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Full text of "The history of Great Britain, under the house of Stuart"

THE 



HISTORY 



O F 



GREAT BRITAIN. 



VOL. IL 



CONTAINING 



The C O M M O N W E A L T H, 

AND 

The Reigns of CHARLES II. and JAMES II. 

I!y DAVID HUM K, Liq; 

TIic S i: C O N D E D I T I O N CorrcacJ. 



L O N D () N : 

PiiiitcJ for A. Mri.i.A:i, in the Sti-.m 

"TIiJcl'i L\T 



CONTENTS. 



The C O M M O N \\' E A L T H. 



c II A r. I. 



^'/.?/j cf E}{^Ic:}lU cf oV:/.'.:/;.-\- 



Lch: 



I.czw'.'crs ftipfrcrcd. 

prifoncr. EsccatiJ.. Covc/u:}::. rs. Hr.::': '/' Du):inri\ (f //''; Y/.":r. 



K:>y^'s efcapc. Ehe C',h::):c}:iv:.Llb, Di-.t^h 



tic PiiyH.imCfil. 






C II A P. II. 

C'/:';-:r :''. h:rth ar.\ fr'rja'.c life. B.:rcb'y/!''^s Piir':.ini:'':t O^-i-:,! r:.\le 

]'yo:c:!or. Pi.uc z^nh IkH.inJ. A ;;.:: A;;-.;.:;;;^;;;. ;._,.;;;...;;;; -/ 

fl:^- R'.\d!!jh, S!.:U cf Europ-:. lf\ir iv:!-: ^; c::;i. y,;;:;.:;..: ccy:u-:.:. 

Siicccfs and dc.Ub cf iui};;:r\U BLkc. Dc;ir.}:: ^;. :';;;/;;.-.' ,;/;:;; cf Cr:!;r:t'. 

Jl'.i'uhle priliion Old ddi\ii\ DunLrk /wV:;;. ^;.,vv- .^6 :'.: Fr.::::. . 



I lis duul.\ i.'/7u' cl'ci/W'.i'r. 

C II A P. III. 



./ I\ird.:nini:. 

;: Ar.V ;,/:,;/ c'-- En 



Ri.Lo-d a:k^::zi:!:d;rd Frc:- : 
K F:-d d p.frd. 

rV.;;;/;-/.'.:- /.'' .^,_'7'". . r: :;> tip'dr: 

/,/ i/.i Eiird.iiiie::: . ''.,-/ .'...;,;.;;; nv/ ';..'. 

IVddy,^ f'r a fy.c Vod.o- /, ^cEiudd .l.'. 

t.iyncK: dfilEi-d. Nii:: l\iyd.riic;:: . '1 he /-, 'hy. 



.. /.. 



(; ..;;, 



i\ 2 



C I 1 A R I . I ^ 






u 



CONTENTS. 



H A R L E S II. 



:Vc^::' na-i'jyv. 



C H A P. I. 

y^-j? of i^:d;}nn:iy. Se'Jlcmsnt of the re venu!^,-^ -Trial and 



cx'CHticn of the Regicides Dijfohilion cj the convcntiGn Parliament, F re- 
in e\ rejicrcd. Injiirrpelicn of the MU'enariaits, Affairs of Scotland, 

Co:fireKee at the Savoy. 'j-lrgii-usnis for and agai'ry} a com pre hot/ion. 

A nciv Parliament. Bfeofs feats refored. Corporalion Al'L Aet cf 

lytcria:: elerjy cje'lcd. Jjuikirk fold to the French. Declaration of indai- 

ge}:ee. Decline cf Clarendon's credit, 120 



C H A P. 11. 



f -.-,/,- 



(. .re--rr-s !:. 
D-:-s\lV.~ 



race at Chatia-;:. Pease cf l>;aa 



! ' ' ,-' 7 '.': 



c. T^., ,. /.:. ., . . , 



Charades 



o" the 7^::? Coaa'ries.- k's'^ctiaii^^-i.- 



:/ Ah:la-Ct. 



'7.r. 



C II A P. III. 



:ieu 



Ch:l 



-Iheh- CI.::- 

I i 7.; .;/;::;/;. - 

/.v.^-- Ca:P 

-~A-rcl cf : 



; /. .// ('....: . ...-, 



ar.qa.r /.:/ 



: /' 



C O ~N T ] X T 



^c:: ' 

cf ; ' 
pf r ..'.. 






.' ,'J.'; 






~r . i-'u:iJ of tb: Pri'L-r 

,, ,,,rV:/. -^v., _/;./,.- 

Q- . 7-( :S cf CoJo'KC.^ 



//'<;;/;./;,. 






C II A P. IV. 

r;v;r?j;--:/;vZ'<-;;f'5 n thr CiL^'.- R.-;:o:J:y.i:rrs rf .vr -';'-;.';.;;;; "r;-.;'. .- 
I;c:h:ci:'. (\;:}iP::!n; of 1675. ^''"^,^'f' '' i^^^'!'^,'"''- Cjy'^. 

-I'K.irtd--^ rniAu:! of llr K ;::^. . / P.:y!: ':::. C.y: 



cf \()-(>. 

' liy -. 

cf 0)\l)']- c 
Carp.-!'-! 0' 

cf i.f\::)i m 



j.fi 'f Ibr R: 



b :': ' I.r. V .',;/;).-. 



/,' ^/'' ^, 



is 



t.d'r,}!. 



fb.-cc rr' M;}.-:: 



C II A P. V. 






i\ >: ;; ?;. 












/ 



-- /. 



A,;:- . 



r ^ 1 



w 



CONTENTS. 



C H A P. VI. 



State cf parties. State of the minlfiry. Keal-tuh plot,- 

q'ory. Ancsj Parliament, 

hill. Argiir.ients for and againf the Ey:cliifion. 

'Trial of Stafford. His execution, Violence of the Commons. 'Diffo- 



Violence cf the Ccnrmons.- 



'Whig and 
Exclu/ion- 



Excluficn-hill rejeSled.- 



hiticn cf the Parliament.- 
Parliament difohed. 



'New parliament at Oxford. 
-Victory of the Royalifls, 



Fitzharris^s cafe, 
310 



CHAP. VII. 

c^iute cf affairs in Ireland. Shaft efuury acquitted. ArgyWs trial. State 

vf affairs in Scotland. State of the minijlry in England. 'New nomination 

offheriffs. ^lo warrantos. Great power of the Crown. A confpiracy, 

Shaft cjlniry retires and dies. Rye-hcufe-plot. Confpiracy difcovered. 



Exccv.tlcn cf the co-'ifpirators. I'rial of lord Ruffel. 

Pnal of Algernon Sidney.' His execution. 



-J O 4-' 



King s ftcknefs and death^^ 



-His Execution. 

State of the nation. State of 

and char a5Ier. '^^9 



J A M E S 



11. 



C II A P. I. 

Kmfs f-ji 'rrir^^'tlicns. /l Pdrliamc'it. /Irgumcnt fcr and agaiafl a revenue 

f'/: t: c. Cr.ti'S con\j:i~!d of perjury. -^MonnwutF s iv.vafon. His defeat. 

' (. :. : e -f,' ui /.; ;/. CV;- cities cf Kirkc, and of Jefferies . State cf affairs 

ri > :/.;...'.'. Aygyle's in-v^fon, defeat^ and execution. A Parlia- 

;;::::. J 'rs^^.h ft: f cations. The dfpc^ifing power. State cf Irchnd. 

U reach iuw:-<t tie K'v.g and the church. Court of cede fiaf iced commiffion. . 

.'''.; .(T'' a^anijl the rtjlop oj London. SuJicnfion cf the penal laws. State 

(j hiLuid. E.'i.P.fy to Rome. Attenrpt upon Magdalen College.' ////_ 

pr:j'.}:}:!cni^ ir:af and acquitalof the hfjops. Birth of the Prince of 

375 
C II A \\ 



CONTENTS. 



C H A P. II. 



C HI J 



Condurl cf the Prince cf Ora}igc. Ik forms a Iccijru-: n^ainjl Fra-:-, 

to concur vjith the Kift^;-, rrfohrs to cppcfc the Kni^^ :s ^r//\". .;' /, 



r" 



//;:' Englipj. CoaUtion of parties. Priv.n^s prcp.irati'yn:. 

c[ France to the King., rejctled. Suppcjed !i.\^U'^ ziith Fr.v: c. (ici:::\:! 

difccntents. T'he King retra^s his weajures.-^ Prince's dciar.-t::;:, Ji.- 

PriniC lands in England. General commcticn. Defer t ion cf the c:r!!r:, 

and cf Prince George^ and of the Pri>icefs /Innc. King's conjlc/ fu:!.: ,>:, 

and flight. General confufon. King feizcd at Fei-ofLarn. ->\\'v;y 

evafi'n. King's charai'^er. ' -' ' Ccnirniion funnnoncd. Se:tlei;;.;:: cf 

Scotland. 'Englijh convent ion meets. Vicius of the panics. [ric 

conferences betzvixt the Iloufes. Commons prcjaiL o't./.'.V/v;./.; cf lie 

CrowU'' " ^lanmrs and fcicnces. 4 ' 4 



THE 

HISTORY 

O F 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

THE C O M M O Is W E A L T H. 

C H A P. I. 

State of Englml Of Scot land. Of Irchimi. Lr-vcihs jupprfrd. 

Sic\^c of Dublin ?-aifiJ. Trcdah jlcrmeJ. Co-ViruVitcrs. 

Montrof taken prlfoncr. Executed. Oywiuuiteru Battle f 

Dunbar. 0/ ' // 'ortrfer. Klnfs e/'eape. Tie C:ium:n leealth. 

Duteb "lie:/-. Dfolution of the Parliaiaent. 

I-^II F. confufion which ovcrfpred Ij'igLm.l after t!ic mui\!.r of tl'.j King, i''- . y 
procccticd as well frum the Ij-iric of lef/'.-rr.. lU i^.iul innovation, wif; 'i f ^' ' ' ^ 
agitated the rulin;^ P-^tty, as li-oni the d.dj: i un c." dl tli.-.n ..;;:''. '::'}, 
both civil and re. lefLiflic.d, !v.- \\!::e;i i!ie :,.i:"on !i.;d e\ er be n .;e/i.f- 
tonud to be governed. I'.v.ry man r.;. i fiMnv.v! i'..e ir/.i! c: e. r i^nhlic -. a.,d, 
however new or lantallical, 1; j v/.i^ (.in;er of r^ .oiii.r.-n.iini; ;t Zj !;:s u".,jv: .):':/:::'-, 
or even ot iinpoi^ng it by forre i.;\):. ti:;'n\ F-. cr-.' n.an I;.id . f'-.f .-d .: lyd.n"! wf 
T li;''on, u !iich, l^cm^ derived iron n < tr-.di:i..nal a .f:;-ri:v, " f : ir t ) !d:y - 
led ; an 1 being iotnided on Id!);^-; d mlpi: .iLion, n^t d.. .;':v . f . .-- o; ht;n-:.i 
rcalo-^lng, had no means, bef.ie , ( ,;n; r.nA low re :o -.-, b-. '.'!. n :. co:dd weire:- 
n^rnd irb-lf to c:h::!-i. Ifyj 1 .ev.de;-^ in'd' . ' >e ;..;,:: 
Vol.. H. !3 



2 HISTORY OF GPv EATBRiTAIN. 

and power, and difclaimed all depem^ance and fubordination, 7"l:e Millenarians 
or Fifth-Monarcb.y-men required, that government itfelf fiiould be abolillied, 
and all human powers be laid in the dufr, in order to pave the way tor the dori- 
nion cF Clififl.-, whofe fccond coming on earth they fuddenly expe6led. Hie 
7\r.t!nomians even infiftcd, that the obligations of morality and natural law were 
fjfp-ended., and tliat th.e elccl, guided by an internal principle, more perfea and 
divir.c, v/ere lupericr to the /;>(;-^77/-/3' ^/i'/V-'c'/Z/j of juflice and humanity. Aconfi- 
dsrable party declaimed againft tythes and a hireling prieilhood, and v;erc re- 
folved iliat the magiftrate iliould not iupport by pov,'cr or revenue any ecclcfi- 
afticai elhiblinmient. Another party inveighed againil the law and its profeflbrs t, 
and under pretence of rendering more fimple the diftribution of juRice, were dc- 
fjrous of abolin-iing the v/liole fyftem of Engliili jurifprudence, v.'hich f.emed in- 
terwoven v,'ith monarchical government. Even thofc among the republicans, 
wlio adoprjxi not fucli extravagancies, were fo intoxicated with their faintly cha- 
ra:i;er, that tliey fup.pofed themfelves pofieiTcd of peculiar privileges , and all pro- 
feii'.on?, oaths, lav/':, and erigageinents had, in a great nicafure, loft their influ- 
ence over them. Tiic bands or fociety were every where loofencd , and the irrc- 
:^,'j!ar TxnT.oriS of men v*ere encouraged by fpeculative principles, ftill more unfocial 
aix! irregular. 

'Vm Roya'if.s. corTifiing of the nobles and more confiderablc gentry, being 
degraded from tlieir authority and plundered of their property, were inflamed 
V, :r':i tiie higlicfi re'entmeiit and indignation againft thofe ignoble adverfaries, who 
I;ad reduced tirem to ftdojc^'lion. 'j'he Preft^yterians, whofe credit Itad firft fup- 
I orrcJ t!',e arm;S of ^'^e P-ndiament, Vv'cre enraged to find, that, by the treachery 
( r f.ipcrlor cunning oi t'lejr anbciatc?, the fruits of all their fuccefsful labours 
were ra\;;hed irorn thent. '.['lie former party, from inclination and principle, 
/.ca'oufiy attaeiiefi th.cmicieci to the fon of their uidortunate Monarch, whofc 
m. r.:ory they rcfpecled, and vdiofe tragical death they deplored. The latter caft 
their eyes towards the fame ofyjecl: -, but they had ftill many prejudices to ovcr- 
totnc, many (ears aiid lealoufres to be allayed, 'ere they could cordially entertain 
tliouglits of reftoring th.;tt (amily, whom they had fo grievoufly oilbnded, and 
whole pi'iiKiples tliev rega!"ded with fuch violent abhorrence. 

'iii- fnly fo!id fupport of t:ie republican independant faction, which, tho' it 
iornr.ed {') fma'.I a part of t'.ie nat/jn, had violently ufurped the government of 
the v. ee,le, was a numerous army of about fifty thoufand men. Ijut this army, 
forire.d.il !e from its difcipline and courage, as well as its numbers, v/as actuated by 
a ![;;::, tliat rendered it extremely dangerous to the aftcmbly, which had alTumed 
t'ne command over it. Accuftomed to indulge every chim'.ra in politics, tvtry 

2. fren/v 



T HE CO M M O X \V E A F. T II. 3 

frenzy in r.-lii^lon, tlij folclicrs knew !'.'::!': of tl:c l'..borc;ination ( : c'.ii/o.i.s ur 1 
li.ui only IcarncJ, tro:n app.ircuc ncccli-iy, foMv,- i."iax'.;r.:> or irm::-! y cje*. v':ki'. 
And whiic t!v.-y full nvainiaincii, tii.u uli ihoic c"Mjrni(;i:> vio'.yj.'i:.-, . .1 !r;.v ... 
cqu'.rv, of which tlicy li.iJ been gmlty, v.erc lulln'cd bv ihc :\. ::::', \\'.v.\ wi.i.n 
pr.jvi.:: iicc Ii.id bk-lied ihcm , tluy wrie rt,\uiy to brea!; o.;: :!:,> any 
cLt, uT.LTcver they had the prclp.c. o: a :ikc lanc:h>!i arid a'.,:!v.i ;: /. 

What alone givj ioni" \\Vi/.c ar.vl il.il\iicy to all i\\:\'c \::\'.\::\ . . 

the jTi'tMC inil'jciict.', botii civil an.J nii!ic.:.y-. aci.mrcd; by CJli-.jr C:-.j. i .... 

man, lliitcd to the hl^c hi which he live.', and to t'i'.t :\\or.:, was '.cy./. !;. ;y.ii.- 
iL-d to gain the ailcCiion and confidence oi men, by wiiac was miMn., \i.': y .r. a:..: 
lidncLilous in his charajccr , as to comm.-.r.d tlicn- ob^-dncncj by whit v, .i^ -v----^ 
tiarii-i;, and cntcrpri/nng. b'anniiar even to biniooiuiy wii'n the m.anjii i. ;.:'.:'.e , 
lie never l(jll his authority : 1 lanlportcd to a degree o: madincfj \\i:.\ re y )-^ J>:- 
tallci, he ne\er forgot the {Xihtical purpol' s, to why !i tiiey ndyh: ilnve. 1 I..\: ;, 
rnonarchv, while a lubj.cti deii^ifnig lib:-rty, w Inie a citizen , t'n j' n.e :c'...;i.v : 
lor a time all orders ol men i.ind..\- a l.cming obedn.nce to tiic [\r li.'.n^Ci:: ; , . v.- . 
iecretlv |>a\-ing the way, by a.rtiiice and courage, to his own unhnv.:e.: ant!:- ':.. 

Tiii: l\u-lianicnt, ior fo we mull hcncvlorth call a I'm.dl and in.co.-.li.i.-rable y.irc 
ot the houlc oi commons, having iiuirdcrcd their S()\-ereign v. i:Ii lo n-.an.y ajv);..:'- 
i;ig circumllances ot folemnity and jnilic, and fo much real vi(/;ence an.i .-vv.i 
fury, began to alllime more the air ol'a civil, legal power, an.l to cn.large .1 ':;:;'.: 
the narrow bottom, upon whicii tliey tlood. A few of t'ne cxc!:;d.e.! an.d a'.-'ier/. 
member';, fucli as were liable to Icall exception, t'ney adp.iitt.d ; but on co;u!, ':o"i, 
tliat they fliould fign an approbation c;t whatever had. i-een {.l.r.c in tlieu" ah;e: c : 
v.itli reg;;rd to the King's trial : And fome o; th m were v.-ihi:-.:: to ;voy,:;rj a !n.e.:e 
(if power on luc'i terms : 'I'h.e grcatelt part difdained to L".vJ t'/.eir authority u* 
fucli apparent ulurpation:;. Tlicy illiicd l^jivic writ-, ior i\j\v c! rritms, wliere t'..ey 
licrped to iiave intercil er.ough t) bring in t!icir own ir:er,d.s and d-pende.nt^. '11: y 
n.'.mcd a council ot lla'e to the number ot thirty eig!;f, to v.iuim a'.l ath'relil > 
were made, wiio ria\e orders to all gcner.ds and admirals, who cxecu,tci.l t!;e laws, 
audi wlio digefiedi ad bufuicf-, beiorc it was introd.uced into Parliament. " J'.'/'V 
preter.dcd to employ tliemlelvcs entirely in adjullinp; the lav,-, to::ns, aiul nve- 
thods of a new reprelcMtative ; and lo loon as they iliouid have leitlcd tiie v,.J\ov,y 

B 2 thcv 

' I'iair r:::ne, uc:v, tl:- :. : : D.'u'- y., '\].ii-:.\r. P,:!iil-n';r. S,,!! ' .;: y. ] ^v,.\ t,:fv. i',:. 
i . Loul Ciiv (t C,ro'>-,-, I.Mia 1 ..:e, K'.-l'v^, bt. ;..;... \\ ,: :r. i;:.. : :..... . e : , uwi, >:.:.po-, 

..-..r!.:;;, \:..<:.- .-., !i,.u!:', 1 1..: ei;;:'- , , \ .ru: i.iK J.\.;.v. , ..;:-..;., ^-:J;..^. r.i;..; . 
! , ,.- '. . V.::-:.. V;,.;::,..; . M,.--. !..:;.kv. >:..-,;,.,, ii.v:;,- ^.,::\ V.',::.:.', li..U' !. 
, , \ ..x.e.-ir, V. . ... . ,'.. ..,., 



4 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chr.o. f. they profeflcd tluir intention of rcfcoring the power to the people, from whom, 
'"'> they acknowledged, they had entirely derived it. 

The Commc-nvveakh found every thing in England compofed into a feeming 
rr.inquiiiity by the terror of their arms. Foreign powers, occii|:ied in wars among 
tiieriilelves, had no leizure nor inclination to interpofe in the domeilic diOTcnfions 
;./,' tills ifland. I'he young king, poor and neglefted, living fometimes in Hol- 
land, fcmetimes in l^Vance, fometimes in Jerfey, comforted himfelf, amidft his 
prcfen: difrreffcs, with the profped of better fortune. The firuation alone of 
Srcjthind and Ireland gave any immediate inquietude to the new Republic. 

Af ! e:^. the fuccefiive defeats of Montrofe and Hamilton, and the ruin of their 
parric?, the wr.ole autiiority in Scotland fell into the hands ol Argyle and the 
r;'_'d churchmen, that party which was moft averfe to the interefis of the royal 
fan.iiy. 'I iieir eiimity, however, aga.nfj the indcpendants, who had prevented 
tive ;ong wiined for lerclem.ent of Preibytcrian difcipline in England, carried theai 
t(; en/oiacc oppcfite maxims in their political conducft. Tho' invited by the Eng- 
iifn Parliament to niodei their government into a republican lorm, they refolved 
iliil to adi.cre to iMonarchy, which had ever prevailed in their country, and which, 
by ih- cxprefs terms of their Covenant, they were obliged to defend. They con- 
fi'.crcti brfidcs, thai as the property of the kingdom lay chiefly in the hands of 
great iamilics, it v. ould be difficult to eftablifli a Commonwealth, or without fome 
cir.cf magiilrate, iriV.ikd with royal authority, to preferve peace or juftice in the 
conimunicy. 7 lie execution therefore, of the king, againft which they had al- 
wav-s protefted, having occafioned a vacancy of the throne, they immediately 
rrociaimed his Ton ;u>d fucccilbr, Charles the lecond j but upon condition '" of 
'' his goo(^ bciKiviour ar:d ilrict obfcrvanre of the Covenant, and his entertaining no 
" other perfons about him but iuch as were godly m.en and faithful to that obhga- 
" tion." J licfc: iHiufual claufcs, inferred in the very firft 2cknowlegement of 
I'neir IhiiKe, fufficr^ntly fnewed their intention of limiting extremely his authority. 
j'Xiid tlu: Englifh Commonwealth, having no pretext to interpofe in the affairs of 
tiiat kingdom, alij\A"ed tiie Scotch, for the prelent, to take their own meafures in 
leitiir.g th^ir governniCiit. 

Tf't' doni!i;ioi-:, ulii^h ]"r,gland clalnied over Ireland, demanded more imme- 
di..tc!y their efforts tor lubduing th.at coi ntry. In order to convey a jull notion 
of Iiilh affairs, it will be iiercffary tv) look l;ackwards fime years, ard to relate 
f'riv.fy chofe tranfadfions, which had p^ail during the memorable revolutions in 
Eng'awd. When the late Kiiig agreed to that ccifation of arms with the I'opifn 
le'cels, which was become fo requifite, as well for the fecurity oi the Iriih Protef- 

ta'-'is 



THE COM M O N W K A L T II. 5 

rants a-, for nr: mo::;\^ his ii.rirells in I-'.ng!a"d, the Parli.i:vt r.r, in orcer t > b'.uiiL-n 
].:s c o.i.iu- I, i'jp;(:.ul:t.d him v.iih i.ivorinj; th.r. otli'-u , r.'o!!on, an ! cx^-Lunnvl 
J i:c!iv .i:;;'.':n!i th- r^rrn^.s of t!;c CclTation. '1 liey c:vcn wrr.r \j !.:r as [) ^ictl ifj i: 
cnr ;-'v i,!;'' ap,vl invalid, bccaulc timlhcil wiihout ilicii- (on/.n: , ;;:cl C) iliii uj- 
c],\r.\ : n tiic Scotrh in LMiler, and the Karl oi Inchicjuin, a n()l)!c;r.;n (.t rj'cac 
a ''. o:i V in Munilcr, pro'cfll'd to adiiciv. ]\\- their means, t:u- war \v.u il ! I;;-;^: 
a!:ve-. but as th.? da;M^C!( i^' d/i'lradi^ns in Knf^land !i;ndcrcJi the Par.'i.-.nicr.t :: 'A\ 
llndin'.^ a-.y connd.Table aOlllance to tludr allies in Ireiar.d, Inr!j:(|'.;:n. c;t;-:x\i into 
an a c<-'.nnv)dat; n v.ith Orinond, whom the King had. crea'.ed Lor : 1 ,:-:i:tcnanr' 
o^ t!iat kinrrd.iin. Idiis latter nobleman, being a native of Ireland, ar. : a pjr!j:i 
en low -d .. ith great [M'lidenre and virtue, lornicd a '.clv-mc tor c;;mp.)!;ia tlic d;l'- 
ord.-rs ol li -i co.;ntry, arr.l lor engaging the rebel IrJlli to ri:r[:(>r: t;.: tanle ci' 
Id^ royal mailer. There were m :nv eircumilances svh.ieh llrur.uiy i^vit.d the 
Trull to embrace the king's j^arty. I'r.e maxims ol that i'rin.ce had; ai'.vays K J 
bd.m to give a re aloi-abh- i:idulgence to the Catholics thro'ot:: ad !u-> dou'dinic-ns -, 
and o!:e princij^a! |_'round oi that cnmi:v, which t'ic i'untanh proiedld agdnd ;un\ 
wa^; ttdis taciic toieradon. The par icUiv/nr, even vdi-.-n unpro\'o;Ned, iiad t v. r 
mena:"; ' the i'a; ids w.th thj nvjlt I'c", 'd rellrdn', ;i no: a total <_x;ii"pat;un ; and 
imniecirit 'iv .dter tiie commencement u\ the Iridi rehcih ;n, t;u-y uu: to !.. e t'cJ 
wliule ellates ol tlie rebels, and h.i<\ engage^! the [)ubnc unth h;r tran^;. rrmptiien? 
to the a.'ventur.^rs vvh') luul A cady ad\ anc;-d iiK^ney uo^n t'n.it concition. 1 nj 
iLiccels, t'-.erefore, v.hicii the amis ol t!:c l\ir!;-ur.ent mit wuii a: N.Uui^v, llruviv 
a i.ill terror into the Ir'tl^ -. aiyd engaged tii. c .'UPiCi! o: ku/unijy, ccn];\;i d cn 
deputies from all tlie Catnoiic counties anil ciius, :o CvjulIu-.c a [...w y.iia ti.e 
Mar.puefs of Ormond."' Tncy [Toiedied to rc:..;n ti) tc.cir dutv ar.vl ai!egi uice^ 
cngr.c'xi to furnifli ten theiT.irid nun tor tiie Uij pert ct tiie Kuu;'.s au:!iwiitv in 
}Miii,'and, andi were Lonrenteu .\ith lii^uilating, ii\ return, indenudty 1..'/ th.ur rebel- 
lion and toleration of tlieir religion. 

Ok.\ioNU> not doubting but a peace, lb acKumtagcous and even necefla-y to the 
Irifh, would be flrictly obferved, dvanced \\itn a Iniah body ol tioops to Kn- 
kcnnv, in order to concei't m.alurcs :ur common d.elencc with hi- r.; -.v a I. .. 
'Jdit Poia; had lent over to Iixdand a nuncio, Kuvuccud, an Italian , and tiu^ rr.i:)^ 
whole commiliion c m.powereil him ^) d.uw't the l[nritual Cwncercs o; the bidi, 
Was emboldened, bv their iuiorance aiul big^otrv, to aHume the i .,., r autliorit/ 
in tlie Civil government. !'ore!ecir.g tlu\t a gener.u iuomili'.on :) the J.ord-Ideu- 
tenant would p it an end to h.c-. o\'.n ind.uence, iie conij ircd wnth Owen Onv.n', 
wlio commanded the native Iridn in Ldder, auvi \s ho byre a great jea!u..ly to Prei- 

U'U , 
it :(. 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

to;i ; ilic Genera! chiefly triifted by the council of Kilkenny. By concert, tliefe 
two malcontci.13 feciTtiy drew forces together, and were ready to fall on Ormond, 
wl^o rcniaincci iij f/cii- ity, trufting to the pacification fo lately concluded with the 
rebels, lie received intc'iigence cf their treachery, made his retreat with great 
cciLrity and con.iuJl, and {lieltered his fmail army in Dublin and the other forti- 
fied town?, wliich (li'l remained in the lianas of the Proteftants. 

'I'lii: nuncio, full oi" arrogmce, levdry, and ambition, was not contented with 
t'iib v;olat!o;i of treaty. He fun^moned an ailembly of the clergy at Waterford, 
a!:d engaged tliem to declare againfl" that pacification, which the civil council had 
concluded with their lawful fovereign. He even thundered out a fentence of ex- 
ci^mmunication againft: all thofe who flioiiid adhere to a peace, fo prejudicial, as 
b., pretended., to the Catholic religion ; and the deluded IriHi, terrified with his 
jpiiitual nicnace.s ranged themfelves every where en his fide, and fubmitted to his 
authority. Without fcruple, he carried on war againll the Lord; Lieutenant, and 
tlircatened with a fiegc the ProteRant garrifons, which were, all of them, very ill 
1^ rovided tor deferjcc. 

Mr.ANWMiLE, tb.e unfortunate King was neceflltated to takeflaelter in the Scotch 
army -, and being there reduced to clofe confinement, and lecluded from all com- 
irjerce with his friends, defpaiied, that his authority, or even his liberty, would 
be retlored to him. He lent orders to Ormond, it he could not defend himfelf, 
rather to fubmit to the Englifli than the Irifli rebels -, and accordingly the Lord 
Lieutenant, being reduced to the lail extremity, delivered up Dublin, Tredah, 
Dundaik, aiid other garrifons to Colonel Michael Jones, who took poileffion of 
them in the n.ame of the Engliili Parliament. Ormond himfelf went over to 
England, was admitted to the King's prefence, received a grateful acknowlege- 
ment tor ids paft fervices, and during fome time lived in tranquillity near Lon- 
don. I'ut being banilhed, with the other Royalifts, to a diftance from that 
city, and Iceing every event turn out unfortunately for his royal maffer, and 
threaten ifim with a catallrophe fiill more diretul, he thought proper to retire into 
Prance, vdiere he joined the Queen and the Prince of Wales. 

L\ Ireland, during thefe tranfa6tions,the authority of the nuncio prevailed without 
control among all the Catholics -, and that Prelate, by his indifcretion and infolence 
foon made them repent of the power, with which they had intruded him. Pru- 
dent men likewife were fenfiblc of the total dedrudion, which was hanging over 
the nition from the Englidi Parliament; and faw no rcfource nor fafety but in 
giving fupport to the declining authority of the King. The Earl of Clanricarde, 
a nobleman of very antient family, a perfon too of merit, who had ever 
prefcrvcd his loyalty, was fenfiblc of the ruin which threatened his country-- 

men.. 



THE COM M O N \V E A L T 11. 7 

men, u:kI was leh/ivui, it j-o;:ibl(f, to |Tcvt*'.t it. 1 Ic Iter::''.' iurnitrci a cfjir.' i- c 
r.'.tijn anifMi^ il;c C.'..:':.ul cs , !vj cntcrcti i./o a CvT: J. ....'.-.".^t \vi: . Ir.c!.!' jui:-., 
v.iio j)rckrvcJ jj;rciC au'.hority over t'ae Prorcila'^.t^. in S'-ii.iLr-, I.c .t: '.ciad :!ie 
iiii!K':o, V. ii.'ir. h? cliaceJ 01. c o! tlic ifii:'. ! ; an.: Ic ! ..-. t ) i'.ir.s a d j^-,::.\iion, 
ill :iii:^; t/ic Lord Lieutenant to rai;rnan:i take polieii'.c:! ( f 1 : ;^ov. mr, jiu. 

C) . j\'.) on lu- arri'.Ml in Irelar.d ;ou:id t!re kin^^dom divided i.iio ir..u-.v f.uVi.\'-:s, 
a;r.unr: whom cither o^cn war (jr 1 cret enmity {)reva:i-.i. 'i i;c aiit'v ;r.v o: t'lc 
1 iiglhh L-irliarnent was ell ibidlied \:\ D.ibiin, and the odic r towns wi.i i: i.e !.i:n- 
ieit had dchvered into t!i--ir hand:,. Onealc mai:uain_d hi:; e:edi: in L.der; a:;d 
hav..',^ entercdi in:o a T.cret coriclpondLriCC witli tl;e }';.;iian:e!'.tary ; i..ib, v/as 
more intent on l"ehen-ies tor his own [i:rlo:;a! idf.-ty tlian anxious '.^i' '..e m'-.-Tv.i- 
tio.'i c: ids co'jntrv or rehgion. 'Llic odier Iriih, cii'.i.lc. be:v.-ee,i r.;. rci.r^v, 
wlio were averle to Ornion.vi, and tl'.eir n-jbiiitv, who v.ci\- .utaci-.d. t . !.'::". v,\re 
wry uncertain i:i tlieir motions and ke!de in d.eir n:ecnure->. d .._ .^. :.Ii in 
the Nortli, ePiiM^i'd, >is v,\-il as tl'.eir u-A\iv coin. [rvn.en. againil :'.- . _ /..v.:.^ 01 
the Secla!-i.in army, profeiiLd their adhereiwe to d^c Kin:; ; be: w-:e ii... hind.'i'ed 
by many jirejudices from entcrin;!; n'lt ) a cordial i::.i :n v.ith his Li, ...: .'. 
.All thelb dddr.icted couneilsa-Al eoncr.ry humor> eh. ck-d. t'le ',n-e:-;-c:s oi L*::v. > ..'. 
a -d erabied tiie parlianicntary lorces in Irckuid to m.dn:.;in t!;.:;- i;:o'n".d a.^an^d Ivw . 
'J lie king iih armv, while enr-loyed in lubdnin[5 the revoked Ki val;.'-, :. nd': 
iiie Larlianient to idbj-aion, in the triak condeninadini, and exeend n o;" ['.. : 
!overeir';n, totally ne[^le-.dcd the fu^^piy (d Irekuid, and adov,\d J .-n.e.N a ..\ r:.. ;o:>:'. - 
in Dublin to ren'.ain in tiic I'.nr.oll we.d^n.^s and, lueed:;-'.-, Ikit d.ie 1 n i,te,-.:'n'. 
haviPi.; at lafl, with mncli difncuity, idlendoied an. .nnniV o: id ^ ^ m. :\ a.:-> .'.:;:e.i 
upon dv lin^'idi fnirrilons. IVnnJndd-:, whei'e ^k;;.k conv.r.ar.d.- d:. v,- ;-. nd:'.n.r- i 
up by ti^e [^ariilon, vdio niudndrdi ap^aindi." thrlr y'>\\ir,'jr. I'ltda!"., N-.^n-n an i 
(vdier fores v,-erc taken. niddin was tiuearmd v,::[\ .i { p; ; a., i tie ...\'.i:\ : ; 
lieiitjnant a[)peared in L prol[^ervjL:s a condition, tinit tiie yonn., Ki: ^ enie: : ; .. \ 
thouLdits ot condinp; in perlon into IrLl.urd. 

'run Ldiglifh Hate being brought to rnme t'd' ra'.de .-.ppr-n-anee '.. ink -.v...', 
men bepi;an to call their eyes tov/ards tlie nkig'rnuurin.g i;kuid. Duknp ''... . 

;' ti\e tv.-o parties, the government of Ireland In;d re-r,ai:nd. a great , i > : . 

trignf ; and the Prelbyterian : ciuleavonred to obtaini [lie keut::.an.cy :. : \''> ... 
Independants for Lanibert. Ai.er tlie executioni tif tke Knn:, C'il ../'.. i i.i. l- : 
began to afpirc to a command, vdv.n'e 1 > much gkev, he l.i".\-, v:.]^:'.'.: \- : " o:", ar.n : j 
mueii authority avQuired. In his abkane, lie toc/:e ea: e to li.ive lie n'nr.e } :i. j-cied 
to tiiC council ut ilatc ;, an^d bodn hiends andiciven-i.s vonee.rred :n:n:ed.;.: .'. to '. >': .' 



o 



8 HISTOPvY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap, I. him into tli.it important office : The former fufpedled, that the matter had not been 
*H9' propofed merely by chance, without his own concurrence i the latter defired to re- 
move him to a diftance, and hoped, during his abfence, to gain the afcendant over 
Fairfax, whom he h:id fo long blinded by his hypociitical profelTions. Cromwel 
himfelf, when informed of his eledlion, feigned iurprize, and pretended at firft to 
hefitatc with regard to the acceptance of the command. And Lambert, either 
dfceivcd by his diffimulation, or, in his turn, feigning to be deceived, ftili conti- 
r.ucd, iiotwithftanding this difappointment, his friendihip and connexions with 
Cromwel. 

Ti^E new Lieutenant imm.ediateiy applied himfelf with his wonted vigilance to 
make preparations for his expedition. Many diforders in England it behoved him 
prcvioufly to compofe. All places were full of danger and inquietude. Tho* 
men, aftonifheci with the fucctircs of the army, remained in feeming tranquillity, 
fymptoms of the highefl difcontent every Vv'here appeared. I'he Engllih, long 
accuitomcd to a mild government, and unacquainted with diffimulation, could not 
conform their fpeech and countenance to the prefent neceffity, or pretend attach- 
ment to a form of government, which they regarded with fuch violent abhorrence. 
It was requihte to change the magiltracy of London, and degrade, as well aspunifh, 
the mayor and fome of the aldermen, before the proclamation for the abolition of 
Monarchy could be publiflied in the city. An engagement being framed to fupport 
the Commonwealth without King or Houfe of Peers, the army were with fome difH- 
CLjlty brought to fublcribe it , but tho' it was impofed upon the reft of the nation 
iiniler fevere [penalties, no lefs than the putting all refufcrs out of the protedlion of 
law ; iuch obilinate reluctance was obferved in the people, that even the imperious 
Parliament were obliged to dcfift from it. 'J he fpirit ot Fanaticifm, by which that 
airembly had at firft been llrongly fupported, was now turned, in a great meafure, 
aguinil; {him. 1 he pulpits, being chiefly Riled with Prefl:)yterians, or difguifed 
3<oyc;!ii1.s and having been long the fcene of news and politics, could by no penal- 
ties be re/i rained from declarations, unfavouiable to the eftablifhed government. 
Numbcricls were the extravagances, which broke out among the peopie. Everard, 
a diibancic 1 fokiicr, havi' g prtached that the time was now come when the com- 
munity (;1 go ds would hi renewed among Chriftian-, led out his followers to tike 
poireflion of the land -, and b.ing carried before the general, he refufed to falute 
h.im-, becaufc l,e wa^ but his fellow creature*. Wiiat leemed more dangerous : 
The army itfeUvvas iiifcftcd with like humors f, I'ho' the Levellers had for a 

time 

-j- '1 he IvjUowiiu; iiiflancc of extravagance is given by \Va'k:cr, in liis Hi.lojy of Independancy, 
pari il. }). 152. About thii unie, there came fix foldicio iir.o the parifn chaixh of Walton upon 

l^hamcsj 



THE C C) M M O X \V E A L T H 



j.o-.-i:c t:..i.- .:-.-:;-i: .s -;: -^; r'..- j :;v..- ;. : - . 

v: :.::'.:. 'l.:iy ;. r.v pra::!!:.! a^,.::.;:l il./'v ,/".^. 

b-.L:\ t.i ::;-: aL;aiii 1 t!iL- Pa: ii i!i:.-n^ 'I'nc.- i:.::i:: .,:.,::. ..:.'.: . , : 

I" j,;ca:',; s to {>!VlV:U i: to tlic (j-nciai an,; coi:::^! l: v. .:; : 'f"'i "j v. ; r- .\. 

i::iominy by l^iUc:; c cj! a cant r.:a:'i;..i. C\'.c l.< .!.. , 

tio:i tarthcr, was lent rx\ .1 t.) cb'-.r'. ; b..: t'.i> {nn-iih:::.' : \.-..s fj :ar :; 



1-, ,t- . ,1, 



u : .UKl cI 



, .-^ *^>;.. .1. 



? . 



tlic r.v..L:p.o-..,s l^;::ir, tlia: ah.nc a i.\ 
Ivjrcncc toliim, by arrciv.iin^'; his u: 
g;\cn ri;)bons bv \^ay o* lavtnir'^. .\bo;:C lonr t'l',';. :,:...; ai'cn.n' ,' a: I^.;!;..;\; i.::.: 
tlic ccn^man.i ol 'I'honVon, a inan !..r!ncriy co:.J.jv:: J ur i^.lirion bv a c .. 
n^arbab but par*.!o; cd by tba dcncra;. CoUhk-I R' ynobb, an.! al:.rv. a: ns ....: 
an.l Cin)nr.vt;!, fc!I ujMin ti^uii n\ Ibb- ^'rcj\';r.\i !cr bL^-ncc, an^l ib-b.-'.n : 
tlic apj^carancc ot a treaty, buiir r.unb.rcb. wc:c" tabcn j^iiion.jr- : Sonn.c o' t'n 
capita!!y puPiilba'Ji : 'Ihc ilII pa:\!oiud : A:. el tlbs tn;r.L;!:..:i;s '.] ::;:, tn.j' 

Thnnc;, rc.^r t^vi;;^ht; M:-. !': it ", 'h.- p- :.c"; r tli-Ti-, r.n: ' .:'.'.; 'I 

of ;'!.. f"'' '.: : h..-! .i 1.;:.:!.'); n ::i i;: h.i:: !, ;.ii.bi > ,;;u!!o ; ,.;-:.':i ; ;n i,, m\.'. i;i ;!i o;i;or :,.i:- i : -.;. l. .::.,; 
r: : l::'h:LJ. !!. ee-ar.-a tac paiih:. n r- t . llav :i v. In!.-, h^v;.;;; hi- hi.! a -i .!:: . t"v:nC. a.::- : 
ra.vl lfUT^-L::H);i ( irVrcJ 10 c>>i i:i:c) tiiv j .;!: a. i!;a liic j -. p\- i\:' ;. y i >:;.. ;i-:;i !;.., ^' :"; i 
it.iv in till-- i.l:u:vii, he \vi.:a ;:. t\ i. hi;rd;-\ .ir !. a:,.!t;..:e: !.! t!i;'!.i. ;!:..: 1,.- !: ; 1 :. ; ;\ .:..: 
];c h.iJ rcvJLiVL-.! a C'lmn^rul f o a (i^a, to ,; !i\ v r l.i - n\ lii irao :hcin. \' !: ,1' 'u- w,: . ; > u. i/. : . . ' 
; ' r.-.-"c:\ L' upon p:.':i ' d.ia'i::.''^n ; eo- \,_':r.-y ,il i.: . l:-.:;-. ( : ^ " 'i ,: a '.'. . '..y.\i::i :<:. :.: 
" KM.Lca'.'A. r V. ;b, a:..; ' ' ; ;. ! ;;. ... a ; 

. ,.: .':cn t ) ti.c Si.i.a, el v j( .!, :. 
: ::: irv kv./i.l i;;;!a, a \ . . ' " . 

^.v L;.:-; t '.:::-::' I'c.l.: ' ' ; .' 

,: c ..'.... .1 n : .\'\ VA)\\ :.:*.;.. 

a. uiv.n c:::]\. V.c'. '.^ ihc.' :.rj t . ; , 



10 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Cinp. I. {lill lurked in the army, and broke out from time to time, fcemed for the prefent 
''^'^- to be Ripprcficd. 

Fi- TiTioxs framed in the fimc fpirit of oppofit'on vver." prefented to the parlia- 
ment by lieiuecant-colonel Liibiirn, the perfon who, for difperfing feditious pamph- 
lets, had foimerly been treated w'uh fiich feveriry by the Star Chamber. His liberty 
was at tills ci;re a^ ill reliil-ied by tlie Parliament, and he was thrown into prifbn, 
as a proniorcr or fediiion and dilorder in tlie Commionweaith. The women ap- 
plied by petition for his releaic ; but were now defred to mind their houH^hold 
aiiairs ^'id leave the r.ovcrnment of the dace to the m.en. PVom all quarters, the 
Ikiriiame.'it were harraffed with petitions of a very free nature, which urongly ipoke 
the (cnCv of the nation, and proved how ardently all men longed for thereiloration 
of then- h'.vvs and liber[ies. Even in a feail, which the city gave to the Parlia- 
ment arid Council of State, it was eileen^ed a requifite precaution, ifv/e may credit 
Walker and Dugdaie, to Avear all the cooks, that they would ferve nothing but 
W'holefome iood to them. Such perpetual terrors hang over tyranny and injuilice ! 

Tni: laws of high-trcafon the Parliament judged it neceffary to enlarge beyond 
thofc narrow bounds, within which they had been confined during the monarchy. 
'I'hey even comprehended verbal offences, nay intentions, tho' fruPjrated ^ crimes, 
Vv-hich few civilized ftates ever puniQied with fuch fevcrity. To afiirm. the prefent 
government to be an ufurpation, to aflert that the Parliament or council of ftate 
were tyrannical or illegal, to endeavour the fubverting their authority or ftirrin^? up 
fedition againft them ; thefe offences were declared to be high-treafon. The power 
of inrorifonment, of which the petition of right had bereaved the King, it was 
n )w found requifite to leflore to the Council of State ; and all the jails of England 
were filled with men whom the jealoufies and fears of the ruling party had repre- 
fenteJ as dangerous*. 1 he taxes continued by the new government, and which, 
being unufual, were effecmed heavy, en:reaf-d the general ill will umicr wh.lch it la- 
bored. B'.fides the cuffoms and exclfe, ninety thoulhnd poundsa miOnih were le/icd 
on land for the fubfilttnce of the army. The feqacftrations and compofitions of .i c 
ivoyalnls, the fa!e of the cr.'Wn lands, and of the dean and chapter lands, rh;' 
they yi'Jckd imFiienfe fum^, v/ere not fufficient to fupply tlve va^f expenees, aivl, 
as was fufp/CCted, tlie grc.it d^predatior. , of the Parlian-.ent ap.d oi tlieir crcauires. 

.^^!Ins^all tlicfe dihkihties arid difanbarices, the fleddy mind of Ci>.nivvc!, 
wlilv ut confufion cr embaraffment, fid; [)uifued its pur^ole. \Vhi;r he was col- 
iecLni.-'; an arnn' ol t^-elve thoulantl men in the wefl O' ,Mi;,ja^'d, jjc nL co Ireknid, 
\indcr Reynold.-, .uxl Venable.'-, a reinforcement of lour thoulhnd hoilc and foot, 

in 

Hillory o!"i,u!-!^ti,Ja'icv, part JI, 



THE CO M M O X W E A E T IT. 



II 



in order to flrcn[;thcn Jones, ;uvi en I'elo h:.n to tl !e.i.! !.::i-.r !: a^\ .Inil t'.:-: p.^-.::;..v.", "^ 

ol ( -rmontl, \v!io I..v :.i l-iiv;!al"h ::::A l\f!;.:n k^ t!n\;i:c:i I):/'Mi;\ I;.cl.: : : ' ''' 

a le; ar,:tc bo:!v, luivlng t.i!-.c :i TicJ.iIi .\:k! DL.:^;.:!^, ;:;::.'-:..: ti 

who ler\\\! i:;^.ler Oncii!, an 1 ro y- i;:v^ Coj: v. ;.o , 0:1 ,'...V 

i'cw .. Aic.-r he had juiaed liis tro-; s ;o rhj n:.:\[\ ;;;: y, \'.'.:a 

tii"e, he remaineii united, Ormond jvilie.i th: river Ehv ': , i^..: - 

iv.i;ies two milc'^ Ircm Eiiblin, with a \-ie\v of corriiv 1; :\> \ .;.-. I:i 

oid'T to cut clV all tarthcr lujVjily irom jo:us, h.e had be. .. ' _ 

o'd loar, which hw at the plates oi 1 )Ll>hn ; and be;;::; (.x;\;'../ d v.:::\ c 

fati:2;ueior foinj I'ays, b.e h,.u! retired to rcll, a:t,r Laxi: [\ o c:-y '.o he;-- 

under ariiis. 1 le was Uu:. ;en!y awaked witluhe noile o; Ji.i::^^ ; a: d d :::.., . 

his bed, law every thini^ alrea iy in tumidt ar.d e()-.i:.i'.';ii. J iie-, a;. (.. 

oirice;-, formerly a hiwyer, hiad i.tUied oat wltli t' c rein!o' ce;":^-.!!: ;;. vdv ar ;. d , 

and a:taei-;ing t'ric jnirty emido.ed in repairiiv^ t!.e :orr, h;e :< :ad'.y ; i.:\l r'l a::, ; ar- 

iucd the advaata:!^:-, and tell i;i witli the iww.y, v/hieli had :;.!:h-^ttd ()r::i.-;i..'s 

orders. I'licfe l;e l0(;n tlu'ew in.to diloider ; \'iit ihcrA to ii <;/,:, i:i I; de (4 ..!! d.-a 

ciiorts (jf the Eord-Eieutanaiit , cliaced tia-m old t!ie iid,' ; d ./ed ad [hil: t nts 

bagLia^,--, amniunition i anvl rctun^^d via: ai'^i;-, to Diddn, ;idcr hiiha^ t!;rce 

thj'j:ai;d n;en, and ta'.dn.^ ;ibo\-a two thiOuland p;do;va;- . .;. : 

'{"ins lu!', wliich threw lonve bleindli on th.e nd.'.ita.^v e'l '.radar :.: C:rr^rl^ \ --.ar, 
irreparable to the r^yal caule. '1 ha; i:a;naroL;s ar;i:y, vaa^i^, \\\-'\ '.' > i:n.;a:i y..':.:^ 
and diidcudy, the I deiiteiuint had ae^ :i co!daLin;_; ;;;r '.va.vj dan; a ;. car, \v is udd: .w- d 
in a moment. Cromwal ld,.n alt^r anived in I^..dda, v.lure ha v, a [ ., ' 
.it!; fid ditv di'-nits an 1 raioiain:^^. 1 ie h 



P 1 n 



' ..an 
1 ' 



w I'n ir. 

X. )V,a"i 'a. ,;i \snll djini.ed ; and ():a'i-;{);-d Ia;d d^:\)v. a ]. 

thoaliai 1 ir.en, und.cr .~^ir dvrtlii.r .\ib;n., aii ('i . . 

tiiai 'J'r.d.in, lyi i:^ in tlie nei_ :.b.)i.naK)od ol l)jln; , v.;..... ..: . 'r - .a::;i 

(d-onv-veh a;ul la/ was wi'lin;^; io am^ 'ov tiia cr.-nv.v Ka;:.' Lin:e in r:...t !i a 
ha hi:i:lait' d:(.i.id rq:air his br<M;^;i knea-^. l>n: LdamaL-l k:.a'.v [':,: ::: 
(;: cdiratc !i. I I ivin!:p-nade a b;ea. a, hc(vd red.i [^v;'aral a;-ani:. I: 
r; : uded vdih :'ae:it h':'-, h re na aaa tlie .I'laa';, andlanl"!,, a' a; 



on hi. men. An oppohtion wa-, o\'. iaa..rne ,, ;;e inrion^ '.' n,) a- 



7 iie tov.ii wa. tade:i lv.(;rd in ban i ; ;:;] o 
c-ii;'l daiad^r.r was :na'e in :' a ad;' a. 
b.>id;eis dui .! v! v.adi !:iuod, \\L:-e n :.: ('a 
t' ( ( ;i.-ia r,d. Oar p: irai alo; i . ; , v. i; 
tai. i.ni'aeita! ia.\'o. ..;.,! (.ledra . . , 



, n 



a, a 
d bv d.e 



12 11 I 3 T C R Y OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Ch-jo. F. Cromv/et. prctend-'cl by tliis ieverc execution to retaliate the cruelty of the Irifli 

'^''* maiTdcrc : But h.e well k:ic\v, ihat ahnoft the whole giirrilbn was Englifb j and his 
iudicc was only a bar;:ai"cu^ polxy, in order ro terriiy a'l otiier garrilons from refiil- 
ance. His policy, liOwcvLf, h.id the dcfired effect. Having led the army without 
delay to Wexford, h.e b.gan to '-attcr the town. I'he garrifon after a flight de- 
fence offered to cipituLtCi but bifore they o'luained a cellation, 'iiey imprudently 
neglecled tbiCir guards ; ar.d the EngUfli arrny ruCied in uron tliem. 1 he lame fe- 
verity was exereifed as at Tredah. 

F.v::Ry town, before which Cromwel prefcnted himfelf, now opened its gates 
witliout refinance. Rofs, tho' ftrongly garrilbned, was furrendercd by lord Ta5e. 

Odobcr. Ilavips; t.^ken Eliionn^e : Cromwel threw a biidfj:;e ov^er the B.-.rrov/, and made 
liimf/if mafler oi Paflage and Carrie. Owen Oneale fubmittcd at difcretion, and 
loon aicrwards died. The Engiifn liad no difficulties to encounter but what arofc 
from fatigue and the advanced feafon. Fluxes and contagious diitempers crept in 
amorg the foldiers, wlio perifned in great numbers. Jones himfelf, the brave 
governor of Dublin, died at Wexford. And Cromwel had fo far advanced with 
his decayed army, tiiat lie began to find it difficult, either to fubfiil in the enemies 
country, or retreat to h-s own garrifons. But while he was in thefe ftraits, Corke, 
Kinfale, and all the Englifh garrifons in Muniler deferted to him, and opening 
ovcnibcr. their gates '-efolvcd to fiiare the fortunes of their victorious countrymen. 

!';(.-;, Tins defertion of t':c Engllffiput an end entirely to Ormond's authority, which 

v.Ms already much diminilliedi by the misfortunes at Dublin, Tredah and Y/exford. 
I'he Iriffi, aftuated by national and religious prejudices, could no longer be kept 
in obedience by a proteftant governor, who was fo iinfuccefsful in all his enter- 
prizes. The c'ergy renewed t'.eir excommunications againfl him and his adherents, 
and added the terrors of fupcrflition to thofe arifing from a viflorious encm.y. 
Cromv.'el having received a rcinrorcement from England, again took the field 
cariy \:\ the f;;ring. After a fiegc, he made himfelf mafter of Kilkenny, the only 
place wi.cre he met with any vigorous refiftance. The whole frame of the IriHi 
un'on being in a m.anncr difiblved, Ormond, foon after, left the ifiand, and dele- 
gated i:is authority to Cianricarde, who found afieiirs fo defperate as to admit of 
r.o remedy. Tiie In;]i were glad to embrace banifliment as a refuge. Above 
40/,c .. n.en pafTed Irito foreign fervice ; and Cromwel, pleafed to free the ifland 
fro:r, ciiemies, v/no never could be cordially reconciled to the Englifh, gave them 
full Lb^rty and Icifure for their embarkation. 



THE COMMON' W E A L T IT. 



Whii.t Cromwc! jT"Cce(.!e;l ^'. i:ii i\:c]. v.: iiU' m.T -'. lt:-''- in IrcLmJ, v ;,;:n in i' r.\ J. 



tlv iVacc of :,ine n^ n'riis he h.il A:rr : v; r- ;v i .') 



, 1 



r.- > r^ 



nni a r . -.v .i.-;':-^ (jI v ctoi'v ::;.vl ni'im;-!! ::. ^cori.:iK!. 



; .,,-' 



when "^i;- !..:.;.:i P:,ur,!as br(jnf;!^' !.:!>; in:. I!:rnn:c^ , rh;:t I;.- w.v, ; r(jc!.nn.vv: K;.: ' v 

.ni:ni:i!rcnr. Ac the I'mc tim , l>npln infcjim ,: hi m (>: i.. in;:\! , t. i- 

:.n' xcJ t') the |-ro(:!"n:a:i'\^. nn,: :'.-nv\nl v.x in i:n Iv t!i i: .-, whj. !. nn ;!,c 

. *\i-:n hi; I cii^:!; ixco!'ni/cnl rj'.n.n'^n in one c: in^ l^in;^ :(nn-,. Ch.ni : o 

c ;::!Jcrc- ', thnt t!ioIc winj [ mien..- n to .::hnr)v. i j^; hi; liiin, w t rn ;u L. .r \ ;/ 

tirre in :;.:Lnni reb iiion a:^ninll his fanii'v, ::n-! v.-nnld b:- l".n-e to in:;-n;l vcr,' 

lirrij anthor'ty into his hand>, and rari civ wou'.i a'lorJ him jnnh.nal !ii crty .n:d 

flc'uri':-/. .\s the prol^cct: ol aluirs in Imland was at tln^i tine vw ; ronn.'n :, 

he intended -atlier to try his fortinv: in tin:: kip;;dom, ironi \\i-.:eh he vX- c^ud 



'.,1 



more ciu'irtn innmin. on nt:n. oj.(.nenc 



., .,,1 r U 



Mi:. X whde he iound i: cxp. d.nt to d.!r:rt ^rom H .'h::}. T 



ni int^T^.n iiein. 



LV'dtcd l-'ro'.'in.c, were rnnc'. a::a.i-icJ, to 
an nly o; CJininge, v.l\lc\\ v/^s -xnn n:e:v b-'n'vd ''v ti.e jopd... e, a; 



V. .t!: ccrnpanKn. Ids '^Jnlci"^ condiri^n, an.i : xpmndni t'x :i;rca:ed .ddiorinnee a^.d.;;l 
ti:. nnirder (dd.is .a:'-er i a d.e^l, : > vdn^'i nuthi; .; t'.ey th(;nvhi, btn- t"..- ntn-:^ :l 
iH^e o[ hinaiicirm anidi hiciion c. uivl hiaw iiiipeded ri'.e i'a: lianyen.t. I'nn. tin/ d.j 
pid^ihic in general bore a great h;vonr to t'n.e King, t'.ve St;:-, s v. ^re un/.a!". t !d- ; re- 
lence. They dr-aded tiic I'ariiani.n:, lo 'ornd.i.ilne b n t!:e;r in -Anr, and id v. >- 



T", 



i:.y a:'pr^.;enc;cJ tne iv. .: r:ee:jntant r; 



i]vrGn>. in a!l their enterpii^n 
Jrom iv.C'A of liitli violent and hangnty d!ii^o!":t;or f . And a:: ?r tiie !:H:rvd r ; r Po- 
ridatis, they Ibimd it linl n:ore r.qnidte to latisfy the Ih^^iidi Cumn::-n'.'.n.dd;, b , 
re::ioving tlie King at a tlidan^ie :rom them. 

Dor, iM.AVi, tho' a rati .-c u:" I h,)ii ;nd, hi.] ii\ed Icn : ir; ! ': dand ; and:\:ng 
cii^ph'V.d a-i audlant to tlie hn;,:i eonrt (d inlliee, vdn>. :; e :\.j..:\::\..d ti.e l\;n.;, i.c: 
hadrilen to great cr^-.iit and hi\(jLr v. i'di tlie ruiing party, 'i ine.' lent 'nipii enn. . \ ir/.o 
1 lolhind. ; but no looner had; !;. .naiwd at tiK' Hagunn t:i.ni lie wa.s 1^ r u; i.'n I / 
lome rovahlb-, ch.ieily fLtain.r^ to ^^ontro^e. 'I'li^v ri.d: d ir.to tlie r. (.n:i, vde. ; 
he was littin.g wit'n lonie compan.y -, t:ra:'g\l idnn ir^m t';,- : i'. 1 ; [ nt ].\r.\ to^i n i 
as th-e [irll victim to tlieir rn.urd., ; d! 1 vnr^i_,n, \ery lei; ..^.iv ..n,l pe.in ..Inv r.p:- 
r.Ked ; and tho' cn'-lers wire iild. d , v []). iv. :.:'..' /a: s t- a'r 1 'h- n:, ' .e v. re 
eXLLii'.td wit'i inch llownifs ar.d. rd...n . ., t.'n:t thee:., . , . . '; n 

opportuidty to make tlKireLepe. 



Cn -nM-LS, ha\dng pald'd hnnc o:.n 
.\nA cWA lev,- ci\ d;ties were paid hnn.:; 



i\n-'\ ' h re n- .nddancc '.vao ^_:een i.;.ii, 
: . in : .-..it :.' Jc a-y, vd.ere h:^ .n.- 

d 1 - r ; , 



J4 HISTOPvY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Ch?.p. T. thority was fliil acknov.legcd. AVinram, laird of Liberton, came to him as deputy 
^^'^'^' from the committee of eflates in Scotland, and informed liim cf the conditions, to 
which he mnil: necclTariiy ru'Dmic before he could be admitted to the exercife of his 
authority. Conditions more fevcre, were never impofed by fubjeds upon their 
fovcrcign ; but as the afTairs of Ireland began extremely to decline, and the King 
found it no longer fiife to venture himfelf in that ifland, he g.ve a civil anfwer to 
Winram, and deHrcd commifTicners to meet him at Breda, in order to enter into 
a treaty with regard to thefe conditions. 

The earls of CaHlIis and Lothian, the lord Burley, the laird of Liberton and 
other commifTioners arrived at Breda j but without any pov/er of treating: the King 
mud fubmit without rcferve to the terms impofed upon him. The terms v/ere. 
That he fnould iffjc a proclamation, baniOiing from court all excommunicated 
perfons, that is, all thofe, who either under Hamilton or Montrofe, had ven- 
tured their lives for his family ; that no Englifh fubjeil, who had ferved 
.igainft the Parliament, fliould be allowed to approach him j that he fhould bind 
himfelf by his royal promife to take the covenant-, that he fliould ratify all ads 
of Parliament, by Vv'hich Prcfbyterian governmjcnt, the direftory of worfliip, con- 
fefiion of faith andcatechifm v/ere enjoined ; and that in civil affairs he fliould govern 
himfelf entirely according to the diredion of Parliament, and in ecclefiaftical ac- 
cording to that of the aflembly. Thefe propofals, the cornmdflloners, after pafiing 
ionie time in fermons and prayers, in order to exprefs the m.ore determined refolu- 
tion, very folemnly delivered to the King. 

The Khng's friends were extremely divided v/ith regard to the part, wliich he 
fi:oulJ. ac'c in tliis critical conjun^:l'ure. Mofc of liis Englifh counfellors difuiadcd 
l:im Irom aLcepiing conditions, fo difidvantageous and diOionourable. They faid, 
that tlie men, v/ho now governed Scotland, were the moil furious and bigottcd of 
that [)ai'ty, which, notwithftanding his gentle government, had firft excited a re- 
bellion againfi the late King , after the moll unlimited concefiions, had renewed 
their rebellion, and ftopt the progrefs of his victories ; and after he had cntrufted 
jiisperfon witli tlieminliisuttermod diHrefs, had bafely fold him, together with their 
(;wn lionour, to his barbarous enemies : That they had as yet fliov^n no marks of re" 
pentance, ap.d even in the terms, which they now propofed, dil'playedthe fameantimo- 
narcliical principles and the fame jedoufy of their Sovereign, by whicli they had ever 
been actuated : That nothing could be more dilhonourable, than that the King, in 
his firfL entcrpriz'-, fhoulcl lacriiice, merely for the empty name of royalty, thofe 
j^rinciidcs, Jor which his f^ither had died a martyr, aiul in which he himfelf had been 
ilriclly educated : That by this hypocrify he might loie the Royaliils, who alone 

v/l re 



THE C O M >! X V; E A L T IT. 



1 C 



werf' (inrer:!y nttachc to in-:i ; b'.-: \],'vc- ".-M -:::; iIi- ;--l::%/:j::.i-s wl.o w-^r;! C':v\ T. 
avi.. -L' :;is i.:-]-;!'}' n.-^l h;--:u.lV, a 1,1 - '' '' '' <,--;' . - '[,)). '''i- 
I: y and rcr ;;>y : 'i'l.:: t^- S. ;r '. '..; ! ^ >\''.i:'.i 

intcncii - :() ! ' wr.: him to fli,- th'<>:"* o I .:i!^u: '.! ; an . cv::\ \.. y ew.. ' ^ v: -, :,_d 
to niai;c !., h .^n d'Ac v.-y% it ! id !Li!]"'-;i. ..t!y apj-c.iT !, !)y l:.( i \t . c;! I I r:l:.):\'^ 
c'M^ ^:;o;ncnt, Ivnv ii:--vr., ' ih^ ir \ y:c : v. as to U> ^jv^.i: an ' n:rr[^: i/-; : 'I'ha: nn :!i^ 
i:ril. ch \ I:. wiHch ilicy fl:o.iid r X'\\ :, '^ --^vL anJ !,'., j ;''. iis?; '< ..!d lav h '. of 
thcq^icl.ar exy.;,,i,Mt'w rarwn^i':'^'; tllun;(d\c^ to th 1 ^ y;';'hi-.:r!:an-:vt,and v; u!d 
bc'tray r'- K.r-, a-; they had d.. :. !;a ia:h,r, n-) i h ::;.':. ci lasc" nd s: d.ad 
th ir, lio-..cv(ji dcij'cratc ti^c r; yai r'uld, i:o nia\in-;s ot prn.drcc o u.!d ii:U;{y h m 
in ia':ruh::'; I ids honom' tor 'O (;i.hcr pi;ra\ia!;' than :o cnd.n:: r h's Id, C;;- Idx- tv. 
ld:i: y..\\\ o:' 1 .ancric, now P^.dc (d" 1 landlcon, tl:c Idnl of I .and; :da!;^, and 
otl.e-.s of tliat ;vr--, vdio ha:! bci-n b-udilicd th.cdr cou-nry for t':c '. t,* crcr'.Lv.'- 
m'nit, v.- re thi.:. -.-iti^t;' Kh ; and being dedr;;ns of rtin-id;:^ h-m-e : h;> ra- 



ti uv, th, V ;-)! 
ncdiv 1 r.a 



V. d t 'c o d :on ot the vom^ii DidvC o: I'li-. d:n;'';ia n, a:.-/. \'erv c 



hi".) to .K CO; 'f t'va ca.ndiiion.s 



ery car- 

rcqui.wl ot liini. Jt was i.;-* , .;, d.at 
v/.y.' 1.1 \;v;ii'd mnrv :i'aiiV ri.a Kn-!^!,'s f n; niies tiian to !( !dm ia'i ir;t,j ia: dure 
ban f(,;- hian, and 'v n. lari;;.i!'(>L;s a iiicat\- Icwc ri:e jvdlddon o!" his d(ndid( ns 
t^ :', uc who 'lefirc'I bat a pretext tor excb^idiing hini : i !v t Ar:ivba, not .ia.'.an;;- 
f ) ar to oyo^>!'e ih' h nt ofth ; iiation as to tlirow off ail allcGinne. to ;ns !u-. f: ;.d.',ii, 
l.a,i cnd^'; 'd cdis c:: 'cdicnt, by widch he i^o::cd to niake Clnrics d.iinav-e hm!- 
ri ", an ' -.irc a i;inLrdom, vddcli was oi^ercd him : That it was nor to b_ d'nibted 
but d^ ...'! national fyirit, adnbed by Mamdton .\nA his pnty, would (i,!d rild 
lii;d " n lavoiir of tlvir Idance after \\c liad intruflcd Iviiveif to ti-.eir didciity, , r.d 
V. o-d. nva',^h relax tiie ri;2;or of tiiole conditions, now \rr\ n\\\ m ^n dinii : d hat 
w '.aAV.f- ndiv^'at b: 'diC paelenr iiueiui ais ot tlie ruliiig [\iir\-, t''.ey nuid i I'.aw.d- 
dafoiy be ci^i^^igad i^ a var wiLh binuiand, ant! mull a.cceyi tie adi'buiac o' t'u- 
Kiny;^ fr'en/.s or ali parti.^s, in order to kipport tha^mlci'v'cs ayyir.d a p-ower, lo 
ir.ueh lup-'rlor : '1 !iat b.uW'. vcr a i.ed.dy, unitorni conc'jct nngiu h r.\- b^en Ufitalde 
to the advanced a c Av.d dricl ci.;;vd>"'^'^'^^^ ^^' ^''*^ '^^'^ Kinf;, ao one wcn.'d ti,.uv.' 
any l)h:n:e on a vo ng Prin.cc ur co n^ lying wit!i co. diticais "a If.^di neeeditv h d 
cxt.a-tvd troni him : d Irt e\e': tlie rig; ur o' tluile princiyb , \ ro'ede.l hv ha- la- 
tia'i-, t;u' widi uanc ;t h.. 1 ex >lt^-d ' 's ciiaradfcr \.d:] been cx'rm 'y . r. i.diei.d 
to h:s iat.r. d ; lajr coudi ane tidng l^e m<;r. Iv r'/iLaable :o die i>'val eaule tiaai to 
; ivc aii pa:r;es roo'O to iiopc '.ov n'o; a ctpi.d aad n'a;rc in.. ' ni .\;n:s ( ! go- 

\vran\a:: And t:i,>t whe: e a;idir> \\ ere T' du ( 1 t) ii) deg-- r.a . :ii..\\d\[\ :i, ;. al- 
ia. ' S oa^dc little to d.: regarded j ..nd ti.e ivai^d !' aivv: i:;y ;.;'!,( :in dio". leg ! ant! 

' e .n ' V 



i6 II I 3 T O R V OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 

^ ''" ' ca; ]y fyinpLonis of courage and aclivky thiin in determining ftrictly among tlieo- 
^'' logic;;! contiovci-!les, wich which, k nvg'ii; be ilinpoitd, he was, as yet, very 
iitiiC acquviintccl. 

TiiESi-; arguaients, f.-conded by the advicve of the Qiieen and the Prince of 
Orange, the King's brother in law, who both cf them efteemed it ridiculous to 
rciLire a kingdom, merely from regard to epifcopacy, had great influence on 
Charles. But what chiefly determined hirn to comply was the account brought 
):iim of th.^ fate oi' iNlontrofe, who, with all the circumftances of rage and con- 
tumely, had been put to death by his zealous countrymen. Tho' in this infiance 
the King faw more evidently the furious fpirit, by which the Scotch were actuated, 
he had now no farther refiburce, and was obliged to grant whatever was demanded 
oi him. 

MoxTRosE, having laid down his arms at the command of the late King, had 
retired into France, and, contrary to his natural difpufition, lived for fome time 
inac'[ivc at Paris. Me there became acquainted with the famous Cardinal de Retz j 
and that penetrating judge celebrates him in his memoirs as one of thofe heroes, 
of whom there are no longer any remains in the world, and who are only to be 
met with in Plutarch. Defirous of improving his martial genius, he took a 
journey to Germany, \vd.s extremely careiled by the Emperor, received the rank 
of Marefchal, and propofed to levy a regiment ior ti^e Imperial fervice. While 
employed for that purpofe in the Low Countries, he heard of the tragical death of 
the King ; and at the fame time received from his young mafter a renewal oi his 
commifiion of Captain General in Scotland*. His ardent and daring fpirit needed 
but ti^.ic- riitl-oricy to put him in action. In ilolland and the north of Germany 
lie gatiiere.. followers, v/hom Ids great reputation allured to him. The Kin<^>- of 
Denmark and Duke of tlolftein lent him fome fmall fupplies of money : The 
Ch_ic.n of Sweden furnifhed him with arms : The Prince of Orange with fliips : 
And Montrole, haileninghis cnterprize, left the King's agreement with the Scotch. 
fliould make him revoke his commiffi n, i'ct out tor the Orkneys v^irh about 
500 men, rr.cR- of t'nem Germans. I'hele Vvere all the preparations, which lie 
could make r.gain'l a kingdom, fettled in domeftic peace, fupported by a dif- 
cipHned army, iuHy apprized oi his enterprize, and prepared afiainil: him. Some 
of Ids retainers haviiif/ rold him of a prophefy that lo him and him alone it v.'i^js re- 
,';':; t't/ t-o ri'JIore the K n^^^'s autljority in all his domiinons \ he lent a willing ear to 
fuggf fti'jp.s, which, however ill grounded or improbable, were fo conformable to 
his ov/n magnaninious diipofition. 

Severai, 

Di;r;:c', ClarcriJcn, 



THE COMMONWEALTH, 



17 



Several of the inlia'jit.mt^ of i]\:. Orkneys, tho' an unwar'.ikc p^ojxe, lie 
armed ;uul carried over uiiii him to Caithncfs ; hording, ili.v. the gcncr.il af-l-^Lion 
tJ ihc King's Icivic- anJ. th-j famr 01 hii To: incr cXidoks, v.ouh! ni.d:e t'v : .::.- 
taidcrs (lock to his iLmdard. But .ill men v/cre nov/ harr.iii'.d and iat:m-c\; x..:/. 
wars an<.l dilordcrs : Many of tholl-, v. !uj lormerly adiuTcd. t > lii.n, ia;. Iv.n iL-- 
vcrcly [)u;iiflicd by the covenanters : Ar,d no j)rorpe-'t o: id^ccls ujj cr.t, rc.n;-^! in 
o^^pjlhion to io great a force as was drawn togedicr ngainll h.ini. B'^t however 
v.jak Montrofc's army, the memory 0!' p.dl events ftiuck a iiiwit urror inio t'. c 
cummittej of cftat^s. Idiey inimediatcly ordered L.cQy ar.d 1 lo'borne to n:..: '^. 
again'l liim with an army of 4JC0 nicn. Stralun 'a.is fcnt b.fo;e with a I .d\ 
ot cavalry to chiCck his progrefs. lie led unexpeclediy on Mon:ro!"e, who !....: 



no horfe to bring hini intelligence. 'Mv royahlh were yui to Higl^r , :. 1 01" . : 
eirlier killed or taken prifoncrs; and Montrofe Iiimielf, basing pu: on t'-.edi:.; . . 
of a peaiant, v.as, by a friend, v.hom he trulled, pcrfidiouny delivered i;/.' li.. 
hcir.ds oi h.is ci'.emics. 

All the infoLncc, which fuccefs ca:} produce in iir.gcncroiiS minds ^'^ c ...r 
clfedby the covenanters againft Mcmtrofe, wliom they io much hat^d ar.d. f.> i;: cii 
dreaded. Thecdogical antijMihy farther encre.d'ed their indig;dties toward aj er- 
fon wh.om ih.ey r garded as execrable on account of the excommunication, v. !de!i 
had been p-onounced ngainft him. L-eiley led Idm about for fever.il d.:)>, i;; tlic 
i\imc lov.' habir, under vdiieh he had difguifed himfelf. Tiie vrdgar, v. her.N'er l-.c 
pufled, v.'cre inidigated, tho' fometimcs wi:Ii reluclance, to rej^roaeh ar.d vl'.]:/ 
him. When lie ctmie to Edinburgh, every circumda'Ve of c'^bc race raj__;e ar.d 



hy t:^f 
1. 



i.-kViiC v,-:r. pur la 
ci:y, !:e w.;> m. 
V. it'i a iii.,h clu.ir o: 
iu;i view (;f !iim. 1 he was '^:,ii:'i 
der.-, and. 'ade.'.^d diro' IkiI s i^wl . 
ir.an took (^T ilie har (^f the no'>l : ; 
iiv.ry ardwidi hi^ '^>. .::,: on i ^hc 
theMa;-uc'", va'kin.-; l,vo a:;d f. 



ce bv order o: tiiC Pariia:ve 
m 'gidrate':, an.l p'.t i 



. vt li\: caller. i Liate ol 



e A: 



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v.; ;-e.ore tnem, 
O..S ::.-d ;n;m.i;..', v, i .n :i: y . 
!>!.'- i_,- li;elr dii :.] and z : ;\;;- 
._, had on tiK'i kn.es d,:ir.ere 
.:.-. i :e.V':d lii.n widi l:i.en: :ca: 
..' .'.:ViCA ;..-ainl' tiieie r. ..,;.:; 



r. .'..: 1: . .., t.ie 

'..: :i;e ci'-,, 

. dr.:ii.n. Ti.- 

j'jel nature, a. 



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V mu ten.:^rii...i t 



1, 



i3 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

MoN^TRosE Iiirr.fcif, tho' pafnonately fond oftriie glory, knew to defpife unme- 
ritcd ignominy, and v/hcrevcr lie was carried, received wiih manly fccrn and in- 
diff-'rence the infults of his enemies : Their ignoble behaviour he conHdered as 
rufricient vengeance for ail their injuries. In the road, he had paffed by the earl 
of Sontheflc's houfe, his father in law, and v/as allowed to fee his children, who 
lived there : Not even the tendernefs or this hill adieu could difturb the even tenor 
of his heroic mind, or extort a complaint againft the injuilice of men or the 
cruelty of fortune. 

When he was carried before the Parliament, which was then fitting, Loudon, 
the chancellor, in a violent declamation, reproached him with the breach of the 
national covenant, which he had fubfcribed ; his rebellion againft God, the King, 
and the Kingdom , and the many horrible murders, treafons, and impieties, for 
which he was now to be brought to condign punifhment. Montrofe in his anfwer 
maintained the fame fuperiority above Iiis enemies, to which, by his fame and great 
adiions, as well as by tiie confcience of a good caufe, he was juftly entitled. He told 
the Parliament, that fmce the King, as he was informed, had fo far avowed their 
authority as to enter into treaty with them, he now appeared uncovered before 
their tribunal j a refpedl, which, while they flood in open defiance to their fove- 
reign, they would in vain have required of him. That he acknowledged with in- 
finite fhame and rcmorfe the errors of his early condudl, when their plaufible pre- 
tences had feduced him to tread with them the paths of rebellion, and bear arms 
againft his Prince and Country. That his following fervices, he hoped, had fufn- 
ciently teftiiied his repentance, and his death would now attone for that guilt, the 
only one with which he could juftly reproach himfelf That in all his warlike cn- 
terprizcs he was warranted by that commifilon, which he had received from his 
and their mafter, againft whofe lav/ful authority they had erected their ftandard. 
That to venture his life ftr his fovercign was the leaft part of his merit : He had 
even thrown down his arms in obedience to the facred commands ot the King; 
and had refigned to them the vid:ory, which, in defiance of all their cfibrts, he 
was ftill enabled to difpute with them. That no blood had ever been fned by Inm 
but in the field of battle ^ and many perfons were nov/ in his eye, many now dared 
to prorounce fentcnce of death upon him, whofe life, forfeited by the laws ot 
war, f.e h.ad formerly favcd from the fury of the foldicrs. That he was forry to 
fliid no better tiftimony of their return to allegiance than the murder of fo faith.rul 
a fubjeft, in whofe death the King's commiPfion muft be at once fo highly injured 
and affronted. That as to himfelf they had in vain endeavoured to vilify and de- 
g*'a.-'e him by all their ftudied indignities ; The juftice of his caufe, he knew, 

would 



THE C O M M O X W E A L T H. 



19 



*' haii:; m tlic Ki:-, 



:v'" .N u.ci 



!, ,1.,-K 



.*^() i.[\- i:o"'i Ix'ir -; lu ! -,", tli.ir j;r 



arms .i;c tcj I'e ;:-i",: to toi:r c.l;/s g! ::ic i.;n;;iii):n ; 1 \m1ii 1 .; a1 !i;i,l;s t.iit .i.i,ii :.) 



in favour ol i!:. c.ii.ic, rur \\!.a !i ! I.....1 



;it. t'l.'.r V. !-v 



v.rioc m pir.uii, ;.. :;:rr.v iiilo \'('il ;. 1 11c ;'.(\ :n rem.ii.i. i a :i ;::.:> nv :i'..:i:^.it ut 



!us Iki-uic Ipin 
Nov.- was i. , 



, ..M.l no IcIpA' ;:;!^ : ;.(/ ul liis povt:c.a! :;v'ii i. 



IIIIK.;. I: 



(yl Ins coci.ii s a.. 



t' (, n an r,\ '-.c n.-.^it iiiolLiii .0- i^ntn .imI ; ;\ ir 
U;r 'i''^ .u!hc:c;:^c to tiic laN'.', , : I. coi, ,", .:: 






1: ,-^. 



v.'O'.K: enoblc any (ortuiv: , i.or \\a} he ot'r.cr aftl-aion than to fee the authority of ^^^^p- 1- 

hii. i':i.ue, \\\:\\ v. Incii lie v.a-, mvcilcHl, treat \i v.ith ;"o :nu h ;L;!!o:r,.iU'. And thar 

he now ioviiiliv tuliowcci, by a h:.e uni'.ill Untcnce, h.is iate lovcrcign ; anJ IliouM 

be h.ip'v, i!, in h;s lucure deiliny, he coi.'.J tohcr.v him to ti'.c lair.e bl;r>,rul nun- 

f; j!>, wl-.cre his j)hty and huinane virii.LS iiad alieady, withiujc doui^t, kcurcd hnii 

ar. vt':;..'.i recommence. 

MoNT'af sf's lentencc was next pronounced againil him, " That hi\ Jariici 
' CjraiMm" tor tlr.sv.as t'.ve only nair,e t'u-y vouc hi.i:evl !;im '' fliuuld next dav 
' be carried to bdinbur.di Croi's, and tlieic be hiani^rd on a gibbet, thirry io::r 
** hi-ls lor the 1| ace ol tliiee hiours : Ilicii be taken dow.'-., h:s h.ead be cut off 
*' u[;on a fcalVo'.di, and albiKcd to c'.e p'.'if.in : I lis lei^s and arms h,e i^::ck u;) 
" on liie iour cliiL-i towns ot the kinud.om : His body be buried in the p. ace ap- 
" prt):'ri.ited tor con^iiion n-ialefactors , cxce[iL the c.iUrcii, u|)on hi-; re^er.tai^^e, 
** llio-.ld take oil hiS cxcommu.ncaiion.". 

'1 n.: ci^rizy, liopin;:, th.at the tcrroi's of imnx'diatc death had now given tliem 
an advantage over their enemy, llock.d about him, anvl iidui.ed; over his laKca 
iortunis. 'I'liev pronouiiced Iii.^ damnation, a>-d aiVured him, t'lat t've u,dgn;ent, 
wiiicli he \v.is \o foon to liiiier, wouki rrow butt an ealv prok-gue to tl'.,it v, Iki^h he 
'^n,il undiergo liercafter. 'Jdr-y next oikered to prav with Ikim : IV.it !'.e was ic,o 
we'd acquainted with th.nle toiar.s ot imprecation, which thev caik-d i ravers. 
' Lord V(jueiirate %ct to toueh ttie obdurate heart or thi:s prot.d iiirorngibi.- ib> 
' ner; ti.is wicked, {'eriLired, tr.iiterous, and [)ro;anj [j.rlon, wh.o relu'.'.s to 
' lic.rkcn to ihevoivC (n tliy c!cn\du'' ^ucli v.'ere tiie [\kitio;;.s wlk;'ki ic 
c.\;iectedi tlity woukl, accoidin.'; to cudom, of/.r up u^r kirn. He told, tj-.em, 
liiai tla-y were a mi!erab!e ikK.dcd .ukI deiucdnf'; [ co['le ; and woid.i (luTiiv ii:in_; 
tiieU" coLiutrv under tke mcnl uduppc^rta' 'ie leivi:i,de, 'o \v! ;cli anv nation I::. '. vWr 
l,)een Kd.u.tvk '' lor niy j\ut,'' aduadi he, ' I am u'.eck i :wue.;r to . cee u.y 
' head a.kxed to tke place, w her i: i., ie..:cnced to kanJ, than to iur, n:v :'.:Lu:e 



20 II I S T O Pv Y OF GREAT B R I T A I ^7. 

C];ap. r. ignominious c'eath def:ined to the mcaneft malefacVor. Every attempt, which the 
' - ^- infolence of the governing party had made to fubdue his gallant fpirit, had hitherto 
pvovcJ fi '.lir'iefs : They made yet one effort more, in this laft and melancholy fcene, 
vhen aa cniriiLy, arifing from motives merely human, is commonly foftened and 
(rirrn?d, The executioner brought that book, which had been publifhed in ele- 
[i^Ant l.a*:in of his truly heroic actions, and tied it by a cord about his neck. Mon- 
rrofe frnikxi at this new inilance of their mialice. He thanked them, however, 
for thtir oScious zeal ; and faid, that he bore this teftimony of his bravery and 
loyaky with more pride than he had ever wornc the garter. ITaving afked, whe- 

e..:;cd. ther they had any more indignities to put upon him, and renewing fome devout 
ejacLihrLionG, he patiently endured the laft aft of the executioner. 

Thus periilied in the thirty eighth year of his age, the gallant marquefs of Mon- 
trofe -, tl:e man v;hoH' military genius, both by valour and conduct, had fnone forth 
beyond any, which, during thefe civil diforders, had appeared in the three king- 
doms. The finer arts too, in his youth, he had fuccefsfully cultivated ; arid 
whatever was fublimc, eiegan*-, or noble touched his great foul. Nor was lie 
inlenfible to the pleafures either of fociety or of love. Something, however, of 
the va/l and u?il>ounded characterized his whole actions and deportment j and it was 
merely by an heroic effort of duty, that he brought his mind, impatient of fuoe- 
riority and even of equality, to pay fuch unlimited fubmiflion to the will of his 
fovereign. 

The vengeance of the covenanters was not flitisfied with Montrofe's execution. 
Urrey, whofe inconftancy now led him to take part with the King, fuffered about 
the fam.e time: Spotifwood of Daerfic, a youth of eighteen. Sir Francis Hay of 
Dalgetie, and colonel Sibbald, all of ihem men of bu^th and charafter^ under- 
v/cnt a like fate. Thefe were taken prifoners v/ith Montrofe. Tho. Mar- 
que is of Muntlcy, about a year before, had fallen a viftini to the ieverity of the 
covenanters. 

TiJE p.'ft fcene difplays in a full light the barbarity of this theol :gical faction : 
The fcrjLicl will fufficiently difcover their abfurdltits. The corruptions of the beft 
things pro luce tiie worfl. , and no wonder that theabufes of religion fnould of all 
others bt the men; odious and ridiculous. In order to convey a jufl: notion of the 
la^.ius of- age, we are obhgcd iometimcs in our narration to make ufe of the fame 
Cunt ..nd exprcffion, v/hich v/as then fo prcvak^nt. 

1 in. King, in confcqucnce of his agreement with the Scotch commiffioncrs, fet 

" '" " fall for ^^cotland : and being efc( rted by feven Dutch fhips of v/ar, who were fent 

to guard the Iterring fiO'iery, he arrived in the in-tli of Cromarty. Before he v/as 

fuffered 



THE COM M O N \V E A L T 11. 



21 



r;:!Tv:iec to l.'.ad, hc w.r. r.^quirccl to fign tiu* co\'enaii: , .i:k! rr;?.-,v fi-rrr.or.? a /. i;*:- 
lurcs wltc iv.ciC:-' h'A.\ c-x;:u!Li!)g hini to pril-viTc in ti.at 1.. // c(':,:cJ.Lr..cv*. 1 I^'-- 
iniltoii, L.ii.d^rd.i!.-, i).i:iilcrniiinir, :\nd oiii-.r i.oh'.c'iivn ot tli.r. {acLion \vi.o:r. t.iiy ^^ 
caii-.d r.iii^'.-^f-rs v.crc immediately liparatcJ. from Itim, ar.^l ob!i_i;e(.i to ntire tu 
ri'jii !vji:'.L- , wlicrtr they lived in a jrivatc ir.anrjjr, wlt'.o..: tr. !l rr ai.:'..urirv. 
NoiiC ol ii;a l'".nglilli fiicLi(.!s, v. '10 had Icrvcd his fat'i.r, \\::.l .^.i^uwLd. to r- ir,.'.;r, ::i 
t',c i^int-^iom. 'i'r.cKin^; himLii luLind, tr.at iiJ was cor..\! ud as a i:.c:c ' ..:;ca:-.: 
0: ilate, ^.nd th.K c'..c icw r.iiia:;i.. oi ruyaky, w'aidi he yOiW'Sdd^ krvcd. c .'iv to p;o- 
voi^wC tiij j!.ic.:^4- icdigidLics. One of tiic qi.artci .. o: M^..:: o.c, hi^ lairii;..; fV; va:r, 
\v!iO li.id '^jrr/j hi;; conimillion, he found lunging a: Ab.i.ic.n. '1 l.c ^ i cr.d 
nQcn'blv, ar.d afterwards tlic commif.tce of cilatjs a;;d *dic .'.imy, v.ho v.c. ; .lirLly 
rovcri:.:d by tlic aiitjinbly, fct icr:h a p^biic dcciarario:^ v,i;erethcy j idcdcJ, 
*' t'.iat they did not efpouk any malignant: qi::.rr. I nv par:y, but ;oi:ght n'..:e'y o 



c :.?. r. 



tlicir 



rmcr grounds or pm^cipics j that they culciann..: a., tn. hn-^ ,inf. gui 



the Km r and cnld^houie ; nor v/ouid th-y ov.n 1dm cv his int-r. d, oth;:v. db 
' ti^an Nvibii a fuborddriadon to Goil, and lo i.ir ai he o.vned ?.:k\ prufe u:.d t!.e 
** caide of God, and a.knowiegcd the Ims ol his hoL.le and o: his I'crn^er ways4:'b 
'r.'ii: Ki.;g, 1} ing er.tirdy at m^rey, and having no :uVura;v:e of hbe;:v f-r I.;;, 
r.'.rti'.cr tlian was agrceabie to t!ic fancy ot thelc au'lrc ze.d :j, \..i'; e.. ;:... .;::. ^i to 
cndorace a meafvn-c, widish not'mr.g but the necedity c-i liis aifuirs aivl idb pre-t -.:.i 
ar.d inexp.'riencc coifAl exeule. I le iiLiei-i a deelarat' vii, fuch as tiuy leq.f;.-,... . 
Inm C^. i h- there gave thanks for tlic mereiful ddpenfatior.s of provide:.. e, bv 
vddeii r.e was rccovercfi out of t!:e fi.ire of evil councils, had att.aned a hdi [ :r- 
fu.db.n v.i the iigl'itcouf lels ol tlie c-venant, and was induced to call lumU-li .:.:A 
bis inrcv^ll vdioby u:-on God. Ke delired to be dccj'ly hund)led .v:.d ..dbet^d n 
f;; .;:, l^, CuUle 0! iu-^ i.. tiler's iodov.ing Lvil couneil, (;jipol;.K_, d.e ^;ovenan: and ife 
work ol rc'crmat'on, .u-d f ic.k .ng the blood ot Gou'b jr^pie ihio' a!i :.;> .,omi- 



I 1.- lame 



en t.ie uio^at;-', oi .us nKAiur ana tiiC t'-'kraiion ot it m l,:^ i.i- 

^ rrrr .^ I 'i.-r { i- n.' ) ,wl '(\ .'1 t',:> 1 -'^.r.' !^ 



nu.n':^. 

t^.eibi iioufe ; a :riat:cr ol grCat ouLUce, ne Kuci, lo a:i tne j rou: ir.iiu i .-.uiv.K 

I 



T.\:d a uro.-t provo.,if.o;i to inni '.'.hoio a ]ealou> Godi, \:ii;!:> - v.,l lins "t ti: 
II ; ;. lelifd. t'/'.t lie wcAi'd liavc no cr.enf .-, but i'-..: 
d d...: iw ..e:;.. ed all poprry, fn^ -rf 1; ion, p...i.i , 
,Ms rrlolv; d :: A to tw.; ;\.t , n .,Ji i. . 
o. ti;..n in .i::v of I:i^ oon..ni; ns. li. i.keiar;d, that he ...^,i, 
i\our anv v. i.o h..ve io luti^ confl;.nt e o :o ',.. f:; ;. ' , ; ; ; , 



n tne cu^.n.: 
, . , ., ,fi piroiauc Tieis , ai 



V s 



,c 



22 HISTORY or GREAT BRITAIN. 

Cl-s^ !. f^rcnce to the p:o:vr.\ nnJ liiC kingdom of Jedis CiitKt. And he exprefled bis hope^ 

''' tn:;: whatc 'tr ili niccc-'s his f\;rnier guilt might: have drawn upon his caufe, yet 

!.ov.-, \,:v. iiiC': obrjiiiCCi ir^Cicy to be on Go^l's fide, and to acknowlege his own caufe 

1.:'j':i:h;-:-trc to thiat o. God, the; divine providence would crown his arms with 

.SriiL the covenanters an;] the clergv v/ere diffident of tlie King's fincerity. 
'1 nc: faciiity, which he difcovered in mals-ing comphances, caufed them to fufpeft 
that he rcgudcd all his conceilions -merely as ridiculous farces, to v/hich he muflof 
n?cch1tv fubrnit. They had another trial prepared for him. Infl:ead of the folem- 
nity of his coronation, which was delayed, they v/ere refolved, th.at hefliould pafs 
thio' a public huniiliaiion, and do penance before the whole people. They fenthim 
twelve articles of repentance, which he was to acl-mowlege , and the King had 
a'Vc-ed, that he would, fu'imit to this indi::2;'iitv. The various tranfo,rcfrions of his 
fath.cr and grandfather, together with the idolatry of his mother, are again enumerat- 
ed and aggravated in thcfe article^- , andfarther declarations were inhfted on, that he 
fo'ught the rcfcitution of his rights, for the fole advancement of religion, and in 
fiibordinatlon to the kingdom of CJirift*. In fhort, having exalted the altar above 
the throne, and brought royalty under their feet, the clergy were refolved to trample 
on it and vilify it, by every inP.ance of contum.ely, wliich their prefent influence 
enabled them to impcfe upon their unhappy prince. 

Charl;:S in the mean time found his authority entirely annihilated, as well a: his 
character degraded. He was confulted in no public meafure. He was not called 
to aPiiiL at any councils. His choice was fiaficient to difjredit any pretender to oflice 
or advancement. All efTorts, which he made to unite th.e oppofite parties, en- 
crealed the fj.fpicicn, which the covenanters had entertained of him, as if he was 
3:ot entirely th':ir own. Argyle, who by fubtilties and compliaPiCcs, partly led and 
larth/ was o^overncd by this wild fadion, 'dill turned a deat ear to all advances 
v/hic'i t'le Ivi.'iii; made to enter into conBd/nce wdth !iim. Mn-iznauls arid r.H'jn-'-crs 
continued to be the obiefts of general hatred and perfecution , and whoever was 
dilagreeable to tl:e clergy failed not to have owo. or thefe epithets aHixed to him. 
The lanatieilm, wliich prevailed, being ^o W\\\ of four and angry principles, and 
f) overchai-ged with various antipathic;-, had acquired a new objccl of abhorrence : 
Tficfe were the Sorcerers. S:) prevalent was the opinion of witch.craft, that geat 
lunnber-, accufcd of that crime, were burnt by fenrence of t\\t m;igiu"ratcs thr(/ 
all parts of Scotland. In a village ne.r Berwic, v^^hich contained only fourteen 
houfes, fourteen perfjns were puniHied with fired' j and it became a fcicnce every 

whers 

* Sir LJ\;..;\I A'alkci'; iiillorlcal D'-:QQ\\ik:, p, : - ; . "; \Vj:Jck\'kc", p, 434, 408. 



THE COMMON W T. A L T II. 23 

-^lierc ir.r.ch lludied arid cuIclvareJ, to ditlir.^uini .1 true v,itc'-i i y pro^ '.r tr'.iN . ;.d c ' 
fymiuoirii*. ' 

Tut advance of tlic Englini arm/ ur.d.-.r Cromwcl was not aide to .: ' ' 
loircn tlic .mimofitics among ti^c Scotcli [\utlcs. 1 !;.: cl rs^y wnc ilsl! i\ ..,,': :<) 
cx^IlicL- all but their n:o(t zealous adiuTcnts. As loon a^ v.\': l'',:i;;'i:n l^l, .; i;r., ;.u 
found, that the treaty between th.- Kii;[; ai.d tlic Scoteli woid '; j;rol\;b,y ivv:.'.:. \ 
an accommodation, ihey made [-repaiatlor.s !or a v.ar, wir.Jn, t\\ y ia.'.-, 
in the end, prove inevita'jij. Cnyrnwel haviny bro'.ie th j lorce and co..:- v^. (yi . 
the Iriil], was fenn for j and he left the cjmn'and: ut irc!ar.;l to I;e:or., v.!.-; )- 
vcrned th.at kini^dom in the charaTtcr of drt;urv, and v.ith L-iic.^L viLv.!.;;': e :...,[ ::> 
dullry pcrll-vercd in the work cl lubdluini^ and ex^:;:!!!::^ t'ne nati'.cs. 

Ir was cxpccled, t'.at Fairfax, who flill retainLd the name ci (lei-.er.d, v.-.--'.d 
continue to acl: againft Scothmd, and appear at th.c head i)\ tiie rnnVu-^ -, :: ;kri :n 
iwr which he was well qualified, and where alone lie made any fig ire. B'ut iairiax 
tho' he had allowed the r.rm.y to niake ufc of his n.wv.c in murd.e: i ..j; thtir Sove- 
rJ^n and offering violence to tlie ParlianiL-nr, had entei t.diud unfurmt.r.iii.f.de icru- 
ple> agannl i;u'adinri liic Scotch, wiiom he confid.red: as /c.doub rrefi^.'tenans, a.-.d 
united to I''.ngland bytiie lacied bands oi the cover.. ;nt. He was larii-.vr dnl";;i;f.ed 
at the extremities into which he had already been h.irried ; ai d was c r.fi ;n.d !a 
h;s rclbluti^n by the exhortations of his wiu, wiio had Licit iv,h:..r.C': ov.r ;/...), 
and was herlelt much governed by tlvj pietb) terian c!crj,y. A corMr,'.:::^ n: 
Parliament was fent to reafon v.itli Idm ; and Cioniwel v/as one of tiie njnf^er. 
In vain did tliey urge, that the Scotch had Hrll broke the cown.v.it by :!u ir ::r.M- 
fion of 1 ir^/land Uiuler lianiilton j and that they would fi.rely ;cp..w t!.eir ;^iiti!c 
attempts, il riot jn-cver.teci by the vigorous meafures ot the Coma: rr.v'c.f.f n L'rom 
wcI, wdio knew tlie rigid inl'exilility ci Fairfax, in every t-ii;:,:, n'. ine'n !.e ;e:vi:\ v.\ 
as n-;atter of principdc, ventured tofolicit him v.ith the litmof: e;i:;..f-n' I- , ai-.f: ;,e 
went fo far as to fncd tears of grief and vexation o.". th:s o c..': >n. No (;ne c<. ::'.: 
lufpe:! anv am.bition in the man, who I.ibcured io /: louii-. to ict.'in i.:^ p/ n;;.'' . 
that higli (jrlice, v.hlch, he knev.-, he lunifelf w.is a'one en':t!ed t'> ffi. Tiv ;.'.:v; 
v/armt'n of t mt^.r, v/.'fic'n made Cr:Mnwel a n^ioft frantic er.di'jii.'.fv, vc:'.^:..^ ':.-r^ 
t!;e n^ d cf.ngcro,, - o; !;y[ orrites j and i'; was to tf':- 'rr;-: cl nd.v!, .i.in.':.: r;) 
Ins courage and cap\:eiiv, tliac hv o.'.ed a.' iii.s v, ;;r.d. .; :.;! luCviia'.-. !' 
cfious k-rmjrit ot Ifrs /.e.ii, heengigv'd evciv on.e to coo; : !.i*e ^. .'Ii fin'. > n.- ir- :- 
lures , and en.tering ea!"f 7 and affc:li jnatciv l;.:o 've v part, v- ifci; n;e was cii'poiect 



>, .', I 



24 



11 1 ST OR V OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Civip. T 



to ace, he was enabled, even afcer mukiplled cleceitf;, to cover, under a temped of 
i6p. ' pafilon, all his crooked fchcmes and profound artiiiccs. 

Fairfax having rcHgncd his commifTion, it v/as beilowed on Cromwel, who 
was declared captain-general of all the forces in England. This command, in a 
Commonwealth, which ftcod entirely by arms, was of the utmofl importance 
and wa3 the chief flep, which this ambitious politician had yet made towards fove- 
rei!;n power, lie immediately marched his forces, and entered Scotland with an 
army of 16000 men. 

The comm.and of the Scotch army was given to Lefley, a good officer, who 
formed a very proper plan for defence. He entrenched himfelf in a fortified 
camp between Edinburgii and Leith, and took care to rem.ove from the counties of 
Merfe and the Lothians every thing which could ferve to fupport the Englifh army, 
Cromwel advanced to the Scotch camp, and endeavoured, by every expedient, to 
bring Lefley to a battle ; The prudent Scotchman knew, that, tho' fuperior in 
numbers, his army was much inferior in difcipline and experience to the Englifh ; 
and he kept himfelf carefully within his entrenchments. By fKirmifhes and fmall 
rencounters he tried to confirm the fpirits of his foldiers ; and he was fuccefsful in 
thefe enterprizes. His army encreafed daily both in numbers and courage. The 
King came to the camp -, and having exerted himfelf in an action, gained extremely 
on the afFedionsof thefoldiery, who were more defirous of ferving under a young 
prince of fpirit and vivacity than under a committee of talking gownmen. The 
clergy were alarmed. They ordered the King immediately; to leave the camp. 
They alfo purged it carefully of about 4000 Malignant s and Engagers, whofe zeal 
had led tliem to attend the King, and who v/ere the foldiers of chief credit and ex- 
perience in the nation'^ lliey" then concluded, that they had an army com- 
pofcdendrcly of faints, and could not be beaten. They murmured extremely, not 
only againil their prudent General, but alfo againft the Lord, on account of his 
delays in giving them dcliveranccf j and they plainly told him, that, if lie v/ould 
not fave them from the Engiiili kCtarics, he ihould no longer be their God J. An 
advantage Jiaving offered itfelf on a Sunday, they hindered the General from 
making ufe of it, lefb he fliould involve the nation in the guilt of fabbath- 
breaking. 

Cromwel found himfelf in a very bad fituation. He had no provlfior-s but 
WiVat he received by fea. He had not had the precaution to bring thcle in fuJicienu 
quantiiiL:, 5 and his aimy w^as icduced to difficulties. He retired to Dunbar. 

Lcfiey 

* Sl:-E.l. y:^L:v, p. 1^5. t Id. -.. iC?. :l: WiMilovkc, p. i^j. 



T II r CO M M () :: v; \: a i, r ii. 



*-3 



^ ..:>, n:; : c. 






'ill- 









c : I 
I V. . 






, 11 I. a >!n'v i\i.l'.;;,cc wm^ ii.-ul.' l-y o::c !;'^:-!r. :,' n. i i. 
, .i: :; '," v. l.i.li v. .i-- i! c \-d\[ ii,..^. .\1 \-. :l, .-. .;:;.;!..,;;i. . ^ 
cm:; k'.' .t L .::i :!:!:; < ' Mi..:-.: by L .^^:y.:\\ !. / :^ r..- 

1 . . . : .:;.,i::ls (, . ' 



) .. . i: >.'c 



:,'...[ l1. (>;.) I, 



'. ; i i: 



1 '.)' lU . 



!,, ,r 



TO !.-;i 



26 HISTORY OF G Tv E A T BRITAIN. 

Cl.ap. I. Cromwel having been fo ruccefbful in the v/ar of the fword, took up the pCij 

'' ' "" arainll the Scotch ecclefiaitics. Pie wrote them fome polemical letters, in which he 
maintiined tiie chief points of the independent theology. He cook care likewife 
to reto.-L on them their favorite argument of providence, and aflved them whether 
the Lord had not declared againfu them. But the minifters thought, tliat the fame 
events, which to their enemies were judgements, to them were but trials; and they 
repHed, that tlie Lord had only hid his face, for a time, from Jacob. But Crom- 
vvel infilled, chat the appeal had been made to God in the moft exprefs and folem.ni 
manner, and that in the fields of Dunbar an irrevocable decifion had been awarded 
in favour of the Englifii army *. 

165 1. The defeat of the Scotch was regarded by the King as a very fortunate event. 

The armies, which fought on both fides, were almoft equally his enemies ; and the 
vanquifiied wcie now obliged to give him fome more authority, and apply to him 
for fupport. The Pariian ent were fummoned to m.cet at St. Johnvtone. Hamilton, 
Lauderdale, and all the Engagers were admitted into court and camp, on cor.dition 
of doing public pennance, and exprelTing repentance for their late tranfgrefi^ions. 
Some Malignants a]foc;ept in under variv-us pretexts. The intended humiliation or 
pennance of the King was changed into the ceremony of his coron;it"on, which 
iilofhinuaTv. with great pomp and magnificence was performed at Scone. Bur amidft all this 
appearance of refpect, Charles remained in the hands of the mofi n-id Covenanters : 
and tho' treated with civility and courtefy by Argyle, a man of parts and addrcf?, 
he w.is '.itcle better chan a priloner, and was llill expolcd to ail the rudenefs and 
pedantry oi tl^e ecclcfiatiics. 

'Puis young prince was in a fituation, which very ill fuited his temper and dif- 
pofition. All iliofe good qualities vv'hich he polTeifed, Ifis afiability, his v/ir, his 

* T\y.^ 1-, tac bclf of Croniwcl':; wrctvlicc! compofitions tisat remain, anl v/e ilir.'i here extruft a p'\[- 
{..'^c (Hit of it. " Vt)a lay you luiVe iH;t fo learned Chriil as to hang- the cqui' v ci )(:;'.' cau;c vr.or. 
" c\",rt^. V\ e coi hi wuii tliat !;iii:d!Kis liai net beta upoii your cya to al; Jiofe n'...rv\ ii.us dilp.-'.i- 
'' ji.l. .:.;, v-vjiiw. ('o ! !:adi \MOi:^ht lately in ("nOaud. lUiZ did not you f-deir;n:\ a;;" ..! aad -^r; , 
" Ida act we do in to; A':dou:dit not v.e a;r.i voii :o t:d:;k, widi ilar and tie.id-''..^, o. the ;aa:d ud 
" ide ,; .t Ciod, i.i ta:s in:/hty ,. ni ;l,;tn ;e aj'-pvaiamcc of id:;, hut can lliyl.dv caii ii an i_\a. .-r? '.Vcrc 
' n'a ....::. y;;;;- and our f:'a-d;ai"n', renev/ad ti'oui dine to fiaic\ waile we v>aurea on Joa, ;o f:^ 
*' waaa-..-- ; e '.c aid niaadfji l;;:a it If iij)r;n on;- appea!^ ? And dial! we, atler al! d ef- on.- pr::\-ero, 
" i;ia:'y-, ; . a , e>. .;e,,.l.(a".: aad i^.ieiar, aoor;,!. , cad thciO na ; : tvent.. ? d'leLoid :\tv",(.iu. d, ;-iv 
" ^^efa;, .,^.,i --la' he e; a nr. , v i ; l] ai d a soa. aou^ ;d i; eran .e to US. 

" 1 1 e..:'.:. ^^; i: tde la;-..c! . ( f C !nid, i- ar; h after t!:a ndud'd' tlie Lord in it to;\,;..Ij yen, ard wt 

if aa a., a ; u i . c r Mr; y, ,, tlaii. yon may fnid it. lor yet, if \ve know our r.eart at a;:, oar bowela 

'* tiO jnCata: ecja. ^,tai u.e t.^a'^y m deouandd' 'i. iiurloo, vol. L p. l;,d. 



THE C O M M O N W E A L T II. 



=7 



p very, Ills gcntlen-iniily, liilc ga cd bch.ivior, were here (o many vices ; aiul liis '-~'-r- ^ 

'. ''.r (H (;'.!., libLTty, and jilc-aluic was rci^ irdcd .is the ii:;'!iLll civuTrdcv. 'I'lu/ '^ 

ariiu; i:. tl;c | r.i^ticc ut cui:r:l\ (.i;iii;nu!a::oii, the lai'iCin'cc! d v!e w.i=, i;::er!vi.nki^o\vn 
to l:!'Ti , and hu: nevcr co'.iid mould Ii:s dc[ioi tmeiu iiUo t'nt il ;^hed. "riir.are, 
y-l\\ h liij C'(,\ena:ucr:) re(|'..ircd as the i;i:a! i!dj iniiiv ot cowvvr'.' :). 'I'hedj^t! 
( ! -kiL'.i: Tdi.iin was the o:iiy I"'n^;dni Courticr a'loAed tcj ar'vi^d ].'.:.: : . : ' ;' . 
:. . :;:()i]S talenr C;t lidiLid-, h- !;ad rt ndcrcd i.iir.lit ( x::-e:::c !y .. r,- h.. 

i:\;:ter. \\ !.dc lo iraiiV olvects of derif^oii lurroiindeci l!u ni, :: v. a' ^\i[".\':\.\t Co \\: 
;:!:oi;et!icr iiiieidible to the t; irptatiun, and wl, oily to :u;';-r; :j t!:e 1.;': /\ (.)'.'.: >: 
ro a:'e:id liom ni()r;:ing to iiisihr at prayers and lernu^ns, I'l.y hc:;.i^^.; cvi-h;-- 
Ivmptoir.-s ot \veari:-.elb or Cor.tenipt. '1 h.e eler^;y never Co;; u ei'e r.: :'.e l'-.:/ 
lLl:ic:ent'y rc^ienc rated, : A:id by continiicci e::!iorMtions, renv.r.il lar.v .; , ar.d r.- 
prnrand-, they lliil erdea\'oLircd to brinij, him to a pillei' knle ot h;> Iplrit.i.d .!i.: .-. 
1 h; Kii-,<2'b pallion lor th.e lair coidd nor ai:oget!i^r be relli\;'n; d. 1 le !;...': o....' 
be.n obfcrved ufing I'un^e lamihai Itie^ v, it'i a yotin,: uoma:i ; an.! a conuvn:iee ol 
ir.innl.rs was ;.[:[M;inted to repro\e Iiinn. ior a bel'.av:(;r lo unbecvinnn^; a i ov. nan.i.d 
rnon.arcb.. lb.- Ipokeiir.an cd the corr:ndt:ee, one 1 )ou.^lal.s l>e;;.n widi a lL\'e: 
a:''\.:r, u-,Iur:r.ed the Kiny, th.it great Ic.nvd.al liad been givt n to tl.e god Iv, e:dar:;:d 
o.; t'r.e heincjus nati.re (d iln, and cor.ckidievi \s:t'n exb.oriing b.is .\br., ;".\-, \', ;.e;-.e\ er 
ik- v.a^ dilpoleJ, to anuile himlelr, to be more c.i:cl\d, ior ti:e !i;ti,:-e, i:i Ir,. .:::;-.; 
L:< V. i;\dows. 1 his cielicacy, io i.nidLial tcj tl;c ['bice ar.di to t;:e cb;.racr u: id,- 
n\".n, was remarkcdi Ir/ t':e Kirig- and lie nex'er lijig(;r t:ie e.biig.it'.on. 

'1 i!i. Kliig, ikocked uit'i a!l tiie indignlnes ii-*-' p^ikap-, k:k n:.,:-c t;:ed\d;;i 
ad the ;orma!ities, vd.ieli he i;nder\\enr, m.idc an .K::"r' : to \\r\ii\ i,is kbe:C'.-. 
Ci_:-Kd Muldkto:,, at t!;e he,.d oi lonv,- Roy.dilk-, b-in:; pro:e:;'td i v r!.e L'ov^'- 
i..in:ei--, ke; t in t!ie irc'nnt.ii;,^, ( xpieting lome o[vn)r:uni:v oi :er\ d/; k> n^ider. 
'id;e King leldlv^-d to join them, i le L . ret'v n:a ;e !.;- c a .gv ;:-.;m .\gv,!e, ,::;d :!;\1 
tow.nds the 1 ligklands. C (/ on. I Ab ntgoni, ry, v. uk .i rr.' 'p o; bo:!"', w.i^ '.'::: in 
p:.: lo;n oi kirn. He o\-ert(;(i!: tiie Km;^ :a\.\ y :r :..?..' ::d !dm ro n:;:: .-. d'i.e \\ v- 
be;n " too v. {.-..k to in;" ort 'mr , C li.ir.e'^ \^ a^ i r.e :\' ! . ( .^.n v ink;, d to . t en- 



1 
J ly. did. inc:dei:t prucn:. d k;n^ ;n- ;-v.;ir 

t'le C.'i A-en;intc rs hemg a';an' oi d::v., !n- 

Id; n Arnvie renev. :\i '..:-. c jnrrddp t 

:.i':on,'p:e'.::de.: '01.;^: go, a: . 

.1 !!' i;i 



t:'(^ ;:n;e:,: m:.: mo:e an: 



28 



HISTORY o F G R E A T B R I T A I N. 



^- counties, nctwiihRancIing the imminent danger, which threatened their country,, 
were rcfoived not to unite th^cir caule with t!':at oi an army, which admitted any 
Epp-:^r:ers or Maligiiunts among them ; and thev ke;-t in a body apart under Ker. 
T\'.c-,- 'vJhd rh'^mlcives the Pro^cjlers :, and their iViuuic ciLrgy dLchiimed equally 
agv; Ci ihc King and Croniweh The ct'ier party were denominated Il:'f:.Iut:c}-icrs ; 
a.;d the e diliinclions continued long alter to divide and agitate the k:ng;iom. 

Charles encamped at the Torwood ; and his generals reibl\^ecl to condu61: 
themlt-lves by tiie Ome cautious maxims, which, fj long as they were embraced,, 
had been fuccTsf:;! dining the former campaign. The town of Stirling Jay at his 
bade, and the wlioie north fupplied him vvitli provifions. Strong entrenchments 
defended h's ircnt -, and it was in vain that Crcmvvel made every attempt to bring 
him to an engag:nnent. After iofing much, time, the Englid] general fent Lam- 
bert over the riithi into Fife, with an intention of cutting olF tlie provifions of the 
Scotcli arn-:V. Laml-cit fell up.on iioiborne and Brown, v/ho commanded a party 
of tl^e :^cotch, and with great fi.iughter put them to rout. Cromwel a':b paHed 
ever witii his v.hole army, and lying at the back of tiie King, mafc it impof iblc 
for him to keep his poft any longer. 

CiiAHLis, reduced to defivair, embraced a reiolution worthy a young prince 
contending ;or empire. Having the way open to England, he reiblved immedi- 



atelv to marcn n.'o t.n.it country, x^WQ-m he cx';e 



:-{ 



mat 



tno'e cincon 



wicn tne 



i-" 



:nt g-overnmcnr wou:n 



ad Lis ifiend:ianda;i 



laic. 



X * , 



r 



per'uadcci tee gencrais to enter mto tne lamc views % and '--itn o:ic conieni me am 
to t':c numl:.n- of 14^:00 men. yo:^ :rom tlndr can:p, and a.ivanccd by gr.at jc; 
nies tG;Vard> the ioL:dn 



CxuMWELwasf 

,- ,,a-...,r.^,^ 1,:.- , ^ 



mor-cments or tne -ijcotcn arnr 



^T 



o: 



i;e 'lad exv-;ofcd his 



to the moiL 



i-, \ 



ana uiw Li.- 
1 



:e army marcnuvr ni':o 



t^e fcen --ai narr.n, wnu.: n 



>n 



nrannr tne 



ingknd, 



:re hi: prdhnce, 
^--s c:;pa';i- c: 
op_ra:n-g ionn- g!\-at revnn jt.on. l^ul'^ tins conuuet wa> ano^'.rdgiit in Cronw:', 
he nuici-dy repaired it hy his vigihince and achivitv. 1 le ddpatched letters "o tl:e Par- 
iian;ent, exiiia-dng them ; 
( .\:ers every wi;;;r ioran' 



to Le terrhivrci at tlie aj-i^iroacii (a the hcntcn 



a oudy Oi c.n.an;- 



mareii : A\A i^e 'nmiei", i^r;vi; 
oi S.od.n.d, nd!(n.\\;d ti>c Kim 



ag loi'ce:'; to opyotc ti.e ;An';g : i..^ 
; mon t'::e rear oi ti'f ro\'ai arnr 
'z hlori; vddi 70- o f'-h:n to conn 



vnrvi; 



.r.'n'n 



mm 



,i cnrnn 



nh ail livz expe;.nt:nn pomme. 
;inted in ins c xnecLancn-s cd encrca: 



'i'iie^corch, 



i:um^;.rs. 



i m 



riii..: at the jnadpect of fb hazardous an enterprizj, -S'X oif in 
!-i giiili prcdn'teiians, having no waridng given them c\ 



THE C C) M M O X W E A L T II. 



:") 



.: ' "') )::'. 



V..-" ' I. . ^..:.-.:i :...a il.- 

a. . >' ,' V. h c!\ t'.L' C(,:r ; 

( > r.;:c I. A:rc :nl:v, v. V. > \'. -i. , 

. . t;:c .;'.' (.; M..:", ^^ 'i ; e ' 
... i;: , \. .'. cn^pitr. .: in 1; r 
.;.; ;: ir .^ i.y a |\:: ty o; ti.c p .: .:-!^ 

. . I .f. \ ...,-.. t', ' r'- T ! - -v 

, . . ^^. ..c . .. ^i . , u,..:..,, ii...L 1.L-- . ...>, 

a.u.. !..::_, I.;:-. :;;.:rjh, v.c;v' not riu>;-j vx.v:x:'.,\\~^ \.\\:.\\ \\;;j: 

in I'.j 'Kiv.(.' i. 

Sl c;; 1^1 li.^: \\^.:.'::.zc c\ cil.'l.!i''lu\'! gov: r::;^^cn^ t!::: '' 

r.u:AkJ in i.rv.:-y.uion thj \\.::\ v.v'wXx \'.-:'\ i:.:; ;>y.'.^:-. 

r .!:". wry \s!^ :\* I'.L- n^L^iia of tl-c C();:ni:v> ; ;;;!' 

i ;.. , b^::r a:: ::. ir .:." ^ts ay^iinll i.\: \\ . " ' 

(. ; o.r.'.'.oi .,;i' i:; I'n 'ore.!'.-,"; .::;! :X\:. ':... 

i:-:v.C.i' .:,., cx.u L Ui:^ i i. - ;'p-i r- ' ;.:i!: : 

i: . 'i :, w:\-fs >.: : . , . ' 

t .!. i: i i!o t-r :, i'.\: JMn:':, . , . : ; . : 

t ) ::y. 'I.. wi.oic S.ci^n .;. . . ' . 
^ ,.: :. V [Hoyi.', i.; ..:"'" . 1 \^ r.':\ ;::: .i . _ 
!j.'; v. ;.n .U:.; : ' 

'l' : .. KuKj; ; .: - ...,:,.. 



! . - 






30 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C^.ap. L liis hearing their earned wiflies of feizing him. Thi^ tree was afterwards denomi- 



I ; I , 



uated the Royc.lOak\ and for many years was regarded by the whole neighbourhood 
with great veneration. 

Chaxles was in the middle of the king.'om, and could neither flay in his re- 
treat, nor liir a ftep from it, without the moil imminent danger. Fears, hopes, 
and party zeal interefted multitudes to difcover him; and even the imalleft indif- 
cr;tion of his friends might prove fatal. Having joined lord Wilmot, who vvas 
flcuikinG; in the neighborl^ood, they agreed to put themfeives into the hands of 
co!onel Lane, a zealous Royalift, who lived at Bentley, rot many miles diPrant. 
The King's feet were {o hurt by walking about \n lieavy boots or countrymen's 
fivoes not made for him, that l^e vvas obliged to n'ourit on horfeback ; and he tra- 
velled in this fituation to Bentiey, attended by the five Penderells, who had been fo 
faith'u! to him. Lane forniccl a fchem.e for his journey to Brillol, where, it was 
hoped, he would hnd a fliip, in which he might tranfport himfelf. He had a near 
kinfwoman, Mrs. ?\^orton, v\ho lived within three miles of that city, and vs'as 
with child, very near the time of her delivery. He obtained a pafs (for during 
thofe times of contufion this precaution v/as requifite) for his fifter Jane Lane and a 
fervant, to travel tov/ards Brillol, under pretence of vifiting and attending her rela- 
tion. The King rode before the lady, and perfonated the fervant: Wilmot, car- 
rying a havv'k on his hand, paffed for a ftranger, who had accidentally joined them. 

When- they arrived at Norton's, Mrs. Lane pretended, that fhe had brought 
along as her fervant, a poor lad, a neighbouring farmer's fon, wlio was ill of an 
ague , and fiie begged a private room for him, where he might be quiet. Tho' 
Charles kept himfe'f retired in this chamber, the butler, one Pope, foon knew 
him \ aPid tlirowing himfelf on his knees, prayed for his Majefly's life and prefer- 
vation. 'i'l^.e King was alarmed, but made the butler promife that he would keeo 
the fecret from every niortal, even from his maf;er; and he v/as faithful to his 
cnga<;emcn:. 

Ko fliip, it v/as found, would, for a month, fet fail from Briflol, either for 
France or S^,ain ; and tlie King was obliged to go elfevvhere for a pafiage. He 
entrulled himfelf to colonel Windham of Dorfetikirc, an affeitionate partizan of 
trie royal h.mily. The natural it'iwTv of the long civil v/ars and of t]:e furious 
ra^i^e, to wliieh all men were wrought up in their different factions, v/as, that 
every Gibe's inclinations and alicclions were thorowly known, and cv.n t'^ecouiaee 
ai:d lit'ejty of niofl men, l;y the variety of incidents, had been put to trial, 'i he 
Kovi'.'i s too hac', n'iany oi tluin, been obliged to contrive cci;ceahnentS in their 
liouies ior thenKe!ves, clieir irieiuls, or mod vahj:ihic efrefis ; an.i I'le arts of elud- 
ii-'g the enemy liud been oi'tcn practiied. All thefe circumilanccs ])rovea favour- 
able 



T II K c o \^ M o X v; r a t. tit. - i 

tW.v to the K\.y.\ in rli,' p'c.' 't c a; i;v v. A !; p,il]'u (,:'ccn :!:ro' I'.c lui^c;^ cf ^ h^p- T. 
u.t.::c.l j;:icll>, w.is Ion. . tin:, ^ c:.^p! Vf.d ; -. !;Kl:.:i::^ u\r.v cii- 



C 



t ;:..ea: t:.. ;r 



lw\-C!Tl!'';i. 



W r. ! \M, 'v-iorc h.' rcc iv.il :';>. K;:i[^, :in..vl L.ivero (.T.rri;!! tlv.- invcr';.:/ 



l.\ u : ^ ) I.: 



!,:,-) ir.o'licr, his v.i'c, a:v,l tour Ici \'.i::t' , on \v!;i,'!c fKicnf,- 



c V . . . a (. n 



ex 



t.i ! ; JcpcnJ. C)i all thck: [Mio;;^, no' uci- pro\-cti wanLiih^ c:t:'.c:- :;: liM:. ;'..; ci 
I.:;.':-.; T'OM. Tlv,' \'c;;cra!\c o'.d ivj.uroii, on t'..c reception ol Iv.t r(/,"..! ;',.. l!, 
p;Uk\i UK I rn.H) 1 joy, tli.ir, h.i\'i. lj io'l, with' u: r i:!-(.r, ti:r.'j 'or.s ;:;,.! c:\v 
tiii.J inci.r.!.ijc oi hi- 1,1th, r, flic w.is now nll'rwt', in !v-r (.icciinin!^ ..i:;, t,) be 
i.r'iunKntal in the prclcrvation oi himt'j!. WiiKih.cUn to'.d tlrj K;: . , t..,.: .^.; 
'1 !i n:,.;', his t.itlKT, in tlie \ car i 6^0, a lev.- i.!.:-. s bciorc ;:is tlci'Ii, l.. ., h t ; him 
lii. hv.: Ihns. '' My ch'uh-cn," laid h", ' w- h .vc hitlicrto lli'n kr.nc .rd 
"' cp,.:- ii tiny.'s Lineb-rc/jr t'nrcv- hill lo\'^rciL:;p.s : But I nu.il ::o,v warn v(. u to j ij- 
' pare h, r ch;i:ds and llorni':. jdutions at ilc on cvtrv (id j and t:n\ ,.r a d.c t;- an- 
'' qidinty ot your native country. Ikit vd;atcv.-r liappen, do vv.i hndiKnIv i;..no ir 
*' and (.;hey vour Ihincc, and auiKni: to tlicCrov.;!. I (.Innpi.' you iu-\ cr t > ;o:;ah^ 
' ri.cCiosviu tho' it (nould han;^ up.^n a budid' '' Th :e i. 
\\ ind'uu''% " niade luch in-urcddnj^ on ad c;ur hrca!"!'-, t: at tl 



v.nia;-,, ath'rdi 



(j; tiu.Mc hul times could n.vcr eh 



iC cna!\;e:>,r^ 



icaiy 



r rom nniu- 

inerah!:- indanc^s it appe.u's h>r,v (].:.[) rt oted in tiie n inu-= ol t!u- In hidi pentr>' 
(h th,.t ape was the ] niicipie tn 1 .}nd^y to th',ir lovireinn ; t!:ar luehe am: : ne- 
rou^ \ rn.ciule, in:, riwr (;rdy in cxcehencc to tin" n ',:' ml, u'ped an ' n,(,r:- m n^i.t- 
tnv : a,:", -'don to .vard^ a h-p;d t>uubtu";.;n. But uuinp; t'l'h tur'> (.! nnhuiiv 
, ti.ele p.udui.b v.ere d^ la:,-e. 
Ih. ; Ivu.p c^numuul idnetCLn day^ \\\ Wdn. .iu:nd-> h^ u!h ^ a;:d .d! !i- ti i'-n 
}hiu:n: .n.d in e-.u-;y p.n : oi I-.urop.-, '-.nnnned in ti ; :. 'ni anx.-u-. 'up- !.. 
reppu'd to in- '. rr^uj : '\o one Cuuh, cunu lLui 

... . K'.-V :''. N: .._. 

. 1 . , - 

U- 



tne re[C)i-' oi n;, u^.u.i, i-cu,'.;, :. :-,er,..l, n^nev, 
learch ot hi:> lenui. . d i:.d ,. re n.. ile [n i r: 



.!ca.5 ' 
rci-U"; 



n.e: n. ^vas ocau t..:' ,ui\'e ; an,! 



he hul n., t 

,\.' .A io :' L 






'XA.. 



[,.t\> n..:!!'. (U..e. 



C. 



in t,u' 



..n m ina^ ^; .L,..u i..u:n.n:, ;k h..n 



, i.u.u .. veuel v,-a^ 

< lO n\ ::]\\ tiia' , :t 

..d^ Ici" u.n: to . :<ape. 

A;tev 



C2 



I! IS T O R Y CF GI- 






D R I T A I N 



/J::r or.-:^ n;:.' rorty d:tyn corceahnert, he s'rive:] fa.^c;y rt Fefcamp in Ncrn:ni-(;h" 
I\:v ;. :".^ ;":..,: i j: I v ir :n :;nd v;c::n;'i: l-rd r.r cViVt: :':l 'i.^::;:- .:-:cn privy to .-is cic;y^ '. 



CCt;' 



h? cmIIcci h:,: crcujiiiy:- ::,:, 



ihiju:.: c. Ky ' ;:-ilJ:C. a.', j::!^ ]-:'.v:i7 i.lSi ;i:: ciJcn v;,;- tco yic::' to brc;:>k u.":- 
^ '.'jo.i 10 I;.:: ^^'^'j >^^-"r.: (./:", l:./y:.l.jic, vvi.ic;-: ih.:'.- v i"ii^I^/ '^y hi:, ii^iiiicrce ;u:d 
v-':;^. ;::[: yo. Lv,!; oy i.;;, \ :... /ri,.;. In .\,- c; ly ii:' cn!;crt.:':iicl tiiOnghcs < i r-kin?; into 
';.j ...'1..! '..'..: t-i ,s v;;' ;, ,vc;':.i":'ci.t is u;^c.rta:n. "^ c arc o:i!v ailJ!cG, iiifir; he 
...-; ['.: -;. i..Li.:;;..:e irici^J.j ti^voj cyiriiv;; view, ;, anci even cxprtiii-.l :\ 
o^.n- i^y^ 'i'C i.;ii;-: ur Ki:):;-, v, hie'^ he ha.i contributed, v,i:h ll.ch heit:- 



C: 



'h I" Ihbe y;;:}UJ:';r!Ly ;:;(! cn-\i;;y ac:-.;irt^,i by liie Repub'icans, fardier fiiniu- 
i^* V. i;^: e. -.i'-.-K)!! oi tiiis cn^-erpii -.in;.^ politician. I'iieie n^en had not that lar-'e 
li en '.t -. r tnon- ctenpi\bribi\ e vi..v.-S; which r:jiy:ht qnibily tiiem lor aclin'^ ihc 
y:n": Oi ; y.-Mnots : b.l ::Ii e::ns ani ni.ppy c'libiy enyrohed their attention, 'iecy 
carried tn. :r r;e;id ani'endry 'o hn* e:i to en..et levrs, eeclerin^ iernication. aiier 
the hi i aid, to be i-l^ny, \vii;i:oi.t benei^: oi" clergy;!:. 'Id:.y made Imail pro- 
;y-e;;5 in ih:\': in-ye; ttiit -.vori;, v:l:':^.]\ ti.ey probe'iiid to iiavc lo m cli at heart, the 
ietdin;^ a nt':v n^cd.l o! ityn- i.ntati n, and iining a plan of gCA'crnment. The 
rc^'AcTx neyyn to apin-ein.nc;, li.et th;}' intcnnial t > eiiabiiili th.rnndves as a p.rpe- 
en.d hniiiature, ; n .i tn coninre tlie vn e'e ponnn" :o oo or yo perfc:"?, vd;o railed 
t:.cna!ei''es tbe .darhan:ent oi^ t.:e Ccnnntnnweaidi cd ieiydanvi. And vviuie tiicv 
pretaio^d to b n,Gv; ncv. lilnrd.s nno;; li.e naiien, th y ionnd tbenhb;\cs obiined 
to iidr n' e cvcii d:e nicd va.n.de'e of tlnde, wideln ti;ro' time i.nrnennn da!, liad 



been tr.annn':t.u ; (n:i 



died- anc^dors. Not dadag to entr.ih tl^e triaia of tradon 
tw inriea, vdn), beiin^ cb-aLn indilbla'cntiy from airon^'i tire j^vy ie, N.nLddha\te 
beenlitde :dvonr.dd:; to ti:e Common- 'eaich, and would ija\a. r..r:::cd their \ erdicl 
upon tbe indent iav,s, liny eh'd-nl t^at ncdde in'iitutloa, '-r.y v.hl^h tn. y;o-'crn- 



nn cnn.i^tiy 



njent o. :.a:: niano dj.'^ ever t:een lo nnien onLaigunn. o. i nay r;. 
in tile trnd (d Id bnrn Vvmat tin y co^hd enpeei. irom juries, 'i: n, :n,:.i\ i.i;e n^oi; 
tnn'bLd_;-.t, bat tb ; npnl t:pai;dn aad c^nrageuna <.[ bn aan Janui, v aa nd,d hjr a 
traanrren'an (d^ d.e ne\.' ibitnre o^^ tre.'ins: ij>;t iho' in. was nbdnl ! nibv, he 



Lv-nttcv^ to rb 



y (-' - a 1 



,,- 1 V , ' ,, 



V tbcvdiole 



c]^/,\ r.an 
ibibe: 



:'': nddi f'.eat. and 



, 1 ,. 



n :. 



lacwr vial ai;y enao;n,.en pa 'r;er I'jcinve 
d invaiid^tv;, ai^d irom no otner inilitu- 



tion. 



W,:anoc!:c, ^.,z,. 



cei^^, p. \z\. 



THE C O M M O N W E A L T 11. 



3 



ti Ml, hcTkles the aJn.irablc one cf juries, cou!d be cX[:eJleJi tlTis nv.^'"''-^'"''^ ^''-"-^- '' 
ciioi c. 

That they nii;,!)C r.ot lor t!ie twturc be expoled to ai':V;,nts, w'.i.h lb much 
kriU'i'.eil ill- :; autiioriry, th.- Tariiairieiu ereci.-d ;i h;^;!i cu',..: , ! ;i,1';l;-, .'.'r.owvic 
ro rcc; ;\'e iiK'.irtnH-iits irotn tlie eGi;:K'il ot ll.irc. 'i'ii;^ C'lr; w.: i'>:r.- jL-lI c:i- 
r:r, iy ot men, c'.cv. ted to tlie ri.iint5 'j arty, v,i:hoiir naiiie or e'r.,ir,.:i. ;, d..r-jriVi.;;ed 
to lacriliee every thir.g to tlu ir uwn falcty or an-.b:ti(>n. C". '. :..! l.'..[ b;;;s .\n- 
drcws, and coloiiel Walter Siingiby were- tried by tlu, co;,r: i.-v co:.:. i: acx,-, ..;..! 
condemr.ed to ikath. Tb.ey v.t;c koyaliils, and. reUiled to } le.id. l^ci'-.c lb lii .;d , 
juriii^hetion. 1 .ovc, CjiblK)ns, an.d orlicr prr;' ytirians, h..\':: ; (:'.'f';d int ,' ,i 
])!ot a^ainil t'ne Repubbc, were a!lo tried and exeei-ted. 'I ; e e.:r! o: 1' :'-\, i^i 
Timotny Fetlierllune, Bern'M^e, being taken prilorjeis ati-.r ['.._ b..::!. ,: W.;- 
celler, were put to deatli by lentence ol a court niartial ; A i:-,ii..d (;: j loe^ul 
ing declared unlawful by that N'ery petition ol riuht, lor v, L >'i a ; ri:\ r [\.i'.i.,- 
iiv.nt had lo Ilrenuoully contended, ar.d which, alter j^rcat (.lA-rti, thev ..ad ex- 
torted lro!i"i the King. 

b.xe.i' ; i.\c; tlieir principles of toleration, the max'nr.s by w;.ie!i r!/.' I-',ey..' ii- 
cans regulated ecJefiatlicit afV.iirs, no more prori;p,oil:cated ai',y d.ur.dde ie'keir.en:, 
Lii.;n liio.'e by s\;deh they condLicleil tluir civd C(;neerns. i lie pr Jlv. t. r:;,:i ;r. . \d 
ot confzrei2;atioi^,s, cl-lTes, acd afieniblies was not allowed to be ii;.i:h;td : 1: : .. ,_{ 
even the intention (d n:a:iy leadei's in tlie J\ir!ianient tcj adn.it e: r.o el":..l;..A d 



cbiUrch, ar.d to leave e\'ery one, without ar.y guid.ince oi the n:a..dii r.;:e, ti; m^-- 
brace whate\'er lee[ and to iL'pport v.hateve^' c!er.;y v/eie n'ii-il ;v;ree.i;dv.- to !.::;. Ir 
wa> not p.rceived, th.it bv this pcdiev the entlM-fiallie i^ irit iv.i:',[ oi ne. . iV.:\\ : iw 
a C' <;,, i,;;enLe oi the eniuhitiwii and in:v!\ fled \':e'.'- s o; i!:e eci. !e.:ad:^-s, !er...;\;[j 
l'..!i a heiL;:iC as to elude a!l the f es ot e;vi' :i;,d inji'A': d..:v. 



Tn V.u 



lan'.ent went !j ; ir a, to ;v,..;ve lom'C .i;-;-r>M ;:.. s m one v:')v 



[ ) 



) t!- 



.\\'r.<-\: . 1. '^e c i r^w 
lp_;i;ant~, umer.iiit pi'', aeiier . V. lib a ir:..il 1 d'.u"-.' 
li\e in cch county ; .;; 1 tl:e!";, i eir.-; :vv::l]\ d 
1. :.vji] {iiAV: p'-'e to j.'aee, an.i en",: .!, a- :!., 
t;d::-i: s oi the go'- e! . 'i'h yx^e:; .bo! ' ,]] _ 
: ,, V, i'.o 1...0 o^ : I :(.(.., o '.;.! ..I. . 
.\nd in i:.;^ ! ;rtleu;ar, a^ v.- d, \: v 

irulva' oh' " : 

/' runu !,'s, \\ h vl: ., , 



C I 



r .1-5 ol ir-.c :. \ 



> 1 



34 



II I S T O R 1" OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 



I J I . 



Cha". I. vigo';,r t];an for the f o\v ai:'..l deliberate work of Icgiilation, Notwirhftancling th? 
late wars ar;Ji b!;.(.H'iihe:i aiul the preient factions, the power of England had never., 
in any period, be^n io formidable to the neighbouiing kingdoms as at this tim.e it 
app: ared in the hands or the Commonwealth, A numerous army k^rved equally 
to retain every one, in implicite fubjeefion to eftablifhed autliority, and to flrike a 
tei-ror into fureisn niitions. Hie pov/er of peace and war was lod^^cd in the fiims- 
Jiands with that of im; cling taxes ; and no difrerence of views, among the feve- 
ral menjb^rs of the legiHatiire, could any longer be apprehended. 7'he prclent 
in-ipoiicions, tho' much faperiur to what had ever formerly been exp'-riencej, were 
in reality very moderate, and what a nation, lb opulent, could cafily bear. I'hc 
military genius of the people, by the civil coiitelts, had been rouzed from its 
former legarth)' ; and excellent officers were formed in every branch of fervice. 
The conlufion, into which all tilings had been throvv'n, had given opportunity 
to men of low Nations to break thro' their obicurity, and to raife tlicmfelvcs 
by their courage to commands, which they were well qualified to ezercife, but to 
whicli tlicir birth could never have entitled tliem. And v.-liile fo great power v.-as 
k;dged in fuch acftive Iiands, no v/onder the Republic v/as fuccefsful in all its cn- 
terprizcs. 

Bl.vke, a n:an of heroic courage and a, p^enerous difponjlcn, the fame perfon. 
v.,ho had defended Lyme and launton with fuch unfnaken obllinacy againil the 
King, v>as made an admiral -, and tho' he had hitlicrto been aecuRomed onlv to 
land lervice, into which too he had not entered till pad fifty years of age, he fbon 
railed the naval glory (A the nation to a higher pitch than in an) forn"ier period i:; 
had ever attained. A feet was committed to him, and he received orders to f)U";- 
k;e Trince Rupert, to wliom the King had gi\Tn tlie command of that uKiadron, 
V, hich hai.1 delerted to him, Rupert took flieher inKii^hile ; and efcaping thcnre, 
Ikd towe.rds tlic coaft (^r Portugal. Blake purfued, arid cliaced him into th.e Ta- 
g'.:^, v.h.re he intended to attack that Prince. But the King ol Portugal, moveel 
by t::e rav(;U'", vehich, thr(:;ug!ujut all i'iurope, attended the royal caule, relnled 
Cklee adnhttanee, and aided Jvupert in making his cfi:-ape. To he revenged of 
lids ['aitnhity, the lengh'h admiral maele prize ol twenty i'ortuguele flips lich'y 
h;,:L-n, and threatened fnl hu'ther vcnfeeance. The Kino; ol Portur-al, drcadin -^ 
n. da ^, :rcue a i^e t.< hi:, newacqiihed dominion, aiul leniible o! the uneqeal ccn- 
tc;:, ;.. av ilIi he '.-.as enga::ed, neade all pofiible kjbmifions to tiie haught\'l\e- 
( uli-ie.. ... d v.as at hdl adnn:^ed ro n':''i;otiate the renewal ol his alliance with ienp"- 
!a..-h >.. ; v:^., hr'Vi^^: lof a great pait ol his Iquadron on the coaii ol Spain, made 
L,, t ' . .M ,.'> di'j e\ ; 'U'^nv'S. Hie h;v)L'ier, .kriu'-e Maurice, was there f!d[)- wreekc d 
:.. :. i:-.i!i..u;e. x.'\.'-) wher-, tid^ fiu.idron kibkllcd by privatcciing, ibmetimes oi: 

Eimhik, 



r II r. C () M M O N \V R A L 'i' II, 



i . !\ , , .i..J iMi' C K-( I[^" /: , U ..'_ V,!- l.i.L ,',i_.. ., . : ,.. 

n'!;;:i;vl.i:, Aiu:^:.!i, \-;:; '..m vv; l..-..:i l" .' .li.' 
,; pv 1 .(>ril 'n. ;ilu..Ljliby (>; 1'.;; ;..ai^, i:"..i;.'j . 
( , .1. ,e\! [u i j-T";::. 

\\ 1 : ; !."'.!, il c.'.ic v.:rc | ;;.;, li;, ;.. ' s', ,' .;..., >;:,.i >... 
Uu.icr Ijrj^LL'un lo tl.c \iv[ Line ; :::v_! li.c L.i. \,!i..i: :i.i.: 1 
jviwii :;;! ^ ti'j;i"i t:;vic Ll.m.is, w.is i'Li. .crc.l wUuv.^/ (.;.:. lo : 

\;.-AiL-d to t.!ic n-;<';:.iy ui iaviK i\~[j\n\ i ro ih.- t:,ci: y. '! . 
t^:', i;!ull;i I.- Ik)i,!c o: 'i'ri;]:'A.:K;' va IV.ui^c, h.ii', ^:.:;!.^_!, : 

ni. n:.irv :o;\b-, 'dv.d Hi i"cc.u;.:il tlii.' y'y''r\' ol b.:i~. j; t.-c ! 
k i:.:;.!^/!ns .\:\d i;i .lil tii.ir i,.y''nd..;!C (.ivyi';::iio. ., v. liu :.'-:;" 

1 ; !.i..\ N :> an J Scoii.ii.tl were vmw ^[:'^.\^\^' U.;-' -^^.v; , 
htton, the iv.'.- deputy oi Ii\l.u'ii!, eun ni'.iu.Kry, ,i r..;:ri^ 
r.:^::, ] 'r(.'!le:itc(l the wivil. of lubJini^ij, tiie I'es'olted I:-;;]:; 
bi [r..\w, ;e!U(^i:nters, v. i.i ;^ :!k/ in t!; nbe'vi'S ol no !;:\ ,:t 
I) ''ivir tie^liniii,^ caiile. ib: iLii.bb.b \'.;ii-(;i,c n^-.;\'.' . 



: i t . '. C 



. h,i;:b M i; 



'-'c I'b.i :n e)';_.be, a;-; 



:.::. .!: r.v.r.ls, br,K:;;bi to tb e y,b-b -, :.:v\\ s -r A v 
be ii .b lo \v. !1 i^:.-.;- 1,1 [v.- biN iiibi.ni.iii ii-.-bi . I .:. 
: i.i leMMiiieb i;i t!,e b.ii.b- ot tbe b;i"!i ; av. \ b'.'*.:!, .: 



;, I ,.r.t .! 



c ,:\\- 



nM;Ur oi i' 



w.i'- !u rj 1-:' . :. ,: v, w ,; t. 



; ;i vr-y : n. mora. . . i rrlon.'y^', ni.ii ,i 



36 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. I. capacity, even for the ftrlct execution of juftice in that unlimited command, 
'^* wiiic'i he polfeficd in Ireland. He was oblerved to be inflexible in all his pur- 
poil^i ; and it was believed by many, that he was animated with a fincere and paf- 
fionare love for liberty, and never could have been induced, by any motive, to 
fubrr.it to thefmalleft appearance of regal government. Cromwcl appeared to be 
much aflecled by his death-, and the Republicans, who repofed great confidence 
in him, were inconfoleable. To fliovv their rejiard for his merit and fervices, they 
Ik flowed an eRate oftv/o thoufand pounds a year on his family, and honoured him- 
with a magnificent funeral at the public charge. Tho' the efbabliflied government 
was bat tlie m^ere fhadow of a Commonwealth, yet was it beginning by proper 
arts to encourage that public fpirit, which no other fpecies of civil polity is ever 
able fiilly to inlpire. 

The command of the army in Ireland devolved on lieutenant-general Ludlow. 
Tlie civil government of ilie ifiand was entrufted to commiiTioners. Ludlow con- 
tinued to pufli the advant3<^es againft the Irifh, and everywhere obtained an eafy 
viftory. That unhappy people, difguiled with the King on account of thofe vio- 
lent declarations againii; them and their religion, which had been extorted by the 
Scotcli, aj-jpjcd to liie King of Spain, to ;he duke of Lorraine ; and found af- 
firrance no wn^rre. Cianricarde, unable any longer to refill the prevailing power, 
made fabmiiTrjns to the Parliament, and retired into England, v/here he foon 
aiter died. Lie was a fieady catholic; but a man much rcipeded by all parties. 

I'liE fjccelTe?, which attended Monk in Scotland, were no lefs decifive. That 
able general laid (iege to Stirling caflle; and tho* it was well provided for defence, 
it v,as foon iurrcndered to him. lie there became mafler of all the records of the 
kingdom ; r.nd he fent them to Eng'and. 1 he earl of Le' en, the earl of Craw- 
ford, lord Ogilvy, and other rioblemcn, having met near Perth, in order to con- 
cert mear.s ic^r raifirg a nevv army, were fuddenly fet upon by colonel Alured, 
and mcut of them tak.^n prifoners. Sir Philip Mu%rave, with fome Scotch, being 
engaged at Dumifries in a like cnterprize, met witl'i the f ime fate. Dundee was a 
tovv-n v/e!i fca-iified, {ijj-plied wit!] a good garrifon under Lumiilien, and full of all 
rh.e ri( i'i fu-niture, the ph-te and money of the kingdom, width, had been ftnt 
iLith.r as to a place of fafety. Monk appeared Letore it; and having n^.ade a 
tM-each gave a gtn;-ral afiault. He carried the 'ov.'n-, and iollov\in,; the exr.inj-le 
and H^alructions or Cromwel, put the whole inhabitants to the fwoid, in orc::r 
to iir.ke a g neral terror into ti'.e kingdom. Warned by this exan)p!e, Aber- 
deen, St. ,-\nJrevv'% Invernefs, and other towns arid forts, of tln-ir ov;n accord, 
y eidcd lo tlie enemy. Argyle n^.ade his lubmkluais to the F.nglilh Comjmon- 
wtalrh ; and exceptiiig a few Royaliu'-^, who remained ionv^ time in the moun- 

tainr., 



T ri F CO M M O X VV . .i ]. T IT. 



37 






r.ilns, under t!\e earl ot (jic;i:;aii:i, !u!\: P.ilc.inas, an' r;-:/ 

kin^doni, wi.ic:! had lii'.jc; Cv'j, li.io' ail a^,v-, 1 -y r.i a.s o' .'. i/..i'\n\ po'.'Liry, 

ar.d \'a!oii:', iriaiiU-iii.c.: its iii/.(.-p;'n>!.;:u"r, \sas r d.i.c.^.; Im a. lot:! kd-'/.v";'/;). 

Tin lMi';ii!h I'ariiamcn: icn: >; 1 lar.y Wiiic, .^:. J(I.:., a:,d. (.d.cT r'j:r.:idi'- 
i^,)I.!,i^ to r. i:\i- ^'cotland. Tlvk: iir.-ii, ui.o podcllcM /idc o; i:..- [.. 1. ::i[ ol !i- 
h.icv, kr.c-w liow to maiuain all ihc aiipcaraiiCcs o! :: ^ a di tlu-y r-Cj'..;: vl t!.-- \i)- 
Li'M::VV coiiiL-iU 01 a.ll tlic cuiiiui.'- aiid t';w:-.s oi ili':> cu. ..;'.;,:(',; d./,! ; , :i. [);..(.,rj' 
di: V \wnild un tc dicn into the lamo d(;.ii:ruj;',\\caltli vd'di l\i\.i\ ; d. i i/-;ic,::v 
j.ioteilcdj L.'C.il:u-, tiiey diid, this incui->:ora::^n woaid i'.viw .dw;, .:;.. ;d. ;: a Kiiv 
ordination el the ciii;rch to the Hate in tliC things oi Cl-,rid. *. 1-.. !!.:]; j,.d_;<-, 
'H)iaed to idnie Sc-.rch, were appointed to de:ermi:.e all caule. ; i.,llice v.. is dl/uidv' 
executed; (,rder and peace m.dnt>nned ; tlie .Scotch dving iieed l.oni the ryr.in.;,y 
i;t tile cccleliailiC:-, were not nvjch dhlatibded with tlie preler.t yoverriivjer.:. ' 1 ;; _ 
i riidenc conduct of Moid-;, a man wlio pciielild a good cay\iLi:y ;jr ti.e arts 
i.'odn of peace and war, lerved much to reconcile ti:e nnndi o: m.n ::i:.\ a iay 
thc;r pre]uidces. 

iiV the total redudtion and pat ideation of t;;e Hrdidi domidor.';, t!ie Id: d.iir.en- 
!'..id leddre to ujuk abroad, and to exert tlicir \igoi.r in lt;:e;g:; en.terpr;.-ii. 'I'de 
Dutc'i Were the tirll wI\o telt t!-.e weight (d th.eir a::r.?. 

I)uiii:,(, tlie li:e of I'rederic Hern-y, I'rince oi Orange, tlie StatCb h.ad n-.;; i- 
tained an exact neutrality in the civil war> ol ii!:gian,d a^d h>d iie\-er i:.rer( (::dd, 

txcer: 



w 






\- (. . ; (. ; L I.. 



38 IMS T O 11 Y G C; R E A T E R I T A I N. 

cxrc;^t {-.y t^icii- ^'"od o'TiC-s, bct-vi;:t !.hc contending parties. ^Vhc^ Wii'iam. 
w'..:- had married an !;- drd'-'i idi^.^.f':, (d-cv^ 'cd to his fatiicr's commands and aii- 
td-v 'V ', tiv^Snri;?, dodi bcld.rc ci;; i idtcr the execution of the late Kin;^, v;er^ 
..Ci. L:'f;d of t/.dd':'; iiC;'? nu^re ia"/cu;\d: k' -o r'le rov.d c::'de, and cd bctray^na; :i rreat 
a!;rc :Li')n idoin td-c id.id:irpent. It vm loi^^;; Lefure th.- envoy of t'le Idnyliih (doni- 
n.(M-i\vcaltii ccudd cd^rain [\:\ ;uidi_nceof tdeSt:te3 Gencrah The murderers or Bo- 
lidaus vveic not ;u;i ined with (lich vigour as tiie P.:riianicnt expected. And mucli 
r^^vM-d !:ad been r>:;ycd the Kinp^, and manv good ufhccs pc:lormed to bin-;, both 
by the piddie and by hk'^ of all ranks, in the united Pro\dnees. 

AnrLi; the d>nuh of Wiiham-, Ikdnce ofOrangeJ:, v; neii was attended v:]:h 
the dcnren'ion o; liis narty ^nd the trinn-iph of the Republicans, the ParJiamenr 
tlioupht, that the tin.e ^vns now ro ne of ccmentii^g a clob:r con;edera:y witii the 
Ihdted ih-ovinces. Sr, Jo'in, lord chief iihtiee, vdio was fentovcr to the Hague, had 
entertained tl^e idea of 'orndno; a ikecies of coalition betwixt the two Republics, 
which wotdd liave rcrdercnJ tlieir intercfts totady inlcparab'e ; but fearing that Co 
txtr.'iordinary a p'tojeci: Vv'oidd not be ixdiOjed, he contented Idnifelr wdth dropping 
icnne Idnts of it, and openly went no iarth.cr than to rroj-ofe a ilricl; defenfive 
rdiliancc betwixt En.dand and t]w. States, Inch as iias now, for near feventy years, 
taken nhtce between t'leie friendly 'powers*. But the State"-, who v.'ere unwilJino- 
to form a nearer conlcvicracy with a government, wdioie nieafnres were (o obnoxi- 
ous and whoik fituation (lemed io precarious, Oiiercd only to renew the former al- 
liances with England. And the haughty 5k. J. dm, dk^ uiled with this rctuiab as 
wtk as enraged at many arkcr:ts, which with inipunity had been offiTcd him, by 
the reunners ol the Palatine and Orange himiiies, and indea! kv the [populace in 
generak letcrncd intj England, and endeavourv.d to exci:e a cuarrc] between the 
two Kc'^ubdes. 

Tur movements of great dates arc often divc>?:ed by as {lender mkngs a:: thofk 
of indnriduais. Tlaj' war \\ith lb conimera'de a naval j)ovecr as tha Dutch, who 
were in peace with ali their otiier neighbours, might fc-ern da gerous to the vet un- 
ibttljd commonwealth, t'lere were Icveral motives, v/hich at this tiine e!:gagcd the 
j-inglifli Parlian^cnt into hnkile mealures. Many of the memb' rs ihouuii'"- tliat n 
foreign war would fu've as a pretext for continuing tlie lame Jkirlianient, and de- 
kiyingthe new model of a reya-ek'ntadve, with v/hich the nation liad d) long been 
dittered. Od^ers lK)p' d., tle.t the var would furindi a reai(-)n ier maintalikng, 
^jme tiuiC longer^ that nin::,e!ous mercenary aritiy, wdkch was ,o nu!ch cumwiained 

i ' I :;-. ;; In OQobc; ; - iG.c. 

r;,.,e., . .,1 r ,, 



THE COM M O X W E A L T H. 



'7 



of i-. C'n tli^:* o:::Ci- !;^n ', IoHIl-, %-. Ii ; v : . ...^ ! :::c c:.. ;\ ../ .,: .:.j:l: 

txiHvi J, t...i; ii.o i;,; v..: 1. Xj^v-;:^ c u: n.:\.i' .:r:;M:y ;.'^ \.' .. 1 :: \':.\:. 

cMiriiiiln:,;.-, t!. J ;:..;!:..: y cll.i'''!:lh;i"). !.c. 

(.l(;:2:_l'; cj ..i. rc!^ C.n\.i:\is l():c;;j[i t;M.;l.uL,'... . ....... .;.,._ 

i;;c,:\ '^i:!.!^ lo Lv '^o^vl p'..ll^v. '1 h^- l,.j-. . .: r j :......; L.: : :..;!; 

vv ,;!:!;, n.''j,cc!ici' s. il'i t!.^ a'.!\'.;ii[::;c- oi iai.-iii; : , pr..:.:i.. .; :: ;. ,-. ; .. 

j.i : Liir^irv Ica^lcrb ho p. -J lo r.rii :\..\:\y ta .i : i :/,- . :. .,::i l::v i ),. 

i i,k liicir i\;i;i":l"!.;;ii:^o;n:r Jivc, ,;;Ki bv \ i,.:wr:.> t-> i !];.-.". .i . 

nienr, \'. i.i'.li \\.1j u n^w aiul L:;ip>); ^:!.u'. A!l :h:ij \..\v-, f..^ ;,.->.. _ . 

IpiriC c,: Sc. John, who h.ui .i in;;.,!ity i: i;w:;u c c\'.-i- Cio:-:;v,\.., c.^.r; 

rarhair.T.r lo ch.ing'j the pro[)Oled aiiivUKc ir.to a k::iowi \s .-.r .r,..:./" :'. 

l'rov:nLc>. 

To c()\-cr thvlc huili'c intcn:io;.s, tl::- 1'.;: !;:in^^:::, i::;Ar i :c:. :;: 
Krth.j iiircrclls or comnn rcc, cn'.br.u <. J. i c.i n.j.i!::: t^ ;:5, t;..'.- ... . 
yjw diib.ii.l to the S:.it i. Tiicy !r.in;cJ i!iC l.un^r..- ..:l ( . i..r, i ..i::. n, \: 
hlAtccl ah n.iticns to iirpurt into I-'rj!.i;,a \:\ i.xw h .::,:::-, ..:\y .onir: .; 
was liot t'l.' [^i-u\vth and mairn.ururc c;; t.icir uwa j /.::.:::. \'y i::: .av.-, r 
',cncr..i, rhj 1 Hittii '.verc [)rin^: aiiy iiurt, u !i. ..o. ,;.:;,! .wlaa j :. .' >..>n 
a..d w !io I:. Mill chiciiy by bcin^r the <^vr.^-iA\ r:.rv\c[ :, a...: la. :o:-- c: t!;.' v. 
rer-> of reyr:/..!! were !i,rap.tLal to l-.wral nr.na ..am: , eai^.e^^.n.t oi :> n.: 
\N':nch ti.ay [-rer^ndcd lo !.a\'e i\ce:'/e,' ii'oni the >:..'v^ , and ;.:\y'. e l. 
iliip> le!l into t;;eir !i.in.:> ana WLfe m a:e pa:: ( . '1 .,e >. ; a _lt.e^ jn .i. 
b.n'^hin at .\n:bo}'na, w h;^ '\ w ere er;:.aa;y na, :" . n; , . .<, ..s, : a" '. a. a 
bailed in obli'-aon b.' ai'iir/ \ a;"- !..e.a ., we.e ..^^..lica . 
.! h , t'.e nnaa!_:a :> el i),) aaaas t'- 

. :., .. : Joiai !,ah :,.nex_o..,l, - _ , 

.; nc-t a iiwiiae, (.....xjin.i. ;i i.i ,..; "'.;: 

da., St.ite-., aiaia;ad a' ail . 

a.nlea^'our tiu.: rer,e .'. ai ' : : , 
: ayt d : artute (d ^t. j .. a. 



.. n jao. 
-a \' ... 
>' ;; V. .. 



y d.iy n.ca- i: a : d .: j, an'' ' 
.at l:an.(nna) au .,e : . i.i a 



40 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Cliip. I. TROMPjanadniiralofgreafrenown, received from theStates thecommand ofaflcet 
'^*" of fortv-t wo fail, in order to protcfttlie Dutch navigation againft the privateers of the 
Engiifii. He was f reed by flrefs of weather, as he alleged, to take (lielter in the 
ruad of Dover, wh^-re he m-t with Blake, who commanded an Englifh fleet much 
ip.ierior in number. Who was the aggreflbr in the adion, which enfued betwixt 
thefe two admdrais, both of them men offuch prompt and fiery difpofitions, it is 
not eafy to determine , Once each of them fent to his own (late a relation totally op- 
pofite m all its circumffances to that of the other, and yet fupported by the tefti- 
mony of every captain in his fieei". Blake pretended, that, having given a fignal to 
the Dutch admiral to ftrike, Tromp, indead of com[)lying, fired a broad-fide 
upon him. Tromp afTerted, that he was preparing to ftrike, and that the Englifli 
admiral, neverchelefs, began hodiiities. It is certain, that the admiralty of Hol- 
land, who are diftmcl from the council ol ftatc, had given Tromp no orders to 
ftrike, but had left him to his own difcretion with regard to that vain, but much 
contefted ceremonial. They fcerned Vv'illing to introduce the claim of an equality 
with the new Commonwealth, and to interpret the former refpeft, which they had 
ever payed the Englifh flag, as a deference due only to the Monarchy. This cir- 
cumflance forms a itrong prefumption againft the narrative of the Dutch admiral. 
The wliole Orange party, it muft be remarked, to which Tromp was fufpeded to 
adhere, were defirous ot a v/ar with England. 

Blakc, tlio' his fquadron confided only of fifteen vefiTcIs, re-inforced, after the 
battle began, by eight under captain Bourne, miaintaincd the fight with great bravery 
for five hours, and funk one fiiip of the enemy and took another. Night parted the 
co;rJoatap.rs, and the Dutch fleet retired tovv'ards the coaft ot ITolland. The populace 
('i' i.,op.;l-ii were enraged, and v;ould have infulted the Dutch ambaiTadors, who 
lived at Cii^llea, had not the council of State fent guards to prote6l tliem. 

y.'iizK th.e States heard of this adlion, of which the fatal confequenccs v/cre eafily 
foreH'c:;, they were in the utmofi; confternation. They immiediatciy difpatched 
j^r.v, penfionary of Holland, as their ambafi^ador extraordinary to London, and 
ordered Wim ro lay before the Parlianierit the narrative uhich Tromp had fent of the 
jate rcp.countcr. 'j'hcy entreated them, by ail the bands of their common religion, 
ap,d con:m(jn li'eeiLie.s PiC>t to precipitate themfelves into hollilc meafurcs, but to 
appei it comnpiriioncrs, v.ho r!::ould examine every circumll ;nce of the aetion, and 
c'^-ar up the tiiilh, wiiich lay in obfcuiity. And they |)retcnde.l, that tiiey had 
[liven no (;rdjps to their adivjiral to ciivr any violence to the lenglilli, but wouki fe- 
veiely pui/iPn inpii, i: they Icund ;jp(j.n enquiry, tliat he had been guilty of a'l 
aeL:oi), which they lb i^uch dilapproved. 'i'hc imperious rariiamcnt woukl hearken 

to 



THE C () M M () X W I-: A /. T 11. 



/ I 



to none of chefc rc.iloii^; or reiionllrance^. i-.lited w.iU ^hi ir,y\\i\[)l< :.\ \\\:c,ci.' '. 
which tlicy Ii.u: cb[.rin:(.l o\xv th;;r ilomrflic cncnii'-s rh' y tluri;;!.-, tiiar cv :v 
thing mi;:; yiji.i lo t'.cir ioituiiaLC .irnv- , and t[\cy ^la-hy ui/.cd die: (jj^p- ;t:! .i:'.-, 
wliich they ibii-'lu, of ni.ikin;'; war riic)n th'* Sr.r.t";. '\'\\ v (iciriaiulrj, t'i..t, v.: .- 
oiit anv tarcher delay or enquiry, reparation flio'ihj be nia 'c for ai 'J;.- il imaij;cs, 
uhic".. t!vj Kng'ifn liad fuflained. And wli-ii ti/is dcrnan ; wa-; n >i com:.!;:.; v,;:;: , 
ti'.ey (.iifpatched orders lor commi'ncing war agaiill tiie Lbuted Provi.-i-c^. 

Bi.AKE failed northward-, with a numerous flt'ct, and tcil uprm ti.c i'.errir.:: ru'd-. 
whica wcrcefcorccd by twelve men of war. All thef- lie e;t!v:r to.ik or ddV-.r' ' 
Tronip followed him witli a iket of abo\-e a hundred Lv.\. Wdivn tr.efj twv) .u::: : 
ra's wer.' witiiin fijjit ot each otiier, a:"!.! preparing tor batr'j, a iw.nous fi.-rni ... 
tacked them. Blake took llielter in the EngliHi harbours. 1 he Du:c!i ;':e!: v...., v...- 
perfed aiid received great damage. 

Siii GcoRcr. Avscur, near Piymotith, tho' he comma:u',cd ordy fo'ty fldps ic- 
cording to the Engliili account?, engaged tliL* famous de Ri::rcr, v, 'i > l:.\_\ und.-r 
liim fifty fnips of war, v.ith tliirty mcrch.un-men. The Dutcli :h; -s w-re in- 
deed of inferior force to the Knglifh. Pe Kuiter, tlie o:,ly ad:r,::,d :n l-'.urjpr, 
who has attained a renown eoaial to t'^,.it o! the gr.Mte;! genera!, d.c'cr.vi ,i 
hi.T.kh fo wjl, that A\ tcue giined no advantage over him. Nijhr parted; Cvrn 
in the greatcll heat of t!ve comb.it. De Ruiter i:ext d.sy lai!.-d or." wi:!i ir-, 
convoy. T'le Enghili iiad been fo fliattcred in the aeiior, t'lat th.ev wcrz r,o: .-.bic 
to purfue. 

Ni-:a':1 the coafi: of Kent, Blake, feconded by I] )ur:ve and Fk-fi, ivr:: t'u P h 
f.eet, nearlv c'ual in number, commaiid.ed by t'e Wbrte a:'..! de Muic.t. .\ \\i:['. : 
was iought much to the diladvanragcof t!ie Pu*-ch. 'I'heir r-a:--ad;mr.;' was ; ;.;iv!:. d 
\\:\d t.d^en. 'J'wo (;:lvjr vefVeis were luid; a::d o;iC bljwn up. 'i'.:: P..: a ;::-: 
ne.\c d.iv r.i.ide fail t(jv.ards fb !la::d. 

Tn:: I-'ngldli were not fb luccei'ful in t!:c ^!ed:fer^a:i a: 
much iupei :or lorce attacked ca; nun Baddv, ar.d. d-.l .ited. 
biowtvcr, b.:s vi^torv v. itli t!ie h.ls ol h:3 Ike. 

S^- \-) ir.ur- arc: lb'di)m to d^xkiw a-, to dil.ude t!ie vanouilh 
I') a little time ngai^dl tii.' vi^..: . 'ir.;:up, li\o!\!cd !>y de l\u:u 
tioodwiu'^, \Mt!i Hlak-', whole ... i* wa^ inicri-'r I'mIk- P :" ii, i^u: \. 
!-,ot 'o d;.l:r.t; the couib.it. A turlcu , b.i'tle cr;u,u- u_cvl, \s u. ; : 
both i;d: s -' '>'--'^l "^ t.Ii, lutvr: -r (;.;".-!. s aud L-..;u;;u, : -- r: ' 
I.) th:s.;.jo!i, the Putch had the advauMge. W..]..- hu. !... ^.. 
' a:P:dand Bo!' ivcutuve wc re '.A m. Tw ) \]::-^\.rr \ .r:jd 
\'.:kt c'Tij vl;"v cp[:orLun'Jy to j.u.-c t!;j 1. : ; k ii :].i:. .iite 

\o,'. 11. ' ^' 



\-..n (..A. 
uii. 1 le b 

li-'un m.k.i: 



cf 1\- 



42 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

' " '- Tromp in a bravado afrixecl a broom to his main-maft , as if he were refolved to 

jNVcrep the ie.i entirely of all lingliih vcllels. 

Grc ^T preparations were made in England, in order to wipe off this difgrace. 
^ '^-' A gailu'it P:cct oi" eigiity fail was fitted out. Blake commanded, and Dean under 
h:;r:, io,f;eLher with Monk, who liad been lent fov trom Scotland. Wiicn they lay off 
Pe;i:iand, they defcried near break of day the Dutch fleet of fcventy-fix veffcls, 
failing up the Channel, along widi a convoy oi 300 merchant-rnen, Vv/ho had re- 
ceived orders to wait at the Ifie of Rhc, till the fleet fliould arrive to efcorte them- 
Tromp ai)d de Ruiter commanded the Dutch. This battle v/as the mofl; furious 
V. hich ;:;i;l yet been fought, betwixt thefe warlike and rival nations. Three days 
V as the battle continued with the utmoft rage and obfi;inacy ; and Blake, who 
v.-.is victor, gained not more honour than Tromp, who w:^s vanquiflied. The Dutch 
admiral made a iklHul retreat, and faved all the merchant fiiips., except thirty, 
lie ioft hovv'ever eleven fiiips ot war, had 2000 m.en flain, and near 1500 taken 
^r.'lioners. The EngliQi, tho' many c\ their Ihips v/ere extremely fluttered, had hi:: 
one iunk. Their Oain were not mueh inferior in number to thoic of the enemy. 

All thefe fucceffes of the Fnglifli were chiefly owing to the fuperior fize of 
tl^.eir veffel; ; an advantage which all the fis:ili and bravery of the Dutch admirals 
co'dd not compenfate. By means of fliip-money, an impofition, which had been 
fo much com.plained of, and in fome refpeds with reafon, the late King had put 
th.e navy ir.to a fliuation, wliieh it had never attained in any former reign ^ and he 
\: :r:e.red to bidld fnips of a fize, which was then unufual. But the misfortunes, 
v.'.dch t:;e Dutch m^et wiih in battle, v/ere fmall in comparifon of thofe, v/hich 
th...:r tradie fuiT-:n:c.! ircm tlic Er.ghih. Their v hole commerce by the Channel was 
Cut off: Ev^n ih..t to the Bahie was nuich infefled by the Englifh privateers. Their 
'i;he:ie^ v. ere tocahy K.f;rndcd. A great number of their fliip^, above 1600, had 
ihi!/,] i .to i!ie enemies hai^ds. And ail this diflrefs rhey fimvred, not for any na- 
LK..uh h rere'l or nccr-hty ; but irom v.)i!i points oi honour and perlonal reientmentS:, 
or wi.i^!; :t was cjffeuit to give a latisfidlory account to the public. 'Vhsy reiblved 
tiAi^hwe to gr.ith^ ti~e pride ol the i^arliament, a;id to make fjme ad\'ance? tjwards 
a pa.e. Tneir reee:.tioii, however, was not favourable ; and it ^v.il; not v/it'^out 
^\\ii.., thi:t!i-y le -r.^ed me (V; A! .;t!on ot tiiat haughty aflemldy by the vio- 
p . \: o; L. .::.,;.. , .\:z :.,vnt :;o.n which t'ley expected a more [)ro'pv-rous turn 

'.',, -. : ^..:r A >;^' hhe.V':- ]r: '.hz hhul'amerit had not been the eldefor flril; j/ronio- 
r:r:, f :;\e .'a: , i 1:1: vh^:! h ':::- o: ^e entered upon, tiiey endeavoured lO draw lioni 
J. eve:-. < ..^:..!^ iide:.;::; g ', On all occahons, they let up ti;e fleet in uppoliticn 

2 to 



THE COMMON WE ALT II. 



43 



to tiie army, and celebrated the fi,iory and rjcccfil-s of t'r.clr naval armanicn:-;. ^' 
'i'hcy infiilcd on thiC intolerable cxpcricc to wiiidi ilie i-.ai'.on w.'.s llibJ:clcv^ r.i.il 
urged tnc r.ccelT.ty ui cliniiniDiing it by a red.;L::on o; t:.e:r \.\:\.\ tjices. 
icf'inv.-.'s (liev hati ordered to fervc on board the i! xt i:i :'.\: (;..^!;ty -j: n-..'.:...'. 
And Cion'.wcl, by the ^vholc cr.iin oi their [Tw.eeJ.ii^gs w'. ..:::'. , : ..- . t' -r 
hi '. e;.'.:.: t.ii ned a jealouiy of his power and anib:th,:i, .i,..i v, e:c le.vj.-. 
h;:n to a kiburJ.inaiion uiider their ai/i'-ioiity, Whtlioui: i^M:^ le or .;^i.:\ 
rj prevent thorn. 

Ov k.ih iirni ioun.hitions was bi..:!c the cie.hc c: i!.!-, .x:. 1-. , , . ;. : . 
tl:o' a j-re.: mailer (jf traud, he j;:dyeJi it luperihieus to eij-.. loy e.:;v ;..:: 
nuilation in condiie'dirjj that holei er.terpiize. lie <:;::",r.u;;-.jj .i ; ., . 

oihccr.^ i aiid iiiinKdiately lor.nd, that ih^y \ve:e di:i)^;eJ :j reLe.\e vh..i:, 
pren'.o:'o he v.as piealed to [^ive them. Moil ot them \. e:'e ;.:- i :-e;.::.r;;.', i. . 
t!ie:rad\-areement to hi:^ ia\-0L:r, and relied e;:::rely upo : I::m ihr tl^ei. 1..:..: 
ir.-^v.l. Ti^e breach being alrea^ly n:-^iiN v,'hcn the hi:e K;:;_; \,\i> lei ; a .:: 1 1 
betw ixt the n"ilii:.:ry ana civil pJ\ve^^, t!i^^ g r.i:::A ohijers l deemc.l :!;e Ihi; i..::n .;: 
to be at once tiieir creature and th, ir iivaI, and t!i wngh: t'.a: :iiey tiiem! //.> v. ::: 
end !eh to fh.ire an^on'!; Lliem th-)!'; < ."e s an ! rh Ik--, cl ^'. :nh. :> :v;.n.'^ : e ,. . > 
Ion., k- p: pohehlon. llar.ilon, l\iee, C)ve:-L.)n, anJ .i i. . , _ . , .. 



{(^n^ i^ 



' t 



ome [nme.pie, wer-; guiue.. oy no'ioi.s i . exn-awne; ni:, tn.u tnev v. .. e e.. 
into m.ahn'cs tiie n-;c;l vi )\-^i\z and n:;,:' cdminah And t!.j w:..dj ar.ny 
been gni!:y o: ihcii illegal ard at o. inns e;h;;on^ tlnit t'\ -v eonhi em ; :a; 
hruples wit'i regard to any enierp.i/e, vdimli m: ';ht 'crv. tiihr I'.in.ii 
pnrm le-. 



In tiie ccnnch oi" ofheer:^ it v:.v\ 



;n:lv v 



,. . 5 . , 



1', :m:im- nt. A ter C' mphh.hn;i, el tiie .nnnn , 
li/-i\; ci hred tin- Ihii h mienr io ; ni.'nhijr ii ).'.' 
nnd \vh :; pro.ehion'^ [liey !: : ' - ' mi.i 
i"( [^r.^ lcii:ad\ e, anh ;'.hA'''h , , e.- !.i;n r 

..tiv n-L. ;nia;r>, ironi \' ! ieh 'm ; tn m!. I'/es \ 



44 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

C vv I. The Parlifimenr took this reivionflrance in vci-y ill part, and made a fliarp reply 

^'"''^' to tlie council of onicer.-;. The ofnccrs infilled on their advice; and by mutual al- 
tercation, and oppofirio!!, the breach flill farther widened betwixt the army and the 
Lii of April. Comnvjiiweaith. Cromwcl, finding matters ripe for his purpofe, called a council 
of officers, in order to conic to a dctcriiiination with regard to the public fettlement. 
As he hid h. re many fricndr, fo had he alfo fome opponents. Plarrifon having 
aQlircd t'lo council, that the General fought only to pave the way for the govern- 
nu-nt of Jefus and ids f.int?, major Streater briflcly replied, that Jefus ought then 
to com-^ qviickly : For if h- delayed it til! after Chrillmas, he would come too late ; 
i-;e would find his place occupied. While the officers were in debate, colonel In- 
fu)ldihy informs Cromwel, that the Parliament were fitting, and had come to a refo- 
lution r ot to dilTolve themfelvcs, but to fill up the houfe by new eledions ; and 
were at that very tim.e engaged in reafonings with regard to this expedient. Crom- 
v.f;l in a rage immediately haftcns to the houfe, and carries a body of ^oofoldiers 
r.'ong with him. Someofihem he placed at the door, fome in the lobby, fome on 
tiie Hairs. He firft addrefied himfelf to his friend St. John, and told him, that he 
then can-ie with a purpofe of doing what grieved him to the very fou;, and what he 
had earneflly with tears prayed the Lord not toimpofeupon him : But there was a 
n::cerf:ty, in order to the giory of God and good of the nation. He fat down for 
fome time, and heard the debates with regard to the act for filling up the Parliament. 
lie beckoned Harrifon, and told him, that he now judged the Parliament ripe for 
a uiiTjlution. " Sir," fiid Harrifon, " the work is very great and dangerous : I 
" dcfire you fcrioufly to confider, before you engage in it." " You fay well," 
replied liie Genera! i and thereupon fat flill about a quarter of an hour. When 
til? qu-ftion was ready to be put, he faid again to Harrifon, " This is the time : I 
*' mud do it." And fuddenly flarting up, he loaded the Parliament with the vileft 
rcpioaciics, for tiicir tyranny, ambition, opprcfTion, and robbery of the public. 
Ti:cn (lamping with his foot, which was the lignalfor the foldiers to enter, " For 
'' Hiamt," faid he to tlie Parliament, " get you gone: Give place to honefler 
*' men , to thofe who v/i'l more laitliiuily difcharge their truft. You are no longer 
' a Parliamert : I teil you, }'0u are no longer a Parliament. The Lord has done 
'' vy.'.\\ you : He has chofen otiier inftruments for carrying on his work." Sir 
ILi'iy Vane exclaiming againd this procedure, he cried v/ith a loud voice, " O ! 
*' Sir idarry Vane, Sir i larry Vane ! Tht Lord deliver me from Sir Harry Vane ;" 
lo'd of Martin by tiie cloke, -' Thou art a whoremafter," faid he. To 
" T\\<j'A art an adulterer." To a third, " Thou art a drunkard and a 
n ." " .\rid thou an extortioner," to a fourth. He commanded a foldierto 
mace. ** Wiiit fnall v/c do with this bauble.^ Here take it away. It is 

" you,-* 



T 




P^ 


ai", 


o:' 


!x-r- 


cc 


i^ 


lutt^ 


fci 


ij 


th: 



THE COMMON WEALTH. .1 - 

** yon," faid he acldrc!rn<^ hii-nfch' to t!ie I lo'..!" , " t:.;.: '.^'.-e ' -zc:] me i.'rn.-, :. '.:. 
" I have Ini'^^iir the 1 oni, nii'iit and clay, tl.at !.'* W(v.,'a1 r.v,' .; :l.iv r^vj ';k::. : 
*' niv- iipc^'i t!: s work." 1 la' inj; commanded twC h-K'icr^ to i['-.xT Z'r.r. 'u.i.l, '. i.iir.- 

tlf wer.t out t'm- !a!l, and ordering the doors to be iothcd, de[\irtcd to hio iodij- 

i;-,-s in Wlutchall. 

In- t!iis furious manner, which fo well marks his genuine charaaer, did Cro:r- 
V.;!, withotit the k-all oppofition, or even murmer, arniliihitc that ianious aiTcn.- 
b!y, which h:.d lillcd ail L'uropc wit'n the rcr.own ot its a.iioris, and with alloiVidi- 
r/iCnt at its crimes, and; whofe comniencemcnt was not more ardciitly defircd i)y t'.c 
peoj Ic than was its final dilTokition. All parties now reaped kicccnivcly the dihn.d 
plealure of feeing the injuries, which they had fufiered, rc\'engcd on t'neir er.c.Tiivs ; 
and that too by the fam - arts, which had been prajtik'd again!! tlunn. '1 i;.- Ki, g 
had ilretcbicdi his prerogative beyond itsjufl bounds ; and aid.ed by t'.ic cIv^tc'i, hiA 
well nigh put an end to all the liberties and privileges of tlie n.;tic:n. '1 m- I'rciliy- 
terians ciiecked the progrefs of the court and clergy, ai:d excited, by car.t and liy- 
pocrify, the populace firll to tumults, tlien to war, ngain^l the King, t/.e I'e r--, 
and ail tl-.e Royaliils. No fooner had they reached tlie pinn.iTle oi gra -.cKhii, rliaa 
t'lj Indcpendants, under the appearance ot llill greater f.incl:!^-, inlligatcd il-.e ariny 
againll them, and reduced them to lubjeclion. Tiic Independants, ami l!l t'leir 
empty dreams of liberty, or rather ot dominion, were opi^relTcd by the reb:iliv);i ut 
their own fervants, and found themfelves at once expofed to th: inlults of pouer arid 
liatred of the people. By recent, as well as all antient cxampde, it was become evi- 
dent, that illegal violence, with whatever pretexts it mav be covered, an^i \v]:.\:-Viji- 
objecft it may purfue, muft inevitably end at lall in ihj aibi'.rary M\d dc 
vernment oi a finglc perfon. 



0[ 



<. II -V p. 



46 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN, 



Chan. n. 



'' .. 



pr; 



C H A P. IL 



Cromwefs birth and private life. Barehojte's Parliame7tU^'''-^-^C7'om'wel 

made ProteBcr, Peace ivitb HoUa?2d. A 72ew Parliament. 

Injur recti en of the Royalifis, State cf Europe, JVar luith Spain. 

-Jamaica conquered. Siiccefs and death of admiral Blake.- 



Domtjiic adminiflration of Cromivet. Humble Petition and Aavic 

Dunkirk taken. -Sicknejs of the ProteBor. -His death. 



And CharaBer. 

OLIVER C R O M Vv E L, In wliofe hands the dilTolut'on of the Parlia- 
ment had ieft the whole power, civil and military, of three kingdoms, 
was born at Huntingdon, the laft year of the former century, of a very good fa- 
n-,i'y , tho' he himfelfj being the fon of a fecond brother, inherited but a fmall cftate 
ficm his father. In the courfe of his education he had been fent to the univerfity ; 
but his genius was found little fitted for the calm and elegant occupuions of learning; 
and he made fmall proficiency in his ftudier.. He even threv/ himfelf into a very 
dilTolutc and diforderly courfe of life ; and in gaming, drinking, debauchery, and 
country rio':s, he confuted the more early years of his youth, and diffipated part of 
liis fo! tunc. All of a fuJdcn, the fpirit of reformation feized him ; he married, 
arfccled a ';imvc and compofcd b:.'haviour, entered into all the zeal and rigour of the 
puritanica". party, and offered to rcftorc to every one whatever fums he had formerly 
ga:n:d b- [.gaming. The fame veiiem:nce of tcmp.'r, which had tranfported him 
in:o tp.e extremes of pleafure, now diftinguifiicd his religious habits. His houie was 
the rcfort of a'l t'iK- zealous clergy of tliC party r, and his hofpitality, as v/eli as his 
libcrantics ro the flenced and dcj^rived miniifers, proved as chargeable as liis iornicr 
debauchcri:-'-. Tiio' he iiad acquired a tolerable fortune by a maternal uncle, h-j 
found his affairs fo injured by his expenccs, that lie was obliged to take a la/ni at 'Cr. 
Ivcs ^nd apply himlclf, for {\:i--:i\t years, to agricuhure as a proicliion. Vrsi tl'is 
cxpcdienc iVrved ra::ic:r to in^.'-:)iv^ hnia i;i k;riher ckbts and diuiculries. T!ie Vym^ 
pray-rs whicii he laid tj lus iamiiy in t'.e uiornin:^ and ag.;i!i 'n i.\z aft;.r.K) ;.7, 
conllimcd hi^ c:v';i ci;ne and tliat of his -ioui'h.aen ; and he r'^krv.d mo ki- 
y.urc lor the c.ac ( f hi^, temporal aifurs. i lis awilvc mind, iuocrior lO th.; -iw 
occupations, to Wiil.li he was condemned, [;rcyeu upon Itkif^ and he indu'g^ d b\z 

im:; :.:ati;.:;i 



THE CO :\: m o :; w e a l r ii. 



'7 



!n":a;;r:,;t on in v.;;o..;. .1. 



. ... ...-: I ; ". 



:. , rcN'c.iions ; t.;C 'i:\' 

-,-i).n:onclr;.ic.:! rf.^;^;: ;-. ro w ; '.: ::\w Ia' . i. I . .. '...;;:- :.:u; .lis 

tl?voL:'-:.s, h h ..; 'xin J .1 jurty w;;:. I l.i:;.'\Icn, ii;s ne . . , \, i.o \v.;s | r. l._l 

0!jly i:v tIk i.ut^r :.i';ri'.v, to zvav.'i^ ort !::mlc!! !;':) N. v.- i.; ...', r. ;v,- bc.^;!!.! 
thi- rcL;'L-.i: c;. t'.c liio:;: /.aims anu; ;: C:-: j^uriri:. ;.-.>! [\;r:y ; .1:..: i: v,..> a:; orJ::;- 
oi Cv :;" i!, which ob'ij, cl liicm to dKCiiilvirk ;i;xi rcni::!.! w: l-,::_^h;;i.;. Ti.j -..; ' oi 
1)\/(.;:J, wiio poncflc.i a h:r.:c t'!l.irc in the i cii Co-..:nry, i:;u.;r thj :,h- f;! l.!v, 
h r.'i;i;5 u;uh rtakea to c:\.in t:u;c nv; aiLs v. as 'j!:!;,;cJ to a;::j:ly to t:;j i^ -^l \ a::j 
bv tlic r- 'A^: ' 01 rijyal prcfof^ itivc, h^ ;v-^ '^^ irmilho.icr-, ay .-v:.:tcJ, v. ':) cj::. :.,.:.>: 



ti'. .t V, c. ... ;.:.u c 



,' 1--;,!.-' t] 



l;viJccl the iK'.v acv-uir.d hi;:u a:ii.. ; the Icvcra! 



!":(.) 



ni. c V, ii!i cy[x>hLh)a !ro:n n^a::y, an^.x,^ v,hom C:o:r\vcl h.hii^;^i.i;h':-: 
this Waj l.!;j ihil r:ijl;j (jy^;oi:Li!h:/, v.hhj!: lie :...h 1:.^: v, i:h, c;. ... 

ih: u : .a . ' ' . a anh ira: i ac hj v. a:. a!a;;. .1 hv tlic town o; Caah a 



Gi ta^ lo:a .an- 



:aa:vn:. Ihs (.h;a:c:a: ahhirs v.ai'ct!: 



Iccni-u aor to p oiaas a!n' ial:a:s v.aaca co-:hh c;aahiy hini to :;:. hi :!i 



lp!"aa'C, in'j -..ih:"!; ha v.as now ..: hhl tataraJ. 1 li 



i 



w.:-, la^ 



orii':, il .-. c: iv, \a< 



:-..,ia,. ! ;. 



a, ;.!' cicjut^cn !;._ar-,-.^a t..a>as ' 



' iw ..a 



wni;a..! a:m ; :\.^- iv t 



cn.h irr..l!h'-h Tl:-.. i rvoi;: ca h;-, lyirh tia'n'e:a.';- yiwni;a..l !ai 
ho..L' : but ha was la aial \, ::!: no attcnh jn : i 1'-, i.anjc, tcr ..' 
IV t to be ; aiH'! oftacr i\:An faiv.- in anv iaaa:a:::.a \ ana t!;. .^- .aa. .. 
\ iavjii iia w's ahnartrtl, w.rc cia !. ; .v ..aaa.-, v.aa^ii \\. a.^l nana 
acailf-':s t!ian tlv^ n-i.n oi buhi^.v. In c "-yarilan (.:' :av chiaa.nt i", :Mh; 



!_catbarcn of t'v houle h.- vai<^ e aisa: 
:h :u" w . acquainted v. idi '.' h 

V. a." ;]:(^.hd r:~:[\ c, ha \/oa'a 

L a )-'\\ ! a hi.m.ii Iac:a:j t ) '.. .\ . 
y-.vz'iV :rom that iiaai\r. j .nth' a n- t 
v,a!\- -cinch tiait i aiay, wanaii \ .a, a ^ 
I- '^ . \aa'y aan\'c ioi' ih. aar .. 'aaa 

'..orMv.oivrs \ aaJ v. h. . . .. av: 

v.haa'/, i.a t^hi \-':\ h'alhi.ia h 

{ .!v, .! I.', at d.iy 10 i^.a/a C(aiv . 

a' (1 ai": -hiat; !y to \\.:\':: Icit t' .. ... .^yi. 

a, .iia- a) Ihnhcil : hha.v otli^. , ia. a. 
1 I.. w,.s n(j 1 Ih t'un lorty . 

:a!]'oa ; ana :y/ la; . 01 y, .a., . 

0:^" .; ; tho' I erh \y ' c 



aad iii. ::a.aJ 1 hia; 



. n 



r.n 



4S II I S T O R Y F G R E AT B R I T A I N. 

Ch-:p. II. m.inf';er. lie mi fed a troop of horfc, i'lxcd his quarters in Cambridge, exerted 
''* great feverity towardf: tlhU univerfity, which zealoufly adhered to the royal party-, 
an'! fliov/^d hiijiilif a man who would goal] lengths in favourof that caufe, which 
he had cipoufeti. Hfj would not allow his Ibldiers to perplex their heads with 
tliofe fubtilirif's or fighting by the King's authority againft his perfon, and of 
obeying his Majefty's orders fignified by both houfes of Parliament : He plainly 
told rhun, that, it' he met the King in battle, he would fire a piftol in his face as 
readily as againd any other man. Flis troop ol horfe he foon augmented to a re- 
giment-, and firft inilituted that difcipline and infpired that fpirit, which rendered 
the parliamentary armies, in the end victorious. " Your troops," faid he to 
"Flambden, according to his own account*, "are m.ofl: of tliem old decayed 
" fei ving men and tappers, and fuch kind of fellows j the King's forces are com- 
<' pofed of gentlemien's younger fons and pcrfons of good quality. And do you 
' think, that the mean ipirlts of fuch bale and low fellows as ours will ever 
" be able to encounter gentlemen, that have honour and courage and refolution in 
*' them ? You muft get men of fpirit ; and take it not ill that 1 fay, of a fpirit, 
" that is likely to go as far as gentlemen will go, or elfe I am fureyou will ftill be 
*' beaten, as you have hitherto been, in every rencounter." He did as he pro- 
pofcd. He inlifted freeholders and farmer's fons. He carefully invited into his re- 
giment all the zealous fanatics thro'out England. When colleifled in a body, 
their enthufiafric fpirit fliil rcfe to a higher pitch. The'r colonel, from his own 
natural character, as much as from policy, was fiifnciently inclined to encreafe the 
fj;ime. He preached, he prayed, he fought, he punifhed, he rewarded. The 
wild enth.ur.alm, together with valour and difcipline, ftill propagated itfclf ; and all 
men call their eyes on lb pious and fo fuccefsful a leader. Irom low commands, 
he rofe with great rapidity to be really the firft, tho' in appearance only the fe- 
cond, in the army. By fraud and violence, he foon rendered himfelf the firft in 
the ftate. In proportion to the encreafe of his authority, his talents feemed al- 
ways to expand tliemlelves ; and he difplayed every day new abilities, which had 
lain dormant till the very emergence, by v/hich they were called forth into adion. 
All Europe Hood aftoiiifhed to fee a nation, fo turbulent and unruly, v.dio, for 
encroachments on tiieir privileges, had dethroned and murdered an excellent 
3-*r!nce, delecn'.icd from a long line of monarchs, now at laft fubdued and reduced 
to fl ;very by one, who, a few years before, was no better than a private gentle- 
man, vv'hofe name was not known in the nation, and who was very little regarded 
even in that low fphere, to which he had always been con5ned. 

The 

* Conference hdd at Whudiall. 



T II } C O M M () N \V 1 A 1. I H. 



9 



'I'l::. nd!2,;n:lcp, c:u r'.\::i.\i '7 t'u {)'<. ;)i'-, ajvii ..I a:^ .v.:..;. .^y. l.. ,:;..'.,i ;. 1 
..\\ :r.ii:i;-!i u:virp.itij;\ w.is i''>[ '.:> vr,i- n: .;S :ii:::,!u i..if!r.:i y 1-: l>:::-\.l\\ 
(.(':^;^i.ri.l.iri rv ..: Ti-li"-^, ^I\ liriltt t'.c i.ln.!, w ic :i;a;l.; ro C ' o:n v. -i l-y i..- 
{1l^ fl.L-arr , f-ui rii-iny (l f'^c > i...-t ^ orj or.iriMi^s .!i.;i r'- :;:;:;c< '! l' r.-.l .n * ; 
1-..: cl ;.i.;iiv bv l!.:- lc\"ciMi ( o;i r/_.,.;:iu.,:, (.1 prc'.vi.iL J I...:. is, ^::.; L-:.v.i :..:v) 
';,.i :c l.i::<:;'.i'Hn ^. 1 i:c K )yu!.:"s, c:u/ i\::v ccul,: ;: : ! a'c t.;t: :::.;:i, v. i.o 1... 1 
i ;n'-r'.:.cl l.is ii.iivli in t!ic blooi^i ( ! livwir loVcTvrjji, cxj-'j.U^i r.iui'C !ci.::y 1:0:11 



a. v., [i\.u\ tro:n t;.c jc.i. :.s 



;::i 1 i:i"ii-c:iojs 1\.!.-' i;') :La:'>, w ; 



'. ;,o U.:.. .;.:ii r o f: 



vcrni.-.:. Ti.c | rc,!n'tcri.ui < wci c ; .; .;'cJ to l.^- L.. 1 : !ki;i, by \v:: m [; v ... 
iccn (;u:v,:[tcJ and cX[)l!!-J, ;;,)w i:i ili- c;:J ex; cil;d a:;.l iui'a ::..! by r.vir '/. 
krvant ; and tiivv .4 nbui Ad Ikui i.;;- L!ii> b:d a^L ol viob":u\- v.'jcw tbc l'.; :'.::;;_! 
I'hcil; t'AO ixi:ti;s comp'jl.d i!;c buib u; ibir iv:::. n, .i::d k [ : v.\-- \ cy ^ ... 
tolcr..j'.f tcir.: cr. .\li ir.i.'ii, idv^v.i.c, bjna:iLv.i v. ;l'.i \'..::s .'.::.; ].;.....;>, v,\-;^-.. . 
to Ice anv pi"cl|'CCL or' iiiili, c; aiKl k'ttb ;;-;ciir. .\;;d t'l y.- >, bjv-!;v d :: 1 b 'l;-. ;:;..., 



I 1,.,,;- 



ol:s tvj :..Lmk[ tcj a [^jiiJii o: L;,m A.;.r.i:-a ".j ta. 



:!; ;<.) a 



OCT oi L;;io:"):e en 



t;i:.l:auic h.y^;Ciuj>, ulrs lii.bc: t!:j ;:a.;:j c.t a Ren. jbbj, !. I 



; u; 



\'. . . - - (X 



^.v.., U. 



re..Lr.>;u tr.cin to a cw.^i l'..:y :l;('M. 

'I'li:: bi.cyi;b ii ari- bjii^Li; tlctln'o: li by (..'ivjniucl, v,.;-; t'le yii'v w'.i-.i- rcb.;:- 
:-,.-.[ ;.e bad ti.e ii;r.-a:jiL rc.i!b;i C(; ayyul-'Md. 'lAa: jv:ry,-, bebdjs t!- ind.y c;;- 
daiits cu;;ta;ned f.vo at-, (d iren, \\!io a:c kciidiifdv >. . b;e n;{ d o:-y .die r;;.i- 
t'ylvs, but V, ho v.\ I'e t!;.-n iiiiit-d by a hiidbrudc o! i;^id..-; a::d c . clMraAer. db.e 
dril r.nd moil i.uir.croL..; \v re tbe Mibrr.ai :a:i,, or !i::b. .\'o:mic1i\ n^ii, v.i.o i;',- 
iidcd, that, duiidi.io.i i^.biy^ iol;;- id in limc, aii didin\; n of ;n.; ;dra.v it.l. I 
be ab ;bd.ed, cx.tyt wbat ai(;;e ;roni j i^:/ and i: ii: 
t , 1 -^^j-.d con.i, n; o; C. ;. : :.l i.yon c-..;di; a:,d v.l.'i j 
t , n^ .ni V. b.ie, t'.at n , tbjn:li !w.-, ^.cIV , i . 

v,\ :n- :... i^id;, win,; iiad nn oditn'cd n '...u. i 
il.c i: nil u; ie\nbuion, a..d i!.d.,nn:.n', :i.-:^ni, 
r.\^\\ ndi.r, \'. y: aid^e lonnd d m ' . ;n Aien (.! !.,^ 

i v.;L; ;in- l:\\' ^:'.:hcA ... . rivd :-; ; 
( . i, , : nil ' ; i vdnit id y lX; d :,..:]., .. y 

, la: tni, L..n , ,,.. ;, 1 bi; i ::;_ y ni, .-- . ... . , W li b. 
i. 'ads oi ti.i iinnil c\ . .n ;i. 

bf^^ l>d.i'. C r . n-v I i- ....fy iiatrd, b^:. , 



50 IT I f T O R Y o F G P. E A T BRIT A 1 N. 

Cl.sp. 11, Milicnariario lui:: a great inrcrcR in tb:? army, it was much more important 

"^^^ for h'l.r, to gain their confidence ; and their iize ot undcrftanding afforded him 

p,rc;;t laciiiry in deceiving them. Ol iate years, it had been fo ufual a topic of 

convcrihtion to G;ii:ouric of Pariiamcnts and Councils and Senates, and the foi- 

cen fo much accuitomcd to enter into that fpirit, that Crom- 



diers tiK-mlelvcs had oc 
wel thoudit it rcqi-iifire to eftabUfh fomethinQ; which mipht bear the face of a 
Cou'nvonvy'ealth. lie iuppofed, that God, in his providence, had thrown the 
Vvliole iigiu as v/cll as power of government into his hands , and withiout any 
more ceremony, i^y the advice of his council of officers, he lent fummons to a 
bundle d and twenty eight pcrfons of d liferent towns and counties of England, to 
five of Scotland, to fix of Irehin'i. The fupreme authority of tlie ftate he pre- 
tended, by 1 is ioie act and dt^d, to devolve upon thefe perfons. I'his legifiativti 
power they wi-rc to exercife during fifteen months ; and they were afterwards to 
choofe the fame number of perfons, vvdio Height fucceed them in that high and im- 
portant o-I'ice. 

l'fii:RE vvere great numbers at that time, always difpofed to adhere to the power, 
v/]-lch vv'as upperraofL and to fuppoi't the eflabliflied government. This maxim Is 
not pecuhar to the people of that age -, but what may be efbeemed peculiar to them, 
is, that ther.; prevailed an hypocritical phrafe for exprefiing fo prudential a condu6l : 
It v.as called a v;aiting upon providence. Wh.en providence, therefore, was fo kind 
as to bellow on thefe perfons, now affemblcd together, the fupreme authority, 
they mull liave been very iingratefiil, if, in their turn, they had been v/antinf^- in 
comp'ailance towar.'s it. They in:.mediaL.-ly votjd themielves a Parliament ^ and 
h.avirig tlieir ov.'n confent, as v.'cll as that of Oliver Crcmvvu', for their legiilative 
authority, th:y nov/ proceeded very grav.ly to the exercifc of it. It muftbecon- 
Jelkd, that the naiio;;, v,hcn it mufl iubmit to be governed by fi.ch thin pretexts 
as ti^c^e, was rediiced to great fubjeetion ; or it thoie pretexts were requifte, in 
orchr to deceive the rnilitarv er-thufiafts, theie mull have been lb blind and llu- 
pid, tiiat the g;-o;I^l- iinpoiirions m-ght: liave iliccecded with them. 

In il\h notible aliljnfdv were lome pcrlbns of the r.;nk of <}-ent!emen : but the 
iar grcare'l; part were low iocchmics; Fiith fvlonarciiy men, Anabaptills, Anti- 
;!^nna:.s, 'n.!e^; :' hi::, :, the very dregs of the v/hole tana'ie:, themielves the 
i'i'vg'i, ' i the hu;r,.'n ipecics. Ti;ey began v/ith fekirsg God by p:;:ycr. '] his of- 
iiCL: vv;.s j^errorn.e;; by cigiit or k^d y-f/c.i men of the ailtmbly ; and with iu ri:u;:h 
luc.ch-, u,at, acc(;rding to ti.c C(:n:ei on of ail, they i;ad never beiore, i:i a ly of 
their I.e.'; u. cx^r ;!cp, enj03e.l f > n.ucii oi" the holy Ipint as v/as then cnimuni- 
catcd to them. 'l\\:.'.i heart:. v;erc no doubt, di'at^d when tltey confidercd the high 

di^rnitv. 



THE C O M M O X \V E A L T II. 51 

ili-^i'.'.rv, to whlJi I'lev fiMv-olrd tl'..-:r:lclvc<; cxM'rr'J. Thcv I. a : b,:A rol.i i^y Cro r. - 
wcl m Iiis :i;ll diUourll', rlu't; l.j. i:e\\r 1 ol^i-J t(j ll-c I'.a-'i .\ J.r,', sv ( ;; C 'uiit k: ..li 1 
bz lb (>\vr,cd * : i'lv.v liu) ii!.t it liicrclorc- ihcw <.\:.:y to j u.a-.I : J :' : /. i - 
tcrm.uicd, ;i;\i Jo p.ive ttK* w ;/ tor t :c rci<p oi '!u' \\ \ r 

\\o:k, V. liic'n, it v.as cxp^ctctl, t'.c I.orJ v. as ro h:\ [2; t ,: > .'. 

l.matKs, bcin:; C(j;ill'crat(.d In' liuii" f,v,'n iond im .s^ina: u)i.-, i.... . .. ,,.:,, - 

tijMtliv to the clergy, who claim a pindiar l.ip.ciitv, ^'x]^\v^c,'. iv/. >\ ! . i.om tiv.;:-^ 
iicc and pricllly character. i his Pariiameiu toolv iiito ccii.id.T'tio.i the ah.;!::' 
ot the clerical tLHietioii, a^ lavourii-.;T oi poperv , audi t!ie r..!;-;;/, .;V.a'/ tvh. , 
which tiicy called a reha of Jtichdin^. Learning; alio and ih : u.,: vch':.- th , 
decnicd Iieathenifli a;vd unr.ccci'iarv : '1 lie ci ni'iion h'.v; thev c; r.on.i/a'.- d. a had 
of the concai.ll and oi T'ha-ir.an ilavers' , andi tlwiatencd rlie hiv.y.rs \.:,. .. 
abroj^atioii ut their jM-oieOion. Some il.ps were even t.'.ken rov, a.d., .:,, , ' 
oi the chancery--, the Id^heil cotirc of padnciture in tlie hirp, '.0:11 ; .1 ./. d, ... 
laical law w..s i;Uenc!ed to he eil.ib.idvcd a.^ tive iid.e l\i.eni ci h.;-j.,i.d 
prudence '^. 

Or all the cxtr.Kirdinary fchenicF, aaoptcd by thefe 1. i:,;diat';i-s tI;-'V haci .'-.ct !,:- 
/.are to iinilh any, except that which ellabhihed tix- ieLi.n l(.',en:n;/..::;oa o; n:..r:i.i^:c 
by the civdl magillrate alone, without: the intcrpo'ition ul tlie cli-r^v. 'Idie. h'i:;;.l 
thcmfelves cx[X)fed to the derlfion of the public. Among t!ie lanatic^ (.ii I'v^- Iuk,,:-, 
tliere v. as a \'ery active member, much noted ior long pjrav.rs, lermcn?, a; d h.i- 
rangue.^. Me was a !earlier-!er.er in Eondon : J lis nan-.e Prr:'-^..^ /.'.:,.,;;. 
1 his ridiculous name, v/liich leems t(j ha\'c been ch.o'lii by fern. pee;, tr aiicgondt 

Ha ^ ^ to 

' t",: .-! . ;'. . ( . . ') 11 i.i.'i i . . 



II I S T 



W 1^ 



O F 



G 



K 1. A T B R I T A I N. 



p 



Chan. i:. 



to fiiic ih ;idicu!oi:s a perfljnage, irrutk the fancy of the people ; and they coni = 
moniy affixed to this afTembiy the denomination of Barcbone's Paidiamcnt '''. 

Tpif. Dutch an-:ba(lador cndea veil red to enter in to negotiationvvith this Parliament; 
but tho' proteltants and even i reibyterians, they met \vinh a very bad reception 
fiom thole Vv-ho pretended to a fandity fo much Riperior. Th.e HoHanders were re- 
garded as v/orldiy niinded men, intent only on commerce a; d induiiry ; whom it 
was Turing the fair.ts Ihculd firil eradicate, ere they undertook that great work, to 
Vvhich they believed themfelves by providence deiiinedi, of fubduing Antichrifl", the 
ir.an of fin, anil extend.ing to the iittermoft bounds of the earth tlie kingdom of 
tlie R;c!cemer+. 'i'he ambaffadors, finding themfelves profcribed, not as enemies 
or Engl.md, but of Chrifl:, remained in aftonifnment, and knew not which was 
moil to be admired, tp.e imphicable fpirit or egregious folly of thefe pretended faints, 

Cpao.nvEL began to be a'lliam.ed of h.is Icgilkuurc. If he ever liad any other 
deHgn in fummoning fo prepoilerous an alfembly beyond amuiing the populace and 
the army ; he had intended to alarm the clergy and lawyers ; and he had fo far 
fucce^fied as to make them defire any other government, which might fecure their 
profefTions, now brought in danger by thefe defperate fanatics. Cromwel himfelf 
Avas diiratisfied, that the Parliament, tho' they had received all their authority from 
him, began to pretend pov;er from the Lord *, and to infift already on their divine 
commidion. Plehad carefully fummoned in his writs feveral perfons entirely de- 
voted 

* !t was ;;^.:a] for the prctJiiced fair.rs ;;t that time to change thjir names from Kenry, Edward, 
A^ui-iOny, V.'iiliarn, wJiich tn.ey rega-ded as hrathcnifn, into others more fandli lied and p-odly : E\on 
;!;c New Tc!rarnr':-!t r.;,:TiC5, James And-ew, Johi;, Peter, were no c held in fuch regard as thofe bor- 
ifwcd ir.jm the C; id lelu'Vicnt, idc/ci^iah, liabbakuk, jo'hua, Zerobabcl. Sonielimes, a whole 
tr- d:y fc'!t'::.cc was acc:j t_d as a name. I Icre are ti'.e names of a jury encloled in the county uf Su'Iex 
;.jCu: ;i at ;i:iie. 

I Return, Spelniaa of Watlin^-. 

jie Faithful, [ciner of Britling. 
f'y Debate, Roberts of the liime. 
I'li.; ht the \yood f'iglu of Faith, White of Enur. 
Iyli)vc Fruit, Fowler of Eaft Hadley. 
Lfope fo;-, iBendini^ of the fame. 
Cjja.etfu!, Harding ot i ewes. 
Weep not, Billing of tiie ianie. 
Meek it]rewer of Okeham. 
Travels ir.to L:ig;a:.d, p. ;;9. " C romwel," lays an anonymous author or thoi'e iliu ., 
up iiij dpLKTi' eitanthio' ti:e Ud 'J'ef.anient. You may le.irp. the genealogy ot oui vSa- 
e ;.an:us (;i' hi:, resimjnt. 'i'ii-. nrdkr-mailer luib no other liil, than the Uiii chapter (jt 



Accevtrd, Ticvor of Nc:iXa'n. 
Kedi.e.reJ, L ..mvitan c-t 'iattle. 
F..i;.t :,ot, FIcw.t or' iicat';ne;il. 
Make j.ace, Hc:::cv; uf iiare, 
Ciod Re.-ard, i-;:i:.t of FivehnviL 
S;.i'.d ;ai:on h'.J^ S.riagcr of Cio\ 
jiarf', Adams (.f \'i'a;b!eic'i. 
CLJ, Lower eftbt f-:ne. 
Ai :':n, I*inrp]e oi v\ itliam. 



p. z-7., 591. y'iilo Stul'be, p, 91, (j.% 



; nurlce, \ ei 



T II r c c) M M () x \v r a l t it. 



vr-t.a to ..i::\ l> ( ; .c. :, r.. .. :\v^: i\.i\y ; .r^; ;: v.-.;- . 

thc?tn, tl'.i: u\'i 1:l:i...: o: :!.:. i\i!\!.i;i"i': :il .::".. '.. 

];ario:i. 'i'.::: h.:: ;:v\i t!w:\ U^rc, lo Cr.,n-;-.v ... : . 

anvil'V 'I !o: n:.;! *.!;.^J or alli.^iim n-, rcfi^Mi.d Iv '; i .'m 

t , ; ': V, V. ';i.:!i [!ioy had I J l.ittiy rrcilwd :rom hi. it. C ;.-i,r;\.. i 1..- ; .1 i ..: 

:aj;-.:v n^o:c rc-i".i::-:v.i :;: the !:u..!h i a;;*.! tii.it t/. \ ; .;h: ;'...;.: t<^/ :- ; 

i.:!.i:,- Ir.>ni conning to ati I:.. L;:r ./ l:,.''.. :' cv ''....,; :,, \: . ; /i '." 

Icj.u^ L() c!r.r.v t;[; ; r-;.(.lls. 'l i'.'-y \vc-:-l; 1,.-:: ;;;'i.t:;:- .i L 

i:..riy 01 Iwlviicro. lie ailicd u\'\v. \\]\:.z []\ y c\.\ {..':';. ' \ >.. a:;- .. h.: :,.j 

'* Lord," laid ihcy. " '1 l:en yea may yo eilc\'. :ut^," !\-/!u..; !;- : : : , 

*' ccrr.wii know ijti-y:, h.e 'i.is not hc\a here tlicle IcvLr.i! y.-.r^." 

Tii;: military bci;.r^ !io\v ;n ay: cnranc ', a:. v.c!i a^ ::i rtrihiy. :'. . . i 

prevaiicd :n the iiation, C'ruiii'-v^i t;io:.-';h: lit ro .nha':;.: a ne\' ; . ; ' 

KM^s i:ot to hav;; h..ci any coi:' eitcJ ; ! n :;i .. i '. . ..i:v:a:i :, 

h:.^ crea'wU', \v!^:), under the a: .r ar..::cc ( : Cib^e^y. .......... . ;:.,:..' ..... ..... 

;:ot;ndcd and^ltio:"), yropoh'd m a lc:.:: h t r t-tdc ;> ij :.J. -y: arioii:,.:- U'h -iv ; 
Li,t>vci'nnie::t, an^l to tamper tiic i:' e:ty (.1 a Lcmi^o;-..', . ,.i'h . v ^ e a,/.. . . .\ 
ihh;h' p. ! 1. n, wiio flioi^id be k:.(;v.-.-i [^v the ay. eih::.o;i ^r l':-(,:eetc;i-, W id;, . 
d..iav, iie pre' arcd what was caiicd the li'.f'i '..rr.cnt c: t.i.;V..Ti.:y.e:-.;, ^ i.i.d: ,. ,. 
t;ic phm of this new legillattire , and as i: \,as !..yy;;:Ld to he a.^r-eahie to d.e . c- 
neral, it was inmudiaicly voted by t!:e coiintil or ^ dh' rs. Cr);!V.\e! v, as d.ei.-red 
rrotector i and witii f-reat Indemnity indaii;_d in t!:.;: i^'yh ofdee. 

So litt'e Were thele men enh(>w.d \\\:\\ d:e !yi:i' . ;' ! ;;id.::! n, i;:.;: th.vrie- 
hi^edijr rather bodl,..!, th.it th'.y ii.i.l en:- ioy'.d (.niy :;ni- da\ ^ i.; d; ;\'.-:n : ''d 
d:un"i.n:, by wliieii t':: \^ i.e^lc ;i A\r n^.nt o: r' : ti.-ee h;n^,:.i. ei":. , :c: a ^ i 
ini;; a;; s, was pretended to i ^e ri year, d ani.; a.y.nled. Tiivr: .y , e..r> n;) d.:.i . d . 
in believing theni ; w;;en it i^ c::K.i\^..-i\.l h;rv c :i;,:e .vr.d '..:\.\:^^. .\..\ a ly d n: i..; i v 
hti.> tiiev c nd.avuared to eitalviiii. 'j'!ie eh.c: a; :;> .; o; th b.uiann. n: ar.- tie .1 



A couned w.:s apy.in'eh, w'neli v.-.:s n : to e\e 
liiut'.en prTlun.s. I h.ele v re toe: ;. 

and in tale o; a vacancy, the renM:....,g n.e...e 
teac.r ci>o:e one. 1 '.e I'ln.rev. ;r -a .is a; y^^:.: 
(.d)n:n";on'A'ead li : In ins naiii 'acs ad ' n;:.o a.: 
',;lU"aey an.i ahi hnn.nnr^ d.erivtni ; he inid tne pow^ 
.V. ; ni .r.'.er and tre..lon to !diii tlic bee.L.:t c.-r .:. 
ei ; eve-, w.u', and adnin e, u !d d in hini ; h ' 
.nt.re V hv [\\c adviee and w ;l!i d,e conLnt v.i h. 



taentv <'ne, ;. r 



54 n I S T O Pv Y OF G R E z\ T B R I T A I N. 

^'f^^ ^- "^^''is veiled in the P;ote6lor, jointly vvitli the Parliament, whi'e it was fittinp;, or with 
' '-" the council of fi;ite in t'le intervah;. lie was obh'ged to fummon a Parliament every 
three years, rnd allow them to fit five month?, without adjournment, prorogation, 
or didohiiion. T!x bih'?, wh.ich th.ey enafled, were tobe prefented to the Proteclor 
tor his confent; but if wirliin twenty days, it was not obtained, they were to 
pafs into h;ws by the authority a'.onfi of the Parliament. A (landing army for 
Brr.ain and Ireland was eftabliiTied, of 20,oco foot and lo^ooo horfe ; and funds 
were af'igned for their luptoort. 'Ihefe were not to be diminifhcd without confent 
ct t!^e Proteclor -, and in th's article alone he aflumed a negative. During the in- 
tervals of Parliament, the Protedor and council had the power of enacting laws, 
vvhich v/erc valid liil the fird meeting of Parliament. The chancellor, treafurer, 
adm/irai, clhef governors of Ireland and Scothi'id, and the chief jufticcs of both 
the benches mull be chc-fen with the approbation of Parliament ; and in the inter- 
Vc'.ls, with the approbation of the council, to be afterwards ratified by Parliament. 
The Proteclor enjoyed h.is office during life ; and on his death, the place w^^s im- 
mediatdy to be fupplied by the council. This was the infbrumtnt of government 
cnactedi by the council of officers, and folemnly fworn to by Oliver Cromwel. 
The council of flate named by the Inllrument were fifteen ; men entirely devoted 
to the Proteclor, and not likely, by rcafon of tiie oppofition among themfelves in 
party and princij^les, ever to combine againll him. 

Cromwi:!, faid, tliat he accepted thedignity of Protector, merely that he mio-ht 
exert tiic duty of a conftable, and preferve peace in the nation. Affairs indeed 
were brou;:'it to that pafs, by the furious animofities of the feveral factions, that 
th.; extcnhve authoiity and even arbitrary power of fome firll: magiftrate was 
become a iv. cjlfary evil, in order to keep tlie people from relapfing into blood 
a:id CO rrufiuii. The Indepcndants were too fmall a party ever to eflablifli a popu- 
lar government, or entrulf the nation, where they had Co little interefi, with the i'rcs 
clioice of ics own leprefentatives. The preibyterians had adopted the violent max- 
ir.is ' f p, rf.cution -, incompatible at all thr.es with thic peace of fociety, much 
more witli t'-e wild zeal of thofe numerous feels, which prevailed among th.e 
]):ople. Tf.e lloyiilifts v;ere fo much enraged by the injuries, which th.ey had fuf- 
fercd, thai the ot'iier jirevailing parties w^uld never fubmit to them, v/ho, th.cy 
hne:v/, merely bv tiie ex?cu*:ion of the antient laws, were enibled to take kich fe- 
vrre revcn le upon tficm. 1 f ul Cromwel been guilty of no crime but tins tcn> 
p/orary uiurnation, the ])lea oi neceffity and public good, which he alleged, might 
hi allo'.vcd, in every view, a very reafonable cxcufe for his conducl. 

Dl RING 



T II E COM M O \ W E A E T H. 



^; 









I)v:uvc t!iC v.ir.:v (,i r. v.!.: .;'.:).; ^ . 
nici't piclcp.;^.'; 1.; 1' ::;/,'. "iiul, [!:j n.Mtary U-v.^ ....)..-w. i^,, ..... l... . .,,. .. .. -., 
co;K:i.Ot, :.'.:A i;iia''-[i:,;fv ; aiul li^-v: ii:'l tiic kin ,cl..;:i .ij-rrar n-iorc : ; . :j 

all io;c;.;i i. .:i.':i-. "star (ho co.iit i/l 1- uImIci^, 1 lo;-; p \\i:'.\ a iv.l.J .' , ; cl v.: .i 
liL.::,!i\' ! ^. ., met t!ie ]':;[;!ilh l.tor, (G'-.l!)' n'.;:::-;vr')'.s ^'.irni.i:.;: 1 iy M' ;.!. 
aii.i 1 X .i:i, :i:id i.iui-r thcni b^ l\n and EAulon. "lie two rr: b .:s ^s^ : :; : 



M-. 1 t'm 



i. ill ciK-a by any ii.uiona! anri[\'t y, an 1 innr inter i's very Intj mti 
!; .V b;rLlcs h.ivc i^con l()i:,.'nL v,i:n niOi-c iuT; c .in.i i.iK.n.a:.- :< ... re 

tnnlc iiKiny n.iwii combat;, whicli oc.i.rrcd dn:;i-_ [iw-; H;:;:-, b-..:\. .. .: ..;:. 
The cblirc o: roniainin^ (o!s lords of th:- occ.in anim.it.- 1 th !' :' r.-^ t ) .:n ho,:j:; 
rabb cnin'arior; ai;3.iinll cich otiKT. Ait.r a b.ittb- c;r t\' d days, in t';:- dr:; (! 
whivh Ocan wa-, kidcd, ti;c lH:tc:i, inbrior in t'le ii/: ut t!.,i;- Oii'-s wciv rb;;;: b 
\\ith jjMC.u lod-, to i'ct;;\' in:o tlibr h.w I ours. Iba :j, !"Osv.,r,b ti.; en.: c*: rh-inht, 
M '.V. d hib conntryn:ca v. idi i ^ la ;. i lu- 1 bvdbli d . t diy '..: td-: v' .-.^ < ! 1 Io!.,n,v., 
and totadv interrupt, d tlu- con^m^ivc (.! td,:t r pLoi,.-. 

ddu: and-al]ad(n<, xs'iom t!;e ])..". n 'i.u! ;-n: in o Inn-;!and, - ivj t!;-'n: n y . 
pciC--. 13nt as tliL',- cnb! obtain no c. Ibition (-; Iv^tdlln-, ti.-.-a:. . 
bid" r an'.' !oiu:cr t'lo l'[- a.: 1 dilj;ra,v (d h::-'^ h' .cd:a,i; d bv tli n' c. . ,. . , n ,..i. :,; 



c 



. ..i 



:::\ 



{.::v. ;l clnj.t^ to ;cco',-cr tntnr niiLirccl h inonr 

.n.d \ inor of tint Ibitc ap'j-'j.n- n^. a n:.nc 

r.;cv h ai r.p.iir^d and m.inn.d tii i; lb:ct ; and tiuy oc'un [m.: W-nnc d.;p- o: a -.n-.;cn- 

;izo, t'nai any wldcli tln-y h.id hibicrto lb; to ha. dh .:n-::p idd .d ct.t, dct.rn, -wl 

::y:'ini to fb:ht t!^c victors, .aid to tiio r..:nt r :':::-: ^ > 

;.,v enini^, conni^.nidui by bb^ni;; .n . 

(^nn'^.n I r,'n:[n ;; ....i.;i:y aninnuinn; i.n:, ni n, v. 

oi b.c I nnhib. d'..o' n ..r tinrry ,bi. ' . i\v \ ^ 
iit:!,- rvy ir bd :!in> ;..b - con;p.nn\l .'. .n; t.i.it ( ' tdvnr 

M ijn'.wnir.!: tin- n- .,odnb' n < . : , : 
b .n ^ . n\-. T",' htdmcd \'.:i i; t:.'- cx;^ 
n : :;' ; ': v I'.r.r chh ,n-, w ; n , 
i:/ :..v V. . nn ti.i.) ;.a.n.:, bv c :c . : 

K..I :. na'. ., y .bo'.-. ii a di inx' to k ; . ; .w.. 

1 ...: < 1 tn I.Mnjn:- nn-nd,d \\.j:-:\ ti.; ;>,.', 
i; ..nrb \.;l!i li, ' i.di L'^nn,.' ;nv. ... 

. I ) ' :,'., . nn:oi.: V ni tin' i . , . 

,..'^d r.. \n C i\ : .\ ... . ' 



'( .!\" X-. ,;,i 



56 HIS r O R Y Q F G R E A T B R I T A I N. 

Ci''^;'. v.. coi!;uon with the United Provinces ; a total conjunciion of government, privilege;^, 
'"-' int'T. i^-s, iM\(] council?, 'i liis proiccl appeared (o wild to the Sratts General, that 
I' ci. t'u'v wondered any man of P.nle could ever entertain it i and they refufed to enter 

!::!) Anvil. ^^''- conrcrences w] !i Kg^ird to a prupofiil, \vh\cl\ cou'd ferve only to delay any 
praCLicabie le'icme of accoiiimodition. 'i he p.;acc was at lailfigned by Cromwei, 
].o\,' inveOed with the dir^';ity of [roteclor ; and it proves fiiSciently, that tliC war 
I;ad. becii very impolitic, iincc after tlie nioil' fignal victories, no terms more ad- 
vanLa.:eous could be obtained. A. defenfive league was made betwixt the two 
republics. Th.ey agreul, cadi of them, to banifn the enemies of the other ; thofe 
concerned in the mjafiiicre of Amboyna were to be puniOied, if any remained aiivej 
the h.onour or the fhig was yielded to the Englim , eighty five thoufand pounds 
were Ivipulatcd to be payed by the Dutch Eaft India company for ioiles, which the 
Kngli'h company had rullained , and the ifland of Polerone in the Eaft Indies was 
promifed to be yielded to the latter. 

Crcmwel, jealous of the connexions betv/ixtthe royal family and that of Orange, 
infr.ledcn a feparate article; that neither the young Prince nor any of his family 
fnoidd ever be invelled with the dignity of otadholder. The province of Hol- 
land, firongly prejudiced againfc that oil'ce, which they efleemed dangerous to 
hberty, fecrctly ratified this article. The Protcftor, knowing that the other pro- 
vinces v;ou!d never be induced to make fuch a concefiion, was fatisfied with that 
fecurity. 

The Dutch war, being fuccefsful, and the peace realonable, brought credit to 
Cromwei's adminiflration. An acl of juflice, which he exercifed at home, gave 
Jikcwile laLisfadion to the people ; tho' the regularity of it may perhaps appear 
ibm.e'vliat doubtfjl. Don Pantaicon Sa^ brother to the Portuguefe ambalTador, and 
joined with him in the fame ccmmillion *, lancying himfeli irdulted in London, 
came upon the Exchange, armed and attended withleveral fervants. By ndflake, 
thcv fell upon a gentleman, wiiom he took ior the perlbn that had given him the 
ofience, and having butcliered him wdth many wounds, they all took flielter in the 
houfe of tliC Portuguefe ambafiador, who had connived at this bafe cnt' rprize -f. 
The popuh'.ee fvirroLi-iided the lioufe, and threatened to fet i: on fire, Cromwei fei;t 
a guJ:\!, V. ho feizeJ a 1 th.e criminals. They were brought to tryal: And notwith- 
ibindi!^;g the prot^fUitions oi tl-e ambaffador, who pleaded the privileges oi his of- 
fice, Don I'aiit.deon v/as executed on Tovv'er-hill. The laws or nations were l^eie 
p!ai;i y vidaied : But the crinv: comndtted by the Portuguele (;ent!eman was to 
the iiifl; egree atrocious ; and the vigorous chafiilcment oi ir, lidting fo veil the 
undctui.ied ciuu^ci:er ol Cromwei, was univcrfaliy a!)[)rovetl at honne and admired 

among 
* T.Kaioc, \'<j\. il. p. 429, ( Id. \'o:. 1. V. di. 



THE C O M M O N \V E A L T H. 



^7 



nmonr^ foreign na'.ion^. Tli-j rituaricn ofrortii.'ja! o!j;ij_:ec; I'.-.at r -..rt c<> a.-qv/K-'r':" , '^"r I^- 
and t'u' ainb.i'ui.ior lucn a':.;;- i].y:xJ. with ih- l';;:c-:or air^.i:". o: pc::c .;:ui ai.i- "'' 

ancc, \s li'.ch was v.. ly .v.lv.ir,: :(.^(vU.'5 :> ti; : I'/'i^iiHi c oir.n:LT<: e. 

Axoi ,r,ii a^ :. (ii l.--vcii:y, buc nL-cciiary i:; lii^ r;:i.,.i:: .n, t!:- P:: :. firr, at tl-.c vcrv 
Millie tiiLC, cxcrcilc.i by t',c c.ipital }u::i;lniiv- nt (>I ( k r.ird a:^.i \\;v.\ !, v, o K-v-ih:!. ;, 
wiio wore accollci f;l' coiilpirin:; a-^aiiul his iiU-. 1 it- h ;.I c:\..;\! a 1;;; '. i .. .,; 
I'. ilicc iur their trial i an inlriivnii.M of ti.c ant- ;:t: lav, -, w i-^ii at :'.i, tir 
to. lie laniiiia'', biito;-:: lo wiiicii no;:i,,i :ni or |mi;v c;! :.' 'Li.i.i rc'.;^;!. i; i 
l'_:riL':i were tui.n>i ai:Oj.u::h.r uiinMiKi'i, able. '1 hc;\-':i s i :ibi.:-:', i, ; :.?.. l.._;.- 
cc?, h.u; bicn brou_;ht ro a new :;;..! ; a'lJ haJ i-.ci ac-.],..:t i vbb; ..c'-v tri^ 
umj/a aii.i eX'-iltation. It no otivjr iiierh'.d o! co.i\ i.:; ..i h.i.i i> .. . . ; .i'lr- 
irt^ this lilcgal and unpopular i^ovcrnni.nr, ah i:^ c...nb^o vaie a.i'..:-L-i u;c..: :,: 
impurdty. 

'i'lii: I'rotccior had occabun lo ob!b,vc how unp <riihir 'o- .:'\v.-;:'ren: v, , 
the dilpohri^n of t!ic I'ariianici^r, wide!; lie lo;ii:n :rrjd wO i.\ :id:d o, Sej-i:. 
that day of the y^ar, o:i which lie fviined id two L,feat vieL )rb- o; ii;.;:d\ir ao.i \\'.,r- 
ceil.r, and whicii he aiv,ays i\;:^aided a:, i; riunate h^r b':o. It :i:i. . he -;:... bi.d, 
tiiar, ii w\, a:'c left lu p.t!ier C^(-nl\^ll'^ in!:enbon> :io.n In- i::ib..m ' ' <;' - , : - 
men', i: ;^ I'ucii a nuAie) pie^e, tli-.t v.e carnu.t t-a. iy co;.; ..Li;: e, v. - 
oady m./.nt toelbibhih a tyiaiiny or a repi.biie. On tiie one :ia:id, a h.r I !r.a_,;- 
llrate, hi I'.j ex:en;b,-e a government, keined u\;uii;te bodi lor th. d'^:bty and trni- 
c;idlhty ol the ibiiv, ; and ti.e auth.cn-.ty, which he aiibnitd as ih\.:ce:or, was, i.i 1 :n 
reipect-, inicrior to the {n\r(.gati\'es, w!d.!i tiie hiv, s cnti'ub.d :.:.:. did ^: nd > 
li.e Kirr. On tl,c otlier h nid, the b idibit.ve ;in\ei', w iiicii lie reie:'\e ! t., i. :... ; 
and ennui!, t(;ncther with lo great an army, incb'jvndant o: ti:e p.ndiannnr, v. , : j 
b.ui pro:inodics (d !d^ intention to ndmiit to a >. i\ ii and !e.,ai e wA tad '. b ' 
tins was not \\'vu i:.l(ntion, the nie:!;od, '''' '' '>' 



a .n n we (.. 



<.ieei;o..s, b.in:;; lo ia'.anii"ab]e to hdei ;v , iorm an in^onin:.: 
aeconnted lot. 1 bj d.-yrivcal (d ti.cir r^ght oi cb\do:-; aii n 
pia .> innJi ex poled to indnence and v o: rei'tion. ( n : Min: 
lentvd bin:^ian;, :yj v. ^re ( h(;d n in' tin- - (.nnties. 'Jdie r. !l v 
(i. n anvl d.e n.wre i()nl:der.d'!e C'.n'p-nati ni'^, 'i h," io'.'.e:' ; 
l^vdd. d (t de^eivr^b ^'''^i"^ <-A>i;: ied lioni thecleenon' : /\n 
\ .die: V... r." ;nidt to ' ntitie a.:v (an; t -) a \a;te. i: ' 

, r.. .ad.^'dvdd. yernd b.'ed.m; aa.bcv.ap-: 
,. , , . dad the barlian . aii ti. 

. : pair: ; the j eo! !e eon 

' irjm S.oliand ; ,:^ ... ... 



e .; : , 



ie :e' '- ' 



Clap. II, 



jS HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

The Protector feems to have been difappointed, when he found, that all thefe 
precautions, which were probab'y nothing but covers to his ambition, had not pro- 
cured him the confidence of the public. Tho' Cromwel's adminiflration was lefs 
odious to every party than that of any other party, yet was it entirely acceptable to 
none of them. The Royalifts had been inftru(5led by the King to remain quiet, 
and to cover themfelves under the appearance of Republicans ; and they found in 
this]a:tcr faftion fuch inveterate hatred againft the Proted:or, that they could not 
wiPn for more zealous adverfaries to his authority. It was maintained by them, 
that the pretence of liberty and popular ele6lion was but a new artifice of this grand 
deceiver, in order to lay afleepthe deluded nation, and give himfelf leizure to rivet 
tlieir chains miOre fecurely upon them : That in the inftrument of government he 
open'y declared his intention of ftill retaining the fame mercenary army, by whofe 
afljftance he had fubducd the antient, eftablilhed government, and who would with 
lefs fcrupie obey him, in overturning, whenever he fhould pleafe to order them, that 
new iyftem, which he himfelf had been pleafed to model : That being fenfible of 
the danger and uncertainty of all military government, he endeavoured to intermix 
fome appearance, and but an appearance, of civil adminiftration, and to ballance 
the army by a feeming confent of the people : That the abfurd trial, which he had 
made of a Parliament, elefted by himfelf, appointed perpetually to ele6l their fuc- 
cefTors, plainly proved, that he aimed at nothing but temporary expedients, was 
totally averfe to a free republican government, and pofleiTed not that mature and 
deliberate refleflion, v;hich could qualify him to ad; the part of a legiflator : That 
his imperious charader, which had betrayed itfelf in fo many incidents, would 
never ferioufly fubmit to legal limitations ; nor would the very image of popular 
government be longer upheld than while it was conformable to his arbitrary will 
and pleafure: And that the beft policy was to oblige him to take off the nrdik at 
or.ce i and either fubmit entirely to that Parliament which he had fummoned, or 
by totally rejeding its authority, leave himfelf no refource but his ftditious and 
enthufiaftic army. 

In profecution of thefe views, the Parliament, having heard the Protedor's 
fpeech three hours long *, and having chofen Lenthal for their fpeakcr, imme- 
diately entered into a difcuflion of the pretended inftrument of goveinmenr, and of 
thar authority, which Cromwcl, under the title of Protedor, had a/Turned over the 
nation. The greatefl liberty was ufed in arraigning this new dignity ; a; d even the 
pirfonal rharader and condud of Cromwel efcaped not altogether Vvithout cenfure. 
The utmoft, v^'hich cou'd be obtidned by the officers and by the court party, for [o 
they were tailed, was, by arguments and long fpceches, to protrad the debate, and 

prevent 

Thurloc, vol, ii. p. 588- 



T II E C M M O N W E A L T IL 59 

prevent the declfion of a qucflion, which, tl.cy were Icnfiblj, wouiJ, by a gf^a: ^ 
majority, be carried againll thcni. The Protector, lur|;rilcd :ind cr.ragcd at tl^.is 
rcfraclory fpirit in the Parliament, which Iiowcvcr he liad lo nuich ivalon to ex; i':i, 
fcnt for them to the Painted Chamber, and witli an air of great a'j:!:or!ty i.-.vcig!u':' 
afi-ainft their co.-iduiTt. He told then":, that notliin^:-; coiiM i)_- niorc a'f.ird tl.a.i 
for them to difpute liis title ; fiiice the lanie irillruriven.t of gover.'^'V.i ..t, uhir'. 
made them a Parliament, had invefled him with tl.e i^-ofclor.'hip j tV..it fo!)- 
points in the new conflitiitiun were fii[)po!ld to be fun^ian.. :.' is, e.;-.d were i '^', o; 
any pretext, to be altered or dilputed ; that among ti.efe w-ic to be e:lcen-eJ t' :! 
government of the nation by orie perfon and a Parliuiiie;!, tl'.eir i:>"nt autr.cr. ; 
over the army and mihtia, the fucceiTion uf new Pari:ame:it.s, a;d hSerty of e- 
fcience i and that, with regard to thefe particulars, t'.ere was re'e;\ d :o !v: .1 
negative voice, to which, in the other circumillances of governn.ei.r, \\c c;.r: :" i 
himfelf no way intitled. 

The Protedlor now found himfelf neceflitated to exact a fecjrity, w!.icl., '. ..; ' : 
forefecn the fpirit ofthehoule, he would with much better grace have required a' 
their firfl meeting *. Tic obliged the members to Tign a recognition (f his autiio- 
rity, and an engagement not to propofe or confent to any alteration of tiie govern- 
ment, as it was fettled in one flngle [)crfon and a Parliament ; and he })!aced 
*>uards at the door of the houfe, who allowed none but fubfcribers to enter. Moll 
of the members, after fome hefitation, fubmitted to this condition , but retained t!ie 
fame refradlory fpirit, which they had difcovered in their firll debates. I'he i:> 
ftrument of government was taken in pieces, and examined, one article a^ter ano- 
ther, with the molt fcrupulous accuracy: ^'ery free tujvxs were advanced wir!^ t!ic 
general approbation of the houfe : And during the whole couife of tl^eir trar.fac- 
tions, tlicy neither fent up one law to the Protee'tor, nor took any notiec of U'.r.i. 
Being informed, that confpiracics were entered i:uo between tlie nvemlvers ..:\d 
fome malccontent officers (>f the army , he hallened to a ciiliblution o! lo d.ar, ;er- 
ous an alTemblv- By the indrumeiit of governnient, to v, liich l.e Iiad iV.^irn, no i' 
Parliamer.t could be dilTolsed, till it had fate five moiulis ^ but Cromwel pret-iul- "' 
ed, that a month contained on'y twenty-ciglu days, arcoruinfi; to the mc.:': \; of 
computation practilcd in paying t'lc licet .:!k1 .iriry. 'ITiC i\:\\ ti.n:, tl-.e, 'e-e. ::r- 
coruing to this reckoning, being elapfed : t'-e Parliamtiit was o:\'.reJ. r,; .u'.erd 
tl'.c Protector, wlicrc !\e made them a tedious, coi^i'ufc d, ae^;:-\- !..;; iriv-e, .ind 
dirniillld them. Were we to judge of Cronr,-. 
d-,ed by all his otlicr compofitions, w:^ ihou'.'.' Ii 
vuur.ible idea ot it. But in tlie great varieiy ci I'.. 

I .^. 
' 'I'iiU'lo:, vol. :i.r. 0::. 



s c::\.^'\ 


ry !7 tl::^, dv.d m- 


"pt to ( 


::-\t.i:n n"! virv l:- 


:.;;) g:n;i 


:::s, [\v:v- arc l")n:e. 



to H I S T O Pv Y OF G R E A T B Pv I T A I N. 

C--rp. ir. which, tlio' they fee tluir obje'fi: clearly and diflin^tly in general j yet, when the/ 
''j-'" ronic to unfold its parrs by difcoiirfe or writing, lofc that luminous conception, 
v.hicli they had br^cre attained. All accounts agree in afcribing to Cromwel a 
t'.rclonic, dark, unintelligible elocution, even when he had no intention to difguife 
his UA'aning : Yet no man's aclions were ever, in fuch a variety of difficult inci- 
dents, more dccifive and judici' us. 

The electing a difcontenteJ Parliament is a fure proof of a difcontented nation : 
The argry and abrupt difiblution of that Parliament is fure always to encreafe the 
general difcontent. The members of this aifembly, returning to their counties, 
propagated that fpirit of mutiny, which they had exerted in the houfe. Sir Flarry 
Vane and the old Republicans, who maintained the indiflbluble authority of the 
long F^arliament, encouraged the murmurs againil the prefent uRirpation ; tho' 
th:ey adcd fo cautioufly as to give the Proteclorno handle againil them. Wildman 
and feme others of that party carried farther their confpiracies agauift the Protec- 
tor's authoritv. The Royahfis, obler^dnfj; tliis ercneral ill will tovv'ards the efi:a- 
b'iinment, could no lOiig.T be retahied in lubjeclion , but fancied, that every one, 
whow.;s difiatisiied like them, had alfb embraced the fame views and inclinations. 
They confidered not, that all the old parliamentary party, tho' many of them were 
difpleafed with Cromwel, who had difpofiefild tliem of their pov/er, v/erc flill 
more apprericnnve of any f :ccefs to x^iVz royal caufe ; whence, befides a certain pro- 
fpc'ft of the fame iiicoijvcnience, they l;ad lb much reafon to dread the feverell" 
vengeance for their pad tranfirefi^ons. 
J.,/: .,. f;:^!-, \k concert witl^ the King a conlVaracy was entered into by the Royaliils th'o'out 

oi 0;. ,x>)u;- I'lTP-Jand, and a day of ireneral rifno; aDoointcd. Information ofthisdefiG:n was 
convened to Cron"iwcl. Ti:e Fio^edor's adminiftration was extremely vigilant. 
i'h:.jrlce, I'.is kcrctary, hja.i fpies ev.i'y v/here. Manning, who had acccfs to the 
King's (a'ifily, kept a rcgnfar correfpondence with him. And it was not dilncult: 
to (btaln intLliigence of a confederacy, fo generally dilTufed among a pnrty, who 
valncd chemklve^ more on zea^ and courage, than on lecrecy and lobriety. Many 
Oi the ]\-)v,dif i v;c^re thro'.vr; in':;) nriion. Others, on the approach of the day, were 
te;r!:Kd v.\:h :he danirer o: L:;- undertaiLing, and remained at home. In one place 
] p'' '''^ alone the confniracv b\^ke on*: into action. Penruddoc, Groves, Jones, and otiic r 

pcniiemei-; ci trie w.'l:, en-.red Salifbury with about 200 horfe j at the very ti;ne 
V K n ti-.e fiuritVand judge:: v ::::; holdiiig the alJizes. I'IkIj they made prhbners -, 
a:u: y :--\:Kkred the king. Contrary to their expeftations, they received no accel- 
i:oi. ; . W:,vcc ; io ;revale:.t was tlie terror of thcefLabliflied government. Having 
in v..i.; w ndered vib(;nt lor lome time, they were totally dileouraged ; and one 
.troc ;_' o: l.er.v, was able a: iafl to lupprefs them. I'he leaders of the conlpiracy, 

beinp: 



IvL. 



THE C O M M O N \V E A L T II. 6i 

beinc^ taken prifoncrs, were capitally punlflic.l. ITiC rcH were Uj].\ forH^.vC;, r.r.i ^ "". ^' 
Crar,l]:ortcd to Barbadocs. 

Tnu c.ilV r.: cluiivi; t'iis InfLirrccllon, wliicli, by t':c bjlJn.f of th^ iruljrtalJ-^::, 
flnuk at r.iil an ii.Tmitc terror into the natio-^, v.as a fmr^ular ivl'cirv r ) tlie I'ro- 
rc:,..>r, wiio could rot, without danpcr, have brourdu X'~:: thvr anv r : ' ' :..'r' 
bociv oi !us mutinous army, in order to fupprcls it. '] he \cry ir.;;:::-.'. ; . I'.i 
!; rc'-^arJcd as a fortunate cvc;it ; iiiicc it prjNcd ti:c rcaiitv or tl-.otl' co;,.: ;i.:. e.'^, 
which ins cncnr.;s, on every occafion, rcprcfcntcd as m-crc fiftioi'iS, in', f.r \\ V) 
colour '-.is iv.ilous Icverltics. He rclolvcd to keep no Icr.^'cr ar.y tcrn-s v itii the 
Kovaliit?, V. ho, tho' tlicy were not perhaps the moll imp-larabie o; !. -. -.r.vir','-, 
were thole whom he could opprcfs under the mo'.l plaufible ayp aranc , .:;..l ', r. ) 
met v.jih, lead countenaiice am! proteclion Uo'ai 1-,;s ati/.ercr.ts, \\ ich the cc::- 
n.'nt; o{- l:)b couneil, he iiiued an relict for txah.in:; t'-,j t.i.'h p-.-nrv \]-i^:r. :h.:: v. l-.olj 
r..;-t\-i in (Miler, as he prct !:.', J, to nril;c theni p.;/ t'-e ex!\nce,-,t) v-inui their 
m:itin')U:: (.hhofiti -a cr^tinuaiiy exp hJ ti.e pubi;e. \Vi::u>:.t :\":,;ul ro c :rp.- 
l^tions articles oi capituhuioii, or act-; cf iiAlemni'v, ail the Royaihi.-;, however 
harrallh.i v. ich ior:ner ex; cn^/es and oy[T; ihons w-re obii.'e^l anew to :\\h cm th.-m- 
i\\v(. ; h'V <_,reat lu::^s o! money \ and n-!anv (if t\: ::v. v\re re*.!i.v'd bv ti. h- n^iu't!- 
1 ii d d;;iiitvrs to extreme po\'e;ry. \\ iieev.r v/a- i.nov. n to be (hh^TdxtevI, rr ev, n 
hiv under any ililpieion, tho' ]:o guile couid bj [n\;\-cd aL:aiull !.in', ^ a > e.-.; _:;d 
to this exachion. 

In or.lcr to raif.- an in^l^ofiticn, lo opp;- (Tivc an J i-^i.j:.:toi;^ the Pret-elor i:h'i- 
tuied t> ;i ^' n^a;or-pcnerai:^ ; an.l d.vid.d the vdw/e ivh^!jd(v:i or l'r';la: d h::<) li> 
niarv ndhtary jtirnhied n^. '1 h, e men, a!hhed hy c:.trminioner5, h ;.: p/w^T : > 
r h _ whom ti.ey [ lealed to deeisna^ion, to Ilvw aii r',e t.:X s im- (:[['.] iy. ;i;,' Iho- 
tc^lor anvl hi!^ Cuuavi', and to impri.hn any pe: h>:: v, iio ihonhi b. exy '". h lo th; : 
jealoihv or kih ici-n ; i:cr v/as ti._re ai-y ay\al n\..m t! e.n but t'^ ih.- I'lo'::!?: 
h'ndei:" and his cooneil. ' h:h( : c*hour ci tht !e ; ' . 

orbi:.ant, the m.:ior p I: : a's .x.rc:!ed an a-dva'. , 
a, ii ah: d-.te mahu'. .. d: pr p.;;y anJ i :. n < . 
nv_n no.v (. nv, .u^.e.., t.>.-.L i... \.i;, li. ...,.., 

the nataai was tur i V: r iu. jecnal to n.niMrv .....t < 

I. ,: in tl:e h^^al n^:i rer ol 1 iuroy ; an nah 
chern tyranny, ^sot c : ly ti>e idjavin.- n 
.y.cri and nIur[ation : II: had p.n'e^h.d u..: :'.. 



r"p^. 



62 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap.TI. qP flaveiy, and had delegated to liis inferior mlnillers the fame unlimited autho 
rity, which he himfelf had fo violently alTumed. 

A GOVERNMENT, totally military and defpotic, is fure, after fome time, to fall 
into impotence and languor : But when it immediately fucceeds a legal conflitu- 
tion, it may, at firft, to foreign nations appear very vigorous and adtivp, and ex- 
ert with more unanimity that power, fpirit, and riches, which had been acquired 
State ot u. under a better form of government. It feems now proper, after fo long an inter- 
val, to look abroad to the general flate of Europe, and to confider the meafurcs 
v/hich England, at this time, embraced in its negotiations with the neighbouring 
princes. The moderate temper and unwarlike genius of the two lail: princes, the 
extreme difficulties under which they laboured at home, and the great fecurity which 
they enjoyed from foreign enemies, had rendered them very negligent of the tranf- 
aflions of the continent i and England, during their reigns, had been in a man- 
ner overlooked in the general fyllem of Europe. The bold and reftlefs fpirit of 
the Protector led him to extend his alliances and enterprizes to every corner of 
Chriftendom ; and partly from the afcendant of his magnanimous genius, partly 
from the fituation of foreign kingdoms, the weight of England, even under its 
jufteft and bravelt princes, was never more fcnfibly felt than during this illegal 
and violent ufurpation. 

A WAR of thirty years, the moft fignal and moft furious which had appeared in 
modern annals, was atlaft finiflied in Germany * ; and by the treaty of Weftphalia 
were compofed thofe fatal quarrels, which had been excited by the Palatine's preci- 
pitant acceptance of the crown of Bohemia. The young Palatine was reflored to 
a, portion of his dignities and of his dominions : The rights, privileges, and autho- 
rity of the feveral members of the Germanic body were fixed and afcertained : So- 
vereign Princes and free States were in fome degree reduced to obedience under 
laws: And by the valour of the heroic Guflavus, the enterprizes of the a6live Riche- 
lieu, the intrigues of the artful Mazarine, was in part efi-'eftuated, after an infinite 
expence of blood and treafure, what had been expedied and demanded from the 
feeble efi^orts of the pacific James, feconded by the fcanty fupplies of his jealous 
Parliaments. 

Sweden, which had acquired by conquefl: very large dominions in the north of 
Germany, was engaged in enterprizes, which promifed her, from her fuccefs and 
valour, ftill more extcnfive acquifitions on the fide both of Poland and of Denmark. 
Charles the tenth, who had mounted the throne of that Kingdom after the volun- 
tary refignation of Chriftina, being flimulated by the fame ofthe great Guflavus as 
well as by his own martial difpofition, carried his conquering arms to the fouth of 

the 

'^ h\ 1648. 



THE COMMONWEALTH. 63 

the Bakl', anJ ga'-ncii tlie celebrated viJlory of WaTiw, which, during the fy:iCQ Chap. II, 
of t.hice days Ind been (ybdinatcly coi^tcllcu .u;.iiiiil lilrn. The Protector, at ;he ^ ^^' 
time his iiin.ince \vas courted by every power in b.uropc, anxiouHy courted tl^.e 
alhar.cc ot .Svvedcn; and he was fond ot lorming a conted'.r.x'v witii a protcllanc 
power of k:ch renown, even tlio' ic threatened the whole north with cor.queiL ar.d 
rubjcc'.ion. 

Tin: tranfafllons of the Par'iiaincnt and Prote<5lor wiih France had beer. vailoLis 
and complicated. The cniiflarics oF Richelieu had lurnillied lUwl to t'ne fMn^.c 
oi rebellion, when it lirfl: broke out in Scotland , but alter t .e conflagration had 
ditiufcd itlelf, the French court, obferving the materials to be of tliemle'N'es lui- 
ficiently combufliblc, found it unneccdiry any longer to animate t!;e Bririfli n^.a'e- 
contents to an opj-ofition of their Sovereign. Un the contrary, tliey oiTcred tlieir 
mediation for compofing thefe inteliine diforders ; and their ambafladors, ironi 
decency, pretended to aft in concert with the court of England, and to rec^i\ e* 
directions Irom a prince, with whom their mafter was ccnr.ccied by l"o near an at- 
lii^icy. Mean while, Richelieu died, and foon after him, the French King, Fcuis 
tiic thirteciith , leaving his fon an infant four years old, and his widow, Anne oi 
Auftria, regent of the kingdom. Cardinal Mazarine lucceedcd Richelieu in the 
miniltry ; and the lame plan of adminifbration, tho' by men of fuch oppofite clia- 
rafters, was flill continued in the French councils. The eilablilhment ot royal 
autfiOrity, the reducftion of the Aullrian family, were purfued with ardor and hic- 
ccfs J and every year brought an accefiion of force and grandeur to the I'i^iaIi 
monarchy. Not orily battles were gained, towns and fortrellls taken , tlie i^cnius 
too of tlic nation fecn^.cd gradually to improve, and to eompole itlelt to tiie IpiiiC 
of dutiiiil obedience and of lleddy enterpr^ze. A Conde, a 'Fureiine were lurincd ; 
np.d tlie troop-s animated by tiieir valour, and guided by their dileipline, acquued 
daily a greater afcendant over the Spaniards. All of a fudden, from lome in- 
trigucb of [he cci:rr, and feme dileuntcnts in tlie couits of judicature, which the 
Fren Ji call parUamf^nts, mteflinc commotions were e.\^ itcd, and every t'lir.g rc- 
jiiplld into conf'ufion. But ihefe rebcih-ns of the b'l. ;ich, neitlier eniiohled by 
the Ipirit of jiberty, nor tlJfir.'.cul by the f',ir...L\:ai c\travaLi,a!.cies, \\hi'Ji diilin- 
<,Mji!l:ed t'.ie Britill) civil wars, were conducled v. i'h Ilt'.ie bloowflicd, and. nvide hut 
I'luill imprefihin or. t''.e ir.inds of ih.e peojde. I'l.o' lleor.dtd by the foice of 
Spain, ar.d ccnduaed by the heroic Conde, the malecontcr/.s, in a Iirtle time, 
were either expelled er lubd.ued-, and the IVeiicli monarcliy, Iiavin^^;; loll a few of 
its c(.n(|ntlb, rcturr.?d -gain, v/ith frefli vigor, to tl'.c .i.quiiiilon of new do- 
ni nlon. 



64 II I S T R Y F G Pv E A T B R I T A I N. 

^. ^ .J Tit. Q^icen of England r.nd h-r fon, Charles, during thefe comtr.otionSj pafled 
!6c5. nofc oT their time at Paris ; and notwithfLanding their near connexion of hiood, 
received but fc".v civiliric:?:, tnA ili'l Irfs fiipporr, from the French court. Had the 
O^iiccii rc[5cnt been ever fj much inclined to afTiil the Englifii 1-rince^ the diibrdcrs 
of her own afiair.s, (or a iong'dms, would have rendii-red fuch intentions ablblutely 
impra'ucablc. I'hc bauifhed queen had a moderate penfion aiTigned her j but 
k was lb ill payed, and lier credit ran fo low, that, one morning, when the Car- 
dinal de ivetz waited on her, flie informed him, that her daughter, the Princefs 
Henrietta, was obliged to lie abed, for want of a fire to warm her. To fuch a 
conditicn was reduced, in the midil of Paris, a QLieen of England, and dauo-hter 
of Henry the lourih or France ; 

The Englifh Parliamtnt, however, having afTi.imed the fovereignty of the 
State, refentcd the countenance, cold as it was, v/liich the French court o-ave to 
tliC unfortunate Monarch. Under pretext of injuries, of which their merchants 
complained, they illued letters of reprizal upon the French j and Blake went {o 
fr: as to attack and fcize a v/hole fquadron of iliips, which were carrying fupplies 
to Dunkirk, then clofely beileged by the Spaniards. That town, difappointed of 
thcle uip;_:lies, fell into the enemies hands. The court of France foon found it re- 
fiuidre to change their meafurcs. They treated Charles v/ith fuch aff-eled indif- 
ference, that lie thought it more decent to withdraw, and to fave them the fliame 
ofdefiring his abfence. He went firfc to Spaw, thence he retired to Coloo-ne ; 
where he lived tvv'o years on a fmall penfion, about 6ooo pounds a year, payed 
him by the French Monarch, and on fome contributions fent him by his friends 
m England. In the manngement of his family, he difcovered a difpofition to 
order a;ul occonomy ; and his temper, cheerful, carelefs, and fociable, was more 
than a fuilicient compeiifation for that empire, of which his enemies had bereaved 
him. Sn- Edward Flyde, created lord chancellor, and the Marquefs of Orniond 
were his chief friends and confidents. 

If the French minifcry had thought it prudent to bend under theEnglifli Parlia- 
ment, tlicy eileemicd it dill miore requifite to pay deference to the Proteclor, 
when he aiuimed the reins of government. Cardinal iviazarine, by whom all the 
I''rench councils were dire<rted, and wlio, tho' a flranger, had reduced the moH 
powerful kingdom of luirope to fubjedion, was artful and vigu'ant, fupp'e and 
patient, faife and intrig'iing , denrou' rather to pievail by dexterity than viclence, 
and placing his honour more in the final fuccef:^ oHiis meafures than in the fj^jendor 
and magiianimity of the means v. hich he employed. Cromwel, by his imperious 
character, rather tiian by the advantage or his fituaiion, acquired an afcendanr 
ever this man ; and eaca propofal made by the Protcclor, however unreafonable 



in 



Till' CO M M o x \v r A I. r H. 



C; 



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i(.; hi , , 



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and L./ p:iv.u; 



, c .nuTi!:!:'^;; c!.i:.y rav.u-.s on l:i i rvnc.i c ninvi'C , M.!/,;: ::/j ,. a^ / 
-. ;.! !i [K-s (_ 1 .1 l^iC;;ii.;rc ilijn, lli!I ") L.nn.i: to L'ln.c in.:;. >.i[i^ '. 
i'lii: cc nr: ol S^ am, !^;s Lnnnccttcl \\\:\\ tne i:n!inni:!:arc i\-' .:i 'nn iiv, .v .. 
::;.c.i to !;:c.itcr cli.lrc;^ t:;..n ihc l-V'. nc '< in. n.i;\-I;v, hn.i 'v' :i l;:'! :\: >:: iu:.-. 



ni t;i ir :\,[\\\r-,\ ^ tn t'. 



in-.' n. no'. 



p ,--'; ,..,. . 



n: an,. r:\n.-.nj! 



. 1 ) n 



C n'vijn:-, t'.c S. ^:w}\ cn.ov', v...^ t!:n lii'll ;;Lin;in nn.nlln:', \\!n5 :-cC>);:.;n 
:.:nin;ri:\' vl th n.w l\C:-n!)!:c ; and in ^-.tiirn (! tlin> cl\i;i;^n A!l!nini /, 
]' n i.^nr; n: Liil cn\\^y Inio ''-jm n. No in- ;:.; !niJ !.';:. !rin::!.,r arri'.\\i m M... 
ti.ni llnnj o: n:.' nanilli.d ]vu;,a:ilU, inil.iiiun: by :!iac in\n u :a:j ..a:r;. J, >^ 



annna'cn 



a ti^c 1' i:aii!n Kiclions. Ino'ac in:>. 'n- nl; 



:'!-' rv:,-y 



lanmcr, ana nv.n\;c:\ a inn^ tina. 



v.;:!' hih :Arcta;v. InnnctiiaL. i\ , t:.rv ttulv lanCinarv in il;e tin. a'.'.; 
In'.a:^} t::n ::; luaail l..\'()nr, wi.i.ii twrv v.!ic;c attanv'cd tlin ro-, d c 
ca..dncd, 1:10:: (d"t'::m, to niahc t'.cir (.:v..nan Oid\' can m' :!k' o innn. 



d.at'i , and t!c I'ar'i.nnnnt kar. ud to lall tontnntcd vd:'i tins a:on.a""i_nr. 
S:n\i':, a: i])::> tin^e, aTail'd iwvv \\l\:rc bv \n,(v\}'.i tn.nd.s !.(n;: v, 



rl M^.V 



,r'. . ,- 



anu laooann;;.; inuAfnain}' inicrnai ca,k)\i. \:~, laaan.aw nv-; 

i::(;in ^^nainniar, , .x.-y': liia ];.ni:A'v Piivin o! i;a:" ; 

< nly (a an har : , i; id onr>. ro:ria;a! iai i lavcA a, a ., 

; :.,a 'aail <d li^ra; , m.-' 1 : Candvaiai, l oinnianda,. , .a \n 

''v la d ::iji:' ( var [u l-..nu\-: N.'yic- v> a- Hi ..l.v.adiaad 

1 .o-,v Ci nnrri.- w .in in\aa!ad v i:n Inyc; anr laiv, ^, an : ;.c 

rn,ad.r: Tiin Snan.di in:an:i-.-, ai.iianii\- !o itaarid.na a 

'b add in d.a i'.i-' i- ." i'-nna.v : a..d lii.d rd^ iini- iai, 

t.aa..:, by !a- a-ci\ a y aad \adna;a td l..!lin.: a .:l r.-'- 

i. ; : ro y;-o:iav:, .^ \ ^ . . \ , v n.. 

1 



iOss. 



C'V ;.:t:. 



66 11 I S T O Pv Y OF GREAT B Pv I T A I N. 

Chap. IT. Had Cromwei undcrftood and regarded the interefts of his country, he would 
h.r/c fupported the declining condition of Spain againPc the dangerous ambition of 
France, andpreicTvcd that baHance of power, on which the greatnefs and fecurity 
of England (o much depends. Had he (tudied only his own interefts, he wouid 
h.ave maintained an exaft neutrality betwixt thofe two great monarchies ; no-r 
wouid he ever have hazarded his ill acquired and un fettled power, by provoking 
ioreign enemies, who might jcnd afliftance to domeftic fafticn, and overturn hi-s 
tottering throne. But his magnanimity undervalued d.inger : His a6tive difpo'- 
licion asid avidity oi extenfive glory, made him incapable of repofe : And as the 
policy of men is continually warped by their temper, no fooner was peace m.ade 
witli Holland, than he began to deliberate what new enemy he iliould invade with 
his victorious arms. 

^itl; The extenfive dominion and yet extreme weaknefs of Spain in tlie Weft Indies; 

the vigorous courage and great naval power of England ; were circumftancei, 
which, when compared, excited the ambition of the enterprizing Proteftor, and 
made him hope, that, by fomic gainful conquelf, lie v/ould for ever render illu.- 
trious that dominion, which he had affumed over his country. Should he fail of 
thefe durable acquifitions, the Indian treafures, vi'hich rPAifb every year crofs the 
ocean to reach Spain, were, he thought, a fure prey to the Englifli navy, and 
Vv'ould fupport his military force, without laying new burthens on the difcontentcd 
people. Prom, France a vigorous refiftance mult be expefted : No plunder, no 
conquefls could be hoped lor. The progrefs of his arms, even if attended with 
iuccefs, muft there be flov/ and gradual ; and the advantages acquired, however 
real, v>'Ould be lefs flriking to the ignorant multitude, whom it was his intereft to 
allure. The royal family, fo clofely connected with the French Monarch, might 
receive ereat aiTiflar-ce from that neffdibouring kinf^dom ; and an army of French 
Protefl-ants, landed in England, would be able, he dreaded, to unite the moft 
oppofite fLtftions againft the prefent ufurpation '*. 

Thls,-, motives of p^olicy v/erc [_ robably feconded by his bigottcd prejudi- 
ces; as no human mind ever contained fo ftrangc a niixture of figacitv and ab- 
Firdity as that of this extraordinary p:M'lbnage. The Swvdinj allia;;ct\ tho' 
much contrary to the interri'is vA Eiigiand, he hud contracted n:c[\-'y Iron; hio z:.ii 
(or Prc'tefiantifm ! , and Sweden bcirig clofJy conneded with i''rjnce, lie cinild 
not j.op^ to maintain that conlcderacy, in which he lo much prulvd himfcl'", Ihouic. 

arup" 

'* Tc- :'i;C' acrf/,;nl rf t'lc nef2;ft!at!0ns v.'itli France nnd Spain by r]ii}Hoe, \ nl. i p. y -q. 

-^ i!; ; ;'>poft(l lo S\\-(!cn a p^er.c;-;il Icigoe and coiiL-der::.-)' oi'all the i^-'jlfiLi-.it, VVhJtlocke,p_ 
(zr. 'rhu;'(i , \ w| . li. p. i. \n crdcr to judge of tlic iiiaxiiDS, by uhich lie cenduaed his i^yiCiS;:: 
poiuic: I'jc n:i-;iv;r 'i'hu:l)c, Vol. iv, p. 295. 34]; 443. \'ol. vii. p. 174. 



THE C O M M O X \V E A L T II. 67 

a rupture cnfuc bctwcm l''n:;i.!iul .iiui c!ii^ I.i icr k'iu^J.o::! ^. 'I-ic 1 1 .-[-. r.o:?, !.. 
expcckd, wc.'.Ll ir.ca with b(..r:cr trv.Mt;ri(.;-.r, wIa'-j '.:: c;:p,.'..;c\.! .:i a l'.ui: .;....'.:..: 
v/ith lli.ir !ovcrc:.;n ' . A:ul .1. z':\c Spadi.i; J-. vscrc ir.'..- ii li-.oic* i'-., ir. > ' ' " 

I'rciuh, Were n:iic!i ircrc cxj-c-La! :o i!.c oW \ :. 1:...:',^ .^'. h.::uC.l. . . 

crcctc-i i!.j b!uu.'y triinirul ot ih- intpj ;;[:i;:,, v, !.(. j ripnr-, (;.;C:,.... 
t.uio:!, ih-jy liad r::ulcu t(j n:i!Li^.Uj>^ ; he \\ )[):': [a.i: :. i,.).\- iiu: :v. ::: :. 
y.'.lh li.ch iJiohucrs coLibl iu>t l.iil (;i proCvdion !ri.;n ii ..\-( . 
v,i!c, inlpircd, a> was li;pp;)rvi, by a j;r;)}^.'.i, n.' li^iM:, i ; . :. 
tailing hiin iij:c)::iut cu! of :ic };:::i):>.::i:s : :!l:'.u: '....' :. /'.' '.,..;. _. . 

(^ thi" S^iKiarJ.^ aujh Aniuhnf^ a}:d a].:kc '\:..r: jtr :::':(}::_. . . .J ^ :, ci':/' . ' 
liho^-j ::;/.'..'!. 

AciUATr;) cqual'y by iho''t big^ot'c^!, {.\\o\c ambicio:;^, :\\\1 t::(;;. .m.y'v ', 
motives, the Proce:lor cquip[)e(.i two confidLrablc li|iJ.a:;-(j,,s ; ar.d v, ii ic ... v ^ 
making tlicL' preparati'M-iS, aii tlic neig'.ib(ji;i'i;i. ; n.u:,:-.s, ignoraiu t*; \v.^\:\ .. 
tions, rcni^-iiied in lulpcncc, and. looked witli ar.xijii-) t'Xpc::a u.n on Wiia: l:.ij r.e 
liorin wouki dilcliarge it'clk One of th.e Iqiiavirons, cc/rair. ir,g cI tl.irry c.ii-;:..i 
fliips, w.as Tent into i\yz Mcditerr.u'.ean under Bl.d^j, \sI-.o:c mhk' was now Ij re..d 
o\'er all Euro; c. No b.nglilli {Iter, exce[)t durin.e tlie L'ro;ladcs luJ. .v-.t beiore 
laded, thole leas ; and from one cxtren^iiy to the 'dier, th.ere wa^ no naval i^r^e, 
Ci'.riPdan or Mahometan, able to refill them, I'lie R(jn~.an [ondd', vdi'jfe wud\- 
U'Js aPid wliofe pride, e(]u.Uly {-rox-okc atiaLks, di'eaded ir.vaii n t;-o:r. a p:/.-. .., 
v/liicli [ rolelled the nioll invc:ei-a:e Liiiriiy againfc him, ?u\j. vdidh lo i:;t;e r..-,;- 
lated its movcmcnis by the coir,nv;n m()ii\'e-^ ot inter. :"! a;vJ. rLJ/Ji-.-e. B a.-.e, 
'.ading anchor b-:k)re Legliorn, deniandcvl :i:.<. odrain.d (d L!;e ,::a;:d lAdv,' .a':i- 
laeae-n ua foine lod" s, winch the I'a-i.:h:ii con;n";e:ve \\:.\ ;>,r,reri) lud.n.,ed !:\ :n 
'AAV.. I le next fuled to A!:;iers and cni; , i'e ! c!:e I \ v t ; :v dv ; . ... e, ...; \ a 
r^ drain his pyratic.d Inl ;jcts ircini ad :.n-di/r v; d.-;.,-, b e.i l.:' I'.. ;,;.h. i !e : r.'- 
l.-nt'. d hindeli b.hjre Ttnii, and ha\aj, n:i.!e t!.e nin.e d, m i .l-^, the 1 V . (f 
mat ;('! uMi': [\ide inn; lock to the can le> oi lk)!;o [a: ino .\:\'\ ( '. \- r:a, an ' ., '. . . 
i.tm.Vk idake n ed;d nor to i;e ron -d h y n,. li a hrav.n:,; : ll'd;ew:. , , 
( io:e np to die c.id c- , and t.ire linen k; p e .. :h d..- r'nnd n- -;. !.d ,.....: \ 



le lent a nunHn'on '.nnnnn: n:e. v.. ..n : : nin:);;.; 

nrn.d c. .rv flin' v, ni.ii lav the;.. ,''.... , , . ; \ 



t' - 



68 II I S T O R Y o F G 11 EAT B R I T A I N. 

Chap. II. perhaps, rcnde:-'.\l (cSc, was executed \-ith very little lofs, and fillcj all that part 
^^^^' of t!ic woild with ihc recowii of Engilfli valour. 

It has been rem rked, that BUdce vv;-s the firft, vvho taught the feamcn to dcf- 
pife caillcs, and bv that means much extended the terror of naval enterprizes,. 
The ca'llcs, Vvhifh ..t that time guarded the cntra^ice into harbours, were com- 
m-'-n'.-' b.ii'i: en the brink of the v;ater : If il^ey were raifed to any height, their 
fiiot paficd over Zl.c fiiips, and th.ey were themfelves foon dcftroyed by the fupe- 
rio; '^jz of th.c vefT Is , ir low, the fmall arr.-iS of the feamen, vvho oveidocked 
t!;ern, rendered it impoiTble for the foldiers to ftand to their guns. At prefent, 
the e.uUes are removed to fomiC diftance, and funk to a level v/ith the v/ater ; 
which renders fuch enterprizes as thofe of Blake in reality as impracticable, as be- 
forj ids time they were univerfally eReemed. 
]: V ;:aco;> The other fquadron was not equally fuccefsful. It was commanded by PeOy 
and carried 4000 men, under the command of Venablts. About 5OCO more 
joined theni rroni Barbad'-eu ar.d St. Chriftophers. Iiloth thcfe officers were in- 
clined to the king's fervice * : and it is pretended, that CromiWel v/as obliged to 
hurry d^.e foldier.i c;i board, in order to prevent the execuiion of a ccnfpiracy, 
vddch had been fornied f. The ill fuccefs of this cnterprize, may juilly be 
arcrlb^;d, as much to the injudicious contrivance of the Proteclor, who planed it, 
as to the bad execution of the ofBcers, by whom it was conduced. The foldiers 
were the refjfe of the whole army: The forces inlided in the Wed Indies were 
t;:e moil profligate of mankind : The admiral and general were of very incom- 
patible tempers : The troops were not furnhLed with arms fit for fuch an exoc- 
ciirion : The providcns were very dereiaive both in quantity and quality : Ail 
hopes ot pillage, the befi incentive to valour amnng fuch miCn, v/ere refufed the 
iolditrs and leam.en : No dire6t:ons nor intelligence were given to conduct the 
office: s in their enrerprize : And at the fame time, they were tied down to foi- 
lov/ the a-lvice of commifTioncfs, who extrcme'y di.'concerted them in all the::: 
projeccSlt. 

r.*,- ;;i. It v.-:.s agreed to aitcmpt St. Domingo, the only place or ftrengih in the iiland- 
of Hiipanioia. On their aprroach, ti^e Spaniards in a [right defcrted their houies 
and fkd ii;to the woc;ds. Contr,:ry to the opinion of Venables, the ibkliers were 
ciikmharlied withoi.t gnid.s ten ka'jues dhlant f-orn the town, 'ilicy wandered 
four days tin'o' the woods Vvidiciii nrovidons, and winit was Ilil! more -ntokrA.c 

in 

* C'r.rtrulon. I '.''ta D. i'crwici, |.\ ! 24. 

t Bii'cli^t i NaVLu llujjry, See ..lib Ca;ic"s Co"]c5^o:!, \\,.. ;i, ,1. /.'. .- . 'i'l.urloe, \Cl.iii, 
p. cc,-. 



THE COMMON W E A I. T I L 



O 



tiMt Liitrv c.im.ir, , v ; .').:l v...:cr. 



lack a i!: : 



v.. i .!( 



1- 

I-,. Ix 



.s ; .;.. ; , J ro'.,r.r'^, 



C ::'. ]'. 



i-.:::,.i:i:, c .Jour.ii^cvl v. !i.i i];'; I\:'! Cv n. ::c^;: th.:r o?::i;c:s -I'-'i 



1' arci- a!i\'j t :n !.:.::t;or, thiilt", and lu:!.;i:^\ Ikl' :, j !;:!!: i.) V(. :'.\\. A \-fiv in; 
Ik!' r.ilMc u\:\)\k: o! the enemy pi.: th- vJvjIc ar:r,; lo ro;,:, !.: , ' _;'t!: 

anci c!i.i.\ J die red o'a bo.irJ thilv \\l]'A<. 

Til.: t. -.:, in ofvicr rr) nrtone, ifpnl]-!:!,-, fv.; '.-. \. ,;.,,> .:. -, ; r. ' 
r'. n- cowrie to J.iirnic.i, wiiiLh v. ;i:'.j:.: a :!o'.v v/i, :"..:;-:. '. r, ,1 :o : . ' :: . 
\'e:i/.b!es retunv, d to ''.ri^jand, x.\d v.'.r. I-d'h c^: ti. ;;'i (:. ' ' i . ';: 

Pi-ocector, \v!k>, t:io' commoiily r.ia;l.r (A' !n., fi^vy tcm-;;-, \v.. :' 
violent j\ill"ion ;it this diKippcjintnient. lie iuid [vaJj a ccn;;'.. i\ u: iv. 
importance, than h' ^vas liimle'f at t!ni: tim av,.i. ':, y;.t wa. it ;. 
rior to t!;e vail proiects, whic'i h- !\ad i^rnv d. I ! j ;';..\e order^, ho..,'.-.:'. 
iup[)orr it by n^.en a::d iv:0ivey , an^l t'nat i!]aiul ii.'.'; eve;- fnue :\;-nj:n.w i.\ '.'.. 
(-t the Lin^lilh ; the ch;ei aeipiiiiti nv. iii.ii i/.,:y < .. to ii:j Ln:;.ryrnd:.j ;^.;. 
Croir/.veL 



A'^ Gjon as the news of this cnterprize, v. id.h \-, a> n:o:l .;;^-..a:Tan'.i'de \d na- 
tion oi" treatv, ani/'d in luirope, tiie Spania:\i > d.i ! ;r^d \..\v .:;' i.:..! Ir dae^', 
and leiztdi all the lliips and ii;>)ods (.f l;'.ny;hdi liKreh; v. (,: v. hii ;;:',. . e . '. i 
n-^ake tliemlelvcs mailers. 'l"::e Spanid'i comi:-.eree, 'j pr.iiic.jie t) r! ; w.-'. . 
wa^ cut o'a ; and near 1500 veliels, it is C('n:y..:.vl ', ki! in a ;l.v y a i 



liands of the cr.emy. Blake, to v/I-oni Mr.r/./.^iiie \va> re^v.- h,i 
ai:er receiving new c;rd j-j, p;-'. lairrd himil'i In- h ilniile-, a-; n.il ti . "^ 

S:\'i n.xi. (ea ofln'er:-, iiavnn:; enti rt.ane.l K ri: '.., c : . ni.^c: .e v i: 
the ji-.diee ol tl;e S[:an:;h w..;", V.r:cw i;p ti^eir a.n^w,... d \:[: 

""st/ ctMin^wind, tlicy tlA.e.d;:, (ji t.: ;r l..i\ri(i-s CiK;!-; ;: . 
eonirary to the prn'cipi :> (.1 na^nrai tqi.i:;-, a.:.; \. ' 
rij,ht to order. Indiv idna! , tii.y n:ai!.L::..'.d. i.i : . 
tL:ral lib. rtv, C( add b.irAvm v: cniy v.!l:l t:: r ' 
; h: [.: , .:l;rm!;:!^ lav ;..! 

n: .:,d,..; , \.hat is c>..:jary '' :1.j ^.. . r . . 

;\ 1:.;; .;ld , ..re too pi r.-.. . ^iir :.i;.e :n na:;;re, 

tl^r C'l d;j moll :nn->eun: and 1. \ en n.^n. or.. bk- ' . 



m e 



a. ;. 



wrtiv v.- ao lean, V. a-rh pr .''arinatc.l ei lap; 
lo.ne iln.e . li' L\;d:.- m i :;;\v.. 



) 



, ..t kill u 



70 HISTORY or GREAT BRITAIN. 

Ch.ip. II. i^ain Scayner, whom lie liad left oa the coaft with a fquadron of fevcn vefTels, 
'"^^''"* came ia Hgiit oi' the galicons, and immediaiely fet fail to purfue them. The 

p;.c;r.bcr. Snaniih acimiral ran his flfip afliore : Two others followed his exampU : The 
li.no'iin toolc tvv'o iriips valued at near two millions of pieces of eight. l\vo gal- 
leons were let on lire , ar.d the Marquefs of Bajadox, Viceroy of Peru, with his 
vvi:e and his daughcer, betrotlied to the young Duke of Mcdina-Celi, were de- 
ilroyed in them. The Marquefs himfelF might have efcaped , but feeing thefe 
unfortunate women, aRoniflicd Vv'ith the danger, fall in a fwoon and perifh in the 
flames, he chofe ratlier to die with them than drag out a life, embittered with the 
remembrance of thefc diimal fcenes*. Such events, which melt the tender heart 
of humanity, are matter of triumph and exultation in the barbarous trade of war. 
When the treallircs, gained by this enterprize, arrived at Portfmouth, the Pro- 
tector, from a fpirit of oftcntaiion, ordered them to be tranfported by land to 
London. 

The next action againfl: the Spaniards was more glorious, tho' lefs profitable to 
tlie nation. Blake, having heard that a Spanifh fleet of fixteen fhips, much richer 
than the former, had taken flielter in the Canaries, immediately made fail towards 
them. He found them in the bay of Santa Cruz, difpofed in a moft formidable 
pcflure. The bay was fecured with a ftrong caftle, well fortified with cannon, 
befides feven forts in feveral parts of it, all united by a line of communication, 
manned with mufqueteers. Don Diego Diagues, the Spanifh admiral, ordered 
all his final icr veffels to moor clofe to the fliore, and pofted the larger galleons 
fartliCr off, at anclior, with their brcadfides to the fca. 

Ei,ai:e was rather animated than daunted with this appearance. The wind fe- 
cond^d his courage, and blowing full into the bay, in a moment brought him 
apnong tlie I'/ickeft of his enemies. After a refiilance of four hours, the Spa- 
niards yielded to the EngliHi valour, and abandoned their fliips, which Vvcre fct on 
fi!c, and ccnfumcd with all their ticafures. Thegreatefb danger ftill remained to 
llic Kng^fli. They lay under tlie fire of the cailles and all the forts, v/hich muff, 
in a little time, have torn them in pieces. But the wind fuddenly fliifLiiig, car- 
ried them out ol tlie bay; v.'here they left the Spaniards in aftonifhmcnt :;t the 
hiapny temerity of tf.eir audacious victors. 

' l.._^ ,-,r This was the laR- ap.d grcateff aition of the gallant Blake, lis was confumed 
with a dropfy and fcurvy, and h dlcned home, that he might yield up his lalt 
breath hi 1.' iiativc country, wliieh he fo pairjonately loved, and which he Iiad fa 
ir.'ich .:dorncd by his valour. As f.e cam j wirhin light of land, he expired, >7e- 

V!;r 

* 'rir-ii'.O'.-, \'ol. V. r.43j. f zcdi of /ipril, 1657. 



]{! ;.C. 



T 11 E C O M M O X W F. A L T II. 



/ 



!..' () ; i.:;:t: i.;j;iun.. Hv r\\ i.\ \,c v. s .;:^ :,;' \''' ^ K '_ v. .. .\<'. -. .; <' t..c 
KiU I:' . ..; U.S. ,. -\vi-\vr nur. li l.v- wj*; (I-'.. '1 .' .r ' \ !'. . ; :.i.oii;^;h: :') be w; y 
li:[lc V'-.. ,;.! f"!. ;;..!. // :s jU ' :ir.iu!\V."\..'.- ..:l,.:r :\ /',';'';;./ 
r;/! . i:.-!.rJev-:r '../. /.. _;::';,.';; v;..v ' .'. i ':.j. :;. i. . , <';c,.iT()i;--, 

Ik.- iilMtw)us oni) (.1 ciu:- ^1:m .,."; i:,. I < ,. / : j !.'i a\ '/.Vv.: ...^ :::.c.. . Mis 

cr:-'M J i'larcl in c<,):..:r ;i V. i'i: nu.!:;.:' '- ' ^v,--;-^^ j..!;..r L ) ;::.r.;. !:. 



II; 



'I'l;:, c.):.i'';''"t of tlic rrott-cu^r in ion-i;';! .-..''..ir';, :'// Kr.;-''.: C: 
,1 



\ , 



wjs ill., (j; y.'jox ::V'.\ cnrcrpn/;', anvl eircw .i ( (^m. l r.u;;;:: cj n:'^ Cu.:..'; y, .'. :iicn, 
lincc l':c- rJjn (,i ] ' :.zahc:h, it iccmv:^] to Ii.i\- tot.i!!'. !o!l. 'I'l^c ^zrc.i: ::.:: t! :t;:'. 
lu/ccls;.:! i..ii. [vr \Vu-. iiUvi^t on l^.TcMdiri; c'k- r^'iM'.. n cf ti\c r'na.^h n ::.v ; v.w -. 
NvliilL- i" fii'iiclc nvinl<.i::cl u;::i ailom.limt. [;r ar iii-^ ex:!".. T'.'in.::'}' fc::::;..'- !;. l; nv-.l 
tj Ciir.vjbi'-, inflc;.d o; clcb./r-::, U\:^. j^.'opie, u:r.)m i.c ii.ia i\'.',;:cl :u 1..';^ :.:..;;:. 
I: v,.i, ;r] :- .ill. t:;;: i': wciilJ rc :.:^^:- t!;^ n.mv c)t an 1 .;:-M]vr.in .is -v.'\\ ..-.:. 
and levcicd as c\-ci- v.-a^ ili.i: (;f a Ivwn'i.in ; and a-- Ins C'.in.:ryn:.n i; ..nd 1..: . 
rrai/v ill t'lL!.' \ rctcniion^, tncir natiu!!.;! wmir-.-, bci:':!; p,''a'n'-' ', ;in-' tin^m b:.v: 
v-idi t!ic miv [.a::.n^c all th.- indts^nicics and c.d.;nn:bs and^r v. .n'.!! t!u v la- 
lo..r.d. 

Ir tniid a'lb be acknow'^gcd, that the I'fot.flor, in bis ci\;i and d<:.v.ci.:a .\^- 
ndnidi.uion, di I played as great rciiard botn to ].nlur a: ' cdcinjncy, as bi un.i ; . .: 
an:Iu;ii:y, der;\'c\i !ro;n no biw, a.nd ionnd;vd. o:dy ; .n r!u' b.vfrd, c.nbi vob!'.:>b, 
\!i the cb;.; oinacrs in tba co..ir^ .A ind/;i w.i- \\ : rb!c'd v.bb n^v \ (;: 



I\.n 



{xrn:.:. 



i!u- b'jjbrd in:.-i:i:ry; --Vnucbl i::/ ;.:nu::l \ni.!en.^ oi :..:l; -n, b. d; 

JL.d.i'- w/i'c i:' :i.;bt and inii^arnal : Ann to c wrv :nan !\n b:..nL !, .n.,i :o ; .." 

Icn, cxcey: uii^ic n.:Jd:y :c{;nn-.d :!:j ec i^trary, b.^ hw v. as tnj ;':t .- ; 

C' ndn:t and !\Il..^ nnnn \b:nc a; d I .bnnrn, .\ bo: j t :a :;'; .. nb bie Kcj':.b:;. a..; ., j,, 

l/'\-Ld: i 1 iia tb " .v...;, lia d.d inde^vi 1 /; .nn.j tnnv t nn.n:a to jn .. n : I tn' a, \'. no 

rcnb-vl to [h:y :\\:ii.i\ taxa.-, ha cb i-c_-d l'. n,i ;...:. ^ t ) c ~ ,n" iiajni In^ (.bn na-. . : 

I ; ;ts ( * iun ec ba c;\.iavl :"o liv :nen- '.:.' .; in au: ;:. ! 



i:n.,: :_aa-.s ..^:nn.l \^\[^^, a::d win^n. '.w .....i ! ....: 
u,ia .. i]..t b^ i na-a.n..nat;ai v.ara t.i.n.-d ., -.a 
ann. r:' a .Ann tno < .:an nr^A. i y n.:. ^n.. 
''na;ai anaiiaai'c ol tiia iU'V.nni^, ba ar,'.ai'.a \,.;.: 



.n..: to : 



; .V a ^'^^1 n.v :i ;an.' .nnji v 



I:; 



C: 



72 



I-I 1 S T O R Y OF GREAT B R I T A I ^T. 



T 

w : 1 ' 

r: :.'. 






power; ?n;; in mana^mf^ 



i-i . ', 



cy (.! nKi f?overn!TiCiic. 



.uicrs 






luOip'MiC, a policy, which both accufromcd th^m to 
..'} (b^dh.r^^c, a;. 1 v.]:.^: ilvi-i^. kl3 hatciul and burthcnibiric to t.l-2 people. Their 
r \. :.:]- - i-:^->:.{ tho' ru" ;);:;b;ic n-ce^iities fbmetiincs obh^^ed him to run in ar- 
:\:, wbb fi)rn\ 'I'hnr i,";r:n'c'' s, .'^y were lenfible, v/crcc!oic!y uniti^d \\iti-i tiiofe ' 
tlivir ;.!";?;..' ;h',.i 'r(.'::.b-;r. An! rhc;ir afleciionate regard he encii-ely coin- 
r.\:^;a. by" !b,^ ai^'i'iy aiKi ibcccb; in ahriOj; every enterprize, which lie had hitherto 
b. : yik '11, rut ;di iiiil;; ^ry ji^ovcrnnient is pp;carioiis ; mucii inore whe/c it fbuxis 
cjyynbdon to cwV' edeibhibmcn't: ; and diil niore, where it encounters rehgious 
:;e?. B^ t::. wiid binaiicibn, v/hic'i he li;\d 'louri'bed in the loldicrs, he had 
.rtLd ami leJnCvd dieminto meauires, for v/hicii, if openly proposed to them, 
,;on:d Imvc cntertdincd t\\2 utniolt averiion. liui; thi^ Ibme ipirlt ren- 
theni n:iore dilb';nbi; to be governed, and made their caprice? tenibie even to 
tb.;L hend which di; .cb.d their nTOvemeniG. So often taught, that the oflice of 
!:\ing was c'n ubirpjirion upon Cbri!% tliey v.'cre apt to fLifpeci: a Proteclor not to be 
;d;e2;edicr compatibie widi th;it divine authority. Hdrriibn, tho' railed to the 
id^dieil: cb<^nity, anu poir.-Ced endrely of Cromwel's confidence, became his mod 
inverer: re eeemy as loon es he eilablifhed the av^thority of a lingle peribn, againd 
vddcii !ic had abvays made fbich violent protedations. Overton, Rich, Okey, 
cfbcei-3 of great rank in the army, were aftua^ed with like principles; and Crom- 
wel w:.;-- obd-ed to deprive them of thjeir commidlons. Tlieir influence, which was 
bciore tliought unbounded among the troop?, feemed from ch.at moment to be to- 
taily anniidiated. 

'i':.e moreebrdual'y to curb t'le cnthufiadic and leditious fpirit of the troops, 
Cro;vr.'c' eibibdrhed a kind of nd!itia in the ieveral counties. Companies of in- 
tani-/ ;..;d cavairy were inliiled Linder proper oHicers, regular pay diilributed 
amoiig then^j and a reiource by thit means provided both againd the inbirrccuons 
o. i\\s Uoy bids, and iiyji:\:\y of t'le armv, 

ll:i,.ciON c^in ne^cr be deemed a point (;! dnall coniequence in civil govern- 
nient: But dudnp- r i is period, it mav be reprarded as tlie stent d)rinp- of mc^b 
actions and d. . ' .' lunions. I'ho' tranJported, hindiilf, with the mod dantic 
\.\\\ rbes, Cronvveds Ibiieme d)r t'lC regulating this princijde in others was ibi};a- 

reiidv'.'d to maintain a national church, :^\A y-t deter- 
/ : dopaey nor Pivd-ytery, he edabhibed a nun:iber of 



(-i:,us aiHi 
mi i'-d 1,-i 
c-,n-:;.d;:i. 
^le,'^. ya 

r 

lorn:,. . , 



1'" 



er to 



icnuiL 



Liuuv r tee ran;e o 



1 i / . i / , 



, ^.. 



tlv 



m, p vrtly iceieii.ndcs, lijm 



n~e iiu.eycnu;;n::s. i neie prek'nt. \ to all livuigs, whicn were 
ntoi tliecruwui tiiey examined anu adiidtied iucii periciiS as re- 
ceived 



T II E C () M M O X \V E A L T II. 



3 



ccivccl holy orci?r<; ; an J tliey inrpcftctl the lite, d(^c1rir,e arid bcnavi' i;r of .I'.i t: c 
clvTgy. liitlcad ot L;ppoi:i!-;!; t'nat uiiion bct'.vixc Ic.irninp; arid thci!-^ .-, uh'c'i 
has lb Iom;^ b.'t,'"! m.iiiuaine.i m Ivjro^-c, thclj I'rycrs cnibr.ici- : :'.;: !.r.t-:r ; ::n ; 1 
in i:s fi.'l Muric, anJ. made it t!ic Ible o'^j'.C!. of their tx.i:r/:i^..r.i- : ;. 'I ii 
v/i^rc IV) nv)rc jvrrk'xcd with qucni-::-!^. concci i.ir.L; V.vlv yv y: : m ^ .: '!; .:!.! 
Kcp.ian erudition ; concerning their taler.t for prolane art> ar.d Ic: i-c-- : '] /. i ! :. 
c''':-5t ofrru:iny rer^arded tlicir advances in r^racj, a: d ;:\irij t!ie c;i^:' .d ;r ,::::': 
of dieir converlion. 

WiTM t'.ic pretended faiiits of a!! deno:r.inatio:v-> Cro-r.v/cl -.va. U W, W \ ' .. 
Livi;::^ aHde the llate uf l*rote:icr, \vhir!i, (^no:l^^r uec.dijn^, i: \v.M '.:.:, r.v ; ;-v 
:) nuin.tain, lie ir.finii-.-.ted to thein, that notldng but ne^-eHi'-v could ev, ; i;-,! . . 
him to in.vc.l Idn'.fe'r witli it. I Ij talked fidrituaiiy to ii:L-;:i ; lie lij.'.v-.;, '.. 
weeped, he can:ed, he prayed. H' even entered widi t .e:n r.to aa e::r.i!a:i):. 
of ghollly gifts , and thJe r:cn, inll.Md cd gri ;ving to I^e o'jtd-j.ne i;: ['./: r o.'. ;'. 
way, were proud, that hi ^ Ivg'inets by his princJv exanipie, ii.ul .' ^:-,:fied i.: : 
pracdiccs in which t!K-y tliemdUvcs were daiiy oecu| iv.d '. 

I: Cro'.nwel ccral 1 be U'.} to ad'r. re to any partieu'ar form of r-l l/k)!!, ti.e.- v.;--: 
\[\-: Ind.'pcnda-,::. v.!:o coial ! cliietly boafl ol his favour ; and :c :ray I^e .;:-;;:./, 
'p.at fi:ch paflors of t'.iat fe.fl, as w.re not p:ari"ionareIy add; ' ! to c'.v.; .:'\-r:-,-. 
>. ,-re a'.l of tliem devoted to him. '1 l\: krefl^yterians alio, b.i:.:; la\- J. ::( iii ri.o 
;ava2;es of the A.-.ibaptifl-; ;iiKi Mdlc. a!;a::s, and. enjoying ti'.cir eilabiifnn-.c;-.-. :.'-.[ 
tvthes, V. ere not av^rle to hfis government , t!io' lie fl.ill ePiterr li'vxl a :/. ' .- 
Ijiify of ti^at ambitious aid rettkh b;i:ii, by w'lieh they wer," :; :at.d. ..:; -;:- 
bountied liberty (.4 co.Midence, to aii !^i;t Catholics and Prefui:: . ;.. ;i(,'.n"'i; .r 1 
in' tiuit n;e".ns, iie i oth atvae'i:..! tiv vdid le.iaiivs z^) hi . . ,,_;;o:\ .i::d (.:> 
]. feed them in cn'bing tiu: dom lie.*; icg tpirit ( f the ld\ ; '^ . i ' 

* (.nlv ir.an," i'.e 'acs ()l:en heard, tJ fry, ^ v/!\') lir. I'.:v r tu f.fc.i _ 

"' h.lulent lect, which can Jiwler no::;- i^i; iLl'b." 

'i'ni: proteflant zeal, vr'f.ii po;-J:i-,l tie- i'r"lbv: -ri m ; a i i.. i .y..:; , 
l.i'ddv '"-ratided In' :i,e ha;:':h:v n:anc -. in wi.iLii tie 1\- 
"\-.'i..' 11. 



; 

1 



' I 



L ntv r: 






74 



II I S T O 11 Y OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Chnp. T^ 
1656. 



fupported ihe perfi^cute:'. Pr:;tcflai-ts tiiro'out all Europe. Even tlie duiie of Savoyj^ 
lo !em{;tc a i^i:.cc, and lb little expoled to tlie nuval powc^r of England, was 
oi;::.^^!, hy the iiiithosity (.)[ France, ro comply v^itii his mediation, and to tolerate 
the Piotc iianrs of ri:r \';dlif?. a<;/ainfi whom that prince had commenced a furious 
p;-rl1:'cution, iVancc itlcli was conilr.iincd to bear, not only v/ith the religion, but 
ev^n i:i foine inilancc?, with the fedicioLis infolLnce of the idugonots; and wiieii 
iha.L coiift r'pjjhcd for a reciprocal toleration o|- the Catholic religion in England, the 
ProrccDar, wlio arrogated in every thing the fiiperiority, would hearken to no lucli 
prup'jfd. He had entertained a project of inuiiuting a college in imitation of that 
at Rome, for the propagation or tlie faith , and his apoftles, in zeal, tho' not in 
unanimity, had certainly been a full match for the Catholics, 

The church of Englr.d Cromwel retaiticd in conftraint , tho' lie permitted its 
clei'gy a little more liberty than the republican Parliament liad formerly allowed. 
He was pleaf'ed, t!:at the fuperior lenity of his aJminiRration ilvordd in every thin!?- 
be rem rked. He bridled the Royalills, both by the mercenary army v.'hxh 1-e 
rcta.iaed, aiul by thofe fecret fpies, which he found means to intermix in all theii- 
cojnfeis. Manning being difcovered and puniihcd with death, he corrupted Sir 
}(i(hard Willis, .who was much truded by chancellor Hyde and all the Royalilfs ;. 
and by means cf that man lie was let into every defign and conipiracy of rhepartv.. 
Any prv^icft r.c could difconcert, by confining tne perlons wlio were the aclors in it v 
and as he rcdcred them auerwarJs to liberty, his Everity pafia^d only for the refiak 
of general jealoufy and fufpicion. 'i'lic Ecret fjurce of his intelligence reraainec! 
lli'l unknown and unEEefteJ. 

Co:\'=5PiRACis i'or an aiTalEi nation he was chiefiy afraivi of j thefe being defigns, 
Vy'hich no pruclep.ce nor vigilance couid evade. Colonel Titu^', under the name of 
All n, had wrote a very fpiaited diicourE, cxliorting every one to embrace this 
mt'tl-.od ul vengeance ; and Cromwei kiicw, that the inflamed minds cf tlic royal 
parry vvere fu'Ticfantiy difcokd to put tills dccftrine in pra6lice againli him. EEj 
opon'y told them, that afEmnations were bafe and odious, and he never would 
comnunre I-iollfitics by io fiiamcful an expedient ; but if the firll attennpt or pro- 
vocation came from th.en-;, ht would, retaliate to the uttermoiE He had infiru- 
rnents, he la'd, wlion.i he could employ; and he never wculd defiE, till he had 
total'y cxtcrmi;'iated tfiC royal family. This menace, more than all his guardL-, 
Contributed to tlae Ecarity of If;:- perfon*, 

TuiiRE 



ic an nccIJcnt 111 : ;/.mo!t robbed the Ptotcftor of l-ii,i life, "rd favccl I;;-. cr,.Mr;ics ili? 
ti.:;L:.;i.:uirW;, ; U'. i;;^"Ot iix flue Fiicifind coac'i-Iiorics ;;s :i ivcilnt honi tlic cou!;;r 



cr iJui^u.iAi 



na ur, :^i ;o; 



1: r.:r hii luiiuieaiciit to drive tbcni iiboul iS; .la-par.., L'.:: iccrct-uy J'i 



I' ;;.!. 



T II E C () M M O :n W F. a L T U. 



7S 



^i;-0( urc in'' ii' -vc . '1 i;is ;!:i!^v- .i'^'-'C, '[i'- l.i;d', coll i:;:n livy lix^' I .n.' powmiN ;i '' 

year. !'(/ . : . Lf :li .:: ii'):r.c .nul ahr(j.u!, ^s\Tt.-, ir.'r v (>>: iI.-m:. i:; !,: piv; ( ,: - 

]: ,- ',. ^: J !..!.. , .1 i-r ;r.b.\: : S.crLr..r:cs a-\l cl-il.s were C');r ;; r;-l : '1 i. ^r-.r. :i. 
/ a!' : ' i;; ...[ .::'L;ts \vc re (>:'::\ l\\'.i'x ^^ iio ( o;;\'c\';;(.l j i i\- .^ r.: -itv. r :';:i : > ! :- 
-\;:.; ;;o:ii;nfj; co'S.J. clc,"pc I'.is vigiMnt cr,q:.irv. S...!i ai 1 .lil is :;ic rr; ;;, : \- \ .> 
:r , :.; '^v h:ih'r'^:"s oT C'rc;;n'.v !'h a l.M:uil! .ic:c>n : liii: ii n:i.ll bj co ::.;;, ,1. , , 
\'/ !;! IV ! i.v bv L :fJc \' .1.;:::^-; ^''. i ..i:ricx: i, p.ij^i'i ^, \\ iucii \\.:v\i b-:<::\ i.^: 
i::};fci, ti.:s a^air, .ike ir.^nv o:!.!!-, !ia. bc^n [imm;!/ iii.: ,i-,.b i!. I...;-: 
l:.ii\-. b il Lii.iC a:v.- [-cwi ^ou':.:\'.-^ <-[ M;ic'i:',,. hai. s. cxn-j-r fb' 'l^; t-. 1 b:b.i:i, . \'. , ' b 
arc :.;.: t-xp-b^cu [o bj co:^j!.-.b:b, v.crc L:iuv.'!i [<> liic i rwL.^:(;.. 

'lb; ' i^^rb bcb.r.:i);:r .:::i bv'-..; rii-cn: (b t;::s 111.1:1, vb;c) !i.; , b:v;i r . : ;i i 

%-crv :^-iv .:'- lbUlo:^ \^!:o ba ; !\bbb ;iu;u i. t b:^ vi'i.bi ;;i t';- c 'Li/rv. ..;; : : . 
\\ .:s b bl c';);Kb" .'iiL-.! i.j :ii'!cb f; 1 rv ;..., : !).:b Cij:V'[K\ .y, v. ,> : ,. b a-. :i,' ^ : :> '.: :.\c 
tj'-L-a'cli nMi'firab. 1 L- rr,: in:: b;u\i a (''";br\ v.; Ii.iiir v.:'.]C[- a:,b^\.i:; ':, * v ^ ". :".i- 



z.c-A ; ;::ib b;p:Ma ^b \vii!i a!i br.in;'^. : s tliar 



i: : I ; c-.i. wira w |,;, n 



a,. 1 r:(\:' : a;^ Ujitu:";^ ii.ul ;:r. [ rciu a r ia:r. ;\ mLMi;: . i- a'ai. air !i i;,a.;s, ! 
r.; ax b! I: bi ' a:: 1 by tibbiv; .a ^i aaii.ibiiiUa, i bby:, aaa i...:;.i.; ; \\ ; 
1 ; .; b :a a iba ex; ';b;.:z liuiucii iw Lbt:; iru'l lana la;- a;:;; ^ua. .a . \\ ib. 



' ' '.'V. ' ' 



:b, b ni.iLtai s lo ibc !. :i . rii ()\ rail ic buiVuu,,ai v ; aa.i lia v. a ..b.i .i 



ia:;aai: i'V jHi::: . ; 'ai;aa y ca.aN ;:.: , t!i. bo'. "s a;.b bula u' (!;. k).ba. r^, \ 
bi;va|a Ijc:^r^ tbi Kiap'^ tri.b, a niaL:i;:Lr uai^ ii.yc.cb o.i b..iv.;\ t!i.' .' 
rap^abb ,1,1 [\:r".' a:.b c!aj p^(.a;ar,.l ia/:aa:"S, i.i c:\:. r lo rc);iac: : i .c ;; l'b. 
p>. c: aaa-ar, \'. ;Pv i. bay. w ai'c lo ! ..a. a ..:c, ii. ib.a.;- (). L!.a ... 
I. .,'. f ; .by kibv,:::: tb biiLT b !... s - n ti.: - .b!'b\ , (!;. :; ,. : ay .,:a..: ' 
.e ,b: :.b; ;:;:b.r la .i..a..bi a ca baa .:. a;aM-.:a ,!... b:.v! baab'.:^ 
bv v..iy ca' !iM,a;, tb;aa- a ^^ a. .: ac ia> ii^.a'; .aab v. . . ' , 
cabiio;". ;n i>: '.- r to rc"i:;:i :..a v w:pyba:ci,:, i .. . 

abii'bl b:a ba !as b^ap^ i:; b.a Iiaia.a \\b;.a :b . , p.j v. .e 

tb. ivai;;\ b ::Laaaa, a :n. :: r i:' ; abb! , bb. : ,. , --. - ;. 

pwia. !.'. b.a.,b la:wre b; 



I .. 



ti:i, w.ej 1..L pa:vL :p:p. Apa I 



.o . I ...p. >, y,i' 



I ... il 



76 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C;;ap. n. {^^jy^Q [^q]:^ ^rv^n C'^^HiWei*. He frequenriy gave l^aQs to his Inferior officers ; and 
when tiic n^c.ir v.;:^ i^t ujion the table, a flgnal was given j the li)Wiers rufhed in 
upon tiuni ; and Vv'ith nVcich noife, tumult, and confufion, ran away with ail the 
ddlic?, and (diappomuxi the officers of their expected mealy. 

j\}A]r[:y ai! tlici^nguarded play and bufibonery of this extraordinary perfbnage, 
he took the op'f.ortnnity oi remari'.ing the characters, defigns, and weakneffes of 
HiCn ; and he nouid sometimes pufl^ them, by an indulgence in wine, to open to 
iiim the vncii iecret rcceilcs of their bou)m. Great regularity, however, and even 
aunciitv ui ni.inners were always maintained in his court; and he was careful never 
by any hberties ro give offence to the mod rigid of the godly. Some (late was up- 
liCid ; but Vyi:h litile expence, and without any fplendor. The nobility, tho' 
courted by bin:, kept at a dillance, ar.d difdained to intermix themfelves with thole 
mean perfons, v;ho were the ir.ftruments of Ids governn,.;nt. Without departing 
t.'o.m ceconomy, he was generous to thofe who ferved bin] i and he knew how to 
iiiid out and engage in his intereds every man poiiefied oi thcfc talents, which any 
}-'articui^r employment demanded. His generals. Ids admirals, his judges, liis 
amn.:iTador?, were perfons, v/ho contributed, all of them, in their feveral fpiieres, 
to t!)e fecuriry of the Proteclor and to the honour and intereft of the nation. 

UxDEp. pretext of uniting Scotland and Ireland in one Com.monwealth vAdi 
F.ngiand, he had reduced thefe kingdoms to a total fubjeftion ; and he treated 
them entirely as concpue^'cd provinces. The civil admi.'iifrration of Scotland was 
placed in a council, confiding mo:i]y of Engliih, of which lord Broghill was prefi- 
d:rit. J un.-ce was adnd.uiilred by f^ven judges, four o^ whom were Englifli. In 
order to cudn the ty'-anrdcil n.obility, he both aboH'lied ail vaiTalageijl and revived 
tliC ofiice of jiuliccsct y.'CdCf'., whicii Kirig James had introduced, but was not able 
to fu-ppot J, A long Hn-j of forts and garrifons were maintained thi\.'outthc whole 
kingdom. An ;n-n-iy ol io,0'wO men kept eveiy thing in peace and obedience, and 
nciriu rthe banditti f)f the nicuntainsnor the bigots of thelow countries could indulge 
th"ir incliiiation to tuilailcu.re and dilbrder. I'iie Prefoyterian clergy he courted ; 
tho' h.: nouridicd that intelline enriuty which prevailed betwixt tlie Keiblutioners 
and ih'orenor:-. Very lirj/:' j'oli y i.^ r.qu fite to lofter quarrels amonp^ Theologians, 
lie permitted no chtircb. aflemb'it^s, bemg fennble that from thence had proceeded 
many of the pa'l miielu. fs. And in the main, the Scotch were obliged to acknow- 
h-g , that nev'er beferc, vdiirj th^y cidoyed their irregular, iailious liberty, had 
rhcy att;iin'_d io tnucn happineis v.i at preient, when re^iuccd tolubjetlion under a- 



tor( it'n riiition, 



Tivi: 



J 1 '.: Milui', ol. IV. p, . , '^ iu. vol, vi, p. ^ ;7: 



THE COMMON V.' E A L T 1 1. 

'i .'i. I'i'Otccio; '.s a.:iyii!iin.r;i:ivj;i of Ir.'.i ... ., .^ :-;,../,. ;. ... .. . - 

1"hc <//)Wii\[.x-.: ! [;;.![ lil.ind w.i:, i-:!l l-.,U lillci [o 1- :.;.; . ', :\ 
v,::j h.ivl ;y-,.r.i.,\l IijLoii's s". u;ow i i'.u;v i) 11 . ;, ' - ::: 

an,; (..;' : //. 1 ,vc- niiilions ol .icrc-, ic* " .:;'.! ci'.lic I y li.v- i'. , ,.!. . .^ 
t! .. ..:...:. of tli^ King, \\\r.' c;;',-iv!. J, } .irtiy ;i:i-ic. ::, 'i. .^iv.i,:. :c 



77 






J nio'.cv to tivj P.iri:.i;!':.i::, 



V liiVAjm: L;-: 



';n, r 



.!:r U.ir.\: i:^ r^' lound iii any liidory. A > orJ.r c'.f:i ;;;!:;.; to ;.ij;;.^: 

I:;;n to l'u |':\!V1i:c(J ot Cu;:n.i.;_;h:, \\]\.r- t'l.-y v, oi.' : 1:. fl::.: i ; ' . . . , 

aiid :r.o:.:;:ain'-, :i:Ki co-ild n()t, it V. as biO'^-.t- J., be anv io;-:,cT Jar..: ' , 

fio'/crnnicnt : Init this b.-rbarou? a;:.! abllui! j:oii, v, w ^i;.':, :";o.:: ..:. 

wir.iinin;; ia^:uc,;iarc l^'::.;i:y, iiuul have dcj\,)^\:!.i::. ,! ali i':.- o:!:j- : . ... , ... 1 

r.ndci\d tiiC l.ng!i!h iilaits ol no value, i: wa.. loo;. :^u:.'l i:r: c.i.b'c tj :...;:Me : > 

C.-.oM'\LL bc-^!;.in to ho::?, tlut by his aJ:i:i:d.";raLion, a'::::.!..: ^\!!.:o::. 
h,;f:re aiiJ face.-:-, abiwiJ, l' nu:c;i orcb r aiiJ tr,:iv;'.;;Ihty at !:..:::., he i. d :.:jv. .;. - 
o:.h-i\; ;liui ai,:hi 'fiiy as v,-()i:ld I .-..ib'e ih;;i tu n:.-et [lie :-e:x-Jh;:':;i: .". .^:'.. . ' 
all ! v/oi.!d alidre !::;n Oi tl:ei:' tl;.;r!;u! v( in: liaiu e w ;:!i his |^'i;ver;..y :. . i ' 
iorc kir:".n:o .Cil a rarlian^ent : b:jt not trL;:!!;,:': alto2;.ihir [) tlie : 
^Hv'jde, he like; t\'ery ait, which !iis n. \v mod,! cl :;'p;xh ;-.:..t!o>; .u'.. ,..: ;,!;i. lu 
en: I !oy, in or.ier to indu 'ncc t'lee! -etioiis and li.l tiie h^'Ulc v, !:! i.'^ uww c: ; ..:i:. , 
li'clan^:, being eptn'cly ;n the iunids (,: (he arniv, ehi;!e noi;e b:.: i:.^ !: o'ii c "; aS U' . 
n' {\ a:. ee-^:.'bie to idm. Scwthmd !'l:o\ved tlie l.one e m[)!i niee ; an : ... :;. : nnhli : ,. 
a.w;^en:'v' of ttiat hinyh'-^i r.;':.;\;;d tluir attend. .nc. en I'ny.nli i'n n:n 
^n mnc-rinnions b.ivli; o; .. .v^.r;. , it vv.n, on k..:"" .,e.n;nnr, n:o:e > a' , I n t';;- nii. , 
lu j rev'ad ;n t::" (.in.tior. . Nof-vohiLan in:.-, a 1 th^ ;; ; rec n.';, er;, :' IV n.' ' 
kni fi-end, : .at :!: n:.i; nritv \\c-.ddn^t be hivonrab'e : . ' 

t;:ere^Mre, on tfv do-):, \vi:o {.e.n.irtcd t.owc to er.t' r bn: ! . '.i a< r!\<d', 
unt i:n:ii h ' conn:'i' . and ti:e Cf/; nei! ic ,e:it d abont a hundred, \\ Iio en i.er : : 

.1 reconr.it:..:-. oi ti:e L'toteeior".-: j:o'.- : : ;::. nt,or were o:; i :.. :" .leewin,:^^ rn .. ; 
to hiiTi. Idi.ie jnetelled a;',;iill lo (>;i\idons a \n"iif.ee, l..'ve! .-.:' i . 
b-,irv; h.l eery a^^priLati^^n lor icd.reh '.'.as iA'n!e.:idi bo:!i bv Li:e i^Lnn.:. :.:..': :..-j 
Pard.n: .nt. 

'h:. . n:::' ):i:v of the l^arh.an"'.(r!:t, hv r::rariS of i\.\ '' .nr'^ a.:-.d \-io]-.nn-( ?, w re -(^'.v 
ut i.nl t ither friend!^ t(; t!:e l'r(^tc ^n .;-, or I'ni. iv;d, hy in n- ( n:[di.;,,er, t' > ac ',;', 
n ^ kdid.-, t!n> Uii.ita'V f.;o\'e; ':n.ent :(j d: :V h.". , ....U ni.rtics. 1 hey Vv.r:.: .i 
t^no :., cation e: uii i;t!e in CJh..r!ei bti.att 01 .'nv / ':.. n.mnv : and this w..b the ii:d 



HlSTOlll OP GREAT BRITAIN. 



\ u. 



zS:, c.\pAuncd wi.h the i^ppcar-incc cf national Qonfent, which had ever had that 
tcnd;i cy. Coionci jeph'on, iii order to found t\\c. inclinations of the houfe, ven- 

tui. i to vf.ovc, t-a: Hm: i^aili.imcnt fiiould beaav.' th^ crown on Cromwc! ; and no 
'uvpiliL: n;";r reiin'canci \\'3S djfcovcrcd on that oc^jL'fion. Vf hen Cromwel afcerwaidj; 
;:;k;'a Jc.-hibn wiiat i!vh;ced i"i!m to ma]:e i'lich a motion, " As long," fa;d 
J/phk;o, " as J ]:ave tht: hcjnour to fit in Farhai^ient, I mtill fi^llow the dif^ates 'f 
!.i j,,^, ^j.,_.,, conk-icncc, whitever ofi\^ncc I may he fo unf'orrnnate as to give you." 
' Gll ih-c gon;-," ilud Croniwel, giving him a gentle blow on the fiioulder, 
^' p;et t ;ee ^one fur a mad iellow as ti'.oa a!T." 

Ix or.'cr to p:,vc the way to ihis ad\-a; cement, ^or wliich he fo ardently longed, 
Cron^v/;.] i-efidve.i to lacrihce ids m.jor-generals, vdiom lie knew to be extremely 
c..;oi:i to the nttbn. Tiiat meahire was a!ib become icuiiite for his own fecurity^ 
y\I'[:ovcrnn;rni;;pi:re;y military, liuciuates perpetually bttween adelpotic monarci^y 
iiod a dedor^c aridoeraey, according as the aiuhority of ti^e chief commander pre- 
vai s, cr th.t of d:ie ofH^ers next him in rank and dignity. The major-generals, 
bJeg pchefled of ib niuch (iiltinct jurirdietion., began to efcablifli a feparatc title to 
j;ov, ',r, and liad rendered rhctrielves fvjrmidable to the Protector himielf ; and for 
i'ds inconvenience, tho' he had not forcfecn it, l.e well knew, beiore it was too late, 
to pre . icj a ^v'Cpcr rernecv. Claypole, his Ion in law, wlio poilbiTed entirely his 
ronrid: ..^^', abancioned mem to the pleafure of tlie houie : and tho' tlie name was 
j'dli rLL.dn.-J, it was agreed to abrigv% or rather entirely annilidate, the power of the 
!n:por-g;eerais. 

A i' iab a n^oi'e formal motion was made by alderiiian Pack, one of the city 
menujjr.^, .dnvcfcmg tlie Ih-ot- elor with the digiiity of King. This motion, at 
fi; d, ex.ded g;L.:t ciiib^rd^r, and divided the whole houfc into parties. The chief 
o^^;(,;n;:on ciOK: ibom tlie mlial adlieicnts of die Protedtor, the major-generais and 
f-;.;!i Oid^e:'? as denenecd on tiiem. Lambert, a man ot deep intdgv; ,md of great 
nitjr-d in tiie arniv, In.d long entertdiitd the ambition of kicceedin^ Cromv^ci in 
t'.c Ib-otcC:-,: dfp ; ai:d he forefiw, if the Monarchy was refiored, that heredi- 
tcOV rig':t v,\)nld al,.> be dbibiiihed, a;.d tiie crown be tranhnitted to the poilerity 
oi ti.e 1-. ..iLC nrfi ( 1 cte^h I l- piead'ci, thereiore, confcience ; and exciting ail 
!:!":ok civil ar;d ; i .pnii^ i,aic;Ldi /s a^.airdt kingl/ govcrn;nent, which had b.en fj 
1.: ' d ,,.h/ enc()ui'a:.;'.d amonp the fkjiers, aed which ierved them as a -Tttcxt 
for lo many violence:, he io: nud a ii.,rncroos and a fdil more lormioubic party 
agannl t: c moti',n. 

On i\\'c odii:r loic/k O.v n:,od^:n was k:pportcd by ev^ry one, who was morepar- 
ticoiarly dc.e^tvd t .; dv' ;';:;,. ;, ; and vd.o :iuj..,d, by ib aeccptaide a meakirc, to 



p.y .our: t.t:.e 



v. .on 



ty. M^ny perions alii.;, aliacneu totnem countrv, 



Ot i;;airci.l 



T IT K C O M M X V; T. A L T IT. 
f!-:ri;.;irc<.l of ever b:::v: .'S.: to Iujwl i!i : i ;;' .' 

Jiis (j\", ii !.^;^[^, i;,i: > a r.i'::-.t f(-r [:\j ... 
I'.ViW :' . U'.v..;.: . i:npn.it.ic tiyi'.'!:v,u ::. 

V. i;,ii r!: ",.v iLioii K-j;,i;v!cJ i,. ly p^ rl* :;-, :...:-. . ^v'' -- : : 
..:,'. [::' r b iliancj bctsvixt t'le a:/;. iK i\/',\ii ian;ii v, .V.J m\'.j.:u '.c l. 
I";. . . , T^.i'on, :i:icl peril.!/, hai.1 n^.uir iiis '.vav tociici"".; ..r:. 'i ;.c ' 
ry a coiiii '..:.. bit- 11^. i; ji'iry i aiul a con^r. :::ce v.as a,-''.o..,'.c,i t.):c,-.. 
i'roL.x'K.i , i.n.\ :> u\c:x'omc tiioic !ci'.;p'cs, v, iii^'ii !.. [;rc:cii..cJi a^^a'; 
iu !: jL-rai aa o'.: . r. 

l"r:i: C'It: ere lice laRe.; for fcvtra! davs. T!\e rrj.:... i'tjc i:":t:\!. :'- 
llari;:vs aiivi cu 'onis ol England were foL:::djd oa i', ; , . .\::j:-i 
ih. >:;:', and couid iK.t, wiLiiout cxrrcnvj \'u!.:;v , be a, ;...l.d : 
ha n; o; <;'V.'eitinva;n : 'l"b..: a i'r.iLe..i;or, ex.. e^-r di. ;!...: eaj ::d;; .... 

\'. a- .. naiiie ulk ;ay L:;.b;,u.vn to :i:e ;av.i ; ....a ;.-) :..::; v, .;^ ....; ..'.:: 

t^a: ui I'lri:., or his aatboriry : diia: ;r i: was a:: : : . > 

Li j-aiiaiLiio;;, :i:.;av year-, d aot aij,.-, v.(?i.dd b/ : ; :, d ;or di: 

I ) c'K^r i;e..!;^d a v. ^:d; ^ it tli w !i.;ie p^ /V- ^r ot di i^: \\ '' .^ ..: t ar, : 

ji.ii;, t.,,: q aeilaai \sas | laiidy ;dvai a aaa^e. aa.l :,;. ;a:.r.a.,-j \.a- 

(:.ie to ihe aadeac lalj : 'I'da: ti;e i\a_;ddi .: 

i:..; die i<;':rA (I ;;0'reran:ea: tiiaa ei)r.Lv ri..,.^ d.: :a. ' ... ly :. ' . d' : ., 

aad bad j'rovided, by an c xpie.- la'.v oi 1 leiay \d b : r:.._ !..a.: 

:a. L la detence oi tbo Kiai,i; in b^au;, by \d.a:e'. ^r :r,v,./- ..e ad b: 

} odbfdoa : d !aic it wjs e.;aenudy tbe biiwad a. . i . 

tb Iheb^r of da, fbratc ; and cvea die a.^y^b .....,..: b 

b'd m.a:, and ai ad 'a:;;.' waa: vddi ^i,r. a: " la^/.. a; 

bi la'/oaro! a Ib'.Hi'JUjr : d ha: d.c yre i: !..-.._ ; ... b . ba. 

be n t'a- b.daaly (a iib;rry ; and ta,;r a Ke;ab!aa" ':\>.v->'. . . . . 

i'.en ellabbih.a in ( rder to p(;\ ide auaacr aaairb: 

dilation; lai: tiai: [^y ^xpeneacc ibe r. :a, ,. .' . 

; ,,a^as aia! ; t. : la. a a> ; liacec\arv an.it," r...... ., ,,,,i, i ti 

u^aif, niad b : adairarv ; aad ilie mare .al a. ,., ^\.-j\ ^ c^y.]:. . v 

. - aad ai baadoii o! tlic yca^pic. 

dbi ;. da];ea]:y aoidadii not in {^erlbvac'ba*- r-ar '.. d. I'' 
. a.'., dol tia' bMr.bty o; t.i;ele reaioaiia: ; .. 
a 'aas cntireis o a tia; dde cm tiu c a 
) d.e b.nie v. .a; v\ thi: la w as C . 
. 'o li.vni ;a lael\ iur-ald, ^ -doa-- 



.1 . . 



So Hi STORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Ciiap. li. them fi.iddenly to it, even tho' beflowed upon their general, to whom they were 
"^ fo much devoted. A contradi6lion open and direcl, to all pail profeffions would 
make them pals, in the eyes of the whole nation, for the moft jfhamelefs hypo- 
crires, inliited by no other than mercenary motives in the cauie of the m.oft perfi- 
dious traitor. Principles, fuch as they were, had been encouraged in them by 
every confideration human and divine-, and tho' it was eafy, where intcreft con- 
curred, to deceive them by t;ie thinneft difguifes, it might be found dangerous at 
once to pull off the mafque, and fhow them in a lull light the whole crime and 
tieformity of their condiicl. Sufpendcd between thefe fears and his own moft ar- 
dent dcfires, Cromwcl protracSted the time, and L^emcd ilill to oppofe the reafon- 
ings ol the committee ; in hopes, that by artifice he might be able to reconcile 
the refraclory nrlnds of the foldiers to his new dignity. 

While the Protecl;or argued fo much in contradidion both to his judgement 
and inclination, it is no wonder, that his elocution, always confufed, embarralled, 
and u -.intelligible, fliould be involved in tenfold darknefs, and difcover no glim- 
mering of comm.on fenfe or rcafon. An cxacl account of this conference remains, 
and may be regarded as a great curiolity. The members of the committee, in 
their reafonings, difcover judgement, kfiO-.vlege, elocution: Lord Broghill in 
particular exerts h'mfelf on this memorable occafion. Buu what a contrafte v/hea 
we paG to the Prottclor's replies ! After fa fingular a manner does nature diftribute 
her talents, that, in a nation abounding v.dth fenfe and learning, a man, who, by 
fuperior pcrfonal merit alone, had made his way to fupremc dignity, and had even 
obliged iht PariiamiCnt to make him an offer of the crown, was yet inc^pable of 
cxpreirmg himfelf on this occafion, but in a manner which a peafant of the mofl 
crdirury capacity would juft'y be alham.ed of*. 

The 

* \Vc ir.::'.l pio.'uce any paiuige at random : For liis difcourfe is all of a piece. " I confefb-, fcr it 

" IxliT.es ;uJ io deal plainly witii yoi:, 1 nuut confjfs, I would fay, I hope, I may Lc ur.der;l:oocl in 

' th;-, lb; indeed I muit be tender \vhr:t I fay to llich an audience as this ; I fuv, I would be under- 

'' iln )d, ti.Lit in tin: ar^i^unent T do net make parallel betwixt men of a diiTerent mind and a Parlia- 

" i:\rnt, v,;;ich n^aii have t'-.cir denres. 1 !:no,v there is no comparifon, nor can it be ur^ed upon 

' ;r.e, that my svoids liave the lead colour that v.ay, becaufe the Farliarecnt fecnis to give liberty to 

" n/j to iiiy any tiiin;^' to yoL. ; as that, tiiat ia a tender of my humble rca'cns and judgment and 

' c ; I'dun to tlicm ; and if i ti.n.iv :hcy are jhch and wiii be fuch to them, and are taithful fervarts 

' . i,i V, i'; !'.e ib to the fuprcme aut'-.cnitv, ar.d the Icgifative wiicrefoever it is : If I iay, 1 lliould not 

" i.d M'.M ;.!;o\'. irg tl i;ir :, -^d:, to be fo, I llioidd not be faidiiul, if I ihouid not tell jtui io, t3 t'lC 

' enu v.y.i may i-c.;.rt :L .) me l\uii,.nieat : 1 llndl lay ibmcthing for myielfi, fjr my ovn mind, 1 

' du i ;.>;.: . '::, 1 am ./ i a man Icrupulou., about x.ords or nam^j of iuch tidiigs I ha\-e not : But a.- I 

' h.;'. - :'...: V. vj;\l ot (;-.d, aini 1 i.opc 1 :had c\ cr ha\e it, ibr the rule of my con^icnce, f)r my in- 

" firin .::'!: ; li)';,;'y nn'n i:;:a ha\ e b'.en Ld in darh pati; , iliro' ihe p:().ddence and dilpenfition of 

" Cjj.i ; V,' y ii\\:\\ it :. Uvi to be c'_..r.d to a m.m ; tor vd;o can io\-e to \s-alh in tne da;': ? tint 

'^ rrj-. idencc 



THE COM M O N W E A L T H. 8i 

Tv4E oppoficion, which Cromwd dreaded, was not t'lat which came from Lam- Chsp. H 
bcrc and hi-, adlicrcius, whom he now rcf^arded as his capital enemies, and whom ^ 

he was rclolvc\i, on the hrlt occalion, to deprive of a!l power and autb.ority : Ic 
^as that which he met wuh in liis own laniily, ar.d from nien, w!^.o, !a' inrerell 
as well as inclin.iCion, were the inoil devoted to him. I-'lcetwood h.ui iv:.i:::ed h.js 
dauf:^iuer : Defborovv his filter : Yet tlu fe pcrlon^, actuated by priiKi[ ! .i;*.r-,c-, 
co'jid, by no [>erfwafioii, artifice, or entreaty, be iiidiuccd to cir.!';. t ih:[ t ; ;r 
fiieiidand patron Ihould be inverted with rcL^al dif:;i'ii(y. 'ITicv tui<,l l.::"!"!, t'.:.', :: 
he accepted ol chccr(;wn, they winild inllantly throw \.ip th.cn- C('n.n"i;n"..>ns, ai'.>.'. 
never afterwards would have it in their [>ov.cr to I'erve him *. C(;"(j;,el Pi.d.e pio- 
cured a petition aciainll the otHce ot King, figncd by a maionty oi ilie onic/is. vk l.o 
were in London and the neighbourhood. Several j^crfjns, it was !..;d, lad iitcitvl 
into an engagement to murder the Prote6lor within a lev/ liuiiis al.ci i.c flur.:!,! 
have accepted the ofier ot the parliament. Some ludden mutir^y i:i the ;;:ir,y \^.i^ 
iullly dreaded. An.! upon the whole, Croniwrl, alter t:\e a>;f;ny ar.d j.-iphxi'y 
or long doubt, was at Kill obliged to refule th.it crown, whicii the re, reki-.tatives !^.. 
of the nation, in the moll lolemn n^inner, had tendered to him. M.;'! h.:':'-r!.i!s 
are inclined to blame his choice , but he mud be allowed to be the bcfi l^--!:e u\ 
his own fituition. And in fuch complicated ful-'iecb, the aheratic.n ol ave:y 
ir.inute circumllancc, unknown to the ffccuuor, will (;l!:.-n be fuii'ei-.nt to e.nt 
llie balhmcc, and render a determination, which, in itielf, may be une!i^:bL', very 
prudent, or even ablblutely p.eccOary to t'.ie actor. 

A DRF..AM or prophecy, lord Clarendon mentions, which., \\: anlrnv^;, a:vl I^iC 
n^'uil liave known the truth, w.is univcrlaHy talked of iilmc'll iwnu the brgin::::-/; 
ol ti;e civil wars, and l(;ng b.etore Cromwcl was lo cor.fichTalM:.- a [-erion as ro bellow 
r.'-'On it any degree ol p,robabiliry. In ciiis proph.ay it u'as toreto'.di, t!..u C'rcn-.wci 
fnould be the greatell man in Lnglar.vl, :\:\c\ wow'id neaily, but never woii'/. : .!!v, 
niouPit the tlirone. Such a prej-oficlhon probal^'y arc-f" tiom tiie l-.c.ired in-.v.:i;ia- 
tion eitb.er of himfclt or ol his lollo'.vcro ; and a'3 ic nii.jb.: be vr.c c.iule vi t'le 

\olU. M ^ -rc.it 

prnvulci.cc tir-c. fr. d'"'p<Ac. A- ! tL ' n i- - ;:-. :;;: - [ ' ^ :: ' 

*' C..<.i\.\:\\ \ !. t i; lauil be at n; V pci il ; I'l. v .i.' ;-)::y t\' t;. .: ;: i t'l i^ 

' nn-iiii ^l.wKncf:. : I nn:lt nvc!. C:-,\h.ii I h i.\- I-:; !;. "'..t ,!..!. . . . ; 

il. / .t :.a^ !ij :c.-: \\..'l\ ujt or .Tc'.n I'i l';.' \ ', \ .. 



i ,.i :i: !., u .;nt (.ill', 'i . 
i;.i '. r '(v!;'. .Otis 1. "[.[ .{"' . . 
'.I ' I;.- .;'.M 'A '1 .. !n 'iio; ^ wo; 



S2 H I ST CRY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C'l .;-. I:. cT---at proaTef^, v.hlch he had already made, it is not an unlikely reafon, which 
^ .^'' n;ay b;: a;!';.,nt:u ior hi^ rcluang ac tiiis tiine any farther elevation. 

The ailhin-icat, \v!;?n the regaldigiiiiy was rejecled by Crom^vel, found them- 
f. 'ves obli- -, d to re^.j". the name ot a Conjmonwealdi and Prot-.clor \ and as the f-o- 
v,-;\:nu i.c vvas hiiherio a maniicil ulurpation, it was thought proper to fancfiiTy it 
b> a. llciijiiig cr.jic'j oi the pc-.-ple and of tiicir rcprefentatives. Any conienr, 
nii.;ie lull or rc'^uiar, has feldom Invd piace in lavina; the foundations of a new 
jr .'.-(, ,,,:_ coi'.r:i:udcn. iniV.Ma of the indrunient of government, which was the work of 
li ' '- - the f;en.rai oHiCcrs alonej ;i:i humble petition and advice was framed, and by the 
J-'ariain-.c'.;; Oilercd ro t'y; Proteclor, 'I'his was rcju-elcntcd as the great bafis of 
the llej;i,blicaii tiic.bJiihmenr, regulating and iimiting the powers oi each mem- 
ber of i\vz coiduLUiion, and fecuring the liberty of the people to the mofl: remote 
podcr;r\'. By this ueed, the autnority of ikJrotedor was in fome particulars cn- 
jargcd : In odiCrs, it was conddcrably diminimed, lie had ti^e power of nomi- 
natirg hi . laccexibr ; ha had a pcrp^tLial revenue alTlgned him, a miilicn a y.ar 
fur li.e ilee: and army, three hundred thoufind pounds for the civil government ; 
and iie had authority :o nan^: anotlicr houie, who fhould enjoy their feats during 
]ne, and cxerciie ihme iundcions of the ibrmer houfc of Peers. But he abandoned 
tiie p;/.ver aiTumeu in the intervals of Failiamcat, of f~i-aming laws wi[h tiie con- 
ieat ci his counci: ; and he agreed, tlait no members of either lioule fiiould be ex- 
cluded but by the conihnt oi tliat houle, of which they v/ere memberc. Tho 
ether articles were in tiiC maii:; die idmc as in the inuiument cf covernn.ent. 



i.>x.rumeat oi governn:cni Cron:wel had lorme!;/ crctoiied a3 tne nacaj 
n invention : lie now reprcibrted i. as a rotten Dia'ik, upon 
which no man could i: tiit hi;nleli" without flni^:in^^ Liven tlie rlumble iktition and 
Advice, which he cxtolied in its turn, aprcareti ib lame and imperfet5i;, ti^a: it was 
jound rcquidte, tins ve]-yh:7ian, to niend it by a 'bpplcmcnt ; ana adar aii, it: 
may be regarded as a very crude aiid unciig lied model of government, k was, 
ixwever, aceei)tt:d tor the deed oi the whole people in the three Uidted nations j 
and Cromwe', as ir his oov-'cr iiad juft commenceei ircoti tiiis p.o -d^r conikiit;, 
was anew inaeguratcu i;:i \^cdmiiiiler tlall, after the moll iolemiiand ntoll pom- 
poos nt.o:: er, 

'ihiE Parliament havii;gad_iou-ned itflii; the rrot'dl:or dciMovcd Lanthtrt ef ail 
hi:, conuidinoi'S ; but Ibil allowed hini a connderabie penlion, oi caoc paunds j\ 
yen-, as a Iribe i. r his futiaoo pearcahie deportrncrit. i.andoa-t's audo ritv ia t;:e 
arai^y, to the great liirpii/eoi z'y'cry body, vas found imniediately to e::r:re vtith 
the i>.;5 c: la-; (ojmonlhon^ Pac'^cr and f;me other Ouiccrs, whom Cromwel h.l- 
I v^c. , \' ,.., .;.;<; tn.:a./.ed. 

2 ' T?-c-.\ao 



THE C O M M O !C \V E A L T IE 



St 



KiCKAro, c!.i. , iv,i lo ihr r;-()tecL''% \.x- 'rrc-: \.: co c ..% i;:rro lir^ed i:::o Chap, i: 

... ! ;. , ':;..!" a;:.. - -. , :!''.;s with th- 



t . - L 



:;..ir:ii>;L 
'.":.\. c. 









, I ; . ] , \'. 



-)A', 



'.''V 



i V..;-.' 



: r. hv.d l-o tlu'.:'iM> i.n-i.i:: b .; : 0/,:^ >,: b 
:b i^v-;r i:; bb < ....': tb ;^.b t \^ c 'b \\ ^^ :. v , 

i-Mi: -.vi t.-- ['-- : vbv . 1 ..L ; ai.-*.!w' ; 



i 



:", ^ a:;b il \.' ". r-. . d.:; : nu i;> . 

_ .. J cwry bb.:.; i.i .rs n.;tir;b ci. b, . 

:!.,.l .v\; !:o;:(; ::\ cl \b:b:i ii.: !:v\v lo... 



i.;M:: 



c.jir-X)! b f ! ;:-.-r 






huwic-. b:j c.a:.:'.\ ::.> a;:b tbj i;t!;.i' b '.,... C;v.;:v\^b 



,: ....' c 



1 ; ', 



:'ib m: r:\ r-, 



.. .] t. 




b.!.() 


\ . I . 




I:- 


1 




1., 


I 1 



V cxcli^bb. >- Arb. r ; 



84 li 1 S T O R y OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

CiuiD. II. of a confiderable number of its members. The Prote6lor, dreading combinations- 

^''S^- becwixt the Parliameiu and- the malecontents in the army, v/as refolvcd to allow no 

jeifure for the forming any confpiracy againft him , and with great expreffions of 

.j-.i. otTcbru- anger and difpleafurc, he dillolved the Parliament. When urged by Fleetwood 

'' / an i others of his friends not to precipitate himfelf into this rafh meafure, he 

fwore by the ilvir.g God, that they fhould not fit a moment longer. 

These dillradions at iiome were not able to take off the Protedor's attention 
iVom foreign affairs ; and in all his mcafures he proceeded with equal vigour and 
e .terprize, asif fecure of the duty and attachment of all the three kingdoms. His 
alliance with Sweden he ftill fupported j and he endeavoured to affift that crown in 
its fiiccef.ful cnterprizcs, for reducing all its neighbours tofubjedion, and rendering 
itfeif totally mafler of the Baltic. As foon as Spain declared war againft him, he 
concladi'd a peace and an alliance with France, and uniicd himfelf in all his coun- 
cils with that potent and ambitious kingdom. Spain, having long courted in 
vain the friendfliip of the fuccefbiul ufurper, was reduced at iall to apply to the 
unfortunate Prince. Charles formed a league with Philip, removed his fniall court 
to Bruges in the Low Countries, and raifed four regiments of his own fubieclis, 
whom he employed in the Spanifli fervice. The Duke of York, who had, with 
great applaufe, fervcd lome campaigns in the French army, and who had merited the 
particular efceeni of Marflial Turenne, now joined his brother, and continued to 
feek military experience under li)on John of Auftria and the Prince of Conde. 

The fcheme of foreign politics, adopted by the Prote-^or, was highly impru- 
dent, but was fuitable to that mignanimity and enterprize, with which he was fo 
fjgnally endowcJ. He was particularly deurous of conqueft and dominion on the 
Continent*; aid he fcnt over into Flanders fix thoufand men under Revnolds 
who joined the French army commanded by Turenne. In the former camoaio-n 
K'jarclyke was tak.n, ai;d put into their hands. Early this campaign, fic^o-e was 
laid to Durikirk , and when the Spanifh army advanced to relieve it, the com- 
b ncd armies of France and England marched out of their trenches, and fought 
the famous battle of the Dunes, where the Spaniards were totahy defeated j. 

The 

* He afpired to get pcfilflicn of Elfinore and the pa/Tage of the Sound. Sz^ IJ'o, la's ?j:_^/}akc hi 
Olfuer Crom^ivel. lie alfo endeavoured to get pofleirioii of Bremen. Thurloc, \'ol. \i. p. 4-8. 

f It was r'jrnarktd by the pretended faints of that time, that the battle was fought on a (hiy which 
was held 'or a faft in Lci.don, ib -li.n a-, Idcctwood faid (I'hurloe, Vol. vii. p. 159.) wliilc we were 
pravi':'/, they wcr: fi(',i''tinp; ; ^i''d the Lcid hath given a fignal anfwer. The Lord has not only owned 
u". ill our work thcic, but in our waitir.g upon him in a way of prayer, which is indeed our old expe- 
rienced appro', td N'.av in all llrcigats ;,nd diOiCulties. Cromwci's letter to Blake and Montague, his 

brave 



THE COM M O N \V r A L T II. 



"5 



The valour of t!ic I'nf^'uli w:is mv.'U r. ir. \ I: - : oi t!iis o (Miiori. I).;:.!-; r':, b/in?; 
joo.'i after f.irrc'uicrcd, was by ai^r-jornr:-.: cli i;vr;(vl U) C'r .nv.vcl. lb; cf.':'.:n.ic- v! 
tiie <^ov<::r wcv.z n[ flint imjnjitant |'!iv.c- t;) I.olIm::, .i Sc.tL Iwn.m oi a' :::v.', v.ho 
haJ. tr,.'.r;: \1 bi> niece, and v. as his ariibafLidor i-i the ^m.rt o: i-'ia::jc. 

Til . .i'.\-]':'r!:ioii was regarded by the P;o:c:"^.or a., '.he nuur.. o:,:y ' f c;bt.'.ii;'.rir; 
fart!-.ei a,: .aiic;.!j,':s. Me was rehdvcd to c^'iici-t nieallircs wiih tlie l';L\-.e!i CLjr: 
for tile ihhil fonrjUcit and p.irtiti.-n cd th.c Low Countries *". Had he iivJ. rr.L;^.i 
long^er, ar.d ni.iintair.ed h.is aiitliority in b.r.g'and, To chiim'jrical or ra'I.e; lo p.r:-.:- 
cioiis a }H"t''\:'t, would certainly have been rct'uced to execution. Ai\d this !ir;l 
ar.d princi[.'ai ilep towards Univeilal Monarciiv, whicii b'rai.re, dur.;r- a w Ik/c 
century, has i^.ever yet been able, by an infirdte ex^^erue ot biood a. : tt , a'.', r^-, 
fiiily to etlectuate, had at once been acccmplilhed by the e:uer;ri/.!. ;:, t'i^j" ..:i- 
Ik !;ul politics 01 Cron^iWel. 

Gk LA r demonftrations ot mutual rricnddiip andi re:^ard, dur:;-.:: t::e!-- rra-.l- 
aflions, jauedi betwixt tiie I'rench King and. ti^c l'rotect(-r. Lord b.;!, <h'ibri,-,';, 
C'roniv.crs Ton-i'i law, was lent o\'er to L,ouis, tl:en in th.e canip bctore 1 "'ur.kirk ; 
^..A was received, with tiie i.xrAc regard, wliie.i i< ulbadv, by the h'renc'^. coi:::, 
pay.d to foreign priiues ;. .^bizarine lent to I .ond(.;n his i^e; '^ew, NLir.c i,;, 
aioni.^ with the iHd'.e ot Creo'c.i ; and. cxprclieii his reirrt t, tlia: i;i^ uij.;-!',: ada li 
ih'.'uld dejirivc liim of the lionuur, wi/icli he h.\d "(u-g wi.l-.cd lor, '^1 ;^' tving, in 
perlon, his refiX'cLs to tlie great. !1 nia'i in th.ewokd :[:. 

Tm: Protector reaped httle Utibf action Iroiii t'.:e k:cceis of Ids .irn-.s abr. .'.1 : 1 lis 
iituation at lionie kcj.ir hini in perpetual i;:-.e..f:iie,b ..:.d. i;icUiic twdie. 1 [k- adUiii.i;- 
tratio:i, To ex[)ce.hve t^oth by luiiitary enterjui/es and. b.iet in'.ell:; ,e:. ' , liad. ex- 
hauiled hij revenue, aiiv! involved Inni in a eo;,:id. lable (.;;.bt. 'i lie Kow.iids iic 
1-1 ard, iiaJ re;iev.\d tlicir t cnljdra^io, .'or a gr;.M.d i..!ur;c':ii(.n , .n.d Oin.oi.d 
Wv-s Itcretly cor/.e over witii a \'i.\v ot C'jncertinu. n.e.ik.rcb t .;. 'die e;.ev ..tiou c/i tins 



chnp. ir. 

I';-''. 



pre.;; 



brsve ai'niir,.ls, i;. icmnr-'c,:: !c iv: ;:if (hiiic fj.j i:. 'J'lur!"!:, \ ' >!. i.'. ;^ -;.t.. Y .. :.e,v, .. - 

cri V hJicvc a:.:i am jvIa.:!. 1, a rlti.ttal iiuJ: cl pia.ci: :;'- 

b :'.:} r.d in >'l re-pio. ,! :i;i: :,':r- ;if... .;.;i ;...: 1 t;.i- n. t:. :, a...:. ..;..; . 

rruTi"-, V'jrv ::>'! h uriiei-v^r c\ t.v.:]\ fo \ u, vv'ii-.!'. .i c :i i.-, ..:. 1 I ti,.:l w . . .. r. 

^reat e!K;ju."a'.'.M'c;i:. Hat liotw ;t;:'i.in(i.;i:-' a.i'i liu^, :t '.v;,!;- .iK\llMr\(a ,;,,: u-. "n ...;:. i r 



. a- I 



Tclve. .u:d all lUir ..)i..ir , to t!'.- tlilrd,:;;' 'u i/.' our a'.' Mlf i ati.r 



r.'. '. o::i. ^ u: cl ;\. . o... .:, i u'. 



hL-.aapj (.f iiii ;^ >': ii.ri , \Vii!i/.;i aiii tra.'li. ou.;ie. :.) be ;a.i.,M.t.l ui.'.u iv .^: eu'..l.i..., '. :; ) .i.^ic 

.',!ij a;c clii'Jicn of in-. ])."< ".ii ', eiio' tii^- lr;ii;, .\e. 
'i\.iv'.iy:, \\ l.'i. y. v a. 
t I'Ih.-i !i'c, V( 1, v:i. p 1 ^ I , I v"*- 
t [n K..'ity rlif ( iiiuii.'.l ii:,il not ('\;<.it i A :"-> l.i ah ..n i.I' i nt i. u in-A-al. Ilr ufcJ to !"..;.. :!...: he 
v/.is af ;. .;.ie' ii. li.-.an. \'i.; <! C. :;...! , .r l^..:;a; ; (. :. >. ' ..!..) ^'.^;i. s Co. let ou, \ o'. . .. y i.. 
Gurnb'.'j's L.ic of Mmu-.,;'. ( ; ^ . W'lv'.r. .Mil^.ikc ia O. < "u :u\c[. 



!. <\ 



VI I S '1 O U V 






' T ]> K. I T A 1 N. 



pick^-"'- Lord I-'iiirL.x, Vi: Wiiliiini \Va'>::', siid j-n^r^Y ht^ads of the Prefbyterlans^ 
h^dlccreilvenLcrc;! i:;ro th;: c.i ;"-;:[:;!'':'- :\". i^^\:':l ;l' ari::yv,T: :;;...c:ed '.v::]-i the f^ene- 
i\;i oirltC: d;;1:c.:e^i;', an J i ..liC k:ULL.' n:'::i dan;::':rcL:? cru"*:::-:! Wcjs every moment 
;:o ht d:-c\:.^(;(i ;.-('Ln ih ri, ITo ho-):3 re;n:..;r:-', :;;:.; Lk vioK n: ';: reach with the lad 
Paiiia.nc;':. tiuit: hj v^ould Cvcr bj ab^e t:- cf -.'^bd., v.^di f:::: .;al conlent, a l^gal 
iltdenicKi:, cr tcmpcrdiic n-ddary vdd; d:. iid:::^:-: of :;;.; cb/.i ai;di'.rity. A\{ 
''i\\s arts and poiicy \\vi\, c;;:;ai.;dwd : i:-;d ;:-:v;:v: fb c.:.;-!, L" id.:i;d and falie nrc- 
iciices^ d.c.i.'cd ^Vv^ry .'..lo', -.id <i;. .:;;.. cvi:-y :.;.,. vil/l::^ ;::; couiii no jongcr nope, 

,1 






CU:'i COnriCil',Cl, SiiG I't^^rc 



ID 

y tood i-rcdd^: Wills dlf- 
rovcrcd i:i";v: vdiole to tbc drorctiv:.". Ci^rrnd v\i- ob:b:-.-d t:^ dv. ::rd he ttlccined 



]:;.;. :cii d:r:i:n.:LC to have cican^id :0 v'"['..::.\i i\?, :idi:b;:d'':at;CT. G:':.t niii: 



.M-s 



^i^. 



c'-vn into [:;.:o.:. i;n h;? : c:xa /t c; ;. b,::- v\ s a';cv; crcii-cb tjr the tryal 
'ti:- c:i!r};a.ds, whoib ^indwas i:::b": a:-;:ar^:,i;. I\ot\v:!;i;dandi;:2: there- 



t I 



r>.,-^; >-... 



:og!";!t:c;; c: Ims auti^ority by t;;e la;" i^arir:-;-:::':, t!;e .Lb-()t::c: -r could not. as ycCj 
ti'u 1 10 af: unbyah'-d j ry. bir bi^;;ry :di:-fbo7, ;b:\ I]eLK;t, \'.'e:c conde:r.ned aiid 
beheaded. Mordaunr, brodicr to tiie earl or b'crcrborow, vrry narrowly elcaycd. 
'.-.lie nua:.a:is ior his c "ru^ainnat'on aiK: iiis acc'/ra. were coua^ ; ana jiUl as the 
baucru;. '.va- v-r : vjunccd ia Ids lavca;-, colonal bbbde^ who was relolvcd to con- 
da.un hbn, caL.e ir.ro tbe crurt. Adrton, Srorrv and daiLlev were hanficd in dif- 
y'brcak iirc.::^ c' tba cilVo 



:?r coali 






r\- 



u:v ii:ruc'-. v. ro:Tiv;r! waca mil n-rca:cr 



j*prrciit;db>r;:, llarriioii aad t!ie other diibarc'ed odlccrs cb that party coiiLl not; 
re;r:ain a: rrd. Sd;r:ua;rad ec]:'ad7 by revenj;;-", oy a;"!jbd:o;i, aad by conlci:-ucc.. 
tb:v did :aa.bor;red in dicir ndnd iiir-e d.L;era:e jToicdr ; aad tliare wanted no: 
oida^rsin t'^e am'' /, vno, ir m liiie n-ic^tiv'as, were sriiyob'd ;o (ecoiwiall dieimndcr- 
tal-d. :::i. 'ibe Leve!iers and d.^--datora hrd breii v;!\eonra':;ed bv droriwd to inrer- 



a , I. ;:\,., 



pale v.::a L = .rn- aoviee ni an poniica: tl.na\a-a:;on' ; an^; naany or ii]::i:si ne inci e\'eii 



f h-^.-l -^WM 



|-b hie: ,r,r (1 



pr..;tencie'1 :o hononr w,to nis malt nrtunarf inend:n:p, wi:..e ae conciuctc n h;s barinc; 
cnterpriz' :; ana nd the ibin^^ and tbe Ibiriianient, I: w a3 an o!d! rradtjae widi 
iiim, in orbcr to nnniliarize Idmlbu the iTiors with t!re d^;;;t..:ors, vdra were com- 
ma dy corpor.bs (;r ioijeants, to tahe them to bed witii bin, and there, arter jnay- 
crs ai:d ex'iortat;cns, to ddeufs togctber tireir prv;;a^s and priiiC:r)!j:\ oadtiaai as 
wad as rebgions. i [avi,;g afTumed thedign ^y Oi drotedtor, he e:'abib-d rbenifioni 
ad bd eonaeilF;, :^nd had ne;Lher Kdfure nor ]^-A\:'i:.::y)i\ to iadn'g " d^am ::n'; b:rt .a:- 
in t' air wonted iaiwidarities. Amorig :a(b'j who v, .I'e enrag-d at tins abv;-;ta)n was 
Saxi-y ; an aet \e Agitator, who now eni^)ioyed ag .nid Inni ail that reitielb iiidLiri-y 
avbi_;: b,; , ivaa-n. 'y bejii e>Lerud in bis lavo'ar. 1 Je cvo"; v.ant d., b;r us to eiuar inLo a 

na;:oLiadrn 



T II E C O M M O X V; r A I. T IT. 

regoiiation with S;.- .iii ; ;i:: '. ^ .' ... .. ., s.. , ' 

Or ;u:ai!:.:.u:ons Ii!;cw;:Vh.- ;v.; 

tuarcvi diC lu;. i-'is. Sindcico:!:.- i: .. ;:;.. .i 

i.!L:c\(.ui;:.iMc^ acciucnt^ hi.^ i.il'..- :; ;-;;: j.. .v.... ....... l.-.. .v.... 

I jr,' 'iv. 1 lis cLli.^ . W.IS ciiiv' /. w . . i 1. ..':!... iV;':. .or<'-:'Mn.v .' ..: 

;.i:a i^jC'.v;Lii:L:...;i:;j^ the L;cnj:".ii : ^hi.,u .;:.cii .1.:^ L...;r cr:.;V', i^o" .. i 
clcMr .ii:d :ii!i ; ro(;t cl hi- [^:.:'l, lo !; tic e; :i\ ' :h: ^i r ; . .m;!.- ! (f- 
r:gh: ;o the lu: ic-nie ^ '.vc, ..iK^'ut, it was ". i''i ti. i :ri.i!. (.h'iic !:v 



iO'.rac r was coiuh 



\'.hieii ' \--:ry i!i; 



, . I - 



\..;-. luuiu; .Ija.l i iit-in ['...'.;;, .: , 1 1i:'^.c...l, v. .,;l.i !ij {.a.. \ o . 
i .i.j iiMii, buili l:o:i. I. -J ; i..,'h:: - (,; ;i;-^ .;[:L-:r:'L aii^j :..c tuL;v.;.\' 1 . t. 
h .vc v;cn CO..!;. cratid a- a hcrc), ::!.:, (t as a ''li:;-, l^y I'.r: <i\\/.- .. 
!:.: oar lcn:i';:c:us, wir'i rc^; .!\! :j rvraiinici.lj ..: l.ah. ..:.. . 
: i lii: i.^CircUs :a:J yLWCc < \ J.'::[ i 

'1' :.: TiotL: .o;- niijiht ba:::i,avc l^:a or: .i :h' ." :',; " ' 
th; r..'-iic (.i:lum;crs occ.i .0;"! (J, h...i i.c (' '.^-! , 
I < '^i.!: J anv ccn^iial i: iriui ol ins o-,. :^ ..;.: i: \ '.! ', ' 



L,;.!.;ac!L(.i ii:s anxi;):.is and corrovii;;:: ca/c;. 15 
a: i Willi the whdf. It .'.ca!, bi-Laii to ;..i.;-a;r- 
t;.: (.vcr, t!:at Cioiiiwc!, in aii hi- ' ..::r; 'v.\ 
' ' (. . n ::iM:;.:cLi;-, in.'ic tia;:! c.i ci",'^ .r ^ 
,.' \\ ii-rvt :.t 1 :a h ;" y.s. I i , 
, t '.! re"i'..b.ir..;i j r:a( '/hs lo 



b. .ui'i.rLTS v,-cr - no i.i;; |:!\ jatilLcd i. . 
!b \-i:,iai^iT'> a:' i ivi'-ai .;j ;, i;,:() ' v. !;;/, 
i !;.pby b.a 1 t!M: IjvOi !..ci. But alau'c . ., 
, :':. , a \.j^-, eiv.!L.Ld v. i:ii ^v . 
. ! ..! '^ a.ia.ioas r.ia.i:, .' ' 
. 1 ':.' \.\ i<\ a:ai :'>: 1 ^^r. i b, 
. . ...'! y 'a ill v i-:<VYL\\ ca:a:". .ah : 
n: to h ;r !..thi'r .lii :. 
. : .' [ lOia b^m.-as ciiaic^, i.:lo 



tiie 



\-. !. 



88 HlSTOPvY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C--P- II. iler ceaih, which followed foon after, gave new edge to every word, which fhe 
iiad uttered. 

All cnnpofure of mind was now for ever ficd from the Prote6tor : He found, 
that the grandeur, which, with ^u much guilt and courage, he had attained, could 
not enfure him that tranquillity, which it belongs to virtue alone and moderation 
t'ully to afcertain. Overwlrdmed with the load of public affairs, dreading perpetu- 
ally fome fatal accident in his difl:empered government, feeing nothing around him 
but treacherous friends or enraged enemies, poiTefling the confidence of no party, 
relting his title on no principle, civil or religious, his power he found to depend on 
i'o delicate a poize of faclions and interefls, as the fmalieft event was able, without 
any preparation, in a moment to overturn. Death too, which, with fuch fignal 
intrepidity, he had braved in the field, being incedantly threatened by the poniards 
of fanatical or intcrefled afTaffins, was ever prefent to his tf'rrlfied apprehenfions, 
and haunted him in every {cent of bufinefs or repofe. Each adtion of his life be- 
trayed the terrors under which he laboured. The afped of flrangers was uneafy to 
him : With a piercing and anxious eye he furveyed every face, lo which he was not 
daily accuftomed. He never moved a ilep without flrong guards attending him : 
He wore armour below his cloaths, and farther fecured him leif by ofFenfive wea- 
pons, a fword, falchion, and piftols, which he always carried about him. Here- 
turned from no place by the diredt road, or by the fame way which he went. Every 
journey he performed with hurry and precipitation. Seldom he flept above three 
nights together in the fame chamber : And he never let it be known beforehand 
what cliamber he intended to choofe, nor entrufted hhnfelf in any, v/hich was not 
provided v.::h backdoors, at which lentinels were carefully placed. Society terri- 
fyeci him, wiiile he refieetcd on iiis numerous, unknown, and implacable enemies : 
Solitude ailonifhcd him, by withdrav/ing that protection, which he found fo necef- 
fary tor his fccurity. 

flue ]Iis body alfo, from the contagion of his anxious mind, began to be affecfled ; 
and his l.caiLh fcemed very fcnfibly to decline. He was feized with a flow fever, 
which changed into a tertian ague. For the fpace of a week, no dangerous fymptoms 
appeared ; and in the intervals of the fits he was able to walk abroad. At length, 
the fever cncreafed, and he himfelf began to entertain fome thoughts of death, 
and to cad his eye towards that future exiftence, v.hofe idea had once been in- 
timately prefent to him ; tho' fince, in the hurry of affairs and the fliock of wars 
and factions, it had, no doubt, been confiderably obliterated. He af!<ed Goodwin, 
one of his preachers, if the doctrine was true, that the eled could never fall or 
fuller a fmal reprobacion. " Notliing more certain," replied the preacher. 

''' Then 



J'lJV. 



THE C O M M O N W E A L T H. Sc; 

*^ Then am I lafc," laiJ the PrutcJlor : For I am llirc that once I was in a (l.-.rc C:uj> II 
*' of grace." '^^'' 

His phyfici.ins v/crc iciiilblc of the periloii.'; condition, tn which h:^ (hllcm;:? f" 
Iiad reduced him: But his chaphiins by tlicir prayers, vinoas ai^.d rev. i.i'i,!-\>, \o 
buoyed up his hopes, that he began to behcve ins isle out oi u'd i'..:i.^er. A !..voui - 
able aidwer, it was pretended, liad been returned by iicaven Z) ti.e pet'.'.'; ;:.. (tt a'' 
the <',odly ; and he relycd on their alll-verations much more tli.m o.i '.lie ' j i,.' jn r 
the molt expci ic^nced p4iy(iuans. ' I tell you," lie cried v.i:!i coi'.iide!'. .\' fj []\- 
latter, '" 1 Hiad I'.ot dye ot this d.illemper : I am well a!'.iji(^.i oi ivr: : /(o'/eiy. 1 
" is pioniifed by the Lord, not only to my lupphcaiioiis, but ailo ;o r;..i: ,/. !!v ., 
" who hold a Itricter con^.merce and liiore ii.f.nu.e LorrelporuK-nte ". i'Ji ':.'; r.. "i 
'* may have Ikill in your j roieilion ; b-ut nature can do niore liian a'.l il.e ;'.. .': v.> 
*' in the world, and God is far above natjr<.'\" Nay, to lu^'ia degree o; ir,,'./.. 
(.\'A their enthufiadic allurances p.iount, that upon a fall day, wlucii, on hi-, ac .::/ . 
was oblerved, as well at Mampton Court as at Wliirc'iall, they did i:o[ lo :r. .;. ii ; r.i 
for his health, as give thanks tor the undoui:tc'd pledges, whicli tluy h.id receive-'. 
oi his recovery. I Ic himlelt was overheard offering up his aJ.dreffes to heivcn . 
and fo !ar had the illufions (;f lanaticifm prevailed over the plair.eil di:ta'.5 ^ I r.a 
tural n^.urahty, that he alfumed more the character oi a mefhaior, in in'.erccd::.., 
for his people, than that ol a crinfinal, whole atrocious violation ol Kjchil du:y 
had, from every tribunal, human and divine, merited the fevcieil vcni^ii^^c. 

Mk.wwhile all tlie lymptonis began to wear a more tatal al^ect ; a;u'. the 
[)hyficians were obliged to brer.k ff.cace, and t(j decLire that r!;e Ihvrr^lor ct^uhi 
r.ot furvive t!ie next tit, with wliich lie v,.is threatened. Th.e C(v,;nci! wa- .ih-.m^cd. 
A fepu.t.ition was lent to kru;w his wi'd with regard to Iiis fi.;cc\ffor. 1 lis le;.'!.:' v, ere 
go:ie, and he c/u'di not now exprels If.s iiirer.tior.'. l Ik y .iik:d Iiim v-lxi'.. r he 
c;:d net mean, tl^at his elddl Ion, 1' ichard, lli. ifd lucc.ed iil:n :n ilie Prot. cue Ihip. 

A fim; le aiiirn'ative was, or f.i n:. d :o l^e rxt r^.d iVi;m Iiim. Sii(-i alter, o:i fie ; 1 
cd S'-pr^ niber, tliat verv C:d\^ v,'!d. !; !.; h..d a' .'. ay . Cv nf d : . ' as f i iv,j[l 1 if ::a'e 
to liin^ lie expired. A \i.! n' te;r^ f. v,hi.di i^'.n.cvii.iie'v l.../eedvd hi- /_ i . 
fiirved as a f .' n f ' '.,i di'cc ui le to '.-.: ; a\ r. ! I : ;!; / i,s .\ . w, :! ,! ' i o--- 
nT:!^, v.ere f rid (;i u'm,.ri.ing f li:^ t . ' , ,i. . ..; in c n.ie. , : ^, 

aiferenc;^, to interpret it a e iif r.i-i..J' :) . \ :' . . .f U" i ' 

i'n.. V, iitM";, atr.iciicd ro fi rn. ni rv i>; f \ .. \ u]....v . .s ci.i- 

r:ifui-, wall regal 1 iM abiiid,-;-, i\ 11- -'i ',: >: ^ . a. ; . .< , -a-' : 1 1; , : . 

ae .: s K,,an 1 :e!i a r, prelaat-.a J ; ...... . . ..l\aa- 

'ha . II. V ,, : 



CiO IX i. ^ J. O iv 1 C F o Iv i:. /I 

y 

Int inveclhv. Both of ihcn^, i: n:u:l be con:\ac-!, ar- f\ipp:)i-e<l by Aicb (Irikir- 
ch-'/ini i-:/':-:;.-; i:^ 'iis coi: .Il.cI a.:d k;r:unc as l^Mlo .v on tiuir rcpre'cnt-idon ;i grijat I'ir 
( I proj..biii:y. " V-'Ii-Il can b;j ir:Gr- cxtii-aordinary," it: is laid-% ^' than diat a pcrfon, 
" of private birth a^.d education, nobirtunC; no eminent qualities o! bony, which 
' iiave Ibrnciimes, nor Ibining calen;s of mini', widen have oircn raiicd men to t. e 
" Id^ii-il dia;nities, fl^ould liavc the courage to attempt and the abilities to cxcciite 
" k) exti-aordina-y a dcf:^;n as the luhverting oiie of the moil antient arid beil edab- 
" Ji:]'ed '.Monarchies in tlie world r d hat lie fiiould have the power and boldnels t.o 
*' put Ids id-ince c-.-m] nvaKer to an open and infamous death? Should banifli that nu- 
" mcrocsanddrcngly adied Idndly ? Cover all thefe temerities under aleemingobe- 
** dience to a Id;r'ian:enr, in whole fervice he pretended to be retained ? Trample 
*' too upon that Parliament in their turn, and Icornfuliy expel them d) ioon as thev 
*' Lave i::m ground of diilfitislaccion ? Ereifc in tiieir place the don^iidon of tlie 
*' !ldnt5, and give reality to the mole vifionaiy idea, \; Ideli the heated imaginiaion 
'* or" .;;-v ftnatic was ever able to entertain ? Suppvef. again that moellcr in its in- 
*' fancy, a- d openly k': up himielf above ail things that e\'er were called Ibvereign 
'' in lip,gh;nd ? Overcome drrc all Ids enemdes by arms, and all his friends after- 
" wards by artdice r Serve all parties patiently for a while, and command thcni 
** victorioLidy at lad r Cver-rim each corner of the three nrtions, and fiibdue with 
" equal feiiijiry, both the riches of the Ibuth, and the poverty of the north ? B^ 
" feared and courted by all foreip>;n Princes, and be adopted a brother to the iiods 
* Gi tfie cnrth r Cad together Parliaments with a word of his pen, and fcatter 
'' then"! a:;ain vjI\\\ d:e breath (;f his iiiouth ? Reduce to !ub"ection a warlike ai'd 
' ddeortented nation, by ;iieans of a mutinous arn^iy ? Command a mutinous arn;v 
' by me-.ns o! Otdtious and factioiis oflicers ? ]]: hund:);y and daily petitioned-^ 
" tiv;t he would b: plcaled^ at the rate of mdlions a year, to be hired as mafcerof 
*' thole v/i'o had hired hdn before to be the'r Jbrvant ? Mave the edates and livv_s of 
" th. ee nations as much at Ids ddpof d as \vas once the little iidieritancc of rds 1 ather^ 
*' and be as nobP- and hberal in the fj^ending of then-i ? And lanly (d)r there is no 
" end of enum-: rating ev-ry particular or his glory) with one v/ord beqtieath all thii 
" pnuer an 1 U; ,nu r to !d> pfdlerity r Dye poilefdtd of peace at home and tri- 
*' t.n^.d: abrncf I" be ^vnn.d iuviong kdin.s, and with more than regal lolemnity r 



r.i.ei :eaee a n'une oeiUi^ 



u;-- 



irA not to be extinrrtdilied but with the whc-le\rorl. 



" winch as it wasto'; iivie d.r his praile, fb might it have been for his conquells, 
" i; tiie frnt iiric ol his inorta! ii:e could have flretched out to the extent of his 
" imn.oit 1 dJ'g'-s r^' 

Ah- iinenii}'! i^ not to dishnnn-e this piclurc, drawn by \o maderly a hand : j 
fliall only via' .n/our to rcn...vc irom it lomewhatol the marsardous ;, a circumibn:ce 

widen, 
C ;,.'.!.;. .. D,;c(urx.: i ...' ; r^/:^e i: dtciCidii icmc pa; ticuluii iioai the O'-'ghnv'. 



T 11 L e: () M M O N W ]. A I. T 11. 



.;v. !' .i.u o: v 
:n .1 j-i v. 



p,, in u: 



^ 



:: : . . 1.". 1 J ;;i.;:l- ; .'. .m .ii:^ 

. : i':;!'^..] :;;) t iit'o:;.:i'0:i ..re c: \:;c.:::\vy : '1 

:.: h. c'-i ti.c ni';:'c 'i.ii;:^.!L ciiaTj: '... \\"^i;-,i : .j : 

n:;.!Mi'-.' a:u!i.i\'i! M/ .cts. a k.;): lmi^ .:pc; ;;':. ' 

.'. .\;!\'L- i on ;h ;;j;; r.il ; .ii^.i n i.i is .i. .... . 

:..., :: nviv bi- i(.:' irtl.'J, c;n in .:' t.>:n.;.. ::>. ,.- 

;',.;rcr:iLi>.'nx v:.:uL:^n, ! n..t: C 'rcn: .. l'' ^ . ..' . ; 

'..^r :... -Mn.; or ti; Ix:-)nn ;. .n..-, v. i- .n . .i, j'.\:: ; 

, i\ ;' ' , t', n ; \\- nn.i^'i- In- c Nnn,.inn, :!..'. . , . ^ 

. : , .i;\'c'\'i J, w'.iT : n" (v - . 

.-.]. I: ii; L.lncj-i ihc nnliLirv n;nn:i.;., i: ii 

.:. .(. .t .:aJ in- .vn;ci;t;y c ;nc n; r-jd, ih.i: tin ir i ;,,o: nine; 

n n: 'u ti.j ;: oir-.l inr iiii'm, an.i li^AC i;n Inn.!; ii vnis .:\'j /^[n: 

.,, I n, ,,..1 , . , , s. :,, ,1.,.; . ,,,,,. : 






a- L..C .\ /in. o; ;,: :n, :nn 



>- 1 .; ' 



i t. .J in^;'i .: '.mi 
n;- ''.), ti..i: ,niy inn 



.\: :r.\- 



: n;- an i .A 
.0. , \. it.n v 



92 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



If we Airvey the moral charr.clerof Cromwel with that indulgence, whicli is due 
to the bhndnefs and infirnnties of the human fpecies, wefnall not be inclined to load 
his ir.cmory with fuch vio'ent reproaches as thofe which his enemies ufually throw 
i)j3on it. Amidft the paffion and prejudices of that time, that he fliould prefer 
i he parhamentary to the royal caufe, will not appear very extraordinary j fmce, even 
nt rrcfent, many men of fenfe and knowlege are difpofed to think, that the 
queftion with regard to the juftice of the quarrel may be regarded as very doubt- 
iul and ambiguous. The murder of the King, the moft atrocious of all his aflions, 
was to him covered under a miglity cloud of republican and fanatical illufions ; and 
it is not impofTible, that he might believe it, as many others did, the moft merito- 
rious action, w^hich he could perform. His fubfequent ufurpation was the efieft of 
ncceflity, as v/e!I as of ambition ; nor is it eafy to fee, bow the various faftions 
rould at that time have been reftrained, without a mixture of military and arbitrary 
authority, 'i'he private deportment of Cromwel, as a fon, a hufl-and, a father, 
a friend, is expofed to no confiderable cenfure, if it docs not rather merit praife. 
Anci upon the whole, his character does not appear more extraordinary and unufual 
by the mixcure of fo much abfurdity wich fo much penetration, than by his tem- 
pering fuch vio'ent ambition and fuch enraged fanaticifm with fo much regard to 
juftice and humanity. 

Cromwel was in the fifty-ninth year of his age when he died. He was of a ro~ 
buft framjC of body, and of a manly, tho' not agreeable afpeft. He left only 
two fons, Richard and Henry ; and three daughters-, ore married to general Fleet- 
wood, another to lord Faiconbrige, a third to lord Rich. I lis father died when 
he vvas young. His rnotl^^r lived till after he was Ptotedor ; an', contrary to her 
orders, lie bLiri..f] her with great pomp in Wellminfter Abbey. She could not be 
perfuad :d, tliat Iiis j;ower or perfon was ever in fecurity. At every noife, which fhe 
heard, flie exclaimed, that her fon was murdered ; and was never fuf->fied that he 
v/as alive, if ihc did not receive fr quent vifits from him. She was a cecent woman y 
zvA bv her friigaiiry and induftry had raifed and educated a numerous family upon 
a f n ill !o! tu:,e. ^\vc \\,A c\en been obliged to fet up a brewery at Huntirigton, 
v/l.;e'r. llr- ni:!i,:i<-d to t:oud aclvant.iLTe. Hence Cromwel, in theinvcdivcs of that 
;;g!-, is oiLeri II ;^;inatin:;d with the narr.e of tiie Brewer. L.udlow, by way of tn- 
fu!:, nv.auicjr,:, tne great acctfiaon, w'lich he would receive to his royal rcvca;i;es 
vpw ills r.Kjiiicr's djat!i, who poif.ded a jointure of fixty pounds a year ir.^on h;s 
t'iLiio. '-.'he w;is of a ;_ cod family, of the name of Stuart ; remotely allied, as is 
by ly..-x it-ij ;^^:)f:.', to tiie roy;J iamily. 

C H A P.. 



THE C O M M O N \V E A L T II. 93 



C H A P. III. 

R;/-.-J .vshrAvh-gcJ Protector. y1 Parfidmcnf. 0:h:J cf n\:!!!ir:' 'J 

Jl^ui:-, Rlcbcird drpofcd. L'j?ig Parluuncnt cr Rir'./' -:.;: J. 

C >:(p.' /(!(} cj the Rrruil'ils. InfurrCiJy/i. '"^V/'''.'' ' "^- 

Tivliuficnt expelled. C'jmmittcc cf Ji^j'dx. P'rci^Ji .'/"'..;';.. 

(::r.i}\:l Mcnk. Mcfik dcclurcs J:r the Pdrdiimcnt. l\--]:.:::iCKt 

rqlorcd. Monk enters I^oiukn. DiclcD-es J:r a free /\;.'-//<. ;..../. 

^:ehid\! Members refred. Long P cirlianiey.t d[u'l-eed. A. .^- Pdrlid- 

nent, lie Rejl:ra:!cn. Mannirj and Arti. 

AW. the arts c^f Cronv.vel's ^--olicv IkuI been fo often [^ru^lilcvK t/.ar t'ley bcr;:!:: 
to \iW thvir ftll-c. j and b.is aiit'iority, infle.id of bji'.r, con;i;:riC\l by t::rv- 
a;Ki li'.cccfs, lecnu'd every cbiy to b come more ur.eert.iin anJ. |^rec.irio'uS. 11:^ 
fririu's tlvj moll ciofcly connected witii him, aixl iiis councilors the ir.oll triillcd, 
were entering into cabals af2;ainl"l: his :u:ihority; aiid with ali his iicnetrati(;n into t!;c 
cliar.iCttrs of men, he could not fin.l any m.iniiters, i)\\ wliom lie nvght wit'i cor.h- 
dcnce rely. Men of llrict probity and. h.onour, he !;;".ev.-, would not lubrr.it to be in- 
rLriunei'ts of an uiurpation, violciU and ille^_^al ; 'I'i.ole, who wer:- tree ti^m ilie rc- 
ilraint ol principle, Mii du betray, \k-\ int^red, th.;t ( a.dv, in wiilcdi, troir i:o better 
io,"tive , they liadi nl.lled. thcir.'.Live?. l'"\'eni t' (de, or. wl.o-.-n f.c c. !d-;:t,\: .ioy 
lavour, iiever e deemed b.e re com pence lidhoent i(;r tiie 1 .e;iiice^, whi^ \\ they nouic 
to obtain it : Whoever v..'.s rtli.Ld. aiv; ciemarid, )u''i.;cd his . i,;:er bv \\\ 1. j,:' , > 
c lours ot conLie[-.re a: d. ofchitv. Sucli ddndicuirvs furrounded the I'l -)te. : _.r, tlu.c 
Ivs dyirj; at !o critical a time, \\ c'ce;ned bv n.ar v t!u- nu,d Icntonate i:r. .;:o: aiAC 
tlair evt r attend.ed him; and i: was thou ::,:, tliat ad his cr.,; aj^^e uk: dl; x:e.:tv c .,,d 
r.; : nv. ( h lor.pcT iiav. cxtei ded ho. u!io[ ed. ..dn..;; .:;r.u.i' ;o 

1j'- r when that [o^tt ;it h.iod w a<= remove d, u oo '; en lusted ti;e [- : o o o.r, 
c\'ery OH',- ( xpecled a Lidd.:.i d:liih.dcin (d die k\\\w^\\^.\- \\\\}. ':.'. loiiae . '.biic. 
Ricluird, .1 youn:^ nuin oi loj ex; eiieuce, ea,'..c.it:'d \ . ti.e ;\ vi..ir. , ,.^c. ':i):i,rti 'u a 
odi.-dlde, LinarciUaioo d uiilithe odieers aed ui h:.o n Li:;.-r, i--co:i;:-ii-i;d - 
: by no n.d;tarv explc ;;>, c od^.ue 1 by no I looiia; .o- . ^ u'd m t !o. o, it v. \i 
. i '.t, n; uotini th.it >aitho; U'/, v. IikIi iob iat...r had ..Cv.o red b>,- !^ ;i-,;:,\- \-..; ;- 

c .: 



V* H 1 S T O iv '/ or G ]^ E A T B R. I T A I N. 



_'''^- Co airl.le-rinciiLr, c^nd i:\di Hgnal fiiccefics. And v,hcn it was obfervej, t;:at 



^-, - 



;i'doiuy the virtues of private: iile, which in his firui^tion were fo many vice?; 



d^ci his fachiry and good nature: tiic 



^'Ji ie.\;^ i;o-::n ;;' men were excired by the exyedaiion of (otne great evciU or rcvo- 
,,';" h;i;iei). lev [cmc time, jiO^^^vcr, the riibiic w.r: dilappointed m t!ds opinion. The 
council r.cc^gnized ti:;e iuccehiun (jf Richard : Fieetwood, in who'e favour, it v;as 
liippe'icd, Cioniv/el had loimerly made a will, ;e::ioiniced ail claim cr pretenhon to 
J he rre':;ei-o-'/]:hp : Henry, Ihicliard's brother, who governed Ireland widi grea: 
p"pnia,-ig\ ( ninrc^i hin] tlx obedience c: tinit kingdom : Mo;^|e, whofij; aiu'^ority 
was uoli el^abiin-ed in b^eothnd, b:ing nancli attached to hi;: family, imnicdiete'v 
grce'aini:d the new Prottclcr : Tiie army, every wi^ere, the fleer, aelinondened 
.? tide : Ai:ove niiiCty addrefies, from th;- c. unties and iuoil: condd.jrable cc^rp-ra- 
'n)e5'. m ad tin: terms of dntiinl allegiance cone^ratulated 1dm on hir, acc; Oi );] : 
-ior: mi: miniders werctorward in yayinghim liie ufnalcompiinknts ; And Ricliaid, 
whole moderaw, unambiricjos cisarawrr, never would have led him to contend for 
entpn-e, v/:s rernptai to a^xept io rieii a (Ixcchiion, which, by the conlcait of all 
mdr^^. ;]:., jbenoed to be tendered to hii'i. 

Fv' v;l:-, ;eimd ne..dl:e-y to call a Parliament, in order to furni-li ihipplies, both 

for the orc*hw]-y ahmiiiiriration, aiid i'or iuliiding tliole engag ments with foreign 

-;;-;'. Prince?, i^a.dcu'ariy Sv/edvn, into wiiich the ]::'i P;ot.u:orhad cnt^jred. In hopes 

ol^ oljt.dning gxaier innuerce onebcSdons, the antient rignt was rciLored to all the 

fniad bLn'ronghn ; and the counties were allowed no more than t .eir accuilomed 

;. mcn-^berp. The hjon e (jf i'eers or the odier blouie condileu or the i:in:e perlbns, 

who had hern nondnet'd by Odver. 
'-'J- Ane the fionmicOiS, at Hrd, figned vdthout hcht .tion an cng.-gement not to alter 
the. pref ni: eovernment. d'hey next proceeded toexandne the id-Linible Petition aiid 
Advice, and after great oppohtion and n^any val^ement onpntes, ;: was, at lail, 
wirh nu:ch diincLfty, carried by tiie court- paity to coniirm it. An aehnowlege- 
rreiit tuo of the aLufu'riry of the other Mould v/as extorted irom them ^ tho' it was 
refdved no: to tre::t tins hot;!e of Peers v/ith any gr. eter remaet than they iliould 
return to the conxnons. A d- claration was alio n^ade, tixt^ the f ifabliinment of 
the other ho.de dtiuuhi no way i v(ju dec the light of lueh or the a^xient licers as 
!i;a", from the h'gunideg of tin- v;ar, a.dwrcd tc^ tiw Parii.aixmt. In ail tr.nd.xtions 
t f be: Comnroes, tlx' (iorohtion v/a- io ecu;. a', tuuh', aad tiie di. hates \vxre lo pro- 
Iv.rg-d, ;)s nxich retarded ad bulinels. and g tv , . eaet ;darn]S tu d;e pai xxans of the 
ywmg Pxx^f.<;r. 

Uua- rherr v/ a; enotlwr oiwrtcr from vddch gn^attr dangeis werejuilly appre- 



-.-, V I 



I'ie: n;od to 



jnfuicnadf'e officers oi the arirty, and e\'cn Pl^etwood, bro- 

thajr 



I' II r CO ^: M o N \ 



,'. : 1 1 1 i.i to ". . i . . ' 

.:.\ y. y ,. . ' ..' - 1. . . :, ^ 

, i. ;s c;>:::\ !y i , 
, \ , ;i..it.i ;..!. (.'!>. 
_. .>^U.;C'o! [ ) a Re; i. l . 

..-, it u.:s ci.y ; t t!: . , 
; jAi;'..:\: :i^..::.il t!-- c,;-,.i:y o. iV.: ;. 

_-:v, ;! ]. lo iMi i^^":.v:\\\. li-co.-.cvib K > o. :'. 
.w i.'.i.^a:\ic,', Ovcrton, 1 .ulI'.o-..', iv; ii, 0''..y. 
;os\r that ai.;:hoi;:v, wlwcl: iul '-cr:. 

;iy., 1 L.:..c^, i'..: i : i. .:>,.: ... :'..; 
. \', ; i.L \.i^ ..:::!.(.. ; v lo i':\:r. !.; j:. ;;. - , 
,.i ;.i; ,-. I'u.../ , :. ,..:,. 

, ... '..;.-, t'.c ..: :v r . . .-. . .! .: vi, ,:< .:nu..i:. : 

an iin;';^a:\:.^l ccj:>:.;:t: :^,.r u.i.!;:^ a cu' c.\ 
;: . v.- ..mi [)r('^ i:.Ls, as l!.:y : :.-r.;x!^d, i^-V la 
;' -v :i:i" '"ic ; t!Ki'i ^K V vet"! a !<;, :;:;>;.;'.. .:.; 
, ,.' :.. . : :':;.L\! ic, r. :: .s, l 

:. 'Ki:.;, v.:. .:.- y i:: . ' . , \ . : :. 

.!a i:i;'/ s : [ " rr, r . cr 
; , aa.ai, ::i v.'y,;- i!;- y ;, ' ;.: . 



>, v,;i) M.il-y;c.! .^. 



i i. . I'r.ja:. iwi- wa, \\rv : ., 

i '; . , , ai o. c.\ .1 e..a!\,- . 

\ . .... y i V. iu) L'Aii 1 (),.-, . 
i.w..- C..1 : a :c .ir: , \v;... !v v. 



/. '. / / c . . 



96 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Cb.-sp. in. o-ave si'eat offence to the pretended faints. Tl:e other qualities of the Proteftor 

^ were laudable: He was of a gentle, liumane, and generous difpofition. Some 

of his party offering to y>ut an end to thcfe intrigues by the death of Lambert, if 

he would give them authority, he declared, that he would not purchafe power or 

dominion by fuch fanguinary meafurcs. 

The Parliament was no kf?, alarmed at the military cabals. They voted, that 
there fliould be no meeting or general council oi" officers without the Protector's 
confent, or by his orders. I'his vote brought affairs immediately to a rupture. 
The officers haRened to Richard, and demanded of him the diffolution of the Par- 
liament. Defborow, a nian of a clownifn and brutal nature, threatened him if he 
fiiould refufe. The Protc6lor wanted the refolution to deny, and poffeffed little abi- 
zza of Apii!. lity to refifl:. I'he Parliament was difiblvcd ; and by the fame aft the Protedror 
Richard Jc- was by every one confidered as effeClually dethroned. Soon after, he figned his dif- 
[loieJ. miffion in form. 

Henry, the depu-y of Ireland, was endowed v;ith the fame beneficent and mo- 
derate difpofition as Richard ; but as he enjoyed more vigour and capacity, it was 
apprehended, that he might make refiflance. His popularity in Ireland was great j 
and even his perfonal authority, notwithftanding his youth, was confiderable. Had 
his ambition been very eager, he had, no doubt, bcea able to create difturbance : 
But being threatened by SirHardrefs Waller, Colonel John Jones, and other offi- 
cers, he very quietly reilgned his command, and retired to England. He had once 
entertained thoughts, which he had not refolution to execute, of proclaiming the 
King In ]])ub!in *. 

Thus ftll, fuddenlyand from an enormous height, but, by a rare fortune, with- 
out any hurt or injury, t'lc t'.mily of the Cromwels. Richard continued to poffefs 
an eftate, wliich was very moderate, r.nd burthencd too with a large debt, which 
he had contracted for the interment of his father. After the reiloratlon, tho' he 
remained unmolcPced, he thought proper to travel for fome years ; and at Pezenas 
in Eanguedoc he was introduced under a borrowed name to the Prince of Conti. 
That Prince, talking of Englifh aitairs, broke out into admiration of Cromwel's 
courage and capacity. " But as for that poor pitiful fellow, Richard," faid hcj 
*' what has become of him ? How could he be fuch a blockhead as to reap no greater 
" bcni-fit from all his fatiicr's crimes and fucceflcs .'' Unhappily for fociety, men 
cntcrtairi fo high a regard for part3 and talents, even when mifapplicd, that the love 
of po^TiiIar applaufc is rendereJ an additional incitement to ambition, ufurpation, 
an i civil difordcr. Richard extended liis peaceful and quiet lite to an extreme old 
age, and dieJ not till the latter end of Queen Anne's reign. His fociil virtues, more 



Caitc's C.jliL'ilJonj, 



2-11- 



THE C O M M O X W K A L T 11. 



97 



vaiiivioic tlian the f^rcarrll ci;^?xitv, iv/j: v. ich a I'cconip-M-.C", fr<,'-t' t rC'.'.ci;'. than ^ i^- ''' 
noily l..niL- anJ nu>rc 1..:l.i; Ic, cor,: \ iw.-At nn.: tr.;: ;j'.::/:f. , 

Tii' ("OLiiicii (J o!:h'';;i-^, fiO'.v polH-ri'-c! of luj^rctrx' u'..:!-.ori:v, d: !,',;cr.ir .d v.h.a' 
furni f ! j'-ow ri^.:v.:r.c rh-.y Ih.uiihl ul.ih!;!!!. .M. !,y o; i".:.r:i i\iv.:\\ ir.ciir.cd to 

c";- re:! t!-.:: r-o\v,r ol ihc lv.(j:J i;i t!.'j ir.oll o; en !;r;.r.r. ; : ! ' ., '.* , :;- 

'^ woi.L! \v;t.!i ;:;\'.;: (!i::h 'ihv h;: ::,.'; > . '., .. . :^ ,! 



.c: v.. t.i -.t: nic j fj 



,-!, .>.. M 



rv a:.'.ciMrv wi;i a 



,...] ,,' ,^.-,. 



'.;;c , !i V. ,: , a-r^.v! :o r 



L: 



i:;.ir..t:op, and to : l:\ ;\v tlu- it-n^j; 1 ar.,..:r^';.r, w 

'I h.-y t:';;.ld no: he cinoi\-:cl, it: wa - ....cat'.d, ha: h}- !./:; o' a c; r, aa.; \ ! - 

Lac: !aih ia:crru: tcu, hat v. as no: .ha j to ch!lat.\a t' a:r rl^i.: ', :;o\ :anv!'-. 
'I'h;: oh:acrs a!ih exj-ahic.', that as thala n'cn":h;::S la.h iL.hi.anay :<:!!: th^ :r laa n 
\\\vi:nc;^, t! ay v.oalu bj cuvcntcu to a.: i:i ka^^a hiaa:a;n :o tha nah:arv coai- 
maaih'iaa :\':d \vouhl Lhencaior:h allow all :haaat',Ma:y to:\nah.. -..h.ia: taay /..u' 
\- .i'- 1 ) vli. ly \'cllcii. 

'J ';a c'.^ars ayjhu J: lo Lcr.tlnal, tlic l^-.aikcr, ar.h. j-r^^'yoL-vl :g '.w.v.., iIu: :h,- P.i.-- 
han:Lnt flu^^h! r.nnnc tln-ir icat^. I.c:u:ail v'..;^ an,aa(.: a low a,,.; t:n-;nl 1, a. a ; 
aa.d h. ha' nna.r:a;n v, ha: ihhc nh; J;: ,\'''j::\ tin 11 C(/iiaah.-, v.ai- vhah>.L;s o! : 

th .:'.. i la la J In; a, ila.: ha ana hi 1 v n;) nwaao c on"; Iv \ ::'.'. nn- . w... ' , 

h, ;, ha-. aa;!, an'aantcd a hninn Is ol lar ii^rcauc: nnj^o' ta artohnnnh, vh.hli 

a n./i on.n ^n an',' a. conn c, In^ .... c it C'.jna(.rr,i.-o the nhvaitn n oi hn (/a :; ; . ' . 
i'hv oiUnars ],na.inh hini to hnow wha: r nhhu iv. I 'av.as pa yar.nn, :..;..,:, 
t) } artiv ij ata o' ihc Jaahh hn; j-.r, \'.hnai ha in-: h.a:h nj t.h-. :a; in a: ' ,' ' 
(ha,a '] ^sv i. '" / h :ha: pa rev u a-^ : nahrah; to ll.'a :/ , an 1 tha: ha . ( 
: : ; : h: a-r th n a:' . ' ha'y, l\.^^. ' ;, ca atn' -a;a^ a; t r ; 

.1 h;-.-, ..\\ V. ' n :h ai ; 



. 1 


i a' i\ : . 


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aai (. 


'. n n ni n 


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n a 


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to ; . 








a p.- !n 

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,t;, ii 

. n"! Hi 


th 

1 


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..' ' i . a. 
.1 . a. 





en: , 



98 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C:\-:r. ;>:. p;cneral, bi.t infcitcd in iiis comniifiion, tint it fiiould ( nly continue during the plea- 
^"'''' ijrc(^f rnc l:];^L:!l; : Tiicy clicfc Icven pcr'on?, who fiiould nominate to llich com- 
n';.:!".i:3 as LvdiViic vacant : And Li:.cy voted , tiiar all commiffions flioald be leceived 
U...ni th-2. inCciker, nnd bj (Igiicd by him in the name of the Parliament. Theh 
I r-caiiiicn?, the tendency of whicii was vifibie, qave fi,reat dii'^^nft to the o:cneral 
i,-;iice:-s-, and their difcontent would have broke out into fomc rciblution, lata! to 
the Parliament, had it not been checlved by appreheniions of danger from the 
ccmn":on enemy. 

Tme bulk of the nation corifiricd of Royaliits and Prcfbyterians ; and to both 
thcic parties the dominion of the pretended Parliament had ever been to the lalt 
degree odious. When this Parliament vaas expelled by Cromwel, contempt had 
f.icceede I to hatred ; and no rcfei ve had been ufed in ei-preffing the utmofl derihon 
rgainft the impotent ambition of thele uhirpcrs. Scenig them rei.ftatcd in autho- 
rity, ad orders of men felt tl^e higheil indignation ^ together viitli apprehenfions 
1-h f .c'i ryramdra! rulers Ihou^d exert their )OVv'er in veiureance uoon tncir ene- 
ndc:-, [ y \viiom they had been ih openly inlliked. A f:cret reconcilement thcr^icre, 
v. as maJe betv.een the rival parties; and it was agreed, that, laying aiide former en - 
n.ines, all efforts Hiould be ufed for tiie overthrow of the Rump : For fo tl^ey C'dled 
tlve Parliamei;r, in aliufion to that p.at of the animal body, the leafc and mod; ig- 
nob e. The i'r>.lhytenans, llnfible rroni experiei";ce, that their paihon for liberty, 
liowevfr lane aide, had carried them into unwarrantable extremes, were willing to 
lay afide former jeahufies, and, at all hazards, to rellore the royal i'amily. The 
nebnity, the gentry bent the.r mod paffi(..nare endeavours to the fime enrcrprize, 
by vdfieli ajene thev cciild be redeemed from flavery. An.d no man was lo re- 
mute irom j'arty, )o iticiiifercnt to public good, as not to feel the m if ardenl' 
\. id.es, ier rhe tiiifedntion ol" th t tyranny, which, whether tlie civil or the mill- 



) 1 



;,!rt of ii be coiindtred, veas coudly oppr.fjive and ruinous to the nation. 



'idee ^^-neiOLs Mordaur.r, who lired lo narrov,dy efcaped on Ins trial, before the 
li'^dit coui't (f Jvidce, kemid raiiur aidmated th^n daunted with palt darsger ; 
a::d 1,. \ e g, by id reii hee b. havi^;ur, obta ned the higheli conndence of die royal 
I ,.r:v, he ^va:. iey.v 1\ L-me d.e center or ali their conlpiracies. In many counties, a 
V; \.\r_\..,: V as :.d.. n to ri.e d. arn;s. Rord Widougdby or r'arham and air i loraLio 
T^-.:'' ,.: d aa. ..lu'd-. to i-reur. Lyi^me : General !' ahey e gaged to fc!ize Gloci.f- 
t ; ; ; ' ,a: >.i'.-. "e: r. 1 irt'a.n, aad otla: r genilemcn ecnipiitd to take ..cjded'on of 
' \ ad .. ;. ; ^-'i- - e -r^ ..-..odi -d (.diefler ; Sir 'R:.arnas ivliddleten oi bvorih- 
'\ .\ . \ d;^ (\'. x'el . ; d (aa;:.'iik', d r; iawnc} , i.i jdyn-a;Utii and l^xtt r. A 
'. ;. ''' -^ '.i-.: '';,- tiv: eaeeL;ta)'i (d ad tiiele eiU( rjadzes. dvnd the evii.g attende'd 
' ) id. . d- .d 'd - i.e h :'a arrivf^vl levXetly at Calais, Vvith a refblutiun of pa:' :ag 

1-ii. , d 



THE C O M M O X W E A L T II. 



9; 



!,;m;:'irat thclicu' (.ri^isj^-yal k;lu-as. 'i h:- IVcp. .. .. .,. '^^ { T! 'y 

\.\:l\ a 1:1").; il h'X . (K : >: . c>, in or\;cr to c\-':nrfri.::;cc il^c ;:,.'::. . t i^;'^ 

'l"i! i ', Cf^nil'iiM'ion ".'. .is I'i.i orcfi :;\i by t'l' ImIwC'v c, 
rrairor >.\ ii:::/.,.!.'; v. i:!. the I'arH.inv. i r t!ic i.:ri"!c c 
\v:r'i (.!'. :-:-.v,c-l. li. l.il c iv;.;i;<M to i\-\v.'i .1! >. 
t!:cir ,./"i ; i)i:t rcjierwvl to !n:i;Lli, i! I:-:- |'!c..:'\', i'.-' ; 
r()!ir-.;;\uor^. ilc 'CV''; cur.- i\-c\\r To n.inica:.'/ (.;! tl:c (.v,:, ; 
h.ul /c.i:o;.!ly :\:'...;c>l, an;! wrrj r.ll.o .-,: iliil Lo .:.!':. ;, :o l 
t^icunc. ii^..l-n: li !)C c (U. n-i'^l ; (!. Ij lu lv:--a l:iw'\. ! 
;-,cvv ("o:A'crts nir.orL, i::c J^rclbyrcrMr.-., t i l'...vi luL v., -.nil K. , ' 
r.igMl v.i[h tlit-ir ciil.U'^-oliUn'ir;;:-, wcic; rL-''j!\Vv' ro t:-: ;.;j ' 
Iiazai!.;-^. -\ ir/.iy pro f, !.o'.'. i!r.j.\..';.L^L- 1: is, c.lp. Io; '. . -j : - - 

to c!;'.'c1l ii;.:i :cl\';:> u! a;i iL-y.irti 10 iiK)I\.!;:v ;.n 1 l;>c:.;l ^.'..t 

^^lny (,r t'.;' co;.:pii.;lo:s i;i t!:j di..' r.:': cw'..;:i:.:i v,.;- , ^ 
Orlicrs, ;.iloniih-.\l a: L,c!i lyniptoiii. cr livr. : ir ,Umj:v, i..: l.. 
nia'n; d c^Liict ; 'Ihenvd t \v..x:\<.:' \:- v.c:.i\::r ji.va;!..! v!:.r;;-;;L. 
appointc.l f. r r':j ;cnd.\-oi.i/' > ; i;::"';ri,;!i t'la: loa^: :- :;:-vl r. i::: : .;;"' 
tajir 1: :.-.,. 's ai.-l o^'.crs \', tTc diinvu l^I \'.i''i :car ..rd ;:;;.;.::;. . ..: a,- :.... 

]j v:nu:u.il tl'.:!;-.; ti.c luninicr kalo:). L'n' ..!! tlic p;\ ii^.-, li.: 1''. '-:; '. , 
ii-l. L'lilcL w::^ t!:at of Sir CiLcr.-: B(\th U)V ti; ' k^/i;-:.'' C.. . .. 



' I 



Dcr'pv, lord Ikibcrt oi Llierlu-'V, .Mr. 1 ,vc, L 



oi(.;~.ci .SI, 'I 1:1 






his cntcrprizc. Sif \\iii:a;ii .^!i.:dlL 'o.! ; 'i:;;.; n:; 
\Va!:Si and lIic: ii;r,rp;-?irs wjrc powfrli;! cnor !i r^) .db 
I:c' .:, vd.o v ntur. d looyyo'i- t!;. 'n. in t'xir d-v' ::" i': 
',: inL- Kn,-: 'i r y ..-nly d.nna::.;.: ' a iV an ! !;d; i' 

j^ ,^ i:Ln-np \v,T' i.ir/.d.nnn-d. I lo.v . 
V, d d-L'-v; .!n_ld;: .dr v.a. m.v,- ;a;: ,^ -n . 
r, n:;y prid-yCviian and id-> ( : ' . . 
HA^il (dnr-crou:, Ivn-; :c n:. '1;. y !: :.! n.niy c^ 
VMTC d," end uy-ni dnni :..av 
and * ayaciry liny i. ; .: d ..: di . 
'.'.:' \:i[i:y:^ r^.' . 1 ' t' nia.; ma; : 



'i\ 



'n : 1 ; o 



100 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Lhcv. H'. This fiicccTs hardened the ruin of the Parliamenr. Lambert, at the head of a 
^^iv- body of troops, was no lefs dangerous to them than Booth. A tlioufand pounds, 
wliicpi they fent hhii to buy a jewel, he employed in liberalities to his ofncers. At 
l:!s ir.iligation t'ley drew i';n a petiiion, and tranfmitted it to Fleetwood, a weak 
man, and an lioneil, if ihncerity in folly def<rrvcs that licnourabie name. The im- 
port of this petition was, that Fleetwood ihould be miade commander in chief, 
Lamfnert major ger.tral, Dciborow lieutenant-general of d.e hcrfe. Monk m^ajor- 
general of the foet. To which, a demand was added, that no officer fiiould be 
difm.iifcd from his command but by a court-martial. 

The Parhament, a'arrned at the danger, immediately cafniered Lambert, Def- 
borow, Berry, Clarke, Barrow, Kelfey, Cobbet. Sir Arthur Hazehig proi^ofed 
the impeacr.ment of Lambert for high treafon. Fleetwood's commillion waa 
voidjd, and liie conimar.d of the army was vefted in fevcn perfons, of whom thac 
(rcncr.d was 0!ie. The Parliament voted, that they would have no more general 
o-''";..cri. And tliey declared it high treafon to kvy any money withouit confent of 
Parliament. 

B'JT tliefe votes v/ere feeble weapons in oppofition to the fwords of the foldiery. 
Lamdoert drev/ fome troops together, in order to decide the controverfy. Ckey, 
v.'ho was leading his regiment to the aiTiitance of the Parli:mienr, was deferred by 
ti-.em. Moriey and i^v'Icfs brought their regiments into Palace- Yard, refolute to 
oirpofe the violence of Lambert. But that artful general knew an eafy way of 
cifappointing them. Fie placed his (oldiers in the iireets wlhch led to Wefcminfter- 
Flall. \Vhen the fpcaker came in his coach, he ordered the horfcs to be turned, 
aivd very civilly conducfed him home. Idie other members were in like manner 
i:-Lerccrted, And the two regiments in Palace-Yard, finding themfelves expofed 
to dcriiion, peaceably retired to their quarters. A very little before this bold 
cr.ttrrprlze, a kj'emn hiil had been kept by the army ; and it is remarked, that this 
ceremony was the ur-:ai prelude to every fignal violence which they committed. 

Ti'iL officers found themfelves again inveifed with fupreme authority, of which 
tl-.cy intended for ever to retain the lubfiance, however on others they mi'-yht be- 
llow tf.c c.np'y diadcv/ or appearance. They eledted a committee of twentv-three 
peifuT.-S (if \v'-icm il". e:i w^re oflicers. 'Fhelc they pretended to invefl v/ith fove- 
reign authtndry , ar.d called tr,em a Conm:iittee of Safety. They fpoke every where 
ot furnm.oni: g a Parliament, ch.olen by the people -, but they really took fome 
f.vps lo,' aid::, aff.mbling a military Parliament, compofedof oHicers, elecled from 
ev.iy re giir.cr.L in thiC fcrvice ''. 'i'hro'out tlie three kingdoms there prevailed no- 
tin;, g bjt :h. n'.eiancholy {er^rs, to the nobdity and gentry, of a bloody maiTacre 

and 



U.:iC- 



o C.n:- 



i..c cr 



LiulU 



THE C O M M O X \V E A L T IT. 



-: r 



an;l rxccrrr,l!"i;r.i';[i i to tiic r,il (/f t;:.- | : y ', of' ' "" 

l}ruLU\-c, a;:ii \s!.o, uncUr prcrcxt '.I ii;;. r '; :!i 

it' poi^blc, ;u! }::-i\.:rc niMrality, as tlivy I..:J al;va.! ' 

Jro:i-. i!;j l';;ti;h (.! nniiuo:;';. 

i), ::!\(, the i;;rc that l\n[;!.;:-;d co;:niuicd in this i'':";.._-! c , 

(yt'.-.;" iv'.n-.'.Joins ol Ei;r()[)C were L.kIc:';:'!! towards a c^ iv' ': r: ( . 
r nru-, by w!iich t cy li.id lo lo;-: i^vn a :;[.U;>L '["r.i- l',;rl;.;r.: iir, v ' ! ' / 
I'-.wd a^i:hcjiit\-, i:.llfad ol io!!c)V. inn, t!ic d.ilr;.ci;\-c j oh:, -i t>: Ch '...n.'. ^1, ..: 
Jjnhin;^ anillanec to the concjikrin^ ^'wc^lc, cnii r.iecd tl,<: rr..dc: t -:.. \:v.'- ; ' '' 
Duu': CoiViiriOnwealtli, and rcloi\'cd, in con.junvfbon v, ;:h I'-.a: .S:.-:;-, 
by torcc Ol arn:s an accommod.it'.m between t' c n'nihern crco.vr,.^. 
V. as lent w'/.h a iqu.;dr(jn to the l^abh', and carried uetn inni :< . ..... 

A! er;:(>n hn.njv, b:e ianioiis Repub.ie.m. Sidnvy iuiin.! I'r.j: ^'V.\^.i.dl M :,.;. 
LW.- i>'',ed in c'.:j Tie^e ol Copenh.;<j,en, tlie eaj/ir i! ol Iii-, cnen'A' -, .n.d v. 
jdeaied, til ic, wic'i a Roni.ui arioyaiue, he eould c!;ci.; :i;e [-rc^yrel- ( . i\' 
v;_'jiies a:;d d:;|d.:V in 1) lignal a n-. inner ti:e inj^r:o:ity o! ;.e.d ni ai.Ae:. 
r.innv. \\ ibi th,' h:;_^h. il i::dnn:a:iun, ti.e anib:tiu:.s IhinLj v. ;:^ t/ .i ,, n to ;hi^ 
mi: ie> the inipjrious nijdiatiun o: t!u: two Conin^on". e.d:hs. " " bi . ernJ,'' hd 
he, tii.it hr.s's ihonhl be preier:'-eLl ine by parriei.ies a. d [\.iia,^d' Ih.r h' 
wlii'h-army wascnclokd in an illand, and nd.4ht he il. nv.d iy- li.e Cy::v.\--.. 
ldu..drons oi bhiehmd anel i lohand. I (c was ohiiiv'd tiiere.' r.- to eei: 1.;^ ; ;,\ 



%vnen ne 



had lo nearlv ^ot peileliion (! it ; and ;n:\dn:.!; a n\e.l to a [ aei.i... 



n;\e .: a.Al e 



\sith l\nni:ir!^:, retired into his ov.n eoi. ntry, ^dl::e i e Icon altjr died. 

T., '., .irs bctv. ;vt b'r.nee .md 'h .nn \'\re al o coneinded b\' t!;e tre.i: .' ei'd: 
l^'.ne: . -^. 'i h.'k- bl^ -ody an nioiides h ;d \^ '.) b. en cwi-ievi on b. tv, e, n i, ri'.n 
Ibe n , e\en wd.ile j^ / !-/'-rn. d i-y a ii.Ur and brot!i:r, v. li 
t';e!ned eaeli eriier. l)..t jnyiitiC', v, Intii Inid lu he,;"; prewiil^d i;\--r L; 
adeuions, now at ! ;d, yi, Ided to tlirir beni::n i:.:\.enee; andn^xe 
unv. 'n n'e-re lui! ae.d. eonii^hat. TIi: .Sn.'.: ifn l.i/.v C";inn;.-i. .s, it r,v-i 
ot til. I' Ab)nee:;v, I ly ain-* .:!: en'ir.iy at the n- kv o: i;>Ln.nn,-. 
nnes, cbiii.n'i'.j- d tnianees, ibjv,- and; ii reUiint-.; e.a.:. i , by tl'.e., i' 
were tie dilp'.rled provnie . ui Spahi de!eni;d .e; end. (he \ i; ;. ^n 
braea-' 



lh;t the ( Juec-n i . iv'nr. anxi' us njr ti:e i..re (-1 Ikt 



Y ,. .nib 's anv! iier aiitiion:'' v.dth t!;eetrdii. 
' '' -, -liid pnt an .nd to a (e ..:v\ r\ w .;; 
i \\ itli \':-t(.M"y, v.a-. .it i..!i ^ 

M le.i u: iranee, tho' aipnsnn; ..nd \s .n" d' 



, v; 



102 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Chno. LI. 



entirely occupied in the pleafLircs oF love and 5!;allantry, and had pafTively re- 
^''' fio-ncd the reins of the empire into the hands of his politic niinifttr. i\nd he re- 
mained an unconcerned fpeClator ; while an opportun'ty for conqueft was parted 
with, which, during the whole courfc of his adtive reign, he never was able fully 
to retrieve. 

The minifters of the two crowns, ivlazarine and Don Louis de Haro, met at 
the foot of the Pyrenees, in tlie IQe of Fheai^ints, a place which wa^ fuppofed to 
belong to neither kingdom. I'he negotiation being brought to an ifTue hf fre- 
quent conferences bctvveen ihe miniflers, die Monarchs thernfelves ag\eed to acon- 
grefs ; and thefe tv;o fplendid courts appeared in their full lufcre amidil thofe fa- 
vage mountains. Philip brouf-jht his daughter, Mary Therefe, along v'ith him ; 
and giving her in marriage to his nepliew, Louis, endeavoured to cement by 
this nev/ tye the incompatible intereHs of the two monarchies. The rr;^nch 
King made a folemn renounciation of every fucceffion, which might accrue to him 
in right of his fpoufe ; a vain formality, too weak to reflrain the ungoverned am- 
bition oi Princes. 

The aifairi of England were in fo great diforder, that it v/as not pofilble to 
comprehend that kingdom in the treaty, or adjuft meafures v/ith a power, which 
Vv'as in fuch incellimt liuctuation. The King, reduced to defpair by the failure of 
rdil enterprises for his relloration, was refolved to try the weak refource of foreign 
fuccours; and he went to the Pyrenees at the time when t!ie two miniflers were in the 
midrt of tlieir negotiatio'.is. Don Louis received him with that generous civi- 
lity, pccidiar to !iis nation -, and cxprefSed great inclination, had the lov/ condition 
of Spain, ailowed. Idm, to give aiilftance to the diftrefled Monarch. The cautious 
Mazarine, idcadinG; tlie alliance of France with the En-i^ifh Commonwealth, re- 
I'liic \ c\\ n to ijc him ; and tho' it is pretended, that the Kingoh^^red to marry the 
Cardinal":- : i.^c, he cc.dci, for t'le preient, obL:dn nothing but empty proftflions 
of ief;e;: and pr tcn;:tions of icrvice, Tiie condicion of that Ivionarch, to all 
the woild, l.cmcd t-jtally defi^crate. ilisiiicnds had been bafded in every attempt 
for hi. f:rv;'.c : 'id^e leadokl h "d Lk':Ln dreamed v/ith the blood of the mofl acllve 
Royalills : The i])dd!:s of rrrsv were broke with tedious iriipriibnnicnts : The ef- 
tates oi ? 1 v.cic; harr-.drd v itii lie :3 ^nd condfationG : Tsone derll f^'^r^idv a-eow 



\v 



thend'av e o[ that | arty : iaA le. keall did tlici- number f^:en: to a l-ner'k i... ,., 
th,.t even n:;(,aid t!::- naticei reeo\-er its k' erf/, vr'dcii was efleenv. d no way pro- 
b.dde, k v.as uid^ea: unecrted ; vd'et form oi' e/r/ernme;. t it v/juki : '- "^ra':c, i^.t 
aniioil ad t'^ed- oio ,;rr,' proipeai":, iVaLune, 10/ a knaad/ ir;_r :e\e^'o:e';\ vra-; nuw 
j.avieg ti^. v,'..y f^r tlie -i-^ii^g to UiO.int in peace an.l triimvoi l.;e tkion; oi id-; an- 



Ce 



T :: i: c o \: ^: ox w :: a r. r ii. 



:. . .... , = ,. .:.- u. I ., [..: . :.;. ' , . 

, ... :. I J tL\-iv. 1 Ic l\-:^> ':. !.: '.! :, \c:v . 

;.:. i, i.I:/. A a .!':'.'-. xl ll.ul U/.-lI: c!.;.; r....-c v,-i:;i .:.. :: : :Al- 

'.: 'i^My f\['.:\vi\i\ i^ li.-j ! .o\v C(j.i:';:r! <, i\:c [[vcz :<... ^ l o: w .u 

. ; . .;:; i,.uii;!:^ ; :i::A 'aj I'iIj to I'l.j miv.iD.w. 1 < : .1 i:.j[V,, a. v uaCjt 

"i i'l-. ctr;:j^::r^; coiil-lU'vl oi 2. ,-> iKcn, o; v, ;;un"i a !:..;,.'.;_ ^: .'. ,rv \(> 

>, ..n !_:':.t:L;i"icn oi fami!',' ai'cl cil.irc, l>;:iu:i:r.s noA.-i:^c.:, \' .j!i."v1 

. . ,. .'^rtu:!. s ill a f^AnJ^w nwv.v::. S:::'.\ .: ::\'.'.:i..r\- {1.:.^ :.: :'....i :'....: 

. , , i:i.A;-j;.h. 

;' : \^y..::d of \'.'.:- v.ai iiril h::::-,! in t!.!.- i:A;y!, M 'lA r :.: :.-!:; r ;> - 

:.. -. : ; ;' .;ii(j'. ).i 111 :.. - ..\ we c(;'^::rr\., 'y.\\:i,\ <'.i\.\.A^j.l ''-.:..:... ' 

. ' ,;. i:.i- .^..I'j^, (/i \'. i.:t !i h.- ;ol;:,.I r-jaio;- r^ >( :;;i: [:!,.; :i. I 'j -'''' ^ '^ '^ 

:!, i.: N'. ..-i t :uj !>.. A . '/ i!ij l.:. 1 (-! i-cii l :i. !' ;ii';,.ii.;', I'.c 1 i.h i A\ .- i 

An.-ii.i.-d a i(L,':Kr!,r, \'.as iooA t.;Lv:i !:.j::^f.; oi, ii r l.i :: .,;:,:;"v il.::l 

: - ^..[..i) an J cLin^Li' nc wn.nir. \\';[Ii/n[ tnAnta:; ,n, c :;; ..;..n', ( : : m -j i.'^ :. , 

in- hunvin-j an.; cnn,.! r^nin.':", In- [;un.w t.!:c n'-'U-v. :.: w: .ni lin- l^vi- 

.1 V, nil a ;ni-::uin' (-! ta:.,A iriiy anJ alii^/cin n, :inv inn .1 v c.nii ,i in.n /. . ::_]; 

.:,< \ an !.n. ./nr.-'"'e ajn:ji;atu).', v. li;cii tn^-^ n il co.n:. n^..! to i ::.!, e".nii 

. . .: . 1 ic V. ab mnmn ...:bi-j n i . i < nnaiL-zacnni ;n ; .:ir\' i a:nl 

:l.n-j.i inn. i ano a_. ' ' . ... . ;: nil 

n.- .n..i t' .nn;n. i:;, n . . ' ; n ; li illi 

^ 'ani.- nnin'.ui'iin.^ i.n.l :ia i n .:c.in.J, 

1 . A.ib cnnmi u. , n.v! OI n : .: to C .n n J. f nac 

',.nn 1 i'^ c.n. n' Aa.; >. n"a^t r . t; m'l 
' , _ A ; aav. ' .' ! .^ carni \\ i ; (.n-.i.n i is 

. : .. . , ,-cA. .! .. . .: A 

-'i^ 

..:tcr 

\i n:.. ..:.^- 

, . . a ... . ... n ... :... i'a:inmi;; : . 

JJ-;: 



HISTORY OF GP.EAT B P. I T A I N. 



llui Cfoiriw'cl, f^nfible: cS his merit, having folliclted him to engage in the wars 
a:\:anR tii? Irilh, who \,cre conHdcred as rebels both by King and Pariiamcnti he 
wr.i i.ji: unwilling to repr.ir his broken fortunes by accepting a command, which, 
l:c ii.uie-cd himf if, was r.iConcilabie to tl^e llrictcn: principles cf honour. Jiaving 
cnc;^ j;:g;^;cd v-ith the Parhamc'.t, lie was obliged to obey orders ^ and tound 
liin.l^h n.ce!uta:ed to iight bniii again;! the Marquefs of Ormond in Ireland, and 
againfl tiic K ng Iwnilcit m Sc^/tland. Upon the reduction of this laft kingdom. 
Monk \w;s k;i't with the fjprcnie comn-iand ; and by the equality and jun:ice ofhis 
adn.'nidracion he v/as able tO[).vc contenrment tothat reuleJs peop'e, now reduced 
i:o ll:')jCLi.icn by a nation whom ihey hated. Ko leis acceptable was his authority 
t.o I'-e G^i'ccrs and ibhh.rs; :::]vi for:, feeing, that the good will (>f tiic army under 
iiis ci',v.:y.:i' d might iun:c tiuie be cf great iervice to him, he hid, witli much care 
a::d iliccc.s, cultivated their irieii^imip. 

'i'';!: ccnrcxions. which he had formed with Cromwe;, hi^ benefafrcr, pre- 
ferred him faithful to llichardj who, by his father, had been enjoined to follovr 
\:\ every thing t'-.e d'rcccions ci general iMonk. When tiie long Parliament whs 
ref.;-re;', Monk, vdio was unprepared lor oi-)poli[ion, acknowleged t'leir aurho- 
rif.-. at'l was continued in ]v.s command^ from winch it would not have been f ;fe 
to attempt tlie difioi'ging hin^. Af\er the army had expelled the Parliament, he 
protell^:; againa; tlie violence; and relblvcd, as he pretended, to vindicate their in- 
vad.h privi!e.,es. 33eeper d.ligns, ritlier in tl)e King'^ hivour or his own, were 
iron"! the betdnning lLhj^;eci.ed to be the motive of his actions. 

.v/-.,i:> had long khdihed bet'.vecn him and Lambert: and every body 
ehn \>hy Iv,; c?ppcied 'limRdt to the advancement of tluit an:ibiLious p:e- 
vhele fuccjs Ins own authoi ity, he knew, would f.on be lubverted. 
fh nhhhp !..id e'ter L.en maintahied bct.-een him and the parham^ntary 
..n ' It fcne. h no way probable, li^at he int^jnded to enjp;c;y his induury 
; ids b-ood :'.:] tlie e:!v;;n:-(:menr cf one enemy above another, kiow 
.t.rtjintd dehgns lor the Ihing's rcuoration, wc know not with cer- 





1 X 


' 


f-U 


V 


'. 


n c 


.- - ' 


5 


]]- 

],.. 


1 1 


1 



tane-y : i 

witli.eet : 
re;tu .a- .. 



t > lihly, th..r, as ikon a'> j^iehard was depoh.d, he torelaw, that. 
Lea an e:-:y, h. r.t, it vouid be un^-ohlbie e\'cr to brinj::; the nadon to a 
:td-::t;'nt. i l:s J .k r and you!:gcr orotiiers were entirely devoted to the 
.'': : ike \.ra ,\';h.;, ihs rctr r. ations, and ail d.e r^Il; of his Id'xlnd, 
he hmte -..tLreh : ;'ehinvh v. .. : i toxicated widi no ii.:n._s ui cnthu- 
~d i:Kl m.mu.nn o ;:o ee tiv. a..:.s v, ita en}' (k the ian:ah,d rii;;e. I ds 
g ii.e .ts iia;; Lic^n w :\i th;, X'ng, and \u iiad bit th,.t i.; viee without 
y el g'.dt Ircm tli royal nnrh)'. hiaee ' e had ialldav! idndelibv-itli 
. I '''-)> iiC i;ad been guilty oi nj \ iv^.enee or ri^or, which JDJglit icn- 

d e r 



] i: :: com m c, x v; -'. a i, ] ii. 






.1 



v^:..:\ 



ic6 HISTORY OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 

Gr;^. I;I. Mis conduct in all ot'iier particulars was full of the fame referve and prudence ; 
'" -"' and no lefs was reciuiiiLe fur cfkcting the difiicult work which he had undertaken. 
All the officers in his army, of whom he entertained any ruQ.,icion, he immedi- 
ately caHiiercd : Cobbet, who had been fent by the Commitrce of Safety, under 
pretext of communicating their rcjolutions to Monk, but really with a view of 
debauching his army, iic committed to cuRody : Tht leveral Icattered regiments 
he drew toced;:-r : iiei:immoned an alKmbly, Ibmewhat reiembling a conven- 
tion of eiti-tes in Scotland ;, and having communicated his relblutlon of march- 
ing into Englaiid, he received trom them a leafbnable, tho' no great flipply of 
money. 

Hearing tr.at Lambert was advancing northward with his army, Monk fent 
Cloberry and two other commillloncrs to London with large proiefllons of his 
inciinarion to peace, and v/ith offers of terms tor an accommodation. Llis chief 
aim was to obtain dcl.;y, and relax the preparations of his enemxies. The Com- 
mittee of Safety i'Al into the fnare. A treaty was iigned by the commifnoners -, 
but Monk rciufed to ratify it, and complained that his commifiioners had exceed- 
ed their pov/ers. He defired however to enter into a nev/ negotiation at Newcaftle^ 
I'he Committee willingly accepted this faliacioiis offer. 

N'cvjmbcr. Meanwhile thefe military fovereigns found themfelves furrounded on all hands 

with inextricable difficulties. The nation had fajk^n into a total anarchy ; and 
by refufing the payment of all taxes, reduced the army to the greateft neceffities. 
While Lambert's forces were afTembling at Newcaflle, Hazelrig and Morley took 
ponlfdon ot Portfmouth, andi declared for th.e Parliament, A party feiit to fup- 
])reis thiCm, were perlV'/aded by their con-mander to join in the fame declaration. 
The ci:y apprentices rcfe in a tiiirnilr, and demanded a free Parliament. Tho' 
they were iupprefkd by colonel Hewf n, a man who from the [^ruiellion of a 
cobler had ri.L:i to a hi-h rank in the army, the city ftill dihovercd iymptoms 
of the moft dangerous dUcoiuent. It even cdabliflied a kind o;' Icparate 2;0vern- 
mcnt, and aiLiux-ii the iuprcme authority within itlelf. Admiral Laulon with 
h:s 'quauron can^e into the river, and declared for the Parliament. iiaze!rif>- 
ri'id l\L;rky, hea:-l;:g of this importaiu event, left Pordlnouih, and advanced to- 
w.irds London, 'i h: re-rdmenis near that city, being iblllciced by their ol 1 v/n- 
ters V. 1:0 \.?A be^ n caf^'cred [;y the C(jn^ndtLee of Saiety, re\-o!ted agam ij ti;e 
Pcr'ian-ent. Dvd',o.-ov.':s Kghrmt, beirg knt by Lambert to kriiort his iricnds, 
nu !(;';, cr arrived ;.t St. Ah;an% ihuU i: declared for the fl.ir;e adLnbly. 

b ;.i.;/;v,-(;oi/s hand was iound :o(; weak and unuabb: to lurport lIun ill-f; L;:-id; d 
b-;';', vbti'di, eveiv vjK.re ar(;U:;d bin?, was fallii^g into ruins. When he ;c- 
^:civl:1 n.tcbb_';ace of any murr:urs among the lokliers, he would fall u]xm hii^ 

k^vw- 



T II E C O M M O N W K A L T II. 



knees in prayer, a;;.l C()j!d ii.ir.i;,- h {r;'v.;:!..! \v;i!ito ; .i.i tlie tro:!- s. ] 

V. ;;cn anuiP;^ [livin, 1:1 [h,; ;; ivill oi .i:.y (.i-icui.:'!-, i. \'.o'..\: !;/.::: t ..:.i .'.'' 

';iM\\r, ;:n.; ^ ut; l;i;n;t'.l 0:1 h: Likc-i helcrc L..cni. Il .i..y t)l !.:; 

i!::-.i to ir.or." \';.'/)r, tlu'V cuu'.d r^cc iid u I.lt ap.i/. cr, :'..a:\ '.'....; ' _ :: 

hi-, tare, .:.:.i v.ji.i.i r.ot luar lum. Men r.ov/ cm; .: 

].;J J :.jn;:rvJ 'il.n ro t:ic o;';:^- c: ( i.niT.i!. ;....! !:..w . .. 

r.:c I-Lor.d cun'iiiiand m t'.'.j .ii;v. .-. 

;::,-! lumnv.:,cJ :o^c:iur the I'.;: !;.:n:;.n:; v. ".;.!, t,. ;, 

with lo nr..t h rc[)r(..ich anJ i^j^,;r/i: v. ,-\s 1 . \-. . . ..:.,. : 



i!;:;r a;t at^nnll the [;iyn'C:;t cl excilc and culh:;!:-. ; 1'. . , 
ii-jncrs ior all;[i;nin^(|ua:-tcr^ to t!u' .i:my ; anJs\it!i 11: i... 

')-;l, thjv hnt (;rc!er> to the tui\xb ii;-Jer hi-, cumiii.i;-.! ;.:,;:.. _. :- :.; .-. 

dioi'.- f' irrhui'.s, whieh were ai-pointcvi tlieni. 

I-AMcr.RT v/.is now in a very uiieonluh'.tc coiKi;:;^:;. M e.h, !;e ., 
]\uied t!ie Tue^d at Coidllre.mi, and \v.;^ adwiiKin;^ i.yjn h;m. 11;- (..:. , 
d'cr- d. !l r:.d hmi in !J,reai. nuiiiitiio. , a,.d {(jiixd tl;c enenv/. 1 .^wl i .:n :..>: i 
he heaiil, lud railed lurees bJiind ihiii, and poil" ll^ d hnniei: e'l V. r!;, wih..,. 
deeiarni.; in. p-nrjiole. The hnl oid.e'.s oi t!:e l\udian';, n.t i> e;.:ire!v !li;pp 
liini (;t Ida army, tii.ic there remained net witli him above i e- l;uri"e ; Aii : 
r d v/ent to their t;uarters wit'i t;uiLtneI-> and relh^nation ^ and !dn'hi; v,-a-, le 
tniie alter, conimiuedi to tl;e ioAcr. 1 Ivj oteeer od'icei'^ v\ the ..rn:v, v-'.'n h 
hjrn^erly b:v-n cdLier; d by tii Ihiriiamen:, ar.d had reijn:ed t!e-ir een:n:an 
r'u.L t!^'.' nn::,ht l^bd'.e that ahend^e, were .;;-;nn ca!h:eied ArJi Ci)n:::v : :- d. 
(/.,. !e,nn;. Sir M.nr'r \h:ne ..:.d ( ti.er inend^.!-^, \'.i;o had e(.:'ei:n . d 'v'.i:i, t 
L :y'd^:-e <'. :-a;i-y, v.ere (.rd v^'J. \:.: > a ihse e-::dncn:enr. And hn- i'..rin:n-e 

:; Iv a.nnn [ ,i:liii.d o; a niore .d ' 
, _ . .. ,,; .,; . daw: r o; np;ji;::on ; r e'en:;ad..:; -n. 

'Ih,.; R. iddi. m r-.'v v,as at lids tin:e in a.h d ! v : wo :n n, M 



- ^'1 .;..v. 



1 

n.e, vd. ) '..e: oi vw^' (>; . 
e! , . ' o oii" !i^d w"' .:n 
', \nnn ' ' : . 



i) , n,... 



ic8 H I S T R Y o F G R EAT B R I T A I N. 

CL"p.III. 7"r:: cbc^c G}\l:.ii::i:S, nnd by rQ:S:^x\ of his pcri'jclion, to be unlimited and unre- 

''^^^^- ili-aincd bv any ndes, \vbich govern inferior mortals, 'x'iicic vvhim'i.s, nnngiing 

\vid\ prid^, had lo coiTupLcd V.\?. cxcfbcut undf^ltanding, that K)i;vtimc:s he 

tbouidit hiiidcif tiii i^::;rl ii dvputC'J to reign on earth ior a thoufimd years over the 

whole ccngreg uion ot ti^c 1 iddul "\ 

Monk, t'lo' hdurni^-d of thj rcilorarion of the Pa'diament, fi'om whom he re- 
ceived vo orders, (lid advanced vddi his ; 'viiy, wiiich was near 6cco rn.n : Idie: 
' ;;rrjr,x; ;.;;,-:< in Idud nd wcr-j ti^rte tiiYies mcr? numerous. Fairiax, wlio had 
rcio'ved to dcid.ire li:>r ti;-;' I^deg, not being able to mai-;e tiie General open his in- 
tcndon.-, redra; to his ov/n houic in Ycr'-dnire. In aU countries thro' which 
r Ion'; padbd, t!)e prime g-ntry decked to him with addrefies, expreding their 
earned: dedre, that he wouhi be inf.lri.mier,tai in reiloring the nation to peace and 
t!-anquinity, and to the e joyniCiU or tliole Hbertie:;, whicli by lav/ were their 
birchdgiir, but of v.-ide'i, dnring io many years, they had been iataily bereaved : 
And tii:.r, in order to this hdurary pinooie, he wotdd prevail, either lor the 
redorin,^ thole members, who had been lecluded beiore the King's death, o'" lor 
t:.e eieedon of a ne\v i^arliament, who mi^ht, iegady and by general conlenr, 
?[eain eovern the nadon. Tho' Monk pretended not to lavour tiiele addrefies, that 
ray of hope, winch the knowlege or his charaeler and iicuation ahx)rded, migh- 
tily aid.mated ail men. The tyranny and tiie anarchy, v.Jdch now rc]ually op- 
prefled the king('om ; the experience of pafi: didracliors, the tear ot iuture con- 
vtdnons the indignation ag-infl military enurpation, again. I ianctided hypocrily i 
All thele motives had united every part, except the mod dJperate, into ardent 
widu'S ior the King's rciforation, the only remedy ier ad thele [a;al evik. 

Scot and Robinlb;i were lent as deputies by the ikirliament, tinder pretext of 
con'rraridatirg the General, but in reality to lerve as Ipies i![)on him. id;e city 
dd'eircind ionr oMheir principal citizens to perlorm like compliments; and a^ the 
:an:e time to confrm the (}eneral in his inclination to a free karliamenr, the cb- 
kel o; ad mL;n'3 prayers and endeavours, 'irhe authority of f.donk C(ndd icarcc 
ieeure the pariianu ntary tkmnties trom diofj iiiiuks, which tin; !:;c!:erai ha:red and 
conten"ini: t(jven'ds their mafe.:rs drew irom men ol ^v::ir'j rank and duicnnn :tion, 

Mo>::e cont:in.ud ids meki Vviih lew intervals till he cam to ''^t. Albar::a ] A 
theic knt a necd'.ge tn the kardanu'i-it, defrnig ti.em to remove \ii.'-A .,:-n.i:M 
t,-/;!e reidmenrs "'h'^ -' -' -' -V '"''' proiek, d to r^tmn^ to .nkr di.ta j,--; A 
Ij-ly (Aiued violence to that afendely. 'i ins nicfage was u:ie::,;;.e.ee, --a ^:-l- 
cee i. :dy peridcxed the hc>t.:e. ddieir hte, they fneind, nude iliii deeued on a 
merce.. iry army ; and tney veere as ddlant as ever lr-.m their ima;^inarv love- 

re ' , , : ' \ 

' C! a: union. 



T II r: c o M M o X \v r. \ 1. 1 



:v. II. . 



h, h .,i 1- ;.; u.. ' ...1 r*. j .:;( rir, V. ;\ ;.o ny . t!; :: i 

ri"; i:',- ; . ; . , ( ; ,;\ :!< !" \. f ; M, \'. :.' j I' :", : ..;; r i. ';" 
>, t'l.- i: ': ;\i;i:.;ir o; 1': < ,\ , !;-. j.- - . ..'.; ; _> ' 
[l\\:- Li', ;^'J (;;.A- .1- .i ! p - '' - ' ' '> ' ; ' 
.- :"! ' ; I'j die ,...; ; -;: : i !..: - .l.- r\. , : 



V. ) , 



i; '1' i....;: ; '.: 



110 IIISTOPvY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C'^ip III. j.|jgy gjy,^ .-^j-y (]o^y p_,yj u Pi v/l 111 iig obsdience to their commands. The common 
council of London fiatly refufed to fubmit to an aiTelliiient, required of them ; 
and declaad, tha';, till a free and lawful Parliament impofed taxes, they never 
v/oLild d>cm it t;:tir duty to make any payment. This refolution would imme- 
diately have put an end to the dominion of the Parliament : They were deter- 
minjd, therefore, upon this occafion to make at once a fjjl experim.ent of their 
own pov.er and of their General's obedience,. 

:n of I cbru- Monk received orders to march into the City, to feize twelve pcrfons the moP: 
'y- obnox'ous to the Parliament, to remove the pofts and chains from all the ilreets, 

and to take down and break the portcuUiics and gates of the city : And very few 
Jiours were allowed him to deliberate upon the execution of thefe violent orders. 
To the great furprize and confternation of all men, Monk prepared himfelf for 
obedience. Neglecting the entreaties of his friends, the remonftrances of his offi- 
cers, the cries of die people, he entered the City in a military manner ; he appre- 
hiCnced as many as he could of the profcribed perfons, wliom he fent to the Tower ; 
with all the circumftances of contempt he broke the gates and portcullifes ; and 
having cxpofed the City to the fcorn and derifion of all who hated it, he returned 
in. triumph to his quarters in Weflm.infter. 

No fooner had tlie General Icizure to refled, than he found, that this laft mea- 

fure, inftead of being a continuation of that cautious ambiguity, which he had 

hitherto maintained, was taking party without referve, and laying himfelf, as well 

as the nation, at the mercy of that tyrannical Parliament, whofe pov/er had long 

been cdious, as well as their perfons contemptible, to all men. ITe relolved 

therefore, before it was too lute, to repair the dangerous mitlake, into v/hich he 

had been betrayed, and to fliow the whole world, ftill more without referve^ that 

: u;Oi'':'.b; .1- h-^' meant no longer to be the minifter of violence and ufurpation. After complain- 

'') ing of tiic odious fervice, in v^hich he had been employed; he wrote a letter to 

the MoL k', reproaching them, as well with the new cabals which they had formed 

with VaPiC ar.d Lambert, as with the cncouragemer.t given to a f:^natlcal petition 

prerer.ted by B.;rebone ; and he required them, in the name of the citizens, foldiers, 

and whole Commonwealth, to ifiue writs witldn a week for the fJling tlicir Houfe, 

and to lix the time for their own diflblu'.icn and the afiembiing of a new i'arlia- 

rcc'r.rcs for a m:nt. tiaving difpatchcd thiis letter, v/hicli might be regarded, lie thouglit, as an 

''^" iir.doubted pledge of his iiiiccniy, he iTiarched with his army into tlic City, and 

dehrcd Alien, the mayor, to lliinnion a common-council at Guildhall, Ik there 

r^ .dj many apologies lor the indignity, which, two days before, he had been 

obliged; to p.ut upon them ; afiured tnem ol his perfeverance iii the meafures W'hich 

he had adopted ; and dthicd that they might mutually plight their faith for aftricl 

union 






THE CO M M O X \V r. A L T H. 



cl t!ic C(jnim;:'.\vcM!:.'i. 

I i IS in:^ ;\: !c Co i-iLkril^c: I he ;')v :in : cxw. 'i.iumm, v/!.:; \ . i'^ '.:;/ 1 ;::. i ::.r ; 
. , ..- U '..:\ as l.;tc!i;;^nc; \\ .4S cwi.wwd (>[ ilii . li .' ; v n.i.-.'.ii'.r^ 'j....\ ,\:Li\ 
.. .,. r.;:. 1 ;>e r*'^''i '-'^'^ ^'" r'-'-i^'-"-- ( oncor.', lib.T:\-, '..'.\.cr, b: l.c :> : :!- .1: .:; 
' ;::. .i;;::.i;l ti.j clccpcil ciarkii^-ls, in wliicli tiic i.atioi^ !M,i ^\\.;' b.' . ; 
'; . \b.w 1,1 J. .ill caluaiicics no !u;;^;cr j rt/icnrvd t:,l;n.;l j:"' :. :,:c; " ' 
1" ui.Jcd c'i,;/ to in',.ii;cc tlu <;ei,^iS;! ex .!:a:ion lor t!.( ;e lcvl;c^ o; l.-ij ; ;:.e.- .; 
': .i;,q^.:!!i!;y, v. :,i^!i a.\ n vn now conn. iv-ncly ['iX'n.ill*.; ::un:b '.n-. '1 ... io ya .. 
t:.c i'rcll y: ria:, , twr;^cuing all anunolkio, n-iin[:,k(.l in d'W.n.ijn 'ov an i :: n . 
..nJ. vov. .,.! r.cv-^i- ir.. re to i^r.itity tlx- a:r,b:t:on t i lal'.c am: t.nin n^ f.n. :. ' : . 
cnaniico., t:i\';i;on-. i l;e p.)[n;!acc, nsorc vv.iw.ywjs in t!;eir ;.;.. 
the V. iinh air rclonnd n\::;i ac^.!aniaL;on-, an J i!i..!nnn::.ii . \-crv llr.c: v. .: . .. ... 



nmv 



iv>!i. ArihanL--^ o; the ( 1. n. 



.1 \". - re (..(.i"v w n'.Te n/.e;- 



\^ ;:h i.;.:en.;tion an^i'nil t!.c i'a: nan^.nt. 'I'ne n:o!l ; h:.;.hj:iS inwnnin^ \. 
a'>y:.\', in order to cxyrcls tin-, j.itter pain )n. At e^'ery bi):ni:v v[::v,[ v. 



Ailji! i and where thcle conb; n.) longer be itjond, [ ice. ^ ot C.:'?a \.: 



T.i 



Oy ,-.. 



And th : ! nnerai oi 



t:;c Parluunent t;;e p( pihaee eX 



.nneO; was e; 



braced by iln. le iyn:b(j:3 ol hatred aad derihon. 

Tii ,: i\nAan:ent, tinj' in t!ic agoni.s 01 deipair, nn;d. iliil one ebb: t n : t!y 
<ove:v o! their donnrnon. 'I hey Lm a Connniitree wibi ob", r- to i.,a n toe >.ie:.e 



1 1, re'iMe.l to iiern' tlneni cxcei t \i\ t ,e prel. p.cc o: lonse o; te.. ieL.n'...v; in.,-n..: 
'i !n,' leveral perluns, delperatc fr.ni nnht or lanat,e:!n:, pronn:.dto nn.a.;: ;. 
v.at'i the d\ij:\.:v ot luprcnic nn.;_^n'.ra[^ and to !..: pi^r: !n, ;;A\rnnnn:. ! e \-.i., 
r,eL ;:ea:Ken to ! . !, v.;,d [repo.a!^. 1 ],i\hng !;xed a ci .c t^-riclp; . .. 
th, C :tv, in.d c.^a inh.d :^ ;n, i'ia in i^.nid-, wlio;^ ibieinv c -n!>l ne in.eO . n, 
' ..\/.\v.\ ay \\r v. it'i In-, ai'ii 
' r the ieLtban.nt ot t'.e na: 
: ;in(n; !e-, !.e Wuh t.hnn;; i,n-,,e il; : 
'1 enaren- . 



o \'; e:; n h.be!', an.; : n : ,0 i (.er\' ' ru; ; n, m. 

\'. ... - .; dhl p.^t nd' n :w r-:.\\..- .hd r .. e^ 

; . ards the r. -^ ihibnnrin .n o>i t ., a : . 



t n Inn: o , .'O^^r .n;\' ooltrn.Lion, t.e / en: r.n, ,n. : nn; 
n.j! r.t'.' : M :i oi tl.c b.h.iMio.nn bnr -..{j 'h:.... 



r( , ; n;.; .:.i t..e I : rs ne \'. nn. .i t,;ev v.:..'. .\ . (. x . 
^V : :: ' : his ; ,r:y th.ir h! , :V. , : . 
.. :eh: .': i h.v ;: ;. 



.v\.i t. 



FIIGTCIIY 0? GREAT BRITAIN, 



o: a nsw ri:ii' 









-c^ifiirc had brcn prevlouny concert r-ci with t!ie 
::', i:w,vc7cr i.i.:cvQr-.z m aii-. :ions, t::i-vJ'...Lio:i;-j 

>';j '.,i:.], c ;;d^--:'n<:^ ci" r^en ol digniry and rnc'.c- 
la . clv'.i V. ..rs. had r-ad J w grca: d:_;(K-j aa:o :;:: 

i a i-ddc;..;'.: ca.:ch en th:; more nL,.,,c;cL:^, ih;^' 
:'a; i.o tacTv: v;as ,.;!; niiicn re. -on to Le c..;.:- .cnr, 
i'l :;." via;; i.^a :aora oanc;XiCi!s ui-i"trs, and o/in^- 



l, . . ,; . J 



, d'd dcad:.-:"^, 1 d:3 rad;k!r;on ;:o Iccep paddd'on of 
:aa co'";ar' Ci ^.aa,; ^;_ias : '^lit \^a/;\ . Jtaaa: prooucaa ii.a ai:rno- 
aiuait ior his da.ivcdr;.:; tac iaac tu colon.! i'a>ida::, he thca^dit 



io:: r '.ca:;, wiaa r orii:v: 3 adad tha .Iz :': in th,: Italic, laid entered inro the fanie 



a . 1 ' 



otae : aa'id pr.LeadiiT;" want ot i3rovidonb, had laded 



Willi .'ir VJ e i T'- ^^UUi..;U 5 .i:iLl j.'i V L.:i.iiil^ \\i:l:l Ui | 

h'ai! rh^ oa'id loa a;ad' t'ia coad of '. a'a.aa a, v\::i: an intanLion or iy:co:':A\n^''_ dia 
car,raria:(d rha il vd'.:,^. Q- ^- '---^ ' 






.'..'. iia L c ^) '^'aai Lae aa \s's (.a Loatiies e.cieat, 
iraaetaai. i ;., ja^aa.t d; ;:Cwdda:, to widch the dar- 



v:;e 



a laeai la; leiZare t(; Laanii! c aiicJa a-a radians, wii c.i 
..a..oa; aiKi ta-'V a;:o.'.' d laaa tj la .,a- a-'acaad'; r-) 
aaaid; oi .atate naa- ta.d: . ie:! oa Ida', :a coa;aa.dcai 
.itae,-e.t^ iirahdcared die navel, as a.^d a;: Lddtary 
a dia -ubllc h:tdea:ear. 

-. ^ ' a,.. ^ .,,-,,. ],. ^!,,. ,.,, , '-'- ,',-:<% 






va,e 



V.xaa'i 
th: Id. 



- laa:, , a t 



' " - - ) 



: ) ' * ' ' 



naa^taiaca t:a- :ppa:a:aa:c.; oi zeai 'a- aL'.an'\:ea- 
.,.:^:-ii e. vO;i. ,^.,. ...._.e L._c.,i...L . a.. _ , Oiei mc: 

,._ ..11. J i.>.. ;.. .,.. ti....i.a^ . i C; 

a J. em 
: -'".: .een:.a:: or aisciit^r; ; a.: , oalu lo he aa(,ea!c- 

h', a eowhl ha^'e er:t.r"a.a.vi i; j oiLva [ .ay.jl.,. a 

Tiiaaa 

:i. ;! ai. ;,;.!; ..i iii L^/i/ion, J.J..i'. 1:.: (.vcr iea,i:a':a e; l:,e r i;t: aj- tun- 



. 1 1- 



T II E C O M M O N \V !: A L r il. 



I "^ ; 



\v;:i ; ;v A. >: 



::i (.: l 



n 



( ! ) 



114 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. Tir. united, formed the voice of the nation, which, witliout noife, but with infinite 



660. 



nrdoLir, call.d for the King's relloration. The l^ingdom was ahnoH; entirely in the 
hands ot the former party ; and fome zealous leaders among them began to renew 
the demand of thole conditions, which had been required ol: the late King in Liv.? 
treaty of Newport : But the general opinion fcemcd to condemn all thofe rigorous 
and jealous capitulations with their fovereign. Harraffed with convuifions ariddif- 
orders, men ardently longed for rep-.-fe, and were terrified with the mention of ne- 
gotiations or delay, which might afford opportunity to the feditious arniy (iili to 
breed new confufion. The pafilon too for liberty, having been carried to fuch vi- 
olent extremes, and having produced fuch bloody commotions, began, by a na- 
tural movement, to give place to a fpirit of loyalty and obedience -, and tl:c pub- 
lic were lefs zealous in a caufe, which was become odious, on account of the i! s, 
which had 10 long attended it. After the conceflions made by the late Kiiig, the 
conftitution feemed to be fufliciently fecured ; and the additional conditions infifred 
en, as tliey had been framed during the greatefl ardour of the contefi, amGUiir.ed ra- 
th'-r to an a .nihilation th.m a limitation of I^v'Ioiiarchy. Above all, the Gencrctl v/as 
a erfj to the mention of conditions-, and refolved, that the crown, which he in- 
tended to reflore, Hiould be conferred on the King entirely free and unincumbered-. 
Vv'itliOut farther f:ruple, therefore, or jealoufy,ti!e people g.ve their voice in eleclions 
for fucli as they knev/ to entertain fentiments favourable to Monarchy ; and all paved, 
court to a party, vv'hich, they forefaw, vyas foon to govern the n.ation. Tho' the 
Parliament had voted, that no one fnould be eleifbed, who had himfelf, or whofe 
father liadi l)orne arn-s for the hit: King ; very little regard was any wdiere payed to 
this ordinance. The leaders of the Preihyterians, the earl of Mancheffer, lord Fair- 
fax, lord Robarts, flollis, Sir Anthony Afiiley Cooper, Ap.neilcy, Lewi-, were^ 
d. remained to atone ior paft tranigrcilions by rheir prefent zeal for the royal inte- 
reils ; aiid from forn"icr meiits, fi.ccefles, and fiifrerings, they had acquired with 
th'vir partv the highieft credit and authority. 



'JFii; aiiidrs of Ireland were in a condition no lefi 


5 profperous. As foon as 


Monk e^lared againfl; the Ka/iaiCh army, he di!])atci 


;ed ciTiidkries into La land. 


and en'^v:''d the ; liicers i;: that idr^dom to concur wit 


; ki;n in the k;me meaii;r.-s. 


Lord drc^diid. pr 'kicia: of iV':adler, and Sir Cdiarli 


b Cootf, piak.knc of k'on- 


naught, want ii) id: as to cater into a correijajndcnce ' 


V. ith taL Kiag, and to pro- 


inif' their a'];fl.:aec lor liis rdU^ranon. In C(a Junction 


v.aih an- 'i l^ia' akih..;. Tones, 


and (Aaer oniecia;, ti^ey t(jok p' 'kadon of t[:e g;a/crnn. 


eat, ;-.,d:.:-e:.kcd Ludlow, 


v.ho v;a- z aioi;-. kjr the i'ariia;::ent, but whom th.y ni 


e.end; a to be k: a cor.':: k:- 


raev N-kti. t i^: Ciannkta e oi k.^kay. I'hey ke[;i themJ 


iaiw j in a. rcacnnels to jer\a: 


tha X;n. / , kut rr.a.ic no declarations, till they iliouid 


lee the turn, which akkira 


took in ian^kand, 





XjU V 



THE COM M O N W E A L T U. 115 



Bc'T all tiicfc promifing views had almofi. I ccn bi.iflcd by an untoward nc- C.-p. nr. 

cidcnt. Upon the admillion of tlie IccludcJ m iiibers tlie rcpubliran party, 
particularly the la:c Kini^'s judges, were Ici/.cd ssich t'r.e r.;!Utl drl- ..::. ?.:) 1 cinic-.i- 
vourcd I.) iakile tlic I'uiie lentinii-nts into the wl^uie arniy. I'y th;n,' Ivrs o'- rhvi^" 
cir.!!i".iii"s tiiey rcprefcntetl to the IbKliers, tl'.at all thole brav- a:::'.r.s ' ' ' ' 
bc.n p r!ornv-_d duriiig tlic war, and wliicli were 1 ) ir..r::'-r ' .,- i--, t'-..- ' ; 
i'.iii: iinent, would no c!oubt be re ';ardcd as ti;e derpcfi: cr;;:-.:'s by "he II 
a:.,! woiiid expole t'le ai'my to :he 1 vcrcll ven2;c.inee. 'i':;..!: in v..:n d: ! '.'::r 
ir.A.KC prwkihons ol moderation aul !-nity: 'J'he K:iv.;j*s d. a:!i, ti-e i-a:l.. > 

many c: i.;:e nobility and i^entry, t!:e ici]ueilra:i:)riS a::di in' li: ,m'a:i\. . : \ 

>verc m their e'.cs crin:es lo d^-ep, and OiK-::ces !o p^iioiud, as r.-.i.d !-_,., i 

wicii tlie mo:t ini})lacable relhntment. That tli, iois ur ..!! a:re^rs t' c c. !''. 
every od":c.:r and loldier, were the iiglitell puninnrenr, vd',i/!i nv..'.: b.- ; x^ , . ; : 
Al:cr the dilperfion of the army, no farther {Toteeiion. r^nuin,.! r:) ['..::, > .,!.\ 
for li:e or property, but thj clL-mency ^ t enragrd enemies. An.l tii..:, even,, i: t',.e 
moll p-erfect fLCLiritv could be obtained, it was ing'.oriv)'.:?, by treac'n.crv a:v.l de\::, 
to be reduced to fub];.:uon und.-r a loe, wlio, in tiic open iieiv', !vu! :oo;c^;i \\.i.:- 
td to tiicn- fiij^erior va!c;ur. 

Ait...', tlicie lugi^ellions haJ, been in'uLd in:o tii; arn:v, L.m'neri :'...! . :, , 
!:i ide liis ef. ape from tiie l\;\VLr, an.l threw Monk a;;di tiie Coii.eil o'/ Scr-j ;;.; > 
tlie great.il conRernatiOii. 'idiev knew La^ribcrt's vigour and .;:nv::v , tii.v v..-;-* 
?.cq..ainted v.iifi his great pojuiariry in tlie armv , tiie; were f, n,:"b!e, :'..:', tivi' 
the foldiers ha.! lately cbelerted him, th.ey luf'ci. ni!y cxpril-e/. ti:ei: r nn.O'rie a:..l 
their dete.iation ot thole, v. ;;o, by !.ule pruleilion?, t:,.y iwinv;, Iia.i l' ):!:' i :.,b/ 
l/duccd tliem. Ir IcenvL: nee. liarv, rhe:e!ore, t ' e""; 'ci" tl'.e 'v a: ' . ' ; v :,i 
l'..p''rcfiing !o d 'Ug'. rcnis an ' nen:v : C>.:cvk ! In-oie'b ;, v. i^ii.ai b.en n.nn .;..,.! 
{ i ilie late king'- \:i ';\e^ but v.l.o \v s ucjv.' r;u: /': in . , d 'n b vrv .] e, :.,:, 
was i':;pa:ehed .nter him II- o,e::.:k h: n ,:t l>:\u:,-iv, vd.h' ie- e,.-i \ t 
aikaubhd but b.ur tr(>(-p. a h :h'. ('. .. bnu. .\n.,:her ene '. v 

ihiiMWcd tl;e cxi : ; :e. ' 1 I bb: ' ' ', ,.'.-,. 

I V bu:' id'"',v, [;) V. i: m ';.. ' . , , . 

off ib^ ar.d val n;r. C" . . , . / 

\' 're t .' n yrilbiUTs v, i ' . [ . . ... '. ' 

to '] ' U In a !.'. . . , . ::.. . 



, u ^ >- . 






1 16 HISTORY OF GREx\T BRITAIN, 

CJ-:r. ni. enceiiijcl iiH^oUonarc to the King's iVrvice. "I-'he great dangers, incurred during- 
t'iC \o::Vi^i UiLir':aiiwnGj joint-d Co the extr^inc CaUtion of the Genc^r^!, kept 
e\'crv one ina-^/e; and no oi-.e dared, for h'TiQ days, to make any mention of the 
Kin-, 'i'he n^en,b..:rs coickv ei-irtid their (uirii: in bitter invectives aji^ainil the 
nieinory of CiGinvrei, and in execrations upon ti^e inhmiian murther oi their la^e 
bo7erei!;n. At laii:, the G^jn^ial, having IhiUcicntly ioiinded their inclinations, 
nave direcHcns to .hnnedey, prehdent of the conncil, to inform tliem, that ore 
S;r Joi-.n Giranvii'e, a ihrvant of the King's, had been Ibnt over by his ]\l;ijfciiy, 
and vres now at t're door with a letter to the Commons. The loudeil acclama- 
tions v;ere exeiLcd by th^s inttkigence, Granviiie was called in : The letters, ac- 
companied with a d:.chration, greedily read : Without one moment's delay, and 
wiritOULa contradiefcry vote, a Committee was appointed to prepare an anAvcr : 
Arid in order to Ipreah the iame Atisfaction thro'oiit the kingdom, it w^3 votL:d 
tliat the letter and declaration ilioidd immediately be publifiied. 

Trie people, k-et;d from tiiat date of kiipence in which they had Co Rng h'ccn 
held, nov/ changed their anxious hope for theemmixc elfuOons of joy ., and dhphiyed 
a ibcial criumpl'i, and exultation, which no private prof^:;erity, even ti:e greatest, is 
ever ab'e fuily to inipire. Traditions remain of men v/ho died tor pleaiure, when 
i ;f(>rmed cl this happy and iurprizing event. The Kingh^ declaration was well 
calcnluted to uphold ic:;: fiitisfaaion, inf[)ired by thi prof^edi of public k^ttlement. 
It oiTered a general amneuy to all perions whatibcvcr ; and tlut widiout any excep- 
tions but iueh as ihoukl aiterwards be made by rarhament : It promiled a kbertv 
of eonicienee ; ancl a concm'renee in any aA of rarliament, wbic!], upon matere 
deliberation, ihoaih be odbreb, for the inluring that ineUdgenee : I'he enouiry into 
:di grants, purcb'db?^ and alienations, it lubmitted to the arbitration of the fiune 
aden-ibiy : AikI it anured the loldiLrs of all their arrears, and promiAd tiiem, for 
tiaj iaitare, the ian:e pay vrhieh they tlien cnjoyeh. 

1 --.:'. Lords, perc..iaieg the iCirit, by which tAC kingdom 23 vred as the Com- 
mons weie a:.:ma:rc;, l-..:[Ua'eo to re-inibte th.miAves hi their nnticnt aiiti^orirv, 
ana to mr.e d^eir d^iare in tin: kttiemcnt of the nation. Tiny found the doors of 
t:.e:r houie open ; anh ad were admitted, even iueh as had tormeriy been exclad^d 
on aeca...n:it 01 orLar p.e:caai:h chrnncpieney. 

Tr;a twoiionk; a:- ndad ^ v ', lie thj lain;'- v/as nroekdmed v/ieh r^- 'cat ibiano^'n' 
lO J cl -^.c - i ar<^i. at v* ii.t- .1 .a, t..: : at i tnn .._-;. .1. . i ..e v^enuiiC .a'.s \ e.ae'w "Co 
ponrcis to buy a jewel Ar Granville, who had brougi^t th; m ti;e kinghi graaious 
milkig'^r : A preicnt ol 50,000 pounds was ^ on'arrev! on the bfing, 10,0-0 |icanr;s 
on the do.:e of Ycnke, 5000 i:ouads on the duke of ( iloceker. A committee of 
Lords and Coujn.oas vra.; di'patehed to invite his bdajedy to return and ta;:o 

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ii8 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN, 

Chap. III. to the vacant throne. The King entered Lcndcn en the 29th of May, which 
;-thofM.-iv. '^^'^s alio liis birth-day. The fond imaginations of Men interpreted as a happy 
omen the concurrence of two fuch joyful periods. 



-* 



At this ara, it !Vi3y be proper to Hop for a moment, and take a general furvey 
of the nge, fo far as regards manners, finances, arms, commerce, arts and fciences. 
The chief ufe of hiftory is, that it alTords materials for difquifitions of this nature , 
and it feems the duty of an hidorian to point out the proper inferences and con- 

clufions. 

iv'a'.inci; and No people could undergo a change m^ore fudden and entire in their manners 
^'^ than did the EngliHi nation during this period. From tranquillity, concord, fub- 

miiuon, fobriety, they palled in an inftant to a flate of faftion, fanaticifm, rebel- 
lion, and almoll frenzy. The violence of the Engllfli parties exceeded any 
thing, whicli v,-e can now imagine : Had they continued but a little longer, there 
was juft rcafon to dread all the horrors of the antient maflacres and profcriptions. 
I'he ml>it iry ufurpers, whofe authority was founded on palpable injuttice, and was 
fuppcrted by no national party, would have been impelled by rage and defpair into 
fuch fanguinary meafurcs , and if thefe furious expedients had been embraced on 
one ficlc, revenge would naturally have puflied the other party, after a return of 
p-ower, to "..LaliaLe upon their enemies. No focial entercourfe was maintained be- 
tween tlic parties i no marriages or alliances contracted. The IvoyaliflF, tho' op- 
prefild, h:irrafrcd, perfccuted, difdained all aiTinity with their maftcrs. The 
more th.cy were reduced to ful^je6lion, tl.e greater fuperiorlty did they afrecl above 
thofe iifurpers, who by violence and injaliice had acquired an afcendant over 
them. 

Tnr. ir.anners of the tv,-o facftions were as oppofite as thofe of the mofl; dif- 
t::nt nations. " Yovr friend^ th.; Cavci'icrs," laid a Parliamentarian to a R( y- 
ahil, ' nr- vrry dinbluu: ai.d ddaauchcdd' " Ye?," replied tlic Royaiifl, 
" they have the innrniitics of men : But your friends, the Ivoiindheads, have 
*' t;ij viees of dcviis, tyranny, rebellion, and ipiritual pride"'." Riot and dif- 
order, it is ceriain, r.of.vithftandi'ig the good example let them by Charles the 

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ad . -. : J .;. r i .: s . ::c.-n' , .i;. Li. j"Ti.i. :- :;''. ..; ; .^. '!.;;. \. r;"! 

z , > a, : . .:: ivc-, in a'! j);-.^:'.;:^., j . : . ' >_ - 

: j^rcLil.;: -Is ol tl.v-ir ;;:;:.:;'f;i,,i;;, en : ': ;. i.) 

,\:\i.[-; .;:;.! liij (. I: :r;wU-:' oi ;i r: ..:) (.i |!.'.:L..c \ . .. . ...^.i ,::; ,':'^:; 
.1 .o:-c i !:.:-: I ; ::T.idinv::[ t ; :h- Churc:: .:-! N:..:..i. J,/. Iv ', ^ 
w,::. ,^ ',' ^wiK'iv-.i'ioiib un.l :.-;nu';"l;\;Lc;;. .t':c'/(;n.i .iv^j, .:.;' to :::...;'.'!:, : ;- 

w::c (>: .i cu'. !.-is .i!:.l lo'.i.:; K)lii:v. *' .\s ^uici; a-- h ' c :i 1..;^ : :i,r t j i .r " : .' 1 
a c;ur L.^.i :n,i';';' t .iwi.ici", ".is nn;c'i :> oi.r i!:j.Ui-:i [tc:.; .ij!j I j :,;..: c: 
" Lii nr.--. \\ t,- l.iv;. h wh;!.' t;i:y i; :.!Tib!j." 

I'l: .; ^lo'Miiy c:;t!,L:.:.:.:r, which pi-c\Mi!cci uH^o:'^ :; ;:: n-.;:^:::":'- c: ' ' : 
iTicrr.i:'/ rarry, is l>.;i\'y :!:c tiioll ci.i'w;;-; li'v.:Mc!;' j-rrLnio.: !' n::v !.', ^ , 

t!:- ii'-Oi! i:;!l:"iij.r. c, .. \'.\ !i as chrcrt.!!;.!. . , to.:!.... . ^ !.ij.i! ;: i:;,'. 
ariwi.j v,c:v iii a :,,:;,.:.: lu,; cix'cd by vr.j r':;:ti ;L'.-;.n:v . i ih- P; >!'.:.: ... 
la' ^ c:-;i,:.i;.r-. I iw... ra c s anJ co^!:-:;^:*- h s v, ^av y:;. a: itc/ .is :!:/:; cat a 
ra:LK. \ lavea bc.r l^tairaa^ w.^. dUcirca laairliaaJh aa.i La^uaMii..!: : 1 ... ^ . 
c : ;r, aot t!a i iiiia;.ia;:\-, ,;.i've o..aaac. C'vi'uaci i !cv. U.ai, :roa: i.a^ j : .:.- /a.:' 
marelaai laro lajiaaai, anc! clj..ro.-al ali c!ij i^car^, v.aiah v.aaa' L.:ra h.at a r [ ; 
cli\' ; h'a! ( . :hc cmzaas. 'i Ia>, a i\'cat:a:'a iac;a:> to ii.i'/a :a\ aa bl; ' . : \'.. a. 
muiija^aan t' 1 lu Jibras. 'I'b.j' tac bb, aah la.ti .ai 1 .- aa..:\.,' ,b .a,, I 



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ia^^ca?, ;a.yocialy prcvaacJ Lxyoad aav ca.aay.a a: .a.ta: 
r-a^ioas hyyocrily, it ni.iy be rem abcb, i-ota :a-;,,!a:- 
r b.y labaao'vn Lo tiva | aricai rila.^.La., t!a-' : 



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bjc.i'^. ]a-c..:^-ia ; 
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W I. \\.i\\- 'aul uca..l.(ja, ;.i b,.- ta.a!:' (.i ib:> v. -: 
b\'l-, vba.ai yieva. .a ia ; ,a; b...,l : 'b > (aaaic;.;: 

abba '11.: (^. .b .,;....., Tila! bb 

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],:.:d:--:;-: '.'rii'.;-;:'". a ihtrH'; w'^ifii i.e Ion;": "lYcflc.'. as v;;! for \k.z fln^ulir'ty as its 
c:"' .-; i:. Ti- ,: :j' v.'./m '.'.;;r ::;.-^l-.;:'c;r::i:-:!; ^-om -libiunu;-/ oV^ed::, I..- h;;;]Lc 

:.L;^.-, :c:> l::.!.i..;::j fl.-: '.i 1;^^-: r-;; c.:';:::-;iGi-, r:-1 cc^^rei^ the li,b:i-,ky 
i' ;:'s u-^r".:! ;-uC'..l .,l' ;;;;. ^ .-? i.\; ".: .;;;; \'^:iv ;.Lrc;l i-""C the woods, atid vy:.^'':<\ 
:'::.-[. h 'y^ h. h-;h ;:>., ::.::, v /'; : t CL'- ; CM:--:--:y cr ::';;^^k;:n:cnt th.m hib hhJe, 
^I .-^-i .;; i''-.;C:-i h I....: ;h_i: c. r ::;.. .i r: :'..::: he m ch ju i.o other hoc!:, he icon ad- 

ih ^t ^.;i' h:c c-:;v;.ch h^n hh;/. '-h': cv, : h : i ., hj hnagh^cd, vas {ull of ihe ihme 

:..-:..;.,,. ... : . , - , ' ' .'...'- .., . : ^ .. ,,<;-' ,r- <-' o.,. f ' ., ... , ,., J ',, . > 

.. . ' i. .- ^.;~ ....:..;,... ;....! i ,: i,;. V,- ;>.;<..;, v I . i ^ - C^ I ..iL b L , i ^ :1 i i .; v ',. ;, ^ i.iii.t I ;y u.lo 

:,..v :\-\,\". ;. . d c:^-.,:-v rdihi.u: obh;iiiity be cleared, by this iivic7 h^'rh riAd^ 

thp d ^dh_e:i- b:; nchrar.d, 

^'d:^:;-' \,: hzA be?e ih:dc:e:;:'y cond/Ci-at-'d in his own in";;igh:-'don, he bep;an to 
/"'d: ;,rc:' 'yc: : h".,;; d::;:::s cd ieihap: hcde djon chdlpate, if not: coeriruial y id:p- 
iWzh ' y d:: ad :.-:; alien '.d cd:e;^ ldede;yLL;i v;crc eahiy lyaiaed, at a ti^nc when 
ad a::[,s uh. '::':>'^'^ v;ere tea:-ed tc^aiais rc'i ion, aiid when the lecd cxcravagai^t: 
^^exl:^-- (d" :; : e;-e i\;re te he ::vde 'X)yL;l i;-. All i;:e ibrms of ceren^ony, inv; cited 
b-- -oil: n :-' c' e;nade;i;, T ::aad his diiei^de:^ from a icyericr pride and odea- 
ted: a, ca:ed:fly r':j:eoe; : 'h-ca di.; ordiaa^-y rirv:. cfeieiiiry wer- dican^c!, as ti e 
j"ioa.a.e a;,iC fj caicai v., vte: a;:d h.eaco:xei:. d .":ey v ccic f.. c .'.' nr) '_c!e3 o; 
cidiaf.i'i:: hhe !ian:e ci" yedad wa:; the crdy ddv/adcn. vd:;; vderh ti; y iad.f- 
criahaecdy a.coi'^d e-'a.-y a^'cc 'id) no p:c-h}.i wc-hl liiey n^ d:e a b-^w, (.r ;rove; 
tliei;- ]:ac - aiee acy a :as c; rce.:;-ence. hc"da d cd t!a;t . . Lcd .chaation. ia- 
trahece.i \r '' icadeiai ccy^ce;, c: da ei:i:cv: to iridi\-id'a\h s ;:' i.;.y ^vc^e a racl- 
ti:ad:-, t!:, ' r.aa acd to t:.e iia-y ieca; cJ: v.^:rvx iVA^v.r\;-i ac ; ih". ca :ti\d ihcc 
v,vre the (/al^; e:;yr. hioa-a vdd^e, en any co;dhieieiii-a, :f: ".' ccidd he h.o/ahtto 
e:]iyl'v;. 

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' -.I'.T thole luucriiiJZS w'^i. :i r',c < ;o;.:.i!y ilaic u: l.i.:::i:::; . : ". .;- ['.: : 

;1 ::-, t '[ |mI:"o;u is i.ii.iM J t 1 .;!.i::i. 

liJL <^i.iiv;T - crc-p: !;;t'> v- arirv : I\.t a^ :hvy [w.u '. .; ;.;.i'. -: ...1 ; c .i c, i'. v 
i .'licc^: i:;c M:;iitary /oalor^ tiuin rl,,-.;- i\'::vk\~,:). aiul v.(i,!.i ;; :\ ;-, ;.; ['..,-\- i-c , 
: ..iiti'Cv!. 'awc viil a:i c:ui, \\\'.\ nir ..:;v L;.:L-;t or ca!a'r,;".\ : > ; : .1 :-i.i:,; ,.; o: [\ ' 

i'-ir?. 'll^clr a::; w-.-.^.'^ h-^:.\\r : a !i-L;]i <i:oi;:i.l ci }-;:i l\ ..:i .: .; a :.e^^ ...:. Ij :o: 

:1, :; prci.Tcl>. an'(;!iLC ihc J-'*;' v'. 

Mo : \ !. \'. i['i this 1... : \'.v,c ^" irr; 'vl, < :" alV . ;;\' :o Ir c.;:t; .', :.^ :!i.- \:.\v.: C:. :: 
(I L\y:.v . ; uu'c a^ rch^uii. C i:v\j a (^..iR.T a M ;v.' ( :i i;i,v i ii^v'-., 'r.v iu-M i..', ri.j 
( tii^r : Af\ !;:j c!v1.c, !:e L;avc }oi.. ;:!> C(;ar .illo ; lA,- ^;;-. areii i;,:.:wl. . tu. !,: ;;> t c;!- 
; '; ,' h;:w, in a:y.' c'a:: t ('t iL.citati.u-, to r.'.car cwn t(; ti;.- nuiii : 1 ! ;.^:v; ;..;;.; .1 
];:>:(. lor 1 : v.a;-; laaa tlu- j i\-u;'.- K!:i-, w !:!c!i ;; \\ .i^ u :; ir:;...; to a^ vyi. '1..;; 
:,::". n^axmi ;^ ;a'...i .!\r, a!:d ioIKiiuk'- I'l.l lo l^c icliijioi,!/.- o^;'. rvc. I) :...'.: ;;::. 

\o laiMt; s c\ cr can i.\i :a!'t!:'T t;u' li.uiT.l ol rcia in():::.s, t lar ^, (a\;. a -, i ::c', ;:i- 

i\' ::.:,::<. iwc.i Ba; :i.;ii .w;d t'iC 1 .or.i\ Siij^j-cr, by aii o:'. : L at- ; ciicx-a t.i :a 

i:::a;v, (j\\ai wirli t.!;c \"C!-y \ ::a!^ o; I iu"i;i :a'a:\ , v.-na' .al^l.i:.:;.! \' u ..;..: I'-: ri.c:;-. 

T ;.' \-ltv iabbadi ti.ry i ;-()ia:h J. 'i'iia !.(.i1\;k:'- d Uii.r, i. > li; -v .1.;:.;.. i; ..,.! 

i\a' t') :':alc laaia vl r,:i;i L -^ ;^o cri'-a- a;-;c!!.ir.'n i: . .:: I'.w 



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: a" ^lixaaa wc^rlhiy, <::. Ii i""!:- ro ai K; : 1 :> a, .a..' 
um;;'.);> (m I'li' l;aia!: : \\ ow/. a a.,o \., : , .i 'a ;'.' 
aiiiv! lui . ; : r \T!a. '. [ > 

caaiA-^ a Ly.-r ;a, a.v ; :aa li--. v -v : : ._ 

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122 il I S T O Pv Y OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Clip.r" in. appear as n fign to the people. A number of them fancied, that the renovation 
'"'^'^" of all things had commenced, and that deaths were to be rejccled together with 
other fuperfluities. I'he fufferings, which followed the pradlice of this dodrine, 
were a fpecies of pcrfecution not well calculated for promoting it. 

James Naylok was a Qiiaker, noted for blafphemy, or rather madnefs, in the 
time of the Proteclorfhip. He fancied that he himfelf was transformed into 
ChriSr, and was become the real Saviour of the world \ and in confequence of this 
irerizv, he endeavoured to im.tate many aftions related in the Evangehfls. As he 
bore a refcmbhince to the common pictures of Chrift , he allowed his beard to 
grow in a like form : He pretended to raife a perfon from the dead + : He entered 
hriftol, mounted on a horfe j 1 iuppofe, from the difficulty in that place of find- 
ing; an z{>. : His difcii^lcs fpread their garments before him, and cryed, " Hofanna 
'' to the higlieft ; holy, holy is the Lord God of Sabbaoth." When carried be- 
fore the magiftratcs, he would give no other anfwers to all queftions than " thou haft 
" laid ir." What is remarkable, the parliame;.t thought that the matter deferved 
their at'ention. Above ten days they fpent in enquiries and debates about himljl. 
They condcmne 1 him to be pilloried, whipt, burned in the face, and to have his 
tongue bored thro' with a red hot iron. All thefe feverities he bore with the ufual 
pr.ticnce. So far his dclufion fupported him. But the fequel fpolled all. He was fent 
to Bridewell, confined to hard labour, fed on bred and v/ater, debarred irom all his 
difciples, male and fem.tlc. His illufions diffipated -, and after fome time, he was 
contented to come out a.i ordinary man, and return to his ordinary occupations. 

'I'he chef taxes in England, during the time of tl.e Commonwealth, were the 
monthly afiin'r'ents, t;ie cxcife, and tl'iC cufLonT^. The afieiTmenrs were levied on 
p^rfonal eflatcs as well as on lan'.l ; aiid commiiTioners were ap| ointed m each 
county lor racing the individuals. I'he higheft ahlTfmep.t amounted to 120,000 
pounds a moiuh in b'r.gland ; th.e lov.eft Vv/as 33G00. The affefTments in Scot- 
land v.ere lome.imcs irj,oco pounds a month |! ;, commonly 6000. Thole on ;rc- 
laiid rj CO. At a mediui:T, this t .x rnigh,t ha\-e afiordcd about a niiliion a year. 
'i hic cxci.'e, during riie civil wais, Vv'askvicd on. bread, nefh-meat, as v\cl! as beer, 
a'e, ilrong-v. ;:^(.i r, ;;nu n^a y oilier conimoditi^ s. Aitc; the King v/as kibdued, 
bread a:.d il^Hi-nie-.t were exenpttd Iroin excile. The eulloms 0.1 ex,.:or[a: ion 
V. ..re k,v. _]ea :n r ;,'' '^:. In i^'^^o, C(;mnii!TiOi,er \\'c-re appointed to \cv\ [\:h 
mv.::n'.' ai'd exciies, C':- nv.\-el in 1O57 rt'inned to the old praeiice oi hirn;;r;:, 
I'.hv.i, !.ur. h'eci rhc;uhuui ; our.cls were tlien cj.hered, boih fur cuflor.^iS and exeihe, a 
giea;:r !l.:,"i than !iaJ ever been Icvvfcl by the e(;nimih-oners '. The \^hole taxes 
during iiX;t jeiiod nhght at a medium amount to above two millions a year; a 

fum, 

f II rl'jyan ^;^ e'!;r.; , W/I. vi. p, ^9 ) I Ihuirloc, \'ol. v. p. 70S. ^ S^obt h p. .1 10. 



p..;70. c' b(.(jL'e!, p. 376. * Tluirloc, \ ol. vi. p 425, 



THE CO M M O X W E A E T II. 



i^ ; 



fum, w'litb, tho' nvj'Jcr.irt", much cx.-cc'ilc.i :]:: rcvrr.Lc o; a::y lorrr.cr ]\:r,v'. *~ - 
S- ni:cih\u.ur,>, ruriipcjIiLiu:'. , I..!.- c;[ crijwn .ir,.l c'.-::\!i i,i:v'->, ai-.d c^: liij !a:J> C'l 
(icl::; u:cn:^, yiei.lL-.l a!.') c> :wi :c. al)!c l\.::is '-' vrrv {iiir'/i.!: to :v cllinMtcel. 
C!K,r !\ !.!!,.'- -.:c K.'.l to ha'.\- Iv.n \\/.A ;r .i :ii:!!;>':. *. No::- ( ; t:.elc v,\;i.- .v; r 
\\;ii:cw .It aL:L\'c tc:i or clcv^'ti \-;\;r:, ; ..:\-!;.i!l- ;|;. n.i;::<;i;:-;r .' cll.i; b mv. ..\:-j i to 
abow .; .^'^o.j jH.'Uiuis a \'(.'a!". Croiv.wc! ti; d .b o'.'c- rv.':) rr'"; r. : : !"" ; 
tlio' t!;;' rarliaiiKTit h.ul kit !;:m i:i ti.c tival'.;;-y a', w/c - _ .::<^ , ..:. :.'. 

I'orcs th: vali:c ot yO(\:.co poi:iul:, 1. 

The Comnii'.i'. l' ol Daiv-; r iii Aj ;:i i6.;^\ vo'cd to rr.'.i.- t:.-.' .v.iv.y t 
ir.cn'". Ti'.c la:r,c year, tlic pay u tiu aiiny was dli:r.a[ccl at - . - ( \ 
:\ month '"'. Tht' cllahli!htr,ciu ot the ,i::r,v in 16::, \v.^ in S. r.'.an : i 
toot, 2 -So horif, :6 J dragjon^ ; in hhi^;Iand, -: 7-'-^ -o ;r, : l^;:-:c, ;^::r:i:o . 

() I T.f. In whole', ^1,510, bviiiics o!:i cr^ ^S. 'IT.'.- arnr; :n >^orl.r.h v..:.> .i:;.-;- 
wards conhdcralily redoc^d. Ei:c arnn' in liv'and v. a, not n-n:h llinito; .: -, . ,> 
iv.cn ; io that ujX)n the wbioi;-, tli-j Co:irro:iv.ca;L'i m -.in.t.iir.L-.i ni i' -2 a :'a::Jn.: 
army ut mo'c th m ;o,ooo nv.n. Its pay an^.( rn.i^d :o a viariy IhVi oi 1,, ^.~-~i 
pound- . Afterward , [\\c Prut.aor i\chn.\d. tb>e cibiblnlimc: z to -> ,c o n.^:: 
as aprrars by tlic Inllrunicr.c c;l ( tov. rn,nv;nt arul I iu!:/n'c Ibti::' ri and. duiv:, -. 
1 [>. ir(,'(|uuiL cntcrpri/.;s ob!ij.;ed hnn ironn, time to tnv,e to au;'m \:: t' em. 1\; !;- 
.u\l b.ai on loot in b'.ngland an ariry o:' i ^258 men, in Seob.;;-/.! ,.;){', ::, liLl.uul 
a'nout 10,000 mcn<'*'. The Icjut loldners had con-;p.u<p.Iy a Ib.n i; u: a c'.v * * * . 
Ti.e hurlc ha^i t\so l]iillin^!s and Ib-^pence ^ lo that mai^y ;i;e:;den:en and \- .;.n^ er 
brothers of good family iidnbedi in tlie l'ro:ectr-:'> cavalrv ; '-. No v.mio'.. r, t:. i: 
lu^h men wivc avmle tren tiie re-elbi'.ilbhnv.nt ol cis-il i;o\-(. rnmi!. r,r, by \.'.\'..'.., 
t:;e\ ^^eil i^nev.', t!xy mull be deja"i\'id <; I ; pnn;ul a picieidnn. 

A;;oe 1 the tin^L- (;t the battle < i Wh rieiLr, i\\m Par mu:, n: bad i n n t ,d . .t 
^>.,(\ .1 lue. , I'artly miiitia, j\irt!y re;^;u!ar loree^-. 1 !-,e \'::'o:.r ( 1 ti; C .ei , e- 
w;alth, .md tile [jf at ^ a[)..e;:y (j1 thole iieenbe: , w b j iiad ..bun,,o ti.e aUn:...;- 
i:aO(;n, i;c\-er at any tnoe apy. aie v! l^ con;_ :e. .(,;: ;j_j|:. 



., ,.!:-',. 



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tb'r\tcd at r,' b'^,- i y p'ju,:d\ ; 1 b- annual exy ne s :.i 2, .u_ i, ; ;- i 
a ' u:iond re.'enue w a- d nuu! i', d o; t'.e r.uuuuueio '. 

'Ibii. u(;mn";erev' .u.v. u:.bu , ;, ( . i' : ,' ' 
.i' ie ; .nod ol Lu..be.d;, r.i 1 ; dbu: t... ' 



I I. : ^ ... .1 



124 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chnp. TIT. confiderr.biC. Tlie EngliHi poUliTed almoft the fole trade with Spain. Seven 
1600. hundred t'loufind pounds a year in bullion were coined in the EngliOi Mint. 
Tvvcncy thouland cloths were annually fent to Turkey ^f-. Commerce met with 
interruption, no doubt, from the civil wars and convulfions, which afterv/ards pre- 
vailed ; tho' it ibon recovered after the cftabliniment o!' the Comnio.iweakh. The 
war with the Dutch, by diilrcfring.the commerce of fo formidable a rival, fervcd to 
encouraL':e trade in England : The SpaniHi war v/as in an equal degree pernicious. 
The whole effects of the Englifh merchants to an im.menfe value were confifcated in 
Snain. The prevalence of democratical principles engaged the country gentlemen 
to biiid their fons apprentices to merchants J ; and commerce has cvcr fince been 
more honourable in England than in any other Europazan kingdom. The ex- 
clufivc companies, which formerly confined trade, were never exprefsly aboliflied 
by any ordonance of Parliament during the Commonv>/eakh ; but as men payed 
no regard to the prerogative, whence the charter of thefe companies were derived, 
the monopoly was gradually invaded, and commerce encreafed by the encreafe of 
liberty. Intereft in 1650 was reduced to fix per cent. 

The colony of New England encreafed by means of the Puritans, who Red 
thither, in order to efcape the feverities exercifed againft them by Eaud and the 
church party ^ and before the commencement of the civil wars, it is fuppofed to 
have contained 25,000 fouls ^L Eor a like reafon, the Catholics, afterv/ards, who 
found themfelves expofed to many hardfliips, and dreaded ftill worfe treatment, 
went over to America 1.1 great numbers, and fettled the colony of Maryland. 

Before the civil wars, learning and the fine arts were favoured at court, and a 
good rafte began to prevail in the nation. The King loved pidures, fometimes 
iiandled the pei-cil himfelf, and was a good judge of the art. The pieces of foreign 
mafters v/ere bouglu up at a vail price ; and the value of piflures doubled in Eu- 
lope by the emulation betu^een Cliarlcs and Philip IV. of Spain, who was touched 
V, uh the fame elegant paG'ion. Vandyke v/as careiled and enriched at court. Inico 
Jones, an architect v.h.o never v/as iurpailed in any age or nation, was mailer of tiie 
Kip.g's buildings , tho' afterv/ards perfecuted by the Parliament on account of the 
part, v.iiich he liad in rebuilding St. Paul's, and for obeying fome orders of council, 
f)v wl'iicli he was directed to vvM dov/n hcull?, in order to make ro;)m for t'-nt fa- 
bric. Eav/s, who had not beer. kirpalTed by any muncian before him, was much 
b, loved by the King, v/ho called hum the Father of Mufic. Charles was a L'.ood 
iw'/in;c of v/riting, and was ellecme'l by lome more an::ious with regard to puritv 
o!' liyl'.- th'^in became a Monarch Notv/itlrkanchng his narrow rcvcn.ue, and his 
irccdoin from all vanity, he lived in fuch magnilicen.ce, that he poiieiicd four a-xl 

tvvent / 

I '^tr:.iTo;u"'; Letters \'v.l. i. p. 421, 423, 43c, A^>7- t Clarendon, C Britini Lnij ia' io, 

Anierie.:, \'c!. i. p. 372. 



T II i: c o M M o X \v r a l t ft. 



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q. ,;;:,, o: V. h:. \\ i.. v bciwivc :!.c ;;:i;l(:-. i I; lye > !;.. 
i;.,:s ^^ir!::j t:.;-, j\:r:' .', .irc (^i a K : .I'n n:i.c:i 1.:; .: ; rt 
; :v,y;.;,cl M I'-iyiL^iui i a-.lti.c ior.^i-,! Cwn^y.i:' . ..: 
t; ni.l. k ii;.'.il !a/.vc\.;- b: c' n:cd:J, th':: :::; v, 
n:,._i i:,:. ,;.! t'lc p.ir;;a.;:c;::.i; y i'-Ty, v.:;: ::o !.," d i 
t'. .:i u! a 1 i.r.v .wui (':\.jr. (i..: 'y .'..-..i ,'. i: w ,!':_ ^ a ., 
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lOoo. 



126 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Ch.np ill. jTyen in the Paradife Lofc, his capital performance, there are very long pafiages, 
amounting to near a third of the work, almoft wholly devoid of harmony and ele- 
gance, nay, of all vigour of imagination. The natural inequality in Milton's genius 
was much increafid by the inequalities in his fubjccl ; of which fomc parts are of 
th^ mf-lves the moil lohy that can enter into human conception, others would have 
required the moll: lab:ured cltgaiice of compofition to fupport them. It is certain, 
that this autiior, when in a happy mood, and employed on a noble fubjedl, is tlie 
moll wonderfuhy fublime of any poet in any language; Homer and Lucretius and 
TafTo not excepted. More concife tlian Homer, more fimple than TafTo, more 
nervous than Lucretius ; had he lived in a latter age, and learned to polifh fome 
rudenefs in his verfes ', hid he enjoyed better fortune, and poflefled leizure to 
watch the returns of genius in himfelf; he had attained the pinnacle of human 
perfedion, and borne away i\\q palm of epic poetry. 

It is well known, that Milton never enjoyed in his life-time the reputation 
wluch he defcrved. His Paradife Loft was longnegleCled : Prejudices againlt an 
iipologill for the regicides, and againft a work not wholly purged of the cant of 
former times, kept the ignorant world from perceiving the prodigious merit of that 
performance. Lord Somers, by encouraging a good edition of it, about twenty 
years after the author's death, firft brought it into reputation ; and Tonfon, in his 
dedication of a fmaller edition, fpeaks of it as a work juft beginning to be known. 
Even during the prevalence of Milton's party, he feems never to have been much 
regarded; and Whitlocke*' talks of one Pvlllton, as he calls him, a blind man, 
who was employed in tranflating a treaty v/ith Sweden into Latin. Thefe forms 
of exprenlon are amufing to pofterity, who confider how obfcure Whitlocke him.- 
felf, tho' lord-keeper, and ambaffador, and indeed a man of great ability and 
merit, has become in comparifon of Milton, 

It was not ilrange, that Milton received no encouragement after the refloration : 
It was more to be admired, that he efcaped v/ith his lite. Many of the cavaliers 
biamcd ex'remeiy that lenity towards him, which was fo honourable in the King, and 
fo advantageous to poflerity. It is faid, that he had laved Davenant's life during 
the rrotecrorflnp , and Davenant i;) return afforded him like proteftion after the 
reftora ion. Mcii of letters ought always to regard their fympathy of tafle as a 
more [)ovverfuI baivd ol union, than any difference of party or opinion as a fource 
of animofty. It was during a flatc of poverty, blindnefs, difgracc, danger, and 
old agr, tliat Milton compolcd his wondcrlul poem, wh:ch not only furp.iffed ail the 
j^crformanccs of his cotemporaries, but all the compofitions, which had iiowed 
irom his ]:cn, during the vigour ol his age, and the height of his profperity, Thiscir- 
cunillancc is not the leaff remarkable of all thole which attended that great genius. 

Waller 
* V (>ry 



T n E COMMON W I- A L T 1 1. 



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con:.'.:i\ [,..: \:.\-: c ;i:ui kj|;Li ;ici.il bc-.u;rit>. (i.ii.:v, uir, a:..: ;n;- ;v-. 'v ^ir^- t;;v.i" 
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V, inn:'; :..''av.i\'.:1' .:). l"hc ;\i!u-^:\-:-;;: !;ov.cv; r ( :: L : i,:v,\\ c , c ::' 
inoulJ c-x^k. ;. Ironi tiic o::i,;- cr-mj:;,!':'; :.s v,\ t!.;- \ .:. 
; w;,. !-orn \o :a\ anipl,- tornuu', w.is c.nv, ;..:rOv: 



cwinpanv. Uc p:j!ll-tic,i t.il-ii^ !^r i-! -u- 



;ii'..: r !i ni i.!;;.,di, v. Inch h.ip^icnci-l in a i';ooel old a^,', he was tr.c ca ;.:'.' cj! t!".j 
1 (..JL. (.)i C iir.nionb. 'J'iic crrGr> 01 hi,, liic |^.roccc.r .; ir.ore Iro:^. sv.a.i . i . . -^-y, - 
than t.i ii(j I 'Ur or in:c^ii[y. 

C(-w:,..-,- ;-, an ai.clior txtremcly corriiptci.1 by th.c ha.! rallc of li;- ay ; h..r ha.i 
]:' h\-ch cw n m the })i;!-t:ll times cjfCjreece an.l Ron:;. !;: mull a!'.v.r, s ;;a'.e i^e:. .1 
\^Ty i'.'.!il:l:rent ycKt. 1 le had no car !or harnKK:y ; . i^.i Ii;^ \\ I'h are i^.h;. hi.,;An 
t') he luJi hy the r'lynie, win. !i terniin .tes them. In !r> r-'yy (-i i:n::;n .I'he 
nnn^hers a:\- con\-evei.l lennnienrs t!:e nit 1' il:a;n: . an.l v; jlent ; i ny ': i.n .-.'.'. - 
Li' 'T: . ^. t' :: in:_ a.i^ ha 'i:^. anil torec.: cone its. f j : e.,t n': n'nnirw innvcwa", an,! 'i a 

K-, ,' r., . .,>nni f-,, r, ,,. ,.,. ^i ,. , rn,,- . . _\ y x A:. - 



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" n'.:nT!v> h:\ax oat aniini. tlu, 

na > k.rpri/e i> liy tlitir eale aiKJ Lyncty : 1 I : j yia;!,' w , h;. a-^ [ Va! a hy [.,e 

,'var! no(;:!nel> V. Incli the\- expian. ; anh e\-en hv t;:;'r Ij hen .a. : na .,a. 

(,!-a 1 las an:!i(;r v.as niiivJi more y:..\\ ,1 ana ahn;neh (.hnna; ho hie 1..1. , 

1 c Ich:a;Lcha;:er ia^ (lea:h, than the -:a ar Man n. 

.^a joMs I) - -I h: la 

an ,n , a .s a ha^ aa.:-- ,ai 1 \ ^ 

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:>-, oaaain\'e, 1- a \'i.!v aaiae::!;: : o:t, v>i.^-n !.e .ii'^naaN in\n: 

.iah n.,.:n--!"- a.e i haala \'. aaiui;' i,; Ih: lann. 

h' r In :!a:: ay; ','. aN ni :> '''- -a ! hah a' , >; 1 ' 

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eoa.vi^i;^' . 



iir. 



128 H 1 S T O R Y o F G II E AT B R I T A I N. 

convicllon on iheie ilibjocls. Clearnc's a^-id propriety of flyle are the chief ex- 
cell^-ncies of Ilobbcs's v;i-it:n;3. In Ins own perion he is repreiented to have been 
a rri^.n ofvircuc: a ch:iracler no v/iiy llirpiizing, noiwithilanding his hbercine Cy(- 
rc:!! or elides. 1 inddity is the pdncipal i.nd: with which he is reproached : He 
Jivcd to an txtrcine old acre, yet cciild never reeonciie himielf to the thoL:0-hi:s of 
dc-,th. '1 lie boidncfs ot his opinions and ienLiniects, form a remarkable contrafle 
I'; this part of l;i3 charadcr. 

l-iARar.;cTo:;'s Oeeana was \v:^!i adapted to that age, when the plans of imagi- 
nary I^cpLd);iCS Vvcrt tlie dady fubjccls of debate and converfacion ; and even in oiir 
lim.' it ;s iulrl; admired as a worl^ of ge-^ivs and invention. The idea however 
of a per;c:L:i and immorta! Comn.onwealLh .vi!i always be lound as chimerical as 
thatofa paiacd and innnorta! man. Tiie ftvle of tiiis author wants eale and flu- 
ency ; bur ri.e good niatttr, which his worl; contaias, makes ample compenlation- 

lI.vjivaY IS indrled to the glory of having made, by reafaning alone, widiout 
any mixture of acrid vnt, a capit d ddcovery in one of the moil important branches 
cl fcicnce. Fie had alio tl;e hapr)i'refs of eilabhrningat once his theory on the moft 
folic! and convi;icing proofs , and poderity has added little to the arguments fug- 
ged. vl by his indadry and ingcnui:y. His trcatife of the circulation of the blood 
is fart'icr embelldhed by that warnith and fpirit. which fo naturally accompany 
the genius of invention. This great man v/as much lavourcd by Charles the nrff, 
who gave him the liberty of ufing all the deer in the royal forafts for perfecting 
Ids diicovcries on the generation ot'anim.ds. 

T:iis age affords great materials for hiflory , but did not produce any accom- 

plifiicd hii'lodaii. Chircndon., however, \x\\\ always be ede^nred an entcrcainiirg 

author, even indcpendant ofour cuiacdity toknow the fads, whic'i he relates, llisilyle 

is prolix and redundant, and kiffocates us by the lengili ot its periods : Bat it d f- 

covcrs imagination and lentiments, and pleafes us at dre iame tiu:e that we difj.p- 

pro^"e cl it. 1 le is more p.irri.d in appearance than in reality : For lie frems perpe- 

tualiv ..;a:ujas to a;;o;ogizfj iur the K n^ : but his apolor;ies are often well grounded. 

He i-i IciS partial in his rclatioi^ ol laLts, t'lan in !;is account of characfers : He wais 

too honed a man to lahky the iormer ; hi:, aincfions v, ere eafdy capable, lud^nowa 

to InmlclF, ol did-iidh-i;a the hitter. An air of i^robity and jaoodntls runs thro' the 

whole wo k , ad rii k quahd'. sdirJ. in reality endoellini tl-se Vv'l.ole hfe ol the autlior. 

l'fii;SE are t'le c'aici [ e iornvav. as, whrali cng-ge the attai^it on of poderity. 

d'hole nuniberkis productions, x.acn winc'i t!^c pr-is then abounacd ^ the cant of 

the lUihnr, tlie declamations r.l ]:.aav. tl:c- fubtihics ol theoloin' ; ad thed have Icu^ 

ago !\;i;h u\to !:!enae and o!divi<^i;. I'iven a writer, d.cli as oeld.n, whole learnf.g 

v/as ifischiui excedcp.ry ; or C'lihin.'avv'oi th, an acute difputant a.gaind the i'apiids, 



vvdl icarce ev-r be rar.ked among the clafdcs or our language or country. 



T H 



T IT r 

HISTORY 

O F 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

CHARLES II. 



C II A P. 1. 

A'c'Tc' m':m;}rs. A:l of hhl:i}Pi'it\. S-rttlcincnf ^.f tlr yr::nu:.- 

'Tridl and iWccution of the }\gicidci. D'iflAuti'.n of the coir::' 

Vari'uinicnt. PrcLhy vtjlorcJ. J>il:trr::i:o>: cf ih: Mii!i>:.:' 

yl/Jairs rf Sco'LinJ. Cc/.'/^t./.T;' uf t':: Sdw. ^-J-^ui'mi 

>!}:J i::^ui>!!i <j ior>!/'r:/::;i/:on. ./' ;.';:.' /'</--.V.;v,-'./. I'!f'.-/s 

rfj-,r:d. Co?l :>\i:!C'! .;::. ./:/ of uui j''j->>:i:\. A. '<.'> /',\;'';.,\ 

'Trlul 'f I'tni:. ybid ('.V:<-.v .'/";. y^. //'v/t .'</'; (/ ,v '::!(:. 



D:(>::!r!: J\d f-. f'v !'>:>:. n::!ar.:::'.'i 7' r:J- 
Cuir:ra!:f:s cr:di!. 



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IIARIJ'A t!.c ieco:)(^ ^\.r: !u- afVcn.l'd v:? w::on: (f hi^ 
was rhirty ViMrs (n a:,/- 1 I-; ij!:dV i .1 \; '::,'.:^ co: 



line IliaMc, ;i ni;iulv iK^^'irc, :i ':::... \:>\ .:v \ ..: : :':. 
!. irfli, yet w.is ln^ countenance ni li^c i.' c:; ;\\n,- ,i:,J ; n .1 :;. 
j'"ri' c! o! lile, \v!icn r!;ciT rcni.-.lns c, ;; ' . of \M.;^h t j ',:.: ' ; 
\'-,-! -ut c'lnnniflTif^^ v.^:: ?.i\-\\ui':y and v .::., 

'\ i^U'vi :l-.-. '1 r\ u' r':cl!s v,.;' tx ' ' 

I 111 p:c'ci:t inxjl^^Ci ;', \^' : I'l" 

I! * 



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Chnn T. 


And 


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lOuo. 


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130 II I S T O R y o F G R E A T B R I T A I N. 

s tiv: fiiddcn r.nd Rir. rizing revolution, which reflored him to his regal 
h d <.lfo realojcd the nation to peace, law, order, and Hbcrty ; no Prince 
cvc! cbiainr d a crown in more fiivourable circumftances, or was more blefi: with 
thj cordial aficction and attachment of his ftibjeds. 

Tmis popularity, tl.e Kin;/, by his whole demeanor and behaviour, was well 
qualified to fupport and to encreafe. To a lively wit and quick comprehcnfionj 
he united a juPl undcrftanding and a general obfervation both of men and things. 
I'he eafiefL manners, the moft unaffected politeneis, the moft engaging gaiety 
accompanied his converfation and addrefs. Accuftomed during his exile to live 
among his courtiers rather like a companion than a monarch, he reta ned, even 
while on the t'p.rone, t'nat open affability, which was capable of reconciling the 
moft d.nermined liepublicans to his royal dignity. Totally devoid of refentment, 
as well from che natural lenity as carelefsnefs of his temper, he infurcd pardon to 
the moft guilty of his enemies, and left hopes of favour to his moft violent oppo- 
nents. From the whole tenor of his atfticns a-.d difcourfe, he feemed defirous of 
lofing tlie mjcmory of paft animofities, and of uniting every party in an affeclion 
for their Prince and their Country. 
Nevvm:i:i:l!y. T'TTO his council wcrc admitted the moft emdnent men of the nation, without 
regard to former diftin6tions : The Prefbyterians, equally with the Royalifts, 
fnared this honour. AnneOeywas alfo created earl of Anglefey ; Afhley Cooper 
lord Afiiley i Denzll Mollis lord I-Ioilis. The earl of Manchefter was lord cham- 
berlain, and lord Say privy feal. Calamy and Baxtc", Preftiytcrian clergymen, 
were even made chaplains to t'le King. 

AdmiPvAL MontaGte, created earl of Sandwicli.j was entitled from his recent 
fervice'= to great favoiir ; and he obtained it. Monk, created duke of Albemarle^ 
had pertorrned fuch fignal fcrvices, that, according to a vulgar and malignant ob- 
fervation, he ought rather to have expected hatred and ingratitude : Yet v.' as he 
ever treated by the King with great marks of diftiudlion, Charles's difpohtion, 
free iVorVi jealoufy \ and the prudent behaviour of the General, w!k3 never over- 
rs.ccdi his r.-erits i prevented all thoi^e difgufts, which naturally arife in {q delicate z 
fituation. 'i'he capacity too of /Ubemarle, was not extenfive, nor were his parts 
ili'ning. Tho' he had diilinguiflied hirnfelf in inferior ftations, he was found, 
o:)on familiar acqua:ntai;;ce, to he unequal t ) thole great atchievcmcp-tb, which 
fortune had er^abied hirn to perfcjrm , and he appeared u.niit for tiie court, a fcjne 
of hie to wiilah i.e had never been acculton^icd. Moricc, his friend, was created 
fecrecary ot Hate, and was fupported more by !iis patron's credit iluii by his own 
ability or ex^eiieiiCe, 



c II A R L r. s n, 



1 ;i 



Bit the choice, wir... h th-- Iv;::'; at h:;l iv.ilc (S \.\~> pr:: 






pn)j!,i;(.:lic.i:t:d i.i:\;rc hapv-i, ;^ a:.a tr.i.ur..:h;t\'. ' .: I aIw,:;-.: IhJc, i ; ..i:cd cii i 
ol C ia: .i.l'):i, :'.:., cha;i.cl;i r ai:,; p'ln^e in;:.;!\T : Th'- ii.ai^j'.L:--, ' :ca:.-w duke, 
ol Or:::- n i, v. a . K^rd l':-".M:d ot th- hojivh- ' ; : I'nv c ' </ ^ : ' -t : '' /- 
trcali,:::-; S;;- ] d.va:-d N :Li^oh:s lV;-;e:ary o: d .: '1' , 

i:: t':." ilrietcil iricndilK . , .;,..; Lu:id-:iid::!, \:\ ti: . . , 

^i(,ru\i e.iv ii odurs crc . r, a:^d ;'..r!.i d Li.j i;.: .\.. . . . 

Sii V M'.LV. to the pr^-iv ::t I^o.^-eii, / i>; pid)hj df'.. .. , . 

ltdivi[y i^i.fwled thnduuc tiu' i..ui ..1. id. e i:;:' i:^ h./!y .:::^c!i' ;. 
hito dikr.dit rc':^' tii-r u dd t!iei;- p:-i ^ii !es. d i:.- I-o ; .d d . \'- ' 
:"i eon::\.ry dilpoiition, 1, 'j;;,! i.i th. :; lecenL d.. , . ! 

: aicty j a;:d ic iio'.v ivh;;:!!,.'d '-' duiw l.. ^;:\'e rep':\ :;..::..:.., :; :j:.. : 
i iu:ii p:ul experience it ;..;d lv.d.v:ci:Li\ .;jip.-a;-ed, t.ur ;;:./..:;. v. .-^ \^:, 
iTv-.n uddoiii, to:-nKihLy from vir:j;\ .:;.d hy^ oiii.y l:\..n . ! .,..j::, i < 
hii:r.r^it, who bo:e a llro;:;_^ pi\>pcnli:\ :) [ le.i.ii.e .:;.d. i>,ci<:\, !..--vc\., d v . 
Ciitd ,i;ui r:^iiij,:;v^ ( .lari-ipie, to bj:iidi d:olj lo ; ai^d n:aI--^:ia;.L !:i;.;.. ..: , v. ....,> 
had li:die;'Lt) uu;- :.vlc!\d li;cd c onlin.oii. .\i;d d u' t;.v-j..!l dj;:.. !- \'.i.!v.- : .,d . ' ' - 
c,:iv [ .illcd, wiuii inen rcti. nud !ru:n th.'jir !o;'nei' e:;:i\:v.,- , '; : v .:b t : ... ,:e 
ha.p; y i:i cxtiv.np,::!!^ \';ces pcrni^ioiis to loeiet'/ itn' di;wre!eis iiuiti.d c..i,';d.- :.) 
t!ie iiidiNidiiad tb.Linieh'es, who w.re ;;inlrv ot tie-';"!!. 

Iv required lo:r.c tiir.c djiorc the leveral p-arts ci th.j i.ate, disfigi>r,di ry v. .:r 
and tactio;-;, c> iddi recover thi ir tornuT aiTai^:, :r.c:-.i: : lU.t i.<.L l';irH^:::c :.; i ;:,-- 
cluue]\' tiKercd :ii'<) .-. : oi/,l C( rrc!po:'.dc!u~i, w,-..i :'../ k:: y, ;"'.d. [,\iv t:i : . . i 
\, id. die laiiX' dniiiid iiy.;rd, \,',r..'., !iad in:..d!\' d ^ J {" -' d.- 

in ; ;L;.:inv!:x'il V. It iio:.i d:.' 1\ ;::;'- to;. icnr, t:: ,; - e^ e/. ....:..,., L :, . , . 

.1 Cdin\'e:it!on ; -r.UA i^ \v.o r.^{ ;.,. :!,. l.d i :'''.d ,: , - ' : : r!i.i: ^ ... n' - 

w'j: c.di.-dd y t'v- :ij)p iia::o;i ( . .:. . . ':.i.. aco. : 

i;i rde nair.e ol ihc C u'l^.'^ioir.'. \ ..: . . : . 

li'y '['.-.'. n V.' I r.v, .w.d do: . !.^- :. ., o.i .. o - 

b' dl'.;i, i:i t..c';' ov.ii na:::: .\i\'\ ;;> :,, .: ^ ; .:!i :.;., ... . . 

I vd [^r.ieio.. > p ir.'on a:,d ':.[. r . '.:f. 

\ .^;:y. d.:io:v hi^ :c:: ..-./.. 
to tleU -n', a:,'! ;ii ;Ii:' I ;;oe ::ir' ,:: _ 
. d diould ; ; I'O' i o.i. r \ . : 



:a [v: 



Ln o. tne I..:'- r\ 



132 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. 1. v/ichin fourteen days fhoiild receive no pardon. Nineteen rurren.'ered themfelves : 
Some were taken in their flight : Others efcaped beyond Tea. 

Thl commons Item to have bien more inc.ined to lenity than the lords. T'lc 
upper houfe, ini^amed v.ith the ill iifage, which they had received, were refolved, 
befidcs the late King's judges, to except every one, who had fat in any liigh 
court of juftice. Nay, tiic carl ofLnRoI moved, that no pardon might be 
granted to thofc v/ho Iku.I any way contributed to the King's death. So wide an 
exception, in which everyone, Vvlio h.ad fervcd the Parliament, might be compre- 
hendcd, gave a gcncrai aiarir. ; and men began to apprehend, that this motion 
v.as the efrlcl cf fon:e court artifice or intrigue. But the King foon diffipaced 
thefe icars. Pic came to the lioufc of peers ; and in the mod earneft terms, 
{refied the a6t of general indemnity. He urged both the necefTity of the thing, 
niid the obligation of hi; ioimcr promife ; A promife, he faid, which he would 
ever reg:5rd as facred ; fmce to it he probably owed the fatisfaccion, which at pre- 
icnt lie enjoyed, of meeting liis pc-.pic in Parliament. This miCafure of the King, 
tho' irregular, by ii's taking notice of a bill which depended before the houfes, was 
received with great applaufe and fatisfaclion. 

Afteii repeated fcliicitations from the King, the a6l of indemnity pafTed both 
hcufes, and foon received the royal afient. Thofe vvho had an immediate hand in 
the King's death, v/ere there excepted : Even Cromwel, [reton, Bradfnavv, and 
others now dead were attainted, and their eflates forfeited. Vane and Lambert:, 
tho' none of the king's judges, v;ere a'fo excepted. St. J^hn and feventten per- 
f(jns more v/ere deprived ol all benefit from this a6f, if they ever accepted any 
public emiployirient. All wIk) had fat in any illegal higti court of juftice were dif- 
ablcd from bearii g offices. Thefe v\ere all the feverities, which followed fuch fu- 
rious civil wars and co:".vu!nGns, 
Sf'tt'cmmt cf The next buiincfs uasihe fetc-cment of the King's revenue. In this work, 
the Parliament had regard to pubdc rrc.dom as well as to the fuppcrt of the crov/n. 
The tenures of uards and liv rit.s had Ion:-- been rcfiar.ied as a o-rievance bv all 
lovers ot liberty : Several attanpts had been made during the reign of James to 
pr^rchafe- t'ds [-vjr. gative tog.ihLr with that of purvcyr.uce ; and 2cO;Ooc) poeinds a 
year had been of.eied that i'rince in lieu ol thtm. During th,e t:;r.e of t!ic Re- 
public, wiirdihip.s and purveyance had been utterly abolilhed. And even in iht p.re- 
fent Parliament, before the Kh'-.g arrived in I'aigu'.iid, a i^i'l had beer, iritroduced, 
ouer:::;,{ 'din a conipenfati n for thefe revenues. A lun-'h.d I'loufand p;.;un^l.s a year 
wa, the i\;m, w'l ch the P.iriiar.ient agreed to , and i.ali oi tlicexei! ,vas fetehjd in 
j)erpetiji'^7 u;^on the crown as the fui.d whence that revenue (houki b" ievyed, 
d hu' that iiv.p')i\ yukied more prolit, the bargain n.ight be cilecmed I'ard ; and it 

v/as 



C TI A R r. E S II. 



^; 



ivas cliicfiy the n:cr.T::v ot the K;ii';'s n:u.u:-)!i, v. ';;/. 



1 ;.. h: W h\.- :n cr:, 



,,, .-p.r. 



i:. No rc(]-.!c." (/ th^: Pari .im-iit, th.r:; ;; th j r .n. i y, ( u:,; ' ic! .!.. v! r!-.v:!-!. 

Not f :.1v t!i;' ; A\cr o! th.- (.ro'^'.'ii, bv rii'Mns or \v.i:vl i;:: .;:..: ; .rvcy i , -^ 
wrv (X'lii^.ATah!. : It -.v.is/.'lo i. [','( juil aiul [:c:; -,..! ; .iiaI ( wiiIc. ];..;. :1v, oi .1 :...f..r': 
Ui,.>.i..i;:ij to A inorM-cliy, h:l^ccu*i to ihiCt .1,. i r;-;- ' ; ii;i;;t..n. i.v I '. 
tor-r.;:., th;rclurc, ot th }H.'h:ivM! \'.[\ 1:1 llcti .d lo ; IjM c t'.r ..h 'itrni.: '...-.^ 
( ; ::iu- :(i:l;:uti"MS i tho' it n-ii;,h[ |; i !i.i;.s apprar i,: ,u,t, tliat an a:!va r 'I'v. \v ;. ^ "i 
. .'/ : .-iLiitcd til ilij prupru'tors c;r iai.J., Ihui.!.: be pi.ic'iukii by aii i:rpoi:, : .. t 
....,wi:i.l v-'.ltv iiih.ibitaiit oi the k;;-,.;d':nT. 

i'o., \".\(;e aiul poiintlagc and t''.e olhcr b.alf t>r t/.e cX'ib- \v;re ';-,-,;^,- b. :o b.- 
Kin':'- during h:e. The l\ir!ia:r,c:ir even proecebeb !o far as to \-o'". '.':. .: ;!., :. -be 1 
ic'/erAic o. the c;own for all ch.iri:;es Ib.o'.bi l^e i ?. c. o: [\)i!!:_b a ;.:.. ; a ;','.r.i 
bi:':,cr tlian aiiv b.n!;iini jVIonarcl", liab. ever b'iu;- ciii' '/cd. 'b;.e !..: '.:: p"s rc- 
ve::..c troni 10^7 to tiie meeting ol r!ie b.Mig P..:i:anunt pj-eared t^) b: a: a [i:, b- 
uni ne..r iji_^> ck'o poiira.ls a v,:".:' -, o! v. Iraba 'o '.. poiir.ds arde trorA bra.:/;': ^, 
parily illegal, ['-irt!/ expiree!. '1 iic inii.iertuiiLs o: bat Ibbnce Ws re iv/v b.Ii.ved 
to ha.'ee p;()eeebed oripii;:i!b/ tioni tlie narrowr.t !> 'j; Ir.s re\'eni;e, aiwi :\\:u ri;e ob'- 
lliiiaev Ot bis ibi; iian:e.i:s, v,!.o had r.n..: d ii;ni ['.e recit;:!b / ii;p: ip. bvi. 1 ..- -, i 
r':j Mo:;aren-. of iuire^pe were p:T[e:'ia!!y ai;p,n.e:i:bi:_, b.vi:' K :\::^. m..'. e> ;:. - 
cjr.entlv t!u wcxpences, it recanic reipiibt. tb.it I'^ppi-n^vij ' n iwC^ir.ei 1 o '.. c>. .wr.c. v 
..nA ibetii i;y, llioubi bear b;n:e propert:o;i t.) u\:.\'.. aivl .idapc irs i\ ve::L: :o bv; : v\\ 
Ivilcm of polities, whieh prevailed. Ac.rea:;<'; to the (.'i.:;-.ce I 'bi 10:1 : i.'a:b.:, 
?. tlia.rgeot b'(,j,oco poi.ie's a year, w.is at preLi.t r vp.aieil Ic-r t. e b.-.t.: .i:..l 
otiier ai'ticle?, whiibli [ofiVierly ^-dl the crown but >. igli"'.' tl 01. land. 

1 bM> M ibnbame r, be.ore reftenng the Ki:u% :;;bbed on .mv \.\][\'- r Iin i':.- 

:'):;-. than tiioie .vh:en the e(;::bi:'.::. on already laipolt, d ; be ndes tb,- d..: pt i..': ::i- 

ba:i:i:i;; tno ant^e::: (]-.arrels an.onp. ar[:^^ , it u e!d lce:n, th.,t tiu:r L.niii^n '..d 

bee :i en::!\ !)' tnp: rb.nons. By rt..:on ct it-Henbcr .ind j ree.nicuis rewnue, :/.; 

lown in ;.tib.:t w i^ (iid to'-aby tb pond. 1;.:. N^: a : -urtb part (A tins Imn, wioJi 

<_:: 1 recpdibe b,a- [Hibbo t.:.p;nLe-, vOviId be . v\'\\ v. it hont c(-iib :.: o: lV;;.,o 

:-i.rju ^ a:;d any eoncellb ::% bad bi>.y been bLOidn n.(L!i".rv, nn 1,;, ^\en., ' r 

b;e redor,.tion, be extcn red I , :n. eo:ii:nono troni l;u:i' no ebibi/ns b;i ,ee. 1 i,.s 

l\i; b nil ;it (li v.sed n:- :::!:ci.tio;i 01 emp o\ ioy .a jiU nt that e;-pbe: : > .niv b,. h 

; .rp N:, bnt they keinol bni detw'-i ined not :o pait una i' (:n:i(.i_., oi' to 

' : tlo r< .; luies ot t' e eruwn nx. d. .e.c'. i: .'opc',:>..i r. 1 i...' to. y \'or(.d 

', o\b b.it I :o, ,. o.' poiii/b a \f..r iboi.id be oiibd ( :: t^.e kn .;, ll) y 

' ; ot any iund-, vlneb cc n ^1 yb Id t.vo tbn\!^ el ti..it Lnn. Ai:d 

tbcv 



.Oo. 



134 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

' they lefc the care of fulfilling their engagements tc the future confideration of 
Parliament, 

In' tili the temporary fupp'ie^j which they votcci. they difcovered the furic cau- 
tious frugality. To dhba.id the arr^y, (o formid-ible ii itiblf, and lb much ac- 
cuLtomcd to rebellion and chanties of p;overnmcnt, was i 'ceilarv for the (ecuritv 
bodi of King and Parhamcnt ; yet the Comnions fhowed g at jealoufy in granting 
the ibms, requilite tor that niirpofe". An afilblrtnt of ^, .coo pounds a montii 
wab in-;po{i;d : but it was at fiiit voted, to continue only for i rce months : And all 
the other fums, widen, by a poll-id i! and new aileffinents, they levied for that 
ule, they iiili grfinied by i):^;'ce"s : as ir they wen. .!()t, as y r, well ailln-ed of the 
ndelicy (d' th:it iiand, to v/id:!^ t'le money was committed, i laving proceed'd ;o 

^' tar in the ikdemcat of tlie n.urun, tne Padiament adjourned chemfelvei. ibr lonie 
rime, 

^ - D7Rr:;c^ the rccels cf Parliam nt, the objedl, winch chiefly interefled the pub- 
be, was the tj-yal and cundemn.uion of die Regicid s, 'i'he genera! in- agnation, 
which attended the enormous crime, of whicli liiele men had been guilty, n^ide 
tlieir ,<"uaerings t'le fubiecl ol joy to the people : But in the peculiar circumitances 
oi that action, in tlie prcjud'ces of tiie times, as vveil as in tlie behaviour of the cri- 
minals, a mind, feaibned with humariity, wdll finJ a plentiiui fource of compaflion 
and induigcnce. Can any one, without the utmoft concern lor human elindnefs and 
ignorance, confider the demeanor of genera] Harrifon, v/h.o w.;s fnd brought to his 
trial ? With great courage and elevation of fcntimcnt, he told the court, that the 
pretended crime, of which he flood accufed, v/as not a d^cd^ per'ormed in a corner : 
The foundi o| jc had 2;one forth to mof!: nations : and in d;e fino uiar end miarvellous 
conduft ol it had chiedy appeared the fovcrcign power of bleaven, Th ;t he himfclf, 
agitated by tio.d)ts, had often, with pafbonate tears, odbred his addreiles to the 
Divine r-Jaiedy ; and earnelbv fou-'hc for light and conviction : He had fldll 
received aOurance of a heavenly findiien, and renurned from thefc devoL:t luppii- 
catior;5 w;di rnrc ferene tranquillity and bitisfadtion. Thzt all tlie nations of the 
earth, \n tlie eyes of thdr Creator, were lels than a drop of water in the bucket; 
nor were ciuir erro'ieous judgeir.cnts aught but dia'aniels rcniparcd with divdre illu- 
ndnations. Thar el;; 'a ircunau ill.pfLS oi the divine Srnri: hecould net flnpeet to 
be interelled illudons ; fince he was ccni. ioi:s., rha*", fur i-.o tenij-oral ai.ivanr..ge, 
wo'dd he oiler injury to tie i)0(.a-efl m.ai nr woman who trod mx)n the earth, 'bnat 
all the allurrnients of ambirion, ;.H bi ; t;. . r- aa-, of imj^rifbnment, had not been able, 
dinii^g tlie u!b;p,uh,n ( f Crora ,v^l, ro fiada: his bLcbly lelolution or b^nd him to 
a cone. bailee widuh it cbrcidul tyrant. y\n-:i that v^hen inviteel by 1dm to fit on 
the riglu h j..i ^1 the thr-_:ne, wl^ca odercd riches and Iplendor and dominion, Ir 

had 



c rr A Pv r. E s ir. 



had dikialnfully rejectc'tl nil ten.pcitions ; .\::.] r.. ^^ .r .sof h'ii.. . 

anil tamily, h-d llrl, tiao' cwiy danger, h- li! :.\:\ ;; ; : * h:j intv^ii. 

Scot, v, !.) v.m; n:;>rc :i Kc'iubiic.::i chni) u i , .. ! :'.ic h 

(^)nvi." i;-, a l;[rl" ix-;orc the rcllor.iri'^n, t'l.i: iu' <.;;:!;.':. -j < ):;.' ^ '.v j 
Iji ;')v\; on hi-, tonilV'onc t!i-:n t'^s i //:;.... ^ // ^ v/.;^ ,^. . ;, / , 
uj. ::.'. I L- lu'f-porccd t!ic l.irr/j Ijjinc upon Iii- ti:d. 

L'. ,.i.\v, a MiIltMari-in, liVHiitijd ' ) :,:> (:;.\1, /:.;; - ; o r /. / ./ 7 

/^ /<^^' yoi\'rn;ii:/ii of tl .;;.;. Su:^; ; Ic.";/ !;'d ro T }', a . r !i.:;; 

i^-rm, tl:.ir thrv- woLild tic t;icd by Ciod a:.d tiic;;- cul.:.';v ; h!...i.Mr (.j,..l \s n . . 



v,:!:-ly prviCnc to judge them. Otiurs laid, that th-y v,'),..dbe iiud 
of (.(kL 

No rr.wrL- i\\:.\\ fix of the hue Kin^^'s 'ud.j-.s, Han-i'.Mr, ^c.;r. C.-:. 
ju;v,-^, and ^'cropc, were execLi':jdi ; S.ropv aione, ot a i rh,(;'r \v:,-j a 
t!.e K!n;;\ prochir.u'(\i. He w;!; i gc:Ui :nan o; \ voo i :an-,:!y .a; . 
c';araaiar: Bur ir v, .i,> p ovcd, t'lat h.c l^a\d hitcly, i.a Cuir.\;,.j; :i. c .p: 
as no V, av c a^viiicad ui u^ [i\\\\\ \\\ cond-'midnp; the Rinp. Ax: ', ".'. . 
t'u ! : of j^iihce, 1 I i^lx.r, V. ho c')n:;:na::dLd oa t!:j aa 

curi.a:, C .L-, liu- luHu-iror har I'.e ; .cple o: h',r;!a:ui, 'dr.''. ' i- ; 1' 
'. r, \vao iaHainad tlu: a"any to re<a,ic'Je : Ad ::.. a : a :: : 

.:, ,...d lalllrcd wit!; r!vj lAa^A iadiias. i\ 3 !i.a:: . rc.a-;;' 

to laartyr^ oni with more aiUnad cciili.'ei'ce ( t il ,\\:i tivi:; .va^ . 
th .le c: i:iiina!s, (\\:n v.hc:i ti^e t; :aors oi ininaal. ;ra d.a:i, a ,! ' 
wj:'c Ur h\v-rt thai^i. 'V\vj a a! ^-[ tha Naap,"'^ ' .!/ a 'y .a; 
,,a , , '.'. re lapviiwA :, aiid tl\ a wtra val^-.rlvd ...:.' ; '.aa.i! i :a. a^. 
i a , puialiniaaM 1 d'_ A.ua-d ea- n;;i s i.,-) a. av aa :,a ^ar'a ra ' 
;.'.l: Hut tha dtatl\ la tiu' dA.a of d: aad r 
n'ilia!'- hoia;, tiaa'W a:_aa.:t tja.,a uia^a t!.aaa i_ ; a, i^v a-i 



a.s L\'! a .J ta/iaay .. 



.,J. (i'oa.djr ^.a. 



:'a', o: o-::^ lu> > a.:h-a-: 1 . 
.. /-A ahalrv an : ay, ii aa - ; i lae 
.:A-a-.a.ai: to rh ': Aaaoii and .. A-.a: , 

Mrs C'f a.^.\ V.A; n ti'C laau! p-a-: 

;! , (*i v)aa!y .', ! ". 
ay i\.c la lla- ;, a 

1 a. a 



J ! wa- 



I- \> 



'.a.e .. .J 

Cie'i^fP'., 
I upon 



.ea.": v 



rv. ) iTiw 



uun..!ij:L!-;na.it, '\\\ 



136 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap r. and fome articles of the revenue. They granted more aflelTments, and fome ar- 
rears for paying and difbanding the army. Bufinefs, being carried on with great 
Di.ToJuticn of unanimity, was foon difpatched : And after they had fat near two months, the 
tiim "^arlk-^ King in a fpsech full of the moft gracious expreffions, thought proper to dilTolve 
m?!u. ^ them. 

2gth of ]?z- 

ccmhcr. Thts Iloufe of Commons had been chofen during the reign of the old Parlia- 

mentary party ; and tho' many Royalids had crept in amongPc them, yet did it 
chiefly confilt of Frefbyterians, who had not yet entirely laid afide their old jca- 
loufies and principles. Lenthal, a member, having faid, that thofe who firft 
took arms againll the King, were as guilty as thofe, who aftervvards brought him to 
the u affold, v/as fjvtrely reprimanded by order of the houfe , and the mod vio- 
lent efibrts of the Long Parliament to fccure the conftitution and bring delinquents 
to jull.ice, were in eff. ct vindicated and applauded. The claim of the two Ploufes 
to the militia, the firft ground of the quarrel, however exorbitant an ufurpation, 
this Parliament was never brought exprefsly to refign. All grants of money they 
rnadQ with a very fparing hand, Great arrears being due by the late Protectors to 
the ilecr, the army, the navy -office, and every branch of fervice ; this whole 
dtbc ihey threw upon the crown, without ellablifhing funds fufncient for its pay- 
ment Yet notwithllanding this jealous care exprcITed by the Parliament, there 
J. -evails a ftory, that Popham, having founded the difpofition of the members, un- 
dertoukto thccarl of Southampton to procure, during die King's life, a grant of 
two milllo.'.s a year, land tax ; a fum, which, joined to the cuftoms and excife, 
would for ever have rendered this Prince independant of his people. Southampton, 
it is r.ud., merely from his affection to the King, had unwarily embraced the offer; 
and it v/.is not till he communicated the matter to the chancellor, that he was made 
r iiiible of its pernicious tendency. It is not improbable, that fuch an offer 
i:iigl;t h'lve b^'en made, and bee;i hearkened to; but it is no v^'ay probable, that all 
t\\yi inier-.i: oi the c^nirt v/oiild ever, with this Houfe of Commons, have been able 
to ty.akc it c.T..clua!. Clarendon fiiowed liis prudence, no lefs than his integrity, in 
entirely rrveLii^g it. 

'1 iij: cii lacellor, from the fame principles of condu(5l, haftened to difband the 
a' my. W'een tlic King rcvievv-ed thefc veteranc troops, he was ftruck with their 
beanry, o: iv.r, diilipline, :ind martial appearance j and being lenfible, that regu- 
lar ic;-r._s aie moft rcc-rfn-y impdcnents of royalty, he cxprefled a defire of finding 
t v'pedien'-s Aill to retain them. But Ins wife minillcr fet before him the dangerous 
Jniiit l-y '.vln h tliefe trno^)', were -inimatcd, tlieir entlnifiaftic genius, their habits C'i 
rebe'lnm .n:i.i ;nu:ii:!y , and lie cor:v:nccd the King, tliat till tliey were difbandcd, he 
i];;ver ee.e'd cffcem hinn'eli "krcni cly e.kablirr.ed on hiis tlirone. No more troops 
Vvtre i.-'tain.d th.an a lew guards and, girriloiiS, about looo horfe, and 4030 

loot. 



C II A R L E S ir. 



^37 



oot. This v/.i^ tlv; firil ai^ -.ir.mco, under the Mo-.irc'iv, ui .i rc'gul.ir iLr^ 'ir,;; i^ 'ip I. 
: r'V in ! :';.^i.i!ui. 'i'hc. i.: t';;': j.r.io'.s ot dloccdcr, r.r.i-.Con, a;-.d oi'.'.cr ro.vn-, 
V, hi.h ;,a-i i;: .!. r;-inl ^:i.j Co r.;- 1\ i: ' (.lurini; t'lt^ civ il v..i!S, wcc ail ) :cn:oI.lhcd. 
L . .r (jp.l : b^:;.\\\d v.ich r/'..\: v/nic^ni .\:- i i .Iticc in i\\': ( .'r-jc "t 

I . , .\ .: :I.c t'owiiC! s, \\ !u^!i lu' !.^r.'c ;n: ;. i:* . ' . .;. v : > ; o-ro';^ 

I .^ ..,._. ,:l 01 I'lin.-j .uul [X'tpic". Lii.irle , ajciiiluiv. . ... .... \'.c t ) j\.v civpc 

i' :: -.'.r.cc to the )'ui;:en"ic[.L or :h.;: hnt'.i:.,! Iciw.r.c, c ... ,...! :,: . i > \'Jjvr.\z tu iiis 

/\'j:); a:Ai ioi' i.hi^j tinic r:o n:inill>.-;- v,m< cv'lt J' ^..^.1' J u; n"oi'c a';:o!u:c .;;- 

'.I ji irv. 1 Ic nv..;cr.i'eJ rlu- iorv,\u\i /..il (/I t!ij l\.o\ a.;::, ..n,: cm;. :va ::ij:r ;i;;- 

' Tiic .'of ipvcn^i,-. \\'ich the on: one'-- ; .irtv. hj ciKic..V().,r:',l to j t-jI-tvc inviohi:-- 

..1 the King's cn:-':)f:;<.'n^cins : Ik kc[^t an cxajc rcgiil.i- >j\ , vc;y ; r^ni;;- v,':. ;i 

.:.: been ma^ie l^r any lci'\'ice-, and lu cn^uloycd aii ho in.:..;.!y t > luinn thcnv 

"i.'[\\> g!jod niin:lLr was ik)\v very ncarh.' allied to ti:e ro-, a'. :..r.':,'.;'. I lis d.iug;-.:.-; , 

.\:.ne llwie, a won^an (<! \]nv\t and line a^comyiid-i.cnt-, :i.;J i.vari:?, ...i, u;..,' 

jro;d, to the addrLJils ol tiie- dohe c-l Yoiiv, and i.:nd.:- {n-^n:;;^(.l niar:;a<:", i^.d 

cretly adnirted him tcjherbcd. 1 ler jov^^nanc v .oon a-.p -.ire." ai'vr the i-.-d(.-:\i- 

; jn V and tiuj' nvnv,' t ndc'a\H)vn-ed to d:l]V. ad ; ti.c DLn-t-- Irom lo i;nc ]o.i' an aii;am'i;, 

i.e Kin^. in |'::v tj h's Iriend and ndioiL-r, wr.'j ii.;d been t ):.ih\' !.;noi-an: < ; 

. ne ( ngagen:cn:s, ()bn!j;ed h s ln-)thvr toniaiav l;.r. Lia:;ndo:^ cx: :ji:. :;';, i- 

.n anneb, at tiie honour, wiiii, l\ \\c had obtaiiiL/d ; and b.i.b t:;a', bv b^i..g cic\ a:.d 

J mi.ch a;)ove ids ran!;, he thenc. di\adcd a n"; >re k.dden do.', ni.di. 

Mo'^ r cireuniilances o: b 1 n-endon';- adn^inidraiiion hav- n: t -, ibi a- .:':.-. : I I; , 

''-< cec!c:i..lliea! j oliti:- ' ' ' 

1 ^'. 



iiv: u: c ecicn 
1 1. 



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I la 1 :i.c woniy c i r-y.n ^:;v.-r ; 
L i.)nv.-n:ii n r.n ::.in,e:-.r a to nvihc t!:vm rcb; :e :'; i\;; 
. : (piebiun bnt t: e I d dvidnnjM o: ; : 

. ',. '_ a t,, L(-:,,nrions n:o!l ri; :..'/ '. " ' d wO. ''^ : ::.. '.. .: : 
,d ']' >v .nn^vnt :s ni -re !a'.'i ;.'' " ; b ;n : o.". ..':'.. . 

'.vn a:roi.n:, a.;r , 
:'..;. _d &x]v r.-ii^b ' - r , ' ' 

^; r ot d-biy,:' ' - 



138 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chr.-x I. blood and confiinon. Moved by thefe views, the Commons had very wif.'y poft> 
; oned the ex.imin:ition of all religious controvcrfy, and had left entirely the fettlc- 
mcnccf the church to the King and to the Jaws. 

The Kinp; at firll ufed f?;rcat moderation in the execution of the laws. Nine 
biinops flill renKiincd ahve ; and thefe were immediately reftored to their diocefes : 
All the ejected clergy recovered their livings : The liturgy, a form of worfhip 
very decent, and not without beauty, was again admitted into the cluirches : But 
at the fame time, a declaration was inucd, in order to give contentment to the 
Prefliyterlans, and preferve an air of moderation and neutrality. In that declara- 
tion, the King promifed, that l\c fiiould provide fuffragan bidiops for the larger 
diocefes -, that the prelates fhould, all of them, be regular and conilant preachers , 
. that they Oiould not confer ordination or exercife any jurifdiction, without the ad- 
vice and aQjftance of Preroyters, chofen by the dioctfe ; that fuch alterations 
fhould be made in the liturgy, as would render it totally unexceptionable -, that in 
the meati time, the ufe of tliat mode of worfhip fliould not be impofed on fuch 
as were unwiihng to receive ir ; and that the furplice, the crofs in baptifm, and 
bowing at tiie name of Jefus fliould not be rigidly infifled on. This declaration 
t'lC King illued as l:ead of tlie church ; and he plainly affumed, in many parts 
of it, a iegiflatlve authority in ecclefiadical matters. But the EngliHi govern- 
ment, tfiO' more cXactly defined by late contcils, was not, as yet, reduced, in 
every particu.Iar, to t'lC (Irict limits of law. And it e^ er prcroga'ive was juHi- 
ii.ildy emph)\ed, i: lecmed to be on the prclent oco^fon ; when all parts of the 
ffare were tome witii pail convulhon;., and required the moderating haikl of t'lc 
chijf m>:::iflr.;!:e, to reduce them to their antient orJer. 

But tho' t'lefe a]:pe,irances ot neutrality were maintaiiicd, and a mitigated epiico 
pacy only f.emed f.) be inf;fl:ed on, it v, as far from the intention ot the miivulj-y 
a!ways to pr.ferve like r-gard to the rre(l)yterf;ns. I'he madnefs of tlie i/'ifth- 
JrfL.v'T.'^ion r\icji;Lirchv-r"nen allxjrdcd them a pretext lor denartino; from it. VTnntr, a delnc- 
j.'.V f_""" rate enthuriad:, who had often eonfpired againll Crcjmwel, having, by Ids zeaiou,-, 
IcciLirc-, innan^ed h\^ own ifnagination and that of his followers, ifllied foitii with 
then- inro tfe ilrccts of Londcju. Tiiey were to t'le nuuiber of (ixry, conujlcatly 
ainic.:, bei:.".ed themlelvcs invulnerable and uivincible, and flrndy expcctj.i the" 
fame icjrtune, Wni^, 1 liau attend' u Gideon and otiier luroes ol the 0!u I'chairent. 
lA-ery one at firll i:C,i before them. C'ne unhappy m.:n, who, b.iiig (iue:li';n: d, 
he Lhd, " lie was for (jod and King Charles," tiiey juilaiitly niuidertd. 
'i'h: y v-\y\i tiiun'ph inrlv from llreer to ilreet, every v. here proclaiming King je- 
fur, V. 'iO, tivw fu.!, was t'^ir invifble leader. At length, the magillrates, hav- 
i-te'; i^iiLiv.[:l^A feme tiain-banfs, made an attack upon them. 1 i^ey defended 

themfe'vc'^ 



C H A R L ! S II. 






-; C:;:c- VS wikI ;:l'..:- I i.urj'iU':! !. Xex: n:cr:;- 






...: I.'; (<:\:c;, a .J iravL-:..' i a.iiHn. ca.-:v ;::c:^ 



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,,:,:,a :.. ivw \.'.m \\c\^ a!;vv. i :.;, uc: ' ':"'.i ;, i. :.^.!v-:: ::.", a.: ' c;. a..: . 
aH.l '.a :aii iliay [ ci iill d \.i aa.. ^aaa-, L!a.r, :: : .a. v, v :'a a:, .a", c.', :' v. a : i' 
].(.: : ::.a: ha : d^caiv;.! L;:c:n. 

(_ . aia; ilia iiiaii^rv tOa!v e;a>:. .;;-: i':'}.n t'a aa'i.r;;.;' 'i ; , 

claa ,1 raa^ l^a ar ol l!ia Tia !'^ , [arian> and cjt .: 1 i!:.- Ic^L.a a, . i' : I'.c a,, 
taj a::.ar.;'t I'uinu.a:'/ ja-Qvad, th,.: i: laid aa n an.;-;':..!. .- ay ! aL,...a,:-. a: 
:u'\a r c Kad ria\'. }-r(Aad daaaaroa^. 'l!iav.a!l i^ n aA a !. .:r d a.^' , \'d.A ai ;:a\a..., 
[\tvdxtt'a: l':ad'';:L i-ia:, , an.! !:iic odur kaa^, !a^a!d !Kr.-a i anicaaad L.a aan, 
f;-un^ .d !n;:(.a:n ci ana la laaia n ni. a nitl.a ca'crjaa'a. H, :..> .iMaa.x: \. 
\>.a:' d ' ad,:. d;air (y!a d ana r '-^ : /r a.:d: va :M!a: i' taaad .! i ; ...a- aa-aa:a.a 



., iv.ja.c'.cr lr"lir, was v. rv vwa 



i;n- ! 



'I'aa addn-s ia ^aodan.l l.allana.! v.idi did qaddir Ida. i.:.-. daa\ in 
low.iru^ .1 laulanu'a!: and a corrj li.n:aa v, Idi V.\: iN.na^ Ic v. a- d \:l\v..: 
Idad:!li aoanad, v:\\lL. t lU.v n.i^iiai 'd m:.! !>. la 'd axa! :o d- idnara. c;- 



-, (.a 



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an 



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n d ( d.n-V- <a W - .ad: : > t! 
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.,: : ..J ai, ta^ a :;..'. :', ^.' :n. n n 

dds ; a::d tnai :> t.i':a a a.aau a, {' 
td_ V lai i ;.al a:, w a.d : 1 / r j-aiaa 
;':a i:nd: (-1 da.t ; a^'- d- . w i^: 



] a:a:n a; :> n..: .,i :.a. , .: i,.- nn 
d UK - w ;d\ tn,-n" i ;..! i at. . ; 
v!i: ' ,'m.lv : d '.,>:d:aa-L 



HO HISTORY OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 

mults and renflance. That t'le time would probably come, when the Ki 
(lead of defiring to fee Engliili garrifons h^ I'^cotland, would be better p e. . ') 
have Scotch gairilons in England, who, fupported by Englifh pay, would be .'v.. i 
to curb the itditious ge; ius of tliat opulent nation : And that a people, fuch as the 
rcGteli, governed by a few nobility, would more eafily be reduced to fubmifllon 
under Monarchy, than one, like the Engliih, who breathed nothing butthelpn-it 
of democratical equality. 

Tf-iese views indtxed the King to difoand all the forces in Scotland, and to raze 
all the forts, wiiich had been eredled. General Middleton, created earl of that 
name, Vvas fent commiirioner to the Parliament, which wasfummoned. Avery 
compliant fnirit v^/as there difcovered in all orders ot men. The commilhoner had 
even fufiicient infiuence to obtain an a6t, annulling, at once, all laws, winch had 
palled fin ce the year 1633; ^--^''^^ei' pretext of the violence, which, during th.'t 
time, had been employed againfl: the King and his father, in order t(3 procure the:r 
ailc^nt to thefe flatutes. This was a very large, if nor an unexampled conceffion : 
and, together with many pernicious limitations, overthrew fomc ufeful barriers, 
which had been erected to the conftitution. But the tide was now running ftrongly 
tov/ards monarchy ; and the Scorch nation plainly difcovered, that their paft 
rtfiilance had proceeded more from the turbulency of their ariftocracy and the 
bigotry of their ecclenaflics, than from any fixed pafllon towards civil hberty. 
'ihe lords of articles w'ere reflored, with fome exorbhant branches of prero- 
gative ; and royal authority, fortified with more plaufiblc claims and pretexts, was^ 
in its fu'l extent, re-eilablillied in that kingdom. 

The prelacy likcwiic, by the abrogating every ftatute. cnacled in favour ofPref^ 
hyterv, 'was tlicr. by tacire'y re'l'.orcd ; and the King deliberated vv'hat ufe he Oiould 
make of this conc^filon, i .audeniale, who at bottom was a pahionate zealot 
againfi; epiico/acy, endeavoured to perfwadc him, that the Scotch, if gratified in 
thi> h;Vv)U'-lte point ol" ecclcfiafiica! government, would, in every odier demand, 
be entirely con^pliant with i\\c King. Charhs, tho' he had no iiich attachment to 
prelacy u[- had Hifioenccd hi;, iat'icr and grandfather, had fofibied fuch indignities 
from tiie iKotc;! Ih'cilr/teria:';^, tiiat he ever aiter bore tbeni a m;;il; heari./ 
iivrr'cr. ilo fa;:' to I .aaberdoie, tiiat Preinvteriarfifir, l^e tfiOiodit, was i.ot a 



;r a t ' ;::.:;r:a:i ; ano !;e coolu iv;t coni,o:r to n:--: nation" cooiiro:,! olc 
iMnub.ion too ar:d his ctiier mionKrs pcrlv. abed inoi, tnat lIi-: na- 
.! .\'ere ;o libgnbeb \\::.\ tliC V;oienee a::d t\''o,oov oi bo; rb c!cbub.i(o , 
abon o. cimrcli o:c:v.roon-nt wouid be oiov;:noi o,r.;n;;Lih boo] 
.., v.o b a. (;rm;ood, d:oab;ng tin.t the Prefix' rci ;..n i Ct. ii hob'y 
unre auti.oruv in isniOcO.Li, ,00,1 itcuinw, 0.0 



0! 



CHAR L r. :^> u. 









:';r::.o. >:i r ; , v, :, , 

1 i.;^ T \i).\ /: -.[ : <v '. ;i.i.:,t .! a ,,.i; - 
, : .. ; i r;iK'/:uV by ! 

I .,;: .;cc /..;::, .lo \scji ..= ire;:! [[/j \\vI^:^lc cl iiii (, ; 

Cm .:!.: - in.! ret i:orr.'.'.[.: : > S:(^:\:\'m\ :\:w \\: h 
'/ \ . '..,- ;::.ux t'.. /. ; .;.i:c coii^ ;,;[::! \', \.i C- 



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... . Vi.;!; a IMc- :y ;l:;.l i: i'::i:.,:. 
; : !.- :^:.l'ij..c'l"- ( r" .\-.' ;. ..;;J c:/- C)m'i;v, ,; :i : 
\-!':l; : -. i'.M> .u:-^ (. ::: v:i";:i::\\ ( ::r ^ .:iA: ' ",' i':. 
by the ; :cb'nf In i(y;i, i"( miicJ, 1; v..^-:'- :yA', :. 
rbb'v?:^' ( t A!-[^v!c'; a;'! i : a; rcvi .:'! (.:'-. lirv ;;,:' ''i. 
rr.:. A- '^ ^ '. ru:;u\b J .;- tA' :n(/.l i::, r; :u!:..A! . 
b;;n u r A- C(mii;\!>;:-i.\' \\!:!i i]\c i;,i.:-,\ui.^:i ; .i ijr::' 
\'.A' ' ;^.:r-.':\ ;;n 1 :i:.\: a ^ ;. ;:^ b;j n, ;;!. .<> ,.' .I'ni 
r . ' ', \ \ ' '1 . " ' .] , I' :v.^]r.:. l' ) :. . 



2 HISTORY c F GREAT BRITAIN. 



iially afiVontcd the King : I lb puniniment gave '"urpvize to no body. Sir Archi- 
b.ild johnilaiic of Warrillon was attainted and u.d -, but was il;ized in Franccabout 
V::q y;::irs aficr, bronght over mid cxecuti'd. i.:e had been very aftive, during 
ai! the Ja-^ dilorders; i.nd WaS even ii.fpcded of a lecret combination with the 
j^nji-liih Rcnicidcs. 

B- SiiJi-s thcle infi.i;iee~ tf compliance in tlie Scotch ParhLimcnt, they voted an 
addiiional revenue to the Kin;^ of 40,000 poundo a year, to be levied by way of 
cxcile. A imall lorcc was procofed to be maintfiined by this revenue, in order to 
prevent like conrufioris v/irh thoie to Vvhich tnz kh^gdoin liad been hidierto ex- 
nokd. An aet was ailb pall::;', ce^iarino; th: covenant to he unlawful, and its 
obhaa'ion void and null. 1 his was a violent fliock to the bi.2,otted orcaidicc-of 

I\' L'.ngland, the civil difdnctions fcenicd to be abcliflied by the lenity and equa- 
ity oi Cliarlcs's admiriilration. Cavaher and Round-head were heard of no more : 
All men k-emed to coiveur in u:bmittir;g to the K r^g's lawful preiogatives, and in 
cherifiiing the jud privileges oi tiie people and oi Parliamcr:t. Tlieojogical contro- 
veriy alone flid fiibriiled, and Icept alive fome fparks of that flame, which had 
liirown the nation iiito fucli combuRion. Befides the profpeft of toleratk)n, enter- 
raujed by the C'atholics, Lidepcndants, and oth.er f^^elarics ; ih-e'acy and Prefoytery 
Itruglcd tor the luperiority, and the hopes and fears of both rariies kept them in 
r.gitation. A conlerenee was lie'd in tlie Savoy betwixt Lwelve biiliops and twelve 
leaders among the prelbyterian miniilers, with an intention, or at leaft under pretext, 
of bringing about an accommodation betwixt the parties. I'he liu'plice, the crofs in 
baptifni, the kn.eehng at tlie facrament, the bowing at the name of jeilis, were anew 
canvahed ; and the ignorant multitude entertained hopes, that fo many men of gra- 
vity and k-ariirig could nor iaik after deliberate argumentation, to agree in all points 
of controveriy : I'hry were ikrprized to fe them feparate more inhamed than ever, 
and more co.kirmed in their feveral prcjudiices. 'lo enter into particulars w{juld l:c 
fujcrfiUOLrs. D:fpuLs con.cerning religious forms are often, in themlelves. the moil 
irivolcus of an/ ; and merit attention only fo far as they luive iniluence on tlic 
peace and o ceer oi civil fociety. 

Thl King's declaraiiun liad promifed fome cndcav urs towards a comprchcnfioii 
of bodi parties i and Charksf. own indiilerenie v^-iLii reg.;rd to all luch cjuefkoris 
f;enicd a very favo>.'r:.f ,e circumluuiee lOr t'le execution of tiiat oroicfr, 'jiie [)ar- 

,' \1 'U-:l -ill ' ' ' 1 

fr ;i:tl:/.; ii.;! tizar.s ol a comn^kienfion faid, that the Jh-; riv/terlaus as wcil as tlie Prclitnls, 
havmg felt f'y experience the f itul ckeets (jI mutu.d obfiiuacy ar^el violence, were 
now well dfif;)ofed towards an amicable agreen.eiU , ti-iat tlie bifnop';, by remitting 
fome p.art of their a..taoi'ity, and dKnenfmg with the moil exceptionable ccrenio- 






Ar'-u'-iv/nt 






mc 



C II A R I. r. S If. 

'' ^ ' , .1 ' 

l-j'.\. , : ( :; t!u-:ii, an.! nvn v.\ re r .-:.: t) . . ; ; :-^.iy 

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- J- n.-iinn" i..r[i;cT ^^a^ ri.i:ui;.:c t . ;.:(;l!i.l\' a l!. .;> 
..r:i , wiiicii com: r-'Ii. ixic.i I'u: bi...-. i : t\.c n,::: n. 

was a;i'-!';<..! on t!u- ullnr han.l, i\\ .. I'r. ^:'.1V:-,:.. . b-'- 



. .:', i.'.:un irinai-:/, b..r en -anb.n ; 
.; : b I o; i.::'..i, i: v..:< in v.'.w : j cx; , 
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ca' (.. \n: 



[ I S 1^ O R Y OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



^ ' 'P- ' 1r>v'\Mno- urnr r.rr".'-nPf him. i<i Ar 



i ;;^i, 



vyinr; war cgainfi, him, is declared, during the life-time of his prefent Mnjeftv, to 
be hvi^w treafon. To afrirm him to be a Papiil or Heretic, or to endeavour by i']:)eech 
or wriringto alienate i;is iuhiects aiieciions Ironi iiim; theic oiTences were made fuf- 
ii'd Jit to inrapacirat the i)crk}n guiiry iTom holding any employment in church or 
ilarc. 'i"o maintain tliac tlic I.onq Parliament is not didolved, or that either or 
bct'i liOiift:s, withoi't tlie Kii";[^, are pofiencd of legiflative authority, or that the 
covenant is binding ^ v.liocver defended thcle da;-gerous pofitions was made liable 
to the penalty of a prrmunire, 

Ti^L covenant itici-, to.^ether Vvith tlie act vrc erecling the high court of juftice, 
tliat lor fubfcribing th.'.; engagement, and that for declaring England a Con.mon- 
^veailh, v.cre ordered to be Ourned by tlie hands of the hangman. The people 
alliiled with great atucnty on this occafion. 

The abuies of petitioning in the precedent reign had been attended with the worfl: 
conicqiiences -, and to prevent fuch irregular practices for the future, it was enafted, 
tiiat no more than twenty hands fhould be fubicribed to any petition, unlels with 
tlie ianction of three j unices, or the major part of the grand jury , and that no pe~ 
lirion fiiould be prefented to the King or either houfe by above ten perfons. I'he 
penaky for a tranlgrciTion of this law was a fine of a hundred pounds and three 
m n t ! 1 s i m p r i fo n m e n t . 

Tiic billiops, tho' refcored to their fpiritual authority, were ftill excluded from 
Parliament by the law, v;hicli the Lite King had pafTed. immediately before the 
commenceaxrit of the civil diforders. Great violence, both againft the King and 
the Houle of Peers, had been employed in pafiing thio law -, and on that account 
aione, \\\2 partizans of the cluirch were provided of a very plaufble pretext for re- 
pealing ir. Charles exprelled much fatisfaclion, when he gave his allent to the 
acu tor til t p'.iri^ofe. It is certain, that the authority of the crown, as well as 
th.it of the cirarch, Vv'as iiiterefted in reftoring the prelates to th.cir former dig- 
r.iiy. 'ri:oib v;;;o efceem every acquifition of the Prince a d.triment to tiie people, 
are apt to c(;m^;:ain of this inftancc of complaifance in the Parliament. 

Arrr,:; aii a^biurnment of f me months the Parliament was again aflembled, 
and prc;ceeded wicii t:x lame f irit as belore. They dilcovered no defignof reib)r- 
ing, in its fuli extent, the antient prtrcigaiives oi the crown : 'i'liey were only anxi- 
ous to repair all t!K)iL- breaclics vincii had becii mae'e, rot by tr.e love ot .iberL\% 
buL by the biry of fictijn a. .d civil war. The power of the Iword had, in all ages, 
b.en .diewed to be vefled in t!ie erov/i: ; anvi thv/ no law conierie.i this ixe^'ogativc, 
cvc.y i'.n-iiament, till the lall of the preceeding reign, had w lii-giy Inbmitted to 
an auiiiority nioi'c antiei^it, and therefore more lacred, than that o: any [^ohtive da- 
ti:te. Ic wai now tiiOU.Jit proper folemnly to rcilnquifli tlic violent [)retenrion3 (T 

th.t 



C H A R L i: S U. 



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.'. I rc''"i,i(j:>, to j-ctI. v. ;\- )ii ['.viz ria'/nC i":!^;x\', \y.:'. 

, and that ;t v.-.:s iHTv'^ary, by !v):nL' j-.>:::r.\- Ccc' ira:; 
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146 H I S T O R Y o F G R EAT B R I T A I N. 

Chnp. L regulating the corporations, and expelling fuch magiilrates as eitlier had intruded 
themfelves by violence, or profeffed principles, dangerous to the conftitution, civil 
and ecckfiaitical. It was ?A(o enacted, that all magiflrates fliould difclaim the ob- 
ligation of the covenant, and fhould declare both their belief, that it v/as not lawful, 
upon any pretence whatfoever, to take arms againft the King, and their abhorrence 
of the traiterous pofition of taking arms by the King's authority againft his perfoDj 
or againfc thofe commifnoned by him. 

Will- ^r the latter part of this oath, the Vv'ords, commlljloned by htm, v/hich feeni 
the mod dangerous to tiv.; conftitution, came to be debated, it v/as moved in the 
HoLi'c, and earneftly preffed by Sir John Vaughan, an eminent lav/yer, that the 
word, lawfully^ might be addeJ, in order to remove all diiticuities. But the attor- 
ney-general, Sir Heneage Finch, anfwered, t!iac it was not neccfTary : The very 
word, commiiTion, imported it ; fmce any power, not lawiully ifilicdj to lawful per- 
furs, and for a lawful purpofe, was in reality no comniidion : And the whole Houfe 
fcemcd to afient to this interpretation. I'he fame word, lawfully^ Southampton 
himlel^ in the Flouic of Peers, endeavoured to add ; but a like anfvver was made 
by Angiefey. Southampton ftill infifted, that fuch an addition vv'ould clear all ob- 
fcLirities , and that many, not having heard the particular fenfe of the Parlianient, 
might fancy, that, it any fort of commiirion v/as granted, i: would not be lawful to 
refifL it : But that worthy patriot could not prevail. The cpinion of both parties, 
it is to be prefumed, was the iame : Tho' the fear of afi'ording a pretext to rebel- 
lion made the Royaiifis raihly overlook the danger, to v,'hich liberty might be 
cxpolcd by iuch cosiccfiions. In moH; human ceiib::rations, it is diflkuir, 1; not; 
impolnble, to malie a choice wluch is not exocied :o lome inconvenience. And 
it is but too uhial ior vidteri u> parti> s, who had flifi'ercd unckr oppreOlon, to fig- 
iiahze their triumph over their adveriaries, by carrying matters to the extrei.nty 
n<oil o; pofl.e to that which had iorm.rly [)revailed. 

T^n: care (f t;:e church was no Lfs [:revaknt with tlds Pariiamriit rimn that cf 

Tvlonarchy : 1 . e 'nil ei uinformity hgnalized the trium^ n of .. ;-_e:;^/ over i're:!! ;- 

ter;:i;.i'.:;. j '..e/r.:;: p.Ktie:^ concurred in promoting uhs bih, \. iw^n e( n^: : ed 

,-!^y iV.wre . '.:u,.:-. Ti^e hui -DCiidents and other keeirie^-j ^ :.:"-::;:d to he.. :dl 

:r.ir f:/w:-;W=: f;jv.,te^l b\ :'w Lh\ibytu-ian3, \\h ' had once A :. d.cir eia e;:.e ' , 

:.. ;W;. li:. iT. le.'> ^^'.: ^.- cin.e ' ;: e^ .r : ',.:C party cd llie luvuer and e..^ e. ^. . eiee, to ';;; : _ , 

'.;e-. :,,.;" :e:-.-.;,L n.^rw^ ei premoiinp, r:-;e red e'. Ji'j':, the j, .:..; : !;t tiicmk. ves 

je::., : wdd-.d. ..y Lhe i-e; .ytwKin;:, laid tluy, t!;e war ^^:..rahed: By rhem 

wl;-. ;'_ p ee .,: i'lil incited to tmnulty : W) t!"wli- -/eal, i'-- - U and ritlwew' . ere 

wed : le- d..eii" hace wa^ the Kin;'; lubdued : And \L in t!:c ;e. eei^ 






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tlr'V r.i'Ct.rLJ 1 a^aKid i':\u'': extreme viulciK'cs, i-oniniier'jJ W.- I'.vz iViliicary Ic.kI.t^, ^ --r- ^ 
t cir C'"' .:::ic^:i >. .inic t^u l.u , a:tvr li.iv;-;.^ U:;), l:c.. '..cic u::;:-;vr^ Vwia i.,c.' i ov.i.r 
an.i c' , , Iv,- V. I. :cli lluy ii-;u!..t.i;.ic-.l llicir :.:.:. 'iL:..i:-y :;c.ili;;- . '1 Iicy luul 

..i\::A \\::'.\ ihc Koy.ilills iii r.-c^il.;:.^, i!,l- i\!..^; : H..: i ^^ '.i i!.:y ' 
c , ,, I ;i tl.^C .iJw'-:: ..t, tll(;:-c .1^-^11..; :' '" ' : v ; ' ' 

r: :;. r..:l- J 1 y v::.!.y^i >:;.: '.i :^^lb:li,i^ w 

iliOiilJ now bj :j in^prud- ::: a 
( ^ ;;..:, iu" wo-l i r ;.:i c::::, Tic^cj i;^:n :.. . 
., . :, u i.u! j :\;\'^u 1 ) ;:.U tu I.i:, ;.::'; z. 

I'li ;: L ./.iioli.s, tr.^' Lii. } ii.Ai !r.i..- !./. . . 
:::'*-'.. t ; a!u! ironi liiclr i^ic.it l.iw cs /.;.., , , 
L;j:i.ivl b'.it jull to bc:.r t'..-';n Ionic :.r.'o'.:r a:;.', r,. . . . 
..:i o:.ti;c i.i:,i' a aiiu;..^ t!:C !'; :.:!.;::t.>. W l/j b. / . 

! :i:io:i, t::c i^vci'c cX''c 111: ii c4 pcnai i,i.v^ lk'j.i i 

i ;::i.::.Lc ; a:;d t!icv ui..! .bl ih^'i" latw.cll; tw ;-.i;'i ;;, . 

i^'clbytciiaiis, v, !:o luij lurm. : iv b..'n t': i; ::.l;;- . . 

n Av Li: j.:cd lor ti.jir c .:n;\::.:j!: . ;ii a!"]"!;.:;.::. l^.jc.i. (i i^.-....,, Wii , , 

coir/u vioa, 'I' i:.t,_ i\il, or l;;\'ir'', iiv (. '-m; ;i.ia.i.., j ,, .: t!..' i . a'r.. ;' v.'i::i v. !. .i, . 

;.v-.;, h.4.1 Li:anL...cl hi^ rcii^iun uiaii.^ t:.t- K:i'j'^ c:.b,-, \s . ^ ^ :.. b ...j [.:..:. ci 

i.i; s ^ art'.'. 

'l':!:: chi;:-c!i parry liaJ, tkiriag b) niaay y. ar:-, c;:.a,r:.; ;".:.!i : \... :.\.['.::C. 
iiitivs ircni t\\c I'jciaiics ol cwrv *,:eno:in !.-.:ion, i'.):.': no :i:(;djr. :....;, :r. ' * 
i^r ncc, was on t';:> occalu)!^ t') bj ixy..!..! in tb.ar ^ .-!:.":;' ; . ' 
(n that ("onmunnon k n:cd now u;:yr.!.\i ;) :\ m': .:a \.' n b. 

t ) t!:e ulual ncalmcs ci j arty jniba . 'i b: . k-.; ' 

b. b. tnc 'UraiZ-d tlc rinncn s en \ '. In a:a! c :. 
cnn:c~, whic!:, v.nlujnt any a;naw.n caann b . 

.'.:\-': n.b-ad olb ;b.n-_ iiv; tni'b- t..nn> (a o n';'" 
i iJoytunan;, tb^y '.\ an!/ laid bol !(.;; 
i.^n m f rLiv.r to * y;- v: [..cn: irnni a!! t.-an" n; n- . 
ranvbi'cd, t!nit rvu-y cb -t^ynnni ba n' : !-a ra ( rd..;/ ,. ' 
(ibi:-faad fa-bn,;b. n ^ b, and da 'ava !n a!b' a -ncnrv b \ 
(1 V ; braw r \ C.:')-aI^\ {..' . , . ' 

na aiid ao-,\ ann:;;, .a.d ib 



148 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C',i-p. T. all the King's pr-omifcs of toleration and of indulgence to tender confciences weift 
i.'- z, therv-hy eluded and broken. 'Tis true, Charles, in his declaration from Breda, had 
cxpreHed hi"^ intention of regulating that indulgence by the advice and autliority 
ol- i', rlian-ient : But this limitation could never reafonabjy be extended to a total 
ir.;Vn>;i;eirient and violation of his promife. It is agreed, that the King did not vo- 
Jiintarik' concur w;tl; this violent meafure, and that the zeal of Clarendon and of 
the cluirch p;rty among the Commons, feconded by the intrigues of the Cathohcs, 
was the real caiife, vdiich extorted his confent. 

The Royalhls, who now predominated, v/ere very ready to fignalize their vic- 
tory, by eilablirning thole high principles of Monarchy, which their antagonifts had 
controverted : But when any real power or revenue was demanded for the crown, 
they were neither lb fo.vvar-i nor fo liberal in tlieir conceffions as the Kin-4 would 
gladly have wifivd. I'ho' the Parliament pafTed laws for regulating the navy, they 
t('ok no notice of t!.e army , and declined giving their fanction to this dangerous 
innovation. The King's debts were become intolerable ; and the Commons were 
at laft conftrained to vote Idm an extraordinary fupply of 1,200,000 pounds, to be 
levied by eigliteen months ailefTment. Butbefides that this fupply was much in- 
ferior to the occafion, the King was obliged earneftly to follicit the Commons, be- 
fore he covdcl obtain it -, and, in order to convince the Houie of its abfolute neceffity, 
he di- fired them to examine ftrict'y iiitoall his receipts and difburiements. Find- 
ing likewife upon eiiquiry, that the ieveral brandies C)f revenue fell fliort of the 
fums expected, they at lau, alter much delay, voteo a new impofition of two 
fliii lings on each heart!; ^ and this tax tliey fettled on the King during life. j'hc 
\vhole efb/oliihed revenue, however, did not, for m.iny years, exceed a million ; 
a fun'i coni'eiTcdiy too narrow lor the public expences. A very rigid frugality at 
lead, v.'hich tlie King wanted, v.ould have been rcquilite to make it fuffice for the 
dig'. it/ and KCLirity of tlte government. Alter all bu'ineiS was dilpatched, the 
[-c'loPM:;/. i'ariiam:nt w:; rror.^gued. 

r..,^ ,, _,,. Befv^ri: tlie iLriiament rofe, the court was employed in making preparnrions 

t.u;^.j, for tiie rtvev:tion of ihe nev; Queen, Catherine of Portugal, to wliom tl^e Kin;', 

was i-ei:o:'.eJ, and v. ho had ju.f landed at Porthnouth. During tiie time, that 
rhe Protc iKjr earned (.n t!;e war with Spain, he \\-as n.itLU'aliy led to hi;)i\)rt tiie 
PortugLi^Ie in t!;eir revolt ; and he ei^gaged himlell by treaty to iuppiy tl^cni with 
io,ocomen for their delri/;:: a-ainil i.a: Spaniards. (j\^ \.\\.- King's r.forsnoiT, 
;i Ivanres were n^nde loy ]'(;!ri,g^i! k.r the renewal of that aiii.n.ee ; and in order to 
bn:ij me irii :.dlh'' cioier, an ofer was m;cUe c;f the Poituguefe i'linceis, and n 
port.c'i of .no.oec' [;Ound:-, tcgalier with two iortrelKs, I'^n^MLts ia Africa aad 

Bomh;:; 



CHART. F. S 

Bo:r;!uy in t^e ]-..iM!ui;.<;. Spin, :,',), ..:: r '. 
a'! hv: I'^tC': t'l riL Avr l-'oru;:;i!, i.s v in . , ; ;v 
th;; ;:'.;::!% an ' (.i..!:'.ivi.)i.:ci! i ) i.x Cli.un-s i.i a:. 
}v:'- (.!'.! .' :') a! ; t any crluT !'r;::--^-;^ ;;-, an 
; 'nrn'i^or, \v;m: In* tI;()U[;::i: iv.'rr- Oj.n!..:, :, 

_:: in l\nnnark, ^ax- y, v: ():an^^ : A; ! < :. 
t n--r a .lo:,vy u| lal to 'La: cn-viv.! !^/ 1' n'n ; .'. 1 
' - r.n'i r to .;.\L--Cot t!ic I'urtij 'iivil- j :nr , . 

ro-.n rnir: nt a...i linancc-- (i ^jniin, n.^'J/: t!i cx-Tini 
cltA.lr.v.i ; aiu! tin/ Knig's in-gcn': v.an.t.- ci-TnanAjd n-:: 
inter. :i oi tin' l'ini:ii(h conniiemc iil., v. i:c !tc;r:. .! to ,. , 
oi I'oiunril liioui;! l^c hn-y ncA -, Jdl tin- in.ion . i 'n.: 
t nt :i.n v. i:oL ri'caanns (ji .vin, lina !n:(j t!i Inn.k;- <<: ( 
t .J (..; >| ain u; (ni Pin-,lv.: 1. aiv ! j.niiai'a, r.n-i.r.-d ':': 
c nc n'u: s, t') c/n .;:! ;!;;.- (...rni.i, lin-n^hinp o! i..^:' ; 
ii.nivl, li.c i;!n-'n nnni^ bv V >i::. ^ ,', o! t'.'-'j Incn Lo.ni.: 
a 'n ' '"' n to ti..' ;:.i\n.i n :c i/. lMini.n..i. A'. 

1': .n... /.s V, .;-, ;. ) a. o,. . :j .r. n to L . n ., -, \\ 

.'/, ti.c [nnntrfiiC,- t') a Laiiionc aiinn.; . 
! , , til r^aniition -n i:n m \ i..^; 

\., L..I !-v;n!_4, uni-vncnnn to aii liis innnnlc-, ; .,n.: 
\. no inni I (J ait/r n> Hi tint n;n-. 1 It: cna:.. ...cnn .. - 
1.... .1 n: nn; ()..[:on:n i al'^io- ; n:n; na;ni;ni ;.y n.. 
( . , :n . a|'a. ity o. ti./ 1'';' nni ;, , ^ ]) \: 

n \V...n;::- :i::j:-: ' 

: n . ! c. . ' n . . 

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ICO HISTCP. Y OF GREAT B Pv I T A I N. 

^''';- ^- and after war.dering Tome time concealed in Germany, came privately to Delft, 
^ ""' havlrrj; appointed their tamilies to meet them in that place. They were oiicovered 
bv Downing, the King's refidci'.t in Holiand, Vvho had formerly ferved the Pro- 
tcficr 211'.! Ccmmonweahh in the uime Ration, and who once had even been chap- 
lain to Ckcy's regiment. Re applied to the States for a v/arrant to arreft them. 
it had been ulual for the States to grant theie warrants -, tho' at the fiime time, 
they l:ad ever been carckd Iccretly to advertiie the perfcns, that they might be 
enabled to make their cfcape. This pre<-uUtion was eluded by the vigiUnce and 
difoatch of Downing, lie qiiickly feized the criminals, hurryed them on board 
n, f:-ig;\te v.Iiich lay oIi the coau, and lent them to England. Thele thr.e men 
bcha\-ed with niore moderation and iubmiilion than anv of the other Regicides, 
who had iiii'i^jred. Gkey in parcicular, at the place of execution, prayed lor the 
King, and exprciicd his intention, had he lived, offhbmitdng peaceably to the eila- 
blifiied government. lie had riien during the vrars irom being a chandler in 
Loridon to a high rani; in the army, and in all his conduct appeared a man of 
humanity and honour. In ccnuderation of his good character and of his dutiful 
behaviour, hi;, body was given his friends to be buried. 

Till: attention or the public was much engaged by the trial of two diflinguiflied 
criminals, Lambert and Vane. Thefe men, tho' none of the immediate murther- 
ers of the King, had been excepted from the general indemnity, and committed 
to prilbn. The Convention-Parliament, hov/ever, was (o i'avourable to them, as to 
petition thePCing, il they fnould be found guilty, to fufpend their execution : But 
tlvis !:cw Parliament, more zealous for Monarchy, applyed for their trial and con- 

rL,I;;r\'..!;c. demnation. Not to revive difputes, v/hich were better buryed in oblivion, the in- 
dictment of "v'ane comprehended not any of his acl'lons durino; the war between t'le 
King and Parliament : It extended only to his behaviour after the late King's death, 
as mc nfocr of tlie council of State, and fecretary of the navy ; where fidelity to the 
truk rc^okvi in liim, requiied his oppofition to Monarchy. 

Vaxo v,\,ntcd neither com"a<ie nor capacity to avail himklf of th's advantage, 
which was aiK)rde:] him. He urged, that, if a compliance v/ith the government, 
at chat time elkiblinicd in England, and an acknov/legement of its authority were 
to be regard'jd as ci'imiiiai, the whiole nation had incurred equal giiili:, and none 
v.'ould remain, whofe innocence could entitle them to try or condemn hirn ior Ids 
praended treaU:)ns : That, according to th'le maxims, wherever an i P-gal autho- 
' "ri:cd b;,- force, a total^nd univerfd dcnruelion mud enfiie ; whil; 



the ukir:.v.rs ; rcTnibed one [^art of the nntion lor dikibcdience, tho lawtul Prince 
nuiii". .; t'a ';r':C!- 'orcGmohonce: That die Ion;ir!.Uure of JMid.ooK iorcioLin:: this 



:olcn 



t k.u-iii^io, n,;d provrded for public Iccurity by the kuiious katute of Menry 



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V . i ..c !.i -., i r(jr (j'jj^Iit t!;.' cx^-'licJ i'r:.iC; Ij : . 

J , U- i .^ .Is l.c eo.;I,l ;uiord ;; j)io[.w :hj.. : 1 i../ .. .... 

* .. ^.!i<, t vcn lI;v in 'It li.:^:\;ir , NN ' ' ..: v 

. : ,, ^^ i LiL.'.L.'.;l!i ;v,t . .1 : 1 n..i ti.c turiir.^. ; .. :..t; wi'.^ 

:"-.n: V. .. > (.; :i;c nuiL Jcici:, na:'.;\- :, ;.: ,: t:.. .';'.>.^ 

uivi.l.vl iii t'i!.;r tuc^icc : Tlhit t!.c T -..c;.:, i)i.!ir'; ru. , 

I , l!iu;' (v.'.Ti cunlcir, nv:i>. lxci;:v,c a co c:" .;...'.:'j pjw.T v, ii'.i :;._ 

t ;/ v.\i, tl^LJS t:::.rs;i\' I'.cw and L.;i!.;:fr.'. ,; L ; L.V- V ;;..L:: 

t 'dd,. by tii- i^ :['.; u: :!.c a;i:ic:iC : I'.. : 'l\.:.z :o: l::^ ..\:z. 

V' '.' 1 i;..d bc;;i j-ii.' ujH;n tbc aiiKiinc:.:. .i;,d i.^ o.i l!. ], ..';! 

!'.. ii.u: cv r LCJiui^r..;!. d ; iior ii.id. Ivj o;icc a. j'j.ii.:: :. 

i^j.c an.! aiLcr t:.,' cx.cuti :;i oi r:;j K:.;:^: J !<..:, d:.wwi_, l!.j .. 

tiir'>',va ;.". ) di o.' c:\ b.i- ua. ibi! ri'o.v.d, ;:i . \'. ;y rcW'!. ,:.'>-, 

Ci:::- . :'.- r.;c.t, b.c :-..:..:.... it ..': :.:-.;^:: .: :A bv : i b 

( '[><', !'- b.i . t I^cLTluwV ...: Cl.^, 

i . .i,..i \=.oi.bi :;(v.\', \'. ibi CM'Jal .b,i_; bv, rx; (;.: 

\ c: . ,;:d iiiiLiv L' : 'i iu;: ti.o" i: '. .1^ ill lb. ; I .- : r, : . 
r- ' ...,; ,-d !:-.,:ii bis L:...nbc^, i j w.:-. d.r.. ;:..:.. b b: . . 
: :: ii,., b c; a;;b:ii.::y. rn ; V ;bb ::: ^b .c::i J I , .:' ,Ly, ... / 
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II i O i v> iv i (J F K.J l< b x-\ 1 JC* il 1 A ii i 1\^ 



not ail-0:.ifi]!C.* ac thi:. imcxpc^cled incid:,i^t. In ail his hchaviour, there apjxared a 
ii/m and ardirattd intrriddi'v j and h:j cond.icred ccatii but as a paii'a :e to tliat: 
t[crn:d iciiclty, winch lie: b'dieved to bcprep;^;v;d ior hhn. 

l'r:is ma:}, (o cc'cbrat.d ior id: p:irdc:"2nl:ir7 t;d:'n:::, ciiid for liis capncifv in 
l-idhH;^-, h:is lei: iiMic ^^ridnpp b'd;;..c.h!m : Vhrp- tr-aT, :d! ot thcrn, of rc-ih-ious 
f,ibb-d:^, and are a :K)Ii.;tf'y Uiiiiireihgibi^ : i^o trace? oi eloquence, or even or 
coi-irncn icni'c appears theni. A draa c pa. idcvx ! did we Lot kno'.v, that man 
01 tl;C : carcii: i2:eniLi?, wiierc tniv rthnqaiui by pianciple the uKj c! ti;rir r aion, 
are o;dy caahicd by tlrcif vip;<"ur or i-i-nMl. to \vavic t^endelves tl-ie daracr inio 
trrcr aivl abdirciity. It wa^ renaalca d t.a.ia as vaaa, by being the chi;:d adiru- 
!n^nt o; Stra:d;rdb deadi, h,.d drd opened il:- vj.\\ { n ti^at cleicrLicdan, winch c^^er- 
wi'fbned ti:e naiica. , U) by hi:; a>\vn ticath u' cb led ti:e icen^' of blood, lilc was 
tiie laft tliat ibiibrtb on accou!': cA the civi' \va:". Lan";bert, tho' condeiinieci, 
was la'innavcd at the bar ; and tlic j'a(:_p..s (..eciai'ed, tiait, ir \"c;ne's behaviour had 
!-acii eau.dly (iutijui ann iubnniiive, he had aX;:crienced like knity in the Kinp;. 
.1 .ainiKit un'v'ved hi:. comicininiLio . near tb;rty years, bie was condned totnehlc; 
of Gi.einelby ; wncrc he lived conteiued, lorgetiii-g all his paft iehemes ef great- 
jief, aadcndrciy io:-i:pz by tin; fnition. 

iiowavai odioo:^ d'ane and bauidxri: to tl^e Prefbyterims, that party had no 
' jvinarc to rejoice at lireir cond.:mnadon. Ine latd S:. Bardioionncw approached 
the day, w:;en the clerpy were (d:dp;ed by the late lav, eith-rT to relinquini their 
]r.-inps or to dgn liie articles required of ih.m. A conibinadon had been entered 
in[o by the n^ne zealons oi the id'ed^v'terian eecledallics to rckiic tlie Idbiciiinion ; 
in iiones, thut tiie biiiicps woidd not dare a: oncetooq^el lb jpreat a numberofd lie 
n:od popuiar pruicii. rs. The Catholic j^arty at court, who dedred a great rent 
anion;; t'ic Protedants, enconraped tiieni in tid^ obdinacv, and gava thein hot^e^, 
tiiat the Xn.g wonkl protect tiieni in their relidah 'i he Kii:g liindiali^ by his irre- 
lo'nte co:-^dacb, con.ribntcd, aidier irom dedgn or accident, to encieaie th's o]d don. 
adbc-vn; ai!. die t'^-nis of kibieription had been made very idPAand rigid, on pnrpolb 
to diAnd ad tiic ze:i;ons aiid ic rnpulous among tire Pred)yterlans, and deprive 
tinnr (d d::-ir livii^^s. About 2(,oo ot tiiC clergy, in one vlay, reiii.quid:ed tluir 
cures ; and tw t'^e [g'eat ad 'adflvnent oi die court, b.crideed their intered to their 
religious tenets. b'orrhyad b)' k.ckty in their lu'ierings they were reibived to un- 
dergo any l^aridnii^s, rather tlian o:udy renounce li-.ie priix'iples, widen, another 
fxeadon-^, tliey w'cre fo apt, from int(a"e:f, to war,^ or ehnle. idie cinn'c'i eidoyed 
the pivakire of reta'iadon ; and even pu''h.ci, a^ uknd, the vei:;g(;arice lardier th:ni 
the oHdnce. bnnin^ die dome i )n of tiie Pardanrentary party, a dlth of the liv- 
ings had bc.n iclc to the tj Ated clergy , but this indulgencCj dro' at nrit infilled wn 



C II A R I ] 



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:.. . : IV i]- U\cu[ i)ui;!-:::k to th.- ] : !;.-:i. 'J V;- -.:.; 

loiL.i.; lu c.icii oU;cr aiul nurw^t'iT .ii.vli.i,^ .:!. tl.c !;.}-: !r, 
v,,:^ I'iil vcTV c:r^::y .;;:U \' ly niurii i:;J.b:c.!. I I.' ;,...: VL^'^r: 
c row lis iroin 1 V.iiicc; 'u.L t j !i;;\i.'> 1' ii: u'. lt U) iN.. ;\::,.:', .; 
i;. onici' to cicicn i tl.at .\ii:.:,i;u;.i, li ;(.' .ilrcu'v cu ' i!.. ;\;:i.; 
N.irii :r, ..livU'j cidbif [!u' :n');.cv, v.hic'i lu; !..i.l rt'CL-iw.i h: 
'1 .- t n:L' AK.d'.r: [\::].^:\ii)l hi:. Ii ^I's j^Mi-'ion 'o the I'^.'v 
,, ,;;.;.iJ. ;:;.;. i'.u;: 'c: >, .i l :Lrv'.- i: ;::i '..i.,,'i ::, .-.it: '-;:; 
.\;:;: v.A a.Ai;r;.);uil Lv.iLh.ii ci; (.:..' ii\>v.n j a..; K. .:'.; 
.:; !).;;. ki.k, li.ui c-;wi\.il^ .1 l\\ ^.!;.ir^r ul t:;,i: <;..;. 
: . pjun.ii .1 y^,;r. i h^'j i -..!kL-; .ui mv- li.i-1 L;^ii : 

; :-.'.\;!\i to .kU'.j; i'a:. a c . rl;! : ,i L.;n (/ ir ,, v ::i '.: .i 
lliwi.::!.r, l!i.' k;;.:-, i;u.i; i ..v: ii.i:; o'.v ll..: ... ; . 
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1 lie 1- ic;:. ;i ; i :\.u\ [\ .:;.i, 



^ 1 , 



154 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

V !;ir. T. - judo-e of liis own interePtS, thono;ht that he had made a very liard b?J'p-alp. ^- , 
r.nd this fum, in appearance fo fmall, was the utmoft, which he woiiid allow his 
arnbaliador to oifcr. 

Anew incident difcovered fuch a glimpfe of the King's characler and prin- 
^:'>'7"j^- ciples cf policy as at firft the nation was fomewhat at a lofs how to interpret, bin. 
jc-.i.c. fuch as fubfequent events, by degrees, rendered fufficiently plain and manif^fl, 

r:.::- o{ Dc- j.j^ ifVued a declaration under pretext of mitigating the rigours, contained in the 
aft of uniformity. After expreffing his firm refolution to obfcrve the general 
indemnity, and to truft entirely to the aiTcftions of hh fubjedts, not to any 
military power, for th.e fupport of his throne; he mentioned the promifes of li- 
berty of confcience, contained in his declaration of Breda. And he fubjoined, 
that, " as in the firil place he had been zealous to fettle the uniformity of th? 
" church of England, in difcipline, ceremony and governmenr, and fhall ever 
" condantly maintain it : So as for v;hat concerns the penalties upon thofe who, 
" livii'g peaceably, do not conform thenifelves thereunto, thro'' fcruple and ten- 
" derr.eo of mifguidcd confcience, but modeflly and without fcandal perform 
" their devotions in tlieir own v/ay, he fhould make it his fpecial care, fo far as 
" in him lay, v/ithout invad'ng the freedom of Parliament, to incline their wif- 
" dom next approaching fefiions to concur with him in making feme fuch aft for 
' that purpofe, as mny enable him to exercife, with a more univerfal fatisfaftion, 
" that power of difpenfmg, which he conceived to be mherent in him-f-". Here 
a moll important prerogative was exercifed by the King ; but under fuch artificial 
referves and limitatior.s as might prevent the full dif-uffion of the claim, and obvi- 
ate a i; reach between hini and his Parliament. The loundation of this nieafure 
l:iy much deeper, and was of the utmofc confequcnce. 

The King, duriiig his exile, had imbibed ftrong prejudices in favour of the 
Catholic religion ; and according to tlie n:o'i" probable accounts, had already been 
rec.oncilLd in form to the church of Ron.e. The great zeal, ex^relTed by the 
parr;;.;:u:ntary party againfl all Papi^h, had always, from a fpirit of o| pofition, 
in(.'r.i.''d the court and cdlt';^: Royaliils to adopt m^orf favourable fentiments towards 
that feft, who, ihro' the whole coL.rfe of the ci\il wars^ !:ad ilrenuouOy iup. urted 

f:n tiic u(!;cr ]i.''.:i'a v/;i.'' _lc c''o.r, ](:', tlic ParlianiRnl fliould acquire r.ny fuch fepaiato doii'ir-'c u or au- 
il/;i !',': A proof that t'.ic povcr-:;.!- nt was net a^ y.-t IcttL'J i'llo that compoiiiie aaJ U; tiial co;.;i~ 
<.!:.:', .. ;.v'i :. a -b'L't: '7 rcx/iiiltc {: coinluctinc;; it 

* M CAi ofuvftob.,, I C?.. '1 he chief impoitancc indeed of Dunkirk to the Riif-fifi i.s that ituai- 
ah'" rxU'/'ne'y to >;i.':t f. their Daci'-, when in the lianis of the 1 rcneh : Rut it uas Lewis iho xivth 
who '.\:'\ ir ic ';. u -^ot; 1 fca-; ;)rt. Ih^'da^.ti can iKive r.o occafi; n to tianfnort ariiiics to the c (,i;hi:ci.-t, 
hut .! fu;,)oii o! iu.iK .My \.iio.h lov 1::; fervc to the O.'Av: purpofe ai Dunkirk \\oulJj it in the iia.u.i 
of 'he ;\n;,iilh. 

i K.Ku.ts Re'-iaer, v. 8;o. 



C II A Ts. L E S II. 155 

tlij R'j'lur, oft'.c Sovei\ ign. '1 !ic rl. cur too, wluth the -*v .;, ....:.: ; \a'- i.bo;_ "i 
S^o'Jar.d, li.. i cx;'Cr:c:"Cfe; tiu:ii ti.j i'r, 1!^;, tci":.ii:s, cUi-- ,.c-i !-..:m t > : .1 \r.V > i.^ 
odicr cx::cnic, .i .il to 'j.:ir .i ki:ulr.cl> to th. p'.iJy, ir.c. '.o 

the 1; '/l: itv o; i'.kc ic!i.,;o.iiils. 'I he lc;lhei:,.:ioi>. .i:i(.. :4..^ *..; i... 
n"i(;Lhcr, the cuii:.i[!.ioii oi the comj^a::)' v.h.. .. he 1; \;u ntcJ, ;'..^ ^ 
lp!e;:.i;d .ind cuiii'Lh/ m^.^e u'. woriliip, the !;< ^ e . u. w;.;i.! -c.-^; i ..' 

t!v..L, cuilcs operdttd {)ov,jrt .!!_, oa a yo.ii^.t:; Ih:.'.'. v\ v.. 
r.::'.j^er iTi;uie hhu !iica-).rjlc ul .ui''.eri:i_; clo!ci , te. :.. ; ;:...,, 

tij;i. Bvt )t the ihoL.^htlels, ihl; p;j,.'|:;-tl huL.oij:' c. v.;i.i. .,5 re, , ;e. 

(:u:;veii lo i'c^pcry, t!i.- lame dii|^ initio,: ever | iwei i\-\ thr tliV ! 

tiiat l.ct iioni taking any ia:t h'/i.i ot him. L'l.iiii;, his \i, ;/a-; 

V, hile iiij bh)od was waim and ins 1"; iiits Idiiii, a ccnccii";;.' .1.:.; ui;: 

religion held poHlirioa ui Ids mind ; a d he r..i.^!it more ; :>'^ .. y Lv 

a Deitl thian a Catholic. Bu: in thole : .vl! jlioil-> ui t.n'p.r, \\h.-. . . . 

raiiiery give phice to reilcv-tion, iinA hi., peiietra-'.;-,^, h.-t ae^^l^^ent u.-.J.ei/la .. . 

^vas clouded with kars and apprelu nlions, he lu;v: il .rt> ui' ii>. :c iir.^ere cw:v. ;_ - 

Mjn, a:.d a lect, which always p'olleficvi hi^ !n.iin..L:on>, was tl^-n iv:... 

adgeaier.t and opinion. 

I5r r tiio' tiie King thus flcvatcd, during hi.-^ whole rci.ai, l:e. .._;! .. . .;, 

wliich he more openly protelVed, and I'opcry, to whi.h he re:..i:..d. a :.er : '- 

penhcy, his brother, the duke of York, had ze.iloully adc':):ed. a!! c'-.e j .::., 

ol that thcolugieal party. Mis eager temper and na.iow urd.e: ila: d,i;i:' :r ee 

a thorough convert, wir'iout any rcitfr\'c Irom intcrcll, or d.ouhts Ir^m r.;.:- 

a;id enqthry. By li:s a.-^i^licarioa to ' uiincis, he !eul act ei'ed a ;::\at ...v 

o\e_ r tlie King, v.ho, the,/ poilllTed o; mucli i\:uw^ ;!<- e; emu er, v.a- ';!.' 

.ee b..rtl;en cl a!~ai: h on tiie d: ke, o! u liom he eei; : e:^. .: iit:ie i . 

dcr pretence of cafin:; the rroLe!L..e.c di:i".nre;-, t'e.ev .! .etviir a i-'ae. 

d'lcinii a wnerai toleration, and I'-iviee: t!;e L..:e !' 5 :' !:ee t . : : 

religion i at lead, t'nc f.xeicile oi it in priwi'e , . . ' 

brothers faw lo nuP'.erous .;r.d popuh.r a b<>v:;. . , . 

nr.d i: was Iiopcd, tliat, ue.dw' lh,e!i.r ofi',^ 

the Cati^jhcs might ir.eet uitli i.'.voLir .r:.. p, , 

1; r v.hil: the King p!. .d.d hi^ carlv v. -.' : 

:-a.e,- o:;;;r phuiiiclc to[;i.:-, i i: j I'ai iiaaie,.g S". . 

V..' iLiiid, ( ed.I by :.o nie.;!.,^ be:'i'::,:it " . 

'e: .; n ot eabng the Diilenters 'i--- ti. . 

w-e _c :;b,di;ere,;a'^e to th.m ; :\:J.r ' ^ .. 



156 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

^'^T ^- by the King's miinflers therr-fclvcs, particularly the chancellor. T!.^ Iloufe cF 
"" -'' Conuimns repr?f*:'nt:ed to ihe Kin^:, thac his declaration of Breda cor.tainvd no 
pi'omilc to the Prefbytcri.ms and other Diiihnters but on y an cxprciTion of his in- 
tentions, upon the ruppoHticn of the i^'nliament's concurrence-, that even if the: 
Nonconfornhfls had been entitled to plead a prcmite, they had entruffed this claim 
as well as all their oti^r rights and privileges, to the iioufe of Commons, who 
were th.cir reprefentatives, and wjio now freed the King from that obligation i 
that it was not to be ilipp'ofed, tliat his Majefty and the Houfes were fo bound by 
rliat decl.-ration as to be incapacitated from making any laws, v. hich miight be con- 
trary to it ; that even at the King's reiioration, there were iawb of uniformdty in 
force, which couid rot be difpcnfed with but by adl of Parli,]mee:L ; and that the 
indLiie;ence propofed would prove moll pernicious both to Church and State^ 
would open the door to fchifm, encourage faction, dift^urb the public peace, and 
cifcredic t'le v/ifdom of the legiQature. The King did not think proper, after this 
jemonftrar.ce, to inilft a;-,y farther at prefent on tfiC projed; of indulgence. 

I.-; order to deprive the Catholics of all hopes, the two Houfes concurred in a 
renionftrance againfb them. The King gave a very gracious anfwer j tho' he 
fcrupkd not to profeG his gratitude towards many of that perfwalion, on accoun: 
of their faithful fervices in his father's caufe and in his own. A proclamation, for 
form's fike, was foon after iffued againft jefuitsand Romifli prieits : But care was 
taken, by the very terms of it, to render it ineffeftuah Tlie Parliament had al- 
lowed, that all the foreign prieffs, belonging to the tv/o Qucen^, fliould be ex- 
cepted, andi tint a permiikon for them to remain in Pl,ngland fnould ftill be 
granted. In the proclamation, the word ^K/'c'iij';;, was purpolely omitted ; and the 
(.Hieens were thereby authorized to give prcteclion to as many Engiilk prit^ils as 
t::ey fioula tiknk proper. 

Tr^-.T fhe King miej^t reap forne advantage from his compliances, however 
fdlacioi]:^, he cn;'a<icd the Commons anew into an examination of his revenue, 
which, chiefly by the negligence in Ie"ying it, had proved, he faid, much infe- 
rl.r tj the public ch.argcs. Notwithftanding the price of Dunkirk, his debts, 
h'i con;pl.:':eied, an"iOU:!tCAl to a confiderable fum -, and to fatis'y the Comm.ons, 
that the money f )rn-;erly granted him, had not been prodigally expended, he 
offered to lay before tlieii; ilie v/liole account of Iris difoindcments. It is however 
ag'e.d en all hands, that tlie King, tho' during his banifln-nenr, i;e had nn- 
nag; d his fr.'ali aiid p-recaiious income with great order and oeeonomy, had iiow 
m'jch ab.r:-/; of thefe viitue?, and Vv^as unable to make his royal revenues fe.ficc 
lor iiis e::pe!;ces. I'he Commons, without entering into too nice a dilbuhition. 

voad 



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c:]^i. . ul h'xrty r.ichcr require :i c^MUr.iry i-.\l';'..!y. 

Tiircui (i Briao!'siriciKl!hipN\ic') C 1.::-. :u';n, v, !;i.h h -cl ll.b;M^ . 
i::ii::":^cv, c!uri:i:^ th;ir exile m\C\ lHc e'i;!r iV ^ ' : li.j vo\ .i! ; :r:y, h.i ' i 
ai-ly ;:ii; :;ire.! lihce t!ic roller. uion, by ilie ciui;.c . 1 ur'^ : ...:.ii ui ' 
;_;;'.i;.!:-, \vi.:(::i lirilloi i:.ul apniieJ lor t J ;i OM V !. Jy : A-^i.iii': 



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i.:;o!.n:.i:i, IiKt.ij.e to Li.c Hiipcri.u:::} :.'.\a i. ..:;.'. 

^[\.[\:-\'. i.,e :ni:.:;lv'r i:i ti.j i:rj : t;;.,:r,:u;-o;o ni.!;.:: 

ire..; .. ,L -.i'.-i i:;::^ I'ei ir. i!.e 1 Io..ie ivi l^er^ i i ./ .; ..: l!.: ct.ri:' u In 

; ri.i:e;.:iy, :\\..Z t!:e jv..'_;.s, v.;:^ii Cunl:iI:eJ, Ccm J, :ii..*, ;.,;:!. er ' . .' 

I. or ;:-> luirr.j cci.id i: ]e_;.iil)- be i\e.;\evl. I'iie .mieie . i;:Jeed r; l:;i.i.'.e ir> 

ii.c,jii.rc-:.L ai:er...u; ;:u (;i a j\;li: -;..a:e c;:.!ny, [!.a:i a ier.o.-s ci.,.i-^',e, :.: 

cii.eiKi.vi by a Cuhr' oi jL,.ii...ti.rc ; a;i.i B: i \ul bi.Kle i \'. a io ain.i:neJ u. !.; 

cli.el ai.d .: tear, ihac dL!rin.i; ;i'ii:e ti:re he ab:i.;>:,Lb >:. X.-:\\i:Ii a.u!;--"; i, 



< C(.iira_, , he ci.i.i J i- \\.i- 
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la. (ills, liiS (. l'j,;u i^ee, l.:^ >_ ;,;:, a:H 

i..:.-r, v.au li he loll by l;,i !...by a:... ^ ^ 

1m 1 :ho" Liarei.bon vra; .b;ie lo ; i ..be r'.;> raih aiia,,!. , 
ill hi ciciiL a: CO.;; : ; a;;:.: i;i piv,; :>:.: .;^ as liie ki:..i ;o...;.i 
t;;ro; e, he 1:ll:.iii lo .bii.vite iii:;.::!r lii/ina miiu'b'r v.'r,. 
l'.b:e;.l (; hi^l (..'.;i. 'J h: K;;/-% !.;\'i ,.r . -r o;e ( 
CiarLiiio;-;, p.b) ;e h';.;^.- '..a- he vJ. ay ;;:i.l ah .: ^ .. ^ 
a!;:l<, p:'obi_^al y,ra,.;s v, . re the: ! .' o[- , : iit b a . ' !,: 
t_ r V. a li ' inueii c .:.!ii;: b by b. 
as b;b .,: i) ::- 'ri.'v!, S :..:ha;:;y ,., ii^v.r 

loval nb ' mb ' . '1 i; K':v ^ :,a 

[ beS o; Ci..\\i.!ab ; ;i \^ ,:.,> , 
b ;;o: i;i b r . ;,; 

:,. r 1 e!-, was .,r v,u . li 
h.-' b. I, b.iee^lior's y .... , . , :. i, 

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rr:a:.a lur.l Arb: ' >.,: , 



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S ] I 1 S T O R Y 1 GREAT BRITAIN. 



;. (JO ' 



Ciia;^ I, Tiio' the King's conducl had hitherto, fince his reflcration, been, in the maun, 

laudable, men of penetration began to obferve, thcit thofe virtues, by which he had, 
at firll, (o much dazled and en. hantcd the nation, had great (how, but not equal 
Jblidity. His good underdanding iol!. much of its influence by his v/ant of applica- 
tion , his bounty was more the relult of a certain facility of difpofition than of any 
generoficy of characler , his fociai humour led him frequently to negled his dig- 
nity ; his love of pleafure was not attended with proper fentiment and decency i 
and while he feemed to bear a goodwill to every one that approached him, he had 
a heart not very capable of iincere iVicndiliip, and he liad fecretly entertained a very 
bad opinion and dif!:ruft of mankind. But above all, what fullied his character in 
the eyes of good judges was his negligent ingratitude towards the unforrunate cava- 
liers, whole zeal and fafierings for the royal caufe had known no bounds. This 
conduct however in the King may, from the circumftances of his fituation and 
temper, admit of fom.e excufe ; at leafl, of fome alleviation. As he had been 
reilorcd more by the efforts of his reconciled enemies than of his antient friends, 
the former pretended a title to fhare his favour-, and being fromj praflice, acquaint- 
ed with public bufinefs, they were better qualified to execute any trufl committed 
to them. The King's revenues vv' ere far from ample; and his miftrefles, and the 
comipanlons of his mirth and pleafures, gained by foliicitation every requefl from 
bis eafy temper. The very poverty, to which the miore zealous Royalifts had re- 
duced themfelves, by rendering them infignificant, made them unfit to fupport 
the King's meafures, and caufed him to regard them as a ufelefs incumbran':e. And 
as many faife and ridiculous claims of merit were oliered, his natural indolence, 
averfe to a f.rict difcuiTion or enquiry, kd him to treat them all with equal in- 
difference. The Parliament took fome notice of the poor cavaliers. Sixty thou- 
fand pounds v/erc at one time diitributed among them : Mrs. Lane alfo and the 
Pendcrelis liad hanfbme prefents and pennons from the King. But the greateft 
part of the Iloyaliils ftill reniained in poverty and diilrefs ; aggravated by the cruel 
difappoinLmcnt of their fanguine hopes, and by feeing favour and preferment be- 
llovv-cd upon their moil inveterate fees. With regard to the acl of indemnity 
and oblivion, they univerfally fiid, that it was an atft of indemnity to the King's 
enemies, and of oblivion to his friends. 



C H A Vi 



CHARLES if. 



I :o 



C II A P. II. 



,.,::; ;:.'. Rupture -!:b ll'\-..!. ^/ ;;:: /'.V'/. ''v.'. 

N-zr Jr: :. ^:^-/^-'/ of Jinr ci';-. / 7. /: -t y //v /' -J'J'.. 

Fif-: of L'n.hn. yluvanccs tr,-ii'ard^ pcdc:. Difn-j:: c.t (',-.. :>r. 

7^v/^( ^ BrrJ.!. Cuu\'>:Jj/fs j\ill^ ajid banii'.::.c::t . .SV.;. . , / , ..u-.j. 

Cfi'-.Kl.y r,f F:-is WW Frcjich hrjaa.n cf tie L C..r,:r... 



Frjar; f yix-i.: .v.. 



.hirir^ './ Sc^:'^:r.\ r.rJ :J L-iu:':.!. 



r~J^ IK n:xt: T Hr/is of P;:r!i.imc:it .'i;cove:T \ a cciit:;i'i:i:icc cf :!:c C.wr.c rr!;: 

'li r';c u: 'L'cls or tender ailcciion. Pi:r!'^;^ no j-criiAl oi luc prcl.iu r^^^jn, a 
e- -.'i'.; i'p'n[ [la's more cvii'.^r/Jy the bour.u.-, ot i ..rfoa .'.lul in .i.T.ui. ::. 

'i'li: I'vin^j i'l his IjTcch to :;:2 l',;rha:rcnr, ha 1 \-c:.tur(v! o^ cnly to hcnMi.J a 
rc!-c.'.l oi' tlvj tiicni'ial cxi; ar.ci :v/ even went i) !.:r a- tu ."llL.t.-, : ', it, iio-v. . ii 
!!a;ih;a"; the law, he never \\\.uh; alio'.v l':v l*ari...!ii. lu to be ai;';u';h!- d .^v ti..' :ik- 
thiOi^ nr.'e!-'. ^d in t,..it fan^iOLS iu.iute. 'i'i'e ihir.i i.r.enr, witb.oL;t '".dvi: ; . iV.nec 
;.; [ \- .',': itiu'", re| --..'ed thj 'aw ^ aad in h''i. ot al the ll\Mi;! ^, i .:; .iv 
1 ; v la..;, ...A ie ; rh. ;!";;.. es V, : ,. a ^ene: .d c 'aa.e, ''that l'.! liaireii^- d\adv. i.ot 
' l\- r t;r:a.y:^'d ahov- t:::e- yra:s ;.:t:.e mod." A:? the I-aivdilh Parhairv'..: ':\.\a 
nov. i\i:l\": i'.rJi t) b-e d re;;'....".!' eh.^!' a'ui cor.trua! u^cr^ !\>",al powaa- , di- e\d - 
d.at, tliat they <^'^a,ht liiii to ii.iVv. pteiei-cd a r^avd-a 1 c.ay tor tii- .r Hiecta;.;, 
aa.vi :'oC ;,a'.'e triiliei.! e 'ire!" :'j th i^^e^ ''Aidt (1 iiie Kia.j.;, wi.o, il anibin ^us vv 
(.a:e: or id;a;, i'aa a) io'- realon iw le ! ahd v,ah ti.^le ,S{^\''j:\r<. l!e*(-'t -l.s 
C-- ' \ L!ia:'e.'o rei, n, i!:e naiicn h..d oce.iiion to ic.l \.r\ leidib'y i!:e I a : tl- 
!<_.-, ./. this r; ; cab 

]] ri. ;.dl of Li' ihorndrv, everv cler^ypMn. \vI-,o flio./.h; o'tiCiate "od c.t b.i.'a^ 
\ ' ' o (.-jaalii! .:, v.'a^ j)t:iiiih.dde h^y Hues aio! oo rd.^^aoeot . K.. t dis .. ^^a .tv w.js 
1.^ . d^oM^h: :u':d aent tcr the t hiiia h. ! -....>;, i.\ : ^..xfu h d.. ', \d.v :: ecr live 
r; :!uns a'jvedioljor the liime hoidi hold, :, a! ..iier.hie ... a J'j_,.u,.i coi re- 
|aar;;a, eeeiv one oT them wab Uable, lor tiu- b.d odhaee, tj i:c ii;'^;a.aed ti.oc 

n'vrit' s 



e V, 



Uo HISTORY OF GREAT B 11 1 T A I N. 

'"' months or pay five pounds; for rhe k^onc;, to be imprifonsd Hx rnonvi:;s or pay 
icn ]M-;L;nds ; a;:d f .n' die thi.'d, to b:^ t!anipcrt.;cl [even years f r pay one hi::-dred 
]^(U:i}ds. The i''ariiunv.nL h.vA crr.ly in t!i':ir eye the maii^u ty o[ the Ih^raries : 7 hey 
Ahoulcl have carried their attciitiori 'hrrher, to the capf of that mangriity, th for- 
ircr reflraint and hardfhips, whijh thty had ir-.dciguuc. 

The Commons h':cv\M!e ix.Ilcd a vote, that the wron^rs, C:^onour35 a^-d indigni- 
ties, ohered to the Knf^hfli by the iiihiects of tne United Frovi ices, v:ere the rreat- 
cll ooilrucaons to all toreiga tr^ce : As';d they promilld to af-'iil ihc King with 
their lives and iortuncs in aiArriiicT the ris'hts of his crown asiaind; all opiioGLion 
whatibever. Tiiij v,'a3 the (irll; open Ihep towards a Dutch v.ar. We mull ex- 
plain the caules and n^jtives of tins mealure. 

That clofe union and confederacy, v/hich, during a courfe C/f near [t^venV' year? 
<^i- has lubiiired, without interrepcicin or jealouiy, bet\vixt Enghnd and lleiland, is 
not fo much founded on the natural unalterable interefis of thele Stares as on their 
terror of the grov/ing power of France, who, witliout their combination, it is ap- 
prehended would foon extendi her dominio;'. over Europe. Li the firfl: years of 
Charles's reign, wiien tlieaaibicious geiiius of t!;c ih'ench Monarch had not, as yet, 
diiplaycd itieif; and v/hcn the mighty ioice of his people was, \n agieat mcafurc, 
unknown even tothenifelves ; the rivalPnip of commerce, not checked by any othej;' 
jealoufy or apprehenfion, had naturally in Englan j begot a violent enmdty againft 
the neighbouring i^epubiic. 

Tradi; v.'as beginning, among the EnghHi, to be a matter of very general con- 
cern ; but notv/ithftanding all ti'eir efforts aiid advantages, their commerce fiem- 
cd liitherto to ftarid upon a fooling, wdiicii was fomewhat precarious. Ehe Dutch, 
who, by indufiry and f ugality, were enabled to underieli them in every market 
retained poiiemon of the moll lucrative branclies of commerce;, and the Englifli 
merchants had the mortiiieation to find, that all :.ttemets to extend their trade were 
ftill turned, by the vigilance of their rivals, to their lofs and dilkonour. lAeir in- 
dignation er.crcafed, wf.en tliey confideered tiie fuperior naval power ol Erigland, 
the bravery of her officers and feamen, her favourable fituation by wliich ilie was 
Enabled to intercept tlie v;hole Dutch commerce. By tiie profpef't oi thde advan- 
tages, tliey were ilrc;r,g;y prompted from luotives lefsjuft than pobltlca], to mialvC 
war upon the States ; an.d at oiiCe to ravifli from tlieni by iorce, wh^at they cotilcl 
iiot obtain, or could obtain but Cowly, l-y fuperior ikiil and indufiry. 

IhiE carelefs, unambitious temuy-er of Ch.rh.s rendered him little capable of 
forming fo vaft a projedt as th.it of engrofung the commerce and r,a'. al power of 
I'Airo^X' , yet coidd he not remain altogether inllnfible to fueh olndous ni.d fuch 
teri.pting profpc6:s. His genius, liappily turned towards mechardcs, inc ined liira 

to 



C II A R L E S 11. 1^)1 

to flikl/ iUval aHair^, V. 'i;iJ\ next to j;!j.ilurc, (A'aW rM;-;';'^ !. l--,-'- ' jVi ] r'..';- " 
i'Tcl i:iuivii' ' .al :'.(. Ivll, 'I'i. >' [i'iL- I)Li[, li, cliir..-!^!; iu-. ox:ic, [k, 

:;i '.\'.r ^TW'. ll c^.'lii'v :iP.l !r:c-'ulil!i:\ (A all !ori:i,'',i' } -.s-:- \ '. . 
;;;::'(. C;-.;n J :i;: 'v. !i, wiiU h, :^t tins tinv., ruled t'lc C( iwH^):-.'-.- ''. , , 

c'.ji: lii.i :i .'. "I'l 1 r.iiut: ; in.\ rould t!;.: yMiy br? lulxu::-.:, i :' t. 

!:'s ix^|)'i .., the* V 'uug I^"incc of Oraiv^c, v.(;li'a: Lt rj-i:il;.t J i.. ; v^ 

] .;lijkw i'V hi'-. ar.^r:tor>, ar.d woi.ld br:iig tlic Star."? to a t'c- nvi.i.-.cc u: 
i.iiu'.. lis ii.irrow revenues n-.i ic i, lull r,-quiiiLc Ivv j::n t ^ :'.... - ; 

h; . :c(;; !c, whic'i now ran vi' 't-ntiy tcAv.ndi w.w ; an.: i: fiiv 1 .. . ,,., : ;- 
r'iiO u'.j\i (.:\';i\xrting Ionic ot the li;j^[)lici to his iTivatc iilc v-crc r.o: '..' rio /.:_:. 
J tWib wcC'ATiIous Mona:\h. 

'i'iiE tibkc oi York, more aaivc and c ntcrprizin?, pu re " r-s.r c; : :' v :'; v. ;: 
y.'\i\\ Holland, i Ic dinred an o;~|)orcLiniry ol dillmgi: hirg l.ir.- ',: : 1 ; ' '; 
c.ikivacc commerce : He \\a"^ at the hc,\i.\ ol a new .Airiean co.rj-.i:;/, u' 
V, a^ cxcrcmily checkc.i by rhe Utrlemcus ot th.c Du:ch : Aiv\ i (..\-.a;- , i!.^- h:j. .;. ; 
':)rciudKCS, by v.hich that Trin :e was always lo niLiv:h g{)\'e! .,;.;, b"L:.r:, even ; > 
early, to irulill into him an antipar'ny agaiii'.' a j)ro:Litant Cr,;rini'''iwe.i'.r!i, ti-.e b..!- 
\.aik (;; the reiormation. Clarendon anv! South, Kvpton, obUTvi, :'; ih.r the ::..:V,,:i 
v.is not loi:i:ie-l by any foreign alhance, wer. a\'erie to r'..e v. a" , b^,: th -.r cj. it 
v/a^ on the dcchr.e. 

By tlKle cor.curri;:g motive-, tr.e Court ar.dl [kirh.in'.C!:t vr.re bjili o: :'..:rA \r.- 
clincd to a Dutch war. 'J'hc i\\rliamcnt wa.i pn-rogued wi[!!;,i,t votin:: ar.y l.v^- 
pkes : But as tlu-y had be:n induced, witlicut any open appdc: ..n ircjni the Cn .. ;, 
t ) 1 Ml-. th:K vo:e above-m.'::tion;d ap;ri;.il the I )utrn ;. in I'o irhn^m' . :r \\ .; i; ah ;.- 
a'w conhL;;.red as l..neiiw;. (..iHcieiit lor the vi^oruus lue.i:!.. , , :...ii v.. re ;^- 
IkKe 1 on. 

1 )(i\^M\i'v the 1 a^^'i.k ivhidllcr at the hlr.^\.]>-' . a :]:a:: (. a;: ;. : 'v;t, !:vr ':;-.:; 
:, 'r,'' r. pre '''nt" ' a n^:. n:or: d to i!'" S:ac-'s, contaiiii:v?, a i:d <d h ! d. ; -( d..'i ;. -, 
\r !,;e;; tiv/ !r .yhdi coiivdained ('^ Ir i^ rcmarkabl'', {'.. .i .i ' ;";c j\er; ,.:;: d ; : - 
daaons lece.'cd th;' y. u" i ^ ,;!, when a treaty ot k.:<:-.ie an.; ,.'.!.ric. - iv ! . : 

, v.\' ! widi the 13u: I: \ ard thi!e cv-i-ip' lin:-, N-r-rc thm 'ii<u .,':.. hi;- : : 
> r !h !riv. I'^i.s that th'V '.\.\'\ .:(.t been nv nt'on d .n that i: . ..: . '' .. > :::. 
,. ih,;r.;\-!.::' ..re and ti.L ( lou.ldiop., had been c:a;n-v d 'w tiv .. .......v. ^ 

"h, [\\.:\ t'lcy llia-nld : r^<;ecure th.ir claim 1 v i' i . ;.-.li^ . 

. i lonf:;;:! d a '.iP' o[ non:-v, in c.i/' 'h . . d ;d' ] 

Mi ; b.i: ['. e n;a'-'-;r is fldi :. d. p ml v . .,,,.) 

r ; ;i.t ,; v.idi tl.c n .aiiape'nvn. '! th^ i,v.v; 
) r. c .-p: oi t!, . : . t!i'ui!'.nd ; o'u.ds, \". ' . 



J 62 n I S T O R Y OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 

Chnn. ir. hindered by Downing, who told him, that the claim was -a matter of Rate between 
'^''^' the two nations, not a concern of private perfcns'-. Thp.'c circumiiarices give ii:'i 
no favourable idea of the jufi:ice of the EngHfli prctenfions, 

Charles confined not himfelf to memoriahs and rcmcnflrarircs. Sir ]<.obert 
Holmes was fecretly difpatched with a fqua iron of twenty-two fliips to the coal^. or 
Africa. He not only expelled the Dutch from Cape Corfe, to which the Englifl! 
had fome pretcnfions : He likewife feized the Dutch fettlcments of Cape Vercie 
and the Ifle of Goeree, together with federal fnips trading on that coaft. And 
having failed to America, he poffefied himfelf of Nova Belgia, (ir.ce cailed New 
York , a territory, which James the firft had given by patent to the earl of 
Surling, but which had never been planted but by the Hollanders. When the 
States complained of thefe hoRile meafures, the King, unwilling to avow v.'hat he 
could not well jufiify, pretended to be totally ignorant of Holmes's ente-piize. 
He likewife confined Holmes to the Tower i but lome time alter reltored him to 
his liberty. 

The Dutch, finding that their applications for redrefs were likely to be eluded, 
and that a ground of quarrel was induftrioufly fought for by the Englifh, began 
to arm v/ith diligence. They even exerted, with fome precipitation, an act of 
vigor, which haftened on the rupture. Sir John Lawfon and de Ruyter had been 
fent v/ith combined fquadrons into the Mediterranean, in order to chaftife the pyra- 
tical States on 1 he coaft of Barbary , and the time of their feparation and return 
was nov/ aptoaching. The Stares fecretly difpatched orders to de Ruyter, that 
he fliould take in provifions at Cadiz -, and failing towards the coaft of Guinea, 
fhould retaliate on the Engliih, and put the Dutch in poflefTion of thole fettlements 
v.hence Holmes had expelled then-i. De Ruyter, having a confidcrable force on 
board, mjct with no oppoiition in Guinea. All the new acquifitions of the Englifh,, 
except Cape Corle, were recovered from them. They were even difpolTclEd of 
fome old icttlements. Such of their jiiips as fell into his hands were feized by de 
Ruyter. 'i'hat admiral faiied next to Ami?rica. He attacked Barbadoes, but was 
repullcd. He alterwcii-ds committed hoflilicies on Long Ifland. 

MEANViiii.E- tlie E':g!i!li preparatioiis for war were advancing with vigor ar.d 
indiifiiV. 'J'lie K np; l-.ad received no fupj.dies from Parlianicnt ; but by his own 
funds and crcd;: lie wac enablcdi to equip a fleet : I'h.e City of Eond^.'n Inn hi.m 
100,0' o pounc'3 : 'i'he Ipirit ot t!^e nation Iccondcd his arn:amcius : He hin^iieif 
v-c:nir;o;ij port to porr, infuedin;; with c;reat dili^ ncc, an i ci^icour.i^ini: elie wo.k: 
And in a Jit'Je time ;hc i_Migli!k 'lavy v/as put i:.to a veiy fonniJuible conditiuu. 
Ei^i.L i;u'.:dre-d t:ioui.ii-;d pounds are laid to have been cq^.ended on this arman:enr. 

When 
* 'iV.)r.:.-, \ ol. ii. p. ,,. 



C II A R I. F. s ir. 



163 



v\'hen I,a\vr)p. r.irivrc!, ;;;r.! c, rinniiKCi':'-:! his \\:[] i^lon g)\:j Ri,y:c:*> cnrer|^:-;Zi', ^'- --r. II. 
<,rd rs V,- r- i.'uvd !()! lc:/i:;;i a ! l).,ccli Ihip' ; ai;.! 1 .' ^ ic!! i:u > :l; : i' r.us (-It':- '''^' 
l'.i;';'i:];. 1 '..: 1-j nvcic iajI c u. .;.:>., itcJ no. d'cLirc.: pii/.c-, liii .I'Ccrv. .1:' !s, th.i: v. ir 

'J'li r.i! !! iiiicnr, \\]:j:) met. ;;r.i!i:cd .1 [\l^<l !y, r'x !.:;;:(:'; i;y lar, :::.it: !..! -v;'- 
bc(.':i i;i\-t.'n [o a Ku;;^ (ji l-'njjlai.ei, Ini: i::) iijjr:: i!.a:i i. .:'.'. ::.: ;;-: :!; ;;...:,: un- 
(l^rtakiiv:,. Near p.v,) !UiI!;(ms aiu! a hill wcrr vested, 10 h.- h\';;\l hv i;;:a; : tIv 
p.ivments in t:hr:,'C v;'ars. Tlu- avl.iity ot t!ic i:i- r Ji.i::: ^ f' :; '!. v v, .:;i t:;c ^:;v.:: 
proljx'Lt ( ! I'llcj!'-, h.\'.l aiiimaLc.l l!vc wliolc iu:iun .-.^.irhl l.j 1.),::Ji, 

A f.ivi AT alteration w;'-, m.uic th.is I' fi:uii 0:1 t'-.^- ir.. ihi-i cl t ;\:i ^ tl: ' 
In aln-i(>ll all the orh^cr Monap. hies ot I'.MMpe, th^c all'/:r.!d::F, w ':.(/.[ ^ ):.. . 
fornKM'Iy rcquilitc to the cnactin^^ of hiw,^, \',;.ic cuii[ !)k\l c! t';:e: {'a: --, 
fLr/.y, tliC nobility, ii'A \ the coninvrnaity, v/'.ieh ior;v,/ 1 lo :: ... v r.uii.'.vi^ o; rh 
political boJv, oi ulhcli tlie IvMUT was lur.hJ.uwl a-i t'le !..,\-.l. In b".!-._.hi;..i 
lii'j Parlianient was alwa-.'s re| rele:;teLl as co'ifill-.n^; c i t'..:ee eilatcs , '.vie :l)^.: = 
p.aration was ne\'er i ) dillinci a.^ m otlur l-.iniv-h'ni-;, A cor.'.'i c,i:;un, i.owc. e., 
liaJ alwav-> fat at the !",.nie tinie with t;;e Parii.ur.c:.t : 'J'l-.o' rliev [vjheih.J. r:o: a :.- 
f^.'.tive \-oiee in t'le [).nih-.^; ot ld\ss, and allinnecl no la; tlier jov. er t!'..'.n tl'./.tL. ::v. 
jH)(;ri[^ taxes on tlie *-'l<-''"-;5y- ^^y I't-M'-on of eeclefi.i'": ici! p-rciertr.e'-.t'', nsIi;.'!; re i.\ ..M 
bcilow, the Ki[i!^'s inlli;e;";CC o\-er t!)e church w.is more co:hh'.er.r^ie tl'.a;i o'. -r ['.'.: 
hiiry i lo t'at the lublkhes, [_!,ranted by t!;e convoc.ition, were i.r..,;!!v j;rca'.;- t'l.ui 
tliole voted by the i'arlianieiit. 'I'he ciuiri h., t .crelore, v. as i-.ot (.'.r.rl .dei t ) I'.e- 
part tacitely from t'lC ri<','nt of taxing herllh, ar,d a!! w the LvMr.rn ':.> to h.v hr.- 
I iihtionson ece! Jhnlic.d r.A'cr.ue^ a<^ on t!ie r.ll o: t';e Ki::.;d;i n^ l.i i\ct^:rpc;- , 
f.v.) l',:h!hhes v.hich th ciMW (,::.::] >n h.al lormcriy I'lan'ed, were ren::::.d, .::u; :'.,.: 
pa;'u.li:a! chr.;v Vvere .ihow- J. to wte at cicvti'.r,-. 1 :..;- tlv lie.rc'i c: h ; ,' .:.d 
made a bar:; r (jt p.)v,;r Ic-r pr(^::t;. 'J iu ir C(MU'o. ati'n^, i..i\ : ' . .. : :j 

t;.'.' Crown, ii.ivc 1) i";i \'ery rnucli di:u''..-i <,, i.it ; \\-.y-. 

\\ I V A uv: niniod r. yM\ r, tl;" 1) .:. :i ! ; . a \'. v ^'vo hi" ':, \vd:' .u e th- v v.: t 
c.r M 1 t! c n".o'': :ata, c n:e(p;e' , . ' : ; 

I:\', r- ..: L C'i I'e.- jtia'r ei ih > ,nc f'u'V '.''''.'.> i''^; r-) < :; 
;- . Inv.^ w ere a: rh.i: tinvj c,..' , ^ .. .:.-o-.. ^ .- - 



n /nV : 
,;;e r oi a v,;-e,r" 



i64 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. IF. was prcflrveJ in vM tiie provl ces ; grr-at; fums were levied ; and a navy was cquin- 
^'''^'' ped, conipoied of larger ihips than the Dutch had ever built beibrc, aad a'.dc cc- 
coi;e with the ileet oi England. 



2 2 }. 

arv. 



As foon as certain intelligence arrived of de Ruyter's enterprizes, Charles de- 
-'^""'clared war againft the States. His ileet, confiding of ii^ fail, befidci firefhips 
and ketches, was coninianded by the duke of York, and under him by prince 
Pvupcrt and the gallant earl of Sandwich. It had about 22,000 men on board. 
3d of jane. Obdam, who was admiral of the Dutch navy, of nearly equal force, declined not 
\]cio/;. oiihejj^^ combat. In the heat of action, when eno-acred in clofe fif^ht with the duke of 
York, Obdam's fiiip blew up. This accident much difcouraged the Dutch, who 
Red towards their own coaft. Tromp alone, fon of the famous admiral, killed 
during the Protcclorfl^ip, bravely fuftaincd with his jc|uadron the eiforts of the 
Englilb, and protefted the rear of his countrymen. The vanquiflied had nineteen, 
fliips funk and taken. The yidlcrs loll only one. Sir John Lawfon died foon after 
of ins wounds. 

It is afFa-med, and with great appearance of reafon, that this vidlory might have 
been rendered much more compleat, had not orders been ifilicd to flacken fail by 
Brounker, one of theDuke's bedchamber, who pretended authority from his mailer. 
The Duke difclaimed the orders , but Brounker never was fufficiently puniflied for 
Lis temerity*. It is allowed, hov/ever, that the Duke behaved with great bravery 
during the a6lion. He was long in the thickeft of the fire. The earl of Fal- 
mouth, lord Mulkerry, and Mr. Boyle, were killed by one fnot at his fide, and 
covered him all over v/ith their brains and gore. Ar,d it is not likely, that, in 
a purfiiii, V/hcre even perlbns of inferior fttition, and of the moft cowardly difpo- 
ii[:on, acq^rire courage, a commander fiiould feel his fpirits to fink within him, 
;;iid niould turn from the back of an enemy, v^hofe face he had not been afraid to 
c;:l: .-iiter. 

Tk:s dilafijer threw the Dutch into confternation, and determined deWit, whO' 
was ilic fril of a i tlicir councils, to exert his military capacity, in order to fupport 
li-.c cieciir.iny; coii!;igc of liis countrymen. He v/ent on board the fleet, which he 
t';c;k under h':S c(>iniri:ind ; ar.d he- foon remedied all tliofe diforders-^ which liad been 
(ccanjncd by tl:u; late misfcrtune. The geiiius of this man was of the moft ex- 
t^iifr/c raturc. J Ic quickly i)ecame as much mailer of naval aiiairs, as if he had 
f ; or.-; h:-. infanry been educated in thcin , and he even improved fome parts of pdotage 
and ;"ai.ln^:. beyond v/'iat men expert in thofc arts liad ever been able to attain. 

TilF 

"irTtt !i;7 ::.!'/ "?c^-tr-t- ''.: l!; rvr.J-.. r's i;npiT;.i':y_, by iriroi:n.iijg U5, ihat he was a favry^ritc of 



II 



\ K r, r z 



:va! riippon. J';:- K..'; '/i 1-..;'.l, \,,;, .;..,. '. 

St :if ?..;'..:..:.> !i ''^1 I' .V N-.-> V .-: 1.; i:, :.. 

r'...'' tic; C-. f :.;:! i i /.;;-;;::- rip j; jiro ;i v .n" \s i:' ,u Ii: i. 

T;-J '.i),\:i'-) -rtdiarc ;\ j .'.c L'tjf'. :xi :!v c*v(j i : . ... 

an (:;.; i'"' to Lon^iin, \vi.;,:I; i-^^-tunv ^i wiili ir r.c,',, , ...i-, > . ^ ' 

i; , t.K- i'ji!''i(h .in\' 'inA.ior at ; '.ir: -, < :H!;v:vc';:x\i t>j t'r.i .'. \:;L.:'. i- ' 

I- i.. ',.!k1 j u:\d \:: '.'.\< m.'i'.l r\ r.MVij, m.ii! i.'wr, i:u- i;^' .1 t.-;:'. 

\.j> crr.tci.t to a'\i:.!.! a all tlic -Sj):i:iilh 1 .(av Cc;:i,'ri!-s t.) l.. I-.'T;: .. 

j^rcrcndiiig to a loot of grouiui for iMmlblf-, y:. v'ldrd [.r:\\. v.. .;j ..il ,. . : , 

i)urri,c his a<l\Miit.igcs a[i;ainfl t!ie Dutch*. Bi:t tivj l'i\:v, 'i .\'.r..ir.' '. ' '. 

concjucR or ill ;C valuable tcrri'ory \v;is th- c'.ict (-b't-cL ot !iis r.;-''. 

the uflcr as ccntr.iry to hi.^ intcrell: : lie t'"}-..';h:, th..% i: tliv I 

cihiMilhcd r.n uncoriLrolc abl:* cl()rr/.r,;o.i (-\-lt t!.-: i,,; ..:'.,: (.'jr i,. ,. ..,, 

would loon b-' .iblv tii rcncicr !;: .k^;u::h: ::> ;i \\ :;. u .!r { i.:-v.ii.i'j ro ;^..::. \' 

lie I ioniv. tiic i''rciu-!\ icc:ij:A:;\ .;l-'i.:-c 1 \'::;i H.-iij.; Ju n, r;:y'\..Tiv' - 

S[:Uc , tlVit thi^ oiLr had b.'':;-; prciild on !.: l^^^:^.\: c.u:\::.; l.x nv-.th-. '' 1^ ..; 

'' rcidily brbcvru," replied th- I);, :c;i:ran; ^' I .::- i-d^:- ,- :h..: ;l :> :h- : :' 

*^ of Knghind ^" 

Such were t!)C cibibiiilicd ni.\x'::r,^ r.t that ti:re v.:l'i rc.:.:rd to 'Iv :;::c:\'"'i ci 
Ihhnccs. It HiUii hu".\;v, r be ad.j\'. lJ, :har th;- n )htie^ ( : Cl:a;-hs in irai-vi: ;^_ ih:; 
oibcr, wu'C r.ot a litde hazaialoLiS. J'l^e ex^rctiie \vcah:ie!3 ot S] ai!\ x- oiikl h...^ c 
rciidered rhc biYnci) e -:u;!;e;;s eaT. a::d :: hhhbie : Ibit tiie x'i^v'^'i' o> Li.; Dnci':, 
;r iTd'dit be loi\::i.e;:, wu^.'d \r. '.' . '' .,. Jih, oi the hi rdilh nu..'. nu r_ p;\Tar:.n!-. 
/\!id even \V';r.- the i.a'.al let- o, i io!, 
t;;e I 'uL^ !i t!iniir;':\'- to h i-i']:.::..\ 
nr\- i<^ tr...!^ a e(j:,i:..:.t a': nda:.: i. . 
them \r: V d, hca''\ c ; ei.n^ib'n; <, 

'Jhio' the K ;,;: o; i'l-.n 
contL i! , in \\ hA:'i ih^ y \. .. . 
;d(j.'-d tiic time i;> n lea! ;.: ; 



fM' ,1!, 



r,. 1 



d he Km ; v/. [)c:.nw :. n,. m 
'he enntc!l b^twcc n t!.;- li.a;.. 
(. xiraordm.iry. I h- ;n.L..e a 1 . r 
dm in In^ hail .om'^, .jid 
ihd' hnn in (.xet ; i:"^ ; ..: , .. , . 
. ,ily inviLed the Dui.i; li;:^ :; t 



totally anrihm..tev:, t.:e aec.niiticn o: 
* be reliev! on as a certain Cr:,':^cAic:^^c -. 
.[ ' : ~<'ir>;i '. odier, .eid iotr. ct 

!e!h-n : r: :n tha: .ne,;n.d 

: vh . ' .ret'.'n, a .d c : 

: m :,.; V e. -n .ed in- M d/c-.,eu..; 

' '' n'.mi ,i:\ \\: ;_ ^ irnr c: 

., 'i in a.teti, a ,:- i., \:...{l 

:/ a . h.c i). :eh 

' -.v.d- ' they A-o ,,d 

h: ; rc-v. lie inrhdh 

^c:,.d.r.^.-. 



i) rea.:. . \'/Cn c. \)..::.: 



itb HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



/A 



jj-^uiiark. 



e i:,!". I;, the F-ail InCii Heer, very richly laden, had put Into Bergen. Sandwich, who nov/ 

^ ^^^" commanded the Engiifli navy (the Duke having gone afhore) difpatched Sir Tho- 

ivv-y Tiddimp.n v/ith a fquadron to attack them , but whether from the Klr^g of' 

Denmark's delay in Tending orders to the governor, or, what is more probable, 

u.f.\ii^i-;l from his avidity in endeavouring to engrol^ the whole booty, the Englifh admi- 
ral, tho' lie behaved with great bravery, failed of his purpofe. The Danilh go- 
vernor iircd upon him ; and the Dutch, having had leizure to fortify themifelve:* 
made a very gallant refiftance. 

The King of Denmark, feemingly aihamed of his condufl, concluded with Sir 
Gilbert Ta.bot, the Engiifli envoy, an ofienfive alliance againil the States ; and aC 
the very fame time, his refident at the Plague, by his orders, concluded an offen- 
\vi:h five aiiiance aganift England, 'i o this laft alliance he adhered, probably from 
jea'oufy oi the growing pov.'cr of this ifland ; and he feized and confifcated all the 
Enghfli Hiips ill his harbours. This v^'as a very fenfible check to the advantages, 
which Charles had obtained over the Dutch. Not only a great blow was given 
ro the Enghdi commerce : The King of Denmark's naval force was confiderable, 
and threatned every moment a conjundion with the Hollanders. That Prince 
llipulated to aiTiil his allies with a fleet of thirty fail ; and he received in return a 
yearly fubfidy of 1,500,000 crowns ; of which 300,000 were payed by France. 

The King endeavoured to counterballance thefe confederacies by acquiring new 
friends and allies. He had difpatched Sir Richard Fanfliaw into Spain, v/ho met 
vvith a very cold reception. That Monarchy was funk into a great degree of weak- 
nefs, ar.d was menaced Vv'ith an invafion from France ; vet could not any motive 
prevail with Pliiiip to enter into a cordial friendfhip with England. Charles's alli- 
ance v.iLh Portugal, tlie detention of Jamaica and Tangiers, the fale of Dunkirk 
to th.e Frcneh ; all thefe offences funk fo deep into the mind of the Spaniih iVIo- 
narch, ti'.jt no mctive of intereil was fufiicient to outweigh them. 

Ti-iE bifhop of M^nfter was the only ally that Charles couki acquire. That 
jMcki:,;, a man oi rePiiefs entcrpiize and ambition, had entertained a violent ani- 
nrofity againil the States ; and he was eafily engaged, by the promife of fubfidies 
from England, to make an incurfion on that Republic. With atumiultuary army 
or n.ar 2o,gdcj nvjii, lu invaded her territories, and met with weak refinance. The 
land forces of th.e chutes were as Keb!e and ill governed, as their ficets v.ere gallant 
and .'ormidable. IkiZ rt'ter comnvitting great ravages in feveral of the provinces, 
the vw.ihke jire'at fojiul, ihat a itop vv'as put to his progrefs. He had not military 
ikiii kni-eient to improve the acf'arta^.es, which fortune had offered him. The 
Kmg ol i Yurc- jciit a body oi 6o(.'0 n^ien to ojvpc^fe him : Stibudies were not re- 
gularly ren.-iitted irom Er.gland , and many of iiis troop:: defertedfor want of pay : 



CHARLES II. 



6- 



The clcdor of n:-anJ.c..h'jr.^^!i tiircucn.'vl liim wl'Ai an inv.in'n ir. his O'.v:-. S:.y-- : >. 
-\r.d on t!ic wh,oie, !ic ams ^^!.ici to co;iv In l-: a j)r.u--: ii:,:!lT t!;c :iic;ii.itio:i o: hr..i^..\-. 
On the liiil l':i.iul o! hi.i i.'Uriitior.-, .^.r WiLi-in. I cnij-ic v.;.s liiu U' m l.o;..'.- :i 
\^ii\\ nwr/jv Lo fix h.m in Ins torir.cr .ilis.incc ; bv.i iuLiiui, ilj.r. h.- i..iJ. a;r;v .i : '> 

'I'l';: l\i:ch, c;";:~oura-;('J I-y all thciV f.ivjiirabh- c^rn'.rii'.l.ir.ccs cor.t:: ., J. r !"> 

li-itc t(j ^xcrc thL-nilclvcs [o the utmoil in tii.ir own c!c:u:c;'. D,' K. ..':;!, i':: "r 

a 'n:;r.i', \va> arrive 1 trum his cxj5--.:;:iu:i iij C;.n.ua : 'i'licir Ii .;;a ;!cl-[ v. :. 

. .-: hon:.: in la^ety : 'lii.ir iurbours ucrc cru\\\icd w i:ii nv;r. lian: !}n;: : I ,-.: .'. .1 
..- lionif \'. .,> a.p[j.alcJ : The young I'lnicc ('! Or.nw ha'.! ['i:: l-inn.i.!. [.:..'.: v.: 
tuiti()ii ( tT'ic Statc.i Oi'I lolhin.i, ar..l ut de \N it, t'n'J.r 1 cnf; -ii.irv, \sh. I . ' : \.> 
tru(t wiiii i^,rcat h.onour anil iidelity : And t!:j ar.in^oihv, \^!.ich thre I L/'.i; . : ; ..- 
tcrCairicJi ai^iuilt thcattack olTiie l''.p.2;Iii]i, lb i:nprovuk-d, a.s ih-\ ilr .. .'<: 1:, n: ..:: 
tlieni ho--.c tor better luccefs in their next cp.rerpri/.e. S:.. !i \-;^;.;i;r w.;^ ex .:.\1 m 
r!ie conniion cau!e, that, in order th.e better to ;r,a:-i r!.c '!eer, a!! niereii.ir.t ihi^ s 
Nvere prohibited to I'-nl, and even the fillieri.s were tutai'v llil;)e .d.e^i *. 

T.'iE l'',iu;lini likcwife cont'.PiU..! in tlie i">.n:e difpofition , t'e.'/ ..r.oil-.er ir/::e 
grievous cahimity h-ui j ined itlelf to V.\-:.z o:' war. '! ':.c [ Ia.:i; had b:\;he oL.t i.i 
] A-nd.un i and that with K.cii \no!; ;^,cc a^ to ci:: e :', i:i le.'- tlian a ,...:, :\..:v 
i^x\e!GO inhab.tants. The King was oeiigcd Z) knrnr.^'n. th.e I'arnan-.eM at 
Oxtord. 

The good agrccnicnc iV.W contlriiied be:'\-ccn t!;e K'n;^ ;:;-n t!:e i'ar'ianx nt. \; 

I liey, on their parr, upanniioully \-n:ed h.ni t::c ;*.;: ! iy de.na'.d ;, tv, ,!w hi:n- 

ilieii and iiky rho'.i'.and poi.r.di-- to !tj ^e'. i,.: hi two } 

\nd i:e, to gratdv tliem, \illAi 'Ii. :a:n 

iujo to k.e!i 'rie^v'us ai-d L..:i ..:t '.<., 
o 

guardwig Mon.irc i;v ag.i nit it'^ n.'et^r. 
wracking its <r.vn emnitv ... : n .l!. tne N 

,1; 



by i-ontldy aheninents. 

inn -,:.:, w !.:e'i h.: [,'^'^'''- oev;a 

: 'i"..e c !n.;\ I;, i.n ;.; | :\ [: xt .,! 
I. 



n'e>, ; :;.ve:c.! in tie i 
n-n.;li . k w,'. en... d 



r.::: ntni:;, te c'^er, w p.o to.;.\ ;. -: 
cx' ey: n_ ';n the im.i ;, come ^^ :: 
w!>.i-c he !i.;d j rea^ iied attc r ;h 
Town !^, :\:\.: i\:: tnentlis in^y:.. 
!i'oni t'l. :r c!nn'eli.-s a: '.\ yA>:. 
r- :\ 'er;d n.!. ayable I't g . .mg ; 
no A-, uneer (/(d nr ot rene .v:e"; 
vhne i u.,s, c.n i xp. chent -'. .1.1 i.i 



tieil.vh d.w.dJ, 
>; o: .; e, 1 
.1 ;. 



. 1 



i6S HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

ri -. 'i. -pee. ITiJ- not liie lj3h-:t of dvj nation undergone a change, thefe violences were 
' ''- preludes to ihf: moft furious nervcuricn. 

] io-.'. ;;v;- !i pirvnient the hierarchy, this law paff^d not wluhout oppcniion. 
l':4ldcs h;vcr:il p.^cr>, attached to the old parilamcn':ary party, Southampton him- 
iV:i', rho' Clarendon's r;,rea; fiicnd, cxprciled his di (approbation of thefe c^calures. 
V.M the church party, nor dih-otiraged with this oppolirion, introduced into the 
ilouie or Coninjons a hill tor impofmg the oath Ci non reuflance on the whole 
,.1 or Cc\o- nation. It was rcj jaled only by three voices. The Parliament, ai'ter a very fliort 
'"'' ielTion, was uroro-^ucd. 

r''^66. x\.] TF.R France had declared war, England was evidently over-matched in force. 

Yet flic po'iTcffed this advantage by her iituation, that fhe divided the fleets of 
her enemies, and might be able; by ipcedy and v^'cll-concerted operations, to pre- 
vent tiieir conjunelion. But fuch was the unhappy co:idui5l of her commanders, 
or fuch the want of intelligence in her miiiiilers, that this circurnftance turned 
rather to her prejudice, Lewis had given orders to the duke of Beaufort, his 
admira', to fail irom Toulon , and the French fcjuadron, under his command, 
connfdnL^ of above forty fail*, was now commonly llippofed to be entering the 
cliannel. The ])utch fleet, to the number of feventy-fix, v/as at fea, under the 
command of de Ruyter and Tromp, in order to join him. The duke of Albe- 
marle and Prince Rupert commanded the Englifh Beet, which exceeded not fe- 
vcnty four fail. Albemarle, who, from his fuccelTeo under the ProLeclorfnip, 
had too much learned to dcfpife the enemy, propofed to detach Piince Rupert 
with tv/enty fhips, in order to oppofe the duke of Beaufort, Sir George Ayfcue, 
v.ell acquainted with the bravery and condudl of de Ruyter, protefted .ig^diilt the 
ttme.i;:/ of this refolution : But Albemarle's authority prevailed. The remain- 
der of the Enehi'h let fail to give battle to the Dutch ; who, fee? g the enemy 
i-.dvance cdckly upon theni, cut their cables, and prepared for the comLat. The 
b.:i; ;, vvh.cii enfued, is o'ie of the moil memorable, wdiich we read ot in ftory i 
v.'h.edrier v, e c^^nuder its duration, or the dcfperate courage, with w'deh it was 
r." ' '.t r.r foe^lit. Adbemarle made h^ere fome atonement by his valo'ur for the rafnnefs of 
''''"'" the attcnv.:t. I'-.o youth, anim;ite.: by glory and an'ibitious hopes, could exert 
JrnTt li n.erc tiian oiu tiii.' man, v/ho v,as now in the decline of life, and wlio had 
leari :d ih^ fe.mr.ilt of ii >n' urs. We fliall not enter miniitely into ; articulars. It 
wid he f-dnckr'L ro r-:ent un the chief events of each dav'^ enr-ao-rment. 
.r-,;-;,,,e. i . the :i.d. djy, Sir William Ber'i.'ey, vicc-admirul, leading the van, fell into 

the u.kk'dl ol the eneniy, was over-poweied, and his Ihip taken. Hq him 'elf 

'va-; 



C H A R L E S II, 



,^; 



\ra3 fcji'.d dc.id i:i !.;> c.i' 'in, all covered wich l-r;o-l. 'I'i'.c I-".:ip.!l;li h.! 1 :'.i 



C(. 



'.:. i.n cn.:r la:.-> a:;.! 



i A'.:: *]i : was .:: i!..i: ;:. 
.; to .L- W . . , ju!:;! i !..;:; ... 

i ),, '.] a_::nir.J, ! . ..;/, was ;.:!.cu i.i 



. .: :v, i .: .,::[ v.a- :o:. vnat i.i.,cn, a:... :. j : 
. a;;.' n;);'c i. . ' . 1 Ic b i..,,:.;!! no.v {oi;;ui, ;!.ai t!.^' 
,:; : , . :;;:. ni^Cj t!i.- Liyciawrr y w. lUM.b.rs. a.^ liii;,. a:. . 
-i.ii, an.! V, ii.) :> HLt (.ic .;:[;\-c i;i c^ uira:;::. 1 )c Iv^ /[i r a:: . '. , .i i ; .:;.;, 
;;' jf/ a,,.: c;:.c:i"i;cs Iroui !a .:u:;, ex.Tt;;d t:'".c:l;lcl^^ > ::i c :.v. ! .' .. ; , 

; u;' Iv,.' :.; i^-.d t'le adva:;:a;c oi cii.i ;/; i^^iiv;; a::.i Ia\i:;^ ..- 
: bjLii iarroundc . by :',. br;;'i!n, and w..s i:i tl:,- iiv.ll ura.i tii': d.. 

^ : ii C.\-[. diniiij, li;.: a.;:i<i.i ; ,\nd ilic ba;.i i:n v, 



t c;i :rilli ih;^ '- j;a.,cd : 



lha:'::i\d. [b .: li^cir b^bdivi^ Civy-, \'.\'ro iwkic.d Co iwciuv ci;;!.:, .::.d t!v. :. ,. , 

b:'y.;cb.' - t '\i \! t;j r.-: a: r.j'.. aud , r .c;r o'a ai f(;ad. 'Ib.a P..:. b I:. !!o\\ ^'b b;c:::, 

'b . . < 1 r. ;k-\v:iv' :]]< io:ib\it j wbcn a c.b;n, \sb;^;i va:;.c a 

,a b^ivaa- ni.j,a[, laa \-(.-:,^ d [!.c c:-;2;ayy:ia,'nc. 

N ! \ ; rr.v,rr.'::;.j;, lac I\::a.b:h w r.- Kccaibi.^tcd to conbnuc b;.b- ritrca:; a..b .. 
jT'-y^r dilyoii:! all wa-. made tor t!iat i^arj-.^lb. 'l"!;c l]i,;:ccrcvl lh:y- v. la';- ^ : a-:v,i 
v> llrach ad^^a ; ; and lb<:ccn oi t!^' ;r( d cnbrc t(. bowed ::x:;. ia ly^id oiba-, 
a:;b b. p; t!ia enemy bi a.',c. AibcnM! !c biinilli c'.n:' d iba re. a-, aab : :a Iciued a a 
u:'daa:':ed .oiint'.n ace to lbs \'; icaaoiis .Ov-;. 'i be eari o: ( bb :'", \' a to Cb'- 



oar .a 



at..er to i a ... 

'-A : tb'. 

. ..O ()' 

. t:\e b -b: , \. 



L). 



c i: 



i-o 



li I o 1 W iv 1 OF KJ iv x-!> .'V X L> iV X 1 ii 1 i\. 



CI :'^ Tl. .v^-;-^ rhe cj- -j'::cn .f pcriihina; fT;orloi;{lv, and rcvcn"inp; his dcadi on his e,ie- 
'-~-^- n^ics. Thev ^vi r^; ptcparing firefiiips to arrack him, and he wa^ obliged ro (Irihc. 
I'hc Enshih faibrs, iking the necefiity, with tlie utmoft indignaticn lurrcndcrui 
theii^ic'vcs priloi^cr:. 

ALiii".:.: AiiLE and Prince Rupert were now determined to fare t!;e enemy ; and 
next mornincT, the battle began atiefh, with more equal force tluio ever, and with 
C(^,r.;ii valour. Aitir long cannonading, the fleets came to a more clofe combat i 
wl.ivh wa^. co:'^t'.irucd vvidi great violence, till parted by a m/ifl. The Eng'ifh re- 
tired lirR into their harbours, 

lh;o' the EngViln, by their obfcinate coiUMge, reaped die chief h.onour in this 
c!i:-a;j;emLiU, it is fomcwljat uncertain, who obtained the vlftory. Tiie Hollan- 
ders tool: a :ew O^-ps ; ^nd leaving ionie appearances of advantage, expreiAd their 
iiids^acLic^n by ail ti-ie flgns of triumph and rc^joicing. But as the lingiiili deet 
wa^ repaired in a litde time, and put to Ita more formidable th.an ever, together 
with many of tiioie ihips, whiJi the Dutch had boalled to have burned or de- 
r.royed , all Europe faw tii;it thofe two brave nations v/ere engaged in a con elf, 
v^fncfi \Na3 never likely, on either fide, to prove decilive. 

It was the coniundion of the French alone, v^hich could give the fupcriority 
to the Dutch. In order to hicilitate this coniuncti;)n, dc Iluyter, having repaired 
the fleet, pofied liimkh' at the mouth of t!je Th.ames. The Englilh under Prince 
Rupert and xllbemarie were not long in coming to the att;'.ck. I'he numbers of 
each fl'jet aniountcu to about eighty iail ; and the valour and experience of thecom- 
nvinTrS; as widl ai of the leamen, rendered the engagement lierce and obicinate. 
Sir 'I homa^ Alien, vd^) commanded the whire lqu:;dron or the Engliili, attacked 
the r^utch van, v. iiom he entirely routed ; and he hided the three admirals who 
com?r:ar,ded it. \'an Tromp ei;gaged Sir Jeremy Smith r, and during tlie he.u of 
aCL on, he was le^a!a:ed trom de Kuyter and th.c m^ain body, v. iu-ther bv ac- 
c;d 'n" <;;' dedgn v,'as never certainly knov.'n, Dr Ivuytcr, with great co;. duct 
2nd v.,:o.:r, nnunrau^ed the C(;mbat againit the main body ol the I'ngh'lr ; anc tho' 
f,^'erp';^\e(.d by iuirabers, kept his ilaclon, til! night ended the eng;::gcnKii:. 
]:'>cx- d.:y, Hnding r:u: Dutch fleet Icattered and dilceuragul, liis Irgh Ipirit u as 
[,b':g'.d to hdjii^ii to a retreat, whie'i yet Iv; condviAed witli iueh Ikhl, as t-^ ren- 
c'er it e-pialiy Iva/.eraidv: to iiim as tlu gre;i':elL victory. Ikdl oi' indigsaiion how- 
(vcr kjr yielding the lureriority to tlie enemy, he Irequr-tly exeliimed, ^' MyC^ic^di 
" '.vh't: a wretch ani 1 ? am,( ng lo many thouland bul'ets, is lii; re not one to j^iut 
'- ?:: ea.l to my n.iierabk Id. ?" One de Wicte, his fon- mdaw, who flood :u;t, 
cd. ,;;: inm, ihu- lie ioegiit ckeith, to turn upoii the Eegiifl], and render his 
h;e a ee.a- [iiii'cla.'e to the ^iv-tors. But de Ruyter ( iUemed it morewoiriiya 

brave 



ry oi cr 



c II .\ k r. F s 1 



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.,, - -.*: Li./ .i;-;n ..;v; i,ui\ ; i.i .i ;i:i.i i^; >.:. W ;: 

1 : . K:.:^;^. iV.Mi.c, aj'rrcl.i n;^.\- L:..r l;,' l)u;i!i nw;,'.! 
foru::^.-. ; :U Ic.i::, riuii .!. W::, !;:> Ir'.'n.', iv; ;';; !v c.-A: ,; : 






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!,, : ;..iv,l II r i:,r I i.r^ '. 
Ai.i:. - (1 ;:.' t !.;cl (' : . 



172 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Csnn. It. j.^^i again the good fortune to pafs the Englifii. One Puip alone, the Ruby, fell 

into the hands (jf the enemy. 

3i of Sep- Wftili- the war continued wkhciit any decifive iliccefs on either fi J e, a dreadful 

}'irro:*L!^a- cahimity happ:.ned in London, v;h:ch threw the people into great condernation. 

'^'"- A lire, brerd.ving out in a baker's hoiife near tlie briclg-, Ipread itfelf onall fides 

v/irh k;ch rapidicy, thiit no c:.!brts couhJ extinguiili it, till it laid in allies a conli- 

derable part of the city. Tlie ir;'ir4bicanis were reduced to be fpec^tators of their 

own ruin ; and were purfnedi from fcrecr to fircet by the flames, whdch unex- 

peeted'y gatliered round them. Three days aivd nights did the fire advance , 

;ind it was on'y by the blowing up of houfes, that it was at laft extinguiflied. 

The Ivh-.g and Duke ufcd their litmoft endeavours to flop the progrefs of the flames ; 

but all tluir iiiduRry was fruitlefs. About four hundred flreets and thirteen 

tlioufand houles w.re reduced to .iflies. 

The caufes of this caiamiry v/ere evident. The narrov/ ftreets of London, the 
!iouk-s buik entn-ely of timber, the dry feafon, and a violent eaft wind which 
blew; thefe were fo many concurring circumftances, Vv'hich rendered it eafy to 
alTign the reafon of the c'eilruclion, that enfued. But the people were not fatif- 
fled with this obvious account. Prompted by blind rage, fome afcribed the guilt 
to tlie Republicans, otlicrs to thj Catholics , tho' it is net eafy to conceive how 
the burning of London could ferve the purpofes of either party. As the Papifls 
were iht chief objeels of public detefiation, the rumour, which threw the guilt on 
them, w:'5 more favourably received by the people. No proof however, or even 
prcfurnption, after tb.e uriclefr enquiry by a com.mirtee of i'ariiament, ever ap- 
peared to autl:or:ze fueh a calumny ; yet in order to give countenance to the po- 
pular prejudice, the infcr;j>tion,, engraved by au^Iio'dty on the m nument, afcribed 
this calamjity to that hated feet, 'i'ids claufe was erazed by order ol King James,, 
when he can^e to the throne; biit alrer the revolution it was replaced. So cre- 
dulous, as Weil as obuina:e, are the peo^Je, in believing every thing, which flatters 
their prevailing pafTlon, 

Thi: f;re oi Lop.clon, tho' at tliat time a great calamity, ha? proved in the if- 
ke b nkiend both to rl:e city and the k;rgd;)m. I'he city was nbulic m a \ ei-y 
k'tie time; ;.!vl care v.as ta'. e.n to nKike the llreets wider r^nd mtore regular tb.an 
hriore. A (hf; ei:onary [);;wer was afunned by the King to regulare the diilr. Ini- 
tio!! (d ih: buikdi.gs a .d to forbid the uie o: lath and umber, the materials, of 
wi.i b the ho>.ks vrere ioimerly eompoled. The neeeikry was vo urgent, and 
t;u- o; ( aiion :o exrr..(;rbinary, thac no exceptions were ma.le to an cxercde of 
aukiU i"-, vbbrh othtrv/ile might have been clleen^cd iikgah Ijad the King 



C II A R L i: S II. 



Icn c\::\[\: '. r")r."i:ry !!> prjwcr llil! f.irther, .::i ; '.y,.i " \l\r ].. 
j- :-'cl=: rc; ,,!.i!:ry, dv.d L;K;rr!y iijn.ii (ji.'j j i.i;, ; l.i: ., 
I '.'nviTiiiTr .', .'.s \SL-!i .1-1 (. n'lbclii ]iirj;.-..r o! t.i'j ticy. <i:' 



.:r,c [v:.^ li nvjfc hciLhy afccr the \]:c. 1 lie [ !.i ',-., '. 

. ';..: :.:rv iaIcc or t'.iricc tvrrv fcr.Liir-,', an.! in ;c-.'il w... , a'.v.-.v,- 



':. . : n 
..A'. c)t I .1- city, has nu: on^j clilcuv;i\i.l i::clt lin^c ti.a: c.;l.;n;;:v. 

i ,i: l\iri'.rvA\-.: nv:C loon :iit.r, ar.J l;'.\'c t'nc l.iM::;i)n ot !.i'v : ) tliol-.- rr^;..!.;- 
t:ons :";^.":.:c Iv ;'^}m1 .u.i'iority ; as w-K a- apj-oinr.cl t\)::in:i!]"o:;-is tor ^' ' . i 
t^.oL- ry^.v-ilicns ot property, which mi!:;h: arilc Irom th.c <\:c. 1 . , ........: 

\o[^d a lupi-ly (ji i,Soo,oj;j pounds to be lev;. J, p.irtlv bv a p,(/.i-bM!!, y .::'.: 1 . 
alicinr.cp.ts. Tr.o' their enquiry brou^;!,t out r.o |r (.r-, ^\.,'.!i co'.,hi i' : : 
r.i_ ills t!i;' burnin;^ of l.onvlon, the izenera! aw; ("on :\ \:.i:,.\ l'uic i ... 

\\v...\\; a;:.! c:;-:^' l.i::i:'- \\\re n^a'le, {;roba'.'!y v.ith^,.uc n^u^h twun.. 
tla:;/' r-.us p;fy;^-el-. Cl::u'es ^'^ tlie tieflre n: :hc C ninv.^- -, iib.eo a 
t:u;i ror tiu: ba:ni!Hi:c:U oi all prieiU av/A -elu::-- i ba: in- bad LX.ei.:;. ;: . 
as \^l'1;is (jI ;orn:'.r ebi.i--, c'cllroy. 1,1 ail co;nbb:;Ke i:i b;^ binaair',, wbi.:.-.. . .- 
; .^Le;:bed :\:\ a\^;ib)n tov-.na!-, t!;.' Cathonc rb:n:on. \\'be:ae:' L.l|.:,iu. - ,, :., . 
1 .';;-. h.n: bni.iin.lud the Ivn:-b popuhnary, is une.rrain ; bn: i: a; ; :.:: , :'-..: b.e 
!,. i/',' .%as \'(j:ed niu^ !i ia:er than Charles e>;yev;.J, (>r e\an C.ia :..j ! ..' .;. :.^- 
ce!]iL:e'^ le. nn b ro renuii'C. The iiitrii^ues o: the ib.be oi lb.. b,;!;:,h.nn, a :in;n 
\',h') wantei! o::ly lU\;binels to ren.'er hi:n extrt n.e'-; ba:.:n :sa.s ha i .i,:;a. a !;, : 
( anb.uTailed the n-,ealu;es ot tlu- com t : Am! tins v..; 
found am; CfUibder .bb- realon to e>:n yhan t): a labur, - 
Cwunuon-. i be r;b; p, lv:iij tonis ( r b! Innnoin' tLan' 
. wni^b v.<i\- ah. ..by nub.;:;:', t Av.nal:! a ; c. e -.'. l 
l a . iun b beuan to be ie:,lbue, th.ii .bl ''..: ^:ub, 
uad,itabL;i, \'.i.!' 1 bbv to |;o'." luu:' y .:,,. n.et ...: 

, h.i.l CeLaabai bi.:uU-b.- an at \' "uaa; 

:; then- nr!:Ua'y ibi.i .u..i y:-:^ ai.iU . i ., . 
[beir !.:<:-:: ae L:evaL en... . d :n'.en to b-v. ; : . .. a ,. 

ti.eUi Oi b ;;. 

Inav lu; p'v -1 v. iUi (aa:y tln:v.'; ua;a:wU 
b ) . , . bL;n, (.'.aa'"/ ; l.u e, 
ibi la.. . Lvava" i.' iU .e to 

. . .- b:: ;. nv .,n.^ \ a 



i:i-e Lu.: t .e ...: 



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4 ii 1 S T O R y o F G 11 E A T B 11 I T A 1 N. 

1'::.: Ciil ./^vjnccs towa^'us an acrciiiniodation were r'uce by EiK^^lancl. Wi en 
I:;: li^\^i: T nt 'or r:;^ body cf Sir \Vi;li;"n Berkeley, he inn:::,?a^^;d to v.:? S::u..=, bis 



L.wt on rtnlln^bb' r^m.^i : ai,.! t!:cir ani'-cr co.;-Jbunded in tli 



:][v. i.i\\ i-didr:", id.u the tarc:^ dnndd trcrn at I.ondc;- ^ c:nd ili-y P:n-e-d to 

a;.i::;;C': w'tb lv,o cro.vn^d bc.ub, t!;v y C':vj:d nc r. v".:y i^.id, prctvad vdth t.i-.c.b to 
dcy.ivi 111 iha: leOtct iicn\ d'Cir cligniry. Oil a. I'dj.^i'i, liis ^^''^S v>e:ii; lo iar oa 
th'' other fide as to oddr ihe ic::d;i'g aiubadaoort; tv> ti-e Iia2:i;e ; but tbis propoidl, 
vd::ch kenied bonoi:r.;';:c to u:^ DiKc^i, was ir^^a:-;: c-^:]y to di'/ide and dillracl 
rhem, by ubordni;^ ihc ji.:,ngi::o. an opp=:>; tindtv :o c.jtv on cabids wkb t!:e diiaf^ 
frhi'-'d parry. '1 i;c ccr \\a:^ rh:;cii,-re r(;;ei;ded ; ard conieiences were fecrctly 
jield in t!ic Oj'^i-n n;oLbci'b a anr::c:its at P.ni';. \.'i''-vv ti:e pr>;i:eiinons ci cuth 
parlies v,'cn"e tiiicojkcb 'I be Diiren mav_;e very cquiLable projjonds j eidier tbac all 
thinp,s biou'd !;e red-ned to tl;e ' in^e conciition in whicii lliev flood beiore tbe 
v>ar ;, or that botn pinins fiujiud eoiuinLie in ponclbon ot tntir prebmt acqinli- 
tion5. Cbaiies aeetpued tbe latter proyobi! ; and alntofl: e^erv thing was adiuited, 
except the dii'pufes with reg.ud to tbe ille cd Po.eronr. Tdds ifiand lies in tiie Idalb 
b-d;e=5 and w;^s iornn riy vab^aolc for its product of fpiees. Idie Engliih had 
been niaibrs ol it ; hut were di'poiielTed at the rinie wdien the violences had been 
comnnited ae;ai;dc ihcm at Amboyna. Cronr.vcl bad b:puiit;:d to have it re- 
ftored ; and the I loiianders, having brd entirely deilrey^^d ad tbe friicc trees 
maintained, t!tat they liad executed the treaty, but that tbe IdigbQj had been anew 
expdled during t;;e CGUiie ot tbe war. CiiarleG renewed his p'-etenfions to tbis 
idanid ; ainl as the rcafons on both fides b-^gan to nvjltiply, and fi.enied to in-quire 
a lone dircidiion, it was agreed to trant^ier the treaty to iorne ether places and 
Charles irrA'.lr cluiice ot Breda. 

LoRn- IJ'-diis and I lenry Coventry v;ere the Enrdifn rimbafi'ad;or,s. Tiiey ini- 
mediafdy d dired, that a bdpenfion of arms fiiculd be agreed to, till ti^e ieveral 
claims fiiou'd be adjuiled: But th s propoid', fifentinrdy io natnra', was rejected 
by tlie inteied of tie Wit. I'liat penetrating and aeii\'e nd:nn:.r, thorowly ac- 
quaiiUed wit'i t!ie eliaradlers ot id-i;\ees ^ nd the fitu..t:(jn oi aild::- , inid diieovercd 
an opportunity of ilnbing a bb)W, vddeii mi^ ht at onee rdUnc ;othe Dutch the 
honoui lull doling the war, anrl ib\'erc_'y r^\'enge t'u^fj injLiries, win.cri he aicnbcd 
to the wanton ambidon anul i- j.id ee(d rh,: bdigbdn 

\V[n.\Ti.:vLR projibts ndghit have i eeii lorined bv C harles h r feereting tiie money 
granted liim by J^arliament, ]v.. Siad hitherto failed in bis intention, 'i'ia; (xpcri- 

(X'r 



Cv S of IC' 'l ". 

C. [:Z V. , 

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:ivc t'..:.: i:;..i ol ll,[', .Ji'tiiv; il.ui 



(.': I'iiiviiT.iMr, th.it liiC c\)::.k.fui:i (u |-c.:,:' , 
t':;r,^, bi;t i<-nr.s, or at k.ill l^nic wii.i o;r,: 



(,;' uaiM, r.illily ic:]::^:.u hi,-; ; r v.i; .; 
-iT^-' -- ^-'^k; -^ v..;r v.:rh f.: :i ; 



; . , '1 ... i)i,r. li ihcL a;:'c.i:\k :n k-j '1 . 
t.r, anh Lirc.v t:::J l,i/:,';,a ii:: ) ihj i,^ii. 
clr.iv,n croih rl^c ri'.ci- AuJv,.iy ; h-nv lui. 
anj l; nore callh' : Ih.t a.i t;"i,.c t.ic'yar.;: 
ihv. SLccrneh was .' .v^'A ta:;c:: ; . (; lv,.] : 
^v.';-;l S| !-.; ,ac, v.h') h : he.! :^ 1 h: 
^ h; v.:.:h, the i\.:..i !. : . "/ ; 



Ih..:- . ;.. ,: :..: U " ' 

r.:,r,:.hv. . ( 1 ih- i..,. -. .: 

;. h :.'.:< h v'hhi i.:: :i en c! v. , 

' th:; K'.y.h () 
I ) ,., .. V, ! ) c\ !n!r...;;h.v; u.. . 

h. h.; :.n ca.v < 1 h r^^'^^-' y ' 
'' ir.M a l.V::r^hi^ h,.h !c:: hit j 



lyb HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

the Mcdvvpy without receiving any con fid curable damage , and it was apprehended, 
tlut thcv Height next tide advance up the Thames, and extend their hoftilities even 
to the bridge of London, Niiie fliips were funk at Wooiwich, four at Blackwall : 
Phiriorirs were rai'ed in many places, furniflicd v.dth artillery : The train bands 
v.erc calhd Out ; aiid every place was full of the utmofi diforder. The Dutch 
faiied next to Portlmoisth, where they made a fruiikTs attempt : They met with 
v.o better fuccels at Flyniouth : They infiiltcd Harwich : 'l"hey fliiied again up the 
Ti.rjiies as far as 'iVibury, where they v/ere repulfed. I'he wlicle coafc was in 
alarm; and had the French tho'jght proper at this time to join tlie Du'tcli ficcc, 
^.nd to invade Enghind, coiifequences the rrjoH; fatal might jurily have been appre- 
hended. Biit Lewis hrd no intention to piiHi the vicloiy to luch cxtremid^s. His 
ir.i'tviv: required, that a bailance fnoukd be kept between thet-vo maritimiC powers x 
not that an uncontroukd fuperiority ilioukl be given to eitlier. 

GrI'AT indignation prevailed amongd; the Englifn, to fee an enemy, whom 
they regarded as interior, whom they had expected -totally to lubdue, and over 
whom tlicy had gained many honourable advantages, now of a fudden ride undil- 
puted mailers of the ocean, burn their fhips in their very harbours, fill everyplace 
with confufion, and flrike a terror ifito the capital itillf. But tho' the caufe of all 
thrfe diiapLcrs could be afcribed iieither to bad fortune, to the mifconduft of ad- 
r:;irai.", nor the mifbeliaviour of ieamen, but folely to the avarice, at leaft to the im- 
providence, of the government; no dangerous fym^ptoms of difccntent appeared, 
and no attempt lor an infurredion was made by any of thofe numerous fedaries, 
wi-io h.ad been k) openly branded for their rebellious principles, and who upon that 
fu^):.oriLion had been treated v;ith fuch ieverity *". 

Ix the ])rcfent diftrefs, tvv'o expedients were embraced: An army of 12,000 
n:en was luddenly Icvyed ; and the Parliament, tho' it lay under prorogation, was 
fummoricd to meet. The LIoulcs were very thin ; and the only vote, which tire 
Conrmons 1; ikd, v/as an addrefs for breaking the army ; which was complycd 
witii. This cxprcfiion of a jealoufy not ill-grounded, fnewcd the court what they 
m.iglit cx'XlL irom tliat afiemibly ; and it was thouglu mofl: prudent to prorogue 
them till n-jxt winter. 

Bu'j- the fgning the treaty at Breda, extricated the King froni his prefcnt difPi- 

"' culties. The I'jiglifli ambafiadors received orders to recede from thofe demands, 

v.iiic h, liowever fiivcdous iii tl:emli-Ives, could not nov.' be yielde;!, without ac- 

kn(;v, Icg'iig a luix-riority in the enemy. l\>'/ rone rrmainevl wiih the Dutch; fi- 

tiblacLiori lor the firips, BonavenLure and Good-hopCj t':;e preterided grounds of 

the 

i-y-nv: r\or.!:o!ifdr;r,!'l. h-y.:-cvrr, botli in Scotland aiiJ Knr^iar.d, Iirnl kept ;i cnrrciponclencc \\'i;h 
ihv StiiU-!-, r;:.] :; : r:-;, ,;.; .cl p;' :( .'l:. ! r i^li;:Tjcl;'Mi -, but they were too wcnk c\-ci:; to attcn.pt tliC 



CHAR L E S 11. 1 

t!i- quarrel, \v;u no lonocr ir,!i\'tl on ; Avvu'.ic w.i, vlc'.J.c.l to t'.e }\ ; .'i. i 
crquiririoii of Ni'w- "^'orl:, a lrr:!'.wr.riu io inKi,)rt.i:.t '^v rs !'' ', - v.-- ''..', 
;^.:v.in'-:igc ".vhich the l-'n.;!i;]i rcij rd tro;n a \v..r, \'.lic-i.-; . . ;: 

hr ...TV h ul lliOfK- (/u: wirli i^re.it ii:ll;f, !nit v.:i v.- t'.i;' ir.r- 
:;:.-:.:, (.l^.c. Kii!v in :hc .():.(. liiiu;:\ ii.ulL\rn no Icl .i-'p .i^;;:. 

T'' .'.pj)e.:!c th ; eoplc bv lurr.c r.:cr:i'>;,' f. vm'.\i r q i/.i \\-*: ; ' , ; 

]'.iM.i:r.ciit -, aiivl the pre'udiccs of ti.e n:uioii j;I.i;n:v poii'i':(.-!i > : 



v.. i 



1,1 eiiur \\MS a" till-, ri:i;e nvjeii c\p')lxl Kj the Ii.r led oi 



I- i .i -... 



] ,; iv, \v!i:ch (.iiviilcd th- ii.icipn. Ai! the nii'iuro^.s kvi.:; :. ii h.:r. . t:i-;! d. 

:.'.-n"i.nei.i enemy , andaienhed, to his ad.sdce and iii'''ae;ire, h(,.: q ; . i".;:::: \.\'x-, 'o 
wiiich they ha ': icj loni^ been cx'^jfcd. The Cuholii .^ kiic.v, t!... '..' '\ i.r.i::- i 
any authority, a 1 their crc\iit \v:th t!ie Kini^and. tiie Pi,.^e \s(/a : , .; 

to t'r.em, nor nnill they c-vcr expeet any ia\-our or indi;h'- :i:e. 1 .'.:! :.. i^'o. .... , 
dilapro ntcd in their lan;;i;ine ho['c.-> oi [ retcr.nienr, diiv- v .i : .' " , 
Clarendon, into whole h,;ni!s the Iwuv, kenicd at lir.i lo iia'. e ; 
power u\ go\'ernment. I'he hile ot l)L:nkirK, tlv.' b.ui r.;v:r,e;:" ( i ili. ;...... :i, I'.e 
dil'iMMce at Chatiiam, the iinkiLcehhi! coneli.lion ot t'l. v, .ir, Ai\ :!m r;. :.. r :.:;..-, 
were c'aarged o:i 'dne ehanceilor, w'io, th(/ he hi.id cvcr o: vo'.-:^ t!.e i\._ i.:e v, :t'i 
I Ioii.:nd, thouj;ht it llil! his duty to ;iiili!v u iiat !.'. co\^^ not p^ev\:l^ A bu;.,:- 
iniz iikewile ot more expen.ce .aid maizniiiecnce t.;an r..s ilenaie;- loiu.r.e Lovdd 
aiTord, being uiv.vardv lUKlertaben by him, ini.eb. exrole.l i:im to p.,b!ie r-p'o.ieii, 
as if he had aecjuired great rieiies by corruption. b!;e p(q)-.'.aLe gase it ^on^nion- 
iv the appelLition oi Dunkirk I lo'ule. 

'I'm. Kii^g hi.rdeb, v.!-,o had :ib.". ays more r.^erc d. tlian h)ved. t!;c c;-.a:ie( !'or, 
w.1n now tot.ii!v ellr.m';' d ;; .'r h'-':i. .\midi! r'l:' ini:o!u'e manners o! t!; ; e. n::, 
that miniiler ib'I ir^vv . \i'^'e (' -y, and v. . .uld not hnMri' t > .niy 

tendeleeni^ ' , \. An li lit: i: . .. ordiv in- .ig- and eh.ii\.;[i r. H..A-.n, n..rr, 

anianoip'''" .r - :' , ',;-, t.deni I'l i idicu! , I n.t c xp;,:. d ni in^ o\\ :i 

de th':".'.- on oth- r-, lAd m ide Inni rlic o - 



( oi-,duet to . 
ieet ( I h'S ranijrv, . 
his mnnll,"n \ A. n n.y ,.> 
blame was ildi n.n' o.. h;m, .. ,: ;. . : 
e!,ei'ked .d; i.uihi ConLelnonh i > t'l: i\ n 
niorc n n'-'w iie tound in Ciaren'on, 
. and^ition. 



\'. . 1 : 

t ; n 



N'. e 1 



Km:' tiid'UlA d V. \:\\ i!.e 



lier . .. nn: [Tc-cnpg'^ed to .;n n.n.r, 
v.... !I, 



178 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chnp. ir. marriage. He was iarcher irimulated by his paHion for Mrs. Stuart, daughter to a 
166-. 



Scotch gentleman ; a Lady of great beauty, and whole virtue he had hitherto found 
impregnable : But Clarendon, apprehenfive cF the confequences attending a dif- 
puted title, and perhaps anxious for the fuccemon of his grandchildren, engaged 
the cuke of Richmond to marry Mrs. Stuart, and thereby put an end to the 
King's hopes. It is pretended, that Charles never forgave this diiappointment. 

"When pohtics, therefore, and inclination both concurred to make the King fa- 
crifice Clarendon to popular prejudices, the memory of his paft fervices was not 
able any longer to delay his fall. The feals were taken from him, and given to 
Sir Orlando Bridgeman. Southampton the treafurer was now dead, who had per- 
fevered to the utmoft in his attachments to the chancellor. The laft time he ap- 
peared at the council boar ^ he exerted his friendfliip with a vigour, which neither 
age nor inhrmiiies could abate. " This man," faid he, fpeaking of Clarendon, 
" is a true Protefiant, arid an honeft Englifhman j and while he enjoys power, 
*' we are fecure of our laws, liberties, and religion. I dread the confequences of 
" his removal." 

But the fall of the chancellor was not fufBcient to gratify the malice of his ene- 
mies : His total ruin was refolved on. The duke of York in vain exerted his in- 
tcrefl: in behalf of his father-in-law. Both Prince and people united in promiOting 
that violent meafure j and no means were thought fo proper for ingratiating the 
court with a Parliament, which had fj long been governed by that very minifter, 
who Vv-as now to be the vidim of their prejudices. 
''^^ --^ '^^~' Sq:.\i popular a5:s paved the way for the fefjion , and the Parliament, in their 
firft ad.irefs, gave x:rit King thanks for thefe infl inces ot his goodnefs, and amonf? 
t.' c rtft, Hicy took c:i':z to m.enLion liis difrniflion of Clarendon. The King, in 
reply, a'Turcd the Houfcs, that he would never again employ that nobleman in 
a;iy pu.lic office wh:itroever. Immediately, the charge againfc him was opened 
ir. tiie lioufe of Commons by Mr. Seymour, afterwards Sir Edward, and confilted 
offeventeen articles, liie houfe, without examining particulars, farther than 
lirar:r.g genera! aiTirmations, tliat all would be pr:3ved, immediately voted his 
impeachment. Many of tiie articles^'- we know to be either falle or fi-ivolous ; 

and 

" "' \:?. srt;- iC^ were, t'lat lie lia-1 n;;vi;o:l ti.c ICins; to p^ovcrn l:v nii!'r:irv power \vii!i;ii;c i';uli,nnc!n;, 
t' ::l he \\?A ;.f:irnii;J t'lc K:n;^ to be a l';! 'll or ] opiilily aiicctcd, that he liad received c^rciU iuni;, or' 
inOrev r-'f procuii'i.f^ the Canary prilent and other iHcr^a! patent--, tiiat he had aiiviled and procured 
I'-.es -.r hi", M ij';lv'"s fi. -j . ^^ to bo iir.pr'Tjr.ed ao-aiiul \\\w , in remote nhmd;. and ganiion'', therel)v 
to p: e^ e- t :ht:r having ihe h ::\':'.:: oi the ia\>/, tliat lie had procured the cuilom-, to be iiirmed at under- 
r.il.^-, that re '. aJ icuved '"vatinm^, irnm tlie \ intrcr-,' (Joir:paay, lur alhnviny lliem to iidiance :};<= 
r'i-t c.l Winas tha- he 'a.e a a '^-.-ri tiaie gained a greater cllate than coaid liave been lupno/hd r^ 
a.iJ^ hem :he proLi^ ci ;u: ofh.'. a ti.at he iuid iiurodu^-ce v.n aibitiary ii^ovtiiitncjit ii.to Id;, Majedv - 

phintarieiio 



CHAR L E S II. i;9 

GnJ I'ljch ofthem, \%holc foiiiidation wc are iiniirquair.rccl wid;, wc rr..iy fairly y: - '^^^ V. 
I'arr.e to be r.o Iv trvr g-u'ji.clctl. 1 l;s a-lv;!];-.^ [''.o laij ot l)ii:.I--:h, Ictir.j I'.x 
l.cavi-ll ai;,i niicll y.\n ct :!;c ch.irgc i b-..- a n;:!ii!.c in joCi-rrKcnr, v. 'i r.- r'lcro 
a;'i'.":;- ;i^> lyrr,;-:(.;ii-. t f Corruption or b..^' i:'t ii:!ur','=, !' v. tu.i ; hr v:<\- '.\:\[\\ to 
cna:-^:^ a^ a c:i:iic on any niu. ;ilcr. i ..c kin.;'s nvcc:;'.:ic^, \\!i:.:i (.jcaliNi' .; t:'.:.v 
i.'vi'n.Jciit nvjaliire, canr.ot uitl: a;,/ a[^[--jar..nc.- o: rjaion b'j ;ir.[ utcJ to L..i 
rcn.iv;n. 

\\';;!.N t!i^ ch:r_;c was can ic J i;:-) to t;.:- Tc^r;, a. it Cwnra;:, <\ an a:ci:!a::-^- , 
t:.a''ini:: ircni'ral, witli; i;t l[):-cii vin^; anv parti, iiar'^, it Lcn^jJ not a !'..::-:ic:.' 
:."\'Un.: lor cuniniittm^, (-'larcn.k n to cu'lo.iv. I I.c [ rcccJrnts o; Sira'^-.r.: a;;.' 

I.aiul were 1:0 1, by r;.alon oi tiu' \-i.''..'ncc- o\ the tiiins, ci!. cniL-ci a prt^j-.-; .... - 
rhoritv-, bi-t as the Comfnons Hill iiifilled upon I'.is ccV'iniit.-;:-. r.r, :: w a-. r:ec. ;^ 
i.iry to appoint a Irec conlercnce b.tNs^Ln Vac i loiiT^s. T/.e l.or s . . :':\Tr-. J ;.-. 
tiicir rel'-lution , and t'ne L'o:]inions \orc(.l tlii> coh-Il-j. 'o l\- .::\ oL^l i:. ::j:: 'o p-b- 
\[C ''Lillice, aPAi a precedent (;! evd a.nd dacif^ [^v.- c rnl.pL.. :v,--,-. 'I'.'-.ey a^io (.;._: 
a committee to dr.iw up a \nn.d.!cat!on ol tlui;- > \vn pr'jceed:;vj;<. 

Ci..'.:'; ; Ni^'^N , findi.np; t!iat the ['opular t rrent, i;:n:ed to t!:e v:, '.:::c. of : cv.ver, 
ran \\\:\\ p;reat im'H'ti;oii:v apainlt him, and tha^ a d.^leni;.,', ('.'i.rc.; tu i....'i p.re- 

^;dK\.\: cars would be entirely in(. w^tual, thi uph pro; er to \\it';d;a-.v h::;.:e!:". 
At ( a! :;s, l.e wiote a p^i; cr ad.dneliedi to the 1 lou'e t i 1 otch-, I le tiiere lak!, 
:.i.:t h;i lortunc, whieh was but moderate, had been [;\.ned .i.tir.'y by the !av.ul, 
avowed ; rofits oi lii.^ oliiee, and bv the N'c/mu.iry botnuy o: the Kipl:: ; tliat di.irin.; 
th,e full years after the red.oration he \\al\ always vo:',e.n;\d in (ipnuon witli tl,e 
c^th.^r Cv u-V.e'.'.or.-, w.vn u; hu li r.-: ut.iti' n th.at I'.o oee ^' eh! emei't.un lul, h ior> o; 
rhiu' wndom or i;:tep-;'\' ; tn.^t ho'.r^da [-.ca d- ^'[:a d, aed !;oues'er hemi-ht 
c.:'..v'' ro\'e ot here niei:..;- s lu !o .n i i: wun ' ^ 'ppi^le tie m ; rh.it !:- :epu.;- 
nancc to th'' l).,'.h y^,\v, th. I ;urce . ..1 -h. i ubhe pr:ev..nee-, waN ahvavs p - 
ii( rally know n, a^ well a- i.'s ch.ai--' i >' ..;;on ol ni.nv u- ha- rv llcps ra .; n u. e* n- 
ch.eiui.!; :t ; aiui tn.it v. h,i:i\' .r j . z;^ :>: nii::ht be madr : \ nation d odt nc: >;, h s r, .;! 
. : Inie, in a'' which \\m\ ; xai' -. r,.y_ . his pow;.ru.. ceme. s, v, a^ hi> lieipient cy oh - 
:ion to ex(jil itant I'taets v,..;eh the iirportuih'y (, : luiioi;. liad e\toited :i\ :.) : :- 
\] 'cdv. 

A a .1 '1 ::; 

, :,:.. ;.:r-\eic.!a j": -..;.! e.- ihv p. ..:'. :: 
.. f! jMcat I'M'- 1.1 t!.i':c r ;[ , !i.:e wlv:. ' ^ ,. 

. i i'...c N^ ! li C i'eiv.\',-! . -.d !i; <. :.r lit.- , ;. ' 

r v.]\- (.r :'::- K.; ,p ; , ' 

; ( : t,[..; -'/::, v,m .::: h- 

, ; , 1 :;,I,.:k1. t:;,e i.- ive..vc.i ;, > 

. ;;! iji ci\::\:u' the :h:: i:; 1 ....: \' '-\ 



iSo HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. 11. This paper the Lords tranfmltted to the Commons under the appellation of i 
^^'^'' libel J and by a vote of both lloules, it was condemned to be burned by the 
hands of the hangman. They next proceeded to exert their leglflative power 
Cia-enicr;".-; againl^: CLarendon, and paiTcd a bill of banidinient and incapacity, which received 
icQ royal auent. lie reihcd into France, Vvhere he lived in a private manner. 
He fiirvived his banifiiment fix years j and he employed his leizure chiefly in re^ 
ducing into order the Ilhlory cf the Civil Wars, for which he had before colle6led 
materials. The performance does great honour to his memory ; and, except 
Whitelocke's Memorials, is the moft candid account of thofe times, compofed by 
any coremporary author. 

Clarendon was always a friend to the liberty and the conflitution of his country. 
At the commencement of the civil wars, he had entered into the late King's fervice, 
and was honoured v/ith a great fhare in the efteem and friendfhip of that Monarch ; 
He was purfued vv'ith unrelentinganimofity by the L.ong Parliament: Fie had fhared 
all the fortunes and direfled all the councils of the prefent King during his exi!e : 
Fie hai been advanced to the higheft truft and offices after the reftoration : Yet all 
thefe circumftances, which might naturally operate with fuch force, either on re- 
fcntment, gratitude, or ambition, had no influence on his uncorrupted mind. It 
is faid, that when he iirft engaged in the ftudy of the law, his father exhorted him 
with great earneunefs to ihun the practice too common in thatprofeffion, of {train- 
ing every point in favour of prerogative, and perverting fo ufeful a fcience to the 
opprefllon of liberty : And in the midft of thefe rational and virtuous councils, 
v;hich he re-iterated, he was fuddenly feized with an apoplexy, and expired in his 
fon's prefence. This circumftance gave additional weight to the principles, which 
he inculcated. 

The combination cf King and fubjed to opprefs fo good a minifter affords, to 
men of oppofite difpofitions, an equal occafion of inveighing againft the ingratitude 
of Princes or ignorance of the people. Charles Hems never to have mitigated his 
refentment againft Clarendon-, and the national prejudices purfued him to his retreat 
in France. Even fome years after, a company of Engli.li foldiers, being quartered 
Ticar him, ailaulted his houfe, broke open the doors, and would have proceeded 
to the lad extremity, had not tlicir ofiicers, hearing oi the violenc;-, happily in- 
leri;ored. 



.66;i 



I'he next expedient, which the King embraced, in order to acquire po;:i]larity, 
is i:vacb. inore dcfcrving of praife ; and, haJi it been fteadily ['Urlued, would yvo~ 
bably h n'e rendered his reign hap'^.y, certainly his msmory glorious. It is th.e 
Triiie Alllauce of which I fpeah ; a meafurc, which gave entire iatifefadion to tlic 
[ ublic, 



CHARLES II. I'M 

Tht glory cfFiMixo, wliirh had lon^; been c.v-'.l.' ', cii'icr 'pv (lomrP.i: :'..::'( ..-, 
;)r by vac I'jjvr'.uf to:\c oi i!;c S|\i:,it]i Mor.;uc;.v, b.'.;'n r./.v : b:-c'.-.;; r;.: v, ; : 
;M\'at K::l; /, .:;;i! io c:v';i.;c tlu- atrciui'-iMjt all riic i^ ' ;'i'':);;:i- - ::.i' i^c: . i ;.. ::..:j- 1 
i /,..!..:: ',\r .iriw niLitiiuni Ipirit (.t t!ic noh::'rv were l' '\!i.j : 1 ..! ; ;\,l.i:- : :t.'- 
t-j;!ii.';.- ( : i::r I'aih.iiT:: nc rvllraii:c\l : llu- I L:l!,():u^l p :::v r^ .' ., c.i : > ;i. -.::i,-n : 
linr c \:c:.lb.';: aiul tciiilc ro':;^:;-.-, | oil" ll";.! t)i ^ wry ,:c' v,i:::.; j b :'i (,: (! :: ;: 
.:: lI uuancn, was ii.l'v |'C -p!; d v. ;l;i i;i;;ci-.!w;: > M\d \i\....\.[\- \: i;.!.a' :[a' t- : A:: 1 
^ . :!;; tiic Ip.riC ui til. iwKiDn c:ili cj\\ iwl a!! t!u- \';- )La" a:: i 1'. u\ ; y i. :^:ij- ! ;- 
::,(.:[ c;:tL ![ : :/rS iMvab taiiic.l Co a:i ciitirc ll.bniilik ;i uiuljr Lic \:.!1 vi i':.-j Sj 

Tin: Severe;,',:!, \\\\o now hIIlcI the tlirnrr, v/as v/cil aday\\:, bv !.;^ yiTl'r:.;; v 
'Mnractcr, b,)c!i to cncrcalc aiul to a\\;:l liiinlcll c;! thcl:- ir.' .jh:\ a.'wi : : , I . -v, ! , ' 
t!ie tji.r'ci:: n'l, c::d(jW(.\' \vi[!\ c\'ery q'lalif.-, v, iiiJw i.!,: c-::c:;a:.: : .; y. ; !.-, 
j-.'ilci-cil niAiy.- v.-hich ri^cr:: i\v: ayprubatioii c! t!i" v, ::'. 'l\\c :r..:\ :.'.::. j b.-a..:.- 
^}\ \\'--- j;.;-iwii u a^ cin'x-llilliad \\;:!mi iu-b!a air: bi:.- diyai'v i: !.:. be!:a-.-: ..; '.'.a^ 
Ltjn-ipv;-cd w ii:!^ tl^c' iiii^'u ll ail'abiiiry a:\l j\iii:c:!,-l^ : l-.'r;yi::t v. ]:::o..: v:':c:r.r:.\ ;. ad- 
c;::tc'd to {)lL-aUirc witlioiit rua^lcciin;; bi;!i:"ic;s (bcc:u ;:i h:s w:-v \ i a';^, a:ia ;\-! ;v- 
t\l in iIk- iriall o; arbitra:'\- pjwcr ^ !k- Iiiryalilvl ai! cu:^;wyo:'ai'v Nbj:.ai\.,>, a^ i;i 
':r.a^!(.'i:r", lo iibcvilb in ia:nj a::(i L;!w'rv. 

I I :s air.bititai, rcgt.latcd iy/ prLa'.c;'c.\ not bv jailicv-, had car;-r'..!!y {ro'.dd.-.l 
cvcr\ ir, 'a:-.i ol conqviell ; and b-.iorr b.c y.z !:iivd.li in ni^ti .>n, be ibciiH-d to \:.,\-- 
;.bli^iiitclv c'diircd hinibl; of L.ccaa'-. 1 lis tbianv~cs wxv' b:-'jii!du ir,t(; (u\;, r .\ : a\ .d 
1 (\'.cr created : I lis aianic^ c:icic;dad ai:d ci !upi:::cd : ^bl^a/:ac^ ..nd n,!::a:,' 
jUiiiN p:'uviJcd ; And U.S tiie n";a';,ni:ic:enca ci h;^ .oint v,.is hay);:,c: ' c . >:;d 
;id ha'n:.r exanij :e. i>) iryaar va:^ i!:a c; r(}noa:\' (:^kT',-cd. a:.d Id v. i ,:..: i. ^ :d 
t';e pecy: , :: v\' cn:.v!:cw iy/ a':^ a::. I t^::i".:!> rce, lalvnit to inai'i- :;;\: ta\a - 
Liait h!> !:ib;Mr\- ioia c m;;cn cxcfcied vdiac i:: a;^y [r.>-cdi;.^ ay,. !;aa v w : : een 
cniido}!.!.! ;'\' an'," 1 n:'Dye.:;i Aba:a!\li. 

b^:; indd.i: ti; c ii;.c a:n; :ibn. d t.-t d bbl ( : ti:f Sy.;:d!h Nb)::a:i dw ();,n-d a:i 
.\'!t:n"; !a, "; to lo c-nter' ; la i:' : .: bt .;.a, , and \^: :\ii<'. :o ia'o:n;!e iani aii c .. . .:: .i 
,aa\a ; 1 i CD :ty:!. :b 'bin- (^tb; r inrioi-s c' i.nr*'- :;rbi. or :i!i-i\-,:., , .-, ; 
.obaa'bea .a t'> [iv.. a:ne!:. ' \ I'-s r;: by'; ' ay iiv ; an.: ai! (,; tb: :;: ^ ..b :i. 
ward-, b :y '.nay as t::a on, v no-a ; ; ", vdn^ ii t u:bv: !.." a t i: n: I: .::: t !.,, 
v.!t!i yyi^c'.: ti.ty wck 1o :,;ar'y b:;aatv!::d 

d'io a:An' liy,-, vdaJ; i:ad an-ia;,t' v b,l, i.K a b. : v ; . tb. ; ,. y ,i.b :a: ' I ,- ,.> ii 

o, :o; b _,;; anJs, la L^.n^o revisa ,a;d :>.; ; ;. a : a. a 1 .a _ y .^' ^ e 
bbbni. at b.aiay a, a yluv; lo n^acii :o:a. . ^. ^ . .b... :.iv. ii.... ... av, a. a;. . l 



!.0 



i.'in of tlic 
J ,o\v Coun- 
tries. 



1S2 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

the ariibUlon of England j and the \Yhole people were eager to provide for their 
own iutiMc fecurity, by oi^poHng the progrefs of fo hated a rivah The profpcd' oi' 
C:r;bracing ilich mcafiires had conirihurcd, among other realbn^, to render the 
p:.Ke of Breda k) univerlblly acceptable to the natbn. By the death of Phinp the 
ioiiiLh, King of bpain, an inviring opportuniiy, and f^me very fiender pretenceSj 
ha ! b-:en aiibidcd io cnli {''jith the anibition cl Le\^ is, 

At the Lreaty o- tA.e Fyrenc::-. when Lewis clpoincd the Spaniili Princels, he 
had rencunc..d cvciv title oi llicce-bon to every part or the Spanifh Monarchy; and 
tills icnoimciatioa had been couched in the i"Oil accurate and moil preciie terms, 
Widen language could allbrd. But c;i tnc deatli of his father-in-law, he retraced 
];is renounciation, and pretended, that natural rigbit^, depending on blood and 
lucccffion, could not be annihilated by any extorted deed or contract. PhiHp had 
left a fon, Charhs the fecond of Spain j but as the Q^ieen of France was of a for- 
mer marriage, ihe laid chaina to aconuderabie piovincc of the Spanifh Monarchy, 
even to the exclufion of her brother. By the cudoms of fome parts of Brabant, a 
female ot a firft marriage v/as preferred to a male of a fecond, in the fuccelfion to 
private inheritances i and Levvis thence inferred, that his Queen had acquired a 
right to the dominion of mat important dutchy. 

A CLAIM of this nature was miore properly fupported by military force than by 
argument and reafoning Lewis appeared on the frontiers of the Netherlands with 
a numerous army of 40,000 men, commanded by the befb genera s of the age, and 
provided of every thing requifite for action. The Spaniards, tho' tliey might have 
forefeen tliis meafare, were totally unprepared. Their towns, without magazines, 
without fortliications, without garrifons, fell into the hands of ulie French King, as 
foon as he prefcnted Ifmsfelf before them. Athc, Liile, Tournay, Oudenarde, 
Courtray, Charleroi, Binche were immediately taken : And it was vifible, that no 
fore^ iu the Low Countries was able to flop or retard the progrefs or the French 
arfns. 

Tills rneafure, executed with fuch celerity and fuccefs, gave great alarm to 
almoll every court in F"uro]'e. It had been obferved with what dignity or even 
haughtineis, Lewis, from the time he began to govern, had ever liipported all iiis 
ngnts and pu;tenr!(;ns. lyLiirades, the French ambalTador, and V/atteville, the 
:.;.:anifii, havi: g nuarrclhd in London, vn account of tlieir ])retenfiojis for prece- 
<\^i]c\, tlie French Monarch was nor iaiisfied, till Spain lent to Paris a folemn em- 
'.vJdV, and p-ron";ifed nev. r more to revive fuch contefls. Crequi, his ambaffador 
,ii Kome, had met with an affront from the Pope's guards. The |-'ope, Alexander 
the fc-.Li/Lii, Iiad been obliged to break his guards, todiipateli his nephew to afk 
] ard'JHj and to allow a pillar to be erefied in Komc i'dclf, a^; a monument of his 

own 



CHARLES IT. 



I '^ ; 



own h'-'.n^.iii.uion. Th.- kin.-^ of I\n :;'.iriJ to.) h..vi c\-^'::\:'\c- \ :'. 
unlubm:::::";: tj^i-rr o; ] .c.. ;s. A c!.i:ni o! ^vncc 'i- cy i.. :!: ! 

!.';:,.!: :j ;-:;:i \\\u\ lucli <:oL:r,iij;c, t;i.i: C:v.;!.s U)..:. : ;c nv : 
i.Mn !:;., !..-c:cn:icns. '1 he K::!;-; ni 1- :i^'.:;;vi, iii.i L':v. :s 
1>"1 .:lr..,!^--, ni.iv k:.o-.v my lo.-v, I ..l !.l- !.::';.. ;. ::.jr t:; : , 
i ..',: v ':'.!:: ; .ipjvaij t ) nic co:i:^!): ;!;' ._ iii ^ o.rj'..;"i;j;; u. ^ . 
(.. Lijnui.CL Ik'.I !i,ivcn lirun.^ iii.iiLaiii lis oi :.:, Jiar.i::^: : ll::' ' 
r^aiidcTb V.MS dikovciwl an .irn'oiiio:!, v, ;i;._;, b.i.'i^ K.^ ur:c.. r 
LO'.vcr, nv,';'.i.-'J clu [^cn.T.il .:b'>.'iticb Oi l''.i,:\)ir.,'. 

As no Sr.r.'j :.iy nj.ircT the t!;.n:; r, liOiic v. as io/...! v. /.'.i -.nor 
L'nitcd Vvk)v\::::s. Ihcy v.ciciV'.'A cnr^.i/^^-x], t'\'^:t:;r: v. h!; I :.]-.c. 
hi-'.uU! i a:ici L-wis haJ {T.MniiL-.i L',.:n, i\\j.: \\ : v,j..'.; : ,!.; 
S' ain V. i'.ho'.ir r;-.'viv)u!lv i..!o:"n";in,:; ;.!;,'n"i : Ij^.r Iil- i^:: : a toM' i 



^ ' 



v;:;-y [^ 



;j';iL (-r t ::rci;:;. 



\.iVi.:^ :... .ion. Ir i!.^- r 



t.:c ryrci.L.s was Pior valr. , it was :orc;c'.:i, '..:r, 1/^.^:1 tr.c (.:, 
S;, ..::;, a 1: !. \ iiiiaiu, th^- \>,ho!c inu.,a:x!:y v,':,.h.i he c'h.i:i:, ' 
\v!.vh it V. ..uhl he vah.iv cx;)-:tccl to k't bj'.;;:.!-^ to ;.:s yr :.:: ", 
(niaiiU '! wiiii th'Jb weil-i.;,r^i.ix!.d :^yYrv\\i:r.C[ r.s (/i thj V'..:. 
:n(j: : (J-;! 'n :C(.' in m!-:!:::^ ji: c,V;ji:: ,:-s .;: \]\\\'..\ ; aiu! ! - v\! 
l':c:v\\ had inipriKlc'-t!-.- cxyc !ld hmdch to l!;:? h.rinl i' ',:;acj, ' 
at (-'hat'r.atr.. Dj \Vi% h'nlih'.c, tii .t a !c\.' \\ . ch/s Ji'. .v wo..'. 
(.r;vnc.- in t;i." Ioa C';;:::r:.' , T'o!: diis vi-'^ i:::n\.:\- i ;':i', 



1 (: :: 



v_ : , . 




1, i.ad h.\n 


' .iC 


:.':; tu f: '^o 


t..!' 


I'" ' i Ti .1 /,; 


. .a 



- ^ ^ t" h'-iP-r-r 



Ohjw, x: A ' i tir.illri;;'; t^^. wa; \r.ic\ ;:;- f. ;;: :,) 



N 



o\ n:: a:i\\ 



)".in', ju 



aiiCv' wa> n: :.i f ti:c 1 :vi,. !i ar v ^. ' ;. ^i . 1 ":. 

a'M;;iil i!;: ih. :"i;:t i.ratVcc- im Lev ; ". p, , 

i:it:r.!l (iT CN'^vy ; ov,\ : in ' hiio^ . 

( !.y.;-il of the L',w eV.i::uri-^. : 

\ red e\edeet h-'m; t 'e ^ or d,; . 

wa..i. 'l^.eS^::e^, th ' I;::i;y. 

X ) Id r.)'m;da'-!e a !ce, ixw no . , 

r, en^ed diino ed r ) \r.\\.j ^'jyc-' i 

( e.did o: ( !\n-:es h- yr li.a: K , 

d td- V in'.;dt he d:e h; ie 
| ,. . . : ; . , .- ., - . 



; 



Chap. ] 



184 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN, 

commodation, the Dutch apprehended left thcfe, either from the obftinacy of the 
Spaniards or the ambition of the French, would never be carried into execution. 

Charles rcfolved v;ith great prudence to take, the firft ftep towards aconfede- 
r.v. V. Sir VViliiarn I'cir.plc, his refident at BruiTels, received orders to go fecretly 
to the Hague, and to conccr'*: with the States the means of faving the Netherlands. 
This man, vviiom philofophy had tauglit to defpife the v/orld, without rendering 
him unfit for it, was frank, open, fincere, fupciior to the little tricks of vulgar 
politicians : And meeting in de Vv it with a man of the fame generous and enlarged 
knriments, he immediately op:nsd his mafter's intention, and prefTed a fpeedy 
conckifion. A treaty was from the firfi negotiated between thefe two ftatefmen 
v.ith the fame cordiality, as if it were a private affair, tranfacled between tvvo in- 
timate com>panionj. Eft eeming the interefts of their country the fame, they gave 
full fcope to that fympathy of character, which difpoled them to an intire reli- 
ance on each others profeffions and engagements. And tho' the jealoufy againft 
the Houfe of Orans-t: mi^iht infoire de Wit with an averfion to a ftridl union with 
England, he genero.,fl.y refolved to facrifice all private confiderations to the pub- 
lic fervice. 

Temple prefTcd an offenfive league between England and Holland, in order to 
oblige France ro relinquiili all her conquefts : But de Wit told him, that this mea- 
fure was too bold and precipitant to be agreed to by the States. He faid, that the 
French were the old and conftant allies of the Republic , and till matters came to 
extremity, ilie never would deem it prudent to abandon a Iriendfliip fo well ef- 
tabhfhed, and rely entirely on a treaty with England, v/hich had lately waged fo 
cruel a war againft her : That ever fince the reign of Elizabeth, there had bfen 
fuch a fluctuation in the Englifh councils, that it v/as not poffible, for two years 
toget'ner, to take any certain meafures with that kingdom : That tho' the prefent 
miniftry, having entered into viev/s fo conformable to national intereft, promifed 
g'-eater firmnefs and conftancy, it miglit fill be unfafe, in a bufinefs of inch con- 
fequence, to put entire confidence in them : That the French Monarch Vv'as young, 
haughty, and powerful ; and if treated in fo imperious a manner, would expofc 
himfelt to the grc.itcft extremities rather than fubmit : That it was fufficient, if he 
could be conftraincd to adhere to the oifcr, which he had already made ; and if 
thj remaining provinces of the Low Countries could be thereby fived from the 
danger, with which they were at prefent threatned : And that ihs. other powers, 
in Germany and the North, whole alTiftance they mf^i^Iit txpccl, would be fa- 
tisfud vv'ith putting a ftop to the French conquefts, wi'diout ])retending to reco- 
ver the places, which were already loft. 

Till: 



C II A R L r S II. 



Tar. Knglifn ;imh.iir.uu)r v.-.i> corucr.c io .wc.[ z of tli " tfrm"-, jT'-'p :"( I ! 



:.' . ;.i ii -.i ('!"'!, :!i I-.m:.. Ia-v .';.;>, t - :c:ir r \'. 



, (;; w! :c'C.-iv- 



.; [ ' [.1" cu;;t:c;i/..'. ; [ 'v.lt-, .1:1.: ul' . 



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::;-' -_/ i ^icc lor 111. 1.: .: t'io t^ r;i^^ r::^.-;: 1..1!. \;- I r 
'- ,M- i^b :1k\- tl,:'i;rc-'j: rli i-i.arai.rT-vi t ) "^rai::. A >.:c:c;i!l;\ ' 
...: Lo;ur.:v'cd b.r'.vccn 1 lo! .ird .i:'.,l 1' iv;'.i;v,!. 

T;:t- nrti^k'S ot t!;;s conlctL i-U'y were loon a'.''i.!!^^l ov ;'.;;;!i la. 
n'':7':i.:tr):s : !^.t ih- r:rr;;Ml (.:i:;:iiil:y ilill rcni.tiii.J. I), r!." c-:i.! 
K : : ..''( :.'.'. :!,L- ioaijs in ai! [he prcr/i;; vs iiuill [\\vc t!; :; co;.:" ..' '..> 

.: 'x-n;:cs t;ii.:r c!:;^ f.irnj.;!.:v c ,ul.! nor b.- ciii"; a:Ll..J i.\ aS :: 



.: wa> iiitliv to I;.' cr.aiiLci, tliat tlic iii!l.;c:u'c c>: lia:)L"c v.o,.;d coi'r;..: :.. 
of th.' irc.iry in iomc o! th I'-nal'cT ci:irs. ! )'! 11; a:!:-, r!.t* I rv;:. n .:::.! . 1 .v ,, 
:i nviM ot ;:!'car ..'-:';" , !:rai !i,g (;! the !ca;uc, \^ !:;; h wa- c:\ :!,. ej : r, [; , a-: d \. 
TV a-;r y ; '' ^:\ v.rc'.-. iu'ncr," lai! !,c, '' wc ih ;'! IraJv :o ;:."' l , ': :.::. 
:a> t:::nrL,;rv, de Wit !ia,! tl^c rwvaM:^', lor li:^- {:..h'i.; :;- -U ' ' b:f-i'^ r!,:' / !;.; 
; r.vs in lo iun_l inii^-ntal an articl'' ; an.l hv lii^ ai.:Iio; i:\', ]\c ^:cv ':!, ,! v. i;:, ::.c S^.;rs 
(iTTral at once to f:,-n x\a ra:;Iv n:c K ,1 n-- : 'I'i^ ;' t!r-v ac'.n./.' k-d j- J, r'.a:, it 



tnat n^ca'urc IJi n.i.l t;;Ii!-a. 



I- ,,:. rl 



t!u ii" c(^:-il tnatU:^, rin-v r!\|-. u :'.. ;: !: 



V tn: . ir- 



!T:ii'ar:tv. AtUT !i..L::n;a a!l ]\:'-^!c's i :y '::a^' d v. ::h _' a- rorJ: .'/y 
crv-il cLi", .7. /)''\\: \ ,':s y; ',,..'; I:r.\\ r" . : '':'ra. '':, ' : : 



ko' M ha.l Ix;. :. Ic-;: in r': 
c:-oi)rai..T] a:..i t' 



r r ivTlwi-h c-c: 






l'cn;j !c a', 
n n th.tt ( t\-.i.. 



i86 HISTORY OF G Pv E A T BRITAIN. 

Chr.;v II. treaty, he i-..vi prcfcribed To iliort a time for the acceptance of that oiTcTj thiat lie 
^^"^ ' ftiil cxpccle.-', irora the delays aiul reluclance o\ Spain, to find fome opportunity 
of chiding it. T'le court of Madrid fnowcd equal difpleafurc. 'J"p be obliged t( 
oive u\^ anv part ot the Spar.iih provinces, in lieu of claims, (o a; parently unjuTr, 
and thele urp'ifd with inch violence and h.aughtinefs, inipired the higheR di%uil. 
0\'icn did t'ley threaten to c^handon entir;.ly the Lov/ Countries rather than fubmii: 
to fo cruel a i;) --rtification -, and th.y endeavoure.', by this menace, lo terrify ihc 
r.u-diaiing powers into more vigorous meafures for their fupport. But Temph 
ar-.d bic Wit were bttter acquainted vrith the views and interells of Spain. They 
kr.ew, that fri~: aruil iV/il retain the Low Countries, as a bond of connex'on with 
the cii'cr European powers, who alone, it her young Monarch Hiould Iiappen to 
c ;:: wiiiiout iiTue, could enfure her ind.-pend.incy againft the pretenfions of France. 
They tlill urged, tlierefore, the terms of the triple league, and threatned Spain 
wiih v;ar in cafe of relufil. The plenipotentiaries of all the pc^wers met at Aix 
la Chaoell':-. Ten p e v/as irdnlHier for . England i Van Beunin.'.4hen for Holland; 
D'l lona for S'vedtn. 

Spain at lull, prefied on all hands, made choice of the akernative offeree} ^ but 
in her very con";pliance, flie gave ffrong fyrnptoms of ilhhumour and difcontent. 
It liad been ap.parent, tiiat the Hollanders, entirely negiefting the honour of the 
Span.fii monarchy, liad been anxious only for their own fecurity , and provided 
they could remove Levvis to a difrance from thdr frontiers, were more indifi^er- 
e t what progrefs he made in all other places. Senfible of thefe views, the 
C^aeen-regent of Spain refolvcd idlll to keep them in an anxiety, which might Icr 
tne future be the foundation oi an union more intimate than they were willing aj; 
preleni to enter int-.). i'ranchccomtc, by a vigorous and well concerted plan of the 
J'rtnry c.-' French King, had been conquered, in dfteen days, during a rigorous iealbn, and 
in the midil o: win'er. She ciiofe thcrei^jre to recover this province, and to aban- 
don ail the towns conquered in Flanders durir,g the laft caii^paign. By this means, 
Lewis exccndeu his garrik)n3 into the heart of the Low Countries ; and a very 
fLcble barrier remained to liie Sp.mifh provinces. 

But r;Otwiti-aandi;ig the advantages of his lituation. the French Mona'-cli 
could enicrcd:! fn^dl hopes of ever extcndii^g his conqueils on that quarter, w'hch 
lav tiie moll exp(;!'jd to his ambition, and where his acquiiEions were (^irnofl im- 
psa'tance. '1 he t;Ede 1l;'p;m^ guaranteed the remainiiv:; provEices to Spain; and 
t!;e ! mperor and other ;:ov. trs of (ierM-;aiiy, wli(;:e intcnfls leemed to be I'v niily 
eoe.ecined, we. e invited) to enter into the hone confederacy, Spain herfelf, liav- 
i;a^ deut liii;, tnre, under tlu- mediadon (d Ciiaries made peace on equal ter^na 
v>;d> ''e:t:.ga!, miglit beexp.ded to exert more vigour in oppofition to her haughty 

an Is 



A Iv-l;) ( 



c II A R r. r: 



I -7 



nil. I triurvph-in: i:v.il. '['[\r ir;^;i.ty 

> . , , 1 '. . . . 1 1 I 



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'I 'i n:i : i^ i!;o' :Iicy 'i.ul n \ cr hccn h.'r.Si : 

.;.; Ivr vtry i::-, ,;;.;.!,:[;;,-(,: 'av, .;;..; ;.;\.[>, i a...:..;, 
.. : ., : c\c; c: ;'.>y:>i a;. ;:;l[i;;;i;;!r .ti'.;-^, \v!m. !i h.xl : ;\ir.!:.,.-i.l ::," .: v. 
; ; bw.;i. 1 <:;>. i;V thvir il.Lii ui^lon alv^i^j \^i::l I'nf^'.i. ;,',:'..!; -:, ; ' .. 
o.Mll, t!:cy ii.i^\ !:.:; ; liy a::.-:i:-;.\' r!;.' i:;j-' ric-cr ->; .i j, a-.:-,.:i; ; 
.:..' c xcir.;)t li^r^i .il; N U'l.-;u t. .iiici w-jii k;-. C! ;..r!!. 3, :;-v ):;: :.; .i'.-.. ;^vj., ; 

!,...! c:itn.;!,\l t!u' af^i rs di Lii.;: i. ;::,: ry to !i!< iri;.:.U;>, ;-.:::: : !v M. 

u.vi tlieij cjiii.l iu)t i;)r''^.u- m.ikiM;'; \-c: A' (.xir.^v ,!;:: irv ih\ :l!i,-^ < , ;;. .':.: 
Tn;. ;; !-..:u Ixva i^Uc; cert:'-! a LLtcr, wrc t, bv 1 .o;i:c ru !.;;J 1"):.;^.-, ; 
:;t[i;- t'H) I !.::;;'_. , hur v..Ty truly, h^ c .ii;j !.:r,.-.i, :\i.,: !;;s c-wiv.i:- !v. 
..! !v,- ;'.L!iy) vi ro piv roilc:-. rlu- k;-.^ . :;.-;. il l.;i-i. I^.c l.c ;.:..i, c . 
i..^\. (.liU u'.'. nd thcrii, aiui Ikk! tl. Icatcti ihcm, a:u; ii.ij ::.:;: >.; :'.c v^:.':\ 
i;,.r ::,- <_a;! '^t C'!..:c:i.i(Mi, iijion \\lM;:n the c!.:.; cj;' :1:.;;^ d.^ .::.;j . '] 
v,M, t ro ii.i.^ J i\ inrc tliC i 'aiii.inicii: ; a a! 1 "V.:-^- was ti h d i:y n a;-; o! ', f 
:.' luTvi lav,- C'i' /..: y';':^-;;.-..-.v .y; i by w'a ^\\ \z ww-^ i\:-.1l:\- ; i ;-;;i:;...;! i > ! 
' ::> lO t!iC Kir;:, or crcitv' in !u.ii an ill (piiii^v! o; Liic;;-!. 1 Ic v..;, 
Lo (.t'c : n.:: (. h.i:'k- v. ao !,:i.(,!i ciU i.alcd wirii t'.v i^:::c;:.i-. .:: .; .. .. 



C i. 



I a. 



r w a ci:iae.l ;:. rarliarrenr, rliat tv.(.!\- 



or acci.llr, Hua.iw be (.Iceiared iiaayil-ic ( . a,. !r 

1: -iKiiec n";e;re c^.r :i';;... it '.'.a- a r . .', r .it ;' 

!;.; ':..: : A nx-thi..i <: v- , , . , 

in ()rdcr to y: a\'ci.t i . : .' 

::\ iajc ..;^J iinq'-'iry, ::. : . ::.:.. ...y, : : ... ,.:ii::, .. 

.r l\()brrt: Mwrra-., aa -.i;. :;(;:!;. r-, v. .;. i:,i a_ .,( 
.,. y;nv^u o! tin., nya 'b v, : Inl.d i.;^ ala .: ' . 

\-:. :. ^.asi..ii; ;a>::-a'!i :.,,.,,.' ; A 
: en el ti. :e a'lan.'eJ I' .' I'.nAan' . n* 
; r , r... e a: A ;. re-. . ^ :> ; n .!' ' . 

ent and t, ra..:.;..a! i./n t:.ar .-ieo -e,.- . 1. 



io:,s. 



1 SS H I S T O R Y c F GREAT B R 1 T A I N. 

Chap 11. ^c^ a rnr.xlm, that the afngniiig a puniihment was a limitation of the crown : Whereas 
a law, forbidding any thing, liio' without a penalty, made the offenders criminal. 
And in that cafe, they determined, that the puniOiment was arbitrary ; only that 
it could not extend to life. Middletcn as commiffioner paffed this ad ; tlio' he 
.ad no inftru.fcions for that purp:)fe. 

An ad of indemnity palled ; but at the fame time it was voted, that all thofe 
who had offended during the late diforc'ers, fnould be fubje&d to fines ; and a 
i:ommitcee of Parliainent was appointed for impofmg them. Thefe proceeded 
w^tliout any regard to fome equitable rules, which the King had prelcribed to. 
ihcm *. The mod obnoxious compounded iccretly. No confideration was had, 
cither of men's cdates, or of the degrees of their guilt : No proofs vvere produced : 
1 .nq .iries were not fo much as made : But as fad as men were delated, they w'ere 
ma:ked do^vn for a particular fine : And all was tranfidted in a fecrec committee, 
\Vh-?ii the hfl wa- red in Parliament, exceptions were made to many : Some had 
been under a-e during the civil wars ; fome had been abroad. But it was flill re- 
plyed, that a proper time would come, when every man ihould be heard in his own 
defence. The on'y intention, it was faid, of fetting the fine was, that fuch per- 
fons fliould have no benefit by the a6t of indemnity, unlefs they payed the funi 
demanded: Every one that choie to ftand upon his innocence, and renounce the 
benefit of the indemnity, might do it at -his peril, It was well known, that no 
one would dare fo far to fet at defiance fo arbitrary an adminiftration. I'heKino- 
wrote to the council, ordering tliem to fuperfede the levying thofe fines : But 
Middleton found means, during fome time, to elude thofe orders -f. Ar;d atlafr, 
the King obliged h^s niiniiiers to compound for halt the fums, which had been 
impofed. 

But the cliief circumidance, wlience were derived all the fubfequent tyranny and 
diforders in Scotland, was the rigoious execution of the laws for the eflabhfiiment 
of li[)ifcopary, to \v,dch a great part of the nation had entertained themoft unfur- 
mounta' le averfion, T!;e ri';ht of patrons had for fome years been abolKhed ; 
and the power oi eieding nninllei'S h..d been veiled in tiic chiirch-feffion, and l,:y- 
cldets. It was now eiuieteci, that ail incumbent-;, who hi:'', been admitted uix;n 
this tl'e, ihc;;.lu ;cce.ve a prdentation from tiie patron, and iliouh! be inflituteel 
anewny tiie bi;h')j\ under the pen.iity of depri vat;:;':. The n^ficivy',! Preibytei 1- 
r.i:s conee, ted mca lures among ih;. triKdv;, s, and ref'Ivd eibechence : 1 hey Im.tfxined, 
i;:.;t (!i'ir numb; r v/ouid p;v.re61; them. T:v':.e i:tii:dred and hrty p:i:'inies, above 
.' t'hrd cjf ti:e inngdom, W(.re at once d(chn-.d vac;5nt. 'I'hc w..iUrn cou i.es 
'.hiei'.y v.\re oblliuute in this particular. Ne^v nfiniUcrs were fought for all over 

li:c 



C II A R L E S ir. 



^^9 



J. I -n f. \N M \' 'V (.1 ( XTfiKi-'y .uu! I'-i . ' 'd :!. i;- !cj: ;!,:; r-.u !uf > ; lu- 

ii;i (lu- I'. \- :. . ( 'Jij.r :,..'.. r.ci.^ ..i;,i i.i ir Iliv ... 

a_ ii;.:l :iK-;c i!K:i, ;:r-, v.!: iuitl i i,-.;:r.w f'.ci: ;i\'ii;.-' .,' . 

\\d .'. > s, ;i:ui \\ i.u C( ok no ctro, I y i!.f 1 i^ i.;..rl:y < ; :;.(.. 

jTr' .: ';c, 5 (,o:.:r.iCL.-.: ai.;.ii;iiL ti.i !!. I'w ;i n;(>ll > : t ' ;'^, ^ 

t), C(-.'.rii :..iiuH-, I 1 i:iu!ci" t;,',- ;:i ; '.[.i::o.i or ii'.; < : '', c-/ . 

to tiiv r.cw niCKlc"! o. ctA .t.:.a;:; ..: _ ovci :iii.;':r, v ... \\ t:;-- : ...!.: 

0:1 11. c o[i.. r I:.i :d, by c'ccLiriMg, [;ki: il.cir Ijvw.-v .. i.-.ciH'c to I'.c!' 
( 'jv-iiinr I:.-id bL-.!i th- rcliiit (vi v;oi.-iuc and ;;c. ii'tv. A;k: as ^ 
ti.c n^w niiniilry iiid'il jcd tlieniiAv, s in i^i-zar rio: ai.d c:iv.'c:, t.) 
lioii iuKi bc-ji l;::!;' acculh^nicci, aii opini'jn \u],vvv{:.'.:v p:\ wi:!..:, t!:.: 
iciij,!o;i, L'r.'cr.d by kicli h iik!-, m.i>l b- r:\ : ::u- .;:,,: : vy'.' \.<. 

Thh ! c- \ :c, not\N idillancii^f; t L:i: d:iu :.rrrt: , w c re ;c!'d\ v ! lo . 
.:;:;;:. !l d.cin, by ih:j k\U:- iyn;j ron-; (>\ ii::.:h,y cr .cd:-; .; : Id.; :'. 
<.;;M oiidon, ind^ad ol [):-oci.ri:;^ a n^i:' :,.d >;: of i:!.v ri^y - :. 

..:: arpuni.::: ior tonti'iiiin:; d:c !an:c; nuMl _.; c-., v. ;;iA; bv id^:; ; _, ..:" 
Id) y;,:ii_ r an ( bad ncc. '1 dc K;::iy, !; jv.cv; r, \\a> .i'.;',d\d w .:' 
C'" d!ad!i ion"; a-'d he m u:c Rotdcs -.tninnnid^,,; r d) d.j I !,i c. 1 
N'.-..s a!:\n;'.'v prcddd.c:.: ot tdc coLn^.cd. ," arid, k.un ak.tr was ir.ad.c i . 
tr'-.il n\T. Lauderdale lid! coni'nuLd wcvlIav, 0: Ib.te, and L^:v.:r.^> 
] ,o!id.v)r. . 

Ar; Ai ;^s remained n' a j;jaeea'd in , :; n, d I r!;e ie\n n- " i . '.-. .: - . 



bind ;i'j, nnll comn nnic le-- 
r.did.n a d-:e aer. 'i be b 



nw:en Ib.idan^ 



tnn H'\r.[ n v '\. a'^ .: iVi:\..: i 
next ad(n '<\\. ?vbdrary l^a e- ...... 

h ,, ; ! n- . :.]'. ; n :.dven lu : 
Su f m,'-- 1 m ei c ;n''n u,. . . . :.:\ . .. nn. 
o!ten '.:. anie.: by tne nie 'i in n ; n : . 
ceiwd t! ~ rr. i:.e nnnimrs in;-. . 

Nscm In; yin^d i > :;nin:(.nr conv n!. , 
! e d; n:and. ^: a .n,.' nn n; :.iv n";, an,; ly.nnv 
;.e !nc(.;\nv; iw. ;n:.n. As an nnn:r a; 
n)! v. s \. . , - ,d cn:i i.de \ 



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lyo H I S T O 11 Y o F G 11- EAT B R I T A I N. 

terw.ifdi retire J to Mulcovy, where they had encreafed the native cruelty of their 
cll:pofkion. A full career Vv'as given to their tyranny by the Scotch miniury. 
Keprclintaiions were made to ttic Kin;^ a;?;ainll theOi enorniiries. lie leerned 
rCi;i:l:eJ \.'idi the liate of tne country ^ and bcfides ^dv '>; -orders, that the eccie- 
d idieai coiniiufdon diGu;d be discontinued, he dgniryei. ins opinion, that anotiicr 
vv,,y or proceeding vva:. neccd;;ry to hih fervice^d 

ldii3 lenity or tne Kieg'^^ came too lare to ren'edy the d;jc)rders. The people, 
infianied -uiih bigotry, and iiricated by ni idage, role in arms. They were indi- 
j^ated by Gnthry, Seniplc, aiKi '^ihcr preachers. '1 ney fnrprized Turner in Dmn- 
tries, and reiblved to have [lut him to death ; but d :ding, that his order-, which 
fed into their hands, were niore vio'e-t t!ian his exeeutien of them, they f^^arcd 
hio life. i\l Laneric, ader ma^ y prayers, liiey rvnewcd the co^'enant, and fet out 
tiieir nianifedc; wiiere liiey profeiled ad dibiiiiilion to t^e King: They dedred 
only the redoraticn Oi Preibytery and or their former miniiiers. As many ^en- 
t'emen oi their party had been confined on diipicion ; Vdadace and LcarnK)nt, 
two onk'crs, who had ferved, but in no high rank, were ent-uflcd with the com- 
mand. Their lorce exceeded not two thonfand men ; ar;d tho' the whole country 
bore them great favour, men's fpirits were fo fubdued, that the rebels could expedl; 
no farther accedlon of numbers. Dalziel took the neJd to oppofe their motions. 
Their number was now diminiihed to 8oo: and thefe, having advanced near Edin- 
burgh, attempted to find their way back into the wed by Pentland Hills. They 
v\'ere attacked by the King's forces+, Idnding that they could not efcape, they 
fioDoed their march. 1 heir miniders endeavoured to infufe coura.Q-e into them. 
After finging fome pfalms, t!;ey turned on the enen-;y ; and being adllled by the ad- 
'v'antage of the ground, t!:ey received the drd charge very refolutely. But that was 
all die action : Lmmediately, they lofl: order, and fled for their lives. About forty 
were ];iiled on the ipot, and a hundred and thirty taken prifoners. The red:, fa- 
voured by t'e.e nigfiit, and by the v/earinefs, and even by the pity oi the King's troops, 
made their elcape. 

The op;;redion which thefe people had fuldered, tlie delufions under uddch they 
laboured, and th.eir inoffenfive behaviour during the indirrection, made them liieob- 
je::s (jf cornpadion : Yet wire t'le King's miniders, parti:ai!arly Sharp, refoiute 
to take kvtV'j ver.geanee. ddn were Inanged on one gibbet at Edinburgh: Iddrty- 
d.ve bed, re their own doors in difTcrent places. Thefe criminals might all have 
daved their lives, if they would have renounced the covenant. The execution'^ v/cre 
y:oing 0!!, w; en the ICmg put a ib;;p to them. He faid, that blood enough had 
aheady been died-, and he wrote a letter, where he ordered, that fuch of the 

prifoners, 

* ['arret, p. 2.!?. :J 28th cf November. i666. 



CHAR L E S IT, 



I'ji 



pri'.bncr^, n*-. fh.OL.M fm-j^ly proniiil- to ci'.h'v tr.t- I.r.v, fi.r r:. fi.riirc, (liri.!..! 

... iil^Litv, :.iu! :1: .L tiic iix^rri.si-lc T'Oi.!.: ') l';;.t r-i r!,^- '-'.i:/ :;.^.c '. 'f ';' 

\.;.- bi -I. '.[ [''} i'v.::ut, aicliLnli'.op tjl Ci!.ii,-,uv. . 

'iW'jv: ! :) lI.j c(>v.:ii.i; by S!ku-j% l!.c prciiJ.-i.t: ' . (;:. ?.l .\.i; , :, 

b. li i I.,: r(j l!.c r.TCuic, vii;uc. nv!.!^!. be ex. '.r li. 1 L- :. :r..\' : . 

(!! .. ^- b-r.\sci lliu. t:: on, .\ .:! llar^ ; ],.: ".] v,(;:l ' nn ! b 

' . ...i.i bo.iv : \\ ; icjn'c c aTiiicy, V, . !r ii: . . : \. . '-. 

' '.: tb \s.;rb!, a;.-.! \ve!:on;c ' .'ti, ibv' b..' " (ji ab "' ^;. 

;\:a1 !.i:cb- .i::in;.'.t;\i Ip; ccb/s hr uiu.c.i \s ith .1 vub e ..i.b n..;.. , .. , _ . ..:. 

i. -J bvil.'.-uiers with abioMillHrien':. 

'I .I. ibubimciit ot Irebn..i aCT t::c rrlb'r.inoii ^^ .i^ .1 v. o: b '.f n'uib 
c.b:v tii.^M tli.ir <.: lLnn,bi::d cr o; S /ian.'. Nor c>rb; t!.c ; ..vr. b;::- 

..i-, b.ib b.frc b _:i \v:b, d m tbc K!; b^ c-_; ::::c> : 'ibi \b 
I -^ :..', lb' tbc ki;i::b()ni liab bve.i civ,, rb .r.b .: b..-.:;^ ; ;, c :..-v : , : 
! ..: v.;bi .iS ii:bc Vio'ctc as p'/bb.c, :i..v;y ::;;.. . . b:;.:b:' s .:.:.[ i:b,. 

\,imh V. L'le Lb.a'c L',y,r.p..iincb. oi. 

I III I, ::li La:iiui:c> i.ab ii; i ' .; ; rwnc!;;b- b a l!\ .Tv v.bb; (!:;. :.b, t'-. 
b : .. .;.L ; \\ bw J L.iiy ba.: i.;|;^,;,;:. b parv.c^;! Ka" t.i^ :. j ;.: . r. '''Lbao:'. ;' 'b 
: , .,..;!l;" tarCiia ct>.:^iit:a::^ [.j aiba tbc r-v :. c...... : Awd rb.b ibe n . 

lA':.- : iiLi; ^ :.:.b ibc bi^ .try (jI t!i j pet Jibe bab prevent! J, in .1 neat it;e.i; .a 
cat.aic'l bib:, trt.ity i yc: v.e.c bnae naiav, v.av>. iiavir^: ilv ^'.[v, a' , 
Oi tiuar ll^e^, ablv. rcb to ir, :c:e::^eb oa tl:.,: ac^aaiC v eb L,.t b' i -w ; 



(Ji t.iLif .'jva.'v. '^roa^v/ci, ;ia\ ::i' 



an Liia t.-r.c p: 



, .;s ...f. ;> .. 



t..i: 



:i..a. 


, \'.- a.,: . 


11 a i 


,^ :b Orn 


.1 V . ; 


a; u ; .. 



tb, a N.> .b.; V.O-: ,....:. i.. 
L' . a tii. 

'lb; ab ua k- Liahap; \- kiblre;- 
wa- a ' a:. ^ tiia nvaa^ (b ieb:aab . 
t' \aa ..b 'le pa; t-, el irelaab ii a' . . 
, :a aai.. ^,\^o bab b'at na.aay t :. 
a,, la t'j liie lobiier.^, w iio li.; ! 



rXoO. 



igz II I S T CRY OF G Pv E A T B R I T A I N. 

Cla'v :'. cou'd nor be ciipGiTeiTeJ, becaufe they were the moft powerful and only armed part 
of Irelandi i becaufe it was rtquinti: to favour them, in order to iupport the EngHlli 
and P rote flan!: intercll in th>at kin^^dom ; and becaufe they had gcntraliy, vvdih a 
fv'cn-.iiig zeal anci alacriiy, concurred in the King's refcoration. The Kin-.';, there- 
!orc, ilT.cd a proeUi*'.:tioii ^ '<xl''^vc he proHiiled to mainiain their feCLiement, and 
au the laii;e inne cn:;:i2ed to ^iA'^c rcdrels to the innocent fulnTcrs. Tiiere was a 
i itj^e cvjantitv of land a.-; ve: iiiidivided in Irehmd : and from this and fome other 



nds, 



it \vai> t=. ought poii.L'lc for ihc Kir;g to fuiiill both theie engagements. 



A co'.-'R r or claims vvasereclcd, confirting altogether ofEnglifh commiiTioncr,', 
who had !:o connexion with any of the parties, into which Ireland was divided. 
Before thele, were laid lour thouiand claims of perfbn^ dcfiring refiitution en ac- 
count of their innocence ; and tliC coiT^miuioners had found leizure to examine only 
fix Iiundi'cd. It aheady appeared, that, if all thefe were to be reflored, the funds, 
wh,cncc t;:e adventurers and ioidieis mufl get reprizals, v.'ould fall extremely fiiort 
of giving them any roierabic fatisfa6tion. A great alarm and anxiety feized all 
ranks o: men : The hopes and fears of every party were excited : Thefe eagerly 
grafped at recovering their paternal inheritance : Thofe were refolute to maintain 
tiicir new acqulfitions. 

The duke oi Ormjond v/as created lord-lieutenant, being the only [^erfon, whofc 

piud.ence and iufiice could compofe luch jarring intereils. A Par lament was 
ailembled at Dublin ; and as the Lower Iloufe was almoil entiely cliofen by the 
ibldiers and adventurers, who flill kept pofleflion, it was extremely favourable to 
that intcreil. The lioufe of Peers fiiowed greater impartiality. 

An inluiredion v.'as projected, together with a furprizal of the caftle of Dublin, 
bv fome of the diibanded loldicrs : but this dtllgn v/as happily defeated by the vigi- 
lance of Ormond. Son:ie of the criminals were punifned. Blood, the moil defperate 
of them, efcap?d into England. 

13uT affair? could not long remain in the confufion and uncertainty, in which 
th.ey v.tre placed. All parties fecm.ed wi'iirg to abate fomewhat of tlieir preten- 
ix)!:-, iPi {;r,kr to attain feme fu.bility ; and Ormond ir.reipokd his auLhority to 
that purpof . T'x; ibldiers and adventurers agreed to lelinquifli a third part of 
thicir pofffi'oi:S : and as they liad purchakd tlieir lands at very low prices, they 
had reafon t> think t'lemfelves extremely favoured by this compofuion. All the per- 
ii)rs forfeited on account of thieir ad'e.ercnce to tlse Kii'g, \\ere reflored ; a-xl fome 
of the innocei^t IriHi. It was a hard fituation, tliat a w.dn was obliged to prove 
hind;.'f ii;n(x-:'nr, in order to rcco'. (r joffeHion of the cfiate, v/hich Ik- .md his a.n- 
ceflor had ever enjO)cd : But the hardTnip veas augirjCiuetl, by rlic edfficult condi- 
tions annexed to this proof. If iheperfon had ever lived in the quarters of the rebels, 

he 



C II A R L i: S II. iry 

!ic was not ;ulin;trc\i to pl.-.ui l.i-. in:.'j.:.w: , a,. . '.c w.i-, ;- ; :.. i. : :a:o . a!on v ^ -^ - 
p-jicc! to \\Avc '..' n ;i !vhe'. i'hc en. rn:L,iis t;..;': u'. t'. I;\;h i;.i-; : ;:::.! ; rn-n ov r- 
1 r)!: Tk' tr'^rj V.L !;:,;{;!, :.r.;' i;;:q'...t:y, ssi.itl: iri.ji: Liil on \ . . .i\.[ :'.aj' ;: 

vs ti/j nv.vicil oi a!l I'jKAi L:'.)wr!ur,.pi: :o |':c\\r.c ;:.> . " . . 

' I'vniv.'y ir, .i:cvr it \\.\s !:.iJ .i L^;:^; coi..u-, a:-d i. . 

i\.Mn to a'r..i:i a i\.\': rl : ni;- c^ :; , \v/..n \: \,:.: c". 

:.:.;., ['..nV.! hy t',- ' I'.n-';,:: , ; :, v, l.i^h prulxM- 

; : .i 'j: !, ;!h L.rtlc i::t>) l',!u'..nw ". ()rnA>n,: : . i>: nil. .it .1 i: ; i i.j\ , 
Ir.v. 1 i' i .; ', tiKiL tne pr.-l' nt ti.iu:. t .:rr;..\! w;- b.tv, i>:t 1 .n ;l.inv! .1 ... ': 
I, ::::'cn:. !. to t'lC .kK .int.i (: oi t c toi'n";er ki;i!_;.K;n), v,!,:^:i ;c v'v.^i ';./. 
cr ri;c;c n-.r'T:.i!-, and lv.nt b.i:!; in i\t rn twrv i^'c^i.s : ! ... 

ti.c c.ittlj o: IrcLnul \<.(.Tc p:\,I,ib;:.J, t:;,- in':..'\:,n::-> i.'I ['..:.' :.1.i.. ; ^ . . 
conyn^.iit'.' Iv; \sh;.!i th'.y cotilJ [m.- I ii;;'.inn Ijr t';,ir inij >::.:: : -, .;,.n 
li.uv rccou; !. to o!.!:cr n.u:( n> L^r .i li;;^p;',' ; Tini: t!. i. :!;..!':'. .: ::.:;.i'\: ,,: ; 
J'!n.'J.inJ, ii d.'jn-iwd vi Ir In j ';-o\-;i' ;:::, v.!;\;i in.;.;.' !:\.. , ' . 

()'!: .! to .u. r^nm": t'.c- pr;(,>.- d .I'viinn .ni ! t!ic:v' v :cn^ I't....: n.ntn.; > 

t!. n' to ! : :;. n :, tl to !oiv.!^n cn.i: !v( t-. : I n.u ti;c i../v ni In. ').:.;,:> (i I ( ...n:, 
ii;,; 1 ;\,\nu n- t.n' .iinnill ti) r;ot!n^:^ '.vol.;.; new i \\- i::v;i..'c.l to '.il^^.i.;-, b.,: ., __, .. 
J\-:'pctn.K(;- to .ill ncntrarions t'.en" i).::'.vc lien!) am! L-.nb.nnni : 1 ...it ny v. .;;.:, i .i" 
a'lnoll C!;t:ic\V tiij travic t'Ctwcc!) t!;c i.Hi.^.'om , .^i t!i.- :Mli:r... b.i:..;;5 oi n . : 

inllolw-l, .nul notiur.n, i\'ni.iiii!.\i to ki-p tlic i i!h t ' '.'.^ r ."nt;; b.;: loiw .i ,n \..,- 
Jjnv:e : An.l tini: by r wn^-mn, tiiat l.nnj ^oni n) c::::'. n..- j'ow--- ;. r : :' ; ' . ; 
r.'::i; ;(.(! i;;^.i; -lb! (; nninr .inbn;; t'nit nnl!t .; .' ! ^ ', ''.. . ] 

' : '::\] (.1 d':'.: ';.t.-nt-, it nii.:! n... n:.-\' \ ' . 

1 i. Ivni,; V..I lj (-nvincwi o!' to, b. i;-- ,,,' 

i:t.:;\ii 'o 0-: "; t'.c bib ; and !,.' (jy_n'y b, .b.n..., :. 
t ) It wit'i a I t;i.- co;b^ i-,-ni;;-. Init tb:' L'^ ;n;',.-- ^ ' : 

i \\-: :\.-;.:^ oi I' n;b -nd ;nid ; .i ' n (.: !.:: \' ," . . ' > 

tl-' imo rtari .-mA Ir (b r..-' ; Soir- ' . 

indite, ;M;'b nbnly t'lcT- td ib;;b- ' ,:. a,d.\.b 

C)rnv;nd bbbnvancc" in in., ;:o\-,rn::; : : .A;- ' ' ' ' ' , 

I ' : s . n ; .111..' ' ; . . . - n 1 1 . ! . . . . 1 , ~ , , . 
: . .... : , '; o\'( r r' 'f , iv bnr 



94 



H I S T O P. Y OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Chap. ir. }^2 might think himfelf entitled to difpenfe with a law, fo full of injuftice and bad 
policy. The Lords expunged the word i but as the King was fenfible, that no 
fupply would be given by the Commons, unlefs they were gratified in all their 
prejuciices, he was obliged both to employ his intereft with the peers for making}; 
the bill pafs, and to give the royal aflent to it. He could not, however, foibeai 
exL-refiing his difpleafure at the jealoufy entertained againft him, and at the inten- 
tion, which the Commons difcovered of retrenching his prerogative. 

This law brought great diftrefs for fome time upon Ireland ; but it has occa- 
fioned their applying v/ith greater induftry to manufadures, and has proved in 
the iffue beneficial to that kingdom. 



CHAP. III. 



u^ Parli.ame77t. 



-The Cahal.- 



Thc'ir charadlers.' 



^hei 



r counci 



Alliance with France. A Parliament, Cove?2try aB. 



Blood's crimes. -Duke declares himfelf Catholic. Exchequer fmt. 

Declaration f indulgence. 'Attack of the Smyrna feet . iVar 

Weahiefs of the States. Battle of Solebay. 

Progrefs of the Frcvich. Confternation of 

Prince of Orange Si adt holder. MalJacre of the 

de If 'its. Good condudl of the Prince. A Parliament. Decla- 
ration of indrulgence recalled. Seafigbt. Another fea fight. 

Another fea fight. Congrcfs of Cologne. A Parliament. Peace 

ivith Holland. 



declared ivith Holland.' 

Sandncich killed. 

the D lit eh. 



O IN CE the rcfcora ion, Eniiland was in a condition, which had never been cx- 
1^^ pcrienced in ri:iy former period cf her government, and wliich iccn^td tl:e oniy 
one, tlir.C could fully cnfurc \\q: hippinefs and her liberty : The King was in co;r 
rmu:.! want of lupport Lom the j-'arliamcnt i and he Icemed wi' ii:gto accommo- 
chite liiPwr^if to that clcpendcnt liLuaiion. Inllcad ol re- iving th')!-.- claims of prero- 
gative, io frci^iUGi.fly infiued o.i by his rather and grand;ather, lu- liad flricr^ c;'!i- 
liiie.l himf^H v/ithin the iimiLs oi law, ai;d ha.l courted, by e\'ery art oi popuianty, 
tne uillctiLnt of his fubjects. Even the feverities, however blamcabic, v/l.ich '.z 

h-d 



C II A R L I- s n. 



195 



'.1.1 been forccJ to c\'?rci!j a;^i:nil N ncoiifo' niill.s arc to bj confidorcd as rx- 

]K\';ji.ts, by v.Iiuh lu Urovc t(j in; ^iM'.i.ite liiir.lc-'.i wi:' l; .* ; ;:., uh;.Ii prt i.io:v, i- 
ii.itci in I'.i: i!a:n'-:;r. \].:t i.otuiii.ll.iikiin!'; tli Ic pro;:, liri; .:; ; t.Mr.;:: . . \^\:;c 
111 .11 V circ;.ni;t.i:u\'-, w 'klIi l:cyl ll;v i^.-wrijai;- c i;-o;;i i :;, in.\ ::c.i i y v..i L;;.it b .t 
toni. 0:1 '.\!iiL:ii it u.o [ biccci. 'Ib:c Cro\s 11 b;i\';;;.; I oil abr-viil .li. i:> .i.r! ;' :: '. . 
r;'!:-,-.' ;::;i\iy(Mi \'o'i;:itarv i^r.mrs o: th;- pLopIr ; an '. t\ L '.;;.:r(.r: , : 
c./b,.nu- : ;i) L.i'- nc.v Ik MCiwn, w; re no: diljoLd tu ii :pp'v \vi:b Lirb 
t':^' iu\'c iitirs ol i!v.- Cr()v.n. 'l.\ y Wwitard ii. u ;!i i^by the v x ;(;-|,;,^,; i;.-..-p.^- 
ci/.L-iibi^ ni a r .;!.: in;:;ai!CV v\ [ libii:" nion v ; and luiiiirr :..:.b!.nb>- (.;;, '.i.-u-d 
t'.;j m i.jc;.r liriKUion (d the Idmcc, iu)r t!:f L;,i,.iai lLi:c c.i bin ^ j, \'. 'il'.c (.'..!'; 
r.aiion, bv ics c:icrc-:lc botii ol magnilicciiCc arid knw.', li.id. in ub- - : ..i .idd.i'.i.n: > 
tv) all pubbc cx[vnccs. Sonic confidcrab'c km-.s, inJ.c. d, v. nc b .lov..d ^n Linn 1.-, 
a;;d the {latriots ot that a.^o, tcnaci(j':-> cd anbn-nt :na\:n..^, lon.lly l:^ 'n w'b.'- 
CoHMr.ons wnth prodigaHty : Hut il v.c may J^d^jc by tlic (. .v-ni ; !c ot a bi:.: ; .^ , 
\vl:cn tlic government !ias be;()mc n;ore rci;Liiar, ar.d tlic ii.irn: .;:y t,i 'div j .i.t- I,.;, 
been more hay.j)iiy adjulled, the bbiriianiePits oi thii rei_;,n i. em ladier lu ;M'.e n..: .: 
ed a eoTitrary repreaeh. 

Tn:. ['.a::.ral coniequcnce of tiic roverty ( f the Cro'.'.Ti w.is, be:\!es fcel^b- i:re :.,.' ,: 
tran!aeib;:~.s i.n foreign a.ian's, a co:.ti ual uneirtauUv in its d.omdb.e ..cimmnir.iiion. 
No-one conld ;inlwer witli any tob table aUbran.ce tor the me.ilbres o' the ! b-nl' o; 
Con^moriS. Fewcvl t!ee members \sere a:tac hetl to tbiC Court iv/ a:e.- odier beeul th.m 
that ot inclir.atic;n. Koya'ills in. bed in t'n'-ir | riiK.!^ !e.'-, 'n:t i.n 'Xieri.f-.Ci d 'in hi. fi- 
nely, tliev biy cxpo.e : t ) ewrv i-nmoiir or irdbiinr.ii n -, e.e. ! v,ei" d.:i\-en by n-,-. T.en.- 



n.;on:aee tn-m 



n r.,e a:rc n--'-s 



tary sieills or (.ui'rent>-, p.o b'U tlian the jk;. 
iiiade to g.nn an aleentlant o\e r t'; .ni, b, oii'e:'-, a. . ' ' , ' ' 

and penik/n^, \'.e!-e a[^t to o, era: ;n a n^ nm ; ^:o:.: : . , , - ...; . ,. 

tl;e minillerr. 'l'!:e n .veirv (.i the p:\o,;.e c\.nv , . ; .1 ^ .:...:.. d .i 

aiai'm , v/'ni-' a" the lenx' tim.-, t!ie p )\errv o. the Lh-.'/n :e:.der.d tn.- : ..'.,. 
wry hniit.d an.i [M-eearioi>. 

d : . c!:ar ; . r 01 ( ; ;rb': w.v- i!i Iol d t > i" e 
t! ;n. 11' acodm th- admieidr 1: ion cj! p,,;. i ... 

palbm , r it!i; ' tiia 1 . In e;(er;t-v; - ;;,,: i-v '': i 
; ; . ^ /.rdi' nry, vd.i hronhi ,:' 

*,; the \'.\:'.\ v^ : r. 1 b-- exi . m: i- 



n'.oi'e 



196 H I S T vO R Y OF GREAT BRITAIN, 

Cliap. III. The Parliament m:;t afL'er a lonpr adjournment; and the King promilcd hin^.feu^ 
Sth o/1^cbru-^^'s^"y ^hing from thi aitnclnncnt cf the Lonin:f;ns. All his late mcakircs had been 
^'Y- _ calculated to acqidi-c tl:c g.jodwhl or his peo[;k' ; and above all, the triple league, 

"it was hoped, woidd be able to tfiace all the imprefFjons left by the unhappy con- 
clufion of the Dutch w.u-. But a new attempt made by the court, and a very laud- 
able one too, lou; him, for a time, the eflecl of all thele endeavours. Buckinghan'^ 
who v/as in great hivour with th(^ King, ard cariied on many intrigues anuong the 
Commons, had alfo endeavoured to iupport connexions with the Nonconformifts j 
znd he now formed a fcheme, together v*'ith the lord keeper, SirOrlando Bridgeman, 
and Sir Marliew Hale, chief jufbce, two v/orthy patriots, to put an end to thofe 
ieveriti^'?, under Vvdiich thi'fe religionifTS had fo long laboured, [t was propofed to 
reconcile the Prefbyterians by a comprehenfion, and to grant a toleration to the 
Independants and otl-er feclarics. Favour feems not, by this fcheme, as by others 
tordxraced durfng the prclent reign, to have been intended the Catholics : Yet vv^ere 
the zea\)u;5 Comn^ons lb difguIteJ, that they could not be prevailed on even to 
T'-ve tfe King thanks for the triple league, however laudable that msafLire was 
t .en, and has ever iir.ce been efteemed. They immediately voted an addrefsfor a prc- 
ffimation againfl ':onventic'e3. Their requeft was complied with ^ but as the King 
iii.l dropped ikme hints of Ids deHre to reconcile his proteuant fubjefts, the Com- 
mons paiT.rdi a very unufuai vote, that no man lliould bring into the Houfe any bill 
(,f that nat'.;re. i he Xing in vain re-iterated his fbllici nations for fupply, repre- 
r:-n:::d o.^ neceHuy cf equipping a fleet, and even cffered, that the money which 
they ikoidd grants fhoidd be cofecced and ilTiied for that purpole by comniiffioners 
appointed by the Houfe. Inflcad of compliance, the Commons voted an enquiry 
into aii the milcarri:iges during the late war ; the fiackening iaii alter the Duke's 
vi'kory from falfe orders delivered by Brounker, the mifcarriage at Bergiien, the 
do/ifon of thedeet under Prince Rupert and Albemarle, the diigrace atCdiatham. 
E.oon'o:;- was expehed the I louie, and ordered to be impeached, Commifiioner 
Pvt, wi-; had neglefted orders for the lecurity cf Chatham, met with the fame late. 
Tiicd: io-peachments v/ere never prolecuted. The iioule at lafl, having been in- 
dulged 01 ad their ortjudice?-, w^re prevailed with to vote the King three hundred 
and t^n thouhmd ooundr, by an imoofltion en wine and other liquors ; alter which 
! oh^;^ \':.y. t'lcy wcrc aiijoumLd, 

Blltdls the ill humour cf the Commons againfl: the tolerating maxims of the 
Couri, puhhc bunncfs was f^mev/hat retirded tiiis felhon by a qujrrel betwixt the 
two 1 l.:.tks. S'vhu^tr, a rh h mcrciiant in London, Iiaving received lomeinjuriea 
from L;yj hhifl india Compan?, laid the matter by petition belore tlie Houfe of 
Luids, by V, horn I'.e was reiicvtd :n coif 5 and damages to the amount of five thoufind 

POUi d:. 



C II A V. L E S 11. 



..: . . 'i'!. Ccn:::ions v. i- .:...,: :;.^ ; :i '.:, 
(:;';:::'' \ .";:!.'7L.t ,.ny .'; . . .:: i. A. :\ :<. r' 
J.:lc 1-1 I . o: O/: l.ii. i, .i:u{ :... ..r.-j:^ ^J ' . 
iu\l b .; ;:', i:=.;c i: ' iiini ly :i:c.c '.ins- ; aii.l l....; ....;. , 

ii.i-l u\i:\. /'-i L.c !;:'ivi!c.;cs o; tlu- C.<J!ii:iiu;> : ior \'. ! 

]..'.,')[': :\i: 'A ::":) ll\ : c.'i \,-:y ()[ Lr/ I - : ; .ri: ;;: a: :ii . S :-: ^ ' :.: 

; \ .. . L.u' 1 ,'j: ^! - \v , : '! U'ii,;. .:..>(,: 
vii.v. ,i'. .ii..l .ill'. : J , L '.-it t.'.. ii'.vL.. 'U, .'. \'. . i .1 t.'.V'.' i"..u'. fX ._;. .. i'. \... , . '.^ ;. 

i' i.c L^j'-V.rr.O'M, r^u ;;;t'j .i ^irt.it i. I'li^c;;: ; .;:,cl v,c:.l io :..[ .is lo \ :/, i'..:.[ ' . 
' cv:.- !!.(. ..'vi ''c ..i i;-;: or .liiiilii^.: in j;ii::i:i.3 li. v x, c^.:..- .i i.c o; .:^;' (.; .l..: . 
" :' .c 1 i-n.lj (jt l.Grd>, Ml t '; c.;;j oi' S\i.::u:v ;::-ai:::l ['..: l\.i.\ Ir. :.i L ::\^. .:., 
'' ih.ill be .Ic^n'.J :i bcciycr of'i^e r:^!::s a:v.l i.bcri:^ -; i li.j C'v'-i;" . ' 

" :i .(I an 'lU. :;?;;: oi t;.c ; rlv!. '!.' l.. l':.- 1 lo^.lo oi C .' . .. 

,:.' ,:vi, I'l-U :l \v(jii;d \v j'. bj ^aiy, .::.: i.'\- .,','' 
v'c;i:i;i'c c'ii c!v.;r inv!i_ i^atb/ii. V\\: ; ^ - - - 

i-'.i;^' [J I.a\'. bj^n Uiunu.il :i:iJ \ .:nu:.: ]':'c-.' 



.. ill. 

I '.-.0. 



u; lb;;:. ;-^;::_; b.r :;';;\j abiancc, i\\:x \- 
mab- !':cli a :v, ::;:.-{?. 1 be iv.,..;r.;; b: 



'":.bc.v;-. . i: 
:.!;, . , :,....! .bl :..: I ,j.., 

I.- !:::....;;;, bv v, bie : b 



t 



lb vote !(;:.; 



; > r...ni;' tb n^ 'i \\- u i;.' . . ; . . ... . 

i:~h'evti'jn oi bii-. r.yort, b.er 
iin.:"C'ji;n:. b lov ; a;- J :be [.a:i.:r,.. 

ilu' ti-ull re. obb i;i bim by Ta; :.:, 

ciibii's I; r\'e-, in a !::e.''.c '.v,^:\i,.v:. it v: 
went lo :.n- s :; i^b liie 'birli urerr Am: 
'' bimk!: ol tha: ill. :ttor, anb b;b 
'' ;:.id ij,i\'en iiiii', ;i..b been i.b\'.;;c . . 
' ' ^ bl 'I i;;-'j'!b's a \-; ry r^cat ;bn. . 
' -n 1 uc.nr, .,nd a very [;!" at b-';t c j 
( . . ; rerex^v Iiave ( !e;n bLv-n eni|..>). 
an,: b'/ !;(.'nc n.ore ib.ai C'i.arlc';, iL i. :. 



1 J J. 



198 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

CKnn. iif. jyg ^A fiiifFiOoJ. lie muR" have had fome reafons, and perhaps not unplaiifible 
"'^' ones, for this ai;uniation> oi sv'iich all his hearers, as they had the accounts lying 
before them, v.'cr- at ihat time very competent judges *. 

The met'iod whicli ail ParKanicnts had hitherto followed, was to vote a parti- 
cular (vAVs for the fupp'y, vvithout any diftip'flion or appropriation for particular 
ferviccs. So long as the demands of the Crown were only fmall and cafual, no 
;:>;rcat inconveniencics arofe from this pradice. But as the whole meafurcs of 
(.government were r.ow changed, it mufc be confefied, that, if the King mavic a 
jull a');dication of public nioney, this inaccurate method of proceeding, by ex- 
pofmg himi to fufpi.ions, was very prejudicial to him. If lie was inclined to ad: 
otfierwif.^, it was equally hurtful to tlie people. For thefe reafons, a con'rary 
practice, during all the late leigns, has conilantly been follov/ed by the Commons. 

WiiEx the Parliament, met a:'rer the prorogation, they entered anew upon the 
biifmels Of the fupply, and granted the King an additional duty, during eight years, 
of twelve pounds on each tun of Spanifli wine, eight on each tun of French. 
A law was alfo palled empowering him to fell the fee farni rents , the laft remains 
of tiie demefnes by which the antient Kings of England had been fupported. 
By this expediciit he obtained fome fupply for his prefent necefiities, but left the 
Crown, if ponible, ftil! more dependant than before. How much money might 
be raifed by thefe fales is uncertain ; but it could not be near one million eight hun- 
dred thoufand pounds, the fum afTigned by fome writers f. 

Ti-in ad againd conventicles pafTed, and received the royal aflent. It bears the 
appearance of miti.^ating the former pcrfecuting laws ; but if we may judge by the 
fprit, which liad broke out almoft every feilion during this Parliament, it was not 

intended 

* The ;i';i'r;u':t of the report of the BrGol^houfe commitcec (fo that con-iinittce was called) wcis firll 
piil'liilieJ by Air. Ralph, vol, i. p. 177, from lord Ila'.hJ'ax's Collccliout, to which ] refer. If we 
pcriiie tajir a;vj;(v.-y, which v.e i':\.\ in ll:c fubfequciit pa^^e of the fame author, we fnall find, that they 
aftcc! w't^i far J rna'ignity to\var>i'i tlie ivir.'^. They would tahe riolicc of r.i ferv-ce? perfoimed be- 
fore the ill of Sept-mber, i'6.|.. But all the King's preparations preceded that date, and, as chan- 
cellor Clarendon told ihe rariiarnent, aniour,ted to C!;;ht hundred thcufarid pounds; and tlie comou- 
tation i, \ ery pi-jb :bie. 'Jle. -un, tlicre'ore, 'nLil. b.: added, 'i he C(!i-;!;ni tee li:<e;',iie C;,ar:Hxl fevea 
hundred tlnmiand jimin Is 10 the i\ i, ;^; c-w aeecj;;i,t of t'\J wiiitcr afii hnneier pu'nvls fiV(\l dui-iijn; two 
\eari and lei! mDnths that t':" \,ar lalieJ. !'ul ihib f ar-;^ ininjitou;. I'nr thn'tiat was an nfijal brrtl^en 
on the revenue, wliieh was then faved ; woidd net tlic diniiriution of tiie cuihniis durinii; the w; r be an 
t.] I'vuleni ;o it ? licddes, near thiee hundred and iorty llioafind pound-, a.e charged for pri/.e-mcu)ev, 
w :ii, ii ]x-rliaj^,,> ti.e King th(;U'dit he ourhx not to accou..t lor. TheJe funr-) e.Yceed tlie million and a 
half 

f ?vlr. Carte, 'v.) Ids X'iulication of the .\nf',ver to the I>.'flan der, p. Q!^, favs, that the falc of tlie 
ft'j 'uxria rents would not yield abj\-e o.ie liunurcd tliouiand l oundi ; iind his reafons appear w ell founded. 



C II .\ R L r. S IT. 



199 



inMidc'il af; any ru-0':r toth- N ::.Ji):;K)r:i';i"c . ' I" w.i- ^ rwlr/^' ,:..:;!: y cv;'r; .-.. , 
&. A-. \\\\ ] '.'.:[ ! i_,;d .UkI , vc: J tr;.!v! :. >t !::: ; x v. ;*:(..'. I) : cMs a,,' :!;c !.-.:: ;;r \n .\ 
r'Mr.'c;;:i ! , ;^t!i..'- 1-, in :i viiucn:: ;'; alLin"\v, v,ii : iv. .:c tli.- rxl' ;.: 

b'-;:dL- . di: Viin'/ w.i-, tuic.l ti\' finl i:i.^ t m- th: i:: ;l - " . . .i!.-io>,l, 
th. p:-c.i.!:.:- c\V( ii:y jv)w;uis \:j: :Iic i;r;i. i.;^V;.C';, h!::yi(,; <.\. ; . 'J!.; :: n, 
in V, ' iV h.H.lj tlr convcntivij nv, r ::L::cd .: l;!-.. i\.rA v. n ': :!. | ; .1 ' :. ( ^' 
Ci>i:.!l- i- v.-y I'crn.ukalnc ; lImt, ;t any eii!;,..tj ih.:i!.i .:;;,c\v^:n iv 
tc: j fclai! in c\ .11, y p.i:t (.>! l!..- ac:. tiu- ;w.;_.:, IIk n!w a!v.n.s c\'^ \:.: , n 
t!;v Il'H.v' ':.nl I-ivonra^lc Co ccn'.'cn:;^;' s, iL Linni: t;;o i..lcnL:on tji : :: :'..;...in :. 
!. n:i:c!y :.> Iii; picl-- them, ^l:c!l \'. ..s i!:c z_al ^j: tnj C .n.n'u;.^, :I...l i, .\; '1; : 
l!i.- plains:', and n^oll e:i,.:\!l'!:cd ni.ixims ()[ eivi'pjlnv, w'n.ii :v.:.:.-:. :!...:, ;.i 
all C'in-'nnal prv.'lccuti n-, lavonr r!"'.')ulJ always 1\- ij.vcn u z':\: r;inn..T. 

'I'nL an'..i;- of .^kinnjr ;" ill rcman:^:.! a L:rc;L;nn ol (.ynirivi lv:v. :xl :l\ ::. . : I n!_ ; 
b.n i\\.- Jvin'; piwailLd '.\;:'i :!:. Pjcts to ann,'y: ot [in- rx'n n.n.r ; : n w:..: 1 , i!. r 
CJoi^nnons, t:ni: a re n^ rai i-a/'.n'c ih uLl i c [ran.' ': ...1 ::n' tranni^n n- s\ ;:!.:., nn: 
to tlia: dninu::,! (.yneili^n. 

. , a::;nK; ti \v_ re iv. ulc bv ^l^c Kn [Z to (.f'il'C.n.ite .: iinn.n be: v. ix: ! '. .1 

, i : ijnc r!;nv wnr.- ten) !.i nl, to i^nv -.-n .ni tin .nn.. n;n.>, v. '.:. '; > ......,. n 

thnt nlnnl and :nv\):-t..n: Ln';dnr:a'-.:nT. Conri^linon. ;s v..!.; ..; ; c n.A : :.> w ', . l 
ord r to rj'.';n!atn tnc condici'^: n, ; Dn: t!u' ^!.n^.n, cLxny b; :'..^ \:.:: ..n .,: 1 . .,,- 
del" Min, l^^ii a!:.T can^c to nni.nn;^:. 

'I'll :; K i\f;, n'^on!: tin ; ilnic, b' j iii :innn.-nd_, Ln n:t.-iid n,n .n!\n.- 1 1 . ; 

O! IVnrs. 1 iL ilnd, thit t!n:y i,'V.u'^.y\ inni, .n.d tin 
C ;.;i;. : ; I nan n 'n.\-. I'l ' ^..':.:]: d.n;y;.s \\ crc n.i- ( v.. ^ .. 
Innm ll" c\[: . : . n. iv. n , v, in 

pconlc I ..^. t...i- ^ .n . - ; : , ,^v! tn n.inc .1 ; - - 

Ijni-' o i.cr prcn.xt v. u.ldn,-: .nni :nr ;; ^-i ;::.';:( 
tj tin- [nn-[Cnc, it i- Lnn, v,-,rn .n^a.ij b) :',.. 
tin tnri,pnlt)iJS in Inn- mli'.nn', a^ n.-. a; ,n.i ^n . n. 
and i c .\\v..v i n .: d v. ilii m- : ; r n i n ., iv, . c 1 :\n. n .:,. 

t c tv. o b: otn.:; s. 

W . n^'.v tnnnj to a i . '.d.cn t : kn * .; n. 

dn- n,.nn, b.cn <;:,, ', i ' . n 

V ' i : 'n :,,J, ornvc. ., ... , 

-nl '7 In. ii ( ^-.r. ...... 

-' b~^4-- i''dd''y^--- '-- 



1 , . n n. 1 

1 ^ , 



n. t 



.S i ,. 



c;?J' 



200 H I S T O R Y OP GREAT B R I T A I N. 

kn^ird the influence of the good, it ahb diminill^ed the clrccl of the bad msaflires-, 
v.hich he crnbracrd. 

Ir v\'_:s gt'iierailv rc;tn:i!k^^, thst rh'; comni'ttec of council, eftabliflicd for fbreigii 
riuhirs, v,':is entirely chanj;5ed ; and that Prince Rvpert, the duke of Ormond, ie- 
cretary I'rcvor, and lord kcepe r Britlg^'nnan, men in whole honour the nation had 
great confidence, were iicvci' caHcd to any dehbcrarions. The whole fecrct was cn- 
trullsd to five pcrlons Ciulbi-d, AHjliv, Bucldi'^diani, Arlington, Lauderdale. 
Thefj men u'cie known by tiic anycllalion or the Cabal, a word which the initial 
letters of cheir names iiaj^ixine;! to comf)C;!e. I'his incident lerved ^vith the people 
to p!'opafi,aie and pLrpet'sa'e that appe''ation. Kcver was there a more dangerous 
ndniilrv in England, !ior one more ncLed for pernicious councils. 

kcai3 Ashley, ioon after known by the name of earl of Shattefbury, was one 
of the moil remarkable characfers of the age, and the eiiief Ipring of ail the ftic- 
cecding miovements. During his early youth, he had engaged in the late King's 
party , but being dilgufied with Ibme meafures of Piince iNlaurice, he foon dcLrted 
to the Parliament. He infmuated himfelf in.to the conlidence cf Cromwe! ; and 
as he had great iniluence on the Prcibyterians, lie was ferviccable in fupporting the 
authority of that uiurper. tie employed the fame creddc to promote the reftora- 
tie)!i ; and on that account both deferved and acquired p-reat favour with the Kins;. 
'Ici all his ciianges, lie ifiil maiiuained tlie character of never betraying thofe friends 
whom he deierted ; aed which ever party he joined, his great capaciry and fingular 
talents foon g fined him their confidence, aned enabled him to take the lead among 
them. Reklei's, turbulent, fafiious; no nation could iatisfy his ambition, no ra- 
ligues were in!u^^:ra^'le io his induf ry. \\ ell-acquainted with the blind attav:h- 
neent ol' p.arties, lee furm-ountcd all fenfe of mame ; And relying on the fubtilty of 
liis CO triveeices, he v/as not flartled with enterprizes, trie moll hazardous and moft 
crimin.a'. I lis talents, both of public fpeaking and private infinuation, flione out 
in an emi :cnt degree , anci amidfi all Ids furious paiTions, he poiTeffed a found judge- 
ment oi ieelinef;, and (nil more ( f m.cn. 'Jdio' litte,! by nature fur beginning and 
punfeng i':e greatei'l undertakings, he was never able to conduel any to a ha])py pe- 
riod ; andi ills eminent abilities, by reafon of has inlatiablc defires, were ecjually dan- 
gerv-ee.s to himfelf, to the Prince, and to the people. 

Ti;;, dnke of pjuekingham pofjeiTed all the advantages which, a graceful perfon, 
a high rank, a ip'endid fortu'X', ar;d a lively wit could bellow ; rut by his wild con- 
(e-A-, unrefu-ained eitlier by prudence or priiicijilc, he lound means to render liim- 
i h i ii;e end odious and even innsnidcant. 'idie leaA interelt could ma'.e him 



abeml:. 



. 1 ! 1 -) .1 



onour ; the fmalleft pleafure coudd kducc him {r-:Ti his interclls the 
moil i Avj'uus caprice was fj.fUcieiU to countcrbailance his pleafure. By the v/ant of 

kciecv 



c: II A R J 



^. . 1 



*ccrcry ..iu: c: *: ii.u^rv, h' .'rilrr.yr'l '.i c.I:.:r v- :- ;: : ' . . : 

: (>:\!ci" ui.lI (Li'j::o:;'.v, ! ' .:!::! :' :. !,: ; r,v.;tc ;'>;[.., ' , l".' : ' ' '\: . n'V, 

r ' :\\:':\ d .; (>:. , (.: ilu..';^ [, '..', :) r: .;;!:!,.;;. 

,::;, ) : :\::.:r cca:..: il./.i-, -,: I .;:...:;:\!..:-, v.: ; m l1 . ..-. ;.. ;..:..: .', 

i^. 1 i: 11 :ik; .'L:-, (iW v. . ... ... 

;'.::...-:., h;:" ;;n :';'. t) i\'!!ra';i i.;:, ..n-^;;;:.- II.:,,., 

. >).;^ :!i,;a t'v t\ r.i :;y -in.! \'i( 1 n. c oi i.;'^ u-::i|\-:'. .\iiinv.., ,. , 

.....iiin !;i v.<\ \ inloi.rt to h:. i:,!c:i>j; >, \r^l :.b\:\ to !.:. :li; c. !,,;> ; ;.io' . , 
,.; \MK.!c ch.ir.Ktcr .md i.lerwrt:';:^'iir, he \s .;-, a!iii',.il Ci.ini.:. .^,,.!\ (. ^ 
i\ ;.:[!, Ik- !:avl tiic u.'n:ii:;.', l\-von i a i\- uiIkt n;::i;-.r, to :i:.i:, ;:.;;,;, ....;..,.,:.. 
liFcateil ',\irt oi his rciL;n, an ati\'n iaii: uvir i-.i:n. 

Tn:. ta!.:^:s oi parliamciit ny <:\ij.\\\v:x- a'^l i,itri:ii: !;aJ i-..;\.! ^;. i .. .:; . 
CH'r.'i\l ; and hl^ darin:; hrp-tiious [^ \\i iriw i ::-n w c:^ .t ::i i!:- k:::.f.j c.j;:;; :. . 
Or tiic \v!iv)L- Cabal, Ai h:'i_:t. ai u,;s th UmII d. i ;^ roi. , e;Llxr !\v iw- vie. ori.ita- 
Itnt^. ili^ 'i;d:^:Ti. nt u a:^ louiid, I'.o' his c a; aji:v v. a-, bar :i:(j.hia:j; aad i.:> ;.i 
t:a::i)iv w.rc i^^od, th'/ he w.aud t<,i.:a_c aad ia:a,i;:y [o \;ic\\: :a \.w\. 
'J\a;c[iua- v. iiii I tni^A' ..\\}. \\\ id;- :na;^ Ik- had been a [,:. :.\. j :(;;;.;-: r ; j 

J; b..: lie :!ire\v Iiindvli v.!:h ciju.ii ahicriiy i:,:u u, ^ ::.- ;;:i;a;d:-. , -, 
lo.a.d ri.em agreeable to his ni.dlcr. Cd.durd ana iie \'. .;e lAr^d-.- Cab:.., 
Sh.irc!'-nry, th'.' aeldicL,,! to all;-..; '-y, \.as reeh' n,d a Pci ' : Ih:J.i.ayarn i,.; ! 
: - b:tle reiAjtion to ei-'M\v:c any lleady r: in.iyie^ : 1 ...ud- .d d.j ;. ..i C.:-: '" -,: a 



i i:;ott.d and f\nion-lb^|b t.ri.ui ^ and ti.e 



( ' ; a n ! ^ a i s > ; : . i . 



.1 l-h'. IV 



r.owrvcr in,'. - i!n," 



y ' i:!: I. wn .cn^ (j! tlic C.dnd, ti: '' ;:';.aii 



., n, . 1,, 



. , , . .?:, were ucjl tnoro". a, ..no-,-, n n.,: .n' t.ia e'.' ;n^ I ,n n n m : 
- ;. v:ev.s vhich da. y li:^; cib-d lo ;h.- Km- and ill,- l),dv,. 
t ,o [needdy en.' raced. 'I'iiey and, t:, :t b.e ibna.ni:,-- a, b. >A..j i^ ;, 
lor the [a'ule: t, .:t[.iCe 1 the-n to t'; - Cr^wa, v. ere 1 ;!i nn n- ,": :C 
j.o\\er^ and pri\-;h'n' -, v. !;:; h "'.. n' yn-,b i'; !b,i , h.id \\ - d !;- n tiie 
Idait ai:er the iirll ibj.v c;t bin !n, ;-, t', v \v\(^. d!lio'.n- i . 

and wotdd be lure t(; turn a-iaind da- :\in^^ .lil i' /ay\..: 

a-.d lid! iiiore thole pret- n!i ons v,i,;e!i ;: v,-..> (, , : 

'J in.r -hey km: ^ niy ;:e;it the K;ne'; in i,v y. nda 

". bi t liad n N'er dn- o'.-er..d a luit,dne vyvx\' 
; h tl-.ev ;;r.nued iuni : '\\.M ' 

b:cn. : dni-jy, and lo recover lii..: ; - 

\b.n.. lb ^ n d 



202 H I S T O ?v Y OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Ch;-p. HI. fo many ages, had peaceab'y enjoyed : That t!^;C great error or n-iisfortune of his 
father was the not having formed any clofe connexion with foreign Princes, who, 
on the breaking cut of the rcbelhon, might have found their intereil in fupporting 
him : That the preient alhances, being entered into with fo many weaker poten- 
t:tesj who themfelves ftood in need of the King's proteftion, could never ferve to 
maintain, niuch Icfs augment, the royal authority : That the French Monarch 
alone, fo generous a Prince, and by blood fo neaily alhed to the King, would be 
foi!nd both able and willing, if gracifiecl in his ambition, to defend the common 
caufe of Kings againiL uuirf':ing fuhjecls : I'hat a war, undertaken againfl Hol- 
land by tiie united force of tv/o fuch mighty potentates, would prove an eafy enter- 
prize, and would ferve all the purpofes which were aimed at : That under pretext of 
that war; it would not be difficult 1 1 levy a military force, v/ithout which, during 
the Drcvalence of republican principles among his fubjetts, the King would vainly 
exped: to defen;i his prerogative: That his naval power might be maintained, partly 
by the fiipplits, which, on other pretexts, would previoufly be obtained from Par- 
liament , partly by fubfidies from France ; partly by captures, which miighteafily 
be made on that opulent republic: That in fuch a fituation, attempts to recover 
the loft authority of the Crown would be attended with fuccefs ; nor would any 
dare to refill a Prince, fortified by fo powerful an alliance; or if they did, they 
would only draw niorc certain ruin on themfelves and on their caufe : And that by 
fubduing the States, a great flep would be taken towards advancing a reformation 
Oi the government , fince it was apparent, that that republic, by its fame and gran- 
deur, fortified, in his faiflious fubjects, their attachment to what they vainly called 
their civil and religious liberties, 

These fuggefiions happened fatally to concur with all the inclinations and pre- 
judices of the King ; his defire ot more extenn\ e authority, his i)ropenfity to the 
Cathclic religion, his avidity for money. I-Ie feemjs likewife, from the very begin^ 
ring (f his reign, to liave entertained great jealoufy of his own fubjects, and, on 
t!:at account, a dcfire of lortifying himfelfby an intimate alliance Vv'ith France, ^o 
rarly as 1664, ht had ofiered the French Monarch to allow him v. ithcut op' ontion 
to conquer Flanders, provided that Prince Vv'culd engage to furnifh ifij-n vvitii ten 
thoiifand inhmtry, a;:d a iuitable num^ber ot cavalry, in cafe of any rebellion ia 
linghmd*. As no dangerous fyinptoms at tl^at time difcovered tlitn'sfeivL-';, we 
;irc ;:rt to conjecture, {;(;i'ii this incident, what opinion Charles had coneeived of 
tl.e factious dilpofitio'i of Ins ptopic. 

l-'\-F.N' during the linic, when the triple aliie.ncc was mofl zealoufly cultivated, 
&.: Kiiig r,cv;r fccnis to have been cntir^'y cordial in thofe filutary meafurcs, bt.t 
il jl to n..ve cafl a lo:;gi;;g eye towards the French alliance. Cliilord, who hael 

much 



C II A R L ! S II. 



rM\d\ of his conHJ.'i^ct-, la:.l impruJ^rtlv, '' Xof,vi[',!V-iui': 



r ,1,1 t..> .}', V 



: t ) t: 



' '-r 



iVicn ;'y civil- w-rc rail' J .i_u;;all the "C.iC;s ul*!ir i^i..l i , 

of th- 1 .111 India C^::;)pany. Hi.t ..loi.r A;)i i! i 6c ;, tl.. ; 

|xM;xvi oi tliofc i.U.tl nv.-.ilurc , \\Ii;>,!i v.ci. all.-:".', .i: v . v.\ :.: . .,.. _,.: .//;. 

]). W'l r, at tli.i: tin.i', cui:;- to I't ru^'ir ; an ; t .;!.; i.i ::, ti. it I.j j .iv.\: 1..;; 
y.[\: .. a fncii>f, n(-;t a n^niil' . f. 'i !., o.wifu:! \'. a^ : ) ..^ \\..:..i'...r:i \' .\.\ a c>);.\\ 
l"\t:^'n wire!. Lr luul lately had \\\i\\ I'ui:>iidw; t, t!.-: > .-. .i;:- .. . .d j'Ui 

by tlij llamicin the way t;-o:n i'aii.- tu hi^ o a n c;/.,;i:rv. 'I .-.c 1 ;., . .. ' : 
PuiVcndort laid, had taken nuich j ai.i,-, to [;e!l\v.a:c i;,;r., :',.: t'.. :,. -'. - 
iind their accoinu very i!! in thole mvalure , whicli :!. y ;,a . h.t.'y e;r''; ;c:c,; 'i '.: 
Spain wouki iail tlicni in all her iromiie^ lI l\.l-r;d.;e^ ; :.. ; .. .'.' \ \\:.. .. 
be able to kij)port thcni : Tihit b'nj^Iand \v.,ii'd ce:-:.i:;:!y \.u. i ^r.^., a:..i '. .'..\ . 
ready ad.ojncd coiineals tlir^ctly opj;olitc tot'r.ele v,:.!.!'. bv t'-ee tri, '.e !-.i..'..e ihe !: 
boiHKl lierll'lt to innluc : And tiiat t!ie rel(;h.:;<>;i v.as :.o: :I;e hi.i i:\ed. .v .: .^ 
t.nn, t''..ic tlic Iccrct was as y. t coninu.r.ieated. to ve y :e-.v c:! : in th; 1 
l-n^^!i;n court. When I'ut-endori leeired in.-re '-I e, , T;. , :; ll^ v, ed ;.:n: a c 
rer ;rcni Cod^crt dc Crcdlly, the l-'re!;c!i ni:i'i;ler .;: 1 a ndi :. ; v. '. : , a::e;- n^e::t; 
in"- the idc.cb cjI hih ne^;otiations, and tiie i.;\-onrabie ddp. i:::on I'l the e!.:;:" :::.: 
iler. there, he added ; '' And 1 have a^ hnl n-ide them i ni:' le . ! the v, h h' . :- 
' of' his Maielly'^ liberal; ty "." b'roni tiii^ inenh nt. i: aj;:, .:>, t'.a: th i: ..:.,, 
rracuce ot 1' i'inp, tl^eni!; b.\ ^ ^o u^rn'^j^ ih inces. a j r.i:::, e, v.' ...'a :: )_:. ;:hh.. 
t!e' ni.e:e nirv o, the \'ii .^'; :r, i - eeri ::.., y \\; v r.i: ;: an . :' e ; : n ;.; !e h ,hv . . . 
hd by C harh/> iiihnd.rs. 



l^ i :he Kin:;sr 
v,!ioh i;e vr./.:. : ! 
..hhrebandinh.n:. 
1 .1,1 obtainevi^/.. 
I :-d:r to det.:< '^ . 
..n i.r.Ie'rr.a ' ., 
i.,.;o:i.,:' 



:':i r. wr t-i 



204 H I S T O Pv Y OF G Pv E A T B R I T A I N. 

engagements with J ewis ior tiis deftru'flion (.f Holland. No particular articles 
^ ff'cm here to liave betn figned, or even agreed up^'n. Neither of the Princes had 
the leafl claims on that republic; and they could therefore regulate their pretcn- 
jions only by tlie future fuccels ol their arn:s. And as to the fcheme, which Charles 
is with Co good realbn iuppr^fed to have cnterLaincd, of employing the French 
power, or at lead tliC tenor or ir, for enlarging his authority at home; it was of 
fuch a nature a.s rnufl: depend upon incidents, and, for the prefent, it fu.'riccd, if he 
conjoined his interefls intinjate'y with France, and obtained general afilirances 
of fupporr, in cafe of any oppofition or infurredion. 

But Lewis well knew Charles's character, and the ufiial flufcuation cf lils coun- 
cils. In order to fix him in the French intercics, he refolved to bind him by the 
ryes of pleaaire, the only ones v/hich with liim were irrcfiftible ; and he made him 
a prefent of a French miilrefs, by wliofe mean?, he hoped, for the future, to go- 
vern him. The dutcheis of Orleans brought with her a young lady ci the name 
cf Queroiiaille, whom the King carried to London, and fbon after created dutchefs 
of Pcrtlh-Guth. hL was extremely attached to her during the whole courfe of 
his life ; and ihc proved a great means of fupporting his connexions v/ith her na- 
tive country. 'Tis im.oiTible but his quick difcernment muft have perceived the 
feope cf all thefe artincec , but he was too much a flave to pleafure ever to defend 
liin-fclf again;!; its preient allurements. 

Trie latisfaclion, which Charles reaped from h"s new alliance, received a great 
che.k by the death of his fifber, and ftill more by thofe melancholy circumftances 

v/hicii attended it. Her death was fuddcn, aiicr a few days lllnefs; antl Hie was 
feizcd v/ith tr.e malady upon drinking a glafs of fuccory water, i^'trong fufpicions 
of poiicn ar. fe in the court of France, and fprcad all over Europe ; and asherhuf- 
buixi had difcovered many fymptoms of jealouly and difcontcnt on account of her 
conduct, he was unlverfally believed to be the author of that criir.c. Chaiies him- 
JL^r, du'-ing fjme time, was entirely convinced of his gviiit ; but upon receiving the 
a::e;lat:on oi phyilcians, who, on opening her body, found no loundauon for the 
f:;cn.ral rL:mo;ir, he v/as or pretended to be Ltishcd. Tiie duke of Oj-leans i:> 
deed did never, in any other circumllance of his lih^ betray lutli difi:)()nLions as 
nd'i'M lezd \d.r. to io (;;-iminal an a6;ion ; and a lady, it is laid, drank the rcmai':s 
f - '-J 'It'-" r 1 ;;^ w:[i.ouL fj^jlin'r any inconvenience, 'i'he hidden deatli o! Princes 
;- e::-nmon!v acconv.anied with thefi: dhniai hirmiks ; and therefore l>.ls Vveigiit is 
in k.:^ c .ic t:: be laid on the fuhdcion'; ol the public. 

Cm-.:' ..;:, inkead of breaking .vith I^'rance upon this incident, took advantage of 
a:n, under [iretence ol condioling with tiie duke of Orleans, 
ncc: i iariher mealurei- ior the projcclecl war. "^^everambafiiKLr 

receiu tl 



JL r.i: 



C II A R L r: 5 II. : 

r\icc\\\\l greater cirulc-. 'I'iij n:( r- cc(rri;J: a'c r;;c { :f!v;;: :.. :> v, :ic to ;' 

i:::cTjih o: l-.r::;!a:Ai. vac ir/Ji\- iKi;;-.u w.is i: l^: l.vv.;> I'-j i. ..;! v. ::!; ci'.-;!:::c:: .;: 
; .:;! V. i:!i \.\\\jii[s, l:;(;!c \n !; ;;n he C'. .M c" :.: :o : ./.:'. : :'.. -.w 

'i" }' o: i]i.ci.;n:_!;.ini r..::v\i ;1;\.:;- l'..;, ic: ;,i 1 [-...:..:, -..!/ 

-. e U-iV.ii.(,l ll:!! iar:!i\r tu cunil:;-:"). J .l';m-, i:k/': .1 i ...:.:;-n :rrvp.').i : 

i a:;.: t ho' he nhiicw \ l/.'.:- : '': .- c ;,!;; i.::n:; ', v. !)!-.;.' !y> :..:. iv/j * : :: 
i' , .:;..! V. h(j very ::.iV^> .'....'. : ; 

.:-;l:'i ir.ihcr ' i th. \. J . e J yv ch " hj:..i:^ h \v..s ! 1 :..; . 

. _ : V, tl^r, I o' I...C n-.oil :c:.-_ .^ ,,, ( ^ .; ; i,.v:!v- c:;',:..! ['.,::./ ' .'..! ;.- 

I ':r.:r../;:h; l(j ;iv> ch as the pi'ctcxt oi\i.]i..:' y unJ. '::!i:i etoc \"e:/.> -::.:- .,. . ...!. 

; hi^ ae.;'..in[!on tjl I.oriMine (.li^'ht t(i i:..\'e ox ::, d t!.;- ^ .i'(ji.;v c^; t!.v ci : \:\:.'.. 
jwers in t';e tr:j le iea^;i]e, as '"iiu Ji a , ;in inwhhe; u; ] h.:..!,-:'- itle!; ; '/ ' . . A - .: 
tj;-n a ch-ai l.u to ah remu.iflra:^ee?, '.'h;;hi '.. :rc ::!...h' !.:;i-i '.^) ;i I'.^.i: . 

13 u r V. ::at te:.u.h el^hhy toe- :: t!u . : ^.The \^/:' ao.! h. >:a' > v. ; 

he' n:eah.re^ ' : 1 ;;^:'a:.d, v. as hi.' :_ hhei Vv ah (;':>:; W hhi :ii 'I e ! .. 

: ih.r ha_: .:. :.:.vS/ eh Jjlaheh hi. heaoar aa ! a.:. v\-v, [ ,.. ' 

h.e 'r.-'ha t .ea o: obe', ao':: a^ n\...:ci'^^ coaia.aavi-, ia pma: ha;' n: .... : 
a . e eite^ :re^l ' ernK u.as t ' ;a -> e(-aa:trv ;, a, a; 1.) I . I'li as i;e la aa. a; 
. ;a, hj '.' i: :iiuu;hi' h:a;a. .: .liihia.i el tiie ih'eh' v (jI han;:.ia h C . 

ol this {a-e;'(M!ehh,n. th 1: ]]r or. ereh hea'jhe to lea'.e hi^ laa.; 

aah ; retenheu liii: tiait :na,e.L i" \-. eihh iiiini. haiiviv i\ta' a. a: ,i" i. . . . 
().,.'.;; ,; \-, ihi ta.; Kia^^ .:boi.t :ca:e iv.hae:-, \\!:erehis la . ^uil .:i(.ia !aa! na : '. a 
(.' aae hri:-;. 1 )c Wit niaie 0:.r Ih :, !i re!;a;.ar iatiaan :[\: In: iah a..ia:; : 
i r ti." rec..:. o! .; . ,wi ea[ ;a. 1 ,, e. . ..aaitu a ' a ... ie. . 

a:.c, j a: , ...mw \'hei!. ii.terja' tat: .1 to 

. . ' ." ' i^ ia, 1, t .,.: aa, ( a/, a a.;. a 



i:r. 



Whina; ti. .a- , v\ a 

' h ;.:. .'. 



. L lo e-. ;aa.a. .'.::.'. h 



2o6 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chjv. III. fccrets of the Cabal, muft have obGrrved (o many grounds of fufpicion, as Hiould 
*''""^* have kept him from giving fanclion ro that deceit, which was intended to be put 
v.pon the Parliament. 

TiiY, arti'ice fuccceded. The Hoiife of Commons, entirely fatisHed with the 
Kind's meafurcs, voted him confidcrable fupplies. A land tax for a year was im- 
pofed of a fniiling a pound ; two fliillings a pound on two thirds of the falaries of 
ofFices ; fifteen fJTiilir.gs on every hundred pound of bankers' money and flock ; 
an additional excife upon beer for fix years, and certain impofitions upon law pro- 
ceedings for nine years. The Parliament had never before been in a more liberal 
dilpofition , and never furely was it lefs merited by the councils of the King and of 
Iiis miniilers., 

I'm- Commons pafTcd another bill for laying a duty on tobacco, Scotch fait, 
glaOes, and fome other commodities. Againft this bill the merchants of London 
appeared by petition before the Houfe of Lords. The Lords entered into their 
realbns, and began to m^ake amendments on the bill fent up by the Commons. 
I'his attempt v/as highly refented by the lower Lloufe, as an encroachment on the 
r^ght, v.hich they pretended to poiTefs alone, of granting money to the Crown. 
Many remonfrrances pafTed between the two Houfes ; and by their altercations the 
167 1. King was obliged to prorogue the Parliament-, and he thereby loft the money 
;:dofApnI. ^y}.],;;',^ vyas intended him. This is the laft time, that the Peers have revived any 
pretenfions of that nature. Ever fince, the privilege of the Commons, in all other 
places except the Ploufe of Peers, has pafTed for undifputed. 

There v/as a private affair, which during this leiTion difgufted the Lloufe of 
Comtv.ons, and required lom.e pains to accommodate it. The ullial miCthod 
of thoCe v'lio oppofed the Court in the money bill.^, was, if they failed in the main 
vote as to t'ne extent of the fupply, to levy the money from fuch funds as they ex- 
pected would be unacceptable or would prove deficient. It was propofed to lay an 
im;)ofi:ion upon playhoufes : The courtiers objeftcd, that the players were the 
King's lervantr, and a part of his pleafure. Sir John Coventry, a gentleman of 
tiie country parrv, alked, " whether the King's pleafjre lay among the male or the 
" female playcis?" This firoke of fatyre was aimed at Charles, who, bcfidts iiis 
miftrefTcs of higher quality, entertained at that time two aclrcfle , Dav;s and Ncli 
Gwin. The King received not tlie raii^ry with tliat good humour, vv-Jiich migiu 
h.a' e been expe.'ied. It v/as laid, chat this being the firfl time, vJicn re'pecc to 
Mai- 'y had been publicly violated, it was neceiTary, by fome lev.re 'rhai'lif anenr, 
to n:al.e C Ovcntry an example to ail who might incline to tread in Iiis footfleps. 
Sands, Oh^'ian, and f^)me others of the guards vvcre orticr.d to v/ay-Iay him, and 
let a mark upon him. lie deiended himfed" with greiit bravery, and after 

wound ini>; 



C II A R L E S ir. 



.1 



t' K. . . . : C(;--r . , lu :.:i:,d hy l. ... 

1. . .' , I , -.:.: (:-. \ ..i..- 1, .;!.- in l;:,- J 1 .... 

I. '. r ' . ; ... :.' iniiai a;;y j.vi'K.n ; >.:;,; t .v . i" " 

^ .; Ctn'Li.try, lliui.Ll 1 -j :..ca;/..j'c *; 

(- . 






t V.M- ;\:i. 



[>nva[^' :\' 



.: .i.v) .: 



c :!. 



.! 1.; til.' conljMr.icy iur r.Uwng a:; i.JL.rr. . : ^^n in I-.!.::..! ; an 



he lnn::ei; h...! been atra^nrcJ, .n.! l.^nic ot !n . a.c.,;nv nc.s ca-n'. :' ; 
TI.c oarni^: \ni!ain nicciiratct' .; rc\c[:;;j Lipon O::::; n(.', :',.: lu, n! 1;;;..:..,. 
:: ' In'a::!:; J Lrav/n on ilu clnkc's l<)o:::\^:^,, \>: atra. . vi '.> k<'.\::. in : 
a> I:C tirow alo!.;!, "^t. jaii"i;:s'< S:r,n-t in 1 /.'n.lun. ,..ni nnu!.- Inn.', : :r .in. ; v : 

1 1.- :n! i',: !.L:n- !i.ive ;ini.];c(.l [;ic ci'in-n, !.a : !ij n : n-.\:n .'f .1 ;(. .;.. 
;, - . . . : .nn c : i l-j \n as rcl(j.\-cn ro nan;; t!.,- tiiA.- at I v I'n: n ; a;; : r i.; a 
L ,.. : ; inn ann n:o.nUa : Inm cm iun 1. i).u !. i^'nn.i un; > i :n< cmn-nn.i y.:-. 
V. ;c .:-:'. ani '.ni a i.n)Oci wniy ii^io tiia liaivis ; v, In n i!.^' v!.,'. a !"in;!ni '; en r:- 
L.-tlv, t;:ra'.v iniiileif to t';a j^rcnind, an.l b:nn n'.^ ^io'.'. n v. i:n Inni i , 
tv) V. huv\. i.e was tied. 'J'hey v. crc .1; n;n:inn; :' ::ai:cr i : :::. nv..; \ v. ..c:. C ). 
knv.int-, v.i;()mtiic alarm l;aJ rcarlnni, carre ann la\nd Innn Hicjd 



t( !"::p.nno:iS, iiriir^ t!:ur ; iilo!^ in a lnnn"\' a: n.a nuke, loda e n 
!:i\-'. S by irna:ih ol tiie dark: (,;-. 

V,\ eKi\t.n.\-.! was a: in!i, v.id; ;nn a: a; p. aranae tn :-.n,m, 1>, 
aniiior ot tin: ar^mj t i li^ ; i'.,;na'a c'.ai ..:n:r and ;n> i-.w]..:'. 
(. x; (;kai bin- ['> r'nMnvnta::' n. i I'A \ :.v: . r;: , n , : ^ ^ .,: : n 
inninim inn:n l^.- c;:c Knn:, Ins (nln.r v.''.'., . 

bniifli; t'^ t'n^ i '.n-|n lb. '' >b,- i leb i in: ' 

"' tin- birc arternpt n:-.n n,v nib.ar : Hat 1 

'* C''n.( to a vi >,^ nt end- I lii ii n : bn .:' -. : , .. n ; 

'' V( a a^ tba a.:. .bin ; I Mn.b V:..: v, n :;- !;. , . ; I : 

' jnib 1 \nHi, tb'/ Von !:(;('d b.ibnvi b ; Kn " i: .n , . i . 
' b\'< \Av(>r....\ tb..r M.n nniv be rn:e I b,.., ' : 



1 a,,, n . 



t:. ;e v. a"^ ..e;e 



; *' 



v/a en 



a- n:, ;: w..s e..:iiy ex:n 
., ,} ., .. 



; a ilcn^!^ tn \,:.'.'..\ .n. . 



2cS HISTORY or GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chs-\ 'I!, boid.-^cfs of ilic cnttrprizc n^ by the views cr profir. Me was very near fliccecdii^g. 
'' ' ' He JKUi bound an.l wcunc'c;; iidward^, rhe keeper of the jewel ofnce j and had got 
out oi' t'lc I'ovvcr v-lth his prey, but w;i3 overtaken and feized, with ibme of his 
:i: cJ.iLc;;. One or tlrm wa-^ iviiowii to have been concerned in the attempt upon 
iJriTicnLl 5 aiKi Dlcod v/as iinniediately conchidtd to be the ringleader. "When 
..ilicd, he fr.aikly avowed ti'e enternrize ; bu: refuied to tell his accomphces. 
*' The fear of death," he faid, " woLid never engage iiim, either to deny aguiit, or 
'' betray a friend." All tfitle extraordinary cireumfcances made rim the general 
fubject of converiation ; and the King was moved by an idle cur outy to kc and 
fpealv wida a i:.erfon fo noted lor his courasfe arid his crimes. Blood nvi<'j;ht now 
titeem hiiiiftli iccure of pardon ; and he wanted not addrek to improve the op- 
!!ortunir,y. lie told Charles, that he had been eno;ao;ed with others, in a dtfl^^n 
t'.) kill liim wiih a carabine above Batterfea, where his Nkajeify often went to bathe : 
That the cauie of thi^^ refolution was the feveiity cxereiied over the co.-ifciences of 
the godly, in retraining the liberty of their religious affem. lies : That v, hen he 
had taken his Hand among the reeds, full of thefc bloody refolutions, he found his 
heart c'; ecked with an awe of Majefty ; and not only relented himfeif, but divert- 
ed h.is aflkciates from their purpofe : That he had long ago brought himfeif to an 
entire indifference about life, which he nov/ gave for lofc ; yet could he not forbear 
v.'aininGT the Kmir of the danger which minht attend his execution : That his afib- 

O O 1^ o 

ciates had bound thernlelves together by tlie ftrifteil oaths to revenge the death of 

any of their confederacy : And that no precaution nor power could fecure any one 

from the eiTels of t'neir deiperate refolutions. 

WiinTMEPv thefe conudcrations excited fear or admiration in the King, they 

conf rmjcd his rtiolution of granting a pardon to Blood , but he thought it a re- 

cpiifite point of decency firff to obtain the duke of Ormond's confent. Arlington 

came to Cirnond in the King's nanie, and defired that he would not profecute 

Blood, for reafons v/hieh he was commanded to give him. The duke gallantly 

replied, rh.rc Ifis Majthy's conniiands were the only reafon, that could be given, 

and b^iiig fufieicr.r, he nkght tliereforc fpare the reil. Charles carried his 

kinc'nels to 1:1'., txl iliil larthiCr: He granted him an eflate of five hundred pounds 

a year in Irv.larid ; he cncc;uraged Iks attendance about his peribn ; he fliowcd him 

great counttnar.ee, and many app'lied to Ihm for promoting their pretenfions at 

court. And wldle old Kdwards, who had bravJy ventured his life, and had 

been wounded, in defending the Crown and Regalia, was forgotten and neglecled, 

tiiis man, who deferved only to be flared at and detelfcd as a monfler, became a 
-<~, ,r,.n.' , '" r, , ,,,.: 

Errors 



C II A R L F S II. 209 

1'"rro?vS of tliis nfiturc in priwi'c !.Tf, h.wc oitvn as b.i.! a-. i..n'.:?nrc ?i% nit!" .'.r- ^' -p. Ill 
li.i "S -' ^vh- h t'lc pul'ii. i\ n:<jrj i:n:iK.:i.i:riy ^''j:-;': ' ;- :. A:^' :'::; i::^ iJenr h.iji- 
j-^jiicc! L'..^ \ .ir, \<. liicli iii.iKi/vl .1 very i^; n.T.il (.':! ... : : :m;:- 

hcnli'jn^, '. to ..li n\n. 'i lu.- i!;.i:t h. !-, en \ ov'.: C'. J, a.. : 1:1 n- . .".r^, llv: 

v. '. o[) -a p:' )r.l]ij 1 o: t!;^- i\ kiu'Ii r-l;:'!'):!, .Mui ,1 i ;'i ! rx' '. : : : .' -'^. - 

: : :i. I ::o [uji: .in r:\l i.*j t ..1: [1. In t\ !;.,::', \v\;.Ii I '.-! \.!v:- I..1 !'.:!;.. - 
- :.ly .'c.-!.u-^.: ! i .[m '^hmu to :' ' i: . I : 

t. - 'vT.;'!'- oi j operv. t \'vi" I'lU'c I'.j .u'Ci 11; in o: t:i 1.. 

V ... : :'.:\,\:i.: ti.c K.uion -, hv.i ti.'-.c I;.;.: u ::\.v\ '.v I:.--.. ; .., ; : > : , a:..; 

h :.! l;c: ;i c!ii: 'o\ - 1 r ) t.W'iany lv,l }'Uij\)l.--, ih.ii k.r:; :.;;-^ i.-' i'.. .. . 

!;!^eiv () iVA\: v.itli the Id-, cr.iiic iui.n ..11 :r;n (.1 leiil- ; .^ni.: :;.::!;; -^^ . .: 
I )L,kc^ iaipiUw^nr bi.iof! \- cou!.' ;;:i\\' convin^wl : I:. \v'.,u!c ::.:';: ^ : i.. ^ 
I'opcry. \\ li;^ Ii I-.i.! iutliciTo be 11 (,:;'v .1 !i;.\ i:.- I^ ..u;, v..; :.. v. [ 
;;ioui.J of [c: fwr, bci; :!;;();' iiiy an.l /Mir:!!', c ...!:: .1. d !^v l!..- lu- ';..:: .; . .. : . : 
C iu'An, ,1 pnncc oi ;!;rca: iiiil;,;!, y .;ik1 t i.r; r, ri/c ; \'. li; c (!:c I\i. :; h:;i.L-.: \'. .;v ...,: 
( i;:i:v IV !;<. j from iil^c :u1j;a i(y;i-. 1j\ mi..!;,'- ir, loci; i!.i:i.:,c!\.Li- ^i: .Ciimco:>, : \v.. , 
iiMiCvl, tli.if \.'.\\[j I'l OK\s wciL' tiv^.i.,;.- 1 lii .1 l..i:0 01 c o'li ; 1: .o", .._..; '.\ : . , 

.OiJ !i..tl .i1u'..l1'-, io i.ir .iL L-.ol, en.br.K.o .i 1, [.om:, ;:;::. il. t.,;.- ;> ..:i ....;.. u; 

KOKiV L.:ii :' (-b..v; v \-:i v^ s anil l.../ .I\i.;o^ cot. rpri/. n. N .i;- o;y:,lvi it be i..;o"o o, 
..It .i O.I t ion, w .:.j rt\;.u\lj.l with loc !^ l.w: ityr .i l\;b ni u: io.i^: u;;, rcx-cr .; '. v :..:.: 
I'oo.L-- .1. l,ic;\cl ;t:ul ixooo, .oi ; who 1 .iii,\l ^! tiiinou.i '.sotli t;K- o:o; 
ouy to oj^poie it , re (..b.l./lhhnirot, i-o!cl be the obj- ^L o; thh: 0.0.0 ... ... .1 

on.l'reo.o.l. 

1 ; is J oubo'-'le, th.ir do* oe'v .ib'aoee (>': o'r.ov e i:o''';'. .1 :'..: P.ih v, ito 
to no:k o eo : I"' .!.o"' n ot hi 1 re i^ 'w.i, .ool u 
I: .0 ! ei" ec.o <: the b..,yi;;]j. l"oh> .bl:,o; 

.1 . ih v,cooO. '] m; h' v .0 .'. . ' ;-oh to ' e '.: t ! :. . . 

I 'in\oooi_':, \'. h( 'O; ::: 1) h i' ..:. 'e , .s roe o.\et 
bo: o\'er ;o b:s ; .u e. ^ : 

I .oJo 1 l.-v 1.1 hy TenO': i h. e.:, ; .hi I..0 th . . 1 

t 1 ir (o.'.';, e(Mi' - ; .ool ho; I e' ; ;- :u o ,. ' th.'o . 1. : 

' . < '.-. bj.o' . 

.r ih e .ill o. . i. 'ocloi ' o; e ' \ 



.) o^ to r 



210 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C!inp, III. This iiKiJent r.o'.vevcr furniflied Downing vvlch a new article to encreafe thofe 
' ''^^* vain pretences, on whicli it was propofed to ground the intended quarrel. The 
Englifli court delayed feveral months belcrc they complained i left, if they had de- 
manded fadsfaflion more early, the Dutch might have had time to grant it. Even 
when Downing delivered his memorial, he v/as bound by his inftru<5lions not to ac- 
cept of any fatisfaclion after a certain number of dnys i a very imperious manner 
of negotiating, and imprailicable in Flolland, where the forms of the republic ren- 
der delays abfolutely unavoidable. An anfwer, however, tho' refufed by Downing, 
was fcnt over to London ; with an ambaiTador extraordinary, who had orders to 
ufe every expedient, which might give fatisfaclion to the court of England. That 
Court replied, that the anfwer of tht Elollanders was dark and obfcure j but they 
would not fpecify the articles or exprefllons, which were liable to that cbjedion. 
The D.utch ambaffador deured the Englifh miniPiry to draw the anfwer in what 
terms they pleafed ; and he engaged to fign it : The Englini miniilry replied, 
that it was not their bufincfs to draw papers for the Dutch. The ambaffador 
brought them the draught of an article, and afl^ied them whether it was fatisfadlory : 
The Englifli anfwered, that, when he had figned and delivered it, they would tell 
him their mind concerning it. The Dutchman rcfolved to fign it at a venture ; 
and on his demanding a new conference, an hour was appointed for that purpofe. 
But when he attended, the EngliHi refufed to enter upon bufinefs, and told him, 
that the feafon for negotiating Vv'as now pafl. *. 

I .ON'G and fr.^quent prorogaiiorjs were made of the Parliam.ent -, left the Houfes 
fliould declare themfelves with vigour againftcounci's, fo opponce to the inclination 
as well as interefts of the public. Could we fuppofe, that Charles, in his aihance 
againft Ilolland, really meant the good of his peop^le, that meafure muft pafs for an 
extraordinary, nay, romantic, ftr.iin of heroifm, v.'hich could lead him, in fpite of 
all diiiiculties, and even in fpite of themfelves, to feek the happinefs of the nation. 
But every flep, which he took in this affair, became a proof to all men of pene- 
tration, that the prefent war was intended againft the liberties of his own fubjeds, 
even more than againfi the Dutch themfelves. He now afied in every thing, as 
if he were already an abfolute Monarch, and was never more to lie under thecon- 
troul of natioria! affemblies. 

The lorg pro ogation of Parliament, it it freed the King from their im})ortunate 
advices and remonftrances, v/as however attended with this inconveni'.ncc, that no 
monc-y could b-j procured to carry on the military preparations againft Holland. 
Under pretext ol maintaining the triple league, whic'i, at ihau very tim-, he had 
firmly refolved to break, Charles iiad obtained a large f'-ippiy from the Commons ;; 

L U t 

* I-.;ir^lau'J'i Appeal, p. 22, 



C H A R L I- S U .:! 

. r t!iis money, by debts nnd cxneiicus, was io.jn cxhaulled. I-";.inr' !..\d llij^j- 
1j: i CO pay two hundred an^i iurty th>uKiiid j ouiids the tirll vc:r (^r tli;- war, ii: \ 
ttic in I ' rf tli.u fum every ye.ir iluiing t!ic roiirle ol i: , bi.c rlcll- !'.:;i, liei -.vcre 
very 1 confidciabic, eompare.l to i\w 'wvr.v.wAj c!i.i:-.;" (,-f :!; I".n;;'i!]i navy. !: 
iVrr;../: IS yet pi-einature to venture on Icvyii-.^ rr^on- .', \v':-'i ;,.c .oa::'M <jI i\.i'.<. .- 
nuT.: \ f:nce the power of taxiii;; themleU'cs was tiir privi!.._;', ol whiJi tlic 1 .:' li 
w:--e, V, 'i:!i reafon, particul.irly jeaKni.'^. Soriie other rdouicc niuil b.- : ^ . 
'liv: K:r.:_' iiaci d.-chujil, that the ib.ti' ^-t t:e.:lii;er u .r le.iJy lor .\ny one, :ha; .>'. . : 
;i:v! ;.n ex: edicnt for lLipj'Iy:i.[^ the piclcr.t r.r^cliiLic-. bh.akfojry tiropp-d a ]\\:\: 
'o Ciifrord, w'.iich tlu- hitter inin'etii.ilcly 1, i/cd, andi car; ieJ : > t;;e K'r. % w .. > 
;ra:;t^d Iiim tl^.c promifed rev.ard, toj/cthcr with a [Kcrar,e. riii.-; exy-eJunt v. .. 
the (hutting up the Exchequer, and raainir.j :.!! tlie p:iymer.:<, wh.ic'i !]:,}'..!.i l' 
made iruo ::. 

It he: bec:i ufual for the bankcr^ to cairy their nionjy to ihc Lxeiu' :...;, 

CO advance it iiyon t'ne llcurity of t!ic fund.,-, bv v, hi, h th.ev \\e;e a: lei'v. ,.;. - i\y..: _:. 
when the vr.un -y v.\is levied on the public. 'I iie b.i:ike;s, bv tlii- rrahu , ;, : . 
lometinv-'S len, per cent, lor luni?, whiJi ci:her had been Ce'::li^':ed 'o m.::i v,.:.i- 
^-"j: ir.:eri f', or vdiv.cii t'-.ey had borrowed, at fix j . r eeiu : Iho. '.:.-, ^. !.;. Ii li.. v 
jarlv paved tor by thi- egregious breacli ol public fairli. ']'!:. n^e.i:'.. re \^. ..^ ;o ...d 
deniv tabe:i, tiiat none !uid vrandng ol the chmger. A ge!-:era! i.o.:.:,^:on ; :e\M !e I 
;n ZAC citv, lohowed by t!ie ruin ol mar.y. Tl: b.j'ihcr> ibv- ^v! av::: ::' , :'.-.: 
merJ:a::t5 cou'.d anfwer no bills , cbilrufl tec k rhr e evcrv v. iu re. v :b:. a :d:j!..:- 
tUMa of comnierce, by v/hich tlie piibiir w.^s u::;ve: i^.ily ade.ud. A..d ;::::. id.l 
ot eifmal apj'reh.enI]cMi<^, all^'/d each (;tlier v, ha: n:: ll I- :' e \.c: : o: :!: ... 
ncu- councds, whence the [^ariian:ent and ,di n en c. h(,n ur ".-. re ,:.c'.: ' . .. 1 
v-iiuii c^-ni:nciKev: hy t .e tor:ii:i;re oi pi.hlir e' '. - ' ::: ^ :. \i ' .:.'^.. _.. 
!:.o!l hdernn en:-a:>:re:.ts, b' '.: Icrcign -nd do.. 

Anothilr m^alurc (/ diC C .u:-r i, .)nr uiv lo;v '.'. i . 

in itleif ; but if we relb .'c on rhe n:o'd.e v.iience ;: ;.',, 
wiu-n it 'A as en-iLraeed, if '.vih a:-yc.ir .i ib oi g ir.:bi.. ,' . 

G.:s cr Mirlis pi.rfue.: at [ r.l nt l">y th '-v r and h' . : . 

make ule of h:s lupeniv pwv.\r .n (\ . leh.u.d ,d n,.::: 
was noto:i'.^' iii' rc' : ui Inn:, 1 et vdni^h hrd b.-'/n ; . < 
n.-nvni. Hv \:\'i oi t'.is auth^-r ::y, h-- d 
'"en.,! h.-.. s, ' :i.i.;trd nf^an.lt dl Ne.-ncoidor.i,:.' 
. " to :.,e { rot. lain ! )n!'e;-|[er- ihe pub! e 'X 
u , c iwi'e O'l it i.i priv.ve Ik-. . ' 

;.. -d ' v the Ibuha:;K::t a-,d -..:'> : . 



10-72. 



212 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. III. years afcer the r.fl(, ration ; b..t Charles expect^-d that the Parliament, whenever ic 
fnouM meet, would now b^ tamed to greatc-r jubmiflion, and would no longer dare 
to controid his mcalu:vs. Meanwhile^ the Diilenters, the molt inveterate enemies to 
the Court, were n'.cdlin.d by thefe indu'genr mjaxim.s : And the Catholics, under 
tlicir H'cker, enjoyed miOie liberty than the laws had hitherto aHo'.ved them. 

At the fam.e tim.e, the acL ol iiavigation v/as [urpenc'e:! by royal v/ili and pleafure : 
A meafure, which, tlio' a ilrttch of prerogative, feemied ufeful to commerce, while 
all the Teamen v/ere em^[)loyed on board the royal navy. A like fufpenfion had 
been graiucd, during tiie time of the iirft Dutch war, and was not much remarked y 
bcv-aule men had, at that time, entertained Icfsjealoury of the crovv'n, A proclama- 
tion v/:.s alio ilTued. containing very rigorous claufes in favour of preffing : Ano- 
ther full of menaces agair.u: thofc who pi efumed to fpeak undutifully of his Majefty's 
m:earures, and even tliofe v.ho heard fuch difcourfes, iinlefs they informed in due 
rime upon the offendei-s : Another aeainll importinr; or vendino- any forts of paint- 
({] ear:hen wate, " except thole or China, upon pain ci being grievouQy fined and 
*' il..r;eri;-;g tlie utmoll punifhment, v/hich might be lav.'fuliy inHicled upon con- 
*' tenmers of his Majefty's royal authority." A new army had been levied ; and 
i: was k'urd, that diiciphne could not be enforced without the exerciie of martial 
k;vv', v.'hich was theretore eflablifned by order of council, tho' contrary to the peti- 
tion of right. A 1 thefe acls of power, hov/cver little important in themfelves, 
kivourcd ihcnsiv or arbitrarv o-overnment, and were no way ftiitabie to that leojal 
aelnf:nikrat:on, which the Parliament, after fuch violent convulfions and civil wars, 
had hoped to have eilabliined in the kingdom. 

It m.ay be worth remarking, that the lord-keeper refufed to aflix thefeals to the 
declaration for kif. ending the penal laws , and was for that reafon, tho' under other 
pretexts, removed froni his otlice. Shaltefbury was made chancellor in his place; 
and thus another member of the Cabal received the reward of his councils. 

Foi> :!;ig:; tranfavkions kept pace with thele domefi:ic occurrences. An attempt, 
' before the ceclaraiion oi v.ar, v;as made on tlie Dut.h Smyrna fleet by Sir Robert 
iloln^es. That fleet connked of feven.ty fail, valued at a mjiliion and a half-, and the 
lio;-,es c-: kizing !o rich a prey had been a great motive for engaging Charles m the 
j;rele:-t war, and ]:;: h^.d conikiercd that capture as a principal reiiburce for !upport- 
ij'g his military earerprizes. i lolmes, with nine frigates and three yatchts, had or- 
licrs to go in karch of tiiis dcet ; an:l he pafied Spraguc in the Chainiel, who was 
returning hoTi^.e vdch a fquad.onfrorn a cruize in the Meditenanean. Sprague in- 
fornted i^im of the near ajjuroacli of the Hollanders ; anel had not Holmes, from a 
dc fire of eagrcfrinp^ all the lionour and profit of the enterprize, kept the lecrct o; h.is 
Ciders, the corjunclion cf thck fquadrons had rendered the kiccels inlallible. 



c: 1. 1 

liCvt 



CHARLES 11. 



2 T 



Wi.cii Iloiirif". appioac!..\l the TucJi, Iv- put on an ,i:v/:(.i !>.". . ; [ .:..:.ce, an.: i:,- 
\'i'(.u ti.c a^iiiT.', \ .III Nc: , \sl,() c ::::"ii.:n c.l ;!il- io;.V';v, to luiiv oh bc'.i.J . i 
11.11 : Cyi.j u[ Ills cupc/tii;'-. |;avc a hkc ii.[i.!;uus i.v::.i': n ro t'.;- i-;,:; -.u'ii.ir.il. Dul 
I (.;'.' t;:;u C-: - '.vcr>-- on cli'-ir ^^liard. i hcv !i.ul r':i'!-'.v^'. :,:'' ''i liui .. ki- 

t^ :.ii j-.ls ol "iiV ]: j'iilli, v.nA h.ul a!r^.i(.!y |n;t a'i t.I\- fl;:;' . . \ . :.' :i (; .;:::i..n 

i:i an 'x^L^l^-iit pullui'c (; d^icncc. 'lli:. c :;11L^ v, ,: v t;-c; \-..i,.;nt,lv ..n'u a ! (-v [' 

]'. : n:]i ; and as oiirn clni tli<-y valiantly Jin'jaJ ilu nilJvc .. la die thmi .n 

c-; : : 1)..:^ h lh!j'. (jt war wa-i ralv.n) , an.l iln- c o; i n..r c: i!.fir n:j^l n.c .n ^ n.'^. 

'.\ \i\:iu ii iv 11 i:.:o tliC tn^nn. ^, l.an . Tlie r\ :1, iiL:n';n[; \v;tl; :rcar Il,i.l a. ,. 

. ^n i' -n:: nu^ii I'lci;- ( uuilc ; an^!, l,.\n) nr .i b v a nn;!, i^ .: laie nn n/--.-'. n 

..; onis. 1 iiis atr.-n'r: i:. c!jnL.n;ina:a! [^ci linious an.' pvmui.nn bv Lie 1 , 

...i.i even by many of t'le Iniglilji. It n;eii:s :.:: leail r:nj ..p;.el"a:ion lu n' .. , 

antl as i: bad been aI:^^nd^J y.\f[\ "ni.i k.l\.c1'.>, i: !_:ca,abt en ,n!e .' . n. , 

C'y\:v:v^:'^. ] Ii" b'n^_;l:l]i n^nniliy c- Jea^\) neb L; c.n.- : :be ....: :. _ : ,. , 

tw.n ii: v,as a e.:;-,-l ie:cnnn:er, aiiinn^ 'iwn^ :b: (b).'iinnv . n i). (.!;, '., ) 

r'U.led t!v.' i.(ni.,nnsoi liie tbii: : ]],:t tne c, ntrnv -.v..? ;',> ucii kn.n.'. n, m.: e\nn 

i bbmes bind^ii i.avi !i( n cbe alibia; ee u> ne; n.l ;:: ib:s ..bl'- e: n . . 



1 I!. I, t.ns iiAici^n: :ne rarcy, nntv 



.,,- :.^ 



nii a., in. :r 



: [\v !'nn.Inb, i i \rr be!i \n b z.yjWi i) ''a rn.n 

b, :iu;t Li:a aiiair wcnlb rem. . 
; ni leine [<ro|;n..4b n.r ilic .;b\ anecnien: (u bie I' 
:. ic nin !vn :> i^n; n^a^.e n:[ e acco.n'i: c; ..!.nb. cc b^ 
bji:;-.n', tlnit cbeir anib.ceAib pin';- "s v.n ebb ' n' ; 
-.:.] \:' !;cv, be iorwaicbci by tb,.r [^nwcan 
en\ 15nt Cbai: 
' . b. :. :nn: .. ni . .a- a . 



ccnr ; ... : 

.my c:i:.i\n'',vtn : 'i .;a b',:.ni; ^n 
i..j' ic an[ ear:^ tbai: ill. be pemon b.i ' . 
i )nL^b b. I (ai t':e:r u',",ni <:u : . : : > : n 
r.iUb: ;\. vl l.) jnev'e lip an in. I ; . 
.e.b mpre.enleb as a iiroimb (.! ijn.u; 
nnb.e (A ibi> aill.ie ; till at l,;ll ii v, .e . 
\ . . ' nber lo lb p.nbb):niry, panil.vl 
1 ni a cb.arn.ba.r (jI llv rowii-lr.'i;' 

tin- . er.i eeiiN'e ol ibis jHjftrail, liie p.;...: 
.i b-wa^ ..niilbi.eb lobe Lbillnnr, v.n.' 



2 14 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. TIL and had acquired great honour ; but li'.tle did he imagine, that, while the infult 

*''^^' itfelf had fo long been forgiven, the piclure of it fhould draw fuch fevere 

vengeance upon his country. The conclufion of this manifefto, where t'le King 

ftill prv;fefied his attachment to the triple alliance, was of apiece with all the reft 

of it. 

The French King's declaration of war contained more dignity, if undifguifed 
T'iolence and injuflice could merit that appellation. He pretended only, that the 
behaviour of the Hollanders had been fuch, that it did not confift with his g'ory any 
longer to bear it. That Monarch's preparations were in great forwardnefs , and 
ills ambition was flattered v.qth the moli; promifing views of fuccefs, Sweden was 
detached from the triple league ; The bifliop of Munfler was engaged by the pay- 
ment of fubrid:es to take part with France : The eleftor of Cologne had entered 
into the fame alliance ; raid having configned Bonne and other towns into the hands 
of Lewis, miagazines were there eredled ; and it was from that quarter, that France 
propofed to invade the United Provinces. The (landing force of that Kingdom 
amounted to one hundred and eighty thoufand men j and with more than the half 
of this great army was the King now approaching to the Dutch frontiers. The or- 
der, oeconomy, indutlry ot Colbert, fubfervient equally to the ambition of the Prince 
and happinefs of the people, furnifhed unexhaufled treafures : Thefe, employed by 
the unrelenting vigilance of Louvois, fupplied every mihtary preparation, and fa- 
cilitated all the enterprizes of the army : Conde, Turenne, feconded by Luxem- 
bourg, Crequi, and the moft renowned generals of the age, conduced this army, 
and by their conduct and reputation inf^jired courage into every one. The Mo- 
narch himfeif, furrounded with a gallant nobility, animated his troops, by the pro- 
fpei5t of reward, or, what was more valued, by the hopes of his approbation. 
The fatigues of war gave no interruption to gaiety : Its dangers furnilLed matter 
for glory : And in no enterprize did the genius of that gallant and polite people 
ever bre;;k out with more difl:inguiflied luftre. 

TpiO' de Wit's intelligence in foreign courts was not equal to the vigilance of 
his domedic adminiftration, he had, long before, received many furmizes of this 
fatal confederacy, but he prepared not for defence, fo early or with fuch induflry, 
as the danger required. An union of England with France was evidently, he 
faw, dcflruclive to the interdls of the former ki:.gdom ; and therefore, over- 
looking or ignorant of the humours and fecrct vicvv's of Ch.irles, he concluded it 
impofTible, that fuch pernicious projeds could ever really be carried into execLi- 
tion. vSecure in this fallacious rcafoning, lie allowed the Ivcpublic to remain too 
Jong in that defencelels fituation, intovvhich many concurring accidents had united 
to throw it. 



c II A R J. r: s 11. 



very iinv. ai-,;I:c, an.! C'yii'i.ijvi ci.Liic!- : ..; i!;c:r J-:c;\ ... :....: :;-:ji\c...; v a'::i-, 
V. iiich il.cy li^aii^'aiiitwi. Alter i!i^ u-a'yot W; .^^ !...!! :, ;!.j ^;..:'^. r:..iti;;;:o 
I'.-.-l: I -.^j '.vii!. Sp.iin, and i!:vir ai'Miicc w.ili 1 :..-.. c, I. .t: . . _ a [^rca' ;-.:;[ (.[" 
l..\ a:i;,_, , a: .1 i,i|V5o; rod ni;: with 11.,:;^ ;c:i: vi._,:;a:.v;c t^.c .;.:. :^ !a.: k lIi Tv) ;p, 
v.! : ;; remained. \'. ncn ti.c anllociauic [-aiav j r:\i\x^^ i: w.;'- :!....,.,'.!: ;\.d ; : 
r . d:!n;i.3 n-..iny c-f tiie old exparica . 1 (..ii.cr-, w..) v,,;-c 'avoc.d V) l^:j ,...-. < . 
( ran;';-; and tluar jda 'o wa'; r:[^;dijd by raw \o.:''>, v.'.-^ i';n!> or l.n.l.r r. i-: I].. 
; nialiti' , hv wliolc ip.'"crt.'ll t!;c laiav \'.-..s laip-^ rc.-d. 'I i/.-lcnew o.;".^,;-, :-o>:i; 
( racca it ot tiicir friends and tan-iny, nc^!.-(f:ed :hea- n^Xirary c'ary ; and ;' n:e 
< r'nij-m, it is laid, were even alowcd to !'c;vc l)y de} i.'.e-a to wiuan, :'. -.v aTiao^d 
a Imall part of their pay. During thj war \\l:l\ I'.r.'j^l.i ', ail the lor: c^ oi t!. ." 
nation had been dilbanid.d : Lewis'.^ ln\-af;.Tn o! b'!an^ba-<, idlowed. ; v i\: :..j ' 



III. 



? ^i... , ' 



Icagu?, occafioncd the difnVilTlon of tj-.c l-'rcacli reg':r.LT,:s : A;id t 

troops, which !i..d ever 'aid achie' !nar.' in t'. dan:;nr an: fv^rtuneet :..'. :!.. w..::^ 

m the I .ow L"ojntri..b, Iiad i^o: been !\.p;'':.d ' . anv new le'.-;e^ 

I)r Wit, lenfibie .; '.'.,\^ d m^yrcnis fha :d n, and .damped by :!ie r?i wr: , v.!,:. a 
e.:n;e from all quarter-, beilirr.\l !iin;bi: :o di; y!v tnole de!ee:s, to v, 'a^!; itv. ..-, 
TiOt eafy ol a liia.d.en to [ r(nnde a llntable ::med.y. B..: ivery prop.*;..', wWi.lx !.. 
tan 'd make, n'e: W!:;-| oppodtion Iron: t!:j Oranp;- partv, winch w..\ now !na.)n.e 
cxnanvlv icjrnndab'e. The i(;ny; and la:. 'ntiaAoed adn.inidrat: n en tais llit:.- 
man iiad be^;'>L c^vy : '1 he prcb iir inci.lenrs ronaad u[) I.;- . nenna> and un[ - :\.'r,: , 
winj afcribed to his nddcoiuluct adonc ti'.c bad fnnaarion. of t'.e Ldar.n.^on aea'.t!. : 
And abov ' all, t!^e prvnilar adbcLinn to t!:e yonn;; Prince, v. 1 i^h had .b !on^; bee.i 
held, in x'itdent ronllrain::, and iaid t;:ence acquire! i-.e'v acceii'-w.. ui iorc> , l\paa 
tw i!n; lay itled, and to thr.a- n the Cianmonv. . ;.tli wnn !ome prea: CLn/.-ali:on, 
Wdiin n^'ie tbiivb l^ ince o: O, anye, \\ .i^- now r, die r w; nt/d; con.i \e.n- td ! . ape, 
and s^ave lif, np i'-.dcatain- s: all thole r''(.\ii qnaiio Ly which '..'.' Ina v..iS 
ait' rwairds lo nvncli didLirp'.n.nK d. 1)'- Wit liin-b::, by p;\n..; b.nn an cxccl'erL 
ednc atioT], an.d inb' ; aicLmp hiir, ini ,dl tia. principles ol 'aoveri'ma/nt a:n. 1 IouikI po':c',", 
h -d generoiilly contrd^nteu to nabke 1.:^^ nv;d foi n^idabie. i bcaanp.-^ rl^.e preciri- . > 
fitaation ri ins own parry, he wa:- aiwa\ s re folvcth i-.- . a ', by co:.V' Ybp; to h;in the 
kiiowle"e (f anai:"^, to rt nd r tlc' Ti an^ c cajaib!.- <: a ; \ i: a''- ' > a'- . , n e\ i 
any toiina' cnv.ryer.ce (hon't! tiirow the .ub'. nnbcr.;b.wa i. a ',.. ., ^ I :.e cai- 
duci (d i!ie yonnp Iharu a h.id idtlirrro bv:- : xir. n;;. . ;and..' le. i". ''iv. .Li:dandi. ^ 

: .,. b b ai e\' :\ i; , d his :e!o- 



hi- yjwerb.l aaiances w;t!i Irn.dand and l-^ra ad. 
kii-v'n ( f dicaen.'.na'; ei.tirtlv on t!ie ,*>[,'.tc.> bar 
tenor ol id A-- ba\doi,r iaitcd extta.!ncb. the a 



c. r: ; .iP.d. t'-ie V. 



r> 



' i 



.vplc an...t aad 

tboa' b-:..l , 



;m6 in S T O p. Y of great BRITAIN. 

in;.!':!. di.:U!:!ii:ful , f'iven to hear and to enquire , of a found and fleady underftanding -, 
^"' '" much iirninjls in what he one rtfb'ved or oncQ denied ; great application to bufi- 
i-.efs, litdc to pleafure : By thefe virtues, he engaged die attention of all men. And 
the -.-ecple, ferifiblc, tliat they ov.'ed their liberty, and very exiftence, to his family, 
and reinembrirg, that I'.is g-'e?.: unc'e. Maurire, had been able, even in more early 
^"cuth, to prated: then: agai::u: the exorhitanr power of Spain, were defirous of 
:hf:n2: this Piince to ad the auihority of his anceiiors, and hoped, from his valoL;r 
.^nd ccnd^j-ft a!cnc, to recri^'e protccflicii againfb tiiDfe imminent dangers, with 
which tiiey v/ei^e at pie-er: tiu'c^icneel. 

Wkili; thefe :v/o powerful Lcji^us firucgled i'or fuperiwrity, every fcheme for de- 
fence \\ns oppofed, every prcjcet retarded. What was determined with (.iiihculty, 
'v;;s ex-cuted wiiiiout vigour, L.evics indeed were made, and the army compleatccl 
to ftvei;ty thouland meri^': The Prince was appointed both gejueral and admiral 
of the Ccmraonwealth, and t;-;e whole mintary power was put into his hands. But 
new troops couid not of a fudden acquire dilcipline and experience : And the par- 
tizans oi tiic Piince were flill unhuisficd, as long as i\vi perpetual edi5f^ fo it was 
caiied, remained in force ; by wiiich he was excluded from the Stadtholderfhip, 
an i froiii ad ihare in the civil adminifxration. 

It had always been tne maxun ot dc Wit's party to cultivate naval affairs v/ith cx- 
^rerre care, an.! to give the Iket a vifi'ic preference above the army, which they re- 
nr^fentcd as the object of an unreafjnable partiality in the Princes of Orange. The 
tv.'o violent wars, v, hich had oi late been v/aged wiiii iLngLmd, had exercifcd t'lc 
valour, and improved thefklii ol the lailors, ,^\nd above all, de Ruyter, the greateft 
fca coniHAandcr of the age, was clolely conncded with the Louveftein party ; and 
every one, wiiii connde ce and alacrity, v/a3 dilpofed to obey him. llie equip- 
ment of ti-eflo-t was tlvereiore hafiened by de Wit ; in hopes, that, by flriking at 
firfl a iuccvfslul blov/, he might irilpire courage into tlie difmayed States, and fup- 
port h.is ov.n declining authority. He feems too, to have been, in a peculiar man- 
ner, enraged againfl: the Engliih, and refolved to take revenge on them for tlieir 
conducl, ol which, he thoug'it, his country had fuch reafon to complain. By tlie 
offer of a clolc alliance and confederacy of mutual defence, they had feduced the 
Republic to quit the alliance of brance ; but no ioop.er had flae embraced tiiefe 
me.dures, than they forma d le, gues for hier deflruclicn, \Nitli that very power, 
wdiicli tiicy had treacherouily mg-ged her to oitc:nd. In the nddil: of lull peace, 
nay, during an intimate union, tiiey had diihonourably aituLkcd her commerce, the 
only means of her lubliftencc, ?SiC.^ moved by llian:e!ul rapacity, had invaded tinit 
property, v/hich.., relyi::gon their faith, they had lioped to iind unprotecud and 

defencelej||. 
"* Tanplc, Vol. i. p. 7.-. 



C II A R L !: S II. 



2 17 



(I'TcP.cclef^. Contrary to t!.,:r (;vvn vifi'olc iiuereH, as well as ihelr honour, tlv.y i^i'l 
1- : t:n"cl a iraii :::a--t re !.-n::ncnL for i.rr l'.:c<.\-!>!.il coiv IvA'iy.^ c :' ! 'l v ,r ; a \v ;, 
\vii:Cii h:u], a: il-:^, !] ruiv: iicKn tl^ivir o'.vn v.a; t(j;i ;;il /c :. To r - 

prc's T) (ian-.-rous an C!xn:y, wouM, I'c Wit i:na;^. ^:, ;,;, 

aii/l COM: :'>Li'"'-' 10 t!".c iii:ur. iLCuricy ci h:- uru.'i'.ry, v. ',../:. [-'lu;^ , , 

t^iv (.!> ^L ot ;[rn::i- il t.::vy. 

At r A 1 ! :> by 1:'. iro:i\v- ;in;l.vicv,- , ,\' K.: / 
, I o;i!lll;i > rt iiiiicry ( :,: l]i!j)s ot v,\;r a:;.i ! 
\ 1: \v.:': t;n bjard, as c!--put:y tr j:;"! r!r- Suuj>. 'i :i v . . !.>: : 
'::]!, whv) were iiik!_t tlr; cornirantl ot t!. i'vi!-:c (;; "I't ik, .r; : : d. c..., 

;oi;i(.d the h'rcn !i un'J.(.r iM.ircichal d' I'trc.-s. 'I i-.c Lvjiiibiic.l . . . ; at S , - 
bay in a vcrv nrgbL^cMit |X)llurc , an.l Sam.! v. it r,, ! '. ii.^:; a ; ex -hT..\\: (.'.i'.. '>r. i:.: ; 
i^ivcn tr.c Duke v.aruin;; ol th.- tlan^.r; b:\: r.'i\;vi(.! , k.s 1..; i, i . . . 
;/.t:inKUed, tiiac there v. j.s u'.ure ol caution ih.a;-. o; co..:.: : in h.i .: . . .; 

l/[)on the appearance o; the cneniv, cv.tv one r.in t>) ;;:> p;-." v. it.i ; , .,\^ ,..,:. ,;;, 
and many Ihips were O'-ii ;el to cut tiu-u- c.'u.;., inviMrrore \'a '.:.. ....:>. ,->,:.:_'- 

v:cli commarieicd tiie win ; and ilio' d teriUiirxd. t j eon^y::;" ^ v to j ..:;i, 

ten'ip.rtd iii- co'ura^^- v.it 1 prud.ence, tli.u to lu-.:: tiu- v. h(;le ;;. t - .. \ . 

fo; Kb Luccy. He iuill:ned out (if tiie b.iv, v,he:\-it h ui bv 'U ..uy .. . ... ,. ., , 

^.itn his lire- Ihips to liavc dellroyul tlie c:uubuieu d et^ , v. i.i ': v. , : vy. v. ,_: t )- 

^,:ti".ci' ; arid by this wile ineakne he g.n'e tur, to t';e d . 

luanded the main buciy, ar.d Ma:eU iia! di'b.trJe-, a ::r.::-..i (.: ; 

tkvmielws. ilehnnlelf nuanwhiie was en:; pen in k ' 'u; a: . 

ki.uieu to ev^ry tlanp'T, had vuaun upon hi:u .," k (. k 

Ik i \k.n U...nt, t::e Dutdi adnuud, a k ' , 

\'. nuii ven'uie.i to lav hun a') \\:\': : 1 b- lun . 



tc; 



aj-ylj V. ;t:i !uni ; AvA tiu)' 



ii:oulan.l men ine co:ii;uri.;d, re. 
tinuel llkl to tlunxkr v.ith . " 
kre-ilup, nu;re ioi-Lu;: ,r 
t.Cik L.v oon w as 1,0 ./ ,, 
he r^iulek to nu.kj h: , , , 



);;;:onn;;v, \\i.:j.\ ^ raiii cx,.:^:'..^i\ 



2i8 HISTORY OF GPvEAT BRITAIN. 

c:.:.\ III. tered, th^t he was obliged to leave her, and remove his flag to another. Kis 
^^'""' iqi:a-!ron was overpowered with numbers ; till Sir Jofeph Jordan, v/ho had Cue- 
ceedcd to Sandwich's command, came to his alTiftance , and the fight, being more 
e:;u:iiy b.uianceci, wa; continued till nighr, when the Dutch retired, and were not 
fol'owed by the Engliih. The lof^, fufMined by the fleets of the two maritim.e 
powers, was nearly equal -, if ic did not rather fall more heavy on the EngiiOi. 
Th: French fuflercd very little, bccaufe they had fcarce been engaged in the adion ; 
and as tiiis backward neis is iiot their national character, it was concluded, that 
they had rLceived orders to fpare tlieir fliips, while the Dutch and Englifn fliould 
weaken tliemfelves by th.eir mautual anirnonty. Alrnofl: all the other actions dur- 
ing th.e prefent vvar tended to connrmi this fufpicion. 

Tr brouglu g'-eat honour to the Dutch to have fought with fome advantage the 
combined iieets of two fuch powerful rations ; hut nothing lefs than a compleaC 
victory co'jld ferve the purpofe of de Wit, or five his country from thofe calami- 
ties, which from every quarter threatened to overwhelm her. He had expelled, 
tlvat tlic French woul i make tlieir attack on the fide of Maeuricht, which was well 
foriified and provided of a good garrifon ; but Lewis, taking advantage of his al- 
liance with Cologne, refolved to invade the enemy from that quarter, which he 
knzw to be n:ore feeble and defencclefs. The armies of that Elector and thofe of 
Ivlunfter appeared on the other fide of the Rhine, and divided the force and atten- 
tion of the States. The Dvitch troops, too weak to defend fo extenfive a frontier, 
were fcattcred into fo many tow-n , that no confiderable body remained in the field ; 
and a itrong garrifon was hardly to be found in any fortrefs. Lewis palled the 
^,1^ _' -^^,., ^vieufe at Vifet , and h;ying fiege to Orfoi, a town of the Elector of Branden- 
burgh, but garrifon-d by the Dutch, he carried it in three days. He divided 
;; -'^^^'V his army, and invefted at once Burik, Wekl, Emerik, and Rhimberg, four 
places regularly forrified, and not unprovided of troops : In four days, all thefe 
places were furrcndered. A genera! aftor.ifnment had feized the Hollanders, from 
the comldnation of llich powerful L'rinccs againfl the Republic ; and no where was 
rffillance mad;;, k:i;able to the antient glory or prelent greatnels of the State. 
Governors wkhoe: cx[ erience coininanded troops without dilcipHne ; and deipair 
hid univcrfdiy cxlJ: gukhcd that ienic of honour, by which alone men, in ikch 
daiirerons extrendtieo, can be a;d nated to a valorous defence. 

I.::^^s advanced to the ha ks of the Rhine, which he prepared to paf>. To 

zd of ju.:e. ^dl the cither calamities of the ])uLch was added tlie ex^rreine drought of the lealbn, 

hy 'I, ;:,::i ihe g:e a:e.l rivers were mucdi ckmimnied, and in lume pia es rendered 

jor.iahe. Tlie French tawdrv, aniiviated by the prelence of their i'rince, full (;f 

i;np.tiiO-:j, co.n\.;^v, but rai^gcd in exact order, flung themlelves into the river : 



C II A R L F. S li. 



2i; 



j !ij iiilaiUry [wiY.d i;i b ).;rs : A T-v :v 'imi;;i:s ot Dirx\\ p.\ ;;^^rcJ en :!. ! i/.'.. 
i; ,,, \v!.() NscT- u:;.i').i: tu n'.i". : ,c. An.i r.\ii: "ams cxvvurd '.\::'.j:.: i... 
re;', hwc li' i: V. ii^oj- ; ,\' ',, tiu- |m::-.- <i :!.l- K , i- iii-.c'i >- ' .. :-i, 

1' A . :! ;i\'C. !s .i.aI'.v! >. ()M'.!;;j ttj t.,/ c T^'iirrc^r- , .1 ,! . ..... :.:c w., .; .. .:. . . .'. 

\'..:.J,.i C.) ti'.-J (M:.i ".i.Uk!, u.i.i .j\Mi:itci.l ui'.i'. ;!i-, , . :.'...uv.!i Co [;i-.in-, .1 C. 

vr. ', !^v ;\m: r: ,it t'lo v;o!ci.c i.ui! "is 'v!.u"'i j':.-v\i; c\:, \'. - iv ir.i-: .:.! o; :'. . 
t ; )::!:v, u:i \vii:c!i th.y nnill (ic; viul. I' \v.:s iAjH^uJ, thac il.c li;'t o' >k::.:.. 
I.iMiuLS iur t!i(' (: /c^, wiiic !i it li.ui I<m:iv;1v l..l'a:.; vl, v,.'i,\i r-!:..;,^^ ;, . ,. ; 
:.nc: ; b:\z i: v!c!.;\i ro 'lur Mn in a L-v.- cli\s. 1 ' ; l.vvc [% n v.:'. iv.:. . .. 
niailci' of Arn:.cim, Kn^r/cmlx)! r.-;, and Nin";c":i;f::, a-^ .1 n .-l.^..;^- .t;c-' 
lore tiiim. P ;Jn 'n:\', at rii;- lani:' tin'" o;- '!u- 1 :: ;:;'- i ) I .:' ^ .- : ^ > n ,n 
1 li'.xlcTv. :c, .'\n'.LTsn)rr, Can-'^ni, l\!n;-.vn, \ ..i:i , T'lln-rn,, /v. '. C'nn. n'/n.-: 
W'a^rvn'nnzn.c.n, I,(A''.ic:n, \'^ o I'tlcn i^ '.1 i-uo [;i.- i n.nr.ii'^ !nin.:-. (: ; 1. 

\\r.'\v i\:v:cuc..-\ d to t h" Ma:c!. '.a! 1 .i:xcni'-onr,;, w Ih) Cvnrnnnnl, -i '!n " 
^in..:; n'. .\n,i cxcry !; nr ln-;n;;^;.[ to ! iu' S-.uc- ncrv > 0} :'.\v i .in;,l jn'on,"-" > < : I 
1 ;cni.!u anil oi t!i" Ci;".vai\:lv ti/nn;.c' oi i'.. '.': (iv.n [;.n :n;";.-^. 

!': i^ ;!U"t.' of Van.''', w a^i his Innii: an : i.l;l',(ini-.: ; t.1 . rnn/, : ' . . ,: 

into z'.w :o\ nu"^- ot 1 L, ''ianvi : v. 'v la- ii- i-\;'r. 1; vl, t. an 
rca.ntiv, !"nca aii iuin.an art a:/J ronr,:.-;: t.ii -u, to "- ainj L.) n: '.. . 
anrc. i'r.i- tov. n an.! ; r i\n:, ; in 1 't;- i in li n: i' ;':,.,;'', ^ 



( ,n , , ; >A ( ; ;r. 1 o n" :i i 

ti:n ,: .'. '- t . I to'.vn, the n..; , 
win) v.',i .- ::' n t > . ^ :ii 1,', :. n . 
|n;!\ lii n ' ; tn..' ' . n . 1 , ' 
I 1 n . t . ; ( n 1 I. . . . n 1 Is , ... 
ti.nn, tin.: n^ c ..: . .... 

In.v, ! v,iL!i a - ;:,.. . c ...n ::,,. ' , 
I- n.l '. \n:"- v !, 1/ ai: n.lc.i v. . ii n r^ 
r n o i (a h :, .in nnc^ il..n. [','.. > 



n :, 1 , ; ,n i .! . ; ; . 

/.,. .1 ; a Mw:M:-Lii(!.i.' 

Lii.nn L n. c and !' :n:a.c .^ 



220 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN, 

Chap. riL had taken, except a few , and tortifying his main army by the garrifons, put him-- 
''''^^' felf in a condition of puiliing iiis conqueih. Louvois, hoping that the o'dier pro- 
vinces, weak and difmayed, wouki prove an eafy prey, adviled Ihm to keep pof- 
feffion of places, which might afterwards ferve to retain the people in fubjeclion. 
His council was followed i tho' it was found foon after to have been the moil 
impoHtic. 
Coni>ematioa Meanvvhile the people, thro'out all the Republic, infiead of colleding a no 
o ue otcn. i^j^ indignation again it the haughty conqueror, difcharged their rage upon their 
ov/n unhappy miniiher, on whofe prudence and integrity every one formerly be- 
flowed the merited applaufe. I'he bad condition of the armies v/as laid to his 
charge : The ill choi.e of governors was afcribed to his partiality : As inftances 
of cowardice mukjpiicd, treachery was fufpecfed j and his former connections 
Vvdtli France being remembered, the populace believed, that he and his partizans 
had now combined to betray them to their moft mortal enemy. The Prince of 
Orange, not.viihftanding his youth and inexperience, was looked on as the only 
faviour o.' the State ; and m.en were violently drove by their fears into his oartv, 
to which they had always been led by favour and inclination. 

The town of AnarLcrdam alone feemed to retain fome courage j and by forminp- 
a regular plan of defence, endeavoured to infule f|.)irit into the other cities. The 
magiftratcs obliged t;;e bur_^eiTes to keep a Irrid: vvatch : The populace, whom want 
of em]_ loyment miglit engage to mutiny, v/ere m.aintaired by regular pay, and 
armed ior the defence of the public. Some fii:ps, which lay uicJeis in the harbour, 
Vv'ere reiitted, and flationed to guard the city : And the fiuices being opened, the 
neighbouring country, without regard to the great damage lullained, was laid under 
v;a:er. All the province followed this example, and icrupled not in this extremity 
to refiore to the fea thofe fertile fields, which vath inhnite art and expence had been 
v;cn from it. 

The States c^f Holland met to ccnfider, v.hcther any means were left to fave 
the remains of their lately [lourillr.ng, arid now diftreffed Commonwealth. Tho' 
thay wera kirrouaded v/ith v/atars, which barred all accefs to the enemy, their de- 
liberations were not conduct' d vv-ith that tranq'/illity, which could alone fuggeft 
naeafures, prop :r to extricate them from their prefent dilBcuities. The nobles gave 
thrir vote, tlia% r;rovi-,!ed tliair religion, libert/, and foverei.:jity could be faval, 
every t'ahnjg elfe fhould v/lthout fcrup'e be facrificed to tlie conqueror. Eleven 
towrs coiieurred in the fanie kntiments. almfcerdam ilngly declared agair.ft all 
treaty v/jdi in.olent and triump^ianf enemies : But notv/ith.itanding tliat oppofirion, 
arnb.iifadurs v. ere difpatched to ian;a)lore the pity of the two combined Monarchs. 
ft v-as relolved to facrifice to Lewis iMaeltricht and all the frontier towns, vahich 

lav 



CHARLES U. 



22 I 



1. ,. ^ , 



\ u ..ii'.'^,' i.t:"ii iji' 






I'l. :li.;r.' .- ^-t li.c: ^^ .u'. 

J.;. WIS :vl;'nTaLCvl \v:[ii !,;, ir.'iiiiK'rs I /)';".(.:> aru! l^^r., )r.n;% co :ccrr.;:v!; the 
ni.- . ...i^-'i I. ill jjKi nn'-' .1 c ui liio i/rcl.-i.t c: ; \..A :.i-[ji\.i:v\-: tor 

I-.I..U- - ..C 11. .1 pMCrrcJ tilC N'.ljiw-.: (.O..iK .Is (.: t.-,-.- ..,..; .. 11- o!.', ;t>l t.) (X'a- 

L....' K. - I'liAj .>.-;i.> on I. (y;\ir .(;!. i,..;t .i!i 0^,: s Lite ;y i;.ij\;!ti; u.i [li c ..iiT.o.i.c^LS 

V. i^.iA'C llioi.Ivi bj t-i!.<..i ...', I ..It (.i-c j\.b:i. fXi ;.::. (.1 t!ic K.):ii;;;i i\ i!^';;o.'i 

'.,-,!,; be pT:i;i::cJ i ibc t '.:., .-ii' * in.uwi v, ;i!i t!.i.- C\.i:;.)!us, aiui bi.ir j-r;c.;;> 

vJ !% .r : .j'n:nij;::- ; rom ih- S:. lies i t!;.i: ab I'ij ':\v.\:]c[- to.'. :. . : tbc Kc- 

, .' )!.:M !) :c[!^,u\l :-) ii::-n, r-,;ci!ur \v;r,i Nin-i-._ u.':^ S;.;iil., K , .-';.r''o:;r -, 

.;,;.: bij' pari oi Uuvblc; i ;i.l v.'!;:ca i.;y (.;:i ti:j ()t!:vr i:.b' c; the U;.! :. : .i^ !:!c. ,'.;: ^ 

t!.c illc oi i) .n^iiivi, th.i: C/t' \''jorn, ti.j i.':-:i\bcf .^t. Ai^Jtv;-.'/, t!^ r c>. 1, u v- 

ll.;:i a:.d Crc\CL i^'.,!- :, f'lat t;,.-y IIkjil^: i ay \a:\\ vac \\r.:] ;.. Lv.c:;;y 

ivv ti.c bi.:!".^':'- o; rh. r ; b-at bi " '^\ >:.'. a cvr.v \\:.: l^..b . i.:: .. .,..:. . ,,,. i, , , 

a:; 1 p. , k'wt i;;:ii w:bi a -o!bj.i :i-._\l.il, ..\ :.:\ A:\..\'y-'-'.cj:^::\:^i\:, Ca.:: :> ;.::.:.. 

'nv; d bi. pr:;l^T\'ariv n oi til.. t i.'vrf, vb.i !i bv L:. a a. Ibbin^j <.:;;:> pra.l a. 

t ) ... ;w..c ; a.i.! ta.i: t!..'y ;1m' c -iic aa 

w: 1 ;a,;aa : : Aail ..c aihnvcb il^cin b,.: :j;i u.a, : .' :':.: ... 

! ;':; .aib.iiiaucrs, wlio raaia to I aaubai, iv.-t wiili il;!! . : \ > 

'I,'., :.ar v.a> abuv.'tal to traat wirh tlivai ; aab b.ay w^rc la :...,;, b :a a a .. ..s ui 
c wa;i.aaa:iU. I'ut notNS ;b;lbinbiia: bus ri^ca w..- acaab.ai o; i'. \ ti.a ; ra- 

k:uco: the l)u:ah anibaibiibaa, cxci:ib the u aia.a':^- : i.i raa.. . .,"" i 

! . ail ;abij;aation amoap t!a- pa;j; i- la p^a^aaa, ' . . - . /.j 

( ab.l ' rrke the aan ai.b reiub . ; thiaa u.ap ' . 

!:., M ...aa lis, ta^yaaJ, la J'b.:^'^-, :he ,: .- , ' : _. a a, ..;..-, 

co;.:;arv to the l.ubi ot [v;.Mra i: .:iaj-, a onv .... ::..., 

K(p;.bla^ : \^ la.t .i bbai..i t ; .a-'-t la ! O. w la. ;\! ! ) t .... 

I./ ( ae, ai.b to t!ie lab; -as (.1 tia' ob^er : L\\ .. 

'lA oiaiar to n-lbaun tiie iX'.-v aaac [V)\a.a' ( ! ! : .. ; ,. . , 

!iw: i-'>-vV cri" ii'oin ppioyaa.ae. lb- r.,..! (.o.at.vl 

jLop'le b',- tliat v.ile inaahaa : .\ - h'- i.o '. alt^p:-^ 

fxp'.a by tbiar nu-aas to laiaaa' ha^a.-.. i-vt.a., ... 

iei.iaiieiits aie b,e(MU lo haalha" at 'o .aai. : 'a : i 

lii th_ nati'-ja, aai.1 nval (.baiu.l baiaa/aa.r ca ill i' , 

Aibiai' prov.naibcai, aiv a a nv; 1 to : ae a.cai . i 

aia ' a , ( t th;- la (a : , .ua- h. ri.b/ ,;.".' 



L- ;;> HI. 



.: Avni^'AA'^ iiiaa 



baitic.. Leila; 



V lall.a.Le oi i:'cv.v ai uU'i...,. le.ii.. ^i 'a.^iw; 



2- H 1 S T O 11 Y OF G Pv E A T BRITAIN, 

Chap. Til. view, ths United Provinces, the real barrier of England, mufl; be abandoned to 

'''''* the moll dangerous enemy of Engl liid ; and by an univcrfal combination of tyrarny 

ar^ahid laws and liberty, all mankind, vvno have retained, in any degree, tlieir 

i^reeious, tiio' hitherto precarious, birthrights, are for ever to fubmitto flavery and 

injullice. 

Tho' the fear of glvinp; offence to his confederate liad engaged Charles to treat 
t'-.e Dutch ambilTadors v;ith fiich rigour, lie was not altogether without uneafinefs, 
on account of the rapid and unexpected progrefs ot the rrencli arms. V\ ere Hol- 
land entirely conquered, its whole comm; ree ,ind navai force, lie faw, mull be- 
come an acctiTion to France ; the Spani;r Lc^v/ Countries nudl foon follow ; and 
I,ev/i?, novv' independent of his ally, vvould no longer tiiink it his mterefu to fup- 
port him agninfc his dixontented iubjctfts. Charles, tho' he never ftretclied his at- 
tention to very diflant confequences, could not but torefee tlijfe obvious events; 
ai^d tlvj' incapable ol envy or jealouly, he was touched with anxiety, when he found 
cv<:rf th-r>g yield to the Freiic'j arms, while fuch vigorous refiPjance was made to 
his ov/n. Me foon difmified the Dutch amballadors, leu; th.ey fiiould cabal aniong 
his ftibiecls, who bore them great ta\ our : But he lent over Buckingham and Ar- 
lington, and foon after lord ilalifax, to negOiiare aniew with the French Kmg, in 
the preient prof^^erous iituation of that M^'narcli's afTiirs. 

Tn ;SE minhlers pafild thro' Holland j and as tiry were fuppofd to brin? 
peace to ihe diltrell Republic, they were received every \,'here with the loudell ac- 
clatP,acio- s. " Clo'-l blcfs rh,e King of E.ngiand ! Goel blefs the Prince of Orange ! 
" Ccniunon to the Scares !" This was e^'ery where tlie cry of the populace. 'Jhe 
ambailiidors had ;ever li conferences widi the States and the Prince of Orange ; but 
mad.c W'j re-;.;n:f -'e a;]vances towards an accommodation. I'hcy went toL'trecht, 
whire tlvey renewed the league with [,ewis, and agreed, that ncitlier of the Kings 
Iho'.ild Lver nv k.- peace v.ith Holbmd but by com.mon confent. T'ney next g\:ve in 
their pri terifions, of which the following are the priiKipai articles ; that the Dutch 
fh^ufd give up the hoiiour of the Hag witl^iOUt the Fall reierve or limitation, nor 
fh .uld wii: le ;ieet?, even on th coafl; .or Holland, reiule to Frike and lower their 
topfiils to tljc fMiiileil flnn, cairying the Brinfli Hag; that all peiF)ns, euiky of 
treafon ag.iinil tlie King or ol wrici' g feJitious lib. Is, ihould on comp .;mt be ba- 
nilhed lor ever the dwmfn.ioris of tl-ic States ; that the Dutch fnould uav thicKiiif^ a 

1 - O 

million iderling towards the cha^'ges o' tb.e v/ar, toge'her v;ith ten thouia.nd ])oin"ids a 
year lor permiHlon to fiHi on the Briti'n fe.ts , that tiiey fnouid (liare t!;e L'icliaa 
tr.de \\\:\\ the lenglilh ; that ''i i'vinee oi Oraiige and hi>^ delcenJants fliould enjoy 
the f^vereigiitv of'].. ' .it. Trovinces ; at 'eail th.it tiicy iFould be invcfted wdtli 
the dignities ol btadiuoluer, Admiral, and General, in as am. le a mianner as had 

ever 



C 11 A Pv L E S IT. Cl- 

ever bjfn cnioyc^l by :i;v,' o!' h's ;-i::r-:'^or ; :.n ; r!i ,r I'u- illc o;' W'.ilclicrcr, t!;" c ':'y '-'''? ^'^ 
ail.: ca'Ur ()' S u.<, ti ;;c;[;iLT wi:': i]\: ;.b> ' ,: Ca '.:.i .", <.j(;:'-', ..n-l \';)r,r-, lu i..,i iio 
|:';t i:-;ro ;!.; Ki!';:\ h ;:kis, as a l.-ci:r;:y f.';' i!ic [ci"'*;: n'<.i:i(-\: i : .irtiti!.- .. Il ;^ in oil; 
fon ,ll i.:. w.'iii C.I i id our ar.J real on ro r.:^-;o', ,'lKrC '..:; 'a- . h: i :v '. ir. !. s .'.ilM'-.cv v, i:!i 
1-... , .',! the i,::.r (.ieil: j-iio;i oi ih.- l.'.,i' .1 1', .-'.-iiu ; l:..ee l'. \ a 

k!., :. . . .. .1, vv- conipati'jic V, i:!; tiic : rC'i'-.T ot cin^)! /vliv, i!.c !'. e:x;i po\-, : r ! >: ^ x- 

te.;..!.,'-^ !,!> .ui:h> :i:y a: 1.^:;:-: i;..: a-- liic: i.::e:-.. j.::;! ;-r^ :;:r.'-^ oi 1 ,c .%:-',.;;:!: s 
I,.,' r.viuecd .'. 1 i ->ihi;:i!e; i :u tiu i.Ul. r\t;:n;:LV, :..c 1\. \..,i clv:;ri,i..s li .;l- 
f\,;:::v; .i cuiiliviei'.ibic ihaic o! ti.ac :L!i b>.i..:y, wliicu !^;:,:;.c l\.:J. il.rown i:.:j 
l..e:r };.;:.;>. 

Ti.':: r.rms propoil-d by LcaIs b:T'ja\'L'd tiic Rc;v:l)'.:c of a'l llvi!::- ... .!.,:' ..../ 

bind K^v.ilio.i tVo;n b --.ince : '1 .lole d. in.ii;d.d by C !i.irLs cx; <Ld ['. m l ]:...'. '.\ :o 
:i;i invai:o!-i b".' 1.1 ;rom l'.:iL,Ian(.{ ; Ai.d when b.ih w re ! en d, ::./ a; ;) ..red 
:;b^'b.c.-ls' intoi.rabic, and r^d.-^cd :::e i io....nd. ; -, v. !;o !.iv, :, :: , 

ro the L::r(-il dfl-air. W'ii.it c:::;e::-.e!y ..'.jni :.:e,! tde.r .nb.., ,, ....... .: 

]a:L;uns v. ;:n v. nit :i t';iy c c f ::.;- ; to b; every v. be: e ..: I'at.d. P W:: :.> 
j ^rM'.u; ju-. :n d-len^c c^r 1.. . idv;[y, 'li.b- ide vciy ..- 

Com:"!"; i.v.vbbi wa^ t;,: '.arei'i-d, ,.n. ' .: .e'/' :\d :n (.;5j^^;:.v'; r'le r-- . .d o. d.e ].-;- 
-tL.al e ::::, now b;-..- sn^e t!iC ob:.^c ut h,.r:'(;r to :'.. n..'e!i j'.r ':d>:^v-. !';;..; r.i;' 
a: '..ill brwbe ad boiinvis -i d b-;;-:- evei'V tian i le:..re \:. 'J ;m.v :a;!j :.i an i .:b:..,- ' 
tion ai PiaT, an.l by :o:xe ccnibaia.d td-i;- bariio-malU rs V) i\.-\\ :'.\c ;a-,;.d, io 
i-i^..c:i tl_n:anded. '1 In jncAe : a i:;:;.a! o; a r:t[:eral re\-cd: niro' ^n;: ..d t ;v 
vi..e ^. AtAivAl rd.ni;, tdc I byi;ae, ^bdd:a-;:nv:, R-iterd.u-, bx r. yb- d.- 
t'} ari^v , an.' r-an";!/ ;; u' d' ; : ..::.. ,. : ; .f; o' b;.n- rix y diar- . 'd ' .a! b; : 
: '.' : : . , . d , . . 

, : id.ev :aij ni , d I..C 1'; ...'..e : .: -..: >; r^. m b,. n y .;. : .\ . 

.. . -. . I. xe ini . t!ij y : ....i.ee n. . y;an n\ a bn y n: . .: \'. 

v.n:^ a i n r : i' !a' :a,;'^, la^v ;:;;a" cl n:.nae!\iUc lor L.e 

ad td.ar civd nd , . 

d , ! b ' d.. 

envy, ,...1 .vyw;..: .nx [; ;:.a x .... 

,. ,.: d by n ) (..acer :n..:;\'a b 

1 ..a.:.^ b I .,e(a ' . ' . 

. a . , : w a ! 1 . ' - 

.'... i~ lo '-'ja ... 

):;. :v..-,..,.kOv...:. 



224 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. III. brave de Ruyter, the fole reffource of the diftreft Commonwealth, was furronnded 
^'^'^^' by the enraged populace, and his wife and children were for fome time expofed to 
the mofl: imminent danger. 

CxE Tichelacr, a barber, a man noted for infamy, accufed Cornelius de Wit 
of endeavouring by bribes to engage him in the defign of poifoning the Prince of 
Orange. The accufation, tho* attended with the moft improbable and even abfurd 
circumftances, was greedily received by the credulous multitude , and CorneUus 
was cited before a court of judicarure. The judges, either bhnded by the fame pre- 
judices, or not daring to oppofe the popular torrent, condemned him to fuiTer the 
qucftion. This man, who had bravely fervcd his country in war, and who had been 
invcfted with the higheft dignities, v/as delivered into the hands of the executioner^ 
and torne in pieces by the moll inhuman torments. Amidft the fevere agonies, 
which he endured, he ftill proteiled his innocence; and frequently repeated an ode 
of Horace, which contained fentiments, fuited to his deplorable condition. 
Jiijtum & tenacem propofJi virum, dec. * 

The judges, hov/ever, condemned him to lofe his ofHces, and to be banifhed 
the Commonwealth. The penfionary, who had not been terrified from perform- 
ing the part of a kind brother and faithful friend during this profecution, refolved 
jiot to defert him on account of the unmerited infamy, which was endeavoured to be 

throv/n 

* Whicli may be thus tranflated. 

The man, whofe mind on virfuc bent, 
Purfues fome greatly good intent, 

V/ith undiverted aim. 
Serene beliolds the a^igry crcvd ; 
Isoi can their chimours, fierce and loud. 
His ftubborn honour tame. 

Not tlie proud tyrant's herceft threat, 
l\or llonns, that from their dark retreat 

ThiC hiv.iefs furgcs wake, 
Nor jo\-e'5 dread bolt that iliakes the pole. 
Ihe iiiincT pu;pcfc cf his foul 

V/i''i. all ita power can fnakc. 
SliouM Ts^a'-ure's frame in n-ins fall, 

And chaos o'er the iinking bull 

Rehanj p;im:i:val f.vav, 
His courage ch ncc and fate d^I.ts 
IN or fcci> tiic wrc-cl: of earth and ikivi 

ChiXvuii its dellin'd v,ay. 

Tl)',', tran nit:. vi v/as executed, at the autlior's defnc, by his fj'or.d, Mr. liiacklock, \>}iolc eltga-". 
collection ofiiocMs wa lately publifned liy Mr. Dodfiey. 'J'lie poem;, a;e worthy of attention on ac 
cc'i. t of their own UKiii, but may be reg;irded as \ cry extraordinary, when v c cor.fidcr \vh:.,t iO'XC 
oi .m. 'duuiiou io lucre d:irh;\ed by an auihor born blind- 



CHARLES ir. 



T '. row n upon liim. I lo cim : > iii. '\-'-.-Ii:t' ; ; rirm. df!:er:"n'..v\! r) . jnip j-.y 
i.'.iv. ro t!;-.' \y.:\cc (A his cxil'.*. I'iic Tii^n.'.i wis [y-/cn [o tlir ; o^ ::'.i.-(\ i'.'^-.-v r.'.;' 
in ar:iis : 'i'iicv bi\;!<./ tr.n t!.- J. ors f^: ;1k' i)r.!oii , tin-) i.:!' .! (.:' r'v rw;) 
liroliir'-; .1.. i .1 i!iC)L.:"in.i hill is vu\i \. ::Ii vU^:!. ot'uT, w!; i i). ..! : ;" :! ' 
rrucJ m t!^r;r b'uo.l. liven [Iir:r il..i;h tlil :;o: la',. : t!;;.- b. l:^! r.;- ; ! 

tru.!-' 'l'b;v cxcrcilTvl on th:- vicMil b ;J:c-s ot th.;!.- v:r:ucv > i i:.; ::- , ;. _,;::.(., 
'':;') lh():l;:n'", H) bc^ rcci'vd ^ .md tni ur.-;i \ml; ilun:" civv.i linv, ;: v, .;^ : .' ;;:;:;' .! 
ti.r ;ri :k1-. oi t;!:,- li, ci-.iicd to ;i;'Mro.icii, ur to b.lhr,v c)n Liu-n": i.): l.-.:: \.:\ r ! .i 
: ::..:.[- .!, Hb-nr a:..: unaricndcJ. 

Tiii: i-nili'iero of the cic Wits put an cnl lor th-j t;n-j to I'r.c rcn in: ci :!::/ 
r.i:Lv i anu all men, t;oni fear, inc!i::ati';n, f^r jrunrrcc, tonei ri, J m ex: :\r ;':' ^ 
r':- nioll inij^hei'e o'neJiefiee to tlie r;i:uc ot Oraii.ie. i'hc i\^'i)::b\;e, ti,. ' !,.. ; 
la'^Ji.Cvi by toru!^r;i iorce, a:. J as \et en'np.iN'eJ bv :'^ m;s'o; tune:,, w |i;-;- ; 
iJ.-.iteJ ini.Ier o;ie lead-,T, a:Al b.- .m ro e-'b'/CL" t'ne ren: nns cr. it- ar/icn.: \i iji.:. 
\\ iliiam, worriu' ot that iieriii.' taniiiy liom vli; ii be Irrnn;, .i.l j.: d. ivr.ti- 
ments bee. -mini: t':e lieatl oi a P:Mve an.i a :.-^e p. nj^le. lie -'en: aii b .':";': 



a ' bnll tile pniiiA 



I le ioi::f!it not a:',up,il 1 



\. :'.:.ti re.:: \z 're c;a:i:_';'Tou-, to (ivnl 



Uj;unu n:s eon:i::"y a::v a :\:.:.:.\ , - 

'riv)!e i:.tw:era:ie t'j;..b;: :- , ib 



s V.:::; i. w;:i ro r 



ir.a:ibevl b'V tiieir iiiiiiient enemic';, he exhcnteJ ti;e S;a'; 

by iii-^ aw\ne thev p.^t an end to i;e^otiatio:^>, winJi oTwi o:.iv : > ii, .i. \':.: 

{ i)\,\\\[:-j ot tiieir leiloNV Lit;/ ns, and eebiy ri.e .nbilaiu'e (d til; ii- alii s. 1 1 "; w ,_ ; 



) ' 



M- 1 _ .;.-.' 1- 



tneni, tnat tne nnnin-rs .i;,J rr::es o: me pvo; l , aRie- 
tnre, wculd n:!! be idldc; nr, it' t'.ev aixind^ei.d n r bien";. 
at le.nl r, 'a:.!, ;;ie [ ri -/rei^ c-t ti.;. i ;;:,(. ;i-i. s, a:,d !:\ : . . 
t;ii die olb.r n U;o:is ol b.nti'e, lennib j o. die t -.:, 
li.di- ul: ;". 1 Ir r. pre!lnt.'d, t!i it ..s en% y A tlnn; o; ' 
biie'-d t.ns :-;n;bitv eo;idn:eit;(jn a.i .i:dt diem, I'i,"' \'. 
<. fiioiis ;o l,:ri;v !';, v.noie r: .tc;.!! ),.s (.;. a- .: ' 
b . ; dliee. IT; xiio; ; d t:,, ni to re';:end^; i' tne .^^ 
\dio, \:et in die intanie u: t'l-'ir ^d..:e, piv etievi . . 
!'.,;' n, and i<iu/i:^<', tie :; Ip.ieis to .m o' II i.n.: d e 
d; :.; s, an . in btary ^--^k 1, iinc: (! .^' n:i. r.: c, . : ' . 
. . til- d,-ti^ ot ei^ dl.ed: ni- p:\\d\ cn;d;-, .e ; 
i :. , . ; lie Ian: ,id i ' ; )n u ni. ii i .,.e: 



t.'e.. 



\vi,u. n ^:e nu! in-> c ii nn 






net (.; t,i 



;.>.! ti.ou b'e. e; \ i-. 



226 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chzv. III. termined to refill the haughty viclor, and to defend thofe lad remains of their na- 
*'' '" tive foil, of which neither the irruptions of Lewis nor the inundation of waters had 
as yet bereaved them. Should even the ground fail them on which they migh: 
combat, they were ftill refolved not to yield the generous ftrife ; but Hying to their 
ieitlements in the Indies, ered a new empire in thofe remote regions, and preferve 
alive, even in the climates of flavery, that liberty, of which Europe was become 
unworthy. Already they concerted meafures for executing this extraordinary re- 
folution ; and found, that the veffels, contained in their harbours, could tranfport 
above two liundred thoufand inhabitants to the Eaft Indies. 

The combined Piinccs, finding at laft fome appearance of oppofition, bent all 
their efforts to fed uce the Prince of Orange, on whofe valour and condu6l the 
fate o[ the Commonwealth entirely depended. The fovereignty of the province 
ot Holland was olnred him, and the proteclion of England and France, to infure 
him, as well ao;ainfL the invafion of foreign enemies, as th:; inrurre(5lion of his fub- 
jects. All propolals were generoufly rejected ; and the Prince declared his refo- 
lution to retire into Germany, and to pafs his life in hunting on his lands there, 
rather than abandon the liberty of his country, or betray the truft repofcd in him 
When Buckinglian-. urged the inevitable deftrudion, which hung over the United 
Provinces, and afked him, whether he did not fee, that the Commonwealth was 
ruined ; There Js one cerUiin means j replied the Prince, by which I can he feciire ne- 
1-er to fee my country's ruin : I will die in the laft ditch. 

The people in Holland had been much iiicited to efpoufe the Prince's parry, by 
the hopes, that the King of England, plcafed with his nephew's advancement, 
would abandon thole dangerous engagem.ents, into which he had entered, and 
would afford his j roteclion to the diltreffcd Republic. But all thefe hopes v/ere 
fjon found to he falLicious, Charles itill perfiiled in his alliance with France; and 
the combined fleets apr)roached tlic coaft of Holland, with an Englilli army on 
board, comm in:'ed by Count Schomberg. It is pretended, that an unufual tyde 
carri';d them off the coaff, and that Providence thus interpokd in an extraordmary 
manner to fave the Ilcpubiic, from the imminent danger, to which it was expofed. 
Very cen^pelluotis weatlier, it is certain, prevailed all the reft of the feafon ; and 
tiie conibi icd fleets eitlicr were blown to a diftance, or dared not to approach a 
ihore, wrilch miglit prove fat.d to themi. Lewis, finding tliat his en.emies gathered 
courage behirid tiv/ir inund...rio;is, and that no farther [)rogreis was likely tor tlie 
pif. f : t jO attend his arms, had reiired to V'ei.fiilles. 

T(!r. oihrr nations of lun-ope regarded tiie fubjeiftion of Holland as the fore- 
rn.rn'ier of iluir ov/n ikivery, and retained no ho^ es of defending themfelves, fliould 
fuch a mi^.',h;;- a.ceraon bo ma'.ie to tlie already exorbiranr power of France. The 

Empercr, 



C H A R L E S II. 



i'lnperor, tho' tliflant and llo-.v in liis i.i::Jcrraki;igs, bcg-::i ro pu": !k r.l.!. 

morion ; Brandcr.hur^li fh:-v,cHl ;i d.irpofiLion Co c.kc p.ury \^::^. tl.c Sra'.c-- -, S| .i 

hud lent lon.c forjcs ro :hcir al;i';l.iiiLC ; and iy chc pic;ciiU r:;", ::~ ' :" 

Gran;;-,- dud t!ic prolpcct of relict trom tiicir ai.iL--., a dilit:;e;.t :.v j id 

alreaviy to appear, (ironinghen was [!ic luil p'.iev- \\!iuii livj;; cdi i!;;- 

the cncniy : The bdli'^p ol IMiKdlcT was r(.p'.;il. lI i!\.:n tii..: Io-ai 

to radc the fie^'^c witli iols ar.d diHioiiour. Na.;de;; v.a^ a:teni;'[ed. li\ 

i,\ Oiwvi'j^c , In;t Luxembourg, 'oreakm;^^ in up(;n li';^ entiLin-iKVierJ 

irriipnon, obliged Iiiin to aband.on the enterpii/.c. 



': I'.^nr e 


( ,' 


.idkhsK-;;, 


li ' ' 


i'^''=:;'-^i^ 


O! 


a.d uMi-> 


.-a 


y i:.- rii;- 




::!i i .aJ.>: 





..n t! 



T> 



t ::o.'. n-i.v'i 
s uinv.Ti"d;v 



Ii.irv 



'I'fnRi: was no ally on whom the Dutch more relied, f r :.i]'.>\. 
liament of I'^ngland, which the King's nerelfities at lail c;', I; ; d. ! :m to a!'' :r.' 
Th.e eyes ot" all men, both abroad and ar home, v\erc rx. '. o:'. :'..; :Vli:o:-, wii 
nvet after pr^TOgations continued tor near two \ca;s. It v, ;; : 
tiic King dread.ed the alVembliiig his Parliamen: , d::.\ [iie d:::^*,; 
excited by the bold niealurc- entered into botli in loreign aiv.i d:^;ric:i;c ad.m;..:i;ra- 
tion, had given but too jull foundation tor Ids apprelienlions. 

Tn!. Kiii::, hov.\.\-er, in tus Ipcech, ad'refKd t'n ni witli all t!i appear .r.:c ot 
coidialitv andi conhdePiCe. He I.ud, that lie would liave ..ir-:i.bk\! t!ie;v, i..r.::i\ 
r.ad he not been defirous to allow tliem !ei/.ure tor attendii-g their ; liv.ue .iffair-, 
as well as to give his people refpite trom taxes and impofirions : Tiiat liwCe tr.e ir 
lall nieeting, he had been torced into a war, no: only i'.::l but necelVary. n 
both for the honour and inrercil of the nation : Th.it in ord..r to Iiave p.M.e . 
v.hile he had war abro.id, he had illlr.d his declaration oi ind.u'genre to c.li 
and ludi lo :nd many good efllds to reTdt iiom rli.u mca.uie I 
}on:e exceptions whieh Ivid been taken to t!us exerclle o; po\ser ; 
tliem plainly, that hcuas relolvcd to iHck to !h^ deelaratiur. -, a:, 
odended at ar^v coiurad.iction : And tli.it tlio' a run-.i^ur luul b. e: 
new levied army Iku! been in'eruled t(^ C(j;i:roul l.r,v An] 
1 /alouly as to tri^'okjus, that he v/as re!o'\"ed to ,u.:.:' :; 
nnd, did not doiibt but tluy woukl couiid.rr t':.e ne.Lid.Lv 
The retl ot the budnels lie Lit to the chaii^t llor. 

Till; chancellor enl.irged on the 1 ime roj-.lcs, a:).] . 
Y' ik'.ion^ ol his (jwn. I le tol ; tlu -ii, tluii the ! I 'liaiu 
ru^ ^ oi ad nio archie , cl', ecially t;i.,t > i 1 l;i^,kiud, ;1.- .1 
II-,:. ; > . .vmI n,.v,i! [-owei', and tii I le odd a^l : ' tl.ei; v;^ 
.. V \'endvc as that (-t' anc ent Konie 1 1 1: 1: e-. nd 
'.::. 'I !", they v.-ere !o intoxicated wi:l. : :..e .0 



it tie [V 
.' I... ,, , 



;; lf> 



Ci^^p. nr. 



228 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

treaty, n^y to rcfun_^ all ceffation of hcftilities : That the King, in entering on this 
war, did no more than proi^^cute thofc maxims, which had engaged the Parhanient 
to a. .vile and ap|)rove of the lad i and he might therefore fafely fay, that il ^aj{i5 their 
ii\rr : I'hat the Stater, being the eternal enemies of England, both by interefl: and 
inclination, the Parliament had v/ifely judged it neceffary to extirpate them, and had 
laid it dov/n as an eternal maxim, that dclcnda eft Carthago^ this hoftile government 
by all mians is to be fubvertcd; /\nd that tho' the Dutch pretended to have affu-- 
ranees, that the Parliament wouid furnifh no fupplies to the King, he was confi.- 
denr, that this hope, in which they extremely trufled, would focn fail them. 

B;;fork the Commons entred upon bufmsfs, there lay before tliem an atTaifg 
whi'ch difcovered, beyond a poffibility of cioubt, the arbitrary projec'js of the King j 
an 1 iViQ Meafurts, ta':en upon it, proved, that the houfe was not at prefent in a 
difpotition to fubird: to them. Ii had been the conftant undifpute.i pracliee, ever 
fince the Parliament in 1604, for the houfe, in cafe of any vacancy, to ifTue out 
v:r'::s lor ivew e'eclions ; and the chancellor, who, before that time, had had fome 
precedents in his favour, had ever afterwards abftained from all exercife of that au- 
tivoricy. I'his indeed was one of the firft fteps, which the Commons had taken in 
e-labJifhing and guarding their privileges ; and nothing could be more requifite 
t'.ran this precaution, in order to prevent the clandefi:ine ilTuing of writs, and to 
enlure a fair and free election. No one but fo defpcrate a minifler as Shaftefbury, 
Vv 1:0 had entered into a regular plan for reducing the people to fubjedtion, could 
l;ave entertained thoughts of breaking in upon a practice fo reafonable and fo well 
eilabli fried, or could have hoped to fiiccced in fo bold an enterprize. Several mem- 
bers had taken their feats upon irregular v/rits iiiued by the chancellor j but the houfe 
V, as no fooner ai^lmbled, and the fpeaker placed in his chair, than a motion was made 
again ll them , and the members themfelves had the modefty to withdraw. Their 
ekCiion was declared null \ and new writs, in the ufual form, were iffued by the fpeaker. 

The next ftep taken by the Commons had the appearance of fome more com- 
p'laiGnce , but in reality proceeded from the fame fpirit ot liberty and independence. 
I'hey rciolved, in order to fupply his Majefty's extraordinary occafions, for that 
was tlie expreiTioii they ufed, to grant eighteen months afleffment, at the rate of 
70,000 pojnds a month, amounting in the v'h.ole to 1,260,000 pounds. Th/D* 
imwiidrjg to conve to a violent breach with the King, they would not exprefs the 
lead; r.pprobation of clicwar; and tiiey gave him the profpcd: of this fupply, only 
that tac y nii^ht have permifnon to proceed peaceably in tlie redrefs of fome other 
grievance-, of which they had Inch realon to complain. 

No \in~:Yiwc: v;, s more alarming};, botl\ on account of the fecret views from 
v,'lr.Lh .r proce.jd'-d, and the conkquenccs wdiich might attend it, than the decla- 

raticn 



c ir A R I. E s ir. 



,:..! .fT.ilnd t;:nt cx; 



r.i:;on of in.',ul[;cncc. A iTmcnQr i-ii , v. >. iininccH.i'c'y t. 



'a- r 



cuurl;:(,t :!., '.i.v?,, a;iw .i!:.r tin- i:-.;;ll.i[:'.v ; .)v.\:-, \. ..;Ji !...! . , , ' 

Ic.;. .; Ui rti.,:L: ir t:u' King aiul ti./ t-.vo 1. .,1. . A ! [!i:- ui-; 1.; ....,;., r-,. ..:;.;;, 
\.li!; n.'; u\i to ih- ilK:c (^I tl,;-; cxtr.iwrilin.My ;!;!.;:. 'I'iic K;:. j; h- nu li ^ . d 
!:i hvjno::!" to ki'^, or: l.is iiicalL;:c ; a:;J in (julc;" ') ' >' \':.r.- a!l oj j. '!.': >:, i, '. : ; 
] ;n!:;\\iy tlccI.ir.J, t'i,;t i.c wo .kl u:; ;>> ; : i:. 'J :.; Cuniiaoi: . v,c:c ( ' ' 
1- '.*: , :: 't u;.!v b.c.Uilc i: \v.i3 *.!i:]i n-.n; .t'\j to bj :o 1 .!, v. ';; r i:. . 
k.^!i llron^ i^alons ^>^k ailo bcank', ii rb Ki;;^ ;-'.-v.ii!cvl :n b^^ [ ' 

c.J Icc-med to be put to all tbc k:^ll !i;r/.:vi'.io:ii, o; tl.c (.'j:ubr..t':o::. 

1 r is evident, tb.it tbc K.:r^^ w.is i.o'v c*:i.e to tbat b Jieite crb' >, v. ! b. " e in. .: 
::: firll t.'. b.ive b;re:cen, wb^n be en-.brac.b tnoic bkj^era:e ;o-inJ:.^ ; >.:.,: ni-> : - 
1 ,!..tions, in Li..!i .ni e-een:, c-n^-bt 1 :.\; e^o to b.r.\: l^e.n cn:n\!v ..:. ! .._. i b ' - 
nniieJ. l]e!kb/s bi^ L.lu.b Lu:.n\:-, be imu an ain.y in.an^j b a: ib.;L;b; ..m i 
t..e con-| ni.il. V. o: be!; )n'ibe:e:, a k-;e_b;:.e.' ^ an^i ii^i.inv oI :..e f,b.ee:'i '.'. : . ; 
Ca::iu!;e re!i;^!on. IL^^abv, t!:e bbxnv ii bin;;, be nbii,lit (,x;t :, v.e;:.. :._-, i 
bim, il wulcnec bcc.inie i-.;'.nb:e ;oe i\brainin;j; b;> b:kon:enLL\; l.b';- .:-, an^i :b^.- 
j'omnig t!:c rix-.ik.reb, v. iiic !i iiv cu.nn^on con.t n: rln v b,.b a!_^!-e^ : to p r: .. . b-ut 
L li.i; 1'^ V, a-> ibn'tlc J, v. b^n be a^-^ ; a.!;eii !o b.m;; i')js a p;c. ij i^e, as tb..: -. !...n 
b.v be:* re bini. W'v.c \b(.ber.ce cr/ee olbefed, t!ie;e ci.ibib. be r.u i\ti.;n, be bi .', . ci 
r.-i.t...b comibcncj ar^b trull v.'.t'n b'.s p o* be \ t'le perils attenbenK; bMe.;e:n ;.....''.; i s 
clj:eenuly Ironi lo nii.;!i:y a prinee, were kbb-een*.! v appa:ei;r; anb tbe kii.':eis 
w W\l\\ bis own arn:s b.ivl met w ;bi in tbe wen" v. as n t lo lye it, a> t ;. n^ rea c in ai;- 
tii'-urv, (jr tt rr.iy tbe n.al . .n:<. n:. 'rm o: prbirien. ieeb^iireib | ,j.'. .-/ !b:e . , , 
s\ liieii iia.l t n;eeL'r b L ii.irbe. in tb ne ; reiLbn;. nie.iknes, b.ib < Is pr. )(..- b.b, \' e 
may obi. r\'e, ly/.u anbnL.on t'lan '.V:\:\ \ ,vc ol r.ile. .'^ti'et !nr;t it; ni- (/ tb 
ctJiiilitmicHi reiibcreb tiie ;:<re^ ren: nt c>jn".pncar b .:n.l tro;.' bv n.'re ; a. b :: \' a - 
in^pobiblc i'or bitn, ^e bi.jnr mm '^ ca^tnvanee anb intr;:.ie', to ; r^ en:e ti.e in^-.,. / 



. I 



1- i,,c :'.- 



bm.e love- ul c .!e in.iin. d !nm t 



r. (juikte i(ir liis j keikn >, ' 
Wi: n t!;e prolpe , tb-.ic!' 

e.r.e. n.s turn oi mm k liami.i.ee pn.mt en. a v ., 
I ) a nieakn'e, win. !i a ne;re b.ne; b'v [ ri'.v " .-. 
rciuLtaiae. Tbat !:e nn^bt yi-bi v.nbi ' ' 
tb.- 1 I n.le ot Iber-, w b') ...i; :: n ;.nn t . 
CO, bin.> i'/ ti.e Kiei^.{, 1 rit iwr 
leais. 1 !ic Ceiimon, cxnr; . i ..i_ ^:, 



> I 



.... ; ( ; 

\ I Gr- 



ille neo" cnbrc bnry t 



:o :. 



230 HISTOPvY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. in. v/illinp-iy pafs any law, offered him, which mi,^ht tend to give them fatisfadion 
in all tiieir julr grievances. 

SiiAFTESLURY, whcn hc fav/ the King recede at once from fo capital a point, 
which he hid pubHcIy declared his refokuion to maintain, concluded, that all the 
iciicmes for enlarging royal authority were vanifhed, and that Charf^s was utterly 
incjp.ible of purfuing fuch difficult and fijch dangerous meafures. The Parliament, 
hc forelliw, might pufh their enquiries into thofe councils, which were fo generally 
odious ; and the King, from the fame facility of difpofition, might abandon his 
minitiers to their vengeance. He was refolved, therefore, to make his peace in 
time with that party, which was likely to predominate ; and to attone for all his 
violences in favour of monarchy, by like violences in oppofition to it. Never turn 
was more fuddcn, or \cU calculated to fave appearances. Immediately he entered 
iiito all the cabals of the country party; and difcovered to them, perhaps magni- 
fied, the arbitrary councils of the court, in which he himfelf had had fo deep a 
ih ire. Me was received with open arms by that party, who flood in need of fo able 
a leader; and no queftions were afked with regard to his late apodacy. The various 
faClions, into which the nation had been divided, and the many fudden revolutions 
to whicii the public had been expofed, had tended much to debauch the minds 
of men, and to dedroy the fenfe of honour and decorum in their public conduft. 

But the parliament, tho' fatisfied with the King's compliance, had not lofb 
ail thofe apprthenfions, to which the meafures of the court had given fo much 
foundation. A law pafTed for impofing a iej? on all who fhould enjoy any public 
office. Befides taking the oaths of allegiance and fupremacy, and receiving the 
facrament in the efbabliH-ied church ; they were obliged to abjure all belief in the 
doclrinc of tranfubilantiution. As the Diffienters had feconded the eflx)rts of the 
Commo:TS againll the King's declaration of indulgence, and feemed refolute to ac- 
cept of no toleration in an illegal manner, they had acquired great favour with the 
rarlia:r;c;it, and a project was adopted to unite the whole Protefbant intereft againfl 
the c'-mm:)n enemy, who now began to appear formidable. A bill pafTed the 
Commons for the eafe and relief of the Proteftant nonconformifls ; but met with 
fome difficulties, at ledl delays, in the Ploufe of Peers. 

The refdution for fupply wis carried into a law ; as a recompence to the Kino- 
for hi. conccffiions. A general pardon likewife and indemnity was pafTed, which 
fcreen d rhv- muvflers from a'l larther enquiry. The Parliament probably thought 
tluit th heft methf)d of reclaiming the criminals, was to ffiew them, that their 
cafr was not defperate. l^ven the rcmonllrance, which the Conunons voted of 
tlieir gntv.nies, may be regarded as a juoof, that their anger was, for the time, 
appealed. None of the capital points are touched on ; tlic breach of the triple 

Jeague, 



CHARLES n. 



Icagiif, the French alliance, tlie fluitrin^ up the exchequer. The folc grlcvanc?s 
mentioned arc an arbitrary impofitioa on coals tor [Tovidlng; convoys, the- ex* rcirc 
of mihrarv law, t';e quart ring and prelTlnjj; of lol !icrs ; and they prayed, t;:a% .li- 
ter the C(vncliihon of the war, the \v!io!r- army lliou'.d be dii'b.ruia!. 'I'lie Kin:^ 
gave ''.irni a <;racious, tho' evaiive anlwcr. \\ hen bufnvels was hnillK-d, the 
X.\'.u 1 I'Adcs adjijurned tliemlclvc-. 

Th.)' tlie K'ng had, for t!ie time, receded from Ids declaration of in,!uh;-iH-c, 
and [Ii Teiy lia.i tacitly rcanqudh ti tb-e lul"pendin<; pow; r, he \Nas llid f--, lul\ed, 
not'Airhllinding Ins bdd luccrl^ b Jth at Lome and abroad, to perlevc-re in Ids a!l:an( e 
wrdi J-'rancc, and in the Dutch war, and conll-quently in al! tho'.e I'ecre: v;e.v-, what- 
ever they were, uhich depended on thofe fatal mealures. The nionev, <;'.i;:rcd by 
Parlianrn:, futriced ro eq'.np a tieet, ot whic i i'rince l\U[)Lrt was dccl.;:cJ. .i.in-u-al : 
For the Duke was iet afide by the tell. Sir ]\.ivvard S|)r.igue ai.d th- car! t>; Uii';;v 
commanded under the Pri ce. The French iquadron ] -iiied tlu'm, comma;. d- d b/ 
d' i'.tree>. Tin- combined fleets let lad tow.irds the coail ol llolbir.d, and tj'.w.vl 
tlu'CiCmy, l\-ingat anchor, within the lands at Schenveit. 'i'he e :s a n.jrural co:i- 
l.dRi.i arteiiding lea b^hts, even beyond otlier military tranlaciiuns , der:\-cd iruui 
tl;e J rec.inuus operations ui winds and tyde.s ;^> "^vcli as from the Inioke an..! d.irb- 
ner>, in which every thing is there involved. No wonder, thereU;re, t;u: reladjns 
or thele battles are apt to contain uncertainiies and coiuradiciioc.s ; clprc:a.!v w/.en 
compofed by writers ot the holUlc nations, who take plealure in exairing rh ': (,\v:\ 
advantages, and iupprefTing thole ot the encniv. Ail we cm lav with cerLi::.tv( f 
this battle, is, that both fides boalUd ol the 'cictory ; .md we m.iy tlierce ni'er, i i^.^c 
the action was not decdlve. 'i'i^.e Dutch, being ne.n- IujU^.c, retn-edi into th.ir e)v. -. 
b,arbours. In a week, they were rdr.ted, ami [-relented them:;: r.'-.s a<^l:,l to Lite 
combined ilvets. A n-.w action e;.: .ed, i,ut nh)re dieemve tii.i;! tiv h're^V'lrig. It 
was not iouednt W)tk great obun-;acy on eitiier lid. , b,:t v. iivtl^.ri i\\- Di;:, n i-r t:.e a'-; 
lies firft ret reC; leen^is to be a m..itC'.r u: uiiCertauity. d lie 1 
actions fell cldedy on the ItiiiJi, whom dieFi.g ilh, diil 
te'ok care t') p!. ice, many tn ti'.em, nrd.ei t'.cir <j.\i\ Iq.^.i', 
poled then^. to all tl.e lire e,r tlie eiieir.y. liuT: 1 em. i. 
on either inie in t'le ie^oi.d tnjrag' menr. 

Ir waslLtH^nnt gleiy to de Ku'/ter, t;..it widi a T^ii 
iLe and F: r'.A-.U l:e.(;i.ld l.:d.: 



C;.-n. Ill, 



2 /'i 'I 

.\L;Ui. 



b-^u. ::, 



.'s i;i t.-.e n ir;r,er ol t:.e 



:-t C)t t! 



rc'p.s ; a. 
-t tJ 'i..i< 



h'v tliei -bv e: 



It 



1 . . . i; r u ; : e 



linedKinad-,n^ ot I 
VAr.i^[i^f ; and it WiS lud-.ien' \;.l -r 
in Ze.d,.;.J, whieli, Im.I It r.iken i l.;/ 
innie^, t ''.I'y to li.ive '.veitm: e 1 :; 
w.is f.il; - :..d. no: to Lc.'om' the Km 



1^' 



.r n. 



J^ 



-el e:.c 
;i c.d 1- 



:y : n . e Kuf i 
I D'.la;.^;, e : t..l n 



;,:'i 



"7 ': 2 



H i S T O II Y OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



hU a':thority at honiC', and from thefe motives, he was thought not to have pref- 
i'ecl i'o bar J en die entrmy, as b.is wcil-known valour might naturally have prompted 
him. It is iiide.d remadiablc, that, during this war, tho' the Englifli with their 
;dii.'> :']uJi over-matched the Iloliandcrs, they were net able to gain any advantage 
<_ vcr tlvjin i Vvhile in the former war, tho' often over-borne by numbers, they 
iliil cxcrttd then.felves with the moO; heroic courage, and always acquired great 
itnown, fomctimes even fignal victories. But they were difgufted with the pref-nt 
nieaRire :;, wliich they efteemed pernicious to their country , they were not latisfy'd 
in. ihe ii.iflicc of the quarrel; ^nd they entertained a perpetual jealoufy of their 
c. lilevieiMtts, whom, had they been permitted, they would with much more plea- 
sure have deilroyed than even the enemy themfelves. 

Tr Prince Rupert was not favourable to the defigns of the court, he enjoyed as 
jittle favour from the court, at leaft from the Duke, who, tho' he could no longer 
eorr.'iiar.d tlic litet, ilill poliefied the chief authority in the Admiiralty. The Prince 
complained of a total want of everything, powder, fhot, proviHons, beer, and 
even water -, and he v\ent into harbour, that he might repair the fieet, and fuppiy its 
numerous nfcelLties. After fome weeks he was refitted -, and he again put to fea. 
_ The !io::ile fieets met at the nuiuth of the Texel, and fought the lafl: battle, which, 
during a courfe of lb mairy years, thefe neighbouring maritime powers have difputeci 
with each other. De Puyter, and under him Tromp, commai;ded the Dutch in 
tiiis action, as in the two former : For the Prince of Orange had reconciled thefe 
two gallant rivals , and they retained nothing of their former animofity, except that 
emulation, which made them ex^rt themfelves witli more diftinguiflied bravery 
ngaiuil t'-.e cnen'iics of their country. Brankert was oppofed to D' Ktrees, de Ruy- 
tcr to I'iince Rupert, 'Promp to Sprague. It is remarkable, that in all atftions 
tlicle b;'..ve <;dm'-rals Lul mentioi'.ed hid itill fekcted each other, as the only anta- 
goiilils wcrti'y eacii others valour ; and no decifive advantage had as yet been gained 
by ei::.Lr of th.m. TiieyPug'it in this battle, as if there were no mean betwixt 
tie.:ti\ and vi-.cry. 

[V Pt;i r ::s ar-d all tPie French fquadron, except rear admiral Martcl, kept at a 
tii.l ..1C-- , and Iir;.r.kcit, inRtad of jjrefhijg on t':em, bore down to the aflillance 
(.1 de iiuytcr, \\l.<j \\\i> (.ng!:;ed. in lurious combat with Prince Rupert. On no 
c c a:'b.)i'i did thcPii.'iCe aeqnire nK.rc defer \'e..l honour: His ccnduft, as we!! as valour, 
!'ic;.i'e out witli ilgnal luilre. ITavinp; dilengag d Ids Iquadr^n 'rem the numerous 
Ci'.env.e-, with which lie v/a^ every wlieie Firro^.nded, and having join, d S.r Jolni 
C .'c:..',/, -.i- rear ad:nir;d, v/no had been fcjuaraf. d froiTi liin-;, i.e made halle to the 
i'-.ie. o, i'i:''pp.e, \'.v.o was v.ry haid prelled I)y IVomn'- fqi.adron. The Royal 
; '.luce, in v, i/:c;i :ip:MguG hrll engaged, was fo c'.ifabicd. ti:at he was obliged to hoifl 



C II A R L i: b II. 2- 

I'.is. (lag on bo.irJ. tiic St.C./.orj^ , wliii 'IVcnip was i^jr a Iik-- iwifin (;bl:j/i"J t()ij'.::c <. '..: 
his lr,ip, c!.c Cj ,!(.'.( n I. ion, a:,.! ro (: boari.! [|k- C'oir.cr. Tiic ii'i'i: was rciKwc.l ' 
\'.i:li ciic ij';r,<;!l tiiry i-;.' t';u-l wiliu'i "js i:va!s aiui h\' t!;,' r;Mr a,!:ni:a!s, tlu'lr Ir- 
; s. ().; ; '. , i;- '.; ..::i;ira'. tcj >j'r.r ;uc, w.is | rcj ai ir..; lolm.iKl I'l*;:!--!, v-l;-.;;; I',e 
. . ' ':/ !":. ( I '^ ().:[( t; ! : ;bly tcri.i', auA iv a m li.nrr ciit.iblc-'. S|^:a:;uc w as !-:.i\ ii'i^ 
i[ ;:. ( .1 ; to iio:lt. !i:- tl.i^; (^n ho.;r\! a ti.:id lli'p, a;'ci rrt;;i'n to t!i" fl '!; " ; \'. Iv n 
a ll:o:\, V. I;;.-!i ;;a 1 j .ii:;\i rl.ro' [;,c Sl. ( u(i :^c, [(hjL !i:s 1 oar, a:;d k:;ik ii.T. 'I'i.c 
...i;r;ral v. .i ('.r(/\'. r.i .1, to tli, s.M'c'.t i\-:mu oi I ronip l.i:r.lL-!l, w l;o Lcll j\v; .1 or. Iiis 
V..! ..r [I; .l.;',rv\\{ [ ia:l^-. 

i':!i\' i l\i:p It foiii^.d afiairs in tMs ilangcrou^ fituanon, r.riJ :aw tr.oil of :'-.c 
bi^; -, ill >j;r.igucVs KjiKKiron ciil.ibled iioni lij_:,!it. 'i"iu- c:il; 'L;';;r.--;,c v, as i\iiL'W(,d., 
dr.d became very dole a;Ki bloody, 'i'he Prince threw th.e uic ;nv i;;:o g'e'U b.if- 
('.vier. To cncrcalc it, he lent amon;^ tlicm tv.o tirr-llip^ ; and at :\:-: hi.n/ i:;ii.; 
rnad.e a (L^naJ. to the branch to b:-ar d.owii, winch it th^y had Coac^ a to: .i vi.lory 
n:':il iiaveenkicd. 15nt the Pi nice, when he Liw t!iat tl:e\' iu-i2,'ecled hi- h_;':a!, ar.d 
ob.erved. that n.oR ot his ilnps were in no coiuiition [o ke. p tlu !ea : ;r.;:;, uil 1/ 
provided lor their latery l)y makuu:; ea!y bail towa.rds tiie I r:;Ii!h coal!. T'-.e \ n"- 
t.'iy in th;- battle v/as as doubtfid, as in a:l tiie act ons Iui.!_^ht diirin.^ tiie preient 
V. ar. 

Ti::-: tnin, v.h'ch the atTairs c^fthe I lolbmders took by bin.', was iiiore :.;\'.'.i:-ab'.c. 
ri~.e prince ol Oranp^e bvfiep;--!.! and took Naerden -, a.nd trom :h> b'-cce;"^ :.oi\e his 
coi:;".ti"y realun to hope- tor ilill cnore prolpcrous enre;p:i/, s. Mv.r.'Lcvi.C'di, v. l-.o 
ccn-n:rianded tb.e Imperiahlls on tl-.e upj-er Rhine, dvLcwaU b:\- t!ie ir.oll art;id ^:oa- 
cbiLt, t'le vigiLince .iixA pen'tration ot I'lirc nne, and niak n a l.nhb n niaiv'i, lat 
d.ov/n betor,' I'onne. The Prince c^t (h'an,:e's coiubn: wa.- no ; I- [.inb;!,' ; \'. In!e 
]:: i\i::.cd a I die I'rench r;enerals, and kM\'in''; them beiiind hnn, b>in d in- arinv to 
t'... bnj eiiaiiiU. I5onnc wa.^ taken in a tew d.ivs : >'c\e;-.i! ob.c r ; hic, > o; t!;:e!ec- 
tur.ne ot'C(;'o.:ne fbi! into tiie hand-, c t'tlic a':: s : And n . :\ ;:;n.:.a::. -i b. in- 
tlms cut oil" i-^cf-ve. n 1 rani e anci th I nitcd Pro".d..ce , Lev, ;- v. ..n 'n'';ed to i\ cail 
\\:-^ I Circes, and to abandon a!i hiN con ;u. d> \s ibi ^ r. a: r I'a: : ;i:\ t ..;n !ie bad at 
brd made them. T!ie tabin:^ Maeb: i b: wa;, the on'y ad rantaij^e, '.; in.!! be ;;.nn 
cdj tins c a.mpaipn. 

j\ c oNcn-; i.ss was oy.ened at C; nidLi'tiie' ' i '^ ,,-.' 

I'nnd! lu)pes of lucC' k. 't h-: dein ;:... o' die two , . , ' e- ^ 

ib.i ( ! tb- 1 loibnuiers to p.n" eta b b'l-vitnd . I . be 

b- .' - r(db, the Km;^- ! nb m b .;r cbmand , ' ' . :in 

tb; :r ' :' i'- :, and it v,a:, inipolibde b.r tiie \ :.' \ , 

I.. .ik...-ii'^,<.,t,..i^.ij . ^ 



2^4 HISTORY OF G P. E A T B R I T A I N. 

C\::.-p. VL P;i:,r.- William cf Furflenburg by the Imperialiils,^fR)rcied tlie French and Engliin 
^^''^' -1 r- - cl '; "' xt ror leaving Colo'T'e. Tlie Dutch ambafiadors in tiicir memorials 
i:-:^-Li].d ad tiic haU'j.htiiKls a;:d dilduin, i.; natural to a free State, which had mei: 
vdrh liicii untvieritcd ill ufage. 
.':a :- (::'')- i'Hh i\-rhamc;i;. of l:nglaiul was now aflemhled, and difcovcred much greater 
';, . ^^ _ Ivmuton- ot ill hiimcur, than iiad appeared in their hut meeting. They had leeii 
for it^ne dnv-' a neg t::,tion oi marri:^ge Ccuried on between theDid^e of York, and 
tlie ArcndiichviS or liddrne, a catliolic of the Aufirian family ; and they had made 
no o -;)oht:on. I'. it when ti:;:t iiitention fai'ed, and the Duke applied to a Princcfs 
of the hO' le oi" rdodc/.a, then in clef: conjunclion with France ; this circumilance, 
;(;;!:ed to lo ma:iY odier grouridi o' difcontent, raifed the Commons into a flame , 
and t;.e7 i-cmonitraLcd with the greateft zeal againft the intended marriage. The 
Ivi.ig t(dd them, that t'leir rcmonurance came too late ; and that the marriage was 
a :\;ady a^;reed on, ano (-ven celebrated by proxy. The Commons iliU inhdcd ; and 
p'oee. ding to the examination of the other parts of govcrnn^ent, they voted the 
itand.iig!: arniy to be a gricvanee, and declared, that th.ey would grant no more fjp- 
ply, ne^'efiit aepearcd, that rne Dutch were So obilinatc as to refufe all reafnnable: 
.;: .>r:.^->- c.iulitions. To Cut fhor: theie difigrecable attacks, the King ref;)lved to prorogue 
''''''^- tlK Parliament ; and with that intention he came unexpectedly to the tloule of 
.Pce;e^j and lent the ufe;.;' to u:mmon the Commons. It happened, that the Ipeaker 
tx'v\ the liilier nearly rner at the door of the Hoiife; but thefpeaker beingwithin, fome 
of the member:^ ludv'enly (Iki: the door, and cried, To ike chair., to ibc chair : While 
otht.'S cried, 7Lc blc:ci:-rcd is at ihe door. The Ipeakcr was hurried to the chair -, 
ar>d the following '^-.o'ions wcie infanily nia(h] : That the alliance with France is a 
gr'evancc \ that th" evi^ comvellers about the King are ; grievance ; that the Duke 
o, Laed.;rdale is a ri?'. vance, and not ft to !)e truiled or employed. 'I'here was a 
:'gff ' V, 10 :he i^i-Cjlioi. : But the tiilier knocking vicdently at the 
..yt !:"om the ee: f r, :.]-:C[ the Uenife role in great cuniufon. 
.^^al, ShaUcifurv, \\;,o!e intrigues with the makeohteiit ['arty 
e,_;eei -cus. \, .J. ounnif ' fiom the on'cc of chancellor ; and the 

the title of loid heepn- The teil 
was c nlerrcd c,:\ '^v i f iiui:^ CM- 
n of ablT; . V. Ik; \:zCi ruin by his 
cmui-y, and icon alter died, 

to g:vc ti:e fiuhe lelhnc to con 
on (d3iiged hhn agam to afieniblc 
wa/ f^r the i.ldons. Cut .11 i^a 



gercr 


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> .,.:..;' \.i \' \ b'-.r ii;^ i::'/;.:; ';.s \'.^:v ..- wi ..:i .'. ;; : ' 
f ...^io;c :r..u.j ..! [:u" I I'j,..;' ui L r.:r,,;~. j:._^ lo:" /,;j ;:: :\ 
1/ .u\! :i: t!.^' [--.w : but c;.['rci";' vl !ii.-:;!i-!i ;:i lo l o;;.\.:l\; 
:\\c i;'i! I.i:. ;.,1l:l ; :i. i Ic \'. .o r, .^.;;\\; :>' a.;l.\..- 
V, :;a '^ f !:. y : rojK;!, .\ Vj\rA\\. 'I i.i: oi::i i.'s v,-^-; : b ,; . 
ajjv;-tr.:;:;= ;u\l ; ;i:v! .liiloii:: t';/ i\ :' . t>.- : 

' 1 I,. I, / u, C^J;;^:o:l^ :' 1 i,:^ IIkv.-- ; : v. :..i: \. ;:y!\ 
V, .; . ,r : : ;: i:.iV c.i: 1 ic.'. lU,. i.!:,p'M:r, :.i .;.. !i; ^ ..ii;v 
r.:- , .i;^.l t..!^ .1.: Ar::-,:.,::. ] Ic ll:.^-.! .1 r 

lA.: L\;.:.;iu ns \-(;tc.; an .ib.iuo ;.,r in :\-ii:o\-.\b Iv_.: .^ 
ajcwi:!-:-' obnoxio;!' to l!;c I ba.L-, v. .i^ -:::..!.,.!. Ar: 
1 bn t' ()' t;^- ;::-pca^b::v.:it v. .n ;..",. j r, l' jl-jA 
1'; :.;:; A. I :.' ! ;''' : - .: ';: c;\A; e X'wl v..) : r: 

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v! to ; -iva:'-' c a: : ., 



236 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. III. enfue vvidi that nation. The prorpc6l of this lofs contributed very much to en^ 



1074. 





\(. 


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,('7 


j;: 


XiOU 


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-.ic 





creafe the national averfion to the prefent war, aiKl to enliven the general joy for 
its conclufion. 

There v/as in the French fervice a large body of Englifh to the number of 
J 0,000 men, which had acquired great honour in every aflion, and had contributed 
greatly to the luccelies of Lewis. Thele troops, Charles faid he was bound by 
treaty not to recall ; but he obliged himfelFto the States by a fecret article not to 
allow ti:cm to be recruited. His partiality to France prevented a flrid execution ci' 
rhis article, 



C H A P. IV. 

Prcpcjlcrjus fchemes gJ the cabal. Rcmon/Irances of Sir William Tc;:!ple, 

Campaign of i.6j/\.. A Parliament-. Paffi-vc ohedicncc, 

j1 Parliament. Campaign of 1675. Congrejs of Niineguen. 

Campaign of 1676. Uncertain condiidl of the King. A 



Parliament. Campaign of 1677. Parliament's dfiru/l of the 

King. Marriage of the Prince of Orange ivith the Lady Pvlai'y. 

Plan of peace. Negotiations. Campaign, of i6yS. PPegoti- 

at ions. Peace of Nime<nicn. State of affairs in Scotland. 



7 F we confider the projetls of the famous Cabal, it will be hard to determine, 
Jl whether tlie end. which they propofec', was niore blameahle and perriicious, or 
the mean?,, by wliicli tlicy were to effccl it, inore impolitic and imprudent, 'i'iio' 
they m'^ght talk only ol recovering or fixing the Ki;^. i,'s authorit , then- intention 
c(>uiJ be no other riun that of makii-g him wholly ubfolute : Since it v.'as not pof- 
rb!e to rcgaiji cr n~!aint;iin, in opsufition to tlie people, any of tliofe pow-rs of the 
( rovvn, ahoIifti'-J. bv kite law or cuilom, v/!thr)Lit iubduing tiie pt.>p!e, arid rmdcii.-i.r 
i!,c n'v.i] ])rcrog:itivc t'nurcly uncuntri. ulablc. ;^ga;n!l iuch a ;ci:cnv , they mij;hc 
:'.rc Jc'-, that every party 'd the nation wciuid c-clare t:ien;icivf:'>, not only ihe old 
( :i! 'ia;ne:.'.ai'y parry, v. l/idi, tlic/' iluy kt [it no: \\\ a body, were ilili very numc- 
I'.t.s , \i\:i even the grcatcll Royahifs, wiio were n:vk-cd atuich-d ro iVlona:u!iy, b':t 
d, U:; M r'. \:A\ it ii.i.ited ai;u relbalned by law. it h;ul a;)pcared, tha^ the [)rcl" nt 
i'.::iiai-i-c,,r, thj'cl'cl' I .luring the grearefl: prevalence ot tlic royal purtv. .'.'I'l-,- 
< ct \:r-. :- ;:.:c!ou:; o' p( pvlar I'l'ivih g^ ;- an J retained a conndcrable i-^aloidy oi rlir 

Crown, 



C II A R L F. S II. 



Crown, even hcTore tlicy luui received ar.y i^ill ;"ti::;J. (jf l",,,"^, .\ n. 'J';-.c :;.. i..'^, 
tiicTt'orc, K)j; [!-.;.! v.itii.i Im.ili .irir:V, nc.v icviei', .ir.ci i.;uli!c;] 'iri- i, nrni cotr.j'o.^.i 
rcv) (<; I'lr li.l.mm, were alir.cjll the or.Iy clonu tli'M-c!r'.;rc", v. !i:^>. t'.e K.ii:- (;(!.;; ! 

'I III :\y.]\:d' i ': o\ l-'rancc was, :. ) doi.'-r, Ci^ccn;- .: liv i\\- C.b.il a c .nH 'j;-:-'\;: 



I\' 



t!,e |: litical c'luinf.-, wliul! t'.cv were {rair:;;::; : V>uz it is ivc ca 



,r' 



tcivc.l, tl.a' 'hey con'.d ima;;;;!- t'-.i-n;lt. !vc-^ cajubL- ';: :y..:i:\[i^\:": >.::.! c- !;,;j :::.j 
c. 'i:. V -,i:"lu julliy tv) \\.:w Iiilj^cJLcd, rliat it woi.l.i '^- l.ewi^'^ iolc r tci^ri;:., 



was t.;> ;r.:crt!. , r ) I'ai 



)\c i'/aloufi s l-crw, cr. tl'.c- K: 



;.: J- (.)-\- ; aii.l that lie law how iva..]\ a llecldy uniform ;:()veri:rre!,: i:i ih:- illan,!, 
V. h-:l.er !rcc ca- ablolute, wouKl lorni invi: c;b!e barr:c;s to hi a:r!'i: > ;. >.,>i;.;.i 
ii.> aiii'b.ncc i.n' ckniai^Jcd ; if l.e lent a Im.il! L;[M'!\-. i: w(-::\,\ le:-ve o:Jv :> e:,r.;_;e 
t;-' pec;''c, ..::..l rciv.!er the breacii airogetlui- irre; a:ab!,' ; il I:e :'';r:!;:;.: .i a ;;:e.;: 
force, l'-i-]:ci. n: to hilKkie t!.c racioiu there w.;- !;trle re.il' .: : , tr:.:' ;. > i^enr. ..:v, 
\', ;:h vet'irv! ' '!'.e oil", whic'i he wooIJ nia'^e of tiiis a \'.:::t.;;^". 

!; .;!; its o:!:.:- }jar:s, tl;e llhc:re of tlic C'.;:ul, it it,;::! be ( o:!:eileJ, a; ; ear 
( :....!'. abfurd an.! :nco:-iiri.;(;us. It thewarwitli 1 k.i!a:,d was a:i.i:.i!: : w'bi ; :e..t 
l.^.i^e.^, ibcii an aecefiio 1 (jt iorcc n^ol fa!! to L.-wie, i:. : t(^ Cli;r!es: .\\ \ .;;.:: 
h(;pcs ifterwards ot reHili _; by tlic greatcil L;nanim::\- lo no. ;!,:. a n'i-na:^ h : i ^,^v 
c;anii,e:'wiiS or ratiier liow ruinoo- tod^pcnc! i.:j\j:i 1i:> ..libbo.ce a^oo: It >' nol'iL' 
dil ontent- ^ If tl^c Durc'i, by \\\-Sw o-'.n vigoi::-, :^^^^ t!;c afiillaiiCe o! .00:-, w.:e 
abie to tieier.d tlicmleives, and ccaaid bin..: il^.e w.ir to aw ei':oa!:rv \ :'::e i ....cia 
arms \Vi,n!d be lo cn'plovcd abr^..ad, t!iat ni conlid. !-..l\e le:..:^. ae; n c;.: v.;..id 

1 



.v::\ ^ er/c ; 1 ; i/.es no 



-^e he extn^Jieo to :'..,\'na o 

p: ( : L < : r\o r-a\'. o'; J, or 1 1. : 0;,n;!,; 'in; jeoj'.e oe c !i( n;> , ol .( :ei. , lo;:.en n: ,y 
,, ,,',, the a;:.;' av\;::c;n (.; i.,v::ni^n::; tiiar >ra;.\ \'.!neh ti,.'/ KL:ai .-.d .0 

;; b.. . : ...., -: d w n.. w.,i. '1, (,n manv .u. .k ::' , :i.es- . : e vivhi . 03 (jI n..^;..:..;n- 
; ti;e e;rea'^ it c on^i*. d a,,d llr; a.d t. ^nlivb ;.: , ; 

W';: .\ , o \ ::; \ :ew> 'dv.w .!e n :.;::: ;\- ent; .' ::o d < >: j : i n\o':.:.' 1 ,' :h. . . n M- 
( ad^v hi.' r O'O'Oi ; i!.. V . I :::.;-, n . o . > r .Oi ti;e cd ;'r n \ - 



adairai V 



o. e i:.'. 



a,i;e \ . y.w 



-3B 11 1 S 1/ ORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

^- .-^.r-'. crca'un-ny v.:.d f;va_;on, E;:t the utter impoffibility of accounting by any other 
^-:i' hvyrthtns f'v:i- thchc f-rungrj !;v::^:ii:es ?irA::7ACcC by the couri;, as well as f^.rlhe nu- 
n'..c'::; circumflaitcc:;, W:j;ca acc-;-;nv:-iea them, obliges us to acknowlcge (tho' 
thrr^ iem-^hi;. no chicet cx'i'i.nce or It'"'] rait a formal plan was laid for fubxTrUiig 
;ht- ro,i!''.:runon, and that [!ij ivi;;^:: and the Mnhftry were m reality confiMratois 
;;^,H;i-J th:; pcop':', What is nieli yno^ajij :n nu;::.an aihairs is not ahvays true; 
: i^d a v:iy nhoute cnaaunih^n^e, overlooked in oar i];eCiilations, ferves often to 
<, xabh^ (^ en'?, wincl) niry iec:n the iv^oii furnrizing and unaccountable. Idio' 
ti:e h. inr: iv;nhiUu penetration an ; a fb)nnd jadgn-icnt, liis capacity was chiciiy fitted 
f;a- invbha- ntnttinsy, and the on.hna;y r-cnrrences of lifi: ; i^or had he application 
ei-;ongh to ea'ny his view to Ciy^:^-:. conicpjenees, or to d'geit and adjud any plan 
of poiitic-il operat;o;>^. A:3 he iearce --ver t'longht twice on any one iahjeet, every 
aonearancc oi advant.pre was aj)t lo iednce him ; and wh^en he found his wav oh- 
ihn.d^d iw' uniooked-ioi OitnenltKs, he readily turned ahde into the liril pati^ 
wiiere !reexp.;cted more to grata y the natu.al indolence of his dijpoiition. 'i'o this 
verhitihty or pliancy ohgnhus, he himielf was inclined to truil ; and bethought, 
h;ag after trying an Cvpenment for eniargii^g his authority, he could eaiily, if it 
ialled, return into the ordinary ciiannel of government. But the llilpicions of the 
people, tho' they burLi; Jiot torlh at once, were by this attempt rendered alto- 
getiier incurabb: ; :ind th.c more they reileeled on the circumllances, attending ir, 
the more rebutment and jealouly were they apt to entertain. Idiey obihrved, that 
tne King nev^r had any lavcurite; that he was never governed by Iiis minifters, 

fcarce 

: uc;:'-; ;c ti.-- ; ;-pr"? viui France ever r-'pcnrcvl ; anj liulc'cJ, it ;: ['ri-habk; (cr the ivafbii? 
!x:;.'i-^^:J alv-vc, t]i:.r -(> iiu h ireaty \'. a^ rvrr :or:naky cntc;c(i irao : 'i'hc K;;!C;- th()uj,r|]t it uiaicient, 
t'r.t iic ; -iac-.l lii. iiu' rOl wlih lliat of Uic Fiei:cl! ;VJo;iareh, and he l^ci'evc^, that ih]s c:rcii:nitai\ce 
a.o;^e '-: i:';! (aa.blc haa to Jepciid on th. t PrhKe^ ahhhince iij ca;e o/ necafiir-/. 'i'hc abcot ihaaii ia, 
(!;_a ;;.;);'-..;! at Paris the taraa, of a tr.aty to lia^ p;a-;-a}fe ; iitit tlaa'C a;-e (o aiany Jiihcultic:, an:atl- 
i.a; '.: - ia..;.aa a, mat it caa ia'\-'. iiitie weaait witii as : IJc u^oke oaa- i'\' ccaaedara, ( r ihiic waa: lap- 
^ '. .e ha t.a' i i:a^\]i rA'\::::cy:, wi!ii iaat^aaar-, it wa.s ;o raueii tiie anarek e. t'aU ecaat ic .niiac'I t'-e 
J\i:;a; wih: h: A' i::is, tliat theii' a'XiH, at .r ^er\' riahi ta he Uiaxauah tie has ton, ti/at it ..,.> tx- 

e a, h'~. i ;a'0;, i a. a., h iaae o; vha.aaa. iiiit tlh-. i:. ;a I'v iaifaaaaJh- --^n aianv ,;eaui.;at , vaaaieai.a'- 
i^ ..^ a ah ta aa \, i :, aaaa aaiaa: ohuaa^ u hhaiac i i tiie J'renali jav.ch,;^ at I traJ:t. \ i h- niaiaiv 
ha ti.m, that ti:ere v/a- ao caaiaUea ;aai! iaauixt the l^'.o Kia.;s,, aah t'au tlie\- ao\Tri;au theai.ahx^ 
i I.:'.: .' .' \' .' c.\ ..V- . lather C/a-aas \h M, 't i- faie. \-. rr.te liaan na tar.ai:) aivtii ih!!i !v,- J-,, 'ania-- i- tie 
;aa.i aat,,a iha t auaf^ny ('t iJi; ar.htiar\ h- m;:;^ oi ti.a i.raa . ; aaa ha I'C 'i . ao haaaa or tiie trahi ofiii^ 
laa' :.. a ; i tie jiartiaalar. ihit Ih^ liih'' v ai other la a a^-'., i. fa lihie aiih ila-iciaieiai, tlaa were it lua 
.a_; ' -ai aa < a. : ar:yiii!ei;t -, it woulJ la ha- la. : a, ; !ia;a' iaaal \. v_ ialn uitn lis. Cut aiVer a.h ha 
i.. a.a e <A -ir 'e. ihiani 'ih ni^ 'e to tiie K- 'y - _ a- ni -atio: (ah v. ihi^ii tiial a ionarcli do'::j WJt opjoih, :i 
, .-at t- ti\e ' , i ''.iKa- a'' a'.' , t';e h ;h 'a^ai' ohihe Kiiiy" iaicahoa;. 
-I haa.c a; hahh..,hia.a', e!a a .,l. e: iv. Charltr 11. 



C II A R L r. S If. 



r.n K- 



. ^' i!-i' ! 






', [].M t'ii,- !-1:iil; j !,.:rcc ^..^ l.rrc: 



... , , ,.:)Il:Ic ci l!;l^ ' 'al u:.\ v...^ i-clln/.l t' 
[ ) ':'-[ - ; i ' ; aw'- th'/ (^''.., , ^i I J ri; i!-. a 
v. '.I'.i i'.ic ! i\-:v i; ni(.::..: .^:, 1 I;: ., . 
1, -.:;:.. ,.:.::. L(jl;i;na!l llv real i. di! ;i.X... ,:.: 



u.va::''-o 



[)._.:..: ,: i a:'il i .- ^ms, \\\l\\ liiC >i'- ar !; c '.'111 
V LiJitv ul 1/.- cxe'.ilcs. 1 ii: 1\.1-:l ..I-vJV. :!., C"n'.L;o.i 
(iiiCL ha.i rj.'.Lrc.i liim ili.l :r' r:: o'li.oxicjL: , .; {[.: c 
aiXcv;:,: a Lj^araiv: coriTlpon'^'ivJc v. i:!i t'i'_ i i:iv;:;i c- 
ri;!ar C' ;.;i:x:o... u:lh I .'JA :^, v. ..;< !i t!;^ L- 1'; ;;, \ -. ' 
In'p. rii^' l^ul.o ha.i (.niy ;n v.;:v. i!.'- ;V. .:-,;.^_ ;.:- . 

C;.;:ii-/i- s ; a:^.' ;: nuiil b;j a(.k ',')\\ 1 dt'; i.l^ ; : 

t!a :; ;.. pvoi^-, the) 



.r.at 



1 ,. 



'.AC:; 2r.'A ti;c la:iic iiiiiiniitc , 1 .:).ii'!;.v';"i, \', . . ^ . 
a.^.d o: l..-^ y^oyl:^ \\: was cv..- v, hli;'^, I:.:o:\; 

A^ ilic K.in!^^ '.vas at ^'cacc n::!i .A t:i/ v,cr!v' 
ropct wAc) w.iS placid i.i that a ;. a.Aic !ii::ar: :., '. 
^\.:{\.:y. I ; ihc Cui'tca- ;:i:.: i o\\ .'.:, ia ^ :\.. . :.; 

\'. :;.:i). :) ^aa;' :.'.-a .aiv i r 1 - ..> . u:.; .;. ., a a 

( :; r h.a , ;: v. . s .a .'uA. aha.h ii ..:. i. a a h!v- . 

') \xl ':: \l. \ ' idea" \) y,lV'_ a hi:\ , ' 
Tcir; :- liaa^^ h: r.*:i aa.l, a. d ..;-' 
riiinuU r, w id - / ^ 'a L.a.: a;a. 
tai !i el I oi.iA d , > ill!, ii h ,,: : . : 

. . .;a.d..: l.aii! ii, a-: i.j- a- ^ 'd; 
, ada .,.a::.,:\s, -d,.di dt- ;'. :v. \ > . .. , 
ac;- a ;>d.-i-. of d:a CdaA v.:a.d d 
, \a 1 / '] aa! , l a'_ !a \m ,d ! . ,;; 



, La.. 

aat.t: 
I 



; m 1 raiiaa : 



240 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Cl\?.p. [V. on thac Iieaci -, becauf^ they confidered, that nothing but force of arms could fubdue 
'"''"* the Y.:\uc:ar.cc of ths people ^ig^hift popery ; after which, they knew, there co' Id be 
no fecurity for civil liberty : Hiat in France every circumfiance had long been ad- 
iiiiled to that iyueni of governnicnt, and tended to its eftabHrhment and fuoport : 
Tiiat tlie ccmir.onaiiy, being j)oor and difpiri'.ed, were of no account; the nobility, 
engaged by thi proiped or pofieillon of numerous offices, civil and military, were 
'. iitireiy attacivjcl to the court ; the ecclefiaitics, retained by like motives, added liie 
bnclion of religion to the principles of civil policy : That in England a great part 
of tl;e hifided Dropcrty belonged to the yeomanry or middling gentry ; the Kit. g had 
few oifces to beftov/ ; and could not himfelf even fubfift, much leis manitain an 
ormy, except by the voluntary fupplies of liis Parliament : That if he hid an army on 
icot, yet, ii compofed of ILnglifn, they wou'd never be prevailed on to promote end?, 
v.lnch the people io much teared and hated : Tl^at the Roman Catholics in Eng- 
land were not the hundredth part of the nation, and in Scotland, not the two hun- 
dredth ; and it feenied againll all common fenfe to hope, by one part, to govern 
ifmcty nine, who were of contrary fentimcnts and difpofitions : And that foreign 
troops, if ilnv, w^ould tend only to inflame hatred and difcontent; and how to raife 
and briiTg over at once, or to maintain many, it was very difficult to imagine. 
i"o thcfe reafonings Temple added the fentiments of Gourville, a Frenchman, for 
whom, he knew, the King had entertained a great efleern, " A King of England," 
faid Gourville, " who will be ibe man of his people^ is the greateft King in the 
" world : But if he will be any thing more, he is nothing at all." The King 
lieard at frfl: this difcourle with fome impatience; but being a very dextrous dif- 
femblcr, lie fecmed moved at lafl:, and laying his hand on Temple's, faid with an 
.ij^peariiig cordi.uity, " And I vvill be the man of my people." 

Temple when he v/cnt abroad, foon found, that the fcheme of mediating a peace 
v.-as likely to prove quite abortive. The allies, befides their jealoufy of the 
King's mediation, were extremely bent upon the continuance of the war. Spain 
I:iad llipulatcd with Holland never to come to an accommodation, till all things in 
Flanders yvcrc rcuorcd to the condition, in which they had been left by the Pyrc- 
ncan treaty, 'i lie Emperor had very high pretcnfions in Alface ; and as the great- 
cil p.irt of the empire joined in the alliance, it was hoped, that F'rance, by fuch an 
ovf r match oi iorce, would fo^'n be obliged to fubmit to the terms demanded of her. 
1 he Stites indeed, opprefled by exorbitant taxes, as well as checked in their com- 
merce, were defirous of peace, and haci few or no claims of their own to retard it : 
But they could not in gratitude, nor even in good policy, abandon allies, to whof^ 
protection they had been fo lately indebted for their fifety. The Prince of Orange 
r.kcvvife, who had great influence m their councils, was all on fire for military fame, 

and 



C II A R L !: S II. 



2 'I 



,iiid UMS pl.-aVd to b,-^ at tl'.j rr.\id of a:ni:cs from uh'ch r.;,h n i^^tity fiiccclTcs Chr IV. 
were c-x:c::c..,!. l':..; r various yrr: xt-, iu- t^laIcJ, iI.-Hiil; ti.j wlio!- e.i:n;.'.u_;:i, ' ^' 
t'l." !r.ec::!-.i; v.ir'i 'I'cnv ic ; a d aJirr t:u- tio jj i v-trc lent iii'o \'.::.'. r i.}.:.ir:(rs, !;c* 
f ; r'l.it rv;Mil.r, i;i h,> :i:u onlercnce, t'lU tM !;'';a'fr i:iip-e;:!<);i wa^ :v..i:.-: o;i 
I'Varce, rea. ,::-:'). c t; : :!;- luuIJ :.oc be Iio^ed Mr , and i: \\ai :h;iei,ne vu:n :j i'c- 
.'',( '- '.'. 

'1,1.: ]\::::i'^ of t!.c r.nr;)d.rn had : nt a f.v red !.\;c-d:a:i n. d de ! id:iC(' '-"-' :' 
c: ( ):a:. e, u .:!i a I'.; : :: t arnv, v, a . 'i^;'*-.;!" d in I- 1 u.de: i t Cr.: j r:nee (^; L'(;n ' . 
a:::d:di'..> . . 'o ; Cieirare KKoiiinec [)v t.!ia: d.ai :er, w .err id !; '/.:.er ua=; 
td n \-. ;.:,;: ie. A!:er \'>'ri[!:^ C!,dea\ .un m-, di'd m \-,i;n, t^ b:::--Co:/- to a 
ba:c.e, i.e rain \ cxpuled, at SfnJie, a win:; ')\ liih a::rv ; d\).\ rd.it a^t;\'e ; nnr:^ 
iad:-d not at on^e to Ice and lei/ die a.ivanraiit.-. Bnr tdi^ nn:- li dnec ui :!v j :nn ; 
orOran;.';e wa- anijdy con:; en. at d bv \.i^ bedavionr m diat odldna'c and 'd >'d/ 
aJtion uinci. en Lied. 1 le raide.; hi- liiln .iv d tro ''-^ i he 1 .1 idem t / c^.e ^ n: n, ; 

.. I .^ t /. 

a.,d. : ) 



lie judiiedi the vctLJMP. ar.d m.nii.d tri'Oj so 

Lond.e, noiv, ^dnbindniL!; lu^^ a.:c and cii.;r..e:ci-, t^J cxe: t .t, ,.[.; edior:.- 
mlcjne his jerl^n n.in.., tii.m n; .my .;t-[ion, \'d:e;"e, cwii .n.i.nj; t'.e !ie..t (: y->..d:, 
lie iiad c\-, ; cvnnn.anded. ^ t- , i; ,i_ r rN,. ..-,,,,,,.. -,,,..n., : i,.. r' . r 
1 



ni-; t, [he .iet:on w.is e^Mnnu.,.: nv ti 
i:;e mnon ; ..n.l i: w as i.;ai ;-.ne:^ at lad, not the \s\ar:n'. ,^ o: the '.indvir n.ts^ v, n:.d 
|nt ^A en : lo the contell, and Icit the vnet tv undeeidcd. "' Ih:e y: :nce ( : Or.n:::: d' 
h.id Condh, \v;di great cando.ir and [v- ''^di^v, " !ias a:ied ni c'erv dn. .; In^e an 
" 'id e.ij.tain, (XLcyt \\ntiiru;<j; lus inc ttjo id-^e a ycnne; dddni'd' C)..den_.:de v. a^ 
altcrward.s iTiVtlleel iyv die [ rin.cc (-t (Jrar.ec; I nr he w.^s ( b'.; . : b . tie bv.: ::';.. 1 
aPid .s-nnlh gencr.ds to ]a\\c the he ;e oii t,dc ayyec^aeii ol ri; e:; :r. .'. i ! ' ..:: :- 
NS'.ir "s 1) dei_;' d and to; k(.i:,i\e; and.it tiie bee:n,:n;.;i: o: vd:::i:-, ti.c .nn^i.s b/ohc 
UP, wit'i [ite.it i.:.;e nt: ..t^ .u.d conij !.d t on a':', i] '<. 

d !i i a! ic^ v.\ 1 1- n' )t ni .ic iwc\ t !s; id ;n otlier i ! ;ee-. 1 . . 



1 : .'.' \'. . 



ce-nnuered 1' raiii n; eo::,: 



:d. !:i Alhicc, d d.renned; 



; v:i:;).a\\ n .i 



f:.en"iv, ail that n:;..n.r\' I,.:.., s'.e.nli, : y 1j:;.: cxyer:. :.i."e, pie :. ..n . ;i.. 
[v.at ;j,cn:i.;^, he hae! li e;; ..b.. r.) ac([n de. Ibe .i !,.dden .:i)J\ ;\ed n: .. .. 
t.: ived a:ui beat .;t N::::/henv d^e ^iLd;.- ot I. -ir.nn .t:i : C.r .a:.!, ;;;:;.. 
l:n; eriadlU. he'e; nty tliunhuiw i ,l\\v. :.:. ^ y lt i..:o .".:. ...(.. ,.: ; i.dsr i, 
(]uai ter:5 ;n th.it yr(n'.,iec. Id.r. n::e, . ho :..:.! leMeil into 1 (..;.::::. : : ; . 



.i..d 



^1 . 



( I .- , !. 



\\ 



1 li.- .d.les tioni C(dm.u- tile clietor (,: li:a,.,:enn..^, 

n ...., r : I ;jj s. lie <: niiN a ne'A' ..u\'a::M.v at Id.b^:;. ai;. . \ 

tde .1..: ', n ' cj' '. c dp. .11 to ley ils r ! le IC !p n:' , u' : i ! : .p nm. ,::; 

dele ', .P.d did nioic, ot .in^ct and te'nvi.p..:> a^i::,d eaJi ether. 



\\i. 11. 



242 HISTORY OF G Pv E A T BRITAIN. 

Chap. IV. Jn England, al! thefe events were conndered by the people with great anxiety 
' '^' and concern ; tho' the King and his minifters affccied great indiiference with re- 
gard to them. Confiderable alterations were about this time made in the Englifli 
miniftry. Buckingham was difgraced, who had long, by his wit and entertaining 
humour, pcfTefled che King's favour. Th? cjiie' niiiiificrs were Arlington, now iord 
chamberlain, arid Danby the treaiurer. Gre.^t hatred and jcalcufy took place be- 
tween thefe minilters ; and the King's affairs wcvc tbmcwliat difturbed by their 
quarrels. But Danby gained ground every day with the King, and Arlington de- 
clip.ed in the lame proportion, Danby was a frugal niinifler \ and by his applica- 
tion and induftry, he brojglit the revenue !^^; tolerable order. He endeavoured 
fo to conducTi himlllf as to give o'lence to no party; and the confequence was, 
that he was able entirely to plcafe none. \\q was always a declared enemy to the 
French intercft j but never poflciled authority enough to ovcrcom.e the attachments 
of the King and the Duke, it muft be afcribed to the prevalence of that intereft, 
that the Parliament v/as aflembled fo late this year; left they lliould attempt co 
1-7"- ^^'''^iD^ ^^'^ King in meafures againft France, during the cnfuing campaign. They 

i3ini;t Apii,. j^.^j. j^^^j. J.-JJ j-ij^ approach of fummer. 

A r;i;!iar.-.ciu. Every fttp taken by the Commons difcovered that ill humour and jealoufy, to 
v;hich the late open iricafures ot the King, and his |.Tefent fecret attachments gave 
f.ich juft foundation. They drew up a new bill againfl popery, and refolved to 
i;-ikrc in it man.y fev^re claules for the dete^lion and profecution of priefts : They 
addrelTed a fecond time againfl Lauderdale ; and v/hen the King's anfwer was not 
fatisfuctory, thry feemcd itill deterniined to perfever. in their applications : An ac- 
cufui'.jn was niovc.i againfl; Danby ; but upon examining the l^=veral articles, it 
was not found to contain any jufl: reafons of a profecution; and was therefore 
dropped : 1 hey ap;)lk-d to the King for recalling his troops from the French fer- 
vice ; and as he only promifed, that they fiv u'd not be recridted, they appeared 
to bi- much c.iffatisfied with his anfwer : A bill was brought in, making it treafon 
to itvy money v/ithout authority of Faiiiament : Anoiner vacating t'.ic feat:. c.=f 
fu Ii nvjivihcrs a:-, accepted of ofiices : Another to fccure che perfonal libeityof the 
iubiedt, and '^.r-jvent tiiC I'ending men piifoncrs beyond fea, 

'i Vat tl.e court party rr;ig!it not be idle, during li.eie attacks, a fill Inr a ne\7 
tcfl w::n intr .di;e;^d into tl^ J lou'c (>f Peer- by the earl o; Liixieley. j\ 
bers ofeither huuf', and all who ne/liellVl .ny ohici;, were bv this bill r; Cj 



em- 
,J ro 



^a^^'^ Ic- 1- e.,r, t!)c.t it was n t iawiL;!, Uj^on .;ny [';-ete:;C v;hat:o^V(. ;-. i) uf.c am;:; ag.nnTi the 
iv;n':: i;"!at ti,ey ablicjrred that tr nterou^ polKion o, tuk'n.j arms by his auiiK;: iry 



n 1.1^ 



fj.i, or a^riirifl t!iwie coninniuoned by !u:]^ ; and th>.t liiey v;i!l vjt: 
:\i a;.v rane li/.k.ivour tiie aluaa'ion of the proledan'. refiLi^'oa or ot the cfcablillicel 
^^'oveiiun.nt Lithcr in eliurch or itale. 

FcKious 



C II A R L }: S II, 



I'^i'Riors oi^pofidon was ni.ide zn tiiis hill ; a^ might be cx;\d.\'. rVom tlic rvc- < 
lliu cHlpoiKion u! the j^ublie. During!; rrvcTitc, n chivs, t!u- i;r:\.t - \.'cr. cMirie.l on 
\vith grc.it zc.'.I , ;i;;(.i a!i the re.ili;n ai.ii Icirnirj; ot [x):!i j ifi:-, v. c re (.:''";-l.iv:J on 
this nv.ir.ora'Ie CACihon. 'I'lu- cjuelliun, iixlcrJ, witii lega-.i.: c ni-ila:-. r, v. .is a 
point, whicii entered ir.to t:ic ccjntroven-es of t!'.e oh! parties, c.ivai:vr .;:Ai roiiiul- 
head -, a^ it ma.'c an cfiViuial part ot the j-relent clil; i;tes Ixtv.ixt c )..?: a: vl 
couii''rv. I'ew neutrals were lomyJ in ti'.e nation : lint aniop.g t\ie!i a^^ ete.il ; n..',ni- 
ta'in a calm in (.'.if: ercr.ee, there prevailed lentiinen:-. v. rv wide (jI tlnd'e a.'.'^-p'c d h'.- 
ciih.-T [ iriv. >L.chperlons tlionght, that all 'peblic cK clar,.:i .n- of the lc,:;d.'.- 
rnre, (.i'-i.er Icr or againll refillance, v.crc c(p.ially ini|-n'.itic, a;.d co .Id ler.c to :\d 
ud-.er P'Urpole, than to iignaliz? in their tnrn the tr unnj 'n ot'(;'.e tatn n lwv a:-.')- 
:hcr : That tlie fimplicity retair.ed in the antient laws ot 1 ;ig'.ip.d, as we'd . in 
the laws ot' every oth.cr natio.-, cnight ili 1 to 1 c luj-p-orred, .ni ; wa- b:'.\ ral.id .c.d 
to p^rcvent tr.e extr^n'.cs on cither lid.e : Tl-.at the abud. nte exe!,.;d);i of r. d:;lar. e, 
in ad pofnble cale^ was fonnded on /../' pri[:ci[)!.s , \:i ex: rel a.di^r.d'.o:', n:\ I'-.i 
be atten'dedi wit!) t/.-'/'r^cTc/'i conie(]'jences , and. there v. aN lU) nue.'idv ot exp,.e::-^ 
th,e public to .-ither iiiconveni^nce : 'Ih.it i! a c lujiee irieil -vn" d'ndv be ;rad-.- in 
the cale, th.e pre.erer.cc ot utility to trudi in puldic in., icuti' -n.', w.u a-paic::: ; cr 
could; tlie luj-.pofiLion oi rdid.ance, bcfon hand and in g-T.-.ia! tjr:r.', be t.u.b- ,\A- 
iriittcd in anv goverrnr.ent : I'hat e\'en in mixt nion.irclih =. \sh.,re ciia: !..: p'didion 
leeir.ed irioll re(]uifi:e, it was yet cntirJy luperllunu^ , I'lv/.'c :o ir.an, on :!.- rp- 
proach of extraordinary necefTitv, could be at a Kjb, tho' iv;t direcr-d bv u .; d d.e- 
clarations ^''> hind ti.e |rcp-r remedy : 1 hat even thole, v,I-.n :.,; ':, :it a '.;d'a..ee 
nPid m kholadic realoinng, exclude all rdilla'v.'e, wouM v:e I.j.ih ei i~> t!. vmee 
ct duUui'c -, when evi.dnt ruin, boiii U) tlp.-n.tclees aiid t ) t'.e pu' i';-;, v.w.'A atr^pd 
a ilncL .idiier-.iice tn tiieir pretend, d prnunph'^ : 'lii.,: t'e.' i;': ''-.en, .is ;L o'.ep'.t 
the.^ to be en:;.ely excluded ir(;m .d! dcreiminad ps o! [':.: ! '::u;e, v,a-, w.n 
amoM'.:^ r'.'i\'a:e redioncr."-, hntle ba;;er tiiin a d:l;'ur.' c: v 1 l;.i: I'-e i ne 

partv couldi r.o: ]n"itc-r.d, th.it rel ilar.ce cnglit e\'er t ' ' 
the ot'.ier v.oiild iuicly Ii i\-e recourlc t.) it m p^rea: e .' 
ierence coeild, only turn on li'.e d. preis ( t d,a:.ger or < 
rant thi- uTtpul.ir r-. inrdy i a du; lejiue. v,hb!n ' . 
poilibh:, by a..y la pua.j,;-, |reLiUiy to iix cr el v . 

'Id:: : : weie v.::.:'.\- (nher a''iuidi::- ^ in t! : 

I 



i.:::..,;n-T :...:. 
An : thu- t::.- r 



to aiu r tee p,"vcr, ir.t i.t 
liabd' tM .dv,;,, ,i:.d ;e q 
ad : . ! : ;s ni^:: : .. : u : 

or \l:. , Ui tee ^wveinn;,;.t. I 



;ie ei I'tie ,d 



244 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. IV. |3J)]^ tl;iat it vvas carried only by two voices in the Houfe of Peers. All the popifh 
^ '^' Lords, headed by the earl oi Bridol, voted againft it. It was fent down to the 
Houfe of Commons, where it was likely to meet with a fcrutiny ftill more fevere. 

But a quarrel, which enfued betwixt the two Houfes, prevented the pafTing all" 
the bills, projected during the prefent feffion. One Dr. Shirley, being caft in 
Chancery in a iaw-fuit againft Sir John Fag, a member of the Houfe of Com- 
mons, preferred a petition of appeal before the Houfe of Peers. The Lords re- 
ceived it, and fummoned Fag to appear before them. He complains to the 
lower Houfe, who efpoufe his caufe. They not only maintain, that no member 
of their Floufe can be fummoned before the Peers ; and for this claim they could 
plead precedent : Tlicy alio affert, that the upper Houfe can receive no appeals 
from any court ol equity ; a prctenfion, which extremely retrenched the jurifdic- 
tion of the Peers, and which was contrary to the practice that had prevailed during 
this wfiole century. The Commons fend Shirley to prifon : the l^ords affert their 
powers. Conferences are tried ; but no accommodation enfues. Four lav/yers are 
feiit to [lie T'ower by the Commons, for tranfgreffmg the order of the Floufe, and 
pleading in this caule before the Peers. The Peers denominate this arbitrary com- 
n'iitment a breach of the great charter, and order the lieutenant of the Tower to re- 
leafe the prifoners : Fie refufes obedience : They apply to the King, and defire 
him to punifh the lieutenant for his contempt. The King fummons both Houfes ; 
exliorts them to unanimity ; and informs them, that the prefent quarrel hadarifea 
from the contrivance of his and their enemies, who propofed by that means to 
force a diflblution of the Parliament. FFi? advice has no effeft : The Commons 
continue as violent as ever ; and the King, finding that no bufinefs could be finifh- 
8th or June, ^j^ ^^ j^^j. p.Qj-Qg^^g^i jj^. Parliament. 

mhofOco- Wfjen the Parliament were again afTembled, there appeared not in any refpeit 
, ;' ,. a change of the dif .ofitions ol either houfe. 'J"he Kin"; dcfired fupplies, as well 

A 1 a:!ia;r.ent. ^ '. _ ... xr' 

for the building of fiiips as for taking ofT anticipations, which lay upon his reve- 
nue. He even conieded, that he had not been altogether lb frucral as he might 
h.tve been, and as he rtiolved to be for the future: Tho' he aiferted, that to 
his great f.uislarj.ion he had ibund liis expences by no means fo exorbitant as 
jome lud reprtfcnt'. d them. 'Fhe Commons took into conllderation the iubjecl ot 
fuj^ply. 'i^hcy vot:;d 300,000 pounds for the building cf fliips ; but they appro- 
priated tije ium by very lliict claufcs. 'Fhey palled a relolution not to grant 
any fi-'pi''y for taking oil" tire ariticipatior.s of the revenue *. This vote Vv'as carried 

in 

* S;v:;:'] '^.Tr; i:;rs 'mvc ::f!'.rnic'd, ll-rit tlic Co.r.inon- {cr.ml, thi:, fciHon, upon enquirv, that tlu' 
Ki:';j,'.> r;.v. .,'.;( u < -, i ,;,c o,coc pci.ivjs a year, and tiiat ihic ncccfiaiy cxpcncc \v,:'-, b.ut pco,coc pountlo ; 
a-:J .;:'.: :,j , '\ led '.n ti\c Jouriiili for a proof. IJut I'lcrc is i.ot the Icait appcartiucc of thiit iri ti'.c 
:;;::"::. .h , d.a tiic i:,ci !o nnnoliihlc. 



b 



CHARLES ir. 



2'r5 



In a very full houfc, by a m.iivjriry off )Lir only : So nc irly witc tb.e pir'Jc- !\il.ir.cc\!. <- ? ^^ 
The quarrel was revive :, to whi !i \)r. S'.\\v]c\\ cnule h.u! vi'/m oera!;".'!. '1 !'.j ' ^ 

prot\(.ci:n!!S ol rhe Commons Jilcm-ereil (.([u.i! \-:o'e!i( e a.i ^'..:!ii -, !a;l 1 liion. A 
motion '.>...> iii.ulc m [he 1 loule (j! 1', ers, br.r r.je.u!, twr a.'..'relii;;!_'; i\ic K:r,;; 
tfj e'.ii'e!'>-e tl.c jaekiu ParlianuT.t. 'J'lie K;:il!; co; [ i;'eJ. himle 1 v. .:Ii [ r.-r >i^u'...- ' N-- 

the:r, i . a xei'V !on[_x t(.r;ii. W'he'iu'r tiu-le ciuarrel^ b. twecii the 1 b':.:e^ a.ri,:e lioiii ' "" 

ti^r/jiva:;; e or accident, w.is r.cwf ^ er'ainly kr.ov. n. h.dch j.'.rtv n;:^:.::, .lee >.>:.!;:, :^ 
to t:.::r cijiVcrent \ie\^'^, elU'em ti'.eml i\eh eitlier ^>.inei-.s or l(.!er t y r'.'.em. '1 :.. 
Co.,:t rvil ;i,t eel;re to obllrLiet all ..ttai.l-vS from th;- C'cjiiHvons, by ^r/::^^ tl--.:n 
(;tir. ; cnijlovnieiit. The country partv nii^yhr ilciTe the t'.ilioli.tion o: .. I'ar.ia- 
me:;:, \viui.ii, notw ithliaiHiing all (.;i!l;i..I1.s, llil coii'ainecl too ir,a;^.y royai::N, ever 
to lerve all the purpoLs ot the ma!, cup.:, nrs. 

Soon atrer the p:():o^:,i'ion, tiiere pa ^e^i a tra:.!a.:i n, wliieh in it.",!; i^ :r.\ ; ;I, 
b.it Ce!:c:s llro Lilv to nia. k t!:e y^-n.i.s <) r he b"n"!; b i:o\-( -nm nr, an i . . ' . ; - \ 
niimniillrar:(jn eknnv; tIii-> ; eriod. The l.be: -y ot tl.v- oMl.t..t:on, a .: : .e w.r: -v 
a> well ..^ vi'^ence o! the ! arti -, ha i be..,' a \ r'.;e.;:i \- \o'- j-u!;-'^..! e n'/e:!..- 
t;on ; and a~, the coiiee-houle^ \a }\n tici. i .r \'. c re the ; "nf--, u h- : e ti. , i .;.!,.: i.r 
the Kn;g ,.nd the n.in:;:ry Was t ..nwiin d uith ^;e.it ::\edom, a i ra . a r.irn :; v. a-, 
illned to u,; prei> t!>: :e j !.lee^> o: :,[nh/eo..^, !or v, h;.li the b n in b . .. [ 
ja'.nnevl a nd^luv iondnd<. Si.eh an a.'i m po^nan c..k\:\ :^ nnn.^r rvn n^ v.wn'd 
ha\e h'-e.i ^ri.nnded entnalv on the pre, (;^yi;i\-e ; and be\ re tl;e .u'^'h n > : tne 
honie ()\ Siu.ut, no IcrnpL' \-.o'.!l1 haw bv'e'^ ; nt, laa n- d v.ith \c.:.\t \ to tha: exerehe 
ol autho: :te. ]j..t Ch.u'hb, In.d'--"- <'.i! '^^< r'> ! ; ..^;,l '-.,.,, .-;,;,. n i 



reroi.re to the jnt!;^;- s, v. h > li-.yyl 
^e!\ l:a\ad(ji> one, hy which la- n.n, ht 'nilnv h 
b':'!;d the txehe. .^i^'e tiie kn: ; a p A'.'e; to .r\. 
e'.n.d n' t in.d ! ci r;:y . . . : , t 

lupior h.i'-le to exn;.- ; and t \-' n tn.^ p n.'. , . o; r- 
and cannd not r. .i!onah!y b cx'en ' ! ' d 'h- 
tl; ;-'-n :e, ^A-:^-;-'- nin: the ; "o' !e , . . ..n 



doid^ts to a; i; v::\''a h> proe .nn : 
hnn '.'. ith a ch,n..nr i ; hiw, and : 



] ;.e ,. 



'er.n 



\'. ..s \'. 



\'. 


o .1 


1 


:- ' ) 




,'>: a 



nn ./.; 
1 , 



( .^ne -m n, ^. nu) p:onn.e.l i^iv .. 
knnk-s ; and tin' proc.mn.tn ni v. 
Tn 1 -^ can-p.n._ni prosnd rn'n( 
m-thisw -de war. l':.: bn^n- ' 
,1! nn- ; ^::d the Kmp nni'i!; k It : 

!;.^^ (n I'ny an 1 l.ind^ annr, i . 
C)ran:- vid. a u-nhhlerabh arinv 



C . :: 



246 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. IV. was willing, without a vifible advantage, to hazard a general battle, which mii2,ht 
^-75* be atccndjd either with the entire lofs of Flanders on the one hand, or the iavafion 
of P'rar.ce on the other. Lewis tired of fo unactive a campain, returned to Ver- 
lailles ; and the whiolc rumnicrpaiTed in Flanders without any memorable event. 

Ti^RCNNE commanded on the upper Rhine, in oppofuion to his great rival, 
MontecucuH, general Ol the Imperialids. Theobjed of the latct-r was to pafs the 
Rhine, to penetrate into Alface, Lorraine, or Burgundy, and to fix his qu irters in 
tliefe provinces : The aim of the former was to guard the French frontiers, and to 
ilifappoint all the ich.emes of his enemy. The moH: confummate fl<.ill was ciifplayed 
en both fides -, and if any fupcriority appeared in Turcnne's conduft, it was afcribed 
chiefly to his greater vigour o': body, by which he v/as enabled to infpedl all the 
pods in perfon, and could on die ipot take thejun:efl: meafures for the execution of 
his dcfigns. By poRing himlch'- on the German fide of the Rhine, lie not only 
kept r\io..tecuculi from palling that river : He had alfo laid his plan in fo maftcrly 
a manner, that in a few days he muft have obliged the Germans to decamp, and 
lir.ve gained a confiderable advantage over them ; when a period was put to his il- 
iiidrious life, by a random fiiot, which ftruck him on the breaft, as he was taking a 
view of the enemy. The news excited forrow in King, court, and people, equalled 
by nothii^.g which we meet v/ith in hiftory, but the lamentations of the Roman 
people for the death of Germanicus. The confternation of ihe army was inex- 
l^n-elhble. Tlie French troops, who, a moment before, were afTured of vidory, 
now confidered thcmfelves as totally vanquifiied ; and theGermans, who would have 
been glad to compound for a fafc retreat, expefted no lefs than the total deftrucftion 
of the enemy. Bat dc Forges, nephew to Turennc, fucceeded him in the com- 
mand, and poflincd a great fnare oi the genius and capacity of his prcdecelTor. By 
his fl-Zilful operations, the French were enabled to rcpafs the Rhine, without confi- 
dcii'.ble lols ; and tiiis i-etrc;it v/as elleemed equally glorious with the grcateft vic- 
tory, 'i b.c defijcrate valour of the EnglilF troops, who were placed in the rear, 
co-.tributed greatly to fave tlic French army. They had been feized with eoual 
} afllor. as th.-' nati\'c troops ol i'h-ance, for their brave general, and fought with ar- 
dour to rcvc:;g(' his death on the Germans. l"he duke of Marlborough, then cap- 
tain Clunchill, lif e learned the rudiments of tiiat art, which he afterwards pracldfed 
\\iih kic'i tatal ii.cccf; ng.iinfl France. 

'F:;i: |-.r'n;e (;f C(>;i 'c' U-fLtiK: army in Flanders under the command of Luxem.- 
boii g; and can" i'^Li" -'.idi lfi:n a con;..ka\.:)L- r.-iniorccment, luccccded toTureni'.e's 
(0.ii;r>.;,d. Fc c'eiciul dAIlk-c !rc;n ilie (krmu.-, v. hoh.ul [ailed the Rhine, 
a!/i L.^ad' ' that provide;:. 1 !e (jMi?a'(a dv ni hril {> raiic the iirge ot I Ia:/enau, 
th'.ii ili :''. ni S I'.x- ; c. i F ckalrd all tli ir -itt' in; rs to brinL]:; him to a battle. And 
]'a\ii:g dwxtiouily kept ihem hum clkibhlhing tb.emkives iniiilacc5he forced them, 

not- 



CHAR L E s ir. 



-47 



notwit'.ll.intlinp; t';c :r '\i;-cr!u: iv; <( niimbLT, to rc[y.\[\ the Rh;;:e, ar.d take up thcT ^' '^- ^^* 
v.'iiucr (]'uirt'-!^ i., tl;.:-- o.'. !i c,)iir.rrv. ^" 

Ai 1 1 11 t'l i.!c I'll ( : I'uicT'v.-, .u!,-t iJirii-nt: of th (KTriia-i ;ii-:r,v v.\is T. nt to t'ne 
fic !,',(( ! '[':.\\- : \ii . :u; ri'Tv,', in v. IiAh t!u: Iiii. cn.ililh, t:ic Sp ,ni..rd'>. lii'j i\-.!.i- 
tiPiC, t;.r ;:.,!.; ( ! 1 .uir...r.L-, ;,r..l ir.M.y otlicr princes panio.'v.itclv C(;;u\,rr.-J. 'ViiC 
Y'i'.>\cA V.;.. \v !! lo.k\ r:., ", a:u! . x-cl.'.cJ wirii vi;/,our, M.irclch J C;c -..i, c'a :!-.j 
O'l.vT h .i\', f(j!!. :t \! .ui ..r:;-v, .; .d ..dvancrd with ;i view of orcin.: i..c ( utii ans 
to i'.-.ilj t'lj i . '1 iiv/ li- [ a (.liT-iclimcnc to !_;u,ir(! tlicir lir.cs an ; i:r,,l;r t'.:^: 
c-:. ' : I... .k.k.s .'! /cii and Olnabri!:-;!!, n^archct! in (p;cll c^: :..vv:..my. 

-'\-L ^- ^:x', t'-.L; f>d! ii:A->:p.\ 'tdiy, andi v.irli Tupciior r.un''^.Lr>, < :\ L :..;, a..d 

i.i.t inn.i to iii:r. Ik.' (.Iv.ir.'d wwa ic;ur aitcndai;rs on!v ; a;id t!ir:.v.i .^ innnc.t 
iniu 'iV:WF, !cl.j!\-..'d ' y a \' !;o:<jUS Jcicncc to niak:: ani. luls ior his t( in^v. rror (r 
r.v.- '' ' . ;;i:: ;i wa, I rave, ha.: n^'t a' an ioned to tli.t to: d d.;. .nr !^v 

V.!,. .. ; . / . . ., r V. a-, aaLLi .ted. i ia-y nni:i;aad a'::a;nll iiiso'Mknaa. ; CAy\- 
l'^.\:.:c'. .. ; d.-:v 1. !. ^?- ; and b:.c..;i c he rt!u ed to (:<^n thj e.;[ i:u!a:i' n, t^vy d d- 
\'.ia .; !;: ; .; '.'.. :a r inro th^ li.nids ot t!,e c:\civ.v. 



> rLa^.a ..a aa ii 



..c nn> roat oi Creep, i i> almod t!u- (adv laavi ha:t!a lod "/ 
'! to Biciidifiir, ciaiaaai; :Ik' ci'iirla u: aajvc i\\:\- \'..irs ; ,ia,..i 



b;ood.y wars a;;: .haul, j-or-r^t and na>rt;.d <. :i na.i."^ : I 



\a.u ra 



:.;'., ihe number ot ) aar^ diiraa: dait ivriod. Sadi w a-. :;;. \ a: a 

..at ot tluit Monarc!;y ' Ar.vi L.a'i too v.ere tiva laloaiaas ,a,.: 
::, . e. me h.uropea ; natioPi^ Iv, v.'ac'n tlayv ua re ea,.-.'\> vi to i-cjadr t .> a" : ;:'. 
;.;.; to conilne that niis^hry [ oaer nc any w idi n ;: a ricia h ii:^ ' A :;. h 
:. .;;, viclorias woudl h.;\'e ki:;::.d in aajtaer pa;.pa to i; arc [j^'ca : > i r.a.. 
; : : ire (.; h'taa^j c. 

1 Hi. :v.vcd' !i.al breri eapi::.d, by ihe pavn-iea': o! i.a'p;' d.' :;a: -, ^; :.;h. 
V. ith ti^c h'rencli n;oi:..rc li, .aa: aa/a a' t!; tv r: ::o: .^ o: ta e! .aa'^i i' a ,' 
in Pomerania. '1 bar e!c . .: r, j^ a.; d by Kaae hr ; : a: iit- :: oni > :! 
them until i^rcat brawi'y ana 1..^.^:^. 1 le a on b...t d. :v. < i.i . . '. . ; . 
countrv, .md [^ariued th.ai a a; r ^i: c;v, n. 1 !c ;,..., .a. a::er\a..'. '. 
o! Pcinnad:, u ho uais i,(.'-;, . a' . _! ' ' ' ' ! L..e c. aaea r.a 

(.1 t^, deeiaie v,.,i-a_;and ^v.a.,.a. _ : ....: o d n:..aa: . 

the vi.Lu; y. 

d"o all ta.le iiM-icrtene:- n^:,hnd ;o:e: 
'.irre'-aa)ns ui the eoninv-.> : (", \^ w^i \ 
,ey .avi.lad ti.c t^aae a..vi atuno n > ; ' 
Jd.n.lu v,as at i.'.\. Mcda: ;,.-.:. 
'.dvo'ine was dilaaa, ;e.d to 1 a; [ ,.i t i..c ; - i >^ .. .h ;.,,t a 



ca\-n 



248 H I S T O R Y o F G R E A T B R I T A I N. 

Cn.ip. IV. dron to affilT the Spaniards. A battle enfued, where de Ruyter was killed. This 
^'^~^' event alone was thought equivalent to a vidory. 

1'he French, v/ho, tv/elve years before-, had fcarce a fhip of war in any of their har- 
bours, hid railed thcn:.rclves, by means of perfeverance and policy, to be, in their 
prefent force, tho' not in their refource?, the firft maritime power in Europe. 
I'he Dutch, v;hi!e in alliance with them againft England, r. .t lupplit-d them with 
ieveral velTels and had taught tliem the rudiments of C'.e d;f,icuit ^rt of fnip build- 
i-cr Tiie Enp-iiili next, vv'hcn in alliance v/ith th>-m a<Tainfl: Holland, in!lru(5led 
tl:ern in the m.etliOd of fightir-g their (\i\y.s, and of pre'erving order in naval engage- 
n:ents. Lewis availed hinilelf of every oppo tunity to aggrandize his people, 
wiiile Charles, funk m indolence and ple.vfure, neglcdcd all the noble arts of govcrn- 
n^.ent; or if, at any time, lie roufed himfell tromi i)is f;:tha'-pA', his iiviuftry, by 
rtafon of the unh.appy projects Vv'-liich he embraced, was oIl.h more- p;-rnici u": to 
the public tlian his inactivity itlc U. Pie was as anxious to promc^re the naval power 
of France, as it the fafety of his crown had depended on it -, and mary f;i the plans 
executed in that kingdom, were lirit, 'tis laid"*, digefted and corrected by him. 

s6"6. The PjcccIIcs of the allico liad been confiderable the lafb campaign ; but the 

Spaniards and Imperialifls well knew% that France was not yet itifficiently broke fo 
as to fubmit to the terms which they refolved to impofe upon her. Tho' they 
Con^irf, of cciild not refufe the King's mediatio , and Nimeguen, afrer many difHculties, was 
AJinicgucn. ^^ i.,(|- f^xcd on as the place of congrcfs ; yet under one pretext or other, they ftill 
delayed fendir.g their ambaffadors, and no progrefs was made in the negotiation. 
Lord Berkeley, Sir William I'emple, and Sir Lionel Jenkins, were the Knglidi 
ambafiadors at Nimeguen. The Dutch, who were impatient for peace, loon ap- 
peared : Lewis, who hoped to divide the allies, and who knew, that he himfelf 
could neither be f.duced nor forced into a difadvantagcous peace, fent ambafiadors : 
ITie Swedes, wluj hoped to recover by tieaty, what they had lofi by arms, v/ere al- 
fo forward to negotiate. But as thefe powers could not proceed of themjfelves to 
fettle term% the congrcfs, as yet, ferved merely as an amufement to the public. 
Campaign of Fr v.'as by the events of the campaign, not the conferences of negotiators, that 
^''"^- the artic'es of p;eace were to be determined. The SpaniHi towns, ill fortified and 

worfe defended, made but a feeble rcnflance to Lewis, who, by laying up maoa- 
zines during the winter, was able to take the field early in the- Ipring, before the 
forage could be found in the open country. In tlie month of April lie laid fiegc to 
Conde, and took it by florm in four days. Llaving f. nt the eU.ke of Orleans to be- 
ficgc Bouehaine, a fmall but important fortrefs, he poftcd himfelf fo advantage- 

oufly 
Welvvood, Lurnct, Coke, 



CHARLES II. 



49 



oufly with his main ar:r,y, as to h.in.'.cr the ront'.'d'-r.ire-. from rd-evinp: ir, or fipht- 
]:]'' witliou'- dil': '.v:\\'.:d'r. '[ I'.t: I'nnc-, i;i 1; '[c (-i ;lI the I'inicuh'Ci o\ the iVa- 
Ion, anu t!^e w.i^: o! [;(A-ih()ns t,i::;c ;;i Cy^lil o: the hicncli ;.i nr; ; lut liis in- 
iluilry i ;^vd to no (^tlu-;- {;Lir[) :ll- t:Mn to reiuivr :.::n .i l"j-da:or uf t': !:.rri':..:j:- ot 
Bo'ic'i.ii'u*. H. t'l ami;'-, lloo.l i:: a", c c! t. ach ; tii r, an^i wctc i nv. i!;;:v^ t^/ I..:/ ^r^l 
an :i:''; in, \v!;;',h n.i jit be att nchcl \vi:!i tli, ni'-ll mi; t): t.i:: Ci,:.,e.;ii :i e-. 1. ..;>, 
t!;f)' h;- winteJ nut j\:-;o;:iI c Aii-.u^e, w., \er\- h;r! <. ::i rMr..:ini^ m ti;: i!: ! ' ; 



in,.-. 1\ 



n;:; i elolv. el t!i:- i. ,i ^ ji.K^:!! to ivll c onte'ited v. ;:h :!:/ a^! v :n[.iL;c% v. hi. 



!. . ) 



J. lo e.ii iV 



a (|uirei', ;;e tlioi.ijit yi' [ <t to er.t:ii:l ! i^ ar:ry to M-U'eielia! S.\,. 



Icr:i:, 'inJ r. t:rc-(.l hnnl'H to \" iL.illes. Al':. r h:s .h^'.u'tu. e, il.e Prince oi" Ora:-.:' 
laid hei; to M lelli ie'.t ; 1 ut me. tini: u ir!i a ; oh,' inare re;:ihi:,.e, h-^ v, as t.o.i.r ;:, 
on the ap\n ach ol S. r,(;mber<;;, v. hcj in t'e.e nv. an thn^.e i-.a.' t.ilcen /in'/, to r, .:;'./ :: 



lie^'". I le was incapable ot yiehlini^ to ac.\'eriit\' ( r i^cnoio'^ un.ier mi-! 
ikit \\c beij,an to loielle, t'nat, I y t'n n ;;1 i; ai 



e' 



- ., 1 



error- ; ! Iiii a;;;, , t.-.e v.ar 



in hianders nu.il i^ec.llari'y \.avc a vltv i:n:orriin.!:e iHhe. 

Ox t!ie upper kliine, lh;i!ip!boiir^!i \va^ taken bv t!,. hvp. ! : .1 '-. [a I'o:::;-.-.i 
nil, the Swc.'.e. were lo unluecebtol api !i!l t!ie Ihmes andi ihae.dc 'e,.;- .'.:, ['.. . 
thcv leemeh to be K)!ini!; a; a(\- all tho;- p.-ileiiie-ns, v In^h, v.:::i lo m...!i '.'..i . 
a:;,l : ; o-i lortane, tluy h.id actjuirLd in ( lermanv. 

Anoi r t'le b.;j,lni,in:; <d \sinter, tlie eoeprcb ol N hi:e;:i:en w.i p:(. :ry :..h, a:, 
the pie, i: (jtviitianes o; ti:e I\mpLr.;r and S^ .en, two p^oaii-^ itri.dv c nevne ; i^- 
b'o(-d and alliance, at hul a[)pea;et!. 'IheOnrtii h.:d t'.re,i:M:.d, ;: t;; ".-di-Lr,.' 
lcne;er, to proce d to a iepnaue tr-v,atv wit'i l-r.iiiCe. 1, t!ie c<, :,:.;,. .-, ai'.d. r.^ 
;'o:ia:io!v, t!;e d;:: x)!i-ionb oi the 'aiities bcc.ime ^ \' rv .'.\\ n^.j a^ \::e:.:. 



V . Hodinders loa h'.l v.i:h d, :-<, ^-'^ h.na-alh d 
puttn _ an ( n ! to .i w. r ; v. iiu , , Ix in! ^ th: in \k\vc..' 
we.ihn, h ol tee Sj .n iar '<, tn. di\anon^ a'^^l d !.i-. - 
nodeni'; but i ilejaee an,; mi. lor tin :e. 1 i,. ir , e- 
tiuaii nni grce.t r anxitf.a t!:e cono, : , . : 
do nadied cX'!' n:elv ; end d:ey w re ,ipj :..... 
n: '.'ci- th(jro.-.iv !v.- r. iMnied. 'I',.', i.-diln-:. 
iiii.": ',ir \\,n', eX' ej t {> ; v nre a v .< n': r :> 1- .. 

,.;, !.;ed ; he.n to rrv, wdctii r ' 
V. ..1^.1 '.'. o..id !^-'.'e . v..'. 1 ,il nite : 
: .. '.'. '\' j.na u'. ;i:;. V ion, and i e 
:d: n^i lle,.w V to th'^ ! el^detion. 



V. no f ^xe*;, \wy e> no ,.^ , ; 



\ 



y 



2 ;o HISTORY of GREAT B R I T A I N. 

Tiji-. Sonni-Vfi'^, not to mention the other incurable weaknefies, into winch their 
rron.ii'c!;y v.as iuilcn, v/crc 'Jidracicd with do-vjefiic dillcnfions betwixt the parties 
oi theOLi:cp. i~le',^:ent and or Don Jolin, natural brother to their young fovereign. 
"'ho' unable oi" tiicmfclves to dcicnd Fhindcrs, they were refblute not to conclude 
a peace, whic'i v.ould leave it cxpofcd to every affailt or inroad-, and while they 
inadc the mod ma.gnliicent promifes to the Slates, t'lcir real trult vv-as in the pro- 
rcaioii or England. They law, that, if ih-t !niall but important territory veas once 
";.,bducd by b'rancc, tiic Holh-ndere, cxpoied to ib terrible a power, v/ould fall into 
depcndaiiCC, and would endeavour, by fubminions, to v.'ard off that deftrudion, to 
wiViCh a -.v.rr in th-c licart cf tlieir State mutt necefiarily expofe them. They believed, 
tiiat ] /vwi.-?, fenfible ivj-.v m.uch greater advantages he would reap from the alliance 
t!]ari from the iliijediiiori of the Ilepublic, which mufb fcatter its people and com- 
merce, Vv'ouid be contented v.-ith very moderate conditions, and would turn hi^ 
cnterpii./es againll his other neighbours. I'hey thought it impoffiole but the peo- 
ple .:r.d I'ar'iamcnt of England, forefeeing thefe obvious confequences, m.ufl:at laH 
lor-.e i';e Ki'ig to take ^ art in the affairs of the continent, in which their intereils 
vvc'j !o dcc-piy concern d, And they truiled, that even the King himfelf, on the 
aii/ri^acii oi io great a danger, mud open his eyes, and facniice his prejudiceSj ia 
Livoiir (ji I'rance, to tn-; hitetv of his own kingdoms. 

Ll-'i Charles here lou;id himleif entang'ed in fiichoppofi[e motives and engage- 
"meMS, as he had not refolution enough to break, nor patience to unravel. On the 
ore ha:.d, he always reg irded his alliance with France as a fiirc renc)urce in cale of 
any cc;r.-i otions among Ids own lubjcCLS ; and whate^'er fchemes he might have 
fornvd :or eriiar^ui2; ins authority, or akcrin;^ tiie euiblifhed reii<2;ion, it was from 
that (iL.arttr alone he could expeci aikilance. ble had actually in iecret fbkl his 
neutraiky to Trance, and lie received remittances of a mnilionof livres a year, which 
was afierwarcis rncrcakd to two millions-, a confiderable fuppiy in the prefentem- 
barralied date oi JUo revenue. And he drf^iidcd, leli the Parliament fhould treat 
him <:s thev had lorrnvriy dior.e his father ; a:;d after they hai engaged lum in a war 
o.i the contiiv.r.r, 'k:(;uhl take advaritage of his necenitics, and mdke him purchafe 
(j:.])1ils by fici :.'.ci;:g ius preroganve, and abandoning his mindlers. 

Ox \hc otl:cr hand, t'lc cries ol his j)eople and Parliament, fecondcd by Danby, 
/'. rii'-gton, and moli oi Ifis miniilcrs, ir.circd h.im to rake p.;irt v/ith tiiC al'ics, and 
tw ':.o:\- .d tf.e ui-equal ballance of jow.r in I'hirope. i le might a^^prehi-nd danger 
^p.p.i i)\., ^>i:nL'; fuch cirncil dcdkcs : lie might hope lor large luppiiis, if he con- 
< ijrr;:i; v.';:h r'ntm : Anri hcwever inglorious and indolent h.is dilpofuion, the renow^n 
(;[ ;i;:ir/', ,,', aii)itcr ot I'Airope, would [irobably at inicrvals rouzc him from his !e- 
i\\ ,!"-v. a, id move him to fupport the h.igh charadcr, with which he was inveited. 

It 



C H A R L K S II. 



2 ;i 



Ir is wortliy obllrvatl n, L..ir i.!'!:-:r'.g t' - i-cri'),!, rh K: , v. .., by L'Wry 



1 , ' 



'..[(.\ 



] .,.! 



abro.ui and ac ii nu', b/ I i-.i;:c\j a:..; b, ti.c a!.: -. a..o-A 

l-'.Liropc ; a:ul lu) rcrnv. oi {)l\;lc, \.':il a \.: - , .. 

[\cn rcL;k\i by ciibcr | arry. 'I'i.o' l-'raiu-c .;. : m ;..;, 

i'.ir.c abiai.cc, jointxi witii I-a-[';"a::J ; yet was ;: '.. > ,, ' 

Ciioft^ a-1 quiic cxli iLillc.i her-, m:A i: v..:- l;.c i." 

to i;nJ rc!i")arc.-s, lar bir-xi!]^!!.!, bvr ov.:i t x; l\ ^ . : . ..'... . ; . . 

1.) iwii:^ as t!]-' war I uiuiniK-i.1 a' iwkl , I..- \\u./.j. i'..\\ . 

i:y,p.\ucn^c an ; impurtunity oi his lnb'.vis ^ \- i :\,.. .. ._ 

a ^ j,;^\: by t.>|H'nIy co:iioiMin.[.^ himl.d v.irli ciilijr [:..;:y. l 

til..' allies niull lolc him tli-j hiciidlhir oi hia.iicc : I ;. ^-^n:!/.. 

I\iilianicnit. Ij.cv/L'ca thelc \i^w>, lu pLrpat'.niily tloatLvi -, an. J. ....... '.. .... 

it i^ ()blcr\'ab!c, that a carc-lcls, r^nnis ciilpoilta-'ii, a;_','L;Lfd bv i y-^) '..- n. . 
is capable ot a^ great inconfiilcnccs a^ io uKnc'.jr.t l'.c.i lo tn.j grv'aiL.L l.n.j. 
and ioily. 

IdiK Parlianient was allcmb'ed , and the Ki:^^; ir..Ab tlvjni .i \\ ry j'a-.fi.d : 



!n:lun. to lio h.ii ] art tor brin;^;iri^: tliur co: lult.ition,-. to a 'niy; y -.'.Vji ; a.;,l oi 
h;s conicnz to any ]a\v> ior thj t'.u thLi" Iccniity (A tii<:i:- rcliyi .:i, W. r\:\\ a...' yr 
tv. 1 I- tlicn told t'lcni oi the elccavcdi cuiv!;:: u'l til t'.u !i.'.\-y ; an.-l .I'b .! . 
:or rcy.iirin^ it : 11;: in'ornicd thcin, that [\irt < i Ins v.wnn:. t;:c a.bh h nal .: 



\'.n;.-5 ioJil 



n. to expire : And Inj addedi the; 



Wni ni , at a r: tinn 



\^'.i;iy cilabhilicd cxp.n.ic oi tlic Li,o\'ernn, nn. , by v. hh !i ;: w 



an: a.d nnavoidable chai'^e \\\r,[ 



; 1 , nl, :n.:j v.n: :nn n.i n j (;.v: 



a..lv, c; min, tl'.ole coivnnifeiu n. -, v> nn 



' \: i.n:i li.nvV n o a con:i neran 

B: .onn i!;.' I\;r:ian..-nt c: t 
V. h:>:'i wa:i ll.ii tv J ci n^n w.' y ' 
an (;! 1 hr.v oi l-.d-vard 'lie t. n 
" \n..n", or o!:nei-, ii in \\ ' . , 
and - n-; I'.pp-ied c^n I'-.v 



A \y ,.n n 



dn:on 


;nn. dl 


iC 


tb ,: :. 


ni.h r.pc 


ib 


r.,:ni 


...."% o n n, 


c. 



252 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chan IV. Wharton made fubmiffions, and were Toon after releafcd. But Shaftefbury, more 

" '"'* obflinate in his temper, and defirous of diftinguiQiing himfeif by his adherence to 

liberty, fought the remedy of law ; and being rejefted by the judges, he was at 

iMft:, after a twelvemonth's imprifonmcnt, obliged to make the fanic fubniifTions -^ 

upon which he was alfo releafed. 

The Commons at ni ft feenicd to proceed with temper. They granted the fum 
of 5 j6,coo poiirids, fen- buiidipg thirty fliips , tlio' they ftridly appropriated 
the money to that fervice. Eftimates were given in of the expence ; but it was 
atterv^ards found tb.at they fell fii;rt near ioo,ooo pounds. They alfo voted, 
agreeably to the King's requcft, the continuance ol the additional excife for three 
years. This excife had been granted lor nine years in 1668. Every thing feemed 
to promife a peaceable and an cafy feffion. 
Camn-.'-rnof ^^^'^ the Parliament was foon rouzed from this tranquilhty by the nev/s receiv- 
l^^'i cd from abroad. The French King had taken the field in the middle of Febru- 

ary, and laid nege to Valenciennes, which he carried in a few days by ftorm. He 
next invefted bot!:: Cambray and St. Omer. The prince of Orange, alarmed with 
tills progrefs, liailiiy ailembled an army, and marched to the rel ef of St. Omer. 
I le was encountered by the French, under tlie duke of Orleans and marflial Lux- 
embourg. The prince poiKffcd great talents for war j cou'age, activity, vigilance, 
patience , but llill l:e v.;is inferior in genius to thofe confummate generals, oppofed 
to him by Lewis ; and tho' he always found means to repair his lofies, and to 
make head in a little time ap:ainfl: tlve victors, he v/as durmcy his whole life unfuc- 
cefsful. By a niaftcrly movement of Luxembourg, he was here beat, and obliged 
to retreat to Ypres. During th.e battle, he made the utmoft efforts, by exhorta- 
tion and example, to rally liis difmayed foldiers : One of the runav.'ays he ftruck 
with his fword crofs the face, " 1-lafea!," faid he, " I will fet a mark on you at 
prcfent, tliat I may liang you aiterwards." Cambray and St. Omer were foon 
lurrendcred to Lewis. 

This fjccefs, derived from fueh exorbitant power and fuch wife conducft, 
flruck a juft terror into t!-,e iMigliili Parliament. They addreffcd the King, re- 
i^refcnring the danger to which the kingdom was expofed from tlu- greatnefs of 
i'rancc, and dvfirin^r, t;;at his M.ijelty, by fuch alliances as he fliould think u^, 
V,'- uiel l:ot:h feeure his own C'r)n-iini()ns and the SpaifiHi Netherlands, and tlvreby 
(;uiit i\v:. (lars of his pople. Tiie Kiiig, dchrous of eluding this anphciition, \\'hic!i 
he confui-red as a ki:ui of attack on his meaiures, replied in general terms, that 
he would t;le all nveans for the piefervation oi^ Flanders, confiilcnt with the peace 
ar.d fa'ctv or hi-, k ngdoms. I'iiis anlwer was an evafion, or rather a real denial. 
The Comnioiis therefore, thought proper to be more particular. 'J'hey entreated 

hi in 



CHAR L E S IT. 






him n^t to defer the cnrerint:; into fuch alli;i!iC(S ns nV: ''\: :\::.\\:\ t'.i.it f^rcnt iwA : v' :v l\' 



i\uv V, tni:y 



.: '.c l.lll: [() 1..; jM;rC 



And ill rale w.ir with ihe I-rcnch King liiu..!.: h ;'. r i...: < : m p/.r.i 
]Tonii!l\l to ;^;r..n'. liini ail the aids and lup-^l.rs, v, t'.iv . /. '... 
the I'oiii ',:r an-l ir.rcrdt of th.e iKuion, 1 lie Kin^^ w .\ , :. 1 - ir. ;;l- ;ai'i;(uhir in I'ii; 
rei.'!v. 1 I told them, that the cnly way t) p:cv;:.t .:.;::.:;, w.i^ lo j;i;t him i:i a 
cor.d.iticn to make {^reparations lor tliur 1 cuiicy. 1 .w-. iiuiVije v.as unc.' \ r. v 1 
to h.; a tienuivd ot moncv. The P..: ha:ii;.iit aLO)r.l n;:!y emp'/A jr^d t'.-. K :,;: to 
borrow on the add.icional ex^ile ie.>,o ;j p >uiuU, at l.vtn o t le:.* : A V',r\ r.i..,l; 
Ti.;:;! lii.'eed b..t u hiih tliey deemcdi Iwliii i.-u, w.tii t'u- (;:\r::i.i:-y i.\-i-nie, to 
Cv'i.ip a fn)od IqiMdron, and therei\v ['Wt the nation in leJirny, till !..;:'.:, r leii^- 
h..ti ns uere t.d.Ln. 

H. T this conC'.iTion fed l^r fliot of the }\i:\(;'s exj-ecta'iwn.^. I It fn i^iir^ in- 
formed, them, th.a" imleis th -v '.'.ra-ujd him th.e li.m o: '> o.c,^' j j oi;nd '..; on r.i'.v 
finyds. it would not Lv [).)iiihie !or iiim, u;t!". :i.t exi;ofhnt^ tl'.e nath>:. :o n-...;.i t:l 
dart^er, to ly'\;h cr a.L th')!e rhi <:s, \^!d^:l wMuld anl>^t-^ i!,, en : ot [\.i:r .v\\:-... 
a 'dri-ilv';. ,-\;Lcr l!u: mtti'j^oKn ^A an a.ii inn.n.enr, t''.e I I(;t;!e tov h thib n:;.hut;e 
into e*^:!'^' . ! ation : But ''^c! re t'^ty ean:e to anv reio n* i- n, the Kir ;t Ic n: ror th :rn 
to W'h:: Ind:, wlicre Iw told tlien:, w.-on the v/ud ol a l\;n r, tha: t!.:.v Ihwihd 
r. 't r.-p n: .'.ny truh, v. inch tn.'. v v.(nd.i rrpujie in :nm Kr t'ne id; rv o! fn-, ki: t:- 
don^> , t'nit lie woidd. iiot i<A- an.y confideration br.-ah er. d;t with t':,-. :ii. (.r en..; hv/ 
tlu-ir Hioney to oth.er ides, th-an tiv^fe lor whiivU tiiev iw:::} ' d i' . but th..t 1. 



wouaI r.o 



t hazard, eitlur ins ow;-; iai^tv cr thudr^, h',- ta'.-vinrr an\- \'i 



n'oioi; ivicMi 



(T {o;-min.[r r/ew allianees tili l.c was in a better coiididon, botn tod/.:, I'.d. in-, lu'j- 
h w - and o! n nd his enemies. 'VWi-, lp:.c!i bro, ^'ht adhir^ t^> .i ll.nt idde. '1 he 
K ;i.; reotiired theni t(> trull h''^i vridi a iu'ce luui : ! b- jvuv:-, d his r iv.il v. ur i 
1(4' ih ir leer.ritv : bnev mud (..ther lu.n tiie riup.'- ui lo! n,- t!i: :. nion y, < r cu> 
(.i.nu r r thole ahii' c s tiv v had prod :t d, .md ..( the l.m;e time tk-t. ia; e ;o ..d :':. : 
\\ ;ud tile hipii d didruU, (,; rh ir "ewre'jn. 

Br 1' t'lere were m u'V realdn--. v. '-d ! .1\ tirioie :' (!: I b ::<. oi Len.n-. ei^ to y:.": 
no trull m hi': Ma' lly. I. h tii .t : ' : dai^.pt. r v. .iw.io , 

groundijls; while tile bhv .^i. '. v.'ed by l...n \ -.voo.l ai 

routine. it, vd de tlie Kupi '.'.a ' , : ' " 

V e:^ V, . re 1 ; iieaitilv unit, d i:. ' ; 

Idn, tin relore, c;! i!;e Kir. ' ' . ' . ; : : 

(;er i;om ..'\a;ad, but a diddien: : , W:,'i'.\ ':.i : ^ 
i;:s I'.diam nt ; led, ;ht.r ;n ;; .-; inm i- 



1- ) ., 



\\ ,u', de-y fliould tahe ..d\-ai::ae' o: in 
fieus dciiizerciiis to his ri^val di. nirv. dr 



tlieirp.:dc 



2 :d. M I S r 11 Y OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

t'han. n , 1^,^] ^jyg^ 1^3 fouiidcUion for iucli Rifpicions, and were fo far from purfuing any fi- 
niilci ends, that they hul granted fupplies for the firfl Dutch war; for maintiln- 
in^ ;.ae niplc league, tho' concluded without their advice; even for carrying 
n;i the fecond I)u':ch war, which was entered into contrary to their opinion, and 
< ^-p.'rary to the manifefl interefts of the nation. That on the other hand, the Kina; 
In I, by former rneafurcs, engendered very reafonable jealoufies in his people, and 
cid wirh a liad grace require at prefent their truft and confidence. That he had 
->.": llTi]^>[-d to deniand fupplies for maintaining the triple league, at the very mo- 
ivxtit he was concerting meafures for breaking ir, and had accordingly employed 
:o that purpofe the fupplies, v.jiich he had obtained by thofe delufive pretenfions. 
'i1->at his u:fion with France, durir.g the war againft Holland, muft have been 
io'j.adcd on piojccls thie moll: dangerous to his people ; and as the fame union 
v.'as flil! fecretly malntainLd, it n^dght juilly be feared, that the fame projeds were 
not as yet entirely abandoned. That the King could not ferioufly intend to pro- 
ilcute vigorou:> meafures againll France ; fince he had fo long remained entirely 
unconcerned during fuch obvious dangers, and, till prompted by his Parliament, 
whofc proper bufmefs it v/as not to take the lead in thofe parts of adminiftration, 
liad fufpended all his activity. That if he feriouQy intended to enter into a cor- 
dial union v/ith his people, he would have taken the firil ilep, and have endea- 
voured, by [jutting truft in them, to reflore that confidence, which he himfelf, 
by ifis rafli councils, Iiad firft violated. That it was va:n to afls; fo fmall a fum as 
i)DD,ooc pounds, in crder to fecure him againft the future attempts of the Par- 
liament ; fince that fum mull foon be exhaufted by a vvar v.dtn P'rance, and 
lie muii: again fal! into t'lat dcpendiance, Vvhich v/as become in fome degree 
cfllniial to the conflirution. That if lie v/ould form the necefiary alliances, 
tint lum or a cireater would inftantly be voted ; nor could there be any reafon 
to dread, th.'t the parliani.'nt would immediately defert meafures, in which they 
were eiigag 'd by tlicir lionour, tlicir inclination, aiid th.ir intereft. That the 
red grouiu!, thcrerore, of tlie King's reiufal v.^as neither apprelienfion oi danger 
froiii io:-ei;;i; encmic:^, nor j-aioufy of parliamentary encroachmcnfs ; but a de- 
firc or obiaiiiing t!:e n.oncy, vhich he intended, notwidiftanding his royal w..rd, 
to employ to otii r ;-urM0;c5. Andi that by ufiiig fuch dilhonourable means to io 
.;;;,n(;blc un en i, lie rci.d.ercd iiimielf Hill more u.nworthy tlie confidence of his 

'Fii:: 1 loule of Commons v/ere nov/ r^?;i;lariy divided into tv\o parties, tlie 
c~'i:ri aiul tlic ecHiiitry. Of the court parry, ionie were cn^^.iged by olfices, nay a 
icv: by b'!;bv ^ fecretly given tliem , a leandi.dous praclicc iiill begun by Clliford, 
ii perniciou::, niiniilv't : Jiut great numbers were attaci;.;d hk rely by inclination ; n> 



C II A R L I- 



I[. 



far rii t!,: y iflccm'^ : .'. ' : - .;..; '.,. i. L ;;.:.:. -. '. ' iir-r-fis (/ :' 
nato.i. i\:v.U; \\- . , : v. \ I.iJt:.;:i li.. ! n!.-'.'. ;ic c.:w: :i\U) [],c c . ;.';;. 
\.?.i": : V\.\ i\ T. v.L'i.- .iliM :r ::r,-, v.!;') :. . . . ' .'. 
I ;; if (';., i'l. ut 1 n"'-:n'^ :'i (jn c:>:\\ i, . j : ,..:'!.: . :\ : -..-.:. : .:; : 1 
; s-.' ' ^. .'\.i.\[y l.u;^;-:;]ii- s f) t!.c c"o:,;i, lo:i. :;in - tj :' c ( ;> 

!;.. :. A'C.i r.oc to 1: .1/. . r.', Jiicv, ia ex: .'.... . , 



' ',, V !> 



i \ ixh;.; 1.: ,ii ' n 



'' vi:.L\b, a;r,iinll t'.c sm o.', cii a;;! p^A'^r <..[ tl.w' I:.;-;..!i K;:;;, a;..l 






iLivatioii (ji r!ic S|vi;ulli ^'scir.crla.Kib ; .ukI [;) [1:. 



.\ ^ . -. i^ 



[\ o: :.: a .a: 



' L':;il :.!a-..c ^ a, 1JU)U u ai-jxar i:C a:;.t i.;. .,1 to tr,.i: c;iv 
tiai,- a.;'.!,\ v.;;li re a!" : .; anJ p;":::il^d f; -^'y . ' ' ' 
i,.., .' . -i ! .i:\''^ aoaoar atiLl tac lalLf; o. 'li 



'i 



1 -'-''- '^n ; 



ti.J :,);'.K- 



1 ' 



h N 



r a" tMs aa. ;\'-^, v, ,,a:n lis :\ ; :v.,.:^:. w a> a w.a: ;^r. .0 c ;\ .u:; 



a ^ ill' y.xrn _,.i:i a a lI;ia;;ii\aJ i:";a L' .,:r.i]:o..-_, i:\ \-l!"V Ic^crc i.riii;. ; 
;:'a : t.._i;^ iniiaaC;..!-!',' to aa aaa^i.. ac;.!. 
! :, a 'a, [h.-t this \va- I'u- cr'tLal nwra:.r, \v!a n the Kin:^ b; rh tvi.^h: 
V. a -a prclcrw^i t:^c b.^ilarvc t;l ^t)^..; in b.u.oya, whi.!i u iia. liiae cwiL 

ta:- ah; .; ..a iiiiiiiitc proHihan o' blvu;.! a:..l tiaaLaa- to r'ihaa', aa 1 ::a ht a/ 
} ..avcraaaa L-Wc at laii; laa^aiach, ia aa::a d ivia'^c n^Lalara, -htar ail \\\ ' r'.w,;.^ 
tha Cvjahhiiii.^ 01 h;s [xorla. 'i a:- ca ajrtiaiitv hcinii; aai'ic:: xi. th w aa i ba - 
c.aa.a i a .aaihia ; aiicl n jZ aatl:!^ a..aa:; -. . n: /a carary a;^; -aa-.a^ac^ o! \ a ., ,. .im;!. 
J . .. . ' ap^ry, .a i / ! a t: a/ni; a. a;y a.i:. .:,.i:a;a- to la !\' oa !a> la. ii , /, \'. as 

la i aj ha a: h ti' ai ta ., :a;. a ia ti/ [a:\:- i;::ca .ala, ai, i o' . i>m ,;; u ..ya .1 

iiao .aiba,ll aa.h ]i a.oaa/. J ha ' .aiat ivanaa^ s ' 1 t.-.t ; ; 'ii, vs ha a lui'. c laia t)^' a 



J ..,.;! i:aw ", [ o\a Lav lu. a ^a^ .ar, ta it :.. Aa:^' a .,: at ti: tai.a a. ikt; t a nit-a - 
l\i;cs witl; b'laiiaa', aaa !:.:h wo H^tu.ti ai t > a:aai 1; to a v,air la ;,(. wr <.A t,.'- aha ^. 
1 I !aui (.a'artaia^ h ao\a.'a-, t ;aalo:a, caan wli.'i laa y a/.a^ d ias Rcr. \a v. oa -> 
to liis y; oy a, tiian tt; [ lo a:a .. ;;aa,t o. ai la y ; aii ! l.c tiaiii^a, tha', \. .. , 
ha clvihcd 'iiair txi aatati'ja^, l>j .~ ahh nat att.ia.a:ai .al: y:ctLXt^ lur yai... . .^ 
ha- ccahtiu. 

N i < .1' ; ! .-. ; ;(a:N 



A a- ' . Ill a.i. 



. !. ., o i\. a.. . 



.'-.ar. ' ^, \a 



256 HISTORY OF GP. EAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. ].V. NrXOTiATioNT, meanwhile were caniej on between France and HoUand, and 
*'''^''' an eventual treaty was concluded , tluc is, all their differences were adjufted, pro- 
vided tliey could afterwards fatlsfy their allies on both fides. But this work, 
tho' in at)pearance difficult, fccrned extremely to be (orwar ed, by farther bad 
fucct 1T:S on the fide of the conlcdcrarea, and by tb.e gr at impatience of the Hol- 
landers , when a new event happee.ed, wdiich promifcd a more profperous iffue to 
til ' ni!,n:el with France, dnd revived extremely the hopes of all the Englifh, who 
underilood tlie inte.-efts ol their country. 

TuL Kino; faw, with rc.o;rC', the violent difcontcnts, v/hich prevailed in the 
nadon^ and which i'eenicil every day to augn.ent upon him. .^-trongly defirous 
by his nitiiral temper to be eaiy himfeif, andi to makt- every body elle eafy, he 
lought expedients to a}.-)peaie ihou:: com,;!aints, which, as they were very difiiLzree- 
able for tlie prefent, might in tiieu- conk-quences prove extremely dangerous. He 
knew, til it, during the late war with Holla d, the m.alccoi-Jtceits at home had made 
applications to the prince of Orange-, and if he continued ftiil to neglect the 
prince's intereits, and to thvv'a;t thv inclinations oi his people, he apprehended left 
their comm.on grievances fhould cement a lafting union between them. He faw, 
that tlie religion of the Duke ink ired the nation v/ith very difmal apprehenfions ; 
and tho' he had obliged his brother to allow the young princeiTes to be edu- 
cated in tlie p; oteflant faith, fomething farther, he thought, was requifite, in order 
to kiti fy the nation. He entertained therefore propofa's for marrying the prince 
to the la y Mary, the elded princels, and heir ap])arent to the crown (for the 
duke h.id no male iiuie.) And h.e hop:;d, by lo tempting an offer, to engaa;e him 
enrire'y in liis interefls. A [cace h.e propolVd to make -, fuch as vvould latisfy 
France, and ilill prefcrve his conne6cions wit!i that crown : And he intended to 
fanftity it by the approbation of tiie prince, whom he found to be extremely re- 
vered in Frgland, and refpcded th.ro'cut ail Euro. e. All the reafons for this 
alliance were fecondcd by the follicitations of Dan!)y, and alfo of Temple, who 
was at that time in Englnnd : And CharFs at laft grar.red permiffion to the prince, 
when the campaign ihould be over, to pay him a vifit. 

i-:h 'fOao- T'iE King wry gracioufly received his nephew at Newmarket. FJc would have 
^^^' er.tered imuiediately ut^on buhneF , but the prince deiired nnl to be acquainted 

v/it'i the lady Mary: .\iul he ckchired,, that, contrary to t!ie uf.ia! fentinients of 
p' rforiS of his rank, iie placed a gicr.t juirt ot iia[)[)inels in domckic latisiaetion, and 
Vv'ouid n ;t, upon an/ confid, ration oi inter. a't or polities, match himiell with a 
pL'rU;n (\'\ greea'de to him. Fk was introduc d to the [)rincef'', whom h.e found 
iii tlic Idc) ;ii o' yijU'h. and extremely amiable botli i.i her perfcjn and her 'mmour. 
The Kiii^- nov/ tlvjught, tluit he had a double tye upon him, and migh.t kifely 

m.ke 



CHARLES ir. 



*- J 



!-':: arro'int of Ms compli.ince wr.li every propoial : 1 1" '.v.is f.irprlzed to nr,J t'/j 
I ;i , X c.::\ v.i- ;.'! clifcoL.i-lc oi iu.H.vl^, and rtfiii- to > oi.ceri aiiy r.rnis f .r t'lc <^c- 
r/.r.u \\- \ >, t;'.i I'.N m;irri.i;_5" ilv.'.rd be furfhc:!. 1 I-j v.v'.l \>'.\-,.:\v^ h- I'.ii;', from 



1 " '. 



.:,' 



, I-.. 



the f":"^i.r''!:i ofa^lair^, ri.;r his allies v.'cre likely ro lur-t- i..u\: t :-:rs; a:'; r, -i.rv.r 
\V(/:i! : \- Ih i.i;-nll!f tj llie rcjTo.v !i ot li.ivliy;; fur Hec-,! ti:::r i;i^e;\!^s r j i ;(> 
nv)' :^' (''vn purpo'l;. CIkii Ks {"i;!! b.\ie\':ci, povA\:;:tl,in 'i;:;^ tlie coi,'. :..;:: 
]- . ._ : ; i't::e [ riiic:-, thar he wo^iLi nl\:re ot" this r:i hi j i: ,ll:!;') <;! h; "^..r ^ a;. ' 
].:; ,;:vh :iv: :;re, h> ^* ie:M^y I'is own ii^lh^i.-Uio .uiv' .-thh-cih, .:^:\S'.'. a^ ; 



; .:.::,(, I U)\\- ,\r.d ainbiii.n, to v,in li::r. to e> imj '.; .:K'e. ():; c:..v, 

'i\-:;-'\c io'.nd the prince in very b.ih hi.;n:(jui-, r; j cntin;; th .: h [::. ! (. .^r e.,..:e to 
I i.^hii J. a:-,c; reiolute i.i .i few tlays i > leav.' it : Dv.: iKh'rj he v.nv, thj K; :;;, 
he ih.iJ, inull" chule the teririS on \v',i-.:ii thev flioiihi h-rcai'i-r live t('pc:!.:r : lie 
was ilire i: miiil bv like t!ie great ll tiiuris or th^- prtatet enen'i, '- : An.: Iv; h^ fv-d 
Tc mi !e to irhorni h.i-> Mei'.cr r.cxt m.-rnin'^oi tiieie int'.-nTK Pi-, (. harie- \v.;s . r.:.,'v 
vitli this me'iace, a;) : l(;rMii\v how tlu- pri;iee\ cle; i.nne vov.'.: be in-ci; r^re,! 
by tlie J ec'p'.e. He refoivcLl, tii/retor/, immi-tiiatciy to \i.-!J. v. ;(ii a p, jh .I'eee , 
a;:-'. hiN'ir.;"^ paiel .i coniplinu'iit to h's ;v.[)!"n-\v\s horv> ilv, \.j ti-' i \ . n^'/.:\ :!-. >.: !_ 
r;..r! i;- ,e v. a- eo.KKiece, ..n.ci (irilrecl h\^^ to in: (-nil t!u' 1). Ivc v. i:, a;, o; an a hair 
r'na iv re!o!vct; en. 'J'h.e t'.uke l-.eiri J IvirjMizeJ. ; bi:r vieu'-nl a pr> nnrt e/bjei, :i e: ' 
AVhieli, bi-a faiJ, vea^ hhs eonUant n^axini to wliat. ver h.e lounel to l^e :':.: K:.-.:;'j 
1 i^afure. No n"!e,ilure ciiirinri; tins reie.n [V-Ne faeh p/'iiera; l.;ri-':a::;' n.. .\ 1 
parties llrove w'lo i]-i;)al'.! nioh ajvhaiid ir. .And even Ark.,::: .::, v h(j '.a ; I:jj . 
Lc\-t out i^i ti^e kc:\r, tikd the pani-e, " Th.-t Ui:ri.- tiknp , po. d i:; :!:.:: \/.,\ 
" \.;rc lp:dk\i l^y ti.e ma:in;r of tioi;-;^ :!um, a-- jivi-i;- t!d::(v ivid uer- ]v..i\d d 
' i v it :, bi t '.-' \Mi;ild eonicis, tii .t [ins \s as a tin; p, : ; ^ ,o.: :;: iiihi'i, rkat ti.e 
'' niani^.r oi ci.ii^p it coidd r- t ip>dl itd' 

'Ik'is marriare w. s a prea' fw.piiae to I.ev,:-, v,dv), l.inp ave;i''(vr:d t^ <:>- 
^ '.rn .'\'ery tiii p, i.i tin b :) iiHi C"i.;''", r.ow iom-.d. 1j impc: tin,: a lli-o t.d. a, 
:'0l only v/iiiiont his Ci)i.'.L'..% bi.: v. i k at hi ; kn'j'.v 1 pe cr j a; i'n;p,;k^'i^ ,'\ . . 
k:r;(5l:on of binpl I'd \\\i\\ u:: a..i;'s, .a: ! a \a":o;-.a > v,.a" i a ('-> ak'o:! t - i : 
ainb;do\ were tiie conl^(jU';ncr> iinn^e iat'dy {' lalern. ;,,)'k . . , : 

But to rkeilv thcle liapanne cx^ e^iat '.: % t!: Kinp, a :c\\' d v^ ; [ : 
T^'wicnced t': ad;o':rnn^ant of liie Ikirk uia-nt lis :v ' ' k ' I ' 
iwi,.:!; or Ap:ii. 'Mi teiao v;a . t )',> i .'c ;-)- : .-, i ' _ . 

parat''ins tor \:.\t ; and en:d ! he L'.o'.rA b". , ,. 

aai ..;oi,(, ., at ' ' ! ra ^ . 

' b' . <:. 1 V 'a a:, \\n\ <.:\:., l:.' : '. i .' 
]\A:bA .a.o l':.:: .le, >oae..ia:-p k,c 

w-. ib A : 



25S 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Chap. IV. 
,677. 



France. After foa-e debate, it was agreed, that Fra^'ce fhould rcfrore I>Gn-;iin 
to the Duke; with Tournay, Valenciennes, Conce, Aeth, Chantro", Cour- 
tray, Oiidenarde, and Binche tu Spain, in order to iorm a good irontier for Idan- 
ders. The prince infilled mu.h, that FranchecoiiVe fhould likcwiie be re^c/ed j 
and Charles t;u)L-;:;h!:, that bccaiife he had pacrinioniai eilotes O; great yak:e in :\\2X 
province, and efleem:d his property more iecurc in the hands of Hpain, he was 
engaged by fuch views to be obRinate in that point : But the [)nnce very gene- 
roudy declared, that to procure but one good tovvn to the ^^paniards in Flanders, 
he woidd wilJin dy abandon all thole polleihons. As the King full iniided on the 
imp filbility of wrelling Franchitcomte Irom Lewis, the prince v;as obliged to 
fubniit. 

NoTvrnHSTANDix'G this conctCInn to France, the prcjeficd peace was favour- 
able to the aiiii^s ; and ic was a Fidicient iii'dcation ot vigour in the Kiniz, that 
lie h.id given his ailcnt to it. Fie farther agre.d to lend over a miiditer instantly 
to Ifiiis, in order u propoie tiiJe t.rnis. 'i'his niinifter war to ent-T in:o no 
tre.::y : 'i'vvo days alone he was to allow tor the acceptance or reltifa' or the le^^ivis : 
Upon tiie cypiraiion of that fhort period, he was iniircnattl . to return : And in 
Cai'j ot rciiiiai, the Kliu: proniilcd imn;tdiatcly to enter inro the codtderacv. 
'Fo carry lb in^jjeri^.us a nicdage, and lo unexpected irom the Eng'ilh Court, 
'icmo'c was the [)crion pitched on, whole declared avernon to ;die Frencii interell 
v/a'^ not hikeiy to make inm fail of vigour and promptitude in the execution of lus 
comndfFoin 

ijL' r Clunks next day felt a relentinp; in this afllimid viccour. Fifl.ad of Tcmrde 
l-e dd];atched tiu- carl of hcv. rHiani, a creature of the Dlu^c's, ^nd a ^ reachnian 
by birth: And he laid, that the meid'ge bring h.irfh in iticlr, it Wao needkis to 
a p^rav.^te it by a ciiijgreeable uKiIenger. Tne prince l^h Loncon ; and t'le Kiiic, 
at ids d_ pai'Una-, aiibred Inm, that he never would abate in the leait point of the 
lekeu'ie eon-, .id, and would enter into war with Lewis, it hj r. tuied it, 

Lni.vis r.cuive i tiie Uidlkge with fcmiiig gentlenels and c;a"i)plac(-;.cv. Fie 



J r 



t!i;it the ^luiff ot Fiad-nd Vvcli knew, th:.: he !\ii'i:ht 
' :, b'it io;ne ot the towns in Fland.rs, It f euKd va. r 
; ' dn ;ii,:y, upun wiioic iortincations 1l.>. ii in;nu':nc 
i e wo'.nd diiaeioicj t f;e !'>n":e ihwz time 10 (.(^^fcr ^ 
1 i.A'l^ iliiZ he w,;-; lunned to two b.i-..s il 



w .s I.r.'.': 



-v ; nuc \,.\ii\ 
:ui to it.iy ioii.c Ur'r '.f.ys f vi: ^:r ; and 
a^lv..;-. Le\\L '.::,!, t: .a i>c l:0[ :Ci '.\. 
:,'.K- or t :vo tov/!is : , .ad '.uth r- 'laid ro t 



he v/eu.u lend cad-rs Lo i,;. ambaJiudor at London, to treat widi l.c Km^: 



ays he 
a :[ 'J 

t tune 
came 



r : , 



C II A R L E S ir. 



-59 



CIkhI-.'S V.Ms ro'":er.cd hy tl.c r,'';:v:-i^ of I-"r.in -, an ! th.- Ivj.v w.^s tlr.i? aiLfi.l!/ *- ' " '^' 



cm: 



\\. ']"!i.' ! ::; :i a'i:^..f;'; .ur, ll.iriliMn, ( ..;. 



[.:'..] :il! cx.-^j': TuiiriMy, aiul t'.-';.i c 



<) I re u a!) 



t'u' , .' luii'-ii i an.l the ik !_^oiia:iun l-'^-.. i- 

ret :: . ... :.. T-tiis. 



, t!...C Ik- h.ul orJ.crs to 
. ,:! !:l I'.ir tiia- iortrcl"^, 



.;, !iO'.v;-vo:-, f 
1, ,-;.... ]. 



!' :u:i'.':i. i s w- r. 

f ; v.;::i i'.a:v'e, the atiy-u. ; :i':en': o; i'..:lM;ii. 

C . I-inuai"'.' i a very iip.ulii.il nic.ili.re, and (.re' c 

C(/..!T. 'i\:r,[)le' was :c;r ior t-) t''c ((e.-H-ih e A tie 



twlw ..;:w 



teie ca he Ilrjuhi l; ) t ) I Ioha;e', in o:\h r to !'> ni a t:c.ay (.1 a";i .. .h :h* 

Sr.res j an.i th,.t tlie yuv. (j'es cm it Hi m'.A he, !i'.e t!ie ti;. !c c :';w.', to ;o;e e by..i 
] 1.1 ce and Si a;:i tii a'"cc|^t cd t!ie t.nrs propoled.. I cn")[''!e w.i^ lorry t) ':::] i.i;s 
a^i I'l \ i^>)Lir (Ui.di.i vl oy ii.;e!i a ree, ird to h'r.u.ee, aiul oy l.:e;i ..ii .-o: ear.t:ue (;! ;;i- 
de'- !('nee i;: 1 neiitra itv b. tv.cen t!ie |\ir':es. 1 !c t.dd t;;e Kxij:, th.it :': r. idhi- 
ivi, w.'.s to b eiii the \v..r ia co:o,u;Klo)n ve;Lo A. t;:e Co.ol^ d.rr.i .-, ;o 
t .:, i .: i.Ov.iieel and ieri:r,eJ;:a:e a:il-.'.ir ii o:n I'ree.i-t : i eiat i:\\-j nuMl^.r- \vo..!di 
i..[.--. t:.,- p:;nLC, th ' allien, and i::c | cop!e ol bnd.r..!; :i.[v.i,\r- > \d:.e.i 
C'.i.dd not e t x;ieded from Lied an a h.mcc witii 1 lodand a!oiic : 'Ih.i: 1 i.;e,ec 
v.on d. be (.iltdon;!;c,', ar.d .Spiin iio' '.'. ii^- , nor v.oodl ti^e l):.ti.!i i e l,rd-.d_.i v. .,n 
Uadi a t.i;e.t in.itarion o; the trii !e ic^'ee, a ni.aiurc conce:::d \s!.en t'.o.' v.c'c 
c'liallv at p. ace wdh bodn penf.es. h or thc!e r.e.lo,:?, renrn-j de^ ii..edi t!..- cn~,- 
j !o-ne'nt ; a;.d 1 -aurencc 1 l\de, keoOvl Ion to ^Inau, d v Ci.ir. :d.:n, v. ..i ...:: oi 



d i: . |\ iiu'c r f (d 
\ iyi.nr e-jn] > m 1 ' i 
b'do; ani"a:;.r , 
];.'r a v hi- n. : 
J-.,;:..e, hot 
in the term 



t ) 



26o HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C'.n;) ^V. nions divl not forbear to infert in their reply fcvcr:;l very harfn and even unrea- 
^"'^^^' fG:-,.ib!e claufes. Upon his reproving them, they fcemed penitent, and voted, 
t'p-Lit they vvoLiLl afnil his Mijedy in the prorccution of the war. A fleet of ninety 
f;ii!, an army of thirty thoufand men, and a milHon of money were alfo voted. 
Gr. at difficuities were made by the Commons with regard to the army, which the 
Houfc, jaciging by pall meaflires, beiieved to be intended more againfl: the Hber- 
tics of EngUind than aga.nll the progrefs of the French Monarch. To this pe- 
rilous fituation had the King reduced both iiin:fe!f and the nation. In all debates, 
fevere fpeeches v/ere made, and were received with a feeming approbation : The 
Duke and the treafurcr began to be apprehenfive of impeachments : Many mo- 
tions againli the King's miniilcrs were lofl by a very fmali majority : The Coni- 
rnons appointed a day to conGder the fl;ate ot the kingdom with regard to popery : 
And tiiey even v/ent To far as to vote, that, how urgent foevcr the occanon, they 
v/or.ld lay no farther charge on the people, till iccurcd againil ti-e ]v-evalcncc of 
tiu: catholic party. In mort, the I'arliamcnt v/ere in-ipatient for v/ar whenever 
the King iecmed averfe to it -, bnt grew fufpiciouri of fome finifler defign fo foon 
as he compli-^d widi thtir rcquefls, and fcemed to enter into their mealures. 

The King was enraged at mis lafc vote : He reproached Temple with his poDU- 
Lar notions, as iie termed them; and aflced liirn how hj thought the Houfe of 
Commons could be truucd ior carrying on the v;ar, Hiould it be entered on, when 
I'A tiie very commencement they made fuch declarations. The uncertainties indeed 
cf Chiirles's ccn.'uft :vcre fo multiplied, and th;- jealoufies on boih fi.es i'o incur-' 
ab;:^, that even thof. who ;"pproached nearefb the fcene of action could net deter- 
]:\-:\?, whether the K'ng ever ferioufly meant to enter into war, or whether, if he 
vhd, t!:e llouie ot Commons would not have taken advantage of his necellitieSj 
i:\:d made him purchale i'i.ippiics by a great fiicriiice of his authority *. 

T-'c King of France knew hcv/ to avail himf^lf of all the advantages, which 
thcie diaraetio:'.;: akbr{kd h;m. liy his emifihries, he repreiented to the Dutch 
the unccrtaiiity o, their dependance on L'ngisnd ; where an indolent Kirg, averfe 
to ah vvar, efye'iaiiy witli ['.-ane;', and irrek)!ute ii:; Ids meafures, was acluaLed only 
b/ I'.vj unc-r,.;:!! h. .uih cS a iac'iou-; Parliament. I'o the ariRocratic hnidon, he re- 
n.-rk.d i\:j c.:,i.^c: o: i!;c i r;:':Le's alliance with the l-loyal Fainily ot Fnghmd, aiid 
reviv; :, ihjir apprc !-;cnrion?, i-;'!', in imitation oi his faiher, who h.id hvcn honour;:d 
V. idi the fame; :.h;ance, l.e mou''! violculy atcmpt to e.darge h's authority, and cn- 
C .1 ,;i o:' ^" - ^' '''-' ! -'i - c junrry. In crd- r to ieroi.d th: 'e motives with ibme f:n-ther tcr~ 
'T"^- r : , ; :..ni.i; to'.': the fieid N^cry eaily in the Ip. iii'i ^ and aiccr threatening Lux:- 

e:::hoii:^, hKns, .;.d i\..mLr, "re k;t do'Nn luducnly belorc Ghent and Ypr^s, and in 

a lev; 



C 11 A Ps. L r S II. 



zCi 



a few weck^ mi.'c h::r,''"'i ir.illvr of I'or'i ; '. . 'i;.' 

to t!u- lliillip.: rs, v. ho v, .-re no \v.!v i.iLi .L.! u:_'; :!. 

Vv;:h the .\n-.'>:.::. u:s t.cUy lately l');;<. lu.hvl i a". ; i: q..! . . 

"\vai\!'- :^ : .1 ' r.v.:\:o:..i'ion. 

Im \: ;.-.: V ^^ a!t'-'r t'lc Pa: Ihiriicn: Im'1 votv' i !.! ! \' '. ' 
iih;!^ U.. ' - ; .ukI i'.i.:\\ w s the .i.d oLir ot the 1 n '!:'h ' :' .: v, . . 
an ar:::v oi .ibo\ e e-.,'\ me:^ r > t'^e ailoiiil' ' 
v.-^\!'v3 conv ':..t;j 1. 'riuvj t'.(n;l,i:Ki men, iii.c!:;- ; 
r 1:1 (;\'jr to lecr.rc OilcnJ : S^nie rejihiicnt-. v.Cie !..,. .... [.. .:\ le.j 
\..,. : A K-tt was ikKcl on: \\\:l\ rrcat (.hlie'ene-- : .\i..i .i ^y.w'.r.y^'.c 
^;.\ jLelcd bLtv.'.tn '..n^hmd, lio!!aed, y^^.v.r, a;; : the i nr^ -.w. 

Bv i thcle y'./crovs mea!u;;s, r.c.veevi a iiiJ-he-; i!a:r:^ ::\.:.: a ;- .; 
of the lo'.ver 1 loulc -, \'. 'e.crc th 









Iv.n ; ; leva i r. 



van thi.:V;;l to tec K:i.:e ; i.ich;e:l t ' b a q.:a;; :..; \\i:!\ :h 

lo ^!h.::'li c\el CO'. eh!!fe'- ; ae.; n ^a^ \i ; a ; 

( t i a (: ';e, en v.ae''e leawcvea! t;:ev loaniana"!, i.,ei';>i. i 

:s ''.-; io CA:;ei\-a::aiit. :\\ .: h- v a^ : -.: \ 

U e ..;.... :, V o'.ii \z <aj;la--.eJ. '.Xie.! ;:e :-_, a^ , hi : , .l .. 
I- jhi'-th i !.i...e, vh.o ohcrea inni area: :an> : oa..,/, ;i h 
ih/r laahie^; an ^d\e:n:a|^voK. -aa.ae \-.hh :aa ;' ' .. 
q : :. , 'lio" 1 r^:aa I . th. l^nea re/, ll h ..^ i e 



o ' ' ' .i a 



K tuai : ha. 
1, 






mere .. <\.. 



CO n . L . . 1 ij 



. iO. .V 

aaa ; 



I'cie^o v.aic.i lo .. .1 .,, 
OH" \\ iaauTi re- ' ra) : 
! , . -a thai th'.- r'je.: J;, 



iilaa! o..' 1, '' i - - 
' J aaaii U s to m a: 
^- the!. .'..; .1 '.''.. 

\ : ]. v..aa:ao -a 
th. .h a v.iLo ['::: : au. ^ 
t' , a .:aouu- 'a ta,,' h 
ai ' oi. 



. ha- . . :. , 'h ;ana.':- i):. ;-uh 

. /; ., . . , ucjaK.Ja.aiac 

: ) h- ^' .0 \i- . _ .. !a;^i.I ,r t :;j a' 

, ' K. . ' L oh"s-;i!h,'* l,-.i a-, i . 

h o, !.-v. r:. th, = Ai; a.i la 

i ' . a . cha. r Ue .: 



:,, a na-n ^^t re..' ..-;- 

..1 \s .:^ p. I ' ', ''ar 

a. '" \'^ ' 'a . ;' - 

e t ) 



;.a t..c ^se.a : 

t'j-An>, lun;e ^; t:.. 



202 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C\.r^ TV. Yr.ic^, Con'.'i, Valencitnnrs, anJ Tournay, in which confifted the chief flrcngth 
''' '' oi ihiir iVonticr, were to remain with France. 

G.". v; A i murnuirs t.r.:e in Er^hrud, when it vvas known, that Flanders was to be 
L !> i:i io (.:,'! eiiCcI'^-fs a conci ion. The chief comphnnts were levelled againi> the 
Ki. ':, w'.v), by his concurrence at firil, by his favour afterwards, and by his delays 
at lu'.l, had railed up ilie povver of Fraivce to fiich an enormous hei;/,ht, that it 
tiircatened [he g,ener.d liberths of Europe. Charges, uneafy under the/e imputations, 
dr.-adinp; tiie c^nf 'quince of lofing the a'H^clions of his fubjeeils, and perhaps dif- 
j:,u'i.;\i with the l:C[\-x artick: p^'pofed by i ranee, be^^an to M^iih hearniy for wa-, 
v-hicli, he hope i, wouLl have re-orcd liim to his antienC popularity. 

A:; oppf-^rtLiniry vcr/ urxxv-caediy oiiered itfllf for his ddplaying thefe new 
di'poiititvis. While tlie anibufilidors at Nimeguen were concerting the u;rns ol a 
pe;ier.il trciry, the marquis de Bal aces, tlie Spanifh ambaiiador, alked the ;.mbaf- 
i.iJjr? oi i'hMiiCe, at v/liat time France intended to reftorethe fix towns in F an^iers. 
'i";iey made no dillicuity of declaring, that the Xing, their mafter, b:;ing oblige..; to 
fee an eniire reifimtion mi-^de to cIk' Swed.-s of all tiiey had loll m the war, could not 
evaCLMte theie towns, till il^at Crown had received latstaition ; and that this de- 
teiuion of ilaces was the only means to induce the Princes ot the North to accept 
o! the peace. 

Tiiu States immeiliaidv 2,ave the Kins; inte^iiQ;ence of a pretenfion, which mi2;ht 
be atinJicd wiiii furh dangerous confequences. The King was both furpnzed and 
a::g'-y. He immediateh/ difpatched Temple to concer': with the States vigorous 
_F, ^ .. J , m.afures for oppjjmg France. Temple in fix days concluded a treaty, by which 
L-ewis w;;s obhged to declare witliin fixteen after the date, that he would prefently 
evacuate tlve to-.vns : And. in caie of Ids refufa!, llolland was engaged to continue 
tl'.e war, and binghnid immediately to declare ag.dn.Il France, in conjundion with 
the wiude cr^:, Fdcracy. 

Al:, tluil: waiFke moahires weie (o little feronded by the Parliament, where 
evcii ilvj i'.-:nc'a nhufi'ders were finpe'Cted of carrvir-g on foine iiV:rigues, that the 
Comntons i\n.wed their !o;wner ie.iloulies againll: the King, and voted tlie army 
immediutdy to be difl)an ied. T!ie King by a meilage re[)reK:ntcd the danger of 
diiai r!iin[_' bv'fjiv j^e.tce wa^ ctj' cluit'l , an.d he reeommeridcLl te> th.eir confidcrution, 
vii tlvjr lie could iiono i,:My r^ca,! li'^ F>rees Ir^ ni tho e towns in Fhmders, vduch 
ha; jHit ti;e;i:!:l\''js und.r ins prof;, joi'i, and w hie li had at piclent no ot!v r means 
<>' Kilet. . Tin; Ci' nm^ons ag''eed to pro'o: g the t.u'm v, itii re.:n'd to ih'.le ha-ees. 
i'.ve-y t'hn'-, i id. a1 in Iv.n'OjX' wore ti)e aj)pewrance o; war. FicUice hai pofitivAy 
reeh.nedj tii.it fl.e woidd not evacuate the towns before the requdite ceilion was 

made 



: II A R L r. s IT. 



2(: 



:r : .nv.: 



' t- 



- '.;porr r'nt ('. "I irati >-. 



m:..l to "wcJ'-'ii , a:.vl i; t !". 
S|Mi;i and t'i l-"r:[n:\-, : / 

1 I -. '..:: ', 1 . . i:h p!.MU.;\j l!,c i^c . ..! lujM")rc :i )n\ '.ui- vx \ rc!")- 

' :' () C . :: !^ -. 1 !o!iand i'ic!;, t :. ,..: . ^ ; !> . ui i^ .wjc o; (. )r.in:^ a:ui i.is 



re .. -^'.c 1 <:i 



iL'.! ar.nv :;:.>!-! tivir I'/L.^c \va- a;., ;(,.vii::v- t'jv.arJs Mo..-, l: m 
: . . ' /oJv ol 1 ..U'liili Icivci LMi.ic: tii:: cli.l.j > i 



I.. . ! 1 ..,..;,') ;\.ii : .i _,.,... ..;T or his t lire in :..: \\\/.V:^\\ -. .;: > ircnv nrs, r ir- 

t' ,,,', :!.>;:!,: Ll ell. :^i;. . ^ c. 1\ r[in-io.t!i ; v, lu re, adiorg (>;!a r ; . :^' :::v, 

:.\ V' :.\V , !. V.i'ic'i an.!\iiLul, ;", a n"i,i:i ci | ' !^i. i, 

V...') v..i> .itlii,;; il;C ann;!em. ;;:s c I t:..:: iiv'Ioiio.is. li-: .: , :, 

iMi\ '.. I ;;.'::.; L .i.ir 1 - (). tiiis la'.iiucri;^'; LM:y li.e, a-; iv;:!.'.. a , . <-; 

.y.. . .; ; eti e tor p'e.i''.:: e, wlicli, (.iiiri. ;^ tii.- la[:-r j-art o> 1.; .. , ,. ,.'i d 
L;.^:; .. ro l;.^ mil' r, li^ ^. B , [h iii.'iiiua'.i ii;s oi i5 :ri:' -w x\:^ i ,: dut. 1, 



1.-.. 
t!i 



ai-vlAi h u.r, 






\'..i.^.i in.ia. 



ail (.i\,>'.' \,' .\ . in a.i ii ' ,-;..i(.i^i.i :. '^. i, , i ^-. > t.i'^... >..i.^ii .;i.L,i. ..^ 

in i'.io e. (3.:e .'ii Cr,-^, a l-'..i-ch liii;;c'\'c nion!;, wa- ic-.: j 



:o .:;;; v to tnc ^.^\.::!l 



'I : 



r, anu j c: :.'. a.: iiini : 



~, \\ t' ...:..: bv J i an.e. iv,: to .. c , i::^-.' to '^c 



n. ]).. C';(^~, v.;io l^id Iccra/.' i\ ^.ivc; i: 



to ,. 
in:. : 
ri;;,':;, : every w'.e-e in ! !o!!an.! t'le c;,ninii;"iu)n, v, i h \.n,. 

trinh ., men t -k t'.e aiiim. I: v..i^ c, i.e! i ;.-d, tiiat L n ./ie, 

ci kv It i" V. .1, \'. ;> . 



.e.;v-e tn ij 

':i :m Wx- 



he taken v, .:i i e 
in-po-L n: n" 
v,i:Leu tiien. 

'i !i :. ne. / la:.,-: 
baliadoTN :,.i;n t .t 
tr ,.:v e:!:\',e-.n I' n._ 
en" a lo. :; ' a^' ^'. 
then to \' . 1 i' 
t!.e (\' . >. . .. ' 

De 
t'lc- eo, . 



^.iv. . J . 



c:.;in: .a h.vl, :'.\\.\ :'..:.: no de.i :v n^ e.-r - e 



I'l.c Kin carter .v.rds, 



veil 



nery ;, an.l i.nu laenni-.n-, t;ia: t.-e ioj^i.e ^. 



, V. . n 
.1. .. ,, 



I a, 



>.:.e.an.; li 



i.iSTOP. Y OF GP. EAT BRITAIN. 



T f 



C V,-. I '/. be'wc?:-! e'evcn a;:d twelve a clock at \vic\\\t. B/ tliis treaty, France fecured the pof- 
'^'r'' 'inV^ii 01 Frnnchfcomi^;, to^ech-rr v^Ith Cambray, Aire, St. Omer, Valenciennes, 
'lov^ :''-{-, Yo'vn, Bo-JC:K;ii)e, Caikl. &c. and reilored to Spain only Charleroi, 
C, --t-ii, O'ldeaurd, Arhe, Giienr, a;:d Liaibourg. 

X X : d.:y Tcinpic i-::cclvt:d an exprefs hont England, which brought the rati, 
fi.wdons :A the f'\;uy hit; ly co::cluded with the States, with orders immediately to 
rvocccd 10 liie exch^n^^s cl rh-m. Clurlci v/as now returned to his former incli- 
DaLions hi \v.:r vdih Fr..ncv. 

Van 13;:\-Ei;xr;G was loudly exclaimed againd by the ambailadors of the allies 
:\': Kij)ei>;;icn, eipjchily thole of B/aiidenbarg and Denniark, whoH' mafters were 
(/S-i'^td by the trear; to reii'.;re a!i their avrpiintions. The miriiiF^rs ofSpain a;,d 
i':e iimp-jroi were iuilen -\nd dif ruded : and all men hoped, rhat the Stages, im- 
l Cituned and encouraged by continual iolhcitations f^'om England, wouhi difiivow 
I'lcir ami::ii1bdoi-; an.d renew the war. 1 he Prince of Orange even took a very ex- 
t:aordinary !lep, in ord^ r to cngoge them to that menfi;re; or perhaps [o jiive vent 
:o h's o^^n !!di-cn and refentment. The day afcer figiiing the peace at Nimeguen, 
':e attacked the r rerich arn:iy at St. 13ennis near Mens -, and gained fume advantage 
c-"cr LLr;:e:nbou!g, - iio reded dcure on the faith of the treaty, and concluded the 
war to be ni allied, T!\e Prince knew, ar. lead had reafon to believe, tl-at the peace 
vas figned, tj-o' it had not been formally notified to him j and he here facriliced 
v.w.vonly, vv:r.ho..t a proper motive, the lives of many brave men on both fides, 
vvT;0 fell in this (harp ar.d well conteded action. 

Hyde v/as fent over with a view of perfv,\:ding the States to difavow V.in Be- 
verning ; and the King prondild, that England, if fhe might depend on lioiland, 
Vk'cnld i.iim:.;: :tt 'y drei;'r..' war, a. id woidd jnirlae it, till France was reduced to 
re .lori.i'^h' c<vulirions, Ch rles at piefcnt vant farther than words. Fie hurried on 
the eni' ;:'; .tion of his army d;r : landers, and all his preparations wore a iiodiieap- 
pea\,nce. ikit the States h.'.d; been too oiten deceived to trud him pny fongrr. 'ilicy 
raiih:,; i.\':. treaty hgned at iNimeguen ; ai:d all tire other Powers of ikn'ope were at 
i; ; ., ' " kid, a'ter mi.eh clamour and nLn:y dJiguds, obliged to accept or the terms pre- 
iF-d-'.d to them. 

.F.iiV. . . 1; i,' !-. . ,- r.. .:ehjd the h.cigh.t of that glc/ry, which anduitlon can adbrd. 
I lis nfuii a'.s andi nego'iiitors ap' ear d as much uiperior to fhole ol all Europe in 
th-- cabhy-r, as his g-nerak and ;.; :.;;.; h :d b:'cn experieneed in the field, A dic- 
cA . ^i -.viir \\:.] e-n Ca;r'cd on ag-dnd an ailnniec, cu:ii[)ol^d of the greated ]-*oten- 
t.i:- i:^ !",'.::;p-. Confiir.kk: conqi'^dE had been made, and his territories cn- 
i:".. '' '-1 <'v ',. b\ A'; .'d aiUarcous peaci: was at lad concluded, where h:: h.'d 
g:v-i. lI.'- h''.v, ike ah;.: ,ere io enraged ag and each other, that they were not 

iihely 



C 11 A R L E S II. 2(5 

!w-:c!y to cement foon in any n-'w cr;:,fcclcr;u"v. And thus l;c had, during i-;n''.' 
vcar^, a r-Ml and, ru'ar yrui] c >. u" atciinin^ ilic Monai\-l.v u: }m;:\ >;'.-, and ul c X'.'ced- 
i, !.':: r!i:pii-e (>: Ch.u'ii.n-i...',,^-, iv:!;a:,s ci]l. 1!/::.^ tii.i: o; an:;.-n' Kon^c 1 lad 
. ...^'and C';i. rirr-.-d n.i.. ii loi: j_cr in i\..- lame CwiKir.ior, dwA ni'.d. r M: lan.u- ^'^v^rrn- 
iKc'i,:, :: lb n t v.a:y t '; c-, n(.c;^\, ilia:, he- co:j!,. ha\-c l.id.d o: M^ [:i;i\ tJi.-. 

In j/ri^'jiorti-jn a^ c!.clc ciI^lI!^dl.il'.ct^ cx.i't.d ciic 1-ic ^^\^, rl;- v .\c::'Jv: i:.,". 1; , :l\<)i\ 
ann;.'-. : tli I'.nL'lilh, v. iiolc animoliLy, I'oi./.c.i I'y tvrr;,r, n, 01.;. ted :o a ^rcar !.;':.:!. : 
;.!^ dnll t!iar I IV. d na:;on. liillcad ot takin.z tlic \c.\d m tl..- aila;: > u: I'^n-up;-. L d .: . -, 
r'.-.."'.- i:(ii:^lr, liad, co;iU"ary to his own iu)iiui;r a:nl ;;,:.f(, !l, aciLxi a j)a;: l:::::.'.'< 
hi'-Uvv'v yx t') tlu' C(jinm(jn cnvnn-, and in aii !rs rni'.nnr.'^ iiad c:d;>':- no jtv. .1 .;C 
ad, CT It.c'i as \v.is hi^^ii'y crnniiial an.l da:n;frous. \\ !nL Sn.nn, ! indand, i'm- d :.> 
^nnor, tlu- Pi'inccs ol'( icrni.ny ca!!^'d aioiid c^n r:n;dind c > l;a ! tn^n: : > \:::.ir/ 
and to hbcrty, and conljJircd [o railc her to a lladnn in'.-vc :dna.ii.> [nan 'hr !.-i ! 
c\er bcit-r:.- attained i her Kn^p;, h-(.m n:^an {:.ei.nna;y \n^.v-, inul I,-er. r!v [c'.J. ,., 
aidanee tu Ln.Asis, and was bidn.d inio an nn.'inll ciirr.irv ;>) tlia: en Ir.- l- ; . ;. 
1 lis active Ithenics ni cunuin men willi J-r.niee w . le lin^idy p n ni/.; u ; his ntn- 
trahty wa.^eq'jadiy I'Mioiidmions , an.d tlic , a!n-,,s, it i;-.u-t(u\ l\ r.avio.n^ o; tdj idir- 
lianiciiL, d. d in iilei; dan;__;eri;ns, wnis tlie only leniedy irr lo nnnr, ;;i-. .:'l-.' n.^, \', nn 
Nvineii tin* [ni he, Wom ilu: nn(<j^LiKh-d ei'nn.eih ol tl-,e KI;n';, v..,-, I.; rie.nd ; dn: a- 
teneth .Sn^ii were tr.e (.hd[)(jiitions oi nnnds nnr.d.s a: tlu en;rJudion 01 t:..' [. .., 
id Nlni ;;ue;i : And thcle dujxditions very natu;a!!y pr^n.'ned, tin,- way iur L..e 
events wdn^ii iohowed. 

\\'i: mull now retnrn to the adairs ofS.orland, vdiieli w;.- !l:. in. !d-.n: dd nrhT. 
aner tlie rnpjv/cldion o! I'nc iidnrreeiion in 16(5'.. Tlic K r. ;, v.d. .;: :; a: :, 
de.;vo..:\:d ro ic-iKltr inn:! h jcj; niar ni hdnda: ', ado-n. d ::':l- nna' nn-N 1.. ^ . . ., d, 
and c: t:ulUvi the :;(i\ 1 1 nn:^:nL .dndy i::io liie ininc:- i ! ' v ' _ and >:r ku cri 
M.ni'av. nn n o! ; ; udv.ier aiid n-' d; r.n;--.,. di.^a'nn t ;;'-n- ; i in d 

(/C, nnanon lo e.jin pole me in.nno' s ndkien f^, w, , . .; . : 

k a/cr anv Uiodcrn nainnu bwt '..e 1 )n''di, ii.i; .:n \ : nj . ;: . ri/n, . : . 

A: rigour .nvd rcn.ai;n \',.A nni; : in ^v^tdn;d, a n 'ivnn o' . -.-n-.i^rd ; 

V : \\h'.^\\ it was I'lajjun^el to din nn!h ;;re.it!y t., d'..:]..>.\' n-'p-, i < , 

t:i a' ivjnuiw vi ;Kc nulie cvel Indlnnde ;nt^, .^nin. , . 

! :ndr I): [nee dr:~ev anin;.::, t n',' I ri'd V, n'l ^. !') .::.,:/ :..u' ;..' 
a'nilnll dnis lelu nie. '1 hev reim nib.> red, 1 11 : \. ,- ' v k/ d ' . ,. 

J nv s r\] !ea\'onrtd to intr ilicc ; yii-.^ \\\ . . : . . 

(; ni i!i.\: to die n i:iv ;i;,d Ii.d);[ o: i;,'h(- , . : : 

in . i-n' .-.Jx-vl^ wo.;' ; '..;^>.\ loho'v : 1 he Ic ad i - !n ,: . . 

liein ni :.:. nn .iLUL ;.)..>!...., t d; enied i;r ^ lay. ' .;, 
\' vL. lb dim 



i\ 



266 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

handle net \ tlii-- crv went out airiOng'H: them : A-od the King's minificrs at lad per- 
reived, thattliey would proilitute the dignity of government, by making advances, 
to V. liich the Miaiecontenrs were determined not to eorref. ond. 

TfM- next proiec'i a 'opted was tliat o^ indulgence. Tdie mofl pcpuhir oftheex- 
r;iVc! preach;.rs, wichout requi;ing any terms of flibmiilion to the eftabhliicd reii- 
v/iop:, were fettled \[\ vacant clvjrc'nes ; and iVnah failaries of about twenty pounds a 
vear were offered to the reil, till they fhould otherwife be provided for. Thefelait 
u^..;hd. tlic King's Ivour.tv, Vv'hich they confidered as the wages of a criminal filencc. 
Iv/cPi li^.e former fjOii repented their com-diance. The people, who had b;en ac- 
i-ullun-;^ i t() hear them rail againft their fuperiors, and preach to tlie times^ as they 
Ccdiud ir, deemed their lermons languid and fpiritlefs, when dei)rived of thefe or- 
r>:'.n-ent;-:. 'i h.eir ufuai gifts, they thought, liarl leic them, on account of their fub- 
midiun, widch was higmatized as eradianinn. They g^ve them t'le app.i'ation, not; 
of mieiiiers of Chnf., but <j\ lie Km^s ciirrtlcs :, as the clergy o^' the eflablifhed 
c;;u;c/i '.\ ere commonly denomiiiated the /d/i^vpi f///v7/t"j". The p eachers the miclves 
returned in a httle time to tlicir former [Traclices, by v'fdch' tliey hoped to regain 
their fcrmer dondnion over the minds of men : a luj-seriority, wddch no one, \vho 
he's ever j olV fled it, Vviii wdiingi;, by any ccndderation, be prevailed on to rel n- 
(udui. TiiC conventicles multiplied d;dy in the Well : Idie clergy of the eftab- 
i;d:ed church were; u'^il.dted : 'i he laws wtre iivgicLled : The Covenanters even 
met daily in aimc attd^ir places or worfliip : Aiidtho' they ullially dih^crled them- 
liivcs alter rehgloLS hrviec, yet the government tcoh a julh alarm at feeing meii, 
who were id ci'^tTeiy g^)verned by their kd!ti(;us teaelu rs, dire to let ai^thority at 
c;t.fia:.ce, zn^ during a time c! lull peace, to put then^felves in a n";:litary poiture. 

TfiriXH Vvas here, h is epparent, in the political bo 'y, a dileaie very d ngerous 
2nd invete!-a:ei an ' t,;e gi^vermnent had tiied every r>:medy, but the true one, to 
ad:'v and correct h. /m unlindted to'erat;on, a'ter fedi;s ];ave difukd th^n^iielvcs 
and are Ifiong'y r ( ted. ie theoidy exp^ditijt, w hieh c?<i\ allay their lervour, and make 
the c:> 11 v^.A'iW ace; n:e a luperiority ubjve redgious dhlinctions. ijiit as tlie ot)e- 
r.ition^ cd :' :. rw-inun ,;re Cv;mmunly very gradua', and at lird: imj-erecpriiye, v-J.- 
par p/itl i i;.s ;;e . pg for thet re don, to h.ive rcecujide to m(/;e hail^ j: ci n:ere 
c' eg' r'ae e^-.cuK . b is (d ler^.dde to;;, that thJe non conlur.mfts in ^ctxiand 
! ! .'.iier cuC'ied w ': f',:nanded toh r- tion ;, but hud claim to an eeiiire Ibperiurit'yg 
aed tw be- (:<ered- id cnrreme rigour egalnil. Lheir adv. i iiu ies. l heCovenant, wdncn 
.\'':/,':d.^ w:;', a i.'erh cutin:^, as wad! as a bvllL! .us buai o, conbeiei-aey : .l,ei 



- J 



.vcr. n"!ei,t, i, If ad ol tieaiin,' iliem ld;e m idmen. w ho iiiouai be ibothcd, end 
ed > and deceived into tta; -prllit-g theu[;ht tlKn:i!elvrs intitlcd to a rigid obe- 

d i e ,n >: . 



C II A R L i: S II. 

I'icnce, hpaI were ioo apr, \.\>'^^ :i pi-r.a'-.cn [(;!!. -v, t.i \\::\::. 

;;:- : ; :.. ^ v, ^^ '..:.: C-i>v:.\ i ^ a:.]. ;[]'.'::' r. '/ 

I. . .'.v. ,i:v.-:\z ; .\\:.\ l'.\v [;,\!.- ll.ii ;-;ii. i. :();:,; v.: , 
i:;: .'(', i r li ui liicii iiitki'.'iicc .is to ;-'-t two .._' i\.: 






'. 1 N. 



', l.l.i: t .;. l;.tM:r-; .i.ltl.in ,s V. iM iv ;;.i il tn i.;- ; :. : 
.. v..\[y ,1 r'<;:;t ot liic (.:(),',;'. : 1 r.ir v:'.:..{l-vlv :\-I.;U\i to 
;. -- ir,.U'.f>. .'.!u! I'v'iion^. wcic Co l^' orc'vTc.), arctjr:;!:-,;); fo 1.:l;i c.' ..' 
Ki.: r llioi.M :'ji^-l lo !.i:, l'ii\y C'oLiiu'i! : And lii.u tlu-:-, Iv;:. [ .A ].-. 
iV.'.ju'.d ;..\'j ti^j l(^i\c ot laws. '1 h. orlicr aci i\-;'.a:-.A\: i i.- iv; :''i- 
Kwil; by h> o'.'.'n aiuh riiv h.i.i t\'.\) \ ar- Inlia-,- cita'oij'-.', i i j i.: 
V. :;:Lh u a Aukc. Hy t'l:-^ a:r, [\\c niAtia \\.o ll':ri;-,i to th ; ,< ..Iw 
Iwlti, nnIiO v.. re* lo b.- c-aillai.tr,' arm..!, aiul i\;VilarIy i.:;;l;|..:;k\\ A;:.; .: \'. 
laith.r cn..ci. d, th::t: uu 'c tru;-[ ^ iIkjuK' b.Au !;! in icawM.cl > to ;rai\ !i :..: ) ! : 
\:.i\C., ;rc'..;K', o;" d:.y i .uLui [\\-: kin!;,\ Cwn.inion-, tor anv t^'au >; in wi^ni; in-. M 
;>. ;A'^ an:hurir'. , [ '/>' ^ r, or !;:'cat;x 1^ wa^ t .nici. rn- d ; on r.i ciNnn^' orvic. :- 
lii.- Kiini, bni lii- I'ns'v Lonncii c.-I S otKi:.,!. 

i^.\:.H 1 oaiAJ cxerini. Iv ('i hi- ltT\ncc> in ! rocnrin; t';.!b :v.o lav. 



: I., ni 



. I 



1 hj Kin'' l)v tii!^ loim r v,a:i rcki-:.. d ahli Ano ni. :'cr (.: ciic 



;c L'!'. . ;\ 



-.-: 






^,ai:\, cwi: by an cdici, r-cil.n-Alh. il l.c M^'Ojd.r ; :-(v ,-, du L\i-n 'd- -J- 
h.n-dand: I'v tdc \:.[li:\ \'x law a j-owcr: 1 nnf r . > ; : 

rdj . Ani.ita c (.! d^ai .; aide to i.n!.;in'c In^ < ;d ' > n . 

C .:.:.. i. ; . ;.d in c .r'c oi lanin\ in !.: w ' ' ,' 

;d. V nr :. . ^^ nd,.L 'M d,c !'!-d-:d !' 

V. .in- a; rr- a' Ic to 

td<- tdicl c.^tili' ol t .> . 

'lA. Ic atta: lo , h ). . ^^ . . 

i:,.; It i;, ;n-odalA', that r'. 

(1, o, won! !, it uM'i; ; 

] n; A-!-'-' i ^' ^'''''- '^ 
'v: .\iA !.w 



268 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Cl"p. IV, Jn ^ fubfequent fefilon of the fra-ne Parliament *, a fevere law was enaded ao;airi{l 
conventicles. Ruinous fines were impoled both on the preachers and hearers, even 
it the meetings had been in houfes , but upon field conventicles, the penahy of 
death and confifcation of goods was impofed : Four hundred marks Scotch were 
offered as a reward to any who Chould feize thefe criminals ; and they wereindem- 
n iied \o[- any n.iughter, which tliey fhould commit in the execution of fuch an un- 
dertaking;. And as it was found difficult to pet evidence afrainR' thefe conventi- 
cks, however numerous, it was cnadcd by another law, that, whoever, being re- 
tjuirtd by the Council, refufed to give information upon oath, ihould be punifhed 
by arbitrary lines, by imprifonmiCnt, or by baniiliment to the plantations. Thus all 
perfecudon naturally, or rather nccefiarily, adopts the iniquities, as well as rigors, 
of tlvi inquifition. What a confiderable part of the fociety confider as their duty 
and honour, and in? others a''e apt to regard with compaflion and indulgence, can 
by no other ex};edicnt be fabjeded to fuch ftvere penalties as the natural fenti- 
ment~^ of mankind appropriate only to the blackefb crimes. 

Tho' I>audrrdale found this ready compliance in the Parliamient, a party was 
form-d aiainft him, of which duke Hamilton was the head. Next fefilon f, this 
party had become connderable : And many were difgufted, as v/ell with Lauder- 
dale's infolence, as with the grievances, under which the public laboured. The 
fiifl: Parliament of this reign had acknowleged, that the regulation of all foreign 
trade was an inherent branch of royal prerogative. In copfequence of this impor- 
tant conceiuon, the King, by an aCl of council, had prohibited the importation of 
brandy and all fpirits , and the execution of this edift was committed to lord EI- 
phinftone, a relation ol L-audcrdale's. Elphi'.ilone made no other ufe of this power 
rr.an to fell licences to tiic merchants, by which expedient he gained great fums to 
himfei^, tho' to the lofs of the revenue, as well as of the kingdom. A monopoly of 
\':^: hid aifo been granted to lord Kincardine i and a new impofition on tobacco 
had bfen bcilowcd in gilt upon Sir Jolin Nicollbn, for the benefit of h.imfelf and 
fomc iri'nds of Laud.rdale. When thefe grievances were complained of, the 
comn"irT.(..ntr, who was deiirous to prevent all parliamentary enquiry, chofe ra- 
t'yer to redrcf^ tiicm in counci! , and he accordingly cancelled the t'lree patents 
cr>:r.pKiiii'. d of. r>ut as tartlier grievances were '.FiCntioned, and a general rtpre- 
k;ua:i(;n of the ftate ol tlie kingdom v/as propofed to be made by Parliament; 
i.aud.rdale oppoled, as a baiTicr, the Lords of Article?, without sviiofe confcnt, he 
iahl, no morion could be received. Men were now convinced ol their imprudence 
in reiV riiig tli .t inllitution, Vviikh rendered all national ahcMiVDiies in a manner 
i.ickls lor tlie rcdrefs oi 'nievanccs. 

Hamilton, 

2'thof J !/, \'j-r.. -j 1 ith of June, 167?. 



CHARLES ir. 



zfr) 



1 l.\MiLTON', Twetici .I-,-, nnil other"; went to I .oiu! ,n, .u.l :\^ i"\?.] toil^.c Ki: , *- 
wiio \v,is alone able to corrcft tlie abiifes ot I .ni:,'.ei\!.:!i\ ii'.'r.K ::;.'.!:.:: on. I!'.r c\' n 
their comphiin^s to I'.im nii'^ht be dangcrc us , and ai; aj j ro.ic'n.s o: Lriiili t(; t:.;: 
'i rirone were barreti bv the ri'lciilous law r.'.i.il le..il:-.:!:-rria!;:n:- -, a l.n.v, v,:,:,a 



Jcenis t(j have been extorted by t'n.c antien.t n')b!-.s, in ( rdjr t ' j r> :_i' li-.cir i v. :i 
tyr.iiiniy, (Jiprcflion, and ininllicc. (ircat precautions, tb.erch.re, v.xic '..fed. ly !.-' 
Sto;c!i n;aIecontent.s \\\ t!uir re-ircltntati(}ns to tl.e king , bnt p.o rcdrels w.,^ c/-- 
ta;;.cd. Liuirlcs ioaJ.ed theni uitii careiies, and conLnued Lr.udcrdalv.- i.i h;s .; i- 
tiiurity. 

A VHRV bad, at lead a fevcre ufc was iradc of this authoritv. Tivj I'.ivy 
Councd dirpofl'lTed twelve gentlemen or noblcny.'n ot t'n.cir iicidls * , :'.:.] by an. 
aft, wliich would live been deemed extrciVi ly ariMrrary in lt.v ; art u: J'.n-oy.-, 
ar.d. even f. rannical in Ada, thelc lioules were conve:t.d in.to U) n..:.:: . .-lil'.is 
lil.ibiinjcd tor tlie llipyrenion o! coin enticles. Tlie :nuiun, i: v, a< in. M;,;>d, v,.-.s 
re.div, on account ot thrle religious airembi!'.'^-, in a ll.n.e o: v,a:- , aiul by :;.. an- 
tient law, tin- Kin,.r, in fucli an emergence, v. as empov/Lred to [^lacc a gvrrdtn in 
ar.y houfe, wlvjre he lliould juJge it expedncnt. 

I 1 wcrj cr-d'efs to rec(;unt every act of violence and arbi:raiy /.u'diori:v cx.rcilld 
du;in,g I ...u.ierdalc's adminillration. All t!ie lav.yrrs v/^re put from t'.ie b..r, nav, 
banifl^jd by the King's order twelv.- miles from l''.di;nburg!i, .ir.d by t'.at m.ean.s 
tlic w'-.oie jull ce of th.- kingdom wa.-> lufpci-n'.ed for a year i till thefe lawyers w.rj 
brought to decbu'e it as tb.eir opinion, tliat all a| piaK to I'ariiam'.nt w^re i'leja!. 
A letter was rrocur.d Irom tire King, for turr.ing ou't tweb.e ol tl:e cin.: mi:Ml 
tr.:tc. (A I ilnu urgh, and deciadn them incay,d;!e of all ; ubnn olnc-: ^ tho'tn.ir 
('Tily criire Iiad bjcn waiit ot ton^pliarce wn'i 1 .audi rd.de, Tii, b nno.njis ui 
Sc tb.nd liave a priviicg'' ot m.erin^; (}nc,- a \ear by their d.} ut'e', in order to 
coniid.r t'-.e (lite (d ti.^.i;', ar.d rn. .be b} c-huvs lor its r^ [luhuion : In tins con- 
vention, a pedi:on wa-- \\ :ed, c^.)n^^ i,n;nn;; (d l;arc l.n;.- law*;, wld^h obdru.L d 
commerce, a:. el [n\!",ir,g tiie Kn.g, tln.'.t !i:- v. ould ii-:v\r.ver his ionnnr/dnnn.er, in 'die 
next 1en:(.)n of I'arii.m-;! i^r, to give ln^ all: nr to t!:e u'yea'iny; ti;ein. 1 or tins i le 
tun^: Mcn, as it was called, levcral :.:: thv m.nd'vis :. :. [\::vi.\ an! ;!npri;iii,:-d. C): n 
Mure, a n:en'ber ot I'arham nt, h.n. Uig muvevi in the h ai'e, u.:.:, in ir^ntadon ul 
the bingiini Tarli mient, no bi'l (ho^! 1 pal , e:n ^ : e, . tlnce r. a iin.-.s :- ^''> ^- v 
tins pretended ollence inin:cdi oeiy lent to ; : ni^:, b, 'iu: e.n- nnii'iwn.i-. 

Tm:: private depo:tn"!ent (d La.nhr.' de :.; as ]; ,:! ::; ..n 1 pr^ \o';ing as 'li: 
rn: iic adndnidration was violent an.i ' , r.mniL.d. I v\ ido v. .le Wu. u; !\ ti laiiv 



tm 



o 



II I S T O R Y o F G HEAT B R I T A I N. 



Ch^.'^- 'iV. perverled by faclion and intereO: : And from the great rapacity of that duke, and 
^v^' llill mo:eot his tiutchtfs, ad offices and ilivours were openly put to fale. No-one 
was .dluwed to auproach tliC Throne wiio vvas nor dependant on h m ; and no re- 
niedv could be hoped for or chtaincJ aguinfi: his manifold opprefllons, '] he cafe 
{ f Mirc!:ei iLow , ih-it this Handler was as much devoid of truui and honour as o: 
ien:ry and jidlice. 

I'nis unliappy man, Mitchcl, was a deiperate fanatic, and had entertained a refo- 
lution of afjdjTinatin -;, 5: haipe, arL.ibiihop of St. Andrews, wh \ by his iormer apo- 
Ha.-y and fubfequ.cnt rigour, ha^l rendered iiimfeif extremely odious to all men, eipe- 
ciady to the Covenant'.:; s. In ti;e year if,6S, Mitchel iired a pillo! at the primate, 
f s h.- was fiCting in his coach ; but the bidiop of Orkney, ftepping into the coach, 
happei.ed to fercteh out his arm, which intercepted the bad, and was much Ihat- 
tered by it. 'i'ids happened in the principal ftrcet of the city ; but fo generally 
vvas t;;e areiJjilk.op det^^fccd, that the aiiaflin was allowed peaceably to walk off; 
ar,d ii:;ving turned a Iheet or tv^-'o, and thrown off a wig, which difguifed him, he 
jmrnediately app-eared in public, and remainc d altogether unfufpected. Some years 
afi'erv.a d% Sliarpe remarked a m.an, who feemed to eye him very eagerly , and 
b^ing iidl aCiXicus, hell an attempt of afiaflir.ation fliould be renewed, he ordered 
him to be ieized and examined. Two pidols were found upon liim very deep 
joaded ; and as lic was now concluded to be the author of the former attempt, 
Sharpe prcmifed, that, if he w^ould confefs his guilt, he fhould he difmiffed with- 
out any punilhment. MitcheJ was fo credulous as to believe him ; but was imm.e- 
diatclv produced before the council by the faithlefs primate, 'i he council, hav- 
ing no proof againit hiim, but hoping to involve the v/hole body of Covenan- 
ters in this odious crime, vciy fcdcmnly renewed tiic promife of pardon, if he 
would, m:d;e a full dilVovci-y , and it vs'as a great difropointment to them, vdien 
they found, upon Ins conlefkon, that only one pcrlo:^ who was now dead, had 
been acquainted with ids bloody rtfolutions. Mitchel was next cited bcfcjre a court 
(jf iiMdc.in-i;e, and required to renew his coniLfiion ; but being apprehe.'iive, that, 
the;' a p-.a\i n for life iiacl been promihcl liim, other corporal puniHiments mhght 
A. 11 be ii.fiict :d, fe rifufed compliance ; and was knt back to prdbn. lie was 
next (xa!)d;e d ladore t!i.: coutKd, under pretL::t (d his being concerned in the iii- 
finu rdon at kt ndand . ad t;io' i;o jacoi aiipeared aguniL jnm, l;e was pat to the 
cvaidon, ar;d con;r,rv lc:> tfe nudl (d;vious princi. k.> or cqoify, \v-s in-ged to ac- 
cidie h:n:feh'. 1 Ic eiv.lured thetoi:ure with lu^gular re'ohition, and continued i.;b- 
hi; ate i:, t'lC denial of a crinie, of v,hich, it is be'iex'cd, he ready v/as not gtnky. 
\vS <, ;', i;| o";ta'i);!-,g his liberty, lie n'as lent to tiie IVd", a very Idgh rcjck, lui'round- 
td bv' tiie fea ; at ihib tirriC converted into u ilate prilon, and tud of the unhapj^v 

Cove 



C II A R L E S II. 271 

CovciiAntC: F. He thvi'i' ic nv'm d ii i^rr.i*; ivi.. ,, . ..':,' v.;''! ! -^nc ; ri'l '':< '. r 



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i; . r.'iai,, J Lap^aaihc , Ib-> iiic n":ab ('a ex; (;..b t) par[a;...b v'a--.y la 

M '.i.r' v.a.- aca'^abaa,!;' ex ev;:ui a: b.cb:.ba:-.;'i i;i J au. .ly I'o;:-. >;... b .1 i.a m.- 

j ba.u.. ai ( ; an. i:y .1: ' ' a. y :ba'a . '. " : -, [o \\[\o.\\ 

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wiia h ( u K'- c 'a:;;i .a . i^- .A a 

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n' 



'>72 H I S T O R Y OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 

tides VvithoLK refei've ; and the gentry, tho' they themfelves commonly abAained 
frctri thefe iiltgil places of worihip, connived ac this irregularity in their inftriors. 
In oicei to engage the former on the fide of tlie pcrfccutors, a bond or contra : was 
by order of the Frlvy Council tendered to the landlords in the Well, by which tliey 
were to cng^s?/; for the good beliavior.r of their tenants -, and in cafe any tenant Irc- 
caented a conventicle, they v/ere to fubieci: thLHiielves to the fame fine as could by 
law be exacled from the delinquent. It v/ar, ridicui -us to give fandion to laws by 
voluntary contracts : It was inicjuitous to make one man anl\verable torancther's 
conduct : It was illegal to impoie fuch haid conditions upon men, who had nf) way 
oficndcd. For thcfe rcafons, the grcated part of the gentry refufed to fign thofe 
bonds t, and Lauderdale, enraged at this oppofition, endeavoured to break their 
ipirit by expedients, Vvhich were fiiil more unufual and more arbitrary. 

The law enacied a^ainft conventicles, had called then; fLrninaries or rebellion. 
This exprefiion, which was nothing but a floutifli oi rhetoric, Lauderdale and the 
Privy Council were willing to underftand in a literal fenfe j and bccaufe the v\ ellern 
counties abounded in conventicles, tho'otherwife in the moft profound peace, they 
pretended, that thefe counties were in a ftate of aftual v/ar and rebelhon. They made 
therefore an agreement v.-ith fome higliland chieftains to call out their clans to the 
number ot 8000 men : to thefe they joined the guards, and the militia of Angus: 
And they fent the whole to live on free quarter upon the lands of fi.ich as had re- 
fufed the bonds illegally required of them. The obnoxious counties were the mofl 
populous and moil indu'drious in Scotland : The highbinders were the people the 
moft dif rderly and leaft civilized. It is cafy to imagine tne havoc and deftruction, 
wliich enlued. A multitude, no[ accuflomed to military difcipline, averfe to the 
reftraint of laws, trained up in rapine and violence, were let loofe amid ft thofe 
whom they were taught to re gard as encnics to their Prince and to their religion. 
Nothing efeaped their ravenous hands: By haidflfips, and fometimes by tortures, 
men were obliged to difcover their concealed wealth. Neither age, nor fex, nor 
innocence afiorded protection : And the geiitry, finding that even thofe who had 
been moft compliant, and who had fubfcrftx'd the bonds, were alike expof d to the 
rapacity of thcde barbarians, confirmed themfelves ftill more in the obllinate refo- 
lution of reiuii:ig tlv. m. The voice of the nation was railed againft th's enormous 
outrage ; and after two months free quarter, the highlanders were at laft fent back 
to their lulls, loaded Vvith tlie l]>oils and execrations of the VN eft. 

Those wlio had been enaaf^cd to lubfcribe th.e b(;r.ds, could Pmd no fecuriry but 
by turning out fuch tenants as they lufpected of an inclination to conventicles, and 
thereby depopulating their eftates. To cncreafe the mifery of thefe unhappy tenants 
the council enadted, that none Ihould be received any where, or allowed a habitation, 

who 



^' II A ii I. :: 



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v.ho hrcL::; :t nor .1 . j;-:i:l.. .iic of !.;> co:vurn 

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I.!, "'.i I .. I .:M.;!ry I I Lwovc.;^ i'-:,[, 1. ii!. ra!: 
:. ,; .i'..o\ I'.'x'ii' i.i'iiil. :\:a] tc .i:;:s i.) ';c ; re / '. : 
'i'.ius elii^.i;\ry \'. .> ; i!U\l t' ty .r/ "/ ; aii.i ;:j M..'^ , 
b::i; _; t xaltv i, v, .., in : r.:l;ry : i ; l! iu.;;_,i .^^ ':: ; c a ; 
kv^.iity, v,!:! !i o. ; 1!' ;!,'i'k,'L./ !V,;_:'.' !..;,,;:. i : .r '' 

I r v,a> ai: (;!vl la . , bi.r IclA iii ix.- ,/..;. :' ..: 
c;-i::;v, ;i:k: tl:.; :\or a; p.ar, ia r.l 
i^, l;c rr'^,'it i-c [ i.'-ikv.' oi.'^a;, . li ^ ., . 
['. .'.::. :s, la 'a-i .i. i:.iv t ha; if. , \\:..' [' . ::...[ / : 
i.> :'.. :,::vc [(/;, a'-'c-, a 'Joi Li bv 'a'.v ba ;a.';...Lai ( :. . 
v:..\:\\' v: . s (;I !;::i.aa"(-n'^;"iiU!Mi::; \\ Lie !:o/. iib.c: .;.; .;; ;l 
cu.iVc i.i.v ac^ ; ..liLi i y t!i:s ;c\'crc a i.: c'/.ai ab..;;u . ''.s', 
n:i.iti[' }"=[, in a ['C' ai:! triaai j':\a via.: :i. \N"i..r ' . . 
;L ib no uoialcr b.ai .;;; . viaiiaii^ r.;ii. :i !;- i.!.l bj r.: -. 

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na-i.ia-l lai^i^yrr '>i L ; 

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!i;r.rcion 


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^'-'^ 11 i i, O K I O F Vj iv iJv 2% i IJ K 1 i r^ 1 i\. 

It is renorte:! ^% that Ch.;rics, aixcr a fiili heiirino; o[ the clebates conccrninf^ 
yJcctcJi anai/SjfLiiJ, " I perceive tluit Lauderdale has been [ruilty of n-uiry bsd i!;inf?:s 
" c^g:-!;;!! the pjo: le of Scotland ; but I cannot Hnd, that he hai^ aded any thii,'/ 
" cu:^::-;.:v t:) .i:y ii^tcreAd' A h-nuincnt niOil iLiwofLhy of a Sovereign! 

DciiivG t'le abfeiice of i-lan-;i!i:on and the other diicontentcd Lord?, the Kinp- 
ale CO iunan:on a convcnrion of eilatt^ at KdinlAir^^h. This con- 
;;rantipg ibme money, bellowed applauHrs on all Lauderdale's ad- 
1 in bheir addrefies to the Ki;;[{, exprefied thehighed: contentment 
Ibjt thele infLances of complaifance h.ad the contrary effect in 
lat v/as expected by the contrivers of thxcm. Ail men there con- 
Ciiided that in Scotland the very voice of liberty was totally HippreiTed ; and that, 
1)7 ii'iC prevalence ci tyranny, grievances were fo rlvetted, that it was become 
(iaa/^erous even to mcnrion th-m, or complain to the Prince, who a'cn,! was ca- 
v.b,e (.f redredini'- them. From the ila\'erv of the ncii;hbourin2; kinr-'dom, thev 
irih;rred the arbitrary di!pofitlons of the King ; and from the violence, with which 
r,)VLre'g 1 power wao there exercifed, t'ley apprehended the miferies, which mi^pit 
eaine to tl:en^;eives, upon their lols of liberiy. If pei'lecution by a proteftant: 
church cothd be carried to fcch cxtremitis, what might be dreaded from the pre- 
valence o: popery, which had ever, in all ages, made open profenion of exter- 
rrnr.arii:g by fire and Aord every oppohte fc^ct or communion ? And if the firfl 
apvreaci>es towards U'dimited authority were lo tyiannical, how difmal its final 
(ha^);)nvv:ta,t ; v.dien all dread of oppofition inall at lafc be removed by merce- 
iia'-y armies, and all knfe oi fhame by long and invct-^rate habit ? 



* Furnct. 



c 11 A r^. 



C II A R L E S IJ. 



-/ :> 



C II A P. \'. 



^ pi. 



-Zr.;/' cj the J\-;::.:-:::r:. 7;. 



.. ; 



77, P.r- 






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-;.;.. / 



III'' !;:[:' Ai !-:i:i >', ever fir \- r!;: AnI 
JL L^'-v\i \ :')';;. A-'. ;:'^^:'".'s ;-";;i::^il 'A- (7o;,r 



a;-yA.K:, 



'" ) *M;^.i .Ml 



;i :, ( 



.Jb 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



^ot in this vc-rv walk/' 



" mies 'nv! n -.ijiigi" up?'i >.).:- .i*-;^ ; ana you n"a7 oe inoi m nus very 
E:in^ af'xd r".e rcii'jn oi liici:: ilran.^:^ Ipecclics, he i;:ic1, th.it two iiicn, caiic 
Gk.\-c anii Plck.^-iijg, IkuI cnr;;:i[^::d to fiiooc the King, mil Sir George Wiikc- 
n: ;:i, :.j k-i; en's piiyil' i ;;!, to irnvfc;:! hiiii. This intelugcnce, he added, h.id 



t.:'-ir;!niii;ic:i:.d tC' huii by dodor Toiigue \ whom, i[ perndtted, lie 



wo I 



\A 



ii.rrv..dv,iL<j: Vj \'\':- Mjj. :J:v. 1 onc^re was a d.vine or the church c;i Eng'and ; a man 
a.kive, i?'dc!i-, iiid ol pro;ecl?, devoid of underftanding. 1 ie bro'igric papers to 
liiC Kiiig, \\hich contai/ied iniorniiaioii of a piot, aiid were digellcd into ibrty- 
t;i;ee ariichs. Tnc Ming not inaving ieifure to perule theni, lent them to t!ie 
iord L.-Lad;rcrj Tanby, and crd-rea t'le two in'ormers to !:3y the hufincis bciore 
that rrnniiler, Torgnc cord' id^d to Danby, tliat lie hinilelf hac] not drav/n the 
p.^-'-r;, t. at tiicy ;::.d leered/ been tlirnil inKijr liis cioor, and tlwir, t!;o' he fiif- 



p: 

tin 



le: c 



.r;Ow w].o wan the ae:f]ior. 



let e;.ria:;,;v j.r^ow wr.o wan tne ae:tiior, i^iicr a ^ewcu:yp, he rc- 
, ; ; ':.^.^.A t::e trcaftire;-, tliat his fiif[)ic;on5, he found, were jnn: \ tlnst tiiC 
o. the Ini diigenct , \v ;,::;]:; iie liad met twice or thrice in the iireer, had 



.iC 



n".a::er 



,r A 



Id' 



lao given him a more particidar account. 



I,; 



e rc.d':n:-acv , bet; dc fired, t:-at his name mi2.ht he concealed, beinr apure- 
ve ivit Lne .:-;pdls fi.on'd murder i:;im. 

'::!: a .eannatieei was nnevrd widi regard to Grove's and Pickering''s intcn- 
./..': O. fkocring d:e Kiiig ; and 'I'oi;gue ev'en pretended, that, at a particular time, 
.g ^'. e,c Lw ;ct out for Vfindfor with that in'eniion. Orders vere given for arrefi:- 
g fern, h) f)on as they dionid appear in that place : But tho' this alarm was 
e: (h..,n ofiCe rene./ed, lome irivoious leaions were Uiil loimd by 'I'onp-ue for 
.' i: -ghig t;;e gjin-ney. j^nd tiic Kuig concluded, boti) from the'e evafions, 
c: ':-::)Vc: tl'e myd^rions, artidcia! nvmner or communicating^ tlic inteiliizence 
Jt d.e whole wa^ a deGon. 

'\ :)>.'.::':. ciivy^ ncKt to tiie treaiurcr, and told iiim, tliat n pacquet of letters. 
:'''e igg^ ;.:-t^ coi):;i rned in the idot, was that night to be put into the poil-honfe 
a V-. ,..:;'i , dire,:.'::.' to iGdn'gheid, a iehdr, coMieubr to the Did-Le. When 



va:s conve^o; 



..O' 



U:' rr.v,];,vl 



ied, that the naccun-t 



men';K>ned 






0.' a a. 



wdo.\. 1:;- n i::rotgy;: to the Duke by BedingfiGd -, who i]u{\, tliat 
a iw dehyn n: -.:i Il'^'y^, that die letters bemcd to contain mat- 
es inn ^.it-, an ' that he knew the!ii not t> be the hand-writin-'- 
iule names v.:::-e rddern)_d to them, 'idds incident ftiil f^irtfier 



a-;;b;'dy <' 'pt m this poRme lor cv:;-, had it not been the an- 
ii(.. kmd'-g t'ni' prnfis :ni,i jehiPs and even his own corded 
, v.a- oGin^.n, tiiat atle'tow ennuJrv fiiouid be made l. 



( II A R L [ r n. 






t ic I. 
() 



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.(.- :\.ui Mil, n I, :-;.; ;..:^ . - , 

i ; >:.- \v::h .1 ll c'v ;.:;.! .: !;( v < n il." ( .,:" I;. : . ::., j :^,\ 

.\..i::iv tl;:i.- ^, ,;,::!.: y ; .i: a! 1 1 . .: uN'r;- 1: ... i:. , t :.> : i ; 1^ .. 

i:,: . ' .. I .ll ' in inoi'c !.:\':-'.". ; , 1;': i;i ! \\ iT ::.,1 t out. 

",.,. : , / I.. . : .1 L.: 



; , ;i:!n V. iiii (i.ni}' biwu! ; ui;,: ic v. , .^ 
' ^ -v..).',:-; :; '^ :.. ' :; V.,: .'-. 



Pi.x.:, 



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,. I..:: .:ccor ; r.^j :.. 

;. ;u; r.:rj ; v. , r i':. --..: : r , v :o 

tij 0.:v.i, ij^eii^ri, . :.'.:: ciu r, in l.^,' 
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: 71: JUS r O 11 y OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 

Wis viLiirg CO ^o the length ol- fix thoiiilmd pounds : The Dcininicans approved 
c.F :h;; icti :n ; bii!: pleaded povcrr-y. Ten tlioufand pounds liad been olTei'ed to 
3-r Geor:'^ Vakcaian, the Queen's phyiician, who demanded fifteen thoufand, 
as a r;:V7ard ior lo greac a fcrvic? : His demand v/as compHed with ; and five 
thoubnd h/id been paid hin:i by advance. Left this means fhould fail, four Irifli 
yj.^.::^'^ 'uid been empbyed by the jebnis, at the rate of twenty guineas a-piece, 
to itab tl'.e King atVVindlbr; a;:d Coleman, lately fecretary to the Dutchefs of 
York, had given the mc^^enf^er, who carried them orders, a guinea to quicken 
Grove a:vd Ph;;ering v/ere alfo e^npioycd to flioot the King with 
The feimer wa; ro receive the ibim of fifteen hundred pounds ; 
the ia'Cer, bein^^ a pious ma^', v.';-s to be rewarded with thirty thouhmd malies, 
>'-h:ch5 cilimatnig maikn at a .n:ilHng a-pieee, amounted to a like value. Pieker- 
ieg had txecuted Ids purpof:', had not tha flint one time dropt out cf his piftol, 
another tin^e tiie j:rindng, Coniers, the jefiut, had bought a knhe at tiieprice of 
r^n iidhinc;^ vdnch, he clioegl^t, v/as not dear, conlidering the purpole for v/hich 
he intca-vk.d it, to wit, idabbing the King. Letters of fublcription were circulated 
amoeg the cathciics ail over K;ig;and n raife a !lim tor the fame purpofe. No 
lels than fifty jeluits had niet in May lafl:, at tiie White-horfe tavern, where it 
ve:s uaanimouily agr^^d ro put the King to dead\. This fynod did afterwards, 
for more convenience, cdvide themlelves into m':ny le<s cabals or companies j and 
C)..:es v/as cinidoycd to carry notes and lef.ter:i from one to anotircr, all tending 
/o the: fame end or murthering :!k: King. i'Je even curried about a paper, in which 
they forn^aliy cxprLficd their rcioiution of executing that deed ; and it was regu- 
lar!; fubkrio^d by ad of ti^em. A wager of an Isundred pounds was laid, and 
kakcs made, that the King f -onid eat no more Chriftmas pyes- In Ikort, it was 
deeermined, to ike the exp/cikon of a iefkt, that if he woeld not becoUiC R, C. 
'T )n.en r k-:ic} he Huvkd no longer be C.R. ^kh:rks rex). The great lire 
o;- l.oab'., ;ne] been ti".e \v(jid. oi tiie jefeiire, wfo had employed ei^iity or eight- 



Li/n fer tnen* ^nari^es ; lor the v had neen aele to 1 ilrer feoo.is from tne 



lire to till- v..k;:: ci i'Xirtren I'njnlaad peunds 'Ida' jckiits had aiiij railld enodier 
ii; e on St. ' kn g u'ck^- I k!!, v/h; nev they had kek n g(Jod;- to tiie vain.- o; two ti.ou 
land ^ n;;:;d- : Another ac kenkv//ar:e; an 1 it v/ae d..tcrmiiien in ki:e ma:a!;.r to 
! a- ; a!; ti.e l'aIA cikes in Angfavk A pa;wr mo kl wa-; aieea y kamral loi riie 
f:/i g 'M 1 /::-'^'::^ ; the ikitions v.;.re regiAu-ly mad:"d out, win le tiie leva;-ai iire^ 
WL/e Ui a- u -: J. ce : an! rhe v/b'de plan A' operaken-^ v;. s io concerted, t!:at 
p/eca':'. n% v .ee t.Ani iv/ t.'C yAais t) vary thkr ive:,.a-.,?, aev;o:'.nin; to t'le va- 
-'eeeiO. i. -a n.k:. i ne leaks were iannin-rly eaii^d ame'io" t enAreu>d)ai v 

l-n: kaad- 



.: II A R L I: S II. 



-"1 



r";.;^.;. !''!; i and ".'.(;;; l.iiu to co:it li'i a :.i . , 

.an: y :.: (Mii;..i,u;:':!':> ; : 

n-.k!^- riiclc ,.l!';::::;.r. 
. '.(., prov ."' I'l.: '-v v,\\' rcr..;: i..:^ i>. '.^: \ ' 

. .;i-, ()! '-I> ; .ii;.i J :.:;:!.;, :\ j lu.r, l.iul, i 



!. ()r:ii('!;.i v. .i. Lo l^c :i.i.::,.... 



hi. Is were a!rca.l_/ [ rovijcJ u r i!;.iL piii-'ujlc. C^^l nian !. 
d:\-\ i.\.:'..l'.\ \A p un,!s t'j p:():i'0';- :h..- rc.:.!.-.j;i in Ir.'.i';.! ; 
V. .;s to l.iiid .1 L^iva: AViV'/: ; , ; ....t ill ;.d. !'<;-,! , \\ !^) w i\ ' 



_'.t s\ riur .: 



i V ^ ^ 



,;-, i:i:it ( ::.:.' 



p.ii"!;er.r. .vitcr a,. t.:i;. hivoc, inj ^rw.vn w.v, lo t'^ (;;.uc.i 
i!:c :ci!o .:;:; C(;nv.i:r;:M:s ^ tii..: !.. rcCi. u'c it A', a pit ::'w;k 
CGinimi :.'.\ ri.j j.ij'-l i-j:ii:i:;:i^;;i.< .^jr oilcc^ a': 1 c,";v!v'}':ii !,: 
pa:l tiM'iM- ton-, bv pa:\loni!iL!; tli- inccndi.:' i^", a::.; :\\-j n:... 
v.:\A (.: i'ac pidplc ; and tii.it lu-ct^nUni to rnc titter exinp..: 
rciii'ujn. Il lit; rcdulc t;i';.c i.op,diti('n>, lie iinnicl v, .i ^ iniiiV... 
or alialTnar cl. '-fo fy' y-'/'iV A,;p.' ; ; acco;\:in^ t.i d.e c:: 
Oat;. 5. CO tile jclliits. 

Oati'S tlie inu;r!r(T <:\ t'd , drcadiai i i.% v. .1 1 ' i.'c!: t! 
nMid-.i.id. 1 !e v,Ms til,' ;"ii ( 1 ..n ..na!;.;: :;ll i\ .icii :, li.;;' 
b'.c !;av'.i ; t.\!s':n o, d. i h ;.i tii.- ein;-\ ii. l.e 'ii.d h en j :(..: 
the eii've (/! No: : oik. 1 { h:.d ' c; n indie' - i n a' \ i ,.n '. 
ck.ii'e d i !e ..!. a;te; vards a cii.'d in (;n 1 j.i: ! li, . 

('nni d':d (;n m-np l..'nt i.l Ir/na i nn;;':. ' r . . 

bee ine a ton'/; r. to ',e Cd'.dndiC"' ; i 
V. MS .1 nun-e j;re:.'\t, in oi'-'e,' t j p t i!i;o ti.-.. : . . 
v,M . lent over to t'v I Jidt's coli.^p at St. ^ d'vo . ' d 
Iv d 'a In.-ed ionie L.ii'e anioiai; di i' e.d i;t->. : 
Sr.' ; , '-'-Ad I'lri.fe ler.irned. to .S'.. ( a]:a: \ \'.\i-.-A 
Cv'.,v.it, at Kilt di. nailed W\m lixnn tiua: Knai.are. h 1 ; k 



1). 



i:.e 



1 .1 o. 
i.ut \v 
:, .alb 

le i;v,. 



t) 



i-'-.v ;. 



ath, l/!.ili.n 



i?o HISTORY OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 

merit of t';;.s ulagr, ha v;a> induced, in combination with Tongue, to contri'/c 
Liiat lor, of which he accufed the Catholics. 

I'lns abandoned man, wli^n exH":i!iied beiorc the council, betrayed his inipof- 
iiiies ill Licli a niunne/, as would i^ave uitprly difcrcdired the mofl confiitent 
floiy. and ciie mod reputable evidence. V' hile in Spain, he had been carried, he 
laid, to Don John, v/no promiied great ::(ndance to the execution of the catholic 
delii2-ns, The Kino; aiked him, what fort (U na.n Don John was: He anfwered, 
s tail, icui m n ; diredliy contrary to truth, as t'se Kin^^ wei! i<new *. II.' totally 
mifro(d<: the (ituation o(" the jeluir's college at PariS-p. I'ho' he prcten' ed great 
incirnacies with Coleman, he Uncw him nu., when placed very near him; and had 
no other exculc than that liis ii^ht was bad in candie-lmht t. He fed into like 
mdlakes with regard to V\''akcman. 

Notwjthstaxdiag thcie obf ftions, great artention was paid to Oates's evi- 
daice, and the plot became very loon the iubject or conv-rfittion, and even the cb- 
iect ct terror to the people. The violent: animoHty, which had been excited a- 
gamil the Catholics in general, made tne pubhc fwallow the grofiell: abibrdities, 
when Vc.z'j accompanied an accuiation of tnofe rehgionilts : And the more dia- 
bolical any contrivanxe appeared, the better it luite ; the tremendous idea enter- 
tained of a icllur. Danby likewde, who ftood in oppohtun to the French and 
catholic mter^il at court, was wiibng to eiicourage e^ery tl;ory, which might ferve 
to c^dcredit th it partv. Bv iiis futioerLicn, \'A\^ty^. a v/arrant was Imned for arreft- 
ing Colerr^an, there was inierted a claule ;Or kizing hi? papers \ a circumftance 
attended wiuh tlie moll important confequenccs, 

CoLF. ma::, partly on his own account, partly by orders from the Duke, had been 
engaged in a correfponder-ce with father la Chaife, with the Pope's nuncio at Bruf- 
felo, and with oth.r Catholics abroad \ and being liimlclf a fiery zealot, buly and 
hinguine, the cxpreiilons in his letcers olten betrayed great violence and indiicre- 
tlon. His cnrrefpondence diirii^.g tlie years 1674, 1675, and part of [676, was 
leized, and contained man.y extrj.ordin.ary palfages. In particular, he laid to la 
Cb.aire, " V.'e have here a mighty work upon our hands, no lefs than t'le con- 
" verhon (>; tliree kinigdoms, and by that perhaps the utter fubduing of a peililent 
'- hcrefy, which has a long tin-.e domineered over a great part of this northern 
'' v/orld. Idiere were never fuch liopes of Ibccefs, Gnce the days of Q_iieen iVIaiy, 
' as !U)w in our days, (jod has given us a Trince," meaning the Duke, " who 
" i:. become (may I fay a miraclcy zealous of being the author and inftrument of 
""' fo g-orlous a work \ but the oppofition we are lV:re to mitt wdth is alfo like to 
^ ^ ^ " be 

* L\-.ir;C',. N'..::''i. [ NOi't'i. \ Burnet, Norlli, Trial;, 



CHARLES 



II. 



2"^! 



" be great : So that it imports us to get all the aid and allidancc wc can." In anoth;T C; 
letter he laid, " I can karcc believe mylelt awake, or the t!i ng real, wlien I chink 
* of a Prinze in f'jch an age as we live in, converted to kicli a dj.;_,rce ot /cal and 
'' piety, as not tu regard any thing in the world in comparilija ot dod AI;i,ighty's 
" S'^^V' ^'''^' kilvation ot Ins own loul, and the converfion ol our poor kir. ,d.(;n^.." 
In other palfages, tl^.e interells ot the Crown ot I'.ngland, thoicot f';c h'rc;, !i K :'.l;, 
and chole ot the catlujlic religion are Ipokc ot as inlVp.ira!;!e. I'lic P.:!..- -.s d;o 
laid to have connected his interelU unalterably with thofe oi Lew:-, i l.e Xing 
himielf, he afilrms, is always inclined to f ivour t'le Catiujlus wh ;i !;e n:ay d) it 
without hazard. " Money," Coleman adds, " cannot tail oI perhv.idin.., :':,e K;;ig 
" to any thing. There i^ nothing it cannot make him do, v.cre it e\\;r lo v.w:.]] 
' to his prejudice. It has loch an ablolute power over him, that h.e canncjt rdill 
" It. Logic in our court built upon money, has more powertul c!ia:m5 il-.a-. .my 
" other fort of argument." l-"or thele realons, he proj.HjIes to t.itiier la Ch.i,!e, 
that the French King fliould reniit tlie lum ot -,00,000 poinul-, on co:v;ition that 
the Parliament be dilu)lved ^ a mealiirc, to which, he lays c!ie Kirg was, ot hi n- 
lelf, fufficiently inchned, were it r^ot for the hopjs olObtaining moiiCy iiom tiiac 
allemblv. Ihe Parliament, he laid, had already conilrained the Ki;,g to make 
peace wid\ Holland, contrary to the interefls of tlie catholic religion, and ot hi> 
moll cluiilian majeity : And if they Ihould meet again, they woul 1 l" rvly engage 
him farther, and even to make war againll Prance. It a[^[^ears alio trom tlie lanie 
letters, that the allembling the Parliament fo late as April in the year 16;.-, Ivid 
been procured by the intrigues of the catholic and Prench party, w!k) tiierehy in- 
tended to fliow tlic Dutch and other confederates abroad, tliat t'u*y could expeel 
no afllftance from I'.ngland, 

When- the coriteius ot thefe letters were publicly k!'o'.\n, tiv.-y dnfi"i:;ed t'ne j\i- 
r.ic, Nsith which the nation began already to be lei/cd 0:1 axov.nt o: tlvj { op;:h pl-ic. 
Men reatuncd more irom their fears and their pafiion- t'l.in tri.'m tlu- evi-,!c;;cc be- 
fore them. It is Certain, that th.e aclivc and enterpri//;;^; 1,1:.!: 01 t>,c c,i:'.ol:c 
church, particularly of the iefu'.Ls merits attention, an 1 r-, in lo. 
ous, to every other communion. Such zeal ot proli-lytiiiii a :u 
its miflionaries have penetrated into every nation ot thj i^'v/je ; 
there IS a /'i:/'.yZ;/>.'6/ perpetually carried on againil a'! ihi'cs P: '-tela'.: 
Mahometan. It is likev.ife v.ry probable, tluc th.e co:v.\uV.)n ( : th 
the ia\-our of the King, had intpired the catholic pri' 1:.n wi: ; :i; w i.->;c 
inn m thefe illaiuis tiieir loll donnnion, and gave ii Jh \;_i''ar : > i lat 
/(.ai, by which they are commor.ly acuiat':d. P':v:i :inl a;: 
leration i a;id luch v.as the evidence, tliey be!..'. .-'., e; :'v. 

Voi.Il. ^^ 'J 



t:i 



:a:v;cr- 
r. ih.ic 



a;. 



Ki o: 
, P.. 
I). 



ate 



:) .jl'ia'.n a to- 
OiOgical t^.'x t ., 

t/.a:. 



282 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chrn V. that, could they but procure entire liberty, they mud infallibly in time open the 
^"''^' eyes of the people. After they had converted confiderable numbers, they might 
be enabled, they hoped, to re-inftate themfelves in full authority, and entirely to 
fupprefs that herefy, with which the kingdom had fo long been infeded. Tho' 
the/e dano-ers to the protePtant religion were very diOant, it was juflly the objeft of 
<Mt at concern to find, that the heir apparent to the crown was fo blinded with bi- 
siotry, "Hd fj deeply engaged in foreign intereils -, and that the King himfelf had 
been jTevailed wiih, from low interefts, to hearken to his dangerous infinuations. 
Very bad ccnfequences might enfue from fuch perverfe habits and attachments ; 
nor could the nation and Parliament guard againft them with too anxious a pre- 
caution. But that the Roman pontiff could hope to afTume the fovereignty of 
thefe kingdoms ; a proje6t:, which, even during the darknefs of the eleventh and 
twclith centuries, would have appeared chimerical : That he fhould delegate this 
auihority to the jefuits ; that order in the Romifli church, which was the mod- 
hated : That a maffacre could be attempted of the Proteftants, who furpafTcd the 
Catholics a hundred folJ, and were invefted with the whole authority of the ftate : 
That trie King himfelf v/as to be afTafTinated, and even the Duke, the only fupporc 
of their party : Thefe were fuch abfurdities as no human teftimony was fuflicient: 
to prove ', much lefs the evidence of one man, who was noted for infamy, and 
who could not keep himfelf, every moment, from falling into the groffeil incon- 
fillencies. Did fuch intelligence deferve even fo much artention as to be refuted, 
it would appear, that Coleman's letters were fulFicient alone to deftroy all its credit. 
For liov/ could fo long a train of correfpondcnce be carried on, by a man fo much 
truued by the party ; and yet no traces of infurredions, if really intended, of fires, 
n-iaffacres, afiaiTmations, invaHons, be ever difcovered in any fingle pafiiige of thefe 
letters ? But all fuch refle<;iions, and many more equally obvious, were vainly em- 
ployed againil" tr;at general prenoffeiTion, v, ith which the nation was feized. Oates's 
jd Jt and Coleman's v/cre univtrfally confounded : And the evidence of the latter 
being unqiK-ftionable, th.e belief of the former, aided by the paiT.ons of hatred and 
of terror, took pofTcaion of the whole people. 

TfiFRE V.MS dar.g'T however, left time might open the eyes of the public ; when 
the nvurrher of Goei.rLy conpleated the general delufion, and rendered the prciLidicej 
of the nation abfolutely niciwable. This magiftrate had been niifiing fon^.e days ; and 
after niucii learch, and m:iny furmizes, lii^ body vvns found lying in a ditch at Prim- 
role-Iud : l"he marks of /[lan'.'ling were thought to appear about his neck, and fbme 
CGnriifions on ids breafl : 1 ;:o own f'word was flicking in the hody , bLit a. iv) confi- 
derahle quap.tity of l;iood enfued on drawing it, it was concluded, that it had r;cen 
thvLil m alter his deach, and that he had nut killed himfelt : He had rings on hi;^ 

liiieei 



l-tl- 


. of 


ber. 




(.-; 


ii'c 


ir.u; 


:!w,r 



( II A R L } S 11. 



Infliors anJ. money in hi, {:;ockct : It w.r, tliciTtorr inferrcv', [:;,u !i" !m 1 r. ;r fallen 
into ih'- !i.in;'s oi r> Mxtn. Wicl.out f.wt'icr rrilor.i-,-, tl;-j cry ro!--, ih.it he h.a 1 
be. n al]ai!in.;'':d ^y th:' I'.ipiits <-i account (>! l.ii t.;k:n:^ ( atc-s'- f-'/.-r,-. This 
<'\\:v.'.)v.r Wa^ i.\'.\'.':\':v |'io-\i Mt;\!, ar'.d mvC \\'\:':\ ii!i:\-.: I ;! hc!:c'. TI.:' ; anic l"Ti-.i'! 
i'i '; on c\" rv l:i.;c v. it'i iclinirc i ajno;ty ; and ..!! riu-n, a'lon;:h;\i \'. .:!i :", .v.! 
z.Ar.\' d v'\:'.\ la'v, taw i:i Cn>i!iicv's late ail the hon ihlc t!.!;^::^ .;!, ; :' : r^) i!. 
Ca:;u)!;LS , dud no lait'ici' iloubt rr:n.v.iK\l '>! C),.:','>'^ w;-.i :tv. 1 /.e v-oi' 
V l;n'e nation ii!n:..(.l a^tnn.l that h.i'cJ Let ; a:\l no'\% ;'i,' a:.i': ['; :1m: [!. 
co^il-'iiacv .>.,..-> i'.'i'j'oU^l t') be no\'.- (li'uvu'ci-i, rv.en t:". !J. !:.ir e I'i y,:,..-. 
t';:r. rlrjw li'.'cs were yet in lati-ty. b",.iui !iOu:- t'/eimd -..itn r.e.v rn!::.;..; s ... .: : .- 
iii://.^. Invailons trom abr(;.:i.i, iiilmrecU'ips at li(;i:v, e-.c.n [eiwite [r.:.::\. . . :.:. '. 
I v/ilonin'.i;'^ wiie a.pprehcnJeJ. To deny the reahry (,t tiic pio: \v..s [o be .;. a: ; 
complice: i o heiicatc was crimip.al : Ro\a'ill, Republican ; Civn-ernr.an, ^e,:ar . , 
Courtier, Patriot ; ail paities cor.curreil in tl.e iJufi 'ii. T.'ie cl:y [)rej avc '. !or 
ckicnce, a- ii the ep^my were at its jMtes : J 1^' c;;ai;iv a.-ui polls we:e pi,: i.p : .\;,,i 
it was a [-.oteLi l.ain.i; ar tr.at tmie ot Sir ri'.omas b'Liver, the clian-.'^-: la:;-, ti-.at 
v.XTr it not tcjr tliele [M'ecautior.s, the wb.ule citizens miselit rile next iiiornin^ v,i;n 
their thiitiats cut ". 

Ix ord.er to propap^ate the p^opular fren/.v, leveral aitificc.^ were em[ loyc.h Yhz 
t'.ea,! body ot (io.lti'ey was canie.i into the city, attcnd.cd by vail r.uiititud'vS. !t 
was publickly expoled m the nrects,and vu-WLd by all ra:d-;s cjt nie:i; an.d evciy uw"^ 
\sh.o law it, wetu away inflamed, as well by the mutual cor.tai:ion (.>: 1 nrimvi/s, 



by the dilmal ipcetaclc itielt. The funer.d pomp w.is eel' 'nra: 



ed u:::i prc-at 

parade. It was conducled thro' the chiet llreets ot the city : ScWTity t'Ao i.h:.',v- 
nien marclved bctorc : Above a thoulandi j)erlbns of dillinciion io i-'W.d a:re; : ", d 
at the funeral fernv)n, two ab'e-bodied divmcs nuiunt.d the p' Ipit, .\:-.A lb ' i n 
rach fide ol the pieaelier ; leil, in paying the l.dl (d:!,;- to ti'i^ i.:.:-..'.p_ y !ri.:p\ ,;-..:e, 
hie ilvAild, b ( re th.e whole peo[ le, be ir.urt.'i.r: d by tiie bap::> . 

Ix thi^ dilpofitiop. (d the nation, realon eou'd no ir.o:;- be he.nd ''an a v.]..:, : 
in the iiikIiI ol the moll \'i(d.rnt IitirrKan:-. b v; n at lelii'.r, (i dii!'.'-- :r.. .:'.. : 
cannot upon any lylUm t\ ratio .ally .u^oun.t'd iur. I'ii.r r./\v,i-; a:-a'"".::a"- ; i . 
the L"ath(d;cs, leetiis utt'ily im; r. 1Mb!-. Tlv, !, r In,' I'.nls a) 
to commit that crinvj from p .:r.\ m o:\ier to th.ter ddi-.r m.p'.: :i 



; ... , I,,, 



.- "11, 

how 



a:i,,iinil tPirm. (iod:r,y'b lato 'Aas no w.iy c.'.p.i'^Ie d p ^i h.' ;::.: '- .' 
Uu it ^^:re pu!).;(.kly ki^.own, t'.at t'.e C\;du)i:es v. eiu hi - loi.::: . > ; > ; .. . > 
wiiici,, It was caiy to lorelee, mu i plow tlie rum c: '.p. ;r ; up . lk-..d 

N..ih. p. :... , ...... . .. 

O o 2 iv.r.:.\ 



2S4 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chnp. V. many maglftrates, during more than a century, had acted in the moft violent man- 
' " ner againft them, without its being ever fufpeded, that any one had been cut off by 
affaffination ? Such jealous times as the prefent were furely ill fitted for beginning 
thefe dangerous experiments. Shall we therefore fay, that the Catholics were pulhed 
on, not by policy, but by blind revenge againft Godfrey ? But Godfrey had given 
them little or no occafion of offence in taking Oates's evidence. His part waS 
merely an aft of form, belonging to his office ; nor could he, nor any man in his 
ftation, poffibly refufe it. In the reft of his condudl, he lived on good terms with 
the Catholics, and was far from diftinguifliing himfelf by his fevcrity againft that 
fed. It is even certain, that he had contrafted an intimacy with Coleman, and 
took care to inform his friend of the danger, to which, by reafbn of Oates's evidence 
he was at prefent expofed. 

There are fome writers, who, finding it impoffiblc to account for Godfrey's 
murther by the machinations of the Catholics, have recourfe to the oppofire fup- 
pofi.ion. They lay hold of that common prefumption, that thofe commit the crime 
who reap profit by it ; and they affirm that it was Shaftefoury and the heads of 
the popular party, v/ho perpetrated that deed, in order to throw the oaium of it 
0.1 the Papin.s. But if this fuppofition be received, it muft alfo be admitted, that 
the whole plot was the contrivance of thofe politicians; and that Oates afted alto- 
ther under their dire6lion. But it appears, that Oates, dreading probably the op- 
pofition of powerful enemies, had very anxioufly acquitted the Duke, Danby, Or- 
mond, and all the miniftry ; perfons who were certainly the moft obnoxious to the 
popular leaders. Befides, the whole texture of the ploc contains fuch low abfur- 
dity, that it is impoffible to have been the invention of any man of lenfe or educa- 
tion. It is true, the more monftrous and horrible the confpiracy, the better was it 
fitted to terrify, and thence to convince the populace : But this effe6l, we may fafely 
fay, no one could beforehand have promifed upon; and a fool was in this cafe 
more likely to fucceed than a wife man. Had Shaftefbury laid the plan ot a po- 
pifh confpiracy, lie had probably rendered it moderate, confiftent, credible ; and 
on that very account had never met with the prodigious fuccefs, with which Oates's 
trenie;:dous ficlions were attended. 

We muft, therefore, be contented to remain for ever ignorant of the acfliors in 
Godfrey's murtiier; and or. ly pronourxe in general, that that event, in all likelihood, 
haJ no connexion, one way or other, with the po()iih plot. Any man, efj)t:cially fo 
aaive a magiflratc as Godfrey, might, in fuch a city us London, have many encmie.s 
of whom !;is friends and family had no fufpicion. lie was a n.e.'ancholy - \n , and 
there i:> {'iw\<.^ rcafon, notwithftanding all the pretend.! ap^ earauces to the contrary, 
to luipeet tiiat he fell by his own hands. 'Hie affair was never examined with 

tran- 



CHARLES 



II. 



2S5 



wiry, or even common fend', (iLirini; the time ; ar.d ic is impoffibie for us, - 

.- i.i:!lancc, cciT:r.'ly to account iur it. 

No ON . v'uLi'i L-.d but the paj i!i> h.:d airiflninrrd GodtVey : but ilil: the particular 
actors vcrc- un'^p.ow n. A proclamation was ii!ut.d Sy thj Kin.;, oltc:i::.; a par.ioa 
and ti\L liuridrcd pouiuis reward to any one who wo'iid dilcuvcr th.em. As it wa"* 
aic^rwarJ.^ 'urmi/.-d, t'.iat the terror ol a Hke ailalncUtion wcjuld prevent i.il. o\'ery, 
a ir-w proclamatijn was ililied, jTomiiing ab!u!uce prote-t.i(.n t > a:-y o:.c who 
woui/i reveal die Iccret. Tiuis were indcmiiiry, money, ar.d llcurirv (iffcr d. to 
the tairtll bidder : Antl lU) one needed tear, during the i-relcnt i'jrv ^ t \v. peopic, 
that h;s evklcnce would undergo t(X) Icvere a Icrutmv. 

WdiM.i: tl'.e n./Lio:i was in this ferment, tiie Parliament was aflen-.lied. In liis-'- 
fpeech theKing toid tliem, that tho'they had given money for d:fb.inding the arnv/ '"", Yr. 
he had lound Flar.dcrs \o expofed, that he had thought it iiecellary lliil to k.ep:-..c. 
tlicni on tout, and doubted not but this mealure would me.t wi[h tiieir approba- 
t:on. lie iniornxJ, them, that his revenue Jay under great anticipations, and at 
bell was never equal to tlie conltan: and ncceirary cx{vi:ce of :h;- government , as 
\vculd aj^p(ar from the rtate ol it, which he intended to lay before tiiem. I lealfo 
nKiirroiied tl'.e plot, carried 0.1 ag.iinlt Iv.s iile by jefuits -, but laivl, that lie would 
iorb.ar diLvering any opirnon ot tlie matter, lelf lie lliould feem to fiv too much 
o;- too little , and tliat lie would leave the fcrutiny ol it entirely to the law. 

'1'h: King was a;i\'ious to keep the quellion of tf.e [)op^in-i plot from the I'arlia- 
ment, wliere, f.e lulpccted, many diefigriing peopic uouid very mi.eh abufe tlie 
prefert credulity ot tlie nation : I^.t Danby, who h.'.red tlie catlu/ncs. and courted 
p( pularitv, and [^'. rliar-s hoped, that tiie K;ng, it lii> iite was beiieved to be in dan- 
ger f:\-m the iefuit-, v.aa.id be !i":ore cordially iovcil bv tlie nation, had ePitert.iir.cd 



K.p V. 

I. ~6^ 






opp l/ie c;eiigr''S -, . 
the llou!e o\ Peer 



t' e \'c\' full ilay ot the lefllon, he o"cncd t!ie matter in 
'i'ire l\i: g was extremely dilpfafcd with this temeritv, and 
to;d !iis miiiitlir, ' 'J iu/ yor: do not believe it, you wiil fin.d, tliat y(Hi have given 
::die to i-'.hn \o'.,ri(. It. as well a- to dillL.rb all my ari".iirs ; 
!i\e to reren: 1:." D.uiby h i.l atr^rwardb luliicient reaf n 



'' clie i'ailia;-er:t a 
'' and you wdi 1;:.. 
to ;ipp!aiiLl the 

'J"n:, c ry ol the p/.ot V, as nr.me.ii.itely echoed from one I loufe to the i-;li; r. /^, 
d'i.e wrdlrt oi P.ii ;:.:n"!eiit g.we i,t;.J"L.v!i tcj that tu;\\ v.adi vdn* h the j-eo; ie '.'.(re''-^ 
;i:eadv ag::..tt,/l. .An ad.irels w.is vore.i for a li/em:- \,.[\ : A !orni of ppivcr WaS 
, ' -re 1 ' ; t:>.i: lersace , and b;.ca;!:e the pepdli p!i : ha : be :: omirtcd m tin: 

fnll 



.i.r.t. :i' 



t.\: :, : 



ir,c .:;.';'.!. 



.6b 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Ch:,-,. V. iHil ci' avight, it was carefully ordered to be indnted j left omnlfcience flioulJ want 

1 '<' i!:*- 'i' rr-nci'. :o uie the words of an hiitorian*. 

I;; order to continue and propagate the alarm, addreffrs were voted for fiich 
r;ii vTS as might dhcoyer the lionible confpiracy ; for the removal of popifli recu- 
IhniN ;:om London ; lor adiTiiihliering every where the oaths of allegiance and 
llipr^rracv ; for denying acccls at court to all unknown and ll;f:)icious perfons ; 
a- d :er rppoin in^ the train-bands of London and Weftminfler to be in readinefs. 
T!ic lords PovvIk, otaiiord, Arundel, Peters, and B':!ilar]s were committed to the 
Tower, an.d were foon afier impeached fi r high rreafon. And both Houfes, after 
learir'p, O.ues's evidence, vot-d, ' That tiie Ivords and Commons are of opinion, 
'' r'.iai: tr.ere hath been, and (lil! i?, a damnable and heliifli jdot, contrived and 
' carried on by the popiih rccuhincs, for aiia(Ihia:ing and murdering the King, 
' f.-r fubverting the government, and for rooting out and deftroying the protef- 
"' tar.t religion." 

So veb.ement were the Iloufcs, that they fat every day, forenoon and afterr.oon, 
on tlie lubjed: of the plot : For no other bufinefs could be adn^/itted. A com- 
mittee of L,ords were appointed to examine prifoners and witnefies : Blank war- 
rants were put int.) their hand ,, for the commitment of fuch as fiiould be accufed 
or fiifpccced. Oates, who, tho' Ids evidence wire true, muft, by his own con- 
feffion, be efteemed an infamous viilain, was by every one applauded, carefTed, 
and called the faviour of the nation. By the Parliament he was recommended to 
the King, lie was lodged in Whitehall, protedled by guards, and encouraged 
by a penfion of 1200 pounds a year. 

"Bcciloc's nar- ^^ "^^'^s not long before fuch bountiful encouragement brought forth new 
witnclTes. William Bedloe, a man, if poffible, more infamous than Oates, ap- 
peared next upon the ftage. He was of very low birth, had been noted for 
fevjral cheats and even thefts, had travelled over many parts of Europe under 
borrowed names, had frequently paflld himfclf for a man of quality, and had en- 
deavoured, by a variety of lyes and conrnvances, to prey upon the ignorant 
and unv.-ary. Wh.n he appeared before the couniil, he gave intelligence only of 
G(Alfrey's murther, which, he faid, had been perpetrated in Somerfet-houfe, where 
the QLiecn lived, by papifts, fonie of them fervants in her family. Lie was quef- 
tior-cd about tlie plot ; but utterly denied all knowlege of it, and alfo afTerted, 
thut he had no acquaintance with Oates. Next day, when examined before the 
Lordi' committee, he bethought himfelf better, and was ready to give an ample 

account 

* North, p. 2c;. 



rauvc. 



CHAR L E S ir. 2 - 

account of the plc^r, whi. h \\c to'.;;ul To ar.xiui.f.y cr.cju'rcd Ir.'.o. Tlr.s r.arr.i:i-.'c !.; t- 
m.idc to t.i'ly, as well as i.c cuiiKi. v, ::!i tiut oi (I.t s, v. hie\i ! .ul I. em j u'.^i '^. .' : 
But tliar liL' iViiu'at make liiinUlt ;iccc|'i.:bic : v iv. w :i.i". r:r.i:;tMi, !u' .1 '(':.: . , 
oriier cirL'.inillaiiCc-', and tiiol'/, liiil tiv re t;c:p.e:u'o'>.;s ai; ! v\':\ n"' ..:. i a: 
la;-i. t!i;i: ten r'.oulaiid 11/-11 were to In- i i:uled Itom Maiulers in [ji.: ;:!,.'-i , . i! v, 
a:: J inrredia': ly to U;i/e 1 lull : '1 li.it Jrrlev a;,vi ( jiic rnley wl re t > l^.- ii.r, ::._: i y 
lure.;. Iron- lirell i ana ii..it a Ir.i.ch llerr v. ere, ali li ' lumrre:-, lv)\-e:i:--^ ::i '' ; 
C:.a;ii el tor tliat puf} o;.- : '1 uat tlie lord-, 1\)-a:> i:\ : l\'e:-s v. ere ro fo-.r. ;;; a'lr.v 
in K.u'.noiihire, to be jijiiud 'oy anuilier ar-mv, c or. (lii'p: (>: 'v.-ci,rv er [;:".:/>,:- 
l^:..d :e:;;Mou5 n.cn ar.d pyrin's, wiiowere to !a:;,i at Mil'oi\i 1 law:, 'r^-v St. 
ia.ivj in Spain: 1 hat tlierc v.^re lorty lii Hilar. 1 nien readv i'i 1 .; '. '>...; !\' .'cs 
tn;.:e, w ho wou'J, ; n the alai m, be poded at o- ry a:e:;(ynle .: >.:. in ordr :n i^;'! the 
loldier:,, ..s they e.:n^,- (,nt o; thei- cniarters : '1 l.ar Ii^rh S:a::" rd, C\ d . .!: . ....d la- 
th, r livli .d !:ad n^ioney lu.de.cnt to de^av li.c ex; e: ee- u: a ! th..e .;. .:::. 's : 
Tn^.t lie hinddi" 'a a - to rec. :\ e Ic.i.v dioi :a:u! ; l..i.u-, a- ce^e th..t iw,.d; ..:-.i\a r a 
n:an ; a? all j a e /n:n:idi'.'n ironi Iv.rd Belh.Ii^, .;n.i a : ^nehi.L:on \:o:\^ the d( ;; : 
'I'h.iL t!;^- K-in;; v. a^ to b-e a:landia:eJ ; all t::e ih\;t dants niald:-;\d \.'.iO \. .;..dl 
IU;L diloi,i"!v be ton\ertebi die <.'/'\"ei linient ( _:;.d to o:, ::, ir' le w^.hd (\j:> 
lent to h'dd It ol :;i, clu.;-^.. ; b.,[ n ne llioi.h; : , ., d.a: eun..ii; n, as \\a- ;i:d 
p.eie :, the aiithority \\on!d be hit t > (.ertain l.^d muhr the ron.^a.id.n <;i hit; 
Poj ;. in a fubdqiient exandnation I\ :oie t!,e i'o'VAV.r, s ]'> >.l; / ..e.h .i ;er d...h 
n:^n ah.'/av^ iToiiLiht (Jiit t:i_n- n't ! i\'-:-L: lae;. .dv^-lv anh by : d -::, .-. v.a: Ijid 
Cani::!;:o:i v. as alio in tiie eonlplracy !^'r raihr ; rven and :.j. ; b . ', 

vernni; nt i as v.-a'> hhe\s he bnal 15ri:thaich 'I h, :e licl 1 n" , . h hi' t r ; ; . : .. 
mention,. 1 by Ij- d!oe, v.arc iiiiniLdar^ly comnili.ed to cnhoi.v- 1 v d.e i'a;nan;:;.: 
Ir lo remarh.d'e, rliat the o;dy v l urce c^i 'p.nn, in h,:' , : '< * b, a;;.: ., .- 
dnion, I. .V in ti;e abidance o! b.ii^d.m . , .n..; .w ;.., i,,/m b.i: ..-aai.o/ m 

traiii'i o:t ten tl^a-laid men b : tlie i.iv.ili -n (.! :,:at h.:. v.oni, be. :.;n;^.hi. :en 
anb obciiied 1' eel nil lo!\a > t oe i.ni: in:o d.e y.n . i:o, ^ .1 b l.i: >' r-, vd;;.>i v. ''e 
!"! .c odieiuile ab;e to de:ei;b the!i,:r.\L> ..^_a;.,: . 1 'a i , I . adi [ a v. e 

na^y (b),eiA-e, v, e:e, at that \a. :-y ::n,e, a. ^ 1 v .: _ ... 1 . . . :a: 

iepp; k\\ to be fi::pa,:_d in tb.- I.nae . . . .: . a u- 

ti\a'- v.ere lac^aiie t!.e lo.e a.;.u.,*;. ';'_: ' 

thele cn\i,n,bianee-, ho'Aevar ( bx'a.a^. 

Y ; d horro:., ant;.a.^h;e , aab : :ab.,b . - 

T-alice; b't>r U.eli tbe v.bsl;.- r.aiajn \. :, ,. ' i ' _ - 

I ..ilLd ! a" n.i (aerlhble : /\ik; i.ad i.' ; 
pa:ib]i!n-'.t ot t' e:c eiinnnad, t!-eL..b. . .: ' - ' .; 



233 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. V. an univerfal maflkcre. The torrent indeed of national prejudices ran (o high, that 
^^7^- no-one, without the moft imminent danger, durft venture openly to oppofe it ; 
nay, fcarce any-one, without great force of judgment, could fecretly entertain an 
opinion contrary to the prevailing fentimcnts. The loud and unanimous voice of 
a great nation has mighty authority over weak minds; and even later hiftorians 
are fo fwayed by the concurring judgment of fuch multitudes, that fome of them 
have efleemed themfelvcs fufnciently moderate, when they affirmed, that many 
circumftanccs of the plot were true, tho' fome were added, and others much mag- 
nified. But it is an obvious principle, that a witnefs, who perjures himfelf in 
one circumftance, is credible in none : And the authority of the plot, even to the 
end of the profecutions, flood entirely upon witnefles. Tho' the Catholics 
had been fuddenly and unexpededly detefted, at the very moment, when their 
confpiracy, it is laid, was ready to be put in execution , no arms, no ammuni- 
tion, no money, no commiliions, no papers, no letters, after the moft rigo- 
rous fcach, ever were difcovered, to confirm the evidence of Oates and Bed- 
loe. Yet Hill the nation, tho' often fruftrated, went on in the eager purfuit 
and confident belief of the confpiracy : And even the manifold inconfiftencies 
and abfurdities, contained in the Narratives, inftead of difcouraging them, ferved 
only as farther incentives to difcover the bottom of the plot, and were confidered 
as flight objedions, which a more complete information would fully remove. In 
all hiltory, it will be cifficult to find fuch another inftancc of popular frenzy and 
bigotted delufion. 

In order to fupport the panic among the people, efpecially among the citizens 
of London, a pamphlet was publifhed with this title, *' A narrative and impar- 
*' tial difcovery of the horrid popifli plot, carried on for burning and deftroying 
" the cities of London and Weftminfter with their fuburbs ; fetting forth the fe- 
'^' veral confulrs, orders, and refolutions of the jefuits, concerning the fame : By 
" captain William Bedloe, lately engaged in that horrid defign, and one of the 
" popifli committee for carrying on fuch fires." Every fire, which had hap- 
pened tor fcveral years paft, is there afcribed to the machinations of the jefuits, 
who propofe^, as Bedloe faid, by fuch attempts to find an opportunity for the ge- 
neral mairarrc of the Protcflants ; and in the mean time, were pleafed to enrich 
themfclves by pilfering goods from the fires. 

The King, tho' he fci upled not, wherever he could ufe freedom, to throw the 
highcfl ridu ule on the plot, and on .>11 who believed it , yet found it neceffary to 
adopt lUv popular opinion before the Parliament. The torrent, he faw, ran too 
ftro " t( h( controuh d ; and he could only hope, by a feeming compliance, to be 
able, after foaie time, to guide and d'nxO: and elude its fury. He made therefore 

a fpeech 



c^ II A R L j: .^ il. 



2-9 






. V. 



(. ,. 



b' ' ' 



I ,-.. . v\ ..;!, rj ]v^;:i \. ;::i i.;. m^ \:\ a.. :;.v.i;>;, : ;r ini. .';..: i; m; i;^^ pr. ;..;.!.. ;;-.:^i.. 



o: !.; 



. ' , .', ..(J ill : ..;.:,! ! ,A .! a;,A c :. , . o.. ;. r.i . .. . .. > ^. . 

; , > > ixj' ' a:-, ;i noiiii;!^ (.[ :!.l- v!.;-;rc:-LC l! {;.! .:..'r.'....... 

I ,.,,, . .\ bi.i \'.a-> H.irotl'J^t ci lor a i..\'/ icit, \s li.it.- |:-'i' -rv w...-^ i :'_:'. .;! ; ..:. J 

I .' .\::\- ; a;:-i ail iiicnil).!':-, v.iio rriulv.i i:\\\ t. il, \vj: c ^ x^.^.i^vi l;>.:!i 1: 
"i \j i Hi ^m^'aI t!;c Cu:n:!i ii . uirliOLiC huilIi o[i[:.)!::; >:; ; h\ii \.\ :!.(.' i^ : c-- i ^v,. 
tl:^ 1)lj1:c mwVL.:, li^u an cxcCj;::on r \.ht i:c a.l:i::[;.,\i iii i:s :.:\ >.,:. \\ i:.i 
SMC .: car..eilnL';:, anu ;. v^ ii v. .i!i l^.m-- in ..is ^ vi.'>, i;^ loiJ :iuin, liiar \\: \-. .;.-, ;:o.v :o 
(..ill l.i'iilcii o:i [iicir '^i:; !ik1n, hi c!;.. ;j;rc.i:.:l LO:;^L'rn, v, !,:,!; \\-:i .\...ia l:avc i:i '' 
wurlJ i an i :;<: ^Totrllc.i, iliat, \.ii.i:cvi.r !.- r;-;:',:v_;i :.'' 'i: \-l\ i: ;i.v>..L; (j:.i_, ; 
a [iriwiLi.- iii;.i;-, b^lwccn Cj.,d an . hi- own loul, and i^l vcr !"!:.-:. id aj.pa.' in !.., 
\ i.i'ii^ ru.^.i.i.L. '''uLv, itiill.iiKlKi.j; t!ii; !l;v)-v; (_i:l).r, m !o i:n:\;::...:L a }''jin:, b: 
r:\:\'a;icJ ;.[ily by ^'^v ) \-o.c.' ; a lu:i.cicnL inJ:j:::io.i (;[ t;-? [VJi'.irai ^: ij'jKii^jn 
rbc I i)\'.c. " I Nvoi.id n.jt Imvc," liiid a n.'!^i i'..:r, ii :i,j >.::b..u- i.n :!;: 
'' [ ) n,;.c!i :.s a p' j:;.h n.aii or a jioia.li v, ( ni ui r^ > i uiiain iiCir ; m ; 1 > nu.. .i . : 
' : i.n (.!), or a i^Oj ;:h b\:v\\ ; no: io nv.. ii a- a poj,i;!i c.i: Co yv.v {.^r ir.cv.- a!-.j .: 
' Lii, Kin^,."' \\ ha: ;s iy,o:c cxtraordin.n y, t!,i.. l[)CL^h n:c: '.vi:!! [\ ..nj a;:.; a, - 
J ;'ubaii(jn, 

;' by t!. ;;;.:;, ral iin'v, t!..' '.s-i::.CH^ :; \'.\r: :li I a ;". y :.:;[;:.:- 'n :,: ': 

.. .. .. i ti.o' r-;:i; O.U;-, a:..l IL.ii.:.: !....!<. m.'. -rX li.a: t .. : v, a . 

;. J (. . j -: ;\.n (.; d :!i!i ;.;:!, \\ li'i;n the I.n^v,- :,) i :::!':. : ',-,:':.:: 



- ;-. ;... L\\,.i the (.^i. . 
i..!.-...^n .L^.iii.:. 1-.! n .. ... i - i.i". 1 :u L'-n:::';';: , ;.. 
( c.i..: n..r.^c t') this K .. :h..h),:'- ..:Li.I.ih,;.. ; 1)',.: ii;e ! .' 



\'.:t:! to u.Jin m tao aiO.ui 



. :is (.;; tn; 
, , p, '": jiv no y!'t.at a ,i .a .. t./ i..-. c - 1;.:. 
. , : .i:.' t V, .; \>j n;^:cii L, i^a;, 'k: 1 n.il 
r th ' h o iv ai's oi i.':<. y-f>yi . 1 ..; 
r h . hi !noJi la^hi'a:.-, i, i 



1 '1 



I 



290 HISTORY OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 

C:!-^'^- y- norwithfir.n'i'r.g nil alluremeiits of pleafure, or intercft, or fafet/, had the generofity 
''''"' :o protect l^is injured conforr. '' They think," lliid he, " I have a mind to a 
" new wife : bii: for all that I will not fee an innocent woman abufed *." lie 
iirmediarely ordered Oates to be ftritflly confined, feized his papers, and dif- 
rr.iired his fervants ; and this daring informer was obliged to make applications to 
['ariiiiment, in order to recover his liberty. 

Du;uNG this agitation of men's minds, the Parliament gave ncv/ attention to 
tlv: militia ; a circumftance, which, even during the times of greateil tranquillity, 
van never prudently be negledted. They pafTed a bill, by which was appointed, 
that a regular militia fhould be kept in arms, during fix weeks of the year, and a 
ih.ird pnrt of tlicm do duty every fortnight of that time. The popular leaders 
probably intended to make ufe of the general prejudices, and even to turn the 
arms or the people againft the Prince -[-. But Charles rcfufed his afi^ent to the bill, 
and told the Patliainent, that he v/ould not, v;^ere it for half an hour, part fo far 
with the power of the fwurd : But if they would contrive any other bill for order- 
i: g the militia, and fl:iil leave it in his power to afTemble or difmifs them as he 
thought proper, he would willingly give it the royal fanftion. The CommonSj 
diiratibficd with tlfis negative, tho' the King had never before employed that pre- 
rogative, immedidcclv voted that ail the new-levied forces fiiould be difmilTed. 
'i hey paffed a bill, granting nionty for that fervice; but to fhew their extreme 
jcaloufy of the Crown, befides appropriating that money by the flricStefl claufes, 
they ordered it to be paid, not into the exchequer, but into the chamber of Lon- 
don. The Lords demurred with regird to fo extraordinary a claufe, which threw 
a violent rehedlion on the King's miniflers, and even on himfelf j and by that 
means the aft rcrnaiiied in fu [pence. 

/rr -r:ti'n of It v/as no wouoer, th^at tlie pjrefent ferment and credulity of the nation engaged 
1 .ua y. j^,,,j^ ^f ipJanicu? charafter and indigent circumftances to become informers ; when 

pcif'on? of rank and condition could be tempted to give into tiiat fcandalous prac- 
tice. Mont.-.gue, the King's ambaflador at Paris, had procured a feat in the lower 
Lloulei and without obtaining or afking the King's leave, he fuddcniy came over 
into lMig!a:.(h Ch.nlcs, fufpeitlng his intention, ordered his papers to be feized j 
but M^.nta^uc, who f^r^law this meafure, had taken care to iecrete Oivj paper, 
which he innrc.liately laid b; tore the Houfe oi Commons. It v/as a letter from 
the trca ur^T Dan.by, v\T(.[e at the heginning of the year, durii^g the negotiations 
.'It Knnegi'.en f.r the geii.eral | eace. Montague was tliere (' reded to make a 
d(. Hi-^n^l (ji^ n;oney , or in other words, the King was williiig fccret'y to ft '1 his 
gcuel o;r;ees to Lianec, ccntiary to the general interefts of tl;e confederates, and 

even 

* ".''crt;!.',: T''..-'.r,-'cr.. p. i86. f Burner^ vol. i. p. 437. 



C II A R L i: S II. 



2ql 



even to tl'.ofj of 1)!S own kin<nlon-.-. T he IctUT, a.-norv: ot'^.er jMiiici.'p.rs cont/.in^ C 
Tiy.-fc words : " In c.il^j t!:!j o'ldiiions (j1 j;.-.k:-.' fiM'i bj accc-pteJ, {'m- Iviir: cxjums 
' iM hivc l;x n.iiiioiiS ol \:\r^-^- :\ yc,\r iir t;i:c;- year-, !;(';n ihi- tin::- &.: liiis a-;;cc- 
*' n.;:iit Ih.i'! b-' Tii^ricd Let wen liia Majt-llv ar.v! t!ic :\;".: (;i F. ai-ct." ; b-'M'.:ll' it 

*' will [ fwlubiy be two or tlure years bi-iorc \\v: I'.i: ^ irnc.i: v.:!i [ i \ ] - 

*' to L'ivc lH:n any l':;^;.!!cb niter the nuk::'!^'; or . : y y.-':'c \':ii\\ ] ;.n.:c , .. 
" an-: ballad or livre has abvvay.s aj.^ieed to t '.at {i.'.v. \ \y. : y.::: lor lo .):)_7, .. :\,v. "' 
Daiiby was lo iinv i;i::v; to en^.i-e iii t:ns i,-^; )::a: i-:-, tiiat tl^e is. n;;;, l . i ^'i 
Iiim, lu'.:i"::K'd \M:h his own hatid thele v...;.'.,; ^- ] ;..> le-.:v;i> ... : ' . .-.-.y . 
*' (': r, C. K." 

'I'm- Commons w..-re inilan: :d v.iLh t!v,^ ::-::\'.\!2.ci::c ; ^nd cA\r--'.::r t' ir \..\ -,- 
cions mjch iarther than t!ie t/utli, rh.v ccnS/.i ed, ti',:.r ti.'e ivi:, ; . 
adcd in concert with the I'rench ccirt, and. ti'at c\\.:\ it ^>, w.d^.. ;. . . .. 

in conjunction wi:!i the al !;.s, liad b.- n idulo:'. a-^d J -v-r.h Ij/.\. ... 
tin^^ to the bo' torn ti lo ni'i^oii -.nt a lecrct, ;i:;.i i-eiri; ; L;d; -d ; y l).;;:b;.' ;, 
roLis encnnts, they ;mmi. iiately voted an nw;::acinp::;;r wi h-^.ii [.\... 
that miniller, ar.d lent up lix articles to the ] h uib o. bceis. 'J ::. .j .' ' 
That he had traiter(niriy en:j,ruired to hnn!:;! r f^.d pow.r, by .,iv::-^ . 
to i;:.s majoity's andjaliadors, withoi.L Liit j-ari.t iyat;, n c: b.:.- \\t. :'. .: , 

or tbiC 'M'ivy c uned : That he had traiteroudv er.be. ivo'-icd :o ;i..>v :: [[]- ; , . 
irent, and introd.uce .-.rbiLrary power-, an. I to biiat end, !: id b . ..d ai..' ^. : :,.:.' 
an army, coiurary to act or Parji.irr.ent : Tha: !\- b.ad tr.'iteroib.b,' .;.b:'... . , 
abienate tb^e afic^cions oi Ins ALijelly's lub;eets, by negot;.:b -<; .\ chla-b.-... 
peace with b'rar.ce, an : pnAUiinjj, ir.oney tor- i'..'.: purpide: T.iU :u^ . . ; 

abetted, ?.r.^ had ir.wteroi.by cun^.e. d.d, ait.r 1 : \\.u: ncbee, ''..:: \ .: b 

bloody [)K..r, contrived by ihj japiils a;ai,,d lii;, A! ;<;!. 's ;:,:; ..' ; 

'bn.;t iie b>;d waded r';e K::i;;\ w-. ab;;-e : Ard ih.n '.'..'. I o- 

t.bmrd levcral cxorbitau: gv.n.is irom ti.e CYov.n. 

br is certain, tliat tlv: rr,,.!L,:-r;-, in [dvi:v; inili i.l1;(.::; lo '''.'. 
cxce.ded tlie bounds ol b;^ o;nce ; ar, 1 as {':\c [V'-'-^ ^ ' -^ ^'" 
rriicd, requires, tb.it the pr(,per udnbAr d:;-nid ' ' ,. . ' ' 
J jv,er, the Conv::ons, tli;/ b;ey i^.re .dva:::" .1 : 
laeUilelves by the utihty .md iv.w ;ieceili:y c..! r. i 
riuir';e a^.iinll Daid^y \s,:s \'e."V hi ;; o;,;; :.d. . 

the ilo'd.- "t 1 "ids, nut o:dv ib .r >' .n: : , 



'..',. r eXiienvly .r ., rle t(j "die nitv.'c'.is ' 
I , I'i^i UiadLr, ..n'-l to i.is ...:; i: . ']',, 



igz II I 3 T O R Y c F G II E A T B R n^ A I N. 

^-' ' ' t ; 'r'^e;', a:; \\?. v;a': crtiiiniy inf^Drmcd, the highcn: contempt, both of the Kinp'.^ 
^''- '' f/:^-!sn ;.;:.;] ;y ..vcPiiir'.nr. 1 5!S diiip:ence, he addeci, in ti'acing and cilcovering tiie 
;,; \'h I 1 }', V as ^^cncialiy known ; and ii' he had common lenle, not to iay com- 
:: .-. h:.;-:'r\ i;e woi.id idrcly b? anxious to preltrve the life of a mafter, by whon'i 
h: V, a-: H) much favoured. lie had wafted no treauiie, becaufe there was iio trea- 
lV.:-e 'lo V, uaie. And tho' he had reaibn to be grateful for the King's bourjty, he had 
n::.'de more moderate acqnifitions than were generally imaginedjand than others in 
his o.Tce liad often done, even during a fnorter adminiftration. 

I'iii: I loufe cf P^crs plainly faw, that, allowing all the charge of the Com- 
:-:":Oi!S to be true, Uanby's crime fell not under the ftatute of Edward tfie third ; and 
:h^.' the words, trcrfc^i and !rc:iterciif.y^ had been carefully ful^joincd to fcvera! ar- 
t;:;;a, this appeh;:djn C(;uld i;ot alter the na;.ure of things, or fubjefl him to the 
; .: r'.ies rnnexcd to that crime. They refufcd, therefore, to commit Danby upon 
; 'y.-:. .r.eg-dar chritge : The Commons infixed on their demand j and a great con- 
ic;! v-rs idiely to arilc, vrhcn the King, who had already obierved fufficicnt iiulanccs 
" '' -"'^'- (Frhe iiidiumour of tl^e Parliament, thought proper to prorogue them. This pro- 
, rog;::;',.n \r.is fbon after fjllowed by a diilblution ; a defperate remedy in the prefent 
, c'dVofLion of t!-e natirn. But the difeafe, it muft be owned, the King had reafon 
' t ; .A cm drfrerate. I'hc utm.oH: rage had been difcovered by the Commons, on 
i.z^::^x:X cS i he popi!h ph.-^t ; and their fury began already to point againft the royal 
h.'-;-i!^\ if not a^alnfl; the T'hrone itielf. The Duke had been ftruck at in feveral 
irfK'r:-.;- : Tlie treafurer had been impeached: All fupply had been refufed, ex- 
ec p: en the mod: diliig-'ceable conditions : Fears, jealoufies, and antipathies were 
c'/ry day multijdying in Parliament : And tho' the people were ftrongly infefted 
V 'ch rhe iame prejudices, t'le King hoped, by diilblving the prclent cabals, that a 
f.: cA men miglit be clioien, more n:oderate in their purfiiits, and lei's tainted with 
the v'riAnce of faclion. 

to a period a pariiarnent, wliich had fate during the whole courf^ 

or.c year cxceptcch Its conclufion was very difTerent from its coni- 

.1. ihd.v.': e'.crAui during th;: joy and feflivity of the refforation, it con- 

!:]': cr/iiicly of rojudills ~, v/h.o v.-cre difpofed to fuppor: the Crown 

iiir; r.hiry, which die iiabir-; olT'iat age would permit. Alarmed by the 

di I'm- c", tiiey uradually vdthdrew their confidence from tl',e Kin:'' ; 

'.;; rfiU! hill to jv^r'c>,';;re in a foreign intcreil, they proceeded todifcover 

oi the rr.r-'l r',:ira:t.(;ry and njoft jealous dili)o{ition. The p')j)iili plot 

rr. h^'vcjud ail bounds cf moheration ; and before t'leir difibluiion thev 

': f.re.idirig fu'l in the loot-flcps of the lall long Parliament, on v;ho:e 

;.v t' :;-./ a: [iiiL ideli violent blame. In all their variations, tir.-v iu.J 



i : 

r 

G. r . 


;u r ' 


r^' .Tif 


, U " T' u 



C II A R J. r s 



TH.L-iic liitcTvll t'.. in by any cuitlj: c (.rr:iv\i:c i:i::-.ci;.v. 



I"), .i;:(. tlx ik;i:-i: o: t;ic 



^ ,..,,! .,;', 



tli: r;;a's (.1 ihc {'rctcixlcd c:"in:!;i.i!'5 \\c:c cirri, ;I ' r, ; 



I , 






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'"I 



t. n;o!c ui'l: i:\;:-;] :, "..i 



b;.;ot:.-! i^rr'^!^':'.^ ^, C icir.iM, tl-c n:L;l o');:ox;oub o: t'.;! co..: : - 
bro'-iji'ir r ) !i!^ tii :!. 1 1;^ IctUTs v,t r.- [ n;; irc-t! .:^'..i::.: ..'..::. '[.. 
liC ininlcii conicllcJ, n^ucn i:ul Icrction : Bi.t ui.lv;-> lo :.ir a-, i: i 
/.m!uus Catholic, they Lc:n to yr^w r.oiiw: :i rrinvin.i;, ir.iKli !v!'. :. ., 
iiim. Oat>--^ai;J Hcviloc r.v;j:c, ti'a: i:: i..;.i :-i'C(.i'.\d a coivnyii; ,::. , 
li:pcrior oi liic iJui:^, to be rapa: Iccrvt.'ry ol bate, ..ad i.a.i c a . . 
pcilunin^, lhoo:!ii:j;, .a;a L.>a .a^ th^ a;,:^; : Ma !;a.i c . va. a. .. ..._ 
dcpubt: a:, aav.aia^a a ^^;.'n.a fa rroirotc tiiuic bit/..viy i : : ^ ^.:.<. i ., 
lacs wtrc ab, c aao-.:...:.-! v.aba ca.a |a-v il.:-> Lorirai.,cJ ia ia.i Ict^:^ , .lab, 
rca:,a\'' d iba:: ;a.e oi c;^a:!i. 'i !.c ha:c!.cc v.ab i^> ai .wter ^xccafv! a 
I b,- la ;l::a\: \-aia caia^iacii an.! .a ab aaay, .a^d ' j :'..: iall [a . aa .a :., :'" . 
J aou il.a; a..-> la .as iaa^cuaic. 

(, 'oi, i: 'aaa's cavCatica v/as laaccca: a i_.y l;:c ti bb ^'f [; rLaib, v, i . 
b.ib iiaajb, toa tiicr v/irli iba/ cluits. t .c c;:a.;t lalc'vc t ; aa.iabii.i 
Cirovc aaJ I'icktaaag, v. ba aab a: uc; taiv(.a to !b;\''' iarr, wcia tri.b ar tia; 
The only \vi:rcl]c:, a.;aiailtba: laaai^rs v.arc bai' b:^ 
iJ, La..t bj \'.ai^ ia '^t.-libaaiiai/: 'b! t!.a nioata (. ; .. 
Lvibca. a aiav'c lam a; I .- . la paj\ ^b ii:> aaer.. 

!a;vc pr^'/.b it by anbu:.' a:a ; iaiJ be aot, ir^.l a.i, 
1 p.iAai, (;: .al i.. > i : a.. . .. . a, ., ,aa. .:..aCw t 

\:\ taalj n^aa, lai^a'c ib.v .a-,- '. 



L i;.a 



J? aa,^ 



1 p. 



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!..;r, a taaa v 
i;o a cviJ,' 

.^ba,b;.nb 



a bat' 



t: . K 



O. 



a la... 



i'- 



a .: :(>".' i i v ,aa. : ; ,. 
ar tbapa.aacr^ a. 
. a: tb.ii- \-, iaaale:, .a 
.:rab. lb; .- 
. I i c i y . , . 
a. ^ .'vacc, '. 






294 li 1 S T O R Y OF GREAT B R I T A I N. 

Anvi when the jiu-y brought in their verdift aguinfl the prifoners, he faid, *' You 
' luive done, gentlemen, like very good fubjecls, and very good ChriHians, that 
'' is to fay, like very good ProteRants : And now much good may their 30,000 
" rnaflcs go ihem." Alluding to the niaflls, by which Pickering was to be re- 
v.ardeu for muidering clie King. All tliefe unhappy men went to execution, pro- 
rciling their innocence; a circumftance, v/hich made no im.prefiiGn on the fpefta- 
tors. The opinion, that the jefuits allowed ol iicr, arid mental refervations for the 
promotion of a good caufe, v/as at this time fo univerfally received, that no credit 
was given to tellimonys delivered either by that order, or by any of their difciples. 
]r was forgot, that all tljc confpirators, engaged in the gun-powder-treafon, and 
Ciarnet, the jelliit, among tlie rell;, had irecly on the fcalFold made confefiion of 
tl:rir guilt. 

Tho' Bedloe had given information of Godfrey's murder, he ftili remained a 
fip.%k evidence againil the perfons accufed , and all the alluremems of profit and 
honour had not as yet tempted any one to confirm the teftimony of that informer. 
At lail, means were found to compleat the legal evidence. One Prance, a filver- 
fmith, and a Catholic, had been accufed by Bedloe of being an accomplice in that 
murder -, and upon his denial had been thrown into prifon, loaded with heavy irons, 
and confined to the condemned hole, a place cold, dark, and full of naflinefs. Such 
rigours werefuppofcd to be exercikd by orders from the fecret committee of lords, 
particularly Shattelbury and Buckingham ; who, in examiriiig the prifoners, ufually 
employed (as 'tis faid, and indeed fufiiciently proved) thrcatenirgs and promifes, ri- 
gour and indulgence, and every art, under pretence of extorting the truth from them, 
l^rance had not courage to refift, but confeffed himfelf an accomplice in Godfrey's 
murder. Being af!<ied concerning the plot, he alio thouglit proper to be acquainted 
v;ith it, and conveyed fome intelligence to the council. Amiong other abfurd cir- 
cumftancc?, he faid, that one Le Fevre bought a fecond-hand fword of him , be- 
caufe he knew not, as he faid, what times v/ere at hand : And Prance, cxprefTing 
fome conc-rn for poor tradefmen, if fuch times came-, Le Fevre replied, that it 
would be better for tradefmen, if the catholic religion v/as reftored : And particu- 
larly, that there would be more church work for lilver-fmiths. But all this infor- 
mation, with regard to the plot as v^'ell as murder, Prance folemnly retraced, both 
before the King and the fecret committee: 7\nd being again thrown into prifon, 
he was induced, by new terrors and nevv' fuiierings, to confirm his iirfl information j 
UihI Vv'as nov/ produced as a fufncient evidence. 

1 liLi., Green and Berry were tried for Godfrey's murder; all of them men of 
lo.v Uatiwu. Hill was fcrvant to a piiyiician : Tlie other two belonged to the po- 
piih chapel at Somerfct bioufe. It is needlefs to run over all the particulars of a 

loni? 



c II A R L r s n. 



jt^n'^tri.i! : Ic v.i'l bj funicierit ro lav, tint B.-(t!'!c\ cv'/'^.c^a- d Vi\::- v\ vc-q \r. < ' r '''' 
nvmv ( ir/iuiillar.r s tor.iliy lrrcc(j.-.ciaM''!'j , tl'.:t: [-(jili ol ii,'-!p. !:.: (v,;rv.! 'jri.i.r l.:> 
I'Tmou .:;iM i.li;!ki;kic:s, not to lav {zro:s a'-li.r.:::i.s ; an.; t!:..: r.v\ were ::,v..:i- 
{JitCvi bv coiiiriiV t^ulrncc, wliic'u is ah(j ;cr.';-. . co;ivii-.C'nij;. 1)..' ai! v.'.is i:i %\;;.:. 
'i'h- pr:! );-icrs v,'-:\' con^l-mned an;i rx rutc i. 'I'lv^y :i^' I'viiicd ilu;:- ", :' : .:L -i.vir " 
c::r';'":o:i , .-i;.! as Ik rry tlicv! a Prot llaiir, this circiinilancc wa rv:;'.; ' : ..i \\:v 
co:i!! !c:\i!-)Ic : 15':t iiilkad o; :nvin-^ l'):iv cIkv': to :h.: gvncr.i! vrcJ,.. iv "j :'.- 
])ei'. 'r, nv r. v.\ij f)r,lv 1l::-[i: i/.cd, t!..t a ['rLtcllawt coL.i.i !;c i:,. !..'._.'. ..: 1,!^ i!c '.'.ii 
to pcrliil 1:1 [j marii!,:!. a tal.:ioo.i. 

A', tlic anr.y couM ncit'aer be krpr up, nor cViiliaivIc! v. ic'icj.t nvi; .. ''. . !\; '-, 
however little liopcs he couKI cntertai ; oi iv.o::: ei):ii- '.Miice, ioj:v: ',::.. 
to iuninioii anew Parli.Mi":' :,t. 'i"!"ie b! (k1, alivady Ihecl o:; aju;'..:^: < : i e p 
p'.cr, iiiu. :..'. C! !a'i itiiig :!ie peojde, !'.r'e.(.l (.::': as an ::iee:::i'.'e t ) tluir 
ea' !i >:on\ ietion (jI a cri. ":;::;..! ^va> h;:':- 1 ' o ; rvarc'ed a'^ a new j :v ,; ,/ :', ., .. 



N-- ,- I 



c!.f:.:n?, nl^ri ccl t'j i!ie i'aj ills. 



tlee-ion is 



'r^ .... ..,.t 



1:1 : 



'V a \' 



wh:eh, [Ince 'b. :eo;i"::v:.nc:.Vienc v)! t!-:e MonarJu', ha.i b e!i C.::";':.\i ; :; bv 
cintcb bet'.v;x: tb^' pa:ti;s a;ni \v;.. re the ceu.t mttreiled irillr, :o .. :.i.i;; v! ; :ce, 
:,, t;.. ^ bo.ee o! the na: ;()... .^ repre:ei:[.;: : w;,. l!i.t ail its ibb. :^; w. : . ,:-^..:.. .], ;.,.;;- 
pobbfi.^ r ^ :!.e t' a-re;:: ot i;;:. ('..bue^ v. .,. !i jrt \-.nleb. Kei,^!;i(>n, ib;.i :.-, j o:,\; : .-, 
evei. i;-.: iiv^s c;i ir.^w v.\rc fkav b.pp^ohb; to ;\ at ibibe , aiid i.vi !ee..i-.:v, i: u.:^ 
the:.n,b , cxeent in a vii^iiant Ibi; lian:ent, n^ibu lie tooiui ..[iv.i.'l the nnnn .>^ a.,ci 
IboOviy conrj\. .it.i 



\\ ( re there aiiy part oi ti^e !;a:u;n, t'j vbbcb il^e ..-rn.en". oe, a- 



inj.nec 



i !-v liie [:on;."b 'vr. !^ab not a^ et prop.i.- red itled ;, tlvj ne .v c ;, ei 



n- tene A 



t\\vcir-r-\y to :^ read bn' f.irt'iti- and ^imi. !< :!u- -;.' rai aj.blern.ib :^ A/ L!:e n;..bo[3 
; : b.-- !^:.nfr b nn '.i'~' n' 'Acrr re-e'..'.:e : Nb .'. o .e> v.ei'e .ivld.d. : I n. Ibebiv.:, i ;,..--; 
:a pM-::eib :r, b. ;n^ 'r.-nipmrcd \\\:\\ t;iv- ri^wd i ,v. :;t.>:^' an:ij .tby .,' ni^ii p.) t ;\', 



v-er'v 'v'erv 



u'.'\ vt I V K.e^el 



n the c 



1 I. at [ .iriy, .: > 1.;. :, 
1 ,- 



ni at ti:!'- tirrc I'M: an..;e or ii ntm ;: tl.eir irc.o,. , ni ( r(,:.r [( Mnf't;; .v i..e 



1 n. 1 



t (/i I 



\-,:tes ft cieCL ;r'". r>y a; ( (;'.,';';. v . :> n ?, 

c . 'fielncb (', th-i; tiie M'W rcpic'Ient.aives v,o'.d 1, it j m' b'e, r x^e d the <b .1 :a tb. ir 

reft aid or y opp'.fition ttj th.e c om t, a.;di I jrioiis p i :>^cu:ion of b.ie ("afb.b.iv's. 

'i fi :. )\ rii \^ ,\s .ban; ed, \% : ; ii be i ..v :'o b. ,( ..onib a t( n. p'- 11 e.ri't 1: (..n hu i. It..!1 
\rx\ ni^acci a;n:..b;e i^ei^n iiinps. 1 Iif^ idc. il (?,;t:oUnd Hcubir'-, i.iunn,,;::"!, \'..i3 
truf, had beeinainv.d at by t!ie ( abiol cs : l;b.-t ai 'iv. ni.bv*:, \v.> '. d-- j' r ; The 
bi./ier, theielor-, tiie r.e;- n"i(in''il ag.bnll : cp; r\ , ' .,, mere .bv'-bd t ^- n..t.. n 
ba'.e ban teecncbtd to thele t^w) p-in^t;, in -a Iv a;. :. a; p;.ar: ;, t' c cb..i^b ui 
Kon 'J repol t! iio eonnb.er.ce. Bin. b.erc is a lop.i '. n ". ,.a )i .I't^nj' ai. ti.f^ : .h- 
bum. , e!p(-eiaiiy tho'.c into vvhkl'i tiu- ; opwb^e e.,;.:. Tbn .^...: cne.'.n. tu f r n;- 

;..n:n>. 



HIS 'r O R Y 



OF 



EAT BRITAIN. 



i'o'-iiic'S io fir as concerned the rruilt of the CathoUcs : But they {till retained their 
Old iljlp't_ions, that thcil: religloidHs were iecretiy favoured by the King, and had 
cibi.ii^icd the mofl entire ak-ei-.d.int over his brother. Chj-ilcs hiui too much pene- 
i:a'.:c;,i net to ice ihc dinger, to vduch tfie lliCCcfnon, a.:d even his own crown and 
f.'i nil", nc;'.v flood cxpoied. A numerous party, he tonns., Vvas iormed agoinll 
\:'i\) ; CI! i'lc one hand, cornpofijd of a populace, lo creduious froin prejudice, lb 
b i;nkd vvi:h religious anth^athy, as impli itly to believe the molt palpable abfur- 
ditics ; and conducted, on t'lC other iiand, hy leaders lo little (crupulous ss to en- 
deavour, by encouraging perurv, iubcrnarion, lyes, m-^poftures, and even by flied- 
:^:; hinoccnt blood, to gratify th^ur own Curious an-jbition, and fubvert all It-gal au- 
-1 oriry. Korzcd from hi^) icthargy by io in^mineiU a pen', he began to excrt that 
v^ccur of ndnci, ol which 011 g:"ea: occadons lie vas not dcfliti.te ; an. v/ithout 
c]u;Lun:' in aiipearance hi;; uluai lacility oi temper, lie colledted an indulfry, firm- 
n^dk vigilance, ot v/hicli he v/as believed akogether incapable. Th le qualirie?, 
eined to dexterity and jvulgment, conducted him happily thro' the many flioals, 
vvhii.h ilirrounded hiir] ; and he was at lafb able to make tlie ftorm fail on the 
heads of thole who had blindly railed, or artificially conducled it. 

CvE chief (lep, which the King took, towards gratifying and appealing his 
people and I'arliament, wa", deliring the Duke to withdraw beyond ft;a, that no 
tarther fi-^fjdc inn might r.nndn of the influence of po]ji:h councils. The Duke 
i;;aoi'y complied ; but fldl required an order fcr that purnofe, figncd b- the King; 
kd his abfence kiould be interpreted as a proof of hear or of guilt, lie alio de- 
fireck that his brother mould iiarisfy him, as well as the public, by a public decla- 
ration of tlie illegkimacy of the Duke of Momiiouth. 

J e Mes Duke of Monnjouth was the King's natural fon by Lucy Walters, and 
b;)rn about ten years before the n-idoradon. He poflHk:d all the c]ualities, which 
could engige the adections of the populace ; a dillinguiiked valour, an arihblead- 
drek, athojphthds genc.ohty, agraceiul perfc^n. J le rok: fklJ hi.dier in the pub- 
lic favou.r, b^y reafon ol tlie univerfal liatred, to vvhich the Duke, on ac.ou:.t of his 
religion, \s-e.5 expoled. Monmouth's capacity was n'.ean ; his tcniper pliant : So 
that, notwithkanding his great pooe.hu-ity. he had never been dangerous, had he 
not in^plhitly rcfign-cd liimkU uv^r to tlic guidaniCc of Sliaftefbury, a man ef fuch 
lekkfs temper, k.^^h lubtk wit, and fuch abandoned principles. That daiing po- 
liochin h:d dattered iVjonn-iouth \.iLh the hepes of kicceeding to the crown, 'i'iic 
fto.-y or a contra'Cl ol n:;nij.':.;e, peaked bv:Lwlxt the Ki;:g and kk nmioutli's m.o- 
tn.r, and iecretiy kjpt iii a l^^uk !'c:<, had been indulkeouny Ipread a'^road, and was 
greedily received by the n^ukitud-. As the horrors of popery kill preded harder 
on them, they might be induced, eidrcr to adopt that likion, as they 'la 1 already 

oon.e 



c II A R L r. s ir. 

done rnir.y olI^.lt ir.jrc incro.l.bie, or to co:-:vr..: o ,, , . ..,:. , 
c-jiUu'A. A:;.! ;: v \.L\ r.u: I^c (.:.:;: :;!:, ;[ u .i !.o. A ' > ; -'''' 
w.i5 cxrrc: .,; o: h:-^ l.tii, to !.:i\-c i..n; :!.<. [.;; : . 

nib i:ivr. .:,;,.:!:,; ;-:v, h.u! i.;v(>l'.- ^! i.ini ;.i ::./'. ;.. :... . 
Ci'./.r'.^, M c).-/..-." to CLit (>:] all l.,v.!i e Ar.v;l.i:;o;>, .- v., 
a; ; !.,.;. ;:; , to;,;, >..;; c, i:i tiii: nm, i!, t ;.'..!;:: M _.: 
t J .. ::;.-c (Ji tiM; , 1 : \ t' A.:-! :n^:!i.:\ J... A )., . A 

: .. . - .: : ^ . ;.' , V, ;<!:: ;:: A-.\i \. i'iui.c K i.:^\ i.: 

i) . :. u k: .; loon lO.. :.J. 1^11',:^ 'i^vi: .[l.inA!;^;, tli: - ; c .u 
: [>, ! :^ ro;::i,r.' .;;c i.i il;j j'lol.ci.': on ol :\\' t o .. i ; . ,:, :: 

.1 !, 



wnic.i 1,.- c: 



icv', ano L-\-v-:-i .i: ir.\^ iinic c'::;:-.;:..; a vi: 



!l.rJ 



lu^ wav (j.[a.:.cn tn i.\,i;..v:j;:cc o: ;;: 



o ,,. 



,:. r 



tnc Con:nu)i;s a'-pci^a m ;!o- ;:i";l iAp, uAi.A i':.-v f: .'v i... 
1: ;;.l1 L\-cr '-., n u;i;al hn- t!,:; L'.n-in: .n- , in ih:- lA\ .'..)n i,;' tn 
i..i: CiiC in. A:. ..Owns (.; :!.c .'ovl;.:. n^ .;;.J \- n t!:.- iiv': I\::n 
i.(;C tlioujAe , ;n jcr to (.l.o.n-' !:oni lo i. n.ionlii;-.! a tn. 'O 



'Zv. ; : . . . 
1 in' ir 



;. ;:, i\\.:: t..j lUoijj :!;.>.. .vl on. on >n- i ;;nn^:^ Mj.-j ; l) 



r > t. 



n. , , ' ! 



n..an:n'; .>..,. i ..j ivin;;, v. ..en >>;'.:nji.ir was i :\.^n:c.i ' > i. 
: : 11 n\ an.l (j:\:.rcu n..- L.n;r::on,i to ruvic.vl t j a 

i: inv- Nva . ex. ::. J. i A L:i):r.\v.^;:.^ -v...::.: . n .A :A.: i\.: \ 



: t . . - 



;.:a: nc con... 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Ch;. 



Pu, 



pretrn'ion, which, tho' unuUial, leeins tacitly to have been yielded them. The King 
i^ul had beforc-iKind the precaution to grant a pardon to Danby ; and in order to 
iercen t':e chaneeilor from ai- atMcks by the Commons, he had taken the leal into 
had himf-lr affixed it to the parchment. He told the Parlia- 

' as no way cri- 



and 



-J 



:e(; jn every tn:nr: o- 



crcers, lie v. 



Ji:s own naiiU, 
I'nenr, tliat as 

mi,v\' j th;.t his pardon, however, he would ink:: u;:on : and 11 it fhould be found 
?.ny v;av deibcLivc in lori^T, iie wo:dd renew it again and again, till it fhould be 
rendered entirely co;n:;leat : But that he was rclolved to deprive him of all em- 
ployments, and to remove him Irom court. 

The Commons were no way latisfied with th.is conccikcn. Tliey pretended, 
that no pardon of the Crown could be pleaded in bar ot an impeachment by the 
Comm.ons, T'l'.e preroj^ative of mercy had been hitherto underkood to be altogether 
unlimited in tiic King ; and tins pretenfon o\ the Comm.ons, it muil be confefied, 
wa'> entirely ncv/. It was however very fuitable to the genius of a Monarchy, 
kricTcly limited ;, where thiC King's mjinikers are fupj'ofed to be for ever accountable 
to national akemblies, even for fu.ch abufes of pov/er as they may commit by orders 
from their maker. The prefent emergence, while the nation was lo highly intiamed, 
was the proper time for pudiing fuch popular claims ; and the Commons failed not 
to avail themfelves of this advantage. They ftill infifted on the impeachment of Dan- 
by. The Peers, in compliance with them, departed from their former fcruples, and 
ordered Danby to be t:dvtn into cukody. Danby withdrew. The Commons palled a 
bill, appointing him to furrender himielf before a certain day, or, in default of 
it, attainting him. A bill had paffed the iipp.r Iloufe, mitigating the penalty to 
banifirment; but after k)me conferences, the Peers thought pro}'er to yield to the 
vi;y;.nce of the Commons; and the bill of attainder was carried. Rather than 
imdci-go flich ievere penaldcs, Danby appeared, and was immed:ateiy fent to thiC 
Towa-. 

Vv'iiup: a protckant nobleman met with fuch fevcrcprofecution, it Vv'as not likely 
tiiat the Catholics would be overdooked by the zealous Commons, Idie credit of 
the po; Iki [dot kill flood upon the oaths of a few infamious witnefks. l"ho' fucli 
iir.menle pnvparations v/ere lupj^ofed to liave been made in the very bowels of the 
Iviiigdom, no traces o' tlieni, alter tlie mok rig jrous enquiry, had as yet appeared, 
'tdi k k) many thoufiuds, both abioad aiid at honie, had been engaged in the dread- 
lud 'eci'et ; i^eitlier hcv e, r;or tear, nor remorie, nor levit)', i:or iulricion.s, nor pri- 
v,:t ref.r.tm :nt had engaged any-one to connrrn the CviJ.e.'-ee. 'I'lio' the Catiio- 
li,., }; .tti:;;da; '/ tliej^knt-, were reprefented as gviiky of the utmok i dilcretion, 
in er,v.:-:,i that they ta:':ed of the kiiig's murder as com.mion news, ar.d wrote of it 
m ijlain t..rni:, !v/ ri^e conuiion pod ; yet, among tlie great number of letters kized. 



rj me conuiion pol. 



no one contauied anv p:ut cd io comoncated 



conii)n-acy 



i ho tnc inlormerG 
pre- 



c- II A R I. r S II. 



y) 



pretended, ti^-ir, cvc:i a::cr tliey \\\ 1 ix-lu'v-J i > bc'ray Lie ;.>;:[, ::M;^y ri', a: 



co:i.n:;;.ui:; ;:::^i \ '.\ . :> n.u! p.ir^-Ll i:.:\) i:^w \:.w:. \ 
CMUticn i(j !-.(; a;/,- t !-,c ()\ (!u-'r, i-^ '-r ' r to ! ,:-'.'y :' 



:;..d tl.c 



c.i: 



i L::j,.l.iii-.. ir.oir, v. 



..in.; t 



and r.ird.uni;:;:. ii^c j:ro:;cUL:un ..^vl :.i:t!uT d. 

(,' _, (,d fTcniT.il conCvfi'i. '1 !.. Ldiv.ni' ns \t;:v.;, : :. . . ^^ 

c > :.-\ i;:irin:cl\' crd, tl;:'y woid 1 r.'\c:;;;,; i.:-. dc :di uy ;i i .. i'..: 'i^ 
t'..i: tii.ir La v.\tj ni:: \\\^ o-.i'.y c-.cn.i.-. 'i ..ry yr n:.;cd :^'.'...;d Lj :. 
( c():;;"dcT:!- ; \\: d.i!i.yr, vdiicli liuy in.i:r:\.', o: -r.::.:. 



I 



1 :-y in.idc- Hi'dl.- u pr^:-::: 



; .;.iu r.:i-:..:,..i: .y i , ^o::> 



1 ... 1 



rdj iGv.:r, d 



n:-_-!vdc-d tlie c.irc oi h:>. latcty i ) tlic c.udr ' : . 
PK-ni cr, hivii.y;, in a rriv.uc oniy.iny, 1^ od-.- <.y! 
t'": ,t t'uTc \v,;s any pN-r, \.ms i:.; ^devi tl.J i I -w.. 
tddr c jnind I tC' s to k-nd .-.r .:nv! jxa:.n:i:- i::. n .: , 
tdoic .()!'dcn^nv 1 ;o:" di !'-:. A yan'.yd,.-t r. w 
the in;t;rn:c:'.', ard to vi; Sj ato t!--- ^-..r'xdi.- Iny.]-, 
r,qid;c,! I o i.d. A\r t'..- ;..,:;. .r. an.i LiuTt^dy ' 
l.c.;t:on. A:..': '.niA 1 Iw^.Ls ( .wciy/i-jd in r^.. .^ . 
I dd, i ai i;;. d.:d^:c.dy in:.;\-l i to a ': ;/-.\;'a;.d . 
Kin.;, d:^ lla- , and liv- ; rotvil n.t i\-dj;.,n. 

i ; mnd dc ()-.vn;'n, d;.:t tidh ^:;f\'ni:- v;i,':ncj, in jn-^lcvn^li ,n (/: .o a'\ 
]->dinc-, .d!';racfs tdc ncd! ' ca.ilj V 1 id/jrf,', ni vdiLii t!:.: idnnninv n: wa 
^^\ tr,..v e'>\ n cor.c!': : 



1 o'.'. : 
j; nu ; 

C'.,..V. 



n . .. I ) i 



.1 , 



Sn, W 



-',) 



3C0 II I S T O R Y o I. GREAT B R I T A I N. 

cnij-loy ic to i\vi public fervice. lie reprefented to the King, that, as the jealoufjcs 
o/ rlic nation were extreme, it was necefiary to cure tlicm by fome new remedy, and 
to rcilore that conlidence, lb requintefor the fafety both of King and people: Tnat 
to rcflife every tiling to the Parliaa^ent in their prefent dilpoiition, or to ybld qvcyy 
thiiig, was eqi^ally dangerous, to the conditiition and to pubHc tranquiihty : That 
ii the Ki-'-ig would intrv.cluce into his eouriCiis fueh men as enjoyed the confidence 
of Ills people, iew.-r conceulons would probably be required , or il" exorbitant de- 
mands were made, the King, under the lanftion of fuch coiinfellors, might be. 
enabled, witli the greater friitry, to refufe them : And that the heads of thepopu- 
lai- party, being gratified with the King's favour, would probably abate of that 
violence, by whicii they endeavoured at prefent to pay court to the multitude. 

The King ailentcd to all thele realons; and, in concert with Temple, he laid the 
p'lan of a nev/ privy-council, vithout whofe advice he declared himlelf determjined 
for the future to take no meafares of importance. Thus council was to confilT: of 
thirty perlons, and was never to exceed that r.umber. Fifteen of the chiet officers 
of the crown v;ere to be continued, who, it was fuppofed, would adhere to the 
King, and, in cale of any extremity, oppofe the exv-rbitancies ot faction. I'hc 
oiher part of tlie council Vv'as to be compofed, cither of men of characSler, detached 
froni the court, or of thofe V, ho pciielTed chief credit in both IToufes. And the 
King, in f llirig up the namcb ot his new council, was glad to find, that the mem- 
bers, in land and oilKes, poHeilcd to the amount of 300,000 pounds a year; a 
lum nearly e(]ual to the whole ju'opcrty of the Iloufe of Comnions, againll whofe 
A iolence the new council was intended as a barrier to che throne *. 

Tins experiment was tried, and feemed at hrri; to give feme fitisfidion to the 
public. The earl of Kllex, a nobleii^an of the p?puhir party, fon to lord Ca':el, 
wi;o v,-.;5 beheaded a little aiier the lateKin^, v/as nuide treal\:rer in place of l)?.\\- 
by. 'ihe earl of Sunderhnd, a man of intrigue and great capacity, was made le- 
eretary of If ate : The \-i!count Ilalifix, a Hue genius, poileliled of learning, eio- 
t^uencc, induilry, buti.biect to inquietude, and fond of rclh^cmcnts, wa^ admitted 
inro tl.e council. 'JTcle three, togedicr with I'emple, who clKn joined them, 
tl.o' lie kept himf.lf more detached from public bufhiefs, formed a kind of ca- 
binet 

'\'.c:-: rn-::cs were : I\ i'cc Ri:;-rr;, tli;" :i cMiifL^-'p rf C'::n:c:vi;r\-, Iw ' : . ! ^l.mci lor, .-..ri cF 
f-.-! f'. -.:". ' M :, v.\'A 'if.- .:;!,;;;, c:.-i 'i' !:ii.>-.\ ;;:, i\.r\ :' ; :: . ::'..:. A. r :,, -;" raic:-;, r:\-A (-[ :\.rh. 



C II A R I. r S 11. 

l\r.<:t roiwri!, fr '-i \/ ' ' / \. : : ' r'. ir ; 

h" Ci!:i ' .:,:,;,:::;.;-; .i :/.:..] (..1 ! ) J,;:,. , . ,. . 

1., : i.i.v, i: I:r-^'M :>!. ^ i\r! -ii iii\', )',,::;;/, i^ii;-': 

" -;;\r.;v (. c\;u: r-l.i\'i 1. 1", .',.'> r( '(kw,! : :' : 

: .:-c l:.-c, :V, .:.-... ii. , M .;:..; : 

: ,\ (>\\r :!:: l [!. r. 1 i. \'r:y u ^ ; .' 

: \. -, {jrC.^-[ [>) If:,-' r l.!:n i':'^:v u..:.;: M' >;. .. 1 . ; ..i:./..: . , 

; ; ;;v:, v. IiilIi !:c l.a.l :;:r,..-:y i-,:Jj, 1.;: \ l.vM \.c v.,:.],: U, 

.::!, alccix:.i!i: ; .i:\vl he co; ilji^tly I'.iricn-.i :h;-:-:i, :i.>;', i; i!., y ; .; 

. ; ..r::jlvS t'u" K, .:i:;, lroi";i ;;i,.o.jii :r, aiici ii^ ,;,.;v, .:!; !o: (.liic > ;. 

ir...'.:c t!-..;ri cwry Ci::-,^v_-|]-on. 

n:,>i:H:-, t!ie ,i!;riy.i:Iu' to porcrv, ;n v.'cl! ;;^ ; a', -v/v c;; t!;2 K:::':; .:;: 
!i;.bl t;ib( 11 to) f.iit ['oik-hiOii o; iiicn\ iv,i:ui , tu be re': ,'.(. -1 bv lo i.^bb 
(.'v, a> t!i;s new cou:u i!, proyete! rv iV:;-:;ve. '11\jLo:]]:v,'>::<, \.. :\ , 
i.i, *. !i:\i:. j.i c: t!;.:t col!;:^:!, j ;\.'Ce-be.l lo i.ir a: to \"(^:e i;;i.i!::n";. );;!/. , "' 
' i):.,:L' c,i ^'oiev'b ;k iiv: a [\!| ill, a;i.i tlie h.tn(s ol lbs co:r;:e , i j tl;e cr 
* yyw :i t .c biibieil c<;u:;tv i.ai^ie to t!.e yivlcnt con;; i: acies aiAi b; I'-e 
-' ; .i: :b^ a.; iiii:!. the Ki:y: a::b t!:e pri;:eb.int r.beueib' I: \^.:s cxy.,: 
a b.b I .; I ::eb:.i:n[i him t.ie bii'oee wtnhb I'^ion i\' b;\;i. bir in. lo 
tb:> b'bb rneaiLii'e, t:;e Kii^g eonei rtcJ lwn:e Inrb.itions, v,.bJi be jn. ^ 
:.. l'a:::-:en:. i Ic in:: o.i-eeJ h^ yh.n by t!:e io:;. ^-a in- j;r,-.ion> c-n 
:be.v \'ou, tini:, win'e vo.i .ne boni.i; \\ .. ,nr-, inv tin : .: . 
[ '. )%-, b, bn: t::.i: ii io w.y eonba: ' , . , . : . 

...... .n- y ,..[ rbi^yon, an.; b . me i: i >r b.e , :.:. : ; .; . . . :.: , 1 

" nnnni.b :ny I nb t ii.m.eii ; t) mention lew: .b y .; b i.n ; \', i i i:, i 

' a 1 ; \ i.le:n- , ti^at, i.i ,.i. tinni;-, vbnbi ^t 

' n L ; ; i ..\v } our /e.b, I :.t I .:b i^b' 

'ii.,. ii:nitativ)ns }n'o\' :'v.e;ecn b:e i:c:"o ' in: 
(nb'n'(l tiiecii:.-! b:\n:;"hL\ c:! lo'.nbtv. A n- '!;.. . 
n.'".. n ( :i \n ;n in:\vi\:ni, t c)..in be erilr:; b i.; hi', 
K :. , lor a ce; t.hn tin'e, !ia\-e .: :n !: 

. ii ; .ban the r:!:.e,' w.\~ ;.) :".):m . 
. n:-. : Nn nn n inn- e. ti. , : :' 



?! 



'i Mun- 



i l).h.e, 
a ic::, j- 
nter ri.e 

[hn:t tn- 

A.... i..b 

(/, t . e 
: i, t...;: 

i '^ ' '^ ^ 
.-li h. [ ) 



302 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

C!;nn. V. lord lieutenant and deputy lieutenant of the counties, and to all officers of the navy. 
^ ''^' The chancellor, of liimfe'f added, " It is hard to invent another reftraint; con- 
" fidering hov/ much the revenue Vv'ill depend upon the confent of Parliament, 
*' and how impofiiblc it is to raife money without fuch confent. But yet, if any 
*' thing eife can occur to the wifdom of the Parliament, which may farther fe- 
*' cure religion and liberty againft a popifh fuccclTor, without defeating the right 
*' of fuccellion itf-lf, his majcfty vvill readily confent to it." 

It is remarkable, that, v*-hen thefe limitations were firft hiid before the council, 
Shaftcfbury and Temple were the only members, who argued again fl: them. 
The reafons, which they employed, were dianietrically oppofice. Shaftefbury's 
opinion was, that tl:e rcilraints were infiilTicient , and that nothing but the total 
exclufion of the duke could give a proper fccurity to the Ivingdom. I'emple on 
the other hand thought, that the rellraints v;ere fo rigorous as even to fubvert the 
conftirution ; and that fhackles, put upon a popifli fuccclTor, v;^ould not afterwards 
be eafily call ou by a proteflant. It is certain, that the Duke was extremely alarmed 
when he heard of this fcep taken by the King, and that lie v/as better pleafcd even 
with the bill of exclufion itfelf, which, he thought, by reafon of its violence and 
jniuflice, couki never poffibly tike place. There is alfo reafon to believe, that 
the King would not have gone fo far, had he not expected, from, the extreme furv 
of the Commons, that his conceffions v/ould be rejefted, and that the blame of 
not forming a reafonable accommodation would by that means lie entirely at their 
",loor. 

It foon appeared, that Charles had entertained a juft opinion of the difporition 
of the Floule. So much v/ere the Commons afiuated by the cabals of Shafteilniry 
and ether ma'econtents , fuch violent antipathy prevailed againd popery, that tb.c 
King's concefnons, tho' mjjch n:orc important than could reafonahly have been ex- 
..,, . , pected, were not embraced. A bi!l v. as broucht in for the total excJufli.jn (.f ti-e 
Duke froHi the crown ot England and Ireland. It was declared that t::e iove- 
r.ignty of thcfe !-;ingdoms, upon the King's death or rcngnation, fhou'd tievolvc 
to the perfon next in fucceffion after the Duke ; that all acts of royalty, w'licli ;|i:i- 
Prince fliould aitcrwar(:s perform, flioiiki not only he void, but be deemed trca- 
ion ; and tliat even if lie entered any c^f thcfe dominions, he flu vild L - dcemeti 



ty 01 tlie lame oi^cnce ;, anu tnat ad v/no lu]:;^orteci Ins tit: 

Iris an.i traitc^rs. '1 his important bill, widcli impiiid 

<o.,, .,. 



.s coiuiion, pa;:ecl the lower iioule Py a majo; ity or 

T;:!, Commons were not lo wholly em;)lo)'cd a^o:;: tlic exch;:io,>b:!! as to 
\'Z\\ V.!: ;.d (...Li- l\;ri;i::!c:s to lib I'tv. '.[ Pe eouopy ] art 
\::-;;am^nt, !...i txchdmed iiiuch a'punil tiiv. b:iberv and corru 



, l:::;i:: 


(.! :. 


^T 


!':!: 


.:nc 


;nt 


exc!;;' 


-"r 


-bi 


ion of 


th. 


: m 



wc. 



c II :, R I 



11. 



rrc-li h. 



! : - ) :\ ( 



; : ,...i- . i ' n. ':..:;-;, .::..:: i:.-. i .../ : . : . 

. . .., ; (.r.ico:-., o/ tl.c 1 Kr.,!'-, .r, ; C.-::v:d ll., ;: . , 

i-.v-iy, '.:,.: t;iw n^. i;^>, r.;Lijr t ...:i i.ij i-u.niiu;,-, \.\:-j \', .::;:;;,'; [o ^w.Ii ;'.c:c 
n.i.,:Lv::-v 

1': ':n1():; -- aiul b:'l !':"-, th(>' ;: 1; ^.:;.: ,i!i ^irirc!-/ r > cxi, in'/ i!i;;"i^ ,1: u..:; , :- 
(/.o cx[)ed -;:*:s lor ;; nvrn:!,;':,: a;..! c.iiku): 1\' tco t.; c :,l'y f,:;.i!\ijw .y:..!;,.^, ;. : 
t(>o wiicrTicntlv tic, i:- (.1, by c'crv one v.',-) h.i a rc-^^.;:-,i t > liu- \'ircu!: .uui i;i^ ; . 
!.: .1 ii.i::w:i. 1 ii; i:il!;;cnci', howcv'c:', \sii:.:i ti:c I rown a: q:.;r. > iio:!i i'..c c.:- 
' :..i (/. ; iaCLS, hoiiuiirs, a:;.! j^;. i.r;i,c;<r , i , lohc c!lvc;rc.i < t a c::.lc:c.;r :;.i: :::,. 
1';.: !j;..j::.c 01 ro .V(. i- in.i)' hc."')!!^.' t(j;j lure ibii-, biit it c..;::i( t; ai'i [V-'i.'':" b^' ai'oiillu-J, 
\\\l\:' ,i.l {'.]. to:ai u. ilrii'iiu:! (.1 nio:i.i:\ i.-/, a::.i (.\-cii (jI ail rt. 'v.!.n" aiitiiOMtw 1^;;- 
ti.:; L<.:::i" jns a: liii'^ li:";.l: \\'':"c ! ) p:ai!n!s 1,1 tii,' Crown, tiiar ii:vv tirin: ,iit in 11 
biii, wiiiJi v.ai twi.j i\\', t xciu.iin;^!; b'uin liic bjv,c:- i loulc aii who {^oii^iL.i .;n/ 
lu.rarivc c;:]:.ts. 

'in:; uan.l.n;- army and ti;c K!n:;'s r:;i;ards wc.c by tn,- L"on:ninns V()'t\i t ^ 
iiie al : A nrw p.;:^'nI^;n, i: niud b,- con;^lii:d ; b;.L wry i::/cliii:\- K; ['.;: ; .il 
Iccuriry ui idx rry an i a iiniiL \i c onlb:ii::on. 

A::ni'i<\:'"i nninalinnn n: ii a y;: winan, \'.i.,Ji, in i^r.v.c i.i:^:;r>;;\ i.a; j'iajc- 
alnv.il ill rw rv !;ov rnnvn^ on yi in riav oi Ininiin; an;! ( n:- a'noin'n lannr::-.- 
irnni i: wc owe cinLn'v t > rnc jn-: i-nl J*ai i:an:anr ; ;i inn.i:, v. incii ir.ab ;s |n;-,.r 
ato;:L'nv :i: for tli {aa-iu:i ;';;.! \n ; :::. in'o v. in.ii :in i;- , ; na,!, in c: ; r 

rarticnlar , 1'ctravt.d i\\ ni. Ti.a ;';..: t ii ntcr lanl ti;c t>a::;da;i n tn :.. ^ \,i- 
Inabia parr (d Iil). f; ;, ii:o j ct;!:io:i (.1 ''y''-! i:;ia'.vad a:..i (::::n!;-i :: -. :n.: 
main.' yr^viiun ; V, ere lliil wainiiy:, toranA,; iir'ny'" a ' ' ; ' ' ' - vaiion 
! ; (in'a; ':-'!:n nnniibr^ ;i;i,! ;n.a: . T'; a ' : ' - :'i :i, 

: :ul pnryo;...' ]V : , 

.a\ l.a. XoA.bv, n; 

.i,:,!v : t-i.c rnj;;u' ''Aiic:.. a lI.l: w:.'- . . ,: . oi 



304 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Ch.^p. V . j-jjg cietalner and imprlfonmen!:. If the gaol lay within twenty miles of the judf>,e.^ 



1079 



the writ mull be obeyed in three days; and (o proportionably for greater dillances 
Every prifoner muft be indicted tlic firu: term after his commitment, and brought 
to trial in the fubfequent term. And no man, after being enlarged by order of 
court, can be recommitted lor the Hi me offence. This law is cffentially requifita 
for the protcdtion of liberty in :\ mixed monarchy , and as it has not place in any 
other iorm of pcvernment, this connderation alone may induce us to prefer our 
prefent conRitution to all others. It mufb, however, be confeffed, that there is 
fome difiiculty to reconcibj v/itli fuch extreme liberty the regular police of a (late, 
elpecially that of great cities. 

Dx:i' I'-'G thefe zealous cfrbrts for the protection of liberty, no complaifance for 
the Crcwn was ddcov^red by this Parliament. The King's revenue lay under 
great debt.: and nnticip;it"ons : Thole branehcs, granted in th:^ years 1669 and 
1670, were read;.- to ex-. ire : And the fleet vvas repefented by the King to be in 
great decay arA dilorc'.er. Ibat the Commons, inlicad of being affected by thelb 
dilcreffes of the Crown, tru'led chiedy to them for paffing the exclufion-bill, and 
for punifning and dihdacing ail the miriiftcrs, who were diiiigreeable to them. 
Tiiey v.-ere therefore in no hafhe to relieve the King ; and grew only the more 
affuming on account ot his comilaints and uneafmefs. Jealous however of the 
army, they granted the fame fum of 206,000 pounds, which had been voted for dif- 
banding it by the laft Parliament , tho' the vote, by reafon of the fubfequent proro- 
gation and diilolution, joined to fome icru^L-s of the Lords, had not been carried 
into an ait. This morey was a;)pronriated by very ftricPc clauibs ; but the Coni" 
rnons infidcd n.-t as formerly upon its being paid into the chamber of London. 

7hiE impeachnicnt of die live pophli lords in the Tower, with that of the 
ea;! of Danby, was carried on wiih great vigour. The power oi that miniffer 
an.; b.;s credit v.ith the King, made liim extrL-n.iely obnoxious to viz popular 
leaders^ a.d the Commons hoped, that ii he was puHied to cxireo'ii:',', lie would 
be oldiged, in order tojuiliiy his own conducl, to lay open the whole intrigue 
of the i^'ren h alliance, which they Rif^eded to cont.dn a lecret ol the n'oll i\:.n- 
gerotiS nature, 'i'he King on his iide, apprchenlive ol tlie lame con!_fo:ence'-, And 
dLlirous to ]i:'ctc-ft ids miniiltr, vdio was become crindn: 
(mulove.l Ids whole Intersil to iuoport the validitv 

en granted IduT. The Lords aopointed a d\iy ie 
.d -::, an 1 a-^re^.d to hear couecll on both llde; 

r t kibont their pr. tendons to the dllcudlon or a 



or:,' 
bwi 


. e i' 
i i 


t .. ; 

'I'l 


v.; ji,, 


ioi 


e t 



w:i;;ever n^o.ilU orciunie, w;tn 

v 
; 



i' 
(d' [\er5 the validity of Danby's iiai 



oi the Lnglidi Commons. And t 



;l m' 


er: '7 by ol 


. e ', ; n 0^ 


o!~ tr 


.at ; vdon, 


wh ci. 


. u L 


-' c':ei::no.r: 


ion ol 


1 ' 7 . 


-t the Con 


onons 


r:oet; 


en. and ee 


quiry^ 


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, to u.\h:Z:i 

1 be aecou 

niicle a do 


1 

01 'o'C- 

..ted a. 


t-.e V' 


Lna:.cd 



C II A R I. ! 1:. v; 

l',.U t'u- bifli-ip-, V. 1.0-I-; t!.-y ki^cv; t" I uv-\\,ic\l tv ::. ' , . . Iv i\'nu)Vc-,", 

notori'y w'.wn i'..c tr .il u: rtic drl Hk. '..!.: c...c on, b..L .. :..j v.\\\.:.'.w ui 

]):s iwwlon i]:i/.:.d I \- tl;;b..ik.l. 

I'm: '\:]i'^; 9 b:!orc tl;:: rclonniti ;; :..ki aKv.v,s ( :.' 'V- i .i i ..: : ; i'.i, !i.i i\ lU : 
B )t lo t ir v.'.vv. il.cy antici^t'y Ironi rc'! rLiwi:; tli iL di^:::ry .l^ ,i [: iw.v:--, tl..;: :!icv 
aiil::;^: iMturr to lorin a I {.ir.it-: oiJcr m (!ic iLitr, cjuitc ;!:v^ pcml.;;.: ot [':.: i;v;l 
mai^'l'r.itv-, ;ind acco-KUabic or.ly to the lo[-c .\:\d to tl/jir ow :i c.-/.r. i'y :'.- 
Co:.;- iLL.iiui.s, h'nvjvcr, ol Cl.irriKlwn, (.:UcLCu tl;;r!;^L; :\\-! r.'^:,ior 1 !c:;ry II. :'',-v' 
W', ic obii'.'t J to [-M\'c their [ ri lr;u\' in Parliim. r.t i bur a'> tiie c.;non lav/ p:-(/:nb'.' . 1 
z\\c:r. ivu'A] alhlli!i['; in the dials oi h^- aiui death, tiiev wtrc ailoAe.l i;-. |'..el. v^.'.les thic 
} :\vi\\'c ot ablentmij; th. tvwelves. A {-/'-aaiee, v.I,!l!i w a-, at :irll !r,._:vly vr/.-;.- 
tary, became atter\\ai\!s a rule ; and on tlie eai i of Strafibr.'/s tii.d, c:.c b:ih.oy ,, 
NvhiO would ^ladlv Iiavc atteiided, and who were no longer buuivd by t'le cano;. !..a. 
were \'et obliged to withJ.raw. It luul a.lwav^ br'.n u:ual lor t/.em to en:. r a | ro- 
teilation of their tight to bt ; and this |>rotelbition, b.-ing coidid.r.d. .is a n:er(! 
ft^ian, was absMv^ admitted dnd dilregarded. But hercwas ibirtcd a r..-w o',;e!bu:i 
o( no l"n-..il! inii-urtance. l"he Conimons, wIkj were now enabled, by i::e v:u!e:iCc 
o! tlie |^:,up'e, an.l the necellitieb ot tlic crown, to make new acijuilit: >.;- ot jn/.vcis 
Ar.d pri\-b'-g -S i:,i"iibed, that tin; billioj^s had r. i more title to \'jte in r'l (v.ieib.on 
(1 t'le ( arl';) pardon than in the impeatliment itleii. Tlie bidieys ;'nur:Lvl, t;^:c 
tl'.e gardon wa- merely a prcliminagv, ;ind th.at, ncitlier by th,e canon-law nr-r tiic 
j'ractice ot Parliament, were tlicy c\'er obliged., iii caj^itai calcs, to reni(;ve, t;li tr.e 
Very commencement ot tr.e trial itiel!. It tlv.ir ablence was conlid.ered. as .i p,i- 
\ile^e, which was its real ori;;in, it depended, on t'^-ir own c'lciee, how Lvr t';"y 
wouki inidi upon it. li regarded aN a d.iminuti )n ol tr.en- i ig.ht oi peerage, n.^ii 
lintavoura'de culloms ought never tu be ( xten 'ed beycPid tiie very ^ireiim;ki;\ e 
tibi'.'kibie 1 1 V theni , and all arggiment:, bom a pr.t^n.ied paitv ot re..:^n, v, ere ;.i 
tliat cafe ot i;[tle or no authority. 

Tin: I b/Uie oi Lords W( re lo much irilluenccd bv tliele reafon^ t'lat tluv ad- 
mitted t!;e bi:h('p-s' isght to \ ute, wlien rlie eakviitv ot tiie p.udon ib.uukl be e.\a- 
iirned. 'Ila- Commons iiiklled !lik (.n [heir v. i.kdra'.vlng ; and rk:.s a cpiar:\-l b;"- 
ing comm.nccd bctwi.xt tli two Moul-.-, the Kui.g, who e.\pe.i( d norliirg:; 'uit 
i:clh inlbmce^ ot violence irom tins Ikirli.inierit, beg.'.n to ei'ite: tain ri.-'Ug,:.'^ of 
laying liold oi lo favourable a pretext, anal oi iinkhii.g t!;e k.'kon I v a [ u i ; .ition. 
W'kk.v- in this dilpolition, he was alarLiud \si:h lud.d^n iiULk: 'li:^.', t'l./. the I I^u'e 
(: C'(jmn";(jns were j)rcparing a renionlbsinee, ;.'i o:c:er i'j in:kin:.' tl'.e natiun lb'! 
n.ith.r i:;-(jn tiic favourite t0[MCs of the plot and ol p',^; cry. 1 b- i-.al'^.'.cd, tliei;-- 
i_.re, t.) execute Ln, intention, even witl'.out ct)niuluiig 1.:^ ncv ^uuncd, by w:, '; 
V(,i. II. K r .; ,,.c 



o 



a;'-;; of tjiC 



306 HISTORY OF GREAT B R I T A I N, 

C:.ap. V. advice he had rromifcd to regulate his v/holc; condLifc. And thus were difappolrited 

^'"'^' all the prcjef. s of tlie nialccontents, vviio v/ere extremely enraged at this vigorous 

mcafure of the "Cin;j;. Sliafrefbury publicly tlircatcned, that he would have th;C 

rrr,:f-;i]on head cf v.hccvcr I'lad adviied it. The Pailiament was foon after diiTolved wit''.- 

'."''"^'-! " out advice of council j siid a new ParlianjUit ordered to be chofen. Ti-.e Kii) 

... ;,;.T.i'. was willing to try every n:e;.nf:, which gave a profpcd of more compliance to hii 

I--" -- j'- ) fjbiccfls ; and in cafe of failure, th:- blame, he hoped, would lie on thofe whofe ob- 

flhuiCy forcc-i him to cxtrcnudes. 

But even during the recefs of Parliament, there was no interruption to the pro- 
fecution of the Catholics accufed of the plot. I'heKing, contrary to his own judg- 
ment, found himfelf obliged to give way to this popular fury. Whitebread, pro- 
vii^.cia! of the jcfuits, Fenv, ic, Gavaii, Tui ner, and Harcourt, all of them of the f;me 
order, were hill brought to their trial. B^hdes Gates and B^-d'oCj Dugciale, a uqw 
witnefs, appeared ap.ainfc the prifoners. This man liad been Cz: \v:.vd to lord Afton, 
and, tho'poor, poheffcd fomiCVv'hat a more reputable character t'ran tlie other two ; 
cut his accoimt of the intended mafiacrcs and ailailinations was equally monilrous 
and incredible. He even afk-rted, th:t 2co,gco Papi^s in England were ready to 
lahe amis. The prifoners proved by lixteen witneiles from St. Omer's, ftudents 
and moil of them young men o; family, that Gates was in that feminary, at tl^e 
rime when he fv.ore that he was in London : But as they were Catholics and dif- 
ci[ Irs of the ji-fuits^ their teilimony, both with the judges and the jury, was totally 
o; Regarded. Even the reception, v/ihch th:y met with in court, was full 01" ouc- 
/a;; e and n;oel;e;y. Ore oi them hiying, that Gates always continued at St, CmerV, 
;r he could believe his hni^s : '' You Panifls/' f.hd the Chief juhice, " are taught 
" not to believe your (enfes." It muil be confeiled, that Outes, in cnpofition to 
:he iUidents of St. Comer's, i^ und means to bri: g evidence of his havng been at 
rn:!L time in Eo;-:don : Ilut this evidence, tho' it had, at the time, the appearance 
oflbu'ie fubdic}-, veas afierv/:irds diicov'eicd, vhen Cates himfeif was tried for per- 
;ury, to be ahcgeth' r deccitfuh In order farther to uhbredit that witnef^, the jeahts 
p-rovcd by undou'-ted Leli:iniony, that he had [^e;h.na:d himfidr in larh.r Ireland's 
bvjm they fiiov/ed to have been in Stafmrdfliire at the v.ry tiuje wj-ivn 0:\'m 
tnat he vv.:s ccnnmittlng treah-in i:i Pondon. Put ail ;l..:!e ppas availed 
notineg e: .ni^ft t!)e general prcjudiees. 'i h^y recPwd fentenee of death j 
.re tXLeu' d, |\n;Pling to tficir hifl: lyr. ath in the m:nl. iPlenv:, earnef:, and 
ate, tno' d n^gerd.d ju-ot dat'ons of their innocence. 

: Pi ::t ti id 'vae that oi 1 anvdiorne, an eminent la v';;r, b) v. horn all the con- 
h tne jebids were maraged. I'liro' bi,-, h .nd-:, Gates and Pedloe iV/o:e^ 
j:\[ el con.i-nifij .n;; p-Pid ; l;y which the cinP cidccs in England were iPi;- 

pliec: 



L. 1 



(' 1: A R I i" S 



./ ^ : .. ..... 'I :., !":f: i.. >'.., V.' .. 

. \-.'.r. _::::, t' f.>^.:' h% j '.] [\c\uu v. 

i ::.:;';:; toi o.:o;^ the Ku):;. U w..'- .' M o:'^i; c.i:\ v. :i:. !,;:..; i 

!..\.r;,.v i .^luiv.h.n .:i].i\\ \>y the t Ii.irc.llwr, v....il\:v ii.' i. ,. . , i:. 

th-r-c h;:n \vit!i, h:- .^a!..!; '-(io.! ludnd I {])', ^^ \..y .:] ::\\. 

*' (jC';r':'j: lor I !.n(/.v i,;jt!:;:i!; niur. a^;.t:nll !i:;i-;." (?a t.!:'^ :i.;l 

tl\-v ,, \- !.:_: cc o; t'.i' [t:! tv/r's .-/..ilc. 'I'hci :' v. c n.' ni :n'.- n'!;- r t iix .;: 

i.ivi.vi: '! \N"ar-n^-:'. : iU:r v.l:.ir cliii .'y L()n:ril)u:' ,; r !/ 

I- -vV.n t : 1\> c.ii.ic v,i::; :!;.: o! t;;c (J^^';;-!], V.:, :i: :;; l: , . 

1 (.;..:;. \ 1 <.;! t!:j tini. ., c:;;a1 !iH-crcly believe ^:ui;fy. 1 . .". 

v.:.i :i Iccnuxl tl>:i;;."; u.i:r.e t;n:c to I;.:vl; d J.rtcci l.- ..:::. -i. 'i ! 
1 li', \\]\j\..\. \:\{l\.:ic i.:vo;.rcd i!;. \s !r..i '^^ -, tx.-y 






. ; . . L I . C it 



rr(,! 



/- t;; p':! >::'T-. ^^.;^ u.'Icia'lM to o; (\.:,: , ; .. 
: ;u: V. O.L^--. a:u! in-d - r !..: 

!: ' . 'i c:;!:(j. .c^i ! s t ;::i:w 'i. 

, : ' . ',,:! li-..d ..n n.:!.; : . -Mm '. : 

W ....-;-;..;:, a.i .: i.^ 1": ...!- . iii^ lib. riy, 11:11:!: 
i,;:l ''ind'y, aiul bvMKM'.:' ..t"; .1 v. .: !i !.i;':!ic r [':'.,. ,.: 
!( '; !^'- vo: tl k .1 : Ai.d lO', NyAt was in:cr|.ii.:r : .1 i r- t- 
.' . ' 1 ;. : j1\\c1 tu p. :'i;:l ;:i tiv: '-^ !x; ci til .; v. 

[ :c..: diiai-k-iit ; in ] lu-Iaiid, ;ui.! tl.c i ,..u'(/\ d 
.:.. 1: ; t!.c Iiop :. u. th-.: S^(,;:.!i ow ii.u.t. 1 . ' ' 
: ") bi ^!' ::; ; var, <>;'!:'._ !;b :'.s, u: ;. r wl/ :: 
' . ^ !k\ n bic 1 " '. y o; 1 lU.. . 
.., .^ ; , ... :o .x:..:i^;:y, ..: ! : ... : tb-n i:.p, r. 



:, -ill 



:i a V..V. ^. T. 



3o8 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

C];p.p. V. profit from the forfeitures and attainders, which would enfue upon it. But the co- 
'''''^' venanters, aware of this poUcy, had hitherto forborne all a6ls of hoftility ; and that 
tyrannical minifter had failed of his purpofe. An incident at laft happened, which 
brought on an infurredtion in that country. 

The covenanters were much enraged againd Sharpe, the primate, whom they 
confidered as an apoftate from their principles, and whom they experienced to be 
an unrelenting perfecutor of all thofe who diffented from the eflablifhed worfhip. 
He had an officer under him, one Carmichael, no lefs zealous than himfelf againil 
all conventicles, and who by his violent profecutions had rendered himlelf ex- 
tremely obnoxious to tlie fanatics. A company of thefe had way-laid him on the 

' of May. road near St, Andrews, with an intention, if not of killing him, at leaft of punifh- 
ing him fo feverely as would afterwards render him more cautious in perfecutino- 
the Non-conformifts*. While looking out for their prey, they were f.rprized 
at feeing the archblfliop's coach pafs by ; and they immediately interpreted this 
incident as a declaration of the fecret purpofe of providence againd him. But when 
they obferved, that almoft all Iiis fervants, by fome accident, were abfent, they 
no longer doubted, that heaven had here delivered their capital enemy into their 
iiands. Without farther deliberation, they ft 11 upon him ; dragged him from his 
coach ; tore him from the arms of his daughter, who interpofed with cries and 
tears ; and piercing liim with redoubled wounds, left him dead on the fpot, and 
immjediateiy difperfed themfelvts. 

This atrocious aclion fcrved the minillry as a pretext for a more violent perfe- 
cufion agcdr.fl; the fanatics, to whom, without diftincftion, they laid the guilt of 
thofc furious afKiflins. ]t is indeed certain, that the murder of Sharpe had excited 
an univerfal joy among the covenanters, and that their blind zeal had often led 
them, in thtir books and fermons, to praife and recommend the afTafiination of 
their enemies, vv'hom they confidered as the enemies of all true piety and godlinds. 
The dories of Jacl and Sifera, of Ehud and Eglcn, refounded from ev^ery pulpit. 
The officers, quartered in the weft, received more ftriift orders to find out and 
t'.ifpcrfe all conventicles ; and for that reafon the covenanters, inftead of meeting 
in fmall bodies, were obliged to celebrate their worfhip in numerous affiemblies, 
and to bring arms for their fccurity. At Rutherglen, a fmall borough near Glaf- 
p;ow, they openly fet forth a declaration againfl prelacy, and in the market-place 
burned feveral afts of Parliament and aAs of council, which had eiiablifiied pre- 
lacy, and prohibited all conventicles. For this infult on government, they pur- 
polcly chole the 29th of May, the annlverfary of the reftoration ; and previoufly 
cxtinguifhcd tlie bonfires, which had been kindled for that folemnity. 

* Wodrcw': !,ill{My of the (ufi"crings gf ihe diurcli of Scotlaiulj vol, ii. p. 2c,- 



c II A R L r s ir. 



2'-) 



Captaix Graham, arterwnri.]b vilcount Diimlcc, an ;iCLivc aivj ent'^rprizing o!]*i- '^-- " '^ 
cer, attackcJi a great conventicle upon l,ouuon-lii!l, an.! \v..s ripuil "cl with tlu* \(A's 
of thirty ir.cn. 1 he covenanters iiri.iiii^^; tii.it th' y v/ere iinv.ar Iv involved in liiJi 
deep g'i'I-, \vere engaged to pei leverc, ar.ci to I civ iru'ii tlitir v.J.our nni torti.r:e 
alone rcjr that ii-.Jcn:i,icy, which tlic fevcriiycd [Ix governn":e;,t hi"', tlirr.i noh.opcs 
ot ever bc:n !, uble otlierwife to obt.iin. Tiicy piiHied en to C ji.i!".,(;-.v, and tiio' at 
iirfl repw'.il'd, they ai'i.rwards niad.e themlelvi.-, matters (/ tli.it tov.n , cir[v)ii,_-;;-, 1 
m'1 tiic eiluhinh.c.i clergv i aiid liiucd [ rocl.iiriatu.n?, v.T.cre t!r,-v dechue'i, rhai 
t'lev !<;V,g t againll th/j King's llipremacy, ag:iintl po^^-ry and. prelacy, a:;d .ig u;.;!. 
a '^0'-i;li I'.iccellor. 

Ho\Vi.\-i.R accidental tlds infurre5Lion mirjit app:ar, there is t^wUva tot' ;..h, 
tr.at lome great men in combination with tlie popular 'eaders m l-'.ng!and, li.i.l le- 
crct!y inlligated the covenanters to proceed to Ihcii cxtrcniities ", and l;oped: ij; :'.- 
ia-r.e eir. cts as had forty years before enfucd irom the c'l^Tcitrs m Scutlar.d. 'I !.- 
Kin''^ ahb, apprelicnfu-e oi hhe conleciiience?, imrr.e,;ia:ely dilbatch.ed Mon- 
mouth wit'n a imali body ot Englifli cav.i'ry, \ Ic \u::\.d t!ie Sjv :e!i g.:ards ar.d 
fome regimer.ts oi militia, Iev:.d from the v.\ d-aillcit d ctvi.r.t'.s ; an.! witli ijrcat 
celerity marciird tov.ards tlie v/ell in qt:ed. (d the relxls. 'il.y liad tak n j-oil at i'. ..'v->^' 
Boriivvel-bndgc l^erv.een Hanilhun and Cila;l:ov,- , v.l.erc theie v,.'.s no acc.N tu '' '.'^'""" 
tli(,m but over the brhige, \\l',:e!i a brail body wa> able to .;c:u.d. aga'idt tlic 
Kii'g's torce"^. '1 h-y Ihowed grjat judgment i:: tlie cr-oice (d their roll -, but d i'- 
covcrcd n..;ther judignient nor valour in any t>t!icr ilep oi their cond.uet. No n')- 
billty and few gentry had joined tliem : ih: muvlllers were ii; re.ility tl;e c.;m- 
n^iand.ers-, ai'.d t|-.e w:.(;le ai'mv rever exceeded Scco iVicn. Mwnnvu.th atrached ^-aot''.;: 
tlie btid;:e -, and. tlie bod.y ot :nl.,r;;(nts \s!in dc:.nd;..ci r, maUitiiiud tli.ir p d, us 
hfnii; as tlielr air.niuniiK.n KiTLcd. \\ lien tl'.^'V lent lor n:ore, th.ey re c;\'ed w- 
dcrs lu abandc;n tiivi;- [;ro-,nd, aiid letn'. backwards, 'i'hi^ unprudi nt mealure 
ruined tlu' army of the- cove;i.inter';. Mo:i:noutli p.-.li". d tli bridge v, iilujut op; o- 
fition, and drew up in ord.er, oi^p.^fite to tlie rni'mv. His eap.nt),n a'(j;ie put 
ihem to rout. Abtr.it 7e\^ Kll i;i the puriidt : Id r [^:'.>; eriy l|-eaking tiiere w as 
no aclion. Twelve liundrcd were taken rri;t':u r- ; an.d were treated bv .Mon- 
n:outh with an humanity, \di.ch they \\.i.\ :: v^r cx[^erienced in th ir ov.ni coun- 
trvir.en. Sucii oi them as would pron ile to hv^' j^eaeeablv u:ckr tl.e gc\ i;:- 
in..iit v.ere dlln:d!\k .Abc^ut tlirce liundred^ v/lio ^^ere lo ('bi'lnite ,:s to rvimc 
this euly e:a:.k:lc-n, w. re fiiipp. d fo'- Iku la 1 c: , du : u..; rr .n,.t -l . p v.lhijA in tlie 
vc)V. '.;;.-. l\',t) ot then" clcr^.' \'. cu' lia.^ '';d. Mc;ninc.,tl. ^'..i' < ! ; ''ucr u- dii- 
T olllion ; and beii.les, amicd at j- ;^ u\n-ltv in ^vJOt. :...'. 1' knig intend- 



310 HISTOP.Y OF GREAT BRITAIN, 

Chrp. V. cd to intrufl the affairs of tl^at kingdom into his hand?. He h.id married i 
^^'5' Scotch lady, hcircls to one of the moft confidcrable famiiies, and aided to ad 
ihe chief nobility. And Lauderdale, as he was now declining in his p,.rt?, ar,d 
v;a3 much decayed in his mcn^ory, began to lofe with the King that iniiucncc, 
vhich he had maintained durin?? lo many years ; notwitldtandirg ail tlie efrbr:^ 
of l:is numerous enemies both in Scotland and Eng'and, and rctwithuandinq; the 
manv vdolent and tyrannical actions, of which he had been guilty. Even at 
prefent, he retained io much influence as to pcifcn all the good intention:^, 
v/iiich the Ki:".g, either of himfelf cr by Monmouth's fuggcilion, had forayed 
with regard to Scociand. An act of indemnity was granted ; but the ndniftcr 
toc;k care, that it Ihould rather aiiord protee^iion to himfdf ar.d his aff.reiaic?, 
than to the unhappy covenanters. And tho' orders were given to connive 
thenceforwards at all conventicles, he found mcms, under a variety or pre- 
texts, to elude the execution. It m.ufl be owned however to his praife, thac 
he v,-as the chief perfon, who by his council haftened the expeditious march 
of the forces and the prompt orders to Monm-outh ; and thereby difappoint- 
ed all the expeftations of the malecontents, who, refiefting on the difpofitions 
of mens minds in both kingdoms, had entertained great hopes from the progrefs 
cf the Scotch infjrrcclion. 



C II A P. VI. 

Sfale cf parties. Stat.' of the mhuftry. Mcal-tuh -plot. 

and To?y. -A ?iiiv pa?iiamcnt. Violence of the Commons,- 



Exclupon-hilL' Arguments jlr and e:^ainfl the iLxclupon.- 



chijkn-lill rcjccled. '/r.v;/ of StaJJord. His executicn. / 'io- 

Icncc of the Commons. -^Dip'olntion of the parliament. Neiv par- 
liament at Oxford. Fitzharris's cafe. Parliament diflhed, 

Ticlory of the Royal ijis. 



'UlE King, obferving that the whole nation concurred at fiiri in the belief 
and prolecutioii oi the popifli plot, had iound it abfolute.'y rtnuifite ior 
-;'. own fafi.ry to pretend, in ail public li)ccches a.nd tranfafiioris, aii eiuire bJief 
Hi.d acquiciccrice in ih:it famous abfurdity, and by this artiilcc l.'e had eluded the 

vioicrir 



C II A R r. I 



: I 



violei.c a ,; 



:.ir r.M 



(. ; L , . J 



rivre:^'-. i. 



1.;; !u;;:u: ::, r tj'..;::!.c : ' t '/.,i"r ':/..- 



V. .ilL.i 



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f I 



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r 1 [.\j I n. .'..I- ..n:i: 



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.-, ;Ci 


1. ri 


: N" . 




.;kel 



!5 r l\\ : L.:- i: 



C.I.. 



:i c ; 






' 1. 1" 
: I, ) 



; 1 2 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Tn:; memory alfo of thefe diimal times united many indifferent and impartial 
perlbr.s to the Crown, and begot a dread, left the zeal for liberty fhould engraft 
iticlr on fanatic! fm, and fliould once more kindle a civil war in the kingdomi. 
Il.id n( t the King dill retained the prerogative of diflblving the Parliament, there 
v,'.;,s indeed reafon to apprehend the renewal of all the prctenfions and violences^ 
which had ufliered in the laft commotions. The one period appeared an exaft 
countcr|)art to the other : But ftill difcerning judges could perceive, both in the 
jpirit ot the parties and genius of the Prince, a very material difference ; by means 
of which Charles was enabled at laft, tho' with the imminent peril of liberty, to 
prefcrve the peace of the nation, 

I'liE cry againft popery was very loud ; but it proceeded lefs from religious 
than from party zeal, in thofe who propagated, and even in thofe who adopted 
it. The fpirit of enthufiafm had occafioncd fo much mifchicf. and had been ib 
iuccefsfully exploded, that it was not poftible, by any artifice, again to revive and 
fupport it. Cant had been ridiculed , hypocrify detedied -, the pretenfions to a 
more thorough reformation, and to more perfe6t purity, had become fufpicious-, and 
inftcad of denominating themfelves {ht godly party, the appellation affeded at the 
beginning of the civil wars, the prefent patriots were contented to call themfelves 
tlie good and the bonefi party * : A fure prognoftic, that their meaftires were not to 
be io furious, nor their pretenfions fo exorbitant. 

The King too, tho' not endowed with the integrity and ftrift principles of his 
father, was happy in a more amiable manner, and more popular addrefs. Far 
from bcin[_5 diftant, ftate'y, or referved, he had not a grain of pride or vanity in 
his whole compofitionf j but was the moft affable, beft bred man alive. He 
treated his fubjefts like noblemen, like gentlemen, like freemen ; not like vafTals 
or boors. His profcffions were plaufible, his whole behaviour engaging ^ fo that 
he won upon the hearts, even while he loft the good opinion of his fubjedls, and 
often ballanced their judgment of things by their perfonal inclination J. In his pub- 
lic conduct hkewife, tho' he had fometimes embraced meafures dangerous to the 
liberty and religion of his people, he had never been found to perfevere obftinateiy 
in them, but had always returned into that path, which their united opinion ilemed 
to point out to him. And upon the v^hole, it feemed to many, cruel and even 
iniquitous, to remark too rigoroufly the failings of a prince, who difcovered fo 
much facility in correcting his errors, and fo much lenity in pardoni.ng the offences 



conimitted againft himfelf 



The 



' Tf.'r.plc, vol. i. p. 335. f Tc'inplc, V(;l. i. p. 449, 

\ jJ:;rciiat.icui (;n Parucs, letter vii. 



C II A R L r, S I!. :i> 

'J'r:: r/icr.il jn'-ct;o:% u'.L'i v. .v ' ;.,, ;... ;, ., , .. ;' '.'.; .' . .' : .. 

fv.v.-. I 1- tc!! !:.,:. at W:.. i.jr V a; .; ;;.i : :v.-.) ;.:;.: . , r, !o vi^:-::'- 

..^ nui'j h;s 'i:'.- i^' [:;c)ii:;!u ;n J.i;,.: v. . . ; . ' .1 a!: iMiiR^ of 

;v.,-n, .;: ;;. ;:'.; hv i\\c a.-, rf:;c:;i' :.- ;:;: ;:.. ;uv. t^i w:^ L,:\ :: >'. \:\ '^v-'. ;-^":c:;: 
C.\.\- .?.:: 'W (.! nui.N r:i;,.:s, l!.c- K!iu;% tlfa:!i, to bib a:; cxpr^ilion ot >.: \' il.Krn 
'iv'-;:; Ic ', v. a^ ri.-::a:\;.v! a:. r!i-r c:wi or i.\c w rlu. 11.:* ii-.i!^_ u'tr:,:-, \i v.,-. 
f^a:\\', U(;:;\: {-rtACtl to cxrrc;rl::.5, aiu! in-inut!. .tdv l.ia.ilj a tiv:! uar m il.c 
l.::\ J !:i. l':':;cr ru^ir cn:::\ t\.LCc:s, or Ci::;:v failL.rc, (.; tvc-.i t!;:: hiila::'. : anu 
(-wt'-p .;f |\;r:;.-, lcciix\i a!! oi" tlic.n cvc:i:-. c(; :a!Iy ;,.;.t;. 'I'ii K^..;'i t:;;c? 
I oi::-.:l-!^,r^, t::c:\'toi':", h.l^lx, I Lh;la:c, and Su:;i!;m la:; ', ulio i;o a! u;: v;.-- '. ImJ 
r-r:v.^ v.;r!i S:ialrL-f^'.;ry a:iJ. ti.c po;^uI..r j-arry, uivilcii hmi to find Ic^rcily :o:-t':c' 
J)'..;;.-, '.liar, in calc or an.y n..ilkr acculcnt, tl'.ar l':i.-...- ir/..^:: be rca.iy to al:' rt 
j'ns r:j,/.c ai;.i!;iit the oppc^fition, which lie was hkcl;/ to nijcC wicli. Wlien :;..: 
])i;k'' arrived., b.c iour.d his brc^ti'.cr out oi'dan.^cr; and i: v, a ; a.M.cd. t'o Ci.accai 
t!ic invitati-.n, whic'i !vj had received, iiis journey, h.oweve:', wn.s a:[cnded v.itli' 
\CY)- imi ortan.t conlcqucnccs, J le j^rcvail'.d on tine Kir,^ ro d,::i;race Monmoutii, 
V. hof.- jr.-(/;ej'.s Nvere now known and avowed , to drjuive hdm of lii> con:niand. in 
t'.-; a-.-my ; and. to leiul Idni bcyonJ. lla. iMe liinillnf return.ed to liruiii.!i ; bur 
ivui.le .1 Very fliorc llay in that place, lie (djcained have to r.-tire to Sco[!..r.n, 
uiu'er prcrext iliil ot quiitii\:^ the appr^'henfions of tlie binglidi nador. ; bu: reai'y 
V. ii'i a purpoll; oi lecuring that Ivingdoni in his in.tere'.l^. 

'J'.'.o' ILdlx and Ilaiiiax had concurred in t'le reiolution of inviii::g ov^r 
ti-.e Duke, t'.iey loon iound, that they had r.ot c/.n.iii'.ed b.is conildcrice, ar.J. that 
even tlic King, while he madie ule ot th.ir hr\'icc, h.Xil no finccre regard tur tiuir 
pvrljr.s. b.liex in (.iilgull religfied tlie Trealury : 1 laiilax i-etircd to h;s cour.cry- 
le.:: : '1\ niple, delpairing ol any acconmio.iation among ll:cii cr.rasied. pa-ti s 
v.i'd.Jnew alnioll cn.tirely to his books .11x1 hr, "arJeiis. 'J nv Kins'-, w'.o ci;an - d 
nnnider^ as wei! as nxalurcs witli grrat indi!;ertnce, bedowcd at [!.;> tiire his 
cin-.r conlk'.ence on I lyde, Sundjcrkind, and Ciodolplwn., ilyd.e luCvecd..d 1: d.ex in 
the treafury. 

A 1.1. the King's miniflrrs ;is well as b.indeh, were extreir.-. iv .ivcrfc t ) th.c [V./e:- 
iiig <d tiic nev,- l^ii iiament, whieli thry rxj^eeted lo lir.d. as retractorv a- .'.n.y oi die 
preeedi'-';:. Tne c;f.:[ions had gone modly in la\'o:;r ot the coun;ry y-V'')'- I h-c 
terrors ot the plot had Iliil a mighty in;!uence over rl'.e popu'ae-.- .i:\; tiie ajq^'e- 
h 'ndi;ns oi the Duke's bigotted prii;ei[il'-s and arbit: arv eliara::. r, wei. d:(.d w nii ail 
ir.en (>\ fm-e and rcilectiun. 7 iic King therefore rcloh'cd Lo [ rurcg'.c tlie Parha- 

\o!.. il. S r n^iCnr, 

...... p , I -. 



314 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. VI. rnent, that he might try, whether time would allay thofe humours, which, by 
^ '^' every other expedient, he had in vain actem^ ted to moilify. In this nieafure he 
did not expert the concurrence ol his council. He knew, that thofe popular 
leaders, whom he had admitted, would zealoufly oppofe a refolution, which dif- 
concerted all their fchemts ; and that the royalifts would not dare to expofe them- 
felves to the vengeaoce of the Parliament, when it fliould be aflembled. 
Thefe rcafons obliged him to take this ftep entirely of himfelf ; and he only de- 
clared his refolution in council. It is remarkable, that, tho' the King had made 
profcffion never to embrace any meafure without advice of his council, he had 
often broke that refolution, and had been neceflitated in affairs of the greateft 
confcquence, to controul their opinion. Many of them in difgufl threw up about 
this time; particularly lord Ruffel, the moft popular man in the nation, as well 
from the mildnefs and integrity of his manners, as from his zealous attachment 
to the religion and liberties of his country. Iho' carried into feme extremes, his 
intentions were ever efteemed upright -, and being heir to the mod opulent for- 
tune in tlie kingdom, as well as void of ambition, men believed, that nothing 
but the lad necefnty would ever engage him to embrace any defperate meafures. 
Shaftefoury, who v;as, in moft particulars, of an oppofite character, was remov- 
ed by the King from the office of prefident of the council ; and the earl of Rad- 
nor, a m.an who poiTefTed whimfical talents and fplenctic virtues, was fubftituted 
in his place. 

It v/as the favour and countenance of the Parliament, v/hich had chiefly encou- 
raged the rumour of plots ; but the nation had got fo much into that vein of cre- 
dulity, and every neceffitous villain was fo much incited by the fuccefs of Oates 
and Bedioe, that even during the vacation the people were not allowed to remain- 
in tranquillity. I'h.re was one Dangerfield, a jeliow who had been burned in 
the hand for crimes, tranfported, whipped, pilloried four times, fined for cheats, 
outlawed for felony, convicled or coining, and expofed to all the public infamy^ 
which the laws could inlhct on tlie bafell; and moft' ftiameful enormities. The cre- 
dulity of tf;e people, and thi: humour of tlie times, enabled even this man to become 
i\:c,r.-tub a perfon of confequence. He was the author of a new incident, called the Med-tub 
^'^^' plot^ from the place where fome papers, regarding it, were fouiid. The bottom 

of this affair it is difficult, and not very material, to dlfcover. It only appears, 
that Dangerfield, urdcr pretext of betraying the confpiracies of the Preibyterians, 
had been countenanced by fome Catholics of condition, and had even been ad- 
mitted to the Duke's prefence and the King's. And t':at under pretext of revealing 
new pcpiffi plots, lie had obtained acceis to Shaftefbury and fome cf the popular 

leaders. 



( II A R L r. S II. 



,- V' 



1>'C!^. 



v/hc': n\- 1. 



,,..r 1- 



t!-..-." 



ra'li.T n^' .-i to (.:)^-.: 

v,;t:i t:..' iM v.i:;:-- I-.;. J ! V 

c! ;:i-ioi:;- was r.;!!'Al i ;.^ ;: :. !_./.::, '^y v. .;; : : 
r:v-i!n tcii.Mis \\ ith l:;c ^'i:;.: (;: i ' ^...^ir-.' 
i::-r!,:i.r | ciiv)J, by l^.c \ v:v.\\. l' .']-. \ . 



'.:.T : : 
1 . 






1 . n 



( ], (;: i;.- \\\.[\ i:;::-.:/r: .i;:; ^.^s I'liccili 



; t 
I, ,. 1, 



...1 ,...(T ,n- 



n.: ;:: ..I ccrct^^ony, |''.:;;p, ai.U ex;)- :u-c, v. ::!iv.lr ;i a y ; -'^' ; ;; 
Iv.ircd ill l-<.:-'-i^''' I^'-^ I'cCL.ule i.rvcd to ( :U: rt..i:\ a:: : a:!"!'..!-, 
tlvj 1) "H;!ac.-. '1 Ik- c:l.!-.c c-l Monir.oi::;! l.'.^ev. ilc c;.:r;^ ovrr v.iL>.(iLi[ 1,m\-;' .;-.,} 
nuvlc a tniiinylia'i: y:ocl:on tliro' niaiy,' ya' t<;"l tiiv- Liiyi-jin, 'xr: -n^r-'y car: l^r,! 
nnil atlniircd by t:ie pcoy!-*. Ail tlii-lc aris Ic. ir-J r. (]i.ili:c to :i;yy ;;: t'lc '^^:-, im! 
piciLaJK'LS, (iuriiig tiic loiv^ ir):fr\-al ol Par'iarr,, nt. li:c- u (rvi:\;\oV;rs v.cic a!:b 
ulcd to ob:ain the Kin'Vs cor.leiit lor the n^eethi^.i; <;! tliat aircir.biy. Sevj:re w 
p.-'TS ti-erent.cl a jv tit:*'!! to tiiat }n-:y(jlt*. iXbiny ot ti;e curyoratiuri.- iirr-rat. (.1 ti:;s 
cxanv, '.c. NotwithlbuKli/.ir icvtra! marks ol ciilj'lealiire, aiul l\"~:\\ a nierac:!.:,^ "ro- 
chiir.ati' n trom the- Knur, j-cticio-.s caiiK- trom all yar[s carM-.llIv ir.iiilii^:; on a 
Iblb.on ol Parliament. Tiie dai.gcr ot }H)y) ly, tlie tcrrers o: tivj p'o:, were ;-.cvLr 
ior.:,(Jt in any ('i tb.cle aJ.clreli: s. 

TrMri/rrors p.-titionin']; was one of tlr,' chief artifices, !^v w'lich the ny.Ieco".- 
tcnts in the bill reis_;n had attached th;- Crown : Ap.d rI;o' t!ie ir.ann.er :{ {'..blcriiin:'- 
a:.d I'divirin'"; petitions \w.s now loni,-wlMt bnhredi by a.t c I V.v:"\ :n:cn.r, t'-.e t'b: .'- 
iclelf iliil remaned \ and was an a bihr.d^e expedient for inlldiny t::e Coii't, 
ler ip'.caciin:; dilee'ntcnr, an ; t(;r unitiii:'; tiie i-afon ;n .iiiy p');Hi!,;r c l;.:r.o'.:;-. As 
ti'.e Kir.LT iom-.d ii ) liw, by whi, h he Co.. hi pii'^d'n t:u>le in-pominarc, anb .^^ he" 
clucnucl tiiem, tiiv-kitilul Iodic itation^ he" '^^as obiiy/d lo ercoe.-;:. r r'.-.e.'-.i bv p'.>p .dar 
amplications ot a ccMUrar'/ teiAlency. W'ii; r ver tiie (.!i..;\h y-'A ct)'..rt p.irtv pre- 
vailed, addrches wer- Iian' cl, (ontaini:^; e::yr: fbons u: t!^e h; 'w.'X repard io his 
M\]cllv, the mol e::tire ;\.(pi'el(:e:K'c in hi. whde.m, tliC moH. dir.il.d bdonddi-e. co 
his r.ri-'rogative, aiui tiu- d'.u^ ed .;// ;ri /; \' of tl^t/e, who e:'dea\-oi,red to e.'uroacli 
Oil it, by prefcribi'L!; to lum at any tiiv. tor a!b mdolr-g tlve Ihiriiam :.t. 'i';i;."~ tlit^ 
r.ation cair.e to be tiilVinp^uillic tl ii'.ro rr::::oKirs .\\\\ ^I'r:y^ns. }-.;:ricj:;s ind.eed 
were at tin - tiir.c txtremelv anima'-ed apainfl r.'.ch o'dier. Tli^ very r.anv.-s by 
whu'ieafh party denominated its ant-ap'^iiill, dhcover t!:e virulence and ranconr, 
vv . ich prev;u!ed. bur behdcs l^c:itio:;c-r aiul Abiiurrcr, a[^p'c:h.t:ons wldch were 

S 1 2 lv;on 






3i6 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. VI. f-Qon forgot, this year is remarkable for being the epoch of the well-known epithets 
Whi^n-and of W HIG and TO R Y, by which, and fometimes without any very material 
Tory. difference, this ifland has been fo long divided. The court party reproached their 

antagonifts with their afHnity to the fanatical conventiclers in Scotland, who were 
known by the name of Whigs : The country party found a refemblance between 
the courtiers and the popifh banditti in Ireland, to whom the appellation of Tory 
was affixed. And after this manner, thefe foolifh terms of reproach came into pub- 
lic and general ufe; and even at prefent feem not nearer their end than when they 
were firft invented. 

The King ufed every art to encourage his partizans, and to reconcile the people 
to his government. He perfevered in the great zeal which he affefted againft 
popery. He even allowed feveral priefls to be put to death, for no other crime 
but their having received orders in the Romifli church. It is fingular, that one 
of them, called Evans, was playing at tennis, when the warrant for his immediate 
execution was notified to him : He fwore, that he would play out his fet firfb. 
Charles, with the fame view of acquiring popularity, formed an alliance with 
Spain J and alfo offered an alliance to Holland : But the Dutch, terrified with 
the great power of France, and feeing little reflburce in a country fo diflrafled 
as England, declined acceptance. He had fent for the Duke from Scotland, 
but defired him to return, when the time of aiiembling the Parliam^ent began to 
approach. 

It was of great confequence to the popular party, while the meeting of the Par- 
liament depended on the King's will, to keep the law, whofe operations are perpe- 
tual, entirely on their fide. I'he flieriifs of London by their office return the ju- 
ries : It had been ufual for the mayor to nominate one fiieriff by drinking to him ; 
and the common-hall had ever without difpute confirmed the mayor's choice. Sir 
Robert Clayton, the mayor, named one who was not very acceptable to the popu- 
lar party : The common-hall rejecfted him; and Bethel and Cornilh, two inde- 
pendants, and republicans, and of confequence deeply engaged with the malecon- 
tent?, were chofen by a majority of voices. In fpite of all remonftrances and op- 
- pofition, the citizens perfilted in their choice ; and the court party were oblif'^cd 
for the prefent to acquiefce. 

Juries however were not fo partial in the city ; but that reafon and juflice, 

even when the popifii plot was in quefiion, could fometimes prevail. The earl 

^ ju cf June, of Cadlemaine, huflund to the famous dutchefs of Cleveland, was acquitted about 

this time ; tho' accufed by Gates and Dangerfield of an intention to afiafn- 

riatc the King. Sir I'homas Gafcoigne, a very aged gentleman in the north, 

beirir'- 



C II A R L ! S 



II. 



7 



bcir.g accufcd by two fcrvants \^hnni he Ii.ul .'ifir.ifrcJ lur t'::]-,o:i -ily, receive.! a 
like vc;\;i.c. I iicl.- tri.ils were v^r.Ai Mows ro tin- pi^r, wii.^h !;';.v b(.v;.j;i to ll.i.;_- 
gtr in the ;..A:^i;;L-i.t ol ir.oll ir.cii, cx.'.ti: [^(>:c v.;-,'; v.irc ilcv>;rc\i ro t'-.e couritry 



party. D^: in oulcr (I;!! to jrclirvc .I'.w^ i 



A \i::) 



-, .1 



{ji-ry, tlic t.iri ot 



bhaitclhi.ry a; p aud ii. \N\iliiiinllcr-hall, attciv'cJ. by I'-eca;! ci I lu:i':;ig[f% the 
h);\!> Kulhl, Cavciiw;lh, Urcy, Brandon, bir 1 I nry Cavcriy, S:r ( j;..;.rt Li;rrarv!, 
Sir Wil.iaiii Cooper, a..ci ocIkt pcrions ol cl iiir.ciMjn, a;:J ; rvicp.ttd to th.- ;':aiAl 
lurv u; .\h^;d!clcx rcaloi,.s f(;r ii.ciiL;Lir[^ tlx- l)i.hc ol \u.\-. as a j-opilh r cu:.s:.r. 
Wh.ilc tlio ijry were dciibcratini^', on this extraor.linary [irclcir.ir.enr, tic .:.ici 'wi- 
ticc lint :wr tiicni uji, and luddenly, even lo!r.c\\ha: irrcguhu!y, di;n,a:l.l tncn). 
^i..:itcfbury however obt.iir.ed tlie l^J^., tor wldch hiC had. r.ndeitah. p. t.nb bold, nica- 
ll.rc : lie Ihowed to aU his tohov.crs the delpe:ate re'o/uti n, uhicii he had ein- 
b.-accd, never to admit ot any accommodation or cor.Tpoiition v, it!i tlic Ouhe. l>v 
i\:d\ daiiri<; con.'.c.ct he allhred il'.ein, t'.^at !:e v.a^ k.!!v d.tcrnhr.tJi no: t(j d.cicit 



1 ,]^n, 



tp.cir caulr, antl he cngat^cAl tnem to a n.-;e c:e\'o:eu 



Icverance 



tne nica;^::e:. 



v. iiiLh he Ir.o'jid il.,.-'i3 ii -o tiicm 
,1 



ivided into two z:-a!c '.ij p-rtic^ i: 



,K'. 



1 .. : 



an. :.:. 



cct^, lie rclh'lvcd! .it lali, after a very lon^.'; ir.rjrva!, to ;.l:\-r.l 

his iptech, lie tohl them, th.ic t!;e Icvcr.d prorog.ition-, v,I,i(.'i \\: !i,:d ma.ie, h ;il 
been very advaiuai^eoiis to his nci^hbo..! ., .:;..; very ulei^d to !.'.:r,lLh : 'rii.'.: ,.e :..;,1 
enuuoyed tiiat time in {leriectini'; with t!ieC:w'.vn (.;f Spain ::n aiiia.iPe, v. ',:r;i :..v i 
b^en olten deiired by f rnier I'ar!:an-e;.ts, an-.! which. 1.; tl^n.bievl i^ot, \\\ ::\''. he cx- 
t!\ nuh,' aj_;reeab;e to tliem : 1 l:a: m o:\;.r i [Ave v. {''<' ^ :<j ['.,-^ ire.i! .re, :.::.'. rc-r. ier 
i: bviiermal to ChiilUnd^m, il v, as rcqii.iite t ) av> ;d ad di n elli i! i: i;!;. ':,. .n.d :-> 
i.nite tiiemlelvcs iirmly in the lh;ne \ :ev.s and [ i.;p.,,;e^ : i ; .;' he .. .;; du. r:..: ; d, 
tiiat nothin[_^ on liis pare '.h.oiihl be w.in:;; ; to ii.ch .i l.il:.:ary ee.-l ; and { ro'v ; '.. d te.c: 
b.Ci^eluon be preler\'ed in it:, d.ie and i .;,.d cnrl , he woi.id e; n nr in any nev, e\- 
; > dients for tlie lecuntv (;! t!i pr ul.a.^t r;. .;, ,ion : i nit t!.e ; ndu r iXA:\,::..i[[ .:\ 
(J, t'le i (^[ndi plot and t!;e p::nilhn^ nt oi t'iC oi: .^er.' rapnli'e Kt t'.e laivty 

l)uLi.(> :\nv_; and kiin^dom : .And.i'.ter reeo!.nr.ei..i;n ; to t'.'..!r, tne r..i.e;h:y i,i : :o- 
\idn;.':, bv loine b;p' iie-^, lor the iabty cd 1 anpicis, iie p;o.\.e.;en ;n th. ..: w();..> : 
'^ li r th.:t; vdiich I \-.d..e above ail ti.e ti\a/..re ;n ti:e v,\;;bi, ..ed vd.d, I :.:] i^rc 
^- wnl pive i.s [peater llren':tli and i ej.i.: I'-on b.tli .it b n.e .e... . .n .my 

' trcuure can do^ is, a perleCL u.non an:;^;.p, onilei'. js. N^^:. ;: .,t tnn) en :e- 



c^ P \ r. 



As tiie kin:j;(.'.om was regular,v mm\ opcnlv C 
was not dndicuit tor tiie King to know, that the n^.ah):'ity of tiie new 1 lonle (.( C'or.i- '; 
mons was engaged in iiUere.ls oppolitc to tlie Coe.rt : Ih.it t'ni: be n.-ngbt leave- r.o.., 
expctlient untried, whicii conldcomj) ie t'le unliappy dibere:K-vS .^n'ong Ins lui^- 



d 



1 8 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



c;'i.;p. ^/i. " ilore the kingdom to that ftrength and vigour which it feems to have lofl;, an i 
'-'^-- t- raiie us again to that confideration, which H.ng'and hath uually pofTciicd. All 
*' 1: uro;)c have their eyes upon tliis affcmbly, and think their own happii.efs and 
" m.lery, as wtril as ours, will depend upon it. If we fliould be fo unhappy as to 
" [ail inro irnfundcrftandings among ourfelves to that degree as wouki render our 
" iriendihip unlafe to trui't to, it will not be wondered at, if our neigb-bours fhould 
" begin to tak'' new refokitions, and perhaps fuch as may be fatal to us. Let us 
'- therefore take care, that we do not gratify our enemies, and cifcourage our 
" friends, by any unkalbnable dil])utes. If any Rich do happen, the world will 
*' lee, that it was no fault of mine : For I have done all that it was pofilble for 
" me to do, to keep you in peace, while I live, and to leave you fo, when I die. 
*' Out from io great prudei^xe and fo good afFedtion as yours, I can fear nothino- 
*' of this kind ; 1 ut do rely upon you all, that you will do your beil endeavours 
" to bri: g this Parliament to a good and happy conclufion." 

All thefc moliifyiiig exprefllons had no influence with the Com.mons. Every 
\'iolenceof ftep, which they took, betrayed that zeal, with which they were animated. They 
vhfCoinmons yQfeJ^ that it was the undoubted right of the fubjeft to petition the King for the 
calling and fitting of Parliament. Not contented with this decifion, which feems 
very juftifiable in a wAxi Monarchy, they fell with the utmoft violence on all thofe 
ebhorrers^ who, in their addrefies to the Crown, had exprefled their difipprobation 
of thole petition^. They rciiecled not, that it was as lawful for one party of men, 
as for another, to exprefs their fentiments of public affairs, and that the beft efta- 
blifhed right, in particular circumftances, may be abufed, and even the exercife of 
it become an object of abhorrence. For this offence, they expelled Sir Thomas 
Withens. They appointed a committee for farcher enquiry into fuch members as 
had been guilty of a like crime , and complaints were lodged againfl lord Fallen, 
Su- Robert M;:lverer, Sir Bryan ^^tapleton, Taylor and Turner. Hiey addreifed the 
K'ngagainih Sir George Jefferies, recorder of London, for his activity in the fame 
caufe j and they frightened him into a refignation of his office, in which he was 
fiicceeded by Sir George Trcby, a great leader of the popular party. They voted 
jin impeachmicnt againft North, chief juftice of the common pleas, for drawing the 
proclamation againll tumultuous petitions : But upon examination found the pro- 
clamation fo cautioi-fly worded, that it afforded them no handle againfl him. A 
petition had been prefented to the King from Taunton. " How dare you deliv cr 
*' me fuch a paper ?" faid the King to the perfon who prefented it, " Sir," replied 
hv', " n^,y name is Dare." For this faucy reply, but under other pretexts, he had 
been tried, and fkied, and committed to priibn. 'Fhe Commons now addreffeei 

the 



CHARLES ir. 



719 



t!ic King for his !i!.):r!:y .i:ul fortl.L* rcmitt.i:-;, c cfii:-, i'v.v. S. ;r.c prir/.crs a'.lbi'.-.-l <- :^ ^'I- 
ai.ti'.or-j ol 1 tii'io;.,-, hbvis, tlicy li^c;k i,tu!cr ri.rir p;*;:;^ .ic 11. 

(jR[. AT iui:i.bcii> ()1 Lwc Abii(,iT\ r^, :r in aii p.ii:. o: Iv p'.ir. ', v.'crf '.cizcJ hv f-r- 
c!cr oi t!ic Cuiiiniw:>, a <.i c(;ii]:i.r:c >i to i:.\..dy. i ..c li;.;:::v 0: i:;c L.' c ;, 
Nsl'i:.!. i.-ia bLc.i lo c.iici.i.iy ;.,i..ir.iJ hy n.c ;_; dC th.irr.r, .1: ^1 ir/ li.: late l..v. (^ 
1 1 io^..:) C.rjL.s, v.. IS c\'t;i'y liay vicbuco iv/ thrir arl 1:1..! v an.l cij nci-us re. li;..- '. 
'i !-. c'.i.i ;riIoL.ly, 'ill tri.c, oi [!ic l'.ii;:!i;o '_ iii:iri;:iu;i i- i..i:-,.r.iiiy .;:: i ; .;'iy i.:;- 
rc.:c-i a:i.i:iiit tlie Cruv.:i ^ i;or i^uccvi iia\'c [..c Ccjnimo;.'^ a:.y <:!;.. v. av <-.: .Li.'..r- 
i.;s; ;i;;-;r p: :v i!(;.i,^ j bjt by comn^itn^onc-^, wbiLii. a-, tii-. v cann -: c! ):cb i:.>; iij c::- 
ii-L.y clrtcririip.evi l^y ia.v, iv.uW .ilv. .lys ap[x\ir in lorv.c tie^^nc ..: 'i:;\.ry. ScM.b; b.b; 
(.; b:K Ic rcalufiS, t!ie [Coplc iiad Iwuici'LO, without iiv.iririi;: ii-[;, l^cn :b;-> b.i.cr*. :;o;-i- 
a: V ;oACT cxeici.Lvl by tlu 1 loiiL- : Hut as ;t was now carricvi i.; : x:;c-:i"iv.\^, a;.i.i \".\is 
abi.:b\l to Ici'w tbic jv..rj(/cs (;; a taction, firc.t co:r.|'b:::i!i w.;l- Ii.a;- 1 li(;:n .bl 
cp.artorN. At a ", t!ic xogMir a::.! c;)..ra;ic c-f (wir Stc/.vi 1 uf 1'.>:i':;t, an .'vbiiurrc; , ; .;t 
rn (n.! to I..C p:a^t.> v'. 1 [. rck.l.d to obey the l.-i^.w.): :.' a;::;>, ;;oo.; up ,: ;,.% 
tb'cnce, :'.n:. ibi.i ibat i.e Lfi.v/ c.l no !a'.v, by wiuJi :...-y j I'c icbi. b to i un.rn ' in.n. 
'lb:C H'j'.b', b:. .;:..,: i: cqiiaby clan^;croL]^ to pioLLv;^! uv t) r:..-,;:;. :: (;;i"bv an 
tv.bb,xi : I'bcy in:-M.d m t!ien' \-otc-, tliat i:to-.vcI wa^ in.n.i.oi':,:, anb tna: a n:on'b'i 
linv.' v/a^ .blo'.'.'.b i:;ai ior h::, ic.vJ'.'ctj.'. 

i!: 1' lb.- ciii^;! \ iu!cncc (d tl;c 1 It;..!.- of (.b>n";m()n:5 appcu'cb ;n a'i tii.br ::a' b.j- 
tl )ns v.b;: rrgarb 10 t!.c plor, wbmn tiit-y prtjlecurco v.it;i tbc la:rL- ^:f.b ,:: b b.c 
lin;^: crcbabty as i;::-;r pivbcc; i.w; :^. 'J b:-y w:.t\\'.\: tb^- :(>;n,.r \o:c, vbb^o at- 
brnicb tbvj icai t\' oi tb. b nab [:opibi pb_.: ; .ni \ in i^rbt-r tb^: iv.-.'.c to :: n i!',- b.c 
].v:v pic, lb;.y even abbrr.u, t!.a:, n.-taibi. a C.'.ivj, ir.j liov'-wry, w.-^ j lot ..:/[ ub)- 
Jnli:J. '1 bvy cxjx ic\i >ir Ivolvo't C'.in anb >:: Ro' crt 'ibcinan:.-, \'.bv) h..b '. . > w 
Ci^ni; bnncb (jt, ii-r l..y:n'j,, t^at tncrj \'. ..^ n.) [ u;::bi, ir..t :'. c: c am'- a y: cb^;. t. : ;an 
[bo:. An\.l tb, y s.nxatiy ia:n; ;.'-:b tbc ^'caiii o: Ikab, ,, wbon, '.'.: \ i ..\ . d a n. arc- 
rial witr.Ll':-, and o > wi^k- rcbnv,> ;iy t'ncy :r.i.ch bi [-.cr. \- b 1 \c '...:.: b t-.i 1 :/. ; ',. itn 
a ic\'cr at Brilltb, liab. k-nt !ur i !;icr lubocc No:'b, co'/nirm <.\ ab: ibh lurni r c\ i- 
bciicc, cxcaj^t I bat \\'aI\ i\;;a;d to the I );:b'- a;- ! ti;,- (^..t ; n, ..n : d; b;cd N^.; bi : > 
ap; ly to ih. Kinj; ;or \.).r>'j n"io.,ry to re', (.vc l^nn ni \'.:^ iv, . i ;br .cs. A U \'. b.i-.s 
a'tcrwarb.-i he dicb. , and tiiL.' wii.;l pa''y iriu"-.; 'i'.v\l cx'n'mr.civ :n tin., i:,ub at : 
As !l \\.c'a a t( lliniony caabd be tllccnved tbc at'br'n ition ot a blvi:'..: man, .i< n his 
( onk lib.>;~. o' ^.cijui'.' in kjnic inb.ai'.ces toiwd .ibiutc ins \\iaii'\ 1 . i..c rcb,, .n;b a.*; 
il t..c } ci ':c\crar,cc v;l one p:i>n;:'ne i.aK.,d (nt\Sv:;bn l..c :...' v, ^ : i i :o many 
lU' n, . ui'.ry <'i la) c/Lncr eruive but bait c |a,j .;y. 

ib; I. Ciimn^ ns even endeavoured, \^; :.. ir eounten nee an I je- ebon, to p.n-- 
on ibe cxLiennj inbiniv, wiili v, In^bi Jbu ;ii;e!d v.as loaded, an.; to reib.ne 



320 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

VI. a canacity of being a witnefs. The whole tribe of informers, they applau 'ed and 
re\v;v;dcd : J/nnifon, TurberviU.^, Dugdale, Smith, la Faria, appeared before them i 
and tl.cir telli.nony, however frivolous orabfurd, met with a favourable reception : 
The King was a;;pi!cd to in tlicir behalf for penfions and pardon. : Their narratives 
v;er.: pointed v.ith tiiat finclion, v^hich arofe from the approbation of the Iloufc. 
Dr. I'ongue was recommended tor tlie Bift confiJerable church prefer'V.ent, vdiich 
fnould become vacant. ConHdering niens determined refolution to believe, in- 
fread of admiring that a palpable falfhood fnould be maintained by w^itnelie?, it 
m^ay iudly appear wonderful, that no better evidence was ever produced againit 
tlic CathoHcs. 

The principal reafons, w'hich fti'l fupported the clamour of the popiOi plot, were 
the aopreh.enfion?, fo juftly entertained by the people, of the Duke of York, and 
-jn- the refolution, e.r.biaced by their leaders, of excluding hitn from the throne.. 
Sliaftefl)ury and many confiderable men of the party, had rendered themfelves to- 
tally irreconcileable witii him, and could find their fafety no way but in his ruin. 
IMonmoutli's friends hoped, that the exclufion of that Prince would make way il r 
their parron. The refentment againft the Duke's apoftacy, the love of liberty.^ 
tlie zeal for religion, the attachment to fa6lion ; all thefe motives incited the coun- 
try parry. And above all, what fupported the refolution of adhering to the ex- 
clufion, ?A\C] rejecting all expedients offered, was the hope artificially encouraged, 
tliat the King would at laft be obliged to yield to their demand. His revenues 
were extremely burdened , and even if free, could fcarce fuffice for the neceffary 
cliarges of government, much lefs for that pleafure and expence, to which he was 
llrongly inclined. Tho' he had withdrawn his countenance from Monmouth, he 
was known fecretly to retain a great aifeclion for him. On no occafion had he ever 
b.en found to perfid obflinately againfl di'Ilculties and importunity. And as his 
beloved mircrefs, the dutchefs of Porrfmouth, had been engaged, either from lu- 
crative view?, or the hopes of making the fucceflion fall on her own children, to 
unite herfelr with the popular party ; this incident was regarded as a favourable 
progPiOilic oi their fuccefs. Sun erland, fecretary of ftate, who had linked his in- 
terefl with that of the dutchefs, had concurred in the fame meafure. 

But befides friendfliip to his brother and a regard to the right of fuccefTion, 
there were many flrong reafons, which had determined Charles to perfevere in 
oppofing the exclufion. All the roya'ifts and the devotees to the church j that 
party by which alone Monarchy was fupported ; regarded the right of fuccefTion as 
invio'ab'c , and if abandoned by the King in fo capital an article, it w;!S to be 
feared, that they would, in their turn, delert his caufe, and deliver him over to 
the prcteiifions and ufurpations of the country party. I'he country party, or the 

Vv'higS, 



C II A R L E S II. ::i 

Whig*;, as they wor? called, if they did not flill retai.i fomc propcnrity toward, 
a republic, vvcrc ar liilr aficctcd v.:th a violent jcaloufy of rep;.l j;o'Aer , and it 
\va , cqi.Li'.l . t J be d.caticd, that, Icing enraged wiih oppoHtiun, afi i nnimatcci 
witii li.cceis, tiu-y v/oi.ld, 'A :hey jirevaiied in this prctcf.Tion, b.- w:!!!.;:;. as well as 
ab!e, to rcdurc t'.e prcr. gat:vc within very narrow hniirf"-. A'l inc:;accv thcrc- 
toic, a!i j-)roiv.:lcs were i;i vain cni{)!()ycd a;;ainll [U?. king's rc'o'utio.i : II- r.?- 
vcr w;..i!Li be {)rvva;lcl with to delcrt his iriends, aivd [);;: hin'.i.il into ti;C !'..;:. ds 
CI his cnj;r.i-:s. And luivirig volutuardy r.'.adc fiich impuriant ct>;iCL-I;:oi:s, a:. a 
ciicrcd, (-vcr a:id over a^ain, Inch llro::g Imiiration?, he was })iea:cd to liixl th.eni 
i\'e 't ti by tb.e obllinacy o' t'le Commons ; and iopcvi, ili.-.', a'ter the 1^ ir:t oi 
Oipolition had fp'ent i'll-li in fruitlels violence, th.c tin'.c would come, when !v: 
niigiit lately a^jpeal againit his Parliament to his pec'jjle. 

So much were the po'/ul.'ir leaders dctcnr.i'^ed to ca-ry ni.utcrs to excrcmif., 
that in kTs than a wtek a:rer the commei^.cen-.cnt (^t the ieirion, a moti'vi \va<. 
made for brini,ing in an exedjnon-bil!, an i a omndttee app(;ir,ted for that pu - 
pole. Idiis bill dilTercd in nothing irom the former, !-ut in two articles, w!.;.!i 
fliowcd llili an increaie ot z al in the CVn:mons : Tfie biil was to be red to 
the people tv.i>e a year in all th.c ch.i.rcr,es of tlie kiiir^dom, and every cr.e, wi'.o 
fliould lupport th.c Duke's title, was rend, red :nca[)ab!e of pardon but by act 
of Parliament. 

Tiic debates were carried on with great vi'/;ence on both fides. Idie Mi! v.as 
defended by Sir William Jon^s, who had now refigr.ed his oiT.ce of attorney- ge- 
r.eral, by lord Ruflel, by Sir Francis Winnington, Sir Harry Capei, S r Wdliam 
P.,".teney, by colonel Titus Trcby, Hambden, Mo::t;ig':e. It v,as or[):)Ied. by ' 
Sir I .eoline Jenkins, ieeretary of Hate, Sir John l-Tueit. }, cb.a';Ce"o; ct :!;e cx- 
clicqu.r, bv Hyde, Sevmour, Temple. The arguir.er.is, tr.iiwnv'.ted. :o >>, ir..\y 
be reduced to the i(di(r.\ing topics. 

In* every !';ovcr::rv.er.r, laid the exclufion'lls t'lCie is !ulrie^. 'ie;e .-.i a', :'..: i'.y 
abfolute and fuprcir.^ ; r.or can any tlL-erminaticn, hewewr u/.ulu.d, v, !uc;i re- 
ceives t!;e fanction oitl.e leg;ilat;.i-e, \ e; aft. rwards ad:^^;: of t!;lj-u:c or eontn , 
The liberty of any coniliiiiiion, lo i.\r from din^iniihing tlds ablolut/ j\>wcr, leen;s 
ratlier to ad.d torcc to it, and to give it greater ii.iluence o\ er tli. 
more parrs of the date conciir in aiiy legiiluive deehe n, and t';e 
voice \ the kk likelihot.d i- th.re (hat any oj -oudc^n v,i'i be :ra*^ 
Uire'^, v.idch iceei' e the !i:ad f.;.>.d' n ot th' :r ai.'!uir::y. ki i ny 
kuive power :s l.-.'g'd iiH\!ng, koids, a::u C'jnin.on^. v. nun .^n 
opkr of the Ccm::. ;e''. : And r!; ,e :^ r^' 'i' '<' ' '''"' ' ^y^'k' ^" 

\.^'. :i. k : 



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to t 


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leg, 


f- 


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e\ ei 


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C' i-.'^ 


-; 



322 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. Vf. of government, not even the fucceflion of the Crown, from To full and decifive a 
^ ' jurifdidlion. Even exprefs declarations have, in this particular, been made of par- 
liamentary authority : Inftances have occurred, where it has been exerted : And 
tho' prudential reafons may juftly be alleged, why fuch innovations fhould never 
be attempted but Oii extraordinary occafions, the power and right are for ever 
veftcd in the community. But if any occafion can be deemed extraordinary, if 
any emergence can rv^quirc unufual expedients, it is the prefent ; when the heir to 
the Crov/n has renounced the religion of the ilate, and has zealoufly embraced a 
faith, totally hodile and incompatible. A prince of that communion can never 
put truft in a people, fo prejudiced againft him : The people muft be equally dif- 
fident of fuch a prince. Forei[^n and deftruclive alliances v/iil feem to the one 
the only protection of his throne : Perpetual jealoufy, oppofition, faction, even 
infurreclions will be employed by the other as the fole fecuritics for their liberty 
and religion, Tho' theological principles, when fet in oppofition to paffions, 
have often fmall influence on mankind in general, fiiU lefs on princes ; yet when 
they become fymbols of fadlion, and marks of party diftindions, they concur with 
one of the flrongefi: pafilons in the human frame, and are then capable of carry- 
ing men to the greateft extremities. Notwithftanding the better judgment and 
iV;ilder difpofition oi the King-, !iow muc'n has the inlluence of the Duke already 
ihllurled the tencr of government r How oltcn engaged tlie nation into meafures 
rotally dcfiruLave ol their foreign interests and lionour, of their domcftic repofc 
and tranquillity ? The more t'le abfurdity and incredibility of the popifh plot 
arc infilled on, tlie ilionger reafon it ahbrds for the exclufion of the Duke ; fincc 
the univerf.il belief of it difcovers the extreme aniipathy of the nation to his re- 
jlgion, and the utter impofiibillty of ever bringing them to acquicfce peaceably 
under the dominion of fuch a 'iovereign. The pnnce, finding himklt in fo pe- 
rilous a fiiuation. mull fcek fccurity by defperate remedies, and by totally fub- 
dulng the privileges of a nation, v/ho had bttrayed fuch hohilc difpoHtions to- 
war .s himfclf, and towards every thing which he deems the moll facred. It is 
In vain to propofc limitations and expedients, \^'harever fliare ol authority is 
jeft in tl.e Duke's hand.-', v/ill be employed to the deftru(!:Lion of the nation , 
and even tlic a.iditional reflrainrs, by c'lfcovering the public diffidence and aver- 
rijn, v;i'l fcrvc him as Inchemenr;, to put h:n":reh in a cond don ei'tiix-ly abfo- 
'.iite an.i indcpcwdant. And as the id.vj cl ^.ilngland lliil m.ike refiUaiKe trea- 
Uin, and ni iLh::r donor can admit of any poiltlve exceptions ^ vhat f()lly ro 
leavj i[:c kingd.'m in fi;) p'-rl' ^us and .ibhn-d a iiiu itlon ; w;v:c t'e rejtcil vir- 
'cL! will b,' e:<:porcd to the moi'- fcveie piX'Tci-ipdon, and vvue c the hi' 'y 



C \\ A R ]. V s IT. -;- 

and (.::; ;.;;:::> r 

'['::.. ri)'ir: yTty rcaion.-ti in :\-a r.j--v.'' 

^v-:;;-j!v a'il j'liCC an;! i;nc>/i:r '-ilalMv : .... .. l 

in .mv fu:n^nn inllitnrion^. A'l p'^/c: : in^'nt J- ' i.,. on ' 

(...:, :ind Ahf'rcvcr thj h;'M\:"r;e m.^:';' ^^'- -V "V '''-'' ' " ' ' > 

i]:,r.!:s an cpinijn rci;;.i!\!'-.\i Po tuii/.anv. n.t.-.L niv,' cll.^l.iillr . . , , n 

;i:s ow-; :r..t'::(iriry, Iil' lu'Dvcnts tiic j-r.nc i ]''.', by v.hicli l.c l-.mv.i! ;.; rll.-.'.,;::vj.'. 
r.n ] rin no onf'f r Iiopc tt,)r obfJ.icncc. In J'.u unc.m mon.ircir.c-, t!.- ii lit o 
I'l!' c'.non is jntliy cllccnvcJ. a funLlamcrital -, i:u.\ c\\ n rlu/ 'Au whole !; ^nll.r.i..-.- '). 
VLiV:,': in a np.[7,iC pcrlon, i[ woul ! never be je:";r.:t:.d I'.;::!, by an tclsl, zo 'I.Iia- 
her;c !);"> lav.i'.il beir, and call a Granger or more* cilla:-!: rela!-; ^n to t!'.e 'i.noi. . 
yVbiilcs in ot''.cr j)irts ot government ..re c.-.pabie oi re/.rei-^, iruni niu:e t";.:"p:i- 
fiof-.are cnnuirv or l)e:r.r i:-i!ormation ol tlic Sovcrei._'n, aixi :bl tl'.en c u^h: p.\:i- 
cntlv to be cntlureci : But vK-bitions of tlie rMilii ( t lliccelbon ciraw b..e;i tc:;ij; 
con;ec|iicriCCS after them as are not t.) be pai i.ieled by an.y c^b. r pnewan-e o: 
incor.vcnience. \'ai;'ily is it pleaded, t'nar J:.nH,b;r.d is a niixt MonareJiv, an.i 
tha: a law, framed, bv Kinn;, Lords -<' Commons is enaeicdi by tie concur 
rence ol every part ot the llatc : It is pbiin, tiiai: ih.Te remai:.s a ve; v pjwci.in 
party, wbiO may ir.deed be oi;C \-oteJ, Init v.nio never v. i'l eil.L.m .i bv..\ [\A::\v- 
five (d" hereditary r gilt, to be any v/ay valid rr obiiiV-^' ''";' 1 -im,:!; .tic.s !i.:c!: 
as arc propofed by the King, give no lliocb to ir.e coriiliiud "'n, vdv.ch, in. nnm'.- 
particulars, is already limited; anJ tl;cy n^ay b.- lo c.ibi.;!.:ted a~ to Terve everv 
pvirp(;ie, w'.iich is foiiplit lor bv an (xcluiion. It tliJ .;n.ri.n.t barrier- .igii: :1 re- 
;r^l auti^orltv liave been able, duni''^ io n:a".v ".'.r. to renn.ain i.; i.t. 'n.,.b c ; lio.v 
much more, tlude additional ones, v.ia-Ji, by i epr:'.':;-;'; tiu Mo.iarch i.>i j u^vt;; 
ten'! !o tar to their o'x-a lecurity ? 'I li very lanv ]:,dou;y too ( t religion, v.ii eh 
has enr-Lcdi tlie j-. o. :e to biy thele re'h\.n";ts i.p.-n tiu- lL.ei.\i:(jr, wi.i led/.n cx- 
trem.elv the nunVn.r ot his paitiz.ms, a:,d make it uitvriy i:r,p.: actieal:''e i^r inm, 
cither by force (jr .nrnice, to brea!-: the lettf.: ., n'npulec; upon. Inm. 1 l\: Knig's 
n'^e and vigorous Hate oi he. den promiie turn .i long die : And, en. it Ik* { r..d.nc 
to tear the wliole date to pieces, m o:dier to proei ;e agnn.ll a >. o././.g . cy, 
wiv. h, it is very Idvcl ., may never inippcn 1* \d< human k .-ein,. .-. c.iw l,v-i,;j tdc 
public m all pofbible even:s ; and tlie bill oi excl-'d'oii ::: Id ho-., vir ...ema'eiy 
frained, liavcs room tor very ob i.-ns an 1 wry n.nural :. ', to v.iueh it; 

pretei'ds I'.ot topiovidc a:s' leir.d,-. .'drud i :,. P.n.e ::.u.e a Ion, .'.Itvr tdc 
King's d^atd ;, n;uti; that lun, witlvjut anv disa'd: c: ivl^u'sn, i.rleit bis title :^ 

J L - Or 



324 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN, 

CJiap. VI. Or mufl the prlncefs of Orange defcend from the Throne, In order tagive vIucq 
' '^* to the lawful luccelTor ? But were all thefe realonlngs falie, \t iiili remains to be 
confidered, that in public deliberations we feek not the expedient, which h belt 
in itfelf, but tiie belt of luch as are pradicable. l"he King wdirmgly confcnts ro 
limitations, and has already offered Ibme which are of the utniolt importance : 
But he is determined to endure any extremity rather than allow the right of fuc- 
ceiTion to be invaded. Let us beware of that faftious vio'cnce, which leads us 
to deniarid more than will be granted ; left we lofe the advantage of thofe be- 
neficial conceffionSj and leave the nation, on the King's deccafe, at the mercy 
of a zealous Prince, irritated with the ill ufage, v/hich, he imagines, he has al- 
ready met with. 

I N the Houfe of Commons, the reafoning of the exclufionifls appeared the 

moft convincing; and the bill paffed by a great majority. It was in the Houfe 

of Peers that the King expected to oppofe it with fucccfs. The court party v/.is 

there fo prevalent, that it was carried only by a majority ol two to pay fo much 

,i ->-'^ refped to the bill as even to commit it. When it came to be debated, the con- 

tmber. teft: was very violent. Shaftefbury, Sunderland, and Effex argued for it : Ha- 
lifax chiefiy conducted the debate againft it, and difplayed an extent of capacity 
and a force of eloquence, which had never been furpalTed in that affembly. He 
was animated, as well by the greatnefs of the occafion, as by a rivalQiip to his 
uncle Shaftefbury ; whom, during that day's debate, he feemed, in the judgment 
of all, to have totally eclipfed. The King was prefent during the whole debate, 
which was prolonged till eleven at ni^ht. The bill was thrown out by a conii- 
Mderable majority. All the bifliops, except three, voted againfi it. Befides the 
influence of the Court over them -, the church of England, they imagined or 
pretended, was in much greater danger from the prevalence of Prefbyterianifm 
than of Popery, which, tho' favoured by the Duke and even by the King, was 
extremely repugnant to the genius of ihe nation. 

The Commons difcovered much ill humour upon this difappointment. They 
immediately voted an addrefs for the removal of Halifax from the King's councils 
and prcfence tor ever. Tho' the pretended caufe was his advTing the late frequent 
prorogations of Pai liamcnt, the real reafon v/as apparently his vigorous oppolition 
to the cxclufion-bilL When the King applied for money to enable hini to defend 
Tar.giers, which he declared his prclent revenues totally unable to fupport ; in- 
ftead of complying, they voted fuch an addrefs as was in reality a remonffrance, 
and or^e little !efs violent, than that famous rcmonflrance, which ufliered in the 
civil wars. All the abufesof government, from the beginning almoft of the 



in. 



C II A R L 



i\ 



s ir. 



ri'ii^n, aro icifnlcJ on -, t'ae Durch v.\:r, the aili.mcc \\'i:'a I ; irc-, i:.. ; r^: ? : ici .;-. ; 
arc! c!iJiblutloiis oi Parlianiciu ; r.iui as ail r!v I- iv.ca! .i\ >, as v.-^i ..> t!i^' 
(i. iKKdlir :\vA l:ll-jh plot, arc atcrihcd to t'.v.' n-.acl'.niati-ni or v:.-: \\\\\\-.-^ it v. a ; 
p'.i'p.!y infiiiuared, that the Ki:i;; had, all alor.j^, l.a;'. uivIlt \\\i i.',:1ij"i;c iA ti;.:: 
P'.IlV, and was ui reality the chict coiili iiator agaiiill tiie reli^Kja ai;vi h',c;t;':i 
ol 1..^ [icojdc. 

Tn L ominoiis, tho' ih^'/ cc)iu'.jvrcd the great bufiiie:", oi \.\,-z cxc'uCnn wit:-; 
cxcreiViC viuiei-.cc and c\"eii iin[>rLideiMf, hid yet \\\ -.k:\\ re.don twr ti-..it i.a!oi;ly 
which [;ave n\: to it : lUit ilieir vehement prole utitjn o! the pop:!!) [.\o:, l\'Q'^ 
aier lo k/ng an interval, dilcovci^ fuch a Ipirit, cither ot ere ;u!icy (;r i;"e{i,;c^ 
as aJ;rnts ot no np',)!o-iy. The inipe.ichnven: ot the Cathu'.ie lor'".? \\\ t'v; I ov.er 
was rc\'ived i ar.d as the vlicount Stafiuid, liom his aizc, i;;.;rni::; s, ;.:-..; n .rrow 
capaeitv, was clleenied. die LmiI capable or ih tendini.!; hinwji:, i: .'.;'.:, ;:. ier'.,;r,e 1 
to make him tiie hif. \'..i;m, tiiaL !.:^ ce:...len":r.a[i.on n'.ieh: p.a\'; t'..e v.av lo: a 
lenten.e ai^a.rdl d.ie i.;l. 'i he ch.ai-.Ccllwr, i..'r.v crea:ed e..rl o: No:::..^': .m, v, .i 
appointed !o:\i hi^'ii llcwani lor c i^.duecing tl.ib trial, 

'1'h ..u ' w."e t!^:.e u itnelies j^rodiiced ag.n; U t!ie j rliencr ; 0.;tes, P..:;d.:!c. 
and 'I'uibcrvilie. Oa'.es Iworc, thai: he law henv.ic, t!ie n.K.ir, deliver toM^lier.',^ 
a commiirion fi^^ned by -de Oiiva, funeral of the -(.h.its, conlVitiitir.;: :dm pa\ r.iai-er 
to the papal army, which was to be levied icr tiie L.':\luir,2: oi i-.n^,...nd. : lor tins 
richculous impolhire iliil maiiuaii^.cd. its credit wiili the C(j:r.n:ur.-. D'vied.a'.c gave 
teilimoin', that the prilbncr, a: 'i'lxal, a feat (>t Icrd Alcoa's, liadi c !ivieavr>'.ircd to 
engage him in'thc dehgn or murcKiirg the K:;;g , a..c; hid pron^'led !:im, b' !> 'e^ 

.;, ' : [)e.i-n.i'i Kt rii \i ler- 
n l.Mi,:e at i'ar; , lia 1 






the honour (;f being faintedi by the ciiarch, a r; .'..ird. 
vice, 'i'lirberville aflirmed, liiat die [;nie:-,cr, .n hi- 



h \\-. V 



t; c.hiv b: i:\.i..[a'ned 



ni 



'm 



made him a like [M'op-^lal. '\\) C/fdr n-.e:;.v lo; m.i:r.:::-.: g a King, wirli^.^r \y 

Ing down any Lhem;, by v.'i;ch \.\\: :X^:.^'..\ '.".a'-, e.. ..re K.n..' j :e' ,.b..;:y i 

pollibility 01 cle.[;e, is fo inerctiible \:. r.li;, .. ..1 iray 

ativ jiroiticute cviduiiee, 'diat an a.c;,;.i:.t r. ^ : li.ai i.ai.. 

ciicunulanecs oug.h: very Iiul lo 

i.wr-.vitl\ilandlng the l.'.:all Iw,!.:, v 

;.bi", in n'iany very in e.erial r ii :ii iA^r.-, iv 

by l)Li..dale, that Stahord h.id ...ddd .a a 

'J ix.il i i'Ui Staliord pro'.ed b. .iiidw... 

V, a. in Ikuh, and in tl;.;: :.. ' hiv ..i hi; i 

c.m^jiig the Dominican--, b',;i \\w\\.\ d, .1; 

trcj^cr in the hiench arnn- , a-,vl ' : :: - . 



th 



nv I ( .;: t c-I 

a.:.;'ed, ! 

:ir tel'iav-,: , 

.;.: f 1 the t 



..utcie. V.'.X 
\ liU,:, r V... 
1 i '.'. . . r.s ^j . . i 
,.ii.- h. ,; at 



326 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

C]!".p. A'f. London, abandoni^d by all his relations, and expofed to great poverty. Stafi'ord 

' '"* proved by the evidence of his geiitlcmari and his p^'ge, that Turbervihe had i^e- 

ver, cither at Paris or at London, been feen in his company ; and it might juilly 

apj^ear flrange, that a perfon, v;ho had fo important a fecret in his keeping, \\gi 

lo long entirely neglecled by him. 

Thy. chimo'jr and outrage of the populace, during the trial, v/cre extreme: 
Great ability a;;d eloquence were difpliyed by the managers, Sir William Jones, 
Sir Francis Winnington, ferjeant Maynard : Yet did the priibner, under all thefe 
diladvantagcous circumilances, make a better defence than v/as expelled, either 
by his friends or his enemies : The unequal contefb, in which lie was engaged, 
was a plentiful foiirce of compaiTion to every mind, feafoned with humanity. He 
rrprefented, tb.at, during a courfe of lorty years, from the very commencement 
of tiie CivW wars, iie lia.i, thro' many dangers, difficulties, and loffes, fliil main- 
r.iined iiis loyaky : Arid was it credible, that now in his old age, eafy in his cir- 
cumflanccs, but (;lf. irited by infirmities, he vvould belye the whole courfe of his 
life, and engag , againu his royal mailer, fiom whom he had ever received kind 
treatment, in the mofb defpcrate and moll bloody or all confpiracies ? FJe remark- 
ed the infamy of the v/itnelles ; the contradiftions and abfurdities of their tefli- 
mony-j the extreme indigence in which they had lived, tho' engaged, as they pre- 
tended, in a confpiracy with Kings, Princes, and nobles-, the credit and opulence, 
to v/hich tliey were at prcknt raifed. With a fimplicity and tendernefs more 
perfuafive than the greateil oratory, he ftill made proteflations of his innocence, 
and could not forbear, every moment, expreffing the moft lively furprize and in' 
dignation at the audacious impudence of the witnelTes. 

1 r v/i'l juft'y appear aftoniflaing to us, as it did to Stiftord himfelf, that the 
Peers, after a folemn trial of fix days Hiould, by a majority of twenty-four 
voices, pronounce fentence againll him. He received however with refignation 
the fatal v.Tdi:>:. God's holy u'lmc he p\ilfcd^ was the only exclamation, which he 
uttered. When the high ftev/ard told him, that the Peers woukl intercede with 
the King for remitting the more cruel and ignominious parts of the lentcncc, 
hanging, and quartering ; he burfl: into tears : But he told the Lords, that he 
Vv'as moved to this weak lefs, by h's [^\^{^ of their goodnefs, not by any terror of 
that fate, which he was dooiutd to fulllr. 

It is remaikahle, that alter Ciuiiles, as is ufual in [wo^^x cafes, had remitted 
to Staif(;rd th'. hanging and qujrteruig, the two {liernls, Cethel and CorniHi, in- 
du'giiig their own republican humour, and complying with the prevulent fpirit 

of 



C II A R L E S If. 327 

of their p.irty, over i> alous of Mo:urcI-.y, ilart?d n doubt with rcgird to tliC - ' " ^ ' 

Kind's power of cxcr^ iliii;^ even this l:Uii!i dcj^'ycc ui Lni:y. " hir.cc he cannot 

*' pardon ihc wbiole," laid r'u-y, ' huw can lu hav.- j o.vcr t) rc:v.\i ; arc (A t'-.*! 

" llntiP.cc r" '1 h y prop('!'cd the d j'.ib: ro boi'.i Iioulc^: '1 hv i*' vri rrrnc u'CjcI it 

l-jpcrrkious ; and cvvn tlu' C'oir.n.ians, ;ipprciv. r.fiv,.- Idl a cy.irlion cl :'.i n.itjrc 

r.v 'ht iD.'kc w.iy ijr St.iti.jrd's cfrai c, r.ivc iW\>. [\::<\u\.iV ..:ii".'. it. * ']"::- 1 I- . !'c 

' IS (" ;'.>,.% Uv.\z the Ihcrift's do cxccur.- \\'i!!!,'.:n hit.- vr.l\..i.:.: Sr.irV;:.'. '-v !,v.r- 

' i;.v' h:') hc.id iroin hi body c-7v." Notlii.u'; ciii b.- a lUo;/ vr jtc>',: v ; :;: : i, ; v 

oi t!\o tiir.L-^, than that lori Ivi.iill, n'.tv. i[httaiu;:n : t!:i* v::-:...- a;; ; ;v..r:-.:". 'y ^.: 

i.i' ciiara^c r, kcondcd ia th.c 1 IuliIc thii baibaio',;-. k;-.;: '. _ ..: i'..v iLci': i . 

]; t'e ir.rcrv.d betwixt the fcntcnc? and cx'-ci:i:i:)r, ir.a.-.y e!V)r:- v.'rr :i ...';. to 
ll'.ake th.e rel.\ui;(jn oi th.e intirm and aLi,-,'d pr'Mor..r, a:.-l to b '.r^r h'rr, ru l".:::c 
con!e;"i;un o{ tliat trcaion, lor widch l.t: \.as iv,)\v cciuicirrv .i. I: .'.as tvc:^ :..- 
n^rurcJ, t!uit he had con., ilcd ; and tii.- zealous ^ a: :vr!-;c-\ w h , :. . ' :. \.,A 

licrctlv, notwithllandhig; i!ic;r crcd..luy, (.n:cr:ai;ud ;.;rr.c ; ; u, !i; . ;:.! :.-;;;: t^.) 
ri: T,c- i!'i ^(';i': 'cv, cx[-!\ lied !j,reat r; ;u'i:;di <hi t:.i-^ > c .. . r. T..: ' r.i:' .:, 
.':;,: ;-:i e.i' " ;;.;orr t'^- ii'-ulcot' I'tcr^ d:hi,.vr:c-d in,. 1'.: . v 
J .. . . , :~v i.wwk.; .li.d (uh.rs i'.;;- p;oci.r;i.i.; a t(-'.:a' '.. : ; ^. : , , , 
.. ^ _ ...: a n:.:i^^ ;ii' 'ii ul i..c _ ^ i:..l h.v. s, ( .la. d a^ai: U th.-iw : ..;,.,.. 1 : , 
''..:: L'.:-) V. ;.s ihv : j^b: t;\aj /n, o; vM.u h '^c i. 1; cv . 1 bcvjn ; k.\.[\'. 

'> : v<y-xi> !..v'.v ; r;:-::-.'.; hin'lb.l 'a.;- d ..lii vdrh [h,\t ;::;.; . ' 
.h . i .r:b and ib\brn, ai: i v, hi. !i v a:j !.!/ iK;i;iMl r^ Ii.'t o[ t a' , . 
-^'.tv, v.'iuch, duri;y' :!'.c C'.; .; ic (m a .oi'.l^ !;:c, he hiad c.' i' ;.-..... i ,. 

li 1 ; _-.v d ^ - 1 : ) ( :;. ns- luivc !ruiM ti;r viwivnac ...,d (< j c.h- .. ; : 

v.-,., b b ' " ':\\ to . :;. .-.,r. 1. h c.ii .! ; / a . ! .b : . 

h.;n a :- ^ : d.. l' .... . - i^:... b' ; . - ! .b :. . 

' coi'.i , oi/, 1 L. -i.l Mi < iw , i.' t b.r !..;; "' U.\ b.r 
r;'-i'eiaiJ . a..d f..:'.'icil aii. v-:ra::oi.^, tcj n^a .- ' aa/t :,. 

hi !o/'.'c'::" \v .s ' :: :c a : i.n :\\ .: ,- r t : < h n hr n.. , . . . 

1 rhii'b - b d b: iva-. Cvi hiui o: b:,-, h.:- cxpri: .i^ . 

i I, >d. in...y ' ..iv./,'.. .; ..!! iiv. :-. ia::\a):..i [;.;,, . 

' ' : ' d v Lh;:.!: liillih.Li. ;i to tbi jb..;. ., , .v b 

, _ a \'. . i.'i \ ."p. . 1 ',. , '.'. ':..:. \- 1''- . . 
,1 '....; : i .! ' 1;, I ; ' . . ^a 

!n (. 1 ,: . :o , ... 



328 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. VI. each feature, and motion, and accent of this aged noble. Their profound nlence 
was only interrupted by liglis and groans : Vvith difficulty they found fpeech to 
aflcnt t'j thof- pioteflaticns of innocence, which he frequently repeated : " We 
" believe you, my lord ! God blefs you, my lord !" Thefe exprefllons with a 
{iUiiLL-ring accent Howed ironi them. The executioner liimfelf was touched with 
iyn:;piLhy, I'wice he lifted up tlie ax, with an intent to ftrikc the fatal blow ; 
and as olten tek his refolution to iail him. A deep figh was heard to accompany 
Jiic Iail effort, which laid Stafford for ever at reft. I'he whole fpedlators feemed 
to feel the blow. And when the head was held up to them with the ufual cry, 
\'::s IS the head of a traitor^ no clamour of alTent was uttered. Pity, remorfe, 
2\\^ aflonilbmeiit had taken poffefllon of every heart, and difplayed itfelf in every 
countenance. 

This is the lafl blood which was fhed on account of the poplih plot: An 
incident, which, for the credit of the nation, it were better to bury in eternal 
oblivion , but which it is necefiary to perpetuate, as well to maintain the truth 
of hiftory, as to warn, if poffibls, their pofterity and all mankind never again to 
lall into io fliameful and io barbarous a delufion. 

The execution of Stafford gratified the prejudices of the country party-, but 
it contributed nothing to their power and fecurity : On the contrary, by exciting 
commifcration, it tended ftill farther to encreafe that difbelief of the whole plotj 
which began now to prevail. The Commons, therefore, not to lofe the prefent 
occafion, refolved to make both friends and enemies fcnfible of their authority. 
They paffcd a bill for eafing the Proteftant Diffenters, and for repealing the per- 
iccuting flatute of the thirty-fifth of Elizabeth: This laudable bill was likewife 
carried tiiro' the lioufe of Peers. The chief juftice was very obnoxious for dif- 
miffing the grand jury in an irregular manner, and thereby preventing that bold 
meafure of bhaftefbury and his friends, who had prefented the Duke as a Recu- 
fant. For this crime the Commons fent up an impeachment againfl him -, as alio 
againft Jor.cs and Wcfton, two of the judges, who, in Ibme fpeeclies from the 
bencli, had gone lb far as to give to many of the nrft Reformers the denomina- 
tion of lanatics. 

Th'^ King, in rejecting the exclufion bill, had fheltered hiivTelf fecurely behind 
the auihori:y of the lioufe of I'ecrs ; and the Commons had been deprived of the 
iiKial pretext to attack the Sovereio;n himfelf, under colour of attackini]f his miiiif- 
ters a:vd councellors. In prof'cution however of the ichcme, which he had form- 
ed, of tln'owing the blame on them in cafe of aivy rupture, he made them a new 
Ipeech. Atrer warnii^ig tliem, that a negle6t of tliis opportunity would never be 
retrieved, he n.ldcd tlicfe words : " I did promile you the fullcft fati.^ faction, 

" which 



C II A R L K S II. 



3:9 



" wh ch yoL:r lr?::rt:^ C(;i;M willi, fov t!;j ll-curity of r!:'? } r-^r lVi':t r: ':..jon, :::.. 
*' cciiciir %'. ill) (a: i 1 nriy rvnunl: s, v.-'!;Ji !-::i!:;;iC ( :;!..l\'. . -; tl;j 1 .. 

'' c:. fi'i;;) o:' '!.- C;-';'A-;i i:i i:s d::c .w: \ L'.yil c;n;iii- , .,.-.:: 

" ilu- l.ii):,- : . :c:-\-a':'):'s. rc:x\v ihc l.i-:^- pruni lib r.) ; .; : .^.- '.. . :.. ;i. ;..;.;, 
*' oil :::\ y.- : i ^ di) .\.\ l.:\i l.\:\ rc;i;'):,:ib;y h.- cx, 1. , .i i.\ :ii ri;,, I .'- ! ! ! ' \ 
*' t>; i.;iuv. I'lw.n you, .:s 1) n .;i ni.iy be, Iiov,- !..; 1 ,h..b bv. .11^.:... . . ., 

" whAi \: i- )wur c!c!bv !!\,ni n;--." 

'I'i.:: !'-:;):l r.\il nabic ' b;c^i: ,n .;.;,ii wl :]\: l;::.i;.;t". :: , ; r; y 
:-, i\\ .: v,):v i ir .vUicci.! t,-'-> (.;c>;ii.i!ci\:' ! .hi ;n..^tv.it.i'...i :;; I;; . .1; , 

.!. ; : :.;i.y a:;;.:!^:bUL'u tbc power ol tbc Munauli. 1' .t . j, ;. , ;. 

b_!o.i ci c^i : Coniirons .;Kd Lbci;- Ic.ib r;., uc xr. iv I ..\ . '. . \ : /., 
ob/jjLii):; v/dl'-: I-iw Hu.bl ucii^liC wlih t',c:v, un-! b::u i'.. . . . , 

C^ji;rc woulu rabiiT iiiClinc tbe.n tu biiib. ;:li L;.in li-il'i^ :-^: 
I'b-y (lib boya^ ii'-'m tbi- K;iV-,b> i:'-;. :;: :.:e libb.-, :::.d b;. ^:"...., ...... _ , 

], woiib; t'^ro'-v bi'rb'b v. b(bl\ {:) ) i'.\j'.v 1 ,:,b ; .1:. 1 b,.i: ib:.-^, v,,l. .....: \. .. 

tbr tiic ;i c,rb):i t/I t':.: ]);:b,', ili y nvL:br i;r;:^bi r !y !e;i cr :'. 

m.b'"vrs (K tbj [;o^c^:^;;^. :;:. 'I ;ir C():K:nc;n , t'.cu'o:'', brbvb^ ; 

tbj I x.bibb)", { ro '.tb^b :o b:-;;-.'; bi bbb ( t a \t: ; i:r; r:.\':'", a- b l' .. 
cf a \ cry ala:::b:::i; i;a'i::e: Or.c in r.-i:e'.v L!:e triennial .1.', v. b:.ii b 
inabvcrrcn:ly rc^ c.beb in t!u- [K^biiian::^ (jt t!ic- ieb;:i ; A !'.\ oab r; \v.:.\-- :' r ( 
ct iL;b..:c biiri:nr !; nnb belnivinur : A tibrd to bacl.irc t':c !. \-via.: (.; ;;: a; v w i; 



... .0. .. . J 
; ll:b .a) 

I 



coa'cnt cf" baraanvanr to \\- h'^^h trealbn : A !wa:-:Ii t,; orbcr .la abb. iab.-n b; tb.: 
lafcty (^f his Ma;eby'. yerlbn, l-r tb!b:.c,- cb'bia yv i.bl .n: r. ': j^a, :br t .c ;aa;. r- 
vat'on of tbc prf^tcala:/ l.b-;. :ls a"a:;bl a!l inval; r.;aab (yyyfjbboa v. b.i:: jc \-c;-, 
a:al t'lr yrevcnrin^; tbf Hab^- of Yiab or aiya I'ayib i":o:n !b . . ' ' ' 
'i'!:C" nv i^orv o: r:ic ( nw naa: \v.'^ [) rjca-at h^r nv > ' .' . ' 
ci"; of lucii an -ubj^iatari : \!i 1 tb'' b i" , \v!>-' v a , . 

V!bi, c^ al 1 1:0: I,.;! o; r ...,,' 

ireiln cxj.a.-'.a. a 

Tun C-a-ii-.a): : aia^ y ;..':b n^ ..:y \\ac'-, vbib !i, b " ' ' '..i^naa-y 

f o'.. , I. r'.'ea noac". _' t .1 en. .n, m ^ ic . ... : ..a 1 i .. . 

', :,-b, t!;ar waio.w r b .,1 ....ni., . b ' 

\v:iv ; of y ipcry an ! o .r\n ro ' 



jiK-nt. 



330 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chan. \I. left he fliOLild be enabled, by any other expedient, to fupport the governmcnr, 
'' ' and prcferve himfelf independanr, they paffed another vote, where they declared^ 
that whoever fliould hereafter lend, by way of advance, any money upon thofa 
branches of the King's revenue, arifing from cuftoms, excife, or hearth money, 
il-iould be judged a hinderer of the fitting of Parliament, and be refponfible for the 
lame in Parliament. 

The King might prefume, that the Peers, who had reje6led the exclufion bilL, 
would ftill continue to defend theThrone,and that none of the dangerous bills, intro- 
duced into the other Houfe, would ever be prefented for the royal afTent and approba- 
tion. But as there remained no hopes of bringing the Commons to any compofure, 
arid as their farther fitting ferved only to keep fadtion alive, and to perpetuate the 
ifh : . general ferment of the nation, he came fecretly to a refolution of proroguing them.. 
ir-'i :; j^'H-- 'piicy got intelligence about a quarter of an hour before the black rod came to the 
i:;:rc;\it'oa cfdoor. Not to lofe fuch precious time, they pafied in a very tumultuous manner 
"' ^'-'^ -'- fome very extraordinary refolutions. They voted, thai whofoever advifed his Ma- 
jcfiy to prorogue this Parliament to any other purpofe than in order to pa;s the bill 
of exclufion, was a betrayer of the King, of the proteftant religion, and of the king- 
dom of England j a promoter of the French iotereft, and a penfioner of France : 
Thai thanks be given to the city of London for their manifeft loyalty and for their 
care and vigilance in the prefervation of the King and of the proteflant religion : 
"TbrJ it is the opinion of this Houfe, that that city was burned in the year 1666 by 
the Papiils, defigning thereby to introduce arbitrary power and popery into the 
kingdom : Thai humble application be made to his Majefty to reitore the duke of 
Monmouth to all his offices and commands, from which, it appears to the Houfe, 
he luid been removed by the influence of the duke of York. And ibal it is the opi- 
nion of tl'.e Houfe, that the profecution of the Proteftant diffenters upon the penal 
Lias is at this time grievous to the fubjeft, a weakening of the proteftant intereft, 
an eiicouragcmcnL of popery, and dangerous to the peace of the kingdom, 

TiiL K'ng palled fome laws of no great importance : But the bill for repealing 
the thirty iifcii of Elizabeth, Ivj privately ordered the clerk of the Cro.vn not to 
prcfcnt to him, Hy this artihce, Vvhich was equnlly difobiiging to the count y 
j iuty ;;s if the bill had been rejected, and at the fame time implied fome meannils 
.'ind limiaity in the King, that falutary a6l was for the prcfent eli;ded/ The King 
had often of himfelf attempted, and fometimes by irregular means, to give indul- 
g'.Tice to iNonconformifts : But bcfides, that he hud ufually cxpeded to compre- 
hr!:.! t];c Catholics in this liberty, theprcfnt refradory (lifpoAtion of the^'ccraries 
h:Hi n,i/ h infl: ::r.ed him againft them, and iie was Hill refolved, if pofiiblc, to keep 
the::; at ii^^ity. 

The 



.'O- 



CHARLES II. 

The lart votes of the CorTimons fccnicJ r^ hem 3.[':cn'pt ('{ h^inv: .\ir, \i'\ 
nflbci.iilo;^ ar:;a:i'{l t:it Crown, ait r li.w ten:. :. i!:. tiuir air^ri.;-. ' 
pals : 'i l;c ..i.'cn:ii.g ii.tcrclt, c'k* ( i:y, and w tii kr < j M( arv. .i 
voiiiLti 'o (cn c-i wuh the cuunrr\- j).iri'.-. v (!\:l v.ar indreci : . 
lil-cly .Vi ;it pttt-iu ; and it wis hig!i luiic i" tlv- Kui^^ :u dilioiw .: i' 
\vhicli f..:v,.\! to iiavc entcrLaincd kith I'lii^.-r^-u^ pr( ;< ds. S.c-i .i:- .. . 
moned .i .,:!v:r. 1 liu' he oSlerved, ili,;. [i-.c cotiury paity had t l'.a'.\i::.L\. :! 
tered 'b ilroi.^'y iri ,;I1 the ciedi:-;^^ burrcAii^h', that h- C'-uhl nor ;-.o; < ; ,[ a:, 
frJon ;r';;c taw-urabie in the ne.v Parhanuiu, this expevhent v. .;- : : i a { . )1l\ .;:iv;;i 
of h/.' .oriricr proicjl, ot tryin;; every metlio:i, by which he n::!;!it i'l-^- .1:1 .1 t>m- 
mo.lation with the Commons : And if ail tailed, he hoped, tii.u iic C( .id t'.-.c [-ji-.-v 
jurtitv to i;i'^ pcc'ple, at Icall to his party, a iinal breach v.i:!: th.m. 

It had always been nuicii rcgretcdi by the KoyaliHs dun/-;- :I'.j eiwi war-, t;._t 
the L-oni^ Tarliament had been allen^iblcd at Wellminiler, :\in\ hi,", t'.ere w ue- i\Ld. 
force and encouragement Irom the ncighbourh(>od o: i potent .'.ni.: ;.::;.;. ,^ e;t , 
which !;ad /.eaioully embraced tiieir [arty. 'J'!io' the Kin;-: v. .>.^ ni,'W polied". a wi 
i'uard.s, wiKcIi, in l(jnie mealurc os-erawed. tlie p>r.;niace, I'.e nk.ii J.e:e:"mi:.ed il:!l 
farther to ubvi.ae all inconvenience, aiul lie lumninn.vl the new I'..rii.;mer.: t" iVi, ;: 
at Oxf' rd. The city ot London Ihowed how 'u!! a iiuignxi.t i:e haJ. io:n^v! of 
their difpc^fition. Befides re-electing the liime menib. -, tiuy ve,L;\: t'Mr.l.s :.) 
them for tl.eir former behaviour, in entleavcniri:.g to difcover tl;e v'ept:; ol tlie I . rr-.J 
and LcHtlh popilh p/lot, and to exclude tlie Dul-:e ot "^'ori^, tlve prin:ip,d La'.;'.e o! tjic 
ruin and mikrv, impending over the nati'n. Monm(>iith with tiiteen l\^is pie- 
lented a petition ag.iinfl: aireinbling the ridiamr'nt nt OxhiJ, " wlie e the t.. ) 
" HoulVs" they :aid, " could not be in I'.ietv -, !\ t .vou'd. heeaiily ex|;'dedi tn :'-,e 
* fwor 's 'jfthe 1\t, ifl:s and tlieir ad!'.erei;t' , oi \.':\'r::. t > ) ir.ai.y h.ul ere; t ::.:' i, s 
*" Ma'jeftv'sgu Js." Thefc i:uuiuatioi>, w ',.;.'. :'';-'j( '.. lo <.;,:_, '.!y ;.- ::. ^ ! :,.- 
him'.eif, vvre p.> c .Iculattd to ; - rfwaiie !i;tr,, L .,t to ;::.\r-',e ;'. . !,-. 

Thl Ex. I'lfionif.s might have concluded., b(.th 1;.,r.-. .!.: i. 
lad l^arruimenr, a:u] from h.is Ibmnvining of tieprei r t.> n^.^et ,1: xio .', f a: '.: 
wa'^ determined to inaintain his dechv.cd rei'd.ition o; i' ;e::ing \ t.r la.' ..;:. '' 
Bntrhey (L'.l flattered tiiemfclves, tleit his uige.-.t ii.ceniiies v, ui ; 1 /""^c -.e, ' 
tfm' . -and finally r,ahn '^hem th alcCidant. 'i'i.e lead.ero c.:n e : ) Wv..: \v:. . 
tended not oidv vitii their fervi-.nts, but Aitli :\\i\v.:r{:..s bae.-i (/' (in-!'- :- . -wers a. -.J. 
partizan.-. T'.ie four city memb.is in p.ird 'Vilar v. e! e !-.! v.\-d ;>, :'e.!:;;t.de?, 
wea; '. P..]; ri'ijb,\is, ill \^hich were voee;i f i.cle W';;\l-, .^ ,' ' ; ' ^ '-' 

id^ns'- had hk- e:,uari.is regularly n'uilered : I lis p ir, 0'.:ied to \v... 

^ ' \' w ? id..,. 



332 



HISTORY OF GPvEAT BRITAIN. 



Chap. VI. a fhow of their ftrcnp-.th : And on die whole, the afkmblv at Oxforu bore more the 

^^^^' appearance of a tumultuous Polifh diet, than of a regular Englifli Parliament. 
2iftofMarch. 'fj^E King, who had hitherto employed the m.oPt gracious expreffions to all his 
Parliaments, particularly the two laft, thought proper to addrefs himfelf to the pre- 
Ncvv r.;il";i- lent in a niore authoritative manner. He comiplained of the unwarrantable pro- 
mcnt :it Ox- ^ecdlngs of the former iloure of Commons ; and faid, that, as he would never ufe 
arbitrary government himfelf, neither would he ever fuffer it in others. By calling 
however this Parliament fo foon, he had fufficiently fhov/n, that no pail irregulari- 
ties could infpire him with a prejudice againfc thofe aiTemblies. tie now afforded 
them, he added, another opportunity of i.; .^viding for the public fafety , and to all 
the world had given one evidence more, that on his part lie had not neglected the 
duty incumbent on him. 

The Commons were not over-awed with the magifcerial air of the King's fpeech. 
They confifled almoft entirely of che fame members -, they chofe the fame fpeaker ; 
and th:y inftantly fell into the fame rneafures, the impeachment of Danby, the re- 
peal of the lerfecuti;:!^^ ftatute of Elizabeth, tlie enquiry into the popidi plot, and 
the bill of txclufion. So violent were they on this laft article, that no expedient, 
hov;ever plaufible, could fo much as be hearkened to. Eriiely, one of the King's 
miriiilers, propofed, that the Duke fnould be banjili' d, diiring life, live hundred 
Uiiks from England, and that on the King's dcceafe tjie next heir fliould be confbi- 
tu.ed regent with regal power : Yet even this expedient, which left theDukeonly th 
bare title of King, could not, tho'feconded by Sir i homas Lyttleton and SirTIio- 
mas iVlcmpeiT n, obtrnn the aitcntion of tlie Iloufe, The pail difi'ppointments of 
thecountiy party, and the oppofition made by the cojrt, had only rendered them 
more united, niore hauglity, and more dct-rmined. No other method but their 
own, of excluding tlie Duke, could give them any fa;::Gfai:tiGn. 

i-S I'liERE vas one Fitz karris, an Irifii Cariioiic, who had infinuated himfelf into 
the duteiiefs ol i'ortlmouth's acquaiiitance, and had been very buiV in coiiviyir;^ to 
her i.'t -liigence of aiiy lihei wroie by the cou::try party, or of a^^y deii:,;ns enter- 
taiiv/tl againil !^er cr againfl t'^e court. For {".rvices of diis kind, and j'.rii.ips tc^o, 
1r( n'; a u grid ro Ia:, iiii[:(i\-. Sir Fdv^a^d Fitz-harris, v/ho had :c. ;! ;.n eminenr roy- 
aiitl, he \...a\ ;eeciv( d from the King a prck i;t of 2 y.- pounds. Tins man ti*ct w:c;i 
Oiie I'ivcrard, ;: 'k Oichni;:!), a 1; y oi the cxclufio'.iils, am., an in;<;rn-er o! t':e poniili 
ph)t ; and he propc^fed ir< \:\:\\ to \ rire a '11:^1 i^iL...\::i:. the Kin:';, th.; Did", anii kia 
\\ >-,';le achniiiiilrarion. W'liat Idtz !i;t:"rids inter i ;,,; were, c.ir.not well be ak.jr- 
: '! : it is proijabie, as he aft-rwar s aliei-red, ti^at he iw: \nr. to carry thia iibei 
to ntv p:/ ">iu r'.e duLcli^k, and to n;ake a merit or .he ddcovery. Everard, who 

FiF 



i' .'/ 



e 



CHARLES ir. 

j*. "^ C-d Lr:.:- C'^.?v <]:.\::, :.: .1 u ^.o \v:is ],] :if J on h;- .].': 

i\ < wry '.. i.'i !--^ j'.::r>.^j;s, icImUwI lo b ti-.iy ;,;; :;. i.J : 1 

W.ii! r, .1 1- -^-^^ !i.:li^c of j\-;icc, a:..! v.) ^ .:'.:.- irA>.i ' 



:. u--; r'-e m.r:: i,i i ^ ' -^ VI. 
1 ' ; vi >:r \\'.; :..:n 



::.: n .K-i!:-: ::;c w:. y.j i:..;.:...- 



'in :.!, 

lk-::.\;, J v .- by Ini^: ii-rris, ?\\ 1 c\ c. . ! j .n'lly by !.;:ii, r-i::;y bj i ..\:.;:\i, v. .w 
f!:v: ni iL h >; v:-, i:.clc:t.cnt, a. 1 o.::;-.!^':.;..^, i:i:::^^:.-:ab;c \ :.:\\ h;c!i .;. v. .i>, ir:^r to 
h:.ri tb.Mi L: c any j\!rr\', \vhi.;Ii ihunid be l') in:;ninbn: i;-, to a ;^' t ;:. W'a! r 
c.'-:! b ;.i ti:^ i!Ucib;""n(.c !." mc K ir^-, :ind o!x iin,',' ,\ \'. ..rr ;:.r hT on^n.i:' .:: b .:/- 
b.i;rb, V !ui b.ij.j .niv!, at tli-u wry tni";!.', lo h.i'.c; a c : y (J t:;.- ib-cl m b ' .:. 
1':. 'ni;^ bnnk.i n'AV uciv :cw owv to tb.: br.v, be rcIo'\-cc! to ; ny en;' ; )- 

[..,".: j^.iitv, \vb.>j wcic aior.c ab!j t(_) pio:L\'i ]\:rr,. aiv.! Vy v. iujni Ivj ob; : '. -> ./.n/.o-l 
ab trbils to b [\ )Vrri;.\! anb cbrca, b. J Ic ibiJ, t':at: iu- !n;d : vn c : ;b..;- . ; ! , b l: 
c()':rr to v. ; itc tbc bb-!, m orbrr U) t:n'c/V/ tl:c ( ,!;nn"i o: i: on t:;e cX. ...>: nn^- ; n..: 
ll :> a^connt, v.bic!i v. a; v.ibnn tiic b^.-nvi:- oi .i\bbnnty, be ^.::^:\\^-:.: by (.^./v.n:- 
b.mc'S ". hicli are abo.etb;-:" .b:;in\i anb improbable. Tb: in:...-..n oi ti.e nb.;i- 
i^.rs be r.-v:, v.a'- :u lend ..'n>nt ia>i^b;. :o an tbe bc.b^ ci t:. e.nUi'.y v^.'i'.y ; and 
tbe n:(.nur.: tbcy re^:e:\-ed :!: m, tli.y w^w to be arr.bed, and a i.n..;n\;.y : ) '. 
in:[nire ! t. b.eni. 1 . .a !:e nn^^b' merit :a'. oar by bnl :nwre \:v ],.:....: ;:::.'..:.[.::. Cy 
beccni ' a dbeoveier o: tne n:n-..t p mHi ;!-:; ..:.db'!..b ' : , . . ni 

a!' ba- t: -' ..nna'L; circn n: ban ees, innb- n ^^n by !n> ; redecvib r-. i i,- ;..: .:.,..: :!.e 
l:eon ; Dn.eii v.ar v..::- eiKe.ed :ntr) v.-.i'a a \ b \s- o: txbri y\r.-' ibe i r.niba..: r. :- 



n, b.nii abro..d a;n! a: bo I'e ; \'.:.\: nn..e.- ibiir-.n a a-;:, r, oa tbe i.\:i..r-,y r: 
I e.;c'n tobl : n-.T. t!n;: tn-- Catlibics :ea)i\a\i to OLn: ae da; Iv a. a ^n, 
vd t:a,- O:. a; n^ bn.: deb .a ; tb.t tbe ..a. y o! M.-ibn.i (ab.aa 1 biai i 



, n 



an;, aa^i a 



I .. . o , i 



1 a I., a 



1 an. 1 , , 1 ' I . ; r. . . r .3 s\ , i e i o t. 

ra'kb b; I: by lu r : 

n .' ,, .a ' V I 



i ; 1 . V. 1 v.> I . 



334 



HISl'ORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Chn. VI. him from the deftrud'on, with which he was at prefent threatened. The King 
i63i. 1^^^ removed him from the city prifon, where he v/as expofed to be r;n-ipned 
v;ith by the excUifionifts i had fent liim to the Tower ; and had ordered hun to 
hj profecuted by an indictaient at com!v,r;n lav;. In order to prevent his rriiii, ;n'd 
ex;ci]tion, an impeachment v/as voted by the Commons againfl; Idm, and fcnt up 
to th'j Lords. That tlicy rriighi lliow the f^^reatcr conlempt of the Court, ihey --^r- 
dcrcd^ by way of derifion, that the impeachment Hiould be carried up by k-cretary 
JVnkins , who v^as fo provoked by the intended aiTront, that lie at firft retufcd obe- 
dience ; tho' afterwards, being threatened vvith commitment, he was induced to com- 
ply. 1 he Lords voted to remit the affair to the ordinary courts of ji.'dicarure, 
before whom, as the attorney- general informed them, it was already dercrmi cil to 
try Fitz-harris. The Commons maintained, that the Peers v/ere obliged to leccive 
every impeachment from the Commons , and this indeed feems to have been the 
firil inftance of their refufal : They therefore voted, that the Lords, in reje':;iin(:>- 
their impeachment, had denied juftice, and had violated the conftitution of Parlia- 
ments. They alfo declared, that whatever inferior court fhould proceed ap-ainfb 
Fitz-harris, or any one that lay under im.peachment, would be guilty of a high 
breach of privilege. Great heats were likely to enfue ; and as the King found no 
likelihood of any better temper in the Commons, he gladly laid hold of the op- 
portunity, afforded by a quarrel betwixt the tvv'o Houfes, and he proceeded to a dif- 
Pailiament. folution of the Parliament. The fecret was fo well kept, that the Commons had 
diilolved. j^Q intimation of it, till the black rod came to their door, and fummoned them to 
attend the King at the Houfe of Peers. 

This vigorous meafure, tho' it might have been forcfeen, excited fuch aftonifli- 
ment in the country party, as deprived them of all fpirir, and reduced them to ab- 
folute defpair. They were fenfible, tho' too late, that the King had, finally taken 
his refolution, and was determined to endure any extremity rather than fubmit to 
thofe terms, which they had refolved to impofe upon him. They found, tliat he 
had pntiently v/aited till affairs fhould comie to full maturity ; and having now en- 
gaged a national party on his lide, had boldly fet his enemies at dcfiaiice. No Par- 
liaments, they knew, would be fummoned for fome years j andi during that lonr 
interval, the Court, tho' perhaps at the head of an inferior party, yet being pofTcf- 
ii^i] of all authority, would have every advantage over a body, difpcrfcd and clifu- 
nited. Thefe reikdlions crowded upon every one; and all the cxclurioniils vv'ere 
tern tied, left Charles fliould fecond the blow by forne action more vicdent, and 
imn^; diatcly take vcngtance on them for their long and obllir.ate oppofition to his 
n-;ea<uicb. The King on bis part was no lefs apprehenfive, left defpair might en-. 



C II A R L ] S II. -J 

'^I'^^c thcrr. to \\.\vc rc>.(,".:r!';- to i\A\'.\ :\\\,\ iv, .'. iumc lutl 'en .rr-^'-'-^i'" 'o-^. 'is : ;- 
fi;;n. Pi ;ii [ aiti' 5 t!.-.!-L-ru[\- Imnic^! ,;\'..i\' :. ''^x* r ; ..i.^: :, [..at 

tit} , !b crov. ^'cii .;;a1 i)'.l}', v, .io IcIl :r ir^ u!.. ! ' .i-;^ i;;; Is .i;.;i rr.i:,.: .. ;: . . 

'J'ln: c ;::^|).iM/ r,,'.:'uTcci force i.o::! t': ' till]':'; fidn :\u \ al'' .:,.il:'.. :.: ( i :; ;-ir 
n!U.i;;o:.:.'V , .iiKla-Ji'.; . ( c! iViOrc i-rai'y to tiv: Kir,.:, uiio;,- r^:' il..uo[\>, li/.-y ;,ov. f.iw, 
C"(ii.M h;- c!;:::c!y t! ^ciulod on. 'I'iic \:o!cncc oi the fx !i.:M)nills v, .;ic\\i;, '.sn.rL 
cxci.iiir,. .! a^^ainft and cxag;- rated ; and c vjn the rca]:'v oi th-j [ 'or, t'..:: . r-.;[ 
cnL|,inc of tlijir auth(jr;ty, was openly cailvd. in qucflio:;. 'i'li: cicr;:y ( !j cc;.h!y 
were bi.l'y in tins great revolution , and being moved, partly ly 'diurowi; t(.ar.>, 
partly by the iniirAiationb of tlie Court, they reprchnt,\i all their r.ntagonhh as 
Seetaii s and Republicans, and rejoiced in efcaping ah :!\ole periK, v, hieii they be- 
]ic\ed to ha\'e been hanging over them. Principles, the mohv orpclke to civ:, li- 
berty, ^vere every v.'hcre inforced from the p-ulpit ; aiKl ado[:ted iii r/jmerv/... ad- 
drcll' s ; \v!i re the Kii;g wa=? flattered in his prelenc mcalures, a:ul Cv r.gr.iu.h-.Cei 
on his efcape f.-om Ihiriiaments, Could words have been deper.ded on, t;.e naLion 
appeared to be running fd([ into voluntary fervitude, and leJirieei e\en anibitio. s 
of refi^iiini' into the King's hands ail the privileges, tranlniitted. to them, tln-^' la 
manv age-, by tlieir galiant anccllors. 

B'.-T Ciiarlcs had fagaeity enough to diilinguilli between nv.r.s'rcal internal 1- n- 
t'.mer.rs and the language, whici) zeal and* oppofition to a contrary faftion ir.ay 
lometln-es extort liom them. Notwithllariding all thcTe profcfllons oi duty and 
obeel-.e: ce, he was refolved, for a long time, not to trull tiie people with a new e'ec- 
tien, but to de[iend entirely on his own oeccnomy for alleviating thofe necedities 
under which h. laboured. Great retrenchments v,e:e made in ii;e houfli(;ivi : 1\vl:\ 
].': favourite navy was neglected : Tangiers, tlio' it had coll great fv:n";s cf nioe.cy, 
vea,-, d tcA ye e '- aKcr abandoned aiid demcdiihed. I'he mole \^as e:r.ire!y e.i :!ro\eti , 
:'.:.d thic gai. di :i, being rrought over to beigiaixi, iervcd to .lugUi.r,: that hu.-.h ar- 
my, uh.eli tr.e King r. lied, c/ri, a'; C'C loiid bails of hi'' autii .Tity. It \ui.\ Dee., hap- 
pv ior t!ie naiiou, I'.ad Charles uf dl his \i:u)ry with juiliec and mi>L;.itio:). vUJul 
to the prud :e e and d^ xtentv, widi \,h;cn he obtained it. 

The full ilep, tahen i y th... Ce.er. ^.a^ the trial of J i:/,-harri;. P'oeb: > .'re 
railed i>y thr iiu'v with :eea;d '.- tluar oow'*;-, a;t'M" tiec c'ji.'du.hr.g \otc <.>: :l.c 
(-'on;mons : I'ut the |.e^, .^ it ok u^ on tnem t(; decide t! : (nie;i:o!; i,. the ..iiir- 
nwwv-, a.id'hcjur) \;e:e ub.ig ' to i :'oC' : .,. 'i l:e wri.ii-, lI . .;' J ^v ,. rlr;idy 
;: -ecdu; o:'i i'lt/^ :.,\ ; is : 'idle onK ck..:'io:": \.a' u ''h ' . e u\. ti !e mti .,;ior.i. 
11 :. d 1 [ d, til It he \vas a Ipy oi" rhe Coui i, aj;d had a.ew: xi. . . > ..; ru d ile idiei to 
the dutLi^ei-: of i'ort.m^ull) : and i;e Wa-^ de:./vu'- e : , d.cud, ie rie , 



33^ 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Chip. VI. tranraclion, confider him as a chtat, not as a traitor. He failed however fome* 
'^""''' w.at in the proof; and was brougb.t in guilty of treafon by the jury. 

Finding himfclf entirely in the hands of the King, he n(>\v retraced al. his 
ibrmc-r impollures with regard to the popifh plot, and even endeavoured to attoie 
for them by new impofaires againu the country party. He affn med, that the^e 
iidioiv:? had been extorted from him by the fuggeRion and artifices of Tr:;by the 
recorder, and of Bethel and Cornifli, the two fneriffs. This account he periifred 
in even at his execution ; and tho' men knew, that nothing could be depended on, 
v.'hich came from one fo corrupt, and fo loft to all icpSe. of honour ; yet were they 
inclined, from his pcrfeverance, to rely fomevvliat more on his veracity in thefe laft 
aiieveratlons. But it appears that his wite had fome connexions with Mrs. Wail, 
the favourite maid of the dutchefs of Portfmouth , and Firz-liarris hoped, if he 
perfiflcd in a ilory agreeable to the Court, that fome favour might on that account 
be fiiov.-n to his family. 

It is aniufing to reflecl on the feveral lights, in which this ftory has been repre- 
iented by the oppofite faclions. The country party affirmed, that Fitz-harris had 
been employed by the Court, in order to throv/ the odium of the libel on the ex- 
clufioniils, and thereby give rife to a protefcant plot : The court party maintainedj 
that the exclurionifts had found out Fitz-harris, a fpy of the minifters, and had fet 
him upon this und'^rtaking, from an intention of loading the Court v/ith the impu- 
tation of iuch a defign upon the exclufionifts. Rather than acquit their antagonists, 
both fides were v/illing to adopt an account the moft intricate and incredible. 
It was a ilrange fituation, in which the people, at that time, were placed ; to bs 
every day tortured with thefe perplexed ftories, and infiamed with fuch daris: {uf- 
picions againft their fellow-citizens. This v/as no lefs than the fifteenth falfe plot, 
or fharn plot, as they were then called, v/ith which the court, it was imagined, 
had endeavoured to load their adverfaries *. 

Ti; , co'jin'ry party had intended to make ufe of Fitz-harris's evidence ar^r.iiifb 
the Duke an.i the Catholics ; and his execution was therefore a great n-iOriiix.a.ion 
to tliem. But the King and his niinifters were rJolvcd not to be contcntc.i \v-ith 
fo flcnciLr an .advantage, i'hcy were determined to profecute the viciory, >.;->' lo 
employ againll the cxclufionifts thofe very ofienfive arms, however unfair, Vvhieh 
tiuir party iuid laid up in llore againft tlicir antagonifts. Tlic wh(jle gant'^ of fpies, 
v.'itncjies, ip-lormer-^, luborjier.s, vho lu'd lo lou;'; been fu])p rted and ciiijouragcd by 
the ic^dii.g patriots, finding now that tlie King wa^ entirely rn.dkr, turned i]MnZ 
iip;.n their old pations, and oiiisreu their lervice to the nnnifbrs. To the difgrace 

cf 
' ColUrc's 'rial. 



CHARLES ir. 



of the Court r.ml of tlic ap^f, tr.cv '-vcrc nc;;\\c! v,::!^. I;c.irrv v.-.!c'"m.' , a.-.c! r'...ir 
te;l;n;o;^y or r.;:!: ; ['"niiry in.Klc uIj ;/, in cr.:- r r > cn-iunir 1, , ;i mirvl.-r i;;^o:i 
t!ic opp()i;:c I'.iny. Witli :;n air (>! trAint: !^ a:;u i.;cr::;>j:\ it: w.'s ni'.v.', * Ail- 






no: t,ic!j men (:;ooJ. v.r.ncucs wi;o :kivc cii.i.;.;in -'. r..-- piipiln 



\v!M):e 



'' tc,*:,i:on\- h'i!Kr\l .m i io ni.itu' C aihoiiji !i.um been xc'iitr \ ..:. ; v.' ..:;i \,;,j 

' \ov.'.Svi.-, ii.ivc Io !t)n:^ ci!!. br.i":''(l :is n:;n (: crc. :: an 1 w:.: - 'V- 

' a ;n. :,:..: til, ni into yc.r [x4>;ni : Tlicv arc i,.;i. ... o;:. n- ' ,: , 

' 'r.:-v a:\' ^.-z:v[^M[x.I in an^t'icr fliao: in ivrv tli.nr i\;, ; 

' V ,n . ,in::( 1 c .mpi.iin, th i: ti:-- \jr.c inr.iL.r-, v.i.;. . vo :,).L. i 

* llKvuivi jiu'.v, iy a ri\r .teoti^ d o:n ur vcnyc.ir.i.L-, he n-i.ilu: . li (.iit t 

I; ;s CiTtain, t'l.it :ii ^nanc-pic of r.tal'.'ri'M w.w Lwc \ . \ ^i:.-: i \' .[ 

arolo^'-'.-, In ctli-^rs .;> an a';cvi:i':i' in, li^r a c('n iv.':': \'. i;;:'! wc.nl.l (;:i.cr 
pole.! to p,rear blanu. !'.:: tlule !n!.im..;.s arc, v/lii i- p(jv:(jn j i.'.!,-c in ;La \. , 
b nree, and brea!. ail tnj ban. S of in.ni ni I' . i-p.-, ar. I'j oi-^e:la'^le a..;l cln.;-: 
0'..s, ti..iC no ^ r.'text ( -I r ;,iii ;:i n can b.' ' ab-, o as an a' (b(vi,y ' r cv^-n an .;. .-- 
\;a:;on .or tii-.: crin:.' ineurr. tl by tii. m. On ti:e c"on:r.:; v, tl;e :ir nUcr m i.;n .tivni 
'.:.. iN-npi; anb iiii nnnibcr^ leir, v;:,en Uivw'. ilv lXo ,: .b tvj tiu ^ .--nriL-- oi .b^u-- 
:V'< -A, tnj niorc njlu.i.mee iwo-Ia! t.i.-\' nov. haw cineo'/e:'^'.! a.;anni cn> 
p.j_, ::_, ti.e ian: : in.l:a;n:;v.:t-, o: w n /''-^' ^b '-^ ti:::i:" a:.t..^;.n:.l-. 

'Lb- ;: ib b jinon, on v,i:o[n ti.e isbnib-rs o ii, v.- as one C oib- no a 1 .; n i ,n 'win.-r, 

".'bi y i..ib b co:r.'j ex:re.ocl}' noo-J i r hi^ v.c.u apaiml p.-p.-i's', and was wry ou-vM 

jnnee:eJ wibi >iia:-cibury ;.nb aii '.\\c !ea ier. ol' C:\: coonrry ^noty : h' : a- b y 

'_ ' ' :^.:\\ np-ni tb: poy ba.:e, in.n or Cio.leyc's ran!-, an.i b..'-'on v.vn-c \n p. i,: - 

b' 1, :'_: h.c. ' i . 0\:,j;-b a:n:ib \vib\ b..'. :b an ! [o. 

o...^_ . ti: Ib.rii: ; ..... L.ns w.;^ noui:/ b;a n.nnb.i:; n ' : ; . 

rs ai ; lajten eb b; u a i , i: i : b,,/;; ent r 1 i :r > i ' 1. in.- :b !< 

aii 1 re:. on inni in . o ; i be b;o;.ib no.i b. ,:,:..; 

bim. Ibie bienoi ^:\ i .on i.e. '.'. a:'c in ronp i n to t.. L n.:: ; 

n ,: brarp.-, tiiat t'.e ['i:.:-::. -o.y in.nA.; ' . r:. . ; .. '^ b : o 

ri.,- T::i;;,:vr v.n,- ti . ;.:.: 1 .,: o^ Ox 
J nnbtU'.i. I ,' : v! i - : . , , . . 



: . . I 



^cni. I a: (. x:n i: 



'. ... y ! Oun. r. .' . jnn..* 

' ni i.in', . '; 
, 1 



338 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN, 

Chap. VI. prifoner during the fury of the popifli plot. Such wild notions of retaliation 
^ were at that time propagated by the court party. 

The witneffes produced againft College were Dugdale, Turberville, Hayncs, 
Smith ; men who had before given evidence againft the Catholics, and whom 
the jury, for that very reafon, regarded as the mod perjured lyars. College, 
the' befet with fo many toils, opprefled v/ith fo many iniquities, defended him- 
felf with fpirit, courage, capacity, prefence of mind ; and he invalidated tlie 
evidence of the Crown, by the moft convincing arguments and the mod un- 
doubted teftimony : Yet did the jury, after half an hour's deliberation, bring 
in a verdict againft him. The inhuman fpectators received the news with a 
Ihout of applaufe: But the prifoner was no way difmaycd. At his execution, lie 
maintained the fame manly fortitude, and dill denied the crim.e imputed to him. 
His whole condufu and demeanour prove him to have been a man led adray only 
by the fury of the times, and to have been governed by a very honed, but indii- 
creet zeal for his country and his religion. 

Thus the two parties, actuated by mutual rage, but cooped up within the nar- 
row limits of the law, levelled with poyfoned daggers the mod deadly blows a- 
gaind each other's bread, and buried in their faftious divifions all regard to 
truth, honour, and morality. 



CHAP. VIL 

Sfdfe of affairs in Ireland. Shaft cihiiry acquitted. Arg\les trinL 

State of affairs in Scotland. State cf the minijlry in England, 

IS^ew nomination of fl^erifs. 9jjo -rearrantos.^ G/-eat pc-ictr 

cf the Cro\cn. A confpiracy. Shaftefl)ury retires and dies.- -. 

Rye- ho? fe plot. Coifpiracy difcove}-ed. Execution cf the confpi- 

rators. Erial of lord Ruffel. His execution. 'Trial of ./lln-cf^ 

non Sidney. Elis execution. State of the nation. State of 

foreign affairs, Kinfsficknefs and deaths and characler. 



J \\ F.N the Cabal entered into the myderious alliance with France, they 
took care to remove the duke of Ormoncl ironi the committee of for;?ien 
ufairsi and nothing tended farthc: to cncrcalb the national jealoufy, entertained 



C II A R 1. ; 



3:9 



...?,.i.:i.. L..:: nc'.v nuM.iv , '., .. .1 n".. in o: .> ::^ ...... .i i;.. .;^ wt ,. .i> j i -!: , 

uiaI r.o;U'U", ( .. . . . :. . ..:; . . m ., , 1 .. , :,.(... io ' ("ar j,)!. j-,^ i> 

\'.:'Ii l!:l 1\,. ^^ a , to ! -L Ut;;i >ii ; r ^'.i!: . I :; >rn t'.c i ' . , ' 

J .>\1 ]vv ; .1: L^, aiL : ...u'lls > .i;-i ol K.i in r, h.. ccfL.l I..;.: ;..:....: .:.;, .. i .::: l:;:. ...v - 

ni:';,:. J .<.:\i iJ.i: ..A y !"-.<. .1.^1 K(;b.:rr. i ..:..! i:-.- v ,1. 1 ui i ;:-:, 1] ; i.v'cv. .\r 
J.iii. in t!u: \v..i- i';;-, Ci..u !. > i. .il 1.: , cy. - .v i.n c; ( .. no;..:, v.!..; 
h>n.^ n;-^,;..;cd ^ ;i:..l l.M l.nn 1-. -r ;;.n..n.:,: :;j !; :,-:,,!. ' I i: .v. 
'^ i!nn_,," l.i.w Lnc l^in--, '' h^ .n:'j:-;-:^ in .: n,. w; \ ./ ' '. '. :: 

" i^ni'vj I.ini n;y . n.n.y." (J.nrtnl, ci.n nn.; !n > . :;^ n.n.\ 

rnn c > .[c-nr , n.n' (.ni^cinM: (\1 rioi^ cuuiunn , \. !>;(, I., \'. nn i : j nn. 



; niJinn:.. i j' o.ui |:n;'' .; 

an,; lo | .r.'j [!:.:: ni'; ,.:m '.:: 
c;'>'l', iiJt; (;n nny c^;i:n<;; I'v 



:;:/ : .;..nn;l t!;.: K\:^^ 



.- ..^' .1.. : !o 
ny J ov.-.;- ;.) 

. : :.i; jn, in.c 
. 1 Ir cwn 

* "V' ' ir ;: . 

' i '' 



:r ;..! . V t . L 



li: n, Willi:- 

j)i\ \'.i!.:ncL' rl l[:L>:n nncl Knn.in..": nn '- i ^ .n ^. j ^ 
i:i'.-.ni^, '' I li.iw (;n'y lI.c j o'A c : ;. :l Pv in', ny; 'am: - i.-. 
Wn.n (-,1^;;.j1 C.i:y UiTon iA,; i: -.1 nnn r /:.,'.::.l i/: yn " : ' 
n:y .; [h.i: !,. innl no l.ijn.ls l^.i i. .! ann in- y.ni.nn ' . 
] :.,! tin' unl.c, ^- I yiry lIuc : 'i i.cn. c.>:.:.:!l :n: :,.:v : . . 
'" :n :; r^il a: C. ^n; l. 1 a: n l rnv. n . ;, ,"' i.a.i :.j, i n an .!;^n' ra. ,;. 
'' : . :;y c! a;!. ; \ . L vwn [i.ac :n'_ ^n ..li inai-nna l\'. .a. ni : .s .n'y 

W a ; C a n'. s n)a;n; :t I.> iai.aa i^ t/jflui-A ;a'.ann- : ; ;!.a i ! : 
.1 a. 'an.:, CJrnaaii;, v.!,) \'.ai:i txinnaa!. :.'.' 
] .n :\ , (.->.... iiot na! (a : >. . uvl a a: , t j : a :u a \'. n !i ;'.- . , ''.a :a a 
lM:aan- caa.:,: .anl .nniu : a .a 1 ; s ..,;..aai:l ,a' : .,;, v, a . ' \ 



I . . 

C... V.' 



la 



, .. ' 



on. 



a c ^ 



,a' ;"ca (/. i :anaa 

. ; " a ' a " - 
c / .aia ( ..-a . V. 1 

]a. :v. ] la ; n^r. a: t! t!.c :"a\ann: va Iia!aa i ! 
\ : : i I J a,. a.a..a..\i a rr-u',:; a an\' a tan t' 

:aaa.ty a. ' ; ^n,: i 

: ^ ,.: C..:!aaaa., v.a;c ; - ' : 

.,,: ..a.. ^ . .a io 1. .'.'. I ..', :..\ ^ '. C, l.^ .'. '. 



340 HISTORY of GREAT B R I T A I N. 

^^- an extreme hatred to Ormond, both from perfonal and party confidcrations : The 
gre;^t aim of the anti-courtiers was to t'nrow reflections on every part of the 
King's governm.ent. It could be no furprize, therefore, to the lieutenant to 
Jearn, tliat his adminifiration was attacked in Parliament, particularly by Shafcci- 
bury ; but he had the fatisfadlion, at the fame time, to hear of the keen, tho* 
polite defence, made by his fon, the generous Oilory. After juftifying feveral 
particulars of Grmond's adminiftration againft that intriguing patriot, OfTory pro- 
ceeded in the following words : " Having fpoke of what the lord lieutenant has 
*' done, I prefume with th:: fame truth to tell your lordniips what he has not done. 
" He never advifea the breaking of the triple league ; he never advifed the Ihut- 
" ting up of the Exchequer; lie never advifed tlie declaration for a toleration ; 
*' he never advifed the falling out with the Dutch and t'r>c joining with France : 
*' lie was not the author of that moil excellent pofition Dcknda eji Carthago^ 
*' that Holland, a proteRant country, fliould, contrary to the true intereft of Eng- 
*' land, be totally deftroyed. I beg, that your Icrdihips will be fo jufc as to 
" judge of my father and all men, according to their a6tions and their councils/' 
Thefe few fentenccs, pronounced by a plain and gallant foldier, noted for probity, 
had a furprizing effeft upon the audience, and confounded all the rhetoric of his 
eloquent and fadious adverfary. The prince of Orange, who efteemed the for- 
mer charadler as much as he dcfpifed the latter, could not forbear congratulating 
by letter the earl of Olfory on this new fpecies of vidory, which he had obtained. 

OssoKY, tho' he ever kept at a great diftance from faction, was the moft popular 
man in the kingdom ; tho' he never made any compliance with the corrupt views 
ot the Court, was extremely beloved and rcfpefled by the King. An univerfa] 
grltl' appeared on liis death, v/nich happened about this time, and which the po- 
pulace, as is ufual wherever they are much affected, foolifnly afcribed to poyfon. 
Ormond bore tlie lols with patience and divinity \ tho' he ever retained a pleafingj 
iiowever mclanchulv, fciu'e of the fignal merit of Ollbry. " I would not ex- 
*' change my dead ion," faid he, " for any living fon in Chriflencorn." 

TiiKSii paiticLilarirics may appear a digrefilon ^ but 'tis with pleai'iirc, I ov/n 
that i reliix myfeU lor a momciit in tlie contemplation of thefe humane and vir- 
tuous charadcrs, aniidil tliat fcene of fury and faccion, fraud and violence, in -A'ldch 
at !!rcle:^.t (;ur narration har, unforrnnaiciv en^^^a.^ed us. 

]'rs[ni;s the general inierc!l of t!:^' country party x.o decry tiie conduct of all 
the lying's minillers, the prudent and peaceable adminidralion oi' Ormond was in 
a parti^iiiar manner diff)leafing to them. \\\ England, where the Catholics v/cre 
leavce caa: t(; a liundred, n^eaiiS had been iouiid to excite an un'.verlal panic, on 
accouiit ol iiiiurrechonij and even niailacres, projedcd by tliat fecL j and it couid 



C II A R L E S ir. 



: * r 



not but Lc!:i ."r.ir,?' :'..^:\. I;\h::J, u'.-r;: ::;.-v ex:-;-.; .1 [!; I'k;:^ ^'r: 
one, there llv;!;!,: i/j v -^'l'' :i"i^ a;-- cir o! a;.y c <. .',. '.'::). i:. on nv -o.!; ::.;. \. 
ail iiiji.U ;:, v. h n i\.ly c m.ik'viv.', ii.-'.l c. .:. i . ! .^ ' .:,.! i'mI^c i!.j . rc.i: 
plot, :\:.A LliiiKiulh the au'.h!): i.y o. t'.u., ic^i' :5, n'..;i) h.i'i !; 
c:u!l.-/, incL.ic.ucJ :!k- b.\;ct ui \t on i'..-: i\.v..-^-a. Iv; a .;: .; . tl..:,;,.-: '..-; 
iiihctl \[\ IrJ.i;^' r ) ai:y o:;c t'.at woLi!-; brinfi i.Uc'!i,:f .ic ^ (,r b.c^'inc v. rtxi' 
ionic [ i\).;:.;itc-; wci'i; lent o\c. [ > t!..:r !v!.::',-iom, \'.Hii :i con;n.!i:lun tj k 
e\-\i ncc .U!.i:j:1l the C.i:!.o;;;^. thxin- j:\'v.\: ot I..1;. !.;n.Mor ..; rns cji 
t;i:v brohc i.to ii-uile-, ..v.d i'hnu!.n.\l [!l:u: 'J n y I'ncv, i;;rit ^ti.: n. 
p:l;un, .hk; :o.;\ l;;ibes lor [h.-!r rj!calj : .\n.l ..;c-;r a 1 t: ':':: ci ::; cc, i[ .'. 
viiinciiicv, that that c>a::::;y, coninioihy icili!. c:.oor;_h in \s itnellcv , LO..!h 
them with any ':\i lo: r!'i::n- ptiryo e. 



t (j! [nc 



i a a 



Ai- lad, cnerit/;:;r..h! a-pear.d, lohov.-,.! by tv/o Maenanvir.. , !. 



;v-n V. ere nnn:L.;:a" 



Den i., l^otn-k", and l-;n:j (.^h.n-. 'I ' 
rhn:ia!..: ;, and :':.</ tli-y podVlbd :.ci:h r einnM.i-i-, ihdh :'.-n: t. > .: an b; h;.. ; 
truth, n^r Icnie to inv n: a creJh '; l.ihlicn.d, ih v v, .ae car b' h r:\'.'a:b: 
rorted, and rcfon^n-'nded by rli rar; of >ha:telbn,y. O:-:-- Ib.n.h.r, l 
iar prinnite or bahnnl, a nnni ol vrry : cac c;.ddc dd; od:i jn>, v. a^ L.):.d. n:n 
cxccn:ted nn n Idc'i t^ilnrony. And t!ie Ox:.ard-l'ardan:eiU en:e:a.d lo n 
liic master as to vote the:;' L.ti-fa^in n in the rea:iry ot the V;:d;hin.: ah ; 
J h>r. E.t bxli d:,l':: :>. th.d a: n:ll rc^nirdcd as ndadible, had now , 
(d tlien- a.. thorny i and l;:e pddie d;!! renn.n:ed loin;\\ !iat indd'hrcnt an-, 
dtdons. 

A: r, n the t!.in hnl .n o: la: ihirhanien', .:. d th.: i^d ..i[ .e:.: \ h" av 

Koyahds b:...n.d iir ; iaddaa.^, -ddi dhnArvna, Snn: :, ,: : . n. 
v!,Liihd tiuinn :. a-) :.) :' , ,, , ,.; ornni:: n , .. 

their lorni r ; atr a,. , , t'.at nn . . -. . . 

fd.h ir..n, In , ' : ' - : a . ; 

th, Conrt a^,v:n . \ 

V. era .._n\a/ int.. , . 



tnn- 



, an.; 



342 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

attention. That veteran leader of a party, enured from his early youth to fac- 
tion and intrigue, to cabals and confpiracies, was reprcfentcd as opening without 
referve his treafonable intentions to thefe obfcure banditti, aiid throwing out fuch 
violent and outrageous reproaches upon the King, as none but men of low edu- 
cation, like themfclvc?, could be fuppofcd to employ. Tlie draught of an afib- 
ciation, it is true, againll popery and the Duke, was found in Shafteibury's cabinet -, 
nnd dangerous inference's niigiit be drawn fi-om many clauibs of that paper. But it 
did not ai^pear, that it had. been fra:r,ed by Slurttefbury, or fo much as approved 
by hiim. And as projcels of an aflbciation had been propofed in Parliament, it 
was very natural for that nobk^nnan to be thinking of fome pian, which it niight 
be proper to lay before that allembly. The grand jury, therefore, after weighing 
all ihefe circumftances, rejected tiie indiftmeiit j and the people, wfio attended 
the hail, teftified their joy, by the loudeft acclamations, which were echoed thro' 
tb.e wliole city. 

About this time a fchcme of opprcnlon v^as laid in Scotland, after a manner 
ffill more flagrant, againfc a noblen"jan much lefs obnoxious than Shaftefbury ; ar,d 
as that country was reduced almofc to a fcate of total fubjedion, the projed: had 
the for''une to fucceed. 

The earl of Argyle, from his youth, had diftinguifiied himfelf by his loy- 
'alty, and his attachment to the royal family. I'lio' his father was head of the 
Covenanters, he refufed to concur in any of their meafures , and Vv'hen a com- 
miffion of colonel was given him by the convention of llates, he forbore to act 
upon it, till it fnould be ratified by the King. By liis refpeetful bei:av;our, as 
well as by his fervices, he made himfelf very acceptable to Ciiaries, wl^en that 
J-'rince v/as in Scotland ; and even after tlic battle of Worccller, all the misfortunes, 
wliich attended the royal caufe, could not engage him to defert it. Under Mid- 
dketon he obftinately perfevcred to harrafs and inieib the victorious Kngiifli -, and it 
w\is not till lie received orders from that general, that he would fubmit to accept 
of a capitulation. Such jealoufy of liis loyal attachmen.ts was cntertai.ncd by the 
Commonwealth and Protector, that a pretext was fe;on after fallen upon to comi- 
mit him to prifon : and ifis confincm.ent was rigoroufiy continued till tj-.e reflora- 
tion. The King, fiMifible of his fcrvices, Iv.id remitted to him Ids farlier's for- 
feiture, and created him earl of Argyle-, and wlien a moil unjuil fentcncc was 
ixified upon him by the S<\/teh Parliament, Charles had anew remitted it. Jr. the 
K;bfq:^nt part of the r..ign, Argyle bciiaved himklf dutifuily ; and tho' he 
ceni.d U'.t di!^:okd to go all kngt'.s wiiii the Court, he always appeared, even 
'n his op])ont!on, a man of nnld diipolidons and peaceable deportment. 

ji J. -< .-. vv J.^ -k ..; L.\ i 



c n A R L r: s ir. 

app>;in:cw c^-';uii"Li ' r. 1),!! ^^ -wwif :!;!; ini). rs' :o :!.c K:.; ' ," ' 

cict.a:li^c ri-'iT o: ; .. H: m, i';i !',; i: ;:-::;[ t n,./L, 1 a '; . 
jn>!:L::l\l (). ^ ' v , . ., i: \\\[dv\ , '. L.:1!;l .i!, v crc r . ! 

tc:l, t'.c !^;. ;:,':> 1.^ ;\.i\u v v.\i;; .i:~!rin .1. ih cov.ii.i t r::i '.:: 
i c-j :inc::r.v' i>-, .ui ! .ill o''r^;.u;v :iS u.l.l.iiirc.i (;: (.;.. :l-ivc,u::.,^ .. . , .. ; : ,. 
c!k.u!; u:' ll.Kc. i'wis v.\i^ ihj il iti- (^t r ., t:;', .: - '; ; J Iv i'. i. 
1 ::r the i c)i:' try j ..::'." jTi jL\! i> .i . , . : . ; 

v.!i;c!i I ,. iZ \'.;l1i u.c nry he iviiilL-d. 1 i:. v. ;.u..- v;. ,:>(.; ;in t. . 

co..hLle.va ..> an (..itli ; ai',1 win" v,\is v.\ rlc, a c :.tt,i:.on o; i.i hi v. .. i . w 
iich, v/.iich h.ul h-'cii ini;:..!.-!.! ,i ilctic ..lii.-[- \.\\c w'.-j'r.vr.v.'io.:, :::k1 v. ii\ :i r. :;',; 
;::-c,;[ ni.ii:y >:: r\ ! js :!!: ^.::!i.:- : r '.wt !n- ihe lh;:-!;.;:nL-:ir ;> ,! :. ui.v;. .\r-;-o;; j (. 
t;;e (.h)CliInj o; i\ ;hhi... ".' ..^ in. ^h-ar. h ^ !) l!i..l ine i. ;.i a I: 

was lound o:i ex ;::::a.;:io:i kj i j a nu^...-y oi Cv :,i: ah:.:...:, a, .: .. ; ...v..:v. " 
]V!ion^, th,- :rw ' a:iae:;.d t > ih Ci'w.v.;, Ihia:; hh b; talvj ;: : 'Ih.e 1\::: ^ 
many ( f th- chr y ia-v.,:h:-a:,h : 'I'..: i .\:\ cA (^;.l::'' r. y :\.'" :',! :> . 
cxccyt ha iih:j,!i: ha ah.a.Lh to .ah! aa ..:^ i.a..::'o;i : Anh vw.i ih : , 
tiic.^ht ic la-.iaihra i) ^...b!:;h ;^r a- :.cr.h la';. aacLi a. a 1 .:.:[^.\ ^ . . 
ties at'eiuiiat^ t'lc tea, 

'ihfo' the cuurhars C(.i;!J IV, : ;c;. , the ciaLhe oi .idlKwn. c d .].: . : 
r(.h;h;)ii, tliey ja"o[:eI'J, as a revjihhta :raI-.o; lai^eet, tla;: ah Iha., ., c 
b!t)od lliould b cx^ ar^.r d iiiAV. ta!hrj, :ha: o,,!;!i. 1"!;:-^ txe y::tai v. .; a. 
j:c.)l'' ': by A!"ii;yie, wh) ( hlerwh;, t!a;C tiie hae h;aai,,'v.r to he hiaa.h. h : a i . 
teilan^ rJi^^Mon mail |aa):i.-\i ircai liv lerw lah n el t!i, ii-y.h i.\:v.-.\ / . ' - 
. :i ia.Ji tojiu--, l\: ho-v/ a liiane.i ih^ ieciat a-.a;^/a.:.. 'a a; the ! . , . , 

._ : n,-A k a the lata! e: ' . . 

Wh,: a A:-i.,;!e iv'.. ihe t..l ,- a ; ;! . eiKiahiiea-, i . ' > 

, releiiee, aa ex^ l.aai: on, vhhe'i iv l,.al h. Ji;re aa.h eia 
uadsvhielihe hv!;e\aJ to have been aj^yrovad h\ '.....:. i: . . . ; 
' I have coiindered the r.ll, a:ul .v'\ wrv d hr -a o: h.ae . ' 
^- 1 eaa. I am ta;ahh.a-,r, tliir th ihj-h,ia,.:a a \ r 
' h.h"Lo;y ci.iths : 'Iher, iia'e I tla..i: i, o iiiaai taai ex la.a. 
e r.aiy!v, I tahe it a? h:r a-Ar i^ ci .h"ih;-,t V. :h. :: ' . 
Aah I vio iljehiie, t'ua I na-\!;i no" to i-.ah ta) n: . .- . - 
- ! . '. ah v.aiy, 1. am wa'lna!' aa! V a! a.-oar a. aav .h'- . . ; 

..aai::e (ji c hiaahi or ih:t . ' 

'-v : A: ' , , , . i: . DA.., .. 



1 ., 



a:' a. 



-f i 



HISTORY OP GREAT BRITAIN. 



nctural, hzr.rd diik words with great tranquillity : No-one took the leaft offence : 
Areyl- was adniictcd to fit that day in council : And it was impoffible to imagine, 
that a crpiral oii\:ncc had been committed, where occafion Teemed not to have 
been given, fo much as for a frown or reprimand, 

AiicvLG was much furprizcd, a few days after, to find that a warrant was iffued 
for cor.mitting him to prifon ; that he was indifted for liigh treafon, Jcafing- 
ir-akir.g and perjury ; and that from thefe innocent words an accufation was ex- 
tr:iLled, by which he was to forfeit honours, life, and fortune. It is necdlcfs to 
enter into particulars, wliere the iniquity of tnQ whole is fo apparent. Tho' the 
fword of jufcicc was difplayed, even her femblance was not put on ; and the forms 
alone ol law v/crc prefer','ed, in order to fiinctiiy, or rather aggravate the oppreffion. 
Of live judges, three fcrupleU not to fin:' the guilt of trealon and leafing-makinp- 
to be incurred by the prifoncr : A jury of fifteen noblemen gave verdict again't 
liim : And the King, being confuited, ordered the fentence to be pronouiiced ; 
but the execution of it to be fufpended, till farther pleafare. 

It was pretended by the Duke and his creatures, that Argyle's life and forame 
were not in any danger, and that the folc reafon ior puHiing the trial to fucli ex- 
tremity againil liim was iri order to make !iim renounce fonK^ hereditary jurifdic- 
tioTiS, which gave his family a dangerous auLhority in the Highlands, and checked 
the courfe of public juQice. But allowing the end to be juilifiable, the means 
Vv'ere inhimous , and fuch as were incompatible, not only with a free, but a civi- 
lized, governmicnt. Argyle had therefore no reafon to triift any longer to tb.cjuf- 
tice 0'- mercy of inch enemies : He made his efcape from prifon ; and til! lie (kould 
find, a fliip ior Holland, he concealed himfelf during fome time in London. The 
.i-iing !:ea'.d of his lurking-piace, but v/ould not al'ow ihm to be arrefled *. All 
the par;s however o( his ienLcnce, (o far as the government had power, were ri^-o- 
rouHy exece.ted ; his eRate conffcated, his arms reverfed and toi'ne. 

_ Ir v,cn!d ilem, th::t the genuine pafl'on for liberty w-as at this time totally 
. exL;ngui!lid in Srorla::d : ^'i^ere was only pr.krvcd a fpirit of n^utiny and kdi- 
tioii, cncour.iged ir,- a miibiken zeal fl;r religion. Cameron and Cargii, two fiiri- 
Gus pr ackers, went a fle[) beyond all their brethren : They public- iy cxcommu- 
nicaed the King ii.r his tyraniiy "d his brcacii of the covena;:t, and ruiounccd all 
a:i'jgi.u.cj to him. C:;mer(;n v/;is killed by the troops in an afiion at AirsO-Iols : 
Cap;! was tai-.en and ix:'^g^\k r'lany of the'r iokjw ;s vv.,\ []-\c:a and con\iAed. 
"iAii.- k'." s w-^rc :)!kTe 1 tkcm if li.ey woidd fay Tk :/ _/k:\' /A' kV-T ; But thev 
Vv'o.nd o;k . y;,;: to ['u:y for his repentance. 1 lui okienaey wa 



e II A R L E S II. ;;; 

C-. .;:i :i;'j!>)ry lor the rij.;j:s (jf lIi,; aLiminiP ration : I'^.t, if c:ii!v confi^:, ivJ, ;c will ^'..p \ll. 
r.itlKT a!ii!:'.: km:;).; Ujv a tti.;:;a:y iiifcrciv. c. Such ij:.iia[ ;>/ c'.clLiii-ii is ar. o jc^~l *' '' 
r.if!i-r c/ c.K:,:ri: :'a::(;:i r!>a;i (;t an!:cr : An.i ic is a..;.(j:t itnp' .;;h\.\ t;:at iKi'n 
C'.)'.,!.i hi'. ; i J. n caiTi.ii to L.th. a (.ic^rec o: iiiaJiu-h, u::.~^:>. ^.i"o\'o!.cJ by a :o.:j 
l......(. . \.j...'.Lc a:.w o|'^ ; . :;.un. 

A , [A'Z Kii'.;; was ir.ailrr in l''.;i'.;'aivJ, iii; . no ;o:v;cr ili"fa;!cJ i'..c ciaiT,;,;:;^ (- t/.c i '- 
.ou:,:rv ['.I'^y, he jHTniittrd t!;c i)L:hr ro j.ay him avifit , aini v.as loon a'Ccr pc- 
va:h\l (j:i to allnv (jf his r^-iuin to 1 n;_:la;;ci, a:u! (;t his ! carin:^ a \ wn i:\ il'.c a ';i:i- 
liillr.it^c:!. Tiic Duh- v.cr.t to Scotland in or.'cr to bring i p his t.iini y, a;:*.! :v::!e 
the <j^ wrnn^.ent oi' that country ar.d he chofe to tahc hiis pai]a^;c by la. i hi! 
ll/M llriick on a land-bank and was loll: The Duke cfcaj^cd in tlie bar^c ; an : ;t 
is i)rrceiiJ.cd, that, while many pcrlons of rank and quality were drownrd, a.;,d 
among tn.e rell, Ilyde, his brot!ier-in-kiw, ];c was very caretul to Live feveral oi ;;. , 
dogs and prieiis: For thele two Ipecies o! tavourites are coupled togctiiir bv lo.wc 
writers. It b.as likewi;e been allertcd, that tlie barge miglit laivly liaw- b.e'ul ir';re 
j)er,ons, an.d tb.at lonie wlio Iv.am U) it were thiull off, and e-.-en. tb.cir ii.m.J:. cu. :n 
order to ddengagc tbieni. Hut every aiftion ol every cniin-.r.r perfon, c;nrin_: i/. s 
p.eriod, is !o liable to be nnilincrpreteJi an.d n-n;rep:e:eritevi by ;.ic: n, :l,,i: 
ought to be very cautious o! paihng our I'.idgment on too lligli: an cvi.i.-- , j; ;, 
i-eiii.irkablc, that the Tailors on board tiie llin^ t!io' they telt tiu-'ril Ives iinki'-, -. 
and law inevitable c'eath belorc their eyes, yet as ri)on as t'lev obl-T\n- : :',c I)..'. 
to be in faiety, g^ive a louJ (Iviut, in tellinijny of tlieir joy an;l latisiacti on. 

The Di.ike, during his abode in Scotland, h.id beliavetl uiili great civi'ltv to- 
wards tliC gentry aiul nobility -, and by his courtly denu-aiU'r ha.l nv.iJi won i.pi.n 
their atbe^iions : Hut hi-, treatment ol tlie entludiails wa-, I'ld lonveuiiat rig^jrous ; 
and in many iiubin.ces !in apj^eared* to be a man of a levere, ii i:ot aa unr.!^r,:ing 
temper. Jtis e\'en a'Tertcd, tii.it he uluab'y allided 'Ai:h his pieie'ce at rlie torcu".' 
of crimina's, ai.d looked on with trancpuilliry, a^ if he wcie ronn.kiing lonie cn- 
rif'US cxpuTinMiit *. Me le!t tiie autiioriiy in t;.e Iiamis o! tiie earl oi Aberdeen, 
chancellor, an.d the carl C't (^leenlbnry, tieainrer : A very a:bi:ra:y l\\-/.::.r 
P'e.u\i.i m their a'lminillration. A gentlenuin. (d tlie inur;e ot Weir v.Mn :i:; ', 'e- 
c.ui'.e b.e Ini'l kej.t coiVipany with one vdio had; l^een in the lebe'lion , tlio' t'l ;C per- 
fnn bad. ne\'er i een maikevl out by procelb or prockimation. 'I'he mkieiuLs u^ .i 
v.hii h Weir v.-.;S cond.cnincd. lor a p-rwlecution by the g^overnment .mei a .on.l.iii- 
nati Ii v.n I'e in Sk'^tlaiid tiie lameiliiiig hur.g up.on each other, a;t r the loilwwirg 

\'oL. II. V y mann.v ; . 

/'.., r.-M.iv. eii. V "i'.j ;:.. ; ^ . in..r '.; e-.M\ ..!, x*. i;.eii i.e;:,.. tu iia. c LvCi! a.'i cvliaurei :.-. i .-, . 



346 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chnn. VII. manner. No man, it was fuppofed, could have been in a rebellion, without be- 
^ ^^' ing expofed to fufpicion in the neighbourhood : If the neighbourhood (iifpcdied^ 
it was to be prefumed, that each individual had likev/ife heard of the grounds of 
fufpicion : Every man was bound to declare to the government his fufpicion againfc 
every man, and to avoid the company of traitors : To fliil in this duty was to par- 
ticipate in the treafon : The conclufion on tf.e whole v^as, You have converfed 
with a rebel, therefore you are yourfelf a rebel. A reprieve was with fome diS- 
culty procured for VVeir-, but it was ferioufly determined to make ufe of the pre- 
cedent. Courts of judicature were ereded in the fouthern and v.eftern counties, 
and a ftricl inquifition carried on againu: this new fpecies of crime. The term of 
three years was prefcribed for the continuance of thefe courts ; after Vi'hich an in- 
demnity was promifed. Whoever would take the tell, was inftantly intitled to the 
benefit of this indemnity. The Prefbyterians, alarmed with fuch tyranny, froni 
wiiich no man could eftecm himfelf fafe, began to thiiik of leaving the country ^ 
a!ui fome of their agents were fent to England, in order to treat with the proprie- 
tors of Carolina for a fettlement in that colony. Any condition feemed preferable 
to the living in their native country, which, by the prevalence of perlecution and 
violence, was become as infecure to them as a den of robbers. 

Above two thoufand perfons v/ere out-lawed on pretext of their converfadon 
or intercourfe with rebels*, and were coiitinually hunted in their retreats by fol- 
diers, fpies, informers, and opprcfTive magiftrates. It was ufual to put enfnaring. 
qucftions to people, living peaceably in their own houfes ; fuch as, " Will you re- 
"' nounce the Covenant ? Do you cfteem the rifing at Bothwcl to be rebellion ? 
" Was the killing the archbifliop of St. Andrew's a murder ?'* And when the poor 
ileluded creatures refufed to anfwer, capital punifliment was inilifled on them -j'. 
iv.'en wom.en were brought to the gibbet for this pretended crime. A number of 
f'JKitives, rendered frantic by oppreHlon, had publiflied a feditious declaration ; re- 
DG'jncing allegiance to Charles Stuart, W'hom they called, as they, for their part?, 
had indeed fome reafon to efheem him, a tyrant. This incident aiibrded the privy 
council a pretext for a very unufual kind of oppreffi ,'n. Soldiers werL- dif])erred 
over the country, and power was given to all commiffion officers, even the muil in- 
ferior, to oblige every one whom they met with, to abju.'-e the declaration , and 
upon refufal, inftaniiy, without farther queftions, to flioot the d.clin'.juent t. It: 
were endlefs, as well as fliocking, to enunicrate ail the infbanccs of '\'rlccu^ion, qv 
in other words, of ahfiird tyranny, which at that time prtVailid in occdand, C 
v'[ them liowever is fo fingular, that I cannot iorbear rela:ing it. 



V,'<j;i'-'jv.-. vol. ii, .Ap'j^cndix. 9 f.. 1 Id. vol ii, paffim. j Id. vcl, ;:. p. 



^^: 



C II A R L i: S II. 



" ' 7 



TiiH T.2 \\r.:r.c:-. were k-;/c\; * , a;;.! th-' cvi^loni-iry o.it'i \>..;s t^n :cre\i c > t'.,' :r., 1 y 
v'.uh uxV \".cTc t(j .;';. .:r t!i' kniiri^.i.s tic I.ii". .:;.;;! ai ..,\c-ii:c:.!::w;.Cv!. 'i .ivy uil 
I L. ...,-!, a:,.: v. ^rc co::,!. m.:x\1 co a > a; ;: il pu'ilhiii-iu hv Juv-v:; :: . Oiic oi li.eiii 
v.a> an i. ^:-y ''";iii:i : 1".:. o:'./r t.'.o v.c:c vvrv y> i.'a ^ (.;:,'j ;. I'r.-ca \ci:".. (.r 
a ;;\ r"; (/..::': o;:!y tiwrtc; n. I \\ .; liu 1 \ iDc-n: } i;r;.r, " r.-i v. ; : ai^a.:: ' :o : ..: 
t' .1 :') (-A.a'ii : Pu: t!,r (;-';cr t'.'.o v.\ i\- (.()n.li..-.i;-il f; t!i: ; ' , ' 

: ,,;.ii v,c;c ii^'u tc) lL..kro \',;i!;;.i t;.c !ca-fra:k at: !o'.v v,atcr: .-V lu-.L: i'. .,;:.c, 

\ .., ., la-ii'lcrc'i I'uir ("caili 'i:",!;-i;i-a: a;.-l c:!ca. :..!. 'I !,- l^ira !y v. .n';.;n v. a> ; !a .v! 
i.-;;;,:i ia a..vl ' y tlu M'iiiii, ^>'^ L.c v. a:--: , u a^ iail !!..:".aat.J. 1 !.f yw. a^^-r, 
' a: . !> tc: :aiu\l v. iih t'u view ot i;cT co:i;;\i: \ ,u\ clwOa, \ aialv l^b.li; .i V'. '.'.: ;a.- 
r:a..tv (A -(-!" fricaitls, was prevail-, d v.ai;: [a {:.y (,cJ ,a:a :!.'. A;y.;. la.n^.a.a: iy 
ihc I'l.tTLl.irors calUd uiir, that inc luu! lub:ii:tud \ .aui llic wa- \.uxu^ \ iron: :a: 
lla'-v". Mai^T V/iwiaini, the oiliccr wluj !^i.a:\:; cl tha cxat iinon, a .,a;:i rrcja:. .1 :;v:r 
to ri'-'!i t'..c a'niviration , aiul v.yow \\:v rciii!,.', h; ordtia d her inila;.:!'/ 1 ) '<' : | v.aa'e.l 
ir: the waier, where llu- was kiiiucited. 

IhiL level itv <h tl,e ad.niinillration in '^\-(;t!aiid is |Mr:ly to he .ilhrihed :o tiie I )..h. '-, 
tepaa^-/:', to w h'.an ti;e kir.y hi.ki ei/jiaiy Cwr.ii.'ived (A'er t!ie >;o\'err.:v.er.t o: hi.ii 
cui.ii::v, aiul wlio i;ave iuch att. ainaii to aiha:!-. as to a'hi;\v r,otl-ia.L^ oi inip\j'-:.:;.^'e 
to ,ic.;p/ h in. 1 .vca: the [/,(na/r:ai^:nt oi hh:a,iaii a Irom t!i hi:ia- eaa!e \'v:\ ai liai^a- 



\ >.:. 



w'nat to he micct'.d vh.t'n tlie hi're Icv/rny. 1 !.e Dahehs caaalit v,,.:, va v [;re .: at 
Covnt. '1 h',/ laeitl'.er lo ii.uc'n he'. :'.-eJ r.or elLvar.ed as the Kir.;-;, h-v.a-ir.ora 
c:rr..d.d ; and tlience an attendance niwe exact, as \sed as a h.h ; :;;ion iT.oie (,!i;e- 
quious, wa'; [ aid iiim. 1 ia; lay;a-r^ (jt Wh.lha" v.as remaiki J., tinit Cli.nle'-, in I; ;- 
to the Ihuiian^en':, w!io hail th te: n:i;iLd, t'at: the Paha !h<;;ad i;ot hi^ce^d i.ar, 
v.a^ rei'dved, tin.t i e llioald ieij.;n e .en in hi;, ii: tinie. 

Tii i Kin;' laAve\a r, w iio I \\ d to imnnMin a h.^ianae ;:, ih- . .....,.:, a ..^ ..a - 

1 (,rtid 1 hhii.tX, V. iaan he ere.i'ed a !rar>a:e.', and nai.'e it aai i ia'.\- le.d ; ti.w' .\-cr 



m o;;pon:ioii iw 



)he. '1 



\A:\y \'. .lO j^'ai.ikvl the n:.e:L .aiaina.- .a; J ni^ i: i, x- 



tenhve ea. .uay, ol a,i ^ nv loyco ni ; aa ; an.n^ harn\; :a;- ; ac.ent ie!j_:,n, .iinaLea 
a liiecies o! nUitia iiy loetu ixt the p..; :; -, .\:\.\ wa- . ll,, nn d the lu.id o: dnit :"a- ni 
IxkIv, known by the tliaa ainn..taai ca i : : ;;;:. \ 'a c.:.;davt, wia^li i-, n,,.eii 
\v.o\-^ natural to n^an (d n;t;;;i;ry tinin c;. . . , 't i:ov,v-v,: 

hiin thie loiaiKr characiLi"-, an.d !;e w.:^ :}.\\\\s i\-.,a;dea a 
;\ "..ti lot. a und, I'.and, v. i;_) h, 
he^n tii!; iicc d on tii.it aaaoaat, \\ a 
ti;:- adnaindr.tdoa. 'J lie t x:: a a; 



a a . \'. . ; I ' 



a^r :.;:iu r h.an 

.n.d v.h) iiad 

' , o ; V I a _; J [ alio 

. ( a tills nam's 



n ..UvJL.Liii o :,.e \'. ntj.e c^ane ta ,. 



i- . 



348 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. VII. King's dire(5lion be had mixed with the country party. Hyde, created earl of 
^ ^"' Rocheller, was firll commiflioner of the trealury, and was entirely in the Duke^s 
intereft. 

The King hinifelf was obliged to a6l as the head ofa party ; a difagreeabie fitua- 
tion for a Prince, and always the fource of much injufcice and opprcRion. He 
knew how obnoxious the diflentcrs v/cre to the church j and he refolved, contrary 
fo thfi maxims of toleration, which he had hitherto fupported in England, to gratify 
his friends by the perfccution of his enemies. The laws agiinft conventicles were 
now rigoroufly executed -, an expedient, which, the King knew, would neither 
diminifh the numbers nor influence of the Nonconformids j and which is there- 
fore to be eflcemed more the refult of paHion than of policy. No perfecution ferves 
the intended purpofe but that which amounts to a total extermination. 

Tho' the King's autliority made every day great advances, it iViIl m^et with con- 
ficerable obftacles, chiefiy from the city, which was entirely in the hands of the 
NcA r.omina- malecontents. The juries, in particular, named by the fheriffs, were not likely to be 
tiouciihcijfli. iniparcial judges betv/een the Crown and the people, and after the experiments al- 
ready m.ade in the cafe of Shattefoury and that of College, treafon, it was apprehend- 
ed, might there be committed with impunity. There could not therefore be a more 
important fervice to the Court than to put affairs upon a different footing. Sir John 
Moor, lord mayor, was gained by fecretary Jenkins, and encouraged to infift upon 
the cuflomary privilege of his office, of naming one of the Iheriffs. According- 
ly, when the time of elcdion came, he drank to North-, a Levant merchant, wha 
accepted that expcnfive oflice. The country party fiid, that, being lately returned 
from Turkey, he was, on account of his recent experience, better qualified to ferve 
the purpofes of the C'.urt, A poll was opened for the elecfticn of anotner flieriff ^ 
.liid here began the coiueri:. The majority of the comm.on-hall, headed by the 
two Hieriffs of the former year, refufcd to acknowlege the mayor's right of nomi- 
:..:'a L'i 'unc. nating one flieriff, but infifted that both muft be elecSted by the liveries. Papiilon 
and Dubois were the perfons whom the country })arty agreed to elecft : Box was 
pointed out by the courtiers. Books were accordingly opened for the poll ; but 
as the mayor wcild not allow the elections to proceed for two vacancies, the fne- 
litTs and he le[^aratcd, antl each carried on ti^e poii apart. The cojnrry party, 
whiO voted with the nitriffs for Papiilon and Dubois, were much more numerous 
than tlio'e who vc-tcd with the mayor for Box : But as the mayor infitled, that his 
V.oo'-.s were the only f-ga! ones, he declared liox to be ciuly eledcd.. All dillicul- 
t.es luiV/Lver w<.!e not furmouiited. llox, appreh.rnfjve of the confequences ot fo 
liubious an election, fined (^ffj and the mayor found it reqinfitc to proceed to a 
jitw elecliua. N'^ iieii the matter was propofed to tlic comn^on-hall, a loud cry 

Y/as 



C II A II L i: S If. 



;9 



.:- railed, Xocl-yno:,' No t-le/'i-vi ' Tiic tv.o l^cnli; .ilr-c.ulv ('.^c- \ P.i^:'! -ii a;.-l 



\:1. 






, ':L;.iC'.'-. h:.t a-i [lie :r, .;, <. . ;i. iii.iu:- 
(h.il .:, .1..;! [ii.;: i' \'. .1- n-iv. I vj . lit* :< it.p- 
]^!y Ik^ { !.i-f, hcdpene.l b.v.Vs -nw,-, .i.,;l ci'.i,,:;; :':.. t .-Ki.k a;..! ec-:.r..::u;. ol :!;. ci- 
ti/t :". , a tv. \v t;l riu' mayor's j arti/ : ;. c'::-:[rA |;k;!i, i: k .ov-m r . .uiJ unlie c'r : by 
thf rcil ot ibe livcfc^. North a.:vl Kicii 'a re acior ;;..,,!'. 'Aorn fber.li'v !>.r b c 
ti.luinj, year ; hui i: \s- is nLeeHary t - luib a v . : ,: ut ilie era;,, .mi';' :; ;;:e>:eeL I'.r.-rA 
ill the nr.crir-^r tj-jon bieir cb e. A ::t w ;; ..-,' ; ot :!)e c ..i r jv.rtv v.as loon .'.iter 
c;u)!en bv ;i ^.::i:-. a> I- '-'e re. tieJ, ii^iu, ', ;i; nv Vi -! nt aiui i: r^ ;'u;,.:-. 

'riir> the coLiiUry parry w^rc cbi]' b^eb :ro:n t::^i^ lb*';:;' h'/!' i"'!: " , 
wlu'ie, c\'er (iiicc tr.e eorr.iriCiKenic t (.<] la^'icn-s n\ ih-c b r.^hib [':,-' 
bid, witiioi:!: ::Ue:Tu^)t:uii, a!m(;(l wibiuut ni^ielbi';-^;-;, n:ai,i:ai,:- b a ; ,-i::',i::v. 
]t had been Iia_ p-y, liad the |\irtia!ic:es, liibierr > (/. ' e'.eb; re^ ''.n c';, b:e;. i : 
without [;'\-ir^ v'aee to part: b:;vb, of a.i (>;-[' :e i;h,d : Ik.: ;:, b.e ; : ..e L v!.; : ., 
iHtc ot" t;ic na:;C'P, ..;i ecj'jit.ibb' neutrality v, s ..h;-i(bl i::;: hb ! tj i^e a::,.:..., . 
I'lie coarr and ehureh ; arr\', vbno wuc t\;\v n, ;-.".. b< c:"! 'eius, rr.eh' A ;- 

\\:'.z to thvir faetious vie'A^ ; and tlu- Kii.;.'; i.ad a ; o'^ cct o: ob: . ;^.. ., :. ., la:- 
venrc on his cn<. n"i:c?. It was not k)ni^ bvto:c ti:e ebAts ot thJe air^ra::,:. v. ere 
Iben. \\ Aen ir \sas fi;il re[;ortcd, tliat the D^be iatenAb : ) leave S.ob n.:, Ibb 
bin;;ton, at that lJn:e fliciib, a very \'iolent iran, had h:^ be oat i:: :':. [^\:v/-, 
' 1 Ic h,:^ already bii;ned th- city, and is iie nov.- ev):r,ir.:- : ; w,: .; i o..: :i':c..: b' 
lor tbele I^and.doL.s cxprenions, ti.e DuivC ibe i ['iWw ^.j .> \ ..ad .: -.rA . a- 
n'^ai;-'-, to :lie amount oi i(,o,o,o p'^ .nek, v/jreil e:\e., \.\,]\ by ' ..-. ; i 
land, ra' incd in the [zr^ at ci. nt r, no ti.,e (.;i.^bit L > eai ;..: : ; the L,.:ai : v, n o: a > i ; 
nbnab Sir kab;-nce \h ard, lorn, b'/ in ywr, v.'.a) ; a\-e ^ -.hde; . . : r b; ,s, 

was laed :,.[- jk i ;i:ry, a: vl i.oi.ben:ned to ti.e j :ii : . ; A n \ . ;r o ; :. . a v', :./. h 

cleiU to (kter ad witneHes from a;-^ eai ing in :,.. . :" ^,. b... ,\.. ^ : o!eL.i.:..i 

Ly the Court. 



\]{ r tho' llie erov.n h..id. (jiT.ie', i b) : 
;'aite d.ei bi\'e , and tiie ^ontcll n led.i ' . 
ir.a;f;llrat.s. A nv):! lini'aiet y . :-. t . 
I'-.e Kir.^j; m.db. r ca the uiy, b,.L !y th..: 
;m all the ^ o: pcjrati' a:s Cj! i ;. oa; A .'. ' th- :\ '- 
. i:.i iiu'; r,, '.'biiLh tiie !;a;;l ;(;-.',e.;td a.. 1 n 
b. I n .live to iebiar. Ad id:- lb. , h , b / ' 
'. ' e-. , h A'ei ^ (;1 Id), r'v, v. : ; e vt. l r i . , . 
;, n: tia.: d'. bre ol la; i : e ;. :o > 



35^ 



HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 



Chap VII. zvarrcinto was ifilicd againft the city ; that is, an enquiry into the validity of their 
''^'^3- charter. It was pretended, that the city had forfeited all irs privileges, and ought to 
be declared no lon.ier a corporation, on account of two offences, which the court of 
aldermen and common council had committed. After the great fire in 1666, all 
t:ie markets hail been rebuilt, and had been fitted up with many conveniencies ; 
and in order to defray thefe expences, the magiftratcs had impofed a fmall toll on 
fuch as brought any goods to market. In the year 1679, they had addrefled the 
King againil the prorogation of Parliament, and had employed the folknviiig 
terms. " Your petitioners are greatly furprized at the late prorogation, whereby 
" the profecution of the public juilice of the kingdom, and the making nccefiary 
" provifions for the prefervation of your Majifty and your proteffcant fubje .;s, 
" have received interrnjition." Thefe words were pretend;d to contain a fcan- 
dalous reiieftion on the King and his meafures. The caufe of the city wab defended 
againil the attorney and follieitor generals by Treby and Pollexfen. 

These lafb pleaded, that, iince the foundation of the Monarchy, no corporation 
had ever yet been lorleiced, and the thing itfelf implied an abfurdity : That a cor- 
poration, as fuch, Vv'as incapable of all ci ime or offence, and none was anfwerable 
for aiiv iniquity but the perfons themfelves, who committed it : That the mem- 
bers, in choofing magiftrates, had entruRed them only with legal pov/ers ; and 
where the magiflrates had exceeded thefe powers, their ac^s were void, but could 
never involve the body itlelf in any criminal imputation : That fuch had ever been 
the pra(:t:ice of England, except at the Reformanon, when the monalferies were for- 
feited ; but this was an extraordinary cafe i and it was even thought necelTary af- 
terwards to ratify the whole by aft of Farlianieiit : I'iiat co!-[^orate bodies, framed 
for public good, and calcufited lor perpetual duration, ought not to be annihilated 
for t'-ie temporary faults of their members, who might themfelves, without hurting 
their eommunity, be queliioncd for their offences : That even a privat-efiate, if 
er. tailed, could not be forfeited to the Crov/n, on accuimt of treafon, committed 
by tiic tenant for life; but upon his demife v/ent to the next in remainder: That 
the (.ifcPices, ohj;.cl:ed to the city, far froin deferving fo fevere a puniihmenr, were. 
nor even v.oithy tlie imalleft reprelienfion : That all corporations were nivefted 
witli the [;owcr of making byedaws ; and the fmaileil burrough in fngland had 
ever been alhrvved to carry tiie exen ife o! this power farther than London liad doPiC 
in tf.e irdlaiice comphiinedi of : That the city, iiaving, at their ovv-n expence, re- 
T)a:i'al tr.e nuirket'-, uhieh v.ire bnilt too on tiitir own eiiatrs, might as lawfully 
ehnm a fm.'Jl rcc(jm[>ence froni fuch as brongiit con-.mociiries tlnth.er, as a nrv.\ 
n";i;:l:': reqi.h'e I'lTit for a h(;ufe, v.'hich he was pofiefll'd oi : I'hut tliol'e v/ho dif- 
i;k--vJ tlie eond:Lior; n^ight abllain Irom the market; and whoever paid, had done it 



VOir 



C II A R L r S If. T 

vG!iint:!r''y : l\:\t it v.n> aw av a-- (.! :'_'.' '! : :;..'!. fo ;'::<, n ; rev ]:.\ '. 
cne ci:y i;i :'. i:- a l/ir:; a'-ulc.i t'.i^ }>, / : "i' ,.' ;'.- K:: ' - : : !: . ! - 
t:ev;!a;tv;, '.: 1'. r^Mn: i.t o'c^n \o c , ; .:.' 

J ;o: ; u !.;, !i, :: is t. \': x'.t, . : i..d i.i >' b.- :.!!/ i y ;'.; '^.ic : ! .: i;; .< j w ; u: . . 
\i<A .[\':v : 1 l..ir :'.j iin; vaci.:i;;-.^c i>: tlv j- r ih i .: .:s ,'. : i . r li:;! . 
t!iL- irccjU' lU {):'i)ri>[;a^: ;:,s ; a- wa-, a'; ) tli ^ :. : ; : , !:'>iy!a 
i;.;; tor t!:c CcivtKc (^f L;.c ii iti' ;i : 1 i;.:t r . , .:v. i o 

rc'^arJ to i^^i:- ; r I:tv.;:: :i, i.^..:'iC j ; ,':t.; i ;...;: i > i; ;:;.;: :;: p ; :i ; . ^ .: 
\va,. aclviKAvio.;.:- v', t !ia[ t!.^- lvi:^i_;'- \\'.: v.a> t vl y iro:..c;,: x; o::-.; to :!. :y .;i :::> 
!::!^v;1r (laii -tr II wm t ^- lo;..!!: co .ij ;;\; y : 'I'i:.:' r!:- i ;' . i. .d :i .: a^c;.: ,: rh- K:;, ; 
(ji o' ih'b'-.i; [', J-'i^:'- '> nn.n.!i 1. 1-> t>: l,.i\':'.i; ..:.y \ .l:\ '.:.: ::.v."r. \ ha^/t; i:. v, as .;!!. .v- 
.l!, that rvi! c a.lvll )r v,-t:c a'onc ai.l a. :-..'\- lor ..!i t!:j [ r:.i :o' a ci>: Ivr - ; :a\ >: 
unv lav^iAiTL : :\i.d t!.a: i: \\as i.:; ua vaaa .[ 'a, ['.a: : .. y.:.'. ': .::: i-, 'a '..: .h ;; ;a 
,: at, c'laan^ :) \a ^5 a tanc, l.,!;i^.u\! :o 'ay, (, '.--ai :!. :a:a..: : . ; a;..ry, :..c' y ;- 

1- ;,s iri.i'tv C'f t'-an"!, fh ..!w i.ow ia ;., aa.d :o !. \m-:! ,' ay^n t a c^r' , rat; ja, 

' ' I .,,,,- , ,, i a .. , .,- ,v I .. a . .. r 
'A.uca aaa.._. . v, ...-, j..\. u.\. .,_.-, i l i, a,.. .ii..r. 

I 1 i-, a\a.'<. at, taa: :!a :: v, !.(.> 'a ca....! ayAa-i/a !>:>r t':c naai!a- a ' ' :'.a C~ a r. !r,w;:, 
la this ( aL, lo.a.d [!;aa" .aaa .a a;/.^, net ( n ..a.'/, a..: ;a il^ .-, a: i;a: a I , a.. .; :-, 
ti'crc ;o! a, \.\'. ) cca;.' jaa.'-\! lii i ;:y, ara : .ta.,_,' la; xi a!aa. ^ ;, i; a [ . naa i ^.li 1;.- 
ub"a (jb;c^L ot ilKir i.la:. :a\.:aan.ja^ ir.ul a\'cr aa tba jaaa aiaav^' \> c: ;.a.a.a aad 
('|a;:v. B-t t;^a place o; ja '-' v-a-s a: Llia: taaa haiJ uariay p'.a.ara ; a: a :: \... , 
bi'ia'.^ilibla, ilaii aiiy ca.Lila, \'. li-.a t;;a C ( aia ',^a: lis ttn . a. c ..!a ^'.Lr a- aarr;;..! 
a'\a:ill ir. Alrcr h :U. ;:ca wa^ ; :a) aaac^^!, th a;:\'a'rb (.1 la a .'ar'. laar'ar rr.a.- 
lar :.j the Kir. ; j ana ha a ;:aab to u .Uj^a li.a;." i !aa:. -, ba:aira,;an :;iv ,'.;.; a 
; \1 :o iabaa: to [l.a r..a-Aay r.y.bataa:^ ; 1 a.ii 1 :Kay aa b. :.b', :a- 

' ' :i 1; : a- aar, t(;\', u c!;Tb, ai' ao' laa i ba ; ^. . : a' . ; - 

, ,^, ;. !_,^ f ! : \ ;' -, '' i" a I i- , r, 

I A aa. (;; t:.-' !aa'. or (a- ba.: :. . : , .' ; 

tr a ^ : i 1 .-J. tb; '>: '. :;i y a" a ,b i . . ' ' ' . 

bb" ! ac .;av :n a;:bra'c ; b.aab.a':. ::..: . w; ...,.. .. _.,... .,.- 

tab wbbo'j!: caai'Liit o; l!a' <.a,ait cb .bba:a:ja, . . ' : , ^.aa; :.a,.' :v. aa <.'.:.:. 
L.a./ica, ;i..tV t.b ti.c \a.. ;...' y . 

A I a paranwas in b a^,,.iiab ia: . .r 

. .'a ii V, jab! ; ; > \'a :w b , , a A;b 

; .a'a^ v, ara c \a. : 
. w ..; . _ , , wci:. 1-: ai . . : 

.. :)oa, l: i :a;. Ji by tlic rib.N u. ; V , ,- . ..a. 



<: '^z il : -3 i w 11 i OF G i<c ii- A 1 b il i i i-i .'>.'. 

Ch--'. ''II. K;n<r, '}' \>'iiicl. . ::.ich extended his authovity, and acquired a great a{':er;dant in 
^-''i- fM'crv bui'i-ourh a.; . -oranon. But ic ieems {Iran?,?, t!;ar the incicucr.d;int rov" 
aliOis, v.'ho never iv>< ' p.ake the Crown abfolutc, lliould yet be lo elated with 

the viclory obt.iincd o. ^ . ' adverfaries, as to approve of a precedent, whicli lefc 
no natioM.i' p. iviiep:cs i;; \ ^^ but en bled the Kinp;, under like pretexts, and by 

ne.iiis ofiike inItri.niei;:S, - ../el ane\v a'[ thcle charter <, which at prelent he was 
t?iea*'.d to f^rant. Arid every '..' , ' ;-)hbcr:v niuic allow, that the nation, whole con- 
llitiuion was duis Oiattered iii : ock or' facTtJon, had a right, by every prudent 
cxpediient, to recover that iecui::/. o: v/hich u vas fo unhappily bereaved. 

While fo great a faclion adh^e :.' o the Cro >, it is apparent, that refiftance, 
however jufcifiable, could never be ; lent , anc: all wife men faw no other expe- 
dient but peaceably to fubmit to the orefent grievances, There was /.owever a 
party of malecontents, fo turbuiert ii their difpofition, that even belore this lail 
imouiry, which laid the whole conlihvuion at the mercy of the King, they had me- 
ditated plan of refiilance ; at a time when it could e as little j';ftinabie as pru- 
A confpiracy, clent. ' n tiie i;'i mg i 68 i *, a little beiore the Oxford Parliament, the Kiiig was 
feized witli a iin o^ tiekners at Winelfor, which gave f-r-'ar alarm to the pubiic. The 
D:.k" of iVio.niior.th, lor RulTel, lord Grey, inftiL-.e' d by the refllels ShafteJh-ury, 
had agreed, m ea'e tr,e King's ficknefs fliould prov m.>; r li, to rife in arms and op- 
poir tile furcehhjn ot the i)uke. Charles rec-vered ; but ti^.efe dangerous projeds 
were not dri ),;:. Tne fame conlpir/tdrs, toger er v;ith Eflex andSalifoury, werede- 
tcrmmed to c(;ntii,uc tht Oxlorfi i'\;i-han;ent, rfter the King, as was daily exuccled, 
Ih'uld dilT.b.'e it ; anu tiny engaged f >iT,e lead^TS among the Con.imons in the (ame 
def'fyerate ir.ee..rure. i hey went io f.r as to det.dn k-veral hjrds in the Houfe, under 
pretence of i'^'gning a protefiar.ion agninfl: rejcfling Firz harris's in]];eochmcnt : But 
h'.an ig tliat the Comtiions had ' ro sc up in gr: ar coniiernation, they were likewife 
cbhg d at laf: to l-parate. ohaiiL.iniry's ininrifonnient and trial put an end for 
fon.e time to theie nv.ehmabohs ; and It wns not till the new fnerid;- were impofed 
f.n tive city th;!t tfey were revived. The, leaders of tiie country parry began then 
to a[-pr.hena (.nenilelves in immiiient danger; . nd t':ey were wcii pleafed to iind, 
l:iat the citizens vvnc llruck with the fanie terror, and were thence iiiclined to un- 
dert..ke the moil perilous entcTp.i7.es. Beiides tiie city, ap^plications v/ere niade to 
the gentry and nobility in feveral counties of Eng.and. to rile in arms. Monmouth 

* Lord Grcy'.s fccrct liifiory of the llyc-'.oufc plot. 'J'hii is tlic moll: L.'.\ and autiuTitic account ofall 
liicf:.' tianfadiuii^ ; hut is in the main coieir.iicJ :<} . iihop Sprat, aiid even '.ii.iic:. a., uc'l a^ b) the liials 
and dy: n^-confelTioas cf the coidpiratoi-; : Sv' that nothaug cai! I;e iiiorc unaccouniablc tliaa that anv 
tjne ihoul 1 pic'.ead, that this co;ilpi,-acy was an impolUirc like t.hc i;0]-!l]; |A:t. iMonmoutldt dcda.acion 
-publilhed in the ne.\t reign, conbeirci, a conlijlt for extraordinary icnicdii.s. 

engaged 



C II A R L E S ir. :- 

c rr/\i tiic cat! (;f M.uil;i:- '. ' :.l H;-n'o::, ;. 1 i:.' .:: u rr.'!\f, nti 1 ():::rr 

<Z"i\rl-ir.':\\ \\\ '<'\vA)'v.- : ] . w'. \\\-^ .1 l : ' ' ;kc \'-\:h Sir Wlir.im 

C.oui:;it.y, S,:- I-i,;;:^ '^ U' . 1- , ^;r i'i..:;:-;s P;-.. , p-<j:rik.l Z) r.nlr I'.'.r. 

Well; ;yvi I'l- Doiiir.i m ra; l ic;,i.ir, v.;;o i.. ; in r!;c tlMlic: J 

tow'A o: 'i'ai;:':!';:"!, a:';;rcd him c; co:::: ! rai-ic ......;.;, v v- Inj-n r;a: nr';- ' 

ho(.J. SI.afLi-UKirv an.! ills cniiii!>ry, I (.t.. i:!'.;!, .m .n lcy;.i:an: c!' !.:,. , ,, ; 
a iL-!iic:!s i.:o::. r, !i:a:. ii^rd liic co: :\ !; \:c.:^:.cv .i\ I'.v i.":, i:y j.i v,!::.;i i': ^ i - 
l-v!erat;.s c'lic';.' irl:v.;. 1 iu* wly/ t. ..:'- v. a ; :> :.;;: li.-j; i :.: v. 

vcnt'\! bv ill-- ^:a'..:;o.\ ot l.,.!\i I\a!>-., v,..o i.-.-L.-._; M.jriir.,, .:'.i cj v'.clay t c t.i- 
tci- ::.:.. ^r 'm::; i:'.,ry ia t;:c nic.ii t;;i:c \va^ lo a.ie^^_d wiia z\.c i:i.[: ol' 
L.:. dr.v.jcr, t'.a: !u; h..cl i;.;c his hcL'V, nn.l :lc:i::!y !:.:;. J in i!;c c;:y ^ i-:;^-.":- 
tdil:.'.' ..11 thulj vicl^cra!:^ ichcnv.s, wl.ich ii:ia]')p(;;:ii:.^; rcvc:.;;-: a.xi an;bi:ion cv ., d 
d:ci tL'. ] k cxcl..::: (.el U-udly aLialnll clila; , an ; rcyr:^.^ .r^.l to in-, c. n:Vu.:a:c , 
tinit liavl;.f- L'onc In iar, and (n.n'.m.LU l..^ 1 crct Wito nj n.n-y 1, inn^, vmw v,\n ivn 
lldcty Inr -l.^n) 1 nt in a boi,! and d;-;;:.:"a:j prciccnn' n oi tl;^:;- ; m-; w.'n '1 ; c 
jmiv.^::. v.c;c id. I'civn'.: renewed: M.c:n .i,s c; the Cfan^i.-atwr- v,::n- ay;\nn:vd :n 
en. -fen: !i :n!"-, ])n-ti!n;,.n'iy in Slnn;:i\l"s an .nnnen: v. n:: n^ .:> in'".: \:\ tl.^ ci:v : 
A j ian tn til inlnnnndon \va^ lain ni Lon.lwn, Cwelni:?, 1 )ev(nnhi: ., and i^:.- 
{i> i : 11," llrvc: al ; die. oi r.n.iezvnai ni the c:[v v,n :e c,''n ericd ; an>. li.e vdnhe 
(nei.nion-. idw.; : 'i he id. re i ; the n,nard.; v.nis e^cn \ie^".;d hv >d r.'y ..': and 
J\::]:^ :-.:': 7, anh an atniv 1: c i' them ;n^n^lJnl^nd vei'v nraencd-ie : hV . 
f) i.ann.- the cn'^r^ nne tn the [nibhe was red aiw! ai^mt.. to : A:,h e\n; , ; i:.,,n,.- 
ilanee Linked now to r. nher an inldmeeLinn mnnaonhihle ; when a ne'.v lieiay v..., 
- n wd by dh^ncinnd, who deeia:ed, tin.: the '''::^j, ;n tii, Wdil ^nnhi n..': :..-. 
.veeh^ be i a innle.ent !urv ardn. :s. 

S,: wa:- inr.nnd at th n p.ni-ietna! cantlna^ and hel.n ^ in .n-; r::^:- 

Piane, v,;.n A : i'.'' .dn, nvjdhny \ ' :aye an i cei-:.:_. C' .hn rcn; w . ; 

! le ;n:ean ae : t'l r,.n.n-'n a' tuv i ',.... . \ v. n n in- n : n A in :h v ,. ,,. n 

he b^;alAd, th.;: lie , . . : : n o.n.md : . ....:, : . 

( . [\Va In: '';", weia mau: , t -> 'b, tw .n ;: . U ^n. i, :...h : !; ' i.. . 

fpna'tan were, d..ia:;- :^nij t..neAn .n . la .. . -. .'...: 

[vv:,.- d.irperou^ ninnuie; '.. i.ini ::i;w he.nai, : . . 
.--.d :-.n--ri.': ha:l a^ h. : aba:..;nv.l ah . : -s : - 

. m c. p! avana nnni;^ei' .it . . 

h, h. ..niw.t.;-. ..no tin' n. ' . c. li...: a . ; ' 

..-.tn.h :!;' Ann i. L^jnn;..,:, , v..n,. .. .ae : n ., 

V e. re'env;:. i i . (.1. n dKe: ;.;: :' ; 

iiv.:' ; tw his cll^.n..t.J. 1 ii.> inru... t ^ ' :, . ... _^ . - 

Vol l[. /- 



\\l. 



354- I^ I S T O R Y of G Pv E A T B R I T A I N. 

done grerit iiijury to the caufe, in which he was engaged. The violences and ini- 
quities, v.'liicii he fjgg.tiled and encouraged, were greater than even faction itfeir 
coii'd end'irci and men coii'd not forbear fometimes remembering, that the fame 
p.-rfoi, v.'h.o v.'as become f) z^ai- us a patriot, v.'as once a moft proftitute courtier. 
It IS remarkable, that thi^ man, vvhofe principles and condud: were, in all other 
refpcifts, fo exceptionable, proved an excellent chancellor , and t'lat all his decrees, 
while he pofTeiTed tliat emirent office, were equally remarkable foi' jutlnefs and for 
jnreg'iry. So d-iTicult it is ro iind in hiPcory a character either wholly bad or 
pcrfLClly gooJ ; tho' the j.'rcjudlces of party make writers run frequently into the 
extremes both of panegyric an.; of fityre. 

After Shaftefbury's dep-arturc, the confj_)irators found feme diiTiculty in renew- 
in''^ the correfpondence vvidi the c-iy ma'econtcnts, who had b:en r.ccuilonied to de- 
pend foI;ly on tliat nobleman. Tiudr comm.on viev/s, however, as well as common 
apprehenfions, m-de iliem at life have recourie to each other , and a re^yi'ar p'o- 
ieft of an infurrcccion was a(;ain formed, A council of fix w:^s erected, co'-iO'^^r,-- 
of Monmouth, RuiTl, F.iTex, Howard, Alg'/rnon Sidney., and John Ilambdcn, 
grandlon to tlie gi-eat parliamentary liradcr. I'iiefe men entered into an agreement 
with Argyle and the Scotch maleconents, who ^ng-gcd, that, upon the payment 
o!"' I 0,000 pounds for the purchafe of arms in H;dh;nd, they would brin-^; the 
Covenanters into the field. Infurrccftions hkewife were an:;vv pr(jje6lcd in Chefhire 
and the Wed, as well as in tli--- city antl fome meeti'^.gs of the leaders were held, 
in order to reduce diefe projects into form. Tl-e con!piratO]-s differed extremely 
in their vievvs. Sidney was paiTionate for a c mmo'iw alth. Eflex had embraced 
the fame project. But Monmouch had entertained :-o,:es of acquiring the Crov.'n 
for himfelf. RuITi:!, as well as Hanibdcn, v/as much attached to the antient con- 
ftitution, and pro[)ofed only the exclufion of tiie Duke and the redrels of o^I-j- 
vances. Lord Howard was a man of abandoned principles, and was readv to 
embrace any party, vdr.ch his immediate interell Ihould recommend to hini. But 
notwithffanding this difference of ch.arafters and of views, their common hatred 
o^ the Duke and the prefent adminiftration united them mto one party ; and the 
dangerous experiment of an infurreflion was tully refolved on. 

While thcfe fchemcs were concerting among tlie leaders, there was an inferior 
crder of confpirators, who frequently met together, and with the infurreclion, car- 
ried on projcds quite unknown to iVIonmouth, and the cabal of fix. Amonp-thefe 
men v/cre ccdonel Rumfcy, an old republican ofiicer, who luui diitinguiHied him- 
felf in Portugal, and had been recommended to the Kmg by i^.'larefchal Schombero-; 
lieutenant colon:! \Va!'.ot, likewife a republican officer ; (iooder.ough, under /lie- 
rifT of London, a zealous and noted party-man 5 Weft, Tyley, Norton, Ayloffe, 

iawyers ^ 



c II A R L r: s II. 






].uvv";si rn-.u';.n, R.u/j, iIo:v, k. .;;;.' Ii;: v.-, I^>i.:-.-^, Les Ki.n;:..].'. ^ 



\ ;i. 



T\ ' . 



.. .a 



ic\;crcv, ul. ) li.>vi .-.Clco "ic iiu: L.-.J.' i- u. l.c ; .;:y, v.^ic lv'.;:i.;cy .ir.il I'l i^;'...( n. 

\\ l.v-n ::JI^ :::.n uci^- n\:i ti'\e''.cr in ii..-ii- (. .I'j.iib., i'.j:) i:^:;.',;'-^ L::rir :-..; i :;i 
lii;- iv>j:l dclpjr.itc ,i;.d iirjil l'; i;ni:..ii t'.i'.-;,;l; : 'I'l^cy Ir. ];..' :.:'y i^cM.. :;c.: I..c 
al]"i!K:-;.i:;';n <: tiie Iviiiij, :i(Ki {\>.- Pi.ke, r.) v, i.i.ij \\. y li .li ^^ivf:^ ti.c :.i::..,..i. .:;i- 
fe!i.i::.jn o; . J'-'-.^: l\\:y cv-^a v.c;-[ ,0 i.ir .i. tu hive t.'i(.. -.:::: o: .1 ;-.!:l.:.j :>.r 
thar pii:';;u'.'. ivi.;i:b..IJ, v. iio w.'^ a ;::.i! . .'l.i'j a;.rm, c.il.c.i i.:c K\v- 
hou!;', \v;;..:i 1 .y 0:1 thj w.iy ') N^; .v.i-) irl.vi, \s..;:!icr l'./: K.n:; c* :u:Tsu:,iv \m.,L 
tMV. c a V.Mr, io; ihc divcrilcu o! 1:1/ rjrr. A | 1::. c;! t!..^ I.i: :i^ i.au i cc.i '..r..l bc- 
lirc ioiiK c; the cunlpnacors by i< un:!' ;!,;, \v;io u\ )W^d il-.jiVi !.u\v t..:v ii \\'-<.'.A 
be, by cVLT-;uri:;n^ a car:, t;) llu-) at: ibac \.'..wc ihc Kii^ii/^ ccj.i^ii ; w :,:!. t!,_y 
liiii^h: lire L.pjn liifn fioiii ri.c lu-ci^cs, aiul :-jcai'iy ti.abivu aTcrwar 's tiiio' bvc 
].i;"::-S a:. J cr..;:^ tbc be!.; , to iiitbc tlicii' cLapj. ij:ic i!i j' l!^;- M.:i.ii;'M:'; c> i;,:s 
f^li.nic i^-U'^' ^;:'^-i" [ b a' Lire to tbc cc^iilpii-au):-;-, viv CvJiAciTcb bLi.^n v, ..s .s \ ;.: ia.b, 
i;or a::v ni.n, b':rLs, i.,v a; ;io j ; ovib^*.! : I be wb^lc wa^ ::;ll iVj(. r'c [':...:] ii ,:e ib; 
C(x;rb', ib'j c;vc:'-b(;\v:n;;'< o! th.ir Zwii anJ r.i::C(,ur. 'i .,: !i,;'.::e i:i \s:.;.!i i':.j Kii;.; 
i:\vb a: Tn ev.ii;..;b t, 10. b ike ,;(.c iu.-:,:.b!y j aiui b: was ^!l:b yc.l Cv bav. ii..:: } i..^^; 
c:.b:L v! .v^ ioon..:' taan be :;Ue:,ci- cb I'u ibis c;reL;:i^:Mi:v e i.:s ;a\:v \\^ a:i,!- 
V. .iibs a:^.ib.b, wiiea tae c>';;l!;:;\uy v, a- tlb.w.: r.b ^ a:u: 'iK'c^iim ! .ir'v i o'l.a 
1. 01 laa-LAiibv abiibre :'.: \N;b c;ilj;::.i,ib' n- c;t l*:(.\-:bv-;,e; . 1: ' \ . ' lucii-, 
{':a:, ab b:j ^^-'-5 '''^' '^'^S Uiiexpe. :..! y ie;: N.\vi;iarb r, i.e a.. :ik,^!: \.(,.l- .iC. 
t:iKbb ti:a;i i.lb.b ; a:id Ivunibald i..;o, ::.ed b;i cu.,ude. ..:-S NMb. y.;e: vb;a: - 
b.,e opy' iCi.;"ib\ was tbiis L:iiori:i;i\;.u 1 . !..;. 

A".U'\(. tbc C;j:bp;rat(;r'~ 1 !^a\'e :T;cnbiaic.i Kb!!:::r, a l..ber in I "la!' :i. 'libs 
r\;!, ii-.L: be Ii e:y; ge^ in a \'c 1 v bu.d n^e.dare, u'. ai 1 . i^ nr: ine . :, : r ' .: 1 . .,(ii ;\ 
at tiic Kit ei I'ap.bon an 1 Dni-ii^, ih: cnic d lii lib"- ; an . bc;:..i, n..b.r to , i .[.,'.- 
tio.i lor li;,:t .. ';,:., lie Li()np,iu :: lalv.;! to rn:vi, ac a pa, ! in. i y re\ c .n:',; [i,e ('(jn- 
Ipna^v, in \bi;.;i lie v/asdicply Lo:Ae!i;el. ileb:(u_ :i"' (> b\'r.taiy je;.!. s 



liUe.i.^' '^^ ^'' i.ie all.*...: a:i'a iJid ; 1 at: 



! ,1- ... '. ^. 



e e'.;.Ai,;c, t.'e 1. 



c;ei.iV', Nviioni iVi.a.y 1 ibe p!(>:s b.a.! p!>i\i'\', Ki.b.iaa n..;a\;.i:i'..>, baa ,.: > 
bb, e w.ni'.uitb '.^-i' tbc ecannainicn: v[ [>> i;. . .it a n.aiA.!" <>. J.:^ ;. ..a.'' 
tbe!':'-);c, in uidei" to b):'Ci:y bi> ti bimia;\ , ^ ! ., . ev! bn. ; : ':. . , iv, al- 

tou ie \ an v juod^no^iu!), (:;e ol tl'e con: .r.iK : ; ; ., .;.. :> 

I 'N'" 'yoi'e atte.al^al to t'.e iai( ilea ;a e. I r.c c^n!,: : : ^'I 

ti.'' i.'..iaa;. r, m vb^xli ;b(.v wei a in\ ,.'.-'. .li.b; ...1 , ; 1 .. . . i ^ n' . . 
C.'nep>-a; n aiiaa-, ol iiia laina: o: i!.nla:, ,a. Kibinnv.a :r,.'..;, " . . .. . 

ai iii:. -oni^ibi.ia C(.ncUii"Co hi ina..y |.aauaaa;a- v..::, I\.i.i^;o i..;^. n)...a ... 1.^ 

Z a a ^ , : 



356 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 

chap. \ 11. affair fcemed to be put out of all queflion i and a more diligent fearch was every 
where made alter the confpiratOi's. 

West, the lawyer, and colonel Rumfey, finding the perils to which they were 
expofed in endeavouring to efcape, rcfolvcd to fave their own lives at the expence 
ol their companions ; and accordingly furrendered themfelves with an intention 
of becoming evidence. Weil: could do little more than confirm the teftimony of 
Kciling with regard to the aiL[rinati',;.n plot ; but Rumfey, befides additional con- 
firmation of the fame defign, was at lail, tho' with m.uch difficulty, led to give 
an account of the meetings at Shepard's. Shepard was immediately apprehend- 
ed i and had not courage to maintain fidelity to his confederates. Upon his in- 
formation, orders were iffued for arrefting the great men engaged in the confoi- 
racy. Monmouth abfconded : Ruffel was fent to the Tower : Grey was arrefled, 
but efcaped from the mjcflengcr : Howard was taken, while he concealed himfelf 
in a chimney , and being a man of moft profiigate morals, as well as indigent 
circiimiilances, he fcrupled not, in hopes of a pardon, to reveal the whole con- 
fpiracy. Eilex, Sidney, Hambden were immediately appreliendcd upon his evi- 
dence. Every day fome of the confpirators were detected in their lurking-places, 
and thrown into prifon. 
Execiiti'-n of LiEUTENANT COLONEL WALCOT was iiriu brought to his trial. This man, 
thcconfpira- 'who was once noted for bravery, had been fo far overcome by the love of life, tiiat 
"'''"'' he ha.i wrote to fecretary Jenkins, and had offered upon promife of pardon to 

turn evidence : But no fooner had he taken this mean Itep, than he felt more ge- 
nerous fcntiments arife in him ; and he endeavoured, tho' in vain, to conceal hirnfelf. 
The witncfTcs againil him were Rumfey, Weft, Shepard, together with one Bourne, 
a brewer. His own letter to the fecretary v/as produced, and rendered the leffi- 
mony of the witneiles unqueftionable. Hone and Roufe were alio condemned to 
die. Thefe two men, as well as Walcot, at their execution, acknovvleged the 
jullice of the fentcnce ; ap.d from th.cir trial and confefTion it is fufficiently appa- 
rent, that the plan of an infurredtion had been regularly formed, and that even 
the afidfiination had been often talked of, and not without the approbation of 
many of the confpirators. 
Tri,.l oF lord The condemnaiion of thefe criminals was probably intended as a preparative to 
Iluiicl. ^|.^^ ^j.-^l Qf lord Kuflll, ar.d ferved to imprcfs the public Vv-ith a thorow belief of the 

confpiracy, as well as horror againft it. The witnefies produced againft this noble pri- 
foner v.'cre Rumfey, Shepard, and lord Howard. Run^fjy fvy'ore,that he himfe'.f iiad 
been introduced to tJie cabal at Shepard's, v/Iicre Pvufiel v.as prcfent ; and had deli- 
vered them a m.ciTage from Shaftefbury, urging them to haften the intended infur- 
Fcdlion : But had received for anfwer, that it was found neceffary to delay the defign, 

5 a:.d 



CHARLES II. 



3/ 



and ilut Sharceflvjry muiT t!iLr;.hjr(r, for (cva': t".:r.?, rcil co!u::ireJ.. l^/is ..nf'.vcr, ^''^''' '^''^ 

he fiid, wns delivered by i-crgi:;u;i, but was .iHl-nud to bv the juilOwT. He add d, '^' 

that fome tliicourfc had been ciueied l;ito ;'.be;L,: tab:r. /; a l..r\ cv ul t'le ^;';.;:\ii , 

and h.e tlio'^ghr, t!ut Mo.-.moiiih, (.icy an i Ai irilircj:: ; v:ri.'.e; to^k to \-:_\v ih-r^. 

Shcywrd luore, that Ids hoiile had b.cii b-ioieliiiiJ bel|(j':e by l-.r^^uiun lur tiiC 

fecrec iT/Ccthv; ot the conipirators, aivJ tl'.at he ha 1 been car.l.d to keep a!i hiis 

Icrvair.s Irom ajipro.icldir,:'; iliem, a:v,l !iad l.rv.d i\\:va hitrii./. i ;..;rd;; ;j;;::e, 

lie l.iid, r.:n cliiL..y i;pon the iiiea;;-^ < : lirpr:/';'[_; the i:u.u\]< ; ..;id :: wav,a;i:..\l 

that ^^ I'r.'A iilh an.l h:s two Iiinulv ik'iw'.l uike .; li.rvev ol iiie::i. 1 i.e le: rr, 

^vhlch tliey brougiK next inectini:, v,a?, th.it the :;i.a:\!^ v/e.e re:r:.' , .;:.d t. .i: :'.,: 

deiign v.as wry practicable : liut he aillrnied no'-, tlvit any rci-i-'i r. y .\- i. . . 

ri? cxccutini'; it, Tlie prilbner, lie tiiovrdit, v,a prcf iir at '"(nli t;; ; n., 

b.e \v;,s lure, tha: a: lead he via- prei>.iit ..t o... ot Lii.m. A >'ecl.;>a::. ,:. . . 

lia.! been rvd by ] erj:.!'.!! in l^iiir r\ prt ;e:iC'- : The rj.ildns o: t ' i:n - 

reetivn were there let i.:":ii, and ad tise piddic ^^ i: vane.-> ;.. ly ih;: d .\b 
l.on:) i lov.'.-. :' ) haj been rme of the cal 



t:.e canal o; ;::: .nter 



S ..n- 



tAo ineetn:.> n m leen l;ehl c: tne dni!- n'utors one ar I bin , 
Run^ib. 1 b)v.-.ird \\\':,y:\ t'.a', at t!ie h:ll ^leeli:n^ it \.av a M-e?d to b;---n t!'c 
innn': . .n. n in tiie com. try b. bne the cny ; tiie p!,ic. s n vre iixe i, dn- p:\ y r nn-.n- 
tiry a:n; hnnl ot a;n":";> a'neji.: on, an! [lie vdi'JiC i dm c t o:-ei adcni ; . o:.^ : .' : : 1 ' :': 
et the iecjnd nieeti.nT, tlie conv.rbidun turned .:ne.'V i;pon thd: 
vd:!i d^imyle and t:^e di;i.o:uentcd eiJcoteh, aad il, i: tlie [ rindp.d - < i 

lln't ahair vias Intrnde.l to Sinncy, vd;o had lent (-ne dv art ii ^ d .A 

Avith proper i[;ibn;cti(n:S. llea.b'ed, t!n;t in dn ;e con!d!: i ' ; : 

n(.r N'otes cobe.te,! : bnt t':ere v.as no contradi Aion, an b as In: :., d; !:, ..d o; 
t!;eni, and the pr:;jner an:nn_: the I'ei!:, r wc t'n-ir c 

1^--: V and Shey: rd were n' rv i nwi:hn- -. -nn" I. .d bnn'd -.: 1 

it aype.^^ l'.( ni ' ':cy'> "^ era I b;d..-y ' . thai, i; : . y ii.i , ^ b ...> d, they con" ' 
?i,;\\n a niwie t.x^;nci:e i.bnnionv ayannl !uni. l ins rein;: 'nee, f :'"tn- i' . 
tl;d;cinty (d reiolleddny t irLunildn.c.s in a c':e"e'e; bu;o:\ which ]\.iC: \\.i':'- d al~-- 
ci.d^t months ben/rc, and . hivh the peibn:^ hav! inr at that linie are; 
idlwver, :nav l\!,--tlonie in-hi o'' \ din to then' 'vi.b'n-rr. !' 



was ini.ennt. 



ly proN'e;], tliau th. 



,nnrreet:on Innl b.en v 



' b 



; :ibn:er, and khiy rcTdvai ; the dn-prilal en the ^ n.naN d. hi : 
:ndy r. lubael ; antl tha' an r nal:nnirit::i bed newr or ' 
'y.::^ i y him. bo lar tiie matter cd i i.L , \ b n h,bl, v,,:h 

ia.v, tneic r,nnaineu a (.nn!..i;lte, anb that l - .. m , . : nnnre, 



553 HISTORY of GREAT BRITAIN. 



The Engliili luvs of treafon, both in the manner of defining that crin-ie and 
in the proof required, are the mildeft and mod indulgent, and confequently the 
moft equitab e, that are any where to be four^d. I'he two chief fpecies of treafon, 
contained in the law of Edward the third, are the compaffing and int^^nding the 
King's death, and the adua! levying war againft him ; and by the law of Mary the 
crime mull be proved by the cor.curring teilimony of two witneiTes, to fome overt: 
act, tending to thefe purpofes. But the lawyers, partly defirous of paying court to- 
the Sovereign, partly convinced of ill confequences, which might attend fuch nar- 
row limitations, had introduced a greater latitude, both in the proof and dehnition 
of the crime. It was not required, that the two witnefies fliould teftify the fame pre- 
cife overt aci: ; It was fuilicient, that they both teilified fome overt a6l of the fame 
treafon -, and tho' this evafion may feem a fubtilty, it had long prevailed in the 
courts of judicature, and had at iaft been folemnly fixed at the trial of lord Stafford. 
I'he lawyers had ufed the fame freedom, tho' perhips after a more exceptionable 
manner, with the law of Kdward the third. They had obferved, that, by that 
famous flatute, if a mian fliould enter into a confpiracy for a rebellion;. Ihou'd 
even fix a correfpondence with foreign powers for that purpofe, fhould provide arnio- 
and money, yet, if he w-as detedlcd and no rebellion enfued, he could not be tried 
for treafon. To prevent this inconvenience, as they efteemed it, they had com- 
monly laid their indictment for intending the death of the King, and had produced 
the intention of a rebellion as a proof of that other intention. But tho' this form 
of indictment and trial was very frequent, and niany criminals had received fcntence 
upon it, it was confidered as irregular, and was plainly confounding, by a fophifm^ 
two fpecies of trcaibn, which the flatute had moil accurately diilinguiflied. What 
made this refinement ftill more inexcufable j a law had paffed foon after the reilo-- 
raiion, where the confuking or intending a rebellion, was, during Charles's life- 
time, declared treafon ; and it was required that the prolecution fliould be made 
within iix montiis after the crime was ccir.mitted. But notv,-icliflantling tljis 
flatute, the lawyers r.ad perievered, as they iliil do perfcvere, in the old. loriii of 
indictment; and both Sir Harry Vane and Oliver Tlunket, titular priniate oi Ire- 
land, had been trieci by it. Such was the general horror, entertained againfl tlie 
old republicans, and ih.e poniui confpir.uors, that no-one had muririured againib 
tl-fis interpre'Lation of tfiC fiatute ; and the lawyers thought, tfiat they miglu. follow 
the pre dent even in the Ciile of t-.e popular and b^h^vcd lord Rl.IIcI. Jvuilel's 
Clime te:! plainly under the iiatutc of Chailcs t'lc 2d ; but the facts fwornc to by 
Run:''// ?,. i\ Si.epard were wiu'iout t'le fix niouths required by law, and to the 
otiier f.iCt^ 1 ;ov,u!d was a fiiigle w iineh:. To m.ike tiie indictment, therefore^ 
ViO'Q extcuiive, r.he intenrio;) of murJermg tfic King was comprehended in it. 



ana 



C ri A R L E 



i:. 



59 



aiul for prnof of tli's intcndon the coy.rpir.icy U,r :aii"i .^^, ;: r bcliT,:i w.i": aff;;.^: -aI . 
and wh.it Icrrnc.i to biMi:^ the rn.uct.T H':!l r.carcr, t:;c (.l'.;i.;:i ct attac!;:;-.:' liic 

Ki Si:i. p-Tcelvca tl^.i, Irrpgi.l.ir":')', nnd clrurci t) l'..ivc t::c p' ir.t nr!;:cd by 
rc-i'.r.ci! : The chief julticc tuKi liiin, that t'.i.'.: pri'.ilf:^- ((/.;'..: iv.t be i;r.'.;iccd, 
ii:i!(.-!"s !vj pr viuull/ con; -fuel th* t.iJ^ts c"h.ir^;ccl up(3!i liim. 'I'ii" .irC!:'Ki.iI Cou- 
f -un Jin:^ i!ic f.vo Ipcci.s oi n^Mlon, tim' a practice lup: <.r:c ; hv n\?.r,y \ n-cr- 
(Ic.its, is ti'.'j t lict, 1 Ul not liic only barJiliiip, o\ \vh;v!i Kuliii liad rfa'o:; t) 
com\ lain on hi-^ niaL llis dccncc was very Iccble , ar,J he c>)nr-. .red liiniTct" 
\vi:h procei'ing, iliat he r.cvcr had entertained any den^^n a;-^-ii,.ll t'.e K; .^^'n iiic : 
1 lis candour would I'.ot allow liim to deny the conlpiracy lor an inknrcv t:,;n. The 
jury were men o; lair and irrc[)rc;av.h ible charaders, bur zealo:.:^ Royal;;'ts : Atter 
a fliort deliberution, they broui;!;t in the [ ril^mer ^uiilrv. 

Ai'i'Liew; ION'S w. re ma 'e (o the Ki, !^ f~)v a p.ird^ui : b.wn ir.oncv, ro tl'.e 
ntnoinu of or-e lu.ivdrc\i [h.Hilan,! pou:;d>, was oheredi t j ::iedi :rc: (..: l\):::'::\;i,'h 
by the old eari ol Bcditord, t..tlv;r to Rulill. 'J'ii- Kir.p; v.as i;-.exorab!e. 1 le !iad 
been extrenieiy harralled wi'di t!ie vider.ee of t'.ie counrry 'p.irLy, andi Ii \:.:d o'j- 
r :^ed., i\\M the- p.riT'ner, lc!'..l.s hi-, ll-cret d-ll|^Ps 'i.ul abvay,. been car::.- d. to :i-,c! 
Idi^iieil cx rj.r.i:y or oppo!icion in Parlian^ci::. lie h.ad. even ado, u d. a :er.ti:r,.:;r, 
fbuilir to v.iiat v.e ni.:ct widi m a letter ot the your.f^er Brutus, i lad Ids tat!:er, 
he i.i d, adviled tiie Kir-g to rej-v't t!ie cxelufion bill, lie woultl be th.e dird to nvjvc 
lor a parliamentary ini[ eaelnr.cnt ag.ilnll liim. \\ hen lucli deterndmed re'.ob.tioii 
was obl-rved., his p(jpLdarity, his humanity, his jullice, his very viitues b^e.:n:c 
lb many erimc^, and v.cre uled as a ri^m-ne n ts a^iai nil Ipaiini^ ium. C harle- t!".e:'e- 
iovc V. .>uld |_;o n(j lardiier than rem t t!ic more i:;r.om::duus parts cd t:;e Idr.r.-r.ce, 
v.'mth tlie law recpjires to be pMOi:ourced againll trai:o:<:. " My lord Rud'!,"* 
Jaid he, ' C'A-iW d..d, that I .iUi podedld ol that [irero^^ui.'e, wld/h, :n tiiecaldet' 
' lord ^) .I'/erd., he :Uo-.,_y.z In to ti^ny ir.cd' y\s the L.;y t/ the ei^untry pa::y 
h.ad r. n :e;\d it i;iipod, 



throne, to ;;ai\'.v)n lo ma.-.y Cadiolies, \\h,om he i.rmly 



1 r tlie Ki..f,^, without the m()ii -inniii er.t dian. ;erei l..s 

beh.\'cd. to be iiino.ei.r, a:, I 
even adkcucjnate anil leva! to Inn: ; he pro:\-i;-).y thouidu, that, (;;.a- tlie i\' \- (i 
[he law was now readiy to f.dil upon ::)at parry t'linii^-lvLS, tliey i:^J.^ iv.t r:a;e:. .d.\y 
cxre:l, that Ise would inteipole to lave tliem. 

Ri s?r ids co:Tort, a woman ol jj;;eat m-.'i ir, daupju. r a:id h.ired- ejf t/.e (;ood 
call of Southampton, threw herlelt at tlie lvini;'s lee', a;:d. j I avieil \sidi niar.v t.e.r; 
tiie m^ rirs ar.d loyalty of her iatl.er, as ;.!i a'; w. nnnt loj- tl'.i ie error-, ir.to \'. d: \\ 
hone'd, h.owevcr nuib.k n principles !'..u! i.d..C'd ii.r hr.lbar.d. Ti-.e!e lup; d^a- 
tious were the lal\ mlVaace ol leniale wcahneis ^il tlicy dclcive t!ic r.amey whu ii 

ihc 



36o HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. VII. fhe betrayed. Finding all applications vain, fhe colledled courage, and not only 
^" ^' fortified herfelf againil: the fatal blow, but endeavoured by her example to ftrengthen 
the refolution of her unfortunate lord. With a tender and decent compofure they 
took leave of each other on the day of his execution. " The bitternefs of death 
*' is now paiied," lliid he, when he turned from her. Lord Cavendifh had lived 
in the clofeft intimacy v/ith Ruffel, and deferted not his friend in the prefi^nt cala- 
mi-.y. He gallantly offered to manage his efcape, by changing cloaths with him, 
and remaining at all hazards in his place. RulTel refufed to fave his own life, by 
an expedient which might cxpofe his friend to fo many hardships. When the 
duke of Monm.outh by meffage offered to furrender himfelf, if RuITel thought, 
that that meafure would any way contribute to his liifety ; " It will be no advan- 
" tage to me," he faid, " to have my friends die with me." Some of his exoref- 
fions difcover, not only compofure, but good humour in this melancholy extremity. 
The day beicre ius execution he was feizcd with a bleeding at the nofc. '' I fliall not 
" now Jet blood to divert this diftemper," fi\id he to dodlor Burnet vv'ho attended 
him, *' that will be done to morrow." A little before the flieriffs conducted him 
to the fcifrold, he v/ound up his watch, ' Now I have done," faid he, " with 
*' time, and henceforth mull think folcly of eternity.'* 

siflof julv. The fcaffoid was erected in Lincoln's-lnn-Fields, a place very diflunt from the 
Tower; and it v/as probubiy intended, by conducing Ruffel thro' fo many Qreeis, 
to fnov the mutinous c;ty their beloved leader, once the object of all their confi- 
dence, now ex!.)ofed to the utmofl: rigours of the law. As he was the moff popular 
amo g his ov/n party ; fo v/as he ever the leaft obnoxious to the oppofite faction : 

nna cxccu- Aiid his melanchoiy fate united every heart, lenfible of humanity, in a tender com- 

'^^c". paffion for him. Without the leaft change of countenance, lie laid his head on 

the block , and at two iirokes, it was f.-vered from his body. 

In the fpeech, which he delivered to the fhcriiTs, he was very anxious to clear 
his memory from any iii-iputation of ever intending the King's death or any altera- 
tion in tlie government : He could net expiicitely confefs the projeded iniurreclion 
without hurting his friends, v/ho might flill be called in qucflion lor it ; iLi.t lie did 
not pnrge himfelf of that defign, which, in the prefent condition of t!ie nation, he 
regarv'ed as no cringe. By many palfages in his fpeech, !;e f_ems to t!:e laic to have 
lain under the influence cf p;utv zeal ; a jjafdon, wliicli beinc; nourhiied by afo:i.iI 
temper, and cloathlng \i{-A\ unc'er li'C arpearance (^f jirinciple, it is ahnoi: in^pofii- 
b!e for a virtuous mai^, vh.; lias acted m public lile, ever tliorowly to eradicate. 
He pr .-'ef^cd his entire br :J in tiie pr;pi;n plot : And he laid, that, tho' he had 
often iieard fne fcizure ci the gcarvis mentioned, he had ever difapproved of thia!: 
attempt. To wluch he au.icvL tliat the nialficring lb many innocent men in cold 

bicod 



c n A 11 I. r: s 



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:!:;: lire.:;-; y and v:r:;,i;-, ii;:.:,!::;-:;', r. .:!;'; iIkhi ih'- r.i|).; i'/. i. l!.;s u:::or::;:iiCc: '''3- 



^: :: " ". f>\ 



Si ;)'; i v was i-cxr !; 



',C :<; !;;, t:!.i!. 



;' :-o -vay [.ii.re.i witii c,-:.u!:a::i:, !i- ii.i.i 1;; f.iv !]Mi\d :a ::.'. r. c 
,;,;;- '::.: ;--p'.;l).ica:i !::.r:v, as : . !:avc !- c:; nan^u'.l (.n l'i 



:!)::, Ion to 
k'; ... , A 



h : I \r tlioi ia' 



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Ala.h :!:j.! an ! cjaa---;..! tKa: Mm:.,::- 
:a:- '\., ;Im: anv^nii; c;:c i a-i/^ . I !a \\ r c; p'nUl Cia :r .'.; T a .a; . -a:..! 

aaa ^ /a; a a' ; aa^l airar ,, n;;>,.a.;;v^ al hi-, rtior:-> ajyai,;! i.i'- i a .lo- .r. '>. ^i 

C') t . a n ) ben.::: o: i!.l; -vaiara! ia;!.arnir, , IniC c Iiwlf' vt^l.a^t I! y ! ;'. : 

taaa !",.bnv: t: ) a ;;^ovca;.!i.ai.t and ianiay, w !at h iia aiilna re!. . .s ^ai : : .- 

p'-baa-^a [^ar'vli:.! any exiilci::c, ic wa^ a/i:vc in f\- ivt^!aa--r, b^J...^a; aa- 
rranann r, N/laa!: !;anac.i r^ pron^ata iluar ca.aa : Ik,: ..: !.a' , :n i " y. ia.il:. : :: 
n :;;;'arv l^r h: yra-aira an.ar:, to icrmai into la ' a la'. ha 'a ; .. : '. ;\i ii-r ti/- Ka,.^\ 
pa.aia:, aa.i ia;.! ub:a:na.! it. W'iicn tlic taation'-, ara' a ; !j(;ni liic { ;:':! : r, 
hea^in t> run \v.i\U, S:Jnay, full of t'u;!:^ ivitais (;; a!'a;:v, w ica; li .,a.i in;aa.^.l 
ir n: la irr^at cx-in",; las (ji aati jaity, jainc ; t'a- !a)a-.l ir j-ai tv v a..vi \'.a-'t-.\ai 
wina;:; to i^.i. a l.aond tin^c, t!]io' all tiia la. re,:'? c: ci\ai v.ai:, I- r i.;:. aav^.aJ 

j':'0'a tl'ii^ in^pcrfcJl fi.ctc'i of tha c'.n'a:;,;- .ml (<ra.li.i5t ui t!:i^ i5 .,!l:a .a^ 
r jrloaaa , it n.av c.^iV.y ba conacisa-,! I.;.v ()l'aa.-;;(ai^ iv- v..., ! \.an'a 'i ,". 
coart aa i n".i!;;ilry : W hat a'o cian.I rs t!:am inca.caia !> v. a,t:.-:.: '' n ', 

v.aac:i th: y t :.k, of" caiV:tin^ ta.a- ya.-y a' . i::.:l i:aa. On ' , ; y 

I ; ! .arvi a L.:aaU nam'-:T( : v. ::n :' , v.!a) y,. . ' ' ' ; 

aa.l v,h:.n :a.- ar l'- .-r: la '.aaa .'. rl: .: .::; tha, . ; h'aa . . 
\. A~ aaha-c:a.h '':.'.: i'.'^ n^-'ha ; (a y la.a, a: , '. 'v,-,'.aa , . 

r:laJ in th ' ' ' ' i '-a ..a a< , : . , i 

on yartv t::an ; a' aa '': i^^\) r. . , 
:.v, v.a^ lord i ' aaai.; ; b .t a^ th . . - 



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362 HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Chap. Vil. a proof, vvliich v/as never admitted in criminal profecutions : That allowing him to 

^ ''^" be the author, he had com.pofed them lolcly For his private amufement, and had 

never publillied them to the world, or even ccmmimicatcd them to any finp-ie 

pcrfon : That, when examined, they appeared by the co'our of the ink to have been 

wrote many years beiore, and were in vain produced as evidences of a prefjnt con- 

fpiracy againll the government : And that where the lav/ pofitively requires two 

v/itnelTes, one witnefs, attended with the moft convincing circumflances, could never 

fuftice i much lefs, v/hen fupported by a circumftance fo weak and precarious. 

All theie arguments, tlio' urged by tr.e prifoncr with great courage and pregnancy 

of reafon, had no infiuence. Tlie violent and inhuman Jefferies was now chief 

juRice ; and by his direction a partial jury was cafily prevailed on to give verdicc 

againft Sidney, liis execution followed a few days aFtcrv/ards : lie complained, 

and with reafon, of the iniquity of the fcntence , but he had too much greatnefs 

i;th of Dc- of mind to deny thofe confults with Monmouth and Ruilel, in which he had been 

ccr.iucr. cngao;ed. Pie rather cloried, that he now fufiered for that Facd old caufe. in which, 

tiou. from his earlieft youtn, he faid, he had inlifted himfelf. 

The execution of Sidney is regarded as one of the greateft blemiilies of the prc- 
fent reign. The evidence againft him, it muft be confefied, v/as not legal ; and 
the jury, who condemned him, were, for that reafon, very blameable. The jury 
itfelf was not compofed of freeholders, as the law required ; and this irregularity is 
r. great reproach to the adminiftrarion. But that after fertence pafled by a court of 
judicature, the King fhould pardon a maan, who, tho' otherwife pofTefled of great 
merit, was undoubtedly guilty, who liad ever been a mofl inHcxiblc and moft in- 
veterate enemy to the royal family, and who lately had even abufed the King's cle- 
mency, might be an adt of heroic generofity, but can never be regarded as a ne- 
ceflary and indifpenfible duty. 

Hov/ARn v/as alfo the fole evidence againft Hambdenj and his teftimony was not: 
fupported by any very material circumftance. The crown-lav/yers tliCrcfore found it 
vain to try the prifoner for treafon : They laid the indictment only for mifdcmea- 
nour, and obtained fentence againft him. The fine impofedwas exorbitant; no 
Ids than forty thoufand pounds. 

MoM.owAA-, a merchant of Briftol, one of tlie confpiratorr, had ilcd to tl;c 
Weft Indies, and v/as now brought over, lie had been out-lawcd ; bii" tlie year, 
.allowed him for prefenting hirn.rdf, was not expired. A ni;J v,::g tl-icreforc 
onircd iiim : But as he had at firft confefied his being engaged in a co;.ipiracy 
for a:i infurrcftlon, and even allowed that he had heard fbme difcourfes of an 
iifihni'^aiiori) tho' he had not ::pprovcd of them, he tliot^ght it more expedient to 

thrcv/ 



C II A U L i: S II. 



t',,: -.'A' l.'nVicii (.:i t";c L 



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:^'i:i 'i ;;m \s A ;^ .- . , v, '. ) h:..] ' . '. . . :' -y, v.: : 

K'lV;'^ ni!:i! cr, and lci:t over, v.m'^ : rccii'-Iv ;:i I'lc i.\:r.-j []::.x:\<j:^ v, ::I; I 1:1 ;.'.. y . 
Bj: th iiir.c Mvoiir, or rather jii'Vc-, \v.:s rc:ii:c : ;.::v,. 1 '.: l.w, :> ;)r-.'tcr.;l .1, 
thar, unicl\ h voiuncirily cani;- in h-iorc tac i:-:\ ;ra';'.'n ci'ih: [::r.- :\P^y;\':^, !; 
coulvl no: claim t'.c ^riviK-^-c oi a nia! ; not cf.;-,:h!-jri ;',;_:, t'p.a: i!; iir.i- '.'-[-, 'it 
in cqir.Ly to be I'jjVjH/.l-J tlu- a:._iJ.-ii[ whicii prcvt r.to.l \.:rA. 'l'./: K'"i;' b( re a 
CJ'r-'-i enmirv a;'a;nll tl>is i^ a::] -m.in, by \vh')m !;c bcii^vc! th *:ah-' ca Mnv 
nioL/wh to have been llJix^tl tr(;:n his c!'.;ry : 1 le ai! ) aCh ; txi. tliar Arrvitb. ,:r', 
had once promilcd Cromwd to air.lhnatc him , tlio' i: mull b:: cop.U-illd, th.a: 
the p.ilor.er jutliticd liiml-jlf from t'.d^ imputati'jn by verv llro:'::; ar^!;i;mcr.:s. 
Thcle v.'cr? the re.d'ons c;f tli.it i:ii(]airy, v.hi:h wa^ now d )-.: !:im. Ir '/.-as ayprj- 
hviuh-d, ti;a: il.lhjici.r evi.lt ;u:e i,: his y;::i: ; c,:.]/. [j.: h- y:\. ]..::.[ ; a:. : t ;m: e ... 
tha parrial ianis, v.iiicli v,.re ro.v reti:r;i:d, n;;:i \kW\'a .:iioAci ihi/iiiU-lvvs [ 
he cnt'i'L/'v ciira.icd by jehAa-js a:.d oiiicr \i ianc jad^^s ''widd na: [dvc L;::.ac; 



O . tha dav t;;a: RuilM v,a=; tried, IdlA:. a m:a (aria; 



. 1. .' 



1 : jr v:;-:.s a:..l 



->;;;;.,-, v.a.i ioaad ia t;ie 'J'cnv^r v.\:\\ hij thr, a: cur. The t or.a'cr'^ ii^oa /'c 
hroi:::h- ia thair vcrdiat, /'''-/..;>.''';; "I'cc becaa!.- cvo claidrLai u: ::a year.-, 
of r.:' or.a (;! v.Iiair. toj d.c[)arre^l naan his CN'id.nae, laul ahha-.:.,d, r'-. ;: ti.ey 
heard a larca: ra);!l- Irom hd.s window, and that I'a.ey h;w a har.,; tliiow oa: a h!.;oA 
rav'or, tlx-'e c ircLMiilanc. s were hiid i;oId of, and the mi.rAr v.ais alari'w; to t:;a 
\\\\\r and :'.\: I)i;h',', v.A') hay; ,; e ! dia: nxaadni'; to p:v .i \a::: to [', 1; .v aa 
] \]:-x '.vas I;:' a :t :o l,t ^ ca dae;) n'.c lane Ii A;, ana had i:cen kaa d v, ihi o. ima:c- 
daiteh,' va^ a ias con^niitnuau : II- v. . .: cdonvd t > ma'::..ia ti;a !a '. ; hec. a -^ t 
I'ahidc : Aad ;h^ . oaiXel-, iiya a !daat ea:j .ir\a w hi. !i 'a a ^ e...i;aa:'t vl t ) :;;a e.aa 
gI l)r, Iha a. ", ! a ..d no rca; n to e^ )nd; ;n the l..! A^ ion