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Full text of "History of the great Northwest and its men of progress : a select list of biographical sketches and portraits of the leaders in business, professional and official life"

LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS LIBRARY AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 






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In Memory of 

Gerard C. Berthold 

1910-1992 



University of Illinois Library at Urbana-Champaign 



History 



The Great Northwest 



HEN OF PROGRESS. 



A Select List of Biographical Sketches and Portraits of 

The Leaders in Business, Professional, and 

Official Life. 



Published under the Personal Supervision of 
HUGH J. McGRATH and WILLIAM STODDARD. 



EDITED BY C. W. G. HYDE AND WM. STODDARD. 



minneapolis. 
The Minneapolis Journal. 

1901. 



COPYRIGHTED 1901 



NEAPOLIS JOURNAL. 



NOTICE 

\FTER CAREFUL EXAMINATION OF THE 
NNER MARGIN AND TYPE OF MATERIAL 
VE HAVE SEWN THIS VOLUME BY HAND 
;0 IT CAN BE MORE EASILY OPENED 
\ND READ. 

HERTZBERG-NEW METCHD.INC. 



HISTORY 



OF 



THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



I 1 49928 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



ByC. W.G.HYDE. 



THE GREAT NORTHWEST DEFINED. 




HE expressions "The North- 
west,'" and "The Northwest- 
ern States," convey to the 
minds of most people an idea 
that is vague, undefined, and 
therefore unsatisfactory. Be- 
fore attempting to enter upon the history 
of this region, it will be well to get our bear- 
ings and to know delinitely what territory 
is included in the great Northwest whose 
history is here set forth. 

The Northwest Territory, as the term 
was understood at the close of the eight- 
eenth century, included the northern por- 
tion of the territory ceded to the United 
States by Great Britain in 1783 not forming 
part of the thirteen original states. This 
territory was bounded on the north by the 
Great Lakes, on the south by the Ohio river, 
and on the west by the Mississippi. It em- 
braced the present states of Ohio, Michigan, 
Indiana, Wisconsin and Illinois, as well as 
that part of Minnesota lying east of the Mis- 
sissippi river. The Northwest Territory 
was at that time an appropriate designation 
for the country to which it was applied, for 
it was the most northerly and westerly por- 
tion of the domain of the United States, and 
was, moreover, set off by a natural bound- 
ary — the Ohio river — from the eastern and 
southern parts of the new nation. The pop- 
ular conception of the Northwest was recog- 
nized by congress in the enactment of the 
famous ordinance of 1787 or — to quote the 
text — "Ordinance for the Government of the 
Territory of the United States Northwest of 
the River Ohio." In this ordinance our fa- 
thers struck the keynote of liberty whose vi- 
brations awakened a responsive chord in ev- 
ery American heart — a chord that was for 
seventy years turned into discord by the 



hum of the cotton-gin, but which has devel- 
oped into a song whose harmonies compel 
the world to stop and listen. 

It is quite pertinent to our topic to dwell 
for a moment upon this remarkable docu- 
ment, for it laid down those fundamental 
principles on which the government of the 
later Northwest has been built. "In truth," 
says Theodore Roosevelt, in "The Winning 
of the West," "the ordinance of 1787 was so 
wide-reaching in its effects, was drawn in 
accordance with so lofty a morality and 
such far-seeing statesmanship, and was 
fraught with such weal for the nation, that 
it will ever rank among the foreAost of 
American state papers, coming in that little 
group which includes the Declaration of In- 
dependence, the Constitution, Washington's 
Farewell Address, and Lincoln's Emancipa- 
tion Proclamation and Second Inaugural. It 
marked out a definite line of orderly free- 
dom along which the new states were to ad- 
^ ance. It laid deep the foundation for that 
system of widespread public education so 
characteristic of the republic and so essen- 
tial to its healthy growth. It provided that 
complete religious freedom and equality 
which we now accept as part of the order of 
nature, but which were then unknown in 
any important European nation. It guar- 
anteed the civil liberty of all citizens. It 
provided for an indissoluble union, a union 
which should grow until it could relentless- 
ly crush nullification and secession; for the 
states founded under it were the creatures 
of the nation, and were by the compact de- 
clared forevei- inseparable from it." 

The great Northwest, as the phrase is 
now understood, comprises the two north- 
ernmost tiers of states lying west of lakes 
Michigan and Superior. These states are 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, North Dakota, 
South Daliota, Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, 
Washington and Oregon. 

OUR TITLE TO THE NORTHWEST. 

Wisconsin and that part of Minnesota 
lying east of the Mississippi were acquired 
from Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris, 
September 3, 1783. This is the treaty by 
which the Revolutionary War was formally 
terminated. In 1803, the United States pur- 
chased the Province of Louisiana from 
France, paying her $15,000,000. The north- 
western states since formed from the terri- 
tory thus purchased are Minnesota west of 
the Mississippi, Iowa, North Dakota, South 
Dakota, and the portions of Montana and 
Wyoming drained by the Missouri and its 
tributaries. Washington, Oregon, Idaho and 
the western portions of Montana and Wyo- 
ming — the portions lying west of the main 
range of the Rocky Mountains — originally 
formed part of the vast territory known 
as Oregon. The title of the United States 
to this territory is seven-fold: First — It was 
discovered in 1792 by Robert Gray, captain 
of a Boston ship, the Columbia. He sailed 
several miles up a magnificent river never 
before navigated by white men, and, naming 
it after his ship, landed and took possession 
of the country it drained, in the name of the 
United States; second, the territory of Lou- 
isiana, whose boundaries were very loosely 
defined in the treaty of 1803, was held by 
some to extend to the Pacific. Assuming 
this view to be correct, the country became 
ours by purchase; third, the exploration of 
tlie Columbia river and its tributaries in 
1805-6 by Captains Lewis and Clarke; 
fourth, the actual settlement of Astoria, at 
the mouth of the Columbia river, in 1811, by 
the Astor Fur company. The seal of nation- 
ality was placed upon this enterprise by the 
presence of a I'nited States naval officer who 
commanded the leading vessel in the enter- 
prise; fifth and sixth, the title of the United 
States to the Oregon country was further 
strengthened by treaties with Spain (1818) 
and Mexico (1828), which were somewhat in 
the nature of quit-claim deeds. In these 



treaties the two countries expressly relin- 
quished their claims to the territory in ques- 
tion, leaving Great Britain as the only ad- 
verse claimant; seventh, on July 17, 1846, a 
treaty was signed by which the parallel of 
forty-nine degrees north latitude was fixed 
as the boundary between the British posses- 
sions on the north and the United States on 
the south. It is from the territory thus ac- 
quired that the states of Washington, Ore- 
gon, and Idaho and portions of Montana and 
^Vyoming were formed. 

THE ABORIGINES. 

V\hen, in 1492, Christopher Columbus 
landed on the island of Guanahani, he sup- 
posed he had reached the "land where the 
spices grow," or the Indies. He therefore, 
in all his accounts of his voyages, spoke of 
the dusky natives as Indians, that is, na- 
1i^■es of the Indies. When the error made 
by Columbus was discovered, it was too late 
to change the name either of the locality or 
of the people. The former was therefore 
called the West Indies, a name which ap- 
plied collectively to the various islands and 
groups of islands which separate the Carib- 
bean sea from the Atlantic ocean and the 
Gulf of Mexico. This name distinguished it 
from the spice regions in southeastern Asia, 
the discovery of a western sea-route to 
which had been the object of Columbus' voy- 
age, and which were thereafter known as 
the East Indies. 

The investigations of ethnologists point 
to an Asiatic origin of the Indians of Amer- 
ica. A very high authority reaches the con- 
clusion that the aborigines in the extreme 
north reached this continent by crossing 
Bering strait, while others came to our east- 
ern shores by an overland route which ex- 
isted in the Pleistocene epoch. The theory of 
Asiatic origin is based upon resemblances 
of color, skull measurements, and other 
physical characteristics which appear to 
identify the Indians with the great Mon- 
golian division of the human race. On the 
other hand, the philological argument leads 
to the conclusion that the aboriginal inhabi- 
tants of America were of American origin. 
••Philologists have agreed," says Terry, 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



"that the Aiiierif-an languages are unique 
and cannot be traced to an oriental source; 
that, further, they bear evidence of aborig- 
inal antiquity — are primitive in character 
and differ radically from all others." 

As to the antiquity of the race to which 
the North American Indian belongs, no pre- 
cise date can be assigned as that of his first 
appearance upon the continent. We are not, 
however, left to mere conjecture upon this 
point. The investigations of geologists en- 
able them to fix upon a minimum period ino 
attempt is made to limit the maximum peri- 
od) within which our aborigines made their 
advent in America. John Fiske gives a 
most interesting discussion of this question 
in the first chapter of "The Discovery of 
America." He says: "It is altogether prob- 
able tliat the people whom the Spaniards 
found in America came by migration from 
the Old ^^'orld. But it is by no means prob- 
able that their migration occurred within so 
short a period as five or six thousand years. 
A series of observations and discoveries 
kept up for the last half-century seem to 
show that North America has been continu- 
ously inhabited by human beings since the 
earliest Pleistocene times, if not earlier. 
* * * Concerning the antiquity of the 
Pleistocene epoch, * * * if -^^^ adopt thf 
magnificent argument of Dr. Croll * * * 
we obtain a result that is moderate and 
probable. The Glacial epoch began about 
240,000 years ago and came to an end about 
80,000 years ago. » * * Xow the traces 
of the existence of man in North America 
during the Glacial epoch have in recent 
years been discoA'ered in abundance, as, for 
example, the palaeolithic quartzite imple- 
ments found in the drift near the city of St. 
Paul, which date from toward the close of 
the Glacial epoch; [and] the fragment of a 
human jaw found in the red clay deposited 
in ilinnesota during an earlier part of that 
epoch. * * * In July, 18S7, * * * in 
a deep cut of the Baltimore and Ohio rail- 
road, in a stratum of Philadelphia red grav- 
el and brick clay, Mr. Cresson obtained an 
unquestionable palaeolith. * * * If we 
accept Dr. CroH's method of reckoning, we 



can hardly assign to it an antiquity less 
than 150,000 years." 

According to a map published by George 
Catlin, in IS'i'.i, the great Northwest was at 
that time inhabited by the following tribes 
of Indians: In Wisconsin, the Chippeways, 
the Menomonies, and the Winnebagoes; in 
ilinnesota, the Chippeways and the Sionx; 
in Iowa, the Sioux, the Sacs and the Foxes; 
in Dakota, the Assinneboins, the Minata- 
lees, the Mandans, the Riccarees, and the 
Sioux; in Montana, the Blaekfeet and the 
('rows; in Wyoming, the Crows and the 
( 'heyennes ; in Idaho, the Shoshones and the 
Flatheads; in Washington and Oregon, the 
('hilts, the Chinooks, the Flatheads, the 
Snakes, and the Nez T'erces. 

There are at present in the Northwest 
some 82,000 Indians, about 70,000 being col- 
lected in a hundred different reservations. 
The remaining 12,000 are self-supporting 
and are taxed like the whites. The distri- 
l)utiou of the Indians in the several states is 
approximately as follows: In South Dakota, 
20.000 Brules, (I'heyennes, Blaekfeet,* Sioux, 
etc.; in Washington, 11,000, belonging to 
nearly eighty tribes — Cceur d'Alenes, Kute- 
uays, Nez Perces, Okanagans, Olympias, 
Pend d'Oreilles, Piutes, Puyallups, Spokanes, 
etc.; in Montana, 11,000 Assinneboins, 
Blaekfeet, C'heyennes, Crows and Flat- 
heads; in Wisconsin, 10,000 Menomonies, 
Oneidas, etc; in Minnesota, 10,000 Chippe- 
ways, etc.; in North Dakota, 8,000 Arikaras, 
Assinneboins, Blaekfeet, Sioux, Gros Ven- 
tres, ilandans, Unkpapapas, Wahpetons and 
Yanktonnai; in Oregon, 5,000 Cayuses, Pi- 
utes, Shastis, Snakes, etc.; in Idaho, 4,500 
Bannaks, C(r>ur d'Alenes. Nez Perces, Sho- 
shones, etc.; in \A'yoming 2,000 Shoshones, 
Arapahoes, etc; and in Iowa, 500 Sacs and 
Foxes. 

As the tide of white exploration and set- 
tlement moved westward across the conti- 
nent, various types of the Indian were en- 
countered. Indians living upon cultivated 
maize, small grain and vegetables, wild 
grains, fruits and roots; flesh eaters, root 
diggers, and fish eaters. Everywhere the 
Indian was found conforming through ne- 
cessitv to his environment, taking advan- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



tage of the situation, and ingenious with the 
elements around him. The highest intelli- 
gence was found among the Indians of the 
Atlantic coast and east of the Ohio river, 
this intelligence gradually decreasing, until 
the most sciualid Indian was found west of 
the Rocky ^Mountains, on the Pacific coast 
and northward, and in regions where the 
natural resources were limited. 

Peaceful at the advent of the whites, 
then hostile, the Indians became more wild 
and savage as our ancestors proceeded 
westward, this fierceness being again aggra- 
vated by the advancing lines of Anglo-Sax- 
on civilization. In a very instructive mono- 
graph on "The Aborigines of the North- 
west" (Parkman Club Publications No. 4, 
]81>6), Frank Taylor Terry speaks thus of 
the change in Indian character in the past 
300 years: 

"The American Indians were, 300 years 
ago, superior to the better known Indians 
of our modern frontier. Explorers of the 
sixteenth century found them an agricultur- 
al race, living in settled villages, planned 
often with an eye to comfori and beauty; 
the houses interspersed with trees, grass 
plats and groves for tame deer; and, in their 
proper place, were regularly laid out corn- 
fields and gardens of potatoes, beans, mel- 
ons and tobacco. Each town had its public 
houses, one for worship, one for council, and 
one for storing grain. 

'•They seem also to have been a hospita- 
ble race. When Raleigh's men, in 1584, 
landed on Roanoake Island, the native vil 
lagers took them into the large five-room 
house of their chief's brother, warmed them 
before the fire, washed and dried their 
clothes, and hastened meanwhile to dress 
and cook some meat for them, and the nar- 
rative says 'their vessels are earthen pots, 
very large, white and sweet; their dishes are 
wooden platters of sweet timber.' It is 
these and other Indians living in fixed vil- 
lages in comfort and peace that in all prob- 
ability erected the mounds and made the 
mound pottery and implements. Found in 
the midst of plenty, a simple and friendly 
race living in Arcadian simplicity and rustic 
happiness, they were slowly crowded west- 



ward by the whites until they became a 
ti'eacherous and deadly foe. • ♦ • They 
are the last vestiges of a social condition 
That may have been happier than civiliza- 
tion; and even our nomadic hunting Indians 
of Wisconsin, who wept with joy on the ar- 
rival of Perrot. Radisson, and Grosseilliers, 
might perhaps have wept with grief for the 
future of their tribes, had they known that 
a foreign and distasteful civilization would 
appropriate their hunting grounds and de- 
stroy their ancient means of livelihood." 

Before the coming of white men, the 
principal means of conveyance along the 
lakes and rivers of the Northwest was the 
dugout canoe. When the Spaniards brought 
horses, some of them escaped and in time 
bands of wild horses were roaming over the 
western plains. The Indians captured and 
lamed them, and substituted them for the 
canoe. These were the ancestors of the In- 
dian ponies variously designated as bron- 
c OS, mustangs and cayuses. The plains 
where the horse was found running wild be- 
came valuable as horse producing grounds, 
and almost incessant war was the result; 
but, if tradition is to be believed, war was 
the normal condition of the Indian tribes of 
North America. The horse, enabling the 
Indian to follow the buffalo for food and 
clothes, and the claiming of the lands by the 
tribes, encouraged his nomadic habits and 
paved the way for his continued unsettled 
life. The buffalo grounds were also battle- 
fields where the southern Comanche fought 
the northern Sioux, and the Pawnee and the 
Cheyenne met in deadly conflict. 

The wandering habits of many tribes, 
and their varied manners and customs may 
account for the great number of tribal Ian- 
gauges. The battle for the necessities of 
life was not a struggle as now, because 
game was abundant, and people were not so 
numerous. Skins and furs for clothing and 
for making lodges, tents, and tepees, were 
plentiful; and the flesh of the fur animals 
was used for food. The lakes and streams 
abounded in fish and the seasons brought 
the unfailing crops of roots and nuts. War, 
theft, and indolence were virtues in the men, 
and labor was the dutv of the women. The 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



patient squaw was the stay of the family, 
being, in fact, a beast of burden and both 
camp guard and l^eeper, while the males 
loafed, hunted, stole horses, fished, and 
made war. Wants were comparatively few 
and easily supplied. 

Lands were regarded by the Indians as 
tribal, not individual, jjroperty. Before the 
coming of the whites they had portioned out 
the surface of the country fairly well, and 
by consent or tacit agreement, separate sec- 
tions of the country were occupied by tribes 
of the several stocks. For example, the 
Sioux occupied the valley of the Mississippi 
and stretched far to the southeast; and the 
Shoshones roamed through the middle basin 
between the Kocky and the Sierra Nevada 
mountains in Idaho and farther south. 

Indian nomadic life was not favorable to 
the growth of large families. The Indians 
moved with the seasons, following the game, 
or going to corn growing grounds. Those 
who depended most upon agriculture were 
the most permanent because the climate of 
the agricultural sections was agreeable, and 
the country abounded in root crops and 
birds, and the streams contained fish. These 
natural resources made this class of Indi- 
Jins less nomadic than those who, being 
flesh eaters, depended on game. 

Wild and free life made the Indian im- 
provident; it gave him no care for the fu- 
ture. Even now a week's rations is con- 
sumed in two days, for he is a ravenous 
eater, and besides he is not certain there 
may be any food on the morrow. Nature 
has also conspired to make the Indian thrift- 
less and unstable. In his free condition, he 
was the ideal wild man, pure and simple, 
and to this day, many Indians are but little 
changed in their wild instincts. Then the 
restraint upon his appetite, physical or oth- 
erwise, was satiety, and death was met with 
nerve, and as a condition of life. Cunning 
and ingenious, and with some mechanical 
skill, he placed nature under tribute for 
arms, weapons, decoys and game traps. Aa 
a hunter he was more adroit than the wild- 
est game, more fleet of foot than the elk or 
deer, and more stealthy than the wolf. 

The Indian village was the unit of organ- 



isation in nearly all the tribes. The individ- 
ual was and is merged in the village. With 
the sedentary Indians, the villages were of 
a permanent character. With the nomadic 
Indians, lodges or tents, with their live 
stock and property, composed the village. 
In peace, the nomadic village was placed in 
a favored retreat, and here the Indians re- 
mained until war or the seasons forced them 
to remove. By marks or signs, a band could 
tell what Indians had preceded it. As a 
rule, the bands of a tribe had their well-de- 
lined camping grounds, which were sacred 
to them. A tribe seldom, if ever, camped or 
lived in a compact mass. The villages were 
frequently separated by long distances, and 
in war were signaled with fires or alarmed 
by runners. In war, old men and women 
<ared for the camp and protected it. When 
a war party returned, one of their number 
was selected to bear a pole upon which were 
suspended the scalps taken from the enemy. 
The Indian village life, the growth of cen- 
turies, is now partially perpetuated on large 
reservations, and the love of it is one of the 
chief causes of the Indian's resistance to the 
white man's customs. The Indian does not 
like to live isolated. Dances preceded and 
followed all their movements, good or bad. 
From the camps or villages, the warrior set 
out to acquire new honors or to meet death. 
This was the life of the ancestors of the In- 
dians, and with some tribes it still con- 
tinues. 

The Latin and Anglo-Saxon life which 
poured in upon the Indian was to him inva- 
sion. The pale-face was to him a robber, 
who desi)oiled him of his lands and game, 
and so became for all time his enemy. The 
Indian's first impression of the white man 
was very unfavorable, and to him the white 
man has not changed, except to be looked 
upon as more grasping. He found in the 
first white man the same instincts of trade 
and desire to oppress the lowest orders of 
men that he finds now. 

The question has sometimes been raised 
whether contact with the sublime and the 
beautiful in nature exercises, necessarily, a 
refining influence upon hnman nature. 
While the Indians in past ag(>s had all the 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



advautaj^es arising from contact with beau- 
tiful scenery — all that bounteous nature 
could give to please, ennoble, or entrance, in 
an area so great that all climates were with- 
in his domain, and all altitudes, from the 
towering mountain, sublime in its majesty, 
to the low and i>oetic ranges of hills where 
Terdure lay the year round and the wild 
flower blossomed, — no Indian was ever in- 
spired to the softer ways of life by the 
grand eflfects of lavish nature. The Indian 
is the embodiment of cruelty, and the wom- 
en, in this respect, far excel the men. While 
the Indians did not learn brutality in war 
from the whites, the Europeans taught 
them the use of firearms, diplomatic cun- 
ning and intoxicating liquors, and also intro- 
duced some loathsome diseases among them. 
Eight of the northwestern states have In- 
dian names, which are here given with their 
significations: Wisconsin, wild, rushing 
channel; Minnesota, cloudy (or sky-tinted) 
Avater; Iowa, drowsy; Dakota, leagued; 
Wyoming, the large plains; Idaho, gem of 
the mountains; Oregon, great river of the 
west. 

The Indian is very superstitious and 
holds to a mythology similar to that of all 
primitive peoples and varying in its details 
in different tribes. So far as has been as- 
certained, however, he has no well-defined 
religious views or beliefs. The Indians of 
the Northwest are, in their native state, in- 
capable of inventing, constructing, or build- 
ing anything that requires the mental 
power of combination. They are garrulous 
among thejuselves but they become silent at 
the approach of white men whom they in- 
stinctively regard as their natural enemies. 
Among themselves, in camp, the women 
chatter as rapidly and loudly as white wom- 
en, and the children bubble over with laugh- 
ter and fun. The children seldom, if ever, 
cry, and a brutal Indian father or mother 
is very rare. While on the march, an In- 
dian woman will unstring the portable cra- 
dle from her back, take the child out, fill 
her mouth with water, eject it in a spray 
and wash the vermin or dust from the child, 
which never even whimpers, replace it on 



her back, and hurry along to overtake the 
moving band. 

All hunters know how the young of most 
wild animals conceal themselves when their 
privacy is invaded, and give no sign of their 
presence by movement or sound, no matter 
how near the intruder apjiroaches. It is the 
same with Indian children; they seem to 
share the secretive instinct with the young 
plover, rat and deer. 

Being the original occupant of the land, 
the Indian cannot understand his being 
crowded out or absorbed by the white. It 
has been for centuries bred in his bone that 
labor is dishonorable. He cannot compre- 
hend the Anglo-Saxon moral code. For four 
hundred years there has been intermittent 
warfare between him and the invader. 
"Over the old hunting ground, across the 
silvery streams that thread the brown bar- 
rens and plains, up the tall mountains, 
among the towering pines to the snow- 
( api)ed and sun-touched summits, in the 
land once the home of his people, the Indian 
of to-day can cast only a longing eye and re- 
flect. * * * Crooning squaws and tot- 
tering old men on reservations, in most 
cases in squalor, rags, and hunger, retell 
the fierce battles of their people, * * • 
every person mentioned a hero; all now 
legend and myth. These past Indian glories 
and splendors can never come again; but 
the Indian does not realize it, and so he in- 
vokes their return with his ghost or ilessiah 
dance. 

"The Pacific coast fish eaters and root 
diggers are now peaceable, progressive, and 
almost entirely self-supporting. The other 
reservation tribes, even if disposed to war, 
are so surrounded with white settlements 
that a war would be of short duration." 

THE COMING OF THE WHITE MAN. 

It is a notable fact that where lust for 
conquest and gold have failed to open up 
new territory to higher civilization, this end 
has been accomplished through the zeal 
of Christian missionaries. Columbus, who 
stipulated with the Spanish sovereigns that 
he should, if he succeeded, hold high office 
and receive a share of all gold, precious 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



stones and merchandise acquired, never 
landed on the North American continent. 
Ponce de Leon, the discoverer of Florida, 
was killed bj the Indians. In 1528 Narvaez 
explored the lands bordering the north 
shore of the Gulf, endured cold and famine 
and perished by shipwreck; De Soto, like 
Narvaez, sought for gold; landing in Florida 
M'ith a richly appointed company in 1539, 
he discovered the Mississippi river in 1541. 
Here he was buried. ''He had crossed a 
large part of the continent in search of gold, 
and found nothing so remarkable as his 
burial-place." These expeditions — typical of 
all purely self-seeking enterprises — entailed 
upon the future colonists a legacy of unend- 
ing border warfare. 

"It was reserved for religious zeal to ac- 
complish that enterprise in which a desire 
of conquest and the thirst for gold had 
failed; the ^Mississippi valley had yet to be 
reached from the northeast, by the route of 
the Great Lakes; and all the countless bene- 
fits which have flowed from its settlement 
and cultivation, in a commercial point of 
view, have had their foundation in a promi- 
nent degree in the religious zeal of the disci- 
ples of Loyola. The discovery of the north- 
west region was made, missionary posts es- 
tablished, friendship cultivated with the nu- 
merous savage tribes, churches erected; the 
country was explored, and the upper Missis- 
sippi not only discovered, but traced from 
the Falls of St. Anthony to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico; and all these through the untiring la- 
bors of the French missionaries." 

Before 1600, Jesuit missionaries had ex- 
plored the St. Lawrence basin as far west as 
the present site of Duluth. In 1641, some 
Jesuit fathers attended a feast of the dead, 
held by two thousand Chippewas at Sault 
Ste. Marie (Falls of St. Mary), at the outlet 
of Lake Superior. Here they learned of the 
Sioux, who lived eighteen days' journey fur- 
ther west beyond the great lake (Superior). 

In 1854, two French fur traders pene- 
trated the Sioux country west of Superior. 
In 16G5, Father Claude Allouez embarked 
on a mission to the far west. Having heard 
of the copper deposits on the south shore, he 
sailed in quest of them until he reached 



( 'he(iuamegon Bay. Here, at a grand coun- 
cil, he heard from the Indians of the vast 
prairies covered with buffalo and deer 
which stretched to the south and west, and 
of the noble river called by them the "Mes- 
sippi." The English intruders into America 
had ti'ied by both fair and foul means to dis- 
possess the natives of theii- land, gaining lit- 
tle land and unlimited ill will, with a liberal 
expenditure of treasure and blood. The 
French missionary and trapper brought to 
Ihe Indians a tender of alliance, an offer of 
protection and a genial comradeship. The 
trappers traveled, ate, drank, slept and in- 
termarried with the red men, so that in time 
of war, the Indians generally sided with the- 
French as against the English. 

In 1673, Father Marquette and the Sieur 
Joliet started from the fort of Lake Michi- 
gan to explore the great west. Passing 
through Green Bay, they entered the Fox: 
river, made a portage to the Wisconsin, and 
soon entered the great ^lississippi. Proceed- 
ing down the river, they discovered an In- 
dian village upon a tributary floT^g from 
the west. They were unquestionably the 
first white men who had ever trod the soil' 
of what is now Iowa, but the calumet or 
pipe of peace was tendered to them and they 
were told that the river on which the village 
was situated was the Mouin-gouina. We 
now call it the Des Moines. They continued 
their descent of the Mississippi to a point 
below the Arkansas, and on their return, 
went up the Illinois and reached Lake Mich- 
igan. 

In 1682, La Salle descended the Missis- 
sippi to the Gulf, and, formally taking pos- 
session of the country drained by the Missis- 
sippi and its tributaries from its source ta 
its mouth, for France, he named it Louisi- 
ana, in honor of Louis XIV. The next year 
he returned to Quebec. "To La Salle must 
be mainly asci-ibed the discovery of the vast 
regions of the Mississippi valley, and the 
subsequent occupation and settlement of 
them by the French." 

To Louis H(>nnepin belongs the credit of 
having been Ihe first European who ascend- 
ed the Mississippi above the mouth of the 
Wisconsin. In February, 1680, he sailed up 



HISTORY OV THE GREAT NORTIIAVEST. 



tlie Mississippi from the Illinois, with in- 
structions from La Salle to jjrocecd, if pos- 
sible, to its source. At the forty-fifth def;ree 
of north latitude, he was stopped by a high 
waterfall to which Father Hennepin gave 
the name of the Falls of St. Anthony of 
I'adua. Thus, at the close of the seventeenth 
century, France, in right of occupancy and 
discovery, claimed the entire Mississippi ba- 
sin, including the present states of Wiscon- 
sin, Minnesota, Iowa, the Dakotas, and the 
greater i)arts of Montana and Wyoming, be- 
longing to the great Northwest. 

For a century or more, the French trad- 
ers and trappers roamed over the prairies 
and through the forests of Louisiana (the 
Mississippi basin) in quest of game, furs, 
skins, and "the wool of the buffalo." On the 
10th of February, 176.3, an event occurred 
which made a fundamental change in the 
history of this region. On that day the 
Treaty of Paris was concluded. This treaty, 
which terminated the French and Indian 
War, transferred from France to Great Brit- 
ain all that portion of Louisiana lying east 
of the Mississippi except the town and is- 
land of Orleans. The present state of \Yis- 
consin and about one-third of Minnesota 
thus passed from French to British control. 
It was long, however, before the English ob- 
tained a fijni foothold. The French traders 
had taken wives from among the Indians, 
and the great fur dealers in New Orleans 
gave more in barter for peltries than the 
English could afford to pay so that the In- 
dian trade was retained by the French not- 
withstanding the transfer of sovereignty. 
The English, therefore, established no posts 
of trade or defence west of Mackinac at the 
foot of Lake Michigan. The country further 
west appears to have been trodden by few 
British subjects until after the visit made to 
it by Jonathan Carver soon after the con- 
clusion of the French and Indian War. 

•Jonathan Carver, a native of Connecti- 
cut, and said to have been a descendant of 
John Carver, the first governor of Plymouth 
Colony, left Boston in 17(!6 for the purpose 
of exploring the Northwest. From the 
mouth of the Wisconsin, he ascended the 
Mississippi in a canoe, arriving at the Falls 



of St. Anthony in November. After this he 
ascended the Minnesota to a point two hun- 
dred miles above Mendota. He was ac- 
companied on his return to the mouth of the 
Jlinnesota by nearly three hundred Indians, 
who were making their annual journey to 
a cave (now known as Carver's cave) in a 
bluff just below the present city of St. Paul, 
in order to bury there their dead. Carver's 
heirs claimed a tract of land lying southeast 
of St. Anthony, with an area about twice as 
great as that of the state of Rhode Island, 
and containing nearly 1,.500,000 acres. 
They based this claim on a treaty Carver 
was said to have made with the Indians at 
the Great Cave. May 1, 1767. The claim 
was never allowed. 

At the commencement of the American 
Revolution, from the first act of hostilities, 
the savages of the Northwest had been as- 
sociated as allies of Great Britain, and em- 
ployed by the British commanders to lay 
waste the frontier settlements. In 1778 
an Amerian expedition under command of 
Col. George R. Clark set out from the Falls 
of the Ohio (Louisville) to terminate the In- 
dian depredations by reducing the British 
jiosts on the Wabash and the T'pper Missis- 
sijipi. The story of Col. Clark's success- 
ful operations in the Wabash region forms 
one of the most brilliant chapters in Ameri- 
can military history. We cannot dwell up- 
on it. The news of his success alarmed the 
British traders in the Minnesot.a and Wis- 
consin country, and extraordinary military 
precautions were taken to protect the fur 
trade of the British. Five years later a 
definite treaty of peace closed the Revolu- 
tionai-y War and transferred from the do- 
minion of (ireat Britain to that of the Unit- 
ed States of America that part of the great 
Northwest which lies east of the Missis- 
sippi. ^^'e are now to trace the early his- 
tory of Louisiana — or rather that portion of 
it which embraces Montana, Wyoming, the 
two Dakotas, Iowa, and western Minne 
sota. 

We ha\e already related that in 1682 the 
French explorer La Salle, having explored 
the Mississippi river from the Illinois to 
the Gulf, formally took possession, in the 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



name of France, of all the country drained 
by that river and its tributaries. The cere- 
monies by which he declared the sovereign- 
ty of his king over this country were elabo- 
rate. The Te Deum was given, a Latin 
hymn was sung, and a cross was planted 
bearing the arms of France. This act is the 
basis of the title under which the United 
States holds this country to-day, for this 
ceremony has ever been respected by all 
nations as the official seal placed by France 
on the claim she made to the territory by 
virtue of discovery, exploration and occupa- 
tion. The name chosen by La Salle — Louisi- 
ana — applied to the whole Mississippi val- 
ley until 180.3. The history of this vast ter- 
ritory for the next century and a half is 
simply the history of trapping, trading for 
furs, and the incidents of life among the 
savages which contribute nothing to human 
progress. In 1762 France ceded Louisiana 
west of the Mississippi to Spain. Eighteen 
years later Spain re-ceded it to France. 
This last cession was a secret one. As 
soon as President Jefferson learned of it he 
foresaw trouble with France. It was of the 
utmost consequence that the western states 
bordering on the Mississippi should have 
free access to the gulf by way of the river. 
Willi New Orleans in the possession of a 
foreign power — our commercial rival — such 
access was impossible or would inevitably 
be hampered by vexatious and expensive re- 
strictions. The danger to free navigation 
of the river was imminent, for in November, 
1802, word came that a French military 
force was on its way to occupy New Orleans. 
The Spanish governor of New Orleans at 
this time forbade the navigation of the Mis- 
sissippi by American citizens, thus violating 
the treaty of 1705, by the terms of which the 
inhabitants of the states bordering the Ohio 
and Mississippi had flat-boated their bacon, 
hams, tobacco, and flour to New Orleans 
and stored it in warehouses preparatory to 
shipi)ing. The president was urged to take 
action that might lead to war with Spain. 
He determined to wait until France openly 
assumed ownership of the province. The 
opportunity to reach a peaceful solution of 
the difficulty soon came. Napoleon was 



first consul of France. He needed money. 
He foresaw that it would be impossible for 
him to hold a vast transatlantic territory 
against England, a power that was mistress 
of the seas and the hereditary enemy of 
France. -Jett'erson offered to buy the island 
of New Orleans and West Florida. Na- 
]K)leon wanted to unload all of Louisiana, 
and asked for an offer. After much bar- 
gaining, the American envoys agreed that 
the I'uited States should pay to France 
sixty million francs in stocks bearing six 
per cent, interest, and should in addition 
assume the payment of all debts owed by 
France to American merchants, to an 
amount not exceeding twenty million francs. 
As the value of the American dollar was 
then estimated at five and one-third francs, 
the new acquisition may be said to have 
cost us .^15,000,000. The .senate ratified the 
treaty of cession, and on December 20, 1S0.3, 
the United States formally took possession 
of its magnificent acquisition of nearly a 
million square miles — a territory about 
twenty times as large as England and 
Wales combined, — enough to make over 
three and one-half million farms of 160 
acres each. From this territory there have 
since been formed seven states and two ter- 
ritories in addition to the five states form- 
ing part of the great Northwest. Our 
glance at the early history of the Oregon 
country must be very brief. 

The term Oregon was in early days ap- 
plied to a vast territory west of the Rocky 
^Mountains, extending along the forty-second 
parallel to the Pacific, thence north up the 
coast indefinitely, thence east to the crest 
of the Rocky Mountains, thence south on the 
crest to the place of beginning. Spain, Rus- 
sia. Great Britain, and the Ihiited States 
had conflicting claims to this region or parts 
of it. 

In 1513 the Spanish exjjlorer Balboa 
crossed the Isthmus of Panama from north 
to south and discovered the Southern Ocean, 
(.r, as he named it from its peaceful appear- 
ance, the Pacific Ocean, Pope Alexander 
\'I. liad. ill 1403, issued a hull in which he 
gave S|)ain all lands and waters she should 
thereafter discover west of (about) the 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT ^•ORTH^YEST. 



fiftieth meridian of west longitude. By 
virtue of Balboa's discovery, therefore, 
Spain asserted her sovereignty over the 
western shore of America bordering on the 
Pacific, together with all territory drained 
by the rivers which flowed into the Pacific, 
or their tributaries. "Good old times, those 
were." says Barrows, '"when kings thrust 
their hands into the New World, as children 
do theii's into a grab-bag at a fair, and drew 
out a river four thousand miles long, or an 
ocean, or a tract of wild land ten or fifteen 
times the size of England!" In 1789 the 
Spanish authorities captured some English 
vessels that were attempting to form settle- 
ments on Vancouver Island. Spain was in- 
formed by the English ministry that she 
could "not accede to the pretensions of abso- 
lute sovereignty, commerce, and naviga- 
tion" that were claimed. As the protest of 
England was backed by a powerful navy, 
Sjjain yielded, and in 1894; quietly withdrew 
from Nootka Sound (Vancouver Island) 
without formally relinquishing her claim. 
When, as has been related above, Spain 
ceded Louisiana to France, the cession in- 
cluded all her territory north of the forty- 
second parallel, — that is to say the Oregon 
country. 

The Hudson Bay company having found 
a region in the far northwest that invited 
the efforts of capitalists and navigators, 
James Cook was commissioned by the 
British government in 1776 to explore the 
northwest coast, to look for the outlets of 
rivers, and to take possession, in the name 
of Great Britain, of any territory not al- 
ready claimed by any European powers. 
Cook was soon after murdered by the na- 
tives on the Sandwich Islands, but the ex- 
plorations of the agents of the Hudson Bay 
company formed a weak thread on which 
Great Britain hung her claim to Oregon. 

In 179:; Captain Kobert Gray of Rhode 
Island discovered the mouth of the Colum- 
bia, and explored the river to a considerable 
distance from its mouth, fifteen miles. In 
1805-6 Captains Lewis and Clarke explored 
the Oregon country under the authority of 
the United States. In 1811 Astoria, at the 
mouth of the Columbia, was settled by 



American citizens, and in 18-16 all that part 
of Oregon south of the forty-ninth parallel 
was relinquished by Great Britain to the 
I'nited States by treaty. 

TERRITORIAL CHANGES. 

1. By an act of congress approved 
March 2Q. 1804, the newly ac(iuired domain 
of Louisiana was formed into two districts. 
The fii-st, designated as the ''Territory of 
New Orleans," comprised '"all that portion 
of country ceded by France to the United 
States, under the name of Louisiana, which 
lies south of the Mississippi territory, and 
of an east and west line to commence on the 
.Mississippi river, at the thirty-third degree 
of north latitude, and to extend west to the 
western boundary of the said cession." 
•The residue of the province of Louisiana," 
was called the "District of Louisiana." The 
executive power of the governor of Indiana 
Territory was extended over the new dis- 
trict, and to the governor and judges of 
Indiana Territory was committed the au- 
thority "to make all laws which they may 
deem conducive to the good government of 
the inhabitants" of said district. Freedom 
of religion and trial by jury were established 
by the same act. In 1805 the name was 
changed to "the Territory of Louisiana," 
and a territorial government was organized 
consisting of a governor and a legislative 
bodj' consisting of "the governor and three- 
judges or a majority of them." At this time 
Wisconsin and the part of Minnesota lying 
east of the Mississippi were part of Indiana 
Territory. 

2. Under an act of congress passed in 
1809 the present Wisconsin and eastern Min- 
nesota became part of the newly formed 
Illinois Territory. 

3. Michigan Territory was formed soon 
after, and in 1821 we find that it includes 
the present states of Michigan, Wisconsin, 
and eastern Minnesota. 

-t. Wisconsin Territory was established 
in 1836. It embraced the present states of 
Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa and that part 
of North and South Dakota lying east or 
the White Earth and northeast of the Mis- 
souri river — about half of these two states.- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



5. Iowa Territory was organized in 1838 
out of the western part of Wisconsin Terri- 
tory-, It comprised the present state of 
Iowa and those portions of Minnesota and 
the Dalcotas that lie between the Mississippi 
and the Missouri rivers. 

G. Minnesota Territory came into exist- 
ence in 1849. Its limits comprehended all 
of the present state of that name and the 
Uakotas to the Missouri and White Earth. 
Iowa was reduced to its present limits. 

7. Nebraska Territory was created in 
1854. It included all the present Nebraska, 
Montana, Wyoming and the Dakotas lying 
between the Missouri river and the Rocky 
Mountains. 

8. In 1860 we find Minnesota with its 
boundaries as they now exist, it having 
been organized as a state in 1858. The 
eastern Dakotas retained the name of ^lin- 
nesota Territory. 

9. Dakota Territory appears in ISfil. 
It was made up of North and South Dakota 
as they now are, with ilontana east of the 
Rockies, and the north half of Wyoming. 
■\^'ashington Territory at that time em- 
braced the present states of Washington 
and Idaho. 

10. Idaho Territory was organized in 
186.3, embracing the region now known as 
Montana. Idaho, and Washington. 

11. Montana Territory was formed in 
1864, with the same limits as the present 
state. 

12. Wyoming Territory was created in 
1868, and was given the boundaries of the 
state of Wyoming. 

The ten states of the Great Northwest 
were admitted into the Union on the fol- 
lowing dates: Iowa. Dec. 28, 1840: Wiscon- 
sin, May 29. 1848; :Minnesota. May 11. 1858; 
Oregon, Feb. 14, 18.59; North Dakota, Nov. 2, 
1889; South Dakota, Nov. 2. 1889; Montana, 
Nov. 8, 1889; Washington. Nov. 11. 1889; 
Idaho. .Tilly .3. 1890: Wyoming, July 10. 
1890. 

PHASES OF FRONTIER LIFE. 

To give an exhaustiAe history of the dif- 
ferent phases of early life in every section of 
the region under considei-ation would not 



only transcend the limits which properly be- 
long to this general sketch of the history 
of the great Northwest; it would prove un- 
profitable, wearisome, and unsatisfactory to 
the reader. The states comjwsing the great 
Northwest, while they have many commer- 
cial interests in common, do not form either 
a political or a geographical unit. Their 
development has been along different lines, 
and a series of historical facts closely relat- 
ed to one or more of them may have no ap- 
plication to the others. The histories of 
the individual states found in this volume 
give details which cannot with propriety be 
included in this general view. In this por- 
tion of the history representative phases of 
life will be portrayed and will be illustrated 
by events which — while they are more or 
less local — are typical, to a greater or less 
degree, of the entire region. 

THE FUR TRADE. 

••In 1783 seA-eral of the principal mer- 
chants entered into a partnership to prose- 
cute the fur trade, and in 1787 united wilh 
a rival company, and thus arose the famous 
North-West company, which for many years 
held lordly sway over the immense region 
in Canada and beyond the great western 
lakes. Several years later a new associa- 
tion of British merchants formed the Macki- 
naw company, having their chief factory or 
depot at Mackinaw; and their field of opera- 
tions was south of their great rivals, — 
sending forth their light perogues and bark 
canoes by Green Bay and the Fox and Wis- 
consin rivers to the Mississippi, and thence 
down that stream to all its tributaries. In 
1809 John Jacob Astor organized the Ameri- 
can Fur company — he alone constituting 
the company; and in 1811. in connection 
with certain partners in the North-West 
company and others, he bought out the 
Mackinaw comi)any and merged that and 
iiis American Fur company into a new as- 
sociation called the South-West company. 
By this arrangement Mr. Astor became pro- 
prietor of one-half of all the interests which 
the Mackinaw company had in the Indian 
country within the Tnited States; and it 
was understood that the whole, at the ex- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



pii'iitioii of five vears, was to pass into bis 
hands, on condition that his company should 
not trade within the British dominions." 
After the War of 181:2, congress prohibited 
British fur traders from prosecuting tlieir 
enterprises within the United States. 

Prairie du Chieu was, in 1815, a rendez- 
vous for the fur traders of the upper Mis- 
sissippi. The idea then prevailed in the 
ITuited States that the Indians would be sat- 
isfied with the most inferior goods in ex- 
change for their furs and peltries. This 
was an error, and one that brought upon 
American traders as well as the govern- 
ment the ill-will of the Indians. The blank- 
ets furnished by the British traders were of 
superior quality, as were also the calicoes 
and cloths, while those furnished by the 
Americans were inferior. The American 
tobacco furnished to the Indians, however, 
was better than that procured from the 
British. The Sac and Fox Indians brought 
from Galena — in addition to their furs — 
bars of lead, moulded in the earth and 
weighing from thirty to forty pounds each. 
It was not an uncommon thing to see a Fox 
Indian arrive at Prairie du Chien with a 
hand sled loaded with twenty or thirty wild 
turkeys for sale. 

About this time, through the influence of 
John Jacob Astor, the secretary of war 
designated certain points throughout the 
Indian country as trading points, and li- 
censes to trade were confined to these 
points. This was done to favor Astor's 
company, "for if a license was granted to 
some adventurous trader not connected 
with that company, he was permitted to 
trade only at some designated point already 
occupied by that opulent and formidable 
corporation; and the cansequence was that 
the company would drive away the opposi- 
tion trader by selling goods at half their real 
value." After the departure of the trader, 
who was unable to compete with them, the 
old prices were restored, and the company 
soon made up the loss incurred in the pro- 
cess of stamping out competition. It is 
evident that monopolies and trusts were not 
invented at the close of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. 



But the companj' sometimes met its 
match in a trader too shrewd to be driven 
out of business. An agent of the American 
Fur company at one time reported to a 
I'nited States military officer that a fur 
trader by the name of William Farnsworth 
was violating the law by selling whiskj' to 
the Indians. The commandant sent an of- 
ficer with a file of men to destroy Farns- 
worth's whisky and drive him out of the 
country. Upon arriving at the place, the 
officer informed Farnsworth of the object of 
his visit; the latter expressed his astonish- 
ment that any one should have made such 
complaint against him. He invited the of- 
ficer to search thoroughly and see if he could 
find any whisky. He freely confessed that 
he kept a little good brandy for himself and 
his friends, but he declared he never sold 
any, and invited the officer to take a little of 
his choice liquor. He took some. Farns- 
worth then asked if be might offer some to 
the soldiers, which request was granted, and 
the soldiers were lielped to a bountiful sup- 
ply. The officer stood bravely by the bran- 
dy bottle and sent his men to search foi the 
whisky. They peered about in the vicinity 
of the cabin, and after refreshing them- 
selves once more with the brandy, reported 
that they could find no whisky, and that they 
believed it was pure malice that prompted 
fhe fur company to cliarge Farnsworth 
with selling whisky to the Indians. The re- 
port was satisfactory to the officer. Farns- 
worth entertained the party with supper, 
lodging, breakfast, and an abundance of 
brandy, and they parted good friends — the 
generous trader not forgetting to supply his 
departing guests with several bottles of the 
delightful beverage that had added such 
pleasure to their visit. During this search 
Farnsworth had four or five barrels of whis- 
ky buried close by his house. 

The fur company now tried another 
plan. A large party of Indians was em- 
ployed to go to his house and seize his goods 
and whisky if he declined to give them up. 
In the winter of 1820-21 they made their 
appearance and frankly told their business, 
adding that they were brave men deter- 
mined to accomplish their purpose. Farns- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



woi-th replied that he too was brave and 
would put their boasted courage to the test. 
He theu produced a keg with the head out 
and nearly full of gunpowder. Carefully 
inserting the lower end of a lighted candle 
in the powder so that the light came within 
six inches of the explosive material, he cool- 
ly lit his pipe and sat down beside the In- 
dians, saying he would soon see who the 
brave men were. The Indians soon rushed 
from the house in terror, when Farnsworth 
cautiously removed the candle, fearing lest 
a spark would drop. After this exhibition 
of bravery the Indians became very friendly 
with Farnsworth and the fur company did 
not undertalce to molest him again. 

Xo exact statistics are obtainable to 
show the magnitude of the fur trade of the 
Northwest, ^'ast numbers of buffalo, wolf, 
fox, beaver and other fur-bearing animals 
roamed over the prairies or were found in 
the woods and streams of the vast region 
lying between the Great Lakes and the 
Bocky ^Mountains. Some concei)tion of the 
extent of the trade in furs and peltries com- 
ing from the Northwest may be formed from 
the following statement, which shows the 
weight or number of such articles exported 
from Philadelphia alone in the year 1824: 
Deer skins, 250,(1(10 ])ounds; beaver fur, 25,- 
000 pounds; 17,00(1 buffalo robes; 8,000 bear 
skins; 4,500 otter skins; 25,000 raccoon skins; 
81,000 muskrat skins; 1,000 mink skins; 
1,500 fox and wolf skins; 400 fisher and 
marten skinsT At the same time, British 
traders were taking annually from our 
northern frontier 120,000 beaver; 30.000 
marten; 20,000 muskrat; 5.000 fox; 4,000 
otter; 2,000 bear; 2,000 mink; 5.000 buffalo; 
0,000 lynx; 4.000 wolf; 1.000 elk; and 12,000 
deer skins. 

To have a clear idea of the fur trade, it 
is necessary to know something of the man- 
ner in which it was carried on. The great 
depot which formed the center of the fur 
trade in the Northwest was Mackinac Island 
— or Michilimackinac (The Great Turtle) as 
it was called by the Indians. This island is 
in the strait tliat connects Lake Michigan 
with Lake Huron. 

The goods destined for the supply of the 



northwestern Indians left New York in 
May, and reached Mackinac in June. Here 
those who procured the goods met those en- 
gaged in selling them to the Indians. A 
thousand different persons from every part 
of the Indian country assembled here. The 
most remote outfits, or stocks of goods 
bought by the retailers, were destined for 
Lake Winnipeg (Manitoba), Big Stone Lake 
(Head of Minnesota or St. I'eter's River), 
Leech Lake (northern Minnesota), and for 
intermediate points. The entire country 
between the longitude of Lake Michigan 
and that of the Red River of the North and 
from the latitude of the mouth of the Illinois 
river to the Canadian border drew its sup- 
plies from that point. Through all this im- 
mense region, trading establishments were 
scattered. The traders going to the most 
rt-mote points left Mackinac in July and the 
others in August. The goods were trans- 
ported upon the lakes and rivers in batteaux 
and canoes, and reached their destination in 
October. The Indians now leave their vil- 
lages and scatter throughout the coifhtry in 
hunting camps. An industrious hunter 
would, under favorable conditions, collect 
a pack of peltries worth, at the trading post, 
from eighty to one hundred dollars, for 
which he was paid in blankets, provisions, 
tobacco, guns, ammunition, gaudily-colored 
calico and other cloth, etc. The furs and 
pelts being collected at the trading posts 
were taken to the central depot at Mackinac 
in the same manner as the goods were car- 
ried in the opposite direction, and were 
there disposed of to the large traders. 

In addition to the business done by 
American fur companies and traders, the 
Hudson's Bay company, a British corpora- 
tion, carried on an immense trade in the 
great Northwest. "A few years since, in 
the solitudes of the West, two European 
tourists were struck by the frequency with 
which they encountered a certain mystic 
legend. Eager to solve its meaning, they 
addressed a half-breed lounger at a small 
station on the Canadian Pacific Railway. 
'Tell us, my friend,' they said, 'what those 
three letters yonder signify. Wherever we 
travel in this country we encounter "H. B. 



aiSTORY OF THE GREAT NORTinVKST. 



C." We have seen the legend sewn on the 
garments of Indians; it has been painted on 
canoes; it is inscribed on bales and boxes. 
AVhat does "H. B. C." mean?' 'That's the 
company,' returned the native grimly, 'Here 
Before Christ.' " 

The Hudson's Bay company was char- 
tered by Charles II. in the year 1670, and it 
is still in existence. The king granted to 
his cousin. Prince Rupert, and to seventeen 
nobles and gentlemen, the exclusive right to 
establish settlements and carry on trade in 
the vast region called Rupert's Land, which 
comprised all the territory whose waters 
flowed into Hudson's Bay. It was a coun- 
try as large as all of Europe. They were 
authorized to maintain ships of war and 
forts, and to carry on war with any prince 
or people not Christian. The company was 
also made absolute proprietor of all lands 
and all mines which had not already been 
granted to others. The posts of this power- 
ful company were established not only in 
the region now known as Canada or British 
America, — they extended into the Red river 
country in Minnesota and North Dakota, 
as well as into the Oregon country, where 
they formed the basis of the British claim 
to sovereignty in the first half of the nine- 
teenth century. 

It will be instructive here to glance at 
the methods employed by the Hudson's Bay 
company and other companies and small 
traders in dealing with the native hunters 
and trappers. Each factory or trading post 
was surrounded by a stockade, within which 
were warehouses for storing furs and the 
goods bartered for them. Traders and their 
assistants were heavily armed. The Indians 
brought their goods (skins of deer, bison, 
beaver, marten, fox, etc., and feathers of 
birds) to the post, and delivered them 
through a small aperture in the side of the 
storehouse, as a. tourist hands his money 
through a window at a railway station. The 
price (in goods) given for furs was in the 
discretion of the trader, and was influenced 
by policy and by the rivalry of French and 
American traders. When the Indian pre- 
sented himself at the trader's window, he 



was by no means sure what his furs would 
bring. He often journeyed two months in 
the depth of winter to bring to the post a 
small bundle of peltries, for which he re- 
ceived, perhaps, a string of beads, a blanket, 
a hatchet, a little tobacco and a pound or 
two of powder. If he demurred to the small 
price ottered, his furs were passed back to 
him through the aperture. This was mere- 
ly a form. In theory the Indian was free to 
dispose of his goods where he could obtain 
the best price for them; practically he 
must sell them to the company or starve. 
The gross profit to the company on the 
goods used in Indian barter was often 300 
per cent, or more. At first the Indians were 
content with beads and toys, but it became 
the policy of the company to render them 
more efficient as hunters by supplying them 
with the implements of the chase. Six or 
seven beaver skins would buy a blanket, 
three a shirt, fifteen a gun. 

The Northwest was frequented in these 
early days by individual French traders 
known as coureurs des bois (forest rovers) 
whose activitj' in trade tended to injure the 
company's business. A tribe would be gath- 
ered at a post to sell their furs, when a re- 
port would spread like wild-flre among them 
that the French coureurs were giving a 
pound of powder for a beaver, instead of de- 
manding three beavers as the company did. 
In an instant there was a stampede, and a 
rush was made for the rival trader, who 
was perhaps fifty miles distant. To these 
Indians fifty miles for a single pound of 
powder was nothing. 

The Hudson's Bay company had its posts 
on the head waters of the Mississippi, the 
Red River of the North and the Missouri 
river, — in other words they occupied the 
country now comprising western Minnesota, 
North Dakota and Montana. Not only this, 
— their trade extended over the whole of 
^^'ashington, Oregon, and California to the 
Sacramento river. American enterprise oc- 
cupied this region with permanent settle- 
ments, and Amei'ican diplomacy secured our 
title to it in the treaties of 17S3, 1818, and 
1846. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



THK MISSIONARY. 

As early as tlie year 1011 tlie French 
Fathers of the Society of Jesus — Jesuit 
priests — ben;an tlieir missionary work in 
New France wliicli soon after extended, in 
F'rench geograpliy, up tlie St. Lawrence and 
the Great Lakes, down the ilississippi and 
indefinitely westward. One of the fathers, 
writino- of the missionary work in the year 
1608, says: "The fathers of our society 
have here expended their labors and their 
blood, in their efforts for the conversion of 
ihe savages. Father Menard has penetrat- 
ed into the interior 500 leagues (about 1,500 
miles), carrying the name of Jesus Christ to 
places where it had never before been 
adored." We are told by their biographer 
(delations Jesuites, Quebec, 1858, Notice 
Eiographique) that "they found ten years 
sufficient time for the evangelization of the 
idolatrous people who inhabited the im- 
mense forests which extended from the gulf 
of St. Lawrence to Lake Superior and from 
the New England border to Hudson's bay." 
From the same source we learn that the In- 
dians "were impressed with the gentleness 
and the disinterested spirit as well as with 
the zeal of these black-robed ])riests, who 
had come such a distance to teach them the 
value of their souls, and to show them the 
road to a happier life, with no other motive 
than that of a superhuman love." 

In 184!) and 185L Father P. J. De Smet 
made missionary tours to the P>ad Lands, 
the country of the Yellowstone and upper 
Missouri, the Rocky Mountains, and the re- 
gion since formed into the Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park. Father De Smet, in a letter 
written in 1852 says of the Indians in the 
great Northwest: "AVith a few exceptions, 
all the half-breeds are baptized, and received 
as children of the church. During twenty 
years they have petitioned to have Catholic 
priests and have manifested their good-will 
to meet the wants of Uieir missionaries, and 
to maintain them. If ("atholic missionaries 
are not soon sent there, it is to be feared 
that persons hostile to the true faith may 
take possession of the ground. On the Feast 
of the Exaltation of the Cross, I had the 
happiness of offering the Holv Sacrifice, in 



presence of all the gentlemen assisting at 
I lie council, of all the half-bloods and whites 
and of a great concourse of Indians. After 
my instruction, twenty-eight children and 
five adults were regenerated in the holy wa- 
ters of baptism, with all the ceremonies pre- 
scribed by the church. * * » During an 
instruction in the camp of the Ogallallahs, a 
Sioux tribe, in which I explained to them the 
ten commandments, when I arrived at the 
sixtli and seventh, a general whispering and 
embarrassed laugh took place among my 
barbarous auditory. I inquired the reason 
of Ihis conduct, and explained that the law I 
came to announce was not mine but God's, 
and that it was obligatory upon all the chil- 
dren of men; that the word of God required 
all their attention and respect; that those 
who observe his commandments will have 
eternal life, while the prevaricators of his 
holy law shall receive hell and its torments 
as their lot. The great chief at once rose 
and replied: 'Father, we hear thee; we knew 
not the words of the Great Spirit, and we 
acknowledge our ignorance. AVe ar« great 
liars and thieves; we have killed; we have 
done all the evil that the Great Spirit for- 
bids us to do; but we did not know those 
beautiful words; in future we will try to live 
better, if tlion wilt but stay with us and 
teach us.' * * * The next day 239 of 
tlieii' children were regenerated in the holy 
waters of ba])tisin. Of the Arrapahoes, I 
baj)tized 305 little ones; of the Cheyennes, 
253; of the Sioux, 280; in the camp of the 
Painted Bear, 50; in the forts on the Mis- 
sfoiri, 3!t2; total number of baptisms this 
season, 1,580.'' 

In 1852, James Lloyd Breck, who was 
then engaged in the Indian mission work of 
the Protestant Episcopal church, received a 
call from the Indians dwelling in the north- 
ern forests of Minnesota to go and teach 
them. Obeying this call, he went^ to Gull 
Lake, in north central Minnesota, and estab- 
lished there a mission station. The Indians 
among whom he settled were the same peo- 
jile, substantially, with those who greeted 
the first settleis in \'irginia and with those 
who signed the treaty with William Penu. 
Breck erected mission buildings, and a 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



church, where he had dailv service, procured 
female helpers, and established schools. He 
also taught them to labor. Rising dailv at 
4 a. m., he went to the fields with the Indi- 
ans, teaching them to plant, sow. hoe, and 
raise all kinds of vegetables. The Indians 
tell how "once, when there had been a long- 
continued drought, and the gardens were 
just on the point of being ruined, and the 
skv was still brazen and cloudless as it had 
been for weeks, that he rang his little bell 
for pravers. and summoned them all to pray 
for rain; and though there was not a cloud 
in the sky when he began, the dropping rain 
began to fall as they came out of the church, 
and there was a great rain." They also tell 
how children who were apparently dying or 
dead, revived when he knelt and prayed for 
them and baptized them. 

Some years later, he left his prosperous 
mission at Gull Lake, and established an- 
other at Leech Lake — still deeper in the wil- 
derness. Here, whisky flowed like water 
among the Indians, supplied by the traders 
of mixed blood, who were incensed against 
the missionaries because the latter, knowing 
the extortionate rates charged by these 
traders for their goods, let the Indians have 
large quantities of mission goods at reason- 
able prices, in exchange for fish, maple sug- 
ar, etc. The hostility of the traders being 
thus excited, they instigated the Indians to 
acts of hostility which compelled the mis- 
sionaries to leave. One cause of the failure 
of this mission — and perhaps of others — 
was that the missionaries gave the Indians 
too much and thus encouraged habits of in- 
dolence and a feeling of dependence, when a 
spirit of independence and self-help is essen- 
tial to their becoming well-disposed and use- 
ful citizens. After the withdrawal of the 
missionaries the Indians became the prey of 
frontier liquor dealers and were exposed to 
contact with all the vices that accompany 
the white man on the first wave of civiliza- 
tion. 

After leaving Leech Lake, Breck estab- 
lished a school at Faribault, and here he, in 
conjunction with Bishop Whipple, educated 
a number of Chippewa and Sioux boys who 
became missionaries and were thus the 



foundation of the missions to the Sioux and 
Chippewa nations. In 1870 or thereabouts, 
the Chippewas moved to the White Earth 
reservation, where, removed from the cor- 
rupting influences of vicious whites, and 
guided by the missionaries, they have gone 
on from better to better, until they have be- 
come one of the most peaceful, well-behaved 
and prosperous communities in the country. 
The full-blooded Indians are nearly all mem- 
bers of the church. "No more striking tes- 
timony," says J. A. Gilfillan, "to the power 
(if the gospel of Christ to raise the 
most hopeless can be found than that com- 
munity. They who were once such slaves to 
drink, now never touch it; as a community 
they never drink; and those who knew them 
when they were drunken, starving savages, 
<-an scarcely believe when they hear that 
Ihey are Christian men and women and re- 
spectable farmers." 

No more thrilling story is to be found in 
the annals of history than that of early mis- 
sions in the great Oregon country. The 
briefest sketch is all that can be attempted 
here. In 18-32, four Flathead Indians ap- 
peared in the streets of St. Louis, wearing 
the dress and equipment belonging to their 
iribe. General Clarke, who understood their 
language, learned that they were all chiefs, 
that they had spent about six months on 
iheir journey from Oregon, and that they 
had come in search of ''The White Man's 
Book of Life" and to ask that teachers be 
sent to their tribe. Why no steps were tak- 
en to comply with their request does not sat- 
isfactorily appear. Perhaps it was that an 
English Bible would have been useless to 
Them without an interpreter. Gen. Clarke 
treated them hospitably — so hospitably that 
two of them died in St. Louis, probably from 
over-eating rich food. Having remained in 
St. Louis all winter they started on their re- 
turn in the spring, but without the book for 
the possession of which they had undertak- 
en their long journey. One of the two died 
on the return trip, and only one of the four 
lived to reach home to tell that he had been 
unable to obtain the precious book that was 
the one object of his journey. 

Before the two survivors set out on their 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



return trip, Gen. Clarke gave them a ban- 
quet, at which one of them addressed the 
guests. No white post-prandial orator ever 
made a speech more brimming over with elo- 
quence. Like Lincoln's (lettysburg speech, 
it cannot be abridged without fatally mar- 
ring it. The chief said : "I come to jou over 
the trail of many moons from the setting sun. 
You were the friends of my fathers, who 
have all gone the long way. I came with an 
eye partly open for my people, who sit in 
darkness. I go back with both eyes closed. 
How can I go back blind to my blind people? 
I made my way to you with strong arms 
through many enemies and strange lands 
that I might carry back much to them. I 
go back with both arms broken and empty. 
Two fathers came with us who were the 
braves of many winters and wars. We 
leave them asleep here by your great water 
and wigwams. They were tired in many 
moons and their moccasins wore out. My 
people sent me to get the 'White Man's Book 
of Heaven." You took me to where you al- 
low your women to dance as we do not ours" 
(the theatre) "and the Book was not there. 
You took me to where they worship the 
(ireat Spirit with candles, and the Book was 
not there. You showed me images of the 
good spirits and pictures of the good land 
beyond, but the Book was not among them 
to tell us the way. I am going back the 
long and sad trail to my 'people in the dark 
land. You make my feet heavy with gifts 
and my moccasins will grow old in carry- 
ing them, yet the Book is not among 
ihem. When I tell my poor blind people 
after one more snow, in the big council, that 
I did not bring the Book, no word will be 
spoken by our old men or by our young 
braves. One by one they will rise up and go 
out in silence. My people will die in dark- 
ness, and they will go a long path to other 
hunting grounds. No white man will go 
with them, and no White Man's Book to 
make the way plain. I have no more words." 
The speech was published — the church 
i-esponded. The ilethodists sent mission- 
aries in 1S34, and in 1835, the American Mis- 
sionary Board sent Dr. Marcus Whitman 
with a companion to explore the Oregon 



field. The story of Christian missions can- 
not be told by statistics. Wherever the 
missionary went — either Catholic or Prot- 
estant — the children were educated and the 
adults were instructed in sobriety, honesty 
iind good citizenship. In the Oregon coun- 
try, as everywhere else, the good influences 
disseminated by the missionary were large- 
ly neutralized by the vices introduced by 
v.hite traders. In Oregon, the great ob- 
stacle to progress in early days was a great 
foreign corporation which claimed exclusive 
right to trade with the Indians. The debt 
of gratitude this nation owes to early Chris- 
tian missionaries has never been fully ap- 
preciated. 

This brief and inadequate account of 
missions in the great Northwest cannot be 
r-losed without an allusion to Dr. William- 
son, Eev. A. L. Riggs, Rev. Samuel W. Pond 
and Rev. (lideon H. Pond, who were pio- 
neers in this work among the Dakota Indi- 
ans. For the fascinating narratives of their 
work, the reader is referred to "Mary and 
I," "Gospel Among the Dakotas," and "Two 
Volunteer IMissionaries Among the Dako- 
las." The work of Christian missions is not 
yet finished. The labors of the frontier mis- 
sionary — both Catholic and Protestant — are 
still being prosecuted in the chapels and 
schoolhouses as well as in the homes of 
frontier settlements in ^linnesota, the Dako- 
tas and Montana. 

APMINISTIiATION OF JUSTICE. 

In those parts of the great Northwest 
which are adapted to agriculture, the char- 
acter of the first settlers was such that it 
was comparatively easy to secure the ends 
of justice by ordinary means, through the 
courts established by the state or territorial 
government. In an agricultural community, 
the pioneer settler labors hard, undergoes 
many privations, and belongs, usually, to a 
steady, industrious class, whose habits are 
simple, and who seldom nwds assistance 
from courts of justice because his rights are 
seldom assailed. In fact, the differences 
that arise among i)eople of this class are 
often settled by friendly arbitration, or, if 
the affair is too serious to be settled in this 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



way, an appeal to a lawfully constituted 
court enables the litigants to reach a deci- 
sion which, however unsatisfactory it may 
be to the losing party, is generally acqui- 
esced in by all concerned as coming from an 
authority which all citizens have helped to 
establish and all have an interest in main- 
taining. In a mining country, the case is 
far different. The lust for gold attracts 
thither the discontented and restless spirits 
who are not satisfied with the slow methods 
and the humdrum existence of life on the 
farm or in the town. They hope to make 
their fortune in a day by striking rich dirt 
or by robbing those who work the mines in 
a legitimate manner. In the following ac- 
count of frontier methods of administering 
justice, numerous extracts are taken from 
"The Vigilantes of Montana," by Thos. J. 
Dimsdale. 

"Together with so much that is evil, no- 
where is there so much that is sternly op- 
posed to dishonesty and violence as in the 
mountains. Middling people do not live in 
these regions. There is no man more fit to 
serve his country in any capacity requiring 
courage, integrity, and self-reliance, than an 
'honest miner' who has been tried and found 
true by a jury of mountaineers." A "power- 
ful incentive to wrong-doing" in the early 
mining camps was "the absolute nullity of 
the civil law." "No matter what may be 
the proof, if the criminal is well liked in the 
community, 'Not Guilty' is almost certain to 
be the verdict of the jury, despite the efforts 
of judge and prosecutor. If the offender is 
a monied man as well as a popular citizen, 
the trial is only a farce, grave and pro- 
longed, but capable of only one termination 
— a verdict of acquittal. * * * T'nder 
these circumstances, it becomes an absolute 
necessity that good, law-loving, and order- 
sustaining men should unite for mutual pro- 
tection. Being united, they must act in har- 
mony, repress disorder, punish crime, and 
prevent outrage, or their organization 
would be a failure from the start, and soci- 
ety would collapse in the throes of anarchy. 
None but extreme penalties inflicted with 
promptitude are of any avail to quell the 
spirit of the desperadoes with whom they 



have to contend; the gangs of murderers, 
desperadoes, and robbers who infest mining 
countries, and who, though faithful to no 
other bond, yet willingly league against the 
law. They must be secret in council and 
membership, or they will remain nearly use- 
less in a country where equal facilities for 
the transmission of intelligence are at the 
command of the criminal and the judiciary. 
An organization on this footing is a vigi- 
lance committee. 

"Such was the state of affairs when five 
men in Virginia and four in Bannack, Mon- 
tana, initiated the movement which resulted 
in the formation of a tribunal supported by 
an omnipresent executive comjirising within 
itself nearly every good man in the territory, 
and pledged to render impartial justice to 
friend and foe without regard to clime, 
creed, race, or politics. In a few short weeks 
the face of society was changed as if by 
magic. * * * The administration of the 
lex taliouis by self-constituted authority is 
undoubtedly, in civilized and settled commu- 
nities, an outrage on mankind. But the sight 
of the mangled corpses of beloved friends 
and valued citizens, the whistle of the des- 
perado's bullet, and the plunder of the fruits 
of the patient toil of years alter the basis 
of reasoning, and reverse the conclusion. In 
the case of the vigilantes of Montana, it 
must also be remembered that the sherifi 
himself was the leader of the road agents, 
and his deputies were prominent mem- 
bers of the gang." 

Boone Helm, a desperado who operated 
in Montana in "the sixties" was "one of 
those hideous monsters whom neither pre- 
cept nor example could have saved from a 
life of crime." The sketch here given of his 
cai'eer is condensed from a very valuable 
and intensely interesting work by Hon. N. 
P. Langford, entitled "Vigilante Days and 
Ways." Mr. Langford was at one time ter- 
ritorial governor of Montana. A man known 
as "Dutch Fred" enjoyed a local reputation 
in Florence as a gambler and a pugilist. He 
was. strange to say, also an honest, straight- 
forward miner. "He was neither a rowdy 
nor desjierado, and in ordinary deal, honest 
and generous; but he gambled, drank, and 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



when roused, was a perfect Hereules in a 
fight. Entering a saloon where Fred was 
seated at a faro table, Boone Helm, with 
many oaths, epithets, and flourishes of his 
revolver, challenged Fred to an immediate 
deadl}' combat. Fred sprung up, drew his 
knife, and was advancing to close with the 
drunken braggart, when the bj-standers in- 
terfered, and deprived both of their weap- 
ons, which they entrusted to the keeping of 
the saloon-keeper, and Fred returned (juiet- 
ly to his game. 

"Helm apologized, expressed regret foi- 
his conduct, and left the saloon. A few 
hours afterward he returned. Fred was 
still there. Stepping up to the saloon-keep- 
er. Helm asked him for his revolver, ])romis- 
ing that he would immediately depart and 
make no disturbance. Xo sooner was it re- 
turned to him than he turned toward Fred, 
and uttering a diabolical oath, tired at him 
while seated at the table. The ball missed, 
and before the second fire, Fred, unarmed, 
with his arms folded across his breast, stood 
before his antagonist, who, with deadlier 
aim, pierced his heart. He fell dead upon 
the spot. Helm cocked his pistol, and, look- 
ing towards the stupefied crowd, exclaimed: 

" "Maybe some more of you w'ant some of 
this!' 

"As no one deigned a reply, he walked 
coolly away. 

"If Helm was arrested for this murder, 
he escaped, for the next we bear of him he 
was captured on Frazer river in the fall of 
1862, as will appear from the following ex- 
tract from a British Columbia paper: 

" 'The man Boone Helm, to whom we re- 
ferred some weeks since, has at last been 
taken. He was brought into this city last 
night strongly ironed. The first clue of the 
detectives was the report that two men had 
been seen trudging up the Frazer river on 
foot, with their blankets and a scanty sup- 
ply of provisions on their backs. The de- 
scription of one corresponded with the de- 
scription given by the American officers of 
Boone Helm. \Mien overtaken, he was so 
exhausted by fatigue and hunger that it 
would have been impossible for him to con- 
tinue many hours longer. He made no re- 



sistance to the arrest — in fact he was too 
weak to do so — ^and acknowledged without 
equivocation or attemi)t at evasion that he 
was Boone Helm. I'pon being asked what 
had become of his comj)anion, he replied 
with the utmost sang froid: 

^A'lly, do you sn])pose I am a fool 

enough to starve to death when I can help 
il ? I ate him up, of course." 

" 'The man who accompanied him has 
not been seen or heard of since, and from 
what we have been told of this case-hard- 
ened villain's antecedents, we are inclined 
to believe he told the truth. It is said this 
is not the first time he has been guilty of 
cannibalism.' " 

Ten years later, a scholarly recluse who 
had built himself a cabin and surrounded it 
with a stockade in the valley of the Rogue 
river, shouldered his rifle one day and 
strolled into the forest in quest of a deer. 
He says: "A rustle in the underbrush at- 
tracted my attention. Supposing it to be 
caused by some animal, I peered out cau- 
tiously from the shadow of a pine, aftd saw 
to my surprise a man half concealed in the 
thicket, watching me. It was the work of 
an instant to bring uiy rifle to an aim. 

" 'Who are you?' I demanded, knowing 
if he were a white man he would answer. 

"He replied in unmistakable English 'I 
am a white man in distress.' 

"Dropping my rifle from my shoulder, I 
hastened to him and found a shrunken, ema- 
ciated form, half naked and nearly fam- 
ished. A more pitiable object I never be- 
held. 

" 'My name,' said he, 'is Boone Helm. I 
am the only survivor of a company which, 
together with the crew and vessel, were lost 
on the coast ten days ago. We were bound 
for Portland from San Francisco, and were 
driven ashore in a storm. I escaped by a 
miracle, and have wandered in the moun- 
tains ever since, feeding on berries and 
sleeping under the shelter of rocks and 
bushes. I came in this direction, hoping to 
find the California trail and fall in with a 
pack train.' My sympathies were enlisted 
and I conducted him (o my home, sharing 
bed and board with him for a month or 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



more, long enough to make the prospect of 
separation painful, though I felt that I 
would be better off without than with him. 
When he left, I gave him a good buckskin 
suit, a cap, a pair of moccasins, and a gun. 
JJe wrung my hand at parting, expressing 
the warmest gratitude. 

"A year passed, during which I labored 
diligently at my books. One day I was 
startled by the distant clatter of a rapidly 
approaching horse. Seizing my rifle, I 
sprang to an opening to reconnoitre for In- 
dians. Judge of my astonishment to behold 
a woman, well mounted, urging her steed 
rapidly toward my stockade. Assisting her 
to alight, I sought to discover the import of 
her wild errand. She told me that while 
staying at a hotel she had heard three men 
enter the adjoining room and engage in ear- 
nest conversation. She continued: 'I could 
hear distinctly every word they uttered — 
Ihey were planning a murder and robbery. 
One of them, whom they addressed as Boone 
Helm, seemed to be their leader. He de- 
scribed the home and surroundings of the 
intended victim, said he had been there and 
shared his hospitality for several weeks; 
spoke of the road leading there; the trail 
from the road to the house; the location of 
the herd of cattle; and the ready sale that 
could be found for them. "\Ye cannot," said 
he, "make more money in a shorter time, 
with greater ease, and less liability to de- 
tection, than to go there, kill the nmn and 
take his property." They finally agreed that 
at a certain time the three should go in com- 
pany and execute their murderous design. 
I immediately determined to foil them in 
their bloody purpose or lose my life in the 
attempt. Be on your guard. Make every 
preparation to defend j-ourself,- for the men 
will be here to take your life. And now,' 
she concluded, 'bring my horse and I will 
return.' I could not prevail on her to re- 
main longer. Springing to her saddle, she 
waved me a farewell, and in a few moments 
had disappeared. 

"The next day I made every needful 
preparation for defence and calmly awaited 
the arrival of the ruffians. In the afternoon 
of the dav mentioned by my informant, I 



saw them approaching, with Helm half a 
mile or more in advance of the other two. 
I stood in the gate of my stockade with my 
revolver in my belt, and as he approached 
nie greeted him kindly, bade him enter, and 
closed and bolted the door behind him. I 
saw at once by his churlish manner that he 
was bent on mischief. Hardly waiting for 
an exchange of common civilities, he said: 

" 'Lend me your pistols. I am going on 
a perilous expedition.' 

" 'I cannot spare them,' I replied. 
'■ 'But you must spare them. I want 
them.' 

" 'I tell you I cannot let you have them.' 
"Flying into a passion, he, with bitter 
oaths rejoined: 

" 'I'll make you give 'em to me or I'll kill 
you,' at the same time grasping his re- 
volver. 

"Before he could pull it from its scab- 
bard, I had mine leveled with deadly aim at 
his head, and my finger on the trigger. 

" 'Make a single motion,' said I, emphat- 
ically, 'and I will shoot you.' 

"He quailed, for he saw I had the ad- 
vantage of him. His comrades now ap- 
proached the gate from without. 

" 'Break down the door,' he shouted, and 
ordered them to kill me. 

" 'If they attempt such a movement,' said 
I, 'I will kill you instantly.' 

''He knew me to be desperately in ear- 
nest, and, taking the hint, told them to go 
away. They obeyed. 

" "Xow, sir,' I persisted, still holding him 
under fire, 'unbuckle and drop j'our belt, pis- 
tol and knife, and walk away so that I can 
get them.' 

"He begged, but I was inexorable. He 
tried to throw me off my guard by refer- 
ring pleasantly to our former acquaintance, 
and assuring me he was only jesting, and 
would not harm me for the world. I told 
him I had been warned of his coming and its 
object, and detailed the conversation he had 
■\\ ith his companions at the time they agreed 
upon the expedition. He stoutly denied it, 
and demanded the source of my informa- 
tion. Knowing that he was ignorantly su- 
perstitious, I gave him to understand that it 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



was entirely providential. He believed it. I 
made liim sit down and kept him in range of 
my revolver all night, conversing with him 
on such subjects as would win his confi- 
dence. He told me the story of his life. I 
have never heard or read a more horrible 
history than that narrated by this man of 
blood. 

"Morning came. Helm's companions were 
still lingering near the stockade. I ordered 
them to withdraw to a certain distance, 
that I might with safety release my pris- 
oner. I then opened the gate and, with my 
shot-gun leveled upon him, bade him go, as- 
suring him that if we ever met again, 1 
would shoot him on sight. He marched out 
and away with his comrades. The next in- 
telligence I received concerning him was 
the announcement of his execution by the 
righteous vigilantes of Montana." 

The story of Boone Helm has been given 
at some length (abridged, however, from the 
account in Mr. Langford's book), in order to 
give the reader some idea of the desperate, 
hardened, ungrateful, unrepentant, and 
treacherous nature of the villains whose 
presence and whose deeds on the frontier 
rendered necessary the organization of a 
vigilance committee. The career of George 
Ives, epitomized from the same work (Vigi- 
lante Days and Ways) illustrates the for- 
malities incident to a vigilante trial. 

George Ives was regarded as the most 
formidable robber of the band with which 
he was connected. It was his custom, when 
in need of money, to mount his horse, and, 
pistol in hand, ride into a store or saloon, 
toss his buckskin purse upon the counter, 
and request the proprietor or clerk to put 
one or more ounces of gold dust into it "as 
a loan." The man thus addressed dared not 
refuse. Often, while the levy was being 
weighed, the daring shoplifter would amuse 
himself by firing his revolver at the lamps 
and such other articles of furniture as 
would emit a pleasing sound. 

A young German by the name of Tiebalt 
sold a span of mules, and, having received 
the purchase money, went after the mules, 
which were at a ranche some distance away. 
As several days elapsed without his return, 



the buyers concluded that he had swindled 
them out of the money and left the country 
without the mules. Nine days later a hunter 
sliot a grouse, and, going to the place where it 
fell, found it on the frozen coi-jise of Tiebalt. 
The body bore marks of a small lariat about 
the throat, which had been used to drag him, 
while still living, to the clump of heavy 
sage-brush in which the body had been 
found. The hands were filled with frag- 
ments of sage-brush, torn off in the agony of 
that terrible process, and the bullet wound 
over the left eye showed how the murder 
had been accomplished. The hunter took 
1lie body in his wagon to the nearest town, 
where the apparent cruelty and fiendishness 
of the l)loody deed roused the indignation of 
the people to a fearful pitch. That evening, 
twenty-five citizens subscribed an obligation 
of mutual support, and under competent 
leadership, started at once in pursuit of the 
murderer. P^rom a desi)erado whom they 
took into custody, they learned that the per- 
petrator of the crime was George Ives, and 
that he was at a wicldup (brushwood hut) 
near by. The leader promptly repaired to 
the house and selecting from the seven per- 
sons present the one he believed to be Ives, 
asked his name, which was given. Ives and 
ihroe other desperadoes were immediately 
placed under arrest and taken to the town 
of Nevada, near Virginia City. A rancher 
who was in sympathy with Ives, hastened 
to Virginia City and secured the legal as- 
sistance of Messrs. Kitchie and Smith. 

Before ten o'clock next morning, nearly 
two thousand people had assembled from 
the various towns and mining settlements. 
It was determined that the trial should take 
place in the presence of the entire assem- 
blage. To avoid all injustice to people or 
prisoners, an advisory commission of twelve 
men was appointed from each of the dis- 
tricts. 'W. H. Patton, of Nevada, and W. Y. 
I'emberton, of Virginia City, were selected 
to take notes of the testimony. Col. Wilbur 
F. Sanders and Hon. Charles S. Bagg, at- 
torneys, appeared on behalf of the prosecu- 
tion, and Messrs. Alexander Davis and J. M. 
Thurmond for the prisoners. Ives was the 
first one put on trial. The prisoner, secured 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



by chains, was seated beside his counsel. A 
day and a half was spent in unprofitable 
tiuibbling, lonij speeches, captious objec- 
tions, and personal altercations, when, the 
patience of the miners being exhausted, they 
informed the court and peojjle that the trial 
must close at three o'clock on that — the 
third — afternoon. The testimony cannot be 
reproduced. Among other things it was es- 
tablished that Ives had said in a boastful 
manner to his associates in crime: 

"When I told the Dutchman I was going 
1o kill him, he asked me for time to pray. 
I told him to kneel down then. He did so, 
and I shot him through the head just as he 
commenced his prayer." 

Two alibis set up in defense failed of 
proof because of the infamous character of 
the witnesses. Many developments of crimes 
committed jointly by the prisoner and some 
of his sympathizing friends, were made, 
which had the effect to drive the latter from 
the territory before the close of the trial, 
but for which his conviction might possibly 
have been avoided. The prisoner was un- 
moved throughout the trial. Not a shade of 
fear disturbed the immobility of his fea- 
tures. Calm and self-possessed, he saw the 
threads of evidence woven into strands, and 
those strands twisted into coils as inextri- 
cable as they were condemnatory, and he 
looked out upon the stern and frigid faces 
of the men who were to determine his fate 
with a gaze more defiant than any he en- 
countered. There were those near him who 
were melted to tears at the revelation of his 
cruelty and bloodthirstiness; there were 
even those among his friends who betrayed 
in their blanched lineaments their own hor- 
ror at his crimes; but he, the central figure, 
equally indifferent to both, sat in their 
midst, as inflexible as an image of stone. 

The scene, by its associations and ob- 
jects, could not be otherwise than terribly 
impressive to all who were actors in it; it 
wanted none of the elements either of epic 
force or tragic fury, which form the basis 
of our noblest poems. A whole community, 
burning under repeated outrages, sit- 
ting in trial on one of an unknown number 
of desperate men, whose strength, purposes. 



even whose persons were wrapped in mys- 
tery! How many of that surging crowd 
now gathered around the crime-covered mis- 
creant, might rush to his rescue the moment 
his doom should be pronounced, no one 
could even conjecture. No man felt certain 
that he knew the sentiments of his neighbor. 
None certainly knew that the adherents of 
the criminal were weaker, either in numbers 
or power, than the men of law and order. 
It was night, too, before the testimony 
closed; and in the pale moonlight, and glare 
of the trial fire, suspicion transformed hon- 
est men into ruffians, and filled the ranks of 
the guilty with hundreds of rei-ruits. 

The jury retired to deliberate upon their 
verdict. An oppressive feeling, almost 
amounting to dread, fell upon the now si- 
lent and anxious assemblage. Every eye 
was turned upon the prisoner, seemingly the 
only person unaffected by surrounding cir- 
cumstances. Moments seemed like hours. 
"What detains the jury? Why do they not 
return? Is not the case clear enough?" 
These questions fell upon the ear in subdued 
tones, as if their very utterance breathed of 
fear. In less than half an hour they came 
in with solemn faces, with their verdict — 
Guilty! — but one juror dissenting. 

"Thank God for that! A righteous ver- 
dict!" and other like expressions broke from 
the crowd, while on the outer edge of it, 
amidst mingled curses, execrations, and 
ho« Is of indignation, and the quick click of 
guns and revolvers, one of the ruffians ex- 
claimed: 

"The murderous, strangling villains dare 
not hang him, at any rate." 

Just at this moment a motion was made 
to the miners "that the report be received 
and the jury discharged," which, with some 
little opposition from the prisoner's lawyers, 
was carried. Some of the crowd now be- 
came clamorous for an adjournment; but 
failing in this, the motion was then made 
"that the assembly adopt as their verdict 
that of the committee" or jury. 

The prisoner's counsel sprung to their 
feet to oppose the motion, but it was carried 
by such a large majority that the assembly 
seemed at once to gather fresh life and en- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



••oui'a<:ement for the dischai'oe of the solemn 
duty which it imposed. There was a mo- 
nientarv lull in the j)i'Ofeedin<;s when the 
people found that they had reached the 
point when the execution of the criminal 
was all that remained to be done. Thev 
realized that the crisis of the trial had ar- 
rired. On the faces of all could be read 
their unexpressed anxiety concerning the re- 
sult. What man among them possessed the 
courage and commanding power equal to 
the exigencies of the occasion! 

At this critical moment, the necessity for 
prompt action, which had so disarranged 
and defeated the consummation of the trial 
of two other desperadoes — Stinson and Ly- 
ons — was met by Colonel Sanders, one of 
the counsel for the prosecution, who now 
moved: 

"That George Ives be forthwith hanged 
by the neck until he be dead." 

This motion so paralyzed the ruffians 
that before they could recover from their as- 
tonishment at its being offered, it was car- 
ried with even greater unanimity than 
either of the previous motions, the people 
having increased in courage as the work 
I)rogressed. Some of the friends of Ives 
now came up, with tears in their eyes, to bid 
him farewell. One or two of them gave way 
to immoderate grief. Meantime, Ives, him- 
self, beginning to realize the near approach 
of death, begged piteously for a delay until 
morning, making all those pathetic appeals 
which on such occasions are hard to resist. 
"I want to write to my mother and sister," 
said he; but when it was remembered that 
he had written, and caused to be sent to his 
mother soon after he came to the country, 
an account of his own inurder by Indians, in 
order to deceive her, no one thought the rea- 
son for delay a good one. 

"Ask him," said one of the crowd, as he 
held the hand of Col. Sanders, and was in 
the midst of a most touching appeal for de- 
lay, "ask him how long a time lie gave the 
Dutchman." 

He made a will, giving everything to his 
counsel and his companions in iniquity, to 
the exclusion of his mother and sisters. Sev- 
eral letters were written under his dictation 



by one of his counsel. In the meantime, A. 
I{. Davis and Robert Hereford prepared a 
scaffold. The butt of a small pine, forty 
feet in length, was placed on the inside of a 
half-enclosed building standing near, under 
its rear wall, the top projecting over a cross- 
beam in front. Near the upper end was 
fastened the fatal cord, and a large dry- 
goods box abont five feet high was placed 
beneath for the trap. 

Every preparation being completed, Ives 
was informed that the time for his execution 
had come. He submitted to be led quietly 
to the drop, but hundreds of voices were 
raised in opposition. The roofs of all the 
adjacent buildings were crowded with spec- 
tators. While some cried, "llang the ruf- 
fian," others said, "Let's banish him," and 
olliers shouted, "Don't hang him." Some 
said "Hang Long John. He's the real mur- 
derer," and occasionally was heard a threat, 
"I'll shoot the murdering souls," accompa- 
nied by curses and epithets. The flash of re- 
^■olvers was everywhere seen in the moon- 
light. The guards stood firm and giim at 
their posts. The miners cocked their guns, 
muttered threats against all who interfered, 
and formed a solid phalanx which it would 
have been madness to assault. 

When the culprit appeared ui)on the 
l)latforni, instant stillness pervaded the as- 
si-mbly. The usual question, "Have yon 
anything to say?" was addressed to the pris- 
oner, who replied in a distinct voice: 

"I am innocent of this crime. Alex Car- 
ler killed the Dutchman." 

This was the only time he accused any 
one except Long John. 

He then expressed a wish to see Long- 
John, and his sym])athizers yelled in appro- 
liation; but as an attempted rescue was an- 
ticipated, the request was denied. 

When all the formalities and last re- 
(piests were over, the order was given to the 
guard: 

"Men, do your duly." 

The click of a hundred gun-locks was 
heard as the guards leveled their weapons 
upon the crowd, and the box flew from un- 
der the murderer's feet, and he swung "in 
the night breeze, facing the pale moon, that 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



lighted up the scene of retributive justice." 
The crowd of rescuers fled in terror at the 
click of the guns. 

"He is dead," said the judge, who was 
standiug near him. "His neck is broken." 

Henry f^pivey, who voted against the 
conviction of Ives, was a thoroughly honest 
and conscientious man. He was not satis- 
lied that the evidence showed Ives to be 
guilty of the murder of Tiebalt. and as this 
was the specific charge against him, he 
could not in conscience vote for his convic- 
tion. He said that if Ives had been tried as 
a road agent, he would have voted "guilty." 

The execution of Ives terrified the horde 
of desperadoes. No revelation had yet been 
made that was sufficient to implicate any of 
them in the nuinerous murders and robber- 
ies that had been committed. The people 
realized that the work of ridding the com- 
munity of thieves and cutthroats was but 
just begun. A few of the citizens of Vir- 
ginia and Nevada, therefore, met for consul- 
tation on the day succeeding Ives' execution, 
and within thirty-six hours a league was 
formed, in which all classes joined, for the 
punishment of crime and the protection of 
the people. The vigilance committee ap- 
pointed bj' the league commenced opera- 
tions at once. They soon arrested a notori- 
ous villain by the name of Erastus Yager, 
who, from the redness of his hair and whis- 
kers, was familiarly called '"Red." After at 
first denying any complicity with the robber 
horde. Red confessed his guilt, and when in- 
formed that hanging was imminent, gave 
the names of other members of the gang. 

'•It's pretty rough," said he, "but I mer- 
ited this fate years ago. What I want to say 
is that I know all about this gang. There 
are men in it who deserve death more than 
I do; but I should die happy if I could see 
them hanged or know it would be done. I 
don't say this to get off; I don't want to get 
off." 

"It will be better for you. Red," said the 
vigilantes, "at this time to give us all the 
information in your possession, if only for 
the sake of your kind. Times have been 
very hard. Men have been shot down in 



broad daylight, not alone for money, or even 
hatred, but for mere luck and sport, and 
this must have a stop put to it." 

"I agree to it all," replied "Red." "No 
jioor country was ever cursed with a more 
bloodthirsty or meaner pack of villains than 
this, — and I know them all." 

On being urged by the leaders to furnish 
their names, which he said should be taken 
down, "Red" gave the names of twenty-three 
men who formed the robber band. These 
men were bound by an oath to be true to 
one another, and were required to perform 
services as stool pigeons, spies, fences, horse 
thieves, telegraph men, and roadsters, ac- 
cording to circumstances and their qualifi- 
cations. The penalty of disobedience was 
death. If any of them, under any circum- 
stances, divulged any of the secrets or 
guilty purposes of the band, he was to be 
followed and shot down at sight. The same 
doom was prescribed for any outsiders who 
attempted an exposure of their criminal de- 
signs, or arrested any of them for the com- 
mission of crime. "Red" acknowledged that 
he was a member of the band, but declared 
that he was not a murderer. He disclosed 
a long list of atrocities committed by the 
band. After listening to this disclosure, 
the party of vigilantes determined that the 
culprit should be executed immediately. 
"Red" met his fate with courage. He ex- 
piessed a wish that he might be kept under 
arrest and not hanged until he had wit- 
nessed the execution of those whose names 
he had divulged, and who, he claimed, were 
more guilty than he. After the rope had 
been adjusted about his neck, he turned to' 
one of the vigilantes and said: 

"Let me beg of you to follow and punish 
the rest of this infernal gang." 

" "Red,' " replied the man, "we'll do it if 
there's an\ such thing in the book." 

"(iood-by, boys,' said "Red," "you're on a 
good undertaking, fxod bless you." 

The stool on which he stood fell, and the 
body of the intrepid freebooter swung life- 
less in the midnight blast. 

Before the end of the Civil War between 
twenty and thirty desperadoes had been exe- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



cuted b\ the vijiilancc committee, and others 
were banished from the territory for vari- 
ous offenses. 

In less than three years the vigilance 
committee had transformed this mountainous 
mining region from a den of cutthroats into 
an abode of well-ordered industry, progress, 
and social order. Politics was not raen- 
tiontnl in the deliberations of the committee. 
Men of all ranks, ages, nationalities, creeds, 
and political atliliations worked together in 
harmony. A common danger made them 
one. In a neighboring territory which had 
no committee, sixty homicides were commit- 
ted (according to a local paper), without a 
single conviction. Another paper declared 
that "cemeteries are full of the corpses of 
veterans in crime and their victims." 

That crime was less rampant in the early 
days of the eastern than those of the west- 
ern portion of the great Northwest is not 
due to any conditions of climate or environ- 
ment which in one case tend to develop men 
into peaceful citizens and in the other into 
criminals. The coiuparatively peaceful char- 
acter of the pioneers of ^linnesota and the 
Dakotas is to be ascribed in part to the fact 
that this region was formed by nature for 
agriculture and that it attracted a class of 
people who were content to earn their living 
by the slow process of agriculture. Such 
people seldom have in their possession large 
sums of money, and the region in which they 
live does not, therefore, form as attractive a 
field for the professional robber as do the 
gold mining districts. It is possible, in an 
agricultural section, to administer justice 
approximately according to the forms pre- 
scribed by law. 

A single incident will illustrate the dif- 
ficulty of holding a court on the upper Mis- 
sissippi sixty years ago. 

In the summer of 1842, the region l.ving 
between Taylors Falls and the mouth of the 
St. Croix was sparsely settled. In that sum- 
mer, Judge Irwin, then living at Madison, 
in Wisconsin (which was then a territory 
and included Minnesota) was assigned to 
hold a term of T'nited States district court 
at Stillwater, the county seat of St. Croix 
county. He embarked on a steamboat at 



Calena and landed at Fort Snelling. He 
had learned that the clerk of the court was 
a man by the name of Joseph R. Brown, 
and that he resided at Stillwater; further 
than that he had no knowledge, and was ig- 
norant of any route or means of conveyance 
from the fort to the place of holding the 
court. The commanding officer at the fort 
Iirovided him with a horse, and a guide to 
pilot him through the unsettled country. 
Street cars now make regular trips every 
half hour between the same points. 

Arriving near the head of Lake St. 
Croix, and inquiring for Mr. Brown, he was 
directed to go up the lake shore about a 
mile to his residence, a log cabin. This was 
a short distance above the present site of 
the state penitentiary. The judge found 
the cabin occupied by an Indian woman and 
children, none of whom could either speak 
or understand English. Upon inquiry of 
some people who were building a saw mill, 
he learned that Mr. Brown was at his trad- 
ing post on Gray Cloud island, twenty or 
more miles distant. He returned *» Fort 
Snelling the next day, and took the first 
steamboat down the river, disgusted with 
his trip, and declared that the next time he 
held a court in Stillwater he would provide 
himself with moccasins, clout, and blanket. 

The first term of territorial court held in 
Minnesota was held in Stillwater during the 
second week of August, 1849, five months 
after ^linnesota was organized as a terri 
tory. The second term of court was held by 
Judge David Cooper, at Stillwater, in Feb- 
ruary, 1850. This term is noted for having 
the first criminal trial for murder under 
Minnesota laws. It was a case of a boy 
about thirteen years old, by the name of 
Snow, killed by a companion about the same 
age, on Third street, St. Paul. The prose- 
cution was conducted by Morton S. Wilkin- 
son and Putnam Bishop; the defense by 
Michael E. Ames and Henry L. Moss. The 
tiring was from the southerly side of the 
street, with an ordinary shotgun, directly 
across the street, where stood the Snow boy, 
—the boys looking at each other. A single 
small bird shot penetrated the eye and brain 
of the Snow boy. The jury convicted the 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



boy of manslaughter, holdlnji; that, even in 
the absence of malicious intent, the firing of 
a gun across a public highway where people 
were passing, was an unlawful act. Judge 
Cooper, in pronouncing sentence, there be- 
ing no penitentiary in the territory, commit- 
ted him to the guard house at Fort Snelling 
for ninety days, during the first two and the 
last one of which he was to be kept in close 
confinement and fed on bread and water. 
James M. Goodhue, of the St Paul Pioneer, 
commenting on the decision of Judge Coop- 
er, said it was a specimen of dispensing jus- 
tice in homeopathic doses. 

The first term of court in St. Paul was 
held by Judge Aaron Goodrich in a public 
room adjoining the bar-room in the Amer- 
ican Hotel, corner of Third and Exchange 
streets, in the spring of 1850. 

An interesting case brought before the 
first territorial term of court in Minnesota 
concerned a prominent member of the bar, 
Mr. William D. Phillips. The following 
sketch of the case is related by Judge 
Charles E. Flandrau. 

Mr. Phillips was a native of Maryland, 
and came to St. Paul in 1848. He was the 
first district attorney of the county of Ram- 
sey, elected in 1849. On one occasion, when 
discussing in court the construction of a 
Minnesota statute with an attorney fresh 
from the east, his adversary' made some 
classical allusion in which the names of 
Cicero and Demosthenes occurred. Mr. Phil- 
lips, answering, became very much excited, 
aud in a rising flight of eloquence said; 
''The gentleman may be a classical scholar; 
he may be as eloquent as Demosthenes; he 
has probably ripped with old Euripides, 
socked with old Socrates, and canted with 
old Cantharides; but, gentlemen of the jury, 
what does he know about the laws of Min- 
nesota?" 

The indictment against Mr. Phillips 
charged him with an assault with intent to 
maim. In an altercation with a man, he had 
drawn a pistol on him, and the defense was 
that the pistol was not loaded. The witness 
for the prosecution swore that it was, and 
further, that he could see the load. The 
prisoner, as the law then was, could not tes- 



tify in his own behalf, and could not di- 
rectly dis])rove this fact. He was convict- 
ed, and fined $2.5. He was very indignant, 
aud gave this explanation of the assertion 
of the witness that he saw the load. He 
said he had been out electioneering, and 
from the uncertainty of getting his meals in 
such an unsettled country, he carried crack- 
ers and cheese in the same pocket with his 
pistol. A crumb of cheese had got into the 
muzzle, and the fellow was so scared when 
lie looked at the pistol that he thought it 
was loaded to the brim. 

About the year 1855, says Judge Flan- 
drau, Mr. John B. Brisbin arrived in St. 
Paul and commenced practice. A great deal 
of the business was done in courts of justices 
of the peace, and Mr. Brisbin was called to 
Mendota to defend a client who was charged 
with tresijassing on another's land or, as we 
then called it, "jumping his claim." Major 
Xoah appeared for the plaintiff, and filed 
his comi)laint. Mr. Brisbin demurred to it, 
and made a very eloquent and exhaustive ar- 
gument in support of his position. The jus- 
tice was a very venerable looking old 
Frenchman (the greater part of the popula- 
tion being French at that time). He lis- 
tened very attentively, and occasionally 
bowed when Mr. Brisbin became most im- 
pressive, leaving the impression upon the 
speaker that he comprehended his reasoning 
and acquiesced in his conclusions. When 
.Mr. Brisbin closed his argument, Major 
>soah commenced to address the court in 
French. Mr. Brisbin objected; he did not 
understand French, and judicial proceed- 
ings must be conducted in English. The 
major replied that he was interpreting to 
the court what Mr. Brisbin had been saying. 
"I desire no interpretation; I made myself 
clear," said Mr. Brisbin. "Certainly," said 
the major, "your argument was excellent, 
but the court does not understand any Eng- 
lish," which was literally true. It is said that 
when the court adjourned, the judge was 
heard to ask the major, "Est ce qu'il y a une 
femme dans cette cause la?" Whether the 
judge decided the case on the theory of there 
being a woman in it, history has failed to 
record. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



In 1S44, Henry Jackson of ST. Paul was 
appoiuted justice of the peace. There was 
some delay in the arrival of his commission, 
and before it came, a couple came to his 
house and asked him to marry them. When 
he told theiu he was not yet legally a jus- 
tice, and therefore could not lawfully marry 
them, they were terribly disappointed. They 
assured him that they could not possibly 
bear the shock of disappointment, aud beg- 
ged of him to devise some way of uniting 
them, for their hearts already "beat as one." 
''Well," said Jackson finally, "I can nail you 
together so that perhaps you'll hold till my 
commission comes, but I can't warrant the 
job. I'll marry you by bond, if that will be 
satisfactory." "How's that done'.'" inquired 
the would-be husband. "\\'hy," said Jaik 
son, "you can give me a bond that when n)y 
commission arrives you will appear and be 
legally married. In the meantime, you may 
consider yourselves husband and wife, re- 
membering that you are only quasi married 
[•eople, and if my commission fails to come, 
the deal is off."' Both readily assented to 
the quasi marriage, and having executed 
their bond, went on their way rejoicing. The 
commission arrived in due time, but there is 
no record accessible to show whether the 
quasi union was ever converted into a legal 
one. 

Four years later, the same justice was 
trying some ordinary case. The matter had 
been submitted to the jury, and they had re- 
tired for consultation, being locked up by 
the constable in a small room lighted by one 
small window which was at a considerable 
distance from the ground. One of the six 
jurymen was a skilled violinist who was al- 
ways in demand for dancing parties. ( )ii 
the day of the trial, a man had come from 
Stillwater for the purpose of securing the 
services of this musician for a ball that was 
to be held in that city that very night. On 
finding the violinist in confinement, he be- 
came somewhat uneasy lest the wielder of 
the bow should be detained so long as to 
prevent his reaching the ball-room in time. 
Unfortunately, the jury had great difficulty 
in agreeing upon a verdict. The discussion 
of the case was conducted with considerable 



warmth, and several times the jurors nearly 
came to blows. The man from Stillwater, 
meanwhile, became desperate. He dared not 
return without his violinist. He deter- 
mined to speak with him at all hazards. 
I'rocuring a high box, he placed it under the 
window and, mounting it, succeeded in at- 
tracting the attention of his man who at 
once approached the window and held an ex- 
tended ((mference with him. At this point, 
one of the jurors who had disagreed with 
the violinist accused him of being in surrepti- 
tious communication with an outsider and 
of being guilty of conduct which exposed 
him to a grave suspicion of having received 
a bribe. This intimation precipitated a fight. 
Chairs, tables, heads, shins, and the window 
wi'ii- broken in the melee. Among the in- 
jured was the musician, whose right arm 
was dislocated. The constable unlocked the 
door and rushed in to restore the peace; the 
justice and the people followed. The jurors 
who had not been placed hors du combat 
slipi)ed out of the room in the confusion, and 
this ended the case. For the benefit of those 
who must always be told how a story ''comes 
out," it may be added that the violinist did 
not draw the bow that night, and that the 
Stillwater ball was postponed. 

The scene now shifts to Dakota. Leav- 
ing the pastoral region of Minnesota, we 
find ourselves once more in a rugged, moun- 
tainous, mining country. The following 
sketch of the administration of justice in a 
court of law is taken, with some changes in 
wording, from "Life in the Black Hills," by 
Maj. T. M. Newson. 

Street scene. Post-office. Men coming 
and going; a strange, mysterious man in the 
irowd. He is recognized by a passenger, 
who exclaims: 

"Here's a mail robber!" 

Men draw their pistols; the mysterious 
man also draws and runs. He is pursued by 
the crowd, firing as he runs, but is finally 
<aught by the sheriff', who, flinging his arms 
about him, holds him fast. He is found to 
be severely injured, and the sheriff", with the 
assistance of two men, conveys him to jail. 
The next day he is brought into court. The 
judge is on the bench, lawyers are present, 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWESt. 



and the court room is filled with people. 
The complaint is that the prisoner is guilty 
of robbing the stage. 

Judge: "What have you to say, — guilty 
or not guilty?" 

Before the prisoner answers, a man goes 
to the judge and speaks a few words to him, 
when the judge says: 

"The court orders the sheriff to produce 
one of the prisoner's boots." 

The boot is produced and is examined by 
the judge and others. It is a very small 
one. The judge now turns to the prisoner 
and remarks: 

"Suspicions are now conclusive, by the 
production of this boot, that you belie your 
sex, and are not what you appear to be — 
that is, you are a woman! Do you plead 
guilty to this charge?" 

"May it please your honor, I do, and if 
permitted would like to make a few re- 
marks. I am a woman ! I mean no wrong. 
I did not rob the stage, but was with the 
parties who did. Drawn into their cob-web 
of villainy, I could not break away from 
them without losing my life, and may it 
please your honor, every resolution I made 
was broken. I plead guilty to the last, but 
not to the first charge, and if I may be per- 
mitted to skip the town this time, you may 
be assured, your honor, that I will never 
enter it again." 

"Madam," said the judge, "you are in a 
very singular predicament, — charged with 
robbing the stage and violating all social 
and civil law by appearing in the character 
of a male. Under ordinary circumstances, 
the law would deal harshly with you, but I 
take the responsibility of setting you at lib- 
erty." With thanks to the judge for his 
leniency, the woman walks out of the court 
room and disappears. 

EDUCATION. 

The first annual report of the state super- 
intendent of public instruction was made to 
the state legislature of Minnesota, January 
14, 1861, by Edward D. Neill, the state super- 
intendent. For this report, only fourteen 
counties frunished data. Eighty-two coun- 
ties for the report made forty years later. 
A recommendation was made by the state 



superintendent in this first report which is 
interesting as being the precursor of a se- 
ries of recommendations made by his suc- 
cessors for the past forty years, a recom- 
mendation of a plan of organization that 
has been adopted in many states very much 
to the advantage of their school system, but 
which has failed, thus far, to meet the ap- 
proval of the legislature. In the report of 
1861, the suj)erintendent says: 

"Under the law no pupil can go to school 
beyond the boundaries of the district where 
his parents or guardian reside. Separated 
by a slough or marsh from the school house 
of his own district, he cannot, except by 
special permission of the trustees, attend 
the school of another district, which may be 
in sight of his father's house. The conse- 
quence is that some families are obliged to 
pay a school tax from year to year, while 
their children are debarred the privileges of 
public instruction. To obviate this it is 
recommended that each civil township form 
a corporation for school purposes, and that 
each family in the state be allowed to send 
children to any public school that may be 
selected." 

The reason given by Dr. Neill for the 
adoption of the township system for the 
organization of schools was not the strong- 
est that might have been given. Hon. W. 
W. Pendergast, in his report of Nov. 20, 
1804, gives thirt^'-two excellent reasons why 
the township unit would be advantageous. 
These reasons are based on the experience 
of states — some of tliem younger in state- 
liood than Minnesota — which are enjoying 
the benefits which result from this system. 

In 1861, there were no county superin- 
tendents of schools. The state superintend- 
ent recommended that a uniform series of 
text-books be adopted for use in all the 
schools of the state. This plan has since 
been tried — for fifteen years — and repudiat- 
ed by the people. Another recommendation 
was that |1,000 be appropriated by the leg- 
islature for the purpose of buying library 
books which might be sold to school dis- 
tricts by the state at low rates. Since 1861, 
laws have been passed by which any district 
that will purchase a suitable library may 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



receive aid from the state to the amount of 
|2() for tlie first year, and |10 for each suc- 
ceeding year. The present value of school 
district libraries in Minnesota is |!245,0()(>. 

A question that has arisen and which 
continues to arise in every state of the union 
was in 1861 considered such an important 
one that Dr. Neill used it for a displayed 
caption in his report: — Shall the Bible be 
read in public schools? — The opinion of the 
attorney general was obtained in order that 
the state superintendent might answer with 
authority the many letters which came to 
him from those who favored or disfavored 
the practice. The attorney general in 18(50 
said: 

"In reply to your communication, I would 
call your attention to the fact that in the 
first sentence of the constitution of the state 
there is a grateful recognition of God, and 
also that the school law requires 'that no 
teacher shall be employed who shall not be 
first examined and found qualified in moral 
character.' By common consent the moral- 
ity of the Bible is esteemed superior to the 
ethics of any other book. * * * Some 
profess to be scrupulous in relation to send- 
ing children to any public school where mor- 
al instruction is given; and others ecjually 
honest do not wish to patronize a school 
where there is no recognition of God. Now, 
it is unfair that either party should deprive 
the children of the other of a school support- 
ed by common taxation. * » * j there- 
fore recommend that the teacher, a few min- 
utes before or after the recitations of the 
day, reads a portion of the scriptures and 
unites with the scholai's in offering the 
Lord's prayer, with the express understand- 
ing that when the parents or guardians 
make the request, the children of such are 
not to be compelled to attend the scripture 
services." 

It will be interesting to compare with 
the above the following ruling of another at- 
torney general of Minnesota, rendered De- 
cember 10, 1895: 

"* * * The question involves a con- 
struction of section 16 of Article one of the 
constitution, wherein it is, among other 
things, provided: 



" 'Nor shall any man be compelled to at- 
tend, erect, or support any place of wor- 
ship.' » * « 

"In Wisconsin, the supreme court * * * 
held that the reading of the scriirtures in a 
jiublic school was in violation of the consti- 
fntion, in that it compelled one to support 
a place of worship. * * * 

"No distinction can in principle be drawn 
between the opening of a school with prayer 
and the reading of the scrij^ture. * * * 
If one is unlawful, the other is also. It is 
the purpose of the law of this state to per- 
mit no intrusion into our public schools of 
any religious teachings whatever. They are 
lo be kept purely secular in character * * * 
where children may assemble for purposes 
of instruction in authorized subjects and in- 
cidental moral improvement. * * * You 
are advised that the practice * * * is 
violative of the constitution." 

In 1851, the legislature of the Territory 
of Minnesota created in the university a de- 
partment of the theory and practice of in- 
struction, and in 1858, a state normal school 
was established at Winona. In the *year 
1860-61 the state had between sixty and 
seventy normal school pupils; in the year 
18!)!»-iy00, it had 2,376. The chairman of the 
liormal school prudential committee report- 
I'd at that time that to support normal 
school instruction for the ensuing year, 
there would be required an appropriation of 
at least |5,000: The current expenses of 
our four normal schools for the year 1899- 
]900 amounted to |10S,000. Three normal 
school instructors were then employed; now 
there are eighty-five. 

In 1861, the state university consisted of 
;i "costly pile of stone * * * with about 
fifty rooms without windows,'' together with 
"a debt of about eighty thousand dollars 
and no available means for its liquidation." 
The next year, State Superintendent B. F. 
Crary reported of the state university: "It 
is now nothing but a perplexity and a shame 
to all who feel any desire to see education 
advance. The building is utterly unfit for 
educational purposes. * * * The state has 
no need for it, and no means to endow it." 
The legislature of 1867 appropriated $15,000 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



for repairing and furnishing the university 
building "and for the eniploj-ment of a teach- 
er or teachers" for the institution. I'rof. 
W. W. Washburne was employed as princi- 
pal, and before the end of the year two 
other teachers were employed. The number 
of students enrolled was 44; "31 males and 
13 females." In 1900, the number of stu- 
dents enrolled was 3,400. 

The first apportionment of the current 
school fund in February, 1863, amount- 
ed to 112,308. The amount apportioned in 
the year 1900 was |1,311,000. The per- 
manent school fund in 1863 was less than 
half a million dollars. In 1901 it was over 
112,000,000. In the following pairs of num- 
bers, the first number in each pair refers to 
the year 1862, and the second, to the year 
1900; Number of districts reported, 1,072 — 
7,000; number of persons of school age, 50,- 
644 — 575,000; number attending public 
school, 22,913—390,000; number of teachers^ 
1,165—12,000. In 1863, Freeborn county had 
the largest number of pupils — 5,024 — of any 
county in Minnesota; Hennepin county 
(the county in which Minneapolis is located) 
comes next, with 4,514; Olmsted county fol- 
lows with 3,804; and Ramsey county (in- 
cluding the city of St. Paul) had 3,679 pupils. 
The corresponding numbers in 1900 were: 
Freeborn, 9,500; Hennepin, 55,000; Olm- 
sted, 6,500; and Ramsey, 37,000. In 1863, 
the average monthly compensation of male 
teachers was |21, and of female teachers 
$13. In 1900, the average monthly wages 
were $65 and |40, respectively. 

The county superintendency of schools 
was created in Minnesota in 1864, for such 
counties as chose to have their county com- 
missioners appoint superintendents. The 
law was amended later so as to provide for 
the election of a superintendent by the peo- 
ple in each county. The first state educa- 
tional journal was established in 1867 and 
was called the Minnesota Teacher. It was 
founded by William W. Payne, Esq., county 
superintendent of schools for Dodge county. 
Mr. Payne is now professor of mathematics 
and astronomy in Carleton college, in North- 
field. 

In 1861, the state normal board was di- 



rected by law to select a list of text-books 
for use in the common schools of the state. 
The books selected were to be used in all the 
schools for five years. In 1867, the law 
having expired, the state superintendent 
recommended its renewal. State uniformity 
of text-books has been since tried in the 
state but has been proved unsatisfactory. 
I'nder the present law, the board of educa- 
tion in any district may contract with pub- 
lishers for text-books of their own selection, 
and may furnish them free to the pupils at- 
tending the schools. In 1867, the state 
superintendent of public instruction asked 
the legislature to appropriate the sum of 
|3,000 to be used annually for holding teach- 
ers' institutes in different parts of the state. 
The legislature responded to this call. The 
sum now annually appropriated for this pur- 
pose is $27,000. These institutes and training 
schools are now attended by about 7,000 
teachers. 

The past thirty years has witnessed a 
wonderful development of the state. Min- 
nesota now has 115 state high schools, each 
receiving |800 annually from the state; 110 
state graded schools, each receiving $200 
annually from the state; 190 semi-graded 
schools, each receiving flOO from the state; 
and 660 stiite rural schools, each receiving 
|75 from the state. 

In Dakota, the first biennial report of 
the territorial board of education was made 
in 1888. Below will be found in tabular 
form some statistics which will indicate the 
growth of the educational system of Dakota 
in the past sixteen years. 



Number of School Districts 

Total Value of School 
Houses, Sites, and Fur- 
niture 

Number of Male Teachers 
Employed 

Number of Female Teach- 
ers Employed 

Average Montiily Wages of 
Male Teachers 

Average Monthly Wages of 
Female Teachers 

Number of Children of 
School Age 

Number of Children enroll- 
ed in the Public Schools . . 

Amount paid for Teachers' 
Wages 



2,04S 
$38.43 
$31.71 
77,499 
50,031 
$394,785.00 



1,434 

2,587,865 
1,178 
2,905 
$41.72 
$35.81 
92,009 
77,686 
$818,792 



3,204 
$33.01 
$30.25 
98,013 
77,338 
$751,950 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



The following table shows the advance- 
ment made in the educational field in Mon- 
tana for the past thirty j'ears: 





1868 


1878 


1888 


1898 


No. of Districts.. . 

Enrollment 

No. of Teacliers... 


25 
1,359 

27 


105 

5,315 

116 

$59.70 

$88,284.00 


316 

27,600 

442 

$62.50 

$646,670.00 


669 
49,478 
1,086 
$60.00 


Value of School 




$1,875,965.00 


Apportionment. .. 


$12,099.00 


$44,478.00 


$371,442.00 


$575,332.00 



Montana has a free text-book law, a 
compulsory education law, a good school 
library law, a normal school at Dillon, and 
an agricultural college at Bozeman. 

Of the twenty-four county superintend- 
ents of schools in Montana, twenty-one pre- 
fix the title Miss, two that of Mrs. and one 
that of Mr. to their names. 

MILITARY HISTORY. 

This section of the history of the grcar 
Northwest is treated in five subdivisions: 
1. Early Indian Wars; 2. The Black Hawk 
War of 1832; 3. The Sioux War, 1862-63; 
4. The Civil War, 1861-65; 5. The Spanish- 
American War. 

EARLY INDIAN WARS. 

In the seventeenth century the Ojibway 
Indians resided on the shores of Lake Su- 
perior. They were then on friendly terms 
Mith the Dakotas or Sioux who then occu- 
pied the headwaters of the Mississippi and 
the country lying between that country and 
the Great Lakes. The good feeling between 
them was such that intermarriages took 
place between them. But ill-will was cre- 
ated through a quarrel between an Ojibway 
and a Dakota gallant respecting a woman 
both were courting. The woman was a Da- 
kota, and the affair took place at a village 
of her people. She preferred the Ojibway, 
and the rejected gallant took the life of his 
rival. This affair did not precipitate war, — 
it only reminded the warriors of the two 
tribes they had once been enemies. Shortly 
after this quarrel, four Ojibway braves — 
brothers who resided at Fond du Lac, on 
Lake Superior — paid a friendly visit to the 
Dakotas at Mille Lacs. During this visit 
one of the brothers was treacherously mur- 
dered. Again the three survivors visited 



grille Lacs, and this (ime two of them were 
killed, only one returning to his home. 
Their aged father blacked his face in mourn- 
ing, and his head hung down in sorrow. 

Once more his sole surviving son asked 
l)erniission to pay the Dakotas a peace visit 
that he might look on the graves of his de- 
ceased brethren. His sorrow stricken pa- 
rent said to him: "Go, my son, for prob- 
ably they have struck your brothers through 
mistake." A full moon passed and the son 
(lid not return. Now, for the first time, the 
bereaved father began to weep, and he 
mourned bitterly for his lost children. 

"An Ojibway warrior never throws away 
his tears," and he determined to have re- 
venge. For two years he busied himself in 
making preparations. With the fruits of 
his hunting he procured ammunition and 
other materials for a war party. At last 
he summoned the warriors of his tribe 
from the remotest villages to go with him 
and search for his lost children. Nearly 
all of them collected at the appointed time 
at Fond du Lac, eager to stain their«Bcalp- 
ing knives with the blood of their ancient 
foes. Having made the customary prepara- 
tions, they left Fond du Lac and followed the 
ti-ail to Mille Lacs, where the blood of their 
fellow braves had been spilt. The vanguard 
of the Ojibways fell on the Dakotas at Cor- 
morant Point early in the morning, and sucli 
was the fury of the attack that before the 
lear had arrived the village had been almost 
entirely exterminated. The Ojibways then 
hastened to the larger Dakota village at the 
outlet of the lake. 

After a brave defence with their bows 
and barbed arrows, the Dakotas took refuge 
in their earthen lodges fi'om the more deadly 
weapons of their enemy. The Ojibways dis- 
lodged them by dropping bags of powder 
through the smoke holes in the tops of the 
lodges. The Dakotas were not acquainted 
w ith the nature of powder, and supposed, 
when the powder bags exi)loded, that the 
spirits were aiding their foes. They there- 
fore gave up the fight in despair and were 
easily dispatched. It was thus that the 
Ojibways obtained (heir footing in the Mille 
Lacs region. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



lu two subsequent wars, the Ojibways 
wrested from the Dakotas the valley of the 
St. Croix, the upper Mississippi valley, and 
the valleys of the Wisconsin and Chippewa 
rivers. Many other conflifts occurred be- 
tween these tribes before the permanent 
coming of the white man. 

THE BLACK HAWK WAR. 

This brief sketch of the Black Hawk 
War follows nminly the account given by 
Ueuben Gold Thwaites, secretary of the 
State Historical Society of Wisconsin, in 
his "Story of the Black Hawk War." 

Few events in the early history of the 
Northwest were as picturesque, as tragical, 
or as fraught with mighty consequence as 
this. On November 3, 1804, the United 
States government concluded a treaty with 
the Sac and Fox Indians, by which, mainly 
for the paltry annuity of one thousand dol- 
lars, the confederacy ceded to the whites 
50,000,000 acres of land, comprising eastern 
Missouri, southwestern Wisconsin (then in- 
cluded in Michigan Territory), and north- 
western Illinois. This would amount to an 
annual rental of one cent for each 500 acres. 
There was an unfortunate clause in Article 
7 of the treaty, which became one of the 
chief causes of the Black Hawk War. It 
was stipulated that "as long as the lands 
which are now ceded to the United States 
remain their property" — that is, public 
land — "the Indians belonging to the said 
tribes shall enjoy the privilege of living or 
hunting upon them." 

Within the limits of the cession was the 
chief seat of the Sac power, — a village beau- 
tifully situated on the banks of the Missis- 
sippi near Rock Island. The principal char- 
acter in this village was Black Hawk, — a 
leader by common consent though not a 
hereditary or elected chief. He was rest- 
less and ambitious, but without great ca- 
pacity. He aroused the passions of his peo- 
ple by appealing to their prejudices and 
superstitions. He was probably honest, 
however, in his motives. But he was in- 
fluenced by the British agents, who before 
1812 continually endeavored to excite the 
hostility of the northwestern tribes against 



the Americans. ^loreover the conduct of 
the Americans, with whom he associated 
daily, was such as to shock his high sense 
of honor, and contrasted sharply with the 
courteous treatment accorded to him by the 
British officers. 

At the outbreak of the War of 1812, 
Black Hawk naturally sided with Tecumseh 
and the British, and was present at the 
battle of the Thames in 1813, where Tecum- 
seh was killed. During his absence with 
Ihat chief, he claims that a fatal injury was 
inflicted by the Americans upon an aged 
friend. It was therefoi-e eighteen months 
after the treaty of Ghent before Black Hawk 
could be induced to cease his retaliatory 
forays. It is not to be wondered at that he 
hated the Americans. They brought him 
nothing but evil. A personal insult was, in 
the winter of 1822-23, added to the national 
or tribal injuries received at the hands of 
the Americans. Some white settlers at that 
time gave him a cruel and unmerited beat- 
ing, and he nourished revengeful feelings 
which boded no good to the white race. 

In the summer of 1823, squatters, covet- 
ous of the rich fields cultivated by the Sacs, 
began to take possession of them. The 
Treaty of 1801 had guaranteed to the In- 
dians the use of the ceded territoi'y so long 
as the lands remained the propei'ty of the 
United States and were not sold to individ- 
uals. The Sacs would not have complained 
(so they said) if the squatters had settled 
in other portions of the tract, and not 
sought to steal the village, which was their 
birth[ilace, and contained the cemetery of 
their tribe. These were outrages of the 
most flagrant nature. Indian cornfields 
were fenced in by the intruders, squaws and 
children were whijiped for venturing beyond 
the bounds thus set, lodges were burned 
over the heads of the occupants. 

The evil grew worse year by year. When 
the Indians returned each spring from their 
winter's hunt, they found their village more 
of a wreck than when they had left it in the 
fall. It is surprising that they acted so 
peacefully while the victims of such harsh 
treatment. 

Keokuk (head chief of the Sac and Fox 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



fonfederafv) advised peaceful I'etreat across 
ihe Mississippi. But Black Hawlv was stub- 
born as well as romantic, and his people 
stood by him. He now claimed that the 
Indians had not, in the treaty of 1804, agreed 
that the land on which Black Hawk's village 
stood slionld ever become the property of 
the T'nited States. He ignored the fact that 
he had subsequently signed three treaties, 
each of which had reaffirmed the cession of 
1804. 

In the winter of 1830 Black Hawk and 
his band returned from an unsuccessful 
hunt to find their town almost completely 
shattered, many of the graves plowed over 
and the whites more abusive than ever. 
During the winter the squatters, who had 
been seven years illegally upon the ground, 
had finally jire-empted a few quarter sec- 
tions of land at the mouth of Rock River, 
so selected as to cover the village site and 
the Sac cornfields. This was a trick to ac- 
cord with the letter but to violate the treaty 
of 1804. There was still a belt fifty miles 
wide, of practically unoccupied territory, 
from which the selection of lands might 
have been made. When Black Hawk re- 
turned to his village in the spring of 1831, 
he was fiercely warned away by the whites, 
upon which he retorted that he should use 
force, if necessary, to remove them. 

Becoming alarmed, the settlers called 
upon the governor of Illinois for military 
assistance. He responded by sending into 
the disturbed region a force of 1,C00 mount- 
ed volunteers. These, with ten companies 
of regulars under Gen. Gaines, appeared be- 
fore Black Hawk's village on June 25, 1831. 
That night the Indians quietly withdrew to 
the west bank of the IMississippi. On the 
30th they signed an agreement never to re- 
turn to the east side without the permission 
of the United States government. The 
British encouraged the Indians to rise 
against the whites, and aid was proffered by 
several tribes of Indians from the East. 
Many elements in the white population saw 
benefits to be derived from it. It would 
give occupation to loafers, cause money to 
circulate freely, give opportunity for Indian 
haters to hunt the red man, present chances 



for jxilitical preferment, and afford excite- 
ment and adventure for those who craved it. 
April 6, 1832, Black Hawk, with 500 war- 
riors, crossed to the east side of the ^lissis- 
sii)pi, thus invading Illinois, (ieneral At- 
kinson ordered him to recross, but he re- 
turned a defiant answer. Sixteen hundred 
volunteers hurried to the scene of actioa 
^Vmong these was Abraham Lincoln, who 
served as a captain. Jefferson Davis was at 
this time a lieutenant in a regiment of regu- 
lars which saw service in the war. In a 
preliminary skirmish, a body of irregular 
militia was put to fliglit by an inferior force 
of Indians, after which Black Hawk's band 
ravaged the country, killing settlers, — men, 
women, and children. After much desul- 
tory marching and fighting, a decisive battle 
was fought at the mouth of the Bad Axe 
River in Wisconsin, about forty miles above 
I'rairie du Chien, the Indians being com- 
pletely routed. This was on August 2, 1832. 
A few days later Black Hawk was captured. 
Out of the band of nearly one thousand In- 
dians who had taken part in the beginning 
of the war, not more than one hundred and 
fifty remained "to tell the tragic story of the 
Black Hawk War— a tale fraught with dis- 
honor to tlie American name." Black Hawk 
was kept a jirisoner in Fortress Monroe 
until the summer of 1833. Black Hawk 
died at the age of seventy-one, in 1838, on a 
small reservation set apart for him and his 
personal followers in Davis county. Iowa. 

THE SIOUX WAR OF 1862-63. 

When Jonathan Carver visited the 
Northwest in 1706, the country lying upon 
the Mississippi river above the Falls of Sr, 
Anthony and below, into what is now north- 
ern Iowa, and that included in and adjacent 
to the valley of the St. Peters or Minnesota 
from its source to its mouth, as well as the 
prairie conntry between these rivers was 
occupied by the Sioux or Dakota Indians. 
They were a powerful and warlike nation, 
and might be found west of Minnesota as 
far as the base of the Rocky Mountains. 
Four tiibes of Sioux resided in Minnesota — 
the Medawakonton, ^^'apl'ton. Wapekuta, 
and Sisseton tribes. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



The Wapekutas claimed the country on 
Cannon river, on the headwaters of the 
Blue Earth and that lying immediately 
west. The Wapetons occupied the Big 
Woods. Their ancient home was the vicin- 
ity of the Little Kapids on the Minnesota, 
near Henderson. The Medawakontons at 
one time lived in the Mille Lacs region. The 
Sissetons occupied the Minnesota valley 
from St. Peter to Little Rock. These four 
tribes comprised what were known as the 
Annuity vSioux of Minnesota, and had at 
many times received presents from the gov- 
ernment of the United States. 

In 1816, the United States entered into a 
treaty with the Sioux, in which these In- 
dians relinquished all claim to lands ceded 
to the United States by Great Britain, 
Prance, and Spain. In 1830, the govern- 
ment entered into a treaty with the four 
great tribes above mentioned, by the terms 
of which, in consideration of their relin- 
quishing all claim to a large tract of land, 
the United States agreed to make them 
large presents in goods, to furnish a black- 
smith to reside among them, to provide an 
educational fund for them, and to give them 
three thousand dollars annually for ten 
years. In a treaty made at Washington, in 
1837, and others concluded at Traverse des 
Sioux and Mendota, Minn., in 1851, the 
Sioux ceded to the United States all their 
lands within the present limits of Minne- 
sota. At the same time, two reservations 
were assigned to the Indians — on the upper 
Minnesota. These treaties provided for a 
large annuity fund of over three million 
dollars. In another treaty negotiated in 
1858, a plan was adopted looking toward 
the civilization of the Indians. To all who 
would abandon their tribal relations and 
adopt the customs of the whites, lands were 
assigned in severalty — eighty acres to each 
head of a family. Farm buildings were 
erected for the Indians on these lands, they 
were furnished with implements and cattle, 
and they were, moreover, paid for the labor 
they performed, and were permitted to keep 
their crops for their own benefit. 

By 1862, there were about one hundred 
and sixty such farms, and among the sav- 



ages thus civilized were Little Crow — the 
leading sjjirit in the following massacres — 
and many of his band. This humane scheme 
for the benefit of the red men was to a large 
extent thwarted by the blanket Indians, 
ihat is, those who declined to yield to the 
influences of civilization. When the latter 
tired of the chase and the war path, they 
camped among the farmer Indians, living off 
their savings, thus compelling them to aban- 
don their civilized mode of life. 

The Indians claimed that the govern- 
ment had failed to carry out, or, at least, 
had very imperfectly fulfilled, its treaty ob- 
ligations. This claim had doubtless some 
foundation in the dishonesty of traders and 
others through whose hands money passed 
after having been disbursed by the govern- 
ment agent. "The cession of their terri- 
tory," says I. V. D. Heard, in his "History 
of the Sioux War," "is necessarily enforced 
upon the Indians by the advance of the 
white race. • * * Were the treaties 
fairly obtained, and all their stipulations 
fully carried out, regrets for the home they 
have lost, and the narrow limits, soon desti- 
tute of game, into which they are crowded, 
would soon bring repentance of their bar- 
gain, and force a bloody termination of the 
conflict of the races. But the treaties are 
born in fraud, and all their stipulations for 
the future are curtailed in iniquity. 

"The traders, knowing for years before 
that the whites will purchase the lands, sell 
the Indians goods on credit, expecting to 
realize their pay from the consideration to 
be paid by the government. They thus be- 
come interested instruments to obtain the' 
consent of the Indians to the treaty; and 
by reason of their familiarity with their lan- 
guage, and the assistance of half-breed rela- 
tives, are possessed of great facilities to ac- 
complish their object. The persons deput- 
ed by the government to efl'ect a treaty are 
compelled to procure their co-operation and 
this they do by providing that the sums due 
them from the Indians shall be paid. The 
traders obtain the concurrence of the Indi- 
ans by refusing to give thein further credit, 
and by representing to them that they will 
receive an immense amount of money if 



HISTORY OP THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



they sell their lands, and thenceforth will 
live at ease, with plentj- to eat, and plenty 
to wear, plenty of powder and lead and of 
whatever else they may request. After the 
treaty is agreed to, the amount of ready 
money 'which the government agrees to 
pay them' is absorbed by the exorbitant de- 
mands of the traders and the expense of 
removing the Indians to their reservations. 
After that, the trader no longer looks to the 
Indians for his pay; he gets it from their 
annuities. Claims for depredations ui)on 
white settlers are also deducted out of their 
moneys before they leave Washington; and 
these are always, when based on fact, dou- 
ble the actual loss, for the Indian depart- 
ment is notoriously corrupt, and the hand 
manipulating the machinery must be 
crossed with gold. The demand is not only 
generally unjust, but instead of its being 
deducted from the moneys of the wrong- 
doer, it is taken from the annuities of all. 
This course punishes the innocent and re- 
wards the guilty, because the property tak- 
en by the depredator is of more value than 
the slight percentage he loses. About f 400,- 

000 of the cash payments due the Sioux un- 
der the treaties of iSol and 1S52 were paid 
to traders on old indebtedness. So intense 
was the indignation of the Indians that 
there was serious apprehension that they 
would attack the government officials and 
traders. The opposition of Bed Iron, the 
I»rincipal chief of the Sissetons, became so 
boisterous that he was broken of his chief- 
tainship by Governor Eamsey, the superin- 
tendent of Indian affairs." 

From the same work we condense an ac- 
count of an interview between Red Iron 
and Governor Ramsey in December, 185-. 
Red Iron was brought in, guarded by sol- 
diers. He was about forty years old, tall 
and athletic, six feet high, with a large, 
well-developed ht^ad, aijuiline nose, thin, 
compressed lips, and physiognomy beaming 
with intelligence and resolution. The gov- 
ernor, in the midst of a breathless silence, 
ojjened the council. 

Governor Ramsey asked, "What excuse 
have you for not coming to the council when 

1 sent for you?" 



The Dakota chief rose with native grace 
and dignity, his blanket falling from his 
shoulders, and ])urposely dropping the pipe 
of peace, he stood erect before the governor 
with his arms folded and his right hand 
pressed upon the sheath of his scalping 
knife. With the utmost coolness and a de- 
fiant smile playing upon his thin lips and 
his eyes sternly fixed upon the governor, 
with firm voice he replied: 

"I started to come, but your braves 
drove me back." 

Governor: "I thought you a good man; 
but you have since acted badly, and I am 
disposed to break j-ou — I do break you." 

Red Iron: "You break me! My people 
made me a chief; my people love me; I will 
still be their chief; I have done no wrong." 

Governor: "Red Iron, why did you 
march here with your braves to intimidate 
other chiefs and prevent their coming to 
the council?" 

Red Iron: "^\'e have heard how the 
chiefs were served at Mendota — by secret 
councils ynu got their names on paper and 
took away their money. We don't wAt to 
be served so. We come to council in the 
daytime, when the sun shines, and we want 
no councils in the dark. When we signed 
the Mendota treaty, the traders threw a 
blanket over our faces, and darkened our 
eyes, and made us sign papers we did not 
understand, and which were not explained 
or read to us. We want our Great Father 
at Washington to know what has been 
done." 

Governor: "The Great Father wants 
you to leave the money in my hands to pay 
the debts your tribe has incurred. If you 
refuse, I will take the money back." 

Red Iron: "You can take the money 
back! AVe sold our land to you, and you 
promised to pay us. If you do not give us 
the money, I will be glad, and all our people 
will be glad, for then we will have our land 
back. The treaty was not interpreted or 
explained to us. AVe are told that it gives 
about .fROO,000 of our money to the traders. 
A\'e do not think we owe them so much. 
We want to pay our debts. We want our 
Great Father to send three good men here 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



to tell US how much we really owe, and 
whatever they say, we will i)ay and that is 
what all our chiefs and people say." 

Governor- "That can't be done. You 
owe more than your money will pay. The 
agent will pay your annuity — and no more 
— when you are ready to receive it." 

Red Iron: "We will receive our annu- 
ity, but will sign no papers for anything 
else. We are poor; you have plenty. Your 
fires are warm; your tepees keep out the 
cold. We have nothing to eat. We have 
been waiting a long time for our moneys. 
Our hunting season is past. A great many 
of our people are sick with hunger. We 
have sold our hunting-grounds and the 
graves of our fathers, \^'e have no place to 
bury our dead, and jou will not pay us the 
money for our lands.'" 

The council was broken up, and Red 
Iron was sent to the guard-house, where he 
was kept till next day. It was for a long 
time doubtful whether the Indians at this 
council would consent to receive their annu- 
ities as a price for abandoning their lands. 
They finally concluded to do so, being in- 
fluenced by three principal considerations: 
First, many of them had come hundreds of 
miles in the dead of winter, and were, with 
their families, in a starving condition; sec- 
ond, several Indians who had been impris- 
oned for attacking the Chippewas were to 
be released in case the bargain was made; 
third, large presents were ottered them, and 
certain braves were promised chieftain- 
ships if the Indians would sign. 

The summer of 1862 seemed to the Sioux 
a remarkably favorable time for redressing 
their wrongs and sweeping the white invad- 
ers from their ancient hunting grounds. 
The Federal army had been meeting with 
serious reverses in its conflict with the 
South; the braves noticed as they passed 
through the settlements that the able-bodied 
men were absent — they were bearing arms 
on southern fields — and the half-breeds 
who could read assured the Indians that 
soldieis of the Great Father were being 
whipped by the southern "niggers." They 
believed that the country h.ad nearly ex- 
hausted its resources, that it was going to 



ruin, and that it would not be able to pay 
them any more annuities. In July, 5,000 
Sioux assembled at the Upper Agency (at 
the mouth of the Yellow Medicine river) to 
make inquii'v about the payment of their 
annuity. They remained here for some 
time, suttering from hunger and sev- 
eral dying from starvation. They man- 
aged to appease their appetites with 
roots which they dug from the ground, and 
when corn was dealt out to them they de- 
voured it uncooked. On August 4, they 
broke into the government warehouse and 
seized the provisions stored there, cutting 
down the American flag in the presence of 
one hundred armed soldiers. Finally they 
were induced to return to their reservation 
on the issue of a large quantity of provi- 
sions. Similar scenes occurred at the 
Lower Agency, which was situated on the 
Minnesota river, about fourteen miles 
above Fort Ridgely. 

"Thus," says Heard, "on the 17th day of 
August, lSr.2, we find the instinctive hatred 
of this savage and ferocious people, who are 
able to bring into the field 1,300 well-armed 
warriors, the most expert and daring skir- 
mishers in the world, fanned to a burning 
heat by many years of actual and of fancied 
wrong, and intensified by fears of hunger 
and cold." 

On Sunday, August 17, eight Indians 
found some hens' eggs on the prairie, near 
Acton (now Grove City), in Meeker county. 
When one of them proposed to eat them, an- 
other tried to dissuade him, saying that 
they were the eggs of a tame fowl and be- 
longed to the whites. "You are a coward," 
retorted the first, as he dashed the eggs to 
the ground; "I am brave; there is a white 
man's ox; see how brave I am," and raising 
his gun, he shot and killed the ox. "And 
now," he continued, "I am going to kill a 
white man." The party then separated in- 
to two groujjs of four, each intent on prov- 
ing its bravery. One party reached the 
house of Mr. Howard Baker, and seeking a 
quarrel with him and his family, shot and 
killed four persons. The surrounding coun- 
try was thrown into the greatest alarm. 

When Little Crow heard of this affair, 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



hp had some difticulty in deciding how to 
act. If he became the friend of the whites 
he would incur the undying hatred of his 
people, and forfeit his supremacy as a lead- 
er among them. If, on the other hand, he 
should join in a war upon the whites, which 
he now saw was inevitable, he would be in- 
volved in the ruin which he foresaw must 
result from a conflict with a mighty nation. 
He decided to join his own people. "Let us 
go to the agency," said he, "kill the traders, 
and take their goods." 

The war now burst upon the state like a 
whirlwind. On August 18, the Lower 
Agency was sacked and the inhabitants 
murdered: on the same day, the massacres 
extended on both sides of the Minnesota to 
within six miles of New Ulm, and up the 
river to the Yellow Medicine. We quote 
again from Heard: 

"The naked forms of the savages, hide- 
ous with paint, their mad shouts and wild 
merriment, increased the horrors of the vic- 
tim. Former friendsliip and kindness 
availed nothing. On the contrary, the In- 
dians started oil' at first to the neighbor- 
hood where they had camped on their hunt- 
ing excursions, and had been hospitably 
treated by those whom they now murdered. 
Helplessness, innocence, tender age, pray- 
ers, tears — none of these induced mercy. 
They sened but to furnish embellish- 
ments to the tale to be told for the plaudits 
of the camp, where narratives of common 
slaughter had become stale, and excess in 
cruelty received the palm. * * * Noth- 
ing which devilish ingenuity could suggest 
in the way of groti'scpie horror was omit- 
ted." 

On the day of the massacre at Redwood 
Agency, Captain Marsh and thirty-nine men 
perished near Fort Ridgely; nine survivors 
escaped to the fort. Attacks were soon af- 
ter made on New Ulm and Fort Ridgely, 
but the Indians were repulsed at both 
places. To detail the scenes of pillage, 
burning, outrage and slaughter that fol- 
lowed would be to fill the mind of the read- 
er with horror and to repeat a tale with 
which many are already familiar. Only the 



salient points of the narrative can be no- 
ticed. 

August 20, Ceiiei'al Sibley started from 
Fort Snelling with 1,-100 men, toward the 
scene of the trouble. He arrived at Birch 
Coolie on September 3, too late to save a 
company of soldiers and citizens which had 
been surrounded by the Indians in the 
coolie the day before and nearly all killed. 
In the latter part of September, about two 
hundred and fifty captive women and chil- 
dren were surrendered to General (then 
("olonel) Sibley, at Camp Release, near the 
mouth of the ( "hippewa river, and many In- 
dians surrendered at the same time. On 
the I'Cth of December, 1862, thirty-eight of 
the leaders in the massacres were executed 
by hanging at Mankato. 

After his defeat in Minnesota, Little 
Crow, with his followers, fled to Devils 
Lake, in North Dakota. Here he vainly 
tried to enlist some of the western tribes in 
the war against the whites. In June, 1863, 
• Jeneral Sibley, with a force of about 2,500 
men, started in pursuit of the Sioux <iJiief- 
tain. About the same time General Sully, 
vvitli a large body of cavalry, passed up the 
ilissouri to co-operate with Sibley by cut- 
ting olf the retreat of the savages. Mean- 
time small squads of Indians straggled 
back into the state and renewed the atroci- 
ties of the preceding j'ear, camping at one 
time with twelve miles of St. Paul. Little 
(-"row, himself, with Indian bravado, came 
to the very center of the state. Here, near 
the village of Hutchinson, he was shot on 
the 3d of -July. The leading spirit of the 
Sioux war thus i)assed to other scenes. His 
skull may be seen in the rooms of the Min- 
nesota State Historical Society. 

We i-eturn now to the expeditions of 
(Jenerals Sibley and Sully. 

The object of these exjieditions was to 
further chastise the Sioux who had massa- 
cred the settlers in Minnesota, and to com- 
pel their complete submission. General 
Sibley succeeded in driving the hostile In- 
dians — all who did not escape to British 
territory or retui'u to ^linnesota — across 
the Missouri. Lieut. David L. Kingsbury, 



illSTOKY OF THE GUKAT NURTHWESt. 



of the Eighth Minnesota Volunteer Infan- 
tiy, who accompanied the expedition of 
General Sully the next year, has given a 
graphic narrative of the campaign, from 
which, by his permission, liberal extracts 
are made in the account which follows. The 
force under General Sully was composed of 
the Eighth Minnesota Volunteer Infantry 
mounted, commanded by Lieut. Col. Henry 
C. Rogers; six companies of the Second Min- 
nesota Volunteer Cavalry, commanded by 
Col. Robert N. McLaren; the Third Minne- 
sota Battery; forty -five scouts; eleven com- 
panies of the Sixth Iowa Cavalry; three 
companies of the Seventh Iowa Cavalry; 
two companies of Dakota Cavalry; the 
Thirtieth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry; Col. 
N. Pope's Battery; and Brackett's Minnesota 
Battalion of Cavalry. 

The command started from the Missouri 
river, at the mouth of the Cannon Ball, July 
19, 1864. Nine days later, the Indian camp 
was discovered at Tahakouty (Killdeer) 
mountain, near the headwaters of the 
Heart river. So confident were they of 
their ability to crush our troops that their 
old men, squaws and children assembled in 
front of their camp to witness the destruc- 
tion of our little army of 2,200 men by their 
5,000 braves. The savages were so badly 
defeated that they had no opportunity to 
move their village or any of their supplies. 
The Indian village, consisting of sixteen 
hundred rawhide tepees, with many tons of 
pemmican, buffalo meat, and other supplies, 
were destroyed. About 20,000 buffalo robes 
were thrown by the Indians into a deep can- 
yon. Many of these were secured by the 
traders, llie destruction of this camp and 
its supplies was a great loss to the In- 
dians. "Indian against Indian, it would 
have been impregnable; and it had, no 
doubt, been their winter home for genera- 
tions." 

"To soldiers, or others," says Lieut. 
Kingsbury, "who have not seen or heard an 
Indian charge, it cannot be described. It is 
calculated to strike terror into the hearts 
of the bravest. I have not the command of 
words to attempt to give any proper de- 
scription of it, and can make no better com- 



I)arison (imaginary, of course) than with the 
imps of hell let loose.'' 

After passing through the Bad Lands, 
the Indians were again encountered. They 
attacked our troops with about 7,000 war- 
riors, but they were repulsed with a loss of 
about three hundred killed — our loss being 
nine. "I may venture the opinion here," 
says Lieut. Kingsbury, "that, if the Indians 
had been as well armed at this time, or 
even at the fight of Killdeer Mountain, as 
were those at the Custer fight, the result 
would have been as disastrous." 

The ^linnesota contingent arrived at 
Fort Ridgely on its return, on October 8, 
after an absence of four months. "In that 
time,'' says Lieut. Kingsbury, "we had 
marched sixteen hundred and twenty-five 
miles; had wiiipped the savages at an esti- 
mated loss to them of four or five hundred 
killed and many wounded; and had forever, 
settled the Indian question east of the Mis- 
souri river. Thus it was made possible for 
white immigrants to settle and develop a 
territory equal in area to the New England 
states. It was believed at that time to be 
almost a desert, fit only for Indians and 
buffaloes; but now it supports a large and 
industrious population, and is one of the 
greatest wheat and cattle producing re- 
gions in the world." 

Two companies of cavalry were organ- 
ized in Dakota for service in the Sioux War. 
They did valiant service. Company A was 
organized at Yankton, in April, 1862, to 
serve three years. The commissioned ofii- 
cers were : Captain, Nelson Miner ; first li'eu- 
tenant, James M. Bacon; second lieutenant, 
David Benjamin. Company B was organ- 
ized at Sioux City in 1863, to serve three 
years. Its commissioned officers were: 
Captain, William Tripp; first lieutenant, 
John R. Wood; second lieutenant, T. El- 
wood Clark. Both regiments were mustered 
out in 1865, by reason of expiration of term 
of service. The record shows, also, that 
First Lieut. John K. Fowler resigned from 
Company A on May 1, 1863, and that Second 
Lieut. Frederick Ploghatt' resigned from the 
siame company on July 20, 1863. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



THE CIVIL WAR. 

No narrative, however extended, ran do 
full justif-e to the patriotism and the valor 
displayed and to the sufferings endured by 
ihe citizens of the great Northwest in the 
struggle for the Union, which continued 
from ISfil to 1805. 

Minnesota furnished for service in the 
Civil War, one regiment of heavy artillery, 
three l)atteries of light artillery, two regi- 
ments and two battalions of cavalry, two 
companies of sharpshooters, and eleven 
regiments of infantry, — in all, 24,203 men. 

The causes of the Civil War are well 
known, and no attemi)t will be made here 
to recapitulate them. 

Fort Rumter surrendered to the Confed- 
erates April 14, 1801. On the same day, and 
the day before President Lincoln issued a 
call for Union troops, Alexander Ramsey, 
the governor of ilinnesota, addressed a 
communication to the secretary of war, in 
which he said: 

"As the executive of the state of Minne 
sota, I hereby tender to the government of 
the United States, on the part of that state, 
one thousand men to be ready for service as 
soon as the necessary information can be 
communicated to the people there." This 
was the first tender of troops made to the 
government for service in the Civil War. 
President Lincoln issued a proclamation, 
calling for 75,000 volunteers, on April 15. 
On the same day, at a meeting of the Pio- 
neer Guards of St. Paul, Minn., several 
members signed an enlistment roll. The 
first name signed was that of Josias E. 
King, who claims the honor of being the 
senior volunteer in the United States serv- 
ice in the Civil War. Mr. King afterward 
became first sergeant of Company A, and 
finally captain of Company G, of the 1st 
-Minnesota. This state, therefore, which 
was at that time the last to enter the Union, 
was the first to spring to its defense. The 
Minnesota First was mustered into the serv- 
ice of the United States on April 29, and 
was the senior three-years regiment in the 
service. 

On June 14, the regiment was ordered to 
Washington and eight davs later wa$ on its 



way down the Mississipjii. The delay was 
due to the fact that some of the companies 
were, when marching orders came, doing 
garrison duty at Forts Ridgely and Ripley. 
Just before the battle of Hull Run, an 
incident occurred which is typical of one 
phase of army life. The men had not yet 
ac(]uired that keen relish for the army ra- 
tion which is necessary to a condition of 
perfect content. Strict orders had been is- 
sued against foraging. A squad of Minne- 
sotans, bringing the dressed quarters of a 
young beef into camp, were met by Col. 
Franklin, the brigade commander. Gor- 
man, the ^linnesota colonel, rode up while 
Franklin was interrogating the delinquents, 
and in his stentorian voice, poured upon the 
men such a volume of denunciation and in- 
vective that Franklin at once assented to 
his proposition to leave the men to him — 
fJorman — for such punishment as would be 
an effective example to the regiment. When 
Franklin had ridden away, Gorman turned 

to the trembling culprits. "Now, you,'' 

he shouted, "take up that beef and g!) to 
your regiment, and don't disgrace it by ever 
getting caught in any such scrape again." 
The men enjoyed the fresh beef and profited 
by their colonel's advice, for in their subse- 
quent foraging they were more wary. 

At Bull Run, Ball's Bluff, in McClel- 
lan's Peninsular campaign. Pope's battles 
around Washington, Antietam, Fredericks- 
burg, and Chancellorsville, the Minnesota 
First was where the fighting was fiercest. 
Space cannot be taken to detail the heroic 
deeds performed by otTicers and men in 
these battles and campaigns, and only a 
bare allusion can be made to the histori<- 
charge of the Minnesota First at Gettys- 
burg. It is absolutely without parallel in 
military history. In this charge, the regi- 
ment lost 82 per cent of its number; the 
loss of the Light Brigade in the famous 
charge at Balaklava was 75 per cent. Gen. 
Hancock, who ordered the charge, is quot 
ed as saying: "There is no more gallant 
deed recorded in hisfor\'; it had to be done, 
and I was glad to have a regiment at hand 
willing to make the terrible sacrifice that 
the occasion demanded." The regiment 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



sei'vt'tl in tlu' Ainiy of the Potomac until 
the end of the war. 

The Second Rejcinient was orpjanized in 
July, 1861, and served in the Army of the 
Cumberland, taking part in the battles of 
Mill Springs, rerryville. Triune, Tullahoma, 
Chickamauga, Chattanooga, Mission Ridge, 
tlie Atlanta campaign, Sherman's march to 
the sea, and Sherman's northward march 
from Savannah to Raleigh. Passing through 
Richmond after its capture, the regiment 
participated in the grand review in Wash- 
ington. May 24, ISfiS, and was disbanded on 
the 2(lth of July. 

On the morning succeeding the battle of 
Chickamauga "a muster and roll call of the 
regiment was had, and every man of the 
Second Minnesota, of the three hundred and 
eighty-four who commenced the battle on 
the l!)th was accounted for; thirty-five had 
been killed, one hundred and thirteen 
wounded, fourteen captured, and two hun- 
dred and twenty-two were present for duty, 
unhurt. This report attracted the atten- 
tion of the brigade commander, who, after 
verifying its correctness, said, in his official 
report of the battle, 'It is a noticeable fact 
that the Second Minnesota Regiment had 
not a single man among the missing, or a 
straggler, during the two days' engage- 
ment.' " The officers who served as colo- 
nels of the Second Regiment were H. P. 
Van Cleve, James George, and J. W. 
Bishop. 

The Third Regiment embarked at Fort 
Snelling, Nov. 17, 1861. After an honora- 
ble service of about a year, in Missouri, 
Kentucky and Tennessc-e, it returned to 
Minnesota and took part in the campaign of 
1862 against the Indians. The next impor- 
tant service of this regiment was rendered 
at the siege of Vicksburg. After the sur- 
render of that stronghold, on July 4, 1863, 
the ^Minnesota Third formed part of the ex- 
pedition which was commanded by Gen. 
Steele in the Arkansas campaign of 1863. 
Space cannot be taken to recount the gal- 
lant deeds of this regiment in Arkansas, in 
the battles of Fitzhugh's Woods, Pine Blutf 
and Devall's Bluff. 

It was the Third Minnesota and the Ren- 



ville Rauirers that did Ihe fighting at the 
haltle of Wood Lake — the battle that 
marks the collapse of the Sioux War of 1862. 
I )n the 28d of September the regiment, with 
other troops, was on the east bank of the 
Yellow iledicine river, near Wood Lake. 
Early in the morning, a few of the men 
started with some wagons to find fresh veg- 
etables. When about two miles from camp, 
on the prairie, a number of Indians sprang 
up from the grass and fired, mortally 
wounding one of the men. Leaping to the 
ground, the men returned the fire. On hear- 
ing the firing, the regiment in camp fell in 
and was promptly led to the scene of action 
by Major Welch. By this time the prairie 
seemed to be alive with Indians. Little 
Crow, their leader, swinging his blanket 
about his head, gave the war whoop and the 
Indians, with answering yells, advanced to 
overwhelm the little band of soldiers. In 
the midst of the fight. Gen. Sibley sent per- 
emptory orders for retreat. When our men 
began to fall back, the savages thought the 
whites were on the run and rushed in 
among the soldiers to secure scalps. But 
they were routed with fixed bayonets, and 
].o(Kl of them surrendered. The colonels of 
the Third were Henry C. Lester, Chauncey 
W. Griggs, and C. C. Andrews. 

The Fourth Minnesota was organized 
during the autumn of 1861. Among the cam- 
paigns and battles it took part in were the 
battles of luka, Corinth, Chattanooga and 
Altoona; the siege of Vicksburg, and Sher- 
man's final marches through Georgia and 
the Carolinas. The regiment was presept 
at the surrender of Johnson at Raleigh to 
Sherman, April 26, 1865, and received its 
final discharge at Fort Snelling on Au- 
gust 5. 

The Fourth took part in the assault made 
on the Confederate works at Vicksburg, on 
May 22, 1863. Lieut. Col. Tourtellotte says 
in his report: "The regiment pressed for- 
ward up to and even on the enemy's works. 
In this position, contending for the posses- 
sion of the rebel earthworks before us, the 
regiment remained for two hours, when it 
became dark, and I was ordered by Col. 
Sanborn (who then commanded the brig- 



HISTORT OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



adpl to withdraw." In this assault, twelve 
iiieu of this refrinu'Ut were killed and forty- 
two wounded. The colonels of the Fourth 
were John B. Sanhorn and John E. Tour- 
lellotte. 

The or>,'anization of the Fifth Minnesota 
was completed ^larch l!0, 1862. It served 
in the Indian War of 1802, in Minnesota and 
Dakota. It afterward bore an honorable 
part in the battle of Farniinn;ton, Tenn.; the 
siege of Corinth : the battles of luka and 
Corinth; c-anipaifins through central Missis- 
sippi and '\^'est Tennessee; the campaign, 
siege, and capture of Vicksburg; Banks' 
Red River campaign; the battle of Tupelo 
and Abbeyville; a campaign through Ar- 
kansas and Missouri in pursuit of the Con- 
federate Gen. Price; the battle of Nashville 
and the subsequent pursuit of Hood's ar- 
my; and the campaign against Mobile. The 
regiment receivt^l its discharge at Fort 
Snelling. September G. 1865. 

General W. S. Rosei-rans writes thus of 
the deeds of the Fifth Minnesota at the bat- 
tle of Corinth, Miss., on Oct. 4, 1862: "When 
the enemy from the north assaulted our line 
and forced it back a few hundred yards into 
the edge of town. Col. Hubbard, moving by 
his right flank, faced the coming storm 
from that quarter, and by his promptitude 
anticipated Gen. Stanley's order from me, 
to use the reserves of his division in meet- 
ing the enemy's charge. He drove back 
the fragments of his columns, overtaking 
and bringing back some pieces without 
horses of our reserve artillery, which the 
enemy had seized, and covering the retiring 
of a battery which had gone too far to the 
front. Veterans could hardly have acted 
more opportunely than did the gallant Fifth 
Minnesota on that occasion." The regi- 
ment was at first commanded by Col. Ru- 
dolph Borgesrode, and subsequently by Col. 
Lucius F. Hubbard. 

The Sixth Minnesota was organized in 
the summer of 1802. Its record of active 
service includes the Sioux War of 1862, in- 
cluding the engagement and rescue at Birch 
Coolie and the battle at Wood Lake; the 
Sibley expedition to the Missouri river in 
1863; and campaigns in Arkansas, Louisi- 



ana, and Alabama. The regiment was mus- 
tered out of service, August 19, 1865. 

The Sixth Regiment took a prominent 
part in the storming of Fort Blakely, one of 
the defenses of ifobile, on April 9, 1865. A 
member of the regiment says: ''We halted 
on the crest of a deep ravine about 4 P. M. 
for a few minutes, and amid a shower of 
bullets, crossed the creek and dislodged the 
enemy. The Sixth Regiment was marched 
in just under the brow of the hill, silently 
and unobserved by the enemy, and got into 
I)osition before dark. We were ordered to 
light no fires, and to be ready to move for- 
ward by midnight, but we were soon called 
on to furnish 125 men for guard. In our 
advance as guard, we drove the enemy from 
their advance rifle-pits. Following, we 
drove them from another line, and advanced 
our regimental front about 100 yards. Gen. 
("anby's forces captured Spanish Fort 
I he evening of April 8, and the long line of 
fortifi<ations at Blakely were assaulted and 
carried between 5 and 6 P. M., April 9. 
Promptly the men sprung to the worln. and 
the whole line moved forward over tor- 
pedoes, pits, wires, abatis, and ditches, un- 
til the forts were reached. The men did 
not heed the order to halt at the rifle-pits, 
but leaped the works of defense, and the 
<^'onfederates threw down their arms. It 
was one of the last chapters of conflict of 
Ihe war. On the very same day that Lee 
surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, our 
army in tlie far South had overthrown the 
great force massed to make a final stand 
for the Confederacy." The colonels of the 
Sixth Minnesota were ^^'illia^l Crooks and 
John T. Averill. 

The Seventh Minnesota was organized 
in August, 1802. After particii)ating in the 
Sioux War of 1802-63, it departed for the 
South. It upheld the honor of Minnesota 
at Tupelo, in canii)aigns in Mississijjpi, Ar- 
kansas, Tennessee, Louisiana, and Alabama, 
including the memorable battle of Nash- 
ville. Its service was concluded Aug. 16, 
1805. 

There is sjiace for only a single episode 
in one of the many battles in which the gal- 
lant Seventh distinguished itself. The Civil 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Wai- was ended in Tennessee when the 
Union army under Thomas annihilated 
Hood's armv in the battle of Nashville, 
Dee. 15 and 16, 18fi4. The Seventh Minne- 
sota was actively engajjed on both days. 
Of a jiortion of the second day's fight, one of 
its members says: ''Tlie first brigade of our 
division, nearly half a mile to our right, was 
seen to be moving forward; immediately the 
second brigade. Col, ITubbard commanding, 
swung forward across the field. Quickly 
Col. Marshall had our brigade in motion, 
the three brigades moving in echelon. The 
enemy opened a terrific fire of musketry and 
cannon all along the line; a battery directly 
in front of the Seventh throwing canister, 
shot, and shell so lively that the air was 
darkened; but all moved right along up to 
their works and over them, capturing a 
large number of prisoners and a Louisiana 
battery. This battery of four twelve-pound 
Napoleon guns was behind a stone fence 
that had gaps broken in it for the guns, 
through which our men rushed while the 
rebels were loading. Col. Marshall rode 
his little chestnut horse Don across the field 
with his men, guiding the colors, and was 
among the first over the rebel works. He 
rode onto a rebel gunner who tried to run 
away, and captured him. If the colonel had 
not carried his gauntlets doubled up in the 
breast of his coat, he would not have rid- 
den Don another day, for while we were 
waiting before this charge, they received a 
Minie-ball and saved his life." The colonels 
of the Seventh were Stephen Miller and 
William K. ]\[arshall. 

The Eighth Minnesota was organized in 
August 1862. It served in the Sioux War 
of 1862-63, and in the Sully expedition of 
1S64. It then went South and had the satis- 
faction of defeating the Confederate caval- 
ry leader Forrest at Murfreesboro, Dec. 7, 
1864, and thus helped Gen. Thomas to win 
his great victory at Nashville. It after- 
ward had a share in the operations in the 
east which resulted in Johnston's surrender 
to Sherman. The men of this regiment were 
discharged from the service at Fort Snelling 
just three years after their enlistment. 

The following incident occurred in the 



second battle of Murfreesboro, when Hood 
was pursuing the retreating forces of Thom- 
as, just eight days before the latter inflicted 
on him the crushing defeat of Nashville. 
Early on Dec, 7, 1864, the Eighth Minnesota 
was ordered out with other troops under 
(!en. Milroy, Col. Thomas of the Eighth com- 
manding a brigade, to find and feel of the 
enemy, and the skirmishers were soon ex- 
changing shots. As soon as there was 
fighting the Eighth was sent to the front, 
and seemed to be regarded as the most re- 
liable regiment in the command, its experi- 
ence in the Indian War giving it prestige 
and earning for it the title of the Indian 
regiment. Thomas' brigade was ordered 
to lie down, and an artillery duel took place 
over the heads of the men. The Union 
forces shifted position a number of times, 
and a rebel prisoner afterward explained it 
thus: ''We-uns changed front three times, 
and you-uns took us endwise every time." 
At length, under a sharp fire from a rebel 
battery, Thomas' brigade was formed in 
line of battle, and "Forward" was the order. 
The rebels had the exact range, and one of 
their shells struck Company F of the 
Eighth, killing several men. I'nder a heavy 
fire of artillery and musketry, the Union line 
juoved forward, charging across an open 
field upon the rebel position in the woods, 
the Eighth Regiment giving an Indian yell, 
and as the lines came together, the Confed- 
erates broke and left the field, totally rout- 
ed, leaving over 200 prisoners, two stand of 
colors, two cannons, and several \vagon- 
loads of small arms. After Hood's retreat, 
the Eighth received the thanks of Gen. 
Thomas for its share in securing the victory. 
The colonel of the Eighth Minnesota was 
Minor T. Thomas. 

The Ninth Minnesota was enlisted in 
August, 1862. It was at first engaged in 
the Sioux War. Its record also includes the 
battle of Guntown, Miss.; the battle of 
Tupelo; a campaign in Arkansas and Mis- 
souri in pursuit of Gen. Price; the battle of 
Nashville; and the Mobile campaign. The 
regiment was mustered out of the service at 
Fort Snelling, Aug. 24, 1865. 

The conduct of the Ninth Minnesota in 



History of the great northwest. 



battle was no less commendable than that 
of the other Minnesota troops. We select 
for our record, however, an act which while 
displaying no little courage, revealed in the 
hearts of the men that element of kindness 
which makes the whole world kin. Nov. 12, 
1863, a negro entered the camp of the regi- 
ment near Otterville, Mo,; said that he had 
traveled all night; that his wife and family 
had been taken from him to be shipped to 
Kentucky for sale; that the train bearing 
them away would reach Otterville in an 
hour; and he piteously begged the men to 
save his family. Forty-one men at once 
seized their guns; reached the station; 
stopped the train; and a sijuad stood guard 
over the engineer while others entered the 
cars, found the negroes, helped them alight, 
and told them to break for the woods. A 
Missouri military officer of high rank, re- 
volver in hand, tried to interfere, but with- 
out success. The same day the forty-one 
were arrested and were kept in the guard- 
house two months. On Jan. 11, 1S64, Senator 
Wilkinson presented a resolution in the 
United States senate, asking the secretary 
of war why certain Minnesota soldiers were 
detained in prison in Missouri, their only of- 
fense being the rescue of slaves from rebel 
sympathizers. The resolution was unan- 
imously adopted, and the next day the sec- 
retary telegraphed an order to release the 
men. 

Alexander Wilkin, the first colonel, was 
killed in the battle of Tupelo, July 14, 1864, 
The second colonel was Josiah F. Marsh, 

The Tenth Minnesota was organized as 
a regiment in October, 1S62. Its first serv- 
ice was in the Sioux War, and in Gen, Sib- 
ley's expedition of 186-3, It subsequently 
took jjart in the battle of Tupelo; the raid 
after Gen. Price; the battle of Nashville; 
and the capture of Spanish Fort near Mo 
bile. It was formally mustered out of the 
service, Aug, 18, 1865. Its colonel was 
James H. P.aker. 

We give a partial account of the dis- 
tinguished part taken by the Tenth in the 
battle of Nashville, Dec. 16, 1864. Gen. Mc- 
Arthur ordered the brigade to which the 
Tenth belonged to capture a hill occupied 



l>y the enemy, which formed the key-point 
to his works in front. Quietly and steadily 
the men moved down one hill and up the 
other to within a few feet of the enemy's 
parapet, when they received a volley which 
did severe execution in the Tenth. "Noth- 
ing daunted," says the brigade commander, 
"this gallant regiment, together with the 
others composing the front line cleared the 
enemy's works with a bound. Lieut. Col. 
Jennison, the commanding officer, was con- 
spicuous for his high daring. He fell, 
severely wounded, on the enemy's works." 

The Eleventh Minnesota was organized 
in August and September, 1S64, with James 
B. Gilfillan as colonel. Its service in the 
South consisted in guarding railroad com- 
munication between Nashville and Chatta- 
nooga. It was mustered out on the 11th of 
July, 1865. 

The First Regiment of Minnesota Mount- 
ed Rangers, under Col. Samuel McPhail did 
efficient service in the Sioux War. including 
the Sibley campaign of 1863, 

Many men of this regiment were promi- 
nently connected with the early history of 
Minnesota; they have filled various state of- 
fices, from governor on down ; they have held 
high rank in the state legislature and in the 
national congress; and have graced the 
bench and bar of Minnesota, 

The First Company of Minnesota Sharp- 
shooters became a part of the Second Regi- 
ment of the United States Sharpshooters; 
and the Second Company of Minnesota 
Sharpshooters was incorporated with the 
First United States Sharpshooters, Both 
served in the Army of the Potomac, and 
both received high praise for gallant con- 
duct. 

The Second Regiment of Minnesota Cav- 
alry came into existence on Jan, 11, 1864, 
It served with Gen, Sully on his expedition 
against the Indians. Its last company was 
mustered out :May 4, 1S66. Its colonel was 
Robert N. McLaren. 

Bracketfs Battalion of Cavalry (Major 
Alfred B. Brackett. commanding) consisted 
of four companies. It was recruited in Sep- 
tember, 1861, and was mustered out in June, 
1866. The list of its battles and campaigns 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



is a \oii<i one. It iududes Fort Donelson, 
Shilob, siege of Corinth, and Hully's cam- 
paign against tlie Indians. The saber 
charge at Wartrace, Oct. 6, 1863, and the sa- 
ber charge on the Fourth Alabama and Fifth 
Georgia on the Tennessee river four days 
later are mere incidents in the long series 
of marches, raids, skirmishes, and battles 
in which the battalion engaged. 

Hatch's Independent Battalion of Cav- 
alry included six companies, with Major E. 
A. C. Hatch (afterward, Lieut. Col. C. 
Powell Adams) in command. It was raised 
in 1863, and served in northern Dakota 
against the Indians. 

The First Regiment of Minnesota Heavy 
Artillery, under command of Col. William 
Colvill, commenced its organization in the 
summer of 1861. It did garrison duty at 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 

The First Minnesota Battery of Light 
Artillery, commanded by Capt. Emil Munch 
(afterward, by Capt. Wm. J. Clayton), en- 
tered the service Nov. 21, 1861, and was 
mustered out July 1, 1865. Its record of 
service includes the names of Shiloh, siege 
of Corinth, battle of Corinth, siege of Vicks- 
burg, campaign of Atlanta, march to the 
sea, and battle of Cheraw, S. C. 

The Second Minnesota Battery of Light 
Artillery, Capt. Wm. A. Hotchkiss, was 
mustered in, March 21, 1862, and mustered 
out Aug. 16, 1865. Its principal battles 
were Perryville, Stone river, Chickamauga, 
and Chattanooga. 

The Third Minnesota Battery of Light 
Artillery, Capt. John Jones, took part in 
Gen. Sibley's campaign against the Indians, 
in 1863, and in Gen. Sully's campaign the 
next year. In 1865-66, it accompanied an- 
other expedition into Dakota and was mus- 
tered out Feb. 27, 1866. 

THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR. 

The ten years' struggle of the Cubans 
for independence not only aroused the sym- 
pathy of our people, — it caused great mate- 
rial loss to us. The national honor was out- 
raged, moreover, by the wanton murder of 
the Americans in the Mrginius expedition. 
The renewal of Spanish oppression, and 



< 'uban resistance in 1895 resulted in the de- 
struction of our Cuban commerce and of the 
property of American citizens resident in 
Cuba. In the declaration of war made by 
congress in April. 1898, the justification for 
the war is set forth in these words: '"The 
abhorrent conditions which have existed for 
more than three years in the island of Cuba, 
so near our own borders, have shocked the 
moral sense of the people of the United 
States, have been a disgrace to Christian 
civilization, culminating, as they have, in 
the destruction of a United States battle- 
ship with 266 of its officers and crew, while 
on a friendly visit in the harbor of Havana, 
and cannot longer be endured." The war 
lasted three months and twenty-one days. 
The following are its principal events: May 
1, Commodore Dewey destroyed the Spanish 
fleet at Manila; July 3, Admirals Sampson 
and Schley destroyed the Spanish fleet near 
Santiago, Cuba; July 17, Santiago surren- 
dered to the American forces; August 12, 
peace protocol signed, and hostilities 
ceased; December 10. treaty of peace signed 
at Paris. There were about 300,000 Amer- 
icans engaged in the war, in both army and 
navy. Of these, one out of every thousand 
was killed in battle. Forty-three Spanish 
vessels were captured or destroyed. The 
treaty of peace provided that Spain should 
relinquish Cuba aud cede Porto Eico and the 
Philippines to the I'nited States, we paying 
her §20,000,000. 

The following table will show the part 
taken by Minnesota, North Dakota, South 
Dakota, and Montana, in the war: 





s 

1 


2i 

H 




c 
g 


Number of infantry regiments fur- 
nished 

Number of cavalry troops furnished 
Number of men furnished 


4 

7 
74 
86 


1 

2 

8.50 

14 
11 


1 

93 
- 37 


1 

'i.624' 
21 


Number wounded in action 


120 
16 







One Minnesota regiment, the Thirteenth 
Infantry, and one North Dakota regiment, 
the First Infantry, served in the Philippine 
islands. The First South Dakota and the 



i 



k 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



First ^Montana Infantry also served in the 
Philippines. The number reported above 
as "killed in action" includes those who died 
of wounds received in action. 

POLITICAL PARTIES. 

Every political paiiy is. at its inception, 
the outgrowth of some dominant idea. If 
the idea in which a party is rooted is one of 
permanent signiflcance, the party continues 
its existence indefinitely, sometimes with 
a change of name; if of temporary sig- 
nificance, the party dies when it has served 
its purpose. Even when a party degen- 
erates into a corporate scheme for promot- 
ing the selfish interests of its leaders at the 
expense of the people at large — even then, 
an idea or a set of related ideas is ostenta- 
tiously set forth in order to secure the sup- 
port of the conscientious and patriotic 
masses. 

It is proposed to set forth summarily in 
The following paragrajjhs, the ideas or prin- 
ciples on which the several national polit- 
ical parties of the present day are based, 
and to give a concise history of each of these 
parties. No mention will be made of the 
many ephemeral organizations — some of 
ihem serving important ends — which have 
sprung up, flourished, and expired since the 
establishment of the government. The 
parties will be treated in the order indicat- 
ed by the relative size of the popular vote 
cast for their candidates for the presidency 
on Nov. 6, 1900. 

THE REPUBLICAN PARTY. 

During the American Kevolution, there 
were two political parties, the Whig and 
the Tory. The former advocated independ- 
ence of f Jreat Britain, — the latter, a contin- 
uance of allegiance to that power. Two 
parties were developed in 1787 and 1788 
during the sessions of the convention which 
adopted our national constitution and the 
discussions in the several states upon its 
adoption. One of these parties favored the 
conferring of large powers ujjon the central 
government — the government of the United 
States — and reserving relatively little pow- 
er or subordinate powers, to the individual 
states. It wished the country to be a unit 

40 



— one strong federal union. It was claimed 
that large sovereign powers for the general 
government were implied in the constitu- 
tion as it was adopted, and it placed a lib- 
eral or loose construction upon such of its 
terms as favored its views. This party 
was therefore called the loose-construction- 
ist or Federalist party. Those who took the 
opposite view formed themselves into a 
party called the Anti-Federalist party. It 
favored a strict construction of the consti- 
tution — a construction which vested sov- 
ereignty in the individual .states. This par- 
ty adopted for itself the name of Republi- 
can. This name was soon changed to Dem- 
ocratic Republican, and it is now called the 
Democratic party. To avoid confusion we 
shall speak of it uniformly by that name. 
The Federalist party was practically shat- 
tered with .Jefferson's election in 1800. Its 
fragments reunited under the name Nation- 
al Rej.ublican, in lsi>5, securing the election 
of .Jolin Quincy Adams in the house of rep- 
resentatives. In 1834, its members adopt- 
ed the title of the ^^'hig party. The organi- 
zation which to-day bears the name of the 
Republican party was formed in the year 
1856. It is the lineal descendant of the 
Federalist party of Washington, the Nation- 
al Republican party of John Quincy Adams, 
and the \Miig jtarty of Henry Clay. 

George Washington was the first Fed- 
eralist president. The question of his elec- 
tion created no division; the choice was 
unanimous,— Federalists and Anti-Federal- 
ists alike voted for him. During his 
presidency, the French Revolution was 
in progress, and Great Britain was at 
war with France. It was natural that 
Americans should sympathize with the 
French people, from whose government 
they had received substantial aid in 
their struggle for independeme. Jefferson, 
the Anti-Federalist leader, was desirous of 
having this government give assistance to 
its late ally. Washington, however, main- 
tained a strict neutrality, and negotiated a 
treaty (Jay's treaty) with England, thus 
giving great offence to the opposition. In 
the administration of John Adams (1797- 
180V), the second Federalist president, the 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Alien and Sedition laws were jiassed. The 
Alien law conferred npon tlie president the 
power to send out of the country any for- 
eigners who should conspire against the 
peace of the United States, and the Sedition 
law provided that any one who should 
malign the president or congress might be 
fined and imprisoned. These laws were 
very unjiopular, and having been enacted 
by a Federalist congress, led to the defeat of 
the party at the next election. 

During the administration of John 
Quincy Adams (lS25-2!t), the more conserv- 
ative elements iu the Democratic Repub- 
lican (Democratic) party gradually came to- 
gether, and, about 1830, adopted the name 
of National Republican, which was, not long 
after, changed to WJiig. It favored a na- 
tional bank, internal improvements carried 
on by the general government, and a pro- 
tective tariif. In 1840, the \Miigs elected 
William Henry Harrison as president, and 
John Tyler as vice president. Harrison 
died one month after his inaguration, and 
soon after, Tyler broke with his party by 
liis veto of the national bank act. Henry 
Clay, whom the Whigs nominated in 1844, 
-was defeated by the Liberty (Abolition) 
party, which was composed of the most rad- 
ical elements among the Whigs. In 1846, 
the Wilmot Proviso was introduced into 
congress. It provided that slavery should 
not be permitted in any territory we might 
acquire from Mexico. It was supported by 
northern, but opposed by southern Whigs. 
Zachary Taylor was elected by the Whigs 
in 1848, on his military record. The ques- 
tion of slavery divided the northern from 
the southern Whigs, — the northern wing 
opposing the extension of slavery into new 
territory. Winfield Scott, the Whig candi- 
date in 1852, was comi)letely defeated, and 
the party was broken up. A part of it 
joined the new American party whose ral- 
lying cry was "American-born rulers for 
America"; the border state Whigs formed 
the Constitutional Union Party — a compro- 
mise party devoted to the preservation of 
the Union; the southern portion united with 
the Democrats; and the northern Whigs 
were swallowed up in the Republican party. 



The name of the new party was suggest- 
ed at a meeting of a number of Whig con- 
gressmen, and was first formally adopted 
at a convention held in Michigan, in 1854. 
The bulk of the Free Soil Party — which had 
voted for Van Buren and Adams, in 1848 — 
drifted into the Republican party. A na- 
tional convention held in 1856 nominated 
John C. Fremont on a platform which de- 
clared against the repeal of the Missouri 
compromise and the extension of slavery, 
and in favor of aid to a Pacific railroad, of 
the admission of Kansas as a free state, 
and of the improvement of certain rivers and 
harbors by the general government. Fre- 
mont was defeated by a small majority. 

The Republican party had its great 
strength in the north. It was solidified 
and enlarged by the uncompromising at- 
titude of the slave power, adding largely 
to its numbers from Democrats and others 
who, on moral and economic grounds, 
were opposed to the extension of slavery. 
The platform of 1860 included the planks of 
1856 and added two, demanding a protective 
tariff and condemning threats of secession. 
Abraham Lincoln was nominated and elect- 
ed. In view of Republican anti-slavery prin- 
ciples, many of the southern states became 
alarmed for the existence of slavery and se- 
ceded from the Union, thus precipitating 
the Civil War. In 1868, Ulysses S. Grant 
was elected on a platform which declared 
for equal suffrage to all loyal men in the 
south, liberal pensions for soldiers and sail- 
ors, the encouragement of foreign immigra- 
tion, and the removal of the restrictions im- 
posed on the late rebels provided they mani- 
fested a loyal spirit. The thirteenth, four- 
teenth and fifteenth amendments to the con- 
stitution, which were Republican measures, 
were adopted in 1865, 1868 and 1870, respec- 
tively. The thirteenth prohibited slavery 
for the future; the fourteenth protected the 
rights of freedmen, prohibited office-holding 
l>y the late rebels who had held office before 
the rebellion, and forbade the payment of 
the Confederate debt; and the fifteenth pro- 
vided that the right to vote should not be 
denied on account of race, color, or previous 
condition of servitude. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Ill 1870, Eutlierford P.. Hayes was the 
Republican nominee. The jihitfnrni de- 
clared that the T'nited States is a nation 
and not a lea<;ue; that i)nblic funds oujiht 
not to be used to support scliools under sec- 
tarian control; that no furtlier grants of 
public lands should be made to corpora- 
tions; that the honest demands of women 
for additional privileges should he consid- 
ered; that polygamy should be extirpated 
from the territories; and that T'nited States 
notes should be redeemed in coin. When 
the returns of the vote for president were 
made it was found that four of the states 
had sent in two sets each of official returns. 
These states were South Carolina, Florida, 
Louisiana, and Oregon. If the electoral 
votes of all these states were cast for 
Hayes, he would have a majority of one in 
the electoral college. To pass upon the 
conflicting returns, the electoral commis- 
sion was created by an act of congress, ap- 
jjioved January 29, 1S77. The commission, 
composed of five justices of the sui)renie 
court, five senators and five representa- 
tives, ruled that in the case of each of the 
four states, the Hayes electors were the 
ones whose \otes should be received. The 
house of rei)reseiitatives voted to reject the 
report of the commission and the senate to 
accept it. As a concurrent vote of the two 
houses was necessary to reject, the decision 
of the commission was binding and Hayes 
became president. 

On the 2l2d of June. 1877, Tresident 
Hayes issued the following regulation: 

"Xo officer should be recjutred or permit- 
ted to take part in the management of polit- 
ical organizations, caucuses, conventions, 
or election cam]>aigns. Their right to vote 
and to exjiress their views on public ijues- 
tions, either orally or through the yjress, is 
not denied, jirovided it does not interfere 
with the discharge of their official duties. 
No assessment for political purposes on otfi- 
lers or subordinates should be allowed." 

The national convention of the Kei)ubl le- 
an ])arty was held in Chicago, in 1880. The 
platfoiui realfirmed the principle that "the 
constitution of the United States is a su- 
preme law and not a mere contract. Out 



of confederate states it made a sovereign 
nation." It further declared that revenue 
duties "sliould so discriminale as to favor 
American labor"; that Chinese immigration 
ought to be restricted; and that honest vot- 
ers in the south "must be protected agiiinst 
terrorism, violence, or fraud." On this i)lat- 
forin, James A. (iarfield was nominated and 
elected. Four months after his inaugura- 
lion, he was shot by an assassin, and the 
vice ])resident, Chester A. Arthur, succeetl- 
ed him. 

James (1. Blaine was noininated in Chi- 
cago, in 1884. The platform called for pro- 
tective duties on wool, for an international 
standard for the relative value of gold and 
silver coinage; the regulation of interstate 
commerce; civil service reform ; the enlarge- 
ment of the navy; and encouragement to 
the merchant marine. Blaine was defeated. 
In 1888, the Republicans elected their can- 
didate, Benjamin Harrison. The ])latform 
adopted in Chicago said: ''We are uncom- 
promisingly in favor of protection;" "\\'e 
declare our opposition to * * * trusts 
* * * to control the conditions of trade;" 
we arc "in favor of the use of both gold and 
silver as money;" "We demand the reduc- 
tion of letter postage to one cent i)er ounce." 
The Rejiublican convention of 18!)2 met in 
Minneai)olis. Harrison was renominated 
but was not elected. William McKinley was 
elected in 1896, and again in 19(M). Theplat- 
foi'iiis reaffirmed Rejiublican ])rinciples as 
previously set forth, and added (h^clarations 
in favor of a gold standard and in opjKisi 
tion to the free and unlimited coinage of 
silver; in favor of the construction by the 
govei-iiment of an isthmian canal; and ac- 
cepting the res])oiisibility of United States 
sovereignty in I'orto Kico and the Philip- 
pines. 

THE DEMOCR.iTIC r'ARTY. 

This party, which has been known, at 
(litfereiit periods, as the Anti-Federalist, the 
Republican, the Democratic Republican, 
and, finally, the Democratic party, has as 
its fuiKhimental pi'inciple the limitation of 
the powers of the federal government to 
those granted in the letter of the constitu- 



51 



U. OF ILL LIB. 






HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



tion, and the increase of the direct influence 
of the people in the conduct of the govern- 
ment. 

Thomas Jefferson, the first Democratic 
president, deviated from the principle of 
strict construction in the purchase of Lou- 
isiana, but all parties have since approved 
his action. To protect the manufactures 
that had grown up during the War of 1812, 
and to relieve the financial difficulties 
caused by the war, the party adopted a pro- 
tective tariff and established a national 
bank in Madison's administration. In 1832, 
a distinctively southern, and pro-slavery 
faction of the party, under the leadership 
of John C. Calhoun, threatened nullification 
and secession, but Andrew Jackson, a Dem- 
ocratic president, saved the Union by the 
wise measures he took. The ascendency of 
the Calhoun wing committed the party, in 
1844, to the annexation of Texas. Calhoun 
was a keen logician, strictly consistent, 
thoroughly honest, pure in his private char- 
acter, and unreservedly committed to the 
maintenance of slavery. "Texas must be 
acquired," he declared in the senate, "by 
purchase, if possible, — by war, if necessary, 
in the interest of our peculiar institution." 
Under the Democratic president, -James K. 
Polk, we acquired California and other ter- 
ritory from Mexico, and cleared up our title 
to Oregon by treaty with Great Britain. In 
1853, Franklin Pierce, a northern Demo- 
crat, was elected president. The northern 
Democrats did not favor slavery, but for 
the sake of party and national union they 
refrained from opposition to it. 

Under Stephen A. Douglas' Kansas-Ne- 
braska bill, in 1854, these states were per- 
mitted to enter the Union with constitu- 
tions prohibiting or permitting slavery, as 
the people should vote. When Kansas was 
admitted as a free state, the Calhoun wing 
of the party proclaimed the doctrine of the 
duty of government to protect slavery. In 
the party convention, held in Charleston in 
I860, a split occurred. Douglas was nomi- 
nated for the presidency on the principle of 
"popular sovereignty," but the Calhoun 
wing withdrew, and afterward, in a conven- 
tion held in Baltimore, nominated John C. 



Breckenridge. This division resulted in 
tlie election of the Republican nominee, 
Abraham Lincoln. 

In 1864, the Democrats nominated 
(leorge B. McClellan, and in 1868, Horatio 
Seymour for the presidency. The platform 
adopted in New York in 1868 recognized the 
(juestions of slavery and secession as hav- 
ing been settled for all time. It d<'manded 
The immediate restoration of the seceded 
states to the Union; amnesty for political 
offenders, abolition of "all political instru- 
mentalities designed to secure negro su- 
premacy"; and the grateful remembrance of 
the soldiers and sailors who "carried the 
flag of our country to victory against the 
most gallant and determined foe." 

Samuel J. Tilden, the nominee of the 
party in 1876, had a majority of the popu- 
lar vote, but the electoral commission gave 
the election to R. B. Hayes, the Republican 
candidate. In 1880, Winfield S. Hancock • 
was nominated on a platform which pro- 
claimed the principles of opposition to cen- 
tralization; a tarift' for revenue only; civil 
service reform; free ships; and "no more 
Chinese immigration." The platform of 
1884, on which Grover Cleveland was elect- 
ed, modified the tariff plank so as to call for 
revenue reform rather than a tariff for rev- 
enue only. The platform of 1892 reaffirmed 
the historic principles of the party. "We 
hold," it added, "to the use of both gold and 
silver as the standard money of the coun- 
try." Mr. Cleveland was in that year elect- 
ed for the second time. 

The Democratic national convention of 
1896 met in Chicago. July 7. The candidate 
nominated for the presidency was William 
Jennings Bryan, of Nebraska. The plat- 
form announced the adherence of the party 
to the principles of "freedom of speech, 
freedom of the press, freedom of conscience, 
the preservation of personal rights, the 
equalitj- of all citizens before the law, and 
the faithful observance of constitutional 
limitations." The platform further de- 
clares: "We demand the free and unlimit- 
ed coinage of both silver and gold at the 
present legal ratio of 16 to 1, without wait- 
ing for the aid or consent of any other na- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



tion;" "We denounce the issuance of notes 
intended to circulate as money by national 
banks;" "We bold that tariff duties should 
be levied for purposes of revenue;" "We are 
in favor of the arbitration of differences be- 
tween employers * * * and employes;" 
"we especially object to government by in- 
junction." The National Democratic ])arty 
(Sound Money Democrats) nominated John 
M. Palmer, of Illinois, for the presidency. 
The most notable planks in its platform — 
those which indicated its diverjience from 
the Bryan democracy — declared that gold is 
the necessary money of the large affairs of 
business and should be the standard of mon- 
etary measure; and that the independence 
and authority of the supreme court must be 
maintained. "We condemn all efforts to 
degrade that tribunal, or impair the confi- 
dence and respect which it has deservedly 
held." The last clause is a reply to that 
plank in the Chicago platform which de- 
nounced government by injunction. 

The Democrats at their convention held 
at Kansas City in July, 1900, renominated 
Mr. Bryan, who had been defeated in ISOfi. 
The platform condemned the policy of the 
McKinley administration with reference to 
Porto Eico, Cuba, and the Philippines; op- 
posed militarism, private monopolies, and 
subsidies to American shipping; and reaf- 
firmed the doctrine of the free and unlimit- 
ed coinage of gold and silver at the ratio 
of 16 to 1. In the election that followed, 
Mr. Bryan was again defeated. The Anti- 
Imperialists, in a convention held at Indian- 
apolis, in August, 1!)00, endorsed Mr. Bi-y- 
an's candidacy, and adopted a platform in 
which President McKinley was denounced 
for having undertaken to sulijugate a for- 
eign people (the Filipinos) "who are of right 
free and independent." The Silver Repub- 
licans endorsed, in 1000, Mr. Bryan's nomi- 
nation. 

THE PROHIBITION PARTY. 

The object of the Prohibitionists is to 
secure the passage of laws prohibiting the 
manufacture and sale of intoxicating li(i- 
uors, except for manufacturing industries, 
science, and art. Such a law was passed in 



Maine in 1840 and has rciiiained on the stat- 
ute books ever since. Several other states 
have also adopted ])roliibifory legislation. 
Most of the states prohibit the sale of 
liquor to minors and on Sundays. The first 
national convention of the party was held 
in 1S72. The names of the presidential can- 
didates and the ])Oi)ular vote (in round num- 
bers) for each quadrennium is as follows: 
1872, James Black, 0,000; 1876, Green Clay 
Smith, 10,000; 1880, Neal Dow, 12,000; 1884, 
John 1*. St. John, 151,000; 1888, Clinton B. 
Fisk, 250,000; 1892, John Bidwell, 270,000; 
1896, Joshua Levering, 140,000; 1900, John 
(i. Woolley, 197,000. The platform of 1900 
arraigns the president for permitting the 
sale of liquor in the army exchange or can- 
teen. 

THE PEOPLE'S PARTY. 

The first national convention was held 
at Omaha in 1892. The party stands for 
the free coinage of silver and gold; a vol- 
ume of money equal to not less than |50 per 
capita; an income tax; government o^yner- 
ship of railroads, and telegraph and tele- 
phone lines; an eight-hour law; popular in- 
itiative and referendum; the establishment 
of postal savings banks; and the election of 
president, vice president and senators by di- 
rect vote of the people. The candidate for 
president in 1892 was James B. Weaver, 
who received a popular vote of 1,042,531. 
In 1890 and 1898, this party endorsed the 
Democratic candidate, Mr. Bryan. A wing 
of this party refused to indorse Jlr. Bryan 
for the presidency in 1900, and, under the 
name of Populist (Jliddle of the Road), held 
a convention in Cincinnati, at which Whar- 
ton Barker was nominated for president 
and Ignatius Donnelly for vice president. 
The platform was substantially like that 
adopted at Omaha, but with this addition: 
an irredeemable, legal tender, paper money 
issued by government. 

THE SOCIALIST LABOR PARTY. 

The first national convention under the 
above name was held in New York on Au- 
gust 28, 1892, and nominated Simon Wing 
lor president. In 1896, the nominee was 



UISTORY OF THE (JUEAT XORTIIWEST. 



Charles H. Matchett. and in 1000, Joseph F. 
Maloney. The popular vote for this party 
was 39,000 in 18!t(>. and 32,433 in 1000. This 
party demands government ownership, free 
use of inventions, income tax, compulsory 
education, employment by the government 
of the unemployed, equal wages for men 
and women, abolition of the veto power, 
abolition of the senate and all upper legis- 
lative chambers, female suffrage, free ad- 
ministration of justice, and abolition of cap- 
ital punishment, — also several things in- 
cluded in the platform of the People's par- 
ty. The ^^ocial Democratic party, in 1896, 
nominated Eugene V. Debs for the presi- 
dency. It declares the supreme political is- 
sue to be "the contest between the working 
class and the capitalist." Its demands are 
nearly identical with those of the Socialist 
Labor party, with the addition of national 
insurance of working people against acci- 
dents, lack of emi)loyment, and want in old 
age. 

The I'nion Reform party believes in "di- 
rect legislation under the system known as 
the initiative and referendum." The presi- 
dential candidate in 100(1 was Seth H. Ellis, 
of Ohio. Jonah F. R. Leonard was, in the 
same year, the candidate of the United 
Christian party; the principles contended 
for are Christian government, observance 
of the Christian Sabbath, the daily reading 
of the bible in schools, etc. 

POLITICS IN THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 

Minnesota was admitted into the T'niou 
in 1S5S. The first governor, H. H. Sibley, 
was a Democrat. Tlie twelve succeeding 
governors were Republican. In 1808, John 
Liud, a Democrat, was elected, and in 1000, 
Samuel R. ^'an Sant, a Republican. In 
1896, the popular vote was as follows: For 



president, McKinley, 193,503, Bryan, 139,- 
735; foi- governor, D. M. Clough (Rep.), 165,- 
006, John Lind (Fusion-Dem.-Pop.), 162,254. 
In 1808, for governor, Lind (Fusion), 132,- 
024; Eustis (Rij).), 111,025. In 1000, for 
president, McKinley, 188,015, Bryan, 111,- 
400; for governor, Van Sant (Rep.), 152,966, 
Liud (Fusion), 150,567. 

North Dakota has cast a majority of its 
votes for Republican presidents and govern- 
ors at every election since its admission as 
a state in 1889. In 1806, the popular vote 
was, for president, McKinley, 26,335, Bry- 
an, 20,586; for governor, Briggs (Rep.), 25,- 
018, Richardson (Fusion), 20,600. In 1898, 
for governor, Fancher (Rep.), 27,087, 
Holmes (Fusion), 10,620. In 1000, for presi- 
dent, McKinley, 35,801, Bryan, 20,519; for 
governor, Frank White (Rep.), 34,052, M. A. 
Whippoimann (Fusion), 22,275. 

South Dakota became a state in 1889. 
Her popular vote for the past few years has 
been as follows: In 1896, for president, 
Bryan, 41,225, McKinley, 41,042; for gov- 
ernor, Lee (Pop.), 41,187, Ringerud (Rep.), 
40,868; in 1898, for governor, Lee (Fusion), 
37,319, Phillips (Rep.), 36,949; in 1900, for 
president, McKinley, 54,530, Bryan, 39,544; 
for governor, C. N. Herried (Rep.), 58,803, 
B. H. Lien (Fusion), 40,091. 

Montana, since its admission to the Un- 
ion in 1889, has elected one governor on the 
Democratic ticket, two on the Republican 
ticket, and three on a Fusion ticlcet. Since 
and including 1806, the popular vote has 
been as follows: In 1806, for president, 
Bryan, 42,537, ilcKinley, 10,404; for gov- 
ernor, Robert B. Smith (Fusion), 36,688,* 
Botkin (Rep.), 14,003; in 1808. for governor, 
Robert B. Smith re-elected; in 1000, for 
]iresident, Bryan. 37,146, McKinley, 25,373; 
for governor, Joseph K. Toole (F\ision), 31,- 
410, David E. Folsom (Rep.), 22,691. 



I 



HISTORY OF MINNESOTA. 



An early inhabitant of the tounti y lying 
between the St. Croix river and the Red 
River of the North would need to have been 
a well-informed man in order to answer cor- 
rectly the question "^Vhere do you live?" 
If living in the year 1S60, he might claim 
the singular experience of having resided in 
seven territories and states without having 
changed his location. He might, when our 
Civil War broke out, have truthfully made 
this statement: "I am sixty years of age. 
I have always lived where I do now. My 
father announced mj' birth to grandmother 
in a letter dated Northwest Territory, July 
12, 1801. When I was seven years old, a 
trapper who stayed with us over night at 
our cabin in Indiana, told us that a Mr. Ful- 
ton had, the year before, sailed on some 
eastern river in a boat propelled by steam. 
We lived in Illinois during the War of 1812, 
and the news of the admission of Missouri 
reached us at our home in Michigan. We 
Wisconsin people were little disturbed by 
the fighting at Cerro Gordo and Buena Vis- 
ta, but, in common with other dwellers in 
the Territory of Minnesota, I was intensely 
interested in the compromise measures of 
1850. I have all this time been living in St. 
Paul, which is now in the State of Minnesota. 
^ly friend, who has lived just across the 
river, near Fort Snelling, for thirty years, 
has in that time resided successively in Loui- 
siana, Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota." 

LOCATION AND AREA. 

The state of Minnesota occupies the ex- 
act center of the North American continent, 
midway between the Atlantic and Pacific 
oceans, and also midway between Hudson's 
bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Iowa is on the 
south. South Dakota and North Dakota on 
ihe west, Manitoba and Ontario on the 
north, and Wisconsin on the east. The 
state extends from 43 degrees 50 minutes to 



■J!< degrees north latitude, and from 89 de- 
grees 2!l minutes to 97 degrees 5 minutes 
west longitude. It contains 84,287 square 
miles, or about 5.3,943,:579 acres. For every 
fifteen sections of land in Minnesota there 
is a square mile of lake. The name of the 
state is therefore a peculiarly appropriate 
one, signifying sky-tinted water. 

EARLY EXPLORATIONS AND SETTLE- 
MENTS. 

In 1035, Jean Nicollet, a French youth of 
great promise, having wintered on Lake 
Michigan, told in Montreal of the Minneso- 
ta country then inhabited only by Dakota 
and Ojibway (Chippewa) Indians. Several 
years before the first settlements were made 
in the Carolinas, eastern Minnesota wjjs ex- 
plored by two French fur traders who are 
distinguished as being the first white men 
to visit the country now called Minnesota. 
They spent the winter of 1658-59 in the vi- 
cinity of Mille Lacs. These men were Pe- 
ter Esprit Radisson and his brother-in-law, 
Des Groseilliers. A thrilling narrative of 
Kadisson's voyages has recently come to 
light in the discovery of a set of manu- 
scripts written by himself and which, for 
two hundred years, escaped the attention of 
scholars in the Bodleian Library and the 
British Museum. In 1679, Daniel Du Luth 
led a party of traders to the western end 
of Lake Superior, and held a council with 
the Sioux near the site of the city which 
bears his name. The next spring, he ex- 
plored the St. Croix river, and at its mouth 
met the Dutch Franciscan priest, Louis 
Hennepin, who had in that same year dis- 
covered the Falls of St. Anthony. Eight 
years later, Nicholas I'errot built a fort on 
Lake I'epin, near the site of Lake City, and 
formally claimed the country for France. 
Le Sueur fortified an island in the Missis- 
sippi, near Hastings, in 1696, and four years 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



later established a fort on the Mahkahto or 
Blue Earth river, near the mouth of the Le 
Sueur. Here he supplied the Indians with 
guns and ammunition in exchange for furs. 

In 1763, at the close of the French and 
Indian War, France ceded to Spain all her 
territory between the Mississippi river and 
the Rocky Mountains, and to Great Britain 
the country between the Mississippi and 
the Alleghanies. Captain Jonathan Carver, 
a native of Connecticut, visited the Minne- 
sota country in 17G6. He claimed to have 
made a treaty with the Indians in Carver's 
Cave (St. Paul), in which they ceded him 
an immense tract of land. The government 
did not recognize his claim. In 1783, Great 
Britain relinquished her claim to all terri- 
tory south of Canada and east of the Mis- 
sissippi to the United States. Eastern 
Minnesota formed part of the Northwest 
Territory, for the government of which the 
famous Ordinance of 1787 was passed. In 
1803, the United States acquired western 
Minnesota as part of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase. In the same year, William Morrison 
discovered the source of the Mississippi, 
and about thirty years later, Henry R. 
Schoolcraft found a name for the lake in 
which the river rises, by uniting the middle 
portions of the Latin words signifying 
truth and source — ver-itas ca-put. Fort 
Snelling was established in 1819, and fifteen 
years later, Gen. H. H. Sibley made a per- 
manent settlement at Mendota. 

St. Paul was founded in 1838. In that 
year, Pierre Parrant built a trading shanty 
on the site of that city, and in 1840, a Cath- 
olic chapel was erected, and consecrated to 
Saint I'aul, whose name was afterward 
adopted for the capital city. Stillwater was 
settled in 1843 and a saw mill was imme- 
diately erected there. Another saw mill 
was commenced in 1847 at the Falls of St. 
Anthony. 

THE TERRITORY. 

On the third of March, 1849, congress 
passed a bill organizing the Territory of 
Minnesota with its boundaries extending to 
the Missouri river, and Alexander Ramsey 
was appointed its first governor, serving 



four years. The succeeding territorial gov- 
ernors were Willis A. Gorman, 1853-57, and 
Samuel Medary, 1857-58. When Governor 
Ramsey arrived in St. Paul, May 27, 1849, 
no suitable accommodations could be found 
for himself and family, and he became the 
guest of H. H. Sibley, at Mendota. These 
two gentlemen were at that time intimately 
associated for several weeks with two oth- 
ers — Henry M. Rice and Franklin Steele. 
"These four men,"' says Judge Flandrau, 
"have been more prominent in the develop- 
ment of the state than any others. All of 
them have been honored by having impor- 
tant counties named after them, and by be- 
ing chosen to fill high places of honor and 
trust." The population of the territory at 
this time was 4,764 — about equal to the 
l^resent population of St. Peter. In that 
year, there were about 500 peojjle in what 
is now Minneapolis, 609 in Stillwater, 840 
in St. Paul, and 33 in Red Wing. In eight 
years, the population of the state had 
grown to 150,037 — an increase of about 
3,150 per cent. 

Judge Charles E. Flandrau, in his "His- 
tory of Minnesota," says: "In my opinion, 
the first great achievement of the first legis- 
lature was the incorporation of the Histor- 
ical Society of Minnesota * * » and 
now possesses its greatest intellectual and 
moral treasure in a library of historical 
knowledge of sixty-three thousand volumes, 
which is steadily increasing, a valuable mu- 
seum of curiosities, and a gallery of histor- 
ical paintings." The motto engraved on the 
first seal of the supreme court was "Fiat 
justitia ruat coelum" — "Let justice be done' 
though the heavens fall." It is said that 
one of the judges interpreted it thus: 
"Those who defy justice will rue it when 
we seal 'em." 

The Mississippi was, in territorial days, 
navigable for steamboats to the Falls of St. 
Anthony and for a considerable distance 
above. Steamboats ran regularly . up the 
river to Mankato, and sometimes reached 
the mouth of the Yellow Medicine. 

The first Minnesota newspaper was the 
Minnesota Register, the first number of 
which bears the date of St. Paul, April 27, 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



1849. The first number of the Pioneer was 
published one day later. The St. Taul 
Press was established on the first of Janu- 
ary, 1861. The two last-mentioned were 
united on April 11, 1875, to form the jour- 
nal which has since that date existed under 
the name of the St. Paul Pioneer Press. The 
iirst daily in Minneapolis was the Tribune, 
the initial number being dated May 25, 
1867. There are now about 580 newspapers 
jtublished in the state. 

The railroad system of Minnesota had 
its beginning in the Minnesota & Pacific, 
which, in the latter part of 1861, operated a 
road ten miles long, running from St. Paul 
to St. Anthony. This road has grown into 
the Great Northern, which now runs its 
trains from St. Paul to the Pacific ocean. 
There are, in round numbers, about 6,100 
miles of railroad now operated in Minneso- 
ta,, on a capital stock of about $264,327,000. 

THE STATE. 

On February 26, 1857, congress passed 
an act authorizing the people of Minnesota 
to form a state government. On October 
13, of the same year, the people adopted a 
constitution, and in the act of admission in- 
to the Union passed May 11, 1858, Minne- 
sota was "declared to be one of the United 
States of America." The state at that time 
contained a population of 150,037. The 
United States censuses since 1858 show the 
following totals: 1860, a population of 172,- 
023; in 1870, a population of 439,706; in 
1880, a population of 780,773; in 1800, a pop- 
ulation of 1,301,826; and in 1900, a popula- 
tion of 1,751,.3!)4. Minneapolis, which first 
appeared in the national census of 1860, bad 
at that time 2,564 inhabitants; the city now 
numbers 202,718. The census of 1850 gave 
St. Paul 1,112; that of 1900 gave her 163,- 
065. In 1870, Duluth numbered 3,131; in 
1900, her population was 52,969. The pop- 
ulation of Winona in 1900 was 19,714; Still- 
water, 12,318; and Mankato, 10,599. 

The first biennial session of the state 
legislature was held in 1881, the sessions 
previous to that having been held annually. 
The Australian system of voting was intro- 
duced at the general election of 1892. 



The names of the state governors, with 
their terms of service, are as follows: 
Henry H. Sibley, 1858-60; Alexander Ram- 
sey, 1860-63; Henry A. Swift, 1863-64; Ste- 
phen Miller, 1864-06; William R. Marshall, 
1866-70; Horace Austin, 1870-74; Oushman 
K. Davis, 1874-76; John S. Pillsbury, 1876- 
82; Lucius F. Hubbard, 1882-87; A. R. Mc- 
Gill, 1887-89; William R. Merriam, 1889-93; 
Knute Nelson, 1893-95; David M. Clough, 
1895-99; John Lind, 1899-1901; Samuel R. 
Van Sant, 1901—. 

THE LUMBERING INDDSTEY. 

While generally considered a prairie 
state, Minnesota is bountifully supplied 
with timber, and a large portion of it is cov- 
ered with dense forests. A strip of hard 
wood timber extending in a general north 
and south direction through the middle of 
the state contains about 5,000 square miles, 
and is called the "Big Woods." That por- 
tion of the state between the Mississippi 
and St. Croix rivers is well wooded, the 
northern portion of it consisting of Aten- 
sive jjineries. 

In 1847, Mr. Daniel Stanchfield explored 
the Rum river and its tributaries. He 
says: "The discovery by the exploring 
party of the almost inexhaustible pine tim- 
ber above the falls of St. Anthony, heralded 
throughout all the states and Canada, 
brouglit immigration from every state, and 
changed this part of the territory from bar- 
barism to civilization." Billions of feet of 
pine that grew on the shores of Rum river 
have since been cut and made into lumber. 
The report made by Mr. Stanchfield on his 
return from his exploring expedition result- 
ed in the construction of a dam, the build- 
ing of a saw mill and the manufacture of 
lumber in Minneapolis — or St. Anthony, as 
it was then called. The first supply of logs 
for the new mill to work up was obtained 
from the Crow Wing river. A bargain was 
made with the Ojibway chief, Hole-in-the- 
Day, by which the latter was to receive fifty 
cents for each tree (pine) hauled to the riv- 
er, and, in addition, five pairs of blankets, 
some calico and broadcloth, and a pony. 
One and a half million feet of logs were cut 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



the first winter, besides timber for a mile 
aud a half of boom. 

About the same time, the government 
erected a saw mill near Long Prairie. 

The saw mill at St. Anthony began work 
September 1, 1848, and ran night and day 
to supply lumber for building the houses of 
imnngrants. The next year, a gang saw 
mill aud two shingle mills were added. lu 
1856, the surveyor general scaled over six 
million feet of logs for one St. Paul firm, 
and many rafts of logs were floated to St. 
Louis in that year. In 1850, over six mil- 
lion feet of pine logs were driven to St. An- 
thony from the Rum river country. The 
St. Anthony mills had at this time two 
gangs and three single saws running, be- 
sides two shingle mills. Many logs went to 
the St. Paul boom for markets farther down 
the river. In the year 1857, the cut and 
drive of logs on the upper Mississippi and 
Rum river exceeded forty-four million feet. 

In the winter of 1853-54 the first dam 
and saw mill were built at Anoka. In the 
same county, mills were built between 1854 
and 1857, near Centerville, at St. Francis 
and at Columbus. 

The manufacture of lumber was extend- 
ed by the building of mills at Orono in 1851, 
at Princeton in 1856, at Monticello in 1855- 
56, at Clearwater in 1856 and 1858, at St. 
Cloud in 1855 (by Wilson, Brott, AVelles, 
and Stearns), and 1857 (by Raymond and 
Owen), at Watab in 1856 (by Place, Hanson, 
and Clark), at Little Falls in 1849 (by James 
Green), and in 1856-58 (by the Little Falls 
Manufacturing company), near the mouth 
of Swan river in 1856 (by Anson Northrup), 
and on the SkuJik river, Morrison county, in 
1858. 

Preliminary to the establishment of a 
saw mill or the cutting of timber in the pin- 
eries of the upper Mississippi came the 
work of the "cruiser" whose office was to 
Iirospect or cruise in search of the most de- 
sirable areas for lumbering, to determine the 
areas occui)ied by pine timber available for 
logging and to estimate the amounts that 
would be yielded from different tracts on 
the streams of the region. It was the cus- 
tom of the cruiser to supply himself with 



some provisions, a blanket, a rifle or shot- 
gun, with ammunition, aud matches to start 
the nightly campfire, and then to go alone 
or with one or two comrades, into the path- 
less forests, there to collect the information 
and estimates needed, remaining weeks or 
sometimes even months in the woods, and 
subsisting mostly on game, fish and berries. 

"The first great gold mine of the North- 
west was its pine timber, which was taken 
from the red man almost without compensa- 
tion. From the ui)per Mississippi region, 
above the falls of St. Anthony, it has (up to 
1900) yielded twelve billion feet of lumber, 
having a value, at the places where it was 
sawn, of not less than |75,000,000. This 
great lumber industry, more than all our 
other resources, built up the cities and 
towns on the upper Mississippi and its trib- 
utaries, at these falls and northward." 

It will be interesting to compare meth- 
ods of lumbering in the fifties with those in 
vogue at the beginning of the twentieth cen- 
tury. Then, the main logging roads were 
cut twelve or more feet wide, straight, 
smooth aud level. One end of a tree trunk 
was loaded on a bob sled, the other part — 
The bark being removed from the under side 
so that it would slip easily on the snow — 
dragged along, ^^'hen it reached the lake 
or river shore, it was rolled off the sled and 
the sawyers cut it into logs, cutting an own- 
ership mark in each log. In the spring the 
diivers rolled the logs into the water and 
drove them down the river. Now, two bob 
sleds are used, and, by means of a tackle 
and fall, the logs are lifted upon them, some- 
times to the height of ten feet. To facilitate 
the drawing of such heavy loads, the ruts of 
the logging roads are iced by drawing water 
tanks along the roads, applying a small 
stream at each side. The trees, instead of 
being clioi)ped down with axes as formerly, 
are sawed off at the stump. 

The growth of the lumber industry in 
Minnesota may be seen from the following 
table, which shows the number of feet of 
lumber, and the number of shingles and 
lath cut in the saw mills of the state. Data 
relative to shingles and lath prior to 1900 
are not at hand: 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 





1848 


1880 


1890 


1900 


Lumber 

Shingles 


2,000,000 


2(B,306,000 


344,494,000 


i.erifi.fi+H.ooo 

30X.9t)2,000 






379,2,sl.n00 













IRON MINING. 

When Croesus, the Lydian king, dis- 
played his heaps of treasure to Solon, that 
wise philosojdier told him that whoever 
possesses the iron of the world is able to 
control the gold. Nearly twenty-five cen- 
turies later, a French economist (Louis 
Figuier) asserted that "Le roi des ni^taux 
c'est le fer, et non pas I'or," — iron and not 
gold is the king of metals. One of the rich- 
est provinces of King Iron is to be found 
in northwestern ^Minnesota. The first men- 
tion of iron ore in northern Minnesota oc- 
curs in the report of J. G. Norwood, in 1850. 
Mr. Horace V. \Yinchell says: "Minnesota's 
iron industry is of recent date but phenome- 
nal growth. Though it is only fifteen years 
since the first car load of ore was digged 
in our northern wild, the industry has 
grown with amazing rapidity, until to-day 
an almost incessant stream of purest hem- 
atite is kept moving toward the furnaces 
of the east. * * * In 1880 the popula- 
tion of St. Louis county was 4,504. There 
was not a settlement north of Duluth." In 
1!)00, the population of this county was 
81!, 932. In this year the production of iron 
ore, which began in 1884, was 5,878,1)08 tons. 
Of this, 4,61.*?, 7fiG tons Avere produced on the 
Mesalii range, and l,2fi5,142 tons on the 
Vermilion range. 

The iron mines of Minnesota, so far as 
they have been developed, are situated in 
St. Louis county, north and northwest of 
Lake Superior. The two iron belts lie about 
twenty miles apart and extend in an easter- 
ly and westerly direction. On the south, 
and hence nearer to Lake Superior and the 
ore shipping ports, is the Mesabi range, 
whose rocks may be traced from Cook coun- 
ty on the east, through St. Louis and into 
Itasca county on the west, — more than 150 
miles. The iron ore of the Vermilion range 
is not nearly as regular and well defined, 
but the rocks of that general formation al- 
so extend from Cook into Itasca through 



St. Louis county, — a distance of more than 
125 miles. The ore deposits are not con- 
tinuous, but are scattered along in groups, 
at irregular intervals. On the Vermilion 
range, there are two groups of mines, situ- 
ated at Ely and Tower, respectively, — these 
places being twenty -three miles apart. 
The shipi)ing point for these mines is Two 
Harbors, in Lake county, 68 to 90 miles 
distant from the mines. On the Mesabi 
range, the groups of mines are centered 
around the cities of Biwabik, McKinley, 
Sjiarta, Eveleth, Virginia, Mountain Iron, 
and Hibbing. The ore from this range is 
hauled by rail about 75 miles to Duluth 
and Superior. 

The iron ore from the iron mines of Jlin- 
nesota is carried by rail and water to ports 
on Lakes Michigan and Erie and thence by 
rail to fui-naces in Ohio and Pennsylvania. 
The amount of cajiital invested in Lake 
SuiKM'ior iron mining is estimated at |250,- 
000,00(1. This includes the investment in 
mines, docks, raili'oad transportation, and 
lake fleets. 

As methods of handling and mining ore 
liave improved, prices have declined; the 
margin between the cost of production and 
the selling price has grown smaller and 
smaller, and earnings have been made on 
larger outjiuts and greater economy of oper- 
ation. The prices paid for the ore delivered 
at Cleveland and other lower lake ports 
have fluctuated much — reaching their high- 
est point (fl2 per ton) for Bessemer ore, in 
1873. From that time, prices have declined. 
In 1891, this ore brought |6, and in 1895, 
|2.75 to |3.50 per ton. Non-Bessemer ore 
brought, in 1895, |1.90 to |2.30 per ton. 

Inasmuch as several of the mines on the 
Mesabi range are owned by the state of Jlin- 
nesota. it is evident that the state has a 
l)ecnniary interest in their development. 
The royalties paid from such mines into the 
state treasury in 1899 and 1900. at the legal 
rate of twenty-five cents jier ton. amount to 
.f33,(!fi9.91. 

QUARRYING. 

At Sauk Bajtids and St. Cloud, granite 
(|uarrying was begun in 18fi7. Numerous 
varieties are quarried and have been much 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



used in the r-onstruction and trimminji of 
buildings, bridges ete. Gneiss has been ex- 
tensively quarried near Ortonville since 
18S7. 

Qnartzite — a very hard and crystalline 
sandstone — was quarried in the Minnesota 
Valley, opposite New Ulm, in 1850. It 
forms a great ridge in Cottonwood county 
and has plentiful outcrops in Pipestone and 
Rock counties. It is used for building stone 
under the name of jasper. Near the vil- 
lage of Pipestone, the red quartzite encloses 
a thin layer of a red and mottled clayey 
rock known as pipestone (catlinite). It 
covers an area of only a few acres, and is 
the only formation of its kind in the world. 
It is used by the Indians for making pipes 
and ornaments. 

Sandstone quarrying was begun at 
Hinckley in 1878, and later at Sandstone on 
the Kettle river. The red sandstone at 
Fond du Lac was first quarried in 1870. 
Varieties of sandstone were quarried at 
Jordan in 1858, at Mendota in 1869, and at 
Dresbach in 1881. 

Quarries of valuable limestones were 
opened near St. Paul and Minneapolis in 
1820, at Stillwater in 1847, at Mankato in 
1853, at Winona in 1854, at Mantorville in 
1856, and at Kasota in 1868. Stone from 
these and many other quarries in the state 
are shipped to Chicago, Winnipeg, and 
many other cities throughout the North- 
west. 

AGRICULTURE. 

The agricultural history of Minnesota is 
practically the history of the state. Of the 
four sources from which all the material 
wealth of the world is drawn— the field, the 
forest, the mine, the sea — Minnesota is 
richly endowed with three. The soil is 
fruitful, the climate is good, there is an 
abundance of rainfall, and all the condi- 
tions exist which underlie successful farm- 
ing. Minnesota is very near the northern 
limit of the best wheat production, and it 
is an established fact that the nearer the 
northern limit animal or vegetable growth 
can be carried on, the better will be the 
results. As to quality, Minnesota No. 1 



hard is esteemed as the very best in the 
markets of the world. 

In the year 1860, Minnesota produced 
2.186,!)!):{ bushels of wheat; in 1868 the 
product was 16,128,875 bushels, — an average 
of 17.75 bushels per acre. In the latter year 
the average in Illinois was 14.5 bushels, in 
Ohio, 11.6 bushels, and in Indiana, 10.5 
bushels per acre. The average of corn per 
acre in ^Minnesota was 23.32 bushels in 1866, 
31.95 in 1867, and 39.93 in 1868. Similar 
statistics show a parallel growth in the 
production of oats, potatoes, barley, rye, 
buckwheat, hay, flax, butter, cheese, and 
other farm products, as well as in the stock- 
raising industry. 

The following table shows the principal 
agricultural and live stock resources of the 
state from the latest report: 

Wheat 58,623,241 bu. Horses 559,060 

Oats 53,101,86S " Cows 610,496 

Com 37,149,314 " Working Oxen 1,220 

Barley 12,510,935 " Other Cattle 451,246 

Potatoes 9,284,722 " Sheep 316,965 

Flaxseed 3,604,632 " Hogs 401,806 

Rye 1,521,819 " 

Timothy Seed... 247,348 " 

Clover Seed 40,876 " 



The butter and cheese industries of the 
state have had a remarkable growth in 
the past few years. In 1900 there were 
641 creameries and cheese factories. Min- 
nesota butter to-day commands the highest 
price. Its value is recognized not onlj' 
throughout the United States, but is in 
great demand in the British markets. It 
took four of the five prizes offered at the 
late Trans-Mississippi Exposition at Omaha. 
A similar statement would be true in regard 
to ilinnesota honey. 

A valuable and interesting account of 
the development of agriculture in the Red 
River valley of JMinnesota is contained in 
Vol. 25 of the United States Geological Sur- 
vey, by Warren J. Upham, now secretary 
of the Minnesota Historical Society. There 
is room here for only a few brief extracts. 
Condensation requires some changes in lan- 
guage, and quotation marks are therefore 
omitted. 

In pre-Columbian times, and onward to 
the present day, the Indians of the Red 
River valley have cultivated fields of maize, 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



potato(^s, and s(]naslies. Tlic tirs( iiiiniijii'a- 
lion of white men to colonize this fertile 
basin was in 1812, when the early pioneers 
of the Selkirk settlements established their 
homes as far south as Pembina. Small 
bands of farmers settled further up the 
river in the sixties, but the main tide of im- 
migration came after the Northern Pacific 
railroad (1870-72) and the Great Northern 
(lS7o) had provided means of sending the 
staple product to the markets of St. Paul, 
^linneapolis and Duluth. All the wheat is 
sown in the sprinji;. It is a remarkable fact 
that in the year 1890 the Red River valley 
])roduced 2S~i busliels of wheat for evei-y 
man, woman and child of that ref;ion. The de- 
velojiment of that portion of the state will ap- 
])ear in the followinp; comparison of acreage 
and production of the wheat in 1880 and 
]8!)0. The statistics refer to the six most 
northerly counties of Minnesota bordering 
on the Red River of the North. In 1880: 
W.i:My^ acres, 1,092,183 bush.; in 1800, 600,- 
000 acres, 8,000,000 bush. In the latter 
year, the other leading i)roducts of the same 
counties, excluding Kittson, were as fol- 
lows: Oats, 102,58-4 acres, 2,784,77.3 bush.; 
barley, 35,891 acres, 671,850 bush.; tame 
hay, 15,908 acres, 27,182 tons; potatoes, 
5,512 acres, 427,413 bush.; flaxeed, 2,494 
acres, 20,252 bush.; wild hay, 183,103 tons. 
In 1891, the amount of live stock in the 
six counties first named was as follows: 
Horses, mules, and asses, 36,910; neat cat- 
tle, 80,594; sheep, 26,002; swine, 14,473. 

The first wheat was shipped from the 
state in 1857, from the Le Sueur prairie. 
In 1859, a few thousand bushels raised prin- 
cipally about Le Sueur and St. Peter were 
shipped by boat to St. Louis. This cargo 
was supplemented by hickory hoo])-poles 
from Chaska. In that day Milwaukee was 
the market for most of the grain shipped 
out of the state. In 1862, the first flour 
was shipped from Minneapolis. 

THE STATE AGRICULTDRAL SOCIETY. 

This society was incorporated in 1868, 
although a similar society had been in ex- 
istence as far back as territorial days, and 
in 1867, the state had appropriated |1,000 



for its encouragement. In 1885, Ramsey 
county offered to convey to the state 200 
acres of land adjoining the city of St. Paul 
for the purpose of holding annual exhibi- 
tions, and the state at once appropriated 
|100,000 for permanent improvements. In 
1887, a further api)ropriation of .|50,000 
was made. Previous to this the annual 
fairs had been held in various parts of the 
state. The state now appropriates $4,000 
annually to aid in the payment of premiums 
to exhibitors. 

The society is prosperous, and holds an- 
nual fairs on its grounds in September. 

Other societies which have done much to 
promote the agricultural interests of the 
state are: The Horticultural Society, the 
Forestry Association, the Dairymen's As- 
sociation, the Butter and Chese Makers' As- 
sociation, the Poultry Association, and the 
Ree Keepers' Association. 

FARMEUS' INSTITUTES. 

The chief aim of these institutes is to 
disseminate among the farmers information 
that will be helpful to them. More than 
forty are held every year in the various agri- 
cultural centers of the state. Those held 
between November and A])ril continue two 
days, and the summer institutes — held be- 
tween seed time and harvest — last one day. 
The work of this institution began in 1887. 
As instructors and lecturers in these insti- 
tutes, persons are selected who have made 
a practical success of agriculture, horticul- 
ture, stock-raising etc. Hundreds of ques- 
tions are asked of these instructors by the 
farmers and their wives who eagerly crowd 
to the institutes. Reports of the addresses, 
discussions, questions, and answers are pub- 
lished in the county papers, and are collect- 
ed in an illustrated annual of about 400 
pages, twenty thousand copies of which are 
jtrinted and distributed among the farmers 
of the state. This work has, for several 
years, been under the immediate supervision 
of O. <". <Jregg of Lynd, Lyon county. 

THE SCHOOL OF AGRICDLTDRB. 

This school is unique in its plan and 
methods. It is not a high school or a school 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



for general culture. It is a farm which has 
facilities for instructing both young men 
and young women in the science of field 
and domestic farming, and for affording 
them practice and observation in the best 
methods of doing the actual work of farm- 
ers. Its success has exceeded all expecta- 
tions. It started in 1S88 with forty-seven 
students; in 1899-1000, the enrollment was 
503, — 423 males and 80 females. Nearly all 
its students are the sons and daughters of 
farmers, and most of its graduates are en- 
gaged in farming. The course of study in- 
cludes agriculture, blacksmithing, botany, 
carpentry, drawing, study of breeds, lan- 
guage, sewing, cooking, chemistry, dairying, 
fruit growing, poultry, physics, home econ- 
omy, civics, dressing and curing meats, feed- 
ing, forestry, machinery, fertilizers, veteri- 
nary science, etc. This school is supported 
by a liberal annual Appropriation from the 
state, and is worth many times its cost in 
the increased intelligence it brings to bear 
on that industry which is the main eco- 
nomic stay of the state. 

FLOUR MANUFACTURE. 

While the leading industry of Minnesota 
is agriculture, the manufacture of flour is 
especially worthy of note from the fact that 
the output of this commodity in the state is 
nearly equal that of all other portions of the 
United States. 

In the middle of the nineteenth century, 
farmers depended on the horse mill for 
grinding their wheat and corn. In 1867, a 
wind power grist mill was established at 
Owatonna, and in 1868 a similar mill at 
Mankato ground 160 bushels of wheat daily, 
— the equivalent of about 30 barrels of flour. 
In 1867, there were in Minnesota seven 60- 
foot wind wheel flouring mills. The first 
flour mill run by water power in the state 
was built in 1822 by the United States gov- 
ernment at St. Anthony Falls to supply 
flour for the garrison at Fort Snelling. It 
was operated by soldiers. 

In 1850, Minnesota produced 1,401 bush- 
els of wheat, and the flour output was val- 
ued at 1500. In 1900, the wheat product 
was about 70,000,000 bushels and the value 



of flour manufactured was about |100,000,- 
000. Froin 1850 to 1855, small grist mills 
wei'c built on the streams of Houston, Wi- 
nona, ^^'abasha, Dakota, Hennepin, Sher- 
burne, Fillmore, and Olmsted counties. In 
1851, the flrst grist and merchant mill was 
erected at St. Anthony Falls in East Min- 
neapolis. "The Minnesota," a five-run mill, 
was built in Minneapolis in 1854. It was 
situated on Hennepin Island. The mill cost 
•fin, 000 and brought its owners a net profit 
of .f24,000 the first year. As sufficient Min- 
nesota wheat to supply this mill could not 
be obtained, wheat was hauled by wagon 
100 miles from Wisconsin, or by boat from 
Iowa. "The Minnesota" was the first mill 
to ship Minnesota flour to eastern markets, 
in 1858. It paid f2.25 per barrel freight, — 
over five times the present cost. 

The Globe Milling com])any of New Ulm 
was a corporation to manufacture flour 
in Minnesota. The mill had a daily capaci- 
ty of 50 barrels, and began operation in 
1858. Limitation of space forbids more than 
the mere mention of the beginnings of flour 
milling at Northfield in 1856, at Dundas in 
the sixties, at Hastings before 1859, at Isin- 
ours, on the Root river in 1855, and at Min- 
netonka Mills in 1853. In 1860, Minnesota 
had 85 flouring mills, 63 of which were run 
by water and 22 by steam. These mills, 
from 1,273,509 bushels of wheat, produced 
254,702 barrels of flour, valued at |1,310,431, 
— an increase of |1,309,931 in ten years. In 
1861, the estimated daily output of the Min- 
neapolis mills was 4,000 barrels, — about 
one-third of the present output of the "Pills- 
bury A" mill. 

In the decade of 1860-70, the number of 
mills had increased to 216, their output to 
about 1,000,000 barrels of flour, and 500,000 
bushels of corn meal, all valued at $7,500,- 
000. 

The manufacture of flour was revolu- 
tionized in 1870 by the introduction of the 
"new process" of saving the gluten of the 
wheat berry by means of the middlings puri- 
fier. The value of Minnesota flour was in- 
ireased $1 or $2 per barrel by the use of 
this, the invention of the brothers Nicholas 
and Edmund N. La Croix, who were Minne- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT XORTHWEST. 



sofa millei'S. In 1874, the roller process 
was introduced into tbe "Washburn A" 
mill at Minneapolis. 

In 11)01, Minnesota had about 400 flour 
and grist mills, with an aggregate daily 
capacity of about 140,000 barrels. The 
manufacture of this flour requires about 
115,000,000 bushels of wheat. Fifteen mil- 
lion barrels of Minnesota flour go to foreign 
countries, and more than one-half of this 
to Great Britain and Ireland. Our other 
]>rincipal foreign markets are in the follow- 
ing order: AX'est Indies, Hong Kong, Brazil, 
and Germany. 

The ten largest milling centers in the 
T'nited States "as measured by their flour 
outi)ut in 1S99 are as follows: Detroit, 504,- 
700 barrels; Nashville, 680,S0:i; Buffalo, 



1,068,044; Kansas City, 1,094,846; Chicago, 
1,125,745; Toledo, 1,150,000; St. Louis, 1,166,- 
4:>!t; Milwaukee, 1, 7:57,826; Duluth-Superior, 
],7(i:!.020; jMinueai)olis, 14,291,780." 

OnJan. 21, 1901,Mr. Geo. D. Rogers de- 
livered an exceedingly interesting and valu- 
able address on the history of flour manu- 
facture in Minnesota. At the conclusion of 
this address, from which most of the above 
data have been drawn, he says: ''At the 
World's Exposition at Paris during tbe past 
yv.iv. bread made from Minnesota flour car- 
ried off the prize medal for the best bread 
in the world, and Minnesota flour likewise 
took first premium in the contest for the 
best flour in the world, showing that Min- 
nesota holds the world's sweepstakes for 
the quantity and (piality of ])r()duct." 



HISTORY OF SOUTH DAKOTA. 



C. W. G. HYDE. 



The state of South Dakota lies in the 
heart of North America. It is north of 
Nebraska, east of AA'yoniing and Montana, 
south of North Dakota, and west of Min- 
nesota and Iowa. Its area is 77,850 sijuare 
miles. It is about equal in size to Nebraska 
or I'ruguay, one and a half times as large 
as New York or England, more than twice 
fhe size of Indiana, and nearly seven times 
the size of Belgium. It would take nearly 
ten states like ^Massachusetts and sixty-two 
like Rhode Island to equal South Dakota 
in area. 

The natural divisions of South Dakota 
are the Missouri valley, which has become 
noted for a production of corn and hogs 
(■(|ual to that of Illinois and Iowa. The Big 
Sioux valley, which contains fine quarries 
of granite and jasi)er I'ock and a fertile soil; 
the James River valley, which produces the 
finest wheat grown in the state, and which 
is the finest artesian well district in the 
world; centrjil Dakota, which includes the 
divide and prairies between the Missf)uri 
and -Tames rivers, and which is well adapt- 



ed to grain and stock farming; the Sioux 
reservation in the northwestern part of the 
state; the Sisseton reservation in the north- 
eastern corner of the state — a rich tract of 
agricultural land; and tbe Black Hills in 
the southwest, which are chiefly noted for 
their abundant deposits of gold, silver, lead, 
tin, coi>per, gypsum, niica, cements, clays, 
coal, graphite, iron, marble, zinc, etc. 

The aboriginal inhabitants of South Da- 
kota were the Crow, Cheyenne and Sioux 
Indians. A detailed account of these abo- 
rigines is given elsewhere in this volume. 

TERRITORIAL CIIANOES. 

1. South Dakota, in i- inoii with oth- 
er parts of the west was a hunting ground 
for roving bands of Indians from time im- 
memorial. 

2. La Salle, a French explorei-. formally 
took possession of all the country drained 
by the Jlississippi and its tributaries, and 
named it for his king — Louis XIV. — Louis- 
iana. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



3. In 1762, France ceded the country to 
Spain, but it was retroceded to France un- 
der the treaty of St. Ildepbonso in 1800. In 
1803, Louisiana became the property of the 
United States by purchase. 

It is now necessary to distinguish the 
changes made in the eastern section of the 
state from those made in the western sec- 
tion, — the Missouri river constituting the 
dividing line. 

4. The western section of the state be- 
came a part of Missouri Territory in 1812, 
and afterward of Mandan Territory. In 
1854, it was incorporated in the Territory 
of Nebraska. 

5. The eastern section was a part of 
Missouri Territory from 1812 to 1834, of 
Michigan Territory from 1834 to 1836, of 
Wisconsin Territory from 1836 to 1838, of 
Iowa Territory from 1838 to 1849, and of 
Minnesota Territory from 1849 to 1858. 
From 1858, when the state of Minnesota 
was organized, until 1861, it had no legal 
name or existence. In the latter year, Da- 
kota Territory was organized, including both 
of the present Dakotas, together with Mon- 
tana, Wyoming, and part of Idaho. 

6. In 1873, the boundaries of Dakota 
Territory were i-eadjusted so as to include 
North and South Dakota as they now are. 

7. On Nov. 2, 1889, South Dakota was 
organized as a state with its present bound- 
aries. 

EARLY HISTORY. 

The first party of American explorers to 
ascend the Missouri river into the land of 
the Dakotas was that conducted by Cap- 
tains Lewis and Clarke, and was organized 
immediately after the consummation of the 
Louisiana purchase. The party entered the 
Missouri river in boats from the Mississip- 
pi, May 4, 1804. Twenty-three days later, 
they passed the mouth of the James river, 
and near the place where Yankton now 
stands, an Indian swam to their boats and 
informed them that a large body of Sioux 
was near. The party landed and met the 
Indians at Calumet Blutf, making speeches 
and giving presents. On the 24th of Sep- 
tember, they reached the mouth of the Te- 



ton, now called the Bad, river. They re- 
mained in their canoes in the river, opposite 
the site of Pierre, for one day, the Indians 
being so hostile that they did not venture to 
land. On October 1, they passed the mouth 
of the Cheyenne. Here they met Mr. Valle, 
a French trader, who informed them that 
he had passed the preceding winter in the 
mountains (Black Hills) where the river 
takes its rise. 

Soon after the Lewis and Clarke expedi- 
tion, American traders and adventurers be- 
gan to push their way into the hitherto un- 
known Nor-thwest, establishing posts for fur 
trade with the natives. The furs and pel- 
tries were taken to St. Louis in the spring, 
the journeys down the upper tributaries be- 
ing often made in circular boats of skins, 
with which the channel could be followed, 
regardless of sand-bars, snags, and dark- 
ness. The first trading posts were estab- 
lished in the country about 1809. It is . 
claimed that Pierre Chouteau, of the Amer- 
ican Fur company, was the first man to run 
a steamboat up the Missouri river into Da- 
kota, and with him as pilot the steamer An- 
telope passed up the river into the Dakotas 
in 1832. 

It is said that a stone slab has been 
found on the top of Mount Lookout, near 
Spearfish, upon which this inscription had 
been cut: 

"Came to the Hills in 1833, seven of us. 
Doctor Lacon, Ezra Kind, G. W. Wood, F. 
Brown, R. Kent, William King, Indian 
Crow, all dead but me, Ezra Kind. Killed 
by Indians beyond the High Hill. They 
got all our gold, June, 1834." On the op= 
posite side is this inscription: 

"Got all the gold we could carry; our 
ponies were got by the Indians. I have lost 
my gun and have nothing to eat. Indians 
are hunting me.'' 

No permanent settlement was made in 
South Dakota until 1856, when Sioux Falls 
was settled. The first census of Dakota 
was taken in 1861, and showed a popula- 
tion of 2,402. In 1868, there were 12,000 
whites in the territory. The first telegraph 
line was built from Sioux City to Yankton 
in 1870, and in 1872, a railroad was finished 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



between the two places. In 1874, pold was 
discovered iu the Black Hills, and in 1S77, 
the Black Hills region was opened to white 
settlement. 

The governors of Dakota Territory, from 
the date of its organization, March 2, ISfil, 
were as follows: William Jaynes, 1861-03; 
Newton Edmunds, 18G3-6G; Andrew J. 
Faulk, 1866-69; John A. Burbank, 1869-74; 
John L. Pennington, 1874-78; William A. 
Howard, 1878-80; Xehemiah (j. Ordway, 
1880-84; Gilbert A. Pierce, 1884-87; Louis 
K. Church, 1887-89; Arthur C. Mellette, 
1889. 

THE STATE. 

On February 22, 1889, I'resident Cleve- 
land signed an act empowering the people 
of >?outh Dakota to adopt a constitution pre- 
paratory to admission into the Union as one 
of the United States. A constitutional con- 
vention met at Sioux Falls on July 4, 1889. 
As the people had voted to endorse a consti- 
tution which had been adopted four years 
before, the duties of the convention were 
limited to making such changes in that c(m- 
stitution as related to the name and bound- 
ary of the proposed state and to the reap- 
portionment of legislative and judicial dis- 
tricts, and such amendments as might be 
necessary to comply with the admission act. 
A provision of the constitution relating to 
the ju-ohibition of the liquor traffic was sub- 
mitted to the people separately, as follows: 

"No person or corporation shall manu- 
facture, or aid in the manufacture for sale, 
anj' intoxicating liquor. No person shall 
sell or keep for sale, as a beverage, any in- 
toxicating liquor. The legislature shall by 
law prescribe regulations for the enforce- 
ment of the provisions of this secti(m and 
provide suitable and adecjuate jtenaltics for 
the violation thereof."' 

The constitution, including the ])roliib- 
itory provision, was adopted by po]>ul:ir 
vote on October 1, and on November •'', 18S;i, 
President Harrison issued his proclanuUion 
admitting Houth Dakota to the Union. Ar- 
thur C. Mellette was elected governor, and 
the first state legislature, on October 17, 
chose two United States senators, viz., K. F. 



Pettigrew and Gideon C. Moody. The gov- 
ernors of the state since that time have 
been as follows: Arthur C. Mellette, 1889- 
93; Charles H. Sheldon, 1893-97; Andrew E. 
Lee, 1897-1901; C. F. Herreid, 1901—. R. 
F. Pettigrew rejiresented South Dakota in 
the United States senate from 1889 to 1901; 
and Gideon (;. Moody, from 1889 to 1891. 
James H. Kyle succeeded Senator Moody in 
1891, and was re-elected in 1897. In 1901, 
Pobert J. Gamble was elected to succeed 
Senator Pettigrew. 

The population of South Dakota in 1870 
was 11,776; in 1880. 98,268; in 1890, 328,808; 
and in 1900. 401,.570. 

There are twelve cities in South Dakota 
having a population greater than 2,000. In 
Ihe following list the first number which 
comes after the name of each city denotes 
Ihe population in 1890, the second number, 
the population iu 190(»: 

Aberdeen, 3,182—4,087; Brookings, 1,518 
— 2,346; Deadwood, 2.366 — 3,498; Huron, 
3,038—2,793; Lead, 2,.'581— 6,210; .Madison, 
1.736—2,550; Mitchell, 2,217—4,055; Pierre, 
3.235—2,306; Sioux Falls, 10,177-1^,266; 
N'ermilion, 1,496—2,183; Watertown, 2,672 
—3,352; Yankton, 3,070-4,125. 

In 1890, about 12,000,000 acres of fine 
farming lands embraced in the Sioux reser- 
vations were opened to settlement, and the 
lands were promptlj' occupied by settlers. 
One tract of these lands lay between Ameri- 
can and Medicine creeks on the east, and 
< "heyenne and White rivers on the west side 
of the Missouri, and also included all that 
]iortiou of the <ireat Sioux reservation lying 
south of the forty-sixth i)arallel and west of 
the 103d meridian. Another tract lay north 
of the city of Watertown. In the same 
year, a stringent law was passed prohibit- 
ing the manufacture, sale or giving away of 
intoxicating liquors, under heavy penalties. 
In 1898, an amendment to the state consti- 
(ution was adopted providing that the state 
should conti'ol the manufacture and sale of 
li(|uors, but this amendment was repealed 
in (111- year 190(1. 

South Dakota was the tirst state to estab- 
lish Ihe initiative and referendum as a part 
of the law-making process, an amendment 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



to the constitution enibodvins this principle 
having been adoi)ted in 1898. 

GOLD MINING. 

Gold was first known to exist in the 
Black Hills in 1858, having been discovered 
by Lieut. Wheeler, a government scientific 
explorer, near the Wyoming border. Two 
years later gold was again found in small 
quantities near the place now known as 
Jenny's Stockade, on Beaver creek. In 
1861, Gen. Harney's party found fine pros- 
pects on French creek. 

In the year 1874, Gen. G. A. Custer con- 
ducted a military and scientific expedition 
from Fort Abraham Lincoln, N. D., to Bear 
Butte, in the Black Hills, and explored the 
country south, southeast, and southwest of 
the latter point. Capt. Ludlow, chief engi- 
neer of the expedition, under date of Au- 
gust 23, 1874, says: 

"Whatever may ultimately be deter- 
mined as to the existence of large amounts 
of precious metals in the Black Hills, the 
evidence gathered on the trip was discour- 
aging to that supposition. It is probable 
that the best use to be made of the Black 
Hills for the next fifty years [up to 1925] 
would be as the permanent reservation of 
the Sioux." Gen. Custer, in his report of this 
expedition, says that while no discoveries 
were made of gold deposits in quartz, an 
even, if not very rich, distribution of gold is 
to be found in the valleys. He was satisfied, 
however, that gold in satisfactory quantities 
could be obtained in the Hills. A few days 
later the general again refers to the discovery 
of gold and states that additional evidence of 
its existence in paying quantities has been 
discovered. 

In October of the same year a party of 
twenty-five explorers and miners started 
for the Black Hills from Sioux City, Iowa. 
On the 24th of December they found gold in 
Custer's Park, near where Custer City now 
stands. This was the first gold produced in 
a mining camp in the Black Hills. In the 
spring of 1875, these miners were arrested 
and conducted out of the Hills by United 
States soldiers, as they were trespassing on 
an Indian reservation, and their lives were 



in danger. Prospectors and miners persist- 
ed in carrying on their work in the Hills in 
spite of government opposition, and the 
president at last, in 1875, began negotiations 
with the Indians, looking to a cession of the 
Black Hills region. 

The discovery of gold in the Black Hills, 
in the vicinity of Deadwood, which was the 
forerunner of the real gold find in the Black 
Hills, was made in the summer of 1875 by 
a party of gold seekers from the Cheyenne 
River agency, near where Pierre, the capital 
of the state, is now located. These men 
had been told by the Indians of the exist- 
ence of gold in the hills. The party con- 
sisted of Dick Lowe, Tom Moore, Frank 
Bryant, Sam Blodget, J. B. Pearson, James 
Pearman and George Hauser, who came in 
with pack animals. 

The gold was discovered in Whitewood 
Gulch, about 300 yards above the mouth of 
Spruce Gulch, at a point which is now with- 
in the first ward of the city of Deadwood. 
The country on the route between the Chey- 
enne river and the point at which they made 
their first find was thoroughly prospected 
without finding any gold. They remained 
in the gulch about six weeks, when their 
food gave out, and Lowe, Moore and Pear- 
man returned to the Missouri river for pro- 
visions. The remainder of the party went 
to the Southern Hills and were arrested and 
taken out of the country by the military. 
Frank Bryant and two others located the 
first mining claim taken up in Deadwood 
Gulch, November 17, 1875. 

A treaty with the Indians was finally 
concluded on September 26, 1876, and was- 
ratified and approved by the president, Feb- 
ruary 28, 1877. The countrj- ceded was all 
that region west of the 103d meridian which 
is included by the north and south forks of 
the Cheyenne river. 

In the meantime, the Castle Creek Drain 
Ditch company was organized and com- 
menced work on September 1, 1876. Al- 
though this company abandoned its claim 
on Castle creek within a year because of 
the impossibility of pumping water for their 
ditch, one of their number, Mr. Sidney E. 
Cornell, declares that he shall never re- 



J 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



gret liavinfi; gone there, "for there I found 
the best niififjet of them all — a faithful help- 
mate who is with me ret. a true and lovinp; 
wife." The total product of frold in South 
Dakota for the year l.'^ni was .«;a.ll2.fino ; for 
189.3, S«4,n00.nn0; for isno, |;S,2.3.5.0nO; for 
1898, ,«!S.nOO.(lOfl; for 1S99, «9.]:?1.4?.fi. and 
for 1900 (estimated I. *14,000,000. South Da- 
kota ranks tliird among the states of the 
Union in the production of gold. It is es- 
timated that up to April 1. 1900. the Black 
Hills had yielded gold to the value of ^87,- 
000.000. 

WHEAT RAISING. 

During early times in South Dakota, 
conditions were so favorable that a very lit- 
tle care and work brought an abundant 
yield. The immediate result was a heed- 
lessness on the part of farmers which 
brought temporary disaster. More careful 
preparation of the soil and diversified farm- 
ing have brought renewed prosperity. The 
hard varieties of wheat can be successfully 
raised in the northern part of the state. 
The raising of blue stem wheat has been 
made a success, and it is a valuable wheat 
to raise, considering quality and yield. The 
losses in quality of wheat by smut, in South 
Dakota, in early days, no longer occur to 
any considerable extent. The average yield 
of wheat is about twelve bushels per acre, 
and in an average year, the state produces 
from thirty-six to forty-five million bushels. 
The average price obtained by the South 
Dakota farmer for a period of six years is 
fifty-two and three-fourths cents per bushel, 
according to the latest obtainable statistics. 

THE DAIRY AND CREAMERY INDUSTRY. 

"The great siiccess to which dairying in 
South Dakota has attained is due mainly to 
two potent factors," says Prof. A. H. 
Wheaton. These two factors are "the ex- 
cellent quality of the native grasses and the 
extreme cheapness and wonderful fertility 
of the soils. The native grasses of South 
Dakota are wonderfully rich in nutrition of 
those peculiar qualities which make them a 
natural and nearly balanced ration for ani- 
mals designed for beef, and for milch cows." 
"The butter produced from them is of a 



very high order" as to flavor, texture, and 
long keeping. 

In the early days of South Dakota, the 
conditions referred to above were not un- 
derstood, but as the state grew older it be- 
came apparent to agriculturists that in or- 
der to secure themselves against loss in 
years that were not favorable to the produc- 
tion of good grain crops, they must raise 
some kind of stock. "Ex])eriments were in- 
augurated by the ExperinuMital Station and 
by farmers of all classes along these lines, 
which resulted in the almost unanimous 
ojtinion that South Dakota was, and is, one 
of nature's ideal spots for grazing purposes. 
The results, indeed, were far beyond the ex- 
jiectations of the tuost sanguine. 

"From a very few creameries established 
in 189(1, the industry of dairying and espe- 
cially buttermaking has rapidly spread un- 
til now nearly the whole state east of the 
Missouri river is engaged in it. January 
1, 1S!)8, there were li5 successful cream- 
eries in operation," and it is now estimated 
that there are over two hundred. Th%plan 
was followed of "establishing creameries in 
localities where wheat raising had been es- 
pecially disastrous during the driest sea- 
sons. 

"^\'hile it has now been completely dem- 
onstrated that so long as the lands remain 
at the present price, dairying can be carried 
on in South Dakota with profit, it is as true 
that twice as many creameries can be suc- 
cessfully operated" and large investments 
may profitably be nuide in the erection of 
additional creameries and the stocking of 
more farms with milch cows. Capitalists 
who desire to find a paying and safe invest- 
ment are learning that the dairying indus- 
try in this state brings them a good rate of 
interest and that the milch cow in South 
Dakota is never a defaulter. "Gilt-edged 
security is no longer considered to be a 
mortgage on real estate, but on cows and 
steers. Thousands of car loads of each 
have been shipped into the state during the 
past six months, the cows generally remain- 
ing east of the Missouri river, while the 
steers are more generally shiiiiicd to owners 
who live west of the Great Muddy.' 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



The profits from this industry reach into 
the millions, and those engagced in it are on 
the hijjh road to wealth. The dairying in- 
dustry east of the Missouri and the raising 
of beef cattle west of that river are corner 
stones in the agricultural prosperity of 
South Dakota. At the convention of the 
National Creamery Buttermakers' associa- 
tion, held in St. Paul, Minn., in February, 
1901, South Dakota was awarded a silver 
cup — one of five — for best state exhibit. 

THE SHEEP INDUSTRY. 

It is not known just when the first sheep 
were brought to South Dakota, but it is cer- 
tain that sheep raising has not until quite 
recently assumed large proportions in the 
state. At the present time, she occupies a 
prominent place among the sheep raising 
states of the Fnion, although a small pro- 
portion of her natural advantages in that 
direction have been utilized. The most 
practical evidence of her rank in this indus- 
try is to be found in her large shipments of 
wool, mutton, and breeders. "Her grass 
mutton," says Hon. M. F. Greeley, "fre- 
quently tops the eastern markets, her grain 
finished lambs seldom fail to do so, and her 
wools are now well and favorably known in 
all the great wool centers and mills. The 
more we see and know of South Dakota's 
great natural advantages for the econom- 
ical production of wool and mutton, the 
more are we convinced that Dakota is and 
always will be a great sheep country. Sheep 
thrive best in the high, cool altitudes of the 
mountains. Dakota is a vast, almost level 
mountain." 

The sunshine which prevails almost con- 
stantly in South Dakota is a source of im- 
mense profit to her shepherds. Hygienic 
conditions are afforded by dry winters, and 
the steadily low temperature of the winter 
months favors the growth of a heavy fleece. 
There are few localities that afford as great 
a variety of sheep foods as South Dakota. 
Her sugar beets are unrivalled for sweet- 
ness, and her grass, roots, and weeds are 
more than usually sweet and nutritious. 
"Out of about 600 plants, weeds and grasses 
growing wild in the state, a cow will eat 



about fifty-seven of them, a horse eighty- 
two, and a sheep, 576. Weedy hay is poor- 
ly and only partly eaten by cows and 
horses, while sheep eat the weedy part first, 
and their pasture is as free from weeds as 
old cattle and horse pastures are from 
grass." Mutton of the very best quality 
and fleeces that are unexcelled are to-day 
produced from a feed consisting of the 
weedy upland hay that covers over half of 
South Dakota, and this without the addi- 
tion of a single pound of food artificially 
prepared. "In the more eastern portions of 
the state," says Greeley, "where, owing to 
much plowing, the wild grasses are not suf- 
ficient for all the winter fodder, corn stalks, 
oats in the bundle, millet, hay, and other 
lame fodders are also found to be much 
richer in sugar and other fiesh forming 
I)roperties, than they are when grown far- 
ther south and east. All these things tend 
lo enable South Dakota to put grass mut- 
ton upon the market earlier than any of her 
more eastern competitors, frequently doing 
this almost as soon as eastern tame pas- 
tures are sufficiently formed to receive 
stock at all." 

The mutton breeds of sheep predominate 
east of the Missouri, and grades of the 
Shropshire, Oxford, Hampshire and South- 
downs are most plentiful. "These are all 
dark-faced sheep, and when Dakota grown, 
prove to be good muttons." Fine bunches 
of Cotswold, Lincoln and other white-faced 
mutton breeds are also to be found. West 
of the Missouri, the bands of sheep are lar- 
ger and most of them are of ^lerino blood. 

The outlook for the sheep industry in" 
South Dakota is a very bright one, and the 
business of wool and mutton production in 
the state is certain to be a permanent and 
a paying one. "Beef, butter, wool, and 
mutton are fast taking their place among 
the leading products, and will continue to 
do so" until South Dakota shall stand in 
the front rank of states engaged in stock 
raising. 

IRRIGATION IN SOUTH DAKOTA. 

While a considerable part of the state is 
humid, and has a precipitation of moisture 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



above the averaj>(* absolutely rciiiiircd for 
the production of abiiudant crops, a por- 
tion of it belongs to the semi-arid region, 
and must depend on irrigation for jiroflta- 
ble agricultural products. 

Three plans or methods of irrigation are 
at present employed in South Dakota. One 
method is the building of dams on bound- 
ary lines and on the dry runs and the cre- 
ation, by this means, of bodies of water 
which seeps through the ground or is con- 
ducted in ditches to the points where it is 



most needed. Another plan is to obtain 
tlie required water by artesian wells. A 
notion more or less prevalent that artesian 
well water is injurious to soils and plants 
has been proved fallacious. .\ third way is 
to irrigate from shallow wells and pumps. 
I'rof. Stacy A. Cochran says: "There is 
nothing that I more firmly believe than that 
the intelligence and energy of the South 
Dakota peojile will ultimately solve the irri- 
gaticm ])robleiii and our state will become 
the veritable garden spot of America." 



HISTORY OF NORTH DAKOTA, 



C A. LOUNSBERRY. 



North Dakota, admitted to the Union in 
1880, was originally a jjart of the Louisiana 
Purchase, and was claimed by France from 
the time La Salle explored the ilississipjii 
in 1082, till ceded to Spain in 1762. In lS(tO. 
Spain ceded it to France by secret treaty 
and in 1803 France ceded it to the United 
States for 80.000.000 francs. 

Louisiana then extended from the <Julf 
of Mexico north to the Lake of the Woods, 
and embraced what is now Arkansas. Mis- 
souri, Iowa. Nebraska, Oregon, North and 
South Dakota, the Indian Country, Mon- 
tana, Idaho, Washington, part of Minneso- 
ta, part of Kansas, part of Colorado and 
part of Wyoming. Though it had not been 
in the possession of Sjjain for nearly three 
years, when Lewis and Clarke started on 
their exi)edition to explore the Missouri riv- 
er country in 1803, the Spanish otHcials 
were still in charge and would not allow 
thoni to winter on the ceded territory. They 
wintered near St. Charles, Mo., on the east 
side of the river. 

In 1805, the Louisiana I'uichase became 
Louisiana Territory, and was governed by 
the oflicials of Indiana Territory. In 1812 it 
became Missouri Territory. In 1831 con- 
gress created the Territory of Michigan, 
which then included that part of the two 
Dakotas east of the ilissouri and White riv- 



ers and included also the i)resent states of 
Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota. 
In 1836 Wisconsin was established and then 
that portion of North Dakota east of the 
^lissouri became a part of Wisconsi% In 
1838 Iowa was organized and included the 
present state of North Dakota. In 1849 
Minnesota Territory was established and 
covered tliat part of North Dakota lying 
east of the Missouri river. In ISo-l Nebras- 
ka was organized and took the country west 
of the ^lissouri and White rivers, which had 
previously been known as Mandan Terri- 
tory. In 1858, Minnesota became a state 
and that portion of North Dakota lying east 
of the Missouri river became unorganized 
and unattached territory and so remained 
until Dakota was organized in ISOl, and 
then embraced North and South Dakota, a 
pan of Montana, a jiarl of Wyoming and a 
jiarr of Idaho. 

The bill creating Dakota was signed by 
President Buchanan, ilarch 2. 18G1, and on 
the 27th day of May thereafter. President 
Lincoln ai)pointed his old friend and towns- 
man. Dr. W'm. Jayne, of Springfield, 111., 
governoi' of Dakota. 

In lS(iO the population of Dakota, includ- 
ing all of the states and parts of states 
above mentioned, was 4,837. 

In 1S81> what was then Dakota was di- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



vided and the present state of North Dakota 
was admitted into the Union in connection 
with South Dakota, Montana and Washing- 
ton. Xorth Dakota, leadino; in the enabling 
act, takes rank above the others in the or- 
der of admission. 

The division of North Dalvota was ac- 
complished after many hard struggles and 
much bickerings and strife between the two 
sections, South Dakota being persistent in 
her efforts to take the organization and the 
name, which North Dakota had made fa- 
mous by its wlieat, leaving North Dakota to 
take another. Pembina would have been 
acceptable, perhaps, though it was claimed 
to be of corrupt origin, meaning little or 
nothing. Some claimed that it related to a 
berry found growing on the Pembina river, 
and others, i)robably better infoi-med, that 
the application of the name related to the 
Holy Eucharist and meant "blessed bread." 
The eastern members of congress offered 
Huron, Algonquin and various other names, 
and the controversy was continued until 
1889, when, on February 22, of that year, 
the so-called omnibus bill was approved, 
which provided for the admission of the 
fo\ir states previously named as a part of 
the United States. 

The constitutional convention was held 
at Bismarck, beginning July 4, 1889. Many 
distinguished Americans were present on 
the occasion and they were welcomed by 
Sitting Bull and a large number of his 
braves in full war dress. The constitution 
was adopted at an election called for the 
purpose October 1, 1889, by a vote of 27,410 
for, to 8,107 against the adoption of the con- 
stitution. State officers were then elected. 
The president's proclamation declaring the 
admission of the state was issued Novem- 
ber 2, 1889. 

Returning again to some facts as to ear- 
ly history. The Hudson Bay company, char- 
tered by Charles II., in 1070, occupied a con- 
siderable portion of North Dakota in early 
days and they did not quit doing business at 
North Dakota points until sometime after 
1870, when their former possessions in Can- 
ada became crown colonies. Rival fur com- 
panies contested with them for the trade of 



this region. They had a post at Pembina as 
early as 1800, established by Capt. Alex- 
ander Henry, who also located <a post at 
Orand Forks in 1801. There was a French 
trader at Pembina as early as 1780 and he 
was still there when Long established the 
boundary line between the I'nited States 
and Panada in 1823. Lord Selkirk also had 
a post there, supposing it to be within Brit- 
ish territory, built in 1812, and destroyed by 
Long in 1823. The old Selkirk burying 
ground is on the North Dakota side and is 
now the property of the state. The Swiss 
settlers of the Selkirk colony were driven 
out by adversities and became the first set- 
tlers in Minnesota. 

Nicollet, sent out from Quebec in 1639, 
gives some account of the country and the 
first known. Hennepin, who accompanied 
LaSalle, was captured by the Sioux and is 
supposed to have visited North Dakota 
about 1682. The first practical results came 
from the explorations of Lewis and Clarke, 
who wintered in North Dakota, near what 
is now Washburn, 1804-5. Jean Nicholas 
Nicollet, assisted by John C. Fremont, the 
pathfinder of the campaign of 1856, ex- 
plored the Devils Lake region in 1838. Cat- 
lin visited the country in 1841 and gathered 
from North Dakota life many of his famous 
Indian paintings, now the property of the 
United States. Capt. Pope mapped the 
country in 1849, and designated the country 
around Devils Lake as a salt water region. 
Lieut. Warren explored the country in 1855, 
and reported it occupied by powerful tribes 
of roving savages and that it was only 
adapted to a mode of life like theirs. Fol-* 
lowing the Indian outbreak of 1862 the 
Sully and Sibley expeditions passed over 
North Dakota and on North Dakota soil 
was fought the decisive battles of that war. 
Military posts were established at Aber- 
crombie. Ransom, Totten, Rice, Stevenson, 
Kuford and Pembina, following the out- 
break of 1862. Before that an occasional 
party of butt'alo hunters visited the country, 
but it was regarded as dangerous ground, 
as it had been overrun for years by con- 
tending bands of Indian warriors. 

There were trading establishments and 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



a custom house at Pembina, where Chas. 
Cavileer, the tirst white settler to establish 
a permaueut home in the state, still resides, 
his good wife being a descendant from the 
Selkirk colony, and as early as 1858 a regu- 
lar mail route was established to I'embina., 
and the mail was carried in summer in part 
by canoe and in winter by dog sledges; but 
until 1871 the only certain means of trans- 
portation to the country was by means of 
the Red river carts. With these in brig- 
ades, the traders made two trips a year 
from the Ked river country to St. Paul. 

In 1870, with traders and military posts, 
and trappers and hunters, the population of 
North Dakota was but 2,405, and these were 
mostly part bloods, descendants of voy- 
ageurs, traders and adventurers intermar- 
ried with Indian women, and at that time 
not an acre of public land had been entered. 

In 1871 the first low wash of the coming 
wave of immigration, leading to magnifi- 
cent development, touched North Dakota 
and the Scandinavians were in the lead. 
They came from Minnesota and occupied 
homes on the Ked, Cheyenne and Goose riv- 
ers in Cass and Traill counties. Later in 
the season came the town site boomers, fol- 
lowed by Jay Cooke's party of newspaper 
writers, the Northern Pacific engineers and 
the men with the pick and shovel, the rail- 
road being completed to the Red river in 
the fall of 1871. The Great Northern was 
also completed that year to the Red river, 
and that season a line of steamboats was 
established on the Red river; regular stage 
lines having been established, connection 
was made with Winnipeg, and thus was 
laid the foundation of a new state. 

Thirty years thereafter we find a popu- 
lation of 319,146, as shown by the census of 
I'JOO, 73 incorporated places, 19 of which 
have exceeding 1,000 people, eight having 
exceeding 2,000, among these Fargo, the 
metropolis of the state, 9,589; Grand Forks, 
the second city, 7,652, and Bismarck, the 
capital, 3,319. 

One-eighteenth of the land surface, not 
included in reservations, aggregating 2,400,- 
000 acres, was granted to the state by con- 
gress for public schools, 90,000 acres for the 



state university, 90,000 for the agricultural 
college, 40,000 for the school of mines, 80,- 
000 for normal schools, 40,000 for the school 
for the deaf, 20,000 for the manual training 
school, 40,000 for the scientific school, 40,- 
000 for the school of forestry, 20,000 for the 
reform school, 20,000 acres and |30,000 for 
the institution for the feeble-minded, 40,000 
for the soldiers' home, 30,000 for the asylum 
for the blind and 50,000 for buildings at 
the state capital, making an aggregate of 
3,000,000 acres, laying the foundation for 
an enormous permanent fund for education- 
al purposes, as none of these lands can be 
sold for less than flO per acre and a consid- 
erable amount has already been sold for 
double that sum and some as high as f40 
per acre. The number of children of school 
age in the state in 1890 was reported at 92,- 
009; the number enrolled in the public 
schools, 77,686. The number of school 
houses was 3,003, and the school property 
was valued at .'S;2,587,865 and the cost of 
maintenance for the preceding biennial pe- 
riod was 11,583,594. • 

The common schools are a branch of the 
excellent school system of the state, of 
which the university is the head and the 
normal schools for the training of teachers, 
of which there are two, a part. There is 
also the state agricultural college and exper- 
iment station, maintained by the national 
goverunient in part, with its excellent sys- 
tem of farmers' institutes, resulting in a 
more intelligent cultivation of the soil and 
a general tendency toward diversified farm- 
ing. 

The taxiible valuation of the state in 
1900 was $117,204,877. The number of acres 
in farms was 11,297,758, having an estimat- 
ed value of .1139,000,000. The number of 
acres under cultivation was 6,623,315. The 
wheat acreage was placed at 3,686,223 and 
Hax at 1,338,244. Flax often yields from 20 
to 25 bushels per acre and a bum])er crop of 
wheat turns out many yields above 40 bush- 
els, sometimes reaching as high as 50 bush- 
els per acre. 

The state is divided into three natural 
divisions: The Red river valley, adapted to 
the cereals; the James river valley, em- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NOKTHWEST. 



bracing the coteaus, to mixed or diversified 
farmiug, and the Missouri river country, 
and from there on west to the Montana line, 
to stocli growing. Tliroughout this region, 
and to a considerable extent in the James 
river valley division, the grasses mature 
before fi-ost and remain in the condition of 
hay during the entire winter, affording win- 
ter grazing for stock. Cattle, horses and 
sheep will leave the best provision that can 
be made for them and turn to the grass on 
the range in winter, w^hen the snows are 
not too deep. 

The snow fall of North Dakota is light, 
sleighs are seldom used in winter, the 
spring comes on early and the fourth of 
July rarely comes without an abundance of 
early vegetables in the gardens ready for 
use. 

Corn is grown successfully in all parts 
of the state, but more especially in the Mis- 
souri river country. Some of the bonanza 
farms in the Red River valley claim corn 
is their most profitable crop. 

While the Selkirk settlers raised suffi- 
cient wheat to meet local demands, and 
there were a few considerable sized fields of 
wheat grown in Pembina county before the 
settlements of 1871, no wheat was attempt- 
ed to be grown in North Dakota for market 
until 1875, when Dalrymple led the way by 
his system of farming on an extensive scale. 
It was his success, heralded to the ends of 
the earth, and the exceedingly cheap lands, 
resulting from the Northern Pacific finan- 
cial collapse in 1873, which contributed so 
largely to the rapid development of North 
Dakota in the early eighties. 

The highest altitude in the state is about 
2,500 feet., at Belfield. The coteaus are 
1,800 to 2,000, Bismarck, 1,873, Fargo, 903 
feet. The so-called Pembina and Turtle 
Mountains are hills rising from 500 to 700 
feet above the level of the prairies. The 
country is generally prairie, with a skirting 
of timbei- along most of the streams. A 
large portion of the western part of the 
state is underlaid with lignite coal in beds 
from a few inches to upwards of twenty 
feet in depth. The leading veins now being 
worked are about nine feet in depth. There 



is coal enough in North Dakota to supply 
the demands of the United States for fuel 
for several centuries. It is an excellent and 
cheap fuel, but is dirty to handle, and much 
of it slacks and crumbles to dust. There 
is a process being developed, however, to 
press it into brickettes, doing away with the 
unfavorable features. In stoves adapted to 
it, and where those using it know how to 
handle it, it is now preferred to either wood 
or hard coal. It is sold at the mines at $1 
per ton, at Dickinson, Mandan, Bismarck, 
Minot, Williston, Buford, Kenmare, Wash- 
burn and other coal points at $2. It is de- 
livered at Fargo at $3.25. It is required 
by law to be used in all public buildings un- 
less wood or other fuel is cheaj^er. 

The old definition of the word Minnesota 
was muddy water. The true definition is 
many waters, the word sota in the Sioux 
language meaning many. So the old defini- 
tion of the word Dakota was allied tribes. 
The true definition, according to the Sioux, 
is many heads or many people. They were 
the most numerous of the many Indian 
tribes and very naturally claimed to be the 
people. 

The railroad mileage of North Dakota is 
3,031. The number of newspapers is 150. 
The number of postoffices, 000. Fully two- 
thirds of the people, demonstrated by the 
religious census recently taken in the lead- 
ing towns, are communicants of orthodox 
churches, the Lutherans leading, other de- 
nominations standing in the order named: 
Methodist Episcopal, Catholic, Congrega- 
tional, Baptist, Episcopal, Presbyterian, 
Unitarian, Christian and Jew. 

The population of the northern counties 
in the state is very largely Canadian. There 
is a large Scandinavian element throughout 
the state, with a heavy sprinkling of Ger- 
man, a considerable number of French and 
Poles, the usual proportion of Irish and a 
strong, hardy, American class from the 
northwestern states. The per capita of 
wealth is larger than in the older states, ex- 
cepting where there are wealthy manufac- 
turers, and the general health of the coun- 
try is remarkably good. 



HISTORY OF MONTANA. 



C. A. LOUNSBERRY. 



Montana Tei'ritory was created by act of 
congi-ess May -6, 1864. In 1873 it received 
an addition ot 2,000 sijuare miles from Da- 
kota. That I'Oitiou lying east of the Rocky 
moimtaius was a part of tlie Louisiana I'ur- 
cbase and was claimed by France from 1(>82, 
when La Salle exploi-ed the Mississippi, until 
1703, when it was ceded by France to Spain. 
It was re-ceded to France by secret treaty 
in 1800, and by France ceded to the United 
States in 1803, but remained in the possession 
and occupation of Spain until occupied by 
the United States. In 1804 it became the 
District of Louisiana, and in 1805 the Terri- 
tory of Louisiana, and was governed by the 
officers of Indiana Territory. In 1812 it be- 
came Missouri Territory, in 1834 it was of- 
ticially designated as Indian Country, in 1853 
^A'ashiugtou, in 1S03 Idaho, and in 1804 Mon- 
tana Territory. 

That poi'tion west of the Rocky moun- 
tains was claimed by the United States by 
right of original discovery and occupation, 
and the right of the United States to it was 
confirmed by treaty with Spain in 1819 and 
by treaty with England in 1846. It was or- 
ganized as Oregon Territory, created in 1848, 
became Washington in 1S53, Idaho in 1863, 
and Montana in 1864. 

Montana was admitted as a state by the 
act admitting North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Montana and Washington, approved Feb- 
ruary 22, 1889. This act provided for a con- 
stitutional convention, which met at Helena, 
July 4, 1889, and the constitution then 
framed having been ratified by vote of the 
people, admission of the state was duly pro- 
claimed by the president November 8, 1889. 

The population of Montana, as shown by 
the census of 1900, is 243,329, being an in- 
crease of 84.1 per cent during the decade. 
The population in 1890 was 132,159, in 1880, 
39,159, and in 1870, 20,595. The population 
is now more than eleven times what it was 
at the first census in 1870 aftec its organiza- 
tion in 1864. 



The area of Montana is approximately 
145,310 square miles, exclusive of 770 miles 
water area. There are 26 incorporated cities, 
towns and villages in Montana. Eutte, the 
largest city, has a population of 30,470, in- 
creased from 10,723, in 1890; (Ireat Falls, 
14,930, increased from 3,979; Helena, the 
third city and the capital, 10.770; Anaconda, 
9,435, increased from 3,975; Billings, 3,221, 
increased from 836; Bozeman, 3,419, in- 
creased from 2,143; Kalispel, 2,526, not in 
existence in 1890; Livingston, 2,778; Mis- 
soula, 4,366, increased from 3,426; Red 
Lodge, 2,152, increased from 624; Walker- 
ville, 2,621, increased from 743; Miles City, 
1,938, increased from 956; Dillon City, 1,530, 
increased from 1,012; Deer Lodge, Fort Ben- 
ton, Havre, Hamilton and Lewiston have ex- 
ceeding 1,000, and I'hillipsburg falls but five 
short of 1,000. ♦ 

The population of Butte was 241 in 1870, 
3,363 in 1880, 10,470 in 1890, and 30,470 in 
1900. Anaconda, twenty-seven miles dis- 
tant, developed by the same wonderful en- 
ergy and mining resources, has 9,975 now 
against 3,975 in 1880. Butte is connected 
with the Northern Pacific railroad by a 
branch, with the Great Northern by the Mon- 
tana Central, and with the Union Pacific by 
a branch to Pocatello. It is in the heart of 
an euormouslj- rich mining district which 
has added over $300,000,000 to the wealth 
of the world. 

An act for establishing trading-houses 
among the Indians being about to expire, 
President JetVei'son, in January, 1803, recom- 
mended to congress, in a confidential mes- 
sage, an extension of its views to the Indians 
on the Mississippi. He also proposed that 
a party should be dispatched to trace the 
Missouri to its source, cross the Rocky 
mountains, and proceed to the Pacific 
ocean. Captain Meriwether Lewis, a native 
of Virginia, a captain in the regular army, 
and private secretary to the president at 
that time, was appointed to take charge of 



HISTOUY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



this expedition. Later he associated with 
liini ^\'illiam Clarlie, a brother of General 
George Rogers (L'larlce, and they started on 
their expedition that fall, wintering near St. 
Charles, Mo., but on the east side of the Mis- 
souri, as the Spanish officers, still in charge, 
had not heard of the treaty whereby the 
country was ceded to the United States. 
Their party consisted of nine young men 
from Kentucky, fourteen soldiers, two Cana- 
dian boatmen, an intei'preter, a hunter and 
a negTo servant to Captain Clarke. They 
wintered 1804-3 near what is now Wash- 
burn iu Korth Dakota, latitude 47° 21' 4". 
They left their fort April 7, 1805, and pro- 
ceeded on up the river. On June 13 they 
came to a beautiful plain, where the buffalo 
were in greater numbers than they had seen 
before. "To the southwest," says the jour- 
nalist of the exijedition, "there arose from 
this plain two mountains of a singular ap^ 
pearance, and more like ramparts of high 
fortifications than works of nature. They 
are square figures, with sides rising perpen- 
dicularly to the height of 250 feet, formed 
of yellow clay, and the tops seemed to be 
level jjlaius. Finding that the river bore 
considerably to the south, and fearful of 
passing the falls before reaching the Rocky 
mountains, they now changed their course to 
the south, and leaving those insulated hills 
to the right, proceeded across the plain. In 
this direction Captain Lewis proceeded about 
two miles, when his ears were saluted with 
the agi-eeable sound of a fall of water; and, 
as he advanced, a spray, which seemed driv- 
en by the southwest wind, arose above the 
plain like a column of smoke and vanished 
in an instant."' And the Great Falls of the 
Missouri was discovered. They explored 
and named the Jefferson, Madison and Galla- 
tin rivers, followed the Jefferson to its source, 
traveled through the mountains in August 
and September, and early iu October em- 
barked in canoes on a branch of the Colum- 
bia, wintering on the Columbia, having 
reached the mouth of that stream November 
15, 1805. Captain Lewis was appointed gov- 
ernor of Louisiana Territory, embracing the 
country which he had explored, on his return, 
in 1807, and committed suicide in 1801), when 



en route to \\'ashington, and Clarke was 
made guveruor of the .same territory, then 
Missouri, which position he held from 1813 
to 1821. I..ewis and Clarke County, Mon- 
tana, was named in their honor, and well 
they deserved it. 

While up to that time there were hunters 
and traders in the country, they were of the 
Rritish companies, and the counti-y was en- 
tirely unoccupied by the Americans. Their 
work attracted universal attention. As 
early as 1802 John Jacob Astor had under- 
laken to establish communication from Hud- 
son bay to the Columbia river for the pur- 
poses of trade. The Missouri Fur Company, 
organized at St. Louis, in 1808, established 
posts on the Upper Missouri, and later one 
beyond the Rocky mountains on the head- 
waters of Lewis river, the south branch of 
the Columbia. This, the historian of Lewis 
and Clarke's expedition declares, was the 
first post established by white men in the 
country drained by the Columbia. That was 
given up in 1810, and the Astor interest with 
headquarters at Astoria was driven out by 
the ^^'ar of 1812. While there were other 
attempts to establish trade in this region by 
.Vmericans it was declared in 1843 that there 
was then not an American port or trading 
post in that vast region where trade had 
nourished for nearly twenty years between 
the Northwest Coast and China. 

In 1823 the Rocky Mountain Fur Com- 
pany commenced regular exj>editions to the 
borders of the Columbia. Captain Bonne- 
ville spent nearly two yeai-s chiefiy on the 
waters of Lewis river, starting in 1832. As 
early as 1843 it was said: "The parties ar-_ 
riving with furs are becoming less in number 
from year to year, as well east as west of 
the Rocky mountains, below the latitude of 
49°, owing to the great destruction of the 
fur-bearing animals by the hunters of the 
rival fur companies, both British." 

Indeed, the country had then been occu- 
pied for one hundred years, beginning with 
the explorations of Verendrye, the discov- 
erer of the Rocky mountains. They ascend- 
ed the -Vssiniboin, followed a then existing 
tiail to the Mouse river, and touched what is 
now Montana, at the mouth of the Yellow 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



stone, and Jannai-.v 1, 1743, came in sij^lit of 
the Kockj mountains, and on tlie 12th as- 
cended them. They remained in the conntry 
until the 12th of May, 1744, and jjhinted on 
an eminence the anus of France, engraved 
on a leaden plate, and raised a uionument 
of stones. Father Conciuard was asscM-iated 
with Vereudrye. Jonathan Carver's explo- 
rations, or at least his information, extended 
to the Montana region in 1708, and his map 
of that year shows evidence of this earlier 
French occupation. He gained from the In- 
dians a very fair idea of the headwaters of 
the Missouri, and of the Columbia, so suc- 
cessfully explored by Lewis and Clarke in 
1805, sixty-two years after the first occupa- 
tion of the country by the French explorers, 
followed, by the Church. Indeed Lewis and 
Clarke carried out the plan of Carver. They 
did what he outlined and had hojted to do. 

In April, 183!t, Fremont, the Tathtinder 
of the Rockies, i)assed up the Missouri, and 
though it is doubtful if he reached the Mon- 
tana country, his influence did. Ten years 
before Fremont, however, development had 
commenced. Fort L'nion had been estab- 
lished above the mouth of the Yellowstone, 
and in 182!) Kenneth McKenzie had estab- 
lished a trading post for the American Fur 
Company near where Fort Buford now is. 
In 1833 Robert Campbell and Hublette estab- 
lished a trading post at Buford, and the next 
year another up the Missouri sixty miles. 
In 1832 the first steamboat reached Fort 
Union and after that boats arrived yearly 
and trade b.^- modern methods commenced 
with Montana. I'rior to that the dog sleds 
and carts, and the travois had been the only 
means of transportation, aside from the bull- 
boat and the canoe, though the Indians 
were chary of the Missouri, which below the 
Yellowstone, at least, never gives up its 
dead. But earlier than Lewis and Clarke 
the trappers of Alexander McKenzie had 
traversed every stream in Montana. 

Pages, yes volumes, of most interesting 
matter might be written of the voyages lead- 
ing up to the occupation of the Pacific coast, 
the discovery of the Columbia, named fin- 
the good ship which first touched its watei-s, 
of the search and research for the way to 
India, out of which the voyages of Columbus 



grew, and the efforts to find a northwest 
passage. Here let us recall the impassioned 
words of Thomas H. Benton, in the United 
States senate, when, pointing westward, he 
said: "Yonder in the west lies the east; 
there lies the path to India." 

A new chai)ter opens with the discovery 
of gold in Montana, first remarking, how- 
ever, that next to Thomas Jefferson Montana 
owes her early development more to Thomas 
H. Benton than to any other living man. 
The name Mfintana is of classic origin, 
means a mountain land, and was suggested 
by Mrs. Jessie Fremont. The Indian name 
was Toza-be-Shock-uj), mountain cf)untry, or, 
as Joaquin Miller suggests, Shining Moun- 
tains, (lold was discovered in California, in 
1848. Explorations continued on the moun- 
tain ranges, jnishing gradually westward un- 
til the g(dd fields of Montana were opened 
in 1862, following the immensely lich placer 
diggings on the bars of Salmon river, where 
grains of gold were said to lie as thick as 
wheat on a threshing floor, and about the 
size and color of wheat. The first record of 
sluice boxes in operation in Montana Is at 
Cold creek, May 9, 1800. Then followed de- 
velopment of mines at Bannack, the first 
cai)ital of Montana, and other points, but 
the richest deposits at Adler, and Last 
Chance, now Helena, are what made Mon- 
tana famous throughout the world. The 
Koolenai disti'ict wasexjdored and the mines 
woi'ked to some extent in the late fifties, but 
not with success. T\\e first notable work at 
mining was by (Iranville and James Stuart 
on (Jold creek in the sin-ing of 1802. Mines 
were discovered that year at Big Hole. Gold 
was also found on Williard's creek. The 
Crold creek mines were soon deserted for 
Bannack. A party of miners from Bannack 
in ISO:', started for the Yellowstone, and were 
driven back by the Indians. On their return 
ihey discovered the Adler (Julch ])lacers. 
fabulously rich, yielding as high as four dol- 
lars to the pan. Nearly one hundred million 
dollars were taken from this gulch. The 
discovery of these mines was by Fairweather, 
Juiir- 1. ISO:!, and that was the bcgiuiiing of 
fair weather in the develo|)meul of Montana. 
Adler was in the very heart of the gold region 
of Montana, Ihe richest ever discovered on 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



the face of the earth. Other discoveries fol- 
lowed, Harris Gulch, California Gulch, Wis- 
consin Gulch, Bivens Camp, Silver Bow, 
Butte, all rich camps. 

There is only room here to speak of the 
beginning- and the results. The bullion 
product of Montana in 1802 was .f.")(l(l.(l(IO; 
in 1863, |8,00n,000; in 1864, $13,00().()()0; in 
1865, 114,500,000; in 1866, #16,500,000; in 
1867, 112,000,000; in 1868, .|15,000,000. 
The first quartz mills erected were in the be- 
ginning of 1863, and in 1870 the number of 
mines in operation was 683. 

Last Chance Gulch, on which Helena was 
established, or "just growed," the miners" 
cabins having been established on either side 
of the pav streak, was "struck" in 1864, and 
yielded between foi'ty and fifty million dol- 
lars. 

Placers were discovered at Butte in 1864, 
and were steady producers for a number of 
years. Butte"s real development was com- 
menced in 1875, when the first mills were 
erected. In addition to its great silver 
mines there is a copper vein eighty feet in 
width extending for a mile and a half just 
north of the city limits. It is now worked 
to a depth of more than 1,500 feet, showing 
better ore the deeper it is worked. The cop- 
per product of Butte exceeds 25 per cent of 
the copper product of the world. In 1S07 
the copper output of Butte was |38,00(l,0()(); 
gold, 13,500,000; silver, |6,000,000. 

Anaconda is twenty-seven miles from 
Butte. The works of the Anaconda Copper 
Mining Company are the greatest of the kind 
in the world. The capacity of the works is 
5,000 tons of copjter and 180 tons of silver 
ore daily. The graphite deposits and the 
sapphires near Anaconda have no superiors. 
Bozeman, settled in 1864, has valuable de- 
posits of gold, asbestos, and inexhaustible 
deposits of coal. Great Falls is the young- 
est of Montana cities that have attained 
greatness. It is located at the head of the 
falls of the IMissonri and has but a trifle be- 
low 15.000 population. The Boston & Mon- 
tana Co])per Smelting and Keflning i)lant is 
located here, also the large silver smelting 
plant of the Ignited States Smelting and Re- 
fining Company. The pay rolls of these two 
companies amount to $3,000,000 per annum. 



It is the greatest primary wool market in 
the world. Tlie water power of the Missouri 
at Great Falls is 350,000 horse power. The 
coal fields immediately adjacent cover 4,000 
square miles. 

The total gold product of Montana, up 
to 1802, when the mining interests of the 
state reached their flood tide of prosi>erity, 
was |137,46!),0()4; silver. $172,071,376; cop- 
])er, i>ounds, 868,653,427. The copper prod- 
uct increased from 9,058,284 pounds in 1882 
to 159.212,203 pounds in 1892. The metal 
product of Montana for the year 1892, in- 
cluding .f990,035.08 of lead, was $42,565,- 
026.06. 

In 1892 the number of ranches was 
9.330, containing 2,640,056 acres, with an 
average of 283 acres in a ranch. The aver- 
age product per acre was, wheat, 33.06 
bushels; rye, 38.71 ; barley, 34.48; corn, 24.92; 
oats, 40.97; potatoes, 72.95. There were 
16.393 daily cows and 1,066,393 pounds of 
butter were made. The number of sheep 
shorn was 1.459,791, the average wool per 
head being 6.97 pounds. 

The conditions atfording winter grazing 
prevail in all of the plains regions of the 
state, and millions of cattle and horses graze 
upon the hills and in the valleys without 
thought of provision for winter food. In 
many instances, though, here, as in North 
Dakota, it pays to jirovide for contingencies. 

The mean average height of Mtmtana is 
about 3,000 feet above the sea, while that of 
^^'yoming is 6,000, and of Colorado 7,000, 
giving Montana a more favorable climate 
than either of these states. Because of the 
irfluence of the Japan current, the climate is 
about the same as Cleveland, Ohio, and any 
fruits grown in that region are grown in 
Montana. The apples, peaches, pears, plums 
and other fruits have the flavor of the moun- 
tains and are far superior to the fruits grown 
in the lowlands of the Pacific coast. Mon- 
tana is well timberetl, well watered; it is a 
bind of bright sunshine, a land of health 
and of hapi)iness. Tlie death rate does not 
exceed 9 jiei- 1,000. Consumption never 
originates in such a climate. The Yellow- 
stone Park presents the grandest scenery the 
eye of man ever rested upon. 



NORTH DAKOTA AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 



Thf North Itakota Agi-icultiual CoUoj-c 
and Experinu'ut Station, located at Farj^o, 
are conducted in the interests of industrial 
education for the youth of the state and to 
aid in the develoijuient of its agricultural 
and industrial possibilities. 

The pollege cun-iculuni eniliraces such 
academic and technical subjects and man- 
ual training as are necessary to confer upon 
the student the necessary culture to fit him 
for his place in the body politic and at the 
same time to prepare him to take advantage 
of the natural opj)ortunities the state affords 
ffir the production of wealth. 

Agriculture is the paramount industry of 
North Dakota. The state being without 
timber or minerals, manufacturing will 
never assume large proportions wilhin its 
borders. The soil, which is by nature ex- 
tremely fertile, will always be the principal 
source of wealth. Since the state is located 
in the far north, its climatic cfinditions are 
Iieculiar, and many varieties of grain and 
vegetables must be acclimated before they 
can be relied upon for jirotitable crops. 
Many problems relating to cnltivation 
methods must also be solved tliat the best 
results may be obtained. These jiroblems 
can only be solved h\ numerous and accurate 
experiments continued through many years. 

The es])eriment station is suppoi-ted by 
the federal government and thoroughly 
ecjuipjied for its work, and the data obtained 
from exx>erimentation are furnished to the 
farmers of the state through the medium of 
bulletins and the annual reports of the sta- 
tion. By a system of selection and hybrid- 
ization many varieties of grain are im- 
jirovcd. rendered hardy and more prolific 
and better able to withstand the iMgor of 
the climate. 

The ((uestions of conservation of soil fer- 
tility and moisture for the growing crops 
are also given large attention. Where a 
state has, in the main, but one great source 



of wealth — an extremely al)undant and fer- 
tile soil — its study should receive every pos- 
sible attention. For the sake of future gen- 
eiations it should be cultivated, keeping its 
continued improvement in view instead of 
robbing it of its fertility for the more rapid 
and less exjjensive accjuiring of wealth by 
the present generation. 

The largest variety of wealth-producing 
industries within the scope of agi-iculture is 
also encouraged. A single crop country is 
never more than temporarily jirosperous and 
seldom that. Animal husbandry, the manu- 
facture of beet sugar and dairy prodin'ts, the 
production of wool and the manufacture of 
woolen goods, linseed oil, potato starch and 
flax fiber are all legitimate industries belong- 
ing to an agricultural state, and add to its 
we.iltli. furnish variety of emplovment»and 
conserve rather than waste its soil fertility. 

Large attention is also given to the de- 
stiMiction of weeds, to diseases of cereals, 
vegetables and live stock, and remedies are 
prescribed for their cure or prevention. 

The treatment prescribed for the preven- 
tion of smut in wheat alone, will, when gen- 
erally apjilied, save to the farmers of the 
state millions of dollars annually. 

Through the agency of farmers" institutes 
the work and ideas of the experiment station 
are disseminated through lectures and vei-- 
l)al discussions, a farming spirit is fostered 
and better methods of cultivation are em- 
phasized. Better ideas also obtain in rela- 
tion to the feeding and breeding of live stock, 
of diversified income and of rural economy. 

The experiment station is without ques- 
tion the most important institution of the 
state viewed from the standpoint of the 
state's material development and future 
greatness. 

Through the investigations of the depart- 
ment of chemistry the feasibility of maun- 
facturing sugar from beets grown in the 
southern part of the state has been so far 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



deteriiiiiH^d tliat a company has been orfiaii 
ized and will in all pi-obahility be<;)n build 
ing a sugar manufactory at Oakes, Dickey 
county, the present year (1001). 

The depai'tment of dairying has also done 
much toward the development of butter and 
cheese manufactories in those sections of the 
state west of the Red River Valley, where 
mixed farming is more generally encouraged. 

To direct the attention of the youth of the 
state to its ojjportunities for making a living 
and for the sure production of wealth, and 
also to afford the necessary culture to enjoy 
the fruits of industry and to discharge intel- 
ligently the duties of citizenship, the agri 
cultural college stands with door ajar. It 
accepts its educational mission fearlessly and 
earnestly. To prepare young men and wom- 
en for the largest measure of usefulness and 
happiness in rural life is the first concern of 
a purely agricultui'al commonwealth. To 
dignify labor by supplanting soulless drudg- 
ery with scientific interest and to eliminate 
waste, chance and carelessness by substitut- 
ing economy, reasonable certainty and busi- 
ness methods through educational training 
directed to those ends and for those specific 
purposes, is a work worthy of the state's 
fostering care. 

The adaptation of the energies of an edu 
cational institution to si>ecific practical ends 
■ — ends which find their answer in the high- 
est possible development of a state's natural 
resources, and also a refined and cultured 
citizenship — may seem to run counter to all 
the traditions of education, but it is so much 
the worse for the traditions. The closing 
years of the nineteenth century have made 
havoc of many autiipiated theories — educa- 
tional and otherwise. America's high des- 
tiny cannot be achieved without an educa- 
tional stimulus for her farmers and working 
millions, no less direct and helpful than that 
afforded professional and ministerial voca- 
tions. Not all may avail themselves of edu- 
cational facilities to better qualify them for 
the humbler, though not less important, voca- 
tions of life, but a sufficient number will do 
so to save the farmer and the working man 
from the conditions of peasantry. 

Democratic institutions demand demo- 



cratic education and the eradication of every 
force that tends to breed and foster caste or 
create social strata among the citizens of onr 
common country. Patriotism manifests itself 
(|uite as generously by develo])ing the re- 
sources of a country and safe-guarding its 
soil and other wealth-producing agencies 
from impaimient or wanton destruction as 
it does in protecting the institutions of liber- 
ty and justice as a heritage for posterity. 
Our flag represents possibilities as well as 
freedom — a productive country as well as a 
free country. 

The colleges of agriculture and mechanic 
arts re])resent this modern idea of adapting 
educational means to practical ends, without 
ini]iairing their cultural (jualities. It unites 
both the practical and the cultural in educa- 
tion that the coming citizen may /.-/ioic some- 
thing and be able to do something, that he 
may know how to live and also know how to 
make a living. 

To meet the demands made upon it the 
North Dakota Agricultural College adapts 
its work, as far as possible, to actual con- 
ditions and arranges its courses of study, in 
some instances, to suit the students' conven- 
ience and time. 

Three regular collegiate courses of study 
of four years each are maintained, leading to 
the degree of B. S., viz.: Agi'icultural, Me- 
chanical and Scientific. In addition to these 
gi-aduate courses of study a short course in 
agriculture is maintained, requiring two 
years for completion. This course deals with 
agriculture and other technical subjects hav- 
ing a bearing upon it, such as dairying, horti- 
culture, shop-work and veterinary. In con- 
nection with the technical studies, arith- 
metic, grammar, geography, history, book- 
keeping and ci\il government are required, 
and other elective subjects may be taken. 

A two-year course in steam engineering 
is also maintained. In this course steam en- 
gineering is the major subject and has as- 
sociated with it practically the same school 
studies as are outlined in the two-year course 
in agriculture, with more of mathematics 
and physics, however. Long and short 
courses are given in the department of dairy- 
ing according to the student's desire to fit 



HISTORY OF THE (JRKAT NORTHWEST. 



himself for farm oi' creamery work. For the 
benefit of students unable to attend school 
during the working season, two three-month 
winter courses are provided — one in agri- 
culture and the other in steam engineering. 
Arithmetic and English are re(iuired in both 
courses, and those desiring to do so take 
penmanship. The short course in agriculture 
consists of sixty lectures of one hour each 
upon agricultural subjects, thirty of horti- 
culture, thirty of dairying and sixty of vetei*- 
inary. Stock-scoring is given two after- 
noons each week, and all the students take 
shop-work. 

ITiese lectures are delivered in pojiulur 
form and the principles rather than scientific 
facts are dealt with, care being taken not to 
go beyond the student's comprehension. 

The three-month course in steam engi- 
neering is confined mainly to lectures upon 
the construction and operation of the trac- 
tion engine. All the separate parts of the 
engine are arranged in order in the lecture 
room, and during the sixty lectures each part 
is fully explained, together with its function 
and its relation to other parts of the engine. 
Afternoons are devoted to engineer practice, 
shoi)-work, etc., while arithmetic, English 
and penmanship are required as in the short 
course in agriculture. 

The very large number of traction en- 
gines required in the state every fall to fur- 
nish p((vver during the threshing season, and 
the scarcity of competent engineers to ope- 
rate them, make this department of winter 
training at the college exceedingly popular. 

Ladies are admitted to the Agricultural 
College on equal terms with gentlemen, but 
in lieu of the technical studies for young 
men, ladies are offered courses of training in 
household economics. These courses are 



varied according to the length of time the 
young lady remains in school. Those taking 
a graduate course complete the subject, in- 
cluding a thorough course in plain and fancy 
needlework. The subjects are taught in a 
practical manner, and no pains are spared to 
emphasize the importance of good housekeep- 
ing as a necessary adjunct to every woman's 
education. The shorter courses embrace the 
more common operations connected with 
cooking, baking, household sanitation and 
plain sewing. As far as pos.sible home-mak- 
ing is rendered a pleasure and economy a 
habit. This dejjartment is quite popular and 
but very few lady students nuUriculate with- 
out availing themselves of its advantages. 

The short courses alluded to are not in- 
tended to give more than limited training in 
si)ecial subjects and are intended to accom- 
modate a class of students not able, for finan- 
cial reasons or others, to complete a college 
course of study. These short courses, how- 
ever, enable such students to do better work, 
to become somewhat familiar with the 
nomenclature of science and to learif the 
sources of information which they may make 
use of in after life. Such courses give stu- 
dents a better ojiinion of agriculture as a 
vocation and a disposition to observe and in- 
vestigate on their own account. 

The students of the Agricultural College 
will exercise a powerful influence upon the 
development of North Dakota, shaping its 
industrial and political career. Though hard- 
ly more than in its infancy, the college has 
already demonstrated its usefulness, but as 
the years go by the students will, by their 
life work, show the value of their college 
tri'.ining and silence every opponent of in- 
dustrial education. 



MACALESTER COLLEGE. 



Macalester College is the outgrowth of 
the Baldwin School of St. Paul, projected by 
Rev. Edward D. Neill as far back as 1853, 
and of a similar institution opened in 1873 
by the same gentleman in Minneapolis, near 
the Falls of St. Anthony. The fonner school 
received its name from Matthew W. Baldwin, 
of Philadelphia, a liberal contributor to its 
founding and sujiport. The latter received 
its name from Charles Macalester, also of 
Philadelphia, who donated for its use a valu- 
able property once known as the Winslow 
House, and located near the jiresent Exposi- 
tion Building in Minneapolis. The institu- 
tion springing from the union of these two 
schools was moved to its present site and 
opened in 1885. 

The men most actively interested in the 
establishment of Macalester College ai'e: 
William C. Baker, Richard Chute, W. W. 
McNair, Judge C. E. Vanderburg, Rev. J. C, 
Whitney, Hon. Eugene M. Wilson, Rev. 
Robert F. Sample, of Minneapolis; and Hen- 
ry J. Horn, Henry M. Knox, H. L. Moss, 
ex-Gov. Alexander Ramsey, H. K. Taylor, R. 
P. Lewis, Thomas Cochi'an, of St. Paul. To 
the efforts of the above named trustees must 
be added the splendid services of Rev. Daniel 
Rice, D. D., who devoted the later years of 
his life wholly and gratuitously to the up- 
building of the college. 

Drs. Neill and Rice were both graduates 
of Amherst College, and a number of the 
trustees were honored sons of eastern col- 
leges such as Hamilton, Williams and Lafay- 
ette. The purpose, therefore, in the minds 
of these men was to build up in the north- 
west an institution after the noble character 
and aims of these colleges whence they had 
come. This was their ideal. 

Their successors on the Board of Trus- 
tees have labored earnestly to realize this 
ideal. They seek to make Macalester Col- 
lege a center of culture and of warm Chris- 



tian intiuence — a school to which parents 
may confidently commit their sons and 
daughters not only for a thoi-ough education, 
but also for the safeguard and development 
of their characters. 

By a provision of the charter amended in 
1885, two-thirds of the trustees are to be 
members of the Presbyterian church. But 
in its instruction and internal administra- 
tion, the college is wholly non-sectarian, and 
all its privileges are available to students of 
other denominations on equal terms. Stu- 
dents preparing for the ministi'y of any 
Evangelical church, receive tuition at half 
the usual rates. 

The college is located in Macalester Park, 
a beautiful suburb in the western part of the 
city of St. Paul, one-half mile south and a 
little east of Merriam Park, and one mile 
south of the Inter urban Electric Line on 
Snelling avenue. 

The college buildings are seven in num- 
ber and have been erected at a cost of $120,- 
000. The college campus contains thirty 
acres, and has a frontage of six hundred and 
sixty feet on Summit avenue, a beautiful 
boulevard two hundred feet in width and 
laid out with parks, drives, etc. The grounds 
contain a fine grove and efforts are making 
to beautify them in a manner befitting their 
suiToundings. Tlie location is almost ideal 
for an institution of learning. The college is 
away from the distractions and temptations 
of the cities. There are no saloons or other 
places of temptation in the vicinity. Though 
the college is in a quiet and retired place, 
the students are brought more or less in con- 
tact with the life and culture of the cities. 
The large iiublic libraries, churches, lecture 
courses and musical entertainments are easi- 
ly accessible. 

The trustees of the college are W. H. Dun- 
woody, J. A. Gordon, Rev. R. N. Adams, D. 
D., Rev. John E. Bushjiell, D. D., Rev. J. C. 



I 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Faries, of Minneapolis; Thomas H. Dickson, 
Pres., Prof. Thomas Shaw, Vice-Pres., R. A. 
Kirk, R. C. Jefferson, H. L. Moss, B. F. 
Wright, Rev. A. B. Meldrnm, D. D., Rev. 
Mnrdock McLeod, of St. Paul; also Rev. P. 
H. Cleland, D. D., Duluth; Georfje D. Day- 
ton, Worthlngton; B. S. Cook, Owatonna; 



Rev. C. T. Burnley, Hudson, Wis.; Judge R. 
N. Oaruthers, Grand Forks, N. D. 

The faculty of the college numbers six- 
teen members, of which the officers are 
James ^^'allace, Pres.; George W. Davis, 
Dean; Mrs. Julia M. Johnson, Dean of the 
^N'oman's Department. 



SHATTUCK SCHOOL. 



Beginning in 186.5 it has grown into one 
of the largest and most prosperous of our 
training schools for boys. Its reputation is 
almost national, all but ten states having 
patronized it. Its present enrollment of 
about two hundred includes boys from 2.3 
states and Central America, by which its in- 
fluence extends over a wider field than a ma- 
jority of the colleges. Its past work and the 
conditions of its geographical location and 
the popular favor assure its success and per- 
manence. More than 2,000 have enjoyed its 
advantages, in preparing for college or for 
an active business life. Its object is to give 
boys a thorough education, and to train them 
in body, mind and soul to the right way of 
thinking and living, and to lead them to a 
higher iilane of manhood both by precept 
and example. The school points with pride 
and confidence to the many it has so trained. 

Resources. — In view of its high aims and 
the demands upon it, its resources are all too 
limited. It began with nothing, either in 
buildings or money. It has depended wholly 
iiI)on its earnings for its maintenance, care- 
ful business management having made it 
self-supporting from the beginning. It is not 
curried on for any one's profit. Whatever 
can be saved is used for the improvement of 
the school. Every dollar given it has been 
ajiplied to the erection of a building, or been 
added to the scholarship endowment. It was 
never so pi'osperous, nor so wortliy the con- 
fidence and the cooperation of the friends of 
education. This condition with the ]n-elimi- 
nary work done, and the ac(]uisition of a 
beautiful location and property that have 



cost more than .|:!.50.0()0, together with a 
scholarship endowment of .|10.3,000 for the 
partial aid of boys of limited means, are the 
guarantee it otters for a wise, economical 
and .safe use of gifts and bequests entrusted 
to it. The experience of its managers stretch- 
ing over more than thirty years has qualified 
them to expend money to the best advantage 
to secure its permanent usefulness. An in- 
spection of the school will convince any one 
that there has been a wise, careful use of the 
money donated, and the utmost good faith in 
carrying out the wishes of the donors. 

Needs. — A good boarding school has su- 
perior advantages for fitting boys for college, 
for business, for life. Amply endowed, it 
does it better, and works more independent- 
ly, with more confidence in the future, than 
the one that has nothing but tuition fees to 
sustain its work. It does the foundation 
work for the boy who goes to college; it takes 
the place of the college with many others. 
Its instruction is thorough and advanced, 
bnl the best work of a good school, and 
which makes it even more valuable to a boy 
than the college, is character building. The 
imjiressions on the mind and character are 
more easily made and are more lasting at the 
scliool age than at the college age. The im- 
provement of the secondary work is there- 
fore of far more benefit to the public than 
any increase in the number of the colleges. 
Its endowment, and ample means for the em- 
jiloyment of the very best teaching ability, 
foi' providing every building and facility 
necessary for the best work, and for the hap- 
])iness and the well-being of boys in this 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



formative period, will c-ontribiite more to- 
ward developing the right kind of manhood 
than anything that can come later. A good 
endowment is for these and other reasons n 
supreme need for the best type of training 
school that is founded with a view to its be- 
coming a permanent institution. 

The location, grounds and grouping of 
the buildings are strikingly beautiful, and 
some of the buildings are among the best in 
the country. Three other buildings, and a 
Primary Department for very young boys, 
are, in addition to the endowment, the press- 
ing needs, and plans for these buildings are 
now in course of preparation. As stated 
under the head of Eesources, the sum applied 



from donations and earnings for the upbuild- 
ing of the school and the scholarship fund is 
nearly |500,000. To erect the additional 
buildings, found a Primary Department, and 
provide the adequate endowment requires as 
much more. It is not too much to say, that 
the great endowed school of the West can be 
established more successfully and with less 
cost on this foundation than in any other 
way. Gifts and bequests of money or prop- 
erty are sought to help in doing this. 

Need I say more to interest those who 
can appreciate good management and de- 
voted work for the training of the young? 
JAMES DOBBIN, Rector. 
Faribault, Minn. 



MEN OF PROGRESS. 



PILLSBURY. JOHN SAKGENT. -The 
name of John S. Pillsbury is so interwoven 
with the development and growtli of Min- 
nesota from its territorial, inchoate condi- 
tion, to its present proud and commanding 
position as the Empire State of the great 
Northwest, that a synopsis of his successful 
career would require a large volume, and 
then not contain the essential ingredients of 
his character which have most contributed 
to the result. Integrity, acumen, prescience, 
public spirit, sagacity, patriotism, loyalty 
and noble aspirations cannot be weighed and 
measured in their influence-producing effects. 
The most intangible forces seem to be the 
most potent, and yet the most elusive when 
subject to description. The combination of 
forces in a person is conventionally called 
"force of character." When this is exhibited 
in action some inference may be drawn. But 
this must be always inadequate to poi-tray 
the real man. In dealing with the life of 
John S. Pillsbury. these limitations must be 
considered. The influence of his character 
could not be confined to his local habitation 
any more than could the ai^oma of a flower 
garden be fenced in. In public estimation — 
and of very great importance — the preserva- 
tion of the credit of the .state by liquidating 
the old railroad bonds and the rescue of the 
State University from collapse, if not from 
oblivion, are perhaps the two most distin- 
guished public achievements of Mr. Pills- 
bury. Mr. Pillsbury was born at Sutton, 
Merrimac county, N. H., July 2i), 182S. His 
father was John Pillsbury, a manufacturer, 
and a man for a long life, prominent in local 
and state affairs. He was a desceudant of 
Joshua Pillsbury, who came from England 
in 1640, and settled at Newburyport, 
Mass., where he received a grant of laud, 
a portion of which still remains in the pos- 
session of his descendants, one of whom, 
Micijah Pillsbury, went to New Hampshire 



in 171)0 and settled at Sutton. He was the 
great-grandfather of John S. Pillsbury, 
whose mother likewise was of early Puritan 
ancestry. Her maiden name was Susan 
Wadleigh. The descendants of the Pills- 
burys have been numerous, and many of 
them have filled positions of honor and trust 
with fidelity and credit. John's early educa- 
tion was confined to the common schools of 
his native town, which, in those days, were 
of limited facilities. When a sturdy lad he 
commenced to learn the printer's trade. The 
business, however, did not prove congenial, 
so he abandoned it, and secured employment 
as a clerk in the general country store of his 
older brother, George, at Warner, N. H. 
After four years George sold his busi- 
ness, and John continued to work in the 
store under the new proprietor for tw*years 
longer. Then, shortly after he became of 
age, he went into business for himself, with 
^Valter Harriman as partner. It is worthy 
of remark that each of these partners was 
afterwards governor of a state — Mr. Harri- 
man governor of New Hampshire, and Mr. 
Pillsbury governor of Minnesota. When 
this partnership was dissolved he went to 
Concord, in the same state, and engaged in 
business as a merchant tailor and cloth deal- 
er, which he continued for two years. In the 
meantime, becoming satisfied with his apti- 
tude for mercantile life, he was on the look- 
out for a good place in which to [)ermanent- 
ly settle. In 1853 he made a tour of the 
West for this purpose. The Falls of St. An- 
thony captivated him. He was satisfied that 
a metropolis would grow up around them. 
Without loss of time he settled on the east 
side of the Mississippi river, where the prin- 
cipal settlement was made and called St. 
Anthony. He engaged in the hardware busi- 
ness, and because of the large demand for 
such goods in the rapidly developing com- 
munity, his enterprise was at once prosper- 




JOHN SARGENT PILLSBURT. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



ous. The only way for a merchant to obtain 
goods in any considerable (luantity. at that 
time, was by water transportation up the 
river from the railroad's terminal point. It 
was therefore necessary to secure in the fall 
a stock sufficient to supply the demand until 
navigation opened the following sprinii — 
that is, for live or six months. In the fall of 
1S5C, Mr. Pillsbury had safely housed in his 
warehouse a larj-e consignment to sui)ply his 
trade. It was difficult to obtain insurance, 
there being then only one small Illinois com- 
pany represented in the town, and that not 
deemed very strong. Mr. Pillsbury's store 
was insured for a small amount, but the 
warehouse containing the hulk of his stock 
was considered as not being in much danger. 
But a fire started and a high wind soon de- 
stroyed this storehouse with its valuable con- 
tents, involving a loss of thirty-six thousand 
dollars. The goods had been bought mostly 
on the usual credit terms. Then, to make 
the matter worse, the panic of 1857 came on. 
Those who now know Mr. Pillsbury"s capac- 
ity for snatching victory from apparent de- 
feat — as in the University muddle, and in 
the railroad bonds matter — will not be sur- 
prised to know that he, instead of succumb- 
ing to the appalling disaster, went to work 
to retrieve his misfortune in a manner which 
may fairly be called heroic. Of course, he 
was compelled to ask an extension from his 
creditors. One or two small ones, however, 
determined to take advantage of the law 
which gave the first attaching creditor all 
the i»roperty, without regard to the interests 
of other creditors. When their design was 
known Mr. Pillsbury made an assignment to 
protect all the creditors alike. He then suc- 
ceeded in obtaining an extension of time for 
the payment of his obligations, giving his 
notes for payment. The times continued 
fearfully dull, but he worked with desperate 
energy. He lived in a house for which he 
paid ^150 a year, and he supported his fam- 
ily on |400 a year. Neither he nor his wife 
had a new suit of clothes for six years. When 
his first note for |1,200, given to one of his 
largest Boston creditors, became due and was 
sent on for collection, the best Mr. Pillsbury 
could do was to pay on it the pittance of |25. 



He made that payment and jiromised to send 
on more as soon as he could get together 
$23.00. He kept his promise, and in this way 
paid the note a few months before the second 
one of like amount became due. When this 
was sent on for collection, all the notes c-ame 
with it, each endorsed to J. S. Pillsbury "for 
collection." He could not understand it at 
first. It was a strange proceeding to have 
his own notes returned to him in this manner. 
However, he finally paid every obligation 
and was fairly on his feet again in five years. 
He then bought a new suit of clothes and 
went on to Boston. His old creditor greeted 
him very cordially, saying, "You are the man 
who pays a •11,200 note $25 at a time. I'm 
glad to see you.'" Then turning to his man- 
ager he said, "Whatever Mr. Pillsbury wants 
at any time, let him have it, and if you 
haven't got it, send out and buy it for him, 
and if they want to know anything about Mr. 
Pillsbury in Xew York, tell them he's the 
best man on earth," or words to that effect. 
Mr. Pillsbury was now stronger than ever. 
Notwithstanding the precarious condition of 
general western credit at that time, Mr. Pills- 
iiury could command whatever he needed. 
Although he was so absorbed in business 
that an ordinary man would deem it work 
enough, Mr. Pillsbury did not neglect his 
work as a citizen. He was always actively 
interested in public affairs. In 185G he was 
elected a member of the City Council of St. 
Anthony, which was then the center of po- 
litical control. By repeated re-elections he 
served in this body for six years. He was so 
tied up with his business obligations that he 
could not honorably abandon them and go 
into the army during the war — although that 
would have been an easy way to escape from 
his burdens. But when the Civil War broke 
out he rendered efficient service in organiz- 
ing the first three regiments. In 1SG2 he also 
assisted in raising and ecpiipping a battalion 
of mounted men to serve against the Indians. 
In 1851 congress gave Minnesota forty-six 
thousand acres of land to build a university. 
To raise money the land was mortgaged for 
forty thousand dollars. When the first build- 
ing was completed it was moi-tgaged for fif- 
teen thousand dollars. This was during the 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



panic of 1X57. In the tonrst' of two or three 
jears tlie creditors became clamorons for 
some paj. The legislatnre was not able to 
make an appropriation, and the friends of 
the enterprise "generally, felt that the prop- 
erty must be turned over to the creditors to 
let them get what they could out of it. Mr. 
Pillsbury, though not a scholar himself, was 
keenly interested in the cause of education, 
and he determined, if possible, to save the 
university to the state, that the youth of the 
state might have the best facilities for an 
education. It became almost a passion with 
him. To show the desperate condition of the 
affairs of the university it may be well to say 
that the governor of the state in his message 
of 1802, only voiced the prevailing opinion 
when he was compelled to own that he could 
see no other way out of the financial embar- 
rassment of the university than to give all 
the granted lands to the creditors to extin- 
guish the debt. The next year Mr. Pillsbury 
was appointed one of the regents of the uni- 
versity and began to investigate the affairs, 
and finally devised a plan to extricate the in- 
stitution from its difficulty. For the time 
being he made its affairs his own, and ap- 
plied his business sagacity and acumen to its 
deliverance. He was also, the same year, 
1863, elected to the state senate. Here he 
proposed his plan. It was to create a new- 
board of regents with plenary power to deal 
with all the affairs of the university. He 
was ably assisted by Hon. John M. Berry, 
later a justice of the supreme court. He 
drew up and introduced the bill which be- 
came a law March 4, 1864, which provided 
that the regents should give bonds each, in 
the amount of twenty-five thousand dollars. 
They were empowered to "compromise, set- 
tle and pay any and all claims" and "to sell 
at public or i)rivate sale" the whole or any 
part of the land for cash, or on credit. In a 
woi"d, the new regents had as full control 
over the uni\ersity property as if it had been 
their own. The new regents were John S. 
Pillsbury, O. C. Merriam, also of St. Anthony, 
and John Nicols, of St. Paul. Mr. Pillsbury 
took upon himself the untangling of the com- 
plicated M'eb of claims — some of long stand- 
ing, some items in dispute, some scattered 



east and west. This difficult and delicate 
task required Mr. Pillsbury to travel to dis- 
tant jilaces. and to devote months of time in 
adjusting satisfactorily to creditors and to 
the friends of the university the jumble 
placed in his hands. It was, however, finally 
accomplished. He succeeded in discharging 
every lien and debt to the satisfaction of all 
concerned, and yet saved to the university 
thirty thousand acres of land, the campus of 
twenty-five acres, and the buildings, which 
alone were worth about seventy-five thou- 
sand dollars. ITiis was a voluntary work of 
his heart, without compensation to himself, 
except the joy of a noble duty well done. 
Mr. Pillsbury was in the senate neai'ly all the 
time from 1863 to 1876, and always managed 
to secure a liberal appropriation from the 
legislature — even when others deemed it 
hopeless. Very naturally his successful deal- 
ing with university affairs gave him a wide 
reputation throughout the state. He is a 
Kejjublican, although in no sense a politician. 
In 1875 he was nominated by the Bepub- 
licans for governor, and elected. The state 
needed the best business ability it could com- 
mand, for the panic of 1873 had just left its 
devastating trail; the grasshopper scourge 
afflicted the farming community, and with it, 
every business interest; the long repudiated 
railroad bonds were a stain upon the escutch- 
eon of the state, which, besides the moral 
obloquy, were a source of financial trouble. 
The propositions offered for settling these 
claims had been so rejected by the people 
that most of the prominent public men w^ere 
afraid to meddle with the subject. But Mr. 
Pillsbury believed that honesty was just as' 
obligatory to the state as to an individual. 
He became terribly in earnest that the 
state should be honest. Here was to be his 
home, and he did not want to live in a state 
which rejnidiated its debts — no matter' how 
they had been contracted. He was almost 
alone in these views. There were only seven 
other prominent men in his home community 
who favored the payment of the repudiated 
bonds. He did not hesitate to urge at all 
times the liquidation of the debt. His views 
were known when he was elected governor. 
In five successive messages to the legislature 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



and in every legitimate and honorable way 
lie sought to bring about a settlement. The 
ojiposition claimed that the bonds were ille- 
gally issued. It was diffleult to get a judicial 
decision from the supreme court to deter- 
mine this question, by reason of technical 
difficulties in the way. Although the people 
who did not fully understand the matter and 
who had been misled by politicians, rejected, 
by a vote of about three to one, the proposi- 
tion for settlement. Governor Pillsbury suc- 
ceeded in inducing the legislature to author- 
ize him to U]ipoint seven judges of the dis- 
trict court — or if necessary one or more 
from the supreme court — to form a commis- 
.sion to decide upon the legality of the bonds. 
Tlie first judges approached to accept an ap- 
pointment on the commission refused to 
serve — such was the unpopularity of the gov- 
ernor's motive. There was, for a time, dan- 
ger that he could not form a commission. 
However, when he succeeded, and the com- 
mission met to consider the question, they 
were confronted by an injunction procured 
by the repudiationists to prevent the commis- 
sion from acting. This was the best thing 
that could happen, for it brought the ques- 
tion before the supreme court, which not 
only dissolved the injunction, but pro- 
nounced the bonds valid, and made the pro- 
posed work of the commission useless. But 
the work of extinguishing the hateful debt 
was not yet done. It was necessary that the 
legislature should provide funds. In antici- 
pation of a settlement. Governor Pillsbury 
had secured the surrender of the old bonds. 
Now some of the bondholders wanted to re- 
pudiate their agreement and demanded the 
surrender of their bonds, which by the decis- 
ion were valuable. But the governor would 
not give them up. He held them to their con- 
tract. When every (juibble against the pay- 
ment of the bonds had been demolished. Gov- 
ernor Pillsbury made his final appeal to the 
legislature. It was a masterly argument, 
and won. Even then it required great cir- 
cumspection to execute and deliver the new 
bonds, for feeling ran high, and the danger 
of physical as well as legal interference was 
imminent. But even that was successfully 
circumvented and the subject has quietly 



passed into history which redounds to the 
credit of the persistent and courageous gov- 
ernor, who declared from the outset that he 
would 'go into every school district of the 
state, if necessary, to convince the people of 
the absolute justice and honesty of paying: 
the railroad bonds." The scourge of grass- 
hoppers was at its height during a part of his 
six years of administration as governor. He 
vetoed the first crude bills for ai)propriations 
to purchase seed wheat for the sufferers, be- 
cause the sowing of wheat was worse than 
useless, so long as the pest remained. His 
wisdom was fully justified by subsequent ex- 
perience. He secured a council of governors 
of the affected states to organize a co-opera- 
tion for exterminating the grasshoppers. It 
met at Omaha, Neb., in October, 1876, 
and elected Governor Pillsbury president. 
He traveled, incognito, the infested region in 
midwinter to ascertain from personal in- 
vestigation the true situation and the con- 
dition of the peoi)le. He visited thirty-two 
counties and met with many pathetic inci- 
dents. The willing beggars had been forced 
out of the country. Those that remained had 
the right stuff in them. To relieve the im- 
mediate wants of many, he gave liberally 
from his private means. When he returned 
with his full personal knowledge, he made 
such an appeal to the benevolent that a gen- 
erous response was received from all parts 
of the country. (Jovernor Pillsbury and his 
wife attended personally, with scrupulous 
and exacting fidelity, to the distribution of 
the supplies. They were generously carried 
to their destination by the railroads and ex- 
press companies, free of charge. Ministers 
and country physicians having no selfish in- 
terests to serve, and being familiar with the 
conditions, were appointed as distributing 
agents. There were over six thousand peo- 
ple relieved in this manner, and it is safe to 
say that no supplies were ever distributed 
more equitably. Later the legislature made 
appropriations for supplying seed wheat to 
the sufferers. The execution of this law was 
put upon the governor, and it involved a 
stupendous amount of work. To put the seed 
where it was wanted in so many ditferent lo- 
cations, in different counties, and in time for 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



early spring planting, was a task of immense 
difiioiilty. Early in the spring of 1877, at the 
express wish of several religious bodies, and 
in accordance with an old New England cus- 
tom, Governor Pillsbury issued a proclama- 
tion for a day of "fasting and prayer.'" This 
attracted attention throughout the country, 
and provoked some criticism, but it was 
largely observed in the state, and it inspired 
many with a new hope. When it was found 
that the grasshoppers disappeared, and that 
the harvests of the year were unusually 
bountiful, especially in the infected districts, 
many people believed that the prayers were 
truly answered. There has been since no 
such affliction in the state. In 1877 Mr. 
Pillsbury was again elected governor. Dur 
ing his inspection of the region devastated 
by the grasshoppers he discovered a number 
of county ofQcers who w^re totally incompe- 
tent from ignorance, and some who were dis 
honest by inclination. He saw that it was 
necessary to have some remedy for this state 
of aflairs. He therefore drew the bill for the 
appointment of a public examiner to investi- 
gate all public offices and accounts and to 
devise an efficient method of keeping public 
records. The bill became a law. It gives the 
governor the power to remove n.n objection- 
able officer. This has proved to be a valuable 
safeguard to the people. By his action the 
governor saved one county alone thirty thou 
sand dollars. The law has been adopted in 
several other states and will no doubt even- 
tually become as universal as the "official 
ballot." He also secured the passage of the 
law creating a high school board to complete 
the chain connecting the district school with 
the university. Education has always been 
a subject close to his heart. He was a stern 
defender of the school fund and at one time 
set his face so strongly against a proposition 
to sell the school lands, that the matter has 
been dropped ever since. Mr. Pillsbury also 
succeeded in having the session of the legis- 
lature made biennial instead of annual, to 
the marked improvement of the quality of 
the laws, as well as a saving in expense. 
When the railroads defaulted ujion their 
contracts to build railroads the lands grant- 
ed as aid were forfeited and reverted to the 



state. These were then sold to settlers. 
Afterwards the state gave a new contract 
to the railroad companies and returned the 
lands to them, except those lands sold to 
settlers who had gone on and improved their 
claims in good faith. This gave rise to many 
contests betewen the settlers and a rail- 
road company. One arrangement required 
the settlers to go to the capital. 8t. Paul, to 
fight for their lands. Governor Pillsbury 
took the attorney general and judge and 
proper officers to hold a court in the counties 
where these lands were in dispute, because 
the settlers could not meet the expense of a 
journey to St. Paul and maintenance while 
there contesting for their fanns. The gover- 
nor spent eighteen months in settling these 
claims and saved the farms of 400 settlers. 
The attempted bank robbery at Xorthfield, 
where the brave cashier who foiled the rob- 
bers was killed, brought out another praise- 
worthy trait of Mr. Pillsbury's character — 
that of coolness and judgment in times of 
excitement. There was a clamor for calling 
out troops to arrest the bandits who were 
trying to escape from the state. Believing 
that quick action was better than a military 
expedition, necessarily slow, he offered on his 
own resjjonsibility a reward for the arrest of 
the outlaws. His plan was successful, and the 
most of them were killed or captured within 
less time than it would have taken to get a 
military column in motion. When it was de- 
cided by the legislature to enlarge the capitol 
by the addition of a wing to the old building, 
§14,000 was appropriated for the purpose. 
Xo one could be found to take the contract 
at that price, and it was generally predicted 
that it would cost two or three times that 
amount. Governor Pillsbury hired men and 
supervised the work himself and brought 
the wing within the sum mentioned. The 
legislature adjourned and by an oversight 
neglected to nmke the necessary approi)ria- 
tion for paying the current expenses of the 
state penitentiary at Stillwater. To prevent 
the calling of an extra session of the legisla- 
ture, which would cost the state from fifty 
to seventy-five thousand dollars, he advanced 
$55,00 from his private funds to keep the 
prison running and to save the common- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



wealth that extra expense. Subsequently, 
when the hospital for the insane at St. Peter 
was burned, just before winter set in, he 
saved the state the expense of an extra ses- 
sion of the legislature, which would have 
been necessary to provide for the emergency, 
and he prevented the suffering of the in- 
mates by advancing from his private ex- 
chequer the necessary funds. In 1879, al- 
though contrary to jirecedent, and not de- 
sired by himself because of the growth and 
size of his private business, he was elected 
governor for a third term — the only instance 
of a third election to the office in the history 
of the state. From all indications, from the 
urgent solicitations of prominent public men, 
and the almost universal approval of his 
three administrations, he could have been 
elected for a fourth term, but he positively 
declined to be considered again. The capitol 
was burned March 1, 1881, in the early even- 
ing. Before midnight, by telegraph, a tender 
of the old market house at St. Paul was 
made for the use of the legislature. This 
was the first news of the disaster received 
by the governor, who was at home in Minne- 
apolis. In the morning the offer was accept- 
ed, and subsequently by his influence, the 
capitol was rebuilt on the old site. Another 
evidence of his broadmindeduess was shown 
conspicuously in his selection of judges for 
the supreme and the district courts, when the 
legislature increased the judicial service. Al- 
though a staunch Rejmblican, out of three 
appointments for the supreme court, he ap- 
pointed two Democrats, and for the district 
courts he appointed several Democrats. 
These selections were approved by the peo- 
ple generally, and subsequent experience has 
abundantly conflrmd the wisdom of Gover- 
nor Pillsbury's choice. His liberality and 
munificence have always kept pace with his 
prosperity, from the time that he generously 
relieved the grasshopper scourge sufferers 
from his private purse, up to his princely 
gifts for public uses. In 1889 he built and 
gave to the University of Minnesota the mag- 
nificent structure known as "Science Hall," 
erected at a cost of .1150,000. In 1892 he pre- 
sented to his native town, Sutton, N. H., 
a fine town hall, as a memorial of 



his father, John Pillsbury, and his mother, 
Susan 'Wadleigh Pillsbury. In 1898 Mrs. 
Pillsbury, his wife, established an endow- 
ment fund of .|1 00,000 for "The Home for 
Children and Aged Women," in Minneapolis. 
In 1900 he and his wife erected in the same 
city a home for working girls, at a cost of 
$25,000. Through his business management 
the State Agricultural College and Experi- 
ment Station farm were secured for the state 
without costing it a cent. In 1901 he deter- 
mined to give to Minneajtolis as complete a 
library building for the "East Side" — which 
has always been his home — as could be de- 
vised, which will cost .f75,000. This is for 
the especial benefit of the families of the six 
or seven thousand mill hands working there. 
There is no room here for a history of his 
successful efforts in building up the flour 
mills which have made the name of "Pills- 
bury" famous throughout the world, and 
made the city of Minneapolis the world's 
greatest milling center. It is enough here to 
say that this gigantic business is due to the 
capital and business sagacity of JoUn S. 
Pillsbury. He has always been the founda- 
tion and motive power of the enterprise and 
has never been out of touch with it. The 
greatest merit of all is the fact that by his 
firmness and principle, and unswerving loy- 
alty to Minneapolis and the Northwest, he 
prevented the transfer of the property to a 
trust. He resisted the temptation of almost 
fabulous sums to yield control, which by the 
scratch of a pen he had the i)ower to do, and 
thus relieve himself of a vast responsibility 
when ease in comfoi'table circumstances is 
grateful. For this integrity and steadfast- 
ness the whole world owes him honor. Gov- 
ernoi' Pillsbury, November i!, 185G, was mar- 
ried to Miss Maliala Fisk, the daughter of 
("a])tain John Fisk, who came from Suft'olk, 
England, in 1837, and settled at Windoui, 
Mass. She has been a worthy help-uu'ot. 
deeply intei-ested in ln-r Imshaud's j)lans, 
and ably assisting \\li('rc Ikm- efforts 
would avail. Tlicy have had four children — 
Addie, horn October 4, 1859, the deceased 
wife of Charles M. Webster; Susan M., born 
June 23, 1863, the wife of Fred B. Snyder, 
the well known lawver and state senator 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



from Minueapolis; Sarali Belle, born June 30, 
1866, and Alfred Fick Pillsbur.T, born Oc- 
tober 20, 1868. 



MENDENHALL, Richard Junius.— Com- 
ing in the early 50's to the then practically 
unknown west, and locating at the little set- 
tlement by the falls of St. Anthony, Richard 
J. Mendenhall has been identified with the 
city of Minneapolis from its early growth, 
and in his 15 years of residence he has had 
a varied business record — that of surveyor, 
land agent, banker and florist. In the early 
decades of the city's development few were 
more actively identified with those interests 
which were calculated to advance its wel- 
fare. Struggling often with poor health, 
his resolution and power of will overcame 
every obstacle, and turning by adverse cir- 
cumstances from one field of enterprise he 
launched boldly and with enthusiasm into 
another, finally reaping in later years the 
success he so richly merited. Entomology 
and botany have been his scientific diver- 
sions throughout the whole of his career, 
and applying to them his business experi- 
ence he has built up a reputation as a florist 
which has made his name known through- 
out the entire northwest. Mr. Mendenhall 
traces his ancestry directly back to the 
"Quaker" Mendenhall who came over with 
William Penn, and who was the founder of 
the American family of that name. Rich- 
ard Mendenhall, his great great grandson, 
and the father of the subject of this sketch, 
was a tanner by profession and carried 
on an extensive business at Jamestown, 
N. C, from which he realized a comfortable 
fortune. He was a member of the North 
Carolina legislature for several years, and 
an ardent abolitionist. The interest he 
took, however, in organizing Sunday schools 
among the colored people nearly led to his 
being hanged by some of the more rabid 
slave-holders. As his ancestors before him, 
he was a follower of the Quaker creed and 
a prominent member of the Society of 
Friends in North Carolina. His wife, Mary 
Pegg, was a descendant of an old Welsh 
family which settled in Maryland at an ear- 



ly period. She was a woman of strong char- 
acter and a worthy help-mate. Richard J. 
was born at Jamestown, N. C. November 
25, 1828. His educataional opportunities 
were of a somewhat limited nature. After 
a few brief years at the village school, he 
spent a year at the Quaker boarding school 
at New Garden, N. C. At fourteen, he 
went to Greensboro and lived with a 
physician, who was also the postmaster, and 
assisted in the work of the oflice, but later 
returned to his native town, working in his 
uncle's store. When twenty years of age he 
went to Providence, R. I., and entered 
the celebrated Friends' School at that 
place. For a short time afterwards he 
taught school at North Falmouth, Mass. 
During the next few years he followed 
the occupation of a civil engineer, travel- 
ing through the eastern states, finally 
coming west, and had charge of a survey- 
ing party in Des iloines, Iowa, during the 
winter of 1855-56. The following spring, be- 
ing afl'ected by a hemorrhage of the lungs, 
he decided to come further north for his 
health, reaching ilinneapolis on the twenty- 
seventh day of April, 1856. He entered into 
partnership here with Mr. Cyrus Beede, un- 
der the firm name of Beede & Mendenhall, 
carrying on a banking and exchange business. 
The following year proved disastrous to the 
young firm through extensive loans made on 
what proved to be worthless security, but 
they held on, preserving their credit, and 
doing such business as was possible under 
the adverse conditions. In November, 1862, 
Mr. Mendenhall became president of the 
State Bank of Minnesota, having purchased ' 
a half interest in the capital stock of that 
concern, and continued as such until 1871. 
He was also president of the State Savings 
Association, which was connected with the 
National Bank. When the panic of 1873 
came the savings bank was forced to sus- 
pend and nearly all his fortune was swept 
away by the crash. He then turned his at- 
tention to horticulture, a subject in which 
he had always taken a great interest. In 
prosperous times he had erected near his 
family residence a greenhouse, where he de- 
voted his leisure moments to the cultivation 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



of choice exotics, as -well as the more com- 
mon flowers. The o^reenhouses were at 
once extended and his business grew in 
magnitude until he built up what is probably 
the largest cut flower business in the north- 
west, and lias in his greenhouses the choicest 
plants from all parts of the world. Though 
a man of seventy-two years of age he still 
takes as much interest in his floral beauties 
as he did in his youthful days. Mr. Menden- 
hall has always taken an active part in poli- 
tics, but never to the extent of seeking office. 
He has voted for those candidates whom he 
thought would make the best men for the 
office to which they aspired, regardless of 
their political affiliations; but he never 
shirked his own responsibility as a citizen. 
He served as treasurer of the town of Min- 
neapolis in ISGl*, and as treasurer of the 
Minneapolis school board for ten years. He 
was also treasurer of the Minnesota Mutual 
Insurance Company for the same number of 
years. He was a delegate to the national 
board of trade for three successive years, a 
delegate to the river and harbor improve- 
ment convention at St. Louis in 1867, and 
was president of the state national park for 
twelve years. He has been a member of the 
State Horticultural society since its organi- 
zation, and was its president for one year. 
Kut no sketch of the life of Mr. Mendenhall 
would be complete which did not take into 
account the share which his wife had in the 
molding of his character and the guiding of 
his life. Her maiden name was Abby Grant 
Swift. She was the youngest of a family of 
seven daughters. Her father, Silas Swift, 
was a sturdy sea captain. She grew up to 
young womanhood in tlie little village of 
West Falmouth, Mass., attending the com- 
mon schools, but was prevented by ill 
health from receiving the advantages of a 
seminary or a boarding school education. 
This was compensated for in part, however, 
by diligent reading and study at home. She 
spent a few years at New Bedford, where 
she assisted a relative in the conduct of her 
business, keeping books and accounts. On 
February 11, 185S, she was united in mar- 
riage to Mr. Mendenhall, having met him 
first when he taught school in West Fal- 




laCHAltD J. MENDENHALL. 

mouth. She soon became prominent in the 
social life of the Society of Friends ia her 
new home, and took an active interest in the 
missionary work of the church both at home 
and abroad. Having no children of her own, 
Mrs. Mendenhall became by sympathy and 
choice a mother to the unfortunate, and in 
every charitable effort she was always a 
foremost spirit. Her memory is especially 
cherished in connection with her work for 
Bethany Home, having been one of the organ- 
izers of the society which built this useful 
institution, and was the treasurer of that 
society during its entire history up to the 
time of her death, January 11, 1000. 



LYON, Hiram Rogers. — The custody of 
other people's money is one of the most re- 
sponsible duties that can be assumed, not so 
luudi perhaps because of the value of the 
trust, but rather by reason of the tempta- 
tions which inhere to the control of ready 
money. Diamonds of ten times the value of 
a sum of money could not attract the temp- 
tations which seem to hang around and be- 
leaguer ready cash. Brilliant schemes prom- 
ising large and (]uick returns seem to crowd 



HISTOllY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




HIRAM R. LYON. 

around the money safe when any other form 
of property would be immune from attack. 
Hence a banker, to be successful, must have 
a peculiar mental equipment. It is not 
enough to be merely honest and to have good 
intentions. Such a one may tumble into pit- 
falls, as many of them do. He must be well 
informed in all matters of finance, stocks, 
bonds, mortgages and all sorts of securities. 
He must know about the crops, wool, cattle, 
commerce, the balance of trade, politics, 
"strikes" and a host of other things involv- 
ing money. He must be of sound judgment, 
conservative, cautious — and yet not too care- 
ful; alert, yet not so eager as to be blind to 
risk; bold to seize an opportunity, and yet 
not rash; kind hearted and jet not maudlin; 
generous, though not a spendthrift, and 
have many other qualities not essential for 
success in other lines of business. There 
are bankers who are not so equipped, yet 
they manage to get along, but it is more 
owing to good fortune than to their own ef- 
forts. The crucial test of their fitness may 
never have been met, but in the long run it 
generally comes. A successful banker of 
long standing is therefore a man of more 
than common ability. 



The First National Bank of Mandan, North 
Dakota, is fortunate in having a man at the 
head who may fairly be classed with the 
ideal portrayed. President Hiram K. Lyon 
for nearly twenty years has held a large 
share of the i-esponsibility of the bank. 
During that time there have been critical 
periods in financial circles, as many know 
to their sorrow, and Mr. Lyon has faced the 
storms like an experienced pilot. 

Mr. Lyon was born at Zanesville, Ohio, in 
1856. His father was Carlos W. Lyon, who 
came to Minnesota in an early day and set- 
tled at Wabasha as a grain dealer. He was 
also the local agent for the Davidson Line of 
steamboats, which at that time was one of 
the leading transportation companies and 
did a large business. He was a man of in- 
fluence, though only in moderate circum- 
stances, and was elected mayor of the town. 
He was serving in this capacity at the time 
of the Indian outbreak. The neighboring 
Indians were greatly agitated and the situ- 
ation was alarming. Through Mr. Lyon's 
influence they were induced to go to Fort 
Snelling, where they were kept until the trou- 
ble was over. He died in 1865, when Hiram 
was only nine years of age. Hiram's moth- 
er was born in Philadelphia, her maiden 
name being Mary Rogers. She married at 
Zanesville, Ohio, where her son was born. 
She married for her second husband Capt. 
David W. Wellman, a civil engineer, who 
was the city engineer of St. Paul. She is 
still living, at Los Gatos, California. Hiram 
was educated in the public schools and took 
a special course in the University of Min- . 
nesota. He also attended the Normal school 
at Oshkosh, Wis., for two terms. He then 
did some work in civil engineering un- 
der his step-father. But within one week 
after he was of age he secured a position as 
messenger in the Second National Bank of 
St. Paul. This was really his starting point 
in life. He found his sphere, for he proved 
so apt and etBcient that he was rapidly pro- 
moted to bookkeeper, teller, and cashier 
within four years. In 1881 he went to North 
Dakota, or Dakota Territory, — as it had not 
yet been divided into states, — to look up a 
place for a new bank. He selected Mandan, 



HISTOKY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



ever since his home. The present bank was 
organized by him in August, 1881. The next 
year, April 1, 1882, Mr. Lyon came and 
took charge of the bank as cashier. In 1881 
he was elected president of the institution, 
grown to be one of the most substantial in 
the state. Mr. Lyon has always been a IJe- 
publican, as bis forefathers have been, but 
has held few public offices. He served on 
the governor's staff three terms as a mem- 
ber of the Agricultural Board. He is a 
member of the Royal Arcanum and of the 
Minneapolis Club, which he joined while teni 
porarily living in Minneapolis in charge of 
the Xorth Dakota Millers' Association prop- 
erty. Besides being interested in the bank- 
ing business of the country, Mr. Lyon has in- 
terests in lumber and in farm machinery 
business. He is also president of the Mis- 
souri Valley ISIilling Company, and of the 
Lyon Elevator Company, with headquarters 
at Mandan. Mr. Lyon is a member of the 
Episcopal church, and is married and has 
one child, Caroline Rogers Lyon, now near- 
ly seven years old. He has also a step-son, 
Robert Meech — his wife's son by a former 
marriage, — now about fifteen years of age, 
and a student at Shattuck school, Faribault. 



SPALDING, Burleigh Folsom, congress- 
man from North Dakota, comes from old 
colonial stock. He is a descendant, in the 
eighth generation, from Edward Spalding, 
who migrated to Virginia from England in 
161"J, settling in Massachusetts in l(j:?0, and 
on the maternal side, in the eighth genera- 
tion, from John Folsom, who came to this 
country from England and settled in Massa- 
chusetts about 1638. His ancestors on both 
sides fought in all the early colonial and 
Indian wars, and at least three of his great 
grandfathers participated in the Revolu- 
tionary' war. Benjamin Spalding, his great 
grandfather, was one of the earliest settlers 
of Drleans county, Vermont, settling in 
Craftsbury, where he died, in 1838. liis 
grandfather, Noah Spalding, was a noted 
teacher in northern Vermont, and served in 
the war of 1812. The father of the subject 
of this sketch was Benjamin Pendell Spal- 




BUKLEIGH F. SI'ALDING. 

ding, who was an itinerant preacher of the 
Methodist Episcopal church in Vermont«nd 
New Hampshire. Ann Folsom, his wife, 
was a daughter of Rev. ^Moses Folsom, a 
Free Baptist preacher of the same two 
states. She taught school in Vermont for 
several years before her marriage, and was 
noted in her vocation as among the best. 
Their son, Burleigh, was born in Craftsbury, 
Orleans county, Vermont, December 3, 1853. 
He attended the common schools of Ver- 
mont, summer and winter, till he was eleven 
years old, then only the winter term till he 
was seventeen. This was supplemented by 
an attendance at the Lyndon Literary Insti- 
tute and the Norwich University, the latter 
being the military college of Vermont. He 
graduated from this institution in 1877, 
with the degree of B. Ph., and was honored 
with the degree of M. A. from his alma ma- 
ter in 1897. He was compelled to pay his 
own way through college, and earned the 
funds with which to do so by teaching dur- 
ing the winter, and working on the farm or 
canvassing for books in the summer. The 
winter of 1877-78 he taught in the Albany 
Aradriiiy. and then, having a desire to take 
up the legal ]irofessi(in as his vocation in 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



life, read law with tlie firm of Gleasou & 
Field, in Montpelier. During the session of 
1878 he served as a clerk in the Vermont 
legislature. He was admitted to the Wash- 
ington county bar, March 15, 1880, and im- 
mediately came west, settling at Fargo, Da- 
kota Territory, March 31. The following 
May he entered into a partnership with Hon. 
S. G. Roberts, one of the earliest settlers of 
Fargo, and at the end of one year purchased 
his interest and formed a partnership with 
Hon. C. F. Templeton, which continued un- 
til 1888. He then practiced alone till 1892, 
when he formed a partnership with George 
H. Phelps. In 1893, Mr. Seth Newman was 
admitted to the partnership. Mr. Phelps 
withdrew from the firm in 1896, and, in 1S98, 
the firm of Newjnan, vSpalding & Stambaugh 
was formed, which still continues, and is 
one of the best known law tirms in the state. 
Mr. Spalding has always enjoyed a lucrative 
practice and has been engaged in many of 
the most important cases tried in any of the 
courts of his home state. From the begin- 
ning of his residence in Dakota he always 
took an active interest in politics. His po- 
litical affiliations have always been with the 
Republican party. In 1883 the legislature 
of Dakota Territory elected him as a mem- 
ber of a commission of nine to re-locate the 
capital and build the capitol buildings, and 
he served for several years as secretary of 
this commission. He was superintendent 
of public instruction for Cass county from 
1882 to 1884, and served as a member of the 
convention which framed the constitution 
of the new state of North Dakota in 1889. 
He also served on the joint commission to 
divide the archives and property of the terri- 
tory between the two new states of North 
Dakota and South Dakota. He served as 
chairman of the Republican state central 
committee from 1892 to 1894; and in 1896, 
of Cass County Republican committee. In 
1898 he was nominated to congress on the 
Republican ticket, and M'as elected by the 
handsome majority of 9,938. He declined a 
renomination in 1900 by refusing to be a 
party to a combination formed in the state 
convention of that year to parcel out state 
offices. Mr. Spalding made an admirable 



record during his two years' term in the 
lower house of congress. He was one of the 
hard-working men of that body and could 
always be depended upon to look out for the 
interests of his constituents. He served on 
the territorial and war claims' committees, 
and was chairman of the subcommittee to 
prepare a system of government for Alaska. 
He also introduced and secured the passage 
of the bill opening Fort Buford military res- 
trvation to settlement. This reservation in- 
cludes about 517,000 acres. The bill is said 
to be the most important passed by any new 
member at the first session of this Fifty- 
sixth congress. North Dakota lost a valua- 
ble man to represent its interests in con- 
gress when Mr. Spalding declined to join 
the slope forces in their combination to con- 
trol state offices, and by so doing practically 
declining a renomination. But she will not 
be deprived of his services in other ways. 
He is a man who will always take a fore- 
most position in public affairs, contributing 
freely of his time to the best interests of his 
adopted state. He did effective work on the 
stump in the campaign of 1900, speaking 
from one end of the state to the other, and 
contributed in no small measure to the large 
vote polled for the Republican ticket in that 
year. Mr. Spalding is a prominent member 
of the JIasonic fraternity. He has taken 
the thirty-second degree in the Scottish 
Rite, has served as High Priest of Keystone 
Chapter, and is one of the trustees of the 
Masonic Temple at Fargo. He is also a 
Knight Templar. He was married, Novem- 
ber 25, 1880, to Alida Baker, daughter of 
David and Emily H. (Cutler) Baker, of Glov- 
er, Vermont. Their union has been blessed 
with five children: Deane Baker, born April 
12, 1882; Frances Folsom, born December 
20, 1888; Roscoe Conkling, born January 9, 
1890; Burleigh Mason, born April 9, 1891, 
and Carlton Cutler, born January 21, 1896. 



WOOLMAN, Joseph P., is United States 
marshal for the district of Montana, to 
which position he was appointed in May, 
1898. He was born February 5, 1841, 
at Woodstown, Salem county, N. J. His 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



father, James Woolman, was a leading- manu- 
facturer in that place, and was also en- 
gaged in farming. He was a man who took 
quite a prominent part in the affairs of his 
own community and was regarded as a 
shrewd and capable business man. His 
wife's maiden name was Mary Ann Pedrick. 
She was a worthy woman in every respect, 
self-sacrificing where the interests of those 
she loved were concerned, and was the moth- 
er of eleven children. On his father's side. 
Mr. Woolman is descended from ^^■illianl 
Woolman, and his son John, who came over 
from England in 1678 and settled in New 
Jersey. They belonged to that large and 
worthy class of Quakers who came to Amei'- 
ica to escape persecution in their mother 
country, and who took so prominent a part in 
the building up of the colonies. John Wool 
man, the great great uncle of the subject of 
this sketch, was a noted Quaker jtreacher. 
The Pedricks were settlers of New Jersey in 
the early colonial times, and from this fam- 
ily the village of Pedricktown, in Salem 
county, derived its name. Joseph received 
his early educational training in a private 
school conducted by the Society of Friends 
and in the public schools of his native town. 
Later in life he attended the First Pennsyl- 
vania State Normal school at Millersville, in 
Lancaster county. He taught school in New 
Jersey during the winter of 1861-62, going 
from there to Philadelphia, where he 
worked as a salesman in a retail and whole- 
sale dry goods store for the next two years. 
While living in Philadelphia he served as a 
member of the Pennsylvania state militia in 
1863, which was engaged in repelling the reb- 
el invasion of that state, and was under fire 
at Carlisle when Gen. Fitz Hugh Lee burned 
the government barracks at that place and 
shelled the town. The gold fever struck 
him in 1864 and he started for Montana. On 
his way there he stopped at Centreville, 
Utah, near Salt Lake City, and taught 
school during the winter of 1864-65. He 
reached Montana in April of the following 
year. His first employment was in placer 
mining in Last Chance gulch. He gave this 
work up in a short time, however, and be- 
gan clerking and keeping books for a gro- 




.iDSEPH r. wooL^rAN. 

eery house at Virginia Citj', and later at 
Helena. Being industrious and frugal*in 
his habits, he was able after a few years to 
interest himself financially in a number of 
ditferent enterprises. He became interest- 
ed early in ranching and stock raising, but 
did not give the business his personal atten- 
tion. He is at the present time, however, 
largely interested in sheep raising. For sev- 
eral years he was the owner of the leading 
boot and shoe stoi-e in Helena. He is now 
a member of the firm of Holme, Miller & Co., 
which does an extensive hardware, mining 
machinery and supplies, and tinware busi- 
ness in Dawson, Yukon Territory, Canada. 
Mr. Woolman has been a life-long Repub- 
lican, and taken an active interest in poli- 
tics. He represented Montana on the Cen- 
tennial commission of the Philadelphia Ex- 
position in 1876, by appointment of Presi- 
dent Grant. In 1878 he was appointed by 
President Hayes an honorary commissioner 
to the Paris International Industrial Expo- 
sition of that year. He has also served his 
state in a number of important positions of 
trust. In 1879 he was appointed auditor of 
the then Territory of Montana by Gov. 
Potts, and made such a capable and efficient 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



oflBcer that he was reappointed to this posi- 
tion by Governors Crosby and Carpenter, 
serving continuously in this office until 1887. 
In 1808 he was appointed to his present po- 
sition as United States marshal of Montana. 
He served as chairman of the Republican 
territorial central committee in 1880 and 
1881, and as chairman of the Republican 
state central committee in 1898 and 1899. 
Mr. Woolman is a member of the Benevolent 
and Protective Order of Elks. His church 
connections are with the Society of Friends. 
In 1880, he was married to Mrs. Sarah Ellen 
Glendinen, n6e McGavran, who died in 1890. 
In 1893 he was again married, to Mrs. Cor- 
nelia Miller Goodwin, n^e Swiggett. He 
has no children. Mr. Woolman resides at 
Helena. 



BRIGGS, Asa Gilbert.— One of the lead- 
ing lights in the legal profession in St. Paul, 
Minn., is Asa Gilbert Bi-iggs. The success 
he has achieved has been due entirely to his 
own unaided efforts. From the age of six- 
teen he has been dependent on his own exer- 
tions for his support, as well as his educa- 
tion. When he opened up an office in St. 
Paul to commence the practice of his pro- 
fession he had less than one hundred dollars 
in his pocket. By careful, painstaking work 
he has built up, in the thirteen years he has 
been in practice, an enviable reputation as a 
lawyer and has the respect of the bar in a 
high degree, not only of St. Paul, but the 
state as well. Mr. Briggs is of Welsh ex- 
traction, his ancestors coming to this country 
in the early colonial days and settling in 
Massachusetts. His father, Isaac A. Briggs, 
was, before he retired, a practicing physician, 
and, also, owner of a farm, partly within 
and partly without the village limits of Ar- 
cadia, Wis., where he resided. He was born 
in Vermont in ISIG, moving early in life to 
Michigan. In 1858 he migrated to Wisconsin 
and located at Arcadia. After thirty years 
of active practice, he retired in 1881, moving 
three years later to St. Paul, where he has 
since resided. Aside from his professional 
work, he has been interested at different 
times in cattle raising and the lumber and 



woolen mill business. His wife, Elizabeth, 
is also a native of Vermont, where she was 
born in 1819, and was married to Mr. Briggs 
in Michigan. The doctor and his wife are 
both living, he at the age of 84 and she at 
that of 82. Their son, Asa, was born De- 
cember 20, 1862, at Arcadia, Trempealeau 
county, Wis. He attended the district school 
until his thirteenth year, then entered the 
graded school at Arcadia. Previous to the 
construction of the Green Bay & Winona rail- 
way through Arcadia in 1873, that place 
only consisted of a small settlement, with a 
corner store, and no means of communica- 
tion with the outside world, except by horse, 
within twenty miles. The schools from that 
time on began to improve, and when Asa 
was thirteen years of age a new graded 
school was built. He graduated with the 
first graduating class from this school three 
years later. The next two years were de- 
voted to teaching in the common district 
school in the winter, and working on the 
farm in the summer. He was also engaged 
in the house-moving business, having pur- 
chased an outfit for this purpose. In this 
way he was enabled to earn enough money to 
pay his expenses for a year's attendance at 
the University of Wisconsin. He was eight- 
een years of age when he went to Madison 
and entered the university, taking the gen- 
eral science course, with additional studies 
in modern classics. He graduated with the 
class of 1885, paying his expenses through 
the whole course with the money earned by 
his own individual effort. Going to St. Paul 
from Madison, he devoted the following year 
to making money in the real estate business 
and the study of law. Returning to the uni- 
versity in 1886, he entered the law depart- 
ment, and with the knowledge of law already 
acquired was able to do two years' work in 
one, graduating the following year. While 
at college he was a member of Hesperia Lit- 
erary Society, Phi Delta Theta fraternity. 
The Senate (an organization specially intend- 
ed to give experience in parliamentary prac- 
tice), the U. W. Athletic Association, The 
E. G. Ryan Debating Society and various 
other organizations. During his sophomore 
vear he was a member of the debating team 



HISTORY OP THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



of the sophomore class at its public enter- 
tainment, and was also a membei" of the 
joint debating team for 1884 repi-esenting 
the Hesperia Society. Foi' over a year he 
was managing editor of the University Press, 
and was business manager of the first "class 
annual" published at the university. At the 
commencement exercises he was elected by 
the faculty a member of the oration class. 
In fact, he was one of the most enthusiastic 
and active students at the university during 
the course. He was a leading spirit in the 
efforts to obtain a gymnasium, and was elect- 
ed by a college mass meeting as one of two 
members of the university to represent it 
before the legislative committees of the ses- 
sion of 1885 in making arguments for that 
purpose. Immediately after graduating he 
came to St. Paul and entered the employ of 
the legal department of the St. Paul Title 
Insurance Company, remaining with that 
firm four months. Is'ovember 15, 1887, he 
opened a law office, having desk room only, 
in the Chamber of Commerce building. Two 
years later he secured more- spacious quar- 
ters in the Pioneer Press building, and five 
years later removed to the New York Life 
building, where he is now located. He was 
in partnership for a short time with Hon. 
George L. Bunn, the firm being known as 
Briggs & Bunn. In 1891 he formed a part- 
nership with M. L. Countryman, as Briggs 
& Countryman, which continued for two 
years. The following two years he practiced 
alone, and in July, 1S"J8, associated himself 
with J. L. D. Morrison, in the present firm 
of Brigg-s & Morrison. Mr. Briggs has en- 
joyed a lucrative jn-actice from the begin- 
ning. He has always had an active court 
practice and has been very successful in a 
remarkably large number of contested cases, 
among which maj' be mentioned: Williams 
vs. Great Northern Railway Company, in 
which new rules of expert evidence were es- 
tablished; McQueen vs. Burhans and others, 
involving the fiduciary relation of the defend- 
ant to plaintiff', and a large amount of real 
estate, and Mowry vs. McQueen et al, all of 
which were decided in the supreme court 
of Minnesota. He has also served as attor- 
ney for Maurice Auerbach, as receiver of 




ASA G. BRIGGS. 

Allemania Bank, and A. B. Stickney, as as- 
signee of William Dawson. He is at present 
attorney for a number of large coi"porations 
and has an excellent class of clients. Mr. 
Briggs has always been a Republican and 
taken an active interest in politics, but has 
never sought political preferment for himself. 
He was president for two j'ears of a young 
men's Republican club of Ramsey county. 
He is a member of the Minnesota Club and 
the Commercial ('lub, of St. Paul, the Ma- 
sonic fraternity and the Royal Arcanum. 
Though an attendant of the Presbyterian 
cliurch, he is not a member. Oct. 21, 1891, 
he was married to Jessica E. Pierce. They 
have three children, Allan, Paul Austin and 
Mary Elizabeth. 



TODD, Frank C— To the sturdy and rug- 
ged men who came to the Northwest in the 
early pioneer days is to be accredited the 
firm foundations on which Minneapolis was 
erected and which has assured to her the 
})rosperity she now enjoys as the metropolis 
of this great Northwest. And it is to the 
men who came from the state of Maine, who 
from their early childhood were trained to 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




FRANK C. TODD. 

frugal and industrious lives, that she owes 
much of the energy that was spent in the 
building up of her natural resources. The 
development of the lumber industry, the 
chief of her resources, has made her the 
largest lumber market in the world. One 
of the first pioneers in this industry was S. 
D. Todd, the father of the subject of this 
sketch. He married Anna Whicher of Ver- 
mont in 1855 and came to St. Anthony in 
1856. He followed the lumber business 
throughout his whole career, and was en- 
gaged in the manufacturing branch of that 
industry. The subject of this sketch was 
born in Minneapolis. His early education 
was received in the public schools of Minneap- 
olis, which was supplemented by an attend- 
ance at the St. liOuis manual training school. 
He then attended the University of Minne- 
sota for two years, taking the scientific 
course. Later, desiring to take up the med- 
ical profession, he entered the medical de- 
partment of the same university, graduating 
in 1892. After a short period in general 
practice he decided to take up a special 
training in diseases of the eye and ear and 
spent some time in study at the eye and ear 
hospitals of New York, Philadelphia and 



Chicago. Returning to Minneapolis in 1894 
he was appointed clinical assistant in dis- 
(^ases of the eye and ear at the University 
of ^linnesota. In 1896 he was ai)pointed 
clinical instructor at this institution, and 
was honored, in 1897, by election as clinical 
jirofessor of ear and eye diseases. He is 
also attending eye and ear surgeon at the 
("ity and Asbury Hospitals, Bethany Home, 
Old Ladies' and Children's Home, Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., etc. Dr. Todd, 
though comparatively a young man, has 
achieved considerable success in his profes- 
sion and won the respect of his Minneapolis 
brethren as a skillful practitioner, and is re- 
garded as among the rising young men of 
his profession in that city. He is a member 
of the American Medical Association, the 
Minnesota Academy of Medicine, and sev- 
eral other societies of like character. 



MEGAARDEN, Philip Tollef.— As a 
youth, Philip T. Megaarden's highest aspira- 
tions were that he become a minister of the 
gospel of the Lutheran faith. These hopes 
were dashed to the ground by the death of 
his father, leaving him, when a mere lad of 
fifteen, at the head of a family of seven with 
little means for support. His struggle for 
a livelihood has been beset with many hard- 
ships, and Mr. Megaarden can look back 
with conscious pride to the fact that what 
success he has achieved is due entirely to 
his own individual efforts. Mr. Megaarden 
is the sheriff of Hennepin county, Minne- 
sota. He is of Norwegian descent, both his 
parents having been born in Norway. His' 
father, Tollef K. Megaarden, was a dealer in 
livestock and later a railroad contractor. 
He was a resident of Allamakee county, 
Iowa, when the Civil war broke out, and en- 
listed in the 4th Iowa cavalry. He served 
three jears, receiving an honorable dis- 
charge. Returning to his home, he re- 
moved to Dickinson county, where he lived 
until 1877, at which time he removed to Min- 
neapolis. Philip was born in Allamakee 
County, Iowa, on October 2, 1864. The edu- 
cational training of his early years was re- 
ceived in the district school near his home in 



HISTOUY OV THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Iowa and the Minneaiiolis public schools. 
It had been his intention to prepare for the 
Lutheran niinistrv, and for this purjjose he 
entered the Augsburg Seminary at Min- 
neai>oIis in the fall of 1878. He was com- 
jM'lIed to ])ut aside this plan, however, In 
reason of his father dying the year follow- 
ing, leaving the burden of taking care of tin- 
family practically to young Philip. He ob- 
tained such employment as he could find, 
first as a teamster, then clerk in a fuel office. 
Ihen as bookkeeper and later as court officer 
in the municijial court. He did not drop his 
studies, however, while thus endeavoring to 
earn a livelihood, but for some time attended 
an evening school and later employed a pri- 
vate instructor. By diligent efforts he suc- 
ceeded in taking a course at a business col- 
lege, and finally was able to enter the uni- 
versity law school, from which he graduated 
in 1802, taking the degree of LL. B. He was 
admitted to practice before the bar the same 
year. A year later he completed a post- 
graduate course in the law school and re- 
ceived the degree of LL. M. Mr. Megaarden 
practiced his profession alone for about two 
years, but discontinued it on January 1, 
1895, to accept the position of chief deputy 
sheriff of Hennepin County. At the end of 
his two years' term he resumed the practice 
of his profession, entering into a partner- 
ship with Judge John H. Steele. In 1808, 
^\v. Megaarden was elected Sheriff of Hen- 
nepin County, and again in 1900 after a 
very bitter contest. He has made a splen- 
did record in that office. He has always 
been a staunch Republican and has taken an 
active interest in the affairs of his party. 
He is a member of the I'nion Club and sev- 
eral other political clubs as well. He is al- 
so identified with a number of fraternal or- 
ganizations, taking a prominent part, espe- 
cially, in the Knights of Pythias. He has 
at times filled nearly every office in this 
lodge. He has repeatedly been elected to 
represent his lodge in the Minnesota Grand 
Lodge, and being a member of the Grand 
Lodge of the Domain of ilinnesota he has 
taken a prominent part in the affairs of the 
order in the Northwest. lie is a member of 
North Star Division, No. 1, T'niform Rank 




rillLlr T. MEGAAKDKX. 

and of Mahrah Temple No. 77, D. O. K. K. 
He holds membership, also, in Khtftum 
Lodge, No. 112, A. F. & A. M., Ark Chapter 
No. 53; Darius Commandery No. 7, K. T. ; 
Zurah Temple of Minneapolis; Ridgley 
Lodge No. 85, I. O. O. F.; Minnewa Tribe, 
No. 11, Improved Order of Red Men and ^lin- 
nea polls Lodge No. 44, B. P. O. E. He is a 
member of the Jlinueapolis Commercial 
Club. 



CONROY, Edward James. — A good ex- 
ample of what may be accomplished by en- 
ergy and thrift, when reinforced by personal 
honesty and integrity, is afforded by the 
career of the man whose name stands at the 
head of this sketch. In public life his ser- 
vice has been confined to that of county com- 
missioner, but in that office he has won for 
himself an enviable reputation as a man of 
sterling honesty, integrity and u])rightness 
in handling public affairs. Mr. Conroy is at 
present engaged in the fire insurance busi- 
ness at Minneapolis. He is of Irish descent. 
Thomas and Jlargaret (Moran) Conroy, his 
parents, were born in Dublin, and emigrated 
to this country in 1852. settling at Osh- 
kosli, \Vis. Mr. Conroy was a larpeuter by 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




EDWARD J. COXROX. 

trade, and, though in moderate circumstan- 
ces, always succeeded in malving a good liv- 
ing for his family. He came to Minneapolis 
with his wife in 1888, since which time they 
have been living with the subject of this 
sketch. Edward was born November 15, 
1864, at Oshkosh. He attended the com- 
mon schools, but later on supplemented this 
early education by a term at a commercial 
college, working his way through by doing 
janitor work at the school. From the time 
he was able to work the young lad endeav- 
ored to be of assistance to his family. His 
first dollar was earned as a lather, at which 
he became an expert, and which line of work 
he followed throughout his school vaca- 
tions. When only seventeen years of age 
he removed to Minneapolis and learned the 
plasterer's trade. He followed this voca- 
tion for the two years following, acquiring 
a general knowledge of the business of mas- 
ter mason and contractor. In 1883 he com- 
menced business on his own account as a 
contractor of mason work and from the first 
was successful in building up a remunera- 
tive business. Aside from his business in- 
terests, Mr. Conroy has found time to de- 
vote considerable attention to public affairs. 



His political affiliations have always been 
with the Democratic party, of which he has 
liten a constant and active supporter. In 
1801 he served as assistant sergeant-at-arms 
in the state senate. The following year he 
was elected county commissioner from the 
First district of Hennepin county, for a 
term of four years. Though that district 
went Republican in the elections of 1S'M>. Mr. 
Conroy was re-elected by a majority of 1,364. 
This was an eloquent testimony of the re- 
gard in which he was held by the people of 
the district he represented. He was elected 
chairman of the board of county commis- 
sioners in 1892, and served in that capacity 
until 1897. The last two years of his chair- 
manship a majority of the board was Repub- 
liian. but Mr. Conroy was so well liked by 
liis associates that they retained him in this 
position. Mr. Conroy also served as a mem- 
ber of the board of tax levy from 1892 to 

1897. In the campaign of 1894 he was chair- 
man of the Democratic county committee, 
also of the Democratic campaign committee. 
He also served as a member of the latter 
committee in 1900. In his capacity as a 
county commissioner Mr. Conroy won the 
complete confidence of the public by the 
efficient manner in which he conducted the 
affairs of the county. He was one of the 
first advocates of the building of bicycle 
Iiaths, and introduced a resolution in the 
board of county commissioners to construct 
a path to Lake Minnetonka. This path was 
constructed and was one of the first built in 
the state of ilinnesota which really amount- 
ed to anything. He was also instrumental 
in having the board adopt a resolution al- 
lowing all county printing to be done by 
union shops. This act was especially pleas- 
ing to organized labor. Mr. Conroy was not 
a candidate for re-election in 1900. Since 

1898, he has been actively engaged in the 
fire insurance business, with offices in the 
Guaranty Loan building, and is doing an 
extensive business in that line. 



DROPPERS, Garrett.— The Northwest 
has gradually come to the front in educa- 
tional as well as business lines. For many 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



jears the only seats of higher education in 
this country were the larger colleges of the 
East, but of late years the various state 
universities have gradually come to assume 
an important position in the education of 
our youth, and none more so than those lo- 
cated in this great Northwest. Their devel- 
opment has been rapid, and it may truly be 
said that they are now competing strongly 
with the older colleges. Necessarily the 
men at the head of these institutions must 
be broad-minded and liberal in their views, 
possessing good administrative ability. 

Garrett Droppers, president of the Uni- 
versity of South Dakota, takes high rank 
among the men who are occupying similar 
positions of responsibility. He has only 
served in this position since January 4, 
181(0, but in this short time his administra- 
tion has been marked for the high exec- 
utive ability shown in the management of 
the affairs of that institution. He brought 
to his aid the experience gained while hold- 
ing a leading professorship for several years 
in the university of Tokyo, Japan, and has 
been a leading spirit in everything tending to 
the upbuilding of the university of which he 
now has charge. Mr. Droppers is of Dutch 
descent, and the son of John Dirk and Gert- 
rude Droppers. His father was engaged in 
business in Milwaukee, from which he earn- 
ed a moderate competence, and is now re- 
tired. His mother died when he was but 
sixteen years old. The family name is de- 
rived from a small landed peasant property 
of that name in Holland, it being cus- 
tomary in that country to give the holder of 
such property the name of his property. 
The subject of this sketch was born in Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin, April- 12, 1860. His 
early education was received in the public 
common schools of that city, which was sup 
pleniented by an attendance at the High 
School in the same city. He qualified him- 
self early for the profession of teaching, 
and eagerly devoured what books he could 
get hold of. From 1879 to 1884 he taught 
Latin and History at the High School from 
which he had graduated, going from there 
to Harvard University. He graduated from 
this institution in 1887, with the degree of 




GARRETT DROPPERS. 

A. 1!., taking double honors in economics, 
and honors in philosophy. The follo^ng 
year he taught school at Orange, N. J. 
Desiring, however, to, pursue the further 
study of economics, he went to Germany 
in 1888 and entered the University of 
Berlin. He took a course in economics and 
finance at this institution under the direc- 
tion of Professors Wagner and Schnujller, 
but did not take any degree. He returned 
to America the following year, and in Sep- 
tember received an offer of the chair of 
Economics in the University of Tokyo, Ja- 
pan, which he accepted. On September 4th, 
he was married in Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts, to Cora Augusta Rand, of that town, 
immediately afterwards starting for Japan, 
reaching Tokyo iu the latter part of October. 
He held the chair of Economics in the Tokyo 
University until December, 18'J8, a little 
over nine years. While a resident of that 
country, Professor Droi)pei's Served as sec- 
retary of the Asiatic Society of Japan for 
several years, and was a member of the To- 
kyo Club. He also contributed a number of 
articles on Japan to the magazines of this 
country, among which may be mentioned 
two for the Quarterly Journal of Economics 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



of Harviir(l, and four for the Asiatic Socie- 
tj-'s transactions. He furnished, also, a re- 
port on the money standard in Japan to the 
government at Washington. In 1898 he re- 
ceived a call to the presidency of the Uni- 
versity of South Dakota. This offer was 
accepted, and coming directly to the United 
States he arrived at Vermillion, South Da- 
kota, January -i, 18!)1), and immediately en- 
tered upon the duties of that office. Prof. 
Droppers has never been much of a par- 
tisan in politics, believing that American 
politics are too much concerned with ques- 
tions which, at bottom, can have very little 
influence on the country. He has an intense 
interest in politics, however, in the real 
meaning of the word, viz., the relation of 
government to social welfare. He believes 
that the future progress of the United 
States depends, not so much upon individual 
initiative, of which we have abundance, at 
least in the ordinary acceptance of the term, 
as upon the true development of government 
functions in relation to the common welfare. 
As an illustration of this, he would advocate 
the nationalization of the telegraph and the 
railways, and the municipalization of munic- 
ipal monopolies. He is a member of the 
Harvard Club, of New York, and while not 
a regular member of the Unitarian church, 
he generally attends that church when in 
Cambridge. Prof. Dropper's wife died at 
Tokyo, in 1896. The following year he made 
a flying trip to Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
and married her sister, Jean Tewkesbury 
Rand. No children resulted from the first 
marriage; by the second there are two, Se- 
ton Eand Droppers, age two, and Cora Rand 
Droppers, born in August, 1900. 



BRANTLY, Theodore.— College classes, 
families and societies sometimes have a 
picture taken by superimposing successive- 
ly the likeness of every member of the 
group to form one portrait called a com- 
posite picture. It is supposed to represent 
the aggregate physical characteristics of the 
class, family or society. The picture is like no 
one in particular, but in theory it represents 
all in one. It differs from an ideal picture 



in having in it a real part of each face. 
Then, in theory it is supposed to show the 
physiognomy of the class, just as an indi- 
vidual may embody all the traits of his an- 
cestors. The idea may be fantastic, but 
there is in it enough of the color of science 
and of plausibility to make an interesting 
subject of study. The great Northwest is 
somewhat like this composite picture. It 
is a blending of numerous races, whose an- 
cestral traits from diverse countries are so 
intertwined in warj) as to form one canvas, 
with one picture differing from all other 
]:oints of the earth. There is only one 
northwest, with its energy, enterprise, cour- 
age and intelligence. 

AA'hile this "composite" character of the 
northwest is real, as a whole, a study of the 
biographies of the men who are making it — 
the dominant spirits who mould affairs — 
will reveal a similar composite character in- 
dividually. Variegated threads make up 
the fibre which springs from roots spread- 
ing to ancestral homes, widely separated. 
Theodore Brantly. the subject of this sketch, 
may be taken as an example. He is of old 
American parentage, but there courses in 
his veins the blood of the sturdy Scotchman, 
the earnest Huguenot, the stolid Hollander^ 
and the languid southerner. Mr. Brantly 
was born in Wilson county, Tennessee, in 
1851. His father is Rev. Edwin Theodore 
Brantly, a Presbyterian minister of Nash- 
ville, Tenn. He was born in Conecuh 
county, Ala., where his father, Edwin 
Brantly, was a cotton planter. The family 
l)roperty, largely in slaves, was of course 
swei)t away during the Civil war. After 
graduating at the University of Tennessee, 
he studied theology at Union Theological 
seminary. New York. The Brantlys came 
from Holland to America before the Revo- 
lutionary war. On the female side they 
were French Huguenot and English descent 
named Reding. They settled in North Car- 
olina, whence Edwin Brantly, already men- 
tioned, after his marriage, emigrated to 
southern Alabama. Theodore Brantly's 
mother was Eliza Brown, daughter of Dun- 
can Brown, of Giles county, Tenn. He 
was a grandson of Duncan Little, and his 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



wife, i\[ar<iai'et, who came from Scotland 
before the Revolution, and settled in North 
Carolina. Duncan Brown was married to 
Margaret Smith, in 1805 and moved to Ten- 
nessee, where Eliza, mother of Theodore 
Brantly, was born, as stated. This was 
rather a I'emarkable family. Duncan Brown 
had four daughters and two sons. Each 
daughter married a minister. Both sons 
were lawyers and became distinguished 
men, Neil S. and John C. Brown. Each was 
twice governor of the state of Tennessee. 
John C. Brown was a major general in the 
Confederate army, and Neil S. Brown was 
minister to Russia, under the administra- 
tion of President Polk. It is easy to see the 
source of Theodore Brantly's aptitude for 
learning. He received his early education 
in the common schools of the state. He 
then entered the Southwestern Presbyterian 
university at Clarksville, Tenn., for his col- 
lege education, and graduated as valedic- 
torian of his class in 1875. Choosing law 
for his profession, he entered Cumberland 
university, at Lebannon, Tenn., and grad 
uated in 1881, with the degree of Bache- 
lor of Laws. He immediately associated 
himself with Hon. J. S. Gribble, now chan- 
cellor of the judicial division to which Wil- 
son county belongs, and began the practice 
of law at Lebanon. He continued this prac- 
tice for two years, then accepted the posi- 
tion of professor of Ancient Languages in 
Lincoln university, Lincoln, 111. In 1887 
he resigned this chair and at the solicita- 
tion of President I). J. McMillan, his cousin, 
now of New York City, he accepted the pro- 
fessorship of Ancient Languages in the 
College of Montana, at Deer Lodge, Mont.. 
which is now his legal residence, although 
on duty at Helena. After teaching two 
years in this institution he resumed the 
practice of law at Deer Lodge, and con- 
tinued until 18!)2, when he was elected judge 
of the Third Judicial District of Montana. 
He was re-elected in 1896 to the same posi- 
tion. At the general election in 1898 he was 
chosen to the supreme court, the position 
which he still holds. 

Mr. Brantly's father and the family were 
"Whigs," and most of them favored, either 




THEO. BIt.4^NTLY. 

actively or passively, the abolition of 
slavery. They became Democrats at J.]ie 
close of the war and most of them still ad- 
here to that party, but Judge Brantly voted 
for I'resident Garfield, and has since been 
a Republican. He is a Knight of Pythias, 
and a member of the Masonic order. He 
has held the various offlces in the subordi- 
nate lodges and is now grand master of 
Masons for the state of Montana. In re- 
ligion he is a Presbyterian. In 1891 he 
was married to Lois Reat, at Tuscola, 111. 
She is of Scotch descent. Her ancestors 
coming to America before the Revolution, 
settled in Virginia and Kentucky, whence 
her people emigrated to Illinois before the 
Civil war. They have three children, Theo- 
dore Lee, Lois Brown, and Neil Duncan 
Brantly. 



SHEVLIN, Thomas Henry.— The white 
pine forests of Minnesota have furnished un- 
limited opportunities to men of spirit and 
enterprise who have recognized in them a 
safe investment from which to realize a com- 
fortable fortune. The subject of this sketch 
was trained from early youth in the lumber- 
ing business, and appreciating the opportu- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




THOMAS H. SHEVLIN. 

nitj afforded in these extensive pine woods 
of the North Star state, some sixteen years 
ago he removed his operations to this center. 
Mr. Shevlin is now one of the largest white 
pine operators in Minnesota. He was born 
January 3, 1852, at Albany, New York. His 
father, John Shevlin, was engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits in that city. His mother's 
maiden name was Matilda Leonard. Both 
his parents were of Irish descent. Thomas 
H. attended the public schools of his native 
town until he was fifteen years of age, at 
which time he entered the employ of John 
McGraw & Company, a lumber finn of that 
city. He began here the education that to- 
day has made him an authority on the manu- 
facture and sale of lumber, and all that per- 
tains to it. That he took a deep interest 
in his work is shown by the fact that 
he remained ten years in the employ of 
this firm, taking charge of important inter- 
ests of the company at Albany, Tonawanda 
and Bay City. In 1879 he severed his busi- 
ness relations with that firm and went to 
Chicago. Here he was employed by T. 
W. Harvey, a prominent Chicago lumber- 
man, to look after his interests in Muskegon, 
Mich. A year later, Mr. Shevlin trans- 



ferred his business connections and became 
associated with Stephen C. Hall, of Mus- 
kegon, and began, as a side issue, the pur- 
chase of logs, timber and timber lands. In 
1882 he was appointed treasurer and general 
manager of the Stephen C. Hall Lumber 
Company, of Muskegon. It was at this time 
Mr. Shevlin began to look beyond the timber 
supply of Michigan for sources upon which 
to draw in later activities. He began mak- 
ing timber investments for his company in 
the white pine woods of Minnesota, and in 
1884 organized a branch company in Min- 
neapolis for the manufacture of lumber. 
This was known as the North Star Lumber 
Company. Mr. Shevlin removed to Min- 
neapolis in 188G and assisted in organizing 
the Hall & Ducey Lumber Company, the 
firm being composed of Mr. Shevlin, P. A. 
Ducey and S. C. Hall. In 1887 Mr. Ducey 
sold his interests in the company to the 
other partners, the firm then being known 
as the Hall & Shevlin Lumber Company. 
This company built the Minneapolis mill 
now owned by the Shevlin-Carpenter Com- 
pany. Mr. Hall died in 1889. In 1892 El- 
bert L. Carpenter, a member of the lumber 
firm of Carpenter Bros., bought an interest 
in the business, forming with the varied 
lumber interests in which Mr. Shevlin was 
identified the Shevlin-Carpenter Company, 
with Mr. Shevlin as its president. This 
company has continued to this time with a 
thriving and steadily growing business. 
But Mr. Shevlin has not confined his ener- 
gies to this one firm. In 1895 he formed a 
partnership with J. Neils, of Sauk Centre, 
this firm being known as the J. Neils Lum- 
ber Company, its mill sawing 15,000,000 feet 
of lumber annually. In 1S9C, in connection 
with Mr. Hixon, of La Crosse, and the Ar- 
pins of Grand Rapids, Wisconsin, Mr. Shev- 
lin bought extensive tracts of pine on the 
Red Lake reservation, the St. Hilaire Lum- 
ber Company, located at St. Hilaire, a few 
miles above Crookston, being organized. 
This company now owns a mill at Crook- 
ston, one at Cass Lake, and another at Little 
Falls, in all of which enterprises Mr. Shevlin 
is financially interested. These various 
companies have secured the control of over 



I 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



600,000,000 feet of standing pine. It is es- 
timated that the annual cut of the various 
lumber companies in which Mr. Shevlin is 
interested as whole, chief or half owner, will 
run up to the enormous amount of 150,000,- 
000 feet. But it is impossible in such a 
brief sketch to give full justice to the activ- 
ities of the business life of Thomas H. S^hev- 
lin. It is due chiefly to the good judgment, 
(|uick action and bold spirit of this one man 
that the great lumber industry of which he 
is at the head has become great. He has 
received the reward comparatively early in 
life that comes to the man who recognizes 
the opportunity when it presents Itself and 
is quick to seize it. In politics Mr. Shevlin 
is a Kepublican. He has always been will- 
ing to contribute of his time and money to 
the cause of the party of which he is a mem- 
ber, without seeking political preferment for 
himself. It was this unselfish spirit on his 
part which led to his being chosen as one of 
the delegates from the fifth congressional 
district to the Republican national conven- 
tion at Philadelphia in 1000, and later to be 
selected as Minnesota's member of the Re- 
publican national committee. His services in 
that position during the campaign of 1900 
were of inestimable value to his party. Mr. 
Shevlin is a member of the Minneapolis Club. 
February 8, 1882, he was married to Alice 
A. Hall. They have three children: Thomas 
Leonard, Florence and Helen. 



McGARRY, P. H.— In the rapid develop- 
ment of the Northwest new words have been 
added to the English language and old 
words have been given a new meaning, mak- 
ing them practically new. As a rule they 
express tersely characteristics, conditions, 
and results peculiar to the region, and have 
become current among the people because 
the ideas could not be expressed so forcibly 
by any other terms. At first these words 
were regarded as "slang." Common use, 
however, compelled their recognition as 
something necessary, and they gradually 
lost the opprobrium of "slang" and gained a 
foothold in the dictionary as "colloquial." 
Some have finally been admitted into the so- 




P. H. McGARRY. 

ciety ot respectable words without being 
tagged in any doubtful manner, and they will 
remain to do a service which no other term 
could perform. One of these words is "hus- 
tler," meaning a person of intense energy, 
enterprise and industry. The Northwest 
needed just such men, and ''hustler" was 
needed to describe them, for there was no 
other word which combined tin? characteris- 
tics peculiar to the class. Hustlers are ven- 
turesome, sometimes to rashness ; hopeful to 
a degree bordering on the visionary, and 
courageous to the point of foolhardiness, at 
times, but without them the progressive, 
bustling, thriving Northwest could not have 
been. All honor to the "hustlers." If there 
were more of them the world would be bet- 
ter. 

The subject of this sketch, P. H. Mc- 
Garry, of Walker, Cass county, Minn., 
is fairly typical of this western ozone of 
energy. He was born at Grand Rapids, 
Mich., in 1860. He received an academic 
education and developed literary and even 
poetic gifts which might have made their 
mark in the field of letters, had not almost 
abnormal activity given a trend in other di- 
rections. Instead of going through the ten- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



tative process, common to young men search- 
ing for a business, be leaped at once, by one 
bound, as it were, into active business life, 
for at eighteen years of age he took charge 
of a hotel at Stanton, Mich. That he was 
successful is evident from the fact that 
he was appointed jiostniaster of the town 
in 1884, although only twenty-four years 
old. He also built two hotels in Stanton. 
One, the "Grand Central," was of brick, with 
the woodwork finished in hard wood. It 
cost $20,000. He finally resigned his posi- 
tion as postmaster and moved to Chicago. 
It seemed as if that city was too nearly 
finished to suit him, for he moved to Rhine- 
lander, Wis., and again back to Michigan 
and settled in the new town of Ewen, where 
he erected a number of substantial buildings 
which are even yet the pride of the town. 
From Ewen he went to Ironwood, Mich., 
and there built four brick stores. He next 
went to Grand Rapids, Minn., where he 
erected a brick block and managed the old 
hotel Pokegama. When the wonderful iron 
ore banks of the Mesaba range were discov- 
ered and public interest rose to a high pitch, 
Mr. McGarry was attracted thither. He 
went to the town of Merritt, and with his 
usual dash he built the Merritt hotel. Then 
he went to the town of Virginia, and in 
thirty-one days put up the Virginia hotel, a 
hostelry large enough to accommodate one 
hundred and fifty guests. F.rom there he 
went to Biwabik and built the Edna hotel. 
Returning to Virginia, he erected a large 
business block, which, however, was de- 
stroyed by the great forest fire which raged 
so furiously there a few years ago. The 
hotel was also swept away. His indomitable 
spirit is shown by the fact that before the 
ashes were fairly cooled he had a force at 
work on a new structure. Nothing seems 
to discourage or daunt him; no obstacle can 
thwart him; his dictionary does not contain 
the word "fail." In fact it seems to have 
but one word, and that is "Hustle." 

While conducting the Virginia hotel he 
visited Minneapolis, and formed what is 
now the Leech Lake Land companj'. Mr. 
McGarry was appointed general manager, 
and went to Walker, where he still resides. 



to take charge of the enterprise. When the 
village was organized the jjeople elected Mr. 
Mc( Tarry president. He has been at work 
with his characteristic "push," to use one of 
the new western words. He erected a hand- 
some brick block, which is now used as the 
court house, for the town was made the 
county seat. He also built a fine hotel, the 
"Pameda," which is a model of convenience 
and one of the best appointed houses in the 
northern part of the state. When the or- 
ganization of Cass county was pending in 
the legislature the bill was defeated in the 
senate. Mr. McGarry "snatched it from 
oblivion," it may be said, and finally suc- 
ceeded in having it made a law. Mr. Mc- 
Crarry's migrations, so numerous that the 
record reads almost like an itinerary, were 
not due to mere inane restlessness. There 
were in them purpose and method which 
brought forth such substantial results that 
the towns favored by his operations will 
long have cause to rejoice in the visit of the 
"hustler," P. H. McGarry, whose name must 
ever be identified with their growth and 
prosperity, and whose architectural me- 
mentoes will long continue to be an inspira- 
tion to the faint-hearted. 



GREELY, Otto Ethan, a prominent fire 
insurance man of the citj', was born at Ban- 
gor, Elaine, in 1853, and when two years of 
age his parents came to Minneapolis, or to 
St. Anthony, which has become part of the 
city. His father, William Q. Greely, was 
one of the first blacksmiths in this part of 
the state. He did the work required by the 
sawmills, which in that early day were 
small, crude affairs in comparison with the 
wonderful mechanism and huge plants now 
engaged in the business of making lumber. 
He also fitted out lumbermen with their 
tools and implements for the pineries. He 
retired from business about ten years ago. 
His wife was Miss Amanda F. Gowan. 

Mr. Otto E. Greely was educated in the 
public schools and in the university of Min- 
nesota, where he studied during the fi-esh- 
man and sophomore years. But he was am- 
bitious to engage in active business, and 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



therefore entered the office of JudRe Isaac 
Atwater, one of the most distinguished jur- 
ists in the state, and became clerk and stud- 
ied law with him and with H. B. Hancock. 
Being offered a position in the office of 
Messrs. Gale & Co., the leading insurance 
firm in the citj, he entered as a clerk in 1873, 
and later was given a working interest in 
the firm. His success in fire insurance was 
so pronounced that, in 1879, he was ap- 
pointed a si)ecial agent for the Phenix In- 
surance Company of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
in connection with the local agency. In 
1884 he sold his interest in the partnership 
and became exclusively employed witli the 
Phenix Insurance Company. In 1888 he 
^as promoted also to the position of adjust- 
er for the company, the office which he has 
since held. 

He was elected, in 1898, president of the 
Minnesota and Dakota Fire Underwriters, 
and In 1899 he was re-elected president of 
the association. The honors seemed to come 
in showers, for at its thirtieth annual meet- 
ing in Chicago, in September, the same j'ear, 
1899, the Fire Underwriters' Association of 
the Northwest elected Mr. Greely its presi- 
dent. This is the highest honor that can be 
paid to an insurance man in the west. The 
Fire Underwriters' Association is composed 
of officers, managers, special agents and ad- 
justers, living west of Pennsylvania and 
north of Kentucky, and has a membership 
of six hundred. It will be seen from this 
that the distinction bestowed upon Mr. 
Greely is no mean honor, and his friends 
will endorse it, as a well-merited tribute to 
ability and sterling worth. 

Mr. Greely has always been a Republic- 
an, and although prominent in local polit- 
ical affairs, he never held office. He is a 
member of the Republican Executive Com- 
mittee of Hennepin County, and was mana- 
ger of the campaign of John A. Schlener, for 
nomination for mayor of the city of Minne- 
apolis. He is likewise a member of the Min- 
neapolis Club. He is equally prominent in 
social circles. Mr. Greely was one of the 
charter members of the Minneapolis Mount- 
ed Commandery, Knights Templar, one of 
the most noted organizations in the Xorth- 




OTTO GREELY. 

west, eliciting universal admiration wher- 
ever it appears. 

This outline of Mr. Greely's activity «.nd 
achievements, necessarily brief in a volumi- 
nous work like this, gives indication of his 
usefulness, and shows to some extent the 
characteristics which have brought success 
and contributed to the welfare of the com- 
munity in which he has cast his lot. He is 
a man of integrity and morality. 



RAKD, Lars M., has been a member of 
the city council of Minneapolis for the past 
len years. He is one of the strongest men 
in that body and has served his constituents 
faithfully in every respect. It is an apt and 
truthful description of him to say that he is 
a self-made man. Neither has he, in his days 
of success and prosperity, forgotten that 
station from which he began tlie struggle 
of life and for which he still retains a large 
sympathy. He was born January lit, 1857, 
in Bergen, Norwav. He is the son of Mathi- 
as O. Rand, who belonged to the laboring 
classes of Bergen. His ancestors were a 
long-lived family, his four grandparents hav- 
ing lived to be over ninety years of age. His 
early educational training was received in 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT XORTH\A'EST. 




LARS M. EAND. 

the common schools of his native town. This 
was supplemented later bv an attendance in 
the common schools of Minnesota after his 
emigration here in 1875, and a literary 
course in the state normal school at Winona. 
His inclinations being toward the legal pro- 
fession he took up the study of law in the 
office of Hon. William H. Yale, of Winona. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1884, and in 
the same year was elected judge of criminal 
court in that city. Possessed of an ambi- 
tious temperament, however, he resigned 
lliis office in the fall of the following year 
and removed to Minneapolis, believing that 
in the young metropolis he would find a lar- 
ger field for the employment of his talents 
in the practice of his profession. Two years 
later he was appoijited assistant city attor- 
ney by Mr. Seagrave Wmith, then city attor- 
ney of Minneapolis, and served two years in 
that capacity. He then formed his present 
law partnership with ilr. H. J. Gjertsen, the 
firm being known as Gjertsen & Rand. This 
firm has enjoyed an extensive and lucrative 
law practice. Mr. Rand is an active mem- 
ber of the Democratic party. He is recog- 
nized as one of the most influential members 
of that party in the state, and has served for 



several years as a member of the state cen- 
tral committee. In 1890 he was elected to 
the city council from the Sixth ward, and 
has served continuously in that capacity 
ever since. Mr. Rand holds a warm place 
in the hearts of his constituents by his 
championship of the interests of the com- 
mon people. His voice has always been 
raised in opposition against the granting of 
franchises and special privileges. In the 
long controversy over the question of street 
railway transfers, Judge Rand was one of 
the staunchest opponents in the council of the 
Street Railway company, finally achieving 
the end for which he strived — a system of 
transfers which is probably as nearly per- 
fect as it could be, and one that satisfac- 
torily serves the interests of the general 
public. Mr. Rand has regarded as unfavor- 
able to the interests of the city the present 
garbage and gas and electric contracts, and 
has done everything he can, during his mem- 
bership in the council, to improve the exist- 
ing conditions. He is a warm advocate in 
favor of the city owning its own lighting 
plants, and has been an earnest champion of 
the eight-hour day and its adoption in the 
public work of the city. ili'. Rand is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic lodge. Knights of Pyth- 
ias, Turners and the Elks. In 1884 he was 
married to Miss Jennie M. Beebe, of Wino- 
na. They have three children: Lars, aged 
12; Florence, aged 9, and Clyde Milton, 
aged 2. 



FORCE. Jacob Francis, the president of 
the great Northwestern Life Association, is' 
a native of New York, having been born at 
Stillwater, Saratoga county, of that state, in 
1843. His father was John C. Force, a mer- 
chant, who died in 1885. His mother's name 
was Hannah Adams, of the Adams family 
of Connecticut. She died in 1859. Both 
parents were of New England ancestry. 
Henry Force, the grandfather, was a soldier 
in the Revolutionary war and belonged to 
<"ol. Hazen's Congress regiment, so named 
to distinguish it from the militia. He par- 
ticii)ated in the battles of Monmouth, 
Springfield, Cherry Valley and Yorktown, 



II1ST()I{Y OV THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



where the British coniiuaiuler, Cornwallis, 
siiri'enflered — tlie battle which established 
the independent-e of the nation. He was 
borne iii)on the rolls as a pensioner until his 
death in 1820. 

Jacob F. Force was educated in the dis- 
trict school, and at the academy. He then 
followed his father's example and enffajied 
in the mercantile business, but on the break 
inji- out of the Civil war he showed his pub- 
lic si)irit and patriotism by enlisting; in Com- 
jiany K. of llie 12.")th rci;iment. New Yoi-k 
voluntiMM- infantry, when only nineteen 
years of age. He served as private and was 
promoted to corjjoral sergeant and first 
sergeaiit or orderly sergeant and was then 
commissioned as an officer in the 22d regi- 
ment of I'nited States colored troops, in 
which he was promoted to captain in 1864. 
He took part in the battles of Harper's Fer- 
ry, Gettysburg, two days, Bristow Station, 
Mine Run, Fort Powhattan, Petersburg, Au- 
burn Ford, Dutch Gai), Deep Bottom and 
Fort Harrison, near Richmond, where he 
was severely wounded, Septem'ber 30, 1804. 
He was discharged on account of his 
wounds. When he returned to civil life he 
resumed for a time his mercantile business 
and, while so engaged, took a course in 
Bryan and Stratton's celebrated business 
college at Newark, X. J. He then be- 
gan to study medicine and entered the Al- 
bany Medical College — now the T'niversity 
of Albany — where, on the final examination 
at graduation In 1871, he took a prize for 
his itroflciency. 

The next year Dr. Force came west and 
settled to practice bis profession at Heron 
Lake, Jackson county, Minn. The im- 
mediate interest which he took in every- 
thing pertaining to the welfai-e of the com- 
munity soon made liini one of the most 
lironiinent men in the county. He was a 
Ikcpublican. His tirst vote was cast for Lin- 
coln, in ISfil, while lying in the hospital, his 
vote being sent home to be counted. At 
Heron Lake he was i)ostniaster for eight 
years and was twice elected county super- 
intendent of schools of Jackson county. In 
search of a larger and more remunerative 
field for his practice, in 1885 be came to 




,IA(;(II1 F. FOKCK. 

Minneapolis. After practicing medicine in 
the city for two years he became medical 
director of the Northwestern Life Assoria- 
tion. In 1888 he became secretary of the in- 
stitution, and in 1895 he was made presi- 
dent, the position which he now holds. The 
steady progress of the association is a 
strong testimony to his energy, business 
capacity and versatile resources. 

Notwithstanding Dr. Force's business 
acti\ ity in the management of so large a 
concern, he has not neglected liis duty as a 
man and a citizen. He is ju-esident of the 
Minneapolis Co-operative Company; vice 
president of the Asbury hospital; director 
of the Jlinnesota state Y. M. C. A., and also 
of the local Y. M. C. A.; treasurer of the 
Methodist Ei)iscopal Missionary and Church 
Extension Society and member of the official 
board of the Hennepin Avenue M. E. church. 
He was a delegate to the great Methodist 
Episcojjal general convention held in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, in 1896, and to the conference at 
Chicago in 11)00. What, perhaps, may be 
regarded as a still greater honor, he has 
been chosen delegate to the Ecumenical con- 
ference — comprising the whole Methodist 
world— to be held at London, England, in 
1901. He is also intlueutial in the Masonic 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



fraternity, belonging to the riymouth third 
degree lodge; Columbia Royal Arch chap- 
ter; Zion Coraniandery and Zurah Temple, 
all of the city of Minneapolis. He is med- 
ical director of Minnesota Department, G. 
A. R., and also member of the Minne- 
apolis Board of Education. In 1867 he 
was married to Sarah F. Mesick, of Kin- 
derhook, N. Y. They have three children 
living, Dr. Prank Wilson, now in Manila; 
Charles E., associated, as secretary, with his 
father in the management of the Northwest- 
ern Life Association, and Miss Mayward 
Force. Mr. Force is also a member of the 
Grand Army of the Republic and of the Loy- 
al Legion and in November, 1900, was elect- 
ed a member of the school board of Jlinne- 
apolis. 



OLSON, Seaver E. — There is no mer- 
chant in the northwest who is more familiar 
to the people than Seaver E. Olson, the head 
of what is popularly called the '"Big Store," 
because of its size and its completeness as a 
department store. The manner in which 
the people are attracted to this great empo- 
rium shows absolute genius in the manage- 
ment, not only in the vast aggregate of mer- 
chandise provided to meet every variety of 
taste and purse, but in the frank and home- 
like methods of dealing with the people and 
in the conveniences arranged for the com- 
fort of customers and visitors of all social 
grades. Mr. Olson is the inspiration of all 
this organization, which has made the estab- 
lishment such a success that it is a matter 
of public pride as it must be of gratification 
to the capable executive head of the concern. 

Mr. Olson is a native of Norway, having 
been born in the parish of Ringsaker, near 
Hamar, in 1846. His father was a con- 
tractor and builder in easy circumstances. 
His uncle. Prof. Tollef Olson, was a profes- 
sor in the seminary and held the position for 
fifty years. For this long and useful serv- 
ice the king, as a mark of distinction, pre- 
sented Prof. Olson a gold medal. The Olson 
family were devoted Christians and be- 
longed to the Baptist denomination, and 
young Olson was brought up under strong 



religious influences. For his early educa- 
tion he was put in charge of his uncle, the 
noted professor. So apt was the pupil and 
so thorough was the master that the boy, 
when only ten years of age, was put in 
charge of a district school which he taught 
for two years. In 1858 the family moved 
to America, landing at Montreal, and thence 
came to the United States, taking govern- 
ment land within seventeen miles of La 
Crosse, Wis. When about twelve years 
of age he procured employment in a gener- 
al store at La Crosse. Having worked 
here for two years, he became imbued with 
the idea of getting a college education like 
his distinguished uncle, and with a prompt- 
ness characteristic of him when he has come 
to a decision he set out for Beloit, the seat of 
a small college which has since grown to be 
an institution of great importance and of 
high standing among the colleges of the 
AVest. He entered the school and struggled 
for nearly a year to maintain himself while 
jtursuing his studies. He finally concluded 
that he would forego the advantages for 
himself, and give the college education to 
his brother. This unselfish purpose he ful- 
ly carried out, furnishing means to support 
and educate his brother in the most thor- 
ough manner, supplementing the college 
course with a post-graduate course in Eu- 
rope. Beaver's efl'orts were well rewarded, 
for his brother became a distinguished 
scholar and proved his ability by his admin- 
istration of the South Dakota State Univer- 
sity, of which he was elected president. He 
achieved remarkable results in this capacity 
and had a promising future, but his brillianf 
career came to an untimely end. He per- 
ished in the disastrous fire of the Tribune 
building, in 1889, where he happened to be 
attending to some literary matters pertain- 
ing to the university. 

After giving up his college idea so gen- 
erously, Seaver procured employment in a 
store at Beloit. The proprietor soon after- 
wards opened a store at Cambridge, Wis., 
and put Olson, though yet a mere boy, 
in charge of it. He held this position, 
wliich he must have filled with exceptional 
abilitj', until January, 1864, when the man 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



by whom he was first emplo^yed as a lad, at 
La Crosse, oti'urt'd him the position of head 
bookkeeper and general manager of the very 
establishment in which Olson had worked 
as a boy. He served there until 1867, when 
he launched out for himself, opening a store 
at Eushford, Minn., under the style of 
S. E. Olson & Company. This was a suc- 
cess from the oulset and secured a very 
large trade. But Mr. Olson, after three 
years, sold out his interest and- went into 
partnership with his old employer at La 
Crosse, a fact which is a strong testimony 
to the recognized superior ability of the ris- 
ing 3'oung merchant. Three years later he 
organized the wholesale and retail house of 
Olson, i^mith & Company. On the dissolu- 
tion of this firm, in 1S7C, Mr. Olson retained 
the wholesale or jobbing interest of the 
house. In ISTS he removed his stock to Min- 
neapolis and became connected with the 
house of N. B. Harwood & Company. Two 
years later this firm failed, leaving Mr. Ol- 
son badly in the lurch. But his energy and 
indonntable courage did not desert him. 
He united with M. 1). Ingram and bought at 
sheriff sale, with money borrowed for the 
purpose, the remnant of the stock of the old 
concern and began business again under the 
style of Ingram, Olson & Company. The 
business prospered so rapidly that in 1887 
Mr. Olson was able to buy the interest of his 
partner and thus became the sole owner. 
Under his spirited management the business 
grew to such extent as to demand better 
facilities. To secure these he built the great 
block on the corner of First avenue and 
Fifth street, arranged expressly for the busi- 
ness. He has also an extension through to 
Kicollet avenue with a magnificent entrance 
and attractive display counters on that pop- 
ular thoroughfare. 

The mammoth establishment thus creat- 
ed is one of the largest in the Northwest. 
In 181)4 he organized a complete department 
store, known as the S. E. Olson Company, 
whose acres of store rooms are worthy of 
the name, "Big Store," given it by the peo- 
ple. 

Besides being an enterprising and pro- 
gressive merchant Mr. Olson is a public spir- 




SEAVER E. OLSON. 

ited man, second to none in his activity for 
the welfare of the city where he has been so 
bountifully blessed. He was among the first 
to advocate the great Exposition and con- 
tributed largely in time and money to make 
it a success. In political matters also he 
is active, and so prominent as to be regarded 
as a leader in the Republican party. While 
he refused to accept ottice he served as a 
delegate to the national Republican conven- 
tion in 1900. In social affairs he is no less 
interested. He still retains his religious 
connection with the Baptist denomination 
of his parents and family. lie was married 
in 1889 to Miss Ida Hawley, of Minneapolis. 



HElvKEID, Charles N. — If some philos- 
opher like Herbert Spencer would write a 
treatise on the "I'hilosophy of Popularity," 
it might be of vast service to the army of 
ambitious statesmen struggling for public 
favors. I'oi)ularity is the one thing most 
desired by this class of men. They pursue 
it as ardently as the old alchemist sought 
the philosoi)her's stone which would trans- 
mute all things into gold, and with the same 
success. The elements of one are as elusive 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




CHARLES N. HERREID. 

as those of the other. The Scriptural in- 
junction, "Seek and ye shall find," seems to 
be inapplicable to the search for popularity, 
for the more it is sought after the less it is 
realized. The qualities which win it cannot 
be acquired. They must be spontaneous in 
the soul. The personal magnetism — what- 
ever that may be — which produces popular- 
ity, is like genius. It refuses to be weighed, 
measured or analyzed. It is an endowment, 
and blessed is the man who possesses the 
gracious gift. 

Charles N. Herreid, the present governor 
of South Dakota, is one of these favored 
sons. If any demonstration of the fact 
were needed, the state Rei)ublican conven- 
tion of South Dakota, in 1900, would be am- 
jjle proof, for he was nominated for govern- 
or unanimously in the convention of 1,052 
delegates, without even the suggestion of 
opposition. This is a characteristic exam- 
ple. 

He was born In Wisconsin, in 1857. His 
father was a farmer and one of the pioneers 
of the state. Young Herreid, after receiv- 
ing a common school education, attended 
the Galesville University and took a three 
years' course. Determining to be a lawyer, 



he read law one year before entering the 
law department of the Wisconsin state uni- 
'i'ersity, from which, after a two years' 
course, he graduated in 1882. The same 
year he was married to Miss Jeannette Slye, 
and in 1888 went to establish his home in 
the territory of Dakota, which then em- 
braced the states of both North and South 
Dakota. He settled at Eureka, McPherson 
countj', where he has since lived. Eureka 
has earned the reputation of being the lar- 
gest primary wheat market in the world, 
and Mr. Herreid's law practice partook of 
the prosperity of the town. He also held 
successively the offices of judge and state's 
attorney. He was made a trustee of the 
state university, and, later, a member of the 
board of regents, having charge of all the 
educational institutions of the state. The 
duties on these boards, although not par- 
ticularly ostentatious, made Mr. Herreid 
known throughout the commonwealth, and 
through them he became distinguished for 
his sound judgment, strict impartiality, and 
discretion. Though factional strifes concern- 
ing the institutions were rife at times, Mr. 
Herreid's character of fairness and honesty 
of purpose shielded him from the taint of 
partisanship and injustice. 

In 1892 he was elected lieutenant govern- 
or of the state, and was re-elected to the 
same position in 1894. This office is fre- 
quently regarded as a political tomb, or a 
sort of retiring room for the politician. But 
Mr. Herreid so discharged the duties as to 
increase his reputation and enhance his pop- 
ularity. During the two terms that he was 
president of the senate he more fully dem'- 
oustrated his capacity for public affairs; he 
showed thorough knowledge of parliament- 
ary practice; displayed remarkable tact in 
forming the committees of the senate — a 
duty which is often a stumbling-block to 
presiding officers; he exhibited patience and 
skill in unraveling the intricacies of debate 
and decided points of order with such a 
clear comprehension of questions involved 
and with such fairness as to win, not only 
the respect, but the admiration of opponents 
as well as friends. It is well worthy of re- 
mark that during the whole of his adminis- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



tration no apjjeal from his ruling was ever 
taken. It is said that no similar reoord was 
ever made by the president of the senate of 
any other state. Therefore the unanimous 
vote of thanks at the close of the term was 
not a mere perfunctory matter of form, but 
a genuine expression of sincere regard. 

Mr. Herreid has always been a Republic- 
an. He was chairman of the state Repub- 
lican committee in the campaign of 189S and 
acted as a member of the national Republic- 
an committee and has exhibited a more than 
common executive ability in every position 
occupied. His activity, however, has not 
been confined to politics. He is a Knight 
of Pythias and has been grand chancellor of 
the domain of South Dakota. He is a mem- 
ber of the A. O. r. W., and was chairman 
of the committee to revise the constitution 
and statutes of the grand lodge of that or- 
der, and has held other important and i)rom- 
inent positions in the organization. He is 
also a thirty-second degree Mason and a dep- 
uty inspector general for South Dakota, and 
has held high offices in the consistory. 

In manners, Mr. Herreid is modest and 
unassuming almost to the verge of timidity, 
being also rather reticent and not given to 
flattery. Although firm in his opinions, he 
does not assert them with arrogance. He 
conveys the impression of being sincere and 
straightforward, and, even when in opposi- 
tion, his manner of putting his side of the 
question inspires confidence rather than an- 
tagonism. His home life at Eureka is al- 
most ideal. He has two children, a girl just 
budding into womanhood, and a boy twelve 
years old. He attends the Presbyterian 
church, of which his family are members. 
Xo man in the state is held in higher re- 
spect, and it is doubtful if another e(iuals 
him in popularity in public and private life. 



MERRILL, George Costin. — George C. 
Merrill, the well known title expert, has been 
an active citizen of Minneapolis for nearly 
twenty years, coming to the city in 1882. 
His father was Joseph Winthrop Jlerrill, a 
distinguished horticulturist of Illinois, and 
his mother was Anna E. Costin, both of Eng- 




GI'^ORGE C. MERRILL. 

lish antecedents, and, as the name would in- 
dicate, of early American ancestry. Ge^pge 
( ". Merrill is a native of Manchester, Scott 
county, 111., but when two years old his pa- 
rents moved to Cook county. 111., in the vicin- 
ity of (-'hicago, where the family lived, in 
the city and suburbs, until George came to 
Minneapolis, as stated. He had the advan- 
tages of the graded schools of Chicago and 
then attended a private academy at Hyde 
Park — one of the suburbs of Chicago — and 
Chicago University. He eventually chose 
law as his profession, and took his profes- 
sional course at the University of Minnesota. 
— the largest law college in the world, — 
where he graduated in 1895, as Bachelor of 
Law. He was the same year admitted to 
practice at the bar of the state of Minne- 
sota. In 1896 he took the degree of Master 
of Law. 

Mr. Merrill early made a specialty of ab- 
stracting real estate titles, a business re- 
(piiring careful research, absolute accuracy 
and a competent knowledge of the legal 
bearing of every conveyance. He formed a 
]iartnership in 1882 under the style of Mer- 
rill & Albee, of which he was the senior 
member. This was continued until 1886, 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



when Mr. Merrill assumed sole charge and 
conducted the business in his own name. 
The business grew to such proportions un- 
der his prudent management that in 18!>l' 
it was organized into the Merrill Abstract 
Company, of which Mr. Merrill was made 
president and manager, which offices he has 
filled continuously since the organization of 
the company, which has become one of the 
leading establishments engaged in the busi- 
ness, recognized in all business circles as 
one of the very highest authorities in all mat- 
ters pertaining to real estate titles. 

Mr. Merrill has always been a Republican, 
and cast his first vote for Gen. Grant. He 
has been so absorbed in business that he 
has never held or sought a political office. 
His popularity, however, was such, especial- 
ly in business circles, that he was nom- 
inated under the new primary law for reg- 
ister of deeds of Hennepin county on the Re- 
publican ticket in I'JOO, over eight compet- 
itors, where, owing to the unusual number 
of candidates, the contest was more than 
commonly warm. This is an office for which 
Mr. Merrill is peculiarly fitted by training 
and experience. It is so closely in line with 
his life business that it may be said to be 
really a part of it. His great strength in 
the canvass was his public spirit as a citizen, 
as well as his technical skill and experience 
with title records. The judgment of his 
friends at the primaries was fully sustained 
by his election in November by a large ma- 
jority. He is a member of the Business 
Union, Board of Trade, and kindred organ- 
izations, and has always been active in 
promoting the interests of the city. His 
nomination was a tribute to his activity. 

In 1875, Mr. Merrill was married to Mary 
Alice Swindler, and has two children, Alice 
Reba Merrill, and Fred Raymond Merrill. 
He enjoys the esteem of a wide circle of busi- 
ness and social friends who show him in 
many ways the highest regard a man can 
win for sterling qualities of character. 



COMSTOCK, Solomon Gilman.— Much 
of the work which men do, especially in pub- 
lic service, is paid for only in the satisfac- 



tion found in the doing. It is its own re- 
ward. If busy and useful men received the 
Aalue of their labor at its true worth, they 
would have more of the good things of life 
than they could use, and would be overload- 
ed by the weight of their honors. Yet some 
of them cannot complain of meager rewards 
in ])ublic appreciation, at least. This is en- 
couragement for others. Solomon G. Corn- 
stock, of Moorhead, Minn., so long iden- 
tified with the interests of the great North- 
west, is one of the busiest of men in the mak- 
ing of it. While his recompense has in no 
wise been commensurate with his abundant 
labors, his usefulness and fidelity to the in- 
terests of the people have been recognized 
and they have accorded to him distinguished 
honors. Mr. Comstock was born at Argyle, 
Maine, in 1842. His father, James M. Com- 
stock, was a lumberman and farmer in com- 
fortable circumstances and of Scottish de- 
scent. His ancestors came from Edinburg 
about 164(1 and settled in Rhode Island and 
Massachusetts. Mr. S. G. Comstock's moth- 
er was of English descent, her people com- 
ing to New England in 1834, settling in 
Massachusetts and New Hampshire. He 
was educated in the public schools and acad- 
emies of Elaine. When he decided to be a 
lawyer he began to read law in the office of 
Judge S. F. Humphrey, at Bangor, Maine. 
He then came west and attended the Law 
School of the University of Michigan in 1868 
and 1869. Coming to Minnesota in 1879 he 
pursued his studies in Minneapolis, in the 
law school, and with D. A. Secombe. He 
was admitted to the bar at Omaha, Neb., 
in 1869, and was subsequently admitted 
to practice in the courts of Minnesota and 
Dakota. In 1871 he was made county at- 
torney of Clay county, Minn., which of- 
fice he held for six years. He continued to 
practice his profession until 1888, when he 
engaged in locating town sites on the Great 
Northern railroad. He was interested in 
locating and promoting the towns of Hills- 
boro, Grafton, Bathgate, Rolla, Bottineau, 
Rugby, Towner, Minto, and other North Da- 
kota towns, and the town of Kalispell, 
Mont. Mr. Comstock has always been a Re- 
publican, and one of the active leaders of 



HISTORY 1)1" THE (JUEAT NORTHWEST. 



tlii^ party. He was elected to the lower 
house of the lenrislature in 1876, and served 
six years, beinj; twice re-elected. He was 
then jii-onioted to the state senate, and 
served there for six years, closing his legis- 
lative career by resigning from the senate 
To accept a nomination for the Fifty-flrst 
(■oiigr(^ss. to which he was duly elected. 
During Mr. Comstock's service of twelve 
A ears in the legislature, he participated in 
all the settlements of what were then ques- 
tions of absorbing interest. They are now 
forgotten to a large extent, it is trne, but 
not because they were unimportant; rather 
for the reason that wise legislation settled 
them on sound principles, so that they re- 
main settled. He served on the Judiciary 
committee in both branches of the legisla- 
ture. This is the most important committee 
in legislation, for nearly all proposed laws 
must be submitted to this committee. Here 
Mr. Comstock's legal attainments and acu- 
men were almost invaluable. He was chair- 
man of the Judiciary committee of the sen- 
ate. He took part in settling the trouble- 
some state railroad bond matter. He also 
secured the State Normal School, located at 
^loorhead, and the appropriiition to build it, 
Mr. ( "omstock made a gift to the state of the 
ground on which the school stands. He 
served as resident director of the institution 
and member of tlie State Normal Board for 
four years. While in congress, owing to 
his legal talents, he was made a mem- 
ber of two imjwrtant conmiittees of the 
house, "Privileges and Elections," "Coinage. 
AVeights and Measures." He assisted in the 
I)assage of the Sherman silver purchasing 
bill, to forestall the i)assage of a free silver 
bill. He also assisted in the passage of the 
McKinley tariff bill, so much discussed, the 
Iias.><age of which, undoubtedly, made Mc- 
Kinley president. He was likewise a sup 
porter of the federal election bill which was 
jiassed at that session. His committee also 
disposed of about twenty contested election 
cases. Very few single terms of congress 
have been equal to that in which 5Ir. C(nn- 
stock served, in ctfecting legislation of such 
vital importance to ilic welfare of the nation. 
His experience in congiess and in the twelve 




years of his state legislative career, where 
many measures of local importance were 
passed, has scarcely been paralleled in the 
lives of the public men of the state. He has 
shown sound judgment and solid statesman- 
ship to a remarkable degree. \Aith such a 
record it is only natural that he was strongly 
suj)ported in lS'.)i for the I'nited States sen- 
ate as a fitting climax to his successful ca- 
reer. In 1802 he was a delegate to the na- 
tional convention. 

Mr. ('omstock was married at Fargo in 
1874, to Sarah A. Ball. They have three 
children, Ada Louise, Jessie May. and 
(Jeorjie M.. all born at iloorhead. 



PINEO, ^\•illa^(l P.yllier.— The high 
standing which Dr. W. P.. Piueo, of Minne- 
ajiolis, has attained in his i)rofession is en- 
tirely due to his own unaided efforts. He is 
a si)ecialist in diseases of the eye, ear, nose 
and throat, and his skill in these lines has 
won for him not only the respect of his pro- 
fessional brethren, but a large clientele as 
well. Dr. Pineo traces his ancestry back to 
.la<(iues Pineau, the French Huguenot, who 
landed at Plymouth in 17()(». His grand un- 
cle. Dr. Timothy Stone Pinueo, was a re- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




WILLARD B. PINEO. 

nowned man of letters. He was a graduate 
of the classical and medical departments of 
Yale college, and was, also, professor of 
belles lettres at Marietta college, Ohio. 
Later, he had charge of a school in Green- 
wich, Conn. He was the author of Pin- 
eo's Grammars, and was the rerisor of 
the McGuffey readers. Another grand un- 
cle. Dr. Peter Pineo, of Boston, had a dis- 
tinguished war record. On his mother's 
side. Dr. Pineo is a descendant of the Rams- 
dells and Leightons of England. He is the 
son of Benjamin C. and Cordelia W. (Bams- 
dell) Pineo. His father was a stone con- 
tractor of Columbia, Maine, in moderate cir- 
cumstances. It was here that Willard was 
born, April 22, 1858. His early education 
was received at Oak Hill Seminary, at 
Bucksport, Maine, and Kent's Hill Semi- 
nary, at Redfleld, ^Maine. His tastes being 
inclined toward the medical profession, he 
began its study in the office of Dr. Charles 
Milliken, of Cherrifield, Maine. In Septem- 
ber, 1882, he came to Minnesota. Being 
comjjelled to rely upon his own resources to 
obtain tlie money necessary to pursue his 
medical studies, he taught in the public 
schools for a short time. In 1885 he gradu- 



ated from the medical de])artment of the 
University of Minnesota, receiving at the 
same time a medical diploma from the Min- 
nesota Hospital College, also. He was val- 
edictorian of his class and president of the 
alumni association. After his graduation. 
Dr. Pineo was associated with Dr. Duns- 
moor, the well-known general practitioner 
of Jlinneapolis. He was very successful in 
his practice, but decided to take up the spe- 
cialty of ear, eye, nose and throat diseases, 
and for this purpose entered the Polyclinic 
and Manhattan Eye and Ear Infirmary of 
Xew York city in 1889. He remained in 
this institution for a year, receiving instruc- 
tion in these special lines. Returning to 
Minneapolis, he commenced practice as a 
specialist, and has confined himself to that 
line of practice since that date. In 1895 he 
took a trip to Europe, visiting the eye and 
ear hospitals of Berlin, Vienna, Paris and 
Loudon, devoting himself to further studies' 
along these special lines. In 1901 Dr. and 
Mrs. Pineo made an extended tour of Europe, 
visiting all the principal places of interest — 
the doctor devoting a great deal of time in 
study and investigation into new methods 
and latest developments in his special branch 
of the medical profession. In politics Dr. 
Pineo is a consistent supporter of Repub- 
lican principles, though never taking a 
very active part in political campaigns. 
He is prominent in Masonic circles, and 
has received his thirty-third degree in 
that order. He is past master of Hen- 
nepin Lodge, No. 4, and Minneapolis Coun- 
cil, No. 2; past junior warden of Zion 
Commandery, No. 2; past wise master of 
St. Vincent de Paul Chapter, No. 5; past 
right worshipful district deputy grandmas 
ter of the state of Minnesota, and past prior 
of Minneapolis Consistory, No. 2. He is al- 
so vice president of the Masons' Fraternal 
Accident Association of Minneapolis. Oth- 
er social bodies of which he is a member are 
the ^linneapolis Commercial Club, the Min- 
neapolis Whist Club, and the Benevolent 
and I'rotective Order of Elks. He was mar- 
ried November 28, 1881, to Saidie Kendal 
Cobb, of Boston, granddaughter of Nathan- 
iel Cobb, the noted philanthropist. 

116 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



LANDER, Edward J., is prominently 
identified with the investment and real estate 
business at Grand Forks, N. D., and is 
one of the substantial residents of that 
thriving Tounff city. He was born Septem- 
ber 12, 1860, at Rockford, 111. His pa- 
rents, Ohristopher and Jane Brown Lander, 
came to this country from England in 1848, 
and settled at Rockford. Edward received 
his education in the public schools of his na- 
ti\ e town, and graduated from the Rockford 
high school in the class of 1878. He moved 
to North Dakota in 188:1 and settled at 
Grand Forks, where he started the business 
now being conducted by E. J. Lander & Go. 
He opened up a real estate office and suc- 
ceeded in building up a lucrative business in 
farm loans, abstracts of title, etc. These 
operations became so extensive that, in 
1897, it was found necessary to widen the 
scope of his business and the present corpo- 
ration of E. J. Lander & Co. was organized. 
Mr. Lander has had the active management 
of this concern ever since its organization. 
It is one of the most substantial of its kind 
in the Flickertail state, and its operations in 
real estate and farm loans are carried out 
on an extensive scale. Mr. Lander has tak- 
en a prominent part in the upbuilding of the 
city of Grand Forks, and is recognized as a 
sound, conservative business man. He gave 
his active assistance to the organization of 
the company which built the present Metro- 
politan Theater of Grand Forks, has served 
as treasurer of the company since it was 
first organized, and was its manager for sev- 
eral years. He was also one of the organ- 
izers of the Grand Forks Building and Loan 
Association. This association has had a 
prosperous career under the direct manage- 
ment of Mr. Lander, who has served as its 
secretary and as member of the board of di- 
rectors for the past ten years. But the in- 
terest he has taken in the development of 
Grand Forks has not been confined entirely 
to those business institutions already men- 
tioned, and of which he has had the active 
management. Every enterprise caloilated 
to strengthen and build uiJ that city has had 
his active aid and support, and he has been 
prodigal of his time and services on everj' 




EDWARD J. LAXDEIt. 

occasion calling for the exercise of public 
spirit. It is to such men as Mr. Lander fliat 
North Dakota owes the great prosperity she 
enjoys. It is only a few years since the 
Flickertail state was admitted to statehood, 
but the development has been a remarkable 
one. The credit for this is to be given to the 
energetic, wide-awake, progressive young 
men who came from the eastern states to 
build homes in the new one. The subject of 
this sketch was one of the moving spirits in 
that development; not from the standpoint 
of a high, political i)osition, but rather as a 
quiet and effective worker in the ranks, and 
here his infiuence has always been directed 
toward that which was best for the commu- 
nity and the welfare of his adopted state, 
in his political affiliations he has always 
been a consistent snpjjoi'ter of the Republic- 
an party. He served as a county commis- 
sioner for three terms, from 181)0 to 18!)!), 
representing the (Jrand Forks city distriit. 
Aside from this, however, he has held no 
jtolitical office and has no ambitions in that 
direction whatever. He is a member of tlie 
Pioneer Club, an old-time social club of 
Grand Forks, which is in a very fiourishing 
condition, having a membership of 140, and 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



occujiyinn; luxurious quarters. At various 
times he has served as president and secre- 
tary of this club. He is also a member of 
Acacia Lodge, A. F. and A. M.; the Knight 
Templars; (hand Forks Commandery, No. 3, 
and Carmel Lodge. No. R, Scottish Rite. He 
was married at ^Montreal, Canada, February 
27, 1884, to Jessie King Krause. Their un- 
ion has been blessed with one child, ililes 
Krause Lander, now five vears of age. 



ARMSTRONG, Moses K.— The pioneers 
of the territorial days of Minnesota and the 
Dakotas are now few in number. The 
idaces that they filled are now filled by oth- 
ers. The work that they so bravely started 
is now being carried on by their grandchil- 
dren. Their faces are fast vanishing from 
our view; but their deeds shall not be for- 
gotten, for the work that they undertook 
will be their monument. The name of 
Moses K. Armstrong, of St. James, ^linn., 
is inseparably connected with the early his- 
tory of ilinnesota and the Uakotas. He 
was born at Milan, in Erie county, Ohio, 
September 10, 1832, a son of pioneers of 
Ohio. Phoebe Armstrong, the mother of 
the subject of this sketch, was a native of 
the state of Ohio, and Augustus Armstrong, 
his father, was an early settler from Con- 
necticut. He was a farmer and took a 
prominent part in the frontier troubles of 
the day, serving as captain of the militia. 
Moses K. Armstrong received the splendid 
education that was accorded the youth of 
early Ohio and was graduated from Hu- 
ron institute, and from Western Reserve 
college, then, as now, a superior college. 
He excelled as a mathematician and natur- 
ally followed the work of a surveyor. When 
but eighteen years of age he drifted into 
northern Iowa on a surveying trip, and. in 
18.56, came to the then territory of Minne- 
sota. During the same year he was elected 
surveyor of Mower county, and while trav- 
eling on foot between the frontier settle- 
ments, gathered up material from which he 
afterwards wrote an early history of the 
county. Mr. Armstrong is a follower of 



the Democracy and was one of the delegates 
to the first Democratic state convention, 
and helped to nominate General Sibley as 
Minnesota's first state governor. He was 
ajtpointed a deputy by the first surveyor 
general of Minnesota and surveyed tlie gov- 
ernment land in the southwestern part of 
the state. He went on into Dakota terri- 
tory at the time that country was an unor- 
ganized territory, and surveyed some of the 
first claims and town sites for the new set- 
tlers on the lands then ceded by the Yank- 
ton Indians. Dakota was organized into a 
separate territory in 1861 and Mr. Arm- 
strong was elected a member of the first 
territorial legislature. He was elected for 
a succeeding term and was chosen speaker 
of the house, when North and South Dako- 
ta, Montana, Idaho and Wyoming were all 
a part of the great territory. During the 
war he was an editor of a Democratic pajjer, 
the Dakota Union. In 1864 he was ap- 
pointed clerk of the supreme court of Da- 
kota, and in the same year was one of the 
original incorporators of the Northern Pa- 
cific railroad, as chartered by congress. In 
1865 he was elected territorial treasurer, 
and then a member of the territorial senate, 
and in 1867 became presiding officer of that 
body. In 1867 he also acted as secretary 
for the Indian peace committee, and while 
in that position visited every tribe of Sionx 
Indians on the Missouri river as far north 
as the Yellowstone country. In 1870, while 
a member of the territorial senate, he was 
elected by the Democrats as a delegate to 
congress, and gave his first year's salarj- for 
the purchase of a new printing press, with 
which was founded the oldest party organ 
in Dakota, and the first permanent Demo- 
cratic newspaper in the territory, the Dako- 
ta Herald. He was a successful and popu- 
lar member of congress and was re-elected 
a second term in 1872, and declined a third 
term, preferring to attend to other busi- 
ness, and re-entered upon his surveying 
work, taking charge of the survey of the 
Cut-head Indian reservation, near Devils 
J>ake. He had engaged in much of the gov- 
ernment surveying of the territory up to 
1870, and had established most of the me- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



ridians and standard lines in southern Da- 
kota and along the Red River of the North. 
He also was selected to execute for the gov- 
crumeut the re-survey of the state bound- 
ary of Nebraska, near Sioux City, Iowa, 
where the treacherous river had cut a large 
island into the state from the Dakota 
boundary. Jlr. Armstrong received from 
Ihe gdverinuent a charter for the first iia- 
lional bank established in Dakota territory 
and located at Yankton, he serving for 
some time as president. Mr. Armstrong 
has a deep interest in historical matters, 
and his life has been such as to give oi)p()r- 
tnnity to accjuire invaluable knowledge of 
matters concerning the early history of Da- 
kota. He served as secretary of the Dakota 
Historical Society for ten years. In ISfifi 
he prepared and published the "Early His- 
tory of Dakota," and the book contained 
much matter that could not be found in tlie 
lecords, but which he knew from his own 
observation and notes. In 187G the govern- 
or of the territory delegated him to jire- 
pare and deliver a centennial address at 
Philadelphia on the resources of the terri- 
tory. This address was afterwards repro- 
duced in the leading magazines of the day. 
Mr. Armstrong decided in 1877 to return to 
ilinnesota and accordingly ('oncentrated his 
business affairs, and in 187S located at St. 
■James, filling the position of railroad land 
agent. In 1878 he organized the Old Bank 
of St. James and has since remained in that 
business, and is known as one of the most 
prominent business men in southern Minne- 
sota. He is a writer of known ability, and 
is the author of a recent historical work of 
400 pages, entitled "The Early Empire 
Builders of the Great West." He is a life 
member of the Dakota Historical Society 
and of the Minnesota Historical Society. 
The prominence of the Armstrong family 
has not been confined to one member, as 
Thomas H. Armstrong, a brother, has 
served as lieutenant governor of Minnesota, 
and another brother, Augustus Armstrong, 
served four years as United States marshal 
for Minnesota, and his youngest brother, 
Edward (\. Armstrong, the only one now 
living, is a well known lawyer of Olmsted 




\UMSTl:0.\G. 



county, Minn. He was married in 1872 to 
JIartha Bordens, of Detroit, Mich. He has 
no children living. ^ 



BARTHOLOMEW, Joseph Milton, of 
the supreme court of North Dakota, is one of 
the first selections by the people of that 
state for that position. This fact will al- 
ways be an honorable distinction. He was 
born in McLean count}-. 111., in I84;i, and 
conu's of old American historical lineage. 
His grandfather was General Joseph Bar- 
tliolomew, an associate and warm personal 
friend of President William Henry Harri- 
son, being second in command under Gen. 
Harrison at the celebrated battle of Tippe- 
canoe. Judge Bartholomew's father was a 
farmer and civil engineer in moderate cir- 
<nmstances. He was an early pioneer of 
Wisconsin, settling in Columbia county. 
Territory of Wisconsin — as the region was 
then called — in 1845. He was a member of 
the legislature of the young state and held 
various county offices and pf)sitions of honor 
and trust. He was first a Whig and then a 
Republican in politics, and died at Lodi, 
Wisconsin, in 1886. His mother's maiden 
name was Catherine Hefl'uer, a native of 




JOSEPH MILTOX BARTHOLOMEW. 



I 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Virginia. She was married in Illinois, and 
died in Wisconsin in 1890. His grandfather, 
Gen. Joseph Bartholomew, already men- 
tioned, had a career as illustrious in mili- 
tarj' affairs as that which his worthy grand- 
son has won in civil life. He was born in 
New Jersey, in 1766, and although only a 
lad, carried a musket in the last years of the 
Kevolutionary war. He was by nature and 
training an Indian fighter and served as a 
soldier under Gen. Anthony Wayne in the 
Indian wars sub.sequent to the Revolution. 
He settled in Indiana in ISOO, and served un- 
der General Harrison. At the battle of Tip- 
pecanoe his sword arm was shattered by a 
bullet. For his intrepid conduct on that 
critical occasion he was promoted to briga- 
dier general. He was also prominent in civ- 
il life and held various minor offices. He 
was one of the commissioners who located 
the capital of Indiana where it now stands. 
He always retained his warm friendship for 
Gen. Harrison. During the campaign of 
1810, although ' seventy-five years old, he 
rode on horseback over two hundred miles 
to be present and to preside at the great 
Harrison mass meeting held on the Tippe- 
canoe battlefield. This effort was too much 
for him. He became broken in health and 
died on the day Harrison was elected presi- 
dent. 

Judge Bartholomew was educated in the 
public schools and prepared for college un- 
der a private tutor. But military blood 
coursed in his veins and when the Civil War 
broke out he entered the army. He enlist- 
ed as a private soldier at Lodi, Wis., in 
July, 1862. He was first under fire in the 
attack on Vicksburg, by the way of Chicka- 
saw Bluffs, in the hist week of December, 

1862. He was in all the battles of the Vicks- 
burg campaign, including the capture of the 
city. He participated in the siege and cap- 
ture of Jackson, Mississippi, and in several 
minor engagements in western Louisiana, in 

1863, where at one time he was one of seven 
in his company who remained for duty at 
the end of the fight. He also took part in 
all the battles of the disastrous Red River 
campaign. He likewise participated in the 
operations against the forts at the mouth of 



Mobile Bay, and was finally mustered out of 
service November 14, 1865, with the rank of 
captain. 

After the war he took up the study of 
law, concluding with two years of office 
study and a course of lectures. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1869 and immediately 
commenced practice in the courts of Wis- 
consin and Iowa until he went to Dakota, in 
1883, where he continued in his profession, 
settling at La Moure, La Moure county. His 
practice covered all branches of law, and in 
several states, thus giving him a very thor- 
ough preparation for the duties devolving 
upon him in his present position of Judge 
of the supreme court, to which he was first 
elected in 1889, when the state was organ- 
ized and admitted into the Union. This was 
twenty years after his admission to the bar. 

Judge Bartholomew cast his first vote 
for the IJncoln electors at Helena, Ark., 
in 1864. By a law of Wisconsin, the sol- 
diers in the army were allowed to vote on 
the field. Gn this occasion, very appropri- 
ately, the ballot box was the bullet box* or 
ordinary cartridge box. He has been a Re- 
publican ever since, but has never held any 
civil office, aside from the one he now holds, 
except that of state attorney. His present 
residence is Bismarck, North Dakota, the 
capital of the state and the seat of the court. 
He is a member of the Grand Army of the 
Republic, and of the Masonic order, being a 
thirty-second degree Scottish Rite Mason. 
He was mari'ied, in 1878, to Mary C. Harring- 
ton. Judge Bartholomew passed away on 
March 24, 1901. 



BAKER, Thomas, Jr.— To be a leading 
representative in any important line of busi- 
ness in these days when competition is so 
strenuous, may be deemed justly a mark of 
some special ability above the common. 
Thomas Baker, Jr., holds that rank in the 
important business of fire insurance at 
Fargo, N. D., his present place of resi- 
dence. He was born at Barton, Vt., in 
1859. His father, Thomas Baker, is a 
farmer in northern Vermont and has long 
been a man of influence in that community 
and in the state, being prominent in politic- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




THOMAS BAKER, JK. 

ill affairs. He has also served his constit- 
uents as a member of the legislature of 
Vermont. His wife was Sarah B. Eliot, 
of Concord, N. H., a member of the dis- 
tinguished family of that name, dating from 
the early settlement of the country. Her 
father was a substantial, wealthy citizen, 
and an old school Puritan. Thomas Baker, 
Jr., began his education in an old-fashioned 
district school at West Glover, where there 
was only one department, ranging from the 
alphabet to astronomy, or from addition to 
geometry, all taught by one teacher, the pu- 
pils being both boys and girls — a primitive 
co-educational institution. The puzzle of 
modern times is how such an establishment 
could turn out such competent men and 
women. That they did have some effective 
way of imparting instruction is unques- 
tioned and abundantly proven by examples 
of the success of their pupils. He attended 
this school until he was fourteen years of 
age and then began a course of study at the 
old and highly esteemed Barton academy. 
On graduating from this school, he entered 
the well known St. Johnsbury academy 
whose curriculum might with propriety be 
called collegiate, and graduated in 1876. 



He then chose law for his profession, and 
came to Fargo, 2s. D., in 1880, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1881. He immediately 
secured a good practice and formed a part- 
nership under the firm name of Boyesen & 
Baker. There was, however, a good open- 
ing for an insurance business. It was at- 
tractive, for it was akin to law. It might 
almost be called a branch of the law busi- 
ness because of the legal technicalities in- 
volved in it. The field was tempting; be- 
sides, it need not preclude the practice of his 
profession. He decided to undertake it. 
The splendid result justifies the decision. 
He has now the leading business in this line 
northwest of Chicago. He has so devoted 
his attention to the subject of insurance 
that he has become an authority. His ad- 
vice is often sought by the highest officials. 
In the national conventions of the guild, he 
has read original papers esteemed of great 
value, and occupies an influential position 
in the highest councils of this important 
branch of business. He has also taken ac- 
tive interest in all educational matters, hav- 
ing been a member of the board of educa- 
tion of the city of Fargo for twelve years, 
a large share of this time being its presi- 
dent. He is now president of the library 
board of that city. He has done this work 
while representing as general and special 
agent several of the leading insurance com- 
panies of the country. In 1898 he was elect- 
ed to the lower house of the legislature of 
the state, and was accorded by that body 
the distinguished honor of being unani- 
mously chosen for speaker of the house. 
That he discharged the important duties of 
this position impartially and with credita- 
ble ability is shown by the fact that not a 
single appeal from his decision or ruling 
\yas taken during the entire session. This 
record, and the unanimous election, when 
parties are so numerous and partisanship is 
so rampant, are very rare occurrences in a 
legislative career. Mr. Baker is a member 
of all the York Rite bodies of the Masonic 
order, and was for two years the com- 
mander of Auvergn Commandery, Knights 
Templars, and is now grand captain general 
of the Grand Commandery of Knights for 



HISTORY OF TUE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



North Dakota. He was married in 1S82 to 
Julia M. Root, of Fox Lake, Wis., be- 
longing to an old family of note and of high 
respect in both New York and Wisconsin. 
Thej rejoice in two pi'omising sons — Koy 
and Julius Baker. 



DODGE, John Sylvester.— The flour 
mills of Minneapolis are world-renowned, 
not only for the immense (juantity of wheat 
turned into flour, but for the superior qual- 
ity of the product. Both in quantity and 
quality they are unrivalled in this country 
or anywhere on the globe. They have giviMi 
Minneapolis the cognomen of "Flour City," 
a name which is regarded with pride by the 
citizens of the whole state, because the dis- 
tinction is so unquestionably earned by the 
entei'pi-ise, energy, business capacity and 
skill of the luen who have made such honor 
possible. 

Among those who have contributed in 
making the milling business of ilinneapolis 
so famous, the name of John S. Dodge, so 
long the head miller of the celebrated ^^■ash- 
burn mills, is one of the most ])rominent. 
His father, Charles Clark Dodge, was a far- 
mer of Oswego county. New York. His 
mother's maiden name was Betsy Goit. 
They were of New England, Puritan de- 
scent. Mr. Dodge's great grandfather, on 
his father's side, was an officer in the Revo- 
lutionary War. John S. Dodge was born 
at Pulaski, Oswego county, N. Y. After 
completing his common school education in 
the district school, he was sent to Pulaski 
Academy, a school of high standing in north- 
ern New York, and graduated in the class 
of 1871. He then came to Minnesota and 
settled at Beaver, a small village in Winona 
county and near Winona, where he found 
emidoyment in a flour mill and learned the 
milling business. That he became very pro- 
ficient in his calling is very evident, for in 
1878 he became the head miller in the great 
mills whose ojjerations he yet successfully 
directs. 

Mr. Dodge is a resident of the Fifth ward 
of the city of Minneapolis, and has taken a 
great interest in public aflairs. His activ- 




JOHN S. DODGE. 

ily has made liiiii |ii(iiiiiiieiil both in politics 
and in s<Mial matters, while his sound judg- 
ment lias been called into requisition in 
many important subjects of public intei-est. 
He was elected in 187S a member of the 
Jlinneapolis park board, for a term of six 
years, on the Republican ticket. He has al- 
ways been a Republican, in fact, he came 
from Whig and Republican ancestry. His 
jjopulaiity as a man is shown by the vote he 
secured at his election, it being the largest 
cast for any candidate on the ticket. At the 
state Republican convention in 1900 he was 
unanimously nominated for presidential 
elector, another remarkable tribute to his 
standing in the community, the more noted 
as he has been a resident of the Fifth ward 
since 1873 and so active that most men 
would have provoked jealousies and antag- 
onisms in that (iiiie, making such a record 
imi)ossible. 

In Masonic circles Mr. Dodge is no less 
favored. He was made a thirty-second de- 
gree Mason in 1892. Hi October, 18i)9, at 
the meeting of fhe supreme council, he was 
accorded the distinction of being created 
•knight commander" of the Court of Honor 
of the ,\ncienl and Accepted Scottish Rite 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



of the Southern Jurisdiction for the United 
States. In June, 1900, he was also elected 
commander of Alfred Elisha Arms Council 
of Kadosh, Minneapolis. Such honors 
among his social equals are strong testi- 
mony to Mr. Dodge's qualities of mind and 
heart. He wears all his honors meekly. 
There is no arrogance in his nature. While 
his supervising position in business puts 
him in charge of men and the tendency of 
such contact is to make one arbitrary, and 
perhaps domineering, he has retained his 
genial manners. His success has not 
"turned his head" — to use a common expres- 
sion — nor encroached upon the characteris- 
tics which have made him popular as a citi- 
zen and valued as a friend. 



SEARLE, Dolson T5. — To over-estimate 
the value of the services of Dolson Bush 
Searle, of St. Cloud, on the bench of the 
state of Minnesota, would be well-nigh im- 
possible. His record has been replete 
with honorable achievements, his character 
irreproachable, and in his judicial capacity 
he is acknowledged to have no superior in 
the state. Judge Searle comes from Revo- 
lutionary stock, his two grandfathers, both 
of whom were pioneer settlers in Whitehall, 
N. Y., having fought in the War of 1812, 
while his great-grandfathers participated in 
the Revolutionary and Colonial wars. His 
father, Almond D. Searle, was a prosper- 
ous farmer living near the village of Frank- 
linville, Cattaraugus county, N. Y. The 
Searle family is of English descent and was 
prominent in the early history of England, 
the first mayor of London having been a 
Searle. The mother of our subject, Jane 
Ann Searle, is of Scottish extraction and a 
lineal descendant of Sir Walter Scott. She 
was a highly cultured woman, and recently 
died at the advanced age of over four score 
years. Dolson was born June 4, 1846, on 
the family homestead near Franklinville. 
His boyhood was passed on his father's 
farm and in attendance at the district 
school, going from there to the academy of 
his native town, from which he graduated. 
He was one of the first to respond to the 



call for men when the Civil War broke out, 
and enlisted as a private in Company I, 64th 
Regiment, New York Volunteers. During 
his tern\ of service, which continued for 
about two years, he was engaged in the fol- 
lowing battles: Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, 
Oaines Mills, Savage Station, White Oak 
Swamp, Malvern Hill, the second battle of 
Bull Run, and the battle of Antietam, be- 
sides other minor engagements. Soon af- 
ter his discharge from field service, which 
was granted by reason of disability, he re- 
enlisted in the regular army, and was de- 
tailed for clerical duty in the war depart- 
ment at Washington. Shortly afterwards 
he was discharged from the military serv- 
ice, by President Lincoln, to accept a civil 
position in the war department, which he 
held until 1871. In his clerical capacity. 
Judge Searle had charge of an important 
bureau in the adjutant general's office, and 
the performance of his duties brought him 
into confidential relations with President 
Lincoln and Secretary Stanton, for whom 
he came to feel a warm affection. He was 
one of the audience in Ford's theater the 
niglit of the president's assassination, and 
perhaps no one in the whole assemblj* was 
more deeply impressed by that sad fatality 
than the young department clerk. During 
the period of his service in the war depart- 
ment, Mr. Searle attended the Columbia 
Law College of Washington, graduating 
with high honors in 1868. He came direct- 
ly to Minnesota after severing his connec- 
tion with the federal government, and lo- 
cated at St. Cloud, where he began tlie 
practice of his profession, associating him- 
self with Hon. E. O. Hamlin, as a partner in 
the firm of Hamlin & Searle. This partner- 
ship was dissolved a year later by Judge 
Hamlin's removal to Pennsylvania, after 
which Mr. Searle practiced by himself, at- 
taining a prominent position in legal cir- 
cles. He served as city attorney of St. 
Cloud for six years, and, in 1880, as Repub- 
lican candidate for the office of attorney' for 
Stearns county, was elected by a large ma- 
jority, in spite of the fact that the county 
was strongly Democratic. In April, 1882, 
he was appointed United States district at- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



torney for the district of Minnesota, by 
President Arthur, and served with eonspio- 
iious ability until December, 1885, resigning 
in order to give President Cleveland a 
diance to appoint his successor. In Octo- 
ber, 1887, he was appointed to the bench of 
the Seventh judicial district of Minnesota. 
He has sened continuously in that office 
since that time, and has just been re-elected 
for another six-year term, with no opx>osi- 
tion. He has made an enviable record on 
the bench, and has won special credit by 
his decisions in the notorious "pine land 
ring" case and the '"Avon school'' case. His 
declaration in the latter case was the most 
direct and emphatic ever issued by any 
court in the country, prohibiting sectarian 
jirayers and religious instruction in the 
public schools. The same qualities which 
united to make Judge Searle a good lawyer 
serve him equ.ally well in discharging the 
duties of judge. He is honest, painstaking 
and trustworthy. In the investigations es- 
sential to a correct decision, lie is just as 
patient and just as thorough as if conduct- 
ing a case in court for his client. There is 
perhaps no judge in the state more indus- 
trious in the examination of authorities, 
and none more desirous of reaching a right 
conclusion. During his years of general 
practice. Judge Searle was attorney succes- 
sively for the Northern Pacific, the IMinne- 
apolis & Manitoba, the Great Northern and 
the "Soo" roads. In politics, he has always 
been a Republican, and previous to taking 
the bench figured iii-ominently in state poli- 
tics. He served as a member of the Repub- 
lican state central committee in 1880 and 
1887, and took an active part in the national 
campaign of 1884. He was nominated for 
congress from the Sixth district in 1892, and 
made a brilliant campaign, being defeated, 
however, by a very small majority. Judge 
Searle has always been liberal of his time 
in support of public enterprises and given 
his best judgment in the proper conduct of 
the municipal affairs of his own city. He is 
a prominent member of the Grand Army of 
the Republic, and on October 24, 1896, was 
appointed aide-de-camp, with the rank of 
colonel, on the staff of the commander-in- 




chief. He was department commander of 
the Department of Minnesota for the year 
1899, and served as senior vice commander 
the year prior thereto. He is also a Knight 
Templar, of the Columbia Commandery of 
Washington, D. C, a Knight of Pythias, 
and a member of the Elks. He was united 
in marriage, February Id, 1875, to Elizabeth 
Clarke, of Worcester, Mass. The only child 
boi-n to Iheiii died at the age of five years. 



WERNER, Nils O., the president of the 
Swedish American National Bank of Min- 
neapolis, is a splendid representative of that 
class of American citizens who, coming to 
this country from the ice-bound shores of 
the Scandinavian peninsula, have contribut- 
ed so large a share to the upbuilding of this 
great northwest. He is recognized as one 
of Minneapolis' most substantial business 
men, and his careful and conservative busi- 
ness methods have won for him the con- 
fidence of the public in a high degree. His 
ancestors for many generations were tillers 
of the soil in Sweden and representative of 
that sturdy class which has been the back- 
hiinc of the nation and i)reserved it intact 
from the grasping hands of other European 



HISTORY OF THE GUEAT NORTHWEST. 




NILS O. WERNER. 

countries. He is the son of Ola Werner and 
Cherstin (Swenson) Werner. His paternal 
grandfather was a soldier and non-commis- 
sioned officer in the regular army of Sweden, 
and fought in the wars against Napoleon in 
1813-14. At the close of the war he re- 
turned to his farm. Nils was born on the 
old ancestral homestead near Christianstad, 
Sweden, January 19, 1848. He attended the 
common schools of the parish until he was 
thirteen years old, when he entered the 
Christianstad college, taking the full classi- 
cal course, and graduated in June, 1868. 
In September of the same year he emigrated 
to the United States. His parents and 
brother and sister had preceded him a few 
months, locating at Princeton, 111. Shortly 
after his arrival at this place, Mr. Werner 
took up the study of law in the office of Hon. 
James S. Eckles, remaining there for nearly 
two years, when he removed to Red Wing. 
Minn. Here he resumed his law studies in 
the oflice of Hon. Wm. W. Phelps, one of the 
first congressmen from the state of Minne- 
sota. He was admitted to the bar in the 
spring of 1871, and commenced practice at 
once in Red Wing. He continued in the 
practice of law until 1888. From the first 



he won the respect of the bar and succeeded 
ill building up a lucrative law practice with- 
in a comparatively short time. In 1874 he 
was elected to the office of Judge of Probate 
foi (Joodhue county, which office he held 
continuously for the next ten years without 
(i]iposition from either of the political par- 
lies. Mr. Werner, while a resident of Red 
^^'ing, always found time to take some in- 
terest in the public affairs of the town, and 
for many years served as a member of the 
board of education and the city council, 
holding all of these positions at the same 
time. His political affiliations have always 
lieen with the Republican party, of which he 
has been an active member ever since his 
residence in the state. He represented his 
district in both state and congressional con- 
ventions for many years, and was a member 
of the Republican state central committee 
twice, from 1886 to 1888, and from 1898 to 
1900. In 1888 he removed to Minneapolis 
and assisted in organizing the Swedish 
American bank, becoming its cashier. In 
January. 1S!)4, he was elected president of 
the bank. This bank was organized as a 
state bank with a capital of flOO.OOO, which, 
however, was increased in 1890 to |1250,000. 
In April, 1894, this institution was made a 
national bank, and given the title of the 
Swedish American National Bank of Minne- 
apolis. It has carried on a very successful 
business from the start under the careful 
and conservative business management of 
Mr. Werner. Mr. Werner is also connected 
with a number of other successful business 
enterprises. He is a member of the Minne-. 
apolis club. His church connections are 
with the St. John's English Lutheran 
church of Minneapolis, of which he is a 
member, as well as his family. He was 
married August 17, 1872, to Miss Eva C. An- 
derson, at Red Wing. Mrs. Werner is also 
a native of Sweden. They have three chil- 
dren: Carl Alexis, Anna Olivia and Nils 
Olof. 



HI'LBERT, Charles Smith.— Charles 
Smith Hulbert is city treasurer of Minneap- 
olis, to which office he was elected in March, 



HISTORT OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



ISnT, by the t-ity council of Minneapolis, to 
fill the vacancy caused by the resij;nation of 
A. C. Haujran. Mr. Hulbert took hold of 
this office at a time when it seemed almost 
impossible to induce any man to take it and 
furnish the large bond required. Such a 
jteculiar situation was due to the determina- 
tion of the city council not to accej)t any- 
Ihinji but gilt-edged securities in the shape 
of bonds. The treasurer-elect had failed to 
c|ualify, and after repeated failures to se- 
cure a successor, Mr. Hulbert stepped in to 
till the breach. He is a native of New York 
state, and was born ^larch 7, 1832, in Fay- 
etteville, Onondaga county. His parents, 
Stephen and Anna \Yright Hulbert, were 
both natives of the Emj)ire state. The fa- 
ther was a mechanic and acquired a moder- 
ate competence by working at his trade. 
Charles attended the common schools until 
he was fourteen years of age, when he began 
working on a farm. Not being strong phys- 
ii-ally, he was compelled to give up this kind 
of work, and coming west secured a posi- 
tion as clerk in a store at B'elvidere, 111. 
Having been frugal and industrious in his 
habits, he was able, at the age of 22, to em- 
bark in the hardware business at Lyons, 
Iowa. This business proved successful un- 
til the winter of "oG-'oT, when he suffered 
heavy losses by fire, which, followed by the 
hard times of the latter year, drove him to 
the wall. He settled up all his indebted- 
ness, however, and, with a very limited capi- 
tal, moved to Minnesota and located at 
Xorthfield in the spring of ISOO, where he 
lipened up a general merchandise store. In 
1862, Mr. Hulbert moved to Chicago iind ac- 
cepted a position with the wholesale firm of 
Wm. Blair & Co. His health failing a year 
later, he returned to Xorthfield and again 
engaged in the genei'al merchandise busi- 
ness. On the opening up of the Iowa and 
.Minnesota division of the Chicago, Milwau- 
kee & St. Paul railway in the fall of 1865, 
he accepted the position of local agent of 
the company at Xorthfield. In connection 
with this, he built up a good business in 
grain, lumber, agricultural implements, etc. 
He also had charge, on this division, of the 
wheat buying for the Millers' Association 




CHARLES S. HUI.IiKKT. 

of Minneapolis. In the spring of 187G, Mr. 
Hulbert moved to Minneapolis and took a 
position as traveling agent for this associa- 
tion. In October. 1878, he organized the 
rillsbury & Hulbert Elevator Company for 
the building and operating of grain eleva- 
tors in the northwest. At this time, what 
is now the Great Xorthern railway was rap- 
idly constructing its line, and the new firm 
followed closely in its wake and soon had 
1600,000 invested in elevators along this 
line. The venture proved a very successful 
one. The last year Mr. Hulbert managed 
the attairs of this company it received from 
fai'uiers' wagons more than 10,000,000 bush- 
els of grain, which is believed to be the lar- 
gest amount of grain handled by a like num- 
ber of houses in one year. Breaking down 
from over-work, Mr. Hulbert closed out his 
interest in the firm to C. A. Pillsbury & Co., 
and with his wife and daughter spent sev- 
eral years abroad. \Miile absent, the Inter- 
State Grain Company and the Swedish 
American National Bank were organized. 
.Mr. Hulbert was largely interested in both 
(if these institutions. He served as presi 
(lent of the Inter-State company until it sold 
out to Van Dusen & Co., after having en- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



joyed several years of successful business. 
lie has also served as vice-president of the 
Swedish American National bank ever since 
its organization. In ]\Iarch, 1897, he was 
elected city treasurer of Minneapolis by the 
city council. It was only, however, at the 
solicitation of the substantial business men 
of the city that Mr. Hulbert was induced to 
accept this position. He was persuaded, al- 
so, to take the nomination for this office in 
1898, and received a handsome endorsement 
at the polls in the election of that year. He 
was re-elected to the office in 1900. He has 
made an admirable record in that office, and 
is the best treasurer the city ever had. His 
administration of the office has been on thor- 
ough business principles and he has the con- 
fidence of the business community in a high 
degree. Mr. Hulbert is a Republican in pol- 
itics, but he has never taken a very active 
part in political affairs. He is a member of 
the Plymouth Congregational church. In 
September, 1856, he was married to Julia 
Jennings Goodsell, a daughter of Charles 
Morehouse Goodsell, the founder of Carle- 
ton College, at Northfield. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hulbert have one child, a daughter, now 
Mrs. Willard Jerome Kling, of Minneapolis. 



VAN TUYL, Charles White.— After six- 
teen years in railroad business, in which he 
had achieved a fair amount of success, the 
subject of this sketch entered the insurance 
business. He is now the general agent of 
the State Mutual Life Assurance Company, 
of Worcester, Mass., at Minneapolis, and 
is regarded as one of the leading under- 
writers of that city. He was born Decem- 
ber 17, 1859, in Addison, Steuben county, 
N. Y. As his name would indicate, he 
is of Dutch descent. His ancestors were 
originally natives of Holland, and the full 
family name there at present is van Tuyl 
van Serooskerken. The family is of Frisian 
origin, and Tuyl was the name of a small 
town in that province. The American 
branch is descended from several brothers 
who came to this country about 1720. Mr. 
Van Tuyl's direct ancestor located in the 
Mohawk Valley, New York. It was here 



that Ebenezer Van Tuyl, the father of the 
subject of this sketch, was born, who died 
in October, 1900. He was for many years 
engaged in railroad business, and until re- 
cently was manager of the Western Car 
Service Association of Omaha, Neb., re- 
signing on account of advanced age and 
poor health. Mr. Van Tuyl had an honor- 
able war record. He was captain of Co. G, 
of the 1st New York volunteers, remaining in 
the service about two years. He was in the 
army of the Potomac during McClellan's 
peninsular campaign, and the events follow- 
ing, until the battle of Chancellorsville, 
when he was wounded and taken prisoner. 
He was so badly wounded that he could not 
be moved from the battle field, and this was 
all that saved him, probably, from death in 
a Confederate prison. He was exchanged a 
few days after this battle, which ended his 
military career. Since the war he has been 
engaged almost continuously in railroad 
business. The maiden name of the mother 
of the subject of this sketch was Sarah A. 
McNeil. She was the daughter of a well-to- 
do farmer living in Tioga county. New York, 
and of Scotch-Irish descent, her ancestors 
having settled in Central New York in the 
early days of that colony. The first school 
Charles attended was the primary depart- 
ment of the village school in Hornellsville, 
N. Y. His family removed from Hornells- 
ville to a farm in Tioga county, about six 
and one half miles from Owego village, when 
he was six years of age. From his sixth to 
tenth year his only schooling consisted of a 
few months each je&v in the district school. 
He then spent one year in a first class 
graded school in Binghamton, N. Y. The 
next three years his educational facil- 
ities were limited to the attendance of only 
a few months each year in the district 
school. When he was fourteen his family 
moved to Binghamton, where he enjoyed the 
advantages of the Binghamton graded 
school and high school for the next three 
years. He commenced his business career 
in the employment of the United States ex- 
press company at Binghamton, serving in 
the position of a driver for a few months. 
This was in 1875. He was then given 



u[s-i'<>i:y oi' TiiK (;ki;a'I' n(ii:tii\vest 



;i i-Ici-Usliip in till' t'i('i';lit <ittii-c of the V.v'u' 
railway al tlii'.t pDiiit. where he remained. 
tiliin<.^ variims ]ii>siiii>iis iu the office, for 
about six veaiis. He removed to Onialia. 
Neb., in Man-h, 18S2, joining his father and 
family who had ])i-efeded liiui tlieie six 
montlis. In September of that year he ob 
tuiiied :i rlerkslii]! in the freij;ht auditor's 
oflice of tile I'nion I'aritii- railway. He was 
promoted throuiih various <;radations in the 
freifiht auditor's oHice until he was appoint- 
ed i-hii'f rlerk (if rhe freijiht claiiu de])art- 
nicut. wliii-li was a snlidi-parlnieiit of the 
former oflice. In October, ls<s4, he was ap- 
])oiuted assistant freijjht claim ajijent, with 
headi|narlers al Salt Lake I'ity. In Di^ceiu 

bi'I-. of Ihe ye.ir folliiwill.U. there oi-c\irred one 

of the periodiral clian^i's in the nianaj;e- 
meiil ot the I'nion I'arilir. and his pcisition. 
to<;(*tlier with a host of othei-s of {jreater or 
less importance, was abolished and the work 
consolidated with other departments. He 
leturned to Omaha and was fjiven a clerk- 
shijj in the freij;ht claim department aj;ain. 
but subsequently was re-appointed to his old 
]iosition of chief clerk in that department. 
He held this position until Novemlier 30, 
1S!I2, when he resijined to f;o into the insur- 
ance business. His first en<iat;enient in this 
line was with the Xorthwesterii Mutual Life 
afiency at Omaha. He gave this uji to ar 
ce])t the Minneapolis agency of the State 
Mutual Life Assurance ( V)m])any, of Worces- 
ter, romiiig to Minneapolis in November, 
iS'.t.".. He has been highly successful in this 
]iosition, and the agency under his charge 
has gi'own quite prosfierous. .Mr. \',in Tuyl 
has always taken a j)roniinent part in the af- 
fairs of the Life I'nderwriters" Association. 
At the National T'nderwriters" convention 
held in Chiiago in June, 181)4, he was the 
first winner of the Calef loving cuj), offered 
annually as a prize for the best essay on a 
selected life insurance topic. Again at the 
national convention held in Minneajtolis in 
August. 1S!)S, he made an address w liich has 
attracted considerable attention from the in 
surance press all o\er the country. He 
.served as president of tlii' Minnesota asso- 
ciati{Mi in 1S!».5, and in like capacity for the 
^linneapolis ass(jciation the following \ear. 




in.\i;i.i;s w. v.\N •ft "VI.. 
.Mr. \'an Tuyl is a Hejuililican in iniuciple. 
but does not take an active ]iarl in politics. 
lie is a meiiil)er of tlic Coiuinercial Club and 
of Westminster Presbyterian <hurcl^ In 
September, ISCO, he was nnirried to Kathe- 
rine, J. Bingham, at Northfield. .Minn. Five 
children have been born to them. Kuth. 
Olive. Hugh Oliver, Kiiy Whittier and Kath 
eiiiie. Hugh and Olive are deceased. 



FORT, Greeubury L., was born in Mar- 
shall county, 111., June !l. is.->(i, on his 
father's farm near Lacoi;. the county seat. 
Ilis father. Washington l». Fort, was born 
iu Scioto county, Ohio, and moved with hia 
parents in an early day to Illinois. Chicago, 
one hundred and twenty miles from the 
farm that he selected, though only a small 
village, was the nearest trading point. He 
w.is a man of great energy and industry, and 
]pros]iered. He became one of the leading 
men in the townshij), ever ready with a help- 
ing h.iiid to the needy, and highly resiiected 
tor his siiotless integrity, being frequently 
|ilaccd by the jieople in jiositions of trust. 
His wife, who was married to him when only 
seventeen years old. was a native of Keii- 
liickv. born near Frankfoii. and came to Illi- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




GKEEXBURY L. FORT. 

nois with her parents when in her teens. 
Her maiden name was Sarali S. Fostei'. 
Her father was John Cracraft Foster, a 
noted woodsman and hunter, who, without 
the advantages of a school, became, by his 
own exertions, a well-informed man of good 
general information. 

The Fort famil}- is of French extraction, 
its progenitors settling first in Maryland. 
The original name was De la Fuert, which 
in English was pronounced "Fort." The 
descendants, beginning with Mr. G. L. Fort's 
father, uncle, and aunt, adopted the simpler 
English s[)elling of the name. His grand- 
father, lienjamin, and grandmother, Mary, 
born in Maryland, retained the old spelling 
"Feurt." 

The early education of the subject of this 
sketch was, like that of most farmer boys, 
in the old-fashioned district school, where, 
perhaps because of the few studies pursued, 
pupils learned most thoroughly the funda- 
mentals of education. Many believe that 
the methods of modern schools, with their 
multitude of subjects, do not produce results 
equal to those of schools limited strictly to 
the primary branches of reading, spelling, 
arithmetic, geography and grammar, with 



the continuous and strenuous drill of the 
olden time. When young Fort was "well 
grounded" in the studies taught at the old 
"Rosemont" district school he went to the 
Illinois Wesleyan University, at Blooming- 
ton. To obtain means to pursue his studies 
he taught school in Marshall and Woodford 
counties. But, like many other young men, 
having reached the sophomore year of his 
college course he concluded to take a short 
cut to his profession, and entered the law 
department of the Northwestern University 
and graduated in the class of 1882, being 
also a member of the college fraternity Phi 
Gamma Delta. He immediately pushed out 
to Bismarck, X. D., and entered into 
partnership with his brother, now Judge 
John F. Fort, who is still on the bench as 
county judge of the county of Burleigh, 
serving his second term. In January, 1886. 
Mr. Fort came to Minneapolis and entered 
upon practice with the result that he soon 
took influential rank in his profession. In 
1S04 he was elected to the city council from 
the Tliirteenth ward by a large majority, re- 
ceiving sixty per cent of the popular vote 
against the opposition of both the Democrat- 
ic and Populist parties. In council he was 
chosen chainnan of committee on ordinances, 
where his legal talents were called in requisi- 
tion to the advantage of that body. Owing 
to the high estimate of his character the 
coiincil, on the expiration of his term, elected 
him, in 1809, city assessor. 

Mr. Fort is a staunch Republican and has 
always taken an interest in public affairs. 
He assisted in the organization of the First 
Regiment of the Dakota National Guard, 
the first miltary organization in that ter-- 
ritory. He held successively the three com- 
missioned ofTices of Company "A," the first 
company formed, O. W. Bennett being the 
first captain. On the organization of the 
brigade he was appointed judge advocate 
with rank of major. 

In 1887 Major Fort was nuirried to Miss 
Clara Fortier, of Granite Falls, the daughter 
of Joseph and Sarah E. Fortier, early set- 
tlers in Yellow Medicine county. Joseph 
Fortier was one of the very first men in that 
region, being a post trader. He was a mem- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



bei- of the Benville Rangers and fought in 
the Indian war of the frontier from ISOl to 
lS(i5, receiving a severe wound. He then be- 
came a merchant, and was for many years 
the sheritT of the county. The union was a 
liappy one, and they are parents of one chihl. 
now eleven years old, named Arthur Fort. 

Mr. Fort is one of the most influential 
men in the ward and his position as city as 
sessor gave him a prestige throughout the 
whole city. He has a bright future, which 
his many friends will be glad to assist in 
making hapjiy and useful. 



RUNCE. August Henry. — Coolness, 
courage and (juick judgment are essential in 
the equipment of brave men who daily risk 
their lives in the hazardous occupation of 
protecting life and projterty from tii-e in our 
large cities. No man ])ossesses these (juali- 
flcations in a higher degree than August 
Henry Runge, first assistant chief of the 
Minneapolis fire department. !Mr. Runge 
has been connected with the lire department 
of that city for the past twenty-six years, 
and takes high rank among the fiieflghters 
of the country as a brave and efficient ol!i- 
cer. He was born in New York City Felnni- 
ard 12, isr)2, of Oermau descent, both his 
l)arents having been born in Germany. His 
father, Henry August Runge, was engaged 
in the grocery business in the city of New 
York. He died when the subject of this 
sketch was but four years of age. His wife's 
maiden name was Marie Christina Sophia 
Kracke. She survived her husband for many 
years, passing away at her son's home in 
Minneajmlis in 18S5. August attended the 
public schools of New York until he was 
twelve years of age, at which time his ad- 
venturous spirit led him to follow life on the 
high seas. He enlisted in the navy Sejitem- 
ber 22, 1864, as an apprentice bity of the 
third class. His good behavior and close at- 
tention to his duties won for him in a short 
time promotion to the second class, and 
from there, by successive stei)S, to first class 
landsman, ordinaiy seaman and seaman. 
He was discharged from the navy, March 1, 
1870, in the latler class. Duriu'; his term of 




service, Mr. Runge served in the Cnited 
States ships, "Savannah," "Fah Kee," "Sa- 
bine," "Colorado," "Newburu," "rensacola," 
"Independence" and "Vermont," %hich 
were attached to the North Atlantic, Euro- 
pean and I'acifie squadrons, under Admirals 
Farragut, I'orter, (ioldsborough, Thatcher 
and Craven. After leaving the navy, he 
went to the oil regions in Tennsylvania. He 
here learned all there was to know about 
the drilling of wells, from running an en- 
gine to dressing tools. He was unfortunate 
enough, however, to sink all his sui-jjIus 
cash in a "dry hole. This discouraging 
him, he decided to seek his fortune in the 
west. He arrived in Jlinueapolis October 
28, 1873, and was immediately engaged as 
an engineer with the Tribune company, 
which at that time had its offices in the old 
city liall. He renutined with this concern 
nufil May, iss;^,, when he resigned to accept 
the appointment of first assistant chief en- 
gineer of the fire department. When Mr. 
Runge came to ^Minneajiolis the city was 
protected by only a volunteer fire depart- 
iiHiii. He joined this force October ."5, 1874, 
Willi truck No. 1. I'pon the dispersement 
of the VKliinlccrs. and the orgaiiizaticm of 



HISTORY OF THE (iUlOAl' NOHTHWEST. 



the regular depai-tineiil in IST'.I, he was aji- 
pointed captain of Tru(k >«o. 1. lu Decem- 
ber, ISSl, he was appointed second assistant 
chief engineer, and in May of the following 
year tii-st assistant chief engineer "at call."" 
This (ittice was made permanent in May, 
lS8i{, and from that time on Mr. Kunge de- 
voted all his time to the duties of this posi- 
tion. He was appointed chief engineer in 
January, 1S!>0, and held this position until 
January, 1895, when he resigned. In Janu- 
ary of the following year he was apjiointed 
to his present position of first assistant 
chief of the fire department. Mr. Kunge 
has made an admirable record in this capac- 
ity. His judgment has been quick and ac- 
curate in the handling of large tires, and he 
has won for himself the complete contidence 
of the business community. He is a promi- 
nent member of the G. A. R. and Jsaral Vet- 
erans. He is present commander of Jacob 
Schaefer Post, No. 1G3, G. A. R.; past colo- 
nel and adjutant of Gettysburg Regiment, 
No. 8, Union Veterans' Union; general of 
the Army of Minnesota, Naval Veterans' 
Union; ex-captain of Minnesota Naval Vet- 
erans' Association, and lieutenant-command- 
er of the National Association of Naval Vet- 
erans. Mr. Runge is also prominent in 
Masonic circles and a thirty-second degree 
Mason. He is identified with the Episcopal 
church, and is a member of St. Andrews. 
February 12, 187(i, he was married to Miss 
Louisa von Ende, eldest daughter of the Hon. 
August von Ende. They have two daugh- 
ters, Mabel Sophia, born March 22, 1878, 
and Anna Louisa Hazel, born September 
4, 1885. Both the girls are musically in- 
clined, ^label sings soprano at the Church 
of the Redeemer, and Hazel, who is in the 
eighth grade at the Blaine school, has exhib- 
ited considerable talent in songs and dan- 
cing. 



BARRET, Anthony Hundley.— The ca- 
reer of the present state treasurer of Mon- 
tana, the subject of this sketch, pre.sents a 
series of striking vicissitudes. It is typical, 
however, of the life of many of the men who 
have succeeded in winning fortune and fame 



in I Ills far western state. The hardships of 
frontier life only strengthened their moral 
fibre, and no matter how many .set-backs they 
met wilh in their struggle for a competence, 
they commenced the battle anew with in- 
creased energy and dererniinatiou. Mr. Bar- 
ret's unique exjierienrc in falling back on a 
legislative clerkship at earli succeeding ses- 
sion for many years, after a strenuous con- 
test with opposing elements wliich held him 
down, makes very interesting reading. Tlie 
story will be told in its proper plai-e in this 
sketch. Mv. Barret is a native of Kentucky, 
as were his parents. His grandparents were 
Virginians. He was born in Leitchfield, 
(Jrayson county, January 25, 1834. His 
father, Augustus Melville Barret, for thirty 
years served his home county (Edmondson) 
in the capacity of county clerk and circuit 
court clerk. The maiden name of the mother 
of our subject was Mary Jane Cunningham. 
She died at about the age of 28 years. The 
paternal grandfather of Mr. Barret served as 
a private in the Revolutionary War, becoming 
aftemvards a missionary Baptist preacher. 
His father was a colonel in that great strug- 
gle for America's independence. Tlie mater- 
nal grandfather of Mr. Barret was a noted 
politician in the Blue Grass state. He served 
in botli houses of the Kentucky legislature 
for several terms. His father was a Gen. 
Smith of Revolutionary fame, and a resident 
of \'irginia. The educational privileges en- 
joyed by the subject of this sketch were of a 
somewhat meagre character. They were lim 
ited to the log school houses of the early 
days of Kentucky, in which the insti'uction 
afforded was very crude in its nature. 
When twelve years of age he went to Texas 
with an elder brother and learned the har- 
ness and saddlery trade. He did not follow 
this occupation very long, however, but be- 
gan clerking in a country store. He was en- 
gaged in this line of work until 1858, at 
which time he removed to Missouri, where 
his father had preceded him, and assisted in 
the winding up of his father's estate. Dur- 
ing the session of the Missouri legislature 
in 'G0-"61, he served as a clerk in the house 
of representatives. He then went to St. 
Louis and secured a position with A. W. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Sproiile & Co., a leading clothing' house in 
that city. He reuiaiiied with this firm until 
ISO;"), coiiiiiig to Montana in the spring of 
lliat yeai-. His tirst eniiiloynient was cbo])- 
jiing wo(j(l at the liead of Alder Gulcli, in 
whiili work he was engaged during the fol 
lowing winter. In the early jiart nf ISlifl 
he worked at jtlacer mining. In March, he 
was elected ilerk of the legislative council 
of Montana, and later was ajjpointed (iov 
ernor Aleagliei-'s pi-ivate secretary, also 
clerk of Indian affairs ((ien. Meaghei- being 
ex-olHcio superintendent of Indian affairs), 
and assistant territorial auditor. In Feb- 
ruary, 18()7, he was apjioiuted S])ecial In- 
dian agent for the Joco, or Flathead, Indian 
reservation, and remained in this position 
until an agent was appointed and arrived at 
the agency. For some time after this he 
worked at placer mining, and then engaged 
in the grocery business at Springville and 
Kadei-sburg, Jefferson county, but failed. 
lie was elected to the house of representa- 
tives for the session of 1869, and after the 
legislature adjourned returned to Kaders- 
burg and chopped wood in the mountains 
for a year. He clerked in a grocery store 
the following year, and served as chief clerk 
in the house of representatives at the next 
session of the legislature. The winter of 
1873 he was again engaged in the laborious 
work of chopping wood near ^'^irginia City. 
He then built a shop at Adobetown, in Al- 
der Gulch, to take up the trade he had 
learned as a youth in Texas, that of saddle 
and hainess making. A short time later he 
moved to Madison county, and opened a 
shop at Pony. In the legislative sessions 
of '75-'7(i and '76-77 he also served as chief 
clerk in the house. In 1878, he removed to 
IJutte, and succeeded in building up here 
the largest business, as a dealer in saddles 
and harness, wagons, carriages and farm- 
ing implements, of any of the kind in the 
state. Mr. Barret retired from active busi 
ness three years ago, but still has an inter- 
est in stores at Butte and Dillon, .Mont. He 
is held in high esteem in business circles 
for his strict business integrity, and greatly 
admired for his public spirit as well as his 
jiersonal character. He has always taken 




AN'-niOW II. IlAltUET. 

an acti\e interest iu public affairs, and his 
service in the legislature is quite uiiiciue, 
having served as chief clerk of the lower 
house and the territorial council |pr ten 
sessions, and as a member of the house for 
one session. He was a member of the 
Butte city council for two years, and justice 
if peace for eight years. He is a Democrat 
in politics, and as a reward for his long 
services iu behalf of his party was elected 
state treasurer, in TJOO, by a large major- 
ity. Mr. Barret is quite prominent in Ma- 
sonic circles. His record in that lodge is 
summed up briefly, as follows: Wiis made 
a Master Mason in George Washington 
Lodge, No. 9, St. Louis, Mo., February U, 
1805; a Royal Arch Mason in Deer Lodge 
Chapter, No. 3, Butte, Mont., May 23, 1879; 
(Council degrees in Helena Council, No. 9, 
Koyal and Select Masters, October 9, 189r); 
was created Knights Templar in Montana 
Commandery, No. 3, Knights Temjilar, at 
Butte, Nov. 3, 1882; the Degrees of the 
Scottish Rite, in<-luding the thirty-second, 
were communicated by Harry K. Comley, 
acting inspector general Thirty-third De- 
gree for ^Montana, .lanuary 31, 1882; was 
elected K. C. of the Court of Honor, October 



HISTORY OF THE (JREAT NORTHWEST. 



L'(i, l,sS(i: was ((iroiR'ltcd IldiiinahU' Insjiec- 
lor (iciicral of the Soiitlicrii .Iiirisdiction. 
A. and A. IJilc .Maicli U, I'.lOd, a) Little 
Hock, Ai-k., l)y Cluiflcs K. Koscnliauiii, Act- 
inji' Iusi)ectoi' (ieiieral Tliirty-tliii'd Dejjjree; 
was W. M. of P.ulte Lodge. No. Ii2, in 1887; 
Ilisili Priest of Deer Lodge ("liapter. No. :i. 
in 1S82, and Eminent Coinniander of Mon- 
tana Coniniandei y. No. :', in 188G. AVas 
elected Junior (Jraud Warden of the Grand 
]^odge in 18!t(i, and by regular advancement 
became (Jrand blaster, September 21, 189!). 
\^'as chosen R. E. (Jrand King at the organi- 
zation of the (Jrand Chapter in 1891, and 
^lost Eminent (Jrand High Priest in 1893. 
^A'as first V. E. (Jrand ('ommander of the 
(Jrand Commandery of ilontana in 1888, and 
K. E. Grand Commander in 1889. Mr. Barret 
enjoys the unifjue distinction of being the 
only person who has ever been called upon 
to serve at the head of the three Masonic 
Grand bodie.s. It was upon his motion that 
the (Jrand (I'hapter set apart !|!500 from its 
general fund, and ten per cent of its reve- 
nues, for the Masonic home endowment 
fund. November 9, ISSO, ^Mr. Barret was 
married to Miss Lizzie A. Brooke, at Hel- 
ena, Mont., by the late Bishop Gilbert. 
Mrs. Barret is a native of Morgantown, Va. 
No cliildren have been born to them. They 
liavc. however, raised two adopted children, 
both happily married now, and one who 
died at the age of fourteen. The oldest, a 
boy, was sent to college and is now a prac- 
ticing lawyer in Louisville, Ky. The younger, 
a daughter, is living with her husband in 
Kansas City, Mo. 



RUSSELL, Benjamin Stillman. — Among 
the men of New England lineage who have 
exerted a powerful intiueuce in moulding the 
institutions of the great Northwest, Benja- 
min S. Russell stands almost without a peer. 
(Joniing to the Territory of Dakota in 1879, 
ten years before it was a state; controlling a 
large body of land; having a wide experience 
in a multii)licity of atlairs; well informed in 
history; thoroughly imbued with religious 
and educational instincts; generous almost 
to a fault, and abounding in energy, he could 



not fail to be an animating foice in any in- 
choate community. -Mr. Russell's ancestors 
were very early emigi'ants to New England 
from (Jreat ]?ritain. The first settler of the 
family was AVilliam Russell, who landed at 
Quinebaug, now New Haven, Conn., August 
2o, 1(!?>S. His son, Noadiah, was a ministei' 
of the Congregational church. In his house 
the first steps were taken towards founding 
Yale College, and the first gift toward tin' 
institution was his donation of books. Both 
he and his son, William Rus.sell, were pas- 
tors of what is now the Fii-st (Congregational 
church of ]Middletown, Conn., the father serv- 
ing tifty-five j'ears, and the son twenty-five. 
Benjamin's father, Hamlin Russell, was a 
farmer, bom in (Jonuecticut in 1781, and 
moved to Erie county. Pa., in 1802. He 
settled on a farm on which he lived until he 
died in 1852. It is now in possession of his 
grandson. He was a man of great influence 
in his day. He served as quartermaster to 
the trooi>s during the building of Commodore 
Perry's fleet on Lake Erie, during the war 
of 1812. His wife, Benjamin's mother, was 
Sarah Norcross, of Scotch-Irish descent. She 
was maiTied to Hamlin Russell in 1810 and 
died in 1831. She was a woman of strong 
character, an excellent wife and mother, and 
left an abiding influence on her children. 

Benjamin S. Russell was born in Erie coun- 
ty. Pa., in 1822. His early education was ob- 
tained in a priniative school organized by the 
neighborhood before the Pennsylvania "Com- 
mon School Law" was passed. The books 
were few and there were no paraphernalia 
common to modern schools. But that the in- 
structions were thorough and efficient is 
evident from the scholarship and literary 
ability shown by Mr. Russell, who completed 
his course when only fourteen j'ears of age, 
and has had no other scholastic training. In 
183C he left home, went to Philadelphia and 
secured employment in a wholesale hard- 
ware store. The '"hard times'' following 
the panic of 1837 cut short his term of 
office after four years. He then obtained 
emjiloyment as a clerk in various occu- 
pations until 1813, when he secured a 
position as teller and liookkeejier in a Har- 
risburg bank, holding this place until Sep- 



HISTORY OF THE GREiAT NOUnn\KST. 



tcmber, 1850, when he moved to Towanda, 
Pa., and formed a partnership for a bank 
of his own. When the war brolce ont in 
18G1, although i)revented from enlistment by 
crippled arms, Mr. Russell t(M)l< an active 
part in every movement for tiic s\iii|iorl of 
the government. He was a]ii)ointed a tiscal 
agent for the government under Salmon 1'. 
C^hase, the secretary of the treasury, and sold 
the securities issued to support (he bonds, 
selling many hundreds of thousands of dol 
lars worth where government securitii's had 
never before been bought. Failing health 
compelled him to make a change. In 18()^ 
he sold out his business and moved to I'hila- 
deljihia, taking a general agency of a life in 
surance company with the banking house of 
E. W. Clark & Company, where he remained 
until 1871, when he removed to Dubitli, 
Minn., as a partner of a branch house of that 
firm, and a director of the Lake 8ui>erior \- 
Mississippi — now St. Paul & Duluth — rail- 
load. The business was continued with suc- 
cess until the great i)anic of 187;{ shook the 
financial world. Mr. Russell struggled with 
his affairs for two years longer, then suc- 
cumbed with the rest. 

In 187:{ Mr. Russell was appointed one of 
the commissioners, by Governor Austin, of 
Minnesota, under an act of the legislature, to 
settle the controversy existing between the 
states of Wisconsin and Minnesota concern- 
ing the entrance of the Bay of Superior, the 
jurisdiction of which had been in dispute, 
and litigation in the United States court for 
five years, at a cost of more than one hunderd 
thousand dollars to the city of Duluth, one 
of the parties to the controversy. The com- 
mission met at Washington. There were nine 
men present at the meeting, including the 
commissioners: Governor Wa.shburn, Tinio 
thy O. Howe, Senator Philetus Sawyer — then 
member of the lowei' house and on the com- 
mittee of commerce having in charge the 
rivers and harbors — Jerry Rusk, member of 
congress; Senators Alexander Ramsey and 
William Windom, and the commissioners. 
Sidney Lnce, mayor of Duluth, Ex-mayor 
Joshua B. Culver, and B. S. Ru.ssell. This 
aiTay of noted men indicates the importance 
of the subject under consideration, and the 




HION.IAMIN S. IM'SSKLL. 

public interest in the result of the delibera- 
tions of the conference. Of the nine men 
present only two survive — Alexander Ram- 
sey and Mr. Russell. The commissicth was 
successful in devising a jilan of set I lenient. 
It was, to stop all controversy over the en- 
trances by making them all eciually avail- 
able for commercial jiurjMjses. Tliis could 
b( done by an ajtjjropriation from the gov- 
ernment to imjjrove I hem. The modest sum 
of one hundred thousand dollars was asked 
for this i)uri)ose, and it was granted. Gov- 
ernor Washburn then predicted that (he har- 
bor of Duluth would be "the best on the 
lakes." This has come to pass through the 
muniflcience of (lie geneial government, 
which has already expended (wo million of 
dollars in improving the harbor, and has ap- 
jiropriated two millions more for contracts 
extending over five years. It is just ly a inal 
tei- of pride to Mr. Russell that he was iden 
tified with this magnificent enteqirise and 
contributed to bring about the result. 

The reverse at Dululh would have o\-er 
whelmed most men of .Mi'. Russell's years. 
r.ne he, buoyant by nalure, and with courage 
undaunted, again resumed his business activ- 
i(\-. After skirmishing some time in Phila- 



IIISTOUY OF TIIH i;i!EAT XOUTIIWEST. 



(li'lltliia, be secured control of a large body of 
laud in Dakotii — now the state of North Da- 
kota — and in 1S7!) went there to dispose of 
if. He settled fii-st at Spiritwood. He sold 
the land within two rears and removed to 
Jamestown, wliere he now resides. Mr. Rus- 
sell in politics was a Whig until 1854, a suj)- 
jtorter of David AVilmot, of "Wilmot I'ro- 
vise'' fame, and one of the promoters of the 
Kepublican party. He voted for John C. Fre- 
mont, in lS,")(i and has voted for every llepuh- 
lican i)residential nominee since. He has 
never sought oftice nor accepted a nomination 
when offered, but he has chosen to be identi- 
fied with the educational institutions of the 
state, and with the advancement of religious 
interests. He is a trustee of the normal 
schools of Xorth Dakota, and a member of 
the board of management of the school at 
Mayville. He is an active Ejjiscopalian and 
the beautiful, noble church at Jamestown is 
one of the evidences of his zeal. Mr. Russell 
was married to Mary Gaskill at Philadelphia 
in 1847. She died in 1891. Five children 
survive her, four sons and one daughter, and 
four preceded their mother to the grave. 
The sons are well settled in business. The 
daughter was married to Samuel Bucknell, 
in 1882 ,and resides at East St. Louis. 

Notwithstanding his business activity, Mr. 
Russell has found time to cultivate his men- 
tal powers. He has a remarkable memory 
and has made good use of it. He is a man of 
scholarly attainments and among his friends 
is regarded as an authority in hi.story, sacred 
and profane, ancient and modern. The im- 
]»ress of his forceful character will be re- 
tained in that growing state for generations 
to come, and men will bless the day when the 
panic of 1873 sent him to live among them. 



HUNTER, (Miarles Henry.— To nii-et a 
man who has attained eminence as a physi- 
cian and surgeon, inspires one's admiration; 
but to know one, who has not only accom- 
I)lished this, but who is also widely known 
because of his active interest in all that 
tends to the advancement of mankind, is as 
unusual as it is jileasing. To be a judge of 
what is best in literature, to be familiar 



with the books of the day, to be able to dis- 
cuss intelligently the <-omplex political prob- 
lems of the nation, to keep abreast of all 
scientific advancement, to be actively inter- 
ested in athletics, to be in demand as an after- 
dinner speaker, to appreciate a joke, as well 
as know how to tell one, in addition to sus- 
taining an eiivialde rejiutation in a ])rofes- 
sion which ordinarily demands all of one's 
time and energy, entitles one, surely, to be 
known as a many-sided man. Such a man is 
Charles Henry Hunter. 

Rorn February (5, 18o:}. at ('linton. Me., his 
early youth was spent in the home of his fa- 
ther, (Jeorge H. Huntei-, now a meri-hant of 
the neighboring town of I'ittstield. Here 
he received his elementary education, after 
which he attended the Maine Central in- 
stitute, located in this village. In the fall 
of 1870 he entered Rowdoin ("ollege, from 
which he graduated with honor in 1874, re- 
ceiving the degree of A. M. in 1886. The fol- 
lowing two years he served as principal of 
the Limerick academy, after which he began 
the study of his chosen profession, attending 
first the I'ortland School of Medical Instruc- 
tion, then the Medical School of Maine, and 
afterward the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons in New York City, from wliich he 
received the degree of doi-tor of medicine in 
1878. 

On February 9 of the same year he was 
married to Miss ilargaret Orr Stone, daugh- 
ter of Col. Alfred J. Stone, of Brunswick, 
Me., who points with just pride to a noble 
line (if ancestry, and whose cultured mind 
and charm of manner have won friends for 
her everywhere. 

Dr. Hunter settled for the jiractice of 
his profession at Newport, Me., but his 
sjihere of usefulness was to be a broader 
one than this, and after one year had 
I)assed, in company with his wife, he went to 
Europe, for the j)urpose of extending his 
knowledge of medicine and surgery. Three 
years he remained abroad, di\iding his time 
among the most celebrated schools of Eng- 
land and the continent. He heard the most 
noted lecturers in the universities of Berlin, 
Vienna, Strassburg, Paris and London, and 
attended the clinics where surgical science 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT XORTHWKSP. 



was demoustrated by the most euiiiifMit sur- 
geous of the world. 

Ou his retui'u to America, in 1882, he set- 
tled iu Minneapolis, which city has since 
claimed him as a resident. Although com- 
ing here a stranger, his splendid prepara- 
tion, his tireless energy, and his pleasing 
personality (jnickly won for him a host of 
friends, and the confidence of the comniii 
nity. 

He has adhered to a general practice, 
both in medicine and surgery, and his repu 
tation has extended over the entire North- 
west. 

Dr. Hunter was one of the founders of the 
Minnesota Hos])ital college, and upon its 
identification with the University of Min- 
nesota, which was accomplished largely 
through his efforts, became and is now i)ro 
fessor of theory and practice of medicine in 
the College of Medicine and Surgery. 

He is one of the visiting physicians of 
St. Barnabas hosjjital and is on the attend- 
ing staff of the University of Minnesota free 
dispensary. 

He has long been a member of the Hen- 
nepin County Medical society, and is activt 
in promoting its interests. With him ori- 
ginated the idea of founding the Academy 
of Medicine, a society composed of a limited 
number of medical men from the twin cities. 
It has existed since 1887, is the only organ- 
ization of its kind in the Northwest, and has 
met with marked success. It is founded on 
such broad scientific and social lines, that 
its influence is continuous and progressive. 

Dr. Hunter enjoys the social side of life 
and is a member of the Masonic fraternity 
and the Elks. In college he affiliated with 
the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity and en- 
joys an occasional evening with the chapter 
here. He was instrumental in founding the 
Western Alumni Association of Bowdoin Col- 
lege, in 1S84, and its annual meetings are to 
him a source of rare pleasure. 

He has always been an enthusiastic 
wheelman. Ho was for some time state 
centurion and is at present chairman of the 
National Sidejiath committee of the L. A. W. 

All out of door sports have for him a 




CHAitLKs II. iir\Ti:i; 

particular fascination. He is a member of 
the Bryn Mawr Golf club, Minnetonka Ice 
and Yachting club and Long Meadow Gun 
club, and when he is able to steal a few 
hours from his professional duties, delights 
in the recreation and sport to be attained 
through these mediums. 

The pleasant home of Dr. and Mrs. Hun- 
ter is at Second avenue south and Ninth 
street. In it the son and daughter just grow- 
ing to young manhood and womanhood find 
everything conducive to their happiness and 
advancement, and here their hosts of friends 
delight to call upon them, assured always of 
a hearty welcome and royal entertainment. 



SHOEMAKER. Waite Almon, is known 
as one of the leading educators in Minnesota 
and has been for many years a resident of St. 
Cloud where he has been engaged in educa- 
tional work for nearly twenty years. He is 
a son of Aehsa Waite Shoemaker, grand- 
daughter of one of the early settlers on the 
western reserve, and Abraham Shoemaker, 
a descendant from the Pennsylvania family 
of that name. Abraham Shoemaker was for 
over fifty years a minister of the Disciples of 



UISTOKY OF TlIK GUEAT NOltlllWKST. 




WAITE A. SHOEMAKER. 

Christ. \V. A. ^>li()Lniuikei- was boru iu 1800, 
on a farm at Meutor riain near Willoughby, 
Ohio. When he was but three years of age 
his parents came to Minnesota, settling near 
Plainview, but in 1S70 removed to Steai'ns 
cotmty. He received his early education in 
the country schools. In 1S72 he first attend- 
ed the normal school at St. Cloud, enrolling 
in the model school. He had a hard struggle 
to secure his education and was obliged to 
do manual labor at times to earn the money 
necessary for his expenses. He taught his 
first school when but fifteen, and earned 
enough to spend a year in the normal school. 
He then taught for several years in the coun- 
try districts. He re-entered the normal 
school in 1878 and was graduated, in 1880, 
from the elementary course, and was valedic- 
torian of the class, and also class orator. He 
then entered the advanced course and was 
graduated in 1881. While a student he 
taught some of the classes in mathematics 
and upon graduation received a place on the 
faculty of the school, serving as principal of 
the grammar grade in the model school, and 
was also a critic teacher. The second year 
he became principal of the preparatory de- 
partment and again served as critic teacher. 



The following year saw him advancing in 
his work. He filled the position for several 
years of general assistant, but finally settled 
upon mathematics and methods as his favor- 
ites. Mr. Shoemaker decided that a course 
iu graduate work would be of benefit and 
secured leave of absence and entered New 
York university; in 181)7 he received the de- 
gree of master of pedagogy, and in 1898 that 
of doctor of pedagogy. Dr. Shoemaker then 
resumed his work at the normal school, but 
in 1900 he was elected superintendent of city 
schools at St. Cloud, which position he now 
fills. He has been engaged in furthering the 
higher education of teachei-s for a number of 
yeai's. He has taken special interest in sum- 
mer school work, and has been conductor of 
over a dozen summer schools in this and 
neighboring states, and has also conducted 
classes at numerous "teachers' institutes." 
He has been a deep student of psychology, 
metaphysics, and methodology; and with 
Miss Isabel Lawrence, also a worker along 
educational lines, published a text book 
known as "The New Practical Arithmetic." 
Dr. Shoemaker is a member of the Minnesota 
Educational Association and served as presi- 
dent of that body during 1899. He was mar- 
reid in 1881 to Miss Louise Polley and they 
have two children, Isabel and John. 



TUFTS, DeWitt Clinton, receiver of the 
land office at Fargo, N. D., is a native of 
Maine, and was born August 9, 1851, in Farm- 
ing-ton, Franklin county, on the old home- 
stead where his grandfather settled, on his 
removal from Massachusetts, over a century 
ago. This farm is still in possession of the 
Tufts family. His father, J. Warren Tufts, 
followed the occupation of farming the 
same as his ancestors before him. He was, 
however, of a speculative disposition, and, 
getting the gold fever in 18.51, went to 
r'alifornia by the way of the Isthmus. Not 
finding there, like thousands of others, the 
fortune he sought, he returned in a short 
time to his native state and resumed farm- 
ing. He was a life-long Republican and 
held various offices of trust in his township 
at Waterford in 18.5."i. His father was I^evi 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



and home county. He also served in the 
Maine lejjislature for two terms. He was a 
great admirer of Horace (ireeley, and weni 
with the Greeley party during the hitter's 
j)i-esidential campaign. The maiden name 
of the motlier of the subject of this skctili 
was 5Iartha A. Tarbox. She vas born in 
Oldtown, Me., and was a member of a nii 
merous and prosperous family wlio were 
early settlers in New England. DcWilf re 
ceived his early education in llic common 
schools, and later the free high schools of 
his native county. When twenty-one years 
of age he entered the Western State Normal 
at Farmington, Me., graduating from this 
institution in 1874. After leaving the state 
normal, he taught for the next three years 
in both the common and high schools of 
Maine. He came west in the spring of 1877, 
and spent a little time in the Black Hills 
mining country in South Dakota. In June, 
however, he left Deadwood for Fargo, going 
over all the railroad lines then constructed 
in the two Dakotas — 35 miles from Vermil- 
lion to Yankton, and 196 miles from Bis- 
marck to Fargo. He settled on a home- 
stead, four miles north of Fargo, and com- 
menced farming. He has been very suc- 
cessful in his farming operations since that 
time, and attained a prominent position in 
his own community. Shortly after remov- 
ing to North Dakota he taught school for 
one year. He has always been a Republic- 
an in politics and has taken an active inter- 
est in political affairs. He was elected to 
represent his district in the second session 
of the state legislature, held the winter of 
1890 and '91, after North Dakota was ad- 
mitted to statehood, and was one of the orig- 
inal supporters of Senator Hansbrough, 
remaining with him till the unexpected hap- 
pened, as it frequently does in North 1 )akota 
politics, and he was elected to the United 
States senate. Mr. Tufts served for eight 
years in the state legislature, two terms in 
the house and two terms in the senate. In 
recognition of his eminent services 1o the 
party, he was appointed receiver of the Far- 
go land office by President McKinley, in Jan- 
uary, 1898. Mr. Tufts is an attendant of the 
Congregational church, though not a mem- 




DE Wri'T C. TUFTS. 



ber of that body. He was married in the 
fall of 1881* to Miss Mary I. Campbell. Mr. 
and Mrs. Tufts have eight children^ four 
boys and four girls. 



BROWN, Calvin Luther.— Interest will 
so often warp calm judgment that it has 
come to be regarded as almost impossible 
for an ordinary man to hold the scales of 
justice without prejudice. There is, how- 
ever, a cast of mind — sometimes called "ju- 
(lifiar'—which can easily lay aside all bias 
and then penetrate to the marrow of a sub- 
ject. It would seem that the subject of this 
sketch belongs to a family distinguished for 
this characteristic. His father, John H. 
Brown, was esteemed such an efficient 
judge that he was elected and re-elected 
judge of the Twelfth judicial district of Min- 
nesota until he sei-\ed for fifteen years. 
Judge Brown was a descendant of John 
r.rown, who <ame from England in 1632 
and settled in Massachuseils; also of Wil- 
liam Brown, who s(>rved in the Revolution- 
;iry war; he was the brother of the late L. 
M. Brown, of Shakopee. Calvin L. Brown's 
mother's maiden name was Orrisa Maxfield. 



HISTOKY OF JIIE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




CALVIX L. BKOWX. 

He was born at Goshen, N. H., April 26, 
1854. His father, after the fifteen years of 
his judgeship, was only in moderate finan- 
cial circumstanfes. Young Brown came to 
Minnesota territory as an infant, with his 
parents, in 1855. The family settled at 
8hakopee. In 1871 the home was changed 
to Willmar, Minn. He received his educa- 
tion in the district and higher schools of the 
state. AMien of proper age he very natur- 
ally took up the study of law, which seemed 
almost hereditary to him, both by direct 
and collateral descent. He was admitted 
to the bar at Willmar, in 1876. Two years 
later he opened a law office at Morris, Minn. 
From the outset he showed aptitude and spe- 
cial ability in his profession, as might have 
been expected from his ancestors. So marked 
was his proficiency that in four years, 
or in 1882, he was elected county attorney 
of Stevens county, and discharged the du- 
ties so satisfactorily that he was kept in 
office until 1887, when he was appointed by 
Gov. McGill judge of the Sixteenth judicial 
district, embracing the counties of Big 
Stone, Grant, Stevens, Pope, Traverse and 
Wilkin. He was then elected by the peo- 
ple, and held the office for two terms, or un- 



til 1899. During this time he had so estab- 
lished his character as a jurist that he was 
elected, in 1898, as judge of the supreme 
court of the state, and. of course, resigned 
the office of district judge, and took his seat 
on the supreme bench in 1899, which posi- 
tion he now holds. In the meantime he had 
not ignored his duties as a citizen. He held 
numerous minor positions of honor and 
trust, aside from his judgeships. The fidel- 
ity and integrity shown in what may be 
called obscure offices were no small factors 
in securing for him the confidence of the 
community. He was also an enterprising, 
])nblic-spirited private citizen, taking his 
full share of the responsibilities naturally 
falling to a prominent man. He attends 
tlie Congregational church and contributes 
to its various departments of work, al- 
tliough not an enrolled member. He is a 
prominent member of the Masonic frater- 
nity, and was the Grand Master of the state 
of ^Minnesota in 1895 and 1896. He was 
married September 1, 1879, to Miss Annette 
Marlow, at Willmar, and they have been 
blessed with five children. Olive, the first- 
born, died. The others are Alice A., Mon- 
treville J., Edna M., and Margaret E. Brown. 
The judge is yet a comparatively young 
man and has a bright future. Taking the 
brief outline given as a true indication of 
his sterling character, it is a safe assurance 
that the supreme bench will be honored by 
his service, and that a brilliant career 
awaits him. 



STBLETTE, George Washington.— This 
is pre-eminently an engineering age. The 
services of the civil engineer contribute 
more to the health, comfort and convenience 
of the people than does the work of all the 
other learned professions combined. Yet 
how few value these services at their true 
worth. A doctor who saves one life is given 
full credit for his work, and is very proper- 
ly honored. But the civil engineer of a city 
may save hundreds of lives by his skill, and 
yet passed unnoticed. Minneapolis is for- 
tunate in having a competent and efficient 
engineer, in the person of George Washing- 



HISTORY (IF THK (JKKAT NORTHWKST. 



ton Sublette, the distinguished chief of the 
city engineering department, president of 
the Minneapolis Engineers' Club, and uicni- 
ber of the Texas Academy of Science. 

Mr. Sublette is of French Huguenot de- 
scent. His forefathers left France to escape 
religious persecution, and settled in Vir- 
ginia. They afterward became prominent 
in the fur trade and in the explorations of 
the far west. Capt. Wm. Sublette, one of 
the brothers of the family, was general man- 
ager of the American Fur Company. He ex- 
j)lored the Rocky Mountains and determined 
the shor-test route to California. It was 
from Capt. Sublette that Sublette Lake of 
the old geographies was named. It is now 
the Yellowstone Lake. 

Peter Jackson Sublette was nianicd to 
Sarah Russell Warfield. of a well kndwn 
Maryland family, and emigrated to Missouri, 
where he became a prosperous farmer in St. 
Louis county. He was a soldier of the Mex- 
ican war and a member of the Missouri mili- 
tia during the Civil war. It was here that 
Geo. \A'. Sublette, the city engineer, was 
born. 

Young Sublette was educated in ilif pub- 
lic and private — or '"select"" — school, as it is 
called sometimes, and prepared for college 
at the academy, graduating at the State 
Normal at Kirksville, Mo. Later he took 
a post-gi"aduate course in mathematics 
and engineeiing in the University of Min- 
nesota, under Professors Downey and Pike. 
Mr. Sublette had a natural aptitude for the 
profession he has chosen. He may fairly be 
said to have been born to it, for having 
taught school at the age of fifteen years, he 
surveyed land at sixteen, joined a surveying 
party at eighteen, and at twenty-one be- 
came the county surveyor of Adair county. 
Mo. Such precocious ability was sure to 
find abundant employment, ilr. Sublette's 
subsecjuent career has fully carried out his 
early promise of usefulness. He was en- 
gaged in railroad construction — only a part 
of which can be mentioned — the Wabash, 
the Chicago & Northwestera and the Union 
Dejjot at Minneapolis. Under city engineer 
Andrew Rinker he was placed in charge of 
the North Minneapolis tunnel. He was also 




GEORGK W. sriiLETTE. 

engineer of construction for the city of Aus- 
tin, Tex., completing the power house and 
dam. He also held the same official position 
for Helena, Mont., while constructing the 
light and power house at Canon Ferry. 

His election as city engineer of Minneap- 
olis in l>S!t9 was a well merited recognition 
of his practical experience and rich profes- 
sional acquirements. 

Mr. Sublette is an active Odd Fellow, 
holding the highest office in the subordinate 
lodge. He is also a member of the Knights 
of Pythias, and has his church relations 
with the Church of Christ. In politics he 
has always been a Republican. 

He was married to Miss Anna B. Baldwin 
in 1S70. and is the hapjiy father of two chil- 
dren, lo and Marguerite. 

So long as the att'airs of the city are in 
the hands of such a man, Minneapolis may 
rest assured that its physical welfare will 
be efficientlv conserved. 



BERii. Otto C.. secretary of state of 
South Dakota, is a resident of Redfield, 
Spink .-onnty. He was born September 10, 
1S4!). ai Bn'Miuiii. Ringsager, Norway, and 



HISTORY OF THE GKKAT NORTHWEST. 




OTTO C. BERG. 

is the son of Cbristence Berg, nee ovre 
Rudd, and Cliiistian T. Berg. His father 
was a government employe and was over- 
seer of government roads, and other im- 
j)rovements. He received a common school 
education in his native village and at the 
age of sixteen started on a business career 
and was employed as a clerk in a general 
store at Lillehammer, and then for several 
years was bookkeeper in a wholesale estab- 
lishment at Drammen. He became dissat- 
isfied with conditions in Norway and deter- 
mined to come to America, and came to this 
country in 1873, locating at Norwalk, Mon- 
roe county, Wis., engaging in the mercan- 
tile business. He came to South Dakota in 
1883 and settled at Northville and started a 
general mercantile business. He after- 
wards located at Redfield, his present home. 
Mr. Berg is one of the best known men in 
the Republican party in the state. He ear- 
ly affiliated with the party and has always 
been a hard and enthusiastic party worker, 
and his recent election to the responsible 
position of secretary of state is a just re- 
ward, not only for his party work, but for 
merit. He served as postmaster at Nor- 
walk, Wis., and also as county clerk of 



.Monroe county, ^Vis. He has served for six 
years as clerk of the circuit and county 
courts of Spink county and goes from the 
office of clerk to that of secretary of state. 
Mr. Berg is a prominent member of the Ma- 
sonic bodies at Redfield. He is a member 
of Redfield Lodge, No. 34, A. F. & A. M., 
and has twice served as master of the lodge. 
He is a member of Redfield Chapter, No. 20, 
R. A. M., and has served as High Priest. 
Me is also a member of the Ancient Order 
of United Workmen. He was married 
May 1, 187D, to Miss Edith Rowe, daughter 
of the late David B. Rowe, of Whitewater, 
Wis. He has two children, Edna M. Berg, 
a young lady of twenty, and Paul B. Berg, 
a boy of thirteen. 



HOFOHTON, James Gilbert.— One of 
the most important functions of a city gov- 
ernment is that of safeguarding the people 
against their own folly, ignorance and par- 
simony in building their houses. If left 
unrestrained by laM% the perils of the city 
from fires, from insanitary homes and facto- 
ries, from flimsy tenements for rent, and 
from encroachments on the rights of the 
public would be greatly increased. Hence 
it is necessary to have a thorough supervi- 
sion of all the building operations in the 
city. This is an immense work in a rapidly 
growing community. To accomplish this 
properly requires system, combining ac- 
curacy, care and impartiality with a clear 
method of registry. It can be readily seen 
that although the duties are not showy, they 
are of great importance. A regular depart- 
ment is organized for the work, the officers 
of which are known as building inspectors. 
To be competent for the office they must 
have both thorough building knowledge and 
experience, together with mechanical skill 
to decide what is feasible and what should 
be prohibited. In this exacting duty James 
G. Houghton has made a record for the city 
of Minneapolis worthy of the highest credit. 
Mr. Houghton is from Maine, a state con- 
tributing many sons noted in the develop- 
ment of Minnesota, and especially in the 
building up of Minneapolis. He was born 



142 



HISTORY OF THK GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Howard Houghton, a farmer and a mason 
in moderate circumstances. His mother's 
maiden name was Elizabeth T. Robbius. 
Both were of Englisli descent. Mr. Hougli- 
ton liad the advantages of a district school 
education and worked on his father's farm 
at W'aterford during school age. He then 
learned the carjienter ti-ade in the good old 
way. Like most of the energetic men in 
that region, where the towns are to a large 
degree finished, young Houghton took Hor 
ace (ireeley's famous advice to "go West." 
He landed in Minneapolis June 25, 1880, a 
date which is a mile stone in liis career never 
to be forgotten. He immediately went to 
work at his trade and for several years 
served as foreman to one of the contractors 
in the city. He then established himself in 
business on his own account, and conducted 
it until 1894, when he was appointed first 
assistant building inspector for the city of 
Minneapolis. He was elected to the of- 
fice of building inspector January 1, 1899, 
which put him in full charge of the depart- 
ment. His superior fitness for the place 
was soon demonstrated by the improve- 
ments he made in the administration of af- 
fairs. In the first place he very materially 
reduced the expenses of the ofiSce. Al- 
though there was more work than in any 
other year subsequent to 1894, Mr. Hough- 
ton managed the business with two less men. 
His thorough knowledge and practical com- 
mon sense enabled him to simplify the sys- 
tem of keeping the records so as to keep them 
in better form with less labor. He also insti 
tuted sevei"al new records, greatly needed 
and which will be of great value in the work 
of the department. Therefore the whole 
labor is better done and with less expen.se 
than ever before since the office was estab- 
lished. In addition to this Mr. Houghton 
makes a jiractice of personally inspecting 
buildings in the course of erection. 

Mr. Houghton is a Republican in politics, 
and was a ward committeeman in 1898. He 
is a member of Hennepin Masonic Lodge, 
No. 4 of which he is also a P. M.; a 
member of Ark Lodge, R. A. M., and Past 
High Priest; member of the Minneajiolis 




Mounted Commandery, IS'o. li:{, of Knights 
Templar; member of Minneapolis Camp, 
No. 445, Modern Woodmen, and member of 
Modin Tent. No. '2'\, order of the Maccfflbbees. 
He was married in 1882 to Susan C. Drew, 
and has three children, Harry D., Lucy M., 
and Robert J. Houghton. He is likewise a 
member of the Simj)Son Methodist Episcopal 
church, so that his social and religious as- 
sociations give him a very extended fellow- 
ship with a host of desirable friends by 
whom he is highly esteemed and universally 
respected as a husband, father, and citizen 
without reproach. 



FTTNK, William Albert, is a prominent 
lawyer, politician and real estate owner of 
Mankato, Minn. He is a native of Illinois, 
and was born in La Salle county, February 
25, 1854. His father, Abraham Funk, was 
born in Virginia, but moved to Ohio with 
his i)arents when he was but a mere child. 
He grew up to manhood in the Buckeye 
state, and for several years taught school. 
Later he engaged in the occupation of farm- 
ing in this state, and afterwards in Illinois, 
where he removed in 1852. For the last fif- 



HISTOKY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




WILLIAM A. ITNK. 

teeu years Le has lived in the vilhige of 
Odell, 111. He was married in 1840 to Mar- 
garet Jane Hutchinson, the mother of the 
subject of this sketch. She was born in 
Fairfield county, Ohio, and was of English 
descent. The ancestors of Abraham Funk 
were Swiss-Germans. The American branch 
of the family is descended from three broth- 
ers who came to this country from Switzer 
laud about 176.5, aud settled in Virginia and 
Pennsylvania. The subject of this sketch 
received his early education in the public 
schools of La Salle county. 111., which was 
supplemented by an attendance at an acad- 
emy. Desiring to take up the legal profes- 
sion as his vocation in life, he entered upon 
the study of law and was admitted to the 
bar by the supreme court of Illinois in Sep- 
tember, 1875, when 21 years of age. He be- 
gan the practice of his profession in Odell, 
HI., forming a partnership with J. H. Funk, 
lately speaker of the Iowa house of repre- 
sentatives. This partnership continued until 
1878, when the subject of this sketch remov- 
ed to Streator. 111. He formed a partnership 
there, in 1880, with Joel T. Buckley, the firm 
being known as Buckley & Funk. This part- 
nership continued until 1882, when he associ- 



ated himself with (Jeorge E. (Jlass, the pres- 
ent mayor of Streator, under the firm name 
of Funk & (jlass. In 1885, this partnership 
was dissolved and Jlr. Funk practiced his 
lirofession alone. In March, 1887, he remov- 
ed to Minnesota and located at Lakefield, in 
Jackson county, where he practiced law until 
November, 1895, when he removed to Man- 
kato, where he now resides. From the first, 
Mr. Funk enjoyed a lucrative practice, and 
assumed a prominent position in legal cir- 
cles. He has held many jwsitions of public 
trust, and has always taken an active inter- 
est in political affairs. He has been a life- 
long Republican, and has done effective 
work for his party on the stump. He 
stumped the state of Illinois during the 
campaign of 187G, and has contributed like 
service to his party in every campaign since 
that time, both in Illinois and in Minnesota. 
He ser\-ed as an alderman in Streator, 111., 
for two years, also three years as chairman 
of the Rex)ublican city committee of Strea- 
tor. In 1890 he was elected county attor- 
ney of Jackson county, Minn., and was re- 
elected in 1892 and 1894, making an enviable 
record in that office. He resigned this posi- 
tion in 1895 on his removal to Mankato. 
In 1896 he served as chainuan of the execu- 
tive committee of the Mankato McKinley 
club, and was on the stump for forty-seven 
nights during that exciting campaign. In 
1898 he served as a member of the executive 
committee of the Republican state central 
committee. He was a candidate for the 
congressional nomination from his district 
in 1900, but withdrew after the result of the 
first caucuses was announced, it being ad- 
verse to his candidacy. During the cam- 
paign of this year Mr. Funk served as presi- 
dent of the McKinley and Roosevelt club of 
Mankato. He has always been a prominent 
worker in his party's interests, and is recog- 
nized as one of the leading political speak- 
ers in the North Star state. Mr. Funk has 
also interesed himself largely in real estate 
and is the owner of the unsold portion of the 
town-site of Lakefield, Minn., as well as 
several hundred acres of land adjacent to 
that town. He also owns rich farming 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHAVEST. 



lands in several oilier sections of Minne- 
sota, as well as in Wisconsin. Mr. Funk 
has been an Odd Fellow for many years, 
and is a member of the grand lodge, both in 
Illinois and ^[innesota. He also served as 
consul of Camp No. 4, M. W. A., when that 
order was organized in Illinois. He also 
held this position later at Lakefield, Minn. 
He is also a member of the Knights of 
Pythias. He is identified with the Presby- 
terian body, and is a member, trustee and 
elder of the First Presbyterian church of 
Mankato. He has been the superintendent 
of Hope Mission Ir^unday school, of Mankato. 
for three and one-half years, and is a trustee 
of Alb(n't Lea college. He was married in 
October, 1879, to Nellie Douglass, at Strea- 
tor, 111. They have four children: William 
D., aged 20; Nettie M., aged IS; Leslie A., 
aged 14, and Edgar N., born in September, 
I'JOO. 




HKNUY It. PORTER. 



PORTER, Henry Rinaldo.— The duties of 
an ordinary busy physician are said to be 
exceedingly depressing. Some go as far as 
to say that the drain of vitality is greater in 
the work of a medical man than in that of any 
other occupation, however laborious. Cou- 
tinually in contact with suffering — for when 
absent from the patient his case, if critical, 
is ever in the mind of a faithful doctor; 
pouring out sympathy on friend and stranger 
day by day; listening to complaints of all 
sorts of ailments; called up at all hours of 
the night, sometimes on frivolous pretexts, 
and, the worst of all, constantly reminded 
of his utter impotence where he most desires 
to be of help, it is not strange that with 
the weight of these anxieties he should be 
borne down with weariness of mind and 
body. His sympathies, his emotions and his 
intellectual powers are on the rack with but 
little relief. If a doctor in ci^^l life, pro- 
fessionally associated with whom he may 
consult, with friends who may atlord him 
some cheer, and with social amenities to re- 
lieve the monotony and perhaps furnish some 
recreation, must undergo the anxieties and 
anguish of spirit portrayed, what must be 
the condition of the anny surgeon subject to 



the same or greater strain, and yet, not only 
deprived of these alleviating items, but re- 
stricted intheappliancesof his profess^pu and 
curtailed in his medicinal supplies? Can his 
situation be less than positive torture? Yet 
how little consideration is given to the army 
surgeon. The public is prone to find fault 
with the hospital service on the slightest 
pretext, while the extraordinary achieve- 
ments of the medical staff have only meager 
mention. Dr. Henry R. Porter, the eminent 
surgeon and medical practitioner of Bis- 
marck, N. D., has had the chastening experi- 
ence of both civil and military life, so that if 
ihe adage be true that "practice makes per- 
fect" he ought to be well nigh the goal. Be- 
sides, with him the profession may be called 
hereditary, for his father, Henry N. Porter, 
M. D., was a distinguished physician in the 
state of New York, having practiced in 
Oneida county of that state for thirty-live 
years. He then retired and moved to the 
less rigorous climate of Washington, D. C, 
where he died in 189!). His wife was of 
Scottish birth and came to this country when 
seven years of age. Her maiden name was 
Helen Poison. Dr. Henry R. Porter, the son, 
was born at Lee Center, Oneida county, N. 



HISTORY OF THE CRKAT NORTHWEST. 



Y., in 1848. He was, of couisp, surrounded 
with the atmosphere of his profession. 
When he had completed his literary prepara- 
tion, he went to the Mic-hi<?an university at 
Ann Arbor, the medical department of the 
school having a high rank. He finished his 
professional course at Georgetown, District 
of Columbia, graduating in 1872. He then 
served as resident physician of the Columbia 
Lying-in Hospital at Washington, D. C, un- 
til appointed acting assistant surgeon of the 
United States army. He was assigned to 
duty with the troops in the field against the 
Apache Indians under (ien. Crook, command- 
ing the department of Arizona. During the 
arduous service in this Indian war campaign. 
Surgeon Porter won the encomiums of his 
commanding ofiicers and secured public 
recognition in an unusual degree for a medi- 
cal staff officer. In the battle of vSupersti- 
tion Mountains Dr. Porter's gallantry and 
services were so conspicuous that he was 
commended by Gen. Crook in general order 
Xo. 14, of date April !), 1873. He was like- 
wise distinguished for gallantry and con- 
spicuous service in the campaign which 
closed the war against the Tonto Apaches in 
February and March, 1873. Dr. Porter was 
the only surviving surgeon of the Custer- 
Reno fight at Little Big Horn on the 2oth day 
of June, 1870, when Gen. Custer and his 
entire force were slaughtered. Dr. Porter 
was with Gen. Eeno and had charge of all 
the wounded, about fifty in number. He had 
also about fifty dead to take care of to pre- 
vent the enemy from outraging them. For 
his bravery and for the character of the work 
performed under — as the commendatory or- 
dei's recite — 'most trying circumstances,'" he 
received great praise from both Gen. Terry, 
the military commander, and from Medical 
Director Sloan, in charge of the medical staff. 
Dr. Porter is married and has one son, Hal, 
now attending Oberlin College. Mrs. Por- 
ter's maiden name was Lotta Viets, and her 
home was at Oberlin, Ohio. Dr. Porter en- 
joys the respect and confidence of all who 
know him. That his skill is recognized is 
evident from the large general practice which 
he has secured at home and in the surround- 
ing districts. 



MOORE, Joseph Boone. — In September, 
1880, a young man or boy, rather, seventeen 
years of age, might have been seen tramp- 
ing into the village — now city — of Lead, Da- 
kota Territory. He had only twenty-five 
cents in his pocket, and that he soon paid to 
a barber for a shave. The next morning he 
went to work with a pick and shovel, dig- 
ging a ditch for a water pipe, for which labor 
he was paid two dollai's and a half per day. 
Ill a few days he got a job as a common labor- 
er at three dollare a day with the Homestake 
Mining Company. That lad was Joseph B. 
31oore, the present judge of the Eighth ju- 
dicial circuit of the state of South Dakota. 
Mr. Moore v>as born at Nashville. Tenu., Oc- 
tober 13, 1802. His father, James G. Moore, 
was of Scotch-Irish descent, and was born 
in Strabane, County Tyrone, Ireland. He 
learned the saddler's trade. When he came 
to Nashville he engaged as a merchant in 
the harness and saddlery business, and be- 
came well-to-do. During the Civil war he 
lost a large amount of cotton, and by the 
emancipation x>roclaniation of course lost all 
his slaves. Mr. Joseph B. Moore's mother 
belonged to the Hiter family, of Virginia. 
They were of Irish extraction. Her name 
was Mary Ewing Hiter. The middle name 
indicates a connection with that well known 
family. Young Moore «as educated in the 
schools of his native city, Nashville, and was 
what is sometimes called "city-bred." Un- 
der such circumstances his first entrance into 
the field of Lead, as a day laborer, was not 
far from the heroic. From that time on he 
worked as a laborer in the saw-mill, in the 
mine as a shoveller, then as tool-packer, 
miner, and timekeeper for the Deadwood- 
Terra Mining Comjiany, one of the group be- 
longing to the Homestake Mining Company. 
In the spring of 1883 he began work on the 
Homestake railroad, known as the Black 
Hills & Fort Pierre railroad, as brakeman, 
and continued to work for this company as 
brakeman, fireman, and conductor until 
April 5, 1884, when in attempting to get on 
a moving train he fell under the cars and 
lost his left leg just below the knee and the 
four smallest toes on his right foot. In- 
capacitated for manual labor by this terrible 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NOUTHWEST. 



accident lie left Lead for his did liniiic at 
Nashville, Tenn. In the fall of 1884 he en- 
tered the law department of the Vanderbilt 
University. He doubled his studies, taking' 
a two years" course in one year, and gradu- 
ated with honors the followinjj; spiinji', bcinu 
one of the iloot Court coiuniencenient day 
orators, winning the Moot Court case on the 
trial. He then returned to Lead and began 
to practice his profession with inuuediate 
success. In 1889 he was made city attorney 
of Lead. He held this office until May 1. 
lSlt2. He was then ai)])ointed state's attor- 
ney for Lawrence county, and served during 
1893 and 1S94. In 1S97 he was elected judge 
of the Eighth judicial circuit of South Da- 
kota, which position he now holds, and the 
term of which will not expire until Decem- 
ber, 1901. In the campaign of 1900 he was 
one of the candidates for congress on the 
"fusion" ticket, a union of Democrats and 
Populists, but was defeated, although run- 
ning ahead of his ticket several hundred 
votes. Mr. Moore was a South Dakota mem- 
ber of the National Populist convention 
which met at Sioux Falls, in 1900, and se- 
cured the insertion of a resolution in the 
platform denouncing the incarceration of 
miners in the Cneur d"Alene bull pen as an 
outrage. He had also represented South Da- 
kota in the National Populist convention 
held at St. Louis in 1890. He has always 
been a constant, consistent fnend of the la- 
boring men, being himself one for years. It 
is said of him that he never refused to take 
a law case for a poor man or woman, for 
lack of fees. ITnable to go to the Spanish 
war, he had, nevertheless, a warm interest 
in it. When troop "A" of the Cowboy regi- 
ment United States Volunteer Cavalry of 
South Dakota perfected a permanent organi- 
zation, Mr. Moore was made an honorary 
member, then the list of honorary members 
was closed. The troop presented him with 
a button badge, which he takes pride in 
wearing on the right lapel of his coat, in- 
tending, he avers, to so wear it as long as 
he lives. June 2, 188G, he was married to 
Susie B. Jordan, born near Franklin, Wil- 
liamson county, Tenn. Her father was one 
of the great landed proprietors of middle 




Tennessee, owning a large number of slaves. 
There is a coincidence between his marriage 
and that of Grover Cleveland, which was on 
the same day. This, however, was unpre- 
meditated on the part of Mr. :Moore,<or his 
coming wedding was aniiounced to his 
friends several weeks before it took place, 
while the i)residenfs was announced only a 
few days before his marriage; therefore Mr. 
Moore is accustomed to say jocularly, "Grov- 
er Cleveland married the same day I did." 
They have three children — Rupert E., twelve 
years of age, ilary Alice, nine years old, and 
Norma Elizabeth Moore, born March 15, 
1899. Judge Moore holds the office of Lead- 
ing Knight in Deadwood Lodge No. .508 of 
the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. 
In religion he is a liberal, not belonging to 
any denomination or church, while a firm be- 
liever in the Supreme Being. The golden rule, 
— "Do unto others as you would they should 
do unto you," is his creed that governs every 
act of his life, and has given him success as 
a lawyer and distinction as a jurist. He be- 
lieves in the broadest religious liberty and 
accords to every man the right to worship 
God and to vote as he pleases, claiming for 
himself the same right. He is one of South 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Dakota's best known men, and has made a 
reeord since going upon the bench as being 
one of the fairest, most courteous and abh' 
of trial judges, whose decisions are seldom 
reversed by the supreme court. In the cam- 
paign of 1900 he gained a national reputa- 
tion by reason of his pronounced views and 
utterances in opposition to the Philii)pine 
war. Judge Moore still resides at Lead. S. 
D., among the friends of his early manhood, 
and is a prominent figure in South Dakota 
politics, whose friends predict for him a bril- 
liant future. 



KELLAE, Andrew Jackson. — The lapse 
of time and the dissipation of the prejudices 
that swayed men's judgment for a number 
of years after the close of the War of the 
Eebellion have caused us to view in a new 
light the sacrifices of the men who wore the 
Confederate uniform, and we have come to 
admire their devotion to the principles for 
which they fought. The bitter feelings en- 
gendered by that fierce internecine strife 
two score years ago have passed; we are 
now a united nation and proud of the flag 
which commands respect the world over. 
We have learned to love those true gentle- 
men of the South who represent all that is 
noble and inspiring in man, and have come 
to appreciate the unselfish motives which 
prompted the men who, accepting the out- 
come as final, bowed gracefully to defeat, 
and strove to unite the former opposing ele- 
ments. Such a man was Col. Andrew J. 
Kellar, now a resident of Hot Springs, S. 
I). After giving four years of early youth 
to the Confederate service, he returned 
home imbued with the desire of uniting 
North and South. His soldierly heart was 
won by Grant's magnanimity at the surren- 
der of the Confederate armies; his admira- 
tion was open and enthusiastic. He wel- 
comed northern men and capital to the 
South when it was not the popular thing to 
do. His stand antagonized the secession 
politicians who opposed his efforts with all 
the bitterness of the period. His fighting, 
however, had ended with Lee's surrender. 
Col. Kellar is a native of Tennessee, and a 



scion of heroes of Revolutionary days. His 
paternal grandfather was born in France, 
came to this country in the early days, 
fought as a volunteer soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary War, was captured by the British 
near Newport, R. I., and was sent to 
England a prisonei*, where he remained 
until peace was made between the United 
States, England and France. He returned 
to this country from France in 1800 and 
settled in Maryland, and was a soldier in 
the War of 1812, serving in the army that 
defended Kaltimore against the British. 
Col. Kellar's maternal grandfather was an 
Irishman, and served as a corporal in the 
E'irst Kentucky riflemen under Gen. Jack- 
son, in the war with England in 1812-1815. 
He came to the L'nited States from Ireland 
in 179G, under charge of the father of Gov. 
Wise, of Virginia, and was a member of the 
Society of United Irishmen. He died after 
the battle of New Orleans while on his way 
to his home in Kentucky. The subject of 
this sketch is a son of George Philip Kellar 
and Sarah Conley Kellar, and was born in 
1838. When fourteen years of age he en- 
tered the state university at Columbus, 
Tenn., remaining in this institution for two 
years. Afterwards he pursued his studies 
in New Orleans with Professors Lanier and 
Dimitry. He began the study of law under 
the direction of Mr. Miles Taylor, a distin- 
guished member of the bar of New Orleans, 
and who was then a member of the lower 
house of congress. Later he went to Som- 
erville, Tenn., and prepared himself for ad- 
mission to the bar in the office of Gen. 
Thomas Rives. He was admitted to prac- 
tice law in the circuit courts in 18.50, and ad- 
mitted to the bar of the supreme court of 
Tennessee in 1860. The following year, on 
the outbreak of the war, he enlisted in the 
Confederate ai-my at Memphis, Tenn., and 
was mustered in as captain of Company D, 
Fourth Tennessee Regiment of Infantry. 
In July, 1862, he was commissioned lieuten- 
ant-colonel of the same I'egiment, and in 
July of the following year, colonel. He was 
paroled May 1, 1865. The regiment served 
in Cheatham's division in the army com- 
manded by Generals Albert Sidney John- 



HISTORY OF THE GKKAT NOUTinVEST. 



son, Beauregard, Bragg, Hood and Joseph 
E. Johnson. After the war he returned 
home and resumed the practice of his pro- 
fession. He took a prominent part in polit- 
ical affairs, ever having the highest inter- 
ests of his country at heart. This spirit 
dominated him to the exclusion of personal 
ambition. In the stormy days at Wash- 
ington, in the contest of Tilden against 
Hayes, he was a quiet factor in "stilling the 
ugly temper of the nation"; but he accepted 
no favors for his conscientious work. It 
was done for the republic, not for himself. 
Not without laudable ambition, he yet de- 
clined honors lest his motives be misunder- 
stood. He had an intimate acquaintance 
with distinguished men and was a i)ersonal 
friend of Andrew Johnson, Hayes and (Jar- 
field. An incident at a dinner at Delmoni- 
co's, where Whitelaw Reid, Blaine and oth- 
er distinguished men were guests, shows the 
impression Col. Kellar made on older men. 
When the feast ended and the party was 
discussing the situation of the day, Blaine 
laid his hand kindly on Col. Kellar's shoul- 
der and exclaimed: "You are a very auda- 
cious young man." That Col. Kellar's able, 
unselfish course made him honored by his 
peers is evidenced by the following extract 
from the Memphis Scimiter, of January 8, 
1889, when his friends in Kentucky and 
Tennessee wanted him in Harrison's cabi- 
net: 

"More than any other man in the South, 
perhaps, did he contribute to that pacifica- 
tion of our section with Haj'es' administra- 
tion which enabled it to secui-e the victory 
that the South achieved over the carpet-bag 
government. Of Col. Kellar's equipment for 
any service under the new administration, 
which he would accept, none can doubt. 
He is a very able man, whether at the bar, 
in the military field, in the editorial room, 
or in business life, with all of which he has 
enlarged and successful experience. He 
could have had anything for the asking un- 
der Hayes, but he was not in politics for 
revenue, nor for the other delights of offi- 
cial power and place. He held a very 
unique post in the work he had undertaken, 
and felt, no doubt, that he would forfeit 




ANDREW J. KELLAR. 

what induence he hoped to exert on either 
side if there should be a suspicion that he 
was engaged in the advocacy of his schemes 
of pacification for the selfish ends to^be at- 
tained by accepting office, and so he de- 
clined." 

Col. Kellar came to South Dakota from 
Kentucky in 1893 and located at Hot 
Springs, where he is engaged in the prac- 
tice of law. In politics, he was a Douglas 
Union Democrat in 1800, voted for Grant in 
1868, for Greeley in 1872, Peter Cooper in 
18T(), Garfield in 1880, Blaine in 1884, Har 
rison in 1888 and 1892, Bryan in 180(1 and 
1900. The only office held by Col. Kellar 
was that of member of the state senate of 
South Dakota, elected on the Silver Repub- 
lican ticket in 1896. He served as chair- 
man of the judiciary committee. In 1874, 
he was an earnest supporter of Andrew 
Johnson for the United States senate and 
contributed in no small degree to the lat- 
ter's success in securing his election. In 
1S77, he was tendered the governorship of 
Washington territory, by President Hayes, 
which he declined. November 28, 1865, he 
was married to Miss Margaret Agnes 
Chambers, of Mississippi, a cousin of Hon. 



HISTORY OF TIIK GREAT ^■ORTII^YEST. 



rTn<rh Lawson White. She is descended 
from the Kevolntionarv {generals, William 
Davidson and Griflith Rutherford. Five 
children were born: Chambers, who grad- 
nated with first honors at Vanderbilt uni- 
versity, and is now a leading attorney of 
Dead wood, S. D.; Andrew Conley, connect- 
ed with a Sioux City commission house; 
Werdna, graduated with first honors in mu- 
sic at Hellmuth college, Canada; Philip 
TJutherford, admitted to the bar of South 
Dakota by the supreme court of the state, 
but, preferring literature and journalism to 
the law, is now in Chicago, engaged in news- 
I)ayer work. 



WIXSHIP, George Bailey. — For more 
than twenty years George B. Winship, the 
founder and pre.sent publisher of the Her- 
ald, Grand Forks, N. D., has been one 
of the leading forces in shaping the develop- 
ment of the Northwest. He was born in 
Saco, Me., in 1847. His father, George 
D. Winship, was a native of New Hamp- 
shire, his ancestors being early settlers of 
English descent who were principally farm- 
ers, stock raisers and fruit growers, in mod- 
erate financial circumstances. George D. 
Winship was a carpenter by trade. He was 
married in 1840 to Abigail Bailey, also New 
Hampshire boin and reared. She died at 
Pine Island, Minn., in 1880. They moved 
to Dodge county. Wis., in 1850, and the next 
year moved to La Crosse, in the same state, 
where he worked at his trade. Six years 
later, in 1857, he crossed the Mississippi with 
his family and settled at La Crescent, Minn. 
On the breaking out of the Civil W'm\ at the 
fii-st call for troops in 1861, he enlisted in the 
First Minnesota Rangers, and on the expira 
tion of his term of service in 186.3, entered 
tlie Second Minnesota cavalry and served 
until the close of the war, making a service 
of four years. He died in 1899. 

Young George, when the family moved 
to La Crescent attended the district school 
until he was thirteen years of age, when he 
was so proficient in his studies that he was 
apprenticed as a printer in the office of the 
La Crescent Plaindealer, a weekly paper, 



with a job printing outfit such as will gen- 
erally be found in a country newspaper of- 
fice. Such establishments are the true 
])rinting schools of the nation. There the 
typo learns all the fundamentals of the art, 
from the casting of the roller to the making 
ready of the forms, and generally, under cir- 
cumstances which test the fertility of his re- 
resources and ingenuity to the limit of his 
capacity. It is doubtful if a person can be 
a thorough newspaper man without graduat- 
ing from one of the primitive institutions. 
After two jears' work he quit and offered to 
enlist for the war, although only fifteen 
years old. He was rejected because of his 
age. He then went to work in the brick 
yard of William E. Potter, "sanding 
moulds."' At the end of the year he offered 
himself again for a soldier and was accept- 
ed, enlisting as a member of Company "A" 
of the 2d Minnesota Cavalry, with which he 
served two years and thi>ee months, until 
the end of the war. When mustered out of 
service he picked up whatever job he could 
find, among other things chopping cord 
wood for Luke Blair, a Winona county farm- 
er. In 1867 he started for the Idaho gold 
fields with Captain Davy's expedition, 
which was to leave Fort Abercrombie on the 
first of June, that year. Part of the outfit 
failed to arrive and Mr. Winship declined 
to go. The few who determined to proceed 
reorganized and started late in the summer, 
but on reaching the Missouri river late in 
the fall they were massacred by the Indians. 
Mr. Winship engaged to drive a freight 
team hauling goods from St. Cloud, the rail- 
road terminus, to the various military posts 
in the west. The next year, 18G8, he re- 
sumed his old business of printing, in the 
Winnipeg, Man., "Northwestern,'" under the 
charge of Dr. Schultz, afterwards lieutenant 
governor of the province. This was the only 
paper north of St. Cloud. Mr. Winship 
remained there about two years, during 
which the Riel rebellion broke out. In 1870 
he went to Pembina, and was employed as 
clerk in a post trader's establishment. 
When the Blakeley-Carpenter lines of stages 
were put on between Breckenridge and 
\Vinnipeg, Mr. ^^'insllip formed a partner- 




GEOKGE BAILEY WINSHIP. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



ship with William TSudsp and established 
a stage station at Turtle River— now Man- 
vel — fourteen miles north of Grand Forks. 
In 1873 he sold out his interest in this en- 
terprise and went to St. Paul, where he re- 
sumed his trade as printer, being employed 
on all the papers, at times. He was em- 
ployed on the Pioneer as compositor when 
it was consolidated with the Press, and af- 
terwards on the Pioneer Press until 1877, 
when he started a weekly paper named 
the "Courier," at Caledonia, Minn., inde- 
pendent in politics. In 187U the plant was 
transferred to Grand Forks, Dakota Terri- 
tory, where the weekly Grand Forks Herald 
was established. In November, 1881, the 
Daily Herald was launched as an evening 
paper. In the meantime the facilities of 
the office were continually increased to 
meet the wants of the growing business, 
which required not only new material, but 
more house room. In 1891 the full Asso- 
ciated Press franchise was secured and the 
paper entered upon its career as a metro- 
politan morning daily paper. It has now 
all the most modern appliances — Mergen- 
thaler typesetting machines, rapid Miehle 
presses, together with a complete modern 
bindery from which is turned out every 
form of blank books for state, county, and 
minor officials, and blank forms carefully 
prepared for every use in the state. These 
are kept in stock for immediate delivery. 
Mr. Winship has been the animating spirit 
of the vast enterprise from its inception, the 
Herald being in his control ever since its 
establishment. The energy, perseverance 
and business sagacity required to overcome 
obstacles, harmonize interests and to un- 
tangle the complications involved in the 
development of such an enterprise and in 
bringing it to its present commanding posi- 
tion, is an achievement worthy of the high- 
est honor. Mr. Winship, in addition to 
this immense labor, has not neglected his 
duties as a plain citizen. While his great- 
est inlluence has, perhaps, been exerted 
through the Herald, his strong personality 
has been a large factor in directing public 
affairs. In early life he was a Democrat. 
In the Hayes campaign he was an enthusi- 



astic supporter of the Republican party and 
voted for its nominees. He has since been 
a consistent Republican. He was the first 
state senator from the Seventh legislative 
district of the state. He championed the 
])rnhibition law and has always advocated 
its rigid enforcement. He led the forces 
opposed to the Louisiana lottery when an 
effort was made to establish it in the state. 
He served one term as oil inspector under 
Governor Allen, and was strongly sup- 
ported in the state Republican conventions 
of 1898 and 1900 as a candidate for gover- 
nor; in the latter convention a large ma- 
jority of the delegates were favorable to 
him, but through deft maneuvering the 
nomination went elsewhere. Mr. Winship 
was appointed and served as provisional 
department commander when the Grand 
Army of the Republic department was in- 
stituted in the state. He was subsequently 
first department commander of North Da- 
kota, and had previously served as senior 
vice commander of the Dakota Territorial 
department, besides being a post command- 
er, having been a member of the Grand 
Army of the Republic sixteen years. He 
has been active also in the Masonic order, 
being a member of the Blue Lodge, Chapter, 
Commaudery, Lodge of Perfection, and 
El Zagel Temple. He is one of the charter 
members of Acacia Lodge of Grand Forks, 
and has served as senior warden. He was 
married to Josephine Minshall, at La Cres- 
cent, in 1874, but they have no children ex- 
cept an adopted daughter, Barbara, mar- 
ried to Francis W. Weego, Dec. 27, 1899. 
Mr. Winship, although not enrolled as a 
member, is a regular attendant and sup- 
porter of the Methodist Episcopal church at 
Grand Forks. 



HEINRICH, Julius J., the efficient head 
of the department of oil inspection of the 
state of Minnesota, under Gov. Lind's ad- 
ministration, came to the state with his pa- 
rents, John Heinrich and ^Minnie Heinrich, 
when a mere lad, in 18G5. His father en- 
gaged in brewing, an industry then in its 
infancy in the state. He was an energetic, 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



practkal man, and determined to train his 
sou, Julius, to be a like character. Accord- 
iufily, after Julius had completed his educa- 
tion in the public schools, he went to the 
business college, where he was duly indoc- 
trinated in the intricacies of accounts and 
in business routine. He then went in busi- 
ness with his father, continuing in that pur- 
suit until 1S90. He had, in the meantime, 
taken an active interest in politics, and had 
become a recognized leader in the Demo- 
cratic party. Being a man of genial man- 
ners, attractive personality, and of a gener- 
ous disposition, he was very XJopul'U' with 
all who knew him. A natural result fol- 
lowed. He was nominated to one of the 
most important oflBces in the city, that of 
register of deeds, on the Democratic ticket, 
and triumphantly elected. Upon entering 
upon the duties of the office, he sold his in- 
terest in the brewing business, and, with 
characteristic fidelity, devoted his whole at- 
tention to the public service. The city of 
-Minneapolis has never had a more satisfac- 
tory discharge of those duties than during 
the administration of Julius J. Heinrich. 

The whirligig of politics let Mr. Hein- 
rich out of office at the close of his term. 
But a man of his activity, fertile in re- 
sources, could not remain idle. He engaged 
in various pursuits, among them the laun- 
dry enterprise. He is still president and 
treasurer of the Phoenix Laundry company, 
the well known establishment at 315 Third 
avenue south. Yet his interest in public 
affairs did not abate. His practical com- 
mon sense made him one of the leaders in 
the broader field of state politics. 

A proof that his sterling qualities were 
fully ajtpreciated is shown by the fact that 
he has been twice nominated by his party 
for secretary of state. When Gov. Lind 
was elected lie appointed Mr. Heinrich to 
the important position of state oil inspector. 
Mr. Heinrich is no less popular in the 
social sphere than he is in business life and 
in political circles. This is evident from 
his fr.aternal associations. He is a member 
of the Elks, Modern Woodmen, Druids, 
Knights of Honor, besides being an Odd 
Fellow and a Mason. He was happily mar- 




JULIUS J. HEIMtlCH. 

ried in 18S2 to Hattie A. Stremel, and re- 
joices in a daughter and son, Minnie A. 
Heinrich, 16 years of age, and Gustaf A. 
Heinrich, 12 years of age. His hoifte is 
1115 Sixth street north, where he has lived 
twenty-five years, honored as a citizen and 
respected as a man, in every relation of life. 
As if to emphasize this high regard, his 
friends determined to confer other honors 
upon him. In the campaign of 1900 they 
made him the nominee of the Democratic 
party for the responsible office of city treas- 
ui-er of the city of Minneapolis, a position of 
trust of the very highest character. A man 
wlio can inspire such confidence may well 
feel that he has not lived in vain. 



WILSDN, Samuel Bailey, county attor- 
ney of Blue Earth county, is a resident of 
Mankato. His career can but show the 
possibilities awaiting a young man who has 
iduck and energy supplemented by an edu- 
cation. Samuel B. Wilson was born May 
12, 1873, at Price's Branch, Montgomery 
county. Mo., and is a son of Rebecca (Suth- 
erland) Wilson and Charles Wilson. His 
father was at one time a prosperous farmer 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




SAMUEL B. WILSON. 

owning a large farm on the Missouri river, 
but a sudden change in the current of that 
treacherous river washed it all awaj', leav- 
ing him with what little personal property 
be could save. He died in 1878 and, while 
fairly well situated, left but a small amount 
for his large family. Mrs. Wilson died 
soon after and Samuel, at an early age, was 
obliged to hire out to a farmer for his board 
and clothes. He was thus employed for 
several years and received but scanty 
schooling during this time, as he was only 
able to attend school during the winter 
mouths, and then had no time for outside 
study. For the next five years young Wil- 
son was emi)loyed as farm hand, day labor- 
er, section hand and railroad brakeman; 
any employment that was honest being 
gladly accepted. In 1889 he rented a farm 
in Montgomery county, Mo., and after a 
year of fairly successful farming, sold the 
proceeds and decided to attend school, and 
entered the high school at Mexico, Mo., but, 
for financial reasons, had to leave before 
the year was finished. He then came to 
Minnesota and entered the state normal 
school at JIankato, working on a neighbor- 
ing farm for his board. The next few years 



saw a struggle for means to complete his 
normal course. He was employed as farm 
hand, carpenter, bookkeeper, salesman, etc. 
Perseverance won and he was graduated 
from the normal school in 1894 with special 
mention from the faculty. Mr. ^^'ilson now 
determined to become a lawyer and went to 
Miuneajjolis to attend the law department 
of the state university. In connection with 
his college work he was employed by a col- 
lection agency, but before the year was over 
was appointed assistant librarian and later 
librarian of the library at the law school, 
which position he filled until graduation. 
While in college he was very prominent in 
college affairs and was law editor of the 
college paper. He was a delegate from the 
TTniversity of Minnesota Eepublican club to 
the national convention of the American 
College Eepublican League, and as such 
took a prominent part in the proceedings 
and secured the following convention for 
the University of Minnesota. He was also 
appointed chairman of the Ninth district, 
comprising Minnesota, Iowa and Wiscon- 
sin. He is a member of the legal fraternity 
of Phi Delta Phi. Mr. Wilson was gradu- 
ated in the class of 1896 and located in Man- 
kato, where he has built up a steadily grow- 
ing practice. In 1896 Governor Clough ap- 
pointed him judge of probate, to fill an un- 
expired term, and he was at the time the 
youngest judge of probate in the history of 
the state. He did not seek a re-election as 
the position interfered with his private 
practice. Judge Wilson is an enthusiastic 
Republican and has been rewarded in sev- 
eral ways for his faithful work. In 1897 
and again in 1899 he was elected a member • 
of the board of education of Mankato. In 
1900 he was elected county attorney of Blue 
Earth county. The judge is a member of 
several secret societies, among them the 
Royal Arcanum, Modern Woodmen of 
America, Eastern Star, Masonic Order and 
the Elks. He has filled several chairs in 
the blue lodge of the Masons, and has 
served in like capacities for the Elks, in- 
cluding two years as Exalted Ruler, and as 
delegate to the grand lodge at Atlantic City, 
X. J., in July, 1900. He was married on 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



June 21, 1899, to Miss Daisy Sheehau, a 
critic teacher in the Mankato state normal 
school. Judge and Mrs. Wilson attend the 
Presbyterian church, the latter being a mem- 
ber of the same. 



KENT, Ernest Howard.— North Dakota 
has become known throughout the country 
for the prominence of its young men in pub- 
lic affairs, and its remarkable growth is in 
no small way indebted to the push and vig- 
or of this young blood. Ernest Howard 
Kent, of Lakota, was appointed register of 
the TJnlted (States land office at (Jraud 
Forks in 1898, when he was barely thirty, 
and his career previous to that time shows 
that the people of his state had long known 
his abilities. He was born February 10, 
1868, at Osceola, Wis., where his father, 
John folk Kent, born and raised in Maine, 
followed the business of boat builder; in 
fact, most of the upper Mississippi and St. 
Croix boats of that time were built by him. 
The mother of the subject of this sketch, 
Mary Jane Wilson, was born in Pennsyl- 
vania, and is a direct descendant of John 
Alden, the pilgrim. Young Kent spent his 
boyhood days on the pictures(iue banks of 
the St. Croix, near Osceola, and when eight 
years old the family removed to Ashland, 
Wis., where he received most of his early 
education. In 1880, James P. Kent first 
heard of the then newly opened Red River 
valley country and made his plans to move 
there with his family, but died before ma- 
turing his arrangements. However, Mrs. 
Kent, too, had become enthused with the fu- 
ture of the new country and located at 
Crookston, Minn. In 1883, Ernest followed 
the extension of the then St. P., M. & M. 
railway, and located at Bartlett, N. D., at 
that time the end of the line. He had a 
varied experience, as the only boy in a new 
western town. He clerked in various 
stores and gained valuable business experi- 
ence. In company with other residents of 
Bartlett, he removed to Lakota, as the old 
town, ruined by a disastrous fire and the at- 
titude of the railroad company, praclicall.y 
went out of existence. In 1885 young Kent 




KUNKST H. KENT. 

formed a partnership under the name of 
Kent & Brown, and carried on an extensive 
mercantile business. Ernest Kent has al- 
ways been an ardent supporter of Ifte Re- 
publican party and in 1888, before he was of 
age, was sent as a delegate to the last ter- 
ritorial convention, held at Watertown, and 
has since attended several conventions, both 
state and national. The first public office 
held by Mr. Kent was that of postmaster at 
Lakota, which position he filled for about 
five years. He was not of age at the time 
he received his appointment and, in 1889, 
when he was sworn in, was the youngest 
postmaster in the United States. In 1891 
Mr. Kent retired from business to become a 
newspaper man, he having purchased the 
Xelson County Herald, a Democratic paper 
struggling for an existence. He changed 
the politics of the paper and has made it a 
success, and to-day, known as the Lakota 
Herald, it is regarded as one of the leading 
])aj»ers in the state. Mr. Kent was the orig- 
inal McKinley man in North Dakota, and 
in 1893 wired Wm. McKinley congratula- 
tions on being elected governor of Ohio, and 
pledged North Dakota for him in 189(5. He 
was the only North Dakotau in attendance 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



at the banquet of the Marquette club in Chi- 
cago, February, 1806, when the formal can- 
didacj of Wm. McKinley for the nomina- 
tion of president was announced. He was 
an alternate to the St. Louis convention 
when McKinley was first nominated. March 
2, 1898, President McKinley ajtpointed him 
register of the United States land office at 
Grand Forks, and he is now filling that ])()- 
sition. Mr. Kent served and is now secre- 
tary of the North Dakota State Business 
Men's Union. He is also president of the 
North Dakota State Press association. As 
a true Dakotan, he is much interested in the 
Chautauqua movement and is a member of 
the board of trustees of the organization at 
Devils Lake. While acting in his present 
position, Mr. Kent is putting in his spare 
time by taking a course at the law school 
connected with the state university at 
Grand Forks. He is a thirty-second degree 
Scottish Rite Mason and belongs to the 
lodge at Lakota and the consistory at Far- 
go. He is also a member of El Zagel Tem- 
ple of the Shrine. 



KOEHLER, Robert.— One of the promi- 
nent members of his profession in the United 
States is Robert Koehler, director of the 
Minneapolis School of Fine Arts. He is rec- 
ognized as one of the leading instructors in 
art, and the Northwest is proud of the dis- 
tinction of having such a talented artist in 
its midst. Mr. Koehler is a native of Ger- 
many. His father, Theodore Alexander 
Ernst Koehler, was a resident of Berlin, 
where he was born in 1816. His ancestors, 
as far back as 1690, were weavers. He was 
a mechanic, possessed of unusual skill. As 
was the custom in Germany, Mr. Koehler 
entei-ed upon his ''wanderjahre'' after leaving 
school, visiting various foreign countries. 
Returning, he established himself in business 
in Hamburg. He was married in 1846 to 
Louise Charlotte Christiane Bueter, who was 
the eldest child of Nicolas Basilius Bueter, a 
master-builder in Hamburg. She was a lady 
of artistic tastes and attainments, especially 
in the line of fine needlework, to the teach- 
ing of which she devoted many years of her 



life, both before and after marriage. In 
Mai'ch. 18.54, Mr. Koehler came with his fam- 
ily to New York, subsequently locating in 
Milwaukee, which he made his permanent 
home. Mr. Koehler (^tablished here a little 
machine shop of his own which enabled him 
to give a good private school education to his 
cliildren, the public schools at that time not 
offering such advantages as he was anxious 
to provide them. This appeal's to have been 
his chief, if not his sole, ambition. He was 
not aggressive, and did not care for public 
distinction of any kind, but in private organi- 
zations of an educational character he was a 
wise counsellor and an active worker. He 
died in his eightieth year, after a short ill- 
ness, in the fullest posse,ssion of his mental 
powers, though failing strength had for some 
time prevented his continuing his wonted 
work. His faithful wife did not long survive 
him, dying, at the age of 81, the following 
year (1897). Three children, two boys and 
one girl, were born to them. The subject of 
this sketch, who was the second born, first 
saw the light of day November 28, 1850, at 
Hamburg. He received his early education 
at the "AVest Side German and English High 
School" in Milwaukee, where all the regular 
branches of study were gone through in both 
the English and (ierman languages. Besides 
the regular courses in languages and the 
higher mathematics, considerable attention 
was given to chemistry, physiology, literat- 
ure, and drawing, free hand and mechanical. 
In the latter branches Robert easily excelled, 
so that some career in which he could apply 
his skill in these directions was decided upon, 
and he was apprenticed to a lithographer on 
quitting school. His dislike for the purely 
uu'clianical part of the profession grew apace 
with his more artistic leanings, and he re- 
solved to devote himself for some time ex- 
clusively to the study of drawing, finally 
choosing this more congenial and artistic 
branch of lithography as his future occu- 
pation. After having served his appren- 
ticeship in Milwaukee, he accepted a posi- 
tion in a lithographic establishment at Pitts- 
burg in 1871, removing to New York the 
same year in order to have his eyes treated. 
Having undergone a successful operation he 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



decided to remain tliere, but suffered a short 
jieriod of disajnioiutment before be was able 
to secure a paying- situation. This he finally 
did in a lithographic establishment, where 
he continued to ply his vocation for the next 
year and a half, in the the meantime attend- 
ing night classes at the National Academy 
of Design. Having now saved enough mon- 
ey for the purpose, he went to Europe, 
where he took up the study of art in Munich 
in 187:3. His funds giving out at the expira- 
tion of two years he returned to New Yoik 
and began the struggle for existence anew. 
For four years he had a hard contest with ad- 
versity; but, finally, through the munificence 
of George Ehret, the wealthy New York 
brewer, he was enabled to resume his studies 
abroad. The next dozen years he sjjent 
chiefly in Europe, coni])leting his course at 
the Royal Academy at Munich, under Profes- 
sors LoelTtz and Defregger, finishing with his 
laVge painting "Tlie Strike"' (now on exhibi- 
tion in the Minneapolis Public Library), for 
which he received a silver medal at Munich, 
and a Mention Honorable at the World's Fair 
in Paris in 1889. After leaving the academy 
he assumed charge of a private art school 
in Munich, which he conducted for several 
years until he decided on his return to Amer- 
ica in the fall of 1892. He took up his abode 
in New York, where he occupied one of the 
Van Dyke studios for the next nine months, 
when he received and accepted the offer of 
the directorship of the Minneapolis School of 
Fine Arts, which he has filled ever since, 
coming to Minneapolis in September, 1893. 
While in Munich he was twice delegated to 
America by the Munich Artists' Association 
for the purpose of organizing an American 
department at the International Art Exhibi- 
tion of 1883 and 1888, the successful accom- 
plishment of which, in the face of very dis- 
couraging conditions, gave proof of energy 
and executive ability of no mean order, and 
earned him official recognition by the Bavari- 
an government in the bestowal of the cross of 
the order of St. Michael. During his sojourn 
in Munich he took a prominent part in all af- 
fairs of the American colony there, being 
four times elected president of the American 
Artists' club. The experience thus gained, 




OniOUT KOEHLER. 



while holding various oflices and as a teacher 
of ai-t, tended to qualify him exceptionally 
for the position he now holds. When the 
history of the art development in the North- 
west will be written, Mr. Koehler's earnest 
and conscientious work will appear as of the 
greatest importance. His faith in the future 
of art in the great Northwest keeps his en- 
thusiasm fresh and finds him ever ready to 
sui)j(()rt with advi(e and assistance every 
artistic enterprise, ^^'ith pen and pencil, on 
the lecture platform and in the class rooms, 
he works indefatigably and unselfishly for 
the cause of art. In September. 1895, Mr. 
Koehler married Marie Fischer, born in 
Rochester, N. Y., of German parents, her 
father being a civil engineer of great ability. 
Mr. Koehler met his wife some years previ- 
ously on the beautiful shores of Lake Con- 
stance, in Germany. Mr. Koehler has built 
himself a handsome residence on Portland 
avenue, within two blocks of lovely Min- 
nehaha creek. The house is of striking ap- 
]iearance, being modelled after the old Ger- 
man houses of Nuremburg. Tlie second floor 
is mainly occupied by the artist's studio, and 
in this ideal sanctum Mr. Koehler spends 
what time is left from his vocation of teach- 



HISTORY OP THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



ing — considerably less than he could wish. 
Among the pictures Mr. Koehler has painted, 
aside from the aforementioned "Strike"' are 
"A Holiday Occupation" (owned by the Penn 
sylvania Academy of Fine Arts); "Her Only 
Support," "Love's Secret," "The Socialist," 
"In the Cafe," "The Carpenter's Family,"' 
"Bainy Evening in Munich," "Evening, I'l'om- 
enade I'latz, Munich," (referred to by Pi'o- 
fessor Muther in his "History of Modern 
Painting""); "The First Guests," "Violet,"' 
"Judgment of Paris," "Spanish Nobleman," 
"Listening to the Sermon,"' "Lunch Time," 
"In Summer," "The Sower," "Homeward 
Bound," and "At Lake Minnetonka"; also a 
num])er of portraits. 



WULLING, Frederick John. — Pharmacy 
as an art is as old as history, but phamiacy 
as a science, like chemistry, is of compara- 
tively recent development. The old-time 
doctors' materia medica M'as limited to the 
few organic drugs they collected themselves 
and carried about with them. The advance 
of the profession of medicine compelled ex- 
pert knowledge to such an extent that the 
compounding of drugs gradually developed 
from a mere adjunct to a doctor's qualifica- 
tions into a separate and true profession. 
I'harmacy is now recognized as one of the 
most important arts and sciences in the cir- 
cle of the professions, and takes rank with 
and includes chemistry. When the LTniver- 
sity of Minnesota was expanding its curricu- 
lum to more fully embrace the field which 
its name implies — university — a college of 
pharmacy was included and a young man of 
superior attainments and practical expei>i- 
ence was secured to organize it. Tliat man 
was the present dean of the college, Frede- 
rick J. Wulling. He was born at Brooklyn, 
N. Y., December 24, 1866. His father was 
John J. Wulling. an architect by profession. 
He was also a manufacturer of artistic in- 
terior woodwork. During one of the almost 
periodical depressions of the country he 
became so involved that he closed out 
this business, stripping himself and fam- 
ily of all but the necessaries of life to 
meet his obligations, which he paid to 



the last dollar, sacrificing even his home- 
stead for this purpose. The family is 
of German descent and can be traced back 
to the fourteenth century. It held a landed 
estate in Germany up to about the middle 
of the last century, when so many changes 
took place. The name was originally Von 
Wullingen. This was changed by Mr. Wul- 
ling's great-grandfather to its present fonn. 
In 1870 John J. Wulling moved from Brook- 
lyn to his summer home at Carlstadt. N. J., 
eight miles from Xew York. Here Frederick 
received his earh' education and spent his 
boyhood days. He passed through tlie gram- 
mar and high s<-hools, graduating from the 
latter at the head of his class. Besides this, 
during the last two years of his high school 
course, he attended Bryant & Stratton's busi- 
ness college at night, and was emjdoyed on 
Saturdays in the office of a wholesale import- 
ing house in New York city. This shows the 
indomitable energy of the boy and his capac- 
ity for work. His father's reverses came 
at about the close of Frederick"s high school 
course. After graduating he took up the 
univei'sity studies under tutors, and then be- 
gan the study of medicine and phanuacy. 
His father was so broken down by his busi- 
ness troubles that the support of the family, 
grown to be a large one, devolved upon Fred- 
erick, who was the oldest, although scarcely 
more than a boy, but the responsibility in 
stead of discouraging him stimulated him to 
increa.sed energy. He took a position with 
college privileges with Dr. C. W. Braeutigan, 
of Brooklyn. A part of his time was given 
to the Columbia University, and to translat- 
ing articles on chemistry, pharmacy and 
medicine from French. Gemian, Italian and 
Spanish journals. He did this so rapidly 
and well that he earned enough to support 
his father's family and to provide for his own 
college course. In 1885 he passed the senior 
examination in pharmacy and allied branch- 
es before the boards of New York and Brook- 
lyn, and of New Jersey. He had matricu- 
lated at the College of Pharmacy of the city 
of New York in 1884. After the final junior 
examination of the college in 1886 it was 
made known to him that his rating was the 
highest of the class, and that he was entitled 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



to enter the competitor's examination for the 
free scholarship of the senior year. He won 
the scholarship — the first that had been won 
for several years, because of the failure of 
candidates to reach the required percentage. 
lu 1887 he graduated at the head of a class 
of one hundred and six, taking as prizes the 
gold medal, one hundred dollars in gold, a 
microscope, and an analytical balance — all 
the prizes possible for one person to take. 
His general average in marking was 98f. 
This has not since been equalled in the col- 
lege. During the three years at the College 
of Pharmacy and after — as time permitted, 
while keeping up with his class — he attend- 
ed the College of I'hysicians and Surgeons 
in the Columbian University. In the spring 
of 188G he resigned the position with Dr. 
Braeutigan to accept one in Dr. S. Fleet 
Speir's laboratories on Brooklyn Heights, 
where he was promoted so rapidly that he 
became managing chemist before he had 
graduated from college, and when he had 
just turned twenty years of age. In 1880 he 
was appointed lecture assistant to I'rofessor 
Bedford, the foremost pharmacist of the pro- 
fession. In 1887 he was promoted to the in- 
structorship, and in 1890 to the assistant 
professorship of phannacy in the New York 
College of I'harmacy. From 1889 to 1891 
he was associate editor with Editoi-in-Chief 
Professor Bedford on the Pharmaceutical 
Record of Xew York. During the early 
spring and summer of 1S87 he visited the 
chief universities of Eurojje, studying for 
brief periods at Munich, Berlin, (joettingen 
and Paris. Before he returned home he vis- 
ited every country in Europe except Eng- 
land. The versatility and activity shown by 
Mr. Wulling during the yeai-s from 1887 to 
1891 exhibit his ability and capacity for 
work. He was managing chemist in a large 
laboratoiy, teacher at the New York College, 
doing post-graduate and original research 
work with Professor Charles F. Chandler, 
and later with Professor Parsons, attending 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons 
three times a week, ti'anslating, doing edi- 
torial work, and writing of articles on chem- 
ical, pharmaceutical, medical and allied sub- 
jects, attending the Hoagland Laboratory of 




FItEDEiaCK J. WULLING. 

Bacteriology at Long Island College, lectur- 
ing before the Brooklyn Institute, and be- 
fore the Brooklyn Ethical Association, be- 
sides doing work for physicians in clinical 
microscopy, and instructing private c*asses 
in chemistry. During this time he recovered 
his father's old home and added surrounding 
ground to it and acquired other real estate. 
He also entered into partnership in drug 
stares with some of his most successful stu- 
dents. In 1889, as might have been expect- 
ed from this multifarious activity, his health 
began to fail and he took another trip to 
Europe for a rest, but did some advanced 
work in chemistry at Munich. He, however, 
returned fully recovered. In 1891 Professor 
AVulling was called to the chair of Inorganic 
I'harmaco-Diagnosis at the Brooklyn College 
of Pharmacy. He resigned from the New 
York College to devote his attention to his 
new duties and to a larger business venture 
with his uncle, which, not proving i)rorttable, 
was disposed of. In 1892 he published his 
work "Phannaceutical and Medical Chem- 
istry" which lias now reached its third edi- 
tion. A brief history of botany, which he 
wrote in 1891, has passed through ten edi- 
tions of a thousand each. In the spring of 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



1892 Professor Wulling was called to the 
University of Minnesota to organize a de- 
partment of pharmacy. This work he did, 
surmounting many obstacles. The depart- 
ment took high rank from the start, and it 
is now one of the leading colleges of the 
United States. He was at once given the 
title of dean of the faculty and made an ex- 
ecutive officer of the university. He has giv- 
en his time and energy exclusively to the 
college and higher pharmacy since his ap- 
pointment as dean. In 1894 Dean Wulling 
made a trip to England, Scotland, France 
and Belgium. He there enlarged his ac- 
quaintance with men i^rominent in his own 
field and in other sciences. He has been in 
all the states of the Union, and has visited 
Canada. Soon after his return from Eng- 
land he was elected Fellow of the Society of 
Science at London. To sum up his literary 
work it may be mentioned that besides being 
the author of the two standard books men- 
tioned he is the author of more than four 
hundred original essays, papei's and lectures 
outside of college work, and of a work pub- 
lished serially in "Merck's Report" on the 
subject of "Carbon Compounds." This work 
is now complete and will shortly appear in 
book form. His writings are widely copied 
in journals in the United States and in the 
leading countries of Europe. In 1897 Dean 
Wulling was married to Miss Lucile T. Gis- 
sel, daughter of Henry Gissel, a pi'ominent 
citizen of Brooklyn, N. Y., and a well-to-do 
merchant. He has four sisters and three 
brothers, for whom he has provided a liberal 
education, besides contributing liberally 
every month to his parents. In 1896 he 
graduated from the law school of the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota with the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws, and in 1898 took the de- 
gree of Master of Laws. He has therefore 
earned the degrees of Ph. G., Ph. C, Phm. 
D., LL. B., F. S. C, and LL. M. He is also 
affiliated with the following organizations: 
Honorary member of the Brooklyn College 
of Pharmacy and of Alumni associations of 
the College of I'harmacy of the city of New 
York and of the Minnesota University Col- 
lege of Pharmacy. He is a member of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association, 



American Chemical Society, Chemists' Club, 
New York; New York State Pharmaceuticjil 
Association, Minnesota Pharmaceutical State 
Association, Brooklyn Institute of Arts and 
Letters, Brooklyn Ethical Association, Min- 
nesota Bar, and of other minor associations. 



TUENBLAD, Swan Johan, is owner and 
publisher of the Svenska Amerikanska Pos- 
ten, published at Minneapolis. This publica- 
tion is the most influential Scandinavian 
weekly issued from the presses of this coun- 
try, it has a circulation of over 50,000 
copies, exceeding by a good many thousand 
that of any other paper of its nationality, and 
is the largest in point of size, running usually 
from sixteen to twenty pages. Mr. Turn- 
hlad is in every sense of the world a self- 
made man. He is a prominent representa- 
tive of that class of American citizens who 
make up such a large portioni of the popula- 
tion of this great Northwest. What success 
he has achieved is due entirely to his own 
unaided efforts. Taking hold of the Svenska 
Amerikanska Posten in the second year of 
its existence, when it had only 1,400 sub- 
scribers and an indebtedness of $5,000 
weighing it down, his business sagacity has 
succeeded in thirteen years in making it one 
of the best paying newspaper properties in 
the Northwest. Mr. Turnblad was born Oc- 
tober 7, 1860, in Tubbemala, Sweden. He is 
the son of Olof Monson and Ingjard Turn- 
blad, who came to this country when he was 
but nine years of age. His father had pos- 
sessed a considerable fortune in the old coun- 
try, but he lost it all through the unfortunate 
endorsement of worthless notes. On his ar- 
rival in America, he came directly to Minne- 
sota and located at Vasa, in Goodhue county, 
where he engaged in farming. The subject 
of this sketch attended the Vasa public 
schools and P. T. Lindholm's high school in 
that place. He taught school for two terms 
after leaving the high school. Quite early 
in life Mr. Turnblad exhibited a strong pre- 
dilection for the art of printing. While at- 
tending school he sent away for a set of t3'pes 
and a small hand press. Up to this time he 
had never seen a printer's case, but through 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



a small instruction book he obtained he 
quickly learned how to use the small printin}^ 
equipment he had ordered. That he was 
ambitious may be judged by the fact that he 
attempted' to publish ;iu arithmetic compiled 
by Professor P. T. Liudholm. He had to 
distribute his type after setting and printing 
each page, but in six months' time he suc- 
ceeded in getting out a book of 120 pages. 
He was but seventeen years old when he com- 
pleted this pretentious task. In 1S79 he re- 
moved to Minneapolis and worked as a type- 
setter on the Minnesota Stats Tidning and 
Svenska Folkets Tidning. He followed this 
line of work for the next eight years, part of 
the time soliciting in the insurance business. 
In 18S7 he took charge of the management 
of the Svenska Amerikanska Posten, which 
at that time was in a bad financial condition, 
but under his able management it was soon 
put on a solid footing. The paper is inde- 
pendent in politics, and is an advocate of 
temperance principles. It may be men- 
tioned in this connection that at one time 
Mr. Turnblad took a prominent part in tem- 
perance work. He assisted in organizing the 
first Scandinavian temperance society in Min- 
neapolis, meetings being held at the old Har- 
rison hall every Sunday afternoon to crowd- 
ed houses. He was also a Good Templar and 
helped to organize several lodges throughout 
the state of Minnesota. When 3Ir. Turnblad 
first came to Minneapolis he did not have 
over |5 to his name, but by industry and fru- 
gal habits ho has now amassed a comfortable 
fortune. In the days when he worked at the 
printer's case, his inventive mind evolved a 
secret letter writer, which is now extensively 
used. He sold the sole right to its patent to 
an eastern party at a handsome figure, thus 
first securing his start in life. He owns the 
Cecil flats at 1511 Stevens avenue, one of the 
handsomest and best paying apartment build- 
ings in Minneapolis, and also possesses con 
siderable other real estate property. He is 
now erecting a handsome grey-stone resi- 
dence on some property he owns, on Central 
Park and Oak Grove street, at a cost of 
1100,000. Mr. Turnblad is independent in 
his political affiliations, but has always re- 
fused to accejit [tolitical jirefciuicut for him- 




SWAN J. TUUM'.LAl). 

self, with the exception of his appoiutment 
as a member of the board of umuagers of the 
state reformatory at St. Cloud, which he 
was ottered by (iovernor Lind in 1899^ He 
is a projuinent nu'mher of the Masonic lodge, 
having taken all the degrees up to the thirty- 
second in the York and Scottish Rites. He 
is also a Shriner. He is identified with the 
Presbyterian church, and is a member of 
Westminster. In 18S;! he was married to 
Christina Nelson, of Worthing-ton, Minn. 
They have one child, Lillian Zeuobia. Mr. 
Turnblad and his family, in the last few 
years, have enjoyed considerable traveling, 
and in 1895, 1897 and 1S99 they made ex- 
tensive Eiuoiiean tours. 



MARSHALL, Cla ranee Alden, came to 
Minneapolis in 1891 from Boston, to take the 
directorship of the Northwestern ('ouserva- 
tory of Music. 

His father was Alden B. Marshall, a con- 
tractor and builder of Newton, Mass., a vete- 
ran of the Civil war, and a man of sterling 
character, universally resix'cted in the com- 
munity. His nu)tlier was Clarissa Hemeu- 
way, a member of a prominent family in 



HISTORY OF THE OREAT XORTHAVEST. 




CLARAXCE A. MAltSHALL. 

Fi-auiingliam, Mass. Both families came 
from the oldest Puritan stock. 

Clarance A. Mai-sliall was born at Marl- 
boro, Mass., March 15, 1859. His education 
was obtained in the public schools of New- 
ton, Mass., where his parents removed in 
his ninth year, attracted by the i-eputation of 
the public school sj'stem of the city. He 
graduated from Newton High School at the 
age of eighteen, and entered Harvard Col- 
lege a year later as special student in art and 
music. Here, for a period of six years, he 
pursued his studies in music and art under 
John Knowles Paine and others. 

His musical education was continued un- 
der some of Boston's most famous instru- 
mental and vocal artists, with a large num- 
ber of whom he was associated as pupil or 
in some higher capacity until he became asso- 
ciate conductor with Carl Zerrahn, the well- 
known director of the famous Handel and 
Haydn Oratorio society. Positions as church 
organist and choir director were held in Wa- 
tertown, Eoxbury and Boston, and as direc- 
tor of choral societies in Watertown, Dor- 
chester and other Massachusetts cities, also 
in Bangor, Waterville, Augusta and other 
Maine and New England towns. 

In the fall of 1887, a choir and three 



choral societies in Saginaw, Mich., held out 
inducements which were accepted, and a sea- 
son was spent in that state. The next au- 
tumn, poor health making a southern climate 
preferable, he went to Nashville. Tenn., as 
leader of a surpliced choir and vocal instruc- 
tor in a large young ladies' seminary. In 
the spring of 18S9 he organized and made 
a success of the first great musical festival 
ever held in the city. In the fall of that 
year he accepted an offer from the Mozart 
Society, of Richmond, Va., where two years 
were spent as director of the chorus and or- 
chestra of the society, and booking ai'tists 
for the semi monthly concei'ts. Here two 
large and successful festivals were organized 
and a great stimulus given musical matters. 

In the summer of 1891 he purchased the 
Northwestern Conservator}' of Music at Min- 
neapolis, immediately assuming active direc- 
tion. The institution had been in operation 
for six years, and his first year showed an 
attendance of about 130. During the nine 
years following, energy and ability in man- 
agement has increased the annual attendance 
to nearly 500, the last graduating class num- 
bering 24. Over 3,500 students have been 
connected with the school, and an alumni 
association of over 100 organized, the quar- 
ters occupied have been enlarged, and a great 
school, exerting a wide influence over the 
Northwest, has been firmly established. 

Mr. Marshall became a member of the 
Immanuel Baptist church of Newton, Mass., 
when a lad, and still retains the membership, 
his professional connection with churches of 
various denominations making a transfer im- 
{tracticable. During his residence in Minne- 
apolis he has been organist and choir direc- 
tor of Westminster Presbyterian, Gethsem-' 
ane Episcopal, and the First Congregational 
churches. 

He was married in 1891 to Miss Marion 
Howard, of Waterville, Me., and has one 
child, a daughter. 



HUGHES, Thomas, is one of the leading 
lawyers of Southern Minnesota, and has been 
practicing his profession in Mankato since 
1882. He is a native of Ohio, and was born 
in Miuersville, Meigs county, September 23, 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



1854. His father, Henry Huolies, was bora 
in Monnioutlisliii-e, Soutli Wales, in lS:?;i, 
and came to this country in 1851, settling at 
Minersyille, where, two years later, he was 
married to Eliza Davis, a native of Cardi- 
ganshire, Wales, who had emigrated to this 
country the same year as her husband. Mv. 
Hughes moved with his family to Minnesota 
in October, 1855, and settled on a farm in 
the present town of Cambria, Blue Earth 
county, and was one of the first settlers in 
that section of the state. He retired from 
his farm in 1880, removing to Mankato, 
where he now resides in fairly good circum- 
stances. He always took an active interest 
in all matters of a public nature, has been 
a leader in local affairs, and held a number 
of town and school offices. The subject of 
our sketch enjoyed the best educational ad- 
vantages the country schools afforded, and 
when twenty years of age went to Northfleld 
and entered the preparatory department of 
Carleton College, graduating in the regular 
classical course in 1880, with first honors. 
He then took up the study of law in the of- 
fice of the late Judge F. H. Waite, of Man- 
kato, Minn., and was admitted to the bar in 
1882. He formed a partnership with Mr. M. 
Z. Willard in 1884 under the firm name of 
Willard & Hughes, which continued until 
1887. For the past ten years his brother, 
Evan Hughes, has been associated with him, 
but the finn name has been "Thomas 
Hughes." Ho enjoys an extensive practice 
and has the respect of his clients and fellow- 
members of the bar in a high degree. Ik- 
has been attorney for the First National 
IJank of Mankato, the Mankato Mutual 
Building and Loan Association, and several 
other corpoi'ations, for a number of yeare. 
During his practice he has handled a large 
number of important cases, and with very 
good success. In 189C he was elected coun- 
ty attorney of Blue Earth county and was 
re-elected by a large majority in ISflS. His 
record in that office is acknowledged to have 
been second to none in the state. In politics 
he has always been a Eepublicau and a con 
sistent supporter of Kepublican ])rinciples, 
taking an active interest in the party's wel- 
fare. He has been identified with evei'y piib- 




TIIO.MAS HUGHES. 

lie enterprise tending to build uji and pro- 
mote the best interests of his adopted city, 
and has been a director of the Mankato 
Mutual Building and Loan Association for 
a number of years. He is also a member of 
and on the board of directors of the Man- 
kato Board of Trade, is a director of the Y. 
M. C. A. of that city, and is connected with 
a number of other associations. The only 
fraternal organization with which he is con- 
nected is the Knights of I'ythias. He is a 
member of the Congregational Church of 
Mankato, a trustee and deacon, and superin- 
tendent of the Sunday school. November 
25, 1885, he was married to Miss Alice O. 
Hills, daughter of Amos B. and Sybil Hills, 
of Faribault, Minn. Tlieir union has been 
blessi^i with two children, Burton E. and 
Evan Raymond. Mrs. Hughes is a graduate 
of Cai-leton College in the class of 1881. 



WINTEKEK, Herman.— North Dalvota 
has allorded boundless ojiportunities to the 
young man of pluck and determination. 
Success, however, was not to be achieved 
without a struggle, and the ambitious youth 
who took lip his residence in the Territory 



HISTOUY OK THE GREAT ^•OUTH^A•EST. 




HERMAN WIXTEUEIl. 

of Dakota in the early clays liad his share of 
adversity and misfortune. When the sub- 
ject of this sketch first settled in the Flicker- 
tail state and hung out his shingle he had 
neither money nor books nor experience as 
a lawyer. He did, however, jjossess a facul- 
ty for persevering and the prominence he 
has attained in the legal profession is due 
largely to this particular part of his make-up. 
Mr. Winterer was born in Philadelphia, Pa., 
January 1, 18.57. His father was a native 
of Gennany, and was born and reared in Et- 
tenheim. Grand Duchy of Baden, and here 
he learned the trade of a locksmith. He 
came to the United States when a young 
man and located in Philadelphia, where he 
secured employment in a locomotive shop. 
He was married here to Francisca Kohlif- 
rath, who was also a native of Ettenheim. 
In 1858 they migrated west and settled in 
Sibley county, Minn. The Sioux uprising in 
the early sixties compelled the family to 
move away for a time from the claim on 
which they had settled, and in 1867 Mr. Win- 
terer purchased another farm at Lake I»rai- 
rie, in Nicollet county. He died in 1889, his 
wife's death preceding his about seven years, 
leaving a large family sui'viviiig them. Her- 



man's early education was received in the 
district schools, but the instruction afforded 
was crude in its character. The desire of 
the parents to give their children the best 
education at their command inspired the lad 
to make diligent use of his time after the 
evening chores were done. He taught school 
and later he attended the high school at Le 
Sueur, Minn. lu 1877 he entered the State 
Tni versify, and after comjileting the four 
year's work at this institution, took up the 
law course in the University of Iowa, gradu- 
ating in the class of 1882. The following 
spring he went to Dakota and located at 
^'alley City, where he began the i)ractice of 
his profession. A few months later he 
formed a partnership with Judge Seth Mills. 
^Mr. Mills died shor-tly afterwards, however, 
and Mr. Winterer continued his practice 
alone until his younger brother, Edward, be- 
came a partner and the law firm of Winterer 
& Winterer was established. Ever since his 
residence in Dakota Mr. Winterer has taken 
an active interest in politics. Although 
not a partisan, he has generally asso- 
ciated himself with the Democratic party. 
He was first an applicant for political hon- 
ors in 1800, when he aspired to the office of 
state's attorney for Barnes county, and was 
elected by a two-thii-ds vote of the county 
against strong opposition. He was i-e-elect- 
ed in 1892, and again in 1891, without oppo- 
sition. His brother succeeded him in this 
office at the close of his third term. While 
serving as state's attorney he successfully 
conducted a number of important tax cases 
growing out of the Northern Pacific land 
grant. Both in 189G and in 1900 Mr. Win- 
terer was solicited to become a candidate 
for district judge of his home district, but 
in each instance declined, feeling that he 
could not aftord to give up his practice for a 
judgeship). In 1890 he was elected vice 
president of the First National Bank of Val- 
ley City, which position he still holds. He 
has also served for a number of years on 
the board of education of that city and is 
president of the board at the present time. 
Since his graduation from the Iowa law 
school Mr. Winterer has been admitted to 
practice in the state and federal courts of 



HISTORY OF TUE (JUEAT NORTHWEST. 



Iowa, Minnesota, North and Soutli Dakota, 
and, on March 28, 1898, was granted the priv- 
ilege to practice before the snpreme court of 
the United States. He is prominent in ^Ma- 
sonic circles, is Eminent Commander of St. 
Elmo Commandery, No. 5, Valley City, and 
Warden of the Grand Commandery of the 
state of North Dakota. He is also a. mem- 
ber of El Zagal Temple of the Mystic Shrine 
of Fargo, also a member of the A. O. U. "W. 
January 1, 1887, he was married to Emma 
A., daughter of Cyrus (1. Myrick, of Le 
Sueur, Minn. Mr. Myrick is a Vermonter 
and a graduate of the Norwich ^Military 
School and Middlebury Colk^ge. Althougli 
84 years of age he is able to read Creek and 
Latin and handle the higher branches of 
mathematics as easily as though he had just 
graduated. Mrs. Winterer is a graduate of 
the Le Sueur High School, and, thereafter, 
the recipient of special instruction. Three 
children have been born to them: Florence 
Nightingale, Francisca Eloise and Hermione 
Winterer. 



MARTIN, Eben W.— The congressman- 
elect from South Dakota, Eben W. Martin, 
might be said to be indigenous to the soil, 
for he is by birth, training, education and 
exi)erience a product of the Northwest and 
a fair example of what its institutions can do 
for its citizens. Mr. Martin was born in 
Maquoketa, — a name suggestive of westeni 
ozone, — ^lowa, in 185.5. On his father's side 
the ancestry is Scotch-Irish, while his mother 
is of English descent, from a family which 
settled at Stonington, Conn., in the seven- 
teenth century. Her maiden name was Lois 
Hyde Wever, and she was the youngest 
child of Rev. John M. Wever, a Methodist 
Episcopal minister of the Troy (N. Y.) con- 
ference. Mr. Martin's father, James W. 
Martin, was a traveling salesman in modest 
iinancial circumstances, who served in the 
war of the Rebellion as captain of Company 
I, Twenty-fourth Iowa Volunteers. Eben 
\V. Martin's great-great-grandfather was a 
soldier of the Revolutionary war, and served 
under General Washington. By reaso7i of 
this military lineage Mr. Martin is a member 
of the Loyal Legion through his father's 




EI'.KN W. 1I.\UTIN. 

service, and a member of the South Dakota 
Chapter of the Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion by virtue of his great-great-grandfa- 
ther's record in the struggle for indepen- 
dence. Mr. Mai'tin's early education 1<ras ob- 
tained in the district school of Ma(]Uoketa, 
Jackson county, Iowa, and in the grammar 
and high school of Mount Pleasant, Iowa, 
where he prepared for college. He entered 
Cornell College, Mount Vernon, Iowa, and 
took the classical course, graduating with 
the degree of Bachelor of Arts in the class 
of 1S70, and three years later received from 
the institution the degree of Master of Arts. 
^^'llile in college he was, in 1877, president 
of tlie Interstate Oratorical Association — a 
fact which speaks well for his oratorical 
stan<ling at college. Having chosen law as 
his jirofession, he commenced his legal stud- 
ies in the office of George B. Young, Clinton, 
Iowa, and then entered the law department 
of the University of Michigan, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1880. He was i)r('sid»'nt 
of the law class of the university while he 
was a student. In August. 18S0, he came 
to South Dakota and settled at Deadwood 
when the region was known as the •'Black 
Hills," where he has ever since lived. Here 
he devoted himself to his profession with 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



great assiduity and soon had a lucrative 
practice in all the courts accessible. In 1887 
he formed a partnership with ISTorman T. 
Mason, Esq.. under the style of Martin & 
Alasou. The firm at once took a leading po- 
sition at the bar and has since had a large 
share of the important litigation in all the 
higher courts of the state. Some of the 
cases conducted by the finu have been noted 
for the abstruse law points involved, and for 
the array of legal talent employed. One of 
the more recent cases is that of the Buxton 
Mining Company vs. Golden Reward Com- 
pany, in the Circuit Court of the United 
States at Deadwood, and in the United 
States Circuit Court of Appeals at St. Paul, 
^lartin & Mason were attorneys for the 
plaintiff. This was a jury case. The trial 
consumed five weeks, resulting in a verdict 
for about seventy thousand dollars for the 
plaintiff. Mr. Martin has always been a 
Republican, and has generally taken part in 
all campaigns so far as his business would 
permit, but not in a personal way, except 
when he was elected to the territorial legisla- 
ture in 1884—85, until the recent campaign. 
In 1900 he was elected to congress as a mem- 
ber at large from South Dakota. He has 
always taken an interest in educational mat- 
ters, as might be expected from his own 
thorough equipment. He was for several 
years president of the board of education of 
the city of Deadwood. and has served at dif- 
ferent times as a member of the board of 
trustees of the State Normal School at Spear- 
fish, S. D., and of other educational institu- 
tions. He is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church and in May, 1900. was a 
lay delegate to the quadrennial general con- 
ference of the denomination, held at Chicago. 
In 1883 he was married to Jessie Arvilla 
Miner, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. George N. 
Miner, formerly of Cedar Falls, Iowa, now 
of Hot Springs, S. D. They have five chil- 
dren: George M., IG years old; Lois W., 14; 
Paul E.. 11; Charles E., 8, and Jessie A. 
Martin, 4 vears old. 



YOUNG, Newton Clarence. — Judge N. 
C. Young, who is now serving as one of the 
three justices of the supreme court of North 



Dakota, was born at Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, on 
January 128, 1802. His parents are natives 
of Oliio and are farmers. In 1850 and 
shorfly after their marriage, they emigrat- 
ed to Iowa, where they still reside. Their 
family consisted of ten children, six of 
whom are living. Newton, who is the 
fourth, received his entire education in the 
schools of his native state. Until he was 
eleven years of age he attended a countrv 
school. Later he attended the preparatory 
department of Tabor college. Following 
this he was compelled to remain out of 
school for four years and assist his father 
on the farm. In 1879 he entered the Iowa 
City academy, from which he graduated in 
1882. In the same year he entered the 
state universit.v, taking the classical course, 
and graduated in 1880 with the degree of 
B. A. and on the honor list. In his second 
year in the university he was elected to the 
editorial staff of the Yidette Reporter, the 
then official newspaper of the university, 
and later became its managing editor. He 
was a member and one of the presidents of 
the Letagathian Literary Society and later 
became a member of the Phi Delta Theta 
fraternity. In the annual university ora- 
torical contest of 1880 he was awarded 
second honors. In 1890 his Alma Mater 
conferred upon him the degree of Master of 
Arts. In the year of his graduation from 
the collegiate department of the university 
he entered the law department of the same 
institution and graduated therefrom in 
1887. On June 2.3, 1887, two days after his 
graduation, he was married to Miss Ida B. 
Clarke, who had just graduated from the 
philosophical course of the same university. 
They immediately moved to Bathgate, in 
Pembina county, in the then territory of 
Dakota, where ^Ir. Young entered upon the 
practice of his profession. He soon became 
a useful member of the community in which 
he had taken up his residence and, in addi 
tion to enjoying a lucrative practice, he was 
called to fill a number of local offices. In 
1892, at the instance of those of his fellow 
citizens favoring a better enforcement of 
the law, he became a candidate for state's 
attornev and was elected. In 1894 he was 




NEWTON CLARENCE YOUNO. 



HISTORY OF THE (HiEAT NORTHWEST. 



re-elected to the same position without op- 
position. In 1896 he was one of three nomi- 
nees for district judye of the Seventh ju- 
dicial district, and was defeated. His suc- 
cessful administration of the state's attor. 
ney's office had, however, established his 
reputation from one end of the state to the 
other, as a conscientious and fearless at- 
torney, so that, two years later, notwith- 
standing his defeat, the Republicans of 
Pembina county presented his name to the 
state convention as their choice for the su- 
I)reme bench of the state, to succeed Judf^e 
("orliss, and he was nominated by acclama- 
tion. Shortly after the convention Judge 
('orliss resigned and Mr. Young was ap- 
l)ointed by Gov. Devine to fill out the un- 
expired term. The ensuing election result- 
ed in his election by a large majority, the 
endorsement from his home county being 
particularly complimentary and largely 
non-partisan. Judge Young is making an 
honorable record on the supreme bench and 
is a striking example of what may be ac- 
complished by a young man of energy and 
fidelity to principle and purpose. In 1898, 
after his election to the supreme bench. 
Judge Young moved his family to Fargo, 
because of the greater convenience in his 
work, and the excellent educational advan- 
tages of that city. Their family consists of 
three children, Laura B., aged 12; Horace 
Clarke, aged 10, and Dorothea P., aged 8. 



HARVEY, Thomas Edmond, was born in 
New York City, November 23, 1844, and is 
the oldest of seven children of Michael L. 
and Ellen Harvey, both of whom were na- 
tives of the north of Ireland, but of English 
and Scotch ancestry, — the maiden name of 
Mrs. Harvey being McGill. In May, 1850, 
the family emigrated to the state of Illinois 
and settled on a farm near Dixon, the county 
seat of Lee county, where Thomas E. re- 
ceived his early education, attending the com- 
mon schools in the winter months and work- 
ing on the farm during the summer. He was 
a studious reader of biography and history, 
in which he was greatly assisted and directed 
by his father, who was a graduate of the Uni- 



A'ersity of Dublin. In 1861 he entered Bry- 
ant & Stratton's Commercial College in Chi- 
cago, but before graduating he enlisted in 
the 65th Illinois Infantry, and went to the 
front, participating in the battle of Harper's 
Ferry in September, 1862, where General 
Miles surrendered to Stonewall Jackson. 
From a private soldier Mr. Harvey rose to 
the rank of second lieutenant, and in June, 
1865, when peace was declared, the spirit of 
adventure still strong in him, he started west 
and crossed the plains, arriving in Denver on 
the 6th of August, and returned to Omaha, 
Xeb., in December of the same year. Here 
he first began the study of the law under the 
tuition of Hon. Charles H. Brown, then the 
leading criminal lawyer of the state. In Feb- 
ruary, 1868, he left the office of Mr. Brown 
and removed to North Platte, Neb., where 
he enteied the law office of Hon. Beach I. 
Hinman. afterwards taking a course in a law 
school of one year, in Chicago, and returning 
to his old preceptor at North Platte, where 
he was admitted to the bar, September 23, 
1873, remaining with Mr. Hinman until the 
fall of 1875. About this time reports of the 
discovery- of gold in the Black Hills of Da- 
kota attracted the attention of Mr. Harvey, 
and he resolved to set out for that Eldorado. 
Leaving Chejenne on the 12th day of Janu- 
ary, 1876, after many hardships, and their 
horses having been stolen by the hostile In- 
dians, Mr. Harvey and his brother James ar- 
rived in Custer City, February 14, 1876. At 
that time the Black Hills was a part of the 
Indian reservation, and the territorial laws 
were not in force, but the people at once 
organized a provisional goverament, and al 
the election on the 25th of March, 1876, a 
code of laws was adopted and a full set of 
oflicers elected, Mr. Harvey being elected the 
first judge of the superior court, having ap- 
pellate jurisdiction from the justices of the 
peace. This office he resigned to engage in 
the practice of law, and he was the first law- 
yer to practice in the Black Hills, and was 
engaged in every case tried in the courts 
there until he removed to Deadwood in July, 
1877. While at Custer he was appointed 
the first United States postmaster, his 



168 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



commission bearing date March 14, 1877. 
In July of that year Mr. Harvey removed 
to Deadwood, where lie had a lucrative law 
practice until 1889, when he was apijoiuted 
the first district attorney of Meade county. 
After a year and eight months in this office 
he resigned, on account of his growing prac- 
tice, and the large fees olTered him in the 
defense of crininial cases; his success in this 
line was so great that there was not one 
conviction for felony for two years and four 
months, although over fifty parties were in- 
dicted tor ditTerent crimes, including seven 
murder indictments. The citizens becoming 
alarmed at the condition of ali'airs in their 
county, requested him to accept the nomina- 
tion for state's attorney on the Democratic 
ticket in the fall of 1892, and feeling that he 
should resjKind to the wishes of the best ele- 
ments of all political parties, he accepted the 
nomination and was elected bj' a large ma- 
jority over both the Republican and Populist 
candidates. Mr. Harvey justified the hopes 
of his friends and supporters by succeeding 
in convicting, and sending to the state peni- 
tentiary, sixteen persons for different crimes 
including murder and manslaughter, and an- 
other (Jay Hicks) was executed at Sturgis, 
November 1.5, 1894, for the robbery and mur- 
der of a stockman, committed in November, 
1893, thus, in two years' time, effectually put- 
ting an end to the reign of terror in that 
county, and making it one of the most peace- 
able and law-abiding counties in the state. 

Mr. Harvey's reputation as a criminal 
lawyer is not confined to his own state. He 
is frequently employed to try important crim- 
inal cases in Montana, Wyoming, Utah and 
Nebraska. In politics he is a Republican, 
having renounced the Democratic party in 
189.5 during Cleveland's last administration; 
he is valued very highly as a campaign or- 
ator and is engaged by the Republican state 
and county coituiiittees in every ])olitical con- 
test. 

In 1885 Mr. Harvey was mai-ried to Miss 
Lizzie J. Martin, of Houghton. Mich. Four 
children were born to them, two only of 
whom are now living, Vivian Clarence, aged 
ten years, and James Edward, aged eight 




years. He is not a church member, but en- 
tertains the highest respect for religion and 
its good infiuence in society and the home, 
and donates liberally to the different churfties. 
In the month of April, 1897, Mr. Harvey, 
with his wife and two boys, located in the city 
of liead, S. D., the richest town in the state, 
having a population of over (i.OOO people. 
Here the great Homestake mines and mills 
are located, where the mines and mills em- 
ploy over two thousand men, and the output 
of the Homestake mines alone exceed ,1f:!,0()(),- 
0(1 a year in gold. Lead City is situated about 
three miles southwest of Deadwood, the 
county seat of Lawrence county, and is des- 
tined to become the most populous, as it now 
is the richest, city, in the state of South Da- 
kota. 

In a country like ours with the great op- 
l)ortunities which are constantly arising, 
those who have the requisite amount of 
stamina, haye a field before them of almost 
unlimited space in w-hich to become a great 
personal power from the results of their 
strenuous work and great prestige they are 
sure to gain. The subject nf this sketch is 
surelv in this class. 



HISTORY OF THE GRKAT NORTHWEST. 




THOMAS (fUUUMA.X. 

O'GORMAN, Thomas.— It is with pleas- 
ure that the biographer turns to a contem- 
plation of the life of a spiritual teacher, no 
matter what creed or faith he professes. 
He has no evidence before him that speaks 
of victories won in a contest for worldly hon- 
ors. He sees only the self-effacing, modest 
hero who has devoted his life to the uplifting 
of humanity. His own heart is refreshed 
and comforted by the mental vision called 
forth by the self-sacriliciug, noble life of one 
of these humble, never-tiring agents for good. 
In the early days of this great Northwest, 
the forerunners of civilization were the mis- 
sionaries of the Catholic church. A true 
history cannot leave out the important part 
taken by these men in the work of upbuild- 
ing. The priest of today has not the difficul- 
ties to contend with that his early brethren 
had. His work, however, is none the less 
trying, and he is just as much the spiritual 
father of his people as were his predecessors. 
A good and true priest is a burden bearer. 
His motto is alter alterius onera portate; 
bear ye one another's burdens. The cast-otf 
sorrows of those he has comforted enrich his 
soul and bring happiness and spiritual con- 
tentment to his heart. We now take up a 



brief re\iew of the life work of Thomas 
O'Ciorman, bishop of Sioux Falls. This 
good man has served his church for nearly 
thirty years in the Northwestern Held, and 
was consecrated bishop of the Sioux Falls 
diocese after long and faithful labors as a 
minister of the gospel. Bishop O'Gorman 
was born May 1, 1843, at Boston, Mass., the 
son of John 0"Gornian and Margaret Keefe. 
His father came west and settled in St. Paul, 
Minn., in 1852, when Thomas was but a mere 
boy. He took an active interest in public 
affairs and served as chief of police and in 
other important municipal offices in the 
period between 1852 and 1870. The fore- 
bears of our subject came to this country 
from County Kilkenny, Ireland. Thomas 
attended the Catholic and public schools of 
Chicago and St. Paul between his seventh 
and tenth year. In 1853 he was sent to 
France to receive a thorough educational 
training, with the purpose in view of later 
entering the priesthood. He was placed in 
the Petit Seminaire at Meximieux, in the 
Department of the Ain, where he remained 
until his graduation in 18G0, making a bril- 
liant record as a student and generally car- 
rying oft' the class honors. He then entered 
the Theological Scholasticate at Montbel, De- 
jjartment of the ^'ar, and prepared for the 
ministry. He returned to America in 1864, 
and was oi-dained a priest in St. Paul by the 
late Bishop Grace, second Roman Catholic 
bishop of St. Paul, Nov. 5, 1865. In Janu- 
ary, 1866, he was sent to Rochester, Minn., 
by Bishop Grace, and here entered upon his 
ministry. He remained in this field until 
July, 1878, when he became attached to the 
Church of the Paulist Fathers of New York. 
He was identified with the work of this com- ' 
munity until 1882, when he returned to Min- 
nesota and was assigned to the pastorate at 
Faribault. He remained here for two years, 
removing in 1885 to Merriam Park, where he 
became attached to the College of St. Thomas 
as first president and professor of dogmatic 
theology. He severed his connection with 
St. Thomas College in 1891 to accept the 
chair of professor of church history in the 
Catholic University at Washington, D. C, 
which he held for five years. While at this 



HISTORY OP THE GKB^AT NORTHWEST. 



institution, in 1893, he was honored with the 
bestowal of the title of D. D. by Pope Leo 
XIII. April 19. 1S9(;, he was consecrated 
bishop of Sioux Falls in St. Patrick's church, 
\A'asliington. by Cardinal Satolli, Archbishop 
Ireland preaching the ciinsecration sermon. 
Bishop O'Gorman is greatly loved and es- 
teemed in this diocese. He is staunch and 
unswerving in his devotion to the church; 
yet, while strict in his adherence to her rites 
and doctrines, he never hesitates to join 
heartily in all movements tending to uplift 
and benefit society. He is a man of rare 
scholarly attainments, and is greatly ad- 
mired by all with whom he comes in contact, 
not only for his intellectual accomplishments, 
but his endearing personal qualities as well. 
The bishop was a contributor to Charles 
Scribner's Sons American Chui'ch series, and 
wrote the volume entitled "The Histoi-y of 
the Roman Catholic Church in the United 
States." His residence is at Sioux Falls, 
S. D. 



PINE, Oran Steadman. — The surgeon of 
the Minnesota Soldiers' Home, O. S. Pine — 
as he usually writes his name — is a "Green 
Mountain Boy'' worthy of the lineage by his 
own personal experience and war service. 
He was born in the town of Underbill, Vt., 
October 13, 1845. His father, Joseph Pine, 
still living in 1900, at the age of eighty years, 
was a farmer in moderate circumstances. 
The family dates from pre-revolutionary 
times. Joseph Pine's grandfather served in 
the Revolutionary War under the noted 
Ethan Allen. His mother was sister to 
Judge Randall, of New York, the father of 
Alexander W. Randall, one-time governor of 
Wisconsin and postmaster general under 
President Johnson. Dr. O. S. Pine's moth- 
er's maiden name was Perlina Dike, the 
daughter of Rev. Orange Dike, a Free Will 
Baptist minister of the Vermont conference. 
She died in 1894, after more than fifty years 
of married life, having had five children, 
three sons and two daughters, of whom two 
sons and one daughter survive. She was of 
Scotch-Irish extraction, while the I'ines were 
refugees from Naples, Italy, who fled from 




ORAN S. PINE. 

persecution in the early part of the eight- 
eenth century. Dr. Pine received his early 
education in one of Vermont's "little red 
schoolhouses." This literary education ^vas 
supplemented by two fall terms at the Willis- 
ton (Vt.) Academy, which prepared him for 
teaching a district school, although only six- 
teen years of age. He, however, jiromptly 
began the work and continued teaching dur- 
ing the following winter. In the spring he 
went to New York and secured a position in 
a drug store, whcih probably determined his 
future career. But it was for a time inter 
ru])ted. In 1S63 he enlisted in a company 
which went to fill up the thinned ranks of 
the somewhat famous Fourteenth Brooklyn 
regiment, after the battle of Gettysburg. 
This regiment went with the rest of the army, 
young I'ine serving in the ranks, sharing in 
the hardships of the battles of the Wilder- 
ness, Spottsylvauia, and Cold Harbor, at the 
last of which he was taken ])risoner with 
fourteen others, at the charge made by the 
regiment on the second day of June, ]S(i4. 
He was confined in Libby prison until the 
sixteenth of June, when he was started with 
other prisoners in a train for the infamous 
prison pen at Andersonville. During a halt 



HISTORY OF THE GItEAT XOUTHWEST. 



at Charlotte, N. C, while awaiting transpor- 
tation, although surrounded hj a strong 
guard, he made his esrape, going westward 
through Lincolnton and Morgantown, cross 
ing the great Catawba river near the latter 
place. He found two colored boys at a i>lan- 
tation near the foothills leading to the Iron 
Range dividing North Carolina and Tennes- 
see, who volunteered, with the consent of 
their slave parents, to pilot him over the 
mountains, and, it was hoped, to liberty. 
After many hardships and nights of travel 
they came to a detachment of one hundred 
Union soldiers belonging to the Third North 
Carolina Mounted Infantry, commanded by 
Colonel George W. Kirk. The detachment 
was under orders from (Jeneral Schofield to 
cross tlie mountains into North Carolina, to 
destroy some railroad bridges. When I'ine 
informed them of a rebel camp of instruc- 
tion, called Camp Vance, near Morgantown, 
N. C, they determined to attempt its cap- 
ture. Dr. Pine and his two colored guides 
volunteered to go with the command. The 
command was surprised on the 28th of June. 
Under a flag of truce borne by Dr. Pine and 
Oscar M. Coburn, who had been discharged 
from the First Ohio Heavy Artillery to re- 
ceive a first lieutenant's commission in 
Colonel Kirk's regiment. Lieutenant Bullock 
and about three hundred men under his com 
mand surrendered without firing a shot. 
The camp of supj)lies, railroad station and 
other property were destroyed. On the se- 
vei'e march out of the country, some of the 
more delicate prisonei-s were paroled. 
About two hundred were safely landed at 
Knoxville. In an action with a force which 
had been sent to rescue the prisoners, one 
man was killed, and five wounded. Dr. Pine 
received a flesh wound, near Piedmont 
Springs. This has been regarded as one of 
the daring and successful of the minor ejii- 
sodes of the war. Dr. Pine rested at Knox- 
ville, and assisted in recruiting Cokmel Kirk's 
regiment. He then received a furlough of 
sixty days as an escai)ed jirisouer, so that he 
did not join his regiment until November, 
and then only to be captured again before 
Petersburg, while trying to take from the 
field the wounded adjutant of his regiment. 



He was, however, liberated after two days 
in Ri<hmond and thereafter served without 
incident until mustered out at the close of 
the war, at Camp Parole, Md. He then took 
up again the study of medicine. He entered 
Pellevue Hospital and College, New York 
("ity, and graduated in 1870. He soon went 
to Kansas, remaining two yeai-s, when he 
returned to Brooklyn, N. Y, where he prac- 
liced four years. In 1870 he removed to 
Chicago. In 1880 he was married to Irene 
E. Duncan, of Lafayette, Iowa, and removed 
to Milbank, Teiritory of Dakota, and built 
up a large jiractice there and at Aberdeen. 
v here he was surgeon of the Chicago. Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul railway. His wife died 
at Aberdeen in 1885. He was married to 
Dr. Alrinda Auten, of St. Paul, in 1888. since 
which time he has practiced his profession in 
that city. In February. 1800, he was ap- 
I)ointed trustee of the Minnesota Soldiers' 
Home, by Governor Lind, in place of H. A. 
Castle, whose tenn expired. At the annual 
meeting of the board of trustees in the fol- 
lowing August, Dr. Pine was elected surgeon 
of the Home, which position he now fills. 
He has been very enei'getic in improving the 
administration of his dejiartment, both in 
methods and in service. He has introduced 
trained women nurses, which secures much 
better care of his invalid comrades, with 
whom he is in hear-ty sympathy. His aim 
has been to make the Soldiers' Home hospital 
perfect in all its appointments, and an insti- 
tution of which the state may be justly 
jirond. Dr. IMne is a member of the Ameri- 
can Medical Association. He was the first 
delegiite to the association from Dakota Ter- 
ritory. He also organized the Dakota State 
Medical Society. He is, besides, a member 
of both the ^Minnesota State and the Ramsey 
County Medical societies. He is also a mem- 
ber of Summit Lodge of Masons, St. Paul, 
of the Ex-Prisoners of War Association — of 
which in 1800 he was commander — a mem- 
ber of (Jarfield i)Ost, G. A. R., of which he is 
a past commander. Dr. Pine came from New 
England anti-slavein* and Republican stock. 
He has always been allied with the party of 
Lincoln, until 1800. when, believing Cleve- 
land demoi-racv and the reiinl)licanism of the 



HISTORY OF THE GUIOAT NOKTHWEST. 



St. Louis convoutioii to hv identical in prin- 
ciples, he supported Hi'ViUi. In 1S!18 he was 
the candidate of tlie fusion parl.v for coroner 
of Ramsey count \. 



EUSTIS, William Henrv.— Anions the 
many successful men who have contributed 
in a marked degree to the development of 
the Northwest there is occasionally one, here 
and there, whose achievements border on the 
marvellous. liefjinninji jierhaps under cir- 
cumstances exceedinjily unitro](i(ions; im- 
peded by conditions thai clogged every stej) 
in advancement; confronted with ol)stacles 
seemingly unsurmountable, yet in S])ite of 
all difficulties such signal success has been 
won as to make the career an inspiration to 
all who struggle against adverse environ- 
ments. William H. Eustis is a conspicuous 
exami)le of this number, far too snmll to be 
called a "class'" of 7nen. He is of English 
ancestry. His father, Tobias Eustis, came 
from Cornwall, England, when a young man 
and learned the trade of wheelwright, which 
he followed, although his forefathers had 
been Cornish miners. He was married to 
^lary Markwick, who, like himself, was of 
English lineage. They finally settled at the 
village of Oxbow, Jefferson county, N. Y., 
where, in 1,S4;"), AA'illiam H. Eustis was born, 
the second of a family of eleven children. 
As soon as able he was obliged to assist in 
the support of the fiimily. For this purpose 
he was taken from school al an early age. 
The diminutive size of the \illage made op- 
portunities for work not over-abundant. One 
of the chief industries of the neighborhood 
was a tan yard. In this young Eustis ob- 
tained intermittent employmc-nt, tending a 
mill for grinding tan bark. When about fif- 
teen years of age he mel wilh an accident, 
which caused such an injniy that his life 
was for a long time in peril ,ind was barely 
saved by a naturally vigorous constitution 
assisted by an indomitable will, by his own 
careful study of his condition and by perse- 
vering attention to the treatment which he 
himself devised. His coni])lete recovery was 
hopeless, but he did not let that discourage 
him. Being incajiacitaled for maniial labor. 




WII.LIA.M II. ins'i'it^ 



which, had not what was deemed a great 
calamity o\ertaken him, he woiild in all 
probability have followed, he prepared him- 
self for a teacher. .Vfter teaching dj^trict 
schools for several winters he aimed at 
something better adapted to his physical con- 
ditiiin. He was compelled, however, to de- 
pend upon his own exertions for a higher 
education. His courage under the ciniim- 
stances may be deemed heroic He deter- 
mined to .secure a college educatien. .\s a 
stej) towards it he leai'ned telegra|ihy and 
bookkeeping and taught them to select 
classes. This service, supplemented by what 
he earned in soliciting life insurance, enabled 
him to take a preparatory college coiii-se at 
the seminary at (Jouverneur, St. Lawrence 
( ounty. N. V. He pre])ared so thoroughly at 
this institution that he was able to enter the 
\Vesleyan I'ni versify at Middletown, Conn., 
as a sophomore in 1S71, and graduated in 
the class of IS":',. The Xew England colleges 
of that era had long vacati(ms in winter, 
which gave students an opjiortunity to teach. 
Leave of absence was also granted for a lew- 
weeks before and after this vacation to such 
as wished to teach. ^Ir. Eustis ai)iiropriated 
these advantaucs and keiit nii with the class 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



while teaching. He chose as his life work 
tlie profession of law. His next step was 
perhaps the hardest pull of all. He went to 
New York City and entered the Columbia 
Law School. By doing two years' work in 
one he finished the course in 1874, but was 
a thousand dollars in debt. The quickest 
way to discharge this seemed to be to resort 
to his old occupation of teaching, for it often 
happens that a young lawyer must grow a 
beard before he secures paying clients. The 
course adopted proved to be wise, for the 
end of the year made him a free man. He 
bought a new suit of clothes, paid his fare to 
Saratoga Springs, and had fifteen dollars left 
as a nest egg for a fortune. He had previ- 
ously formed the acquaintance of Mr. John 
R. Putnam, a member of the Saratoga bar, 
who offered Mr. Eustis a partnership. It 
proved to be a fortunate event for both men, 
for the ]n*actice of the firm became large and 
remunerative. The partnership was contin- 
ued for six years, and was dissolved in 1881, 
when Mr. Eustis detennined to visit Europe. 
He had taken an active part in public alfairs 
and had gained celebrity as a public speaker, 
traveling over the state in political cam- 
paigns. He had but few equals, and none 
superior in this field, being not only an elo- 
quent advocate, but a singularly entertaining- 
speaker, judiciously interspersing his argu- 
ments with apt historical allusions, poetry 
and anecdote in illustration. He has the fac- 
ulty of holding his audience apparently up 
to any pitch of enthusiasm desired. Al- 
though Mr. Eustis planned to be gone two 
years when he left for Europe in the spring 
of 1881, political events drew him home in 
a few months. He then set out in search of 
a new home, and being satisfied that the 
progressive west oilered better opportunities 
than the eastern states, he made a very thor- 
ough examination of the condition of the 
principal cities west of the Mississippi, finally 
concluding that Minneapolis was the most 
promising and attractive. The twenty-third 
day of October, 1881, is the date which marks 
his fortunate settlement in the city of his 
choice, and with the growth and prosperity 
of which he has been ever since so closely 
related. With the same self-reliance and 



courage which had made him a victor in his 
early struggles he began immediately to 
practice his jirofession without the advan- 
tage of an established partner. He had faith 
in the future of the city, and while pursuing 
his law business, which gave promise of 
meeting his most sanguine expectations, he 
boldly invested in real estate his compara- 
tively small savings of previous years, and 
contributed with enthusiasm to the extent 
of his ability in purse and brain to commer- 
cial and industrial enterprises designed to 
build up the material interest of the com- 
munity. The wide range of his public spirit 
can be judged by the character of a few ex- 
amples. He erected the building at Henne- 
pin and Sixth street, so long occujtied as the 
Republican Union League headquarters and 
now known as Elks hall ; the Flour Exchange 
and the Corn Exchange, besides other busi- 
ness edifices less known. He was a director 
of the building committee in charge of the 
erection of the Masonic Temple. He was 
one of the projectors of the North American 
Telegraph Company, designed to secure com- 
petitive telegraph service for the Northwest, 
serving both as director and secretary of the 
enterprise. He was one of the incorporators 
of the "Soo" railroad, built to furnish cheap 
transportation by a new route to the east, 
and he was one of its board of directors. Mr. 
Eustis was in 1892 elected mayor of Minne- 
apolis. His administration was one of the 
most careful and economical in the history 
of the city, for Mr. Eustis brought to his 
public duties all the ability which had made 
his private affairs such a success. He was 
also as conscientious in the discharge of 
these public duties as if they pertained to 
his religion. No obligation could have been 
given a more thoughtful consideration and a 
more scrupulous observance than Mr. Eustis 
lavished upon his office of mayor. His term 
stands as a landmark in the progress of the 
city. Its many excellencies are unquestioned, 
nor are the absolute honesty, fidelity and 
sincerity of Mr. Eustis ever doubted. In 
dealing with the liquor tratfic, however, he 
was in advance of his age. Although he put 
into operation in dealing with licensed sa- 
loons a system which has proved by the rec- 



HISTORY OF THE GRKAT NORTHWEST. 



ords more effective in restricting the evils 
of the Irafflc than liatl been the method here- 
tofore tried, he met with serious objections 
in his plans, and that, too, in circles where 
he expected to receive support, when the 
efficiency of the method had been fully 
demonstrated. But he was disappointed 
and made no effort for a reelection. He was 
subsequently nominated by the Republican 
party as a candidate for governor of the 
state. His defeat was not personal to him, 
but entirely due to the nationality of his op- 
jjonent. It was generally acknowh'dged, 
however, that eminent ability and valual)le 
services to the city, state, and party were 
unfortunately ignored in the heated contest 
of the campaign. Mr. Eustis was not soured 
by his defeat. He has continued in his ac- 
tive support of the party as of old. No one 
is in greater demand for service as a public 
speaker. His versatility is also as great as 
his ability. His gift for speaking acceptably 
on almost any subject at the shortest notice 
has often been compared to that of Henator 
Chauncey M. Depew of New York — the 
highest compliment that could be paid. Mr. 
Eustis is a man of scholarly habits and has 
a fine library, which is one of his chief 
pleasures. He is a bachelor and a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal church. He 
contributes liberally to benevolent objects, 
while his private assistance in a (piiel man- 
ner makes manv a heart glad. 



LINDWAV, William.— In politics, the un- 
deviatiug path of duty is a difficult way to 
follow. Treacherous are the by-ways to en- 
tice the wayfarer, and he is a brave man who 
walks a highway of his own in company with 
his self-respect. ^Villiam Lindsay, ex-mem- 
ber of the Montana legislature, is an ideal 
representative of the people who hold honor 
dear at heart. He achieved a reputation in 
the exciting days at the capitol in Helena, in 
the winter of 1899, which is not confined ex- 
clusively to the state lines of Montana. In 
the midst of corruption and treachery he 
stood out firmly against the attempts made 
to bribe his vote, his reputation for integrity 
remaining unsullied. The conspicuous posi- 




AMI,I,I.\^r LINDSAY. 

tion which he assumed in that famous sena- 
torial contest contributed in no small meas- 
ure to make the light more bitter and pro- 
longed. But Mr. Lindsay's promin^ce in 
public life does not rest solely upon the 
stand he took in the legislature two years 
ago. He has taken an active part in Mon- 
tana politics for several years past, and as a 
business man is highly esteemed for his 
strict integrity and business enterprise. He 
is extensively engaged in the sheep business 
and has shown an exceptional ability in the 
carrying on of that enterprise. Mr. Lindsay 
was born April 20, 1852, in Poland, Mahon- 
ing county, Ohio. His father, James M. 
Lindsay, was a mechanic by trade, in mod- 
erate circumstances. He was of Scotch de- 
scent, and his ancestors were among the 
early settlers of the state of New Jeraey. 
His wife, Elizabeth J. Bebout, was a member 
of a well-to-do family living in Beaver 
county, Pa. William did not enjoy the 
advantages of a liberal education, being 
thrown upon his own resources at the 
age of fifteen and compelled to leave 
school. He learned the tinsmith trade, 
but did not follow this vocation very 
long, the work being obnoxious to him. In 



HISTORY OF THE GIJEAT NORTHWEST. 



ISTO, hf \v<-nt to Micbigau and was employed 
in tlie lumber business for a number of 
jears. By his industry and frugal habits 
he was able to lay up sufficient money to set 
himself up in the hardware business in 
Beaver Falls, I'a., where he removed in 18T(>. 
Tliis venture proved very suctessful; but 
believing that the west attorded wider op- 
portunities and would give better returns for 
the money invested, he sold out in 1883, com- 
ing to Montana the year following. He lo- 
cated on the Missouri river, near Gleudive, 
and engaged in the wool-growing industry, 
in which he has been highly successful. In 
politics he is a staunch Republican and an 
earnest supporter of party interests. He 
was elected a member of the board of county 
commissioners of Dawson county in 1892 
and served as a member of that board for 
four years. It was largely due to his influ- 
ence, and as a result of his activity in that 
office, that the magnificent steel arch bridge 
over the Yellowstone at Glendive was built. 
In 1890 he was elected to the lower house 
of the legislature, and was re-elected in 1898. 
His record in the house has been one of which 
his friends feel proud. His devotion to the 
best interests of the state in standing out 
uncompromisingly against legislative cor- 
ruption won for him many warm friends, but 
made luany bitter enemies. He was a can- 
didate for the state senate in 1900, but was 
defeated, the opposition putting up a fierce 
fight against his election. Mr. Lindsay en- 
joys the confidence of the public in a high 
degree. He has faced the contumely which 
was heaped on him by his political enemies 
with a brave, untiinching spirit, secure in the 
knowledge that he has always acted for the 
welfare of party interests and the interests of 
his constituents. His career is not yet end- 
ed; so far, however, it is a shining example 
for younger men to pattern after. Mr. Lind- 
say is a member of the L O. O. F. and A. F. 
& A. M. His religious connections are with 
the Methodist Episcopal church, of which 
he is a staunch member and an active church 
worker. He served as a lay delegate from 
IMontana to the general conference of that 
body held at Chicago in May, 1900. He was 
married August 7, 1886, to Miss Alice M. 



Reehl, of Beaver Falls, Pa. Their union has 
Ik en blessed with two children: Grace M. 
;iii(i \\illiaiii Lc I\ov Liudsav. 



FORD, James William.— The educati(mal 
institution at Owatonna, Minn., founded in 
1877, enlarged and endowed by Hon. Geo. 
A. Pillsbury, and known as the I'illsbury 
.Vcademy, is so rapidly outgrowing the char- 
acter of a mere preparatory school that i>eo- 
l>le are ready to call it the Pillsbury College. 
In the year 19(10, less than twenty-five years 
after its foundation, it had six buildings 
worth |12o,(IOO, and an endowment fund of 
^225, (100 hearing interest. It is only fair to 
say that very much of this prosperity is due 
to the combined qualities — scholarship, 
financial skill, and executive ability — of Pro- 
fessor James \A'. Ford, A. M., Ph. D., the 
present principal, who has been in charge 
of the institution for eleven years, or since 
^'ovember, 1889. He was one of the faculty 
of the well known Colgate Academy, Hamil- 
ton, ;N'. Y., for twelve years, being principal 
for the last six years. He is not only a 
scholar and teacher of experience, but he is 
a "man of affairs,"' made so by early training 
and jiractice, which capacity is of even more 
value sometimes than are mere literary qual- 
ifications. Mr. Foi'd was bom at Lowell, 
Mass., December 20, 1846. His father was 
David P. Ford, a native of Deerfield, N. H., 
born in 1821. He and Benjamin F. Butler 
attended the same district school. He was 
a man of sound judgment and marked abil- 
ity, and was overaeer in the Boott Cotton 
Mills when he died, at the age of twenty- 
seven, of typhoid fever, leaving two children, 
James "\Y., two years old, and a brother still 
younger. He was of English descent from 
progenitors who came to this counti'y before 
1700. James W. Ford's mother's name was 
Lydia Iseal, born in South Bei-wnck, Me., in 
182-1, and of the same descent as her hus- 
band, but her people were Friends, or 
Quakers, in religion. Her father and grand- 
father were farmers and made a good farm 
out of the wilderness. They were sturdy, 
industrious, courageous. Godfearing men. 
Thev were of the same stock as Neal Dow, 



HISTORY OF THE GRKAT NORTHWEST. 



She was likewise courageous, liopeful, self- 
reliaut aud bad a woudei-ful trust in God. 
Mr. Ford attributes to liis mother whatever 
success he has obtained. She brought up 
her cliildreu to self-support, aecumulatiug 
considerable property, and inculcated hon- 
esty and faithfulness in the discharge of 
every trust. She still lives ou the ancestral 
farm, where Mr. Ford usually spends his 
summer vacation, and which he now owns. 
Mr. Ford was educated in the public schools 
of Lowell, and there entered the high school 
at the age of thirteen. At the end of the 
first year he became a messenger of the Boott 
Cotton Mills counting room. His duties 
wei'e to distribute and charge all supplies to 
six large mills, and to find and bring to 
the office any employe wanted. Here he 
learned promptness, accuracy and quick- 
ness of observation and apprehension. He 
studied double entry bookkeeping evenings 
with Charles Farnsworth. From 1862 to 
ISOT he was bookkeeper and general sales- 
man for H. W. Hilton & Co., of Lowell, 
Mass., and became so expert in his various 
duties that in four years he was offered a 
partnership in the concern. He, however,_ 
declined. His ideals of life changed about 
that time because he had become a Christian. 
He now wanted to have a college education. 
At the end of five years' service he returned 
to Lowell High School, where his old teacher 
still remained, very ready to aid Mr. Ford 
in his new resolve. He took the Latin and 
Creek of a four yeai"s" course in two years, 
with double honors; the Carney silver medal 
for scholarship, aud the valedictoi'y honor, 
the highest that could be given. He had, 
when prepared for college, |1,200 which he 
had earned. This, with a little aid from 
friends, enabled him to go through the col- 
lege course free from debt. He entered the 
Madison University, at Hamilton, N. Y., in 
18C9, and graduated in 1873, with the saluta- 
tory, or second honor of the class. He was 
a member of the Madison Chapter of the 
Delta Upsilon fraternity. Mr. Ford's high 
scholarship gave him a place also in the 
graduate fraternity of Thi Beta Kappa. Ex- 
pecting to go into the ministry, in 1873 he 
entered the Hamilton Theological Seminary. 




J.XJIKS W. FOltU. 

lie left after a year's study on account of an 
affection of the throat, which turned him from 
preaching to the work of education. In 187-1 
he was appointed professor of Latin aud 
science in Colby Academy, New Loudon, N. 
H. The next year he held the same chair 
iu Cook Academy, Havana, N. Y. In 1876 
he was appointed professor of Latin in Col- 
gate Academy, Hamilton, N. Y., and re- 
mained with this institution twelve years, as 
previously mentioned, during the last six of 
which he was principal. He left this thriv- 
ing school in 1888, bringing with him the 
vigor which had made Colgate such a suc- 
cess, to accept the position of treasurer of 
all the institutions under the control of the 
hoard of trustees of Madison University. 
Although he was successful and gave satis- 
faction to the board, at whose urgent solicita- 
tion he undertook the duties, the work was 
not as congenial as that of teaching, nad 
when the urgent request of Mr. Tillsbury, 
seconded by the board of trustees of Pills- 
bury Academy, came to him, he regarded it 
as an opening for larger woi-k along lines 
both jileasing and familiar. Since engaging iu 
this work Mr. Ford has been offered several 
attra'tive positions iu both Eastern and 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHA^EST. 



Western institutions, among them at differ- 
ent times tlie presidencies of three colleges; 
but he is greatly attached to academic work, 
and his nati^'e qualities, early training and 
mature experience lit him peculiarly for his 
present responsible position. The Baptists 
of Minnesota own Pillsbury Academy. Mr. 
Ford was licensed to preach by the First 
Baptist church of Lowell, in 1869, and in 
1898 he was ordained, but never was the pas- 
tor of a church. He has, however, preached 
a great deal, and has always been in demand 
for addresses on special occasions both 
among Baptists and elsewhere. During the 
Civil war Mr. Ford proved his patriotism by 
enlisting a&a soldier, but he was rejected be- 
cause of physical disability. In politics he 
has always been a Republican, and while in 
New York served for two years on the state 
Republican committee. He has been repeat- 
edly solicited to accept office at Owatonna, 
but has always declined because his work 
seems to be along lines taking him away 
from political office. He has been a mem- 
ber of the Baptist church since 1SC6, 
and of the board of trustees of the 
Baptist state convention since 1890. He 
was upon the building committee, erecting 
the Owatonna Baptist church, when about 
$20,000 was raised by public and private 
solicitation. He was first president of the 
Owatonna Public Library, and spent much 
time in selecting plans, erecting the building 
and organizing the library. In 1876 Mr. 
Ford was married to Katie E. Jones, at 
Cazenovia, N. Y. They have six children — 
Mrs. Elizabeth Ford Shedd, wife of Professor 
t>hedd of Pillsbury Academy; James W., now 
at Nome, Alaska; Grace Brett, Paul Boyn- 
ton, Hugh Pillsbury, and Neal Kelly Ford. 
Besides his degree of A. B. on graduating, 
Mr. Ford has received from Madison Univer- 
sity the degrees of A. M. and of Ph. D. A 
more useful man in the field he has chosen 
would be difficult to find. 



FARMER, John Quincy. — To condense 
into an epitome the life and experience, 
the public sei-vice and useful work of a 
man of such varied attainments and ability 
as those demonstrated by Judge John Quin- 



cy Farmer, of Spring Valley, Minn., is not un- 
like trying to compress the statutes of a 
state into a small pamphlet. The limits of 
''Tlie History of the Northwest" compel such 
an attempt which must of necessity be a 
meagi'e outline. He was born in a log 
house at Burke, Caledonia county, Vt., in 
1823. The Farmers were of English descent. 
John Quincy Farmer's grandfather, who 
filled him with patriotism by rehearsing to 
him many a tale of Revolutionary times, was 
a hero of that war. His father's name was 
Hiram; his mother's, Salina Snow (Farmer). 
She was of Scotch descent. Her people 
were merchants. Until seventeen years old 
he had only the limited resources of the 
winter district school to give him schooling. 
Then, by permission of his father and by 
paying his own way, he attended several 
academies in Ohio. He attributes his most 
important training to the Summit county 
institute, under the Rev. Samuel Bissel, of 
Twinsburg, Summit county, Ohio. He then 
taught school and "boarded around," earn- 
ing about |14 a month. He began to study 
law M'ith Perkins & Osborn, at Parrisville, 
Ohio, and completed his course at the Bals- 
ton Springs law school. New York. He be 
gan to practice at Omro, Wis., in 1850. On 
returning home with the intention of getting 
married and coming back to Omro, he was 
persuaded by Brewster Randall to go to 
Conneaut, Ohio, and take up the law prac- 
tice which ilr. Randall wished to give up. 
It proved to be a fortunate step. He re- 
mained there six years, then formed a part- 
nership with Hon. L. S. Sherman at Ashta- 
bula, Ohio, where he continued also six 
years, serving in the meantime as county at- 
torney. In 1852 he was married to Maria 
N., the daughter of Dr. Jos. R. Carpender, 
of Painsville, Ohio. His wife's health fail- 
ing, he determined to try a change of cli- 
mate for her and moved to Spring Valley, 
Minn., where he had relatives who had set- 
tled at an earlier day. His wife, however, 
did not entirely recover, and died in 1866, 
after a residence of about two years, leaving 
two sons and a daughter, who died when five 
years old. Mr. Farmer at first engaged in 
farming, but later resumed his profession. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



His abilities very soon marlved liim as a 
leader in tlie state. In 1S65 he was elected 
to tlie legislatnre to represent Fillmore 
county, and was reelected in 1SG6 and 
chosen speaker of the house. The next 
year he had the same honors, beino; ajjain 
si)eaker, a fact which sjjeaks well for his 
ability and capa<'ity for administration. In 
1S7() he was promoted to the senate for a 
term of two years, but a new apportionment 
comi)elled a new election the next year, at 
which he was again honored by the people. 
He was chairman of the judiciary commit- 
tee of the senate for both terms. This is 
the highest honor as well as the most in- 
fluential position in the senate. In 1871) he 
was elected judge of the Tenth judicial dis- 
trict, and at the expiration of the term was 
re-elected for another term, making thirteen 
years of service on the district bench. Al- 
though renominated for a third term against 
his earnest i)rotest, he was firm in his re- 
fusal of the protfered honor, and has since 
stayed by his profession and simply busied 
himself with his own affairs and in looking 
after the interests of his numerous sons, the 
most of whom are in business for them- 
selves, practicing their professions of law 
and of medicine. He gave each of them a 
university education. The youngest, about 
nineteen, James D., is in the State Bank of 
Spring ^'alley; George and Charles arc 
piacticing law at Howard and Madison, S. 
1).; J. Frederick is practicing osteopathy at 
S])ring Valley; John ('. is i)racticing medi- 
cine* at McKinley, Minn.; Dan E. is at Des 
Moines, Iowa; Ernest M. is practicing law at 
Detroit, Minn.; Frank O. is ])racticing oste- 
opathy at Kankakee, 111. In 1S(J0 Judge 
Farmer was married to Susan C. Sharp, who 
became the mother of six more sons, making 
in all eight in Mr. Farmer's family, still 
alive, an unusual experience in these days. 
Mr. Farmer was a Henry (May Whig, and 
helped such men as Joshua R. (iiddings, 
Henj. F. Wade and President (larfield, with 
whom he was familiarly acquainted, to or- 
ganize the Kepublican party, to which he 
has always been loyal, being especially firm 
on the question of jtrotection to American 
industi'y and sound money. He was presi- 




.70HN Q. FARMER. 

(lent of the ^Minnesota Farmers' Insurance 
company for twelve years. This was an 
organization to furnish farmers safe in- 
surance at cost. In religion Judge FiWint'r 
holds broad views. He assisted in Ih" or- 
ganization of a church which attiliated with 
the Fnitarian body. He is a niembei- of the 
hoard of trustees of the church at Spring 
N'alley. Judge Farmer has a very wide ac- 
(|aaintance, and no man in the stale com- 
mends higher respect among all classes. 



START, Charles M., chief justice of the 
supreme court of the state of Minnesota, has 
had an enviable judicial career. He was 
appointed judge of the Third Judicial dis- 
trict of the state by Governor Pillsbury, in 
ISSl, and was elected as district judge with- 
out opposition for three successive terms. 
He then resigned to accept the position of 
chief justice of the suiireme court, to which 
he was elected in 1894. At the election of 
1900 he was re-elected without o|)position. 

Charles M. Start — as the judge usually 
writes his name — was born in Bakersfield, 
Franklin county, Vt., Octobei' 4. 1S3!). His 
father, Simeon (Jould Slail, was a farmer. 



HISTORY OF THK GREAT NORTHWEST. 




CHARLES M. START. 

and the judge was boru on the farm. His 
mother's maiden name was Mary Sophia 
Barnes. He is of English extraction, and 
traces his ancestry to progenitors who came 
to America in 16.52. His common school 
education was obtained in the district school 
of his native town. His academic training 
was received at the noted Barre academy in 
Vermont. Having chosen as his life work 
the profession of law, he "read law" — as the 
preparation for the bar was then called — 
with Judge William C. Wilson, of Bakers- 
field, and was admitted to practice in 1860, 
at St. Albans, Vt. He came to Rochester, 
Minn., in 186.3, and began his professional 
career. That place has since been his home, 
although his elevation to the supreme bench 
requires an oflicial residence at St. Paul. 
He was county attorney of Olmsted county 
for eight years. In 1879 he was elected 
attorney general of the state and sensed in 
this office from January, 1880, until Mai'ch 
12, 1881, when he resigned to accept the po- 
sition of judge of the Third judicial district, 
tendered to him by Governor Pillsbury. 
This was strong testimony to Judge Start's 
ability, for the governor was noted for the 
scrupulous care which he always exercised 



in making his appointments, fre(inently go- 
ing outside of his party to select the proper 
man. He enlisted July, 1862, in the Tenth 
Regiment Vermont Volunteers. August 11 
he was commissioned first lieutenant of Com- 
jiany "I" of the same regiment, and Decem- 
ber following he resigned on a surgeon's cer- 
tificate of disability. In i)olitics he has al- 
ways been a Republican. In religion, by 
birth and jtractice, he is a Congregationalist, 
although not. enrolled as a member of the 
church. In 1865 he was married to Clara 
A. Wilson, daughter of William C. Wilson, 
one time judge of the supreme court of Ver- 
mont, and with whom Judge Start studied 
law. They have one child, Clara L. Start. 



TO5ILINS0N, Harry Ashton.— This is an 
age of specialism — if such a word may be 
used to denote a concentration of energies 
on a single division of a subject. It has 
been conceded in all departments of human 
activity that life is not long enough for any 
man to master more than a fraction of any 
of the great divisions of knowledge. The 
'■good all round" man is therefore falling to 
the rear in the rapid progress characteristic 
of the times. The specialist is in demand, 
and rightly so too, for only by making use of 
thorough knowledge at every step can the 
best results be obtained. Thus in the col- 
leges the sciences are subdivided into small 
sections, where once the whole field was 
covered by one or two professors. In law 
there are recognized divisions, as criminal 
law, commercial law, corporation law, real 
estate law, even probate law, and the best 
result is obtained by employing an expert 
in the law governing the case. In manu- 
faclures, where the best mechanical skill is 
required, the same principle prevails. The 
greatest success is achieved by men who do 
only one thing. Experience has thoroughly 
demonstrated the correctness of this prin- 
ciple. But in the learned professions, the 
true specialist — ^the man who excels nearly 
all others in a certain field of the profession 
— is rare. Hence he is more valuable. An 
ordinary surgeon is common, but here and 
there may be found one whose superiority 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



is beyoud question. He is a specialist wlio 
can command wliatever fee he may demand. 
The same is true also in other de])ai'tments 
of the medical profession, one of which is 
now especially under consideration because 
the subject of this sketch — Dr. Harry Ash- 
ton Tomlinson — is a noted specialist in the 
treatment of nervous diseases. Dr. Tomlin- 
son is the son of George Washin<jton Tom- 
linson, whose original ancestor in America 
was John Tomlinson, a member of the So- 
ciety of Friends, who emigrated to America 
from Ireland in 17.5!t and hmded at Lewes, 
Del., settling finally at Philadelphia. Al- 
though the family were Quakers, and did 
not believe in shedding blood in war, the 
spirit of liberty was so strong that George 
Washington Tomlinson, Harry's father, en- 
listed in 18G1 for the war of the Rebellion, 
and rose to the rank of major, serving until 
1864, when he was fatally wounded. Har- 
ry's mother's maiden name was Sarah Dun- 
lap McGahon. She was descended from a 
long line of I'resbyteriau ministers. Her 
great-grandfather. Rev. James Dunlap, D. 
D., was tlie third of the presidents of Jeffer- 
son college, at Cannonsburg, Pa. During 
the Civil War Mrs. Tomlinson lived at Car- 
lisle. When the rebels attacked the city on 
the night of July 1, 186.3, the college build- 
ing was used at a hospit.al. While the shells 
of the enemy were screaming through the 
city Mrs. Tomlinson went to the temporary 
hosi)ital and assisted the surgeons in the 
care of the wounded. Subsequently when 
her husband was wounded, she went to the 
hospital to nurse him in Washington, where 
he was lying. Finding the food and care of 
the wounded officers not what they should 
have been, she secured, through the surgeon 
in charge and with the sanction of Miss Dix, 
of the sanitary commission, sole charge of 
the domestic service of the hospital — includ- 
ing the discipline of the nurses — and dis- 
charged the heavy duties with such success 
as to satisfy everj' requirement. 

Harry Ashton Tomlinson was born at 
Philadelphia in 1855. He obtained his lit- 
erary education in the public schools of the 
city. Choosing medicine as his profession, 
he entered the medical department of the 




HARRY A, TOMLINSOX. 

T'niversity of Pennsylvania in 1877 and 
graduated in ISSO with the degree of M. D. 
He immediately began the practice of his 
profession in central Pennsylvania, ©where 
he continued for eight years, devoting the 
last three to the special study of nervous 
diseases and their treatment. He then gave 
up his general practice and went to Phila- 
delphia to make a special study of his chosen 
subject, spending the winter of 1888 and 
1S89 in this pursuit. He became so well 
(jualified in this department of diseases that 
in June, ISS!), he was engaged as resident 
physician in the Friends' Asylum for the in- 
sane, at Frankford, a suburban part of the 
city of Philadelj)hia. His success in this in- 
stitution was so pronounced as to make him 
somewhat noted in his specialty. It led to 
an invitation from the board of trustees of 
the state of Minnesota hospitals to become 
first assistant ])liysician of the St. Peter in- 
stitution, which he accepted in 1801. On the 
retirement of the superintendent, Dr. C. K. 
Rartlett, in 180:5, Dr. Tomlinson was put at 
the head of the hosi)ital. His eastern repu- 
tation and his admirable work in this state 
induced the board of trustees of the new 
Kjdleptic Colony of Massachusetts to make 



HISTORY OF THE OKEAT NORTHWEST. 



an attempt to sccnrc Dr. Tonilinson for the 
chief physician and superintendent at that 
enterprise. Although the offer was flatter- 
ing, it was declined, as Dr. Tomlinson 
wished especially to carry out a line of treat- 
ment which he had begun at St. Peter. The 
doctor is a member of the American Con- 
gress of Physicians and Surgeons, Ameri- 
can Medical association, New York Medico- 
Legal society, American Neurological so- 
ciety, American Medico-Psychological asso- 
ciation, Philadelphia Neurological society, 
Minnesota Academy of Medicine, State Med- 
ical society. Southwestern Minnesota Medi- 
cal association, and of the State Conference 
of Charities and Corrections, to all of which 
he has contributed papers relating to his line 
of work. He is a Knight Templar and a 
member of the Loyal Legion, Minnesota 
commandery. In 1884 he was married to 
Mary Vandever, daughter of Peter Bishop 
Vandever, of Delaware. They have one 
child living, Nancv Elicott Tomlinson. 



WORST, John H.— North Dakota, though 
a young state, has at Fargo an educational 
institution abreast of any establishment of 
its kind in the United States. It is known as 
the North Dakota Agricultural College, with 
which is connected an experiment station, 
I)artly supported by the United States, as are 
all similar euteiiirises in all the states con- 
ducting them. The present high standing of 
this modern school is largely due to the effi- 
cient management of President John H. 
Worst, a practical farmer, as well as a man 
of education. 

Mr. A\''orst was born in the northern part 
of Ashland county, Ohio. His father was 
Rev. George Worst, a preacher and farmer 
in moderate financial circumstances, who 
was a pioneer of the Western Resen-e of 
northern Ohio, and cleared up a farm from 
the virgin forest. His grandfather', when 
twelve years old, ran away from his home 
in Holland and came to Pennsylvania, where 
he settled, finally married and reared a family 
of two sons and several daughters. The old- 
est son, Jacob, the grandfather of the sub- 
ject of this sketch, moved westward, and 



after clearing up several small farms in 
I'erks and Mercer counties, Pa., reached Ohio 
with his family and bought a quarter sec- 
tion of go\ernment land in what is now Ash- 
land county. His son, George, was the fann- 
er preacher, the father of President John H. 
^^'orts, whose mother was Margaret ^Martin. 
She also came as a little girl with her parents 
from I'ennsylvania to Ohio. Indians were 
then lining in that region. Professor Worst's 
great-grandfather lived to be 100 yeai-s old. 
His grandfather died at the age of 95, while 
Ills grandmother lived to the age of 104. His 
father died in August, 1808, at the age of 
seventy-three. John attended the rural 
schools of Ohio until fifteen years of age, 
when he entered the Smithville Academy, 
Ohio, for several terms, and until prepared 
to teach school, after which he worked on 
the farm during summer and taught during 
the winter for several years. He also attend- 
ed Salem College, Indiana, one year, and final- 
ly entered Ashland LTnivei-sity, Ohio. Al- 
though he did not complete the full course to 
graduation, the institution in 1S99 conferred 
on him the degree of LL. D. In working on 
the farm summers and teaching in winter he 
lost his health. For this reason he spent the 
summer of 1870 on the shore of Chesapeake 
15ay. When he returned to Ohio he engaged 
in the newspaper business, editing the Fair- 
field County Republican, at Lancaster, Ohio. 
He was a delegate to the state convention 
which nominated Hayes for governor the 
third time, and took an active part in that 
campaign. In 1883 he came to Dakota Ter- 
ritory, and took up a homestead forty miles 
southeast of Bismarck, near Williamsjiort, 
Emmons county. Here he opened up a farm 
and later engaged somewhat extensively in 
sheep and cattle raising. In the fall of 1883, 
when Emmons county was organized, the 
county commissioners ajyfiointed him super- 
intendent of schools. He was duly chosen 
by the people at the next election, and he 
continued to be re-elected until 1889, when he 
resigned to take the office of state senator for 
the Twenty-sixth legislative district, for the 
short tenn. He was re-elected for the full 
term of four years. He was chairman of the 
committee on education, where his school ex- 




JOHN H. WORST. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



perience as teacher and superintendent en- 
abled him to assist in formulating and pass- 
ing bills which have given North Dakota its 
unexcelled educational sj'stem. In ISOJ: he 
was elected lieutenant governor, and jn-oved 
to be an excellent presiding officer during 
the session of 18'J5. He was appointed presi- 
dent of the North Dakota Agi-icultural Col- 
lege and director of the experiment station 
for the school year beginning July 1, 1895. 
and has held the office ever since. He is as- 
sisted by a corps of nearly twenty professors, 
the most of whom are experts in their sev- 
eral departments. Under his management 
the institution has come into prominence as 
one of the most thorough and practical edu- 
cational institutions in the Northwest. Presi- 
dent Worst is aggressive in his views, and 
has done much to break down the prejudice 
against a high class industrial education. 
He also combats the frequently expressed be- 
lief that education and physical labor are in- 
compatible, and he contends that an agri- 
cultural .state is not justified in expending 
nearly all the school taxes for the purpose of 
fitting students for professional life, espe- 
cially when the professions are overcrowded. 
The money thus expended, he contends, sel- 
dom brings substantial returns to the state, 
but instead, is used for selfish personal enjoy- 
ment. He has delivered many addresses and 
written many papers in defense of industrial 
education, and in showing how the state 
should encourage it. Under his labors in this 
direction the patronage of the institution has 
grown so that this college is the leading edu- 
cational institution of the state. President 
Worst is a life-long Kepublican, and has 
probably done more field campaign work 
than any other man in the commonwealth. 
He is in frequent demand for a wide range 
of public addresses, before farmer's insti- 
tutes, at Fourth of July celebrations, and 
memorial exercises. These demands show 
that he is a versatile, attractive and efficient 
public speaker. He is a member of the 
Knights of Pythias, and Past Chancellor 
Commander of the order. He is also a Mason 
of the highest degrees. He holds the office 
of Wise Master of the Rose Croix Chapter of 
the Scottish Kite, and is Prelate of the Com- 



mandery of the York Rite. In 1872 he was 
married to Susan Wohlgamuth. They have 
a girl and two boys — Olive J., Clayi:on 
LeRoy, and Lloyd Warner Worst. Clayton 
was sergeant of Troop G, Third U. S. Volun- 
teer Cavalry, during the Spanish War. Lloyd 
Warner is a student at the Agricultural Col- 
lege. 



STEWART, J. Clark.— An interesting 
event in the life of Dr. Stewart is that he 
was the first freshman pupil to enter the 
University of Minnesota. To be one at the 
beginning of a successful enterprise is al- 
ways a pleasant remembrance, and, gener- 
ally, a stimulus in all future efforts. When 
this association has been a matter of public 
concern it arises above the merely personal, 
and becomes of historic importance. J. 
Clark Stewart was born in Camden, N. J., 
October 21, ISSi. His father was Daniel 
Stewart, D. D. His mother's maiden name 
was Eliza Mann, and she was reared and 
educated in New York City. Dr. Stewart, 
as his name would indicate, was of Scotch 
ancestry, his father coming from Scotland. 
The maternal ancestry runs back to early 
colonial times in Rhode Island. Dr. Stew- 
art's grandfather on his mother's side was 
an alderman in New York City, and has a 
place in history as the chairman of the com- 
mittee appointed to receive Lafayette on his 
visit to this country after the Revolutionary 
War. By virtue of the services of his ma- 
ternal ancestors, J. Clark Stewart is a mem- 
ber of the Society of Colonial Wars of Rhode 
Island. Dr. Stewart, his father, was a grad- 
uate of Union College, at Schenectady, N. 
Y., about 1832. Having chosen the minis- 
try as his life work, he entered the theologi- 
cal department of I'rinceton college, New 
Jersey, and graduated in 1837. From this 
time until 1881 he was active in the minis- 
try, but served about four years, 1849-1853, 
as a professor in the New Albany Theologi- 
cal seminary. He was pastor of the An- 
drew and the First Presbyterian churches, 
Minneapolis, Minn. Dr. J. Clark Stewart 
was educated at a private school and in an 
academy. When prepared for college he en- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



tered the recently establislied University of 
Minnesota, and, as stated, he has the distinc- 
tion of being the first fresliniau to enter the 
university. He graduated in 1875, standing 
number one in liis class, and he took two de- 
grees, B. S. and (\ E. He then taught in 
the institution during the class year 1ST.5- 
1871). At the close of this service in 187<i, 
he entered business in a manufacturing con- 
cern, and remained there until 1881, when he 
went to New York to stud}' medicine. There 
he entered the ofhce of the celebrated Wil- 
liard Parker, and enrolled in the College of 
I'hysicians and Surgeons, from which he 
graduated in 1883 with honorary diphjina. 
Iniiuediately following, on a competitive ex- 
amination, he secured a position in the 
Mount Sinai hospital. He served in the 
surgical division under Doctors Stimson, 
Gerster, Wyeth, Fluhrer, Munde, Gruening, 
— names well known in their special field. 
In the fall of 1886 he i-eturned to Minneap- 
olis and became one of the teaching force of 
the Minnesota Hospital college and re- 
mained there until the absor^jtion of the in- 
stitution by the University of Minnesota, 
when he was appointed professor of Histol- 
ogy, and later professor of Pathology in the 
medical department. As this department 
developed he gradually withdrew from labo- 
ratory work, and he is at present the profes- 
sor of Surgical Pathology. In politics Dr. 
Stewart has always been a Republican, but 
always too busy to seek office. He is a 
nieniber of a long line of medical and 
surgical societies, among them the Amer- 
ican Medical society, Minnesota Acad- 
emy of Medicine, Hennepin County Med- 
ical society, and Western Surgical and 
Gynecological association. He is also a 
member of the Minneapolis club and of the 
Colonial Wars society. In religion he is a 
Presbyterian — the church of his ancestry — 
and a member of the First Presbyterian 
church of Minneapolis. It must be to him a 
gratifying reflection that having entered the 
University of Minnesota when the institu- 
tion was obscure and in fact only in embryo, 
to find it now one of the leading educational 
forces of the nation, and himself one of the 
prominent factors in the important work 




J. CLARK STEWART. 

which it is so successfully performing. 
I'rofessor Stewart's unique relations with 
his Alma Mater is an object lesson, an in- 
spiration to all who are struggling for rec- 
ognition in the higher walks of life. 



MOLANDEK, Swan B.— One of the prom- 
inent names as candidate for the important 
position of secretary of state before the state 
KeiHiblican convention in I'JOU, was that of 
Swan B. Molander. His scholarship and pub- 
lic experience secured for him a strong sup- 
port for the office, although he had been in 
the field but a short time. He was county 
auditor of Kanabec county, Minn., for ten 
consecutive years, and was engrossing clerk 
of the House of Kepresentatives of the state 
in the session of 18!);5. Mr. Molander was 
born in Sweden, February 27, 1855. His 
father was a large landholder, and a nurn of 
prominence and influence. He had ])lanned 
to educate his oldest son. Swan, for the min- 
isti'y, and the boy had received a consider- 
able stai't in school towards the cherished 
design, but financial reverses overtook the 
father, and as calamities rarely come singly, 
his wife died. The scenes of his home con- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




SWAX B. MOLANDER. 

tinually recalled his changed circumstances, 
so he determined to leave these constant 
reminders and make a new start. In IStiO 
he emigrated to the United States with his 
two sons. ^Vhen they reached Minnesota, 
the oldest son, Swan, was allowed to remain 
in the state, while the father continued his 
journey and settled in South Dakota. Swan 
B. Molander has continued to live in Min- 
nesota. He went to public and private 
schools to supplement the education which 
he received in Sweden, and still continues 
his studies. He has always taken an active 
interest in political affairs since he was old 
enough to cast his ballot, having a natural 
ajititude and taste for public matters. In 
addition to the positions already mentioned 
he has held a number of minor offices, and 
has been a member of the Republican con- 
gressional committee of the Fourth distiict 
ever since its organization. He is at pres- 
ent "stumpage clerk" in the state auditor's 
office, a position which he has held since 
Auditor R. C. Dunn assumed his duties as 
state auditor. In ISTO Mr. Molander was 
married to Miss Nellie Anderson. The union 
has been a happy one, and has been blessed 
with four promising children, three of whom 



aie now living. Mr. Molander has proved 
his integrity by long public service, and has 
developed into an upright, intelligent citizen, 
whose future is bright with promise. The 
church may have lost a valuable minister, 
but the state has gained a public-spirited 
man worthy of her institutions. 



ROBINSON, Edward Van Dyke.— The 
responsibility resting upon the executive 
head of our high schools demands that these 
offices shall be tilled by men possessing a 
high order of educational equipment. Eligi- 
bility to the position should necessarily be 
contined to teachers of wide experience, who 
have demonstrated their fitness as educators. 
This experience and adaptability we find in 
a study of the life of Edward Van Dyke 
Robinson, principal of the Central High 
School of St. Paul, Minn. Mr. Robinson was 
born in Bloomington, 111., December 20, 
1867, the son of Charles Stanley and Wil- 
helmina Krummel Robinson, His father was 
an arcliitect and contractor. Family history, 
(til the paternal side, is traced back to one of 
the English Puritans who came to this coun- 
try with the "great emigration," about 1635. 
The grandmother of our subject was the 
daughter of Governor "\'an Dyke, of Dela- 
ware, who served in that office from 1776 to 
1783. lliis family was of the "Sea Beggar" 
stock, who fought Spain throughout the 
great rebellion of the Dutch, and afterwards 
came to New Amsterdam, thence to Dela- 
ware, when this province was conquered 
from the Swedes. During the Revolution a 
member of the Robinson family was a com- 
modore in the Pennsylvania navy, and an- 
other a quartermaster-general in the Penn- 
sylvania army. Maternal ancestry is traced 
back to the ancient baronial family of Von 
Schwaneflugel, in Hanover. The estates of 
this family, which should have gone to the 
mother of Mr. Robinson, on the failure of 
male heirs, were otherwise disposed of on 
account of her fathers political defection and 
emigration. Edward received his early edu- 
cation in the public schools of Bloomington, 
Hoopeston and Paxton, 111. These schools 
were exceedingly poor, measured by the 



HISTORY OF THE GHKAT NOUTHWKST 



standards of today, but the boy had inherit- 
ed, in a measure, a love of schohirly pursuits, 
which was enlianced by a diligent attendance 
at the public library. He graduated from 
the Bloomington high school in June, 1867, 
and in October of the same year entered the 
Tniversity of Michigan. By means of ad- 
\anced standings and extra work, he gradu- 
ated with the degree of A. B., in the classical 
course, in June, 1S90. The succeeding year 
he served as an assistant in the University 
libran', as substitute for the professor of 
economics and politics, in the meantime 
studying for the degree of A. M., which was 
gi'anted in June, 1891. The major branch of 
his studies was political science; the minors, 
economics and English literature. He se- 
cured the ai>iiointuu'nt of superintendent of 
schools in Schoolcraft, Mich., and served in 
this position from 1891 to 1894, resigning to 
go abroad in the summer of the latter year. 
He spent a little over a year in travel and 
study, the latter chiefly at the University of 
Leipzig, where, in July, 1895, he was given 
the degree of I'h. D. — summa cum laude for 
the examination, and egregia for the thesis. 
This combination, of first rank in both, ap- 
pears not to have occuri'ed, so far as could 
be ascertained, more than three times in four 
centuries. The subjects for examination 
were political science, economics and medi- 
eval history. The thesis was entitled "The 
Nature of the Federal State." Professor 
Carl Victor Fricker, Ph. D., of the Leipzig 
University, in commenting on Jlr. Eobinson's 
successful examination, spoke very highly of 
him and the excellent manner in which he 
had handled the subject of his thesis. Re- 
turning to America in 1895, Mr. Robinson 
was appointed jtrincipal of the high school 
at Muskegon, Mich. He held this position 
until 1897, when he removed to Rock Island, 
111., to accept the position of principal of 
the high school of that city. In Scptembei', 
1899, he came to St. Paul to accejit the po- 
sition he now tills. Mr. Robinson has 
achieved considerable reputation as an au- 
thority on political science and economics, 
and has contributed a numlier of articles to 
leading educational and jiolitical science pub 
lications, among which may be mentioned: 




EDWARD VAX DYKE KOBINSON. 

"The Nature of the Federal State," (re- 
jirinted from the Annals of the American 
Academy of Political and Social Science, No. 
92); "Topics for Supplementary Reading and 
Discussion in United States History," 
(School Review, May, 1897); "The Caroline 
Islands and the Terms of Peace," (Indepen- 
dent, October, 1898); "An Ideal Course in 
History for Secondary Schools" — a paper 
read before the National Educatitmal Asso- 
ciation at Milwaukee — (School Review, No- 
vember, 1898); "Review of J. Novicow: La 
(pierre et ses prt^tendus bienfaits," Ameri- 
can Journal of Sociology, November, 1898); 
"Review of G. de Molinari: Gi-andeur et A{>- 
cadence de la guerre," (Political Science 
(Quarterly, December, 1898); "Germany and 
till' Caroline Islands," (Independent, Janu- 
ary 2(i. 1899); "History in Relation to the For 
mation of Character," (Chicago Teacher, 
Jlay 1, 1899); "Review of A. C. McLaughlin: 
A History of the American Nation," (School 
Review, June, 1899); "Review of Ch. V. Laug 
lois and Ch. Seiguoi)es: Introduction to the 
Study of History," (School Review, Septem- 
IxM-, 1S99); conimunicatiou in re "Kh'clivc 
Studies in Iligli School." iSrliool Kcvicw. 
October, 1899); ronniiunication rclaliiig In lln- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



"Review of Laiifj;lois and Seignobes," (School 
Review, January, 1900; "TheAVest Indian and 
Paiifio Islands in Relation to the Isthmian 
Canal," (Independent, March 1, 1900); "Re- 
view of F. M. Colby: Outlines of General 
History," (School Review. March, I'.tOO); 
"Medieval and Modern History in the High 
School," a discussion before the National 
Herbart Society, (School Review, May, 1900); 
"Review of H. H. I'.ancroft: The New Pa- 
cific," (Political Science Quarterly, June, 
1900); "Waste in High School Education," 
a discussion before the Minnesota Education- 
al Association, (School Review, September, 
1900); "Review of Katherine Koman and 
Elizabeth Kimball Kendall: A History of 
England," (School Review, November, 1900); 
"What Should the High School Alumni Ac- 
complisli?" (reprinted from the forty-second 
annual rejjort of the board of school insjiec- 
tors of the city of St. Paul; December, 1900); 
"War and Economics, in History and in The- 
ory," (Political Science Quarterly, December, 
1900); "Review of Trueblood, the Federation 
of the World: McCabe, Can We Disarm? 
Richet, Les guerres et la paix; Von Stengel. 
Der ewige P'riede," (Political Science Quar- 
terly, December, 1900). He also published 
a catalogue of the Schoolcraft Public 
Schools, in April, 1S92, and a catalogue and 
manual of the Rock Island High School, in 
April, 1898. Mr. Robinson is usually a Re- 
publican in national i>olitics, though indepen- 
dent in state and local affairs. He is a mem- 
ber of the St. Paul Commercial Club, the St. 
Paul Informal Club, Ancient Landmark 
Lodge F. & A. 51.; Prairie Ronde Chapter, 
Royal Arch, and the American Historical 
Association. His religious connections are 
with the Presbyterian clwirch. He was mar- 
ried June 30, 1897, at St. Paul's rectory. Mus- 
kegon, to Miss Clare Howard. Their union 
has been blessed with one child : Helen How- 
ard Van Dyke, born June 2G, 1900, in St. 
Paul. 



LEWIS, Robert Steele.— The develop- 
ment of the Northwest has afforded bound- 
less opportunities to the young man of pluck 
and energy, and success lay within easy 



grasp of the man who possessed self-confi- 
dence and was willing to do his share in the 
work of upbuilding. No matter what form 
his activities took, if he possessed those dom- 
inating traits that count for so much in a 
successful career, he ultimately reaped his 
reward. The credit for the rapid develop- 
ment of this large section of our country is 
to be accorded in large measure to the men 
of this generation. This is particularly true 
in the case of North Dakota. Her citizens 
of prominence, in public as well as business 
life, were, as a rule, young men without 
capital when they entered her bordere. 
Their success has been due to the untiring 
energy and perseverance with which they 
have devoted themselves to their special lines 
or callings. Robert S. Lewis, vice president 
of the Red River Valley National Bank of 
Fargo, is a splendid type of the self-made 
man. In his eighteen years of residence in 
the Flickertail state he has built up an en- 
viable reputation as a reliable business man 
and attained a position of prominence in 
financial circles. He is a native of Tennes- 
see, and was born at luka August 15, 1856. 
His father. Josiah F. Lewis, was for a num 
ber of years a professor in one of the leading 
colleges of the South. Having acquired 
some means in this way, he came north with 
his family in 180.3 and located at Monticello, 
5Iinn., where he engaged in farming. He 
was dcejjly interested in everything pertain- 
ing to educational matters and took a promi- 
nent position in local affairs. He was elect- 
ed county superintendent of schools for 
Wright county, and held this office for seven 
years, filling it very creditably. He took an 
active interest, also, in state grange matters. 
His wife's maiden name was Mary Steele. 
She was a native of North Carolina, and was 
connected with the wealthy Steele families 
of the South. She was a woman who pos- 
sessed many excellent traits of character, had 
received a college education, and was an un- 
selfish, devoted mother, impressing strongly 
upon her children her personal characteris- 
tics. Robert received his early education in 
till' common schools of Minnesota. This was 
supplemented, however, by the wider knowl- 
edge of his parents and their careful guid- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



,'ince of liis stmlies. lie Wdi-kctl on tlio farm 
until liis niuetcenth year, when he he);an 
teaching in tlie conuti-y schools. Me was 
very .snceessfnl in this vocation, and taughl 
foui* tei-ms in one district and three in an- 
other. In the fall of 18S0 he moved to ^lin- 
neapolis and secured employment as a clerk, 
remaining; here until his removal to Farjio, 
July 8, 1882, to accept a clerkship in the Red 
River Valley National Bank. He has been 
connected with this institution ever since, 
winnintf jiromolion <;radnally in recognition 
of his faithful, conscientious service, lie 
served for the first year and a half as a col- 
lectoi-, from which he was advanced to the 
jiosition of teller. This i)osition he held for 
two years, when he was promoted to assist 
ant cashier, at the same time being eleited 
to a position on the board of dii-ectors. In 
18!)1 he was again promoted, to the position 
of cashier. He remained in this office until 
1897, at which time he resigned in order to 
devote his i)ersonal attention to the various 
outside Interests with which he was identi- 
fied. On his resignation he was elected vice 
president of the bank, which position he still 
holds. In 1892 Mr. Lewis invested in a tract 
of land known as the Gardner farm, owned 
by (leorge M'. (Jardner, of Hastings. This 
proved to be a very fortunate investment 
and he has been unusually successful in his 
farming operations. He ke])t adding to the 
original purchase fi-om time to time until 
now he owns and operates over 5,000 acres 
of fanning land. It is well stocked and is 
probably the best equipped farm in the 
Northwest. He is also interested in the 
Fargo Cold Storage and Packing ComiJany, 
a thriving business institution of that city, 
and is secretary of the company. Mr. Lewis 
is held in high regard in financial circles for 
his strict business integrity. He has exhibit- 
ed a high order of business capacity and has 
won foi- himself the esteem of all who know 
him. Aside from the various business inter- 
ests with which he is identified, Mr. Lewis 
has also found time to take an active interest 
in municipal and county politics. Although 
coining from a Democratic family he has al- 
ways voted and worked for the success of the 
Republican i><'>rty, before and since his resi- 

189 




ItOBEUT S. LEWIS. 

dence in North Dakota. He served as secre- 
tary of the Kejiublican state convention, held 
at F'argo, in 181)8, and was elected in 1900 to 
the state senate, for a term of four years, by 
a handsome majority against one^^f the 
strongest combinations ever put up in the 
state in a legislative contest. He has also 
taken an active interest in educational mat- 
ters, is president of the school board of the 
city of Fargo, and a member of the board 
of trustees of th(> North Dakota Agricultural 
College. He is a brother of J. H. Lewis, 
superintendent of public instiiiction for the 
state of Minnesota. Mr. Lewis is also prom- 
inently identified with a number of fraternal 
organizations, is a thirty-.second degree Scot- 
tish Rite 5Iason, a Shriuer, a member of the 
Knights of Pythias, the A. O. U. W. and the 
Elks. He was married December 25, 1870, 
to Alice M. Cari)enter, daughter of Judge 
Carpenter, of Mt)nticello, Minn. Their union 
has been blessed with three children, Robert 
C, Olive M., and Alice. 



DEARTH. Elmer H., was born in Sanger- 
\ille, Piscatacpiis county. Me., June 0. 1859. 
He icceived a high school and acad<'mic edu- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




ELMER H. DEARTH. 

cation, gniduating in 1878, and from that 
date until 1880 taught school in his native 
state. In 1880 he entered the office of the 
Bangor (Me.) Daily Whig and Courier, where 
he remained until the latter part of 1883, 
thoroughly mastering the business of news- 
paper work. He came to Minnesota in the 
fall of 1883, first locating in St. Paul. From 
1881 to the latter part of 1886 he was editor 
and manager of "The Independent" at Hen- 
derson, and from 188C to 1890 he owned and 
edited the "News"' at Le Sueur, disposing of 
his interest in the latter year and returaing 
to St. Paul. Through his newspaper affilia- 
tions, and personally, he always took an ac- 
tive interest in the i)olitics of this state, his 
jiapers being at all times vigorous advocates 
of Republican ])rinciples. His efforts for the 
party did not remain unnoticed by the lead- 
ers, and Mr. Dearth received, in 1889, from 
Governor Merriam, the appointment of Depu- 
ty Insurance Commissioner of the state. In 
this new post he soon developed a large 
amount of executive ability and he filled it 
with credit to himself and the state, and hon- 
or to the insurance depai'tment. After re- 
maining in this position for three years he 
voluntarily resigned to accept a iiosition with 



the Equitable Life of New York. In Janu- 
;iry, 1897, Mr. Dearth received from Gover- 
n<u- Clough the appointment of insurance 
commissioner of Minnesota and entered the 
jiosition with a full knowledge of the details 
of the office, eminently qualified to pursue its 
duties. He retired from this office in 1899, 
tJie state administration having passed into 
the hands of a Demo-Pop governor. Upon 
Ills retirement he held the position of presi- 
dent of the National Association of Insur- 
ance Commissioners, and for the next suc- 
ceeding two years was engaged in the gen- 
eral and local fire insurance business. In 
January, 1901, he was again appointed by 
Covernor Van Sant to the position of insur- 
ance commissioner of Minnesota, which office 
he now holds. 

He is a prominent Mason, Elk, Knight of 
Pythias, and a charter member of the Com- 
mercial Club, the leading business organiza- 
tion of St. Paul. He has had a deal of ex- 
perience in journalism and commercial busi- 
ness, and during the last twelve years in that 
of insurance. In 1889 he was married to 
Miss Nellie G., daughter of Hon. M. Doran, 
of St. Paul. 



NORDIN, Axel Frithiof, judge of pro- 
bate of Kandiyohi county, Minn., is an excel- 
lent type of the self-made man. He is a native 
of Sweden, and was born at Stockholm, No- 
vember 16, 18-19, the son of Peter E. and 
Maria Helena Nordin. His parents emigrated 
to America when he was four years of age, 
but did not come to Minnesota until 1855, 
first settling at Hastings. Two years later 
they i"emoved to Nininger, and then, in 1859, 
to Eureka, in Dakota county, where the 
father engaged in farming. The fann was 
sold a year or so later and the family moved 
to Greenvale, Rice county, locating on an- 
other farm. In 1863, this farm was also sold, 
the Nordin family removing back to Hast- 
ings. From there they went to Northfield, 
where Mr. Nordin started a general store, 
but was burned out in 1865. He then moved 
to Norway Lake, in Kandiyohi county, and 
again settled on a farm, and until 1882 re- 
mained there, then sold out and moved to 



HISTORY OF THE GIIEAT XOUTHWEST. 



Leeds, N. D., where he now resides iu fairly 
comfortable circumstances. Mrs. Nordin 
died in 1880. The early life of the subject 
of this sketch was not an enviable one. In 
common with the children of our early pio- 
neers he suffered the hardships and priva- 
tions of life on the frontier. He assisted his 
father in the opening up of four farms, and 
this meant incessant toil. His op[)ortunitics 
for acquiring an education were, therefore, 
somewhat limited. He attended the common 
schools, such as they were, and later was 
able to supplement this early training in the 
Seabury Mission School at Faribault, and 
Carleton College, at Northtield, though he 
did not remain long enough in either institu 
ti,)n to graduate. He left the farm shortly 
after reaching his twenty-first year and com 
menced clerking in a store at New London. 
A few months later he removed to AA'illmar. 
and after a year's service as a clerk, opened 
a butcher shop. This he soon disposed of, 
however, and began the study of law in the 
office of Samuel Dunham, at Willmar. Short- 
ly afterwards he was appointed deputy regis- 
ter of deeds for Kandiyohi county, and held 
this office for a year and a half, when he was 
elected register of deeds and seiwed one 
term in that office. He was clerk of the court 
for two terms, and was then appointed de])u- 
ty collector of internal revenue by the late 
William Bickel. March 1, 18S4, he was ap- 
pointed assistant secretary of state and com- 
missioner of statistics under Secretary of 
State Baumbach, and' held this position un- 
til October 1, 1886. The following year he 
moved to Cokato, and shortly afterwards 
was admitted to the bar, returning to Will- 
mar to begin the practice of law. In 1801 he 
was elected county attorney of Kandiyohi 
county, served two terms, and was then elect- 
ed probate judge, which office he now holds. 
Judge Nordin has achieved distinction solely 
on merit, and as a reward for public service 
faithfully performed. He is highly esteemed 
by all who know him, not only for his emi- 
nent legal ability, but for his admirable per- 
sonal qualities as w^ell. He is a staunch Re- 
publican and has stumped the state in sev- 
eral campaigns. He is a member of the K. 
of P., A. O. U. W., M. W. A., Degree of Hon- 




or, Royal Neighbors, and Territorial I'io 
neers. He is a Protestant Episcopalian, and 
is junior warden, la}' reader and superin- 
endent of the Sunday school iu St.»Luke's 
church, at Willmar. June 7, 1875, he was 
nuirried to Anna T. Anderson; six children 
were born, only one of whom is now living — 
Agues E. 



HANSON, Peter E.— That the great 
Northwest is a "land of promise" to those 
who have the right qualities, or, as the com- 
mon saying is, have the right stuff' in them, 
is well illustrated in the career of Mr. I'eter 
E. Hanson, the well known president of the 
ilceker County Bank. Born at X'oldsjo, 
Sweden, in 1845, he came to Minnesota and 
settled in Swede Grove Township, Meeker 
county, in 1857. His father, Hans Peterson, 
was a farmer, who thoroughly understood 
his business, for he prospered and accumu- 
lated a large estate. His son, Peter E., was 
brought up as a farmer's boy, receiving sim- 
ply a coniuKui school education, but early 
develojjed a superior business capacity. He 
began to deal in real estate, and in 1879 he 
opened an office in Lifchficld, the county 
seat of Meeker coimiIv. wlieir, hv his nn- 



HISTORY OP TUE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




PETER E. HANSON. 

(jiiestioned integrity and fair dealing, he built 
up a lai'ge business, securing the largest cli- 
entele in the city and disposing of a very 
large amount of land. To this business he 
added that of banking, and in 1891 was made 
president of the Meeker County Bank, a po- 
sition which he yet holds, and where his 
high character for uprightness, sound judg- 
ment and uswerving probity is a tower of 
strength to the institution. 

As a young man — too young to enlist — 
Mr. Hanson took part in the Indian war of 
1802. He helped to guard the homes and 
to defend the fort at Forest City, Minn. He 
had the reputation of being the best shot in 
the country and took part in two battles. 
He has always been a patriotic, public-spirited 
citizen, taking an active interest in public 
affairs, sei'ving as a member of the town 
board and as chaimian of the county board. 
He was elected also to the state senate, where 
his solid qualities found due recognition. 
His able services as senator undoubtedly pre- 
pared the way for higher honors which await 
him at the hands of the Republican party, 
of which he has always been an active mem- 
ber, supporting its measures and nomina- 
tions with ardent zeal. In one of the larg- 



est state conventions ever held in the state, 
Mr. Hanson was nominated by the Repub- 
lican party in 1!)0(), for the high office of 
secretary of state over several very able com- 
jietitors, and was duly elected at the polls in 
November by a handsome majority. This 
was an honor of which any man ought justly 
to feel proud, for it is a distinction which 
only few can hope to attain in a great com- 
monwealth, and it is the more notable, in 
this instance, that it conies to a farmer boy 
while still comparatively young. 

]Mr. Hanson was married in 18G7 to Ra- 
chel N. Halverson, and is the happy father 
of four children — Xellie O., Harry A., Jennie 
F., and May L. Hanson, a joy to their par- 
ents and full of promise to the state. 



MERRIAM, William Rush.— The North- 
west has a distinguished representative in 
the employ of the federal government at 
Washington in the person of William Rush 
Merriam, director of the census. Mr. Mer- 
riam is a resident! of the state of Minnesota, 
and for two teniis filled the office of chief 
executive of that state with conspicuous 
ability. In recognition of his eminent serv- 
ices to the Republican party he was awarded 
the appointment at the head of the census 
bureau. The marked executive talent he has 
exhibited in that office has won for him 
many encomiums. Governor Merriam conies 
from good old colonial stock. His paternal 
ancestors came to this country from England 
in the early part of the seventeenth century 
and settled at Concord, Mass. William 
Merriam, his grandfather, was born at Bed- 
ford, Mass., in 1750, and served as a private 
in Captain Jonathan Wilson's company of 
minute men in that town. He participated 
in the fight at Concord Bridge, April 19, 
1775, and in the pursuit of the British forces 
on their retreat from Concord to Charleston. 
Two years later he served as chainnan of the 
board of selectmen of Bedford and rendered 
important service in procuring enlistments 
to the American army. His son, Hon. John 
L. Merriam, the father of our subject, was for 
many years engaged as a merohant at W^ad- 
liam's Mills, Essex county, N. Y. It was 



HISTORY UF TIIIO GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Lei-e tliat ^^■illiiUll Hush Moiriam was boru, 
July 2(j, 1841). His mother was of Frencli 
descent, her maiden name being Maliahi De- 
lano. In 1861 the family came west and 
settled at St. I'aul, Minn., John L. Merriam 
engaging in the stage and transfjortation 
business, in partnership with J. C. Burbank. 
Their business became quite an extensive 
one, as those were days before railroads had 
made their entry into the North Star state. 
Mr. Merriam also became identified with a 
number of other entei^jrises, and taking an 
active interest in politics was elected a mem- 
ber of the state legislature, and served as 
speaker of the lower house in 1870 and 1871. 
William Rush Merriam was of a naturally 
studious disposition and took a keen interest 
in his studies. When fifteen years of age he 
entered the Racine Academy, at Racine, 
Wis., and, having graduated from this pre- 
paratory school, entered Racine College, 
where he acquitted himself with honors, be- 
ing chosen valedictorian of his class at com- 
mencement. He returned to his home in St. 
I'aul after graduation and secured a position 
as a clerk in the First National Bank. He 
devoted himself diligently to the work in 
hand, developing an unusual order of busi- 
ness ability, and when only twenty-three 
years of age was elected cashier of the Mer- 
chants' National Bank. Seven years later, 
in 1880, he was chosen vice president, and in 
1884: made president of the bank. Aside 
from his business interests, Mr. Merriam 
early took an intei*est in public affairs and 
became an active worker for the Republican 
party in every campaign. In 1882 he was 
chosen to represent his district in the lower 
house of the legislature, at once assuming a 
conspicuous place in that body. He was 
again elected in 1880, and was chosen speak- 
er, serving in the same position occupied by 
his father sixteen years before. He made an 
admirable presiding officer, winning the re- 
spect and esteem of the members for his fair 
and impartial rulings, and the geniality of 
his manner. The same year he was chosen 
vice-president of the State Agricultural so- 
ciety, and a year later was made president 
of that organization, and contributed in no 
small measure to the s\iccess of the state 




WILLIAAl K. All':i;i!l.\.\l. 

fair held under its auspices during those 
years. In 1888 Mr. Merriam received the 
nomination for governor on the Repwblican 
ticket, against Hon. Eugene M. Wilson, of 
.Minneapolis, the Democratic nominee, and 
was (fleeted. He was honored with a re- 
uoniination in 18t)0, and was again elected 
(o the gubernatorial chair. He made an ex- 
ceptionally good record in that oflice, his ad- 
ministration being marked for the practical 
business methods adopted in the conduct of 
state affairs. At the close of his term of 
ottice in January, 18ii3, Mr. Merriam re- 
sumi'd active charge of the various banking 
interests with which he was connected. He 
was always an earnest student of public af- 
fairs, and became recognized as au au- 
thority on financial questions in the memor- 
able campaign of 18U0. He contributed nu- 
merous articles on the subject of national 
finances to leading financial papers of the 
country, which had considerable iutiueuce 
in shaping opinion in favor of sound finance. 
In Alarch, 181)0, he was chosen by the Repub- 
lican state convention one of the delegates 
from Minnesota to the national convention, 
lie was appointed director of the census of 



HISTORY OF TUE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



1900 bj Pi-esideut McKiuley, and tlie wis- 
dom of the selection lias been endorsed 
everywhere by the splendid record he has 
made in that office. His remarkable execu- 
tive talent and skill in orji;anization and in 
readily handling- and dispatching the im- 
mense amount of business in that office with 
accuracy and lightning speed, has stamped 
him as one of the most efficient census di- 
rectors the country ever had. There is little 
doubt entertained but that the complete re- 
turns of the 1900 census will be compiled 
and published long in advance of the time 
that has generally been alloted to this 
work. One other commendatory feature of 
his superintendence of the census bureau is 
the fact that practically little complaint is 
heard as to the accuracy of the count made. 
Governor Merriam is a member of the Uni- 
versity club of New York, the Metropolitan 
club at Washington, and the Minnesota club 
at St. Paul. He was one of the first presi- 
dents of the Minnesota Boat club. He also 
served for three years as treasurer of the 
St. Paul Board of Education. He is a mem- 
ber of St. Paul's Episcopal church of St. 
Paul. In 1872 he was married to Laura 
Hancock, a daughter of John Hancock, and 
a niece of the late Gen. Winfleld Scott Han- 
cock. Mrs. Merriam is a lady of rare ac- 
complishments and gracious manners. The 
future holds out brilliant prospects for her 
distinguished husband. He has not yet 
reached the high water mark of success. 
His many warm friends in the Northwest 
wish him greater honors than those he has 
already received. 



EDWARDS, Alanson William.— Colonel 
Cadle, adjutant-general of the Seventeenth 
Corps, commanded by the brave, popular and 
genial General Prank Blair, in the following 
letter to "The Forum,"" has some words for 
an old comrade and explains how he comes 
to write: 

"Society of the Army of the Tennessee, 
Recording Secretary's Office, P. O. Box 35, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, March 31, 1898.— To 'The 
Forum': The Society of the Army of the 
Tennessee desires to keep in its records mem- 



oranda showing the services of its members. 
Some time ago I wrote Major Edwards and 
asked him to send me a sketch that would 
enable us, when he died, to print his obituai"}'. 
He sent me a \ery brief statement, but, know- 
ing as much or more of his record than he 
modestly stated to me, I have written the 
enclosed, and if you think it worth while it 
might be printed, because it shows a great 
deal of his experience in the Army of the 
Tennessee in the war of the Rebellion. 

"He was certainly a gallant soldier in our 
army, and credit should be given to living 
men as well as dead. Therefore I send this 
to you with the hope that it may be used, 
and that, as an obituary of our society, it 
may be long before it will be required. Ma- 
jor Edwards does not know of this communi- 
cation. Yours very truly, 

■•CORNELIUS OADLE." 

"Major Alanson William Edwards was 
born in Lorain county, Ohio, August 27, 1840. 
His father removed to Macoupin county. 111., 
in 1848. Major Edwards attended the coun- 
ty schools and was afterward, in 1856-57, a 
student at McKendree College, Illinois. He 
was a railroad express agent and telegi-aph 
operator at Gillespie, 111., when the war 
broke out. 

"He enlisted at once for the tliree months' 
service, but the quota of Illinois was then 
tilled, as was the first call for three years 
Aolunteers. He enlisted and was mustered 
in as a private of Company I, One hundred 
and twentj'-second Illinois Infantry, at Camp 
■ Palmer, Carlinville, 111., August 4, 1802. He 
served in the Western ai-my, beginning at 
Columbus, Ky. He was a clerk in the office 
of the adjutant-general, district of Jackson 
war department. General Grenville M. 
Dodge, of Corinth, Miss. 

"In April, 1863, by authority from the 
war department. General Grenville M. 
Dodge, at Corinth, Miss., organized the first 
Alabama Union ( "avalry from loyal refugees, 
driven from their homes in the mountains in 
North Alabama by Confederate conscripting 
(ifficers. Major Edwards was appointed 
first lieutenant and adjutant, with George 
E. Spencer as colonel, and was afterward 
promoted to captain L troop of this regiment. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



"He served with General Van Derveei 
as actino- assistant adjutant-general, district 
of Rome and of Marieeta. Oa. and was near 
Kenesaw mountain with General Sherman 
when Sherman sip;nalled Corse at AUatoona 
to 'hold the fort.' at the same time that Gap- 
tain Flint, of Gomjiany E, First Alabama 
Garali-y, was aide to General Corse, and 
wrote at Corse's dictation the answer about 
iosiu}!- liis cheek, but was able to whip all 
hell yet.' 

''Major Edwards commanded Company ^I 
of his regiment on the'JIarcli to the Sea,' and 
in the <'lose ajij)roach to Savannah he rode 
with the First Alabama Cavalry over the 
torpedoes planted in the road Ity the enemy. 
Lieutenant F. W. Tupper, his successor and 
adjutant of the regiment, having his leg 
blown off, and many of the regiment being 
severely wounded. 

"Colonel Cornelius Cadle, the adjutant- 
general of the Seventeentll Army Corps, be- 
ing at that moment in advance with the First 
Alabama Cavalry, directed the provost mar- 
shal of the corps. Major John C. Marvin, to 
bring to the front all the jn-isonerS of war, 
and they, upon their hands and knees, dug 
into the ground and took out the toi-jiedoes — 
the unexploded ones — that several of these 
prisoners had assisted in planting a few 
days before. It hap])ened that the Confede- 
rate sergeant who had supervision of the 
placing of these torpedoes was one of the 
prisoners, and he readily found them and 
carefully aided in clearing our way to Sa- 
vannah, the city that was a Christmas pres- 
ent from Sherman to our president. Lincoln. 
"At Savannah ISlajor Edwards was de- 
tached from his regiment by order of General 
Sherman, and assigned to duly as acting 
assistant adjutant-general. Fourth Division, 
Fifteenth Army Cori)s. and served with Gen- 
eral Corse, the division commander, until 
after the grand i-eview of the armies at 
Washington, May 1'4 and 2.5, ISG.j, and was 
mustei-ed out July 11, 1S(;.5. He was l)revet- 
ed major March i:?. ISG.j, for 'gallant and 
meritorious .service in the field.' 

"Major Edwards was j)reseut al the meet- 
ing of the officers of the Armv of the Ten- 




ALAXSOX W. EnWAKDS. 

nessee. called to organize our society, at Ka- 
leigh, N. C, April 2,5, 1805. 

"The first post of the Grand Army of the 
Republic was organized by Dr. B. F. flfeven- 
son, at Decatur, HI., and several members 
were sent over the state to institute other 
jiosts. A dozen or more were mustered at 
the same time. Major Edwards, after his 
war service, was mustered in Post No. G, at 
I?unker Hill, 111., which was one of the ear- 
liest organized posts of the Grand Army of 
the Republic. 

"Returning to his home in lS(i."). he resus- 
citated the 'Union Gazette,' at Bunker Hill, 
111., a paper he published before going to the 
war, and which was suspended during the 
war. Ill 18(iS Major Edwards secured an in. 
(erest in the Carlinville Free Democrat, a 
Republican paper started by Senator John 
M. Palmer in 185G. 

"Major Edwards was warden of the Illi- 
nois state penitentiary at Joliet in 1871-72. 
After the great Chicago fire he went into 
business in Chicago, and was a member of 
the board of trade in 1875-78. He went to 
the Black Hills in 187G. located at Fargo in 
1878, as editor of the 'Fai-go Reimblican.' 
He established the 'Daily Argus' in 1879. 



195 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



(Tovernor G. A. Pierce, of our society, ap- 
pointed Major Edwards superintendent of 
Ihe semi-decennial census of Dakota Terri- 
tory in 1885. Major Edwards was elected 
mayor of Fargo in 1886; was a member of 
the legislature 1895-96. He lost the Argus 
in 1890, started the 'Daily Forum' in 1891, 
purchased the 'Republican,' the first paper 
he started, and consolidated the two, and it 
is now issued by Edward & Plumley. 

"Major Edwards was married to Eliza- 
beth Robertson at Carlinville, 111., in ISTO. 
They have six sons and one daughter, all liv- 
ing in Fargo, N. D. The sons are Harry 
Goodell, 26 years; William Robertson, 23; 
Allanson Charles, 19; John Palmer, 17; 
George Washington, 13; Richford Roberts, 
9, and the daughter, Marie R., 24 years. 

"Cincinnati, Ohio, March 31, 1898." 



LIND, John. — To be elected governor of 
the state of Minnesota at any time is not a 
small honor; to be the first man elected to 
the place in opposition to the Republican 
party organization is even a more signal vic- 
tory; to be chosen above and beyond partisan 
lines by the discriminating judgment of his 
fellow-citizens, at a time when all the other 
nominees of the opposing party, save the 
gubernatoi-ial, were elected by more or less 
handsome majorities, is a distinction such as 
has been accorded to few men in any state. 
It was under such circumstances that John 
Lind was inaugurated governor of Minne- 
sota in January, 1899. 

Governor Lind was born at Kanna, Prov- 
ince of Smaiand, Sweden, March 25, 1854. 
His parents were Gustav and Catherine 
(Johnson) Lind. Gustav Lind, like his an- 
cestors for several generations, was a farm- 
er, and also filled local offices in the com 
munity where he lived, being a deputy sheriff 
of the borough for several years. The fam- 
ily emigrated to America in 1867, when John 
was thirteen years of age, and settled in 
Goodhue county, Minn. Here young John, 
laboring to assist in the support of the fam- 
ily, lost his left hand by an accident which, 
perhaps, turned the current of his career, as 
now, illy fitted to compete with his fellows 



in the material world, he was urged to more 
assiduity in the pursuit of his studies. He 
s])ent as much of his time at school as pos- 
sible, and at sixteen he was gi-anted a cer- 
tificate entitling him to teach in the public 
schools. He taught one year in Sibley 
county, but not being satisfied with the com- 
pensation in a new country at that time, be, 
in 1873, took up his residence in New Ulm, 
where he has since resided, respected and 
honored among men. By the dint of hard 
study, industry and strict economy, he was 
able to attend the State I'niversity in 1875 
and 1876, having in mind then the jn-actice 
of the law. Utilizing all his opportunities 
for private study and privileged as he was 
to work in the office of a Kew I^lm practi- 
tioner, he was admitted to the bar immedi- 
ately upon leaving the university at the age 
of twenty-one. In 1877 he began the prac- 
tice of law, and, taking an active interest in 
public life, was chosen superintendent of 
schools of Brown county. This position he 
held for two years, declining a renomination 
in order that he might devote himself entire- 
ly to the profession upon the adoption of 
which he had now fully detennined, namely, 
the law. In 1881, under the administration 
of Garfield and Arthur, he was made re- 
ceiver of the land office at Tracy, Lyon coun- 
ty, which position he held until the election 
of Grover Cleveland, still being able, how- 
ever, to care for his private practice at New 
Ulm. The country was filling up rapidly 
and the work of the courts incidentally in- 
creased. Mr. Lind's natural talent and dili- 
gence made him a name more than local, and 
his i)rosecution of several suits, notably 
those against railroad companies, won him 
not a little renown. He was also active in 
the councils of the Republican party, and in 
1886 he was nominated to represent the Sec- 
ond district in the federal congress. The 
Second district then comprised twenty coun- 
ties — practically all of Southwestern Minne- 
sota. That was a hard fought campaign. 
Dr. A. A. Ames, of Minneapolis, coming 
within a very small margin of defeating A. 
R. McGill for governor, but Mr. Lind was 
elected by a splendid jtlurality. Two years 
later he was renominated and again elected, 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



his adversary this time being Colonel Morton 
S. Wilkinson, a veteran leader, who had been 
one of Minnesota's three representatives in 
the federal house from 18G9 to 1871, and 
United States senator during the War. He 
took an active interest in the affaii's of the 
Indians and secured the passage of a bill 
establishing seven Indian schools in various 
jiarts of the country, one of them being lo- 
cated at Pipestone, in this state. Another 
sphere of work of local importance was the 
pushing of some old claims for the depreda- 
tions of the Indians during the outbreak of 
1862. He secured the payment of many of 
these for the people of the Second district, 
who had suffered during that uprising. One 
of the greatest economies which he secured 
to the people of the state, however, was the 
passage of the bill for the reorganization of 
the federal courts of the District of Minne- 
sota, which is commonly known to this day 
as the "Lind Bill." I'revious to its passage 
all sessions of the United States courts in 
this state had been held at St. Paul, entail- 
ing long sitting-s, delays in trials and long 
journeys, increasing the cost to litigants \\\- 
ing remote from the capital. Mr. Lind's 
bill provided for terms as now held at Min- 
neapolis, JIankato, Winona and Fergus 
Falls, as well as in St. Paul. Mr. Lind was 
a strenuous fighter for the integrity and en- 
forcement of the Interstate Commerce Act in 
its efforts to prevent discriminations in favor 
of persons or places. He had added to it 
amendments which made it possible for the 
commission to procure evidence more effi- 
ciently, and also made several battles in the 
courts to secure for the millers in the smaller 
centers of the state rates more fair when com- 
jiared with the millers of Minneapolis, who 
had been granted ccT-tain special privileges. 
Mr. Lind was also instrumental in securing 
a great reform. in railroad management and 
equipment, which ia saving human lif(> and 
limb hourly. That is, the automatic coupler 
and jiower-brake bill, so called, which was 
l)assed, and directed all railroads to provide 
their cars with automatic couiders of uni- 
form type, and to have at least a certain 
number of cars of each train equipjjed with 
ail', or rather power, brakes, so as to obviate 




JOHN LIND. 

the use of hand brakes, which were very dan- 
gerous in icy or sleety weather. Tliisbill 
was opposed by a strong and insistent lobby, 
led by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, 
but after a hard contest the lobby was beaten 
and Mr. Lind's bill became a law. Another 
bill of commercial value to the Northwest 
niad(- Minneapolis a port of entry. Mr. Lind 
was a conceded authority in the House on 
the subjects concerned with public lands — 
Congressman Payson, of Illinois, being the 
only man on the floor considered his peer in 
this special branch of so much importance 
to the West. In the contest over the tariff 
Mr. Lind was a hard fighter, and showed his 
indejiendence by declining to be bound by 
the declarations of the Republican caucus. 
He fought the tariff on lumber because, as 
he said, it committed the nation to the idiocy 
of destroying its own forests rather than 
those of other people. He fought for free 
sugar, for free materials for making liindiiig 
twine and for free twine. In IX'M) Mr. Lind 
was elected a thii-d time, defeating General 
James H. Baker, of C.arden City. In 1802 
he declined to become a candidate again, for 
])ei'Sonal reasons, and the ]irescnt congress- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



man, James T. Mt-Cleary, then professor of 
political economy in the State Normal School 
at Mankato, was nominated and elected to 
succeed Mr. Lind. The i)latform adopted at 
Mankato accorded the retiring conf;ressman 
this (ompliment: "We recognize in Hon. 
John Lind, our present member of congress. 
an able and efficient representative, and trust 
that his voluntary retirement from the field 
of active legislative duty will be only tem- 
porary." In 1803 Governor Nelson appoint- 
ed Mr. Lind, who had returned to the prac- 
tice of law at New LTlm, a regent of the T'ni- 
vei-sity of Minnesota. Mr. Lind was an early 
recruit to the financial policy espoused by 
Senator Teller and other Silver Eepublicans. 
In 189C the Democratic and People's party 
nominated him for governor, and he made a 
sjjlendid run, David M. Clough defeating him 
by only a small majority of about three thou- 
sand votes. In the spring of 1898, when 
President McKinley called for volunteers to 
defend the national honor and avenge the 
destruction of the Maine, John Lind, at the 
sacrifice of his law practice, tendered his 
services to Governor Clough in any capacity 
in which he might be available. Governor 
Clough, at the request of Colonel Bobleter, 
in command of the Twelfth Minnesota, made 
Mr. liind regimental quartermaster with the 
rank of first lieutenant. His record as quar- 
termaster was attested by Lis popularity 
with the regiment, which had a chance at 
Chattanooga to compare with other stand- 
ards the efficiency of Mr. Lind's arduous la- 
bors in keeping the men well equipjied and 
well provisioned. It M'as while the Twelfth 
Kegiment was encamped at Camp Thomas, 
Chickamauga National Park, that the Demo- 
cratic, People's and Silver Republican par 
ties, in state convention, unanimously nomi- 
nated Mr. Lind for governor. It was his 
desire, after the defeat of 1800, not to again 
enter the field of politics, but so unanimous 
was the call, and so insistent were the friends 
who had sui)ported him so warmly in previ- 
ous campaigns, that Mr. Lind at last put 
aside his desire for political retirement and 
consented to make the race, subject to the 
necessary limitations of his military service. 
With the surrender of Santiago and the sub- 



sequent return of the Minnesota troops from 
the South, Mr. Lind was enabled to make 
two short series of speeches in a few of the 
citit^ and towns of the state. There has 
rarely been such a series of popular demon- 
strations of personal admiration and sym- 
]iatliy. These tours, brief as they were, were 
splendid auguries of the magnificent vote 
which the men of Minnesota gave him on 
election day. This is the public and politi- 
cal career, epitomized, of the man who has 
fought his way, despite rebuffs and tempo- 
rary revei-ses, to attain success at last and 
a full realization of the fact that "he cannot 
appreciate victory who has not suffered de- 
feat." Governor Lind's energies have not 
been spent alone in politics and public af- 
fairs. He has had a lucrative practice at the 
bar and has not sacrificed it in the public 
service. New Ulm is the center of a thriv- 
ing farming community, prettily situated in 
the picturesque valley of the Minnesota, and 
is such a town as might well be selected for* 
ihe home of a man of Governor Lind's char- 
acter, earnest, faithful and unaffected. Gov- 
ernor Lind has been identified with some of 
the best institutions of New Ulm. He has 
served as director in the Brown County 
Bank, and was one of the committee of five 
New I'lni men who had charge of the con- 
struction of the Minneapolis, New I'lni & 
Southwestern railroad and other enterprises 
that have materially benefited his home 
town. 

Governor Lind was married in 1879 to 
Jliss Alice A. Shepard, the daughter of a 
then prominent citizen of Blue Earth county, 
since removed to California. He, Kichard 
Shepard, was a soldier of the Union army in 
the Civil War. His father also fought for 
the young republic in the War of 1812, while 
his grandfather was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary War. 

To Governor and Mrs. Lind have been 
born four children, Norman, Jenny, Winni- 
fred and John Shepard. The first named is 
now a student at the State Uuivei-sity, and 
with four generations of soldiers before him, 
might be looked for to enter a military career 
rather than that of politics, in which his fa- 
ther has attained his greatest fame. 



HISTORY OP THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



CRITCHETT, Eruest Thomas, superin- 
tendent of public scliools, Kew Ulni, Minn., 
comes fi'om old New England stock. On 
both sides of the house he is descended fioui 
the early settlers of Massachusetts and New 
Hampshiie; his paternal ancestors, for many 
f>enerations, having lived on the shores of 
Massachusetts Bay, settling there in 1630. 
He was born July 30, 1803, at Concord, N. 
H., the son of M. B. Critchett, a merchant of 
that city from 185G to 1883, and Emily J. 
(Yeaton) Critchett. He attended the public 
schools of hs native place and graduated from 
the Concord high school. He then entered 
Dartmouth College, at Hanover, N. H., grad- 
uating from this institution in 1885, with the 
degree of A. B. Three years later he was 
honored with the degree of A. M. by his 
alma mater. While at Dartmouth he was a 
member of Kappa Kappa Kappa fraternity, 
and at graduation became a member of Phi 
Beta Kappa. Immediately after graduating 
he came west and located at Mankato, Minn., 
where he began teaching as the principal of 
the Pleasant Grove grammar school in that 
city. Later, he was appointed principal of 
the Mankato high school and held this posi- 
tion for two years. In 188U he was offered 
the position of principal of the Duluth high 
school, which he accejjted, and was at the 
head of this institution for four years, during 
which time a new high school, one of the 
finest in the country, was erected. He was 
appointed to his present position in 18i)4. 
The enrollment of the New Ulm city schools 
has increased more than one-third in that 
time, and one of the best high school build- 
ings in the state has been built. Mr. Critch- 
ett is an earnest student of educational mat- 
ters and his administration has been efficient 
in every respect. He has aimed to introduce 
the most advanced methods into the school 
work and has brought the New Ulm schools 
up to a high standard of excellence. He is 
an active member of the National Education- 
al association, and for the past fifteen years 
has been a member of the Minnesota Educa- 
tional association. In politics, Mr. Critchett 
is a Republican, but has never taken an ac- 
tive part in political affairs, or held office. 
He is a member of Charitv Lodge, A. F. & 




ERNEST T. CUrrCIIETT. 

A. il., of New Ulm; of New Ulm Chapter, 
R. A. M., and of DeMolay Commandery, K. 
T., of New Ulm. He is active in church work, 
is a member of the First Congregational 
church of New Ulm, a member and secretary 
of the board of trustees, and superintendent 
of the Sunday school. June 15, 1887, he was 
married, in Minneapolis, to Helen M. Crook- 
er, whose father was one of the old residents 
of Minnesota, having settled in Owatonna in 
1857. Two children have been born to them, 
Francis Eruest, in 1888, and Edward Fowler, 
in 1892. 



JONES, David Newton., is a native of 
Ohio. He was born at Gomer, in that state, 
September 1, 1850. His father was Maurice 
F. Jones, the son of Richard Jones. His 
mother's maiden name was Mary Evans. His 
early education was obtained in the public 
schools of Gomer, and at the high school of 
Lima, Ohio. He then entered the Northwest- 
ei'u Ohio Normal School at Ada, until he 
was pre[)ared to teach school. He then 
taught for three years at Veuedocia. Jones- 
town, and Gomer, his native town. He was 
now twentv-one vears old, and chose for his 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




AVID N. JOXES. 



life work Iht- piofessiou of medicine. He be- 
gan his study uuder the direction of Profess- 
or W. A. Yohn, M. D., and attended the med- 
ical department of the jS'orthern Indiana 
Normal School at Valparaiso for two and a 
half years. In 187'J-S0 he took a course of 
lectures at the Medical College of Ohio, Cin- 
cinnati, and another at the Kentucky School 
of Medicine, Louisville, Ky., and one at the 
Kush Medical College, Chicago, 1880-81. Ee- 
turniug later, he graduated from this insti- 
tution with the degree of M. D. He began to 
practice at Lima, Ohio. After one year, he 
moved to Gaylord, Minn., in August, 1882, 
and established his practice there, where he 
has since lived. He is the medical examiner 
for the New York Life Insurance Company, 
the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New 
York, the Equitable Life Assurance Com- 
pany of the United States, the National Life 
Insurance Company, Montpelier, Vt., and 
the ^tna Life Insurance Company of Hart- 
ford, Conn. Dr. Jones is a member of the 
Amei'ican Medical association. International 
^Association of Hallway Surgeons, Minnesota 
State Medical society, of which he was vice 
])iesident in 1801 and 1802; Minnesota Val- 
ley Medical association, Minnesota State 
Koard of Medical Examiners, 1806-8; Board 



of Trustees of the Minnesota State Hosjiitals 
for the Insane, appointed in 1808, and still a 
member, serving as president since 1800. He 
has been surgeon of the Minneapolis & St. 
Louis Railway since 1883. He is also secre- 
tary of the United States Board of I'ension 
Examining Surgeons, located at Gayloi-d. 
Dr. Jones has also presented several papers 
to the Minnesota State Medical society, 
which were well received, having been pub- 
lished in 1801, in the "Northwestern Lancet," 
as well as in the proceedings of the society. 
The principal subject was"Phlegmonous Ery- 
sipelas.'" The doctor devotes his attention, 
however, largely to surgery But while so 
active and prominent in his profession, he 
does not neglect the amenities of life nor 
public affairs. Politically he affiliates with 
the Democratic party, in which he is promi- 
nent and active, having been chairman of its 
county committee for ten consecutive years, 
but guards against all partizan bias in pub- 
lic matters. He was a member of the board 
of examiners for teachers, 1883 to 1806, and 
he served as mayor of Gaylord in 1888-89. 
In social matters he is likewise interested. 
He is a Mason and an Odd Fellow, being the 
first noble grand of his lodge, in 1888. He 
has passed all the chairs of the encampment 
branch, and is a major of the Fourth Battal- 
ion, Division of the Lakes. He is also a mem- 
ber of the Modern Woodmen of America. 
July 18, 1882, he was married to Miss Mary 
Foley, of Lima, Ohio. They have one daugh- 
ter, Florence, bom November 5, 1886 . 



WHITE, Frank T., county attorney of 
Sherburne countj', Minn., is a young man 
who has shown more than the usual amount 
of pluck and energy required in the struggle 
for success. He has worked against disad- 
vantages that would have discouraged most 
young men, but these obstacles only spurred 
him on to renewed labors. Mr. White was 
born April 0, 1866, on a farm near East Bur- 
lington, Kane county. 111., and is a son of 
Edgar White and Emma C. (Thurston) White. 
His father, now a merchant and postmaster 
at Clear Lake, was for many yeai-s a farmer, 
and much of the success attained by Frank 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



T. is due to the earlj' traiiiiug secured ou the 
iarm. He is a desueudaut, ou his father's 
side, from good >;ew Euglaud stock, the 
early members of the family beiug resideuts 
of Vermont. James White, the great grami- 
father, served as a (ireeu Mouutaiu Boy lu 
the Coutiueutal army during the Kevolutiou, 
aud held the positiou of orderly sergeant. 
Mr. White came to Miunesota in 1872, with 
his people, they coming overland in au emi- 
grant wagon, and settled upon a farm near 
Clear Lake. He led the customary life of a 
farmer's boy of that period, attending school 
whenever he could be spared from the farm. 
He earned his hrst money by selling furs, 
which he obtained by trapping, game being 
plentiful near his home. He attended the 
public schools at Clear Lake and also at 
Clearwater, and the high school at Creston, 
111. His high school course was interrupted 
frequently in order to earn the money neces- 
sary to pay his expenses. He taught school 
for a number of years, starting iu his home 
district when but seventeen years of age. He 
then taught at Monticello I'rairie. Mr. 
^^'hite had now decided that he would be a 
lawyer and he came to Minneapolis and en- 
tered a law office as clerk, and began his 
studies, besides working in the law library 
located in the same building. He earned his 
meals by working in a restaurant dui'ing the 
noon hour; he also carried papers for one of 
the morning newspapers. He then taught 
the village school at Clear Lake the winter 
of 1888 and 1889, and early in the latter year 
went to California, where he remained for a 
couple of years, working at various places. 
He returned to Minneapolis in 18!J1 and en- 
tered the night law class at the State Univer- 
sity. His course was interrupted again, how- 
ever, and for the better part of a year he 
taught school at Clear Lake and managed 
his father's farm. In 1S93 he returned to the 
university, and by taking both day aud night 
lectures, was able to be graduated with the 
class of 1894. Mr. White then went to his 
home at Clear Lake to rest up before begin- 
ning practice. He was unexpectedly nomi- 
nated for the position of county attorney of 
Sherburne county, his home county, and in 
spite of the oppositon of the bosses in his 




FK.VNK T. WHITE. 

(jwn party aud the ettorts of the other cuiidi 
date, was elected by the narrow margin of 
seven votes. He has filled the office in so 
creditable a manner that he has been re- 
elected at each succeeding election. Mr. 
\Vhite was married December 29, 1897, to 
Miss Daly, of Elk Kiver, and has a family of 
two children, Kuth Mary and Lavina Esther. 
Mr. White has made his home at Elk Kiver 
since his first election as county attorney, 
and carries on a very successful, law, real. 
estate aud insurance business, in connection 
with his work as county attorney. Mr. ^^■hite 
belongs to several fraternal and beneficiary 
orders, including the Modei-n Woodmen of 
America, the Ancient Order of United \\'ork- 
men, the Odd Fellows, the Maccabees and 
the Elks. 



DOBBIN, James.— The Shattuck School 
at Faribault, Minn., is one of the great suc- 
cesses of the iS'orthwest in the educational 
field. Beginning in 18(J5, with neither money 
nor buildings, it has trained more than 2,000 
boys, from nearly all parts of the Union — the 
attendants for the year 1900 representing 
Iwentv-four states. It now has fine build- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




JAMES DOBBIN. 

iiig.s and a propei-ty worth uearly a half mil- 
lion dollars, including a scholarship endow- 
ment of more than one hundred thousand 
dollars, all in the custody of a strong cor- 
poration which gives a sense of permanence 
and of a faithful administration of the whole 
establishment. This remarkable achieve- 
ment is lai-gely the work of James Dobbin, 
D. D., rector of the school, who has had en- 
tire charge and responsiblity for the care, 
maintenance and growth of the institution 
since 1SG7 — ^more than a generation. He was 
born at Salem, jS'. Y., June 29, 1833. His 
father, Josej^h Dobbin, w'as a farmer in mod- 
erate circumstances, who came from the 
north of Ireland when a lad, at the begin- 
ning of the last century. The Dobbins are 
of Huguenot extraction, which is shown by 
historical records I'eaching back to William 
the Conqueror, with whom Peter Dobbin, 
afterwards high sheriff of Dublin, came to 
England. James Dobbin began his educa- 
tion in the common country school. When 
seventeen years old he entered the Washing- 
ton Academy at Salem for a few mouths, 
walking daily to and from home, each way, 
three and a half miles. Here he was instilled 
with the desire for a college course, and was 



jirepared there and at tlie academy in Argyle. 
He entered the Union <"ollege, and gradu-ated 
in the class of 18i5n, with a standing among 
the ten highest in a class numbering eighty- 
three. AMiile in college he was a member of 
the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, and for 
his scholarship he was made an honorary 
member of the Phi Beta Kappa fraternity. 
He was principal of the Argyle Academy for 
two years before entering college, and after 
he graduated, served two years as the prin- 
cipal of the Greenwich Academy, both in the 
state of Xew York. In 1864 he took up theo- 
logical studies for orders in the Episcopal 
church, and was ordained on Trinity Sunday, 
1807. He had, however, been appointed, in 
April preceding, rector of the Shattuck 
School, then in its infancy, and wholly with- 
out means for its future growth. While thus 
empty-handed and without buildings, the 
school has been self-supporting from the first, 
has contributed a large amount from its earn- 
ing-s toward its imin'ovements and equip- 
ments, and has become one of the foremost 
and largest schools of its Idnd in the country. 
The result of his work, his ability, sagacity, 
and management will be proclaimed to fu- 
ture generations more effectively by the Shat- 
tuck School than could words however elo- 
quent proclaim his merit. He first came to 
Faribault in 1859, remaining one year. He 
returned in 1801, and has resided there ever 
since. In 1801 he was married to Fannie I. 
Leigh, of Argyle, N. Y., who died in 1865, 
leaving one daughter, Jessie Leigh, now the 
wife of G. Carl Davis, of Red Wing. In 1874 
Mr. Dobbin was married to Elizabeth L. 
Ames, of Niles, Mich. They have two sons, 
John Edgar and Edward Savage Dobbin. 



HEINTZEMAN, Christian Carl, is one of 
the leading teachers of music in Minneapolis, 
Minn. He is a native of Gennany. His 
father, Heinrich Heintzeman, was for fifty- 
lour years a teacher in the Kormal school of 
Bad Wildungen, a summer resort in the prin- 
cipality of Waldeck. He held the position of 
"Cantor," musical director of the school, and 
was the organist of the Lutheran church of 



HISTORY OF THE GRKAT NORTinA'EST. 



(hat place for fifty years. In recognition of 
his \(mg and faithful service he was deco- 
rated by the prince with the gold medal of 
merit. He then retired, and is still living at 
the ripe old age of eighty years, in the enjoy- 
ment of his pension. He was a very con- 
scientious teacher, and a strict disciplinarian, 
and it was under his guidance that the sub- 
ject of this sketch began the study of the 
pianoforte, organ and harmony. Afterward, 
he studied with Karl Stracke, then with 
Tewes, and later under Kuehne, all noted in- 
structors. After coming to America, Pro- 
fessor Ileiutzeman began to study instru- 
mentation, and, to thoroughly equij) himself 
as a composer and teacher, he worked hard 
learning to understand the whole string fam- 
ily of instruments, as well as those of brass 
and wood. This developed an especial liking 
for the military band, henceforth much of 
his time has been devoted to that particular 
line of work. After playing for a consider- 
able time with flrst-class eastern organiza- 
tions, his services as a teacher became so 
much in demand that Professor Heintzeman 
abandoned his jirofessonal playing and has 
since devoted all his time to the teaching of 
bands and orchestras, although not neglect- 
ing his earliest choice, the i)iano, having con- 
stantly a large class of piano pupils. Profess- 
or Heintzeman came to Minnesota from 
I'rovidence, E. I., in September, 1887. He 
enjoys the reputation of being one of the 
best band instructors in the United States. 
This has been borne out by his services in con- 
nection with The Minneapolis Journal News- 
boys' Band, one of the most unique musical 
organizations in the country. It is a full mili- 
tary band of fifty pieces, and is composed of 
genuine newsboys, every one of whom was 
taken from the streets when the band was 
organized. Professor Heintzeman was en- 
gaged as the instructor of the boys in 1807, 
and the band made its first public api)ear- 
ance on Memorial Day the following year. 
Since then it has been in great demand for all 
sorts of public engagements. It has played 
over sixty engagements, including concerts 
at the Lyceum Theater and T'entury Hall, 
music for baseball and football games, place 
of honor in Memorial and Labor Day parades, 




CI1KI8TIAN C. HIOIXTZEMAN. 



and the iKinic-roiiiing of the Thirteenth Min- 
nesota Volunteers, in Minneapolis, besides 
numerous concert engagements throughout 
the Northwest at street fairs and (^unty 
fairs, also at the Minnesota State Fair. Early 
in 1!(()0 the band played a concert tour 
through Southern Minnesota, meeting with 
great success. It has a large repertoire, and 
after their long practice together the boys 
can jilay the most difficult music with the 
confidence of old-time musicians. Iii 1879, 
Professor Heintzeman was married to Miss 
Matti(» Pheljis, at Bridgewater, Mass. No 
children \\er<' born. ilrs. Heintzeman died 
in l.S!)2. 



ALLEN. William Duncan, one of (he 
most prominent and successful business men 
of Faigo, N. D., was born at Fpper Darby, 
Delaware county. Pa., August 1, 1858. His 
father, -Jose])h Allen, was a fanner of Irish 
extraction. His mother's maiden name was 
Mary Duncan. Slie was of Scotch descent. 
Her Scotch father was a sea ca])tain. Will- 
iam recei\-ed his early education in tlie dis- 
li-ict schools of liie counliy. and Iheii tooli a 
coiii-seat l]ie K|iisco]ial .\cadeniy, a scliool of 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




WILLIAM D. ALLEN. 

liigli grade in Philadelijliia. He then took a 
business course, graduating at the Philadel- 
phia Business College. Thus equipped with 
a good practical education, he learned the 
plumber's trade in I'hiladeljjhia, and came to 
what was then Dakota Territory, now North 
Dakota, settling at Fargo, in May, 1882, where 
he established himself in business on his own 
account, and yet carries it on. By his su- 
perior skill and upright dealing he has made 
it one of the leading and most successful 
business enterprises iu the state. He has 
also been an active and prominent man in 
public affairs, as well as in business circles. 
He has been a member of the cit^- council for 
three tenus, and in 1900 was elected presi- 
dent of the council. He is now acting mayor 
of the city. In 1S!)8 he was elected to repre- 
sent his district and citj' in the lower branch 
of the legislature. He has always filled every 
position to which he has been elected with 
credit to himself, and to the advantage and 
honor of his constituents. In church rela- 
tions he is an Episcopalian, being thus loyal 
to the traditions of his people and to his 
early training. His interest in social life and 
fraternity mattei-s are shown by his standing 
in Masonic circles. He has received all the 



degrees of the Masonic order up to the Thir- 
ty-third degree. He was married March 12, 
1SS4, to Annie C. Jones. They have three 
children: Martha R. Allen, 15 yeai-s of age; 
Harry C. Allen, 11 years of age, and Eliza- 
beth ('. Allen, 8 years of age. Mr. Allen is 
niic of those solid men who make no preten- 
tions. His ])ractical sense, sound judgment 
.uid iiiitlinching integrity have won the confi- 
(li'iuc of all who know him. His election as 
jiresident of the city council shows the esti- 
mate in which he is held by his associates. 
He is a kind and indulgent father, and good 
neighbor, and a successful, public-spirited 
citizen. 



LUtiGER, Otto, professor of entomology 
at the I'niversity of Minnesota, and State 
Entomologist, is a native of Germany, and 
was born in Hagen, Westphalia, September 
1.J, 1S14. His ancestors on both sides of the 
house were mostly officers in the Prussian 
army, and members of old Prussian families 
whose records are traced back to the four- 
teenth century. His father, Fritz Lugger von 
Hagen, was a professor of chemistry, an orig- 
inal investigator in that and allied sciences, 
and a man of great prominence in scientific 
and educational circles. His mother's maid- 
en name was Lina von Fischer. He was edu- 
cated at the Gymnasium at Hagen, and later 
at the universiities at Munster. Bonn and Ber- 
lin. He then joined a cavalry regiment sta- 
tioned at Munster, and was commissioned a 
lieutenant in 1804. He left the army shortly 
after to enter the Polytechnicum at Berlin, 
and later at Heidelberg. In 1805 he came to 
the United States, and almost immediately 
entered the United States engineer sei-vice 
in the lake survey at Detroit, Mich. He re- 
mained in that service for three jeara, when 
he became assistant to Prof. C. V. Riley, 
state entomologist of Missouri. He held this 
position until 1875, when he was appointed 
curator of the Maryland Academy of Science 
at Baltimore. Shortly afterwards he entered 
the Johns Hopkins University at Baltimore, 
at the same time serving as naturalist of the 
public parks in that city. Later he went to 
Washington and spent three years in the di- 




OTTO LI-GGICU, 



$05 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



vision of entomology of the Department of 
Afiricultiire. He was appointed professor of 
entomology and botany at the Minnesota Ex- 
periment Station, at St. Anthony Park, in 
1880. Professor Lugger is a high authority 
on the subject of entomology, particularly 
with reference to the Northwest. He is a 
noted experimenter, and his discoveries have 
been of the greatest value to the agricultur- 
ist. He has also written a large number of 
books and bulletins which are of great im- 
portance to the farmer and fruit grower. He 
was appointed state entomologist in 1800. 
February 5, 1850, he was married to Lena 
Eosewald, a native of Iserlohn, Westphalia, 
Germany. To them have been born two chil- 
dren : Linnea and Humboldt. 



ELLIOTT, Charles B.— Fearless and cour- 
ageous in the discharge of his duties, Charles 
B. Elliott has made a record on the district 
bench of Hennepin county which has won for 
him the respect of every right-thinking citi- 
zen of Minneapolis. He is a man of strict 
fidelity to principle, of calm temperament, 
and clear and impartial judgTuent. His just 
administration of the law has made him 
feared by those who would seek to pervert 
it to their own base purposes, and has given 
him the complete confidence of that element 
of the community which stands for what is 
best in society. Judge Elliott is a product 
of the farm, from which have sprung the 
men who have been the most prominent in 
the history of these United States. His 
father was an Ohio farmer, who spent the 
larger share of his life scratching a poor liv- 
ing out of even a poorer farm. It needed but 
the stimulus of an ambitious temperament 
to make the young farmer boy break away 
from his environment and seek in the world 
beyond the reward awaiting patient and per- 
severing effort. Charles was born in Morgan 
county, Ohio, .January 0, 1801. He is the son 
of Edward and Anjaline (Kinseyi Elliott. 
The Elliott family came to Ohio shortly after 
the Eevolutionary War, and were among the 
early settlers of Morgan county. The father 
of Charles" mother was also an early pioneer 
in Ohio. The ancestors of these two families 



emigrated to this country from England in 
the early days and settled in New England. 
The common schools of southeastern Ohio, in 
which the subject of this sketch received his 
early education, were just one step removed 
from the old log school house. But they 
were good schools of their type, and the 
sturdy and ambitious country lads who at- 
tended them were duly impressed with the 
idea that they should get in training for the 
presidency. At the early age of sixteen 
Charles had sufficiently qualified him.self to 
begin teaching. He spent all his spare time 
in hard study and in a short time was able 
to enter the preparatory department of Mari- 
etta College. Being compelled to work his 
own way, he was only able to attend inter- 
mittently. He taught country schools in the 
winter, worked on the farm in the summer, 
and while in college taught night school and 
did janitor work. In fact the young student 
worked so hard that he temy>orarily ruined 
his health. His father having moved to Iowa, 
Charles followed him and entered the Iowa 
State University, graduating from the law 
department in June. 1881, with the degree of 
L.T-. B. The following winter was spent in 
the law office of Brannan & Jayne, at Musca- 
tine, Iowa. In 1882 he moved to St. Louis, 
'Slo., where he suj)ported himself by writing 
for the legal magazines and reviews, but his 
health breaking down the year following, he 
was obliged to give up this work and went 
to Aberdeen, S. D. He remained here for a 
little over a year, engaged in outside work, 
until he had regained his health. Going to 
Boston, he spent some time studying, but 
came west and located at Minneapolis in 
1884. He o])ened uj) an office and began the 
practice of his profession, but the first three 
years were a hard struggle with adversity. 
He was unremitting in his studies, however, 
taking a post-graduate coui-se in history and 
international law for three years at the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, graduating in 1887, 
with the degree of Ph. D., the first granted 
by that university. He continued the prac- 
tice of law until January, 1801, when he was 
ap])ointed, by Governor Merriam, judge of 
the municipal court of Minneapolis. The fol- 
lowing November he was elected to this office 



HISTORY OF THE GItKAT NORTHWEST. 



for a term of six veal's. In Januarj-, 18U4, he 
was appointed jiuljie of the district court by 
Governor Xelson, to till an unexjtired tenii. 
In the November elections of that year he 
was elected to the full term of six years on 
the district bench, and has served in that 
capacity up to this time. He was renomi- 
nated to the same office in the primary elec- 
tions of 19(10 after a hard and bitter fight. 
His fearless conduct of the cases against 
what was known as the "city hall gang"' had 
incurred for him the ill-will of the friends 
of the convicted man, as well as the element 
they represented, but he won out "hands 
down"' against their open, undisguised and 
revengeful opi>osition to his renomination, 
and received a handsome endorsement at the 
polls in November. Judge Elliott is a stu- 
dent and a man of high attainments, and has 
come to be recognized as an authority on in- 
ternational law. From 1890 to 1898 he was 
a member of the faculty of the law depart- 
ment of the University of Minnesota, lectur- 
ing on corporation law, insurance and inter- 
national law. He is still engaged as a lec- 
turer on the latter suliject. He has written 
extensively on these subjects, and among his 
most noted books may be mentioned '"Law 
of Private Coii>orations,'" now in its third 
edition; "Law of Insurance," in its second 
edition; "Law of Public Corijorations,"" "Min- 
nesota Trial Practice,"" recently pul)lished, 
and a historical volume entitled "The United 
8tates and the Northwestern Fisheries"' 
(1887), which is regarded as the highest au- 
thority on that subject. Judge Elliott has 
also contributed many articles to the maga- 
zines and reviews, such as the Atlantic 
Monthly, the Forum, the American Law Re- 
view, and numerous French, German and 
Russian reviews, devoted to public and in- 
ternational law. The active duties of his of- 
fice, and his prodigious activity as an author 
have not, however, kept Judge Elliott from 
mingling among liis fellow-men in a social 
way, by whom he is highly esteemed, not 
alone for his intellectual ability, but for his 
social qualities as well. He is a Republican 
in politics, and a member of the Masons, 
Knights Templar and the I. O. O. F. In 189.1 
he was complimented by the State University 




CHAIILKS l:. ELLIOTT. 

of Iowa with the honorary degree of LL. I). 
He is also a member of the Phi Beta Kappa 
fraternity, and is president of the Minnesota 
chapter. A\'hile not a member of any (Aurch, 
he is. with his family, an attendant at St. 
Mark's Episcopal church. He was married. 
May 13, 1883, to Edith Winslow, at Musca- 
tine, Iowa. Their union has been blessed 
with four children, Charles Winslow, Edwin 
I]ugene. Ethel and Walter A. 



I'ERKINS, George Albion. — Thorough 
Iirejiaratory training is more essential in the 
medical profession, jirobably, than in any 
other. The practitioner in that profession 
can achieve prominence only through demon- 
strated skill, and the wider his experience in 
ronnecfion with the various hospitals during 
his ((lur^c iif studies the better he is equip- 
jjed to take upon liimself the responsibilities 
of a general practice. If he wins the confi- 
dence of his patients early in his career it is 
a strong indication that he has acquired con- 
siderable skill and will later take high rank 
in his profession. Dr. George A. Perkins, of 
Dickinson, N. D., is a good example of the 
young, successful practitioner. He is a na- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT XORTHV\EST. 




GEORGE A. PERKINS. 

tive of the [Norlb Star state. His father, T. 
E. Perkins, was one of the earlj' and well-to- 
do settlers of Goodhue county, Minn., having 
located on a farm near Red Wing, in 1865, 
where he has resided continuously ever since. 
His mother's maiden name was Ehoda A. 
Boston. In common with other heroic wom- 
en of those days, she suffered the hardships 
of a pioneer life, but now enjoys the comforts 
to be obtained by a prosperous farmer. The 
paternal ancestry of our subject was Scotch, 
and was fli-st represented in America by 
three brothers, who came here about the time 
of the first settlement in Maine. The one 
from whom Di-. Perkins is directly descended 
settled in Maine, the others in Xew Hamp- 
shire and Massachusetts. On his mother's 
side, he is of English descent, her ancestors 
hanng settled in New England in early 
colonial days. He was born on his fathers 
farm, near Ked \Ying, July 17, 1S71. His 
early education was received in the public 
schools. AYhen twenty years of age he en- 
tered the State University of Minnesota and 
took two years in the scientific course. De- 
siring to take up the profession of medicine 
as his vociition in life, he entered the medical 
department of the same institution in Oc- 



tober, 189-1, and graduated in June, 1897. He 
was president of his class in the freshman 
year, and in the junior year, iu a comijetitive 
e.'v'amination. he won the position of house 
jiliysician and surgeon at St. Luke's Hospital. 
St. Paul, which he held from June, 1S9G, to 
-iinic. 1>-'.I7. In the senior year he was again 
suicessful in the competitive examination 
and secured the position of house physician, 
and suiegon in the City and County Hospital 
of St. Paul, which position he held until 
Ajiril, 1898, when he removed to North Da- 
kota and located at Dickinson, where he be- 
gan the active practice of his profession. 
Shortly afterwards he formed a partnenship 
w ith Dr. n. A. Davis, under the firm name of 
l>rs. Davis & Perkins. This partnership was 
dissolved Jan. 1, 1901, since which time he 
lias i)racticed alone. In his short temi of 
practice. Dr. Perkins has acquired a reputa- 
tion for being a thoroughly comi>etent and 
skillful practitioner, and if his present suc- 
cess is a safe criterion he is bound to rise in 
his profession. Dr. Perkins is a Republican 
iu politics, but has never taken an active part 
in political affairs. He is a member of the 
North Dakota State Medical association and 
the American Medical association. In his 
junior year at college he was elected to mem- 
bership in the N. E. N. Medical fraternity. 
He is also a Mason. June 28, 1899, he was 
married to Miss Minnie F. McDowell, of 
Minneapolis. 



THOMAS, David Owen, was born in 1852. 
He is the youngest son of Thomas and Mar- 
garet Thomas, of Penybenglog Mill, Nevern 
parish, Pembrokeshire, Wales. He is of an- 
cient Welsh lineage, being on the i>aternal 
side of the well known Lloyd family of Car- 
diganshire, and on the maternal side of the 
Owen family of Pembrokeshire, whose rec- 
ords are connected with the history of the 
principality since the fourteenth century. 
Several men of this branch were distinguish- 
ed as well in the literary annals of Wales. 

In his nineteenth year David Owen Thom- 
as came to this country and made his home at 
Youngstown, Ohio. .In 1873, in order to con- 
tinue his education, the foundation of whioh 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



was well laid in Wales, he entered Bethany 
(,'ollege, ^^■est Virginia, where, in ISTS, he 
{iraduated with the degree of B. A. After 
some indecision with regard to liis future 
plans, he decided upon the practice of medi- 
cine as his life work, and accordingly enter- 
ed the Medical College of Indiana, at Indian- 
aj)olis. Here, in 1884, he graduated, receiving, 
with the degree of M. D., the Mears gold med 
al for the best thesis on "Caesarean Section."' 
In 18S5 he was married to Miss Anne E. 
Butler, youngest daughter of the late Ovid 
Butler, founder of Butler College. I'liivei- 
sity of Indianapolis. 

After his marriage Dr. and 'Siva. Thomas 
went at once to Minneapolis, where they 
established their home. Three years later, 
desiring a more extended clinical experience, 
he left there. He went first to the College of 
I'hysicians and Surgeons of New York, where 
he again graduated; crowding two years" 
work into one. He then went abi'oad, and, 
after some travel in Europe, returned to Lon- 
don and continued his clinical work for two 
years at St. Bartholomew's Hosjiital. He 
successfully passed the examinations of the 
Conjoint Board of the Royal College of I'hy- 
sicians of London and the Royal College of 
Surgeons of England. Dr. Thomas is the 
only physician in Minneapolis who holds Lon- 
don d<'grees of L. R. C. P. and M. R. C. S. 

In 18t)l he returned to Minneapolis and 
resumed the practice of his profession, and is 
well esteemed by his fellow practitioners as 
a safe and experienced man. He has filled 
for many years the chair of Dermatology and 
Genito-Urinary Diseases in the medical de- 
partment of Hamline University, Minneapo- 
lis; and holds appointments of visiting phy- 
sician to both the Asbury Methodist Hospital 
and the City Hosijital. 

He is an active worker in both the Henne- 
pin County Medical Society and the Minne- 
sota State Medical Society, and is a frequent 
contributor to the medical journals. Politi- 
cally he adheres to Republican principles, but 
in local politics favors right men and meas- 
ures rather than a party label. He became 
a member of the Christian church while a 
student at Bethany College, which was found- 
ed by Alexander Campbell, and is the oldest 




scliool of the Disciples of Christ. He is a 
iiK'inher of the I'ortland Avenue Church of 
Christ, and has served as elder for a number 
of years. It was largely through hi»iuflu- 
ence that the annual missionary convention 
of the Christian church was held in Minne- 
ai)olis in 1!)01, for the preparation of which 
he acted as chainiian of the executive coni- 
uuttee. 

His literary taste has made him conver- 
sant with the best thought and latest discov- 
eries, not only in his own jtrofession, but also 
in the principal fields of learning and re- 
search. He is a man of broad sympathies, 
quiet and thoughtful disposition, and while 
excluding violent measures, advocates moral 
reform and religious liberty and progress. 



MITCHELL, Charles Luther. — Over- 
crowded farming communities and unremun- 
erative occupations in the humbler walks of 
life, in the eastern and middle states, have 
furnished their quota of men — a large per- 
centage, too — to the development of the 
Northwest, especially the Dakotas. These 
were young men who sought in newer fields 
of activitv oiieuings \vlii<-li were denied them 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




mines he received a certifleate from the board 
<if examiners as a mine boss. In 1884, he 
came west and located at Jamestown, X. D. 
lie has been eminently successful and is 
(|uite extensively engafj;ed in farminff at the 
present time. He is also serving as postmas- 
ter at Jamestown, to which office he was ap- 
pointed Aug. 29, 1800. He has also served 
as aldennan for two terms, and was president 
of the citj' council. In politics he is a Re- 
publican, and has served as chairman of the 
Kepublican county committee. He is also 
prominently identified with a number of fra- 
ternal organizations, and is a member of the 
Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias, the A. 
O. U. W., the Maccabees, the Knights of La- 
bor, and the Patriotic Sons of America. His 
church connections are with the Episcopal 
church. In 1884, he was man'ied to Miss 
Jane Hysong. One child has been born : Cleo 
Mitchell. 



CHAKLES L. MITCHELL. 



in the older states. They were willing to 
turn their hands to anything which prom- 
ised adequate returns for their labors, and in 
most instances their efforts were crowned 
with success. The subject of our sketch, com- 
ing to the Dakotas a poor man, has built up 
a moderate competence, and has the respect 
and esteem of the community in which he 
lives, in a high degree. Mr. Mitchell was born 
March 20, 1858, at Blairsville, Pa. His father, 
Solomon F. Mitchell, ws a coal miner by oc- 
cupation; an industrious and frugal man in 
his habits, who succeeded in placing himself 
in fairly moderate circumstances, and was 
the owner of a small fai-m. He was a veteran 
of both the Mexican and Civil wai's. His 
wife's maiden name was Mary Magdalene 
Bates. He was of English descent; her an- 
cestry was English. Charles did not enjoy 
the advantages of a very liberal education. 
The lad began working in the mines when 
only nine years of age, and continued in this 
employment until he was twenty-one. At 
different periods, however, he attended the 
common schools of Pittsburg, and later, 
through his own exertions, was able to take a 
course in Duff's College, in that city, from 
which he graduated. While working in the 



EODDLE, William Henry.— The present 
secretary of state of South Dakota, William 
H. Roddle, although a young man, may be 
regarded as one of the fathers of the city of 
Brookings, S. D., the seat of the State 
Agricultural College, and one of the most 
prosperous towns of the state. In the 
summer of 1879, when the first railroad was 
building through Brookings county, Mr. Rod- 
die was an old settler in the county, so to 
speak, or at least was so regarded for he 
came to it in February, 1870, that is a few 
months ahead of the road, which in those 
rushing days seemed a long time. He was 
active in securing the location of the city 
where it now stands. His name will always 
be connected with that thrifty community, 
where he has resided up to the present time. 
Mr. Roddle is of English descent. His fa- 
ther, William Roddle, came to America when 
a young man, from the southern part of Eng- 
land, near London, where his ancestors had 
been sturdy farmers for many generations. 
He was also a farmer, but settled for a time 
in New York. He then went west succes- 
sively to Ohio, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, 
settling finally in Waseca county, where he 
reared and educated a large family and ac- 



HISTORY OF THK GREAT NORTHWEST. 



quired a competency for his old ajjc, dying 
in peace where lie had made his home. His 
wife was Mary Smith, born and icared in 
New York city, the home of her ancestors 
from the early settlement of the country. 

William H. Koddle was bom September 
;2S, tsno, in Kenosha county, \\'is., on 
his father's farm, lie was educated in I lie 
common schools in the country and in (lie 
towns, lie worked on the farm and attend- 
ed school in winter and at such otliei- limes 
as he could be spared. When he was a yoiim; 
man he secured employment in a hardware 
store at Waseca, where he thoroujilily learn- 
ed the business, and finally hecaiiie a partner 
in the firm of J. M. Koberlson i.K: Company, 
of Waseca. This firm continued until !Mr. 
Koddle went to Dakota and engaged in the 
hardware business in IJrookings county, later 
forming a ])artnership with ^V. (1. Lockhart, 
under the firm name of Lockhart & Koddle, 
in 1882. The firm was dissolved in ISS.-), Mr. 
Lockhart retiring. The business was contin- 
ued by Mr. Koddle until lS9(i, when the press 
of other business led him to retire. 

Mr. Koddle has always been an active Ke- 
publican, and has filled many positions in 
local matters. In 1SII2 he was elected treas- 
urer of the county, and was re-elected in 18!)-1. 
He was elected secretary of state of South 
Dakota in 18!t(;, and re-elected in 1S9S. He 
has been a member of the Odd Fellows since 
early manhood. He is also a Mason, and for 
many years has been an active worker, being 
honored by tlie fraternity with many posi- 
tions of honor and trust. At the annual 
meeting in 180!), at Yankton, S. D., lie 
was elected Grand Master of Masons of 
the state. He is also a past High I'riest of 
the Koyal Arch degree, and a Knight Tem- 
jdar, as well as a Shriner of El Raid Tem- 
ple, Sioux Falls, S. D. It is therefore ap- 
I)arent that his social relations are of wide 
extent. The energy which prompted INlr. 
Koddle to struggle with the railroad to se- 
cure the location of Brookings seems to be 
characteristic of him in every enterprise un- 
dertaken. His re-election to every political 
position he has held, is testimony of strong 
character to his efficiency and versatile abil- 
ity. His evident popularity among his frater- 

2H 




JAM II. Itl)Ill>Li;. 



iial associates is no less ci-edilable to his so- 
cial (jualities. Mr. Koddle was married Jan- 
uary 1, 187<!, to Fannie R. Stevens. TTiey 
have one child, Mary E. Koddle. • 

A comparatively young man, with such a 
career behind him he may reasonably look 
forward to even bighei' achievements and a 
still moi-e brilliant future. 



KIESSBECK, John.— The office of county 
aiidiloi- is one which dii-ectly interests the 
jieople. They seek lo place in this office only 
men of demonstrated fitness for the jiosifion 
and who are thoroughly rc^liable and trust 
worthy. The disposition made of the finan 
ces of llie coinily is a matter of vital inter 
est, and they look to the man whom they 
lun'e placed in the auditor's office to see that 
they are protected and their confidence not 
abused by other servants of the public. Po- 
litical expediency, however, often places men 
in office who are not deserving of public con- 
fidence. II .iugiirs well, therefore, when 
faithful service is recognized by continuing 
in odices of trust those who have proven their 
ability and their honesty. Such has bwn 
done in the case of the subject of this sketch. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




JOHN RIESSBECK. 

who is county auditor of Stark couuty, N. D. 
Mr. Eiessbeck is a native of Germany, and 
was born near Nuremberg, September 5, 
1861. His father, Thomas Riessbeck, was a 
blacksmith by trade, but also followed the 
occupation of a farmer. His mother's maid- 
en name was Barbara Kamm. The educa- 
tional training of our subject was limited to 
an attendance at the common school until his 
twelfth year. He emigrated to the United 
States in 18G4, and located in Pittsburg, Pa. 
Moved to Newark, Ohio, in 18C9; and to 
Marathon county, Wis., in 1871. Located in 
Dakota March 17, 1883 — engaged in farming 
and stock raising until 1891, when he took 
hold of a restaurant at Dickinson. In 1886, 
he was elected county assessor and held that 
office for two years. He was elected county 
treasurer in 1894, and served in this office for 
four years. In 1898 he was elected county 
auditor, and was re-elected in 1900. Mr. 
Riessbeck has made an admirable record in 
both offices, and has the confidence of the 
public in a high degree. In politics he is a 
Republican, and an active supporter of the in- 
terests of his i)arty. He is a Mason, both 
Chapter and Commandery, and is Past Mas- 
ter of Dickinson Lodge, No. 32, and High 



I'riest of Columbian Chapter, No. 11, of Dick- 
inson. His religious connections are with the 
( 'ougregational church, of which he is a mem- 
ber. October 7, 1888, he was married to La- 
toiia Brown. They have four children: John, 
Oliver Victor, Annis Lucile, and Everett 

(Veil. 



OLSON, Carl Oscar Alexius, is one of the 
rising young men of the Hennepin county 
bar, Minnesota. He is a native of Sweden, 
and was born April 5, 1872, at Kaasentorp, 
in Long parish, Skaraborgs laen, the old 
lionic of his paternal ancestors. His father, 
Anders Olsson, was a farmer in moderate 
( ircumstances. He died June 13, 1872, 
from the result of sickness contracted 
while serving in the Swedish army. Maja 
Slina Persdotter, the mother of the sub- 
ject of this sketch, was born January 23, 
1850, on her father's homestead, where is 
now located the business portion of the pros- 
perous village of Wara. She was married to 
Mr. Olsson in 1869. In the spring of 1874 
she emigrated to America, locating at Wa- 
conia, Minn., where she was married the fol- 
lowing year to John Swenson, from Skarstad, 
Vestergotland, Sweden. Alexius came with 
his mother to this country and lived for a 
short time on a farm near Waconia, then 
moved to Minneapolis, where he has re- 
mained ever since, with the exception of a 
couple of years spent on a farm at Swede 
Lake, near Watertown, Minn. He attended 
first the country school at Swede Lake, then 
the Franklin, Sumner and North Side High 
schools of Minneapolis, graduating in 1891, 
as class president in the pioneer class of the 
latter institution, receiving at commencement 
the German-American Bank prize for oi'a- 
tory. He employed his out-of-school hours 
as a carrier on the daily papers, and also 
clerked in various stores and offices. In 1892 
he w'ent to Europe and traveled through 
Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Noi'way and 
England. He returned to America the fol- 
lowing year, and during the summer was em- 
ployed at the World's Fair in Chicago. 
Coming back to Minneapolis in the fall he 
entered the University of Minnesota, taking 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



the soientific ronrse in the academic depart- 
ment, and graduated with the degree of B. S. 
in 3 895. He then entered tlie law depart- 
ment and graduated with the degree of LL. 
B. the following j-ear. In 1897 he received 
the degree of LL. M. from the same institu- 
tion. While at the university he was active 
ly interested in student affairs and served 
successively as class president, editor of The 
Ariel, the leading college paper, and as cadet 
major of the University Battalion. At com- 
mencement he was recommended by the fac- 
ulty to the adjutant general's office as avail- 
able for military duty in case the govern 
ment should wish to organize troops. He 
was also one of the originators and charter 
members of a local Greek letter society, 
which secured the establishment at the uni- 
versity of a chapter of the Zeta I'si frater- 
nity, and is a member of the Delta Chi law 
fraternity. He was admitted to the bar by 
the Minnesota supreme court, June 5, 1896, 
and has since that time been engaged in the 
general jtractice of law at Minneapolis, with 
offices in the Temple Court. During the 
first year of his practice he was associated 
with the firm of Dobbin & Bond, since which 
time he has maintained an office of his own. 
In politics he has always been an ardent 
Kepublcan, and as a member of ward and 
city campaign committees has actively par- 
ticipated in the elections, and has devoted 
considerable time to the promotion of politi- 
cal organization in Hennepin county. In 
1898 he was elected a member of the house 
of representatives of the Minnesota state leg- 
islature, and in 1900 was prominently men- 
tioned as a candidate for the office of secre- 
tary of state. As secretary of the John 
Ericsson Memorial Association he has been 
enthusiastic in the cause of raising funds for 
the erection of a monument in memory of 
the great inventor of the Monitor. From 
1892 to 1898 he served as president of the 
North Side High School Alumni Association. 
He is actively interested in sports and is a 
member of the Minnetonka Ice Yacht Club, 
the Odin Club, and the Bryn Mawr Golf 
Club. His religious connections are with the 
Lutheran body. He is a member of Augns- 
tana churcli and has been prominently idt'ii- 




CAKL O. A. OL^ 



lifted with the young people's society of that 
denomination, having served as president of 
the Bethlehem and Augustana societies, re- 
spectively. • 



BLOCK. Julius IL, is a stalwart type of 
the true German-American. His parents 
emigrated from Germany early in the '50s, 
coming to America and locating in Texas, 
where they remained several yeare, later re- 
moving to Gallon, Ohio, where Julius was 
born, March 30. 1800. In 1870 they came 
to Minnesota, and settled on a farm in Le 
Sueur county, afterwards removing across 
the river to Nicollet county. 

•lulius spent the early years of his life on 
his father's farm and attended school, obtain- 
ing a common school education, both English 
and (Jernum. He early became accustomed 
to hard work and was i)ossessed of a physical 
strength far beyond his years. It is told of 
him that while a mere boy, he took a con- 
tract for grubbing a jiiecc of timber land in 
order to ])rovide himself with means to at 
tend school during the winter, and he labor- 
ed untlaggingly and iierseveringly through 
the hot summer davs niili! Die job was fin- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




JULIUS H. BLOCK. 

isbed. This same rugj;ecl spirit of determiua 
tiou and eiiei-g;y has marked his subsequent 
career, and is one of his most prominent 
characteristics. 

At the age of 19 Mr. Block went to St. 
Peter, the county seat of Nicollet county, 
where he has since made his home. He was 
engaged as supervisor and storekeeper at the 
state hospital, and afterwards gradually 
drifted into politics, and was elected sheriff 
of the county, which office he held for sev- 
eral successive terms, until his election as 
state treasurer in 1900. He was also engaged 
in the fire insurance business, and until re- 
cently was at the head of one of the largest 
agencies in southern Minnesota. His nomi- 
nation for state treasurer at the Republican 
state convention in June was unanimous and 
by acclamation, one of the most enthusiastic 
and spontaneous nominations ever witnessed ; 
his election the following November, by a 
majority of over 50,000, was a splendid testi- 
monial to the esteem in which he is held, as 
well as to his wide acquaintance throughout 
the state. Mr. Block was maiTied at St. 
Peter, Feb. 12, 1885, to Miss Sarah West, 
Two sons have blessed the union, Robert, 



born March 16, 1886, and Budd, born in 
April, 1888. 

Mr. Block's career is a striking example 
of the possibilities of "the boy from the 
faruL" By his own efforts he has won a high 
and honored position, one of the highest in 
the gift of the people of the state. The same 
sterling qualities that he displayed in his 
youth and in his business life, enhance his 
usefulness in a public capacity. 



PRESTON, Harrison C— The memorable 
senatorial contest of the South Dakota legis- 
lature in 1891 resulted in the election of Rev. 
James H. Kyle, a Congregational minister of 
the church of Aberdeen. He had been elect- 
ed to the state senate as a Populist and was 
the determining factor in the struggle. Ma- 
ny Republican names were presented as can- 
didates upon whom the uitMubers of the party 
tried to unite, among them that of H. C. 
Preston, then in the state senate, who took 
a conspicious part in the contest. He was 
jirominent in the state as a lawyer, a good 
platform speaker, and a man of recognized 
ability in evers' sphere. He was the choice 
of a large number of Republicans for United 
States senator. It seemed at one time that 
he would be elected, but a "fusion" finally 
won the prize. Mr. Preston is of New Eng- 
land lineage, from English ancestry. Levi 
Preston, his great-grandfather, was born in 
England, September 6, 1736. He was mar- 
ried to Deliverance Mosher, a direct descend- 
ant of Hugh Mosher, who came from Eng- 
land on the ship "Jane" and landed on the 
coast of Massachusetts, June 12, 1632. The 
fourth child in a family of seven children, 
Ephraim Preston, born March 10, 1764, was 
H. C. Preston's grandfather. He was mar- 
ried to Sarah Maxwell, of Rhode Island, for 
his second wife. The youngest of her six 
children, Murray Preston, born in 1815 and 
now living, is the father of H. C. Preston. 
His mother, Mary A. Foster, who died in 
1875, was a direct descendant of Reginald 
Foster of Essex county, England, who land- 
ed at Ipswich, Mass., in 1638. Her par- 
ents removed to the "Holland Purchase," in 
western New York, when she was about ten 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



years of age, where she resided for fifty 
years. 

H. C. Preston was born in 1852 on a farm 
in Bethany, (lenesee county, N. Y. His 
early life was much like that of any thrifty 
farmer's boy, and had in it more work than 
j)lay. When young, he helped on the farm in 
summer and went to school during the winter 
until he was qualitied to teach a district 
school, ^^'hen older he hired out as a farm 
hand for the summer and taught school dur- 
ing the winter, "boarding round"" among the 
families having children in school. This 
sort of life opens up the vista of human na- 
ture into a panorama never to be forgotten. 
Hut he was ambitious for something more 
than farm life, and chose law for his profes- 
sion. He went to Marion, Iowa, where he 
had an uncle, Hon. Isaac M. Preston, who 
was a lawyer of large practice. He entered 
his ottice and began the study of law. Soon 
after his admission to the bar he went to 
Dakota territory, settling at Mitchell in 1881, 
where he now lives. Here he began the prac- 
tice of law in partnership with C. H. Dillon, 
under the firm name of Dillon & Preston. 
This partnership continued for more than ten 
years, and acquired for the firm a large prac- 
tice. During this time they prosecuted and 
defended some of the most important civil 
and criminal cases in the territory and state, 
which extended their practice and added 
greatly to the reputation of the partners. 
Mr. Preston east his tirst presidential vote 
for James A. Garfield, and has always been 
a Republican, giving liberally in service and 
means to advance the principles of his party. 
He is an effective speaker and makes a good 
impression by his manners and personal ap- 
pearance, therefore he is in great demand for 
political campaign work, and is probably 
second to none in the state of South Dakota 
in general esteem. He was elected to the 
state senate in 1891, and, as already referred 
to, in the campaign which consumed a very 
large portion of the session, Mr. Preston was 
a leading man of his party, and made a name 
for himself throughout the state, as a man 
of superior ability, sound judgment and po- 
litical sagacity, which will undoubtedly re- 
dound to his future success. He is now in 




HAUinsilN V. PUKSTON. 

his prime and no politiial honor is beyond 
his reach, and no position of honor or trust 
would be regarded as beyond his merit and 
worth. He has done much for the city in 
which he lives, and the people would d^ight 
to repay, in some measure, the interest he has 
taken in all matters designed to promote the 
growth of the city and the prosperity of the 
community. Mr. Preston was married in 
1875 to Eva E. Burroughs, of Mari(m, Iowa. 
The union has been crowned with the joy of 
an interesting family of four children: Mary 
E., Clarence M., Ella K., and Harrison C. 
I'reston, Jr. 



WHIPPLE, Abram Olin.— The indebted- 
ness of the Northwest to the sons of New 
England has been frequently the theme of 
remark and essay, if not of song. But the 
debt of the obligation can never be fathomed. 
For, as the histoi-ian delves into the records 
and examines the landmarks of the North- 
west, surprise at the iuHuence of that rugged 
corner of the republic increases. There is 
no nook or corner of the vast Northwest 
which is settled that does not bear traces 
of New England blood in some degree. It 
may be only in the names of the people. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




ABKAM O. WHIPPLE. 

Then again, when these perhaps have been 
obliterated by intermarriage, some cnstom, 
mode of procedure, or organization of insti- 
tutions will show the impress. More com- 
monly the pioneers yet remain to give im- 
pulse, tone, and direction to the community. 
North Dakota has its share of this leaven. 
There is scarcely a town without more or 
less of this permeating, uplifting influence. 
These reflections are suggested by the career 
of the subject of this sketch, A. O. Whipple. 
He was born at Shaftsbury, Bennington 
county, Vt., a region noted as the scene of 
one of the most brilliant achievements of 
the Revolutionary war. His father, Asa H. 
Whipple, was a manufacturer. His mother's 
maiden name was Esther Olin. She was the 
daughter of Gideon Olin — these Bible names 
are indicative — who was an associate of 
Ethan Allen in the New Hampshire Grant 
troubles, which were at one time perilously 
near bringing on a civil war. He was other- 
wise, also, a prominent and influential man, 
being chairman of the "Committee of Safety" 
and one of the first men to represent the state 
in congress. After liis common school edu- 
cation Abram O. Whipple prepared for col- 
lege at Fairfield Seminary, Fairfield, N. Y. 
He entered Williams College, at Williams- 



town, Mass., and graduated in the class of 
ISfJG. He then took the celebrated advice 
of Horace Greeley, and went west to Fari- 
bault, Rice county, Minn., and took up the 
study of law. He was admitted to the bar 
in 18(59, and immediately began practice in 
that county. He became so well known and 
was lield in such esteem that he was chosen 
delegate at large from the state of Minnesota 
to the national Republican convention held 
at Chicago in 1880. He continued the prac- 
tice of his profession in Minnesota until 1883, 
when he was appointed a receiver in the 
United States land office at Devils Lake, N. 
D., where he has since lived. 

In 1885 he resigned the office of receiver 
and organized the First National Bank of 
Devils Lake, of which he is now president. 
He is also president of the National Bank of 
Lakota, at Lakota, N. D., both well known 
institutions which have secured the confi- 
dence of the business men of the state. Mr. 
\Miipple is a man of energy and sound judg- 
ment, as proved by his success. He has al- 
ways been a Republican in politics, and one 
of the leaders of his party. He was a mem- 
ber of the constitutional convention which 
framed the constitution under which the 
state was admitted into the Union. By rea- 
son of his scholarly attainments and knowl- 
edge of law, he exercised no small influence 
in shaping that important instrument. He 
lias been an active promoter of all measures 
devised for the welfare and improvement of 
the town. He has been twice chosen as 
mayor of the little city, which is one of the 
most influential in that part of the state, if 
it does not even dominate in most public 
matters. In 1877 Mr. Whipple was married . 
to Miss Mary J. Ten Broeck. They have an 
interesting family of four children, two boys 
and two girls: Ten Broeck, Howard, Esther 
Olin and Josephine Whipple. The success 
of Mr. Whipple, the Green Mountain boy of 
\'ermont, demonstrates that the sterling 
(jualities of New England's sons do not 
terminate, however radical the change of 
environment, for there could scarcely be a 
greater contrast than that between the 
prairies of the north and the picturesque 
mountains of his native state. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



GETTY, George Frankliu. — The teudeucy 
of modern times toward specialty in all lines 
of business, as well as the professions, led 
the subject of this sketeli to lake up that 
branch of the law relating to insurance as 
his particular line of study, and since his lo- 
cation in Minneapolis in 1S.S4 he has succeed- 
ed in building up a lucrative practice. Mr. 
(Jetty was born October 17, 1S55, in Allegha- 
ny county, Md. He comes of old colonial 
stock, his ancestors having settled in Ma- 
ryland and Pennsylvania in the early days. 
His father, John Getty, was engaged in farm 
ing in western Maryland and eastern Oliin. 
He died, however, when George was but si.\ 
yeai-s old. Two of his brothers were men of 
i;rominence in Maryland and Ohio. \Yilliam 
R. Getty is a prominent public man and pol- 
itician in Maryland, and has occupied offices 
of public trust throughout the whole of his 
career. The other brother, Joseph Getty, 
who is now dead, was well known through- 
out eastern Ohio as a merchant, railroad 
promoter, minister and temperance lecturer. 
The maiden name of George's mother was 
Martha Ann Wiley. She was a worthy wom- 
an in every respect and a helpful companion 
to her husband in the hard tasks of agricult- 
ural pursuits. Her father, John Wiley, was 
a prominent school teacher and preacher in 
western Maryland for forty yeara He was 
born in IJSOO and died in 1870, after a long 
and useful life. George F. enjoyed the ad- 
vantages of a liberal education. He attend- 
ed the common country schools of eastern 
Ohio, in Tuscarawas and Stark counties, 
which early training was supplenu'uted by a 
course at the Smithville academy, of Smith- 
ville, Wayne county, Ohio. After graduat- 
ing from the academy, he entered the Ohio 
normal university, of Ada, Ohio, from which 
he graduated in 1879. The Ohio nonnal uni- 
versity is one of the best schools of Ohio and 
for several years has had the largest enroll- 
ment of students of any school of its kind in 
the state. It is a progressive institution in 
every way, giving full scope to the individual 
characteristics of the scholar. Its literary 
societies are among its most prominent fea- 
tures. Mr. (Jetty taught school during his 
last year at the university, returning at the 




UKOUGK F. GKTTY. 

end of the school term to graduate. He was 
salutatorian of his class. \\'hile at the 
Ohio normal he was a member of the Phil- 
omathean literary society, one of the ^wo, 
now three, prominent societies of that in- 
stitution. He took an active interest in 
the work of the society and represented it 
at the close of every term of school, while 
in attendance, either in oratorical or joint 
debate, with the members of the other 
society. These debates were always of 
great jjublic interest and took place before 
large and appreciative audiences. Since 
leaving the university he has twice been in- 
vited to debate at alnnmi reunions, and ac- 
cepted the invitation in 1890. After leaving 
the Ohio normal he entered the law depart- 
ment of the university of Michigan, at Ann 
Arbor, from which he graduated in 1882, and 
was admitted to practice on March 13 of the 
same year. In a class of seventeen taking 
the examination only four ]>assed. Mr. Getty 
began the i)ractice of his i)rofession at Caro, 
Mich., the same year, entering into a part- 
nership with Mr. John Huist. He won rec- 
ognition for his legal ability early in his 
practi(« and was quite successful for a young 
man. In the fall of 1882, tlie first year of 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



his practice, lie was elected circuit court 
commissioner for Tuscola county, of which 
Caro is the county seat. Among the im- 
portant law cases which Mr. Getty has con- 
ducted may be mentioned: State of Wiscon- 
sin vs. Whitmore, in which new principles of 
law were enunciated and the insurance de- 
partment of Wisconsin compelled to change 
its ruling affecting a lai'ge number of insur- 
ance companies. Mr. Getty moved to Min- 
neapolis in 1884. He has practiced alone 
most of the time, giving the larger share 
of his attention to life insurance law, and 
is recognized as an authority in that par- 
ticular branch of the legal profession. He is 
at present secretary and treasurer of the 
National Mutual Life Association, of Minne- 
apolis. Mr. Getty's political affiliations are 
with the Kepublican party, but his interest 
in that direction has not been to the extent 
of seeking personal preferment, aside from 
the office he held while at Caro, Mich. He 
is a member of the Commercial Club of Min- 
neapolis, Board of Trade, Minnesota Lodge 
A. F. & A. M., St. John's Chapter, Zion Com- 
mandei-y, Zurah Temple, and the Minnesota 
State Bar Association. His religious con- 
nections are with the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and he is a member of the Wesley 
church of Minneapolis. He was married Oc- 
tober 30, 1879, to Sarah Catharine McPher- 
son Risher. Two children have resulted 
from this union: Gertrude Lois, born Novem- 
ber 24, 1880, died October 9, 1890, and Jay 
Paul, born December 15, 1892. 



STAR, Sol. — Some men have a genius 
for poijularity. With no effort on their 
part they become a sort of social or political 
center from which there seems to radiate 
an aroma of good fellowship, permeating the 
entire community. Frank and generous; 
genial in disposition; ever ready with a help- 
ing hand for a fellow in distress; jovial and 
social, yet, in serious matters keen and pen- 
etrating; sound in judgment; full of i"e- 
sources in emergency; energy unbounded, 
and a public spirit ready for war in the in- 
terests of his town, country, or state. These 
are some of the characteristics of a natural- 



ly popular man. The combination is not 
common, it is true, but it exists now and 
then, as if to demonstrate the possibilities of 
human nature. Solomon Star, of Dead- 
wood. S. D., comes very near to this 
ideal, if his fellow-citizens who know him 
best are fair in their estimate of him. He 
writes his name "Sol," and is known every- 
where as "Sol" Star. He came to the Black 
Hills in 1870 with a stock of goods and set- 
tled in Deadwood as a merchant. From the 
very outset, with no desire on his part, he 
became a leader. Xo public gathering was 
complete without his presence; no enter- 
prise began without his active influence; no 
delegation left the "Hills" to a convention 
but Sol. Star was the animating spirit and 
"set the pace." Without assuming superior 
wisdom or ability, he was spontaneously 
accorded a leadership, if not even a guiding 
hand. He never sought to use his popular- 
ity for his personal advantage, but for his 
friends he was a great power. His peculiar 
influence in the Black Hills spread his name 
throughout the territory of Dakota, from 
Bismarck to Yankton. Solomon Star was 
born in Bavaria, Germany, in 1840. He 
came to this country when young and re- 
ceived a good acadamic education, although 
he is not "college bred." He is a stalwart 
Republican. He has filled numerous posi- 
tions of honor and trust with fidelity and 
credit. He was appointed by President 
(Jrant receiver of the LTnited States land 
office in Montana territory. He was also 
auditor of the same territory. He was post- 
master of Deadwood under President Gar- 
field. He was mayor of the city of Dead- 
wood for thirteen years — a very remarkable _ 
career in a western city. It is doubtful if a 
parallel can be found in the history of the 
Northwest. It is likewise strong testimony 
to his executive ability and integrity. He 
was chairman of the first state Republican 
convention, when the state of South Dakota 
was admitted into the I'nion. He was also 
state auditor of South Dakota. In 1898 
he was elected clerk of the circuit and 
county courts of Lawrence county, S. D., 
and was re-elected in 1900, receiving the 
highest vote and largest majority. Mr. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Star is uumai'ried. Althougli his intorest 
in public affairs lias been so eonspifuous, 
his activity in fraternal affairs has been 
scarcely less marked. He is a member of 
the popular Olympic club of Deadwood. He 
is a member of the Masonic order in which 
he has reached the thirty-second dejj,ree. 
He is also a Knight of Pythias and a 
member of the order of Red Men, as well 
as a member of the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen. This brief epitome of 
Mr. Star's career gives only a meager idea 
of his strong personality, which has drawn 
to him in close friendship more associates 
than it is the good fortune of many men to 
enjoy. He is just in the prime of life, and 
whatever good fortune the future has in 
store for him, there are but few, if any, of 
whatever social or political position, high or 
low degree, but will rejoice in his success. 



BRAS, Harry Leonard. — The work of an 
educator, or teacher, is less appreciated than 
any other labor requiring years of prepara- 
tion and considerable natural aptitude to in- 
sure success. In a new state the vocation is 
especially thankless, for the labor of laying 
the foundation for a system of education is 
necessarily obscure and of a character to pro- 
voke opposition by reason of the heterogene- 
ous material which must be welded into 
some sort of unity. The people from all 
parts of the world have different ideas, and 
these must be harmonized to a certain extent, 
before anything can be accomplished. The 
man who can do this successfully must have 
gifts which may fairly be called genius. 
Among those who have done noble work of 
this kind in the new state of South Dakota, 
no one stands higher or is entitled to more 
credit for substantial, permanent results 
than Harry Leonard Bras, of Mitchell, S. 
I). His activity was not confined to im- 
parting instruction, although this is a very 
important function. But, out of chaos, he 
organized a system for others to follow. He 
established landmarks which serve as guides 
to the hosts of teachers coming after him. 
Mr. Bras' father was C. W. Bras, a lawyer in 



good practice and fair circumstances. He 
was married to Hannah Mary I)e Motte, of 
South Bend, Ind. She was a neighbor of 
Schuyler Colfax, with whom she was per- 
sonally acquainted as a social friend. In 
1S4() the young husband and wife moved to 
Iowa and became pioneers in the settlement 
of Louisa county. On the breaking out of 
the California gold fever in 184!), the young 
lawyer went to California, and in three years 
amassed a fortune of |l>o,(l(M», but lost the 
most of it subsequently by bad investments, 
after his return. 

Harry L. Bras was born at Toolsboro, 
Iowa, in 1862. When Harry was five years 
old his parents moved to New Boston, 111., 
where he received a public school education, 
going through the grades and finally gradu- 
ating from the high school in 1880. He then 
attended the state normal university, and 
later the LTniversity of South Dakota, from 
which he received his diploma. After a 
service of three years as a teacher in the . 
state of Illinois, he came to South Dakota to 
take up land, and became a farmer. He set- 
tled at Mt. Vernon, Davison county. Here 
he engaged in his old occupation of teaching 
for three years, and was then elected county 
superintendent of schools in Davison county, 
serving the people in this capacity for three 
terms and declining the election for the 
fourth term, to accept the editorship of the 
South Dakota Educator, the official organ of 
the State Educational Association. In the 
meantime he had become a partner in the 
mercantile firm of Betts, Bras «fe Co., though 
not employed in the store. This establish- 
ment was destroyed in the fire of April 2, 
"1889, which also burned up the whole town. 
A detailed history of the early struggles of 
Mr. Bras with the crude conditions of school 
matters would make an interesting volume. 
When he entered upon his duty as county 
superintendent of schools, there was no uni- 
formity of method, nor anything which could 
be called a system. During his first term the 
schools were graded, and the people were in- 
duced to adopt a uniform course of study, 
with a system of free text book«. The peo- 
ple in their laudable desire to have schools 
had heavilv bonded their districts to build 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



schoolhouses. Much of the money obtained 
was at a high rate of interest. Mr. Bras i"e- 
duced the bonded indebtedness more than 
one half, and refunded the bahmce at a much 
lower rate of interest. He took also an ac- 
tive interest in state educational work. He 
was chairman of the committee which jire- 
pared a state course of study for the district 
schools of South Dakota. This was adopted 
and is now in use in every county in the state, 
and has done more, probably, than any other 
agency to improve the schools of the state. 
Mr. Bras was for two years secretary, and for 
four years treasurer of the State Educational 
Association. For twelve years he has been 
one of the managers of the State Teachers' 
Reading Circle, and for eight years secretary 
of the I'ujiils" Heading Circle. He became 
editor of the South Dakota Educator in 1892, 
a i)osition whch he still holds. From 1800 
till 189G, when the body was abolished by 
law, Mr. Bras was a member, and, at the 
second session was made president of the 
board of trustees of the state normal school 
at Madison, S. D. In 1892 he was very 
strongly supportc^d at the state Repub- 
lican convention for the nomination of state 
superintendent of public instruction, being 
beaten by only ten votes. He is a Repub- 
lican, and has been one of the leaders of his 
party. He was chairman of the Republican 
county central committee for four years. 
He was elected to the legislature to represent 
the Thirteenth district in 1898, although the 
county was carried by the opposition. He 
was made chairman of the committee on 
education, and succeeded in having passed 
several important bills among them the Pure 
Food P>ill. At the recent election Mr. Bras 
was re-elected. Mr. Bras is at present vice- 
president of the Mitchell Building and Loan 
Association, also treasurer of the Commer- 
cial Fire Association of Mitchell. Although 
not a member, he attends the Methodist 
Episcopal church. He was married 1o Miss 
Hattie E. Betts at Mt. Vernon, in 1885. and 
has four children: Elsie Louise, Lilian, Flor- 
ence, and Sara Bras. His has been a very 
busy life, but nothing has suffei"ed from his 
neglect. He has tilled all the numerous po- 
sitions which fell to him in a manner credit- 




H.\l:l!V L. IlKAS. 



able to himself and profitable to those who 
put their trust in him. No higher honor 
can be achieved. 



DUNN, James Henry.— The achievements 
of the surgeon and physician, for some rea- 
son unnecessary now to discuss, are not her- 
alded like the doings of men in the other 
learned i)rofessions. One case at court, in 
which there is public interest, may make the 
lawyer noted throughout a wide region. The 
utterances of a preacher, published from week 
tf> week in the press, may make his name a 
household word. The statesman may, in 
championing one cause, leave an imperish- 
able name in history. But the surgeon, how- 
ever skillful, and the physician, however 
learned, though dealing with human life, of 
;ill things most i)recious. may live in com- 
parative obscurity and die unheralded by 
fame. The chief recompense of a life in this 
profession is the consciousness of doing good 
work for fellow Tuen. Like ^'irtue, the pro- 
fession is largely ils own reward. Yet, in 
spite of the etiquette which represses pub- 
licity, and notwithstanding the private char- 
acter of much of the best work, many sur- 



HISTORY OF TflE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




JAMES H. DUXX. 

geons a;id pbysicians win satisfactory houors 
and renown. They are not, it is true, spec- 
tacular like those of heroes in battle, but 
substantial and permanent in the annals of 
progress. 

One of the men who has won distinction 
in his profession among his compeers — and 
this seems to be the only eminence coveted 
by the guild — is James Henry Dunn, who 
occupies the chair of Professor of the Prac- 
tice of Surgery in the College of Medicine 
and Surgery of the University of Minnesota. 
Only a brief outline of his career, taken 
largely from Wilson's "Physicians and Sur- 
geons of America,'' can be given. He was 
born in 1853 at Fort Wayne, Ind., son of 
James and Mary (O'Hair) Dunn, and grand- 
son of James H. Dunn. He completed his 
literary course in the public and high schools 
and at the First State Normal School at 
Winona, graduating in 1872. He was a lec- 
turer in the Minnesota State Teachers' Insti- 
tute from 1871 to 1876. He then determined 
to pursue the study of medicine and surgery, 
and entered the University Medical College 
in New York city, and graduated in 1878. 
For still further equiinnent he went to Ger- 
many and took two years of post-graduate 



work at the universities of Heidelburg and 
\'ienna In 1885 he settled at Minneapolis, 
where he has since pursued a busy practice, 
chiefly surgical. He was city physician of 
Minneapolis in 1886 and served in that capac- 
ity for three years. He was professor of 
skin and venereal diseases in the Minneapolis 
Hosi)ital Medical College from 1885 to 1889; 
professor of genito-urinary diseases in the 
College of Medicine and Surgery of the State 
University from 1889 to 1891, when he was 
elected professor of clinical surgery in the 
Univeisity of Minnesota. When Professor 
^^'heaton resigned in 1899, Dr. Dunn was 
elected to fill the chair, a position which he 
now holds. In the meantime Dr. Dunn has 
been surgeon to St. Mary's Hospital since 
1886, surgeon to Asbury Hospital since 1892, 
and to the City Hospital since 1893. He is 
a fellow of the American Surgical Associa- 
tion, member of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation and of the Minneapolis Academy of 
Medicine, and of many other local, state, and 
national medical societies. He was president 
of the Minnesota State Medical Association 
in 1888, and of the Minne.sota State Medical 
] >efense Union in 1900. He is also a contrib- 
utor to various surgical and medical jour- 
nals. He was married in 1885 to Miss Ag- 
nes, daughter of Hon. J. L. Macdonald, of 
Kansas City. They have one son, born in 
1887. 



ARCHIBALD, Alexander Russell.— Edu 
cational institutions founded for instruction 
in sijecial lines have enjoyed great popular- 
ity during the past two decades, but none 
have attracted more students or contributed 
more invaluable service to the business com- 
munity than those established to instruct 
young men and women in the rudiments and 
principles of commercial business. One of 
these institutions is the Archibald Business 
College, of Minneapolis, conducted by Alex- 
ander Russell Archibald. Mr. Archibald is 
a native of Nova Scotia, and was born in 
Musquodoboit, Halifax county, July 27, 
1847. His father, Matthew Archibald, was 
a farmer in moderate circumstances. The 
Archibald family is of English descent. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



They located originally in Londonderry, 
Kew Hampshire, and afterwards removed to 
Nova Scotia. Many members of this family 
attained to positions of prominence in Nova 
Scotia, such as the governorship, member- 
ship in the people's parliament, etc. A 
brother of the subject of this sketch was a 
member of the people's parliament for the 
city of Halifax for several terms, and has 
now a life position as sheriff in that city. 
The maiden name of the mother of Alexan- 
der was Jane Grant. Her father was a na- 
tive of Scotland. Alexander received his 
early education in the common schools, 
where only the rudimentary branches were 
taught. Later he attended the Kimball Un- 
ion Academy in New Hampshire, and gradu- 
ated with high honors. He was president 
of his class and was selected to give the 
parting address. From the academy he 
went to Dartmouth College. Being com- 
pelled to work his own way through college, 
he earned the money necessarj- to pay his 
expenses by teacliing school. Yet his rank 
in his class was among the first third during 
the whole course. He also competed for 
and secured the prize for oratory. While 
in college he was a member of the Theta 
Delta Chi fraternity and represented that 
society as a delegate to its national conven- 
tion in New York in 1873. He graduated 
from Dartmouth College in 1874, with the de- 
gree of M. A. In September of the same 
year he came west and located at Glencoe, 
Minnesota, where he was engaged as princi- 
pal of Stevens' Seminary. He remained 
there through the school year of 187(> and 
'77, but in the latter year came to Minneap- 
olis and founded the Archibald Business 
C'Ollege. This school has taken a high rank 
among institutions of its class, and its grad- 
uates occupy nmny positions of trust in the 
northwest. It has been successful from the 
start and the pupils in attendance come 
from all parts of the great territory con- 
tiguous to Minneapolis. Mr. Archibald i)os- 
sesses a thorough and practical knowledge 
of the principles of commercial business, 
and has the complete confidence of the busi- 
ness community, which recognizes his fit- 
ness for the task he performs in educating 




ALEXANDER ]i. AUL'UIDALI i. 

young men and women to assume the prac- 
tical duties of life. Mr. Archibald recalls 
with pleasure and pride, in the success of 
liis after life, that he earned his first dollar 
while working in a hay field on a Nova Sco- 
tia farm. He is a Republican in jOlitics. 
He has always voted that ticket, and is a 
substantial supi)orter of the Republican 
party. He never sought political honors for 
himself, but as a delegate to local and state 
conventions has rendered Invaluable assist- 
ance in securing political honors for his 
friends, many of whom have reason to re- 
member his aid with gratitude. He was 
married in August, 1877, at Glencoe, to Miss 
Sarah Jane Appleton. They have one child, 
George S., now in his nineteenth year. 



HICKS, Henry George.— The early ca- 
reer of the major proiiortion of the men who 
have achieved prominence in the legal pro- 
fession has been nuirked by a hard struggle 
with adversity. Ardent study and persever- 
ance have been the foundation stones on 
which their future success was built. Such, 
in brief, is typical of the early life of the sub- 
ject of this sketch. Henry G. Hicks is one 
of the leading members of the Minneajjolis 
bar, and an ex-judge of the district court of 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




HENKY G. HICKS. 

Hennepin county. He was born January 26, 
1S38, at Varysburg, Genesee (now Wyoming) 
county, N. Y. His father, George A. Hicks, 
a harness maker by trade, was born at Castle- 
ton, N. Y. He died at Freeport, 111., in 1881. 
His mother, whose maiden name was Han- 
nah Edwards, was a cousin of Jonathan Ed- 
wards. Sophia Hall, his wife, was a native 
of Rutland, Vt. Her father, Asa Hall, was 
a soldier in the War of 1812, and was wound- 
ed in a skirmish with the British forces at 
the battle of Lake Champlain. Mrs. George 
A. Hicks died in 1855, at the age of seventy, 
at the home of her son. Judge Hicks, in Min- 
neapolis. The subject of this sketch received 
his early education in the common schools 
of New York and Pennsylvania. During the 
winter of 1851-52 he attended the academy 
at Arcade, N. Y. At the age of fifteen he 
commenced teaching school, but was enabled 
four yeai's later to enter the preparatory de- 
partment of Oberlin College, where he re- 
mained for three years, supporting himself 
in the meantime by teaching and work of 
other kinds. In August, 1860, he entered 
the freshman class of Oberlin College, but 
his enlistment in the ai'my in 1861 prevented 
further college study. He enlisted as a pri- 



vate in Company A of the Second Illinois 
Cavalry, July 21, 1801. August 10 be was 
a])]>ointed sergeant major, and Octijber 10 
was commissioned adjutant of his regiment. 
He was mustered out of this regiment on 
June 6, 1802. Shortly afterwards he was 
a]ii)ointed adjutant of the Seventy-first Illi- 
nois Infantry, a three months' regiment, and 
was mustered out of this regiment on No- 
vember 1. On November 15 following he 
«as appointed adjutant of the Ninety-third 
Illinois Infantry, and was honorably dis- 
charged therefrom, as adjutant, February 27, 
1801, on account of disability resulting from 
wounds received in battle. On February 13, 
11 and 15, 1862, as adjutant of the Second 
Illinois Cavalry, he was present at the battle 
of Fort Donelson. As adjutant of the Nine- 
ty-third Infantry he was present at the battle 
of Jackson, on May 14, 1863, the battle of 
Champion Hills on May 16, the charges upon 
Vicksburg on May 19 and 22, and in the 
siege thereof from May 22 to July 4; also at 
the battle of Mission Ridge, November 24, 
1863, where he was wounded, receiving a 
minie ball through the face. At the close of 
the war he came to Minneapolis, arriving 
there in April, 1865. His first visit to Min- 
nesota, however, was in 1857, when he came 
as an agent for a dealer in lightning rods. 
At that time he only remained here two 
months. During the winters of 1865 and 
1866 he taught school at Hopkins, in Henne- 
pin county, and in the summer was engaged 
in selling lightning rods and farm machinery 
and operating threshing machines Decem- 
ber 2, 1867, he was appointed sheritf of Hen- 
nepin county to fill the vacancy caused by 
the death of Sheriff Byrnes, In the fall of 
the following year he was elected to this 
office for the next ensuing term, serving until 
Januai'y 1, 1871. In April of that year he 
was elected city justice of Minneapolis, and 
was re-elected in 1872, serving until April, 
1874. He then began the practice of law, 
forming a partnership with Hon. E. A. Gove, 
which was continued until October 14, 1875, 
at which time the partnership was dissolved. 
He then entered into a partnership with Jud- 
son N. Cross, under the finn name of Cross 
& Hicks. Subsequently, in 1881, Frank H. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Carleton was admitted to the firm, and the 
name of the firm changed to Cross, Hicks &; 
Carleton. This partnership continued until 
March 15, 1887, when Mr. Hicks received the 
appointment of judge of the district court 
of the Fourth Judicial District of Minnesota. 
He held that oi3ace until January 5, 1895. 
The larger portion of the latter year was 
spent in travel abroad. On October 14, 1805, 
just twenty years from the date of forming 
the partnership with Capt. Cross, Judge 
Hicks again resumed the practice of law with 
Capt. Cross, Mr. Carleton and Norton M. 
Cross, son of Capt. Cross, under the firm 
name of Cross, Hicks, Carleton & Cross, 
which firm continues to the present time. 
This firm is considered one of the strongest 
in Minneapolis and conducts a large and suc- 
cessful law practice. From early manhood 
Judge Hicks has always affiliated with the 
Republican party, and has served it in a num- 
ber of important positions of trust He was 
elected and served as a member of the house 
of representatives in the Minnesota state 
legislature during the sessions of 1878, 1871), 
1881, 1883 and 1897, and was chairman of 
the judiciary committee in 1881 and 1883. 
He was president of the board of managers 
on the part of the house that, in 1882, suc- 
cessfully conducted the impeachment trial of 
E. St. Julien Cox, a judge of the district 
court of the Seventh Judicial District of Min- 
nesota. In 1809 he was appointed by Gov. 
Marshall a member of the board of trustees 
for the sildiers' orphans in Minnesota, serv- 
ing continuously on that board during its en- 
tire existence. He was annually elected 
president of the board from 1872 to 1883, 
when the board, having finished its work, 
was dissolved. Judge Hicks became a mem- 
ber of the Grand Army of the Republic in 
April, 1867, joining the Geo. N. Morgan Post, 
No. 3, at Minneapolis, and was several times 
commander and quartenuaster of that post. 
In January, 1868, he was elected department 
commander of Minnesota, the honors of which 
were lost by the surrender of the department 
charter some time in 1871 or 1875, but to 
which he was reinstated by the National En- 
campment in August, 1883, at Denver, Colo. 
He became a member of the Loyal Legion in 



1888, and has since held subordinate offices 
in that order. He was elected commander 
of the Loyal Legion of Minnesota in May, 
] 9()U. He was married May 3, 1864, to Mary 
Adelaid Beede, of Freeport, 111., who died in 
July, 1870, and to whom were born four 
children, all of whom have since died. No- 
vember 5, 1873, he married Susanna R. Fox, 
his present wife. There have been no chil- 
dren of this marriage. 



COBURN, George W., is overseer of 
Hennepin County Poor Farm, located at 
Hopkins, Minn., to which position he was 
appointed in 1895. On his father's side, Mr. 
Coburn is of English descent. His grand- 
father, Joseph Coburn, one of a family of 
eleven children, came to this country from 
England shortly after the War of 1812, lo- 
cating at East Constable, Franklin county, 
N. Y., where he built in 1816 the first flour 
mill erected in that section. Here he lived 
until his death in 1840, at the age of sixty- 
six. Alexander Coburn, his son, and the 
father of the subject of this sketch, learned 
the flour milling trade, taking charge of the 
mill erected by his father and conducting it 
throughout the larger share of his life. He 
came to Minneapolis when the weight of 
years rendered it necessary for him to cease 
active work, and here he died in 1889. His 
wife, I'hidelia Chamberlain, and the mother 
of ( Jeorge W., died in 1842, a few years after 
her marriage, at the age of twenty-three. 
She was a direct lineal descendant of Sir 
John Lawrence and Mary Townley, of Eng- 
land, who were married at The Hague, Hol- 
land, in 1093. The subject of this sketch 
was born October 11, 1838, in East Con- 
stable, N. Y. He attended the common 
schools of his native town, and later, the 
Fi'ankliu academy at Malone, N. Y. He 
learned the trade of a mechanic and for a 
short time followed this line of work. 
When the war broke out he enlisted for 
three years as a musician in the 60th Regi- 
ment New York Volunteers, serving until 
lie was discharged by act of congress Sep- 
tember 0, 1862. He re-enlisted as a mu- 
sician in General John P. Slough's brigade 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT XORTHWEST. 




GEORGE W. COBURN. 

band on Julj' 13, of the following year, serv- 
ing until the end of the war, receiving an 
honorable discharge June 24, 1865. During 
his service he served under Generals 
Slough, Greene, Sigel, Pope and others, and 
was in the battle of Harper's Ferry, Win- 
chester, Front Royal, Bealeton, Catlett's 
Station, and second Bull Run. On his re- 
turn from the war he located at Lawrence, 
St. Lawrence county, N. Y., and engaged in 
the sash and door and pail and tub business. 
lie came west, however, in 1SC7, and located 
on a farm in Richland county. Wis. He re- 
mained here until 1S70, at which time he re- 
moved to Minnesota, settling at St. Anthony 
Falls, which at that time had not been in- 
corporated in the city of Minneapolis. He 
entered the employ of Wheaton, Reynolds & 
Co., sash and door manufacturers in Minne- 
apolis, retaining his connection with this 
firm for eighteen years. In 1881) he was 
elected county commissioner of Hennepin 
county, and served for four years in this 
position, acting as chairman of the board 
in 1893. In February, 1895, he was ap- 
pointed to his present position of overseer 
of the Hennepin County Poor Farm. In 
politics Mr. Coburn is a staunch Republi- 



can. He was a member of the Lincoln Wide 
Awake club in Lawrence, St. Lawrence 
county, N. Y., in 18G0, and cast his first vote 
for Lincoln and Hamlin in the election of 
that year. He is a member of Dudley P. 
Chase post, Xo. 22, (J. A. R., in which he has 
held at various times the offices of surgeon, 
adjutant and commander. He is also an 
active member of the Masons, Odd Fellowa 
and A. O. U. W., having held offices in each 
order. He was married December 31, 1862, 
to Mary E. Smith, of Brasher, N. Y. They 
have two children: Fred Elmer, born May 
21, 1807, at Lawrence, N. Y., and Ida Lillian, 
born January 2i, 1876, at Minneapolis. 



BAXTER, Luther Loren. — Governor 
Hubbard, of Minnesota, elected as a Repub- 
lican, and a staunch and even stalwart mem- 
ber of his party, appointed in 1885 Luther 
L. Baxter, a staunch Democrat, judge of the 
district court of the Seventh Judicial dis- 
trict of Minnesota. While such a non- 
jjartisan executive act is not without prec- 
edent, yet it is uncommon. What is still 
more uncommon is what may be called the 
remarkable ratification which the act re- 
ceived, for at the next election, in 1886, 
Judge Baxter was chosen for the same 
office by the people when the Republican 
majority in the district was 3,500, arid a 
candidate was nominated by the party for 
the position. The term of the judgeship is six 
years. At the next election, in 1892, and 
again in 1S98, Judge Baxter was elected 
without opposition. It must be a strong 
personality which can achieve such honor in 
a community of adverse politics. Judge 
Baxter's residence is Fergus Falls, Otter 
Tail county, Minn. He was born in Corn- 
wall, Vt., in 1832. His father was Chaun- 
cey Baxter. His mother's maiden name 
was Philena Peet. They are both old New 
England names of English lineage. Judge 
Baxter received his early education in the 
district school of his native town. This was 
supplemented by private tuition, a year at 
Castleton semiuarj', and a two years' course 
at Norwich university. He began his study 
of law when nineteen years of age with 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Lindslpy & Beokwitli at Miadl(4imy, Vt., 
and continned the study witli Jiidsc Horatio 
Seymour. In the fall of 1.S53 he moved to 
Illinois, and was admitted to the bar in that 
state in 1S.54, and hcjian his jiracticc at 
Geneva, Wis. Here he riMcivt'd a j^ood 
elientajie. Hut a strong tide of emigration 
set towards the territory of Minnesota, and 
young Baxter was eaught in its eddies. He 
moved to Carver county and resumed the 
jiraetice of his jirofession, wliicli lie con- 
tinued, except while in the army, until 1SS5, 
when he was aj)])ointed judge, as stated. 
From INTO until ISSl!, however, he jtracticed 
at Jlinneapolis, then at Fergus Falls, where 
be now lives. During this time lie held many 
positions of honor and trusl. He was judge 
of probate of Carver county in 1858; prose- 
cuting attorney for the Fourth Judicial Dis- 
trict in 1850; county attorney of Scott county, 
18(53; senator from Scott county for the term 
1865 to 1868; representative from Carver 
county, 1869; senator from that county from 
1869 to 1876; county attorney of Carver 
county from 1876 to 1878, and member of 
the legislature from 1877 to 188L'. He filled 
all these various positions with exceptional 
ability, fidelity and efficiency. His brilliant 
career has been singularly free from those 
errors of judgment and mistakes which 
sometimes mar the j)iiblic life of the best 
men. 

Judge Baxter's army service was scarcely 
less felicitous. He entered the war as cap- 
tain of Company "A" Fourth Minnesota Vol- 
unteer Infantry in September, 1861. He was 
assigned with two companies to the com- 
mand of Fort Ridgeley. In March, 1862, he 
rejoined his regiment, which was at Fort 
Snelling, and was promoted to the rank of 
major. The next month his regiment was 
ordered south. In October, Major Baxter, 
owing to sickness, was compelled to resign. 
Regaining his health he again entered the 
service, in November, 1861, as major of the 
First Minnesota Heavy Artillery. In Feb- 
ruary, 1865, he was promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant colonel of the regiment, and com- 
missioned colonel the same year. He was 
elected to the senate of the state of Minne- 
sota in the fall of 1864, while serving in the 




LUTHER L. U.\XTKK. 

army, lie obtained a leave of absence to 
attend the session of the legislature. On 
returning to the army, in February, 1865. he 
was assigned to duty as chief of artillfry at 
Chattanooga, and remained there with his 
regiment until mustered out of service in 
October, 1865. 



QUINN, Gliomas H.— Among the self- 
made men in the southern part of Minnesota, 
who have become conspicuous in their field 
of endeavor, Thomas H. Quinn, the city at- 
torney of Faribault, Rice county, Minn., is 
justly entitled to a place in the front rank. 
He is a native son of the great Northwest, 
having been born at Berlin, Wis., November 
6, 1854. He came to Minnesota with his pa- 
rents and .eight brothers and sisters in 1865, 
and settled at Faribault. Thomas obtained 
his early education in the common schools 
of Wisconsin and ]\Iinnesota. His father was 
I'atrick Quinn. The maiden name of the 
mother was Catherine Brady. They were 
pioneers in the settlement of Hie west, al- 
ways keeping well to the frontier of civiliza- 
tion during the second quarter of the nine- 
teenth century. They were blessed with a 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




THOMAS H. QDINN. 

large family, tlie exigencies of which com- 
pelled Thomas to leave school when thirteen 
years of age to contribute to the family fund. 
But this did not stop his progress in educa- 
tion. Although doing the hardest kind of 
labor during his "teens," he persistently kept 
at his studies nights and holidays, with an 
endurance and fortitude which only a rug- 
ged physical constitution could have made 
possible. In this laborious manner he mas- 
tered the elementary studies and took up the 
study of law. With the same energy and in- 
dustry he fitted himself for the profession, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1877, at Fari- 
bault, where he had struggled all these years 
of toil. He then commenced practice at once 
in the same place where he was brought up 
and best known. The next year he formed 
a partnership with G. N. Baxter under the 
firm name of Baxter & Quinn. This was 
terminated in 1880, when he went into part- 
nership with John B. Quinn, under the style 
of J. B. & T. H. Quinn, which terminated in 
1883, since which time Mr. Quinn has been 
m practice alone. His business has been a 
general prac^tice, and he has met with his 
full share of success. Mr. Quinn, as he ex- 
presses it, was bom into the Democratic 



party, and has always affiliated with it, ex- 
cept in 1890 and in 1900, when he was op- 
posed to its platform, and could not support 
its candidates. Notwithstanding the gen- 
eral adverse majorities in his county, he was 
twice elected county attorney of Rice coun- 
ty, serving from 1884 to 1887, and again 
from 1891 to 1893. He has also been city at- 
torney of the city of Faribault for the last 
five years successively — a position which he 
still holds. Since it is said that a "prophet 
is not without honor save in his own coun- 
try," this compliment to Mr. Quinn's ability 
and character is no small honor. In religion 
he is a Roman Catholic. He was mari'ied. 
May 1.5. 1893, to Elizabeth Nolan, of Rich- 
land. Rice county, Minn. They have two chil- 
dren, Thomas H. and Beati'ice. 



OARLBLOM, Albert Nathaniel.— Honesty 
and integrity in public life are as essential to 
success as in private life. It is true that dis- 
honesty and trickery have succeeded in plac- 
ing some men in positions of prominence in 
the public eye, but sooner or later they have 
fallen into the abyss of obliAion. Not so, 
however, with the honest and conscientious 
official. The public is quick to recognize 
faithful service and show its appreciation by 
bestowing higher honors upon the object of 
its favor. Albert N. Carlblom is State Au- 
ditor of North Dakota. He was selected to 
this office in 1898 after a long and efficient 
service in positions of a similar character in 
his home county. Mr. Carlblom was bom 
on a farm near Cokato, Minn.. December 
17, 1865. His father, John C. Carlblom, was 
a farmer, in moderate circumstances. He 
emigrated to this country from Sweden in 
the early 60's, locating in Wright county, 
!Minn. He removed to North Dakota in 
1881, settling on a farm at White Stone Hill, 
in Sargent county, where he resided until his 
death in 1899, at the age of 74. His wife's 
maiden name was Elizabeth Anderson, to 
whom he was married in the old country. 
She crossed death's portals a year earlier 
than her husband, at the age of 73. The 
subject of this sketch received his early edu- 
cational training in the common schools of 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Wright county. This was supplemented by 
a course in Gustavus Adolphus College, at 
St. Peter. Directly upon leaving school he 
commenced his business career by clerking in 
a store. Later, he was employed as a book- 
keeper. He was also for some time engaged 
in teaching school. Having actively interest- 
ed himself in politics, he was appointed in 
1890 deputy county treasurer of Sargent 
county. He served in this office for one year, 
at the expiration of which time he was aji 
pointed deputy in the county auditor's office. 
He acquired such a familiar knowledge ot 
the business affairs of his home county that 
his services were recognized by his party and 
rewarded in 1892 by nomination and election 
to the office of county auditor. This position 
he held for three consecutive terms, up to 
and including 1808. In the fall of that year 
he received the nomination for the office of 
state auditor of North Dakota, and was elect- 
ed. He was re-elected to the same office in 
1900. In every instance Mr. Carlblom has 
been nominated by his party without oppo- 
sition, and in each elected by large major- 
ities. He has always had the confidence of 
his constituents as a faithful, conscientious 
and capable officer, his integrity being con- 
ceded even by his political opponents. Upon 
all important questions of the day he has al- 
ways been found on the side of the people. In 
politics, Mr. Carlblom is a consistent and 
conservative Eejjublican. He has been presi- 
dent and secretary at dilferent times of the 
various Republican leagues and clubs of 
Sargent county and Forman, where he has 
resided for the past eighteen years, and has 
always taken an active part in the interests 
of his party. Aside from the interests of his 
public office Mr. Carlblom has also found 
time to engage in a number of business enter- 
prises. He has extensive farming interests, 
and a paying real estate and loan business, 
and is connected, also, as an officer or stock- 
holder, with several other enter])rises of a 
business character. Mr. Carlblom is active- 
ly identified with the Augustana Lutheran 
church, of which he is a member, and con- 
tributes freely to the support of the work 
of that church. He was married March '2t',. 
1898, to iliss -Josephine A. Peterson, of Cot- 




ALIiERT N. C.\1!LBLUM. 



ton wood county, Minn. They have one 
cliild, a daughter named \'era Lenore. 



PHELAN, Francis Norton, is one of the 
leading physicians of Duluth, Minn. He was 
born May 16, 18G1, at Fond du Lac, Wis. 
His father, William M. Phelan, came to this 
country from Ireland at a very early age and 
settled in Albany, N. Y. He was mari'ied 
here to Miss Mary Norton, the mother of the 
subject of this sketch, who was also a native 
of Ireland, and shortly afterwards moved 
west, locating at Fond du Lac. He was en- 
gaged in the business of contracting for many 
years and acquired a comfortable fortune. 
He became prominently identified with the 
business interests of his adopted city, and for 
a period of over thii-ty years held many im- 
l>ortant offices of public trust. He died at 
the ripe old age of seventy-four years. Mrs. 
Phelan passed away in her fifty-fourth year. 
Francis received his education in the public 
schools, and graduated from the high school 
at the age of seventeen. He then entered 
the office of Doctors Cray & Wyatt. at Fond 
du Lac, for the pui-pose of taking up the 
studv of medicine. A vear later he entered 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




1SS,3 he was married to Lela Ann Evans, a 
(luugliter of Rk'hard C. Evans, a wealthy 
lumberman, and owner of the townsite of 
biirchester, ^Yis. Two children have been 
Ixirii to them, ("leoj)atra and Francis Evans. 



FltAXCIS X. PHELAN. 

Rush Medical College, remaining in this in- 
stitution for two years. He then entered 
Wooster University, at Cleveland, Ohio, and 
graduated with the class of 1884. Returning 
to Wisconsin he located at Colby and began 
the practice of his profession. In 1885 he 
formed a partnership with Singleton B. Hub- 
ble for the practice of medicine at Medford, 
in the same state. On account of failing 
health, however, he was comj)elled to leave 
here a few months later, and moved to South 
Dakota, locating at Watertown. This field 
did not prove a very lucrative one, and, hav- 
ing regained his health, he decided to make 
another change, going from here to Duluth, 
where he located in June, 1886. Dr. Phelan 
soon established a reputation for being a thor- 
oughly competent practitioner, and has suc- 
ceeded in building uj) an extensive practice. 
He wasi attending physician and surgeon to 
St. Mary's Hospital for a number of years, 
was a member of the board of health for 
three years, and is examining physician for 
fifteen different lodges. Dr. Phelan takes an 
active interest in all public matters, and has 
been identified with every enterprise tending 
to build up the Zenith TMiy. He is a member 
of the Cathedral Parish Catholic church. In 



DT'NX, Robert Campbell.- -There is no 
oftice in the state government more impor- 
tant than that of state auditor. One of the 
])rinci]»al duties of that office in ^Minnesota 
is the administration of the large land inter- 
ests of the state, the honest discharge of 
wliich is of incalculable value to the com- 
monwealth and the people as a whole. The 
man whose name stands at the head of this 
sketch, was elected to the office of state audi- 
tor of Minnesota because he represented a 
]'iin<-iple in state government. He had been 
at the head of a refonn movement for the 
more careful administration of the land in- 
terests of the state, and had so completely 
demonstrated the necessity of reform in that 
]iarticular, and was so successful in protect- 
ing the state through his work in the legis- 
lature, that the people elected him to this 
office in 1894 and committed those interests 
to his charge. He has fully justified the con- 
fidence which was reposed in him, and has 
administered the office to which he was elect- 
ed with distinguished ability. "Bob" Dunn, 
as he is familiarly known, is a native of Ire- 
land, and was born at Plumb Bridge, County 
Tyrone, February 11, 1855. His father, Rob- 
ert Dunn, was a comparatively rich man, 
viewed from the standpoint of business 
affairs as conducted in that country. He 
owned about 250 acres of land, and aside 
from his agricultural interests, was also a 
storekeeper. Though a liberal Protestant, 
and a member of the Episcopal body, he 
never affiliated with the Orangemen. His 
wife, Jane Campbell, was descended from an 
old Scotch family of strict Presbyterians. 
Two of her uncles. Col. Robert Campbell and 
Hugh Campbell, were among the best-known 
citizens of St. Louis, the fonner settling there 
in the early days, when there were only 200 
jieople in the village. Andrew and Samuel 
Dunn, brothers of Robert Dunn, were 
among the first settlers of Columbia county, 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Wis. The eldest brother of the subject of 
this slvctch has for many years been a 
magistrate in Irehind. William, his young- 
est brother, is a graduate of the (llasgow 
Medical College, and a successful physician 
in London. Robert C. Dunn's early educa- 
tion was received in the common national 
school near his home in Ireland. This school 
was conducted t'ontinuously throughout the 
year, with the exception of one month. He 
attended it until he was 14 years of age, when 
he was apprenticed for five years to a dry 
goods merchant at Londonderry, about 20 
miles from Plumb Bridge. The man to whom 
he was apprenticed proved a hard task-mas- 
ter and the young lad found his situation a 
very uncomfortable one. Six months later, 
by the aid of a brother at home, he succeeded 
in raising enough money to pay for a second- 
cabin passage to America. On arrival here 
he immediately came west, and was with 
bis uncle, Samuel Dunn, in Wisconsin, before 
his parents knew he had left Londonderry. 
After remaining with his uncle for nearly a 
year, assisting in the work on the farm, he 
removed to St. Louis, hoping to better his 
condition. From there he went to Missis- 
sippi and was employed in a store in the 
Yazoo Valley for six or eight months. Ke 
turning to St. Louis, he learned the printer's 
trade and followed this occupation up to 
1876, when he came to Minnesota and located 
at Princeton. In the fall of that year he 
commenced the publication of the Princeton 
Union, and has been the editor and ])ublisher 
of that paper ever since. The venture proved 
a successful one, and the Union is one of the 
most flourishing weeklies in the state. Two 
years after settling at Princeton he was 
elected town clerk, and served in that office 
for eleven years. The fees of the office were 
not large, amounting to only |:iOO a year, but 
this sum was a valuable addition to the 
finances of the country editor. In 1884, he 
was elected county attorney of Mille Lacs 
county, and re-elected in 1880. In 1888, he 
was elected to the house of representatives 
on the Republican ticket from the district 
composed of the counties of Todd, Crow 
Wing, Morrison, Benton and Mille Lacs. He 
was re-elected in 1890, but was on the losing 




KOIiEUT C. UUNN. 

side in a contest for the seat. He was re- 
nominated two years later, and elected, and 
was one of the most ett'ective members of 
the lower house in the session of 1893> He 
represented the Sixth district of Minnesota 
in the Republican national convention held 
at Minneapolis in 18i)2, was a member of 
the committee on credentials, and was one 
of the most enthusiastic of the Blaine sup- 
porters. In 1894, he was elected to the office 
of state auditor, and was re-elected in 1898. 
Jlr. Dunn devotes all his energies to the best 
interests of the state and is one of the most 
popular men at the Minnesota capitol. Feb- 
ruary 14, 1887, he was married to Lydia Mc- 
Kenzie, of Spencer Brook, Isanti county. 
They have two children, George R. and 
Grace. Mr. and Mrs. Dunn reside at Ham- 
line. 



KUNTZ, Philip J., is the city superin- 
tendent of schools at Owatonna, Minn. He 
is a practical educator and has had a long 
experience in his chosen profession. He is 
of foreign parentage as both his parents 
were natives of Alsace Lori'aine. Their pa- 
rents came to this country when they were 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




PHILIP J. KUNTZ. 

both young, ami settled in Indiana. Here 
on the farm in Dearborn county, in 1844, 
Milton Kuntz was married to Magdalena 
Haclauer, and for forty years they lived on 
the same place and reared their children. 
Philip J. Kuntz was born on their fann, 
March 17, 1857. His parents were only in 
moderate ciix-umstances, but they were de- 
termined that their children should have a 
good education, and Philip attended the 
country schools near his home and enjoyed 
the experience of having several typical 
"Hoosier Schoolmasters'" as instructors at 
various times. He entered Hedding College, 
at Abingdon, 111., and was graduated with 
the degree of Ph. B. Mr. Kuntz, liow'ever, has 
not been satisfied to let his education di"op 
behind in any waj', and has done much grad- 
uate study, and has received certificates from 
the University of Chicago Extension as- 
sociation, one in Universal History and 
one in Universal Literature. He decided 
upon educational work as his career and be- 
gan his work as a country school teacher, 
and has steadily w'orked up. In 1881 he be- 
came principal of the school at Arlington, 
Ind.; in 1885 he went to Sheldon. 111., to as- 
sume a similar position. In 1888 he became 



superintendent of schools at Centerville, Ind., 
where he remained until 1892, when he was 
elected for the same position at Aledo, 111. 
In 1899 he was elected city superintendent 
of schools at Owatonna, Minn., which posi- 
tion he now occupies. He has made a spe- 
cialty of history, and also of reading, writing 
and spelling. Mr. Kuntz has prepared a text 
in spelling — now in manuscript — the funda- 
mental idea being words in genei'al use and 
a division into words adapted to the work in 
each grade of the schools, and such words 
as are used in these grades. Mr. Kuntz is a 
supporter of the Republican party, but does 
not allow his politics to interfere with his 
school work. He is a Mason and a member 
of the Knights of Pythias, and has held vari- 
ous positions in both orders. Mr. Kuntz is 
an active member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church and is an earnest supporter of all 
forms of Christian work. He was married, 
April 8, 1880, to Miss Effle Smith, of Newton 
county, Ind. She died in 1890, leaving three 
children, Magdalena, Ada and Irene. His 
second mara-iage was to Miss Anna M. 
Wright, of Cambridge, Ind., and there is one 
child by this union, Frances Lucille, bom in 
1894. 



FREEMAN, John William.— The hospi- 
tal is comparatively a modern institution. 
It was generated and developed by the kind- 
ly humanitarian influences of Christianity 
and is now one of the permanent requisites 
of every civilized country. The necessity of 
the hospital is so undeniable that it is a 
reproach to a city of any size to be without 
one or more. These conditions have created 
a demand for a class of professional men 
who combine medical and surgical skill with 
trained administrative ability, to take charge 
of the institution. A man may be compe- 
tent as a surgeon and skillful as a physician, 
and yet be inefficient, and even worse, as a 
manager of this benign provision for the 
unfortunate. Therefore hospital manage- 
ment has come to be almost a profession by 
itself. Besides, the establishment being 
generally educational — not as a trainer of 
nurses but as a branch of some medical col- 




JOHN WILLIAM FKEEMAX. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



lege, it is desirable that the responsible 
heads should have a still further iiualifica- 
tio — ability to teach. Hence it is that the 
men selected for this service take high rank 
in the field of medicine and surgery and be- 
come conspicuous in their profession. 

The northwest is not yet endowed with 
numerous hospitals, but a good beginning 
has been made. The grade of the institu- 
tions existing is, however, in every respect 
praiseworthy. They are strong, especially 
in the progressive character of the profes- 
sional staff. 

The subject of this sketch, John W. 
Freeman, M. D., of Lead, S. D., one of 
the useful men described, is connected with 
the Homestake Hospital at Lead, S. D., in 
the region popularly known as the "Black 
Hills," where gold mining is a leading 
industry. This business is of a hazard- 
ous nature and surgical aid is in frequent 
demand. Dr. Freeman was boi'n at Vir- 
deu, Macoupin county. 111., in 1853. His 
father, Feter S. Freeman, was a native of 
New Jersey. He was born and reared on a 
farm, and was a thorough farmer by occupa- 
tion. He came to Illinois in an early day — 
about 1840 — and bought a large farm in 
Macoupin county in that state, on which he 
lived until his death in 1874. He was mar- 
ried to Elizabeth Fierce Warriner, who was 
born in Kentucky and came to Illinois in 
1841). She died on the farm in 1886. 

Dr. Freeman received his early education 
in the common district country schools and 
then graduated in the high school at Virden, 
supplementing this literary training by a 
year's study at the Blackburn University at 
Carlinville, 111. When he chose the medical 
profession for his life work he began the 
study of medicine and surgery under the di- 
rection of Dr. David Frince, at the Sanitari- 
um in Jacksonville, 111. — which was practical- 
ly a hospital — and in the meantime attended 
for two years the lectures of the Miami Medi- 
cal College of Cincinnati, Ohio. He then went 
to New York city and entered the medical col- 
lege of the New York university and gradu- 
ated in the class of 1879. Returning to 
Jacksonville, he accepted a position in the 
Sanitarium with Dr. Prince, his old tutor, 



and remained with him two years. In 1881 
he was appointed acting assistant surgeon 
of the Ignited States army, and reported to 
Fort Snelling, Minn., for duty. He was 
assigned to Fort Meade, Dakota territory, 
now South Dakota, where he served until 
June, 1883. In 1884 he was appointed sur- 
geon of the Homesteak Mining company at 
Lead, and entered into partnership with Dr. 
D. K. Dickinson in the Homestake hospital, 
where he has since remained. He has, how- 
ever, several times during this period, visit- 
ed New York and Chicago to be abreast of 
the progress made in his profession and to 
keep in touch with the various organizations 
to promote its interests. In 1887 he was 
elected president of the Black Hills Medical 
society. In 1889 he was made first vice- 
president of the South Dakota State Medical 
society, and in 1890 was elected president 
of the organization. He is a member of the 
American Medical association, also of the 
International Association of Railway Sur- 
geons. Dr. Freeman was married in 1885 
to Hattie V. Dickinson. They have four 
children, Carrie E., Marion E., John D., and 
Howard Freeman. He is a Republican in 
politics, and is a member of the Masonic 
order. He is past master of Central City 
Lodge No. 22, F. & A. M., past high priest of 
Dakota Chapter No. 3, past eminent com- 
mander of Dakota Commandery No. 1, and 
past potentate of Naj'a Temple, Deadwood, 
S. D. He has taken an active interest in 
educational affaii*s, and has been a member 
of the board of education of Lead for the past 
six vears. 



STRICKLER, O. C, is one of the foremost 
physicians and surgeons of Southern Minne- 
sota. He has been practicing his profession 
at New Ulm for the past sixteen years, mov- 
ing there from Michigan. He is a Canadian 
by birth and first saw the light of day in 
York county, Ont., January 7, 1863. He 
conies of old Pennsylvania Dutch stock. 
Daniel Strickler, his father, migrated to On- 
tario from his birthplace in Bucks county. 
Fa. He still remained an American citizen, 
however, and after a few years' residence in 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



Canada moved with his family to Michigan, 
where his wife, whose maiden name was 
Elizabeth Henderson, has relatives. The snb- 
ject of this sketch was afforded the advan- 
tages of a liberal education. His early train- 
ing was i-eceived in the famous Markham 
(CInt.) high school. This was suppleuiented 
with studies in mathematics at the British- 
American College at Toronto. He then en- 
tered the Ann Arbor Medical College and 
graduated with the class of 1885. Immedi- 
ately after graduating he came west and lo- 
cated at New lllm. Dr. Strickler's profes- 
sional career has been eminently successful. 
His native talent, indomitable perseverance 
and courteous demeanor have plnced him in 
the first rank and won for him a large and 
lucrative practice. He belongs pre-eminent 
ly to that class of ])hysicians who are in their 
profession because they love it. The practice 
of medicine and the study of the ever-varying 
forms of disease are to him at once a recrea- 
tion and a delight. He is an earnest student 
of the advances made in surgery, and devotes 
his practice largely to that important branch 
of the profession, as well as that of gynecol- 
ogy. Dr. Strickler is surgeon for the Chicago 
& Northwestern and the Minneapolis & St. 
Louis Railways, and is a member of the 
American Medical association, the Minne- 
sota State Medical society, the Academy of 
Kailroad Surgeons, the International Asso- 
ciation of Kailroad Surgeons, and the Minne- 
sota Academy of Medicine, besides several 
local societies. He has also ser\'ed as presi- 
dent of the Minnesota Valley Medical socie- 
ty. He has been a member of the State Med- 
ical Examining Board and served as its presi- 
dent in 1808. Up to 1806. Dr. Strickler was 
a Democrat. He supported the Republican 
ticket that year, however, and since then has 
affiliated with the Republican party. He is 
now a member of the board of regents of the 
University of Minnesota, having been ap- 
pointed by Governor Van Sant. Tliis ap- 
pointment was all the more gratifying as it 
is the fir-st instance in the history of that in- 
stitution that a i)hysician has been a mem- 
ber of this board. Dr. Strickler is prominent 
in Masonic circles, and has taken the thirty- 
third degree. He is also a Knight Templar. 




O. C. STUICKLEK. 

While of strong religious convictions, be is 
a liberal in his beliefs and is not a member 
of any church. In 1887 he was married to 
Emilie Doehne, of New Ulm. To them have 
been born two daughters, Vera Eleanora and 
Leola May. A brother of Dr. Strickler (A. 
F. Strickler) is also a medical practitioner, 
practicing his profession at Sleepy Eye, 
Minn. 



SWIFT, Lee, the superintendent of the 
city schools of Tracy, Minn., is a college bred 
production of the great Northwest, which, 
ill the minds of many men of keen observa- 
tion, is the best possible foundation for a sue- 
ce.ssful career in any field. He was born, 
December 5, 1850, at Cazenovia, W^s. His 
father, Charles Byron Swift, was a farmer. 
He came from Ohio to Wisconsin in 1856, 
thus constituting himself one of the pioneers 
of the state. He was a member of Company 
F, Third Wisconsin cavalry during the Civil 
War, and was in fair financial circumstances. 
The maiden name of Lee Swift's mother was 
Caroline A. Huntly. Mr. Swift modestly 
savs that his earlv education was obtained 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




LEE SWIFT. 

in a "small \illaj;e stliool." His success as 
a teacher makes it evident that it must have 
been one of good quality, however small. 
He then took a college course at Eipon Col- 
It ge, Wisconsin, and graduated in the class 
of 1886. He chose teaching for his life work. 
He began in Wisconsin and taught three years 
in that state. The next four years were spent 
in the schools of South Dakota, and he has 
been in school work in Minnesota nine yeai's, 
coming to Tracy, where he is now engaged, 
in 1892. This succinct record, however, does 
not show his real preparation for practical 
work in a position which requires a knowl- 
edge of men and things, as well as a knowl- 
edge of books, and a literary training, so to 
speak. Before entering college — an event so 
curtly noticed — Mr. Swift clerked in a gen- 
eral store i]i Wisconsin, where, if anywhere, 
a man can gain a knowledge of human na- 
ture, so essential to school discipline. While 
teaching in the same state, he was elected 
county surveyor of Sauk county, and served 
one tenii. In 1886 he was married to Carrie 
May Blanchard. They have three children — 
Carrie May, Vera Blanchard, and Ernest 
Fremont Swift. ^Ii-. Swift is a member of 
the Presbyterian church. 



LEWIS, Charles Lundy. — A position on 
the supreme bench is one of the highest hon- 
ors in the power of the commonwealth to 
bestow. The universal wish of the people, 
regardless of party, is to have a supreme 
judiciary made up of men of acknowledged 
ability and stainless character. It is a seri- 
ous fault of our judicial system that the 
bench should be brought into the arena of 
jiolitics. Though mistakes are sometimes 
made, yet it is to the credit of the voter that 
it is the man, not the party, that he looks to 
in exercising his privilege at the polls. One 
of the most capable men on the supreme 
bench of Minnesota is Charles Lundy Lewis. 
He is a man of sterling integrity and posses- 
ses in high degree those qualities which go 
to make up the best equipment of a consci- 
entious and able jurist. Judge Lewis was 
born on a farm (in the house in which his 
parents still live), near Ottawa, La Salle 
county, 111., March 8, 1852, His father, 
Samuel R. Lewis, followed the occuijation of 
farming since boyhood. He has always oc- 
cupied a prominent position in the commu- 
nity in which he lives, filling various posi- 
tions of trust, and representing his home 
county in the state legislature. He was an 
active member of the original Abolition 
party, and took a prominent part in connec- 
tion with the well-known ■"underground rail- 
way" in the exciting days before the outbreak 
of the Civil war. His political affiliations 
have always been with the Rei)ublican party. 
He is still living at the ripe old age of 82 
years. His wife, Ann E. Harley, was of 
Dutch descent, and the daughter of a sub- 
stantial fanner of Central Illinois, who was 
one of the pioneers of that state. She was . 
born in Pennsylvania, but came with her 
parents to Illinois when quite young. Self- 
sacrifice in the interest of others, particular- 
ly her husband and children, has been a dom- 
inant characteristic of her life. She has al- 
ways shown great affection for her family 
and wonderful perseverance in promoting 
the welfare of those she loved. Though sim- 
]>le and quiet in her habits of life she has 
been a most positive force in the character 
building of her children. She is still living 
at the age of 80. Judge Lewis' ancestors on 



HISTORY OF THIO GREAT NORTHWEST. 



his father's side were Qualvers. The original 
Lewis, knowD in family history as Henry 
II., was of mixed Scotch and Welsh blood, 
and came from Wales about the time of 
William Peun and settled in Eastern Penn- 
sylvania, near l'hiladi'lj)hia. As a rule the 
members of the family have all been agri- 
culturists, with the exception of one who 
was noted in Eastern Pennsylvania as a 
mathematician. They did not attain ])rom- 
inence in the public eye but were honorable 
and worthy members of that class of men 
who contributed so largely to the upbuild- 
ing of this country. The subject of this 
sketch enjoyed the advantages of a liberal 
education. He attended the coinmou school 
of his district until he was sixteen years 
of age, and then spent two years in the 
high school at Ottawa, HI. He went from 
here to Chicago, taking a two years" course 
in the academic department of the Chicago 
University. He entered the freshman class 
of this institution in 1872, and completed 
the classical course in this and the sopho- 
more class, but the university falling into 
financial trouble he was compelled to leave. 
He complett'd the course in Oberlin College, 
graduating in the class of 187fi, and tak- 
ing his share of the jjrizes in literature, 
oratory and debates. While in attendance at 
college, Mr. Lewis came in contact with two 
different phases of religious thought and 
methods of teaching. The University of Chi- 
cago, in those days a very strict Baptist in- 
stitution, was liberal in its teaching, devel- 
oping independence in study and self-govern- 
ment on the part of its pupils. Oberlin Col- 
lege, on the other hand, while also under 
strict sectarian influence, interfered with the 
individual development of the student by 
rules and regulations more adapted to schol- 
ars of a tender age. This wide contrast in 
method could not fail to impress the receptive 
mind of the subject of this sketch. He was 
able to perceive the grievous tendency in the 
educational system of those days to contine 
the student to routine and tixed standards, 
and its logical result in hindering his de- 
velopment through original processes of 
thought. This served as an incentive in his 
own study and in the development of latent 




CH,\I!LES L. LKWIS. 

resources within himself. He realized early 
that the student's natural trend of thought 
should be given a practical turn in his educa- 
tion, and this no doubt was of great influence 
in shaping his after career. He did not en- 
joy, on leaving college, the advantages of 
a training in a law school, but gained his 
knowledge of the legal profession by a three 
years" clerkship in a law office and private 
reading. He was admitted to the bar in 
1879, coming to Minnesota in September of 
that year, settling at Fergus Falls. He be- 
gan here the practice of his profession, and 
succeeded in winning for himself a fairly 
successful law practice. He was elected 
county attorney of Otter Tail county in 1884, 
and was re-elected to the same position in 
1886, serving to the end of his second term. 
Believing that Duluth afforded wider oppor- 
tunities for the successful practice of his 
profession, he moved there in 1891. In 1893, 
he was appointed judge of the Eleventh Ju- 
dicial District by Gov. Nelson to fill the po- 
sition provided by the legislature of that 
year. In the November elections of the year 
following he was elected to this office for the 
next ensuing term of six years. In Septem- 
ber, 1895, he resigned his judicial ofiQce to 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



resume general practice. This was contin- 
ued until his election as associate justice in 
November, 1898. Judge Lewis has dis- 
charged the duties of his office with great 
ability and has won the confidence of the 
people as well as that of members of the 
legal profession. He is a quiet and unas- 
suming man, reserved in his habits and a 
lover of home life. His natural inclinations 
are toward what is most beautiful in life, 
and in the loving influence of his home he 
finds the greatest hapjjiness. When in need 
of recreation nothing gives him more pleas- 
ure than to piclc up the rod or gun and take 
a tramp in the woods. Judge Lewis is a 
member of the Masonic fraternity. While 
not a member of any church, he belongs to 
the liberal class of thinkers along religious 
lines, and generally attends service where he 
can have the advantage of listening to the 
most intelligent discourse from the pulpit. 
He was married, in 1880, to Janet D. Moore, 
of Minneapolis. They have four children: 
Laurel, aged 17; Murray, aged 14; Charles 
L., aged 11, and Margaret, aged 9. 



ANKENY, Alexander Thompson, of 
Minneapolis, is of German and French de- 
scent on his father's side and of English 
and Scotch on his mother's. His paternal 
ancestors were Huguenots, in the border- 
land of Germany and France. The founder 
of the family in America was De Walt 
Ankeny, the great grandfather of the sub- 
ject of this sketch. He was born in Wur- 
temburg, Germany, in 1728, came to Phila- 
delphia in 1745 and the following year made 
a settlement on lands in Washington coun- 
ty, Md., naming his farm "Well Pleased." 
He was twice married, first to Mary Jane 
Uomer and at her death to Margaret Fred- 
erick. Peter Ankeny, the grandfather, was 
the second son of the first marriage and was 
born in 1751. He was married in 1773 to 
Rosina Bonnet, who was a daughter of John 
Bonnet and Mary Bickley, also from the 
same part of the old country. The new 
couple at once set out with pack horses and 
crossed the Alleghenies, settling at what 
afterwards came to be Somerset, Pa, He 



also served as a captain in the Revolution- 
ary War. Isaac Ankeny, the fourth son, 
and the father, was born in 1792 and in 1820 
was married to Eleanor Parker. She was 
a daughter of John Parker and Agnes 
< Jraham. John Parker was a son of Thomas 
Parker and Eleanor Ferguson, born in the 
north of Ireland in 1720 and 1727. respec- 
tively. Agnes Graham was a daughter of 
Judge John Graham, of Bedford county, 
Pa., and was born in 1770 and died in 1852. 
The family of Grahams traces its connec- 
tion back to the Grahams of Scotland. 

Isaac Ankeny was a man of prominence, 
holding several important public positions 
of honor and trust. He died at Somerset in 
1853, his wife surviving until 1879. They 
had a family of four boys and six girls, four 
of the family still living. William P. An- 
keny, of Minneapolis, was the oldest, and 
was an early settler and an honored citizen. 
He died in 1877. John J. Ankeny, an older 
brother, was postmaster of Minneapolis 
under President Cleveland. 

Alexander Thompson Ankeny, named 
after a distinguished judge of Pennsylvania, 
w^as born at Somerset, Pa., December 27, 
1837. His early education was in the home 
schools. At the age of fifteen he was sent 
to the Disciples' college at Hiram, Ohio, at 
which time President Garfield was an instruc- 
tor. Two years later he attended an acad- 
emy at Morgantown, W. Va., then under 
Rev. J. R. Moore, and at which time Judge 
William Mitchell of Minnesota was an in- 
structor. The acquaintance thus formed 
with these men, who afterwards became so 
distinguished, ended only with their death, 
and was in several instances helpful to all 
concerned. In 1857 Mr. Ankeny entered 
Jefferson college at Canonsburg, Pa., where 
he remained until the spring of 1859, when 
he received an appointment at Washington, 
D. C, in the office of Hon. Jeremiah S. 
Black, attorney general. At this time Hon. 
Edwin M. Stanton was also connected with 
the office. Here he read law, and at the 
close of the administration returned to 
Somerset and entered upon the practice of 
his profession. He tried and won his first 
case on the day Fort Sumter was fired 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



upon. Upon the appointment, by President 
Lincoln, of Mr. Stanton as secretary of war, 
in 18C2, Mr. Anlceny accepted a position in 
the war department, where he remained to 
the close of the war. He returned to Som- 
erset, engaging in the practice of law, and 
was also connected with a private bank. 

In 1872 Mr. Ankeny removed to Minne- 
apolis and engaged in the lumber business 
with his brother, William P. Ankeny. On 
the death of the latter he devoted himself to 
closing up the affairs of the large estate, 
and ill 187!) resumed the practice of law, 
in which he has ever since engaged, main 
taining a high position at the bar. Puring 
his life in Minneapolis few citizens have 
rendered more or more valuable services to 
the public, and almost uniformly without 
compensation. In 1S77 he served as a mem- 
ber of the board of education of the west 
division of the city. He was then one of a 
committee of ten which formulated the plan 
for the complete union of the east and west 
divisions of the city. In 18SG he was elected 
a member of the board of education, re- 
elected in 1889, and up to January, 1895, 
served as president of the board, being also 
ex-officio a member of the library board. 
He had much to do with securing the pas- 
sage by the legislature of our present free 
text book law, and aided materially in plac- 
ing the system in successful operation in 
Minneapolis. In 1899 he was appointed by 
Governor Lind a member of the board of 
directors of the State Normal schools, and 
was at once elected as its president. On 
the subject of public education Mr. Ankeny 
has justly been regarded as an authority, as 
his many public addresses on that subject 
amplj' testify. 

By birth and conviction Mr. Ankeny has 
always been a Democrat. He believed that 
its principles were such only as could bring 
to the people the fullest development and 
the greatest happiness. He therefore clung 
to it in good as well as evil report. If it 
erred he did not forsake it, but simply 
waited until it should resume its rightful 
position on public questions. He frequent- 
ly stood as the candidate of his party al- 
though, as a rule, living in a minority dis- 




ALEXANDER T. ANKENY. 

Irict. In 1885 he was the candidate for 
municipal judge, in 1890 one of the four 
candidates for district judge, and in 1896 
for mayor of Minneapolis. From IgiSS to 
1894 he was a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the National Association of Dem- 
ocratic clubs. From 1886 to 1888 he was a 
member of the Democratic state central 
committee. In the state campaign of 1886 
he was chairman of the committee on plat- 
foi'm, and for the first time in this country 
a recommendation was made for the adop- 
tion of the Australian system of voting, 
now in almost general use. In the state 
campaign of 1898 he practically outlined 
the poli(-y of the party in its platform, and 
largely through that policy a Democratic 
governor was elected. In the campaign of 
1900 Mr. Ankeny did not actively partici- 
pate, though honorably supporting the par- 
ty candidates. He then firmly believed in 
maintaining control of all the territory ac- 
quired through the treaty with Spain, and 
could foresee nothing but defeat in any at- 
tempt to thwart what he believed was our 
manifest destiny. 

In his profession as well as in other 
business enterprises Mr. Ankeny has al- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



ways been regarded a man of cool and de- 
liberate judgment. Ue was one of the in- 
corporators of the Masonic Temple associa- 
tion, of Minneapolis, and has ever since been 
first the vice-president, then president of 
its board of directors. In January, 1900, 
he was appointed by the judges of the dis- 
trict court one of the fifteen charter com- 
missioners, and in the revision of that year 
rendered valuable and conspicuous services. 
Mr. Ankeny was married at Wheeling, 
W. Va,, in 1801 to Miss :Martha V. Moore, 
daughter of John Moore. They had one 
son and four daughters, all residing in Min- 
neajwlis, except the oldest, Mrs. Florence 
McKusick, who died at Duluth, Minn., in 
February, 1900. The family are connected 
with the I'ortland Avenue Church of Christ 
of this city. 



FARNS WORTH, Sumner Amasa, princi- 
pal of the Cleveland High School, of St. Paul, 
Minn., is a native of Wisconsin, and was 
bom at Bristol, Kenosha county, November 
26, 1852. He is descended from Puritan 
stock. His paternal great great grandfather, 
Matthias Farnsworth, was one of the original 
settlers of Groton, Mass., about 1664. 
Simeon, his tenth son, moved to Washing- 
ton, N. H., in 1781. His son, Daniel, was 
born at Goshen, in that state, April 9, of the 
following year. Joel Farnsworth, the son of 
Daniel, and the father of the subject of this 
sketch, was born March 15, 1818, at Wash- 
ington, N. H. He was married June 18, 
1840, in Stoddard, N. H., to Mary B. Fair- 
banks, who was a native of that town, born 
March 20, 1820. Her grandfather, Aaron 
Fairbanks, was an early settler of Dedham, 
Mass., where his son, Amasa, the father of 
Mary, was born. Joel Farnsworth moved 
with his family to Bristol, Wis., in April, 
1852. His wife died June 10 of the follow- 
ing year. He is still living at the advanced 
age of eighty-three years, and is retired from 
active work. While a resident of New 
Hampshire he served as a captain of the state 
militia. Sumner received his early educa- 
tion in the country schools, and later in the 
village schools of River Falls, Wis. After 



finishing the course ollered therein, he taught 
five years in the country schools. In the fall 
of 1875 he entered the advanced class in the 
State Normal School at River Falls. He was 
compelled to give up his studies, however, 
after a year of hard work. In September, 
1876, he was elected superintendent of the 
public schools of River Falls. He gave this 
jiosition up the following spring and came to 
Minnesota, locating on a homestead at Ada, 
Norman county, and proceeded to open up a 
farm. He gave up agricultural pursuits, 
however, the following fall, having been 
elected superintendent of schools at Brainerd. 
He served in this position for three yeai-s, 
resigning to take a position as cashier and 
bookkeeper for L. L. Ramstad & Co., a large 
general merchandise firm at Ada. He re- 
mained with this concern for two j-ears, at 
the same time serving as deputy postmaster. 
He was also chairman of the town board of 
supervisors for one year. He was one of the 
pioneers of the Red River Valley and a dele- 
gate from Norman county to the Red River 
Valley drainage convention and was elected 
secretary of the commission that so suc- 
cessfully conducted the topographical survey 
of the valley, which survey has been the 
basis of all drainage work done in that sec- 
tion. In 1882, he was elected superintendent 
of the schools at Crookston and served in 
this oltice for two years, resigning to accept 
a similar position at Ada. In 1886 he was 
offered the i^osition of principal of the Cleve- 
land High School at St. Paul, which he ac- 
cepted, taking charge of the school in Sep- 
tember. He has held this position ever since. 
The enrollment has gradually increased to 
its present figure, 1,300, which makes it the 
largest graded school in the North Star state. 
The enrollment includes 200 high school pu- 
pils, and the curriculum covers a period of 
twelve years' work. Mr. Farnsworth is a 
firm believer in the power and influence of 
good men and women in the educational field, 
and the thirty-two teachers on his staff are 
thoroughly competent in their particular 
lines. In 1896, he took the examination of 
the board of regents and graduated in the 
advanced course of the River Falls, Wis., 
State Normal School. In the fall of the 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



same year, upou the uuanimous recoiumen- 
datioii of the presidents of the four uornial 
schools, he was granted a life professional 
certificate for Minnesota. Mr. Farnsvvorth 
has alwa.ys taken a deep interest in educa- 
tional matters. He has taught in the state 
summer schools at different times, and was 
the first president of the Twin City School- 
masters" Club. For six years he was gen- 
eral secretary and financial manager of the 
State Teachers' Association, and was presi- 
dent of the associarion for one year. He was 
Instrumental in having the proceedings of its 
annual meetings put in printed form for the 
first time, and later succeeded in gefting the 
legislature to pass a law which provided for 
the printing of the proceedings by the state. 
He was chairman of the committee on legis- 
lation of this association for twelve years 
and aided in the securing of much needed 
legislation. He has been an active mem- 
ber of the jN'ational Educational Associa- 
tion since 1891, holding at one time the 
position of state manager. For three con- 
secutive terms he has been elected presi- 
dent of the St. Paul City Teachers' As- 
sociation. He has always been active in pro- 
moting the welfare of the teachers of his 
home city, and instrumental in having many 
points in question decided for the board and 
teachers. He is a strong advocate in favor 
of perfect freedom of action on the part of 
employes of boards of education. He was 
editor and proprietor of the "Twin City 
Teacher" for one year. He is also a member 
of the National Geographic Association. 
Mr. Farnsworth's position as a teacher has 
in a certain sense kept him out of active poli- 
ties, but he has always felt free to express 
himself and been independent enough to vote 
for men as well as principles. Mr. Farns- 
worth is prominently identified with a num- 
ber of fraternal oi'ders. He has been a mem 
ber of the I. O. O. F. since 1873, has held all 
the offices in the subordinate lodge, is present 
deputy grand master of Minnesota, and is a 
member of the encampment branch. He is 
also a member of the A. F. and A. M., and 
has held the ofiices of senior deacon and 
senior warden in St. Paul Lodge No. 3. He 
has been a member of the Masonic Union of 




SUMNER A. FAUNSWORTH. 

St. Paul, the Order of the Eastern Star, St. 
Paul Chapter No. 24, and is a past worthy^ 
patron in the same, and has taken th^ four- 
teenth degree in the Scottish Rite. He is 
president of the East Side Business Men"s 
Club of St. Paul. Every enterprise tending 
to promote the business interests of his sec- 
tion of the city has always received his ear- 
nest and heartj' support. While not a mem- 
ber of any church, Mr. Farnsworth has been 
an attendant and a supporter of the Pres- 
byterian church since his residence in the 
Saintly City. He was married October 21, 
187!), at Glyndou, Minn., to Eliza L. Gross. 
One child, a boy, died in infancy at Crooks- 
ton, Minn. 



NYE, Carroll Anderson, who has the 
noted record of being county attorney of 
Clay county for eight years — a county which 
embraces Moorhead, with its State Normal 
School and a population not surpassed in pro- 
gressive ideas and intelligence in the state — 
was born in St. Croix county, Wis. His father 
was a native of Maine, and a farmer. He 
was of mixed descent, French and Welsh. 
His wife was also a native of the same state, 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




CARROLL A. NVE. 

and Freucli and English. In 1S52 lie came 
to St. Oroix L'ouuty, Wis., and took up a farm. 
Carroll was brougbt up on a farm, going to 
dstrict school winters and working on the 
farm in summer, until he was seventeen years 
of age, when he went to the State Nonnal 
School at River Palls, Wis., for several tenus, 
paying his way by teaching schools at inter- 
vals. The first money he earned, however, 
was by working on a farm in the neighboi"- 
hood by the month. His brother, Frank M. 
Nye, the well known attorney of Minnesota, 
and formerly county attorney of Hennepin 
county, Minn., was then pi-acticing law in a 
small town in Wisconsin. Carroll began to 
study law in his ofBce. After a preparatory 
course there he entered the law department 
of the State Univei'sity, and graduated in 
the class of 1886. A few months afterwards, 
January, 1887, he went to Moorhead, Clay 
county, Minn., and began to practice his pro- 
fession. Previous to this, December 30, 18S6, 
he was married to Miss Mary A. Gordon, of 
Madison, Wis. They have a boy, James Gor- 
don Nye, nine years old. Mr. Nye met with 
almost instant success at Moorhead. His fine 
natural abilities supplemented the thorough 
training he received, and he only needed an 



ojiportunity for exercise to demonstrate his 
capacity for taking a high rank in his pro- 
fession. Within two years he had establish- 
ed a reputation which secured for him the 
{)osition of city attorney of Moorhead. So 
well did he discharge the duties of the ofiBce 
that he was continued in it for four tenns. 
In 1893 he was elected county attorney of 
Clay count}', and was re-elected again and 
again, until, as already mentioned, he was 
elected for the fourth temi. No comment on 
such a career need be made, when the char- 
acter of the service required and the intelli- 
gence of the community are considered. This 
is also more remarkable when it is known 
that he is absolutely independent in politics. 
In January, 1899, Goveraor Lind appointed 
him resident director of the State Nonnal 
School of Moorhead for the term of four 
years. He has built up a large and lucrative 
practice, outside of his official sphere, em- 
bracing neai"ly all branches of his profession. 
In religion he affiliates with the Congrega- 
tional church, of which he is a liberal sup- 
porter, although not enrolled as a member. 
He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, 
the Knights of Pythias, and the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen. 



BUDD, Joseph Danly, is one of the lead- 
ing surgeons in northern Minnesota and is 
regarded as one of the best railroad surgeons 
in the state. He is chief surgeon of the Du- 
luth & Iron Range Railway Company and re- 
sides at Two Harbors. The Budd family can 
be traced back to an early French family of 
that name. The members of the family resid- 
ing in this country held a reunion at Budd's 
Lake, Morris county, N. J., in 1878, and Col- 
onel Enos G. Budd, a prominent member of 
the family, read a paper tracing the name 
back to the period before William of Nor 
mandy came to England. From this address 
it is learned that in the early days of Nor- 
mandy and the French Empire one Jean 
Budd was a bai'on of influence and took an 
active part in the stirring events of that time. 
His descendants naturally followed in his 
footsteps and one branch of the family, after 
taking the side of the people against a tyran- 



HISTORY OF THE OIJKAT XOir|-II\VKST. 



nical ruler, were obliged to flee with their 
families. They joined the following of Will- 
iam the Conqueror and with him landed in 
England when thev took rank with the 
others of the invading force. The family has 
always been among the leadere in publi'- 
matters and one member became a minister 
of high rank in the English church. The 
first of the family to come to America were 
three brothers. John, Joseph and Thomas, 
who. in 16.3.3, located at various places in 
yew England, and from these three are de- 
scended nearly all of the Hudd family resid- 
ing in America. I). H. liudd. the father of 
the subject of this sketch, came west in 1847 
and located at Lancaster, Wis., and carried 
on a manufacturing business, dealing in 
wagons, carriages and sleighs. He was an 
active Hepublican and held numerous ]»ublic 
offices, including that of judge of i)robate for 
four years. Tlie mother of .Joseph J). IJudd 
was formerly a Miss Eliza M. Rich, and she 
is a direct descendant of John ,\ldeu and 
Priscilla, of Puritan fame. Dr. Hudd was 
born. ^Nfay ."j. 1"*48. at Lancaster. \\'is., and 
was attending the village high school when, 
in ISO."), at the age of sixteen, he enlisted in 
f'omjiany H. of the .50th Wisconsin Volun- 
teer Infantry. He saw service in ^lissouri. 
and in Dakota on frontier duty. He entered 
Lawrence T'ni versify at Appleton, Wis., and 
was gi-aduated in 1872 with the degree of 
M. S. He taught school for several yeai-s and 
then decided to study medicine and is a grad- 
uate of the St. Paul :Medical Colh-ge. then 
otfering instruction at St. I'aul. but discon- 
tinued at the time the State T'niversity Med- 
ical College was organized. Dr. Budd jirac- 
ticed for a numV>er of years at Fayette, ^fich.. 
but came to Minnr'sota in 1887. In 1880 he 
was appointed chief surgeon of the Duluth 
& Iron Range Railroad and removed to Two 
Haibors. his jiresent home. He is deeply in- 
terested in his profession and has taken jiost 
graduate courses at the Chicago Policlinic 
during the years ISOO. 1808 and 1000. He is 
a member of the International .\ssor-iation 
of Railroad Surgeons. Dr. P.udd is a follower 
of Republicanism and has taken an active 
part in local jiolitics, and has served as cor- 
oner and as county physician. For ten years 




.iiisi:iMi h. r.i i/ii. 

he has also Im-i-m IiimIIJi uHicer ;il Two ll;ir 
bors. He is a member of ihe <i. A. R., affili- 
ating with Culver Post at Duluth. Dr. liudd 
\\as iiian-ied in 1882 to Miss Margaret»Car- 
eiici-. He has a daughter. Leila !M. I>udd, 
born in 180r{. 



S.M'TER. Otto Edward. — Judge (). E. 
Sauter. of Crafton. >.'. D.. has shown unusual 
stability of character in the fact that having 
ciutie to Craftcm immediately after gradua- 
tion from the law dejiartment of the ^Miclii- 
gan I'niversity, with the degree of P.achejoi- 
of Laws, in 1882, he has ever since made that 
cily his home. He was also a memf)er of the 
Phi Delta I'hi law fraternity. He was born 
ai Chicago. 111., Sei.tember 17, 18.10. He was 
tin- son of Jacob Sauter, who removed from 
Connecticut in 1837. He was in moderate 
financial circumstances, and served the city 
of Chicago as a lieutenant of the police. He 
died of pneumonia in 180.5. He was married 
in L'<42 to Anna M. Schmidt. vvhos<' parents 
came from France in 1818 and settled in New 
York, where they remained until 1840, when 
they came to Chicago. Otto was only six 
vears old when his father died. Much of his 



HISTORY OF TPIE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




OTTO E. SAUTER. 

success must therefore be attributed to his 
mother, who lived until October 13, 1893. 
Judge Sauter obtained his early education 
in the public schools of Chicago. That he 
was a good scholar is shown by his taking 
the "Foster Medal" for scholarship on gradu- 
ating from the grammar school to the high 
school in 1876. Afterwards he entered the 
University of Michigan. When he chose the 
profession of law he did not confine himself 
to the mere school studies. He read law in 
Iowa in 1881, and in 1882, previous to his 
graduation, he took the bar examination in 
Michigan and was admitted to practice in 
Januai-y of that year. He came to Grafton, 
May 28, 1882, and opened an oflSce on the 
first of June, in partnership with C. A. Cle- 
land, under the firm name of Cleland & Sau- 
ter. This partnership was continued until 
1890, when Mr. Sauter practiced alone until 
1893. January 1, 1893, he formed a partner- 
ship with J. H. Fraine. This firm was dis- 
solved by the appointment of Mr. Sauter to a 
seat on the bench as judge of the Seventh 
judicial district of North Dakota, April 15, 
1895. In November, 1896. Judge Sauter M'as 
elected for four years to succeed himself, his 
term of office expiring January 1, 1901. He 
had as competitors in this election C. A. M. 



Spencer, and N. C. Young, afterwards judge 
of the supreme court of the state. Judge 
Sauter was not a candidate for re-election, 
and retired from the bench on the expiration 
(if his term. On the eighth of January fol- 
lowing, he opened an ofiice in Grafton to re- 
smiie his practice. In 1881 he was married 
Id Mamie M. McCarthy, the daughter of Col. 
I>. F. McCarthy, formerly of Faribault, :Minn.. 
hilt now of Ansgar, Iowa, where the marriage 
took place. They have two children, Marie 
Sauter, born in 1889, and Jean Sauter, bom 
in 1891. The judge is not enrolled as the 
meiuber of any church. In politics he is a 
Republican. He was active in the Garfield 
campaign of 1880 and made political ad- 
dresses in Iowa. He then cast his first vote, 
and has at all times affiliated with the Re- 
publican party. With the exception of the 
judgeship, which was in the line of his pro- 
fession, he has never held office. 



KNOWLES, Hiram.— A seat on the 
bench of the United States court is one of the 
highest honors of the legal profession. It is 
a dignity of which any man might feel proud. 
It carries with it prima facie evidence of at- 
tainments and character which cost some- 
thing to acquire, and which secure the re- 
spect of the community. The people of the 
United States have been fortunate in the na- 
tional judiciary, the high character of which 
has never been impeached, and it is natural 
that the lives of the men who have worn the 
ermine with such honor, should be of inter- 
est to the public. Among those of the North- 
west who have served in this cai>acity with 
credit, the name of Judge Hiram Knowles, 
of Helena, Mont., could not be omitted. He 
is of New England lineage, to which the 
Northwest is so greatly indebted. He was 
born at Hampden, Maine, in 1834. His father 
was Dr. Freeman Knowles, a descendant of 
Richard Knowles, a sea captain, who settled 
in eastern Massachusetts between 1640 and 
1650. Freeman Knowles was also a sea cap- 
tain in early life, but afterwards studied med- 
icine and become a physician, and was in fair 
material circumstances. His wife, Hiram's 
mother, was Emily Smith, bom in Maine. 



HISTORY OP THE GREAT NORTHAVEST. 



Her father was a land surveyor, born in New 
Hampshire, at or near Concord. Judge 
Knowles received his early education in the 
public schools of Iowa, and prepared for col- 
lege at the Denmark Academy. He attend- 
ed Antioch College, Ohio, when Horace Man 
— one of the most distinguished teachers the 
country has produced — was president. His 
professional education was begun in 18.58 and 
18.59, in the office with Hon. Samuel F. Mill- 
er, late a justice of the sujjreme court of the 
T'nited States. He then entered the Harvard 
Law School, one of the most eminent law 
colleges in the United States, and graduated 
in the class of 1860. He selected the Terri- 
tory of Nevada as his field of practice, and 
in 186.S was appointed prosecuting attorney 
of Humboldt county. The same year he was 
elected probate judge of the county. After 
serving his term until 1865, he went to Idaho 
and practiced law there one year, in partner- 
ship witli Frank Ganahl. In 1866 he settled 
in Montana, then a territory. Two years later 
he was appointed as associate justice of the 
supreme cour-t of the territory of Montana. 
He filled this resjjonsible position for eleven 
years, and finally resigned in 187i1, to re 
sume the practice of law at Butte, Mont. In 
February, 1890. he was appointed United 
States district judge for the state of Mon- 
tana, the office which he still holds. Judge 
Knowles has had a professional experience 
almost unique. Few men have been so close- 
ly connected with the novel conditions of 
communites in formation. While the prin- 
ciples of law may be well established in old 
settled countries, circumstances in a new one 
may compel such application of legal deci- 
sions as will be tantamount to a new depar- 
ture, upsetting many preconceived notions. 
Questions arise which have never been ad- 
judicated because similar conditions have 
never before existed. Statutes are called into 
being to meet emergencies that could not be 
anticipated; thus a body of laws, dithering 
in many respects from that ever before 
known, was developed in the new mountain 
states. A man schooled for more than thirty 
years in such a curriculum should become 
fitted to occupy a seat on the bench of the 
very highest courts. Judge Knowles has al- 




HIItAM KNOWI.KS. 

ways acted with the Kepuhlirau party. Hold- 
ing most of the time a positicm incompatible 
with active political work, he has held but 
few political offices. In 1884 he was tfie Re- 
jiublican candidate for congress, but was de- 
feated by Joseph K. Toole. He was a mem- 
lier of the constitutional convention, under 
which the state was admitted to the Union, 
in 1889. He is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity and was the Grand Master of the order 
of Montana in 1880. He is also a member of 
the Ancient Order of United ^Yorkmen. lu 
religion he is a Unitarian, being a member 
of the church of that denomination at Hel- 
ena, Mont. He was married to Mary L. Cur- 
tis at Athens, Mo., in 1871, and they have 
had seven children, three of whom are now 
living. 



CRIER, Thomas Johnston.— Cold mining 
in the "Black Hills" of South Dakota has 
made the region noted far and wide. The 
foundation of its reputation is the success of 
the operations of the Homestake Mining 
Company, which, for a generation, has pour- 
ed foith its stream of gold with the regularity 
of a never-failing sjuing. When it is con- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




THOMAS J. GIUER. 

sidered that the ore from which this wealth 
is drawn is called of such low grade that it 
would be spurned by many prospectors and 
mining experts, the business management 
which has never skipped a good dividend for 
a generation creates admiration. The man 
who has been for many years largely respon- 
sible for this uniform success is Thomas J. 
Grier, the present superintendent, who has 
been at the helm, boy and man, for twenty- 
three years. The details of the work have 
been enormous, involving the employment 
and management of several thousand men, 
and, it may be said, the business life of the 
community is involved, for without the 
Homestake Mining Company in successful 
operation, there would be stagnation. Mr. 
Grier was born. May 18, 1850, at Pakenham, 
Can. His father was James Grier, a car- 
riage manufacturer by occupation. He was 
a man of strong character and of moi'e than 
common ability, as shown by the fact that 
he was postmaster of Iroquois, Ontario, Can., 
for twenty-six years. The maiden name of 
his wife, the mother of Thomas, was Eliza 
A. Patterson. The boy was reared and edu- 
cated at Iroquois, finishing in the high school. 
He then went to work as a clerk in the post- 



office, under his father, and while there learn- 
ed telegraphy. The next step was to Mon- 
treal, Can., where he became an operator in 
the office of the Montreal Telegraph Com- 
])any. He then secured a position in the of- 
tice of the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
jiany at Corinne, Utah, from which he was 
transferred to be chief operator of the same 
company at Salt Lake City. In 1878, when 
twenty-eight years old, he was engaged as 
bookkeeper by the Homestake Mining Com- 
pany, and put in charge of the principal of- 
tice at Lead City, Dakota Territoi-y, now 
South Dakota. In 1884 he had made him- 
self so efficient and so demonstrated his abil- 
ity, that he was appointed superintendent of 
the company, the position which he now 
holds and has held ever since. His interests, 
liowever, have not been confined to that duty 
exclusively. He is president of the First Na- 
tional Bank at Lead, and vice president of 
the First National Bank of Deadwood. He 
is also a member of the Masonic fraternity, 
and is active in every public movement of in- 
terest to a good private citizen, contributing 
with purse and personal influence. In re- 
ligion he is an Episcopalian. August 8, 1896, 
he was man-ied to Miss Mary Jane Pale- 
thorpe, of Glasgow, Scotland. They have 
two children, a boy and girl. The boy has 
been named Thomas Johnston Grier, Jr. 
The girl's name is Evangeline Victoria (trier. 



STT'ART, Wesley A., ofSturgis, S. D., 
is prominent throughout the western coun- 
tr\- for the interest he has shown in the irri- 
gation movement. He was born, April 13, 
18.19, at Ottumwa, Iowa, of New England 
jiarentage. His mother, Fannie A. Stuart, 
nee Riley, was one of the Riley family of 
musicians known throughout New England 
and the South during the period just before 
the Civil War. Addison A. Stuart, the 
father of Wesley A., came from Massachu- 
setts and settled at Ottumwa, Iowa, and en- 
gaged in the practice of law. He entered the 
Union army in 1801 and served as a captain 
in the 17th Iowa Infantry for nearly the 
whole period of the war. He came out from 
service disabled for life by wounds and loss 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



of hearing, resulting from the explosion of 
a bomb. He afterwards was the author of 
a book entitled "Iowa Colonels and Regi- 
ments." We.sley A. Stuart received onlv a 
common school education, and at seventeen 
was api»renticed to a blacksmith. He fol- 
lowed this work and that of carriage ironing 
until 1884, when he entered an office for final 
preparation for admission to the practice of 
law. Mr. Stuart had early decided that he 
should be a lawyer, and while working at 
his trade had started on his studies with that 
end in view. He entered the oflice of one of 
the oldest firms in the state. Mills & Keeler, 
of Cedar Rapids. His studies were followed 
with success in June of 1887, when he was 
admitted to practice before the supreme 
court. He started in practice at Williams- 
burg, where he remained until 1800, when 
he decided to locate in the Black Hills, and 
accordingly settled at Sturgis, S. D. He has 
had more than the average success at the 
bar, and has become known as an active and 
aggressive lawyer, faithful to his clients, ex- 
celling in the trial of cases, and has been con- 
nected with nearly all of the important liti- 
gation in his county for the past ten years. 
He is conceded to be the leader of the Meade 
county bar and in the front rank of Black 
Hills practitionei's. He represents the prin- 
cipal mercantile agencies in his county, has 
been twice appointed city attorney, and is 
local attorney for the Fremont, Elkhorn & 
Missouri Valley Railroad. He has also been 
an active member of the executive commit- 
tee of the Commercial Club of his city for 
several years. Mr. Stuart has always been 
a Democrat and takes an active part in po- 
litical matters, but has never sought or de- 
.sired public office. He is deeply interested 
in irrigation matters, and is a member of the 
National Irrigation Association, and is now 
the South Dakota member of the National 
Executive Committee. At the Irrigation 
Congress, held November 21 to 24, 1900, in 
Chicago, he delivered one of the principal 
adresses, his topic being '"What the National 
Irrigation Congress Stands For," and the 
same was very favorably mentioned in the 
Associated Press accounts of the meeting. 
He represented South Dakota at the Trans 




WESLEY A. STUART. 

^lississippi Congress, held at Wichita, Kan., 
and at the meeting held at Houston, Texas. 
He was also one of the state commissioners 
for South Dakota of the Trans-Missftsippi 
Exposition at Omaha. He was married at 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, in July, 188'J, to Minnie 
E. Durham. She is a leading worker of the 
Black Hills Federation of Women's Clubs. 
Their only living child is Karl K. Stuart, 
born in 1890. 



KILGORE, Wallace Warren.— The super- 
intendent of public schools at Willmar, 
Minn., Wallace W. Kilgore, was born March 
10, 1862, at North Neury, Maine — a state 
which has furnished more enterprising men, 
in propoiiJon to its population, to develop 
the great Northwest, than any other state in 
the Union. His father, Isaac T. Kilgore, was 
a carpenter and farmer — occupations which, 
in the early days of Maine, a great lumber- 
ing state, were very frequently combined. 
Wallace obtained his early education in the 
common schools. He then attended Bridgton 
Academy, the Mecca of all wide-awake New 
England boys, where he prepared for college. 
He entered, in 1882, Bowdoin College, the 



HISTORY OF THE GUEAT NORTHWEST. 




WALLACE! W. KILGORE. 

well known jS'ew England institution which 
has always stood high for scholarship, and 
which has tui-ned out many brilliant and use- 
ful men. While at college Mr. Kilgore was 
a member of the Theta Delta Chi Greek let- 
ter fraternity. He won the oratorical prize 
in the junior year, and at the same time was 
prominent in athleticism, being the manager 
of the Bowdoin College baseball team in 
1886. That same year he graduated with the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts. In 1889 he took 
the degree of Master of Arts. His active 
work of teaching was begun in the country 
schools of Franklin county, in that state. In 
winter, especially, when many young men 
taking college courses engaged in teaching 
to pay their way, these schools are of a high 
grade. After he graduated Mr. Kilgore came 
to Wisconsin, as superintendent of the public 
schools at Mazomanie, which position he held 
until he resigned to accept the appointment 
of superintendent of schools at Mar.shall, 
Minn. He was also principal of the Red 
Wing high school for six years. He then ac- 
cepted the superintendency of the Spring 
\'alley schools, where he remained for two 
years, and then resigned to take the position 
which he now holds at Willmar, Minn. In 



the meantime, for the last eight years, he has 
been emjiloyed as a conductor of slate sum- 
mer training schools for teachers. In poli- 
tics Mr. Kilgore has always been a Repub- 
lics u, but from the nature of his business has 
ne\er taken a very active part. He is inter- 
ested in fraternal society matters, and is both 
a Mason and an ( )dd Fellow. He is also, by 
virtue of the services of his early ancestors 
in the Revolutionary War, a member of the 
Sons of the American Revolution. He was 
married, June IT, 1889, to Emma A. Ward, 
of Mazomanie, Wis. 



WOODARD, Francis R., the well known 
physician and surgeon of Minneapolis, was 
born in Madison, Lake county, Ohio, July 15, 
1848. His father is Joseph S. Woodard, and 
his mother's maiden name was Frelove M. 
Baker, a descendant of Francis Baker, who 
settled at Yarmouth, Mass. They were mar- 
ried in Ohio in 1847. When Francis was ten 
years old, the family moved to Rochester, 
Olmsted county, Minn., then a village about 
two years old. The mother and children 
cauie by rail to La Crosse — there was no rail- 
• road beyond that point — and from there by 
sleigh, seventy-five miles, to Rochester. Mr. 
>\oodard drove his team, with a top buggy, 
in December, 1S5S, all the way from Chicago, 
and opened the first drug store in Rochester. 
In winter his goods were hauled by team 
from La Crosse, and in summer, from Wi- 
nona. Mr. Woodard on one occasion accom- 
panied the team himself, and had some amus- 
ing and thrilling experiences. Indians were 
common, and their disposition was uncer- 
tain, resulting sometimes in disquieting con- 
ditions. On one trip from La Crosse Mr. 
Woodard met on the road far from any 
house, a band of fifteen, in feathers and paint. 
He was glad to give them the whole road, 
as they were determined to take it, anyway. 
He had in his load several barrels. After 
passing some distance the band returned and 
demanded '"whisky,'" repeating the word over 
and over — probably the only English they 
knew. He told them he had none, but they 
compelled him to wait until they had care- 
fully overhauled the whole load, when they 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



went away with a dissatisfied grunt. In iy59 
he bought from a Chicago agent five gallons 
of kerosene oil and six marble-foot lamps, 
which were sent to him from Chicago by ex- 
press. This was the first kerosene ever 
brought to the state. He sold the oil for 
$1.40 a gallon and the lamps for .f 1.25 apiece. 
The first gallon and lamp were sold to Judge 
Barbour, of Rochester. Mr. Woodard also 
kept a news dejiot and sold the daily Chicago 
papers, which came by stage from La (Jrosse, 
and he disposed of from 130 to 1.50 a day, at 
ten cents ajnece. This was the only way to 
get news from the Civil War, as there was 
not a telegraph or daily paper in the state. 
Francis began to go to school at I'ainesville, 
Ohio. He continued to attend school at 
Rochester until he could be trusted to put 
up prescriptions and then was for some time 
the prescription clerk in his father's store, 
and thus very naturally turned to the pro- 
fesson of medicine and began to study for 
it. In 1869 he entered the Michigan State 
University and took a literary course for two 
years, and then a year in the law department 
of the same institution. In 1S75 he returned 
and took one coui'se of lectures in the med- 
ical department. The following year, 187C, 
he entered the Rush Medical College at Chi- 
cago, at the same time doing service in the 
Cook County Hospital. He graduated in the 
class of 1879 and came to Minnesota and 
went into practice at Claremont, where he 
remained until 1881, when he came to Min- 
neapolis, where he has since lived. His pres- 
ent home is 2104 Park avenue. Dr. Woodard 
soon built up a large practice. He was ap- 
pointed by JIayor Winston one of the com- 
missioners of the City Board of Charities and 
Corrections, and he has been i-e-appointed to 
the position by each mayor of the city up to 
the present time, serving in all ten years, 
during six of which he has been president of 
the board, and during nearly all this time 
he has been chairman of the City Hospital 
Committee. He is attending physician of the 
Asbury Hospital, consulting physician at St. 
Mary's Hospital, and Lutheran Deaconess, 
and Gynecolgist of the City Hospital. He 
is a member of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation, the Minnesota Academy of Medicine, 




FRANCIS R. WOODARD. 

the Minnesota State Medical Society, and of 
the Hennepin County Medical Society. In 
1870 he was married to Miss Helen C. Nich- 
ols, of Wells, Minn., a woman of culture and 
refinement. They have had five children — 
Frances Helen, Harry Smith, Joseph Nich- 
ols, Luella, and Lawrence Baker Woodard. 
The doctor is an attendant and supporter of 
the Park Avenue Congregational church, 
with which his family is identified. In poli- 
tics, although too busy to take an active part, 
he is a Republican, having cast his first vote 
for President Grant. 



JONES, William Alexander, specialist in 
nervous and mental diseases. Dr. Jones is 
a native of Minnesota, and was born at St. 
Peter, May 24, 1859. His ancestors were 
^^'elsh on his father's side, and Scotch on his 
mother's. Both of his grandfathers were 
American jjatriots, and fought in the War 
of the Revolution. Dr. Jones' father was 
born in Vermont in 1832, and when four 
years of age went with his parents to New 
York City, where he grew to manhood. He 
came to Minnesota in "54, and located at St. 
Peter, where he kept a drug store, returning 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




WILLIAM A. JOXES. 

to New York in "58, in which city he was 
married to M. A. Virginia Christian, who 
was born and reared in that citj'. The young 
couple returned at once to their western 
liome, to witness and share in the most stir- 
ring scenes of frontier life. While watching 
a scalp-dance of the Sioux, Mrs. Jones was 
forced to join in the circle; and a few years 
later they saw the terrible Indian outbreak, 
and they sheltered many refugees in their 
home. Dr. Jones was then a mere baby. His 
education was gained in the common schools 
of St. Peter, and at the end of his course in 
the high school, he spent six years as a clerk 
in his father's drug store, where he gained 
a thorough and practical knowledge of drugs. 
After graduating from the medical depart- 
ment of the University of the City of New 
York, in the class of "81, he became assist- 
ant phy.sician in the State Hospital for the 
Insane at St. I'eter. 

Dr. Jones came to Minneapolis in Octo- 
ber, 1883, and spent three years in general 
practice. He was married at Denver, Colo.. 
in 1880, to Annie R. Johnson, and, accom- 
]ianied by his bride, went abroad for special 
study in the schools and hospitals of Berlin 
and Vienna. Since his return from Europe 



his practice has been limited to nervous and 
mental diseases, and very extensively to con- 
sultation work, for he enjoys the confidence 
and resjject of the medical profession in a 
high degree. 

Dr. Jones has taken an active part in the 
advancement of the medical department of 
the State University, and for a number of 
years has been clinical professor of nervous 
and mental diseases in this institution. He 
is also attending neurologist for St. Mary's, 
Asbury ^lethodist, the City and Northwest- 
ern hospitals, besides being chief of staff of 
the Northwestern. He is an active member 
of many local, state and national medical so- 
cieties, including the American Medical As- 
sociation, and the American Neurological As- 
sociation, and has been president of the Min- 
nesota Academy of Medicine and the Henne- 
pin County Medical Society. He seized two 
years on the board of tinistees of the State 
Hospital for the Insane, to which position he 
was appointed by Governor Nelson. 

Dr. Jones is editor of the Northwestern 
Lancet, whch is one of the oldest and most 
influential medical journals in the west. 

Dr. Jones" political affiliations are with 
the Democratic party. He is a member of 
Westminster Presbyterian church of Minne- 
apolis. He has offices in the Pillsbury Build- 
ing, Nicollet avenue and Sixth street. 



ZOCH, Herman. — During the past de- 
cade Minneapolis has rapidly come to the 
front as a musical center. The remarkable 
growth of the previous decade had left her 
in a somewhat chaotic condition, but as busi- 
ness institutions became more substantial 
her citizens grew more responsive to the 
refining influences of the higher arts. No 
man contributed more to that development 
along musical lines than Herman Zoch. He 
is a pianist of rare skill, and his concerts 
have come to be a leading feature in musical 
circles each season. Since his location in 
Minneapolis in 1884, Mr. Zoch has given 
about sixty recitals, without any assistance, 
in that city, besides many others in which 
he has assisted other musicians. This is a 
remarkable record, as few pianists can hold 




HERMAN ZOCH. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



and chain an audience an entire evening un- 
aided and unrelieved bj vocal or other in- 
strumental music. Mr. Zoch is a native of 
Prussia. His father, Carl Friedrich Zoch, 
was director of the estates of the Polish 
Count Dziedusziclvi, and it was on one of 
these estates in Theerkeute, in the province of 
Posen, Prussia, that Herman was born. His 
{grandfather was an officer of the army and 
especially distinguished himself in the war 
against Napoleon in 1813. His mother's 
maiden name was Augusta Kunau. The 
educational facilities he enjoyed were of 
a most liberal character. He was provided, 
as a child, with a private tutor at home, but 
afterwards entered the state gymnasium in 
Halle, Saxony. He went from there to Leip- 
sic and continued his studies in the Thomas 
Gymnasium, from which he graduated in 
the classical course. His musical talent 
had developed itself at an early age and his 
parents afforded him every opportunity to 
improve it. After his graduation from the 
gymnasium he secured admission to the 
Royal Conservatory of Music at Leipsic, 
where at the end of the third year he gradu- 
ated with students who had been there five 
or six years, and took the first prize in piano 
playing. His instructors in piano were 
Carl Reinecke, Jadassohn and Coccius, the 
first two being his teachers in counterpoint 
and composition. The next few months Mr. 
Zoch spent in Paris, making the most of the 
opportunities there afforded for advance- 
ment in his art. He attended the recitals 
given by the players of note in that city of 
culture and studied their methods of execu- 
tion. From there he went to Munich, where 
he formed the acquaintance of the best musi- 
cians of that city. He lived there for two 
years and enjoyed the friendship of Joseph 
IJheinberger, the great composer, for whom 
he performed the latter's piano concerto, op. 
94. This selection Mr. Zoch subsequently 
introduced for the first time at concerts in 
Berlin and Leipsic, with orchestral accom- 
paniment. He had at this time come to be 
recognized as an artist of great merit, and 
a series of recitals that he gave in Leipsic, 
Berlin, Munich, Vienna, Gotha and other 
large musical centers in Germany proved 



very successful. He had decided, however, 
to seek a newer and more promising field 
where his skill as a pianist would not only 
be appreciated but would yield larger finan- 
cial returns, and so came to America in 1883. 
A year later he came to Minneapolis and be- 
gan teaching. In this he has been very suc- 
cessful, and is an artist whom Minneapolis 
is proud to number among its citizens. Mr. 
Zoch is a player of great power and brilliant 
technique. Since 188!) he has made several 
concert tours and has given jiiano recitals 
in all the large cities of the country. His 
programs indicate a remarkable versatility 
and no composition seems too difficult for 
him to perform. Mr. Zoch is devoted to his 
art and finds in it all the pleasures that one 
seeks in this life. For this reason he has 
not cared to ally himself with any orders or 
societies. Neither has he married. 



THOMPSON, Frank Jared, came to the 
state of North Dakota in the spring of 1878. 
He had just been admitted to the bar and 
was looking for a location. His father had 
previously come to the state and was run- 
ning a locomotive engine on the Minnesota 
Division of the Northern Pacific Railway be- 
tween P.rainerd. Minn., and Fargo, N. D. 

His father's name is Jared Childs Thomp- 
son, and he is a locomotive engineer. Prior to 
coming to take a position on the Northern 
Pacific railway, he had been employed in 
that capacity on the Michigan Central for 
about thirty years. 

His mother's maiden name was Sarah 
Jane Mason. 

The Thompson family moved into Maine 
some time in the early part of 1700, and the 
descendants scattered to the southwest i)or- 
tion of that state, and also into the northern 
portion of Massachusetts. Benjamin Thomp- 
son, direct lineal ancestor, participated in 
the battle of Lexington and also served dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War. 

His mother's family is descended from 
Hugh Mason, who was a brother of Captain 
John Mason, well known to colonial fame. 
Captain Hugh Mason came to this country 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



in 1634 and settled in Watertown, Mass. His 
first son was named Joliu. aftei- liis brotlier. 
His second son, Huuli, after liiniself. His 
mother's family is descended from the second 
son, Hugh. The Mason family is a A^ery ex- 
tensive on(\ and has numbered among their 
members some of the brightest minds in the 
country. — not only in politics, but esjjecially 
in the professions. Mr. Thompson's direct 
lineal ancestor on his mother's side, Joseph 
Mason, was also a minute man of colonial 
times, and participated in the battle of Lex- 
ington. 

Mr. Thompson was horn at Uockford. 111., 
August 2?>, lSi)ij, where his mother wa« visit- 
ing tempfu-ai-ily. His grandfathers moved 
into Jlichigan during the thirtii^s of the nine- 
teenth century. He spent his childhood days, 
until about seventeen or eighteen years old, 
at Marshall, Mich., attending the j)ublio 
schools of that city. When only a lad he en- 
tered the Michigan Central Eailway shops, 
located at that place, and served his time as 
machinist apprentice. 

Mr. Thompson, being of a musical turn of 
mind, began to study music while working 
at his trade, and after finishing the same, 
devoted his time largely to musical studies, 
and, subsequently, for a time, made the 
teaching of music his profession. Not being 
satisfied with that kind of life, he entered 
the Jackson College and took up the same 
course by sjjecial studies as was taught at 
the Michigan University, after which he 
studied law and was admitted to practice in 
the courts at Jackson, Mich. 

He was, by birth, a Republican in poli- 
tics and remained so until 1804. In 1889 he 
was elected a member to the first legislature 
of North Dakota and was chairman of the 
judiciary committee of the house. While 
serving as such member, he introduced, in a 
spirit of fun, a resolution naming the chil- 
dren born in the state of North Dakota 
"Flickertails." The resolution was ado])ted, 
and ever since then North Dakotans have 
been known as "Flickertails." On his own 
motion the following morning, after the reso- 
lution was adopted, he asked to have it ex- 
punged from the records of the house, but 
the name stuck nevertheless. 




FRANK J. THIlMl'SO.N. 

In 1S!)1, during the second session of the 
legislature, he was appointed assistant attor- 
ney general of the state. Becoming dissatis- 
fied with the a})parent political conations, 
and not being satisfied with the Cleveland 
policy, he joined the Independent movement 
of the state, which affiliated with the Popu- 
lists. He stumped the state for that party, 
and has ever since remained with it and has 
served as chairman of the state central com- 
mittee since 18!t(i. At the session of the legis- 
lature in ISO!) he received the full vote of the 
Populists and Democrats for United States 
senator. 

He has always been active in fraternal 
societies. He was Master of Shlloh TiOdge, 
No. 1, A. F. & A. M., Fargo. N. D., for six 
years; Potentate of El Zagal Temple (the 
Shrine), of the same place, for six years, and 
the head of some of the Scottish Rite bodies. 

In June, 1890, he was elected Grand Mas- 
ter of ]\ra'<ons for the state. In June, 1892, 
was elected the Grand Secretary of the 
Grand Lodge of Masons. Also Grand Re- 
corder of the Knights Templar of the Grand 
Commandery. In 1894 was elected Grand 
Secretarv of the Grand Chai)ter, R. A. M., of 
the state, all of whidi jiositions he now holds- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



He is also librarian of the library of the 
Grand Masonic Lodge, and is at present the 
librarian of the city library. For nine years 
he served as a member of the school board. 

He is also a member of the Knights of 
Pythias, the Elks, the United Commercial 
Travelers, and the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen. 

Mr. Thompson is also the author of the 
Ritual of the Zodiac, Ancient Assyrian Mys- 
teries, and is now the Most Sovereign Grand 
Aries of the Grand Zodiac. The Zodiac is a 
new order which is rapidly coming into 
prominence. 

He belongs to no church, but is a member 
of the Unitarian Society. 

In 1882 Mr. Thompson was married to 
Elmadine Bissonette, then of Minneapolis, 
by whom he has two children, the elder, a 
girl, named Jaredine; the younger, a boy, 
named Jack Dacotah, 



PATTEE, William Sullivan, Dean of the 
College of Law of the University of Minne- 
sota, was born in the town of Jackson, coun- 
ty of 'U'aldo, in the state of Maine, September 
19, 1846, His father was Daniel Pattee, 
whose ancestors were among the early set- 
tlers of Maine. His mother, Mary Ann Bix- 
by, was born in Maine, her father. Willard 
Bixby, having emigrated there from Wood- 
stock, Conn., while Maine was still a part of 
the state of Massachusetts. Daniel Pattee 
died at the age of thirty, leaving his wife and 
two children, Helen and William. His moth- 
er "was a woman of great strength of char- 
acter and for several years supported herself 
and children. She afterwards married Isaac 
Gates, a farmer living in the town of Jack- 
son. Her son William grew up on the farm, 
remaining at home summers, until he was 
twenty-one years of age. He attended the 
common schools of the vicinity during the 
winter months, and before he reached his ma- 
jority, he had spent three terms in the East 
Maine Seminary at Bucksport, in that state. 
The winter after he was eighteen years of 
age he commenced teaching in the country 
schools dui'ing the winter months. 



.\t the age of twenty-one he was ready 
to enter the sophomore class of Bowdoin Col- 
lege, having done the larger part of bis pre- 
paratory work during the fall and spring 
terms of the three preceding years at the 
Maine Wesleyan Seminary at Kent's Hill. 
Through this period of jireparation for col- 
lege, like most young men from the country 
districts, he was obliged to support himself 
by teaching and doing such manual labor as 
it was possible for him to procure in the 
vicinity of the school. Entering college as a 
s()i)l!omore at the age of twenty -one, he grad- 
uated from Bowdoin in June, 1S71. 

While at college he taught a portion of 
each day in the public schools of Brunswick, 
and by that means was enabled to meet his 
expenses. Though his college course was 
made extremely difficult by the outside work 
he was compelled to do in order to maintain 
himself, he nevertheless took a good I'ank as 
a student, and was the orator of his class at 
its graduation exercises. His education, up 
to the time of his graduation from Bowdoin, 
was acquired by continuous hard work, great 
jserseverance, and under the inspiration of a 
settled purpose to acquire the best education 
it was possible for him to attain under his 
impecunious conditions of life. 

Tliree months before graduating from 
Bowdoin College. Mr. Pattee was elected as 
superintendent of the public schools in the 
city of Brunswick, Maine, and performed the 
duties of that office while at the same time 
he carried all the work of the senior class. 
He continued as su]ierintendent until April, 
1872, when he resigned this position and ac- 
cepted another as teacher of Greek in the 
T^niversity of Lake Forrest, 111., which he 
held until June, 1874, meanwhile lecturing 
at times upon botany and other branches of 
natural science. He then resigned to accept 
the office tendered him of superintendent of 
public schools in the city of Northfield, Minn, 

On August 31 of that year Mr. Pattee 
commenced his work in the state of Minne- 
sota, largely reorganizing the Northfield 
schools, where he continued his labors for 
four years. The Northfield schools under his 
administration were thoroughly organized. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



and became anioug- the most efficient in the 
state. 

During his college course, and his years 
of subsequent teaching, he had puisued a 
most systematic and thorough course of 
study of jurisprudence. His vacations, and 
all the time which he could properly use out- 
side the work of the schools in which he was 
employed, were devoted to the standard 
works upon the various branches of law, and 
on the first day of June, 1878, after having 
been admitted to the bar of Rice county, 
^Minn., he commenced the practice of his pro 
fession in the city of Northfleld, where he 
was then still residing. He entered at once 
upon a successful practice and continued the 
same for ten years. During this time he con- 
tinued to be a systematic student of law, and 
devoted himself exclusively to the demands 
of his pi'ofession, excepting the winter of 
1 884-5, when he was a member of the house 
of representatives in the legislature of Min- 
nesota. In this session of the legislature Mr. 
Pattee was recognized as one of its ablest 
debaters, and held a commanding place dur- 
ing the entire session. 

In the spring of 1888 he was asked by the 
regents of the University of Minnesota to 
organize and establish in that institution a 
department or college of law. He accepted 
the position and commenced his labors there 
on the eleventh day of September of that 
year, when he gave the opening address be- 
fore the students, the faculty and the regents 
of the university. That was the beginning of 
what has now become, at the close of eleven 
years, one of the most thoroughly organized 
and efficient colleges of law in America, there 
being but three, or possibly four, larger ones 
in point of numbers in the United States. 

Of Mr. Pattee's sound judgment, untiring 
energy and wise administration in the organ- 
ization, management and development of 
this department of the university, too much 
cannot be said, and to him must be attributed 
a very large measure of its success. His 
wide legal learning, his studious habits, his 
executive ability, his tact and agreeable per- 
sonality all have contributed to make him 
the ideal founder and head of a college of 
law. Starting without a building devoted 




WILLIAM S. PATTEE. 

to its purpose, without a library tor its use 
and without any trained assistants for its 
instruction, he has at the end of eleven years 
secured through the substantial aid of the 
regents, the erection and equipment of a fine 
building, a library consisting of nearly all 
the English Reports and repoi-ts of the vari- 
ous supreme courts of the Union, including 
those of the United States, with a fair col- 
lection of text-books, and has gathered 
around him an able faculty of efficient and 
conscientious instructors and lecturers, num- 
bering fifteen in all, upon whose instruction 
there was in attendance at the close of the 
eleventh year, four hundred and fifty stu- 
dents. 

Mr. Pattee has devoted to the upbuilding 
of this college his entire time since its organ- 
ization. Inspired by a desire to make the de- 
partment an efficient promoter of higher 
k^arning in the law, he early in its history 
organized a graduate course leading to the 
Master's degree, and later aonther leading to 
the degree of Doctor of Civil Law. In these 
classes Mr. Pattee has had an oi)i)ortunity 
to show, and has shown, his broad and thor- 
ough scholarshi]) in the realms of philosophy 
and political science. The study of philos- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



opliy has been for liim for more than a quar- 
ter of a century a rest and a recreation, and 
one for which he has ever had an especial 
fondness. It is the testimony of his students, 
in these higher courses of study, that the 
deep and perplexing problems of philosophy 
are presented and discussed by him with a 
force and clearness that make his lectures at 
once a delight and an inspiration. To this 
clearness of thought, aptness of illustration 
and vigor of expression is largely due, un- 
doubtedly, the high reputation Mr. Pattee 
has won wherever he has taught as an able 
and inspiring teacher, and to his clearness of 
perception, his accuracy in detail and state- 
ment, his strength of diction, his intuitive 
sense of justice and his knowledge of law is 
due his reputation as a leading member of 
his profession. 

Besides his public service in connection 
with the university and his legislative ex- 
perience, Mr. Pattee was for twelve years 
the president of the State Board of Normal 
Directors in Minnesota, and devoted much 
time and thought to the ujjbuilding of the 
normal schools in the state. 

At the present time, in addition to the 
executive duties imposed upon him as Dean 
of the Faculty of Law, he teaches regularly 
in both the undergraduate courses the sub- 
jects of Contracts and Equity. 



DEVINE, Joseph McMurray.— The North- 
west has been fortunate in attracting to its 
educational field men of culture and high 
ideals. Generally, it is difiScult to draw from 
educational centers those who are competent 
to direct affairs in a new country, for the con- 
ditions repel. The social elements are com- 
paratively few; genial associates are widely 
scattered; books are not so readily procured; 
libraries are in the future, and the equip- 
ments of the schools, high and common, are 
necessarily scant. Then the work of organ- 
ization is prodigious. But in spite of all 
these hindrances and largely because of the 
promise of great things sure to come, men 
of the very highest educational rank and abil- 
ities have turned their energies to building 
up the school systems of the Northwest. The 



common schools of this region cannot be sur- 
passed by those of any section of the United 
States. The magnificent school funds of the 
new states have made this progress possible, 
for with the best of ability, without means, 
the results would be far from satisfacton-. 

Among those who left a strong impress in 
this field Governor J. M. Devine of La Moure, 
La Moure county, N. D., must always be 
prominent. He was bom at Wheeling, W. 
^'a., in 1861. His father, Hugh C. Devine, 
was born in Ireland. At the age of eighteen 
he emigrated to the L'nited States, settled 
at Wheeling, \\'. Va., and there engaged in 
his favorite pursuit of horticulture and land- 
scape gardening. He was married to Jane 
McMurray of Wheeling. He was a man of 
excellent education and of great personal 
force. Jane (McMurray) Devine was of 
Scotch-Irish descent, with all the excellence 
of character which that term implies; strong, 
loyal, self-sacrificing. Her whole life was 
an everyday inspiration and benediction to 
her children. Young Devine received his 
env\y education in the common and high 
schools of A^'heeling, after which he entered 
the University of West Virginia, choos- 
ing the classical course. He proved to be 
a good student and stood high in scholar- 
ship, winning distinction for its ex- 
cellence. He was especially strong in pub- 
lic speaking and in debate, in which de- 
partment he carried off several oratorical 
prizes. He graduated in the class of 1884. 
The same year he went with an older brother, 
J. C. Devine, to Dakota Territory, La Moure 
county, now in the state of North Dakota, 
and opened up a large farm. Here his schol- 
arly attainments were soon discovered and 
he was elected in 1886 Superintendent of 
Schools of La Moure county. His efHciency 
was so recognized that he was re-elected 
again and again, and kept in the position 
for ten years. To his progressive adminis- 
tration the country is chiefly indebted for 
the admirable system of schools now main- 
tained. In 18D0 the oflBce of State Educa- 
tional Lecturer was created, and Mr. Devine 
was selected to fill the position. This gave 
him the opportunity to exert a marked edu- 
cational influence throughout the whole 



HISTORY OF THE GRKAT NORTHWEST. 



State. In 1891, he was iiuaniiiHiusly elected 
I'resideut of the State Ediu-atioual Associa- 
tion. In llStti, he was nominated, b.y the 
State Republican Convention, for State 
Sniierinteudeut of I'ublic Instrnction, but the 
whole ticket was overwhelmed by the fusion 
opposition, and Mr. Devine went down with 
the rest of the Kepublican nominees. In 
LSili), thouf;h not a candidate, nor in any 
way soliciting the office, he was uuamiuously 
elected Chief Clerk of the House in the 
Fourth Legislative Assembly. He was nonii 
nated in IS'JG for the office of Lieutenant 
Governor, and was elected with Frank A. 
Hriggs as Governor. During the illness and 
absence of the Governor Mr. Devine dis- 
charged the duties of chief executive when 
they were unusiuilly exacting by reason of 
the numerous details connected with the 
mustering in of troops for the Spanish war. 
On the death of Governor IJriggs, the duties 
of the chief executive of course devolved 
upon Mr. Devine. So thoroughly and to the 
satisfaction of the people did he discharge 
the duty, that he was re-elected in IS'jy 
Lieutenant Governor by the phenomenal ma- 
jority of eleven thousand four hundred and 
seventy votes. In IS'JG he was elected as a 
delegate to the Kepublican National Con- 
vention at St. Louis. He was also made one 
of the vice presidents of that convention, and 
still further honored by being made one of 
the committee to notify Mr. McKinley of 
bis nomination. On the organization of the 
great National Sound Monej' League in ISitT, 
Mr. Devine was made vice president, a posi- 
tion which he still holds. In discharging 
his duties iu this organization he has writ- 
ten several articles on the money question 
and on finance, which on being published 
were extensively copied throughout the 
country. His activity in political atVairs be- 
gan when he was very young, for the work 
was thrust uj)on him. He cast his first vote 
for James G. Blaine, in 1884. In that 
memorable campaign Mr. Devine, on the re- 
quest of the state executive committee went 
from North Dakota to "stump" the state 
of ^^■est Virginia — his native state and 
thought to be at most hopelessly Democra- 
tic — for the "Great ("ommoner." His zeal 




Ki'ii M. iii;vi.\i; 



tor the principles of the party have never 
riagged from that day. He is an eloquent, 
persuasive speaker and is always in demand 
for cauipaigu services. In I'JUO his sewices 
and his ability as a scholar were again rec- 
ognized in his nomination and election as 
State Superintendent of Tublic Instruction. 
Mr. Devine is an acti\e member of the pres- 
byterian Church. On July 18th, I'JOO, he 
was married to Miss Mary Bernadine Haus- 
com. He takes an active interest in fraternal 
societies, and is a member of the Odd Fel- 
lows, Knights of I'ythias and of the Masonic 
Order, in which he has taken the thirty-sec- 
ond degree. 



LONfiSTAFF, John. — The proprietcu' and 
manager of the lluronite Publishing Com- 
pany, of Huron, S. D., one of the largest 
jtrinting establishments in the state, John 
Longstaff, is a native of New York. He was 
born at Newport, Herkimer county, of that 
state. May 2l', 180:?. His father, a man of 
strong native ability, was a blacksmith and 
wagonmaker in well-to-do circumstances. 
The maiden name of John's mother was Man- 
Bradbury. They were both of English birth. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




JOHN LONGSTAFF 



John had the advautagL's of a good common 
school education under the guidance of sen- 
sible parents. He then took a course at the 
noted Eastman's College, at roughkeepsie, 
N. Y., and graduated in March, 1883, when 
he was only twenty years old. He immedi- 
ately set out for the west, and secured em- 
ployment with the Times Publishing Com- 
pany, at Huron, Dakota Territory— now 
South Dakota. In 1885 he accepted a posi- 
tion in Davenport, Iowa, with the Davenport 
Gazette, then the leading Kepublican paper 
of Scott county, in that state. He was soon 
promoted to business manager of the estab- 
lishment, where he remained for two years. 
He then returned to Huron, his first love, so 
to speak, and bought a working interest in 
the Dakota Huronite. One year later he pur- 
chased the interests of the other partners, 
and formed a co-partnership with J. W. 
Shannon, which continued until June, 1890, 
when Mr. Shannon retired, disposing of his 
interest to Mr. Longstaff, who has since con 
ducted the business. Under his management 
the business has grown yearly, until it has 
become, as mentioned, one of the largest i)ub- 
lishing houses iii the state. It is thoroughly 
equipped with all modern machinery, and it 



gives employment to nearly a score of people. 
Mr. Longstaff i.s not only a thorough business 
man, but he wields a facile pen as a forcible 
writer, and he is an effective jmblic speaker. 
In ]io]itics he is an active Republican, promi- 
nent and influeutial in his party in addition 
to the powCT- which he exerts through his 
I>aper, The Huronite, one of the strongest in 
the state. In 1SS!» President Harrison ap- 
]>ointed Mr. Longstaff' jiostmaster of Huron. 
He has been a member of llie Ke])nblican 
State Central Committee since lS!((i, and is 
one of the five members of the executive com- 
mittee. He has always taken an active in- 
terest in the affairs of the South Dakota 
Press Association, and was elected president 
of the association at the midsummer meet- 
ing at Madison in 1892. In 1897, when the 
legislature api>ointed a commission to inves- 
tigate the state institutions and state otfi- 
cers. Governor Lee, of the opposite party 
from Mr. Longstatf, appointed him as a fair- 
minded man, a member of the commission,. 
as a Republican. He also takes an interest 
in social affairs, being a member of the Syra- 
cuse Lodge, No. 16, of the Knights of 
Pythias, of which he has been an officer up 
to the highest rank. He is a member of the 
Benevolent Protective Order of Elks, Huron 
Lodge, No. 444. He is second to none as a 
public-spirited citizen, being always ready 
with purse, pen, and personal effort, in every 
movement for the general welfare of city, 
county and state. He was married to Miss 
Rose Schichtl, of Racine, Wis., in 1887. They 
have three children, all boys: Ralph S., 
Cjeorge E. and J. Walter Longstaff'. 



MARQUIS, William James.— I'ride of oc- 
cupation is an essential element of success 
in any calling. Where this prevails, accom- 
panied with natural aptitude, the result is 
not doubtful. The secret of the marked im- 
provement in the Sauk Rapids schools under 
the superintendency of William J. Marquis 
may be atributed to this happy combination 
in his character. He was born at Pickering, 
Ontario, Can., August 25, 1871. He is of 
Scotch-English extraction. His father, 
lliomas B. Marquis, came from England with 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



his parents when a child, and is now a fann- 
er in comfortable circumstances. The maiden 
name of William's mother was Anne Dickie. 
She came from Scotland with her parents 
when only five yeare of age. Both are still 
living to rejoice in the success of their son, 
who when only ten years old determined to 
be a teacher. His early education was ob- 
tained in the country schools, where he was 
fortunate in having good men teachers. 
AMien prepared for high school his school 
training was interrupted by five years' work 
on his father's farm, but the germ of a teach- 
er was in him. In ISSS he entered the noted 
Collegiate Institute of Whitby, Ont., where 
the instructors are held to be si)ecialists in 
their departments, and where the i)ersonal 
infiuence of the pi'ofessors is deemed a factor 
in the training received. Here Mr. Marquis 
took a foui- years' classical course with train- 
ing in commercial details. He immediately 
took a teach(M-'s ti'aining course in the Whit- 
by Model School, and then began to teach 
in country and village schools. The pay was 
too low for a life work, so, after two years of 
this teaching, Mr. Marquis determined to try 
something else. In February, 1895, he went 
into a general store business with his broth- 
er. This did not jtrove congenial to him. He 
could not be contented in following it, and 
had a desire to return to his first love — teach- 
ing — where the circumstances were more 
favorable than at home. Concluding to try 
the T'nited States — the Mecca of so many 
young men of the Dominion — he came to 
Jlinnesota. Although already well equipped 
for teaching, and having had considerable 
experience, he entered the State Normal 
School at St. Cloud. Here he carried off a 
large share of the honors. He was, in May, 
180S. awarded a diploma from the advanced 
Latin class. In 1S97 he was elected presi- 
dent of the junioi' class, and in 1898 he was 
elected president of the graduating class. 
In the same year he Avas editor-in-chief of the 
school paper, "The Normalia," and during 
his course was frequently selected to repre- 
sent the students in i)ublic exercises and 
meetings. In September, 1898. he was en- 
gaged as sujierintendent of the city schools 
of Sauk Rapids, Benton county, Minn., the 




WII.I,IA>1 .1. MAItlillS. 

jiosititm which lie now holds. The schools 
are already nearing a complete orticial high 
school standing. He also takes an aitive 
interest in general educational mattery be- 
ing an active member of the Minnesota Edu- 
cational Association, and is secretary and 
treasurer of the Northern Minnesota Educa- 
tional Association. Mr. Marquis is a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal church, an 
Odd Fellow, and belongs to the Council of 
Jlodern Samaritans. He was married, Au- 
gust 24, 1898, to Miss Lilian B. Holliday, of 
Brooklin, Ont. They have one son, Harold 
Holliday Manjuis, born IMarch fi, 1900. 



DUNN, John Benjamin, surgeon to St. 
Raphael's Hospital, St. Cloud, Minn., was 
born at Winona, Minn., Nevember 27, 1859. 
Is the son of James and Mary O'Hare Dunn, 
natives of Dul)lin, Ireland, who emigrated to 
America in 1845. His father served as a vol- 
unteer in the Mexican War, and subsequent- 
ly, in 185fi, took up land in Winona county 
and engaged in farming. 

Dr. Dunn's early education was in the 
common schools of Winona. In 1877 he en- 
tered the Second State Normal School grad- 



HISTORY OF THE GRKAT N( »KT1J\VKST. 




JOHN B. DUNN. 

uatiuo ill 1880. He tlieu began the study of 
medicine, graduating from Rush Medical 
College in 1884. He at once located at 
Shakopee, Minn., taking a large general prac- 
tice established by his brother. Dr. J. H. 
Dunn, in Scott and adjoining counties. De- 
siring to especially qualify himself for sur- 
gical practice, after nine years of active gen- 
eral experience, in 1891 he went to Chicago 
and New York for about two years of post- 
graduate study under Drs. Senn, Murphy and 
other prominent surgical teachers. 

In 1893 he located in St. Cloud, Minn., as- 
sociating himself with Dr. N. J. Pinault, who 
had a very large general practice in the 
northern part of the state tributary to St. 
Cloud. It was the intention of Dr. Pinault, 
whose taste and learning leaned towards in- 
ternal medicine, to associate with himself an 
expert surgeon and the firm thus formed was 
a very strong one. The following year Dr. 
Pinault unexpectedly retired, and for a time 
Dr. Dunn continued the very heavy practice 
of the firm, both medical and surgical. 

Since the rebuilding of St. Raphael's Hos- 
I)ital, which gives St. Cloud modern hospital 
facilities equal to the best in the Northwest, 
he has limited his practice largely to sur- 



goiv and consultaiioii \\oik. Here be has 
Ills own jirivate oiicialing room, fitted with 
all tlie modern conveniences and ajipliances. 
He is a member of the State Medical Associa- 
tion, the American Medical Association and 
other medical societies. 

In 1SS4 Dr. Dunn was married to Miss 
yiMy OT.rien, of Minneapolis. They have 
Iliici' daughters, Irene, aged Ki. Adelaide. 
ai;c(l 11, and Margai-et. aged 5. 



CANTERBURY. James Rudolph.— Pro 
tection against fire is one of the prime neces 
sities of a modei-n city. The appliances de- 
\ised to fight fire are mai-vels of ingenuity 
and mechanical skill. It follows, of course, 
that the men in charge of them must be skill- 
ful and well trained in their calling, to be 
efficient. This requires time; therefore a 
modern fireman is an expert. He has a pro- 
fession akin to that of a soldier, and like 
him, risks life and limb in the battle, and- 
although with the elements, it is scarcely 
less hazardous. When the fireman, by his 
knowledge, skill and intrepidity attains dis- 
tinction he is as fully entitled to the honors 
of his rank as is the perhaps more ostenta- 
tious military officer. The fire chief, who 
may be called the general, earns credit for 
the efficiency of his force as does the com- 
manding officer in an army. Tlie rush of 
an engine to battle with fire is scarcely less 
thrilling than a charge of soldiers. The 
value of the two services can hardly be com- 
jiared, for the fireman's duty is to defend and 
save, while that of the soldier is to attack 
and destroy. 

Among the names of the men in the 
Northwest distinguished for their fire serv- 
ice, that of J. R. Canterbury, the Chief En- 
gineer of the Fire Department of the city 
of Minneapolis, will always be prominent. 
He attained this distinction by a course of 
training which peculiarly fitted him for his 
career. It may with truth he said that he 
lias also a hereditary aptitude for his profes- 
sion, as his fathei', John David Canterbury, 
was a stationarv engineer. He is still liv- 
ing at Pomeroy, Ohio, surviving a service of 
three years and a half in the army during 



HI.STORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



the Eeliellion. He is of English parentage, 
wliile his wife, who was Harriet Stanley, was 
of early Ameriean descent on both her fa- 
ther's and mother's side. John David Can- 
terbury's mother was of (ierman birth. Thus 
Chief Engineer Canterbury can boast of hav- 
ing in his veins three strains of sturdy 
Anglo-Saxon blood — English, Aniei'ican and 
German. He was born at I'oiiieroy, Ohio. 
March 15, 185S. Having rcccixcd a com 
nion school education lie began his active 
life when fifteen years of age, in the employ 
of the New Cumberland Towboat Company 
of New Cumberland, \V. Va., where he re- 
mained for five years. He then werjt into 
service on a line of steamers as lamp trim- 
mer, watchman and mate, plying between 
Pittsburg, St. Louis and New Orleans. He 
left the river in ISIS and was engaged in 
the Belcher Sugar Refinery at St. Louis. In 
1882 he came to Minneapolis and bought 
shares of stock in the Co-operative Barrel 
Manufacturing Company. He was appoint- 
ed to the jjosition of pipeman in the fire de- 
partment of Minneapolis, May 1, 1883, and 
assigned to duty with chemical engine No. 1 
where he remained for a year, and was then 
transferred in the same cai)acity to hose No. 
5, February 26, 1886. Ho was then promot- 
ed to the lieutenancy of engine No. 5, 
and again to the captaincy of engine No. 6, 
December 8, 1887. He was appointed second 
assistant chief engineer June 0, 1801, where 
he seiTed until he resigned from the de- 
partment, February 1, 1895. 

He was appointed assistant boiler inspect- 
or June 20, 1895, and held the position until 
he was elected to his present office of chief 
engineer of the tire department. Tlie whole 
secret of his successive promotions lays in 
the fact that he filled every place with ex- 
ceptional ability and fidelity. He was al- 
ways equal to any duty placed upon him. 

Mr. Canterbury has always atTiliated with 
the Eepublican party, and has identified 
himself with the organizations which were 
designed to promote the interest of the cily. 
He is a member of tlie board of trade, and 
of the Commercial club. He is an active 
member of the iLasonic order, Minneai)olis 
No. 11), Blue Lodge; St. John Cliapler, Royal 




JAMES U. CAN'TEIUSUUY. 

Arch; Zion Comniandcry, l\iiights T(MMplar; 
Minneapolis Council No. 2. He is connected 
also with other associations of social and 
ci\ic interest, among them Nicollet Codge 
No. 1(>. A. O. U. W., Minnehaha Council 1160, 
R. A. He is likewise president of tlie Fire- 
men's Relief association, and vice-president 
of the international association of chief en- 
gineers of lire departments. In church rela- 
tions he is a Methodist. He was married in 
1SS:{ to Lizzie IMunier Hanscom, of Minne- 
apolis, and has two children, Ethel May, 15 
years of age, and James Raljih, two years 
younger. 

Mr. Canterbury is a genial companion and 
an ui)right. public spirited citizen, reflectiug 
upon the community the honor which he so 
abundant! V earned. 



HEALY, Frank.— The law department of 
a large city is its citadel of defense against 
assaults on the city treasury. The city at 
torney is the general in command. WOc be 
to the taxjiayers if this otticcr be iiicomiicteiil 
or inetticient to i(']iel raids on the city's 
•'strong box." I'eople are })rone, on the 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




FItAXK IIEALY. 

slightest pretext, to sue the city, as if it weie 
everybody's legitimate plunder. The num- 
ber and frivolous character of the claims 
made upon the public treasurj'; the ingenuity 
with which they are concocted; and the cun- 
ning displayed in prosecuting them, are won- 
derful. To successfully cope with these 
multifarious attacks, more especially as they 
are very frequently conducted by legal talent 
of a high order, requires much more than 
ordinary ability. 

Mr. Frank Healy, the city attorney of Min- 
neapolis, has made an enviable record in this 
important work during the nearly four years 
that he has been in charge of the office. In 
this time, there have been made attempts to 
collect from the city claims which in the 
aggregate amounted to hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars, and yet but two small ver- 
dicts have been secured against the city. 
This result is certainly very remarkable. In 
not a few of these cases Mr. Healy opposed 
distinguished members of the bar who had 
the so-called "prestige of never losing a case." 
What the result )night have been had the 
office of city attorney been in the hands of a 
less competent lawyer, it is easy to imagine. 



Defending suits is only part of the duty de- 
volving upon the incumbent of this office. 
He must prosecute in behalf of the city, he 
must give advice to the city council and al- 
dermen and to the other departments of the 
municipality, and decide questions of law 
submitted to him by any of the city author- 
ities. All this requires sound judgment, as 
well as a wide range of legal knowledge. Jlr. 
llealy has been as successful in this depart- 
ment as in the defendant position. 

Mr. Healy barely escaped the honor of be- 
ing a native of the state. He was born near 
the city of Syracuse. N. Y., in 1854. In 1850 
his parents moved to Minnesota, and took up 
a homestead near Preston, Fillmore county, 
w here his father still lives. His mother died 
in 1873. In that picturesque Boot river re- 
gion, Mr. Healy spent his boyhood, beginning 
his education in a log school house. His 
next step, in 1874, was attendance at the 
Preston graded school for two years. In 
187(j he entered the preparatory department 
of the state university, and began his college 
course in the institution in 1878, graduating 
with the degree of A. B. in the class of '82. 
He chose law as his profession and entered 
Ihe law department of the state university 
of Michigan, graduating in 1884, with the de- 
gree of LL. B. Beturning to Minneapolis 
he began his law career as clerk in the office 
of Col. C. H. Benton, who was then city at- 
torney. Soon after he became a partner of 
his employer with S. A. Plumley, the firm 
being under the style of Benton, Plumley & 
Healy. Later Mr. Plumley retired, and the 
firm became Benton & Healy, so remaining 
until the death of the senior partner in 1890. 
Mr. Healy then practiced alone until 18!»3. 
when, with Judge John P. Eea and Frank R. 
Ilubachek, the firm of Bea, Huba<'hek & 
Healy was formed, which continued until 
1897, when Mr. Healy was chosen city at- 
torney by the city council — the position 
which he now holds so creditably to him- 
self and profitably to the city. 

Mr. Healy was married in 1889 to Miss 
Louise Henry, who graduated from the state 
university in the class with him. They are 
blessed with a bov and a girl. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



PETERSON, John.— No class of emi- 
grants have contributed more to the upbuild- 
ing of this great Northwest than those who 
came here from the Scandinavian peninsula. 
A typical repre.sentative of that sturdy and 
thrifty class of citizens is the subject of this 
sketch. Mr. Peterson earned his firsi dollai- 
in Minnesota, working as a grader on a new 
railroad in course of construction. Since 
that day he has taken a proniineni jiarl in 
the construction of the railway systems of 
the Northwest, and has been identified willi 
many other important business interests. 
He is at present Collector of Customs for 
the District of Minnesota. Mr. I'elerson 
was born July 6, 1841, in tlie province of 
Vermland, Sweden. His parents, I'eter and 
Carrie Johnson, belonged to the agricultural 
classes and were in but moderate cix-cum- 
stances. They were people, however, of 
strong character and earnest Christians, and 
spared no efforts to give their son John a 
fairly good education. Their self-sacritices 
in his interest taught him early in life the 
value of an upright, honest character. The 
lesson he thus learned exerted a deep influ- 
ence on his after career. From his sixth 
to eighth year he attended a small children's 
school near his home. His later educational 
training was received in the public schools. 
Upon his graduation from them he learned 
the trade of a mechanic and builder and for 
several years followed this line of work. His 
skill and conscientious attention to his du- 
ties soon earned for him promotion to the po- 
sition of superintendent of the construction 
of railroad bridges on the governmental rail- 
roads of Sweden. But his ambitious tem- 
perament was not satisfied with the pros- 
pects held out for him in the old country and 
he decided to seek his fortune in America. 
He emigrated to the United States in the 
spring of 1869, coming directly to Minnesota 
and locating at St. Peter. He sought the 
first work at hand, and that was helping to 
grade on the new railroad line being built 
from St. Paul to Sioux City, and which is 
now a part of the Northwestern system. 
During the following summer he also worked 
in the harvest fields in the vicinity of 
Rochester. His experience in railroad con- 




JOHN PETERSON. 

struction work came in good stead about 
this time. Many different railroad lines 
were then being constructed, and Mr. Peter- 
sou commenced operations as a sifb-con- 
tractor on the Winona & St. Peter railroad. 
In 1871 he became a member of the firm 
of C. J. Larson & Company, which, until 
its dissolution in 188, took a most active 
part in the building of the great railroad 
systems of this northwestern country. In 
1886, Mr. Peterson also entered into part- 
nership with Fred Widell, of Mankato, and 
was for several years engaged in stone 
quarrying and building. But Mr. Peter- 
son's business activities have not been di- 
rected along these lines alone. He has also 
been identified with a great number of 
other business interests and his whole ca- 
reer has been one of unceasing activity. He 
has conducted extensive farming operations 
in Northwestern Nebraska and has been 
largely interested in the iron industry in 
northern Minnesota. For several years 
he has been a director of (he Nicollet 
National Bank of St. I'eter, :Minn., and 
[iresident of the Northwestern publishing 
company, of St. Paul. He is also vice-presi- 
dent of the Svenska Folkes Tidning, of Min- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



nea polls, oue of the leading Scandinavian 
papers published in this country. Mr. Peter- 
son has also held many positions of public 
trust. He is actively identified with the Re- 
publican party and has served as a delegate 
to numerous congressional and state conven- 
tions. For several years he was a member 
of the central committee of the Second con- 
gressional district. He was elected to the 
state senate from St. Peter in 1894, and was 
three times appointed a member of the board 
of trustees of the State Hospitals for the In- 
sane, twice by Gov. Merriam and once by 
Gov. Nelson. From 1881 to 1896 he served 
as a member of the city council of St. Peter, 
and for two years was its president. He was 
appointed collector of customs for the Dis- 
trict of Minnesota in 1897. Mr. Peterson has 
also taken a special interest in educational 
matters and has served as a director of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus College of St. Peter for over 
twenty years, and its treasurer for many 
years. He is connected with the Swedish 
Lutheran church, of which he has been a 
member since 1871, and for many years 
served as a member of the church council. 
He was married in 1873 to Frederica Eliza- 
beth Lundberg. They have seven children, 
Agnes L., Adolph C, Bernard R., Hjalmar 
N., Mabel F. C, Vernan J. (\ and L. Russell 
F. 



MORRIS, William Richard.— The disad- 
vantages of birth present an almost insur- 
mountable obstacle to members of the Afro- 
American race, but there are a few notable 
instances in this country affording a shining 
example of the ability to rise above race 
prejudice to positions of standing and influ- 
ence. William R. Morris, a lawyer prac- 
ticing his profession in Minneapolis, is a mag- 
nificent type of that manhood which is dis- 
couraged at no taslv, and finally, through 
dint of persevering work, achieves a success 
which makes him marked among his fellows. 
Mr. Morris has a mixture of wliite blood in 
his veins. On the paternal side of the house, 
his great grandmother was born in Eng- 
land and was a member of the English 
nobilitv, while his irreat grandfather was 



a negro and a slave, as was also his grand- 
mother. His paternal grandfather, half 
English, half negro, was a preacher learn- 
ed in the Scriptures, and noted for his 
great physical strength and powers of 
endurance. His great grandmother, on 
ihe maternal side, was an English wo- 
man, and a slaveholder, as was also his 
maternal grandmother. His father, Heze- 
kiah, was a slave in Kentucky, but bought 
his freedom, and was a mattress-maker by 
trade. His mother's maiden name was Eliza- 
beth Hopkins, who was born free. William 
R. was born in Fleming county, near Flem- 
ingsburg. Ivy., February 22, 1859. His fa- 
ther having died when he was two years of 
age, his mother moved, after the war, to 
Ohio. He attended the public schools in 
New Richmond, and also a private school in 
the same place; later, the public schools of 
Cincinnati as well as a private Catholic 
school in that city. This was supplemented 
by a term in a Catholic school in Chicago, 
111. When seventeen years of age he en- 
tered Fisk University at Nashville, Tenn., 
graduating from the classical department of 
that institution in 1881, with high honors. 
He was recognized by his instructors as oue 
of their brightest scholars. He was apt in 
his studies, a logical debater, and his exami- 
nation papers revealed a vigor of thought 
and an accuracj' of expression that proved 
the thoroughness of his investigations and 
the possession of high legal attainments. 
After his graduation he was made a member 
of the faculty, and for more than four years 
was the only Afro-American member of that 
body of twenty-five professors and teachers, 
teaching classes in mathematics, languages 
and the sciences. Mr. Morris regards the in- 
fluence exerted on his after career hj Fisk 
University as broad and deep. While a stu- 
dent at the university, he taught in the pub- 
lic schools of Mississippi and Arkansas dur- 
ing his vacations. In 1885 he represented 
the Afro-Americans of the South at the an- 
nual meeting of the A. M. A. at Madison, 
Wis., delivering an address entitled "The Ne- 
gro at Present," which won for him a wide 
reputation. In 1886 he was employed by the 
superintendent of education of Tennessee to 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



hold institutes for Afro-Aineripan teachers 
of that state, lie has also at different times 
contributed articles for the press which have 
been highly commended. He completed a 
course in law in 1887, and in the same .year 
was admitted to the bar by the supreme 
court of Illinois, in a class of twenty-seven, 
being one out of three to receive the same 
and highest mark. He was also admitted 
to the bar by the sujjreme court of Tenessee, 
and practiced some at both Chicago, 111., and 
Nashville, Tenu. In June, 1889, he resigned 
his position at Fisk University and came to 
Minneajtolis. He was the first Afro-Ameri- 
can lawyer to appear before the courts of 
Hennepin county. He enjoys an extensive 
practice, and has handled a number of im- 
portant cases, winning for himself an envi- 
able reputation as a lawyer, both in civil 
and criminal practice. One of his most im- 
portant cases was the defense of Thomas 
Lyons, in the famous Harris murder trial, 
in which he succeeded in having Lyons dis- 
charged. Mr. Morris is an active member 
of the Republican party, and has served it 
on several local committees. Notwith- 
standing the active duties of his profession, 
Mr. Morris has also found time to take the 
lead in everything tending to the upbuilding 
of his race. He was elected president of the 
Afro-American State League in 1801, and 
is the acting general attorney of the National 
Federation of Labor of Colored Men of the 
United States and Canada. Mr. Morris is 
also prominent in Masonic circles, and has 
taken the thirty-third degree in the Scottish 
Rite. He is grand secretary of the Minne- 
sota Grand Lodge, scribe of Royal Arch 
Chapter, thrice illustrious master of the 
Council of Royal and Select Masters, general- 
issimo of the commandery, potentate of Fez 
zan Temple, treasurer general of Imperial 
council, and second vice president of the 
Masonic Veterans' Associatnon of the United 
States. He is also deputy supreme chan- 
cellor and brigadier general of the Knights 
of Pythias, and P. N. F. and P. G. M. of the 
Odd Fellows. Other social organizations 
with which he is identified are the Clio Club, 
the Business Men's Club, and the English 
and Ancient Literature Club. He is a mem- 




WILLIAM K. MORUIS. 

ber of the Plymouth Congregational church. 
July 14:, 1S1)(J, he was married to Anna M. 
La Force, of Pullman, 111., a young woman 
possessed of considerable literary ability and 
refinement. Their union has been blessed 
with one child — Richard Edward. 



IVERSON, Samuel Gilbert. — Any one 
having public business to transact at the 
cai>it()l building in St. I'aul will find many 
genial and obliging officials, but none more 
popular than Samuel <,i. Iverson, deputy in 
the state auditor's office. Mr. Iverson has 
been associated with the oflicial life of the 
offices of the state treasurer and the state 
auditor for the past thirteen years, and hav- 
ing become thoroughly informed with all the 
details of the conduct of those offices, has 
made himself indispensable to those who, 
seeking his aid, have been spared a great 
deal of time and trouble in the transaction 
of their business with the different depart- 
ments of state govenimeut. Mr. Iverson is 
of Norwegian descent, his i)arents having 
both been born in Norway. His father, John 
Ivei'son, was iiorn in Sogn, near Bergen, and 
his mother, (iuuhild Ciundersou, in Thele- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




SAMUEL G. IVEKSOX. 

mai-keu. They were among the earliest set- 
tlers in Fillmore county, Minn., and were 
married at Rushford, Minn., in 185G, where 
they have resided ever since. Mr. Iverson 
was a merchant in this place for manj* years, 
but is now engaged in farming. Samuel G. 
was born in Rushford, April 21, 1859. His 
early educational training was received in 
the common schools, and later the high 
school of Rushford. This was supplemented 
by a course at the Shattuck School, in Fai"i- 
bault, one of the best schools of its kind in 
the North Star state. Later in life he at- 
tended the law department of the State Uni- 
versity, from which he graduated, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1SD3. Mr. Iverson ob- 
tained his first business experience by clerk- 
ing in one of the stores of his native city 
when seventeen years of age. In 1881 he was 
ajipointed postmaster at Rushford by Presi- 
dent Hayes, and that he served the public 
satisfactorily is attested by the fact that he 
held that position until October, 1886. He 
was elected in the November election of that 
year a member of the state legislature and 
served through the legislative session of 
1887. At its close he was ai)pointed an ac- 
countant in the state auditor's otHce by Capt. 



A\'. \V. Braden, remaining in that position 
until Mr. Braden's retirement in January, 
181)1. Joseph Bobleter, then state treasurer, 
recognized Mr. Iverson"s capacity and im- 
mediately ottered him the position of deputy 
in his office. Mr. Iversou's long experience 
in the two principal financial offices of the 
state has made him perfectly familiar with 
the state's business affairs, e.specially of the 
lare and management of the large area of 
school and other public lands. The tax and 
revenue laws of the state have been subjects 
to which he has given especial study, so that 
he has made himself invaluable to his prin- 
cipal in the auditor's office, and secured for 
himself a position of high standing in official 
life and a leading position in the Republican 
party of the state. Mr. Iverson always took 
an active interest in political affairs, even 
before lie became a voter. His first ballot 
was cast for President CJarfield. He has also 
been much interested in the national guard 
of the state and served six years in the First 
regiment, two years of the time as first lieu- 
tenant of Company C, at St. Paul. He is 
also an active member of several societies 
and fraternal organizations. He was mar- 
ried, April 21, 1900, at Rushford, Minn., to 
Mrs. Calista Bentlev Retel. 



HALLAM. Oscar, bears the surname of 
one of the most distinguished writers of his- 
tory. He does not, however, depend upon 
the fame of the illustrious author of the 
"History of the Middle Ages," for the posi- 
tion Avon at the bar and in forum of the 
states of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Oscar 
Hallam's father was a farmer at Linden, 
AYis. He married Miss Mary Wood. The 
name indicates English ancestry. Oscar 
was born at Linden, Wis., in 1865. Here he 
received his start in climbing the ladder; 
the district school furnished the means. 
Having mastered the primary branches of 
education, he entered the Dodgeville High 
School and prepared for college, and for 
his higher education he chose the Wis- 
consin University at Madison. Here he 
immediately showed more than common 




OSCAR HALLAM. 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



ability. He became active in the various 
organizations of the university designed 
for literary culture, joining the Athenian 
Literary Society and the Phi Delta Theta 
college fraternity. In the great "joint de- 
bate" in 1886 between the literary societies, 
an event always of great interest and 
importance, and one of the established pub- 
lic contests, Mr. Hallam was elected as 
one of the best speakers, to represent his so- 
ciety. It proved to be a good choice, for his 
side was successful. He appeared on various 
other public occasions, and always acquitted 
himself with such credit as to give promise 
of a successful professional cai^eer. He grad- 
uated in 1887, as one of the honor men of the 
class. He then chose law as his profession 
and entered the law department of the uni- 
versity, and graduated in 1889. With char- 
acteristic promptness he at once selected St. 
Paul as his home and began to practice his 
profession. He has recently tilled the re- 
sponsible position of treasurer of the Ramsey 
County Bar Association, which testifies to 
the appreciation he has won by his ability 
and integrity, as well as his genial personal- 
ity. Mr. Hallam has always been a Repub- 
lican, with a keen interest in the current po- 
litical questions of the day. The college 
training which he received as a forcible pub- 
lic speaker has been of great service to his 
party. He is always in demand as a popular 
orator in campaigns, and i)resided over the 
last Republican county convention of Ram- 
sey county, yet he has never held a political 
office. He has identified himself as a public- 
spirited citizen with every movement for the 
welfare of the community, and especially in 
matters intended to promote the business in- 
terests of the city. For this purpose he is a 
member of the Commercial Club and the 
Chamber of Commerce, and is a member of 
the board of directors of both bodies. He is 
also a member of several of the most promi- 
nent fraternal societies, among them the 
Masonic Order, the Ancient Order of United 
AYorkmen, the I. O. O. F., the U. O. F., and 
others, in which he has filled various official 
positions. He is a man of high moral char- 
acter, and in religion associates with the 
organization known as the People's church, 



one of the most progressive religious organi- 
zations in the Northwest. Mr. Hallam was 
married to Miss Edith L. Lott in 1892, and 
has two children, Cornelia Mary and Rus- 
sell Hallam. 



JORGENS, Joseph.-- ^Mr. Jorgeus" first 
home was a log house in the pioneer settle- 
ment of Frankford township, Mower county, 
Minn. When a year old the family moved 
in a prairie schooner drawn by a yoke of 
oxen to Otter Tail county. — a territory which 
was then the hunting ground for a band of 
Chippewa Indians, very few pioneers as yet 
having found their way thither. 

The family settled on a homestead claim 
on the north shore of Wall lake four miles 
east of the present city of Fergus Falls. The 
natural resources of the county in soil, tim- 
ber, numerous beautiful lakes and streams — 
in fact a veritable park region — soon attract- 
ed homeseekers and with the increasing pop- - 
ulation came the organization of the county. 

The father of the subject of this sketch, O. 
Jorgens, was chosen by the people the first 
county auditor, was re-elected and served in 
all three terms. He took the leading part in 
the early development of the county, in the 
organization of townships, school districts, 
the establishment of post offices, mail routes, 
the final establishment of the county bound- 
ary lines, and in locating the county seat at 
Fergus Falls which was then the settlement 
center. After several years' residence in the 
county the family removed to Grand Mead- 
ow, Minn., and engaged in general merchan- 
dising. They have many relatives in this 
community and the father is highly respected 
for his probity and estimable character. 

There are two children, a married daugh- 
ter — a former teacher in the public schools 
— and the son whose full name is Joseph 
Oscar Jorgens. 

Mr. Jorgens, Jr., after finishing the com- 
mon school branches at Grand Meadow was' 
induced by a former teacher of his who had 
great interest in him to go to Lanesboro. 
Finding work with W. W. Wall, the present 
editor of the Lanesboro Journal, thus pay- 
ing in part his expenses, he attended the 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



high school which was then pi'esided ovei" 
by Snpt. K. W. Budl, of Fillmore, as prin- 
cipal. He next taught country school a term, 
having received his first teachers certificate 
at the age of thirteen. Later he went to 
Carleton college; taught another term of 
school and worked each year in the interim 
of summer on the farm. At Carleton he 
wrote a history of his class which jiroved a 
praisworthy piece of work. 

In 18SC he went to ilinneapolis to attend 
the State university, entering the sub-fresh- 
man class. Shortly after beginning his stu- 
dies he obtained employment with the IMin- 
neapolis Tribune, first as a paper (;-arrier, 
then a manager of .several newspaper routes, 
and later as a reporter on the Pioneer Press, 
beginning liis ap])renticeship with that re- 
markable staff composed of Chapin, Jones, 
Mannix, Barnes, Mart Williams and Pickett. 
By this method, earning from thirty to forty 
dollars per month, he worked his way 
through the university, keeping up and grad- 
uating with his class in 1891. 

At the university he was known as a good 
student, bright and faithful in his studies, 
yet developing along all lines that pertain to 
a well rounded college life. In athletics he 
was captain and manager of the winning 
base ball team in '88. In literary society and 
college organizations he was an enthusiastic 
worker and made a finn and efficient presid- 
ing ofTficer. His college fraternity, T'hi Kap- 
pa Psi, did much at this time to promote 
scholarship, literary work, and oratory. 
Fi'om '87 to '03 this society took each year 
the first place in the oratorical contests and 
in "01 had both the Valedictorian and Saluta- 
torian of the class. The stimulus and in- 
fluence of such an order on its members were 
inestimable. Though Mr. Jorgens makes no 
pretense at oratory now, if is interesting to 
note that during commencement of '01 he 
gave three orations in one week — every one 
seemingly gems. For his speech "Political 
Parties" he received one of the prizes in the 
Pillsbury contest. His oration on the "Col- 
lege Graduate" received a place on com- 
mencement day in the old coliseum, and as 
memorial orator on class day he presented 
the bust of Dr. W. W. Folwell to the uni- 




JOSEI'H J(JRt;KXS. 

versify, fhe response being by (Jov. J. S. 
I'illsbury. The memorial oration was 
spoken of by the press as an exceptional- 
ly elocjuent ett'ort and one of th% best 
ever delivered by an undergraduate. Upon 
leaving college, affer several months' out- 
ing on a survey on the "Soo" in Noi'th 
Dakota, he took up teaching again, spend- 
ing a year in tlie country, then two years 
at Lyle as principal. In educational mat- 
ters at this place, his enthusiasm brought 
new interest in the work; the enrollment was 
enlarged and the building capacity doubled. 
In order to retain him for a third year to ex- 
tend the high school work, several of the 
parents, owing to the inadequacy of the sala- 
ry, offered to assist the school board by per- 
sonal contributions; but this was deemed im- 
practicable by the state officials and he ac- 
cepted the ])osition as superintendent and 
principal at Clear Water. Besides the edu- 
cational work at Lyle, as a hit in the literary 
line, an old file of the local ])ai)er mentions 
in a very flattering manner a Masonic ad- 
dress delivered by Mr. Jorgens at that place. 
The work at Clear Water brought him to the 
attention of the Minneajiolis schools, his 
work receiving espi'cial mention by the stale 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



inspector of schools in liis annual report. 
The Clear Water school board strove to re- 
tain him by holding out as an inducement 
the highest salary ever offered at that place, 
but a Minneapolis ai)pointnient with its fu- 
ture proved more tempting and he accepted 
a position in the south side high school with 
civics, history and political economy as his 
specialty. After two years' service, his nat- 
ural executive abilities promoted him to the 
princi])alship of the Jackson school, which in 
point of number is the second or third largest 
in the city, if not in the state, with an enroll- 
ment of 1,202 pupils and 23 teachers. 
Though successful in the class room, to use 
an expression of a co-worker he is "extreme- 
ly practical and a genius at management" 
and would succeed in any active vocation. 
He is, however, much interested in the teach- 
ing occupation as a profession, being an ac- 
tive worker for the teachers of the city, and 
is at present a member of the executive com- 
mittee and secretai-y of the Minneapolis 
Teachers' club — an organization potent in 
promoting culture in the community and the 
professional and advanced interests of the 
teaching body. 

Mr. Jorgens' life is interesting because it 
is a typical one of many ^Minnesota boys who 
have with grim determination strenuously 
battled their way to obtain an education, 
■winning, as he has done, an early success. 

He is still a young man employing his 
spare moments in advance study, and with 
his well rounded abilities, experience, schol- 
arship, it is safe to predict for him one of the 
brightest futures in the state. 



VON BAUMBAOH, Frederick.— Men of 
German ancestry have always been promi- 
nent in American affairs since the days of 
the Re^•olution. Citizens of this nationality 
are recognized among the most sturdy, in- 
telligent and patriotic citizens of the repub- 
lic, and many of them have become distin- 
guished in literature, art, commerce, and 
politics, or, perhaps, more properly, states- 
manship. The Northwest has been especial- 
ly indebted to the virile, enterprising and 
scholarly characteristics of the German race. 



Frederick von Baumbach is a scion of this 
lineage. His father, Louis von Baumbach, 
was an officer in the Prussian array and 
served against the first Napoleon. He was 
very prominent and influential in German 
public affairs, being president of the diet of 
Ilcssc-Cassel and a member of the German 
parliament of 1848, celebrated as one of the 
most important ever held, being, in fact, 
ei)ochal. In the crisis which arose Mr. von 
Baumbach was on the progressive side with 
the plain people. In the upheaval which 
took place when the cause of the people 
failed, he, with other distinguished men, emi- 
grated to the United States, coming in 1849 
first to Ohio, near Elyria, where he settled 
on a farm. After a time he removed to Mil- 
waukee with his large family and became 
the German consul, a position which he held 
until in 1883. His wife was Mina von 
Schenk, of a family noted, like that of von 
Baumbach in the history of Hesse-Cassel, 
where they figure as soldiers and statesmen 
of the highest rank. She died in 1809. The 
old Baumbach estate, Kirchheim, in Hesse- 
Cassel, founded in the year 1300, is still in 
possession of the family. On this estate 
Frederick von Baumbach was born, August 
30, 1838. His education was begun under 
the private tutor always resident with the 
family. When the family emigrated to the 
United States, Frederick was ten years old, 
and one of the youngest of the family. He 
was sent to the public schools of Elyria, 
Ohio, near his home. On the removal of the 
familj' to Milwaukee, he went to a business 
college, and was also employed in a bank 
until 1860, when he went to San Antonio, 
Texas, and was there when the war excite- 
ment was intense. His sympathies, of 
course, were with the north, and after some 
exciting adventures in escaping from the 
south, he reached home, and on June 1, 1861, 
enlisted as a private soldier in Company C, 
Fifth Regiment Wisconsin Volunteer In- 
fantry. His efficiency as a soldier and his 
scholarly qualifications secured for him rapid 
pi-omotions as soon as the fighting begfln in 
earnest. He was made successively corpo- 
ral, sergeant, and sergeant-major, and on 
June 13, 1862 — a little over a year from the 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



time of his enlistment — he was commissioned 
a second lieutenant. He then soon rose to 
first lieutenant. On December 11, 18G8, he 
was appointed captain of Company 15, Thirty- 
tiftli Kegiment \Yisconsin Volunteers, and 
October 24, 1805, he was promoted to major, 
in which rank he was mustered out at 
lirownsville, Texas, March 15, ISGO, having 
served nearly live years, and terrible years 
they were, for he participated in many of the 
most important battles of the war, besides 
laking part in almost innumerable skirmish 
es. Among the battles may be mentioned 
the following: Yorktown, Williamsburg, 
seven days" battle before Richmond, second 
battle of Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericks- 
burg, Mobile, and Spanish Fort. 

After the war, in looking around for a 
home, for he was married in 1803 to Sarah 
J. Decker, of Milwaukee, he visited Douglas 
county, Minn., and, although pleased with 
the prospect, he returned to Wisconsin and 
opened a drug store at Fond du Lac. With- 
in a year his establishment was burned. He 
Ihen turned to his first love, Douglas coun- 
ty, Minn., where, on the shore of Lake 
Agues, near Alexandria, he has one of the 
most lovely homes in the state. He has al- 
ways been a Republican and active in the 
campaigns of the party. He was very soon 
elected to minor ofBces in the gift of the 
people. In 1872 he was elected county audi- 
tor of Douglas county. He was re-elected 
again and again until he was chosen for the 
high office of secretary of state in 187"J. lie 
filled this position so well, also, that he was 
twice re-elected. When he again returned 
to Douglas county the people once more 
elected him county auditor, and put him in 
charge of the construction of the new court 
house. On the passage of the new internal 
revenue law in 1898, to provide funds for the 
Spanish war, Mr. von Baumbach was ap- 
pointed by President McKinU\v a collector, 
with an office at St. Paul. Mr. von Baum- 
bach, as stated, was married in 1803, to Saiah 
J. Decker, but they have no children excc]it 
tho.se adopted, Jacob and Julia. The family 
attend (he t'ongregutional church, of which 
the husband and wife are members. He is 
a member of the veteran soldier organiza- 




FUEliEUlCK VCliN BAUMBACH. 

tions, the Orand Army of the Republic and 
the Loyal Legion, the latter composed ex- 
clusively of those who were commissioned 
officers in the war of the Rebellion. Be is 
also an Odd Fellow and a Mason. 



PETERSON, James A., is a lawyer and 
prominent member of the Minneapolis bar. 
He was born on his father's farm near the 
village of Alderly, Dodge county. Wis., Jan- 
uary IS, 1859. He is of Norwegian descent, 
both his parents having been born in Thele- 
marken, Norway. His father Aslak Peter- 
sou, is a farmer and lives in the town of Ash- 
ippuu. Dodge county. Wis., where he has 
lived since 1849, at which time he came as an 
emigrant from Norway and took the farm he 
is now living on as a homestead from the 
United States government His mother's 
maiden name was Karen Marie Ostenson. 
She was married to Mv. I'eterson in the old 
country. The subject of this sketch attended 
I he country school near his home until he 
was fourteen years of age, leaving it to at- 
tend school in the neighboring villages of 
Hartford and Oconomowoc. James was of 
iiiubitious temperament and was anxious to 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




JAJIES A. PETERSON. 

receive the benefit of a college education. 
His parents, however,were unable to provide 
him with the means to accomplish this, so he 
was compelled to rely upon his own re- 
sources. He taught school for a part of the 
time to pay his expenses while attending col- 
lege, and with the exception of the last year, 
when he had some help from his father, earn 
ed the money to pay for his own education 
through the entire course. This education 
was received in the university' of Wisconsin. 
He entered the freshman class in the fall of 
1880, taking the ancient classical course, and 
graduated in the fall of 1884, with the de- 
gree of A. B. While at the university he 
was a member of the Hesperian debating 
societ}' and was the leader of the debate for 
his society in 1881. He was also a mem- 
ber of the Phi Kappa Psi fraternity. 
Having the legal profession in view as his 
ultimate career he continued his studies in 
the law department of the same university, 
from which he graduated in 1887. Mr. Pe- 
terson had commenced the study of law in 
1885, after graduation from the classical de- 
partment of the university, with W. S. Field, 
of Yiroqua, and while in the law school stud- 
ied in the office of J. L. Connor, of Madison. 



He came to Minneapolis August 18, 1887, and 
began the practice of his profession. In 1893 
he was appointed assistant county attorney 
of Heunei)in county under Frank M. Nye, 
and was re-ai)i)ointed to the same office in 
1895. In 189(j he was elected to the office of 
(oiiuty attorney of Hennepin county, and 
served one term. At the expiration of his 
term of office as county attorney, he resumed 
the active practice of his profession in part- 
nership with Eobert S. Kolliner, under the 
firm name of Peterson & Kolliner, until July, 
1900, at which time the partnershij) was dis- 
solved. Since then Mr. Peterson has prac- 
ticed alone, his offices being located at GIO 
Boston block, and enjoys a large and success- 
ful practice. During his term of service as 
county attorney Mr. Peterson's ettorts in the 
direction of breaking up the old "city hall 
gang"' resulted in the conviction of the presi- 
dent of the State Bank of Minneapolis for ir- 
regular banking, as well as the city treasurer 
of Minneapolis and two aldermen, one for ir- 
regular conduct in his office and the other for 
perjury. He has always been a Eepublican 
and taken an active part in campaign work. 
In 1881 he stumped northern Wisconsin for 
Blaine, and has done a like service in Minne- 
sota at other general elections. He is at 
present a member of that body of freeholders 
who framed and presented a new charter to 
the mayor of Minneapolis in 1900. Mr. Pe- 
terson is a member of the Masonic lodge, the 
Knights of Pythias, and the Elks. He has 
always been identified with the Episcopalian 
church, and is a member of Gethsemane. He 
was married Nov. 19, 1889, to Marie Emilie 
Dahle, of Dane county. Wis., who graduated 
in the same class with him at the university 
of Wisconsin. They have two children liv- 
ing, Amy Belle and James Dahle. One 
daughter, Olge Dorethea, died in 1895. 



TRYOX, Charles John. — It is always a 
pleasure to trace the pedigree of a successful 
man back to a worthy ancestry, no matter 
what may be the estimate placed upon hered- 
ity. Those who value it are encouraged to 
tontinue the family name with honor, and 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



those who give "blood"' no value iu the race 
of life are t-oustrained to prove it by their 
own exertions iu outstripping the aehieve- 
nients of those who have gone before them. 
It is worthy of note, however, that very many 
of the men who have made the Northwest 
famous are lineal descendants of the people 
who made New England what it is in history. 
Charles J. Trvon is a fair example of this 
truth. 

He was born in Batavia, Genesee county. 
N. Y., a region once as famous for its wheat 
product as the most favored section of the 
Northwest. His father, Anderson D. Tryon, 
was for thirty-five j'ears the leading druggist 
and bookseller in the place. His mother, 
whose maiden name was Amanda Hatch 
Shepard, was born in the first log house 
built in her town in Genesee county, N. Y., 
moving to Batavia after her marriage. Al 
though both the parents were born in New 
York they were of Connecticut lineage, dat- 
ing from 1040, when William Tryon came 
from England and settled near Wetherstteld, 
and from a Huguenot family.on the mother's 
side, dating from the Revolutionary war. 
The maternal ancestors first went to Ver- 
mont, and from there to New York state. 
The family had emigrated from Scotland, 
whence they were refugees to America. The 
great grandfather of Charles J. was a soldier 
in the Revolutionary war, and was in the 
force which brought about the surrender of 
Burgoyne. Tliis battle of Saratoga, as it is 
called, it put down in history as one of the 
decisive battles of the world because of the 
influence it had on the Revolutionary con- 
test. It secured the aid of the French gov- 
ernment and enabled the struggling colonies 
to obtain a loan of money from the Dutch, 
two things which made independence more 
l)robable, if not absolutely certain. 

John Tryon, the grandfather of Charles J., 
fought in the war of 1S12. This honorable 
and patriotic parentage is done no discredit 
by the success of Charles J. Tryon. He was 
school of Batavia, an institution of high 
grade, under the supervision of the state 
board of regents, with an academic depart- 
ment leading to the university. He was 
compelled, howevci', to leave school when 




CHAIfLES J. TRYON. 

fifteen years of age and assist his father 
ill the store, as clerk. After four years of 
lliis service he procured a clerkship in the 
treasury dei)artment, at ^Vashillgton^ hold- 
ing the position from 1S7S until 1SS(;. In the 
meantime he had taken up the study of law. 
He entered the National University Law 
school at Washington and graduated as 
bachelor of laws in ISSO, when he was admit- 
ted to the bar. He took the higher degree 
of master of laws, LL. M., at the Columbian 
university, in 1882. He finally in 1886 se- 
lected the city of Minneapolis as his home, 
and resumed his practice by entering the of- 
fice of Messrs Kitchell, Cohen & Shaw. 
Within a year he became the examiner of 
titles for the Minnesota Title Insurance X- 
Trust company, and was soon made assistant 
counsel of the company. He was promoted 
to counsel in 1802 and in 1895 he entered up- 
on a general practice, making a specialty of 
real estate, corporation and insurance law. 

Mr. Tryon is a Re]>ublican in i)olitics and 
takes an interest in all public affairs, and is 
active in social and religious circles. He is 
a member of riymouth Congregational 
church, the Miuneaj)olis club, the Minikada 
club and the ;Miinii'toiika Ice Yadil clnb, the 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



leading religious and social organizations of 
the city. 

He was mai-ried June 10, 1891, to Miss 
Isabel Gale, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
Harlow A. Gale. He lias an interesting fam- 
ily of four children— Fredericli (i., Elizabeth 
G., Philip D., and Kichard M., Tryou. Cer- 
tainly his ways are pleasant and his paths 
are peace. 



KNOX, Thomas J. — Eminence in the le- 
gal profession is only attained by merit. 
The successful advocate does not win his 
laurels without a severe struggle. He must 
commence at the very beginning, must plead 
and win his first case and work his way up- 
ward by ability and integrity. It requires 
perseverance, close application and hard 
study. He wins only because he has led in 
the race. He obtains clients because the 
public has confidence in his ability and in- 
tegrity. He is successful as an advocate be- 
cause every fact is carefully studied, the law 
applicable thoroughly investigated, and with 
his well-trained mind a clear, logical and for- 
cible argument is presented to the jury. 
Minnesota has many eminent men practicing 
before her bar. One of the foremost is 
Thomas J. Knox, of Jackson. Mr. Knox has 
been engaged in the practice of law iu Minne- 
sota since 1872. The years immediately fol- 
lowing his location in Jackson county were 
not favorable to the development of south- 
eastern Minnesota and the young lawyer had 
a hard struggle to maintain his position dur- 
ing the early years of his practice; but by 
perseverance and close attention to business 
he eventually succeeded in building up a 
large and lucrative clientage, his reputation 
extending beyond his home county. Mr. 
Knox was born at Covington, Tioga county, 
Pa., February 16, 1846, descending from 
Revolutionary stock. His grandfather, Geo. 
Knox, who was born September 27, 1757, 
was a member of the Colonial anny dur- 
ing the greater part of the struggle for 
independence. By trade he was a tanner, 
following that pursuit after the close of the 
war until the time of his death. He erected 
the first tannery built at Covington, Pa., and 



owned and operated the same during his life- 
time. His wife, Ann Knox, was born No- 
vember 2a, 1761, and died June 21, 1808. He 
survived her for a number of years, passing 
away March 10, 1831. Their children were: 
Thomas, who was born April 28, 1785, and 
died August 7, 1795; Jean, who became the 
wife of William Kirk; Betsey, who was born 
October 31, 1787, and married James Crown- 
over; James Knox, born December 21, 1789, 
who in 1845 removed to Oregon, where most 
of his descendants still reside; Nancy, who 
was born March 31, 1792, and married Rob- 
ert Montgomery; Bell, who was born No- 
vember 22, 1794, and married John Bennett, 
and, after his death, became the wife of 
John Jenkiuson; Hannah, born August 8, 
1797, and married Jesse Minshall; Ann, who 
was born September 1, 1802, and became the 
wife of William Annstrong: George, the fa- 
ther of our subject, and Samuel Bell, who 
was born January 14, 1808, and died in 1875. 
The maternal grandfather of T. J. Knox, . 
Royal Cole, was also a Revolutionary hero, 
and a soldier in the war with England in 
1812. He made his home in Wellsboro, Pa., 
and some of his descendants are still resi- 
dents of that locality. His children were: 
Gideon, who was killed in the war of 1812; 
Rachel, who married Daniel Odell of Duchess 
county, N. Y.; Betsey, who first married Mo- 
ses Johnson, and after his death wedded 
Erastus Fellows; Deborah, who married Ly- 
man Wetmore; Jerusha, who was born No- 
vember 25, 1812, and became the wife of 
Alanson Andrews; Ruth, twin sister of Je- 
rusha and the mother of our subject; and 
Lewis, the youngest 

George Knox, the father of Thomas J., 
was born December 22, 1805. He followed 
in the footsteps of his father and became an 
expert worker in the tanner's trade, pursuing 
this vocation during the greater part of his 
life in the east. He came west in the spring 
of 1854 and located on a farm near Geneva, 
Wis., removing to Minnesota in the fall of 
the following year and pre-empting a claim 
in Fillmore county. Later he purchased a 
farm in Racine township, Mower county, 
where he passed his remaining years. He 
was a man of considerable strength of char- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



acter and occupied an influential position in 
his own community. lie served in many i)o- 
sitions of public trust, from that of justice 
of the peace to member of the state legisla- 
ture, and discharficd with marked fidelity llie 
duties devolvinj;: ujion him. He died Novem- 
bep 11, 1867. Tliomas" early school privi- 
leges were limited, but he was of a naturally 
studious disposition and had access to a 
fiood library in his own home, for his jiarents 
were possessed of cultured and literary 
tastes. This home training was su]>])le- 
mented by a year's attendam-c at a jirivale 
academy. In 1SG8, he secured a lopy of 
Rlackstone, and undirected began reading 
law, but the following year entered the 
law office of (". T. licnedict. then of Roches- 
ter, IMinn., but now of .Milwaukee, "Wis. 
The succeeding year he became a student 
in the law office of Stearns & Start, who 
have become prominent in the affairs of 
the nation, the former as a judge and 
Ignited States senator and the latter as 
chief justice of the sujireme court of Minne- 
sota. Mr. Knox was admitted to practice 
before the courts of the state Octobei- 14, 
1871, and before the United States courts 
December 12, lS7t!. Though he had original- 
ly intended to locate in Dakota, he was i)er- 
suaded by some friends to open an office in 
Jackson, which he did November 17, 1872. 
He has always been an earnest student, and 
the high rejuitation he has achieved as .a 
lawyer is due to his tireless energy and close 
application to his jirofession. He has never 
been associated with a partner, but has been 
the preceptor of several young men who have 
assisted him in his professional transactions. 
Mr. Knox's political affiliations are with the 
Democratic party. lie served as probate 
Judge for a short time l)y a])pointment, and 
in December, 1870, was elected superintend- 
ent of the public schools of Jackson county 
on an independent ticket, and for two suc- 
ceeding terms was elected on the Re])ub]ican 
ticket. He served as county attorney from 
1887 to Ism, and in May of the latter year 
was a])i)ointed a member of the state board 
of examiners in law to represent the Second 
Congressional District, serving in this posi- 
tion till the summer of 1000, when he re 




TUOJIAS J. KNOX. 

signed. Jn January, 10(10, he was appointed 
a member of tlie state railroad and ware- 
house commission by Gov. Lind, and was a 
candidate for election to that office in No- 
vember of that year, but was defeated. Mr. 
Knox is ca charter member of Des ISloines 
Valley Lodge, No. 15G, I. <>. O. F., and Jack- 
son Lodge, No. 40, A. (). IT. W. He was 
married September :'., 1877, to Miss Jane 
Cowing, daughter of John and Elizabeth 
("owing. Four children have been born to 
(hem: Elizabeth, John Cowing, Kuth and 
Thomas Start. Elizalieth died in inlanev. 



KOfJEKS, Arthur Curtis.— Care of feeble 
minded and epileptic children is a compara- 
tively modern philanthropic work. This be- 
nevolence was left at first to private en- 
deavor. The method of treatment — if meth- 
od it could be called — was naturally hap- 
hazard, depending upon the vagaries of the 
]>erson in charge. The subject had not been 
studied. There was no scientific basis on 
which to iiroceed. ^\'llen the importance 
of the work was in some degree recognized 
the state, very properly, took hold of the 
matter with the result that it induced study 
and investigation, which have evolved a 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




ARTHUR C. ROGERS. 

rational course of treatment and has de- 
veloped a cori^s of educated and trained 
professional men, devoted to this neglected 
tield of humanitarian effort, and who have 
attained a degree of success heretofore 
deemed impossible. The Jlinnesota school 
for feeble minded at Faribault is one of 
the most noted in the United States, if 
not in the world. The institution, al- 
though at times a sufferer from parsimony, 
is well appointed and equipped and is a credit 
to the state. The high rank of the school 
is largely due to the j)rofessional and admin- 
istrative ability of Dr. Arthur Curtis Rogers, 
who has been in charge of the institution 
since 1885. He was born in Iowa, near 
Decorah, July 17, 185G. His father, Ansel 
Rogers, was a minister in the society of 
Friends, or Quakers. As the ministers of 
this church are not paid salaries, they gen- 
erally follow some secular occupation for a 
livelihood. Ansel Rogers engaged in the 
mercantile and milling business. He was of 
English descent. His grandfather came 
from England during the revolutionary 
period, and settled at Greenfield, Mass. In 
the decade of 1840-50 he removed to Mich- 
igan and was one of the ])ioneers of I^enawee 
county. In 1853 he went to Springwater, 



^^'inneslliek county, Iowa. Here he was post- 
master as well as miller, and his establish- 
ment was a popular center for a large region. 
He kept an open house for many a traveler 
in those early times. He was very devoted 
to Friends' principles, and to the interests of 
the society. He moved to a new state two 
different times, sacrificing a good business 
and a prospect of certain competency for 
what he believed to be his religious duty. 
He moved from Springwater to Leavenworth 
county, Kan. Here he was the agent, and 
his mill was made the depot for the distribu- 
tion of supplies sent from the eastern states 
to the sufferers from the severe drought of 
ISGO. Young Arthur began his schooling in 
the common schools of Crawford and Dela- 
ware counties, Ohio, and continued his stud- 
ies in the common schools of Lenawee coun- 
ty, Mich. He then took a two years course — it 
might well be called a preparatory course for 
college — at the Raisin Valley seminary, near 
Adrian, Mich. His next step was to Earl- . 
ham college, at Richmond, Ind., where he 
look the scientific course. All this training 
fl as secured only by the most persistent and 
indefatigable labor, for he was obliged to 
pay his own way through the schools. This 
he did by working during vacations, by the 
month, day, or hour, as he could get a job. 
Nearly all the time in college he taught clas- 
ses in general or analytical chemistry to as- 
sist in paying his tuition. Besides this, he 
taught a village school; took charge of a 
small country store for the owner; and was 
bookkeeper, clerk and steward for a state 
institution. Having chosen the profession 
of medicine he took the medical course at 
the state university of Iowa. He was then 
made assistant physician of the same state 
institution in which he had served as book- 
keeper, clerk and steward. His next service 
was that of physician and clerk to the Hai'ri- 
son institute, a training school for Indians 
at Chemawa, Or. He was then appointed to 
the position he has now held for more than 
fifteen years. Dr. Rogers is singularly mod- 
est in speaking of his valuable work for the 
feeble minded; he claims no original dis- 
coveries. But he has stood for principles, 
especially for the generous and humane care 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



of all iiieiitally defective children, aud for 
their training, when possible, to a condition 
of usefulness. He was probably the first in 
his profession to insist on cond)ining indus- 
trial and manual training with school work. 
He was also the first to organize training- 
classes for attendants to feeble minded chil- 
dren. He has also the distinction of being the 
editor of the only perif)dical in the English 
language devoted to the interests of the fee- 
ble minded, the journal of "Psycho Asthen- 
ics," publised (juarterly. He believes thor- 
oughly in the retention of defectives in vil- 
lage communities, by the state, where they 
have a variety of occupations, under restric- 
tions to protect society from increase of the 
class, and to protect such unfortunates from 
the misunderstandings and tlie mistreatment 
of society. Dr. Rogers is a member of sev- 
eral medical societies — the American Acad- 
emy of Medicine; The Association of Medical 
Officers of the American Institutions for 
Feeble Minded Persons, of which he was 
president in ISOO, and of which he has been 
permanent treasurer and secretary since 
1804; The Minnesota State Medical Society; 
Tlie American Medical Association; The 
American Medico-Psychological Association ; 
The National Conference of Charities & Cor- 
rection, being also chairman of the Section 
of Feeble Minded in 18S9 and again in 1894; 
president ]\Iinnesota State Conference Chari- 
ties and Correction in 1899; The National 
Educational Association, being in 1900 vice- 
president of the department of the society 
devoted to the interests of the feeble mind- 
ed. In religion Dr. Rogers belongs to the 
Society of Friends, but affiliates with the 
Congregational church. His liberality is 
shown by the fact that notwithstanding his 
ti-aining he lield the rank of first lieutenant 
of com])any "C," Iowa National (luard, 
and was sergeant major of the .^th I'cgi- 
nient, to which the company belonged. In 
|ioIitics he has always affiliated with the 
Ixepublican party, though independent in 
all local issues. In 1882 he was married 
In Phoebe A. Coltiii. of Columbus, Kan. 
riiey have thi'ce children, Eloise Hazel, age 
i'-i; Helen Lola, age 11, and Aitliiir Williain 
Rogers, six years old. 



AAKER, Hans H., mayor of Moorhead, 
Minn., M'as born on a farm near Ridgeway, 
Iowa, on the IGth day of April. 18f)2. His 
father, Hans O. Aaker, was born in Sauland, 
Telemarken. Norway, in 1825. He emigral- 
ed to America in 1848, settling first in Wis- 
consin and in 18.51 removed to Winneshiek 
county, Iowa, where he was one of the early 
settlers and for fifty years a prominent and 
well lo do farmer. Ragnild Aaker (n^e 
Cutehus), llie mother of H. 11. Aaker, was 
born in Hjerldal, Telemarken, Norway, and 
was married to Hans O. Aaker just l)efore 
his emigration to this country. 'S'oiing 
Aaker received a good ])rimary education 
and entered Luther college at Decorali, 
Iowa, where he remained nearly four years, 
when coming to the conclusion that a busi- 
ness course would be better than prepara- 
tion for the ministry, which at that time 
seemed to be the chief aim of the college, 
entered a business college at Decorah, grad- 
uating in 1882, and from the commercial 
department of the northern Indiana Normal 
school and business institute in 188?.. Mr. 
Aaker then assumed charge of the com- 
mercial department of the Willmar semina- 
ry, a new scho(d started at Willmar. ^inn., 
by Prof. A. M. Hove, now a teacher at Augs- 
burg seminary, ^Minnesota, I'rof. H. S. Hille- 
boe, now principal of the schools at Benson, 
Minn., and Mr. Aaker. The Willmar semi- 
nary was one of the first schools of the kind 
in the Northwest and starting in 188.3 with 
twelve students gi-ew in five years to a school 
with an attendance of over two hundred and 
fifty. In 1888 Prof. Aaker decided to engage 
in business and resigned his school position 
and in partnershij) with a brother oi)ened a 
mercantile house in Twin Valley, where a 
[irofitable business was carried on. In 1891 
the Northwestern Lutheran College Associa- 
tion was incorporated and a school styled 
Concordia College was started at Moorliead. 
The record made by Prof. Aaker at the AN'ill- 
mar sensinary was well known and the of- 
ficers of the new school were very anxious to 
secure liis services. Finally, after repeated 
icfnsals to consider the matter, he was in- 
(liircd lo accejil a ]pusili(iM willi this insli- 
(Ml ion. In -Tanuaiv, 1S92, he assniiied 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 




HANS H. AAKEU. 

cliai'ge of the commercial departmeut and 
two years later he was elected principal 
of the school. Concordia College is one 
of the most prosperous i)rivate schools in 
the Northwest and much of the success 
of the school is due to the system in- 
augurated by Professor Aaker. In political 
matters he is known as a Prohibitionist and 
he has taken an active part in the work of 
the party. While located at Twin Valley lie 
was the party nominee for county superin- 
tendent of schools and lost by a narrow mar- 
gin in a county where his party had but a 
small jiart of the vote. In 1893 he was the 
Prohibition candidate for secretary of state. 
In the spring of 1900 the business men of 
Moorhead requested Prof. Aaker to become 
a candidate for mayor. The city had been 
for many years the dumping ground of the 
di"inking element of Fargo, N. D., a city 
across the state line, and undei- prohibition 
laws. The resorts barred from Fargo 
found a place in Moorehead, and, as no re- 
lief could be obtained from the regular nom- 
inees, the business men decided upon Prof. 
Aaker as the man to redeem the fair name 
of the city. He was elected by a plurality 
of eight votes over the opposing candidates. 



The city of Moorhead has undergone a 
change under his guidance, and would not 
be recognized as the lawless place of a few 
years ago. Prof. Aaker was nominated 
for congress by the Prohibitionists of the 
Seventh congressional district, in the spring 
of 1!MM). He was also a candidate for the 
nomination of the People's party and had 
the support of the leading men of the party, 
but owing to saloon influence he was de- 
feated for this nomination. Prof. Aaker, 
though defeated, ran ahead of his ticket, 
receiving more than double the votes cast 
for the nominee for governor. He is a 
young man yet and will be heard from 
in the future, not alone in politics but 
along educational lines. Prof. Aaker is a 
member of the United Norwegian Luthcn'an 
church of America. He was married Sep- 
tember 5, 1900, to Miss Annette Peterson, for 
several years a teacher at Concordia College. 



CAIRNS, Charles Sumner. — How what is 
deemed at the time an unimportant, or even 
a trivial, incident of life may determine a 
career, is illustrated almost daily. This 
small, potent factor, though so common, is 
never without interest. It is frecpiently re- 
called with pleasure, or regret, as it is re- 
lated to subsequent events. 

Charles Sumner Cairns, the brilliant at- 
torney who was so conspicuous as the effi- 
cient supervisor of the twelfth United States 
census of the fifth congressional district of 
the state of Minnesota, may well have pleas- 
ant memories of the episode which estab- 
lished him in Minneajiolis. 

When a young man just entering upon his 
professional career, he selected the staid old 
city of Decatur, 111., as a suitable place and 
formed an advantageous partnership with 
Judge Wm. E. Nelson. Mr. Cairns had 
friends in Minnesota. After a year's hard 
work he concluded to spend his short vaca- 
tion with them. He was so delighted with 
the city of Minneapolis and its environments 
and prospects that what was meant for a 
casual visit, terminated in a permanent resi- 
dence. This was in 1883. His marked pro- 



HISTORY OF THE GREAT NORTHWEST. 



fessional success is evidence that he has nev- 
er had cause to regret the incident. 

Mr. Cairns traces his American descent, 
on his father's side, to William Cairues — or 
Careins, the archaic form of the name hav- 
in;; an '"e" in it — a Scotch-Irish Preshv- 
terian who came to Maryland in 1774, 
and settled north of Baltimore, in what 
is now Jarrettsville. His son, also named 
"William" was born, grew up and married 
there. He was a soldier of the war of 1812. 
This son, about 1830, with a young boy, Rob- 
ert, emigrated to Ohio and took a farm in 
Muskingum county. Robert grew up and 
received a better than common education, his 
district school studies being supplemented 
by some college training. He taught district 
school in Ohio, when a young man, and set- 
tled down to become a prosperous farmer. 
He was the father of Charles Summer 
Cairns, Charles' mother's maiden name be- 
ing Mary A. Haynes. 

On his mother's side Mr. Cairns is of Pu- 
ritan stock. She descended from Samuel 
Haynes (or Haines), who came over in the 
ship "Angel Gabriel,'' which was wrecked on 
I he coast of Maine in 1035. He, with eight 
others, founded the city of Portsmouth, jS\ 
H., and was a "selectman" of the town. One 
of his descendants (a lineal ancestor of 
Mr. Cairns) served under Washington four 
years in the Revolutionary War. Mary 
A. Haynes — aftei-wards Mrs. Robert Cairns 
— the mother of Charles, was a remarkable 
woman, distinguished for mental endow- 
ments and literary attainments. She was 
the author of a volume of poems of some 
note. Although for many years a great suf- 
ferer from rheumatism, she never lost in- 
terest in public affairs. Her memory was 
very tenacious, and she read with avidity 
everything accessible pertaining to the im- 
portant questions of the day, and formed 
conclusions worthy of a seer. Judge John 
Haynes of the supreme court of California 
was her brother. 

From these facts it is easy to discover how 
Charles S. Cairns came by his superior nat- 
ural talents and intellectual trend. He w;is 
born on the home farm near Duncan's Falls, 
Muskingum county, Ohio, July i, 1856. The 




CHAULES S. CAIKNS. 

district school which he first attended was a 
mile away. One of the established practices 
of the school was "speaking pieces" every 
Friday afternoon. His interest in the^ ex- 
ercises first prompted in young Cairns the 
ambition to become a lawyer. He entered 
Muskingum College at New Concord, Ohio, in 
1872, and received his A. B. degree in 1876, 
taking also in due course the master of arts 
degree. Having read law one year in the 
office of Roby, Outten & Vail at Decatur, 
111., he entered the law department of Michi- 
gan university, graduating as LL. B. in 1882. 
He began to practice at Decatur, as already 
stated. When he came to Minneapolis, in 
1883, the year of the fateful visit, he formed 
a partnership with David S. Frackelton but 
soon, however, struck for himself and has 
conducted his practice most of the time 
alone. It is of a general character, covei-ing 
civil, mercantile, and patent law; his patent 
cases leading him to practice in the Federal 
circuit courts in several states and in the 
I'nited States supreme court. 

jNIr. Cairns has taken an active interest in 
political affairs, as a stalwart Republican. 
He was elected to the legislature of 1893, 
where he was recognized as one of the ablest 



HISTORY OF THE GKKAT NORTHWEST. 



of his party. He made his mark as a pro- 
gressive legishvtor by introducing a bill to 
provide for the nomination of candidates by 
a direct vote of the people, dispensing with 
delegate conventions. This principle was af- 
terwards embodied in the "primary election 
law" passed by the Minnesota legislature of 
1899. Mr. Cairns being one of the authors 
of this law, he took great pains, — in pub- 
lic meetings called for the purpose — to ex- 
plain its various provisions to the electors. 
His name will always be connected with this 
great reform which dethrones the political 
"boss" who had come to be regarded as the 
"sum of all villianies" in politics. His ap- 
pointment as supervisor of the census men- 
tioned, was made by the president on the rec- 
ommendation of the business men of Min- 
neapolis. Although the items of the sched- 
ule were more numerous than ever before re- 
quired, the general results, under Mr. Caii'us" 
direction, were the most accurate and satis- 
factory ever obtained, showing that his 
appointment was no mistake. He is a di- 
rector of the Board of Trade, and a member 
of the Commercial club, the tw'o organiza- 
tions which represent the business interests' 
of the city. He is a member and elder of the 
Westminster Presbyterian church, is married 
and has two sons, Millard S. and Cai"l A. 
Cairns. His wife's maiden name was Frances 
V. Shellabarger, daughter of one of the old- 
est families of Illinois, and a cousin of the 
late Judge Samuel Shellabarger, of Wash- 
ington, D. C. 



WHIPPLE, The Et. Rev. Henry Benja- 
min, Bishop of Minnesota. — It is no exaggera- 
tion to say that Bishop Whipple, the subject 
of this sketch, has no compeer in the North- 
west, if indeed in the world. Future genei'a- 
tions may be pardoned for regarding the 
words of sober truth used by contemporaries 
in trying to dejjict his unique pei-sonality, as 
extravagant hyperbole, but the naked facts 
alone, without embellishment, cannot be ex- 
pressed in the boldest jnanner without seem- 
ing, to those beyond his generation, as mere- 
ly fulsome eulogy. Exaggeration, however. 



is scarcely possible when dealing with his 
life and services in the Northwest. Henry 
Benjamin Whipple, who has been bishop of 
the Episcopal Church of Minnesota since 
ISoit. was born at Adams, Jefferson county, 
N. Y., in 1823. His father, Hon. John 
AVhipple, was a merchant of New York, and 
a staunch supporter of the old Whig party. 
The maiden name of his mother was Eliza- 
beth ^^'ager. She was the daughter of Hon. 
Henry Wager, one of the electors who chose 
Jefferson pi-esident of the United States. Of 
the ancestors on both the father's and moth- 
er's side, sixteen were officers in the Revolu- 
tionary and Colonial wars. Many of the 
family were noted for usefulness in church, 
state and countiT, one a signer of the Decla- 
ration of Independence. By virtue of the 
services of these ancestors Bishop Whipple is 
a member of both the Sons of the Revolution 
and of the Society of Colonial Wars of the 
United States, and is also the chaplain-gen- 
eral of both organizations. He was educat- 
ed in the private schools of New York state, 
and holds the college degree of D. D. from 
Hobart and Racine colleges, and degrees of 
D. D. and LL. D. from the English universi- 
ties of Oxford, Cambridge and Durham. 
When Bishop Whipple chose the ministry 
as his profession he took his theological 
coui'se under the direction of Rev. Dr. Wil- 
liam D. Wilson, afterward professor in Cor- 
nell University, Ithica, N. Y. He was or- 
dained deacon in 184