''. . e : : . ' * 

f MV thing vo.^ 01 ;o :: ,': n a'r/:o' to- h.h oi ! ' . r.:::;.":., 

r,^ciz .:- u::, !:k -.vih-, w.:e h-eo' : \ racv ; !o. : o 

atten::e.i -.'. as pard to ih. -lo d:.. i . . .. ti.e ki, p h . . - 



2B6 HISTORY cf GREAT BRITAIN, 

C.-r. VI. pointcxl lieutenanr, rcmalnca v.i I.Gndon. The two juillccG, Sir William Parfons 
'^^''' and Sir john Bor'ace, weie men of Jniiall ability, and, by an inconvenience com- 
mon to all fuftiojs tinic'S, o-vvccl their advancement to nothing but their zeal 
for that party, by Vv'hom every ihing was now governed. Tranquil from their 
irrnorar.ce and inexperience, thefe men indulged themfclves in the moil profound 
repofe, on the very brink of deilruction. 

But they were awakened from their fecurity, the very day before that ap- 
pointed for the commencement of hoftiiities. The caftle of Dubhn, by which 
the capital v;as commanded, contained arms for 10,000 men, with thirty-five 
pieces of cannon, and a projDor'donal quantity , of amm.unition ; Yet was this im- 
portant place guarded, -ind that too without any care, by no greater force than 
jifty m.en. Maguire and More were already in town with a numerous band cf 
th.cir retainers : Others were expected that night : And, next morning, they were 
to enter upon, what they efteemed the eafiefl; of all enterprizes, the lurprizai of 
the caflle. Oconolly, an Irifliman, but a proteflant, betrayed the fecret to 
Parfons. The juUices and council, for fafety, fled immediately into the caflle, 
and re-inforced the guards. The alarm was conveyed to the city, and all the 
proteilants prepared ior defence. More efcaped : Maguire was taken ; and Ma- 
hone, one of the confpirators, being likewife feized, firft difcovered, to the juf- 
ticcs, the project of a general infurredion, and redoubled tlie appreheniions, 
which were already univcrfaliy diffufed throughout Dublin. 

Bjt tho' Oconolly's difcovery laved the caftle from a furpiize, the confefllon, 
extorted from Mahone, came too late to prevent the intended infurredion. O- 
neale and his confederates had already taken arms in Uhler. The Irilli, every 
vv'here intermingled with the Englifh, needed but a hint from their leaders and 
priefts to begin hoflilities againft a people, whom they hated on account of their 
religion, and envied for their riches and [}rolperity. The houfes, cattle, goods, 
01 the unwary Englifli were firfl leized. Thofe, who heard of the commotions 
in thc-ir niMghb^urhood, inllead of deferting their habitations, and liocking toge- 
ther lOr mutual proteclion, remained at home, in hopes of defending their pro- 
perty ; and fell thus feparr.tely into the hands of their enemies. After rapacity 
had fully exerted itfell, cruelty, and the mofl barbarous, that ever, in any nation, 
v,as known or heard of, b.gan its operations. An univerfal mafiacre commenced 
of the Eng'illi, now deiencelefs and paiTively refigned to their inhuman foes. 
No age, no fex, no condition, v/as fparcd. The wife, weeping for her butch- 
ered huiband, and embracing her helpleis children, was pierced with them, and 
periHicd by the fame flroke. The old, the young, the vigorous, the infirm, 
underwent a like fate, and were confou.nded in one comn:ion ruin. In vain did 

I fii^dit 



:iu a.;i laal 



CHARLES I. 



Hi Jit Lvi fro:n die ;i.:l alKr.lc : L\v'.r:;J'::on \va% (.v.:y v.licrc, let \c<'L\ :\r.d C! 
rncc the h'Jiucd vicii::^, at ever: lurr.. In wiln \v:. , r.CM.rfc had to rclari<-r.<, :> 
cc)m[)anions, t^ liic.;'.!::. : Ai; coi.ii^xiuiis \v,r.- eiiti'Mvc ;, ^i.d iJcatli was tic..!; bv 
tint luuui, tropii v.\;;.h pru[fciu)n was in^'^^lurcd dv.d c.vivjL.iJ. \\ i:n'j.it -.rovu- 
cation, v,itbiO'..t i;j'[uiiLiun, tiie alloiiillicd }-,;i:;ii:;i, l:\'i:.:: in pro: \.:-\A j ra c a;..-! 
iull Iccurity, were nM;:acred by t'lcir nearcil nei^^'ibj'j.-s, wrh v. ;.(.;r. tiicv i;^j .uni: 
ii]'::j!J a continued ir.LLTv-ourlv- ot kin.v.neli an! uood (jl;k\s. 

Bi'T death was the h^IitL-ll punilliment, infneiLtl by thcjle rr.orc t;n;n barb^arGi.': 
iavages : AI! the tortures, Nvhich wanton cruelty could d-vik-, :\A tbe hn^Tcrnj ; 
j'ains u\ bodiy, the anguilh of mind, the ng(.nics of c'ely:!;.-, ccu!d not h.ti.ire re- 
\cr.crc excited without injury, and crir.lty derived Ircm no ca.de. To c./.er 
ir.to particulars would fl-n^ck tiie leail: delicate h'jmanitv. Sucl'i e;.or;r.i:ns, tlvo* 
atreited by U!idoul:.tL-d cvide;ice, ap['.ar aimc'l ir.crL\i;b';e. L\-r!-.iVcd n-.ti.ro, 
even perverted religion, tho' er.ccuraged by il.e utrnoll licence, reach n^t Il.Ji a 
pitch of ferocity , ui\\.:i':> the p:ty, inlicrent in ;; Jir.an breails, be dcllroy.d by tl'.a: 
contagion of example, which rranlcorts iVitn beyond .ill i;;e uluai n-iuave.> oi con- 
duct an.d bcluU'iour. 

Tiil weaker lex themfelves, nr.tma'.ly trnc/.r to their own fu fieri r^-;-;, taI cta- 
pafnonate to ti.ole ol others, lu-re cinu'u'.ed th.eir n:iore roi -..it comra:ii;\--.:, in tiu 
practice ot every cruelty. t,ven chiidren, targlit by ihc rx.'.nvjd.c, and ci ccurag- 
cd by the exhortation, of their }i.irc::t.-, ciliiy.-d tl-eir feeble bl(>v. s en the dead 






rarcaffes or defcncelels children ol li.e l''nr,';;h. Tlx \'ery avarice ei t;;e lii.lx 
wa^u-;ot a kifiicient rellraint to tixcir cru li . . S..ch w.i: their lrer..-v, th,>t ti;e 
cattle, whic!\ they had lei/v.d, a. xl by rapine l.,.d irade iluircAi:, ye:, b;e..i lb 
they bore tlic naa:c of bingliih, were .var.tonly fl.-.;.gh:L:'td, ( r, c.v^r d witii 
.vound. = , turned look' into th.e wood.s ar.d ucl;.!-:.^. 

'id;: Rotelv buildings cr coooi^.-di:'.! , kdvtati;^^ (if tb- ; iante.o, a-^ if i;;> 
br.iiding the Hoth and ignorance oi tiiC n.;ii\e'. v. t_ co: 1..0' d \v.:Ii In'e. c r !.;ij 
jevel v/itli tiiC ground. And '. ii;. re t':.- i^o.e;. 
and p:; raring ior de:en:-', pe-dnn-d in tix fk.n 
c nldren, a double t.iun^^ i\ w,;'^ alio. tied i,< tl.; 

Ii any w lu re a nundor ai'^ n.b'';d ' ;, .A\d. .1:00 .o.o'eT. n: d - 

go:-, v.e;e r^lolv d t') loo et, iwk..o; ^ _ ,. i...ny ' .. . .,= ; :''vve:c 

("iouone 1 by ca: io.l.oi )o^. and j roo.O', . ' .: ' : b\- t,,-- , ( ;i ;: ; 

c.o'.;. kit no U;o.-r ii .1 t'u y lb: 

( ; ueitv, noioe tbini !hai.: t o 



.,v.-ntr., !b.-t eg ::\ :..i:: ! 
tog f o^r witii tiicir V. iv 



'0 



iO.Lt. 



-S8 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Cr^y. VI. having thus rendered them accomplices in guilt, gave them that death, which 
thev fouc-ht to lliun by deferving it. 

A?/iDF/r all thefe enormities, the facred name of Religion refounded on every 
fide ; not to ttop the hands of thefe favagcs, but to enforce their blows, and to 
Heel their hearts againft every movement of human or fecial fympathy. The 
Englifn, as heretics, abhorred of God, and deteftable to all holy men, were maric- 
cd out by the priefls for flaughter ; and, of all adtions, to rid the world of thefe. 
declared enemies to catholic faith and piety, was reprefented as the mod meri- 
torious. Nature, which, in that rude people, was fufiiciently inclined to atro- 
cious deeds, was farther flimulated by precepts ; and national prejudices empoi- 
soned by thofe averfions, more deadly and incurable, which arofe from an en- 
raged fuperftition. While death finifhed the fufFerings of each vidim, the bigot- 
ted ailifiins, with joy and exultation, ftiii echoed in his expirh.g eais, that thefe 
Ligonies were but the commencement of torments, infinite and etrrnal. 

Such were the barbarities, by which Sir Phelim Oneale and the Irifh in Ulfler 
fignalized their rebellion : An event, memorable in the annals of human kind, 
and worthy to be held in perpetual deteflation and abhorrence. The generous 
nature of More was fnocked at the recital of fuch enornious cruelties. He flew 
to Oneale's camp ; but found, tliat his authority, which v/as fufncient to excite 
the Irifli to an ini'urrecHon, was too feeble to reftrain their inliumanity. Sjon 
alter, he abandoned a caufe, polluted with fo many crimes ; and retired into 
Flanders. Sir Phelim, recommended by the greatnef; of his family, and perhaps 
too, by tlic unrellrained brutality of his nature ; tho' without any courage or ca- 
pacity, acquired the intire afcendant over the nortiiern rebels. The Enghfii co- 
lonie:; were totally annihilated in the open country of Ulfier : The Scotch, at lirft, 
ivict v.i.h n;c;re favourable treatment. In order to engage them to a palllve neu- 
trality, the irifh pretended to diftinguifli between the Britiih nations j and claim- 
ing friend iliip ar.d confanguinity with the Scotcli, extended not over them the 
iuiy of tiitir n';affxrcs. Many of them found an opportunity to fly the coun- 
try : Others retired into places of fecuri^.y, and prepared themfelves for lie- 
ience : And by this m.ans, the Scotch plmrcrs, mort of them at lealT. efcaoed 
v.i'ih tii>-;r lives. 

i^noM Uirier, the fianics of rebellion difi'ufed thciiiiHve?, in an indant, over 
t'-.e oti.cr three provinces of Inland. In all places, death and flaughter were not 
iincon;n-:oi; ; tlio' the Iri;?), in thefe other jiiejvinrcs, preten<J:d to a6t with more 
moderation and humaiiity, j>ut cruel and barbarous v.-.is tiieir humanity ! Not 
conte,.tcd Vvith cmdc! ling the rhiglilh their houfe.s, w'vch defpoiling the;n of their 
goodly manor", wid: wailing tijeir cultivated liclds ; Ihey [tripped them of their 

very 



c n A R r. 



v.ry ( loa 



l\i-. and [iiMKu MU'iii 01. t i;.;kvvi .i;ul 



ir.t* IrVf! i'ic'^ 



llu- Ic-all)!!. I !i/ hcaN---'.' ii.cr. !c i\-c-, ai li ciMi!|';i: ;:, ci.a: Lj;il.a|j;y j-"(.- 

j>!c-, w.rc ar.i.f'J v.aii i',!J. .11..I l. ;r.i;cll, uiiu ual H) t;.c c.:ir..U'J, .1:1.! cXc-CL.fci 
wb.at the i.-.ctci;; Is i'.'.i.ui i't i;.-.- Ixiir/.i; lans , du 'x.i i;!!ii..i:]-.;\!. i'lic roids v.-ri\- 
covered w.th t:r,r..d> i;i i.a'w'a l!..:;'.;:ih, lialL i;;.;^; towards n..!\!n ai.d ilu' cilicr 
cities, u!..v:i VLt i\;:iain;:d ;;i t:.c i:..:..;i. o: il.t;;' col.iU: y;;:c-n. I !.l' t.:c! ic agi- 0' 
ciii.drcn, t!ic [ciidct kM (.t uoi^i/n, luc;;i lu:d-; iiiKl.r t!.c n. :.';:. !..\i ri^v.i;rs of 
c Id and I'Ai.'ii^'. r. \ Ktv.-, tlic lu.lluii 1, biJ.ding a fuui adieu ti) Lis cx;/ir::;g I'a- 
md'-, cPivicd tliem that tare, winch lie liinilclt cxpccUd to luun to fliar; : 'I r.-ro, 
the Ion, havjp.g long rup})(jrt.-d Ins aged parent, with relnc^unec olxyed In^ i.tl^ 
Cuniniands, and abancioning him in this ULterrnoil dilli.ls, rcilrved hin.len tu t'.ie 
hopes of avenging tliat death, which all Ids cirurts could not [ revcru i:ot delay. 
The allonilliing grcatnefs ot the calamity deprived the fuir.rcrs of any relief t"(;m 
the view of companions in afi^icl:ion. Witli fdefit tears, or lanxntable ^ikb, tluy 
hurried on thro' ttie hulVile territories , and fuup.d every heart, wliicii v. as not 
(leel'd by native barb-uiiy, guarded by tl\e mure iniplacable idrics ot mill.iken 
piety and religion. 

'lut laving of Dublin prellrved in Ireland the remains of tl.e {".ngliili nam.e. 
The gates ot that city, tho' time roully opened, received the wreteiud fuppdeants, 
and diifeovered to the view a Icene of human ndlery, beyond w hat any eye had ever 
betore beheld. Compairion leized the amazed irdiabitaiits, aggravated v. itli t!ie fear 
of like calamities-, while they obllrved the numerous toes, uitliout a::d wit!;;n, 
which every where invironed them, and rellecied on the weak rclburce'^, by 
winch they were themlelves fupported. '1 he more \ igorous ot the uidiappy 
fugitives, to the number oi three thoulan.d, were inlillcd into three rcgimer.t-:. t'-.e 
rtll were diilributed into the houles ; and all care v,\;s taken, by tiiet a:\{ warn-.t:i, 
to reeru.t their ieeble and torpid limbs. Dileales o; u .know;i n.in:c an.; f. e^i;s, 
derived tr(-m thele niultiplied dillreiV.s, lei/etl ma:iy ol them, and. put a ipecdv 
period to their lives : Otiiers, having now lei/,ure to reik^d on t'.ieir migluy lols 
of triends and tortup.e, curled that being, which they had i ;ved. Abandornpig 
themlelves to t'elpair, relufing all luccour, they expired ; without otl^er cnnlola- 
tion, than that ot receiving, among tlicir countrymeii, the lionours ol a :,;M\-e, 
wddch, to their daughteied companion:-, had been elenietl by t'ic ndiurr.an bar- 
barians. 

Bv fomc computations, thole, wlio perlfhedi bv all thofe iruelti':, are made 
to amount to an hundred and titty or two hundred tii0u:a:-vi : By the motl n-o- 
tlerate, and probably the moll reafu.iable account, tluy uv..il h.ave been r..ar 
tortv thoutand. 

Vol.. I. 1' p The 



290 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chvp. VI. The jufticcs ordered to Dublin all the bodies of the army, which were not 
^^4^' furrounded by the rebels , and they affembled a force of 1500 veterans. They 
foon inlifted, and armed from the magazines above 4000 men more. 1 hey dif- 
patched a body of 600 men to throw relief into Tredagh, befieged by the Irifn. 
But thefe troops, attacked by the enemy, were feized with a panic, and were 
moft of them put to the fvvord. Their arms, falling into the hands of the Irifli, 
fupplied them with that, which they mod wanted. The juftices afterwards 
thought of nothing more than of providing for their own fecurity and that of 
the capital. The Earl of Ormond, their general, remonftrated againft fuch 
timid councils -, but was obliged to fubmit to authority. 

The Englilh of the pale, who probably were not, at firfl", in the f cret, pre- 
tended to blame the infurredtion, and to deteft the barbarity, with which it was 
accompanied. By their proteftations and declarations, they engaged the juftices 
to fupply them with arms, which they promifed to employ in defence of the go- 
vernment. But in a little timiC, the interefls of religion were found more prcva* 
lent over them than regard and duty to their native country. They chofe Lord 
Gormanftone their leader i and, joining the old Irifh, rivaled them in every acb 
of cruelty tov/ards the Englifh proteftants. Befides many fmaller bodies, difper- 
fed over the whole kingdom, the principal army of the rebels amounted to 20,000 
men, and threatened Dublin with an immediate fiege. 

Both the Englilh and Irifn rebels confpired in one impofture, with which 
they (educed many of their deluded countrymen : They pretended authority from 
the King and Queen, but chiefly from the latter, for their infurredion j and they 
affirmed, that the caufe of their taking arms, was to vindicate royal prerogative, 
TiOvV invaded by the puritanical parliament. Sir Phelim Oneale, having found 
a royal patent in Lord Caufield's lioufe, whom he had murdered, tore off the 
feal, and affixed to it a commiffion, which he had forged for himfelf. 

The King received an account of this infurreftion by a meffenger, difpatched 
from the north of Ireland. He immediately communicated his intelligence to 
the Scotch parliament. Lie expelled, that the mig'aty zeal, exprefled by the 
Scotch, for the proteftant religion, would immediately engage them to fly to its 
defence, where it was lb violcnt'y invaded : Pie hoped, that their horror againit 
popery, a religion, which now appeared in its moft horrible afpecf, would fecond 
all his exhortations: He had oblerved with what alacrity they had twice run 
to arms, and affemblcd troops in oppofition to the rights of their fovereign : He 
faw with liow much greater facility they could now collecft forces, which had been 
very lately difbanded, and which had been fo long enured to military difcipline, 
Ti\e cries of their afl'fighted and difhcfled brethren in Ireland, he promifed himfelf^ 

would 



C II A R L K SI. 2c, I 

xi':}uKI powerfiil!)' in-'iC" them h\ fond over !\icco:i:-, \'.li;cii ccuL'. .inive Co qi/.cklv, C^ 
and aid t'.cm v\ich liivli |-ronv;ti'LudL* i;i tliis u::cr;:v.il c'iilrc:'-. IjiiC tlu z:.il of 
fb.e Scotch, as is iifu.il amo;i!^ rcli'^ioir, Lcls, w.is v-.ry tct-hic, w'-.en no: :l;'r.'.!- 
hred ciclicr by t.ici:;;n or by iiucrcll. Tlu-y now conT;;'- red ti.civ.lclvc": iiu'rdy .u 
a :c'Ji;b!ic, a:^' r.-..i'.c n ) account ol' t'lv autiici-.ty oi li..;.- j :;:.c.c, widJi tlicv !;ad 
uct r!y ani'iiir/atcd. C'oncci\ i:-[^; ho; cs lro:ii l!ij } rcicr.t dnlrcii'--, ol I:chi:\', thy 
r.ioU'cd c>) in. ike a;i a, '.'/a- tagcuub bar^j^ain fu;- Lhe l'jcci/.;;s, v.'.:'.; v, ;,;.h ['.cy fiiouid 
lj!:i/iy tr.c:r ix-ii^'abou; in,^ nation. Aiui ihr/ Cill t'./ ir t'V'j <..; t'.j l.;.:;'i:;i j-ar- 
h.rr'jnr, \vi:h whom th'/y wa'c aircad^y lu ci.:.Iy c^nnccu-v!, ar.di \vl; j ,. ,..'d a'onj 
;..!;!! any articles, v,'.,ich mii^lit Ic a^^^rced on. l-.\cc' t (.hl^.at. nir.^; a l:r...d b.)d/ 
to li.yyort t'lc Scorch coionijs in I'illc-, t!u-y would, thLfc'oic, [-,0 r,o l.ir'k,.r, 
.it [T. lent, t!'.an to lend conimnrioncrs to Loniun, in (jn^'cr to treat ult'i t....c 
j:jAC!-, I) \\v.o:n til;.' lovjr.;^:n autliority was nu.v, in rca'.i:'/, tr.in^.\r^l d. 

TiiL K'n.; t( o, rcni;'.)Ic en hii. litter uiabdiry to lldodne t!ie Iii:h leb.'hs Iu;::id 
i'lnideh o'-"!i^yd, in t!;:^ exij ncv, to iuive rceoin'l.- to the h.n i:di paii:.:rnen:, ar.d 
iiej\:i 1 on t'.'.jir a'Vi'lar.ce lor Inpj Iv. .\tter conininnicatu''^ tiie i.i:elli^.;e::.c, 
v.hiehl'.e '..id. r^'ceiw d, hiC infornu-d t!ieni, th;.t tiic iiUnrrecVDn was n,-r, i:\ l\:s 
opiiiiun, tii: rclult ol ar.v ralh C'.tc rpri/.e, but 01 a tormed C(^n!. nMcy a^:i::v.l 
t'.:e crown o; I'n^^anJ. To their cire and wildio 11, tlieretore, h.c laid, he coni- 
irdtted. tl-.e conduct and. profecudon (d~ tr,c war, uhicii, in a aiA'c \o importar.t 
to nation-.d and rchiiious ir.terclls, n"ii;ll, 01" neccllity, be immcd.iateiy ciuercd 
upon, a;;di v i ^o ro 11 f.y purhred. 

Tm:: b';-;;h[h pa!!i.:ni.nt was now aHend^'ed ; and dilcovcrcd, i.i c\-cry vote,M(o:- 
t!ie huTic dn;pofiLio;n, in uhiLii tliey I.ad lep.u'.'.ted. 'V. c exalting; tlieir own an- '["'' \ 
thority, five dnniinilhin.j tlie Km;^'s, w.rc lliil t:x* ob;ecls puir.iud by t',c majo- 
rity, b'v.ry attempt wiii^h Ii.ui been made ro ;:.dn tl^e [H'>pid.ir k'aders, and 
by oihccs to at:.icli ti.em to t!i crown, had faiied o: lovCils cidicr lor want of 
lh;Il in condnciing it, or by r.-nkn o! t'vj llender pr.termen's, wln.h it ^'a-^ t'len 
m t!ie Ki:.':,'.^ power to conher. 'i'h.e air.'-iti 'Os .\\\.\ enterpri/iri^r patriots dikiaie.cd 
to .iccept, ;n d.et.c.', {,: a precarious p(;wer , whik- tl~.ey elleemed ic lo ealy, by 
(\\z bold a::d vi,',o^ou.^ r.:rin!'", to pollkls t'lCnilckecs lor ever oi tl^.e int.:e i.y.\ - 
r^iL;nry of t!.e lk::e. Senkkle, t;:at the me.Uures, which tl^y had !iit!ierto pur- 
lied, rendered tiiem extren.ely cd^n; ixi^xi- to the i\.inLi ; were many ol theni i:i 
r'.enVcIves exceptionable , Ionic (d ti.em, llricLly Ip-.-'kin^S id.;;,d-, tii'^y relol- 
^ed to leek tlieir own lecuri'v, n^^ well as rneatnels, by crd.ir.p.n:'; pop..!ar autho- 
r;ty i;i Id^.gland. Tj-.e gre.it nccelllties, to which tb.e Kmp; wa-) red. need i the vlj- 
lent prc]udiccs, whicli generally, thrv.u^hout the n.uion, p^r. v.iilcvl ap;anvd lum ^ 
.liis tacl'ity in making th'j moll up.porta;it ccjncellions ; tiic example of tlic Scot.-:'., 

r p 2 ^ ho;c 



292 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. VI. whofe encroachments had totally fubverted monarchy : All thefe circumftances 

"* '^^' farther inftigated the commons in their invafion of royal prerogative. And the 

danger, to vvhi'-h the conftitution fcemed to have been fo lately expofed, perfuaded 

many, that k never coul.i be fufficiently fecured, but by the intire abolition of that 

authority, which had invaded ic. 

But this project, it had not been in the power, fcarce in the intention, of the 
popular leaders to execu:"e, had it not been for the paliion, which feized the nati- 
on, for prefbyterian difcipliac, and for the wild enthufiafm, which, at that time, 
accompanied it. The lie. nee, which the parliament had bellowed on this 
fpirit, by checking ccclefiaftical authority , the countenance and encouragement, 
with which they had honoured it ; had already difFufed its influence to a wonderful 
degree : And all orders of men had drunk deep of the intoxicating poifon. 
In each difcourfe or converfation, this mode of religion entered j in all bufmefs, 
ic had a jQ-iare ; every elegant pleafure or amufement, it utterly annihilated ; ma- 
ny vices or corruptions of mind, it promoted ; even difeafes and bodily diftempers 
were not totally exempted from it ; and it became requifite, we are told, for all 
phyficians to be expert in the fpiritual proteflion, and, by theological confidera- 
tions, to allay thofe religious terrors, with which their patients were fo generally- 
haunted. Learning itfelf, which tends fo much to enlarge the mind, and huma- 
nize the temper, rather ferved, on this occafion, to exalt that epidemical frenzy, 
which prevailed. Rude as yet, and imperfeft, it fupplied the difmal fanaticifm 
with a variety of views, founded it on fome coherency of fyflem, enriched it 
with different figures of elocution , advantages, with which a people, totally 
ignorant and barbarous, had been happily unacquainted. 

From policy, at firfl:, and inclination, now from necefTity, the King attach- 
led himfelf extremely to the hierarchy : For like reafons, his enemies made ac- 
count, by one and the fame effort, to overpower the church and mon.irchy. 

While the commons were in this difpofition, the Irifh rebellion was the event, 
which tended mod to promote the views, in which ajl their meafures terminated. 
A horror againft: the papifts, however innocent, they had conftantly encouraged i 
-a terror againft the confpiracies of that fed:, however improbable, they had, at 
all times, endeavoured to excite. Flere was broke out a rebellion, dreadful and 
unexpcded ; accompanied with circumftances the moft detefiable, of which there 
ever was any record : And what was the peculiar guilt of the Irifh catholics, it 
w?s no difficult matter, in the prefent difpofition of men's minds, to attribute to 
that whole fe^i:, who already were fo much the objed: of general abhorrence. 
Accullom^ed, in all invectives, to join the prelatical party with the papifts, the 
people immediately fuppofed this infurrection to be the rcfult of their united 

cuunciisc 



CHARLES I. ^93 

council. And \v!:cn thy huirJ, that tlu' Irifli lebcN j.'cadcd the King's com- C;i.-p. \-I. 
mi/Tiun for ail tiicir violcnc.-!: i bigoiry, ever cnJ.ilous and nuli-^n.v.t, afP-n- d ''+'* 
without icruplc to that grofs impOihirc, .ind Joa ici the unha|)py p;inc-: with thr: 
whole cnonnity of a contrivance, (o barbarous and inlnmian '. 

Hv the dilTicLiItics and d lire Ties of t!ie crown, :'.,c conK:"i( ns, w!,o pofTl-ned. 
alone r!;e power of fupply, had aggrandized thetrfelves ; a:ul it feerncd. a jjccu- 
liar hap;nnLls, t::at the IriOi rebellion had fuccvcded, at lo cri'dca! a i.indi'r^-, to 
the pajification ')f Scotland. That expren;on of the King, I\v whiJi h.c con-inii'.- 
ted to them the care of Ireland, they immediately bid hold ot, a:xl ir-:erprcted 
in the moll unlimited fenfe. They h.id, on other occafions, been r/adua!iv en- 
croaching on the executive power of t!ie crown, wdfich fornis its principal and mull 
natural branch of authority, but with regard to Ireland they at once .\lli:med ir, 

tudy 

Ir i\ m-.v fd univcrf.illy allowcJ, mt\>.it'ilbr..i;i.2; forr.e mi'.ttjrir.n; to the conirarv, t!;it tli? Kini^ 
had no hand in the Irl'li rebellion, th;i: it will be lupcrfluDUj to iiilhl on a ponit, w'lich lecin. lb clear. 
I /lull on!v !\!'ii;e:l a very tew ar.^uinciit;, an'.cni' an ii:i;nitc number, uh;ch occur, (i) Oji;h; tfiC 
ai'lirmatX'Ti of perruiioi:-., infainOLi . leb.els ever to ;i..-.e paHc-i for anv aut:.or;tv i* f.) .'','0 b,>d\ can 
ti'i Ui .. h.it the \'.('iJ. ui ihe pretended coinnillTi^n were. 'I b.at cominilTlon uiuch wc i:nd in Rufli- 
uortli'^, an! in Milton's work-, Toland's edition, io p!ain!v an iinpollure; bov-aufe it pretend-, to bf 
dated.!.. (October 1641, yet mentions taels, vs hich happened not till fjine incnihs atter. It appears 
tiiat t!u- l.idi .'ebcL, obiervin^ foinc iuconridcncc in tlieir fir.l forgery, were ob!!t;ed to for^e t.'.ii 
coinir.iiiiou a-ne.v, \ et coa!d not render it coherer.t r.r.r proh.ible. (5) Nf>'hinq coald more o'.'W^u'.'.y 
be p.Tii'e: ).; to tiie K-inc^'^ caufe than the Iiidi re'.jellion ; hcc-iiife i: incre.-.fed hi: r.cceiliii.. , ar.d rtn- 
d-.reJh';n ttill more dependent 01; tiic p.!.-I; imer.t, \<.h') had beK)ic lutHciently fnown on \'.hat term^ 
tlicy v-ou! i .i.Tiil him. (.1) Ti'.e in.bmt tl;c King heard ot the rebellion, whicii \\a. a \e:v few d.iv.s 
atter it-, coninienetnic: t, he wrote 10 the p;ir!i.'.ment, ai>d gave over to tl.eni the n..i;..;e'niciU of 
thevN.ir. H. id he built any project . on th.a rtbe'.!i.">n, v>ouId h.e n.T b.a\e u.oied tome bttle time, 
- . lec ho.v tliey would lucceei r Woald h.e i rei.i.to.- h.ive .idopted. a me.iMie. \v '-.h !i \. .'. (>1^ . i.-ui'v 
'"0 hirtlal to hi- authun:y .'' (;) W't^at tin be imagined to be the K::iif p'l 'ect " do laiJe t.Tc 
li !h t^> .-'.rm , 1 I'll poofe, and l^rinf' them over to i.i'.-Jand for hi.. ..ihit.ince. !!.:t ;- it no: ph.n, 
that t!ie ILir.:; never intended to rail;; u .u m I'.nr'^htr.d .' H-.d t:...' "heen in-, ir.t; 'it. or., uouh. i.e 
k-^.vt irnd.Tcd the parliament pci }>etu..l .' Dot. it not appear- b: the ui (de tr.i!:: o: cm.::: , that t:;e 
parli.iir.eiit toiled him into the w.i: .' (t ) 'l''c Kir.p coi.vevc-d. :o liee u::*.. . - int;-'!:.^ -.ce. \...;e;! 
c'u;;).t to ha.e pr,\ented til:' rebellion. (S Thelriih (.atholie-, ;...;! tiielr l.tiire tiai.i..;;;. :r< \'::\ 
t .e Kiiii;, whee tie', eiivh .-.vour to eycele their ii.iai rei'tion, ne-.er h.ad. t.'.e riiiirrone ti> p!(.i(i hi 
rommiiiioii. I'lvcn ..monrjl themleives they dropped tii..t prct-xt. it avpe.o th..i ^.r hhehiii 
One.ile, chicflv, and he only at f;d, promote.! that imp.'itn.. fee Chut' (>i;ooi:vh vi.d. iir. 
i\ " ic \ III, i;:, II.),, 11;, \zi, 13:, 1". oy One.iV honielt coi.f^htd. t;.e impo.;..:e i . ' 
trid nd at hit evecirtion. See Nalibn, vol. ii. p. ;.i^. ( ' It iid'i.'-l)i: ' - n.t ton, the _o : ; 
cation v',hiJi C h;oh-s 11. ga-.e to the MiT^y.-J of Antr'm. ;. ' ' e Ii..d .i.-f- d hv ho f.ohr:''- u.v 
midio!!. .'^n.iim loal no hand in the iiili rebellion ^nd the nioiicie. He ; i .ed rut the rel\l- t;.l 
tuti veil' alter, and f,c perlorined importar.t ler\-,e^ to tiiC K 1.; 1 i.'.- ;. ' ( "> i. a ho .y o"' ;:,. : 
Mo..'f.'e. 



-94 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN". 

CJn,p VI, fully and intirely, as if delivered over to them by a regular gift or afTignment, 
^' f'' And to this ufurpation the King was obliged paffively to fubmit ; both becaufs 
of his utter inability to refift, and left he fliould expofe himfelf ilill more to the 
xeproach of favouring the progrefs of that odious rebellion. 

The piojeft of introducing farther innovations in England being once formed 
by the leaders among the commons, it became a neceffary confequence, thac 
their operations with regard to Ireland would, all of them, be confidered as fub- 
oidlnate to the former, on whofe fuccefs, when once undertaken, their own 
grandeur, fecurlty, and even being, m.uft intire'y depend. While they pretended 
the utmoft zeal againft the Irifb infurredion, they took no fteps towards its fup- 
prefllon, but fuch as likewiie tended to give them the fuperiority in thofe com- 
motions, which, they forefaw, muft fo foon be excited in England. The ex- 
treme contempt, eiUertained towards the natives in Ireland, made the popular 
leaders believe, that it v/ould be eafy, at any time, to lupprefs their rebellion, and 
recover that kingdom : Nor were they willing to lofe, by too hafly fuccefs, the 
advantage, which that rebellion vv^ould afford them in their projedled encroach- 
ments on the prerogitive. By afiuming the total management of the war, they 
acquired the courtfnip and dependence of every one, who had any connexion 
with Ireland, or who was defirous of inlifting in thefe military enterprizes : They 
levied money under pretence of the Irifh expedition ; but relerved it for purpo- 
fcs, which concerned them more nearly : They took arms from the King's ma- 
gazines ; but dill kept them, with a fecret intention of employing them againfl: 
himfelf: Whatever law they deemed neccffary for aggrandizing themfelves, was 
voted, under colour of enabling them to recover Ireland j and ir Charles with- 
held tlie royal affcnt, his refufal was imputed to thofe pernicious councils, which 
had at firfl excited the popifli rebellion, and which ftill threatened total deftruClion 
to the prcteftant intereil, throughout all his dominions. And, tho' no forces 
were for a long tin-ie fcnt over to Ireland, and very little money remitted, during 
the extreme diftrefs of that kingdom -, (o (Irong was the people's attachment to 
the commons, that the fault was never imputed to thofe pious zealots, whole 
votes breathed nothing but fire and deftruclion to the Irilh rebels. 

To make the attack on royal authority by regular approaches, it was thought 
proper to form a general remon (trance of the ftate of the kingdom ; and accord- 
ingly, the committee, which, at the firfl: meeting of the parliament, had been 
chofen for that purpofe, and which had hitherto made no advance in their work, 
i-ccived frclh injunctions to fmiih that undertaking. 

Th 



CHARLES L 



^ ^ 
-7:) 



The coir-miitce brou^^ht ip.to t'.c hzvS: t'.::d rcmonflrnr.cf, wli'ch has bercrr;e 
fo mL-rnorabl-', aiul whicli was foon ;ifccr'.'.T.:\ls at'ctxlcd ui::i f'..ch i:r]:orr.i: : co:)- 
Icquunccs. It was r/>: advlr; HI- ! to tiic Kin:^ , bi;- w.is rpc-ly ciccL.r.d to /:: 
an appeal to tl-c pto; Ic. '1 l.c -.arlV.:'.; ; c^t ri'.e iintt/r w.v-, cfj'Miicu bv t;:c Icvt-- 
riry ot tii^j !.i!';^'i. i^e. I: c-;, ;;.;. (j! ii:.iny [rrols iallhoc;.!'-, ;n::;n':i:ii^:ed wi:!i 
1 mc cv: :. .: tr;.'!is : M,i'!.':^.::.t .i^::!'.:.: o:is arc ;()i:v:d f) t^p/:i invcJLvcs : Loi.J 
Ci\n: ' :i:;rs oi t!.c pail, a.::c;:w, aiu.d \\:::\ ;''al(jus j;:-o:nu)!ln a:;o:.s o; t!i? i\iti;rc. 
^^ ;i.i:c\'er i;nlo; t-;natc'. v.^^:c-.cr i;.\'i .iol.s v.!,.iu;vcr lul; i^, ;;a,s f:v>u"v.:- , !,.ul 
b.cn embraced by the K:r.", trc-m i : Lor.ir.v.T.crir, p.t of i;is rc-'P,::, i> iii:;.! d p;i 
and a:!;'.;ra\- .trd v.itii nv.r.dciS r',',ctor:c : '1 i^.c uriiiivCclifbl exp-. .br'.on to C'a i;^ 
ap i liij il]^ (il Ivlic art; ir.n:io:icd : 'i'le b'iid:;ii^ ihips to b":a;\.v n^r !l.j^p:c.;l(!:i 
<.^[ riic hu.', iK)is : 'r,;c!orc(d l;ja::s : 'i !;: i!'vpd C{;:i:;:i-::iie;^: < r' nk-:i ;',r :: : 
OL^eying ili:::;al corna^awds : T'.:l; \\oicn: d;:"!^! ::;o:i td :oi,r par'ia ; c'n:^ : d".i- .rr 
bicrary guvcrnnv/nt, wh:c'i always i.iCCccdLd: I 1^;: (^ :c;bo:^ir>r, d:i;iur, .;;.d i:":!- 
pnlonipf^ tn';nd;crs hjr their co;:d;;.: ::i the !u)!.dc : 'I'iic !c\-;,:n:.'; taxes wich-)';. 
Ci;nie-;;t oi tl.e coninu.);";s : 'i'iic inti'c-ili.v ip-; kipci diddis !:.no'/ .dons );::o t!^c 
churc!!, v,ir!n''.;t and'ionry ol lav.- : In Ihcir, t.^\Ty t'linp, vdiit.':, cidi r \v;rii 
or \\;moiic rca!dn, had g,i\ en o!:. n.e, dniinj, t::e con:le (;i idceen vear^, ]uir\ 
the acceidon of t'lc Kinj; t,) 'die cabling or ti;e pi\len: padian-.en:. Arid, tiud a'A 
ihi'ic piievan'res had been alreaJ.v redrclied, and e\-ea laws cn..ieu\l Icr io:',::-- <c- 
cmitv eo^air.d tiicir return, the prade or" a'.l th^!e ad,\-antap,es w.iS a!'.rib.;d, r,ot t > 
rlie K ng, but to tiie p.n-da:n.nr, wh.) li.nl (.x:oit>d his cunlbn: to Incti la/eta."; 
Ibimt.^n i'h.cir own nierits tjo, tliey .liie; red., towarc's tr.e Kip.rr, uerc c.]nad/ 
<;;ea^ .is towarhs tire people, d l:o' th.ey In.d Li/.ed his wlio'-/ rewn.ue, rcr.d.TC I 
It totally precarious, arid mad.e even tluir unrporaiy lu{^p!;e.s be paid ir,ro tlnn. 
own comndllioners, who were ir.d'. pendu^t <! Idnni , they p:\te::d"d, tln.t ;!i- ^ 



Ir- 



ad very liberally lupported Inm in his nc cciih.n ;. By a:\ i'lnh lln! r 



>:'c (":e. 



:;:ous, tiie very s^ivin;^ money to tne Scorcn lor ie\-;, nig v. ar aganiii then- lo- 
ver. -ifpi, tliey repnihnt'd as an inllan.ce oh t'n ;r dnity tuvard.s !nm. And. .oM 
their grieVancefj, they laid, whu h e.mon.nred to r.o t U th.in a tot.d luln-cr.'n.ni 
of the conllitntion, proceeded intirejy trom the formed condomadcMi ol a po- 
pilli iadt;on, wlio Inid ever fwayed the Kii^.g's conC'Cib, who Inol cndA.ivonr- .', 
by an uninterruptf vl t Hdrt, to Innodnc tluir idperllition into In'd.m.i an.l 
Scothind, and vd'iU h.id nov/, at: lail, excited an open an.l blu;)Jy rebellion i;j 
irclind. 

To IS remoiiflrance, fo full of acrimony and violence, v.ms a plain fignal for 
lome tardier attacks intended on royal prerogative, and a deLlarat.on, tlnit tlie 



296 HISTORY OE GPvEAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. VI. conceffions, already made, however important, Vvcre not to be regarded as {li.tif- 
' ' factory. What pretenfions would be advanced, how unprecedented, how imluTiited, 
were eafily imagined ; and nothing lefs was forefeen, whatever ancient names 
might be preferved, than an aboUtion, almoft total, of the monarchical go- 
vernment of England. The oppofition, therefore, which the remonflraiice 
mil with in the houfe of commons, was very great. For above fourteen hours, 
the debate was warmly managed ; and from the wearincfs of the King's party, 
which probably confifted chieQy of the elderly people, and men of cool fpirits, 
NoveiTibs. 22. the voce was, at laft, carried by a fmall majority of eleven. Some time after, 
the remonilrance was ordered to be printed and publiflied, without being car- 
ried up, as is ufual in fuch cafes, to the houfe of peers, for their afTent and ap- 
probation. 
R<i\fon^ on When" this remonftrance was difperfed, it excited, every where, the fame vio- 
bodi iidcs. lent controverfy, which had attended it, when introduced into the houfe of com- 
mons. This parliament, faid the partizans of that aflembly, have at la:l pro- 
fited by the fatal example of their predecelTors ; and are refolved, that the fa- 
bric, which they have generoufly undertaken to rear for the prote6tion of liber- 
ty, fliall not be left to future ages, infecure and imperfe6t. At the time, when 
the petition of right, that rcquifite vindication of a violated conftitution, was 
extorted from the unwilling prince; who but imagined, that liberty was at laft 
fecured, and that the laws would thenceforth maintain themfelves in oppofition 
to arbitrary authority ? But what was the event .'' A right was indeed acquired to 
the people, or rather their ancient right was more exactly defined : But as the 
power of invading it ftill remained in the prince, no fooner did an opportunity 
offer, than he totally difregarded all lav;s and preceding engagements, and made 
his will and pleafure the fole rule of government. Thofe lofty ideas of monar- 
chical government, which he had derived from his early education, which are 
united in his mind with the irrefiflible illufions of felf-love, which are corrobo- 
rated by his miftaken principles of religion, it is vainly hoped, in his more ad- 
vanced age, that he will fincerely renounce, from any fubfequent refleftion or ex- 
perience. Such converfions, if ever they happen, are extremely rare , but to 
expedl, that they will be derived from neceffity, from the jealoufy and refentment 
of antagonifts, from blame, from reproach, from oppofition, muft be the re- 
fult of the fonded and moH: blind credulity. I'hefe violences, however requi- 
fite, are fure to irritate a prince againfi" limitations, fo cruelly impofed upon him; 
and each concefilon, which he is inforced to make, is regarded as a temporary 
tribute paid to fadlion and fcdition, and is fecretly attended with a refolution of 

feizing 



C II A R L I- S 



i. 



; we -:r 



i^;/.-:i[; every riVOi::"..l^;:: o; p',:-ti:-:'y to rc'Cr.i.i ::. ^n ; i"! 

t)P}>'); ^iinicijs ( i t'l-i: '-.iiul v;^; v.'.): (j:'::v \i\ I'l.:' cn'..- : -: ' .'. 

wrr.n'.cMi. 1 1 ;ci...!v '!; jIc oi a n^iAf',! iinu!, a:;- .a lw::';. 

li'imours o; ri.j oplc cii.mr;; pcrn::i:.i'!y iro;:i (<:: c . . 

rt*^Mrti. ;i en !o nv.-c \\:1.-, ;is v\A ir, rr,o\c i'..:l, t'....i [\. .i c; t:v 

; \/: i.:n:(,:~ xtrcn:::'.' .jm;;! h: pcoji'u .':!.! l.i. } .i. ... 

: L-i' '-.a: r .!:. \v;i;. ii I. i ^ 1, :,:jc: t';r ::;.': ;u:,,.-, Ik- 
, ,., cy .1, i.!v r. [i:rn to t'.c nn:;^':.f: <- ;i!.i,o. 

, . , '... '.\ r, :^ ': ''-^i-iLi: ! :. c.f i'.ivcry, w;,;,. Oi v.. 



in.! '.'' c y:"' ' iyrjs. ]\.('!c y.-tiiots, v,!;:) ,:. 



.-. t 



: tlit^ o'': .A-^ oi '" nvr;i! cca-.IaVi'-j-a ; :.;.'! (.M-.,i! f!, . .L> c 



;u)n;i;iifjii-. ;:: ci,:loii, wiih t'.(*:(.^ v. iiL!i !c>:>r:J :'..c:\ ; 



-.oipin-;: T ll^ih ro,o; '. r.ui >n : la tlnir l.ilctv i- i.Ov;!\-d i^j :Vc' 



1 . 



pr 



:, :u::-'j..i.v cxp '!i\. tacaii, .v.'; to tac uravvl !i.i/.::\l i^r t 



1. .1. 



i laoaarciiv, tl: ;;nt:cat rovcrai c:.: (-: 1- :: ^.aaJ, L',' \. 



.. ,; ctiai^.i s, la ny;ny cm its tura:';r { ;\:"()'; i:: v;;s r I..: !. 



; .:;"!!:;. rs or lac v v.i.ac:; ;ryi-: : .i 

V, cic ,oi.wel.\; n:oi"C oa oyyc^i^o k\m-, v.Iii [: 

"i \W:> i\\:\i), ih.ia oa ('.'yDir yrai.a, !.- oi 

.. . , ;a\: ; .: '..' !: ', <jI ao ; .a.al v o: i; ,; :ca c, ! 

; , . . , \'\' t a !..t.',v 1. a" t!. 

, . .. .a.roa f. I'.a 



a;\-.a; .: .a t. 



a; v! ( . 



298 HISTORY OF GREAT BRIT A IN. ^ 

Chnp.VI. prefervlng the Jav/s invioiate, and gaining the intire conndence of his people. 
' '"^^' The rigor of th^ fubftquent parliaments had been e'irrcme v.'ith regard to mariv 
articles, particuhiriy torjvige and poundage ; and iuid reduced the King to an 
abfc'uLe nccefiuy, it !ic would preferve entirely the royal prerogative, of levying 
thoie doties by his own authority, and cf breaking thro' the forms, in order to 
r,;a;ntain tlie fpiric ot tlivi conltitiition. Having once made fo perilous a Hep, lie 
was liatura'ly induced to coniinue, and to confult the public intercit, by levying 
Ihip-rnoney, and other moderate, tho' irregular, impofition: and taxa'ions. It 
is now full time to free him from all thefe neceflities, and to apply cordials and 
lenitives, aficr thoi.: feveriries, which have already had their full courfe agranlt 
liim. Never fovereign v.'as blefled v/ith more moderation of temper, with more 
juilice, more hui'nan ty, more honour, or a more magnanini'^Uf; diipoficion. What 
pity, tiiut fuch a prince fliould fo long have been harrafled with rigors, fufpici- 
ons, calumnies, complaint?, encroachments ; and been forced from ti\at p;uh, in 
vyhich tlie reclitude of his difpofition would have inclined him to have conliar.tiv 
fod! If fi:me few inffances are found of violations made on the petition cf 
righc, v;h;ch he hinilelf had granted ; there is an eaher and more natural way for 
preventing the rciurn of like inconveniences than by a total abolition of royal 
e.uthority. Let th.e revenue be fettled, fuitable to the an'.iirnt dignity and fplen- 
dcr of the crown-, let tlie public neceflities be fully fupplied -, kt tlie remaininr^ 
r.it:ciei; of [^^erogr.tive be left untouched : And the King, as he has already loft 
iiic ;;ov.'er, vvill ^ay afide the v/iil, of invading the conllitution. From wliat cuai- 
:':r van stalouheo now arifj ? What farther fecuri'-y can be defircj or ex:j(iZied r 
'j nc King's jjreccdent concefilonr, fb kir frojn being iufuffieicnt for public Jeci;- 
3::v. t u\e rather erred on the other extreme ; and, by depriving idm of ail oow- 
^r o; ch-deftnLe, are the real caufe, why tiie commons are ernoo'cicricd to raifc; 
,fon; hiihcrto unlicard of in the kingdom, and to lubvcrt the wlioie fyfrc:n 



.ii.ni: 



;e C'-:'':LituL:on 



,'.)". e 



i.;n"ii ' 


- ]' 


c th. ! 


; ; 1 1 f'r 


I- !u, ;. 


;r.i ;c: 


; .i ' < 


.,;! a 



Bur, would ihcy b:: contented with moderiite advjnta^cs, 
;-r-.t. that, bchdes other impoitmt concenions, the prclent parllanici': 
i.u;e.! till the government is accuilomcd to the new tracl;, and e^eiv 
eo to ioh i:;:ir;n.ny and Cf)nc{;rd ? .uy the triennial aCt^ a iue-:_.eru:-l 
arnei ts is eMabli'LeJ, ..s evulailing guardians to thehi.vs- 
d'Hes r:o indcj)(.nden[ p(/\ver or military loiee, l.\> wiiicji he 
:i ids invalion o! tiu tn. T\o ik.ni';er remains, li.t \Vie:t i^ 1^- 
Iree coeh itetioes, ^md vdi.it -...:V'.r^:\ the very edv::!ee el d.en" li- 
; oi a ei,<in:^e jn the [v:oric'j d;!poftic;M, an 1 c' f^'iv ' 'I'-" 
yhh' j:epuhir privihgcs. io picvent u;eh anc\d, rcexLA- 

1 

(iicr-" 



C II A R L E S I. 



CI'' v. 



rv ; x: i.s :) v...:;, 



;in-' to rr,:il"!,: ;, [:;.;r .1 1 cx:;cn:;--, ;.,i:-.:m ! / .:;.. 

I ' .V- : 111.- .'. .1 n". : ::</:). Ai-i !/ ;:'., . . 

'. ...'':. I )['.:: : p 

. . , .. i \ 11,1.: : :!::'.:, u i riv^ .v.,. ; ,^ ' .': 

.; .-.r.:: .uliar^J, lo try t!:e !i,i/.:;\;iu;'. rx; .;:': .:.: i a i.. 

,1 . , 






n . ^ , . J I. 
.,.;\\i:<j; 5 : iJ'. ;:vli ., ti.: c:; i.i;:i .;nu i:ii:c-..iriv.i'. !c n.:A'..K: ^ li l :vi\ \\ ..: -. 
L.c j.iil-, .i;);\i:'"n', v .n. !; i!ic c:.i;^'..:c ir.in ^- ^1 i:.\;ry n.u:^ i;u.v::..' . 
a :r :..!!. flv' ii.rlo,. . In.): !v w: arn:^ ? ^' !n. ':i;\nr ;.n: ; I'cv.in , . c .m i^m;- . '.: -; 
ri.:"n-^;n ;..v;. .!..'-, an.! innv L.iV.t -.0 !vl^ i-r r.itiicr in .--^r?;- mi. n i.s nnm t!;j 1 
j'.ntjn! :: oi n;c ci.iv'no:: :n l.rcanl., t!.an ir-.n: :i,j n:\a;.'.'n u! n.;- 
t.....; <, inl n .! un the i'J. n. n:on:irv-!n.n 

l ;::: Xi: j, r'-.ni his r-nrn iivni S.:o:!an,', '.v-s :nc i'.n : in I.; :.:. n v.i:' 
finn::-! .n. i ac^i.ini.iti )ns v'l tin; n:n; ! n an i \'.::ii c\n:v ci. n: /^ih.ition i ; ;. 
an 1 aii'j inn >ir i li^Inud (m.nn :v. I n^ni \! n-or, a nnn^ (.t nn-;r,n : a;, 
ritv. ha i i^'-nino' .n ll.j'x tav n:.i!n i!.i; ' 'niw s a: n in. i :.- 'n .i tin- ; 
\\.i)['\ I..: !) :n\.in n ri;- Kn'- :, an.luin) I) U on a::.:na;i- ni.:.:j nn 
i.n n i.'n\ 'o ';n,n' \:\:n tin ;:; :n.n i^^ o: iin- nnjii (.Inrnni a't. - i.nnnn. I' . 
\ . ; r ainnl iron: tin-; ;i\ini in: [:i'nn \^ .^^ ' -i ^l..:::-.-/. by 

!\-nn/i,,!; an. e o. in;.- ctnnn^oi;:, v, imii \v .1-1 ; :n n-nn d hnn, tn. -in r \\\:'.i i ;n-' ' 
(^ a / : .'n. 'J :.' h n; r.^/ . i is \.i.i. ii i. :''. ' n . no n: i n. ., 
-:i:. in :i;o In.h in' a'.i >n o/vnn . . . ' : : -, l.i^ i : r 

,; .; . . ..^ n. an.i la|- r. n: ni, . ' ; ' 1 ^ 

, , . i- 1 t') c-r. ' 

^, i.! i;a-n: ci . 






.. n 
c; ; 

ti n 



nnn" 



300 



II I S T O Pv y OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



ry-'P V[. hl^h was the naiional ido'.itry to'v^'arcs parliament?, that to blame the pad con- 
^'"^'' duct cf ihiic c:(::yl;\us, had been very ill received by the generality o! the peo- 
pit'. So iO- d v,-ere l'::: rornphints agcdrdl regal uiurpations, that had the King 
riKcrted i!ie prer(>i:,;.n"-'c o. -H^plyinu, bv 'ds o',vn authority, the denciencies in go- 
vern'iicnt, ariiin;^ -rain i:ie obHinacy of pui-iiaments, he Vv'ould have incrcaled the 
rl.im':r;-, vdm widch d.e v' !i:;;c nacion abeady r^founded. Charles, therefore, con- 
ti:n:cd hiniillr vvidi t)b!i:iving, in gLnerai, thar, even during that period, lij much 
v-on"![5laincd of, i.lu- p-e^de eiijoyed a great nieafure of happinefs ; not only com- 
paratively, in relpeJi or their neighbours, but even in ref[:)ed ot thofe times, 
v.'hich were julUy accounted the moit fortunate, ble made vvarm proteflations 
of fincerity in the reiornied religion ; he piornifed indulgence to tender confcien- 
ces with regard to the ceremonies of the church , he miCntioned his great concef- 
iions to national liberty ; he blamed t'ne infamous libels every where difperfed 
ngainft his perfon arid ilic national religion ; he complained of the general re- 
proaches, thrown c.ait in the remonilrance, with regard to ill councils, tho' lie liad. 
protected no miniiler from parliamentary juftice, retained no unpopular feivanr. 
ar.d confer:-'; d orhces on no one, who enjoyed not a high character and efliniatioii 
in the publ'.c. " If notwithftanding this," he adds, " ar.y malignant party fliali 
*' take heart, and be v/illing to fhcrihce the peace and happinels of their country, 
" to tiicir ovv'n fndll'cr ends and ambition, under v/hatever pretence of religion 
* and confcience j if they (liali endeavour to hhen my reputation and intereff, 
*' and to weaken my lawlul pov/er and authority j if they fnall attempt, by dif- 
*' countenancing the prefent laws, to loofen the bands of government, that all 
" diA,r,;er and coniuhon may brcik in upon us -, I doubt not but God, in his 
*' good time, v. ill difcover them to me, and tliac the v.dfdoni and courage ol my 
^' high court of parliament will join v/ith me in their fiiPpreiiicn and punifliment." 
Nothing fjiows more evidently the hard (ituatioi in v/hich Chirxs was placed, 
than to oldcrve, that he was oijliged to conline himself v/ithin the hmits of ciyi- 
luy tov/ards fubp els, who had tranrgri.ajd all bounds of regard, and even of good 
n:anners, in their treatment of their Ibvereign. 

T].r. liT'e inflance (;f r':o;e parliamentary encroachmen:s, winch Charles was 
'(.-:. to lovd: d'r, was the hid hjr preflh-g ;o"d;/rs to ti:c lli /ice cf Ire''a :d. This 
i.d, (;;i kiy prdied the lower hoeie. In the preamble, the King*^ no.ver of prel- 
hn^;, ci no >cr enercikd during ad k)rn":er t;;nef, %.'a5 deehned ikeg.d, and contrary 
. 1-^' .:'"e;-^;.- (d the h;i-y:el. ky a n.cedki v cci-ii/ouenc;, k.e ; r - ^-.idvc, vdkei^ 
!': ':;'"n i;,; ; rver akhrned, oi'okhging men to ae::nt C'f -y/ n/ancn of public 
^rv;:' , was :.,;-d'd> (I :u;d annihilatc.i : A p;-crcga:iv'e. '/: :-y\''.[ be (;wned, not: 

/ 'i'-yyyij]^ \.\ih a kmi:ed monaieh}-. h\ o:eer to eiue.- rnis law, the Kmg 
-' ohir^xl 



C H A R L E S I. 



, L;: !'] !i a:, arii.y v., .;: . [)- u,, h; 
1 



li^;: i.i-Liircil iii.: . i.:u:\ \\ ;:,; i\- 



,. X ^ '^ "' 



(). f.;^,i ; ..! : 



.::it rrt..:.i.:\-, v, l.i, Ii, 



... _ ..:;'(;ri in c'l'.. r (.m t!' 
:;, 1\' Ore ir he ; re:^;.'- : r 



.' r. 



..V I..,;. ;.., V. ;... 



I ' '-' 



:02 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRIT 



Chrp. 'T. .vent from the arbiu-ary i^ower of the lower houie ; the peers, while the King was 
'""''" in Scotland, leaving paiieJ an order for the obiervance oF the laws with regard to 
pub'.ic v.oiTiiip, the commons aiTumed fjch authority, that, by a vote alo;:e of 
tiudr houib, they fufpendcd thoL' laws, tho' enaded by tlie whole legillauure : 
And thiry particularly forbade bowing at the name of Jesus ; a practice, which 
gave them the I'ighefl fcandai, and wluch v.-as one of their capital obic;6lions 
againfi; the enabliilicd rerglon. I'hey complained o^ the King's filling live va- 
cant f-'c:;, and conhdcrcd it as an inlulr upon them, that he Ihoiild compleat and 
ilrengthcn an crdcTj which tliey intended loon entirely to abolifii*. They had 
accuied thii teen biOiOps of high trea'cn for enaebng canons without conlent of 
T)arliameni; thoh -lom the foundation of t;:e ironarchv, no otlier method had 
vvcv been prai 'tiled : And they now infilfed, that the peers, upon this general ac- 
culation, Piuukl fequen^cr thole billiops from their leats m parliament, and com- 
mit them 10 prilbn. Their bill for taking away the biili p's votes had, lafi: win- 
ter, been rejected by the peers ; But tliey again introduced the fame bill, iho' no 
prorogation had intervened ; and they endeavoured, by iomc minute aUerations, 
to elude that rule of parliamer.t v.'hich oppofed them. And vvhen they fcnt up 
this bill to the lords, ti^ey m,ade a demand, the moft abii-ird m the world, that 
the bifliops, being all oi' them parties, fliould be refuled a vote with regard to that 
cueflion. Alter t'le rcibluiion was once iormed by the co'iaiions, of invading 
the eilablhned government of church and ftate, it couid not be expecfted, that 
their proceedings, in iudi a violent attempt, would thenceh);th be altogether re- 
gular and equitabie : But it mulb be confelied, that, in their attacks on the 
nierarchy, they lldl more oj^enly tranlgreiled all bounds of moderaLion ; as flip - 
podng, no doubt, th.'t liie lacredneis of the cauie would uhUcient'y atone for em- 
l^loying meanr, tne moil inegular and unprecedented. Ti;e principle, which 
prevad;: { . inueh an^iong zealots, never dif[)iayed itfelf \o cpeniy, as duiing the 
tr.i:dae,ions iA tiiis v/liole period. 

13'^-, ;^'>''" i iu ar.ding ad thefe efibrts of the common?, they could not e-:;v a; 
c: o. tiie V i\a;r h nile, eicher to iliis law, or to any ot'ier, wiiicii 
;nrro;.ucc lu;- the bather limitation of roval ;:Utiio:irv. 'i'he n::';nitv 
\ iaaed fj tU: l.!::g, and plainly forCii^'V iac viep'-enlnn oi'ni.bhity, as 
e;.,:.(!U,.n''e cd popular uiurpations on tiie crown. 'i"hc inudc::;-;: !n- 
c-n,mon , :a:d li.dr h:.:;g!i:-y rrc^ument oi' r;:;e h..vC.<, hiA ;lirady 
d id:^.;:. a,;d ; :\'e '.: drdcnt w.rniiig oj ( l^dr future ai;uemi)ts vn^on tiiat 

re;uir, fhat th : fu j^.f.l be entorciHi ro 



t ,e c(a 



tnc T, 



S.i'.'e 



nKa.L-.;i"ed fv;mw.v'uit c;! liua' 



u,i 



mat 'a.' 



o[ j:eer. 



n.-e no part m 



C II A R L i: S I. 



; 



", V. C . I 1 



'' lu: ' . . 

' ; / ',;^ '\!.= ' :; '.."' Sj \ 1 -".,[ V 

;:. ji,: lI.c w.-.:'.^ ::, I'l.i: .i lo:.. . . 
;,... . Co :; .ij j^^clKT.i^vi ; .i::;: li.i' \\o:u:>.t w.;- 
!... ;'\ '.,'.A 1 v!; :h. \::v i/...:.:- ii..- t'.i'; r.v, \ i, 
Ij .:.:.;: ;:. ;\.^ i!ij tiii-' u. I . ! .'!,ir:"v 1 , . .: 
:iii :i;^ n:-j-A. cil..i\i::u\i lu.ix'.; ,.,..: 
kir;^ arc i\;nL-.! :'... V a:\ ' \ N - ; ..,;.::.; . , . ....:. 
l.in:i!y ^--r.d io. :::;:,, ;i...: c.aI-jv. ..; v, ...i i'...: .:i, 

r , . ' . . ; 



(,: : il.: 1. 

I : ( r.AT to (-'. '.-:. .: :; :;:;: . . : 
hives an.: :;.l: naf^ . " U:.-\\: 



, -.i..:-o..., 



3' 



H I3T0RY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



n-'jititud:*, to v.'hofe capacity they were well adapted. Beale, a taylor, informed 
the coir.:riCn:u that, walking in the fields, he had hearkened to the difcourfe of 
c rcain pei-lbr.s, unknown to him, and iiad heard them talk of a mod danger- 
ous conrpiracy. A hundred and eight ruffians, as he learned, had been ap- 
pohitcd CO murder a hundred and eight lords and commoners, and were pro- 
mifed rev/arcs for thcfe alTairiniticn?, ten pounds for each lord, forty fhiiiings 
for cich commoner. Upon tliis notable intcliia;ence, orders were iflued for feiz- 
ing prieits and jclkits, a ccnlerence was dcfired with the lords, and an ordinance 
of botli houfes v,\is framed for putting the kj'ngdom immediately in a pofture 
or dcii:.:ce '''. 

TiiE nulpi^s likev'ifc were called in aid, and refunded widi the danc^ers which 
tiirearenjd i-cligion, irom the clelperate attempts of pipiiis and mahgnants. Mul- 
titudes 01 [ cople flocked towards \eftminfter, and infuked the prelates and fuch 
Oi' the lods as adhered to the crown. The peers voted a declaration againll 
thel'e tumults, and lent it to the other houfe -, but thefe rcfufed their concur- 
rence-!-. Some feditious apprentices, being feized and committed to prifon, im- 
mediately received tiieir liberty, by an order of the con^.mons. The Iherifis and 
iufticcs having appointed con/uab'es with ftrong watches to guard the parliament i 
ihe commons fent (or tlie con[l..;bles, and required them to difcharge the watches, 
convened the juQices, voted tlieir orde:'5 a breach of privik^ge, and fent one of 
tiiem ro the Tov.cr:|:. Kncouraged by thefe indication? of their pleafure, the po- 
pulace crowded abou^ Whitehall, and threw out indolent menaces againfl the 
King liimk'k. Several reiormed officers and young gentlemen of the inns of 
court, durii:ti this time oi" dkurder and danger, okered their fervices to his iMa- 
jelly. Ectv/een tiiem and the populiice, there paded iTequent iki; nkfkes, wiiich 
ended not v/;thout b'oodihtd. By way of reproach, tiiek gentlemen gave the 
rabble the appsk^ition of Roundheads ;, on account of t:!e ikort cropt hair, 
v/iiicii they v/ore : Ti-;;:k caked the others Cavaliers. And thus the nation, 
which wns beiore kifkcicntly pro\'ided of religious as well as civil caulbs of quar- 
re!, v;ere alio kippiied with paity-namc:, under which the kiCtions might reu-le::- 
vcu^ ar,d iign;dize tixir numul hatred. 

\\v.A^i while, t!ie tumuk:; hill continued, and even incrcaicd, about WcH:- 
\..\ iier ,;nd Whitehall, 'ihe cry rontinual'y refjunded ;y::;iiuh /''/J.rf's and 
; / rr,' /:.'//;-,' ic:'ib. Ti;e ii};;ner cipccially, Lacing eali'y dikiiig .ifl^r^bic by their 
!--:b.t, ;:;.d bting the o'-^c^Il ol viokiit hatred to ali the kkarics, we:e cxpofcd to 

tiiC 
?.'",'. 1 .- ! v. t jO. ''^:;r.i. ! i!i . .07. i '- Li . 



I V. i - i> I 



C II A R L L .-^^ I. 

die mofl (.i.;:i;tc:ti;s ;../.,': . \\'i!;:nn:s, ::',a- c:c.;r- I ;:.!.. 
bvciabwicd by i...- rcj;^i.!.:L'c, h.ui.Iy c\ili' .i .i n/ ::'\', <.. 
nd\ic(.', .1 p:o:iil..r:u.i was C.r:.\\:\ :\:'.d :^dc.\i- [.'.:.{ t) t'u- K. 
]oi.!:. The bi!ho[o tl^crc la :'.:-ih, t]i.:r, [[../ ih ,'.... 
and votj iii pa;ii.in:ic;.r, yc% in eo;;.;n:; t!.i:!. r, i' -^ 

ed, i::'iVo:;ct;d, by i!..- uiwidy :;u.!:;tL.dc, a;;d c u!.; 
th^ir di.ty iii liic i;oL;:c. i or tlus ivalon li.cy }!.;.; i 
v,tt-, a::t.; i.luli.Lioi^s, as n;; I .;:xl wiwiiui, v.!i;^';i ihoi:^ : p;:-> \... 
t!;c;i- idrccJ and viuIciU ab;...v;c. 'I'l.is protiii..:! n, v.!,; b, t!;/ . 
\sa . cu'Cainly wry nl-tin^d, was (l[^ncd by tv,c!vc liilu'! , ...d i .n.:/ . 
tbc K:n:^;, vduj ballily approved: of it. An Idon ;^ :: w;.> ; rv'.^.-.i^d ij 
l\\?j. houlc cbldcd a conlcr.n^c Vvicii tbc t.c;n"inKJi:s vd.t:.: \.'x\ :;.: 
this unjxpCL:;-d trot.liacion. 'i he (;*[. or;iindv w..;, .../.d w.l.. ;./, a:. ; 
An ;m{,cachii:cnt: ol ididi tri.alon uas in'.n;-.di.:uly l^i.: np ;;.;:;;.il i./j . 
cndeav()i;rjng toiubvcit the tundan.vnra! hiv,^, .;n.! to i:.vaA!..:j :..j -. 
tlic Icgiilauiri-. 'i liey were, on ihe in il demand, li^p., ll red ;: >. ni p.:: In. 
comniita^l to cuilody. No n-an, in eithei b.oule, \e:r.i;redi :> iye.d.. 
their vinduMtion ; lo nu,c!i dif; dealed wa^ evei'y ene a: [!ie <-^i,;-'o-^-^-^ ' 
(i wiiie'i they hav! been ;'idi:v. One [nrlon a'oivj laid, tli.:i he did r 
tliem [unity u\ ld;di treali.n ; b.:L th.iL liuy w.re dad: !n.;d, ann li..:.; 
they n:indit be lent to b^dhmn 



I \.(n 



A i.-.v days aiLerward-, ti:e Ki: 2 vra" [p..d:v (n a.'od.er 
n^jre lata! : An indil^nxrio:', U) whieii ail ii;e i.iihd."", ^i 
(A:p,hr, inMneciiaiely and d reeily, to b^ a.ei ib^d. linjV,..^ti 
Lord Knnboltoni an.d t!;e dive ir.endoers. 

^^di.,^ ti. con:n:on enn-:o'.ed, in tiu ir r. nv -nli .^ ^ , . 



'>,' 



\ !, n^A n n:o:-e !> nn ano yx <i' nnt . 

. Lteni: r, li.Ai as an invan; n (;! [;." an:;cn". 
addrd.d d.e p'-f;, ie tored,>.:, ti:e ic!-. v. (Add ti 



eo';n;;:;.:!on, [r.: in 



>ttln- - 

mere .\v,\ 1.' a . . (jl [ re. .^.n. n <>n tn.n) i 
^.1 Linordu- ; rd..t dn- Lm; io;, ; . 
,i, ..: i..r^;-rnn, !> ,e :'u,^v .di ;: nr ^ ^ . ., 
arv partv ^ .\\\.\ :\..\:, il l... K 
..i.d li.e liid v: -\ ',, , ; 



I ... 



c;o6 H I S T O II Y OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 

C'br.p. IV. ftifut'on. I'hey were thLTcfore refolved, ifpoOlblc, to excite nim to fon-.e violent 
'^"''" pr.fdon ; in hor:eSj that he would commit iiidifcretions, of v.hich they mi^ht 
make advantage. 

It was not long before they fucceeded beyond their fondeft wifhes. Charles, 
enraged to find, that all his concefhons but increafed their demands ; that the 
pecLic, who were returning to a fenfe of duty towards him, were again roufed 
to fedition and tumults;, that the blackeft cahjmnies were prop.igated acMinft 
liin], and eve-i the Iridi mailacre afcribed to his councils and machinations; that 
a n^iethod of addrefs was adopted, not only unfit towards fo great a prince, but 
which no private gciitieman could bear v^ithout refcntment: When heconfidercd 
ail thcle incrcafirig infolenccs in the commons, he was apt to afcribe them, in a 
great nieafure, to Iris own indolence and facility. The Queen and the ladies of 
the court farther Simulated his paffion, and reprefcnted, that, if he exerted the 
vigour, and difplayed the majefly of a monarch, the daring ufurpations of his fiib- 
jects would fnrink before him. Lord Digby, a man of fine parts, but full of le- 
vity, and hurried on by precipitant pafiions, fuggefled like councils ; and 
Charles, Vvho, tho' commonly moderate in his temper, was ever difpofed 
to hafty refolutions, gave way to tiiC fatal importunity of his friends and 
il^rvants. 
/iccufr.ticn of Merblrt, attorney-general, appeared in the houfe of peers, and, in his 
ti.envcnic.T.-iv^l -^Pj. 'g p^^^^j^-^^^ entered an accufation of high treafon asainft Lord Kimbolton 
and five comnioners. Mollis, Sir Arthur Hazlerig, Hambden, Pym, and Strode, 
The articles v/ere, That they had traiteroufly endeavoured to fubvert the fundamen- 
tal laws and government of the kingdom, to deprive the King of his regal power, 
and to impofe on his fubiccts an arbitrary a-;d tyrannical authority ; that they 
h.;d endeavoured, by manyroul afperfions on his Majefty and his government, to 
alienate the affections of his people, and make him odious to them ; that they had 
attempted to draw his late army to difobedience of his royal comanands, and to 
fide vdtli ti~.em in their trairerous dengns -, tliat th.ey had invited and encouraged 
a f(;reign power to invade the kingdiom-, that they had aimed at fubverting the 
Dghcs andi very being of pariiam.ents ; that, in order to comipleat their traiterous 
dcfigns, they had endeavoured, as far as i;i them lay, by force and terror, to com- 
pel the parliament to join with them, and to that end, liad act'Lially railed and 
countenanced tumults ag:i;nll the King and parliamer.t ; and that they had traite- 
roufiV conf: ir'vd to levy and actually had levied v/ar againil the King. 

The whiOle world flood amazed at this imp-ortant accufirdon, fo fuddenly en- 
tered upon, v.idnout concert, deliberation, or refieflion. Some of thefe arti- 
cles oF acf:L:f'.tlon, men laidj to judge by appearance, teem to be common be- 

y tWlCu 



c i\ :\ \: I y r I. 

tv.ccn lit. inj];:.Kii..l nu;:;' ; , a:..; ' -'',' 

;i:-;y l\.rL/>fi' u^ li\\: w. li.v' 

:i.^ ilu V C(/r.Cv;n\-cl v.\[:\ i.. i>, , 

|-ni:!aiaii l.ov.- i\'u!vi Ir^^i ..:: :r' :v; r I:,- 

o^v.ViOii, ul.i'--;i !nu.l I Ji:(', a::.l . - ' ' 

r'w'Jt, I...(.l \\)rc-.i li:ar i.aiion l!.! . . ;,i . : 

;.;...,../ : W i;i' [[\.- ':,k!'...-j oi i x a ^- . ;. . _ 

( ; !c::.lc I'u' i i.i. knt &.jr:i by i!,: ^ miro;. . ; 

{')'i:'aca, irrpoii: ^; rlv ni i: a ! iu\', t ^ j a: . i ! a,: 

['i;- :'>.; r h. i;'c, a:.,! i^it a:i lIa! r^' :',.; ..:,'.;; i.^ lia::'. 

n^;ir:-c:-, at i.all l'y::i, 1 la-.l-.:.a aa.! Ila'i:-. .a -:, v :v 

1 ..I'Ly j ar.a. ir t,i'a!c bi/ ta.i\cai ( ;,, '-<;!>; ;a"c ;i a;' aa t"." 

V. u(j a;"c ail aaaoa;;.l!c\ '. la i!;a !..n'.: r'-vaLai ?! , i . 

the la;^ rria::- li cv.r a bia.krn a- J. i. auai pir:; !-. r ; 

r--n:[:rj ', ;n u^-po'-'.on ijafaLLi-ja, i.!l:i;: : ii.a lal i;.:; o. :: ; 

tA !^. 

Ijaa '.:\ n ;\u! i\ : La:.. re to ..'a:u:. a a: t!.c e';rran".;.' i ,.i:a:a ' a;. 
furc : 1 li^ir a;uj:.i:h:a;a .c '/.a^ t>:ai:e.! by iwa a::a:r"':-, i;. : 
an.'! imyrii:! a-". A ivra.a.L at .a;",;., in tiia I-.iaa;'i ra:r.-, aa:aa:.. ., 
tiK ll\'e i:.a:i:l'ei-3 ; aiui w a . Ua;t i a< i. v itaoa: aav j'ciiti. :\::iv..v 
\sa re ca j iova;l to !..:ia :i h r t;a:r, a: .1 .ivwll ti, ani. 'ii.a'a r^aa' 
aiu! lU.li. v..ac !cJ- J aa.l !o.k-Li. 'I'i.a h^aia vt:c! ai. :i; 

''\ ( ! ;aivii !{ , an, I comn:aa.:ca cwrv caa to <:'' a ::,l iii-^: 



!' .' j 

'; t > i; 
a-- tia- . 



I 
'Ih. !.ai 



Ir:-;^ i- ' i- 



_', naatait .. i^a a.a ta/i c ^'u;:ti()a, it^ a. 



: ' :a n '; ;. a l\ L;.a, v, ^a aa ;>,; :,;io;i to l., n. a;,', i 
'v . ; -lU: s vb ':; :.- '..: iacv.a.'. 

'!' , . ' . . . i : 

r.' ^-' :' a:i.a.a i,a,.\ a i., i> ca ;,: at i-ait, \\'.\ 
1'. ./..:. 



I r (, 



.V, t) aa. r, 



i. :.. \. a .1 -a a..\ a:;; \v. 

; ,aiv.aaa>i aioaa lia:/ t' 
".. ' a :; ak-r v.a'a';f 
:^ \ -ai U Iv p.. 

' . .. -a (/I a.a' 

. v^ . ' . - ' 'V ' . a V (.a . 



,11 ! 



coS HISTORY OF GREAT B R I T x\ I N, 

*' obedience, I received a mcfiage. I muH; here declare to you, that, tlio' no 
" kir."-, that ever was in England, could be more careful, of your privileges 
'' than I llaali be, yci; in cafes of treafon, no perfon has privilege. Therefore, 
*' am I come to tcil ycu, that I mud have thefe men wherefoever I Can hwA 
*' them. V-c';, fince I lee all tlie birds are flown, I do cxped, that you wdl 
"' feiid thein to me as foon as they return. But I afTure you, on the word of a 
-* kinc", I never did Intend any force, but Ihail proceed againfl tliem in a fair 
'-' and lei^al way : For I never meant any other. And nov/ fmce 1 fee I cannot 
*' do vvh.at I came for, I think this no unHt occafion to repeat what I have faid 
formerly, th'.t whatever I have done in favour and to the good of m.y fubjecSls, 
'' 1 do iiitend to maintain it," 

When the Kir.g was looking about for the accufed members, he afl^ed the 
fpeaker, who ftood below, whether any of thefe perfons were in the houfe .^ The 
fpeaker, f.dling on his knee, very prudently replied : " I have, Sir, neither 
*' eyes to fee, nor tongue to fpeak in this place, but as the houfe is picafed to di- 
*' reel; me, whofj fervant I am. And I humbly afK pardon, that I cannot give 
" any otlicr anfvver to what your Majefty is pleafed to demand of me.'* 

The commions v/ere in the utmoft difcrder, and when the King was departing 
fonie miCmdoers cried aloud, fo as lie might hear them, Prrjilege ! privil-gcl And. 
the houfe imimcdiatcly adjourned till next day. 

That evening, the accufed members, in order to fliow the greater apprehen- 
fion, rem.oved into the city, v;hich v/as their fortrcfs. The citizens were, the 
whole night, in arms, Sonic people, v/ho were appointed for that purpofe, or 
]:.erhaps acluated by their own terrors, ran from gate to gate, crying out, that 
the cavaliers were coming to fire the city, aivd that the King himfeif v/as at their 
Iiead. 

Next morning, Charles i^ix to the mjayor, and ordered him to call a corn- 
men council immediately. About ten o'clock, he Idmfclf, attended only by 
three or four lords, v/ent to Ciuikl-hali. He told the council. That he was forry 
to hear of the apprehenfions entertained of him ; that he was come to them wiih- 
^ur any guard, in order to fiiew how much he relied on their afFedlions ; that 
\\': 'iad acc!.:fcd ctrtaiii nv--n of higr, treafon, againll Vv'hom lie would proceed in a 
Kgnl '.vpy, and ilurefbre prefnmed, that they would meet with protection in the 
Cit.7. jWxx i\\?s:] other gracious cxprefk'jns, he told one of the rnerifl's, v'ho of 
the tv/o v/as cflcerr.cd t'l:' b;:iu iric lined to Ids icrvicc, that he Vv'ould dine with him. 
1 le (U I'art'.d <j .t li b.l v;:ihout reCL-iving tlie appkuifc wdiich he expebtcd. In padinp- 
thro' tl'C Uret t' , he licard the cry, r)>:'M'gc oj j-crUnmcrit ! pri-Hege of [arliament I 
refouridi!>g from ;:!: oii^.i-ters.. One of the populace^ more inlolent than tlie red, 

drew 



C II A II I, E 



I. 



:;u:.;: ::: t.;v'o;'^ !..:;! in thjc;:/. 1 Iv cTn;:-i;::r.c v.::.';- ;.;-: ix.,;: ::.'..;, ;:. 



,. : , .', . 1 ,, 



i\\.:\ c;:\ iin;i'.i:;cc :Ur;-!V,:.:v; tiijK;.-^;^ c;,':-y 

{^^. ';, c-\f;-y irr.n:. in::;; il;.:v<;: any, c^\ n I'.v rv:;.;: 

I' ore! -d an.! a. r;^"''^'-''-''^^'' -''^'^ inccniiun ot t!..:';n:; \ ...,cn. j Lo ti.i; :.i:n...:.n: 

<_M jMv'n;-; il.c acci;:-..! ii;cn;bcri in t;i2 ^v:y !:0Li;c, ami ' ; n:;.:\".:::^ :..! !:o n.o.,! 

jii.wvj r.ln'aic-, was inie; icJ. A:.u Lia: i:nr.iraii^i. .. r::..inc; ;.. iv^c, :, ; : 

i: was ca'l^J, was ll:!l ali,rib^.! to rn-j ccLn'.:' ol j.a; :.U .... i t^..::- ...!'. jrm:: 

I'ins txricfnc:;:, v.l;i.:h iccmb cwry nK.nv-n: ;n Ir l;.;cs a.-i n:c:i/. i n.!^, a.. 

V Iiich at !n"cl-.'".r .s lo a' t tj tx^itc .aii.-j .-.a" in. L.'j i'L..v..^i"< n - r, ..i t,..i! t.n'; 

t;;c (.'ccpcil a :.:l;:aia::(jn [In'onA.oL.: :!;- :.nv..;on:. 

A :cl: ; v. a jacien^ia.. :o be ::\:evc^v:': 



ir\::ic, v. !.n yiaicncl. J :o i.n,- yr...,: v, .;.;>: n: an ir. C':,a i. : ^ . '.,: > 
'^lacniatci a:,' '"ar en rhj a(.a;n:.;:.un c 1 i'.-- n:; nn'a:-' a:"! :c :c a ['::.: t. 



ab a branah ( i tac l.nn.a jaaaL 
ic.Vnn, .a..l [ y wln.L :!a: |- 
J'nyjan.l '. 

'I'::.. ; , ..:a n-:: an.! .a:;:' r 
aa-nani-J, as n ;a:n leu [o i:; n"..n an 
t;^;nn.'-. 'riii' in.'ica tl,^'/ (un:a.a:.. 
ti.eic anAnc! laa a , v. arc wian ,':f i; t 
ir was !.!:ca. : .:a t'ai: :'n 

ir'liniry j ;> a...,.ai, t..!s t.;;; ir . . 
1 .'iv; ,aai oa.^r v.a:;s, la.nn 
ia:hc. s'^iy^.a^ y, A.n. t' a ; ,. . 
nia;ur-y, ana .a (;! l!a: ( .'\ nn!;:. , 
n^nltn.u v a:a.y,a ' ; '' ^ '.'. a ::.'. 
V .ucr, innii..: \'.': a.-!...'!, t' 



, w:n.h inn! taviin 



.:.c nuLiia:; wa.an k .a [a t\ n^.nc.; .n 

iin'a ; ;n^ \a :(."> c f lia 'r rannr.i::;a, i. 
.' \::..: : 'nn ['. i .'.., :\\ lA lia,: ', iv, n^ i ; 
inn-.i n a- n n a Lnn-. Wi r . . , . , 



'I.n i-viinr, anyr. a^ nn',n' ' ; 'in 
1 a Ui'A a( n;a, c!ck ate i 1' v ..ii n. 
a...i lan.nric, i.,rt;ic lata: i:\i.::..',: 



. V. 



\()AZ. 



310 IIISTOPvY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

p'orable fiLuation he could no longer afcribe to the rigors of defliny, or the rna- 
ligiVity of enemies : His own precipitancy and iiKlifcretion muft bear the bhune 
of v.'h.arcvcr difaPters fliould henceforth befal him. The mod faithful of his ad- 
herents, between forrow and indignation, were confounded with reflecStions on 
what had happened, and Vvdiat was bkely to follow. Seeing, every profj^^-ect 
blafted. faftion triumphant, the difcontented populace enflamed to a deg/ee ol 
t-'-vy, they utterly defpaired of fuccef?, in a caufe, to whofe n.in, iriencis and 
I'nemies feemed equally to conipire. 

The prudence cf the King's condufb, in ilich a juncture, no body pretended u) 
juilify, 1 he legality of it met with many and juft apologies ; tho' generally oulr- 
ed to unwilling ears. No maxim ol law, it was laid, is more eilabliuied, or nv re 
u.nivcruilly allowed, than that privileges of parliament extend net to treafon, felo- 
ny, or breach ol peace;, nor has either houfe, during former ages, ever pretended., 
in any of thofe cafes, te interpofe in behalf ot its members. Tho' fome incon- 
veiiiences fliould refult from the obfervance ol this maxim -, tiia:: would not b-:- 
fufficient, v^'ithout other authority, to abolifli a principle, efbablifhed by uninter- 
ruj..ted precedent, and founded on the tacit confent of the whole legifiature. 
But what are the hiconveniences fo much dreaded ? The King, under pretence of 
treafon, may feize any members of the oppodte faction, and, for a time, gain to 
his partizans the majority of voices. But if he feize only a few ; will lie not lofe 
more friends, by fuch a grofs artifice, than he confines enemies } if he feize a 
great nunuK-r; is not this expedient force, open and bare- faced ? And what re- 
medy, in all times, againft fuch force, but to oppofe to it a force, which is fu- 
perior? Even allovving, that the King intended to employ violence, not autho- 
rity, tor feizing the members; tho', at t'lat tin^'e, and ever af:crv/ards, he poH- 
tively auertcd the contrary; yet whl his condud: admit of cxcufe. That the 
hall, where the parliament afiemble?, is an inviolable findiiary, vv'as never yet 
pretended. And if the commons complain of tlie affront offered them, by an 
actcmr't to arrefj their miembers in thJr very prefence ; they ought only to com- 
plain ol themlelvc-s, who had formcriy rcfu'ed comnliance with the KinG;'s meilaoe. 
when he peaceably demanded thcfe members. 'I'hc ibvereign is the great execu- 
tor of tl^e law ; antl his prclenrc waslicre legally empioyed, both in order to pre- 
vent cpyoftion, and to [n-(Uecl the JiOule againd thole infults which their dilbbe- 
dicnce had lo well n:crited ''\ 

Charles 

* ' in p ]-:;;ii;:i'i(ul of (^MC'^i Lii: .I'lali, -viii^n Sir Ivr.;'rTc; C( kc w.is -C-'r^kcr, ;h-i Queen (cvX 
'" ',; :5if':;;!:v ;;r or !l::'L;:!n nt firi'i? into \.],:: ];;;.'{';: of C!),;n)!-";.i- . ;:r I t').'.. i^vv Mr. )''Ion-icf", riiul c; ni- 
a jU'xi i.im lo ] r'ti'ii v/itii (i;vi.rs oliicr'., for tome ipccw:;:js ir'C.n;!) in 'he hou'l', 'i'hcrc;n on 



C U A W I. \. S I. 

|:rcl,':';' u.) v o: , . : : , , . . . . 

n- ;:.ilb t:.. iV:-:\.\' :...;, .. -. . 

It-';;, 'i'iivv u .;:; . !.:;n Lu i..y 1 ! ' .0 ' '. 1.!... 

p:i':c;\;^a, L.,.i: ::..y -.^^ :; :;:l,. ' . v, , . ; . . .' . 

nicii.b rs t'j .. i . ..! :;;..!. i .., .w:: :._ i. ..:n :..;c;:;i.^ 
lUi L.'.e" j':\l'. r.r, ..:! [';>'.(' i.': :j : i''.' L.c cil.vc :v.;.:.. , , ..." . '. . . 
j ;:, i'!i :o I .. i;,. ;iK -.; , (< ;j:(j Tm t j:ui:.- !:^ :.i" : : , M : " 
i I.V-' ih.in ) ( ;;>.Ai Ar.y rv;M..i;;'., :> :. 1, .. , : r : : ' ; 

(;r v.h^:^ ;., ,u k:^-A ! -J j; -d, they ! :: ; r. . >.:i r . ..--, :. ;::. 'I '. y v. 
ro .'iccc^ : ;..: no l.itS;.iLL:' r, i.::i:j:^ ::c v..^:.!J .;:;w-.-vr 1.:- ...;\' :.: . :.'. '.... 
:Tif!..iiirc : A CG:-:di':o:-i; i , v.'. \'. .:'., ['..i: ih.-y !.:;-..-, v::h.:.::c:: l-;;;\: l.^n 
cvvr viic a;..; cxrr- ;i': lu- .c, Lr Ci--.!J no: \ o. '.'... y ;.. . :. y'.v..:\ \'...:' 
rontin'..,d lOtl.i.nd. r a'.ii il :'ic' viol.ui'm c; j\:; !n:n:; nr.:rv i :;..':: . . 
their \';l1/; : cl.:c; n >, lu ;n. .in.c ::,c > !.( !j ii..t.';,n i !.; n - r. : : j.\!t':: -.: : 
;\cmIu:\', !uv,\c\ir oov.uiis tu.'>' e.,r.;,.!iv c.nv\..!j\ [.; 'lic u;:;,/- .. , 
t-f tl.c n.c[iib.r:~, t':.'v j\..inA' l.r.v !.;> ;..t!'. n'.jni: c; l.irc |\.iini:n nc: 
ccLuiiiL^s ; and (\'iry n^in bci' c.: tl.;^ rinin.: iacuoii d:c.:..n t..c t..n;c ...:-, 
roval a.-tl-ority b^ i\ -(.;l..j:nh. d ;;i lib a: Li nc li.liiw Bv l.j n';;}!! nn' .v 
vnicl, C!,ar!c:-, \s!n:j !:j ^xi:L:v.:'.y a\:^;i^;:..LL:d, in hio i. ; ; nj..t , i!.. \', 
:i!:o c na'taled liic .d"int_.', (l I^ui :i:. 1, linn. 

Iv crdv;- f.ii'Llnr to vX'.\[c ti.c ;co[ni', v, i^n^ dl'; odiions wnrr a!n.\u!y vc 
doi.s, til.: LX.c.!;jn: cl j '.; ;:n)n:n::, was rcncwtd. A |\:id:.ni ;r ni tl.f >.n 
o.;. I^inn,lia!K w.o ;n;nj..:.d dy I'x tncH.laiid nn n ; v. do ^wn,. d i ) .'.>'. 
in di ti,ncc oi d. I ;\n! :V' (n ]..n !: n^mr. i'nc city t.: 1. nd n, d._-(., 
nl::, th.;t id' lIj:tio,d, >,n:-cn Ikd;', inn.!'; d t!.n cxnn; . d, ;, 
id" ai pent::' ; wa-; [y: j.'.\ nd; in. .- . N.:,- ^n;n u.... ..n . ' n 
I ;.:-tcr- :, v.:....j i.'.iidn' -.i .nnw.;\d, .ni t!ny l.d d 'a) ...Liini i.ii i.nn. : 
..;;d:v.ld o: ;n ;t n-nat A .n i..r..;:;,d i!,c Inne ..inAcs v,;t!i .d.idc'n.L 
nrn,n:vf'es !)! 1 :.!:.nn.n'n f' e < .1 ;" ; o: rn!.'''n, tin' 1, !\ liio'i < : lud.nd 
n..y (d t:anc. 1 de | . d , , ., td.u j-n";>e ndydt ; 



. I 



312 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C-'^r- vr. offenders, as the atrocioufasfs of their crimes had deferved. And they added, ^'hnt 
^''i'"' if fltch remedies 'v:jcrc any longer fufpended^ they would he forced to extremities not 
lit to ye ?iamedy and make good the Joying^ " That necefllty has no law." 

/ :;oT h'ZR petition was prefented by feveral poor people, in the name of many 
thou imds more -, in which the petiiiioners propofed as a remedy for the public mi- 
fjrie?, 1'hat thofe nchie ivorihies cfthe hcufe oftcen^ 'who concur zvith the hafpy z'ctes 
of ibe ccniiHOUs^ may feparate thenifehe:, jrora the reft ^ andfjandvote^ as one intire 
hody. The commons gave thanks for this petition. 

rii" very women were feized with the fame rage. A brewer's wife, fol- 
lowed by niany thoufands of her fex, brought a petition to the houfe , in which 
the petitioners exprcfied their terror of the papifts and prelates, and their dread 
of like malTacres, rapes, and outrages, with thofe which had been exercifed upon 
their fex in Ireland, They had been neceffitated, they faid, to imitate the exam- 
ple of the women of Tekoah : And they claimed equal right with the men, of 
declaring, by petition, their fenfe of the public caufe ; becaufe Chrifl had pur- 
chafed them at as dear a rate, and in the free enjoyment of Chrift confift equally 
the happinefs of both fexes. Pym came to the door of the houfe ; and having 
t;jld the female zealots, that their petition was thankfully accepted, and was pre- 
i'.nied in a feafonabl e time, lie begged, that th.eir prayers .for the fuccefs of the 
coir.mons might follow their petition. Such low arts of popularity wereafie6led ! 
y\nd by fuch illiberal cant were the unhappy people incited to civil difcord and 
convulfions ' 

All petitions, in the mean time, which favoured the church or monarcliy, 
from whatever hand they came, were not only difcouraged ; but the petitioners 
V, ere lent for, imprifoned, and profecured as delinquents : And this unequal 
conduct was openly avowed and juftified. Wlioevcr defire a change, it was 
laid, mull exprefs their inclination ; for how, otherwife, fiiall it be known ? 
But thofe who favour the eftabliflicd government in church or ilate, fhould not 
petition ;, becaufe tiiey aiready ciroy what they wifh for *. 

The King had pOiTened a very great party in the lower houfe, as appeared in 
t;ie vote for the re-nonllrance ; and this party, liad every new caufe of difgufl: 
L^cen carefully avoided, v.culd foon have become tlie majority 5 from the odium 
artending tliC violent mcalurcs employed by tlic popular leaders. A great majo- 
r;[y r.c always porfcfTed in the houfe of peers, even after tlie bifliops Vv'ere con- 
firxd or chafed av/ay , and this majority could not have been overcome, but by 
outrage.^, vl^.ich, in the end, would have drawn difgrace and ruin on thofe who 
incited them. By tlie prcfent fury of the people, as by an inundation', v/erc all 

thefc 

* Clarendon. 



c II .\ II I. r: s I. 



i. 



',, r,.-,. 



;:> (-1 .1 '.: . < .:; 
:!u;, i: , t!i. \' ex: , 
.::i.- \\ i::-\l i i !. 
;' ..: l:\ .r- i--:; . 



-a-, t^: ^ .. c):i !';,.', / , 

1 



1 > 



; \ v,-.,j j :\:j;; .. I '.' c>>;;'r(. , (if < j-; ,, c .. .. : . 

. '. ... ^: -i ,1 rr,-r ;; \. .:, l' :, v: ' - ;::'-:.'!! 
. t'j L..J I'-'c;-, c'c!;!\- ; t.o -:'^)V.- I'.o i;.i:/i : . : - ," 

i.o.i'v, t:< .' [ :j n;;.;: lij: rj icitr.aiKil \ \ ['.,: tx^ ;..wj,. 

> ^ ' ('!_'' 

..:... ...^ .", cjr r. !!',), (;..-. :;.,!.-^yo! t:;c h. ;:h:, ^ v [[:\\ :' : 

::..._ M'liy ri."n".a;;ic.i I'W : y v. !.(. re to ill, i: ^'^; );-c:^t-. ; .::,.: i..e !~;! : . 
e(j;y.!"o:i?, \\li:^!i h.id !;:t'ic:-L;j 1- j^l'e 1 \v;:h r if peers, a;;.! v. >);;!.! ^ 
^ e 1 :\\^led, nuw y.uk\l, aixi wrj j leieatcd lor i!..' lo >.! . lieii:. 1 e 
'i ... ; ..!; ,_^ biii \\\:'.\ :: [ i; eun' !e, .in,! Lie W:'.\ ae,,.i:i.^ '1. !'i:e e-^' \. ' 
lvr:.:\ A..:'.(jr.:v \:\i^. :.l t!i.i: li.re !ed..e-..,l i . ].: 1 aw'.' e' e. 'l';;.- (^ 

, ; II') !\ . .;:\ 
:.,,i\ po:ee:!.e:, n'.ms p;-e|\ii-:i;.; tv) leiire i to i I /I.::i.!. ll.v !.._. 
a', cii .;cvi,i.!it 1 i lier re'i m'i, as \\\\l .e; Ler (| :i:: -e: ..,:: ' - 
'. ' ' '."ei! J." ae,.ii il ii.r. I'l.i/, L;,- ni ^ll .,; u^ee.e . , :\ 

i ieeiir i:..;e-:i.::..iii. I :ie ei'n::i:ie.-, 1:1 :'. . : ; 

. .i \ \'erv cieiiLiUjri 11 .; v,',i.!,i ;!;-v !>!,..;. :..:.i 

I v a a N'iii' i:i t;e: i ': 1:. c ;m h; \v.' >[\] v ]\\ 1 . , ,, . _ . , ^ .. 
: ^: 're,.--, a- .i:.;t e l.el b' , a i :e ;" :.:ea 10 :..r. A' " : Aei.a-.e' 



ee: . ; ieercr!v r'.reata dv. ;':i an iaiye.u iaiiv a*, <ia i a 



(: ['.( 



K . . ,,', !!ie \ 

V, ;:ii ti^e Ka._; lu ya.,. i 
L.e iiv.'cKaoe. 

'; ^i:' .., ta 
i . e a : : . : , 1 a i 



iria;'- !i ; I 



1 . a , 



ro 



314 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chnp. VI. the impotence cf his fituation, the commons believed, that he could now refufe 
^^^"^"' them nothing. And they regarded the lead moment of relaxation, in their in- 
vafion oF royai auihority, as highly impolitic, during the uninterrupted torrenr; 
of their fuccelTes. The very moment they Vv'ere informed of thefe laft acquiH- 
tions, they aftronted the Qiieen, by opening fome intercepted letters wrote to her 
by Lord Digby : They carried up an impeachment againft Herbert, attorney- 
('-eneral, for obeying his niafter's commands in accufing their members : And 
they profecuted witli trefn vigour their plan of the mdlitia, on which they relied 
all fuiure hopes of an uncoiurouled authority. 

The commons v/ere fenfible, that monarchical government, which, during fo 
many ages, had been tftablifhcd in England, would foon regain fome degree of 
its former dignitv, after tlie prefc^nt temped was overblown ; nor v/ould all their 
nev/ invented limitations be able totally to fupprefs an authority, to Vvhich the 
nation liad ever been accuflomed. The fword alone, to which all human ordi- 
nances mufc fubmit, could guard their acquired power, and fully enfure to them 
perfonal fafety agaiiifl: the rifing indignation of their fovereign. This point, 
therefore, became the chief objecl of their aims. A large magazine of arms 
v.'as placed in the town ot Hull, and they difpatched thither Sir John Flotham, 
a gentleman of conuderable fortune in the neighbourhood, and of a very ancient 
family , and gave him the authority of governor. They fent orders to Goring? 
governor of Portfmouth, to obey no commands but fuch as he diould receive 
from the parliament. Not contented with havin ^ obliged the King to difplace 
Lunsford, whom he had made governor of tlic tower , they never ceafed folli- 
citing liim till he had alio difp'aced Sir John Biron, a man of unexceptionable 
charailer-, and had beflowcd that command on Sir John Conyers, in whom alone, 
they f.i.d, they could repofe confidence. By a bold and decifive ftroke, they 
now refolved at once to feize the v/holc power cf the fword, and to confer it in- 
t.rely on their o-a'h creatures and adherents. 

The fevere votes, pafled in the beginning of this parliament, agaifift lieute- 
nants and their deruti'.s, tor cxerciiing powers affumed by all their predeceilbrs, 
had totally difarmed the crown, and had not left in any magiftrate military au- 
thority fuflicient for the deicnce and fecurity of the nation. To remedy this in- 
i^onvenience now appeared !iece(Tliry. An ordinance was introduced and palTcd 
tl;c tv, o houfes, which rcfiored to lieutenants and deputies the fame powers, oi 
which the votes of the cumimoris had bereaved them ; but at the fame time, the 
names of all t;:e lieutcnaiKs v/ere inferted in the ordinance , and thefe confided 
intirely of men^ :n whfcm the parhament could confide. And for their conduct, 

they 



<.^ li A R f, ] 



1. 



tlu'v wcr-j r.cco'jnt-iblj, by i;.c cx[);'ci:. tci:ns cf t'..'-' ;:\:i...i.v. . , ;.j' to I'.j K: 
bi;: to t^.c [ .i.!ian:c .:. 

TiiL ^;ai:cv, p'.):-:i:i-\l by ihj c n^nu-'.-, :i;^' v!,:^!; \..A i. ;:'..::') /.. 
;u!r"i::;'.ition, \'. :i to .i^l .;u;!i {'... Ki-:.:] by t;:c . o!.;;.;.:^ o: tic ;r c::tJ.'. :. j;, > 
tcr:r!!;.,!c ro Iv. j^jCiijI v.\i\\ t!u;r Icvciy, tJ c;:'^i y cv!,:^;^ ;; :, I :, v'. 
ii;.:n ti.^ir ; ri-tc::!- :;:>, .::Ki to n: .':: I'.v:. K'.'.', 1 ..: ''.^ v..... 

ni.i.ic ei'bcr o; Iii . '.u; 1 ii (jr b; C/ i .> :. b..!, !o ^i_ b: . _ ; ., 

tb>!:[v, ibcy piviixj.l w itii ;:;i ::.;;.-... - L.:ii:::^,ly >. .t.u j;i, .ipj..!:: ._ . ,. 
til;!; )..'/. i\::b^ to t!ic [>:;r:o.-,.l ci; rulT o: ti;; l\i.,.;. bb^:;^ .wj. '. w .. 
" \\ i.crc-is tlicrc h.ii !\c:i oi i.Kj .i mob b.i:--; ro'.> awa cc: :::.:: d^i'.-.: :. -o;: 



' 3 



t ) 



i.o'..:c o: con.nioiv , \Vu;^:i v. c 



cib ol p.i;i 



s ..lu! (j01;r 



' ivbion !;; tiij kiiij; io:n (k I:.-i.i:,.:. .\:ui ^bv j 
* Vc.c-, v.\- (m:;ii t luit bni' ili.v w bl [: v^.b, r : ^;.b\ 
' bciiions .\:ib IuIoitl jiio:";-) i.i t..:^ b;ii; bwni u; : b..;:.; 
'" \\.'.\\ Unxcs ;:;j:n abroab, C.-. . ' " 

!I .: i. Ciwib,^ :.. b \'oii:i.;cd t ' i .: .i bo;) t > ib^ C' 



[> 1\ iic^\ .in L;bv L ot til. 

. -, V. i'o i..\w aowi.iv I 

^ . J.: . b . re.i'wn (;l :;-.: 



ja / 



i^. 



'V .; r.i.iuil, but ;i cc\.\y. \\'\\i-.\ tib^ c..:v.:.:.A \'. .is ir ;bj ; a b.-:n.-;;: :, v. 
::;m':: b, the t ()n"i:iion-, jiib!)' iv^i-zcb a-^ tii, bi.l tii.-v :n'Ji;b! cv..- !:.;, 
[:j ir. .:..: \ lu- was at IX.vcr, ;;[t;-::b::;j ti. (.^ux:i a;.b t ... ib'i.ue.i c; (b..: 
til; ir (--b^;; l-va:;o;,. lie rcpiicb, ti:,.t b,- bao . o; ;:..v.- i.-;...;\: to e<-...;,: ; 
t.r 01 ; ) ^;,^ at in^ii -r[..:oc, an : in^.b t'lvicOjiv rcij ::j io^ ..:.... ;:;, t;b i., i 
'I '.- ;..riia-;ic;".!; b. .a:, by tiib^at- b.b ..:-.obur n:obii:v- to i;io^, v..b, 
ubi :o.;'c inij'oi't .:;a' ;:. 1 a. y t xy;'ri;i,o ii.t ir ^^:\'at y : .;; ^ai a ^'oan: ' 
]\:'r.\-\ a-il\vcT to tiicir ; al a;;o i c. ';iii,y ; ctol an. 'i .... : ; :.: ..:. b. b 
i..-., ba; in;: ba-:;jfrb a;.b (.!i!ba:a:iono l.).:aa.t an! ; ; ," . , \'. a 
f.,': v .nbb-ilru.bivctli.nan -b-bb,:c b aiai. bi..;. : . . .: 

, : a ;-x.'ai.tion, .i ina .l.na i ) n;\ ;..:. y i^' ; 
. ..: til }a )yi a in nna . a an: c , 'a,; ..-.:[> 
. . .: ; i. c^-, v.- : , o; b; a-aba-^ .. .,! i^ , ' . z - ' 
;', , .'^'; ..: (.1 a: . . , vbbi v. b'ai; ti;a;. 

a a'or tia.. i./^b.n. a, b, Im: . b : 
cx^ayLo.a, to b c yiaaaib"!.-, Nvinei^ tin. : , , 

' i-na . La.^.a o: bi ^ ; '::a.'n;n- a, ^vi, n i ' ' . 

b , ;, bia' ti.a n.: ia.; a a a i.c" a :: 
; ria- (a..v:, an 1 / . 



::\ 



3 16 n I S T O K Y OF GREAT BRIT A I II 

Chpn. VL had ! arned in the ordinance. By a fornier mefiage, he had expreced hit; wiihc", 
^'^'^' that tiicv vvouiu lay before hi;!!, in one view, al! the danands, whicli tiiey deein- 
cd reqalnte ior tlie Icttiemcnt of tl^e nation. They pretended, that they were 
expoied to perils, fo dreadlul and imminent, that they liad not leii'ure tor (v.Jii 
a work. The expedient, propofed by the King, feemed a fu/Ficient remedy ..h.ir- 
in<.' tliis emergence : a^id yet prelerved the prerogative of the crown, intire ;r.d 
unbroken. 
ii: ofMaru!. BaT the intentions of the commons were very vvidc of this purooie, and thcir 
panics could be cured by one remedy aloiie. 'I'hey inftnntly re|;!ied, tiiat the 
dangers and dillempers or tlie nation were fuch as could endure 110 longer de- 
lay ; and unlefs the King fpcedi'y compHed with their demands, they fiiould be 
inforced, for the fafety of the King and kingdom, to diijofe of the miHtia by 
the authority of both houfes, and were refolvcd to do it accordingly. I'hey af- 
ferted, t'lat thole parts of the kingdom, wdiich have, from their own authority, 
put thcmfc'ivcs in a poilure of defence during thefc prevailing jeaioufies and fears, 
have acled fuitable to the declarations and direttiuns of both hcufes, and con- 
formable to the laws of the kingdom. And while they thus m.enaced the King 
with their pov/er, they invited him to fix his refidence at London, where, they 
knew, he v/ould be intirely at mercy *. 

" I am Co much amazed at this miCfTage," faid the King in his prompt reply, 
" that I know not what to anfwer. You fpeak of iealoufies and fears ! Lay 
" your hands on your hearts and aflv yourfelves, whether I may not likeways be 
*' dillurbed with fears and jeaioufies : And if fo, I affure you, that this meffage 
'' lus nothing leflened tliem. 

" As to the militia, I thought fo much of it before I gave that anfwer, and 
" am fo much afTured, that the anfwer is agreeable to what in luftice or reafon 
'' you can af!:, or I in honour grant, that I fnail not alter it in any point. 

" hoii my refidence near you, I wifli it might be fafe and honourable, and 
*' that I had no caufe to abfent mylelf from Whitehall: Af!^ yourfelves whether 
'' I liave not. 

" \V:iAT would you liave ? Have I violated your laws r Have I denied to pafs 
''' any bill for t'-.e cafe ;ind fccurity of my fubjedts ? i do not afk, wliat you 
' have done for me. 

'' ILwE any of my p.:()ple been traniported with fears and apprehemlons ? I 
' otR-r as fvc?. and general a pat don as yourfelves can devile. Aii l\:li confidev- 

'^ ed, 

-^ )^ii;ii.vo:lh, pui-{ 3. vol . dr.p. 4. 



^- t:: 



\'.i;-::c 



c " .\ :. 



and r',..r 1...'; -: :'; 



n.i.'^ 



; I, . 



.liiill t': Cw:n;iVMi ci.i:.::' ;-, !:.r.'C e!- : 



prw.-. 



..; - an 1 !..:.:, (.; ...; ;.: , 

J ;'..: t'.L;;v.. .!'.( s ;:i .: [-;: ,:\ 
J ::'.:!:;:..! n..: ".vn.i: :^ '.....1.// 

1 ; 1 , .-,. 



>, :a no ::. "..nc;, l.a . c/' i" ;c^ 11 



co::^.\[:[i a . t: 



t.aTcrs ul invan.n, \v;t:i rav tl:\ ;;; (a r .r !-:a:a!h a: 



c ; 1^1.! V, ;:a raa'. aa- : i.; 



liaanc-aaitaa.a ; aa'.s 
car^a'c : ka'.nilan ai 
iatfiliy^-:ra:c wa- :/' 
hail a; [ :.\:\\\ la i 

(jViaiaci s iou a . 

{;: . t ^ a..a 



.: ::;. ra.rno. 1/ rd D ^-^y, : 

c: c\a Nvaa a lev iu'./y- kTsaaa 

,1 i: v,a^ iav-,aai:, !y 'vr.:^, il 

:a- ,. .t..,l aadii':: wl' !a. tn..;,d.' 

..- ; aa- ^ - ai ^ V :: v >^ 

. a; :i la ; 



, , , , ,. I 



laiacj '. I ' a .a 
\ ; ' ,a:ciaaia: ,.'.\ 
K:'ar;iv.d. ! 



. a a 

:: !a; 



t ' 



3i8 HISTORY of GREAT B R I T A I N 

hap. VI. had tranfported the capita], fall retained a fincere regard for the church and mo- 
^"^t^. narchy j and the king here found marks of attachment beyond Vviiat he had be- 
Ibre expeded. From all quarters of England, the prime nobility and gentry, 
cither perfonally or by mefiages and letters, expreiled their duty towards him , 
and exhomed him to lave him.felf and them from that ignominious flavcry, wicli 
which they were tiireatened. The fmall interval of time, which had paiTed 
lince tlie fatal accufation of the members, had been fufficient to open tiie eyes oi 
many, and to recover them from the aftonifliment, with which, at firit, they luid 
been feizcd. One rain and paffionate attempt of the King Teemed but a fmall 
counter-baliance to fo many a6ls of deliberate violence, which had been oiierecl 
to him aiid every other branch cf the legiilature. And however fweet the found 
of liberty, many reibived to adhere to that mioderate freedom, tranfmiited them 
from tlieir anceilors, and now better fecured by luch important concefRons ; ra- 
ther than, by engaging in a giddy fearch after greater independence, run a mani- 
feft rifquc, either of incurring a cruel fubjecT:ion, or abandoning all law and 
order. 

Charles, finding himfelf fupported by a confidcrable party in the kinirdom, 
began to ibcak. in a hrnicr tone, and to retort the accufations of the commons 
Vv'ith a vigour, which he had never before exerted. Notwitliflanding all their 
remonilrances, and menaces, and infuits, he ftill perlilled in refufmg the militia- 
orvimancci and they proceedeii to frame a new ordinance, in which, by the au- 
thority of the two houfes, without the King's confent, they named lieutenants for 
all the coundes, and conferred on them the command of the v/hole military force, 
the vvholc guards, garrifons, and forts of the kingdom. Fie iiibed proclamations 
againft tills manifell ufurpation ; the mofl: precipitant and moll enormous, of 
which there is any iiiffance in the Englifli hiftory : And, as he profeffed arefolu- 
tion (IrictiV to obferve the law himfelf, fo was lie determined, he faid, to oblige 
every other perfon to pay it a like obedience. The name of the king was fo ef- 
(cntial to a.l laws, and fo familiar in all acls of executive authority, that tlie 
[Parliament v/crc afraid, had they totally omitted it, that the innovation would 
be too icnfible to the people. Li all commands^ therefore, which they conferred, 
they bound the perlonsto ob.y the orders of his Majefty, fgnihed by bo;.h houf.s 
ol [.arhament. And, inventing a diilinction, hitherto unheard of, between the 
omee a.:>i the pndon ot the king; tlioje v;;ry f-rces, which t'ley enjployed 
, 1,1. cy kvicd in his name and by his authority. 
re,mark''ble how niurh tlie topics oi argun'ient were nov/ reverfed between 
1 ''L King, while Iv acknowl, dgedi Ifis former error, of employing 
a o! nc;':-!fiy, in crder to infringe the lav/s and conilitution, warned the 

8 paruA- 



. '" ' 




.n 1 


' 




';- ; 


lie 


I 


)ari; 



c II A R L r: s I. 



19 



parli.i:r.cr.t not to iiv.itarc .11 cx-ii-nj-'c, on v, liic'i rlicv t'arc.v i'i.;ch vio'i-nt bl.rr..- , 
aiui the parlKin:-:::, wi.i'c ilicy cK;..t';jvl clvir rc:i^;n;.! t. 



L':-. \'l. 



m:'- (iv at:'.ij;;:on i;n-. i- 
t'nc ;ip;-carancc o* i-;inc):i;il ,inJ. in^irr.inci.t t;.\:v.;C'-, ni.i.ic i.; l.ilO^^::^;'y .111 a'\ l.-'v 
for th.' nv)ll ix; ;-[i()n,:!i!c put (-f t!. K;!:::'s u.n,;:.:t. J'h:: i:ic .i' vrtie- i . 
tlic ; -''Jj !c N.ci'c !V) 1 )iV'/T cx'i'olcJ. I') :..:\' p:il from lur.'.i aiitiio:':' ., 1 ) r"..'.:T()v. Iv 
cirfLiir.lLi ibcJ, lo t-x.i.My Cic:!:.ci.l, 1) i iili:}r).)iT(.\; hv 1 ,'.;.... ..- ; !v.- i::';:::-;; ,- 
pnwcr, ni! 'lit be rr,.ii:.t.'.:i".ui ii;ion \ - : \- j laiiCih!',' toj)'; ^ : V, .: ;..;'. :!.v >'.Li;: 
I'.wjn,' i: to h.ivc >:nv cXi.lciKC, \v,:^ nut (;! tlnit kirn.! ; :'r.-.:t, i.:*,',;:.', 'l..cv\'\'. , 



]'. r 



whic.". i:iliw:vc'> an nn.v an^i iL'S'cb an innit.itinns leeni- a|V'..:-c;.t lonn i 
I 'c I' \-;cv,' o! t!:i-n' :ran!aj:io!-s. S;> cnnninis innc.\l v. .n, tl;. Kn^:/> piUn: n: i- 
Inliry (o invanc t!ic fonllitntion, tliat tin- i, ars .nu! ; '.nonln-s, \s In. !i (; c;-.n. .; n 
t'ic [x-.. ]'Ic. and inlluJ. tii.tn !o I'.n-ionlly to .irnis. wli'c tnn'.v.n'.n .!;\ , r.o: c.; :\ 
ci\nl, [ ut (jt" a re!i;;;ons n.i^nrc. '1 he ^nil nipiwl m.-nnn ti'jn . en n..n w re .nn- 
tatcd \vit!i a conmnn.il ili\ av! of p.^-cry, uit'n a I.^rr. i- l^r j;n-!.i, v, witlian a:.- 
tij)athy to ce^cn1;)^..^^ anJ the ht r -v, .ir.l wir.i a v:,)!-;:: a^'t .:''. n im' v.]\:Z,v : 
was mo 1 cj^polke t.) tln.h' o'n. -t^ (1 av'erlion. Ti.e tanan^al Ipirit, let luw'e, 
conte)nnn-A: a!! ree; n\;s to cale, l.n.e'y. inteinll; anJ eiiUjlwni evcrv mora', a .J 
eiv:! onHg.itiv'n ' . 

In \cn party v. a^; now \v;!!i'n; t(^ t;n\)\v on its a;itagonlll the odn.m l\ ^. )::: - 



i ''. 



1.. , ,1. 



nuncnn; a cn\n! war i in;t hoih 01 tinen p'\-paren :ur an e\nn:, \vn:en:'u\-v 

'J'o [Mm t!;c pe 'j lt'> ta\'i'nr and [ir^,^] op 
(aihotli Inlcs. N.\i r w - th le a 1 ( ; !e !(:- c. vv^.:] ted !w 



cd nx\ntabic. 'Jo nam t!;c pe ' lt'> ta\-iun- and ^iin^d opinh n wa- tl;c elii^-i p n.t 



vne-, ann nnev a.:.;,:r.n 
bv p; ineip! , thae tin- i ; pnlh dm inp that p lii-.i : >. e\-er v. : n' :;n y in.Iiviih.al v. ho 
p lieH" d nvn'e c ^['ae'n.n ni re een;/; 'e in- e'e j nl^'ie Ipiia:, tn-);-;' vlhinn ': :b d / ed. 

:::.A .'.A th le 
n bod.n;- 



'['[]{ iinnlnni u\ mn; nn:r v.nent n- ; > 
n ;b!e ; in:e:ples, and ^. nvernn: ri:eni 



rn' n \ . n.ent no 



;; ".-J. i;o-i ..11 



ii 1 . tii'::i ..i...i; 



y h: '^'... . :' :.:iy c! 
.. I..U-. .- *.:..:. i-.;m ::. - 



, u 'jy. n ::. r; iJ. > ,.; i .n^.l ;. 
.::;. I ,:i m tn.^e .v...l . .;e .::, 
Y .:r,u .'. en;! wv>, ii :^': p , . ..ri' 






?2o HISTORY OF G R E A T B R I T A I N. 

nuip. Vj. mine his choice ia the f:pDro::ichL -p; contcli?, every man hearkened with avldit'/ 
*^^"' to the reaibns, propofed 0:1 bo:h iid.s. Ti^e war of the pen preceded that of 
the f-vvord, and (hiily fuarpenLd the liiiiiiours of thie. oppofice parties. Befides 
private adventurers without niiinber, tiie iiing 2nd parhament themfjlves carried 
on the controveriy, by meii'Ages, raTionUra;:ccf^, and declarations, where the 
nation was really the par^y, to ^^IlOiti all ar^^un^ents were addrefied. Charles 
had here a double advantage. Not only his caul:: was more favourable, as lup 
porting the antient governmeiit of clu;rch<ind init--, againft the mod illegal pre- 
tenfions : It was alio deicrndcd wlch more art and eloquence. .Lord Fallcland had 
accepted the o:b.:e ol" iecrcta-y ; a nian who adoriied the pin-eil: virtue, with 
the richeft p;lits of naru;-e, v:ldi die mod. vabia'^ie acquifitions of learning. By 
hun, affiacd by the King himiclf, w^ere the memoj-ials ol" the royal party chiefiy 
conipoied. C'j It^nfiole v;az C;i;.rles oi his kioeriority in this particular, that he 
took care to difjoeiie every wh^re the papers ol the parliament together with his 
own, that the people might be th^^ more enabled, by compariibn, ta form a 
judgment between them: The paiiament, 'while tney difcributed copies of their 
O'vvn, were anxious to iupurefs all tliC King's compoiitions. 

T o char up trie principk's of the coiiiLtution, to mark the boundaries of the 
powers entrullcd by law to the leveral members, to (liow what great improvements 
the whole political lyilem h id received from the King's late conceliions, to demon- 
luate his intire conlidence in his people and his reliance on their affections, to 
point out the ungrateful returns whicli had been made him, and the enormous 
encroachments, infuhs, and indignities, to which lie had been cxpofed ; thefe 
were the topics, whicii, wi;h 10 much jidbicfs of reaibning and propriety of ex- 
pr-.fTion, were infiited on in the King's declaration-] and remonflranccs . 

Tho' 

"" In Come of chci't; declarations, f'uppor.'d co be renncd by LcrJ Falkland, Is foand the llrJl rcgu~ 
lar i!e.:ii:!:ion cF the conilitution, accojiling to our prcient ideas of i:., that occurs in any Knglidi 
Cuinipoihi;.;! ; Cl leall cuy, puliliilred by auti;f)ntv. The three ipecies of govcriirnent, jiiGJiarciiica], 
ari_locra'ica]. and dcinocrat:'.al, are there piuinlv didii^ruiOicd, and the ]\iudJih go\enin:;cnt i.- e,;- 
nrcf iv fi'i-i to be i-ore of tlicin pure, but vM of i];ieiu ni;.<cd and tcu}'^ercd tO'.^ether. 7'Jiii diie^ 
tho' tlie i--ire of it v'-s implied ill iirany inltitulioas, no former itin::^ of j'lrghind would lia\c uicd. 
: ::] vo ihe'c^t v.oidd h;,,e been pcnnltted to ule. i-'udcs and tiie c rowndav-vers a^jainf! i hwJibdcn, 
-.1 "he eele f.f i; ip-moi:.:-;, iiiful yfiiidy and openly on tiie kine;':. abii_)!i;tc and fbeeixi-o; pe'.\;'r; And 
t e o.:;-' f > len/ver': d) not ('eny it; Tiu'v n;,iv aflrt, that t'le iab;ed:-; )ia\ealf) a d)n(hin')crnd ' 
pr.n ;; ' .: i]\- a po;>d^, and that do part (' r^'.n-; em h:- :.'.].<. ; but by ib.ir o.\'n e)n;,;nt in parlia- 
inent. Jvn Vr,.t C\v. p-n-liainf iit was inditu'ed 'o check and controul the kinp;, anJ diure the hipreme 
pov. .r, v.: 'i' ], :: ah ih n;;r iiinc% tiaee !;c(;n eA.ruied very i)!unt and indiierect, if )iot il'cc;a!', 
'.:;.;. '^vt ivjeo nni bo diroiize:!. tii;i.' rovei'nincnt lh^aiid Ion:; condnue, iho' the bounduric;. 



c n A R r. I- s I. 



;3i 



natioi^ Ui Cli.tr'c-, iC v.. is cvkI r.r, tii.-t c''.c-y nnou.J r.or !c J-.';.-.ivc, r.i.J ::-..it ' ^ 
keener weapons nn.!^ I'cCi. iriiinc the roatr-'n'triy. 'I'o rhc ordinance oi tlic jmf- 
liam'.T.t C'^nc:_i i)ii:'^ ih.c niil r-.i, rhe Kiiui o;.^: o!e.! \:\s onimiiN'-ns ot arr.iv. '1 re 
fountics obey. Ji t'-.c one or the oti^.er, njcor^iing .r, tlirv I'o^J aHcCtCil. Anj 
in n'.any counrie^, where the peop'e were d:\-l(.ied, mobhiOi on^.hafs ae.c] Ikir- 
niillies eniiud. The parlianvjiir on rh;^. o:c.-.!ion, wci-r lb f.:r a to vo:e, '' I'h.ir, 
'' wlien the lords and commons iii pariiammc, which is the riijM-enie ccjurt of ',: 
*' dicaru e, lliall decLire what thj law oMhc lar.d is, to have this r.ot only qL;eiii- 
* <jne^', but coruradictcd, is a !iiL;h hreaeh ot their privileges." 1 h.is was a [/am 
alilin',in<; tiic whole legillative aii!:hority, and exertini; it in the ir.ofi iiMtc-nal ar- 
ticle, the government oi" th.e nrdiua. I 'pon th- lair.e j rnxiplvs they pr- tended* 
bv a \-erbal criticilin on th.e tenlf or" a Larin v rb, to ravilh from th.e K;.vj, his 
nt native voice iii the ieg'.li,ici:re ". 

The magaziiit ot ilull Contaiiicd riie arrr.s ot a!! the k-rces levied again!^ the 
Scotch , and ."^ir John lioiham, tiie iioveiniT, tb.o' h.e liad accepted of a comniif- 
(ion ironi th.e {xirliaiivmr, w.\s not tliouLd.: to I e m',;ch ddaiiecL-d. t') the churcli 
and monarchy. Charles therc!ore, eincrtiii-.. d hop.s, tliar, ir lie prefented. himlel: at 
I lull before tlie commencenicnt ot ]u)ili!;ties, llocham, overawed by his [retencc, 
would admit hiim w itii his retinu'- ; ;,frer v.liich. !:e n":rj;;t e.W'ily render himieii 
malKr or tlie phue. I.U.t tiie governor v, as on hi- g'.Kird. i le 0.vji i\\c sv^cs and 
refuled to receive th.e King, w!u) cV i!r> ; ieave to enter with tW( :.rv ; cilnns only, 
Ch.arLs immediately poclamud h:m tr.i'.tor, and C(v>-ip'.i;r,cd lo t'.,- p.irli.-menc 
of his difobediei.ce. I'he [\iriiam.er.!: avowed, ar.v' i.i!lu:e.i t'-,e ,;.L.fKi. 

CI ;iuth >r)tv, in :'..i-ir a-, i-ial I'rat'Ahi. -, \^c ;:.;;'...;:.. c '... i >;. ...': u; >U :c:i!i::.. 1. I .,:^ ,. :;, . .'c 
.... i)\ .1 :i'C \\( r'.l \'> ii" cai. J.i.iw ..i. t\.... ! :..-, 1 t:..ct;r. i''.' i; in; ; i ..;.J "a-iiij r.il ;" wci > n cr;. <- 
In-ia'!.- ; U ::..j. r_(,Jc .ilv t riali.cii t:.i' j : i. . ;V ..;.;:u'.:;\ o! i^>'K<.!;;ii :ck..;v. iiiL-\'r\ '>:. : rrc.K'- ' 
}(. IP-, Oi' l,:.'.;Kih !> tiic i.rll niivt ;;t'\ i. !.!:. t;.:. uh'-i' t!;t' :..;' Imi :tv oi :\tr. y.\r: h,;- !h ' n ".crv 
:ii'. ai -I'.c'.v i!rt.;.i-il : Ariii \'t {'.'.c:c !':i'l u'nia.r i i, i.y \c;\ iinp.M!.r,: ii*!i I'n'n , brtv-. cei; V.\c tv.o iiciit . 
th.it, ';. coniiiici. C' i.lriit, a:i- la;;ca i.i .i ^nicvct i-.tiav-. 'I ;ic In. ;./! p(iSNiT ;-, !i..;cc>'., pioil--, i- 
i..'tl\ liiiiitiJ ; bi::uii> rcnovl, tt uhicli vs v r.cw [re.::, i the- tnr.e, .-.i v-,1.k;i rii.i; ..'...nv . >: .- 
jrx-v:^d. .\i.l i; ^>^^\c..v-. !u in W.^; uic .irdlK'IbN, th.il iv..r.:\ ',.wsii,t. !>I,;i ] . i].\,n.'.:. J 
prccii^ti:- in til'- Kii:;'- jviiinan, :'...'. '.^..t v ?__:: !:..i: fx \c;! \s > \ cr-x- 'ln;^; i;(ii-i;:!N 'akc r^;- ;ht :;i'. .l-- 
r ic- (-t < (1m ri.irn-T.r. ' 1 l^ ti.r:air.. tli..t irn(U\ n.-.ip(.ii ir'.L;.'Uy ai.!v..i-.tai;C:- IrrMi '.l.^-.c i>-.i:;:ovi-i:'.l- 
;.r.J. ^r.q-airif ; and iiic ro\ai ;.u:ho.i;y ;:icit Il^\,:i.i- ir.oic' ttca.-t.-, \\:i:\.:. ... '_ ; : , . ':. ch vvcrc 
i.l]:t !uii to i:. 

'1 Pit.- Ki'.ic;, 1)V his Ci-ronation (uih. jtcii',;*-,- . ti^at ]\c un^a' r.. .-: :..!. :h; ! ..%- .la.: ^ul'to.-r.- v. ."'. 
t;;; "-,;; 'c h.-il chotoii, y;/.:j ; ji/.;.. ; ...;(-';/: I i f pa: .:.:iac'. I; :a. It 'i:. >. i: .'<,/-.. ii.i'ii.: / .... 
lu.i.'. toi.aaiutiui'.'. li'.it ir.c ^'''S ^'-'-'^ '-' ^'^h'^ t. .'ctulc- .."v . I'.I- v. ;..i;. :;. i..a l l ; ick'i.ijj .'; ;!. 

\'0L. 1. i '^ I'.^E 



re: CTv 



^22 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C)::-\ M The county of York levied a guard for the King of 600 men: For the 

''-'- kings of Kngland had hitherto lived among their fubjeds like fathers among their 

Frcraratior.3 chikiren, and had derived all their feciirity from the dignity of their cliarafter and 

'''' from the protection of the laws. 'J'he two houie.s, tho' they had already levied a 

guard for th.emk'lves , had attempted to feizeall the military power, all the navy, 

and all the forts of the kingdom ; liad openly employed their authority in every 

fpecies of warlike preparation : Yet immediately voted, " That the King, kdii- 

'* ced by wicked council, intended to make war againd his parliament, who, in 

'* all their confultations and adions, had propofed no other end, but the care of 

*' his kingdoms, and the performance of all duty and loyalty to his perfon , that 

* tlfis attempt was a breach of the truft repokd in him by his people, contrary 

' to his oath, and tending to a diflblution of the government; and that who- 

^ ever fliould adiil him in fuch a war, were traitors by the fundamental laws of 

'- fhe kingdom/" 

I'll ii armies, wjjich had been every where raifed under pretence of the fervice 
of Ireland, were henceforth more openly inliil:ed by the parliament for their own 
purpofes, and the command cf them was given to the Earl of ElTex. In London 
no lefs than four thoufand men inlifted in one day *. And the parliament voted 
a declaration, which they required every member to fubfcribe, that they would 
live and die with their general. 

Thev liVued orders for brinf2,ing in loans or money and plate, in order to main- 
r.tin forces, which fhouki detenu the King and both houfes of parliament : For 
tlvis Ihlc they ilill prtiferved. Within ten days, vaft quantities of plate were 
'.rouglit 10 their treafurers. Hardly were there men enough to receive it, or 
ioom iufhcicnt to How it. And many with regret were obliged to carry back 
th'-ir ohvrings, an.' wait till the treafurers could find Icifure to receive them. Such 
/.ml a;i!inaLi.d the piv)us partizans ot the parliam,ent, efpeciaily in t!^<ecity ! 'I'be 
'., cn:<.n g^'ive up all the plate aiid ornaments oi the:r houfcs, and even their 
iilver tr.in^blcs arid bodkin.-^, in order to fupport tlie Gccd cau/e againft the 
'.'', !:ij;:i.ints. 

IVli: AN \viiii.i, ti:e l]:)!cndor ov the XoiMJity, with which the King was envi- 
ionets niiuh e.iipfcd the ajipcarance at Weflminller. The I^ord keeper, Little- 
'.(iii, a'tet fciidin;; the great fcal belore idm, liad [led to York. Above forty peers 
] ilv: liill rank attended the King-, v-hililthe h.oufe of lords feklom confifted of 
ii),.-e 'i.ai^ rixtecn nuMnbc;-. Near riic moiuy too of the lower houfe ablented 
th;'mU;l\("- bora comic;''-, wliich ti^'v eftecrncd !b 'ull oi danger. The commonc 
(f: ,t I p an in^peachn^cnc ag.iii.Il niiie [-Cvrs, i<j: dUercing their duty in parliament. 

TIkI 



C J I 



'I ...;; 0'.v;i !mC;vV -i^ a!. , . ... 

Li! iau.'ii.ti C'lic'crr,;.. . . .. 

Lii.'vKLi. ir.ii;-,," .i ^.l^t. uii ai. .' ..., ; ' , 

iroin tluin wo c-bcuiiiu,- to ,:: -: .::;n:.i:.i,; , ., , .1 : .:,., 

i.iv. , (.j: r!.;: ;.r v!. 1 i.c jhi-i j ai^iv, trc.i i.i.- .. . . i; aii...i .; . ..;.,,:. 
civ. (-larci^i tiAK' r;:i(>^!i.Lh)ii to (.j:\ V ;,( i >. );i,;i.a;; ; , : ;.'' .^^ii : \v . 
tnar aLithu.My. 1) .' r:.-::c' ^Ic.il;. la:;! c;u; i:;-ii./. / , . . : ., 

.... i 1mi;.','ii1]i ;iwbiii;v, ti.cv ir.c.ii.L '.o c(-:.toi.:... ,....: 

t.w;.-, t-i-. :i; '^y the i,ar'i.i:i;v.,t. 

in: (^u-;', i.!il]'oli.:L; oi' tiic ^ ;,/.. ., ^ v, . U ... i !,; ....v;, ;.. .: . .; c:. ' -^ 

1 HI- l;alo a iari;c c..i-.;(;-j t;! a; :r.s aru! .:!ii:v,ii:;:': ):i. l^i:-to; t'.f:.-, air r 
!:iaiiV ; t.:iils, ai nvc^i lait-lv to t'.:: K'n.,. II:- ; -j-.i.'.r, jiv, v, ' :v ;;: t . 
uan! as thoL- ('t t!^- ; ai li.imciK. l^i ( i\:;-; : ^ ;\;i^! .-c a.' '.!..:., i;c !;.. ; 
iI.aLiI..ii- '.:;ur[ .i:ii,i.:. ai.J :!!. _i! }-,\-t. :i;;-.):ii ir ' ' ; '; ,:y .1 .:: u i ,c . .. . 
\vo:!d, ai^J t!u)i L;hr, th.ii, to icco'. -r [he vc;.^. '.i\ \..i-,.i: .. 

iiHicfi iiiurc nv;tcrial to !;;. liirciLi', [\\.\.\ [h ^).'..c[\,:^ j-y um z.!/;;^ s, i'oii:., c 
arnrcs v,i.:^!i n-i^'-lit luvcJ anMrclK-::. 'in-, oi \ i.,..,.ji : cr I"..-;::! ::^'i:;u";i-. B-t t': 

I 1 

\]r'M\t n-'ccnkv (;t j.is iKLiat:;.in no ;,a: - ' atl.r.iv.i o: v:.-!:*.-. 11. ivj.v pre; .;;\' 1 

Jriiilc!; !'jr ti^Mciuc. \V;l!i a Ijiii 1:, ;. ;;^i'v, a. 1 .i.l.irvi ., wh.j'. nc"...cr :!: -jn 
paity ayprrlunuL'd, iu)i- til..: o:;vr cxp.^ic-, i;c i::v\' . rl-^ a '\ ..-.,:;: , 
v.-;^;. :! ; -liaiiiV-.: f ' Ii'in. a;:J ro;.:' ; l:^ h^ .;.:!^'.\' T- ' ,.r:v . 'I i.;: iri^^.Tcr- 
<'i i,;i: I'.inLc's ;v ir lis inc :(.al.\' :; ; ropnitiun lo !::-.;'' ..!:x ^ ; a::: h-n.v.r 
.:[ y: ar.;.: j^^r-a'cr tiiaa wl-.n p'u:iy;:>,: ;:;:v- i, j l'.ci ci' :::..-. .-.: J. ^'.r.'v:'^. . I . :; 
t!.j rinx: ci.ara. : r, in.!.^.'. oi C ;:.:i !:>- a:-; ;;% ':; ; ai ;, '''.c :": . : ' " . 

1-.. ;;i I'-ci was, a- t!;;- tiirL', l-iVu!\-.\;. I 1> yt ':;. .:! . .T' r , or r.it:, r v.\:.!.n :\ , 
had rail^w i.un i'^v-ctcra'c (.ar, n":.- : 1!; c:;:::^'. r^ :.-:o..i! \-;::.:l- :, ... y:-^^:: : ir:"; 

A V u a- tl: ; !^.:r:o.i .i.Mi.u ^1 V. ;:: r..c riu.i" \;..j1. ;:: c ..v.: [\'}\: . 



\:\'.').:^ j .ini/ u.s : .\ nd b 'w a 



! ,> ;.!, 



v : lu'K;:.:, n : .'I.t " !;\iiro! al! (aai-iajli';* n, : ii;: ; arl; u";.c:'. 



n.)::(;::i(M -, c. v...;, ' ir. v v. :: 



{<) v.a !:ic to aL'i\;::^:-w[. 1 



\i;.n.ci ;:: i;;;v tc; : yr- iyo!ir;oa-, a[iu)i;i::ed to .i t*.^ .! a;\ 



: a' '"'.-, !,:.( lo | 

' y..!'.< <.\ t;.C C 






i< a 

:;i ['- 



t al a .a. ,11 ca'h'/: 



324 HISTORY OF G Pv E A T BRITAIN. 

Chap. Vi. according to advice of parliament ; that the ordinance, with regard to the mi- 
^ ^' litia, be fubmicted to j that the juftice of parHament may pafs upon all delin- 
quents j that a general pardon be granted with fuch exceptions as fhould be advifed 
by parliament , that the forts and caftles be difpofed of by confent of parlia- 
ment , that no peers be made but with confent of both houfes. 

" Should I grant thefe demands," faid the King in reply, " 1 may be waited 
" on bare-headed \ I may have my hand kiHed ; the title of majefly be continued 
" to me ; and '^he Kings aulhoriiy^ fignified hy both houfes^ may be ftill the flyle 
" of your commands ; I may have fwords and maces carried before me, and 
" pleafe myfelf with the fight of a crown and fceptre (tho' even thefe twigs 
" would not long flourifh, when the flock, upon which they grew, was dead) : 
'' But as to true and real power, I fhould remain but the outfide, but the pifture, 
" but the fign of a King." War on any terms was efteemed, by the King and 
all his counfellors, preferable to fo ignominious a peace. Charles accordingly 
made account of fupporting his authority by arms. " His towns," he faid, 
" were taken from him, his fhips, his arms, his money -, but there ftill remained 
" to him a good caufe, and the hearts of his loyal fubjefts, which, with God*s 
*' bleffing, he doubted not, would recover all the reft." Coilefting therefore 
fome forces, he advanced fouthwards i and at Nottingham, he erefled his 
xoyal ftandardj the open figna! of difcord and civil war throughout the 
nation. 



H A P, 



CHAR L E S I. 



jj-j 



C H A P. \'II. 

Ccvirnenccjucnt (j the c'r^il ^ijar. Stii!r rf jwrtiii. Battle '! Kih\'^ 

liil. Kcgotiat'iGn at Oxford. I'lci^ncs of tic r'Aali/n i?i ti: i*'./.'. 

Battle f^tratt on. OJ Layifh^ain. OJ Ro'jfhhax-donTi. 

T)ei:th of Jlunbdnu Bnjtol taken. ^aegc rj Clocejter. Batt'f 

of Newhnr';. /Iclions in the north of llngland. ^'le^nn league a^: I 

co'-einant. ArmiJig of the Scotch. State cf Ireland. 



WI-IF.N two nam'js, {o f.icrcd in the Fni^Hfli coniliciitijn, as tliofc of 
Ki\t; arivl P.\ rliamtn r, were pl.iced in oppofition tvj cich other , no . 
Nvoi.dcr thj jX'oj:lc were divided ia th.eir choice, aiid were a[^ica:cd with the nvjil i-.i. 
violent ar.imohties and Liaion; . ^' 

Tii:. r.obiiitv and moic confiderable tientrv, cireadinii; a tc.al conlufio.i ci 
rai-k ironi the lury ol die p(;pu!ace, r.inj^cd thenirci\'cs in defence (.1 the 
monaich, irom wliom they received, aiid to wlioni tlicy conKTiUnicaced, tlieir 
lullre. A.'.imated with tlie Ipdrit ot loyalty, derived from tlielr .uxeilurs, thty -" 
.idhered to tlie ancient princ;[):es ol tlie conilitution, and valued tieen^leh'es on 
cxertir.Li, tl'.e niax'ir.s, a^ well as in!",criting t'.ie p-oflelilons, o: tlie old h'.n_i:'.;ih fa- 
milies. And while tney palled their tiiiie nioilly in tiieir country-i~a:s they 
were lurfjrized to hear of opinions prevailing, with whieli rh.ey had ever been un- 
acquainted, and which implied not a limitation, bi.t an abolit':>..'n almolt total, ol 
liionarchical autfiority ^' . 

'IhiL city ot London, on tiie otl.er hand, ar.dir.;'il (;t t!ie ^rea: cor; orat or^, 
took part witii tlie parlianicn:, andi a.u-pted Wit'.i /.e.;i tlujle d.eiri0^.r..tical i rir.cipies 
on which tlw [:reteniioriS of tl-.it .ilie:r.bly ue:c i uraied. 'i'lie i;ovc rr.nunt ". 
cities, v.lfi'jh, even ui^ier ablohit.; ira^nareh:."^ is ci'-!Mr.e:i!v rvj\.!iiean, ir.eencd 
them to t^.i< [ artv : '1 lie Im.fd hervd;it,ny n.f.i; T.ee, wliie'n can b' ret.iir.ed c a'. r 
the ind.uflrious inha':-irr.nti o: mwn^ , tlie natin.il ) die['. ndence (4 e;:i/'. :- , a'd 
the turce ot po[)ular cmrenr.s (.j\"er thote ir.ore ;u.nier(.>U', .vtfov iai; ;;.^ oi n:.ir,ki;-.d ; 
rf.l thcle eauie> gave, rhere, antluairy to the new prin. ijdes |;:i' 
^/.ir t'/.e nation. Maiiy faniia.s too, v. hicli hia.i i.:tely bec:i eiirie; 



; ;uc 



'C L'. V X. 



X.) cwrv'AwV: . ;u'.iu:t.'. \o wv: i^uuit, ..i.^. ,'. .. e;^.^>...a. 
i 'j Jicd :i; I'r.incc in ic : .'. 



reri ;;; 

, 1 . 1. 



.it^d tnvougn- 
b-y cop.:m; w 
;.. .V 



.2'j HI STORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

(;;-5p. vn, f^v/ With ii'dignation, that, notwithitanding their opulence, they couid not 
' ^'' raile :h Ciic'vcs to a hvd with the antienr gentry : They theretore adhered ro a 
power, by vdioic fuccefs they hoped to acquire rank and confideration, And the 
new ipier.dor and glory of the Dutch commonwealth, where liberty lb happily 
iiipported indiiflry, made all the commercial part of the nation ardently delire to 
fee a like form oi firovernment cftabliflied in Kn2:land. 

1'he genius of tlie two religions, lb clofely, at this time, interwoven with 
politics, correfponded exactly to thefe divifions. The prefbyterian religion was 
new, republican, and fnittd to the genius of the populace: I'he other had an 
air of greater fnow and ornament, was eftablifhed on antient authority, and bore 
an affinity to the kingly and ariftocratical parts of the conllitution. llie de- 
votees of prcfbytery became of courfe zealous partizans or the parliament : The 
friends of the epifcopal church valued themielves on defending the rig'nts or 
monarchy. 

SoMi- Uicn alio there were of liberal education, who, being either careiels 
or ignorant of thoie difputcs, bandied about by the clergy of both fides, afpired 
to nothing but an eafy enjoyment of life^ amidft the jovial entertainment and 
Ibcial intcrcourfe of their companions. All thefe tiocked to the King's fian- 
ftard, where they breathed a freer air, and v/ere exempted from that rigid pre- 
cifenefs and melancholy auilerity, which reigned an:ong the parliamentary 
party. 

Never was a quarrel more unequal than feemed at firft that between the con- 
tending parties : Almofl every advantage lay againft the royal caufe. The King's 
revenue had been feized, from the beginning, by the parliament, who ilTucd out 
to him, from time to time, fmall fums tor his j/tefent fubfiflence; and as foon 
as he withdrev/ to York, they totally ftopped all payments. London and all 
the lea- ports, except Newcaflle, being in their haiids, the cuftom.s yielded 
them a certain and confiderable fupply of money -, ai^.d all contributions, loans, 
and impofitions were more eafily raifed from the cities, which poifeilld the ready 
money, and where men lived under tlieir infpection, than they could be le- 
vied by the King in thole open countries, which, after fome time, declared fur 
him. 

The feamen naturally followed the difpofition of the fea-ports, to which they 
belonged. And the Earl of Northumberland, Lord admiral, luuing embracec^ 
the party of the parliament, had named, at their defire, tlve 1 '.arl oi Vv'arwic for 
his lieu'ei.ant ; who at once cllabliflied his authority in the liGt^t, ani! kept the in- 
tire doniinion or the fea iii ih.e hands of that affembly. 

ALi 



C II A R L [ S I. 



All the ::;;i[;.izincs of x::: dwd .imn'^Jiniio.; v.-:: a: i'::i} i/i/xd hy ihj \.\:...i 

:o b ii'ow ilir ^. : i; "11. (yi il,;- Li'ain-li.'r.i ^, uiii!^: ]: ;r.;:j oi icilo;'.;.^^ :,. :. . 

'I'll. w.aT -.tisn (nr ]'i! Hanv.iu^ Nv.i., at tluit tlir.c, cxtr-.nv.- thrui.^'i.tx.: (hciU' 
t'oii. 1 ^c V .. ' : r.v;";:i<_i; i'ioIl .;l:cni!^l;CN tor Lv:':v.'.:lu>i:, .:s i: '..i.: ;.u ;t< 
t.'i.tc, Iv) " > :: i:i ivno\v[i, I'ur:":; all loi'iiitr ,.<!cs. Ilv.- cr no lii.' .; : 



(:','.: u..'. l\::\:': :.nii ::\():) o: 



liias lia^i !.;:in. 



r: . I'.ui (.b!:.:\\ J. \k :, c .....;c. 
; ci l:c i.o..:. of C' n]\v.'.j\.:- ::i r.o otlitrT l;;':hr, tli..:. ^ . tl^.- r. . rcU-.iMi:-. c- <.; :..v ;,;:- 
ti'.n, \vl:oic iiucr.li v-a^ tiic lan.cv^iin tiiat ca ilic |;;bl:.\ w Ik; v. crir :!.; avri.^i 
':uai\l:ans o; iav.' and ii^trty, ..i:d whon^ no iv.oz'wj, b..: :a.- rcccliaiv v:^;r..Lc l: 
t'u- '^cop!c, coLikl ever ci^gag; ia an <. y]H;:;riun 'j :;.. v.iov.:i. 'l''.]j io::(..- 
tiKTetoin-, t: '.^;.ci\n a;-.-v:naa ran r.) t!:j j^aihaa:;::::. \^ ,..[. l^ liu- n,;--:..: .;d\aa.- 
M'i;! oi i ; I ..'.;r ry ; t;nj i liviii^irv o! j'-'xa;^ t.-; u'..';- ii-ii ol (.(aai;; [ j t!:a: jai' : . . 



'i'..c K;: i'".- a-.,iL;i-:irs v.;-:- ::i:j // /./if ;/ .:a:l t 



> ri., 



'I 'K::-ad\ :j..;:l' 



tl:t r. ...' and l'i'l' // "t..' .^: -'ina a^^ tl.c lorcc ot l!.c(;:;l- ^^ a- lai ic laatcd 

ta.ai i'.:.':: oi ri.c ooLaU!^^ and ar oacc i^ave ihiiter .;ad j-i(.Uti:oa :o ['.,: pa: ha- 
il", c a ta;/ i\i:tv, \. iiO CuLad !,..;.! . li.ypvls r:,c; :caaiaai la dca' a.a. I:, (/,.. l.oi a > 
a!a f il :i..' v. aolc !>:iaj,(.;c;aa ac tae coaawe!iv;(aa?a: oi i..'j '.a;. Leiacd to ['c a. l..c 
ha:ai^ o! da' ! arliaiac.jC. 

\'. a . I a,t;ac :a .'c tac ki:a; aaac ca;a, ca .aa.,! i ... ;ai i.i^ > a-, .ua . > , j v)d;^- 
k i h, a., a. Aa aaaiic^, \'. a ti;c aaraia- .lad ijo.; .t;cs oi hi^ ..dh'iaa:;. (.ircattr 
bia\'(.r. a;ia :iCi[\\:y \'.':\. a- p-d :c'r, l;< m t!a; ; ^:acroas l^.uit t^ la;- n ;\o- and 
rc:,Ci"V, V.iV.A ::aaa da- : . v ;'i '.a ., </ twc a;a.: t..dc. Aad .^n d.c laea ('I c. 

ta:c-, .:: d.:.a- i/.a-; > ; ; ..,^_c, .; ^ a .: ; a:a.a a,ta- ana:.:;; la a A - an .ata.!:- 

m^-a::" : .lii' n aac:. , ; ":,a( r a aa .. d coura :; \-. ; :c cxp(\ ic^^ :..a..a u.di 
:: Ol. a^, t .wi ia t a' '. ;ao. ' .Oi'.. ' aaaaac^; j ; a i. c < >! . i[ t v 

i ' . . ; ..' I : ! aaaa c, Lfa a criau:;.d ;a "^ i,..ci c v..;ri, iadc a.- 

aan.' :.oa- , aaa da- :!ao'.d ci,:0\ad i.:c dn:;' I i 
' a.: ..' . ' ' ; ' ^ >'-,\ a a ,...i r' 1'^ 'a ;t;ii :.[ :hv a; 

: Loaaa..cd : . a.tv - 

.a., :;\aa c. a: y, aaa a;:.: d a,. 1: aii waa 
I,. ,!a. , a .. '.-'.. K C ' :. . . . .ot. !y ah.c ; to th^' 



tc r . 


ilea ; 


adv 


arra^ 


trri 


oa'a 


.' K I ' 




i(a; 


; .1 


I la ' 




tla 
a. 


:. 



328 HISTORY of G R E A 1 BRITAIN. 

Chap. VII. The contempt, entertained of the King's party, v.T.t fo great, that it was the 
^ ^^' chief caufe of pufhing matters to fuch extremity againft him , and many beheved, 
that he never would attempt refiftancc, but mufl at Jail yield to the preten- 
fions, however enormous, of the two houfes. Even after his ftandard was 
ereded, men could not be brought to apprehend a civil war ; nor was it 
imagined that he would have the imprudence to enrage his implacable enemies, 
and render his own condition more defpcr.^te, by oppofing a force which was fo 
much fuperior. The low condition, in which he appeared at Nottingham, con- 
firmed all thefe hopes. His artillery, though far from numerous, he had been- 
obliged to leave at York , for want of horfes to tranfport it. Befidcs the trained 
bands of the county, raifed by Sir John Digby, the fheriff, he had not got toge- 
ther above three hundred infantry. His cavalry, in Vv'hich confuled his chief 
ftrength, exceeded not eight liUndred, and were very ill provided of arms. The 
forces of the parliament lay at Northampton, within a few days march of him ; 
and confifted of above fix thoufand men, well armed and well appointed. Had 
thefe troops advanced upon the King, they muft foon have dilTipated thefmall force 
which he had aflembled. By purfuing him in his retreat, they would have fo dif- 
credited his caufe and difcouraged his adherents, as to have for ever prevented his 
gathering an army able to make head againft them. But the Earl of Eflex, the 
parliamentary general, had nor yet received any orders from liis mafters. What 
rendered them fo backward, after fuch precipitant fleps as they had formerly 
taken, is not eafily explained. 'Tis probable, that in the extreme diflrefs of his 
party confifted the prefcnt fafety of the King. The parliament hoped, that the 
royalifls, fenfible of their Icebie condition, and convinced of their flender re- 
lources, would difperfe of themfelves, and leave their adverfaries a victory, fo 
much the more compleat and fecure, that it wou!d be gained without the ap- 
pearance of force, and without bloodflied. Perhaps too, when it became necelTa- 
ry to make the conclufive ftep, and offer bare-faced violence to their fovereign, 
their fcruples and apprehenfions, tho' not fufHcient to overcome their rcfolutions, 
were able to retard the execution of them. 

Sir Jacob Aifley, whom the King had appointed major general of his in- 
tended army, told him, that he could not give him aflurance but he might be 
taken put of his bed, if the rebels fliOuld make a brill: attempt to that purpo'e. 
All the King's attendants were full of well grounded apprehenfions. Some of the 
lords having defired, that a mefTage might be fent to the parliament with over- 
tures to a treaty ^ Charles, who v;ell knew that an accommodation, in his preient 
condition, meant noiliing but a total fubmifhon, hafliiy broke up the council, 
Jed this propufal fhould be farther infifted on. But next day, the Earl of 

3 ^ SouthamptoUj 



C H A R L r S I. 



:^J 



^OLitnaninlO 1, V. .on'' I 



^"i no one c ii!.' 



:c:^l o: i' i:: ( 



: L:ni!',i coimu'", h.ivin:'; C'.:.: 



oflercJ tlv l.i:r.j .i '.\ :l'-, it was r.. .'.r!:c'[-.(\l to wirh nvjrc co .n. ii an i J.; 

He urL-^cJ, '1 ii.iC, 'h/ men a llrj^ wouaI j ron.i'ny c. :-.t;-- t' c i;.!-/ 

t i.it iv.. n (.:ii| u,. 
1 1...: .; i'.^ V r::.'. 



.i!i <) ''.c: 1 >: 



jLirlninicnt: i :!i;s \'. :s lo Mr iron^ he;:;;:, 

njct'll'.rily tm'n [> c!. ad\'an:.;|^ (;; i.. kj'/.i! t'.r., 

wh.cii w.ii n':j:'L T_^;- li.ib.c, the ^ erv iw.nui ; j)/.uc w.. . 

co:nd !:,'ji\j en:u,i.it tnj i.a'ion than 11.:!. Iiau;;ii:y 'i.-v-.v [y : l ...:: ., 

('t a ircatv, then" prcjj'olaN, coiilLn-r in;'; tivir pit ! nt Li:-..!i:njn, 



ex. 



an.:, ab to oj-cn tne cye^ ot then" n'.ul: jMit: 



, .l...i ! 



; treat 



i .n- :o 
th'? r.v- 



n.ral :a\-onr tn th.- Kn'y's party : A.. : tln.t, at \v(j:;l, tin:.- nn h.t h. ;;: jJ by 
tln^ t;::peJRnc, aiid a clehiy of t';e inirnhicnt Jar-'M", with wh <.'a i\:: K. ..; was 
a: pr.ient tln'tatmed. 



Cii niLins, on aiiLiiiunng trie c 



. hir i a;/ hnil .;11 a 'van;cs r n- 



x'.ards an accon.nnoi.iatiun ; ai\d ha.d laui, t!iat, hi.'n.n:.;.; r.oA n. t:.; n; le:: i'. .n but 
his ho.nour, tiiat hut polilli'ujn h.e wa.^rclj'veJ llc.ldilv to pcLise, .isni ial!',er 
to perhdi tii.iii yiehl an.y iart!\er to tl^e { re'cnnons ul his tn; nh.cs. Vl.: by the 
conein'i.n!: dehie o: tlie connlhilors, he w.:s prcv.nled v. iili to c nhira^e S, /..'.] wirrp - 
ton'i a.hv ee. Tiiat Nhjblcnian, tlierctoie, witli Nir Jo!in CcV.cp.enir a...l Sir 
W'lhiani U\'edah', wa.^ tli.[)ate;ied to Loiu'njn \sit!i o.'\rs c^i a treaty. '1 h.e in.aa- 
rxi oi t':en" rece{)tioa g>U'e httle ho;)es oi kicceis. Soarlianipn.-ii was net ai!jv.c\l 
by cine p.erb to ta'.^e his leat -, bn: v,a^ ordu'eJ. to deliver hi^ in.eiiane to tiie nllnr, 
and to d.epart the c:tv inimcdiateh/ : Ihie conirn.o.nN Hujv.ed i;:t'e better d.n: vn.tion 
to Colei.e^.er arid U vedale. Botli honles repiiLd, tiiat tiiey conld ad,:r.it no t:e.;tv v. it!i 
ti'e Km.g, till 1-e took down his Ibinda.'d, and reeaded \v.% p;'oeia'r.'.::v;:-.s, ::i 
wliicn t!ie p\ii iianient iiippolevl tlien^iLnveb to be tie^dared tr.nto s. i ;., 1\ n^, l)y 
a lecond n'ledan.e, denied any kien intention a^;alnli the two In^nn^ ; h:.: c dered 
to i-e.:.dl tlv.de proclannition-, [TeA-ided t':e [end; air.-, e.t .i n- '(\: ror.aail tii n'-, i;i 



x'dec'i hi., adherents u :re deelared tr.n'ors. J hev dee: vl 
iv\\> in-, hyrei'-, tf) re!;de witii h::> parli.ni".-. I'.t. .'.'{ 
nnb, e^ '!;;<.', ..^ :ndon Ininleii a. i ;., neei^di t, 
b.jdi parties i:i'.teied rund: i\'c-^, t:i,.t, hy t:i -1. ine'''ii 
r; lined t!ie v>nd-. \';'\\:\\ tii.-y propoled. The Kin : ' 
, edniendv l.iii-n.e.i oi t!v p.u 1: nncnt's inloiener an i ee.n 
] a danicn: inten.le b i-y tnis \":n, mr n- a n- ; : he' :, '- 
t'- :r n:i i' ai y op; r.mon -. 

d i;. (oaia;e oi t;;e parhanienr wa^ k;;-,ir"_d, leh.l^ ' 
rel loree, ie, f.vo recent events v-dnelihidi liapp-ce,. .1 ei r 
v;a> ;aov;rnor nt Poniniontli, t' e '.!l nan:-- d t>'.vn in : 

\ e:,. I. 1 w 



n :n r^:..;-n t^* ^al- 
; : ) ti.eir 



330 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Chap. VJI. its fituation, of great importance. This man feem.ed to have rendered hlmfelf 
J 642. ^^ implacable enemy to the King, by betraying, probably magnifying, the fe- 
cret cabals of the army ; and the parliament thought, that his fidelity to them 
might, on that account, be entirely depended on. But the fame levity of mind 
flill attended him, and the fame difregard to engagements and profeflions. He 
took underhand his meafurcs with the court, and declared againft the parliament. 
Bur, tho' he had been fufEiciently fupplied with money, and long before knew 
his danger j fo fmall vvas his forefight, that he had lelt the place entirely deftitute 
of provifions, and, in a fev/ days, was obliged to furrender to the forces of tlie 
parliament. 

The Marquefs or Hertford v;as a nobleman of the greateft quality and cha- 
racter in the kingdom, and, equally with the King, defcendcd, by a female, from 
Henry VIL During the reign of James, he had attempted, without having ob- 
tained the confcnt of that monarch, to marry Arabella Stuart, a Lady nearly re- 
lated to the crown-, and, upon difcovery of his intention, had been obiir^ccl, for 
fome time, to fly the kingdom. Ever after, he was looked on with an evil eye 
at court, from which, in a great meafure, lie withdrew ; and living in an inde- 
pendent manner, he addicted himfeif intirely to literary occupations and amufe- 
ments. In proportion as the King declined in popularity, Hertford's chara6ler 
fxourifhed with the people , and when this parliament affembled, no nobleman 
in the kingdom polfcfled more general favour and authority. By his fagacity, he 
loon perceived, that the commons, not content with correding the abufes of 
government, were carried, by the natural current of power and popularity, into 
the oppolice extreme, and vv'ere committing violations, no lefs dangerous than 
the former, upon the Englifh conllitution. Immediately lie devoted himfeif to 
the fupport of the King's falling authority, and was prevailed with to be gover- 
nor to the young Prince, and refide in the court, to which, in the eyes of all 
men, he gave, by his prefcnce, a new luftre and authority. So high was his cha_ 
racter for mildnefs and humanity, that he ftill preferved, by means of thefe popu- 
lar virtues, the public favour , and every one was fenfible of the true motive of 
his change. Notv/ithftanding his habits of eafe and ftudy, he now beftirred him- 
feif in railing an army lor the King , and being named general of the wefiern coun- 
ties, where his intertil chiefly lay, he began to afllmble forces in Somerferfliire. 
By the afliftance of Lord Seymour, Lord Paulet, John Digby, fon to the Earl 
of Bi-iftoJ, Sir Francis Hawlcy, and others, he had drawn together fome appear- 
ance of an army , when the parliament, apprcnenflve of the danger, fcnt the Earl 
of B-dford vviih a confiderable force againft him. On his appearance, Hertiord 
waL obliged to retire into Sherborne caftle j and finding that place incapable of 



defence. 



CHARLES I. 



J3 



defence, l-.e hlnifclF p..n-.\l over It.ro W./ s, Ir.u-ip,-.'; S;r R.i!;)'\ 1 lopton, Sir ]o]\:\ ^-"^P- ^ 
Hcrkclcy, DiL;by, arid ohcr o.'Fii-frs, wi'i. ti.vir ii(;r!'c, ( o;;i::i::';; u! aL\j'j[ a iu:n- '' ''' 
dred and cwcnrv, to m.irvh into Cornwaii, m li'vi^.s oi !i:i ir.j^ t;I<.:c Lwjr/.y boc- 
tcr prepared lor chci;- roccptio;:. 

Ai.L tlie dUpcrfcd hcxlics (jf t'le p\ir;'.i'TicMU^ r.rir.;, , , ,' ;,.,.. > . : : .: c) nurch 
to Norrhamptoii i and tjic l'"arl m 1 il"-::, wi.o hadj-ii^cd tl. n;, :>.....! rLt; wi^o^e 
amoi:nr to i ^o->c) men. 1 l-f Kinj, c .)' his c.";!v.;) !:.i.: been .;r...:'..a'iv r- ii-.turc-.-J 
from ad i-ii.irters, vv :s fc-nnlde, th it be bui n.j .iiikv v. i.:' ;m: Jidd c .-: -.s ;c!i id ibr- 
nib'-iblc a lorcj ; an.] :.c t;:(;u;i:i' :: prud n;, by d )V,- inard.:-,, to :x:'.:\- :) 1 ).Tbv 
aju! thcnt'c to Shrcwlbi.ry, ):i <..rdcr to LOi.nt(.'!iaii;-.: ['': I-vi.- , which i.i, Ir'.c*;..:*; 
wrv: n:a!;ing in tbul,; cjuartcrs. A: '^\ i\\:':d^z j::, a b.i-.'- ma:.h irom ^ :i;c\v;I^ur;', 
I;e n;a.;e a rendezvous ol ail his :>;:;. axi '-.a;,.jd /.: nb.ii:i;v orders t.) b- read 
at t!ic Iiead 01 c icii re^^;n:ent. That lie n-;!.;hr li:.h iiinwci: iiy rccipr.^eal lie^. 



r:; V 



' 1 do promile, m ciie prebnre 'd A!.id;;!i:y : r,c', an I a:- I ':.' pe T^ : !db biel". 
'' ihng and pi-ocedion, that I wid to t:.;j i-Lir.oil c'. my power, d ::;-,J .i:'a! n;a:n. 
'' taiii die true relornied proted.\:^: rei.^.or, id.;bhdud in die clii.:v!i o: l,n^- 
" i.n.;, and, by tlie r^raie or 'lod, :n die lan-:e vdi! ire an,! i::e. 

I .:.:ire, duit die bius niav ever be t;ie nee.;i\;re et n;v [^ijvcrnn:;;;:, and 
" liiar tile iberry and pri.p.rry or' tne IdbjeCL niay [>e tiieni be prcbr.ed w ;tii 
'' ti.e b'er.e care as rr.y own jeil !":i;:i:.s. And ii it [)ie . e Ciod, by !ns bA dinp, o;i 
'' diis amy, raile.i tc.r my necediiry dA^:\ c, to predrve nie irc^m i'..- prcicnt 
* rrbeiii^n , 1 vio loien^nly and t.iidiL.ily pri.Mr.ik-, in :h.- d^i.: i ! (i".:, Co rirtin- 
' tain tiie jn.l p::vni'.geb d^i^d treebiom o! p.n ii.miLrt, anr. :o::,')Vcrr. to dr.e ut- 
*' moll oi niy [ow.r, by t!ie kr.owri diara:ei anJ. erdtonrs ol ti.e hirr ' rm, ar.d 
" pariicLdarl}', to o'i.:\"e nn'ioi.ib'y [he laws to vdneii I ..a\'e r.^ t n r-v > r . r: tins 
' pariiament. iNi^.m .\in!e, ii :h:i cmer.i rce, arid: .-:r,.::,- ;;'/ C!\sh..:ii 
*' I am d;i\en, btrvr . . vioi.idon ot hr.'. , J I-ope '.: d;.,. r ,. v Crod 

'' ar 1 n"! m to th'.' ar ''i rs (jt tir,-, -A'ar ; n^^L to r, . '. , r . .r ,w c..;n.:.y ja- 
'' t\.. jreb, I ' prdrrw d. p',.U'j ol tlie !vr:r,dor]. 

" Wdirr 1 wi'iir::..- l.ni in tlicle piriiro:r<, 1 ' ':,...: 

" t'rom nrm. rr;r are "otiCimr. irom a'\Ar- : l];:' ,, . i r_-r 

* tlie chcarlrl aii..iarv . f aii roo.i n,.n, .r vl .m: . i- 

*^ h: :;vend' 

'ihrd t:^ eoneurren' ' d;e c ir i e:; vrcr)r;^ted'y .' \ : , 

U iray Trdy b.' afdrr.. ., ti.'t :A ..: h rr ::..--\. 

i.ited b} ti^e i i^rpv, l;a.: n:"r':r d ): e .nm .. . ' r . 

tr.nn oi ritbility and rtntr'.', \:h> now attenred t . K rp _.,, . 

r r 2 . 



332 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. Vir. were none vvxhobreatheei not the fpirit of liberty, as well as of loyalty: And in 
^ "^^* the hopes alone of his fubmicting to a legal and limited governmentj were they 
willing in his defence to lacriiice their lives and fortunes. 

While the King's army lay at Shrewlbury, and he was employing himfelf in 
colleding money, which he received, tho' in no great quantities, by voluntary 
contributions, i-nd by the pl.ite of the univerfides, wliich was feat him ; the new.i 
arrived of an ai:lion, the hrll which had happened in thefe wirs, and where h-z 
was fuccefsful. 

On the appearance of commotions in England, the Princes, Rupert and Mau- 
rice, fons or the unfortmiate Palatine, had olfcrcd thtir fervice to the King; and 
the former, at that time, commanded a body of horfe, which had been fent to 
Worcefter, in order to watch the motions of ElTex, who was marching towards 
that city. No fooner had the Prince arrived, than he faw fome cavalry of the 
cnem.y approaching the gates. Without delay, he briflcly attacked them, as they 
were defiling from a lane and forming themfelves. Colonel Sandys, who led 
them and wlio fought with valour, being mortally v/ounded, fell from his horfe. 
The whole party was routed, and was purfued above a mile. The Prince hear- 
ing of ElTex's approach, retired to the king. This rencounter, tho' in itfelf of 
fmall importance, raifed mightily the reputation of the royalifls, and acquired 
univerfally to Prince Rupert the character of promptitude and courage-, qualities, 
which he eminently difplayed, during the whole courfe of the war. 

The King, on muttering his arm.y, found it about 10,000 men. The Earl 
of Lindefey, v/ho in his youth had fought experience of military fervice in the 
low-countries*, was general : Prince Rupert commanded the horfe; Sir Jacob 
Aftley, the foot : Sir Art'nur Ailon, the dragoons: Sir Joim lieydori, the ar- 
tillery. I'he Lord Bernard Stuart was at the head of a troop of guards. The 
eftate and revenue of this fingle troop, according to Lord Clarendon's computa- 
tion, was at leaft equal to that of all the members, who, at t'ae cornmenceniciit 
of the war, Vfjted in both houfes. Their fervants, under the command of 
oir Wdliam Killigre.v, made another troop, and always marched with tiicu' 
mailers. 
i.tUCa. With tlfis army the King left Slirewfluiry, rrfohnng to give battle a,'- f:on as 

poffibie, to the army of the parliament, which he heard was coniinuailv at^i- 
menting by fupplies irom I.or.don. Jn order to bring on an ac^:i'v.ri, he chreded 
his courie towards the capital, which, he knew, tlie enemy vv'ould jior abandon 
to him. lilkx. had now receivcvl his inflruftionr Tlu.' import of them was, 
to prefent a mofi: hunible petition to the King and to refcue liini, aiid the royal 

famii\ , 

* He vva^ ihca Lord Willou'.-'.bv. 



C II A R L E S I. 



fitni'-.', f'.-om t'lTo'c dcfpcr.ite in.;'.!"^ : 
(\r. . :.; f '/, I'c-p.i: i. . ' " r ; ' 

n^.i -s o: c-u Ii ihur, '( re . iL.c.- i.: l!: ' . . .: ... ^ \. 

a:v rv): ab ;\ c twenty mlics t.i,!l iiu ; y-r !i.;.! '!.. 

c.i}^.^ '.i\ I'n. !a.:(.l. 

'I';:;- r- ..:1 .irniy Liv lU'.ir l^.i;v^i:ry : i'lit o' 



I. .1 <".. . 1 . 



- .1,:, ro.i.u 

. ' I . . L . . ; . ' ( ; . , 

.'!..:. > in rvl . .: : i\ J ly^ i:i 

.1 io.;- I cur, Lc- 

-.;:;. n:, a: kr ::. . 
_ t..^.- <>i' t!.j > ;;;,/. j ;. / 
f.'.r adv.UKcJ, l\\v Kii^,^', i^l-.ilww i.}^ -ii i.-c ;U.r :m. : i-j;^x '.;: .\ u-i- 
his nv.'a to r^ccive him. Sir F.iiJiial ]\y:ic[^:i..\ uv..) Iiacl kvird .i tiw^'j) !,>r t!ic 
Iriih WMis, h.ki bcL:i obli.a'cl kj Imv.' i,i i!ic ; .i; !i im"., r.r.u'v a;;-:r/, :\:;j. \'..i-> p }v/ 
{)OiU\l uii ti'ic Icit wip.i:;, conviMiKled by Iv.u^.way, .i S.^.^ti Iini '.p.. No .'(.or,, r (;,,' 
tiie Kini^'s anr.y aopro.ich, than l-\)rtclcL.c, oob ri:i:'; l;is tro ; '.o ciikl^.u-^-.c tii; ! 
jii:]()!s i:i t'nc L^roiincl, {vjt Iiiiiilc!! iMid'jr t!ic' cup.ii.vvi.l o: L'r:r.^.- 1\i.|ct:. i'.ar- 
]y tro;-;-; tius ..c.-:dcnt, jMrtlv iV in ti.c iLirlous IImx !v in.^i.- lijon tli'::i '-y ri ;- 
l'ii:.c-- : ''..'.'.: '.'.i'ole vii^j^ ol La\'.iI:-\' ipin^iv'iav'v ll'^tl, uV.d v,t.c [ :!:.c : ! r r ., . . 
ivii.c'. 'l'.;j rij^ht v-'in^ I f tii. i arli.i.iiLi.tV .iri'^y Ii a: i, > 1\ tif!' k..,^_ . . C i .J 
ii"o:n L^U'ir iirouiid by \^iI(riUi a^rj Sir Ai[':v.:r .\;io;i, tiu-y a.hj t >/'. ' 
Tlic t\i;:g\ boi'y oi rcicrvc, co!V.'ria;o.!t d bv Sir J'/iin Ijiion, lud.^ir,.,,, .:..: law 
!vjiv;i'.i>, til.;: all WaS ov.-.-, and inij^atici'.t to ii.ivc l'.;:ric Hmtc in tlu- a:Li.):'. v. itj 
1, i:i-. and lo ie ivins io!'o\\v ' the c!ia:i-, \vhii:!i th/n- !clt v-in:,; had pr-ci: :t,itc'r- 
Ld tl.jm. Sir W'lllnnn Ijah^...-, wlio eiwinnand', Ji l,:]".x'6 rcurvc, pc:e\;- : :',.. 
ad\a;.t,;.'.c ; I !c \'.;ievl:,d abini: L.pcn tii;.- i\;., ;V ini ;nt"V, now tjnitc i;ni ..: ..i!i: .^1 
oi ho::c, wriA ni .dr "rc.it iia\Lvk afiicr^L' tla-ni. [.ii,drlj\, tr.c i^:\ r.il, \n a :: ur_ 



i.tbv 



t..i;.n } :..,..,ir. 



wiic i.:r^! t;.'.' cn-Mnv', !,.\n.,- 



1 l:o lo;;, vwAciVc.iw: [: n: . r. Iv a;:-, t, ii I;:.;-. 
I'.oiriund Wiiuv, \\':\u c.i.rud i:\: Ki;i'.'s 



, an ; t .v !t.i:.n.a\! t..i\- n , i\;: it u.;:- ;:!:-rv. aials !\Co\\'r!. 



;i tlm^ ,.tL,.i:ion, J 



vujK-it, c'ii I'.ns iLtnr;;. lOUiid. .ilhii 



y i;..n; !;oi-^. 



ihc appca;';i;:(.. o; .i dcicat, inili' ;u l1 a \a.'lo;''.-. with \slnui b.c iiud ia.ui!.- i:..-. 
tc red hin;lc!'. Sn.nc ad\iic\! ti, Kn.', lo ic.i'.a- tiic ;ii!d : I'n.i tl^it l':i;..-', 
V. Iu;l;' p^rii :;.n '.-.iloar was Linquia: :o;ii >i, r.p.tc.i k.c !i ;ai!ii;a:nn.oa'> c anv. ;!. 1 ..^. 
t\\() .a;;. V :..; V ; . , ,.cr n,a' iw;n f;:-, and n ni.ca' ol in.;-, ' i Cv/^L.-c- 
lattii a';;: lor ,. ;._ .'. u;:,..i.. /.i!inr;h: ti.cvl.iv n!,aera:n1^; ;; .: n;orni ., 

loii!, i t. ;(;., a Is'c^ in l;:!it vd r.i l\ oiii a. (}.:<.:,:.'., :;s w.i'. ..> lu'da;-, on i-. ;a 
Ikb:, kain^d avarla to raiRw ti.c b.itflc. i'll; x ii;n 'W < ii' .md r j; a . ;) 
W'aiwic. '1 iiC Kina: rcU.iiud to !;'. lorn. .or (;l. rt..;s. b.'.c {':.: ..i':.:a] iv.-.i\ .\- ^ 



334 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Ch.-.p. \'II. faid to have been found dead on the field of batt'e, and the lofs of the two armies, 
^' ^-- as far as we can judge by the oppofite accounts, was nearly equal. Such was the 
event of this firit battle, fought at Keinton or Edge-hilL 

Some of Efiex's horfe, who had been drove off the field in the beginning of 
the action, flying to a great diftance, carried new^s of a total defeat, and ftrucic 
a mighry terror into the city and parliament. After a few days, a more juft ac- 
count arrived; and then the parliament pretended to a compieat viftory. The 
King alio, on his part, v^as not wanting to difplay his advantages ; tho', except 
the taking of Banbury, a tew days alter, he had tew marks of viftory to boafl: 
of. He continued his march, and took polTefTion of Oxford, the only town in 
his dominions, which was altogether at his devotion. 

After the royal army v/as recruited and refrefhed j as the weather R-ill con- 
tinued favourable, it was again put in motion. A party of horfe havino- 
been fent from Abingdon, where were fixed the head quarters of tiie cavalry, 
they approached to Reading, of which Man in was appointed governor bv the 
parlianient. Both governor atid g-.rrifon were feized with a panic, and Med with 
precipitation to London. Charles, hoping that every thing would yield before 
him, advanced with his whole army to Reading. The parliament; who, inflead 
of their fond expectations, that Charles would never be able to colled an crmv, 
had now the profpefi: oi a civil war, bloody, and of uncertain event; were far- 
ther alarmed at the near approach of the royal army, while their own forces lay 
at a dillance. They voted an addrefs for a treaty. The King's nearer ap- 
proach toCok'brokc quickep,ed their advancts. Northumberland and Pembroke 
\vi[h three commoners prefented the addrefs of both houies ; in which they be- 
foughc his Majdly to appoint fome convenient place, v/here he mighc refide, till 
committees coukl attend him with propofais. The King named Windfor, and 
dcfired, that tlic garrifon miglu be removed, and his own troops admitted Into 



that calUe. 



ct' Nov 



Mean whie EfTcx, advancing by hafry marches, had arrived at London. 
But neither tiie prefence of hk army, nor the precarious hopes of a treaty, retard- 
ed tlie Ivin[2,'s approaches. At Brentford, Charles attacked two regiments quar- 
tered there, an ', alter a fiiarp action, beat them from tha^ villige, and to .k a!)out 
500 pri oncr^. I'he parliament had fent orders to forbea,- all hollilities, and bad 
expeck-(l the lan^ic compliance from the King ; tho' no ffip-uhitions to that purpofe 
had I). en mentioned by tl-.tir commiffioners. Loud u.)mp'.nncs v/ereraifed an-ainlt 
tins .i.ttiek, as ii" it had bjcn the molt apparent perful/, and breach of trcjt^- 
I'.nPiam.d v, nh lefntmefU-, as well as anxious for its own defence, the city march- 
(tl its trah.cd funds \n excehcnt ordei', and ioincd the army under Efkex. Tli 



e 
force 






C II A R L E S I. 



-^ ^ > 



forcr of tlie p.irliameniarv irmy r.o'.v ar-:vn;:itcil to ..bovc z.j 02c n.j; . a',.: v , C'.- \'{' 
much ru|vrioi" to u:m o; ti." KinL!,'s. ,-\.:cr hotli aimi.s h..:0. lk:C'J' . .1 !i (vj.,-i r >' ' ''' 
!o;nc i:ir/% the Ki;^j; d. v oi; u.ul rctirt..', to KcRin, :, :;;y.! !ro;r- c!..': ; ioC)\:oro. 
\\'iii!.E tlvj pvncipil a:iv.:;-'^ on b'-'li fiJt;'- :..;, . ', . ,., 

WMf, .iMd i.i l.x:T;i:i,; ;k;-.-.i,w\ s P)v..i;;i-; ;-c:i'\'. ISy t!ir-.t:.; (' c ;.':;-,,[;,,.. . 
IcIihK'ius, Itvic.i /. {\\\.- ii.':!/ Chili; M i:i.;;!.M::;.d Iws ^.;V.i!^ . : 15. '^--.^ . , 
lii.'ua'v I^^ '.i''t^, L-.:: him iro;T, ail pait; o: r!i hi"!, J. i-"., h.o h.:,';-.. . , . ,. 

tiv: IL.c tiij h!}>{'h were liiii very u:.c']i:.:i to t:;e i^j.^liirics uiiJ . \. ' ,Ji !;; 
labo'jix\i. i'nj [VI i.ii^.uT.t iuui nu.ciMo-.-.rc-r rflouiecs ior iiior..-) -, ar,.; hv', I-,- 
roi;l\- .: ;-.,-:, c\-c.". tiiihtarv prcp.iratioii in inu^li .'^rc.Ucr (;i\;!.r .ir.d ah' ..(.ia a . 
trjIiA'^ ;'.n i.ii.'Oiif.'^n, levicxi 10 Lon.h):!, aiTio oiti.'ifi; to tli; hve a.'iJ t\' - -/h. ih 
}\irt o; ''V. ry o ' '. l"..hih:n. e, ilu-y , tia'yi'licd 0:1 t!Mt ciiy a v.- - IJv alichhn-jf^t <:" 



iO,o-,>,, ^ o'_:nd-, a;.h anc;'tuT o! 2.;,cc -, (;: h, 
th.-ir ..i/hi'.'h.t/ va^ at 'i'i\-!v-nt cilahhilu' ! 



A;. 



r; in.-.; c iiiui: 



ie\:e.: tlul.- :.x:> 



witli ;.,rjar re;:u!.ir;*y ^ tlic' i!k-v a'lKjn;;:.-.! to hnir, 1k:;^!i l;:\on. 
tiun ii.id lurn.^i'ly [;aih tu t;.c i ..nhc cxi_; ncie-. 



1 ., 



'ihi:, Khig ar.d pariianunt iVnt icei, roc.iily their deniar.ds , and a ti\atv conn,- 



" t 



nolen.. 



rr.er.erd, but without an\- CLlihtion o! ludhiities, as had at fnll l\i.:\ 
Ti.e I'.ari ol Northunib.rla.'v.i a ,d h.nn- n^ien.ibcrs ot tiie \,'\\:r h.oule cinv; to Ox- y.., 
lord as eoniinillionL r^. In t!:.s treaty, t e Kn.'i p rjaindlv inlnbd on i..r ri- o 
elLiohihn -'.^t ot tlie cia.v. n ni n^ .:.-.;.d pow,:-, an^l on ti,e rdloratitin vd ins oon- 
iin..t;onal pivr o^.i' ; ,c : iiiV pai'uauien: an: reijinred new C(nict:nons, an.; a :>n'- 
t!ner ;i' 'riduen";i.nt (, ; !'ejj;al .Ui:.:Oiitv, as a nio.e c::>.aual reirndv to ['... r ;e..r.3 
a:.d -ndounts l-':nd;!-!j; thv l\.:nf!; In]';v)r:i_d by nivn'e Ujicc- .nn: a [;ia an . ; .nr\-. 



iii.ni th"\' h .d tvi r l(0;.n d njr, ti.ey U (. an;...- ^z .n\:r{. 
t Hit ee::d;[n ;is, \^:uc:l ih'jv Inn! ,( ;;nL:!v n:.n;ne.i , 



nnn; ,\ :. ., m ti.o: ex rin- 



.^::..\wA-. \s.:c l:ni 



too pi''.- it ;or an cnnal ti.sU'. . ];>.;:, :e^ c^tn r ai';n.e:^, t; vsnn .1 . oii'n.: a; \n.:o;e 
conhl a'-au' iiitnic lliem , rlicv iwjinod tiie i\n;:;. ni cxp;a:, [my.-. u::eiiy (o 
a^ !;d"i eniibop.icy ; a (.h.innnl, vdn.ii, bucna, t..ev cine inn:u;;;:rO : And t'.e',' 
u.'uired, th,.: .d: (>n.er ecci. i .1; ie..I 1.1 i;ti-o . . . ii'-'^ dn^.^in b^; d .1 . ; :n;iWd tw' '!.: ,:' 
alb n.h'\ (-1 cii\ ;;n^- ; ti.ar is, in tin nna;::er tiiv tno^. n pn.nnnn to n.i ;:n inniciuns 
(d the Knin; anvlaii in^ p.i ; inans, bin y h:-.Lvd.e ^.cii;\d .dn; to ..e.,..i- ,. e n^ tiu !; 
ietben.en: ot die r-iiiiiria, a;Ki to i o:di i' on tin n adn,:.n:^ t .. i..n: e a.-twCiatv v.; 
thel'.N(^rd. ,-\n ; ni a,,l v\ cr to tii.- !\n,!;'s ;:np'',n, t...t :;. ':....,../ n,':; , t.'w;.^, 

iu:n-, ami Ihips, Inouiti hi. n ibna d to In-:, m. ; .^ n-Jv', :::..: :'oy 

ill ..v; id be put Hilo bicii h..;.vi::; as dn y t_cn!d Len..nc .... I ..e nn;. t.^:. ; : ^ p. ..i:e:is, 

V. iucii 



336 HISTORY op GREAT BRITAIN. 

Cliap. Vlf. which they formerly fent the King, (hewed their inclination to abolifh monarchy . 
i^^f3- They only afked, at prefent, the -po^ver of doing it. And having now, in the 
eye of the Law, been guilty of treafon, by levying war againft their fovereign ; 
it is evident, that their fears and jealoufies muft, on that account, have multi- 
plied extremely, and have rendered their perfonal fafety, which they interwove with 
that of the nation, rtill more incompatible with the authority of the monarch. The* 
the genLlenefs and lenity of the King's temper might have enfured them againfb 
all fchemes of future vengeance-, they preferred, as i:;, no doubt, but too natural, 
an independent Rxurity, accompanied too with fovereign power, before the (lation 
of fubjecls, and that not intirely guarded from all apprehenfions of danger *. 

The conferences went no farther than the firit demand on each fide. The 
parliament, finding, that there was no likelihood of com.ing to any agreement, 
iliddcnly recalled their commiflioners. 

A military enterprize, which they had concerted early in the fpnng, was im- 
mediately undertaken. Reading, the garrifon of the King, which lay neartft 
London, was efteemed a place of confiderable flrength, in that age, when the 
art of attacking towns v^'as not well underftood in Europe, and was totally un- 
i-ih April, known in England. The Earl of Efiex fat dov/n before this place with an army 
of 18000 men-, and carried on his attack by regular approaches. Sir Arthur 
Afton, the governor, being wounded. Colonel Fielding iucceeded to the com- 
mand. 

* Whidorf'.c, who was one of tiie commiflioners, fays, " In this treat.;/, tiie Xing manifciled h's 
*' ;:;-ca: parts and abilities, ilrength of reafon and quickaefs of app:encn;lon, wicli much patience 
" in liC'iriug what was objc^lud agaiuil: him ; wherein he allowed all freedom, and would himfclf 
" fum up the argmnents and give a moil clear jddgmcnt upon liicm. His unhappincfs was, that he 
" Iiad a b;ttcr opinion of other's judgments than of his own, tho' they were weaker th.an his own ; 
" aiivl of this the parliament-connniilioners had experience to their great tronbie. Thev were oflen 
" vvaiting on tiie King, and debating fome points of the treaty witli him, until midnight, before 
" ti',.'y (:- .:;! coine to a conclufion. Upon one of the molt material point;; they preiled his IVIajeity 
- with tb.'ir ic;,f lis a.:d bell arguments they could ufe to grant what lliey dehrcd. Tlie Kino- faid, 
" lie was iiill'.- ^:.u^licd, ;uid promii'ed to give them his ani'wer in writing according to their dt'~n-c ; 
"- but, becau'ie it vy.._i t..cn j:^i; midniglu, and too late to put it into writing, he would have it dravvi;. 
'-' up mxt uiorning (v.iicn lie comniancicd tliem to wait on ]\im again) and then he would gi\e riicm 
Id; ai'fwcr in uri.i:vj, a?, it wa^ now agreed upon. But next morning the King told them, tliat 
"' l;e iiad altered V\-^ mind : And linn.? oi his friends, of v. horn the eommiirioners inquired, told 
'' them, tl;at after they v.e.c :p)r:e, andewn Ids council retired, fome of his hcd-clianiber never 
'- left rr.;:'i:^g a;';d reriliaviing ;-:;n i.il irey p:e' uiied on Idni to change Ins toimcr reiblutions.'' 
It ij dificuit, i.O'.vever, to ouceixc, t^.a'. any treaty could lia\'c fucceeded betwixt the King and 
parliamei.r, v>, ;;:!e t'.j I ,i'..?:' infilled, .as liicv all a'ong flhl, on a total fubmifiiori to adl their demauds, 
..nd (ha!lLn:;ed 'Ju \'. ii'do j cycr, vddcli ihey intended to employ to the punilhmcnt cf all the Kinrr's 
^icnd... 



c II A n 1. I. 

mar.d. In a lizzie i:nii, liie cow.i v. ..> ;w.::a' lo I <j ..o i>.,.:.i :;i i . :'n.;.::.>n /: : 
Icncc ; and, tluj' c!;-.' Kiu^: a|);Ti)ij.u\;, v.iL!i ^n n.:-;... :i o: '-^)ii^i:'[; I' lic.v ' 
railc die iiei^e, the ciw:-<:';;:o:; t-: [',; p.u lamccar-.- .::>); '.v.is i.) llio.ig, as r";.- 
licrcJ that dtll^z,!! mii.-rjj;:^-... ij. lijidiiiu:, rlivTcru; -, a is co.^tciit to yicKi l'.\: 
town, on conJiiion, li-a: \:c (lij....'. brin..' oiial; tiyj L^ir.iiv;!: \v:ch t!'.-.- honou'S c;.' 
war, and deliver up deleters, 'i hi^ lall C')ivji:i<vi v. ..^ livj;^'.: Io jiriom!iii(K-'> 
arui lu prei'.idicial to i'.\j K.:n^'i iiitcrcil, tlii: ciic g.>vcniOr was t: ;.: by a cou!> 
cil ot war, and cu;Kicin:icd tu 1>j ^ his hie t^r co..iei;riiig to ic. 11. i Icnter.ce v.-.i! 
attcfward.'s rerriitted t-y the Kii;>^. 

l^SKx's army li.id b:/ii lidly fupplicd with ill neceiraries Irom London . 
I'.ven maov lup.Tilui:k-s and hixuries were fcnc I'leni by the care or the ':>:?. oi.s 
e;t:/.ens : Vet th/ harddlups wliicli th.y iV.iiered from the fiege, during lo early 
a le.ifun, IkkI wakened th.ni to lueh a d.gree, tli.ic they were no longer iic for 
any new enterpii/.e. An^i iiie tv.o arn.ie'i, tor Ionic time, encamped in t!ie 
neighbourhood oi eaeii otiier, withoiiL attempting, on eith.er Tide, any adion of 
niomen.t. 

BrsiDLS the millrary operations b.twecn t!ie prii.cipal armies, which Kiy in the 
centre ot I'.ngiand ; each coiintv, eacli tovsn, each tamiiy almoll, was chvidcd 
wiihin ittllt ; and the moil violent convuifions fliook the whole kingdom. I'liro'- 
uiit the winter, continual ci"o;ts had every where been mad.c by eacii p.iny to 
lurmount its antagonil' ; and tiie I-^nfiiiHi, rouzed from the letliar^zy ot peace, 
with eager, tho' unfkiltul handis, employed againll their tellow citizens tlieir 
long neglected weapon*;. The turious zeal for liberty and prelbyteriaa difci- 
plinc, which had hitlurto run unc(jntrou!ed thro' the nation, now at lall excited 
an equal ardour tor monarchy and cpilVopacy ; when the i:. ten ion ot aboliiliing 
tiiefe antient mo.ies oi government w.;s openly avowed by tlie parliament. Con- 
ventions tor neutrality, t!i;/, m leveral countie.-, tney iMd been entered ic.to, 
and confirmed by the molt lokn"::! oarlis ytt bting v. trd illegal by the two 
houfes, were immedia'ely bruke , .i:.,i the hre of ddcordi was fpread into every 
corner. The altercation ol (.wlcourie, t'^.c ccnrroverfies oi the }>en, but above; 
all, the declamations ol tlie pulpit, nuiilp.cfed tiie minds ot men towanls each 
other, and propagated the blind rage ot [)artv. Fierce-, h iwcver, and cnflameJ 
as were tiie diipoiitions ot tlie b.-iglidi, nv a wa'-, bo:;i ci'.-.i aiid religiou-, tliat 
(rreat deilroyer ot numanitv ; .ui tliC cve.".ts oi thib [)eri(;d are lels ditlinguilhed 
by atrocious deeds, eitlurot r;e:ieiiery or cruelty, t:, .n v.eie ( ver any inteilinc 
dilcorvls, which had fo long asontinujc < . A circun.ilance, v. hich will be found 
to imply great prailc ot the natior,..i ch.ir;uter or r....- i eo, U\ now |o '..nluj pily 
rouzed to arms. 

Vol. 1. X - Jv 



^ 



Q 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



' In the nort'i, tl-.c Lord Fairfax commancied for the parliament, the Earl of 
Newcaillc for tb.e ivitig Tliis lafl; Nobleman began thofe alTGciations, which 
'vere afterwards ib much practifed in other parts of the kingdom. He united in 
a league for the King the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, Welimore- 
land, and the Bifliopric, and engaged, fome time after, other counties in the 
fame alFociation. Finding that Fairfax, affifted by Hotham and the garrifon of 
FIuUj was making progrefs in the fouthern parts of Yorkfhire ; he advanced 
wi:h a body of four thouland men and took poffeflion of York. At Tadcafter, 
he attacked the forces of the parliament and diflodged them i But his vidory 
was not dccifive. In other rencounters he obtained fome inconfiderable advan- 
tages. But the chief benefit, which refultcd trom his enterprizes, was the efta- 
blifliing the King's authority in all the northern provinces. 

In another part of the kingdom, the Lord Broke was killed by a (hot, while 
he was taking poflefiion of Litchfield for the parliament. After a fharp combat, 
r.ear Stafford, between the Earl of Northampton and Sir John Gell, the former, 
who commanded the King's forces, was killed while he fought with extreme 
vaiour ; and his forces, difcouraged by his death, tho' they had obtained the ad- 
vantage in the adion, retreated into the town of Stafford. 

Slr William Waller began to diftinguifh himfclf among the generals of the 
parliament. Acftive and indefatigable in his operations, rapid and enterprizing .^ 
lie was fitted by his genius to the nature of the war , which being managed by raw 
troops, condudled by unexperienced comtnanders, afforded fuccefs to every bold 
aiU'i f'j, den undertaking, After taking Winchefter and C.'iichefter, he advan- 
XQ rov/ards Glocefter, which was in a manner blockaded by Lord Herbert, who 
had levied confiderai^le forces in Wales for the royal party. While he attacked 
the Vvelch on one fide, a lally from Gloceiter made impreffion on the other. 
Fierbcit was defeated , five hundred of liis men killed on the fpot , a thoufand 
tcikcn prifoneis^ and he himfelt tlcaped svith fome diPnculty to Oxford. Here- 
ford, eilrcrned a llrong town, defended by a confidcrable garrifon, was furren- 
dered to Waller., from the cowardice of Colonel Price the governor. Teukef- 
bury underwent the lame late, Worceiler lefufed him admitt-ince ; and Waller, 
will, out placiiig any garrifons in his nev/ conquefts, retired toGloceller, and trom 
tut nee to L flex's army. 

Bi-"i- fi.e riiofi n'lern'jranle fctlion^ of valour, during this winter- feafon, were per- 
^"'"'' ';' fo!nv:d ui the v^tit. Wiien Sir Ralph lioi)ron, Vv'ich his fmall troop, retired in- 
i, tc; CornwiU b;iorc the Karl ut Bcdrord, that Nobleman, dtfpifing fo inconfider- 
able a iorcc, ,ii)ar!c;c;Mcd the purfuit, and committed the fupprefiion of the royal 
vdzy to tlse IL' ii!l: of tiie county. But the alie^llions of Cornwall were much in- 



thf 1', 



C II 



R r. ] 



A .-..ilC. I' 
C-- 1:1 L-X..I" 

y was .ill 



: 1 1 - 1 
! !',-r- 

1 1 



! i, i'.r \ 

.1, a.M . 



cline^i :o t'ae Kini^'s hrvico-. W'iii! . . Ku'-'''" ''' 

lay ac J . luriccflor., ar,a c-p/i. iovc.: :;; . . \\\- 

i-ancc l*jr tiic ir.;i:L;.i, ;i ::^ctun^ ul i;- i-'oi.: 

rer iJoj-ro;; proLiiic <}. \.\< c :i-::iu;i!c.:. Ir 'm 

i\il, ic vv.;,-, aL;r!.-.v! t.D tx-^Lir t!i'.- Li'.vs .wkI t.c; ex c; :; 

'i'ne tr.iwicci h.iuvis wiiv: :xco:c:.i\ -^.i ic\. J, 1. a.:x\.lU;;i i.'!.' .i, a.;>l -!. C.ii.A.tl 

1 ] i;aj bc\ 11 uiuai lur ilic rm al j~i:[v, oii riiC ^ otr.'-.i.'nc* fv.CiU ' 'f c' e'.r '.-.r -idt.-: .% 
to cla';-n, Oii a:. occafMns, [iirlliKt fxccuiioii */: llic laws, wi^ic'n, i.n-\ kiv.w, 
wc:e Livouraolc to il cm , aiai the pariianuTit, raiiRT iluii luvj u o'.;!- .0 ti- 
f)l-a (ji ncccdiiv, :^\\.\ x\\)\\ liic trai^rtM-cI:'.oii ;;'. ac.y llatutc, haj. ai.o o.mi .-.: 
cuiiorr.L'J V) v,ar|) tivj laws, an.l l^)' tv^riA\; cjr.ilru.iivjiii to iiucrprct then', ii t!u-;r 
own lavour. But ti;o' ilic K:j)i; v.a^ natura.iy tlic <4Uii:;r by I.ilIi a rreiiio.: or 
conJi;c:i;^.jj; -.v-ir, aiui it w as by lavour oi law, that th.': trainc,; bands we're rai! ' 
iri Coinvvah i i: a[>|cart.'d t.h it til, Ic maxims were now pr.|i.i.!it:ial tu tij- lo,.:.'" 
party- 'I hele troops could not lewdly, without tl:c;r own cor-lcnt, W Lariie.. oll 
o' tl^.e cuin'.ty ; and conlccjiieiu'v, it was impoillbie to jailli n.:o 1 ). vi^nftnre ri.e 
aovanrage, which they had obt.iiiicd. The Corndh royalnls, ilu-reioic, be- 
thou^iit t'lcmivlves of levying .1 luice, whiv:h uiight be nioic Icrvi^cab.c. }k*. 
fiJcs -Sir ]\alph 1 lopLoJi i Sir Jitjvii (.iranvi'/.e, the nioil bclo\ed man cd' tiuL 
co'anrry, Sir Nicholas Slanning, Arundel, .md 'I'rcwn^.nion, uni'/.-rtooh, at their 
own cliarges, to raile an army tor the Kini.;, , and their great interell in Cornv.all 
loon enabled t>.em to eiVect tluir purpoie. T.'^.e [)arhanient, alarmed at this ap- 
pearance ot llie royaiilb, gave a commifik)!! to Kutiwen, a Scotchman, fzovernor 
oi I'iym.outh, to march v. ilIi tlie whole forces o\ Dorht, Somerlet, and Dcvo:::, 
and make an ir.iire conqued of Cornwall. The b.arl ot Stamlord followed Inm, 



at lume diltancc, with a coididerabie lup 



Kuthven, haviriL; entered Cornwaii 



by bridges thrown ovlt t'ne Tamar, hallenCvi co an action ; letl Stamford lliould 
join him and obtain tlie i.or.our o; that victory, wdiiLh he lookedi lor with aluir- 
a:u;e. \ \vc royaliil.->, in like manner, were impatient to bring the affair U) a d.e- 
cifion, behae Ruthvci^'s army lliotiid receive lo conlKlerable a reiniorcenuiit. 
'Idie battie v.as lought at Bradoc-down , am,! the King'b lorcis, tho' interior in 
numb'er, g.ive a total deleat to their enc nfies. i\uthven with a tew broken troops 
thxi to S^liafli ; und vdien that to^s n was taken, iie elcaped, with lomc dillicul- 
ty, a:;.! almoll alone, into IMyiTiOUth. St.mi:oid retired, and difiiii^ut.d hi> forces 
in'o idym;Aith and b'.xetcr. 

No rw I r.MS FAN !.i\(, tliele a^lvantages, tliC extix'me want both of mo- 
iicy and .iinniunition, under whitii ii:e royaliils laboured, obiigcd them to enter 

X X a i:ito 



340 



HISTORY OF GRliAT BRITAIN. 



Chap. VI. into a convention of neutrality with the parliamentary party in Devon iliire ; and 
*^3- this neutrahty held all the winter-feafon. Jn the fpring it was broken by the au- 
thority of the two houfes , and war re-commenced with great appearance of dif- 
advantage to the King's party. Stamford, having aflembled a ftrong body o- 
near feven thoufand men, well fupplied with money, provifions, and ammuni 
tion, advanced upon the royaiifts, who were not half his number, and were op- 
Battle of prefTcd by every fpecies of neceffity. Defpair, joined to the natural gallantry 
Stratton. of thefe troops, commanded by the prime gentry of the county, made them 
i6th of May.refolve, by one vigorous effort, to overcome all thefe difadvantages. Stamford 
being encamped on the top of a high hill near Stratton, they attacked him in 
four divifions, at five in the morning, having lain all night under arms. One 
divifion was commanded by Lord Mohun and Sir Ralph Hopton, another by 
Sir Bevil Granville and Sir John Berkeley, a third by Slanning and Trevannion, 
a fourth by BaiTet and Godolphin. In this manner the aflion begun ; the King's 
forces prefllng with the utmoft vigour thofe four ways up the hill, and their ene- 
mies as obftinately defending themfelves. The fight continued with very doubt- 
ful fuccefs, till word was brought to the chief officers of the Cornifh, that their am- 
munition was fpent to lefs than four barrels of powder. This defeft, which they 
concealed from the foldiers, they refolved to fupply by their valour. They 
agreed to advance without firing till they fhould reach the top of the hill, and 
could be on equal ground with the enemy. The courage of the officers was fo 
well feconded by the fcldiers, that the royaiifts began, on all fides, to "-ain 
ground. Major-general Chidley, who commanded the parliament-army, (for 
Stamford kept at a dillance) failed not in his duty ; and when he faw his men 
recoil, himfelf advanced with a good ftand of pikes, and piercing into the thick- 
eft of the enemy, was at laft overpowered with numbers and taken prifoner. His 
army, upon this difafter, gave ground apace j infomuch that the four parties of 
tiie royaiifts, growing nearer and nearer as they afcended, at laft all met too-ether 
upon the plain at the top ; where they embraced with great joy, and fio-nalizcd 
their victory v/ith loud ftiouts and mutual congratulations. 

After, this fuccefs, the attention of both King and parliament was turned to- 
wards the weft, as to a very important fccne of adion. The King fent the Mar- 
quefs of Hertford and PVince Maurice, with a reinforcement of cavalry ; who having 
joined the Cornifli army, foon over-ran ihe county of Devon ; and advancinn- into 
that of Somi-rlet, began to redL-ce it to obedience. On the other hand, the par- 
Battk- of liamcnt having fuppUed Sir "William Wailer, in whom they much trufted, with 
Lar.fdown. a compleat army, difpatch(.d him weftwards, m order to check the progrefs of the 
^th of July, royalifls. Aficr Ibme Ikirraifhes, the r.vo armies met at Lanfdown, near Bath, 

i'.iid 



CHARLES I. 341 

and fought a pitched battle, with grc.it lofs on both f;,':?, but without any deci- ^'n:\p. \'If, 
five event. The gallant Ciranville was there kijicd , aii.l i lv>pton, by tiie blow- ^ '^^' 
ing up of fome powder, was dangerouny luirt. The rnyaiu's nrx' alten'iptccl lu 
march ealtwards and to join their forces to the Kir.g's .it Oxford : Bat \Va!i.T 
hung on tlicir rear, and intefleii their march till they reached the Devi/fs. Re- 
inforced bv additional troops, wiiirh (locked to him from ail (|i.i3rter^ ; he lo 
much lurpalled t!ie royalills in number, tli.it they duril no longer prolecute liieir 
march or expofe themlelves to the hazard of an .tC^iion. hwas reloiv-:t: ti.at 
1 lertford and Prince Maurice fhould proceed with the cavalry , and having procu- 
red a reinforcement from the King, ihouid hallen back to the relict or their 
friends in the Uevizes. Waller was fo confident of taking thus body or ini'antrv* 
now abandoned by their Iricnds, that f'- wrore to th.e parliament, that thei'' 
work was done, and that, by the next pc^il, he wuuid inlorni rii.-m oi the wuiv.- 
ber and quality of the prifoners. But clu- King, even betore Ileittord's arri- 
val, hearing of the great difficulties to winch h,ii wellcrn arm/ was reduced, 
had prepared a confiderable body of liurle, which he immev'.iately dilpatchcd 
under the command ot Lord WHmot. Waller drew up on Roundway-down, 11. .;t;, ; ^ 
about two miles from the Devizes , and advancing with his horle to figiu Wil- '<"'! -vs ..- 
mot and prevent his conjunction with the Corniili infantry, was received witii 
e<]ual valour by the royalills. After a fharp action he was totally routed, and 
tUing with a few horle, efcaped to Briiloi. Wilmot feizing the enemies cannon, ,-;}i ^f ]^i^ 
and having joined his friends, whom he came to relieve, attacked Waller's in- 
l.uitry with redoubled courage, drove them olf the field, and routed a::d eiifper- 
led the whole army. 

This iniportant victory, following fj quick after manv other iucctfics, firuck 
great dilmav into the parliament, and uave an jlarm to thtir principal arniv, 
commanded by I'dlex. Waller exclaimed luudlv agaliiT" riiat geiiCral, lor aiiov.- 
i[-ir Wilmot to pals him, and proceed withoi.t anv iMttrrupiion to tlie luctnir 
of the dillrelled infantry at the l.V'vi/.e-,. Rut Idiex, finding that his ari",y icil 
continually to (k'cay after the f: 'ge of Reading, was relolved to remain upon riic 
defcnlive , and the weakncis of tlie King, and the want of ad military liorcs, 
had alio reilraincd t!ie activity of the royal army. No action h.id h.a[^pened in 
that p.art of l'.ni:la!ul, except one Ikirmini, uhici), of irleit, wa^ of no greac 
conlequrncf, and was rcuiered ir.emorable by the death aione oi t':e famous 
[ lambden. 

Colon 1 I, I 'rrey, a Scotchman, wtio fervcd. in tiie parliament's arniv, liw- 
tng received fome dilguft, came to Oxford, and ofu r( d lo^ tervire to the Kw.^:. 
in ord.er to prove the Imcerity uf his converlion, he in'.ornvcd I':: -c; l<ipe:toi 

I'-.t- 



34' 



H I S TORY OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 



Ch-r. ^'I^, the loofe difpoHtion of the enemies quarters, and exhorted him to form fome at- 
''''' tempt upon them. The Prince, who was intirely fitted for that kind of fcrvice, 
falling fuddenly upon the difperled bodies of ElTex's arniy, routed two regim.ents of 
cavalry and one of inlantry, and carried his ravages within two miles of the ge- 
neral's quarters. Tiie alarm bang given, every o;)e mounted on horfeback, in 
order to purfue the Prince, to recover the prifoiiers, and to repair the difgrace, 
v.'h.i.h the irmy h.id fulfered. Among the refl:, Hambden, wlio had a regiment 
Of infantry, that lay at a diflance, joined the horfe as a volunteer ; and over- 
taking the royalith on C'-algrave field, entered into the thickeft of the battle. 
By the bravery and aftivity of Ruptrt, "lie King's troops were brought off", and 
a great booty, together with two hundred prifoners, v/as conveyed to Oxford. Buc 
what niofl picafed the royalifts v/as the expedation, that fom.e difalter had liap- 
pened to Mambden, their capital and much drcaJed enemy. One of the pri- 
fonei's taken in the action, faid, that he was confident Mr. Flambden was hurt : 
For he Taw him, contrary to his ufual cuffom, ride off the field, before the acti- 
on was finifhed , his head hanging down, and his hands leaning upon his horfe's 
neck. Next day, the news ariived, that he was fhot in the lliouider with a 
>-),..|.^ ^^; brace of bullets, and the bone broke. Some days after, he died, in exquifite 
'';;: !..: e:i. pain, of his wound ; nor could his whole party, had their army met with a total 
overthrow, have been call" into. greater confcernation. The King hinifeif fo highly 
valued him, that, cither from generonty or policy, he off(i;red to fend his own fur- 
geon to afllil at his cure *. 

Many were the virtues and talents of this eminent perfonage -, and his valour, 
during the war, had flione out with a luflre, equal to that of ail the other ac- 
com[)!i[hments, by which he had ever been fo much difiinguilhed. Aff^ability in 
converfation ; temper, art, and eloquence in debate ; penetration and difcern- 
ment in council ; induftry, vigilance, and enterprize in adiiion ; all thefe praifes, 
are unanimoufly afcribed to him by hiftorians of the mofl oppofite parties. His 
virtue too and integrity, in all the duties of private life, are allowed to have been 
beyond exception : We mufb only be cautious, notwithftanding his generous zeal 
tor liberty, not luiftily to afcribe to him the praifes of a good citizen. Thro' all 
the horrors of civil war, he fought the abolition of monarchy and fubverfion of 
the conftitution -, an end, which, had it been attainable by peaceful meafures, 
ought carefully to have been avoided, by every lover of his country. But whe- 
ther, in the purfult of this violent enterprize, he was actuated by private ambi- 
tion, cr by honell prejudices, derived from former abufes of royal authority, it be-. 

longs 

* Warwic's Memoirs- 



C II A R L ] S I. 



1 4 -I 



jori<^^ r.fr to an lu'Sin.:;! ol t 



:, i>) ari ;iU:''"' I'c tr.v: d. rM'i- 



l;'.-fiv to .;vt .!-ii.iiiJ *. 

F.^^hX, ciill o'ir.i:-,C(.i by riii-' cvcnr, iiilniivd bv r!'. Z(>:.i. ;(ii;r of \\ .'.li-.T, \,.ii 
tarth-.T '.'I'ornicd, td.it the (^ivcn, who Ii.u! i iiulcd iii l;Liri::iL;tw;i b.iy, w.is .ui- 
vaiic d t') Ox!uri.i, ai'^i had br.ni.^tir ho;! ttic iio'lIi a rc:Mui\cir;',-;i: i;! liiree 
choi-i'.iP.d ^y)t a- d iiitcen hundred i'.orlr. i'runi Tii.Kiic ..ru! Ay! ibury, v.iicrc b.e 
!v.ki hit'iiTt') lain, h.- tiiOiij^ht: ;rc;pfr lo ri-trcat near; r Londion, and [\r ihowid. la hib 
iri'jnd.s h s broken and diihcartcncd torccs, v.liiLii :i t.w nior.tli' beiur., he liad 
led Co t:!:c licld in lo ilourilhiPij^ a condition. 'lie King, tceM }i(^;i: rliis 
cncrr.y, lent hii armv wdhvard under Piuue Knpert ; and bv con'.iiiction wkh 
tiie C'o;ndh troo; s ' ^'^fy lorni'^dablc torec, for r.i;rnbe:s, a:- wcil as rej ;,iaci';n 
and valour, was comroled. 1 h.i" an enler[)rize, correij oiidenr to n.erd- c.ire^ia- 
:!ons n'.i^ht be iwidert^i^i n, t!v Pnncc rcio'vedi lo \.:\ i:tj:r to brslu I, t::r i-iL'i.d 
town tor ::ciKS and (:;rt.atntl m L.,e k;(";:i',>nj. \a';:i::!cl l-i ni.c-^. i.^n tu I .oi d 
Sav, hnv/.e.:, ai w^i a^ bns iaihei, a i:i't.;[ p>>; ii..;r,- ..lary ieadf-r, wa-- j.:.jv.ri.<jr, 

and 






.,.;:. or i' ! i.mi'Iv-, :..:.." ri.iic!. ii:..::.^, rp:/ Ij>,' ;.i,(i\\r. >., 



cl.i-:.v ;;. M: . i ia:;.lv:;T:"- ri^.:.ct;'; u, : 1 i' 



:u I . :i-: Mir. a ! l, .(...r. i ! t':.i! 



;i! 1.-1:;. 



...';;:> ', .:;: )ii<; \;C'f: v.. .c- . . "tri v. i ..: :.-. ;.iu!.. : r.K :ii,,r_'- ;- d.KOt'y cor.;.-.iiy ; 1 iv f:tJc-;n 'Ji 
1;..; :., ot Mr. 1 i.iavxif'.'s I.fv to !,.., c ; ; :, vi-iy biunnj.ii^--- ; :;;' .: ''..i.y \\c:v duiirvd t:c:u :'jh '. 
r.;"t" '. , ( nU p.al.fl ti- ."i f .vi:<-;i'.c. r! .: . M-oin aIc ro '., '..vc, i!i.." :..c iM .-aioii'. of tii.iC [\.;n.-:, .r 
. . ! .. ,'r :^ ;;;.-.> ; . ' ..r:\ , -.w .; - :i i.a .!.....; f . i ..;^. ' a i ;M.ca,i,.' ...I:; 1 ..:.'' !i ii: li.c k.ii-, 

..,.-' ia--' . .. I ..'.; . I ! >. ; i:'a .. . I ; cf:i K ' .' ; ;,:;-;;. i- >- i..::. an;, t;;a:. or 'f;.\;:: - 
ill h. iiU. i.j . .('li! a-:.; a. it { L't.-a I'.i.^i, h;.. h i.i i-....: i- i. a:: .I'a. l.u. 1\;[ il ai aiu.iur. -. 
\', ' ciem' a : -mc .;.::;, i.i'miv. . .-, u:, . . i.,, .. , a..." u.-:.-v i<t lic'ci.a:!:'; th.a j:;i,i 

I .; - .:: ,,:,- U:c jU :;.i...- : 'a.. ^:..:<^' .. 

A-'.l V i... : .. .'..Ki-r:. :,, t;.-,- ;hc li.. .. .. .. ,, ; 

I i.>,.{r;ii !' ::'.. t J auica iicai-; pc:.. , t:..!i 
i 



. \ cT .' ::i- 
\. ir, ! K :., 

( u'^i a.; . 



:a.- r.H._ , li..:..- H-'.. j );:a 

a- ,. .V , [": :r .::c ( :...,. \^ 



:.ii L' ; .1' :" ^ 



344 HISTORY of GREAT B K I 'i' A I N. 

cli^-y. "*> 51 ;4ni comniin:Ted a garriibn of two thoufand five liundred foor, and two regiment? 
^''* '' o:!e ')f ho'.le, another of dragoons. The fortilicacions not being compleat or re- 
gular, it was refolved by Rupert to ftorm the city ; and next morning, with little 
other provifions, fuitabh ':o fuch a work, befides the courage of the troops, the 
aifauJ!: be^aa. The Cor ,:ih, in three divifions, attacked che weft fide, with a re- 
ioJution, which nothing but death could controul : But tho' the middle uivifion 
had already mounted die wall, lb great was the difadvanta9,e ot the ground, and 
fo brave the defence of t'.j garrifon, that in tiie end the airailants were repulfed, 
with a confiderable iols ' )th of ofBccrs and fo'diers. On the Prince's fide, the 
aifau't was conducted wic. equal courage, and almoll with equal lois, but with 
better luccefs. One party, led by lord Grandifon, was beat olT, and the com- 
mander himfelf mortally wounded : Another, conducted by Colonel Belialis, met 
with a like fate : But WaPnington with a Icls party, finding a place in the cur- 
tain weaker than the reil, broke in, anJ quickly made room for the horfe 
to follow. By this irruption however, nothing but the fuburbs was yet gained : 
The entrance into the town was ftill more difficult : And by the lofs aheady 
fuftained, as well as by the profpefl of farther danger, every one was extremely 

..^ :j , ,._, (iifcouraged : When to the great joy of the whole army, the city beat a parley. 
. , The garrifon v/ere allowed to march out with their arms and bjo-o-atie, leavin<^ 

^cth of July. . . r< , n r , ^ 

their cannon, ammunition, and colours, ror this inltance or cowardice, Fiennes 
was afterwards tried by a court-martial, and condemned to iofe his head ; but 
the fentence was reniitted by the general. 

Great complaints were made of violences, exercifed on the garrifon, con- 
trary to the capitulation. An apology was made, by the royalifts, as if thefe 
were a retali-ition for fo'.iie violences, committed on their friends at the fi.irrender 
of Reading. And under pretence of like retaliations, but really from the extreme 
animofity of the parties, were fuch irregularities continued during the whole 
courfe of the war. 

The lots, fuflained by the royalifls in the affault of Briflol, was confiderable. 
Five hundred excellent foldiers periOied. .Among thofe of condition were Gran- 
difon, Slanning, Trevannion, and Moyle : Bellafis, Afliley, and Sir John Owen 
were wounded : Yet was the fuccefs, upon the whole, fo confiderable as mightily 
elated the courage of the one party, and deprefled that of the other. The King, to 
fliow that he was not intoxicated with good fortune, nor afpired to a total vidory 
over tlie-parliament, publifhed a manifeff o, in which he renewed the proteflation for- 
merly taken, with great folemni^y, at the head of his army, and exprefi!ed his firm 
intention of making peace upon the re-effablifhment of the conftitution. Flav- 
5ng joined the camp at Briftol, and lent Prince Maurice with a detachment in- 
to 



C II A R L E S I. 



> r ') 



to Dcvonflvire, l^e cUlbcr.Utxl I)' .v to v..-' v t'.vj i-m i;ni.-.;> iv'.rrc^, m la :: 

iiurcli clirccily to Loiiuci i wlicic cwvy L.wii.; v. .1, m i^rcac roi-ifurioii, v% htTo rhc 
ciriT'y was b^lii.d, Wciiici^Cvi and d::;:.;-.-^.:, .i:.d v,.. r -, ir was 1: > ' .1, cirlicr 
by ail i..!u.,cji; )n, by y;CLory, (.r by treaty, .1 ;rtv,:y ,.; . rr. '.\^_ b: j^ :: to the 



vn. 



I ^^]. 



hO; 



id lorcii 



civd .!ii',;;-.i ;:h : But tlii:. unJ-i :.iLi".:, byic.i:^n (;: i 
;ii:;iti;, v. .1, t::oi.^b: by ni.isv to b' m- 
;Lr, ly;::y v,;::;:n iv,c:uy 11.. c;.>, |-:- ,ci.r-ci a;i luli^r, .i;;.: \.jc 4 



ui th-: I>o.i.!o.i nibiti;, v..i, t::oi.^b: bv n:.i:v.- tob' ai- -tu^d ^v^ ii . oi^.i.l- ; .iiij dit- 



1:1 -t c^;u;i.jd. I: w;;;, th. 



puib.Ki": lU i.i t!.-dc ! .i:t5. Cu^Id tdat L';:y bj :-.'jlcJ, t!;:: ^"^'-^^ -- !;- "'l:o!c 
ro'..!lb ci tbc Scv\t:i lender his coin:n.;i:d ; the r;..i a^ ; m.L.'-coi.tcnt L.;i.:Ki,-s (,r 
t;;j v.ci^., h:.ivi;"_,^ ioll ail j.rotc:liun Ir ni t':;-b.r Iii.iAb., ir.i.^lit b'j cnlorcc.i to p.iy 
]:\:^'.\ co.':ribjt:o;".s, li^ ari atoiieinent tor t.hcir LiiiaiLv;.).; ; .li. o|ic:i >.\>inniunic.i- 
nun coidd be y.x. v\-:J. [)er\ve.;i Wales a;;d thclc ii.--. c^ i,-!....:^ i ;:..! ijalt" ci" 
the kbv, -j::!, '^i:-I iiitirely Jiccd from the ciie!:iy, and tiii.., uii.tcd into one 
iirm b : '.v, iiii ,i'.: Oe Lnijdoyed m re-c: abb.lliin^^ tlie Kiri',\ a.;LiU7ri.y t'lirou.dnouc 
tlie rc:-:;a...d.er. i'iK.e v.'eie t:~.e realbns lor ciribracih)_^ tliat reijiui en ; !ataJ, as 
It v.Ms cv:r tibe.;.:-J, to the royal j.airty. 

liiE i;o'.'erriOr oi (.i'ioceller was o :e Mafiey, a luldicrol U)rfit) , w^Iio, bcNjrc he 
CH'^'a'^cd with I'.ve parbairient, had ofiered hiis iervice to t: e Kinj ; and as lie wisc 
free Iroir. t^:^ luiVi^-; or' crirh-'afialir., by wh.ich moll: or th,e (>'.-: ers on tliat bdc 
v,\:;e iniox'va:- J, i".e woidd le:id an car, it was prJunu-d, to j)!\ipv)'ajs for ae- 
c jninv.;.' .:: n. i*i:t Malley was reii)h.;re t..; }^re!L-r\'c an irib.re li'dc'iiv to h;s ma- 
^b.TS i and til-./ no entluifrill himlej!, he 'Aeh ijicw h )'.v ro eiiipioy to ,;.:vanta''-e 
that tntlvdi'iallic rpirit, lo prewden: 1:1 hi - ciry .-.nd p^'.rnion. I'iie li.n;ir.o:;s to 
U;:render a. lowed two liours lor a;i a.ibvrr : i>..: Deiure t!;at ti'^v- tx; ired, there ' 
arj^earcd biiore t!ie Kin[5 two clti/err. wi::) i.-a*:. r.de, Inarp, a:.d di:n,al vihi^es : 
i-a,e-, io llraniii' a:.d en. ^iiith, a.-e.:;- .: to i ,(;;ai L .a:^ ;:'!'>: ; iiyure?;, lo liabit- 
cd a;.;' aeeoat- red. , .is u onee n":o\-edi [!ie nv.!! lev-'ie e;j:i.te;- mci s to n;irth, and 
ti^e n^od i:^ee::..i uCai::^ to ladii^ls : It ieen^ev! in';;,o:iii . ' .. ani'i.illiidors 

could b:n.^. b:^ ti;..fi a delianee. i:,: n'.tn, witiio^;: ... <^:'~-.-\.. ..iirc ui' ('^Ly 
i)V ;V)oa n:a:.:iers, in a pert, ihnij, i.n ,iln-.av,el ..e.^nr, :,.':'. i . ,t ti^^y In'ou^dit 
a'- anlwer :roni the ^odiy city o: di'seei^er: And ^ xtrjiiu . . : . . . -e ib.y, ac- 
' re.ey;!; to tlie inllonan, to !^i\'e ini! ^b:.: and ie :;i:i(.)i.^ \i]:.:i . cieltions; 

.;s i. tiuir bubn.:.^ w ; re cidedy, by rr '. o .i:;n; t;u iv. . ... ..:,n vejhuc !;:. 

t>-..ii 1 nc cond;;c^ 'J'ne anlwer b\)ni t;:e <..tv v. .i'- 1 . : - _ ..:-.. " Wv []\c in- 
IndnMnt , i^uji^id'-ate^ othcers and nd.n >, wntnin inj p airinjn oi' Cdue:i;. ;-, 
'* iin.'o hi^ Abijv-lb/'s ip'acioiis ir.err.;^e, r^:..:ni li.o L.nriO.e ...iU'. e:' : i ;-.ar v. c co 
V. i . I. V y ' ];veu 



riCb> 



340 IT I S T O R Y of G Pv E A T B R I T A I N. 

Ch;-. \ II. " keep this city, accorslin >; to our oaths and allegiance, to and for the ufe of ins 
^''^j- a iXiaieily aiivl his royal poilcrity: And do accordingly conceive ourfclvcs v/holiy 
'' bou id lo o'-:cy th'i connmnnds of his r/I j ft/ fignided by both honfes of par- 
' lianici.t : And arc reiolved by Clod's help to keep this city accordingly." Af- 
ter liiefe preliminaries, tlic fiege was reiokiteiy undtruiken by the army, and as 
riluUitcly Iiiftaincd by the garriibn. 

Vdi-iEN intcd^g^^ncc cf tlie fieg':^ of Giocef^cr arrived in London, the Cunfler- 
nadon, among tiic inliabicants, was as great, as if the enemy were already at 
their gates, 'i'he rapid [)rogrefs ol" the royakks tl-ircatcncd the parliament with a 
flidden connueil : Th:; fad ions and dilcontcnt;-, amoi^:2; themicivcs, in t' e ciiv 
and throughout the neighbouring counties, prognokicatcd Ibme dangerous divifion 
or inilirreccion. Thofe parhamciitary leaders it mull be owned, who had intro- 
duced llieh mighty innovations into the Englifli conftitution, and v/lio had project- 
ed fo much greater, had not engaged in an enterprize, wdiich exceeded their cou- 
rage and capacity. Great vigour, from the brginning, as well as wifdom, tl;ev 
had diiplayed in all their councils , and a furious, hcad-fa'ong body, broke iGcIb 
from the refiraint of law, had hith.erto been retained in iubjeCtion under their au- 
thority, and firmly united by zeal and pafTion, as by the moft legal and eftablifii- 
ed government. A fmall committee, on v/hom the tv.'o houfes devolved their 
power, had direded all their councils, and had preferved a fecrecy in deliberation, 
and a promptitude iii execution, beyond what the King, notwithflanding the ad- 
vantages polleffed by a fmgle leader, had ever been able to attain. Senfible that: 
no jealouly was by their partizans entertained againft them, they had, on all cc- 
calkons, exerted an authority much more defpotic, than the royalifts, even durinp- 
the prefkng exigencies oi' war, could with patience endure in their fovereign. 
\Vnoever nicurred t'leir dilpleaAire, or was expofed to their i\ii]3ici:;n, was com- 
3;;:::ed lo prilbn, and proiecuted under tlie notion o[ delinquency : Alter all the 
old jails were full, many news ones were creeled ; and even the fnips were crov/d- 
v.i.t with the royaiius, bodi gentry and clerg;y, who languiHied below decks, and 
j.-enPned in liiofe unhealthy coniincments : I'hey impofed taxes, the heavieir, and 
rd tlic mofi unufual nature, by an ordinance of the two houfes : They voted a 
i=j;nmi!don lor iequeflratiun ; and they leized, where-ever they iiad ppwer, r;v- 
rv,ve;,u.i o- all the Jving's party" : And knowing, that themlclv.s and ad their 
r.i.dlicis^ Wire, by rehuin!- the prince, expoied to the penahi- s ci law, they 
rcfo'v'.;.^ W;t;i a le'.'e e av.,nnniilraLion, to overconie tfiCle terrors, and retain tl'is 
peop.c ;n ojeujence, by penalties ol a more immediate execution, in the be- 



! c r., ,..d 111,; 









ginnnig 


:cr.t^\l 


}-rj; 


'. Oi 


the noliiluv aivl 


.uhirc 












I. -2 



f ' T ' \ ' ' 

', ,',/: c-f ti,:- '.\::y,rA:]\ ;i cr.m' ;:: .: \ . . 
Gb'">C'.l til- 1^ to cxjrt tiu- p::Tri! !!.' ci' tli w .: 

r:>N'ON-) V.'a;.' . .- :. ' :.'. 

i/. t!.^ :')."cr !. :;!. :, .i . ' 

hv !>;;.:::..';/...., .^.. :, :,: ; ,: :: 

iin.i e!.-^!, .'-cj oi h; ^ ni.i:i;;;;:";. As !i:;i (. ;s;.':i Ki'v;- : 
(];:(,, n< c;l ten k :;'(.!:> .mJ p:!!!":!';!"' ; in lii :');; \', !;; 
i:,l, fiT , n:-;} CMC r'c ! t'lc i.tiro ' b(;!uiv' , ;:i M.ri'-i^'; :'. :'. _ : , 

l:y V, i.; :; th- ronvr .\:s -.-tc -v, .;-;^'J. r;;..i; - a\\ f.;^;o!;: :i \sic:.... v!',. :s > 
! ;:-^:.!l::-, '-c C!A''-a\'(iV!:-ccl to ;;-rni .i p.:riv v.:i'iOi.!r, \s!i!c!i !r:;;i: c^ !:.'/ ' : 
j :'-!-i.:"irnr to ace f;;t of r_al(.!.'.' :; i('>r.:'':i'i)-'\ T.r '. rcH.rj -;; e V) rh; r-r'n 
i ( !;.i:';r^ o? his c.):iwrl.;:iL:i, ' -.ne.i t !>; c ,.;:".>.!" c! Cv'.. -. " 

: , :-,i.rcJ l;im tir. i:::i:-- r():..i.'c;:-:(;; X . r! ;.-.',:! .:', C ,,. . .; . 
:::.:' \:Z Y.v[.\\ C)\ i\:\\-jr i.x v.hu ii '. '.jA in I i;::,.;. '. 'I !;.v v). . n^:i! l:-; 
to i;:w-i Nv. :::.:.: r. :. rv;-, and tx; rdij : tli.ii' (.;v::jil.ic;;\T .; t.c ii.r: j.: - rr .-..:.. . 
' 'Tl'.i^'w :-y the cc'iin^ons ;^- -' tl^cir v,i;;. s t'-'t i"^^'-"^^ c\;:'.:i j 't co\;\: ; c :>>>;:,.: 

, ; i;:_^ lo ii-ycti.oi.s a career. Tor.l.\:^?, \\\.'l.i'-, ! :\. rhcr-i::-! w, an! 
L:,.:;^.i-r, the intimatj lVi..:;I (;f Tunihin-;, had (.ntcrr.hiij.l !ih !";n:in-:i':.r> ; and 
a;- ti:c coan^xions o! taela f.va ;:;n:!enisn hiv cliiedy iii the cic/, thev iaLrn^d 
Whdl.!', ti::: the aima a!y:orr:iK^ of v. ar p;-.-v.dI:d riivrc, anrai:; all :v.2'a cd r.a- 
ida an-i ni'.'djrari'an. L pon ixdcciion, it Ihciiiad I'ot in"''v aclica'de, th.-:- a com- 

a ndyht ' a \::.:r.cJ. I^erwcan tli;- \o:A:, and ciiiams and, bv iiii.taai c );- 
',.,:, I a: di.y.d la cs hj ra'aldd, wldaii the |ai:a;ant, i^r, wid; )':.: the rova! ailea:, 
i:i:'n idd ca tiie ['coyic. V> Id'c t'ds ad ar v. as ia aai"^ .rinn, aad Hds weic loraaaf!; 
( ; la.h a^ they coacJvL ! to ha \v_ 1! ad'eelrd '.i ti.-ir dcdi.: : ; a ilm-.ia: o: d'o;n- 
Id.,-, vda; ;ai 1 c;vcrh ard ti.cir dacLaale, i:ii:r.di :t dy caaaaed die iatcia.- a:e to 



' "'." a d"(a\dd::>, ai^d Cladoae;- wara d a-/ h aa 1 tried i^y a cia;r:-n\-r:iah 

' aoa'waed, and the ; .v > ha : a" rx, autad (ai [rihbets ta-e.'ad 

; a.ae '.-i/o . A c.a.-aaaar, a- a ted, was taia. a * In- the \}\\]<. aad 

. .,at:r :.. , .a d :nty,,: 1 oa th,;r aia^^y, and on .dl 'aAo !i\\d witlvn tl^ci;- ruarre;s. 
H'd'dc^; :; :' '.:':.> ^ a^ aaia i .a; ! ja toian t'air i!\a -, t':: c-ven a>ta:s \a;'.v, d.a- tia v 
; V iil ha.- d ;. a the ir a:a: , (d h . .; as the payAA, n.).v ia (^y-n v. ar ag aall the 
-. :,t. Ih.hd I a :..-. cd a.aa^ ha laaa^.a^d eaaiad hdliaa ; t;a.v .v;);^is 



I by h.Ai h 



laa^a o 



I thehaac^, hvi; 1 !-. ta Kin ; 



) .woa as ! a-)i i.oaea, k n.aae (/. 
\ ' ' ' .; .. ,' . ,a , " 



,. J .,,,..... :,, 



, iP.Co waa 1 



34^^ H I S T O Pv Y OF G R E A T B R I T A I N. 

Chap. A II. f(-rt:ed him; and lie confcfn.ul ',vhatcVi.T he knew, V/ithout fparing his mofl intl- 
^':*5- mate friends witliout regard to the coniidence repofed in him, without didin- 
.<.^,uiniing between the negligence of famihar converflition and the fchenits of a 
regular confpiracy. Witli tlie mofc profound diGlraulition, he counterfeited fuch 
remorfe of confcicnce, that his execution was put off^ out of mere chriiliaii-com- 
paffion, till he might reco'vcr the ufc of his urideiftanding. He invited vifits from 
the ruling clergy of all fefls ; and while he c;:preiled h^s osvn peniience, he re- 
ceived thtir devout exhortations v/ith hunfility and reverence, as conveying clearer 
conviction and information, tlian in his life he had ever before attained. Pre- 
lents too, oi' v/hich, as weii as of flattery, ti^vfe holy men were not infenfible, 
were diftributed am^ong them ; as a fmaii retribution tor their ijrayers and ghoftly 
council. And by all thefe artifices, more than from any regard to the beauty of 
his genius, of which, during that time of fuiious car.t and faction, imall ac- 
count v/ould be made, lie prevailed fo far as to have his life fpared, and a fine of 
ten thoufand pounds accepted in lieu of it. 

The feverlty, cxercifed againd the confpiracy or rather projefl of Waller, 
increafed the authority of the parliament, and feemed to enfure them againfb 
like attempts for the future. But, by the progrefs of the King's ari-n?, the de- 
feat of Sir William Waller, the taking of Bnftol, the fn ge of Glocefter, aery 
for peace v;as renewed, and with more violence than ever. Crowds of women, 
with a petition for that purpofe, flocked about the houfe, and v.ere fo clam.orous 
and importunate, that orders v,?ere given for difperflng tlicm ; and lome of the 
females were killed in the fray. Bedford, Plolland, and Conway, had deferted 
the parliament, and had gone to Oxford ; Clare and Lovelace had follov.ed them : 
Northumberland had retired to his country-feat : Klicx liimielf fhowed extren.ie 
diflati'^faclion, and exhorted the parliament to make peace. The upper houfe 
lent down terms of accommodation more moderate than had hith.erto been in- 
fified on. It even paiTed by a majority among the commons, th:it thtfe proro- 
fals fnouid be tranfniitted to the King. I'he violent zealots took the alarm. A 
p.etition againif peace was framed in the city and prefented by Pennington, tn;- 
.i(:"fio'.is mayor. Multitudes attended him, and renevvcd all the former menace-; 
a-ainil the moderate par:y*. The pulpits thun'.iered, and runiours were :prrad 
of tv/rnty thoufar.d Irifh, wlio had landed, and v;ere to cut tlie threats of cvt'ry 
protefiant. The maiorny v/as again turned to the other fide ; and ail tlicugljts of 
pacihc.'.tujn Leinr; dilm'ii fed, every preparation was made for refiffance, aij'i tor tiie 
)mmediate relief (jf CTiocefier, on vdnch, tiie j)arlian"ient were fenhble, ali tnen 
iv.pes of fuectis in the war did lo much dcperxL 

* ClaieU'loi'., ii';!'.;^ t*iC. 



C ir A R L R S I. 



; ;9 



r.' . ^1 ,1.:' '.r.)ri!-:e .i %''.;: ^wv..^ i. : . , :;.i\';n;^ i: . . ; .^ , ... 

!;;i;:-; \ /:; .r..\ '/ \r::'.-j:), .\-\\^ '-.u ),>:, (>. i:^- l.^).. .1 o" ni.u'P. .cl lii, I;.ui ij.flK'::^ 
r;i iii.t.ii.ic.l :'.; !i- ; v::h c )i,rj;-e .:r. [ cap.t.i:v, iin 1 h .1 niu. ;i rr..r't'l ;iil t^u: 
i..:\ '.'..'.X' ol .'.: Ki!;; ,'s ;ir!:^y. i'/ C(;rci;,.:ii l.il i .-, 1. . . liuMi) :.i :;,.:r 
I: j.i.::.-- , .;.;^: ,;i!V\i hrl.lri^ a ' v.uir.U';--^ o .v r ti'.:' :. ; I- <m,.... .; '. , \'.:^h o! 
r< ;.n-:, .;. :\'. ..lU-a th*" \':. m' .::^ : >!.;(; y (>r :\y.i . 'i.!.!,;;-, c; .: v. . t;'r:r:r 
.;L . 11 ; jr: :!):!, :.;)v.\-vc!\ .v.:s i\:'.,\,i to i;v; 1.:. cx:::::itv; .i.i 1 lij 
t.Ki;,. ;: :, !: ';';i :i;;i:: to r;:n , to i:..crni M;: [arii..:--:-,::, tii,,'. .:.,/ rc- 

i :r: . : ' 1 !".! . I^^it^^ 'O t;:;' CU'IV,':. 

.:.,.. y. :, l:i orJ r to i\-;-.i;r t'ui: bro':-n conJiiiv,.", aiid put tlicniie'vc, 
), .1 ,-',;!.:i!v 01 C.ci.rxj, 11 /.v cx:.rC-w lo rl^c u::iv,i:l: 10. ir pcjwcr ;.iui .Uitl.oii:'.'. 
'M.^v \\:tj,l ::...: .1:1 ..nrv !h-,.!J i-c'j.id u.,d -r Sir W r'i.iiii W.i ;, r, whc;-^ 
i-iL-'.w ['.'. ^ " '. ! i,.-. niislortuiic-, l!u y Ij.iO;--! Ns::i c'::t:;i )i\!in.iry carciV.^. [i.iv- 
i:,;' .;,' . ; li. ; c.u... , I'.c c()::ii:ks ol i I., r:...:',!, I.i':";x, Lanr : ;.: -.,, N.r- 

,::, 1 z:.^ .!:i, 1 ! .i;.I:':^;to^, th?y !f:\v^ t:;f* i-':trl (/ Ma:ico ;it.r a t,o;:i- 
i:;: i .1 :.. b ; . '' ...".a-:.i':o:i. ai::! ayyo;.::-a .;n amn' r(j or :cv!;\( i^r;. 

I.;.;- ..is L ::vo:.. . ;>..l ..'..,j a!i, th.'/ v. : \..:\a'. tlia: ] lilx\ a...v, < :i 
v.:ii.ii '!vir wii'.ic ;orui,.c .!.' .ik! <!, ihoi.i.i ;i_- riit v.\ a ((k^;!' ;;.:i < r n;..!,a:: - 
;;^ Iv:.:,j. Thvy a, ;\-:;i exci'^.i :!;cir pi'ejci.Lr:; to l.;riOi,s d.vi.iMiatioiis 

a_: ;...L ti.^. vo) \\\ c.o e : '1 ;..-y even cii^pi'jyrd lIic ox. c.icnt oi pr^iiwif!:, tl:^' .:b.^- 
1;.":, 1 iv/ a ia'.- ;....', i.)r \". i.ivii ti.cv ha.i ih: :\\. )\.'^.-: cu:i:c:-.l!-. v: : Aiui tlu'v ( ;-- 
;' ' ,; ['..,' c;:v t. 1: .0 !. or rc::o':;-ots or i:^ :..ii;c a to the rd-ef c; <iio.<.:- 
r*vi\ .'. . I'-j'. s, M L..V o'lfa 1 wiiiU-, to V o;\k;\(.1 1: ; be llui' , .inJ. cvcr\ rr.xu (..v- 
|:, :c,;, V. icii I...C' .;rn:o:l ao.vKty, ih.: cvt-iit <o ti..tt iin;-' ^i taoi ciUe; i?:ize. 

i, , x, c.i'Tvi:;;: \.i:!. bioi .1 v.o!i a; : .>io:o\l a;::iy (,f i.;o>:c iiuo, co^i; tlic vo.d 



( : 
(/ 

(...*.'.. 
\-. i 1 ) :.. 
Km.: '!..- 



; lO.', i;io' ;;;. :i*r 111 c.va!: y, \ vt, by ti^v i":':eiv;ve 

, ;. p.ol'd o.\r I'lo v :o n c..-..oo.i: :e coo.'::: :, s, .o.J 

...ool'-' i\ );i(.\ \-, iio !..;.! ...Iwiiv -.i [o lo.et lion, aixl 

. :.w!j i;,.o-i.!i. .As i.c arpr i.xi^c 1 to UicL.iltr, ti.c 

l.-j.-y, a:oi cjvn tio' v,.:V i^;- bli^x";- cotraocc i;::o 

.! :!o i-.o : ;;oo \'. (I'e I '.Co-.^o-. U.r (ooT: 1 o' ; ao.V 

.... i\ 1100:.; ,.' ; .lio! I' ! o ...... \\o re 



te: 

tb 0,0 



: looo.:,!.: v. oii iioo lo.o .. 
; ortl 111 o .01 'O- 0...0 
.,1 pixA oil :,- 'v.-i: . i^:e 



, a.'Ki toe 



\'.ll;,!i l..e , 



i :; K 



HISTORY cF GREAT BRITAIN. 

"i::":^ v.hici diiaculty ftill remained. luTL'X dreaded a battle with the King's 
aiiii}-, ivi ,::coui;C of their great fuperioriry or horle ; and he refolved to return, 
if po-:';!''. \vitu/:)iii; ni.ining that hazard. He lay five days at leukcibury, 
;;h;(,!i ^v ts his nru fla^;eJ arid feigned by fl;;Tie preparations, to point rewards 
\^"er(.\'KCr. By a iorced march, during x\\& i"iighr, he reached Cirenceller, and 
obtaiaed the double ad -anLa^re, of pafiing unniolcfled an open country, and ot 
^brprizing a. coiiVoy oi pro^^duns, wliich \iy in that town. Without deb<y, he 
proceeded to^vard London j Lur, ^^Ilen he reached Newbury, he w,:s lurprized 
to find, tliat the King, by hally iria.ches, liad arrived beiore him, and was al- 
ieady poikfied of that p'ace. 

An action was now unavoidable ; and Efiex prepared for it with prefence of 
ndnd, and not without nulitarv conduct. On both iidco tlie baule was fought 
witii dciperate valour and a Ueddy bravery, iaiiex's horie were fcveral tiines 
broke by the King's, but his infantry ri-iainta;ncd themlelves in firm arrav : a;id, 
behdes gi >dng a continued fire, thty prefented an invincible rampart of piivcs againii. 
the furious impulfe of Prince Rupert and thofe gallant troops of gentry, of which 
the royal cavalry was chieiiy conipofcd. Idic I^ondon militia efpeciaily, tho' i;: 
terly unacquainted with action, tho' draw-n but a few days before from their ordi- 
nary occupations, yet, having exactly learned all military exercifes, and beir.g 
animated with unconouerablc zeal tor the caufe. in which they were enf>;ac-cd, 
equalled, on this occaiion, v/hat could be expected from the moff veteran forces. 
\Vhile tlie armies were engaged with the uttiioH; ardour, nigh: put an end to tiie 
action, and left the event undecided. Next morning, Eiiex proceeded on liis 
march ; and tho' his rear was once put into U)me dilbrder by an incurdon of the 
Kuig's liorfe, he reached London in iafety, and received deiervcd applaufe for 
ills conduft and fuccefs in the Vvdiole enierprize. The King followed him on his 
march J and having t^iken poT'flion of Reading, ai:a- the Earl left ir, l;e there 
eflablidied a garriibn ; and flraitencd, by that means, London and the quarters of 
the enemy. 

I N the battle of rCewbury, on the part of the King, befi-'es t'^e Ear'sof Sun- 
dierland and Carnarvon, two Noblemen of pi-omifirig l.opes ; was unfortunarely 
flain. to the great regret oi every lover of ingenuity and virtue thrcughoat the 
kingdom, Luch;s Caiy, Er.rd Vi;bount Ealkland, fecretarv of irate. Ihjfore 
i-wHen-fb'ing the prefent parliauient, tnis man, devoted to tlie purfuits of learn- 
ing, and to the fbciety of all tlie pcdke and elegant, had enjoyeo himielt in cverv 
pieafm\-, Vvhicn a fine genius, a generous tliipoliiiion, and an oj:uie.u fortune 
could afibi'd. Called into public life, he ilood r;;rcmoil in ad aL^acas on the 
exorbitant prerogative of th" crown i an 1 dilpkyed that ma'cuine e:oquence, 
p. una: 



C II A 11 L E 5 I. 



;^ I 



\':'-li\v.:' l";'i:i:- i.l :i:::iqui:',', he \\ -.A '.^-c .::iv :!::)). i. W'ij:*;! civ;! co: v:.\C:j:. 
!: ,cc:;d.d r ' < :-:j:T:i:v, : .\i:\\~- ..: i:i> i\J.: -, 1;;! 

tcnirriccl z : ..':\o..v o; !.i^ /cm-, ai:.i .;v:: ;..,. . l,.j t;:: i::.- (^i tluj!;- imi:': 'l 

]: v,L-;'-, '': . ; -n.^is^'v! :.> irun.ii cliy, .i;-; i \:\.'.^., i/: '..iv.:"::rvi :: ' ': r :",. 

i ::-'--j:"' ! .:v .:;h (ui\;Li":i:tl'-:'!. ^ :.ii ;i:".";:>)',-, i.(j". .\'-":'. : : 

.; :,: !; '.\-, hj \V"u!i.i, \-.iii"i a l.i'.l ...::;:, i'j i:.r;:e :!.: , .... 

i /: - U; ) ;r-^c cxpoiiii.i, o. : ;< |\i- ..-, ./. ; !\ <.v':.: .i i , ,. .:i a 

.A, ^1, t::..l iL bv:Ca.::o .ii.n ij o.' ,.::.'. c i..i,;i uiii i" ;i:,n ; i 

...i !;..'.i,.i i!> ei:c-.-:'[;:i/Js, K'.l liis i::';Mt:i';:j.' lor [^ ' .> j '^"'o'"'- ''-'' ^'-j i:. ::;..::- 
i.-.'ii (ji (.\>\v..;\ii ; J or ; i.:i:'.::.i.n;i--. I-,.::n C\^ l ).]:::-. ::):c:\:':.:z vi :..-^ \v..r h^, 
;,..lIi;\.. ..:.-!: ...::e;s a-.! \'ivav.!:_, bj'.\..nj c! ;'..J,^; i .:;i.l c'. ^ti i.ii i.:!^..u ,:::c.U;o:i 
rii.!i-.!-, i\.j;.A'c\i by i^i- b.rLi a>vJ llariun, ;,-U'c v.mv t.) a lU'iiii.c;:.,', wbic.i 
vv.i^ cui ., u ...v.ij'.c. 0;i t.ic i!K;;,:..i^i Cji [!;>: balC.j, :ii v, b.Ji iij ic!', hj 1,.aI 
.;.ov.n i .iij c:.:rc tor tlu: a.A):':.i:v.:; ;,ij j -^i ,(j-i ^ ami iMW inr a r. .i;.)n, Lk: t!;c 
-.^iiv,- ib.;;.:d ;.-)[ iia.l ii:. I o.!/ \.\ a::y iIjvj by, :nb-:;n: liLuaiijn. ' I ..ai 
" v.vj.j-y,"' la'-iMi.Kd lie, ' o. liia ti:i".jr, aab ur^icc i"!.;. a n^ilciv tj ;rv c^ :.a- 
' li)- ; ba: bc.;ava, that I laab b- c,u: o: :: \iv nb;b:." b.a , . \L-b. at ^ crl.^a 
V. a , b.,c ibb-LV ioiir y.ar^ ca a;;a \%!:e:i a ycr-ob v,a.i yat :o ia; a:c. 

Tii:; b;ls l.^'-^ia^d oa b(;La ib!c , :a cbv ban, a ( ; Xcv, biav, a.;b the abvaa.cJ 
Lai /, -baia ' . t:ia aiaibcs ro rariia laD v b^' : aaa-:;.:a. 

la l!; aaaii, cbaaay; taa; b.aiiiii . :a ' ...;r ia: :.b aab "ay-.h'*.- ;; :'..: 
l'i:i, - /:: r:..a.j.i Mirqac!"^ of N>'V-aa;b a '-. ..\ . 



' \ aiul [laaiC a I'avs oi 
a, ,ab hfvaa \a:y :a ( ay 



> A . . a c.a ; '. 
. Ilia-. :.' - 



a- laiaav . 



' \' 



^\ ia..r tj .a i. : . 
bo:n :...' oaa: 
> ; ./ :a a- a :....! 



tb : !;a-a (m ii;.;- n aa , a:a; (. av. x i 
...l\aaa.a .:l \^b:br.: ' : ' 



a .a' ;., 



r a^. I a: 



352 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



V-?.p.y:i. partly from a jealoufy of Lord Fairfax, partly fro i a repentance of their en- 
''^^ ga2,ement3 r.gainil the King, had entered into a cor; efpondencc with NevvcalliCj 
and liad exprelTtd an intention of delivering Hull into his hands. But their con- 
fplracy being difcovered, they were arrefted and lent prifoners to London i where, 
witliout any regard to their former ferviccs, they fell, both o; tiiem, viflims to 
the icveiity of the parliament. 

Ni:wcA:-TLE, having carried en the attack of Hull for fome time, was beat 
o;T by a iaiiy of the girrifon ", and fjlilred fo much, that he thou^.ht proper to 
raife the fiege. About the fume time, Mancliefter, who advanced from the 
c^dlern afTociated counties, having joined Cromwel and young Fairfax^ obtained 
a confiderable viclory over tiie royaiifts at Horn-Caille j where the two officer.'^ 
lad mentioned gamed great renown for their conduct and gallantry. And tho* 
fortune had tlius balhnced her favours, the King's party ftili remained much 
iuperior in thole parts of England ; and had it not been for tlie garrifon of FIull, 
V hicii Ivcpt Yorkihirein avv'e, a conjunction of the northern forces, with the army 
in the foiidi, had probably enabled the Kii-ig, inflead of entering on the unfortu- 
nate, perhaps imprudent, enterprize of Gloccfter, to march diredlly to London, 
and put an end to the v/ar, 

V.HH.R the military cnterprizes were carried on with vigor in England, ai^d 
the event became evcvy day more doubtiul, both parries caft their eyes towards 
the neighbouring kingdomiS, and fought affiftance for the fnilhing that enterprize, 
in which their own forces experienced llich furious oppoHtion. The parliament 
li:td iec>airre to Seorland , the King, to Ireland. 

When' the Scotch coveiianters obtained thit ^nd for v/hich tliey fo carneftly 
]ongcd, the elbabiiOmient of prefnytcrian difcipiine in their ovvn country, they 
were not fatisned, but indulged ftili an ardent paffion for propagating, by all 
rnerhod?, that mode of religion in the neighbouring kingdoms. Elaving flattered 
tiicmfelvcs, in the fervor of their zeal, that, by fupernatural afTiflances, they 
v/oiu.l be enabled to ca.ry their triumphant covenant to the gates of Rome irfelf, 
it beiiOvcd tlieni firll to render it prevalent in England, which already fnowcd 
fo great a ciifpofition to receive it. L.ven in the articles of pacification, they 
exprefitd a defire of uniformity in worfidp with England j and theKin.fr,. cm- 
plovir.g :;cneral cxprciTions, had approved of this inclip.ation, as pious and laud.i- 
bic. No fooner was th.cre any appearance of a rupture, than the I'mglifii parlia- 
me!;t, in order to a'luie tliat nation into a clofe confederacy, openly cicckr;d 
th.eir willvjs of ccckfiailical reformation, and of iniitating the example of ti:':i>- 

norsh.e'-.-, 

* I2tii of Od';''r:r^ 



C II A R L E S T. ;5i; 

northern brctl.rcn, V^'Iien war was acluaily comnirr.ccv', '!:;' j'i.T.? nr::f.c<"s '.vcrc c\-^r>.\'.I. 
Lifcvl ; n:.d tliC SivOtv.!i bclicld, \\h\\ the uraio!! iir.p.iticnc.-, a iccnc ot .-. t.o:i ' '^ 
o; wl'.ich thty could r.ut dccni tlicn,l',lvc.s iiuiiii". rent )j^rCi.;tc>:^. Sho..lvi 'Jic Ki::.,, 
they laid, bj able, by ioicc ut arms, to prevail over tiio }.a: '.i.iir.cn: o! L:i:j,!a;uj, 
and rc-cllabiilli his ai-.thoiiry m tl'.at i^oueii'id ki;:.^:do;]^, he v. :i' li;l,:()u^fed'^ 
!e:r.u-t all t!i!;l^' c\ r.celhor, ^, whch, v.it'i lu !!viny c::t i;;i.ll.;i.ces o: v.rtlep.Cv and 
ir..i:,^i:irv, tl'.e Scoreh have cxiuried tuiin hi.-n. I>.-{;dej a lenle (.t !i.-> o'.'.Ji ;r,- 
t.reil a;.d a re/.ard to royal j.ou\r, v/'iicli lias been tr.tii\-'y aiir.ii".; .r.cd ;-i t!u:. 
toii!i:rv ; his v.ry paOion Ijr prel.icy aiid tor rdij^iujs cerc:^v>;,:es haAx lead \Ar.\ 
tj invade a church, wiiicii lie lus ever been tairdit Im nv^ar.l a^. a' r:; :r:!',;.-. a and 
lin'awtul. Let i:s but confider who the perlu.^.s arj tiiat con"ii;ofe tiie lacioni 
i:e/A l^i turioufiy e:vj,aged in arnis. Does not the {Mrlianier.!: cor.lhl of tliol- v^ry 
i.ivn, \vl;o have ever oppoled all war v, iih ^icotiand, vl.o iiave i uni.hed li'.e aii- 
llioi's of our op[M'eirio;iS, who ha\"e o'-taiin-d us ti.e redrel . ui ever\ t;t:eva:iv\.', 
and who, witii ukuu' honourable expreffions, have co;n!erred (;n lo aa anr.';. le- 
ward To: our brotherly aniilance ? And is tiot th.c court lull ot {>api;ls, [re!a:e^> 
malii^naiUi , all ( t tiicni zealous enemies to our reli^iuus n-Kxlel, aPv! r.l,.a;:c 
to tacriiice tlieir lives lor t'.eir idolatrous cilabliilinyeius ? No: to iik li' A-r, ou- 
own neceilary lecurity , can we better cxpreis our graiitude to lK\i\en lur ; ]\: 
pure li^ht, with which we are, above all nations, fo eminently diP.in.r^Lrirr.e :> 
than by conveying the iame divine know'edge to our uidi.i py neighbours, v. ho 
are wa.iii^.g thio' a Ka of blood in order to attain it? 'I'hele were in Sco'iarid 
tr.e topics of every converl.:tion : With tli.fe d.oclrines the pulpits ecelioed ; Ar.d 
tlie fanious curie of iMeroz, that cuife lo loLannly tlenounced an.d re-i*eratcd, 
againd neutrality and moderation, refounded Iiom all quarter^ . 

I'm: parliament ol I'higland had ever invitedi the Scotch, Irom tl^.e commence- 
ment of tliC (.ivil diiientions, to int/r; ole thieir ni.dia;ion, v/hieh, tliey k;iew, 
would be fo hrde hivurah'le to ti^e kmp, : And th.c Kiri^";, for tiiat v^rv rvalon, 
liad ever end.eavoi. red, v.ith the leall o'"..n!i\''e ex, r'-ii.fs^, to I'eclisie i:. l-ar!/ 
this Ipii;^::;, 1 .' vidon, b.ord chane.'hor, v. .:!; t)' ::cr conimiii-onvrs, d^^^ atterAd 
by liendeifjii, a popular aiul intr;gui::g [ rca her, was fent to tiie Ku.i; at cJx- 
ii)rd, and iciv.ved the olier oi ir,e.;ia:;ia; ; ir:; w:di r ,e i,.r i..e ;^ e.-, 'e lore. 
J he commilhon: rs w.re alii; en j oweie,: to pri:^ the ;\:' :c- 

hji'):;, and to leconuncnd lo lii;o the ."roiJi n-oihl - h:p .v:.\ 

d.l.ijjiine. 'ihi-5 'Aa:, LOUv!ni,g Lih.ule- 'n awiy le:... .1 . . . : :a .;o.,!-, i.:s 

Vol.. I. / ' c .1- 

' .;:.,;. M;-' .-, ;:.;,! il.c aiu^: < T :\-- In:;. .... , . e '. : .. ::.:: / " 
- V L/::i :. n I J ;i.r i.:!.' ijl ;:.c l.urw, 'JJ Ui-: ..j'.y i- 1 Ui'A.u. .. .. 4,:;.. l..;: :. ,. 



3 54 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chaf.Vil confcience, as well as his intercll, he believed to be intimately concerned in fup- 
'^'^^' porting prelacy and the liturgy. He begged the commifTioners, therefore, tore- 
main fatisfied with the conceiTions which he had made to Scotland -, and having 
modeled their own church according to their own principles, to leave their neigh- 
bours in the like liberty, and not to intermeddle widi affairs, of which they could 
not be fuppoled competent judges. 

The divines of Oxford, fecure, as they imagined, of a vidory, by means of 
their authorities from church hiflory, their citations from the fathers, and their 
fpiritual arguments, defired a conference with Hendcrfon, and undertook, by dint 
of reafoning, to convert that great apoftle of the north ; But Henderfon, who 
had ever regarded as impious the lead doubt with regard to his own principles, 
and who knew of a much better way to reduce opponents than the employing 
any theological topics, abfolutely refufed ail difputation or controverfy. The 
Englifh divines went away, full of admiration at the blind allurance and bigotted 
prejudices of the man : He, on his part, was moved with equal wonder at their 
cbftlnate attachment to fuch grofs errors and delufions. 

By the concefiions which the King had granted to Scotland, it became necefia- 
ry for him to fummon a parliament once in three years -, and in June of the fub- 
fequcnt year, was fixed the period for the meeting of that affembly. Before that 
time elapfed, Charles flattered himfclf, that, by fom.e decifive advantage, he 
fhould be able to reduce the Englifh parliament to a reafonable fubmiflion, and 
might then expeift with fecurity the meeting of a Scotch parliament. Tho' 
earneilly folliciced by Loudon to fummon prefently tha